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Member of the American Historical Association, New York 

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Honorary Member of the Royal Philo- 

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M C M I I 





Entry op the Allies into Peking. From a Photograph Frontispiece 

Gettysburg. Painted by James Walker 

Sadowa. Painted by Anton Von "Werner 

Louis Napoleon's Letter of Surrender at Sedan. Painted by 

Anton Von "Werner 

The Defence of Champigny. Painted by Edouard Detaille 

Rough Riders' Charge Up San Juan Hill. Painted by Frederic 


Cronje's Arrival at St. Helena. Painted by H. Reuterdahl 


Engagement op the Monitor and Merrimac 

"Sheridan's Ride" — Cedar Creek, Virginia 

The First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation Before the 

Cabinet. Painted by F. B. Carpenter 

Sinking of the Alabama. Painted by J. 0. Davidson 

Battle of Mobile Bay — The Hartford and Tennessee. Painted by 


General Prim. Painted by Henri Reynault 

The Official Capitulation of Sedan. Painted by Anton Von "Werner _, 

Opening of the Reichstag. Painted by Anton Von "Werner 

Battle of the Yalu. From a Photograph 

Pasteur. Painted by Leon Bonnat 

Battle of Manila. Drawn by H. Reuterdahl 

Battle of the Tugela. Drawn by Max Klepper 

Medical Conference in Session, Paris. From a Photograph 

His Holiness, Pope Leo XILT. Painted by Franz Von Lenbach 

1272 A HISTORY OF THE May 1859 

Emmanuel, was posted on the right bank of the Po, 
between Valenza and Casale, with the stronghold of 
Alessandria for his base. While the Austrians, 100,- 
000 strong, lay inactive, French detachments crossed 
Mont Cenis, while another expedition, under the 
personal command of Emperor Napoleon, landed at 
Genoa on May 12. On the news of the landing of 
Napoleon tne French in Genoa, central Italy rose. The Aus- 
Geiioa trian regents and petty sovereigns were driven from 
their thrones. Cavour's commissioners took charge. 
With the Piedmontese holding their positions in 
the front, and Garibaldi's volunteers already skir- 
mishing at Como, the French marched northward 
in five army corps, led by Canrobert, MacMahon, 
D'Hilliers, Niel and Prince Napoleon. They 
crossed the Po, and reached Vercelli before the 
Austrians Austrians discovered their manoeuvres. Then Giu- 
noeuvred lay withdrew his right wing over the Po lest he 
should be outflanked. The Italians pressed so im- 
petuously that they exposed Turin to attack. Giu- 
lay was not equal to the emergency. In the belief 
that his left wing was about to be attacked, he drew 
in his forces on Pavia and Piacenza. The allies 
effected their junction without hindrance. When 
they failed to cross the Po, Giulay ordered a recon- 
of auUT noissance in force. Count Stadion with 12,000 foot, 
six squadrons of cavalry and twenty field guns 
crossed the Po on May 20, and attacked the Italian 
position. The Hungarian hussars drove back the 
Piedmontese lancers. General Sonnaz called for 
help from the French corps of Marshal d'Hilliers. 
The Austrians had already captured the hamlet of 


Genestrello near the banks of the Po, when a rail- 
road train brought General Forey with five French 
battalions and two guns. The French tirailleurs 
drove the Austrians out of Genestrello. They fell 
back on the village of Montebello on the Po, and 
held their own until nightfall in the churchyard. 
At last General Forey himself led the charge on the Montebell ° 
church. Stadion ordered a general retreat, and suc- 
ceeded in throwing his troops across the river under 
cover of night. The moral effect of this first victory 
was great throughout Italy. 

On the following day Garibaldi with his 7,000 vol- 
unteers advanced into Lombardy to turn the Aus- 
trian right flank. A flying column under General 
Urban sent against Garibaldi found him intrenched 
at Varese. The first attack of the Austrians was 
repulsed. During the night Garibaldi slipped away. 
The pursuing Austrians believed he had taken 
refuge in Switzerland, when suddenly he appeared 
at the other end of the Austrian line, and seized all 
the shipping at Como. Steaming up and down 
the banks of the lake, Garibaldi incited the country ^ r t ^ ldi ' 8 
people to revolt. The Austrians tried to drive him 
out of Como, but found his position too strong for 
such an attack. Napoleon III. would not let his 
troops co-operate with Garibaldi's irregular follow- 
ers, but that leader held his own without them, and 
kept Urban's corps from the French. 

Meanwhile the Piedmontese had crossed the Sesia 
and defeated the Austrians on May 30, at Palestro. 
With the Austrians occupied here, the French 
crossed further north and advanced eastward on the 

1254 A HISTORY OF THE June 185T 

was appointed Regent. For some time still he 
retained the Ministry of Manteuffel in office, but 
from the first he showed himself opposed to his 
brother's semi-liberal tendencies. 

Commodore Perry's second visit to Japan resulted 
in serious consequences for that country. The Mi- 
Iiua£awa kac * > having first refused to accede to the conclusion 
of a treaty of commerce with the United States of 
America, was finally persuaded by his old Minister, 
the Taikio, to let his commissioners sign the treaty 
at Kanagawa. Townsend Harris, on behalf of the 
United States, signed the treaty on June 17. The 
reasons for this violation of Japanese traditions 
were thus explained in an official circular of the 
Shogun : 

The "The Mikado having been consulted by the Sho- 

ja^an Dgof gun's Government about the making of treaties 
with foreigners, he answered that the conclusion of 
that matter would distress him very much. There- 
upon the Shogun requested all the Daimios to send 
their written opinion upon the subject. Only a 
short time was required to gather every one's opin- 
ion; but, in the meantime, some Russian and Amer- 
ican men-of-war came here, bringing the news that 
in a short time English and French men-of-war 
would arrive here; that these two nations had fought 
and won many battles in China; that they would 
come here in the same warlike spirit, and it would 
be difficult for us to negotiate with them. The 
American Ambassador offered to us, that if we 
would make a temporary treaty with him, as soon 
as we should have signed and given him that treaty 
"he would act as mediator between us and the French 
and English, and could save us from all difficulties." 

1857 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1255 

After the ratification of the treaty of Kanagawa, 
similar treaties were concluded with Holland, Kus- 
sia, Great Britain and France. The Shogun's ex- 
planations did not satisfy the Daimios. A popular 
remonstrance to the Mikado was issued in Miako: 

"Great changes are being made in our holy coun- A popular 
try in respect to foreigners. However, it is not for stance 
us ignorant people to judge, and for that reason we 
lately wrote twice to the Mikado. We hoped that 
he would consider the subject. 

"We write to him once more. Since the time of 
Tensio Dai Jin the country has been to the present 
time sublime and flourishing; but friendship with 
foreigners will be a stain upon it, and an insult to 
the first Mikado (Zinmu). It will be an everlasting 
disgrace for the country to be afraid of those for- 
eigners, and for us to bear patiently their arbitrary 
and rough manners; and the time will come when we 
shall be subservient to them. This is the fault of 
the dynasty of the Shogun. If foreigners come to 
our country they will loudly proclaim the mutual 
benefits that trade will produce; but when we shall 
refuse to comply with all their wishes, they will 
threaten us with their artillery and warships. The 
Shogun thus disturbs peace." 

Late in the year an imperial edict appeared, which 
was later declared to be a forgery. It was directed 
against the Shogun, thus: 

"Your duty is to act as Shogun; and yet you, Rep iy from 
who have been appointed as Commander-in-Chief to thet rone 
quell the barbarians, do not perform your duties. 
You should know what the duties of your office are, 
and yet you are unable to punish our foreign ene- 



Dec. 185T 

mies. Why is this? It is because the business of 
the Shogun office does not go straight. On this 
account I have every day great trouble, and there- 
fore I command you to come from Yeddo to Miako 
to confer with me." 

of the 


On the day that this letter reached the Shogun, 
late in December, a meeting of all the great Daimios 
was called at Yeddo. They met on the night of 
December 29, in the throne room of the castle of 
Yeddo. Their deliberations did not end until two 
in the morning of the following day. The spirit of 
the meeting was such that it was plain that a revo- 
lution was impending. 

In China, the Taipings at Nanking had main- 
tained themselves with difficulty against two impe- 
rial armies until the beginning of 1857. Had the 
government concentrated its efforts against them at 
this time, the tottering fabric of Tien Wang's author- 
ity would have been speedily overthrown; but in- 
stead of that the rebels were permitted to consolidate 
and augment their forces. The Manchu authorities 
now realized that it was vital to them to reassert 
themselves without delay. 

On December 12, Lord Elgin sent to Commis- 
sioner Yeh at Canton a note apprising him of his 
arrival as plenipotentiary from Queen Victoria to 
demand prompt fulfilment of Great Britain's de- 
mand. Commissioner Yeh made a long reply, the 
substance of which was that injuries had been com- 
mitted on both sides, so that both sides had best pay 
This reply failed to satisfy the 
foreign commissioners. Orders were at once given 

aim France 

attack their own losses 


to attack Canton. By the middle of December 
Honan was occupied. The next ten days were spent 
in bringing up troops and stores. On December 28, 
the assault was undertaken. The attacking force 
numbered about 5,000 English, 1,000 French, and 
750 Chinese coolies. Linsfor was captured in half 
an hour. This success was offset by the explosion 
of a magazine in the fort. On the following day the canton 


city itself was assaulted. The British forced the 
gates, while the French seized the fort on a hill 
commanding both the city and the Chinese camp 
in the northern hills. Within two hours the ap- 
proaches to the great city of Canton were in the 
hands of the allies. Their total losses were less than 
a hundred and fifty men. The Chinese fortifications 
were blown up. Still Commissioner Yeh did not 
give in. From his yamen he ordered the execution 
of all Chinamen who had entered into relations with 
the invaders. 



ON JANUARY 5, three detachments of Eng- 
lish and French soldiery were sent into 
Canton, and advanced at once upon the 
official residences of Commissioners Yeh and Gov- 
Aiues ernor Pihkwei. Pihkwei was taken, but Yeh was 


canron no t found. The French at the same time occupied 
the abandoned Tartar city. From a Chinese scholar 
who was found studying in the library undisturbed 
by the turmoil, Captain Key (afterward Admiral) 
learned where Yeh's yamen was. The imperial 
commissioner was captured as he was about to leave 
the yamen. Yeh was sent to Calcutta a prisoner of 
war. The government of Canton was intrusted to 
an Anglo-French commission. 

From Canton Lord Elgin and Baron Gros ad- 
dressed their demands direct to Peking. The Chi- 
nese Minister of State appointed peace commis- 
Peace sioners, but Lord Elgin declined to see them. The 
Tgaored 63 Chinese Minister refused to appoint others. There- 
upon the foreign commissioners announced that they 
would proceed up the Peiho to Tien-tsin. To the 
irritation of Lord Elgin the fleet was slow in assem- 
bling in the Gulf of Pechili. At length, on May 19, 
the allied squadrons proceeded to the mouth of the 
Peiho, and summoned the Taku forts to surrender. 

1858 spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1259 

No reply having been vouchsafed, fire was opened 
on the forts on the following day. After a short- TakuTorta 
range bombardment lasting more than an hour the 
Chinese batteries were silenced. Landing forces com- 
pleted the capture of the fort. It was on this occa- 
sion that Captain Tatnall of the American navy, 
without direct orders from home, joined in the at- 
tack with the famous remark: "Blood is thicker thicker 1S 
than water." The Chinese general committed sui- water" 
cide, and the Chinese lost the best part of their ar- 
tillery. The allied fleet proceeded up the river to 
Tien-tsin, where the plenipotentiaries took up their 
quarters. The Chinese Government now sent three 
commissioners to confer. One of them was Ke-Ying, 
who had served in the same capacity during the pre- 
ceding troubles with England. Unfortunately for 
him, some of his letters, in which he showed himself 
to be bitterly anti-foreign, had been found in Yeh's 
yamen at Canton. This ruined Ke-Ying's stand- 
ing with the foreign commissioners, and he was re- 
called to Peking, where he was summoned before 

°' Ke-Ying's 

a board of punishment for "stupidity and precipi- misfortUDa 
tancy. ' ' As an act of grace he was permitted to 
commit suicide. With the remaining commissioners 
the British envoys soon adjusted matters to their 
own satisfaction. It was agreed that opium might 
be imported into China on payment of fifty dollars 
duty per chest. In defence of this exaction, Sir 
Henry Pottinger made the following declaration on 
behalf of England: "I take this opportunity unhesi- 
tatingly to declare that after the most unbiased and force <L. 

° " upon China 

careful observations, I have become convinced that 

1260 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1858 

during my stay in China the alleged demoralizing 
and debasing evils of opium have been and are 
vastly exaggerated. I have neither myself seen such 
vicious consequences as are frequently ascribed, nor 
have I been able to obtain authentic proofs or infor- 
mation of their existence." 

On one point the Chinese were firm. They ob- 
jected to the admission of permanent foreign ambas- 
sadors at Peking, on the ground that their residence 


unwelcome m ^S nt De attended with peril to the envoys as well 
as to the Chinese Government. This argument ap- 
peared the more plausible, in view of the formidable 
Taiping rebellion, then still at its height. After 
many parleys, Lord Elgin at last consented to waive 
this demand until a more favorable occasion, but he 
insisted that it would be indispensable for a British 
Minister to visit Peking during the following year 
to exchange ratifications of the treaty. 

The Manchu troops, under Tseng Kwofan and 
Chang Kwoliang, renewed the siege of Nanking. 
After the investment had continued nearly the whole 
year, Chung Wang left the city before it was com- 
pletely surrounded. He collected five thousand of 

Taiping Tiis Taiping followers, but was defeated in a vigor- 
ous attempt to cut his way through a large imperial 
force. At length, however, he succeeded in reach- 
ing Nanking by forced marches. 

In Japan, during spring, a Regent had been ap- 
pointed to take the place of the Shogun. He was 
Ee Kamono Kami. From the outset he declared 
for the new order of things. He was opposed by 
Mito-ko, the leader of the Daimios, who objected 


1858 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1261 

to the foreigners. To quell this opposition the Re- 
gent ordered the arrest of Mito-ko and his principal 
supporters and deprived them of their revenues. As upheaval 

x L in Japan 

a result of this a great number of the armed retain- 
ers of the arrested chieftains took to the road as 
Eonins, or Floating Men. Later in the year it was 
claimed that the Shogun had died, and a boy was 
put into the place of power. Mito-ko claimed the 
place for his own son, who had been adopted by the 
third son of the ninth Shogun. Thereupon a num- 
ber of Mito-ko' s foremost retainers were arrested 
and brought to Yeddo for trial. The judges who 
refused to convict them were degraded. At the 
same time the Empress intrigued with the Regent 
to marry the Emperor's younger sister to the boy 
Shogun. The quarrel between the Regent and 
Mito-ko became more serious. Incidentally it had Mito-ko 
the effect of opening up the country to foreign trade. 
Mito-ko was degraded from all his offices, as was his 
natural son, the Governor of Osaka. Mito-ko's son 
and heir was commanded to keep guard on his 
father. His chief retainer was ordered to commit 
hari-kiri, the Japanese form of suicide. Some of 
Mito-ko's retainers took refuge at the British Lega- 
tion in Tozenji. Other opponents of the Regent 
were treated in like manner, and many of the lesser 
chieftains were executed, or banished to outlying 
islands. At last, Manabay, the former Prime Min- 
ister, who was cognizant of all the secrets of the late 
coup d'etat, was asked to withdraw. Even some of impending: 


the imperial household came under the ban. 
In the United States of America, the State of 

1262 A HISTORY OF THE Bummer 1858 

Illinois was this year the arena of a peculiar con- 
test. Senator Douglas had taken so prominent a 
part in the defeat of the Lecompton measure, pro- 
viding a special constitution for Kansas, that many- 
leading Republicans elsewhere wanted him to return 
to the Senate by a unanimous vote, but this did not 
find favor in Illinois. Abraham Lincoln presented 
himself as a candidate for Douglas's seat. At 
American Springfield, June 17, Lincoln opened his canvass 
188116 with the firm declaration that the Union "cannot 
permanently endure half slave and half free." Four 
months afterward Governor Seward at Rochester, 
New York, on October 25, made a like presentation 
of what was to come, and said: "These antagonistic 
systems (free and slave labor) are continually com- 
ing into close contact. It is an irrepressible conflict 
between opposing and enduring forces; and it means 
that the United States must and will, soon or late, 
become either an entirely slave-holding or entirely 
a free-labor nation." Douglas and Lincoln joined 
Lincoln- issue, and an oratorical contest of unequalled inter- 


contest es t was fought out before immense audiences up to 

the eve of the State election. In the Legislature 

election, Douglas received 54 votes, Lincoln 46. 

End of ^ ne seven years' war with the Seminoles was at 

Seminole j &gt ^j^g^ to a c i ose> it had cost the United 

States $10,000,000 and the lives of 1,466 men. 

The Territorial Legislature of Kansas had passed 
an act submitting the Lecompton Constitution to 
vote on June 4, 1858. The act provided that "the 
rights of property in slaves now in the Territory 
shall in no manner be interfered with." The Mis- 

1858 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1263 

sourians were not present to vote, and the full poll 
was — for the Lecompton Constitution with slavery Kansas 10 
128, and without slavery 24; against the Lecompton 
Constitution, 10,226. Henceforth Kansas was virtu- 
ally a "free State." 

In June, an expedition was sent against the Mor- 
mons. General Johnston found Salt Lake City de- Mormon 
serted, and the Mormons departed South. A com- expedltlon 
promise was at length entered into, and peace made 
by Governor Cummings. 

Two steamers, during this year, began to lay the 
Atlantic cable in mid-ocean; the cable parted when 
five miles were laid. When the laying of the cable 
was completed, on August 5, the English directors 
telegraphed to the directors in America: "Europe 
and America are united by telegraph. Glory to God 
in the Highest; on earth, peace, good- will toward 
men." Queen Victoria sent a message to President 
Buchanan expressing her satisfaction at the comple- 
tion of the work so likely to preserve harmony be- 
tween England and the United States. The message 
required an hour for its transmission. The insula- SSntic 
tion, however, proved faulty, and on September 4° a 
the wire ceased to work. Another company had to 
be organized. During the same year the first over- 
land mail by "pony express" arrived from San 
Francisco at St. Louis in twenty-three days and 
four hours. The new State of Minnesota was ad- 
mitted. The rights of the Indians had been surren- 
dered by treaty in 1851, and the increase in popula- 
tion was so great in seven years as to entitle the 
Territory to become a State. 

1264 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1858 

Elisa Rachel, the great French tragedienne, died 
Rachel ' at Toulon. On the stage of Paris she shone with- 
out a rival in the classic masterpieces of Corneille, 
Racine and Voltaire. In 1843, her reputation may 
be said to have culminated in her famous appear- 
ance as "Phedre." In "Adrienne Lecouvreur" 
she likewise achieved an immense success. A pro- 
fessional tour through England and America in 1855 
sara broke down her health. Shortly after Rachel's death 

Bernhardt gara Bernhardt made her d^but in Paris. 

Meanwhile in India the city of Gwalior was un- 
expectedly abandoned to the rebels, who at the be- 
ginning of June had 18,000 men under arms under 
Tantia Topi, with all the artillery of Scindia. Sir 
Hugh Rose again went to the front. On June 16, 
he defeated the rebels at Morar, and on the 18th, 
having been joined by a column under Brigadier 
Smith, he stormed and captured the rebel intrench- 
Napier's m ents. With 6,000 men and thirty field pieces, 
exploit Tantia Topi then retreated, but two days afterward 
Brigadier Robert Napier, who became Lord Napier 
of Magdala, dashed among the retreating forces witli 
only six hundred horsemen and six field-guns, put 
the army of several thousand to flight and recovered 
most of the artillery. This action was regarded as 
one of the most brilliant exploits in the whole cam- 
paign. Tantia Topi evaded pursuit for ten months 
longer. Making his way to the Nerbuddar River 
with a considerable body of men, he still clung to 
the hope of reaching the western Dekhan, and there 
creating a new Mahratta empire in territory which 
the British had held for fifty years. He was driven 


back by the Bombay troops. The British hunted 
him all over India. Late in December, Lord Clyde, fndlan 
who had been Sir Colin Campbell, was able to an- ampaign 
nounce that the campaign was at an end. 

In Mexico, the reactionary party returned to 
power with the new provisional government of 
Zuloaga. Most of the liberal measures of his prede- 
cessors were revoked. The laws against the privi- 
leged orders of the Church and of the army were an- 
nulled. The greater part of the republic opposed ^f^?^, 
this change of system. The most important trad- 
ing towns and seaports would not recognize the 
authority of the central government. Generals 
Miramon, Osollo and others were sent against the 
rebels, but failed to pacify the country. The 
lack of public funds led to such doubtful measures 
as an enforced loan and high-handed exactions from . 
foreign commerce. Formal protests against this 
state of affairs were lodged by the governments of 
Great Britain, France and the United States, but re- 
mained unheeded in the general confusion of affairs, i nt ? r - 

° national 

In the province of Yucatan, which had proclaimed cations 
its independence, civil war raged. Predatory bands 
of guerillas terrorized the provinces of Puebla, 
Xalisco and Guanahuato, and even penetrated into 
the suburbs of the capital. Bobberies and military 
executions became every-day affairs. From the 
island of St. Thomas the exiled Santa Anna issued 
a proclamation demanding a renewal of his power. 
A new national party was formed at Vera Cruz 
under the leadership of Dr. Benito Juarez, an edu- gito 
cated Indian. 

1266 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1858 

No sooner had the reorganization of the Danu- 
bian principalities been settled by the International 
Conference which met early in the year than the 
Louig real significance of Cavour's stand throughout the 
an<?itaiy controversy became apparent. Louis Napoleon be- 
gan to show a marked sympathy with the national 
cause of Italy. The French Emperor's interest in 
Italian affairs was genuine. In his early youth he 
had joined the society of Carbonari, and had fought 
with them as a volunteer. A close student of the 
great Napoleon's imperial policy and of French re- 
publican aspirations, he believed in the old military 
doctrine that Savoy should belong to France to se- 
cure the French frontier toward the south. Savoy 
had already been incorporated with France from 
1792 to 1814, so that, as in the case of Alsace, it was 
a popular theory in France that the people of the 
duchy were more French than Italian. Now Louis 
Napoleon and Cavour undertook to develop their 
Italian plans. Two incidents about this time gave 
an immediate stimulus for action. One Felice 
attempt Orsini, a Roman refugee, with other conspirators, 
had attempted to assassinate the French Emperor 
with an infernal machine. As the Emperor was 
driving through the streets of Paris three shells were 
exploded, killing two persons outright and wound- 
ing many. Louis Napoleon escaped unharmed. 
For a while it was believed that the relations be- 
tween the French Government and the Sardinians 
would become strained; but Cavour so skilfully 
turned the situation to account that a closer under- 
standing resulted. On April 19, Austria sent an 


ultimatum to Sardinia demanding instant cessation 
of the support of the anti- Austrian movement in 
northern Italy. Cavour lost no time in transmitting 
the correspondence to the Frendh envoy in Sardinia. 
Louis Napoleon invited Cavour to meet him in July compactof 
at Plombieres. The result of their negotiations was ° m ie ' 
not made public, nor even communicated to Louis 
Napoleon's Ministers. Although he revealed cer- 
tain parts of the arrangement to such useful men as 
Mazzini and Garibaldi, Cavour divulged the whole 
plan only to his sovereign. No written engagement 
was drawn up. The oral agreement, judging from 
Cavour's subsequent admission, was that if Sardinia 
would incite Austria to hostilities on some pretext 
that would admit outside intervention, France would 
interfere. Austria was then to be expelled from 
Venetia as well as from Lombardy. Victor Em- 
manuel was to become king of Northern Italy, an- 
nexing thereto the Eoman legations and the prin- 
cipality of Tuscany with adjacent territory. As a 
reward for Louis Napoleon's aid, Savoy, and pos- 
sibly Nice, were to be turned over to France. 
Closer relations between the two dynasties were to 
be established by a marriage between the Emperor's 
cousin, Prince Jerome Napoleon, and Victor Em- 
manuel's daughter, Clotilde. From this time Ca- 
vour strained every nerve to bring about a war 
before Louis Napoleon might draw back. To ac- Cavour i s 
complish these ends the Italian statesman had to poIicy 
play a dangerous double game. Summoning Gari- 
baldi, whose revolutionary aims made him obnox- 
ious to Louis Napoleon, Cavour made him privy to 


his warlike plans. Garibaldi promised to take the 
field at the head of a free corps of his own. The 
participation of these firebrands in the coming war 
Garibaldi's ^ad to be concealed from Louis Napoleon. On 
part the other hand, Garibaldi was kept in ignorance of 

the secret clause that Nice, his own birthplace, was 
to be surrendered to the French. No less Machia- 
vellian were Cavour's labors to arouse the fighting 
spirit of his sovereign's Savoyards, and to exact 
from them the last centesimo for the coming war, 
only to turn their own country over to a foreign 
despot. Odious, too, was the bargain by which the 
young daughter of his sovereign was to be delivered 
over to so hardened a roue* as Prince Jerome. Well 
might Cavour exclaim, like Danton: "Perish my 
name, perish my reputation, if only Italy arise." 




AVOTTR'S plan was to incite Austria to war 
in midwinter, so that her troops in the Alps 
might have to bear the brunt of the in- 

clement season. Louis Napoleon approved of this in P un-° n 


plan. At his New Year's reception to the foreign 
diplomats he addressed the Austrian Ambassador in 
words suggestive of approaching conflict. It re- 
called the famous scene of half a century before 
when Napoleon Bonaparte first assailed Prince Met- 
ternich. A few weeks later a marriage contract was 
signed between Prince Jerome Napoleon and Prin- 
cess Clotilde of Savoy. A formal treaty of offen- 
sive alliance was concluded between France and 
Piedmont. At the opening of the Parliament of 
Turin, Victor Emmanuel declared in menacing 
words that he could no longer be insensible to the 
cry of suffering that arose from the Italians of north- 
ern Italy. The imminence of war produced a vio- French 
lent counter-effect. A financial panic in Paris 
created havoc among Louis Napoleon's friends at 
the Bourse. The Emperor's plans for industrial and 
architectural projects in Paris and the provinces 
suffered a setback. He was made irresolute and lent 
a willing ear to England's proffers of mediation. 
Lord Cowley, the British Ambassador at Paris, 


1270 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1859 

went to Vienna with proposals for an amicable set- 
tlement in Italian affairs. Louis Napoleon under- 
took to withdraw his French troops from Rome, if 
Austria would abandon its protectorate over Modena 
and Parma. Cavour's ardent hopes appeared dashed 
to the ground. Negotiations at Vienna were well 
under way when Czar Alexander, encouraged by the 
French Ambassador at St. Petersburg, proposed 
the settlement of Italian affairs by a conference of 
the Powers. To this Austria agreed, but demanded 
as a preliminary measure that Sardinia should dis- 
arm. Cavour hastened to Paris to prevent Louis 

Forei-n Napoleon from acquiescing in Austria's demands. 

™ffered ion The French Emperor was made to feel that it might 
not be safe to provoke his confidant of Plombieres 
too far. King Victor Emmanuel boldly declined to 
disarm alone. Great Britain at this crisis proposed 
a mutual disarmament. Louis Napoleon telegraphed 
to Cavour bidding him consent. Cavour, who saw 
himself at the culmination of all his intrigues, was 
so upset when this telegram came that his secretary 
feared that he would commit suicide. In bitterness 
of heart he telegraphed Sardinia's consent. Count 
Buol von Schauenstein at this turn of affairs played 
into the hands of his opponents. lie declined the 
British proposal for a mutual disarmament. The 

misstep Austrian Cabinet issued another ultimatum. With- 
out qualification and under threat of war within 
three days, it demanded that Sardinia should dis- 
arm at once. Cavour's time had come. lie had 
only to point to his acceptance of England's peace- 
ful proposal to throw upon Austria the odium of 


flagrantly breaking the peace of Europe. Cavour's 
caustic reply was taken by Austria as a call to arms. 
On April 29, the Austrian troops crossed the Ticino. 
A French declaration of war promptly followed. 

Francis Giulay, Count of Naros-Meneta, was made 
Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian army. Thisitaiy 
soldier, whose services in the past had been largely 
confined to the Ministry of War, had reached his 
sixty-first year. His military administration of Lom- 
bardy had made him hated throughout Italy. Under 
him served Generals Benedek, Zobel and Urban, 
three able commanders who had distinguished them- 
selves in the campaigns of 1848-49. Giulay's man- 
agement of the early campaign in Italy afforded a 
striking illustration of his incapacity. For several 
months Austria had been reinforcing her troops ift-j^aeity 
northern Italy. She had chosen her own time for 
making war. The mountain ranges of the Alps 
stood between her army and that of France. The 
Italian troops gathered in Piedmont were despised 
by the Austrians. It seemed inevitable that Turin 
must fall before the French troops could take the 
Austrians from the rear. With Turin as a strong 
military centre, the Austrians could strike with ease 
in any direction. Instead of marching on Turin, or 
advancing at least against the Italians and French 
in turn, Giulay lingered in the rich region of 
the Po. General Zaldini, a soldier of the Na- 
poleonic school, threw his division of 20,000 men Za idini's 
along the banks of the Dora Baltea, so as to guard vres 
the approaches to Turin and the pass of Mont Cenis. 
The Italian main column, under command of Victor 

1274 A HISTORY OF THE May 1859 

Ticino. To stop further junction of the allies 
the Austrians made a determined attempt to recap- 
ture Pulestro. Zobel's corps nearly succeeded in 
crushing the Piedmontese brigade led by Victor 
Emmanuel. Just as they had worked around to 
the rear, Canrobert's vanguard of 2,600 appeared 
on the scene. The Austrian batteries that were to 
i^ovara cut off the Italian retreat swung around on the 
French. To reach the guns, the Zouaves had to 
cross the canal. Their first platoons were mowed 
down with grape and canister. The others got 
across"^ and storming up the banks of the canal, 
captured the batteries. At the sight of hip allies, 
Victor Emmanuel ordered a last charge. Assailed 
from two sides, the Austrian troops tried to fall back 
over a single bridge across the Brida. Amid inde- 
scribable confusion the Zouaves captured the bridge. 
Nearly a thousand Austrians surrendered. The 
remnants of Zobel's column fell back on Robbio. 
Their losses aggregated some 4,000 men, while the 
allies had lost 2,400. 

During the heat of the fight the French, by a 
rapid march on the left flank, moved from the Po to 
the Sesia. On June 1, the French Emperor estab- 
lished his headquarters at Novara. In a series of 
forced marches the French advanced on Milan. By 
June 3, MacMahon had already crossed the Ticino 
and captured Turbigo. Giulay's army lay in a great 
semicircle on the north banks of the Ticino, with 
the right wing guarding the approach to Milan at 
Magenta and the left at Abbia Grassa. The Aus- 
trian line was so far extended that great difficulties 


were experienced in massing the troops at any point. 
The allied troops, controlling the railroad lines as 
they did, were able to cover the ground with great 
rapidity. At the village of Eobechetto a regiment 
of Algerian Turcos made its first appearance on a 
European battlefield. Under the eyes of Emperor 
Napoleon, the French vanguard drove the Austrians 
out of Robechetto. Giulay saw that he had been 
outflanked. To stop the allies' advance on Milan, 


he drew in his troops over the Ticino. At Magenta ™^ke a 
and Buffalora, the Austrian commanders received 
orders to break down the bridges, and make a stand 
until the army corps stationed at Pavia could march 
to their assistance. Some idea of the Austrian trans- 
port service may be gathered from the fact that half 
a day was lost in bringing up the powder casks with 
which to blow up the bridges. Before the bridges 
could be destroyed, the French Emperor with his 
vanguard arrived at the bridge of Buffalora. Fur- 
ther advance there was postponed until a pontoon 
bridge at San Martino should be strung across the 
Nebbiolo, and tidings should be received from Mac- 
Mahon, who was marching on two roads toward 
Magenta. At last an aide-de-camp brought the 
news that MacMahon expected to reach Magenta 
by three in the afternoon. The Algerian troops 
under General Lefevre were ordered to storm Buffa- 
lora. Reinforced by fresh regiments, the Austrians 
held their ground so vigorously that the situation 
of the French vanguard became critical. Counting 
on MacMahon's support, Napoleon now sent his 
guards to seize the bridges of Magenta. Three 

1276 A HISTORY OF THE June 1859 

times in succession the guards succeeded in driving 
the Austrians back; but the Austrians, led by Gen- 
eral Reischach, who was shot through the leg, re- 
turned to the attack, and all but annihilated the 
guard. It was long after three o'clock, yet Mac- 
Mahon did not appear. The Austrians turned the 
M aUl DU French Emperor's right flank, and it appeared as if 
defeat was certain. At this moment came the thun- 
der of MacMahon's guns, who had effected his junc- 
tion with Niel and General Canrobert. The important 
positions of Marcello and Buffalora were stormed by 
the French. A combined assault was made on Ma- 
genta. In the face of desperate odds, the Austrians 
held their ground in the railroad station and freight 
yard at Magenta. At length, long after dark, Mac- 
Mahon's troops stormed this last point, and drove 
the Austrians back on Carpenzoto and Robecco. 
Louis Napoleon raised MacMahon to the rank of 
Marshal, and made him Duke of Magenta. Em- 
press Eugenie named her favorite color after the 
battle, and that peculiar shade of red became the 
fashion among the ladies of Paris. Giulay hoped to 
renew the battle on the morrow, but the reinforce- 
ment of the French position by the Italians and the 
non-arrival of the Austrian reserves from Pavia made 
another contest hopeless. After the manner of his 
great prototype, Louis Napoleon minimized his 
losses. Only 5,000 casualties were conceded. The 
Austrian losses were 12,000 men and 281 officer* 
More far-reaching than this loss in men was the loss 
of military prestige and the strategic consequences 
of the defeat It was impossible for the Austrians 


to defend Milan. They retired on the Adda. On 
June 8, Emperor Napoleon and King Victor Em-MUan* 
manuel made their triumphal entry into Milan. 

In the midst of these new disasters to Austria, on ^ ... , 

7 Death of 

June 11, a merciful death carried off the most con- Metternich 
spicuous if not the greatest of her statesmen — Prince 

Even in their retreat the Austrian soldiers in Italy 
were harassed by the victorious allies. Marshal 
d'Hilliers attacked Benedek's column in the rear 
at Melignano, and drove the Austrians out of the 
village after a bloody fight. Benedek hurried on 
to Lodi. On June 15, Garibaldi's men intercepted 
two Austrian battalions at Castelnebolo, and had to 
be driven off by another Austrian detachment. By 
this time Emperor Francis Joseph had arrived at the 
front. To the delight of his soldiers he relieved 
Giulay, and himself took the supreme command. 
All central Italy had arisen against the Austrians, 
and the united navies of France and Sardinia 
threatened Venice. Francis Joseph determined to 
concentrate his troops behind the Mincio, with the 
great quadrilateral fortresses for a base. The Aus- jos^pTin 

,..-,-,. . „ command 

tnan forces were divided into two armies: the first, 
commanded by Count Wimpffen, lying at Mantua, 
while the second, under Count Schlik, stood at Cus- 
tozza. The French headquarters were known to be 
on the banks of the Chiese. Francis Joseph gave 
orders to cross the Mincio over four bridges, and to 
attack the French position on June 25. The allies 
anticipated the movement. At two o'clock in the 

morning of June 24, they advanced in force, the 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— B 

278 A HISTORY OF THE June 1850 

Piedmontese corps on the left, thos6 of Napoleon, 
MacMahon and D'Rilliers in the centre, with Niel 
and Canrobert's corps on the right. At five in the 
morning their vanguard struck the advancing Aus- 

Soon the engagement became general. The Pied- 
montese struck the right wing of the Austrians under 
Benedek. In the centre, Francis Joseph, with two 
army corps, held Cavrama, Cassiano and Solferino. 
The Austrian left wing was composed of three corps, ■ 
and made the whole line of battle nearly eight miles 
long. The country was hilly, intersected by streams 
and ravines. The highest point was a square church 
tower at Solferino known as Spia d'ltalia. The vil- 
lage of Modelo was first captured by the French 
corps under General Niel, which was attacked in 
turn by the Austrian cavalry. The fight grew so 
stubborn that two army corps on each side were 
drawn into the struggle. The village of Robecco 
was taken and retaken a number of times. While 
the battle remained indecisive at this point, Bene- 
dek's corps in the north drove the Piedmontese from 
the heights of San Martino, and held them in the 
face of repeated assaults. The true balance of the 
battle lay in the centre at Solferino. Nine times 
in succession Marshal d'Hilliers led his column up 
the slope of Solferino under the eyes of both Em- 
perors, only to be driven back again with fearful 
loss. The Austrian batteries of smooth-bore cannon 
were helpless against the French artillery. Shortly 
after noon the French Emperor in person led his 
guards to the storm, shouting: "Allons, mes vol- 



tigeurs, culbutez-moi tout cela!" The guards got 
nearly to the crest of the hill, but gave way uader a 
murderous cross-fire of the Tyrolese sharpshooters. 
General Forey rallied the retreating troops, and led 
them back to the charge, only to be driven off again. 
At last the French field guns galloped up behind 
the charging columns of the infantry and supported 
the attack with their quick fire. The French Zou- 
aves and guards got over the trench at the crest, 
and, after a wild fight in the streets of Solferino, 
remained masters. As the Austrians were forced 
back into Cavarina, a heavy thunderstorm burst 
over the field of battle. At last, Emperor Francis 
Joseph, who had exposed himself regardless of peril 
throughout the battle, ordered a general retreat. A 
final dashing charge of the Hungarian cavalry safe- 
guarded the wheeling batteries of Austrian artillery. 
During the night the Austrians fell back across the 
Mincio to seek refuge behind the walls of the quad- 
rilateral fortresses. Their losses were some 25,000 Terrific 
men, while the allies admitted a loss of 18,000. Al- ° s 
together more than 300,000 men with 500 cannon 
participated in the battle. 

The allies crossed the Mincio and advanced on the 
famous quadrilateral of fortresses. Prince Napoleon 
with 35,000 troops joined the main column. The 
Piedmontese invested Peschiera. Other troops 
moved on Mantua and Verona. On the Austrian 
side, new divisions hastened up from the north and 
east to the support of the still unbroken army. 
With impressions of the bloody field of Solferino 
still fresh, however, both sides shrank from another 

1280 A HISTORY OF THE July 1859 

encounter. For Austria a decisive defeat might 
have serious consequences in rebellious Hungary. 
The French Emperor, on the other hand, feared 
that if he advanced further all Germany might join 
Austria. Garibaldi's threatened invasion of the Ty- 
rol invited German interference. A war upon the 
Rhine would then be added to the difficult cam- 
paign before the Quadrilateral. Louis Napoleon 

sought an interview with Francis Joseph at Villa- 
Truce of ° r 
viiiafranca f raaca on July 9. An armistice was agreed on. 

Two days later the two sovereigns met. Francis 
Joseph expressed his willingness to give up Lom- 
bardy, and to consent to the establishment of an 
Italian federation, including Venetia, to be presided 
over by the Pope. .He insisted on retaining Mantua, 
and on the restoration of Modena and Tuscany to 
their deposed sovereigns. Cavour protested em- 
phatically against the arrangement. Victor Em- 
manuel, who only accepted the preliminaries of 
Viiiafranca with reservations, declined to enter 
any Italian league of which a province governed 
by Austria should form a part. The provisions 
of Viiiafranca, ratified late in the year at Zurich, 

Pc&CC Of 

Zurich were denounced throughout Italy. Louis Napoleon, 
hitherto hailed as a liberator, was reviled as a 
traitor to the Italian cause. Cavour resigned his 
portfolio. His last act of office was to despatch 
ten thousand muskets to Farini at Modena. Farini, 
instead of disbanding his forces and returning to 
Turin, as bidden by Cavour's successor, llattazzi, 
renounced his Piedmontese citizenship and accepted 
the dictatorship of Modena. When the Duke of 

1859 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1281 

Modena threatened to return in force from Austria, 
the whole population was mobilized, and Parma 
joined forces with Modena. In the Eomagna the 
provisional government maintained itself. Tuscany, Italians 
too, declared for a national union and. made common dlssatlsfied 
cause with her neighbors. 

As Cavour put it: "Before Villafranca the union 
of Italy was a possibility; after Villafranca it be- 
came a necessity." Mazzini proposed to establish 
the Italian union under the House of Savoy by _ 
overthrowing the government of Venetia, central 
Italy, with Naples and Sicily, if Victor Emmanuel 
would undertake to head any armed resistance to 
foreign powers that might arise from outside inter- 
vention. Victor Emmanuel knew that his forces 
were insufficient for such an enterprise and declined 
to countenance the project. Mazzini was confirmed 
in his distrust toward the House of Savoy. He per- 

J r Re vol u- 

suaded Garibaldi to join him in his efforts to estab- ^-^ts 
lish a national Italian Eepublic. Garibaldi under- 
took to lead an expedition into the Eomagna. At 
this very moment the French Government addressed 
a solemn warning to Victor Emmanuel against the 
annexation of the Eomagna. Garibaldi's enterprise, 
if successful, was bound to prove fatal to the aspira- 
tions of the House of Savoy. In this crisis Victor 
Emmanuel himself invited Garibaldi to Turin, and 
implored him to postpone a project which would 
only result in disaster for the national cause of 
Italy. Garibaldi resigned his command, and with- 
drew with expressions of cordiality for the King, £f t r n drL d w 8 
but undisguised contempt for his advisers. 

A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1859 

The discovery of a secret treaty of alliance be- 
tween the Papal Government and Austria at last 
overcame Louis Napoleon's reluctance to offend 
the clerical party of France. He resolved to meet 
the national demand of Italy for the formation of 
a strong northern kingdom under Victor Emman- 
uel, and at the same time to garner in his promised 
harvests by annexing Nice and Savoy to France. 
The French Emperor's intentions were foreshadowed 
about Christmas time by the publication in one of 
"The Pope the official organs in Paris of an essay entitled "The 
congress" Pope and the Congress." This essay was evidently 
"inspired," if not actually dictated, by Louis Napo- 
leon himself. While discussing the Emperor's re- 
cent proposition of an International Congress on the 
affairs of Italy, the essay propounded the doctrine that 
the Pope's authority would be materially increased 
if his temporal powers were reduced to the narrowest 
limits. The lost revenue to the Holy See, it was 
proposed, might be made up by a yearly annuity 
granted to the Pope by the Catholic Powers of the 
world. The appearance of this essay created a sen- 
sation. Pope Pius IX. protested that he would not 
join in the proposed Congress unless the doctrine to 
which such publicity had been given were disavowed 
by France. Louis Napoleon replied through his 
Ambassador at Rome that the Holy Father might 
do much worse than accept such proposed annuities, 
and that he might as well give up all claim to the 

Pope's Komagna, since this province was lost to him al- 
tera poral 

threatened rea( ty- The Pope retorted that he could not cede 
what Heaven had granted in perpetuity to the 

1859 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1283 

Church, and called upon the Powers to clear 
the JRomagna of Piedmontese interlopers. The at- 
titude assumed by the Pope afforded a good pretext 
for Napoleon to abandon the plan of a European 
Congress, which had already been discountenanced 
by the governments of Great Britain and Russia. 

Friedrich Heinrich Alexander Baron von Hum- 
boldt, the great traveller and naturalist, died on 
May 6, in his ninetieth year. Humboldt's scientific 
explorations began with the Nineteenth Century, ™n 
He explored the Orinoco River and the upper part 
of the Rio Negro, embracing the tract between 
Quito and Lima, and then the region between the 
City of Mexico and the Gulf, as well as the island 
of Cuba. On his return, in 1804, Humboldt brought 
with him an immense mass of fresh knowledge in 
geography, climatology, geology, botany, zoology, 
meteorology, and almost every other branch of nat- 
ural science, as well as in ethnology and political 

After the completion of his great work on this 
subject, Von Humboldt was invited by Czar Nicholas 
to lead a scientific expedition into Siberia and Central 
Asia, the results of which were published in his 
"Central Asia." In 1845, appeared the first vol- 
ume of Humboldt's famous "Cosmos," avast and "Cosmos" 
comprehensive survey of natural phenomena, in 
which Humboldt's idea of the unity of forces 
which control the various manifestations of nature 
found expression. Soon after the completion of 
this great work the aged explorer died. 

The last spasms of the Indian mutiny spent them- 

1284 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1856 

selves during the spring of this year. Tantia Topi, 
the lieutenant of Nana Sahib, held out obstinately in 
the field after several reverses. He was at length 
completely hemmed in by the British. Deserted by 
most of his followers, he surrendered in April. 
He was put on trial for his share in the Cawnpore 
massacre, and was hanged like a common criminal. 
£d!a°n The captive King of Delhi was brought back from 
South Africa, and was finally confined at Rangoon 
in British Burma. 

England's insistence on the promised exchange 
of the Chinese peace ratifications within the sacred 
precincts of Peking precipitated another Chinese 
war. Frederick Bruce, who had been secretary to 
his brother, Lord Elgin, at Hong Kong, was ap- 
pointed Great Britain's envoy for the exchange 
of ratifications. In June, Bruce reached Hong 
Kong, and proceeded to Shanghai, where he was 
met by the Imperial Commissioners Kwaliang and 
Hwshana, who tried to dissuade him from pushing 
British through to Peking. Bruce pushed on. His arrival 
from china a t the mouth of the Peiho was preceded by a British 
squadron under Admiral Hope. The Admiral sent 
a notification to the Chinese in command of the Taku 
forts that the English envoy was coming. The no- 
tification was ill received. With the sanction of 
Bruce, Admiral Hope determined to make a demon- 
stration. On June 25, the attack on the Taku forts 
began. Three English gunboats were sunk, and 
most of the other ships were badly damaged. An 
attempted land attack fared even worse. It was re- 
pulsed with severe loss to the British. More than 


300 marines and bluejackets were killed and 
wounded. The British fleet had to withdraw tof2£? oof 
Hong Kong for repairs, while Commissioner Bruce 
returned to Shanghai. The anti-foreign party in 
China triumphed. Prince San-Ko-Lin-Sin, the 
Manchu General who had checked the advance 
of the Taiping rebels, became master of the situa- 
tion. Meanwhile England and France entered into 
negotiations for further hostile demonstrations. The 
negotiations dragged so long that the projected joint 
expedition had to be postponed until the following 
year. An American treaty with China had been 
negotiated on June 13, at Tien-tsin. 

In the United States, the vexed question of the 
status of Kansas at length reached a definite settle- 
ment. In January, the Territorial Commission of 
Kansas had ordered a popular vote on calling an- 
other Constitutional Convention. This was adopted 
in March by a popular majority of 3,881 votes. 
In midsummer, the new State Convention met at^ttiement 
Wyandotte. It framed an anti-slavery Constitution, 
while restricting the suffrage to white male persons. 

Daniel Webster had scornfully scouted a sugges- 
tion that New Mexico might be given to slavery. 
Yet the suggestion that the treaty with Mexico gjj^west 
might "re-enact the laws of God" had scarcely 
died out of the public ear, when that Territory, in 
1859, proceeded to do the very thing which Webster 
had regarded as inconceivable. 

At the same time the Territory of Oregon was ad- 
mitted as a State. Gold was now found in Oregon. 
Other important mineral discoveries were made at 

1286 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1859 

Oil <lis- 

the same time. In August, oil was struck at Titus- 
ville, Pennsylvania, at a depth of seventy-one feet. 
It was the first American oil-well. A less welcome 
discovery was that of the destructive potato beetle. 
Appearing in swarms in Colorado, the insects made 
their way eastward through Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois 
and Ohio to the Northeastern States. In spite of 
all private and public precautions, the spread of this 
insect pest could not be prevented. 

At the instance of Louis Napoleon, who vied 
with his great uncle in his appreciation and public 
recognition of scientific achievements, the French 
Government presented Morse with an award of 
80,000 francs for introducing the telegraph. 

Adelina Patti, the singer, who had recently made 
her d^but in Santiago de Cuba, appeared for the 
first time at Castle Garden in New York and took 
Americans by storm. 

Eufus Choate, one of the greatest of American 
lawyers, died on July 13, at Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
Admitted to practice in 1823, he immediately 
placed himself in the front rank of the profession 
and became the leader of the Massachusetts bar. 
In 1841, he was elected by his State to fill the va- 
cancy left by Daniel Webster. His speeches on the 
Oregon question, the tariff, the annexation of Texas 
and other issues gave him a national reputation as 
choate an orator and statesman. Upon Webster's re-elec- 
tion to the Senate in 1846, he returned to the prac- 
tice of the law, in which he was busily engaged when 
he died. He was one of the foremost American ad- 
vocates of his time. 

1859 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1287 

Washington Irving, the American essayist and 
romancer, died, at the age of seventy-six, near JJnlSvIng 
Tarrytown. The spirit of American tales of folk-lore 
was infused by Irving in his whimsical "History of 
New York," or in such charming stories as "Kip 
Van Winkle" and "A Legend of Sleepy Hollow." 
With Paulding he engaged in a serial publication 
entitled "Salmagundi." It was filled with clever 
satire upon the foibles of the day, and was imme- 

r J ' His works 

diately successful. Irving's burlesque "History of 
New York" grew out of this. The "Sketch Book," 
was a collection of light essays on European travel. 
Other works were "Bracebridge Hall," written in 
Paris, and the "Tales of a Traveller," written in 
Dresden, followed by a "History of the Life and 
Voyages of Christopher Columbus," published in 
1838. In Spain, Irving also collected the material 
for his "Conquest of Granada," "The Alhambra," 
"Mohammed and his Successors," and the "Legends 
of the Conquest of Spain." His last and most elab- 
orate work was his "Life of Washington," pub- 
lished in five volumes. His death occurred soon after 
its completion. With Cooper, Poe and Emerson, 
Washington Irving succeeded in carrying the repu- 
tation of American letters beyond the seas. He was 
the first of the long line of literary diplomats chosen 
to represent their country abroad. Thus Thackeray 
happily toasted Irving as "The first Ambassador 
from the New World of letters sent to the Old." 
Hinton K. Helper had written a book: "The Im- 

r Helper's 

pending Crisis in the South— How to Meet It." book 
Eepresentative Clark of Missouri proposed a reso- 

1288 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1659 

lution asserting "that no member of the House who 
has indorsed and recommended it is fit to be Speaker 
of this House." The book had been recommended 
in a circular signed by two-thirds of the Republican 
members of the preceding Congress. A fierce de- 
bate on this matter went on for several days, simul- 
taneously with the discussion in the Senate on the 
John Brown affair. 

On the night of October 16, John Brown, the self- 
chosen liberator of Southern slaves, entered the State 
of Virginia at Harper's Ferry with a party of twenty- 
one armed followers. His avowed object was to put 
an end to slavery by inciting an insurrection of 
slaves in Virginia. Brown's party seized the United 
States Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, and kidnapped 
several prominent residents to be held as hostages. 
Brown's Not a negro rose at their summons. By the follow- 


ing morning the alarm had been given and the 
militia of the surrounding counties were summoned 
to arms. Under orders from Washington, Colonel 
Robert E. Lee, with a battalion of soldiers marched 
on Harper's Ferry. They reached there on the 
evening of the same day. Meanwhile Brown with 
his followers and hostages had barricaded them- 
selves in a stone fire-engine house of the arsenal 
yard. They kept up a desultory fire on the militia- 
men that streamed into the town. During the night 
Robert e the marines surrounded the house. At daylight of 
Lee's pan t ^Q following morning, Colonel Lee sent Lieutenant 
Stuart to demand the surrender of the insurgents, 
to be held subject to the orders of the Presi- 
dent of the United States. Brown refused to 

1859 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1289 

capitulate, but asked for an opportunity to fight 
in the open. 

Finding that nothing but force would avail, Col- 
onel Lee gave the order for the assault, and the 
soldiers stormed the arsenal yard, broke down 
the doors of the engine-house, and captured the 
inmates. The party had lost several men in killed 
and wounded. John Brown himself was severely 
wounded. The incident created intense excitement 
throughout America. Brown at first was turned 
over to the District- Attorney of Washington, to 
be tried in the United States Courts for his seizure 
of a Federal arsenal and armed resistance to the 
government troops. The State authorities of Vir- 
ginia demanded his surrender for his attempt to 
incite an insurrection of the slaves, a crime against 
the laws of Virginia. The demand was complied 
with, and Brown with his followers was tried in 
the court of the county where the offence was com- 
mitted. He was defended by able attorneys from 
the free States, who volunteered to aid him. As he 
frankly confessed that his object had been to incite 
insurrection among the slaves, he was practically 
self-convicted. With six of his companions he was execution 
condemned to be hanged. The sentence was exe- 
cuted on December 2, at Charlestown. Brown's 
raid and his miserable fate only served to intensify 
the hostility between the men of the Northern and 
Southern States. The manner of his death caused 
Brown to be regarded as a martyr by those who 
sympathized with his aspirations, whereas, in the 
South, the raid was regarded with much show of 

1290 A HISTORY OF THE Winter 185 

reason as the work of a deliberate conspiracy 
of certain abolitionist leaders of Boston. 

Thomas Babington Macaulay, the distinguished 
Death of historian, poet, orator and politician, died, on De- 
Macauiay cember 2 8, at his residence "Holly lodge," in Ken- 
sington. Lord Macaulay's first contribution to the 
"Edinburgh Review" was the brilliant essay on 
Milton, which at once fixed public attention on the 
young writer. His subsequent contributions to the 
great Whig review were of the same high order. 
In 1830, he entered Parliament as a member for 
Calne, and soon distinguished himself as one of the 
ablest debaters on the Whig side. Lord Grey took 
him into his Administration. Failing to agree with 
the government on the Negro Emancipation Ques- 
tion, he tendered his resignation, but was retained 
in his post. Having been returned to Parliament in 
1832, he was appointed a member of the Supreme 
Council of India', and resigned his seat to accept 
Essayist's that post. The tedium of the long voyage to India 
was beguiled by the composition of his unique essay 
on Lord Bacon. While in India, Macaulay drew up 
a code of laws for the Indian Empire which failed 
of acceptance, and also accumulated material for 
his splendid essays on Clive and Hastings. On the 
death of his father he returned to England in 1838, 
and was elected to Parliament for Edinburgh. At 
the same time he was made Secretary of War. 
Shortly after he left that post in 1842, he brought 
out his famous "Lays of Ancient Rome. " Next 
came his "History of England from the Accession 
of James the Second." The "History," unfinished 

1859 Winter NINETEENTH CENTURY 1291 

as it is, placed its author by the side of Hume, 
Lingard, and other leading English historians. As^H?story" S 
a historical essayist, he was unequalled during the 
Nineteenth Century. Soon after the publication of 
the early parts of the History of England, Macaulay 
was appointed Professor of History at the Royal 
Academy, and was presently raised to the peerage 
under the title of Lord Macaulay of Kothley. Be- 
fore he enjoyed an opportunity of addressing his 
fellow members in the House of Peers he died of 
heart disease. His body was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. A fifth volume of Macaulay's history, 
compiled from his posthumuous papers, and com- 
pleting the work to the death of William III., was 
brought out by Lady Trevelyan. The same year 
witnessed the death of Hallam, another eminent Death of 

7 Hallam 

English historian. But Hallam had survived for 
some time his powerful intellect, while that of 
Macaulay appeared unimpaired until the last mo- 
ment of his brilliant career. 

By far the most important book which appeared 
during the year was Charles Darwin's "Origin of 
Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Por^'nof 
Preservation of Favored Species in the Struggle 
for Life." The work, received with violent oppo- 
sition by most naturalists, gave scientists a new 
insight into the processes of nature, and showed 
selective influence. Thus Darwin accounted for the 
preservation of variation in species. The "Origin of 
Species" effected a lasting revolution in the funda- 
mental beliefs of men, and must be reckoned one 
of the greatest works produced during the century. 

1292 A HISTORY OF THE Winter 1850 

In Mexico, General Zoloaga, insufficiently sup- 
ported as he was by the clerical party, found he 
could no longer maintain himself, and resigned. 
His successor was General Miramon. The first 
measures of the new President were decrees re- 
scinding the illegal forced loans of his predecessor, 
?n'Mex?co an( ^ promising indemnities to the injured interests 
of England and France. Miramon failed to obtain 
recognition from the United States. After the re- 
call of Minister Forsyth, the American Legation 
was withdrawn from the City of Mexico. Forsyth's 
successor went to Vera Cruz, where he entered into 
negotiations with the victorious Juarez. On De- 
cember 14, far-reaching concessions to the United 
States were granted by Juarez. Eoutes of trade 
were opened to American commerce over the Isth- 
mus of Tehuantepec, over the Eio Grande from 
Mazatlan to the Pacific Ocean, and from Guaymas 


b^umu-d 1 i nto Ari zona - American troops were to be permitted 

states tQ p Ursue Indians and guerillas across the border of 

Mexico, with other rights of intervention. For these 

concessions, Juarez obtained a financial subsidy of 

$8,000,000 from the United States. 



AT THE opening of the Corps Legislatif in 
France, the change of Louis Napoleon's 
foreign policy was indicated by the resig- 
nation of Count Valevski as Minister of Foreign 
Affairs. He was succeeded by Thouvenel, an ad- 
vocate of Italian union. Within a fortnight Cavour Italian 

° • affairs 

was recalled to power at Turin. The time had come 
for Cavour to fulfil the pledges of Plombieres. 
True, the Austrians still held Venice; but Napo- 
leon's troops lay at Milan, and their presence alone 
gave him the upper hand in his dealings with 
Cavour. In vain did the Italian statesman try to 
squirm out of this hateful predicament by inviting 
England's good offices toward the withdrawal of 

French and Austrian troops from Italy. The prop- 

r J r r Cavour . s 

ositions made by the English Foreign Office led the P[^ ca " 
Austrian Cabinet to acknowledge that the imperial 
troops would not be mobilized in behalf of the de- 
posed sovereigns of Tuscany and Modena. The 
French Emperor was quick to construe this as an 
admission that the stipulations of Villafranca were 
no longer enforced. To the implied annexation of 
Parma, Modena and the Komagna by Victor Em- 
manuel, he stated France could not give her consent 
unless her military frontier, threatened by the for- 
mation so strong a State on her borders, were recti- 

1294: A HISTORY OF THE Spring :s» 

fied by the acquisition of Nice and Savoy. Cavour 
found a way out of his dilemma by resorting to the 
Napoleonic expedient of a so-called plebiscite. He 
gave orders that a popular vote on these questions 
should at once be taken in Savoy and Nice, as well 
as in the States of Parma, Modena, Tuscany and 
the Romagna. The elections came off early in 
March. The desired results were obtained. The 
inhabitants of Nice and Savoy by an apparently 
overwhelming vote declared for union with France. 
concfu° ne Those of the other north Italian States declared with 
equal unanimity their desire for union with Pied- 
mont and Sardinia. Armed with this popular fiat, 
Cavour checked Louis Napoleon's plan for the 
recognition of a separate government in Tuscany. 
France had to content herself with the easy acquisi- 
tion of Nice and Savoy. The annexation of these 
choicest provinces of Italy by France was viewed 
with keen displeasure by the other Powers of Eu- 
rope. In Italy itself a storm of indignation burst. 
For Victor Emmanuel the cession of Savoy meant 
a surrender of the home of his race. For Garibaldi 
it meant the sale of his own birthplace. In the first 
Parliament of United Northern Italy, convoked in 
First April, Cavour had to face the storm. Garibaldi, 
parliament unseated as a Deputy from Nice, publicly quitted 
the Parliament with words of bitter scorn. Cavour 
replied to the imprecations that were hurled at him 
with a masterly speech, justifying his policy and 
exacting for it the ratification of the Parliament. 
Garibaldi's continued reproaches he bore in silence. 
Not until he was on the point of death did Cavour 

1860 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1295 

make answer to Garibaldi's burning words: "The 
act that made this gulf between us was the most 
painful duty of my life. By what I felt myself I 
could judge what Garibaldi must have felt. If he ™jf u d nder - 
refused to forgive me I cannot reproach him." 

Garibaldi did not waste time in vain regrets. 
His ardent spirit found new fields to conquer in 
the south. King Bomba of Sicily had died a few 
days after the battle of Magenta. After Garibaldi's 
renunciation of the projected march on Eome (dur- 
ing the previous year), rumors spread to Sicily that 
he might be expected there. In the hope of hasten- 
ing his expedition an ill-prepared insurrection was 
tried at Palermo early in April. Garibaldi was then 
gathering his famous "Thousand" at Genoa. The 
fiasco of Palermo was so discouraging that it was 
decided to postpone the project of invasion as hope- paSf 
less for the present. Cavour now determined to 
act. Victor Emmanuel wrote to Francis II., the 
new King of the Sicilies, that unless he changed 
his anti-Italian policy the Piedmontese Government 
would be driven to side against him. The menace 
was wasted. Cavour resolved to let Garibaldi and 
his revolutionary forces loose on Naples. Sicilian 
emissaries declared to Garibaldi that unless he 
came immediately all Sicily would rise without 
him. On the night of May 5, Garibaldi with his 
followers seized two steamships lying at Genoa and 
put to sea. The seizure was a fiction encouraged 
by the Piedmontese Government. Cavour required 
only that Garibaldi should not directly implicate the 
government of Sardinia. Ostensible orders were 

1296 A HISTORY OF THE May i860 

issued to the Sardinian Admiral Persano to seize 
Garibaldi's ships off Cagliari in Sardinian waters. 
Garibaldi was thoughtful enough to avoid the Sar- 
dinian squadron, and having shipped arms and mu- 
nitions on the Tuscany coast, made for Marsala in 
Sicily. Under the guns of a Neapolitan war steamer, 
"fhou- ldi s on May 11, Garibaldi's "Thousand" landed at that 
sand " place. Arrayed in the red flannel shirt affected 
by Garibaldi, the "Thousand" marched eastward 
through Sicily, gathering adherents all along the 
way. After the third day's march, at Calatafimi 
they encountered Neapolitan troops and put them 
to rout. This victory, achieved over superior num- 
bers, had a great moral effect. Tidings reached 
Garibaldi that Palermo was ready to rise again. 
By a piece of strategy Garibaldi lured the Nea- 
politan garrison of Palermo into the hills, and then 
by forced marches threw himself into Palermo. On 
May 26, his followers fought their way into the city, 
and were joined enthusiastically by the inhabitants. 
For three days the gunners in the citadel and the 
Neapolitan warships in the harbor bombarded the 
city. Before the absent garrison had returned the 
Fan of commandant of the citadel signed articles of truce 


on board the "Hannibal." The city was surren- 
dered to the insurgents, and the remainder of the 
garrison withdrew to the outside forts. The Nea- 
politan Government weakly gave up Palermo for 
lost, and shipped the troops thence to Messina and 
Naples. Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of 
Sicily in the name of Victor Emmanuel and levied 
taxes. Volunteers from all parts of Italy joined his 

1860 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1297 

standard in great numbers. On July 20, Garibaldi's 
forces defeated the Neapolitans by land and by sea 
at Milazzo on the north coast. Cavour now re- 
voked his affected disapproval of the Sicilian revo- 
lution. While the Piedmontese Ambassador was 
still at Naples, Depretis, a Piedmontese pro-dictator, 
was sent to Palermo to help disentangle Garibaldi ^ u a ppo r r ts 
from the mesh of the civil maladministration into Qanbaldl 
which he had been drawn. After the evacuation of 
Messina, Cavour cast aside all restraint. Admiral 
Persano was ordered with his ships to cover Gari- 
baldi's passage to the mainland, and proceeded to 
Naples to take charge of the Neapolitan fleet in the 
name of Victor Emmanuel. On August 3, Persano 
sailed into Naples, and called upon the Neapolitan 
sailors to come under the flag of united Italy. The 
Piedmontese Ambassador at last received his pass- 
port. Garibaldi crossed over from Sicily. His 
march to Naples was a triumphal procession. On 
September 6, having proclaimed his reluctance to Bo urbons 
provoke bloodshed, King Francis and his Queen, Naples 
accompanied by the Ambassadors of Spain, Prussia 
and Austria, sailed out of Naples on a packet boat. 
Garibaldi came by railroad on the following morn- 
ing, and drove openly into the city amid tumultu- 
ous enthusiasm. He was recognized as Dictator by 
Persano and Villa Marina. His first act was to de- 
clare the Neapolitan ships of war as a part of King 
Victor Emmanuel's fleet under Admiral Persano's 
flag. The flag of Savoy was raised on all the ships. 
Neapolitan garrison, nearly 8,000 strong, was 
permitted to retire to Capua. 

1298 A HISTORY OF THE i860 

Adam Gotlob Oehlenschleger, the great roman- 
o!h£i? f tic poet of modern Denmark, died this year, aged 
seventy-one. He it was who brought about the 
modern romantic movement in Danish letters, and 
who revived the mythology of ancient Scandinavia. 
Oehlenschleger's death left a gap in Danish let- 
ters. Among those worthy to be accounted his 
successors was Steen Steensen Blicker, the Jutland 
poet, who had made his start with a collection of 
short stories published in 1824. A less prominent 
position in Danish letters was held by Nicholai 
Frederick Severin Gruntwig. He may be said to 
have laid the cornerstone of the first Danish Hcejs- 
kole. Other contemporaries were Bernhardt, Severin 
Ingeman, the author of "Valdemar the Victorious" 
and "Prince Otto of Denmark," published in the 
forties. Christian Winter wrote his pastoral poems. 
Of the playwrights, the greatest success was won by 
Henrik Hertz with his drama "Svend Dyrings 
Hus," which since its first appearance, in 1837, 
continued to hold a prominent place on the Danish 
stage. Shortly before this Hans Christian Andersen 
had achieved instant popularity by his charming 
collection of original fairy tales, translations of 
which were issued in almost all the countries 
of the world. About the same time Frederick Pal- 
lidal! Miller wrote his great satiric epic "Adam 

On March 3, the Japanese "Festival of Dolls," a 
great levee of the Shogun's court, was held at Yeddo. 
As customary, all the great Daimios on duty ap- 
peared with their retinues. Four of the highest 



Diamios did not appear, having been degraded by 
the Kegent. They were Mito-ko, Owarri, Tosa and 
Echizen. The Regent came in all the plenitude 
of his powers, as the real ruler of Japan. As he 
set out in his palanquin toward the Sakurada Gate, 
surrounded by his white-robed retainers, his train 
was suddenly attacked by a band of cut-throats. 
The bearers of the palanquin were engaged in fierce Re^nt 8 ^- 
fight with the swordsmen and had to put down their 
burden. A shot into the palanquin wounded the 
Regent. As he came out he was struck down by 
a swordsman and his head was cut off. During the 
encounter snow was falling, and the event, from this 
circumstance, has received the Japanese name of 
"Crimson Snow." From the official investigation 
of the affair it appeared that the Eegent's men 
must have been in league with the assassins. 
The Regent's head was raised on a pole in the 
city of Mito with an inscription, "Let us take and 
hoist the silken standard of Japan and fight the 
battles of the Emperor." When the government 
gave orders to arrest the suspected followers of 
Mito-ko, that chieftain replied tauntingly: "How 
can I, a poor Daimio, arrest these men, when you, of Mito 

' r ' ' J ' defiant 

the Shogun, are unable to do so? If you wish to 
seize my men, send your officers and let them try it." 
The revolution was at hand. A short while after 
the Regent's assassination his son-in-law was mur- 
dered while in bed, and his head was sent to Mito. 
The Shogun's castle at Yeddo was barricaded. The 
gates of the city were closed at night and guarded 
in daytime. The Imperial Ministers went about 


1300 A HISTORY OF THE Summer I860 

surrounded by large escorts. Mito-ko travelled over 
the empire in disguise to study the feelings of the 
people. Still he failed to come forward to carry 
out his own policy. In his weakness the Emperor 
issued an order that the higher Daimios were to 
visit Yeddo only once in seven years. This order 

foremen was not a ppli e( i to those of the Daimios who had the 
ear of the Emperor in the interest of the Shogun. 
The agitation against foreigners grew in force. 

In China, the Taipings carried on a remark- 
able campaign. Chung Wang began by capturing 
Hangchow on March 19, but the Tartar portion of 
the city held out until it was relieved by Chang 
Kwaliang. The Taiping leader hastened from 
Hangchow to Nanking, the forces of which were 
relieved, and attacked the imperial lines on May 3, 

campafgn causing the loss of 5,000 men and the raising of 
the siege. He committed, however, the fatal mis- 
take of forbidding his lieutenant, Chung Wang, to 
re-enter the city. Chung Wang thereupon deter- 
mined to act for himself. He obtained possession 
of the important city of Soochow on the Grand 
Canal, and not far distant from Shanghai. In the 
engagement which effected this, Chang Kwaliang 
lost his life. After three more battles, Chung Wang 
reached Loochow, which place the imperialists has- 

Deathof tily abandoned. At this critical moment, in May, 

Kwaliang the Viceroy of Two Kiang implored the aid of the 
English and French, who were about to march on 
Peking. His advice was prudent, but it proved 
little satisfactory to the Emperor, who sum- 
moned him to Peking, where he was executed. 


i860 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1301 

Chung Wang, not satisfied with Soochow alone, 
wished to gain possession of Shanghai, but the 
Europeans had determined to defend that city, and 
had raised funds to provide a contingent. They 
made an attack on Sunkiang, a walled town twenty 
miles distant, which they gained. They then ad- 
vanced to Tsingpu, and, on August 2, were re- 
pulsed with heavy loss. Chung Wang, after seven 
days of bombardment, appeared and surprised 
their force, which he drove away. He advanced attac * ed 
on Shanghai, from which, after five days' fighting, 
he was compelled to retreat. He then went, in re- 
sponse to an urgent call, to assist Tien Wang at 
Nanking, and thence hastened back to Loochow 
to direct active operations. He held his own against 
his more numerous adversaries. 

Meanwhile the threatened French-English expe- 
dition against China had got under way. Pending 
its arrival, the English envoy, Bruce, at Shanghai, 
presented an ultimatum, with thirty days' grace, 
demanding an immediate apology, the payment of 
an indemnity of $12,000,000 to both England andJH^ 
France, and a ratification at Peking of the treaty 
of Tien-tsin. On behalf of China, Minister Pang 
Wanching categorically refused all these requests. 
Nothing remained but an appeal to arms. 

From India an additional force of 10,000 men, 
infantry, cavalry and artillery, was sent to Hong 
Kong under Sir Hope Grant, a hero of the Indian 
mutiny and first war with China. Admiral Hope's 
squadron was strongly reinforced. The French Gov- 
ernment sent a force of 7,500, under General Mon- 
XlXth Century— Vol. 3— C 

1302 A HISTORY OF THE 8ummer I860 

tauban, to co-operate with the English forces on the 
Peiho. As soon as Sir Hope Grant reached Hong 
Kong, in March, he asked for reinforcements. The 
Indian Government immediately despatched four 
native regiments under Sir John Michael and Sir 

Occupied Robert Napier. Within a month the island of Chu- 
san was occupied by an English expedition of 2,000 
without opposition. Owing to the late arrival of 
the French, the united expedition did not reach the 
Gulf of Pechili until July. More time was wasted 
before the respective commanders decided on the 
united plan of campaign. Finally it was determined 
to begin the attack in the rear of the Taku forts 
at Pehtang. The place was taken without the loss 
of one man. An intrenched Chinese camp four miles 
beyond Pehtang was outflanked by two divisions 
under Sir Robert Napier and Colonel Wolseley. 
The result of this engagement was the capture of 
the intrenched town of Sinho, one mile north of the 

operations Peiho, and about seven miles in the rear of the Taku 
forts. The town of Tangau was occupied after a 
brief engagement. The Chinese Governor of Pechili 
now requested a cessation of hostilities, but his pro- 
posals were ignored. It was decided to seize the 
Taku forts before entering into any negotiation. 
On August 21, the allied forces opened fire on the 
forts, and made a simultaneous attack on the two 
sides. The French advanced on the southern forts, 
while the British attacked at the northern end. The 
Chinese fought their obsolete guns with extraordi- 
nary courage. When their principal magazine was 
blown up they stood to their position. Out of a 

1660 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1303 

garrison of 500 men, it was computed that one hun^ 
dred escaped. The English losses were more than 
200 in killed and wounded. The French losses were 
proportionate. The allies' summons to surrender Taku forts 
was scouted by the Chinese. Yet the Chinese d e _ stormed 
fences were ludicrously weak, since the forts were 
supposed to front toward the sea. On the following 
day all the forts were rushed by the French and 
English attacking forces, and several thousand Chi- 
nese prisoners were taken. The spoil included more 
than 600 guns. Admiral Hope with his fleet now 
stood into the bay, and anchored under the walls of 
the captured forts. 

The way to Tien-tsin was open now by land and 
by water. The British gunboats stood up the river, 
while the land forces marched straight for Tien-tsin ^ e a n c " ua ' t n ed 
without encountering any opposition. All the Chi- 
nese troops were withdrawn from Tien-tsin after an 
announcement by the Governor that Minister Kwa- 
liang was on his way to the city to negotiate for 
peace. The Commissioners of the allies demanded, 
first, an apology for the first Chinese attack at Peiho; 
secondly, the payment of an indemnity, including 
the costs of the war; and, thirdly, the ratification 
of the treaty of Tien-tsin in the presence of the Vajn 
Chinese Emperor at Peking. To all of these de- overtures 
mands Kwaliang assented; but when Lord Elgin 
made an additional demand that the British forces 
should be permitted to penetrate to the town of 
Tongchow, only twelve miles distant from Peking, 
the Chinese became desperate and refused to 

1304 A HISTORY OF THE 1800 

With reinforcements from Mongolia and Manchu- 
ria, Prince San-Ko-Lin-Sin threw himself in front 

hostilities of Peking. A British advance force of 1,500 men, 
under Sir Hope Grant, accompanied by Lord Elgin, 
left Tien-tsin on September 8, and marched to 
Hosiwu, half way to the capital. There they were 
reinforced by a French division. Prince Tsai, a 
nephew of the Chinese Emperor, on behalf of the 
Emperor, made new overtures for peace, but he 
was curtly informed that no negotiations would be 
entered iuto until Tongchow was taken. At Chan- 
chia-Wan the allied forces came upon Prince San- 
Ko-Lin-Sin's army. Now the commissioners of the 
allies were sent ahead with an escort of Sikh cavalry 
to propose an armistice. Their reception by the Chi- 
nese general appeared to them "almost offensive.'" 
Before the Commissioners could rejoin their forces, 
hostilities had been started by a French officer, who 

French snot a coo ^ e m a dispute over a mule. He was torn 

offensive to pieces by the infuriated Chinese. General Mon- 
tauban ordered his French forces to advance. They 
were supported by the French artillery. This galled 
the Manchu horsemen so much that they charged to 
the very mouths of the guns, overriding one battery. 
Probin's Horse came to the rescue, and, in the sight 
of both armies, drove the Chinese cavalry down the 
slope. This overthrow of their most vaunted fight- 
ing men discouraged the Chinese foot-soldiers, and 

chan-chia- they gave way. The British Indian troops stormed 

en Chan-chia-Wan. The French were too exhausted 

to take a part in the last advance; but Sir Hope 

Grant with some of his fresh regimeots passed on 

1860 Sept. . NINETEENTH CENTURY 1305 

and captured a large Chinese camp and several guns 
one mile beyond the town. 

The resistance encountered had been sufficient to 
make the British commander hesitate before ad- 
vancing further. Urgent orders were sent to Sir 
Eobert Napier, garrisoning Tien-tsin, to bring as 
many reserves as he could spare. Two days inter- 
vened before another advance was made by the 
allies. Meanwhile Parkes and his party of civil- 


ians had been cut off and captured. The Chinese ofCom - 

r missioner 

collected new forces for the defence of the Palikao Parkes 
Bridge, crossing the Peiho west of Tongchow. 

With British and French reinforcements the allies 
resumed hostilities with a cavalry charge on the 
Chinese position. The French stormed the bridge 
with its twenty-five guns by a dashing bayonet 
charge. It was there that General Montauban won 
his subsequent title of Comte de Palikao. Mean - Palikao 


while the British flanked the Chinese position, stormed 
Their success in this manoeuvre, and the disper- 
sion of the Chinese imperial guards by the French 
infantry, completed the discomfiture of the Chinese. 
Peking now lay almost at the mercy of the allies. 

At this juncture Prince Kung, the Chinese Em- 
peror's brother, arrived at the front and requested 
a temporary suspension of hostilities. On behalf Futi!ene _ 
of England, Lord Elgin replied that there could g ° ia lor 
be no negotiation until Parkes and his fellow cap- 
tives were delivered in safety at the British head- 
quarters. Prince Kung gave assurances that Parkes 
and Loch were in safety at the Kaou Meaou Temple 
in Peking, but would be retained as hostages pend- 

1306 A HISTORY OF THE Sept. i860 

ing the conclusion of an armistice. Lord Elgin at 
once requested Sir Hope Grant to resume his march. 
During the parleys, lasting nearly a week, more re- 
serves had been brought up from Tien-tsin and the 
Sikh cavalry had recounoitred to the very walls of 
Peking. On their report that the walls were strong 
od PekSf- an< ^ * n g 00 ^ condition, it was decided to concentrate 
the attack on the Tartar quarter of Peking. In exe- 
cution of this plan the allied forces marched around 
the great city to the northwest corner of the walls 
converging on the Emperor's summer palace, some 
four miles out of the city. Emperor Hsien-Feng, 
on the approach of the white barbarians, fled from 
his palace, and sought shelter at Jehol, the hunting 
residence of the Emperors beyond the great Chinese 
wall. The French soldiers were the first to break 
into the summer palace, and got the first pick of 
the loot. They were interrupted in their work 
of spoliation by the British, and the two bands of 
soldiery fell to quarrelling. Some of the choicest 
Chinese art treasures were ruthlessly destroyed, 
summer while others were torn asunder and carried off by 
footed Christian soldiers ignorant of their value. By an 
agreement between the French and English com- 
manders-in-chief, it was finally decided to divide 
the rich loot of the summer palace in equal shares 
between the two armies. The disgraceful proceed- 
ings there enacted, more than anything else, con- 
firmed the Chinese impression that the self-styled 
representatives of Western civilization and Chris- 
tianity were nothing but foreign devils and barba- 
rians. The flight of Emperor Hsien-Feng and the 


Princes of the imperial house seriously affected 
the prestige of the Manchu dynasty. A famous 
Chinese satire, written by one of the officers of the 
imperial escort, exploited the humiliation of the Flj htof 
ruler of the Celestial Empire. The poem is still Emperor 
one of the forbidden works of China. 

After the capture of the summer palace, and the 
flight of the Emperor, Prince Kung yielded to Lord 
Elgin's demands. Parkes and his fellow prisoners 
were released. Under the threat of the resumption 
of hostilities, the northeastern gate of Peking was 
thrown open to the allies. Later the Chinese re- 
leased the remaining prisoners of war who had Eu ropeaQ 
been captured at Tongchow nearly a month before, release! 
Some of them had fared badly. One of them, 
Lieutenant Anderson, became delirious under the 
torments of his captors and died on the ninth day 
of his confinement. De Normann and a British 
trooper died shortly afterward from ill treatment. 
What fate befell Captain Barbazon and his French 
companion TAbbe* de Luc was never learned, but 
it was generally believed that the Chinese put them 
to death immediately after the capture of the Bridge 
of Palikao. In retaliation of these alleged atroci- 
ties, the British, heedless of French protests, set 
fire to the beautiful summer palace. In addition 
to this Lord Elgin exacted a special indemnity ofpaiace er 
500,000 taels as compensation for the families of 
the men believed to have been murdered. The 
palace of Prince Tsai in Peking was appropriated 
as a temporary official residence of Lord Elgin and 
Baron Gros. The Imperial Hall of Ceremonies was 

1308 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1860 

selected as the place where the treaty of Tien-tsin 
should be ratified. The formal act of ratification 
was signed on October 24, when Lord Elgin and 
Baron Gros, accompanied by Sir Hope Grant 
and General Montauban, trooped into the Hall of 
Ceremonies with one hundred officers and seven 
hundred and fifty soldiers. Prince Kung, in the 
presence of the Manchu mandarins, affixed the Em- 
peror's seal to the treaty, under a special imperial 
termV° edict, forwarded from Jehol. The stipulations of 
the treaty were published in Peking. This done, 
Lord Elgin transferred to his brother, Frederick 
Brace, the charge of British interests in China as 
Resident Minister at Peking, in company with a 
newly appointed Ambassador from France. The 
allied troops left Peking on November 9, and the 
greater part of the expedition returned to India 
and Europe just before the cold weather set in. 
In the absence of the Emperor, Prince Kung took 
charge of affairs in China. 

In North America, after the failure of the efforts 
to make Kansas a slave State, it had become plain 
that the South could not hope to keep its equality of 
representation in the Senate without reversing what 
American a PP eare ^ t0 De tae settled popular opinion concern- 
aUairs ing the status of the Northern Territories. Reso- 
lutions to this general effect were moved by Jeffer- 
son Davis early in February, 1860, and were passed 
by the Senate. The House, however, would not 
pass them. 

This was the ultimatum presented to the Demo- 
cratic Party, and, in fact, to the North, at the 

!860 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1309 

Democratic National Convention, which assembled, 
on April 23, at Charleston, South Carolina. The^S 
spokesman of the Cotton States at that convention to issue 
was William L. Yancey of Alabama, whose impetu- 
ous oratory had given him a place among the ex- 
treme men of the South, comparable to Garrison 
and Wendell Phillips among the extreme anti- 
slavery men in the North. An anti-slavery re- 
port was adopted by a small majority of the Con- 
vention. The Alabama delegation withdrew, and 
practically all the delegates from the Cotton States 
followed. The convention adjourned to meet at 
Baltimore on June 18. There, Douglas was at last warring 

' ° conven- 

nominated. Meanwhile, the delegates who had with- tions 
drawn from the convention at Charleston met again 
at Eichmond, whence they also adjourned to Balti- 
more, and, joined there by other seceders, nominated 
John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for President. 
Douglas went before the country practically on the 
Dred Scott decision for a platform. Breckinridge 
stood for the Southern view as embodied in the 
majority report at Charleston. On May 19, a third 
faction, calling itself the "Constitutional Union 
Party," assembled in convention at Baltimore and 
nominated John Bell of Tennessee and Edward 
Everett of Massachusetts, declaring that they would 
have no other platform than "the Constitution, 
the Union of the States, and the enforcement of 
the laws." 

On May 16, the Eepublican Convention had met 
at Chicago. Of the slave States, only Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri were 

1310 A HISTORY OF THE Spring i860 

represented. David Wilmot of "Proviso" fame was 
temporary president and Ashmun of Massachusetts 
permanent chairman. The resolutions declared for 
stand of "The maintenance inviolate of the right of each 
Krty bllcan State to order and control its own domestic insti- 
tutions according to its own judgment exclusively," 
and condemned the attempt to enforce the extreme 
pretensions of a purely local interest (meaning the 
slave interest), through the intervention of Congress 
and the courts, by the Democratic Administration. 
They derided the new dogma that the Constitution 
of its own force carried slavery into the Territories, 
and denied the authority of Congress, of a Territo- 
rial Legislature, or of any individual to give leave 
of existence to slavery in any Territory in the 
United States. Seward was the leading candidate 
on the first ballot. Cameron, Chase and Bates also 
nominated had respectable followings, but Abraham Lincoln 

President r ° ' 

of Illinois rapidly forged ahead, and on the third 
ballot was nominated with a total of 354 out of 
466 votes. Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was nomi- 
nated for Vice-President. 

A memorable political contest followed. Stephen 
A. Douglas made his last try for the Presidency with 
wonderful vigor and spirit. He canvassed the whole 
country, and great throngs were moved by his ener- 
getic oratory. Jefferson Davis and other Breekin- 

Fourfold ° J 

denti'ai ridge orators had the courage to canvass Northern 
States. In some Northern States a fusion was ef- 
fected among the opponents of the Republican 
Party. Before election day, however, it was 
clear to shrewd observers that the new party 

1860 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1311 

would carry the bulk of the Northern electoral 

Meanwhile, south of Mason and Dixon's line 
the interest in the contest was even more intense 
than at the North. Douglas had a good following 
in most of the Southern States, but a great majority 
of the ruling class at the South, whether they had 
formerly been Democrats or Whigs, were now dis- 
posed to bring the long sectional controversy to an 
issue. Therefore, besides the debate over the Presi- following 
dential election, there was also serious discussion 
of the course which the South should take in the 
event of Lincoln's election. South Carolina had 
been ready to secede from the Union ten years 
before, and there had been considerable minorities 
in other Southern States in favor of secession at 
that time. In all the Cotton States that party was 
now very strong. The Alabama Legislature, early 
in 1860, had instructed Governor Moore to call a 
Convention in case a "black Eepublican" should 
be elected President in November. 

None of the four candidates obtained a majority of 
the popular vote. Lincoln got 1,866,352, Douglas Lincoln 
1,375,157, Breckinridge 845,763, and Bell 589,581. eleCted 
Fifteen States chose Republican electors only, and 
New Jersey four Republican electors out of seven, 
and so Lincoln got a majority of the Electoral Col- 
lege. Most of the Southern States went for Breck- 
inridge, who was second in the Electoral College. 
Douglas's support was hopelessly scattered through- 
out the two sections. Bell carried but three States, 
Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. The great ex- 

1312 A HISTORY OF THE Winter 188U 

citement which swept throughout the whole country 
gradually subsided in the North, while in the South 
it rose to fever heat. 

The South Carolina Legislature at once made pro- 
vision for a Constitutional Convention, and similar 
action was taken in others of the Cotton States. 
Slices- 15 Throughout the South three distinct parties con- 
tended on the secession question. One party ad- 
vocated immediate secession of each State without 
waiting for any other. The second party advocated 
co-operation among the States, to the end that if one 
seceded all might secede together. The third party 
opposed secession altogether. For the time being, 
the immediate Secessionists had their way in the 
Cotton States, while in Virginia, North Carolina, 
Tennessee and other States the Co-operationists and 
South Union men were in the ascendant. The South 
first Carolina Convention passed its ordinance of seces- 

sion on December 20, and at the same time invited 
the other Southern States to meet in Convention at 
Montgomery, Alabama, early next year. 

As it became clear that the South was in terrible 
earnest, a strong feeling for compromise developed 
in the North and in the border States. Influential 
newspapers took the position that everything pos- 
sible should be done to conciliate the South. 
Abraham Lincoln, while conceding nothing to the 
Lincoln theory or policy of secession, took occasion, in 
atory a letter to Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, to 
make it plain that he had no purpose to interfere 
with slavery in any State where it already existed. 
December 3, Congress convened at Washington. 


President Buchanan, in his last annual message, 
discussed the alarming state of affairs, but offered 
no solution of the difficulty. He denied the right 
of a State to secede from the Union, but could not 
find that the Constitution gave Congress any power 
to "coerce into submission a State which is attempt- 
ing to withdraw or has actually withdrawn" from 
the Union. "The fact is," he said, "that ourBuchan- 

TT . ..... . an'sdictum 

Union rests upon public opinion, and can never 
be cemented by the blood of its citizens shed in 
civil war." Attorney -General Black sustained the 
President in this view. A committee of thirty- 
three, appointed by the House, declared that "any 
reasonable, proper and Constitutional remedies and 
effectual guarantees of their political rights and in- 
terests should be promptly and cheerfully given" 
to the dissatisfied States. A Senate committee of 
thirteen, appointed, December 18, to advise com- 


promise measures for a restoration of peace, soon undeclded 
reported that it was "not able to agree upon any 
general plan of compromise." 

And so, while Congress debated, and Buchanan 
hesitated, and the North looked on helpless, the 
people of the lower South made ready to employ 
that remedy for their grievances which, at various 
times and in various dissatisfied corners of the preparing 

for war 

Union, had been suggested or threatened but 
never tried. 

While the United States drifted into what ap- 
peared a ruinous war, England advanced her com- 
mercial prosperity by a master-stroke. With Glad- 
stone acting as the chief finance minister of the 

1314 A HISTORY OF THE Jan. i860 

country, Richard Cobden was engaged as a plenipo- 
tentiary of the British Government in negotiating a 
commercial treaty with France based on free trade. 
It was calculated to give enormous impulse to the 
trade between the two countries. The treaty was 
signed on January 23, and was soon laid before 
Parliament. Gladstone thus explained the provi- 
sions of the treaty: 

Free trade "France engages to reduce the duty on English 

between , , , ° , ,.. J , ? 

France aud coal and coke, on bar and pig iron and steel, on 
tools and machinery; on yarns and goods in flax, 
hemp and jute, as well as all the staples of British 
manufacture, whether of yarns, flax, hemp, hair, 
wool, silk, or cotton; all manufactures of skin, 
leather, bark, wood, iron, and all other metals, 
glass, stoneware, earthenware, or porcelain. Eng- 
land engages, with the limited power of exception 
which we propose to exercise only in regard to two 
or three articles, to abolish immediately and totally 
all duties upon all manufactured goods. There will 
be a sweep, summary, entire and absolute, of what 
are known as manufactured goods. Further, Eng- 
land engages to reduce by one half her duties on 
brandy and wine." 

Gladstone closed with a tribute to the enlight- 
ened spirit in which Emperor Louis Napoleon and 
Richard Cobden had accomplished fcheir task. The 
treaty passed Parliament, with the sole exception 
of the proposed reduction of the duty on paper, 
which was thrown out by the Lords, 
spectrum Scientifically, the year was notable for the work 
of Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, two Ger- 
man chemists, who perfected the spectroscope, and 


in whose hands the possibilities of that instrument 
were demonstrated. Bunsen and Kirchhoff estab- 
lished the science of spectrum analysis, and showed 
that infinitesimal quantities of metals could be 
readily detected by means of the spectroscope in 
an incandescent mass. Their researches have had 
an incalculable influence on stellar chemistry. 

It was at this time that the last volume of Has- Ruskin's 
kin's "Modern Painters" was published. The first Painters" 
volume of this brilliant book had appeared in 1843, 
the outgrowth of an early pamphlet written by 
Ruskin in defence of Turner, which excited great 
attention in England at the time. As was said in 
"Horae Subsessivse," Thackeray's organ: "There is 
one man among us who has done more to breathe 
the breath of life into the literature and the phi- 
losophy of art, who has encouraged it ten thousand 
times more effectually than all our art unions, and 
that is the author of 'Modern Painters.' " 

In Italy, the Neapolitan troops, emboldened by 
a success at Caiazzo, had assumed the offensive in 

J Italian 

October. Garibaldi drove them back to Cajazzo. affairs 
Meanwhile, King Victor Emmanuel, crossing the 
Apennines, marched his troops to the rear of 
the Neapolitan army. The Bourbon commander 
avoided both by moving northward toward Gar- 
igliano. On October 26, Garibaldi met Victor 
Emmanuel at Teano. The King warmly shook the 
hand of the revolutionary leader, who looked Garibaldi 
askance at his opponents in the King's suite, victor 


The Garibaldian volunteers and the Piedmontese 
soldiers held aloof from each other. The relations 

1316 A HISTORY OF THE i860 

between the two headquarters were strained. It 
was determined that Garibaldi with his followers 
should attend to the Neapolitan garrison at Capua, 
while Victor Emmanuel's army pursued the Nea- 
politans in the open. The questions at issue be- 
tween Cavour and Garibaldi were left to the new 

sauth and Parliament of Southern Italy. By an overwhelm- 

united ing majority, toward the close of October, the dele- 
gates voted for the immediate union of Naples and 
Sicily with Northern Italy. Capua surrendered in 
the first days of November, and Victor Emmanuel 
made his entry into Naples. It was the crowning 
achievement of Garibaldi's career. That popular 
leader now requested of the King the Lieutenancy 
of Southern Italy, with supreme military powers 
for the space of a year. Victor Emmanuel, under 
the influence of Cavour, replied very simply: "It 
is impossible." Declining any other honor or re- 
ward, Garibaldi returned to Caprera. As he took 

Garibaldi leave of his volunteers, he said: "The next time, 
we march on Rome and on Venice." Apart from 
this great goal, all that remained to accomplish 
the union of Italy was the reduction of Gaeta and 
the citadel of Messina, the last refuges of Bourbon 
rule in Southern Italy. 

In Mexico, toward the close of the year, the 
liberal forces, supported largely by the natives, 

SSeS" advanced upon the capital. President Miramon 
sent his military leaders, Marquez, Negrito and 
others, with 8,000 men and thirty cannon, against 
the overwhelming forces of Juarez. In the battle 
of San MiKuelito, on December 22, Miramon's 


forces were routed. Ortaga, the victorious general, 
summoned Juarez to come to the capital without ^ v l ef- mon 
delay to restore the liberal constitution. Juarez 
went. Miramon fled the country. Before embark- 
ing he helped himself to the funds of the British 
Consulate in Mexico, obtaining some 600,000 

In the North American Kepublic, during the 
month of December, two Southern members of 
the Cabinet resigned. They were Cobb of Georgia 
and Floyd of Virginia, by whose connivance, it was 
asserted, Federal arsenals had fallen into the hands 


of the Southerners. Commissioners representing ^ e ° r r >^ 
South Carolina appeared at Washington as the en- 
voys of a separate republic, and Governor Pickens 
made a formal request that Fort Sumter, in Charles- 
ton Harbor, be delivered to the authorities of the 
State. After some hesitation, Buchanan refused to 
receive the Commissioners, and let them know that 
Fort Sumter would not be abandoned. It was then 
that Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote "Brother Jona- farewell to 


than's Lament," addressed to South Carolina: Carolina 

She has gone — she has left us in passion and pride — 

Our stormy-browed sister, so long at our side ! 
She has torn her own star from our firmament's glow, 

And turned on her brother the face of a foe ! . . . . 

W hen this was written, Forts Pinckney and Moul- 
trie had already been seized by the South Carolina 
troops. On December 31 possession was taken of 
the Federal arsenal at Charleston, the flag of the 
United States was hauled down, and in its place 
was hoisted the palmetto flag of South Carolina. 

1318 A HISTORY OF THE 1861 



S SOOTHERN ITALY^ the last blows for na- 
tional union were struck early in the year. 
A French squadron for some time had pre- 
vented the Sardinian fleet from bombarding Gaeta. 
By the middle of January, at last, the French Em- 
peror consented to withdraw his opposition. Gaeta 
was bombarded by land and by sea. After a resist- 
ance of nearly a month the garrison surrendered. 
The young Queen and King of Naples were con- 
veyed to the Papal States on a French man-of-war. 
One month later the citadel of Messina, after a stub- 
itaiian DOrn defence of half a year, capitulated. The union 
compifshed of Italy, with the exception of Rome and Venice, 
was now complete. By his steadfast adherence to 
the national cause, Victor Emmanuel had secured 
the Italian throne for the House of Savoy. Shortly 
after this crowning stroke of his policy, Cavour, 
the greatest statesman of modern Italy, passed 
away. As he lay on his deathbed, Cavour ad- 
dressed to the priest who had come to shrive him 

Death of r 

cavour ^jg \ as fc wor ds, which summed up the future policy 
of Italy in regard to Rome: "A free Church in a 
free State." 

The greatest event of the year was tne emancipa 
tion of the Russian serfs, as announced on February 


19 in an imperial ukase by Czar Alexander II. 
The serf population of Russia at that time aggre- £nd£r£ lex " 
gated 47,100,000 individuals, divided into 20,000,000 Ke 
crown peasants, 4,700,000 peasants of appanages, 
mines, factories, etc., 21,000,000 belonging to pro- 
prietors, and 1,400,000 dvorovie, or domestic ser- 
vants. The peasants of the crown and of the ap- 
panages were practically already freemen, subject 
to the payment of a rent, or of other well-defined 
dues, settled by the State, which was represented 
either by the administration of the domain or by 
the department of the appanages. The crown peas- 
ants even enjoyed a sort of local self-government. 
The fundamental principles of the great Act of 
Emancipation were these: 

The peasants up to that time attached to the soil E manci P a- 
were to be invested with all the rights of free culti- "ianse^a 9 ' 
vators. The peasants should obtain, minus the dues 
fixed by law, the full enjoyment of their inclosure 
(dvor), and also a certain quantity of arable land, 
sufficient to guarantee the accomplishment of their 
obligations toward the State. This "permanent en- 
joyment" might be exchanged for an "absolute 
ownership" of the inclosure and the lands, subject 
to a right to buy them back. The lords were to 
concede to the peasants or to the rural communes 
the land actually occupied by the latter; in each 
district, however, a maximum and a minimum were 
to be fixed. On the whole there was an average of 
three dessia tines and a half for each male peasant; 
but it varied from one to twelve dessiatines, that is 
to say, the peasants in general received less in the 
Black Land, and more in the less productive zones. 
The government was to organize a system of loans, 

1320 A HISTORY OF THE 1861 

which would permit the peasants immediately to 
liberate themselves from their lords, while remain- 
ing debtors to the State. The dvorovie, who were 
Dot attached to the soil, were only to receive their 
personal liberty, on condition of serving their mas- 
ters for two years. To bring the great work of 
partition into seigniorial lands and peasant lands, 
to a happy conclusion; to regulate the amount of 
the dugs, the conditions of repurchase, and all 
the questions which might arise from the execu- 
tion of the law, the temporary magistracy of the 
mirovye possre dniki, or mediators of peace, was 
instituted, who showed themselves for the most 
part honest, patient, impartial, equitable, and who 
deserve a great part of the honor of this pacific 

The peasants, freed from the seigniorial authority, 
were organized into communes; or rather the com- 
mune, the mir, which is the primordial and antique 
element of Slavo-Russian society, acquired a new 
force. It inherited the right of police and of sur- 
veillance, held by the lord over his subjects. 

The great measure of emancipation, as Rambaud 
has said in his "History of Russia," was, in fact, a 
settlement of accounts as to the ancient community 
existing between masters and peasants. It imposed 
sacrifice on both parties. When this was brought 
u^ifai-ms norne t0 tne peasants many believed they had been 
duped. A strange ferment arose in many provinces; 
it was necessary to call out the soldiery, and three 
times the troops had to fire on the people. In the 
government of Kazan, 10,000 men rose at the call 
of the peasant Pe'trof, who announced to them "the 
true liberty." Hundreds perished, and Petrof was 
taken and shot. 


For Americans the year 1861 began with seces- 
sion accomplished in one State, imminent in other 
States, and civil war impending. Neither in the 
North nor in the South were the inevitable conse- A 


quences clearly foreseen. In certain of the Cotton dls_umon 
States, acts of hostility to the government were 
committed before any ordinance of secession was 
adopted. The Governor of Alabama, on January 3, 
seized the arsenal at Mount Vernon, near Mobile, 
and the Governor of Georgia seized Forts Pulaski 
and Jackson, near Savannah. On January 9, the 
steamship "Star of the West," approaching Fort 
Sumter with provisions and Federal troops, was 
fired on and driven to retire. Major Anderson, 
in command at Sumter, was called on to sur- 
render, but on January 11 he replied with a firm 
refusal. January 15, Forts Jackson and Philip, "star of 

J ' r ' the West" 

below New Orleans, were seized by the State au- firedon 
thorities, and so also, a few days later, was the 
arsenal at Augusta. Similar action was taken by 
State authorities in Florida. Ordinances of seces- 
sion were adopted by State conventions, in Missis- 
sippi on January 9, in Florida on January 10, in 
Alabama on January 11, in Georgia on January 
19, in Louisiana on January 26, and in Texas on 
February 1. In Texas alone was the ordinance 
submitted to the people; the other States followed 
the precedent set when the Constitution was ratified. of r seces- ces 
As these States seceded, their Senators and repre- 
sentatives formally resigned their seats in the Con- 
gress of the United States. Some of them made 
speeches stating the grounds on which they re- 

1322 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. 1861 

signed, and defending the action of their several 
States. On January 21, the day on which Jeffer- 
son Davis resigned his seat in the Senate, a bill ad- 
Kansas a fitting Kansas as a free State under the Wyandotte 
state ern Constitution was called up by- Senator Seward and 
Kansas was admitted as the thirty-fourth State. 

Delegates representing the various seceding States 
met at Montgomery, Alabama, on February 4, as a 
Constitutional Convention, and proceeded to organ- 
ize a provisional government for the Confederate 
States of America. Five days later the Convention 
chose Jefferson Davis of Mississippi Provisional 
President and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia 
Provisional Vice-President of the new Confederacy, 
southern Davis was inaugurated February 18, and at once 

provisional ° ^ 

men e t rn " named the members of his Cabinet. The conven- 
tion then drew up and submitted to the several 
States a Constitution, modelled after the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, but with such changes 
as made the new instrument what the extreme State 
Rights school had always held the old instrument 
to be. Tariffs for protection were expressly de- 

confed- clared to be unconstitutional. The Convention then 

erate Con- . 

Btitution constituted itself a Provisional Congress for the 
new government, and as such passed various laws. 
Among them was a law forbidding the importation 
of slaves. This, it was presumed, was intended 
to force into the Confederacy Virginia and other 
border States, which would be deprived of the 
only market for their surplus slaves. Commission- 

fccStion era were sent t0 Washington to arrange all ques- 
tions relating to property and debts, and to secure 

1861 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1328 

recognition for the Confederacy, while another com- 
mission was sent abroad to secure recognition from 
the great Powers of Europe. 

On the same day on which the Convention met 
at Montgomery, a peace conference, representing 
thirteen free and seven border States, called at the 
request of the Virginia Legislature, met at Wash- 
ington. Its proceedings were soon forgotten. Bu- 
chanan, during the remainder of his term of office, 
waited inactive and helpless, until Lincoln should 
come and take his place. 

The calmly firm tone of Lincoln's speeches on his 
way to "Washington characterized his inaugural ad- 
dress. "I declare," he said, "that I have no pur- SaSS 
pose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with slavery 
where it exists. . . . The Union of these States 
is perpetual. It is safe to assert that no govern- 
ment probably ever had a provision in its organic 
law for its own termination. The power conveyed 
to me will be used to hold, occupy and possess the 
property and places belonging to the government, 
and to collect the duties and imposts." He closed 
with a noble appeal to the Southerners. "In your 
hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not 
in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. We 
are not enemies, but friends! We must not be ene- 
mies! Though passion may have strained, it must 
not break our bonds of affection. The mystic 
chords of memory, stretching from every patriot 
home and grave and fireside, will yet swell the 
chords of the Union when touched, as they shall 
be touched, by the better angels of our nature." 

1324 A HISTORY OF THE Spring ism 

The next day Lincoln announced his Cabinet. 
^Ti'vuuy William H. Seward of Mew ¥"ork was Secretary of 
State. There were strong men in the Cabinet, but 
their antecedents did not augur harmony. Seward, 
to whom, up to the time of Lincoln's nomination, 
and perhaps afterward, many had looked as to an 
intellectual leader in the new party movement, 
failed for some time to understand that Lincoln's 
nomination was something more than a political ac- 

The two questions with which Lincoln had first 
to deal were the demand of the Confederate States 
for recognition through their Commissioners and the 
relief of Fort Sumter. On the first question he took 

Recogni- t- 

reused to at once a decided stand. The Commissioners were 
eracy " informed that they could not be received in any 
other capacity than as private citizens of the Ke- 
public. Through Justice Campbell of the Supreme 
Court communication between them and the Secre- 
tary of State was maintained for seveial days; but 
they soon gave up, if indeed they ever really enter- 
tained, the idea that the Confederacy could establish 
its independence by peaceful negotiations alone. 

On the question of the relief of Sumter, Lincoln 
did not act at once. He felt his way cautiously, 
and the result of his caution and shrewdness was 
to throw upon the Southerners the onus of begin- 
ning hostilities. Arrangements were made to fur- 
nish the fort with supplies, but the President said 
that he had no immediate purpose other than "the 
giving of bread to the few brave and hungry men 
of the garrison." On April 11, Governor Pickens 


of South Carolina, acting under instructions from 
the Confederate President, demanded the surrender 
of the fort. Major Anderson again declined, and 
early the next morning the bombardment began. Fallof 
The flag was shot down, Anderson surrendered, and fumter 
the garrison marched out with the honors of war. 

The news of the fall of Fort Sumter came to the 
North like a bugle call to arms. Eiots occurred in 
New York, Boston and elsewhere. Kichard Henry 
Stoddard's stirring stanzas, published in the New 
York "World" immediately after the fall of Sumter, 
struck a responsive chord: 

Men of the North and West, 

Wake in your might. 
Prepare, as the rebels have done, 

For the fight I 
Tou cannot shrink from the test; 
Rise! Men of the North and West! 

Not with words ; they laugh them to scorn, 

And tears they despise; 
But with swords in your hands, and death 

In your eyes I 
Strike home I Leave to God all the rest; 
Strike! Men of the North and West ! 

From that moment the spirit of the North began 
to rise, and Lincoln promptly issued a proclamation 
calling for 75,000 men to enter army service for 
three months, and summoning Congress to meet in 
extraordinary session on the Fourth of July. He^ 1 ^ 
declared the object of the call to be "to repossess 
the forts and places and property of the United 
States which had been unlawfully seized." 

The country's response was immediate and enthu- 
siastic. Democrats and Republicans vied in making 
XXXth Century— Vol. 3-D 

1326 A HISTORY OF THE 1861 

ready for the conflict now at last clearly inevitable. 
The Confederate Provisional Congress had already 
taken steps to organize an army, and in every home 
throughout the country men were making up their 
minds to fight either for the Union or for the South. 
Southern officers in the regular army resigned in 
large numbers, and tendered their services to their 

Southern several States or to the Confederate Government. 

leave Fed- To Eobert E. Lee, Scott's favorite, was unofficially 

eral army " 

offered the command of the Union army. He de- 
clined, gave up his commission, offered his sword 
to his native State, and was put in command of all 
the Virginia forces. The Governors of the various 
States exerted themselves with the utmost energy 
to help their respective governments. These were 
afterward styled "War Governors." In the lower 
South, the enthusiasm of the people and the energy 
of the officials were not less. 

Expressive of the soul-stirring upheaval of those 
times was Bret Harte's famous "Reveille": 

Hark ! I hear the tramp of thousands, 

Reveille" ^ n( * °^ arme d mea tne hum; 

Lo! a nation's hosts have gathered 
Round the quick-alarming drum 
Saying, "Come, 
Freemen, come I 
Ere your heritage be wasted," said the quick-alarming drum. 

Answer gave they — hoping, fearing, 

Some in faith, and doubting some — 
Till a trumpet-voice, proclaiming, 
Said, "My chosen people, cornel" 
Then the drum, 
Lo! was dumb; 
For the great heart of the nation, throbbing, answered, 
"Lord, we come!" 

1861 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1327 

On April 17, the Virginia Convention, which, 
only a few weeks before, had shown a great 
majority against secession, adopted an ordinance 
and submitted it to popular vote. But before the 
popular vote was taken the State was thoroughly 
committed to the Confederate movement, and the 
Confederate Congress at Montgomery adjourned to 
meet at Eichmond, the capital of Virginia, in July. Virginia 
However, the western counties of Virginia were 
against secession. They were organized into a sep- 
arate State. Arkansas seceded on May 6. The 
next day Tennessee practically joined the Confed- 
eracy, although in that State a strong Unionist 
minority maintained the forms of State Government 
throughout the war. North Carolina passed an ordi- 
nance on May 20. In Kentucky, there was a strong g^ hern 
attempt at secession, and the State was afterward fauiin 
represented in the Confederate Congress, but can- 
not properly be regarded as one of the Confederate 
States. In Missouri, the situation was similar. In 
Maryland and Delaware, the attempt at secession 
clearly failed. 

Meanwhile, the permanent Constitution had been 

ratified by the several Confederate States, regular 

elections had been held, and Davis and Stephens 

had entered upon the offices of President and 

Vice-President respectively for the term of six First en- 
counter at 
years. On April 19, the anniversary of the battle Baltimore 

of Lexington, a Massachusetts regiment, passing 

through Baltimore on its way to Washington, was 

attacked by a mob, and the blood thus shed is 

commonly regarded as the first bloodshed of the 

1328 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 16S1 

great War of the Rebellion. Harper's Ferry Ar- 
senal in Virginia was seized by the Confederates. 
Davis invited application for letters of marque and 
reprisal in order that privateers might be fitted out 
to prey upon the commerce of the United States. 
President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of the 
ports of the seceding States. Early in May, he 
issued his second call for 65,000 volunteers for 
three years, and the regular army and navy were 

Powers . . 

declare increased, foreign governments were informed that 
the Union would be maintained by the force of 
arms. Great Britain and other Powers, by issuing 
proclamations of neutrality, recognized the Confed- 
erates as belligerents. On May 24, the Federal 
troops advanced from Washington and occupied 
Arlington Heights and Alexandria, in Virginia. 
In organizing an army, Davis's military training 
and his experience as Secretary of War under 
the old government gave him a great advantage. 
Thoroughly familiar with the personnel of the old 
army, he at once called to high places of command 

Superiority J ' ° r 

°enerais eru R 0Dert E. Lee, Beauregard, Joseph and Albert S. 
Johnston, and others whose exceptional abilities he 
had learned to appreciate. These men, fitted for 
command by their ability and their education, were 
confronted by such men as Benjamin F. Butler, 
N. P. Banks, Dix, Fremont and Patterson. To 
Grant and Sherman were given subordinate com- 
mands in the West. During this early period of 
the war, to McClellan alone of the Union com- 
manders who afterward won high distinction was 
given an opportunity to show his ability in a sep- 


arate command. Scott, at the age of seventy-five, 
could no longer be expected to show the needful 
alertness and energy. Yet the North was already 
clamoring for an advance on the South. Soon after 
Congress assembled, it approved the President's 
call for 140,000 men and four million dollars. The 
earliest engagement was fought on June 10, at Big battle** 
Bethel, near Hampton, in Virginia, where General 
Peirce with some 3,500 Federals was badly beaten 
by Magruder with 1,800 Confederates fighting be- 
hind breastworks. Theodore Winthrop, the New 
England author, fell in this fight. The first really 
important move against the Confederacy was made 
on two lines. Patterson moved up the Shenandoah 
Valley, which was defended by Joseph E. Johnston, 
and Irwin McDowell advanced to Manassas Junc- 
tion, where he was confronted by General G. T. 
Beauregard. It was essential to Scott's plan that 
Beauregard and Johnston should not effect a junc- 
tion. General Patterson occupied Bunker on July 
14, with 22,000 men, and General Johnston was nine 
miles away with 12,000. General McDowell, on 
July 16, began his advance on Manassas Junction 
with 28,000 men and 49 guns. On the following 
day, Patterson retreated to Charleston, West Vir- 
ginia. General Johnston eluded him in the Shen- 
andoah Valley, hastened eastward with 9,000 men, 
and joined Beauregard. On July 18, McDowell had 
reached Bull Run, midway between Centerville and 
Manassas Junction, where important railroads met. 
On the line of the stream both sides prepared for 
battle. Bull Run, as Sherman afterward declared, 

1330 A HISTORY OF THE July 1861 

was "one of the best planned battles of the war, and 
buTruS' one of the worst fought; both armies were fairly 
defeated, and whichever stood fast, the other would 
have to tud." McDowell, in a flank attack, crushed 
the Confederate left and carried all before him, 
until, mounting the crest of a hill, the Federals, 
flushed and disordered, encountered the brigade of 
"stone- Thomas J. Jackson. "Look at Jackson's brigade; 


Jackson it stands there like a stone wall," cried General 
Bee, who was trying to rally his own troops. 
Jackson, thus christened with his famous nick- 
name, checked the Federal advance. An assault 
by Johnston on the Union right and rear simulta- 
neously with Beauregard's rallying charge decided 
the day. McDowell's soldiers had been fighting for 
three hours. The Union line broke in a panic; only 
a disorganized mob recrossed the Potomac. 

This battle, by its moral effect, strengthened im- 
mensely the Confederate cause at home and abroad, 
but it did much also for the Union cause. There 
was no more talk at Washington about a "ninety 
day limit" to the war. On July 25, an act passed 
Congress further increasing the army. George B. 
McClellan, who had won victories at Rich Moun- 
tain and Garrick's Ford in West Virginia, was 
called to Washington after the Battle of Bull 
Run to reorganize the Army of the Potomac. 
On July 22, a General Enlistment act went into 

Enildtment force, calling into service 500,000 volunteers; a 
loan of $250,000,000 was authorized, and the war 
tariff went into effect. On the other side, over- 
confidence and sluggishness seem to have prevailed. 

