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Full text of "History of Norfolk County, Massachusetts, with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men"

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ft 2001 














Pioneers and Prominent Men. 




J. W. LEWIS & CO. 

18 84. 

Copyright, 1884, by J. W. Lewis & Co. 





Nearly two years ago the attention of the publishers, who have long made a speciality 
of this class of M'ork, was called to the fact that a history of Norfolk County was needed. 
After mature deliberation the w'ork was planned and its compilation commenced. The best 
literary talent in this section of the commonwealth for this especial work was engaged, 
whose names appear at the head of their respective articles, besides many other local writers 
on special topics. These gentlemen approached the work in a spirit of impartiality and 
thoroughness, and we believe it has been their honest endeavor to trace the history of the 
development of the territory embodied herein from that period when it was in the undis- 
puted possession of the red man to the present, and to place before the reader an authentic 
narrative of its rise and progress. The work has been compiled from authenticated and 
original sources, and no effort spared to produce a history which should prove in every 

respect worthy of the county represented. 

The Publishers. 

Philadelphia, May, 1884. 



. 1 


The Bench and Bar 


The Norfolk District Medical Society 


The Settlement — The Town Covenant — Names of the 
Signers — Organization of Town Government — Character 
of Settlers — Formation of the Church — The Rev. John 
Allin — Division of Lands — Burial-Ground — Training- 
Ground — Description of the Village in 1664 . . .31 

Dedham — (Continued). 
Mother Brook, or East Brook — Dedham Island — Long 
Ditch — Indian Village at Natick — Pacomtuck, or Deer- 
field — Boggastow, or Medfield — Wollonomopoag, or 
Wrentham — Decease of leading Men among the First 
Settlers 41 

Dedham — (Conlinued). 
Indian Deeds — Philip's War — Rev. William Adams — New 
Meeting-House — Timothy Dwight — AVilliam Avery — 
Daniel Fisher, the second — His Part in Resisting Sir 
Edmund Andros ........ 44 

Dedham — ( Continued). 
Province Charter — Changes and Contentions — Incorpora- 
tion of Needhani — Rev. Joseph Belcher — The Second 
Parish and Church — Rev. Thomas Balch — The Third 
Parish and Church — Rev. Josiah Dwight — Rev. Andrew 
Tyler — Incorporation of Walpole — Services of Church 
of England begun — Rev. William Clark — Samuel Col- 
burn — Devise of Estate to Episcopal Church — Rev. Sam- 
uel Dexter — The Fourth Parish and Church — Rev. Ben- 
jamin Caryl — Services of Dedham Men in French Wars 
— New Meeting-House — Dr. Nathaniel Ames — The Pil- 
lar of Liberty — Events Prior to the American Revolu- 
tion 47 


Dedham — ( Continued). 
Dedham Village in 1775 — Leading Men — Lexington Alarm 
— Minute-Men and Militia Companies March — -Siege of 
Boston — Town Votes upon Question of Independence — 
Bounties for Soldiers — Parishes Raise Money by Taxa- 
tion — Articles of Confederation Approved — Delegates to 
State Convention for forming Constitution — Expenses of 

Revolutionary War — Pecuniary Distress — Amendments 

to State Constitution Proposed — Col. Daniel Whiting . 53 


Dedham — ( Continued). 
Second Parish — Rev. Jabez Chickering — Third Parish — 
Rev. Thomas Thacher — Fourth Parish Incorporated as a 
District under the name of Dover — Shay's Rebellion — 
Incorporation of Norfolk County — Episcopal Church — 
Rev. William Montague — Old Church Removed and Re- 
built — Fisher Ames ; Sketch of His Life — Edward Dowse 
— Rev. Jason Haven — Church Covenant of 1793 — Di- 
vision in the Third Parish — New Meeting-House — About 
Sixty Members Withdraw to the Baptist Society in Med- 
field— Second Parish and Church — Rev. William Coggs- 
well 57 


Dedham— ( Continued'^. 
Dedham in the Beginning of the Present Century— Manu- 
facturing Corporations — Mill Privileges on Mother 
Brook— War of 1812— Legacy for Schools in Will of 
Samuel Dexter — The First Church — Resignation of Rev. 
Joshua Bates — Parish elect Rev. Alvan Lamson — Ma- 
jority of Church Refuse to Concur — Ecclesiastical Coun- 
cil — Protest by a Majority of the Church — Ordination of 
Mr. Lamson — Suit at Law to Recover Church Property 
— Decision of Supreme Court — New Meeting-House So- 
cietj' Formed — Rev. Ebenezer Burgess — Improvements 
in Old Meeting-House — Third Parish — Rev. John White 
— Second Parish, Rev. Harrison G. Park, Rev. Calvin 
Durfee and his Successors — Description of Dedham Vil- 
lage in 1818 — Dedham Bank — New Jail and Court- 
House — Town-House — Norfolk Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company— Dedham Mutual Fire Insurance Company — 
Dedham Institution for Savings — Gen. Lafayette's Visit 
— Gen. Jackson's Visit ....... 63 


Dedham — ( Continued), 
Universalist Society, South Dedham — Episcopal Church — 
Rev. Isaac Boyle — Rev. Samuel B. Babcock — New 
Church — Dedham Branch Railroad — Manufactures — 
Population in 1835 — Newspapers — Centennial Celebra- 
tion, 1836 — Dr. Lamson's Historical Discourses, 1838 — 
Dr. Burgess' Discourse in " Dedham Pulpit" — Rev. 
John AVhite's Historical Discourse, 1836 — Rev. Mr. Dur- 
fee's Historical Discourse, 1836 — Destructive Fires — 
Improvements in Schools and School-Houses — Norfolk 
County Railroad — First Baptist Church, West Dedham 
— Baptist Church, East Dedham — Baptist Church, South 
Dedham— Methodist Episcopal Church, East Dedham — 
First Parish — Resignation of Dr. Lamson, and of Dr. 
Burgess — Third Parish — Successors of Rev. John White 


— Successors of Dr. Lamson in First Parish — Improve- 
ments in Meeting-House — Successors to Rev. Dr. Bur- 
gess — Burning of St. Paul's Church — New Stone Church 
— Chapel — Roman Catholic Church — St. Mary's School 
and Asylum — Annexations to West Roxbury and Wal- 
pole — Dedham (ias-Light Company — Dedham Histori- 
cal Society ......... 71 


Deiuiam — ( Continued). 
The Civil War, 1861-05 — Companies of Dedham Men — 
Their Services in the War — Commodore G. J. Van Brunt 
— Expenses of the War for Bounties and Aid to Soldiers' 
Families — Memorial Hall — Names of those who Fell 
Inscribed on the Tablets ...... 79 


Dedham — (Continued). 
Readville annexed to Hyde Park — Dedham Public Library 
— Incorporation of Norwood — Death of Rev. Dr. Bab- 
cock — Steam Fire-Engine — Dedham Water Company — 
Temporary Asylum for Discharged Female Prisoners — 
Oakdale — Church of the Good Shepherd — Islington- 
Congregational Church — New Colburn School-House — 
Brookdale Cemetery — Town Seal — Conclusion . . 88 

Braixtkkk ......... Ill 

Braintuee — (Continued) ....... 122 

Bellingham 143 

Early History as a Precinct — First Cession of Dedham — 
Purchase of Wrcntham — The New Precinct — Church 
Organized — First Minister — Meeting-Housc — Church 
Music — Discords — Precinct Ministers — Revs. Haven, 
Barnum, Emmons — Civil History — Move for a Town — 
Town History — Incorporation — Why named Franklin — 
Town Library — Topography — Maps — Indian Traditions 
— Revolutionary War^Sentiments in Town-Meeting — 
Soldiers' Second Meeting-House — Its Site, Cost, Bell — 
Moved and Modernized — Interior Glimpse of Home Life 
— Military Affairs — Trainings and Musters — The Poor 
— Burial Grounds— Post-Offices — Temperance— Early 
Industries 160 

Fkanklin — ( Continued). 
Later Town Hi.-'tory — Ecclesiastical — Ministers of the First 
Church — Other Churches and Meeting-Houses — South 
Franklin Congresational — Grace Universajist — Baptist 
— Catholic — Methodist — Town Library — Public Schools 
— High School — Franklin Academy — Dean Academy — 
College Graduates — Statistics of Material Growth — Town 
Industries — Straw Goods — Fellings, etc. — Newspapers — 
Railroads — Banks — Fire Protection — The Rebellion — 
List of Soldiers — Precinct and Town Officers — Centen- 
nial Celebration .174 

RANnoLPii . . . . . . . . . .188 




Pioneer History — Reference to Hingham — Heirs of the 
Sachem Chickatabut — Deed from the Indians, July 4, 
1665 — The Pioneers: Beal, Cushing, .Tames, Lincoln, 
Tower, Sutton, Bates, Kent, Nichols, Orcutt, Pratt, Stod- 
dard — The First Settlement — Its Location — Derivation 
of name of Town — Incorporation of Parish — Little 
Hingham — The Church — Petition for Incorporation of 
Town — Opposed by Hingham — Town Incorporated April 
26, 1770 — Early Votes concerning Schools — Votes con- 
cerning the Revolution — Cohasset's Representative at 
the Boston Tea-Party — Maj. James Stoddard — AVar of 
1812— Shipwrecks, etc 216 


CoHASSET — ( Continued). 
Banks— Civil History— Military 224- 


CoHASSET — ( Continued). 
Ecclesiastical and Educational — Pioneer History — First 
Reference to Cohasset in Hingham Records — Various 
Votes concerning the Town — Divisions of the Meadow 
Lands with the Proprietors at Conihasset — The First 
Meeting-House — Subsequent History — Methodist Soci- 
ety in North Cohasset — Second Congregational Church — 
The Beechwood Churcli — St. Anthony's Church — Educa- 
tional Interests ........ 231 

Dover . 238 



The Massachusetts Fields 257 


QuiNCY — (Continued). 
Merrymont 260 


QuiNCY — ( Continued). 
Mount WoUaston 268 


QuiNCY — (Continued). 

Old Braintree 276 


l^riNCY — (Continued). 
The North Precinct Church 278 


QuiNCY — ( Continued). 
Life in the Colonial Town 295 


(iuiNCY — ( Continued). 

The North Precinct Annals 323 


QniNCY — ( Continued). 
Modern Quincy ......... 355 




Stoughton — Named in Honor of Governor William Stough- 
ton — Territorj' allotted to Dorchester in 1637 — Known 
as the " New Grant" — Dorchester South Precinct — A 
Part set off to Wrentham in 1724 — Incorporation of 
Stoughton — Original Territor}' — Second Precinct set off 
in 1740 — Incorporation of Third Precinct in 1743 — The 
First Town-Meeting — Incorporation of Stoughtonham — 
The Revolution— Votes of the Town in 1723, 1724, 1725, 
1726 — Committee of Correspondence — Revolutionary 
Bounties, etc 389 


Stoughton — {Continued). 
Ecclesiastical History. — Universalist Church — Congrega- 
tional Church — Methodist Episcopal Church — Roman 
Catholic Church — Methodist Episcopal Church, North 
Stoughton — Baptist Church, East Stoughton . . . 394 

Stoughton — ( Continued). 
The Press — The Stoughton Sentinel — Masonic — Rising Star 
Lodge, F. and A. M. — Mount Zion Royal Arch Chapter 
—Stoughton Lodge, No. 72, I. 0. 0. F.— The Boot and 
Shoe Interest — Civil Historj' — Representatives and Town 
Clerks from 1731 to 1SS4— Military Record— Number of 
Men Furnished — Amount of Money Expended for War 
Purposes 403 


HOLBROOK ..... 427 

Medfield 439 

Sharon 454 

Wellesley ......... 477 


WelleSLEV — ( Continued). 
Wellesley College 482 

Norwood 495 


Indian Occupation — Original Purchase in 1680 — Consider- 
ation — First Settlements — Petition for Preaching in 1709 
— Petition for Act of Incorporation — Opposed by Dedham 
— Lands for Support of Ministry — Incorporation of Town 
— Named after Needham in England — The First Town- 
Meeting — Selectmen Elected — Burying-Ground — The 
First Minister — First Meeting-House — Westerly Pre- 
cinct Set Off— The First Church Bell— Early Educa- 
tional Interests — Social Library . . . . .517 


Needham — ( Continued). 
AVar of the Revolution — The Battle of Lexington — Need- 
ham'a Prompt Response- — Her Citizens perform Efficient 

Service — They harass the British Retreat from Lexing- 
ton and Concord — Ephraim Bullard alarms the Minute- 
Men — List of Names composing Needham Companies — 
Capt. Aaron Smith's Company of Militia — Capt. Caleb 
Kingsbury's Company of Minute-Men — Capt. Robert 
Smith's Company — Sketches of the Killed — Incidents — 
Votes of the Town during the Revolutionary Period 



Needham — ( Continued). 
Eiclesiastical History . — Congregational Church — Unitarian 
Church — Baptist Church— Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Highlandville — Second Adventists ..... 526 


Needham — ( Continued). 
The Press — Civil History — Military Record. — The Need- 
ham Chronicle — Changes in Boundary-Line — Valuation 
— Population — Documentary — Representatives — Select- 
men — Town Clerks — Treasurers — Military Record . 532 





Geography — Geology — General History — Weston's Colony 
— Gorges' Settlement — HuH's Company — Ecclesiastical 
Troubles — Pequod War — Emigration — Town Govern- 
ment 660 


Wey'MOUTH — ( Continued). 

King Philip's War— Company of Horse — Town Affairs — 
Sir Edmund Andros — Military Company — Canadian 
Expedition — Local Matters — Town Boundaries — New 
Precinct — Dr. White — Town Regulations — Parsonage 
Property — Pigwacket Indians — Town Commons — Throat 
Distemper — French and Indian Wars — French Neutrals 
— Dr. Tufts — Highways — South Precinct . . . 567 


Weymouth — ( Continued). 
Revolutionary War — Arbitrary Measures of the Crown — 
Agents Chosen to Meet in Boston — Committees of Cor- 
respondence — No more Tea — Energetic Action — Rgfiord. 
of Votes on the Resolutions of Congress — Refusal to Pay 
Taxes to the Royal Treasurer — Town Committee of Cor- 
respondence—Minute-Men — Preparations for War — 
Raising Troops — Declaration of Independence — Bounties 
— State Convention — State Constitution— Procuring Men 
and Provisions — Soldiers to Hull ..... 572 

CHAPTER X L V 1 1 1. 

Weymouth — ( Continued). 
Recovering from the Effects of the War — Work-House — 
Local Matters — Smallpox — Norfolk County — Attempt to 
divide the Town — Business Enterprises — Post-Office — 
War with England — Alarm at Cohasset — Town Lines — 
Manufacturing Companies Discouraged — Surplus Rev- 
enue — Anti-Slavery Resolutions — Town Records — Town 
Hall— AYar of the Rebellion— Opening Scenes— Twelfth 
Regiment — Raising Troops — Military Records — Boun- 
ties — Thirty-fifth Regiment — Town Bonds and Seal — 


Forty-second Regiment — Contribution? — Difficulties — 
Fourth Heav3' Artillery — FinnI Attempt to divide the 
Town — Soldiers' Monument — Two Hundred and Fiftieth 
Anniversary — Water Question — Fire Department — 
Growth of the Town 578 


Wevmouth — [Coiiiiniied). 
EcclesinHtical Hislori/. — Congregational Churches — The 
First Church 584 


AVeymouth — (Continued). 
Congregational Churches (Continued) : Second Church, 
Union Church of AVeymouth and Braintree, Union 
Church of South AVeymouth, Church at East AVeymouth, 
Pilgrim Church— Methodist Episcopal: Church at East 
Weymouth, Church at Lovell's Corner — Universalist : 
First Church, Second Church, Third Church — Baptist: 
First Church — Roman Catholic: Parish of St. Francis 
Xavier, Parish of the Immaculate Conception, Parish of 
the Sacred Heart, Parish of St. Jerome — Protestant 
Episcopal : Trinity Parish 589 


Weymouth — ( Continued). 
Educational Institutions — Public Schools — Weymouth and 
Braintree Academy — Newspapers — Weymouth Histori- 
cal Society — Social Libraries — Mutual Library Associa- 
tions — Tufts' Library 594 

Weymouth — ( Continued). 
Military Organizations : Early Companies, Company for 
the Castle, Weymouth Light-Horse, AVeymouth Artil- 
lery, AVeymouth Light Infantry, Franklin Guards- 
Grand Army of the Republic: Lincoln Post, No. 40, 
Reynolds Post, No. 58 — Societies and Associations: 
Masonic Orphans' Hope Lodge, Delta Lodge, South 
Shore Commandery, Pentalpa Royal Arch Chapter — 
Odd-Fellows : Crescent Lodge, AVildey Lodge, AVompa- 
tuck Encampment — Knights of Pythias : Delphi Lodge 
— Knights of Honor: Pilgrim Lodge — AA'^eymouth Agri- 
cultural and Industrial Society — Other Organizations . 598 


AVeymouth — ( Continued). 
Business Enterprises— Mills : The Waltham- Richards- 
Bates' Mills, Tide Mill, Tirrell's Mill, Reed's Mill, Loud's 
Mill, Vinson's Mill, Dyer's Mill— Turnpikes : AVeymouth 
and Braintree, New Bedford, Hingham and Quincy 
Bridge — Railroads : Old Colony, South Shore — Expresses 
— Telegraph — Telephone — Financial Corporations — 
Banks : Weymouth National, National of South Wey- 
mouth — Savings Banks : AVeymouth, South AVeymouth, 
East AVeymouth — AVeymouth and Braintree Fire Insur- 
ance Company — Manufactures : Boots and Shoes — Wey- 
mouth Iron Company — Fish Company — AVeymouth 
Commercial Company — Ice Companies — Bradley Fer- 
tilizer Company — Ship Building — Bay State Hammock 
Company — Howe k French — Fire-AVorks — Mitten-Fac- 
tory — Miscellaneous 600 






Incorporation of Town — Early History — The First Settler 
— Jacob Shepard — -List of Early Settlers — Early Votes — 
The Pioneer Schools— The First Town Clerk— Church 
History — Early Votes — Manufactures, etc. . . . 673 


FoxBOROUGH — { Continued). 
Military Record. — The Heroes of Three Wars — War of 
the Revolution— ISl 2— AVar of the Rebellion— List of 
Soldiers, 1861-65— Patriots of 1776— Soldiers of 1812— 
Roll of Honor, 1861-65— Veterans of the War— Militia, 
1796 683 


FoxBOROUGH — ( Continued). 
Ecclesiastical History. — Congregational Church^Baptist 
Church — Universalist Church — Roman Catholic Chapels 
— Civil History — Delegates to Constitutional Convention 
— State Senators — Commission of Insolvency — Represen- 
tatives — Justices of the Peace — Selectmen— Town Clerks 
— Town House — Memorial Hall — The Howe Monument — 
Change in Boundaries — Masonic — Historical Items — The 
Press — The Centennial Celebration — Population — Sta- 
tistical (597 


Pioneer History — The Dedliam Covenant — Indian Pro- 
prietors — Primitive Condition of the Country — Earl}' 
Settlements — The Cedar Swamp — Petition for Precinct — 
Incorporation of Town — The French and Indian AA^ar — 
Capt. Bacon's Company from AValpole — Slavery in AA'al- 
pole — Deacon Bobbins' Slave " Jack" — AVar of the Rev- 
olution — Resolutions of the Town — List of Revolutionary 
Soldiers — War of 1812 — Capt. Samuel Fales' Company 
of Light Infantry ....... 



AVah'OLE — {Continued). 
Ecclesiastical History. — First Congregational Society — Or- 
thodox Congregational Church — Congregational Church, 
East Walpole — Methodist Episcopal Church — Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South Walpole ..... 



AVeymouth — (Continued) . 


AValpole — (Continued). 
The Press— The AValpole Standard— The AValpole Enter- 
prise — The Norfolk County Tribune — The AValpole Star 
— Manufacturing Interests — Civil History — The Town 
Hall — Military History — Number of Men Furnished 
— Amount of Money Expended — Roll of Honor — Memo- 
rial Tablets 718 



Pioneer History — The First Settlements — Stoughton, 

Glover, and Hutchinson — Grant of the Territory to 

Dorchester — Release of Indian Title — Cutshamoquin — 

Loc:ition of First Settlements- -King Philip's AVar — 



Prouiinent Early Settlers — Biogrnphical Sketches of 
Prominent Citizens — Robert Yose, Robert Tucker, Ben- 
jamin Wadsworth, Joseph Belcher, Oxenbridge Thatcher, 
John Swift, Peter Thatcher, Dr. Miller, Samuel Miller, 
Governor Belcher, William Foye, Col. Gooch, Governor 
Hutchinson, James Smith, Oxenbridge Thatcher, Jr., 
Samuel Swift, Nathaniel Tucker, Seth Adams, William 
Foye, Jr., Joseph Gooch, Benjamin Pratt, Col. Joseph 
Vose, Job Sumner, John Miller, Benjamin Wadsworth, 
' W. S. Hutchinson, Josiah Badcock, Samuel Ilenshaw, 
Edward H. Bobbins, Rufus Badcock, Thomas Thatcher, 
Jesse Tucker, J. S. Boies, Nathaniel J. Bobbins, John 
M. Forbes, Solomon Vose, Roger Vose, Charles P. Sum- 
ner, etc. .......... 730 


War of the Revolution ....... 745 

Milton — {Continued). 
Ecclesiastical Higfory. — The First Congregational Society — 
The First Evangelical Society— The Second Evangelical 
Society — Lower Mills Baptist Church .... 749 

Milton — ( Covtitmed). 
The Crehore Estate— The Sumners— The Wadsworths— The 
Vose Place— The Robert Tucker Place— The Oldest House 
in Milton — The Tucker House — The Billings House — 
The Blue Hills— The Foye House— The Hutchinson 
House — The Bobbins House — The Governor Belcher 
Place — Milton Cemetery — Detailed History — Different 
Purchasers — Ancient Inscriptions — Tombs . . . 757 


Milton — (Continued). 
Civil and Militarj' — Representatives — Town Clerks — Town 
Treasurers — War of the Rebellion — List of Soldiers, etc. 770 


Milton — (Continued) ....... 772 

Milton — ( Continued). 
Town Hall— The Blue Hill National Bank— The Milton 
News — Post-Office 774 

Brookline 783 

Hyde Park 895 

Indian Name of the Town, Punkapaog— John Eliot — Or- 
ganization of Precinct, 1715 — List of Precinct Officers — 
Incorporation of Stoughton, 1726 — Roger Sherman — War 
of the Revolution — Various Votes — The Suffolk Resolves 
— The First Troops from Stoughton — Capt. James Endi- 
cott's Company — Other Companies — Committee of Cor- 
respondence and Inspection — Documentary History — 
Incorporation of Town — Names of Petitioners — First 
Town Officers — War of 1812 — Extracts from Town Rec- 
ords — The First School-House 


Canton — ( Continued). 
Ecclesiastical History. — First Congregational Church — Or- 
ganization — The Covenant of 1717 — The First Pastor, 
Rev. Joseph Morse — The First Celebration of the Lord's 
Supper — The First Deacons — Extracts from the Early 
Records — List of those who joined the Church during Mr. 
Morse's Ministry — Death of Mr. Morse — Inventory of his 
Estate — Rev. Samuel Dunbar — Rev. Z. Howard — Rev. 
William Richey — Rev. Benjamin Huntoon — Succeeding 
Pastors— Church Buildings — Evangelical Congregational 
Church — Baptist Church — Universalist Church— Roman 
Catholic Church ........ 9.31 

Canton — (Continued). 
The Press, Manu/jfctures, Banks, etc. — The Canton Journal 
— Early Manufactures — The First Cotton-Factory — 
Present Manufactures — Memorial Hall — Military Record 
— Number of Men Furnished — Amount of Money Raised 
— ^■arious Votes in Relation to Bounties, etc. — Roll of 
Honor — Revere Encampment, Grand Army of the Re- 
public — The Neponset National Bank — Canton Institu- 
tion for Savings — Representatives from 1876 to Present 
Time 944 

North Parish of Wrentham — Early Settlements — Residents 
in 1795 — North Society — First Meeting-House — Incor- 
poration of Town — Act of Incorporation — First Town- 
Meeting — Officers Elected— List of Selectmen — Town 
Clerks — Representatives — Town House — Present Valua- 
tion — Industrial Pursuits — Churches — Schools . . 973 


. 978 


Adams, Thomas 375 

Alden, Ebenezer 208 

Ames, Ellis 972 

Ames, AVilliam Ill 

Aspinwall, Thomas 889 

Aspinwall, William 894 

Aspinwall, William 891 

Atherton, James 415 

Atherton, Samuel 417 

Atwood, Shadraeh 186 | 

Babcock, S. B 93 ! 

Bacon, Joseph T 670 j 

Bird, Francis W 729 | 

Barrows, Thomas 93 j 

Baxter, Daniel 388 

Beals, E.S 618 

Blake, George B 883 

Bleakie, Robert 916 

Bullard, John 92 

Burgess, Ebenezer 95 

Candage, R. G. F 887 

Capen, Nahum 957 

Carpenter, E 703 

Chapman, 0. S 962 

Churchill, Amos 380 

Churchill, ('. C. 109 

Clapp, Lucius 424 

Clark, Joseph W 102 

Cleveland, Ira 101 

Colburn, Waldo 12 

Cook, Horace li 672 

Cook, Nathan A 159 

Crocker, L. 142 

Curtis, Daniel D 452 

Davis Family (The) 881 

Deane, Francis W 971 

Dizer, M. C 016 

Draj)er, James 967 

Du Bois, A. E 215 

Everett, George 514 

Faxon, Henry II 376 

Field, William 381 

Fisk, Emery 488 

Fiske, Isaac 453 

Fiske, Josiah J 668 

Fiske, J. N 669 

Fisher, Jabez 672 

Fisher, M. M 557 

Flagg, Solomon 489 

Fogg, John S 615 

Fogg, David S 515 

Frederick, Eleazer 382 

French, Charles H 960 

Gaston, William 21 

Gay, J. W 110 


Gridley, Jeremiah 886 

Griggs, Thomas 871 

Grover, Edwin 894 

Hewins Family (The) 470 

Hodges, Alfred 708 

Hodges, Benjamin 706 

Hodges Family (The) 705 

Hodges, Leonard 41 S 

Hodges, Sewall 706 

Hodges, William A '. 386 

Ilolbrook, Amos II 158 

Ilolbrook, E. IST 437 

Hollingsworth, E. A 132 

Holmes, Warren M 473 

Howe, Appleton 611 

Kimball, Daniel 540 

Kingman, Bradford 883 

Lamson, Alvan 99 

Lincoln, James D 670 

Lyon, E. A 539 

McDonnell, Patrick 384 

Mansfield, William 963 

Mann, George H 470 

Martin, N. C 782 

Monk, Elisha C 422 

Morrison Family (The) 133 

Morse, Elijah A 905 

Morse, Luther 473 

Morse, Otis 516 

Noyes, Samuel V, 22 

Orr, Galen 538 

Parsons, Thomas 880 

Paul, Ebenezer 108 

Peirce, Henry 879 

Pierce, Edward L 777 

Pierce Family (The) 408 

Pierce, Henry L 410 

Pierce, Jesse 408 

Porter, Robert 425 

Ray, James P 184 

Ray, Joseph G 185 

Richards, Moses 472 

Richardson, Stephen W 187 

Sanford, M. 11 555 

Sargent, James II 560 

Shaw, Nathaniel 613 

Sheldon, Rhodes 671 

Shepard, James S 964 

Sherburne, William 671 

Sherman, Job 707 

Slafter, Carlos 107 

Smith, Isaac 7(i2 

Smith, Lyman 513 

Southgate, George A 109 

Southworth, Amasa -121 



South worth, Asahel 419 

South worth, Consider 419 

Southworth, Col. Consider 420 

Spaulding, Corodon 970 

Stetson, Caleb 1.31 

Stetson, Everett 727 

Stetson, J. A 376 

Stone, Ebenezer 727 

Stone, Eliphalet 107 

Stuart, AVilliam J 917 

Taft, Ezra W 106 

Talbot, Warren 473 

Thayer, David 136 

Tinker, Francis 515 

Tirrell, James 613 

Torrey, James 620 

Wales, Martin 414 


Wales, Xathaniel 412 

AVare, Josiah 976 

Warner, Samuel 21 

Washburn, Andrew 917 

Wason, Elbridge 878 

Wentworth Family (The) 968 

Whitaker, E. K 535 

White, Judge George 492 

White, N. L... 139 

AVhite, Thomas 438 

Whiting, Edwin 110 

Wild. Charles 874 

Wild, Edward A 876 

Wolcott, H. F 779 

Wood, Henry 490 

Worthington, Erastus 25 



Adams, John facing 320 

Adams, John Quincy " 354 

Adams, Thomas .,. " 375 

Alden, Ebenezer " 268 

Ames, William " HI 

Atherton, James '' 415 

Atherton, Samuel " 417 

Atwood, Shadrach " 1^6 

Babcoek, S. B " 93 

Bacon, Joseph T " 670 

Baxter, Daniel " 388 

Barrows, Thomas between 92, 93 

Beals, E. S facing 618 

Bird, Francis W '" 729 

Blake, George B " 883 

Bleakie, Robert " 916 

•' Boylston Place," Residence of Henry Lee " 860 

Burgess, Ebenezer " 95 

Bullard, John " 92 

Candage, R. G. F " " 887 

Canton Memorial Hall " 951 

Capen, Xahum " 957 

Carpenter, J. E " 703 

Chapman, 0. S " 962 

Churchill, Amos " 380 

Churchill, C. C between 108, 109 

Clapp, Lucius facing 424 

Clark, Joseph W " 102 

Cleveland, Ira " 101 

Colburn, Waldo... •' 12 

Cook, Horace L " 672 

Cook, Nathan A " 159 

Crocker, L. " 142 

Curtis, Daniel D '" 452 

Davis, Robert S " 882 

Deane, Francis W " 971 

Dizer, M. C " 616 


Draper, James facing 967 

Du Bois, A. E " 215 

Everett, George " 514 

Faxon, Henrj' H " 377 

Field, William " 381 

Fisher. M. M •' 557 

Fisk, Emery •' 488 

Fiske, Isaac " 463 

Fiske, J. N '• 669 

Flagg, Solomon '• 489 

Fogg, David S •' 515 

Fogg, John S •' 615 

Frederick, Eleazer " 382 

French. Charles H " 960 

Gaston, AVilliam " 21 

Gay,J.AV between 110, 111 

Griggs, Thomas facing S71 

Hewins, AVhiting " 471 

Hodges, Alfred *. " 708 

Hodges, Benjamin " 706 

Hodges, Leonard " 418 

Hodges, Sewall " 705 

Hodges, William A " 386 

Holbrook, Amos H " 158 

Holbrook. E. X " 437 

Hollingsworth. E. A " 132 

Holmes, AVarren M " 473 

Hunnewell, H. H., Residence and A'iews of Grounds.. 478-480 

Howe, Appleton facing 612 

Lamson, Alvan " 99 

Lawrence, A. A., Residence of " 859 

Lincoln. James D between 670, 671 

Lyon. E. A facing 539 

Mann, George H " 470 

Mansfield, William " 963 

McDonnell, Patrick " 384 

Monk, Elisha C " 422 



Morrison, A facing 134 

Morrison, A. S " 135 

Morrison, B.L " 136 

Morse, Elijah A " 965 

Morse, Otis " 516 

Noycs, Samuel B " 22 

Orr, Galen " 538 

Parsons, Thomas " 881 

Paul, Ebenezer " 109 

Peirce, Henry " 880 

Pierce, Edward L " 777 

Pierce, Henry L " 410 

Pierce, Jesse " 408 

Porter, Robert " 425 

Kay, James P " 184 

Ray, Joseph G " 185 

Richards, Moses " 472 

Richardson, Stephen W " 187 

Sanford, M. H " 655 

Sargent, James II " 560 

Shaw, Nathaniel " 613 

Sheldon, Rhodes " 671 

Shepard, James S " 964 

Sherburne, AVilliam , between 670, 071 

Sherman, Job facing 707 

Slafter, Carlos " 107 

Smith, Isaac " 702 

Smith, Lyman " 513 

Southworth, Amasa " 421 

Southworth, Consider " 419 

Southgate, George A " 109 

Spaulding, Corodon " 970 

Stetson, Caleb " 131 

Stetson, Everett " 727 

Stetson, J. A " 376 


Stone, Ebenczer facing 728 

Stone, Eliphalet " 108 

Stuart, William J " 917 

Taft, Ezra W " 106 

Talbot, Warren between 472, 473 

Thayer, David facing 137 

Tinker, Francis between 514, 515 

Tirrell, James " 612,613 

Tirrell, Minot " 612, 613 

Torrey, James facing 620 

Wales, Martin " 414 

Wales, Nathaniel " 412 

Ware, Josiah " 976 

Warner, Samuel " 20 

Washburn, Andrew " 918 

Wason, Elbridge, " 878 

Wellesley College 482 

Wellesley College, East Lodge 483 

Wellesley College, Library 485 

Wellesley College of Music 487 

Wellesley College, Stone Hall 486 

Wellesley Town Hall and Library facing 477 

Wentworth, Edwin " 969 

Wentworth, Nathaniel " 968 

Whitaker, E. K " 536 

White, Judge George " 492 

White, N. L " 139 

White, Thomas " 438 

Whiting, Edwin between 110, 111 

Wild, Charles facing 874 

Wild, Edward A " 876 

Wood, Henry " 490 

Wolcott, H. F " 779 

Worthing ton, Erastus " 25 


BOSTON '-, 0,1 fill J/l I ' 

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^^ ^ MAP OF 




Knijrtiwd Ejytivss/v fitr fhh li'orlt' . 




That divisions and subdivisions of extended terri- I 
tory, of increasing population and the multiplying ' 
wants of society are necessary for safe and economic 
efficiency, are truths almost too obvious to require 
elucidation. In these are to be found the outlines of 
republican strength necessary to a permanent union. 
Their importance was fully exemplified in the reign 
of Alfred the Great of England.^ The Puritans and 
the Pilgrims had no choice but to adopt such a system ' 
that they might hold their possessions as they ac- 
quired them by purchase or otherwise, and preserve I 
their authority .as they had means to establish it with 
an increasing population. No individual nor family 
was recognized as a part of their community without 
a registered permit. The terms first adopted were 
modified from time to time, according to their grow- 
ing importance. Under the monarchy of Great 
Britain the American continent was divided into 
provinces, or colonies, and these were subdivided into 
towns and counties. 

Before Massachusetts was nominally divided into 
counties, in 1643, it appears to have had such divis- 
ions, designated by the term regiments. Under the 
date of Oct. 7, 1641, in General Court records is the 
following passage : " The proposition of choosing dep- 
uties for a yeare, and transacting and preparing all 1 

1 " After Alfred had subdued and had settled or expelled the 
Danes, he found the kingdom in the most wretched condition ; 
desolated by the ravages of those barbarians and thrown into 
disorders which were calculated to perpetuate its miserj'. 

" These were the evils for which it was necessary that the 
vigilance and activity of Alfred should provide a remedy. 

"That he might render the execution of justice strict and 
regular, he divided all England into counties; these counties he 
subdivided into hundreds, and the hundreds into tithings. 
Every householder was answerable for the behaviour of his 
family and slaves, and even of his guests if they lived above 
three days in his house. Ten neighboring householders were 
formed into one corporation, who, under the name of a tithing, 
decennary, or fribourg, were answerable for each other's con- 
duct, and over whom one person, called a tithing-man, head- 
bourg, or borsholder, was appointed to preside. Every man 
was punished as an outlaw who did not register himself in some 
tithing. And no man could change his habitation without a 
warrant or certificate from the borsholder of the tithing to 
which he formerly belonged." — Hume, vol. i. pp. 70, 71. 

things for the General Court amongst the three Regi- 
ments, is to be carried by the deputies to the freemen 
of every towne, and their answer returned to the 
next session of this Court." Winfhrop's Journal of 
May 16, 1639, says, " two Regiments in the Bay 
mustered at Boston." Evidently the phrase " in the 
bay" " then excluded soldiers who belonged to what 
was afterwards called Essex County. Hence regi- 
ment at these dates denoted an equal number of gen- 
eral and territorial divisions in the colony." - 

The following statistics of Norfolk County repre- 
sent the towns as they stood from 1793 to 1868, 
when Hyde Park was taken from Dorchester, Ded- 
ham, and Milton, and incorporated April 22, 1868. 
Norfolk was taken from Wrentham, Franklin, Med- 
way, and Walpole, and incorporated Feb. 23, 1870. 
Norwood was taken from Dedham and Walpole, and 
incorporated Feb. 23, 1872. Holbrook was taken 
from Randolph, and incorporated Feb. 29, 1872. 
Wellesley was taken from Needham, and incorporated 
April 6, 1881. 

Norfolk County was taken from Sufi"olk County, 
March 26, 1793. It was bounded northeast by Bos- 
ton harbor, north by Suffolk County, west by south- 
east part of Worcester County, south by the northeast 
part of Rhode Island, and southeast and east by the 
counties of Bristol and Plymouth.^ 

Number of square miles, 445. 

Population: 1790, 23,878; 1800, 27,216; 1810, 
31,245 ; 1820, 36,471 ; 1830, 41,901 ; 1840,^3,110 ; 
1850, 78,892 ; 1860, 109,950 ; 1870, 51,286 ; 1880, 

County town, Dedham. Number of towns, 27, 
less Dorchester and Roxbury, annexed to Boston, 
viz. : Bellingham, Braintree, Brookline, Canton, Co- 
hasset, Dedham, Dorchester, Dover, Foxborough, 
Franklin, Holbrook, Hyde Park, Medfield, Medway, 
Milton, Needham, Norfolk, Norwood, Quincy, Ran- 
dolph, Roxhiuy, Sharon, Stoughton, Walpole, Wel-^ 
lesley, Weymouth, Wrentham. 

2 Mass. State Records, vol. i. p. 26. Edited by Nahum Capen. 
s Mass. State Record, 1847, vol. i. p. 26. 

* These figures will be varied by the annexation of Rox- 
bury, West Roxbury, and Dorchester to Boston. 


Bellingham was set off from Dedham and incorpo- 
rated as a town in 1719. It lies eighteen miles 
southwest from Dedham, seventeen north by west 
from Providence, R. I., and twenty-eight southwest 
from Boston. 

Braintree formerly included Quincy and Randolph, 
and was at first called Mount Wollaston, the first 
settlement of which was in 1625. Braintree was 
incorporated in 16-10. It lies ten miles south by 
east from Boston, and twelve east by south from 

Brookline, before its incorporation in 1705, be- 
longed to Boston. It is four miles southwest from 
Boston, and five miles north-northeast from Ded- 

Canton was originally the south precinct of Dor- 
chester, the first parish of Stoughton, called Dorches- 
ter Village. It was incorporated in 1797. It is 
fourteen miles south by west from Boston, and six 
miles southeast from Dedham. 

Cohasset was originally a part of Hingham. It 
was incorporated in 1770. 

The settlement of Dedham commenced in 1635. 
Dedham is the shire-town of the county, and lies ten 
miles southwest from Boston, thirty-five east from 
Worcester, thirty-five northwest from Plymouth, 
twenty-six north by west from Taunton, and thirty 
north-northeast from Providence.^ 

Dorche.ster was incorporated in 1630, annexed to 
Boston at different periods, and now makes a part of 
Suffolk County. 

Dover was originally a part of Dedham. It was 
incorporated as a precinct in 1748, and as a town in 
178-1. It is five miles west from Dedham, and four- 
teen southwest from Boston. 

Foxborough was settled previous to 1700, and 
was formerly a part of Wrentham, Walpole, and 

Franklin was set off from Wrentham in 1737 as 
a distinct parish, and incorporated as a town, and 
named in honor of Dr. Franklin, in 1778." 

1 See History of Dedham, by Erastus Worthington, Esq. 

2 "The name was selected in honor of Benjamin Franklin, 
LL.D. AVhile Dr. Franklin was in France, a friend of his in 
Boston wrote to him that a town in the vicinity of Boston had 
chosen his name, by which to be known in the world, and he 
presumed, as it had no bell with which to summon the people 
to meeting on the S.'ibbath, a present of such an instrument 
from him would bo very acceptable, especially as they were 
about erecting a new meeting-house. The doctor wrote, in re- 
ply, that he presumed the people in Franklin were more fond 
of sense than of sound ; and accordingly presented them with 
a handsome donation of books for the use of the jtarish." — 
Smalley'a Centennial Sermon. 

Centre Village, twenty-seven miles southwest from 
Boston, and seventeen southwest from Dedham. 

Medfield was originally a part of Dedham. It 
was incorporated in 1650. It lies eight miles south- 
west from Dedham, and seventeen southwest from 

Medway was originally a part of Medfield. It 
was incorporated in 1713. It lies twenty-four miles 
southwest from Boston, and fourteen southwest from 

The Indian name of Milton was said to have been 
Uncataquisset. The town of Dorchester in 1662 
voted that Unquety should be a township, and it was 
incorporated in 1662. It lies seven miles from 
Boston, and six east from Dedham. 

Needham was originally a part of Dedham. It 
was incorporated in 1711. It lies five miles north- 
west from Dedham, and by Worcester Railroad 
thirteen miles southwest from Boston. 

Quincy was originally the first parish in Braintree. 
It was first settled in 1625. It lies eight miles south 
by east from Boston, and ten east from Dedham. 

Randolph was originally a part of Braintree. It 
was incorporated in 1793. It was named in honor 
of Peyton Randolph, of A'^irginia, the first president 
of the American Congress. It lies fourteen miles 
south from Boston, and twelve southeast from Dedham. • 

Roxbury was incorporated in 1630. Roxbury and 
West Roxbury now make a part of Boston and Suf- 
folk County. 

Sharon was originally the second parish of Stough- 
ton. It was incorporated in 1765. It was first 
named Stoughtonham, but it was soon changed to 
Sharon. It is seventeen miles by railroad southwest 
from Boston, and nine south from Dedham. 

Stoughton was originally a part of Dorchester, 
and embraced within its limits the towns of Canton, 
Sharon, and Foxborough. It was incorporated in 
1726. It lies eighteen miles south from Boston, and 
ten southeast from Dedham. 

Walpole was originally a part of Dedham. It was 
incorporated in 1724. South Village is three miles 
from the East Village, and the East is nine miles 
south by west from Dedham, and nineteen southwest 
from Boston. 

Weymouth, the Wcssagussett of the Indians, is 
the oldest settlement in Massachusetts except 
Plymouth. It lies eleven miles south by east from 
Boston, and fourteen southeast from Dedham. 

Wrentham was originally a part of Dedham. It 
was .set off in 1661, and incorporated as a town in 
1673. It lies twenty-seven miles south-southwest from 
Boston, and seventeen south-southwest from Dedham. 


It is a beneficent provision of Providence that 
society is divided and subdivided into circles, whether 
of a political, industrial, moral, domestic, social, or 
religious nature.^ Each circle has its centre, from 
which emanate its own peculiar influences, and which 
are reflected back from its circumference. This is 
true of the county, although the political organiza- 
tion of a county affords but few opportunities to its 
inhabitants to distinguish themselves either officially 
or as citizens. Still, it is alive to its own interests, 
extent, and character. And yet, if we turn to his- 
tory, we find numerous examples of remarkable 
events within the smaller circles leading to great re- 
sults in the larger. This truth was fully exempli- 
fied in the action of committees, town-meetings, and 
county conventions in the earlier days of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. Such action was natural, easy, con- 
venient, and practicable, party-men acting together 
in the same neighborhood, town, or county. Some 
of the most important measures of the Revolution 
originated in the committee, the town-meeting, or in 
the county convention.^ Several of the counties of 
Massachusetts held conventions, and some of the 
most spirited and patriotic resolutions were passed. 
The Provincial Congress was recommended by these 
county conventions and the Continental Congress 
boldly sustained. 

At this critical and alarming period no county 
distinguished itself for intelligence and patriotism 
more than the inhabitants of Norfolk County. 

" At a meeting of the Delegates of every Town and District 
of the County of Suffolk [which embraced the towns now Nor- 
folk County], on Tuesday/, the 6th of September, 1774, at the 
house of Mr. Richard Woodward, of Dedham ; and by ad- 
journment at the house of Mr. Vose, of Milton, on Friday, 
the 9th of September. 

"Joseph Palmer, Esquire, being chosen Moderator, and AVil- 
liam Thompson, Esq., Clerk. 

"A Committee was chosen to bring in a Report to the Con- 

1 The Puritans did not allow the people to plead distance as 
an excuse for non-attendance at church. The following item 
is taken from the town records of Ipswich, Mass. : " 1G61. As 
an inhabitant of Ipswich, living at a distance, absented him- 
self with his wife from public worship, the General Court em- 
power the ' Seven men' (the town authorities) to sell his farm, 
so that they may live nearer the sanctuary, and be able more 
conveniently to attend on its religious services." 

2 In his letter to the Abbe De Mably, John Adams says, — 

" The consequences of these institutions have been, that the 
inhabitants having acquired from their infancy the habit of 
discussing, of deliberating, and of judging of public affairs, 
it was in these assemblies of towns or districts that the senti- 
ments of the people were formed in the first place, and there 
resolutions were taken from the beginning to the end of the 
disputes and the war with Great Britain."— /oA/i Adams, vol. 
V. p. 495. 

vention; and the following being several times read, and put, 
paragraph by paragraph, was unanimously voted." ^ 

The committee reported nineteen resolutions, re- 
citing the grievances of the colonies and recommend- 
ing uncompromising action, and boldly appealed to 
the people to defend their constitutional rights.* 

"At a Meeting of Delegates from several Towns and Dis- 
tricts in the county of Suffolk, held at Milton, on Friday, the 
9th of September, 1774. 

■' Voted, that Dr. Joseph Warren and Dr. Benjamin Church, 
of Boston ; Deacon Joseph Palmer, Germantown : Captain Lem- 
uel Robinson, Dorchester: Colonel Ebenezer Thayer, Braintree ; 
Captain William Heath, Roxbury ; William Holden, Esq., 
Dorchester ; Colonel AVilliam Taylor, Milton ; Captain John 
Homans, Dorchester ; Isaac Gardner, Esq., Brookline : Mr. 
Richard Woodward, Dedham ; Captain Benjamin White, Brook- 
line ; Doctor Samuel Gardner, Milton ; Nathaniel Sumner, 
Esq., Dedham ; and Captain Thomas Aspinwall, Brookline, be 
a Committee to wait upon his Excellency, the Governor, to 
inform him that the people of this county are alarmed at the 
fortifications making on Boston Neck, and to remonstrate 
against the same; and the repeated insults oflFered by the sol- 
diery to persons passing and repassing into that town, and to 
confer with him upon these subjects. 

"Attest, William Thompson, Clerk." 

The committee prepared a communication to Gov- 
ernor Gage, and he replied to it, but his reply was 
deemed unsatisfactory, and it was voted to insert the 
correspondence in the public papers.^ 

In August, 1774, the grand jurors of this county 
and the petit jurors unanimously refused to be sworn 
because of the late tyrannical acts of the British 
Parliament, and publicly gave their reasons. Of the 
twenty-two in number, six were from Boston, and 
sixteen were from the towns, now Norfolk County, 
viz. : 

Ebenezer Hancock, Boston ; Samuel Hobart, Hing- 
ham ; Peter Boyer, Boston ; Joseph Pool, Weymouth ; 
Joseph Hall, Boston ; William Bullard, Dedham 
Thomas Craft, Jr., Boston ; Jonathan Day, Needham 
James Ivers, Boston ; Abijah Upham, Stoughton ; 
Paul Revere, Boston ; Moses Richardson, Medway ; 
Robert Williams, Roxbury; Henry Plympton, Med- 
field ; William Thompson, Brookline ; Lemuel Hal- 
lock, Wrentham : Abraham Wheeler, Dorchester ; 
Joseph Willet, Walpole ; Joseph Jones, Milton ; 
Thomas Pratt, Chelsea ; Nathaniel Belcher, Brain - 
tree ; Nicholas Book, Bellingham. 

The names of the petit jurors are given, but not 
the towns from which they came.® 

The county is an important part of the common- 

^ American Archives, vol. i. p. 776. 