1861 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1331 

Congress confiscated all slaves employed by the 
Confederates for military purposes, as "contraband 
of war," as General Butler styled it. The average 
imposts on dutiable articles were raised from 19 to 
36 per cent, and on total importations from 15 to 28 

, . . .._ n-rin t War tariff 

per cent, by changes in the Morrill Bill; and a 
bill was passed for a direct tax of $20,000,000 on 
the States. On August 6, Congress adjourned, after 
having appropriated $207,000,000 for the army and 
passed seventy-two acts relating to the war. 

The Confederate Congress was in session from 
July 20 to the last day of August. All citizens 
of border States who should aid the Union were 
declared to be alien enemies, and so were all citi- 
zens of the Confederate States who were not sus- n m 


taining the Confederacy. All debts and property ^e^sures 
belonging to alien enemies were confiscated. 

Lincoln found his foreign relations very unsatis- 
factory. England and France were in the main ill- 
disposed toward the North. Despite the efforts of 
Seward, Southern privateering received their assent. 
In October news came that a combined English, 
French and Spanish fleet was fitting against Mexico 
for the purpose of collecting defaulted debts. The 
Russian Czar, however, declined Napoleon's invi- ^f t 'b ti0DS 
tation to join the league, and Denmark, Sweden, Powlrs 
Switzerland and Italy remained friendly to the 
United States. Seward sent abroad discreet men 
to set the cause of the Union in a more favor- 
able light. Charles Francis Adams was appointed 
Minister to England, and served the Union cause 
there with exceptional ability and firmness. 

1332 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1861 

Mason and 




Mason and Slidell, accredited by the Confederate 
Government to the Governments of Great Britain 
and France, were seized on board the English 
mail steamship "Trent," by Captain Wilkes of the 
United States sloop "San Jacinto," outside of 
Havana. Great Britain, through Lord Lyons, sent 
a demand that the captives should be forthwith 
released. It was refused. Lord Russell drafted a 
peremptory ultimatum, but Queen Victoria, on the 
advice of the Prince Consort, then on his deathbed, 
overruled her Prime Minister's decision. Seward, 
ultimately announced the liberation of the Com- 
En h iand missioners. Europe accepted this act as the strong- 
avoided egt p roo f f a coo i anc [ ca i m direction of affairs. 
Recognition of Confederate independence was post- 
poned. Every foreign Power except Great Britain 
excluded privateers from its ports. This policy 
drew England into a quasi-partnership with the 
South, for which subsequently she was called to 

At one time Louis Napoleon expressed himself 
French rea dy to mediate between the North and the South 
dedined to tae en( A tnat the Southern States might peace- 
fully withdraw. But it was made plain to him on 
the part of the Federal Government that no media- 
tion was desired. 

In the West, events were less decisive than in the 
East. It was important for the Union cause to con- 
trol the basin of the Ohio and Mississippi; and for 
that object two points were of the first importance, 
St. Louis and Cairo. Lyon, on May 10, compelled 
the surrender of the Confederate camp near St. 

1661 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1333 

Louis. He steamed up to Jefferson City three days 
later with 2,000 men, and the State officers fled. On 
July 22, the Missouri Convention set up a provi- 
sional government whose capital was St. Louis. On 
July 3, Fremont, as Major-General, was appointed 
by Lincoln to the Department of the West, butdisap- 

"* pointing 

proved inefficient. He neglected to secure the 
safety of Lyon, who was one hundred miles from 
his railroad base. Lyon was killed at the battle 
at Nelson's Creek on August 10. Sterling Price 
captured Lexington for the Confederacy and com- 
pelled Fort Mulligan to surrender. Fremont took 
the field with 40,000 men. Cameron and Stanton, 
who had come out to investigate, found confusion ^persedas 
everywhere. Fremont was displaced by Halleck. 

In Kentucky, the new Legislature was for the 
Union in sentiment. The Federal troops were called 
upon to aid in expelling Leonidas Polk from Colum- 
bus. At Bowling Green, there was a Confederate 
army under A. S. Johnston, and Zollicoffer held 
the mountain gaps in the east. General Anderson 
of Fort Sumter fame was in Federal command. He 
invited two officers who had served at Bull Run to 
accompany him, W. T. Sherman and G. H. Thomas. 
Sherman was sent to St. Louis, and Don Carlos Sherman 
Buell succeeded him. At the same time there ap- 
peared the man who was to lead the Union to final 
victory, Ulysses S. Grant, a former army officer 
who had distinguished himself in the Mexican war, 

Ulysses q 

and who now tendered his services to Governor Grant 
Yates of Illinois. Grant was made colonel of a 
half mutinous volunteer regiment. Starting with 


his men on foot, he marched them to the Missouri 
River, and fitted them for active service on the 
way. Late in August he was sent to Cairo, and 
was soon made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. 
Columbus was iu the hands of Polk. Grant organ- 
ized an expedition, and, steaming up the Ohio to 
its junction with the Tennessee, occupied Paducah. 
On his return, anxious to "do something," he at- 
tacked the Confederates at Belmont, but the enemy 
was too strong, and with great difficulty he re- 
embarked and steamed away. 
Mccieiian McClellan reached Washington on July 26, and 

in com- J 

assumed command the next day. On November 
1, he succeeded Scott in command of the armies of 
the United States, and at once began to display his 
unusual talent for organization. He had ordered a 
demonstration in October, with the purpose of forc- 
ing the evacuation of Leesburg. At Ball's Bluff an 
engagement occurred in which Colonel Baker, Sen- 
Northern ator from Oregon, was killed. Things were very 
Station serious, but McClellan refused to move and began 
the procrastinating policy which marked his entire 

In the meantime, important naval expeditions 
were fitted out. Hatteras and Port Royal on the 
Southern coast were captured, and the effectiveness 
of the blockade was constantly increased. New 
gunboats were rapidly provided. The South had 
neither ships nor seamen, and her ports were soon 
of ft £ort e closed. In the capture of Port Royal, which made 
an opening into the heart of the "Carolina cotton 
regiou, fifty vessels were engaged under Dupont. 


The year closed with the Confederates hopeful, 
England inclined to favor their cause, and the pres- 
tige of Big Bethel and Bull Eun not yet destroyed Snterren- 
by any Union victory of comparable effect. But the China 
North had at last begun to realize the magnitude 
of its task, and to bring to bear those enormous 
resources which the Confederates could not match. 

The peace between China and the foreign Powers 
compelled a revision of the position at Shanghai. 
Admiral Hope sailed up to Nanking, and exacted 
a pledge from the Wangs that Shanghai should not 
be attacked for twelve months, and that the Taiping Typings 


force should remain at a distance of thirty miles. 
Ward and Burgevine were compelled to desist from 
recruiting Europeans, and were taken into the Em- 
peror's service to drill Chinese soldiers. This was 
the origin of the Ever- Victorious army, which un- 
der Gordon was soon to achieve great and lasting 

Death of 

results. Chung Wang, elated by the capture of Prince 
Ningpo and Hahgchow, resolved to disregard Tien 
Wang's promise, and make an attack on Shanghai. 
He issued a proclamation in which he said: "The 
hour of the Manchus has come. We must take 
Shanghai to complete our dominions." 

Toward the close of the year the death of Prince 
Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria, on December 
15, plunged the British Empire into mourning. In 
announcing his death to the nation, Victoria con- 
fessed herself "the heartbroken Queen of England.'" 



PUBLIC affairs in Mexico were going from bad 
to worse. Juarez, enlightened ruler that he 
was, was despised by the Hidalgos on ac- 
count of his Indian blood, by the higher officials 

Affairs in J D 

Mexico on account of his uncompromising honesty, and by 
the priests for his outspoken hostility to clerical 
privileges. He was made to suffer for the sins of 
his predecessors against foreign interests. 

The Spanish expedition, under General Prim, 
was the first to land in Mexico. Early in Jan- 
uary, French and English warships likewise ap- 
peared at Vera Cruz, and landed their forces. 
Vice-Admiral Jurien de la Graviere and Rear- 
Ad miral Sir Charles Wilke announced their 
plenipotentiary powers. A joint note was ad- 
dressed to President Juarez, demanding redress 
and indemnity for all the outrages of the past. 
European The demands of the French, among which were 
*nce those of the notorious banker Jecker, were so ex- 

cessive as to excite the protests even of the allies. 
On February 19, an understanding was reached at 
Soledad between General Prim and Juarez's Minister 
Doblado. According to this convention, the allies 
were to be permitted to establish themselves in the 
cities of Cordova, Orizaba and Tehuacan. One 

1862 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1337 

week later the French occupied Tehuacan, while 
the Spaniards took up their quarters in Orizaba, 
and the English in Cordova. Soon afterward 
French reinforcements arrived under the command 
of Count Lorencez. Vice- Admiral de la Gravi&re 
now revoked his signature to the Convention of 
Soledad, and, raising the claims for indemnities, Jl^ion 
demanded that his troops should be permitted to 
occupy the capital to insure a proper reorganization 
of the affairs of Mexico. 

In the train of General Lorencez appeared two 
public men of Mexico who were denounced as 
traitors to the cause of their country. One was 
Almonte, the quondam revolutionary general, while 
the other was Father Miranda, one of the most 
reactionary of Mexican clericals. The attitude as- 
sumed by France was too much for her allies. On 
April 9, occurred the definite breach between the „ , . 

" ' England 

respective commanders of the joint expeditionary w"t d hd?aw 
force. England and Spain withdrew from the alli- 
ance and recalled their forces. 

On January 14, the Taipings reached the vicin- 
ity of Shanghai. The surrounding country was 
obscured by the smoke of villages which they had 
burned. Thousands of fugitives crowded the for- 
eign settlement imploring aid. But the English 
garrison of two native regiments and some artillery 
proved sufficient for the defence of the place. The 
rebels were repulsed by the French at Woosung, 
the port at the mouth of the river. Sir John 
Michael arrived with a few English troops, which, 
with two regiments disciplined by Ward, made a 

1338 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1868 

force of a thousand men. Ward captured Quanfee- 
Slffia l un g w i ta several hundred rebel boats. The rebels 
continued burning and pillaging. The English and 
French commanders determined to attack them. 
On February 21, a joint force of 1,096 men, with 
Admiral Hope in general charge, stormed the 
village of Kachiaou. Although driven out, the 
rebels resumed their attacks. Hope was reinforced 
by 1,150 men with seven howitzers. He attacked 
Tseedong, a place of great strength, and killed 700 
and took 300 prisoners. The Ever-Victorious army, 
for this decisive victory, was brought to the favor- 
able notice of Prince Kung and the Chinese Govern- 
ment. An Englishman contracted to convey 9,000 
of the troops who had stormed Gangking from the 
Yangtse to Shanghai. At the end of March, Gen- 
eral Stoveley arrived with English reinforcements. 
A plan was entered upon to clear the country of 
rebels for thirty miles around Shanghai. In their 
first efforts the English were defeated; Admiral 
Hope and some other officers were wounded, and 
seventy men were killed and wounded. The fol- 
lowing two days the rebels were defeated. Kahding, 
Tsingpu, Nanjoo and Cholin were then attacked. 
Defeated at the first three places, the rebels made 
a final stand at Cholin on May 20. The English 
carried the place at the point of the bayonet. The 
troops from Gangking to the number of six thou- 
sand had arrived. Futai Sieh, who was to be 
succeeded by Li Hung Chang, resolved to employ 
chan ng tnem at once i Q a wav to restore his sinking for- 
tunes. He advanced to Taitson on May 12, and 





two days afterward Chung WaDg came with tea 
thousand chosen troops to relieve the garrison. TaJtsQn* 
Of 7,000 men under Futai Sieh, 5,000 fell on 
the field. General Stoveley had to abandon his 
intended plan and retrace his steps to Shanghai. 
Chung Wang was once more called to the assist- 
ance of Tien Wang at Nanking. Shortly after his 
departure, Ward was killed in action and Burge- 
vine succeeded to the command. Charges were made 
against Burgevine. The English commander would 
not interfere, and referred the matter to London. 
Burgevine was then ordered to embark his force atBurge- 


Shanghai for Nanking. He and his troops refused mutin y 
to move until they were fully paid. 

In Japan, the agitation against the foreigners grew 
more threatening. The foreign Ministers, who up 
to that time had their Legations at Yeddo, retired 
to Yokohama. They demanded that fortified Lega- 
tion buildings should be furnished to them by the ^ e j™pa£ 
Japanese Government. Ando, the Prime Minister, 
gave up the recreation ground of the city for that 
purpose. A Japanese mob burned down the build- 
ings. An attempt was made to assassinate the Prime 
Minister, who barely escaped with the loss of an ear. 
Mito-ko's men failing to win the Shogun over to 
their side, determined to embroil the government 
with some foreign nation. Shimazu, the father of 
one of the great Daimios, declared that he would cut 
down any foreigner whom he might chance to meet. 
At Kanagawa, a party of Europeans were encoun- 
tered. They were set upon, and an English mer- ^"bardson 
chant, Richardson, was murdered. The British 

1340 A HISTORY OF THE l«* 

Minister's demands for redress were treated with 
contempt. At the same time, Choshiu, a Daimio, 
who held a commission as guardian of the straits 
of Shimonoseki, acting according to the letter of his 
instructions, fired upon some foreign vessels pass- 
ing through the straits. In consequence of this, a 
uavafdem. squadron of English, French and Dutch warships 
onstration a pp eare( j i n the straits, and levied a heavy indem- 
nity from one of the Choshiu's relatives whom they 
took for the Daimio. The Shogun disavowed the 
Choshiu's proceedings. To satisfy the foreign de- 
mands he undertook to punish Choshiu. This he 
found to be next to impossible since the soldiery 
as well as the Japanese people at large regarded 
Choshiu as a patriot. The Shogun at last was com- 
pelled to come to terms with the Daimio. It was 
on this occasion that Choshiu presented his famous 

prophetic "The closing or opening of Japan was a matter of 
memorial g rea test moment. That which cannot be shut again 
should not have been opened. The closing of Japan 
can never be a real closing until the country has 
established its own independence. Since unity is 
force and strength, and discord is weakness, it 
would be imprudent to go to war against power- 
ful and brave enemies with discord among them. 
I think the only way to bring about national union 
is by a solid union between the Shogun and Mikado, 
acting together as one man. 

"After the Emperor is firmly established on his 
throne the dormant soul of Japan will awaken. 
Then we will be united in power and independence. 
Once our independence is restored we must reform 
our military, our navy, as well as all branches of 


industry. The whole nation must devote life and 
soul to the benefit of our State, and we must learn 
and study the interior arrangements and the devel- 
opment of arts and sciences in foreign lands." 

Great Britain, unable to obtain redress for the 
murder of Eichardson from the Shogun, undertook 
its own punitive measures. Satsuma, after the Eng- 
lish warships had reduced the city of Kagoshima Kagoshima 
nearly to ashes, had to pay a heavy indemnity. 
In realization of their own weakness, the Japanese 
sought to acquire knowledge of European methods 
of warfare and other advancements. 

In Mexico, France now had her own way. A 
single-handed war with Mexico fitted admirably 
into the military aspirations of Napoleon III. and 
of Empress Eugenie's clerical supporters. Amid 
wild enthusiasm in France, General Lorencez was 
ordered to march on the City of Mexico. On April r 
12, President Juarez announced that on the day thej^°^ co 
French troops should advance all the region occu- 
pied by them would be declared under military law, 
while all those who gave assistance to the French 
forces should be greeted as enemies to their coun- 
try. All able-bodied Mexicans were called to arms 
to resist the threatened invasion. The seriousness 
of the government's intentions were soon made 
manifest. The Mexican general, Robles, who, with- 
out authorization, entered into negotiations with general 
the French, was arrested, court-martialled and shot. shot 
A counter-proclamation was issued by the French 
general. It closed with a menacing phrase: "The 
flag of France has been raised on Mexican soil, and 

1342 A HISTORY OF THE May 18(BJ 

shall not be hauled down. The wise men will wel- 
come it as a friend. Let the fools dare to oppose 
it!" The French drew in their forces to Vera Cruz, 
leaving their invalids in the military hospitals at 
Orizaba, in accordance with the Convention of Sole- 
dad. Their instant removal was requested by the 
Mexican general Zaragoza, otherwise they would 
be treated as prisoners of war. In the face of this 
threat, General Lorencez determined to march on 
Orizaba. On April 19, under a burning sun, the 

inevitable French column started on its march. The war with 
Mexico had begun. A few days after this, the last 
remaining Englishman embarked for home at Vera 
Cruz, while the Spaniards drew down their flag at 
San Juan d'UUoa to cross over to Havana. 

The first skirmishes between the French and the 
irregular Mexican horsemen resulted in easy victo- 
ries for France. General Lorencez's column crossed 
the rivers Antigua and La Plata, and ascended the 
steep slopes of the Cumbres Range. Here they 
suffered severely from elusive bands of guerillas. 
On May 4, the French army appeared before Puebla 
de los Angelos. General Lorencez ordered the as- 
sault of the city on the following day. The Zouaves 
began the attack on Guadeloupe. For three hours 
they were subjected to a severe fire from the terraces 
of Guadeloupe, but at last succeeded in charging up 
to the very walls of that stronghold. Some of them 
scaled the ramparts, and hand-to-hand fighting had 
already begun, when a terrific tropical tbunder- 

Puebia at storm burst over the battlefield. This turned the 
scale against the invaders. Count Lorencez ordered 

1862 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1843 

a general retreat. The losses of the French were 
140 men and 30 officers. The Mexicans lost nearly 
400. To his final overtures of a peaceful occupation 
of Puebla, General Ortaga replied with three preg- 
nant words: "You are enemies." 

After the defeat of Puebla, the French retreated 
to Orizaba, where they awaited reinforcements. The 
strength of Lorencez's forces about this time was 
6,000 men. To safeguard communications with Vera 
Cruz, the towns of Chiquihuite and Cordova were 
occupied. General Almonte, acting in conjunction 
with the French, proclaimed a provisional govern- 
ment at Vera Cruz and tried to levy taxes. He was 
joined by General Marquez with 4,000 followers of 
former President Miramon. For a while operations 
dragged on. A Mexican attack led by General 
Ortaga was repulsed by the French. Yellow fever 
and the hostile attitude of the natives made the 
situation of the French precarious. At last the 
arrival of reinforcements with General Forey re- 
vived the hopes of the French. Forey was P u * command 
in command of all the forces. Louis Napoleon's 
policy in Mexico was expressed in his letter of 
instructions to General Forey: 

"People will ask you why we sacrifice men and Anti- 
money to establish a regular government in Mexico, declaration 
In the present state of civilization the development 
of America can no longer be a matter of indifference 
to Europe. America takes our wares, and keeps 
alive our commerce. It is to our interest that the 
Eepublic of the United States of North America 
should flourish and prosper, but it is not at all to 
our interest that they should come in possession of 



Autumn 1862 

the entire Gulf of Mexico, to rule from there the 
destinies of the Antilles and South America, and 
control the products of the New World. However, 
if Mexico maintains its independence in the integrity 
of its territory, if a strong government is established 
there by the aid of France, then we may restore to 
the Latin races across the seas their former glory." 

i tied 




In the United States of America the problems 
of the civil war were too exacting for President 
Lincoln to pay much attention to this manifesto. 
In the City of Mexico, on the other hand, a liberal 
Congress convened by Juarez voted a unanimous 
resolution declaring that "Mexico would never- 
more tolerate the least interference in her affairs, 
and in the establishment of her social and political 
organization." Louis Napoleon's statement that he 
did not wage war against Mexico, but against Juarez 
and his faction, was offset by a declaration that 
Mexico did not wage war against France, but against 
that monarch, who, "seduced by ambition, wished 
to conquer a rich land and rule over the destinies 
of another continent." 

On September 24, the Mexican irregular forces 
attacked Tejeria in force, an important post be- 
tween Vera Cruz and Orizaba; but, with the help 
of Almonte's native troops, the French repulsed 
the attack. At the same time the Mexicans lost 
one of the ablest of their generals in Zaragoza, who 
succumbed to yellow fever. His successor, Gon- 
zalez Ortaga, was not his match. Yellow fever 
now wrought such havoc in the French army that 
Forey was driven to move. He advanced to Cor- 


dova and Orizaba. Both cities were found nearly 
deserted by the inhabitants, who had barricaded the 
houses. On October 25, General Berthier, with an 
advance column of 6,000 men, penetrated to Jelapa. 
A bloody defeat was inflicted on the guerilleros, 
who infested the town of Medelin in the neighbor- 
hood of Vera Cruz. The seaport of Tampico was 5^2£jo 
seized by the French and became one of their most 
important bases of supplies. Under the renegade, 
Marquez, native troops occupied Colchinda in the 
name of France, while General Douay captured Te- 
huacan. While the army of invasion marched on 
Puebla, a French squadron under Rear-Admiral 
Bouet destroyed the fortification of Acapulco. 

In the United States, Edwin M. Stanton had be- 
come Secretary of War. At the same time, Gen- |merfc a an 
eral Burnside, with 12,800 men and the fleet under of war* 7 
Goldsborough, captured Roanoke Island, New Berne 
and Port Macon, on the North Carolina coast. The 
only harbor left to the Confederacy on this coast 
was that of Wilmington. 

General Curtis, under command of Halleck, forced 
the Confederates across the Arkansas line, and de- 
feated them on January 6 and 7 at Pea Ridge. The 
local militia was put under the command of General 
Schofield. Buell, who succeeded Sherman in Ken- PiueRidg© 
tucky, was to push forward and retain East Tennes- 
see, but he informed President Lincoln that the task 
was impracticable with the force at his command. 
A. S. Johnston had massed at Bowling Green a 
Confederate force with which to hold Kentucky and 
Tennessee. In order to divide Johnston's forces, 

1346 A HISTORY OF THE Sprinp i«» 

McClellan suggested to Halleck a feint on the Ten- 
nessee, and Halleck ordered Grant to make a recon- 
noissance up the stream with gunboats. Fort Henry 
might be taken, Columbus turned, and Bowling 
Green abandoned. Thomas advanced against Zol- 
licoffer and dislodged him from Cumberland Gap. 
On February 2, Grant started up the Tennessee with 
15,000 men on transports, Commodore Foote fol- 
lowing on the 4th with seven light-draft gunboats. 
Fort Henry guarded the Tennessee, and Fort Don- 

Fort Henry elson the Cumberland, at a short distance overland 
from each other. The capture of the first proved 
easy. "Fort Henry is ours; I shall take and de- 
stroy Fort Bonelson on the 8th and return," was 
Grant's despatch. The navigation of the Tennessee 
passed into Union control. Eesolved to fight at 
Donelson for Nashville, Johnston divided his slen- 
der force and hastened to Nashville with 14,000 
men. Of Buell's army, only 8,000 raw recruits 
and one drilled brigade went to Grant's assist- 
ance. Grant reached Donelson with 27,000 men; 
the enemy numbered 21,000. Foote arrived in the 
evening with six gunboats, and began the assault 
on the 14th, but he drew off damaged. General 
Grant repelled a desperate sortie, stormed the in- 

Grant trenchments in his front, and drove the Confederates 
back. On Sunday the 16th the fort was taken and 
its whole force captured. The Confederate generals, 
Floyd and Pillow, however, had escaped during the 
previous night with 5,000 men, as did N. B. Forrest, 
the famous Confederate cavalry leader. General 
Buckner surrendered with 15,000 men under two 



generals, and 20,000 stand of arms, together with Buckner , s 
horses, artillery and commissary stores. Grant surrender 
sprang at once into national distinction. 

From the outset of the war the disproportion in 
the naval strength of both sides was very great. 
All the warships of the United States, with the 
exception of a few vessels scuttled at Norfolk, re- 
mained in the hands of the Northern Government. 
In all, they numbered seventy-six ships, mount- 
ing seven hundred and eighty-three guns; but they 
were all built of wood, and no less than thirty-two 
relied upon sails alone for motive power. The neg- 
lect of the navy cost the Union Government dear. navy UQioa 
With a strong squadron of steam ironclads, like 
those that were used in the Crimea before Kinburn, 
the strong seaports of Charleston, Wilmington and 
Mobile might have been reduced from the start. 

On the Southern side, again, the situation ap- 
peared all but hopeless. The only chance lay in 
strengthening the shore defences, as was done, and 
in designing vessels of extreme power and great pro- 
tection. Among the enemy's ships scuttled at Nor- 
folk was the "Merrimac." She was raised and re- 
named the "Virginia," but the old name still clung 
to her. Over her uninjured hull new upper works 
were constructed, protected by rough iron armor de- America* 
signed for her by Commander Brooke on the model 
of Stevens' old ironclads. With unarmored ends of 
considerable length, her freeboard was left very low 
fore and aft. She was stripped of masts and rig- 
ging, a daring departure from the accustomed de- 
signs of shipbuilders. Owing to the delay in ob- 

1348 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. 1888 

raining suitable »*rmor, she could not be got ready 
for sea until March, when she was manned with 
three hundred soldiers, under (Japtain Buchanan 
and Lieutenant Jones, both seceders from the 
United States navy. 

in the meanwhile the Northern Secretary of the 
Navy had likewise come to realize the need of 
armor-plated ships. An advertisement was issued 
at Washington inviting designs for ironclads. 
Ericsson, the great Swedish inventor, at once came 
forward with a design for an invulnerable ship. So 
great was his faith in it that he agreed to build it 
entirely at his own risk, and to refund all money 
advanced on account should his ship prove unsuc- 
cessful. Ericsson furthermore undertook to com- 
plete his ship in the unprecedentedly short time of 
one hundred days. Before the contract was even 
signed the keel plate for the vessel had been rolled. 

The design of Ericsson's vessel, which was named 
"M^mtor" by him the "Monitor," was a still more radical 
departure from accepted ship designs than the 
*'Merrimac." The great innovation was a revolving 
gun turret. Already, it should be stated, the idea 
of a revolving naval turret had been independently 
evolved in Denmark and England, but to the United 
States belongs the credit of the first demonstration. 

On the last day of January, the "Monitor" was 
launched, and turned over to the government in 
complete shape within one hundred and eighteen 
days from her commencement, a truly remarkable 
feat. Prom keel to turret the "Monitor" was the 
product of Ericsson's brain. She was crammed with 


all manner of inventions originated on the spur of 
the moment — no less than forty patentable contriv- 
ances. Admiral Porter was one of the few who 
recognized the immense value of the "Monitor." 
"This is the strongest fighting vessel in the world," 
he wrote, "and can whip anything afloat." The 
"Monitor" did not get away to sea one minute too c^,® njtOT „ 
soon; in truth, she was one or two days too late. underway 

On Saturday morning, March 8, the "Merrimac" 
steamed out of Norfolk into Hampton Eoads on her 
trial trip. Her officers and men had received com- 
munion, for they knew that they were going on a 
desperate errand. Both engines and steering gear 
were defective. Not one of her guns had ever been rhl?ac" er " 
fired, and the crew were untrained landsmen. As 
the "Merrimac" came in sight, the quartermaster 
of the United States ship "Congress" remarked to 
the officer on deck: "I believe that thing is coming 
down at last, sir." The Northern ships beat to 
quarters. The small gunboat "Zouave" engaged 
the "Merrimac," but found her thirty-two pounders 
ineffective. The "Merrimac" took no notice of the 
"Zouave," but steamed slowly past the United 
States ships "Cumberland" and "Congress," and the 
shore batteries. The Union officers were stricken 
with amazement as they saw their shots giance offciadm° n ' 


the "Merrimac's" armored hull like so many peb- 
bles. For fully an hour their fire was not returned. 
Then the "Merrimac" came up close, and protruded 
a seven-inch rifled gun at close range. The first 
shot put one of the gun crews on the "Cumber- 
land" out of action. At a range of 200 yards the 
XlXtk Century— Vol. 3— E 

1350 A HISTORY OF THE March im 

"Merrimac" opened fire on the "Congress." "Our 
clean and handsome deck," reported one of the offi- 
cers on the "Congress," "was in an instant changed 
into a slaughter pen, with locked legs and arms, 
and bleeding, blackened bodies scattered about by 
the shells, while brains actually dripped from the 
beams." Leaving the "Congress" on his starboard 
quarter, Captain Buchanan now headed for the 
"Cumberland," and used the ram for the first 

First use 7 

of ram t j me in .modern history. The shock sent the 
"Cumberland" leaning over, though scarcely felt 
on board the "Merrimac." The ram itself broke off. 
As the "Merrimac" backed out, Buchanan called for 
the "Cumberland's" surrender. It was then that 
Lieutenant Morris answered: "Never. I'll sink 
alongside." With the red flag of "No surrender" 

•■Mem- flying at the fore, the "Cumberland" went down, 

mac" sinks . ... 

"Cumber- her crew firing upon their impregnable adversary 
until the bitter end. This heroism, in the face of 
disaster, has been fittingly sung by Longfellow: 

Hoi brave hearts that went down in the seas! 

Ye are at peace in the troubled stream. 
Hoi brave land! with heart6 like these, 
Thy flag, that is rent in twain, 
Shall be one again, 
And without a seam. 

The "Congress," realizing her helplessness, made 

off for shoal water, where -she ran aground. The 

"Merrimac" followed her up within a hundred and 

fifty yards, and, taking up an advantageous position, 

raked her fore and aft for more than an hour. The 

doomed ship caught fire in several places. As the 

"Merrimac" drew near to board, the shore bat- 


Series redoubled their fire, wounding Buchanan and 
his officers. On this the "Merrimac" drew off, and »<>ngress rt 
resumed her fire on the burning "Congress," whose 
survivors jumped overboard and swam for the 
shore. The remaining American ships — "Min- 
nesota," "Roanoke" and "St. Lawrence" — were 
saved from sudden destruction only by anchoring 
in shoal water, where the "Merrimac" could not 

That very night, with dramatic promptness, the 
"Monitor" put into the Roads. She had taken the 
sea a few days before, commanded by Lieutenant 
"Worden, and manned by a crew of volunteers, since £f, riv ?J °i 

' J ' "Monitor" 

she was regarded in the light of a forlorn hope. 
She was stationed near the helpless "Minnesota." 
On the following morning the "Merrimac" came 
out into the Roads to finish her work of destruction. 
There she beheld her new antagonist lying beside 
the "Minnesota" like a "tin can on a shingle." 
Lieutenant Jones commanded the "Merrimac" in 
place of the wounded Buchanan. He realized at 

once that the new outlandish vessel was his fore- "Merri- 
mac" re- 
most adversary. The day was sunny and bright, f"ay Stt> 
and crowds of spectators thronged the shores to be- 
hold the great duel. After exchanging shots with 
the "Minnesota," the "Merrimac" closed with the 
"Monitor." Both vessels pounded each other in- 
effectually. The "Monitor's" cast-iron balls broke 
upon the armor of the "Merrimac," while the 
"Merrimac's" shells burst to no purpose over 
the "Monitor's" turret. After thus exchanging 
fire for two hours, the "Merrimac's" gunners quit 

1362 A HISTORY OF THE March 1SC8 

to save the ammunition. Manifestly the "Monitor" 
i^ncUd at tad an immense advantage in her superior speed 

duel , 11 • . 

and manoeuvring power, as well as in the greater 
radius afforded by the revolving turret. Lieutenant 
Worden, accordingly, resolved to ram his enemy. 
He missed the "Merrimac" by only two feet, both 
ships grazing. The "Merrimac" retaliated in kind. 
Jones ran his stem right over the "Monitor's" deck, 
the force of the blow knocking down most of his men. 
Before they could get over the side of the ship, the 
"Monitor" glided away from under the "Merrimac." 
The slow speed of the "Merrimac" saved the "Mon- 
itor." It was fortunate indeed for Worden that the 
"Merrimac" had lost her ram on the previous day. 
Later the "Monitor" drifted into shoal water, and 
a drawn the "Me/rimac, " unable to follow, drew off. Thus 
kattie ^ en g a g emen t ended as a drawn battle. Neither 
ship had been seriously injured, nor had either lost 
a single man. The "Monitor" had been struck 
twenty-two times without appreciable injury. The 
"Merrimac," as a result of her two days' fighting, 
had ninety-seven indentations in her armor. Blood- 
less as this first encounter between ironclads was, it 
proved one of the decisive battles of the Civil War, 
securing to the North the command of the sea. The 
demonstration of the superior merits of steam power 
and armor protection in action was so striking thai 
it practically sealed the doom of the old ships. 

A full month elapsed before the "Merrimac," 
having refitted, came out once more with solid shot 
to engage the "Monitor." The Union ships hugged 
the shore and ignored the challenge. Both the 


"Merrimac" and the "Monitor" came to an inglo- 
rious end. On the evacuation of Norfolk, the boUi°sb.ips 
Southerners, finding themselves unable to bring 
their ironclad up the James River, scuttled the 
"Merrimac." Shortly afterward, the "Monitor" 
foundered off Cape Hatteras, in a storm. 

The naval front changed from the James River to 
the Mississippi. At the outbreak of the war, the 
lower end of this great watercourse, from Cairo to 
New Orleans, fell into the hands of the Confeder- 
ates. "The Mississippi is the backbone of the re- 
bellion," said Lincoln. "It is the key of the whole 

On February 3, Captain David G. Farragut, on 
the "Hartford," sailed from Hampton Roads to Ship 
Island, between New Orleans and Mobile. This Farragot 

' at New 

was the rendezvous for a considerable Union fleet ° rleaQ3 
under command of David D. Porter, and here the 
expedition against New Orleans was prepared. Far- 
ragut took command. By an irony of fate the man 
selected to deal this deadly blow to the South was 
himself a Southerner. W hen Farragut was urged 
by his kinsfolk to join the cause of secession, he 
pointed to the flag on his ship, saying: "I would 
see every man of you damned before I would raise 
my hand against that flag." Of his comrades in 
arms who seceded from the United States navy he 
said: "They will catch the devil before they get 
through with the business." 

Farragut had seventeen men-of-war, with 177 guns, 
and Porter a flotilla and steamships. Id their rear 
was Butler with 6,000 men on transports. The ut- 

1354 A HISTORY OF THE April ldtt 

most haste was needful, since the Confederates were 
-Maua™ constructing four ironclads, all of the "Mernmac" 
type. They were nearing completion. A pecul- 
iarly dangerous vessel on the Confederate side was 
the little ram "Manassas." She was a tugboat cut 
down to the water line, with upper works that re- 
sembled the shell of a turtle, protected by railroad 
iron of one inch thickness. Besides these were five 
gunboats and long fire ships filled with pine knots. 
A still more important Confederate defence was a 
boom across the Mississippi just below the forts. It 
consisted of cypress logs forty-five feet in length, 
linked together with immense chains, and held in 
position by thirty 3,000-pound anchors. When a 

A formi- 

dabie boom freshet carried away some of the middle part, eight 
dismantled schooners were anchored in the gap, 
fastened to one another and to the ends of the boom. 
From the middle of April an incessant bombard- 
ment lasting ten days was kept up against the Con- 
federate forts from schooners anchored behind the 
shelter of trees and disguised by branches fastened 
to the rigging. The total effect of the 16,800 shells 
fired from these mortar boats was to disable ten 
shore guns out of a hundred and twenty-six, while 
but eighteen men were killed or wounded on the 
Confederate side. On the night of April 20, sup- 
ported by a fiercer bombardment, Farragut sent two 
gunboats up stream to make an opening in the 

br h o e kS° m boom. The "Pinola," running at full steam under 
heavy fire, rammed the boom, and opened a wide 
passage. Four days later, the morning of April 
24, Farragut ordered the advance. The rattle of 


the cables gave the alarm to the Confederates. They 
launched fireboats against the advancing fleet. The 
"Cayuga" passed the boom before the Confederates 
opened fire, and came under the guns of the forts 
in time to receive the first shells. As ship after ship 
passed the boom, the little "Manassas" tried to ram runs tie 

r ' gantlet 

them. Most of the ships of the first division es- 
caped. Among those who served in the battle was 
George Dewey, then a lieutenant in the United 
States navy. The small Confederate tug "Mosher" 
came down the river pushing a blazing fire raft. 
The flames lighted up the waters, and made the 
tug an easy mark for the Union gunners. Still 
Lieutenant Sherman and his Confederate crew of 
six on the "Mosher" pushed right on, and drove 
their raft against the "Hartford," Farragut's flag- 
ship. All the men on the little "Mosher" paid for 
their heroism with their lives. The flames of the 
fire raft lighted the "Hartford's" side and ran up 
the rigging. In her efforts to avoid the fire raft, 
the "Hartford" ran aground under the guns of Fort 
St. Philip. A thrust from the "Manassas," in- 
stead of injuring the "Hartford," helped her to get 
off the shoals. The "Brooklyn" fared even worse. 
As she passed the boom her propeller was disabled, The 
The forts covered her with their fire. The "Manas- s^leY 3 
sas" rammed her at full speed, but only crushed her 
timbers amidships into a coal bunker. Getting away 
she stood by the "Hartford" until she had got off 
the shoals. By this time the first and second divi- 
sion of Farragut's squadron had run the gantlet. 
Colonel Higgins, the Confederate commander, ex- 



April 1868 

claimed: "Better go to cover, boys; our cake is 
all dough." The old navy had won. 

The third division, consisting of the minor ships, 
fared the worst. Three ships became unmanageable 
and failed to pass the forts. The "Veruna" was 
followed in the dark by the Southern gunboat 
"Governor Moore," which, hoisting Federal lights, 
came up close enough to ram. While backing out 
the gunboat was set on fire and disabled by the 
"Veruna's" shells. She drifted down stream, hav- 
ing lost fifty-seven killed and seventeen wounded 
out of a crew of ninety-three. Next the "Stone- 
wall Jackson" came out at early dawn, and twice 
rammed the "Veruna." The "Stonewall Jackson" 
was likewise set on fire and had to be abandoned, 
but the "Veruna" sunk. Her crew was rescued by 
other Federal ships. The last act of the great battle 
was a final attempt by the "Manassas" to ram the 
"Pinola." The Federal "Mississippi" cut in and 
tried to run the "Manassas" down. The little ram 
in her efforts to escape ran ashore and was burned. 

That same morning the Confederate forces at 
surrender Chalmette surrendered. Forts Jackson and St. 
Chaimette Philip still held out, but, cut off from the Con- 
federacy as they were, their fall was only a question 
of time. 

On the morning of April 25, Farragut came 
around the bend at Mew Orleans and silenced the 
batteries, which were near the site of Jackson's 
battleground of 1815. The Confederate general, 


End of 




the fleet drew near, piles of cotton, coal and lum- 


ber were burning on the levee. Porter, with the 
aid of Butler, took possession of the two forts. 

On May 16, Butler received from Farragut full 
military possession of the city. He organized a 
rigorous system, maintained order, kept the city 

i i -i t-» i Butler 

clean and averted a pestilence. But by petty tyran- in New 
nies he turned against his government the entire 
better class of the citizens. His worst offence was 
Order No. 15, "that when any female shall by word 
or gesture or movement insult or show contempt for 
any officer or soldier, she shall be held and re- 
garded as a woman of the town plying her trade." 
Davis denounced him as an enemy of mankind. On 
December 15, he was relieved of his command. 

In the West, new advances followed the capture 
of Fort Donelson. Columbus was evacuated, and 
there ensued (April 1-7) the withdrawal from Island 
No. 10, at a point where the Mississippi makes two 
large bends among impassable swamps. Pope with 
20,000 men compelled its surrender to Foote, and 
6,000 prisoners were taken. By the capture of Fort 
Donelson the way was open for a march into the^^rlne 
very heart of the Mississippi region. A portion of 
Grant's army had occupied Nashville in the latter 
part of February. General Buell arrived at the same 
time. Johnston was to the southeast, while Beau- 
regard was on the Mississippi. In March, Johnston 
and Beauregard united their armies near Corinth, 
Mississippi. Had one competent and active gen- 
eral commanded the Union forces, the Confederacy 
might have been rent in twain, and the war short- 
ened fully a year. But a quarrel, which resulted 



July 1869 

Fall of 

Battle of 


in Grant being placed under arrest, rendered the 
Union force comparatively inefficient. 

Commodore Davis took possession of Memphis, 
after a fight of twenty minutes, and destroyed 
seven out of eight Confederate gunboats. On the 
first day of July, the gunboat flotilla united above 
Vicksburg with the Federal fleet from New Orleans. 
On resuming command, Grant found his columns 
divided between Savannah and Pittsburg Landing, 
which were ten miles apart. Sherman, who had 
gone to the front, was in the advance. Johnston 
strengthened himself at Corinth, and was there 
joined by Beauregard. Buell was ordered to join 
Grant at once at Savannah, but the Confederates 
fell upon Grant before Buell arrived. On Sunday, 
July 6, Johnston's line of battle bore down on the 
Union camp. Near a log meeting-house called 
Shiloh, two miles south of Pittsburg Landing, the 
bloodiest battle of the war in the Mississippi Valley 
was fought — a battle which in desperation was sur- 
passed by none. Sherman bore the brunt of the 
assault. Johnston's army, with Bragg, Polk and 
Hardee in important commands, was not quite 
40,000 strong. The Union force was probably 
somewhat less. Hearing the firing, Grant left for 
Pittsburg Landing by boat, arrived on the field, 
and gave such orders as the situation suggested. 
The Confederates pushed forward with wild energy 
and suffered an immense loss. The Union troops 
were forced back upon the river, a mile in the rear 
of their morning position. At this point General 
Johnston was killed. Beauregard, who was ill, took 


command, ffnd the advance ceased. Buell's troops 
began to arrive when the first day's battle had 
ended, and Lew Wallace came up soon after. On 
Monday, the 7th, Grant and Buell, now in superior 
force, pushed forward on the left, recovered the lost 
ground, and drove the Confederates back to Corinth. 
Sherman's conduct during the battle made the be- ^J. 
ginning of his great reputation. Grant maintained Victory^ 
an imperturbable silence when criticised about the 
first day's fight, and afterward declared that even on 
that day he at no time doubted the successful out- 
come of the engagement. He retained Lincoln's 
confidence. "I can't spare the man; he fights," 
was Lincoln's reply to a politician of prominence 
who urged that Grant should be removed. 

McClellan began his second advance on Richmond 
in the beginning of April. Full four weeks passed 
before he took Yorktown, which was held by Gen- 
eral Magruder with only 11,000 men. On May 5, 
the battle of Williamsburg was fought; but not^"* 3 " 
until May 15 was Johnston forced to abandon his 
lines near Williamsburg and to cross the Chicka- 
hominy. He then took up a position only three 
miles from Richmond. 

In the meantime the situation was so altered by 
Jackson's campaign in the Shenandoah Valley that 
some of McClellan's best troops had to be re- 
called to defend the capital. Early in May, Jack- 
son boldly took the offensive, and on the 8th, the 
authorities at Richmond received their first news of 
his movements in the laconic despatch, "Providence 
blessed our arms with victory at McDowell yester- 

1360 A HISTORY OF THE May 1888 

day." Brushing aside Milroy at McDowell, Jack- 
^ n t f e ed ' son made ready to attack General Banks at Stras- 
burg, and by swift movements surprised and 
defeated the Federals at Fort Royal. This was 
followed by a blow on Banks' flank near Newton. 
Banks retreated to Winchester, then passed on 
down the valley and crossed the Potomac. Jack- 
son followed, and the result was that the authorities 
at Washington feared for the safety of the capital. 
At the close of May, McClellan reported that he 
was quietly closing in on thft enemy, preparatory 
to the last struggle. On the contrary, it was John- 
ston who took the offensive by attacking two corps 
of McClellan's army which lay on the south bank of 
seven the Chickahominy. This was the Battle of Seven 


Pines, fought on the last day of May and the first 
day of June. The losses were heavy on both sides 
and the result was indecisive. Johnston was 
wounded, and in consequence, after an interval 
during which General G. W. Smith commanded, 
Robert E. Lee, the most famous of Confederate 


command g ene rals, took command of the Army of Northern 
Virginia. McClellan still delayed, and Lee and 
Jackson arranged between them one of the most 
remarkable pieces of strategy in the history of the 
war. By a series of wonderfully swift marches and 
battles Jackson slipped between the armies of Fre- 
mont and Shields, left the valley, and joined Lee in 
front of Richmond, just in time to strike the Federal 
right in the first of the "Seven Days' Battles." 
Lee, knowing his man, exposed Richmond to an 
immediate advance by McClellan, but McClellan 


failed to take advantage of the opening. The first 
battle, Mechanics ville. on June 26, was indecisive, 
General Fitz-John Porter making a splendid resist- 
ance to the Confederate attack. At Gaines' Mill, TheSeven 
the next day, Porter again bore the brant of the Battles 
fighting. The result of the two battles was McClel- 
lan's decision to transfer his base from the Chicka- 
hominy to the James. On the 29th, the battles of 
Savage's Station and "White Oak Swamp, which 
were somewhat in the nature of rearguard engage- 
ments, were fought. The fighting was renewed on 
the next day. While McClellan's movement is by 
many regarded as a retreat rather than a change 
of base, his army was not thrown into confusion. 
By the first of July he was strongly intrenched at 
Malvern Hill on the James, and repulsed with 
heavy losses Lee's several attempts to dislodge him. 
However, on the night following, McClellan retired 
to Harrison's Landing, and for the time made no 
further effort to reach Richmond. Instead, he re- 
newed bis complaints against the authorities at 
Washington. The result of the campaign was dis- 
tinctly encouraging to the Confederates and discour- 
aging to the government at Washington. 

In July, Lincoln called for 300,000 more volun- 
teers. General John Pope, who had distinguished 
himself in the West, was put in command of the 
Army of Virginia, which was to advance across the 
Rappahannock somewhat on the line of McDowell's 
movement in 1861. Various portions of McClellan's 
command were withdrawn by water from the Penin- 
sula, to reinforce Pope, by way of the Potomac 



River and Acquia Creek. The weakening of the 
Federal army at Harrison's Landing, and McClel- 
lan's inaction, enabled Lee to despatch Jackson 
against Banks, who was operating in advance of 
Pope. Banks advanced to Cedar Mountain, where 
Jackson met him. In the battle which followed, 
the Confederates had the advantage and Banks 
withdrew. Lee soon followed Jackson, and in 
August he and Pope confronted each other on op- 
posite sides of the Rappahannock. Lee, knowing 
that Pope's army was sure to grow stronger with 
every delay, daringly took the offensive, and sent 
Jackson's Stonewall Jackson on a remarkable flank movement 
Btrategy through Thoroughfare Gap to Manassas Junction in 
Pope's rear, where he seized Pope's line of commu- 
nications. In this movement, as in many other im- 
portant movements of the Army of Northern "Vir- 
ginia, the cavalry, under J. E. B. Stuart, played an 
cavalry important part. Pope fell back rapidly with a hope 
of destroying Jackson before Lee or Longstreet 
could come to the rescue. Jackson, however, with- 
drew to a strong position near the Junction, which 
he was able to hold until Longstreet should follow 
him through Thoroughfare Gap. At sunset on Au- 
gust 28, Longstreet's advance had passed the Gap 
and was nearing Jackson's right. There was fighting 
there on the 29th, but Jackson held his own, and on 
the 30th Lee's whole army was in front of Pope. 
In the afternoon of the 30th, Lee took the offensive, 
threw his entire force against the Federals, and 
drove them from their position. Pope retreated 
across Bull Run and prepared himself to resist an- 


other attack. The next day another action occurred 

at Chantilly on the Federal right. Among the chantuly 

killed on the Union side was brave Phil Kearney. 

Pope attributed his want of success to the failure 
of his reinforcements from McClellan's army to 
march at the sound of the guns. General Fitz-John 
Porter was especially blamed, and a long contro- 
versy was the result. In September, MeOteiDao SSLa- 
was appointed to command the defences of Wash- 
ington, and Pope was relieved of the command of 
the Army of Virginia. 

Encouraged by these victories, iee resolved to 
advance still further. On September 4, he crossed Lee 
the Potomac, occupied Fredericksburg, Maryland, p^^w 
and issued a proclamation to the people of the State 
inviting them to join the Confederacy. Meanwhile 
he detached Jackson to capture Harper's Ferry, 
which was occupied by a strong force of Federals 
under Miles. Jackson did this with great skill, 
took 12,000 prisoners and many guns, and then hur- 
ried on to join Lee, who, after the battle of South 
Mountain, was confronted by McClellan at Antie- 
tam Creek. On September 17, the battle of An- 
tietam was fought. McClellan, with 80,000 men, at- 
tacked Lee, whose force was not more than 40,000. Anf .. fo 

' ' An tietam 

The battle was stubborn and bloody. Successive 
attacks of the Federals were repulsed, and Lee held 
his position, but on the night of the second day he 
withdrew across the Potomac. Both sides claimed 
a victory. McClellan made no immediate pursuit, 
but by November he had crossed the Potomac and 
camped on the eastern slope of the Blue Kidge. 



Autumn 1868 

Of even greater importance than this success 
was the famous Emancipation Proclamation which 
Lincoln issued on September 27, after the retreat of 

Emanci a- ^ ees army. Sentiment had been steadily growing 

iamau r on" throughout the North in favor of making the war 
for the Union a war against slavery also. Early 
in the war certain Union generals had taken the 
authority to emancipate slaves in the regions occu- 
pied by their armies. These acts Lincoln had re- 
fused to ratify, but on March 3, 1862, he had signed 
the act forbidding the return of slaves escaping 
through the lines. During the summer, he had pre- 
pared his Proclamation and waited for a Union 
victory to give him a good opportunity to make it 
public. From this time it was understood that if 
the Union arms prevailed slavery would be ended. 

w^t in About the time of Lee's advance into Maryland, 

the Confederates in the West also took the offen- 
sive. General Braxton Bragg, now in command of 
their Western army, advanced as far as Frankfort 
in Kentucky. General Rosecrans, with the Federal 

Corinth forces, was operating in Mississippi and won an ad- 
vantage at the battle of Corinth, successfully repuls- 

Perryviiie mg the Confederate attack. On October 8, Bragg 
and Buell met at Perryviiie. Mainly through the 
stubborn resistance of General Phil Sheridan the 
attack of Bragg was repulsed. During the night, 
Bragg withdrew, and, in October, Rosecrans suc- 
ceeded Buell. Late in December, he moved upon 
Bragg at Murfreesboro, and fought the battle of 
Stone's River, after which Bragg again withdrew. 
But in Virginia the Union forces met still an- 



other disaster before the year's campaigns came to 
an end. Notwithstanding McClellan's repulse of 
Lee's advance at Antietam, the authorities. at Wash- 
ington were dissatisfied with his management of the Burnside 
army. On November 5, Lincoln put Burnside inMccienan 8 
command of the army. Burnside at once moved 
down the lower Eappahannock to a point opposite 
Fredericksburg, with the intention to get between 
Lee's army and Eichmond. Finally he decided to 
cross the river and make an assault on Lee's army. 
A crossing was effected on the night of December Disaster 
12, and the attack was delivered the next day. Lee, ericksburg 
occupying a strong position, repulsed Burnside with 
immense slaughter. Hooker succeeded Burnside. 

In the management of the civil affairs of the two 
governments, the Union had a great advantage. 
The principal banks in the North had been forced 
to suspend specie payments in 1861, but there was 
no such widespread suffering from the war as there 
was in the South. The public debt had increased 
from $64,000,000, on July 1, 1860, to $90,000,000 WardebtS 
in 1861, and to more than $500,000,000 in 1862. 
While McClellan lay inactive in the Peninsula, it 
was estimated that the debt was increasing at the 
rate of $2,000,000 a day. However, Secretary Chase 
managed the finances with great ability, and the 
business men of the North never lost confidence in 
the government. The Legal Tender Act, providing 
for the issue of $500,000,000 in six per cent bonds ChaS es 
and $150,000,000 in notes bearing no interest — measures 
popularly called "Greenbacks" — was of question- 
able constitutionality, but it served the purpose of 





Effect of 
war on 


the government. The war loans had an indirect 
result of great importance, for they led to the estab- 
lishment^ a system of National Banks, just as the 
war tariffs laid the foundation of the protective sys- 
tem, which was maintained in the United States 
throughout the remainder of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury. Still, the opponents of President Lincoln's 
Administration made gains in the elections toward 
the close of the year. 

The Civil War in America had now begun to 
make itself deeply felt in England. In the first 
quarter of the year English exports to the United 
States had diminished from £21,667,000 to £9,058,- 
000. This produced a great derangement of mone- 
tary and commercial affairs, with enforced idleness 
and distress of large masses of the working popula- 
tion. The cotton famine, as it was then termed, 
deprived some two millions of operatives of their 
usual employment, and gradually reduced them to 
destitution. An alarming increase of paupers ensued. 
Yet, such was the almost magical success which 
had attended Gladstone's financial operations, and 
the tree trade treaty which Cobden had negotiated 
with France, that, notwithstanding the depression 
of American trade, the British revenue showed an 
increase of no less than £2,000,000. While trade 
with the United States was reduced French trade 
increased within the period of a single year from 
£2,190,000 to £6,910,000. 



THE first day of this year is forever memorable 
to Americans, as the date on which Lincoln's 
Emancipation Proclamation went into effect. 
The Proclamation itself was issued as an act of war 
by virtue of the President's powers as Commander- 
in-Chief of the army and Davy. It purported to 
free the slaves in those parts of the Union in rebel- emancipL 

r tion of 

lion against the United States, and therefore did not sl * TOB 
apply to the border States or parts of States which 
had not seceded. Of course, it could have no prac- 
tical effect, save through the advance of the Union 
armies, but its moral effect was tremendous. Davis 
promptly replied by declaring that persons attempt- 
ing to execute Lincoln's order of emancipation 
would be treated as criminals. 

On the day following Lincoln's Proclamation new 
troubles arose on the other side of the earth. The 
native troops under Burgevine, in China, became 
openly mutinous. Burgevine went to Shanghai and 
had an interview with Takee. He used personal Bur-refine 

* dismissed 

violence toward the Shanghai merchants. Li Hung from cbin * 
Chang hastened to inform General Stoveley of Bur- 
gevine's gross insubordination. Burgevine was dis- 
missed from the Chinese service on January 6. 

A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1863 

Captain Holland was placed in temporary com- 
mand. General Stoveley had proposed to the home 
government to intrust the command to a young cap- 
tain of engineers named Charles Gordon. Li Hung 
Chang sent large forces to attack Taitsan, but 
the Taipings defeated them about the middle of 

This was the condition of affairs, when, on March 
24, Major Gordon took command of the "Ever- 

Gordon Victorious" army. Taitsan was captured after a 
prolonged and desperate defence by the rebels, 
who lost frightfully. On May 4, Gordon appeared 
before Quinsan. There a mutiny broke out among 
his troops, but Gordon prevailed over the mutinous 
soldiers. Quinsan was attacked. After slight re- 
sistance, the rebels at Chumze yielded. A strong 

Quinsan fort was taken, which covered a bridge at Ta Edin. 
The "Hyson" continued in pursuit to within a 
mile of Soochow. During the night the garrison 
evacuated the place, 

On July 27, Major Gordon attacked Kahpoo, 
south of Soochow and took it. Burgevine, who 
hated Li Hung Chang, had meanwhile decided 
to join the rebels. In an interview with Gordon 
Burgevine proposed that they should combine their 
forces, seize Loochow, and thus establish an inde- 
pendent government. At this juncture serious news 
came from the south. A large rebel force moved 
up the Grand Canal, and held the garrison of Wo- 
kong. There occurred one of the hardest fought bat- 

wd'ilon' ^ es ot l ^ c war ' Chung Wang seized the opportuni- 
ty of Gordon's absence to attack Chauzu. At first 


the Taipings carried everything before them, but th6 
imperialists prevailed. B urge vine was in imminent 
peril, and only Major Gordon's influence saved his 
life. Chung Wang kept open communication by the 
Grand Canal. At Wusieh, and at Monding, Chung 
Wang concentrated his entire force for the defence 
of the Grand Canal. At the Low Mun breastworks 
Gordon was beaten off with tremendous loss. 
This was Major Gordon's first defeat after thirteen 
victories. Undismayed by his reverse, he returned 
to attack the Low Mun. The capture of the stock- soochow 
ades meant the fall of Soochow. 

Mow Wang's murder by the other Wangs re- 
moved the only leader who was opposed to the 
surrender of Soochow. Unable to obtain his sol- 
diers' pay from Li Hung Chang, Gordon resigned, q^^^ 
The departure of Gordon's force left Li free to fol- resign9 
low his inclinations. The Wangs were invited to an 
entertainment on the Futai's boat. Nine headless ^agf 
bodies were afterward found not far distant f rom treachery 
the Futai's headquarters. 

In North America, the Unionists were especially 
anxious to reduce Charleston, as one of the worst 
hot beds of the secession. A naval squadron kept 
up a continuous blockade on the city. Several 
monitors, built after the model of their famous 
prototype, joined this squadron. The Confederates Biockadeof 

r Jr J ^ Charleston 

mined the approaches to the harbor. Two small 
ironclads, built after the manner of the "Merrimac," 
were constructed. They were the "Palmetto State" 
and "The Chicora.' On the last day of January, 
in the mist of early morning, the "Palmetto State" 



Spring 1863 

"Palmetto _«,__. 

states" range 


ran out and engaged the "Mercedia" at close 
The first broadside disabled the "Mer- 
cedia." Swinging around with her ram, the "Pal- 
metto State" challenged the "Mercedia": "Sur- 
render, or I will sink you." The Federal captain 
hauled down his flag and sent the boat off to give 
parole for his crew. Thereupon the "Palmetto 
State" ran off to engage the Federal "Keystone 
State." The captain of the "Mercedia," ignoring 
his parole, rehoisted the Stars and Stripes. Mean- 
while the "Keystone State" was taken between the 
crossed fire of the "Palmetto State" and "Chicora." 
Sinking, she was towed out of the action by the 
"Housatonic." The Confederates claimed that the 
blockading squadron had been driven off. They 
went so far as to take the French and Spanish con- 
suls out of the harbor in a steamer to establish their 
point. The consuls reported that they could see 
nothing of the blockaders. It proved a matter of 
small importance, since the blockade was speedily 

Late in May, a combined assault was made upon 
Vicksburg by the Union army and navy. The 
"Cincinnati" was sent to silence the Confederate 

Assault on 

vickBburff battery, and while doing so came under the fire of 
a powerful masked battery on a bluff. The first 
Confederate shot entered her below the water line, 
and she began to fill. Drifting down stream, shot 
after shot was put into her. With the colors nailed 
to the flag pole, the "Cincinnati" went down. The 

"cincin- crew had to swim for life under Confederate fire. 

■iati sunk 

Nineteen were killed and wounded, fifteen drowned. 


1863 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1871 

Democratic journals began a crusade against Lin- 
coln. The Chicago "Times" was suppressed for 
one day for inciting disloyalty. Vallandigham 
made a speech at Mount Vernon, Ohio, against 
"King Lincoln," and urged the people to hurl the 
tyrant from the throne. Anti-War Democrats ex- 
pressed great indignation at the "overthrow of free 
institutions" by Lincoln. In May, great meetings 
were held in New York and Philadelphia to eKpress 

r r Vallan- 

sympathy with Vallandigham, who had been ar- digham 
rested. The Democratic State Convention, on June 
11, in Ohio nominated Vallandigham for Governor. 

On March 3, President Lincoln had approved the 
act enrolling citizens between twenty and forty-five, 
and the calling out of the national force by draft 
without the intervention of the States. In June, 
under a draft for 300,000 men, only 50,000 were General 
obtained after many weeks. The drafting of sol- tk-n 80 " 1 *" 
diers threw New York into the hands of an anti- 
draft mob. A colored orphan asylum was fired, and 
the "Tribune" office dismantled. Colonel O'Brien, 
with several hundred others, was murdered by the 
enraged mob. Similar riots occurred elsewhere. In 
reply to Governor Seymour's request that the draft 
be suspended, President Lincoln proclaimed that 
the drafting of troops would have to' continue. 
Many New Yorkers were drafted to the" colors. 

"Fighting" Joe Hooker on April 27th, threw 
70,000 men across the river, at points twenty-five 
miles above and ten miles below Chancellorsville, 
with a view to taking Lee's entire system of de-jg^jjjj 
fences. His preliminary movements were well exe- 



May 1863 





cuted. For the moment he seemed to have Lee at a 
disadvantage. General Sedgwick was in command 
of the lower division, while Hooker himself com- 
manded in the neighborhood of Chancellorsville. 
Lee was thus placed between two armies, which 
together far outnumbered his own force. Once more 
he had recourse to a daring flank movement and 
called on Jackson to execute it. While Lee, keep- 
ing between Hooker and Sedgwick, prevented the 
latter from advancing to his superior officer's sup- 
port, Jackson with 26,000 men started off to the left 
on a movement which Hooker mistook for a retreat. 
Circling the Federal army, Jackson came, in the 
late afternoon oi May 2, upon Howard's division, 
which formed the right, and really considered itself 
the rear of Hooker's army. The attack was a com- 
plete surprise. Howard was crushed, and Jackson 
had got very close to Hooker's headquarters before 
he was stopped. 

The brilliant Confederate movement, successful as 
it was, proved costly. Jackson himself, pressing on 
ahead of his line of battle, was accidentally shot by 
some of his own men and died in a few days. The 
next morning, the 3d, Stuart, taking command of 
Jackson's men, renewed the attack, while Lee struck 
Hooker from the other side. The result was another 
Confederate victory. Sedgwick and Hooker failed 
to effect their junction, and both retreated across 
the river. It was again apparent that Lee was more 
than a match for any of the Federal generals who 
had yet opposed him. 

Lee, elated by Chancellorsville, planned a new 


invasion of the North. With 80,000 men, led by 
Longstreet, Hill and Ewell, Lee intended to "trans- 
fer the scene of hostilities north of the Potomac." 
On June 3, he started from Culpepper. Hooker 
telegraphed to the President for permission to ad- 
vance on Eichrr.ond. "I think Lee's army, and not 
Eichmond, is your true objective point," said Lin- 
coln. "Fight him when opportunity offers. If he 
stays where he is, fret him and fret him." Com- 
pelled to take his men from the Shenandoah Valley, ^jj 33 
Lee sent a force under Ewell and captured Winches- 
ter and Martinsburg. His army was soon crossing 
the Potomac. Hooker now swung his army around 
to confront Lee and hold his own base at one and 
the same time. Near Chambersburg, on June 27, 
the Confederate army encamped on Northern soil. 
Lee pushed forward, threatening Harrisburg, and 
despatched Ewell eastward toward Carlisle and 
York. Hooker advanced parallel with the enemy 
and determined to strike Lee on the rear. He 
asked Hallcck to permit him to abandon Maryland 
Heights and use its garrison elsewhere. Halleck 
overruled him, and Hooker asked to be relieved. 
The President accepted his resignation without de-Meade^ 
lay, and assigned General George Gordon Meade to Hooker - 
the command. 

The fifth change of commanders within a year 
was made on the eve of a decisive battle. Meade 
was a man of resources. Cool and thoughtful in 
time of danger, he was indisposed to retreat. He 
moved northward, his front stretching thirty miles 
across the country. During the last day of June 

XlXth Century— Vol 3— F 


the two armies approached each other, Longstreet 

and Hill moving east, and Meade heading toward 

them at right angles. Neither Meade nor Lee made 

a mutual ca °i ce °* tne position in which they at last stood 

advance ^ QQ tQ f &ce j Q tne Da tti e f Gettysburg, Meade 

had approximately 94,000 men and 300 guns, and 
Lee 78,000 men with 250 guns. Meade had under 
him Reynolds, Hancock, Hayes, Sickles, Sykes, 
Sedgwick, Howard and Slocum. Lee had Long- 
street, Ewell and A. P. Hill, as general command- 
ers, with division commanders McLaws, Pickett, 
Hood, Early, Johnston, Rodes, Anderson, Heth, 
Pender, Wilcox. Stuart, being detached on a cav- 
alry raid, was not on the field, and this was a great 
disadvantage to his chief. 

Gettysburg lies in a pastoral region. A valley 
lies between two ranges of hills — Seminary Ridge 
on the west, and on the southeast Cemetery Ridge. 
The latter begins with a bold and rocky blulf, 
Seattle Culp's Hill, at the southern end of which towers 
a commanding rock known as Round Top, crowned 
with a smaller spire called Little Round Top. Mid- 
way in .the valley is a lower intermediate ridge. 
Meade had on July 1 adopted a defensive line 
along Pike Creek. Reynolds occupied the village 
with three corps. Buford encountered a fragment 
of the Confederate host on the Chambersburg road, 
and informed Reynolds, who ordered the rest of his 
command to hurry up from the distant rear. 

After a survey from the Lutheran Seminary, 
which stood near Seminary Ridge, Reynolds de- 
cided on the morning's work. Hill's division ap- 


peared from the west. While Reynolds held it in 
check he was killed. From 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. the^d° lds 
first corps, with Buford's cavalry, bore the brunt 
of the onset and forced Hill to wait for Ewell. The 
Confederates, reinforced, were pressing on hotly, 
when Howard arrived with his eleventh corps and 
assumed command. But the Union line was too 
far extended, and Ewell, assaulting it in front and 
on both flanks, pressed it into and through the 
town. Hancock arrived at 4 p.m. His presence 
gave renewed confidence to the exhausted men. 
He and Howard arranged a new line on Seminary Howard 
Hill, and along the ridge covering Gettysburg andP ressed 
commanding the road from the south. Slocum now 
reached the scene with Sickles' dusty veterans. 
Hancock turned the command over to Slocum and 
galloped back to urge on Meade. Seeing the ad- 
vantage of this new line of battle, Meade at once 
relinquished his own plan and moved promptly to 
the rescue. 

All night, by every road, the Union troops came 
in from the southeast and took the positions as- 
signed them. Meade arrived at one o'clock on the 
morning of the 2d, worn with loss of sleep. Lee, 
at the other end of Gettysburg, had arrived on the Amva , 
1st, and from Seminary Ridge watched the direction of Meade 
which Meade's army was taking. He suggested to 
Ewell to attack if he deemed it practicable. Hill 
spent the afternoon waiting to be reinforced and 
missed a great opportunity. 

The fight of July 2 did not begin until far in 
the afternoon. Meade had posted three corps over 

1376 A HISTORY OF THE July 1863 

Cemetery Ridge under Slocum, Howard and Han- 
cock. Hancock held the crest with the second 
corps, Sickles with the third corps gave support 
on the right, while the fifth corps was in reserve. 
Sedgwick, making a night march, came in sight 
after the battle was begun. About a mile distant, 
Lee's army swept around the curve, to the high 
ground in front of Round Top — Ewell on the left, 
Hill at the centre and Longstreet on the right. Lit- 
bur e tie Round Top was the key to the Union position. 

The Confederates lay behind thick woods till four 
o'clock, but revealed themselves at that hour 
with an outflanking line. Upon Sickles' division 
was made the first furious assault, and a bloody 
conflict raged for two hours. Sickles, with one leg 
shot away, was borne from the field. Reinforce- 
ments sent by Meade arrived just in time, and 
protected the withdrawal to safer ground. In the 
meantime came a hand-to-hand fight for Little 
Round Top. Hood was advancing to get posses- 
sion, when Warren, chief of engineers, pressed to 
the scene of danger, and after a fierce encounter 
drove the enemy down the precipitous slopes. In 
the conflict which ensued the Confederates were 
forced from the hill. 

The firing did not cease until ten at night. Both 
armies occupied the same position as in the morn- 
ing. The field was strewn with dead and wounded. 
The line of captured intrench ments was held by 
Johnston during the night. By nightfall the whole 
Union line from Round Top to Cemetery Ridge was 


Meade renewed the attack. After several hours' 
fighting, Johnston was dislodged from the right J^ne wed 
near Gulp's Hill. Lee employed the entire fore- 
noon in preparing for an assault on the Union 
lines. The post of honor was given to Pickett's 
division, supported by Wilcox, Pettigrew and Trim- 
ble of Hill's command. The midday silence was 
broken by one hundred and thirty cannon on the 
Confederate ridge, to which half as many guns re- 
plied. This artillery duel lasted from twelve to 
two. Then it ceased. A dreadful silence fell. 
Pickett, at the head of 17,000 veterans, moved 
wedge-like among the green fields for over a mile. 
When halfway across the valley, they bore to the 
left toward Hancock's front. The Union artillery 
opened from right to left with a terribly destructive 
fire, but Pickett's assaulting force moved steadily 
nearer and nearer the Union lines awaiting them 
on the heights. Pettigrew's troops were attacked 
by men from Hancock's corps with such fury that 
their order was broken, and they mingled with the Pickett's 

' J ° charge 

troops of Pickett. An advanced point, held by 
Webb's small force, behind a stone fence, was car- 
ried. Webb fell back among his guns, and, aided 
by Union regiments that came to his relief, his men 
fought like wild beasts. More than two thousand 
of his men were disabled in thirty minutes. The 
remnant of Pickett's division dashed against the 
Union lines. Armisted crossed the first line and 
fell; but no supporting column appeared. The 
great charge failed. 

On the morning of the 5th the Confederates re- 

1378 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1863 

treated, and Meade moved southward to intercept 
their passage of the Potomac. Arrived at the river, 
Lee, finding his pontoons practically destroyed and 
the river high, intrenched. Meade called a council 
of war, which decided against attacking Lee, and 
Meade yielded. On the 14th, Lee was safely across 
the Potomac. 

From a variety of causes the official relations 
between the United States and Great Britain had 
become strained. The apparent failure of the En- 
glish people to sympathize with the great struggle 
against slavery, which had been originally inaugu- 
Angio- rated by England, and the manifest reluctance of 
reuuoos 11 the British Government to prevent the annoying 
activity of privateers and blockade runners, exas- 
perated the Americans of the North. On the other 
hand, the injuries to commerce resulting from the 
prolonged war were a serious matter for England. 
Gladstone, in one of his great speeches on the 
Budget, thus laid bare the situation: 

"The value of British goods exported to the 
United States in 1859 was £22,553,000; in 1862 
it had fallen to £14,398,000, and thus exhibited a 
decrease of £8,154,000. The value of foreign and 
colonial goods exported to the United States from 
this country had during the same period increased. 
In 1859 it had been only £1,864,000; in 1862 it had 
increased to £4,052,000. The augmentation was as 
much as £2,188,000, but nearly the whole of it 
was represented by the single article of cotton-wool, 
which amounted in value to no less than £1,712,000. 
However, deducting the increase on our foreign and 
colonial goods from the decrease upon our own ex- 


port of British goods, there remains an aggregate 
diminution in our export trade to the United States 
of about £6,000,000." 

The situation would have been still more seri- English 
ous for England but for the beneficent effects of 
the free-trade treaty with France. As Gladstone 
pointed out in the same speech, the amount of 
British goods sent to France had nearly doubled 
under the operation of Cobden's treaty of com- 

"The figures I have named, "'he said, "by no 
means set forth the whole extent of the advan- 
tage which the trade of England and France has 
derived from the treaty, for an augmentation of 
exports still more remarkable took place in for- 
eign and colonial produce; and I need hardly re- 
mind the committee that the foreign and colonial 
produce which we sent to France is something which 
we have ourselves obtained elsewhere in exchange 
for British produce. While we have had a decrease 
in the total trade to the United States of £6,618,000, 
that decrease has a good deal more than been made 
up by the increase in the trade to France, for the 
augmentation in the French trade was £12,268,000." 

An important scientific achievement of the year 
was Davaine and Pollender's discovery of little rod- 
like bodies in the blood of animals affected with 
anthrax. Davaine called these bodies "bacteria" 
or "little rods." The name was immediately added Discover/ 

•J of bacteria 

to the vocabulary of medical science. The discovery 
was of the utmost importance, for it led afterward 
to the work which Pasteur accomplished in the 
prevention of the disease. 

1380 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 186S 

In Mexico, the campaign had become beset with 
difficulties for the French. Their advance on Pue- 
bla had to be made over a mountainous region inter- 
sected by barrancas, or deep ravines. It was in one 
of these that the Mexican corps of General Tapia 
was almost annihilated by two battalions of Zouaves. 
By the middle of March, the French arrived before 
Pueblade los Angelos. Siege was laid to the city. 
On the last day of the month, the French stormed 
Fort Hidalgo with the quarter of San Algier. A 

pufbia f Mexican relieving column of 1-2,000 men under Gen- 
eral Comonfort was beaten off by General Berthier. 
The city resisted to the utmost, and the siege of 
Puebla was compared by the French with the famous 
sieges of Saragossa during the Peninsular War. On 
both sides notable exploits were achieved. Thus, a 
French convoy of sixty-two men guarding a wagon 
train were overwhelmed by 1,000 Mexican horse- 
men. They cut their way through to a hacienda, 
where they held out from nine in the morning until 
late in the afternoon. Not until they had lost most 
of their men and the ranch house was burning over 
their heads did they surrender. The Mexicans in 
Puebla barricaded themselves in every church, clois- 
ter, and public building, and dug trenches in the 
streets. Another attempt to relieve them resulted 
in another disaster for Comonfort. At last Ortaga 
offered a conditional surrender with the honors of 
war. This proposal was refused. Driven to des- 
peration, the Mexicans dismantled their guns, blew 

Ortaga up their magazines, and broke or buried their arms. 

surrenders " o i 

Then they surrendered. The captives numbered 

1883 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1881 

12,000 men, among them 1,000 officers and twenty- 
six generals, clad mostly in rags. 

After the fall of Puebla, the backbone of Mex- 
ico's resistance was broken. President Juarez and 
his followers withdrew to San Luis de Potosi. On 
June 5, General Bazaine, with the French troops, 
accompanied by Saligny, Almonte and Marquez, 
made his triumphal entry into the City of Mexico. 
General Forey was raised to the rank of marshal. 

A provisional government was established under 
the triumvirate of Generals Almonte and Salas, and 
Archbishop Labastida. They declared for a mon- Mexican 

x provision- 

archy under a European ruler, revived the institu- ^ e ^ yern " 
tion of nobility, and agreed to cede the province of 
Sonora to France. All Mexican newspapers were 
suppressed, and the property of those who had 
borne arms against France was confiscated. Those 
Mexicans that still kept up their warfare against the 
invaders as guerilleros were to be treated as out- 
laws. Many were shot. This and other cruelties 
committed by the French troops so aggravated the 
situation in Mexico that Emperor Napoleon revoked 
the decree of outlawry and appointed Montholon in 
the place of his hated commissioner, Saligny. Mar- 
shal Forey was superseded by Bazaine. 

"The Birth of Venus," considered by many as 
the masterpiece of Alexandre Cabanel, was exhib- 
ited at the French Salon of this year. Cabanel was 
a pupil of Picet, standing in close relation to the 

classic school of David. His "Death of Francesca 

da Rimini" and the "Paolo Malatesta" are two of 

his famous canvases in which he displayed unusual 

1382 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1863 

energy and originality of conception. Still more 
celebrated are his numerous portraits of women of 
the nobility, in which his admirable coloring gives 
an air of distinction to faces almost expressionless. 
In North America, General Grant, on the Union 
side, had assumed personal command in January. 
There were four army corps, commanded by Mc- 
Grant's Clernand, Sherman, Hurlbut and McPherson. Grant 

advance on 

vicksburg felt that Vicksburg could be turned only from the 
south. McClernand, who had superseded Sherman 
in the advance on Vicksburg, captured Arkansas 
Post, January 11, and camped above Vicksburg. 
On March 14, Farragut passed Port Hudson with 
his flagship, the "Hartford," and an ironclad. A 
month later Porter's fleet ran past the guns of 
Vicksburg. The Confederates made a gallant stand 
at Port Gibson on May 1, but were driven back. 
Seizing a bridge before the Confederates could burn 
it, McPherson commanded the road to Vicksburg. 
On May 7, Grant advanced, McPhersou holding 
the right, while McClernand and Sherman, with the 
left and centre, moved abreast. At Raymond, Clin- 
ton and Jackson the Confederates were defeated. 
The Confederates massed before Vicksburg in for- 
midable array. Grant assaulted Vicksburg's de- 
fences and secured advanced positions, but with 
terrible loss; and on May 22, a second assault with 
the loss of 3,000 men convinced him that a siege was 
necessary. On June 8, he announced the invest- 

Siegeof ment of Vicksburg to be complete, with 30,000 extra 

vicksburg . 

troops to repel anything from the rear. 

Meanwhile, Johnston to the eastward was trying 


to gather a force to raise the siege. Goaded to 
action by the Richmond authorities, he marched 
toward the Big Black and planned an attack for 
July 7, which turned out to be three days too late. 
A message from Pemberton proposed negotiating a 
surrender. Pemberton's men had been for thirty- 
four nights in the trenches on reduced rations. 

On the neighboring hillside, under a stunted oak, 
the two commanders met. Pemberton finally had 
to yield. His 24,000 soldiers marched out on 
the 4th, stacked arms and returned. Logan's divi- takea burff 
sion, under orders from Grant, marched into Vicks- 
burg, hoisted the Stars and Stripes, and took pos- 
session. "Our whole army present witnessed the 
scene without cheering," wrote Grant. The sol- 
diery on both sides now fraternized like old com- 
panions in arms. Grant was made Major-General, 
while Sherman and McPherson became Brigadiers. 

Less than a week later, on July 9, Port Hudson 
surrendered to General Banks, with 6,000 men, 51 
pieces of artillery and 5,000 small arms, and mili- 
tary stores. The entire Mississippi was now open. ML9SisEi p pi 
On July 4, the Confederates suffered a bloody open 
repulse at Helena, Arkansas. It was the turning 
point of the war. 

Rosecrans, after remaining inactive in Murfrees- 
boro for six months, finally moved forward in June 
and soon forced the Confederates out of Tullahoma, 
and across the Tennessee to Chattanooga. 

Then followed the Battle of Chickamauga, the 
great battle of the West. In his first attempt to 
crush the left flank and gain the Chattanooga road, 

1384 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1863 

Bragg was foiled. The battle resumed on September 
20. Longstreet swung forward on the Confederate 
left, supported by Hood at the centre. After a 
vigorous resistance, the Union forces gave way. 
Eosecrans returned to Chattanooga, where McCook 
and Crittendon soon joined him. The steadiness of 

cwckar Thomas, "The Rock of Chickamauga," alone pre- 
vented the battle from becoming another Bull Run. 
With two-thirds of the Union army he fought suc- 
cessfully all day. By the 22d, the entire Union 
army was safely posted for a defence of Chatta- 
nooga. Rosecrans relinquished the spur of Look- 
out Mountain, and Bragg seized the heights and 
proceeded to invest Chattanooga. The Union army 
was brought close to starvation, and Rosecrans' 
despatches were full of gloomy forebodings. 

As a result, Rosecrans was relieved and Thomas 
took his place. Grant himself reached Chattanooga 
on October 23, and his first work was to relieve the 
hunger of the troops. In live days he opened a 
new "Cracker Line" by way of Lookout Valley 
and Bridgeport. New clothing, with ammunition, 
quickly followed. 

On November 23, began the Battle of Chatta- 
nooga, a most spectacular encounter lasting for 
three days. South and east of Chattanooga, with 
the Tennessee in their rear, lay the Union troops, 
confronted by the Confederates, whose lines were 

chatta- plainly visible. Grant's purpose was to drive 
Bragg from the heights. In two hours, the hills 
were carried, and Grant held the position a mile in 
front of his army. 


With 8,000 men, Sherman crossed the Tennessee 
on the 24th, and formed his troops for the grand 
assault on Missionary Ridge. In the afternoon, he 
gained the foot, and later the crest of the ridge, 
where he fortified and prepared for the next day's 
battle. Meanwhile, Hooker moved with three divi- 
sions to capture Lookout Mountain. By noon he 
had gained the open ground on the north slope. 
The sound of his cannon and musketry could be 
heard below, but among the drifting clouds his 
troops were not visible. Grant sent a brigade toabovlths 

T clouds 

sustain him. As night fell, Lookout Mountain and 
the north end of Missionary Ridge were ablaze with 
camp-fires. On Wednesday, Sherman renewed the 
attack on the crest of the Ridge. Too late, Hooker 
gained the summit of the south end of Missionary 
Ridge to aid Sherman. The latter's condition was 
seen to be critical, and Grant ordered Thomas to 
charge at once on the front of the Ridge with the 
divisions of Sheridan and Wood. The first line of 
rifle pits was carried. Without waiting for further 
orders, the second line was taken. Then in a time 
surprisingly short, the crest of Missionary Ridge was 
captured by the Union troops. Grant rode up amid 
the tumultuous shouts of the men. The force con- 
fronting Sherman joined in the flight. Bragg re- 
treated up the valley, while Sheridan pushed on, 
continuing the fight beyond the eastern slope far 
into the night. 

Grant now turned his attention to the relief of 
Burnside. Against Burnside, with 12,000 men, 
Bragg had sent General Longstreet with 20,000- 


Longstreet invested the place. Hearing of Grant's 
success at Chattanooga, he began a furious artillery 
fire on the 29th, and sent four brigades to charge 
the parapets, losing a thousand men in the fierce 
assault. Under orders from Richmond, he aban- 
doned the siege, and, on December 4, made good 
his retreat. Sherman arrived a day too late. 

There were no naval victories comparable to these 
great Union successes on land. In April, Admiral 
Dupont, with a large fleet of ironclads, had at- 
tempted to take Charleston, South Carolina, but 
the Confederates destroyed five of his seven moni- 
tors and sank the "Keokuk." On July 18, Fort 
Sumter was practically demolished, but the attack 
on Fort Wagner failed. Early in September Forts 
Wagner and Battery Gregg were abandoned. 

Horace Vernet, the great historical painter of 
Death of France, died during this year. At the time of his 

Horace ° " 

vemet death he had outlived the glory of his career. One 
of his last works was a portrait of Napoleon III. 

William Makepeace Thackeray, the great English 
novelist, died on Christmas Eve. Thackeray's first 
publication in book form was the "Paris Sketch 

Thackeray Book, " followed by the "Irish Sketch Book." 
The establishment of the comic weekly "Punch" 
opened to Thackeray a new and congenial field of 
enterprise. The publication of his great novel, 
"Vanity Fair," in 1847, established his reputation 
as one of the greatest modern novelists of England. 
Among prose writers, Thackeray takes rank as the 
classical humorist and satirist of the Victorian age. 
On November 15, King Frederick VII., the last 

1863 Winter NINETEENTH CENTURY 1387 

prince of Oldenburg, died. By the provisions of 
the London Protocol of 1852, Prince Christian as- 
cended the throne as Christian IX. His first official 
act was to sign a constitution on November 18, 
which tore Schleswig from the duchy of Holstein 
by annexing it to Denmark. Two days before, 
Frederick of Augustenburg, who was regarded as 
their rightful ruler by the people of the two 
duchies, had proclaimed himself duke and assumed 
the title of Frederick VIII. His action was timely. 
The annexation of Schleswig by Denmark and the 
obnoxious London Protocol had inflamed the Ger- 
man Confederation more than ever. Liberals and 
Conservatives agreed that the righU of Frederick of 
Augustenburg were indisputable. So far as theanne^ k 
Confederation and the minor German States were 
concerned, the Schleswig-Holstein problem was sim- 
ple enough. But for Prussia and for Austria, the 
rival powers who had both signed the London Pro- 
tocol, the two duchies were still a bone of conten- 
tion. The Prussian House of Eepresentatives de- 
clared itself largely for Augustenburg. It was at 
this time that Count Bismarck asserted himself as 
the master spirit of German affairs. In defiance 
of the Assembly he came to an understanding with 
Austria. It was the Prussian- Austrian alliance that 
determined the course of subsequent events. On De- 
cember 7, the German Confederation, assembled at 
Frankfort, took the decisive step. Twelve thousand 
Saxon and Hanoverian troops under General Hake 
crossed the border line on the 23d. Before their gJgJJSJj? 
advance the Danish army retreated/ 



ON JANUARY 15, the Frankfort Assembly 
sent an ultimatum to Christian IX., com- 
manding him to repeal the constitution of 
November 18, 1863, within forty-eight hours. He 
German refused. Behind the famous fortifications of the 


ma?k"" Dannewirk, the Danish army of thirty thousand, 
under General Meza, was gathered ready for battle. 
Denmark, after the manner of weak nations, had 
placed her reliance not so much upon her army as 
upon the possibility of foreign assistance, upon the 
hatred between Austria and Germany, and upon 
dissensions among the minor German States. Not- 
withstanding Lord Palmerston's promising hints at 
intervention, foreign assistance was not forthcom- 
ing. Prussia and Austria, thanks to the diplomacy 
of Bismarck, were allied in a common cause. On 
February 1, 20,000 Austrian and 25,000 Prussian 

Invasion of 

Schieswig troops crossed the Eider and were received with 
open arms by the inhabitants of Schieswig. With 
the Prussians, under Prince Friedrich Karl, form- 
ing the right wing, and the Austrians, under "Von 
Gablenz, the left, the Commander-in-Chief of the 
allied forces, General Wrangel, moved forward. 
On the 2d, the Prussians engaged the Danes 
at Missunde on the Schlei; and on the 3d, the 

3864 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1389 

Austrians fought their first battles at Overselk and 
Jagel. The army was to cross the Schlei on thebSea 
6th, but on the evening of the 5th the Danes evac- 
uated the Dannewirk. The allies followed, but only 
the Austrians succeeded in overtaking the rear- 
guard of the retreating army at Oversee. Without 
further losses, the Danes reached Diippel, in the 
southeastern part of the peninsula of Sundewitt. 
Here a notable battle was fought. After a six 
weeks' siege the Prussians and Austrians, on April 
18, captured the works by storm after a short and 
hotly fought battle, in which the Danes lost their Duppei 

J D ' trenches 

commander, Duplat, together with 5,000 men killed, stormed 
wounded and captured, and 118 guns. The other 
corps invaded Jutland, fought the battles of Veile 
and Friedericia, and finally took possession of 
Friedericia after its evacuation by the Danes late 
in April. 

During the progress of these events a conference 
of the Powers was held in London, at which the 
German Confederation was represented by Von Beust 
of Saxony. A truce was declared on May 9. The 
Danes obstinately refused to make any concession. London 
Seizing the opportunity thus presented, Prussia and 
Austria retracted the pledges which they had made 
in the London Protocol, and, on May 28, in con- 
junction with Von Beust, demanded the complete 
separation of the Duchies from Denmark and their 
consolidation into one State under the rule of Fred- 
erick of Augustenburg. Hostilities began again. 
The Prussians, under General von Bittenfeld, took 
Sonderburg, on June 29, with slight loss — the last 


battle fought. The Danes left the island after hav- 
ing"" ing lost four thousand men, of whom two thousand 
were taken as prisoners. On the 19th, a fleet of 
Austrian and Prussian ships captured the Danish 
captain, Hammer, who had earned an evil reputa- 
tion on the western coast. Another truce was de- 
clared, and finally, on October 30, a treaty of peace 
was signed at Vienna, by the terms of which the 
King of Denmark ceded all his rights to Schleswig- 

Sctaleswi- & ° ° 

Hoist*.!! ilolstein and Lauenburg to the Lmperor of Austria 
and the King of Prussia. Neither the Duchies nor 
the Confederation were represented at the signing 
of the treaty. 

In China, Major Gordon, after two months' ab- 
stention from the war, had sunk his differences 
with Li Hung Chang and returned to quell the 
Taiping rebellion. February 18, he left Quinsan 
with his men and took the field anew. Chung 
Wang's force retired to Changchow, and Chung 
returned to Nanking. General Ching had seized 
Pingmang, and obtained another entrance to the 
Taho Lake. Gordon attacked Changchow. The 
stockades were carried; a great many rebels were 
killed, and 5,000 were taken prisoners. The strong- 
hold of .Lizang surrendered. Gordon attempted to 
capture Kintang, but he here suffered his second 
defeat, and had to retreat to Lizang, and thence to 
Wusieh. Fushan was taken and soon Changu was 
surrounded by the Taipings. But Chung captured 
Kashingfoo, and Isung Tong had recovered Hang- 
chow. Major Gordon, incapacitated by a wound, 
directed all operations from his boat. The Taipings 

1864 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1391 

returned from before Chanzu, but offered battle 
at Waisso. Gordon failed in getting bis gunboats 
up the creek, his infantry was out-manoeuvred and 
routed. Collecting fresh troops after a week's rest, 
Gordon resumed his attack on W aisso and captured 
the place. The rebel army was practically destroyed. 
The capture of Changchow followed as the next 
success, and the crowning event of the campaign. 
The leader was taken prisoner and executed. This 
was the last action of the Ever- Victorious army. 
After Changchow, Tayon was evacuated. Nanking 
alone remained in rebel hands. Tien W ang, despair- Death of 

°' r Tien Wang 

ing of success, committed suicide. Thus died the 
man who thirteen years before had erected the stand- 
ard of revolt in Kwangsi. On July 10, the imperi- 
alists had run a gallery under the walls of Nanking, 
and charged it with 40,000 pounds of powder. The 
explosion destroyed fifty yards of the walls, and 
the imperialists poured through the breach. Later 
Chung Wang was captured. On August 7, this wanjshot 
hero of the Taiping movement was executed. 

In America, when the time came for new military 
operations in 1864, the country turned to Grant. On 
the first of March he was made a Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral and called to Washington. While there he out- 
lined the general strategy of the approaching cam- 
paign. His old command in the West was given to 
Sherman, Sherman's to McPherson, and McPher- Processor 

' ' American 

son's to Logan. Command of the Army of the Poto- war 
mac was left to Meade. Grant himself accompanied 
that army, leaving to Sherman great freedom in the 
conduct of operations in the West. 

A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1864 

As to Lee, Grant resolved at the last moment 
to engage him in front, and "pound his army to 
pieces." Sheridan was summoned East to take 
charge of the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. 
Grant's own army was reduced to three corps, under 
Hancock, Warren and Sedgwick. Burnside's force 
of 20,000 was blended with Meade's. 

Some notable naval encounters were won by the 
Confederate ironclad "Albemarle" in Albemarle 

The "Albe- 

expioits Sound. Immediately upon her completion, on April 
19, she came out to drive away the Federal ships, 
which threatened the way for the Southern army 
before Richmond. In midstream the Federal gun- 
boats "Miami" and "Southfield" were lashed to- 
gether so as to catch their dangerous opponent be- 
tween them. Captain Cooke of the "Albemarle," 
on approaching the two vessels, steamed out of the 
current, and, under a heavy fire, turned at right 
angles and charged the "Southfield" at full speed 
amidships. His ram plowed ten feet into the 
"Southfield's" side. At once the "Southfield" 
began to sink, and carried down with her the bow 

fteSrwuik °f tne Confederate ironclad. The whole forward 
part of the ship was carried under the water. Across 
the sinking "Southfield," the "Miami" fired a nine- 
inch shell into the "Albemarle." It struck her 
armor nearly at right angles, and the fragments of 
the shell, flying back, killed the "Miami's" com- 

After this Federal defeat a strong flotilla was de- 
spatched to Pamlico Sound to watch the "Albe- 
marle." On May 5, the "Albemarle" came out and 

1864 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1893 

roughly handled the "Mattabessete" and "Miami." 
The Federal ship "Sassacus" rammed her, but failed 
to sink her. Before she could back out, the "Albe- 
marle" put a shot through the boiler of the " Sassa- ,. Sassa _ 
cus," disabling thirteen men. An attempt to board babied 
her was beaten off. In the midst of the steam and 
confusion, the "Sassacus, " drifted clear. 

After this second defeat it was determined to ac- 
complish the destruction of the dangerous ironclad 
by means of torpedo launches. Lieutenant Cushing, 
who, young as he was, had already distinguished 
himself by repeated exploits, volunteered for this 
dangerous service. In his first attempt he ran 
aground and could not get off until daylight. On 
the following night he stood into the harbor with 
his launch with the intention of boarding the "Al- 
bemarle." As he rounded the shore a watch-dog 
gave the alarm. The Confederate watch-fires were 
fed with oil, and in the glare Cushing's boat became exploit 5 ' 8 
a target for sharpshooters. He ran at the "Albe- 
marle," but found that she was surrounded by large 
fenders. Under a rattling fire, Cushing backed ouc 
about a hundred yards and then jumped the logs 
at full speed. As his projecting pole struck the 
"Albemarle's" side, he pulled the torpedo string. 
There was a dull roar, a column of water arose, and 

The "Albe- 

the "Albemarle" heeled over. One of her hundred- marie" 


pounders, crammed with canister, was fired off over 
Cushing's head. The torpedo boat was disabled. 
Her crew surrendered. Cushing jumped overboard 
and swam down stream. All day long he hid in a 
swamp. Next night he found a boat and rejoined 

1394 A HISTORY OF THE 8umuiBrl8W 

the squadron. Cushing was promoted and received 
the thanks of Congress. After the war the "Albe- 
marle" was raised and refitted for sea service. 

The worst injury done to the Northern cause 
was the destruction of commerce on the sea. This 
was accomplished by Southern vessels of two t)'pes. 
The first type included small coasting privateers, 
such as the "Jeff Davis," "Winslow," "Retribu- 
tion" and "Echo." They stole out of Southern 

Southern J 

privateers seaports at night, manned by sailors of great dar- 
ing, and preyed upon passing Union merchantmen. 
In one case the men on a Northern prize, the 
schooner "S. J. Waring," captured by the "Jeff 
Davis," turned on the prize crew, and butchered 
them while they were asleep. Without accomplish- 
ing much, these vessels served to make all coastwise 
trade precarious for American shippers. 

More serious were the depredations of privateering 
steam cruisers. First in turn came the "Sumter," 

^aumter" commanded by the famous captain, Raphael Sernmes, 
who had won distinction in the Mexican War. After 
capturing more than a dozen prizes in American 
waters, the "Sumter" cruised through the Spanish 
Main and put into Cadiz. Ordered out of Cadiz, 
the "Sumter" was chased into Gibraltar, where 
she was tightly blockaded by the Federal cruis- 
ers "Tuscarora," "Chippewa" and "Kearsarge." 
Sernmes had to sell his ship and disband the 
crew. Under an English flag the "Sumter" be- 
came a blockade runner, running in and out 
of Wilmington. 

The two most dangerous commerce destroyers, 

1864 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1395 

the "Alabama" and "Florida," were built and 
fitted out in England. When the "Florida," which 
was designed as a warship, was building, the atten- 
tion of Earl Russell was called to her. It was pre- The 
tended that the ship, which was then named "Oreto," " Flcnda " 
had been ordered by the Italian Government. The 
Italian Consul at Liverpool disclaimed all knowl- 
edge of her. The vessel was permitted to put to 
sea and stood across to the British port of Nassau, 
in the Bahamas, the headquarters of the Southern 
blockade runners. There she openly proceeded to 
take on arms and munitions. On the protest of the 
Federal authorities, a perfunctory inquiry was insti- 
tuted by the British. The "Florida" was released 
and proceeded to Green Bay, where she took onconniv- 
two seven-inch and four six-inch rifled guns. Under 
an English flag she ran past the Northern cruisers 
blockading Mobile. "With a full crew the "Florida" 
steamed out of Mobile and led the pursuing North- 
ern cruisers an all day's chase. During the next 
few days the,"Florida" captured half-a-dozen prizes, 
among them the American clipper "Jacob Bell," 
with a million and a half dollars' worth of Chinese 
silk. Whenever it was necessary the "Florida" 
coaled in British ports of the West Indies. One 
of her prizes, a Baltimore brig, after capture was 
armed with a howitzer and a number of dummy 
guns, and went on a privateering cruise of her 
own under Lieutenant Read. This officer within a 
few weeks made more than a score of prizes. At 
last he slipped into Portland, Maine, and seized the^dJ 
Federal excise cutter "Caleb Cushing." He was 



Summer 1864 







pursued by two steamers and three tugs, and 
was finally captured. Meanwhile, the "Florida" 
had scuttled the "United States," a mail steamer, 
just outside of New York. The shippers of New 
York were in a panic. To avoid capture, the "Flor- 
ida" ran straight across the Atlantic to Teneriffe, 
and thence back to South America, where she en- 
tered the Brazilian port of Bahia. The Federal 
sloop-of-war "Wachusett" was lying in the harbor. 
A Brazilian ship was anchored between the two hos- 
tile vessels. Under cover of darkness the "Wachu- 
sett" left her moorings, and, passing the Brazilian 
vessel, rammed the "Florida." Shot and shell were 
poured into the Confederate vessel at close range, 
and she was driven to surrender. Captain. Collins 
of the "Wachusett" towed the "Florida" out of 
the harbor, and was chased beyond neutral waters 
by Brazilian men-of-war. On Brazil's demand for 
satisfaction Collins was ordered to take the "Florida" 
back to Bahia and surrender her. Under the eyes of 
his admiral, Collins scuttled the ship and sank her. 
A poor excuse of so flagrant a breach of the law 
of nations was found in England's persistent viola- 
tion of neutrality. The worst instance was the fa- 
mous case of the "Alabama." This formidable 
cruiser, under the designation of No. 290, was 
built for the Confederacy in Laird's shipyard at 
Birkenhead. The American Consul at Birkenhead 
and Minister Adams at London lodged emphatic 
protests against this procedure with the British 
Government. Still the "Alabama" was permitted 
to put out of Liverpool. She was met in the 

1864 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1397 

Azores by an English steamer bringing Captain 
.Raphael Semmes, ex-commander of the "Sumter," 
and a crew composed largely of Englishmen, among 
them trained gunners of the royal navy. Having 
received her armament, the "Alabama" hoisted the 
Confederate flag and started on her privateering 
cruise in the waters of the Azores. Within a fort- 
night Semmes captured ten Northern whalers, all 
of which he either scuttled or burned. Standing 
over to the Newfoundland Banks, he captured a 
dozen or so of outward-bound corn ships. Off 
Hayti, Semmes captured the Northern mail steamer 
"Ariel." A bond for $216,000 was exacted, and 
£1,900 in cash were taken on board the ship. 
Next, Captain Semmes lured the weak Federal 
cruiser "Hatteras" into open water, and sunk her 
in a sensational encounter. 

After this the "Alabama" ran up and down 


the South American coast, making a rich haul of de preda- 
twenty-four prizes, and then crossed over to the 
Cape of Good Hope, capturing two prizes on 
the way, and steamed thence to the East Indies. 
After a long cruise, Semmes put into the French, 
port of Cherbourg. Captain Semmes could boast 
that he had driven the United States merchant 
flag from the seas. 

In European waters, off Flushing, lay the United 
States sloop-of-war "Kearsarge," commanded by 
Captain Winslow. (Jn the arrival of the "Ala- 
bama" at Cherbourg, Minister Bigelow at Paris 

& ' B The"Kear- 

immediately telegraphed the news to Winslow Summoned 
The "Kearsarge" steamed down the channel and 
XlXth Century— Vol. 3— G 

1398 A HISTORY OF THE June 1864 

appeared off Cherbourg. The sides of the "Kear- 
sarge" were covered with chains. On Sunday, June 
19, the "Alabama" came out, attended by the 
French ironclad "Couronne," to keep the bellig- 
erents beyond the three-mile neutral zone. The 
owner of the English yacht "Deerhound," with 
his children, came out after the "Alabama" to 
sensa- enjoy a good view of the fight. The "Kear- 
sea tight sarge" steamed out nearly seven miles. Then she 
turned and made for the "Alabama." Semmes 
opened the fight with a hundred-pound shot 
through the "Kearsarge's" rigging, and fol- 
lowed it up with a broadside. The two ves- 
sels, fighting at a range of nine hundred yards, 
steamed around and around in a small circle. 
Once a shot carried away the "Alabama's" colors. 
The men on the "Kearsarge" thought she had 
struck and cheered tumultuously, but a broadside 
from the "Alabama" disabused them. The "Ala- 
bama" was already sinking, when a shot from her 
struck the halyards of the "Kearsarge's" second 
ensign, stopped at the mizzenmast in case her other 
••Aia- fl a g s were shot away. The colors floated free in 
sunk apparent victory. Under sail, Semmes now tried to 

make for neutral waters, but the "Kearsarge" stood 
across nis bow and raked her. The "Alabama's" 
stern settled under water, and Semmes hoisted a 
white flag. The remaining Confederate sailors took 
spars and swam for life. Immediately the English 
yacht "Deerhound" approached, and picking up 
Semmes with fourteen of his officers and twenty- 
eight men from the water, ran fjr the English 


coast with all speed, unmindful of the "Kear- 
earge's" signals to deliver the prisoners. 

Altogether, the Confederate commerce destroyers 
and privateers captured 261 vessels, and practically 
ruined America's maritime commerce. In 1864 an 
English shipping authority stated that during the 
previous year the clearances of British ships had^ h mer ican 
increased by 14,000,000 tons, while there had been ruined 
a decrease in American ships engaged in trade with 
England amounting to 47 per cent. After the war 
the United States claimed heavy damages from 
England for the injuries inflicted by the British 
built steamers "Shenandoah," "Florida" and "Ala- 
bama." These demands were referred to arbitra- 
tion. The international arbitrators sitting at Ge- 
neva sentenced Great Britain to pay an indemnity 
of £3,100,000. The indemnity was paid. 

In the turmoil of the Civil War the death of 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, the American novelist, on „ „_ . 

' ' Death of 

May 19, was almost unnoticed. He had returned to Hawthortd 
the United States shortly before the outbreak of the 
Civil War. While in no sense a rival of his great 
contemporaries in modern fiction, Hawthorne held 
a unique place in that field. James Russell Lowell 
gave exaggerated expression to this when he said 
that "the world might sooner see another Shake- 
speare than another Hawthorne." 

Grant resumed his campaign with 120,000 men. 
The Confederates on the south side of the Rapidan 
under Lee numbered about 60,000 men. The corps 

r Grant 

were under Longstreet, Ewell and Hill. Other resumes 

D ' campaign 

generals were Gordon, Johnston, Rodes, Ramseur, 

1400 A HISTORY OF THE May 1864 

Heth, Hampton and the two Lees. Stuart com- 
manded the cavalry. On May 4, the Army of the 
.Potomac crossed the Rapidan at midnight, to begin 
its final advance on Richmond. On May 5-7, the 
first trial of strength between Grant and Lee oc- 
curred in the long drawn out Battle of the Wilder- 
ness. Grant was repulsed in frontal attacks, and 

Battioof a succession of flank movements were indecisive. 
Longstreet was wounded, and Wadsworth and 
Hayes of Grant's army were killed. Grant lost 
2,246 killed, 12,037 wounded and 8,583 missing; 
the Confederates lost 2,000 killed, 6,000 wounded 
and 3,400 prisoners. Grant declined to attack Lee 
agaiD in his intrenchments, and moved by the left 
flank toward Spottsylvania Court House to inter- 
pose between Lee and Richmond. Lee, however, 

Fearful was too quick for him. From May 8 to 12, fearful 
indecisive battles were fought at Spottsylvania, the 
Federals losing 37,335 men and the Confederates 
10,000. The "bloody angle" at Spottsylvania was 
perhaps the stubbornest fight of the war. Grant 
telegraphed, "I propose to fight it out on this line 
if it takes all summer." It took longer. May 19, 
he resumed his flank movement and reached Guiney 
Station on the 21st. On May 9, Sheridan, who had 

tact7c 8 aas cut loose, moved around the left of Lee's army, de- 
feated the Confederate cavalry in four engagements, 
and in sixteen days passed entirely around Lee's 
army, thus equalling Stuart's famous "ride around 
McClellan." At a point six miles from Richmond, 

sufart° f on -^ a y ^' a fi erce cavalry engagement was fought, 
in which Stuart was killed, and Sheridan advanced 

1864 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURA 1401 

to the outer defences of Richmond. Sheridan at 
last joined Butler, who, on May 6, had taken Ber- 
muda Hundred, and the 17th left to rejoin Grant 
at Drewry's Bluff. 

Grant began a new flank movement toward Eich 
mond on the 20th. He reached Cold Harbor near 
the Chickahominy, and added Butler's forces to 
his own. Face to face again with Lee, he made 
a bloody effort to crush Lee in his intrenchments 

J Cold 

but failed. After that Grant became more careful, Harbo «" 
and gave up headlong assaults on fortified positions. 
Up to this time Lee had disabled more men than he 
commanded. Grant wrote in his Memoirs, "I have 
always regretted that last assault at Cold Harbor." 
June 4-24, Sheridan made his second raid. He 
aimed to threaten Richmond from the rear, but 
Hunter failed to meet him at Gordonsville. On 
June 5, at Piedmont, Hunter defeated Jones and 
advanced up the Shenandoah Valley. Grant con- 
tinued his movement by the left flank on June 
7, crossed the Chickahominy on the 13th, and the Petersburg 
James with 115,000 men on the two following days. 
Vain attacks on Petersburg were made from the 
15th to the 22d. On June 21 to 22 a large force 
was sent to destroy the Weldon Road, but was de- 
feated by A. P. Hill, with a loss of 604 killed, 2,494 brilliant 


wounded and 2,217 prisoners, the Confederate loss 
being only 500. 

With 17,000 men General Early, on July 1, began 
a campaign against Washington via the Shenandoah 
Valley. He crossed the Potomac into Maryland and 
entered on the passage of South Mountain. Grant 

1102 A HISTORY OF THE 8ummer 1864 

despatched Bickett's division to Baltimore. An 
u.nance action with General Lew Wallace checked the Con- 
iiicton federate advance, giving time for troops to reach 
Washington and Baltimore. On July 11, Early got 
within sight of the Capital, but recrossed the Po- 
tomac on July 14 laden with plunder. Near Win- 
chester Early turned and defeated Crook, and 
drove the Federals out of the Shenandoah Valley 
and across the Potomac. 

Farragut added fresh lustre to his fame at Mobile. 
He had already asked for ironclads wherewith to 
attack the forts of Mobile Bay and the new Con- 
federate ironclad "Tennessee." His request was 
granted. The four monitors "Tecumseh," "Man- 
hattan," "Winnebago" and "Chickasaw" joined 
his squadron. Besides the monitors Farragut now 
had a fleet of fourteen wooden ships. He lashed 
the wooden ships together in pairs, and on August 
5 gave orders to run the narrow passage of Fort 
Morgan. As at New Orleans, he raised his flag 
over the "Hartford." Shortly before six in the 
morning the long line steamed into Mobile. Farra- 
gut climbed up into the shrouds to get a good view. 
As the smoke of the guns arose around him, he 
mounted higher and higher, until a man was sent 
up after him to lash him in his place lest he fall. 
The monitors steamed ahead slowly, and the other 
ships, slowing down, dropped back from the rest 
of the squadron. The strong current carried them 
across the channel, and the long line of ships 
curled itself up directly under a raking fire from 
Fort Morgan. Farragut signalled to the "Brook - 





lyn": "Order the monitors ahead, and go on." 
From the signal mast of the "Brooklyn" came the 
answer: "Torpedoes." Then it was that Farragut 
swore his historic oath: "Damn the torpedoes. " ^° t ^ istorio 
The "Tecumseh," discerning the Confederate iron- 
clad "Tennessee" through the smoke, dashed at her 
over the line of torpedoes. There was a muffled 
roar, and the stern of the "Tecumseh" heeling 


up, she lurched over and went to the bottom with"Tecum- 

* sen" sunk 

ninety-three of her men. In the pilot-house were 
her commander, Craven, and the pilot. One only 
could pass through the narrow manhole. With the 
water rushing in, Craven drew back and said: " After _ 

° ' Craven's 

you, pilot." The pilot escaped, but Craven went heroisai 
down with his ship. Meanwhile, the flagship 
shot forward through the smoke, and clearing the 
"Brooklyn," took the lead. It was her turn to 
pass over the torpedoes. They grated against the 
bottom without exploding. The other ships fol- 
lowed the flagship. As soon as they cleared the 
line of torpedoes, Buchanan on the Confederate 
"Tennessee" tried to ram each ship in turn. He 
missed several times; but succeeded in putting a 
seven-inch shell through the "Hartford." Next 
he was rammed himself by the "Monongahela." 
The bronze beak of the "Monongahela," hampered 
by her consort "Kennebec," broke off without pen- 
etrating the "Tennessee." Buchanan now engaged 
the last ship of the Federal squadron, the "Oneida," 
and raked her fore and aft. The Federal ironclad 
"Winnebago" steamed to the rescue and wedged 
herself in between the two fighting ships, amid a 

1404 A HISTORY OF THE Ati ? . 18M 

roar of cheers from the Federal sailors. Her com- 
Sploit 3 ' maader, Stevens, who stood exposed on the turret 
of the "Winnebago," lifted his cap in acknowledg- 
ment of the applause. Then he fired his four guns 
into the "Tennessee," which retired under the guns 
of Fort Morgan. 

The Federal ships in the rear of the enemy's 
works now turned their attention to the Confeder- 
ate gunboats. They were driven up the bay. The 
Federal boat "Metacomet" chased the "Selma," 
and, engaging her at close range, fought her to a 
surrender standstill. At last the commander of the weaker 

of the 

"Seima" sa ip hauled down his flag and surrendered to his 
old friend Jouett of the "Metacomet." The two 
officers sat down to breakfast together as though 
no difference had parted them. The rest of Farra- 
gut's fleet had come to anchor above Fort Morgan. 
Shortly before nine o'clock Buchanan came out 
with the "Tennessee" to engage the whole fleet 
with his single ship. The first to get at the "Ten- 
nessee" was the "Monongahela," which rammed 
her amidships without doing her any harm. Next 
the "Lackawanna" rammed the "Tennessee" on the 
port quarter with like ill success. She was set on 

S?.. 1 ^ 'ire by one of the "Tennessee's" shells fired at close 

an s daring J 

range. The two hostile flagships now headed for 
each other. As they came together bow on, it ap- 
peared that both must sink together; but at the Jast 
moment Buchanan swerved aside and received only 
a glancing blow. The "Lackawanna," trying to ram 
the "Tennessee," struck the "Hartford" and drove 
in her timbers. 



The monitor "Manhattan" came up astern of the 
"Tennessee," and at a range of a few yards fired 
six of her 15-inch projectiles. With her were the 
"Winnebago" and "Chickasaw," pounding the after 
end of the "Tennessee." Her steering tackle had 
been shot away; one gun was disabled; three 
of the port-shutters were jammed; the funnel 
had broken off short within the casemate. Bu- 
chanan gave orders for the "Tennessee" to steer 
for Fort Morgan. A shot carried off Buchanan's 
leg. He was carried down, and the command of 
the ship passed to Captain Johnston. For twenty 
minutes longer the "Tennessee" faced her oppo- 
nents. She could not fire a gun nor do any more 
harm. Further resistance was useless. Johnston ob- surrender 
tained Buchanan's consent to a surrender. The° 

"Tennessee's" total loss in men was two killed 
and nine wounded. On the Federal side, the loss 
was 145 killed, 170 wounded and four men, who 
swam ashore. 

Fort Gaines was taken, and on the 23d Fort 
Morgan yielded to a bombardment. The port of 
Mobile was henceforth completely closed to Con- MobilQ 
federate commerce, but the city itself held out holdBOUt 
until the following April. 

On August 7, Sheridan succeeded Hunter in the 
command of the Army of the Shenandoah. His 
force comprised the sixth corps, Wright's, the nine- 
teenth, Emory's, Crook's army of western "Virginia, 
and cavalry — in all 22,000 infantry and 8,000 horse. 
Grant made, on August 14, a heavy demonstration 
against Richmond. Later,, Grant again threatened 


1406 A HISTORY OF THE Oct. 1864 

Richmond to prevent reinforcements to Early. 
Sheridan on his return movement devastated the 
Shenandoah Valley — the granary of Richmond — of 
its food and forage. Early, reinforced, followed 
Sheridan down the valley on October 7, but was 
defeated at Fisher's Hill. At Cedar Creek, Octo- 
ber 19, Early surprised and routed General Wright 
in the absence of Sheridan, who was twenty miles 
away. Sheridan, hearing the guns, made his fa- 
mous ride, rallied his men, and crushingly defeated 

Shendan'9 t ^ Q Confederates. Sheridan's ride, celebrated in 
American annals, has been commemorated in stir- 
ring verse by Thomas Buchanan Read. 