* These resolutions are too long to be copied. They may be 
found in American Archives, vol. i. p. 776. 
5 See American Archives, vol. i. pp. 779-782. 
« See ibid., pp. 747-49. 


wealth, and the ambition of its officials is to make 
reports of the people not only ftivorable to themselves, 
but creditable by comparison with other counties. It 
has a natural ambition and a commendable pride in 
its courts and institutions to see that justice is promptly 
administered, the criminal secured, the wicked re- 
formed, the weak defended against the strong, the 
widow wisely advised, the orphan protected. Its 
authority adjusts the highways from town to town, 
builds the bridges, and decides upon the convenience 
and interests of the people who have occasion to 
travel within its boundaries. The farmers and the 
learned professions associate within county limits to 
perfect themselves, each class in its own way, by 
making common stock of individual experience, and 
by discussing doubtful questions. The fruits of such 
associations in due time are extended to the com- 
monwealth and to the nation, either by the press or 

Norfolk County can boast of one organization, 
such as cannot be found in New England, viz., " The 
Stougliton Musical Society.'^ It was organized by 
leading men of Norfolk County, Nov. 7, 1786, and it 
is said to be, of the kind, the oldest in the United 

It adopted a constitution of nine articles, denomi- 
nated " Regulations." 

The following extracts " indicate the moral and 
artistic character of the association :" 

"Every member shall behave with Decency, Politeness, and 
Dignity; and whosoever behaves disorderly shall be punished 
according to the nature of his oflFence, as the society shall 

"There shill be a Committee chosen, who shall examine all 
persons who shall wish to join the Society, and no one shall be 
admitted without their approbation." 

To these regulations the following names were 
subscribed : 

Elijah Dunbar, Esq., Enoch Leonard, Capt. Samuel 
Talbot, Samuel Capen (2d), Nathan Crane, Thomas 
Crane, Elijah Crane, James Capen, Joseph Smith (4th), 
Uriah Leonard, Samuel Dunbar, Jonathan Capen, 
Andrew Capen, Isaac Horton, Thomas Capen, Sam- 
uel Tolman (deacon), Joseph Richards, Jr., George 
Wadsworth, David Wadsworth, John D. Dunbar, 
Peter Crane, Lemuel Fisher, Jonathan Billings, Jesse 
Billings, Atherton Wales. 

At a meeting, Nov. 22, 1786, the following were 
chosen officers of the society : 

Elijah Dunbar, Esq., president ; Lieut. Samuel 
Capen, register (or secretary) ; Capt. Samuel Talbot, 
vice-president; Joseph Smith (4th), first treasurer; 
Andrew Capen, second treasurer. 

Committee of Examination : Elijah Dunbar, Esq., 
Capt. Samuel Talbot, Lieut. Samuel Capen, Capt. 
Joseph Richards, Jr., Andrew Capen, Jonathan 
Capen, Enoch Leonard. 

At this meeting it was voted to purchase the 
" Worcester Collection," a book which had been 
recently published by Isaiah Thomas, — the first type 
music published in America. The society issued its 
first publication in 1829, "The Stoughton Collec- 
tion," from the press of Marsh & Capen, Boston, 
which passed through several editions, and was the 
text-book for practice by the society for many years."- 
The second publication of the society was " The 
Centennial Collection," published by Oliver Ditson 
in 1878. 

Esquire Dunbar, as he was universally called by 
way of honorable distinction, remained president of 
the society until 1808, and was succeeded by Capt. 
Talbot, who held the office until 1818. 

In 1787 a new constitution was adopted. In the 
preamble the value of the cultivation of vocal music 
by man, " who is of that elevated rank of beings 
capable of sounding forth the praise of God," was 
asserted, declaring it a recognized duty " to study to 
promote that harmony which is pleasing to our Maker, 
and so delightful to ourselves." 

In 1801 another constitution was adopted, in 
which the members pledged themselves anew to the 
duty of the study and practice of vocal music as a 
" Divine institution, promotive of friendship and 

The constitution was again revised in 1872. Since 
1825 the annual meeting has been held the 25th 
December, Christmas afternoon and evening; dinner 
at five o'clock, and a grand concert in the evening 
with a selected programme from ancient and modern 

The society now numbers about five hundred mem- 
bers, resident chiefly in Stoughton, Canton, Sharon, 
Randolph, Braintree, Weymouth, Milton, Abington, 
Brockton, Easton, and Quincy. The attendance of 
members at these annual meetings is often above 
three hundred, "joyously uniting their voices," to 
quote the language of President Battles, " in the 
swelling strains of the precise tunes, words, and 
notes which were sung by their predecessors nearly 
a hundred years ago." 

The present government of the society (1884) is 
as follows : 

Winslow Battles (Randolph), president; T. H. 

1 Its preface and introduction were prepared by Nahum 


Bearing, M.D. (Braintree), Hon. David W. Tucker 
(Milton), Elijah G. Capen (Stoughton), George N. 
Spear (Holbrook), Charles F. Porter (Brockton), 
vice-presidents ; Daniel H. Huxford (Randolph), 
secretary ; Alfred W. Witcomb (Randolph), treas- 
urer; Prof". Hiram Wilde (Boston), conductor; 
George N. Spear (Holbrook), vice-conductor; 
Lucius H. Packard (Stoughton), George R. Whitney 
(Brockton), George N. Spear (Holbrook), executive 
committee ; Herman L. West (Holbrook), pianist. 

Not to notice such a society in this introduction 
would be an unpardonable omission. Some of its 
leading members, from its organization to the present 
time, are numbered as among the most distinguished 
citizens of Norfolk County. 

As natives or residents of this county may be men- 
tioned the illustrious names of John Hancock, John 
Adams, John Quincy Adams, Charles Francis Adams, 
Gen. Joseph Warren, James Bowdoin, William Eus- 
tis, Edmund Quincy, Josiah Quincy, Capt. Roger 
Clapp, John Capen (the first in the colony to contri- 
bute money to public schools), Roger Sherman,^ Rev. 
Dr. Emmons, Fisher Ames, Horace Mann, Erastus 
Worthington, Marshall P. Wilder, Dr. Jonathan 
Wales, Rev. T. M. Harris, Samuel D. Bradford, Ed- 
ward Everett, A. H. Everett, John Everett, Edward 
H. Bobbins. Daniel Fisher, John Wells, etc. We 
write the names as they occur to us and without order 
as to date, but to include all would too much extend 
the list for this place. 

To all the sources of gratification which are to be 
found in society, it may be added that the people 
of a county, whether by birth, residence, or associ- 
ation, become attached to one another, and have a 
common pride in all that is done within its limits, 

1 Roger Sherman lived in Canton before he removed to Con- 

and in the honorable success of its citizens, however 
and wherever engaged. This is natural. Beginning 
with the family, what mother could find children 
superior to her own, a medical adviser more skillful 
than her physician, or a religious teacher more attrac- 
tive and eloquent than the minister of her own parish ? 

Enter what circle we please, all is centred in what 
we have, in what we think, and in what we do, and 
in the place where we live. 

This is as it should be. It is in the constitution 
of things. If we do not care for our own, or our 
surroundings, who could be found to care for us ? 
But, in boasting of what is personal, selfish, or local, 
let us not narrow the habits of the mind. Let us 
not forget that we are capable of expanding our sense 
of duty, our aifections and generous considerations, 
from the smaller to the larger circles, from the town 
to the county, from the county to the commonwealth, 
and from the commonwealth to the great republic, 
the American Union." To this broad and commend- 
able pride is to be attributed the production of the 
following pages, giving to the world a just estimate 
of the character and distinction of some of the men 
who have lived to honor Norfolk County. 

2 In speaking of the American Continent, in 1776, in his 
article published nnder the title of " Common Sense," Paine 

SBA'S, — 

" 'Tis not the affair of a city, a county, a province, or a king- 
dom, but of a continent, — of at least one-eighth part of the 
habitable globe." 

" In this extensive quarter of the globe we forget the narrow 
limits of three hundred and sixty miles (the extent of Eng- 
land) and carry our friendship on a larger scale ; we claim 
brotherhood with every European Christian, and triumph in 
the generosity of the sentiment. 

" It is pleasant to observe by what regular gradations we sur- 
mount local prejudices as we enlarge our acquaintance with 
the world." — Common Sense, pp. 33, 35. 




The county of Norfolk was incorporated by an 
act of the General Court which passed March 26, 
1793. and took efi'ect June 20, 1793. All the terri- 
tory of the county of Sufi"olk, not comprehended 
within the towns of Boston and Chelsea, was then 
erected into an entire and distinct county, with Ded- 
ham as its shire-town. The towns of Hinjiham and 

Hull were excepted by another act passed at the 
same session, and a few years after, those towns were 
annexed to Plymouth County. The territory of the 
new county extended from the line between Boston 
and Roxbury, southwesterly to the Rhode Island line, 
and from Middlesex on the north, to the Old Colony 
line, excepting Hingham on the south. It was com- 
posed chiefly of towns with farming communities, 
having but few compact villages, except in the lower 
parts of Dorchester and Roxbury, which were imme- 
diately contiguous to the large town of Boston. The 
formation of a new county had been the subject of 
petitions to the General Court from the towns for 


several years, based upon the obvious grounds of con- 
venience to the people in transacting the public busi- 
ness. Dedham was selected as the shire-town on 
account of its central position, and perhaps because it 
was the parent town, which once included all the 
northerly and westerly towns of the county. Med- 
field had been proposed, with the idea of uniting sev- 
eral towns of Middlesex. At this time Dedham had 
ii population of about two thousand people, mostly 
farmers, with a small central village. 

As there was no court-house, the records of the 
Supreme Judicial Court from 1794 to 1706 contin- 
ued to be kept in Boston, and the records for 1797 
and 1798 are imperfect. The first term of the Court 
of Common Pleas, then a county court, was held in 
the meeting-house in Dedham, Sept. 24, 1793, and 
the first case was committed to a jury at the April 
term, 1794. At the same term the number of actions 
entered was one hundred and sixty-six. The first 
term of the Supreme Judicial Court was held in 
August, 1794. A court-house and jail were ordered 
to be built in 1794, but they were not finished until 
1795. Both structures were of wood and have long 
since disappeared. 

Fisher Ames, in a letter to Thomas Dwight, dated 
Sept. 11, 1794, writing of Dedham, says, "Our 
city is soon to be adorned with a jail and court- 
house, provided a committee of the Sessions can be 
persuaded to hasten their snail's gallop. I think 
I have mentioned in a former letter, that the Honor- 
able Supreme Court was to sit here in August. They 
did sit, and in tolerable good humor. Two days and 
a piece finished the business. The jurors could not 
but feel relief from the former burden of attending 
fifteen, sometimes thirty days in Boston." The allu- 
sion to the humor of the judges is made more em- 
phatic in a letter written several years later, where 
he speaks of Judge Ursa Major, R. T. Paine, and 
of whom, after an uncomfortable scene in court, Mr. 
Ames once said, with reference to his deafness, that 
" no man could get on there unless he came with a club 
in one hand and a speaking-trumpet in the other." 

At the beginning of the separate existence of Nor- 
folk County, the number of lawyers practising in the 
towns must have been very few. There were not a 
dozen lawyers in the town of Boston. Fisher Ames 
and Samuel Haven of Dedham, Horatio Townsend 
of Medtield, Thomas Williams of Roxbury, Edward 
Hutchinson Bobbins of Dorchester Lower Mills, 
Asaph Churchill of Milton, were the only attorneys 
practising in the courts at this period. Members of 
the bar in Suffolk, Middlesex, Worcester, and Bristol 
then and for some years afterwards were in the habit 

of attending the courts of Norfolk County, and of 
course had a considerable share of the practice. The 
profession was then regarded with much jealousy 
and suspicion, which found expression in the records 
of the towns of that period. Among the instructions 
given to the representative from Dedham in 1786 
occurs the following : 

"The Order of Lawvers. — We are not inattentive to the 
almost universally prevailing complaints against the practice 
of the order of lawyers, and many of us too sensibly feel the 
etFects of their unreasonable and extravagant exactions; we 
think their practices pernicious and their mode unconstitu- 
tional. You will therefore endeavor that such regulations be 
introduced into our courts of law that such restraints be laid on 
the order of lawyers as that we may have recourse to the 
laws and find our security and not our ruin in them. If, upon 
a fair discussion and mature deliberation, such a measure 
should appear impracticable, you are to endeavor that the order 
of lawyers be totally abolished, an alternative preferable to 
their continuing in their present mode."' 

Among the reasons urged for the division of the 
county was the belief that if the court was held in a 
country town '' the wheels of law and justice would 
move on without the clogs and embarrassments of a 
numerous train of lawyers. The scenes of gayety 
and amusement which are now prevalent at Boston 
we expect would so allure them as that we should be 
rid of their perplexing officiousness." With such a 
distrust existing in the country towns, the number of 
lawyers was no doubt kept conveniently small. 

The first meeting of the members of the bar for 
the county of Norfolk was held at the oflice of Sam- 
uel Haven, in Dedham, Sept. 28, 1797. There were 
present at this meeting Fisher Ames, who presided, 
Samuel Haven, who acted as secretary, Thomas Wil- 
liams, Horatio Townsend, and Asaph Churchill of 
the county, and Seth Hastings from Worcester, 
Laban Wheaton from Bristol, and Artemas Ward 
from Middlesex. The only business done at this 
meeting was to establish a schedule of prices for 
writs. No other meeting was held until 1802, when 
the additional names appear of William P. Whiting, 
Henry M. Lisle, Jairus Ware, John S. Williams, 
James Richardson, and Gideon L. Thayer of Nor- 
folk County, with others from Bristol and Plymouth. 
It would seem from the attendance at this meeting, 
that the number of lawyers was rapidly increasing. 
In 1803, the bar adopted an elaborate code of regu- 
lations relating to the practice of law in the courts. 
From this time forward, excepting intervals of a few 
years, the bar of Norfolk County held its stated 
annual meetings down to 1853. These meetings 
were held generally for passing upon the qualifications 
of candidates for admission as attorneys to the difi'erent 
courts and of counsellors to the Supreme Judicial 


Court, the law then requiring separate admissions as 
attorneys and counsellors to the respective courts. 
The recommendation of the bar was then a pre- 
requisite for admission. In a few instances they ad- 
ministered discipline upon members who had brought 
disgrace upon the body by their intemperance or evil 
practices. There were also many resolutions passed 
at these meetings to provide against the infringement 
of the rights of one of the brethren by another in 
encroaching upon his field of practice. 

A very curious and suggestive record, illustrative 
of their scrupulous care upon this matter, was en- 
tered at the meeting held September, 1805, which 
shows in a striking manner how this practice of hav- 
ing offices in two places was then viewed. 

" Voted, unanimously, that the bar discountenance and will 
by no means sanction any gentleman of the profession having 
more than one office at any time in the same or different towns; 
and understanding that Perez Morton, Esq., now has an office 
in Boston, and another in Dedham, further voted that the sec- 
retary of the bar furnish Mr. Morton with a copy of this vote, 
thereby requesting him to immediately relinquish and discon- 
tinue, both directly or indirectly, either one or the other of said 
offices. The secretary is desired, if the above request to Mr. 
Morton is not complied with, to make a communication on the 
subject to the Suffolk bar." 

There is a tradition in the county, that one of the 
justices of the County Court of Common Pleas once 
overruled a motion made by a Suffolk lawyer on the 
ground that he was an interloper. The records of bar 
meetings show, that a careful scrutiny was made not 
ouly into the qualifications and time spent in the 
study of law of the candidates, but also into the 
personal and professional conduct of each member of 
the bar in his profession and practice. 

At this time there was but one court of general 
common law jurisdiction in the commonwealth, which 
was the Supreme Judicial Court, established July 3, 
1782. There was also a county court called the 
Court of Common Pleas, also established July 3, 
1782, whose powers and jurisdiction and number of 
justices were afterwards changed by several acts of 
the General Court. Its original jurisdiction was con- 
fined to cases where the ad damnum was over £4. 
By statute 1798, chapter 24, the court was made to 
consist of a chief justice and three other justices. In 
1803 the powers and duties of the Court of General 
Sessions and of the Peace were transferred to the Court 
of Common Pleas, except as to jails and county build- 
ings, accounts of county, county taxes, licenses, and 
highways. In 1811 the commonwealth was divided 
into six circuits, and Circuit Courts were established, 
to consist of a chief justice and two associate justices. 
This court was known as the Circuit Court of Com- 

mon Pleas, and it continued until 1820, when the 
Court of Common Pleas for the commonwealth was 
established, and which existed until 1859, when the 
Superior Court was created. 

There was also another county court called the 
Court of Sessions of the Peace, which was established 
in 1782. This court consisted of the justices of the 
county, and determined all matters relative to the 
preservation of the peace and punishment of offences 
cognizable by them. In 1803 the powers and duties 
of this court were transferred to the County Court 
of Common Pleas, except thos^ relating to jails and 
county buildings, allowing and settling county ac- 
counts, estimating, apportioning, and issuing warrants 
for county taxes, granting licenses, and highways. In 
1807, this court was made to consist of one chief 
justice and four associate justices in this county. By 
another act of the same year, the name of this court 
was changed to the Court of Sessions, and in 1809 
this court was abolished, and its powers and duties 
transferred to the Court of Common Pleas. In 1811 
the Court of Sessions was restored, and again in 
1813 it was abolished, and its powers and duties 
transferred to the Circuit Court of Common Pleas. 
This last act was repealed in 1818, and the Court of 
Sessions again established. After some further legis- 
lation in 1819 and 1821, finally in 1827 the Court 
of Sessions was abolished, and the Court of County 
Commissioners established. 

These changes efiected in the courts are remark- 
able and perplexing, and can only be understood with 
the explanation that they were made as one political 
party or another had the control of the Legislature. 
In 1807, Dr. Nathaniel Ames, the clerk, records that 
after passing sundry accounts, " an eternal adjourn- 
ment of the Court of General Sessions of the Peace 
is made according to law." But the Court of Sessions 
was afterwards twice restored and twice abolished. 

The Probate Court has remained unchanged since 
1784, except that in 1858 it was consolidated with 
the Court of Insolvency. 

Fisher Ames died July 4, 1808. Although he 
spent the last fifteen years of his life upon his estate 
in Dedham, and had a law-office near the court-house, 
yet the state of his health was such during much of 
the time as to prevent his engaging in constant prac- 
tice, but he tried many causes before the jury, and was 
retained in some important causes in other counties. 
His fame as a statesman, orator, and political writer 
completely overshadowed his reputation as a lawyer. 
His name does not appear upon the bar records after 
1804. He had for his law partner James Richard- 
son, one of the first members of the bar, admitted 


after the formation of the county. He studied law 
with Mr. Ames, and was admitted as an attorney of 
the Supreme Court in 1808. He always lived in 
Dedham, where he practised his profession until the 
infirmities of age withdrew him from active life. He 
at one period engaged in manufacturing business, 
which somewhat interfered with his practice. He 
was a man of excellent attainments in law and let- 
ters, and on Feb. 25, 1837, he delivered an address 
before the members of the Norfolk bar, at their re- 
quest, on the " antiquity and importance" of the legal 
profession, its " duties, and responsibilities; the evils 
to which its members are exposed," and its " conso- 
lations and rewards," which was printed. He was 
president of the bar for many years, and died in 

Probably no member of the Norfolk bar ever ex- 
ercised a stronger influence in elevating its profes- 
sional standard and in making it a body deserving of 
respect and confidence, than Theron Metcalf. He 
came to Dedham in 1809, having had unusual ad- 
vantages for the time, in pursuing his preparatory 
studies at the law-school in Litchfield, Conn., then 
justly celebrated for the eminence of its teachers. 
He remained in practice at Dedham until 1839, a 
period of thirty years. While nearly all his contem- 
poraries in practice at Dedham embarked in manu- 
facturing enterprises or adopted other callings, Mr. 
Metcalf steadily devoted himself to the study and 
practice of his profession, although at this time it 
was not very remunerative. At the time of his ap- 
pointment as reporter of judicial decisions, in 1839, 
the bar association adopted a resolution expressing 
their estimation of his learning, integrity, and profes- 
sional character ; and while they regretted " his loss 
to their fraternity, they had reason to rejoice that he 
had been called to exercise his pre-eminent talents 
and distinguished learning in a sphere more extended 
in usefulness, where the profession might be equally 

Among the earlier members of the Norfolk bar 
who were contemporaneous with Mr. Richardson and 
Mr. Metcalf, may be mentioned Asaph Churchill, of 
Milton ; Thomas Boylston Adams, the third son of 
President John Adams ; Gideon L. Thayer and 
Thomas Greenleaf, of Quincy ; Daniel Adams, of 
Medfield ; William Dunbar, of Canton ; Jabez Chick- 
ering, Erastus Worthington, and John B. Derby, of 
Dedham ; Thomas Williams, John S. Williams, 
Samuel J. Gardner, and David A. Simmons, of Rox- 
bury ; Samuel P. Loud and Abel Cushing, of Dor- 
chester ; Josiali J. Fiske and Meletiah Everett, of 
Wrentham ; John King, of Randolph ; and Christo- 

pher Webb, of Weymouth. All these had been ad- 
mitted as attorneys to one of the courts prior to 1820. 
Ashur Ware, afterwards judge of the United States 
District Court in Maine, had an office in Milton, 
where he lived from 1815 to 1824. At a later pe- 
riod, John W. Ames and Jonathan H. Cobb began 
practice at Dedham, Aaron Prescott at Randolph, 
Warren Lovering at Medway, and Jonathan P. 
Bishop at Medfield. In 1827, Horace Mann began 
practice at Dedham, and in 1826 John J. Clarke 
began practice in Roxbury. In 1834, Ira Cleveland 
began practice in Dedham, occupying the office re- 
cently vacated by Horace Mann. Ezra W. Sampson 
had an office in Braintree for twelve years, until 
1836. Ezra Wilkinson came to Dedham about 
1835, and occupied the office with Mr. Metcalf, which 
was formerly that of Fisher Ames, opposite the court- 

The court-house, which forms the south wing of 
the present building, was finished and occupied for 
the first time in February, 1827, the full bench being 
present at the term of the Supreme Court. Chief 
Justice Parker made some complimentary remarks 
concerning the new building, and the bar gave a din- 
ner to the justices of the Supreme Court, reporter, 
attorney-general, solicitor-general, and the architect, 
Solomon Willard. The new court-house was a Gre- 
cian building, with porticoes at both ends, like that on 
the south wing at present. It was considered a fine 
structure for the time, and there were other court- 
houses in the commonwealth, designed by the same 
architect, which bore a resemblance to it in its 
architecture. The extensive enlargements of the 
court-house on the northerly end were completed in 

The county in 1835, had been established upwards 
of forty years, during which period it had grown in 
wealth and population, and by the introduction of 
manufactures had ceased in some degree to be an ex- 
clusively agricultural county, as at its beginning. 
Some of the original members of the bar had dropped 
from the ranks, either into other callings or into re- 
tirement, or had removed or died. The trial of cases 
in court was about to pass into the hands of another 
generation of lawyers. In important causes in the 
Supreme Court eminent counsel from other counties, 
— among whom were Pliny Merrick of Worcester, 
Rufus Choate and Franklin Dexter of Boston — were 
sometimes retained, but it was not many years before 
a large majority of the cases were tried by Mr. Wil- 
kinson on one side, and Mr. Clarke on the other. 
For more than twenty years they were the leaders of 
the Norfolk bar. Mr. Wilkinson had acquired the 



reputation of being an able, upright, and learned 
lawyer, and thoroughly devoted to his profession. 
Mr. Clarke also stood deservedly high in his profes- 
sion, and was especially successful in the trial of cases 
before the jury, and had a large practice. The in- 
fluence of both these gentlemen upon the character 
of the members of the bar during their professional 
career was marked and exemplary. Mr. Wilkinson 
retired upon his appointment as a justice of the Su- 
preme Court in 1859, and Mr. Clarke a few years later 
left practice in Norfolk County, — Roxbury having 
been annexed to Boston in January, 1868. Besides 
these leaders, there were other good triers of causes 
at the bar. Among these were David A. Simmons, 
Ellis Ames, Francis Hilliard, and Asaph Chui'chill, 
the younger of that name. 

The successors to the leadership of the bar, after 
the retirement of Mr. Wilkinson and Mr. Clarke, 
were William Gaston, of Roxbury, and Waldo Col- 
burn, of Dedham. Mr. Gaston was not admitted to 
practice in this county, but he studied law with Mr. 
Clarke, and practised in this county for many years, 
and considered himself a Norfolk lawyer. He was an 
eloquent and successful advocate and had an excellent 
practice. He had removed to Boston prior to the 
annexation of Roxbury. Mr. Colburn always prac- 
tised in Dedham until he was appointed an associate 
justice of the Superior Court in 1875. He attained 
a high position in his profession as a wise counsellor, 
an able trier of causes, and a lawyer in whose hands 
the interests of his clients were always safe. 

In the decade from 1865 to 1875 the course of 
legislation and events had tended to diminish the 
legal business of the county by transferring it to the 
county of Suffolk. A statute passed in 1854, which 
allowed actions to be brought in the county where 
either party had a place of business, had encouraged 
the members of the bar in all the towns near Boston, 
to open offices there, and therefore to bring many of 
their actions in Suffolk County. There were many 
clients who had places of business in Boston, but who 
were residents of this county, and gradually the choice 
which this statute gave as to the place where actions 
might be brought, was made in favor of Suffolk County. 
Boston was becoming at this period what it has since 
actually become, a place of legal exchange for the sur- 
rounding country within a circuit of twenty miles. 
In addition to these incidental causes, for several 
years the project of annexing the city of Roxbury to 
Boston had been agitated, and petitions presented to 
the Legislature until, by the act which took effect in 
January, 1868, the union of the two cities was effected. 
The loss of Roxbury was a serious one in many ways 

to the county, and in nowise was the loss more 
seriously felt than in the removal of some of its best 
practitioners at the bar and the consequent withdrawal 
of their business. Mr. Clarke, Mr. Ga.ston, and Mr. 
John W. May, all having a good practice in Norfolk 
County, in course of time ceased to practise here alto 
gether. In 1870 the old town of Dorchester, one of 
the best towns in the county, and in 1874 West Rox- 
bury were both annexed to Boston and taken from the 
county. The inevitable results of the removal of such 
a large proportion of the territory, valuation and busi- 
ness of the county, were to materially diminish the 
business of the courts, and to deprive the bar of many 
of its best members. 

The last recorded meeting of the bar but one, was 
held Oct. 15, 1852, when resolutions were passed 
with reference to the decease of Daniel Webster, re- 
questing the court to adjourn, and that the bar attend 
the funeral in a body, and that John J. Clarke offi- 
ciate as marshal, and that the sheriff be requested to 
suitably drape the court-room in mourning. The last 
meeting was held in February, 1853, and was a busi- 
ness meeting relating to the purchase of books for the 
library. This is the last recorded meeting of the Nor- 
folk bar as an organized fraternity. An attempt was 
made to reorganize it some years afterwards, but with- 
out success. 

In 1815 there was formed a Law Library Associa- 
tion, which continued in existence until 1845. An 
attempt was made to reorganize it in 1860. 

In speaking of the Norfolk bar as it now exists, 
reference could be made only to those members resi- 
dent within the county and who practise in it. The 
number of such gentlemen is not larger than it was 
fifty years ago, although the number of attorneys who 
reside elsewhere and practise in the county is much 
greater. The profession has everywhere changed in its 
character during the last half-century. The iVaternal 
feeling, the jealous watchfulness that no unworthy 
applicant should be admitted to the profession, the 
old-time distinctions as to leadership have all passed 
away, and nowhere is this change more clearly to be 
seen than in Norfolk County. In former times mem- 
bers who had offices in Boston and in the town of 
their residence, were censured by their brethren at bar 
meetings in formal votes. At the present time there 
is scarcely a member of the bar who has not two 
offices, one in Boston and another in the county. The 
old organization with all its traditions has passed into 
history, but beyond this it has ceased to have any 
influence upon the present time. Of the new era in 
the profession, of the character of its members, of its 
methods in the conduct of causes, of its emoluments. 



and of the rapid increase of its members, the time has 
not yet come to speak as matters of history. 

Justices of the Judicial Courts. — Theron 
Metcalf was the son of Hanun and Mary Metcalf, 
and was born in Franklin, Oct. 16, 1784. He and 
his ancestors for five generations belonged to the 
county of Norfolk. At the age of seventeen years 
he entered Brown University, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1805. After graduating, he studied law 
with Mr. Bacon, of Canterbury, Conn., and in April, 

1806, he entered the law-school at Litchfield, then a 
celebrated institution, and the only law-school in the 
United States. Here he remained until October, 

1807, when he was admitted to the bar in Connec- 
ticut. After studying a year with Hon. Seth Has- 
tings, of Mendon, he was admitted as an attorney of 
the Circuit Court of Common Pleas in this county 
at the September term, 1808, and as counsellor of 
the Supreme Judicial Court at the October term, 
1811. He practised law for a year in Franklin, and 
removed to Dedham in 1809. 

In 1817 he became county attorney, and con- 
tinued to hold that ofiice for twelve years, until the 
oflSce was abolished by the statute establishing the 
oflBce of district attorney. He was representative to 
the General Court from Dedham in 1831, 1833, and 
1834, and a senator from the county in 1835. 

In October, 1828, he opened a law-school, and 
began a course of lectures upon legal subjects in 
Dedham. He had many students, among whom 
were the late Hon. John H. Cliiford, of New Bed- 
ford, and the Hon. Seth Ames, the son of Fisher 
Ames, and afterwards a justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court. The series of papers published in 
the American Jurist and afterwards embodied in 
his work on the " Principles of the Law of Contracts 
as applied by the Courts of Law," were originally 
prepared for his students. 

In December, 1839, he was appointed reporter of 
the decisions of the Supreme Judicial Court, and re- 
moved from Dedham to Boston. He hold this ofiice 
until Feb. 25, 1848, when he was appointed a justice 
of the Supreme Judicial Court. He remained upon 
the bench until Aug. 31, 1865, when he resigned 
after over seventeen years of service. He died in 
Boston, Nov. 13, 1875, at the age of ninety-one 

Although Judge Metcalf had removed from the 
county, and was in no way identified with it during 
the last forty-six years of his life, yet the thirty years 
during which he had resided and practised in Dedham 
comprehended nearly the whole of his professional 
career. During this period he edited a number of 

law books, among which were " Yelverton's Reports," 
" Starkie on Evidence," " Russell on Crimes," 
" Maule and Selwyn's Reports," " Digest of Massa- 
chusetts Reports," and with Horace Mann supervised 
the publication of the Revised Statutes of 1836, the 
index to which was made by him. 

Of his reputation and influence while at the bar 
some mention has been made. There were probably 
few lawyers in the commonwealth of his time who 
had such a full and accurate knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of the common law as Judge Metcalf His 
reputation as a writer upon legal subjects is well 
established. His volumes of the Massachusetts Re- 
ports, it has been said, are the " model and despair 
of his successors." His opinions as a justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court are remarkable for their 
precision of statement and their familiarity with the 
decisions, both English and American, as well as with 
the principle and maxims, of the common law, of 
which he was master. He never concealed his dis- 
trust of the changes eff'ected in the administration of 
the law by legislation, especially the statute giving 
full equity jurisdiction to the Supreme Judicial 

He was an accurate scholar, and occasionally wrote 
articles for the reviews on other than legal subjects. 
He was in person below the average height, and of 
great gravity of demeanor, although he had a quaint 
humor. He was a keen and intelligent critic upon 
many subjects, and his pithy sayings will be long 
remembered and quoted by those who knew him. 

He received the degree of Doctor of Laws from 
Brown University in 1844, and from Harvard College 
in 1848. 

Seth Ames was the youngest child of Fisher 
Ames, and was born in Dedham, April 19, 1805, 
and was but three years of age when his father died. 
He was graduated at Harvard College in 1825, and 
studied law with Theron Metcalf in Dedham, and 
was admitted as an attorney of the Court of Common 
Pleas at the September term, 1828, being the same 
term at which Ezra Wilkinson was admitted. He 
never practised law in this county, but removed to 
Lowell, where he practised law for twenty years. In 
1849 he was appointed clerk of the courts for the 
county of Middlesex. In 1859 he was appointed a 
justice of the Superior Court, then established, and 
in 1867 was appointed chief justice of that court. 
In 1869 he was made an associate justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court, which office he resigned 
Jan. 15, 1881. He died at his residence in Brook- 
line, in this county, Aug. 15, 1881. 

Althouiih Judjie Ames had no connection with 



Norfolk County during his professional career, yet 
as he was born and pursued his professional studies 
in Dedham, and was admitted to practice in the court 
held fur this county, and often presided as justice of 
the courts here, he may be claimed as a son of Nor- 
folk County. He well sustained the illustrious name 
ho bore. Of great simplicity and modesty of char- 
acter, he possessed an admirable judicial mind, and 
was the master of a pure and concise style as a writer, 
qualities which make his legal opinions worthy of 
imitation. In the language of Chief Justice Gray, 
'• he was a diligent student, a good lawyer, a safe 
counsellor, a faithful and useful public servant, a 
Christian gentleman." 

Ezra Wilkinson. — He was born in Attleborough, 
Feb. 14, 1801, and was graduated at Brown Univer- 
sity in 1824. He began his professional studies with 
Hon. Peter Pratt, of Providence, R. I , where he 
remained about a year, and he completed them in the 
office of Josiah J. Fiske, in Wrentham. He was ad- 
mitted as an attorney of the Court of Common Pleas, 
at Dedham, at the September term, 1828. He was ad- 
mitted as a counsellor of the Supreme Judicial Court, 
at Taunton, at the October term, 1832. He began 
practice at Freetown, and subsequently removed to 
Seekonk, in Bristol County. In 1835 he removed to 
Dedham, and had an office in the same building for- | 
merly occupied by Fisher Ames, and then by Theron 
Metcalf. He was employed to collate and complete 
the records of the court, which had fallen into some 
confusion through the prolonged illness of Judge 
Ware, the clerk, who had then recently deceased. In 
1843 he was appointed by Grovernor Morton as dis- ' 
trict attorney for the district then composed of Worces- j 
ter and Norfolk Counties. He held this office until 
1855. In 1859, upon the establishment of the Su- 
perior Court, he was appointed one of the associate 
justices, being then nearly sixty years of age, and he 
held the office until his death, Feb. 6, 1882, being \ 
more than twenty-two years. He had been in active 
practice for thirty-one years, so that his professional 
and judicial career covered a period of fifty-three 
years. He faithfully and promptly met all the re- 
quirements of his judicial position without any inter- i 
ruption by illness, or asking any time for relaxation. 
Within a month before his death he held a term of 
court at Salem, and rendered decisions which com- 
manded respect and confidence. In person he was 
very tall and erect, even to the last days of his life. 
He was scrupulously neat in his attire, and bore him- 
self with dignity without affijctation. He was not 
easy or fluent in speech, but he was concise and accu- 
rate in his use of lansuasre. ! 

He was always a Democrat in politics. He was 
representative to the General Court from Dedham for 
three sessions, and was the candidate of his party 
against John Quincy Adams for Congress. He was 
also a member of the Constitutional Convention of 

He died in Dedham, but his remains were interred 
in Wrentham. At his funeral in St. Paul's Church, 
Dedham, a large number of members of the bar from 
Boston and elsewhere were in attendance. Resolu- 
tions of respect for his memory were presented in the 
Superior Court at Salem, and in Boston, shortly after 
his decease. At the April term of the Superior 
Court in Norfolk County, 1882, Associate Justices 
Colburn and Staples being upon the bench, the fol- 
lowing resolutions, adopted by the members of the bar 
practising in Norfolk County, were presented to the 
court, and entered upon its records. These resolu- 
tions, with the remarks by Mr. Justice Colburn, em- 
body the high estimation and profound respect felt by 
the bench and bar for Judge Wilkinson's character 
and attainments. 

They were presented by Asa French, Esq., district 
attorney, and addresses followed from Ellis Ames, 
John Daggett, Asaph Churchill, Nathaniel F. Saflford, 
Samuel B. Noyes, Frederick D. Ely, and Erastus 
Worthington. The following are the resolutions: 

" Whereas, On the sixth day of February last the Hon. Ezra 
Wilkinson, a justice of the Superior Court, departed this life at 
the age of eighty-one j-ears, the members of the bar practising 
in the county of Norfolk, where he was born, and for twenty- 
five years was a leading practitioner, at the first term of that 
court held for civil business since his decease, would express 
their high appreciation of his character and services as a coun- 
sellor, as a prosecuting officer, and a judge, in the following 
resolutions : 

" Besolved, That we hold in grateful memory the high sense 
of professional duty and obligations, and the thorough devotion 
to the study of jurisprudence, which characterized Judge AVilk- 
inson from the beginning to the end of his long career; that 
we would recognize his accurate and ample learning botti in the 
common and statute law, his unswerving integrity, which tol- 
erated no suggestion of any indirect or questionable method in 
advancing his client's cause, his power of clear statement and 
convincing argument to the jury upon which he relied, rather 
than upon appeals to passion or prejudice, and his constant 
desire to maintain the honor and dignity of his profession. 

" That as a district attorney from 1S43 to 1855 for the district 
of which the county of Norfolk formed a part, he acquired a 
deserved reputation of strict fidelity to the duties of that respon- 
sible office, and for learning and skill in criminal pleading and 
practice, and for his performance of the highest duties of a pros- 
ecuting officer in ten capital trials from 1843 to 1849, that being 
the period during which the ofiice of attorney-general was 
abolished in this Commonwealth. 

'• That as a judge of the Superior Court during a period of 
more than twenty-two j-ears — 1859 to ISSl — we recall his judi- 
cial patience in the trial of causes, his readiness and aptness in 
applying legal principles to the facts of the case, and in which 



he rarely erred, and his capacity to discern the real points in 
issue, which enabled him to bring to the minds of the jury the 
exact questions they were called upon to decide. 

" That by his death has been removed one of the few survivors 
of the latest generation of lawyers who were trained in the school 
of the common law before its essential modification by the stat- 
utes, and we regard Judge Wilkinson as a remarkable example 
of a jurist who kept liimself fully informed of the decisions 
and statutes made and passed during half a century, and at the 
age of more than fourscore years, and scarcely more than a 
month prior to his death, was able to preside at the term of his 
court in the county of Essex, and to render decisions which 
commanded the respect and confidence of those before him." 

Mr. Justice Colburn responded to the resolutions 
as follows : 

" Gentlemen of the Bar, — The life of Judge Wilkinson ex- 
tended over nearly the entire portion of the nineteenth century 
which has passed. Born in this county, with the exception of 
a few years spent in the adjoining county of Bristol, he con- 
tinued a resident of this county until his death. Leading a 
single life, unaverted by family ties and cares, from inclination 
or gradually contracted habit, going but little into society, he 
early learned 'to scorn delights and live laborious days,' not 
from a desire for fame or fortune, but from a pure love of know- 
ing all that could be learned upon all subjects which excited his 
interest or would qualify him for the adequate discharge of the 
duties of his chosen profession. From his admission to the bar 
to his appointment to the bench he had an extensive and varied 
practice. For twelve years he held the office of district attor- 
ney, and during the first half of this time, there being no attor- 
ney-general, he had the sole management of all capital trials 
and the argument of all exceptions in criminal cases in his dis- 
trict. As soon as appointed he began to especially qualify 
himself for his new duties ; he went to the fountain-head ; he 
acquired all the English criminal reports and leading treatises 
and books of precedents, and became one of the most accom- 
plished criminal lawyers and an unsurpassed criminal pleader. 

"Upon the formation of the Superior Court, in 1859, Judge 
Wilkinson was appointed to that bench, and continued uninter- 
ruptedly, ably, and acceptably to discharge his judicial duties 
during the remainder of his life. For the adequate perform- 
ance of these duties his legal acquirements and extended civil 
and criminal practice qualified him in an unusual degree. His 
independence of his surroundings rendered absence from home 
at long terms of the court in distant counties less irksome to him 
than to other men. He seemed always to have some subject 
which occupied his mind and furnished him with all the recrea- 
tion he required, exempting him from that feeling of impatience 
which sometimes results from protracted labor away from home 
and friends. His stores of learning, his knowledge of unfa- 
miliar matters of practice and procedure, the results of wide 
studies and long experience, were always at the service of his 
brethren of the bench, and the starting of an inquiry, which he 
could not readily answer, would lead him to an investigation 
for the assistance of an associate with as much interest and 
patience as if it had become important in the discharge of his 
own duties. 

"Though not possessed of what are considered brilliant tal- 
ents, he had a soundness of judgment, an independence in 
reaching his conclusions after duly weighing all arguments, a 
power of application, and a willingness to give his entire time 
and attention to any subject he had in charge, which more than 
compensated for the most brilliant talents without these quali- 
ties. He had read appreciatively all the leading authors in 
English literature, some of whom he especially admired, as 

those well acquainted with him knew, and as his notes in the 
volumes of his extensive library and various memoranda show. 

" Though always deeply interested in public and political 
affairs, he was never a politician or desirous of political ad- 
vancement, his political services having been limited to three 
sessions of the Legislature and the Constitutional Convention 
of 185.3. He thoroughly despised all hypocrisy, cant, and in- 
sincerity, and never hesitated to express his convictions on all 
proper occasions, but never obtrusively, however much they 
might conflict with the prevailing sentiment of the times. All 
kinds of dishonesty, oppression, and injustice excited his indig- 
nation, and as prosecuting officer, though pursuing offenders he 
believed to be guilty with all his strength, he has been known 
to withdraw a case from the jury when the evidence appeared 
to be leading to certain conviction, having become satisfied from 
his previous conferences that his witnesses, through excessive 
zeal or pride or opinion or some worse motive, were testifying 
more strongly against the defendant than their actual knowl- 
edge would warrant, and fearing that injustice might be done. 
And I have heard him say that, in sentencing defendants, he 
had never imposed more than the one day of solitary imprison- 
ment absolutely required in certain cases; that nothing but a 
positive statute provision could induce him to add what he 
regarded as a kind of torture to a term of confinement to hard 

" Descended from a long line of New England yeomanry, he 
derived from them many of the best characteristics of that 
bi'anch of the Anglo-Saxon race, which has so largely influ- 
enced the destiny of the Western world, had a fund of anecdote 
illustrating their early struggles and peculiarities, and an un- 
usual knowledge of their local and municipal histories. As age 
advanced his fondness for rural quiet and retirement increased; 
he acquired large tracts of land, and delighted to spend his 
summer leisure among their rocks and woods, brooks and foun- 
tains, which had been familiar to him in youth and early man- 
hood. Though he appeared to those who did not know him 
well reserved and unsocial, this was not his natural disposition, 
but resulted from circumstances and his self-reliance, which 
induced habits of life not readily changed. He was at times a 
most instructive and entertaining companion. No man who 
has lived eighly-one years can be said to die untimely ; but the 
strength which extended his years so far beyond the allotted 
term appeared so free from the predicted labor and sorrow that 
we failed to realize how much our senior he really was. A 
learned lawyer, an upright judge, a high-minded, honorable 
man, in the maturity of years and the full vigor of his powers, 
has passed away, leaving the burdens he bore so long and well 
to be taken up and carried by younger men, until they in their 
turn shall be called upon by the great Disposer of the destinies 
of men to lay them down, to be again assumed by others. 

"In accordance of the request of the bar their resolutions, 
with a memorandum of these proceedings, will be entered upon 
the records of the court." 

Hon. Waldo Colburn, son of Thatcher and 
Hattie Cleveland Colburn, was born in Dedham, 
Mass., Nov. 13, 1824. He traces his ancestry in this 
country to Nathaniel Colburn, who emigrated from 
England, and Aug. 11, 1637, received a grant of 
land in the town of Dedham, He remained here 
until his death. May 14, 1691. The line of descent 
is as follows: Samuel, born Jan. 25, 1654 ; Ephraim, 
born Nov. 5, 1687 ; Ephraim, born Dec. 31, 1716; 
Ichabod, born Feb. 26, 1754; Thatcher, born Feb. 





20, 1787, and united in marriage with Hattie Cleve- 
land in June, 1823. 

The subject of our sketch received the rudiments 
of his education at the common schools of his native 
town, and at the age of fifteen entered Phillips (An- ; 
dover) Academy, where he graduated in 1842, in the 
" English Department and Teachers' Seminary," 
which at that time was entirely distinct from the 
classical course. In the following year (1843) he en- 
tered the classical department, where he remained 
until the summer of 1845, when he left the academy, 
and for two years following engaged in various pur- 
suits, chiefly, Itowever, civil engineering and survey- 

May 13, 1847, he entered the law-office of Ira 
Cleveland, Esq., at Dedham, where he pursued his 
studies with diligence and attention, and May 3, 
1850, was admitted to the bar. In the mean time, 
however, he had spent some time in the Harvard Law- 
School. He at once commenced the practice of law 
ill his native town, and very soon took a leading posi- 
tion at the bar. He continued practice here until 
May 27, 1875, when he was appointed by Governor 
Gaston one of the justices of the Superior Court, a 
position virtually thrust upon him, as he knew nothing 
of the intention of Governor Gaston to appoint him 
until the day his name was proposed to the Council, 
and he was promptly confirmed. Nov. 10, 1882, he 
was commissioned by Governor Long as a justice 
of the Supreme Court, a position which he occupies 
at the present time. In speaking of his appointment 
by Governor Gaston, a writer says, " The comprehen- 
sive knowledge of aff"airs, the wisdom, tact, and abil- 
ity, the legal culture and judicial grasp of mind dis- 
played by Judge Colburn, clothe his appointment 
to the bench of the Superior Court with special fitness 
and propriety, and make it one of the salutary acts of 
Governor Gaston's administration." One of the lead- 
ers of the Suff"olk bar, in speaking of Judge Colburn, 
says, " He is one of the ablest, most successful, and 
popular judges in the commonwealth." 

Judge Colburn, although never having been an 
active politician, has always labored to advance the 
interests of his native town, and has filled many posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility within the gift of his 
townsmen. He was a member of the Legislature in 
1853, serving as chairman of the Committee on 
Parishes, Religious Societies, etc. He was returned to 
the Legislature the following year, and served as 
chairman of the Committee on Railroads and Canals. 
During these years he earnestly opposed loaning the 
State's credit to the Hoosac Tunnel scheme. 

In 1870 he represented the Second Norfolk District 

in the State Senate, and served on the Judiciary 
Committee, and had charge of drafting the well- 
known corporation act. Judge Colburn was also for 
several years the candidate of the Democratic party 
for attorney-general. He was chairman of the board 
of selectmen, assessors, and overseers of the poor of 
Dedham for nine successive years, beginning in 1855. 
He is also president of the Dedham Institution for 
Savings, and a director in the Dedham National 

Politically, Judge Colburn was a member of the 
old Whig party, but upon the death of that organi- 
zation he became a member of the Democratic party, 
with which he has since affiliated. He is a kind and 
beneficent neighbor and friend, a learned and upright 
judge, and one of Massachusetts' most honored citizens. 
Nov. 21, 1852, he united in marriage with Miss 
Mary Ellis Gay, daughter of Bunker Gay, of Ded- 
ham. She died Oct. 22, 1859, leaving two daugh- 
ters, — Mary and Anna F., — who are still living. 
Aug. '5, 1861, he married Elizabeth C. Sampson, 
daughter of Ezra W. Sampson, a lawyer, and for thirty 
years clerk of the courts of Norfolk County. There 
was one son by this marriage, who died in childhood. 
Ellis Ames (see history of Canton). 
Judges of Probate.^ — William Heath was bora 
in Roxbury, March 2, 1737, on the estate settled by his 
ancestor in 1636, and was bred a farmer. His fondness 
for military exercises led him, in 1754, to join the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, which he 
commanded in 1770, having previously been made a 
captain in the Suffolk regiment, of which he became 
colonel in 1774. In 1770 he wrote sundry essays in a 
Boston newspaper, signed " A Military Countryman," 
on the importance of military discipline and skill in the 
use of arms. He was a member of the General Court 
in 1761 and in 1771-74, engaged with zeal in the 
Revolutionary contest, was a delegate to ihe Pro- 
vincial Congresses of 1774-75, and was a member of 
the Committees of Correspondence and of Safety. 
Appointed a Massachusetts brigadier-general Dec. 8, 
1774; major-general, June 20, 1775 ; brigadier-general 
(Continental army), June 22, 1775; major-general, 
Aug. 9, 1776. He rendered great service in the 
pursuit of the British troops from Concord, April 19, 
1775, and in organizing the rude and undisciplined 
army around Boston, and with his brigade was sta- 
tioned at Roxbury during the siege of Boston. After 
its evacuation he accompanied the army to New York, 

1 The following notices of the judges of the Probate Court 
are taken from the " Norfolk Court Manual," prepared aud 
published by Henry 0. Hildreth, Esq., in 1876, with the kind 
permission of the author. 



opposed the evacuation of that city, and near the close 
of the year 1776 was ordered to take command of the 
posts in the Highlands. 