Two notable exploits were performed by Confed- 
erate submerged boats. The first of these had been 
built at Mobile and brought overland to Charleston. 
She had ballast tank and lateral fins to raise or sub- 
merge her, but had the fatal defect of carrying no 
reserve of air. On her first trial she drowned eight 
men. Five times in succession she sank drowning 
or endangering her crew. Having been recovered 
for the sixth time, officers Carlson and Dickson 
of the Confederate army offered to take her out 

warfare 116 against the Federal squadron. They succeeded in 
exploding a torpedo under the "Housatonic," 
which sank immediately. All on board the sub- 
marine boat were drowned. 

On October 6, Lieutenant Glassel, with a crew of 
Confederate volunteers, took out the submarine boat 
"Davis" against the Federal "Ironsides." A spar 
torpedo projected from her bow. The officers on 
board the "Ironsides" saw the top of the sub- 

1864 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1407 

marine boat's hatchway an instant before the tor- 
pedo exploded. The "Ironsides" was severely 
shaken but uninjured. The crew of the sub- 
marine boat jumped overboard at the moment of 
contact. They took the disabled "Davis" back. 

The great campaign in the West began in May, 
when Sherman moved southward from Chattanooga 
with 100,000 men to meet Johnston, who had 68,000 
troops. Sherman's columns were led by Thomas, 

r •' Campaign 

McPherson and Schofield, and Johnston's by Hood, "* the west 
Pike and Hardee. "If the enemy interrupt our 
communications," said Sherman, "I will be ab- 
solved from all obligations to subsist on our own re- 
sources." So began the long advance upon Atlanta. 
Johnston's retreat was masterly. He left tabula rasa 
in his rear, and stubborn fighting occurred at Dal- 
ton, Eoscoe, Cassville, Allatoona and Dallas. On 
May 15, Johnston retired toward Dallas and burned 
the bridges behind him, and four days later crossed 
the Etowah, took a strong position at Allatoona advance' 3 
Pass and advanced toward Dallas. On the 27th 
occurred the terrible contest on the heights of 
Kenesaw, in which Sherman lost 1,370 killed, 6,500 
wounded and 800 prisoners, and the Confederates 
lost 4,600. At daylight, on July 3, Sherman occu- 
pied Kenesaw Mountain. Johnston retired to a 
strong position on the Chattahoochie. 

Six days later Johnston's forces were concentrated 
behind the defences at Atlanta, where he had made 
elaborate preparations for his final conflict. Davis, 
however, did not like Johnston, and now removed ^j^ 1 
him from command. "For my own part," said 

1408 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 18«4 

Grant, "I think Johnston's tactics were right." 
On the 17th of July, Sherman began an open 
movement upon the citj. Hood was now in com- 
mand. Hood was driven into Atlanta behind his 
intrenchments on July 22. The battle lasted all 
day and covered a front of seven miles. McPher- 

M^herson son was killed, and Howard, "the Havelock of the 
Civil War," succeeded him; Slocum succeeded 
Hooker, and Stanley took Howard's place. A 
reckless attack by Hood, on the 21st, was re- 
pulsed by Logan. Sherman, on the 27th, began 
a movement by the right flank against Hood.. Dur- 
ing August be besieged Atlanta. He sent Kilpat- 
rick, August 18-22, with 5,000 cavalry on a raid. 
Kilpatrick destroyed the Macon railroad and passed 
around the Confederate lines at Atlanta. Slocum 

Fan of entered Atlanta early on September 2. Sherman 
and Hood entered into a truce for ten days, for 
the removal of non-combatants from Atlanta, dur- 
ing which 446 families of 2,035 persons were sent 
South by Sherman. 

Hood, who after the fall of Atlanta received 
a visit from Davis, adopted the latter's plan and 
invaded middle Tennessee. Late in October he 
was joined by Beauregard, who in the summer had 
saved Petersburg from Grant. Forrest had made a 
bold circuit of Sherman's army, destroying the rail- 
roads at various points. Sherman was eager to 
make his intended raid. "I can make this march 
and make Georgia howl," he telegraphed Giant. 
In the middle of November the famous march 


1864 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1409 

their favorite song, "The battle cry of Freedom," gherman . s 
the tune of which is known to the present day^ r e C a 
in America as "Marching Through Georgia." 

Thomas had been sent to .Nashville to watch 
Hood and Beauregard. Sherman's force numbered 
ODly 60,000, bat they were picked men. Howard 
and Slocum commanded the two wings. On Decem- 
ber 10, Sherman's columns faced the active defences 
of Savannah, and on the 12th they reached the 

On General Thomas at Nashville rested one of 
the greatest responsibilities of the war. He had 
55,000 men, and Hood and Forrest had as many. 
Hood began his march to Nashville on November 
21, and after several fights with Schofield, who was 
in his way, he won the battle of Franklin and 
(December 3-14) practically invested Nashville. On 
arriving he formed his line of battle, but, hoping 
for reinforcements, delayed the attack. Meanwhile, 
Thomas was ready. Grant, alarmed by Thomas's 
delay, sent Logan to take command if Thomas had 
not moved by a given date. Grant followed in 
person, but was met by the news that Thomas had 
fought his battle on the 15th and 16th and con- 
quered. On the morning of the 15th, Thomas hadT^nnellee 
thrown forward his troops and worked steadily 
ahead, until, late in the day, the Confederates were 
forced back into a new position. At daybreak 
Thomas gave orders that his troops should bear 
against the Confederate left. Hood saw his men 
breaking at all points, and at last "beheld for the 
first time a Confederate army abandoning the field 




ian's dis- 




in confusion." This ended the Confederate advance 
in Tennessee. 

When the Presidential campaign opened, the 
successes of the year made sure an overwhelming 
.Republican victory. For Lincoln and Johnson 212 
electoral votes were given, and only 21 for McClel- 
lan. Governor Seymour's defeat in New York was 
almost equally important. "The election," said 
Lincoln, "has demonstrated that a people's govern- 
ment can sustain a national election in the midst of 
a great war." McClellan resigned his commission 
in the army on the day of the election, and Sheri- 
dan was appointed in his place. Among important 
Congressional measures was that submitting a con- 
stitutional amendment prohibiting slavery. The 
establishment of the "Freedmen's Bureau" was a 
step toward the negro's comfort in his new role. 

In a message sent to Congress, on December 
6, Lincoln said: "Fondly do we hope, fervently 
do we pray, that this scourge of war may speedily 
pass away. Yet if God wills that it continue until 
all the wealth piled up by the bondman for cen- 
turies of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until 
every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be 
repaid with another drawn with the sword, it must 
be said 'the judgments of the Lord are true and 
righteous altogether.' " 

At the suggestion of the French commanders in 
Mexico, the provisional government there declared 
for an empire, and offered the crown to Archduke 
Maximilian of Austria. Long before, overtures to 
that effect had been made to Maximilian by Louis 


Napoleon. Thus the French Emperor meant to 
compensate Austria for the loss of her Venetian 
provinces and hoped to cement a secret alliance 
with Austria against Prussia. The Archduke, who 
was then in his thirty-second year, had distin- 
guished himself as a sailor, but had afterward 
fallen into disfavor for his too liberal administra- 
tion of the Austrian dominions in Italy. In his 
retirement at Castle Miramar, on the Adriatic, he 
was reached by Napoleon's emissaries, and was won 
over to the French Emperor's plans largely by 
the enthusiasm of his wife Charlotte. Still he hesi- 
tated, the more so since his brother, Emperor Fran- 0verfcures 
cis Joseph of Austria, refused to give his consent to miliar? 1 " 
the plan unless Maximilian would formally relin- 
quish his rights to the throne of Hapsburg. To 
overcome his scruples, Louis Napoleon invited 
Maximilian and his wife to Paris, where they 
were entertained with lavish hospitality. At last 
the Archduke consented to accept the crown. He 
hoped to offset the effect of this upon his rights — 

to the Austrian succession by a secret document in 
which he declared his relinquishment of these rights 
to have been obtained by coercion at Miramar. He 
signed an agreement with Louis Napoleon, by the 
terms of which he was to receive the support of 
the French troops in Mexico until his government 
could be definitely organized, after which 5,000 men of°pari? 
of the French Foreign Legion, with their allied con- 
tingents of Austrians and Belgians, were to remain 
in the country for six years. In return for this 
Maximilian agreed to pay the costs of the French 

1412 A HISTORY OF THE Sprng 1864 

expedition to Mexico, amounting to 270,000,000 
francs, in annual instalments of twenty-five mil- 
lions, to pay to each remaining soldier 1,000 francs 
per year, and to indemnify those French subjects 
whose interests had been injured in Mexico. A 
banker was found for bim in London, who ad- 
vanced 201,500,000 francs for the enterprise. Of 
this sum, Maximilian turned over 64,000,000 to 
France in first payment of his debt, and 12,000,000 

Amort- r J 

gaged loan f or the indemnities of the French subjects. A large 
part of the remaining sum went to the financiers of 
Paris and London, who negotiated the loan. • 

On April 4, the United States Congress at Wash- 
ington passed a unanimous resolution against rec- 
ognition of a monarchy in Mexico by the North 
American Republic. The attitude of the United 

United States was emphasized on May 3, by the departure 

hostile of Minister Corwin from the City of Mexico on 
the approach of the new sovereign. 

On May 28, Maximilian and Charlotte landed at 
San Juan d'Ulloa. Their hostile reception by the 
populace was the first disappointment. After the 
first festivities of the coronation and inauguration 
of imperial rule at the City of Mexico, Maximilian 
soon found himself in an awkward position. Uis 
already insufficient supply was exhausted by the 
greedy demands of Bazaine and the court satel- 
lites. The French troops, which had dwindled to 
26,000' men, were found totally inadequate against 
the increasing depredations of Mexican guerilleros. 

f^Mexico 11 Austrian and Belgian auxiliary troops, enlisted 
abroad by Count Hohenstein and Colonel Vander- 


smissen, numbering 8,000 in all, proved an addi- 
tional source of difficulty in Mexico. The officers 
of the Austrian contingent, smarting under the re- 
cent sting of Solferino and Magenta, were restive 
under Marshal Bazaine's authority. Eventually, 
Maximilian put them beyond the jurisdiction of 
the French commanders. This broke up anything 
like uniform action in military measures. 

One of the earliest acts of Maximilian was to 
despatch to Washington a special envoy, Arroyo, 
to obtain recognition from the United States Gov- 
ernment. The mission proved a failure. Sefior 
Arroyo could not even obtain an audience with 
the President, or with Secretary of State Seward. 
At the same time Juarez's emissary, Romero, made recognition 


the most of his opportunities at Washington. 

Maximilian's only hope of financial support lay 
in the proposed sequestration of Church lands. 
He did not dare to resort to this measure without 
obtaining the consent of the Pope. His overtures 
were doomed to bitter disappointment. Toward the 
close of this first year in Mexico the Papal Nuncio, 
Meglia, arrived with a personal letter from the Pope. 
Pio Nono, so far from sanctioning the spoliation of 
the Church laods, expressed his dissatisfaction with 
Maximilian's concessions to the Liberals in Mexico, 
and put forth demands for the restoration of theaDdtne 


holy orders, the absolute transfer of public educa- 
tion to the clergy, and the exclusion of any other 
religion but that of tbe Catholic Church in Mexico. 
The non-fulfilment of these plans deprived Maximil- 
ian of the powerful support of the clergy in Mexico. 



ON THE first day of January, President 
Juarez issued from Chihuahua a proc- 
lamation in which he confessed defeat, 
but appealed to the righteousness of the national 
cause in Mexico. At this time the greater part 
of the country, though by no means pacified, had 
been brought under the imperial rule. In the 
Di« south alone, General Porfirio Diaz held his own 

at Oajaca. This brilliant general, who had already 
distinguished himself in the Mexican War against 
the United States, proved too much for General 
Courtois d'Hurbal, who had been sent against him. 
Bazaine had to take command of the French forces 
in the south in person. With superior numbers he 
succeeded in taking Oajaca, and General Diaz was 
compelled to surrender. He was taken to Puebla 
as a military prisoner. Within a few months he 
managed to make his escape, and again took the 
field at the head of a band of fourteen man. Other 
guerrilleros rallied to their standard, and soon Diaz 
reappeared before Oajaca at the head of an army. 
Among all the Mexican leaders, Diaz bore the best 
reputation for military chivalry and honor. Thus 
it came that the French commanders were apt to 
turn to him when called upon by circumstances to 


trust to a leader's word, or to his humanity. Yet 
Diaz, with all his comrades in arms, was denounced 
as a brigand. Bazaine sought to check their activ- 

° ", _ Martial law 

ity by proclaiming martial law. To constitute an in Mexico 
imperial administration, Maximilian had to resort 
to force. At Mazatlan and elsewhere it was made 
a penal offence to decline an office. The reluctant 
Mexicans were made to serve against their will. 

The early spring campaign of 1865 brought the 
final scenes of the North American Civil War. 
Sherman moved northward to assist Grant in the 
rear of the Confederate force, and made a remark- 
able march. As General Cox said, "It was finding 
chaos for hundreds of miles." Charleston, rendered chiriLtoa 
untenable, surrendered on February 18 to Dahlgren 
and Gilmore, and was placed under martial law. 
On January 19, the Confederate Congress displaced 
Davis as Commander-in-Chief and appointed Lee, president 
who assumed command on February 9. At Lee's slighted 
request Hood was relieved of the command of his 
shattered army. Beauregard, enfeebled by illness, 
was superseded by General J. E. Johnston, in the 
command of the Confederate force in North Caro- 
lina. General Lee, on the 2d of February, pro- 

/-. t Peace 

posed a meeting to Grant to arrange terms of overtures 

peace. President Lincoln ordered Grant to decline 
the proposal. 

At Bentonville, North Carolina, Slocum's divi- 
sion was, on March 19-21, unexpectedly attacked 
by Johnston, and the safety of the entire army was 
in peril; but the Confederates, after six desperate 
assaults, withdrew. Bragg was sent to oppose Scho- 

1416 A HISTORY OF THE March 1805 

field, and Johnston himself faced Sherman. Avoid- 
ing a general battle, however, Sherman hnrried his 
march and reached Goldsboro, North Carolina. Ho 
there found Schofield, who had repulsed Bragg on 
the 9th of March. Here Sherman again encountered 
Johnston, who had been sent to oppose him with 
80,000 men. The two armies rested inactive. 

About the same time, a cavalry expedition under 
General J. H. Wilson destroyed the important ar- 


cavalry senal at Selma, Alabama, and dispersed Forrest's 
command. Stoneman cut off Lee's avenue of escape 
into the mountain regions of Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, and Tennessee. On March 22, Stoneman de- 
stroyed the Confederate depot of supplies at Lynch- 

confoder- burg, and from there he went, on April 9, to G.iles- 

ate sup- 
plies taken burg, North Carolina, which he captured with all 

its magazines. Grant had ordered Canby, Sheridan 
and Thomas to lay waste the railroads and military 
stores of the Confederacy. Canby moved from New 
Orleans against Mobile. Sheridan was ordered to 
push through to Lynchburg. He met Early be- 
tween Staoton and Charlotteville on March 6, and 


defeats captured almost his entire command. With over 
10,000 cavalry, he tore up miles of railroad and 
destroyed mills and factories. 

Grant ordered a general advance to the left, to 
prevent the escape of Lee. In his well-fed army he 
had 111,000 foot and 13,000 cavalry, to Lee's half- 
starved force of 61,000 foot and 6,000 cavalry. Lee 
hoped to reach Danville, form a junction with John- 
ston, and take the chance of beating Sherman with 
Grant left behind. He determined on a night as- 



sault on Grant's right at Petersburg, and assigned 
half of his active army for that purpose. The point 
chosen was near Fort Steadman, and the attack was 
to be at night. But Grant had anticipated such an 
effort, and had issued orders to meet and counteract 
the attempt. The action was begun at dawn on 
March 25. Fort Steadman and three Union batter- 
ies were taken and a gap was made in the Union 
lines. Meade sent Parke to drive the enemy back. 

J Battle of 

The Confederates were forced into Fort Steadman, £ ort . 

' Steadman 

where they were under concentrated Union fire. 

On the 24th, Grant had issued orders for the 
grand attack on Lee. Ord was moved to a posi- 
tion on the left. Weitzel remained at Bermuda 
Hundred; Parke confronted Petersburg, and Hum- 
phreys and Warren were to extend their lines west- 
ward to Five Forks, so as to strike the South Side 
and Danville railroads. Sheridan arrived on March 
25, and Sherman on the following day. Grant sent 
Sheridan either to move against Five Forks in Lee's 
rear, or to cut loose from the Army of the Potomac, 
get below Johnston, and co-operate with Sherman. 
On the 30th, Sheridan found the Confederates in campaign 
full force at Five Forks, and was forced back by 
Pickett. Grant resolved to reinforce Sheridan with 
infantry, so that he might cut loose and turn Lee's 
right flank. Pickett did not wait to be caught be- 
tween two Union columns but fell back. 

The Battle of Five Forks, on April 1, marked the 
beginning of the end. Sheridan at daybreak passed 
the retreating Confederates. Leaving "Warren to 
bring up his fifth corps, he repeated the tactics 

1418 A HISTORY OF THE ApriU865 

of his Valley campaign, cut off his antagonist from 
Five Forks j^g'g ma j n f orce? by 4 p.m. had gained the Confed- 
erate lines, aided by Ayres', Comfort's and Griffin's 
division, and sent cavalry under Custer, Merritt and 
others eastward to hold the enemy in check. At a 
critical moment he gathered the faltering battalions 
together and swept them over the enemy's breast- 
works. Pickett was routed, and 6,000 prisoners were 
taken, with guns and colors. 

At dawn of April 2, Grant assaulted Lee's slender 
line with overwhelming numbers. Wright pene- 
" trated the Confederate lines and the main works 
on his front, but lost 1,100 men in fifteen minutes. 
He was followed by Ord, and the two joined and 
closed against one side of Petersburg's outworks. 
Parke carried the lines at his front. Gibbon took 
two strong inclosed works on the south side. Gen- 
erals Parke, Humphreys and Foster, with their re- 
spective divisions, captured important Confederate 
Death of works. Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill was killed. 
General Lee notified Davis that Petersburg and 
Eichmond must be abandoned, but hopefully dis- 
cussed plans for another campaign. At nightfall 
he drew his troops from before Petersburg and 
Richmond, and began the forced march by which 
he hoped to join Johnston and renew the conflict. 
On the 3d, Petersburg was surrendered to Parke. 
Richmond Grant rode into the city and saw before him the 

evacuated J 

troops in gray retreating. Divining Lee's inten- 
tions, he despatched a message to Sheridan to push 
on to the DanvWle Road and intercept Lee. Meade 
was directed to march up the Appomattox in close 


pursuit. Learning that Richmond was evacuated, 
Grant said: "Eebel armies are now the only stra- 
tegic points to strike at." By night he was far 
south of Richmond and west of Petersburg in search 
of Lee. The chase was renewed the next morning. 
Sheridan had brought up his cavalry to Jetersville, 
eight miles south of where Lee's army was resting. 
Grant sent him two corps and with Meade joined 
him. On the night of the 5th, the whole pursuing 
force was south and west of Lee, and the railroad 
to Danville was barred against him. He now started 
west for Lynchburg. Running rights ensued on the 
6th, and Lee's left flank was harassed by Union cav- 
alry and infantry. Sheridan captured Bwell's corps 
and rep6rted that "if the thing was pressed," LeeEweirs 60 

• corps 

must surrender. "Then 'press the thing' by all 
means!" wrote Lincoln. 

On the 7th, Grant invited surrender, and named 
as his only indispensable condition that the men 
surrendered should not take up arms against the 
Union until they were properly exchanged. In the 
night Lee stole away with the second and sixth 
corps after him. The next day the struggle was^attos 
renewed at Appomattox by Sheridan, who captured 
Lee's trains and supplies. Ord and Griffin, by a 
march of thirty miles, had reached Sheridan just 
as Lee's cavalry was making an effort to break 
through. Ord closed all approaches on the south, 
as did Meade on the north and east. Lee then 
asked Grant for an interview to negotiate a surren- 
der. At 2 o'clock, on Palm Sunday, Grant and Lee 
met in a private dwelling at the edge of the village. 

1420 A HISTORY OF THE A P rili865 

Lee, accompanied only by his secretary, met Grant, 
Sheridan and Ord in a little parlor. Grant stated 
the terms clearly, in the form of a letter written 
on the spur of the moment. He granted immunity 
from arrest to all so long as they observed their 
paroles and obeyed the laws. He added that 
Confederate officers might retain their side arms. 
Lee Lee further suggested that such of his men as 

surrenders . . 

owned their horses might take them home. This 
was granted. The surrender included 28,231 men. 
Since March 29, 19,132 men had surrendered, mak- 
ing in all 47,363. 

It was on Sunday, April 2, while at church, that 
Davis received the telegram from Lee, stating that 
his lines had been broken and that Richmond must 
be evacuated. The streets soon became noisy with 
crowds. The Cabinet convened. Commissary stores 
were opened to the public. Ordnance supplies were 
thrown into the canal. Banks opened their doors 
and depositors flocked to them for their money and 
valuables. Under Ewell the details of evacuation 
were completed. On the 3d, the city was aroused 
before daylight by a series of explosions. Unfin- 

The end at . , ., , , . . . . 

Richmond ished gunboats were blown up and the arsenal was 
fired. Every Confederate armory, machine shop, 
and storehouse was burned. The fire extended to 
the warehouses, which were filled with cotton and 
tobacco. Early's rearguard burned three great 
bridges behind them. Lincoln visited the city on 
April 4 with Admiral Porter, landing from a barge 
near Libby Prison. Guided by a negro, the party 
walked a mile to the Executive Mansion from which 


Davis two days before had fled. The war was prac- 
tically over. 

Congress and the President had already turned 
their attention to the problem which would await 
the country when peace should come. On the last 
day of January the House passed a Constitutional 
amendment abolishing slavery, and on the 8th of 
February the amendment passed the Senate. Dur- 
ing the following six months it was ratified by 
most of the Northern States. The reconstruction 
of the Southern States had been considered both 
bv the Executive and Legislative departments ofRecon- 

J ■ x struction 

the government. Lincoln planned to organize loyal s t |^ s them 
governments at once, on the theory that none of the 
Southern States had been out of the Union, but that 
the machinery of their several governments had 
been seized by persons in rebellion against the 
United States. His plan had been inaugurated 
with some success in Tennessee and in Louisiana. 

In England, Eichard Cobden, the great English 
champion of free trade, died on April 3, from the 
result of overexposure in the raw spring weather cobden f 
of London. Cobden's life-long friend, John Bright, 
was asked to deliver the final eulogy on the dead 
statesman in the House of Commons. All he was 
able to say was: "After a close friendship of many 
years, I never knew how much I loved him until 
I lost him." Then John Bright buried his face in 
his hands and wept. 

The classic investigations of the blood which 
were made by Kuehne culminated, in 1865, in the ^searches 
announcement that the red corpuscles are composed 
XlXth Century— Vol. 3— H 


1422 A HISTORY OF THE April 1868 

of a substance which has a marvellous affinity for 
oxygen and which was christened "haemoglobin." 
Kuehne's discovery gave a new impetus to the 
study of the human blood. 

Within a fortnight of Cobden's death came a 
calamity ever memorable in American annals. On 
the evening of April 14, Good Friday, Abraham 
Lincoln and his wife visited Ford's Theatre in 
Washington. There the play, "Our American 
Cousin," was to be given in celebration of the 
fall of Kichmond. Grant, who was to accompany 
Ljacoin^ the President and Mrs. Lincoln, changed his mind 
and left the city by an afternoon train. Abraham" 
Lincoln, while sitting in a proscenium box with his 
wife, was shot down from behind by John Wilkes 
Booth, a fanatical son of the famous Junius Brutus 
Booth. After committing the deed the assassin 
leaped to the stage, and, rising from the fall which 
broke his leg, shouted: "Sic semper tyrannis." 
Rushing through the wings he reached his horse 
tethered at the stage entrance and dashed away. 
Laura Keene, the prima donna, was the first to 
bring assistance to the stricken President. An 
eye-witness has thus described the scene: 

"There sat Miss Keene on the floor in her cos- 
tume of the second act, her face covered with make- 
up, holding the President's head in her lap. It was 
a strange and terrible sight. Mr. Lincoln lay there 
silent, motionless, apparently knowing nothing of 
what had happened. A litter was presently brought 
in, and they carried him to a house on the opposite 
side of the street, where, during the night, he died." 


During the same night in Washington an attempt 
was made to assassinate Mr. Seward, the Secretary 
of State. Troopers were sent to run down Booth. 
He was tracked to a barn and was shot down while 
resisting the soldiery. Booth's deed was execrated 
in the South as well as in the North. The universal 
sorrow of the American people found sympathy 
abroad. Even in England, where Lincoln had ever 
been vindictively lampooned, a spirit of respect and 
admiration arose for him. 

Lincoln's death gave the inspiration for Walt 
Whitman's most famous poem: 

Captain ! my Captain ! our fearful trip is done, Whitman'3 

The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won, poem on 

f - death of 

The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, Lincoln 

While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring ; 

But, heart! heart! heart! 

Oh, the bleeding drops of red, 
"Where on the deck my Captain lies, 

Fallen cold and dead. . . . 

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still ; 
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will ; 
The ship is anchored safe and sound, its voyage closed and done, 
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; 

Exult, shores, and ring, bells! 

But I, with mournful tread, 
Walk the deck my Captain lies, 

Fallen cold and dead. 

Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was not 
long in perceiving that a new and vigorous scheme Johnson 

, r ° D President 

of reconstruction was looked for by the Senators 
who had deemed Lincoln's proposed policy too con- 
ciliatory. Stanton's draft of a military government 
was laid aside. Pressure, which proved to be irre- 
sistible, was brought to bear on Johnson to induce 

1424 A HISTORY OF THE March 1866 

a course of greater severity toward the South and 
to gain guarantees for the colored race. Happily 
Seward recovered from the assassin's knife and was 
able in some measure to modify the harsh policy 
which would have been adopted. 

The military operations of the great war drew to a 
close. "With 13,000 mounted men and six batteries, 
General Wilson, on March 22-24, had made a raid 
to assist in the capture of Mobile. General Canby 
besieged the city from March 26 to April 9. With 
30,000 men, under Smith, and a fleet, under 
Thatcher, Spanish Fort, protecting the city, was 
siege of attacked. On the 28th, the Confederates sank the 
Mo lle monitor "Milwaukee," and on the 29th the monitor 
"Osage." The next day, General Steele, with a 
division of Canby's army, arrived before Fort 
Blakely, near Mobile, and other forces soon joined 
him. Spanish Fort was assaulted by Canby on 
April 8, and part of the intrenchments were carried, 
the Confederates escaping at night. Fort Blakely, 
the other fort protecting the city, was taken by as- 
sault. On April 11, Forts Huger and Tracy were 
also taken, and the way was opened for the posses- 
sion of Mobile, which surrendered on the 12th to 


^ornery 111 ' 8,000 troops under Granger. On that day Mont- 
surrender g 0mer y was surrendered by General Adams, who 
burned 90,000 bales of cotton and fled. April 14, 
four Federal vessels in Mobile Bay were blown up 
by torpedoes. Commodore Farrand, Confederate, 
surrendered the fleet of Mobile, 'twelve vessels, to 
Commodore Simpson. April 16, Wilson captured 
Columbus, Georgia. One hundred and fifteen thou- 


sand bales of cotton were burned, and locomotives, 
cars, paper mills, manufactories, . and the arsenal Surrenders 
destroyed. Macon was surrendered to Wilson on 
April 21. Jeff Thompson surrendered 7,454 men at 
Clark Bluff, Arkansas. The last battle of the war p a io Pinto 
was fought at Palo Pinto, Texas, in which the Fed- 
erals were defeated with a loss of seventy men. 

Sherman was moving forward. On April 14, he 
received from Johnston, under a flag of truce, a pro- 
posal to suspend hostilities long enough for the civil 
authorities to arrange a peace. Sherman invited a 
personal conference, and offered terms so lenient — 

r Surrender 

even more so than those offered to Lee at Appomat- st n° hn " 
tox — that they were disapproved at Washington and 
the truce terminated. On the 25th, the two com- 
manders again met, and agreed on terms similar to 
those accepted by Grant and Lee. 

Gathering stragglers as he fled, Jefferson Davis 
proposed to renew his career on the plains of Texas, 
but on May 26 the last armed force of the rebellion 
was obliterated by the surrender of General E. 

u Jefferson 

Kirby Smith. Davis, with his family, was captured ^tured 
at Irwinsville by General Wilson's cavalry, and was 
sent to Fortress Monroe. On May 6, he was in- 
dicted for treason by a grand jury in the Circuit 
Court of Virginia. However, Horace Greeley and 
others signed Davis's bail bond at Richmond, where- 
upon he was released from prison. One week later 
ne left the United States to reside in Canada, but in 
November returned to Richmond. Subsequently he 
returned with his family to his home at Beauvoir. ^0^"°° 
Mississippi, where he lived in peace for many years. 

i426 A HISTORY OF THE May 1865 

The total number of Federal troops engaged in 
the war, as reported by the Adjutant-General's office, 
was 2,772,448. The number of enlistments was 
2,898,304. By reductions to a three years' basis, 
the number was 1,556,678. The number who served 
in the Confederate army was 1,234,000. The losses 

sStistics in tlae Union army of killed and wounded were 
385,245, while it is estimated that 94,000 were killed 
in the Confederate army. The expenses of the Na- 
tional Government and the several States amounted 
to $6,165,237,000. The total cost of the war, North 
and South, according to David A. Wells, was 

In May, the war debt was $2,808,549,437. On 

finances May 3, the last war loan was authorized. Congress 
imposed a tax on all due notes of State Banks after 
July 1, and the result of the law was to drive the 
notes of State Banks out of circulation, and estab- 
lish more firmly the National Banks. 

The close of the Civil War in North America 
afforded to the government of the United States its 
first opportunity to take a hand in the affairs of 
Mexico. With the large Union army still at its dis- 

Foreign . 

reiatious posal, the American Government was in a position 
to enforce its demands. At the time that foreign 
interference in the affairs of Mexico had been deter- 
mined upon by Great Britain, France and Spain, 
the American Government had already declined to 
become a party to the agreement and expedition. 
Secretary of State Seward on that occasion already 
stated in guarded words that "the United States will 
not consent that any foreign government should ac- 

1865 Summer. NINETEENTH CENTURY 1427 

quire territory in Mexico, or exercise any influence 

to interfere with the free choice of its people. " This DocErme 

determination was reasserted repeatedly throughout rea 

the trying years of the Civil War, while the French 

Emperor as often repeated his assurances, given in 

June, 1862, after the rupture with the allies, that 

"the French troops do not go to Mexico to interfere 

with the form of government, nor to acquire an inch 

of territory, but that their only object was to secure 

a settlement of the French claims." 

After the surrender of General Lee many officers 

and men of General Bank's command crossed the 

Mexican border, and took part in the attack of 

General Cortinas at Matamoras. General Slaughter 

of the Confederate army opened negotiations with confeder- 
ates flock 
Marshal Bazaine for a transfer of 25,000 Confederate to Mexico 

soldiers to Mexico. Confederate officers came flock- 
ing to Mexico, among them Generals Kirby Smith, 
Magruder, Shelby, Slaughter, Walker, Terrell of 
Texas, Governor Price of Missouri, Wilcox of Ten- 
nessee, Commodore Maury of Virginia, Governor 
Eeynolds of Georgia, Judge Perkins with Pierre 
Soule of Louisiana, and General Hindman of Ar- 
kansas. Governor Price received authorization to 
recruit an imperial army in the Confederacy. Gov- 
ernor Harris of Tennessee, with Judge Perkins, 
Generals Magruder and Stone, Commodore Maury Gwm's cow 

J onizatioQ 

and Doctor Gwin, having become naturalized as scheme 
Mexicans, became the prime movers of a coloniza- 
tion scheme of ambitious proportions. This was 
all that was needed to turn the scale in the North 
against Mexico. A colony of armed Confederates, 



Summer 1865 

cans en- 

Death of 
De Morny 


hostile to the government of the United States, and 
backed by France, Austria and Belgium, could not 
be tolerated on the Mexican border. Another at- 
tempt made by Maximilian to obtain the recognition 
of the United States in July resulted in signal fail- 
ure. Recruiting offices on behalf of the Mexican 
Republic were opened in New York and other 
American cities. Reports reached Mexico that 
Juarez had succeeded in raising a large loan 
in North America. Admiral Cloue', in command 
of the French Gulf squadron, complained that 
United States war vessels afforded protection to 
the Juarists. The United States lodged an em- 
phatic protest against Napoleon's project to secure 
Maximilian's debt to France by a lien on the mines 
of Sonora. Dr. Gwin's visit to Louis Napoleon's 
court in Paris about this time did not improve 
the situation between France and America. On the 
other hand, the recent death of the Due de Morny, 
one of the moving spirits of the Mexican enterprise 
in Paris, had a dampening effect on the waning 
cause of France in Mexico. 

None the less, a report that Juarez with his forces 
had been driven beyond the frontier was hailed 
by Maximilian as the end of the Mexican civil 
war. On October 3, he issued his notorious decree, 
known in Mexican history as the Bando negro. In 
this fatal enactment all armed Republicans were 
proclaimed as outlaws. When taken with arms 
they were ordered to be shot within twenty-four 
hours. On October 13, the Mexican generals, Or- 
taga and Salazar, were shot under this decree. 

Treaty of 


In Schleswig-Holstein, in the meantime, the agita- 
tion on behalf of Frederick, if not actually furthered 
by the Austrian commissioner, had at least been 
tolerated by him. Prussia forthwith transferred hei 
naval base from Dantzig to Kiel. The Prussian 
Minister of War, Von Eoon, bluntly declared that 
he was emphatically opposed to giving up the latter 
port. Only King William of Prussia was still in- 
clined to peaceful measures. He arranged a meet 
ing with the Austrian Emperor at Gastein. War Gastei 
was for the moment avoided by the treaty of Gas- 
tein, signed on August 16. By the terms of the 
treaty, Lauenburg was sold to Prussia for six mil- 
lion marks; Schleswig was placed under the control 
of Prussia, and Holstein under that of Austria. 
Kiel, the subsequent naval port of the Confedera- 
tion, and Eendsburg, the subsequent fortress of the 
Confederation, were held in common. 

But the Gastein treaty was merely a truce. 
Von Manteuffel, the Prussian Governor of Schles- 
wig, suppressed any popular movement which 
seemed detrimental to the interests of his coun- 
try. He even threatened Frederick of Augusten- 

J & Manteuffel 

burg with arrest when he was ceremoniously re- jf chleawiff 
ceived at Eckenforde. In Holstein, on the other 
hand, the Austrian Governor, Von Gablenz, per- 
mitted the Augustenburg party to sow the seed of 
discontent broadcast. He had no desire "to rule 
like a Turkish Pasha," he said. 

Bismarck saw that war with Austria was fast 


becoming unavoidable. An opportunity had pre-^ 1 ^ ,la " 
sented itself, by the turn affairs had taken in 

1430 A HISTORY OF THE 1865 

Holstein, for augmenting the power of Prussia. 
If the opposition of Austria and of the Bundestag 
prevented him from seizing the chance, he would 
assuredly suffer a defeat incalculable in its results. 
There was but one way to attain his purpose; to 
wit, the conversion of the Schleswig-Holstein ques- 
tion from one of merely Prussian importance to 
one of national concern. What Bismarck meant 
to acquire for Prussia was not for his king alone, 
but for the entire German nation as well. Thus it 
was that, unbeknown to the German people, the 
The "Man Schleswig-Holstein problem became inextricably 
andiron" bound up with the task of securing German 
national unity. In paraphrase of Arndt's song 
of Napoleonic days, Bismarck exclaimed in Par- 
liament: "The great questions of the time are 
solved not by speech-making and the resolutions 
of majorities, but by blood and iron." 

Constant Troyon, the famous French landscape 
and cattle painter, died during this year. After 
Troyon Troyon's death a number of his canvases were ac- 
quired for large sums by the museums of the Luxem- 
bourg, Bordeaux, Lyons and other cities. Thence- 
forward, until the close of the century, Troyon's 
remaining canvases steadily grew in value. In his 
"Contemporary French Painters," Hamerton wrote 
of him: "Troyon had a more poetical mind than 
any other artist of the same class, and the poetry of 
the fields has never been more feelingly interpreted 
than by him." 

On the dissolution of the English Parliament, 
Gladstone found that his former constituents at 


Oxford had turned against him. He hastened to 
Lancashire and lost no time in presenting him- 
self as a candidate for the southern division of that 
populous county. Gladstone's Liberal supporters re- 
joiced in his rejection at Oxford as a gain to their 
cause. It had long been felt that the pride which 
Gladstone took in representing his own university- 
acted as a restraint on his more pronounced liberal 
views. After a hard contest, Gladstone won his 

Shortly after the Parliamentary elections, Lord 
Palmerston, the Prime Minister, died at Brockett 
Hall, in Hertfordshire. It was as Foreign Secre- pafme° f 
tary that Palmerston, familiarly called "Pam," ob- ston 
tained that reputation for commissions and vigorous 
initiative that made his name a word of exulta- 
tion to his admirers. On the fall of Lord Derby's 
Ministry in 1859, Lord Palmerston returned to the 
helm as Prime Minister, and maintained himself at 
the head of affairs until his death, at the advanced 
age of eighty-one years. He was buried at West- 
minster Abbey. Earl Eussell succeeded as Prime 
Minister, while Gladstone became the leader of the 
Ministry in the Commons. 

1432 A HISTORY OF THE 1866 



FINANCIAL panic of serious proportions 
was started in England by the failure of the 

English 2 1. o j 

financial \& joint stock company of Oberend, Gur- 

ney & Co. This initial failure early in the year was 
followed by an immediate rise in the Bank of Eng- 
land's rate of discount from the high rate of 8 to 9 
per cent. Other bankruptcies came in quick succes- 
sion. Several great railway contractors went into 
liquidation, followed by the failures of the Consoli- 
dated Discount Company and the Imperial Mercan- 
tile Credit Association. On the night of this disas- 
trous day in Lombard Street, Gladstone announced 
in the House of Commons that the government had 
determined once more to suspend the Bank Charter 
Act. On the same day the Bank of England raised 
its loans by more than £4,000,000. These prompt 
measures saved the country from a more serious 
financial crisis, though many bank failures were 
still announced. 

With the death of Karl Almquist, Sweden lost one 
of her most brilliant writers. As a young man, Alm- 
quist acquired notoriety as the founder of a so-called 

AimquUit "Mun's-Home Association," a colony established in 
the forests of V&rmland for the purpose of returning 
to primitive life. The colony proved a failure, and 

1866 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1433 

Almquist was compelled to become a schoolmaster 
in Stockholm. It was then that he published the 
writings which rapidly made him famous. In 1851, 
Almquist fled from Sweden charged with forgery 
and murder. He landed in America, assumed a 
fictitious name, and became Lincoln's private secre- 
retary, so he said. In 1866, he was again compelled 
to flee, and escaped to Bremen, where he died. 

The dissensions between the Prussian House of 
Kepresentatives and the government; the feeling in 
Schleswig-Holstein and in the other German States, 
where both government and people, hardly ever in situation 

& r \ ' J inGermany 

harmony, were now filled with distrust of Prussia ; 
the hostility of Austria; the jealousy of the other 
Powers — these were but a few of the obstacles en- 
countered by Prussia in her attempt to adjust the 
affairs of Schleswig and Holstein. But one alliance 
could be counted upon by Bismarck in this emer- 
gency. This was Italy, which longed to come into 
possession of the Venetian provinces held by Aus- 
tria, Bismarck's first attempt to win Lamarmora, 
the Italian Prime Minister, with a promise of aid in 
that direction failed by reason of the distrust engen- 


dered by the subsequent Prussian- Austrian under- ^?{£ p £^ 
standing at Gastein. An Italian attempt to secure 1 
Venice by peaceful overtures was rejected by the 
Austrian Emperor. Secretly, an offensive and 
defensive alliance with Italy was concluded by 
Bismarck on April 8. It was to hold only for the 
brief space of three months. Venetia was to fall to 
Italy; a territory of like value to Prussia; no sepa- 
rate peace was to be made with Austria. The treaty 




April 1864 





for war 

was to expire if in three months Prussia failed to 
declare war. Bismarck made the best use of his 
short time. On April 9, the day after the signing 
of this secret agreement, the Prussian Government 
at Frankfort proposed the reform of the German 
Confederation. A National Convention, composed 
of members to be directly elected by the people, 
was to decide upon the adoption of a constitution, 
based upon principles unfolded by Bismarck in a 
circular (May 27), in which he emphasized the neces- 
sity of a reform of this nature and explained that it 
carried with it the solution of the Schleswig-Hol- 
stein problem as a national issue and not as a piece 
of monarchic greed. Bavaria agreed to this if both 
Austria and Prussia, as the two leading Powers, 
would agree not to attack each other. To this Aus- 
tria gave its immediate consent. In the meanwhile, 
Napoleon III., to whom Lamarmora had unfolded 
Bismarck's stipulations, communicated with the Aus- 
trian Ambassador. Austria took alarm and made 
a tentative offer to cede the Venetian provinces in 
a peaceful arrangement. Italy hesitated to break 
faith with Prussia. Austria forthwith increased 
her Venetian armament. Bismarck seized upon this 
to charge Austria with insincerity as regarded her 
promises of peace. Preparations for war were hur- 
ried on both sides. Austria replied on June 1, by 
suggesting that the question be left to the Bundes- 
tag, despite the fact that Prussia had already ex- 
pressly denied the competency of that body to 
discuss matters of national importance. Simulta- 
neously, in obedience to the command of his gov- 


eminent, Von Gablenz, summoned the Holstein 
estates to Itzehoe, "to hear the voice of the land 
in the matter of its destiny." This was a violation 
of the Gastein treaty. On June 7, a Prussian force, p,. ussia 
under Von Manteuffel, marched into Holstein. Thenoisteki 
Austrians retired on June 12, accompanied by the 
Duke of Augustenburg. Austria lodged a protest; 
claimed that Von Manteuffel's invasion of Holstein 
was a breach of the eleventh article of the Acts of 
Confederation, which provided that members of the 
Confederation could not levy war against one an- 
other; and moved that the forces of the Confedera- 
tion, with the exception of the Prussian army, be 
immediately mobilized. The Austrian motion was Unites 
carried on June 14, by an irregular vote. Prus- 
sia thereupon declared the Confederation dissolved, 
and submitted the draft of new Articles of Confed- 
eration, in which it was boldly declared that "the 
dominions of the Confederation shall consist of the r^ 811 
previous States, with the exception of the imperial 
Austrian and the royal Netherland territories." 

With the fateful vote of June 14, the Bundestag 
expired. The entire nation was now divided into 
two great camps. To the standard of Austria 
flocked the Catholic clericals, who had ever re- 
vered the House of Hapsburg as their protector; 
the democrats, who detested the stern, Spartan 
militarism of Prussia; the financiers, who dreaded 
a depreciation in the value of Austrian paper; 
the South German "particularists" or "federalists," 
who wished to preserve the old forms of govern- 
ment and feared that unity was synonymous with 



1436 A HISTORY OF THE June 1886 

the absorption of Germany by Prussia. All these 
toeritabfe heterogeneous elements formed with Austria, and 
the dynasties of the lesser kingdoms, a solid pha- 
lanx, strengthened by the popular support of the 
masses. These were partly impelled by an instinc- 
tive antipathy, against Prussian manners and curt 
speech, partly driven by fear of increased burdens 
of taxation and military service. 

On June 15, Prussia sent peremptory notes to 
Hanover, Saxony and Kurhesse, demanding the 
ultimatum 8 recantation of the votes they had cast in the Bun- 
destag, a complete neutrality on their part, and 
their entry into the reformed Confederation. If 
Prussia's demands were granted, their sovereign 
rights were to remain unmolested; if refused, force 
was to be employed. The three States declined 
to accept the conditions offered. Within a week 
Hanover, Dresden and Cassel were' occupied by 
Prussian troops. Saxony appealed for help to 
the Confederation, and Austria and Bavaria were 
assigned to assist her. Prussia immediately stated 
that such an act of assistance would be regarded 
as a declaration of war. Slowly the Bavarian troops 
aggressive under Prince Charles were mustered together, and 


far from them, Prince Alexander of Hesse had 
gathered the eighth army corps of the Confedera- 
tion, composed of troops from Nassau, Wurtem- 
burg, Hesse, Baden and the Austrian garrison of 
Mainz. A junction of the Hanoverian and Bavarian 
armies, which could be effected only by very rapid 
military movements, was prevented by the brilliant 
manoeuvres of the Prussians. On June 27, an 


ill led army of 22,000 Hanoverians was checked 
by 10,000 Prussians under Major General von 
Fliess, in the battle of Langensalza, and on thesaizl en 
following day the Hanoverians were so hopelessly 
outflanked that they surrendered. They were pa- 
roled on a formal pledge not to resume hostilities 
against Prussia. 

Italy, Prussia's ally, was less fortunate. Victor 
Emmanuel and Lamarmora, instead of invading Dal- 
matia or massing their superior numbers for a sud- 
den blow at Austria, scattered their forces. As a 
result, on June 24, they suffered a signal defeat 
at Custozza. This crippled Italian operations for Custozz » 
a full fortnight. 

Prussia, meanwhile, had mustered together an 
army of 326,000 men, under the personal command 
of old King William. The head of his general staff 
was Helmuth von Moltke, then sixty-six years old. 
The Austrian northern army of 240,000 men, under 
General Ludwig von Benedek, was stationed at 
Olmiitz. The Prussian army moved forward in 
three divisions, under the respective commands 
of the Crown Prince, Prince Frederick Charles and 
General Herwarth von Bittenfeld. They marched 
into Bohemia, fighting as they went. The Aus- Ear i y 
trians were repulsed at Hiihnerwasser by the Army defeats 
of the Elbe; at Turnau, Podol and Gitschin, by 
the first army, and at Trautenau, Nachod, Skalitz 
and Schweinschadel by the third army. Although 
Benedek had as yet fought no decisive battle, the 
Austrian losses were heavy. The excellent disci- 
pline of the Prussian troops, the deadliness of the 

1438 A HISTORY OF THE July 18M 

needle gun and of the breech-loading field guns, 

the swift accuracy with which the manoeuvres were 

carried to a successful issue, disheartened Benedek. 

Benedek ® n ^ u ^ *> ne telegraphed to Francis Joseph: "I 

despondent - m p| ore vour ma jesty to conclude peace at any 

price. Disaster for army unavoidable." But the 

Ministers at their comfortable desks in Vienna were 

more sanguine. Two telegrams were despatched by 

the Emperor: one to Louis Napoleon, stating that 

Austria was willing to cede Venetia, provided the 

neutrality of Italy were guaranteed by France; the 

other to Benedek, thus worded: "To conclude peace 

Decide is impossible. My commands are to begin the re- 

dema e nded treat, if unavoidable, in the most careful order. 

Has there been any battle?" 

Since retreat was not unavoidable, Benedek could 
not but take this as a command to fight. He pre- 
pared for a pitched battle. With 201,000 men and 
500 guns, he moved to a position between the Bis- 
tritz and the Elbe on both sides of the highway, 
which extends from Gitschin, through Horitz to 
Konigsgratz. The Austrian position was strong, 
and offered every opportunity for a stubborn de- 
fence. The Bistritz, with its swampy banks, cov- 
ered the front, and the Trotina the right wing. 
By reason of the terrace-like formation of the land, 
the Austrians were enabled to distribute their bat- 
teries in tiers, so that the fire of a great number 
of guns could be concentrated on a comparatively 
small area of the field below. The Bistritz is 
crossed at Sadowa and Nechanitz; the Trotina at 
Ratschitz. At the two last-mentioned places the 


Austrian wings were posted, separated by scarcely 
more than two miles. Behind them were the 
heights of Prim and Problus, and behind Sadowa 
those of Chlum and Lipa. 

On July 2, King William arrived at Gitschin. 
The three Prussian armies were closing in so rap- 
idly that Moltke resolved on immediate attack. At 
dawn next morning Prince Frederick Charles, in 

command of the army of the centre, advanced with 

J Sadowa 

three corps toward Sadowa. Until ten o'clock both 

sides kept up a fierce artillery duel. Then the 
Austrians yielded slightly. The Prussian infantry 
advanced to capture the Bistritz passage and to 
storm the heights of Lipa-Chlum. The slow fire 
of the Austrians enabled the Prussians to gain 
ground by quick rushes. One after another the 
villages of Mokrowaus, Dohalicka, Dohalitz and 
Sadowa fell into Prussian hands after hot encoun- 
ters. But here Prince Frederick Charles' advance 
was checked. Noon came, and the battle was al- 
most stationary. Of the Army of the Elbe, the 
Prussian right wing, nothing had been heard. Gen- 
eral Bittenfeld could cross the Bistritz only by a 
single bridge and was detained. The Crown Prince 
was still miles away. Upon his timely arrival hung 
the fate of the Prussian army. It was at this stage 
of the battle that the famous incident occurred, 
related by Bismarck in later years. 

"Things appeared critical. I could not keep from 
casting furtive glances at Moltke, as he sat his 
horse, immovable and silent, surveying the battle- 
field through his field-glasses. At last I could 



July 1800 

Molt Ice 

bear the suspense no longer, and moving close 
to him, offered him my cigar case. Moltke care- 
fully looked over all the cigars, and then selected 
the best. I felt relieved. 'If he can still bother 
about picking out my best cigar,' thought I, 'the 
battle cannot be lost.' " 



Benedek still hoped to crush the Prussian centre 
before reinforcements should arrive. Before he 
could accomplish this, he was himself threatened 
on the one side by the Army of the Elbe and on 
the other by the Crown Prince, who had come up 
in forced marches. Part of the Austrian force was 
diverted to repel the Crown Prince, thus leaving a 
breach at the key of the Austrian position. Seiz- 
ing his opportunity, General Hiller von Gartringen, 
with his division, gallantly stormed the heights of 
Chlum, and from this vantage-ground the Auetrians 
were unable to dislodge him. The Prussian Crown 
Prince rode up to general headquarters to announce 
the success of his filial entry into battle. King 
William joyfully embraced his son, and detaching 
his own iron cross, hung it around his son's neck. 
The Army of the Elbe in the meantime had captured 
Problus, after a stubborn resistance by the Saxons. 
Lipa, from which Benedek had conducted the bat- 
tle, was stormed by the second division of the 
Prussian guards. Benedek gave the order to re- 
treat. He had lost 44,000 men, of whom 20,000 
were taken prisoners. On the Prussian side the 
loss was 9,000. This disparity in the losses in it- 
a crushing se jf showed the deadly efficacy of the needle gun. 
After the battle Moltke said to the King: "Your 


Majesty has won not only the battle, but the whole 

Indeed, with the victory of Konigsgratz, or 
Sadowa as it is called in French and English, 
the German civil war was virtually ended. It had 
lasted just two weeks. It took seven weeks in all 
to finish the entire campaign. In the west, the 
Bavarians and the troops of the Confederation 
were outmanoeuvred and defeated by the Army of south 

J J Germans 

the Main, in a quick succession of engagements. JJJJjJI^ 
On July 16, the Prussians entered Frankfort. 

Brief as the campaign was, it abounded in bril- 
liant opportunities for some of the battle painters, 
who followed the armies. Most noteworthy among 
them were Camphausen, Werner, Menzel and Win- 

Upon receiving news of the catastrophe of 
Konigsgratz, Emperor Francis Joseph immediately 
ceded Venetia to Napoleon. French help was thus 
to be secured. Before Napoleon could interfere, 
the Italians made haste to stake their issue on the 
sword. The result was not encouraging. On land 
they lost several battles. At sea their fleet, off^ita^ 
Lissa, suffered one of the most crushing naval 
defeats of modern times. 

The Italian fleet at that time was considered 
among the best in the world. Since 1860 Italy 
had spent 300,000,000 francs on her navy. While 
the vessels were such as any nation might well be 
proud of, their personnel was poor. Undisciplined 
recruits manned the guns, skilled engineers were 
lacking, the officers were ignorant and fatuous. 

1442 A HISTORY OF THE July 1968 

Persauo, the Admiral in command of this fleet, 
Persano ] ac k et { almost every quality which a naval officer 
should possess. He was a political admiral, who 
had promoted himself to this highest rank, while 
he held office as Minister of Marine. In the end- 
less stream of despatches and letters, which he 
poured into the Italian Ministry, his vacillation 
and querulousness were apparent in every sentence. 
"I fear we shall go down," he stated on the 22d of 
May. To the Minister of Marine, he wrote, "The 
fleet is not ready for war. Help me, I earnestly 
entreat you." At last, Depretis, the Minister of 
Marine, exasperated by these ceaseless demands 
and procrastination, sent to Persano the stinging 
command "Do something. -Fight the Austrians or 
attack Lissa. Only move!" On July 7, came the 
specific order, "Go out of the harbor with your 
fleet. Leave behind any of the ships that want 
guns. Seek out the enemy and attack him. Fight 
a decisive battle!" The Italian fleet steamed into 
the Adriatic, and indulged in squadron evolutions 
and silent gun exercise. After a week's fruitless 
cruise, Persano put back into Ancona. The Italian 
people were wild with indignation. The King him- 
self sent a peremptory order to his Admiral to go 
and fight. 

Aroused from his irresolution, Persano deter- 
mined to attack the Austrian fortifications on the 
island of Lissa. Under his command were eleven 
ships: four frigates, one corvette, five despatch- 
boats, three gunboats, a hospital ship and two 
transports. In response to his urgent appeals the 



strong ironclad "Affondatore" was sent to re- 
inforce him. On the 18th of July, he attacked 
Lissa. Without maps or accurate information as attacks 


he was, he might still have captured the island had 
he used his forces with discretion. After two days' 
persistent bombardment, the Italians had nothing 
to show but one of their best ships disabled, 16 
killed with 114 wounded, and a great wastage 
of ammunition. The "Ee d'ltalia" alone fired 1,300 

Tegethoff, the Austrian Rear- Admiral at Fasana, 
on the news of the Italian attack, telegraphed to the 
commandant of Lissa: "Hold out till the fleet can 
come to you!" Baron Wilhelm von Tegethoff was 
a naval officer who had distinguished himself in 
the sea-fight against the Danes. Now he had but Te s ethoff 
seven poor ironclads and an old frigate. Of his 
crews, many were Venetians of doubtful loyalty. 
Tegethoff's last concern was to make sure that 
Venice had not yet been ceded to Italy. Having 
satisfied this scruple, he steered for Lissa. 

On the morning of July 20, the Austrian fleet, 
steaming in wedge form with the ironclads and 
flagship "Ferdinand Max" in the lead, was sighted 
by the Italians. Their fleet was wofully scattered. 
Hurriedly nine ships were gathered to meet the 
enemy. Tegethoff, while steaming steadily forward, 
kept his men at breakfast. At ten in the morning, 
when the sea had moderated somewhat, Tegethoff 
hoisted the signals: "Close in — Full speed — Iron- 
clads, charge the enemy and ram!" 

The Italian Admiral's signals were either not 

1444 A HISTORY OF THE July 1868 

understood or disobeyed. His commanders entered 
the action without any apparent idea of what they 
were to do. Tegethoff, on the other hand, had 
issued careful advance instructions. Concentrated 
broadsides were to be fired; the Italian line was 
to be broken and rammed; the ships were to fight 
crfLLssa at c l° se quarters. Persano, at the last minute, 
changed his flag from one vessel to another with- 
out informing his commanders. His flagship cruised 
up and down the line of battle, giving and counter- 
manding orders. The Austrian ships steamed back- 
ward and forward in the smoke of battle, pouring 
in shot and shell. Their broadsides proved to be 
more effective than their ramming manoeuvres. Of 
the ships that were rammed, only the "Re d'ltalia" 
was sunk by the Austrian flagship. As she went 
down her colors were hoisted as in defiance, and 
the dying crew cheered "Venezia e nostra." The 
chief gunner fired a last shot with the water up to 
his waist crying, "Just one more." The Italian 
captain blew out his brains. Persano, on the 
"Affondatore," had two good chances to ram 
the Austrians, but flinched. To save two of his 
weakest ships, the Austrian commodore, Petz, on 
the "Kaiser Max," ineffectually rammed the "Re 
di Portogallo." The Austrian was terribly mauled. 
The total loss on the Italian side was 620 killed; the 
wounded numbered 161; two ironclads were lost, and 
a third sank a few days after the fight. Tegethoff 
lost but 38 killed and 138 wounded, and brought 
off all his ships. The Italians abandoned Lissa, 
and though still superior in ships, drew off. Per- 


sano, later, was brought to trial by the Italian 
Senate on the charges of incapacity, negligence, 
disobedience, cowardice and treason. He was con- 
victed of the first two counts, and in punishment 
was deprived of his rank and pay. Tegethoff was 
promoted to the rank of Vice- Admiral. In his 
honor it was decreed that an Austrian ironclad 
should always bear his name. The fiasco of Italy's 
disastrous campaign was made more than good by 
her Prussian ally. 

After the battle of Konigsgratz, Benedek had 
withdrawn the remnant of his shattered army to 
Olmtitz, in order to proceed by way of Pressburg 
to Vienna. Archduke Albrecht and his troops had 
been called from the south to take his place 
as commander-in-chief. The Prussian forces were 
ready to advance on Vienna. On the 22d they en- 
gaged the Austrians at Blumenau, and would have 

& ° ' End of war 

captured Pressburg, had not a declaration of truce 
put an end to hostilities. 

On the 26th, a preliminary treaty of peace was 
signed at Nikolsburg, and on August 23 peace 
was definitely declared at Prague. Napoleon's at- 
tempts at intervention came to naught. At Berlin 
peace negotiations between the several German 
States and Prussia were also concluded. In Oc- 
tober peace between Austria and Italy was declared, 
Venetia was turned over by Napoleon to Italy. 
Austria paid a modest war indemnity to Prussia, 
withdrew from the Confederation, and gave upmodera- 
all rights to Schleswig and Holstein. From the 

Southern and Central German States, Prussia ex- 
XlXth Century— Vol. 3—1 



Aug. 1866 

tion of 



civil war 

acted but little. Small indemnities were demanded; 
insignificant tracts of territory were taken from Ba- 
varia and the Grand Duchy of Hesse. All the Ger- 
man States north of the river Main, joined Prussia 
in forming a North German Confederation. Han- 
over was annexed to Prussia. Bavaria, Baden, 
Wurtemburg and the remnant of Hesse, were per- 
mitted to form leagues of their own, and were ad- 
mitted to the Zollverein. The ties which bound 
these southern States to Prussia were made closer 
than the world knew. As subsequently revealed 
by Bismarck, all the German States entered a secret 
alliance, whereby the smaller States pledged them- 
selves to place their troops under the command of 
the King of Prussia in time of war. 

In Japan, the long struggle between the Emper- 
ors and the Shoguns had reached a crisis. Iyay 
Mutchi, the Shogun, who had seized the reins 
of power in 1859, died childless. The way became 
open to his rival Stotsbashi. The most powerful 
of the Daimios withheld their allegiance to another 
Kubosama until it could be settled who was the real 
ruler of the empire— the Shogun or the Mikado. 
The new Shogun, Yoshi Hisa, attempted to as- 
sume the powers wielded by his ancestors, but could 
not overcome the armed resistance of the Daimios 
to the Mikado. Civil war broke out in Japan. 

In North America, a large army of observation 
under General Sheridan was despatched to the Eio 
Grande, ready to cross over into Mexico at a mo- 
ment's notice. The American Ambassador in Paris 
was instructed by Seward to insist on the with- 

1866 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1447 

drawal of the French forces from Mexico. The 
French Emperor was in no position to enter into Doctrine 
a distant war against an immediately available army 
of nearly a million men. Thanks to the tactful tone 
of Minister Bigelow's representations, it was made 
easy for the French Government to give the desired 
assurances. The Mexican renegade, Almonte, in 
this crisis was sent to France to induce Napoleon 
to continue his support. His mission was a signal 
failure. The only apparent result was a communi- 
cation from Louis Napoleon to Maximilian, dated 
May 31, in which the French Emperor stated the 
situation with brutal frankness. He demanded half 
of the revenue receipts of the ports of Tampico 
and Vera Cruz, until Maximilian's debt to France 
should be paid, and announced the withdrawal 
of the French army, the last detachment to leave abandoned 
by November 1 of the next year. Marshal Bazaine 
received orders to advance no more funds to Maxi- 
milian, and to incorporate the Belgian auxiliaries 
with the French troops. This meant a reduction of 
one-half of the pay of these mercenaries. Count 
Thum resigned his command and returned to 
Europe. The Belgium corps mutinied, and their 
ringleaders had to be discharged from the army. 
The whole corps was disbanded. Maximilian was 
furious and threatened to abdicate his throne. His 
wife, Charlotte, offered to go abroad to save his 
crown. To defray the expenses of her mission, 
$30,000 was taken from an emergencv fund held 

^ ° J Empress 

as sacred for the repairs of the dikes which defend g^J^* 6 ' 8 
the City of Mexico from inundation. Charlotte first 

1448 A HISTORY OF THE Bummer I860 

went to France. After Louis Napoleon had put her 
off and evaded her for a long time, Charlotte at last 
obtained her historic interview with him and Em- 
press Eugenie. It was a tragic scene. In vain did 
Empress Charlotte on her knees implore the French 
Emperor's succor. When he refused her last de- 
mand, the granddaughter of Louis Philippe arose 
with a passionate outburst: "What folly! I forgot 
that in my veins flows the blood of the Bourbons, 
and that I am dealing with an adventurer, a Bona- 
parte!" After this she fainted and was borne from 
the room. Charlotte went to Rome and implored 
the Pope's consent to a sequestration of the Church 
lands in Mexico. Pio Nono remained obdurate. 
Under the stress of these exciting experiences, 
charlotte Charlotte lost her mind. She was not permitted 

goes insane r 

to return to Mexico. Confined at Chateau Bon- 
chant near Brussels, she did not even realize 
the tragic import of the events that followed in 

The failure of the Empress's mission abroad dis- 
couraged another project for obtaining the recogni- 
tion of the United States. Prince and Princess 
Salm-Salm, who were to be sent to Washington, 
provided with a corruption fund of $2,000,000 in 
gold, gave up the attempt as hopeless. President 
President Johnson, in a proclamation of August 18, declared 


stand Maximilian's blockade of Matamoras null and void. 
On the occasion of his first reception to the dip- 
lomatic court on October 11, Marquis de Moustier, 
the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, assured 
Mr. Bigelow that the Emperor would recall the 

1866 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1449 

army shortly: arrangements had already been 
made for the return of the French troops. In 
vain did the French Emperor plead for delay. 
Late in November, Minister Bigelow at Paris 
received a peremptory note from Washington, piremp- 8 
Seward officially expressed his opinion that the 
traditional friendship of America with France 
would be brought into "imminent jeopardy, un- 
less France could deem it consistent with her 
interests of honor forthwith to desist from the 
prosecution of armed intervention in Mexico." 

In the United States of America the people and 
government found themselves face to face with 
various vexing legacies of the Civil War. It was 
plain that the victorious Union party of the North 
could not consent to the re-establishment of slavery, 
nor would it pay the Confederate debt. A bill, as 
passed by Congress, accorded to the negroes all other 
rights enjoyed by the white men, and empowered 
the President to use the army to enforce the act. 
President Johnson, who was a war Democrat, LM 

7 ' Aftermath 

held that the seceding States were not out of the^anwIT 
Union. In a speech delivered from the porch of 
the Presidential mansion, he declared Congress to 
be in rebellion against the United States. Wheo 
the bill came up for his signature, he vetoed it as 
contrary to the Dred Scott decision. Within a few 
days the veto was overriden by Congress. Already 
the House, by a four-fifths majority, had refused 
a resolution of confidence in the President. The 


official relations between the Legislature and the dtacreStted 
Executive became acute. The points at issue were 

1450 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1866 

referred to a popular election in the various States. 
Meanwhile, the President's attitude embroiled him 
with the members of his Cabinet. Attorney-General 
Speed, Postmaster-General Bennison, and Harlan, 
the Secretary of the Interior, retired. The popular 
election went against the President. The Repub- 
licans obtained over a two-thirds majority in both 
Houses of Congress. The plan of reconstruction 
adopted by them was that the freedmen should 
vote and the Confederate leaders should not. This 
imbittered the white men of the South and ren- 
dered Johnson still more aggressive. He restored 
the right of habeas corpus in all the States except 
Texas, and issued a proclamation of general am- 
nesty. He proclaimed that "the insurrection was 
suppressed east of the Mississippi River and was 
Co*'kUn a ° henceforth to be so regarded." Further excitement 
was occasioned in Congress by a memorable Parlia- 
mentary encounter of the two Republican leaders, 
Blaine and Conkling, whereby they became political 
and personal enemies. After twelve years of per- 
c ua sistent effort, Cyrus W. Field at last succeeded 
oclan 8 in laying a working cable between America and 


Europe. The task was accomplished by the "Great 
Eastern," then the largest steamship afloat. As a 
cable ship, the monster vessel finished her career, 
which had been singularly unsuccessful since the 

The "Great time tnat sae was launched on the Thames, in 1858. 

Eastern Q reat international interest was likewise excited by 
the famous ocean race between the sailing yachts 
"Henrietta" and "Vista," over a course of 3,600 
miles. The "Henrietta" arrived first, with her rival 

1866 Winter NINETEENTH CENTURY 1451 

only a few hours behind her. The winner's time 
was thirteen days, twenty-one hours and fifty-five 
minutes. America lost one of her foremost his- 
torians by the death of Jared Sparks, the president 
of Harvard University. William Dean Howells, a 
young author of Cincinnati, made his first appear- 
ance with a book on "Venetian Life." American J^SSSi 
dramatic achievements of the year were Joseph letters 
Jefferson's presentation of "Eip Van Winkle" at 
the Adelphi in London, and the first appearance 
of Edwin Booth, of the illustrious line of Booths, 
as Richelieu in. the Winter Garden of London. 




N JANUARY the French Emperor, through 
Marshal Bazaine, informed Emperor Maxi- 
milian that his failure to pay the annual sum 
of 25,000,000 francs due to France, under their 
agreement, released the French Government from 
all obligations Bazaine was ordered to leave Mex- 
ico with his army. The withdrawal of the foreign 
forces gave a new impetus to the national war in 
Mexico. Juarez's army advanced from the north 
and captured Matamoras and Tampico. Desertions 
from the imperial army in Mexico became so fre- 
quent that the Mexicans were able to form a "For- 
Mexican eign Legion" with the deserters of various nation- 


lions alities who enlisted under their flag. As Sara Y. 
Stevenson has recorded: "To us in Mexico there 
was no concealing the fact that the knell of the 
Mexican empire had struck. Maximilian must 
fall. How? was the only question." 

Louis Napoleon's emissaries advised Maximilian 
to abdicate the crown and to leave the country with 
the French. Maximilian was dissuaded from this 
by the advice of his friend Eloin, who wrote to him 
from Vienna that Francis Joseph was on the point 
of abdication, and that a firm stand in Mexico 
would improve Maximilian's chances for the throne 

1867 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1453 

of Austria. Accordingly, Maximilian declined Mar- 
shal Bazaine's last invitation to join him. As the^awaiof 


French retired, they surrendered the points held by forces, 
them directly to the Mexicans. 

With a dwindling army of 9,000 men, and almost 
no funds, Maximilian faced the advancing armies 
of the patriots. He was driven back to Queretaro 
and that city was forthwith besieged by the Republi- 
can troops under Escobedo. General Marquez, who 
tried to bring relief from the City of Mexico, was in- Diaz , 
tercepted, and was crushingly defeated by Porfirio vlctory 
Diaz. He retired to the capital, which was promptly 
invested by Diaz's troops. In Queretaro, Maximilian 
and his followers were reduced to the last pinch. 
The generals proposed to cut their way through, 
but their irresolute Emperor consented to enter into 
negotiations for surrender. Colonel Lopez was sent 
to Escobedo to enter into terms of capitulation 
The sequel has remained a matter of controversy 

Escobedo demanded unconditional surrender, 
Lopez, according to some, betrayed Maximilian 
According to his own statement, he was empow 
ered to arrange any terms of surrender, and, un 
able to obtain anything better, agreed to give up 
the cloister of La Cruz on the following day after 
a sham encounter. At three in the afternoon, on 
May 15, the gates of the cloister were opened 
to the Republicans, and Lopez with his immediate 
followers surrendered. 

Jose* Rincon Gallargo, whose command w«as al- 
ready in the possession of the palace, coming upon 
Maximilian, foresaw the terrible complications of 


1454 A HISTORY OF THE May 1887 

his capture, and feigned not to know him: "Let 
them pass, they are civilians,' 1 he said to his men, 
and thus gave the doomed Emperor his last chance. 
Masimi)ian Maximilian rallied his remaining forces for a last 
takea stand. He was taken with his officers on the Cerro 
de las Campafias, after a destructive fusillade had 
made surrender inevitable. 

Maximilian was brought up for trial, on June 
13, before a military court, which sat on the stage 
of a public theatre. He was defended by Mexico's 
foremost lawyers; among them Riva-Palacio, Mar- 
tinez de la Torre, Eulalio Ortega and Vasquez. But 
they could not change the verdict. Under the terms 
of his own bando negro, Maximilian was condemned 
to death as an outlaw taken in arms. In vain did 
the governments of the United States, of England 
Futile in- and of Prussia intercede in his behalf. In vain 
did the handsome Princess Salm-Salm employ all 
a woman's arts with Juarez. Maximilian himself 
refused to beg for mercy. His end was made 
lighter for him by a false report that his unfor- 
tunate wife had died. On June 19, the day of his 
execution, he wrote to President Juarez: 

"Senor Benito Juarez: About to die for having 
tried whether new institutions could put an end to 
the bloody war which has for so many years dis- 
turbed this unhappy land, I should gladly give 
my life if the sacrifice could contribute to the 
peace and prosperity of my adopted country." 

When the condemned Emperor was takeu to the 
Cerro de las Campafias, now his place of execu- 
tion, Maximilian stopped, and turning to General 



Miramon said: "A brave soldier should be honored 
even in his last hours. Permit me to give you the 
place of honor. ' ' Miramon and Meiia were shot first. Maximilian 

r J shot 

Maximilian died exclaiming: "Long live Mexico." 
After a few months' siege the City of Mexico 
capitulated to Porfirio Diaz. Marquez fled the 
country. President Juarez made his triumphal 
entry. Maximilian's body was taken home by 
Admiral Tegethoff, on the Austrian man-of-war 
"Novara," the ship on which Maximilian in his 
youth had sailed around the globe. 

Since the days of the French Kevolution, no such 
tragic fate had befallen any of the reigning families 
of Europe. The catastrophe of Mexico wrought ir- 
reparable injury to Louis Napoleon's prestige. The 
French capitalists and investors who had entered 
into the various golden speculations floated on the Far-reach- 
inception of the Mexican enterprise clamored for effects 
their money. The clericals and the army wanted to 
retrieve their fallen fortune. The cause of impe- 
rialism suffered^ setback from the triumph of De- 
mocracy in America, and its Monroe Doctrine. The 
recent rise of Prussia filled France with jealous dis- 
may. Under the sting of these considerations Louis 
Napoleon and his ambitious wife sought eagerly for 
some new field wherein to retrieve their waning for- 
tunes. It was at this juncture that pressure began 
to be brought on Prussia by France, though the 
projected international exposition at Paris for the 
moment rendered war undesirable. 

The specific form which this pressure assumed 
was Louis Napoleon's determination to prevent, if 

1456 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1867 

possible, Germany's retention of the strong fortress 
of Luxemburg in Belgium, on the northeastern fron- 
tier of France. The French Government now de- 
Lux clared that this fortress, in possession of a Prus- 

quesaon sian garrison, no longer served as a mere protec- 
tion for Germany, but, in view of Prussia's recent 
aggrandizement, must be a menace to France. Prus- 
sia, though preparing for possible war with France 
ever since Louis Napoleon's attempt to interfere 
with the readjustment of Germany after Sadowa, 
was not yet ready for the struggle. Accordingly, 
Bismarck, during the discussion of the Luxemburg 

Bismarck ° ° 

wary question in the North German Bundestag, coun- 
selled moderation, declaring that they "should take 
the just susceptibilities of France into account." 
The question was likewise debated with some heat 
in the French Corps Legislatif. The result of the 
mutual reluctance to resort to war was that 
France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England and 
Holland agreed to open a conference in London 
for the purpose of settling the question. The rep- 
resentatives of the Powers sat through one week in 
May. A treaty was signed in which it was agreed 
that "the Grandduchy of Luxemburg shall hence- 
forth be a neutral State under the sovereignty of 
the Kingdom of the Netherlands as Grandduke, 
that the Prussian troops shall evacuate Luxemburg 
embui U ' X " terr i* or y aQtl tnat tne cit y of Luxemburg shall cease 
conference tQ ^ a f ortifie( j place." After this point had been 

satisfactorily settled, -the opening of the great in- 
ternational exposition at Pans was hailed as a 
harbinger of peace. 

2857 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1457 

Among those who visited Paris during the sum- 
mer were the King and Queen of Prussia, Counts 
Bismarck and Moltke, the Sultan of Turkey and 
the Czar of Kussia. On June 6, as the Czar was parlg 
driving with the French Emperor in the Bois d e exposItkm 
Boulogne, a Pole, named Berezovski, fired two 
pistol shots at the Czar. He failed to hit him. 
Arrested on the spot, he was speedily brought 
to trial and sentenced to transportation for life. 
Among the many works of art exhibited at the 
great exposition unusual attention was excited by 
the landscapes of Theodore Eousseau, who died 
during this same year. 

About the same time the Emperor and Empress 
of Austria went to Hungary to be crowned as king 
and queen of that ancient kingdom. The prospect 
of the restoration of Hungary's Constitution had 
caused great rejoicings there, and a Te Deum was 
sung in all the churches. A Magyar Ministry was 
formed, of which Count Andrassy was the Premier. 
When the Austrian Emperor arrived at Pesth, he 
signed a charter in the presence of the magnates ^^^^ 
and deputies of Hungary. On June 8, the corona- 
tion was celebrated with great solemnity. On the 
same day Francis Joseph issued an Act of Grace, 
granting amnesty to political offenders, restoring 
confiscated estates, and other like conciliatory 

In the British House of Parliament an act was 
passed, late in March, for the union of the prov- 
inces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 
It provided that the Queen in Council might de- 

1458 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1867 

dare by proclamation, within six months of the 
taTanada 6 passage of the act, that those provinces should form 
one dominion under the name of Canada. Later in 
the year, the new Canadian Parliament was opened 
at Ottawa, the capital of the Confederation, by 
Governor-General Lord Monck. 

In Ireland this year, the Fenian conspirators con- 
ceived the idea of producing a stronger impression 
of their capacity for mischief by extending their 
operations to England. Within a few days after 
the Ministers had announced the early restoration 
of the Habeas Corpus Act in Ireland, a band of 
conspirators, led by some former Irish officers of 
the American army, attempted a surprise of the 
arsenal at Chester. Their designs were frustrated. 
Soon after this fiasco, the Fenian leaders tried to 
Futile foment insurrection in different parts of Ireland, 
p.o s ^ ut f a jj ec i signally. In the autumn, they at- 
tempted another stroke outside of Ireland. A con- 
certed attack was made on a Manchester prison to 
rescue certain Fenian convicts, but the would-be 
rescuers were foiled. Another attempt to deliver 
some of the convicts from prison cost many in- 
nocent lives. The government resorted to severe 
measures of retaliation. 

Michael Faraday, the eminent English scientist, 
died on August 25, in his seventy-third year. In 
1821, while assisting Davy at the Royal Institution, 
Faraday Faraday made the brilliant discovery of the con- 
vertible rotation of a magnetic pole and an electric 
current, which was the prelude to his wonderful 
series of experiments in electricity. During the 

1867 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1459 

following years, Faraday established the identity 
of the forces manifested in electric, galvanic and 
magnetic phenomena and determined their correla- 
tion with the other prime forces of nature. The 
highest honors were conferred on him by the scien- 
tific societies of England, France, Italy and Ger- 
many. In 1858, Queen Victoria allotted to him a 
residence at Hampton Court, between which and 
his laboratory at the Eoyal Institution, Faraday 
spent the last years of his life. 

In the United States of America, early in the 
year, a motion had been made in the House to im- 
peach President Johnson. Kepresentative Ashley American 
of Ohio charged the President with "usurpation of 
power and violation of law," by corruptly using 
the appointing, pardoning, and veto power. The 
charge was referred to the Judiciary Committee by 
108 over 39 votes. By a majority of five to four, 
this body decided against impeachment. Thaddeus 
Stevens now introduced a reconstruction bill to di- 
vide the Southern States into five military districts 
to be administered by army officers. In amended 
form the bill was passed by both Houses of Con- 
gress. The President vetoed it on March 23. The 
President's veto was overridden by big majorities in 
both Houses of Congress. Under this act, General 
Schofield took charge of a military district at Eich- M 
mond, General Sickles at Columbia, General Pope struction 
at Montgomery, General Ord at Vicksburg, and 
General Sheridan at New Orleans. Bills to admit 
the Territories of Colorado and Nebraska as States 
were likewise vetoed by the President. Over John- 

1460 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1867 

son's veto Nebraska was admitted and proclaimed 
as the thirty-seventh State. 

The finances of the Union Pacific Railway, run- 
ning through these Territories, became one of the 
political scandals of this time. It was charged 
in Congress that the stock of the company had 
Padflc been placed "where it would do most good." The 
scandal charge involved the Vice-President of the United 
States, the Republican nominee for the Vice-Presi- 
dency, the Secretary of the Treasury, Speaker 
Blaine, and other prominent leaders of the Repub- 
lican party. 

Meanwhile a treaty had been approved by which 
the Territory of Alaska was purchased from Russia 
for the sum of $7,200,000. A tract of land covering 
590,777,290 square miles was thus acquired. The 
formal transfer was made during the same year, and 
of Alaska American forces took possession of Sitka Island. 
A similar treaty with Denmark for the acquisition 
of the islands of St. John and St. Croix in the West 
Indies for a sum exceeding that paid for Alaska was 

The tension between the American Congress and 
President Johnson became wellnigh intolerable. 
Bill after bill was passed in Congress, vetoed by 
the President, and repassed again over his veto to 
become a law. The President sent no annual mes- 
sage and made no communication to Congress. In 
the Cabinet, differences of opinion between the Pres- 
ident and Secretary of War, Stanton, concerning 
the proposed military measures of reconstruction, 
led at last to open rupture. In August, the Presi- 

1867 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1461 

dent called upon his Secretary of War to resign his 
office "on public considerations of a high character." 
Stanton in an open letter refused to resign. Presi- Johnson's 


dent Johnson thereupon suspended Stanton, and 
ordered him to transmit the affairs of his office to 
General Grant ad interim. Stanton yielded, while 
protesting that he denied the right of the President 
under the Constitution to suspend him without the 
advice and consent of the Senate, according to the 
provisions of the recent tenure of office act. With 
Stanton out of the way, the President now removed 
General Sheridan from the military department of 
Louisiana and General Sickles from that of North 
Carolina. In the course of the autumn, President 
Johnson issued a proclamation granting an amnesty 
to all persons in the South who had taken part in 
the late war, with the exception of the Confederate 
Government officers and persons convicted and in 
custody. A number of State elections were held late 
in the autumn, and resulted in a marked defeat of 
the radical wing of the Republican party. Presi- 
dent Johnson was highly elated. On November 25, 
a Congressional Committee recommended by a ma- 

D J Attempt 

jority of five to four that "Andrew Johnson, Presi- p°e^|nt h 
dent of the United States, be impeached for high 
crime and misdemeanors. ' ' The motion for impeach- 
ment was brought forward in the House of Repre- 
sentatives on December 7, and was defeated by 108 
over 57 votes. 

The civil war in Japan reached its turning point 
during this year. The new Shogun, finding his own 
support insufficient, abdicated his office and with- 

1462 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 186; 

drew. Shortly afterward the Mikado died in his 
thirty -eighth year, leaving a young boy as heir to 
the throne. Satsuma and Choshiu stood by the boy 
End of Emperor. The wealthy Daimios of the north still 
revohufon held out - At last the abdication and submission of 
Shogun Yeshi Hisa practically ended the civil war. 
The Shogun's unqualified submission was accepted 
by the Mikado. A general amnesty was proclaimed 
for those who had fought the Shogun's cause, ex- 
cepting only the rebellious Daimios themselves. 
Further resistance on the part of the Daimios be- 
came hopeless. 

During autumn in Italy another rising in the Papal 
States was instigated by Garibaldi. Bands of his 
followers marched upon Rome. Garibaldi was ar- 
Garioaidi rested by order of Victor Emmanuel's government 
Romt ns near Sienna, as he was on the point of crossing the 
Papal frontier. He was conveyed to the fortress of 
Alessandria to be confined there, but was soon per- 
mitted to return to his residence on the island of 
Caprera, under surveillance of Italian ships of war. 
Several armed bands of his followers were dispersed 
while attempting to invade the Papal territories. 
The Pope withdrew all his troops from the provinces 
with the exception of the garrisons of Civita Vec- 
chia and Viterbo, and concentrated them in the capi- 
tal. The officers in the French auxiliary force threw 
conflicts U P tu eir commissions, and the greatest alarm pro- 
states* 1 vailed in Rome. By the end of September and early 
in October, swarms of Italian volunteers had crossed 
the frontier in different places and established them- 
selves on Papal territory. Several conflicts oc- 

1867 Winter NINETEENTH CENTURY 1463 

curred. The command of the raiders was bequeathed 
by Garibaldi to his son Menotti. On October 13, 
the Papal troops defeated a body of Garibaldians at 
Monte Librate, but the invaders soon received re- 
inforcements and compelled the troops to retreat. 
Desultory fighting continued until Louis Napoleon 
despatched a French expedition to Eome to sup- J^^j^ 
press the invasion. This unwelcome intervention 
on the part of France caused the downfall of the 
Ratazzi Ministry in Florence, and King Victor Em- 
manuel called upon General Menabrea to form a 
Cabinet. In the meantime, Garibaldi had slipped 
out of Caprera and reappeared on the scene of con- 
flict. He succeeded in capturing Monte Eotondo, 
where he established his headquarters. On October 
28, however, a French squadron arrived at Civita 
Vecchia and landed troops. Two days later the 
French soldiers entered Eome amid sullen silence 
on the part of the inhabitants. Garibaldi was once 
more apprehended and placed under surveillance, ^fppreised 
The revolution was now declared to be ended. Gen- 
eral Menabrea called upon France to withdraw her 
troops. Instead of that, Napoleon III. proposed 
that the political status of the Holy See and the 
kingdom of Italy should be settled by an interna- 
tional conference. Most of the European Powers 
readily accepted the French Emperor's proposal, as 
did the Pope. King Victor Emmanuel's troops re- 
ceived orders to evacuate the Papal dominions. 


ment at 


THE dissensions between the United States 
Congress and President Johnson reached a 
turning point at the very outset of the year. 
The House of Representatives, on January 24, com- 
mended the course of General Sheridan as Military 
Governor of Louisiana, and censured President 
Johnson for his dismissal of that officer. Ten days 
later the Senate refused to sanction the President's 
removal of Secretary Stanton from the War Office. 
His successor, General Grant, promptly vacated the 
office, and Mr. Stanton resumed his functions. 
After a few weeks, President Johnson once more 
dismissed Stanton, and appointed General Lorenzo 
Thomas to succeed him. The Senate then declared 
the appointment of Thomas illegal. Stanton put 
Thomas under arrest. He was released on bail. 
The President thereupon nominated Thomas Ewing 
of Ohio as Secretary of War. On March 5, the Sen- 
ate convened a court of impeachment, with Chase, 
the Chief -Justice of the Supreme Court, in the chair, 
and the President was summoned to appear. Ben- 
jamin F. Butler opened the case against the Presi- 
dent. Blaine, in his "Twenty Years of Congress," 
has described the trial "as the most memorable at- 

1868 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1465 

tempt made by any English-speaking people to de- 
pose a sovereign ruler in strict accordance with the 
forms of law." 

President Johnson maintained that his removal of _ ., , 


Stanton could not be construed as a violation of the fmpeached 
recent tenure of office act, Stanton not having been 
appointed by him, but by his predecessor, Abraham 
Lincoln. The trial lasted until the middle of May. 
At its conclusion thirty-five Senators voted for con- 
viction and nineteen for acquittal. Only by one 
vote had the necessary majority of two-thirds of the 
Senate been missed. Thus the impeachment fell to 
the ground. The weary struggle between the two 
branches of the government of the United States 
was resumed. Congress voted to readmit to the 
Union the seven Southern States — Arkansas, Ala- 
bama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, with North and 
South Carolina. Amnesty was extended to a thou- 
sand ex-Confederate soldiers. President Johnson 
vetoed the measure. Congress overrode this last 
veto by a majority of more than three to one in both 
Houses, and the long contest over reconstruction 
was closed. The flagrant misgovernment of the re- deadlock 
constructed States had done much to retard the 
progress of reconciliation. 

The affairs of government now ran more smoothly. 
Congress organized the Territory of Wyoming out 
of parts of Dakota, Utah and Idaho. Preparations 
were made for a new Presidential election. By the 
.Republican Convention in Chicago, in May, General 
Grant had been nominated for the Presidency on the^nt^ 
first ballot without a competitor. General Grant 

1466 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1868 

accepted his nomination with the opening words: 
"Let us have peace." 

With so popular a candidate in the field, the 
result could be but a foregone conclusion. Horatio 
Seymour, the former Governor of New York, who 
was nominated by the Democrats to run against 
Grant, had small chance of success. The New York 
faction of the Democratic party by this time had 
come under general execration. It was dominated 
by the powerful political association of Tammany 

Han many Hall. This in turn was dominated by the noto- 
rious Bill Tweed, a chairmaker, who had made 
his connection with the popular Volunteer Fire 
Department a stepping-stone to political power. 
By corrupt practices he amassed several millions 
of dollars within a few years. To make Grant's 
election more' sure, the Democratic States of Vir- 
ginia, Mississippi and Texas were excluded from 
participation in the national election on the ground 
that they had not complied with the laws passed by 
Congress. Grant was elected President by a major- 
ity of nearly half a million votes. In New York, 
Tweed held back the election returns of the city 

trlclf 8 until by manipulation they were made to eliminate 
the majority given against his party in the State 

In Great Britain, this year was remarkable for the 
election of a new Parliament upon a widely extended 
basis of representation. It was the first trial of the 
new system of Household Suffrage. The first fruit 
of the new electoral constitution was the retirement 
of Disraeli's Cabinet, and the accession of Gladstone 

1868 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1467 

as Prime Minister. Charles Kean, son of Edmund 
Kean, died at London. Among his most successful British 009 ' 
parts were Hamlet and Richard 111. He was mar- 
ried to the accomplished actress Ellen Tree. 

A conspicuous event of the year was Great Brit- 
ain's Abyssinian expedition. As early as 1861, when 
Captain Cameron was appointed consul at Massowah, 
King Theodorus addressed a letter to Queen Victo- Theodora 
ria, expressing friendly feelings and suggesting ansinia 
Abyssinian embassy to England. The British Gov- 
ernment ignored this letter. Theodorus took re- 
venge by imprisoning all Englishmen he could lay 
hold of. A British expedition was sent out from 
India under General Sir Robert Napier. The van 
pushed on to Senalfe on the high land of Abyssinia, 
and on January 3 of this year, General Napier him- Napier 
self arrived in Annesley Bay. The force consisted in Afnca 
of some 12,000 soldiers, mostly native infantry, and 
15,000 followers. The army marched from Senalfe 
to Attegrath, and met with no opposition. The 
inhabitants supplied food when they were paid, 
and some chiefs gave assistance. The expedition 
reached the Bashilo Pass early in April. Colonel 
Phayre, after he had crossed the Bashilo, divided 
his troops and sent one body, under Colonel Mill- captureca 
ward, up the Arogge Pass. With a larger body hep^F 6 
proceeded over precipitous ground to the right. 
At the top of the Arogge Pass stood the Hill of 
Fahla, occupied by the Negus' warriors. The In- 
dian rifles wrought fearful havoc among the Abys- 
sinians. The next morning, Mr. Flab and Lieuten- 
ant Prideaux, who had been held captives, appeared 

1468 A HISTORY OF THE Bummer 1KB 

in the British camp with a flag of truce. Sir Kobert 
Napier insisted that the prisoners should be uncon- 
ditionally surrendered. This was done. On April 
Fan or 13, the British attacked Magdala. A hot fire was 
Magdaia opened Du t; no impression was made on the gateway 
where the king was stationed with a small band. 
The British forced their way over the plateau, and 
cut down the few remaining Abyssinians. King 

Theodorus shot himself with a pistol before the sol- 
Death of r 
the Negus diers could reach him. Thirty guns were captured 

and the palace was burned to the ground. The 
Negus' widow came to her death within a few 
weeks. Theodorus' infant son, Alamayon, was 
taken to England. 

In Japan, the utter downfall of the Tokungawa 
Shogunate, which for more than two and a half cen- 
turies had maintained itself in power, was accom- 
plished by a combination of the clans of Satsuma, 
End of r J ' 

8h pane | e Choshiu, Tosa, Etsizen and others. An edict was 
issued in the name of the young Mikado, Mutsuhite, 
abolishing the office of Shogun. All followers of 
the Tokungawa family were expelled from Yeddo. 
The deposed Shogun now retracted his resignation, 
and at the head of a large force undertook to re- 
enter Kioto to reassert his former authority. After 
a battle which lasted three days, the Shogun's fol- 
lowers were routed by the imperial troops. The 
beaten Keiki took refuge in his castle, and an- 
nounced that he would never again take arms against 
the Emperor. 

In Servia, on June 10, Prince Michael, the sover- 
eign, was assassinated at Belgrade. The regicides, 


Rado Vanovich and his two sons, were seized, and 

ten others were arrested as implicated in a conspiracy 

to place Prince Karageorgewitch upon the throne. 

A provisional government was established, and Milan 

Prince Milan, a relative of Prince Michael, was ofServla 

elected to the throne. 

November 13, Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, the il- 
lustrious Italian composer, died at Paris. Rossini's 
first successful opera was "Tancredi," brought out 
during the carnival of Venice at the Teatro Fenice 
in 1813, and was followed within a few months by 
"L'ltaliana in Algeri." Rossini's "Barber of Se- 
ville" was hissed at its first performance in Rome. RogsiBl 
The cool reception of "Semiramide" by the Vene- 
tians, in 1823, induced Rossini to go to London, 
where he conducted a series of grand concerts. A 
brief season in Vienna proved even more successful 
than that at London. Beethoven was much cha- 
grined to find how completely Rossini's Italian airs 
took possession of the Viennese. Proceeding to 
Paris, Rossini brought out his masterpiece, "Wil- 
liam Tell," on August 3, 1829, with a magnificent 
cast at the Grand Opera. With this great work 
Rossini abruptly closed his operatic career. Not 
even the sensational revival of "William Tell" in 
1837, with Duprez in the title role, shook him in 
this resolution. Thenceforward he wrote only re- 
ligious scores, among them his famous "Stabat Ma- 
ter" and "La Petite Messe Solennelle." A last 
earnest of his powers as a composer was given by 
a special cantata written for the Paris Exposition 
of 1867. 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— J 

1470 A HISTORY OF THE Bummer 1868 

In France, M. Pierre Antoine Berryer, the glory 
of the Paris bar, died at Augenlle. He was the 
oldest and ablest advocate in practice. After the 

Berryer ^ u ^ Revolution, Berryer favored popular govern- 
ment, though rightly regarded as the chief of the 
Legitimist party in Paris. At the trial of Louis 
Napoleon for his attempt upon Boulogne in 1840, 
Berryer made a powerful speech. Later he opposed 
the political conduct of President Louis Napoleon 
and spoke against him in 1851. He was among those 
who strove to impeach Louis Napoleon, but after the 
coup d'etat he took little part in political affairs. 
Still he held rank as the foremost orator of France 
since the days of Mirabeau. 

At the Salon this year Leon Ge*rome, the pupil 
of Delaroche, exhibited the historical painting "The 

G§Sme Seventh of December, 1818." He had made his 
d6but in the Salon in 1847, with "A Combat of 
Cocks," now in the Luxembourg. His greatest 
historic work, "The Age of Augustus," was in the 
Salon in 1855, and was purchased by the French 

George Government. In America, the landscape painter 
George Inness was made a National Academician 
this year. 

Another revolution broke out in Spain. Queen 
Isabella had alienated all feelings of loyalty by her 
arbitrary and aggressive rule. In April, insurrec- 
tionary movements commenced in Catalonia, which 
was declared under martial law. On the 23d, Mar- 
shal Narvaez, the President of the Council, died, 
and a new Cabinet was formed under Gonzalez 
Bravo. In July, several of the leading Spanish 

Painted by Henri ReyDault 


XlXth Cent.. Vol. Three 

1868 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1471 

generals were arrested and banished to the Canary- 
Islands. The Queen signed a decree exiling the 
Duke and Duchess de Montpensier. In September, 
the revolution broke out in earnest. General Prim s ish 
left England and soon disembarked at Cadiz. i n re ™ lution 
the meantime a vessel had been sent by the revolu- 
tionary leaders to the Canary Islands to bring back 
the banished generals. They arrived at Cadiz a few 
days after Prim. Already the Spanish fleet at that Prim 
port, under the command of Admiral Topete, and 
the garrison in the citadel had declared for the 
revolution. Marshal Serrano, the President of the 
Senate, placed himself at the head of the move- Serrano 
ment. All Andalusia rose against the government. 
The Spanish Ministry resigned, and General Concha 
was appointed by the Queen President of the Coun- 
cil. The Marquis de Novaliches, commanding the 
royal army, marched upon Cordova. At Burgos 
the hostile forces came in contact. The royal troops 
fraternized with the people. Juntas were estab- 
lished in the different towns, which one after an- 
other raised the standard of rebellion. Before the 
end of September, the Marquis de Novaliches had 
reached the bridge of Alcolea on the Guadalquivir 
near Cordova. Here a battle was fought between 
the royal troops and the insurgents, who were led 
to victory by Serrano. It was the last serious at- 
tempt to quell the revolution. Queen Isabella fled ™£oe\{* 
from Spain and took refuge in France. 

Marshal Serrano entered Madrid at the head of 
the revolutionary troops in the first days of October. 
The central Junta authorized Serrano to exercise 



Wiuter 1868 


supreme power in conjunction with a provisional 
ministry until a Constituent Assembly should meet. 
He accepted. Within a week, Great Britain, France, 

Provisional P russ ia an d Portugal recognized the provisional 
General Prim was appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief .of the Spanish forces. An elec- 
toral committee was formed which thus outlined 
the future form of Spain's government: 

"The monarchical form is imposed upon us by 
the exigencies of the revolution and the necessity 
of consolidating the liberties we have acquired. 
Monarchy by divine right is forever dead. Our 

programme ^ ature monarchy, in deriving its origin from pop- 
ular rights, will be a consecration of Universal 
Suffrage." The great difficulty was who was to 
be king. In December, serious conflicts occurred 
at Cadiz, where the people declared for a Repub- 
lic, and organized a militia, who styled themselves 
"Volunteers of Freedom." They refused to dis- 
arm, and, after a contest in the streets, govern- 
ment troops marched upon the town from Madrid 
under General Caballero de Rodas. The govern- 
ment troops took peaceable possession. 

This year was remarkable for the frequency of 
atmospheric phenomena and volcanic convulsions. 
Early in January, Mount Vesuvius in Italy with 
loud detonations began to send forth an immense 
quantity of lava. With some intermissions the vol- 
cano continued to vomit a fiery stream for several 
months. When the eruptions ceased, Mount Etna 
for a brief period broke out in a grand volcanic dis- 
play. Earthquake shocks were felt even in Britain. 

in Cadiz 



Earlier in the year a terrific cyclone swept over 
the island of Mauritius which rendered no less 
than 50,000 persons homeless. On March 27, the 
Hawaiian Islands were violently convulsed. A 
tidal wave sixty feet in height swept in from the 
sea destroying villages and drowning the people 
and their cattle. The great volcano Mauna Loa™*^ 
broke out in dreadful eruption, ejecting fire, rocks, 
ashes and molten lava. In August, a shock of 
earthquake was felt at Gibraltar, but the most 
dreadful disturbances were in Peru and Ecuador. 
On August 13, a tremendous earthquake occurred 
there, overthrowing numerous structures and de- 
stroying thousands of lives. The earth rocked 
frightfully; crags fell from the summits of the 
Andes; immense tidal waves rolled in upon the ^{j.^, 
land, sweeping whole towns from their foundations 
and stranding ships of war and merchant vessels far 
above highwater mark. The undulations extended 
over the whole Pacific, breaking in huge rollers on 
the shores of California, the Sandwich Islands, Japan 
and New Zealand. On October 21, an earthquake 
damaged the city of San Francisco, causing con- 
siderable loss of life. On the night of November 
14, a shower of meteors, which had been foretold, 
was seen at many points, and appeared to profes- Metric 
sional observers to emanate from the constellation 
Leo. Fully 5,000 meteors were observed from vari- 
ous astronomical stations. 




THE American claims against England grow- 
ing out of the Civil War, notably the 
"Alabama" claims, were at last adjusted. 
On January 14, a convention was signed at London 
by the Earl of Clarendon, Secretary for Foreign 

ba^t" Affairs, on behalf of Great Britain, and by Reverdy 
Johnson, the American Minister at the Court of St. 
James, on behalf of the United States. On Feb- 
ruary 26, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amend- 
ment to the American Constitution, which pro- 
vided that "the right to vote shall not be denied 
or abridged in any State, on account of race, color 
or previous condition of servitude." The new 

AmXjT th President of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant, 
took his oath of office on March 4, as customary. 
Ex-President Johnson refused to sit in the carriage 
with Grant at his inauguration, nor would he take 
any part in the proceedings. General surprise and 
disappointment followed Grant's nominations for 
members of his Cabinet. They were Washburn, 
Secretary of State; Stuart, Treasury; Schofield, 

Hreiadmin-^' ar ' Borey, Navy; Cox, Interior; Hoar, Attorney- 

fetration Q enera i 5 an( | Cresswells, Postmaster-General. Stuart 
resigned almost immediately by reason of the law 
forbidding an importer holding the portfolio of the 
Treasury. His place was taken by Boutwell. At 

1869 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1475 

later dates, Hamilton Fish succeeded Washburn, 
who became Minister to France, and Kawlins suc- 
ceeded Schofield. Congress rejected the Johnson- 
Clarendon treaty respecting the Alabama claims, 
and the matter had to be referred to international 
arbitration. Motley, the historian, was appointed 
Minister to Great Britain. Further changes in the 
Cabinet seemed to betoken want of decision on the 
part of the President. Borey resigned as Secretary 
of~ the Navy, and Eobison was appointed in his 
place. Not long afterward the portfolio of War cabinet 
changed hands for the third time. Some embar- 
rassment for the new Secretary of State was pro- 
vided by a resolution of sympathy with the Cuban 
insurgents on the part of the Eepresentatives. Still 
the independence of Cuba was not recognized by 
President Grant. Instead, he entered into negotia- 
tions for a peaceable annexation of San Domingo 
by the United States, and for a long lease of theg^J£ on 
bay and peninsula of Samana as a naval station. mmgo 

During this year in America the right of suffrage 
was granted to women in the Territories of Wyo- 
ming and Utah. Whittier brought out his "New 
England Ballads," and Parkman his "Discovery of 
the West." The most popular American literary 
productions of the year were Mark Twain's "Inno- 
cents Abroad" ; Bret Harte's poem of "The Heathen American 

r letters 

Chinee," and Aldrich's "Bad Boy," all three char- 
acteristic products of American humor. 

An event of far-reaching industrial and financial 
importance was the completion of the Union Pacific 
Eailway, on May 10, by the junction at Ogden of 

1476 A HISTORY OF THE tsprtog ia» 

the Union and Central Pacific Railways. Kail way 
pacinc speculation received an immense impetus at New 
York, where Vanderbilt, Gould and Fisk dazzled 
the Stock Exchange by their daring hazards. In 
September, Gould and Fisk joined in a scheme 
to "corner the gold of the country." In the spring 
of the year the price of gold had fallen to 181, by 
reason of the government's impending resumption 
of specie payments. A clique of Wall Street specu- 
lators purchased several millions at that price. By 
liberal subsidies to the press they induced several 
newspapers to prophesy that difficulties with Eng- 
land would arise from the Alabama claims, or from 
pidfpecu- the recognition of the Cuban insurrection, or again 
that war was imminent between Germany and 
France. Thus they pushed up the price of gold 
to 135, and gathered a rich harvest. After this 
the value of gold fell to its former standard of 
. 131, and there was a general belief that it would 
fall still further. The financial policy of the gov- 
ernment which necessitated the payment of duties 
in gold again sent up the price of gold. The clique 
once more took a hand. By their operations the 
price was advanced to 141 by the 22d of Sep- 
tember, a Wednesday. There it hung in the bal- 
ance. Then came two days of feverish excitement 
and speculations surpassing anything hitherto known 
in the financial annals of America. Important rail- 
road stocks fell by a score of points within an hour. 
The lesser speculators failed or settled their ob- 
FanXes ligations on the best terms they could. It was a 
day of wild excitement, of alternating hopes and 

1869 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1477 

fears, recalling the Civil War. The day closed 
with gold at 144. On the morning of Friday— p?Jday" 
"Black Friday" as it came to be called — every pas- 
sage leading to the Stock Exchange was blocked 
by a dense mass of humanity laboring under the 
greatest state of excitement. At the opening of 
the Board the price of gold was 150 — an advance 
of six per cent on that of the highest of the day 
before. It was now well known that Jay Gould and 
his associates held in gold and contracts for delivery 
something like one hundred and twenty millions, 
while all the current gold in New York could be 
scarcely more than twenty millions. The govern- 
ment alone could break the corner by the sale of 
gold in the New York sub-treasury. The conduct 
of the Treasury officials, if it did not confirm the 
boast of the clique that members of the govern- 
ment were in league with them, left scant hope of 
relief from that quarter. The price of gold rose 
steadily. In the midst of the wildest excitement, 
when the price was vibrating at the highest points, 
a messenger arrived in the Gold Room with the 
news that Secretary of the Treasury Boutwell had 
given orders to sell gold on behalf of the govern- Govem- 

T ° mentacts 

ment. The price instantly fell to 135. The power 
of the clique was broken, and the great crisis was 
at an end. So large had been the dealings that the 
Gold Exchange Bank, which acted as a clearing 
house, was not able to calculate and settle the 
transactions of the preceding day within opening 
time. For twelve hours more, uncertainty pre- p^ 01 * 1 
Vailed, and the shadow of disaster darkened Wall 

1478 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1869 

Street. The calamity of. the financial failures of 
Wall Street had now made itself felt in the com- 
mercial circles of New York, and soon spread 
through the whole country. Intense indignation 
was aroused against Gould, Fisk and other mem- 
bers of the gold clique. Persistent efforts were 
oUntsus- ma de to implicate President Grant in their trans- 
1,6016(1 actions, and Congress appointed a committee to 
investigate the charges, but nothing came of it. 
Gould, Fisk and their associates achieved no 
less notoriety in America by their reckless dealings 
culminating in the so-called Erie War. After 
seventeen years of discouraging efforts, the Albany 
and Susquehanna Kailroad, connecting the city of 
Albany with the Erie Railroad at Binghamton, had 
at last been completed. Early in August the treas- 
urer of this railroad company refused to transfer 
some stock to the Erie party, on the ground that it 
had been illegally procured. A war of injunctions 
followed. The Erie party controlled two corrupt 
judges in New York, who issued writs in their 
favor. The threatening assertions of conflicting 
war" Erle rights made police intervention necessary. Police 
officers and deputy sheriffs were bribed right and 
left. Rival receivers were appointed for the Al- 
bany Railroad. In New York, Fisk and his asso- 
ciates in the Erie Ring avoided service of legal writs 
by barricading themselves in New Jersey, in com- 
pany with one of their pliant judges. An Erie 
train waiting at a station was seized. Armed men 
took charge. Another train filled with 800 armed 
men was sent against them. As the two trains met 

3869 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1479 

both engineers leaped for life. The Erie engine 
was wrecked and the train thrown off the track. 
The militia had to interfere. The courts, after 
some more flagrant attempts at intimidation and 
corruption, decided against the Erie Railroad. 

By way of compromise between the American 
aspirations toward the recognition of Cuban inde- Spain 
pendence, and the objections of the European chan- American 
celleries, President Grant at length tendered an 
offer of mediation between Spain and its rebellious 
subjects in Cuba, but the Spanish Government per- 
emptorily declined the offer. Internal dissensions 
in Spain made it imperative for the new govern- 
ment there to take a strong stand in this matter. 
Early in the year insurrection had broken out at 
Malaga and had to be suppressed by severe meas- 
ures. This encouraged the Cuban insurgents in 
the field. Muntinous manifestations on the part 

1 Cuban war 

of the Spanish troops in Cuba caused General continued 
Dulce to resign his supreme command in the 
island. General Caballero de Rodas was sent out 
from Spain to replace him. Bourbon conspiracies 
were discovered at Pampeluna, Burgos and Bar- 
celona. The government's call for 25,000 soldiers 
by conscription provoked fresh disturbances at 
Xeres de la Frontera and other points between Revolts 
Cadiz and Seville. The barricades of the insur- m 
gents had to be carried at the point of the bayonet. 
The crown of Spain was now offered to Dom Fer- 
nando, the ex-King of Portugal, but he positively 
declined it. Other overture 
met with favorable response. 

1480 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn l«S 

In Great Britain, the Parliamentary session of 
this year was memorable for the meeting of the 
first House of Commons elected under household 
suffrage, and the first great step taken in reversing 
the long-standing policy of England toward Ireland. 

stone's These two events were closely linked together. 

measures That it should have been in the power of any Min- 
ister to effect within a few months so momentous 
a change as the passing of the Irish Church Bill, 
which rent asunder the long-subsisting connection 
between the Church and the State in Ireland, and 
to unite together almost as one man the diversified 
and incongruous elements of the English, Irish and 
Scotch Liberal factions in the prosecution of a com- 
mon purpose, was a feat truly remarkable. 

Alphonse de Lamartine, the French poet and 

Lamartine statesman, died on the last day of February. In 
1820 he first became known as a poet by his 
"Meditations Poetiques." The "Nouvelles Medi- 
tations Poetiques" (1823) and the "Harmonies Po- 
etiques et Religieuses" (1828) established his poetic 
fame and obtained for him admission into the 
French Academy in 1830. After the July revo- 
lution he travelled in the East, and on his return 
published "Voyage en Orient," "Souvenirs," "Im- 
pressions," "Pense*es et Paysages." During his ab- 
sence he had been elected a member of the Chamber 

Poet and °* Deputies an d thenceforth his career was that of 

•tatesman g man of politicg ag well as of letters. In 1848, 

Lamartine became a member of the Provisional 
Government as Minister of Foreign Affairs. But 
losing popularity, he soon withdrew from public 

1869 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1481 

life. His verses continued to excite general ad- 

Charles Augustine Sainte-Beuve, one of the 
greatest modern French critics, died in October Deathof 
at the age of sixty-five. Sainte-Beuve's contri- teuvf 
butions to the "Eevue des Deux Mondes" on 
French authors and literature formed for some 
period a chief attraction of that periodical. In 
1837 he delivered some lectures on the school 
of Port Eoyal at Lausanne, which laid the foun- 
dation of his elaborate work "Histoire du Port 
Eoyal," published during the fifties. While en- 
gaged on these labors, Sainte-Beuve was appointed 
curator of the Mazarin Library, and in 1845 was 
elected a member of the French Academy. After 
the Eevolution of 1848, Sainte-Beuve contributed 
weekly articles of criticism to the "Eevue des 
Deux Mondes," to the "Constitutionel," and after- 
ward to the "Moniteur" ("Causeries du Lundi," 
15 volumes; "Nouveaux Lundis," 13 volumes). 

George Peabody, the American philanthropist, 
died on November 4, in London. Most notable 
among his endowments were the free library for 


his birthplace, Dan vers; a free library and institute Peabody 
of art and science at Baltimore; and a model dwell- 
ing-house for the London poor. In 1866 he received 
the freedom of the City of London, and was offered 
a baronetcy by the Queen, which he declined. 

Julia Grisi, the celebrated prima donna, died on 
November 28, in Berlin. She made her first ap- 
pearance as a singer at Bologna as Emma in Eossi- 
ni's "Celmira." The fame of her voice spread over 

1482 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1800 

Julia Qrisi 

Europe. In 1832 Rossini engaged her as prima 
donna of the Italian opera in Paris. There she 
made her debut in "Semiramide." One of her 
warmest admirers was Bellini, who, having com- 
posed "Norma" for Pasta, at once recognized in 
La Grisi the true ideal of his creation. It proved 
the greatest of her parts. Some ten years later La 
Grisi was the prima donna of the Royal Italian 
Opera in London. At the same time Jenny Lind 
was at the height of her popularity in England. 
After a series of so-called farewell performances 
at London, La Grisi, under the management of her 
second husband, Mario, made a tour in the United 
States of America. Her success there did not com- 
pare to that of London or Paris, but she held her 
own against such formidable rivals as La Persiani 
and Sonntag. Thenceforth her career as a singer 

In Japan, all vestiges of the great rebellion had 
ceased, and the Mikado's party was triumphant. 
The great step from feudalism to modern civiliza- 
tion, for which Europeans had required centuries, 
was made in Japan in a few years. After the over- 
throw of the Shogun this great modern revolution 


^ f was accomplished without bloodshed by the volun- 
tary surrender on the part of the Daimios of their 
most cherished feudal rights. The young Mikado 
began the era of innovations by departing from 
Kioto, or Miako, which had been the seat of his 
ancestors for twenty-five centuries, and by the 
adoption of Yeddo, thenceforth called Tokio, for 
his capital. Four of the greatest Daimios of Japan 


1869 Winter NINETEENTH CENTURY 1483 

took up the gauntlet. They addressed a memorial 
to the throne offering to release their clansmen and 
to restore their fiefs to the imperial crown. 

In Egypt, the great Suez Canal was opened in-rhesu^ 
December with oriental pomp. The successful exe- Canal 
cution of this enterprise was due to the unwearied 
energy and determination of Ferdinand de Lesseps. 
The gigantic undertaking proved a complete success. 

On December 18, Louis Moreau Gottschalk, the 

Death of 

American composer and pianist, died at Eio de Gottschalk 
Janeiro. Born at Hew Orleans in 1829, Gottschalk 
studied music in Paris under Halle and Stamaty. 
At the age of sixteen he brought out his early 
composition "Le Bananier." After his debut as 
a pianist in 1845, he toured through France, 
Switzerland and Spain, returning at last to the 
United States. Starting from his birthplace, New 
Orleans, in 1853, Gottschalk played concerts of his 
own compositions throughout North America, Cen- 
tral America, the West Indies and South America. 
His manager was Max Strakosch, later celebrated 
as impresario of Adelina Patti. During the years 
of the North American Civil War, Gottschalk gave 
concerts in almost every noteworthy town of Span- pianist's 
ish America. He died worn out by overexertion. 
Gottschalk's Creole temperament gave to his works 
their peculiar charm of melody and Spanish warmth 
of color. Notable among them were his "Night in 
the Tropics," "Cuban Dances," "Montevideo," and 
"The Grand March dedicated to the Emperor of 

1484 A tLlHTORY o* Ttm 


IN ROME, the Ecumenical Council — convoked 
by Pope Pius IX. at the close of the previous 
year — on its second session early in January 
put forth the new dogma of the Pope's infallibility 
in matters of religion. A petition was presented in 
which the undersigned fathers humbly and ear- 
nestly begged: "The Holy Ecumenical Council of 
the Vatican to define clearly, and in words that 
cannot be mistaken, that the authority of the Ro- 
man Pontiff is supreme, and therefore exempt from 
error when in matters of faith and morals he declares 
and defines what is to be believed and held, and 
what is to be rejected and condemned by all the 

About this time Charles de Montalembert, the 
exponent of the new Catholic movement in France, 
died at Paris. As a youth he formed an intimate 
acquaintance with Lamenais, the ardent advocate 
of an alliance between Catholicism and Democracy. 
Together they founded the "Journal L'Avenir." 
On attaining his majority, Count Montalembert 
took his seat as a Peer of France. In 1836, he 
published his first important work, "The Life of 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary." In 1848, he declared 
himself for the Republic, and took his seat in the 

1870 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1485 

National Assembly with the extreme right. After 

the coup oVitat he was named by the President ab e °rt talem ' 

member of the Consulting Commission preliminary 

to the Council of State, and was elected to the new 

legislative Chambers. In 1852, he was elected a 

member of the French Academy. In the general 

elections of 1857, Montalembert, who was looked 

upon as the declared adversary of the Empire, was 

defeated in his own department. This defeat closed 

his Parliamentary career. For a satirical article on 

the Indian debates in the English Parliament, he 

was prosecuted, convicted and sentenced to six 

months' imprisonment and a fine of 3,000 francs, 

for "language calculated to excite hatred against 

imperial institutions." 