In 1777 he was intrusted with the command of the 
eastern department, and had charge of the Saratoga 
(convention) prisoners. In June, 1779, he was or- 
dered to the command on the Hudson, where he was 
stationed till the close of the war. Returning to his 
farm, he became a delegate to the convention that 
adopted the Federal Constitution in 1788, State 
senator in 1791-92, and in 1806 was chosen Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Massachusetts, but declined the 
office. July 2, 1793, he was appointed judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas for the new county of Nor- 
folk, and the same day was appointed first Judge of 
Probate for the county. He died Jan. 24, 1814, 
aged seventy-seven years. 

Edward Hutchinson Robbins was born in 
Milton, Feb. 19, 1758, and was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1775. He studied law with Oakes 
Angier, of Bridgewater, and commenced practice in 
his native town. He was chosen a Representative 
from Milton in 1781, and Speaker of the House of 
Representatives in 1793, which office he held for 
nine successive years. In 1802 he was chosen Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, and held the office until 1807. In 
1793 he was appointed Special Justice of the Court 
of Common Pleas for Norfolk County, and in 1799 
was appointed Chief Justice of the same court. In 
1808 and 1809 he was a member of the Executive 
Council. He also held many other positions of trust 
and responsibility. On the decease of Gen. Heath, in 
1814, he was appointed Judge of Probate for the 
county of Norfolk, which office he held until his 
death, which occurred Dec. 29, 1829.^ 

Sherman Leland was born in Grafton, March 
29, 1793, and remained on his father's farm until he 
was more than twenty years of age. During the two 
or three years following he attended school most of 
the time, and in October, 1805, commenced the 
study of the law, employing the winter months of 
that and the three succeeding years in teaching. He 
was admitted to the bar at Worcester in December, 
1809, and commenced practice at Eastport, Me., 
January, 1810. Oct. 11, 1811, he was appointed 
prosecuting attorney for the county of Washington. 
He represented Eastport in the Massachusetts Legis- 

1 Judge Robbins was a man of fine personal presence, of 
genial manners, and great kindness of heart. He was emphat- 
ically the friend of the widow and orphan, and his death was 
regarded as a great public loss. He lived and died on the fine 
estate on Brush Hill, now the residence of his son, Hon. James 
Murray llobbins. 

lature of 1812, and in December of that year was 
appointed first lieutenant, and served under that ap- 
pointment in the army of the United States upon the 
eastern frontier until April, 1813, when he received 
the appointment of captain in the Thirty-fourth Regi- 
ment of Infantry in the United States army, and 
served until June 5, 1814, when he resigned his 
commission and resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion. In July he removed to Roxbury, Mass., and 
in the year 1815 opened an office in Boston, and 
commenced practice in both the counties of SuiFolk 
and Norfolk. He was a Representative from Rox- 
bury in the Massachusetts Legislature for the years 
1818, '19, '20, and '21. He was also a delegate from 
Roxbury in the Constitutional Convention of 1820. 
He was a member of the Senate of Massachusetts 
from the county of Norfolk for the years 1823 and 
1824, and, during the temporary absence of the presi- 
dent, was elected president pro tern. He was again 
a member of the House of Representatives in the 
year 1825, and was chairman of the committee on 
the judiciary. In 1824 he was a candidate for Rep- 
resentative in Congress for the Norfolk District, but, 
after several trials, his competitor, Hon. John Bailey, 
was elected by a small majority. He was again elected 
a member of the Senate from Norfolk County for the 
years 1828 and 1829, and was president of the Senate 
for the year 1828, and chairman of the Committee on 
the Judiciary for 1829. On the 26th of January, 
1830, he was appointed Judge of Probate for the 
county of Norfolk, in place of Judge Robbins, de- 
ceased, and immediately entered upon the discharge 
of the duties of the office, which he continued to per- 
form until his death, which occurred Nov. 19, 1853, 
at the age of seventy years. 

William Sherman Leland was born in Rox- 
bury, Oct. 12, 1824. After leaving the public 
schools in his native town, he entered the law-office 
of his father, Hon. Sherman Leland, then Judge of 
Probate of the county of Norfolk. On the death of 
his father, in November, 1853, he was appointed to 
fill the vacancy, which position he continued to oc- 
cupy until 1858, when, under the administration of 
Governor Banks, the law concerning Courts of Pro- 
bate and Insolvency was changed, and he failed to re- 
ceive the appointment as judge of the new court. 
He resumed the general practice of law, and soon ac- 
quired a large and lucrative practice. He was for 
many years one of the directors of the People's Bank 
of Roxbury, and was at one time its active president. 
He was one of the projectors of the Elliot Five Cent 
Savings-Bank, and was chosen its president, which 
office he continued to hold until his death, which 



took place July 26, 1869, at the age of forty-four 

George White was born in Quincy. He was 
fitted for college under the instruction of William M. 
Cornell, LL.D., and at the Phillips Academy, in 
Exeter, N. H. He was graduated at Yale College 
in 1848, and began his professional studies in the 
Dane Law-School at Cambridge, and received the 
degree of LL.B. from Harvard College in 1850. 
He completed his studies with Hon. Robert Rantoul, 
Jr., and upon his admission to the Suffolk bar, in 
1851, he became a partner with Mr. Rantoul, Jiaving 
an office in Boston. He was a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention from Quincy in 1853. He was 
appointed Judge of Probate and Insolvency in 1858, 
and he has held the oflBce since that time. He now 
resides in Wellesley, having an office in Boston. (See 
notice of Judge White in history of Wellesley.) 

The Bar. — Fisher Ames. — He was admitted to 
the bar in Suffolk in 1781. He was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1774, and studied law with Wil- 
liam Tudor in Boston. He had an office in Boston 
for a short time, but he removed to Dedham about 
the time of the incorporation of the county. He 
built an office and began practice, although he was a 
member of Congress until 1797. His health, how- 
ever, failed in 1795, and while he continued to 
practise in the courts to some extent, he gradually 
withdrew towards the close of his life. Mr. Ames 
evidently found the trial of ordinary cases very 
irksome, and his time and attention were taken up 
by his farm and politics. His fame as a lawyer was 
completely overshadowed by his eminence as a states- 
man and political writer. An account of his life and 
character will be found in the history of Dedham in 
this volume. 

Horatio Townsend was born in Medfield, March 
29, 1763, and was graduated at Harvard College in 
1783 ; studied law with Theophilus Parsons at New- 
buryport, and began practice in Medfield. In 1799 
he was appointed special justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas, and about the same time was appointed 
clerk of the courts, which office he held until 1811, 
when he was removed by Governor Gerry. He was 
reappointed the following year, and continued in office 
until his death, which occurred at Dedham, July 9, 
1826, at the age of sixty-three years. 

Samuel Haven. — Admitted to the Suffolk bar 
before the incorporation of the county of Norfolk. 
He was the son of Rev. Jason Haven, the minister 
of Dedham, and was born April 5, 1771. He was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1789, and studied 
law with Fisher Ames and his cousin, Samuel Dex- 

ter, of Boston. He was the first Register of Probate 
of this county. In 1802 he was commissioned a 
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and in 1804 
was appointed Chief Justice, and continued in that 
office until the court was abolished, in 1811. He 
was in the office of Register of Deeds until 1833, a 
period of foriy years, and almost wholly retired from 
the practice of law. He then removed to Roxbury, 
where he continued to reside until his death, Sept. 4, 
1847, at the age of seventy-six years. 

The mother of Judge Haven was the sister of 
Samuel Dexter, Sr., and daughter of Rev. Samuel 
Dexter, minister of Dedham. He built the fine 
house near the court-house, on the corner of Court 
and Ames Street, about 1795. His office stood 
upon his grounds, and was the first office occupied 
by Waldo Colburn, who began practice in 1850, but 
it is now removed. It was in this office probably 
the first meeting of the bar was held. He was in- 
terested in theological questions, and wrote an elabo- 
rate pamphlet upon the case of the Dedham Church 
in 1818. He was the father of Samuel F. Haven, 
of Worcester. 

Thomas Greenleaf. — He was a member of the 
bar before the incorporation of the county. He was 
born in Boston, May 15, 1767, and was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1784. He removed to Quincy 
early in the present century. He was a represen- 
tative to the General Court from 1808 to 1820. He 
was a member of the Executive Council from 1820 
to 1822. In 1806 he was appointed a special justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas for the county of 
Norfolk. He died Jan. 5, 1854, aged eighty six 
years and seven months. 

Asaph Churchill, of Milton, was a member of 
the bar at the formation of the county. He was born 
in Middleborough, May 5, 1765, and was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1789, having a disputation 
with Nahum Mitchell, of Bridgewater, as his part for 
commencement. He studied law with John Davis, 
Esq., of Plymouth, and was admitted to practice in 
Boston in 1795. He was one of few attorne3's, prob- 
ably less than twelve, at that time practising law in 
Boston. Having continued his office in Boston for 
several years, he removed to Milton, where he pur- 
chased an estate on Milton Hill of Edward H. Rob- 
bins. He had a large practice in Norfolk County. 
He died in Milton, June 30, 1841, at the age of 
seventy-six years. He was a descendant of John 
Churchill, who came to this country in 1640. 

John Shirley Williams. — Attorney of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1803. He was born in Roxbury, May 
3, 1772, and was graduated at Harvard College in 



1797. He practised law at Roxbury and at Dedham. 
In 1811 he was appointed Clerk of the Courts by Gov- 
ernor Gerry, but was removed the next year by Gov- 
ernor Strong. He was also County Attorney. He 
died at Ware, Mass., while on a journey for his health, 
in May, 1843, aged seventy-one years. 

Henry Maurice Lisle. — Attorney of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1802. He was an Englishman who 
practised law in Milton. He was a man of ability, 
but little is known concerning him. There is a tra- 
dition that he went to the West Indies. 

James Richardson. — Attorney of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1803. He was born in Medfield, Oct. 
lli, 1771, and was graduated at Harvard College in 
1797. He studied law in the office of Fisher Ames in 
Dedham, and was afterwards his partner in business 
until the death of Mr. Ames. He was a learned lawyer, 
and had a taste for literature. He was a senator from 
the county in the session of 1813-14, and a member 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1820. He was 
one of the Presidential electors in 1832. He was 
president of the Bar Association of the county for 
many years. He was at one time engaged in manu- 
facturing business, and towards the close of his life 
withdrew from active practice. He continued to be 
president of the Norfolk Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany until his death, which occurred in May, 1858. 

Jairus Ware. — Counsellor of Supreme Judicial 
Court, March, 1808. He was born in Wrentham, 
Jan. 22, 1772, and was graduated at Brown Univer- 
sity in 1797. He practised law in Wrentham. He 
was Representative to the General Court from 1809 to 
1816, and also 1818-23 ; member of the Executive 
Council, 1825-26; in 1811 Justice of Circuit Court 
of Common Pleas; and in 1819 Chief Justice of the 
Court of Sessions. He was appointed Clerk of the 
Courts Sept. 1, 1826, and held the office until his 
death, which occurred at Dedham, Jan. 18, 1836, at 
the age of sixty-four years. 

Thomas B. Adams. — Counsellor of Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court, March, 1808. He was the third son of 
President John Adams, and was born in Quiiicy, then 
Braintree, Sept. 15, 1772; was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1790 ; was admitted to the bar in the State 
of Pennsylvania, and returned to the commonwealth 
after the incorporation of the county. He was chief 
justice of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas in 1811, 
Representative to General Court from Quincy in 1805, 
and in 1811 was a member of the Executive Council. 
He died March 12, 1832, at the age of fifty-nine years 
and six months. Mr. Adams took an interest in the 
bar meetings for a time, and his name frequently 
appears in these proceedings. 

Gideon L. Thayer. — Counsellor of Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court, 1808. He was the son of Hon. Ebenezer 
Thayer, and was born in Braintree, Sept. 24, 1777. 
He was graduated at Harvard College in 1798, and 
studied law with Benjamin Whitman, of Plymouth 
County, and also with Judge Crauch. He practised 
in that part of Braintree which is now Quincy, and 
also in the easterly part of the town near Weymouth 
Landing. He had a high standing in his profession. 
He died July 17, 1829, at the age of fifty-two years. 

William Dunbar. — Counsellor of Supreme Ju- 
dicial-Court, 1809. He was born in Stoughton, now 
Canton, Aug. 15, 1780, and never received a collegiate 
education. He practised law in Canton for a time, 
and then went West or South, and was gone many 
years. He returned to Canton a few years before his 
death, which took place May 6, 1848, and did some 
office work. 

Daniel Adams. — Counsellor of Supreme Judicial 
Court, 1809. He was born in VVatertown, March 26, 
1779 ; was graduated at Harvard College in 1799, and 
commenced the practice of law at Medfield. He was 
a Representative to the General Court from 1812 to 
1820, excepting one year, and again in 1841. He was 
appointed Judge of the Court of Sessions of Norfolk 
County in 1822, and upon the retirement of Judge 
Ware, in 1826, was made Chief Justice. He died 
Sept. 2, 1852, at the age of seventy-three years. 

Jabez CiilCKERiNG. — Counsellor of Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court, 1809. He was the son of the Rev. Jabez 
Chickering, of Dedham (South Parish), where he was 
born Aug. 28, 1782. He began practice in Dedham 
and continued it for many years. He subsequently 
engaged in manufactures, and was cashier of the Ded- 
ham Bank. He removed in 1823 to Monroe, Mich., 
where he died Oct. 20, 1826. 

Joseph Harrington. — Counsellor of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1809. He had an office in Roxbury, 
where he practised many years. 

David Allen Simmons. — Attorney of Circuit 
Court of Common Pleas, September, 1812. He was 
born in Boston, Nov. 7, 1785, and was educated at 
Chesterfield Academy in New Hampshire, whither he 
removed in his childhood. He returned to Boston 
in 1806, and studied law with Thomas Williams, of 
Roxbury. He had an office in Boston, and was part- 
ner with George Gay, who was admitted at the same 
time, for many years, and afterwards with James M. 
Keith and Harvey Jewell. He always lived at Rox- 
bury, and had a good practice in Norfolk County. He 
was a man of remarkable energy, and conducted his 
cases with zeal and ability. He died in Roxbury, 
Nov. 20, 1859, at the age of seventy-two years. He 



had received the honorary degree of Bachelor of Laws 
from Dartmouth College. 

JosiAH J. FiSKE. — Counsellor of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1815. (See history of Wrentham.) 

John King. — Counsellor of Supreme Judicial 
Court, 1811. He had an office in Randolph, where 
he practised many years. 

Samuel P. Loud. — Counsellor of Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court, 1811. He was born in Weymouth, 
March, 1783 ; was graduated at Brown University in 
1805 ; studied law in the office of John Quincy 
Adams, and began the practice of law in Dorchester. 
He was a representative from Dorchester and senator 
from Norfolk County for many years ; was a member 
of the Executive Council in 1841 and 1842, and 
represented the town in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1853. He was for six years a justice of the 
Court of Sessions for the county, and from 1828 to 
1853, a period of twenty-five years of continuous 
service, he was chairman of the county commission- 
ers. He died at Dorchester, July 11, 1875, at the 
age of ninety-two years and four months. 

Christopher Webb. — Counsellor of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1813. He was graduated at Brown 
University in 1803 and resided in Weymouth, and 
was a representative to the General Court from that 
town for many years, and was also a senator from 
the county from 1827 to 1834. He was county 
attorney for the county, and in 1826 was commis- 
sioner of highways. He died in Baltimore in Febru- 
ary, 1848, aged sixty-seven years. 

Erastus Worthington. — Counsellor of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1813. He was born in Belchertown, 
Mass., Oct. 8, 1779, and was graduated at Williams 
College in 1804. After his graduation he was em- 
ployed for a time in teaching, and then began the 
study of law, which he completed in the office of 
John Heard, Esq., of Boston. He was first ad- 
mitted in Suff"olk, but came to Dedliam in 1809. 
Here he continued to practise until about the year 
1825, when, having been active in the formation of 
the Norfolk Mutual Fire Insurance Company, he 
became its first secretary, and held this office until 
1840, when he resigned it on account of ill health. 
He was Representative from Dedham to the General 
Court in 1814 and 1815. He wrote and published 
" An Essay on the Establishment of a Chancery 
Jurisdiction in Massachusetts," which is believed 
upon competent authority to have been the first ar- 
gument published in favor of an equity jurisdiction 
in the commonwealth. In 1827 he wrote and pub- 
lished a " History of Dedham from its Settlement in 
1635 to May, 1827." He died June 27, 1842. 

Ebenezer F. Thayer. — Counsellor of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1813. He was a brother of Gideon 
L. Thayer, and was born in Braintree, June 12, 1784. 
He studied law with H. M. Lisle, of Milton, with 
James Sullivan and Gideon L. Thayer. In company 
with Samuel K. Williams, he practised in Boston 
some six or eight years, and afterwards in Brain- 
tree. He died Feb. 15, 1824, at about forty years 
of age. 

Thomas Greenleaf, Jr. — Counsellor of the 
Supreme Judicial Court, 1814. He was a son of 
Thomas Greenleaf, of Quincy ; was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1806, and died in 1817. 

Cyrus Alden. — Counsellor of the Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court, 1815. He was born at Bridgewater, 
Mass., and was graduated at Brown University in 
1807, and studied law at Litchfield, Conn., and with 
William Baylies, at West Bridgewater. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar first at Plymouth. He began the 
practice of the law at Wrentham, where he remained 
for six years and then removed to Fall River, from 
which town he was Representative to the General 
Court in 1837. In 1819 he published a work en- 
titled, " An Abridgement of Law, with Practical 
Forms." He was a worthy man and had a good rep- 
utation in his profession. He died in 1855. 

Samuel J. Gardner. — Counsellor of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1814. He was born in Brookline, 
July 9, 1788. He entered Harvard College in 1803, 
being the youngest member of his class. He left 
college a few days before the close of his senior year, 
being engaged with his class in a rebellion. Gardner 
was invited to return and take the valedictory part at 
commencement, but he declined. Some years after, 
he received an honorary degree from the college. He 
studied law with Judge Fay, of Cambridge, and at- 
tended lectures at Philadelphia. He began practice 
in Roxbury in 1810. His office was on Boston^eck, 
and was a well-known landmark for twenty years. 
He acquired considerable property in his practice, 
and retired from active practice after a time. He was 
active in public affairs, being secretary and treasurer 
of the Roxbury Grammar School, and manager of 
the Roxbury Benevolent Society. He was a Repre- 
sentative to the General Court, president of the Nor- 
folk County Temperance Society, and Deputy Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons in Massa- 

He subsequently lost much of his property, and in 
1838 he removed to Newark, N. J., where he en- 
gaged in literary pursuits and in the education of his 
children. In 1844 he removed to New York. He 
was for eleven years editor of the Newark Daily Ad- 



vertiser. He was an accomplished scholar and able 
writer, and under his editorial administration his paper 
held a high position among the leading journals of the 
country. In the discussions preceding the war of the 
Rebellion he was a vigorous supporter of the party of 
the Union. He retired from this post at the age of 
seventy-two in 1861. He died in the White Moun- 
tains, July 14, 1864, at the age of seventy-six years. 
After his death a selection of his writings, written for 
the columns of his newspaper, appeared under the 
name of" Autumn Leaves," and in these the wit and 
humor which made his conversation delightful found 

Abner Loring. — Attorney of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court, 1813. He was born in Hingham, July 
21, 1786, and was graduated at Harvard College in 
1807. He studied law with Ebenezer Gay. He 
began practice at Dorchester, and was well read in his 
profession, devoted to business, and of unexception- 
able character. He died, deeply lamented, July 18, 
1814, at the age of twenty-eight years. 

Thomas Tolman. — Counsellor of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1820. He was born in Stoughton, 
Feb. 20, 1791, and was graduated at Brown Univer- 
sity in 1811. He practised law in Canton until 1837, 
and then removed to Boston and had an office there. 
He was a Representative to the General Court from 
Canton in 1828 and 1836. He was afterwards a 
member of the Executive Council. He died in 
Boston in 1869. 

John B. Derby. — Counsellor-at-Law of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1821. He practised law in Dedham 
for some years, and afterwards removed to Boston, 
where he died. He was the father of Lieut. Derby, 
well known as a humorous writer under the nom de 
jylume of " John Phoenix." 

Lewis Whiting Fisher. — Attorney of the Cir- 
cuit Court of Common Pleas, September term, 1819. 
He was born in Franklin, Dec. 29, 1792, was grad- 
uated at Brown University in 1816, and studied law 
with Josiah J. Fiske, at Wrentham. He afterwards 
opened an office at Wrentham, where he lived until 
his death, April 20, 1827. 

John W. Ames. — Attorney of Supreme Judicial 
Court, 1820. He was the eldest son of Fisher Ames, 
and was born Oct. 22, 1793. He was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1813, and studied law with 
Theron Metcalf. He had an office in Boston for a 
short time, but soon removed to Dedham. He was 
Representative to the General Court from Dedham in 
1822, and was president of the Dedham Bank from 
June 16, 1829, to his death, Oct. 31, 1833. lie was 
never married, but always lived with his mother. He 

was much interested in the building of the court-house 
in 1827. 

Abel Cushing. — Counsellor of Supreme Judicial 
Court, 1818. He was graduated at Brown Univer- 
sity in 1810, studied with Ebenezer Gay, of Hing- 
ham, and practised law in this county for a number 
of years, having an office in Dorchester. He was 
afterwards appointed a justice of the Justices' Court 
in Boston, which office he held until his resignation, 
shortly before his death, in 1866. He was a Repre- 
sentative to the General Court from Dorchester for 
three years, and also a Senator from Norfolk County. 

Meletiah Everett. — Counsellor of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1820. He was born in Wrentham, 
June 24, 1777. He was graduated at Brown Uni- 
versity in 1802, He studied law with Hon. Laban 
Wheaton, of Norton, and began practice in Foxbor- 
ough, where he resided until about the year 1832, 
when he removed to Wrentham. He was a Repre- 
sentative to the General Court from Foxborough in 
1831, and was a Senator from the county in 1841 and 
1842. He was a safe and prudent counsellor. He 
died in Wrentham in 1858. The Hon. Horace 
Everett, of Vermont, was his brother. 

Ezra Weston Sampson. — He was probably ad- 
mitted to the bar in the county of Plymouth. He 
was born in Duxbury, Dec. 1, 1797, and was gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1816. He had an office 
in Braintree, where he practised law about twelve 
years. Upon the decease of Judge Ware, he was ap- 
pointed in 1836 Clerk of the Courts for the county, 
and held the office until January, 1867. During the 
last year of his life he was unable to perform the 
duties of his office by reason of illness. He died in 
Dedham, Jan. 15, 1867, at the age of sixty-nine 

Warren Lovering. — Counsellor of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, October term, 1825. He was grad- 
uated at Brown University in 1817. He had an 
office in Medway for many years, and at one time had 
an extensive practice. He was a Representative to 
the General Court from Medway in 1827 and 1828. 
He held several important offices, and was a promi- 
nent member of the Whig party. The last years of 
his life were spent in poverty and obscurity. He died 
in 1876. 

Jonathan Parker Bishop was born in Kil- 
lingly, Conn., April 10, 1792. He was the son of 
Jonathan Parker Bishop, a well-known physician 
and Hannah (Torrey) Bishop. He commenced the 
practice of law in Medfield about the year 1818, 
having been admitted to the bar in another county, 
and was prominently identified with the affairs of the 



town during his life. He represented the town in 
the Legislature in 1848 and 1851, and was actively 
interested in the election of Charles Sumner to the 
United States Senate, which first took place in the 
latter year. He was largely instrumental in the build- 
ing of the Charles River Railroad, which was opened 
through the town in 1861. He died July 10, 1865. 

Aaron Prescott. — Attorney of Supreme Judi- 
cial Court, 1820. He was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1814. He practised law for many years 
in the county, and had an ofiice in Randolph. He 
died in 1851. 

Jonathan H. Cobb. — Counsellor of Supreme 
Judicial Court, 1824. He was born in Sharon, 
July 8, 1799, and was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1817. He began the study of law in the office 
of William Dunbar, of Canton, where he remained 
until Oct. 9, 1818, when he went to Charleston, 
S. C., and opened a classical school. In 1819 he 
returned to Massachusetts, and completed his legal 
studies in the office of Jabez Chickering, of Dedham. 
He was editor of the Village Register, in Dedham, 
and had an office in Boston. In 1831 he was active 
in the formation of the Dedham Institution for Sav- 
ings, of which he was the first treasurer. In 1831 
the Legislature requested the Governor to procure 
the compilation of a manual on the mulberry-tree 
and the manufacture of silk, which was prepared by 
Mr. Cobb, of which several editions were published, 
and afterwards republished by order of Congress. 
In 1837 he established a manufactory of sewing-silk 
in Dedham, of which he was superintendent and 
principal proprietor, but which was burned in 1845. 
In 1833 he was appointed register of probate for 
Norfolk County, which office he held until 1879. 
He was for thirty consecutive years the town clerk 
of Dedham, declining re-election in 1875. He was 
deacon of the First Church for more than forty 
years, and for the same period an active magistrate of 
the county. He died March 12, 1882. 

George C. Wilde. — Attorney of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, October term, 1826. He was the 
son of the Hon. Samuel S. Wilde, a justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court. His professional life was 
a brief one, but he practised law in Wrentham until 
about the year 1835, when he was appointed Clerk of 
the Supreme Judicial Court in the county of Suffolk, 
an office which he held for about forty years. 

Ira Cleveland. — Attorney of the Court of 
Common Pleas, Dec. 5, 1827. 

Horace Mann. — Attorney of Court of Common 
Pleas, 1826 ; Supreme Judicial Court, 1827. He 
was the son of Thomas and Mary Mann, and was 

born in Franklin, May 4, 1796. He was graduated 
at Brown University in 1819. He entered the office 
of Josiah J. Fiske, at Wrentham, but soon after 
became a tutor at Brown University for two years. 
He then studied a year in the law-school at 
Litchfield, Conn., and completed his studies with 
James Richardson, at Dedham. He opened an 
office in Dedham, being the same lately occupied 
by Jabez Chickering, on the corner of Court and 
Church Streets. He was a Representative to the 
General Court from Dedham for four years, 1827- 
31. In 1833 he removed to Boston, and entered 
into a partnership with Edward G. Loring. He was 
a member of the Senate from Suffolk four years, and 
in 1837 was president of that body. He was chair- 
man of the committee for the revision of the statutes 
of 1836, and prepared the marginal notes and cita- 
tions of cases, as editor with Theron Metcalf. He 
was appointed secretary of the Board of Education 
upon its organization, June 29, 1837. Of the great 
distinction and influence to which he attained in this 
office it is unnecessary to speak in this notice, or of 
his career as a member of Congress from 1848-52, 
which though brief was memorable. He died while 
president of Antioch College, Ohio, Aug. 2, 1859. 

The brief period of practice in his profession at 
Dedham is naturally overlooked by reason of his 
having become so widely known as an educator and 
philanthropist, yet he was remembered by his con- 
temporaries who knew him as a lawyer as a man of 
brilliant parts, and was a successful advocate. He 
was fond of controversy, and wielded an extremely 
caustic pen. He had many admirers in Norfolk 
County, and years after his removal from Dedham, 
when he was an independent candidate for Congress, 
the popularity and influence gained while at the bar, 
aided materially in his election. 

John Jones Clarke. — Counsellor of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, Nov. 5, 1830. He was born Feb. 
24, 1803 ; was the son of Rev. Pitt Clarke (H. C. 
1790), of Norton, Mass., and Rebecca (Jones) 
Clarke, of Hopkinton. He was at school at the Nor- 
ton Academy, and was fitted for college partly at the 
Framingham and Andover x\cademies and partly by 
his father, who was, for his time, a distinguished 
scholar and teacher. 

He entered Harvard College in 1819, with a class 
in which, at the end of the course of four years, a 
famous rebellion occurred, on account of which a 
large majority of the class were refused their degrees, 
and it was not until 1841 that Mr. Clarke received 
from the college the degrees of A.B. and A.M. 

Upon leaving college, Mr. Clarke pursued the 



study of law in the oflSce of Hon. Laban Wheaton, 

of Norton, for a year ; he then entered the oflBce of 
James Richardson, Esq., at Dedham, where he re- 
mained two years ; he was then, in 1826, admitted to 
the bar of the Court of Common Pleas, and after- 
wards, in 1830, to the bar of the Supreme Court. 

In 1826, Mr. Clarke commenced the practice of 
law in Roxbury, where he has ever since resided, 
having an office on Washington Street, nearly oppo- 
site Eustis. Here his business gradually increased, 
and in 1830 he married Miss Rebecca Cordis Has- 
well, a daughter of Capt. Robert Haswell, formerly 
in the navy, and afterwards in the mercantile service, 
and step-daughter of John Lemist, Esq., a prominent 
citizen of Roxbury, a union which has been emi- 
nently happy, the fiftieth anniversary of which was 
celebrated by a large circle of their friends in 1880. 

Mr. Clarke early became one of the leaders of the 
bar of Norfolk County, and he was frequently re- 
tained in important cases in Plymouth and Bristol 

On the acceptance in 1848 of a seat on the bench 
by Hon. George T. Bigelow, Mr. Clarke formed a 
partnership with his brother, Mr. Manlius S. Clarke, 
who had to that time been Judge Bigelow's partner. 
The principal office of the firm was in Boston, but 
Mr. Clarke retained his office in Roxbury for some 
years after this, and continued to attend to business 
in Norfolk County, in addition to attending to a por- 
tion of the large business of the firm of J. J. & M. 
S. Clarke in Suffolk County and elsewhere. 

This partnership was ended by the death of Mr. 
M. S. Clarke in 1853, and for a few months Mr. 
Elias Merwin was associated with Mr. Clarke, and 
aided in winding up the unfinished business of the 
old firm. In April, 1854, he took as a partner Mr. 
Lemuel Shaw, Jr., who had been a student in his 
office. This partnership continued until 1863, when 
in consequence of the increasing personal responsi- 
bilities of both partners it was dissolved, and from 
the same cause Mr. Clark gradually withdrew from 
active practice. 

Mr. Clarke early joined the First Church in Rox- 
bury, and has been an active and useful member of 
that church and congregation. 

He was a member of the House of Representatives 
for Roxbury in 1836 and 1837, and of the Senate 
for Norfolk County in 1853, and when Roxbury was 
incorporated in 1846 he was chosen its first mayor, 
and rendered efficient service in organizing the new 
city government, but declined to hold the office for 
more than one year. 

Mr. Clarke was at one time president of the Win- 

throp Bank of Roxbury, was one of the founders 
and the finst president of the Roxbury Gas Company, 
and in the early history of the Metropolitan Railroad 
was one of its directors, and in every relation in life 
has always commanded the respect and confidence of 
his fellow-citizens. 

Mr. Clarke was in early life a zealous member of 
the Whig party, but since the dissolution of that 
party he has not taken an active part in politics, 
though always doing his duty as a good citizen in 
voting at every election. He has always taken a 
great interest in the suppression of intemperance, and 
has for many years been a total abstainer from all 
intoxicating agents. 

Mr. Clarke continues to occupy an office at 27 
State Street, Boston, where he has been ia practice 
since 1848, but of late years his time has been de- 
voted principally to the care of estates of which he is 

John Mark Gourgas. — Attorney of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, November term, 1830. He was grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1824. He practised law 
in this county during his life, having an office in 
Quincy. He died in 1862, and was never married. 
He was a careful and accurate lawyer. 

Nathaniel Foster Sapford was born in Salem 
in 1815, and was graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1835. He studied law with Asahel Huntington, of 
Salem, where he was admitted to the bar. He began 
practice in Dorchester in 1839, where he acted as 
magistrate, and also as a master in chancery in the 
period of jurisdiction under the insolvent laws. He 
was Representative to the General Court from Dor- 
chester in 1850 and 1851. In 1853 he was nomi- 
nated by the Whig party to succeed Samuel P. Loude, 
who had declined further service as county commis- 
sioner, but there having been no choice by the people 
after two trials, he was appointed by Governor Clifford 
to fill the vacancy. He was elected chairman of the 
board, a position which he continued to fill by succes- 
sive re-elections until Jan. 1, 1868. He was again 
elected county commissioner in 1872, and from Jan. 
1, 1873, to January, 1879, he was chairman of the 
board. He now resides in Milton, but has an office 
in Boston. 

William S. Morton practised law at Quincy for 
many years, but he was not admitted in this county. 
He was graduated at Harvard College in 1831, and 
died at Quincy in 1871. He was a trial justice for 
some years. 

Naaman L. White, — He was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1835. He has had an office in Brain- 
tree for many years, where he now resides. He was 


^^"--r <^^^ 





admitted to the bar elsewhere, and is not now in 
active practice. 

Fisher A. Kingsbury was a native of Norfolk 
County, and practised many years at Weymouth. He 
died many years ago. He acted as magistrate in Wey- 
mouth. He was admitted as counsellor of the Supreme 
Judicial Court in 1831. 

Asaph Churchill, Jr. — Attorney and counsellor, 
September term, Court of Common Pleas, 1834. He 
was born in Milton, April 20, 181-1. He was grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1831 ; studied law with 
his father at Milton, and in the Harvard Law-School. 
He was admitted to the bar before he was twenty-one 
years of age, and had an office at the Lower Mills, in 
Dorchester, and Milton until 1857, when he took an 
office in Boston, where he has since continued to prac- 
tise, having had for his partner, from 1857 to 1870, 
Edward L. Pierce, and since that time his son, Joseph 
R. Churchill. He was a Senator from Norfolk County 
in 1857 ; was a director and president of the Dorchester 
and Milton Bank, afterwards the Blue Hill Bank, for 
more than twenty-five years. He was also president 
of the Dorchester Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 
He has resided in Dorchester, and has had a large 
practice, to which at this date (1883) he is fully 

Abner L. Cushing. — He was born in Dorchester, 
and was the son of Abel Cushing. He was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1838. He edited the Boston 
Republic a few years, and studied law with his father. 
He began practice in Boston, and subsequently re- 
moved to Randolph, where he had an extensive prac- 
tice in this county for many years. In 1863 he 
removed to New York, where he is now engaged in 
the practice of law. 

Samuel Warner. — Attorney and counsellor. Court 
of Common Pleas, September term, 1841. He was 
born in Providence, R. I., and was fitted for college 
at Day's Academy, in Wrentham. He was gradu- 
ated at Brown University in 1838. He began prac- 
tice in Wrentham, where he has continued to reside 
and practise law ever since. He was Representative 
to the General Court from Wrentham in 1843, 1848, 
and 1882. He was Senator from the county in 1851, 
and a member of the Constitutional Convention in 
1853. He was land agent of the commonwealth 
from 1851 to 1854, and has been a trial justice since 

Ellis Worthington. — Attorney and counsellor, 
September term, Court of Common Pleas, 1842. 
He was born in Dedham, Feb. 11, 1816, and was 
the son of Erastus Worthington. He was fitted for 
college at Day's Academy, in Wrentham, and entered 

Brown University, but did not complete his college 
course. He studied law in the Dane Law-School at 
Cambridge, and in the office of Ezra Wilkinson at 
Dedham. He had an office in Dedham for a short 
time after his admission to the bar. He afterwards 
removed to Fort Wayne, Ind., and thence to Mil- 
waukee, Wis., where he continued to practise law. 
He was afterwards the general agent of the ^tna 
Insurance Company of Hartford at Springfield, 111., 
and was subsequently the vice-president of the Put- 
nam Insurance Company of Hartford. He died in 
Palmyra, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1871. 

John King. — Attorney and counsellor, April term. 
Court of Common Pleas, 1843. He is the son of 
John King, of Randolph, and was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1839, and studied law with Ezra 
Wilkinson. He had an office in Dedham for a time, 
but he afterwards removed to the West, and now 
resides in Iowa. 

Hon. William Gaston. — The subject of this 
sketch traces his ancestry to a family of France who 
were zealous adherents of the Huguenot cause. The 
direct ancestor of his branch of the family, driven 
from his native land, sought refuge in Scotland, from 
which place, between the years 1662 and 1668, his 
sons, being in great peril because of their firm ad- 
herence to the Protestant faith, fled to the north of 
Ireland for safety. 

The forefather of Governor Gaston, with a younger 
brother, arrived in this country about 1730. He 
located in Connecticut, where his family remained 
for more than a century. Not only has Governor 
Gaston honored the family name and connected his 
name inseparably with the history of the old com- 
monwealth, but North Carolina as well claims among 
her distinguished citizens one of the same name and 
family, William Gaston, an eminent jurist and states- 
man, judge of the Supreme Court of the State. 

Governor William Gaston, son of Alexander and 
Keziah Arnold Gaston, was born in Killingley, Conn., 
Oct. 3, 1820. His father was a well-known mer- 
chant of Connecticut, and a man of sterling integrity 
and strong force of character. The family removed 
from Killingley to Boston in 1838. Mr. Gaston was 
prepared for college at Brooklyn and Plainfield Acad- 
emies, and at the early age of fifteen entered Brown 
University, where he maintained a high rank in his 
class and was graduated with honor in 1840. Hav- 
ing decided upon the legal profession as a life-study, 
he entered the office of Judge Hilliard, of Roxbury, 
where he remained for a time, and continued his legal 
studies with C. P. and B. R. Curtis, of Boston, with 
whom he remained until his admission to the bar in 



1844. In 1846 he opened a law-ofRce in Roxbury, 
and very soon took a leading position at the bar. He 
continued his practice here with marked success until 
1865, when, in company with Hawley Jewell and 
Walbridge A. Field, he formed a copartnership in 
Boston, under the firm-name of Jewell, Gaston & 
Field, which continued until Mr. Gaston's elevation 
to the gubernatorial chair of Massachusetts in 1874. 

Governor Gaston is a Democrat in politics, and, 
although not an active politician, he has had many 
positions of trust and responsibility virtually thrust 
upon him, and his career in many respects has been 
as remarkable as it was brilliant. In 1853 and 1854 
he was elected to the House of Representatives as a 
Whig, and in 1856 was re-elected by a fusion of 
Whigs and Democrats against the Know-Nothing 
candidate. He was elected to the Senate in 1868, 
although his district was strongly Republican. He 
was also for a long time city solicitor of Roxbury, 
and mayor of Roxbury, 1861-62. In 1870 he was 
his party's candidate for Congress, but was defeated. 
In 1870, after the annexation of Roxbury to Boston, 
he was elected mayor of the city, and re-elected in 
1871. In this year a spirited contest ensued for the 
mayoralty, Mr. Gaston being the Democratic candidate 
and Hon. Henry L. Pierce the nominee of the Re- 
publicans. At first it was announced that Mr. Gas- 
ton was elected, but upon a recount of votes Mr. 
Pierce was declared mayor by a plurality of seventy- 
nine votes. Mr. Gaston's popularity and strength 
was significantly shown in this contest, for only one 
month previously Gen. Grant had carried the city 
by five thousand five hundred majority. 

In the fall of 1874 Mr. Gaston recceived the nom- 
ination for Governor, and entered the canvass in op- 
position to Hon. Thomas Talbot, at that time acting 
Governor of the commonwealth, and one of the 
strongest men in the Republican party. The result 
astonished and electrified the country. Mr. Gaston 
was elected by seven thousand plurality. He entered 
upon his high ofiice with a determination to discharge 
its duties solely for the benefit of the commonwealth 
as a whole, and nobly was this duty performed. He 
brought to the gubernatorial chair not only a superior 
legal mind, but that executive ability which a success- 
ful administration of the ofiice demands. Not a bitter 
partisan, he was guided by a conservative policy 
which was commended alike by both parties. He 
declined the nomination for Governor in 1876, al- 
though a large majority of the convention was in his 
favor, and he also declined in the same year the con- 
gressional nomination from the Fourth District. 

In 1875 he received the degree of LL.D. from 

Harvard, and also from his Alma Mater, Brown Uni- 
versity. In 1852 he united in marriage with Louisa 
A., daughter of Laban S. Beecher, of Roxbury. 
Scholarly, with social attainments of a high charac- 
ter, and a legal mind that has placed him among the 
leaders of the Suff"olk bar, he is justly esteemed as 
one of Boston's most honored citizens. 

Samuel Bradley Notes, eldest son of Samuel 
and Elizabeth (Morrill) Noyes, was born in Dedham, 
April 9, 1817. On his father's side he is of the 
Noyes family of Choulderton, Wiltshire, England, and 
his ancestor, Nicholas Noyes, with his brother, James, 
a clergyman, came to New England in 1634, to New- 
bury in 1635, five years after Winthrop's settlement 
of Boston. On his mother's side his grandfather, 
Eliakim Morrill, was a highly respectable citizen of 
Dedham, and his great-grandfather, the Rev. Isaac 
Morrill (H. U. 1737), was a solemn Puritan divine, 
who died (1793) in office as pastor at Wilmington. 
It will thus be perceived that Mr. Noyes is of a very 
old New England stock, and of that Puritan clerical 
strain which Dr. Holmes so felicitously calls " the 
Brahmin caste" in society. Mr. Noyes himself has 
always been interested in church and parochial afiairs, 
and has enjoyed a wide acquaintance with the clergy 
of his faith. He attended the public schools, and for 
one year a private school in Dedham under the tuition 
of Hon. Francis W. Bird (B. U. 1832). He entered 
Phillips Academy, Andover, in 1836, and remained 
there till the summer of 1840, when he left to join 
his class at Cambridge (H. U. 1844). Of his student 
life at Phillips Academy Mr. Noyes has always re- 
tained a most tender regard ; and in 1875 the Phil- 
omathean Society in the academy, in which Mr. Noyes 
played a prominent part during his student days at 
Andover, held its semi-centennial anniversary and he 
was chosen the orator of the day, his address being 
subsequently printed, together with the other literary 
exercises of the day, in an illustrated pamphlet of 
permanent interest and value. On leaving college he 
studied law with the Hon. Isaac Davis, of Worcester 
(B. U. 1822), afterwards with Hon. Ezra Wilkinson, 
of Dedham (B. U. 1824), and Hon. Ellis Ames, of 
Canton (B. U. 1830). He was admitted to the 
Norfolk County bar, April, 1847, and began practice 
in his adopted town of Canton, where he has resided 
ever since, with the exception of two years which he 
spent in Florida. He married, in January, 1850, 
Miss Georgiana, daughter of James and Abigail 
(Gookin) Beaumont. Her father came to New 
England from Derby, England, in 1800, and built 
the first mill erected for the manufacture of cotton 
by machinery in Massachusetts in 1802. Her mother 

'^'i^e ■''hyAJi.nvtchva 



was the daughter of Edmund Gookin, a lineal de- 
scendant from Daniel Gookin, who in 1650 was 
magistrate of all the Indians in Massachusetts, and 
who accompanied the Apostle John Eliot in his visits 
to the various tribes, and whose history of the Indians 
is published in the collections of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. They have four children and two 

His public offices have been justice of the peace 
(1849), trial justice (1850), commissioner of insol- 
vency (1853), special county commissioner for Nor- 
folk County (1856), trial justice again (1857). From 
1849 to 1871 he was a member of the school com- 
mittee of Canton, superintendent of public schools, 
1857-58, 1861-64, 1867-71, and he has always been 
an interested worker in the cause of popular education 
even beyond the borders of his own town. 

In 1864 he was appointed by Hon. William Pitt 
Fessenden, Secretary of the United States Treasury 
Department, a special agent of the department, and 
acting collector of customs at Fernandina, Florida. In 
this post, on the frontiers of a rebellion not then sub- 
dued, he had a rare chance to study the undercurrents 
of the great war among the Southern people, and his 
private journal would no doubt show quaint and sug- 
gestive incidents of the popular temper and conduct 
in Florida and Southern Georgia at that exciting time. 
After two years' service here he returned North, leav- 
ing behind him many warm friends, whose memory 
he cherishes as among the most valued treasures of 
his busy life. On his return to Massachusetts, in 
May, 1867, he was appointed by Hon. Salmon P. 
Chase, chief justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, a register in bankruptcy for the Second 
Congressional District in Massachusetts, an office 
which he still holds, although the acts of Congress of 
1878 so far modified its duties that Mr. Noyes has 
had leisure to return to some extent to the practice of 
his favorite profession of the law. As a lawyer Mr. 
Noyes has naturally been interested in politics, — State 
and national, — giving much time and attention to 
questions of public policy and administration, and 
since its organization has been a consistent and useful 
member of the Republican party. 

In politics results are generally reached through 
carefully-arranged and judiciously-executed details, 
projected and planned away from public observation 
and in a wise adjustment of means to ends, in the 
absence of which political movements are like the 
moves in a game of chance. As an adviser as to what 
to do and how to do it, and a worker in the execution 
of well-laid plans, he has lent a ready and serviceable 
hand to party movements and party successes. 

Mr. Noyes has always maintained an extensive 
acquaintance with political leaders, hence his influ- 
ence has been much sought and not withheld when 
it could be used in the furtherance of justice or the 
promotion of the right, etc., in helping to shape 
party action and legislation, so to secure these desir- 
able ends. 

In private life Mr. Noyes is known to be a man of 
taste and culture, a reliable friend, and never more 
so than when friendship is needed, a genial com- 
panion and an accomplished entertainer in private 
hospitalities. The classics of his school and college 
life have been to him life-long companions and friends. 
He has from his youth devoted himself to music with 
an absorbing enthusiasm. While in college he was 
leader of the college choir and of the Harvard Glee 

It is quite safe to assume, that had he given him- 
self to the study and practice of the fine art of 
music as the leading object of his life, the natural 
qualities of his voice, so finely attuned, combined 
with a power of passionate musical expression, born 
of genius, would have given him distinguished rank 
among the great tenors of the age. As an ama- 
teur he has been always heard with favor at the 
musical festivals, parish churches, and society meet- 
ings in the county, and whenever he consents to take 
the •' baton" and assume the conductor's role, as he 
does sometimes in the old " Stoughton Musical So- 
ciety," he discovers the ability to impress large bodies 
of performers with his own enthusiasm, and to lead 
them to fine musical results. 

He has also been a very industrious writer for the 
public press, and his historical and local essays have 
often a picturesqueness and vivacity which are charm- 
ing. He is fond of ancient lore, and of gath- 
ering and reading out-of-the-way literature of the 
personal and archaic kind, from which he gathers 
rare sayings and incidents to adorn his contributions 
to the press. His special taste is towards the old 
English writers of the age of Addison and of John- 
son, while his knowledge of Shakespeare, and of the 
famous actors who have represented him for the last 
forty years on the American stage, is extensive. He 
is a member of the New England Historic and 
Genealogical Society, of the New England Agricul- 
tural Society, of the Massachusetts Press Associa- 
tion, of the Bunker Hill 3Ionument Association, and 
of the Stoughton Musical Society, of which latter he 
is a member of the committee of arrangements for 
the centennial celebration of its anniversary in 1886, 

Socially, Mr. Noyes is a hale and hearty friend, 
with nothing negative in his make-up, but abounding 



in positive points of a warm and strong personality. 
Of Puritan stock, he has not a shade of Puritan 
austerity, but rather the reverse, and his good fellow- 
ship is a Boston proverb. He is Saxon rather than 
Norman in temperament, and his friends find in him 
a certain mellowness, as of an older civilization than 
our own, which makes him well met with the agree- 
able and those who make merry. 

In the affairs of a busy and exacting profession he 
has retained and developed his taste for literature and 
history, and while a New Englander by birth and 
education, his temperament has always led him to 
that wider society of mankind, whei'e 

" One touch of nature makes the whole world kin." 

Nehemiaii C. Berry. — Attorney and counsellor, 
Court of Common Pleas, Dec. 24, 1846. He had 
an office for some years at Randolph, and practised 
in this county, but he many years since removed to 
Roxbury, and took an office in Boston, where he 
continues to practise in his profession. 

Elijah Fox Hall. — Attorney and counsellor, 
Court of Common Pleas, September term, 1847. 
He began practice as a partner with Jonathan P. 
Bishop, of Medfield. He afterwards was a partner 
with Fisher A. Kingsbury at Weymouth, where he 
continued to practise until his death in 1867. He 
acted as a magistrate in Weymouth. 

James Humphrey was born in Weymouth, Jan. 
20, 1819. lie was educated at the Phillips Acad- 
emy in Andover, where he was graduated with the 
first honors of his class in 1839. He was a teacher 
until 1852, when he entered the office of D. W. 
Gooch, in Boston, and was admitted to the Suffolk 
bar in 1855. He held the office of selectman in 
Weymouth for twenty years, and during a large part 
of the time was chairman of the board. He was Rep- 
resentative to the General Court in 1852 and 1869, 
and was a Senator from the Norfolk and Plymouth 
District in 1872. He was elected a county commis- 
sioner in 1874, and held the office until November, 
1882, being chairman of that board during a great 
portion of his term of service. In November, 1882, 
he was appointed justice of the District Court of 
East Norfolk, which office he now holds. He resides 
at Weymouth. 

Edward Avery was born in Marblehead, March 
12, 1828. He was educated in the schools of his 
native town, and afterwards in the classical school of 
Mr. Brooks, in Boston. He studied law in the office 
of F. W. Choate in Boston, and at the Dane Law- 
School in Cambridge. He was admitted to the bar 
in April, 1849, and began practice in Barre, in the 

county of Worcester, where he remained until the 
winter of 1850-51. He then removed to Boston, 
and has since had an office there. On the 1st of 
October, 1858, he became associated in business with 
George M. Hobbs, a copartnership which still con- 
tinues. Mr. Avery has for many years been a lead- 
ing practitioner in all the courts of Suffolk and other 
counties, and the firm has up to the present time al- 
ways had an extensive practice. Mr. Avery has 
given especial attention to cases arising under the 
insolvent laws of Massachusetts and under the United 
States Bankrupt Law, and in this branch of the law 
he has been eminently successful, although he has 
always attended to general practice. Mr. Avery, since 
he has had an office in Boston, has always been a resi- 
dent in Norfolk County. For some time he resided 
at Quincy, but for many years past he has lived at 
Braintree. He has been employed as counsel in the 
trial of many important causes in this county, and 
has thus been identified with the Norfolk bar. In 
1866 he was a Representative to the General Court 
from Braintree, and in 1867 was re-elected to the 
House, and also to the Senate from the Norfolk and 
Plymouth District. 

Edward Lillie Pierce. — Admitted at the Feb- 
ruary term of the Supreme Judicial Court, 1853. 
He was born March 29, 1829, and is a son of Col. 
Jesse Pierce, of Stoughton. He was graduated at 
Brown University in 1850. During his college course 
he distinguished himself in several prize essays and 
in articles which appeared in the Democratic Review. 
He entered the Law-School at Cambridge, and re- 
ceived the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1852. He 
was the author of the successful prize essay offered to 
his class upon the " Consideration of a Contract," 
which was printed. He afterwards wrote an essay 
upon "Secret Suff'rage," which attracted attention in 
England, and was there reprinted. He was after- 
wards in the law-office of Salmon P. Chase, at Cincin- 
nati. In 1857 he published the first edition of his 
work on " American Railroad Law." He took an 
active part in politics in 1857 as a member of the 
Republican party, advocating the most liberal treat- 
ment of foreigners against the proscriptive policy 
which then was popular in Massachusetts. 

He continued to practise in his profession, having an 
office in Boston, as a partner of Asaph Churchill. 
At the breaking out of the war, in 1861, he enlisted 
as a private in the Third Massachusetts Regiment. 
He afterwards, in 1862, by appointment of Secretary 
Chase, had the charge of the freedmen and plantations 
of the Sea Islands, and his official reports of this trust 
were widely read. He was on duty at Morris Island 







in August, 1863, when he was appointed collector of 
internal revenue for the Third District of Massachu- 
setts, which office he held for three years. 

He was appointed by Governor Bullock, in 1866, 
to the office of district attorney of the Southeastern 
District, to which office he was elected by the people 
in 1866, and again in 1868. In October, 1869, he 
was appointed secretary of the Board of State Chari- 
ties, and held that office until 1874, when he re- 
signed it. 

In 1875 and 1876 he was Representative from 
Milton in the General Court, and in the latter session 
was chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary. 
He is the author of the " Act to Limit Municipal 
Indebtedness." He was appointed by President Hayes 
in December, 1878, assistant treasurer of the United 
States at Boston, but he declined the appointment. 

Mr. Pierce has been one of the lecturers at the 
Boston Law-School since its foundation. In 1881 
he published a new edition of his work on " American 
Railroad Law," much enlarged and enriched by co- 
pious notes and citations. In 1874 he prepared an 
elaborate " Index of the Special Railroad Laws of 

Mr. Pierce was one of the literary executors of 
Charles Sumner, and was the author of the memoir 
of Mr. Sumner, published in 1877, an elaborate and 
excellent biography. He has also been the author of 
many articles contributed to the reviews and news- 
papers, of official reports, and public addresses upon a 
variety of social and political topics, all of which are 
marked by such ability, breadth, and exhaustiveness 
of treatment of their respective subjects as to entitle 
them to hold a permanent place in the current dis- 
cussions of vital questions. Mr. Pierce has made 
several journeys to Europe, one in 1873, to inspect 
European prisons, reformatories, and asylums, the 
result of which was given in his report for 1873 as 
secretary of the Board of State Charities. 

Mr. Pierce received the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Brown University in 1882. He resides at 
Milton, and has an office in Boston. 

Asa French was born on the 21st of October, 
1829, in Braintree, where his ancestors have lived 
since the town's earliest settlement. 

He received his early education in the public schools, 
was prepared for college at the Leicester Academy, 
Worcester County, Mass., and was graduated at Yale 
College, in the class of 1851. Upon leaving college, 
he began the study of law at the Albany Law-School, 
and afterwards entered the Harvard Law-School, where 
he received the degree of LL.B. in 1853. He sub- 
sequently pursued the study of his profession in the 

office of David A. Simmons and Harvey Jewell, in 

Mr. French was first admitted to practice in the 
Supreme Court of New York, at Albany, in 1853, 
and afterwards at Boston. He has always had an 
office in Boston ; but has made Braintree his home, 
and has been identified with the Norfolk County 

He represented Braintree in the lower branch of 
the State Legislature in 1866. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Claflin district attorney for the 
Southeastern District, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Hon. Edward L. Pierce, and held this 
office by successive re-elections until October, 1882, 
when he resigned. 

In 1882 he was tendered the appointment of justice 
of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, but declined 
it. He has been one of the commissioners on inland 
fisheries for the State of Massachusetts since 1873. 

He is president of the board of trustees of the 
Thayer Academy and of the Thayer Public Library, 
both in Braintree, and both founded and endowed by 
the late Gen. Sylvanus Thayer. 

In 1883 he was placed by President Arthur upon 
the annual Board of Visitors to the West Point Mili- 
tary Academy. 

Mr. French was appointed judge of the Court of 
Commissioners of Alabama Claims in Washington, 
under the act re-establishing that court, approved 
June 5, 1882. 

Erastus Worthington. — Attorney and coun- 
sellor, February term. Supreme Judicial Court, 1854. 
He is the son of Erastus Worthington, of Dedham, 
where he was born Nov. 25, 1828. He was gradu- 
ated at Brown University in 1850. After residing 
nearly a year in W^isconsin, he entered the Dane Law- 
School, at Cambridge, where he received the degree 
of LL.B. in 1853. He completed his professional 
studies in the office of Ezra Wilkinson, at Dedham. 
He began practice in Boston, and was for some time 
a partner with David A. Simmons, of Roxbury. In 
1856 he was elected register of insolvency, which 
office he held until July, 1858, when he resumed 
practice in Dedham. He was trial justice from 1857 
to 1867. In 1866 he was elected clerk of the courts 
for Norfolk County, and entered upon the duties of 
that office in January, 1867, and has since been elected 
for three terms of five years each. He continues to 
hold the office, and resides in Dedham. 

Charles Endicott. — Attorney and counsellor, 
April term. Court of Common Pleas, 1857. He was 
born in Canton, Oct. 28, 1822. He was for several 
years town clerk, selectman, and held many town 



offices. He was a deputy sheriff oF the county from 
1846 to 1853, and commissioner of insolvency from 
1855 to 1857. Upon his admission to the bar he 
began practice in Canton, where he continues to re- 
side. He was a Representative to the General Court 
in 1851, 1857, and 1858, and a Senator from Norfolk 
County in 1866 and 1867, and a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Council in 1868 and 1869. He was county 
commissioner from 1859 to 1865. He was State 
Auditor from 1870 to 1875, and Treasurer and 
Receiver-General for the Commonwealth from 1876 
to 1881, when he became ineligible for re-election by 
reason of the constitutional limitation in the term of 
that office. He now holds the office of tax com- 
missioner. He resides in Canton. 

Joseph McKean Churchill is the son of 
Asaph Churchill, and was born in Milton, April 
29, 1821. He was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1840, and pursued his professional studies in the 
Dane Law-School, Cambridge, where he received the 
degree of LL.B. in 1845. He began and continued 
the practice of law in Boston for many years. He 
was Representative to the General Court from Milton 
in 1858, and a member of the Executive Council in 
1859 and 1860. He was also a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1853, and for twelve years 
was an overseer of Harvard College. He was a cap- 
tain in the Forty-fifth Regiment Massachusetts In- 
fantry in the war of the Rebellion. He was a 
county commissioner from Jan. 1, 1868, until April, 
1871, and chairman of the board during two of those 
years. He was then appointed a justice of the Mu- 
nicipal Court of Boston, which office he continues to 
hold. He resides in Milton. 

James E. Tirrell was born in Weymouth, March 
28, 1833. He was educated in the schools of Wey- 
mouth, and studied law with Fisher A. Kingsbury 
and Elijah F. Hall, in Weymouth. He was admitted 
to the bar in Suffolk, July 16, 1856. He now resides 
and has an office at Quincy. 

John L. Eldridge was born in Provincetown, 
Mass., Dec. 25, 1842. He was fitted for college at 
the Boston Latin School, and was graduated at Har- 
vard College. He pursued his legal studies at the 
Dane Law-School, and received the degree of LL.B. 
in 1866. He also studied in the office of Joseph 
Nickerson, in Boston. He was admitted to the bar 
in Suffolk in November, 1867. He resides at Quincy, 
but has an office in Boston. 

Everett C. Bumpus was born in Plympton, Nov. 
28, 1844. His parents subsequently removed to 
Braintree, and he left the Braintree High School in 
April, 1861, to go into the military service of the 

United States during the civil war. He served with 
some intervals until the war ended, both as private 
and officer. He pursued his studies while in the 
army, and at the close of the war he entered the office 
of Edward Avery, and was admitted to the bar in 
Suffolk, May 10, 1867. He was a trial justice at 
Weymouth from 1868 to 1872, when he was appointed 
Justice of the District Court of East Norfolk, which 
office he resigned Oct. 1, 1882. He was then nomi- 
nated and elected the district attorney for the South- 
eastern District, to succeed Asa French. He was 
re-elected in 1883 for the term of three years, and 
now holds that office. Hid residence is in Quincy, 
but he has an office in Boston. 

Frederick D. Ely. — Attorney and counsellor, 
Superior Court, Oct. 8, 1862. He was born in 
Wrentham, Sept. 24, 1838, was fitted for college at 
i Day's Academy, in Wrentham, and was graduated at 
Brown University in 1859. He studied law in the 
office of Waldo Colburn, in Dedham. He has been 
a trial justice from 1867 to the present time. He 
was Representative to the General Court from Ded- 
ham in 1873, and Senator in 1878 and 1879. He 
resides in Dedham, but has an office in Boston. 

John D. Cobb. — Attorney and counsellor, Superior 
Court, April 23, 1867. He was born in Dedham, 
April 28, 1840, and was graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1861. He studied law in the Dane Law- 
School, and received the degree of LL.B. in 1866. 
He also was in the office of Waldo Colburn, at Ded- 
ham. He entered the military service of the United 
States Aug. 16, 1862, and served until the end of the 
war as sergeant, and was promoted to be lieutenant 
and acting adjutant of the Thirty-fifth Massachusetts 
Infantry. He was Representative to the General Court 
from Dedham in 1876 and 1877. He was appointed 
assistant register of probate Jan. 1, 1879, which office 
he has since held. He resides in Dedham. 

Edmund Davis. — Attorney and counsellor, Supe- 
rior Court, Oct. 1, 1867. He was born in Canton, 
Dec. 12, 1839, and was graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1861. He entered the military service of 
the United States Aug. 16, 1862, and was severely 
wounded at the battle of Antietam. by reason of which 
he was discharged from service Sept. 16, 1862. He 
studied law in the office of Waldo Colburn, at Ded- 
ham. He began practice in Franklin, and was a trial 
justice for some time. He then removed to Hyde 
Park, where he now resides and has an office. 

Thomas E. Grover was born in Mansfield, Feb. 
9, 1844. He studied law principally in the office of 
Ellis Ames, in Canton, and was admitted to the bar 
Sept. 7, 1867. Mr. Grover has held the office of trial 



justice for many years. He resides in Canton, and has 
offices both in Canton and Boston. 

James E. Cotter was born in Ireland in 1848. 
He came to this country in 1856, and resided in 
Marlborough until his admission to the bar. He was 
educated in the public schools, and at the State Normal 
School at Bridgewater. He studied law with William 
B. Gale, of Marlborough, and was admitted to the bar 
in Middlesex, Jan. 2, 1874. He removed to Hyde 
Park, where he now resides. He has an office in 
Hyde Park and in Boston. 

George Winslow Wiggin. — Attorney and coun- 
sellor, Superior Court, Oct. 17, 1871. He was born 
in Sandwich, N. H., March 10, 1841. He was edu- 
cated in the course for four years at Phillips' Acad- 
emy, Exeter, N. H. He was afterwards a teacher in 
the Friends' Boarding-School at Providence, R. I., 
and principal of the Wrentham High School for four 
years. He studied law in the office of Samuel War- 
ner, of Wrentham. He began practice in Franklin 
in 1872, where he has since resided and practised law. 
He has been a trial justice since 1872, and was elected 
a county commissioner in 1878, and was re-elected in 
1881. He has been chairman of the board during 
the past year. He has also an office in Boston. 

James Hewins was born in Medfield, April 27, 
1846. He was educated in the Medfield and Wal- 
pole High Schools, and entered Amherst College. 
He studied law with Robert R. Bishop and at the 
Dane Law-School, in Cambridge. He was admitted 
to the bar in Suffolk, Feb. 26, 1868. He has been 
a trial justice, and is Representative to the General 
Court in 1884. He resides in Medfield, but has an 
office in Boston. 

Oscar A. Marden was born in Palermo, Me., 
Aug. 20, 1853. He was educated at the Westbrook 
Seminary, in Deering, Me. He studied law in the 
Boston University Law-School, where he was grad- 
uated in 1876. He also studied in the office of S. K. 
Hamilton, in Boston. He was admitted to the bar in 
Suffolk, Oct. 8, 1876. He has been a trial justice 
for several years, and resides in Stoughton, but has an 
office in Boston. 

The following gentlemen were admitted to the bar 
in Norfolk County, and are now practicing attorneys in 
the county : 

Asa Wellington, Quincy, admitted April, 1852. 

Charles J. Randall, Wrentham, admitted Jan. 3, 

Henry B.Terry, Hyde Park, admitted April 4,1871. 

Don Gleason Hill, Dedham, admitted Oct. 18, 1871. 

Charles Amory Williams, Brookline, admitted Oct. 
1, 1873. 

Zenas S. Arnold, Boston, admitted Jan. 20, 1874. 

Charles A. Mackintosh, Dedham, admitted Oct. 4, 

Frank Rockwood Hall, Brookline, admitted Jan. 8, 

William G. A. Pattee, Quincy, admitted May 14, 

John Everett, Canton, admitted May 14, 1879. 

Nathan Hyde Pratt, Weymouth, admitted Jan. 1, 

James J. Malone, Quincy, admitted May 18, 1881. 

Charles Francis Jenney, Hyde Park, admitted Oct. 
4, 1882. 

Albert Everett Avery, Braintree, admitted Jan. 
23, 1883. 

The following gentlemen were admitted to the bar 
elsewhere, but are now practicing attorneys in the 
county : 

Charles H. Drew, Brookline. Office in Boston. 

Moses Williams, Brookline. Office in Boston. 

Bradford Kingman, Brookline. Office in Boston. 

Thomas L. Wakefield, Dedham. Office in Boston. 

Alonzo B. Wentworth, Dedham. Office in Boston. 

John R. Bullard, Dedham. Office in Boston. 

Horace E. Ware, Milton. Office in Boston. 

Henry F. Buswell, Canton. Office in Boston. 

Jonathan Wales, Randolph. Office in Boston. 

John V. Beal, Randolph. Office in Boston. 

Charles H. Deans, West Medway. 

Emery Grover, Needham. Office in Boston. 

E. Granville Pratt, Quincy. Office in Boston. 

George Fred. Williams, Dedham. Office in Boston. 

Orin T. Gray, Hyde Park. Office in Boston. 

W. H. H. Andrews, Hyde Park. Office in Boston. 

Artemas W. Gates, Dedham. Office in Boston. 

Robert W. Carpenter, Foxborough. 

Fred. H. Williams, Foxborough. 

Edward Bicknell, Weymouth. Office in Boston. 

Fred. J. Stimson, Dedham. Office in Boston. 

Charles E. Perkins, Brookline. Office in Boston. 

John C. Lane, Norwood. Office in Boston. 

Sheriffs.^ — Hon. Ebenezer Thayer, of Braintree, 
the first sheriff of Norfolk County, was the son of 
Hon. Ebenezer Thayer, also of Braintree, and was 
born Aug. 21, 1746. His father was for many years 
a prominent citizen of the town, having served in the 
office of Representative eighteen years, and was chosen 
Representative to the General Court seventeen years 

1 The following sketches of the sheriffs and county treasurers 
of the county are mainly taken from the " Norfolk County 
Manual," by Henry 0. Hildreth, Esq., by the permission of the 



successively, and in 1776 was a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Council. His mother was Susanna, daughter 
of Rev. Samuel Niles, of Braintree. Mr. Thayer 
served the town many years as selectman, town clerk, 
and treasurer ; was Representative to the General 
Court in 1796, 1800, and 1801, a member of the 
Senate in 1795, '96, '97, '98, '99, and a member of 
the Executive Council in 1793 and 1794. He was 
also a brigadier-general in the militia. On the or- 
ganization of the county, in 1793, he was appointed 
Sheriff, but owing to ill health, resigned early in the 
following year. He died May 30, 1809, aged sixty- 
three years. 

Atherton Thayer, half-brother to the preceding, 
was born in Braintree, Feb. 9, 1766. His mother 
was Rebecca Miller, of Milton, who was the second 
wife of Hon. Ebenezer Thayer, Sr. On the resigna- 
tion of the office of sheriff by his brother, in 1794, 
he was appointed to fill the vacancy, and continued in 
the office until his death, July 4, 1798, aged thirty- 
two years. 

Benjamin Clarke Cutler, of Roxbury, was born in 
Boston, Sept. 15, 1756, and was for many years a 
merchant, removing afterwards to Jamaica Plain. 
He was appointed sheriff July 31, 1798, and held 
the office until his death. He died very suddenly at 
his residence on Centre Street, Jamaica Plain, April, 
1810, aged fifty-four years. 

Elijah Crane was born in Milton, Aug. 29, 1754, 
and was the son of Thomas Crane, for many years a 
prominent citizen of that part of Stoughton, now 
Canton. He early removed to Canton, where his 
regular business was that of a farmer, in which he 
met with marked success, although much of his time 
was devoted to public life. He was a man of large 
and erect stature, well-developed form, and graceful 
carriage, and was noted for his splendid horseman- 
ship. He early took a deep interest in military mat- 
ters, rising by successive appointments to the rank 
of brigadier-general of the Second Brigade, First Di- 
vision, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, to which he 
was promoted Aug. 1, 1803, and promoted and com- 
missioned major-general of the First Division June 
16, 1809, which position he continued to hold until 
his discharge, June 8, 1827, a period of service in 
the highest military office of the State without a 
parallel in Massachusetts. He also attained high 
rank as a Mason, being successively Junior Grand 
Warden of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in 
1820 and 1821, Senior Grand Warden in 1822, and 
Grand Master in 1832. On the death of Sheriff 
Cutler, in 1810. he was appointed sheriff, and con- 
tinued in office until 1811, when he was removed for 

political reasons by Governor Gerry. The following 
year he was reappointed, and continued in office by 
successive reappointments until his death, the longest 
term of service as sheriff ever held in the county. 
He died Feb. 21, 1834, aged eighty years. 

William Brewer, of Roxbury, was for many years 
a prominent citizen of the town, having been chair- 
man of the Board of Selectmen for several years, and 
was Representative to the General Court from 1801 
to 1811, inclusive, and again from 1814 to 1817, in- 
clusive. In 1811 he was appointed sheriff of Nor- 
folk County by Governor Gerry, which position he 
held for one year. He died Aug. 2, 1817, aged 
fifty-nine years. 

John Baker (2d) was born in Dorchester, Feb. 27, 
1780. He learned the trade of a wheelwright in 
Roxbury, and soon removed to Dedham, where for 
some time he carried on the same business. He was 
a coroner, and for several years a deputy sheriff of the 
county. On the death of Gen. Crane, in 1834, Mr. 
Baker was appointed sheriff, and held the office until 
his death, which occurred Jan. 1, 1843, at the age of 
sixty-three years. 

Jerauld Newland Ezra Mann was born in Med- 
field, June 26, 1796. He learned the trade of a 
carriage-painter, serving his time with the Messrs. 
Bird, of Walpole. In 1823 he went to Easton, 
where he remained but a short time, removing the 
year following to Taunton, where he remained five 
years, at the end of which time he went to Wrent- 
ham, and thence to Dedham, where he took the 
place of his brother-in-law, Maj. T. P. Whitney, 
as deputy sheriff and jailer. On the death of 
Sheriff Baker, Mr. Mann was, Feb. 8, 1843, ap- 
pointed sheriff for the term of five years, at the ex- 
piration of which he declined a reappointment, but 
continued to act as deputy sheriff and jailer until 
July, 1855, when failing health compelled his resig- 
nation. He soon after removed to Vernon, Conn., 
the residence of his youngest daughter, where he died 
April 15, 1857, aged sixty years and ten months. 

Thomas Adams was born in Quincy, April 20, 
1804. In early life he was engaged in business with 
his father as a butcher, and afterwards was proprietor 
of different stage-lines, and an extensive dealer in 
horses. He then went to Roxbury, where he con- 
tinued to reside until his death. He was deputy 
sheriff under Sheriff Mann, and in 1848 succeeded 
that officer as sheriff of the county. He was re- 
moved from office for political reasons in 1852, but 
was reappointed the following year, and continued in 
office until Jan. 1, 1857. After Roxbury became a 
city he was for two or three years city marshal. He 



died suddenly of apoplexy Jan. 2, 1869, aged sixty- 
five years. 

John W. Thomas was born in Weymouth, April 
1, 1815. Learned the trade of a shoemaker, and 
afterwards went into business as a manufacturer ; 
was a Representative to the General Court in 1852, 
a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1853, 
and a lieutenant-colonel in the militia. May 13, 1852, 
he was commissioned sheriff of Norfolk County by 
Governor Boutwell, but was removed the following 
year for political reasons. In 1856 he was elected 
sheriff by the Republican and American parties, and 
assumed the position Jan. 1, 1857. He soon after 
removed to Dedham, where he continues to reside. 
He was the first sheriff elected by the people in the 
county, and at each successive election was chosen by 
a large majority of the popular vote. He held the 
oflBce until January, 1878, when he declined a re- 

Rufus C. Wood was born in Palmer, May 30, 
1818. His parents removed to Dudley, where he 
learned the trade of a machinist, and lived until he 
was twenty years of age. He previously had at- 
tended the public schools and the Nichols Academy 
in Dudley. He removed to Canton in November, 
1836, and worked at his trade for eleven years in the 
Kinsley Iron and Machine Company's works. He was 
appointed a deputy sheriff by Sheriff Adams in 1853, 
and he held that ofBce until his election as sheriff, 
in 1877. During President Lincoln's administration 
he was appointed postmaster at Canton, which oflBce 
he held for sixteen years, and resigned at the time 
of his election as sheriff. In 1877 he was elected 
sheriff of the county, has been twice re-elected, the 
last time, in 1883, by the nomination and vote of 
both political parties. Since his election as sheriff he 
has resided in Dedham, and is master of the House 
of Correction in connection with his office. 

County Treasurers. — Isaac Bullard, the first 
treasurer of the county, was born in Dedham, July 
10, 1744, and was a lineal descendant from William 
Bullard, one of the first settlers of the town. He 
was for many years in public life, having been town 
clerk for three years, selectman five years, and Rep- 
resentative to the General Court from 1794 to 1801, 
and again in 1806 and 1807. He was chosen deacon 
of the First Church, May 28, 1780, which office he 
continued to hold until his death. On the organiza- 
tion of the county, in 1793, he was cho.sen county 
treasurer, to which position he was annually elected 
until his decease, which occurred June 18, 1808, at 
the age of sixty-four years. 

John Bullard, son of the preceding, was born in 

Dedham, Jan. 9, 1773. He was also much in public 
life, having been twenty years a selectman and one 
year town clerk. On the death of his father, in 
1808, he was chosen county treasurer, which position 
he occupied by successive elections until his death, 
Feb. 25, 1852, a period of forty-four years. He was 
seventy-nine years of age. (See history of Dedham.) 

George Ellis was born in Medfield, Sept. 2, 1793, 
and early removed to Dedham, where for several 
years he carried on business as a trader. He was 
captain of one of the Dedham militia companies, for 
several years a deputy sheriff of the county, and for 
fourteen years one of the selectmen of the town. He 
was secretary and treasurer of the Dedham Institution 
for Savings from May, 1845, to June, 1855, when, 
owing to ill health, he resigned. On the death of 
John Bullard. in 1852, he was appointed by the 
county commissioners county treasurer, and the two 
following years was elected by the people, failing of a 
re-election in 1855. He died June 24, 1855, aged 
sixty-two years and ten months. 

Chauncey C. Churchill. (See history of Dedham.) 




Included in the Massachusetts Medical Society 
are several subordinate organizations, " wherein the 
communication of cases and experiments may be 
made, and the diffusion of knowledge in medicine 
and surgery may be encouraged and promoted." 
One of these is the Norfolk District Medical Society. 
It is subject to the regulations of the general society 
in all matters wherein the latter is concerned. It 
was organized in 1850, and consists of Fellows of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society residing in those 
portions of Boston formerly known as Roxbnry, Dor- 
chester, and West Roxbury, and in the towns within 
the present boundaries of Norfolk County. The 
" district" corresponds to the old county lines, which 
were changed by the annexation of Roxbury and 
Dorchester to Boston. The officers are as follows : 
President, Dr. J. H. Streeter, Roxbury ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Dr. A. R. Holmes, Canton ; Secretary and 
Librarian, Dr. G. D. Town.shend, Roxbury ; Treas- 
urer, Dr. E. G. Morse, Roxbury. Following is a 



list of present members, brought down to Feb. 1, 


1835.1 — Alexander, Andrew, Dorchester. 

1866.— Allen, George Otis, West Roxbury. 

1866. — Amory, Robert, Brookline. 

1873. — Bemis, Charles Albert, West Medway. 

1882. — Blanchard, Benjamin Seaver, Brookline. 

1840. — Blanchard, Henry, Dorchester. 

1871. — Blodgett, Frank Marcellus, Roxbury. 

1871. — Bolles, William Palmer, Dorchester. 

1868. — Bowditch, Henry Pickering, West Roxbury. 

1871. — Bragdon, George Abbott, Dorchester. 

1878. — Broughton, Henry White, Jamaica Plain. 

1879. — Brown, Roscoe Ellsworth, East Weymouth. 

1873. — Call, Norman, Roxbury. 

1865. — Campbell, William Henry, Roxbury. 

1878. — Channing, Walter, Brookline. 

1868, — Chase, John AVinslow, Dedham. 

1882. — Cheever, Clarence Alonzo, Mattapan. 

1874. — Clement, George AVilmot, Roxbury. 

1837. — Getting, Benjamin Eddy, Roxbury. 

1849. — Cushing, Benjamin, Dorchester. 

1874. — Cushman, Thaddeus Thompson, Randolph. 

1878.— Daniels, Edwin Alfred, Medway. 

1862. — Dearing, Thomas Haven, Braintree. 

1847. — Dickerman, Lemuel, Foxborough. 

1880. — Donovan, Samuel Mngner, Quincy. 

1883.— Drake, William Abram, North Weymouth. 

1879. — Dunbar, Eugene Fillmore, Roxbury. 

1867. — Edson, Ptolemy O'Meara, Roxbury. 

1868. — Edwards, Charles Lawrence, Hyde Park. 

1870. — Emery, William Henry, Roxbury. 

1881. — Ernst, Harold Clarence, Jamaica Plain. 

1865.— Everett, Willard Shepard, Hyde Park. 

1874. — Farr, Edwin Lawson, Roxbury. 

1848. — Faulkner, George, Jamaica Plain. 

1866. — Fay, George Wyman, East Weymouth. 

1858.— Fifield, William Cranch Bond, Dorchester. 

1875. — Finn, .James Anthony, Roxbury. 

1847. — Flint, John Sydenham, Roxbury. 

1847. — Fogg, David Sylvester, Norwood. 

1880. — Fogg, Irving Sylvester, Norwood. 

1856. — Forsaith, Francis Flint, AVey mouth. 

1848. — Francis, Tappan Eustis, Brookline. 

1880. — Fraser, John Chisholm, East Weymouth. 

1877. — French, Justus Crosby, Dedham. 

1882. — Galligan, Eugene Thomas, Roxbury. 

1882. — Garceau, Alexander Emmanuel, Hyde Park. 

1863.— Garceau, Treffle, Roxbury. 

1875. — Gerry, Edwin Peabody, Jamaica Plain. 

1854.— Gilford, Silas Swift, East Stoughton, 

1869. — Gilbert, Daniel Dudley, Dorchester. 

1854. — Gilbert, John Henry, Quincy. 

1871. — Gordon, John Alexander, Quincy. 

1869. — Goss, Francis Webster, Roxbury. 

1878. — Gould, Lawrence Mervin, Hyde Park. 

1882.— Granger, Frank Clark, Randolph. 

1863. — Greene, James Sumner, Dorchester. 

1871. — Hall, Josiah Little, Brookline. 

1847. — Harlow, James Frederick, Quincy Point. 

1867. — Hayes, Charles Cogswell, Hyde Park. 

1869. — Hazelton, Isaac Hills, Grantville. 

1 Date of admission. 

1853. — Hitchcock, Joseph Green Stevens, Foxborough, 

1862. — Holbrook, Silas Pinckney, West Medway. 

1854. — Holmes, Alexander Reed, Canton. 

1880. — Jaques, Henry Percy, Milton. 

1833. — Jarvis, Edward, Dorchester. 

1877. — Kenneally, John Henry, Roxbury. 

1877. — Kilby, Henry Sherman, Wrentham. 

1848.— King, George, Franklin. 

1875. — Kingsbury, Albert Dexter, Needham. 

1869. — Mansfield, Henry Tucker, Needham. 

1883.— Martin, Francis Coffin, Roxbury. 

1846. — Martin, Henry Austin, Roxbury. 

1874. — Martin, Stephen Crosby, Roxbury. 

1849. — Maynard, .John Parker, Dedham. 

1872.— McNulty, Frederick Joseph, Roxbury. 

1875. — Mecuen, George Edward, Roxbury. 

1872. — Moran, John Brennan, Roxbury. 

1870. — Morse, Edward Gilead, Roxbury. 

1843. — Morse, Horatio Gilead, Roxbury. 

1880. — Mullen, Francis Henry, Dorchester. 

1870. — Nichols, Arthur Howard, Roxbury. 

1871. — Otis, Robert Mendum, Roslindale. 

1878. — Page, Frank Wilfred, Jamaica Plain. 

1870. — Perry, Joseph Franklin, Dorchester. 

1882. — Pierce, Matthew Vassar, Milton. 

1867. — Pratt, Gustavus Percival, Cohasset. 

1881.— Prior, Charles Edwin, Holbrook. 

1867. — Quincy, Henry Parker, Dedham. 

1877. — Read, George Mumford, Dorchester, 

1856. — Richardson, John Henry, Medfield. 

1858. — Robinson, Albert Brown, Roxbury. 

1873. — Rogers, Orville Forrest, Dorchester, 

1873. — Sabine, George Krans, Brookline. 

1854. — Seaverns, Joel, Roxbury. 

1881. — Sherman, AVarren Hobart, Quincy. 

1852. — Shurtleff, Augustine, Brookline. 

1863. — Skinner, Edward Manning, Jamaica Plain. 

1871. — Smithwick, John, Sharon. 

1855. — Stedman, Charles Ellery, Dorchester, 

1864. — Stedman, Joseph, Jamaica Plain. 

1861.— Stone, Silas Emlyn, Walpole. 

1847. — Streeter, Joseph Herman, Roxbury. 

1882.- Thurlow, John Howard, Roxbury. 

1872. — Tinloham, Granville Wilson, AVeymouth. 

1862.— Tower, Charles Carroll, South AA^eymouth. 

1877. — Towle, Henry Charles, Dorchester. 

1877. — Townshend, George Drew, Roxbury. 

1868. — Trull, AVashington Benson, Brookline. 

1876. — A''an Slyck, David Bernard, Brookline. 

1872. — Vogel, Frederick William, Roxbury. 

1854. — AValdock, James, Roxbury. 

1838.- — AVales, Bradford Leonard, Randolph. 

1880.— AVelch, John Frederick, Quincy. 

1874. — Wescott, AVilliam Henry, Dorchester. 

1880.— AVest, Edward GraefF, Roxbury. 

1882.— White, Herbert AVarren, Roxbury. 

1878.— AVells, Frank, Brookline. 

1872.— AVilliams, Edward Tufts, Roxbury. 

1831. — AVing, Benjamin Franklin, Jamaica Plain. 

1874.— AVing, Clifton Ellis, Jamaica Plain. 

1876. — Wingate, Uranus Owen Brackett, AA''ellesley. 

1867. — AVinkler, Joseph Alexander, Jamaica Plain. 

1880. — AVithington, Charles Francis, Roxbury. 

1882. — AVood, Henry Austin, Roxbury. 

1875. — Yale, Joseph Cummings, Franklin. 

1874. — Young, Charles Sayward, Stoughton. 






The Settlement — The Town Covenant — Names of the Signers — 
Organization of Town Government — Character of Settlers — 
Formation of the Church — The Kev. John Allin — Division 
of Lands — Burial-Ground — Training-Ground — Description of 
the Village in 1664. 

On the third day of September, 1635, at the Gen- 
eral Court held at Newtowne, afterwards Cambridge, 
it was thus ordered : 

" There shall be a plantation settled about two 
miles above the falls of Charles River, on the north- 
east side thereof, to have ground lying to it on both 
sides the river, both upland and meadow, to be laid 
out hereafter as the court shall appoint." 

The falls of Charles River here referred to, are the 
falls at Newton, and although the distance above the 
falls is understated in the record, yet the place desig- 
nated can be none other than that now occupied by 
the village of Dedham. This order was the fiat which 
proclaimed the existence of the settlement of Dedham, 
and the record therefore properly stands at the begin- 
ning of its written history. It marks with certainty 
the time when the settlement had been definitely de- 
termined upon. Before this time, however, as the 
record clearly implies, the lands described, to some 
extent, must have been explored, and settlers were 
ready to undertake the new plantation. The settle- 
ment at Watertown, begun in 1630, had already be- 
come alarmed at the rapid increase of its inhabitants. 
The tide of emigration had then set strongly to the 
shores of Massachusetts Bay, and a new settlement 
had to be provided. In the preceding spring the 
General Court had given leave to the inhabitants of 
Watertown to remove themselves to any place they 

^ In writing the following history of Dedham, I have taken 
the materials largely from my father's " History of Dedham," 
published in 1S27 ; from the Centennial address of Samuel F. 
Haven, in 1836 ; from the historical discourses of the Rev. Dr. 
Lamson, and the other historical discourses by the pastors of 
other churches. The care and accuracy with which these were 
prepared render them authentic sources of history, and they 
have left little for the gleaner in the history of the first two 
centuries. I have also availed myself of the researches of others 
upon certain special subjects; but with these exceptions, I have 
sought original sources for historical facts. I only regret that 
in the limited time given for the preparation of this history, 
there has been no opportunity for giving citations of authorities, 
or for that careful revision of the text which every historical 
work should receive. — E. W. 

Dedham, Feb. 1, 1884. 

should make choice of, provided they should continue 
under the government. The student of the early 
records of the colonial towns, and especially those of 
Watertown, will be surprised and interested to find 
how soon after the arrival of Winthrop, the insuflS- 
ciency of land became an urgent and impelling reason 
for the advance of civilization into the interior. It 
is easy to imagine how eagerly the pioneers, in the 
search for an eligible location, ascended the river above 
the lands already granted to the Newtowne proprietors, 
lying above Watertown, to the broad meadows and 
wide plateau of the future town of Dedham. To the 
eye of the early settler, it must be remembered, 
meadows had an especial value, since they would fur- 
nish both water . and forage for his cattle before the 
uplands could be cleared. 

The removal from Watertown was gradually ef- 
fected, and it is probable that the year 1635-36 was 
mainly spent in preparation for occupying the new 
settlement. The fact, however, that in the register 
of births and deaths in Dedham are recorded the 
births of two children in June and July of 1635, 
would seem suflBcient to prove that the plantation 
was actually begun in that year. It is said that there 
were twelve of these pioneers who first planted their 
rude houses upon the plains of Dedham. Although 
the names of all these cannot now be ascertained, yet 
among those who were here as early as 1635 were 
doubtless Edward Alleyne, Philemon Dalton, Samuel 
Morse, John Dwight, Lambert Genere, Richard 
Evered, and Ralph Shepherd. Capt. Thomas Cake- 
bread was the military man of the company, but he 
never came as a settler. Mr. Robert Feake was a 
prominent man at Watertown, and although his name 
was first subscribed to the covenant, and he had an 
allotment of land, he never removed here. Possibly 
Abraham Shaw was one of the number, as his house 
and goods at Watertown were burned about this 

On the eighth day of September, 1636, upon the 
petition of nineteen settlers for a confirmation of the 
grant of the previous year, and to distinguish the 
town by the name of Contentment, the General Court 
ordered " that the plantation to be settled above the 
falls of Charles River shall have three years immu- 
nity from public charges, and the name of the plan- 
tation to be Dedham ; to enjoy all that land on the 
southerly and easterly side of Charles River not for- 
merly granted to any town or particular persons, and 
also to have five miles square on the other side of the 

This is to be considered as the act incorporating 
' the town, as it conferred the name by which it has 



always been known. No definite reason can be as- 
signed for the change made in the name selected by 
the petitioners ; but it has been suggested that John 
Dwight, John Rogers, and John Page were emigrants 
from Dedhara, in Suffolk, England, which may satis- 
factorily account for it. 

The territory included in this grant to the Dedham 
proprietors was magnificent in its extent and some- 
what indefinite in its boundaries. On the southerly 
and easterly side of the river, it included the present 
town of Dedham, with the portions that have been 
annexed to West Roxbury and Hyde Park, the 
towns of Norwood, Dover, a portion of Natick, Med- 
field, Walpole, Norfolk, Franklin, Wrentham, and 
the greater portion of Bellingham. On the northerly 
and westerly side of the river the grant of five miles 
square included Dedham Island, then a neck of land, 
Needham, Wellesley, the greater portion of Natick, 
three thousand four hundred acres in the town *of 
Sherborn, and the town of Medway. Besides, three 
hundred acres had been purchased near the Roxbury 
line, by the proprietors, of Philemon Dalton, John 
Dwight, and Lambert Genere, who had bought of 
Samuel Dudley. 

The easterly boundary of the territory then was not 
Neponset River, owing to grants to Israel Stoughton 
and others which intervened, but a century after, 
Neponset River became the boundary-line between 
Stoughton and Dedham. It required many commit- 
tees and much negotiation subsequently to define the 
boundaries between Dedham and Roxbury and Dor- 

This grant of the General Court in confirmation 
and enlargement of the grant of a plantation made 
in 1635 was made to the nineteen persons who were 
petitioners. They were the sole owners of the land 
until they should admit new associates. The names 
of these petitioners and proprietors were 

Edward Alleyne, 
Abraham Shaw, 
Samuel Morse, 
Philemon Dalton, 
Ezckiel Holliman, 
John Kingsbury, 
John Dwight, 
John Coolidge, 
llichard Evered, 
John Howard, 

Lambert Oenere, 
Nicholas Phillips, 
lialph Shepherd, 
John Gayc, 
Thomas Bartlett, 
Francis Austen, 
John Rogers, 
Joseph Shaw, 
William Bearestow. 

While it is true that the nineteen men whose 
names are signed to the petition should be regarded 
as the nominal founders of the town, yet only a few 
of them were long identified with the plantation or 
had any permanent influence upon its future growth. 

Edward Alleyne, who had come from Watertown the 
preceding year, was doubtless the principal man of 
the company. That he was a man of education, the 
records of the first two years, made by him, are ample 
evidence, and the covenant drawn by him shows that 
he was a man of excellent capacity. He afterwards 
obtained a grant of three hundred acres of land for a 
settlement at Bogastow (East Medway), but he died 
suddenly while attending the General Court in 1642, 
without having begun his new plantation. Abraham 
Shaw, having obtained leave to erect a corn-mill on 
Charles River, died in 1638, without beginning his 
enterprise, and Joseph Shaw, his son, removed to 
Weymouth. Ezekiel Holliman remained only a short 
time, and then removed to Salem, and became an 
adherent of Roger Williams. He subsequently went 
to Rhode Island, and, it is said, baptized Roger Wil- 
liams at Providence. Philemon Dalton removed to 
Ipswich, Ralph Shepherd and Nicholas Phillips to 
Weymouth, William Bearestow to Scituate after a 
few years, and Francis Austen to Hampton. John 
Coolidge, Thomas Bartlett, and John Rogers prob- 
ably never removed from Watertown. Of those who 
remained here as permanent settlers were Lambert 
Genere, John Gay, John Kingsbury, and John How- 
ard. Richard Evered was the progenitor of the 
Dedham family bearing the name of Everett. John 
Dwight was for sixteen years a selectman, and died 
here in 1661. It was from him that Dwight's Brook 
took its name, and his house, which stood near the 
brook, on High Street, near the easterly abutment of 
the railroad bridge, was not removed until the con- 
struction of the railroad in 1849. 

The settlement was now in the period of its "non- 
age," as it was aptly termed in the petition. Its 
affairs were guided and directed at first by those who 
had not yet removed from Watertown. But in the 
winter of 1636-37 there were some who had begun 
to live permanently in their new habitations. Of the 
motives and character of the settlers we have clear 
and indubitable assurance in the covenant which was 
drawn up before the act of incorporation. Its sim- 
plicity and brevity are admirable, while the spirit 
which pervades it shows that their earnest desire and 
prominent motive were for a loving and comfortable 


" 1 . We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do, in the fear 
and reverence of Almighty God, mutually and severally promise 
amongst ourselves and each to other to profess and practise 
one truth according to that most perfect rule the foundation 
whereof is everlasting love. 

"2. That we shall by all means labor to keep off from us all 
such as are contrary-minded, and receive only such unto us as 



be such as may be probably of one heart with us, as that we 
either know or may well and truly be informed to walk in 
peaceable conversation, with all meekness of spirit, for the edi- 
fication of each other, in the knowledge and faith of the Lord 
Jesus, and the mutual encouragement unto all temporal com- 
forts in all things, seeking the good of each other out of all 
which may be derived true peace. 

* 3. That if at any time difference shall arise between par- 
ties of our said town, that then such party and parties shall 
presently refer all such difference unto some two or three others 
of our said society, to be fully accorded and determined without 
any further delay, if it possibly may be. 

"4. That every man that now or at any time hereafter shall 
have lots In our said town shall pay his share in all such rates 
of money and charges as shall be imposed upon him rateably 
in proportion with other men, as also become freely subject 
unto all such orders and constitutions as shall be necessarily had 
or made, now or at any time hereafter, from this day forward, 
as well for loving and comfortable society in our said town, as 
also for the prosperous and thriving condition of our said fel- 
lowship, especially respecting the fear of God, in which we 
desire to begin and continue whatsoever we shall by his loving 
favor take in hand. 

"5. And for the better manifestation of our true resolution 
herein, every man so received to subscribe hereunto his name, 
thereby obliging both himself and his successors after him for 
ever, as we have done. 

" Names subscribed to the covenant as followeth." 

There is no date to this covenant to show when it 
was drawn up, but it must have been before the act 
of incorporation, for the petitioners state that they 
were at present under covenant. One hundred and 
twenty-five names are subscribed to this covenant, 
but it will be found upon examination that the list 
contains the names of some who were mere children 
when they came with their parents, and also of others 
who came years after the beginning of the settlement. 
In the fifth clause of the instrument the intention is 
clearly expressed that it should be signed by every 
man received into the society, both himself and his 
successors after him for ever. 

In order that these names may be conveniently 
referred to, and that what is known concerning them 
may be given in a condensed form, the list has been 
prepared, with such additions as are furnished from 
authentic sources : 

Robert Feake, Watertown. Freeman May 18, 1631 ; he never 
removed to Dedham, although he had an allotment of land. 

Edward Alhyne, Watertown. Freeman March 13, 1638; 
representative four years, 1639-42; died suddenly while at- 
tending General Court, Sept. 8, 1642. 

Samuel Morse, Watertown. Came in the "Increase" from 
London in 1635 ; freeman Oct. 8, 1640 ; died June 20, 1654. 

Philemon Ballon, Watertown. A linen-weaver; came in the 
'•Increase" in 1635; removed to Dedham in 1637, and from 
thence to Hampton or Ipswich in 1640 ; freeman March 3, 1636; 
died June 4, 1662. 

John Ihcvjht, Watertown. Removed in 1635 to Dedham; 
freeman March 13, 1638; died .Jan. 24, 1661. 

Lambert Genere, AVatertown. Removed to Dedham in 1636; 
freeman May, 1645; died June 30, 1674. 

Richard Evered, Watertown. Removed to Dedham in 1636 ; 
freeman May 6, 1646; died July .3, 1682. 

Ralph Shepherd, Watertown. Came in the " Abigail" in 
1635, and removed to Dedham the same year, and afterwards to 
Weymouth, where he died. 

John Hnggin, Watertown. He never lived in Dedham, but 
was afterwards at Hampton. 

Mr. Ralph Wheelock, Watertown. Educated at Clare Hall, 
Cambridge University, England, where he took his degree in 
1626 and 1631; he came to Dedham in 1638; freeman March 
1.3, 1638; died Jan. II, 1684, at Medfield. 

Thomas Cakehread, Watertown. He never removed to Ded- 
ham, but had an allotment of land; freeman May 14, 1634; 
died at Sudbury Jan. 4, 1643. 

Henry Phillips. Freeman March 1.3, 1638; member of ar- 
tillery company, 1640; ensign of militia companj', 1648; he 
removed to Boston ; he was a butcher bj' trade. 

Mr. Timothy Dalton. He was an elder brother of Philemon 
Dalton ; freeman Sept. 7, 1637 ; educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, England, where he took his degree in 1613; he had 
been in ofiBce in England, and was called to be teacher in the 
church at Hampton. 

. Mr. Thomas Carter came in the "Planter" in 1635 to Water- 
town. Educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
took his degree, 1629-33; he was called to the church at Wo- 

Abraham Shaiv, Watertown. His house and goods were 
burned at Watertown in 1636, and he removed to Dedham; 
freeman March 9, 1637, and died in 1638. 

John Coulidye, Watertown. Freeman May 25, 1636; he 
never removed to Dedham, but had an allotment of land. 

Nicholas Philli2)s, Watertown. Freeman May 13, 1640; he 
was a brother of Henry Phillips; removed to Weymouth late 
in life, and died September, 1672. 

John Gaye, Watertown. Freeman May 6, 1635; removed to 
Dedham ; died March 4, 1688. 

John Kinijsbiiry, AVatertown. Freeman March 3, 1636, and 
removed the same year to Dedham; he was a representative in 
1647; he died in 1659. 

John Rogers, Watertown, 1636. He probably never removed 
to Dedham, but had an allotment of land. 

Francis Austin. He was here but a short time, but removed 
to Hampton according to Savage; the note in Haven's Centen- 
nial address respecting him is doubtless an error, as will be seen 
by the reference to Winthrop's History there cited. 