In Great Britain, the condition of Ireland was 
once more the topic which, to the exclusion of al- Ireland 
most all other questions except that of education, 
commanded the attention of English statesmen. 
Two days after a new Irish land bill had been 
submitted in February, an act providing for the 
elementary education of the common people was 

Shortly after this, trouble arose in British North Canad8> 
America. In Canada, the troublous Eebellion of 
the Red Eiver gave just concern to the British. 
In the previous year the Hudson's Bay Company 
had effected an arrangement for parting with all their 
general territorial rights in Ruppert Land to Canada 
for the sum of £300,000. The people along the Red 
River rose in insurrection against the proposed 
transfer. Louis Riel, a young man of French- 



Summer 1870 


Death of 



Canadian descent, was proclaimed "President of 
the Republic of the Northwest." Attacks were 
made on the remaining officers of the Company and 
on other Englishmen, and all negotiations failed. 
British troops were despatched northward under 
the command of Colonel Wolseley. When the ex- 
pedition reached Fort Gary, Riel took refuge 
in the United States. British supremacy was re- 
established by force of arms, and the province 
of Manitoba was added to Canada. 

In England, Charles Dickens, the great novelist, 
died on June 9, after a sudden illness, at Gad's Hill 
Place near Rochester. Dickens began his literary 
career as a reporter on the staff of the "True Sun," 
from which he went over to the London "Morning 
Chronicle." Charles Dickens' graphic power of 
describing the ordinary scenes of common life, es- 
pecially in their ludicrous aspect, brought him an 
order for a serial story in monthly parts. He wrote 
the "Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club." 
The "Pickwick Papers" found an enormous sale 
from their first appearance. Charles Dickens' pen 
henceforth was in incessant demand. Dickens was 
one of the founders of the Guild of Literature, and 
was an ardent advocate of reforms in the adminis- 
tration of the Literary Fund. He was also the 
founder of "All the Year Round," which he con- 
tinued to conduct to the last. 

Associated with Dickens in death, as well as in 
life, was Daniel Maclise, the famous Irish painter, 
who died during this year. Of his historical paint- 
ings, most famous perhaps are "The Death of Nel- 

1870 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1487 

son at Trafalgar" and "The Meeting of Wellington 
and Bliicher at Waterloo," now in the Koyal Gal- 
lery of the House of Parliament. 

The course of events in the United States during 
this year was encouraging. The measures which 
chiefly occupied Congress concerned the financial 
condition of the country, the readmission of the 
Southern States to the Union, maritime interests, 
the extension of the suffrage to former slaves, new 


naturalization laws, as well as the foreign relations recon - 

7 ° struction 

of the country. Following the readmission of Vir- 
ginia, the States of Mississippi, Texas and Georgia 
were welcomed back in turn. On March 30, Presi- 
dent Grant issued a proclamation declaring the rati- 
fication of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Con- 
stitution, whereby the right to suffrage in every 
election, municipal, State or national, was accorded 
to all the colored citizens of the United States. 
The white voters in the South took immediate 
steps to counteract the effects of this measure. 
About this time, in China, revolting outrages 


were committed in the city of Tien-tsin, when the excesses 
French consulate, the Catholic mission and the 
hospital of the French Sisters of Charity were at- 
tacked by a mob of Chinese fanatics. The sisters 
were massacred in an atrocious manner; the French 
Consul was killed, with a number of Christian 
priests and white merchants. A money indem- 
nity of 500,000 taels was subsequently paid by 
the Chinese Government. 

Some time before this the war between Paraguay 
and Brazil was brought to a close by the defeat 

1488 A HISTORY OF THE Summer Ml 

and death of General Lopez in March. Notwith- 
ri3S taan standing the triple alliance which had been brought 
to bear against his dictatorship (the Argentine and 
Uruguay Republics had made common cause with 
Brazil), Lopez succeeded in throwing his forces into 
the mountains of the northwest. There he pre- 
vailed on a body of 5,000 Indians to join him. 
The last contest was fought out on the banks 
of the Aquidibaniqui River. Lopez's forces were 

End of ^ ^ l 

Lopez routed and their leader was killed, preferring death 
to surrender. The war had lasted just five years. 
Meanwhile, the insurrection in Cuba against the 
Spanish Government demanded the attention of 
the United States. Under the combined pressure 
of England and France, President Grant opposed 
any step which might lead to the recognition of 
the insurgents as belligerents. American annex- 
ation of the former Spanish island of San Do- 
negotia- mingo, on the other hand, was a scheme which 

tions ° ' 

unproduc- p res iaeiit Grant had very much at heart. Andrew 
D. White went to San Domingo and reported the 
willingness of the inhabitants to have their island 
incorporated in the United States. Still President 
Grant failed to obtain the sanction of Congress. 

The vacant throne of Spain had given concern to 
the European chancelleries ever since the expulsion 
of Queen Isabella and the Spanish Bourbon dynasty 
in the autumn of 1868. At the opening of this year, 
Marshal Serrano, the Spanish Regent, and Marshal 
Prim, the Commander-in-Chief and President of the 
Council, were still looking for a new king. Their 
last candidate had been Prince Thomas of Savoy, 

1870 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1489 

Duke of Genoa, then still a schoolboy at Harrow 
in England. On his nephew's behalf, King Victor splnish 
Emmanuel of Italy declined the dangerous offer. 
This refusal resulted in a Spanish Cabinet crisis. 
Admiral Topete returned to office with Rivero and 
Montero Rios, but Prim remained at the head of 
affairs. King Fernando of Portugal likewise re- 
fused to accept the Spanish crown. Early in May 
two candidates were formally named before the 
Cortes. They were old Marshal Espartero and 
the Due de Montpensier. A determination of the 
Cortes that any candidate, to be successful, would 
have to command an absolute majority in the As- 
sembly made it evident that neither Montpensier 
nor Espartero could prevail. At last Prim and his Prince 

r ' Hohen- 

friends hoped that a suitable candidate had been candidate 
found in Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmarin- 
gen, whose elder brother was Prince of Roumania. 
The Sigmaringen family, notwithstanding its Ca- 
tholicism and close ties of blood with the French 
families of Beauharnais and Murat, was distinctly 
Prussian in all its recent traditions and affiliations. 
Prince Charles Antony, the chief of the house, had 
servea as Prime Minister of Prussia and had helped 
to elevate Bismarck to his present position. The 
candidature of a Prince of Hohenzollern to the 
Spanish throne was therefore obnoxious to France. 
When the announcement was made, on July 3, that 
Prince Leopold had consented to accept the crown 
of Spain if the Cortes confirmed his election, a France 


storm of protest broke out in the French press. 
The quasi-constitutional drift of the Second Em- 


pire in France, after going through the usual form 
of an overwhelming plebiscite, had been inaugu- 
rated but a few months before. Emile Ollivier had 
been called to the head of the new parliamentary 
government. In his opening speech to the Cham- 
bers he announced that "Peace was never more 
assured than now." With the Luxemburg ques- 
tion out of the way nothing remained to vex 
French diplomacy but the succession to the Span- 
ish throne. Just before this question came up 
anew, the political horizon of Europe had seemed 
so clear that King William of Prussia set off to 
Prussia off ta ^ e tne waters at Ems, while his chief advisers, 
euard Bismarck, Yon Roon and Moltke, retired to their 
country seats for the summer vacation. A reorgan- 
ization and rearmament of the military forces of 
Prussia were under way, which required no little 
time. Of the secret proposals repeatedly made to 
Bismarck by the French ambassador, Count Bene- 
detti, the world as yet knew nothing. It was not 
until Bismarck openly declared that for years the 
French Emperor had been seeking an alliance with 
Prussia, demanding as his price either Belgium and 
Luxemburg, or the Bavarian Palatinate and the 
Rhine provinces, that the political intrigue which 
had been spun became known. The Mexican affair 
had proven a miserable fiasco for Louis Napoleon. 
The opposition was gaining ground. Judicial in- 
vestigations of conspiracies added to the disquietude 
of the people. A poor harvest threatened the pros- 
perity of the country. Napoleon felt that he could 
regain his popularity only by a victorious war; so 


the French military forces were strengthened by 
the addition of reserves and national guardsmen. waTpians 
The arsenals were filled. The Chassepot gun was 
adopted for the army. A new weapon, the "mitrail- 
leuse, 1 ' which could fire twenty-five bullets at once 
from its cannon-like bore, was added to the artillery.' 
Germany appeared as divided as ever. Secret agents 
and newspaper correspondents had much to report 
of the hatred of the Bavarian ultramontanes, par- 
ticularists, and malcontents of every stamp for Prus- 
sia and her all-devouring plans. Austria had not 
forgiven Sadowa. The Czechs, Poles and Magyars, 
who, of late, had acquired influence in the Austrian 
Empire, all sympathized with the French. Count 
von Beust, the Austrian Chancellor, was ready to 
form an alliance with France. At the Tuileries 
it was felt that the blow, if struck at all, must be 
•struck quickly. Euge'nie and her clerical friends 
were outspoken in their eagerness for a war that 

would raise France by humbling Prussia. Now the Eugenie's 
French Ambassador at Berlin was commissioned to 
express to Prussia the deep pain which France felt 
at Leopold's acceptance of the proffered crown of 

Under the pressure of the foreign powers, Spain 
was induced to withdraw the offer which she had Leopold 
made, and Leopold voluntarily renounced his can- Spanish 


didacy through his father. Ambassador Benedetti, 
however, was commanded to obtain from King 
"William a declaration that the candidacy of Leopold 
of Hohenzollern would never be supported again. 
At Ems, Benedetti gained an audience with the 

1492 A HISTORY OF THE July 18TO 

King, and pressed his suit hard, bat without suo- 
™V** r " cess. Twice his request was personally refused by 
William. The third time, on July 13, an audience 
was denied, and Benedetti was informed by an 
aide-de-camp that the King was still of his 
former opinion. 

Of what had occurred at Ems, Bismarck knew 
nothing. He had invited Roon and Moltke to dine 
with him on the 13th. In their presence a telegram 
from Ems reached him containing King William's 
version of recent events with permission to publish 
the matter. Bismarck made use of the royal author- 
ization to publish the contents of the telegram, and 
in the presence of Moltke and Roon edited the origi- 
nal despatch until it assumed the following form: 

"After the news of the renunciation of the he- 
Bismarck , s reditary Prince of Hohenzollern had been officially 
version communicated to the imperial government of France 
by the royal government of Spain, the French Am- 
bassador at Ems further demanded of his Majesty 
the King, that he would authorize him to telegraph 
to Paris that his Majesty the King pledged himself 
for all future time never again to give his consent 
if the Hohenzollerns should renew their candidacy. 
His Majesty the King thereupon decided not to re- 
ceive the French Ambassador again, and informed 
him through the aide-de-camp on duty that his 
Majesty had nothing further to communicate to the 

Bismarck read aloud the despatch as revised by 
him. "That has a better ring," remarked Von 
Roon. Moltke added: "First it seemed like a par- 
ley; now it sounds like a clarion-call to anna-" 


Then Bismarck said: "This will be published 
abroad in Paris before midnight. It will have 
the effect of a red rag on the Gallic cock. Fight 
we must if we do not wish to act the part of the 
vanquished without a battle." Smiting his chest JJbiSlt 
Moltke exclaimed: "If I but live to lead our army 
in such a war, then the devil may come afterward 
and take my old carcass." The Crown Prince of 
Prussia, when seen at the Ministry of War late that 
night, whispered to a friend: "Mobilization!" 

The telegram of Bismarck was indeed "a call to 
arms." Germany was in a delirium of joy when the 
news of the supposed humiliation of Benedetti was 
published. Frenchmen were wild with rage at the 
affront which they thought had been offered to their 
Minister. The Opposition protested against hostile 
action, claiming that no offence had been offered to 
France. But Empress Eugenie's faction clamored for 
war. Thiers was howled down when he rose in the French 


Chambers and demanded the production of the dip- calIed out 
lomatic correspondence which had passed between 
France and Prussia. In a fiery speech to the As- 
sembly, Ollivier proclaimed that "we have called 
upon our reserves, and, with your consent, we 
will immediately take the necessary steps to safe- 
guard the interests, the security, and the honor of 
France." He called for an appropriation of five 
hundred millions; and almost unanimously the sum 
was granted. For the first time in many a year 
the press, the people, and the Chambers were in 

In Pans mobs were fiercely shouting "A Berlin^ & 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— K 

1494 A HISTORY OF THE July 187C 

, To Berlin." In Germany the cry was, li Zum fihein, zum 

Berlin " Xhein." When Ollivier had gathered the French re- 
serves, the order was given to mobilize the North 
German Army Corps. The national song, "Die 
Wacht am Rhein," swept through the land as did 
the "Marseillaise'' in France. 

On July 19, the day on which the Reichstag 
of the North German Confederation was opened, 
France declared war. It was to be a struggle 
a Voutrance between France and Germany alone. 
France Neither side was supported by an ally. England, 
w e al- are Italy and Russia proclaimed their neutrality. Von 
Beust, the Austrian Chancellor, Saxon though he 
was, would gladly have come to Louis Napoleon's 
aid, but the sympathy for Germany felt by most 
Austrians of German descent — "Teutonic efferves- 
cence" he called it — prevented him Trom carrying 
Procia- out his intentions, and compelled him, "not with- 

mations of 

neutrality on ^ re gret, " to declare Austria neutral. Although 
there had been no little indecision and even hos- 
tility in South Germany, the States which were not 
already members of the North German Confedera- 
tion all joined the Prussian standard. 

On July 28, Louis Napoleon, with the Prince 
imperial, left Paris for the front, and proceeded 
to Metz, where forces had been gathered which 
were designated the "Army of the Rhine." At 
Metz were 150,000 men; at Strasburg 100,000; at 
Chalons 50,000. The French troops were so distrib- 
uted that the Prussians should not foresee where 
the principal attack would be made. The combined 
forces were to cross the Rhine at Maxau, compel the 


South German States to remain neutral, and proceed 
to the Elbe, where friendly assistance was expected 
from Italy and Austria. The plan was good; but 55? of 
presupposed the gathering of 300,000 men on the campaisa 
banks of the Rhine before the Prussian forces could 
be mobilized; the possibility of throwing these men 
across the river and entering Southern Germany 
without stoppage; the ability of the French generals 
to hold their own until they could be joined by the 
Austrians and Italians. It was likewise presupposed 
that the French fleet would land 30,000 men on the 
Baltic coast, who were to join 40,000 Danes, and 
thus compel Prussia to divide her forces. No step 
had been taken to cover the retreat of the army if 
it met with reverses, nor were the French officers 
provided with war maps of their own country. 

Moltke's scheme was less complex. A year be- 
fore war had been declared maps of the probable 
theatre of war had been drawn up. The German 
forces were to be mobilized in the Bavarian Palat- 
inate and "to look for the principal force of the 
enemy and to attack it wherever found." In ten 
days the entire North German army was raised from 
a peace-footing of 300,000 to a war-footing or 900, -Germans 

r ° ' ° ' mobilize 

000. With equal rapidity the South German troops 
were mobilized. Day and night the railroads car- 
ried troops to the frontier. The first army (right 
wing, 61,000 men) came by way of Coblentz under 
General Steinmetz; the second army (centre, 206,000 
men) by way of Mainz and Bingen, under Prince 
Frederick Charles; the third army (left wing, 50,000 
men) by way of Mannheim and Maxau under Crown 

1496 A HISTORY OF THE July 1870 

Prince Frederick William. Preparations were made 
to protect the sea-coast. Three army corps and 160,- 
000 mobile militia (Landwehr) were left in Germany 
to resist a possible Austrian invasion. Long before 
the outbreak of war the secret intelligences of the 
Prussian War Office had fixed the time limit of 
fhefroilt* French mobilization at nineteen days. Moltke's 
plan of mobilization accordingly provided for eigh- 
teen days. The whole German army was mobilized 
strictly within that time. As it turned out, the 
French War Office required twenty-one days to 
put its army on a war footing. The strong offen- 
sive movements of the German forces during the 
latter part of this operation upset all the French 
plans. Thus it came that the French plan of cam- 
paign was never carried out, because the needful 
troops could not be mustered quickly enough, and 
because the South German States were found to be 
French on tne 8 ^ e of Prussia. The French commanders 
plaus upset now proceeded to arrange their forces in a long 
line, nearly 275 miles long, extending from Thion- 
ville to Belfort. The major portion of this army of 
210,000 men was concentrated in the area bounded 
by Thionville, Metz, and Weissenburg; but even 
this line presented a front of 175 miles. In so 
widely extended an area the different corps found 
it difficult to support one another. The French 
ironclads had too deep a draught to accomplish 
anything but a thorough blockade of the German 

On August 2, the French won their first victory; 
at least so it was heralded. For a fortnight a few 


companies of Hohenzollern Fusileers and a few 
troops of a regiment of Uhlans had been stationed 
at Saarbriicken and had scoured the neighbor- 
ing country in many a reconnoitring expedition. Zeppclin . 8 
Count von Zeppelin, subsequently famous for his exp01ts 
ambitious aeronautical projects, took a prominent 
part in these cavalry raids. Although there were 
not more than 1,500 men all told, it was made to 
appear to the French that the number was far 
greater. A French army corps under Frossard 
advanced toward Saarbriicken. The little detach- 
ment of German troops retired after having suf- 
fered some loss. It was the first blood shed in the encounter 
great war. 

Under the command of General Abel Douay, 
a division of French troops marched to the Bhen- 
ish border of Bavaria and took possession of the 
small fortified town of Weissenburg. The third 
German army, composed of Prussians and South 
Germans under the Crown Prince, had reached the 
Lauter and had started on its southward journey. 
On August 4, the right wing of this German force 
attacked the French division, which was distributed burg 
partly Id the city, partly on the heights of the Geis- 
berg. Weissenburg was captured after a hot fight, 
and the French troops were dislodged from the 
crest of the Geisberg, despite their fierce resistance. 
Douay was killed, and 1,000 of his men were taken 
prisoners. Upon receiving news of the defeat of 
J)ouay, Alarshal MacMahon called together all the 
troops in Alsace and took up a strong and well- 
fortified position on the right bank of the Sauer- 



bach, grouping his army about the village of Frosch- 
weiler. The Crown Prince had moved forward and 
taken possession of the high ground extending from 
Worth to Grunstett. On the 6th of August, the 
battle of Worth, one of the bloodiest conflicts of 
the war, was fought. The French began the en- 
gagement with a heavy artillery fire. It was not 
until the Crown Prince appeared on the heights 
to the east of Worth that the battle was decided. 
The French position at Froschweiler was threat- 
ened; and at half-past four Marshal MacMahon was 
compelled to give orders to retreat. He had lost 
one-third of his fighting force. The Germans cap- 
tured 9,000 prisoners, a great number of guns, two 
eagles, and other war booty. Among the dead on 
the battlefield were 6,000 Frenchmen and 10,000 
Germans, including some 500 officers. Two French 
regiments of cuirassiers under Generals Nansouty 
and Michel were annihilated. 

On the evening of the same day the news was 
brought that a second victory had been won by the 
first and second German armies at Spicheren. After 
the engagement of the 4th of August, General Fros- 
sard had evacuated Saarbrucken and moved further 
south to the plateau of Spicheren. The Prussian 
first army under Generals Zastrow and Kameke 
vainly endeavored to storm the strong French posi- 
tion. Two attacks were repelled. But reinforce- 
ments from the second army under General von 
Alvensleben, who had heard the cannonade and 
immediately pressed forward, not only filled the 
gaps in the Prussian ranks, but also strengthened 



the attack. Frossard yielded. Nightfall alone 
saved his army from utter rout. A three hours' 
march away were 40,000 French soldiers under 
Marshal Bazaine. To save Frossard, of whose Bazaine 
sore plight he must have been aware, Bazaine statloaary 
stirred not an inch. The French never forgave 
him for this. 

The Germans were now in control of the Vosges 
passes and had advanced to the river Moselle after 
taking the small fortress of Lutzelstein. General 
Beyer began the siege of Strasburg. These move- 
ments were so rapid, so overwhelming, that a feel- 
ing of dismay seized the French people. In the Fallof 
Chambers the government was so sharply criticised m^try 
that the Ollivier-Gramont Ministry resigned. Em- 
press Euge'nie, who had been intrusted with the 
Eegency by her husband, called upon the aged 
General Montauban, the hero of Palikao, to form 
a new Cabinet. The Montauban Ministry immedi- 
ately proceeded to increase the fighting force of the 
country by forced drafts and by forming a National 
Guard. The supreme command of all the French 
troops was given to Marshal Bazaine — an action 
which was regarded as a veiled degradation of the The 
Emperor. The new generalissimo forthwith added slightea 
to his army the defeated corps of Frossard and other 
available troops. With the remnants of the Vosges 
army, MacMahon marched southward to Chalons, 
where fresh troops were stationed. With Bazaine 
at Metz were Napoleon and Generals Canrobert, 
Bourbaki, Ladmirault and Decaen. MacMahon, 
whose division was now named the "Army of 

1500 A HISTORY OF THE Aug. 1870 

Paris," was joined at Chalons by the troops 
of Failly, Felix Douay, Ducrot and Lebrun. 

Meanwhile, the Prussian armies and the troops 
of the Northern States and Hesse-Darmstadt, com- 
manded by King William, marched into Lorraine, 
occupied Nancy, and overran the entire open coun- 
try. Although Mctz, Thionville and a few smaller 
Germans frontier fortresses were held by the French, Lorraine 
Lorraine was practically conquered. Simultaneously with 
the entry of the Crown Prince into Nancy, the first 
army under General Steinmetz marched from Saar- 
brucken to Metz, where the elite of the French 
forces, 200,000 men with 500 field-pieces and 150 
mitrailleuses, had been gathered. Prince Frederick 
Charles moved toward Pont-a-Mousson. In order 
to oppose a greater force to the Germans, the 
French generals in council decided on the difficult 

French , , -, ._. 

armies manoeuvre of a reconcentration from Metz to V er- 


trated fi un ^ j OI1 fc ae reinforced troops of MacMahon at 
Chalons. Barely enough men were to be left under 
the command of Coffinieres to defend the fortress. 
To prevent the union of the two French armies 
was the purpose of the great battles fought in the 
vicinity of Metz — a purpose attained largely by 
the strategic genius of Moltke and the admirable 
organization of the German army. Prince Frederick 
Charles, who -was to assist in blocking the roads 
leading from Metz to Verdun, could arrive from 
Pont-a-Mousson only by the 16th. So two divi- 
sions of Steinmetz's army, commanded by Generals 

Moitke's y on (j er Goltz and Zastrow, were sent against the 
French, and in conjunction with Manteuil'el, Kam- 


ecke and other leaders, fought the battle of Colom- 
bey-Nouilly. The engagement cost the Germans 
4,600 men; but Bazaine lost twenty-four hours — an 
irreparable loss for France. On the following day, 
the 15th, Bazaine's entire force began to withdraw 
from Metz to Verdun, partly by way of Bezonville, 
Vionville, and Mars-la-Tour, partly by way of Don- vionviiie 
court, Jarny and Etain. Moltke decided to fight 
between the rivers Moselle and Maas. For six 
hours on the 16th of August the third German 
army corps commanded by Alvensleben, a division 
of the tenth army corps, and two cavalry divisions, 
held the French army in check until the rest of their 
second army and the corps of the first which had 
been left to guard the eastern side of Metz could 
arrive. At the critical moment, toward three 
o'clock in the afternoon, the cavalry, composed 
of Cuirassiers and Uhlans, were hurled against theMars-ia- 
enemy. It was the famous cavalry charge of Mars- 
la-Tour. Frederick Charles arrived at four o'clock 
and assumed the general command. After a strug- 
gle of twelve hours, in which 15,000 men were lost 
on the German side and 16,000 on the French, the 
southern road was completely closed to Bazaine, 
and the Germans occupied the region from Mars- 
la-Tour to Gravelotte. 

Bazaine could now reach Verdun only by way of 
the northern road from Gravelotte through Doncourt 
and Jarny. After the battle of Mars-la-Tour, which 
he reported as a French victory, Bazaine drew some- 
what nearer to Metz to replenish his supply of am- 
munition. On a ridge of hills Bazaine disposed 

1502 A HISTORY OF THE Aug. ig?o 

his 180,000 men. At twelve o'clock on August 18, 
the battle began at Vemeville, and soon the French 
outposts were driven in by the Germans. The at- 
Graveiotte tac ^ on ^ e main line was more difficult. For four 
hours both sides fought without any decisive result. 
At five o'clock the Prussian guards attacked St. 
Privat, which had been transformed into a veritable 
fortress. They were repelled with terrible loss. It 
was not until the Saxons arrived from the north 
that St. Privat was taken and the retreat of Bazaine 
at this point was prevented. The French right 
wing had been outflanked. Shortly before, the 
French had made a last attempt to force their way 
past Gravelotte at the opposite extremity of the 
fighting line to gain the southern road to Verdun. 
A famous exploit of the day was the charge of 
a German brigade of cavalry — the Uhlans of the 
Mark and the Magdeburg Cuirassiers under Colonel 
Schmettow — against the French batteries and in- 
fantry. An incident of the charge has been made 
immortal by Freiligrath's poem "The Bugle of 

Death and perdition vawned in front — 
ra th'8 Boom of cannon and musketry rattle — 

line8 "We charged up the hill, we bore the brunt, 

"We overrode them in battle. 

With lances down and with swords on high 

We galloped over the heather, 
Resolved each man to do or to die, 

Cuirassiers we and Uhlans, together. 

Shot through the breast with gaping wound, 
Spurned by mad galloping feci, 

In the pride of J -until they lay on the ground- 
Now, bugler, blow the retreat. 


He raised the bugle and blew it with might— 

hark, war'3 blaring token, 
That led us into the glorious fight — 

The bugle's voice is broken! 

'Twas a tuneless call the bugler blew, 

A cry as of anguish and ailing ; 
A random shot had pierced it through — 

For the dead the bugle was wading. 

And then came night, and we rode away ; 

Around the camp fires lying, 
'Mid the stamp of hoofs and the horses' neigh, 

We thought of the dead and the dying. 

The result of the battle of G-ravelotte was briefly 
told in King William's telegram to his queen: 
"The French army iu strong position west of Metz 
attacked to-day; under my leadership utterly beaten 
in a nine hours' battle; cut off from Paris, and 
thrown back toward Metz." The northern, as well 
as the southern road to Verdun, was now closed to a costly 


Bazaine. The loss on the German side reached a 
bloody total of 22,000. Bazaine left 12,000 of his 
men on the field of battle. 

The Germans closed in around Metz. Seven corps, 
together with other troops which had been called 
from home, began a siege under the command of 
Prince Frederick Charles. The remaining three 
corps and four divisions of cavalry were trans- 
formed into a fourth army commanded by Crown 
Prince Albert of Saxony and called the "Army of 
the Maas." 

From time to time during the month of August 
the French were gratified with reports of slight suc- 
cesses on the part of their gunboats in the Baltic. 
The most important of these was an indecisive 

1504 A HISTORY OF THE Aug. 1870 

naval engagement on the 16th, to the west of the 
J?lea ar Isle of Riigen, between a division of the Prussian 
fleet, composed of the "Grille," and the gunboats 
"Drache," "Blitz," and "Salamander," and four 
French ironclad frigates, a corvette, and a despatch- 

On August 17, the French Emperor, who had 
arrived at Chalons on the previous day, decided, 
after a council of war, to appoint some popular 
man, preferably Trochu, as Governor of Paris, to 
return to the Tuileries under the protection of this 
popular appointment, and again to take the reins 
of government. MacMahon, who was stationed at 
Chalons with 150,000 men, was to retreat to Paris. 
Count Montauban energetically opposed the Emper- 
or's plan of the 17th, averred that Paris was well 
MacMahon able to defend itself without the assistance of Mac- 

to relieve 

Metz Mahon, and informed the Emperor that it was the 
imperative duty of MacMahon to march to Metz. 
Montauban won his point. 

The news of the evacuation of Chalons and of the 
northward march of MacMahon, brought in by the 
German cavalry on the 24th, caused Moltke to mod- 
ify bis plan of operations. The order to proceed to 
Paris, given to the Prussian Crown Prince, who had 
reached Ligny on August 23, was countermanded. 
He was directed to move northward, so that the 
French force would be compelled to march between 
the third and fourth German armies. On the 29th, 
MacMahon found, as foreseen by him, that he could 
not hope to pass the Germans and reach Bazaine 
without encountering serious resistance. On the 


30th, near Beaumont, west of the Maas, a part of 
his army under De Failly was surprised at the noon Beaumont 
meal by the Saxons and Thuringians. De Failly lost 
twenty guns; and 3,000 of his men were captured. 
The remainder of his badly shattered force was 
ordered to join the main army at Sedan. Here 
MacMahon intended to rest for a day, and here 
Louis Napoleon arrived on the 30th. Slowly 
the Germans began to draw the net about Mac- 
Mahon. To the east (Montmedy) his course was 
blocked by the Crown Prince of Saxony. The road 
to the west was closed by the third army. Only a 
single line of retreat, leading to the Belgian frontier, 
some seven miles distant, was still open to him; and 
seven German army corps were so close to one an- 
other that a single day's march would close the 
iron ring which was forging around him. As 
early as August 27, the Crown Prince of Prus- 
sia took Archibald Forbes, the "London News" MacMahon 
correspondent, aside and showed him on the map coraere 
where the French would be irretrievably cor- 
nered. The point he named was the little fortress 
of Sedan. 

The most graphic description of the events of 
these days has* been given in Zola's "La Debacle." Debacte " 
The novelist there centres his story in the move- 
ments of the French corps of General' Douay from 
Muehlhaus to Sedan. Famous is his epic descrip- 
tion of the pathetic figure of Napoleon III. going 
to his doom with rouge on his cheeks. 

The fortress of Sedan is situated in a small plain 
on both sides of the Maas. On the heights around 

1506 A HISTORY OF THE Sept. 1870 

it lie the villages of Bazeilles, La Moncelle, Daigny, 
Givonne, Illy and St. Menges. Southeast of Sedan, 
at Bazeilles, the Bavarians began the battle early on 
the morning of September 1. They were joined by 
, the Saxons at Daigny, and by the Prussian guards 
at Givonne. At seven o'clock Marshal MacMahon 
was wounded on the heights between Bazeilles and 
La Moncelle. His place as commanding general was 
taken first by Ducrot, then by General Wimpffen, 
who had returned from Africa but one day before. 
"Wimpffen knew next to nothing of MacMahon's 
plans. Between ten and eleven o'clock the villages 
Sedan along the Givonne were occupied by the Germans. 
During the struggle, the fifth and sixth corps of 
the third German army had begun the attack on 
the French left wing at St. Menges and Illy. Gen- 
eral Douay, who was here in command, endeavored 
to bring together a great number of guns on the 
plateau of Illy; but against the superior artillery of 
the Germans he could effect but little. Between 
two and three o'clock he hurled against the ad- 
vancing Germans a formidable body of cavalry 
composed of Cuirassiers, African Chasseurs, Hus- 
sars — eleven regiments in all. Under the deadly 
fire of the 32d and 95th German infantry regi- 
ments, the attacking force melted. Shortly after- 
ward the road to the Belgian frontier was closed. 
Hemmed in on all sides, exposed to a concentrated 
lire, the French troops were thrown back into 
Sedan. The battlefield was a chaos of dead, 
wounded, and fleeing men, of riderless horses and 
overturned wagons, and guns. 


At four o'clock the city was at the mercy of 
the Bavarian batteries. Toward sundown there was 
a lull in the bombardment to afford an opportu- 
nity for negotiations. When the French made no 
sign of surrender the firing was resumed. In the 
town itself shells fell thick and fast. Behind 
the German guns stood 240,000 men, against 86,- 
000 Frenchmen. The French generals believed that 
they were facing more than 300,000 men. Napoleon 

x Louis 

had nothing more to lose. He gave the order to Napoleon 

° ° surrenders 

hoist the white flag. By General Eeille he sent 
a brief note to the King of Prussia stationed on 
the heights of Frenois. ' ' Since I could not die in 
the midst of my troops," wrote Louis Napoleon, 
"nothing is left to me but to surrender my sword 
to your Majesty." During the night of September 
2, Wimpffen and Moltke drew up the articles 
of capitulation at Donchery. "And now," said 
Wimpffen bitterly, "my name will go down for 
all time linked with a humiliating surrender. ' ' Of 
the French army, 13,000 men had been killed; 
30,000 had been taken prisoners; 3,000 had slipped 
across the Belgian frontier, and 10,000 made good 
their escape to Mezieres. By the terms of capitula- 
tion, 83,000 men, together with 2,866 officers, 40 gen- 
erals, and more than 400 guns, besides those of the 
fortress, fell into the hands of the Germans. The 
most dreadful incident of the day was the burning 
of the village of Bazeilles by the Bavarians. Most 
of the inhabitants were burned alive. In defence of 
this shocking atrocity it was claimed by the Ger- 
mans that the villagers had fired on the soldiers. 

1508 A HISTORY OF THE Sept. 1870 

At Donchery, Napoleon bad a conference with 
at°DoD^ nce Bismarck in the garden of a peasant. Not until 
the articles of capitulation had been signed did 
Louis Napoleon recognize in the man of blood 
and iron the enemy who had wrought his downfall. 
Then, too, he learned for the first time that Prince 
Frederick Charles' army had not stirred from Metz, 
so that Bazaine and his men were a sure prey of 
the Germans. A convulsion of anguish passed 
over the Emperor's face. Shattered in mind and 
body, the unhappy man made his doleful journey 
to the castle of Wilhelmshohe at Cassel, assigned 
for his captivity. 

On the day before Sedan, Bazaine had tried to 

break out of Metz. After a twenty-four hours' 

_ . .„ battle around Noisseville he was turned back by 

Hoisseviile J 

the Germans. At the headquarters of Prince Fred- 
erick Charles the cannonading at Sedan could be 
distinctly heard. With each day the German force 
increased in numbers; with each day Bazaine's 
position grew more precarious. 

T-he government at Paris received the terrible 
news of the catastrophe of Sedan at noon on Sep- 
tember 3. The Corps Legislatif had been called 
together. The state of affairs could no longer be 
concealed. The Opposition now gained the ascen- 
dant. Jules Favre made a motion to depose Louis 
Er a s&Sn ar9 Napoleon and his dynasty. On the morning of the 
4th of September, the people read the manifesto 
issued by the government, in which the capitula- 
tion of the French army to "300,000 enemies" was 
admitted. Pandemonium broke out in Paris. On 


the following day a maddened mob of Parisians 
overpowered the few guards by whom the Assem- 
bly was protected, and forced its way into the hall, 
whence they could not be driven. In the City Hall 
a government of national defence was called to- 
gether composed of the Deputies of Paris. General 
Trochu, the Commandant of Paris, was elected Empress 

7 ' Eugenie 

President. Abandoned by every one, the Empress flees 
fled from the Tuileries, luckily reached the coast, 
and escaped to England. 

The lawyers, demagogues and journalists who 
had now taken the helm proclaimed themselves 
as the saviors of France. "The Republic repelled 
the invasion of 1792; the Eepublic is proclaimed." proclaimed 
Thiers applied to the several European courts for 
assistance. Kind, but empty words alone were re- 
ceived. Disappointing though his efforts had been, 
the people could not believe that Europe would 
suffer the Germans to attack Paris without raising 
a helping hand. Victor Hugo sang: "To save Paris 
is to save not France alone; Paris y is the holy city; 
whoever attacks Paris attacks all mankind." 

In a circular letter Jules Favre informed the dip- 
lomatic agents of France of the aims of the new 
government. Thus ran the formula: "We will not German 

° peace 

give up a foot of earth, or a single stone from our Jested 
fortresses." The Germans, on the other hand, were 
bent on a territorial indemnity. The return of Al- 
sace, the province wrested from Germany at a time 
of profound peace, was the obvious demand. Bis- 
marck was willing to stop short at Strasburg, but 
Moltke insisted on. the whole of the strong line 

1510 A HISTORY OF THE Sept. 18TO 

of frontier fortresses, including Lorraine and Bel- 
fort. Rather than yield to this, every true-hearted 
Frenchman preferred to resist to the last ditoh. 
The Germans resumed their march on Paris. There, 
only Trochu was clear-sighted enough to denounce 
the continuation of the struggle as "heroic mad- 

On the 15th of September the German cavalry ap- 
peared before Paris. Within a week the outer line 

invested of fortifications, seven and one-half miles in length, 
was completely surrounded by the German forces. 
In the city were 100,000 regular soldiers and about 
300,000 men able to bear arms. It was the French 
plan to detain the major portion of the German 
armies before Paris and Metz, so as to give the 
provinces an opportunity to rise en masse and 
drive out the invaders. During one of the early 
sorties from Paris the celebrated painter Vibert 
fell wounded at Malmaison. In a balloon Gam- 

Gam§ltti betta escaped from Paris and descended at Tours. 
There he immediately began raising the army of 
the Loire. 

It happened unfortunately for the French that, 
while the Germans were marching on Paris, an in- 

Treachery cident occurred which greatly exasperated the feel- 
ings of the conquerors against the conquered. On 
the 9th of September the town of Laon surrendered. 
As the last men of the Mobile Guards were leaving, 
the powder magazine was blown up. Duke William 
of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was severely injured, and 
four hundred soldiers were killed or wounded. 
The German forces were divided into four armies. 


The first of these besieged Paris; the second Metz; 
the third proceeded southward to the Loire, and the 
fourth camped before Strasburg. The city was ably 
defended by General Uhrich. The garrison, not io- Sie eof 
eluding National Guardsmen, numbered 11,000. On stra8bur s 
August 18, Werder began a bombardment so terrific 
that the city's dead could not be carried out to the 
cemeteries. Those who fell were interred in the 
Botanical Gardens. Within the town the destruc- 
tion of property was appalling. The gallery of 
paintings; the new Protestant Church, with its 
famous organ and its frescoes; the city library 
with its priceless manuscripts; the mansions in the 
better part of the city — all were struck by shells. 
Only the great Gothic cathedral and public hospi- 
tals were spared. The bombardment failed to bring 
the city to Werder saw that it was useless The city 
to pour in shot and shell indiscriminately, and de- 
termined to bring the city to subjection by syste- 
matically capturing each line of defence until the 
innermost fortifications were reached. Day after 
day he drew his lines more tightly about the city 
walls. One after another the outposts were all cap- 
tured. Unable to hold out longer, unwilling to 
subject the people to the horrors which would 
necessarily follow if the city were taken by storm, strasburg 
Uhrich hoisted the white flag on the Cathedral on 
September 27. 

Meanwhile, the organization of the new French 
levies was fast progressing. The most active of the 
men who were charged with this work was Leon b ^,>ity 
Gambetta. His first task was to divide France into 

1512 A HISTORY OF THE Oct. isro 

four military districts, with centres at Lille, Le 
Man, Bourge, and Besancon. General Motterouge 
first succeeded in getting together the "Army 
of the Loire." The hastily gathered troops were 
do match for the Bavarians under Von der Tann, 

ori6ans and were beaten near Orleans on October 9 and 
October 11. They retreated toward Bourge. Wer- 
der's army, relieved at Strasburg, moved on Bourge 
from the other side. With the occupation of Or- 
leans, the German generals called a halt. While 
Metz still held out it was not safe to proceed 
too hastily. 

A great sortie attempted by Bazaine on the 7th 
of October had proven disastrous. Sickness broke 
out among the besieged troops, and the horses had 
to be sacrificed. On October 27, Bazaine capitu- 
lated. From one o'clock in the afternoon until 
dusk the French troops filed out of the gates of 
Metz, prisoners of war to the number of 173,000. 

capituia- Among them were three marshals of France, 
seventy generals, and over 4,000 officers. With 
the surrender of Metz, Prince Frederick Charles 
received 53 eagles, over 600 field -pieces, about 
900 cannon which had been used in defending 
the fortress, and 300,000 infantry muskets. Never 
before did a modern army capture so rich a prize. 
In a proclamation Gambetta accused Marshal Ba- 
zaine of treason. Bazaine's defence that it was more 
important for his army to save France from its 
new government than from the foreign invader 
has never been forgiven by Frenchmen. 

With the aid of the seven German army corps 


which had so long besieged Metz, the war was 
brought to a speedy end. On October 30, Thi"ers 
tried to arrange an armistice and failed. During 
his negotiations the government was attacked on Mobrule 
October 31. Trochu, Arago, Ferry, Picard, and atParis 
Favre were imprisoned in the City Hall by the 
leaders of the mob, and were released only late 
at night by a few battalions of National Guards. 
The most spirited sea fight of the war occurred 
about this time off Havana. One German ship, 
the "Augusta," had succeeded in escaping from 
the Elbe during the blockade of the North Sea 
coast, and, appearing in the Bay of Biscay, cap- 
tured three French vessels. Pursued into Vigo, 
she was held there under the twenty-four hour 
law. Smarting under this recent provocation, the 
captain of the French gunboat "Bouvet" at Havana 
challenged the German gunboat "Meteor" to come 
out of the harbor and fight him. He steamed out 
on November 8, and exactly twenty-four hours sea fight 
later the German followed. In plain sight of the 
people of Havana, gathered on the heights of 
the Morro and at the Punta, the two ships fought 
each other, circling around and around, but doing 
little damage. At last the Frenchman tried to ram. 
Charging at full speed his blow glanced off. The 
Germans at the same time tried to board the 
"Bouvet." The Frenchman was preparing to ram 
again when a shot from the "Meteor" pierced 
her boiler. She hoisted sail and retired with 
the "Meteor" in pursuit. The Spanish captain of 
the port, who had come out to prevent any infrac- 

1514 A HISTORY OF THE Dec lot) 

tion of neutrality, stopped the engagement by in- 
forming both combatants that they were now within 
the three-mile zone. The loss of the "Bouvet" was 
ten men killed or wounded, that of the "Meteor" 
two. On French soil, Admiral Jaurequiberry, with 
a corps of sailors and marine infantry, won great 

nl?-v c £- distinction. Still keen disappointment was felt in 

effectual jp rance over tne negative results achieved by her 
formidable navy. 

Two German corps under Von Manteuffel were 
despatched to Normandy in order to prevent the 
relief of the city of Paris from that side. Three 
corps under Frederick Charles hastened to the Loire 
to help Von der Tann, who had been compelled 

Couimiers to give up Orleans on November 9, at Coulmiers. 
It was the only noteworthy success achieved by 
French arms during the entire war. The army 
of the Loire undertook a great offensive move- 
ment; but on the 28th of November its right 
wing was badly beaten at Beaune la Rolande by 

Beauneia the left wing of the Prussians. On December 2, the 

Rolande ° 

second battle of Orleans was begun ; and two days 
later, the Germans again entered the city, while the 
French retired to the left bank of the Loire. From 
November 28 to December 5, the French losses had 
been heavy. No less than 25,000 prisoners were 
taken by the Germans. 

At about the same time (November 30 to Decem- 
ber 2) the Parisian army made a sortie toward the 
southeast, hoping to break through the German 
pkny" ranks and to reach the army of the Loire. Brie 
and Champigny were the scenes of hot engage- 


ments. Famous in French annals is the heroic 
defence of the glass works at Champigny, which 
has been pictured in one of Detaille's most cele- 
brated canvases. Yet it resulted in defeat for 
the French. The Parisian army was compelled to 
re-enter the capital, to the mortification of General 
Ducrot, who had sworn to return to Paris "either 
victorious or dead." In the north, Manteuffel had 
been as successful as his countrymen before Paris. 
At Amiens, on November 27, he defeated Faid- 
herbe. To the long list of fortresses which had 
capitulated after the fall of Strasburg — Soissons, Manteuffel 
Verdun, Schlettstadt, Neubreisach and Thionville — mandy 
there were now added La Fere and the. citadel of 
Amiens. December 6, Manteuffel entered Eouen, 
the capital city of Normandy. German Uhlans 
scoured the country to the very coast, so that the 
French fleet, which had accomplished next to noth- 
ing during the war, was compelled to blockade the 
shores of its own country. The victories won in 
Normandy between November 27 and December 
S, completely cut off communication between Paris ^toff 
and the outer world, and crushed the last hope 
of relief for Fracce. 

During these eventful days an oft-deferred ideal 
of patriotic Germans was brought to realization, by 
the combined efforts of Bismarck and the Crown 
Prince of Prussia. Under pressure from Bismarck, 
King Louis II. of Bavaria sent a letter to the Ger- 
man princes and the Senates of the free cities, in 

1 German 

which he proposed that the King of Prussia should propped 
thenceforth exercise his erstwhile prerogatives of 



Dec. 187D 

Death of 

His early 


President of the Confederation, as German Em- 
peror. On December 18, Kiug William received 
a deputation from the North German Reichstag. 

In the turmoil of war, on December 5, occurred 
the death of Alexandre Dumas, the elder, one of 
the most popular and prolific of French writers. 
In 1829 his first drama, "Henri III.," was produced 
at the Theatre Francois and attained an immedi- 
ate success. The Duke of Orleans raised him to 
the rank of Ducal Librarian. Dumas now brought 
out in rapid succession the melodramas "Charles 
VII.," "Richard Darlington," "Antony," "The- 
rese," "Angele," and other plays distinguished for 
the author's recourse to extreme effects. Of finer 
workmanship were his comedies "Mademoiselle 
de Belle-Isle," "Le Mariage de Louis XV.," 
•'Les Demoiselles de Saint-Cyr." Of the innumer- 
able serial stories with which Dumas flooded the 
literary journals of Paris, several achieved a fame 
far beyond the confines of the press. Most lasting 
in their hold on novel readers were the romances 
"Isabeau de Baviere" (1835), "Les Souvenirs 
d' Antony" (1837), "Gaule et France" (1840), "Les 
Trois Mousquetaires" (1844), "Le Comte de Monte 
Cristo" (1845), "Reine Margot," "Joseph Balsamo" 
and "Le Chevalier de Maison Rouge" (1846), and 
"The Queen's Necklace" (1849). Dumas's liter- 
ary earnings for one year reached a sum total 
of nearly a million francs. Still Dumas's expendi- 
tures were such that he needed more money. To 
satisfy his creditors he entered into an agreement 
to turn out five serial stories at once. Unable even 

1870 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1517 

with the help of assistants to fulfil this promise, 
Dumas was sued in the courts for breach of con- 
tract. By the time of Dumas's death his remark- 
able vogue as a writer had all but come to an end. 
At Eome, some time after the official announce- 
ment of the Dogma of Infallibility had been made, 
the French garrison, which had so long guarded the 
Pope's citadels, was withdrawn under the stress of 
the war. In accordance with an understanding with 
Prussia, King Victor Emmanuel's troops, under evacuated 
General Cadorna, were ordered to march on Eome. 
The Pope announced that "negotiations for surren- 
der shall be opened so soon as a breach shall have 
been made in the walls of the Sacred City. At a 
moment when all Europe is mourning over the nu- 
merous victims of the dreadful war now waging by 
two great nations, never let it be said that the vicar 
of Jesus Christ, however unjustly assailed, would 
give his consent to more bloodshed." Despite 
the Pope's orders that no determined resistance 
should be made, a cannonade of four hours was 
found necessary before the Italian troops could en- 
ter the city by a breach. The losses on either .side 
were insignificant. On September 20, General Kanz- 
ler, the Papal commandant, capitulated. General ^tatu^ opes 
Cadorna, entering Eome at the head of his forces, 
was received with wild demonstrations of Italian en- 
thusiasm. In a formal compact, King Victor Em- 
manuel now guaranteed to the Pope the following 
sovereign rights: He was to retain his guards and an 
income of 3,255,000 francs. He was to keep the 
Vatican, the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Cas- 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— L 

1518 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1870 

tel Gandolfo, and their dependencies, exempt alike 
from national taxation as from common-law jurisdic- 
tion. The same immunity was extended to any tem- 
porary residence of the Pope, Conclave, or Papal 
Council. The Pope was free to establish at the Vati- 
can a post-office and telegraphic bureau, managed 
by his own officials. The Papal despatches and 
couriers were to be conveyed without let or hin- 
drance like those of foreign governments. Church 
councils were free to meet at any time or place. No 
oath of allegiance to the King was required of the 
bishops. The royal Placet and Exequatur were 
abolished. Church seminaries and other Catholic 
institutions were to derive their authority from the 
Holy See at Rome, without any interference from 
the Italian Ministry of Education. After these ar- 
rangements had been made by the royal government, 
the Italian Parliament sanctioned the proposed trans- 
fer of the royal residence and national capital from 
Florence to Home by an overwhelming majority of 
192 over 18 votes. In view of the government de- 

itaiian fi c i t f 24,000,000 lire, a credit of 17,000,000 lire was 
voted by the Chambers. 

While these striking changes were effected in 
Italy, the immediate cause of the Franco-Prussian 
war had been adjusted in Spain. Late in October, 

Kh^uf 18 ' the Spanish crown was offered to Amadeus, Duke 


of Aosta, the second son of the King of Italy, and 
was accepted by him. On December 28, the day 
that King Amadeus I. lauded at Cartagena, Marshal 
Death of Prim was assassinated while driving to the Cortes 
in the Calle de Alcala at Madrid. 



THE French army was in a terrible plight. 
Urged on by Gambetta, who had assumed 
all the power of a dictator, the recruiting 
officers pressed into service men whom they could 
not arm, whom they could not even feed. To the 
horrors of starvation were added the terrors of one 
of the bitterest winters ever known in this part of 


France. The manor portion of the Army of the French 

" * reserves 

Loire, led by General Chanzy, who had taken the 
place of Aurelles de Paladine, fell back on Paris; 
the minor portion, under Bourbaki, who had been 
called from the north, marched eastward. Seventy 
thousand Germans, under Prince Frederick Charles, 
as they marched to meet Chanzy, likewise suffered 
severely. The battles between the Loire and Sarthe, 
at Azay and La Chartre, at Sarge and Nogent le 
Trou, at Lampron and La Chapelle, all fought be- 
tween January 6 and January 10, were waged over 
hills and roads covered with snow and ice. One 
bloody field after another was defended by Chanzy 
with a courage born of despair. After a final sharp JJffid 
fight before Le Mans, on January 12, the Germans 
captured that city. Brave Chanzy retired to Laval, 
where he hoped to reorganize the remnants of his 
army. His northward march had been checked. 

1520 A HISTORY OF THE Jan. 1871 

In the north, the Germans had also been success- 
ful. At Bapaume, on January 3, General von 
Goben, with an army of 10,000 men, held 40,000 
Defeats of Frenchmen, under Faidherbe, in check. In the 
Faidberbe njg^ Faidherbe retired to his fortifications. On 
the 19th, he emerged again, only to suffer his last 
defeat near St. Quentin. General von Goben took 
13,000 prisoners. 

On this same day, the last great battle was fought 
before Paris. The people had long been almost 
starving. Fresh meat became scarcer and scarcer. 
As a substitute for bread, baked flour and bran were 
plight of so ld. Toward the last, rats, bought at a franc apiece, 
dogs, cats, and the animals in the Zoological Gar- 
dens were eaten by the famished Parisians. Despite 
its wretched condition, the city had resisted month 
after month. After the last heavy siege guns were 
mounted by the Germans, the bombardment of St. 
Avron was immediately begun. Each day nearly 
200 shells were discharged into the city lying on 
the left of the Seine. Still, as late as January 6, 
Trochu declared that "the Governor of Paris would 
never capitulate." 

At Versailles, meanwhile, in the famous Hall 
of Mirrors, an event occurred, on January 18, 
German which changed the destiny of Germany. On that 
proclaimed day the King of Prussia proclaimed to a brilliant 
gathering of German princes and military officers 
the fusion of the German States into an empire. 
On the following day, the garrison of Paris made its 
last great sortie. From the southwestern side of 
the city, 100,000 men, under Trochu's personal direc 


tion, burst forth in three great columns and attacked 
the lines of the Fifth German Army Corps, com- 
posed of 33,000 troops from Posen and Silesia. The 
fight, called by the French the battle of Mont Val£- gortie 
rien, lasted a whole day. It ended with another re- vaterien 
treat into the city. The casualties of the French 
were disproportionately heavy. 

Among the fallen was Alexandre Georges Henri 
Eegnault, the well-known artist. None of Reg- 
nault's comrades saw him die, but the next day, on 
the field of Buzenval, his body was picked up by an 
ambulance driver. Eegnault, who was but twenty- 

° ' J Death of 

eight years old when he was killed, had already won Re ? nault 
the Prix de Rome, and had achieved renown by his 
celebrated pictures "Judith and Holofernes," "Sa- 
lome," and "An Execution under the Moors at 
Granada," now at the Luxembourg. He also fur- 
nished twenty-seven designs for the illustration of 
Wey's "Rome." Most famous of all his pictures is 
his portrait of General Prim, painted in Spain dur- 
ing the revolutionary war of 1868, and subsequently 
acquired by the Luxembourg Gallery. 

No one in Paris now cared to take upon himself 
the responsibility of another attack. There was 
barely food enough to last until February. Having 
sworn that he would not surrender, Trochu resigned Trochu 


his command. Vinoy took his place. Harassed by 
the German cannon without, by famine and disease 
within ; crippled by the dissensions among the peo- 
ple; without any prospect of relief from the prov- 
inces — Parisians saw that resistance must soon end. 
By an irony of fate, Jules Favre, the man who had 

1522 A HISTORY OF THE Jan. 1871 

voiced the formula "not a foot of our land," etc., 
received the commission of saving Pans from utter 
ruin. On January 23, he proposed terms to Bis- 
marck which were rejected. Unconditional surren- 
der was demanded. In a second conference, on the 
following day, Favre, in dejection of spirit, came to 
an agreement with Bismarck. Firing on both sides 
was to cease on January 27, at midnight. On the 
morrow, a "Convention" was signed, by the terms 

Capitula- ° ' J 

Paris° f °* w hi c h Paris virtually capitulated. A three weeks' 
armistice was declared, during which a National As- 
sembly at Bordeaux was to decide whether or no the 
war should be continued. The forts of Paris, with 
all their war material, were surrendered. The 450,- 
000 men, comprising the army, it was agreed, were 
to be considered prisoners of war, but were not to 
be deported to Germany; the National Guard were 
allowed to keep their arms, despite the warning 
words of Bismarck to the Parisian authorities; and 
a division of 12,000 men was to preserve order within 
the city. It was an honorable surrender. For 132 
days the people had resisted manfully. When they 
yielded there was not enough food left for another 

Although Paris had capitulated, much blood was 
still shed. It had been stipulated in the Convention 
of Paris by Bismarck that the eastern departments 

campaign W ere not to be included in the armistice, so that the 

in eastern ' 

France operations then in progress against Belfort could be 
continued. Favre agreed on condition that Bour- 
baki's force, comprising the smaller portion of the 
divided army of the Loire and additional troops, 


some 150,000 men in all, might retain full freedom 
of movement. With this army, Gambetta hoped to 
retrieve some of the French losses. Belfort, which 
had been besieged since the beginning of November, 
was to be relieved; Alsace was to be invaded; the 
German lines of retreat were to be cut off. In a 
strong position on the Lisaine, Werder, with his 
50,000 Germans, awaited Bourbaki's attack. In a 
three days' battle (January 15, 16, 17), the Germans 


held off the enemy. The dead bodies of German checked 
soldiers covered the frozen stream. Bourbaki failed 
to break through Werder's lines. On the 18th, he 
began his retreat. 

It was Bourbaki's intention to fall back on Lyons. 
But it was too late. Manteuffel, with two army 
corps (led respectively by Fransecky and Zastrow), 
rushed to Werder's aid by way of Auxerre and 
Avallon. At Dijon, General Kettler was left be- ' 

J ' Garibaldi's 

hind with two regiments to watch the movements of voluuteers 
Garibaldi, the confederate of the French Republic, 
who had gathered together an army of 20,000 volun- 
teers. The main body of the German troops wedged 
itself between Garibaldi and Bourbaki, pressed for- 
ward by way of Gray and Pesme to Dole, the junc- 
tion of three railroads, and intercepted the provisions 
and clothes which had been sent to the starving, 
freezing men of Bourbaki. While Garibaldi, who 

° Italians 

had placed his volunteers on the heights about outwitted 
Dijon, fought with Kettler's detachment, under the 
impression that he was opposed by the entire Ger- 
man army, the troops under Zastrow and Fransecky, 
in a series of admirable forced marches, proceeded 

1524 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. 1871 

to cut off Bourbaki from Lyons and to surround him 
in very much the same manner as MacMahon had 
been trapped at Sedan. The French could escape 

Bourbaki on ^J ^y retiring southward over the Swiss frontier. 

trapped Bourbaki, severely censured by Gambetta, attempted 
to kill himself. His place was taken by Clinchant. 
On February 1, the French were attacked at Pon- 
tarlier on three sides. At twelve o'clock the town 
was taken; and in the afternoon, near La Cluse in 

The Jast ' 

battle the Jura, the last shot of the war was fired. The 
French army of 83,000 men marched into the neutral 
territory of Switzerland and were disarmed. 

In the middle of February, the self-constituted 
National Assembly of France met at Bordeaux, 
placed Thiers at the head of the French Republic, 
and, on February 17, authorized him to conclude 

Thiers at peace. Thiers surrounded himself with a Ministry 
in which were included Favre, Simon, Picard, and 
other members of the former government of national 
defence. Time for negotiations could be gained 
only after the surrender of Belfort, which had held 
out bravely for four months. A few weeks before, 
in the night of January 26-27, Colonel Denfert, the 
commandant, had succeeded in repelling an attack 
and in taking several hundred German prisoners. 

surrender With the defeat of Bourbaki, however, there was no 
further hope of relief. Belfort was therefore ordered 
to capitulate by Jules Favre. In consideration of 
its gallant defence, the garrison of 12,000 men was 
allowed to march out with all the honors of war on 

B^arck's February 16. Negotiations were now begun. That 
territory and a wax indemnity would be demanded 

1871 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1525 

had been expected. The extent of the territory and 
the amount of the indemnity, however, were deter- 
mined only after a long, hard discussion between 
Bismarck and the Commission. The Prussian Chan- 
cellor demanded Alsace and German Lorraine, to- 
gether with Metz and Diedenhofen (Thionville), and 
insisted upon the German troops entering Paris. 
Thiers pleaded in vain for easier terms. He suc- 
ceeded in saving only Belfort. It was finally agreed 
that Alsace and Lorraine were to be ceded, and that Lorraine 

' ceded 

France was to pay a war indemnity of five milliards 
of francs. The preliminary treaty of peace was 
signed at Versailles on February 26. On the fol- 
lowing day Thiers tried to read the provisions of 
the treaty to the silent Assembly, but was so over- 
come by grief that Barthdlemy St. Hilaire had to 
take the document from his hands to finish the 
painful recital. Despite the frantic efforts of the 
opposition, headed by Victor Hugo and Quinet, 
the Assembly accepted the terms by a vote of 546 
to 107 on the first day of March. 

On the following day the Germans entered Paris. 
They did not insist upon the occupation of the city, gnte? Paris 
but marched out again on the following day; for it 
had been agreed in the treaty that no German sol- 
diers were to remain in the city after the preliminary 
treaty had been ratified. The final treaty of peace Frankfort 
was signed at Frankfort-on-the-Main, May 10. 

An important consequence of the Franco-Prussian 
war was that Russia, supported by Bismarck, re- 
pudiated the clause of the treaty of 1856, which 
forbade her keeping a fleet in the Black Sea. A 

1526 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1871 

conference of the great powers at London, while 
Jl^'ters releasing .Russia from that engagement, placed on 
record, as an essential principle of the law of na- 
tions, that no power can liberate itself from the 
engagements of a treaty, nor modify its stipulations, 
without the consent of the contracting parties. 

The provisional government of France, after terms 
of peace were under way, determined to remove the 
seat of the .National Assembly from Bordeaux to 
Versailles. This excited the distrust of the Paris 
populace. "Why not Paris?" was the cry. The 
Parisians believed it to be a plan to establish a reac- 

Versalfles * 

Assembly tionary monarchy. The Communists, who had twice 
attempted an insurrection since the siege (October 
31, 1870, and January 22, 1871), succeeded in their 
third attempt in the middle of March. The govern- 
ment troops were driven out of Paris and the Com- 
mune was declared. Then came the second siege of 
Paris — this time by a French army. On Sunday 
morning, April 2, the Communists outside of Paris 
were worsted by the government troops. After one 
or two rallies they withdrew into Paris by the Pont 
de Neuilly and shut the gates. The prisoners were 
shot on both sides. The result of this first encoun- 
The ter was t0 intensify the hatred with which Thiers' 

commune g 0vernmen t was regarded by the Eepublican fanat- 
ics. At Thiers' request, Marshal MacMahon had 
consented to take command of the troops for the 
National Assembly. He arrived at Versailles and 
assumed charge, after the first week in April. 
Though compelled to maintain a semblance of ac- 
tivity and to keep up the spirits of his soldiers, 

1871 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1527 

MacMahon was resolved to undertake no decisive 
movement till he had amassed the one hundred and MacMahoc 
fifty thousand fighting men which the German capital 
authorities had now consented to allow to Thiers' 
government. The former prisoners of war were still 
pouring into France, and had to be mustered in and 
organized anew. Several minor demonstrations were 
made in the second half of April. By the first 
week in May, at length, 128 batteries had been 
mounted over the beleaguered city. Fire was 
opened on the Communists' defences on the Pont 
du Jour. Fort Issy was taken, with 109 guns; the 
insurgents evacuating it under cover of night. Fort 
Vauves was set on fire, and had also to be evacuated 
for a time, but was subsequently re-entered by the 
forces of the Commune, to be held by them until 
the middle of May. Then it was recaptured and 
garrisoned by MacMahon's troops, the Communists second . 
making their escape by a subterranean passage. By Paris 
this capture the southwestern front of the so-called 
enceinte was deprived of the last of its outlying de- 
fences. The siege had reached its last stage. To 
the north and east stood the grim barrier of the Ger- 
man forces, ready to bar any attempt at egress on 
the part of the pent-up insurgents. French regular 
troops lay encamped outside in the Bois de Bou- 
logne. On May 21, it was discovered that the gate 
of St. Cloud had been left almost defenceless, and 
MacMahon's troops rushed in. Simultaneously the faulted 
gate of Auteuil was stormed, and Marshal Mac- 
Mahon, with all his forces, entered Paris. The city . 
had to be taken street by street. The Communists 

1528 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1871 

murdered most of their remaining prisoners. No 
sooner bad Paris been conquered than the victori- 
ous soldiers slaughtered their late foes in droves. 
Women were shot as well as men, for female incen- 

Bioody diaries, known as pttroleases, had helped to set fire 
to the public buildings and houses of the rich. The 
conflagration lasted several days, but by the efforts 
of the soldiers and a change of the wind it was at 
length subdued. The greater part of the Tuileries, 
the Library of the Louvre, and a portion of the 
Palais Eoyal had been consumed; also the Hotel de 
Ville, the Ministry of Finance, the Theatre Lyrique 
and Du Chatelet, a great part of the Rue Royale, and 
many other buildings. The Luxembourg was par- 
tially blown up, and the Column of Vendome was 
upset. Paris presented a ghastly appearance. Mu- 
tilated corpses lay heaped together amid the black- 
ened ruins. It was estimated that 10,000 insurgents 
had been killed during the fighting of that week. 
The ravages were far worse than those suffered from 
the prolonged German bombardment. Thus ended 
the two months' reign of the Commune. The epi- 
sode has been immortalized in French letters by 

TerriWe" Victor Hugo's great poem "L' Amide Terrible." 

The thrilling scenes of the Franco-Prussian war 
have been further perpetuated by the graphic talcs 
of Guy de Maupassant, and by the historic canvases 
of such battle painters as Camphausen, Menzel and 
Werner on the German side, and of Protais, Detaille 
and De Neuville, with others, in France. 

After the fall of the Commune, the National As- 
sembly and its chosen chief, Louis Adolph Thiers, 


were left the only constituted power in France. 
Unauthorized they continued to rule the land on the 
basis of a parliamentary republic. Toward the end 
of June, Thiers negotiated a loan of two and a half 
milliards of francs, which enabled France to pay 
the first part of her war indemnity to Germany, and 
thus free a great part of her territory from foreign 
occupation. On the last day of August, Thiers was Th iers, 


elected President of the .Republic for three years, President 
the .National Assembly reserving the right to give 
the country a new constitution. 

During these troublous times, on May 13, oc- 
curred the death of Daniel Francois Esprit Auber, 
the French operatic composer. His first successful 
work was the opera "La Bergere Chatelaine," pro-Deathof 

r ° r Auber 

duced in 1820. Soon after this, Auber associated 
himself with Scribe as librettist. Together they 
brought out a series of operas, chief among which 
were "Masaniello, ou la Muette de Portici, 1 ' pro- 
duced in 1828. After this success the two collabo- 
rators devoted themselves to the production of comic 
operas. In these, Auber's charming melodies, in- 
stinct with the national airs of France, together with 
his uniform grace and piquancy of orchestration, 
won a high place for him. 

Moritz von Sen wind, the German artist, died dur- 
ing this year at Munich. His frescoes were executed 
m that city, while others are in Leipzig and at the s^hwicd 011 
National Gallery at Berlin. Schwind's favorite sub- 
jects were taken from old German fairy tales and 
folk-lore, and were invested by him with his own 
genial humor. 

1530 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1871 

Spain this year lost one of her foremost modern 
Bamacois art i sts \yj t h e death of Edouard Zamaco'is at the age 
of thirty-one. This artist, after studying with De- 
taille and Vibert under Meissonier, made his debut 
in Paris at the Salon of 1863. During the follow- 
ing years he exhibited his famous "Conscripts in 
Spain," "The Entrance of the Toreadors," painted 
jointly with Vibert; "The First Sword," "A Buf- 
foon of the Sixteenth Century," and "The Favorite 
of the King," now in America. One of the latest 
and most famous of Zamaco'is' paintings was "The 
Education of a Prince." 

The transfer of the Italian capital from Florence 
Rome, to Rome was made on the first day of July, and on 


capital the following day King Victor Emmanuel entered 
the Eternal City to take up his residence at the 

In Japan, a conference of the Daimios was held at 
Tokio in September to arrange for their retirement 
to private life. The imperial order dissolving all 
the Daimiates was obeyed. It was agreed that each 
ex-Daimio as well as the lesser chieftains should 
receive one-tenth cf the income which they had 
drawn from their fiefs. The former Daimios were 
appointed prefects, but not for life. The imperial 

End of feu- government undertook to enroll the Samurai, or 

clalisra in 

japan fighting retainers of the Daimios, in the imperial 
army, or to recompense them with money. The as- 
sumption of this burden forced the Japanese Gov- 
ernment to contract a loan of $165,000,000. Many 
of the Samurai who were paid off squandered their 
money, and as a result much poverty and want were 

1871 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1581 

experienced. Another revolutionary change accom- 
plished during the same year in Japan was the re- 
moval of the ancient disqualification of the Pariah 
castes of Eta Heiman. 

In Brazil, while Dom Pedro II. was journeying 
in Europe, the Brazilian Chambers passed the Act 
of Emancipation which Emperor Pedro had long 
been anxious to carry through. On September 28, 
it was decreed that slavery should be abolished 


throughout the dominion of Brazil. For some time ^ . 
many of the slaves were still held in bondage, but BraZil 
facilities for emancipation were given, and all slave 
children born after the day on which the law passed 
were to be unconditionally free. 

On October 8, a fire broke out in Chicago, the city 
whose rapid growth and prosperity had been the 
marvel of America. It vvas at first alleged that the 
cause of the fire was the overturn of a kerosene lamp 
in a cow-shed. The conflagration, which began on ca-o C fire 
a Sunday night, raged until noontime of the follow- 
ing Tuesday. The loss of life from this disaster was 
estimated at five hundred persons. One hundred 
thousand were rendered homeless. About one-third 
of the city was destroyed, and the burned area cov- 
ered a space of 2,600 acres, involving a loss of more 
than $70,000,000 in real property. Aid was sent 
from far and near. 

In New York, great excitement resulted from the 
disclosures of political and financial corruption on 
the part of Bill Tweed and his associates as pub- 

r r New York 

lished by the New York "Times." Matthew J . J x w p e e J^ mg 
O'Rourke gave the incontestable figures showing 

1532 A HISTORY OF THE Winter 1871 

that sums amounting to $3,000,000 had been squan- 
dered for county printing alone during the last three 
years. The new county court house instead of cost- 
ing $2,500,000, as estimated, had actually cost over 
$12,000,000, the bulk of which was stolen. A vigi- 
lance Committee of Seventy citizens was formed to 
crush the Tammany Ring. Tweed, when confronted 
with the facts, insolently asked: "Well, what are 
you going to do about it?" 

About the same time news was received of the 
success of another famous newspaper enterprise. 
Henry M. Stanley had been sent to Africa by the 
New York "Herald" to obtain tidings of the long 
lost missionary David Livingstone. Stanley reached 
nnds Liv- Ungamyambe in West Central Africa, November 


10, thence marched into Niji and found Livingstone. 
In Cuba, the Ten Years' War, which had been 
begun in 1868 by Jose* Marti at Bayamo was in full 
sway, and helped to intensify the financial embar- 
warin rassments of Spain. The Cuban insurgents obtained 
the support of sympathizers on the American main- 
land, and were thus enabled to wage war more 
effectually than they could otherwise have done. 
Maximo Gomez, a Santo Domingan, working in con- 
junction with Marti, led the insurgent forces. The 
Spanish authorities resorted to ruthless measures of 
repression. Hundreds of prisoners were shot, while 
others were huddled together in wretched captivity, 
to be transported to the Isle of Pines, or to other 
prison colonies of Spain. 

Gomez and 



IN FKANCE, the disasters of the late war re- 
sulted in endless recriminations. Thiers carried 
out his negotiation for the 3,000,000 francs' 
liabilities still to be met to make the German troops 
evacuate French territory. In the spring, the occu- E ch 
pation was limited to six eastern departments. 

Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian patriot and repub- 
lican radical, died at Pisa, on the 10th of March, at 
the age of sixty-seven. To Mazzini's burning enthu- 
siasm and indomitable perseverance, as much as to^ l z ^° f 
Cavour or Garibaldi, Italian unity owed its success- 
ful accomplishment. A master not only of Italian, 
but of French and English literature, Mazzini fur- 
thermore distinguished himself as a scholarly com 
mentator on Dante and as a philosophic writer. 

Spain offered the only exception to this year's 
tranquil course. Amadeus, the "intruder King," 
as his dissatisfied subjects styled him, still remained 
on the throne, which brought him little but chagrin. 
In April, the Carlist insurrection broke out. All 
the future welfare and happiness of the country was 
represented as involved in the success of the legiti- 
mate heir to the throne. The son of Carlos VI. was 
championed by the Carhsts as King of Spam. There Revolution 
was but one other claimant, Alfonso, son of Queen 
Isabella, in whose favor the Due de Montpensier 

1534 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1872 

resigned his pretensions. The government sup- 
pressed the Carlist Juntas in Madrid, Valladolid, 
Burgos and other cities. Carlist risings were fo- 
mented in the Basq-ue provinces, in Aragon, Na- 
varre, and in Castile and Leon. The principal leader 
of the rebel forces was General Diaz de Rada. King 
Amadeus despatched Serrano to the scene of action. 
"With 20,000 men he established headquarters, on 
April 29, at Tudela. He took the road to Pampe- 
luna, drove the insurgents from Estrella, and sent 
detachments to the mountain region at the head of 
the Bidassoa. Meanwhile, De Rada retreated, and 
on May 2, Don Carlos crossed the frontier at Vera 
in Navarre, and found his adherents between the 
Pyrenees and the mountains separating Navarre 
from Guipuzcoa. On the same day, Rivera arrived 
at Echalar, two leagues from Vera. Don Carlos left 
Don carios Vera for Lesaca, to reach Guipuzcoa, but Serrano 


had placed a column in his way. Thus hemmed in, 
Don Carlos wheeled again toward Vera, seeking con- 
cealment in the mountains of Zulain. On May 4, 
the two forces met. General Morioncs, with an ad- 
vanced division, came up with Don Carlos and his 
6,000 followers at Oroquita, in the valley of Basa- 
burua. Moriones had 2,000 men and a mountain 
battery. The Carlists finally gave way with a loss 
of 750 prisoners. The Convention of Amorovieta, 
on May 27, led the government to believe that 
tranquillity was to ensue. Yet confusion reigned 
throughout the year in Spain. The Carlists in the 

Spanish ° J 

dT-t'ined C8 nortn » tne Federalists in the South, were everywhere 
exacting contribution, cutting the railways and tele- 

1872 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1535 

graphs, and putting a stop to commercial intercourse. 
The prolonged Cuban rebellion added to the drain 
of Spanish finances. 

On April 2, Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of 
the telegraph, died at the age of eighty-one. Origi- 
nally an artist and founder of the New York Na- 
tional Academy of Design, he conceived the idea of Death of 
a telegraph. In 1835 he exhibited his invention, 
and in 1837 patented it. In 1857, he received from 
Emperor tiouis Napoleon a gift of 400,000 francs. 

In the midst of the negotiations with England 
over the Alabama Claims, a question arose to whom 
the island of San Juan in the Vancouver Channel 
should belong. The German Emperor, to whom the 
matter was referred for arbitration, decided in favor 
of the United States. 

In November, a Presidential election was held, 
and General Grant was re-elected over Horace 
Greeley by a majority of 725,000 votes. The anxi- 
eties and exertions of the Presidential contest ex- 
hausted Greeley and unbalanced his mind. On No- 
vember 29, he died in his sixty-second year. He Deathof 
was the founder of the New York "Tribune." AqSj 
public funeral was accorded to him, and his death 
was referred to in the opening prayer of Congress 
in December. On November 9, a conflagration oc- 
curred in Boston. In two days an area of eighty 
acres was burned over. The loss was estimated at 

Early in the year, the reorganization of the Japa- 
nese system of education was undertaken. For edu- 
cational purposes the empire of Japan was divided 

153(5 A HISTORY OF THE 187S 

into eight districts, in each of which a university 
was to be established, to be supplied by some two 
hundred secondary schools of foreign languages. In 
the Japanese system of jurisprudence great progress 
was also made. Law schools were established, and 

ofjapan in criminial practice defendants were allowed to have 
the assistance of counsel. The use of torture was 
abolished, and the list of capital crimes was dimin- 
ished. A thorough revision of the imperial statutes 
and Japanese legal processes was begun. Foreigners 
were still permitted to bring their cases into their 
respective consular courts. Eeligious persecution 
was discountenanced. At the same time, Legations 
and Consulates were established abroad. The most 
rapid progress was made in journalism. Daily and 
weekly newspapers, and other periodical publica- 
tions, equipped with metal type and modern print- 
ing presses, began to flood the country with infor- 
mation. The first railway was also opened. 

In Mexico, President Benito Juarez died, on July 
18. From his triumph at Gueretaro down to his 
death, Juarez had to deal with' alternating conspir- 
acy and revolt. Diaz's rebellion in eastern Mexico 
was suppressed just before the death of Juarez. He 

Ranges in had appointed a new Ministry with sanguine hopes 
for his country. Larda de Tejado was elected Pres- 
ident to succeed Juarez. The pacification of the 
country was completed before the close of the year, 
Porfirio Diaz accepting the amnesty proffered him. 
In Honduras, a civil war had been raging between 
ex-President Medina and the Provisional Govern- 
ment. On July 26, Medina was routed. 


At the same time, a revolution broke out in Peru. 


President Balta was arrested, martial law was pro- American 

claimed at Lima, and Guiterrez, the Minister of 
War, declared himself supreme chief and dictator of 
the republic. Having no real hold upon the army, 
he tried to buy support with the aid of "forced 
loans" from the principal banks of the capital. The 
people of Lima rose in open revolt. The forces of 
Guiterrez melted away, and his brother was killed 
in a street fight. Guiterrez then sent a party of his 
bravos to murder Balta in his prison, and shut him- Guiterrez 
self up in the citadel. Lima rallied at once to the 
legitimate government under the V ice-President. 
In despair, Guiterrez attempted to escape, but was 
captured and killed by the mob. The reins of power 
were handed over to Zevallos, who resigned them, 
on August 2, to Don Manuel Pardo, the Liberal can- 
didate for the Presidency. 

The"ophile Gautier, the French writer and art 
-critic, died on October 23, at Paris. In 1830, Gau- Death of 
tier published his first book "Poesies," to which he 
subsequently added the poem of "Albertus." Gau- 
tier's famous novel, "Mademoiselle de Maupin," 
appeared in 1835, followed shortly by the poem "La 
Comedie de la Mort," one of his most original pro- 
ductions. Gautier's next novel, "Le Capitaine Fra- 
casse," attained an unusual success. Of his short 
stories, the most famous, perhaps, are his "Une Nuit 
de Cleopatre" and "La Morte Amoureuse." 




N THE 9th of January the news was 
flashed from Chiselhurst to Versailles 
that ex-Emperor Napoleon III. was dead. 
Prince Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was 
born at the Tuileries, April 20, 1808, and was the 
second son of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, 
by his Queen, Hortense, daughter of the Empress 
Josephine, and her first husband, Vicomte de Beau- 
harnais. In 1831, Prince Louis Napoleon and his 
only brother having joined the Italian Carbonari 
conspiring against the Papal Government, took part 
in the insurrection of Roraagna. After the death 
Su2 lof of Napoleon III., and his funeral at Chiselhurst, to 
which many Bonapartists had come, it was agreed 
that the Empress and Prince Napoleon should un- 
dertake the political guardianship of the Prince 
Imperial. In Italy the news of Emperor Napo- 
leon's death was received with genuine sorrow. 
Addresses of condolence from the Italian cities 
were sent to the Empress Eugenie. The royal 
family went into mourning. Spoleto, where Na- 
poleon III. first fought for Italy, voted to erect 
a monument to him. 

Lord Edward George Earle Bulwer-Lytton died 
on January 18, at Torquay, his usual winter resi- 



deuce. He made his literary reputation by tae Bu iwer. 
novels "Pelkam" and the "Disowned" (1828) ; L ^ toa * 
"Devereux" (1829), and "Paul Clifford" (1830). 
These were followed up with the popular ro- 
mances of "Eugene Aram," the "Pilgrims of the 
Rhine," "The Last Days of Pompeii," "Rienzi," 
and "Ernest Maltravers," with sequel "Alice." 
In connection with Macready's management at Co- 
vent Garden, Bulwer-Lytton produced his "Duchess 
de la Valliere," which proved a failure; but this 
was retrieved by the instant success of the "Lady 
of Lyons," "Richelieu," and "Money." "When he 
had thus shown his quick adaptability of talent, 
he returned to novel writing and published in 
steady succession "Night and Morning," "Zanoni," 
"The Last of the Barons," "Harold," "The Cax- 
tons," "My Novel," and "What will he do with 
it?" Bulwer-Lytton entered Parliament for St. 
Ives in 1831, and supported the Reform Bill as 
a Whig, but changed his opinions and latterly 
supported the Conservatives. Under Lord Derby's 
Ministry he was Colonial Secretary, and in 1866 
he entered the House of Lords as Baron Lytton. 
In France, meanwhile, the Republican govern- 
ment grew stronger. Thiers had urged the definite 
proclamation of the Republic, and in May presented 
to the National Assembly a bill to this effect. The 
Monarchists foiled him. On May 24, Thiers resigned fgJ^J 
as President of the Republic, and on the same night 
Marshal MacMahon was elected io the Presidency. 
He appointed Ministers who were willing to pave 
the way for a reinstatement of the French mon- 

1640 A HISTORY OF THE S P .m g i87» 

archy. Chief among these was the Due de Brog- 
&en"h hon lie. The monarchical Deputies in November con- 
firmed for seven years MacMahon's tenure of the 
Presidency. The indemnity due from France to 
Germany as the consequence of the war had been 
paid on the 5th of September. The evacuation 
of Nancy and of Belfort had been effected on the 
1st of August, that of Verdun, the last fortress, 
on September 16. 
Justus, Baron von Liebig, one of the most emi- 
Efebig 0f neQt of modern chemists, died on April 18, at 
Munich. He first attracted the attention of the 
chemical world in 1824, by reading a paper before 
the French Academy of Sciences on fulminic acid 
and the fulminates, the true components of which 
were until then unknown. This also gained him 
the favor of Humboldt, and through the latter's 
influence he was appointed Professor of Chemistry 
at the University of Giessen, a chair which he 
held for twenty-five years. Liebig is regarded as 
the founder of organic chemistry, owing to the 
many discoveries he made in this department. He 
did much to improve the methods of analysis. 
His "Chemistry of Food" brought about a more 
rational mode of cooking and use of food, while 
agriculture owes much to his application of chem- 
istry to soils and manures. 

In Africa, Ashantee warriors to the number of 
Ashantee 12) 000 men invaded British territory in Febru- 
ary, making straight for Cape Coast Castle, but 
were foiled. In October, Sir Garnet Wolseley, the 
new British administrator, landed on the Cape 

1873 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1541 

Coast. After a hard campaign, which lasted foi 
some months, the Ashantees were completely con- 

In America, on the 4th of March, General Grant 
entered on his second term of office as President. 
Soon another Indian war disturbed the public se- 
renity. General Wheaton, who had made an at- ModocWar 
tack on the Modocs, \a southern Oregon and north- 
ern California, had been utterly defeated. On the 
13th of April a parley was held, which resulted in 
the shooting of General Canby and the massacre 
of all the peace envoys excepting one. General 
Davis, now in command, gave the savages no 
rest. After weeks of skirmishing the final blow 
was struck on the 20th of May. Many of the 
Modocs yielded. Captain Jack with the others 
tried to escape. The troops captured the refugees. 
Captain Jack was tried by court-martial at Fort 
Klamath, Oregon, and was condemned to death. 

Hiram Powers, the American sculptor, died this 
year at Florence. While still a boy, Powers ae-p^were 
quired an American reputation by his medallions 
and busts of such men as Andrew Jackson, Web- 
ster, Calhoun, and Clay. After a short residence 
in the city of Washington, he went to Italy in 
1837 and settled in Florence. "The Greek Slave," 
upon which much of his fame rests, was finished 
in the early forties. Celebrated among the famous 
persons who sat for Powers were President Van 
Buren, John Quincy Adams, Chief -Justice Mar- 
shall, George Marshall, George Peabody, Vandei- 
bilt. Winthrop, Sparks, Everett and the Grand- 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— M 


duchess of Tuscany. Of his ideal representations 
the most famous are his "Eve," "Faith, Hope and 
Charity" and "II Penseroso. " 

Trial of ^ n -N ew York, the exposures of the corrupt prac- 

TweedKing: t j ces Q f Tweed and his Tammany henchmen re- 
sulted in a sensational criminal trial of the worst 
offenders. Tweed was found guilty on each of 
fifty-seven indictments. He was imprisoned, but 
was at last released. Civil suits were brought to 
recover $6,000,000, and he was sent to Ludlow 
Street Jail in default of $3,000,000 bail. Tweed 
escaped from jail and made his way to Cuba and 
Spain. He was there arrested and extradited, to be 
again lodged in jail in New York. 

Holland this year had a troublesome and expen- 

Atchinese s i ve war against the Sultan of Atchin in Sumatra. 
The cession of the Gold Coast to the British by the 
Dutch, was balanced by Holland's annexation of 
the Island of Sumatra. The Atchinese repelled the 
Dutch landing forces with such loss, that the in- 
vaders had to retire and wait for reinforcements 
before renewing the war. Another expedition was 
sent out, and at the end of December, General Van 
Swilen, the Dutch commander, gained an important 
victory, a revolution having broken out in Atchin. 

Death of Two notable deaths occurred in Italy. At Milan, 
on May 23, died Alessandro Manzoni, the poet- 
patriot, at the age of ninety. A few days later Sig- 
nor Terbano Rattazzi, the distinguished statesman 
and ex-Minister, died in his sixty-fifth year. 

£ P Morocco '^ ne Sultan of Morocco, Sidi Muley Mohammed, 
died in September, and war broke out between his 


brother, Muley Abbas, and his son, who both claimed 
the crown. 

Spain lost a great dramatist by the death of 
Breton de Las Herreras. He was one of the most Las 
prolific writers, producing no less than 150 dramas, Herreras 
besides many collections of lyrics, patriotic odes 
and satires. His influence is manifest in the works 
of succeeding Spanish playwrights, such as Saave- 
dra, Gil y Zerata, Hartzsnbusch and Jose Zerilla. 
King Amadeus, convinced that tranquillity could 
not be established by him in Spain, renounced abdicates 
the crown in February. At Madrid, on February 
16, the Kepublic was officially proclaimed. The 
Carlists, meanwhile, had profited by the chaotic 
state of politics in Spain. General Moriones had 
been superseded in the command of the government l^buc 
troops by Gen. Pazia, who in turn made way in 
March for General Nouvilas. The troops at Barce- 
lona mutinied. Toward the middle of March the 
head of the Figueras Government went to Barce- 
lona in aid of the Captain-General of the eastern 
provinces. Ripoll and Berja were captured by the 
Carlists. On June 1, the Constituent Cortes met. 
On the 8th a Federal Republic was proclaimed, and 
Castelar and Figueras resigned. Revolt broke out at 
Alcay. At Malaga an insurrection resulted in ter- Civi , w 
rible destruction of life and property. At Carta- 
gena complete anarchy ensued. General Campos 
was despatched with a land force, and Admiral 
Lobo with a naval squadron. Meantime there was 
another ministerial crisis. The Cortes elected Sefior 
Salmemn to succeed Pi y Margall. 

1544 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1873 

Don Carlos re-entered Spain by the village of 
iioLTuAosZumarragardi, which was the stronghold of the 
Carlist forces of Navarre and Guypuzzoa. On 
the 2d of August he took the oath of fidelity 
to the Fueros at Guernica. He then advanced 
with Lizzaraza and his troops upon Estrella, which 
he captured. On September 7, Salmeron resigned 
and SeSor Emilio Castelar became President of 
the republic. A fortnight later the Cortes con- 
ferred dictatorial power on Castelar. Admiral 
Lobo failed to defeat a Cartagenian squadron 
and was dismissed. General Campos was super- 
seded. Admiral Chiccarro and General Caballos 
then conducted the operations of the govern- 
ment by sea and land against the Cartagenians. 
But Caballos was himself superseded by General 
Govern- Voninquez. On November 26, the admiral bom- 
changes barded the place in vain. Meanwhile General 
Moriones, who had been reinstated in September, 
fought a doubtful battle at Maneru on the 6th 
of October. On November 7, he was defeated at 
Monte Jurra. Neither side at the close of the year 
5war™ na( * obtained decisive results. General Moriones 
was in a difficult position at Castro-Urdiales, and 
Bilbao was threatened by the Carlist troops. 

In Cuba, after a lull in hostilities, owing to the 
proclamation of the republic in Spain, the merci- 
less guerilla war was resumed. On the last day of 
Thc"Vir- October the American schooner ,l Virginius," while 
Sffair conveying men and arms from New York to the 
insurgents in Cuba, was captured by the Span- 
ish gunboat "Tornado." The iili busters, many of 


whom were British and American, were tried in 
Santiago de Cuba, found guilty and shot. After 
much correspondence, the "Virginius" was surren- 
dered to the American Government, but on her 
way home she foundered. Effectual protest against 
the Spanish Government's proceedings on the part 
of the United States was made all but impossible 
by the forbidding attitude of the European Powers. 
Sir Edwin Landseer, one of the most popular 
English artists of the Nineteenth Century, died 
during this year. Born in 1802, the son of John 
Landseer, the celebrated engraver, he began his sir Edwin 


artistic career at a very early age. In 1826 he 
was elected associate of the Academy and became 
a full-fledged Academician in 1831. His famous 
portrait of "Sir Walter Scott and his Dogs" was 
painted about this time. Soon he was recognized 
as the foremost artist of England. Fourteen of his 
pictures are in the National Gallery in London, 
among them the famous "Dialogue at Waterloo," 
while sixteen are in the Sheepshanks' Collection at 
the South Kensington Museum. Of his work as a 
sculptor, the best specimens perhaps are the lions 
at the base of the Nelson Monument in Trafalgar 
Square, London. 

On December 14, Louis Jean Rodolphe Agassis, 
one of the most eminent naturalists, died at New 

Death of 

York. Born in Switzerland, he studied medicine Agassis 
and the experimental sciences at Zurich, Heidel- 
berg and Munich. He afterward published several 
works on natural history, and a work entitled 
"Studies of Glaciers," which gave him a Euro- 

1546 A HISTORY OF THE 1873 

pean reputation. Agassiz left Europe for America 
in 1846, and was appointed Professor of Zoology 
and Geology at Harvard, which post he retained 
till his death. He explored every portion of the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts, the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi, and the great plains at the base of the Rocky 
Mountains. He also accompanied an exploring ex- 
pedition to Brazil and superintended an investiga- 
tion of the deep-sea bottom of the Gulf Stream. 
John Stuart Mill, the great English exponent of 
stuart Mm modern utilitarianism and inductive logic, also died 
in this year. He was an advocate of the theory of 
the "happiness of the majority," or the "greatest 
good of the greatest number," as a general test 
of morality. Mill's "Political Economy" achieved 
great success. He took a decided stand for the 
emancipation of woman. 


Carlist war 


IJN SPAIN, when the year opened, the dictator, 
Castelar, was preparing to meet the factious 
Cortes which had been adjourned since Sep- 
tember, and which the intrigues of President Sal- 
meron had helped to dispose against him. On the 
2d of J anuary he surrendered the dictatorship, p^g,^ ot 
Marshal Serrano became the chief executive of the 
.Republic. By a decree the Cortes was dissolved. 
Madrid remained tranquil, but at Saragossa, Bar- 
celona and Valencia barricades were raised. The 
struggle, however, was of short duration. Within 
ten days a striking military success gave the 
new government credit. Cartagena surrendered to 
General Lopez Dominguez. Contreas and Galvay, *»*: 
with the members of the Junta and 2,000 convicts, 
managed to escape on board the "Muncia," and 
were landed in Mess-el-Kebir in Algeria, where 
they became prisoners of the French authorities. 
The Carlist war blazed on and became more for- 
midable. Early in January the headquarters of 
General Moriones were at Laredo and those of Don 
Carlos at Somorrostro. In the middle of Febru- 
ary General Moriones advanced to Somorrostro, but 
stormy weather helped to prevent the squadron at 
the mouth of the river from co-operation. On the 


1548 A HISTORY OF THE Spring ism 

21st, Don Carlos, leaving Durango, began to shell Bil- 
bi£t£rded bao. Moriones pushed forward against the enemy, 
but the Carlists were intrenched upon an elevated 
plateau, bristling with batteries, and twice repulsed 
their assailants. The loss sustained by the Repub- 
licans was 1800. Moriones resigned. Marshal Ser- 
rano left Madrid and raised the Republican force 
in the north to 30,000. Admiral Topete was de- 
spatched to Santander to direct the operations of 
the navy. Bilbao still held out. On March 25-27 
another attempt was made to break the enemy's 

Repubu- ranks, but the Carlists remained in line. Two Re- 
repulsed publican generals, Rivera and Loma, were wounded. 

Later Concha opened fire along his entire front. 

General Echaque advanced. The Carlists reserved 

their fire until the column was within two hundred 

yards. The foremost platoons were literally mowed 

down. When Marshal Concha about 7 P.M. rushed 

concha f<> rwa rd to rally his men he was shot dead. General 

kuied Echaque, on whom the command devolved, evacu- 
ated all the positions and set fire to the villages. 

Pena Mura The Republicans lost some five thousand at this 
battle, fought at Pena Mura. 

Then came the recognition of the de facto gov- 
ernment at Madrid by the German Emperor. The 
example was promptly imitated at Paris and Lon- 
don and subsequently at Vienna. Russia held 
back. The Czar even wrote a friendly letter to 
Don Carlos. The Carlists now overran the north- 

cariista eastern provinces, only the fortresses holding out 


northern against them. They threatened Bilbao and Pastu 
Galete, and cannonaded Puycerda, from which, 

1874 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1549 

however, they were repulsed. Soon that portion 
of their forces occupying Aragon and Valencia 
under Don Alfonso, brother of the Pretender, 
boldly advanced toward Madrid, making straight 
for Cuenca in Castile. Cuenca resisted spiritedly. 
After a terrible bombardment the city capitulated. 
It proved of no practical importance. The Republi- 
cans advanced in force and the victors had speedily 
to abandon their prize. Not only that, but Briga- 
dier Lopez Pintu overtook them at Salvacannete on 
the 20th, and rescued the whole Republican divi- 
sion, which had been taken prisoners at Cuenca, be- 
sides capturing a considerable number of Carlists. 
In Navarre the capture of Laguardia by the Carlists 
under Dorregaray was more than avenged by the 
defeat of Moriones, inflicted upon them at Oteiza 
on August 11. Still the balance of success in- 
clined to the Pretender's cause. Ultimately the 
tide of success again turned against the Carlists. 
Puycerda, threatened by their forces, was relieved 
by Dominguez and his troops after five encounters. 
The insurgents received a yet more signal defeat 
near Pampeluna on September 25, when they at- 
tacked Moriones. In November, the contest had 
shifted to the banks of the Bidassoa. Trun was Trun 
invested by the Carlists and was bombarded. Six 
days later General Lama advanced from San Sebas- 
tian, and, after some resistance, occupied the land 
from Oyarzum to San Marcial to the south of Trun, 
and opened fire on the Carlist positions. General 
Lareras gave effectual assistance. The Carlists re- 
tired to Yera. But soon they reinvested Trun, and 

1550 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1874 

the victorious army of Lama and Lareras was block- 
aded at San Sebastian. Pampeluna, too, which the 
march of Moriones in October had relieved, was 
again surrounded by the rebel forces. On receipt 
of this news at Madrid, the President of the Re- 
public, Marshal Serrano, assumed the command of 
the "Army of the North." Serrano's efforts to 
stem the tide proved vain. On the last day of the 
year it was announced that Campos had entered 
Alfonso Valencia with two brigades, and proclaimed Al- 
nrociaimed f onso k^g. Soon the news reached the Hotel Basi- 
levsky at Paris, where Queen Isabella and her son 
were residing, that the Armies of the North and 
Centre had made common cause with Campos' bat- 
talions, that the Madrid garrison had proclaimed the 
Prince, King of Spain, as Alfonso XII., and that a 
Regency Ministry had been constituted. 

„ ._ . In America, Millard Fillmore died in his seventy- 
Deaths of ' ■ 
Fillmore f ourta vear a t Buffalo. He was elected Vice-Presi- 

sumner ^ en ^ [ n 1848, and succeeded to the Presidency on 
Taylor's death. Three days later occurred the 
death of Charles Sumner, the well-known Ameri- 
can statesman. An unflinching champion of the 
anti-slavery struggle in the United States, Charles 
Sumner was at one period among the most hated 

Samueu. public men in America. In New York, Samuel 

Tilden r 

J. Tilden was elected Governor, in recognition of 
his fearless persecution of the corrupt members 
of the Tammany and Canal "rings." 

Wars and revolts were abundant among the 
South American States. In the Argentine Repub- 
lic a rebellion broke out • linst the new President, 



Avellanada, headed by General Mitre, who had for- 
merly held the supreme post. After a few weeks 
the rebellion collapsed. Mitre fled to Uruguay, and 
the other rebel chiefs retreated to the interior. 

In consequence of repeated outrages upon Japa- 
nese shipping by the savages of Formosa, the Mi- 
kado, in the spring of this year, despatched Am- 
bassador Soyejima to Peking. The Chinese Tsung- 
li Yamen disclaimed responsibility for eastern For- 
mosa. On the return of the embassy, a Japanese 
expedition of 1,300 men, under command of Saigo 


Yorimichi, occupied the eastern end of Formosa, occupy 

7 x Formosa 

When the Japanese soldiers failed to withdraw, the 
Chinese Government made emphatic protests. For 
a while war between China and Japan appeared im- 
minent. Finally another Japanese Embassy, sent 
to Peking under the leadership of Okubo, brought 
about a peaceful arrangement. The Japanese evac- 
uated Formosa on the payment of an indemnity of 
$700,000 by China. 

The British empire was enlarged this year by the f a n k g e '^- 
annexation of the Fiji Islands. England paid the Islands 
King's debts of £80,000, and pensioned him. 

Francois Guizot, the French statesman and histo- 
rian, died at the age of eighty-seven, in Normandy. Gufzot * 
Guizot's political career began in 1815, when he was 
made Secretary to the Minister of the Interior. On 
Napoleon's return he gave up his post, but after 
the second Eestoration again took office, which he 
held until the murder of the Due de Berri in 1820, 
when he retired. For the next ten years he was 
occupied upon the historical works which have 


Autumn 18?1 


made his literary fame. After the revolution of 
July, 1830, he became Provisional Minister of In- 
struction and afterward Minister of the Interior. 
He kept in office until the revolution of February, 
1848, put an end to the monarchy. 
Micheiet By the death of Michelet, France lost another 
noteworthy historian. He was the author of a very 
popular "History of France," and was noted for 
his bold Philippics against the Jesuits. Ledru- 
Rollin, Guizot's opponent for three generations, 
also passed away. 

Germany lost one of her foremost artists by the 
death of Wilhelm von Kaulbach at Munich. As 
an illustrator he won distinction by his drawings 
for Goethe's "Reynard, the Fox," and by his illus- 
trations for the Gospels and the Shakespeare gal- 
lery. Kaulbach's genius as a decorative painter is 
best exemplified by his designs for the stairway of 
the new museum in Berlin, on which he worked 
for many years. At the French Salon, Arnold 
Bocklin's "Sea Idyl," which had taken the medal 
at Berlin, was exhibited. The picture created a 
great stir, and the critics united in pronouncing 
Bocklin "the most original German painter of 
the age." 

Toward the close of the year, Mariano Fortuny, 
the great Spanish "Virtuoso of Color," died at 
Rome. When twenty years old he won the Prix 
de Rome. During the Spanish war, in 1859-60, 
he accompanied General Prim to Morocco. Most 
renowned among his canvases are "The Spanish 
Marriage" and the "Choice of a Model." 








AFTER eleven years of intermittent labor, the 
famous Grand Opera House of Paris was 
completed under the supervision of its ar- 
chitect, Charles Gamier, and inaugurated on Jan- 
uary 5 by President MacMahon. During the 
Franco-Prussian war work had been suspended, and 
the vast structure was used as a military storehouse, 
hospital, barracks, observatory and prison. The 
walls and ceilings were decorated by Baudry with 
beautiful designs. 

The Delagoa Bay arbitration, the decision upon 
which had been committed to the President of the 
French Republic, ended this year in favor of thegeiagoa 
Portuguese Government. The British claim f r trovers y 
this bay and its coast was based on the settle- 
ment of the Dutch on the English River in 1720, 
and their subsequent cession to Great Britain of 
their South African possessions. The Portuguese, 
however, claimed the territory after the discovery 
by Vasco da Gama, and its occupancy since. 

On the 12th of February the Emperor of China 
died, under suspicious circumstances, in his nine- 
teenth year. The Empress Dowager and the Em- 
press' mother selected the only son of the seventh 
Prince as the successor to the throne. 

In England, Charles Kingsley, the famous clergy- 



.'554 A HISTORY OF THE 8ummer 1875 

man, novelist and poet died at Eversley. In 18-48 
Kfn a g 3 h ie°y he published his poem, "The Saint's Tragedy," 
which was followed in 18-49 by the novel "Alton 
Locke." In 1853 he published "Hypatia" and 
in 1855 "Westward Ho!" both brilliant historical 
novels. They were followed by "Two Years Ago," 
"Hereward," "The Last of the English," "Glau- 
cos" and the "Water Babies." 

Sir Charles Lyell, the apostle of uniformitarian- 
ism in geology, died at a ripe age. He carried to 
Lyeii ares its logical conclusion Hutton's doctrine that present 
geological causes are like those to which the past 
changes of the globe were due. Convinced by Dar- 
win, Lyell adopted the transmutation theory of 
species, and thus completed his doctrine. 

One of the foremost artists of the Nineteenth 
Century was lost to France by the death of Jean 
Frangois Millet. He was the pupil of Delaroche and 
formed ties of friendship with Corot, Theodore Rous- 
F^ncois seau, Dupre" and Diaz. During his 'prentice years 
in the Latin Quarter, Millet often endured cold and 
hunger, especially after his pitiful pension expired. 
In 1853, he exhibited at the Salon his "Reapers," 
"Shepherd," and "Sheepshearers," and received his 
first medal. In 1857, he exhibited "The Gleaners," 
a picture which became famous. After this there 
was much discussion over each one of Millet's 
successive works. Thus his "Woman Grazing 
Her Cow," "Peasants Bearing a Calf Born in the 
Field," and the "Knitting Lesson," were bitterly 
criticised on one hand and passionately praised on 
the other. Most renowned of Millet's paintings 



is "L'Ange'lus du Soir. " Another of his world- 
famous pictures is "The Man with the Hoe," sold i'i'^ 1160 " 
to San Francisco. On this subject Edwin Markham, 
late in the century, wrote his celebrated lines: 

Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans u^e Man 

Upon his hoe and gazes on the ground, with the 

The emptiness of ages in his face, 

And on his back the burden of the world. 

Who made him dead to rapture and despair, 

A thing that grieves not and that never hopes, 

Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox? 

Who loosened and let down this brutal jaw? 

Whose was the hand that slanted back this brow? 

Whose breath blew out the light within his brain? 

masters, lords and rulers in all lands, 

How will the Future reckon with this Man? 

How answer his brute question in that hour 

When whirlwinds of rebellion shake the world? 

How will it be with kingdoms and with kings — 

With those who shaped him to the thing he is — 

When this dumb Terror shall reply to God, 

After the silence of the centuries? 

In Spain, as soon as the force of the victory of 
the counter-revolution was felt at Madrid, Loma 
took command of the Army of the North; Que- 
sada of the Centre, and Campos became Captain- 
General of Catalonia. The Duke de Serbo, devoted 
to the cause of Isabella, became Civil Governor of 
Madrid. Prince Alfonso entered Madrid, where he^°™° 
announced the re-establishment of the monarchy. Madn 
The Carlist insurgents were then threatening Pam- 
peluna. They had 25,000 men and the govern- 
ment 45,000. Laserna's left wing under Moriones 
relieved Pampeluna early in February, and the 
King entered the city on the 6th. The Carlists 
won a victory which checked the progress of the 

1556 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 18^ 

Alfonsists. The war went on. Its narrow area 

caHi l rt eof became narrower as the fortunes of the Carlists 

declined. The expectation that the fall of Leo 

d'Urgal would prove a turning point in the war 

was soon borne out. 

In the month of November the difficulty of the 

Cuban war Spanish Government was increased by a dispute 

with the United States over the rebellion in Cuba. 

A note was delivered at Madrid by Cushing, the 

American Minister, complaining that the Cuban 

insurrection was daily growing more insupportable 

to the people of the United States. The President 

American suggested that he did not desire annexation, but 

remon- °o » 

strance ^ e i eV ation of Cuba to an independent colony. 
Expectations of war were rife. Happily, the tone 
of President Grant's remarks in his message on 
the 7th of December allayed the prevalent appre- 
hension. The United States abstained from any 
measure so decisive as the recognition of the in- 
surgent Cuban Government. 

To the discomfiture of European chancelleries, 
the announcement was made, on November 26, that 
the British Government had bought from the Khe- 
dive of Egypt for £4,000,000 all his shares in the 
Suez Canal, about nine-tenths of the whole. The 
main ground of this purchase was a determination 
to secure for English shipping free passage between 
the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. 

Admiral Enomoto of Japan signed a conven- 
tion at St. Petersburg, by which Russia received 
the Island of Sagalien, while Japan obtained all 
the Kurile Islands. 




KW YEAR'S DAY was ushered in with 
unusual festivities throughout the United 


States. It began the "Centennial Y ear, " centennial 
or hundredth anniversary since the Declaration of 
Independence, and a general amnesty was granted 
to all unpardoned Confederates. 

In Portugal, on January 16, the Chamber of Dep- 
uties voted to liberate all slaves in the islands of 
Cape de Verde and the Azores. This liberal meas- 
ure was confirmed by the Upper House. 

In Spain, the Carlist war drew to a close. Cap- 
tain-General Campos planned the seizure of the 
Valley of the Bassidoa, so as to cut the Carlists 
off from supplies except by sea. To effect this he 
arranged that Generals Quesada, Moriones, Loma 
and Pnmo da Eivera, should operate with separate 


divisions by way of diversion. General Moriones strategy 
captured the heights of Garabi-Maudi above Gueta- 
ria, under cover of a feint on January 25. Quesada 
advancing from Vittoria pushed the Carlists toward 
him in the direction of Guipozoa, and took Durango 
on February 5. Loma, having taken Valmonade, 
occupied Guernica before February 8. The three 
now moved upon Guipozoa, and met King Al- 
fonso on his road to Vergera. Meanwhile, General 



SpriDg 1876 

Revolt of 



Frimo da .Rivera, after capturing the heights of 
Monte Jurra above Estella on February 19, took 
that town itself, heretofore the headquarters of the 
Carlists. On the same day, Campos defeated the 
Carlists above Veras, and the Carlists withdrew their 
EScarlos l ast battalion. Don Carlos himself took refuge on 
French territory on February 28, and surrendered to 
the Governor of Bayonne. With him went General 
Lizzarraga and five battalions of troops. The re- 
mainder surrendered. Thus ended the civil war 
which had devastated Spain for so many years. 

The Eastern Question this year took an alarming 
turn. Herzegovina, where revolt had broken out 
the year before, had long been one of the most 
disturbed parts of the Ottoman Empire. The re- 
bellion was attended by the usual atrocities. The 
Christians complained of foul outrages, and the 
Mohammedans in turn accused them of murdering 
Turkish travellers. After several months the Eu- 
ropean Cabinets tried to make peace through their 
agents. This attempt wholly failed. The insur- 
gents would not lay down arms unless the Powers 
would protect them. The Servians and Montene- 
grins gave the rebels secret help. The result of 
the international pour parlers was the famous An- 
drassy note, seemingly acquiesced in by the Sultan. 
Shortly afterward, on May 6, the French and Ger- 
man Consuls were killed at Salonica, during a fa- 
natic outbreak of the Mohammedans. Other events 
quickly followed. On the last day of the month Sul- 
tan Abdul Aziz was deposed at the Yildiz Kiosk, 
and his eldest son succeeded him as Murad V. Not 


1876 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1559 

long afterward, the ex-Sultan, who had been con- 
veyed across the Golden Horn to Catragan, was mur- murdered 2 
dered by order of his Ministers. A fortnight later, 
as the Ministers were holding their meeting in the 
palace of Midhat Pasha, the Minister of War and 
one of his colleagues were murdered by Circassian 
officers. Meanwhile, a rebellion had broken out 
in Bulgaria. This happened after the burning of 
Christian villages, the massacre of old and young, 
and indescribable horrors at Babak. The Servians 
likewise were preparing for war. On the last day of 
June, Servia formally proclaimed that she intended 
to join Bosnia and Herzegovina to secure the liber- Balkan 
ation of the Slavic Christians from the yoke of the revolt 
Porte. Simultaneously the warlike Prince of Mon- 
tenegro took up the same cause. On July 2, Prince 
Nikitia set out with his army from the capital, Cet- 
tigne, and hostilities commenced. The Servians, 
50,000 strong, crossed the mountains in two divi- 
sions, and thus carried the war into the enemy's 
country. But soon they suffered serious defeat 
near Belfina. The Turks penetrated by way of 
Granada and Eanderola into Servia. On August 
5, the Servians were driven from their position at The 

x Servian 

Kujazevach, while on the following day a Turkish campaign 
column under Hassah Pasha occupied the defile 
of V raternitza and the village of Galgan on the 
Timok. After this, the Turks advanced on Tes- 
cieza and put the Servians to flight. This opened 
the way to Alexinatz. Prince Milan summoned thepeaisto 


foreign Consuls to the palace, and expressed his 
willingness to accept the intervention of the Powers. 

1560 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn MR 

On September 1, under the walls of Alexinatz, the 
Servian army was completely defeated. The Porte 
declined an armistice and made demands which the 
Powers declared to be inadmissible. 

At this critical juncture a coup d'etat at Constan- 
tinople intervened. Sultan Murad becoming insane 

de U ose<T' was deposed August 21, and his brother, Abdul 
Hamid II., was called to the succession. Finally, 
on September 16, the Porte agreed to a suspension 
of hostilities until the 25th. England now proposed 
that the status quo should be maintained in Servia 
and Montenegro; administrative reforms looking 
to self-government, but not to independence of the 
Porte, should be established in Bosnia and Bul- 

ciarasindfr- garia. These negotiations were hindered by the 


proclamation of Prince Milan as King of Servia 
at Deligrad. Prince Milan rejected the proposal of 
Turkey to prolong the truce until October 2. War 
broke out again. Despite the help of Russian vol- 
unteers, the success was on the side of the Turks, 
except in Montenegro. A struggle from October 
19 to 23, ended with the taking of Dugunis, the 
greatest success of the campaign. Russia made a 
demand for a six weeks' armistice, but the Porte 
asked six months. Russia would not agree to this, 
and on October 31, General Ignatieff called on Tur- 
tiitimatum key to agree to the shorter armistice within forty- 
eight hours. On the day the ultimatum was pre- 
sented, Alexinatz was captured by the Turks and 
Deligrad was occupied by them on the following 
day, thus opening the road to Belgrade. Turkey 
declared herself ready to accept an armistice. On 


the conclusion of the armistice, England proposed 

a conference of the Powers at Constantinople. All 

the recommendations of the conference were re- conference 

jected by Turkey. Midhat Pasha was now Grand 


In Mexico a revolution had broken out in con- 
sequence of the attempted re-election of Lerdo 
as President. Eventually his rival, Porfirio Diaz, 
gained possession of the country, and, on Novem- 
ber 16, defeated the government troops under Ala- Mexican 
torre near Humantia. Puebla fell on the 18th, by revolutiOD 
revolt of the troops in favor of Diaz. Lerdo de 
Tepada, with one regiment, fled from the capital 
on the 21st, and with his escort reached Morelia, 
where he attempted to maintain the constitutional 
government. On the 23d, Porfirio Diaz entered the 
city amid unusual rejoicings. Vera Cruz declared Efaf" 
adherence to Diaz, and on the 30th he was offi- 
cially proclaimed Provisional President of the 

On May 10, the Centennial Exposition was in- 
augurated at Philadelphia by President Grant. Centennial 
The ceremonies were opened with a march com- xp0Sl 10D 
posed by Richard Wagner. One of the greatest 
features of the Centennial Exposition was the ex- 
hibit of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. 
Born at Edinburgh in 1847, Bell was educated there 
and in Germany, and settled in Canada in 1870. In 
1872, he came to the United States and introduced telephone 
a system of visible speech for the education of deaf 
mutes, which his father, a distinguished Edinburgh 
teacher of elocution, had invented. He became pro- 


fessor of vocal physiology in Boston, where he con- 
structed his telephone. 

Among the American artists whose contributions 
to the great exposition brought them renown were 
John J. .Rogers and William M. Storey, the sculp- 
tors, and Elihu Vedder, the well-known illustrator. 

The United States had entered into a treaty with 
the Sioux Indians, by which these were to leave 
their lands in the Black Hills to enter into a new 


|fo a ux St reservation. Sitting Bull, the chief of the Sioux, 
refused to sign it. The Indians, led by him, chose 
a strong position in the Bad Lands in southern 
Montana. The plan of the United States troops 
was to converge on them in three columns — Gen- 
eral Gibbon from the west, General Crook from 
the south, and General Terry from the east. In the 
last-named body was the Seventh Cavalry under 
Custer. In advancing from the south, Crook was 
impeded. Terry moved up the Yellowstone Valley. 

The custer Custer with five troops of horse was ambushed. 


Custer and all his men were slain. Gibbon and 
Terry came up three days after the massacre. In 
July, General Sheridan was put in command of the 
expedition against the Sioux. On .November 24, 
the Sioux were severely defeated in a pass in the 
Big Horn Mountains. This ended the war with 
the Sioux for a time. 

Alphonse Esquiros, the French writer and poli- 
tician, died on May 12. His first work, a vol- 
ume of poetry, "Les Hirondelles," appeared in 
1834. This was followed by romances and a 
commentary on the Life of Christ, 4 'L'E vangile 


da Peuple," for which he was imprisoned. He 
then published "Les Chants d'un Prisonnier," Eaquiros 6 
"Les Vierges Folles," "Les Yierges Sages," and 
"L'Histoire des Montagnards." He entered the 
Assembly in 1848, and on being proscribed, at 
the coup d'etat, took refuge in England, where 
his sketches of English life and manners in the 
"Revue des Deux Mondes" brought him celeb- 
rity. On the fall of the Second Empire he was ap- 
pointed administrator of Bouches du Rhone, where 
he expelled the Jesuits and sequestered their prop- 
erty. The outcry against these arbitrary measures 
obliged Gambetta to remove him, but for a fort- 
night Esquiros bid the government defiance. His 
resignation and departure were the signal for new 

The famous novelist Georges Sand (Madame 
Dudevant), died on the 8th of June. In con- 
junction with Jules Sandeau, a young lawyer, she fand ges 
wrote "Rose et Blanche," which was published in 
1831. Her next book was "Indiana," which had a 
brilliant success. "Valantine," "Lelia," "Jacques 
Andri," "Leone Leoni," "La derniere Aldini," 
"Lavania" and others appeared within a few years. 
In 1854 she published "Histoire de ma Vie," a 
psychological autobiography. Among her later 
novels are "La Mare au Diable," "Francois le 
Champi," "La Petite Fadette," "Les Maitres Son- 
neurs," "L'Homme de Neige," "Pierre Qui Rolle," 
"Consuelo" and "The Countess of Rudolstadt." 
Georges Sand's works consist of some sixty nov- 
els, many plays, and numerous articles in literary 


journals. Much has been written concerning her 

relations with Alfred de Musset and Frederic 


Harriet Harriet Martineau, the celebrated English author, 

Martmeau died on June 27 . ^ Ambleside in England. She 

was born at Norwich, June 12, 1802, of Huguenot 
descent. Her first work "Devotional Exercises for 
the Young," appeared in 1823. Next came a num- 
ber of stories written to convey some youthful les- 
son. "Illustrations of Political Economy," 1831-34, 
in nine volumes, was followed by "Illustrations of 
Taxation" and "Poor Laws and Paupers." After 
visiting the United States, in 1834, she published 
"Society in America" and a "Retrospect on West- 
ern Travel." In 1839-40 appeared "Deerbrook" 
and "The Hour and the Man," two novels, the 
first of which acquired wide popularity. In 1853 
she published "Comte's Positive Philosophy." 
Among her other works was a "History of Eng- 
land During the Thirty Years' Peace," "England 
and Her Soldiers," and "Health, Husbandry and 
Handicraft." A candid autobiography was found 
among her posthumous manuscripts. 
Giaoomo J ^" t R° me » Giacomo Antonelli died in his sev- 
Antoneiii en ty. secon( i year. He opposed the assumption of 
the Italian crown by Victor Emmanuel. Virtually 
he was the Prime Minister of the Pope. 

Denmark lost one of her most philosophic poets 
in Frederik Paludan-Miiller. His profound epic 
poem "Adam Homo" marks the transition of Dan- 
ish poetry to its modern pessimistic tendencies. 
Still another of his conceptions of life is to be 

1876 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1565 

found in his drama "Kalanus," in which Grecian 
culture and sensualism are contrasted with East 
Indian asceticism. 

Meanwhile the Boers continued their irregular 
warfare with the Kaffir tribes, and with the most B oers and 
disastrous results. In a battle at the end of the 
year the army of the Transvaal was totally de- 
feated and its leader killed. The Cape Govern- 
ment was appealed to in the interest of peace 
and security. 

In Cuba, the revolt continued, and volunteers and 
money poured into the island. The insurgents were 
reported to be 10,000 strong. Early in October theJJJjjj" 
government succeeded in getting the Cuba loan of 
$3,000,000 on the security of the customs dues, 
and late in the year General Martinez Campos, 
having been appointed Commander-in-Chief, ar- 
rived with 14,000 men accompanied by a fleefc 
under Don Francisco de Selano. 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— N 





ARLY in the year a great rebellion broke out 
in Japan. It was led by Saigo Takamon, 
formerly a marshal of the empire, with a 
large following of Samurai and the discontented 
peasants of Satsuma. Two departments of admin- 
istration were abolished, and several thousand office- 
holders discharged, many of whom joined the great 
japan' rebellion. It was the final struggle between the 
forces of feudalism and modern constitutional gov- 
ernment. After a brief but bloody campaign the 
rebels were routed. Their leader Saigo, at his own 
request, was beheaded by one of his friends. In 
End ot the ultimate treatment of the overthrown rebels 


the Mikado showed a wise spirit of leniency. 
Of 38,000 prisoners attainted for treason, almost 
all were pardoned. About one thousand of the 
leading men were confined in the government fort- 
resses, and only twenty of the most gravely im- 
plicated men were shot. The contest lasted several 
months and cost Japan some $50,000,000, and many 
thousands of lives. To redress the grievances of the 


reforms peasants and farmers, the government made haste to 
reduce the national land tax from three to two and 
a half per cent, while the local tax was cut down 
to one-fifth. The loss to the treasury from this was 

187? Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1567 

made good by a diminution of the salaries of nearly 
all the government officials. 

The continued disorders in the Turkish domin- 
ions gave Russia an opportunity of interfering in Turk 
the aiiairs of the Forte. To avert war between Rus- reiorra 
sia and Turkey, the six great European powers 
signed a protocol at London asserting the necessity 
of reforms and providing for disarmament on cer- 
tain conditions. On the determination of the Porte 
to listen to no such proposals, Russia declared war, 
on April 24. Already Russia had concluded a 
treaty with Roumania, which not long after pro- 
claimed its independence; while Servia and Mon- uutealhed 
tenegro eagerly embraced the opportunity to se- 
cure their independence. 

On the very day of the declaration of war the Russia 
Russian forces crossed the frontier into Asia, while ma es 
in Europe they passed into Roumania. 

The Russians had a great advantage in possessing 
the province of Transcaucasia as a base of opera- 
tions. At the opening of the campaign, the total 
strength of the Russian army of the Caucasus num- 
bered about 150,000 men of six divisions, com- 
manded by the Grandduke Michael Nicolayevich, 
assisted by divisional commanders. The Turkish 
army, under Mukhtar Pasha on the frontier, con- 
sisted of 80,000 regular troops, 15,000 Circassians, 
4,000 Kurds, and 25,000 militia — thus making a total 
of 124,000 men. Of these 22,000 were stationed at 
Erzeroum, the headquarters of the Turkish army, 
28,000 at Kars, and 12,000 at Ardahan. 

During the first few weeks of the campaign, the 

1563 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1877 

salient events were a battle before Rars, April 29 
k. a A^a ,£rn aTU l 30, in which the Eussians were victorious, 
a defeat of the Russians at Batoum May 11, the 
capture of Sukbrum Kale', a Russian military post 
near the Turkish frontier, on May 14, and the 
taking of Ardahan by the Russians on the 17th. 

On the Danube the Russian army consisted of 
nine army corps and a total of 310,000 men, 55,806 
horses and 972 guns. These forces were supple- 
mented by the Roumanian army under Prince 
Charles of Hohenzollern, 72,000 strong, of whom 
about 17,000 were regulars and properly equipped. 
The Turkish army on the south side of the Dan- 
ube numbered about 247,000 men, scattered in forti- 
fied towns over a frontier of 500 miles. After two 
l^fs'uie wee ^ s °f preparation and delay, the Russians ac- 
Danube complished the passage of the Danube between 
June 21 and June 30. The crossing was effected 
at four different points — Galatz, Braila, and Hir- 
sova into the Dobrudscha and from Simnitza to Sis- 
tova. By the morning of July 1, 60,000 Russians 
had crossed the Danube. 

Abdul Kerim, the Turkish Commander-in-Chief 
on the Danube, maintained a fatuous inactivity. 
A number of Russian successes quickly followed 
the passage of the Danube. On July 7, Tirnova 
was captured, and on July 16 Nicopolis was carried 
Ir)d nova ^y assault after severe fighting. Six thousand Turk- 
^urr en O der ish soldiers with guns and munitions of war fell 
to the victors. But the most striking achievement 
of the Russians was the expedition of General 
Gourko, who, starting from Tirnova on July 12, 

1877 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1569 

led a flying detachment composed of all arms across 
the Balkans on the 14th, by way of the Painkoi^a" 
Pass, into Eonmelia as far as Yeni-Sagra, almost 
without opposition. 

The Eussian army in Asia, after driving in the 
Turkish outposts, captured some of the principal 
fortified positions, invested Kars and seemed likely 
to reach Erzeroum without any serious reverse. 
But as time went on the campaign in Armenia 
suddenly collapsed. In August, the army of in- 
vasion met with a series of defeats, of which the 
battle of Kizil-Tipe was an example. In Europe, Kizii-Tipe 
too, reverses came that changed for a time the 
whole aspect of the campaign. Plevna and the 
Shipka Pass became names of ominous import 
to the soldiers of the Czar. The first disastrous 
action before Plevna took place on July 20, when 

a brigade of infantry, under the command of Gen- repulsed at 
eral Schildner-Schuldner, fell into a trap and was 
wellnigh cut to pieces. On the last day of July, 
the second battle of Plevna was fought, in which 
the Turkish forces, 50,000 strong, completely de- 
feated the Eussians, after a terrible conflict, with 
a loss of 8,000 killed and as many wounded. South 
of the Balkans the forces of the Czar met with the 
same ill-fortune. Suleiman Pasha, having defeated 
General Gourko's force at Eski-Sagra on August 
15, and driven the Eussians back to the mountains, Eski . Sa _. a 
assailed the Eussian fortified positions in the Shipka 
Pass, and then followed a series of sanguinary con- 
flicts to which the war had hitherto -furnished no| l ^P ka 
parallel. The Turks claimed a victory on the Lorn ; 

1570 4 HISTORV OF THE Sept. 1877 

Fall of Dut tn * s was followed by a Russian success of much 
Loftcha importance — the capture of Loftcha on the 3d of 

Abdul Kerim Pasha was recalled from the com- 
mand of the Turkish forces on the Danube, and that 
appointment was given provisionally to Mehemet 
Ali Pasha. On September 1, Osman Pasha with 
25,000 men made a determined but unsuccessful at- 
tack against the Russian left centre, which held a 
FVhtin strongly fortified position around the villages of 
pie^Ta Peiisat and Zgalince. In this perfectly useless 
sortie, after losing 3,000 men, he was defeated and 
driven back by General Zubov. The successful 
dash at Loftcha was followed by a series of des- 
perate assaults by the Russian and Roumanian 
forces on the fortified positions of Osman Pasha 
at Plevna. The conflict began September 11, and 
day after day the slaughter went on till the Russian 
£pp^ llin s losses before Plevna amounted . to more than 12,000 
and those of the Roumanians to 3,000 men. In the 
Shipka Pass, Suleiman Pasha lost more than 
12,000 soldiers. 

While the war in the East continued, the Re- 
public of France passed through a crisis. An 
French open conflict occurred at the funeral of the com- 
crisis net poser Felicien David. As a member of the Legion 
of Honor the dead man was entitled to a military 
escort. Learning that David in his will had ex- 
pressed a desire to be buried without religious 
ceremonies, the commanding officer marched his 
troops back to their barracks. The government 
suffered this insubordination to go unpunished. As 


a result Dufaure's Ministry lost the respect of the 
country and soon had to resign. MacMahon allowed 
Jules Simon to form a new Ministry in expectation 
that he would compromise the Republican majority gimon . s 
by ultra-radical measures. In this the Monarchists Ministr J r 
were disappointed. MacMahon resolved to get rid of 
Simon. Unable to do this by Parliamentary means, 
since Simon controlled the majority in the Assem- 
bly, he encouraged the Clericals in their scheme of 
a monster petition to the government against the 
Pope's further "imprisonment." In the Assem- 
bly, Simon declared from the tribune "it is not a 
fact that the Pope is a prisoner. Statements to 
this effect are, if not altogether false, at least 
grossly exaggerated." The Pope, in Rome, took 
the earliest opportunity to complain publicly that Faction 
the French Minister-President had called him clericals 
"a liar." This created a great uproar in France. 
Marshal MacMahon requested Simon to resign. All 
his colleagues in the Cabinet resigned with him. 
In the face of the Republican majority in the 
House, MacMahon intrusted the Duke de Broglie 
with the formation of a new Monarchist Ministry. 
When the Chambers protested against this breach 
of constitutional government the Senate, at the re- 
quest of MacMahon, dissolved the Lower House. 
A turbulent electoral campaign followed. Mac- Maws 


Mahon published a manifesto in which he de- 
clared that the government, in case of hostile 
elections, would not yield. Gambetta replied men- 
acingly that France would compel MacMahon either 
to submit or to resign — "se soumettre ou se demettre." 


1572 A HISTORY OF THE 1877 

For these words Gambetta was condemned to three 
months' imprisonment and a fine of 4,000 francs, but 
the government did not dare to enforce the sentence. 
In the midst of the election occurred the death 
of Louis Adolphe Thiers, one of the most eminent 
Thiers figures of republican France. While struggling with 
poverty at Paris young Thiers made his name as a 
political writer. He took part with Armand Carrel 
and Mignet in the foundation of the "Journal Na- 
tional." In its columns Thiers was the strongest 
advocate of constitutional liberty. Under the gov- 
ernment of Louis Philippe, Thiers filled several 
prominent offices, until in 1840, when he was called 
to the head of the Ministry. After he was super- 7\ 
seded by Guizot he returned to his historical labors. 
After the coup d'etat of December 2, 1851, Thiers was 
banished. Amnestied in the following year, he re- 
turned to France to remain in comparative retire- 
ment till 1863. During the convulsions of 1870-71, 
Thiers came to the front together with Gambetta to 
save France. On the fall of Paris he was returned 
to the National Assembly, and, on February 17, 
1871, he was declared chief of the executive power. 
The Assembly prolonged Thiers's tenure of office, 
and changed his title to that of President When 
the Chambers turned against him, Thiers accepted 
his deposition with dignity, and once more went 
into retirement. Still he continued to be regarded 
as head of the Constitutional Conservatives. As a 
historian, Thiers won renown by his great history 
of the French Revolution, and his history of the 
Consulate and the Empire. 


At this year's Salon the painter Jean Paul Lau- 
rens exhibited his famous "Austrian Staff Officers Lam-ens* 1 
around the Deathbed of Marceau." Laurens had 
previously attracted attention with his first picture 
exhibited at the Salon of 1863, and later by his 
"Death of the Duke d'Enghien," by his "Fran- 
cesco di Borgia before the dead Isabella of Portu- 
gal, " and by "The Last Moments of Maximilian." 

The result of the exciting French elections was 
a Republican victory. Of the new deputies 320 
Republicans were returned as against 112 Bona- 
partists and 98 Royalists. A second dissolution Defeat ot 

1 r French 

was frustrated by the opposition of the thirteen £°^ rn " 
constitutional Orleanists who held the balance of 
power in the Senate. As a result of election frauds 
ninety- three members of the government faction were 
unseated. The Broglie Ministry resigned. Still Mac- 
Mahon would not yield, but formed another Min- Mac- 


istry of Monarchists under Roche Bouet. On Jules obstinate 
Ferry's motion the Republican majority refused 
to enter into relations with the unparliamentary 
Cabinet. Its measures for the levy of taxes were 
ignored. At last President MacMahon had the good 
sense to yield. "/Se soumettre" was preferred to "se 
demettre." Dufaure was permitted to form a Repub- 
lican Cabinet, the majority of whom were Protes- 
tants. The victory was Gambetta's. At once a 

Triumph of 

bill was introduced granting amnesty for all recent Gambetta 
political offences. Sweeping changes were also 
made in the administration. Out of eighty-seven 
prefects eighty-three were removed. Then the 
Chambers adjourned until the next year. 

1574 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1877 

In North America, early in the year, a bitter 
poStfcs 341 political contest had arisen over the disputed elec- 
tion of Rutherford Hayes. In January, Congress 
concurred in a vote appointing a Commission for 
counting the electoral vote, and to settle all ques- 
tions concerning the election in Florida, Louisiana, 
South Carolina and other disputed States. Two 
bodies in South Carolina claimed to be the Legis- 
lature. One gave the majority to Hayes, the other 
to Tilden. In Florida both parties claimed the vote 
for President by a small majority. Scores of influ- 
Hayes- ential politicians from the North hurried to these 

Tilden r 

contest States. The Republicans had the Federal troops 
to back them. By a vote of eight Republicans to 
seven Democrats the Electoral Commission declared 
for Hayes. This result was attributed to William 
E. Chandler's political strategy. On March 2, Con- 
gress, in joint session, confirmed the election of 
Hayes and Wheeler, giving Haj'es the majority 
of one vote over Tilden. On the following day 
the House repudiated this decision and declared 
that Tilden and Hendricks were elected by 196 

Tilden electoral votes — a vote of 186 to 88, 66 not voting. 

out" The country was brought to the verge of civil war. 
Hayes was privately sworn in as President on 
March 4, but his inauguration was deferred until 
the following Monday. Tilden silenced his indig- 
nant followers by a dignified declaration of with- 
drawal. Hayes began his administration with the 
set purpose of restoring peaceful relations between 

president 11 tue North and South. The Federal troops were 
withdrawn. A bitter contest for the governorship 


in South Carolina was appeased by the President's 
advising one of the claimants, Chamberlain, to with- 
draw. Wade Hampton was sworn in as Governor, 
and gave general satisfaction by his administration. 
On February 12, Bell exhibited his telephone at 
Salem, Massachusetts, and on May 10 he described telephone 
his invention before the Boston Academy. The 
first business telephone was erected between Boston 
and Somerville, three miles. Elisha Gray filed array's 

' J telephone 

caveat for his telephone three hours after Bell's 
was filed. Thomas A. Edison invented his phono- 

, . . . Edison's 

graph. Among the prominent Americans who died pnono- 
during this year were Motley, the historian, and 
Cornelius Vanderbilt, the millionnaire. 

The Sioux Indians were overtaken and again de- 
feated by General Miles, and the Sioux war ended. 
In July, another Indian war broke out in the 
northwest. The Nez Perce's of Idaho declined to 
occupy the reservation in that State and Oregon. 
Chief Joseph set out with his tribe for Canada, war 
General Merritt declared this Indian march of 1,500 
miles a wonderful exploit. On the other side of the 
mountains the Indians were confronted by Miles, 
but crossed the Missouri. Chief Joseph was at last 
defeated by Miles in the Bear Paw Mountains on 
October 4. The Nez Perces submitted. 

On August 28, Brigham Young, the president of 
the Mormon Church, died at a ripe age. He was 
one of the twelve founders of Nauvoo. After the 
murder of the prophet, Joseph Smith, and the flight 
of the Mormons from Nauvoo, Young became their Y of>n| m 
leader and was elected president on their settlement 

1576 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1877 

in Utah. When Utah was made a Territory he was 
appointed Governor by President Polk. Utah flour- 
ished under his rule and he long withstood success- 
fully the efforts of the United States Government 
to establish its authority there. In 1852 he an- 
nounced that polygamy had been commanded in 
a special revelation to Joseph Smith, which was 
generally accepted by the Mormons. Brigham 
Young set the example by taking to himself a 
number of wives. 

A great railroad strike in 1877 caused trouble 
Great and upheavals in North America. The Baltimore 


strike 3 *' and Ohio Railroad reduced wages by ten per cent, 
and a strike was declared in July, which was fol- 
lowed by strikes on all the principal railway lines. 
Railway traffic was at a standstill. The Brother- 
hood of Engineers, which joined in the strike, had 
50,000 members, and several million dollars at its 
command. Appeal was made to the Federal author- 
ities. At Pittsburg, on July 21, the strikers at- 
tacked the soldiers. Buildings were burned with 
2,000 laden freight cars, and general disorders fol- 
lowed. At length the Federal troops suppressed 
the strike. The loss was $10,000,000. The strikers 
raised a riot at Reading, and thirteen were killed 
and forty-three wounded. President Hayes issued 
proclamations for the suppression of disorder in 
West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. An- 

Bioody other riot in Chicago, July 26, resulted in the 
killing of nineteen persons. Here the police were 
assisted by United States cavalry in charging the 
crowd. A reaction set in about the 27th, when 



many of the laborers returned to work; and by 
the 30th nearly all of the roads, especially east 
of Buffalo, were in operation again. 

In South Africa, after desultory fighting with the 
forces of the bankrupted South African republic, 
the annexation of the Transvaal territory could be 
proclaimed. An administrator with an executive ^ansva^ 
council and legislative assembly for the new col- England 
ony were appointed at Cape Town. Under pressure 
from France and England, the Queen of Madagascar 
was prevailed upon to issue a proclamation, on June 
20, for the total abolition of slavery. 

On March 24, Walter Bagehot, the eminent Eng- 
lish economist and literary critic, died at his birth- vtfehS 
place, Langport in Somerset, in his fifty-first year. 
He gamed distinction by his books on "The Eng- 
lish Constitution," "Physics and Politics" and 
"Lombard Street." 

Johannes Kuneberg, the Finnish poet and great- 
est writer in Swedish literature, died at the age of 
seventy- three. His first verses were published in , 

* x Johannes 

1830 and were well received. The "Elk- Hunters," R uuel >erg 
an epic, appeared in 1832, and won for him a per- 
manent place in the literature of his language. 
"Hanna," a love story in hexameters, was pub- 
lished in 1836. The last of his hexameter narra- 
tives was "Christmas Eve." With "Nadeschda" 
the poet abandoned the idyllic and assumed a mora 
tragic tone. The tendency thus begun was contin- 
ued in "Kung Fjalar. " Euneberg's greatest work 
is his "Tales of Ensign Stal," a collection of poems 
dealing with the scenes of the war which ended in 



the annexation of Finland to Russia. The first of 
these poems, "Our Country," immediately became 
the national song of Sweden and Finland. 

In Germany, Field-Marshal Count Von "Wrangel, 
one of the early reformers of the Prussian military 
system, died in his ninety-third year. He saw ser- 
vice in all of Prussia's campaigns during the nine- 
teenth century, having entered the army as a cadet 
"before 1800. 

Later in the year the death of Princess Alice of 
necrology Hesse, the second daughter of Queen Victoria, was 
lamented as a general loss. This gifted princess, 
after her marriage to the Grandduke of Hesse- 
Darmstadt, won international renown in 1870 by 
her noble services for the relief of the sick and 
wounded on both sides. 

The great book of the year in Russia was Tolstoi's 
novel, "Anna Karenina, " which raised its author to 
the same high rank among modern Russian writers 
as that held by Turgenyev before him. 

In the autumn, Europe was startled by the news 
of a great and decisive Russian victory over the 
Turks. On October 14 and 15 the Turks lost at one 
blow all the fruits of a long and brilliant series 
of victories in Armenia. On the 14th, General 
Lazarov outflanked the right of the Turkish army 
Russian under Mukhtar Pasha, and the next day the Grand* 
in'Ju-mfniaduke Michael attacked the centre of the Turkish 
position with overwhelming force, while General 
Lazarov assaulted the rear. By 9 p.m. twenty-six 
battalions with seven pashas had surrendered with 
thirty-six guns. The Turkish stronghold on Mount 


1877 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1679 

Acoiias was taken and the army cnt in two. The 
right wing was compelled to lay down its arms, 
while Mukhtar Pasha with the left wing retreated 
to Kars. The spoil was great, including thousands 
of tents and standards, and immense quantities of 
ammunition. The remnant of Mukhtar's army, re- 
inforced by Ismail Pasha's troops, took up a strong Turkish 8 
position at Kupri Koi before Erzeroum, from which 
it was driven in wild confusion on November 4, the 
Turkish commander retreating toward Trebizonde. 
On November 18, the famous fortress of Kars was 
taken by assault after a desperate conflict which . 
raged for twelve hours. The Turks lost 5,000 m Kar3 
casualties, 300 cannon and 10,000 prisoners. 

In Europe, the victory of Doling Dubnik, on the 
24th of October, was dearly bought by the Russians, 
who lost in that action 2,500 men and 100 officers. 
About 7,000 Turks were killed, wounded or taken 
prisoners. At Telis the Russians took a Turkish 
intrenched position with 4,000 or 5,000 men, andThecam° 

paign ic 

by the capture of Provitz and Etropol, November Europe 
23 and 24, they forced Mehemet Ali to retreat from 
Orkhanie to Kamarli, where, however, the Russians 
were defeated December 3. 

Plevna, whicn had defied the Czar's armies for 
nearly five months, exhausted its food and ammuni- 
tion early in December. No relief came. The Rus- ^|f^ f 
8ians were still under its walls and Osman Pasha 
saw no alternative but unconditional surrender or 
cutting his way through the hostile army. On the 
9th of December, having resolved to break the Rus- 
sian lmes, he issued forth from Plevna with a force 

1580 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1877 

of 32,000 men, 26,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry. 
At daybreak the fighting began. The Turks stead- 
ily advanced and earned the first Russian lines. 
osman Again they advanced and carried two batteries of 
c^iesout six guns each in the second line. For hours the 
fight raged between the second and third line of 
the Russians in favor of neither side, until at last 
the Turkish ammunition ran short, and that hard- 
fought day was decided against the Turks. The 
conditions of capitulation were quickly settled. 
They included nothing less than the complete sur- 
render of the town and its intrenchments, Osman 
Pasha, his army and its arms, 10 pashas, 2,128 offi- 
cers and 97 guns. Several of the Russian armies 
Turks of invasion had been placed in jeopardy from de- 

surrender x ■ * "* 

ficient numbers and incompetent generals, but now, 
by the fall of Plevna, 100,000 men were set at 
liberty for offensive purposes. 

In Armenia the regular siege of Erzeroum had 

sie?e of begun about the middle of December. It had not 
yet shared the fate of Kara, but this was owing to 
the severity of the winter. In Europe, the Turkish 
troops were withdrawn from positions they could 
no longer hope to hold, while the military power 
of Russia was steadily advanced. By Christmas 
Day the Russian losses had reached a total of 80,435 
men. The losses of the Turks were very much 

Turkish greater: 80,000 of their soldiers were prisoners in 
the hands of the Russians. Under these circum- 
stances the Porte addressed a circular note to the 
European Powers imploring mediation. 



IT BECAME evident at the outset of the year 
that Turkish resistance was failing. General 
Gourko, after a sharp contest in which he lost 
some 700 men, carried the fortified position of Tash- 
kersen, in the valley of Sofra, and proceeded to 
force his way to that place through the Etropol p a ii of 
Balkans. After an incredible effort the whole force 
gradually crossed and Sofra was occupied on the 
6th of January. Following up their success in 
the Troyan Pass, the Eussians, under General 
Kadebsky, took the Shipka, though defended by 
a Turkish army of forty-one battalions, ten bat- 
teries of artillery, and one regiment of cavalry. 
Meanwhile Generals Mirsky and Skobelev had pene- 
trated the Balkans by the Troyan Pass and occupied skobeiev's 
Kezanlik. There the Turks were inclosed between 
the two armies. Terrified, the Sultan instructed the 
general in the field to conclude an armistice. Just 
as the Sultan's envoys set out for the Russian camp, 
the last army in Roumelia was defeated, and its 
remnants were transported by sea for the defence 
of Constantinople, while Adrianople was yielded Adrianopie 
without a blow. 

The time had now come when the interests of 
Great Britain were plainly threatened. Parliament 

1582 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. 1878 

met on January 17, having been summoned before 
juwsed tue usual time, since "some unexpected occurrence 
may render it incumbent to adopt measures of pre- 
caution. " When the news arrived that the Russians 
were threatening Gallipoli and the Dardanelles, and 
had advanced within thirty miles of Constantinople, 
the English Liberals withdrew their opposition to 
the vote of £6,000,000 demanded by government, 
and the British fleet was ordered to enter the Sea 
of Marmora. 

After weeks of suspense the terms for an armis- 
tice and preliminaries of peace had been agreed on 
Adrianopie at Adrianople. They comprised the establishment 
of a Principality of Bulgaria; the payment of a war 
indemnity or a territorial compensation; the inde- 
pendence of Roumania, Servia and Montenegro, 
with an increase of territory for each of the princi- 
palities; the introduction of reforms in Bosnia and 
Herzegovina; an ulterior understanding between the 
Sultan and the Czar on the question of the Straits, 
and, lastly, the evacuation of the Danube fortresses 
by the Turks. 

On February 20, the Russians occupied Rustchuk, 
thus obtaining complete control of the passage of 
the Danube, and the following day completed the 
evacuation of Erzeroum, which had begun on the 
17th. In spite of many obstacles, negotiations pro- 
Treaty of grossed and the Grandduke Nicholas, by arrange* 
Btefano men t with the Porte, removed his headquarters 
from Adrianople to San Stefano. Eventually, after 
innumerable delays, a preliminary treaty between 
Russia and Turkey was signed at San Stefano on 

1878 spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1583 

the 3d day of March. It all but destroyed the 
Sultan's power, and placed what was left to him 
at the mercy of Eussia. 

The dissatisfaction of the Powers with the Treaty Power= 
of San Stefano was outspoken. General Ignatiev, interveDe 
who was despatched on a mission to Vienna, found 
the Austrian court firm in the position that Eu- 
ropean sanction was indispensable for the treaty. 
Finally in July an International Congress met at 
Berlin, made up of the representatives of the six 
great Powers and Turkey. In the Berlin Treaty, 
which was signed on the 13th of July, the treaty Treaty of 
of San Stefano was modified. The results were the 
division of Bulgaria into two parts, Bulgaria proper 
and Eastern Eoumelia, the cession of parts of 
Armenia to Eussia and Persia, the independence 
of Eoumania, Servia and Montenegro, the trans- 
fer of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austrian ad- 
ministration, and the retrocession of Bessarabia to 
Eussia. According to this Berlin Treaty, Greece 
was also to have an accession of territory, and, by 
a separate arrangement previously made, Turkey 
ceded Cyprus to Great Britain. Eatifications of this 
treaty were exchanged at Berlin on the 3d of Au- 
gust. In Eussia, general indignation was expressed 
at the interference of the outside Powers. 

Victor Emmanuel, first King of Italv, died on Death of 

' & J ' Victor 

January 9 in Eome. As ruler of Sardinia, aided Emmanuel 
by his celebrated Minister, Cavour, he regulated 
the finances, reorganized the army, and secularized 
the Church property, for which he was excommu- 
nicated by Pope Pio Nono. He took part in the 

Death of 
Px> Nouo 

1684 A HISTORY OF THE Spring isn 

Crimean War, and, in 1869, assisted by France, re- 
newed the contest with Austria, taking part in the 
battles of Magenta and Solferino. On March 17, 1861. 
he assumed the title of King of Italy, and early 
in 1865 Florence became the royal residence. On 
the enforced withdrawal of the French garrison 
from Home in 1870, the city annexed itself to Italy, 
and in the following year the King took up his 
residence in the Quirinal. His son, the .Prince of 
Piedmont, succeeded him as King Humbert IV. 

One month later, on the 7th of February, Pius IX. 
(Pio JMono) died at the Vatican. Mastai Ferretti was 
born at Sinigaglia near Ancona, on May 13, 1792, 
the son of a noble family. Early he adopted the 
clerical profession and held various ecclesiastical 
offices under Leo XII., who appointed him Arch- 
bishop of Spoleto in 1827, and to the see of Imola 
in 1832. Here he acquired much popularity by his 
liberal tendencies. He further showed his benevo- 
lent nature during a mission to Naples at the time 
Mastai of the cholera epidemic, when he sold his plate, 

Ferretti's l r 

furniture and equipage to relieve the sufferers. 
Although raised to the cardinalate in 1840, he re- 
sided in his diocese until his election to the pontifi- 
cate in 1846. His accession was signalized by the 
release of 2,000 political prisoners and reforms. 
When Italy rose against Austria, Pio Nono took 
fright at the threatened fall of dynasties and drew 
back. He protested that as Pontiff he could not 
make war against a Christian power. Disaster, 
bloodshed and anarchy followed, and he had to 
seek safety in llight. The short-lived Roman Re- 


public was proclaimed. After the capture of Rome 
by the French, the Pope returned but left the direc- 
tion of State affairs principally in the hands of his 
Secretary of State, Cardinal Antonelli. On the 
death of that distinguished prelate, Pio Nono again 
bestowed his whole attention to the Church. He 
recalled the Jesuits, canonized saints, countenanced fmm™cu°- f 
miracles, and denned new dogmas. The new dog- Sutton 1 " 
ma of the immaculate conception of the Virgin' was 
settled by a papal decree in 1854, and the dogma of Dogma ot 
papal infallibility was established by the Ecumeni- ffiiibuitj 
cal Council of 1870. 

By this time only the Vatican was left to the 
Pope. He declined all honors, and year after year 
confined himself to the Vatican and its gardens, 
declaring that he was under restraint, and a pris- 
oner in his own palace. 

On Pio Nono's death the Vatican conclave assem- 
bled at once to elect a successor, and on the 20th Peccl 
of February, Cardinal Pecci, the favorite of the re- p'op^ 
ligious but moderate party, was proclaimed as Pope 
under the name of Leo XIII. His installation in 
the Chair of St. Peter was celebrated on the 3d of 
March in the Sistine Chapel. In regard to the 
Royal House and Government of Italy, Pope 
Leo XIII. maintained the same attitude as his 

Claude Bernard, the most distinguished French claude 
physiologist of modern times, died in Paris. In Bernard 
1849, he discovered what is called the glycogenic 
function of the liver, and proved that the liver cells 
have the power of converting certain substances into 

1586 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1878 

a starch-like compound, called glycogen. In medi- 
cal annals the year is otherwise memorable. At the 

Charcot Salpetriere in Paris, Dr. Jean Martin Charcot ex- 
pounded the phenomena of hypnotism and showed 
that mental states could be influenced and artificial 
somnambulism induced with beneficial results in cer- 
tain human ills. Charcot was soon followed in these 

Heidenhain new investigations by Dr. Rudolph Heidenhain of 

On the 12th of June, the ex-King of Ilanover, 

o^Ha^over George V. , Prince Royal of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, Duke of Cumberland, died at Paris. He suc- 
ceeded his father, the Duke of Cumberland, King 
Ernest Augustus of Hanover, in 1851, but was 
ousted by Prussia in 1866. His reign had been 
unfortunate throughout. 

On the same day in New York, William Cullen 
Bryant, the well-known American poet and journal- 

cuiion ist, died. He was born in Massachusetts in 1794, 

Bryant ' » ' 

and at the age of ten published translations from 
Latin poets. At thirteen he wrote "The Embargo," 
a satire on Thomas Jefferson, and at eighteen 
"Thanatopsis." In 1815 he was admitted to the 
bar, and practiced with success till 1825, when he 
established the New York "Review." In 1826 he 
joined the staff of the New York "Evening Post," 
of which he was long chief editor. His poems, first 
collected in 1832, took rank as the best America 
had up to that time produced. 

In Japan, the era of absolute government drew to 

toja re an a c ^ ose - On July 27, the Mikado's promise, given 

at Kioto in 1868, was fulfilled in part by an imperial 

1878 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1587 

edict convoking provincial assemblies to sit once 
a year in each ken. These assemblies were em- 
powered to dispose of questions affecting local 
taxation and provincial government. 

The autumn season of this year in London was 
enlivened by a sensational libel suit brought against 
John Euskin by the American painter James A. M. 
"Whistler. It was grounded upon the following pas- 
sage, which appeared in Euskin's "Fors Clavigera": 

"For Mr. Whistler's own sake, no less than forRuskinon 
the protection of the purchaser, Sir Coutts Lindsay 
ought not to have admitted works into the gallery in 
which the ill- educated conceit of the artist so nearly 
approached the aspect of wilful imposture. I have 
seen and heard much of cockney impudence before 
now, but never expected to hear a coxcomb ask 200 
guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public's 
face. ' ' 

Euskin's attorneys claimed this to be a fair and 
bona fide criticism upon a painting which had been 
exposed to public view. The decision of the court 
gave to Whistler one farthing damages, and no whistler's 
costs. To the Grosvenor Gallery of this year 
Whistler had sent "Variations in Flesh Color and 
Green." Before this he had exhibited his famous 
"Nocturnes" and his portrait of Henry Irving as 
Philip II., known as "An Arrangement in Black." 
Whistler's peculiar fame in London dated from an 
exhibition of his works in 1874. 

Throughout the year the American people were 
stirred over the remonetizing of silver. New and 
cheaper ways of getting it had been devised. In 

1688 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1878 

this year the production of gold yielded eighty 
Zircon- tons, while that of silver was 770 tons. The value 
ersy of silver went down until a silver dollar was worth 
only ninety cents in gold. To prevent the payment 
of debts in silver, Congress had "demonetized" it, 
in 1873, declaring all debts payable in gold. This 
was the so-called "Crime of 1873." 

On February 21 the American Congress passed 
the Bland silver bill with two amendments — one 
limiting silver coinage, and the other providing for 
an international monetary conference. On February 
28 the President vetoed the bill. Congress passed 

TheBlan.l . . 

biI1 it over his veto. It revived coinage of the standard 

silver dollars of 412.} grains to the extent of not less 
than $2,000,000, or more than $4,000,000 a month, 
all seigniorage to accrue to the Treasury. These dol- 
lars were to be full legal tender for all debts public 
or private. For the first time in seventeen years 
gold and paper dollars had equal value. 

In the same week a convention at Toledo organ- 
ized the National Greenback Party. It advocated 
the unlimited coinage of gold and silver, the sub- 
stitution of greenbacks for national banknotes, 
woman suffrage, and the advancement of working 

Later the Senate voted an appropriation to pay 
the fisheries award. It was to be paid "if the gov- 
ernment of her Britannic Majesty, after a full review 
Fisheries of all the facts and circumstances of the case, shall 
P wd mnty conclude and declare the award to be lawfully and 
honorably due." In September, Secretary Everett 
communicated to the British Government his argu- 


ments against the Halifax award. In November 
the award was paid to England with a protest. 

General Grant made a tour around the world, 
starting in May, and visiting England and the Con- 
tinent, Egypt, India, China and Japan, returning to 
San Francisco September 20, 1879. He received Grant's 


flattering attentions everywhere — from Queen Vic- 
toria, the Emperor of Eussia, and the great men of 
India, China and Japan. 

During this year in America, Longfellow pub- 
lished his "Keremos, " Whittier brought out "The 
Vision of Echard," while Joaquin Miller wrote his 
"Songs of Italy." On December 19, Bayard Tay- 
lor, the poet, died at the American Embassy in 
Berlin. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1825. 
At seventeen he was a printer's apprentice and 
contributed verses to the newspapers. A collection 
of these early verses, under the title "Ximena, " 
was published in 1844, after which he went to glJISd* 
Europe and travelled over the country on foot. Taylor 
On his return he published "Views Afoot. " Sub- 
sequently he wrote for the "Literary World," and 
was at intervals a writer for the New York 
"Tribune." In other fields Bayard Taylor won 
distinction. He accompanied Commodore Greely 
on his important mission to Japan. In 1862 he 
was Secretary of Legation at St. Petersburg. 
In 1877 he was appointed Minister to Germany, in 
which service he died. Bayard Taylor earned re- 
nown not only by the glow and splendor of his 
Oriental poems, but also by his admirable metrical 
translation of Goethe's "Faust." 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3—0 

1590 A HISTORY OF THE 1878 

The death of George Henry Lewes, essayist, his- 
u^ry 0f torian and philosopher, occurred a few days before 
that of Taylor. His first important work was his 
"Biographical History of Philosophy from Thales 
to Comte," originally published in 1845, and subse- 
sequently much extended. Later he was literary 
editor of the "Leader," during that time publishing 
his "Life of Robespierre" (1850) and a compendium 
of "Com.te's Philosophy of the Sciences" (1853). 
His "Life of Goethe," which won him a European 
reputation, was published in 1855. To a subsequent 
period belong his "Sea-side Studies" (1858), "Phys- 
works iology of Common Life" (1860), and "Studies in 
Animal Life" (1861), besides occasional papers. 
In 1864 he published a study on Aristotle, and in 
1865 founded the "Fortnightly Review." The chief 
work of his life, aiming at the systematic develop- 
ment of his philosophical views, is entitled "Prob- 
lems of Life and Mind" (1873-77). Besides the 
works already mentioned he wrote several dramas 
and^novels. He was the common-law husband of 
George Eliot. 

The third British invasion of Afghanistan, in 
consequence of Shere Ali having repulsed a Brit- 
ish envoy, could scarcely be styled a war. Long 
before this, in 1872, an arrangement had been en- 
tered into between Lord Granville and Prince 
Gortschakov, by which Afghanistan was declared 
to be "outside the sphere within which Russia 
might feel called upon to exercise her influence." 
The Oxus was laid down as the boundary of the 
territories of the Ameers of Bokhara and Afghan- 

Panned by Franz You LeuluL-u 


XlXtk Cent., Vol. Three 


istan, and of the legitimate influence of Kussia and 
Great Britain. But this did not prevent Eussia in 
1878 — the period when the two empires were diplo- 
matically at odds — from sending the fatal Stoletov Third 
Mission to Kabul. The Afghan Ameer, Shere Ali, £g han 
frightened and beset, fled from his capital, and Ya- 
koob Khan — the son whom he had imprisoned in 
spite of British remonstrance — reigned in his stead 
at Kabul. The war, which opened in November, 
progressed without apparent difficulties. On the 
20th of December, Jellalabad was entered without 
opposition, and on the last day of December, de 
spatches announced that the advance of the British 
troops continued unopposed. 



Zulu war 


N ANUARY, intelligence reached England 
that Cetewayo, the King of the Zulus, had 
repudiated Sir Bartle Frere's demands, that 
he should admit a British resident and disperse 
his army. Lord Chelmsford, the commander of 
the British forces in South Africa, proceeded to 
the front ready to invade Zululand. January 11 
was the limit fixed for Cetewayo's submission. 
Early in February the English troops crossed the 
frontier. On the 11th a British detachment near 
lsandhlwana was annihilated. Part of a column, 
commanded by Colonel Gynn, was likewise sur- 

Rorke's prised at Rorke's Drift by nearly 20,000 Zulus 
and was overpowered. The first battalion of the 
Twenty- fourth Foot was almost destroyed. Five 
hundred men with thirty officers were killed. A 
convoy of supplies— 102 wagons, 1,000 oxen, 2 guns, 
400 shot and sheU, 1,000 rifles, 250,000 rounds of 
ammunition — fell into the hands of the Zulus. In 
July came the news of Lord Chelmsford's victory 

uiundi at Tji^dj^ w hich completely crushed the power of 
the Zulus. On the outbreak of the Zulu war the 
French Prince Imperial, only son of the late Napo- 
leon III. and ex-Empress Eugenie, obtained per- 
mission to join the English army at the front, and 

1879 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1593 

was attached to Lord Chelmsford's staff. He was 
detailed on a reconnoitring party under Captain 
Carey. On June 2, they were surprised by Zulus 
while resting in a field of corn near a deserted Death 
kraal. The Prince, unable to mount his spirited fijJSiai 
horse, was left behind. The next morning the 
naked body of the Prince was found with fourteen 
assegai wounds — all in front. The ground around 
him showed that he had sold his life dearly. He 
was carried back to camp on a bier of lances, to 
be buried beside his father at Chiselhurst. 

England lost one of her best known artists by 
the death of Charles Landseer. A pupil of his 
father, the celebrated engraver, he entered the££jj&r 
Royal Academy in 1815, in his sixteenth year. 
Later in life he was appointed keeper of the 
Academy, an office he held until 1873. Four of 
his earlier works are in the National Gallery: 
"Clarissa Harlowe in the Sponging House" (1832); 
"The Sack of Basing House" (1835); "Blood- 
hounds and Pups" (1838), and "The Pillaging of 
a Jew's House" (1839). Among his later works 
some of the best known are: "Cromwell at the 
House of Sir Walter Stewart" (1868); "Surrender 
of Arundel Castle" (1871), and "Anila Concealing 
her Correspondence," finished shortly before his 

On July 8, James Gordon Bennett sent out the 
"Jeannette, " under the sanction of Congress, on 
an Arctic exploring trip, under Captain De Long 
of the navy. A few survivors reached Siberia and ^edition 
finally the United States. Lieutenant Schwatka of 

1594 A HISTORY OF THE Aug. 1879 

the navy led a Franklin search expedition over- 
land, and discovered remains of Franklin's crew, 
and brought home those of Lieutenant Irving. On 
September 29, Major Thombury and seventeen men 
were killed in a fight with Indians at Mill Creek 

war near Rawlins. The Apache Indians retreated be- 

fore General Merritt on November 9, and then sud- 
denly turned and attacked their pursuers, killing 
thirty- two men. 

During this year, Dr. Hansen found that leprosy 

Dr. Hansen wag cause( j fry a particular bacillus. He found that 
the germs were exceedingly difficult to cultivate 
artificially, and that the disease, awful as it is, 
is not highly contagious. 

Louis Vulliemin, one of the most distinguished 
French historians of Switzerland, died at Orbe on 
the 10th of August. His patriotic counsels had 

Louis guided three generations of his countrymen. He 

Vulliemin ° ° J 

was a pupil of the renowned Pestalozzi. In col- 
laboration with Charles Mounard he first brought 
out a "History of the Swiss Confederation" in 
eleven volumes. He was a great friend of M. 
Thiers for over forty years. "La Reine Bertue, " 
"Chillon," "Le Doyen Bridel" and "Souvenirs 
a mes Petits Enfants" are prominent among his 
later works. 

On the 27th of August, Sir Rowland Hill, the 
great English postal reformer and introducer of 
penny postage, died in England at the age of 
sir Row- eighty-four. In 1837, he published a pamphlet 
recommending a low and uniform rate of postage. 
The scheme was approved by a committee of the 


Commons, which examined it in 1838. Early in 
1840 the system was carried into effect, and was 
soon followed by most civilized countries. Hill 
received an appointment by the government. In 
1846 he was presented with a public testimonial 
of £13,000. In 1864 he retired with a pension of 
£2,000 and a grant of £20,000 voted by Parlia- 

In Egypt, on the 26th of June, the Khedive, „,_ „ 

oJ r i I 1 Khedive 

Ismail Pasha, abdicated in favor of his son Tewfik, withdraws 
in consequence of the pressure put upon him by the 
European Powers. On the 30th he left Alexandria 
on his yacht "Mahroussa" for Naples, taking with 
him his harem ana treasures. A new Egyptian 
Ministry was constituted under Cherif Pasha, on 
July 3. On the 14th of August, at Cairo, the 
Sultan's Firman, investing Prince Tewfik with 
the viceroyalty of Egypt, was presented. 

A definite treaty of peace between Russia and 
Turkey had been signed on February 8, at Con- 
stantinople. A week later an imperial manifesto Turkey 

L - 1 ratified 

was issued at St. Petersburg, announcing the rati- 
fication of the Russo- Turkish treaty and the recall 
of the troops from the occupied provinces. Before 
engaging in their punitive campaign against the 
Tekke Turkomans of the Steppe, the Russians col- 
lected 3,000 camels. The Tekke Turkomans at- 
tacking at Burma, April 15, defeated the Russian 
vanguard of 2,000 men and captured a large num- 
ber of the camels. Pursuit was made by General 
Lomakin, with reinforcements from Karasnozodsk. £" k °2P5F 
The Tekkes, whose march was impeded by the 




Death of 
Shere Ali 

Treaty of 



at Kabul 

captured camels, were overtaken. Instead of dis- 
persing the camels and attacking the Russians in 
loose order as heretofore, the Tekkes dismounted, 
occupied a position half-way up the hillside, and 
making the camels kneel down in the front, fired 
from behind the living wall, with the steadiness 
and rapidity of European troops. The encounter 
lasted until night. Then the Tekkes marched east 
carrying their booty with them, and the Russians 
retraced their steps to the west. 

In Afghanistan, after feeble resistance at Ali Mas- 
did, and the more strenuous defence of the Peiwar 
Heights, the regular army melted away. General 
Roberts forbore from advancing beyond the Shu- 
targardan. The Khibar force having at length 
reached Jalala, remained there expectant. Mean- 
while the Ameer, stunned by his reverses, relapsed 
into a gloomy torpor and died on February 21 
Yakoob Khan, his son, succeeded him and pres- 
ently made overtures for peace. Matters remained 
unsettled till, on May 8, Yakoob Khan came in 
person to the British camp at Gandamaka. On 
the 26th of May the treaty of Gandamaka between 
Great Britain and Afghanistan was signed, in which 
an extension of the British frontier, the control by 
Britain of the foreign policy of Afghanistan, and 
the residence of a British envoy in Kabul were the 
chief stipulations. On July 24, Sir Louis P. Ca- 
vagnari arrived at Kabul and was received with 
marked respect On September 3, Cavagnari and 
members of the mission were treacherously at- 
tacked, and slain by the Afghans. Roberts was 

1879 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1597 

at Simla when this report reached him. On the 
morrow, at the head of six thousand men, he started 
for Ali Kheyl. Pushing on thence to Kabul, he Roberts 

J ° advance 

encountered the Afghan army, 10,000 strong, in- 
trenched at Charasia. 

To General Baker fell the task of dislodging 
the enemy from the heights above the Chardeh 
Valley, with 2,000 men, while a second column, 
under Major White of the Ninety-second High- 
landers, was directed to take the Sang-i-Nawishta 
defile, where the enemy had concentrated all his 
guns. By four in the afternoon the ridges were ' ^ 
gained, Major White joining General Baker in the Battle 
rear of the original Afghan position. The Afghans of Charasia 
lost 300 killed and 20 guns. The British casual- 
ties were 78 killed and wounded. Boberts marched 
early on the following morning through the Sang- 
i-Nawishta defile to Beni Hissar, on the Kabul 
road. On October 8, the great cantonment of 
Sherpur was occupied by the cavalry brigade, 
under Brigadier- General Massy, who captured 73 
guns. Some troops occupied the Bala Hissar, or 
citadel-palace of Kabul. This march was described 
by Koberts himself as a more difficult task than 
his subsequent famous march to Kandahar. Gen- 
eral Gough, with Colonel Money, defeated the 
tribesmen still holding the Shutargardan Pass, Britlsh at 
but, on the approach of the winter season, evac- Sher P ur 
uated the pass to march to Sherpur. There 
General Boberts prepared to spend the winter. 

Toward the close of the previous year difficulties 
had arisen in South America between Chile and 

1598 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1879 

Bolivia. Chile laid claim to a part of the nitrate 
Ji? nitrate districts, operated by Bolivians. Bern supported 
Bolivia. Chile declared war npon both States on 
February 5. Owing to the long coast line of the 
belligerents, the war was bound to be fought out 
on the sea. 

Bolivia had no fleet whatever. Peru had only 
six serviceable ships besides some transports. Four 
of these were ironclads, the best of which, the tur- 
ret ship "Huascar, " had figured in an encounter 
with English ships two years before. The Chilean 
fleet, though much stronger than that of Peru, had 
ships of inferior speed, had no dock wherein to 
clean the bottoms of her ironclads, nor, indeed, any 
adisad- fortified naval port. As a result, the Chilean mer- 

vantage ± 

chant marine was forthwith driven off the sea. The 
Chilean Admiral, Kebolledo, blockaded Iquique. 
In May he learned that President Prado of Peru 
was sailing south from Callao to Arica with a strong 
expedition. Kebolledo at once went to intercept 
this expedition, leaving his two slowest and weak- 
est ships, the "Esmeralda," commanded by Arturo 
Prat, and "Covadonga" at Iquique. President 
Prado, having slipped by the Chileans in a thick 
fog, received news at Arica of the situation at 
Iquique. In order to capture or destroy the two 
weak Chilean vessels at Iquique, he despatched 
thither his two strongest vessels, the "Euascar," 
commanded by Captain Grau, and the "Indepen- 
denzia," Captain Moore. The four ships met on 
May 21, in one of the most spirited naval 
battles recorded in modern times- Captain Prat 

1879 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1599 

was killed as he boarded the "Huascar, " and his 
ship, the "Esmeralda," was sunk. The Chilean SJSJle 1 
gunboat "Covadonga, " on the other hand, suc- 
ceeded in destroying the more powerful Peruvian 
"Independenzia. " 

The next incident of the war was a sensational 
attempt of the "Huascar" to sink the Chilean ship 
"Magallanes, " before dawn on July 10, in Iquique 
Harbor. Steaming suddenly into the harbor with- 
out lights, the "Huascar" three times tried to ram 
the Chilean, but always failed. Throughout the 
night the two ships kept up an incessant fire. Just 
as the "Huascar" was struck on the water line by 
a 115-pounder, the Chilean ironclad "Almirante 
Cochrane" appeared in the harbor and the "Hu- 
ascar" made off. Her captain now received strict wnLascar" 
injunctions to risk no further engagement. He con- 
fined himself to harrying the Chilean coast and cap- 
turing defenceless vessels, among others the Chilean 
transport "Rimac, " with a regiment of cavalry, 
many munitions of war, and $500,000 of specie. 

By this time the Chilean Government, exasper- 
ated by the "Huascar's" depredations, sent the 
"Cochrane" to Valparaiso to be thoroughly over- £ane£ re- 
hauled. Her bottom was cleaned by divers. Cap- 
tain Laterre, who had distinguished himself on 
the "Magallanes, " was placed in command of her. 
When she emerged, after a month of repairs, her 
speed was eleven knots — one knot faster than that 
of the "Huascar." Admiral Eiveros of the Chilean 
fleet now went in search of the "Huascar." He 
encountered the Peruvian monitor "Maco Capac," 

of the 

1600 A HISTORY OF THE Oct. 1879 

and the gunboat "Pilcomayo," at Arica, but was 
bo intent upon his greater prey that he declined to 
engage them. Dividing his strong fleet into two 
squadrons, one of which was to steam inshore so 
as to drive the "Huascar" into the path of the 
other steaming on a parallel course, Admiral Ki- 
veros proceeded to Angamos Point. Early *on the 
morning of October 8 the "Huascar" was sighted, 
together with the "Union." Her commander, 
Grau, steamed away at a speed of ten knots. 
Admiral Kiveros, outdistanced as he was, held 
steadily on with the "Blanco" and "Covadonga." 
Next morning smoke was sighted out at sea, and 
Grau tried to get out of his bad position be- 
tween the two Chilean squadrons. His convoy, 
"L' Union," succeeded in getting away to the 
north, hotly pursued by the "Loa" and the 
"O'Higgins. " By nine o'clock Grau, who was 
not aware of the "Cochrane's" refit, was ap> 
palled to find himself outsteamed by that ves- 
sel. The "Cochrane" and "Blanco" jointly en- 
gaged the "Huascar." One of the "Cochrane's" 
first shots entered the "Huascar's" turret and put 

aea-fight twelve men out of the fight, besides jamming 
the turret. The "Cochrane" manoeuvred astern 
of the "Huascar," where her big turret guns could 
not reach her, and poured a hot rifle fire from her 
high fighting tops and bridge on to the "Huas- 
car's" upper deck. A nine-inch shell from the 

End of Ad- "Cochrane" struck the conning tower and Grau 

miral Qrau 

was blown to pieces. An officer at the steering 
wheel just below the Admiral was likewise killed. 


Another shell struck the roof of the turret and dis- 
abled all those within it. While the "Huascar" 
was temporarily beyond control, the "Cochrane" 
tried to ram her, but missed her by five yards. 
As she passed by she poured her broadside into 
the "Huascar" at a range of a few yards. The 
" Huascar 's" four-and-a-half inch armor was rid- 
dled. Eluding the "Cochrane's" ram a second 
time, the "Huascar" now tried to ram the 
"Blanco," but failed. Commander Aguirre, upon 
whom the charge of the ship had devolved, was Sateens 
killed by another shot, which burst inside of the 
turret. The two Chilean snips were now manoeu- 
vring closer and tried in turn to ram. It was then 
that a shot from the ' ' Blanco, ' ' passing through the 
"Huascar," struck the "Cochrane" in the stern and 
disabled twelve of her men. Lieutenant Garrozon, 
the last surviving officer on the "Huascar," finding 
that he could scarcely move her, resolved to scuttle 
the ship. Rather than go to the bottom some of the 
Peruvian seamen ran forward and waved towels in 
token of surrender. Both the "Cochrane" andf£™™(££ 
"Blanco" sent boats, and, boarding the "Huascar," 
found the engineer engaged in opening the main 
injection valve. He was stopped at the point of 
a pistol. The interior of the ship was in a horri- 
ble condition. Dead and dying were strewn about 
and the decks ran with blood. It was found that 
the "Huascar" had been hit by heavy projectiles 
nearly thirty times. Her killed and wounded num- 
bered 64. Some 140 prisoners were taken, 35 of 
whom were English. The "Huascar," after her 


Autumn 1879 

capture, was patched up and taken to Valparaiso, 
where she was repaired and refitted with a new 
armament. On November 15 she went to sea un- 

"Huas- ^ er t ^ ie Chilean flag. A little later she succeeded 

£reparabie m capturing the Peruvian gunboat "Pilcomayo. " 
The transfer of this vessel to the Chilean fleet de- 
stroyed Peru's chances upon the sea. Henceforth 
Peru and Bolivia fought at a disadvantage. 

About this time an outbreak occurred in the Cen- 
tral American State of Colombia. The insurgents, 

Revolt in who called themselves Commonists, gained posses- 
sion of the town of Bucara Manga. They set fire 
to the public buildings and maintained a brief reign 
of terror. Within a week the government troops 
drove them from their positions and the revolt was 
ended. Late in the year, as the result of the naval 
disasters inflicted by Chile, insurrection broke out 

driven in Peru. President Prado was forced to resign 

from Peru 

the government and flee the country. Pierola was 
proclaimed dictator. 

In the beginning of December the Emperor of 
Kussia had another narrow escape. He was return- 
ing from Livadia to St. Petersburg, stopping over 
at Moscow. By accident or design the train con- 
veying the imperial luggage was following instead 
of preceding the Czar's train. On entering the out- 
skirts of Moscow a mine was exploded under the 
second train. Most of the cars were thrown off 
Plot to the track, but no lives were lost. It was found 
c-sar that the mine which was laid in a carefully built 
tunnel under the railway had been set off by elec- 
tricity from a house in the neighborhood. 


It was during the same week, some two months 
after General Roberts' arrival at Kabul, that the 
^Afghans at the behest of their most fanatic leaders 
rose against the English in their country. . One Af han _ 
hundred thousand men took to arms. Roberts foama 
tried to prevent a coalition of the various bodies 
of tribesmen by sending one brigade under Mc- 
Pherson westward, and another under Baker to- 
ward Maidan. This left the British military post 
at Sherpur in a dangerously weak state. On De- 
cember 11, McPherson's cavalry attempted to cut 
off a force of about ten thousand Afghans. The,, „ u 

° McPhersoa 

British Lancers were repulsed and routed. Rob- re P ulsed 
erts now hastened up with his Highlanders, barely 
in time to secure McPherson's line of retreat. 
Baker's brigade was hastily summoned. On the 
following morning Colonel Money, with a part of 
McPherson's force, tried to dislodge the Afghans gjj 4 " 
from the crest of the Takt-i-Shah. All day long 
the British fought without making material gains. 
On the next day the rest of McPherson's brigade 
and Baker's column, which had just arrived, threw 
themselves into the fight. The Afghans, dislodged 
from one position, held themselves in others. Their 
reinforcements were on the Asmei Heights. Colonel 
Jenkins of the Guides succeeded in storming these 
heights, but was soon after dislodged from the 
crest, losing two guns. It was at this time that 
Captain Voustan led a dashing charge of twelve 
Punjab horsemen up a steep conical hill, and him- 
self killed five Afghans. For this he received the g ffi*j fc 
Victoria Cross. General Roberts was compelled to 

1604 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. ie^ 




bold firm 

abandon the Asmei Heights and the Bala Hissar. 
lie fell back on his defences at Sherpur. The 
British were hard beset at Sherpur. On December 
23, the anniversary of the murder of Sir William 
MacNaughton at this place in 1841, the Afghans 
attacked in force. The fighting lasted all day, the 
Afghans bringing scaling ladders to enter the works 
only to be repulsed with great slaughter. At night- 
fall a heavy snowstorm set in and the Afghans 
gave up their assault. The British casualties were 
sixty-five killed and wounded, among whom was 
Brigadier-General Hugh Gough. On Christmas 
Eve, British reinforcements arrived under General 
Charles Gough and Colonel Hudson, and the Bala 
Hissar was reoccupied. 

With the death of James Clerk- Maxwell, the 
famous Scottish physicist, a thinker was lost to 
England who contributed much to the advance- 
ment of modern science. Maxwell's greatest work 
was done in the field of electricity. When but 
twenty-three years of age he boldly explained, by 
means of the motions of an incompressible fluid, 
some of the less complicated phenomena of elec- 
cierk- tricity and magnetism, and showed how the laws of 
attraction of magnets and currents may be clearly 
conceived without making any assumption as to 
the physical nature of electricity. Maxwell labored 
to confirm the connection, surmised by Faraday, 
between light, electricity and magnetism and ar- 
rived at the conclusion that the velocity of electro- 
motion in a given medium must be identical with 
the velocity of light in the same medium. 




HE alliance between Germany and Austria 
was cemented by another meeting of the 
Emperors at Gastein. At the time of their 

meeting some political material for the increase of a t Gastrin? 
armies in both countries was made out of the fact 
that the fortifications of Cracow and Przemyel on 
the Eussian frontier had been strengthened. 

In Eussia, another attempt was made to assassi- 
nate the Czar. As the Czar and his guests were 
about to dine at the Winter Palace in St. Peters- 
burg, on February 17, the dining-room was blown 
up. Ten men of the Finland guard were killed, 
while fifty-three were wounded. After this affair pafacepu* 
Count Melikov was put at the head of a supreme 
executive committee with extraordinary powers. 
He consented to relax the severe restrictions on 
the students of the universities and higher techni- 
cal schools. Count Alexei Tolstoi, the originator of 
these laws, resigned. Early in summer the Czarina Russian 
died. Two months later, the Emperor married re 
again. The campaign against the Turkomans was 
resumed about the same time. For some time no 
appreciable gains were made on either side. 

Gustave Flaubert, the most refined writer and 
stylist of the French school of realism, died in 

1606 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1880 

May in his sixtieth year. Originally an ardent 
Flaubert admirer of Victor Hugo and Byron, he suddenly 
changed from his extreme romanticism to that of 
realism. The result of this change was his famous 
work "Madame Bo vary, " the forerunner of the nat- 
uralistic productions of Goncourt and Zola. The 
Bovary™ 6 book: came out as a serial, and parts of it were 
suppressed by the government. The sensational 
lawsuit that resulted proved the making of Flau- 
bert, as a literary celebrity. Of his later works, 
"L'Education Sentimentale," "Histoire d'un Jeune 
Homme," and the three stories "Trois Contes," 
are most worthy of mention. A very pessimistic 
and satirical novel, "Bouvard et Pecuchet, " was 
written in his last days at Croisset near Rouen, but 
was never finished. In spite of his realism, Flaubert 
had a distinctly romantic nature. He classed his 
novels under two heads: those written for pleasure 
and those for work. Of "Madame Bovary," which 
belonged to the latter class, he said: "When I wrote 
this book I felt like a man playing the piano with 
leaden balls attached to each ringer joint." Indus- 
try of this sort Flaubert had in plenty. He read 
ammbo" and annotated fifteen hundred books before he 
wrote "Salammbo. " 

In Afghanistan the situation of the British grow 
more perilous. Early in the spring General .Rob- 
erts at Sherpur despatched a force under General 
Ross to Shckabad. On April 25, a sharp action 
was fought on the old battlefield of Charasia. A 

Afghan ° 

Bumcd" British force under Colonel Jenkins was penned 
in and had to be reinforced by a brigade under 

1880 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1607 

McPherson. Before this General Bonell Stewart 
had left Kandahar with a strong column to open 
communications with Kabul. A British division 
under Primrose was left at Kandahar. On April 
19, Stewart's column, while approaching Ghuznee, 
encountered the Afghan swordsmen at Ahmed 
Khel. The onslaught of the Afghans was so im- ^"'ed 01 
petuous that the British line of battle was thrown Kbel 
back some two hundred yards and the left was 
enveloped by the Afghan horsemen. The British 
rearguard coming up turned the scale of the bat- 
tle. Altogether, 135 British soldiers were put out 
of action. General Stewart fought another engage- 
ment beyond Ghuznee on April 23, and drove o££ the 
enemy with a loss of 400 men. On May 2, he ar- 
rived at Sherpur. Stewart's march from Kandahar, stewart » 3 
though not so conspicuous for results as Roberts' sherpur 
famous return march, was a brilliant achievement. 
Late in June, Ayub Khan, younger brother to 
Yakoob Khan, held a prisoner by the British, 
set out from Herat with 6,000 men, resolved to 
seize Kandahar. General Burrowes, at Kandahar, 
marched out with a British brigade and joined 
forces with the Afghan governor. Within a fort- 
night the native Afghan troops mutinied and de- 
serted to Ayub Khan. On July 27, the two armies 
came within sight at Maiwand. The British, in- 
stead of resorting to their usual offensive tactics, 
formed in compact masses, and lying down re- 
ceived the various onslaughts of the Afghans, of Mai- 
Once or twice the British cavalry attempted to 
charge but lost heavily in horses under the hot 

1608 A HISTORY OF THE Bummer .880 

fire of the Ghazi sharpshooters. After several 
hours of such fighting, the Afghans itormea a 
part of the British position and captured a bat- 
tery of horse artillery. The native troops of the 
British centre were thrown imo disorder and fell 
back upon the British soldiery. In the words of 
General Burrowes, the British line "commencing 
from the left, rolled up like a wave to the right" 
As a last resort a cavalry charge was ordered. 
Only a few officers and men responded. A rem- 
nant of the British infantry succeeded in joining 
the guns and cavalry in the rear of the baggage 
train. Thence the flight went on to Kandahar, 
over forty miles distant. From every village 
and hamlet the natives fired on the fleeing sol- 
Kandahar 3 diers. Fortunately for them they were met by 
a British relief column under General Brooke, 
which cleared the way back to Kandahar. In 
the disastrous fight at Maiwand, the British lost 
more than 1,500 men. Some idea of the desperate 
nature of the encounter can be gathered from the 
fact that whereas but fourteen officers and forty-two 
white, soldiers were wounded, the number of the 
killed was twenty-six officers and two hundred 
and ninety-seven white soldiers. 

As soon as Ayub Khan and his Afghans ap- 
peared before Kandahar, the British garrison made 
Dtsaatrous a sort i c - This, too, proved disastrous. Brigadier- 
Bortie General Brooke and a large number of his officers 
and men lost their lives in the aflair. After this 
the British remained penned up in Kandahar. 
It was on July 29 that the report of the disas- 


ters before Kandahar reached the British at Kabul. 
Eoberts immediately offered to lead an expedition 
to Kandahar to relieve the garrison there. The 
offer was accepted by Sir Donald Stewart. On 
August 9, Eoberts set out on his famous march 
from Sherpur with 18,500 men. The guns had to 
be carried on mules. The expedition marched M"!narchto 
a rate of more than sixteen miles a day. Instead Kandahar 
of a frontal attack on the Afghan besiegers, Eob- 
erts turned their position. On September 1, the 
Highlanders stormed the villages of Gundi Mulla 
and Pir Painal. The Afghans fled, after a loss 
of more than a thousand men. The march to 
Kandahar was pronounced by British military 
critics as one of the most remarkable achieve- 
ments of its kind. Stewart's previous march, 
Sherman's march to the sea, and Eoberts' subse- 
quent march to Pretoria, are the nearest approach 
to it in modern times. Eoberts forthwith became 
an idol of the British army. Much to Eoberts' 

disgust the British Government gave orders to evacuate 

evacuate Kandahar. The districts of Pishin, Sibi> sfc an 

and Thai Chotiali were annexed. Yakoob Khan 
was kept in confinement. Abdur Eahman, a grand- 
son of Dost Mohammed, was recognized as Ameer. 
Afghanistan proper was evacuated. 

The King of Greece opened the Boule" this year 
with a warlike speech on the Turkish boundary 
question. Once more the Powers had to intercede. 
In Armenia the situation was equally threatening. 
Members of the newly formed Kurdish league rav- 
aged the country, burning villages and killing 

1610 A HISTORY OF THE 1880 

many inhabitants. On the other hand the Porte 
Turkish' ot complained that Roumelia and Bulgaria were 

troubles ■ r» • 

stirred up by .Russian agitators. As a result of 
international conferences at Berlin, a joint demand 
for compliance with the provisions of the Berlin 
Conference was made on the Porte in July. As 
Turkey failed to come to terms, the Powers made 
a naval demonstration on the coast of Albania, 
where the Montenegrins were giving trouble. Dul- 
BaEf in cigno was exacted from Turkey, and Montenegrin 
forces occupied that place. Servia was compelled 
to extend the same customs privileges to Austria 
as she did to Great Britain. Roumania secured the 
recognition of her independence by accepting the 
provisions of the -Berlin purchasing convention, 
whereby her railway lines were joined to those 
of the other Balkan States. 

In France a new Republican Ministry had been 
formed under Freycinet, backed largely by the 
powerful influence of Gambetta. This Ministry 
took action against the powerful Society of Jesus. 
French Expelled from France, the Jesuits sought refuge 
expelled in Spain and Portugal. A bill for exclusively 
secular instruction in the public schools in France 
was passed through the Chambers by the govern- 
ment. Next a general amnesty was extended to 
the Communists of 1871. Among the radical Re- 
publicans who now returned to France was Roche- 
Henri fort, who at once resumed his agitation against 


Gambetta. A Cabinet crisis resulted in another 
Ministry, headed by Ferry. The anti-clerical meas- 
ures of the government were enforced throughout 


France. Ferdinand de Lesseps raised sufficient 
funds" -wherewith to establish his company for 
the proposed construction . of an inter-oceanic 
canal through the Isthmus of Panama. This panama 
French project was resented by the American project 
people as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine. 
in a message to Congress, President Hayes de- 
manded that any canal across the Isthmus of 
Panama or through any territory of Central or 
South America would have to be subject to the 
control of the United States. 

On June 2, the Republican Convention met at 
Chicago. Conkling, with 306 delegates, made a de- 
termined effort to renominate President Grant for 
a third term but failed. Grant's rivals were Blame G /ant fails 

of third 

and Sherman. The opposition finally united and term 
nominated Garfield and Arthur. A Democratic 
convention met at Cincinnati, on June 22, and 
nominated Hancock and English. Each candidate 
carried sixteen States, which gave 214 electoral 
votes to the Republicans and 155 to the Dem- 

During this year the Apache Indians, under 
Victoria, were driven into Mexico. The chieftain 
was killed and most of the band dispersed. Later 
in the year, some fifteen hundred of Sitting Bull's Difficulties 
Indians returned from British America and sur- dians Q 
rendered to the United States authorities. 

The erection of the Lick Observatory on Mount 
Hamilton, 4,250 feet above the Pacific Ocean, was 
begun. General Lew Wallace brought out his Bib- . lBen HupW 
lical novel ' ' Ben Hur. ' ' Other American books of 

1612 a HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1899 

the year were Mark Twain's "A Tramp Abroad" 
and W. D. Howells's "Undiscovered Country." 
Late in the year Sara Bernhardt made her first 
appearance in America at Booth's Theatre in New 
York. A careful study of typhoid fever resulted 
in Eberth's discovery of the typhus germ. 

Toward the close of the year, the readers of 

George Eliot's novels were saddened by the death 

_ L . of this most eminent of English woman novelists. 

Death of ° 

SJatot 66 Marian Evans, better known as George Eliot, was 
born in 1819, in Warwickshire. As a girl she went 
to London and became associated with several writ- 
ers for the "Westminster Review," among them 
John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, John Chapman 
and George Henry Lewes. Her first serious work 
was a translation of Strauss's "Life of Jesus," pub- 
lished in 181:6, followed by a translation of Feuer- 
bach's "Essence of Christianity." About this time 
the manuscript of "Scenes of Clerical Life," her 
first imaginative work, was submitted anonymous- 
Evans' ly to "Blackwood's Magazine" by George Henry 
Lewes, and was at once accepted as a work of rare 
genius. The novel "Adam Bede," published over 
the signature of George Eliot in 1859, made that 
name a household word throughout the English- 
speaking world. The book was generally accepted 
as the work of a man. By the time "The Mill on 
the Floss" appeared in 1860, the author was known 
in London as the intimate companion and literary 
associate of George Henry Lewes. The close asso- 
ciation between these two gifted writers terminated 
only with the death of Lewes in 1878. George 


Eliot's succeeding stories were "Silas Marner," 
the historical novel "Komola, " "Felix Holt" and 
"Middlemarch." Less successful than these nov- 
els were her collections of verse, such as "The 
Spanish Gypsy" and the "Legend of Jubal. " 
George Eliot's last novel, "Daniel Deronda," pub- 
lished in 1876, was generally held to be based on 
the character of Disraeli, though this was denied 
by the author. In May she was married to J. W. 
Cross. Within a few months after this marriage 
came her death. George Eliot's rank as a novelist 
is sufficiently indicated by the fact that she held 
her own with such eminent contemporaries as 
Dickens and Thackeray in England, and Georges 
Sand and Balzac in France. All of her books 
are distinguished by the seriousness of their tone 
and purpose. 

Ole Bornemann Bull, the famous Norwegian vio- 
linist, died this year at his birthplace, Bergen. Born 
in 1810, he was trained as a violinist in his father's 
orchestra. His first great success was achieved in 
early manhood at Bologna. After this he appeared 
in concerts at Paris, London and New York, and 
created almost as great a sensation as Paganini. In 
technical proficiency Ole Bull rivalled some of the 
great Italian virtuoso's effects, while he surpassed 
him in depth of musical feeling. 

The Eussian campaign against the Turkomans 
had been waged with varying success. The Turko- 
mans repeatedly cut the Eussian line of communica- 
tion. Early in December a detachment of Cossacks Turkoman 

•/ campaign 

surprised and captured a strong position of the 
XlXth Century— Vol. 3— P 

1614 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1880 

enemy near Geok Tepe. By the middle of De- 
cember, General Skobelev attempted a reconnois- 
sance in force, only to suffer a signal reverse. On 
Christmas Eve the Russians recaptured their posi- 
tions at Geok Tepe. 

In South Africa, the British annexation of the 
cialm mde- Transvaal was repudiated by the Boers. The 
pendence yoikgraad was reconvened, and on December 16 
the Republic of South Africa was once more pro- 
claimed at Heidelburg. The first shots between 
the Boers and British were exchanged at the town 
Potchef- of Potchefstroom, on the refusal of Major Clarke 

6 1 room * 

to allow the Boer proclamation to be printed. 
After a spirited defence, the British had to sur- 
render. A letter was sent to Pretoria to Sir Owen 
Lanyan, calling upon him to transfer the govern- 
ment within forty-eight hours. Sir Owen's reply 
to the Boer demand was a proclamation offering 
pardon to those rebels who would submit and re- 
turn to their homes. On December 20 an engage- 
ment was fought on the road from Heidelburg to 
Pretoria. The British officers were picked off dur- 
ing the early part of the fight. A large number 
of the men were shot down while attempting to 
IriuSi charge. Their dying colonel ordered a surrender. 
Of the whole British force eighty-six were buried 
on the field and twenty-six died afterward of their 
wounds. The Boer casualties were one killed and 
five wounded. 



THE state of affairs in the Transvaal grew 
threatening for the English. On January 3 
Joubert, the Boer Commandant, was at Cold 
Stream on the borders of Natal with seven hun- 
dred men. Colonel Winsloe was besieged outside war in 

° South 

Potchefstroom, Sir Owen Lanyan at Pretoria, and Africa 
Major Montague at Starndeon. The Boers had 
also taken possession of Utrecht and were besieg- 
ing Lydenberg. The victories gained in the next 
month by the Boers culminated in the defeat of 
the British at Majuba Hill, on the 27'sh of Feb- 
ruary. On that Saturday night some six hundred 
British troops under Sir George Colby intrenched 
themselves at the top of Majuba Hill, overlooking Ma uba 
the enemy's position at Laing's Nek. The Boers Hl11 
were not aware of this movement until the British 
opened fire upon them at 5 A.M. After six hours' 
firing, in which everything seemed favorable for 
the British, the Boers, four hundred in number, 
stormed Majuba Hill. General Colby was killed, 
and with him fell two officers and eighty-two men. 
The Boers took one hundred and twenty-two pris- 
oners. Unwilling further to prosecute the war, 

° r Gladstone 

Prime Minister Gladstone entered into a treaty of m ^i s 
peace by which the Boers gained their indepen- 

1016 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1881 

dence. England reserved to herself the right to 
veto all foreign treaties that might be entered into 
by the South African Republic. 

During this period England lost one of the great- 
est of her modern prose writers in Thomas Carlyle. 
His career as an author may be said to have begun 
with the issue in monthly parts of his life of Schil- 
ler in the "London Magazine," in 1823. In 1824 
he published a translation of Legendre's Geometry, 
with his own essay on Proportion. In the same 
year appeared his translation of Goethe's "Wil- 
helm Meister's Apprenticeship, " followed by other 
translations from the German. The publication of 
"Sartor Resartus, " in 1833, made Carlyle famous. 
His next work of importance was "The French 
c^riyit 9 Revolution," which appeared in 1837. It would 
have been published sooner, but for the famous 
loss of the first manuscript. Carlyle reproduced 
the lost first volume from his notes, but always 
declared that the first draft was the best. "Chart- 
ism," published in 1839, and "Past and Present," 
in 1843, were small works in which Carlyle poured 
unmeasured scorn on certain of his contemporaries. 
In 1845, he published "Oliver Cromwell's Letters 
and Speeches" with elucidations of his own. This 
w.ork served to turn the current of English feel- 
ing in favor of the great Protector. The longest 
and most laborious of all Carlyle's works was the 
"History of Frederick the Great." The ten vol- 
umes appeared at intervals between 1858 and 1865, 
and may be said to have closed his literary career. 

Carlyle's death was followed by that of Benjamin 


Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, the eminent British 
statesman and novelist. Of Jewish extraction, heEiLraeii' 
was the eldest son of Isaac D' Israeli, author of 
the "Curiosities of Literature." In 1826, Ben- 
jamin Disraeli published his first novel, "Vivian 
Grey," which achieved immediate success. His 
next novel, "Coningsby, " was followed at short 
intervals by "Contarini Fleming," "Alroy," "Hen- 
rietta Temple," "Venetia" and "The Eevolution- 
ary Epic." In 1837, Disraeli gained an entrance 
to the House of Commons from Maidstone. His 
first speech was received with ridicule, but Dis- 
raeli finished it with a passionate declaration that 
the time would come when he must be heard. He 
became a leader of the so-called "Young England" 
party. Having acquired the Manor of Hughendon 
in Buckinghamshire, Disraeli was re-elected to the 
Commons in 1847, and retained this seat until he 
was raised to the peerage nearly thirty years later. 
He first served as Chancellor of the Exchequer un- 
der Lord Derby. He was out of office from 1853 
to 1858, when he was reappointed. In 1868 he 
became Premier on the resignation of Lord Derby, 
but his tenure of office was short. In 1874 he 
again became Prime Minister and remained in 
power for six years. It was during this time *t\£% p^ 
that he became Earl of Beaconsfield. As such™" 
he took a prominent part in the conclusion of 
the famous Balkan treaty at Berlin in 1878. On 
his return from Berlin he was at the zenith of 
popularity. But in 1880j when an overwhelming 
Liberal majority was returned, Beaconsfield re- 

1618 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1881 

signed office, though he still retained the lead- 
ership of his party. Within a few months of 
Disraeli's death, the publication of a last novel 
called "Endymion" showed still the vigor of his 

When Feodor Mikhailovitch Dostoyevsky died, 
Bosfoy?' Russia lost one of her foremost psychological novel- 
evs y ists. Dostoyevsky's trenchant pen often embroiled 
him in difficulties with the government. For his 
participation in a conspiracy, in 18-19, he was ar- 
rested and condemned to death. His sentence hav- 
ing been commuted to exile, he was sent to Siberia, 
where he passed the bitterest time of his life, and 
where he gathered much of the material afterward 
used in his powerful stories. On the accession of 
Alexander II. he was pardoned. Dostoyevsky's 
best known novels are "The Poor People," "The 
Degraded and Insulted," "Memoirs from the House 
of Death," also published as "Buried Alive" (his 
Siberian memoirs), and "Crime and Punishment." 
The year had begun in Russia with Generp.l Sko- 
belev's brilliant successes over the Tekke Turko- 
Turko- mans. On January 24, after a siege of three 

man war 

weeks, the Turkomans' stronghold of Geok Tepe 
was taken by storm; large quantities of guns, am- 
munition and provisions were captured, and the 
Turkomans fled in confusion, leaving their dead 
on the field. This virtually terminated the expe- 
dition. On April 9, Skobelev received the submis- 
sion of the principal Turkoman leaders at Askabad. 
Thus another extensive territory in Central Asia 
was brought within Russian influence. 

1881 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1619 

In March, at the assembly of nobles, it was de- 
cided to petition the Czar to abolish the system 
of banishing political offenders without trial. Nine 
days later, as the Czar was driving along the banks 
of the Catherine Canal, early in the afternoon, on 
March 13, a dynamite bomb thrown by one Kousa- 
kov burst under the carriage, wounding a Cossack ^H^ 1 ' 
and other persons standing near. The Czar an<fer ii. 
stepped out of his carriage unhurt with his 
brother, the Grandduke Michael. He turned to 
walk home, when another bomb was thrown. 
When the smoke cleared away the Czar was lying 
in a pool of blood, while the assassin with other 
bystanders lay wounded. The Czar was con- 
veyed to the Winter Palace, where he died two 
hours later. 

Alexander II. will ever be remembered for his 
emancipation of the serfs, which gave freedom to 
22,000,000 human beings. In February, 1864, the 
Polish serfs were similarly liberated. Alexander 
in several other measures evinced a desire to im- 
prove the condition of his people. He aimed at 
the subjugation of the half-civilized hordes ofAiex- 
Central Asia. During his reign the limits of the lasting 

° measures 

Kussian Empire became coterminous with those of 
China. The draft of a liberal constitution was 
found in his desk after his assassination. The 
question of granting a constitution to Eussia, dis- 
cussed between the new Czar and his advisers, was 
soon dismissed. Nihilism progressed accordingly. 
Another sensational assassination was perpetrated 
this year in the United States of America. Presi- 


Summer 1881 

dent Garfield, after four months' administration, 
Garfield 1 ' was shot on July 2, by Charles Guiteau, a disap- 
nated^ 1 pointed office-seeker, as the President and Secretary 
of State Blaine were about to leave Washington for 
New York. For two months Garfield hovered be- 
tween life and death, until, on September 19, he 
suddenly expired. He was the second President of 
the North American Republic who died from the 
bullet of an assassin. James Abram Garfield began 
his career as driver for a canal boat. When the 
Civil War broke out, Garfield, who had become 
a college president and Senator, was appointed to 
a Colonelcy and was soon raised to the rank of 
Brigadier- General. He was Rosecranz's chief of 
staff, and his gallantry was conspicuous at Chicka- 
mauga. While in the field he was elected to Con- 
gress, and remained in that body seventeen years, 
when he was elected to the United States Senate. 
He did not take his seat, because of his nomina- 
tion for the Presidency. 

When Arthur became President, Garfield's Cabi- 
net Ministers resigned, but Arthur requested them 
to retain their places until Congress should meet. 
All complied except Windom, and Judge Folger 
of New York took his place. Later Frelinghuysen 
became Secretary of State in place of Blaine, and 
Kirkwood was succeeded by Teller, Hunt by W. 
E. Chandler, James by Howe and McVeagh by 
Brewster. Lincoln's son alone served under both 
Garfield and Arthur. 

Strong desire was still evinced by the United 
States Government to terminate the war between 


1881 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1621 

Chile and Peru, after the fall of Lima. A special 
envoy was sent to Chile and another to Peru with dragson ar 
suggestions for friendly relations, but at the close 
of the year the situation was little changed. 

In October, the Mikado of Japan announced by 
a proclamation that a Parliament would be estab- 
lished to meet in 1890. The provisional Senate 
and annual assembly of Ken prefects was ad- 
journed sine die. The new Japanese Constitution 


consisted of sixty- six articles, with 266 exposition- ^°^ m 
ary clauses. The rights of sovereignty and execu- 
tive power, according to the organic laws of the 
Empire, were vested in the person of the Mikado, 
who was declared inviolable. The Mikado's Min- 
isters were accountable to him alone. Certain ex- 
penditures of the realm, specified in the Constitu- 
tion, were confirmed to the imperial government 
in perpetuity. A Parliament was created to meet 
once a year, to be opened, prorogued, closed or 
dissolved by the Emperor. The Upper House was 
composed of three classes; to wit, hereditary 
peers, nominated peers and elected members, the 
last two classes never to exceed the number of 
hereditary members. The House of Kepresenta- 
tives was composed of 300 members, of national 
taxpayers to the amount of $15 annually, each 
to serve four years. Trial by jury, freedom from Pariia- 
search, of religious belief, of speech, of press and provisions 
of public meeting within the limits of civic ordi- 
nances, were confirmed to the Japanese people in 
a bill of rights. 

Jose" Echegaray, one of Spain's foremost modern 

1622 A HISTORY OF THE 1881 

dramatists, brought out his famous play, "El Gran 

Echesaray Galeota «> Before this success Echegaray, who had 
begun his career as an engineer, had shown his 
dramatic talents with "La Esposa del Vengador, " 
"La Ultima Noche," "En el Puno de la Espada," 
and "Locura o Santidad. " 
Dr. Ogden of Aberdeen, about the same time, 

researches published an account of experiments which he had 
made to ascertain the causes of inflammation and 
suppuration. He arrived at the conclusion that 
suppuration was caused by certain bacteria. The 
results achieved afterward found ample verification. 
Another death to be recorded in this year is 
that of Maximilien Littr£, the philologist and phi- 
losopher to whom France owes her great "Diction- 
naire de la Langue Francaise. Littre' was a man of 

uur6 ° f vast learning and one of the finest linguists of his 
time. Besides his famous dictionary he wrote 
"Histoire de la Langue Frangaise," "Etudes sur 
les Barbares et le Moy en-age," "Me'decines et 
Me'decins, " "La Science au point de vue philo- 
sophique, " and "De l'Etablissement de la trois&me 
K^publique. " France also lost Auguste Blanc, the 
great conspirator and brother of the eminent econ- 
omist Louis Blanc. Auguste Blanc spent thirty- 

BtaSe* 6 seven years of his life in prison. He died at Paris. 
During his long life of seventy-six years, he took 
part in every socialistic and revolutionary move- 
ment in France. Even at the last his extreme 
utterances put him in constant jeopardy. 

The Tunis campaign about this time took the 
world by surprise; but the elements of the storm 

1881 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1623 

had been for years gathering along the coast of the 
Mediterranean. For the last sixty years the policy 
of France had been to assume a protectorate over 
Tunis. In recent years rivalry had sprung up be- Frenchwar 
tween the French and Italians. Italy, which had oaTunis 
some fifteen thousand of her subjects there, had 
considerable commercial interests at stake, while 
the French were chiefly influenced by political con- 
siderations. Hostile operations against Tunis were 
undertaken in the last week of April by Generals 
Logerot, Forgemol and Delebecque. The Island of 
Taberka, protected by an old Moorish castle, was 
bombarded by French men-of-war and captured. 
On the 27th, Kep was taken, and, on May 1, Biserta 
was occupied and made a base of operations, 13,000 
men landing under Generals Breart and Maurande. 
When Beja was taken, it was assumed in France 
that the war was over. The Bev practically ac- 

J l J Arabre- 

cepted the protection of France, and the French sentment 
expedition was recalled. An insurrection forth- 
with broke out against the Bey. He was accused 
of selling his country. In the south, the seaport 
of Sfax was seized by the Arabs and the foreign 
residents in the country were threatened. France 
made immediate preparations to reconquer Tunis. 
A strong squadron of twenty men-of-war under 
Vice- Admiral Garnauit demonstrated on the coast 
of Tunis. On July 5, the bombardment of Sfax 
was begun by two French vessels. During the 
next few days several more war vessels joined in 
the bombardment, which was kept up until the 
middle of July. After the fortifications were be- 

1624 A HISTORY OF THE Winter 1881 

lieved to have been- sufficiently reduced, three 
SflfaT 5 thousand men were landed and quickly carried 
the water battery and gates of the town. The 
French losses were insignificant 

On September 10, General Saussier opened the 
campaign in the south with a proclamation to the 
Arabs giving them the alternative of submission 
or subjection. On October 27, he made his entry 
into Keyrouan, which had surrendered a few days 
previously to General Etielle. Though the mili- 
tary ends were obtained, there yet remained the ex- 
Campaign ploration of the southern regions. On November 8, 
em Tunis General Forgemol advanced upon Gafra, to whose 
inhabitants he granted a truce, while General Lo- 
gerot turned toward Gabe* only to find that the 
Arabs had broken up their camps and were flying 
in confusion. Hotly pursued, the majority sued 
for peace, abandoning their two principal chiefs. 
Finally the Bey's army was disbanded and a fresh 
native force under General Lambert was organized. 
Owing to the display of overwhelming forces, which 
struck terror into the tribes, the Tunisian campaign 
was almost bloodless. 



EGYPT continued to excite the attention of 
the various European chancelleries. It re- 
mained to be seen whether the military- 
revolt of the previous year was imbued with the 
strength of a national movement. The British 
and French Governments, representing the Euro- 
pean Condominium at Cairo, addressed an identi- 
cal note to the Khedive, in which they expressed 
a determination "to ward off by united efforts 
all causes of external or internal complications Egypt 


which might menace the regime established in 
Egypt. ' ' At the same time an outcry against 
European- officials was raised by the Egyptian 
press, and the Khedive was driven to receive 
deputations voicing the general discontent of the 
country. A plot to murder Arabi Pasha, the War 
Minister, was barely frustrated. In May the allied 
fleet appeared off Alexandria. The feeling against 
the Europeans grew stronger day by day. The onstration 
Egyptian troops began throwing up batteries and 
earthworks. By this time Arabi Pasha was prac- 
tically sole dictator. On June 11, the entire popu- 
lation of Alexandria rose against the Europeans. 
The British, Italian and Greek Consuls were 
attacked, and some two hundred and fifty Eu- 

British ul- 

1626 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1882 

ropeans, chiefly Maltese and Greeks, were mur- 
dered. The Admirals avowed their inability to 
quell the revolt. In the meantime the works 
on the fortifications of Alexandria were pushed 
with all possible speed. Now the British Admiral 
threatened to bombard Alexandria, if work were 
not immediately stopped. Three days later, on 
July 10, a formal ultimatum was despatched to 
Arabi Pasha, demanding the surrender of the forts 
into British hands. No satisfactory reply was re- 
ceived by nightfall, and the European inhabitants 
embarked on board the ships provided for their 
reception. The twenty-four hours' grace having 
expired, Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour opened 
Bombard- ^ Te on ^e ^ orts °f Alexandria with the entire 
Alexandria neet of ten ironclads and five gunboats under his 
command. The fire was returned by the forts, and 
the bombardment continued all day. 

In general the gunnery of the British fleet was 
very indifferent. After the bombardment a close 
inspection of the forts showed them to be far from 
demolished. Almost all the guns might have been 
fought again. Out of a total of 16,233 rounds fired 
from the Nordenfeldts, only seven found their mark. 
On the British side the flagship "Alexandra" was 
hit twenty-four times. The "Inflexible" was the 
most damaged and had to be docked for repairs. 
The British losses in men were five killed and 
twenty-eight wounded. The Egyptian losses were 
estimated upward of three hundred. During the 

Arabi r 

Pa «!' a night Alexandria was seen to be in flames, and in 

withdraws ° 

the morning the forts and towers were found almost 


deserted. The convicts had been set free, and with 
the Bedouins were pillaging the town and massa- 
cring all the Europeans they could find. Arabi 
had retired with his forces and thousands of refu- 
gees. Parties of marines and bluejackets landed 
and blew up some of the guns in the forts and 
cleared the streets of looters. The British Govern- 
ment was now hurrying up troops with which it 
proposed to reconquer Egypt for the Khedive from 
his soldiers with whom he had, up to the time of 
the bombardment, been openly associated. Troops 
were despatched from England and India. Sir 
Archibald Alison was the first officer to locate the 
insurgent forces. Subsequently skirmishes and en- 
gagements were almost of daily occurrence, while 
Arabi Pasha, with his army of 20,000 Egyptian 
troops, was fortifying his position at Tel-el-Kebir. Tei-ei- 


The British commanders awaited reinforcements. 
The last of these arrived during the first half of 
September. September 13, Sir Garnet Wolseley, 
with 13,000 men and 60 guns, attacked Arabi's 
position and carried it by assault. The Egyptians 
were routed with a loss of 2,000 and 1,200 prison- 
ers. Arabi fled. Pressing rapidly over the battle- 
field, the British made straight for Zagazig, which 
was occupied in the course of the day. On the 
evening of the 14th they reached Cairo and cap- 
tured Arabi with Toulba Pasha. The Egyptian £g£ 
garrison of 1,000 men laid clown their arms. On 
the last day of the year, Lord Dufferin forwarded 
the first instalment of his scheme for the so-called 
regeneration of Egypt. He also laid down propos- 


Summer 1888 

als for the absolute neutralization of the Suez 
Canal, by rendering it available for all nations at 
all times and for all purposes, provided peace was 
maintained within its limits. 

In summer, the smouldering ill-feeling between 
Korea and Japan, which dated from Korea's refusal 
to pay further tribute to Japan in 1872, had burst 
into flame. A Korean mob attacked the Japanese 
and Chinese Legations at Seoul. Several of the in- 

Chinese- ° 

fr1c?ion Se mates were murdered and the rest forced to flee. 
orea Japan despatched an expedition to Korea to exact 
reparation. China at once sent an expedition of 
her own to offset that of Japan. A temporary ac- 
commodation was effected, but the troops of both 
countries remained in the disputed territory. 

This year is memorable for the death of Dr. 
The<~> "or Schwann, the founder of the cell the- 

schwaan 0T ^ * n Physiology- His f amous study of cellular 
structures was published in 1839, under the title 
of "Microscopical Investigations," in which he en- 
deavored to unify vegetable and animal tissues. 
Schwann is otherwise known as the discoverer of 
pepsin. Another event of interest to physicians 
was Dr. Eobert Koch's discovery of the bacillus 

Koch's dis- J 

coveries f tuberculosis, and his means of treating consump- 
tion by inoculation. Although his method was not 
successful in the treatment of human beings, it 
proved of great service in detecting the presence 
of tuberculosis in cattle. 

Berthold Auerbach, one of Germany's prominent 
novelists, died in his seventieth year. Necessity 
and not the artist's impulse drove him to letters. 


His reputation as a writer rests on the "Black 
Forest Stories, ' ' in which he described the homely lue^ach 
simplicity of German peasant life. Of the forty or 
more volumes which he has left behind him, only 
the "Villa on the Khine," "Waldfried," "After 
Thirty Years, ' ' and ' ' Brigitta, ' ' won lasting success. 
England meanwhile had suffered the loss of two 
great leaders — one in the field of art and the other 
in science. Gabriel Charles Dante Bossetti died in 
April. Bossetti early showed a predilection for art, 
studied in the Boyal Academy, then became a pupil * 
of Ford Madox Brown, and in 1848 joined Hoi- Dante 

J Gabriel 

man Hunt, Thomas Wooiner, Millais and others Rossetti 
in founding the Pre-Baphaelite Brotherhood. In 
1849, he exhibited his painting of the "Girlhood 
of the "Virgin." In his early paintings Bossetti 
used brilliant hues which made his work glow 
with green, purple and gold, and tints as vivid as 
those of fourteenth century illuminations. After 
1860 he produced a new class of works, such as 
the "Sibylla Palmifera, " "Monna, " "Vanna," and 
the magnificent "Venus Verticordia. " Next to his 
masterpiece, "Dante's Dream," are the " Salutation The art * 1 
of Beatrice," "The Dying Beatrice," "La Pia," 
and "Proserpine." Rossetti was no less successful 
as a poet. His chief works were the "House of 
Life," "The King's Tragedy" and other ballads, 
"Dante at Verona," and the "Blessed Damozel," 
written at the age of eighteen. In 1861 he pub- 
lished his early Italian poets translated in the 
original metres. His famous prose story of ' ' Hand ^ ^ 
and Soul" was written in 1849. In the "Ballads 

1630 A HISTORY OF THE April 1891 

and Sonnets," 1880, the mature effects of his pow- 
ers were perhaps more fully made known. Late in 
life Eossetti destroyed all that remained of his un- 
published writings. His fame as an artist exceeds 
that of his poetry, but he must still be regarded 
as one of the most original English poets of the 
Nineteenth Century. 

On April 19 occurred the death of Charles Robert 
Death of Darwin, tne greatest naturalist of the century. He 
Darwin was ec i uca t e d at the Universities of Edinburgh and 
• Cambridge, and early devoted himself to natural 
history. In 1831 he was appointed naturalist to 
the surveying voyage of the "Beagle." As he 
expressed it in later years: "The voyage of the 
'Beagle' was by far the most important event in 
my life, and determined my whole career. ' ' After 
a five years' circumnavigation of the globe, Darwin 
came home with rich stores of knowledge, which he 
soon gave to the public in various works. In 1839 
he published his "Journal of Researches during a 
Voyage around the World," which was followed 
by a series of geological observations. In 1859, he 
oTi^a published his epoch-making work, "The Origin of 
Species." Darwin's subsequent works are largely 
based on the material he had accumulated for the 
elaboration of his great theory of natural selection. 
Most prominent of these are the "Descent of Man," 
1871; "The Expression of the Emotions in Man 
and Animals," 1872; "The Power of Movement 
in Plants," 1880; "The Formation of Vegetable 
Mould," 1881 — the last containing a vast amount 
of information in regard to the common earth - 

ol Species' 


worm. Late in life Darwin was honored by the 
recognition of all the learned societies of Europe. 
Darwin's burial, on April 26, was in the broadest 
sense a national funeral, for around his grave stood 
an assemblage of the foremost men of his age, such 
as few warriors and statesmen have ever drawn 

In the United States of America the trial of 
Charles Guiteau, for the assassination of President 


Garfield, was concluded early in this year with the han s ed 
conviction of the assassin. Sentence of death was 
pronounced January 25; five months later Guiteau 
was hanged. In March some of the conspirators 
in the notorious Star Eoute frauds were brought 
to trial. Indictments were found against Brady, frauds 
Peck, Miner and the Dorsey brothers, who had 
made fraudulent mail bids. The jury disagreed 
and a new trial had to be held. It was found 
that 296 contracts had been obtained with worth- 
less bonds for $8,000,000. A defalcation of $5,000,- 
000 was alleged in "expediting" privileges. James 
G. Blaine, the American Secretary of State, was 
believed to be implicated. 

On March 23, the bodies of DeLong and others 
of the "Jeannette" Polar expedition were found by 
Melville, near the mouth of the Lena Eiver. A 
part of the Greely expedition under Brainard pen- 
etrated to a higher latitude than had ever before 
been reached. 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, the poet, died on 
March 24, at Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1826 
he accepted the professorship of modern languages 


at Bowdoin, being allowed three years to prepare 
KSgfeUow for the post by study and travel. His impressions 
of Europe were given in his " Outre- Mer. " In 1835 
he succeeded George Ticknor as professor of mod- 
ern languages and literature at Harvard. It was 
during this period that the works on which his 
fame chiefly rests were undertaken. In their chron- 
ological order his works are as follows: "Ballads 
and Other Poems," 1841; "Poems on Slavery," 
1842; "The Spanish Student," 1843; "The Waif: 
A Collection of Poems, with Proem," 1845; "The 
Poets and Poetry of Europe," 1845; "The Belfry 
of Bruges," etc., 1846; "The Estray: A Collection 
of Poems," 1847; "Evangeline," 1847; "Kavanagh: 
A Tale," 1849; "The Seaside and the Fireside," 
1850, and "The Golden Legend," 1851. In 1854, 
Longfellow resigned his chair at Harvard Univer- 
sity. After this he brought out the best known of 
his longer poems: "The Song of Hiawatha," 1855; 
followed in turn by "The Courtship of Miles Stan- 
dish," 1858; "Tales of a Wayside Inn," 1863; 
"Flower de Luce," 1867; "The New England 
Tragedies," 1868; Dante's "Divine Comedy: A 
Translation," 1867; "The Divine Tragedy," 
1871; "Christus: A Mystery," 1872; "Three 
Books of Song," 1872; "Aftermath," 1874; "The 
Masque of Pandora," 1875; "Poems of Places" 
(a collection in thirty-one volumes), 1876-1879; 
"Keramos," 1878; "Ultima Thule," 1880; "In 
the Harbor" (posthumous), 1882; "Michael An- 
gelo" (posthumous), 1883. The poet's equable 
temper and gracious manners made him one 


of the most delightful men of his generation. 
Among his firmest friends may be mentioned 
Agassiz, Charles Sumner, Hawthorne, President 
Felton, Lowell, Holmes, Norton, Luigi Monti 
and Thomas Wo Parsons. 

Soon after Longfellow's death, his friend and 
colleague, Ralph Waldo Emerson, died at Con- ^Jg£ 
cord, Massachusetts. In 1829, he took charge f Emer8 ° u 
a Unitarian Church in Boston, but resigned in 
1832. He spent the greater part of 1833 in Eu- 
rope, where he formed a lifelong friendship with 
Carlyle. On his return he began his career as a 
lecturer in Concord, which he followed for a long 
series of years. After a second visit to England, 
Emerson wrote his "English Traits, " in some re- 
spects one of the most interesting of his works. In 
1836 he published a small volume called "Nature," 
and in 1840 he became one of the original editors 
of the "Dial," a transcendental magazine. Two 
volumes of his lectures in the form of essays were 
published in 1841 and in 1844, and two years later 
he brought out his first poems. In the same year 
his miscellaneous addresses were published in Eng- 
land. Then followed, in quick succession, "Repre- 
sentative Men," 1850; the "Conduct of Life," 1860; 
"May Day, and other Poems," 1869; with "Society 
and Solitude," in 1876; "Parnassus," a collection 
of poems and letters and social aims. A complete 
collection of Emerson's works was published in 
London soon after his death, with an introduction 
by John Morley, in which Emerson's place in liter- 
ature has been strictly defined. 


A revolution broke out in March at Cape Hay- 
tien, in Hayti, against General Solomon, the Presi- 
dent, which was joined by the towns of Gonaives 

Revolution an( * Port-au-Prince. Martial law was proclaimed 

mHayti an( ^ ^ p^g^ent marc hed on Cape Haytien with 
3,000 men. By the end of April the insurrection 
was over. 

The prospect of peace between Chile and Peru, 
at the beginning of the year promised early reali- 
zation, but in summer fighting was renewed. In 
October another attempt to negotiate peace was 
made, but failed. 

Servia, supported by Austria- Hungary, was pro- 
claimed a kingdom, with the consent of the Powers, 
in the beginning of March. Prince Milan, a mem- 

?r sS-Vta, ng ber of the family of Urilosch Obrenovich, which 
had obtained the semi- independence of Servia, in 
1816, assumed the title of Milan I. 

One of the most romantic figures of the century 
passed away with the death of Giuseppe Garibaldi 
at Caprera in June. Born at Nice, he received lit- 
tle education, and was a sailor on trading vessels. 
In 1834 he joined the "Young Italy" party, and 
being condemned to death for his share in Maz- 

Garfbaku zini's schemes, escaped to Marseilles, took service 
in the fleet of the Bey of Tunis, and finally went 
to South America. In the service of the Republic 
of Rio Grande against the Brazilians he became a 
brilliant leader, and with his famous legion he sub- 
sequently gave the Montevideans such effective aid 
against Buenos Ayres as to earn the title of "Hero 
of Montevideo." In 1849, he returned to Italy, 

1882 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1635 

raised volunteers, and harassed the Austrians and 
Bourbons until the establishment of Italian unity. 
After this great end had been accomplished, Gari- 
baldi aided the French Kepublican Government 
against the Germans in 1871, and with 20,000 vol- 
unteers harassed the border territory. At the end 
of the war he became a member of the French As- 
sembly, but soon resigned and returned to Italy. 
When Home became the capital of Italy, in Janu- 
ary, 1875, Garibaldi took his seat in the Italian 
Parliament. The latter part of his life was spent 
at Caprera. 

The aggressive actions of the French in Madagas- 
car continued. Their contention was that the gov- 
ernment had promulgated a law prohibiting natives 
from selling land to foreigners, and that the Hova 
flag had been planted at Passandada Bay, over French d& 
which the French claimed rights. A conference g a a S car 
between the ambassadors who were sent to Paris 
by the Queen of the Hovas and ' the French negoti- 
ators was held on October 18. The ambassadors 
refused to grant the French demands and left Paris 
in November. A naval division was soon placed 
under the orders of Eear- Admiral St. Pierre, who 
was intrusted with the enforcement of the French 
claims in Madagascar. 

In China the French displayed the same spirit. 
The treaty of 1874 gave France the protectorate of 
Annam. The failure of the Emperor of that coun- 
try fully to perform his share of the contract, and 
the presence of Chinese troops in Tonquin, were 
considered to threaten the security of the Fiench 

1636 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1881 

colony of Cochin- China. On April 25, the French 
forces under Colonel Rivere captured Hanoi, the 

Tonquin capital of Tonquin. The expedition had left Sai- 
gon at the end of March, sailed up the river and 
landed on French territory just outside of the town. 
The Viceroy and Mandarins withdrew in the cita- 
del, nearly four miles in circumference, and de- 
fended by 8,000 Annamites. Two French columns, 
commanded by Captain de Villers, forced their way 
through the northern gate. After capturing Hanoi, 

of Hanoi the French assumed authority over the whole terri- 
tory, which resulted in 10,000 Chinese troops being 
sent across the frontier. Negotiations were still in 
progress between Peking and Paris at the close 
of the year. 

Louis Blanc, the historian, economist and poli- 
tician, died at Paris late in the year. He began 

Deathof ' . 1. . _ . , B . 

Louis his public career as a journalist m Paris, and m 
1839 founded the "Revue du Progres," in which 
appeared his great essay on "L' Organisation du 
Travail." In 1841-44 appeared his "Histoire de 
Dix Ans: 1830^£0. " Louis Blanc's share in the 
Paris Revolution of 1848 led to his prosecution for 
conspiracy, but he escaped to England. There he 
wrote his famous "Histoire de la Revolution Fran- 
chise," which was published in twelve volumes. 
Among his other works are "Lettres sur l'Angle- 
terre," 1865-67; "Histoire de la Revolution de 
1848," "Questions d'Aujour d'huit et Demain, 
1873-74." On the fall of the Second Empire he 
returned to Paris, and became a member of the 
National Assembly. A state funeral was awarded 


him. On this occasion public demonstrations of 
grief on the part of the workingmen of Park 
showed the stronghold he retained on popular 

A few minutes before midnight, on the last day 
of the year, occurred the death of Leon Gambetta. 
He was one of the most striking figures of France 
under the Eepublic, and showed himself capable of 
inspiring others with passionate enthusiasm for his 
country. Born in 1838 at Cahors, of Genoese ex- Qambette 
traction, Gambetta was educated for the Church, 
but afterward became a lawyer. In November, 
1868, he gained the leadership of the Eepublican 
party by his defence of Deleschuze, a noted Ee- 
publican. He showed himself irreconcilable against 
Louis Napoleon and his imperial projects; in par- 
ticular against the policy which led to the war with 
Prussia. All the power of personal magnetism was 
shown during the latter part of the war, when he 
organized a fierce but vain resistance against the 
invaders. After the war he held office in several 
short-lived Ministries, and in November, 1881, ac- 
cepted the Premiership. The sweeping changes 
proposed by him speedily rallied a majority 
against him, and after six months he resigned. 
On the death of the great leader, Gambetta's 
once so formidable party collapsed. 

XJXth Century— Vol. 3— Q 



GAMBETTA'S state funeral was held at the 
Cemetery of Pere la Chaise. A proces- 
sion two miles in length marched through 
Paris. Later Gambetta's body was buried at Nice. 
The friendly offices of England as mediator be- 
tween France and Madagascar were declined in 
January. Soon after this the French man-of-war 
4 'Flore," carrying the flag of Admiral Pierre, ar- 
rived off Tamatave. An ultimatum, demanding 
the recognition of all rights claimed by the French, 
was forwarded to the Prime Minister at Antanana- 
Tamatave Tlvo - ^n J une l^i after a negative reply, the 
b££ded French fleet of six vessels opened fire on the forts. 
Soon afterward the Hovas withdrew, and, on June 
14, the French flag was hoisted. The territory 
around Tamatave was put under French military 

During several months the Tonquin question was 
left in abeyance. Despite the protests of the Chi- 
nese, desultory fighting between the 4 Black Flags 
and the French troops was resumed. In May, 
Commandant Rivere made a sortie from Hanoi 
Dbaster with but one hundred and fifty men. He met 
the enemy on ground covered with bamboo, from 
which the Annamites shot down Kivere and his 


troops. After this disaster three ironclads were 
despatched from Quiberon, Brest and Corfu, to be 
followed by other vessels. Eeinforcements were 
sent to Tonquin by the Governor of Cochin- 
China, and troops were also despatched from 
New Caledonia. 