Ezekiel Holliman. Had an allotment of land in Dedham, but 
remained only a j'ear or two; he removed to Salem, and^ence 
to Providence, R. I. 

John i>a/cAc/or, AVatertown. Freeman May 16,1635; he re- 
moved to Hampton. 

Nathaniel Coaleborne. Freeman June 2, 1641 ; died May 14, 

John Roper. Freeman June 2, 1641: he had an allotment 
of land in Dedham ; he had one son in Capt. Lothrop's com- 
pany killed by Indians at Bloody Brook, Sept. 18, 1675, and 
another who was in Capt. Turner's company' in King Phillip's 
war, and whose wife was killed by Indians. 

Martin Phillips. He was in Medfield in 1664. 

Henry Smyth. Freeman May 13, 1640; he came from New 
Buckenham, Norfolk, in England; he had an allotment of land, 
and lived in that part of Dedham which became Medfield. 

John Fray rye. Freeman March 13, 1638 ; he was one of the 
founders of the Dedham Church, and lived in that part of Ded- 
ham which became Medfield. 

Thomas Hastings, Watertown. He probably never removed 
to Dedham. 



Francis Chickering. Freeman in 1640; came in 1637 from 
the north part of Suffolk, England; member of artillery com- 
pany in 1613; ensign and representalive in 1614 and 1653. 

Thomas Alcock. Freeman 1635 ; came in the fleet with Win- 
throp; he lived in Dedham till 1646, and afterwards removed 
to Boston. 

Willinm Bnltard. Freeman May 13, 1640; he lived and 
died in Dedham in 1687. 

Jonas Humphrey. He was a tanner and lived in Dorchester. 

Edioard A'eiiipe. Freeman March 13, 1638; he probably re- 
moved to Wcnham, and afterwards to Chelmsford. 

John HiiiitiiHj. Freeman March 13, 1638; one of the founders 
of the Dedham Church, and the first ruling elder; he died 
April 12, 1689. 

Timothy Dicight. Freeman June 2, 1641; he was a brother 
of John D wight; representative for Medfield, 1652, where he 
died in 1677. 

Henry Denguyne, Watertown. He was a physician, and never 
came to Dedham. 

Henry Brock. He came in 1642, and died in 1652. 

James Herring. Freeman in 1654; he came in 1642. 

Nathan Aldis. Freeman in 1640 ; joined the Dedham Church 
in 1640 ; one of the first deacons ; he died March 15, 1676. 

Edivard Richards. Freeman June 16, 1641; he married a 
sister of John Hunting. 

Michael Poicell. Freeman June 2, 1641 ; he came in 1639 ; 
representative in 1641 ; he kept an ordinary in Dedham; re- 
moved to Boston in 1646, and was one of the original members 
of the Second Church there in 1650, and was called to act as 
teacher, but was not approved by the court. 

John Elderkin. He came from Lynn in 1641 ; he removed 
to Reading in 1646, and thence to New London, Conn., and died 
June 23, 1687. 

Michael Bacon. He came from Ireland in 1640; his de- 
scendants removed from Dedham. 

Robert Onion. Freeman in 1646 ; came in the " Blessing" to 
Roxbury at the age of twenty-six, and removed to Dedham. 

Samuel Mills. He came in 1642, and lived and died in Ded- 

Edward Culver. He came in 1640. 

Josfph Shaw. Freeman May 22, 1 639 ; he was a son of Abra- 
ham Shaw, and removed to AVeymouth soon after his father's 
decease, in 1638. 

William Bearstowe. He cauie in the " Truelove"' in 1635; 
he was one of the petitioners for incorporation of the town, and 
afterwards removed to Scituate. 

John Howard. Freeman May 14, 1634; he died in 1660. 

Thomas Bartleti, Watertown. He never removed to Ded- 

Ferdinando Adams. Freeman May 13, 1640; he had an 
allotment of land, and was called a shoemaker; in August^ 
1651, he had leave to go to England, and afterwards went to 
St. Catherine's and sold his allotment to John Frayrye, Oct. 10, 

Daniel Morse, Watertown. Freeman May 6, 1635 ; he was a 
son of Samuel Morse; he removed to Dedham, and afterwards 
to Medfield; he died in Sherborn in 1688. 

Jusr2)h Morne, AVatertown. Freeman May 6, 1635; son of 
Samuel Morse; removed to Dedham; he died June 20, 1654. 

John Ellice. Freeman 1641 ; he lived in Medfield, where he 
died April 2, 1697. 

Jonathan Fayerhanke. He came from Yorkshire, England, 
with six children, before 1641; his name does not appear in the 
list of freemen ; he died Dec. 5, 1668. 

John /7a(on, Watertown. Freeman May 25, 1636; removed 
to Dedham; died Nov. 17, 1638. 

Michael Metcalfe. Freeman May 13, 1640 ; he was born in 
1586, at Tatterford, in Norfolk, England, and was a dornock 
weaver at Norwich; he arrived, with his wife and nine chil- 
dren and a servant, about midsummer in 1637; he was admitted 
as a townsman July 14, 1637 ; joined the church in 1639, and 
was selectman in 1641 ; his name stands first on the committee 
chosen to "contrive the fabrick of a meeting-house;" he died 
Dec. 27, 1664. 

.John Morse. Freeman May 13, 1640; he was probably a son 
of Samuel Morse. 

Mr. John Allin. Came over in 1637; freeman March !:'>, 
1638 ; ordained as pastor or teacher of the church April 24, 1639, 
and continued in that office until his death, Aug. 26, 1671. 

Anthony Fisher. Freeman May 3, 1645 ; born at Sylehain, 
near Eye, in Suffolk, Eng and, on the border of Norfolk; he 
came to Dedham in 1637; in his will he is called late of Dor- 
chester: he died Feb. 13, 1670. 

Thomas Wight. He came from the Isle of Wight to Dedham 
in 1637; he was of the Medfield incorporation in 1652, and 
died March 17, 1674. 

Eleazer Lusher. Freeman March 13, 1638 ; he came to Ded- 
ham in 1637, and was one of the founders of the church; also 
one of the founders of the artillery company ; representative 
in 1640 and for many years after; assistant in 1662 and to the 
time of his death; captain in 1644, and major of the regiment 
afterwards; he was town clerk twenty-three years and select- 
man twenty-nine years; he died Nov. 13, 1673. 

Robert Hinsdale. Freeman March 13, 1638; one of the 
founders of the church Nov. 8, 1638; member of the artillery 
company in 1645 ; removed to Medfield, where he aided in 
founding the church ; and thence to Hadley, where he resided 
for several years, and afterwards to Deerfield, "and there was 
gathering his harvest in the corn-fields when he was killed, with 
his three sons, when Capt. Lothrop, with the flower of Essex, 
fell at Bloody Brook." (Savage's Genealogical Diet.) 

John Luson. Freeman March 13, 1638 ; he came to Dedham 
in 1637, and was one of the founders of the Dedham Church; 
he died in May, 1661. 

John Fisher. It is impossible to identify him; his place in 
the order of names indicates that he came with John Luson 
and Thomas Fisher, and may have been a brother of the latter. 

Thomas Fisher. Freeman March 4, 1634, and came to Ded- 
ham in 1637; he was in Cambridge in 1634. 

Joseph Kingsbury. Freeman 1641. 

George Bearstotce. He came from London in the " Truelove" 
in 1635; had an allotment of land in 1636, but probably did 
not come until 1642; member of the artillery company; he 
afterwards removed to Scituate; he was a brother of William 
Bearstowe ; the family name is properly written Barstow. 

John /lullard. Freeman May 13, 1640; came in 1638, and 
was either the eldest son or a brother of William Bullard. 

Thomas Leader. He came to Dedham in 1640; removed to 
Boston in 1647, where he died Oct. 28, 1663. 

Joseph Moyes. Nothing is known of him except that he re- 
moved to Salisbury, where his wife died in 1655. 

Jeffrey Mingeye. Freeman May 13, 1640, and afterwards 
removed to Hampton. 

James Allin. Freeman in 1647; came to Dedham in 1639; 
he was a cousin of Rev. John Allin, and received a legacy in 
his will; he was received into the Medfield Church, Oct. 2, 
1646, and died Sept. 27, 1676. 

Richard Barber. Freeman May 13, 1640; died June 18, 
1644 ; he gave his small estate, by his will, to the poor. 

Thomas Jordan. He was probably of Dorchester, and never 
lived here; his daughter Hannah was probably married to 
Isaac Bullard. 


Joshua Fisher. Freeman May 2, 1649 ; he lived in that part 
of Dedham which became Medfield; representative in 1653, 
and six years more, and died in 1674; he was a deacon of the 

Christoj^Jier Smith. He married Mary, daughter of Jona- 
than Faj'erbanke, but there is no evidence that he ever lived 
in Dedham. 

.John Thurston. Freeman May 10, 1643; he came from 
Wrentham, in Suffolk, England, a carpenter, in the " Mary 
Ann," of Yarmouth, in 1637; his estate was partly in Medfield, 
set off in 1651. 

Joseph Clarke. He came probably from Dorchester to Ded- 
ham, and removed to Medfield. 

Thomas Eames. He was in Dedham in 1642; he afterwards 
lived in Cambridge, Sudburj-, and Sherborn ; on Feb. 1, 1676, 
he suffered by the Indians, who burned his buildings, killed 
his wife and some of his children, and carried awa3' others 

Peter Woodward. Freeman Ma}' 18. 1642; he was repre- 
sentative in 1665, 1669, 1670; he died May 9, 1685. 

Thwaits Strickland. He came to Dedham in 1643; he re- 
moved to the Narragansett Country. 

John Guild. Freeman May 10, 1643 ; admitted to the church 
July 17, 1640 ; he died Oct. 4, 1682 : he had lands in Wrentham 
and Medfield; he was the progenitor of the numerous family 
of the name in Dedham. 

Samuel Bulleyue. Freeman June 2, 1641 ; he was deacon of 
the church, and died Jan. 16, 1692. 

Robert Goicen. Freeman 1644. 

Hugh Siaceij. Came in the " Fortune" to Plymouth in 
1621 ; he afterwards removed to Dedham, where his wife and 
daughters were admitted to the church in 1640; he removed 
soon after to Lynn or Salem, or maj- have returned to Eng- 

George Barber. He came in 1643; member ot the artillery 
company in 1646; freeman May 16, 1647; he removed to Med- 
field; was representative in 1668-69, and the chief militia 

James Jordan. He was the father of Thomas Jordan; he 
died in April or May, 1655, and in his will speaks of his age 
and infirmity. 

Nathaniel Whiting. Freeman May 18, 1642; he came to 
Dedham in 1641 ; he married Hannah, eldest daughter of .John 
Dwight; he is said to have lived in that jiart of Dedham 
which became Medfield. 

Benjamin Smith. Freeman June 2, 1641. 

Richard Elllce. He married a daughter of Lambert Genere, 
but his name does not appear upon the list of freemen. 

Austen Kilham. Freeman June 2, 1641; he came from 
Salem; removed to Wenham, and afterwards to Chelmsford. 

Robert Ware. Freeman May 26, 1647: he came in 1643; 
member of the artillery company in 1644; he married Marga- 
ret, daughter of .John Hunting; his daughter married Rev. 
Samuel Mann, of Wrentham, and his son, Robert Ware, was 
one of the settlers of Wrentham. 

Thomas Bayes. He is not on the list of freemen, and re- 
moved to Boston. 

John Fayerbanke. He was probably the eldest son of Jona- 
than Fairbanks, who died Nov. 13, 1684. 

Henry Glover. He died in Medfield, July 21, 1653. 

Thomas Herring. Came to Dedham in 1642. 

John Plympton. Freeman probably May 10, 1643; he came 
from Roxbury to Dedham in 1642; he renioved to Deerfieldand 
was sergeant; his son Jonathan was killed by the Indians, Sept. 
18, 1675, at Bloody Brook, and two years after he was taken 
captive himself by the Indians and carried towards Canada, and, 

according to tradition, burned at the stake ; two of his sons, 
Joseph and John, settled in Medfield. 

George Fayerbanke. He was the second son of Jonathan 
Fayerbanke, and removed to Medfield, and afterwards to Sher- 
born ; he was not on the list of freemen ; he died Jan. 10, 1683. 

Timothy Dwight. He was the son of John Dwight, and came 
to Dedham with his father in 1635, when about five years of 
age; freeman in 1655; representative in 1678 and 1691, and 
perhaps later; town clerk ten years; selectman twenty-four 
years; he died Jan. 31, 1718. 

Andrew Dewing. Freeman in 1646; member of artillery 
company in 1644. 

Joseph Ellice. Freeman in 1663. 

Ralph Freeman. 

.John Rice. 

Daniel Pond. Freeman in 1690; he died in February, 1698 ; 
his sons, Ephraim and John, settled in Wrentham. 

John Houghton. He probably came in the " Abigail" from 
London when quite young ; he removed to Lancaster about 1652. 

.Jonathan Fayerbanke, Jr. He was the youngest son of Jon- 
athan Fayerbanke, and came with his father when a child; 
freeman in 1690. 

James rn/c« (properly Fales). Freeman in 1673; he lived 
in that part of Dedham wl.ich became Medfield. 

Thomas Metcalf. Freeman in 1653 ; youngest son of Michael 
Metcalf; deacon of the church; representative in 1691; died 
Nov. 16, 1702. 

Thomas Fuller. Freeman in 1672; he came in 1643; en- 
sign; representative in 1672, 1679, and 1686; died Sept. 28, 

Thomas Payne. Freeman June 2, 1641; died Aug. 3, 1686. 

Robert Grossman. He probably was of Taunton; his son 
Nathaniel was killed by the Indians at AVrenlham, March 8, 

William Avery. Freeman in 1677; a physician and apothe- 
carj- ; member of the artillery company in 1654; lieutenant of 
town's company in 1673; representative for Springfield in 1669; 
died at Boston, March 18, 1687, aged about sixty-five years ; he 
made a donation of sixty pounds to the town for a Latin school 
in 1680. 

John Aldia. He was a son of Nathan Aldis; deacon of the 
church, and died Dec. 21, 1700. 

John Mason. He was a son of Robert Mason, who removed 
from Roxbury to Dedham, where he died Oct. 15, 1667; he 
married a daughter of John Eaton, May 5, 1651. 

Isaac Bullard. He was a son of William Bullard, and came 
with his father when a child ; he died in 1676. 

Cornelius Fisher. Freeman May 2, 1649; he was a son of 
Anthony Fisher; he lived in that part of Dedham which be- 
came Wrentham; representative under the new charter in 
1692, and died Jan. 2, 1699. 

John- Partridge. He was of Medfield. 

James Draper. Freeman in 1690; he came to Dedham in 
1683, having formerly lived in Lancaster and Roxbury; he 
died July 13, 1697, aged seventy-three years. 

James Thorpe. Freeman in 1690. 

Samuel Fisher. He was of Wrentham, where he was deacon 
of the church; representative in 1689, and died Jan. 5, 1703. 

Benjamin Bullard. He lived in that part of Dedham which 
became Medfield, and afterwards at Sherborn. 

Ellice Wood. He married the widow of John Smith, of 
Dedham, who was the schoolmistress for many years; he re- 
moved to Dorchester, where he died Oct. 19, 1706, aged seventy- 
three years. 

Thomas Fisher. Freeman in 1678; he was a son of Thomas 
Fisher, who removed to Dedham from Cambridge. 



The covenant may be considered as the constitution 
embodying the general principles and purposes of the 
company. But in the work of organizing their gov- 
ernment they also displayed that remarkable capacity 
which characterized the Puritan colonists, and in se- 
curing the titles to their lands and providing for the 
common weal, they adopted laws and regulations 
similar to those under which they and their ancestors 
had lived for centuries. 

The inhabitants having acquired the right to make 
laws, exercised it for three years in their aggregate 
capacity. But as the affairs of the plantation required 
monthly town-meetings, these diverted them from 
their necessary business, and in 1639 they delegated 
all their power to seven men to be chosen annually. 
The powers of these seven men were coextensive in 
every respect with those of the town in legal town- 
meeting assembled, excepting that they were subse- 
quently prohibited from making free grants, from ad- 
mitting townsmen, and from making dividends of 
lands. The seven men kept records of their doings 
and inserted them in the town records, and they are 
recorded promiscuously among the doings of all the 
proprietors. They met monthly for many years, and 
passed many necessary by-laws, for the establishment 
of highways and fences ; for the keeping of cattle 
and swine and horses ; for keeping a proper register 
of land-titles, and of births and marriages ; for the 
support of schools and religion ; for additional bounties 
for killing wolves and wild-cats, and for the extinguish- 
ment of Indian claims. 

The proprietors were extremely anxious lest any 
un6t persons should gain admittance to their society, 
and by an ordinance it was declared that every man 
should give information of what he knew concerning 
any man coming into the town, before he should " be 
admitted into the society of such as seek peace and 
ensue it," No person in covenant should bring his 
servant with him, and thereby entitle the servant to a 
lot of land, without bringing testimony of a good 
character before he should be permitted to reside here. 
Nor could any proprietor sell his lots without leave of 
the company. The purpose of these ordinances was 
to protect the plantation from such as should be " con- 
trary-minded," in the language of the covenant. It is 
to be remembered that a leading idea of the colonists 
was to build up a homogeneous society, where all 
should be of the same religious belief, and from its 
fellowship all others were to be excluded. 

In the allotment of lands, each married man had a 
home-lot of twelve acres, with four acres of swamp- 
land, and each unmarried man eight acres, with three 
acres of swamp-land. The village was laid out in 

lots of similar size, and all having a margin of meadow. 

So accurately were these lots defined, that not many 
years since a plan showing the lots first granted in 
Dedham village was made from the description in the 
proprietors' book of grants, and some of the lines 
verified by an actual survey. Excepting the home- 
lots, all the lands cultivated were inclosed in common 
fields. In 1642 the proprietors agreed that two hun- 
dred acres south of High Street should be made a 
common tillage field, and that each proprietor's share 
therein should be marked out by the seven men 
chosen for the purpose. This common plough-field 
was surrounded by a fence made at the common 
charge. The wood-reeves decided the number of 
rods of fence to be made by each owner. This field 
was to be cleared every year by October 12th, in order 
that the cattle might be turned into it. After the 
timber was cleared from the home-lots, then the in- 
habitants were to obtain leave of the wood-reeves to 
cut wood and timber from the common lands. After- 
wards woodlands were assigned to the proprietors 
according to their services and merit. Besides these 
lands there were herd-walks or common feeding lands 
for the cattle. These were burned over annually for 
many years. By an ordinance of 1637 absence from 
town-meeting was punishable by a fine, one shilling 
for the first half-hour, and three shillings for the 
whole meeting. In 1639 it was required that every 
householder should provide a ladder for his house 
under a penalty of five shillings. A long ordinance 
for the establishment of highways was passed in 1637. 
Officers called wood-reeves were chosen annually for 
burning over the herd-walks, to give orders for cutting 
wood and timber on the common lands, to cause the 
ordinance respecting ladders to be observed, to collect 
the penalties for trespasses on the common lands, and 
to view fences, and cause them to be repaired. One 
of the earliest of the ordinances declared that there 
should not any waters become appropriated to any par- 
ticular man, but should rest for the common benefit of 
the whole town for matter of fishing. Another ordi- 
nance provides for the discovery of mines in the 
town, reports having been made of a copper-mine at 
Wronthani, and a bright and shining metal near a 
brook in Natick. 

Such was the manner in which the settlers organ- 
ized their town government. Worthington, in his 
History (1827), makes the following just reflections 
concerning the circumstances under which they acted : 
" Here in the woods at Dedham a number of strangers 
met, who had come from various places in England, 
and had probably acquired some slight knowledge of 
the intentions of each other when they first set out 



from Watertown to come here. There were then no 
general laws in the colony to regulate their various 
interests or their common enterprises. It was after 
the coming of the first inhabitants to this place that 
the General Court delegated powers to the selectmen to 
execute according to their best discretion what was 
afterwards regulated by general statutes. They had 
the common intent of dwelling in the town, and they 
formed a civil society out of its first simple elements. 
They actually did what theorists have conjectured 
might be done in such a case, but of which they could 
never exhibit a well-authenticated instance. The 
colonial government was given by a charter. It was 
the offspring of royalty. The Dcdham Society origi- 
nated in a compact, and its laws derived their force 
from the consent of the people. It was the begin- 
ning- of the American system of government.'" 

To some of the men who laid these foundations 
allusion has been made. Edward Allcyne died in 
1642, and but few of the original nineteen petition- 
ers even then remained. In 1637 the company 
received important accessions by the admission of 
several men of superior character and intelligence. 
Among these were Mr. John Aliin, invited, it is said, 
to become the teacher in the church, Eleazer Lusher, 
Michael Metcalf, Anthony Fisher, and Jonathan 
Fairbanks, all of whom remained and identified them- 
selves with the town. Of Mr. Allin more will be 
said in connection with the account of the gathering 
of the church hereafter. But probably Eleazer 
Lusher maintains the most eminent position among 
the real founders of the town. He was the leading 
man all his lifetime, and directed the most important 
affairs of the town. He was town clerk for twenty- 
three years and selectman for twenty-nine years. The 
full and perfect records he kept, the excellent style of 
his writings, the peace and success of the plantation 
under his guidance show that he was the leader in 
the organization of the town. He was a deputy to 
the General Court for many years, and an assistant 
from 1662 to the time of his death, which occurred 
Nov. 13, 1672. He was also prominent in the 
colony as well as the town. Johnson, in the '' Won- 
der-Working Providence," styles him the " nimble- 
footed captain, a man of the right stamp, and full for 
the country." In the church records, at the time of 
his death, he is spoken of as Maj. Eleazer Lusher, " a 
man sound in the faith, of great holiness and heavenly- 
mindedness, who was of the first foundation of this 
church, and had been of great use, as in the common- 
wealth so in the church." 

The following couplet was repeated frequently by 
the generation which immediately succeeded him : 

"When Lusher was in office, all things went well. 
But how they go since it shames us to tell." 

There were others who came the succeeding year 
and afterwards who deserve honorable mention, such 
as Ralph Wheelock, a man of excellent education, 
who went to Medfield ; Robert Hinsdale, also of Med- 
field, and afterwards of Hadley ; Michael Metcalf, 
always prominent in the church and town ; William 
Bullard and John BuUard, Thomas Fuller, Edward 
Richards, and John Guild, names which are still 
well known in the town which they founded. 

The company in 1638 consisted of about thirty 
ft\milies. They at first met for religious worship 
under one of the large trees which probably stood on 
the east side of Dwight's Brook, near the house of 
John D wight. As early as the 1st of February, 
1638. a committee was chosen " to contrive the frame 
of a meeting-house, to be in length thirty-six feet 
and twenty feet in breadth, and between the upper 
and nether sill in the sides to be twelve feet." The 
pits, or pews, were five feet deep and four and one- 
half feet wide. The elders' seat and the deacons' 
seat were before the pulpit; the communion table 
stood before these seats, and was so placed that the 
communicants could approach in all directions. This 
house was not finished until 1646. It was subse- 
quently enlarged, and finally pulled down in 1672. 

The formation of a church was attended with 
some delays and difficulties. At first, the settlers 
who were members of the Watertown Church re- 
quested a dismission, with Mr. Thomas Carter as a 
teacher. This request was not complied with. The 
people then requested Mr. Allin, with such as he 
might see fit to associate with him, to undertake the 
formation of a church. He first applied to Mr. 
Ralph Wheelock, and they jointly added eight more. 
These agreed to go out, each in turn, while his char- 
acter and qualifications for church membershipjeere 
scanned by the rest, they agreeing to submit to the 
judgment of the company, to be taken or left as might 
seem fit. The result was that Mr. John Allin, Ralph 
Wheelock, John Luson, John Frarye, Eleazer Lusher, 
and Robert Hinsdale were accepted. Edward Al- 
leyne, at first objected to, was afterwards received. 
John Hunting was admitted towards the end of the 
summer, making in all eight ready to enter church 
communion. They endeavored to secure for teacher 
a Mr. John Phillips, a minister of reputation, then 
recently from England, and he came, only to spend a 

The eighth day of the ninth month (November), 
1638, was the day appointed for entering into church 
covenant, and, according to the usage of that time, 


letters were sent to the magistrates and other churches, 
giving them notice of their intention and requesting 
their countenance and encouragement. The Gov- 
ernor informed them that no church should be 
gathered without the advice of other churches and 
the consent of the magistrates, and afterwards ex- 
plained that there was no intent to abridge their 
liberties, but if any people of unsound judgment or 
erroneous way should privately set up a church, the 
commonwealth would not so approve them as to 
communicate the freedom and privileges which they 
did unto others, or protect them in their government 
if they saw their way dangerous to the public peace. 

In the letters sent to the churches their presence 
and spiritual help was requested, and they were 
represented on the day appointed. It was agreed 
that the day appointed should be spent in solemn 
prayer and fasting. Mr. Wheelock should begin 
with prayer, and Mr. Allin should follow, first in 
prayer, and then, "by the way of exercising his 
gift," should speak to the assembly, and conclude 
with prayer. Then each of the eight persons made 
a public profession of faith and grace. The elders 
and messengers of the other churches and the whole 
people were then called upon to state any impedi- 
ment to the further proceeding, if any were known 
to them. Mr. Mather, teacher of the church in 
Dorchester, replied, in the name of the rest, that 
they had " nothing to declare from the Lord which 
should move them to desist," and gave them some 
loving exhortation. The covenant was then publicly 
read, to which all assented ; the right hand of fellow- 
ship was extended to each of them by the elders, in 
token of loving acceptation into communion. This 
was the manner of forming the church in Dedham. 
The covenant then entered into related to living in 
holy fellowship, according to the rule of love in all 
holy watchfulness of each other, to mutual helpful- 
ness, and for the spiritual and temporal comfort and 
good of one another in the Lord. 

The church thus gathered was without oflBcers. 
Mr. Allin was requested to supply the place of teacher 
for a time, with the assistance of Mr. Wheelock, to 
see that its aifairs were orderly conducted. During 
the following winter ten additional members were 
admitted, and the next spring they proceeded to fill 
the more important oflBces. Mr. Allin was chosen 
into the teaching ofiice, and there was some further 
discussion and consultation with the cliurchcs as to 
whether he should be appointed as pastor or teacher; 
but Mr. Allin, while professing that he was indifferent 
as to which office was selected, thought he was better 
qualified for that of pastor, and with the assent of the 

rest took the title of pastor. Four persons were 
named for the office of ruling elder: Ralph Wheelock, 
John Hunting, Mr. Thomas Carter, and John Kings- 
bury, of Watertown. John Hunting was chosen, and 
Mr. Wheelock was much disappointed, as he had been 
thought of before Mr. Hunting. 

Everything was ready for the ordination, but still 
there was considerable agitation as to the nature of 
ordination and to whom the right belonged. The 
conclusion to which they arrived was that the ordi- 
nation was simply a declaration of the election, and 
that the same body which could elect, could also of 
right ordain. The 24th day of April, 1639, was the 
time appointed for the ordination. The elders of the 
neighboring churches were present, but took no part 
in the services excepting in giving the right hand of 
fellowship at the conclusion. Elder Hunting was 
first ordained by John Allin, Ralph Wheelock, and 
Edward AUeyne, they being deputed for the purpose. 
They laid their hands on his head, repeating these 
words of ordination : " We, in the name of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, ordain thee, John Hunting, into the 
office of ruling elder in this church of Christ." Then 
Elder Hunting, with the other two, laid their hands 
upon the head of Mr. Allin, accompanied with prayer, 
and in the name of Christ and his church ordained 
him "to the office of pastor in the church," "the 
whole proceeding on the part of the elder being 
marked with gravity, comely order, and with effect- 
ual and apt prayer and exhortation to the church." 
Mr. Whiting, of Lynn, then gave the right hand of 
fellowship, and the assembly was dismissed. On the 
Sunday following the ordination, notice was given to 
church members to bring their children for baptism, 
and to prepare themselves for communion on the 
Sunday after. 

No deacons were chosen until 1650. There were 
some different apprehensions in the church as to the 
nature of the office. Finally, June 23, 1650, Henry 
Chickering and Nathan Aldis were regularly chosen 
to the office, and were ordained the following Sunday. 
A year after Mr. Allin's ordination the number of 
church members was fifty-three. 

The Dedham Church was the fourteenth church of 
Christ under the government of Massachusetts Bay. 
Johnson says, " They called to the office of pastor 
the reverend, humble, and heavenly-minded Mr. John 
Allin, a man of very courteous behavior, full of sweet 
Christian love towards all, and with much meekness 
of spirit contending earnestly for the faith and peace 
of Christ's churches." Cotton Mather, in his life of 
Allin, says, " He was none of those low-built, thatched 
cottages that are apt to catch fire, but, like a light- 



built castle or palace, free from the combustions of 

The Rev. John AUin probably came from Wren- 
tham, county of Suffolk, England, and was born in 
1596. He was graduated at Cambridge University, 
and was a preacher in England, though it is uncertain 
whether he was ever " in orders in the Church of 
England." He came to Dedham in 1637, and his 
influence in both the civil and religious aifiiirs of the 
town was very great from the beginning. For this 
work he was admirably fitted by temperament and 
education. When some dispute arose in the colony 
respecting its relations to the English government, 
and the question was referred to the ruling elders for 
advice, Mr. Allin was chosen to deliver their opinion. 
A discourse delivered by him before the Synod at 
Cambridge in 1648, which framed the well-known 
platform, received a warm eulogium from Governor 
Winthrop. He also, with Mr. Shepherd, of Cambridge, 
was the author of a '' Defence of the Nine Questions 
or Positions," being a reply to some charges by Eng- 
lish divines that their brethren on this side had em- 
braced opinions at variance with those professed 
before embarkation. But he was from disposition 
averse to controversy. His brethren and townsmen 
were much attached to him. The church continued 
in great harmony during his life. He received lib- 
eral grants of land from the Dedham proprietors and 
two hundred acres from the General Court at Bogas- 
tow in 1643. He took an interest in the labors of 
John Eliot among the Indians. He was a man of 
learning, had a vigorous mind, and in the discharge 
of his pastoral duties was faithful and assiduous. 
Cotton Mather writes his epitaph thus : 

" Vir sincerus, aiuans pacis, patiens que laborum 
Perspicuus, simplex doctrinae, purus amator," 

Mr. Allin married, for his second wife, the widow 
of Governor Thomas Dudley, Nov. 8, 1653. He 
died Aug. 26, 1671. After his death his people 
published two of the last sermons he preached, 
" writing their preface with tears," according to 
Mather. They also built a tomb or monument over 
his grave, with an inscription cut thereon with the 
date of his death. Elder Hunting died April 12, 
1689, and the office of ruling elder was never again 

During Mr. Allin's ministry of thirty-two years 
the records do not show any rates for his support. 
He depended upon voluntary contributions and the 
grants of land from the proprietors. All his succes- 
sors had salaries voted them by the town, although 
the salary was paid by the people. 

When the proprietors divided their common lands, 
in 1656, eight shares were devoted to the support of 
the teaching church-officer. The shares drew divi- 
dends wherever they were made, of the common lands? 
and remained unsold until after the Revolution. Since 
that time some of these lands have been sold, and the 
proceeds are the funds now belonging to the first 
church in Dedham. 

In 1644 the inhabitants declared their intention to 
devote some portion of their lands to the support of 
schools, and granted lands to trustees for raising a 
fund of the annual income of twenty pounds for the 
salary of a schoolmaster. The town raised this sum 
before the lands became productive. In 1680, Dr. 
William Avery, formerly of the Dedham Church, 
gave sixty pounds for a Latin school to be ordered 
by the selectmen and elders. This fund was for 
many years in the hands of trustees, but was finally 
lost by being wrongfully appropriated, or discredited 
by the operations of bills of credit. In 1695 three 
hundred acres of good land in Dedham were granted 
as a school-farm to support schools. This farm was 
sold by order of the town to defray its ordinary ex- 
penses. Thirty years after, the town instructed a 
committee to recover this farm, and voted a larger 
sum to carry on the law-suit than the compensation 
received for it. This was the work of the second 
and third generations. The first school-house was 
built in 1648, and the master's salary twenty pounds 
at first, and afterwards twenty-five pounds. 

In 1638, land was " set out for the use of a public 
burial-place for the town forever" from the lands of 
Nicholas Phillips and Joseph Kingsbury, who were 
compensated by the allowance of other land. Prob- 
ably it had been used for burials before. This reser- 
vation, although its contents are not given, refers to 
the ancient burial-place in Dedham village, with its 
present boundaries, except the additions made in 1860. 
A way to it leading from High Street was established 
in 1664. 

In 1638 an acre of ground, upon which the meet- 
ing-houses have always stood, was obtained of Joseph 
Kingsbury for the purpose of erecting a meeting- 
house upon it. In 1641, John Phillips sold to the 
church three acres, being another part of the same 
lot sold to him by Kingsbury, having the burial- 
ground on the south. In the same year Joseph 
Kingsbury granted to the church three acres lying 
between the parcel last named and the meeting-house 
acre. In this way the church acquired its title to 
lands in Dedham village. 

The "training-ground," a portion of which has 
since been known as the '• Great Common," was ap- 



propriated by the proprietors in 1644: for tlie use of 
the military company. This grant was confirmed in 
1648, with the provision annexed, that the trained 
company should not appropriate it to any other use 
than the public exercise of the company, without the 
consent of the selectmen, nor should the selectmen 
have power to dispose of any parcel thereof without 
the consent of the trained company. In 1677 one 
acre was granted to Amos Fisher in fee, and other 
persons have been permitted to improve portions of 
the ground. An almshouse was built in the westerly 
portion in 1773, and in 1836 this building and land 
belonging to it was sold by order of the town. In 
the alienation of both parcels it is stated that the 
consent of the parties interested was first obtained. 
A highway laid out through it in 1826 completed all 
that remained to be done, to destroy its symmetry and 
its usefulness for any purpose. 

A law of the colony forbade the settlers to build 
their houses above half a mile from the meeting- 
house, and this law was enforced for more than fifty 
years.. As late as 1682 complaints were made that 
this law had been disregarded. 

It has been seen that in choosing a place for the 
plantation the settlers were careful to provide for 
their cattle. In the summer the cows and oxen ftd 
on the common lands near home. The herds in- 
creased rapidly, and in 1659 there were four hundred 
and seventy-two cattle feeding on the common lands. 
The horses were turned into the woods, and, though 
fettered, broke into the corn-fields. Sheep were not 
introduced until a later period, when they were kept 
in one flock, and guarded by a shepherd from the 
wolves. Swine, with yokes upon their necks, were 
allowed to run in the woods. There was a scarcity 
of English grass for many years, and in 1649 the wet 
season prevented the making of hay upon the mead- 
ows, and the inhabitants went to WoUonomopoag to 
cut grass. Wheat was raised until about 1700 on 
the newly-cleared lands, and flax was cultivated to 
some extent. 

The village of Dedham in 1664 is thus described 
in Worthington's History (1827), and it probably 
gives a substantially correct idea of the first collec- 
tion of houses built upon the plain near the meeting- 
house : 

"In 1064 ninet}--five small houses, placed near each other, 
were situated within a short distance of the place where the 
court-house now stands, the greater part of thcin cast of that 
place and around Dwight's Brook. A row of houses stood on 
the north side of High Street, as that road was then called, 
which extends from the bridge over Dwight's Brook westerly 
by the court-house. The total value of these houses was si.\ 
hundred and ninety-one pounds. Four only of the houses 

were valued at twenty pounds each. The greater number were 
valued at from three to ten pounds. Most of these houses were 
built soon after the first settlement commenced. There were 
then very few carpenters, joiners, or masons in the colony. 
There was no saw-mill in the settlement for many years. The 
only boards which could be procured at first were those which 
were sawed by hand. The saw-pits now seen, denote that 
boards were sawed in the woods. The necessary materials — 
bricks, glass, and nails — were scarcely to be obtained. These 
houses, therefore, must have been constructed principally by 
farmers and not by mechanics, and were very rude and inconven- 
ient. They were probably log houses. Their roofs were covered 
with thatch. By an ordinance of the town a ladder was ordered 
to extend from the ground to the chimney as a substitute for a 
more perfect fire-engine. Around these houses nothing could 
be seen but stumps, clumsy fences of poles, and an uneven 
and unsubdued soil, such as all the first settlements in New 
England presented. The native forest trees were not suitable 
shades for a door-yard. A shady tree was not then such an 
agreeable object as it now is, because it could form no agreeable 
contrast with cleared grounds. Where the meeting-house of 
the first parish now stands there stood for more than thirty 
years a low building, thirty-six feet long and twenty feet wide 
and twelve feet high, with a thatched roof and a large ladder 
resting on it. This was the first meeting-house. Near bj' was 
the school-house, standing on an area eighteen feet by fourteen 
feet, and rising to three stories. The third story, however, was 
a watch-house of small dimensions. The watch-house was be- 
side the ample stone chimney. The spectator elevated on the 
little box, called the watch-house, might view this plain on 
which a part of the present village stands, then a common 
plough-field, containing about two hundred acres of cleared 
land, partially subdued, yet full of stumps and roots. Around 
him at a further distance were the herd-walks, as the common 
feeding lands were called in the language of that time. . . . 
The herd-walks were at first no better cultivated than by cut- 
ting down trees and carrying away the wood and timber, and 
afterwards, when it was practicable in the spring, by burning 
them over under the direction of town ofiicers called wood- 
reeves. . . . The meadows were not yet cleared to any extent. 
Beyond the herd-walks was a continuous wilderness, which was 
becoming more disagreeable to the inhabitants, fur the cattle, 
goafs, and swine seem to have allured the wolves to their neigh- 
borhood. The dense swamp about Wigwam Pond was not yet 

After King Philip's war the inhabitants began to 
abandon their first habitations, and built houses in 
all parts of the town. In sixty or seventy years the 
humble village of the first settlers was swept away, 
and their places were occupied by a few farmers for 
the next hundred years. Some removed to Boston 
by reason of King Philip's war. In 1642 the number 
of persons taxed was sixty-one, and in 1666 the 
number was ninety-five, and in 1675 the number 
continued the same. 




DEDHAM— (Cojjfuuterf). 

Mother Brook, or East Brook— Dedham Island — Long Ditch — 
Indian Village at Natick — Pacomtuck, or Deerfield — Bogas- 
tow, or Medfield — Wollonomopoag, or Wrentham — Decease 
of Leading Men among the First Settlers. 

On the twenty fifth day of the first month, March, 
1639, it was ordered "that a ditch should be dug 
at common charge through upper Charles Eiver 
meadow unto East Brook, that it may both be a par- 
tition fence in the same, and also may form a suitable 
creek unto a water-mill, that it shall be found fitting 
to set a mill upon, in the opinion of a workman to be 
employed for that purpose." This is the origin of 
Mother Brook, or Mill Creek, which starts out of 
Charles River about a quarter of a mile north of High 
Street, and runs in a direct course through the meadows 
and around the highlands, through the easterly vil- 
lage of the town to Neponset River. It is estimated 
that about one-third of the water of Charles River 
flows through this channel, and upon it are five mill- 
dams of great value, and at the present day are two 
extensive woolen-mills and one cotton-mill, beside the 
old saw-mill. East Brook took its rise about one 
hundred rods east of Washington Street, where it 
crosses the stream. From Charles River to this point 
the channel is obviously artificial, and was constructed 
under the order of the town in 1639. The plan was 
then conceived and carried out, of uniting the waters of 
Charles with the waters of East Brook, and afterwards 
with those of Neponset River. The execution of a 
public work like this in the very infancy of the settle- 
ment is striking evidence of the energy and capacity 
of the settlers. They then had only small hand grist- 
mills, which had been imported by Governor Win- 
throp, and their chief design in cutting this canal was to 
make a dam, where they might have a grist-mill oper- 
ated by water-power. The town at the same meeting 
granted liberty to any one to build a water-mill on that 
stream who would undertake it. John Eiderkin was 
the first to accept this proposal, and grants of land 
were made to him accordingly. In 1612 he sold one- 
half of his rights to Nathaniel Whiting and the other 
half to Mr. Allin, Nathaniel Aldis, and John Dwight, 
and in 1649, Nathaniel Whiting became the sole 
owner. In 1652 he sold the mill and his town rights 
for two hundred and fifty pounds, but in 1653 he re- 
purchased the same. 

In 1664 a new corn mill was erected by Daniel 
Pond and Ezra Morse, but Nathaniel Whiting remon- 
strated and brought a suit, which he lost. Further 

and frequent complaints were made by Nathaniel 
Whiting to the town, and a committee chosen to 
regulate the water at the upper dam. Finally, in 
1699, it was thought advisable to remove Morse's 
dam and let the water run in its old channel. As a 
compensation for this measure, forty acres were 
granted to Ezra Morse, near Neponset River, at the 
old sawmill, or at Everett's Plain, where he may find 
it most to his satisfaction. In 1700 the Wiiiting 
mill was burned, and the town loaned twenty pounds 
for one year as aid towards the erection of another mill. 

In 1658-59, Eleazer Lusher and Joshua Fisher 
agreed to build a saw-mill on the Neponset River, 
near the Cedar Swamp. 

In 1682, Jonathan Fairbanks and James Draper 
asked leave to build a fulling-mill below the corn- 
mills on East Brook, but Nathaniel Whiting was 
associated with James Draper by order of the town. 

The descendants of Nathaniel Whiting held these 
mill privileges on Mother Brook down to the present 

The turning of the waters of Charles River by 
means of the artificial channel, and uniting them with 
head- waters of 3Iother Brook, in 1640, has proved to 
be most beneficial and permanent in its consequences 
through all the subsequent history of the town. Until 
the beginning of the present century it furnished saw- 
mills and grist-mills, then of the highest importance, 
with power, and from 1807 down to the present time 
there have been erected upon it cotton- and woolen- 
mills, which have been prosperous, and have con- 
tributed to the substantial growth of the town. 

At the beginning of the settlement of the town, 
what is called Dedham Island was a neck of land 
around which Charles River flowed, with a slight fall 
in its course, a distance of nearly five miles in an 
irregular horseshoe bend, leaving a distance of only 
two-thirds of a mile across the meadows at itsJieel. 
This neck is estimated to contain about twelve hun- 
dred acres, and upon it was a herd-walk and possibly 
some houses of the early settlers. Across " Broad 
Meadows," at the heel of the horseshoe bend, the 
upper and lower channels of the river are distinctly 
visible at high water. The damage to the meadows 
arising from the waters remaining upon them, was felt 
to be serious by the first generation, as it has been by 
every succeeding generation of riparian owners. The 
enterprising and public-spirited settlers conceived the 
plan of cutting a " creek or ditch" through the 
" Broad Meadows," thus uniting the two channels of 
the river. The purpose was to permit the flow of the 
waters through this artificial channel instead of accu- 
mulating upon the meadows along the river below. 



In 1652 liberty was granted to cut a creek or ditch 
through the " Broad Meadows" from river to river. 
Lieut. Fisher and Thomas Fuller were deputed to 
survey the length of the water-course through the 
" Broad Meadows," and the manner of the ground 
through which the same was to be cut, and the 
height of the water in the lower river. 

This was the origin of " Long Ditch," the con- 
struction of which converted the neck into an island. 
It is not long since it was possible to pass through 
this channel in a small boat, but the lower portion 
has become much obstructed by the growth of bushes 
and the closing of the channel. Its history, however, 
is a monument of the energy and foresight of the 
first generation of the Dedham settlers. The great 
causeway on the bank of the river, which crosses the 
channel of " Long Ditch" where it leaves the river, 
was built in 1701. 

In 16-46, John Eliot, the minister at Roxbury, 
began the work of converting the Indians to Chris- 
tianity and civilization. His first instructions were 
given at Nonantum, a part of the present city of 
Newton. He met with success in the conversion 
of some Indians, among others, of Waban, a wise 
and grave man of the Massachusetts tribe. Mr. Eliot 
maintained that the Indians could not become Chris- 
tians unless they were first civilized. He therefore 
proposed that the Indians should be collected into one 
village, and designated a place on Charles River, ten 
miles west of the village of Dedham. This was in the 
southerly part of the town of Natick, a name which sig- 
nifies " a place of hills." To this proposition, when pro- 
posed to the General Court, Dedham readily assented. 
Mr. Allin was interested in Eliot's work, and aided 
him in his new enterprise. The General Court 
granted two thousand acres at Natick in 1651 for 
the new Indian town. It has been asserted that the 
town really had about six thousand acres, and the 
boundaries were never satisfactorily settled with the 
Indians. The Naticks, as they were afterwards called, 
soon built a little town which had three long streets, 
two on the north, and one on the south of Charles 
River. Each family had a house-lot. The houses 
consisted of poles set in the ground, and were covered 
with peeled bark. A few, built in the manner of 
English houses, were less perfect and comfortable. 
There was one large house which answered the double 
purpose of a school-room and meeting house. In the 
second story the Indians deposited their skins. They 
were supplied with spades, hoes, axes, and other 
farming implements. A form of government was 
adopted, and an English magistrate was appointed to 
hold a court, and, in fact, appointed the Indian con- 

stables and smaller officers. In 1670 the Indian 
Church at Natick had two teachers and from forty to 
fifty communicants. They observed the Sabbath, 
some of them could read and write and rehearse the 
catechism. The experiment was in a degree success- 
ful. In the beginning of the eighteenth century the 
tribe was in a civilized state, they had civil officers 
of their own, and a military company organized in 
the manner of the colonists. There were some, like 
Waban and Deacon Ephraim, who led sober. Christian 
lives, but their numbers gradually diminished until 
they were extinct in 1826. 

When the General Court granted the two thousand 
acres, to be taken from the territory of Dedham for 
the Indian town at Natick, it granted to the Dedham 
proprietors, as compensation, eight thousand acres of 
unlocated lands which they might select. In 1663 
messengers were sent out to explore near Lancaster. 
The messengers reported the land to be good, but 
hard to cultivate, and there was not enough meadow 
land. John Fairbanks informed the selectmen of 
some good land twelve miles from Hadley, and John 
Fairbanks and Lieut. Daniel Fisher were sent out 
to discover and examine it. On their return they 
reported the land to be exceedingly good and that it 
should be taken possession of under the grant. This 
was Pacomtuck, the present town of Deerfield. 
When the report was received, the Dedham proprie- 
tors appointed six persons to repair to Pacomtuck, 
and cause the eight thousand acres to be located. 
Capt. John Pynchon, of Springfield, was employed 
by the town to purchase the lands of the Indians, 
and procured three deeds from them, which are now 
carefully preserved at Deerfield. The grantee in these 
deeds is Capt. John Pynchon, of Springfield, for the 
use and behoof of Maj. Eleazer Lusher, Ensign 
Daniel Fisher, and other English of Dedham, their 
associates and successors. Dedham gave £94 10s. 
for these deeds, which sum was raised by an assess- 
ment on the common rights in the Dedham proprie- 

In 1670 the proprietors of Pacomtuck met at 
Dedham, twenty-six being present, — Capt. John 
Pynchon, Samuel Hinsdale, John Stebbins, John 
Hurlburt, and Samson Frary not being inhabitants of 
Dedham, but Samuel Hinsdale was a son of Robert 
Hinsdale, of Dedham. The remaining proprietors 
were inhabitants of Dedham. It was then voted to 
have a correct plan made, the place for the meeting- 
house to be designated, the church-officers' lot and 
lots of proprietors to be assigned. 

In 1672, Samuel Hinsdale, who was afterwards 
slain at Bloody Brook, made a petition to the Dedham 



proprietors to authorize five persons to admit inhabit- 
ants, and to hire an orthodox minister at Deerfield, 
and to act for themselves in other matters, by reason 
of their remoteness from other settlements. This 
petition was granted, and seems to end the relations 
of the Dedham proprietors with Pacomtuck. Doubt- 
less their shares were purchased by the Pacomtuck 
proprietors who inhabited there. The town was 
incorporated as Deerfield, May 24, 1682. 