On February 13, Eichard Wagner, the most 
original dramatic composer of the Nineteenth Cen- Death of 


tury, died at Venice. At the age of fourteen 
Wagner wrote a tragedy, but showed no particu- 
lar taste for music. After his matriculation as a 
student of philology and esthetics, at the Univer- 
sity at Leipzig, he took a six months' course in 
composition, and wrote some early works, giving 
indications of his later individuality. The first 
public performance of one of his works was at the 
Gewand Haus in Leipzig early in 1833. Eemoving 
to Prague, Wagner wrote his first opera libretto. 
Called to the Wiirzburg Theatre by his brother 
Albert, he became chorus-master and composed the 
romantic opera "The Fairies," which was never 
performed until after his death. After several dis- 
heartening experiences in Magdeburg and Eiga, 
Wagner set out for France in 1839. He spent 
four weeks in the company of Meyerbeer at Bou- 
logne, and then repaired to Paris, but was unable 
to get a hearing there. In the meanwhile "Eienzi" Earl com 
had been accepted by the Opera at Dresden. The P° sitions 
success of the first performance, in 1842, was so 
great that the management was induced to bring 
out the "Flying Dutchman" early next year. The 
originality of this opera raised a storm of oppo- 

1640 A HISTORY OF THE 1883 

eition, which raged from then on throughout the 
civilized world, as one after another of Wagner's 
new works appeared. In the face of this opposition 
Wagner was appointed conductor of the Dresden 
Opera, and there brought out "Tannhauser. " The 
Dresden critic, Schladebach, then accepted as one 

crufca er8 °^ ^e f° remost musical critics in Germany, pro- 
nounced this work to be "devoid of either melody 
or form." This criticism was re-echoed throughout 
Germany, so that when Wagner tried to bring out 
"Lohengrin," in 1848, the Dresden Opera refused 
to experiment with it. In exasperation, Wagner 
openly expressed his sympathy with the revolution- 
ary tendencies of the period. On the suppression 
of the May Revolution of 1849 he had to flee from 
Dresden. Liszt provided him with funds and a 
passport to France. After a brief stay in Paris 
Wagner betook himself to Zurich. There during 
the next few years he wrote his remarkable essays : 
"Art and Revolution," 1849; "The Art of the 

Revoiu. Future," "Art and Climate' - "The Jews in 


****** Music," 1850; and the "Opera and Drama," as 
well as commentaries upon the performances of 
"Tannhauser" and the "Flying Dutchman," 1852. 
From Zurich he was called to conduct eight con- 
certs of the London Philharmonic Society, in 1855, 
after which he went once more to Paris. Napoleon 

;Iu£> n r"" H*' became interested in him and ordered "Tann- 
hauser" to be brought out at the Paris Opera. 
This was done in 1861, amid tumultuous opposi- 
tion. Amnestied by the King of Saxony, Wagner 
returned to Dresden. His new opera, "Tristan and 


Isolde," was accepted by the Vienna Opera, but 
after fifty-three rehearsals it was given up as im- 
practicable. "Lohengrin," on the other hand, "Lohen- 
achieved a notable success at "Vienna, and was 
hailed, by Liszt and his followers, as one of the 
masterpieces of the age. The turning-point of 
Wagner's career came in 1864, when young King 
Louis II. of Bavaria invited him to Munich with 
promises of royal aid for all his projects. Von 
Billow was summoned to Munich at the same time 
to produce "Tristan and Isolde." In the face of 


more violent opposition, Wagner withdrew from and Isolde" 
Munich to Switzerland, where, with the continued 
aid of King Louis, he finished his scores for "Die 
Meistersinger" and "The Eing of the Niebelungs." 
In 1870, having divorced his first wife, he mar- 
ried Cosima, the daughter of Liszt, after her divorce 
from Hans von Billow. In the meanwhile the King 
of Bavaria built for him the famous opera house at 
Bayreuth. The expenses were defrayed in part by 
special Wagner concerts given throughout Germany. 
In 1876, three complete performances of "The Eing 
of the Niebelungs" were given at Bayreuth — Hans 
Eichter conducting and Wilhelmj leading the vio- 
lins. Emperor William, King Louis and a host of Nie beiung 
musical notabilities attended. Though a grand sue- yc e 
cess, the undertaking left Wagner plunged in debt. 
Another concert tour in London did not suffice to 
settle this debt, nor could it be paid until Louis set 
aside for Wagner the profits derived from further 
performances of the Niebeiung Cycle at the Eoyal 
Opera House in Munich. Wagner's last years were 

1642 A HISTORY OF THE March 1888 

spent in literary work, and in the completion of his 
"Parsifal" ] agt dramatic composition, "Parsifal." Ill health 
drove him to Venice, in 1882, and there death 
overtook him. He was buried in the garden of 
his villa, Wahnfried, at Bayreuth. 

Wagner's style of composition marks a new epoch 
in the history of music. His reforms in operatic 
composition went far beyond those of Gluck. To 
quote his own words: "The mistake in the art 
form in the opera consists in this, that in it, the 
means of expression (music) was made the end, and 
the end to be expressed (the drama) was made a 
means. ' ' Acting on this theory, Wagner wrote the 
wa-ner's words for all of his operas, arousing no less hostil- 


ity by his free treatment of German verse forms 
than he did by his innovations in music. No 
other composer or German writer has called forth 
such floods of criticism, not only in Germany but 
throughout all civilized countries. Sides were 
taken for or against Wagner, and among those 
that figured in the discussion were found such 
widely divergent spirits as Liszt, Schopenhauer, 
Baudelaire, Gautier, Saint-Saens, Hans von Billow 
and Nietzsche. So much is certain that in novelty 
of effect, rhythmic variety and thematic treatment, 
Wagner's music stands unexampled in the history 
of music up to his time. 

During the latter part of March an insurrection 

broke out in Hayti, and the outskirts of the town 

of Miragoane were seized by the rebels. They in 

^oiution t urn W ere attacked by the government troops, but 

the latter were defeated with a loss of eighty-five 

1883 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1643 

killed and wounded. The place was subsequently 
bombarded, but again the regular troops were re- 
pulsed with the loss of two vessels and many men. 
The rebels then seized Jacmel and held nearly the 
whole of the western coast. 

In the United States, during this interval, popu- 
lar rejoicings were held over the opening of the 
great suspension bridge spanning the East River 
between New York and Brooklyn. The opening 

was attended by President Arthur, by the Governor tion 

tion of 

of the State of New York, and by the Mayors of Bridge 
Brooklyn and New York City, with a host of ' other 
functionaries. The cost of the bridge had been 
$15,500,000. Measuring 5,989 feet, it exceeded 
the length of all other suspension bridges then 
in existence. When the bridge was thrown open 
to the public, such crowds attempted to cross it 
that a number of persons were killed in the crush. 
In consequence of this, radical changes were made 
in the approaches to the bridge. Peter Cooper, the 
great philanthropist, died in New York, where he 
had served as Mayor. His fame is commemorated 
in the great mechanic institute of New York bear- 
ing his name. The year was otherwise notable for 
the successful labor strikes of American telegraph 
operators and glass blowers. During early autumn 
nearly 100,000 strikers were out of work. 

The construction of the Panama Canal went on 
so steadily this year that De Lesseps and others 
of its promoters predicted the completion of the 
Canal within five years. Prior to this the engineers JjJJjJU 11 * 
had been chiefly occupied with preliminary labors. 

1644 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 188S 

Now more than 10,000 laborers were engaged, and 
this number was soon increased to 15,000. 

Complete anarchy prevailed in Armenia. The 
Turkish authorities lost all control over the prov- 
ince. Trade caravans were persistently pillaged and 
foreign consuls were insulted. The tribe of Malis- 
son, numbering 60,000, made a raid on Scutari, but 
were repulsed by the Turkish troops. In Eussia 
of°Aiex-'° n the long-delayed coronation of Emperor Alexander 


III. was celebrated in May at Moscow. All the 
sovereigns and governments of Europe were rep- 
resented at this magnificent display, which lasted 
from May 27 to June 2. The event called forth 
manifestations of loyalty from all parts of the em- 
pire. In liberal circles keen disappointment was 
felt at the new Czar's silence on the subject of 
liberal reforms. On the day after the coronation 
ceremonies, riots broke out at St. Petersburg. 
In the meantime the Comte de Chambord (Henri 

Death of v 

Henri v. v .) died, on August 24, at Frohsdorf. As the son 
of the Due de Berri, and grandson of Charles X., 
he was the head of the elder branch of the Bour- 
bons. After the accession of Louis Philippe, his 
life was spent mostly in exile. He was buried with 
great solemnity in the Cathedral of Goetz, next to 
the tombs of Charles X. and the Due d'Angoul^me. 
No princes of the House of Orleans attended his 
funeral, owing to the refusal of the Comtesse de 
Chambord to recognize the Comte de Paris as head 
of the reunited Houses of Bourbon and Orleans. 

During summer the excesses of the revolutionists 
in Hayti had reached such serious proportions that 

1883 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1645 

a French squadron was despatched to West Indian 
waters. In August a severe battle had been fought 
before Jacmel, with the rebels claiming the victory. 
On September 13, an attempt was made to assassi- Ha ^. 
nate the President. By the end of September riots 
broke out at Port-au-Prince. The rebellious ne- 
groes attacked the foreign warehouses and sacked 
the town. It was then that the French Consul 
asked his government to interfere. At this junc- 
ture the death of Bazelais, the leader of the rebels, 
was hailed as opportune by the supporters of the 
weak government. 

Late in the year the colossal bronze figure of 
Germania, erected as a national monument on 
the site of Arminius's early victory over the 
Romans, near Riidesheim, was unveiled by Em- 
peror William, in the presence of eighty thou- 
sand spectators. The monument, rising to a total 
height of eighty feet, had cost nearly two million 
marks, part of which was raised by public sub- 
scriptions. Immediately after the ceremony, it was 
made known that the police had barely prevented 
a dynamite plot to blow up Emperor William and 
his companions, as they were about to unveil the 
great statue. 

On December 6, the Parliament Houses of Bel- 
gium at Brussels burned down. The Parliamen- 
tary library, with all the archives, was destroyed 
in the flames. 

In South America, the war of Chile against 

' & End of 

Peru and Bolivia, which had been waged since chilean 

' o war 

1879, was brought to a close. It was essentially 

1646 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1883 

a naval war. Though Peru and Bolivia had armies 
of 88,000 men in the field, a Chilean expedition of 
30,000, with the aid of their navy, could strike at 
the enemy's detachments and destroy them in de- 
tail. In the end Peru had to sue for peace. The 
province of Tara Paca was ceded to Chile. The 
Department of Tacna was likewise occupied by 
Chile. It was agreed that, at the expiration of 
ten years, the inhabitants of Tacna could decide 
by vote whether they would remain under Chilean 

Russia lost one of her leading writers by the 

Ivan death of Ivan Turgenyev on September 3 — or 
g yey August 22, according to the Russian calendar. 
Born at Orel, in 1818, Turgenyev was educated 
for the civil service and received an appointment 
in the Ministry of the Interior in 1843. Soon after 
this he published "The Diary of the Hunter," a 
book in which he first revealed his high talent for 
vivid descriptions and incisive grasp of character. 
In 1846, he resigned from the civil service and 
went abroad. After his return in 1852, Emperor 
Nicholas decreed his banishment to Siberia for 
sentiments expressed in an essay on Gogol, but 
Turge'nyev was permitted to leave Russia as a free 
man to live abroad. Much of his time was spent 
in Paris and at Baden Baden. There he brought 
out most of those telling stories and novels, founded 
on Russian life, which placed him among the fore- 
most novelists of the age, 

bacillus ri * This year is memorable to physicians for the discov- 
ery of the diphtheria bacillus by Klebs and Loeffler. 



AT THE opening of the year, Egypt was seri- 
ously affected by the troubles in the Sou- 
dan. There the tide of the Mahdist war 
had risen so rapidly that it threatened not only 
the overthrow of the Khedive's rule, but also to 
invade Egypt itself. Early in January, General 
Gordon accepted a mission from the King of the 
Belgians to proceed to the Congo Eiver. The ob- 
ject was to put an end to the slave trade in the 
district of Niam Niam, whence the Soudan slave 
dealers drew their chief supplies. On January 18, 
having been reinstated in his rank in the British 
army, Gordon was despatched instead to Egypt for mission 
service in the Soudan. In February, Baker Pasha's 
column of 3,500, which was sent forward to the gar- 
risons in the Soudan, was routed and dispersed in 
its first engagement on the road to Sinket. Gen- 
eral Graham, with 4,000 Anglo- Egyptian troops, 
defeated Osman Digna at Trinkat. Later he gained Defeat of 

° ° Osman 

another signal victory over Osman Digna, capturing Digna 
his intrenehed camp at Tamas. 

In June, the Mikado issued an order readjusting 
the system of nobility. In the newly created or- 
ders of Princes, Marquises, Counts, Viscounts and 
Barons were the names of several Daimios and 

1648 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1884 

former Samurai, who had distinguished themselves 
during recent years. Three hundred men in all 
were ennobled on the score of merit. It was ex- 
pected that out of these newly created nobles 
would be constituted the Upper House, or Cham- 
Korea 011 m ber of Peers, in the projected Parliament. In De- 
cember, the Japanese Legation in Seoul was once 
more attacked by Koreans, aided by Chinese sol- 
diers. The Legationers had to flee. The Japanese 
Government obtained reparation for the outrage. 
Count Ito was despatched to Peking to effect a 
permanent arrangement in regard to Korea. 

Provoked by the leniency of China toward the 
Black Flags on the Tonquin frontier, France began 
hostilities against China. Without a previous dec- 
laration of war, the port of Kelung, in the Island 
of Formosa, was forcibly seized on August 6. Nine 
French days later China declared war on France. Before 
ch£ia lth this declaration a French squadron under Eear- 
Admiral Courbe ascended the Eiver Min, as far 
as the Chinese naval arsenal at Foochow. In the 
river lay a poor Chinese squadron of war junks, 
wooden sloops, transport steamers, one modern 
composite cruiser and seven steam launches fitted 
with spar torpedoes. The French had three mod- 
ern cruisers, three composite gunboats, besides the 
wooden flagship and the armored cruiser "Tri- 
omphante," lying at the mouth of the Min. 
When the two fleets came in sight of one an- 
other, it was believed that hostilities would be 
opened at once. For several days, however, the 
French remained quiet. An American squadron 

1884 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1649 

of four vessels and three English warships like- 
wise lay in the river. The Chinese remained close 
under the enemy's guns, and flattered themselves 
that the French Admiral was not serious in his 
intentions. Shortly before two in the afternoon of 
August 23, the "Triomphante" exchanged signals 
with the French flagship. Six minutes later thejgjgj^jj 
French gunboat "Lynx" opened fire. The French 
ships sank the clumsy Chinese junks one by one. 
Even when they were helpless and sinking, the 
French flagship continued to ply them with her 
machine guns. In seven minutes from the first 
shot this so-called engagement was virtually over 
and every Chinese ship was sunk or sinking. The 
Chinese losses were 521 killed, 150 wounded and 
several hundred missing. Admiral Courbe reported 
his losses as six killed and twenty- seven wounded. 
In French naval annals the event goes by the name 
of "La Grande Gloire du Foochow. " As the his- 
torian of "Ironclads in Action" curtly remarks: 
"This fight, if fight we can call it, was little more 
than slaughter, necessary no doubt, but yet deserv- 
ing no extravagant laudations. It may be placed 
in the same class with the bombardment of Alex- the French 
andria. " In October, 600 French soldiers having 
landed at Pamsuret fell into an ambush and were 
routed by General Tse. 

France lost one of her most prominent statesmen 
in Eugene Eouher. He was the most powerful 
Minister of the Second French Empire. When 
Louis Napoleon became President of France, he J^w 
made Eouher his Prime Minister, with the title 

1650 A HISTORY OF THE 1884 

of Minister of Justice and Keeper of the Seals. 
He was intrusted with the drawing up of the Con- 
stitution, and participated in the coup d'etat of 
December 2, 1851, which put France at the mercy 
of Napoleon. After this, Kouher was made Vice- 
President of the Council of State. When 01- 
livier's Ministry was formed, on January 2, 1870, 
Rouher was appointed President of the Senate. It 
was on his advice to Empress Eugenie that the 
disastrous campaign against Germany was under- 
taken. Rouher' s activity after 1871 was confined 
to bolstering up the cause of the fallen empire. 
By the death of the Prince Imperial, Rouher's 
' hopes were shattered. His health failed him and 
he died in dejection. 

England about the same time lost one of her 
most eminent novelists by the death of Charles 
Reade. He made his first reputation by the novel 
"Peg Woffington. " Afterward he dramatized it, 
in conjunction with Tom Taylor, under the title 
of "Masks and Faces." This was followed by 
"Christie Johnston" and "Never too Late to Mend, " 
in which he attacked the English prison system, in 
1857. Reade's other works are: "The Course of 
True Love never does run Smooth," 1857; "Jack 
of all Trades," 1858; "Love Me Little, Love Me 
Long," 1859; "White Lies," 1860; "The Cloister 
and the Hearth," 1861; "Hard Cash," 1863; "Grif- 
fith Gaunt," 1866; "Foul Play," with Dion Bouci- 
cault, 1868; "Put Yourself in his Place," 1870; 
"A Terrible Temptation," 1871; "A Simpleton," 
1873; "The Wandering Heir," 1875; "A Hero and 

1884 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY i661 

Martyr," 1876; and "The Woman- Hater, " 1877; 
besides producing the following dramas: "Gold," 
1850; "Two Loves and a Life," 1854; "The King's 
Eivals," 1854; "Wandering Heir," 1875, and "The 
Scuttled Ship," 1877. 

Lieutenant Greely and seven survivors of his 
exploration party were rescued in Lady Frank- Lie S i?t U8 ° f 
lin Bay in the Arctic regions, on June 22, by 
an American relief expedition under Commander 
Schley. Seventeen of their comrades had per- 
ished. They were brought home in July. On 
August 22, the last strip of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad was completed. 

On October 29, the Rev. Dr. Burchard, one of 
a delegation of clergymen, who called on Blaine, 
the Republican candidate for the American Presi- 
dency, used the words "Rum, Romanism and Re- 
bellion," while referring to the antecedents of the 
Democratic party. This expression is said to have 


turned New York over to the Democrats by a ma- Cleveland's 

J first 

jority of 1,047, thus defeating Blaine. On Novem- electioa 
ber 4, the twenty -fifth Presidential election was 
held. Grover Cleveland, the Democratic candi- 
date, received 4,874,986 votes; Blaine, 4,851,981; 
St. John, 150,626, and Butler, 133,825. Cleve- 
land's plurality was 23,005. When the result was 
announced serious negro disturbances broke out in 
the South. Napoleonville, Louisiana, and Palacka, 
Florida, were set on fire, the negroes refusing to 
assist in extinguishing the flames. On December 
6, thirty- six years after the first stone was laid, 
the great obelisk of Washington was completed. 


A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1884 

The height of the shaft was 555 feet, and its 
weight 81,000 tons, the total cost of the monu- 
ment amounting to a million and a half dollars. 
Among the noteworthy books published in America 
this year were Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn," 
Justin "Winsor's "America," and books of verse 
by Sidney Lanier and Joaquin Miller. Wendell 
Phillips, the great anti-slavery orator, died in his 
seventy -third year. 

The declining years of Ulysses S. Grant were 
financial burdened by the financial failure of the firm of 
Grant & Ward, in which his sons were interested. 
The firm owed $16,000,000. Grant paid a share 
of the liabilities, even selling, to satisfy the de- 
mands of the creditors, the valuable presents he 
had received in his journey around the world. 

Auguste Bonheur, the landscape painter and 
brother of Rosa Bonheur, died this year at the 
age of sixty. He painted several pictures of ani- 
mal life, which were generally considered inferior 
to those of his sister, whereas his landscapes were 
held to be distinctly superior. Among his best 
known works are "The Coasts of Brageac," now 
at the Museum of Amiens; "The Gorges of 
Puy-Griou," which was purchased by the French 
Government; his "Souvenirs of Auvergne" and 
"Souvenirs of the Pyrenees," attracted a great 
deal of attention at the exposition of 1867. At 
the Salon of 1878 he exhibited his "Valley of the 

Vienna also lost a great artist by the death of 
Hans Makart, early in October. Born at Salzburg, 



in 1840, Makart studied under Piloty in Munich, 


and exhibited his first famous picture u Koman Makart 
Euins," at the Paris Exposition of 1867. His 
reputation as an artist dated from this time. At 
Vienna, where he settled, he painted his first his- 
torical picture, ' ' Catherine Cornaro, ' ' which was pur- 
chased by the Berlin National Gallery for 50,000 
marks. At the Centennial Exposition in Philadel- 
phia he took a gold medal and again at the Paris 
Exposition of 1878, where he first exhibited his 
"Entrance of Charles Y. into Antwerp." Most 
typical of his work, however, were his paintings 
of allegorical subjects, such as "The Seven Capi- 
tal Sins," "The Five Senses," and "The Gifts of 
Sea and Earth." 

A scientific achievement of the year was Nico- Nicoiaier 
laier's discovery of the lockjaw bacillus. A bac- 
teriologist who also worked along the same line 
was the Japanese investigator Kitasato, to whomxitasato 
belongs the credit of having simultaneously studied 
the bacillus tetani. In surgery, an important ad- 
vance was made by Dr. Bennett of London, who Dr .Bennett 
showed that it was possible to locate a tumor within 
the brain with great accuracy, even though the 
disorder was not apparent on the exterior. Dr. Robert 


Eobert Koch, who, two years before, had discov- 
ered the bacillus of tuberculosis, announced the 
existence of a bacillus of Asiatic cholera. 



THE beginning of 1885 found the garrison 
of Khartoum reduced to the last straits 
by famine, desertion and treachery. Gor- 
don believed that the British troops were pushing 
on to his relief, and made supreme efforts for the 
defence. On January 26, the city was carried by 
the treachery of one of the Pashas, who opened the 
city gates to the Mahdi's troops. Gordon was taken 
captive. When Sir C. Wilson, who was ascending 
End of the Nile to relieve Gordon, arrived he found the 

Gordon . ... _ 

city in possession of the enemy and retired. On 
the day of Wilson's appearance before Khartoum, 
General Gordon was put to death. 

Charles George Gordon, or "Chinese Gordon," as 
he was called, was born in 1833 at Woolwich, Eng- 
land. He entered the Royal Engineers in 1852, 
and served in the Crimea in 1854-56. Gordon 
crushed the Taiping Rebellion in China by means 
of specially trained corps of Chinese. On his return 
to England with the rank of colonel, he became 
chief engineer at Gravesend, where his military 
talent and philanthropy were conspicuous. From 
Gordon's 1874 to 1879 he was Governor of the Soudan under 


the Khedive. For a few months in 1882 he held 
an appointment at the Cape. He had just accepted 

1885 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1655 

a mission to the Congo from the King of the Bel- 
gians when he was sent to withdraw the garrisons 
shut up in the Soudan by the Mahdi. An almost 
solitary ride across the desert brought him to Khar- 
toum. Within a few weeks, after a glimmer of suc- 
cess, he found himself surrounded by enemies, and 
shut off from the rest of the world. The manner 
of his death was learned only when Kitchener 
stormed Khartoum in later years. He was sur- 
vived by Slatin Pasha, the Austrian, and Neufeldt. 
The Egyptian campaign was by no means brought 
to an end. On January 10, General Earle's column, 
advancing by way of the Nile from Carbi to Berber, 
attacked the fortified canal position at Dalka and 


carried it. General Earle himself fell in the fight. Soudan 


In March, General Sir G. Graham moved from Sua- 
kim toward Hassham, and soon met the Arabs in 
force. A hot engagement took place on the 20th, 
with the Arabs as aggressors. The troops under 
General Sir John McNeil were surprised, and the 
Arabs effected an entry into the zarida or earth- 
works established by the Egyptian troops at Sua- 
kim. A fierce struggle ensued and the Arabs were 
forced to retire. The losses were severe on both 
sides. Two-thirds of the camels and mules were 
killed and maimed. In May, Lord Wolseley, who 
had been recalled from the Upper Nile, arrived at 
Suakim and assumed command. On July 30, the 
garrison of Kassala, unable to hold out longer, made 
an amicable arrangement with the hostile tribes and 
surrendered the town after a heroic resistance of 
more than a year. Late in the year the Arabs 

1656 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1888 

on the Upper Nile attacked the English garrisons 
at Kossab and elsewhere. Reinforcements were or- 
dered from England, and General Stephenson started 
for Wady Haifa. 

The failure of the Canadian Government to secure 
to the Indians and half-breeds of the Northwest 
fwa k n atch " tne ^ r ownership of the lands in the Saskatchewan 
rebellion y a u e y h a( j ar0 used resentment. As the dissat- 
isfaction grew, the half-breeds, known as Me'tis, 
turned to their old "rebel leader, Kiel, who dwelt 
in exile in Montana. He came in response to their 
call. Riel made common cause with such redoubt- 
able Indian chieftains as Crowfoot of the Blackfeet 
tribe, Pound Maker of the Crees, and Big Bear of 
the Ojibways. A report that Great Britain was 
on the verge of war with Russia prompted Riel to 
decisive action. On March 18, he assumed mas- 
tery at Batoche and appointed Gabriel Dumont, 
a famous buffalo hunter, his second in command. 
Dumont forthwith made a raid on the Canadian 
Government stores at Dutch Lake. A detachment 
of mounted police from Carleton, who tried to 
intercept Dumont, were outstripped, and another 
stronger detachment was beaten off with serious 
loss. The grim news from Dutch Lake aroused 
Canada a ll Canada. Within three days troops were de- 
8X01186 spatched from Quebec, Montreal, Toronto and On- 
tario. The new Canadian Pacific Railway, then 
approaching completion, could not carry them fast 
enough to the front. Before they arrived, the re- 
bellion had spread up the entire Saskatchewan Val- 
ley. The town of Battleford was threatened by the 

1885 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1657 

Crees. A chieftain named Travelling Spirit tricked 
the white settlers of Troy Lake into disarming, and £rfro£ re 
then let his braves butcher them. Francis Dickens, 
a son of the great novelist, in vain tried to hold 
Fort Pitt against the assaults of Big Bear's men. By 
this time the soldiers were arriving and advanced 
in three columns. Behind strong intrenchments at 
Fish Creek, Kiel's sharpshooters under Dumont held 
back the soldiers for two days. Another Canadian 
column under Colonel Otter made matters worse, 
by an unwarranted attack on the hitherto peaceful 
Crees, controlled by Pound Maker. Entering the 
Cree Reservation, they fell into an ambush at Cut cut Knife 

' J Hill 

Knife Hill, and had to retire in confusion. One 
week after this affair, on May 9, was fought the 
famous three days' battle at Batoche's Ferry, atBatoche's 
which Captain Howard, the American commander 
of a Gatling gun squad, carried off the honors. 
At last Batoche was stormed. Dumont escaped 
to Montana, but Riel was taken and his followers 
dispersed. The rebellious Indian tribes succumbed. 
Riel was tried for treason at Regina and was shot, R:el sbot 
together with eight Indians concerned in the Troy 
Lake massacre. Riel's execution evoked such a 
storm in the Canadian Parliament that the Mac- 
donald Government tottered and nearly fell. The 
just grievances of the half-breeds and Indians at 
last obtained recognition. 

The rebellion hastened the completion of the 
great Canadian Pacific Railway across the conti- 
nent. The railroad had been laid simultaneously 
from the St. Lawrence and from the Pacific. In 

1658 A HISTORY OF THE Spring i«B 

November, the two sections were brought together 
Pacufc aa a* Craigellachie, in the Kocky Mountains. Sir Don- 
ald Smith drove the last spike, thus forming a con- 
tinuous railroad line of more than three thousand 

The Russian movement on the Afghan frontier 
had resulted in the storming of Penjdeh, on March 
30. On that occasion the Russians under General 
Komarov attacked the Afghans, and drove them 
from their position with a loss of 500 men, all 

Afghan their ammunition and provisions, and two stand- 
dispute ards. The Russian Government in May agreed 

to the English proposals, to refer the points in 
dispute on the Afghan frontier to arbitration. 

In China, the fortunes of the French fluctuated 
throughout the first half of the year. On Febru- 
ary 13, Langson, one of the two principal fortresses 
of Tonquin, was occupied by the French General, 
Ton uin Brie*re de Lisle, who had previously routed the 
campaign Q n i nese j n a hotly contested battle near the town. 
On the night of February 14 to 15 occurred the 
affair of Sheipoo. Two Chinese war vessels, the 
cruiser "Yu-Yen" and despatch boat "Chen 
Kiang, " having been cut off by the French, were 
attacked by torpedo boats under cover of dark- 
ness. One was blown up, while the other was sunk 
Affair of by shots fired wildly from her own consort during 

Sheipoo J •' 

the confusion. This was the last striking event 
of the war on water. The French troops under 
General N^grier, who had advanced against the 
Chinese forces intrenched at Bangbo, were forced, 
on March 24, after seven hours of righting, to retire 

1885 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1659 

with a loss of 200. On the 28th they suffered an- 
other repulse and were forced to evacuate Langson. o^K 63 
General Negrien was severely wounded, and 1,200 
of his men were placed hors de combat. In July 
the Annamites attacked the French garrison at 
Hue, but were repulsed by General de Courcy 
with great loss. The French finally took posses- 
sion of the citadel. The kingdom of Cambodia, 
which had been a protectorate since 1863, was an- 

- 1 French an» 

nexed to Cochin-China. The port of Ofok, at the nexation3 
entrance to the Eed Sea, was annexed to the French 
possessions, and on the west coast of Africa Porto- 
Novo was occupied. 

Nevertheless, Ferry's Ministry, after two years 
of office, was overthrown by a vote of the Cham- 
bers, condemning the government policy pursued 
in China. 

Li Hung Chang was appointed Chinese Plenipo- 
tentiary to negotiate with Count Ito. At that time 
China had a much stronger position in Korea than 
Japan, but this advantage was lost by an agree- 
ment which tied the hands of China. In a compact 
signed at Tien-tsin, on April 18, China acknowl- 
edged that Japan's right to control was equal to 
her own. It was provided, first, that both the 
countries should recall their troops from Korea; 
secondly, that no more officers should be sent by 
either country to drill Korean soldiers ; and, thirdly, convention 
that neither country should send forces to Korea in 
the future without previously informing the other 
party to the convention. 

Late in the year, the Japanese triple government 

1660 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 18S5 

of Ministers, Privy Council and Premiership was 
superseded by a modern Cabinet of Ministers, pre- 
sided over by a Minister-President. Ito and Inouye 
assumed charge. The old government board was 
reorganized so radically that many thousand office- 
holders were discharged. By this time a modern 

JJjJgS P osta -l department had been established, which han- 
dled nearly 1,000,000 letters and packages a year. 
The Japan Mail Shipping Company ran a large fleet 
of passenger steamers and merchantmen. Some 
250 miles of railroad were operated by native engi- 
neers, while 300 more miles were in process of con- 
struction. Electric lights and telephones were now 
used in the large cities, and four submarine cables 
established telegraphic connection with the rest of 
the world. 

Death of On May 22, Victor Hugo died at Paris. This 

Victor J & 

Hugo greatest of modern French authors was born at 
Besancjon, in 1802, the son of a French general 
His first novel, "Han d'Islande," appeared in 1823 
and was followed by "Bug Jargal," in 1825. In 
1828 a complete edition of his "Odes et Ballades' 
appeared. In these productions Hugo's anti-clas 
sical tendencies were already manifest. The ap 
pearance of his drama, "Cromwell," in 1827, with 
its celebrated preface, gave the watchword to the 
anti-classical or romantic school. A prose solilo- 
quy, entitled "Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamiu','' 
designed as a protest against the infliction of capi- 
tal punishment, was published in 1829. "Hernani" 
was brought on the stage in 1830. Other dramas 
followed: "Marion Delorme," 1829; "Le Roi 


s' Amuse," 1832; "Lucrece Borgia," 1833; "Marie 
Tudor," 1833; "Angelo," 1835; "Buy Bias, " His works 
1838; "Les Bourgraves," 1843. During these 
years Victor Hugo also published the novel, 
"Ndtre Dame de Paris," and several volumes 
of poetry. His earlier verse had a melody and 
grace superior perhaps to any that he afterward 
wrote, but it lacked the deep sympathy with 
human life which is characteristic of Hugo's later 
poems. During the same period he also wrote his 
critical essays on Mirabeau and Voltaire, and a 
number of articles for the "Eevue de Paris." In career 
1841, after having been twice proposed in vain, 
he was elected a member of the French Academy. 
In 1845 he was made a peer of France by Louis 
Philippe. The Eevolution of 1848 threw Hugo 
into the political struggle. At first his vote was 
Conservative, but afterward he became one of the 
chiefs of the democratic party. After the coup 
a stat, December 2, 1851, he was one of those who 
kept up the struggle in the streets against Napo- 
leon to the last. He then fled to Brussels, where 
he published the first of his bitter satires on the 
founder of the Second Empire, "Napoleon le Petit." 
In the following year, 1853, came the second and 
famous volume of "Les Chatiments, " a wonderful 
mixture of satirical invective, lyrical passion and 
pathos. Victor Hugo then went to live in Jersey, 
where he wrote ' ' The History of a Crime, ' ' a story 
of the coup d'etat. He was then expelled with 
other French exiles by the English Government, ggjjg* 
in 1855, and finally settled in Guernsey. It was 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— R 

1662 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1886 

in the comparative solitude of the Channel Island 
that he wrote most of the great works of his later 
years. In 1856, he published "Les Contempla- 
tions," and in 1859 appeared "La Le*gende des 
Siecles, " a work far more striking than any of 
its predecessors for its brilliancy and energy, its 
literary skill and its powerful conceptions. In 1862 
appeared his great social romance* "Les Mis£ra- 
bles, " which was issued simultaneously in nine 
languages. A volume of poetry, "Chansons des 
Hues et des Bois, " intervened before the appear- 
ance of a second important prose work, dealing 
with metaphysical and social problems, "Les Tra- 
vailleurs de la Mer, " 1866. "L'Homme qui Kit" 
appeared in 1869. In 1870, after the fall of the 

Return l l 

to France Empire, Victor Hugo returned to Paris, where he 
brought out "L'Annee Terrible." There he spent 
his old age in literary labor. In 1874 appeared the 
great historical romance, "Quatra-Vingt-Treize, " 
which was issued in ten languages. Numerous 
other works followed. On February 27, 1881, he 
celebrated his eightieth birthday, which could be 
compared only to that of Voltaire in 1788. Few 
monarchs have received such an ovation as was 
accorded to this poet and novelist. His funeral, 
on June 1, was the occasion of another great popu- 
lar demonstration. The procession left the Arc de 
Triomphe at 9 A.M., and at 7 P.M. the last bat- 
tery of artillery still drove toward the Pantheon. 
" The last conspicuous event of the year in France 

elected* was GreVy's re-election, on December 28, as Presi- 
dent of the French Republic. 

XlXtk Cent., Vol. Three 


In America, General Ulysses S. Grant died, July 
23, at Mount McGregor, near Saratoga. He was 
born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, in 1822, of Scotch 
ancestry. After graduating from the military acad- Death of 
emy at West Point, he served during the Mexican Grant* 1 
War, taking part in every battle except Buena 
Vista. In 1854 he resigned and engaged in farm- 
ing near St. Louis. On the declaration of war in 
1861 he was chosen captain of a company of volun- 
teers, and was soon promoted to a colonelcy, and 
rose to all the succeeding steps through his eminent 
services throughout the Civil War. After the war, 
Congress, in recognition of his services, passed an 
act reviving the grade of "General of the Army 
of the United States," to which Grant was im- 
mediately appointed. In 1868, he was elected 
President, and was re-elected over Horace Greeley 
in 1872. Grant died from a cancer in the throat, 
the result of excessive smoking. On August 8, 
his body was interred in New York City, on the 
bank of the Hudson Eiver, near the battlefield of 
Harlem. The funeral pageant was imposing in its 
grandeur. A military procession of 25,000 was 
headed by the most distinguished generals and ad- 
mirals of the Federal and Confederate armies. A g s 
service was also held for General Grant at West- career 8 
minster Abbey in England. A magnificent tomb 
has since been erected over his grave. Simple, 
reticent, earnest, and persevering in his character, 
Grant owed his military success not so much to 
strategy as to superior numbers and resources, hard 
fighting, and dogged determination. 

1664 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1885 

Grant s comrade-in-arms, General George B. Mc- 
Clellan, died on October 25, in his fifty-ninth year. 
He was born at Philadelphia, in December, 1826. 
Death oi Graduated from West. Point in 18-16, he joined the 
MccieTian army as second lieutenant of engineers, to take an 
active part in the Mexican War. There he distin- 
guished himself under General Scott. On his re- 
turn to America from the Crimea, where he studied 
campaigning, he resigned his commission in the 
army, and became technical director of the Illinois 
Central Railway. At the commencement of the 
Civil War, President Lincoln appointed him to 
the rank of Major-General in the regular army. 
After a successful campaign in western Virginia, 
he was made Commander-in-Chief, and reorganized 
the shattered army. In 1864 he was the Democratic 
candidate for the Presidency, and was defeated. 
In 1877 he was elected Governor of New Jersey. 
He published many military papers. Of McClellan 
it may be said that he was not big enough for his 
opportunities. President Lincoln, notwithstanding 
McClellan's overbearing conduct, which gave rise 
to apprehensions that he might establish a military 
dictatorship, gave him every chance. As Lincoln 
put it: "I will gladly hold General McClellan's 
bridle, if he will only go ahead and win." Mc- 
Clellan, however, failed to fulfil these expectations. 
Bi^arct ^ n Germany, Prince Bismarck's seventieth birth- 
day, and the fiftieth anniversary of his entrance 
into public life, was celebrated, on April 1, with 
great enthusiasm throughout the German Empire. 
The Bismarck of this period lives for later gener- 


1885 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1665 

ations in the great portraits of Franz Lenbach. 
Long before he undertook these portraits, Lenbach 
had taken rank as the foremost portrait painter 
of Germany. Born in the Bavarian highlands as Franz 
the son of a carpenter, Lenbach began his artistic Lenbach 
career in Munich, where he was encouraged by 
Piloty and Baron von Schack. Piloty sent the young 
painter to Eome at his own expense. After his 
return, he was made a professor at Weimar, where 
he was associated with Keinhold Begas and Bock- 
lin. Having resigned his chair, Lenbach went to 
Spain, where he schooled himself for his chosen 
profession of portrait painting by copying most of 
the canvases of Velasquez and of Titian in the 
galleries of Madrid. At the Paris Exposition, in 
1857, he obtained a medal for one of his own early 
portraits. Eeturning to Munich, he became the 
painter of princes and prelates, and the fame of 
his portraits ever grew. 

On June 17, Field- Marshal Baron von Manteuf- 
fel died at seventy-six, having survived the three 
last German campaigns in Denmark, Austria and 

Germany, at the instigation of Prince Bismarck, 
pursued a vigorous colonial policy, obtaining, among 
other lands, a long strip of coast in West Africa. 
Soon Prince Bismarck had a conference called at 
Berlin to determine the question of the new Congo 
country, which England, through a treaty with Por- 
tugal, seemed about to acquire. The Congo basin 
was denned by the conference as embracing 2,000,- Colonial 
000 square miles of territory, which was placed 

1666 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1886 

under the control of an International Commission, 
and made free to the trade of all nations. England 
was allowed to control the Lower Niger and France 
the upper portion of that river. Russia continued 
the construction of her military railway beyond the 
Caspian, and in the early part of the year her 
troops, under General Alikanov, seized the Merv 
Oasis, thus making the Russian arms predominant 
in Central Asia. 

The policy pursued in Africa, and the tardy war 
measures undertaken against Russia, had greatly 
discredited the Gladstone Ministry, and after Par- 
liament opened, the government on several occa- 
sions narrowly escaped defeat. The Ministry were 
also at odds on the question of continuing coercion 
laws in Ireland, the Crimes Act having expired. 
It was ultimately determined to retain certain 
clauses of the act. At this juncture the question 
of raising a tax on beer was introduced. The Irish 
Ghilistone P ar ty> taking advantage of the situation to prevent 
IS ry the continuance of the Crimes Act clauses, voted 
with the opposition, and the government was de- 
feated by a vote of 264 to 252. Gladstone promptly 
resigned, and Lord Salisbury formed a Ministry. 

The political history of eastern Europe, during 
the latter part of the year, turned entirely on the 
Eastern Roumelian question, and the war between 
Servia and Bulgaria which followed it. The 
movement for a union between Bulgaria and 
Eastern Roumelia, fomented by the Panslavist 
communities in Russia, and the Russian officers 
in Bulgaria, had made considerable progress. 

1885 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1667 

While the revolution was secretly preparing in 
Eastern Koumelia, Bulgaria remained passive, but 

-r-»- ii t T-i -i-i'- Roumelia 

Prmce Alexander meanwhile was persuaded to iom joins 

*■ ' Bulgaria 

the movement, should the revolution be successful. 
The date for the outbreak was the end of Septem- 
ber. But by the 16th the insurrection was in prog- 
ress, and, on the 18th, Prince Alexander received 
the deputation which offered him the title of ruler 
of southern Bulgaria. On the 20th, he entered 
Philippopolis, accompanied by his Prime Minister 
and the officers of his household. While the agi- 
tation between the Powers as to the government 
of Eastern Eoumelia still continued, the Czar, on 
November 7, ordered Prince Alexander's name to 
be struck off the rolls of the Eussian army. On Ser , via 

•' makes war 

the 14th, the Servian army invaded Bulgaria with- 
out a previous declaration of war. Each side ac- 
cused the other of having provoked a conflict. 
The campaign was short but sanguinary. On both 
sides the rulers assumed the chief command, and 
the Servians boldly pushed their way into Bulgarian 
territory. It became evident that Turkey hoped 
that the Bulgarian difficulty would be settled by 
the capture of Sofia by the Servians, the abdica- 
tion or deposition of Prince Alexander, and the 
submission of the beaten Bulgarians to the Powers. 
But the fortune of war decided otherwise. On No- sliTnitz a 
vember 17, near Slivnitza, after a series of bloody 
encounters, in which Alexander was conspicu- 
ous for his bravery, the Servian army was driven 
back toward the Dragoman Pass. Still the Prince 
was little confident of his power to repel the in- 

stops the 

1668 ^1 HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1885 

vasion, and two days later he tendered his submis- 
sion to the Sultan, stating that he had completely 
evacuated Eastern Koumelian territory. Meanwhile, 

Bulgarians tne Servian forces were in full retreat, and on 

sSSS the 26th, Prince Alexander with 60,000 entered 
Servia, driving the Servians before him. On No- 
vember 27, he occupied Priot, but was stopped 
by a declaration made in the name of the Emperor 
of Austria, that if the Bulgarians went further 
they would have to meet Austrian instead of Ser- 
vian troops. An appeal was made to the Powers 
to settle the question. The Commission appointed 
completed its task on December 21, when it signed 
a protocol, stipulating that there should be mutual 
evacuation on the 25th and on the 27th, and that 
an armistice should continue until March 1. 

In India, war was once more declared against the 
King of Burma. In November, the British troops 

Burmese were ordered to advance upon Mandalay. General 
Prendergast, having captured Pregan on the Ira- 
waddy on the 22d, advanced rapidly up the river, 
and appeared before Myngan on the 25th, where the 
Burmese were in force. After a bombardment by 
the gunboats, a naval brigade landed and occupied 
the town without resistance. King Thebaw sued 
for peace. 

Georpe George Meredith, the English novelist, this year 


published his famous "Diana of the Crossways." 
Four years previously he had published "The Tragic 
Comedians," one of his masterpieces, founded on an 
episode from the life of Lasalle. His first book of 
"Poems" appeared as early as 1851. After several 


prose poems he published "The Ordeal of Eichard 
Feverel," which won him great popularity. Of 
the novels dealing with ethical problems, "Evan 
Harrington," "Emilia in England," "Khoda Flem- 
ing," "Vittoria, " and "The Adventures of Harry 
Eichmond, " are deserving of mention. 

Jens Peter Jacobsen, the Danish novelist, died J|™ P g eter 
in this year. Born at Aarhus, in 1847, he brought 
out his first novel "Mogens," in 1872. His mas- 
terpieces were "Marie Grubbe," and "Nils Lyhne," 
published after seven years of incessant application. 
Shortly before his death, Jacobsen succeeded in 
finishing an excellent translation into Danish of 
"Origin of Species." 

Jacobsen 's most promising literary rival was 
Holger Drachmann. Born in the same year with {^llhrnan 
Jacobsen, he was a far more prolific writer, and 
soon took rank as the foremost Danish romancer 
of the sea. His verses, like his stories, are full of 
life and action, resembling in this respect those 
of his British contemporary, Eudyard Kipling. 




HE disturbed condition mto which eastern 
Europe was thrown by the Roumelian revo- 
lution and the Servian- Bulgarian war con- 
tinued throughout the year. On March 1, after 
much tedious negotiations, a treaty of peace be- 
tween Servia and Bulgaria was signed. Later in 
the year Russia, through her agents in Bulgaria, 
succeeded in accomplishing her end. At midnight, 
on August 21, a party of officers at Sofia forced 
Alexander their way into Prince Alexander's bedchamber and 

of Batten- J 

abducted attempted to extort from him his abdication. On 
his refusal he was carried off and put on board 
a steamer, which landed him at Reni on Russian 
territory. The Provisional Government at Sofia 
then issued a proclamation declaring the deposi- 
tion of Prince Alexander a political necessity. 
His friends at once established a rival govern- 
ment at Tirnova. The militia was called out, 
and, supported by popular feeling, upset the Sofia 
government and arrested the principal conspirators. 

Bui-arian On September 3, Prince Alexander returned and 

throne r 

vacant made a state entry into Sofia, but a few days after 
this, under the cloud of the Czar's disapproval, he 
renounced the throne. He left Sofia the next day. 
The Great Sobranje then offered the crown to 

,886 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1671 

Prince Waldemar of Denmark, but lie declined it. 
The Prince of Montenegro was next put forward 
semi-officially by Kussia, but was rejected by 
the Bulgarian Government. Finally the delegates 
offered the crown to Prince Ferdinand of Saxe- 
Coburg. At Sofia a great meeting had been held 
in support of the Bulgarian Begency. General 
Kaulbars, the Bussian Commissioner, attempted to 
address the people, but their menacing demeanor 
compelled him to desist. Another incident in mtri su e9 
Eastern Boumelia was the seizure of Bourgas, on 
the Black Sea, on November 4, by a body of Mon- 
tenegrins under the leadership of the Bussian Cap- 
tain Nabokov. The town was speedily recovered 
by forces despatched by the Begency at Tirnova. 
Finally, on the 19th, Bussia recalled General Kaul- 
bars from Bulgaria. He left Sofia without dem- 
onstration, and was followed by the other Bussian 
agents and consuls throughout the country. The 
protection of Bussian subjects in Bulgaria was 
committed to the French Consul- General. 

Friction between Bussia and England was obvi- 
ated in a measure by the Anglo- Bussian delimita- 
tion commission concerning the boundary of Afghan- 
istan. A British expeditionary force under General 
Gordon in Burma met^with resistance when attack- JJ B^me 
ing Bosweh at Maphe, but dislodged the enemy. 
At the same time, Major Haines failed to dislodge 
1,500 Burmese near Tumensoo and had to retire. 
The island of Socroto, east of Cape Guardafui near 
the line of the route commanding the Gulf of Aden, 
was annexed by Great Britain in the autumn. 

1672 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1K» 

European customs in the Far East were gaining 
recognition. On October 18, a decree was issued in 
Japan making European dress at court ceremonies 
obligatory. In Tonquin, General Courcy, whose 
rule had been disturbed by a terrible massacre of 
native Christians and by the spread of rebellion 
in Annam, was recalled by the French Govern- 

PauiBert ment. Paul Bert, the distinguished Minister of 
Public Instruction under Gambetta, was appointed 
Eesident-General to accomplish the task in which 
the military men had failed. At the beginning of 
April he reached Hanoi. In spite of the strained 
relations between the civil and military authorities 
he managed to put French rule before the natives 
in a more attractive light. Worn out by work and 
anxiety he died after a brief rule of six months. 

About this time in Spain a posthumous son of 
King Alfonso was born at Madrid. The infant 
was proclaimed as King Alfonso XIII. About two 

o? Spain r hundred soldiers, supported by a few civilians, re- 
belled at Madrid. The revolt was easily quelled. 
At the marriage of the Prince Royal of Portugal, 
Don Carlos, with the eldest daughter of the Comte 
de Paris, Princesse Amelie d'Orleans, M. Billoc, 
representing President GreVy of France, had made 
use of these words: "Let me express the sym- 
pathy with which my government looks upon a 
union which will establish a future tie between 
the two nations. " After stormy debates over these 
impolitic words both Chambers voted for the ex- 
pulsion of the French pretenders. The law which 
was applied to the two chiefs of the Houses of 

1886 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1673 

Bourbon and Bonaparte, and their direct heirs, 
was forthwith promulgated. A few days after 
the departure of Prince Napoleon, Prince Victor, 
Comte de Paris, and the Due d' Orleans, General E lsion 
Boulanger struck from the army roll the names of p r iJcls Ch 
all the princes of Bourbon and Bonaparte families. 
The Due d'Aumale remonstrated. He, too, was 
expelled from France. 

The colossal Statue of Liberty erected in New 
York Harbor by the French sculptor Bartholdi 
was formally dedicated by President Cleveland in 
June. Major- General Winfield Scott Hancock died 
in his sixty- second year. He served in the Mexican 
"War, and took part in the battles of San Antonio, 
Cherubusco, Contreras, Molino del Key, and the 

' J1 Death of 

capture of the City of Mexico. In 1861 he was Hancock 
made brigadier- general of volunteers, and was from 
that time until the termination of the war connected 
with the Army of the Potomac. He held the post 
of commander of the Eastern Division of the United 
States Army, until his death. 

On August 4, Samuel J. Tilden, ex- Governor of 
New York State, died at Greystone, Yonkers, aged Samuel 
seventy-two years. In 1873 he came into promi- 
nence by his fearless prosecution of the Tweed 
Eing, and was elected Governor of New York in 
1874. By his telling exposures of the corrupt 
practices of the Canal Eing he succeeded in sav- 
ing some $8,000,000 of the public funds. In ..876 
Tilden was nominated for the Presidency. Accord- 
ing to his adherents, he was elected, but was cheated 
out of the honor by a corrupt count in the South. 

1674 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1888 

On his death he bequeathed a large part of his 
private fortune to New York City for the erection 
of a public library. 
Death of Chester Alan Arthur, twenty-first President of 
Ir?hi ent the United States, died on November 18 at New 
York City. During the Civil War he attained the 
rank of general. In 1880 he was elected Vice- 
President, and on the assassination of Garfield 
became President. Soon after his accession, the 
leaders of the Kepublican Party in New York 
claimed that he had violated his predecessor's 
promises, and broke with him. They were not sus- 
tained by their constituents. 

Late in the summer a large band of hostile 
Lawton Apaches under Geronimo surrendered at Skeleton 

runs down r 

Geronimo Canyon. Here Lawton, later distinguished for his 
gallantry in the Spanish- American and Philippine 
wars, came into prominence. 

At the age of sixty, Joseph Victor von Scheffel, 
the German poet and novelist, died at Karlsruhe. 
After studying law at Heidelberg, Munich and 
Berlin, Scheffel received a judicial appointment 

victor at Sceckineren and later at Bruchsal. In these 

Scheffel ° 

early days (1852) he wrote his famous romantic 
poem "Der Trompeter von Saeckingen. " Three 
years after the appearance of the "Trompeter," he 
published the historical novel "Ekkehard, " one of 
the most popular German works of fiction. Later 
publications were "Frau Aventiure" (a collection 
of lyrics), "Juniperus, " "Bergspalmen," "Wal- 
deinsamkeit, " and the rollicking student songs 
which bear the title "Gaudeamus. " 

1886 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1675 

On June 10, it was officially announced that King 
Louis II. of Bavaria was insane and not able tofLvaria 
continue his reign. His uncle, Prince Luitpold, 
assumed the Regency together with the command 
of the Bavarian army, since the king's brother, 
Prince Otto, suffered likewise from incurable 
lunacy. Some Bavarian physicians had the hardi- 
hood to deny that the king was insane, but the 
question was set at rest by an autopsy after the 
unfortunate king's suicide in the Lake of Starnberg 
five days later. Like his grandfather and name- The mad 


sake, King Louis had shown himself a great pa- suicide 
tron of the arts, especially of music and the drama. 
Soon after 1871, when he was prevailed upon to 
offer the imperial crown to King William of Prus- 
sia, he began to withdraw himself from public 
affairs. Leaving the foreign policy of his king- 
dom to be directed by Bismarck, and its home af- 
fairs by a Liberal Ministry, he devoted himself to 
the gratification of his musical and esthetic taste^ 
He took Eichard Wagner under his protection, en- 
abling that eminent composer to produce his chief and 18 E# 
works at Munich on a large scale. Later, King agner 
Louis, exasperated by the hostile attitude of the 
people at Munich, built a great opera-house at 
Bayreuth for Wagner's productions. Although 
the Bavarian civil list was ample, King Louis, 
by his mania for building magnificent palaces, in- 
volved himself in financial straits, calling for the 
interference of his Ministers and his family. The 
project of deposing him was first broached in 1875, 
but was not carried into effect until this year. 

1676 A HISTORY OF THE Summer MM 

By the connivance of his guards he was removed 
from his castle, Hohenschwangau, to confinement 
at Schloss Berg. Three days after his arrival, 
on the 15th, the King and his special physician, 
Dr. von Gutten, were found drowned in the waters 
of the lake bordering the castle garden. The Ba- 
varian peasantry still believe that their unhappy 
King succumbed to a court cabal. 

Six weeks after this Franz Liszt died at Bay- 
reuth. Liszt, whose baptismal name was Ferencz, 
was born at Eaiding near (Edenburg, Hungary, in 
1811. His musical instruction, under the tutelage 
of his father, began at six. After appearing in 
several public concerts at Vienna, in 1821, Liszt 

Death of r 

Liszt went to Paris, but was refused admittance to the 
Conservatory by Cherubini, who objected to infant 
prodigies. He remained at Paris and soon brought 
out a one-act operetta, "Don Sancho, ou le Chateau 
de 1' Amour. " The advent of Paganini moved him 
to hitherto unprecedented feats in technique. With 
the Countess d'Agoult, who wrote under the name 
of Daniel Stern, Liszt retired from Paris society 
to Geneva, in 1835. Three children were born to 
them, one of whom, Cosima, became the wife 
of Richard Wagner. During this period Liszt 
appeared in public but once, to vanquish his rival 
on the piano, Thalberg. In 1839, he set out for 
a triumphant concert tour through Europe, and for 
the next ten years the world rang with his fame. 
In 1849, he was called to the Court of Weimar, 
where his commanding position enabled him to 
bring out the despised works of Wagner, and some 

3886 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1677 

of the more extreme creations of Schumann and 
Berlioz. At Weimar the virtuoso matured into career 
a full-fledged composer. There he originated the 
orchestral conception of symphonic poems. Owing 
to the opposition encountered over the production 
of Cornelius' "Barber of Bagdad," Liszt removed 
to Eome, where Pope Pio Nono made him an 
Abbe". 'In 1807, he was recalled to Weimar to con- 
duct the Beethoven festival. Elected director of 
the new Hungarian Academy of Music at Pesth, 
he divided the last ten years of his life between 
Weimar, Eome and Pesth, followed everywhere by 
throngs of pupils and admirers. He died in the 
midst of one of the Wagner festivals at Bayreuth. 
The complete catalogue of Liszt's original composi- 
tions and transcriptions is too long for enumeration. 
To the literature of music Liszt contributed three 
volumes on Chopin, Franz, and Wagner, as well 
as his celebrated work on "The Gypsies and Their 

Germany next lost one of her foremost artists by 
the death of Karl Theodor von Piloty. Born at 
Munich, in 1826, Piloty studied at the Academy 
there under his father. After completing his stud- 
ies in Paris and Brussels, Piloty was commissioned younger 
by King Maximilian of Bavaria to paint a number piloty 
of historical subjects. He achieved national fame 
by his celebrated canvas of "Seni before the Dead 
Wallenstein. " Equally famous are his "Discovery 
of America," and "Thusnelda at the Triumph of 
Germanicus. ' ' 

With the death oi the historian Leopold von 

1678 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1888 

Ranke Germany lost another of her most distin- 
guished sons. His first published work was a his- 
tory of the Romance and Teutonic nations from 
Leopold 1"^ to 1535. This was followed by "Princes and 
von Ranke p e0 pi es f Southern Europe in the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries." His celebrated "History 
of the Popes" was published in the thirties. His- 
tories of Germany, Prussia, France, and England 
at different periods, were published between 1839 
and 1868. At the age of eighty-six, Ranke com- 
menced his "History of the World," of which he 
published one volume each year. He had reached 
the death of Charlemagne when his labors were 
interrupted by his death. 

In March, a Socialistic manifestation to celebrate 
the anniversary of the Paris Commune was made 
at Liege. The united forces of the police and civic 
guard were necessary to restore order. Strikes oc- 
curred in the densely populated mining districts of 
the Valley of the Meuse. The situation at length 
became so serious that regular troops were re- 
European quired to restore order. Amsterdam likewise was 
onstrauonk the scene of disorders in March and July. Mass 
meetings of laboring men called for less working 
hours and for the imposition of an income tax, to 
provide the poor with daily bread. The military 
interfered and twenty-five persons were shot and 
ninety wounded. Serious riots of the unemployed 
occurred late in the year in England and Ireland. 



IN THE commencement of the year the attention 
of the world was drawn to Abyssinia. A scien- 
tific mission commanded by Count Salinbein 
had proposed to penetrate into the interior of the 
country. General Ge'ne, commanding the expedi- 
tionary force, had assured the mission that no 
military enterprise on the part of the Italians 
should compromise their safety. Only a few days 
had elapsed after this promise when the Italian 
troops marched out of the fortifications of Masso- The 

Italians in 

wah to meet Has Alula, commanding on behalf of Abyssinia 
King John of Abyssinia. Count Salinbein was at 
once made prisoner by the Abyssinians, and the 
evacuation of Massowah was demanded. On Jan- 
uary 25, Has Saati made an attack on the Italian 
lines, but after three hours' fighting was repulsed. 
The following day, three companies of Italian 
troops, despatched to revictual the garrison, were 
ambushed and overwhelmed. Twenty-three officers 

* Disaster of 

and 407 soldiers were killed, and all the guns f e ll Don & ola 
into the hands of the Abyssinians. An Italian 
Cabinet crisis resulted. 

In Great Britain, the failure of Gladstone's Home 
Eule Bill had only brought Irish affairs into greater 
prominence. Charles Parnell came forward with 

1680 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1887 

a bill for the diminution of Irish rents. The bill 
c<^TcKn h was rejected by a vote of 297 to 202. Arthur 
Balfour, Prime Minister Salisbury's nephew, now 
introduced a new coercion bill. Its passage through 
Parliament was secured by extraordinary means. 
On the day that a vote was to be taken in the 
House of Commons, on the second reading of 
the bill, April 18, the London "Times," under 
startling headlines, published in fac-simile a letter 
claimed to have been written by Parnell at the 
time of the Phoenix Park murders. The letter read 


"15 | 5 | 82. 

ThePigott "Dear Sir — I am not surprised at your friend's 
tetter anger, but he and you should know that to de- 
nounce the murders was the only course open to 
us. To do that promptly was plainly our best 

' ' But you can tell him and all others concerned 
that though I regret the accident of Lord F. Caven- 
dish's death, I cannot refuse to admit that Burke 
got no more than his deserts. 

"Charles S. Parnell." 

Parnell promptly denounced this letter as a for- 
charges gery. Nevertheless his supposed sympathy with the 


Pameii perpetrators of the Phoenix Park murder aroused 
all Tories against him. For several days before 
the publication of this letter the "Times" had 
published a series of articles entitled "Parnellism 
and Crime." The rest of the year passed before 
Parliament agreed to take up Parnell 's case as de- 
manded by him. One O'Donnell, feeling himself 
implicated, sued the "Times" for libel, but the 


trial, beyond revamping the charges against Par- 
nell, proved a fiasco. 

During the entire year, political interest centred 
in the Balkans. The throne of Bulgaria remained 
vacant. Nor could the Powers agree on a prince 
who would be likely to obtain the support of all 
parties. Russian agents fomented dissatisfaction. 
Alarming risings occurred at Silistria and Rust- 
chuk in early spring. Though they were easily 
put down by the government, the Regency did not 
possess sufficient confidence among the masses of 
the population to afford guarantees for the preser- Ferdinand 

OI 081X6- 

vation of order. Finally, on July 6, Prince Ferdi- Sited u> 
nand of Saxe-Coburg was unanimously elected DV Bul s ana 
the Sobranje to be Prince of Bulgaria. Russia re- 
fused her sanction. Prince Ferdinand accepted the 
proffered crown. The Sobranje was thereupon dis- 
solved and the Ministry resigned early in August. 
Three days later the Russian Charge d'Affaires at 
Constantinople submitted to the Porte a formal pro- 
test against the assumption of the Bulgarian govern- 
ment by Prince Ferdinand. Russia, Germany and 
France withheld their recognition of the Prince. 
By the end of the year the attitude of Russia had 
grown so menacing that war seemed almost in- 

In Russia, another attempt on the life of the Czar 
had been made on March 29. Nihilist trials fol- 
lowed with the usual sequel of the banishment of^mest 
several suspects to Siberia. Serious disturbances 
involving the arrest of a few hundred students 
next broke out at the University of Moscow. 


Spring 1887 

The city was put under military rule. The Uni- 
versities of Moscow and Kasan, as well as those 
of Odessa, Kharkov and St. Petersburg, were 

The Comte de Paris, in England, issued a 
lengthy manifesto "to the representatives of the 
Monarchical party in France," directing his fol- 
lowers in the Chambers to defend Conservative 
interests so as to show France how desirable was 
the re- establishment of monarchy. A dreadful dis- 
cSSuiue aster occurred in May, when the Ope'ra Comique 


at Paris was totally destroyed by a fire which 
broke out during the first act of the performance 
of "Mignon. " The actual number of lives lost was 
never satisfactorily ascertained, many bodies be- 
ing reduced to ashes. Eighty burned bodies were 
found and forty- five persons were reported miss- 
ing. M. Carvalla, director of the ill-fated Ope'ra 
Comique, was sentenced in December to three 
months' imprisonment and a fine of 50,000 francs. 
President Grevy resigned the Presidency of the French Ee- 
resigns public and quitted the Elysees the same evening. 
Disturbances occurred in various parts of Paris as 
soon as GreVy's resignation became known. 

In England, the fiftieth anniversary of Queen 
Victoria's reign was celebrated throughout the 
kingdom. The Queen drove in state from Bucking- 
victoria's ham Palace to Westminster Abbey, where a Special 
jubilee Jubilee Service was held. It was made the occa- 
sion of an impressive display of British colonial 
resources and loyalty. 

Jenny Lind, the famous singer, died in November 

1887 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1683 

at her home in the Malvern Hills, England. She 
was born in Stockholm, October 6, 1820. She re- 
ceived part of her musical education under Garcia 
at Paris; achieved her first success in Berlin, 1845; 
and was received with great ovation in her native 
city of Stockholm. In 1847 she appeared at Covent 
Garden, London, before an enthusiastic audience, 
and three years later went to America. Her profits 
during these two years were nearly $3,000,000. In 
1852 she married the composer, Otto Goldschmidt, 
at Boston. The same year she returned to Europe, ilnd y 
and, after an extensive tour, settled in England. 
Her triumphs in opera and concerts were eclipsed 
by her successes in oratorio. In Mendelssohn's 
"Elijah," and in Schumann's "Paradise and the 
Peri," her part as principal soprano were the most 
memorable events in her career. Her last public 
appearance was at Dusseldorf in 1870, when she 
took the soprano part in Otto Goldschmidt 's ora- 
torio "Euth. " In late years her talents were 
employed as professor in the Eoyal Academy of 
Music, and as trainer of women's voices in the 
Bach choir conducted by her husband. 

In America, the death of Henry Ward Beecher, 
the eminent clergyman, revived a scandal that had 
clouded his last years. Beecher made his reputa 

J r Henrv 

tion at the Plymouth Congregational Church in^^e 
Brooklyn. This pulpit he held from 1847 to 1882, 
until his disbelief in eternal punishment ended his 
formal connection with the Congregational Church. 
From 1861 to 1863 Beecher was editor of the "In- 
dependent," and for about ten years after 1870 of 

1684 A HISTORY OF THE Winter 1887 

the "Christian Union." He was also the author 
of many works, of which his "Lectures to Young 
Men" (1850), "Life Thoughts" (1872-74), and the 
weekly issues of his sermons commanded wide cir- 
culation. Few American preachers have appealed 
to so large and diverse a public. Another distin- 
guished ecclesiastic died this month (March 4) at 
Eome. This was old Father Beckz who had suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the readmission of the Jesuits 
into Austrian Venetia. 

In Hawaii, June 25, a peaceful revolution was 
effected. The whites, indignant at the corruption 
Revolution °f King Kalakaua's Ministry, assembled in force 
m awan and proceeded to the palace. The King at once 
consented to dismiss his Ministry and to submit 
to a constitution, by which his own power became 
merely nominal. 

On November 11, at Chicago, four of the eight 

anircfnsts anar chists engaged in a riot in the Haymarket were 

executed execu t e( j. two were sentenced to life imprisonment, 

another for fifteen years, and the other committed 


In Brazil, a great rising of slaves occurred on the 
plantations near San Palo in November. Troops 

Brazilian x 

revolt were called out, but the slaves took refuge in the 
forests and held their ground. The emancipation 
of the slaves throughout that vast empire was sen- 
sibly accelerated. 



THIS year is memorable to Germany for the 
death of two of her heroes. On March 9, 
old Emperor William I. died at Berlin. 
He was born March 22, 1797, second son of Fred- 
erick William III. , and grandnephew of Frederick Emperor 
the Great of Prussia. He was Eegent from Octo- 
ber, 1857, until the death of his brother, in 1861, 
when he became King of Prussia. In his youth 
he rendered himself very unpopular by his readi- 
ness to quell the insurrection of 1848 with grape 
and canister. This was forgiven, in 1870, when 
all Germany took up his supposed insult by the 
French Ambassador at Ems. In 1871, he was pro- 
claimed German Emperor, in the presence of all 
the sovereigns of Germany in the Hall of Mirrors 
at Versailles. He was a simple-minded man of 
soldierly tastes. Living in the full light of the 
Nineteenth Century, he still believed in the divine 
right of kings. He had the good judgment to sur- 
round himself with such excellent counsellors as 
Bismarck and Moltke, and to trust their wisdom. 
Though not a great man, he thus came to be a 
great sovereign. His only son succeeded him on Frederick 
the throne as Emperor Frederick III. The policy 
he intended to adopt during his reign was explained 
in a letter dated March 12, and addressed to Prince 

XtKth Century— Vol. 3— S 

1686 ^1 HISTORY OF THE Spring 1888 

Bismarck. The contents of this letter put Bis- 
marck in a bad humor. By the leaders of the 
.Liberal party, it was held to foreshadow a more 
liberal system of administration than that which 
had been hitherto pursued. The Emperor, how- 
ever, had little opportunity to exercise his sover- 
eign rights in the cause of freedom. In conse- 
quence of the serious condition of his health, a 
decree was issued on March 21, in which his son, 
Crown Prince W illiam, was intrusted with the set- 
tlement of government matters. Emperor Frederick 
was removed to the Riviera, and an English throat 

Frederick specialist was summoned. All efforts to save his 
life proved vain. After a reign of ninety- nine days, 
Emperor Frederick died on June 15. To him, as 
much as to Bismarck, belongs the credit of re- 
establishing the German Empire under Prussian 

The difference in spirit between Emperor Freder- 
ick and his son was soon clearly shown. Frederick 
opened his reign with an address to his people. 

William ii. William II. began his with an order to the Prussian 

'War ° 

Lord " army. When William opened the German Reich- 
stag, on June 25, he pledged himself to continue 
the policy of his late grandfather, but made no 
allusion to that of his father. On October 15, 
Hamburg, the oldest free city of the Hanseatic 
League, ceased to be a free port and was incor- 
porated in the "Zollverein. " 

England this year lost three distinguished men. 
On February 3, Sir Henry James Sumner Maine, 
the English jurist, died at Cannes. Educated at 


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1888 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1687 

Cambridge, he became Regius Professor of Civil 
Law at that University. From 1862 to 1869 hegSj&tot 
was law member of the Supreme Council in India. 
On his return to England he was elected Corpus 
Christi Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford, and, 
in 1877, was master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 
His most enduring works are "Ancient Law in 
Connection with the Early History of Society and 
Its Relation to Modern Ideas," and the "W he well 
Lectures on International Law," delivered at the 
University of Cambridge, in 1877. Next came the 
death of Matthew Arnold, the critic, essayist and 
poet. He was born at Leleham, in 1822. In 1858 Matthew 
he was Professor of Literature at Oxford. Most Arnold 
important among his works are "A Strayed Rev- 
eller and Other Poems," 1848; "Empedocles on 
Etna," 1853; "Merope," 1858; "Lectures on Trans- 
lating Homer," 1861; "Essays on Criticism," 1865; 
"Study of Celtic Literature," 1867; "Culture and 
Anarchy," 1869; "St. Paul and Protestantism," 
1870, and "Literature and Dogma," 1873. Lau- 
rence Oliphant, who had tried to found a social- 
istic religious community in Portland, New York, 
died November 23 at Twickenham. He assisted 
Elgin, Governor- General of Canada. A narrative of 
Elgin's voyage to China and Japan was the most 
noted of his works, among which were " Sym- ouphant 
pneumata," and "The Hand of Gilead," peculiar 
for mysticism and a strong tendency toward spirit- 
ualism. His life from the time that he participated 
in the Italian Revolution of 1848, until his service 
as a war correspondent in 1870, was most eventful. 


Summer 1888 

Death of 

William Wilson Corcoran, the American finan- 
cier and philanthropist, died in February. Having 
taken over most of the United States bonds at the 
time of the Mexican War, Corcoran found himself 
Corcoran with $ 12; 000,000 of the United States six per cent 
loan on his hands, in a falling market. Hurrying 
to England, he persuaded English bankers to sup- 
port the loan, and thus raised its value above par. 
This negotiation laid the foundation of Corcoran 's 
great wealth. His charities exceeded $5,000,000. 
Most notable among them were the foundation of 
the Margaret Louisa Home in New York and the 
magnificent Corcoran Art Gallery of Washington. 

This year in Egypt was tranquil as compared 
with some of the preceding years. On Septem- 
ber 21, Suakim was regularly invested by' the 
rebel Dervishes, 2,000 strong, who dug trenches, 
mounted guns, and threw shells at the town. Gen- 

Siege of ° ' 

suakim era i Q ren f e n sen t to England for reinforcements. 
Ten days later the British and Egyptian troops, 
under Grenfell at Suakim, made an attack on the 
Arab position, which was carried after fierce re- 
sistance. The Arabs lost heavily. The casualties 
among the British troops were nil. At the same 
time a British protectorate was proclaimed over 
North Borneo, Birunei, and Sarawak, comprising 
British an- 2,000 miles of coast and 70,000 square miles of 
neiations ^jpftory. The Suez Canal Convention was signed 
by the representatives of the Powers on October 29. 
It guaranteed free navigation at all times. In Abys- 
sinia the position of the Italians near Alite, in April, 
was relieved by the retreat of the Abyssinians. 

1888 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1689 

Two distinguished soldiers of France died within 
a short time of each other in the summer. Both 
had their share of execration as well as of honors. 
The first of these was Marshal Lebceuf , whose name Death of 
is indissolubly associated with the disasters of the Lebceuf 
Franco-German war. On the death of Marshal Niel, 
in August, 1869, General Lebceuf became Minister 
of War. When the war of 1870 was declared, he 
expressed unbounded confidence in the readiness of 
the army, reporting, "So ready are we, that if the 
war lasted two years we should not even have 
a gaiter button to finish. ' ' Lebceuf was appointed, 
or rather appointed himself, Major- General of the 
Army of the Ehine, but had to resign after the 
defeats at Weissenburg and Worth and the resig- 
nation of the Ollivier Cabinet. Despite the outcry 
against the disorganization which now came to light, 
he was appointed to a command under Bazaine, and 
was shut up with him in Metz. Later, he testified 
against Bazaine. 

Marshal Bazaine himself died, in exile, within a 
short time of his detractor. Born at Versailles, in 
1811, he went through the Ecole Polytechnique, Bazaine 
entered the army in 1831, and in the following 
year served in Africa. In 1837 he accompanied 
the Foreign Legion into Spain, and after two vigor- 
ous campaigns against the Carlists, he returned to 
Algeria, in 1839, with the rank of Captain. During 
the next nine years Captain Bazaine saw much ac- 
tive service. On the outbreak of the war in the 
East, in 1854, he was chosen to command the bri- 
gade of infantry formed out of the Foreign Legion. 

1690 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1888 

In the Italian campaign he distinguished himself at 
Marignano and Solferino. In the Mexican cam- 
paign he was put in chief command and received 
the rank of Marshal. Even then he was charged 
with having betrayed Maximilian. Though se- 
verely criticised in France, he was made a Senator. 
During the Franco- Prussian War he gained unen- 
viable notoriety by his capitulation of Metz with 
180,000 men, 3,000 guns, and 40,000,000 francs of 
treasure. Gambetta said, "Such a crime is beyond 
the chastisements of justice. - ' But no attempt was 
made to mete out the proper punishment to Ba- 
zaine until 1873, when he was court- martialled at 
Versailles, the Duke of Aumale presiding, and was 


dafion convicted of criminal incapacity and treacherous 
designs to restore the Empire. He was degraded 
and sentenced to death, but having had his sen- 
tence commuted, was permitted to escape from his 
prison. The last years of his life were spent in 
poverty at Madrid. 

In France popular dissatisfaction with the Repub- 
lican institutions became more marked. While the 
government passed into the hands of the Radicals, 
the most significant electoral successes fell to the 
Monarchists. In April, disturbances arose in Paris 
from an anti-Boulanger demonstration made by the 
students of the Latin Quarter. They crossed the 

lander's Seine and were met by the followers of Boulanger. 
The conflict had to be stopped by the police, who at 
length restored order by blocking the bridges over 
the Seine. As the result of a passage of words 
in the Chamber, a duel was fought in July, be- 



tween Boulanger and Floquet, in which both were 
wounded. An expected coup d'etat by Boulanger 
was the talk of the day. Other disturbances oc- 
curred in various parts of France during August. 
The funeral of the Communist, General Emdes, 
who had fallen dead while addressing a number 
of Parisian strikers, occasioned an Anarchist dem- 
onstration. At Amiens a serious riot, arising out 
of the strike of the velvet weavers, was checked 


only when the soldiers charged and wounded many labor riota 
people. The weavers of Lille, the glass-blowers 
of Lyons, and in Paris the stone masons and res- 
taurant waiters, all struck for higher wages and 
fewer hours of work. Not until the 17th did 
the strike of the Parisian navvies come to an 
end. It had lasted nearly a month, and the 
funds of the labor organization were exhausted. 

On November 14, the Pasteur Institution in Paris 
for the treatment of hydrophobia was opened by the 
French President. Ferdinand de Lesseps' attempt 
to issue a fresh series of 1,000,000 bonds to "finish 
the Panama Canal" failed to attract subscribers for 
more than 200,000 of them. The proposal was con- 
sequently withdrawn, and, the government having 
appointed a committee to administer the affairs £^ ama 
of the company, De Lesseps resigned his director- 
ship. Great anxiety prevailed as to the attitude of 
the shareholders. On December 15, the bill brought 
in by the French Ministers to suspend for three 
months the payment for which the company was 
liable was rejected by a large majority. 

In Brazil, the Chamber of Deputies voted the 

1692 A HISTORY OF THE March 1888 

immediate and unconditional abolition of slavery 
in May. Cuba, in the meantime, had relapsed into 
its disturbed state. In the earlier months brigan- 
dage had so increased that four provinces were put 
under military law. 

A revolution which had broken out in Hayti in 
July culminated in the destruction of public build- 
ings and the flight of President Salomon. With his 
Ministers he took refuge on the foreign ships of war 
at Port-au-Prince. Not until August 14 was order 
in Hayti° n restored. On September 29 there was another out- 
break in which Ptelemaque and 400 of his followers 
were killed while attacking the Palais National. 
In December, the Haytien Government, on a per- 
emptory summons of American war vessels, deliv- 
ered up the ship "Haytien Eepublic, " an American 
filibuster detained by the authorities. The United 
States exacted $2,000,000 as indemnity. 

In March, the Atlantic coast of the United States 
blizzard 8, was visited by a severe snowstorm, or American 
blizzard. The weather, which had been warm, sud- 
denly became wintry, snow drove through the air 
at the rate of sixty miles an hour, and soon it was 
impossible to remain out of doors. Traffic was sus- 
pended, large snowplows were abandoned, and the 
street cars were left standing on the tracks. For 
the first time the Stock Exchange stopped business 
by formal resolution, and many banks were closed. 
More than 200 lives were lost, including twenty- 
four in the streets of New York. In Chesapeake 
Bay alone 200 vessels were wrecked. 

Among those that died from exposure during this 

1888 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1693 

storm was Koscoe Conkling of New York. He was 
a political leader of marked ability. His speeches conkSng 
in connection with reconstruction gained him a 
reputation as an orator. After Garfield became 
President, he was the leader of the so-called Stal- 
wart faction of the .Republican party. Falling out 
with the President, Senators Conkling and Piatt re- 
signed their seats, but failed to secure re-election. 
Conkling thereupon devoted himself to law in New 
York until his death. 

Another death lamented by Americans was that 
of Philip H. Sheridan. Born in 1831, he entered 
West Point in 1848. In March, 1861, he was first 
lieutenant. Toward the latter part of the Civil 
War he rose rapidly to the highest grade. On 
May 9, 1864, he led the Federal cavalry around 
Richmond and defeated Stuart, the ablest cavalry Death of 

J Phil 

leader on the Confederate side. He was in July Sheridan 
put in command of 20,000 men in the Shenandoah 
Valley. Sheridan and Early came together in a 
desperate struggle. October 19, Early surprised 
the Union troops and sent them flying toward 
Winchester. Sheridan had just reached Winchester 
from a hurried trip to Washington. Knowing that 
the battle was on once more, and he twenty miles 
away, Sheridan leaped upon his horse and rode 
straight to the field. He turned the retreating sol- 
diers back and routed the Confederates. This was 
the famous "Sheridan ride," dear to Union tradi- 
tions. Later Sheridan's cavalry took a signal part 
in bringing about Lee's surrender at Appomattox. 
Sheridan's activity did not end with the war. He 

1694 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1888 

visited Europe, and was present at the great battles 
of the Franco- German conflict. On Sherman's re- 
tirement, he took command of the American army, 
as general-in-chief, and held the post until his death. 
A dynamite plot for blowing up the houses of two 
judges and a police officer, the Board of Trade 
Building, Court House, and several newspaper of- 
fices was discovered in Chicago in July. The plot 
was revealed by an associate. Toward the end of 
the year, the election for the Presidency in the 
Harrison United States resulted in the return of the Repub- 


President Hcan candidate, Benjamin Harrison, by 239 votes of 
the Electoral College over 162 for Grover Cleve- 
land. Just before the election the Administration 
suggested to the British Government the recall 
of Lord Sackville-West, the English Minister, be- 
cause of his indiscreet letter recommending a ficti- 
tious correspondent to vote the Democratic ticket in 
the interest of Great Britain. President Cleveland 
refused further to receive Lord Sackville-West. 
The Minister retired. 

In medicine, the year is memorable for the fact 
that Dr. Fitz of Boston advocated the removal of 
the vermiform appendix in certain intestinal dis- 
orders. His suggestions were made only after he 

treatment had performed several hundred post-mortem opera- 

of appen- r r r 

dicitis tions. American surgeons followed his advice; and 
thenceforward began the removal of an organ which 
had hitherto been the cause of much human 


Death of 


EAELY in the year, the world was startled 
by the sudden death of Archduke Rudolph 
of Hapsburg, the heir-apparent to the throne 
of Austria. The first public news of the event came 
in a despatch published in the official gazette of 
Vienna on January 31: "His Royal and Imperial 
Highness, Crown Prince Archduke Rudolph, died 
yesterday at his hunting lodge of Mayerling, near 
Baden, from the rupture of an aneurism of the Austrian 

1 Crown 

heart." Foreign correspondents made a rush for 1 * 1 "" 106 
Mayerling. Through their enterprise it was soon 
learned that the Archduke's mistress, Baroness Marie 
Vetsera, was implicated in the death of the Arch- 
duke. Her body was found together with that of 
the Crown Prince. To the present day the mystery 
surrounding Rudolph's death has not been quite 
cleared up. A note which he sent to his friend 
the Duke of Braganza clearly suggested suicide. 
It was scrawled on a scrap of paper evidently in 
a great hurry: "Dear Friend — I must die. In honor 
I can do nothing else. Grood-by, the blessing of 
God be with you. Rudolph. ' ' For the sake of ob- 
taining a Christian burial for the dead prince, the 
House of Hapsburg emphatically repudiated the 
theory of suicide. Yet a special dispensation had 



Spring 1889 


to be obtained from His Holiness the Pope. The 
relatives of Baroness Vetsera were not equally 
fortunate. From the condition in which Prince 
Rudolph's body was found, it appeared on the 
other hand that he had been beaten to death be- 
fore he was shot. Suspicion was aroused against 
Baroness Vetsera' s cousin. 

On February 11, the long-awaited constitution of 
Japan was at last proclaimed. Mikado Mutsuhite 
took a solemn oath to maintain the government 
according to the Constitution, and confirmed Ku- 
roda as Minister of State, while Ito remained 
President of the Privy Council. On this occa- 
sion, for the first time in the history of Japan, 
the Empress rode beside the Emperor in public. 
Arinori A blot upon the record of the day was the assas- 
sassinated sination by a Shinto fanatic of the Minister of 
Education, Arinori Mori. 

The Samoan difficulties of the previous year took 
on a more threatening aspect. Naval squadrons of 
Great Britain, Germany and the United States were 
sent to Samoa. On March 15, a tremendous hurri- 
cane swept over the islands. Fifteen merchant 
vessels and six men-of-war were caught in the 
Bay of Apia. One hundred and forty-two officers 
and men lost their lives. So terrific was the gale 
that all the vessels in the harbor dragged their 
anchors and collided. Most of them were finally 
wrecked on a coral reef jutting out from the bay. 
The German gunboat "Eber" was flung broadside 
on the reef and crashed to bits like an eggshell. 
Of her crew of seventy-seven only five escaped. 

The Apia 


The German flagship "Adler" turned over on the 
reef and twenty of her men were lost. The Ameri- 
can cruiser " Nip sic, " while her crew tried to get 
an eight-inch gun overboard to act as anchor, was 
fouled by the German "Olga, " and was beached, 
losing seven men. The "Olga," too, was beached, 
but managed to get off. During the night the hur- 
ricane increased in violence. Early in the morning 
the British "Calliope" began to drag down upon 
the American "Vandalia." The British captain 
determined to put out to sea. Inch by inch the 
"Calliope" fought her way into the teeth of the 
storm. As she passed the "Trenton," the Ameri- 
can band struck up "Eule Britannia," and the 
Yankee sailors lining the yards cheered the Brit- heroism 
ish ship. The remaining American ships, "Tren- 
ton" and "Vandalia," could not escape. The 
"Vandalia's" commander was disabled by injuries 
sustained during the hurricane. The men of the 
"Trenton" were sent aloft to steady the ship to the 
wind. This expedient brought the "Trenton" clear 
of the reef. But she was none the less blown into 
shore. The "Vandalia," after dragging along the 
edge of the reef, struck about one hundred yards 
from the shore and turned over. The men, stripped 
naked, sought safety in the rigging. The officers 
remained at their posts on the quarter-deck. A 
gun, loosened from its fastenings, was hurled across 
the deck, tore Captain Schoonmaker from Lieuten- 
ant Carlin's arms, and swept him overboard. As 
night fell, the men on the "Trenton" gave a last JJS^g, 
cheer to their dying comrades. The "Vandalia's" 

A HISTORY OF THE March 1889 

sailors, as they clung to their spars, cheered the flag- 
ship. The band on the "Trenton" played the 
"Star- Spangled Banner." Early next morning, the 
gale, for an instant, swung the two ships together. 
Lieutenant Carlin of the "Vandalia" drove his men 
out on the yardarms and ordered a leap for life to 
the decks of the "Trenton." He was the last to 
leave the doomed ship. It was of Carlin that Kip- 
ling wrote in his American Notes, "Wallah. He 
was a man!" All but five officers and thirty-nine 
men of the "Vandalia" were saved. The tragedy 
at Apia brought the three great naval Powers to- 
gether in one common sorrow. The long-standing 
controversy was promptly brought to a close. A 
samoan satisfactory settlement was reached at the Samoan 

Conference . _ 

Conference at Berlin in June. An autonomous 
government was guaranteed to the Samoan Islands 
under the joint control of the three Powers. 
At Kalawao, in Hawaii, Father Damien died, 
Death of on April 10, in the chief leper settlement on the 
Damien island of Molokai. Joseph Damien de Veuster was 
born at Ninde near Louvain, Belgium, January 3, 
1841. He studied for the priesthood, and before 
he completed his religious education offered him- 
self for mission work in the islands of the South 
Pacific. In 1873 he reached Molokai in order to 
work among the leper colony. No man before 
him had ever attempted to do anything for these 
wretched outcasts. In 1886 he was first tainted 
with the horrible disease, but he refused to quit 
his post, and in spite of his constant suffering he 
pursued his work to the end. Eobert Louis Steven- 

1889 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1699 

son has recorded his labors and immortalized his 
name. Shortly after Father Damien's death a revo- 
lution broke out in Hawaii. The palace grounds 
and the Government House were temporarily seized 
by the insurgents. The government troops had 
little trouble in suppressing the insurrection. 

In France, the spring of this year was pregnant 
with unusual political excitement and intrigue. Flight of 
Acting on the advice of his friends, General Bou- ouaag " 
langer, the former War Minister, suddenly left the 
country on April 1. From Brussels he addressed 
a manifesto to his party, stating that he had quitted 
France to avoid arrest. The French Chambers 
promptly passed a bill authorizing the Senate to 
try General Boulanger and others for high treasork 
A few months later the French Senate, sitting as 
a High Court of Justice, found General Boulanger 
and his associates, Count Dillon and Eochefort, 
guilty of conspiracy against the State and of mis- 
appropriation of public money. They were severally 
condemned to transportation for life with confine- 
ment in a fortified place. The sentence created not 
a little stir in France. Meanwhile on May 6, in com- 
memoration of the falling of the Bastille, the Paris 
Exhibition was formally opened by President Car- 

not. The Continental monarchies abstained from Paris Ex- 
all official representation, but the English and 

American Ambassadors were in evidence. 

On March 27, John Bright, the great English 

orator and politician, died. Born at Greenbank, 

Lancashire, in 1811, he first became known as a 

leading spirit with Cobden in the Anti-Corn Law 

1700 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1889 

League. In 1845, he was sent to Parliament by 
j££n hof Durham, and distinguished himself as a strenuous 
advocate of free trade and reform. In 1847, he sat 
for the first time for Manchester, but in 1857 his 
opposition to the war with China made him so un- 
popular in the constituency that he lost his seat by 
a large majority. He was, however, returned for Bir- 
mingham, and continued to make speeches against 
the policy of great military establishments and wars 
of annexation. In 1865, he took a leading part in 
the movement for the extension of the franchise, 
and strongly advocated the necessity of reform in 
Ireland. In the Gladstone Ministry, formed in 1868, 
he was President of the Board of Trade and after- 
ward Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. After- 
ward in 1886, he joined the Liberals who opposed 
Gladstone's schemes for Ireland, and contributed 
by his letters and influence to the overthrow of 
the Ministry. 

In April, news was received of Henry M. Stan- 
ley's safety in Africa up to September 4, 1888, after 
his return from a stay with Emin Pasha. In the 
Soudan, in July, Colonel Woodehouse with con- 
The siderable force came in contact with a Dervish 


campaign Qor( j e advancing from Matuka near Tiguin on the 
Nile, south of Wady Haifa. Nearly 500 Dervishes 
were killed and wounded and as many taken pris- 
oners. On August 3, General Grenfell, command- 
ing the British and Egyptian troops on the Nile, 
attacked the Dervish troops under Wad-el-Njumi, 
and after seven hours' hard fighting drove him back 
into the desert, killing him, his principal Emin and 

1889 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1701 

500 fighting men, and taking upward of 1,000 pris- 
oners. In South African affairs, the Great Seal of 
the United Kingdom was affixed on October 30 to 
the Charter of the British South Africa Company, south 

r J ' Africa 

assigning to it trading and other rights over a terri- company 
tory of vast extent, with the express reservation to 
the Crown to take over at any time the works and 
buildings of the Company. 

The novelist Wilkie Collins died on September 
23. This popular writer was born in 1824. At the 

r r Wilkie 

age of twenty-five he published "Antonina, or Collins 
the Fall of Eome. " Two years later, in 1852, ap- 
peared "Basil" and "Mr. Eay's Cash Box." Then 
followed a series of stories: "Hide and Seek" 
(1854), "After Dark, and other Stories" (1856), 
"The Dead Secret" (1857), "The Queen of Hearts" 
(1859), "The Woman in White" (1860), "No 
Name" (1862), "My Miscellanies" (1863), "Arman- 
dale" (1866), "The Moonstone" (1868), "Man and 
Wife" (1870), "Poor Miss Finch" (1872), "Miss, or 
Mrs.? and Other Stories" (1873), "The New Mag- 
dalen" (1873), "The Law and the Lady" (1875), and 
"The Two Destinies" (1876). He also wrote two 
plays called "The Lighthouse," and "The Frozen 
Deep"; and a book of home travel, entitled, "Eam- 
bles beyond Eailways; or, Notes on Cornwall" 
(1851). The most popular of all these works per- 
haps was the story of ' ' The Woman in White. ' ' 

Within a few months after Wilkie Collins' death, 
England lost one of her foremost poets. Eobert 

° r Death of 

Browning died on the second day of December. By grownW 
the time of his death, Browning's works, though 

1702 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1889 

never successful from a financial point of view, had 
come to be recognized as noteworthy contributions to 
English literature. The salient trait of Browning's 
poetry is that of rugged hilarity. Love of beauty, 
or form as such, was second to his whole-hearted 
humanity. A large charity, a red-blooded philoso- 
phy, a sympathetic psychology and religious optim- 
ism are the tonic qualities of his poetry. It was for 
this that he came to be regarded as the peer of Ten- 
nyson in English poetry. Browning was born in 
1812 at Camberwell near London. He studied at 
the London University and then travelled abroad 
in Italy. His first published work was "Pauline," 
a narrative in verse, followed shortly by "Paracel- 


early sus, a drama after the manner of Faust. During: 

poems ° 

the next few years he published the dramas "Straf- 
ford" (1837), "Sordello" (1840), and "The Blot in 
the 'Scutcheon," as well as a collection of poems, 
"Bells and Pomegranates" (1846). During the 
same year he was married to his fellow poet, 
Elizabeth Barrett. The two took up their abode 
in Florence. Mrs. Browning's beautiful "Sonnets 
from the Portuguese" were written for him. Dur- 
ing the days following their marriage, Browning's 
second collection of poems, "Men and Women," 
appeared in 1855. After the death of his wife in 
1861 the poet returned to England. "Dramatis 
Personse," a third collection of poems appeared in 
1864. Then came Browning's most ambitious work, 
aid "the'"" "The Ring and the Book," comprising a series of 
Book " poetical variations on the theme of a edieval 
murder trial, as told by the principal acto in that 


drama. This proved the most successful of Brown- 
ing's works. It was followed shortly by "Prince 
Hohenstiel-Schwangau, Saviour of Society, ' ' a psy- 
chological study of Napoleon III., and by "Fifine 
at the Fair." Next year (1873) appeared "Eed 
Cotton Night-Cap Country, or Turf and Towers." 
Among his last publications were "La Saisiaz, " 
"Dramatic Idyls," and "Asolando. " In the mass 
of Browning's writings the poet's lyric gifts are 
apparent. Yet Browning was pre-eminently a dra- 
matic poet. But his dramatic expression was that 
of retrospect and soliloquy, rather than that of ac- 
tion. As George E. Woodberry wrote in his essay 
"On Browning's Death": "His characters do not 
develop before the eye; he does not catch the soul 
in the very act; he does not present life so much 
as the results of life. . . . He has in fact that Browning's 


malady of thought which interferes with the dra- 
matist's control of his hand. ... In other words, 
he is, primarily, a moralist; he reasons and he is 
fluent in words and fertile in thoughts, and so he 
loses the object itself, becomes indirect, full of after- 
thought and parenthesis, and impairs the dramatic 
effect." This explains in a measure why Brown- 
ing's writings have been characterized as obscure. 
Throughout this year continued the investigation 
in Parliament of the London "Times' " charges 
against Parnell. Sir Charles Kussell and Herbert gjjgj^j 
H. Asquith were Parnell's chief counsel, while Sir 
Kichard Webster, the English Attorney-General, 
appeared as counsel for the "Times." Eichard 
Pigott, the person who sold the alleged Parnell 

1704 A HISTORY OF THE Bummer 1889 

letters to the "Times" under a searching cross- 
examination by Sir Charles Kussell, incriminated 
himself as a forger and blackmailer. Leaving a 
written confession behind him, he fled the country. 
The London "Times" apologized for the publica- 
tion of the letters. Pigott, arrested in Spain, com- 
mitted suicide. 

The Island of Crete was again the scene of numer- 
ous disturbances, which broke out in midsummer. 
On July 22, a serious rising occurred in various 
parts of the island. The Turkish authorities were 
expelled from Vamos and Cidoma and the pub- 
lic archives perished. The Turkish Government 
upheaval issued orders to call out 80,000 of the reserves. 
Chakir Pasha, the newly appointed governor of 
Crete arrived at the island, informed a deputation 
of Cretans and Turks of the Sultan's determination 
to restore order, but promised to inquire into legiti- 
mate grievances. A state of siege was proclaimed 
throughout the island. Murder and plunder were 
reported on both sides, and several Mussulman 
and Christian villages were fired. Moussa Bey, the 
Kurd leader, was sent to Constantinople for trial. 

During this year the new epidemic of influenza 
commonly called "grippe" prevailed throughout 
influenza Russia and Siberia. In some towns more than 
fifty per cent of the population were attacked. 
In a few weeks the epidemic spread through Eu- 
rope. Before the close of the year the influenza 
reached America and thousands were affected by 
it along the Atlantic Coast. 

To foil the ends of the Panama Canal Com- 

1889 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1705 

pany the United States Senate and Representa- 
tives passed a resolution in secret session, declar- 
ing against European control of the canal. 

On March 4, Harrison and Morton were inaugu- 
rated as President and Vice-President of the United 
States. On March 22, Bering Sea was closed to 
all nations, and the President issued a proclamation flacLed 
prohibiting the killing of fur animals within Alaska 
without a special permit from the United States. 
In April, a part of the Indian lands of Oklahoma 
were thrown open to white men. Thousands ofokfahoma 


settlers rushed into the new lands. On the last 
of May occurred the catastrophe of Johnstown. 
A three-days' rainfall of more than four inches 
on the slopes of the Alleghenies caused a sudden 
overflow of the Susquehanna River and its tribu- Jonnstowa 
taries. The Connemaugh Valley on the western 
slope, dotted with thriving towns, was devastated 
for forty miles. The bursting of the reservoir at 
Johnstown added to the deluge. More than six 
thousand persons were drowned. Some fifteen 
hundred were burned to death where the smelting 
furnaces at Johnstown set fire to a floating mass of 
driftwood penned up by the stone railway bridge. 
In other parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania the 
freshets did enormous damage, the losses aggregat- 
ing $40,000,000. 

In his December message to Congress, President 
Harrison expressed the hope that the Pan-American 
conference would pave a way to improved inter- 
national relations and secure peace on the American 
continent. The rest of this message dealt with the 


1706 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1689 

surplus in American finances showing an excess of 
$5,000,000 of revenue over expenditure. Congress 
was urged to take measures to reduce the revenues. 
The wonderfully improved relations between the 
Northern and Southern States of North America 
were made clearly manifest on the death of Jefferson 
jeffereon Davis, the President of the seceding States during 
the American Civil War. Jefferson Davis was born 
in Mississippi and was sent to the United States 
Military Academy at West Point. On his commis- 
sion as a lieutenant in the United States army, 
he served in the Black Hawk War. Later he ren- 
dered gallant service as the colonel of a Mississippi 
volunteer regiment in Mexico. He was Secretary 
of War under Pierce. Davis rose to the leader- 
ship of the Southern elements in American national 
politics. From 1860 to 1861 he was a leader of the 
benum Southern party in the American Senate. When 
career the Southern Confederacy was formed, after seces- 
sion had become an accomplished fact, Davis was 
elected President of the new Republic. His insight, 
executive skill, and determination were the life and 
strength of the military and civic administration 
of the Confederacy. In his inauguration speech he 
expressed the full theory of secession in a few apt 
Leader of words: "The sovereign States here represented have 
federacy a g ree( } to form a Confederacy. It is by the abuse 
of language that their act has been denominated 
revolution. They formed a new alliance, but in 
each State its government has remained." After 
Lee's lines were broken at Appomattox, and the 
resulting fall of Richmond in April, 1865, Davis 



and his Cabinet became fugitives. At daybreak 
of May 10, a remnant of the Presidential party 
camping among pine woods near Irwinville, in 
Southern Georgia, was surprised and captured by 
Union cavalry scouts. Davis was apprehended 
while trying to escape disguised in his wife's long 
coat and shawl. He was imprisoned for two years ^u^ 1 " 1 
at Fortress Monroe. This captivity was shared by 
General Joseph Wheeler. His plans for the escape 
of his former leader were frustrated. After the as- 
sassination of Abraham Lincoln those who held that 
Davis was implicated in it clamored to have him 
shot. Better counsels prevailed. Davis to be sure 
was indicted for treason, but in May, 1867, he was 
released on bail, Horace Greeley serving as one 
of his bondsmen. The case never came to trial. 
Under President Johnson's general amnesty Jeffer- 
son Davis received a final immunity from prosecu- 
tion. He lived unmolested at his home in Missis- 
sippi for the rest of his life. When he died he was ciot?ng U 
mourned by the whole South as the foremost leader y 
of their lost cause. 

This year, Bjornstjerne Bjornson brought out 
his famous novel "In God's Way," in which he 
depicted the struggle between religious bigotry and Bjorn . 
liberalism. Bjornson's earlier noVel "Synnove Sol- Morrison 
bakken" established his fame as a story writer. 
"Mellem Slagene" was his first printed drama. 
Bjornson also wrote poetry which was essential- 
ly lyric, characterized by an idyllic purity that 
has won for it a high place in the estimate of his 
country. One of his lyrics has become the national 

1708 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1S8Q 

song of Norway. Of Bjornson's dramatic works, 
the most important are "Kong Sverre," "Sigurd 
ISlembe, " and "Sigurd Jorsalfar. " Bjornson's later 
stage works are problem plays. Among them may 
be mentioned "The Editor," "A Bankruptcy," 
"The King," "Leonarda, " "A (ilove, " "Geogra- 
phy and Love, ' ' and ' ' Beyond Strength. ' ' Besides 
"In God's Way," he brought out the novels 
"Magnhild," "Kaptejn," "Mansana, " and "Stov." 
During the last two decades of the century Bjorn- 
son continued to be the recognized spokesman of 
Norwegian republican aspirations. 

Early in autumn the civil war in Hayti, which 
had continued for more than twelve months, ended 
by the surrender of General Legitime, and the oc- 

Ti'c P toSut cupation of Port-au-Prince by General Hippolyte. 

mHayti j Q October, General Hippolyte was accordingly 
elected President of the Republic of Hayti. 

In Brazil, in the middle of November, a revolu- 
tionary movement, of which the first open manifes- 
tation was the attempted assassination of the Minis- 
ter of Marine, Baron de Ladario, broke out at Rio 
de Janeiro. A provisional government under Gen- 

RevoiutioD eral Deodoro da Fonseca was formed, which abol 

in Brazil 

ished the Council of State and proclaimed a repub- 
lic. The Emperor, who had been kept a prisoner 
in his palace, was banished to Europe. The Im- 
perial Ministry had arranged with Dom Pedro to 
abdicate at the end of January, 1890, in favor 
of his daughter, the Countess d'Eu, but a feeling 
of disloyalty was felt among the people. A formal 
decree was issued declaring a federal republic, the 


several provinces of the late Empire constituting 
States, and each State arranging its own Constitu- Sdj^d Pedr ° 
tion and electing its deliberative bodies and local 
governments. A counter revolution broke out on 
December 18, in Bio de Janeiro. A number of 
soldiers, sailors and civilians took part in it, and 
troops had to be ordered out to disperse them. 
It was not until Christmas time that the disturb- 
ance was quelled. 

At the close of the year Henry M. Stanley's ex- 
pedition, having effected the relief of Emin Bey infeUef e of S 
the Equatorial provinces of Egypt, marched out of 
the Soudan by way of Zanzibar. Emin had re- 
mained at Khartoum since the death of Gordon. 
The time spent in Stanley's expedition was three 
years, and the results accomplished were of great 
value to the science of geography. Stanley ended 
the expedition at Cairo, where he wrote a record of 
his journey, published simultaneously in England, 
America, France and Germany, under the title "In "in 

J Darkest 

Darkest Africa." On Stanley's return to England Africa " 
he was knighted, and scientific honors of all kinds 
were showered upon him. 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— T 




HE German Dowager Empress Augusta died 
on January 7, at the Royal Palace at Ber- 
lin. After her husband's succession to the 
Empress throne of Prussia, in 1861, the Queen devoted her 

Augusta . . ..,.,,, 

time and energies to the reorganization of guilds of 
women under the Eed Cross. During the campaign 
of 1870-71 the Red Cross Society in Germany alone 
established 677 general hospitals, 286 private laza- 
rets, and innumerable stations for refreshments. A 
total of 25,000 men and women were enrolled, for 
which the Empress had the disposal of 18,000,000 

Dr. Dollinger, the celebrated theologian and 
johann leader of the Old Catholic Party, died on Jan- 
DoUinger uary 10, in his ninety-first year. Johann Ignaz 
Dollinger entered the Church in 1822, and soon 
after published the "Doctrine of the Eucharist 
during the First Three Centuries," a work which 
won him the position of Lecturer on Church History 
at the University of Munich. In later years he 
took an active part in the political struggles of 
the University in the Bavarian Parliament, and as 
delegate to the Diet of Frankfort voted for the 
total separation of Church and State. At the Ecu- 
menical Council of 1869-70, Dr. Dollinger became 


famous throughout Europe by his opposition to the 
doctrine of Papal infallibility. He was excommuni- ger's 11 " 
cated in 1871 by the Archbishop of Munich. Amcation 
few months later he was elected rector of the Uni- 
versity of Munich, and, in 1873, rector of the Koyal 
Academy of Science. Among his numerous works 
the most important are "Origins of Christianity," 
"A Sketch of Luther," "Christianity and the 
Church," and "Papal Legends of the Middle 
Ages." During the last years of his life he 
formed a warm friendship with Gladstone. 
' Most notable in this year's events for Germany 
was the withdrawal from public life of Prince Bis- 
marck. In January, he tendered his resignation as Bismarck 
Prussian Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Ger- 
man Empire. In February, the old Chancellor re- 
scinded his resignation, but within a month he and 
the young Emperor were once more at odds. On 
March 18, Prince Bismarck's resignation from all his 
public posts was definitely accepted. On his re- 
tirement from public life he was created a Field 
Marshal and Duke of Lauenburg, but he declined 
both honors. General von Caprivi de Caprera de German 

• -r-» Chancellor 

Montecuculi was appointed as successor to Prince 
Bismarck. A few days later Count Herbert Bis- 
marck's resignation as Foreign Secretary was also 
accepted by the German Emperor. 

On February 18, the great Hungarian statesman, 
Count Julius Andrassy, died at Abazzia. He was 
born at Zemplin, March 8, 1828. He took part 
in the Eevolution of 1848, and was condemned to Andrassy 
death, but escaped and went into exile. When 

1712 A HISTORY OF THE Spring ]8W> 

self-government was restored to Hungary, in 1867, 
he was appointed Premier, and became Imperial 
Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1871. He retired 
from public life in 1879. 

.Numerous arrests were made at Paris by the 
end of April in anticipation of an expected So- 
Ko°r peaQ c i a li st demonstration. Among others, the Mar- 
Stratton quis de Mores, a French Koyalist of American 
cowboy fame, was arrested on the charge of incit- 
ing the soldiers to revolt and of furnishing funds 
to Socialist organs. In May, several labor riots oc- 
curred. In London the agitation was great. More 
than 200,000 workmen attended a mass meeting in 
Hyde Park. 

In Russia, Madame Tchevrikova had written a 
letter to the Czar, which reflected on the system 
of government by which the common people were 
oppressed. Shortly after she was arrested, on 
rS' d March 8, the students of the St. Petersburg Uni- 
versity and the Academy of Agriculture demanded 
the re-establishment of the more liberal regulations 
of 1863. Five hundred students were imprisoned. 
In consequence of this affair the University and 
Technological Institute of St. Petersburg were 
closed on April 1 by the police. In July, impe- 
rial edicts were issued throughout Russia against 
the Jews. They were forbidden to hold land, were 
directed to reside in towns, and were excluded 
from certain cities where hitherto they had been 

In July, the first great national election to the 
new Parliament in Japan and the provincial as- 

tiOD of 

1890 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1713 

semblies was "held. Nearly eighty-five per cent of 
eligible voters availed themselves of the franchise, elections 5 
A great number of candidates ran for election. 
When the results were announced, it was found 
that almost all the candidates who had in any way 
received government employment were repudiated 
by the people. From the very start the govern- 
ment found itself confronted by a powerful op- 
position on the floor of the new Parliament. Few 

r Parlia- 

of the old party leaders were chosen as standard ^etegua 
bearers of the new faction. A new code of civil 
procedure and the first portion of a new civil code 
of laws were added to the new criminal code pro- 
mulgated in the early eighties. 

Africa was repartitioned among the European 
nations. To England was awarded the sultanate Reparti „ 
of Zanzibar and an extensive strip of territory to Africa 
the north of the German West African possessions. 
France was placated by dominion over all the oases 
of the Sahara, and the northwest portion of the Sou- 
dan, extending from her possessions on the west 
coast as far as Lake Tschad. In return for German 
concessions Heligoland was ceded to Germany. A 
few days afterward the German Emperor, attended 
by his fleet, assumed sovereignty over the islard. 
Meanwhile, in Zanzibar, the Sultan issued a decree 
by which slavery was practically abolished, and 
slave trading was made a penal offence. Three 
months later, on November 7, the British protec- 
torate over Zanzibar was formally proclaimed, and 
the Union Jack was hoisted, together with the 
Sultan's flag, over his palace. 

1714 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1S90 

At home, Englishmen were mourning the death 
cardmaf of Cardinal John Henry Newman. That distin- 
guished prelate died on August 13. Newman was 
born in 1801. He was educated at Eton and at 
Oxford. He was appointed vice-principal of St. 
Alban's Hall under Dr. Whately (afterward Arch- 
bishop) and became Incumbent for St. Mary's, Ox- 
ford, and Chaplain of Littlemore. During the 
early thirties he took part with Keble, Pusey, and 
-oxford Froude in originating the Oxford movement. He 
ment" became a leader of the propaganda for High Church 
doctrines, and contributed largely to the celebrated 
"Tracts for the Times." The last of these, on the 
"Elasticity of the Thirty-nine Articles," was cen- 
sured by the authorities of Oxford, causing New- 
tums l * n mans resignation of his livings in 1843. Two 
catholic y earg j ater ^ j ome( j t k e Church of Rome. Or- 
dained a priest of that Church, he was succes- 
sively head of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri at 
Birmingham, rector of the University Chapel at 
Dublin, 1854-58, and principal of the Catholic 
school at Edgbaston. In 1879, he was created 
a Cardinal. Newman's fame rests on his written 

"Apologia , , 

pro vita works, notably the Apologia pro vita sua, 
1864, and the reply to Gladstone on the Vatican 
decrees in 1875. Newman will long be remembered 
for this most beautiful of his religious poems: 

Lead, kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom 
Lead Thou me on ! 

i;i, u ji y ' The night is dark, and I am far from home; 

Li - ht ' Lead Thou me on ! 

Keep Thou my feet ; I do not ask to sec 
The distant scene; one step enough for me. 

1890 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1715 

I was not ever thus, nor prayed that Thou 
Shouldst lead me on ; 

I loved to choose and see my path ; but now- 
Lead Thou me on ! 

I loved the garish day, and, spite of fears, 

Pride ruled my will. Remember not past years! 

So long Thy power hath blest me, sure it still 

"Will lead me on 
O'er moor and fen, o'er crag and torrent, till 

The night is gone, 
And with the morn those angel faces smile 
"Which I have loved long since, and lost awhile ! 

On October 20, Sir Kichard Burton died at 
Trieste. This famous explorer was born in 1821. sir Richard 


He studied Oriental languages and in 1853 he was 
enabled to visit Mecca and Medina disguised as 
a Mohammedan pilgrim. After serving in the 
Crimean war he made a journey to Bast Africa 
with Captain Speke, which led to the discovery 
of the great lake at Tanganyika. He wrote several 
books of travel, a magnificent "History of the 
Sword, ' ' and translated the dramas of Camoens and 
"The Thousand and One Nights." 

During summer new Turkish outrages had been 
reported from Armenia. A search for arms in an 
Armenian church at Erzeroum was followed by 
riots. In July, a serious fight occurred in the 
Armenian quarter of Constantinople. A crowd of Armenian 
Armenians mobbed the Patriarch at Constantinople, ances 
Turkish troops restored order, but not before the 
Patriarch had suffered serious maltreatment. This 
affair was followed by fresh outrages against the 
Christian population of Crete on the part of the 
Turkish troops in Sphakia. Atrocities were also 

1716 A HISTORY OF THE 8ummer 1890 

committed by the Kurds against the Armenians in 
the Tiflis district. During the following month 
half of Salonica was laid in ashes. The fire left 
18,000 persons homeless. At Mecca the pilgrims 
once more suffered from the epidemic of cholera. 
Serious political disturbances broke out in Swit- 

switzer- n zei "l an d- They began in the Canton of Ticino, in 

,aad consequence of the government's refusal to submit 

to the people the question of a revision of the con- 
stitution. At Bellinzona, the seat of the govern- 
ment, revolution broke out in September. Two 
members of the government were seized, one of 
whom was shot. A provisional government was 
proclaimed, to which the chief towns of the can- 
ton rallied. The Federal government despatched 
1,500 soldiers to restore order. 

The five republics of Central America resolved 
in April to unite under one President, with a Cab- 

AmeruJan met °f fi ye members and a Diet of fifteen. The 
new State came into official existence by the middle 
of September. In July, a revolution broke out in 
the city of Buenos Ayres. The government troops 
were repulsed in the streets of the city. President 
Celman, after having been wounded, took refuge 
in the interior. A provisional government was pro- 
claimed. Hostilities continued for several days and 
more than 1,000 persons were killed and wounded 
on both sides. After these events Dr. Celman 's 
resignation was received with satisfaction through- 

Revoiu- out Argentina. In November, a revolution broke 


move- ou t i n Honduras, under the leadership of General 

menu r 

Sanchez, who succeeded in capturing the citadel 

1890 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1717 

and the arsenal of Tegnicagalpa. He was besieged 
in turn, and after some desperate fighting was cap- 
tured and shot. 

In North America, early in the year, an Extra- 
dition Treaty with Great Britain had been drawn 
up by the representatives of the two Powers at 
Washington. It was unanimously ratified after a 
few amendments by the United States Senate. 
Congress, after many ballots, determined that Chi- 
cago should be the site of the World's Fair in 1892 
in honor of the four hundredth Columbian anni- 
versary. In May, the House of Eepresentatives 
passed a new tariff bill maintaining the protective 
system and raising rates on certain articles. After 
a lengthy conference between members of the two 
Houses, an arrangement was arrived at concern- 
ing the so-called McKinley tariff measure. On ShermaG 
July 14, the Sherman bill was approved. It pro- slver 
vided that there should be a monthly purchase of 
4,500,000 ounces of silver, with certificates to be 
issued as a. full legal tender; that 2,000,000 ounces 
should be coined monthly until July 1, 1891; after 
that date so much coin as should be necessary to 
redeem outstanding certificates. 

The death of Ericsson, the noted naval construc- 
tor, was commemorated by the Government of the 
United States, for which he had done his best 
work. His body was taken back to Sweden on an 
American man-of-war. In Utah, in October, the 
Mormon Elders, after a conference of several weeks, 
produced a new declaration wherein they abandoned ab; 
the system of polygamy. On November 2, North 



1718 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1890 

Dakota was admitted as the thirty- ninth State, and 
American South Dakota as the fortieth; on November 8, 
Montana as the forty- first State, and on November 
11, Washington as the forty-second. President 
Harrison in his first message stated that the 
American revenues of the previous year exceeded 
the expenses by over $1,500,000, and that for the 
pending year they would be $83,000,000 in excess. 
He favored the revision of the tariff. 