As the territory granted to the Dedham proprietors 
in 1636 was so extensive, there was a great induce- 
ment to begin new settlements within its limits. The 
desire or necessity for more land, seems to have been 
a controlling reason for extending the settlements. 
The fear of attacks from the Indians had at first 
checked the advance of the line of settlements. 
From the beginning, the settlers had looked with 
longing eyes upon the wide meadows at Bogastow, 
now the easterly part of Med way. Edward Alley ne, 
in 1640, had a grant of three hundred acres there, 
where he should choose, with fifty acres of meadow. 
After the death of Mr. Alleyne, in 1642, this grant 
was located under the direction of Maj. Lusher. In 
January, 1650, with the sanction and co-operation of 
the Dedham proprietors, at a general meeting there 
was granted, for the accommodation of the village, a 
tract extending east and west three miles, and north 
and south four miles. A company was immediately 
formed, and regulations similar to their own, adopted 
for the government of the new town, and rules were 
adopted for the equitable division of the lands. In 
January, 1651, Dedham formally transferred all right 
and power of town government to the new settlement, 
which was incorporated May 23, 1651, as Medfield. 
The grant to Edward Alleyne was conveyed to the 
town of Medfield by his nephew in 1652. A num- 
ber of the Dedham settlers removed to Medfield, and 
prominent among them was Mr. Ralph Wheelock, 
said to have been a non-conformist preacher in Eng- 
land, educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and who 
came to Dedham in 1638. Whether his disappoint- 
ment at not being the choice of the Dedham Church 
as ruling elder, had inclined him to remove is not 
stated upon authority, but he was in the habit of 
preaching occasionally at Medfield. He was a repre- 
sentative from Medfield, and died Jan. 11. 1684, at 
the age of eighty-three. He was the ancestor of the 
founder and first president of Dartmouth College. 
The fact that so large a number of the Dedham set- 
tlers had early received grants of land in Medfield, 
makes the existence of that town nearly coeval with 
Dedham. It was an offshoot of the Dedham settle- 
ment, rather than a child of the parent town. 

The attention of the settlers was also turned south- 
ward to their uplands and meadows at Wollonoraopoag. 
The large and beautiful ponds there, are not mentioned 
in the records as among its attractions, but in 1649 
they had gone there to cut grass from the meadows, 
and in 1647 notice was given by John Dwight and 
Francis Chickering of their hopes of a mine there. 
In 1660 a committee was deputed to view the up- 
land and meadow near about the ponds by " George 
Indian's wigwam." In 1661, at a general town-meet- 
ing, it was voted that a plantation should be set up at 
Wollonomopoag, and that six hundred acres should be 
laid down for the encouragement of the plantation. 
The bounds of the plantation were afterwards fixed 
in the same year ; the south bounds to be the Dor- 
chester line, and the north bounds to be the 3Iedfield 
bounds in part and Charles River in part. In 1662 
a committee made a report upon extinguishing the 
Indian title. Philip, sachem of Mount Hope, claimed 
lands at Wollonomopoag. In 1662 Dedham had paid 
£24 10s. for his title to lands within its plantation, 
and again in 1669 the further sum of £17 Os. Sr?. 
were paid him for a further release of his title. Tlie 
payment of these sums seems to have been an obstncle 
to removing to the new plantation. In 1663 the 
company drew lots in the Wollonomopoag plantation, 
and a settlement was actually began. An examination 
of the names of these settlers shows that they were 
nearly all the sons or sons-in-law of the Dedham set- 
tlers, so that the new plantation was actually the child 
of Dedham, and the Dedham proprietors continued 
to aid and direct it in a paternal way for .several years. 
In 1669, Mr. AUin, the Dedham pastor, Elder Hunting, 
and Major Lusher approved a call to the Rev. Samuel 
IMann to be the minister for the infant settlement. 
Major Lusher kept their records. 'At length, in 1672, 
the inhabitants were of sufficient numbers and capac- 
ity, in the opinion of the General Court, to carry on 
the work of the church and commonwealth, and upon 
their petition, Oct. 17, 1673, they were made a town 
by the name of Wrentham. In the following Decem- 
ber the books and records were transferred from Ded- 
ham to Wrentham. Fifty years later a considerable 
portion of the south precinct of Dorchester was also 
set off" to Wrentham. 

The settlement at Dedham was gradually increa.sirig 
in its population. In 1657 there were one hundred 
and sixty-six families. Mr. Alliu received sixty 
pounds as his annual maintenance, and had a good 
stock of cattle, and a good accommodation in ctirn- 
land and meadow. Johnson describes Dedham about 
this time as " an inland town about ten miles from 
Boston, well watered with many pleasant streams. 



abounding with garden fruits fitly to supply the mar- 
kets of the naost populous town, whose coin and com- 
modities allures the inhabitants of the town to make 
many a long walk ; they consist of about a hundred 
families, being generally given to husbandry, and 
through the blessing of God are much increased, 
ready to swarm and settle on the building of another 
town more to the inland." The deeds of lands refer 
to barns and orchards. The inventory of Mr. Allin's 
estate included chairs upholstered with leather, Tur- 
key-work cushions, feather-beds and pillows, " a gilt 
bowl with covering," " a wine-cup with a foot," and 
a warming-pan, so that some of these homes in the 
wilderness had both comforts and luxuries. Mr. 
Allin was a well-to-do farmer, having extensive out- 
lands and a comfortable homestead, with parlor, kitchen, 
and buttery on the first floor, and chambers over each. 
Deacon Chickering the largest landholder ; Ensign 
Daniel Fisher, for three years speaker of the House 
of Deputies, and afterwards an assistant ambassador 
to King Philip, "learned in the law,'" the father of 
him who afterwards collared a royal governor ; Tim- 
othy Dwight, who came over with his father, John 
Dwight, when a mere child, the town recorder, select- 
man, deputy to the General Court, " of an excellent 
spirit, peaceable, generous, charitable;" Elder Hunt- 
ing, son-in law to Mr. Allin ; Michael Metcalf, the 
schoolmaster ; Dr. William Avery, the donor of money 
for a Latin school ; and Lieut. Joshua Fisher, who kept 
the ordinary and had an annual bill for " dieting the 
selectmen ;" these were the contemporaries of the gra- 
cious Allin and 3Laj. Lusher through the first thirty- 
five years of the settlement. How wisely and well 
these men wrought has already been seen. 

But the time had arrived when the leaders of 
the first generation' were to rest from their labors. 
Michael Metcalf died in 1664; Anthony Fisher, in 
1669 ; Mr. Allin, in 1671 ; Major Lusher and Joshua 
Fisher, in 1672; Daniel Fisher, in 1683. Another 
generation was about to enter into their labors and 
the rule of peaceful life was about to be broken. 


Indian Deeds — Philip's War— Rev. William Adams— New 
Meeting- House — Timothy Dwight — William Avery — Daniel 
Fisher, the second — His Part in llesisling Sir Edmund 

At the time of the coming of the settlers, there 
were no Indians to be seen within miles of the set- 

tlement. Chicatabot, sachem of the Neponsets, after- 
wards claimed the territory west of Neponset River, 
bounded northerly on Charles River and southerly 
on the land of Philip, sachem of the Pokanokets. 
Philip claimed lands at Wollonomopoag, and was 
in the habit of repeating his claims after he had 
once released them. Magus, another sachem, claimed 
the territory including Natick, Needham, and Ded- 
ham Island. It was the policy of the Massachu- 
setts colony, under the advice of the Council for 
New England, to purchase the title of any savages 
who might pretend to rights of inheritance to the 
lands granted, that they might avoid the least scruple 
of intrusion. The Dedham settlers were careful to 
observe this precept. It has been seen that deeds 
from Philip of the lands at Wollonomopoag and from 
the sachem of the Pacomtucks at Deerfield were 
procured by the Dedham settlers. Besides these 
deeds, in 1685 there was obtained from Josias, the 
grandson of Chicatabot, a confirmatory title to the 
tract of land known as the town of Dedham. In 
1680, John Magus and his wife, Natick Indians, in 
consideration of five pounds in money, released the 
Indian title to Natick, Needham, and Dedham Island. 
In 1685, William Nahaton, Peter Natoogus, and 
Benjamin Nahaton, Punkapog Indians, released their 

In 1681 the town voted that all deeds and other 
writings relating to town-rights, should be deposited 
in a box kept by Deacon Aldis for the purpose, and 
it appears there were seven Indian deeds among 
them. Whether this box was really provided or 
not, a bundle of Indian deeds was found in 1836, 
including all the deeds excepting that from Philip, 
whose autograph cannot be found. A curious letter 
from Philip to the selectmen of Dedham, which was 
copied into the Wrentham records, relates to his land 
claims. Three of the deeds are still kept in the 
town clerk's office at Dedham, and the three deeds 
from the Pacomtucks have been sent to Deerfield. 
For all these conveyances an adequate consideration 
in money was paid, and if there was any attempt at 
overreaching in the bargains, it was by Philip of 
Mount Hope, to whose unscrupulous demands the 
Dedham settlers yielded for the sake of peace. 

In 1673 the selectmen received orders from the 
General Court to prepare the town for defense against 
the Indians. For several years Philip had excited 
alarm in the Plymouth colony by his bad faith and 
secret combinations with other tribes, and it was now 
rendered certain that a serious outbreak was about to 
occur. The soldiers were called out for frequent 
trainings. A barrel of gunpowder and other ammu- 



nition were procured. The gun, which was a small 
field-piece called a drake, given to the town by the 
General Court in 1650, was mounted on wheels. 
The meeting-house was made the depository for sup- 
plies. The people maintained a garrison and set a 
watch. The inhabitants had been encouraged to en- 
list into the troop of horse commanded by Capt. Pren- 
tice by an abatement of taxes. The fear excited was 
great in the settlement, and many fled to Boston. 
The Wrentham settlers packed their goods, and with 
their wives and children came to Dedham, leaving 
their deserted houses behind them. The town was 
well situated for defense. It was built in a compact 
manner, that it might be prepared for defense against 
the Indians. Little River and Charles River on the 
north, were safeguards against approach from that 
direction, while on the other sides of the village the 
plain was cleared to a considerable extent, and was 
overlooked by the watch in the belfry of the naw 
meeting-house. The Indians in the town were 
ordered to depart, and to go either to Natick, Ne- 
ponset, or Wamisit. A war tax was levied upon 
the inhabitants, which exceeded one shilling for 
every pound of valuation. 

Dedham escaped the horrors of an Indian attack 
by reason of these preparations, but Dedham men 
were found in the bloodiest battles of the war. The 
troop of horse under Capt. Prentice was a part of the 
force which made the first attack upon Philip on 
June 28, 1675, immediately after the massacre at 
Swanzey, and lost one killed and one wounded. 
Robert Hinsdale, one of the founders of the Dedham 
Church in 1638, but who had removed to Hadley, 
with his three sons, were killed at Bloody Brook in 
Capt. Lothrop's company. John Wilson, John 
Genere, and Elisha Woodward were slain at Deer- 

In December, 1675, the combined forces of the 
colonies, consisting of six companies under Gen. 
Winslow, were collected at Dedham and marched 
against the Narragansetts in Rhode Island, and was 
the force engaged in the great battle of the Narraganset 
Fort. In February, 1676, Medfield was burned and 
twenty of the settlers killed, and the deserted houses 
at Wrentham were nearly all consumed soon after. 

Indians were detected lurking in the neighboring 
woods of the Dedham settlement, but they found the 
watch set and the garrison prepared. On the 25th 
of July, 1676, a party of Dedham and Medfield men, 
numbering thirty-six Englishmen and ninety praying 
Indians, won a signal success in slaying Pomham, a 
Narragansett sachem, and capturing fifty of his fol- 
lowers. An expedition under Capt. Church had 

gone to the Narragansett country in pursuit of him, 
but he escaped them. 

This achievement contributed much to bring the 
war to a successful conclusion, as Pomham was re- 
garded as an enemy second only in power and influ- 
ence to Philip himself. The death of Philip soon 
after brought hostilities in this vicinity to an end, 
and the settlement could again feel some sense of 

There were other changes going on in the town 
besides those resulting from the dread realities of 
an Indian war. It has been seen that many of the 
leading men of the first generation had gone to their 
final rest. In a little more than .six months after Mr. 
Allin's death, Mr. William Adams had been called to 
be his successor, and was ordained Dec. 3, 1673. He 
was the son of William Adams, of Ipswich, born May 
27, 1650, and was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1671. He married, for his second wife, Alice 
Bradford, daughter of Maj. William Bradford, of 
Plymouth. He relinquished for one year eight pounds 
of his salary on account of the expenses incurred 
during Philip's war. 

Soon after his settlement as minister, the new meet- 
ing-house was raised. The old meeting-house, with 
its thatched roof, was out of repair and insufficient 
for the congregation. In 1672, before Mr. Adams 
was called, the people had voted to erect a new meet- 
ing-house. It was finished in 1673. It had "three 
pair of stairs," one at the north, another at the east, 
and another at the south corners. The fore seat in 
the front gallery was parted in the middle, and the 
rest open at both ends. The south gallery was for 
men, and the north gallery for women and boys. The 
seats in the lower part of the house were parted 
in the middle by an aisle, so that the men were 
ranged on one side and the women on the other. It 
had a bell, which had become quite necessary,^ince 
the people were moving farther from the meeting- 
house than formerly. The practice of beating the 
drum to summon the congregation had been aban- 
doned for many years. They had much difficulty in 
caring for tlie orderly behavior of the boys, to whom 
were assigned seats where they might " be watched 
over." Ten years after, it was proposed to construct 
new galleries, and in 1696 galleries were erected 
"over the other galleries," that over the woman's 
gallery being for " young women and maids to sit 

Mr. Adams died Aug. 17, 1685. Two of his ser- 
mons were printed, one being an election sermon. In 
a book used for the parish records there is a com- 
mentary written by him covering sixty-three pages. 



During his ministry there was harmony among his 
people, and they showed attachment to their [tastor. 
The parish now included all of the original territory 
granted to Dedham proprietors excepting Medfield 
and Wrentham. In 1682 a vote was passed that no 
one of the inhabitants should remove a greater dis- 
tance than two miles from the meeting-house withont 
special license, as any person so removing would ex- 
pose himself to danger, and to want of town govern- 
ment. The people, therefore, were not widely scat- 
tered, although the small house-lots of the village 
were gradually being abandoned. The generation 
which had now succeeded to the management of the 
secular and religious aifairs of the town were much 
inferior to the first, in point of education and manners. 
The wilderness had been a rough school in which to 
rear their families, in spite of the care which the 
fathers had taken to provide for their education. 
The town was indicted in 1674, and again in 1691, 
for not supporting a school. The Indian war had 
doubtless a depressing influence in this respect. 

The leading men at this period appear to have 
been Timothy Dwight, Daniel Fisher (the second of 
that name), and William Avery. Timothy Dwight 
was the son of John Dwight, and was a small child 
when he came with his father. He had been town 
clerk ten years and selectman twenty-four years before 
this time, but he was still in active life, and survived 
until Jan. 31, 1718. He was the husband of six 
wives and the father of nineteen children. He was 
the progenitor of a line of» descendants that have 
made the name of Dwight known and honored 
through the succeeding generations. William Avery 
was the son of Dr. William Avery, and was a deacon 
of the church and selectman for twenty-two years. 
His name was honorably perpetuated for many years 
in Dedham. Capt. Daniel Fisher succeeded to the title 
and name of his father but not to his official distinc- 
tion, but he inherited his spirit. His father had been 
prominent in the struggle between the Massachusetts 
colony and Randolph, the special messenger of the 
crown, in his attempts against the colonial charter. 
Among those against whom he exhibited articles of 
high misdemeanor was Daniel Fisher, and in 1682 
Randolph wrote to England that " His Majesty's quo 
warranto against the charter, sending for Thomas 
Danforth, Samuel Norvell, Daniel Fisher, and p]iisha 
Cooke, will make the whole faction tremble." Such was 
the character and position of the first Daniel Fisher, 
who died in 1683. In 1686 the charter was vacated, 
and soon after, Sir Edmund Andros was appointed 
the royal Governor of all the English possessions in 
America north of Pennsylvania, by King James II. 

His activity in oppressive legislation had rendered 
him especially obnoxious to the people of Boston, 
where he resided. In April, 1689, the news of the 
landing of the Prince of Orange in England was 
brought to Boston. On the morning of the 18th 
of April, it being Thursday, when the weekly lecture 
of the First Church invited a concourse from the 
neighboring towns, a rumor spread that there were 
armed men collecting and a rising in the different 
parts of Boston. " At nine of the clock the drums 
beat through the town and an ensign was set up on 
the beacon." The captain of the " Rose" frigate was 
taken and handed over to a guard, and Randolph 
and other high officials were apprehended and put in 
jail. From the eastern gallery of the town-house in 
King Street, a declaration of the gentlemen mer- 
chants and inhabitants of Boston and the country 
adjacent was read to the assembled people, reciting 
the oppressive acts of Andros, and concluding that 
they seize upon the persons of the grand authors of 
their miseries to secure them for justice, and advising 
the people to join them for the defense of the land. 
Andi'os was in the fort on Fort Hill. A summons 
was sent to him to surrender and deliver up the 
government and fortification, promising him secu- 
rity from violence, but assuring him an attempt 
would be made to take the fort by storm if opposition 
should be made. After some negotiation the Gov- 
ernor " came forth from the fort and went disarmed 
to the town-house, and from thence under guard to 
Mr. Usher's house." On the succeeding day, the 
news having spread to the adjoining towns, the coun- 
try people, according to Hutchinson, " came into town 
in such a rage and heat as made. all tremble to think 
what would follow." Nothing would satisfy them but 
that the Governor must be bound in chains or cords 
and put in a more secure place, and Andios was con- 
ducted under guard from Usher's house back to the 
fort. Tradition says that the man who led the im- 
prisoned Governor by the collar of his coat was Capt. 
Daniel Fisher, the second of the name, of Dedham. 
As Haven in his centennial address most felicitously 
says, it was " a second Daniel come to judgment." 
He was inspired with a keen sense of the personal 
obloquy his father had endured from royal emissaries 
as well as a thorough sympathy with the cause of the 
people. He served as selectman for nine years. He 
was the Daniel Fisher who went to Deerfield with 
John Fairbanks in 1663. He was also the great- 
grandfiither of Fisher Ames. 




DEDHAM— ( CunUnued.) 

Province Charter — Changes and Contentions — Incorporation of 
Needham — Rev. Joseph Belcher — The Second Parish and J 
Church— Rev. Thomas Baleh— The Third Parish and Church 
— ^Rev. Josiah Dwight — Rev. Andrew Tyler — Incorporation 
of Walpole — Services of Church of England begun — Rev. 
William Clark— Samuel Colburn — Devise of Estate to Epis- 
copal Church — Rev. Samuel De.xter — The Fourth Parish and 
Church — Rev. Benjamin Caryl — Services of Dedham Men in 
French Wars — New Meeting-House — Dr. Nathaniel Ames — 
The Pillar of Liberty — Events Prior to the American Revo- 

In 1692 the charter, under which the colony had 
existed for fifty-five years, wa.s dissolved by a legal 
judgment, and a new charter of the province of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, with a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, 
and secretary, appointed by the crown, took its place. 
This is commonly considered as marking the begin- 
ning of a new period in the history of Massachusetts. 
In the Dedham settlement it was a time of depres- 
sion. The town had been without a pastor for about 
eight years, since the death of Mr. Adams. Divi- 
sions had arisen among the people during the vacancy, 
and they had extended calls to four diflferent persons 
to become their minister. In the correspondence 
which occurred during these efforts of the church 
and town, the discouraging state of affairs at Ded- 
ham was not concealed, and it had the effect of 
causing a declination of each invitation. At length, 
in 1692, Mr. Joseph Belcher, of Milton, accepted 
the call. The town offered him sixty pounds to pro- 
vide him with a dwelling, and a salary of one hun- 
dred pounds, and afterwards wood to the value of ten 
pounds was added, or that amount in money. He 
was ordained Nov. 29, 1693. Soon after, the meet- 
ing-house was enlarged by the addition of new gal- 
leries. Prior to this time, the ministerial rate had 
been paid by the voluntary contributions made each 
Sabbath. Mr. Belcher proposed that for one quarter, 
his salary should be paid, and he would rely upon 
contributions for the remaining three-quarters of the 
year. The result was not satisfactory, and a few 
years after, the ministerial rates were collected in the 
same manner as the country rates. Those who de- 
sired to worship elsewhere had liberty to pay the 
rates to the minister where they worshiped. These, 
doubtless, were those who lived at a remote distance 
from the meeting-house and were desirous of forming 
new parishes. About the year 1702 pews were first 
introduced, and a year or two previous, the meeting- 
house was again enlarged. 

In civil matters, there were some changes worthy of 
mention. In 1694: the inhabitants of the town and 
the proprietors first acted as separate bodies. lu 
1695 the proprietors laid out the thirty-four hundred 
acres of their Sherborn lands which were included in 
the grant of 1636, and assigned them to those who 
could then show their rights therein. This was to aid 
in the formation of the new town which was incorpo 
rated in 169-4. In 1698 the bounty for killing a full- 
grown wolf was increased from twenty to thirty 
shillings, and a number of these bounties was soon 
after received. A considerable portion of the town 

1 still remained a wilderness. In raising thirty pounds 
to repair the meeting-house, it was voted to pay one- 
half in wheat at five shillings, rye at four shillings, 

[ corn at two shillings, and a day's work at two shil- 
lings. In 1701 it was voted that the law forbidding 
any person not an inhabitant to purchase land in the 

[ town is in force, and that measures be taken to get it 
approved by the General Court. The contentions 
and divisions existing in the town are well exempli- 
fied by the town-meeting in March, 1703. It as- 
sembled on the sixth, and was held all day, but did no 
business but adjourn to the thirteenth day. The ad- 
journed meeting could do no business, but adjourned 
to the seventeenth day, when town-ofiicers were chosen. 
A new meeting was called on the twenty-seventh day, 
when another board of town-ofiicers was chosen, and on 
the seventeenth of April a third board of town-officers 
was chosen by order of the Court of Sessions. In 1700, 
Sir Prentiss began to keep school at twenty pounds 
for the year and keeping his horse with hay and 
grass. In 1715 the town granted fifteen pounds lor 
the school, which was the sum granted for several 
years, both before and after that year. In 1718 the 
town imposed a penalty of twenty shillings for every 
month an unlicensed stranger should remain in the 
town. The province taxes until 1720 were called 
the country taxes in the assessment, as the name of 
province was odious to the people. In 1722 the 
settlement was visited with the smallpox, and the 
inhabitants held public worship in a private house 
for fear of the contagion. 

The gradual extension of new settlements within 
the territory of the proprietors is shown by the incor- 
poration of new towns. In 1711 forty persons, re- 
siding in that part of the town now called Needham, 
petitioned the General Court to be set off as a sepa- 
rate township. Dedham at first opposed the separa- 
tion, but afterwards gave its consent on condition 
that the petitioners should have less territory than 
they demanded. The town of Needham was incor- 
porated Nov. 5, 1711, with all the territory asked for 



in the petition. Bcllingham was incorporated Nov. 
27, 1719. In 1691 the selectmen had reported that 
the lands near Mendon and Wrentham, which con- 
stituted the town of Bellingham, were not worth lay- 
ing out for a dividend, so that there was probably no 
opposition to the incorporation. It was named in 
honor of Governor Richard Bellingham. The town 
of Walpole was incorporated Dec. 10, 1724, and was 
carved out of the southerly part of Dedham. It 
was named for Sir Robert Walpole, then the prime 
minister of England. 

Mr. Belcher died at Roxbury, April 27, 1723, 
Five of the principal inhabitants were directed to 
hire a coach to bring his body to Dedham, and forty 
pounds were afterwards allowed Madam Belcher for 
expenses upon the occasion of the funeral. He was 
born in Milton, May 14, 1668. He was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1690. His house stood upon the 
site occupied by the meeting-house of the Allin 
Evangelical Society. His portrait, which now hangs 
in the vestry of the First Parish, was presented by Mrs. 
Elizabeth Gay, Jan. 1, 1839. Dr. Cotton Mather 
preached a discourse after his death, in which he 
speaks of him as " an excellent preacher to walk with 
God, and an excellent pattern of what he preached." 

The inhabitants residing in the southerly and west- 
erly portions of the town, on account of their remote- 
ness from the meetinghouse, had for several years 
made known their desire for a new parish. In 1722 
they had presented their petition to be set off into a 
town or precinct. But the town did not then give its 
consent to the prayer of the petition. In 1728, how- 
ever, the town voted that if the inhabitants of the 
southerly part of the town will unite with some 
families in the westerly part of Stoughton in a petition 
to be made a parish, it will give its consent. Ac- 
cordingly the South Parish of Dedham was incorpo- 
rated by the General Court, Oct. 18, 1730. The terri- 
tory thus incorporated included also what was after- 
wards the West Parish. But this union of the two 
sections was not of long continuance. A division 
arose at once between them upon the location of the 
meeting-house. Indeed, the frames of two meeting- 
houses were raised about the same time, and neither 
was satisfactory to all parties. Unable to settle the 
question, the precinct voted to petition the General 
Court for a committee to come and view their situa- 
tion, and to set oflF to the old precinct as many as they 
shall judge to be most for the peace and harmony of 
both precincts, and the committee did set oflF to the 
old precinct those families living in what afterwards 
became the West Parish. They also recommended to 
the South Parish that it remove its meetin";-house 

farther south, which was done. In 1769 another 
meeting-house was erected in this parish. 

The church connected with the Second, or South 
Parish of Dedham was gathered June 23, 1736, con- 
sisting of fifteen members. They called the Rev. 
Thomas Balch to be their pastor, and on June 30th 
he was ordained. Mr. Balch was a native of Charles- 
town, and was born Oct. 17, 1711, and was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1733. He continued to be the 
pastor of this church until his death, which occurred 
Jan. 8, 1774, at the age of sixty-two years. His 
ministry continued thirty-seven years and nearly six 
months, and he died in the full confidence and afiec- 
tion of his people. He was an excellent preacher, 
and was a man of high character and attainments. 
A number of his sermons were printed. 

The people in the westerly section, after being re- 
united with the old parish in 1733, were still dissatis- 
fied with their parochial relations, and on the 4th of 
June, 1735, they organized a new church indepen- 
dently of the First Church. On that day the Rev. 
Josiah D wight, a son of Capt. Timothy Dwight, of 
Dedham, was installed as pastor. That this proceed- 
ing was viewed with disapproval by the First Church, 
is evident from the fact that, though invited, it was 
not represented at Mr. Dwight's installation. The 
number of church members was thirteen. At the 
time of Mr. Dwight's installation the meeting-house 
begun in 1731 was unfini.shed ; it was not plastered, 
and had no pews except those built by individuals for 
themselves. It was afterwards completed, and the 
house stood for seventy-eight years before the present 
one was built. The parish was finally incorporated 
as the Third Parish, Jan. 10, 1736. But the trials of 
this people were by no means ended. Mr. Dwight 
and his people did not get on without diff"erences and 
dissensions, and he requested a dismission, which was 
granted May 20, 1743. The terms of the dismis- 
sion were that he should receive fifty pounds, and 
that a " number of respectable individuals should on 
his removal accompany him as far as Thompson." 
He was born in Dedham, Feb. 7, 1670, and was grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1687, and was the min- 
ister of Woodstock, Conn., before he came to Dedham. 
After his dismission from the Third Parish he returned 
to Woodstock, where he spent the remainder of his life. 

The name by which this parish is designated in 
the act of incorporation, and which it has since re- 
tained, is that of " the Clapboard trees." This was 
an ancient name for this locality, and probably there 
were trees here at the beginning of the settlement, 
which were considered to be adapted to furnish a 
coverin<r for the dwelling-houses. 



In November, 1743. the Rev. Andrew Tyler, of 
Boston, was ordained as Mr. Dwight's successor. He 
was of good repute as a preacher, and a man of per- 
sonal attractions. During the first twenty years of 
his ministry he had the respect and confidence of his 
people. From 1764 to 1772 very serious disputes 
arose between him and the parish, and repeated but 
fruitless attempts were made to restore peace by 
parish meetings, church meetings, and ecclesiastical 
councils, and finally by referees, until Dec. 17, 1772, 
when he was dismissed. He left the ministry and re- 
sided in Boston until his death, in 1775. The church 
had no other pastor for nearly eight years after Mr. 
Tyler's dismission, during which its troubles and dis- 
sensions appear to have continued, which the trials 
and expenses of the Revolutionary war did not serve 
to mitigate. 

In 1731 the Rev. Dr. Timothy Cutler, rector of 
Christ Churcli, Boston, " at the desire of some church- 
men and dissenters willing to be informed," first began 
the service of the Church of England and to preach 
in Dedham. He was a graduate of Harvard College, 
a native of Charlestown, had been pastor of a Congre- 
gational Church at Stratford, Conn., and subsequently 
president or rector of Yale College. He had con- 
formed to the Church of England, and was at this 
time a missionary of the " Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," a society formed 
in Loudon in 1701. The place where these services 
were held by Dr. Cutler, was in a house owned by 
Joseph Smith, in the westerly part of Dedham. The 
house was standing until within a few years on Sum- 
mer Street. Here Dr. Cutler preached at intervals, 
and between November, 1732, and May, 1733, 
monthly, to congregations of forty or fifty persons, 
and administered the sacrament to eight or nine 
persons. He continued his services until Christmas, 
1733, after which they were not regular. In 1734 
he baptized five children. In the same year six per- 
sons had their ministerial taxes abated on the ground 
that they carried on the worship of God in the way 
of the established Church of England, as the law at 
this time permitted them. After this time. Dr. Cut- 
ler visited Dedham occasionally, preaching to a con- 
siderable congregation and administering the sacra- 
ments. Dr. Cutler died in 1765, and after his death, 
Dr. Ebenezer Miller, of Braintree, succeeded to the 
charge of the services here. In 1733-34 efforts were 
made towards the building of a chui'ch, but it was 
not until 1758 that the work was actually begun, 
and it was opened. Dr. Miller ofiiciating, the Sunday 
after Easter, 1761. The location of this church was 
near the corner of Court and Church Streets, but be- 

fore 1771 nothing was done more than outside work. 
A contribution from some gentlemen in Newport, R. I., 
aided in finishing the house. Up to the time of the 
Revolution it had not advanced very far towards 
completion, as it had no pews, and was neither lathed 
nor plastered. After Dr. Miller's death the Rev. 
Edward Winslow, his successor at Braintree, con- 
tinued to have charge of the services. 

On the 16th of August, 1767, the Rev. Wil- 
liam Clark began to read the service at Dedham. 
He was the son of Rev. Peter Clark, of Danvers, 
a graduate of Harvard College in 1759, and was 
educated to be — like his father — a Congregational 
clergyman, but had conformed to the Church of 
England. He went to London and was ordained 
Dec. 18, 1768, by the Bishop of London. On the 
18th of June, 1769, he began his services as mis- 
sionary, officiating on alternate Sundays at Dedham 
and Stoughton. He married, Sept. 15, 1770, 
Miss Mary Richards, of Dedham. After 1772 he 
took leave of his people at Stoughton, and removed 
to Dedham. The troublous times immediately pre- 
ceding the first conflict of the Revolution interfered 
with the attendance upon his services and the ad- 
ministration of the sacraments. But he continued to 
hold service until after Easter, 1777, and the law 
was passed forbidding prayers for the king's majesty, 
when he closed his church. Mr. Clark was very 
discreet in his conduct and speech during this trying 
period. At the public town-meeting held May 29, 
1777, a vote was passed that he, with three of his 
church, were looked upon as inimical to the United 
States. On the 21st of the following May he writes: 
" I was surrounded by a mob when I got home, but 
escaped on my parole." On the 5th of June follow- 
ing he was taken prisoner and carried to Boston, 
when he gave bail, and the others were taken to jail. 
His arrest was not approved by the committee of^the 
town at first, but they were urged to make the 
prosecution. The charge made against him, was 
based upon his writing a letter to a gentleman of a 
neighboring county, recommending one of his con- 
gregation who was in distress to his kindly assistance 
in helping him to support himself. He was adjudged 
guilty by the tribunal in Boston, and sentenced to 
banishment and confiscation of his estate, and sent on 
board a guard-ship in Boston harbor, where he re- 
mained about ten weeks, when he returned to Ded- 
ham. On the 10th day of June, 1778, having 
through the intervention of Dr. Nathaniel Ames, 
who sympathized with him in his distress, procured 
a passport, which was brought to him by Fisher 
Ames, he took leave of his friends in Dedham and 



sailed from Boston to Newport, thence to New York, 
and thence to England. His wife accompanied him 
to Newport, but returned to Dedham, where she 
died in child-bed in the succeeding December. He 
remained in England during the war, when he re- 
turned to Nova Scotia, where he again married, 
and resided a few 3'ears. He finally lived at Quincy, 
Mass., where he died, in 1815, at the age of seventy- 
five years. 

In 1756, Samuel Colburn, the onlj^ son of Benja- 
min Colburn by his second wife (Mary Hunting), a 
young man twenty-four years of age, whose father 
had died in 1747, leaving him a large landed estate, 
enlisted as a volunteer in the force raised during the 
French war by Governor Shirley, destined to reduce 
the fortifications of the enemy at Crown Point and 
vicinity. Into this force about twenty men enlisted 
from Dedham. It has been asserted and believed 
that Colburn was drafted or impressed into the ser- 
vice, but against his name on the original roll at the 
State-House is plainly written the word volunteer. 
His friend and neighbor, Samuel Richards, also en- 
listed, and there is really no ground to believe 
that he was compelled to join the army. He enlisted 
on the 18th of March, 1756, marched with his com- 
pany, and on the 28th day of October he died of 
disease at the Great Meadows, between Saratoga and 
Stillwater. His friend, Samuel Richards, died on 
the 13th day of August. 

Before his departure, Samuel Colburn made his 
will, dated May 7, 1756, by which he devised his 
estate to trustees, subject to the life-estate of his 
mother, for her maintenance and comfortable sub- 
sistence, first, for the payment of £26 14s. Ad. towards 
the building of an Episcopal Church in Dedham, 
whenever the same should be undertaken ; and when 
such church should be undertaken to be erected, one 
acre of his land on the south side of the way opposite 
his dwelling-house, next to Samuel Richard's house, 
should be set apart for that purpose in the most con- 
venient place, and this notwithstanding the devise to 
his mother. In case the church should be built at 
the time of his mother's decease, the said estate 
should be to the use of said church ; and in case it 
should not then be built, then the income should be 
applied to hire and pay for preaching and carrying on 
public worship in the Episcopal way in Dedham until 
said church should be built, and then the whole to be 
to the said church forever. By this will, at the de- 
cease of his mother, in addition to the church acre, 
about one hundred and thirty-four acres of land, in- 
cluding the Colburn homestead, which was in Ded- 
ham village, was given for the use of the Episcopal 

Church in Dedham. Owing to mismanagement of 
the estate by those intrusted with it, some of it was 
alienated and lost, and the devise of the church acre 
wholly ignored. After the Revolution, and the de- 
cease of Mrs. Colburn in 1792, what remained was 
appropriated for the support of preaching " in the 
Episcopal way.'' How and by what inducements 
Samuel Colburn was led to make this liberal devise 
to the church of England, then so obnoxious to the 
Puritan establishment, has been a matter of con- 
jecture and of vague tradition. That Samuel Colburn 
was well acquainted with the service of the Episcopal 
Church and the Book of Common Prayer, there is 
some evidence. He had lived in the family, or was 
the neighbor, of Samuel Richards, who was a zealous 
churchman, and as clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land had held services in Dedham during twenty-five 
years, and ever since the time of his birth, he must 
have known something of the church which he made 
the object of his bounty. Besides, it is said that he 
disapproved of the conduct of some of his relatives 
and neighbors in religious matters. 

Retracing the events of the eighteenth century, 
the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. Belcher 
was filled in a little more than three months by the 
Rev. Samuel Dexter. He was born in Maiden, was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1720, and was or- 
dained May 6, 1724. The first meeting of the parish 
as a separate precinct, consequent upon the incoipo- 
ration of the Second Parish, was Jan. 4, 1730-31. 
The meeting-house required frequent repairs, and 
owing to a depreciation of the currency there were 
frequent adjustments made in the minister's salary; 
pews first began to be erected ; two new bells were 
provided in two years ; the deacons' wives had sepa- 
rate seats assigned them ; and the ever-recurring dis- 
turbance by the boys, — such were the more important 
events in the history of the parish during Mr. Dex- 
ter's ministry. On Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 23, 
1738, being at the conclusion of the first century 
since the church was gathered, he preached a dis- 
course, of which two editions have been printed, and 
is the first sermon containing historical references 
which has been printed. He also left a diary or 
journal. In the earlier portion of his ministry there 
were dissensions in the parish, and these gave the 
sensitive pastor much distress. After the incorpora- 
tion of the West Parish, afi"airs moved more smoothly. 
He died, after a short illness, Jan. 29, 1755, in the 
fifty-fifth year of his age and the thirtieth of his 
ministry. " He died as he had lived, enjoying the 
general respect and confidence of his people." 

In 1748 a fourth parish was incorporated called 



Springfield, now the town of Dover. The Rev. Ben- 
jamin Caryl was ordained as pastor of the church ' 
Nov. 10, 1762, and he died Nov. 13, 1811. The 
parish was incorporated as a district by the General 
Court, July 7, 1781, when the name of Dover was 
given to it. 

This was the period in the history of Massachu- 
setts when her people were involved in the wars and 
military expeditions of the mother-country. In an 
expedition against the Spanish West India settle- 
ments the province furnished five hundred men, and 
six men from the South Parish of Dedham were 
among those who perished. In the famous expedi- 
tion against Louisburg. 1745, there were a number 
of men probably from the South Parish, and among 
them the Rev. Mr. Balch, who served as one of the 
chaplains, and was absent from his people sixteen 
months. In the last French war more than fifty 
Dedham men served at Ticonderoga, Fort Edward, 
Fort William Henry, Lake George, and in Canada, 
at the Bay of Fundy and Louisburg. Among the 
names of those who served in this war will be found 
those of the oldest families, and it is said that at this 
period one-third of all the eflPective men of the prov- 
ince were in some way engaged in the war. Mr. 
Haven quotes from Dr. Nathaniel Ames' Almanac of 
1756 the following lines : 

" Behold our camp ! from fear from vice re6ned, 
Not of the filth but flower of human kind I 
Mothers their sons, wives lend their husbands there I 
Brethren ye have our hearts, our purse, our prayer." 

These wars were the schools in which Massachu- 
setts men were trained in the duties of the soldier, 
and which fitted them for the great conflict with the 
mother-country in the war of the Revolution twenty 
years later. 

On the 5th day of February, 1756, about seven 
months after the decease of Mr. Dexter, Mr. Jason 
Haven, of Framingham, was ordained as his successor. 
One hundred and thirty-three pounds, six shillings, 
and eightpence had been voted him " as an encour- 
agement to settle here," with an annual salary of 
sixty-six pounds, thirteen shillings, and eightpence, 
and twenty cords of wood, during the time of his 
ministry here. Owing to the depreciation of the 
currency, the salary of Mr. Haven was increased in 
1770, and again in 1779. 

The old meeting-house built in 1673 had now 
stood for more than eighty years, and in March, 1761, 
it was voted by the parish, with unanimity, to build 
a new one. The structure was to be sixty feet long 
and forty-six feet wide, with a steeple and two porches. 
A committee was appointed to apply to the church 

" for liberty to get materials or timber" from its lands. 
Mr. Haven furnished the plan of pews and seats on 
the floor of the house. On the 7th of June, 
1762, the inhabitants assembled to take down the old 
house. The new house was finished Sept. 21, 1763. 
The timber was of solid oak and the floor had oak 
underneath. It had fifty pews on the floor. The 
person paying the highest parish rate had the first 
choice, and so on to the end of the list. The deacons' 
seat immediately under the pulpit, and above it, entered 
from the pulpit-stairs half-way up, the elders' seat, 
were both retained in the new as in the old house. 
But the velvet cushion given by the young women 
for the pulpit, the curtain for the window, the clock 
given by Samuel Dexter, and the Bible afterwards 
presented by Mrs. Barnard, formerly the widow of 
Rev. Mr. Dexter, on condition that the reading of a 
portion of it should have a place in the public services 
on the Lord's Day, — all these things show some ad- 
vancement in the ideas of the people respecting pub- 
lic worship. The old New England version of the 
Psalms was exchanged for Tate and Brady, and a 
chorister was appointed, with power to nominate a 
number who should assist in singing. Before this, 
one of the deacons had read the Psalm line by line 
as it was sung. No instrument of music was intro- 
duced until 1790, when the bass viol was admitted to 
strengthen the bass. 

The church and parish were now entering upon a 
period of respite from disputes and dissensions. The 
serious questions which were beginning to arise be- 
tween England and the province perhaps served to 
withdraw the minds of the people. Perhaps the in- 
fluence of a man like Samuel Dexter, who had re- 
moved to Dedham, may have been exerted for peace. 

Samuel Dexter was the son of the Rev. Mr. Dexter, 
and was born in Dedham, and became a merchant in 
Boston. In 1763 he came to Dedham, and built a 
fine residence for that day, which now stands in ex- 
cellent preservation. He was a man of wealth, of 
public spirit, and no man since the days of Lusher 
had done so much to promote the interests of the 
town and church by his services, his advice, and his 
donations. He was many times a deputy to the 
General Court; he sat five years in the Provincial 
Congress, and was negatived several times as a coun- 
cilor by the royal governor. At the beginning of 
the Revolution he was a member of the Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council of State, which assisted and supported 
the military operations in the vicinity of Boston. 
He differed from the majority of his associates as to 
the policy of bringing undisciplined troops so near the 
British army in Boston, and in consequence retired 



from public service, and never entered it again. In 
1784 he sold his estate to Dr. John Sprague and re- 
moved to Mendon, where he died June 10, 1810, in 
the eighty-fifth year of his age. He bequeathed five 
thousand dollars to Harvard College to found a pro- 
fessorship for promoting the study of Biblical Criti- 
cism. He was the father of the Hon. Samuel Dexter, 
the eminent lawyer, and afterwards Secretary of War 
and of the Treasury in the administration of John 

In 1732, Dr. Nathaniel Ames removed from Bridge- 
water to Dedham. He was a man of an acute mind, 
a ready wit, and of amiable temper. He is best 
known as the author of the Ames Almanacs, which 
were published for forty years, although it has been 
said some of the first of these must have been published 
by his father. He became a prominent citizen, and 
was much employed in town and parish afi'airs. He 
married, for his second wife, Deborah, the daughter 
of Jeremiah Fisher, and granddaughter of Daniel 
Fisher, the second of that name. By this union he 
had several children, among whom were Fisher Ames 
and Nathaniel Ames, who both lived and died in 
Dedham. The Ames almanacs are rare and curious 
and contain predictions of wars and direful events, 
founded upon the conjunctions of planets, with some 
quaint verses. He lived in a house which was a 
tavern for many years, and which stood on the loca- 
tion of Ames Street, near High Street, opposite the 
court-house in Dedham. It was known prior to the 
Revolution as Woodward's tavern, but at some time 
previous it had been kept by Dr. Ames. He died in 
1764. His widow survived until 1817, and died in 
the ninety-fifth year of her age. The house was 
taken down after her death. 

The passage of the Stamp Act in 1765 was the 
beginning of the series of measures by which Eng- 
land asserted the right to tax the colonies, and which 
were the proximate causes of the American Revolu- 
tion. The attempt to enforce it in Boston excited the 
people to violence, and a mob destroyed the records 
of the Vice-Admiralty Court, and the houses of the 
Crown officers of customs. With this spirit of resist- 
ance the men of Dcdliam had full sympathy. In 
October, 1765, Samuel Dexter, their representative to 
the General Court, was instructed not to encourage the 
execution of that act, and the duty of resisting it was 
enjoined upon him, for the reasons so fully assigned at 
that time in public documents and writings. In October, 
1766, the General Court having proposed to the town 
whether it will bestow an indemnity on the late sufferers 
by the riots in Boston, the town voted that it could 
not consent even to a partial indemnity. In Novem- 

ber, however, the town voted that it would be a 
dangerous precedent to grant it as a matter of right, 
but that " we may show our dutiful regard to our 
most gracious sovereign, and our gratitude to those 
worthy persons who caused the repeal of the Stamp 
Act, we give instructions to vote for the indemnity, 
as it, is now asked for on the ground of generosity." 

The news of the repeal of the Stamp Act reached 
Boston in May, 1766. It was received with the 
most enthusiastic expressions of joy ; a day was set 
apart for the purpose, and by the ringing of bells, the 
display of banners, the release of prisoners for debt by 
subscription, a brillant illumination with loyal inscrip- 
tions, and figures of Pitt, Camden, and Barre, the 
people testified their gratitude and delight. In this 
public rejoicing the people of Dedham most heartily 
joined, and they have left a lasting memorial of their 
joy to succeeding generations. 

In the northwest corner of the court-house yard 
there stands a square granite pillar, about five feet in 
height, which bears the following inscriptions, reveal- 
ing its history to him who can decipher the letters, 
now blurred by time : 

" The Pillar of Liberty erected by the Sons of Liberty 
in this vicinity. 
"Laus Deo Regii et Imraunitat m autoribusq maxime 
Patronus Pitt qui Reinpub. rursum evulsit faucibus Orci. 

"The Pillar of Liberty to the honor of William Pitt, Esq., 
and others, Patriots, who saved America from impending 
slavery, and confirmed our most loyal affection to King George 
III. by j)roeuring a repeal of the Stamp Act, 18th March, 

"Erected here July 22, 1766, by Dr. Nathaniel Ames (2d), 
Col. Ebenezer Battle, Major Abijah Draper, and other patriots 
friendly to the rights of the Colonies at that day. 

" Replaced by the citizens, July 4, 1828." 

This monumental stone once formed the pedestal 
of the " Pillar of Liberty." It was surmounted by 
a wooden column about twelve feet high, on the top 
of which was placed a wooden bust of William Pitt. 
From memoranda now preserved, it appears that the 
stone was prepared in May, and on the 22d of July 
the Pillar of Liberty was erected in the presence of 
" a vast concourse of people." Whether the bust 
which had been " bespoken" on July 2d was never 
furnished, or whether it proved unsatisfactory is un- 
certain, but in the succeeding February, Dr. Ames, 
with Rev. Mr. Haven and Mr. Battle, went to Bos- 
ton and bespoke " Pitt's bust of Mr. Skillin." The 
Mr. Skillin referred to was a ship-carver, and those 
who remember the figure-heads of vessels fifty years 
ago, can form a good idea of the artistic merits of 
this bust of William Pitt. The pillar was originally 
placed on the corner of the common, in front of the 



meeting-house, directly opposite the tavern. It stood 
intact until about the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, when the column and bust fell, and, after lying 
about the stone pedestal for a time, disappeared. 
After the building of the new court-house, in 1827, 
the pedestal was removed across the street to near 
its present location. Such, briefly, is the history of 
one of the oldest memorials now preserved in Ded- 
ham, and it is worthy of better care of the present 
and coming generations than it has received from the 

Another monument of this period, when the minds 
of the people were turned to preparations for war, is 
the old powder-house, on the rock which bears its 
name, on Ames Street, near the river. As early as 
1762 the town voted " to have the powder-house 
builded on a great rock in Aaron Fuller's land, near 
Charles River." The committee chosen did not per- 
form their duty, and in May, 1765, two more persons 
were joined to the committee, and instructed to have 
the house built forthwith. It was finished in 1766, 
and was used for many years for the storage of am- 
munition, probably as long as there were trained com- 
panies in the parish. The town has very recently 
owned muskets and cartridge-boxes which have been 
handed down for many years. 

The town sent delegates to a convention held in 
Faneuil Hall in September, 1768. This convention 
of the towns of the province was called to protest 
against the encroachments of the crown. Immedi- 
ately upon the adjournment of this convention, the 
squadron conveying the troops from Halifax, sent for 
by Governor Bernard, arrived and the selectmen 
refused them quarters. 

In March, 1770, all duties imposed by the act of 
1767, except the tax on tea, were abolished. In the 
same year Dedham declared by vote, " That, as the 
duty on tea furnishes so large a sum towards the 
maintenance of innumerable multitudes, from the 
odious commissioner of customs down to the dirty 
informer by him employed, we will use uo foreign tea, 
nor permit our families." In January, 1773 and 
1774, the town passed similar resolutions, and a com- 
mittee of correspondence was chosen. In Septem- 
ber, 1774, the town met for the purpose of adopting 
measures to prevent the late acts of Parliament from 
being carried into effect, and chose delegates to the 
convention which subsequently passed the Suffolk 
resolves. A convention had been held in Stoughton 
in the preceding August, and was adjourned to meet 
at Woodward's tavern, in Dedham, on the 6th of 
September. It was then adjourned to Vose's tavern, 
in Milton, on the 9th of September, when the resolves 

were passed. But the time for resolutions and con- 
ventions was wellnigh spent. Samuel Dexter and 
Abner Ellis were chosen delegates to the Provincial 
Congress in January, 1775, and in March, the town 
voted to raise a detached company of minute-men, 
consisting of sixty, to be drilled in the military art, 
three half-days in each week, and be ready to act on 
the shortest notice in case of an alarm. They were 
enlisted for nine months. Their pay was fixed, and 
the money was borrowed to pay them. 

We are now brought by the course of events to the 
very beginning of the Revolution. It was a century 
since the town was summoned to take an active part 
in Philip's war, the first real conflict of arms since 
the beginning of the settlement. During the last 
half of the century then passed, in the French wars, 
and in many expeditions and campaigns, Dedham 
men had been called upon to participate, and in 1775 
there were not a few survivors of these veteran sol- 
diers. For the great conflict about to begin around 
Boston they were prepared, not only in spirit and 
resolution, but by military experience gained in real 


DEDHAM— {Continued). 

Dedham Village in 1775 — Leading Men — Lexington Alarm — 
Minute-Men and Militia Companies March — Siege of Bos- 
ton — Town Votes upon Question of Independence — Bounties 
for Soldiers — Parishes Raise Money by Taxation — Articles 
of Confederation Approved — Delegates to State Convention 
for forming Constitution — Expenses of Revolutionary War — 
Pecuniary Distress — Amendments to State Constitution Pro- 
posed — Col. Daniel Whiting. 

In 1775 Dedham contained about seventeen hun- 
dred inhabitants, who lived in four parishes, what is 
now Dover being the fourth. They were nearly all 
farmers, for there was then no compact village near 
the meeting-house of the First Parish. During the 
century then passed the inhabitants had removed to 
the other parishes, and the village had been aban- 
doned except by the farmers. Near the meeting- 
house stood the residence of Samuel Dexter, and di- 
rectly opposite the parsonage, while a little farther east, 
stood Woodward's tavern. There were a few mechan- 
ics, but no shop-keepers and no lawyers. There was 
a physician (Dr. Nathaniel Ames), and one school- 
master, and he was employed only for a short time in 
one place. The farmers carried the products of their 



farms to Boston for a market, though the roads were 
bad and circuitous. Among the articles they carried 
were peeled oak bark, hoop-poles, oak and pine tim- 
ber for building, oak staves, ship timber, charcoal, 
and wood for fuel to some extent. Vegetables and 
produce from the gardens were carried in panniers. 
The generations of the preceding century had endured 
great hardships, and probably derived but a bare sub- 
sistence from their labor. They had not only served 
as soldiers in the French wars, but the taxation of 
their polls and estates to meet the expenses of these 
wars had been a drain upon their resources. More- 
over, by the emission of bills of credit, the currency 
had so depreciated, that by the end of the wars eleven 
or twelve hundred pounds were not equal to more 
than a hundred pounds sterling. All these expenses 
had been met without obtaining any compensation 
from the mother-country. The generations then 
living were also deficient in education, as, in the 
pressure for money, the funds given for schools 
by Metcalf, Avery, Kingsbury, and Damon had been 
applied to other purposes, and the school lands in 
Needham had been sold to pay ordinary expenses. 
But they retained the strong love of civil and relig- 
ious liberty of their ancestors, though somewliat nar- 
rowed and intensified by political events and their 
own circumstances. The places of Lusher and Fisher 
of the first century were filled now by worthy succes- 
sors. First and foremost among them should be 
named Samuel Dexter, who was usually the mode- 
rator of the town-meetings and framer of the resolu- 
tions then passed. He was a man of vigorous spirit, 
and gave liberally of his means to the patriotic cause. 
There was Dr. Nathaniel Ames the younger, the town 
physician, an ardent patriot, then in the thirty-fourth 
year of his age, his brother Fisher being then but 
seventeen. There were also Abner Ellis (Third Par- 
ish), a deputy to the General Court; Richard Wood- 
ward, of Woodward's tavern ; William Avery, repre- 
sentative of an honored name in Dedham annals ; 
Capt. Joseph Guild and Capt. George Gould, men 
who held posts of trust and responsibility; and Capt. 
Aaron Fuller and Sergt. Isaac Bullard, names of fre- 
quent recurrence in the town records, and who were 
afterwards deacons of the Dedham Church. 

The men of 1775 were now ready for further sac- 
rifices and suffering in the maintenance of their liber- 
ties. They had pledged themselves to stand with 
their brethren in the province in their resistance to 
British aggression, and they were prepared to redeem 
that pledge. There were five companies of militia in 
the town, corresponding to the number of the parishes, 
except there were two in the First Parish. Besides 

these were the minute-men and an association of 
veterans of the French wars. 

Such were the names and characters of some of 
those who stood ready on Dedham soil to join their 
countrymen in the conflict about to open, and such 
was the preparation that had been made when, on the 
morning of the 19th of April, 1775, there came the 
messenger to bring to them the " Lexington alarm." 
We are told he came through Needham and Dover, 
and probably the more direct routes were obstructed 
by the British. It was received a little after nine 
o'clock in the morning, so that the news had no 
doubt gone through the southern towns of Middlesex 
before reaching Dedham. The minute-men were 
ready to march as they had enlisted, " upon any 
emergency." There are traditions still kept of the 
plough being left in the furrow and of the team stopped 
in the highway and its driver mounting his horse and 
galloping for his musket and accoutrements. They 
did not wait for more than a platoon to gather before 
they started. Capt. Joseph Guild, of the minute- 
men, with his own hand silenced some croaker who 
said the alarm was false. As the day wore on, the 
militia companies mu.stered under their respective 
captains. The first company of the First Parish, with 
sixty-seven officers and men, were led by Capt. Aaron 
Fuller. A second company of seventeen men, under 
Capt. George Gould, with Richard Woodward as 
lieutenant, went probably from Dedham Island and 
that portion of West Roxbury formerly included in 
Dedham. Then the company of the Third Parish, 
under Capt. William Ellis, consisting of thirty-one 
men. Next in distance came the company of the 
South Parish, under Capt. William Bullard, with 
sixty men. The company from the Fourth Parish 
(Dover), under Capt. Ebenezer Battle, with sixty- 
seven ofiicers and men, perhaps marched by another 
route. Nor were these all. The veterans of the 
French wars, whose blood was stirred by the long- 
expected summons, gathered themselves upon the 
common before the meeting-house, and after a prayer 
offered by Rev. Mr. Gordon, of Roxbury, followed 
their sons to the post of danger, led by Hezekiah 
Fuller and Nathaniel Sumner. 

We are told that the town that day " was almost 
literally without a male inhabitant below the age of 
seventy and above that of sixteen." There were not 
less than three hundred men under arms, including 
the minute-men and the militia and excluding the 
veterans. It is not known where the Dedham sol- 
diers met the British on the retreat towards Boston, 
but of those who actually participated in the conflict 
one f Elias Haven) was killed and one (Israel Everett) 



wounded. The former was from the Fourth Parish, 
and was the son of Deacon Joseph Haven, and was 
thirty-three years old at the time of his death. He 
left a son and a daughter. He is supposed to have 
been killed in Cambridge. There were two named 
Israel Everett in the Dedham companies. The father 
was a sergeant in Capt. Gould's company, and served 
three days. The son, called Israel Everett, Jr., served 
in Capt. Aaron Fuller's company, and is no doubt the 
one who was wounded, as the roll shows that he served 
but one day. He was probably the same Israel 
Everett who is named in the Everett genealogy as 
the son of Israel, born Oct. 13, 1744. 

The rolls of all these companies, containing the 
names, time of service, and number of miles traveled, 
signed and attested by their respective captains, are 
carefully arranged and preserved at the State-House, 
with the names of the thousands who on that day 
marched at the Lexington alarm. 

It would seem from these rolls that the companies 
from the First Parish marched out about fourteen 
miles, and the companies from the other parishes 
marched about twice that distance. These facts 
would indicate that they did not go beyond Cam- 
bridge. The minute company was kept in service 
about a fortnight, and the rest from three to ten 

During the month of April, companies of soldiers 
from the southerly parts of the province and from 
Rhode Island were constantly passing through Ded- 
ham in large numbers. Some of the provincial 
cannon were removed to Dedham on the 28th of the 
month. All was tumult and confusion. In May, 
the town voted to raise one hundred and twenty 
men in the parishes, to be ready to march on an 
alarm, and to be raised by the several militia officers 
of the town. The minute-men were to assemble for 
two months, three half-days in the week, to learn 
their duty. The privates in the two companies were 
to be paid at the rate of four shillings a day while in 
actual service. Committees were appointed to pro- 
cure guns and ammunition, to establish a night-watch, 
and to cause the great gun of King Philip's war " to 
be swung." Samuel Dexter announced that he 
would give his time, trouble, and expense in serving 
the town at the Congress, and Ebenezer Brackett 
was chosen to guard the cannon. 

The Dedham soldiers were part of the provincial 
army then concentrating around Boston, with head- 
quarters at Cambridge. They probably did not par- 
ticipate in the action on Bunker's Hill. During the 
succeeding winter they formed a portion of the force 
engaged in the siege of Boston on Dorchester 

Heights. After the evacuation of Boston by the 
British, in March, 1776, they marched to Ticon- 
deroga, to Canada, and other points, and some moved 
with the army to New York. On the 4th of April, 
1776, Gen. Washington spent the night in Dedham 
on his way to New York. There is a tradition that 
he was entertained at the residence of Mr. Dexter. 

At the November session of the General Court in 
1775, an act was passed reciting that, whereas Boston 
is now made a garrison by the ministerial army, and 
become a common receptacle for the enemies of 
America, it provides that Dedham should be the 
shire-town of Suffolk, and that the courts should be 
held there and at Braintree. The books of record 
and papers from the registry of deeds were also 
removed to Dedham. On the 27th of May, 1776, 
in the warrant for the town-meeting in March, there 
having been an article " to know the minds of the 
town about coming into a state of independency," 
after several adjournments, the town unanimously 
voted that if the honorable Congress shall declare the 
colonies independent of Great Britain, the inhabitants 
will solemnly engage to support it in that measure 
with their lives and fortunes. In July of the same 
year, the towns in the province having been required 
to procure their proportion of soldiers in two levies, 
Dedham voted a bounty of seven pounds in addition 
to the other wages of the soldiers in enlisting. Sev- 
enty men received this bounty. A committee was 
chosen to provide for families in distress. Com- 
mittees of safety and correspondence were chosen 
for the year and the subsequent years of the war. 
The aggregate amount of service by the soldiers of 
the town during this year must have been equal to 
fifty-five men employed twelve months each. Upon 
the records of the First Parish there is recorded a 
report, made by Capt. Joseph Guild, showing the 
number of soldiers from the First Parish during 1775— 
78, and the amounts of the bounties paid to them. 
By this report it appeared, that fifty-five soldiers 
from the First Parish only had served during 1776, 
whose aggregate services were equal to twenty men 
employed twelve months each. In February, 1777, 
the town voted a bounty of twenty-four pounds to each 
man who would enlist for three years or during the 
war. Forty-nine soldiers received this bounty. 
Afterwards each parish assumed the payment of 
the bounties to soldiers belonging to it, and raised 
the money by taxation. In 1778 the First Parish 
imposed a tax upon its inhabitants of four thousand 
four hundred and eighty pounds. The Second Parish 
in 1777 raised their quota of men for the Continental 
service without using any bounty-money of the town. 



In 1778 the First Parish alone had thirty-three men 
employed one month near Boston, seventeen men in 
otlier places, and thirty men in the army. The 
selectmen, militia officers, and special committees 
were authorized and requested to procure soldiers 
and borrow money. In Jauuary, 1778, the town 
approved the articles of confederation of the colonies. 
In May a form of State constitution proposed by the 
Provincial Congress was approved by the town, 
though it was rejected by a large majority in the 
province. The next year the town instructed its 
representative to vote for a convention for the pur- 
pose of proposing a form of State government to the 
people. In July the Rev. Jason Haven and Dr. 
John Sprague were chosen delegates to the conven- 
tion for forming a new constitution. 

In 1779, eight thousand pounds were assessed 
towards defraying the expense of hiring soldiers. In 
1780, the committee appointed the last year to hire 
soldiers reported that they had performed that ser- 
vice, and had paid them twelve thousand pounds ; the 
number employed was sixty-six, and the amount of 
service equivalent to twenty-two men twelve months 
each. During this and subsequent years of the war 
a demand was made for a supply of beef for the army. 
To meet this demand, the sum of one hundred thou- 
sand pounds was assessed upon the inhabitants, and 
eight thousand pounds more for horses. The com- 
mittee authorized to hire soldiers this year reported 
that they were unable to procure any ; but a small 
number were afterwards hired, and twenty-six men 
drafted from the companies to complete the required 
number. Great difficulties arose in collecting the 
taxes on account of the fluctuations of the paper 
currency, then much depreciated. This is the ex- 
planation of the apparently large sums raised by tax- 
ation. The credit of the town was bad and money 
scarce, and a deduction of two shillings on the pouud 
was made to persons who made prompt payment of 
their taxes. Worthington, in his history, estimates 
the annual expenditures of the town during the war 
at about eight thousand dollars, federal currency. 
The nominal amount of the expenditures very imper- 
fectly denotes the weight of the burden. In 1781 
two thousand pounds in lawful money, or its equiva- 
lent in Continental currency, was granted to defray 
the expenses of hiring soldiers. The town chose a 
committee to remonstrate to the General Court that 
it has been called upon to raise more than its propor- 
tion of men. 

It is obvious from the recorded votes of the town 
during the war that the burden of taxation was very 
great, and that the inhabitants suffered much pecuni- 

ary di.stress. They were all farmers, and had but 
little money. That the war had exhausted their 
means of payment appears quite manifest, for, not- 
withstanding their strong attachment to the cause to 
which they had pledged their lives and fortunes, they 
at last complained to the General Court. 

In the common cause the people acted and suffered 
with great unanimity. The strong current of popular 
feeling ran in one direction, and the public doings of 
the town were harmonious. They had the leadership 
and advice of able and competent men, and neither the 
records nor tradition disclose any opposition to the 
support which the town gave to the patriotic cause in 
the American Revolution 

The treatment of the Rev. William Clark and the 
other inoffensive members of the Church of England 
has already been described. That he was forced to 
leave his home and his country without being guilty 
of any real offense, would seem to be established by 
the fact that a committee of the town had once ex-* 
amined the charge against him and dismissed it, ex- 
pressing themselves as satisfied, and that they disap- 
proved of the action of his accusers. The interest 
taken in him by Dr. Nathaniel Ames after his trial 
at Boston would also confirm this view. His expul- 
sion must be set down as one of those acts done where 
the public mind is wrought up by excitement upon 
a great occasion, of which every civil war fur- 
nishes a parallel, and, while unjustifiable, must be 
pardoned to the spirit of liberty. It is said there was 
a prominent citizen of the town who was a loyalist, 
and, although a military man, he took no part in the 
war, but he remained undisturbed. 

The Revolution imposed upon the people the neces- 
sity of forming a State government, and upon the sub- 
mission of the constitution to the people, the town 
unanimously voted to adopt the preamble and most 
of the articles, but some were objected to, and a com- 
mittee of fifteen was chosen to report amendments. 
These amendments were that all religious denomina- 
tions should be equally protected ; that judges should 
hold their offices for seven years instead of during 
good behavior ; that clergymen should be ineligible to 
the office of representative, and that the salary of the 
Governor and judges should not be increased for the 
first five years after their appointniont. These amend- 
ments were adopted by the town, and are quite sig- 
nificant of the political views and temper of the 

In the appendix to Mr. Haven's centennial address 
(1836), there are given the names of one hundred 
and six men who served in the war of independence. 
The first name in the list is that of Col. Daniel Whit- 



ing, who was probably the most prominent officer from 
Dedham. He was born in that part of Dedham 
which is now Dover, Feb. 5, 1732-33. He served 
in the French wars, and at the Lexington alarm he 
marched as lieutenant of one of the companies, and 
was also captain during the siege of Boston. He 
afterwards served in the Continental army at Ticon- 
deroga. At the attack on Cherry Valley, N. Y., 
led by Walter Butler, a savage Tory, with Joseph 
Brant, the Mohawk chief, the fort was defended by 
Col. Ichabod Alden's regiment, of which he was 
major. Col. Alden was killed and Maj. Whiting 
succeeded to the command. He served during the 
whole of the war, and died at Natick in February, 
1808, and was buried at Dover. 



Second Parish — Rev. Jabez Chickering — Third Parish — Rev. 
Thomas Thacher — Fourth Parish Incorporated as a District 
under the name of Dover — Shay's Rebellion — Incorporation 
of Norfolk County — Episcopal Church — Rev. William Mon- 
tague — Old Church Removed and Rebuilt — Fisher Ames; 
Sketch of His Life — Edward Dowse — Rev. Jason Haven — 
Church Covenant of 1793 — Division in the Third Parish — 
New Meeting-House — About Sixty Members Withdraw to the 
Baptist Society in Medfield — Second Parish and Church — 
Rev. William Coggswell. 

Although for eight years the town had been dis- 
turbed in its internal atfairs by the burdens of the 
war. still they did not suffer the vacancies in the office 
of pastor to go unfilled. In the Second Parish Mr. 
Balch died in 1774, and on the third day of July, 
1776, the Rev. Jabez Chickering was ordained as his 
successor. He was born in the Fourth, or Springfield 
Parish of Dedham, now Dover, Nov. 4, 1753, and 
was graduated at Harvard College in 1774. He 
studied theology in his native town under the direc- 
tion of the Rev. Benjamin Caryl. He married 
Miss Hannah Balch, a daughter of his predecessor, 
April 22, 1777. During the early portion of his 
ministry the public mind was occupied with the Rev- 
olutionary struggle, and the number of additions made 
to the church during his long ministry is said to have 
been small. His parish was harmonious, however, 
and he continued its pastor for thirty-five years and 
eight months. He died March 12, 1812, in his fifty- 
ninth year. He was a man of excellent repute in 
the churches, but he left no printed discourses. 

In the Third Parish, the vacancy occasioned by the 
dismission of Rev. Andrew Tjler in 1772 was tilled 

June 7, 1780, by the Rev. Thomas Thacher, who was 
born in Boston Oct. 24, 1756, and was a son of Oxen- 
bridge Thacher, Esq. He was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1775. He was a man of excellent abilities, 
and about twenty of his discourses were published. 
He was a member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, and was a delegate from Dedham to the 
convention for adopting the Constitution of the United 
States in 1787, with Fisher Ames as the other dele- 
gate. It was during his ministry in 1808 that a divi- 
sion occurred in this parish respecting the location of 
a new meeting-house, and a portion of the parish 
withdrew and afterwards were members of a Baptist 
Society in the same territorial parish. Mr. Thacher 
was opposed to the Calvinistic theology, and by his 
will he gave his farm of twenty acres, and personal 
estate amounting to three hundred and sixty-five dol- 
lars, upon the condition that the parish should dis- 
solve its connection with any pastor who should adopt 
the Calvinistic or Hopkinsian creed. He died Oct. 
19, 1812. in the fifty-sixth year of his age, and the 
thirty-third of his ministry. He never married, and 
in his manners was somewhat eccentric, but was much 
respected for his character and abilities. 

In 1784 the Fourth Parish was incorporated as a dis- 
trict, with the name of Dover. Its first minister, the 
Rev. Benjamin Caryl, survived until 1811. Dover 
was incorporated as a town, March 31, 1836. 

During the Revolutionary period, the town was 
accustomed to give minute instructions to its repre- 
sentatives in the General Court. In 1786, they in- 
structed Nathaniel Kingsbur}', its representative, to 
attempt the reduction of taxes by reducing the sala- 
ries of public officers, by lopping off unnecessary de- 
partments of government, by abolishing the Courts 
of Quarter Sessions, by regulating the practice of 
lawyers or totally abolishing them ; also to use his 
utmost efforts to procure a division of the county, to 
oppose the emission of a paper currency, to encour- 
age manufactures, and to prevent the introduction of 
foreign luxuries. It is obvious, from the language of 
these instructions, that there was a considerable num- 
ber of sympathizers with the promoters of the insur- 
rection known as Shay's Rebellion in 1786. But 
in September of that year the town promised to use 
strenuous exertions in support of the government, 
and in October a committee appointed to report a list 
of grievances made their report, protesting against 
treasonable and riotous proceedings, and proposing, as 
remedies for existing evils, private economy, industry, 
and frugality. 

The General Court, by an act passed March 26, 
1793, which took effect on June 20th, incorporated 



the county of Norfolk, including all the towns of Suf- 
folk, except Boston and Chelsea. Hingham and Hull 
were excepted by an act passed subsequently. Dedham 
was made the shire-town. This had been the desire 
of the people for many years, and at several periods 
since 1726 it had been the subject of votes and reso- 
lutions in the towns. The local position of Dediiam 
probably determined its selection as the shire town, 
although several other towns were proposed, among 
them Medfield, and it was also proposed that several 
towns of Middlesex County should be united with 
this county. A wooden court-house and jail were 
finished in 1795. The court-house stood on the west 
side of Court Street, fronting the meeting-house 
common, while the jail stood near the corner of High- 
land and Court Streets. Until the erection of a 
court-house the courts were held in the meeting- 

In 1792, the Rev. William Montague, who was 
born at South Hadley, Mass., Sept. 23, 1757, and 
was graduated at Dartmouth College in 178-1, came 
to Dedham. He had been admitted to orders as 
deacon and priest in the Episcopal Church of the 
United States by Bishop Seabury in 1787. He was 
no doubt attracted to Dedham by the condition of 
the Colburn estate, which had now fallen to the Epis- 
copal Church upon the decease of Mrs. Colburn. He 
took an especial interest in the recovery of glebe- 
lands which had been given for the Episcopal Church 
in New Hampshire and Vermont, as well as in Mas- 
sachusetts, during the time he was in Dedham. He 
found here scarcely more than a handful of the old 
churchmen remaining. During the period which 
had passed since Mr. Clark's departure, in 1778, the 
services of the Episcopal Church had been suspended, 
except on a few occasions, when Dr. Parker, of 
'Boston, officiated. The old half-finished church, 
then called Christ Church, was standing, but its 
windows were broken and it was much dilapidated. 
It was made a depository of miltary stores during the 
war, but it had been afterwards cleared for public 
worship at the request of Dr. Parker. The trustee 
who had resisted the urgent request of Mr. Clark, to 
set apart the church-acre according to the provisions 
of the will of Samuel Colburn, had also suffered great 
and unnecessary waste to be committed upon the rest 
of the estate. Probably he was embarrassed, if not 
overawed, by the intense hostility which then existed 
towards the Episcopal Church. Twelve persons as- 
sembled and agreed with Mr. Montague that he 
should become rector, and wardens and vestrymen 
were chosen. The income of the estate was vested 
in him for fifteen years, and he was to receive fifty 

pounds sterling per annum for preaching every other 
Sunday, and at the end of that time he was to have 
one hundred pounds sterling per annum. He was to 
have liberty to reside in Boston, Cambridge, Brain- 
tree, or Dedham. At the same time, Mr. Montague 
was authorized to settle the affairs of the church 
relative to the lands, leases were to be executed, and 
the prices, shape, and dimensions of the lots were to 
be fixed by him. In February, 1794, he procured 
an act to be passed by the General Court by which 
the rector, wardens, and vestrymen were authorized 
to lease the lands and to do all necessary corporate 
acts. Mr. Montague was his own surveyor and con- 
veyancer, and the divisions of the lots and the lines 
of the streets bounding and intersecting them are the 
work of his hand. A considerable portion of the land 
was alienated. As the church lands occupied a cen- 
tral situation in Dedham village, there was a demand 
for lots, and Mr. Montague was frequently brought in 
contact with the people in a manner which led to dis- 
trust and misunderstandings. He continued to offici- 
ate in the church at irregular intervals until 1811, 
when he ceased, although he claimed to be rector at 
a subsequent time. Moreover, his accounts in the 
management and leasing of the lands, being unsettled 
and involved, became the subject of disputes with the 
members of his parish, and afterwards of litigation. 

Finally, in 1818 about thirty persons, including all 
the members of the parish, obtained a new act of in- 
corporation giving the church control of the estate, 
and in July of that year Mr. Montague was suspended 
from the ministry, upon his resignation, by Bishop 
Griswold. He died in Dedham, July 22, 1833. 

The old church was repaired, pews built, and an 
organ put up in 1795. In 1797 it was voted to re- 
move the church to vacant land on what is now 
Church Street, on Franklin Square. The church 
was moved to this new location, but while raising it 
to the proposed height, the timbers supporting it gave 
way, the whole structure fell, and was broken in frag- 
ments. The rebuilding of the church was begun, 
only a portion of the old church being used. This 
work was carried on during several years, and it was 
not finished until 1806. It was constructed with a 
basement, originally intended for an academy by Mr. 
Montague, but which afterwards was used for storage. 
The entrance to the church was by means of a double 
flight of steps rising parallel with the front on Church 
Street. It had a recessed chancel, with pulpit and 
reading-desk in front of the chancel-rail, and a gal- 
lery at the opposite end, in which was an organ. It 
was painted in fresco, with Grecian columns and cor- 
nices. It was surmounted with a belfry, and in 



1818 a bell was placed in it by subscription. In 
1803, Madam Esther Sprague gave five hundred dol- 
lars to the church, and Madam Elizabeth Sumner 
gave two hundred and fifty dollars for a library or 
plate. In 1813 there were thirteen communicants 
and twenty families belonging to the parish. 

After the reorganization of the parish, which 
during the time Mr. Montague continued to be the 
rector, was known as Christ Church, the church was 
repaired and opened for divine service on the last 
Sunday of October, 1818. From that time, services 
were continued without interruption, sometimes by 
the neighboring clergy, and from Easter, 1819, until 
the beginning of 1821, the Rev. Cheever Felch, a 
chaplain in the navy, officiated. On the 22d day of 
November, 1821, the Rev. Isaac Boyle, having been 
elected rector, was formally instituted into that office 
by Bishop Griswold. 

In the spring or summer of 1793, Fisher Ames, 
after an absence of a few years, returned to Dedham, 
and from this time he made his permanent residence 
there. He was born in Dedham, April 9, 1758, and 
was the youngest child of Dr. Nathaniel Ames. His 
mother was Deborah Fisher, the daughter of Jeremiah 
Fisher, from whom he took his first name. His father 
died whe.n he was but six years old, and his early train- 
ing was left to his mother, a woman of excellent capa- 
city and strength of character. He early began the 
study of Latin, and was instructed partly in the town 
school when the teacher happened to be capable of 
teaching him, and partly by the Rev. Mr. Haven, min- 
ister of the Dedham Church. In 1770, soon after he 
was twelve years old, he entered Harvard College, 
where he was graduated in 1774. He was too young 
during his college course to master the sciences then 
taught, but he was remarkably attentive to his studies, 
and his mind was quick and accurate. He excelled in 
the classics and the literary exercises. His declama- 
tions were remarkable for their energy and propriety, 
and he sometimes spoke an original theme and wrote 
some verses. He had a poetic imagination, which he 
showed in his prose writings afterwards, but he never 
confessed to being a poet. After his graduation in 
1774, on account of his youth and the troubles inci- 
dent to the outbreak of the Revolution, as well as the 
limited resources of his mother, he did not besin his 
professional studies for .some years. During this pe- 
riod he was engaged for a time in teaching school, 
and he did military service in some expedition to 
places in Massachusetts or to the Rhode Island fron- 
tier. He continued his studies, revising his course 
in the Latin classics, and reading history, both ancient 
and modern. He was especially fond of poetry, and 

was familiar with Shakspeare and Milton. He studied 
law with William Tudor in Boston, where he was 
admitted to the bar in 1781. He probably began 
practice in Dedham, although at that time there 
could have been but little litigation. But he em- 
ployed his pen in writing a series of political essays 
for the Independent Chronicle, under the names of 
Lucius Junius Brutus and Camillus, upon the 
questions which agitated the people of Massachusetts 
during Shay's Rebellion. The vigor of thought and 
style of these essays attracted attention, and they may 
be regarded as the beginning of his public career, since 
they first introduced him to prominent public men. 
He was chosen a delegate to the convention for rati- 
fying the Federal Constitution, held in 1788, of 
which he was an ai'dent supporter. He made his 
first speech in this convention upon biennial elec- 
tions. He was elected also to the Legislature of 
1788. He produced such an impression upon the 
public mind by his speeches and essays, that he was 
chosen the representative to the first Congress from 
the Suff"olk District, which office he held during the 
whole of Washington's administration, a period of 
eight years. His congressional career was brilliant 
and successful. Probably in the galaxy of statesmen 
and orators, for which this period of American history 
was so remarkable, there was no man who produced 
a greater impression as an orator and political writer 
than Fisher Ames. He was a Federalist of the 
school of Hamilton, Jay, and Pickering, and his 
later essays are worthy of being ranked with the 
papers of the " Federalist." As a political writer his 
fame has been as enduring as it was brilliant. The 
few speeches which have been published were prob- 
ably imperfectly reported, and while chai-acterized by 
an elevated tone of thought and vigorous expression, 
yet much of the profound impression which they 
produced must have been due to the circumstances 
under which they were delivered. 

On the 15th day of July, 1792, he married Frances, 
the third daughter of the Hon. John Worthing- 
ton, of Springfield, of whom President Dwight, of 
Yale College, said, " He was a lawyer of the first emi- 
nence and a man who would have done honor to any 
town and any country." After his marriage, Mr. Ames 
kept house in Boston until the succeeding spring. In 
1791 he had opened a law-office on King, now State 
Street. The formation of the new county of Norfolk 
doubtless determined his removal to Dedham. In 
November, 1795, he finished his substantial mansion, 
built upon his patrimonial estate, near the old house 
where his mother continued to reside. His law-office 
in Dedham was on the corner of the meeting-house 



common, near the " Pillar of Liberty." About the 
time he removed to his new residence his health sud- 
denly failed in a dangerous and alarming manner, and 
for the remainder of his life he never fully recovered 
it. In a letter dated Dec. 9, 1795, referring to a 
party of his neighbors to partake of a supper in his 
new house, he speaks of lying down " to prepare 
himself for sitting up and talking, and husbanding 
his words till the supper was done." In another let- 
ter he speaks of weighing one hundred and forty-four 
pounds, which was thirty less than his utmost in health. 
In August of the same year he writes, " Court week 
is over and I am alive and beginning to take long 
breath. Not half the jury actions were tried. My 
share of them kept me in a throng of people at my 
own house, and on the way to and from court, and 
there the heat, the crowd, and the effect of speaking, 
almost did me over." 

From the close of his congressional career in 1797, 
Mr. Ames spent the most of his time upon his estate 
in Dedham. He practiced his profession in Suffolk and 
Norfolk, and had his health permitted he would have 
devoted himself to the law. But he took great satis- 
faction in the care of his farm. He makes frequent 
allusions in his letters written at this time to his large 
stock of cattle ; to the productiveness of his cows ; 
to his breed of sheep ; to his sixty swine ; to his de- 
sire to get the best of garden seeds ; to his belief that 
his farm is approaching the period when it will be 
profitable, and adding that " if he did not think it 
would be, it would not be an amusement ; it would be 
a mere piece of ostentation on any other prospect, an 
expen.'sive folly, a toilsome disappointment." 

Mr. Ames was deeply interested in the growth and 
development of his native town. Writing to Thomas 
Dwight in 1795, he says, " Dedham will never become 
more than a village, but it is growing up to be a smart 
one ;" and after describing the new house of Judge 
Haven then building, and the establishing of a mill 
for printing calico and muslin, he resumes, "This, if 
true, will look very like bragging. But is there not 
a cold, hard spot in that heart which is indifferent to 
the natale solum ? Philosophers affect to despise such 
attachments, and few who do not feel them will give 
them quarter. The growth of the place I live in 
concerns my profit and pleasure, and it seems to me 
there is reason, if not philosophy, for my taking an 
interest in the event." He had a desire to cultivate 
social relations with his neighbors. After alluding to 
having invited thirty to his house to a supper, he 
continues, " Although it is a reproach that so much 
company has been so unsocial, I do not despair with 
proper help of regenerating Dedluun in this respect." 

He was active in attempting to improve the ex- 
ternal appearance of the village. In 1800 he writes, 
" I went home yesterday to attend town-meeting. 
After a long and rather wrangling contest, sometimes 
outvoted, at last prevailing, we carried it to apply 
nine hundred dollars by way of contract to our roads," 
and concludes. " I am sick of town-meeting. I took 
no refreshment, but stayed many hours in the meet- 
ing-house, and am two-thirds dead in consequence." 
Soon after he writes again, " We have done as well 
with our road through our village as we did ill in the 
meeting-house. The whole, from Mr. Joe Lewis' up 
to Parson Wight's, is an elegant road, equal to a 
turnpike, all ploughed, and raked and rounded off, so 
that all admired, and many will, I hope, imitate it. 
It was done by subscription." He was interested in 
schools; in a scheme for bringing water in logs to 
the western part of our plain ; in the building of the 
Boston and Providence Turnpike, of which corpora- 
tion he was the first president; in the making of a 
public square in the centre of the village ; in the 
draining of the meadows on Charles River ; in the 
straightening and widening of the roads ; in the es- 
tablishment of an academy, a library, and the build- 
ing of a new meeting-house and a town-house for 
holding meetings and the safe-keeping of the records. 
He planted the elms on High Street, of which but 
few remain, the only memorials of the taste and public 
spirit of Fisher Ames. With his declining health and 
strength, he was unable to overcome with his per- 
suasions and arguments the determined opposition of 
the sturdy farmers from the other parishes to the orna- 
mentation and improvement of the village, which has 
not disappeared in the lapse of three-quarters of a 
century. Had the suggestions of Mr. Ames been 
adopted in his time, Dedham village would have been 
the " loveliest village of the plain." 

The only public office which Mr. Ames held after- 
wards was that of councilor, when Increase Sumner 
was Governor. He received the degree of Doctor of 
Laws from the College of New Jersey in 1796. In 
1804 he was chosen president of Harvard College, 
but he declined the office. In 1800, by request of 
the Legislature, he delivered an eulogy upon Wash- 
ington, which has been much admired. 

The most attractive side of Mr. Ames' character is 
revealed through his familiar letters. Those which 
have been publLshed are written with a remarkably 
facile pen, and are full of brightness and wit. They 
give us an idea of his personality and of his conver- 
sational powers, for which he was distinguished. We 
desire to know more of his social and domestic char- 
acter, and it is to bo regretted that no memoir of 



personal recollections was written by one of his con- 
temporaries. The essay by President Kirkland, pub- 
lished with his works, is rather an estimate of his 
character and services, than a biography. 

Fisher Ames died on the morning of July 4, 1808, j 
being little more than fifty years of age. He had a 
public funeral in Boston, at which his friend Samuel 
Dexter pronounced the eulogy. He was buried in 
the old burial-ground in Dedham village. Mrs. 
Ames resided in Dedham until after the decease of 
her eldest son, John Worthington Ames, in 1833, 
after which she resided with her son, Seth Ames, at 
Lowell until her death, Aug. 8, 1837. The mansion- 
house was sold in 1837, and nothing but the frame 
now remains in the main portion of the residence of 
Mr. F. J. Stimson, opposite the court-house. 

Fisher Ames was the youngest child in a family 
of five children. His eldest brother was Dr. Na- 
thaniel Ames, who was born Oct. 9, 1741, and was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1761. He married 
Melitiah Shuttleworth, March 13, 1775, and died 
July 21, 1822, leaving no children. He was a 
practicing physician, and he also was the first clerk ■ 
of the Court of Sessions and Court of Common 
Pleas in the county. He built and occupied the 
house now owned by Dr. J. P. Maynard, and his 
land joined that of his brother Fisher. Dr. Ames 
was pronounced in his political views, and he was 
a thoroughgoing Republican. Between the two 
brothers there was no agreement in politics, and 
this led to heated controversies between them, but 
it should be added that this did not destroy their 
fraternal affection and confidence. Another brother 
was Dr. Seth Ames, born Feb. 14, 1743 ; was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1764; was a sur- 
geon in the Revolutionary army, and died Jan. 1, 
1778. William Ames, another brother, died young, 
and Deborah, a sister, was married to Rev. Samuel 
Shuttleworth, of Windsor, Vt., who was afterwards 
a member of the bar. 

Fisher Ames had six children. John Worthing- 
ton was the eldest, born Oct. 22, 1793 ; was gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1813,; was a member of 
the bar ; representative to the General Court and 
president of the Dedham Bank, and died Oct. 31, 
1833. Nathaniel, the second son, entered Harvard, 
but left during his college course and went to sea. 
He was the author of " Mariner's Sketches," a book 
which attracted some attention. Jeremiah Fisher 
Ames, the third son, was graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1822, was educated as a physician, and pur- 
sued his studies abroad, but he died at the age of 
twenty-seven. Hannah Ames, a daughter, died 

young and unmarried. W^illiam Ames was bred to 
business, but retired early. He lived in Dedham 
until his death, in 1880, though he was accustomed 
to make annual visits to Springfield and other places. 
All these children died unmarried. Seth Ames, who 
was born April 19, 1805, and was graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1825, and who was chief justice of 
the Superior Court and a justice of the Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court, died in 1881. leaving several children, 
none of whom reside in Dedham. The youngest son, 
Richard, removed to the West when a young man, 
and died, leaving a family in Bloomington, 111. 
There is no living representative of the Ames family in 
Dedham. The most conspicuous and illustrious name 
in its history has disappeared from among its citizens. 

In 1798, Mr. Edward Dowse, a retired merchant 
from Boston, purchased the lands on either side of 
High Street, and soon after built his mansion-house 
upon the north side of the street. He married the 
daughter of William Phillips, of Boston, a wealthy 
merchant, and her sister, Mrs. Shaw, the widow of 
Maj. Samuel Shaw, lived with them. Mr. Dowse 
was a hospitable and liberal-spirited gentleman, and 
was the donor of the clock in the spire of the meet- 
ing-house, which still strikes the hours for the village. 
He was a Republican, and was elected to Congress in 
1819 from the Norfolk District, but resigned his seat 
at the close of the first session. In this house Presi- 
dent Monroe was entertained during his visit to Bos- 
ton. Mr. Dowse died in 1828, in his seventy-third 
year Mrs. Shaw died in 1833, and Mrs. Dowse in 
1839, and then the estate passed into the possession of 
their nephew, Hon. Josiah Quincy, and was the resi- 
dence for many years of the late Edmund Quincy. 

On the 17th of May, 1803, the Rev. Jason Haven, 
the minister of the First Church, died, in the seventy- 
first year of his age, and the forty-eighth of his ministry, 
which was longer than that of either of his predecessors. 
It also included a period of many important events. 
It began when Massachusetts was a province under a 
royal Governor. Mr. Haven, during the Revolution, 
was a strong supporter of the patriotic cause, and did 
much to sustain the people in their sacrifices during 
this trying period. He was chosen a member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1779. In 1793, the 
church covenant and the mode of admitting church 
members were changed. The covenant then adopted 
was very brief, and does not contain articles of belief, 
like that of 1767. Its only requirement was a belief 
in the Christian religion. The eflFects of the Revo- 
lution upon the opinions of men in religious matters 
were now beginning to be seen in that spirit of indif- 
ference to the dogmas of the Puritan theology which 



was to culminate twenty-five years later in open revolt. 
But to Mr. Haven, supported by his deacons and the 
church, is due especial honor for having so managed 
the church property that the income remained for a 
long time untouched, and the capital accumulated, 
the parish expenses meantime being met by taxation, 
and at a time of pecuniary distress. 

Probably no pastor of the Dedham Church, with 
the possible exception of Mr. Allin, had ever exer- 
cised so strong an influence upon his people as Mr. 
Haven. He was a faithful pastor and preacher. He 
had talents and gifts which qualified him for the 
varied duties of his sacred office. His sermons were 
perspicuous and direct. He had all the gravity and 
dignity which belonged to the ministerial character, 
and Dr. Prentiss, in his funeral sermon, says of him 
that, "from a personal intimacy of more than thirty 
years, I can, with pleasing confidence, add that in his 
temper and life there appeared an habitual correspond- 
ence with his professional character." 

Mr. Haven preached the Artillery Election sermon 
in 1761, the General Election sermon in 1769, the 
Dudleian lecture in 1789, and the Convention sermon 
in 1791. These were printed, and also eleven ordina- 
tion and occasional sermons. In 1796 he preached 
an excellent historical sermon, it being forty years 
after his settlement in the ministry. He also preached 
a half-century sermon, " relating to changes in the 
inhabitants," as stated in Dr. Lamson's " Historical 
Discourses" (1838), but no copy probably exists. 

As in the last years of Mr. Haven's life his health 
and strength declined, the church extended a call to 
Mr. Joshua Bates to become an associate pastor, and 
he was ordained March 16, 1803, only a few weeks 
before Mr. Haven's death. Mr. Bates was a native 
of Cohasset, and was born March 20, 1776, and was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1800. He was 
licensed to preach by the Andover Association in 
1802. Dr. Bates continued to be the pastor until 
Feb. 20, 1818, when he resigned to accept an elec- 
tion as president of Middlebury College, in Vermont. 
Upon the Sunday preceding the dissolution of the 
pastoral relation, Mr. Bates preached a sermon re- 
viewing the ministry of his predeces.sors, and in 
which he alludes to " a gradual but evident declen- 
sion in the zeal and spirituality of the church" which 
took place towards the close of Mr. Haven's life. 
Mr. Haven also had left an address to be read to his 
people after his death, which contains warnings and 
exhortations. Mr. Bates, in his sermon, states, how- 
ever, there had been a gradual improvement for 
several years in the state of religion in the parish. 

From these expressions in Mr. Bates' sermon it is 

easy to understand what has been affirmed by con- 
temporaneous history to be the causes of the division 
of opinions and belief in the Dedham Church. 
There had been, as we have seen, a relaxation of the 
articles of belief contained in the former church cov- 
enants in that of 1793, and a reaction had been 
going on since the close of the Revolution throughout 
this country against the dogmas of Calvinism. The 
volcano which had long been slumbering was ready to 
burst into an active eruption. Mr. Bates was a Cal- 
vinist, and while his abilities, his piety, and his un- 
exceptionable life served to repress any active oppo- 
sition during his ministry, yet when he asked a 
dismission, the majority voted for it willingly, in the 
belief that a successor might be ordained whose 
views would be more compatible with their own. 

The division which occurred in the Third Parish 
in 1808, growing out of the location of the new 
meeting-house, resulted in the union of the seceding 
members with the Baptist Society in Medfield. 
They numbered about sixty. While the new doc- 
trines which they heard at Medfield doubtless proved 
offensive to some, yet the law then compelled them 
to belong to some religious society for the purpose 
of taxation, and so they remained. After the new 
meeting-house of the parish had been completed, the 
old one was advertised to be sold at public auction. 
It was purchased by Mr. Aaron Baker, who offered 
it to the seceders, and it was taken down and its 
timbers were removed and erected upon the site now 
occupied by the Baptist meeting-house in West Ded- 
ham. This was in the spring of 1810. The meet- 
ing-house was finally completed, and dedicated to the 
service of Almighty God on Thanksgiving-day, Nov. 
28, 1810. From that time until 1823 the Rev. Mr. 
Gammell preached alternately here and at Medfield. 
The number who took letters from the church in 
Medfield for this church was twenty-five, and Nov. 1, 
1824, " The First Baptist Church in Dedham" was 
duly formed, and the Rev. Samuel Adlam ordained 
as its first pastor. In the same year a parsonage was 
built by Miss Molly Fisher, and during her life she 
kept it in repair, and at her decease, in 1837, she gave 
it to the church by her will. 

On the 1st day of March, 1809, the new meeting- 
house of the Third Parish was dedicated to Almighty 
God. It occupies an elevated situation, and can be 
seen for many miles. The land upon which it stands 
was given for the purpose. Its bell was a gift from 
Hon. Joshua Fisher, of Beverly. The pulpit was 
furnished by the ladies of the parish, and subscriptions 
were made, so that in 1836 the fund amounted to 
upwards of five thousand dollars. Previous to 1817 



heated bricks and foot-stoves were the only heating- 
apparatus in the meeting-house. The Rev. Mr. 
Thacher preached a sermon, on leaving the ancient 
meeting-house, from the text, " Our fathers worshiped 
in this mountain." At the dedication of the new meet- 
ing-house the Rev. Mr. Bates, of the First Parish, 
and the Rev. Mr. Chickering, of the Second Parish, 
took part in the exercises. 

In the Second Parish, more than three years 
elapsed before the settlement of a successor to Mr. 
Chickering. On the 26th of April, 1815, Mr. Wil- 
liam Cogswell was ordained as the minister of the 
parish. He was a native of New Hampshire, and 
was a graduate of Dartmouth College in 1811. Mr. 
Cogswell continued to be the pastor of this church 
until 1829, when he resigned to become secretary of 
the x\merican Education Society. During the min- 
istry of each of the first three pastors of the Second 
Church and Parish, peace and harmony had prevailed 
within it, while discords and divisions prevailed in the 
other parishes of the town. The ministry of the first 
two pastors covered a period of more than seventy-two 
years, and to this circumstance, as well as to the per- 
sonal character and influence of the incumbents, is to 
be ascribed the exemption of this parish from church 
quarrels. Mr. Cogswell preached a sermon, June 23, 
1816, containing a brief history of the South Church 
and Parish, which was printed. In 1828 the meet- 
ing-house erected in 1769 was taken down, and the 
present one was erected the same year, and dedicated 
Oct. 9, 1828. 


D'EBB AM— {C'onthiued). 

Dedham in the Beginning of the Present Century — Manufac- 
turing Corporations — Mill Privileges on Mother Brook — War 
of 1812 — Legacy for Schools in AVill of Samuel Dexter — The 
First Church — Resignation of Rev. Joshua Bates — Parish 
Elect Rev. Alvan Lamson — Majority of Church Refuse 
to Concur — Ecclesiastical Council — Protest by a Majority 
of the Church — Ordination of Mr. Lamson — Suit at Law to 
Recover Church Property — Decision of Supreme Court — New 
Meeting-House Society Formed — Rev. Ebenezer Burgess — 
Improvements in Old Meeting-House — Third Parish — Rev. 
John White — Second Parish, Rev. Harrison G. Park, Rev. 
Calvin Durfee and his Successors — Description of Dedham 
Village in 1818 — Dedham Bank — New Jail and Court-House 
— Town-House — Norfolk Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
— Dedham Mutual Fire Insurance Company — Dedham In- 
stitution for Savings— Gen. Lafayette's Visit — Gen. Jack- 
son's Visit. 