The gradual evolution of the bicycle, from high- 
wheeled velocipedes to "safeties' ' and "drop frames, ' ' 
had increased the number of bicyclists. Now, the 
application of pneumatic rubber tires to the new 
safety bicycle gave such a powerful impetus to the 
new sport that it assumed the proportions of a popu- 
lar craze. The manufacture of bicycles and of their 
parts increased amazingly. Women began to ride. 

The Sioux and Cheyenne Indians, in all 1,500 
warriors, gave evidence of hostile intentions in South 
Dakota. For several weeks ghost dances were held. 
Early in December, an outbreak occurred at Stand- 
ing Rock. Federal troops had to be summoned. 
By the end of December, after severe fighting near 
Porcupine and Pine Ridge, in South Dakota, the 
hostile Indians under Big Foot were routed, and 
seven hundred were taken prisoners. 

Heinrich Schliemann, the German archeologist, 
died December 27, at Naples. He was born in 
££X' Neu Buckow, January 6, 1822, and after having 
made a fortune in commercial pursuits, he trav- 
elled widely and commenced a series of archeolog- 
ical investigations in the East. In 1869, he pub- 



lished at Paris his "Ithaca," "The Peloponnesus," 
"Troy," and " Archeological Researches," an ac- 
count of his travels in these regions. This was fol- schiie- 


lowed in 1874 by his "Trojan Antiquities," giving works 
the results of his researches and excavations on the 
plateau of Hissarlik, the reputed site of ancient 
Troy. His "Mycenae," a narrative of researches 
and discoveries of Mycenae and Tiryns, was pub- 
lished in 1877, with a preface by Gladstone. His 
"Troja," 1883, and his "Tiryns," 1886, are in a 
measure supplementary to his earlier works on 
Trov and Mycenae. 



ARCHDUKE Johann Nepomuck Salvator of 
Austria was lost at sea in January. After 
renouncing his title and completely sever 
ing his connection with the House of Hapsburg, 
onh Johann Orth, as he called himself, had sailed from 
Hamburg to Buenos Ayres in 1890. He set out for 
Valparaiso, but neither he nor his ship was ever 
heard of again. He was a man of unusual intel- 
lectual powers, and had made a reputation as the 
author of a number of trenchant military treatises. 
In Chile, the conflict between President Balma- 
chiieans cec ^ a an d Congress ripened into a revolution. On 
Bai'macedathe first day of January, the opposition members 
of the Senate and House of Deputies met and 
signed an act declaring the President unworthy of 
his office. On January 5, the navy declared itself 
in favor of the Legislature and against the Presi- 
dent. The President denounced this as treason, 
declared himself dictator, and proclaimed martial 
law. On January 6, six ironclads put out to sea. 
The squadron seized every steamer carrying the 
Chilean flag. President Balmaceda was left with- 
out a seagoing warship on the coast. The revolu- 
tionists made full use of their formidable naval 
advantage. The smaller garrisons in the various 

1891 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1721 

nitrate ports were compelled to surrender. The 
foreign consuls at Valparaiso would not permit a 
trade blockade of that port. The war opened with 
more or less desultory engagements. On the morn- Civil war 
ing of January 16, the lands forts of Valparaiso 1D chlle 
opened fire on the ironclad "Blanco" and nearly 
sank her. Of the nitrate ports, Iquique was the 
first to be attacked. The town held out for a full 
month. Bear- Admiral Hotham of the British Pa- 
cific squadron invited the rival commanders to 
a conference on board his flagship, and got them 
to agree to an armistice. On the following day, 
Colonel Soto evacuated the town with his garri- 
son. The richest of the nitrate ports was thus lost 
to Balmaceda. During the night of April 23, two 
Balmacedist torpedo gunboats ran into the harbor 
of Caldera and there sank the rebel ironclad The 
"Blanco" in two minutes. This was the first oc-sunk 
casion on which a Whitehead torpedo was success- 
fully employed against an ironclad. By the end of 
August, a decisive battle was fought at Placilla 
near Santiago. Balmaceda's forces were completely 
routed after five hours' hard fighting with a loss fia'cma' 
of 1,500 men. Santiago de Chile capitulated and 
the triumph of the Congressional party was com- 
plete. Balmaceda, who had taken refuge at the 
Argentine Legation in Santiago, committed sui- 
cide. The news was received with manifest relief 
throughout Chile. On the 19th of November, End of 
Admiral Jorge Montt was chosen President of 
Chile, and on Christmas Day he was installed with 
great ceremony. In the Argentine Republic, out- 

1722 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1891 

breaks occurred throughout the entire year, caused 
by political dissension and aggravated by business 

During the revolution in Chile a serious conflict 

occurred at Valparaiso in October between United 

States sailors and a Chilean mob. In reply to Mr. 

Blaine's demand for indemnity and apology, the 

The Chilean Government stated that the matter was 


iucident one which concerned the jurisdiction and author- 
ity of Chile, and would be duly investigated in her 
courts. Previous to this another international com- 
plication had arisen from a determined attempt of 
the Chilean warship "Itata," to evade the neutrality 
laws of the United States. The matter was finally 
adjusted by arbitration. 

In Portugal, a republican rising at Oporto oc- 
cupied the attention of the government. On Janu- 
ary 31, the insurgents, supported by some of Dom 
Pedro's followers, who had returned from Bra- 
zil, laden with spoil, attempted to get possession 
of the barracks. Foiled in their attempt, they 
seized the town hall and proclaimed a republic. 
The royal palace was bombarded, but at length 

Oporto' tae ro y a l troops attacked the rioters and drove 
them back with heavy loss. One hundred lives 
were lost and 500 persons taken prisoners. 

On December 4, the ex- Emperor of Brazil, Dom 
Pedro II. De Alcantara, a lineal descendant of the 
three most ancient royal houses of Europe — Haps- 
burg, Braganza and Bourbon — died at Paris. He 
was born at Rio de Janeiro, December 2, 1825, and 
succeeded to the throne on the abdication of his 


father, Dom Pedro I. In 1843, he married the Prin- 
cess Theresa Christina Maria, sister of Francis L, 
King of Naples. He outlived her only by one year. 
Brazil prospered greatly under his rule, for he did Death of 
much to develop his country's resources in every u. m e r * 
direction. In 1871, he issued an imperial decree 
for the gradual abolition of slavery. This resulted 
in total emancipation by May, 1888. The same re- 
form, more suddenly effected, cost North America 
rivers of blood. The Emperor and his consort were 
alike distinguished for their intellectual and moral 
endowments and their affectionate interest in the 
welfare of their subjects. Dom Pedro was a liberal 
patron of letters, art, science, industry, and com- 
merce. During his reign, enterprises of social and 
commercial character greatly multiplied and public 
instruction received a vigorous impulse. His dep- 

° * £ His liberal 

osition, in 1889, was barren of good consequences. rule 
The news of Dom Pedro's death caused much 
sorrow among Brazilians, who realized too late 
the excellence of their former Emperor. 

The Republican government of Brazil went to 
pieces at the first serious encounter. Late this 
same year, when the Brazilian Congress passed, 
over the President's veto, a law providing for 
the impeachment of the President, that body was 
dissolved by the President, Marshal Deodoro da 
Fonseca. He declared himself dictator and pro- 
claimed martial law at Rio. On November 23, an Revolution 

in Brazil 

insurrection broke out at Rio de Janeiro. The 
navy took the popular side. Fonseca, finding 
resistance hopeless, resigned, and General Peixoto 

1724 A HISTORY OF THE Jan. 180; 

was installed in his place without further blood- 

In North America, the Bering Sea litigation, 
involving the question of the jurisdiction of the 
United States over the high seas at a distance 
of fifty-nine miles, had been taken to the United 
States Supreme Court early in the year, to be de- 
cided in a "friendly lawsuit." This was done on 
a motion to annul the proceedings of the District 

Bering r ° 

litigation ^ ourt at Sitka. Later, on the reassembling of the 
Supreme Court at Washington, and the resumption 
of the "W. P. Say ward" case, the Attorney -General 
announced that an agreement had been reached be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain regard- 
ing the terms on which the differences respecting the 
Bering Sea seal fisheries were to be submitted to ar- 
bitration. General Brooke was succeeded at the Pine 
Ridge Indian Agency, in South Dakota, by General 
Miles. The Ninth Cavalry arrived there just in 
time to prevent the massacre of their white com- 
Miiesat ra des by the Indians. General Miles encircled the 
Pme Ridge j nc jj ans w j^ troops to starve them into submis- 
sion. Pine Ridge was menaced by 3,000 hostiles, 
but after three days of negotiation, on January 
15, the Indians surrendered. 

George Bancroft, the great historian of the early 
period of the American people, died on January 17. 
His career was all but coeval with that of the Nine- 
Death of teenth Century. Born in 1800, he associated in his 

Bancroft J 

youth with those who had known George Washing- 
ton and Frederick the Great. After graduating at 
Harvard, he studied at Gottingen. Returning to 


America, lie became a tutor at Harvard College. 
The first volume of his great American history 
appeared in 1834, and was at once recognized as 
authoritative. Having entered into politics, Ban- 
croft's distinguished services for his party were 
recognized by his appointment as Secretary of the 
Navy under President Polk. As such he founded 
the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. 
It was Bancroft who, while temporarily holding the 
office of Secretary of War, gave to General Zachary 
Taylor the order to advance to the Eio Grande — a traces 10 
step which precipitated the Mexican War. Toward 
the close of 1846 he was made Minister to Great 
Britain. During the American Civil War, Ban- 
croft was one of the most conspicuous of those 
war Democrats who rallied to the support of Lin- 
coln. In 1866, he pronoimced his great eulogy on 
Lincoln before both Houses of Congress. In May, 
1867, he was appointed Minister to Prussia; in the 
following year he was accredited to the North- 
German Confederation; and in 1871 to the German 
Empire, from which he was recalled at his own 
request, in 1874. It was thus his lot to witness the 
growth of Germany and her development into the Germany 
strongest State in Europe. Having retired from 
public life, Bancroft devoted his last years to a 
thorough revision of his great colonial history, an 
imperishable monument which has placed his name 
among those of the great historians of the cen- 

On February 13, Admiral Porter of the American 
navy died at his home. David Porter was born in 

1726 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. 1891 

Chester, Pennsylvania, in 1813. When fourteen 
David ° f years of age he served as midshipman in the Mexi- 
can navy. At sixteen he entered the United States 
navy. He took part in many engagements during 
the Mexican War. As Captain in the Civil War, 
he was present at the capture of Fort Henry. He 
distinguished himself with Farragut at New Orleans 
and Vicksburg, where he rendered invaluable ser- 
vice to Grant with his ironclads. Three times in 
succession he was thanked by Congress for his 
patriotic services. After the close of the war he 
served as Vice- Admiral until 1869, and as super- 
intendent of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. On 
the death of Farragut, in 1870, Porter succeeded 
him as Admiral. 

Twenty-four hours after David Porter died came 
the death of General Sherman, another hero of the 
American Civil War. William Tecumseh Sherman 
Kmseh was born m Mancaster, Ohio, February 8, 1820. 
He graduated from West Point in 1840. He saw 
active service in Florida, but was transferred to 
the Pacific Coast, where he served until 1850, when 
he retired to civil life until 1860. He commanded 
a brigade at Bull Run, took the Fifth division 
after the capture of Donelson, commanded at Shi- 
loli, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and Atlanta, and 
when Grant became General-in-Chief, succeeded 
him as Lieutenant-General to conduct the South- 
ern campaign. It was then that he made his fa- 
mous March to the Sea. General Sherman's name 
is linked with those of the foremost soldiers of 
the American Civil War — Grant, Lee, Sheridan, 


Jackson, Thomas, Johnston, and Meade. He was 
buried at St. Louis. 

Another general of world-wide renown died at 
Berlin on April 24 — Field- Marshal von Moltke. Death of 
He was born at Parshim in Mecklenburg, Octo- Moltke 
ber 26, 1800. Having entered the Danish army in 
1819, he left this service for that of Prussia in 1822, 
and became a staff officer in 1832. In 1835, he was 
called to Constantinople to reform the Turkish 
army, and saw service during the SjTian cam- 
paign against Mehemet Ali, in 1839. He returned 
to Prussia and became colonel of the staff in 1851, 
and equerry to the Crown Prince in 1855. In 1858, 
as provisional director of the general staff, he acted 
in unison with Von Roon and Bismarck, in the vast 
plans of military reorganization soon afterward car- 
ried out. The plan of the Danish War of 1864 is 
declared to have emanated from him, as did also 
that of the swift Austrian-Prussian campaign of 
1866, and that of the Franco-Prussian War of"BatlIl a 


1870-71. After the successes of that great war, 
he was appointed Field- Marshal and made a Count. 
He retired from the direction of the Prussian gen- 
eral staff in 1888. His best known works are 
"Letters from Turkey, 1835-39," a critical military 
work on the "Russian-Turkish Campaign of 1828-29 
in Europe and Turkey," and his contributions to 
the great publications of the German general staff. 
Moltke was a taciturn man of iron constitution, 
capable of unintermittent mental work, flis plans 
were well weighed, his warfare was waged boldly 
and sternly with a sole view to success. 

1728 A HISTORY OF THE Spring Ml 

By the death of Meissonier, on the last day of 
January, one of the foremost artists of the century 
was lost to France. Born at Lyons in 1818, Jean 
Death of Louis Ernest Meissonier began to exhibit his first 
Meissonier m j n j a ^ ure paintings of genre subjects in 1836, while 
he was still a pupil of Le'on Cogniet. From the 
first his paintings had a great success. After 
the initial success of his "Little Messenger" and 
"La Partie des Boules, " Louis Napoleon purchased 
his "Dream" for 20,000 francs. Meissonier's famous 
historical paintings, "Solierino" and "The Emperor 
and his Staff," were incorporated in the Luxem- 
bourg Gallery. The "Cavalry Charge" (1867) was 
purchased by Mr. Probasco of Cincinnati for 150,000 
francs, while his picture of The Battle of Fried- 
land, called "1807," now in the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum at New York, was purchased by the American 
millionnaire, Stewart, for more than 300,000 francs. 
The complete list of Meissonier's works is very 
long, as is that of his etchings and illustrations. 

The American Congress, after a continuous ses- 
sion of more than twenty-four hours, March 4, dur- 
ing which bills were disposed of as rapidly as their 
copyright titles could be read, passed the Copyright Bill, 
by which the rights of foreign authors to their 
works, if published within the United States, were 
recognized for the first time. According to the 
proclamation issued on July 1, Great Britain, 
France, Belgium and Switzerland were admitted 
to the benefits of the new American Copyright 

Relations were strained between the United States 

1891 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1729 

and Italy, owing to the brutal massacre of a number 
of Italians at New Orleans. The men in question 
were charged with the murder of Chief of Police 
Hennessy of New Orleans. They were acquitted 
by a jury. A mob attacked the jail. They shot 
nine of the Italians and hanged two. In May, the 
Grand Jury of New Orleans returned a presentment o,!,e ans 
indicting six Italians for alleged bribery of the j ury massacre 
which tried the men charged with the murder of 
Hennessy. It declared furthermore that of the men 
lynched in prison eight at least were American citi- 
zens. Baron Fava's representations to obtain re- 
dress at Washington were answered by a statement 
from Mr. Blaine, that the American Federal Gov- 
ernment had no power to interfere with the local 
administration of justice in the several States com- Friction 
posing the Union. In exasperation, Italy recalled WIth Italy 
her Minister and ceased all diplomatic intercourse 
with the United States of America. 

The first execution of a criminal by electricity 
was performed about this time at the prison of Sing 
Sing in New York. It was certified by experts and cution " 
officials that death from a powerful electric shock 
thus administered was painless and instantaneous. 

On August 12, the American poet Lowell died 
at Elmwood, Massachusetts. James Eussell Lowell 
was born in Massachusetts, and was graduated at Death of 

° Lowell 

Harvard College in 1838. While still a law student 
he began his career as a poet in 1841, when he pub- 
lished "A Year's Life. " In 1844, he published "A 
Legend of Brittany, ' ' and during the same year he 
was married to Maria White. His sonnets to Maria 

1730 A HISTORY OF THE 1891 

White were the precursors of his noblest lyrio 
effusions. "Conversations on the Old Poets" and 
the "Vision of Sir Launfal" appeared in the follow- 
ing year. Three years later he brought out a new 
series of verses and also published his "Fable for 
Critics," one of the wittiest of American satires. 
During the Mexican war Lowell wrote his "Biglow 
Papers, ' ' a series of invective poems in the Yankee 
,. The dialect directed against the pro-slavery party and 
Papers" "the Southern war party. The success of the "Big- 
low Papers" was immediate. During the American 
Civil War, Lowell wrote a second series, less amusing 
perhaps, but pitched on a higher plane of antipathy 
and pathos. With them appeared Lowell's excel- 
lent essay on the Yankee dialect. The poet had 
been previously appointed Professor of Modern 
Literature at Harvard College, succeeding Long- 
fellow. While thus engaged he helped to found 
the "Atlantic Monthly." Later he was co-editor 
with Charles Eliot Norton of the "North American 
Review." After the Civil War, at a great open- 
air meeting held in the yard of Harvard College, 
memora- the poet recited his great "Commemoration Ode" 

tion Ode" L 6 

in honor of the sons of Harvard slain in the Civil 
War. Three noble odes were written by Lowell 
for the Centennial celebrations of the early battles 
of the American Revolution and the Declaration of 
Independence. "Under the Willows" and "The 
Cathedral," two poems of great spiritual beauty, 
appeared in 1869. Lowell's essays have been col- 
Loweii* lected in four volumes: "The Fireside Travels" 


(1864), "Among My Books" (1870), "A Second 


Series" (1876), "My Study Windows'" (1871). In 
1877, Lowell was sent as American Minister to 
Spain, and in 1881 was transferred to the Court 
of St. James. No Minister from the United States 
ever had a warmer welcome in Great Britain. He 
was esteemed as a poet rather than as an official 
Ambassador. Specially appreciated was his poetic 
contribution on the "Alabama" affair — a half Embassy 
humorous dialogue in New England dialect en- ° D ° M 
titled "Jonathan to John." Lowell remained in 
England until 1885. His addresses and after-dinner 
speeches were published in 1887, under the title 
"Democracy and other Addresses." In 1889 ap- 
peared Lowell's last volume of verse, "Heartsease 
and Eue." It contained "Fitz- Adam's Story" and 
"The Nest." The closing years of the poet's life 
were spent at his home in Massachusetts in the 
company of his daughter. 

Other prominent Americans who died during the 
year were Generals J. E. Johnston and Lee of Civil 
War fame, Fanny Davenport and Florence, the 
actors, and William Windom the financier. 

Robert Edward Lee, the foremost hero of the 


Confederacy, was born in Virginia, in 1807, the son j^r e er 
of "Light Horse Harry" of Revolutionary fame. 
Graduating from West Point, in 1829, Lee first 
came into prominence when he suppressed John 
Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry. He saw active 
service as chief officer of engineers in the Mexican 
War. His abilities won the special commendation 
of General Scott, who attributed the fall of Vera InMexico 
Cruz to Lee's engineering skill. At the outbreak 

1732 A HISTORY OF THE 1891 

of the Civil War General Scott wanted to make 
Lee chief commander of the Union army, but on 
the secession of Virginia, Lee resigned his commis- 
sion and cast his lot with his native State. His 
remarkable abilities were not recognized at first. 
Defeated at Cheat Mountain with insufficient forces 
in 1861, he was recalled by Jefferson Davis. In 
the summer of 1862, when Lee supplanted John- 
ofthe ston as commander of the Army of Northern Vir- 

Peninsula ^ 

ginia, the great captain had an opportunity at last 
to reveal his pre-eminent military talents. For 
nearly five years he held the immeasurably su- 
perior armies of the North at bay, and repeatedly 
led his outnumbered forces to victory. "Without 
him, the Confederacy would have collapsed much 
sooner than it did; whereas the Union side, had 

Lgg.g it been able to command the services of so skilful 

strategy a strategist, must inevitably have put a quick end 
to the so long protracted struggle. 

During this year an additional section covering 
almost 800,000 acres of the Indian Territory of 

Oklahoma Oklahoma was thrown open. An immediate rush 
for allotments was made by some 15,000 persons 
who had assembled on the borders. 

The Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria- Hungary 

Alliance and Italy was renewed, and thus the international 
politics of Europe were kept in the same channel. 
In French affairs the Bonaparte family met at 
Moncalieri formally to recognize Prince Victor as 
their head shortly after the death of his father, 
Prince Napoleon, second son of Frederika of Wur- 
temberg, and cousin of Napoleon III. He figured 


in Corsica, the Italian campaign, the Crimean War, 
Algiers, and the Franco-Prussian War, and in in- 
numerable other affairs of State under the Empire. 
A French writer has called him the most brilliant 
failure of the century. 

On September 9, Jules GreVy died at his birth- 
place, Mont-sous- Vaudrey in the Jura, in complete gjgj* °* 
retirement and almost forgotten by his former sup- 
porters. He figured prominently under the Admin- 
istrations of M. Thiers and Marshal MacMahon. For 
seven years he was so much in evidence that, on 
the fall of MacMahon in 1879, he found himself 
without effort installed as President of the French 
Eepublic. Grevy clung to the Presidency after it 
had been made clear to him that no party was pre- 
pared to stand by him. His fall in 1887 was inevi- 
table. He was in no sense a great man, but was 
honest to the core. The funeral of General Bou- 
langer at Brussels shortly afterward gave rise to-B°«- 
disorder. Police and gensdarmes had difficulty pro- sulclde 
tecting the cortege on its route to the cemetery. 
Boulanger's suicide in September, at the grave of 
his mistress, Mile, de Bonnemaine, was a finale 
which was almost anticipated. The last two years 
spent in exile in London, Jersey and Brussels had 
been in her company, and her sudden death with 
the collapse of his so nearly achieved ambitions 
brought about this bitter end. Prior to his po- 
litical career, and after his military education at 
St. Cyr, Boulanger had figured honorably in the 
Franco- Prussian War, especially in the siege of 
Paris, in Tunis, and Cochin- China. 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— U 

Death of 

1734 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1891 

England, on March 31, lost one of her leading 
statesmen in Lord Granville, who died at the age 
of seventy-six. He succeeded Palmerston in 1851 
as Foreign Secretary. In 1868 he was Colonial 
Secretary under Gladstone, and on the death of 
Clarendon, in 1870, succeeded to the Secretaryship 
of Foreign Affairs, which he held until 1874. 
During this period he negotiated the Treaty 
of 1870 guaranteeing the neutrality of Belgium 
and protested against the Russian repudiation of 
the Black Sea clause of the Treaty of Paris. On 
the return of Gladstone to office in 1880, Lord 
Granville again became Foreign Secretary. During 
the short Gladstone Administration of 1886 he held 
office as Colonial Secretary. 

The "uncrowned king" of Ireland, Charles Stew- 
art Parnell, died on October 6 at the age of forty- 
five. He became a Member of Parliament in 1875, 
organized the "active" Home Rule party, and devel- 
Parneii° f oped its obstruction tactics. In 1880 he was returned 
for the City of Cork and was chosen as leader of 
the actives in organizing the newly formed National 
League. In 1886, he and his followers supported 
the Home Rule proposals introduced by Gladstone. 
In 1887, he was accused by the London "Times" of 
complicity with the crimes and outrages committed 
by the extreme section of the Irish Nationalist. 
He was acquitted by Parliament of the charges 
against him. In 1890, a sensational divorce suit 
ruined his political prospects. He died leaving 
the work to which he had devoted his life and 
talents unachieved. 

Parnell 'a 

1891 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1735 

On September 8, Herman Ludwig Ferdinand von 
Helmholtz died at the age of seventy-three. Helm- Hetmhoitz 
holtz's scientific work includes the early investiga- 
tions which led to his theory of the conservation of 
energy, conceived independently by Robert Mayer. 
As Professor of Physiology and Pathology at 
Koenigsberg, he determined the rate of transmission 
of nerve impulses, and in 1851 invented the oph- 
thalmoscope, an instrument of almost incalculable 
value to oculists. In 1862 appeared his famous 
work "The Doctrine of Tone Sensations as a Phys- 
iological Basis of the Theory of Music," an epoch- 
making work in which he showed the true nature 
of sounds. To electricity and hydrodynamics he 
made noteworthy contributions. 

Soon after this came the death of Lord Bulwer- 
Lytton, the son of the novelist, in November. This 
popular writer was born in London, 1831, and, after, 
studying some years at Harrow and Bonn, was ap- Meredit ^" 
pointed diplomatic attache, in 1849, to the Legation 
at Washington. On his return after two years he 
filled diplomatic posts at all the principal Euro- 
pean capitals. During this period he brought him- 
self before the world as a man of letters, and, under 
the pseudonym of "Owen Meredith," published 
"Clytemnestra, and other Poems," 1855; "Lucille," 
1860; "Tannhauser, " 1861; "King of Amasis," 
1863, and "Fables in Song," 1874. In 1876, he 
was appointed Viceroy of India by the govern- 
ment of Disraeli. This post he resigned in 1880, 
and was created an earl. Among his later works 
the most important is "Glenaveril," a poem in six 

1736 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1891 

books dealing with some of the leading politicians 
of the day. 

Meanwhile the persecution of the Jews in Rus- 
Russian sia > initiated in the previous year, began to cause 
fecutecT serious disturbances in the financial arrangements 
of the State. In May, the Governor of Moscow 
suddenly put latent penal laws into action, com- 
pelling thousands of Jews to leave the city or 
suffer imprisonment. The House of Rothschild 
withdrew from participation in the new Russian 
Conversion Loan. The town of Starodoub, in the 
province of Tchnerzigov, which had for some days 
been the centre of anti- Jewish agitation, was, on 
the 20th of October, entirely in the hands of the 
mob. Jewish shopkeepers were plundered, fire was 
set to stores and houses, and the property destroyed 
was valued at 4,000,000 rubles. At the same time 
the failure of the precautionary measures to protect 
the people from starvation casued a famine. In 
April, Baron Hirsch notified his readiness to con- 
tribute the sum of £3,000,000 toward a fund for 
establishing in Syria and other places colonies 
for the Jews expelled from Russia. In August he 
despatched orders to his Argentine agents to pur- 
chase land in that country to the value of £2,000,- 
mr°ch*s 000. But the first Hirsch colony, as it turned out, 
was established at Woodbine, New York, in Sep- 
tember. The farm consisted of over 5,000 acres 
of land, and comprised workshops for various 
trades. At Vladorboch, the Czarewitch in May 

Trans- J 

raiTwL au ^ a ^ tne nrst ra ^ °^ tne G reat Trans-Siberian 
Railway from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific. 

1891 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1737 

During the early part of the year, and especially 
toward summer, the influenza epidemic revived to a 
great extent in various cities of the United States. 
As many as 227 deaths were reported in the course 
of twenty-four hours in New York. In autumn, a 
serious outbreak of cholera had been reported from cholera 

- 1 epidemic 

eastern Syria and Persia; the deaths, chiefly among 
the pilgrims, ranging from 2,000 to 2,500 a day. 

In China, jealousy and hatred of the foreigners 
developed in this year into mob violence. It 
took the form of a concerted movement against 
the foreign missionaries living in the valley of 
the Yang-tse-Kiang Eiver. A series of massa- 
cres occurred during May, September, Novem- 
ber and December. The southern coast of Nipon 
was convulsed by a terrible earthquake late in quakes i 
the year, chiefly affecting Nagoya, Osaka and" 
Kobe, a seaport of Hogo, largely inhabited by 
fishermen. Seventy-five thousand houses were 
overthrown, numbers of public buildings com- 
pletely destroyed, and altogether 6,000 persons 
lost their lives, while thousands were injured. 



IN JANUARY, President Harrison of the United 
States sent a message to Congress concerning 
the assault upon American seamen at Valpa- 
iiiciSeat 1 raiso. Chile expressed regret for the Valparaiso 

closed i o r 

outrage. The apology was accepted. France, 
Sweden and Italy became arbitrators in the Be- 
ring Sea dispute. The Chinese Exclusion Bill was 
approved by the American Senate on May 12. 

The epidemic of influenza, commonly called 
grippe, still swept from Constantinople to San 

epidemic Francisco. In some cities, notably Vienna and 
Boston, it affected nearly one-fourth of the pop- 
ulation. Anarchistic demonstrations broke out in 
France, Italy and Spain. During March and April, 
dynamite outrages were perpetrated at Paris, Liege, 

outrages Xeres, and at Tarento, in Italy. Hundreds of sus- 
pects were arrested and several men, convicted in 
the courts, were sentenced to death. Earthquakes 
and volcanic eruptions occurred in southern Europe 
and Polynesia. Throughout June great alarm was 
felt in Naples and southern Italy at the continued 

volcanic activity of Mount Vesuvius and of Mount Etna in 


Sicily. The greatest volcanic eruption of the year 

was that of Mauna Loa, in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The death of Tewlik Pasha, the Khedive of 

1802 January NINETEENTH CENTURY 1739 

Egypt, occurred early in January. Charles Louis 
Miiller, the famous historical painter, died at Paris. 
A pupil of Gros and Cogniet, this artist made a 
lasting reputation by his ambitious picture ' ' The Death of 
Roll Call of the Last Victims of the Reign of Ter- Muller 
ror. " This immense canvas, which contained ac- 
knowledged portraits, was hailed at the time of its 
acquisition by the French Government as the fore- 
most historical painting of its time. January 14 
occurred the death of the Duke of Clarence and 
Avondale, heir- presumptive to the throne of Great 
Britain. On the same evening, Cardinal Manning 
died at Westminster. Taking orders at Oxford, he 
served as rector of Havingford and Graffham, Sus- 
sex, 1834-40, and as Archdeacon of Chichester, Maiming 
1840-51. He took an active part in the Tractarian 
Movement of 1833. In 1851, he joined the Church 
of Rome and was ordained a priest. On the death 
of Cardinal Wiseman, he succeeded him as Arch- 
bishop of Westminster, 1865, and ten years after- 
ward was made Cardinal. Besides sermons, most 
notable among his works are "The Temporal Power 
of the Pope," "The True Story of the Vatican 
Council," and "The Four Great Evils of the Day." 
In March, Walt Whitman, the American poet, 
died at Camden, New Jersey. Born of humble 
origin, in 1819, Whitman began his poetic career Wa)fc 
with the publication of the weekly journal, "Tne WhltmaE 
Long Islander." For this he set his own type. 
Later, Whitman travelled through the Western 
States and edited a small newspaper in New Or- 
leans. Returning to New York, he set type for 

1740 A HISTORY OF THE Spring ig92 

a while and afterward became a carpenter and 
builder, as was his father. In 1856 he published 
Grass^ s of " Leaves of Grass," a collection of poems which 
attracted immediate attention in America and Eng- 
land. Emerson declared them the most extraordi- 
nary piece of wit and wisdom America had ever 
produced. Whitman's free versification and his 
unashamed utterances of the verities of life made 
him an object of ridicule and denunciation through- 
out America. Like Byron and Poe he was best 
appreciated outside of his own country. Adolphe 
Kette and other apostles of vers litres in France 
acknowledged the vital influence of his work. In 
England, Swinburne and John Addington Symonds 
were among the first to recognize the originality 
of Whitman's verses. A new edition of "Leaves of 
Grass" appeared in 1860 with the addition of "En- 
fants d'Adam." During the American Civil War 
the poet devoted himself to the relief of sick and 
wounded soldiers in the camp hospitals. Vivid im- 

War lm- 

pressions pressions of these scenes were given in his Drum 
Taps." Later Whitman published "Memoranda 
during the War." The poet's efforts in behalf of 
the soldiers were rewarded by a clerkship in the 
Federal Attorney-General's office. After a brief 
tenure, the publication of certain outspoken verses 
so offended public propriety, that the Attorney- 
General, yielding to popular outcry, withdrew the 
poet's pittance. Whitman's later works included 
the prose essays "Democratic Vistas," "Passage 
to India" (1870), "After All, Not to Create Only" 
(1871), "As Strong as a Bird" (1872), "Specimen 


Days" (1883), "November Boughs" (1885), and 
"Sands at Seventy" (1888). His last poem was an 
"Ode to the New Eepublic of Brazil" (1890). By 
the time Whitman died, much of the early feeling 4lThe Good 
against him had subsided, and he was venerated ?£$• 
by many as "the good gray poet." 

America soon lost another poet of renown by 
the death of John Greenleaf Whittier. He died 
at the age of eighty-five, the most popular poet 
of America after Longfellow. Whittier was a 
Quaker, born in Massachusetts. He was brought Death of 

. i i • • P i ' , Whittier 

up on a farm where his poetic faculty was awak- 
ened in early youth by hearing a Scotch pedler 
sing some of the songs of Burns. His poem "The 
Barefoot Boy" is an autobiographic note. While 
Whittier was engaged in farm work, at the age 
of nineteen, he wrote his first poems for the 
Newbury port "Free Press," published by William 
Lloyd Garrison. From 1833 he devoted himself to 
the cause of anti- slavery, writing on the subject for 
more than thirty years in verse as well as prose. 
He shared the obloquy of all the early abolition- Abolition 
ists. He was pelted with stones at Concord, New ac 
Hampshire, and at Philadelphia, where he edited 
the "Freeman," his office was burned by a mob. 
The list of Whittier's published works is long. 
It includes in all some four hundred poems. The 
most noteworthy of his publications are: "Anti- 
slavery Poems," 1838; "Lays of My Home," 1843; 
"Margaret Smith's Journal," 1849; "Voices of 
Freedom," 1849; "Songs of Labor," 1850; "Old 
Portraits," 1850; "The Chapel of the Hermits," 

1712 .4 HISTORY OF THE 1832 

1853; "Literary Recreations," 1854; "The Pano- 
works ier ' s rama," 1856; "Home Ballads," 1860; "In War 
Times," 1863; "Snow Bound," 1866; "The Tent 
on the Beach," 1867; "Among the Hills," 1868; 
"Miriam," 1870; "The Pennsylvania Pilgrim," 
1872: "Mabel Martin," 1874; "Hazel Blossoms," 
1875; "The Vision of Echard," 1878; "The King's 
Missive," 1881; "The Bay of Seven Islands," 1883; 
"Saint Gregory's Guest," 1888, and a little volume 
of verse privately printed in 1890. 

Whittier's purely lyric pieces made classic the 
scenery and romances of his native New England. 
Characteristic of his landscape verses are those on 
the Merrimac River. He has made immortal many 
of the traditions of American colonial days and 
created new poetic legends. Famous among these 
is the poem "Barbara Frietchie. " The sharpest 
criticisms of Whittier were made by Southern 
writers. By them his "Voices of Freedom" was 
characterized with some measure of truth as mere 
"political eloquence in rhyme." A fine tribute to 
the poet is Lowell's sonnet to Whittier: 

New England's poet, rich in love as years, 
Whittier 11 Her hills and valleys praise thee, her swift brooks 

Dance in thy verse ; to. her grave sylvan nooks 
Thy steps allure us, which the wood-thrush hear3 
As maids their lovers, and no treason fears; 
Through thee Merrimaes and Agiohooks 
And many a name uncouth win gracious looks. 
Sweetly familiar to both Knglands' ears; 
Peaceful by birthright as a virgin lake, 
The lily's anchorage, which no eyes behold 
Save thoso of stars, yet for thy brother's sake 
That lay in bonds, thou blewest a blast as bold 
A.s that wherewith the heart of Roland brake, 
Far heard across the New World and the Old. 

189* Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1743 

Speaking for himself, Whittier could truly say: 

My voice, though not the loudest, has been heard 
"Wherever freedom raised her cry of pain. 

In October, Ernest Renan, the great French free- 
thinker, died at Paris. He was born at Trequier, 
in Brittany, in 1823. Of French religious writers 
during the Nineteenth Century he was the mostf™^ 
erudite. His greatest work was his "Histoire des 
Origines du Christianisme. ' ' For this ■ searching 
study and the conclusions drawn therefrom he was 
anathemized by the Curia, and his book was placed 
on the papal index of expurged writings. Similar 
opposition was raised to his "Jesus," a life of the 
Saviour written in the spirit of modern criticism. 
Among the host of his scholarly writings Renan 
also attempted a drama, "L'Abesse de Jouarre, " 
but it failed of success. 

Four days later, Lord Tennyson, the Poet Lau- 
reate of England, died at Allsworth, near Hazel- 
mere. Alfred Tennyson was born in 1809, the son Tennyson 
of a Lincolnshire clergyman. He studied for orders 
at Cambridge and published his first verses at the 
age of eighteen in conjunction with his brother. 
Two years later he brought out "Poems, Chiefly 
Lyrical." These early works excited but scant 
attention. Not until 1842, when Tennyson came 
forth with a collection of poems in two volumes, 
was he recognized .as one of the coming poets of 
England. In 1847, he achieved his first great suc- 
cess with "The Princess," a medley interspersed p^ es3 „ 
with some of the most beautiful of his lyrics. 
The death of Tennyson's friend, Arthur Hallam, 

1744 A HISTORY OF THE 1898 

in 1850, inspired him to the long-sustained poem, 
"In Memoriam," opening with the famous lines: 

"In Memo- I hold it truth, with him who sings 

To one clear harp in diverse tones, 
That men may rise on stepping stones 
Of their dead selves to higher things. 

It was after the appearance of this poem that 
Queen Victoria raised Tennyson to the rank of 
Poet Laureate. He justified his selection by 
his great "Ode on the Death of the Duke of 
Wellington," in 1852. Three years later ap- 
peared "Maud," and next, in 1858, the first four 

theito ' cantos °f tne "Idylls of the King," the great- 
est of all his works. The success of his idyllic 
treatment of the legends of King Arthur and his 
"Round Table," was almost equalled by his great 
narrative poem, "Enoch Arden." This work won 

"Enoch exceptional renown beyond the limits of England. 
Less happy were Tennyson's attempts at the drama. 
"Queen Mary" and "Harold" were unsuccessful 
dramatic efforts. The last of his published works, 
"Demeter, " appeared in 1889. It closed with the 
beautiful lines, "Crossing the Bar," written in 
omen of his death: 

, . Sunset and evening star, 

Last verses ° 

And one clear call for me I 

And may there be no moaning of the bar, 

When I put out to sea. 

But such a tide as moving seems asleep, 

Too full for sound and foam, 

When that which drew from out the boundless deep 

Turns again home. 

Twilight and evening bell, 

And after that tho dark ! 

And may there bo no sadness of farewell. 

When I embark. 

1892 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1745 

For though from out our bourne of Time and PlacQ 

The flood may bear me far, 

I hope to see my Pilot face to face 

"When I have crost the bar. 

Vassily Verestchagin, the Eussian historical 

painter, this year visited America, and there 

exhibited his collection of pictures. Verestchagin 

was a pupil of Gerome at Paris. After leaving gin's 

the Bcole des Beaux Arts, Yerestchagin joined 

the Caucasian expedition under General Kauffman 
in 1867, and in 1869 travelled to Siberia. In 1874 
he went to India with the Prince of Wales and 
afterward settled in Paris. He took part in the 
Eussian- Turkish campaign in 1878-79, and was 
wounded at Plevna. Among his pictures painted 
during this war the best known perhaps are the 
two canvases "Before" and "After." Almost all 
of his war pictures as well as his East Indian 
landscapes were unusually striking, and covered im- 
mense canvases. Shortly before the exhibition of 
his works in America, Verestchagin had also taken 
up religious subjects. His "Family of Jesus" and 
"The Eesurrection" in particular caused much dis- 
cussion among art critics. 

The year's necrology ended, in America, with the 
death of Jay Gould, the great American financier. Death of 

J Jay Gould 

This "King of Wall Street," as he was called, was 
said to have begun his career by selling a novel 
rat-trap. After he had entered into speculations 
on the New York Stock Exchange, he figured m 
a number of bold transactions culminating in the 
crisis of 1873, known in financial circles as "Black 
Friday." After this Gould bore an unenviable 

1746 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1892 

reputation as a wrecker of railroad properties. He 
died a multi-millionnaire. 

Otherwise it was a year of rejoicing in North 
America. The diplomatic differences between Italy 
and the United States, arising out of the brutal 
murder of Italian subjects in New Orleans, wei'6 
satisfactorily settled. Then came the four hun- 
coiumbian dredth anniversary of Columbus's discovery of 

celebration ^ J 

America. Public celebrations were held through- 
out the United States as well as in Genoa and 
Spain. The twenty-seventh Presidential election 
was held November 8. Cleveland was elected by 
379,025 plurality, the largest yet received by any 
Presidential candidate. The organization, known as 
the Farmers' Alliance, had grown to great strength 
and had joined issues with the newly-formed Peo- 
ple's Party or Populists. Owing partly to the vast 

cievehind labor strikes of this year, the People's Party, which 
had nominated General James B. Weaver of Colo- 
rado for President, drew off many votes from Gen- 
eral Harrison, the Republican nominee. 

Latin America, as usual, was convulsed by revo- 
lutions. Martial law was declared in the Argentine 
Republic early in spring. The leaders of the oppo- 
sition party were arrested on charges of high trea- 

AmeHcan son - ^ P^ ot to m urder the President was laid bare. 

upheavals In Venezuela) General Crespo, at the head of 14,000 
insurgents, attacked the government forces at Los 
Teques. In October he inflicted a severe defeat on 
the government army. Several of the State officials 
surrendered themselves. Three days later the city 
of Caracas capitulated. Dr. Villegas, who had been 


performing the functions of President, took refuge 
on a French man-of-war. The casualties ot this 
short civil war aggregated several thousand. 

Before this, sharp measures had been taken by 
the governments of Germany and Austria to pre- 
vent the crossing of their frontiers by hordes of 
Kussian Jews immigrating to Baron Hirsch's new^^a- 
colonies in Argentina. The poorhouses and hos-J e U ws an 
pitals along the frontier were filled with destitute 
Jews awaiting embarkation. On June 20, a Kus- 
sian imperial decree was promulgated at Astrakhan 
emancipating the Kalmucks from Asiatic serfdom 
and villeinage. 

In the course of this same year, the royal families 
of England and Prussia agreed on a final settlement 

B & Restora- 

of the so-called "Guelph Fund." The private for- g™ [ 
tune of the Crown of Hanover, amounting to some **" 
fifteen million marks, was restored by Prussia to 
the Duke of Cumberland. An imperial rescript 
to this effect was signed by the German Emperor 
upon the Duke of Cumberland's renunciation of his 
rights as a German sovereign. 

In medical history, the year is marked by Canon 
and Pfeiffer's discovery of the bacillus of influenza influenza 


or grippe — a disease which, during the last years of 
the Nineteenth Century, was particularly virulent 
in Eussia and in the northern climates of Europe 
and the United States. In the month of December, 
Dr. Eichard Owen, anatomist and paleontologist, 
died in London. Owen is remembered in medi- 
cine for naming the minute insect which, in 1833, j^owen 
James Paget — a medical student, who afterward be- 

1748 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 189S 

came President of the Royal College of Physicians 
and Surgeons — discovered in the human muscular 
tissues. Trichina Spiralis, as Owen named the in- 
sect, was later carefully investigated by Leuckart, 
Virchow and Zenker, and was shown to enter the 
human system through the ingestion of infected 

The King of Dahomey, after prolonged troubles 
with France, was at last brought to a state of sub- 
jection. On November 4, Cana, the sacred city of 
the Dahomans, was captured with but slight loss 
to the French. This virtually ended the campaign 
and established French rule in Dahomey. For his 
conduct during this period Colonel Dodds was 
raised to the rank of general. Siam, too, acceded 
to the demands of France. At Paris, late in the 
year, the Procureur-General of the French Repub- 
lic took legal proceedings against the promoters of 
the Panama Canal Company for breach of trust and 
company malversation of funds. Warrants of arrest were 
issued against all concerned in the Company and 
those implicated in the Panama lottery loan. Fer- 
dinand de Lesseps, the aged president of the Com- 
pany, for the nonce escaped arrest. 






EAELY in the year a revolution broke out in 
the Hawaiian Islands. Queen Liliuokalani 

was dethroned in January by the American in Hawaii 
element in the population. At the same time, Har- 
rison's Secretary of State, Blaine, died, on the eve 
of his birthday. James G. Blaine was born January 
31, 1830, at Brownsville, Pennsylvania, and began 
his political career as the editor of the Kennebec Bfaine 
4 'Journal" in Maine. He was a delegate to the first 
Republican National Convention in 1856. In 1862 
he was elected to Congress, where he served con- 
tinuously until 1876. Three times in succession he 
was Speaker of the House. At the Republican Con- 
vention in 1880, when Grant was proposed for a third 
term, Blaine was his rival candidate. Neither pre- 
vailed — Garfield receiving the nomination through 
Blaine's assistance. On Garfield's inauguration as 
President, Blaine was appointed Secretary of State. 
He resigned this office after Garfield's assassination. 
In 1884, Blaine was a candidate for the Presidency 
against Grover Cleveland. The contest was imbit- 
tered for Blaine by the publication of certain un- 
fortunate letters which impugned his honesty m 
office. Many prominent Republicans went over to 
the other party. They were denounced by their 

1750 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1893 

former comrades as "Mugwumps. " Blaine was sig- 
nally defeated. In 1888, when Harrison was elected 
President, Blaine was again appointed Secretary of 
Blaine's State. Shortly before the Republican Convention 
?aree C r of 1892, he resigned from Harrison's Cabinet and 
once more became a candidate for the Presidency. 
But Harrison was renominated. After this disap- 
pointment, Blaine's health sank rapidly. He died a 
few months afterward. Blaine's most lasting con- 
tribution to the history of his country was a book 
of political reminiscences, "Twenty Years of Con- 
gress. ' ' 

On the day after Blaine's death, the American 
Minister at Honolulu, Stevens, proclaimed a pro- 
tectorate of the United States over the islands, "for 
the preservation of life and property. ' ' A force of 
United States marines landed at the request of the 


Honolulu Provisional Government, and the American flag 
was hoisted. President Harrison presently sent a 
treaty to the Senate for the annexation of Hawaii. 
It was referred to the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, and though approved there, failed to obtain 
the necessary two-thirds majority. In the mean- 
while, President Harrison's term expired, and 
Grover Cleveland was inaugurated in his place. 
Cleveland's first measure was to withdraw the 
Hawaiian treaty. The temporary protectorate of 
the United States over Hawaii ceased, and the 

protecto- American flag was hauled down at Honolulu. 

rate with- ° 

drawn James H. Blount was appointed Envoy Extraordi- 
nary to Hawaii. Secretary of State Gresham, in 
an official report on the subject, advocated restora- 

1803 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1751 

tion of Queen Liliuokalani's throne. This meant 
the abandonment of the Provisional Government. 
Cleveland's change of policy aroused intense oppo- 
sition in America. The "Jingo" newspapers in 
particular denounced the President for hauling 
down the Stars and Stripes in Hawaii, and an 
appreciable faction of the President's own party 
fell away from his leadership. 

The deferred quadri- centennial of the discovery 
of America was celebrated in New York on the 
arrival of the fac-similes of Columbus's three cara- 
vels, sent over from Spain. On April 27, they 
were escorted through New York Harbor and up 
the Hudson Eiver by the warships of all the impor- 

, World's 

tant naval Powers of the world. The World's Fair Fair 
was opened at Chicago on May 1, by the President 
of the United States. Eepresentatives were present 
from all the civilized nations of the globe. The 
general architectural effect of the Exposition build- 
ings, erected in plastered staff, surpassed all that 
had been seen hitherto at international exposi- 
tions. It was called the "White City." An un- 
usual feature was the Congress of Religions. For 
the first time in the world's history spokesmen of 
various creeds and denominations met in amity. 
The most distinguished visitors to the World's Fair 
were the Duke of Veragua, an indirect descendant 
of Christopher Columbus, and Princess Eulalie of 
Spain. The splendors of their reception in America 
were recalled at the close of the century as the last 
conspicuous courtesies exchanged between Spain and 
the New World. 

1752 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1893 

The long disputed points between Great Britain 
and the United. States in regard to the Bering Sea 
fisheries were settled by the tribunal which sat in 
Paris. Arguments on both sides were made by Sir 
Charles Russell, James C. Carter, Frederic R. Cou- 
dert and Edward J. Phelps. On the broad ques- 
tions of international law the decision was in favor 
Bering Sea of Great Britain, while the practical regulations for 
settled the protection of the fur seal were found to be in 
accordance with the demands of the United States. 
In November, negotiations were opened for the set- 
tlement of the claims of British sealers seized by 
American warships before the modus vivendi of 
1891. The indemnity claimed by Canada was not 
to exceed a half million dollars. A close season 
for seals was to be maintained for three months 
every midsummer, and a protected zone was estab- 
lished for sixty miles around the Pribylov Islands. 
On June 22, while the British squadron was prac- 
ticing evolutions in the Mediterranean, a disastrous 
collision occurred, in which the flagship "Victoria" 
dJaster 1 *" was sun k- Admiral Tryon, who was on board the 
"Victoria," exclaimed: " It is all my fault. " "With 
the ship sinking beneath them the crew were or- 
dered to jump. Ten minutes after the collision the 
flagship went down. Of her crew of 659, less than 
one-half were picked up alive. A court-martial 
which sat at Malta found that Sir George Tryon, 
the drowned Vice- Admiral, was to blame for the 

Guy de Maupassant, the famous French novelist, 
died on July 7, at Paris, after suffering for some 


years from an incurable mental disease. Maupas- 
sant was born in 1850, at Chateau Miro Mesnil inSaupas- 
Normandy. He had the rare distinction of "hav- 
ing studied to write." For some years he was a 
pupil of Flaubert, by whose advice he did not pub- 
lish any of his earlier essays. De Maupassant soon 
was foremost in France as leader of the modern 
school of the naturalists. The story "Boule de 
Suif" first won him renown. "Soirees de Medan" 
(1880) showed his intimate literary kinship to Zola's 
method, as did, likewise, "La Maison Tellier" (1881), 
"Les Soeurs Rondoli" (1884), "Monsieur Parent" 
(1885), "Contes du Jour" and "Contes et Nouvelles" 
(1885), and the great novel "Bel- Ami," which 
achieved a succes de scandale. "Pierre et Jean" 
(1888) showed a larger plane of psychological study 
and breadth of feeling, without clouding any of his 
characteristic clearness. Although De Maupassant 
remained a pessimist to the last, his artistic form at 
this time reached its highest development. "Fort 
Comme La Mort" and "Notre Coeur" followed; and, 
in 1891, a three- act drama, "Musotte," was written 
in collaboration with Normand. "La Paix du Me- 
nage, ' ' in two acts, was played at the Comedie Fran- 
chise in 1893, about the time that De Maupassant's 
mental disorder was declared to be incurable. 

On August 7, the Fifty-third Congress opened its 
extraordinary session on the call of the President, 
for the purpose of repealing the Sherman Silver 
Purchasing Act. The debate continued for three American 
months. William J . Bryan spoke against the re- debate 
peal. The Finance Committee of the Senate, on 



Autumn 1393 





August 18, reported a bill favoring the uncondi- 
tional repeal of the Sherman law. All amendments 
were defeated finally, and the bill was passed. On 
August 29, the Finance Committee of the Senate 
reported the House repeal bill with an amend- 
ment, substituting the Voorhees bill. A notable 
struggle ensued. On October 11 and 12, Senator 
Allen held the floor for fifteen hours, and, on the 
13th, the Senate held a continuous session of thirty- 
nine hours. The American Treasury's statement 
showed that the gold reserve had decreased to 
$81,700,000. On October 30, at last, the Voorhees 
bill was substituted for the Wilson bill and was 
passed. This bill declared that the policy of the 
United States was to coin both gold and silver. On 
November 1, the bill as amended by the Senate 
passed the House. The President immediately 
signed the bill. The Senate compromise entirely 
eliminated the bond question. All greenbacks and 
Treasury notes under ten dollars in value were to 
be retired, and silver certificates and coined silver 
dollars were to take their place. The annual pur- 
chase of four and a half million ounces of silver was 
to continue, the same to be coined from time to time 
as the seigniorage then in the Treasury. 

In the last days of August, a destructive storm 
passed over Georgia and the Carolinas. In Sa- 
vannah and Charleston, public buildings, harbor 
works, and entire streets were swept away. More 
than 500 lives were lost, while 20,000 persons were 
rendered homeless. Property to the value of 
$10,000,000 was destroyed. 

1893 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1755 

Another disastrous cyclone, followed by a tidal 
wave of unusual magnitude, passed over the Gulf 
of Mexico the second day of October. The coast of 
Louisiana, and especially Mobile Bay, was the cen- 
tre of the chief disasters. Upward of 1,200 lives • 
were lost, while the value of property destroyed 
amounted to $5,000,000. 

In France, the Court of Appeals pronounced 
judgment in the case of the directors of the Panama 
Company accused of misappropriating funds. Fer- 
dinand and Charles de Lesseps were condemned to 
five years in prison and to pay a fine of 3,000 francs 
each. Eiffel, Cottu and Fontaine were sentenced 
to imprisonment for two years as well as to pay 


heavy fines. The sentence passed upon Ferdinand prosecu- 
de Lesseps, the aged promoter of the Suez Canal, 
was not carried into effect, nor was the old man in 
a condition to realize the gravity of the charges 
brought against him. 

Of the 1,500,000,000 francs which investors had 
been persuaded to put into the scheme more than 
half had been stolen or used in bribing public men. 
The scandal shook the Eepublic to its foundations. 
A state event was the death of Marshal MacMahon, 
Due de Magenta, and ex- President of France. When 
he was entombed at the Invalides, representatives 
from all the crowned heads of Europe attended. 
Even the German Emperor sent a wreath. Maurice 
de MacMahon was born at the Chateau de Sully, 
near Autun, the son of Count MacMahon, of 
rish refugee stock. His military achievements in SacMahon 
Algeria and Italy, and the determined resistance 

1756 A HISTORY OF THE 1899 

offered by him during the Franco- Prussian war, 
when he served his country under the Empire as 
well as under the Republic, made him one of the 
foremost soldiers of fin-de-si<icle France. French- 
men of all parties esteemed him for his irreproach- 
able character. 

MacMahon's death was followed by that of 
Charles Francois Gounod, the composer. He re- 
ceived a state funeral at the Madeleine. He was 

Death of 

Gounod born on June 17, 1818, in Paris, the son of a painter. 
After leaving the Lycee of St. Louis, he studied 
music under HaleVy, Lesueur and Paer at the Paris 
Conservatoire. He won the Prix de Rome three 
times in succession by his cantatas "Marie Stuart," 
"Rizzio, " and "Fernand. " In Rome, Gounod's 
study of ritual music, particularly of Palestrina, 
gave him an early bent for religious compositions. 
On his return to France he became a church organ- 
ist. When his first Requiem and Messe Solennelle 
were brought out in Vienna and London, the com- 
poser was styled "Abbe" Gounod." He was com- 
missioned to write a work for the Grand Opera. 
His first attempt at this, "Sapho, " was a failure. 
Equally unsuccessful were his scores for "Ulysse" 
(1852), "La Nonne Sanglante" (1854), and "Le 
MeMecin Malgre" Lui" (1858). The next year Gou- 

"FauBt" no & brought out his opera "Faust." This great 
opera, the libretto of which was based on Goethe's 
tragedy, was hailed as a masterpiece. "Philemon 
et Baucis," an idyllic opera composed during the 

"Romeo next vear, had but a succte cTestime. The success 

and Juliet" J ' 

of "Faust" was revived with "Romeo and Juliet" 

1893 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1757 

in the season of 1867. During the Franco- Prussian 
war, Gounod went to England, where he devoted 
himself mainly to sacred composition. His "Re- 
demption" and "Mors et Yita, " composed at Bir- 
mingham, have become standard works. 

Within less than a month another great composer 
was lost to the world by the death of Tschaikovsky. 
Peter Ilyitch Tschaikovsky, the most original of 
Russian composers during the .Nineteenth Century, 
was born on Christmas Day, 1840, in Yotkinsk. In kovsky 
early manhood he studied law and entered the 
government civil service. Soon after Rubinstein 
founded the St. Petersburg Conservatory, in 1862, 
Tschaikovsky became instructor of harmony there. 
His compositions were full of the strange emo- 
tional changes of mood characteristic of the 
Slavic race — now wild and fiery, now darkly de- 
spondent, now sweet with infinite tenderness. 
Tschaikovsky 's songs in particular reproduce the 
poignant notes of Russian folk music. His piano 
concertos have been a source of inspiration to later 
Slavic composers. In 1891, Tschaikovsky visited 
America and opened the new Carnegie Music Hall 
with his newest composition. In 1893, he was made 
a Doctor of Music by the University of Cambridge. 
He died at St. Petersburg, on November 6, during 
the same year, a victim of the cholera. 

Since the previous year the ravages of the cholera 
in Russia had continued. The first serious out- 
break of the year occurred at Mecca, Arabia, in 
June, among the Mohammedan pilgrims gathered sg^^o* 
there. The mortality rose from 400 to 1,000 a day. 

XlXth Ceutury— Vol. 3— V 




1758 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1893 

The returning pilgrims carried the disease to all the 
Mohammedan countries of the world. In July, the 
epidemic travelled up the Danube River into Hun- 
gary. Sporadic cases appeared in the south of 
France and Italy. As late as September, an in- 
creased mortality from cholera was reported from 
Sicily, northern Spain and Hamburg. In the Rus- 
sian provinces the pestilence raged until late in 
the year. 

In South America, turbulent outbreaks occurred 
in the provinces of Buenos Ayres and Tucuman of 
the Argentine Republic in August and July. The 
struggle was carried on with much bloodshed. By 
September, the government had to call out all the 
troops. Radical leaders were apprehended, and in 
October the revolution was for a time suppressed. 
In Brazil, there was a partial revival of the revolu- 
tionary movement in July. Considerable damage 
was caused by the insurgents' squadron opening fire 
on Admiral de Mello. The government troops out- 
numbered the men of De Mello's fleet by some 
4,000. By the end of the year neither party was 
able to bring the conflict to a definite issue. 

Hostilities were again resumed in South Africa. 
In August, Lobengula sent a message to Cape 
Town, stating that he refused to make good the 
damage done by his troops to the European settlers 
on the land of the Chartered Company. In Octo- 
ber, a patrol of the Bechuanaland police was fired 
upon by the Matabeles, and this attack was regarded 
Matabeie as a formal notification of commencement of hostili- 


ties. By October 29, two columns of troops of the 

1893 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1759 

British South Africa Company were attacked by 
a Matabeie force, estimated, at 5,000 men, who were 
driven oft with great loss. Near Buluwayo, the 
chief kraal of the Matabeles, 7,000 strong they 
again attacked the South African Company's forces, 
but were defeated with a loss of 1,000 men. Bulu- 
wayo was occupied the following day and the royal 
kraals destroyed. At the end of November, Loben- 
gula sent in proposals to Colonel Groold- Adams for 
the pursuing force to be withdrawn. 

At Barcelona, during a performance of "William 
Tell" at the Teatro Siceo, two bombs were thrown Barcelona 


from the upper gallery into the stalls. One ex- 
ploded and killed twenty-three persons. The thea- 
tre was wrecked, and in the panic which ensued 
more lives were lost. Many suspects were arrested. 
In America, the so-called Cherokee Strip, cover- 
ing over 9,000 square miles, recently ceded by the 
Indians, was opened in the middle of December. 
One hundred thousand people rushed to secure the Cherokee 01 

r r Strip 

6,000,000 acres of land. 

Besides James Gr. Blaine, America during this 
year lost a number of her foremost men by death. 
Among these were Generals Benjamin Butler and 
Beauregard, two conspicuous soldiers of the Ameri- 
can Civil War; the two distinguished actors Edwin 
Booth and Murdoch ; Lamar, the jurist, lately on the 
bench of the United States Supreme Court; Luay^SoS 
Stone Blackwell, the woman-suffragist; Leland 
Stanford, the philanthropist; Phillips Brooks, the 
great New England divine; and Francis Parkman, 
the historian. 




N JANUARY 1, Heinrich Hertz of the Uni- 
versity of Bonn died at the early age of 

Death of >^_>r , . J _ J ° 

nertz thirty-seven. Hertz was one of the most 

brilliant of modern physical investigators, chiefly 
of electrical phenomena. By experiment, Hertz 
proved that the waves of electricity are transversal, 
like those of light. He ascertained the velocity of 
electricity, and found it to be equal to that of light. 
What had hitherto been considered a current of 
electricity, Hertz proved to be only a movement on 
the surface of the wire. The influence of this new 
system of physics upon the development of natural 
science and its manifold applications to practical 
life can hardly be overrated. 

In the afternoon of June 24, Sadi Carnot, the 

Sadi President of France, was mortally stabbed during 

Carnot as- .... _ , ,... i -r-> i • 

sassinated his visit to Lyons, as he was driving from the Palais 
de Commerce to attend a gala performance at the 
Grand Theatre. The assassin was an Italian by 
the name of Cesario Santo. At Paris and Lyons, 
mob demonstrations were made against the Italians. 
The President's body reached Paris on the 26th, 
and was conveyed to the Ely sees. On the next 

pfrier ir " ^y Casimir-Pe'rier was elected President of the 
French Republic by the Congress of the Chambers 

1894 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1761 

at Versailles. Later President Carnot's assassin 
was sentenced to death at Lyons. From May to 
July 3,500 anarchists were arrested in Italy, at 
Berlin and in Marseilles for suspected plots. 

About the same time, Captain Dreyfus, a French 
officer, after a protracted trial by court-martial with 
closed doors, was found guilty of having procured, 
for a foreign power, documents connected with the Dreyfus' 
national defence. He was sentenced to military nation 
degradation and perpetual imprisonment beyond 
the seas. Other events were the death of the 
Comte de Paris at Stowe House near Buckingham 
on the 8th of September, and the death of Vicomte 
de Lesseps. 

Yicomte Ferdinand de Lesseps was born Novem- 
ber 19, 1809, the son of a French diplomat. His Deathof 
early manhood was spent in the diplomatic service. De Lesseps 
In 1841, he conceived the idea of the Suez Canal 
from reading the memoirs of Lepere, Bonaparte's 
chief engineer in the Egyptian expedition. A suffi- 
cient number of French capitalists became interested 
enough to commence operations in 1859. The Suez 
Canal was formally opened in 1869, and honors were 
poured on De Lesseps upon his return to France. 
He became involved in the Panama Canal project. 
The original estimate of cost was $120,000,000. 
Operations were begun in 1881. The hardships of 
the tropical climate debilitated the laborers, and 
in December, 1888, the company suspended pay- 
ment. Now the sea level project was abandoned 
and Eiffel undertook to finish the canal by means gJUJJf 1 * 
of eight locks. Eeckless financiering brought about 

1762 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1894 

the financial crash which put a stop to all work. 
In 1893 De Lesseps was prosecuted in the courts 
for breach of trust and misuse of funds, but his 
sentence was never executed. De Lesseps died on 
the 7th of December, at La Chesnaye, after a linger- 
ing illness. 

Accession O n tQ c 1 st °f November, Czar Alexander III. 

o ic oas j- e( j at j^yadia, in the Crimea. After Alexander's 
funeral the wedding of his successor, Nicholas II. , 
was celebrated at St. Petersburg. Within a week 
after the Czar's death the great Russian composer 
Kubinstein died. 

Anton Gregorovitch Rubinstein was born at "Ve- 
chvotynecz, in Bessarabia, in 1830. He was edu- 
cated in Moscow, where he studied the piano under 
Villoing. When the boy was still nine years old, 

Death of Villoing took him to Paris, and made him plav be- 

Rubiustein ° r •' 

fore Chopin, Liszt and Meyerbeer. On Meyerbeer's 
recommendation Rubinstein was sent to Berlin. 
Here he studied composition under Dehn and 
made a concert tour through Hungary with the 
flute player Heindl. On the outbreak of the revo- 
lution in 1848 he returned to Russia and settled in 
St. Petersburg. Within a few years he produced 
two Russian operas, "Dimitri Donskoi" and the 
'Siberian Hunters." He founded the Imperial 
Conservatory at St. Petersburg and remained its 
director until 1867. Then he toured once more 
through Europe and America, winning fame as a 
pianist second only to that of Liszt. Rubinstein's 
fame rests chiefly on his orchestral and piano com- 
positions and concertos. 

1694 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1763 

Paul Bourget, the French novelist, was elected 
a member of the Academy this year. For many Bourget 
years he had contributed to the "Nouvelle Revue," 
and other journals. Of his novels the best known 
are "Mensonge, " "L'lrreparable, " "Cruelle Enig- 
me," " Dn Crime d' Amour," "Le Disciple," "Cos- 
mopolis, " and "La Terre Promise." Bourget 's 
works were first made familiar to English readers 
through his friend and brother novelist, Henry James 
J ames. 

From Samoa came the sad news of the death 
of Robert Louis Stevenson, the brilliant Scotch 
writer. He had gone to the Samoan Islands to 
spend the rest of his days amid the primitive con- Louf s rt 

,. . , .,. . . , , . , Stevenson 

cations then prevailing at Apia. Among his later 
publications were "Kidnapped," "The Master of 
Ballantrae, " and a volume of verse entitled 
" Underwood." 

The American poet, novelist, essayist and phy- 
sician, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, died at the age 
of seventy -five. From 1847 to 1882, Holmes was 
Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Harvard wendeii 
University. While Holmes is well known to phy- 
sicians as the author of valuable monographs, the 
most important of which is his treatise on the "Con- 
tagiousness of Puerperal Fever' ' (1843), he is known 
chiefly for his delightful essays and graceful verses. 
At the Congress of Hygiene held at Budapesth, 
Dr. Roux, an associate of Pasteur, read a paper in 
which a new method of treating lockjaw and diph- J?™]?^ 11 
theria by anti-toxin was first brought to the notice of Hy ° ,ene 
of the general public. The serum treatment, as this 

1761 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1894 

new method was called, had been first suggested by 
5?uS 8 Behring in 1892, and by the Japanese, Kitasato; but 
to Dr. Roux belongs the credit of having shown how 
to apply it for cures. 

In the middle of June the great Pullman car strike 
started in Chicago. In connection with this move- 
Great ment 40,000 railway employes struck in the West- 
stnke" 1 ern States. By the beginning of July the interven- 
tion of the United States troops was found necessary 
to protect interstate commerce and the transmission 
of the mails. Many thousands of strikers refused to 
allow the trains to be moved. Most of the remain- 
ing buildings of the Chicago World's Fair were set 
on fire and other outrages committed. The troops 
repeatedly charged the mob. At one time the 
strikers destroyed all the station yards at the vari- 
ous railroads. On the 9th of July, President Cleve- 
land issued a proclamation practically declaring 
Federal martial law in Chicago. The Federal courts pun- 
ference ished those strikers that failed to obey injunc- 
tions for contempt of court. On July 16, the 
labor strike throughout the Union was practically 
brought to a close, and the House of Representa- 
tives thanked the President for his energetic action. 
Eugene Debs and other leaders were arraigned 
next day in Chicago for their contempt of court. 
Bail was fixed at $6,000 in each case, and when this 
ment™' was no * famished, they were committed to prison. 
iDjunction g ence ar ose a cry against "Government by Injunc- 
tion," which later became a political issue. 

In February, the House of Representatives had 
passed a resolution in favor of the recognition of the 

1894 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1765 

Provisional Government in the Hawaiian Islands, 


and their ultimate annexation to the United States Re^bi ian 

was rejected. An American naval station was es- 
tablished at Pearl Harbor. 

The New York Legislature, in accordance with 
a popular vote to that effect, passed a bill, uniting, 
under one common government, New York, Brook- Greater 
lyn, and other adjoining towns, covering 319 square New York 
miles and embracing a population of 3,000,000. 

As amended by the Senate after many weeks of 
party manoeuvring, the American tariff bill was 
finally adopted by the House of Eepresentatives in 
August, and became a law without the President's tariff 
formal approval on the 27th of the month. On Sep- 
tember 28, the President of the United States issued 
a proclamation, declaring that he was satisfied that 
the members of the Mormon Church were living in 
obedience to the laws, and granting full amnesty and 
pardon to those convicted of polygamy and deprived 
of civil rights. 

Earlier in the year the imprisonment by the Chief- 
Justice of Samoa of a number of turbulent natives 
caused widespread discontent in Samoa and the Fighting 
neighboring islands. Hostilities broke out between 
the islanders opposed to the government and its sup- 
porters, marked by savage acts of cruelty, especially 
in Savaii and Aarra. Again, in August, a British 
cruiser, "Curacoa, " and a German sloop, "Buz- 
zard, ' ' found it necessary to bombard Luatoanu, the 
stronghold of the chiefs who had risen in rebellion 
against Malietoa, the recognized king. On Septem- 
ber 10, the insurgent chiefs in Samoa surrendered 

1766 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1894 

their arms to the captain of H.M.S. "Curacoa, " and 
declared their submission to King Malietoa. 

All the republics of Central America, with the 
u£ioa ican exception of Costa Eica, concurred in a protocol 
in August, by which they were united in a Central 
American Republic. In Rio de Janeiro the insur- 
gents came in conflict with the United States war- 
ships protecting the merchant shipping of their 
nationality in the bay. Admiral da Gama, recog- 
nizing, his inferior strength, gave in. Early in 
February, the blockade of the harbor of Rio de 
Janeiro was finally abandoned by the insurgents. 
A plot to murder President Marshal Peixoto at Rio 
inBrazu r was brought to light. Peixoto ordered several of 
the ringleaders to be shot, and condemned the 
others to imprisonment. In March, the insurgent 
admiral Da Gama, commanding the ships in Rio 
Harbor, made a conditional surrender to Marshal 
Peixoto. Admiral de Mello took refuge in Uruguay 
with several hundred followers. He surrendered to 
the government authorities. This brought the Bra- 
zilian rebellion to a close. 

In England and throughout the Orient, serious 
concern was caused by the outbreak of the bubonic 
plague at Hong Kong in June. As many as 1,700 
deaths were reported. Reports were received the 

Bubonic x ± 

p ,aBUC same month at Port Said of the great battle of Ltike 
Nyassa, in which the slave-trading chief Mahanjua 
was completely defeated, and his submission to Brit- 
ish terms was assured. 
End of ^ n South Africa, Lobengula, the Matabele chief, 

Lobenguia a fter ^ e desertion of nearly all his followers, was 

181.4 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1767 

killed near the Zambesi Eiver. Later in August, 
news reached Pretoria that the Kaffirs in the Zout 
pansberg district were in open revolt. An agree- 
ment was signed at the Foreign Office in London in 
November with Cecil Rhodes, the representative of 
the British South Africa Company, in which the 
Chartered Company undertook the administration Rhodes 
of the territory in the British sphere north of the 
Zambesi, known as British Central Africa. 

In the Far East, events were coming to a quick 
issue. The Japanese Government, which on the 
outbreak of disturbances in Korea had despatched 
an expedition, refused to withdraw its forces simul- 
taneously with China. 

On July 23, the struggle between China and Japan 
began with the Japanese attack upon the King of 
Korea's palace at Seoul. A few days previously, Fighting 
two Chinese expeditions, sailing under the British 
flag, were despatched from Taku. The landing of 
the Chinese troops in Prince Jerome Gulf was cov- 
ered by a Chinese squadron. While thus engaged, 
the Chinese received intelligence of the fighting at 
Seoul from a British cruiser. Early next morning, 
a Japanese squadron steaming toward Asan hove 
in sight. As the two squadrons were passing each 
other fighting began. The Chinese tried to get out 
of the shallow water, and a running fight ensued. 
The "Tsi Yuen" was so slow in clearing for action 
that she got the worst of ."i from the start. So de- |j!£J| of 
structive was the Japanese fire that not a man was Gulf 
left on deck. In this plight, Captain Fong resorted 
to a cowardly stratagem. He struck his flag and let 

1768 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 189-J 

the "Yoshino" come close to him, while the other 
Japanese cruisers made after the "Kwang Yi. " As 
the "Yoshino" approached, the Chinese suddenly 
opened fire on her at a distance of two hundred 
yards, and discharged a torpedo at her. The 
"Yoshino" was disabled. This done, the "Tsi 
Yuen" rushed off at full speed, and steaming by 
the Chinese transport, without a note of warning, 
got away to Wei-hai-Wei. The Chinese cruiser 
"Kwang Yi" fought a more gallant fight. In the 
wal^hlps end, she was knocked to pieces by the combined fire 
of the "Naniwa" and "Skitsushima, " and her cap- 
tain had to run her inshore and beach her. Only 
eighteen of her crew managed to escape. Mean- 
while, the hapless Chinese transport, "Kowshing, " 
steamed into the gulf unaware of the situation. The 
"Naniwa" approached with her guns trained on the 
"Kowshing." Captain Galsworthy and Von Han- 
neken, commanding the transport and the Chinese 
troops on board, informed the Japanese officers that 
the "Kowshing" was a British ship, sailing under 
the British flag, and had left port in peace. After 
some argument they were ordered to follow the 
"Naniwa." As soon as the boarding party left the 
ship the Chinese soldiers mutinied. The Japanese 
boat was recalled, and the situation on board the 
"Kowshing" was explained. 

Within an hour the "Kowshing" was sunk. The 
barbarum Japanese trained their guns on the Chinese life- 
boats, and on the soldiers swimming in the water. 
Captain Galsworthy and some of his English col- 
leagues were rescued by the "Naniwa." Von Han- 


neken swam to Shepaul. On July 29, the first 
regular land battle was fought at Cheng- Jb'uen inchenl-° f 
Korea. The Japanese land forces at the same time 
attacked Asan, and captured it with heavy loss to 
its Chinese defenders. ^fptured 

As soon as the news of these events reached Japan 
the Mikado made a formal declaration of war. A 
clear statement of the causes of this war was given 
in the Japanese declaration of war published at 
Tokio in the form of an imperial rescript: 

1 ' Korea is an independent country, which was first Tardy 


induced by Japan to open its doors to foreign inter- tion of war 

course, and to take its place among the nations 

of the world. Yet China has always described it 

as her tributary, and has both openly and secretly Casus Eelli 

interfered with its internal affairs, ' ' etc. 

At the time of the first naval action a fleet of 
heavy Chinese ironclads were at sea under Admiral 
Ting Ju Chang, an ex-cavalry officer, appointed to 
the command of the northern squadron. Li Hung 
Chang issued an order limiting the operations of the 
squadron to the east of a line drawn from Wei-hai- 
Wei to the mouth of the Yalu. The Japanese in 
some way got wind of this order which all but crip- 
pled the Chinese fleet. For some time the Chinese 
lay inactive at Wei-hai-Wai, leaving the Japanese 
in undisputed possession of the sea. The Japanese 
improved the interval to convey as large a force as 
possible to Korea. On September 15, the Japanese 
attacked the Chinese position at Ping- Yang, de- p^lyang 
fended by 20,000 Chinese soldiers. After a long 
frontal engagement in which neither side gained 

1770 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 180-1 

material advantage, the Japanese outflanked their 
enemy, and the Chinese were completely routed. 
Only one-fifth of their army could be rallied. 

The defeat of the Chinese land forces at Ping- 
Yang forced the Chinese to make use of their navy. 
Admiral Ting was ordered to convoy five transports 
with 5,000 Chinese. On September 14, Ito, with 
the most powerful ironclads of his two first squad- 
rons, steamed toward the mouth of the Yalu. He 
did not expect to meet the Chinese fleet, and had 
therefore left his torpedo boats behind. The two 
fleets sighted each other's smoke after half- past 
Battle of nine in the morning. It was the first time that 

the Yalu & 

two large fleets of modern ironclads, equipped with 
high-power heavy guns, torpedoes, and quick-firers 
were to try issue. The Chinese had the heavier 
ships while the Japanese had the swifter cruisers. 
The Chinese were benefited by the professional ad- 
vice of a number of Europeans. The chief of staff 
on the flagship was Von Hanneken, aided by Messrs. 
Tyler, Nichols and Albrecht. On the "Chen Yuen" 
were Captain McGiffin and Herr Heckman; on the 
"Tsi Yuen 1 ' Herr Hoffman, and on the "Chih Yuen" 
Mr. Purvis. The Japanese had no foreign officers. 
Admiral Ito's orders were to circle around the 
Chinese flanks and crush the weak ships by a con- 
centrated fire. To deliver their attack the Japanese 
steamed along the Chinese front. The "Ting Yuen" 
opened fire with her twelve- inch guns at a range of 
6,000 yards. The concussion was so great that those 
on the bridge were knocked down and Admiral Ting 
had to be taken below. At a range of 8,000 yards 

1894 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1771 

the Japanese opened their broadsides, firing three 
or four times as fast as the Chinese and far more 
accurately. While the Japanese main squadron sped 
by the Chinese front the leading ships outstripped batu° ese 
the slower Japanese vessels. As a result the Chi- 
nese were taken between two fires, since their own 
indented front prevented several of the vessels from 
bringing their guns to bear, and made them mask 
one another's fire. The brunt of the Chinese fire 
fell on the slow Japanese vessels at the end of their 
line, the ' ' Fusoo, " " Saikio, " " Akagi' ' and ' ' Hiyei. ' ' 
The "Fusoo" cleared the advancing ironclads. The 
"Saikio," while drawing further away, received a 
very heavy fire, and was saved from destruction 
or capture only by the help of other Japanese 
ships. The "Akagi" lost her captain, Sakamoto, g^g 
and three succeeding commanding officers. She 
engaged the big Chinese ironclad "Lai Yuen" so 
fiercely that she set fire to the "Lai Yuen's" deck. 
In the meanwhile the weak "Hiyei" was driven to 
the desperate expedient of disobeying the flagship's 
orders. Steaming in at full speed, the "Hiyei" got 
through in a burning condition, with 19 killed and 
37 wounded. The heaviest loss in the Japanese fleet 
fell on the flagship ' ' Matsushima. ' ' She lost ninety 
officers and men in killed and wounded. Admiral 
Ito transferred his flag to the "Hashidate. " The 
burning "Matsushima" had to steam out of action. 
The first Chinese ship to give way was the un- 
fortunate ' ' Yang Wei, ' ' which ran out of the thick 
of the fight ablaze. The battleship "Chih Yuen" 
while attempting to ram the "Yoshino" was smoth- 

1772 A HISTORY 01 THE Autumn 1894 

ered by quick firers. At 3:30 she went to the bot- 
tom. About the same time the Japanese flagship 
was put out of action. Next, the Chinese "Tsi 
Yuen," commanded by the wretched Fong, fled 
chiaeae ovA of the fight, and, coming in collision with the 
burning "Yang Wei," sent her own sister ship to 
the bottom. The "Kwang Kei" also retired, while 
the "Ching Yuen" and "Lai Yuen" were soon 
ablaze. The whole Japanese flying squadron con- 
centrated their fire on the "King Yuen." At 4:48 
the Chinese ship, with a heavy list, was seen to be 
afire. Presently with a fearful explosion she went 
to the bottom. This left only the "Chen Yuen" 
and the "Ting Yuen" in the Chinese line of battle. 
Both of them were repeatedly on fire. While the 
Japanese flying squadron chased the other Chinese 
ships, the main squadron wheeled and concentrated 
its fire upon these two Chinese ironclads. They 
held out until the bitter end. At nightfall they 
collected about them the burning "Lai Yuen," 
"Ching Yuen," "Ping Yuen," two gunboats and 
two torpedo boats, and retired toward Wei-hai-Wei 
with the honors of war. Fong, with his almost 
uninjured runaway ship, had arrived there hours 

On their return to Port Arthur the Chinese 
claimed the victory. They asserted that at least 
Japanese three of the Japanese ships had been sunk. They 
SaSdS? 1 " themselves admitted the loss of five ships and some 
620 men. The Japanese, while they really lost no 
ship, had three disabled, and lost 294 men. This 
made the percentage of casualties to the total force 

1894 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1773 

engaged twenty-two and one-half per cent on the part 
of the Chinese and eight on the Japanese side. For 
a while it seemed as if this most important of naval 
engagements since Trafalgar was but a drawn battle, Japanese 
but the subsequent abandonment of the sea by the mand of" 
Chinese navy revealed the magnitude of China's 
catastrophe. Many expert opinions have been 
given to account for the results of the battle. 
Briefly they may be summarized to the effect that 
the Japanese were victorious by reason of their su- 
perior mobility, concerted action, greater rapidity 
of firing, and better gunnery. 

While the Chinese fleet withdrew to Port Arthur, 
and later to Wei-hai-Wei, Admiral Ito with his 
ships was kept busy convoying troopships to the 
Chinese mainland. On October 24, a Japanese army ifK* 9 
disembarked near Port Arthur, and the attack on Arthur 
this stronghold was begun. The situation in China 
became serious. The foreign officials of the customs 
serving in Peking and most of the European families 
left the city for the coast. A Japanese advance col- 
umn in northern Korea drove a small Chinese force 
out of Wi-Ja, and occupied the north bank of the 
Yalu on the 8th. The Japanese by this time were 
virtually in undisputed possession of Korea, and the 
Mikado despatched his Minister of the Interior from „ 

r Korea 

Tokio to strengthen the hand of the Minister a t occu P ied 
Seoul in reorganizing the country. On the follow- 
ing day a revolt against the Peking government 
broke out near Hankow under the leadership of 
the Kulaoh Wei secret society. 

A proposal to mediate between China and Japan 

1774 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1894 

was made by Great Britain to the United States, 
Russia, Germany and France, but failed of support. 
On October 15, informal overtures for peace were 
made by China, but were rejected summarily by the 
Japanese Government. The Japanese Parliament 
unanimously passed a war budget of a hundred and 
lifty million yen. On October 24, the Japanese, 
under cover of darkness, having effected a lodgment 
on the north bank of the Yalu, crossed the river and 
routed the Chinese forces. On the following day 
Hushan they took possession of the stronghold of Kien-Lien- 
Tchong, which had been precipitately evacuated by 
the Chinese, and won the battle of Hushan. 

Prince Kung invited the representatives of all the 
foreign Powers to the Tsung-li Yamen on Novem- 
ber 3, and avowed the impotence of China to with- 
stand the Japanese attack. China appealed to the 
Powers to intervene. In the meanwhile, the Chinese 
strongholds of Kinchow and Talienwan were oc- 

Capture of 

Kinchow cupied by the Japanese, the Chinese troops offering 
scarcely any resistance. 

On November 20 and 21, the Japanese army and 
navj'- made a combined attack on Port Arthur. The 
land forces effected a lodgment in the rear, while 
the Japanese ships shelled the forts from the sea. 
Late in the afternoon of the second day, under cover 
of a squall, ten Japanese torpedo boats, supported 
by two fast cruisers, dashed into the harbor. With 
their machine-guns they opened on the unprotected 

ran of Chinese soldiery, whose works faced landward. 

Arthur Thanks to this audacious attack, executed in spite 
<»f Chinese mines in the harbor entrance, Port Ar- 


thur within a half hour was in the hands of the 
Japanese. By this they obtained an excellent naval 
base, with docks and workshops in the enemy's 
country. On the 24th, the Japanese Government 
intimated its willingness to receive peace proposals 
from China through the United States Ministers in 
Tokio and Peking. Nevertheless on December 20, Battle of 
an obstinate engagement between the Chinese and 
the Japanese was fought at Kungwasai on the road 
to Mukden. The Japanese forced back the Chinese 
with heavy losses. 

At the close of the year the Chinese Government Peace 


appointed peace commissioners to treat with Japan. 
They left Tien-tsin on the last day of the year. 




'HE independence of the kingdom of Korea 
was solemnly proclaimed at Seoul on Janu- 
ary 7. The influence of all foreign power, 
in particular of China, Japan and Russia, was re- 
Kafphi r ng° f stricted to diplomatic representation. During the 
following weeks the Japanese achieved a series of 
unbroken victories on sea and land. On January 
10, the first division of the Japanese army under 
General Nogi attacked Kaiphing. After hard fight- 
ing the Japanese occupied the place, having brought 
their guns through deep snow. The Japanese bom- 
barded Teng-chow and subsequently silenced the 

Bombard- ° * J 

™™^[ iow fortress. A force of 25,000 men was also landed at 
Yung-tcheng, by which the Chinese arsenal of Wei- 
hai-Wei was isolated. On the 30th, after two days' 
fighting, all the land forts of Wei-hai-Wei, the 
second most important Chinese arsenal in the north, 

w£?Su-°' were captured by the Japanese. The Chinese loss 
was estimated at about 2,000 men. The Japanese, 
having completed the capture by February 1, made 
themselves masters of the island fortress of Len- 
Kung-Tan, and thus closed to the Chinese fleet all 
chance of escape. In the meantime, on January 30, 
the Chinese peace envoys had arrived at Kobe\ 


They were greeted by the populace with hostile 

Early in February, the Japanese made repeated 
efforts to dash into the harbor of Wei-hai-Wei to 
torpedo the remaining Chinese ironclads. The first 
three attempts cost the Japanese dear. 

On the night of February 5, the Japanese torpedo 
boat flotilla dashed into the harbor, and got in 
among the Chinese fleet. Seven torpedoes were dis- 
charged at close range. The "Lai Yuen" was hit 
and capsized. The Chinese crew were imprisoned 
alive in her iron hold, and were heard knocking and 
shrieking for days before they expired. The ' ' Ting Chinese 
Yuen, ' ' though hit, saved herself from immediate torpedoed 
disaster by closing her water-tight doors. The 
"Wei Yuen" and "Ching Yuen" were likewise 
disabled. This reduced the Chinese fleet in Wei- 
hai-Wei to four vessels. The Japanese had lost 
two torpedo boats and twelve men. Then followed 
several days of hot, long-range bombardment. On 
February 8, twelve Chinese torpedo boats made a 
desperate attempt to escape by the western entrance. 
The Japanese cruisers opened upon them as they 
came out, and, chasing them along the coast line, 
captured or sank them all. On the same day a Chi- 
nese land magazine was blown up, and the island 
forts, all but one, were stormed by the Japanese. 
On the 9th, the "Ching Yuen" was sunk in the 
harbor by a shell from one of the ten-inch guns 
among the captured shore batteries. After three 
more days of incessant bombardment, Admiral Ting ^renders 
bowed his head to fate. He tendered to Admiral 


Ito the surrender of the remaining Chinese vessels 
in Wei-hai-Wei Harbor and of the Len-kung forts, 
on the condition that the lives of the men and gar- 
rison should be spared. Admiral Ito, in recollec- 
tion of his schoolboy friendship with Admiral Ting, 
Admiral offered him a safe-conduct to Japan, but Ting re- 
fused in a dignified letter of farewell. Having de- 
spatched this letter he committed suicide. Two of 
his fleet captains followed their admiral's example. 
Captain McGiffin of the "Chen Yuen" was released 
after brief captivity and returned to America. As 
the result of the injuries received in the battle of the 
Yalu he became mentally unsound, and ultimately 
he, too, blew his brains out. On March 4, the old 
city of Niuchang, one of the Chinese treaty ports, 
was captured after a heavy bombardment by two 
divisions of the Japanese army under General 
Nodzu. The new city of Ying-kow, to which the 
Nhichang Chinese garrison withdrew, was carried only after 
y'ing-kow eleven hours of severe street fighting. General 
Sung's Chinese army was scattered. The follow- 
ing day, after much delay, Li Hung Chang left 
Peking for Japan with full powers to negotiate 
terms of peace. Another brilliant victory was 
gained by the Japanese at Denshodai on the 9th, 
in which 7,000 Chinese troops with thirty guns were 
Battle of defeated after two hours with a loss of 1,400 killed 
itenshodai and woun( ied. Finally, on the 18th, Prince Ko- 
matsu, the Japanese Commander-in-Chief, was or- 
dered to proceed to China. On the 22d, the Japanese 
fleet opened an attack on the Pescadores Islands, 
between Formosa and the mainland. Two days 


later, Li Hung Chang, when returning from a con- 
ference with the Japanese Ministers, was fired on by chang s 
a Japanese and wounded in the cheek. The Mikado terms 
thereupon ordered the Japanese plenipotentiaries to 
come to an unconditional armistice. On April 15, 
at Shimonoseki, the terms of peace were finally 
settled. China ceded the Liao-Tung Peninsula, For- 
mosa and the Pescadores Islands, agreed to pay an snimono- 
indemnity of 38, 000, 000 pounds sterling, and made 
other important concessions of suzerainty and free- 
dom of inland trade. The Japanese Government, 
however, intimated its willingness a few days later, 
in view of a joint protest of Russia, France and 
Germany to renounce the definite annexation of 
the Liao-Tung Peninsula, including Port Arthur. 
Japan had to content herself with a temporary oc- 
cupation of Wei-hai-Wei, and the annexation of the 
still unsubdued island of Formosa. Instead of 
withdrawing as commanded, the Chinese Viceroy of 
Formosa proclaimed the island an independent re-a|amst 10n 


public. Japan immediately prepared an expedition 
to subdue him. 

As a result of the war in China a number of Eu- 
ropean and American missions were wrecked by 
mobs. In August, ten British subjects belonging 
to the Missionary Home were massacred at Wha- wreck 


sang near Kucheng in the province of Fokien. 
As the result of a sharp British note the Viceroy 
of Szuchnan was stripped of his rank. 

A new treaty between France and China conferred 
special advantages in the Southern Chinese prov- 
inces. In France, in the meanwhile, public opinion 


Autumn 1695 

was deeply stirred by Casimir-Pe>ier's resignation 
t!onof a " as President of France in consequence of secret 

Casimir- . . . 

Perier revelations in connection with Capt. Dreyfus' s con- 
demnation and deportation to Cayenne. On the 
17th of January, at the Congress of the two Cham- 
bers held at Versailles, Francois Felix Faure 
was elected President of the French Republic. He 

Faure received 438 votes against 363 recorded for Brisson, 
the Radical candidate. 

In August, the French invaded Madagascar. 
The fortified town of Andebra was captured by 
General Duchesne. Soon the French troops gained 
a victory over the Malagasy at Tsinainondry. A 
French flying column under General Duchesne, 
having scaled the pass over the Ambolimana 

Conquest ° r 

gascar a " Mountains, dispersed the Hovas. On September 
30th, Tananarivo, the Hova capital of Madagascar, 
after some sharp conflicts, surrendered to General 
Duchesne. The French troops advancing from 
Tamatave succeeded in capturing the Hova forts 
at Farafatra. 

In Abyssinia, the Italians under General Bara- 
tieri, after some severe fighting early in the year, 
inflicted a defeat on Ras Mangassia, the Abyssinian 
chief, and his allies the Dervishes. In October, 
Baraticri gained another important victory over 
the rearguard of Ras Mangassia' s forces near Au- 
talo. In December, however, the army of King 
Meneiek Menelek of Abyssinia, numbering 20,000 Shoans, 
itaUana made a sudden advance and attacked an Italian 
detachment of about 2,200 men, chiefly native 
troops, of whom only 300 escaped. A stormy de- 

1895 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1781 

bate followed in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. 
The government barelj obtained a vote for the 
prosecution of Italy's African campaign. 

In Russia, the new Czar at the outset of his 
reign declared that he intended to protect the 
principles of autocracy as firmly as his father. 
In the latter part of February the students tried to 
petition the Czar. They came into conflict with the Riots in 

r . St. Peters- 

police. Two were killed and one professor wound- DU1 's 
ed, while many were seriously injured. 

This year Henryk Sienkiewicz, the celebrated 
Polish novelist, published his "Quo Yadis," which 
achieved a great success. In 1872, he first ap- 
peared before the public with his humorous novel 
"No one is a Prophet in his own Country." In 
1876 he visited America, and, under the pseudonym ^enkle^ 
of "Litwo, " published his interesting American 
letters in the Warsaw "Grazeta Polska." A series 
of novels followed which attracted unusual atten- 
tion by their realistic conception and execution. 
Most important among these are "Hania," "Skice 
Weglem," and "Janko, the Musician." In 1880, 
Sienkiewicz first entered the arena of the historical 
novel with his "Serfdom of the Tartars." "With 
Fire and Sword" appeared in four volumes in 1884, 
and established his fame. By this time nearly all 
his novels had been translated into French, German 
and Russian. "The Flood" and "Pan Volodyjov- 
ski" came next, followed by "Without Dogma, " in 

On the 16th of May the Russian, French, and 

British Ambassadors at Constantinople at last pre- 
XlXth Century— Vol. 3— W 

1782 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1698 

sen ted a note stating the reforms necessary in Ar- 
menia. While the proposals of Armenian reforms 
collective were accepted in principle, the Porte's reply was 
Turkey regarded as tantamount to a refusal to put the 
reforms in force. Under increasing pressure, how- 
ever, the Sultan granted an amnesty to all Ar- 
menian political prisoners. Notwithstanding this, 
fresh acts of violence were committed in Ar- 
menia in August by the forces sent by the Turk- 
ish authorities to collect taxes in the district of 
Erzeroum. An affray between Armenians and a 
body of Mohammedans, instigated by the Ottoman 
officials, took place at Antioch in September. Ten 
of the former were killed after a prolonged struggle 
in the Armenian Church, which was sacked. A 
British squadron of seventeen ships came to anchor 
at the entrance to the Dardanelles. The Turkish 
forts at the Dardanelles were put into a state of 
defence. On the 1st of October, a serious collision 
between the Turkish police and the Armenians 
seeking to make a political demonstration occurred 
at Constantinople and was continued on the follow- 
ouira.res ing day. Some eighty persons were killed and 200 
wounded, including the major of the Turkish police. 
The Grand Vizier, Said Pasha, was dismissed and 
Kiamil Pasha appointed in his place. Rijah Pasha, 
the Minister of the Interior, also resigned. The 
condition of affairs of Stamboul and other quarters 
of the city continued to be alarming for days; the 
great mass of Armenians took refuge in their 
churches and sanctuaries. Those who remained 
outside were the objects of murderous attacks 



from the Softas and Kurds. The Turkish soldiers 
stood by inactive. At Trebizond a serious con- 
flict occurred. Four hundred Armenians lost 
their lives. At Constantinople, the soldiery- 
surrounded three of the churches in which the 
Armenians had taken refuge and allowed no one 
to enter or to bring them food. On the personal 
intervention of the foreign Ambassadors, the ref- 
ugees in the Armenian churches were induced to 
come forth and give up their arms. The total num- 
ber of killed and wounded during the outbreak 
was estimated at nearly one thousand. Finally, 
by the middle of October, the Sultan accepted s ^ ai ? 
the Armenian reform measures in an imperial 

Late in the year he issued firmans allowing extra 
guardships to pass the Dardanelles. On Christmas 
Day, nevertheless, renewed massacres were reported 
from the Lebanon, where 12,000 Druses were stated 
to have been killed. At Zeitun, also, the Turks 
repressed an Armenian rising with terrible cruelty. 

To suppress the Cuban insurrection, Campos 
was despatched to the West Indies with discre- Cuban war 
tionary power. In July, a column of Spanish 
troops operating in the province of Santiago de 
Cuba was repulsed by the insurgents, and General 
Santo Celdar was killed. A tram full of soldiers 
was blown up by dynamite, and only a few of the 
troops escaped. The Cuban insurgent delegates 
from the western provinces met at Najassa the 
same month, and proclaimed a constitution for a 
Cuban Kepublic on a Federal basis of five States, 


and elected Marquess Santa Lucia to be President. 
Mass meetings were held in the United States in 
favor of the recognition of the Cubans as bellig- 
erents. On December 24, General Martinez Campos, 
having been previously outflanked by the Cuban 
insurgents under Gomez, forced an engagement 
near Matanzas, and won. 

At Honolulu, an attempt was made, in January, 
by the partisans of the dethroned Queen of Hawaii 

Royalists to overthrow the existing Republican government. 

Hawaii After two days' fighting, in which a member of the 
Legislature was killed, the natives were driven into 
the bush and dispersed. On the 18th, ex-Queen 
Liliuokalani was arrested on a charge of complicity 
with the rebels then under trial. She formally 
abdicated the throne on the 24th, and proffered 
allegiance to the Republican government. In Feb- 
ruary, she was tried for her connection with the 
attempted rebellion, convicted of misprision of 
treason, and sentenced to five years' imprisonment 
and a fine of $5,000. Three of the insurgent lead- 
ers were sentenced to death, and twenty-five others 
to long terms of imprisonment. In September, 
the Queen was pardoned, and all persons, with the 
exception of the two ringleaders, the brothers 
Ashford, were released. 

In the American Senate at Washington the Silver 

.party, in February, finally abandoned the attempt 

to force a vote on the Free Silver Coinage Bill, 

which was withdrawn. Richard Olney was appointed 

Graham Secretary °f State in succession to Walter Q. 
Gresham, deceased. Before this a joint resolu- 



tion had been adopted by Congress in February 
to the effect that Great Britain and Venezuela 
refer their disputes of boundaries to friendly 
arbitration. No attention was paid to this resolu- 
tion by the British Government. In July, Mr. 
Olney despatched a letter to Mr. Bayard, American 
Ambassador at the Court of St. James, in which 
he discussed the situation at length. He reaffirmed 
the Monroe Doctrine as a rule of procedure for the 
United States. In answer to this letter, Lord Salis- 
bury, who had succeeded Lord Eosebery as Prime 
Minister, replied that the Monroe Doctrine had 
never been recognized as a principle of international 
law, and that the controversy lay purely between 
Great Britain and Venezuela. On December 17, 
President Cleveland addressed a message to Con- ^nll" 
gress on the subject. In adherence to the Monroe l^ ezn 
Doctrine, he insisted on a settlement by arbitration, 
and claimed for the United States the right to de- 
termine the boundaries between the British and 
Venezuelan territories. Congress was asked to vote 
the necessary expenses for an inquiry. The Presi- 
dent's message concluded in this wise: "When such 
report is made and accepted it will be in my 
opinion the duty of the United States to resist 
by every means in its power, as a wilful aggression 
upon its rights and interests, the appropriation by 
Great Britain of any lands or the exercise of govern- 
mental jurisdiction over any territory which we have 
determined of right to belong to Venezuela." 

The message was received by Congress with wild- 
est enthusiasm, and $100,000 was instantly voted to 

1736 A HISTORY OF THE SprfcfclM 

defray the expenses of the Commission. The Eng- 
warfwry i^ p resg an( j p e0 pi e almost unanimously advocated 
a peaceful adjustment of the dispute. Gladstone 
sent a memorable message, "All that is needed 
is common-sense." Lord Salisbury readily acceded 
to the popular demand that the question be referred 
gives in ■ to arbitration. 

The American Commission, finding the matter 
taken out of their hands, disbanded. 

Prior to this the treaty annexing the Congo 
State to Belgium was signed at Brussels. In 

June the North Sea Canal from Hamburg to Kiel 


was opened by the German Emperor with a naval 
review of several visiting squadrons representing 
the great maritime Powers. 

Indian affairs had taken a serious aspect for the 
British Government in consequence of the continued 
disturbances in Chitral. On the northwestern In- 
dian frontier a force of 14, 000 men of all arms was 
mobilized under the command of Major- General Sir 
Robert Low. On April 3, two of the brigades of 
Sir Robert's force, engaged on the Bajaur expedi- 
fc.;rder wartion, stormed the Malandrai Pass, and after five 
hours' heavy fighting drove back the natives. 
Three weeks later, Chitral Fort, where Mr. Robert- 
son and Captains Campbell and Townsend had been 
closely invested by the Swatis, was relieved after 
forty-three days by Colonel Kelley. Sher Afzul 
trai took refuge in flight on learning of the approach of 
the Khan of Dir. On April 25, he surrendered with 
1,500 followers. This ended the war. 

The Pamir Delimitation Commission brought its 

Capture of 


1895 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1787 

work to a friendly conclusion in September, and 

fixed the line of demarcation between English and EKmj 

Eussian interests up to the Chinese frontier. 

In October, the King of Ashantee rejected all 
British interference, preferring to take the chances 
of war. Sir Francis Scott and the officers and troops expedition 
forming part of the Ashantee expedition left Liver- 
pool in November. 

Late in June, Professor Thomas Henry Hux- 
ley, the English biologist, died at the age of seventy 
years. In 1874, Haeckel, the eminent German nat- 
uralist, ranked Huxley among the first zoologists of 
England. His lectures on biology were published Huxley 
in 1863, under the title "Evidences as to Man's 
Place in Nature." In this and in other works 
he advanced the principles of the Darwinian theory. 

Louis Pasteur, one of the greatest of the century's 
scientists, died at Paris and received a state funeral. 
Although by training he was a chemist, his most 
valuable work was accomplished in bacteriology 
and medicine. In 1857, he startled the scientific 
world with new and convincing proofs in support 
of the vitalistic theory of fermentation. From 
this he passed to the subject of putrefaction, and 
showed definitely that here again living organisms 
were responsible for the changes wrought in dead Louis 
bodies of animals. These bacteriological studies 
induced Lister of Glasgow to seek some means of 
killing disease germs. In 1862, he completely 
shattered the old theory of spontaneous genera- 
tion. At the age of fifty -seven, Pasteur turned his 
attention to the study of infectious diseases. He 

1788 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1*95 

showed that anthrax was due to bacilli. In 1874, 
he had accidentally discovered the method of 
offsetting infection by inoculation. He now ap- 
plied the discovery to the prevention of anthrax, 
and submitted his theory to a public test. Thus, 
the great bacteriologist was eventually led, after a 
brilliant series of investigations, to the now familiar 
treatment of rabies by inoculation. 

Late in the year, Professor Koentgen of the Uni- 

Roentgen J 6 

discovered verity °f Wuerzburg startled the world with the 
announcement that he had discovered a new light 
or form of radiant energy which had the power of 
penetrating certain bodies, by means of which he 
was enabled to photograph the skeleton of living 
animals. At first received with incredulity, the dis- 
covery soon took its place in science and proved to 
be of immense value in surgery. 

New honors were conferred on Cecil Ehodes, who 
was appointed Privy Councillor to the Queen. Mr. 
Rhodes' motion in the Cape Parliament for the an- 
nexation of British Bechuanaland to Cape Colony 
was agreed to without a division and the bill was 
passed. On the 26th of December the Johannesburg 

designs ob "National Union" published a manifesto on self- 

government and the "Bill of Rights" upon which 
the Outlanders in the Transvaal insisted. On pre- 
tence of a popular appeal from the English inhabi- 
tants of Johannesburg for immediate intervention, 
Dr. Jameson at the close of the year suddenly crossed 
the frontier at Mafeking, where he and a force of 
volunteers had been impatiently waiting for the 
prearranged message of encouragement. 



ON New Year's Day came the startling news 
of the English filibustering raid into the 

Transvaal, led by Dr. Jameson, the fac- raid 
totum of Cecil Ehodes. With a force of 700 volun- 
teers, among whom were several titled British officers, 
Jameson was well under way across the veldt. An 
urgent official message of recall was ignored by Jame- 
son. By the time the raiders reached the neighbor- 
hood of Kruegersdorp on the way to Johannesburg, 

they found themselves opposed by a strongly-posted Kruegers- 
force of Boers under Commandant Joubert. The 

raiders were hopelessly outmatched. After thirty- 
six hours of continuous rifle fire, the British troopers 
found themselves without food and ammunition. Dr. 
Jameson was compelled to raise a white flag. He 
surrendered with all his force and was marched off 
to Pretoria. 

On receipt of this news in London, Secretary 
Chamberlain telegraphed to President Krueger dis- 
avowing the raid, and bespeaking the President's Jamegon 
generosity toward his prisoners in the moment f dlsavowed 
victory. At the same time Emperor William from 
Berlin sent a message to President Krueger con- 
gratulating him on the outcome. This telegram cre- 
ated much excitement in England. It was taken to 









imply German recognition of the Transvaal's inde- 
pendence of British suzerainty. A so-called "flying 
squadron" of British warships made an imposing 
demonstration in the English Channel. The mis- 
understanding between the two Powers was adjusted 
by an exchange of letters between Queen Victoria 
and her grandson on the German imperial throne. 
In consequence of the state of affairs in South 
Africa, Cecil Rhodes resigned his premiership of 
the Cape Ministry. The arrangements for an up- 
rising in connection with the raid were shown to be 
inadequate. Bitter recriminations ensued between 
the resident Outlanders and the captured raiders. 
On the part of the Transvaal authorities there was 
some talk of shooting the British filibusters, but in 
the end more moderate counsels prevailed. Presi- 
dent Krueger agreed to surrender Dr. Jameson's 
fellow prisoners. The most prominent plotters 
among the Outlanders were placed under arrest 
to be tried on charges of high treason. 

In London, Cecil Rhodes' Chartered Company 
for British South Africa fell into extreme dis- 
repute. Labouchere and other Radical leaders 
charged the princes of the royal, house as well 
as Chamberlain with complicity in the raid. The 
Chartered Company's directors, on January 9, re- 
moved Dr. Jameson from his office as the Com- 
pany's administrator of Matabeleland. On the same 
day Krueger issued a conciliatory proclamation. 
Dr. Jameson was escorted across the border and 
was immediately conducted to Durban, whence he 
sailed for England on the troopship "Victoria." 


In the midst of this South African commotion 
came the news of the death of Prince Henry of Ashantee 
Battenberg. He had volunteered for the Ashantee 
campaign, and had been sent to Madeira to recruit. 
On the day of his death, January 20, King Prempeh 
of Ashantee submitted to Great Britain's terms. 
The King and his immediate relatives were sent 
to Cape Coast Castle. Two days later, Lieutenant 
Alston, with 150 British regulars and 5,000 natives, 
attacked the great slave- holding chief, Mwasi Ka- 
gunga, on the west shore of Lake Nyassa. The 
natives, numbering nearly 20,000, were defeated in 
three encounters. Their stockades and settlements 
were burned. 

In February, Cecil Rhodes arrived in London just 
before Jameson and his fellow prisoners. ' ' Doctor Re tum of 
Jim," as he was affectionately called, received an 
enthusiastic reception. After formal inquiries be- 
fore a magistrate he and his fellow prisoners were 
released to answer charges under the Foreign En- 
listment Act. While this trial was pending, a mo- 
tion was made in the Cape of Good Hope Assembly 
to cancel the charter of the South Africa Company. 
This proposition was rejected, but the Afrikanders 
in the Assembly were strong enough to exact an 
official inquiry into the circumstances of the raid. 
In London, Dr. Jameson with fourteen of his prin- 
cipal adherents came up for trial. Nine of the men 
were discharged, but against the others a grand jury 
returned a true bill. While this cause ceUbre was 
on, public feeling in England was further excited 
by several plays representing the dramatic incidents 

1792 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1890 

of the raid, and by some verses of Sir Alfred Aus- 
tin's tin, the new Poet Laureate. The trial was dragged 
out to considerable length. By the end of July, 
Dr. Jameson and his five co-defendants were found 
guilty. Their chief defence was a written appeal 
for help from Messrs. Francis Rhodes, Phillips, 
Hammond, Farrar, and Leonard on behalf of the 
Johannesburgers. Jameson was convicted. The 
most damaging testimony against him was his 
open defiance of the Queen's summons to re- 
turn. He was sentenced to imprisonment for 
fifteen months without hard labor. His asso- 


imprisoned ciateg) Colonels White and Grey, and Major Cov- 
entry, received sentences of five months at light 
confinement. They were removed to Wormwood 
Scrubs. A memorial, signed largely by Members 
of Parliament, was immediately presented to the 
Home Secretary, praying that the prisoners should 
be treated as first-class misdemeanants. Within a 
month one of them, Major the Honorable Charles 
J. Coventry, was released on the plea of ill-health. 
None served out his full term. 

In the House of Commons, the South African 
debate was opened by Sir William Harcourt. He 

fary' amen brought serious charges against Cecil Rhodes and 
his Chartered Company. A highly discreditable 
version was given of the English seizure of Mata- 
beleland, and the killing of King Lobengula, fol- 
lowed by the disappointing discovery that there was 
no gold in the territory. The Chartered Company 
was charged with circulating false reports of the 
fabulous mineral wealth of Mashonaland, which, 

1896 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1793 

with clever stock exchange manipulations, sent the 
shares up to £8 10s. A number of minor stock 
jobbing companies, it was shown, were floated on 
similar flimsy pretexts. To avert the inevitable 
crash, the seizure of the paying gold mines of the 
Transvaal, it was asserted, was attempted as a last 
measure. While the debate was at its height, Sec- 
retary Chamberlain, presiding at the South Africa chamber- 
Company's banquet, emphatically denied all charges denials 
of the government's alleged complicity in the raid. 
In conclusion, he expressed regret that "so little 
progress had been made toward a reconciliation of 
the Dutch and English races in South Africa." 
As if in answer to this, the State Secretary of the 
Transvaal Eepublic addressed two telegrams for 
transmission to the British Government urging the 
prosecution of Messrs. Cecil Ehodes, A. Beit, and 
Rutherford Harris for complicity in the Jameson raid, 
on the basis of their cipher correspondence already 
made public in Pretoria. The three men named sent Krueger's 


in their resignations as directors of the British South evidence 
Africa Company. In the Cape Assembly a com- 
mittee of inquiry into the raid presented a report 
charging Cecil Rhodes and his two abovenamed 
associates with being active promoters of the enter- 
prise. After a heated debate a motion to extend an 
indefinite leave of absence to Mr. Rhodes was carried. 
In Pretoria, the trial of the seventy-two mem- 
bers of the Johannesburg Reform Committee drew 
to a close. Messrs. Rhodes, Phillips, and Farrar 
pleaded guilty of high treason, while the others 
conceded that they had committed an offence against 

1794 A HISTORY OF THE Spring MM 

the republic, but without hostile intent. Hammond, 
an American, with several of his fellow conspira- 
tors, forfeited his bail. All the prisoners, with the 
exception of the four leaders who had been con- 
demned to death, and two others who refused to 

£n°«i ers pl ea( * f° r clemency, were released on a promised 
payment of their lines. On June 11, the death sen- 
tence of the four leaders was commuted to a fine 
of £25,000 each, or fifteen years' banishment in de- 
fault. The fines were paid. Only Colonel Rhodes, 
who declined to sign a pledge not to engage in 
further plots against the Transvaal, was banished. 
Piet Joubert was elected Vice-President of the 

Meanwhile, since the end of March the country 
around Buluwayo was reported to be in a state of 
insurrection. The Matabeles seized strong posi- 
tions on the Matoppo Hills and drove back several 

Matabeles p ar tj_ es f British border police. In April, a large 
"impi" of Matabeles gathered around Buluwayo, 
almost completely investing it. The natives, num- 
bering several thousands, attacked a detachment 
of border police about five miles from Buluwayo. 
After an obstinate struggle the Englishmen were 
victorious. Cecil Rhodes cleared the road from 
Groels of rebellious natives and penetrated as far 
as Buluwayo. In August, a combined force of 

Rhodes to British and Colonial troops under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Plumer stormed the Matabele intrench- 
ments on the Matoppo Hills and drove out the 
natives. After this the most powerful Matabele 
chiefs submitted to English rule. 

1896 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1795 

During the same period the troubles of the 
Italians in Abyssinia became acute. Early in 
the year the Shoan army under King Menelek 
made a determined attack upon the Italians at 
Makalea. After ten hours of successive fighting 
the Italians held their ground, but subsequently fell 
back. A liberal proposal of peace made by Menelek 
was declared to be unacceptable by the Italian Gov- ^defeat 
eminent. On March 1, the Italian troops under 
General Baratieri, in a battle with the Abyssinians, 
found themselves outmatched, and were forced to 
retreat. They abandoned their guns, ammunition 
and provisions. Two generals were killed and an- 
other wounded. The total loss of killed and 
wounded for the Italians fell little short of 5,000. 
Serious disturbances broke out in Naples, Milan, 
Parma, Pavia, and other Italian towns. The rioters 
denounced the African policy of the Ministry and 
demanded the withdrawal of Italian troops. The FaIlof 
Ministry of Crispi, in the face of these demands, cabfnet 
resigned. General Baratieri was relieved of his 
functions as Governor of Trythrea. The Ministry 
was reconstituted under Marquis di Euclini and 
General Eicotti. They declared in the Chambers 
that the national honor of Italy required the prose- 
cution of the war in Abyssinia. Four days later 


negotiations were opened by the Italian authorities overtures 
to obtain terms of peace from King menelek. 

By reason of the threatening attitude of the Der- 
vishes, made bold by the defeat of the Italians, 
Egyptian troops were ordered to march to Don- 
gola, and British battalions were sent to Wady 

2796 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1 896 

Haifa. Within two days 2,500 soldiers left Bal- 
liana for Assoua. The Italians near Kassala drove 
back a large force of Dervishes while attempting to 
Dervishes capture tue P ass of Taberete. Again the Italian 
so?ne' e " losses were distressingly heavy. In April, another 
pitched battle was fought at Moyram. The Italians 
succeeded in breaking through the Dervishes to 
Kassala. General Kitchener left Cairo for the 
front. By the middle of the month there were 
sharp encounters near Suakim between the Egyp- 
tian troops and the Dervishes under the stand- 
ard of Osman Digna. The Egyptian troops under 
Kitchener, having marched through the night of 
June 6 from Skashe, attacked the Dervishes on the 
?eshet of break of day at Feshet. The Arabs were routed 
with a loss of 900 killed and 500 prisoners. Sep- 
tember 23, the Anglo- Egyptian relief forces reached 
Dongola. The Dervishes scattered in the Desert. 
The power of the Mahdi seemed broken, and the 
British troops in the Soudan were brought back to 
the Egyptian headquarters at Dongola. In autumn, 
peace was at last concluded between Italy and Abys- 
sinia. The independence of Ethiopia was assured, 
and a new boundary line was agreed on. Menelek, 
who now styled himself Emperor of Abyssinia, re- 
leased his Italian prisoners. 

In other lands the various European Powers 

continued to pursue their various -colonial enter- 

'iu^und^r P r ' ses - On June 18, a definite treaty was signed 

ru7e nch between France and the Queen of Madagascar, 

giving the French .Resident complete control over 

Madagascar. On the eastern coast of Africa further 

1896 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1797 

troubles arose after the sudden death of Hamed 
Den Said, the Sultan of Zanzibar. Said Chalid, his 
nephew, proclaimed himself Sultan. British sailors 
were immediately landed and a demand was made 
for a surrender. On the refusal of Said Chalid the 


Sultan's palace was laid in ashes by the combined bombard 

r J Zanzibar 

fire of three British gunboats. Said Chalid took 
refuge on a German ship. 

In India, the demarcation of the northwestern 
frontier was at last concluded. The spheres of in- 
fluence for Great Britain, Persia, Afghanistan and 
Russia were newly determined. In Java, the Dutch 
troops, after an exhausting campaign with the At- 
chinese, were forced to abandon their advanced 
posts. Their settlements were burned by the Atchi- 
nese. In July, the Dutch won a brilliant victory at Atchinesa 


Lamrida. The chief of the Atchinese, Nja Makin, 
was killed, and his followers were routed. 

Marshal Campos, who had been despatched to 
Cuba, was relieved of his command early in the year 
on account of the hostility displayed by the Havana 
conservatives toward his conciliatory dealings with 
the rebels. General Weyler was appointed Captain- 
General of Cuba. At the opening of the Cortes the c u a ba SOf 
Ministry declared that the moment was inopportune 
for the introduction of reforms of government in 
Cuba. Soon it was announced that a conspiracy 
had been discovered by the authorities in Manila 
for the purpose of separating the Philippine Islands 
from Spain. A month later, the Governor- General pm p inos 
of the Philippines issued a decree confiscating the 
property of all insurgents. The numbers were esti- 

1798 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn i89« 

mated at more than one hundred thousand. The 
enforcement of this decree was followed by new up- 
risings. Late in the year, the Spanish troops suf- 
fered a defeat at the hands of the rebels with a loss 
of three hundred. 

When the United States Congress passed a con- 
^™ e rven- current resolution in favor of according belhg- 
rescnted erent rights to the Cuban revolutionists, and offered 
the friendly intervention of the United States to ob- 
tain the independence of Cuba, great popular excite- 
ment arose in Spain. Anti- American demonstra- 
tions occurred in Madrid, Barcelona and elsewhere. 
The Spaniards who held consular posts in the 
United States resigned by way of protest. Prior 
to this, President Cleveland had signed a proclama- 
t'on admitting Utah as a State. Existing polyga- 
mous marriages were recognized, but polygamy was 
prohibited for the future. 

In November, the American Presidential elec- 
tion was the object of keen interest throughout 
the world. The result, it was feared, might affect 
the value of American money in foreign countries. 
William William J. Bryan, the advocate of free silver, was 

Mckinley J ' ' 

elected defeated by William McKinley, the Republican can- 
didate: the electoral vote standing 274 to 175. 

Early in the year a revolutionary outbreak oc- 
curred at Seoul in Korea, during which the Prime 
Minister and several high officials were murdered. 


in Korea The Korean King and Crown Prince were forced to 
take refuge in the Russian Legation. On the plea 
of renewed anti-Christian atrocities, a treaty was 
finally concluded between China and Russia by 

1896 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1799 

which the Chinese Government conceded a railway chinese 
across Manchuria to connect Port Arthur with the to Russia 1S 
Trans-Siberian Kailway. 

Not long afterward, an overwhelming tidal wave 
swept the northeast coast of Japan on June 15. 
More than 30,000 persons were drowned. On the 
same day, Andree ascended in a balloon and drifted 
northward from Tromsoe to search for the North 
Pole. After the first few carrier pigeons released 

1 ° End of 

by him all trace of the venturesome expedition Andree 
was lost. Only one of his buoys was long after 
picked up. 

Shortly afterward, Dr. Nansen arrived at Vardo 
from Franz-Josef Land, having abandoned his ship 
"Fram" in March, 1895. Six days later the "Fram" returns 
was brought into a Norwegian port. The Shah of 
Persia's assassination on the first of May, when en- 
tering the mosque, by Mirza Mahmed Keza, caused 
marked disturbances in Persia at the accession of 
the new Shah. 

Other memorable events of the year were the great 
historic festivities held at Budapesth in honor of the 
Millennial of Hungary. Maurice Jokai, the Hun- 

• i i i ne • i • ■ Maurice 

garian writer, celebrated the fiftieth anniversary ol J6kai 
his literary activity. He had published over three 
hundred volumes, full of color and life. Among 
his bolder and riper works are "A Hungarian Na- 
bob," "Zoltan Karpathy," "The Palmy Days of 
Transylvania," "The New Squire," "Black Dia- 
monds," "There is no Devil," and "Twice Two 
Are Four." As a member of the Hungarian Par- 
liament, Jokai has served his country well. His 


1800 A HISTORY OF TEE spring MM 

literary powers found expression not only in his in- 
numerable novels, but in strong political speeches 
and trenchant newspaper articles. 

During this year, Henrik Ibsen produced his 
"John Gabriel Borkman, " another dramatic study 
of social conditions. With the appearance of 
"Brand" and "Peer G-ynt" began his period of 
protest against modern society. In the "Doll's 
House," Ibsen tried to show that marriage is a fail- 
ure. Other powerful plays were "Ghosts," "Ros- 
mersholm," "The Lady of the Sea," "Hedda Ga- 
bler," "The Master Builder," and "The Pillars of 
Society. ' ' 

For the first time in its history, the British Medi- 
cal Association met in Canada. The meeting was 
otherwise memorable for the presence of Lord Lis- 
ter, the father of antiseptic surgery. When the 
president characterized him as "the most illustrious 

Llster surgeon of our generation," the members rose from 
their seats and cheered Lister again and again. The 
honor was deserved. By his discovery of antisepsis 
Lister, in 1861, had proved that by surgical cleanli- 
ness operations could be performed with safety. 

Frederick Leighton, the famous English artist, 
died before this. Born at Scarboro in 1830, he 
studied in Rome, and later at the Royal Academy 

Leighton at Berlin and in Paris. In 1855, he exhibited as his 
first picture in England "Cimabue's Madonna Car- 
ried Through the Streets of Florence" in the Royal 
Academy in London. The picture attracted imme- 
diate attention, and was purchased by Queen Vic- 
toria. Fourteen years afterward, having contributed 


2996 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1801 

noteworthy pictures to almost every exhibition of 
the Eoyal Academy, Leighton became a full-fledged 
Academician, when he contributed "Electra at the 
Tomb of Agamemnon," and "St. Jerome," his di- 
ploma work. Among Leighton's essays in sculp- 
ture, the most successful was his bronze "Athlete 
Strangling a Python." 

John Everett Millais, one of England's foremost 
artists, died on August 3. He began painting very 
young. One of his earliest works, "Pizarro Seizing g[«™J fc 
the Men of Peru," was exhibited at the Eoyal 
Academy in 1846, and in the following year a gold 
medal was awarded to Millais's historical canvas, 
"The Tribe of Benjamin Seizing the Daughters 
of Judah." Henceforth every exhibition of the 
Koyal Academy contained new contributions by 
Millais. After ten years of ceaseless activity he 
was made a full Academician in 1864, when he 
contributed "The Eve of St. Agnes," and "Charlie 
Is My Darling. ' ' Several years previously Millais, 
together with Rossetti, Holman Hunt, Madox Brown 
and a few others, had founded ' ' The Brotherhood of 
the Pre-Raphaelites. " While thus engaged Millais Pre- 
formed close ties of friendship with John Ruskin, ism 
the famous art critic, which were not even broken 
by the fact that Buskin's wife was divorced from 
him in order to be married to Millais. 

By the death of William Morris, the poet, on 
October 3, the English School of Modern Romantic 
Art and Literature lost one of its leaders. In 1858 SKJfjf 1 
he published "The Defence of Guenevere" and other 
poems. Nearly ten years later followed his epic 


poem, "The Life and Death of Jason," and "The 
Earthly Paradise." During these same years Mor- 
ris, together with Rossetti and Burne-Jones, em- 
barked on an artistic enterprise for the design- 
ing and manufacture of original decorations for 
house interiors. This enterprise proved eminently 
successful, and had a lasting effect in improving 
the style of English decorative designs. Besides 
this, Morris undertook the printing and binding of 
high class books, a venture which likewise proved 
a complete commercial success. Morris's superbly 
printed books from the "Kelmscott Press," fetched 

Book- higher prices than any other books issued during 
the closing years of the Nineteenth Century. His 
literary productions, during these same years, were 
"Love is Enough," 1883; "The Roots of the Moun- 
tains," 1890, and "The Story of the Glittering 
Plain," 1891. Besides these original productions, 
Morris translated Homer's "Odyssey," Virgil's 
"^Eneid, " together with Icelandic translations. 

Translator Morris's original productions, "The Story of Sigurd 
the Volsung and the Fall of the Niblungs," 1879, 
and the "Tale of the House of the Volfings," 1886, 
closely resemble his Icelandic translations. As a 
Socialistic thinker, Morris first gave vent to his 
original views in his book, "The Day is Coming: 
A Chant for a Socialist," 1884, followed four years 

Socialist ^ ater D 7 tne collected lectures "Signs of Change," 
and afterward by a monograph on "Socialism, Ub 
Growth and Outcome," published in collaboration 
with E. B. Box. This partial list of Morris's publi- 
cations on such widely divergent subjects in itself 

1896 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1803 

sufficiently reveals the wonderful versatility of the 

The coronation of the Czar and Czarina at 
Moscow was celebrated with great pomp. ^coronation 
their very close the festivities were marred by anK>w 
awful panic and stampede, during which 3,000 per- 
sons were crushed to death or seriously injured. 
Shortly after this a flurry of political excitement 
was caused in October throughout Germany and 
Austria by Prince Bismarck's piqued revelations 
concerning the existence of a secret treaty between Bismarck 
Germany and Russia. It had been concluded in uons 
1882, just after the Triple Alliance was formed. 

During the last days of August another massacre 
of 5,000 Armenians was perpetrated — this time at 
Constantinople. Serious riots were also reported 
at Pera Galata. The Divan was endangered bySe Uian 
the connivance of the imperial troops. The Powers m 
protested. Seven days later at Eguin, on the Eu- 
phrates, 2,500 Armenians were murdered with the 
connivance of the Turkish authorities. 

In Crete disturbances arose at Canea. The Turk- 
ish soldiers went about pillaging and killing Chris- 
tians. Abdullah Pasha was appointed Civil and 
Military Governor of Crete, with the object of re- jJSKjjg" 
storing tranquillity. The Porte agreed to accept 
in principle the suggestions of the Ambassadors 
for the pacification of Crete, including general 

The Greek Government, during the summer, 
under pressure from the Great Powers, took meas- 
ures to prevent armed volunteers from embarking 

1804 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1896 

for Crete, or from invading Macedonia. At the 
Macedonia same time the Mussulman population of Crete, re- 
senting the efforts of their rulers to maintain peace 
at any price, pillaged the houses of the Christians. 
Before long, Ptakni, chief of the insurgents in 
Macedonia, arrived on the Greek frontier, pursued 
by the Turks. With fifteen companions he was 
arrested by Greek soldiers and taken to Larissa. 
Finally the Sultan acceded to the demands of the 
Powers for the settlement of the Cretan question. 
He consented to a local government under a Chris- 
tian governor, who was removable only with the 
consent of the Powers. At Canea, the Cretan 
deputies agreed to accept the autonomy obtained 
from the Porte by the intervention of the Powers. 



THE year opened with the release of the Ar- 
menian prisoners by the Porte, on the in- 
tervention of the Powers. More collisions 
between the Christians and Mussulmans occurred £S| 

at Heraklion and other places in Crete, with much Turkey 
loss of life. Canea was set on fire at several places. 
Sailors from ships of the various Powers in the har- 
bor eventually succeeded in quenching the flames. 
The Cretan insurgents having proclaimed union 
with Greece on February 8, orders were issued for 
all the available Greek torpedo vessels to be com- Greek 

. expedition 

missioned. Prince George sailed from the Piraeus 
amid the greatest enthusiasm. 

On February 13, Georgi Pasha Berovitch, the 
Turkish Governor of Crete, took refuge on board 
the flagship of the Eussian Admiral, lying off 
Halepa, and subsequently telegraphed his resigna- 
tion. In consequence of this, the Greek Consuls at 
the various towns of Crete, having placed their fel- 
low citizens under British protection, hauled down 
their flag and left the island. Two days later, Powers 
Canea was occupied by marines and sailors of the terete 6 
allied fleets. On the 21st, the foreign warships 
fired upon the Cretan insurgents' camp near Canea. 

In the House of Commons,, in the French Cham- 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— X 

1806 A HISTORY OF THE March 189T 

ber, and in the German Reichstag, spirited debates 
Soteto ve ensued concerning this action. On March 2, a collec- 
ey tive note of the six Powers — indicating their policy 
toward Crete — was presented simultaneously at Con- 
stantinople and Athens. The Sultan declared his 
readiness to adopL the recommendation of the Pow- 
ers for the establishment of Cretan autonomy. 
Greece would not withdraw her forces from Crete 
and called out the reserves of 1890. 

In the meantime, the palace at Canea and other 
buildings were burned down by Mohammedan incen- 
diaries. Fort Stavros was captured by the Cretan 
insurgents t with its Turkish garrison of 3,000 men. 
The Turkish Zaptiehs at Canea demanded arrears 
autonomy °^ a vear ' s P a y> mutinied against their officers, and 
shot their colonel. Pickets of sailors and marines 
were then despatched from the allied fleet, and 
after a slight resistance the mutineers surrendered. 
Eventually, on the 17th of March, autonomy was 
proclaimed in Crete. This was followed by Moham- 
medan attacks upon the Christians at Canea and 
Rhetimos. The aged Gladstone bitterly denounced 
the pro-Turkish policy of the European Powers. 
On the 21st, a close blockade of Crete was formally 
declared. The Cretan insurgents, having driven 
the Turkish troops out of the Akrotiri blockhouses 
and occupied them, were in turn shelled out by the 
guns of the fleet. The Crown Prince of Greece 
left Athens for the frontier. The Porte at once 
cross issued a circular to the Ottoman representatives 

frontier * 

abroad demanding the evacuation of Crete by the 
Greek troops and protesting against the appoint- 


ment of a governor of Crete by the Powers. 
On the following day several bands of irregulars, 
under the direction of the Ethnike Hetairia, 
crossed the frontier, invading Turkish territory. 
They were met by the Turkish troops who sur- 
rounded and captured several of the invading 
detachments. Turkish gunners at Privisa sank a 
Greek merchantman in the Gulf of Arta. Turkey Turkey 
declared war on April 17. Fighting began in the war 
mountain passes of Thessaly. The mobilization of 
the Turkish army, as planned by Von der Golz, 
was effected in four weeks. The first conspicuous 
skirmish in the pass of Nezeros was to the advan- 
tage of the Greeks. The Turks bore themselves 
well under heavy losses. Under Edhem Pasha the 
Turkish main column advanced from Elassona and 
succeeded in conveying their heavy siege guns over 
the mountains along a new military road prepared 
weeks in advance. The important pass of Malunaforce 
was captured. The Greek vanguard forfeited their 
best positions. Nearly 200,000 strong, the Turkish 
forces poured down into the plain of Thessaly. 
Crown Prince Constantine's retreat from Mati had 
a depressing effect on the Greeks, and was taken to 
indicate a lack of serious warlike purpose on the 
part of the royal house of Greece. The compara- 
tive inactivity of the Greek naval squadrons on the 
coast of Epirus and Macedonia confirmed this im- 
pression, for they contented themselves merely with 
bombarding several Turkish seaports, where depots 

r r Thessalj 

of provisions and arms had been established. Large overrun 
quantities of grain were destroyed. In Thessaly, the 



1808 A HISTORY OF THE May 1897 

Greek forces were ordered to fall back on Larissa. 
The town was evacuated by Prince Constantine 
amid a panic of the terror-stricken Greek country 
people. On receipt of this news at Athens, a revo- 
lution nearly broke out. The gunsmiths' shops were 
plundered and wild threats were made against 
D^leyanis 1 tne king an d princes. Deleyanis, the Prime Min- 
ister responsible for the war, had to resign in 
favor of Demetrios Rhallis, the leader of the Radi- 
cals. The Greek troops under Smolenskis, contrary 
to orders from headquarters, made a determined 
stand at Velestino, between Larissa and Yolo, and 
not only succeeded in arresting the advance of the 
Turks, but threw their Circassian cavalry back with 
severe loss. After a victorious fight of three days 
the Greeks, to the surprise of the Turks, evacuated 
the position. Smolenskis' subsequent retreat to 
Almiros near Thermopylae resulted in a division 
of the Greek forces. The army of Thessaly was cut 
in two. On May 3, the Rhallis Ministry decided 
to continue the war and to recall Colonel Vassos 
from Crete, appointing him to command on the 
frontier of Epirus. Smolenskis was appointed to 
general command. The functions of the royal 
princes, as Rhallis expressed it in the Boule', were 
reduced to those of "statues." On May 6, the 
Turks attacked the Greeks in great force, so that 
the latter were forced to abandon Pharsalos and 
fall back on Vomokos. The resulting battle was 
largely an artillery engagement. The Greeks were 

Battle of . 

vomokos badly beaten. The Foreign Legion only, under the 
Italian leaders Cipriani and Garibaldi's son, ac- 

in com- 


quitted themselves with credit. Two days later the 
Greek forces withdrew from Velestino and Volo, sues for 
and the Turkish troops occupied these two strong 
places without opposition from the Greek warships 
in the harbor. Finally, on May 11, Greece be- 
sought the intervention of the great Powers. The 
embarkation of Greek troops serving in Crete 
commenced at once at Canea under the supervision 
of the representatives of the Powers. On the 14th, 
the Greek forces again invaded the Epirus, to defend 
the population from the fanaticism of the Turks : on 
the heights of Gribovo a fierce battle was fought, 

° to ' Gribovo 

in which the advantage remained with the Greeks. 
The following day the Porte notified the Powers 
of the terms which must precede an armistice — an 
indemnity by Greece of 250,000,000 francs and an- 
nexation of Thessaly to Turkey. The Powers ex- 
acted milder terms. The last detachment of Greek 
troops left Crete, but nothing was settled as yet 
concerning its future government. 

For a month there was peace in Crete. After 
prolonged discussion the Porte finally adopted 
in principle the frontier proposed by the Powers. 
Toward the end of the month, Djevad Pasha, ex- 
Grand Vizier and former Vali of Crete, arrived at 
Canea to assume command, but the admirals of the 
allied fleet would not recognize him. 

After much friction the diplomatic struggle at 
Constantinople ended in the practical triumph of 
the German policy, which gave a partial control 
of the Greek finances to a commission of the great 
Powers. A treaty of peace between Turkey and 


Terms of 

1810 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 189? 

Greece was eventually signed at Constantinople on 
December 4, and formally ratified by the Sultan and 
King George on December 16. Turkey agreed to 
evacuate Thessaly, with the exception of the fron- 
tier ridges. Greece had to pay an indemnity of 
92,000,000 drachmas (or francs) in gold. Pending 
payment, Thessaly was to be occupied by Turkish 
garrisons. The ravages of this occupation proved 
more serious to Thessaly than those of the war. In 
order to float a loan wherein to pay the indemnity 
to Turkey, Greece had to mortgage her national 
Greece revenues to the foreign Powers. An international 

bankrupt u 

commission henceforth was charged with the super- 
vision and control of Greek finances. 

In the Transvaal, the High Court Bill was passed 
by the Volksraad, notwithstanding the unanimous 
opinion of the Rand lawyers that it endangered the 
rights and liberties of the people. President Krue- 
ger presented to Chamberlain a bill of indemnity to 
be paid — first, for material damage, £677,938; and, 
second, for moral or intellectual damage, £1,100,- 
000. Krueger again took occasion to deny the suze- 
rainty of Great Britain, but declared his intention 
strictly to observe the London Convention. The 
Volksraad consented to repeal the Anti-Immigration 
conces- Bill, against which Mr. Chamberlain had protested 

sionsinthe ... r1 . . . ~ _,.. 

Transvaal as a violation of the convention with Great Britain; 
and the government of the Orange Free State like- 
wise withdrew a similar bill, which President Steyn 
had agreed upon with President Krueger. 

British troops under General Yeatman Biggs were 
assailed in Northern India while marching to Ka- 

1897 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1811 

rappa. On October 20, after a three hours' fight, Indian 
they stormed the steep ridge of Dhargai, held to be Border war 
impregnable by the tribesmen. The Khaibar PassDhar-ai 
and the forts Mesjid and Maude were abandoned to 
the British without a stroke. 

In America, William McKinley was inaugurated 

J ° McKinley 

as President. Congress met in special session to 1 ^ 8 '^ 111 
act on the President's message urging a higher pro- 
tective tariff. The Dingley Tariff was passed four Dingey 

& J r tariff 

months later. In June, the treaty for the annexa- 
tion of the Sandwich Islands to the United States 
was signed by the President. The Hawaiian Senate tion ol* 
ratified the treaty. 

In July, great excitement had been caused by the 
discovery of gold in the Klondike. Thousands of 

J ° Gold found 

gold seekers from all over the world emigrated in Klondike 
thither. It was at this time that the Alaskan boun- 
dary question came up, the Dominion of Canada 
claiming a part of the Klondike district. 

The Venezuelan arbitration treaty was signed at 
Washington, February 2, by Senor Andrade andianarbu" 


Sir Julian Pauncefote, and the final ratifications of treaty 
the Anglo- American -Venezuelan boundary treaty 
were exchanged at Washington on June 14. Brit- 
ish relations with Venezuela, which had been sus- 
pended for several years, were resumed. 

In consequence of the murder of two German mis- 
sionaries in China, the German admiral on the China Germans 

seize Kiao- 

station, on November 14, landed 600 men at Kiao- chau 
Chau, and seized the telegraph station and magazine. 
Deprived of their ammunition, the Chinese retired 
without fighting. Having obtained this foothold, 

1812 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 18OT 

the German Government despatched a strong fleet 
under Prince Henry to China, and further exacted 
the inlet of Sansah as a coaling station. 

Other events of note during this year were the 
opening of the Brussels International Exhibition, 
on May 10, by King Leopold, and later the Diamond 
Diamood 8 J u °il ee °f Queen Victoria. On June 20, the Queen's 
jubilee accession day, services were held in every church 
of the United Kingdom. Along the entire line of 
the subsequent procession houses were gorgeously 
decorated and illuminated by night. .Regiments 
from every colony marched by the Prince of Wales 
in a review at Aldershot. At Spithead, the great- 
est naval pageant yet witnessed was reviewed by 
Queen Victoria. English poets wrote laudatory 
Kipling verses for the occasion. The best of all was Rud- 
sionai"" yard Kipling's "Recessional," published after the 
Queen's Jubilee was over. 

A sinister closing feature of the year was the 
noticeable increase of fanatical assassinations. Senor 
Canovas del Castillo, the Spanish Prime Minister, 
was killed by an Italian anarchist named Golli. 
Afterward, Senor Idiarte Borda, President of the 
Republic of Uruguay, was assassinated on the porch 
of the cathedral at Montevideo. In the middle of 
September an attempt was made to assassinate Presi- 
dent Diaz of Mexico. An attempt to assassinate 
President Moreas of Brazil at Rio de Janeiro, on 
November 5, caused serious disturbances in Brazil. 
In Rio, the printing establishments of three news- 
papers which had been hostile to the President were 
sacked by mobs. Brazil was placed under martial 





law for thirty days, and many of the prominent Apprehen . 
deputies were arrested before they could leave the Brazil 1 

In musical annals this year is noted for the death 
of Johannes Brahms. He began as a brilliant and 
versatile pianist. In 1853, at the age of twenty, he 
made a concert tour with the Hungarian violinist, [SJ m ° f 
Eemenyi. At Gottingen he played for Joachim, who 
sent him to Schumann. The composer was so im- 
pressed by the promise of the youthful musician 
that he welcomed him as one of the coming com- 
posers. Liszt, hearing him play his scherzo in E-flat 
minor, mistakenly hailed him as an apostle of 
romanticism. As a matter of fact, Brahms devel- 
oped into an idealistic composer of the purest type. 
Under the able leadership of Von Buelow his or- 
chestral compositions were shown to be in line with 
the great masterpieces of Beethoven. As a song 
composer he proved a lineal descendant of Schubert, 
Schumann and Franz. Judged by his works, which 
exceed 130, he must be pronounced as the greatest 
master of symphonic music during the latter part of 
the Nineteenth Century after Wagner. 

In Germany, the principal literary event of the 
year was the production of Gerhardt Hauptmann's^Jp^* 
fairy-drama "The Sunken Bell," one of the most 
graceful of modern German plays. Before this he 
brought out "Dawn," "Lonely People," "The 
Weavers," "Hannele," and "Florian Geyer. " 

Alphonse Daudet, the brilliant French novelist, Alphonse 
died on December 16, at Paris. From Nimes, Al- Daude * 
phonse Daudet, at the age of seventeen, betook 

1814 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 18W 

himself to Paris, there to follow his chosen career 
of letters. After the fall of the Second Empire, 
Alphonse Daudet rose to the highest rank among 
the novelists of his generation. His celebrated 
story, "Froniont Jeune et Risler Aine, " issued in 
1874, speedily ran through sixty editions, and in 
dramatized form proved no less popular. Then 
came the stories of "Jack," 1876; "Le Nabob," 
1877; "Les Rois en Exil," 1879, "Nnma Bourne- 
stem," 1881, "L'Evangeliste," 1882; "Sap ho," 1884, 
the brilliant success of which was promptly repeated 
on the stage; and "Tartarin en les Alpes, " pub- 
lished in 1886, as a sequel to his "Tartarin de Ta- 
rascon. " After the publication of "Trente Ans 
a Paris," Alphonse Daudet definitely ended his 
prospects of entering the French Academy by the 
publication of his brilliant sardonic novel "L'lm- 
mortel. " His last work was "Soutien de Famille. " 

On December 28, the first production of Edmond 
Rostand Rostand's romantic play, "Cyrano de Bergerac, " 
lifted the author to the highest rank among French 
playwrights. Previous to this, Rostand had brought 
out "Les Romanesques" at the Comddie Frangaise, 
and later "La Princesse Lointaine" and "La 
Samaratine," none of which scored so striking a 
success. The great French comedian Coquelin, to 
whom this play was dedicated, from the start 
created such a furor by his masterful impersonation 
of "Cyrano" that the popularity of the play was 
assured. It has remained one of the most brilliant 
productions of the French Jin de sitcle stage. 

The long-festermg Cuban troubles did not claim 


serious attention this year until late in autumn, 
when the town of Victoria del las Tunas, the most £ h c U ba r 
exposed city in the eastern part of the island, was 
attacked by the insurgents and taken after severe 
Jfghting. According to official statistics issued by 
the Spanish Minister of War, there had been sent 
to Cuba between November, 1895, and May, 1896, 
181,738 men, 6,261 officers and 40 generals, and to 
the Philippines 27,768 men, 881 officers and 9 gen- 
erals. After the assassination of Canovas, the Sa- 
gasta Ministry was shamed into rescinding Weyler's 
inhuman military measures in Cuba. General Wey- 
ler was recalled from his command in Cuba by the 
new Spanish Ministry, and Marshal Ramon Blanco 
superseded him with full powers to proclaim the 
autonomy of the island. The Spanish Cortes voted 
$600,000 for the starving pacificos of Cuba. 

The attitude of the rebels toward Spain was 
clearly shown in December, when Colonel Ruiz, Death o« 


General Blanco's aide-de-camp, who had been sent 
to make peace proposals to the Cuban insurgents, 
on the basis of autonomy, was shot by order of the 
insurgent chief Myia Rodriguez, together with sev- 
eral insurgents who were ready to treat with the 
Spanish leader. The so-called Cuban Government 
of the revolutionists was of an itinerant character. 
The insurgents were still active in the eastern prov- 
inces of Santiago and Puerto Principe. By means 
of a strong line of military posts and block-houses, 
known as the Trocha, the Spaniards were able to The 


hold the rebels in check round and about Havana, 
Matanzas and Pinar del Rio 


1816 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 189T 

A portent of more serious troubles for Spain could 
be discerned, late in December, in President Mc- 
Kinley's final message to Congress. He said: 

"The most important problem with which this 
government is now called upon to deal, pertaining 
to its foreign relations, concerns its duty toward 
Spain and the Cuban insurrection. . . According 
to conservative estimates from Spanish sources, the 
mortality among the Cuban reconcentrados from 
starvation and the diseases thereto incident exceed 
one half of their total number. This is not civilized 
warfare. It is extermination. The only peace it 
can beget is a wilderness. . . The near future will 
demonstrate whether the indispensable condition of 
a righteous peace, just alike to the Cubans and to 
Spam, as well as equitable to our interests, is likely 
to be attained. If not, the exigency of further and 
other action by the United States will remain to be 
taken. When that time comes that action will be 
determined in the light of indisputable right and 
duty. It will be faced without misgiving or hesi- 
tancy in the light of the obligation this government 
owes to itself — to the people who have confided to 
it the protection of their interests and honor— and 
to humanity." 




T THE opening of this year the insurrection 
in Cuba appeared irrepressible. To protect u 

American interests the battleship "Maine" Havana 
was sent to Havana. Spain immediately notified 
the United States, by way of reply, that the Span- 
ish cruiser "Vizcaya" would pay a return visit to 
New York. 

In this critical state of public opinion two events Spanish 


occurred that served to heighten the tension. A^iscre- 
Cuban sympathizer surreptitiously gained posses- 
sion of a letter written by Don Enrique Dupuy 
de Lome, the Spanish Minister in Washington, to 
Senor Canalejas, the confidential agent of Canovas. 
In this letter President McKinley was characterized 
as a "low politician." The letter was published in 
New York. Senor De Lome conceded its authen- 
ticity, and at once cabled his resignation. Don 
Luis Polo y Bernabe' was appointed his successor. 
Scarcely a week had elapsed, when the news ar- 
rived of an appalling disaster in Havana. On Tues- 
day night, February 15, the "Maine" blew up, and 
266 of her officers and crew were killed. At the 
time of the explosion, the "Maine" was moored to 


a buoy selected by the Spanish authorities in Ha- S^ ffiU" 
vana. Most of her officers were on shore attending 

1818 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. 1898 

a reception. Captain Sigsbee, her commander, was 
in his cabin, having just finished a complete in- 
spection of the ship. The captain's official report 
of the disaster arrived in Washington at dead of 
night, and was communicated to the President in 
his bed-chamber. The brief despatch ended with 
an appeal to the American people "to suspend 
judgment. ' ' 

The explosion of the "Maine" sent a thrill of 
horror through the American people. It was their 
instinctive belief that it was the result of treacher- 
ous design. The Jingo newspapers lashed popular 
feeling to fury. The arrival of the "Vizcaya" in 
Euiate New York, at this juncture, had a sinister effect. 

insulted in _ ... 

New York Her captain, Senor i^ulate, met with an insulting 
reception by the Mayor of New York. He lost 
no time in weighing anchor to proceed to Havana. 
The Spanish Government sent a message of con- 
dolence for the "Maine" tragedy. No objection 
was raised when the United States cruiser "Mont- 
gomery" was despatched to Havana. On the other 
hand, Spain, through her representative at Washing- 
ton, intimated that it would be gratifying to her if 
no more food supplies were sent to Cuba in Ameri- 
can war vessels, and if the American Consul-General 
should be recalled. The American Secretary of 
State made the following official statement: "The 

American " 

aovem- President will not consider the recall of General 


truculent -j^ .. gp a ^ n thereupon withdrew her request. In 
view of this conciliatory measure, the American 
Government consented to forward the relief sup- 
plies by means of the lighthouse tender "Fern." 


Orders were given, however, for the North Atlan- 
tic squadron to concentrate off the Dry Tortugas ^para- 
near Key West. The battleship "Oregon," in San 
Francisco, was summoned eastward. Secret orders 
were given for the mobilization of the regular army. 
Congress voted $50,000,000 for the national de- 

The President appointed a Board of Inquiry into 
the "Maine" disaster. It met at Key West and Ha- 
vana and continued its sessions for weeks. Much ex- 
pert testimony was taken and divers were employed. 
A Spanish Board of Inquiry conducted a simulta- 

1 * «/ Inquiry 

neous investigation. The American Board reported : »Maine" 
"That the loss of the 'Maine' was not in any respect dlsaster 
due to fault or negligence on the part of any of the 
officers or members of her crew ; that the ship was 
destroyed by the explosion of a submarine mine 
. . . and that no evidence has been obtainable nxinsr 

° Conflicting 

the responsibility for the destruction of the 'Maine' re P° rts 
upon any person or persons. ' ' 

Immediately after this, the Spanish Board an- 
nounced its official conclusion that the ship had 
been destroyed by an internal explosion, the result 
of negligence. 

President McKinley invoked "deliberate consid- 
eration." It was too late for such appeals. The ad- 
verse report concerning the disaster to the "Maine" 
was followed by immediate clamors for war on the 
part of the American newspapers and the Represen- 
tatives in Congress. Enterprising war correspondents Rising war 

-r-r-r feVer 

forgathered at Key West and Tampa. The Ameri- 
can Government, in the face of this rising war feeling, 

1820 A HISTORY OF THE April 1898 

held back only for the sake of completing its own 
arrangements, and to give American residents in 
Cuba time to leave the island. Consul-General Lee 
left Havana on April 10. President McKinley sent 
another Cubau message to Congress, to which body 
he submitted the whole matter. An impassioned 

t£?5f w debate followed. On April 20, both Houses of Con- 
gress passed joint war resolutions. Spain refused to 
receive the American ultimatum calling for imme- 
diate evacuation of Cuba. 

The actual war opened on Friday, April 22, with 
the seizure of the Spanish steamer "Buena Ven- 
tura," captured by the "Nashville," in the Strait 
of Florida. On the day before, the President had 
proclaimed a blockade over the western coast of 

begun lities Cuba. Acting Rear- Admiral Sampson was ordered 
to enforce it with the North Atlantic squadron. 
Havana was blockaded and great suffering ensued. 
Within the next few days the harbor of Key West 
was filled with prizes. Many of them were sub- 
sequently released in view of the President's ex- 
press declaration that Spanish merchantmen sailing 
for American ports before the declaration of war 
should be exempt from seizure. 

In the meanwhile the President had issued a call 
for 125,000 volunteers. The regular army was hur- 
riedly concentrated at Chickamauga. The militia 

American J ° 

mobiiiza- re gi men t s we re mobilized and ordered to camps 

at Tampa, and other points on the southern coast. 

The most picturesque of these was a regiment of 

irregular cavalry raised among the wild riders and 

frontiersmen of the western prairies and Rocky Moun- 


tains by Dr. Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt, 
then Assistant- Secretary of the Navy. 

On the outbreak of war, Great Britain declared 
neutrality and notified Spain that she would regard Neut rauty 
coal as contraband of war. England's proclamation Ssf™" 
of neutrality was followed by the other Powers, ex- 
cepting Germany. By the terms of neutrality, all 
belligerent vessels were required to leave neutral 
ports within forty- eight hours. This made it im- 
possible for Spain to utilize several of her torpedo- 
boat destroyers then building in English shipyards. 
The United States lost the unfinished war vessel 
"Albany" and the newly -acquired torpedo boat 
"Somers, " which had put into Falmouth for 
repairs. Commodore George Dewey, commanding 
the American squadron at Hong Kong, was or- 
dered to leave that port. Before he steamed out of 
the harbor, he received this peremptory message, 
from Washington: "Commence operations at once, 


particularly against Spanish fleet. You must cap- orders 
ture or destroy it." He headed his fleet for Mirs 
Bay in China. 

The North Atlantic squadron under Samp- 
son continued its blockade of the Cuban coast. On 
April 27, Matanzas was bombarded without effect. 

Though the bombardment of the shore batteries 
of Matanzas was the first important action of thecuban 

r i n i blockade 

war, the honor of the nrst naval engagement 
is claimed by the American auxiliary gunboat 
4 ' Eagle, ' ' formerly the vacht ' ' Almy. ' ' There were 
several desultory bombardments at Cardenas, Ca- 
banas, and other points along the Cuban coast. Two 

1822 A HISTORY OF THE May 1898 

notable exploits were accomplished by individuals 
about the same time. Lieutenant Andrew S. 
Rowan landed near Santiago de Cuba and penetrated 
to General Garcia's camp. Lieutenant Henry C. 
Whitney, in conjunction with an American war 
correspondent, landed in Porto Eico for a pre- 
liminary reconnoissance of military posts and pos- 
sible landing places. 

Then came the greatest achievement of the war. 
On Wednesday, April 27, Commodore Dewey left 
Mirs Bay with his squadron. First he put into 
Subig Bay, where there was some chance of en- 
countering the Spaniards, and then proceeded to 
Manila. Under cover of darkness the fleet steamed 
by the outer batteries. None of their shots struck. 

It was just five o'clock in the morning when 
Dewey Dewey's fleet steamed into the Bay of Manila. The 

enters J J 

Manila Bay Spanish fleet lay to starboard, at anchor, 5,000 yards 
away. It consisted of the flagship "Reina Maria 
Cristina, " a steel cruiser; the "Castilla, " likewise 
a steel cruiser, and the small cruisers "Velasco," 
"Don Antonio de Ulloa, " "Don Juan de Austria," 
"Isla de Cuba," "Isla de Luzon," and the gun- ves- 
sels "General Lezo" and "El Cano, " with the de- 
spatch boat "Marques del Duero. " The American 
fleet numbered nine ships, four of which were pro- 
tected cruisers. The total number of Spanish guns, 
not including those of the shore batteries, was 113 
against 137 of the American fleet. 

As the American fleet hove in sight, the "Reina 
Cristina," followed by the larger Spanish vessels, 
at once slipped cable and got under way. The 


shore batteries of New Manila opened fire. Off 
Cavite* two submarine mines exploded just ahead 
of Dewey's flagship, the " Olympia. " She steamed 
through their wash. When the forts had been 
passed the American vessels wheeled southward so 
as to engage the extended Spanish line of ships 
while steaming in an ellipse. At a range of 5,000 
yards, Commodore Dewey turned to his captain and 
said: "When you are ready, you may fire, Gridley. " 
The ' ' Olympia' ' opened. Steaming past the Spanish 
line, broadside after broadside was fired at each ship 
in turn. The other American vessels fired as each 
came within range. At shoal water the "Olympia" 
turned, changing her fire to the stern turrets and 
the aft-starboard batteries. Five times in succes- Battle of 


sion did the American ships thus file by the Span- 
iards, closing in at each turn until the range was re- 
duced to 2,000 yards. Admiral Montojo's ship was 
soon on fire. He shifted his flag to the "Isla de 
Cuba, ' ' and so escaped the fate of the captain of the 
"Cristina, " who shortly afterward was killed on 
the bridge. Flames were next seen to rise from the 
"Castilla" and "Don Antonio de Ulloa. " Several 
of the American vessels were struck. The bridge 
gratings where Commodore Dewey stood were 
smashed, and the signal halyards of the "Olympia" 
were shot out of Flag-Lieutenant Brumby's hands. 
The "Eeina Cristina" steamed forward in an attempt 
to break the American line. She was smothered by 
the concentrated fire of all the American guns avail- 
able. A shot from the "Olympia" killed sixty of 
the Spanish crew, including the executive officer and 

1824 A HISTORY OF THE May 1898 

captain, and practically put the erstwhile flagship 
out of action. A small Spanish vessel that ran out 
to torpedo the "Olympia" was sunk within five 
hundred yards of the American flagship. 

After two hours' fighting, Commodore Dewey 
temporarily withdrew his fleet. The lull in the 
battle 1 battle was improved on the American ships by serv- 
ing breakfast to the smoke- begrimed seamen. The 
Spaniards misunderstood the significance of the 
American manoeuvre. Captain-General Augustin 
sent a cable despatch to Madrid announcing com- 
plete victory. 

At eleven o'clock the action was resumed. The 
American squadron once more formed in single file. 
The "Baltimore" poured her whole broadside into 
btownuj" the burning Spanish flagship. The "Cristina" blew 
up. The remaining Spanish ships were engaged each 
in turn, and one after another each was blown up or 
sunk. The "Don Antonio de CJlloa" was the last 
to sink. With colors nailed to the mast she went 
down. Admiral Montojo, in the midst of this ruin, 
hauled down his colors from the "Isla de Cuba" 
and had himself rowed ashore. The American fleet 
now turned its fire upon the shore batteries. The 
little "Petrel" ran further into the harbor and sank 
the ' ' Ducro, " " Quiros, ' ' and ' ' Villagos. ' ' The shore 


surrenders batteries were soon silenced. The fort of Cavite' ran 
up the white flag. 

Montojo's losses were eleven ships and 381 men, 
or 19 per cent of the total force. The casualties on 
shore were 175 men. The fortifications of Cavite* 
were razed, and those of Corregidor Island de- 


stroyed. Not a man was lost on the American 
fleet, nor was any ship disabled. It is this dispar- onosses y 
ity in the casualties that makes the battle of Manila 
one of the most remarkable of naval victories. The 
Spanish explanation for the defeat rests on the dis- 
parity of the two fleets in protection and arma- 

Just before the news of the victory of Manila, a 
report reached America that a powerful Spanish 
fleet had sailed from Cape de Verde, in the Azores, cervera 

L ' sails west- 

in a westward direction. Acting Eear- Admiral ward 
Sampson put out of Key West with his squadron 
of seven ships to head off the approaching Spanish 
fleet. At the same time, a flying squadron, under 
Commodore Schley, was held ready at Hampton 
Eoads to head off the Spaniards should they 
appear on the coast. The fastest vessels in the 
American navy cruised back and forth athwart 
the probable course of the Spanish fleet. On the 
Atlantic coast, a host of government cutters, with 
converted yachts and tugboats, patrolled the entire 
seaboard. New York Harbor and other important 
seaports were put into a state of defence. 

While the American people were thus thrown into 
a state of apprehension, the tension of feeling was 
heightened by an untoward event off Cardenas. A 
small American squadron, consisting of the gunboat 
"Wilmington," the torpedo boat "Winslow, " and ^ in8low » 
the auxiliary gunboat "Hudson," were attacked in dlsabled 
Cardenas Bay by Spanish gunboats and shore bat- 
teries. The "Winslow" was disabled, and Ensign 
Worth Bagley, her executive officer, was killed. 

1826 A HISTORY OF THE May 1808 

The same day Sampson's squadron reached Porto 
u^tot 6 ' Rico. The fortifications and harbor of San Juan 
were bombarded without effect. On the day of the 
bombardment at San Juan, Captain Cotton of the 
"Harvard" reported Cervera's fleet off Martinique. 
On the receipt of Captain Cotton's despatch the 
naval war board at Washington sent despatches for 
Sampson to St. Thomas in the Danish West Indies, 
and to Schley at Hampton Roads, to proceed at once 
to the east and west coasts of Cuba to intercept the 
Spanish fleet. Cervera, in the meanwhile, sailed on 
to Curacoa and thence to Santiago de Cuba. Ad- 
samiago miT ^ Cervera's arrival at Santiago, it is charged 
Harbor ^ gp^jgh historians of the war, was betrayed to 
the United States authorities by the English Ambas- 
sador in Washington. Commodore Schley's flying 
squadron hove in sight and took up its station out- 
side of the harbor. Schley was still sceptical con- 
cerning the real whereabout of the Spanish fleet. 
His resulting loose tactics, it is asserted, caused 
him to be superseded by Captain Sampson, his 
inferior in rank. This charge became a matter of 
intense controversy in American naval circles. At 
all events, Schley's squadron, shortly after its ar- 
flCet' 9h Tiv&l off Santiago on May 28, was reinforced by 
blockaded g am p gon ' s wno le North Atlantic Squadron. After 
this the Spanish fleet was effectually hemmed in. 

The invasion of Cuba had been delayed by un- 
certainty regarding the movements of the Spanish 
fleet. In the meantime, several small expeditions 
were sent out to supply the Cuban soldiers with 
food and ammunition. When a full army corps 

1898 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1827 

had assembled at Tampa, under the command of 
General Shatter, it was decided to land the troops e^ld£ an 
in Cervera's rear at Santiago. Other troops were out 
hurried to San Francisco to reinforce Dewey's 
squadron at Manila, and the cruiser "Charleston" 
sailed forth on the same errand. 

Within a day after her departure great rejoicings 
were caused throughout America by the safe arrival 
of the battleship "Oregon" at Jupiter Inlet in Flor- The 

r ° r "Oregon's" 

ida. Her run around the continent, covering a dis- run 
tance of 14,133 miles in less than six weeks, was an 
exhibition of American shipbuilding and seaman- 
ship that stood out with unusual lustre among the 
naval achievements of this war. 

Pending the arrival of a large landing force to 
take the city in the rear, Sampson determined to 
keep the Spaniards tightly pent. This led to one 
of the most brilliant and daring episodes of the war 
— the sinking of the American collier ' ' Merrimac, ' ' f.^e^i. 
at the entrance of Santiago Harbor, by Naval Con- mac " 
structor Hobson. The collier was charged with 
mines, and, after a first abortive attempt, was finally 
steered into the mouth of the harbor by Hobson 
and a chosen crew of seven volunteers under cover 
of darkness. The ship was sunk, but Hobson and 
his men were picked up by Admiral Cervera when 
daylight came. 

The sinking of the "Merrimac" proved a disap- 
pointment. Her wreck did not close up the mouth 
of the harbor. As if to prove this to the Ameri- 
cans, the Spaniards, three days after Hobson's cap- 
ture, sent out the cruiser "Reina Mercedes." She 

1»2» A HISTORY OF THE 1866 

did not get beyond the mouth of the harbor before 

■" she was sunk by the concentrated fire of the Ameri 


can fleet. 

American marines were now landed at Guanta- 




GuauTI- at namo. Aided by Cubans they skirmished with the 
Spaniards for several days. Meanwhile, General 
Shafter's expedition sailed from Tampa, it con- 
sisted of more than 16,000 men. 

The expedition was landed with the assistance 
of the navy at Daiquiri near Santiago, on June 

landed" 22. The Spanish troops made no resistance, and 
on the next morning General Lawton's division 
marched along the coast to Siboney. General 
Young's brigade of 964 dismounted troopers, how- 
ever, passed Lawton on the night of the 23d-24th, 
and was therefore in advance on the morning of 
the 24th. It consisted of part of the Tenth United 
States Cavalry (colored) and two squadrons of the 
Rough Riders. On the road to Santiago, about 
three miles from Siboney, was a strong, natural 

Ea! h Guit position called Las Guasimas, from the trees in 
that locality. Here the Spaniards were posted, 
3,000 strong, and Young's men struck them at 
this point. After an obstinate resistance, the Span- 
iards were driven from their position with a re- 
ported loss of nine killed and twenty-seven wounded. 
The Americans lost one officer and fifteen men 
killed, and six officers and forty-six men wounded. 
Among the killed were Captain Capron and Hamil- 
ton Fish of the Rough Riders. Edward Marshall, 
the war correspondent, was severely wounded. 
The engagement was remarkable in one respect 



The men who composed the two squadrons of the 

First Volunteer Cavalry had never received any^S? 3,11 

. manship 

military drill in target practice, nor had they once 
fired their new carbines. Yet their shooting was 
so accurate that the bullets from their cross-fire 
and that of the negro troopers, who came to their 
aid, was found to have swept over the crest of the 
hill where the Spaniards lay, within hand's- breadth 
of the ground. In brief this action, like all other 
American victories of the war with Spain, was won 
by straight shooting. 

After this engagement, the time up to June 30 
was spent in bringing up the American troops for 
the advance on Santiago. To the northeast of the 
city was the village of Caney, and on the same 
side, some two to three miles from it, were the 
San Juan hills and block-houses. It was evident 
that this was the proper approach to the town. 

About this time news was brought that the Span- 
ish General, Escario, with reinforcements, was ap- Advance 

' ' r on San- 

proaching from the northwest. Early on July 1, tiago 
Lawton was in position, Chaffee's Brigade on the 
right, Lawton 's on the left, and Miles' in the cen- 
tre. The conflict opened at 6 o'clock a.m., and 
soon became general. The naturally strong posi- 
tion of the enemy was rendered doubly so by stone 
block-houses and forts. 

The troops of Wheeler's and Kent's divisions, 
which had up to this time been partially concealed, 
were ordered to deploy — Wheeler to the right, to- 
ward Lawton, and Kent to the left General Shaf> 
ter has thus described the fight : 

XlXth Century— Vol. 3— Y 


1830 A HISTORY OF THE July 180B 

"General Kent took measures to hurry forward 
sajjfua? his rear brigade. The Tenth and Second Infantry 
were ordered to follow Wikoff's Brigade, while the 
Twenty- first was sent on the right-hand road to sup- 
port the First Brigade, under General Hawkins, who 
had crossed the stream and formed on the right of 
the division. The Second and Tenth Infantry, 
Colonel E. P. Pearson commanding, moved for- 
ward in good order on the left of the division, 
passed over a green knoll, and drove the enemy 
back toward his trenches. During this formation 
the Second Brigade suffered severely. Its com- 
mander, Colonel Wikoff, was killed. The command 
of the Brigade then devolved upon Lieutenant- 
Colonel Worth, Thirteenth Infantry, who was soon 
severely wounded, and next upon Lieutenant-Colonel 
Liscum, Twenty-fourth Infantry, who, five minutes 
later, also fell under the terrible fire of the enemy, 
and the command of the brigade then devolved 
upon Lieutenant-Colonel Ewers, Ninth Infantry. 

"After completing their formation under a de- 
structive fire, and advancing a short distance, both 
divisions found in their front a wide bottom, in 
which had been placed a barbed-wire entanglement, 
and beyond which there was a high hill, along the 
crest of which the enemy was strongly posted. 
Nothing daunted, these gallant men pushed on to 
drive the enemy from his chosen position; both divi- 
sions losing heavily. In this assault Colonel Hamil- 
ton, Lieutenants Smith and Shipp were killed, and 
Colonel Carroll, Lieutenants Thayer and Myer, all 
in the cavalry, were wounded." 

tinted by H. ReuterdaL'. 


XlXth Cent., Vol. Three 


This was the famous charge up San Juan Hill. 
Though the firing line was three miles wide, the 
lion's share of the exploit in American popular 
tradition has fallen to Theodore Eoosevelt and his 
Bough Eiders. 

During the afternoon and night of July 1 the 
American lines were strengthened. On the morn- 
ing of July 2 and 3, the Spaniards renewed the 
fight but were beaten back. The losses of the 
three days on the American side were 22 officers 
and 208 men killed, 81 officers and 1,203 men 
wounded, and 79. missing. The Spanish losses Ca ture 
were more than 1,500 officers and men killed Caney 
and wounded, including the Commander-in-Chief, 
Linares. The battalion that held Caney was cut 
down almost to a man. 

After the final repulse of the Spaniards, on the 
morning of July 3, General Shafter made a demand 
on General Toral to surrender. One hour after this 
summons, Admiral Cervera and his fleet sailed out 
of Santiago Harbor. It was a bright Sunday morn- 
ing with a calm sea. The American vessels, in a 
wide semicircle, were lying on their customary 
blockading stations. The American flagship, bear- 
ing Acting Rear- Admiral Sampson, was steaming 
down the coast toward Siboney for a conference cervera 

steams out 

with General Shafter. The call to Sunday inspec- 
tion had just sounded across the water when the 
first Spanish battleship was seen emerging from 
Santiago Harbor. On the yardarms of the "Texas" 
and "Oregon" rose the signal "Enemy's ships are 
escaping. ' ' General quarters sounded on every ship. 

1832 ^1 HISTORY OF THE July 1898 

"Within five minutes the guns of the nearest Ameri- 
can vessels opened tire. Commodore Schley on his 
flagship "Brooklyn," signalled "Close in!" The 
Spanish ships, steaming ten knots per hour, filed 
out of the harbor eight hundred yards apart. The 
"Infanta Maria Teresa," flying Admiral Cervera's 
flag, led. After her came the ' ' Vizcaya, " " Cristobal 
Colon," and "Almirante Oquendo. " The torpedo- 
boat destroyers "Pluton" and "Furor" followed. 
The "Texas," "Brooklyn," "Iowa" and "Oregon" 
converged toward the harbor entrance. When the 
"Brooklyn" had come within a mile of the "Maria 
Teresa, ' ' she was exposed to the concentrated fire of 
the ! ' Teresa, " " Vizcaya' ' and ' ' Colon. ' ' She ported 
her helm, and turning from the enemy made a com- 
plete loop, after which she steered a course parallel 

Schley's with the Spanish vessels and engaged them. ThrOUgh- 

out this manoeuvre her guns kept the enemy within 
range. Commodore Schley's unforeseen move came 
near seriously endangering the "Texas." After the 
battle it was made the subject of caustic comment. 
By Schley and his supporters it has always been 
upheld as an eminently successful manoeuvre, neces- 
sitated by the situation of the moment. The initial 
speed of the Spanish vessels soon enabled them to 
. a run clear of the blockading squadron at large, 
fight rpk e ac ^ on henceforth was a running fight, with 

the "Brooklyn," "Oregon" and "Texas" leading 
the chase. 

The most brilliant exploit of the battle was that 
of Lieutenant- Commander Wainwright, command- 
ing the little "Gloucester," formerly the yacht 


"Corsair. 1, Wainwright, who, as one of the sur- 
vivors of the ' ' Maine, ' ' had the post of honor near 
the harbor entrance, carried nothing but light rapid- 
fire guns. As soon as the two torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers appeared at the mouth of the harbor, the 
"Gloucester" steamed for them at full speed, firing ^££3 
all the time. Though she came under the fire of • 
the shore batteries, she closed in with the two 
destroyers and literally smothered them with her 
deadly rapid fire. "Within twenty minutes the 
"Furor" and "Pluton" were sunk, with two-thirds 
of their crew killed. The ' ' Maria Teresa, ' ' set on » Maria 
fire by the heavy shells of the American battle- Ju£k Sa " 
ships and the ''Brooklyn," ported her helm and 
ran inshore. As she settled and sank, "Wain- 
wright ran up with the "Gloucester" and rescued 
the drowning Spanish sailors. He stood at the 
gangway as the dripping Spanish Admiral came 
over the side. Taking Cervera by the hand, he 
exclaimed: "I congratulate you, sir, upon having 
made a most gallant fight. ' ' The brave old sailor P ri s° ner 
was too overcome to reply. 

An hour later the ■ ' Vizcaya, ' ' running westward 
under the combined fire of the "Brooklyn," "Ore- 
gon" and "Texas," was likewise set on fire and 
was beached at Aserrades. The "Cristobal Colon" bea^he^ a 
ran ahead until nearly one o'clock. By that time 
the ' ' Oregon, ' ' steaming at full speed, at last came 
up so as to bring her thirteen- inch turret guns to 
bear. One shell was dropped just astern of the 
' ' Colon. ' ' The next splashed into the water ahead 
of her bow. Had there been guns in the gaping 

1834 A HISTORY OF THE July 1898 

holes of her barbettes, the Spaniard might still have 
o"the nder given a good account of herself. As it was, though 
uninjured by the American shots., she hauled down 
her colors. After the surrender, her sea valves were 
treacherously opened, and she sank forty-eight miles 
west of Santiago. Sampson's flagship "New York," 
a which had arrived by that time after her long stern 
chase from Aguadores, pushed the sinking "Colon" 
into shoal water. Befce the "Colon" was run 
down, the "Almirante Oquendo" was finished off 
by the "Texas." Burning fiercely from stem to 
stern, she hauled down her colors and headed in- 
shore. It was then that American sailors on the 
"Texas" broke into wild hurrahs. "Don't cheer, 
men!" said Captain Philips, "the poor devils are 

Thus ended the greatest running fight on water 
.., since the destruction of the Armada. The Span- 

A notable 1 

victory i ar ds lost six ships, 600 men killed and wounded, 
and 1,200 prisoners, while the Americans had one 
man killed and two wounded. The worst damage 
done to any American vessel was on the "Brook- 
lyn." This high-standing cruiser was struck no 
less than thirty times. It was a six-inch shell that 
carried off the head of her chief gunner, Ellis. 

After the battle, Sampson, who had reassumed 
command, sent a despatch to Washington, offering 
the victory to the American people as a" Fourth- 

de^patch 9 of- July present." The wording of the despatch, 
which made no mention of Schley, was sharply 
criticised in Congress. 

The destruction of the second Spanish fleet prac- 


tically ended the war. For some time parleys for 
surrender dragged on before Santiago. The women 
and children were permitted to leave the city, where 
they had been a prey to the ravages of famine and 
fever. On July 17, General Toral, who had suc- 
ceeded Linares, surrendered the city and province o^san- 
of Santiago with 22,000 men. The Spanish soldiers 
were to be shipped back to Spain. After this the 
American army lay idle. Its ranks were decimated 
by malarial fever. This led to the famous round 
robin letter initiated by Colonel Koosevelt, in which Roose- 

J velt's 

the various commanding officers united in stating: ^ggjj? 
' ' This army must be moved at once or perish. ' ' ,etter 
The letter had its desired effect. 

Before the surrender at Santiago, Admiral Ca- _ 
mara's fleet, sailing for the Philippines through the bailed 
Suez Canal, turned back. This expedition has 
never been satisfactorily explained. Camara's fleet 
was scarcely of sufficient strength to cope with 
Dewey at Manila. Its departure left the Spanish 
coast uncovered. The heavy tolls for twice travers- 
ing the Suez Canal seriously depleted the exhausted 
treasury of Spain. While this fleet was returning 
from its fruitless errand, General Miles, with 3,600 
officers and men, invaded Porto Rico. A slight 
engagement occurred on August 9 at Coamo. On of Porto 
the eve of a more decisive action, on August 12, 
news arrived of the suspension of hostilities. 

On July 26, M. Cambon, the French Ambassador 
in Washington, acting in behalf of Spain, had made 
the first overtures for peace. On August 9, the 
American conditions were formally accepted by 

1836 A HISTORY OF THE Aug. 1898 

Spain. Three days later a peace protocol was 
proctocoi signed. It provided for the relinquishment of Span- 
ish sovereignty over Cuba, Porto Hico and one of 
the Ladrones. Manila was to be held by the Ameri- 
can forces pending the conclusion of a definite peace 

The blockade of Cuba was raised forthwith. The 
Spanish forces in Porto Rico prepared to withdraw. 
Owing to delay in the transmission of the news of 
peace the land campaign in the Philippines lasted 
campion thirty- six hours beyond the date of signature. 
American forces, to the number of 12,000 men, had 
been landed at Cavite by the close of July. On the 
way to Manila the "Charleston" annexed the Island 
Aonexa of Guam. The Spanish governor was not aware 
Guam that war existed between the United States and 
Spain. The solid shots of the "Charleston" were 
taken for a salute. On the last of the month, the 
American forces at Cavite advanced from their 
base and threw up a line of breastworks in front 
of Manila. The Philippine insurgents made way 
for them. A hot engagement was fought under a 
pouring rainstorm. On Sunday morning, August 
7, Dewey, having been reinforced by the captured 
"Callao, " and monitors "Monterey" and "Monad- 
nock," summoned Manila under threat of bombard- 
ment. After long parleys arrangements were made 
to save Spanish honor by a sham bombardment and 
attack. The Americans undertook to foil any at- 
Mamia tempt on the part of the Filipinos to occupy the 

capitulates r r r rJ 

■ city. This final display of Spanish fighting spirit 
cost the Americans twelve dead and thirty-nine 


wounded. Immediately after the surrender, on 
August 16, news of the peace protocol reached 
General Merritt. 

On the day of the suspension of hostilities the 
American flag was also raised over Honolulu in Hawaii 
the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands. The acquisi- 
tion of colonial possessions necessitated an imme- 
diate increase of the regular American army. With 
the consent of Congress, the army was raised to 
twice its original number. The most enthusiastic American 

° changes 

spokesman for this departure from American tra- 
dition was Theodore Eoosevelt. On the strength 
of his war record he became a candidate for the 
governorship of his native State. After an exciting 
political campaign he was triumphantly elected. 

Throughout the Spanish- American War the great 
Powers of Europe, so far from combining in behalf 
of Spain, were scarcely able to come to an agree- 
ment in regard to the political status of Crete. The 
unsatisfactory negotiations on this subject made The «oon- 
a by- word of the so-called "concert of Europe. " Europe" 
Late in the year the representatives of the four 
Powers finally notified the King of Greece of their 
selection of Prince George to be administrator of 
Crete for three years. Shortly before Christmas, 
Prince George arrived at Souda Bay in Crete, 
under the escort of the foreign flagships, and as- Prince 

George in 

sumed charge. The Turkish flag remained flying Crete 
over Canea. 

Prior to this, more serious subjects of diplomatic 
contention had arisen in China. The Chinese ces- 
sion of Kiao-Chau Bay to Germany was confirmed. 

1888 A HISTORY OF THE Spring 1898 

The British Minister at Peking informed the Tsung- 
?fco^ n li Yamen that Great Britain was willing to guar- 
antee a loan of £12,000,000 at four per cent to pay 
China's indemnity to Japan. In recognition of this 
service China agreed to open all the inland waters 
of the empire to foreign navigation, and to maintain 
an Englishman at the head of the maritime customs. 
Eussia followed this up by a demand for the cession 
of Port Arthur and Talienwan. In the event of 


by Russia noncompliance Russian occupation of Manchuria 
was threatened. China gave in. The Russian flag 
was hoisted over Port Arthur and Talienwan. 
The ships of other nations were subjected to Rus- 
sian tariff restrictions. The results of Japan's war 
with China were further curtailed by the cession 
of Deer Island, commanding the entrance to the 
harbor of Fusan in Korea, to the Russians. Imme- 
diately after the withdrawal of the Japanese troops 
from Wei-hai-Wei, China was made to lease that 

Britain's port to England for ninety-nine years. Within a 
month another Chinese convention was signed, 
leasing to Great Britain for ninety-nine years 
some two hundred square miles of the mainland 
opposite Hong-Kong and the waters of Mirs Bay 
and of Deep Bay. As a scapegoat for these foreign 
concessions, Viceroy Li Hung Chang was dismissed 

Spaced ^ n disgrace from the councils of the Tsung-li 
On May 19, England had lost the most eminent 

Gladstone f ner statesmen by the death of Gladstone. The 
life of William Ewart Gladstone is so integral a part 
of his country's history from the time that he en- 

1898 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1839 

tered Parliament in 1835 until his last public ap- 
pearance in his eighty- eighth year, that its best 
expression is the Victorian Era. 

On June 17 came the death of another great Eng- 
lishman, Sir Edward Burne-Jones. This artist, who 
was born at Birmingham in 1833, was originally Bume- 
educated for the Church. After his graduation 
from Oxford, together with William Morris he 
took up art in London. In 1856, he and Eossetti 
became leaders of pre-Raphaelite art. His paint- 
ings, by their strangeness of conception and treat- 
ment, marked a departure in English art. Like 
those of his friend Eossetti, they dealt with classi- 
cal and allegorical subjects. Yet he did not achieve 
renown until the opening of the Grosvenor Gallery 
in 1877. Noted among his works are "The Song 
of Love," "The Golden Stairs," "Cupid and 
Psyche," "Wine of Circe," "The Six Days of 
Creation, " "The Four Seasons, " " Laus Veneris, ' ' f^ 
and "Love Among Euins. " These works won him pic 
first rank among English imaginative painters. 

To the House of Hapsburg another tragic afflic- 
tion was brought by the assassination of Empress 
Elizabeth of Austria. While travelling in Switzer- Assassina . 
land she was murdered, on September 10, by an Empress 
anarchist named Lucheni. A Swiss court sentenced 
Lucheni to penal servitude for life. Within a few 
days of this, on September 20, occurred the death 
of Thomas F. Bayard, the former Secretary of State 
at Washington and subsequently American Minister Thoma8 Wo 
to England. Shortly after this, Germany lost her Bayard 
greatest statesman by the death of Prince^Bismarck. 

1840 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1896 

On October 20, the old chancellor died at his retreat 
of Friedriohsruhe in his eighty-third year. 

Almost simultaneously with the war between 
America and Spain, England was fighting a war 

The Nile of her own in Africa. A powerful Anglo-Egyptian 
force was collected on the Nile. On April 8, Kitch- 
ener stormed Mahmoud's intrenched camp on the 
Atbara. An army of 15,000 Dervishes was routed 

Atbara after obstinate resistance". They lost several thou- 
sand in slain and wounded. Mahmoud himself 
surrendered with three thousand of his followers. 
Kitchener established his headquarters at Berber 
and prepared to strike at the Khalifa in Khartoum. 
There the Khalifa had gathered more than 50,000 
warriors. Early in the fall, Kitchener moved up 
the Nile with his army of 23,000 men, most of 
whom were native troops. By the 1st of Septem- 
ber, the British forces drew up under the walls of 
Omdurman. At early dawn of September 2, the 
Khalifa advanced with his hordes of swordsmen 
in order of battle. At a range of a thousand yards 
the British opened fire on the fanatical tribesmen. 
Again and again the Soudanese chieftains led their 

Omdurman tribesmen to the assault against the machine guns 
and incessant magazine fire of the Egyptian in- 
fantry. The Dervishes were mowed down by thou- 
sands. After two hours of this unequal fighting, 
the British columns advanced on Omdurman. Ac- 
cording to Egyptian versions, native auxiliary regi- 
ments bore the brunt of the fighting that followed. 
British despatches gave the credit for the final vic- 
tory to a cavalry charge by the 21st Lancers. The 

1898 Autumn NINETEENTH CENTURY 1841 

battle ended in the complete overthrow of the 
Khalifa and his army. The victory of Omdurman 
meant the end of the depredations of the Dervishes, 
and the re- conquest for civilization of the whole of 
the Egyptian Sondan. In addition to his dignities 
as Sirdar of Egypt, Kitchener was raised to the 
peerage and was appointed Governor of the Sou- 
dan. His first administrative measure was the 
foundation of a native university at Khartoum. 
The battle of Omdurman was followed by other 
English victories at Karsala. 

About the same time a French expedition under 
Major Marchand planted the French flag at Fasho- epi£de a 
da, and thus barred the British passage to Uganda. 
Marchand 's column numbered but eight French 
officers and 105 Senegalese. Eventually the French 
Government yielded its point and Marchand's ex- 
pedition was withdrawn. Of more tragic import to Loss of 
Frenchmen was the loss of the French liner "Bour-gogne" 
gogne" with 600 passengers and crew. 

Public opinion in France by this time had be- 
come thoroughly upset over the charges and 
countercharges growing out of Captain Dreyfus' 
condemnation as an alleged traitor. First Major J^JfJf 8 
Esterhazy, the accuser of Dreyfus, was court- 
martialed for the same offence, but was exon- 
erated by a military acquittal. Then appeared 
the famous letter of accusation written by Emile 
Zola. The letter was published on the front page zoia's 
of the newspaper "L'Aurore. " It began with the 
words, "I accuse," and was written throughout in 
a spirit of indignation over outraged injustice that 

1842 A HISTORY OF THE Autumn 1806 

has made this letter stand as a masterpiece of 
French prose invective. 

The publication of Zola's letter was followed by 
a hot debate in the Chambers with anti-Jewish riots 
in the streets of Paris. Zola's house had to be 

Zola's trial guarded by troops. He was tried and condemned 
to the maximum penalty of one year's imprison- 
ment and a fine of three thousand francs. Before 
the sentence could be executed Zola left France. 
By the end of August, Colonel Henry, then chief 
of the Secret Intelligence Department of the French 
War Office, was brought to confess that he had 
forged the most incriminating evidence against 
Captain Dreyfus. Colonel Henry was sent to the 
military prison of Mont Vale'rien, and committed 

HenA-'s suicide. As a result of the dead officer's disclos- 


ures the French Court of Cassation ordered a new 
trial for Captain Dreyfus. 

France lost one of her great mural painters of this 
century by the death of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. 
Born at Lyons in 1824, this artist received his early 
training in Paris as a pupil of Henri Scheffer and 
Couture. He made mural and decorative paintings 

chavannes his specialty. After the fall of the Empire, Puvis 
de Chavannes produced a number of noteworthy 
historical and Biblical paintings. No less famous 
are his mural designs that adorn the Public Library 
of Boston in America. 

During this year in Denmark, Dr. Georg M. C. 
Brandes published his famous critical work on 

Qeorg Shakespeare, which was at once translated into 
several languages. Brandes had previously made 

1898 Winter NINETEENTH CENTURY 1843 

a name for himself by his critical works on "The 
Great Tendencies of Nineteenth Century Litera- 
ture," "Danish Poets," "Critical Biographies of 
Lassalle, " and his "Essays on Lord Beaconsfield 
and Tegn6r. " During this same year he also 
brought out a collection of his earlier poems. 

Among the dramatic events of the year was„ 

° * Herman 

the attempted suppression of Herman Sudermann's^fn" 
"Johannes" by the Berlin police. The story "Frau 
Sorge" had made Sudermann famous. In 1889 he 
won first dramatic honors with ' ' Ehre. ' ' In 1890 ap- 
peared "Sodom's Ende," followed by "Heimath." 
The collections of stories, "Es War" and "Im 
Zwielicht, " achieved no less striking success. 
Late in the year, German artists and art lovers 


united in celebrating the seventieth birthday of Ar- Bockiin 
nold Bockiin, the great Swiss colorist and painter 
of ideal landscapes. Since the exhibition of his 
early masterpiece, "Pan in the Eeeds, " at Munich 
in 1859, Bockiin was recognized as the most origi- 
nal of German painters. No less striking successes 
were achieved by his "Island of the Dead" and 
various designs of centaurs and sea monsters. One 
of his latest works was a spirited scene from "Or- 
lando Furioso." At the time this was undertaken 
Bocklin's health was already in decline. Some of 
his most famous canvases were collected by Baroa 
von Schack at Munich. 



IN AMERICA, the final settlements of the Span- 
ish war were drawing to a close. The Spanish 
Captain- General of Cuba delivered the control 


evacuate f the former crown colony to General Brooke, 
the newly appointed American military governor. 
At the stroke of noon on the first day of January, 
the United States flag was hoisted on all the public 
buildings of Cuba. In Havana and elsewhere there 
were great popular demonstrations for "Cuba 
Libre." General Fitzhugh Lee, the former Ameri- 
can Consul in Havana, was welcomed as a popular 
deliverer when he entered the city at the head of 
the American troops to assume office as the Gov- 
ernor of Havana. 

In the Philippine Islands, on the other hand, 

Filipinos serious indications of unrest could be observed. 


The Tagalogs, under the leadership of Aguinaldo, 
objected to the continued military occupation of 
the islands on the part of the United States. 
Iloilo and other towns were fortified to resist oc- 
cupation. Aguinaldo sent a special commission of 
Filipinos, headed by Agoncillo, to lodge a formal 
protest in Washington. The commissioners were 
mission 10 ' 8 not rece i ye d by President McKinley. Agoncillo 
improved his stay in Washington by keeping 


Aguinaldo informed of the state of public opinion 
in America. During this same period the people 
throughout the country were greatly stirred up over 
the President's investigation into alleged abuses in 
connection with the Cuban campaign. The report 
of the commission appointed to investigate these 
abuses was issued at Washington in February. It 
exonerated the Secretary of War, yet the evidence 
concerning foul food furnished to the soldiers was 

° < ' American 

so grave that Commissary- General Egan was sus- ^ndaig 
pended from his military command and sought re- 
tirement in Honolulu. President McKinley quashed 
all further proceedings. He could not put a stop, 
however, to the resentments engendered in the army 
as a result of these charges. General Alger, after 
an unsuccessful attempt to oust General Miles from 
the command of the American army, resigned his 
office. He was succeeded by Elihu H. Eoot. 

The Spanish Cabinet, about the same time, ad- 
vised the Queen-Eegent to ratify the peace treaty Formal 
with the United States, after first dissolving the treaty 
Cortes. This was done. Spain, in this treaty, re- 
nounced all right of sovereignty over Cuba, and 
ceded to the United States Porto Eico, the Island 
of Guam, and the Philippine Islands. The United 
States agreed to pay to Spam a sum of $20,000,000 
under the guise of indemnity for Spain's pending 
expenditures for public purposes in the Philippine pu rchase 
Islands. When the Spanish Cortes reconvened, the pines **" 
Queen-Eegent, in her opening address, reviewed 
the results of the peace treaty and announced the 
cession to Germany of the Ladrones and Caroline 

1846 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. 1890 

Islands. The price paid by Germany was 25,000,- 
000 pesetas ($4,375,000). This disposed of the last 
relics of the Spanish colonial empire. Then fol- 
lowed a series of military courts-martial of vari- 
ous officers of the Spanish army and navy impli- 
cated in the capitulations of Manila and Santiago 
de Cuba. Admirals Montojo and Cervera, in their 
defence, laid the responsibility for their crushing 
defeats at the door of the Spanish Ministry for 
Marine. All the officers were acquitted. The Min- 
ister of Marine, D'Aunon, had to resign. 

The American Senate after a prolonged debate ap- 
proved the peace treaty. The document was forth- 
with signed by President McKmley. Immediately 
afterward the Senators passed a resolution that the 
United States had not annexed the Philippines, but 
would protect r„nd govern the people until such 
time as they could govern themselves. The reso- 
lution was too vague to satisfy Aguinaldo's repre- 
sentatives in "Washington. Moreover it lacked the 
a onciiio C0DCurren ce of the House of Representatives as well 
discredited ag of ^ p res ident. A despatch of Agoncillo to 
Aguinaldo expressing his dissatisfaction was inter- 
cepted at Hong Kong. Agoncillo thereupon left 
the United States to take up a temporary abode 
in Canada. 

The Tagalog army, which had been restrained 
by Aguinaldo pending the ratification of the peace 
treaty, now became unmanageable. The establish- 
ment of an American military cordon excluding 
all armed natives from Manila gave special offence. 
On the night of February 10, the sentry of a Ne- 


braska regiment fired on some Filipinos running 
the cordon. Firing became general. On the mor- 
row, the Filipinos, numbering nearly 20,000, at- 
tacked the American positions around Manila, p^-j^g 
They were beaten off, but continued the fight at Americans 
intervals during the night. The next day the 
Americans advanced all along the line. The Fili- 
pinos were defeated with a loss of 4,000 killed and 
wounded and 5,000 prisoners. Serious fighting con- defeat 
tinued around Manila, the American troops eventu- 
ally storming the strongly defended Filipino posi- 
tion at Caloocan, the key to Manila's water supply. 
Iloilo, the most important town after Manila, was 
still held by the insurgents, but was captured pres- 
ently after a naval bombardment. On February 
22, an attempt was made to burn the city of Manila 
Manila and to massacre all foreign residents. The set on fire 
greater part of the native town was fired and the 
quarter of Toredo was destroyed. Many Filipinos 
were shot during the affair. In the end, the Ameri- 
can soldiers succeeded in quenching the flames. 
Throughout the month of March, the American 
troops under General Wheaton inflicted defeat after twecam?° 
defeat upon the insurgent army retreating into the 
interior. It was at this time that Colonel Funston 
of the Kansas Volunteers distinguished himself by 
swimming a river under fire. After much heavy 
fighting, the Americans advanced on Malolos, the 
seat of the insurgent government. Aguinaldo re- AgU i. 
treated after setting fire to the town. The seat of shifting 

° capital 

the government was transferred to San Isidro. In 
April, General Otis, commanding at the capital, 

1848 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1999 

recalled General Lawton's expedition to Manila. 
The towns and territory captured in the south 
were abandoned. General MacArthur at Calumpit 
drove the insurgents out of their fortified positions 
and scattered Aguinaldo's forces with severe loss. 
The continued defeats of the Filipinos resulted 
in dissensions among their leaders. One of them, 
General Luna, sent offers to the American gen- 
erals to surrender his immediate command for a 
End of money consideration. On the 6th of June he was 
Luna assassinated in front of Aguinaldo's tent at Caba- 
natuan. The difficulties now met by the United 
States troops were such that General Otis requested 
reinforcements. Already the newly authorized 
strength of 65,000 men of the American regular 
army had been reached and Western militia regi- 
ments had to be called out. In the meanwhile the 
rainy season set in at Manila. The last military 
operations on the part of the American troops were 
brought to a finish in midsummer. In August, 
after a long period of inactivity, the American 
troops under General McArthur drove in a large 
force of Filipinos near San Fernando. Near An- 
geles an insurgent force of 2,500 was routed. 
Prior to this, an American boat crew under charge 
ofaiimore of Naval Lieutenant Gilmore was surprised in the 
Baler Kiver on April 19. Several of the men were 
killed on the spot. Gilmore and the other survivors 
were carried off into captivity. They were not re- 
leased for nearly a year, after having suffered great 
hardship from their incessant marches through the 
tropical country. 

1899 Spring NINETEENTH CENTURY 1849 

During this interval, trouble had arisen in Samoa. 
Early in spring, sudden war broke out between the s^moa 
rival claimants to the throne. Malietoa, who had 
been formally recognized by Chief-Justice Cham- 
bers, the American representative of the joint pro- 
tectorate over Samoa, took refuge on a British war- 
ship. British and American marines were landed 
and fell into an ambush. The native settlements 
were bombarded. The Germans supported the pre- 
tender, Matafa, and succeeded in getting his claim 
recognized. A special commission of three dele- national 
gates from England, Germany and the United 
States eventually rearranged the affairs of Samoa. 
Under the stimulus of this affair, the German Em- 
peror obtained another favorable vote for his lone; increase 

r ° of German 

contemplated increase of the navy. By this meas- navy 
ure the German navy was nearly doubled. 

In France some disturbance was created by the 
sudden death of Felix Faure, the President of theg{JJS of 
Eepublic. The Chambers were convened at Ver- 
sailles, and by their first ballot elected the Presi- 
dent of the Senate, Emile Loubet, to be President jjJjSch' 
of France. The Eoyalists and extreme Radicals 
took this very ill and vented their feelings in 
popular demonstrations. 

In May, the plenary chamber of the Court of 
Cassation assembled to hear the application for 
a revision of the Dreyfus case. The chief point 
urged in the application was that the so-called 
"bordereau," enumerating the documents sup- 
posed to have been sold, were written by Ester- 
hazy. Major Esterhazy at once sent a communica- 

1850 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1899 

tion to the London "Times" and "Daily Chronicle" 
in which he avowed that he had written the bor- 
dereau by order of Colonel Sandherr of the French 
Dreyfus' General Staff. The Court of Cassation thereupon 
quashed 5 unanimously quashed the judgment passed upon 
Alfred Dreyfus in 1894 and ordered him to be 
tried again before a court-martial at Rennes. En- 
couraged by this, Emile Zola, the author, returned 
from his exile in England. 

On June 6, Captain Dreyfus embarked for France, 
after an imprisonment of more than four years on 
Return of tne ^ e du Diable off Cayenne. Captain Dreyfus' 
Dreyfus arr i va j i n F rance caused instant disturbance. 
Under a show of great secrecy he was taken to 
Eennes. The town was filled with troops. The 
French Chambers adjourned after a stormy meet- 

The trial J J 

at Reunes i n g. At last, on the seventh day of August, Cap- 
tain Dreyfus made his first public appearance since 
the day of his public disgrace as a traitor. Ex- 
President Casimir-Perier of France and General 
Mercier, the former French Minister of War, gave 
evidence before the court-martial in justification 

bori'shot 3 '" °f tne Dreyfus proceedings. Maitre Labori, Zola's 
quondam attorney, now acting as leading counsel 
for Dreyfus, during the same week was shot in the 
back while on his way to court, and was unable to 
proceed with his part in the trial. 

The situation in Paris became revolutionary. 

Derou- Deroulede with several members of the Orlean 

attempt ist party were arrested on charges of conspiracy 
against the government. Jules Guerin, the presi- 
dent of the Anti-Semitic League, barricaded him- 

1899 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1851 

self with a dozen confederates in the offices of the 
league and defied the police to arrest him. He was ^e|e m ' 8 
proclaimed an outlaw. Serious rioting took place 
in the Belleville quarter: Anarchists wrecked a 
church, and a collision with the police led to 
the injury of about three hundred persons. At Paris 
the trial in Kennes, Captain Freystatter, one of the 
judges of the previous court-martial by which Cap- 
tain Dreyfus had been found guilty, admitted that 
a document, unknown to the prisoner, had been 
shown to the judges. Before the end of the trial, 
Maitre Labori reappeared as counsel, having par- 
tially recovered from the effects of his wound. He 
received an enthusiastic ovation. Having appealed 
in vain to the court to summon Colonels Von 
Schwartzkoppen and Panizzardi, the military at- 
tache's at the German and Italian Embassies in 
Paris, Maitre Labori telegraphed to the German 
Emperor for permission to have Colonel Schwartz- 
koppen attend and give evidence. The French convicted 6 "" 
judges would not permit it. Captain Dreyfus was 
reconvicted, and was sentenced to ten years' im- 
prisonment, from which the time spent at the 
He du Diable was to be deducted. The verdict 
was received in France with a feeling of relief 
amounting almost to satisfaction. In every other 
country of the world it was condemned as a trav- 
esty of justice. At Hyde Park, in London, a mass 
meeting attended by 50,000 persons expressed sym- 
pathy with Captain Dreyfus. Eventually, Presi- 
dent Loubet used his executive prerogative and 
pardoned Dreyfus. Amnesty was extended to all 

1852 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 18W 

involved in the affair. Eugene Guerin surrendered 
amnesty w ^ ta h* 3 fourteen fellow members of the Anti- 
Semitic League. Beleaguered at the club, they 
had resisted arrest for thirty-eight days. 

While the "affaire Dreyfus" kept France in a 
turmoil, a new peace conference, called together 
at the instigation of the Czar of Russia, convened 
at The Hague. One hundred delegates attended. 
At the instance of Great Britain, the delegates 
from the Boer Republics in South Africa were ex- 
cluded. Brazil was the only important country 
Hague which sent no delegate. Count de Staal, the Rus- 

Peace Con- ° 

ference g - an re p resen tative, was elected president. A system 
for revision of arbitral judgments was advocated by 
the delegates of the United States. It was adopted 
unanimously as an amendment to the original Rus- 
sian proposal to make treaties of arbitration per- 
manent. At the final sitting various conventions 
were signed by the representatives of all the Pow- 
ers or referred by them to their respective govern- 
ments. As an outcome of the labors of The Hague 
Peace Conference, a treaty was concluded in Au- 


American g US t between Brazil, Argentina and Chile, whereby 
treaty these three republic agreed to refer all their inter- 
national difficulties to arbitration. 

During this year, attention was again called to 
China by events of apparent trifling importance 
which later proved of serious consequence. The 
American Minister at Peking, Major Conger, for- 
mally protested against the proposed extension 
of the French concession at Shanghai. He urged 
an international agreement for the enlargement of 

1899 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1853 

all existing foreign settlements in China. By dint 
of much diplomatic correspondence between Lon- d?o P r" n in 
don and Washington, a tacit agreement was reached 
by England and the United States to maintain the 
so-called "open door" in Chiaa as against the Con- 
tinental policy of foreign spheres of influence. The 
Tsung-li Yamen, at -the instigation of Sir Claude 
Macdonald, the British Ambassador in Peking, 
agreed to open a new treaty port at Nanuning-fu 
near the Tonquin frontier. The Italian Minister at 
Peking presented to the Tsung-li Yamen a demand 
for the lease of Sammun Bay as a coaling station 

J & Italian 

and naval base. This was refused at the time, demands 
although the Italian demands were supported by 
Great Britain. Later, however, the Chinese Gov- 
ernment consented to permit the occupation of 
this point by Italy as a purely commercial port. 

Serious riots occurred within the boundaries of 
the Kau-Lung extension of Hong Kong. British 
troops were soon sent to Mirs Bay to "restore 
order. ' ' The British landing party was attacked 
and the tents of the troops were burned. A counter ex P edltion 
attack by the English soldiers soon dispersed the 
assailants, who were found to be soldiers of the Chi- 
nese regular army. Yet it was considered safe to Marines 
withdraw the marines from the French and Eussian Pekmg 
warships which had been landed at Peking to pro- 
tect their respective Legations. 

In midsummer, the Tsung-li Yamen refused to 
accede to the British demand for the removal of 
the.Kwei-chan who had failed to punish the mur- 
derers of a British missionary. In August, an im- 
XlXth Century— Vol. 3— Z 

1854 ■ A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1899 

penal order was issued at St. Petersburg demand- 
ing that Talienwan be declared a free port after 
the completion of the railway connecting it with 
the Trans-Siberian line. In reference to the owner- 
ship of certain lands at Hankau, which were claimed 
by British merchants, the British and Russian Am- 
bassadors in China agreed to refer the dispute to 
arbitration. Late in the autumn, the Italian Gov- 
ernment abandoned its concession of Sammun Bay 
after a military occupancy of only three months. 

Emperor The last event which attracted attention to China 
during this year was the Chinese Emperor's re- 
fusal, in October, to remove the obstructions in the 
Yang-tse Kiang River which had been laid to pre- 
vent navigation by foreigners. As a result of 
the over- increasing encroachment of the Powers, 
bitter anti- foreign sentiments were engendered 

fo'retgn an '* among the Chinese, and powerful secret societies 
were formed to resist the foreigners. 

While the people of China were thus coming in 
conflict with the representatives of Western civili- 
zation, another distinct gain in modern civilization 
was achieved in England and France. In the spring 
of this year, Signor Marconi sent the first press mes- 
sage across the English Channel to France by his 

wirefess 1 ' 8 recently invented system of wireless telegraphy, 
egrap ^ speed rate of fifteen words a minute was ac- 
quired on that occasion. 

About the same time Cecil Rhodes, the great 
mining magnate of South Africa, appeared in Ber- 
lin, and had an interview with the German Emperor 
concerning his pet project of the construction of 

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1899 Summer NINETEENTH CENTURY 1855 

a railway to run from the Cape of Good Hope 
to Cairo. Permission was granted to him to have^cairo 
the railroad run through the German colonies in 
East Africa. 

Lord Kitchener, in the Soudan, by this time had 
driven the last rivet in the new bridge over the 
Atbara. The construction of this bridge in six Atbara 
weeks was one of the greatest bridge building bndge 
feats of the century. The trade road into Central 
Africa by that route was declared open in August. 
The Egyptian troops under Colonel Wingate at- 
tacked Ahmed Fedil's Dervishes at Abu Adil 
on the White Nile and utterly routed them. 
The Khalifa and several of his Emirs were over- ibuldu 
thrown in battle and the Khalifa was killed. 

The condition of affairs in South Africa through- 
out this time was slowly breeding worse discontent 
between Great Britain and the South African Ee- 
publics. A petition to Queen Yictoria detailed the 
grievances of the Outlanders and bore the signa- 
tures of 21,000 British subjects in the Transvaal. 
At Johannesburg, great excitement was caused by 
the publication of a despatch by Joseph Chamber- 
lain, the British Colonial Secretary, declaring the south 
new convention concerning the dynamite monopoly smolderin s 
in the Transvaal a breach of the London Conven- 
tion of 1887. Six Englishmen, five of whom had 
been officers in the British army, were arrested in 
the Transvaal. They were charged with seditiously 
recruiting two thousand men to bear arms against 
the Eepublic. During the same month, President 
Krueger and Sir Alfred Milner, the British High 

1866 A HISTORY OF THE Summer 1899 

Commissioner to South Africa, met at Bloemfon- 
SinToii?" tein on the invitation of President Steyn of the 
Orange Free State. No basis for an agreement was 
reached on the franchise question. President Krue- 
ger's suggestion to arbitrate the pending differences 
was not accepted. Mass meetings were held by Out- 
landers and Boers alike. Another attempt at media- 
tion was made by President Steyn of the Free State. 
He was joined in Pretoria by Hofmeyer and Fischer, 
£S£ the Naders of the Afrikander Bond in Cape Col- 
ony. In accordance with their suggestions, Presi- 
dent Krueger submitted new franchise proposals 
to the Volksraad involving further concessions. 

In England, prolonged debates were held concern- 
ing these matters in both Houses of Parliament, but 
no division was taken by the Liberal opposition. 
The demand for a special inquiry into the Colo- 
nial Secretary's dealings with Cecil Rhodes and 
chamber- the conspirators against the Transvaal was foiled. 


letters a Belgian newspaper thereupon published some 
damaging specimens of this correspondence. 

At the instance of Great Britain, the Portuguese 
authorities at Delagoa Bay prohibited the landing 
or transshipment of munitions of war consigned to 
the Transvaal Government. On August 21, the 
Transvaal Government transmitted to the British 
agent in Pretoria a reply to Joseph Chamberlain's 
proposal for a joint inquiry into the workings of 
the proposed franchise law. The Volksraad, after 
a debate of six days, condemned the proposed 

Dynamite J r r 

voied'down dynamite monopoly. At the same time British 
reinforcements embarked for South Africa. The 


situation grew daily more critical. The editor of 
a pro-British journal in Johannesburg was arrested 
on a charge of high treason. A general exodus of 
Outlanders followed. The most prominent banks 
and brokerage firms in Johannesburg removed 
their effects to Cape Town. In the Volksraad a 
heated debate was held concerning the mobiliza- 
tion of British troops on the border of Natal. At 
its height the reply of the British Government to pur 
the Transvaal concessions was read aloud. It con- demands 
sisted of further demands for the equality of Dutch 
and English in the Volksraad. This was regarded 
as an ultimatum. A negative reply was promptly 
forwarded. President Steyn of the Orange Free 
State let it be understood that the Free State and 
the Transvaal would stand together in the event 
of war with Great Britain. The leaders of the Lib- 
eral party in England issued a statement disavowing 
responsibility for the impending war. A proclama- E ° e g1 ^ 
tion signed by the Queen called for 30,000 British for war 
army reserves. Parliament was reconvened. 

The Transvaal Government, on October 10, pre- 
sented to the British agent in Pretoria its own ulti- 
matum, requesting the instant withdrawal of all 


British troops on the borders of the Transvaal ultimatuII! 
and the removal from South Africa of all re- 
inforcements sent since June of this year. The 
daring of such a demand astounded the English 
people, and the war feeling became irrepressible. 
Canada, New South Wales and other Australian 
colonies made immediate offers of contingent forces 
which were refused. When the time allowed by the 


1858 A HISTORY OF THE Oct. 1899 

Transvaal for the withdrawal of British troops had 
expired, on October 11, the burghers immediately 
assumed the offensive and overran the borders of 
Natal. President Steyn proclaimed war against 
Great Britain. The Free State Boers commenced 
hostilities by stopping British railway trains be- 
tween Harrisburg and Ladysmith. One of the first 
events of the war was the capture of a British 
armored train at Kraalpan, about fifty miles south 
of Mafeking, on the day after the declaration of 
war. The train was disabled and the officer, fifteen 
men, and two rapid-fire guns were taken. Within 
two days the Boers invested Mafeking in the north, 
Mafeking where Lieutenant- Colonel Baden-Powell was in 
beriey " command, and Kimberley in the south. General 


Sir Kedvers Buller left London to take command 
of the British forces at the front. 

In the British House of Parliament, Wynd- 
ham, the Under-Secretary of War, proposed a sup- 
plementary estimate of ten million pounds and 
35,000 men wherewith to put "a swift end to the 
war. ' ' In the meanwhile the first important engage- 
Dundee ment had been fought on October 20 at Dundee in 
Natal. The Boers, under Lucas Meyer, tried to cut 
off the British from their main body at Ladysmith, 
but failed after a six hours' fight. Another sharp 
laagte 9 engagement was fought at Elandslaagte on the next 
day. The British claimed the victory, but contin- 
ued their retreat on Ladysmith. 

On the third day, October 23, General Yule, after 
retreat severe fighting, abandoned the British post of Dun- 
dee and beat a precipitate retreat, leaving all his 


wounded behind him. Among them was General 
Symonds, who died after the Boers had taken pos- gymonds 
session. By October 26, after maintaining a run- 
ning fight of four days and two nights, Yule 
reached Ladysmith with his exhausted column, 
and there joined forces with Sir George White. 

President Krueger formally annexed Bechuana- 
land and Griqualand, while President Steyn de- 
clared the north bank of the Yaal River as annexed 
to the Orange Free State. 

On October 30, White attempted to make a recon- 
noissance in force from Ladysmith. Two battalions 
of the Royal Irish Fusiliers and of the Gloucester- Whit e's 
shire Regiment with a mountain battery, in all about 
one thousand men, were surrounded by the Boers. 
After a severe fight lasting nine hours, the surviv- 
ors, numbering 840 men, surrendered. A general 
attack on the Boer position at this point was beaten 
off with great loss to the British. Sir George was 
forced to withdraw into Ladysmith, which was at 
once invested by the Boers. Colenso was evacuated Ladysmith 

J invested 

by the British on November 3, and other British 
garrisons were withdrawn from Stormberg and 
other threatened points. 

The defence of the two most important outlying 
posts, Kimberley and Mafeking, had been left to 
two exceptionally competent commanders, Keke- 
wich and Baden-Powell. In his measures of de- 
fence, General Kekewich had to reckon with Cecil Poweif 
Rhodes, whose presence at Kimberley was one of 
the chief inducements of the Boers' offensive opera- 
tions against that isolated point. Rhodes' executive 

1860 A HISTORY OF THE Nov. 1899 

ability was manifested in his measures of organiza- 
itoberiey tion and administration. Instances of this were his 
nse of the far extended diamond diggings for defen- 
sive earthworks, and the construction of an impro- 
vised long-range gun, wherewith to keep the so- 
called "Long Toms" of the Boers at bay. In 
Rhodes' estimation, this made Kimberley "as safe 
as Piccadilly. " Otherwise .Rhodes showed himself 
so headstrong that Kekewich threatened to put him 
under military arrest. 

In the meanwhile, Lord Methuen was collecting 
Methuen to forces on the Orange River, some seventy miles 

the relief ° ■' 

from Kimberley, to come to the relief of that place. 
General Cronje, investing Mafeking with his com- 
mando, received urgent orders to detach his most 
mobile forces and take them southward. He lost 
no time in doing so. Lord Methuen 's last recon- 
noissance from the Orange River revealed to him 
but six or seven hundred Boers holding the ridges 
about Belmont. On November 21, Methuen's col- 
umn moved forward and came to camp, on the 
evening of the following day, within five miles of 
the Boer position, west of Belmont Station. During 
the night, Methuen advanced. In the dark several 
regiments of the right wing lost their direction, 
so that by daybreak Methuen found himself com- 
mitted to a frontal attack on the strong hills, or 
kopjes, held by the Boers. The British guns were 
slow in coming up. For this and other reasons the 
battle of Belmont reduced itself to a dogged assault 
up a stony ridge by largely superior infantry forces 
against strongly intrenched riflemen. The Boers 



fell back into the hills, still barring the way to 

Two days later, at Graspan, Lord Methuen made 
another frontal attack on the Boer line. Again the 
British soldiers fought their way to the crest of 
the nearest heights, only to find that the Boers 
had once more eluded them. The British losses aras P an 
at Graspan were 185 men, of whom 105 belonged 
to the naval brigade. 

For two days the British forces rested. At four 
in the morning of November 28, they resumed their 
advance toward Kimberley. Methuen had been led 
to believe that the Modder Eiver in front of him 
was not held in force. As a matter of fact, Cronje 
had come up with his flying column from Mafeking, 
and intrenched himself along three miles of the 
river-bed in a well concealed position. Methuen 
advanced his two foremost brigades on an extended 
front with the Guards on the right. About eight 
in the morning the British, descending to the river- 
bed, were suddenly overwhelmed by a deadly rifle 
fire at close range. The Scott's Guard Maxim de- Modder*' 
tachment were completely wiped out. The Guards, 
advancing under a heavy fire, attempted a flanking 
manoeuvre, but found themselves stopped by the 
Eiet River, which, contrary to Methuen's intelli- 
gence, was found unfordable. Colonel Codrington 
with a score of men managed to get across, but lost 
half of his party in returning from this forlorn hope. 
Within a thousand yards of the enemy the Guards 
threw themselves on the ground. Thus they sus- 
tained an all- day rifle fire from ten in the morn- 

1862 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 189© 

ing until the sun went down. After this repulse, 
Methuen sent a despatch describing it as "the 
hardest and most trying fight, perhaps, in the an- 
nals of the British army." This description was 
scarcely warranted by his casualty list, which put 
the British losses at 70 killed and 413 wounded, or 

despatches but seven per cent of the troops engaged. Another 
of Methuen's despatches, containing the enigmatic 
words: "After darkness, dawn," excited still more 
adverse comment in England. 

During the ten or twelve days that the British lay 
in check at the Modder, a serious demonstration 
was made in their rear at Enslin, threatening to 
cut them off from the railroad and their communi- 
cations. On the afternoon of Sunday, December 
10, accordingly, offensive operations were resumed 
against the Boer lines at Magersfontein. During 

Magers- the night, General Wauchope, with the Highland 
Brigade, was pushed forward under a drenching 
rain to the foot of the kopjes held by the Boers. 
Floundering in the mud his men lost their way. 
The officers had to go by compass. At daybreak, 
before the advanced detachments had deployed for 
action, a hot rifle fire was suddenly opened on them 
from the short range of two hundred yards. In the 
confusion contradictory orders were given, and a 
bugler blew for retreat. General Wauchope was 
killed while trying to rally his men. At length the 

Wauchope demoralized brigade lay down and kept up a desul- 
tory fire. The Highland Brigade was withdrawn 
from its perilous position after fifteen hours of ex- 
posure. On the morrow, finding the Boers still in 


front of them, the British withdrew. Their losses 
were 171 killed and 691 wounded, of whom four- 
fifths belonged to the Highland Brigade. After 
the reverse of Magersfontein, Methuen gave up all . 
further attempts to advance. The relief of Kim- 


berley was checked for more than two months. & ives u p 
An attempted sortie from Kim berley, one week 
after Magersfontein, was likewise repulsed. The 
Boers brought up a hundred- pounder, and shelled 
the town at long range, doing great damage. 

At Ladysmith, in the meanwhile, the situation 
had become trying for the British. On the first 
day of November all the women and children 
were sent south. Next day General Joubert com- 
pleted his investment of the town. On November 
9, he made a general assault upon the city, but was 
repulsed. Late in November, Sir Eedvers Buller 
arrived, and, taking charge of the British forces, 
ordered a general advance to relieve Ladysmith. 
Simultaneously, Scott Turner, with a detachment 
of the besieged troops, attempted a sortie, and got 
as far as the enemy's trenches, but he was killed 
with twenty-two of his followers, and his men were 
forced to fall back. The garrison of Ladysmith, on 
December 8, attempted another sortie, but was once 2rttes rous 
more driven back to the city. During the next two 
days General Gatacre attempted a night surprise 
of the Boer position at Stormberg, but failed. He 
fared as did White, and retired with a loss of 656 
men taken prisoners and two guns, besides other stormberg 
heavy casualties. 

On December 15, Buller, while advancing to the 

1864 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1800 

relief of Ladysmith, attempted a passage of the 
Tugela at Colenso. His guns, under Colonel Long, 
pushing too far ahead, were surprised by the enemy, 
Buiier an d a U but two pieces were captured. It was on 
checked ^ & occasion that Lieutenant Eoberts, the gen- 
eral's son, was killed. Buller's attack on the left, 
under Hart, had likewise failed, and he was com- 
pelled by the loss of his artillery to fall back to his 
original position. His losses were 1,200, all told, 
and 16 guns. 

England was in dismay. In South Africa as well 
as at home the desire grew for a change of com- 
manders. On December 16, Lord Roberts of Kan- 
dahar was appointed Commander-in-Chief in South 

Roberts r r 

and Kitch- Africa, with Lord Kitchener of Khartoum to act as 

ener sum- 
moned ki s Chief of Staff. All the remaining reserves and 

the militia yeomanry were called out, and new volun- 
teer forces were encouraged to contribute contin- 
gents. The government's former refusal of Colonial 
aid was now revoked. Lord Strathcona's offer to raise 
a regiment of Canadian mounted infantry was gladly 
volunteers accepted. Altogether more than 10,000 volunteers 
were despatched to South Africa from Canada, 
Australia and India. Ten thousand more from 
South African contingents were serving at the 
front. From England itself some hundred and 
fifty thousand officers and men were sent. Alto- 
gether an average of more than 1,000 men sailed 
daily from some Bntish port for the seat of war. 
Heavy Nearly 200,000 horses and mules were required for 
ments rce " tne P ur P oses °f war - Owing to the long sea voyage, 
and an epidemic of horse sickness prevailing in 


South Africa, the waste in horseflesh at the front 
was roughly reckoned at 5, 000 a month. 

Thus ended the campaign of 1899 in South Africa. 
So far the Boers, though greatly outmatched in 
men, guns and munitions of war, had prevailed 
over the British at almost every point. It was 
their boast that they had not lost a single gun, 
wherever equal forces met, man against man. Eng- 
lishmen at home were in a stupor of amazement 
and indignation. It was brought home to them 
with ever- increasing force that the credit of the 
British army and nation was at stake. On the Con- Loss of 

J British 

tinent the long slumbering hostility to England P resti se 
wj*s shown in open rejoicings. The members of 
a Spanish club at Bilbao sent a sarcastic despatch 
to Joseph Chamberlain. The newspapers of Paris 
indulged in such scurrilous attacks on Queen Vic- 
toria that the British Ambassador to France left 
the country. The Ministers of various Continental 
armies made haste to despatch military attache's to 
the headquarters of the Boer commandants at the 
front to profit by their lessons in up-to-date war- 
fare. The German Emperor found it necessary to 
issue stringent orders prohibiting German officers 
in active service from obtaining leaves of absence 
to join the Boer forces. The Czar was not so so- 
licitous. In the United States a series of popular Sympathv 
mass meetings declared in favor of the Boers. WIth Boers 
Funds were collected for them by the descendants 
of the Dutch in America. Under the guise of 
medical expeditions and ambulance outfits various 
bodies departed for service in South Africa. A 

1866 A HISTORY OF THE Dec. 1899 

complete Irish corps went from Chicago. All the 
Outlanders, save the British malcontents, so the 
Boers claimed, were serving on their side. Thus 
they had an independent Irish corps, two corps of 
Hollanders, a Scandinavian division, and a picked 
body of Swiss sharpshooters. Officers of all na- 
tionalities served in their ranks. Late in the year 
the Boer envoys in Europe were received with 

English- honor in several capitals on the Continent. Stung 

termfi^d by these reports, public feeling in England was so 
wrought up that the nation as such was determined 
to stop short of nothing but a complete British con- 
quest of South Africa. 

The American outcry of British aggression in 

war ippine South Africa was invalidated in large measure 
by similar criticisms of the American campaign in 
the Philippine Islands. On December 18, General 
Lawton, the hero of many campaigns, was shot dead 

Lawton while directing offensive operations against the Fili- 
pinos near Manila. 

By the death of Rosa Bonheur, France lost the 
foremost woman artist of the Nineteenth Century. 
In 1853 she scored a great success with her famous 
canvas "The Horse Fair," now at the Metropolitan 
Museum in New York. At the Paris Expositions of 
1855 and 1867, Rosa Bonheur's works, together with 

Kieur those of her brother, Auguste Bonheur, won uni- 
versal admiration. Among Rosa Bonheur's most 
important paintings, after the "Horse Fair," are 
numbered "Plowing in the Nivernais," now at 
Luxembourg, "Sheep on the Seashore," "Hay- 
Making in Auvergne" and "Spanish Muleteers." 


Long before attaining these successes Eosa Bon- 
heur had founded her famous Free School of De- 
sign for Girls, in the management of which she and 
her sister, Madame Peyrol, spent much of their time 
and fortune. 

In the last days of the year, German physicians 
united in celebrating the fiftieth anniversary ofvirchow 

^ honored 

Eudolf Virchow's tenure of office as a Professor 
at the University of Berlin. It served to recall 
Virchow's classic demonstration of the modern cell 
theory in 1859, which made his dictum, "Omnis 
cellula e cellula," one of the accepted data of 



WHILE the people of the British Empire 
were in a state of feverish excitement 
over the unexpected turn taken by the 
campaign in South Africa, the year opened no 
Kentucky less turbulently in America. A bitter election 


contest contest in Kentucky had brought the inhabitants 
of that State to sword's point. Both parties 
claimed to have won in the last State election 
in November. The Republican Governor's re- 
course to military measures on election day was 
denounced by the Democrats as a case of flagrant 
intimidation. Lawless mountaineers bent on en- 
forcing their rights, came to Louisville, the capital, 
and received arms from the State Government. On 
the morning of January 30, Senator William Goe- 
bel, the Democratic Governor-elect, while entering 
the Capitol grounds, was struck down by a bullet 
Murder of ^ re ^ from the window of the adjoining Executive 
Qoebe{ building. The shot proved fatal. The Governor 
of the State and his threatened associates besought 
the protection of the Federal Government. The 
State militia was called out, but the soldiers, like 
the citizens, split in two factions. Failing to ob- 
tain outside aid, Governor Taylor fled from the 
State. He was promptly indicted for murder. As 


might have been foreseen, the assassination of Groe- 
bel turned public feeling against the faction held 
responsible for this crime. Eetribution was visited 
on the Republican party in Kentucky by its ulti- 
mate loss of almost all the points gained in the 
preceding election. 

England lost one of the foremost art critics of 
the century by the death of John Ruskin. An 
ardent and enthusiastic admirer of Turner's paint- 
ings, Buskin's first public literary eflbrt was a 
pamphlet in defence of that artist, which wasR^ fc 5a° f 
later expanded into his great work "Modern 
Painters." During the irregular appearance of 
this work, which stretched over more than fifteen 
years, Ruskin published "The Seven Lamps of 
Architecture," "Stones of Venice," "Sesame and 
Lilies," "The Crown of Wild Olive," and "Clavi- 
gera, " besides a series of articles to various peri- 

At the time of Ruskin's death, Englishmen were 
in no mood for discussing such fine points of art 
and of criticism as were linked with Ruskin's fame. 
In South Africa, anxiety was centred on the threat- 
ened points of Ladysmith, Kimberley and Mafe- south 
king. The effective British force shut up in Lady- 
smith numbered 13,500 men. Several thousand 
non-combatants raised the number of the besieged 
to about 21,000 persons. Since the British reverse 
at Colenso, the dead weight of Ladysmith hung 
like a millstone around the neck of General Bul- 
ler, commanding at the front. Every day dis- 
quieting rumors arrived from the besieged city. 

1870 A HISTORY OF THE Jan. 1900 

Picked bodies of Boer sharpshooters, creeping in 
^^it stocking feet, scaled the British defences on the 
night of January 6. But for the fact that the 
British on the same night sent out an expedition 
to mount a naval gun on an outlying eminence 
known as West Wagon Hill, the night attack 
would have succeeded. As it was, the alarm was 
given only an instant before the Boers were upon 
the garrison. All night long the fight raged on 
the ridges of Ladysmith. In the morning the two 
firing lines were but thirty yards apart. A party 
of stragglers from the Imperial Light Horse, des- 
perately clinging to a knoll from which they could 
maintain a hot fire on the advancing lines of the 
Boers, finally succeeded in saving the day for the 
British. The most graphic description of this day's 
fighting and other experiences of the long siege of 
Ladysmith, was written by George W. Steevens, 
the brilliant English war correspondent. On Jan- 
uary 17, Steevens succumbed to enteric fever. On 
both sides more men succumbed to enteric fever 
than to the wounds of war. At one time Sir 
George White was seriously ill, while on the other 
side the inactivity of the investing Boers was ex- 
plained by the increasing ill-health of their com- 
mander-in-chief, General Joubert. Another abor- 
tive attempt to relieve Ladysmith was made by 
General Buller. On January 9, the fifth division 
of the British army, under Sir Charles Warren, 
had begun its advance toward Vaal Krantz. Near 
Acton Holmes was the famous Potgieter's drift 
crossing the Tugela, and the lofty eminence of 

Death of 


Spion Kop. On the evening of January 16, War- 
ren, with a British force of 30,000 men, crossed 
the river and pushed forward to within three miles 
of Spion Kop. Owing to various delays, the as- 
sault was not made until the night of January 21. 
The high top of Spion Kop was gained with sur- 
prising ease. When day broke, the British, hold- Spion Kop 
ing the ridges and bare top of Spion Kop, found 
that the Boer artillery and riflemen had the accu- 
rate range of all their most exposed positions! 
From the neighboring hills the British were sub- 
jected to a terrible cross-fire. They heliographed 
frantically for reinforcements. Though help was 
sent immediately, Spion Kop was abandoned after 
the loss of General Woodgate and several of his 

On the withdrawal of the British troops from 
Spion Kop, the Boers dashed up the slope and 
recaptured their old position. One week later, on 
February 5, the British troops, under the immediate 
command of Sir Redvers Buller, were lured into 
repeating the blunder of Spion Kop. The emi- 
nence of Vaal Krantz, three or four miles east 
of Spion Kop, was taken by storm. After Yaal 
Krantz was carried and occupied, Buller was con- Krants 
strained to report: "It was necessary after seizing 
Vaal Krantz to intrench it . . . but I found, after 
trying for two days, that owing to the nature of the 
ground this was not practicable. It was also ex- 
posed to fire from heavy guns, which fired from 
positions by which our artillery was dominated." 
On the evening of February 7, the baffled British 

1872 A HISTORY OF THE Feb. iwo 


Roberts to 

forces recrossed the Tugela and retired to their 
camps at Chieveley. Their total losses amounted 
to more than 3,000 men. 

Now Generals Koberts and Kitchener came to 
the front. On February 6, the two left Cape 
Town and joined the forces that had been col- 
lected for them on the Modder River, numbering 
more than 44,000 men. Generals French and Ilec- 
tor Macdonald kept the Boers at that point occu- 
pied by feints with their advanced forces. Lord 
Methuen was instructed to hold the enemy to his 

the'front" trenches in front with his old lines. Thus it was 
made possible to turn the flank of General Cronje's 
inferior forces by a strong concerted movement of 
the most mobile troops, aggregating nearly 45,000 
men. At three in the morning of February 11, the 
movement began, which resulted in the prompt 
withdrawal of Cronje's forces — threatened in the 

cronje rear — an( * the relief of Kimberley. Thousands of 
horses were sacrificed in the wild rush of cavalry. 
Fresh mounts took the place of the fallen horses. 
For once the mobile Boers found themselves 
matched in mobility. Cronje holding Methuen's 
infantry in check before him, could not throw 
out his mounted detachments fast enough to in- 
tercept the cavalry rush around his flank. Four 
miles from Kimberley, Cronje arrived just too 
late to occupy the commanding positions. French 
brushed the inadequate Boer forces aside and made 
a dash for Kimberley. Over a straight stretch of 

reueved ley ^ ve m ^ es tne