In the beginning of the present century, Dedham 
remained a farming town, with a population nearly 

the same as it had been for fifty years previous. The 
occupations of the people had not changed materially 
since the period preceding the Revolution. A greater 
interest in the public schools was manifested, and a 
new brick school-house, near the meeting-house, was 
finished in 1800. In 1804, the sum of twelve hun- 
dred dollars was granted by the town for the support 
of schools. At this period, however, the schools were 
kept only a few weeks during the winter. Fisher 
Ames, in one of his letters, expresses the opinion that 
the law should require the district school to be kept 
a certain number of months. In 1799, the money 
granted for the support of schools was divided accord- 
ing to the number of scholars in each district between 
the ages of five and sixteen. There were signs of 
present and future growth' in population, and in the 
external appearance of the village. Besides the erec- 
tion of the fine houses on High Street and elsewhere, 
the lands of the First Church and of the Episcopal 
Church were leased in village lots, and a number of 
smaller houses were built. The fact that Dedham had 
been made the shire-town of the new county, gave it 
some additional importance, and attracted hither 
lawyers seeking practice, and some retired men of 
wealth seeking a pleasant country residence. The 
completion of the Norfolk and Bristol turnpike in 
1804 was an important event, since it afforded a 
direct and well-graded road between Dedham and 
Boston, and afterwards led to the establishment of 
the stage-lines between Boston and Providence, which 
brought in the business of coach-making, and gave 
the appearance of bustle and life to the quiet village, 
when the stages stopped for change of horses. In 
1801, a fire-engine was purchased by subscription and 
presented to the town, and a company of twelve men 
appointed to take charge of it at the upper vil- 
lage. In 1802 a second fire-engine was provided in 
the same way, with a company of eighteen men at 
Dedham village. There was a uniformed military 
company, known as the Union Light Infantry, and a 
troop of cavalry, besides the three militia companies 
in the town. The town on the 22d of February, 
1800, voted to commemorate the birthday of George 
Washington, and a eulogy was pronounced by Rev. 
Thomas Thacher. The laying out of new roads, the 
establishment of the first newspaper, the Columhian 
Minerva, in 1796, and a proposition by Calvin Whit- 
ing the same year, to construct an aqueduct in the 
village, were further indications of growth and im- 

But a more important and significant mark of 
the enterprise of the citizens at this period, was the 
establishment of manufacturing corporations. The 



great increase iu the production of cotton in the 
Southern States, and the invention of the cotton-gin 
in the hitter part of the eighteenth century, had at- 
tracted the attention of enterprising men in Rhode 
Island and Massachusetts to its manufacture. And 
it was perceived by some citizens of Dedham that tlie 
excellent water-power furnished by the canal dug in 
1640, known as Mother Brook, might be utilized for a 
cotton-factory. From the earliest settlement of the town 
the descendants of Nathaniel Whiting had continued 
to maintain grist-mills and saw-mills at the second 
and third privileges. At the upper dam, about which 
there was a controversy in the first century, had been 
built a leather-mill by Joseph Lewis. The first cotton- 
factory was built at this dam. In 1807, Samuel 
Lowder, Jonathan Avery, Reuben Guild, Calvin 
Guild, Pliny Bingham, William Howe, and others, 
were incorporated as the Norfolk Cotton Manufactory, 
for the manufacture of cotton goods. Nearly all the 
corporators were citizens of Dedham. Its capital 
stock was divided into fifty shares. A large wooden 
factory was built, and a tub-wheel with common 
water-frames placed in if. The machinery was 
rude and imperfect. The cotton was picked in the 
neighboring houses by hand, and after it was spun, 
it was sent abroad to be woven. But soon the store- 
rooms were crowded with cotton yarns and cotton 
cloths. Many of the manufactured goods were sold 
by retail at the mill. In order to have a better assort- 
ment of goods, the company obtained leave to manu- 
facture wool, and made satinets. During the war of 
1812 manufactured goods commanded a high price, 
and the afi"airs of the company appeared very prosper- 
ous. The annual meetings, with the reports of profit- 
able business, were festive occasions. The stock- 
holders were regarded as public benefactors, as well 
as fortunate in business. The inhabitants felt a 
degree of pride in having a cotton-factory in the town, 
and when their friends from the interior visited them, 
they were invited to see its curious and wonderful 
machinery. After a time the tub- wheel gave way to 
the common water-wheel, and the cotton-picker was 

But this career of apparent prosperity was not of 
long duration. The business was not conducted by 
an agent, but by a president, three directors, a clerk, 
and treasurer. The three directors were required to 
remain at the factory, and no one was permitted to 
transact important business without the concurrence 
of his colleagues. The manufactured goods accumu- 
lated during the war, although high prices could 
have been realized. They were held in the hope of 
still better prices. No dividends Irom the profits of 

the business were ever declared, At the close of the 
war of 1812 came a fall in prices, and the Norfolk 
Cotton-Manufactory was left with manufactured goods 
on hand, to the amount of upwards of twenty thou- 
sand dollars, which were worth less than it cost to 
manufacture them, besides uncollected debts to the 
amount of forty thousand dollars. Of course frpm 
this time the property rapidly declined in value, but 
for a time the stockholders were divided as to the 
expediency of closing the business and selling the 
property. Finally, after having refused to take 
twenty-five thousand dollars, the land, privileges, 
buildings, and machinery were sold at public auction 
in 1819 to Benjamin Bussey for twelve thousand five 
hundred dollars. The stockholders lost about one- 
third of their investment, besides interest. 

But the failure of this experiment did not deter 
others from engaging in similar enterprises. In 1821 
the Dedham Worsted Company was incorporated, with 
William Phillips and Jabez Chickering as the princi- 
pal corporators. This company purchased the second 
privilege, with the saw-mill and grist-mill owned by 
Hezekiah Whiting and his ancestors. This purchase 
was made in 1823, but owing to the failure of Mr. 
Chickering the mill and property were sold in 1824 
to Benjamin Bussey. 

The first and second privileges were now owned by 
Benjamin Bussey, a man of capital, energy, and ca- 
pacity. He soon after erected woolen-mills at both 
the privileges, with machine-shops, dye-houses, and 
dwellings, and began the manufacture of woolen 
cloths, which he successfully conducted until 1843, 
when he sold the property to J. Wiley Edmands. 
The manufacture of woolen goods has ever since 
been carried on at these privileges, first by Edmands 
& Colby, incorporated in 1853 under the name of the 
Maverick Woolens Company, with Thomas Barrows, 
of Dedham, as agent, and afterwards by the Mer- 
chants Woolen Company, incorporated in 1863. 
During all this period the business has been profita- 
ble to the owners. Mr. Barrows was an experienced 
and prudent manager, and the sale to the Merchants 
Woolen Company was made at an advantageous 
price. This company has much enlarged the capac- 
ity of the mills and machinery, and the privilege 
has long since ceased to furnish the necessary power 
for running the machinery, which is supplied by 
steam. The water of Charles River is found to be 
unequaled for the purposes of cleansing wool. 

The fourth privilege was first used by Nathaniel 
Whiting and James Draper in the first century of 
the settlement of the town. But this right had re- 
verted to tiie town, for in 1789 the town again trans- 



ferred it to Joseph Whiting and others. Upon 
this privilege, a building had been erected for block- 
ing copper cents, but it was used for this purpose 
only a short time. It was afterwards fitted up by 
Herman Mann for the manufacture of paper. In 
180-i, George Bird purchased the property, and car- 
ried on the manufacture of paper with success. At 
about the same time, another mill was erected for the 
manufacture of wire, of which Ruggles Whiting, of 
Boston, was the agent. These mills were near to- 
gether, and were operated by the same wheel. The 
mill of Mr. Bird was burned in 1809, and was rebuilt 
with a new raceway and foundation. This was a 
paper-mill. In 1814 the manufacture of wire was 
discontinued, and the factory was used for making 
nails. In 1819, George Bird became the owner of 
the whole privilege, land, and buildings. 

In 1823, Frederick A. Taft, a skillful and experi- 
enced manufacturer of cotton goods, formed a copart- 
nership with George Bird, and the factory was fur- 
nished with machinery from the Norfolk Cotton- 
Factory. In 1823, a new corporation was created 
under the name of the Norfolk Manufacturing Com- 
pany, in which John Lemist, of Roxbury, and 
Frederick A. Taft were prominent corporators. Mr. 
Bird leased the land, privilege, and buildings to the 
corporation for ten years. In 1830 the corporation 
bought the whole of the mill property. In 1832, F. 
A. Taft sold his interest in the company to his brother, 
Ezra W. Taft, and in a few years after, Mr. Lemist 
disposed of his interest to James Read. The principal 
owners were Mr. Read and Mr. p]. W. Taft, who was 
the agent of the corporation. In 1835 a new stone 
mill was erected by the corporation and supplied with 
new machinery. Mr. Taft continued to be the agent 
for about thirty years, and under his management the 
affairs of the corporation prospered. In 1863 the cor- 
porators decided to close up the business, and the mill 
and privilege were sold to Thomas Barrows. Mr. Bar- 
rows enlarged the mill, and supplied it with machinery 
for the manufacture of woolen goods, which business 
he continued until 1872, when he sold the property to 
the Merchants Woolen Companj-, which conveyed 
the same to Royal 0. Storrs and Frederick R. Storrs 
in 1875. The business was continued by R. 0. Storrs 
& Co. until their failure in 1882, when the property 
was purchased again by the Merchants Woolen 
Company. By purchase of Thomas Barrows, this 
company also became the owner of the third privilege, 
with the old saw-milf and grist-mill, so that it now owns 
the first four privileges on Mother Brook. In 1814 
the Dedham Manufacturing Company was incorpo- 
rated, and erected a fifth dam at the villace known 

as Readville, now in Hyde Park, on which a cotton- 
factory was built. 

Although, as has been seen, the first manufacturing 
corporations were unsuccessful in business, still they 
gave a new impetus to the improvement of the town. 
They brought hither men of enterprise and capital, 
who became valuable citizens, and also employed 
many skilled operatives of character and intelligence. 
The most striking results occurred in the increase of 
population. In 1800 the population of the town 
was 1973. In 1820 it was 2485, and in 1830 it 
had increased to 3057. In the first quarter of the 
present century the village had changed from being 
a collection of scattered farm-houses to a compact 
and growing village. 

In the war of 1812, Dedham took decided ground 
in support of the government and the policy of the 
war. When the Hartford Convention was proposed 
by the General Court, one of its representatives de- 
nounced it as a revolutionary proceeding. Upon a 
communication from the town of Boston requesting 
its co-operation in measures to oppose the war, the 
town, in July, 1812, rejected the proposed combina- 
tion. The town voted that every drafted man should 
receive from its treasury, a sum sufiicient to make his 
wages fifteen dollars a month while in actual service. 
Soldiers for the army were here recruited and drilled. 
In August, five hundred delegates from the towns of 
the county assembled in convention at Dedham, and 
expressed their approbation of the war. The Dedham 
Light Infantry, Capt. Abner Guild, did service at 
South Boston during the war for several months. 
During this war, large quantities of beef and pork 
were packed in West Dedham by Willard Gay, and 
while the coast was blockaded, James Pettee, Samuel 
French, and Colburn Ellis drove horse- or ox-teams 
to New York and Philadelphia. The trip to New 
York occupied three weeks and to Philadelplm six 

The Hon. Samuel Dexter, who died in 1810, had 
left in his will, a legacy of one hundred and seventy 
dollars as an addition to the school funds, and in 
making this bequest, he suggested that certain sums 
formerly appropriated for the same purpose, which 
were expended in hiring soldiers, should be replaced 
by the town. The town accepted the bequest, and 
directed the treasurer to loan the money on security. 
But this fund has disappeared with the other school 
funds of the town. 

In the year 1818, occurred the division of the 
church connected with the First Parish, perhaps the 
most memorable event in the history of the town. 
It was the result of no parish quarrel over some 



question of temporary importance, like the location 
of a meeting-house, but was the natural conclusion 
of theological differences which had been gradually 
developing for a quarter of a century. Nor were the 
questions involved only of local interest and import- 
ance ; but upon the legal determination of them by 
the Supreme Judicial Court, the title to the property, 
church records, and all the material part of the 
churches in half the towns of eastern Massachusetts 
was decided to be vested in the town or parish, and 
not in the churches. It is not difficult, therefore, to 
understand why this event produced such a profound 
impression not only in the Dedham parish, but in all 
the neighboring towns. 

The occasion of the controversy was the election of 
a successor to the Rev. Dr. Bates, who had resigned 
in February, 1818. On the 31st day of August, 
Mr. Alvan Lamson was elected as " a public Protest- 
ant teacher of piety, religion, and morality" at a 
meeting of the parish by a vote of eighty-one 
to forty-four. In this election the church refused 
to concur by a vote of seventeen to fifteen. The 
parish, having received Mr. Lamson's acceptance of 
its election, caused a council, composed of the pastors 
and delegates of thirteen churches, to be convened on 
the 28th day of October following for the purpose of 
ordaining Mr. Lamson. When the council assembled, 
the Hon. Samuel Haven, a son of the former pastor, 
appeared and read an elaborate and learned protest on 
behalf of a majority of the church against the ordi- 
nation of Mr. Lamson as its pastor. The propositions 
maintained in this protest were, that according to 
Congregational usage, the first step in electing a pas- 
tor must be taken by the church ; that while the 
parish, under the constitution of the commonwealth, 
might choose a religious teacher and contract to sup- 
port him, still he would not be a settled minister of 
the gospel or pastor of the church ; that the parish, 
being merely a civil body, could not call together an 
ecclesiastical council, but this could only be done by 
the church ; that the ecclesiastical body, the Christian 
church existing in this place, had chosen no pastor, of 
course desired no ordination, and had not invited her 
sister churches to convene for any purpose whatever, 
and concluded with a solemn protest against the council 
taking any further measures in relation to the ordina- 
tion of Mr. Alvan Lamson. These positions were care- 
fully argued at considerable length, and in a manner 
becoming the gravity of the occasion, by Judge Haven. 
The protest was printed in the pamphlet afterwards 
published and written by him, entitled a " Statement 
of the Proceedings in the First Church and Parish 
in Dedham Respecting the Settlement of a Minister, 

1818, with some Considerations on Congregational 
Church Polity." It was claimed on the part of the 
parish, that it did not request to have Mr. Lamson 
ordained over the church, but that a majority of the 
church actually concurred with the parish, including 
members of other churches who resided and com- 
muned in Dedham, and that the opposition was 
altogether of a doctrinal nature, which was disclaimed 
by the committee of the church. 

The council continued their deliberations during 
the first day, and decided to ordain Mr. Lamson over 
the First Parish in Dedham. In the result of the 
council, drawn up and read by Dr. Clianning before 
the ordination exercises, it is stated that " the council 
regard the well-known usage according to which the 
first step in electing a pastor is taken by the church 
as in the main wise and beneficial. But they believe 
that this usage, founded on different circumstances 
of this Christian community and on different laws of 
the commonwealth from those which now exist, is 
not to be considered as universally necessary." They 
held that the spirit and end of the usage was to be 
regarded rather than the letter, and that an adherence 
to it would increase division or postpone indefinitely 
the settlement of a Christian minister ; that, while a 
concurrence of the church and parish was very de- 
sirable, each body had the right to elect a pastor for 
itself, it being secured to the church by the essential 
principles of Congregational polity, and to the parish 
by the constitution and laws of the commonwealth. 
They expressed the satisfaction " with which they 
witnessed the singular self-command manifested by 
both parties in the public discussions before them, 
a circumstance too honorable to be passed over in 
silence." The " Result" closed with many earnest 
exhortations to a spirit of conciliation. 

It is a somewhat remarkable circumstance, that in 
the protest of the church, or in the " statement" pub- 
lished by Judge Haven, or in the " Result of the 
Council," there is scarcely an allusion to any diver- 
sity of religious opinions in the parish. Beyond the 
fact that the parish committee claimed that this was 
the reason of the opposition to Mr. Lamson, and that 
the church committee disclaimed it, and a single allu- 
sion in a few words in the " Result," there is abso- 
lutely nothing in the printed proceedings which dis- 
closes that the controversy had any religious aspect. 
The issues were made upon questions of Congregational 
usage and the legal powers of parishes, and not upon 
articles of religious belief As it often happens in 
public discussions, the real points of difference were 
kept in reserve. But there can be no doubt that the 
parish and the church were then divided into two re- 



ligious parties, known afterwards under the distinctive 
names of Unitarian and Orthodox. Mr. Lamson was 
a graduate of the Divinity School in Harvard College, 
and was a Unitarian. The Rev. Dr. Henry Ware, 
who preached the ordination sermon, had been elected, 
in 1805, Hollis Professor of Divinity as a Unitarian, 
and Dr. Channing, who was one of the council, had 
his celebrated controversy with Dr. Worcester in 1815, 
which resulted in the separation of the Unitarian from 
the Orthodox Congregationalists. All the members 
of the ordaining council represented churches which 
were either at that time or afterwards became Unita- 
rian. That those who opposed Mr. Lamson's ordina- 
tion were Orthodox Congregationalists, was proved by 
their subsequent action. Probably there were some 
who acted without regard to differences of faith. 

Mr. Lamson was ordained Oct. 29, 1818. The 
majority of the church, including the two remaining 
deacons (one having died soon after Mr. Lamson's 
ordination), and a minority of the parish, being dis- 
satisfied, caused another council to be convened at 
Dedham, on Nov. 18, 1818, composed of pastors and 
delegates of sixteen neighboring churches belonging 
to the same association which did not attend, at the 
invitation of the parish, the ordaining council. This 
council was called for its advice to those who re- 
quested it. It was in session two days, and reviewed 
the proceedings in Mr. Lamson's ordination. The 
result of their deliberations was, that " in the settle 
ment of a minister in the First Church and Parish, 
the council discover in the measures pursued, the 
want of such a spirit of condescension as seems 
best adapted to produce and preserve unity and peace. 
It appears that the parish, in opposition to the wishes 
of the church, have proceeded to settle a public 
teacher of religion and morality, not in accordance 
with the accustomed and pacific proceedings of Con- 
gregational Churches in New England, nor, in the 
judgment of this council, was this one of those cases 
of necessity which, in the opinion of some, would 
justify such a procedure." But the council gave no 
definite advice. 

The church, or that portion which remained united 
with the parish, elected Mr. Lamson as its pastor 
Nov. 14, 1818, by a majority of the voting mem- 
bership of the church. But at this time the dis- 
satisfied members had withdrawn. Deacon Samuel 
Fales did not attend services after Mr. Lamson's 
ordination. Deacon Joseph Swan died November 
13th, and Deacon Jonathan Richards resigned March 
15, 1819. Deacon Fales was removed or dismissed, 
and Eliphalet Baker and Luther Richards were 
chosen. That portion of the church which had 

seceded, claimed to constitute the First Church, and 
as the lands and funds of the church, under the laws 
of the commonwealth, were vested in the deacons, a 
suit was begun by Deacon Eliphalet Baker and Dea- 
con Luther Richards against Deacon Samuel Fales 
for the recovery of the property of the First Church 
in Dedham. After a trial by the jury, the case was 
carried upon questions of law to the full bench of the 
Supreme Court, and was argued by Solicitor-General 
Davis for the plaintiffs and Daniel Webster for the 

The two questions involved in this decision are, 
whether the plaintiffs were in fact deacons of the 
First Church in Dedham, having been appointed by 
those members of the church who remained and 
acted with the parish, and the legal character of the 
grants to the church in Dedham. But, in consider- 
ing these questions, both resolved themselves into 
one point. The legal estate of these grants to the 
church in Dedham being vested in the deacons by 
the statute of 1754, as trustees, the court holds " that 
the trusts intended, must have been the providing for 
the public worship of God in Dedham, and the in- 
habitants at large of that town, as parishioners or 
members of the religious society, were the proper 
cestuis que trust, because the effect of the grants was 
to relieve them from an expense they would other- 
wise have been obliged to bear or forego the benefits 
of a Christian ministry." The court say, further, 
" in whatever light ecclesiastical councils or persons 
may consider the question, it appears to us clear 
from the constitution and laws of the land, and from 
judicial decisions, that the body which is to be con- 
sidered the First Church in Dedham must be the 
church of the First Parish in that town, as to all 
questions of property which depend upon that re- 

The court held that, while the proceedings of the 

parish and the council were not conformable to the 

general usage of the country, yet, under the third 

article of the Declaration of Rights, parishes have 

the exclusive right of electing public teachers, and 

that a teacher of "piety, religion, and morality" is a 

minister of the gospel within the meaning of the 

Declaration of Rights ; that the non-concurrence of 

the church in the choice of a minister, in no degree 

impairs the constitutional right of the parish ; that 

I Mr. Lamson became the lawful minister of the First 

I Parish in Dedham and of the church subsisting 

I therein ; that the church had the right to choose 

I deacons, finding that the former deacons had abdi- 

1 cated their office ; that the members of the church 

I who withdrew from the parish ceased to be the First 



Church in Dedham, and that all the rights and 
duties of that body relative to property intrusted to 
it devolved upon those members who remained with 
and adhered to the parish. 

It is to be observed that the decision of the court 
turned chiefly upon the third article of the Bill of 
Rip;hts passed in 1780, which gave to parishes the 
right to elect a public teacher. As a civil tribunal, it 
paid no regard to the rules or decisions of ecclesias- 
tical councils or the usage of churches. The ques- 
tions decided, related to the title of the church prop- 
erty, and as a church could not exist independently of 
a parish, the members who remained with the parish 
were the church in the eye of the law, and the mem- 
bers who seceded were not. 

Of the effects of this great controversy and its final 
decision upon the inhabitants of the First Parish in 
Dedham, it is to be said that it implanted a root of 
bitterness among those who participated in it on 
either side, and among their immediate descendants. 
The church connected with the First Parish has 
always rested its claim to be the First Church in 
Dedham upon the decision of the court. The church 
formed by the seceders in 1818 has also claimed to 
be the First Church in Dedham in accordance with 
Congregational usage, and because they were a ma- 
jority of its members at that time. The church con- 
nected with the First Parish, still retains the church 
covenant of 1793, while the church now known as the 
First Congregational Church adopted articles of faith 
and a new form of covenant in 1821. 

The members of the church who withdrew after 
the ordination of Mr. Lamson numbered eighty-nine, 
twenty-four men and sixty-five women, and including 
the three deacons. During the year 1819, these 
church members, with those of the parish who came 
away with them, held services on the Sabbath in the 
house which was formerly that of the Rev. Mr. 
Haven. This was directly opposite the parish 
meeting-house, and on the site of the present meet- 
ing-house of the new society. This was dedicated 
Dec. 30, 1819. The erection of this spacious and 
well-proportioned house in a little more than a year 
from the time of the separation, at an expense of 
nearly ten thousand dollars, by forty-three contribu- 
tors, none of whom had large means, furnishes 
striking evidence of tlieir zeal and spirit of self- 
sacrifice. While they were without a pastor, they 
maintained prayer-meetings, which had been hitherto 
unknown in the parish. The widow of Deacon Swan 
gave two silver flagons and a baptismal font. On 
the 14th day of March, 1821, the Rev. Ebcnezer 
Burgess was ordained as pastor. A new society was 

incorporated in connection with the church, under the 
name of the " New Meeting-House Society." In 
1826 a new vestry was built by Mr. Burgess at his 
own expense. 

The First Church and Parish, after the separation, 
were also moved to the improvement of the old 
meeting-house of 1763. In 1805, the parish had 
determined to enlarge it, but afterwards rescinded 
the vote. In 1807, it was voted to erect a new 
meeting-house, and a building committee chosen, 
but this vote was also rescinded. But in 1819, the 
old house was enlarged by an addition in front, the 
slant of the roof being changed, the north and south 
porches removed, and the house entirely remodeled 
within. The outside clock was given at this time by 
the Hon. Edward Dowse and Mrs. Hannah Shaw, a 
sister of Mrs. Dowse. The inside clock was the gift 
of John and Samuel Doggett, Jr., of Boston, for- 
merly of Dedham. In 1821, an organ was purchased, 
and soon after Dr. Watts' version of the Psalms was 
exchanged for the New York Collection of Hymns. 
In 1828 a vestry was provided for the use of the 
Sunday-school and for libraries. A Sabbath-school 
had been founded in 1816, and was held in the old 
brick school-house, which stood near the meeting- 

In the Third Parish, the vacancy existingby the death 
of the Rev. Mr. Thacher was not filled until April 
20, 1814, when the Rev. John White was ordained. 
He was born in Concord, Dec. 2, 1787, and was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1805. His ministry 
continued until his death, Feb. 1, 1852, and during 
this whole period of nearly thirty-eight years, this 
parish enjoyed uninterrupted harmony. Mr. White 
was a sincere man and a faithful pastor, and entirely 
devoted to his work. He was " mild, gentle, courte- 
ous, and conciliatory." During his ministry, a Sun- 
day-school was organized, and the chHdren were 
catechised by the pastor. Mr. White and his esti- 
mable wife are held in most grateful memory by the 
people of this parish. Mr. White was ordained 
before the separation of the Unitarians from the 
Orthodox Congregationalists, but he, with his parish, 
was always ranked with the Unitarians. Mr. White 
delivered a centennial discourse relating to the history 
of this parish, Jan. 17, 1836, which was printed. 

The Second Parish, on the other hand, adhered to 
the confession of I'aith and covenant of its founders, 
and has always been known as Orthodox. On the 
16th of December, 1829, Mr. Harrison G. Park, a 
graduate of Brown University, was ordained as pastor 
by the same ecclesiastical council that was convened 
to sanction the dissolution of Mr. Cogswell's pastoral 



relation. Mr. Park remained as pastor until Sept. 
23, 1835, when he was dismissed at his own request. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. Calvin Durfee, a grad- 
uate of Williams College, who was ordained March 
2, 1836. On June 26, 1836, he preached a centen- 
nial discourse relating to the history of this parish, 
which was printed. Mr. Durfee remained the pastor 
until 1852, when he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Moses M. Colburn. Mr. Colburn resigned Feb. 3, 
1866, and Oct. 1, 1866, the Rev. Joseph P. Bixby 
became the acting pastor. Mr. Bixby remained pastor 
of the South Church and Parish at the date of the 
incorporation of the town of Norwood, in 1872. 

The following interesting description of the appear- 
ance of Dedham village in 1818 is found in a sermon 
delivered by Rev. Dr. Lamson in 1858, being the 
Sunday after the fortieth year of his ordination. It 
will serve to make the changes which occurred during 
those forty years more striking and apparent : 

"In prevailing ideas and modes of tbinking, and in the 
habits and occupations of the people the last forty years have 
produced a marked change. Until a comparatively recent 
period the population of the place was almost exclusively agri- 
cultural, and there were remains clearly discernible of primi- 
tive tastes and habits. The old settlers, as they were called, 
were still largely represented. Where yon manufacturing 
village, bearing every mark of prosperity and thrift, now 
greets the eye, there stood at the time of my coming here only 
a small cluster of dwellings — eleven, I believe, in all^dotting 
the roadsides, and a school-house of the scantiest dimensions, 
old and of the rudest structure, sufficed to hold the children. 
In the central village the houses could be readily counted, and 
there were large fields and vacant spaces. Where our classical 
court-house and several adjacent buildings now stand, there 
was, inclosed in part by a stone wall of an ordinary kind, old 
and irregular, an open lot which served for a corn-field or for 
mowing in summer, and in winter furnished excellent coasting- 
ground for the children. There were no railways, as you 
know, in those days. Stage-coaches, several in number, — from 
four to six and eight, and sometimes more, — and usually keep- 
ing together, passed through the place, conveying passengers 
to and from the steamboats at Providence, in the dry weather 
of summer, raising a dust which penetrated the neighboring 
houses and covered the gardens, lying thick on every leaf and 
flower. Between Dedham and Boston, for the accommodation 
of the inhabitants of this place and of Roxbury, there was five 
days in the week — Wednesdays and Sundays being the ex- 
cepted days — a slow, lumbering stage-coach, ordinarily drawn 
by two horses, and on certain days, as Monday and Saturday, 
by three, going in the morning and returning in the afternoon, 
and occupying two hours each way on the road, the time con- 
sumed in taking up and leaving the passengers at the ends of 
the line often making an extra half-hour. Of this no one 
complained, and the public Seemed to think itself amply ac- 
commodated. The inhabitants assembled for worship on Sun- 
day, occupied the large square pews — the body-seats, as they 
were then called — and the free seats in the galleries. The 
interval between the morning and afternoon service was 
short, and most of those who lived out of the village stayed 
either in and about the meeting-house or at the neighboring 
inn. The house had then neither furnace nor stove, but foot- 

stoves were used, which were replenished with coals at the 
parsonage or at some other friendly house within convenient 
distance. The afternoon service was then and for several 
years, as it is now, generally, in the more rural parishes better 
attended than the morning, and the minister reserved what he 
considered his best sermon for tlie afternoon." 

But a new era of changes and improvements had 
already begun in Dedham village. It was about to 
shake oif its rural aspect and to take on a more im- 
posing appearance. 

In 1814, the Dedham Bank was established with a 
capital of one hundred thousand dollars. Its first 
president was Willard Gay, who lived and carried on 
the business of packing beef and pork at West Ded- 
ham. He resigned his oflBce May 20, 1829, and 
was succeeded by John Worthington Ames, the eldest 
son of Fisher Ames. Upon the decease of Mr. Ames, 
in 1833, Dr. Jeremy Stimson was elected, his election 
having been made Feb. 14,1834. Dr. Stimson held 
the office of president, until the bank was reorganized 
as a national bank, Feb. 7, 1865, when he declined 
a re-election, and Lewis H. Kingsbury was elected. 
Mr. Kingsbury resigned May 20, 1873, and Ezra W. 
Taft was elected, who has since held the office. 

The cashiers of the bank have been Jabez Chicker- 
ing, from March 25, 1814, to Dec. 19, 1823 ; Eben- 
ezer Fisher, Jr., from Dec. 19, 1823, to Jan. 1, 
1847; Lewis H. Kingsbury, from Jan. 1, 1847, to 
Feb. 7, 1865 ; John H. B. Thayer, from Feb. 7, 
1865, to his death in April, 1873 ; and Lewis H. 
Kingsbury, from May 20, 1873, to the present time. 
The capital of the bank at the present time is three 
hundred thousand dollars. 

In 1817, the county had erected a new stone jail 
on the site of the present one, with a house for the 
keeper. These buildings were built of hammered 
stone, at an expense of about fifteen thousand dollars. 
The jail was thirty-three feet square and eighteen feet 
high. Its walls were massive, leaving but -little 
space in the interior for cells and staircases. The jail 
stood until 1851, when it was removed to make room 
for the main portion of the present structure. The 
old wooden jail, built in 1795, was used as a house 
of correction until 1833, when a new brick building 
was erected on the site of the present jail. Some of 
the cells of this house of correction are retained in 
the present jail, but the building was taken down 
in 1851. The stone house for the keeper stood 
until 1880. 

On the 4th day of July, 1825, the corner-stone of 
the new court-house was laid. It was built of hewn 
white granite, brought from Dover, about eight miles. 
It was then a Grecian building, ninety-eight by forty 
feet, with porticos at either end, having four Doric 



columns, three feet and ten inches in diameter at the 
base, and twenty-one feet high. The architect was 
Solomon Willard, of Boston, and Damon & Bates, 
master builders. Its cost was about thirty thousand 
dollars, and its architecture was always much ad- 
mired. It was completed and dedicated Feb. 20, 
1827, durins the term of the Supreme Judicial Court. 
Chief Justice Parker made an address, and the bar 
gave a dinner to the judges and attorney-general. 
The enlargement on High Street, which completely 
changed the appearance of the building, and the 
dome surmounting it, were finished in 1861. 

Prior to 1829, the town-meetings were held alter- 
nately in the meeting-houses of the diflFerent parishes. 
In that year, the town built a plain one-story building, 
costing about two thousand two hundred dollars, for 
a town-house. It was a rude building, and had no 
rooms for oflBces, or place for the preservation of 
records, but it served for town-meetings and elections 
until 1868. In 1832, the town-farm of sixty-three 
acres, situated in the West Parish, was purchased 
for a poor-house. 

In April, 1825, the Norfolk Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company was organized. Its first president was John 
Endicott, and its first secretary was Erastus Wor- 
thington, and it was mainly through his efforts that 
the company was established. In 1833, Mr. Endicott 
was succeeded by James Richardson, and on June 30, 
1840, Mr. Worthington having resigned by reason of 
ill health, he was succeeded by Ira Cleveland as sec- 
retary. The subsequent presidents have been Abra- 
ham F. Howe, from April 7, 1857, to April 1, 1862; 
Luther Metcalf, from April 1, 1862, to April 5, 1863; 
and Ira Cleveland, from April 5, 1863, to the present 
time. The secretaries, after the resignation of Mr. 
Cleveland, April 5, 1863, were George D. Gordon, 
from April, 1863, to April, 1873; Preston R. Mans- 
field, from April, 1873, to February, 1880; and Eli- 
jah Howe, from that time to the present. Mr. Cleve- 
land has also been treasurer of the company since 
1850. This company has been successful, and has 
always been considered a reliable and conservative 
company. It is the owner of the brick building in 
which its office and the Dedham National Bank are 

The Dedham IMutual Fire Insurance Company was 
incorporated in 1837 for insuring buildings and per- 
sonal property. This was an offshoot of the Norfolk 
company, and its officers have generally been the same 
as of that company. 

In 1831, the Dedham Institution for Savings was 
incorporated. The first president was Rev. Ebenezcr 
Burgess, D.D., who held that office from May 4, 1831, 

to Dec. 7, 1870. He was succeeded by Thomas Bar- 
rows, who was president until May 12, 1877, when 
he was succeeded by Waldo Colburn. Its treasurers 
have been Jonathan H. Cobb, from May 4, 1831, to 
Nov. 10, 1834; Enos Foord, from Nov. 10, 1834, to 
May 9,, 1845; George Ellis, from May 9, 1845, to 
July 2, 1855; and Calvin Guild, from that date until 
the present time. The amount of deposits received 
from May 1, 1831, to May 1, 1843, was two hundred 
and twenty-six thousand nine hundred and fifty-four 
dollars, and the amount from May 1, 1867, to May 1, 
1881, was one million eight hundred and thirty-four 
thousand seven hundred and ninety-four dollars. 

All these things indicate the growth of the town 
in wealth and enterprise, and that Dedham was be- 
coming a centre of business activity, as well as as- 
suming the proper dignity becoming the shire-town 
of the county. It had become a resort of people 
from Boston to spend the summer, and in the winter 
for lawyers and others attending the courts ; and 
there were balls and sleighing parties. There were 
two good taverns, where guests were hospitably enter- 
tained, one near the court-house, kept by Martin 
Marsh, and afterwards by Francis Alden and Moses 
Gragg. The other was built by Timothy Gay on the 
site occupied for many years by the Phoenix House. 
In 1830, the population of the town was upwards of 
three thousand. It had then a stone court-house and 
a stone jail and keeper's house. In the town there 
were four Congregational meeting-houses ; one Epis- 
copal Church and a Baptist meeting-house in West 
Dedham ; eleven small school-houses, two woolen- 
mills, two cotton-mills, four saw-mills, five manufac- 
tories for making chaises and carriages, one machine- 
shop, one manufactory for making ploughs, five 
taverns, eleven retail stores, two apothecaries, one 
printing-press for printing books and a newspaper, 
and a bank and an in.surance company. Many new 
streets had been laid out and constructed between 
1820 and 1830. 

On the 23d day of August, 1824, Gen. Lafayette 
passed through Dedham on his way from Providence 
to Boston. He arrived at half-past ten o'clock in the 
evening, and remained about an hour at Alden's 
Hotel. He was enthusiastically received by a large 
number of people, who had gathered during the day 
in anticipation of his arrival, and by a salute of artil- 
lery, by the ringing of the bells, and the illumination 
of the houses in the village. Hundreds of ladies and 
gentlemen shook hands with the general, and at half- 
past eleven o'clock he was escorted by a cavalcade of 
a hundred horsemen to the residence of Governor 
Eustis, in Roxbury, where he spent the night. 



In 1833, Gen. Andrew Jackson, then the President 
of the United States, made a visit to Boston, and 
passed through Dedham on his way from Providence. 
He made the journey in a carriage, and was accom- 
panied by Martin Van Buren, then Vice-President, 
and members of his cabinet. He was received in 
Dedliam by a large concourse of people, who were 
ranged in lines on each side of Court Street as the 
carriages containing the party passed. It was on the 
occasion of this visit that President Jackson received 
the degree of Doctor of Laws from Harvard College. 



Universalist Society, South Dedham — Episcopal Church — Rev. 
Isaac Boyle— Rev. Samuel B. Babcock — New Church — -Ded- 
ham Branch Railroad — Manufactures — Population in 1835 — 
Newspapers — Centennial Celebration, 18.36 — Dr. Lamson's 
Historical Discourses, 1838 — Dr. Burgess' Discourse in "Ded- 
ham Pulpit" — Rev. John White's Historical Discourse, 1836 — 
Rev. Mr. Durfee's Historical Discourse, 1836 — Destructive 
Fires — Improvements in Schools and School-Houses — Norfolk 
County Railroad — First Baptist Church, West Dedham — 
Baptist Church, East Dedham — Baptist Church, South Ded- 
ham — Methodist Episcopal Church, East Dedham — First 
Parish — Resignation of Dr. Lamson, and of Dr. Burgess — 
Third Parish — Successors of Rev. John White — Successors of 
Dr. Lamson in First Parish — Improvements in Meeting- 
House — Successors to Rev. Dr. Burgess — Burning of St. 
Paul's Church — New Stone Church — Chapel — Roman Cath- 
olic Church — St. Mary's School and Asylum — Annexations 
to West Roxbury and Walpole — Dedham Gas-Light Company 
— Dedham Historical Society. 

In the year 1827 there began a movement which 
led to the formation of the Universalist Society in 
the South Parish. It will be remembered that the 
church of the Second Parish adhered to the ancient 
covenant and confession of faith, and probably those 
who dissented had been seeking another place of wor- 
ship. The Rev. Thomas Whittemore, a preacher of 
the Universalist denomination, held services Feb. 6, 
1827, for the first time. In the following September, 
fifty-two persons entered into covenant or agreement 
for forming a religious society to be denominated the 
First Universalist Society. In May, 1828, a legal 
meeting was held to take the first steps towards the 
building of a church edifice. The work was speedily 
begun, and on the 14th day of January, 1830, the 
church was dedicated. While the church was being 
built, the Rev. J. C. Waldo supplied the society for 
about eight months. The Rev. Alfred V. Bassett 
was the first pastor, being inducted into oflace June 

17, 1830. He died Dec. 26, 1831, having in his 
brief ministry secured the affection of his people. 
His successors were the Rev. T. B. Thayer and Rev. 
R. S. Pope, and from the years 1836 to 1840 the 
society was without a pastor. In 1840, the Rev. 
Edwin Thompson became the pastor, and closed his 
ministry here in 1844. He was prominent in the total 
abstinence movement begun about this time, known 
by the name of the Washingtonian movement, to 
which he subsequently gave his whole time and ener- 
gies. After Mr. Thompson, the succession of pastors 
were the Rev. C. H. Webster, from 1846 to 1853; 
the Rev. Ebenezer Fisher, from 1853 to 1858; the 
Rev. A. R. Abbott, from 1858 to 1860 ; and the Rev. 
M. R. Leonard, from May, 1861, to 1865, when he 
was succeeded by Rev. George Hill. 

The Episcopal Church in Dedham village, during 
the rectorship of the Rev. Mr. Boyle, had received 
some accessions to the number of families, and also to 
the number of communicants connected with it. The 
troubles arising from the divisions in the First Church 
had caused many persons to have a nominal con- 
nection with the Episcopal Church for the purpose 
of parochial taxation, since the law then compelled 
every property-holder to pay a tax for the support of 
public worship, though he might select his place of 
worship. There were some, however, who were in- 
terested in the services of the church, among whom 
may be named Samuel Lowder, Edward Whiting, 
Theron Metcalf, and Erastus Worthington. The 
growth of the parish, however, was quite gradual. 
In 1822 a Sunday-school was first established. The 
number of families reported as connected with the 
parish from 1822 to 1828 was about fifty, and the 
number of communicants increased from twenty-five 
in 1822, to forty-one in 1828. In 1831, an organ was 
procured by subscription, Mr. Edward Whiting being 
a large contributor. From the beginning of the rec- 
torship of Mr. Boyle, the name of the church was 
changed from Christ Church to St. Paul's Church. 
Mr. Boyle was a man of high character and scholarly 
attainments, but he was afilicted with deafness, which 
impaired his efficiency in the public services of the 
church. He resigned April 21, 1832. The parish, 
in accepting his resignation, entered upon its records 
a minute of its estimation of his " Christian integrity 
and pastoral fidelity." He was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1813, and received the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity from both Trinity and Columbia Colleges 
in 1838. He was ordained as deacon by Bishop 
Griswold April 29, 1820, and he died Dec. 2, 1850. 
The parish then invited Mr. Samuel Brazer Babcock, 
a graduate of Harvard College in 1830, a lay reader, 



but wlio was pursuing his theological studies, to offi- 
ciate in the parish, which invitation he accepted Au- 
gust 18, 1832. Mr. Babcock was ordained as deacon 
in 1832, and as priest in 1833. During the first ten 
years of Mr. Babcock's ministry, the parish received 
the accession of two gentlemen who subsequently 
became identified with the parish, and have been its 
constant and liberal benefactors down to tlie present 
time, and both are still living. The project of erect- 
ing a new church had been entertained for some time, 
but could not be carried out for lack of means. Ed- 
ward Whiting had left a bequest of one thousand 
dollars for the purpose. At length, in 1845, the 
parish proceeded to erect a new church. The site of 
the old church on " Franklin Square" was objection- 
able, both to the parish and to the people who resided 
upon the square. A subscription was made up by 
several owners of estates bounding upon the square, 
and paid to the parish, and a conveyance was made to 
the subscribers of the whole " church common," with 
the provision that no building should ever be erected 
upon it. A new site on the corner of Court Street 
and Village Avenue was purchased. The old cliurch 
was taken down in December, 1845, and on Jan. 15, 
1846, the new church was consecrated. It was con- 
structed of wood, of niedia3val Gothic architecture, 
with a tower after the Magdalen tower, in Oxford, Eng- 
land, and was an architectural ornament to the viUage. 
It had a good organ and fine bell, both the gifts of 
parishioners, and other liberal gifts were made by 
others. It cost, including furniture, about seven thou- 
sand dollars. On Nov. 30, 1845, it being the last 
Sunday on which services were held in the old church, 
Mr. Babcock preached a historical discourse reviewing 
the history of the parish, which was printed. 

The building of the Boston and Providence Rail- 
road was an event which excited much interest in the 
people of Dedham. Tiie first surveys located the road 
through Dedham village, southerly of the present 
station, and following the line of the turnpike. The 
decision to change this location occasioned great dis- 
appointment. The people doubtless regarded the 
railroad as a substitute for the turnpike, and they 
desired to retain the same relative position to the 
former, which they had hitherto sustained to the 
latter. The losses • which the owners of the stage 
company had sustained in the burning of the Dedham 
Hotel and stable, with sixty horses, Oct. 30, 1832, 
and the burning of the Phoenix stable, with fifty-three 
horses, Jan. 7, 1834, had prepared the minds of the 
people to regard favorably the new enterprise of the 
railroad. Gen. McNeill, the engineer, and William 
Raymond Lee, afterwards the superintendent, with 

other engineers and contractors, resided in Dedham. 
Application was made to the directors of the Boston 
and Providence Railroad Company for building a 
branch from Low Plain, now Readville, to Ded- 
ham. This application was granted upon condi- 
tion that the citizens of Dedham would give the 
land. A subscription was immediately collected in 
Dedham amounting to about two thousand dollars, 
besides some contributions of lands, and deeds were 
made to the Providence Railroad corporation. An 
act authorizing the construction of the railroad was 
passed by the Legislature. This was done in 1834, 
and the road was completed in December of that 
year, and was opened Dec. 28, 1834, wlien the presi- 
dent and directors of the Boston and Providence 
Railroad Company were invited to a collation at the 
Phoenix Hotel, then kept by James Bride. The cars, 
built in the manner of English railway-carriages, with 
two compartments each like a stage-coach, were drawn 
by horses to Boston until the completion of the main 
line, when a connection was made at Readville with 
trains from Providence drawn by locomotives. It 
was some years before trains were drawn from Ded- 
ham to Boston by steam-power. The first season- 
ticket passengers to Boston from Dedham, were Alvan 
Fisher and Francis Guild. The ultimate eff"ects of 
the building of the railroad upon the local business 
prosperity of Dedham were quite diff"erent from what 
was then anticipated. The manufactories for building 
stage-coaches, for which extensive buildings had been 
erected near the Phoenix Hotel, in the course of time 
were suspended, and no other business ever took their 
places. Indeed, for a time the old stage-coaches ran 
from Dedham to Boston, as passengers preferred to be 
called for at their houses. To meet the convenience 
of this class of passengers, the railroad corporation 
provided a carriage for several years to take up pas- 
sengers in Dedham. As late as 1841, a long omnibus^ 
drawn by four horses, was driven from Dedham to 
Boston by Reuben Farrington, Jr. 

There was at this period considerable business 
activity in Dedham. A silk-manufactory had been 
established by Jonathan H. Cobb, for many years the 
register of probate for the county. In 1837 there 
were manufactured 7135, pairs of boots and 18,722 
pairs of shoes, valued at $32,483. There were also 
silk goods manufactured to the value of ten thousand 
dollars, straw bonnets of the value of twenty thousand 
dollars, chairs and furniture of the value of twenty- 
one thousand two hundred and fifty dollars, and 
marble paper and enameled cards of the value of 
eighteen thousand dollars. 

In the Second, or South Parish there was also aa 



activity in manufacturing enterprises. The tanneries 
established by George Winslow, Lyman Smith, and 
Joseph Day had begun the successful business which 
has ever since been continued by their enterprising 
sons. Willard Everett made furniture, a business 
afterwards much enlarged, and continued for many 
years by his sons. Subsequently, Curtis G. Morse 
and Addison Boyden prosecuted the same business. 
The enterprise of these men and others laid the 
foundation of the growth and prosperity of this 
beautiful village, which is the present village of 

In the Third, or West Parish the activity in manu- 
facturing enterprises was less apparent. There was 
an iron foundry, and some years after a sugar-mill at 
the dam of Rock Meadow Brook. But this parish 
having the best farming lands in the town has 
always remained an agricultural community. It has 
produced large quantities of milk, which is sent to 
Boston by milk wagons. Probably this parish has 
experienced fewer changes than any other portion of 
the town during the last century. 

The population of the town in 1835 was three 
thousand five hundred and thirty-two. In 1840, it 
was three thousand two hundred and ninety, the de- 
crease being due to the depression of business in the 
mills following the financial crisis of 1 837. Although 
the building of the railroad had an untoward effect 
upon the local business of Dedham village, it induced 
many excellent and valuable citizens, whose places of 
business were in Boston, to make their residence 
here. Dedham was then regarded with favor by 
those seeking a country residence. 

Since the beginning of the century, there had been 
during most of the time a weekly newspaper in Ded- 
ham. The Columbian Minerva was published by 
Herman Mann from 1797 to 1804. The Norfolk 
Repository was published by the same proprietor 
from 1805 to 1814, though with some irregularity. 
In 1813, the Dedham Gazette was established by 
Jabez Chickering, with Theron Metcalf as editor, and 
was continued until 1819. In 1820 the Village 
Register was started by Asa Gowen, and continued 
by Jonathan H. Cobb and Barnum Field. In 1822, 
it passed into the hands of H. and W. H. Mann, who 
continued it until 1829, when it was discontinued. 
In 1829, the Norfolk County Republican was pub- 
lished for one year. In 1830 the Dedliam Patriot 
was established, and passed through various changes 
in name and location. It was finally edited by Ed- 
ward L. Keyes, a prominent politician and gifted 
man, who purchased it in 1844, and published it in 
Roxbury, and afterwards in Dedham, under the name 

of the Dedliam Gazette. It was afterwards owned 
and edited by Henry 0. Hildreth, who subsequently 
removed it to Hyde Park. In 1831 the Independent 
Politician and Working Men's Advocate was begun. 
In 1832 it became the Norfolk Advertiser and Inde- 
pendent Politician, and afterwards the Norfolk Ad- 
vertiser. It was afterwards published under the name 
of the Norfolk Democrat by Elbidge G. Robinson 
Wntil his decease in 1854, when it was merged in the 
Dedham Gazette. 

On the 21st day of September, 1836, the town 
observed the second centennial anniversary of its 
incorporation. The bells were rung at sunrise and 
a salute of one hundred guns fired. At half-past ten 
o'clock a procession was* formed, moving, under the 
escort of the Dedham Light Infantry, commanded by 
Capt. William Pedrick, with the Boston Brass Band, 
through the principal streets to the meeting-house of 
the First Parish. At the Norfolk Hotel, the proces- 
sion was joined by His Excellency, Edward Everett, 
the Governor of the commonwealth, and his suite, 
and by the reverend clergy and other invited gutr-ts. 
On the green in front of the meeting-house, was an 
ornamental arch erected for the occasion, covered 
with evergreens and flowers. Upon one side of it 
was inscribed, " Incorporated 1636," and on the 
other, "1836." Between this arch and the meeting- 
house, eight engine-companies had placed their engines 
and apparatus in two lines, leaving a space between 
them for the passing of the procession. On the inner 
sides of these lines about five hundred children of 
the public schools were arranged by their instructors. 
Under the arch and between these lines of children, 
the procession passed into the meeting-house. The 
services of the day were full of interest. A hymn, 
written for the occasion by Rev. John Pierpont, 
sung to the tune of " Old Hundred," and a prayer by 
the Rev. Alvan Lamson, were followed by an- ad- 
dress from Samuel F. Haven, of Worcester. The se- 
lection of the orator was in every way a fortunate 
one. A native of Dedham, having for his maternal 
grandfather Mr. Dexter, and his paternal grand- 
father Mr. Haven, both ministers of the Dedham 
Church, he was also a learned antiquary. His ad- 
dress, which was printed with an appendix con- 
taining valuable notes, is perhaps the most concise and 
interesting account of the early history of the town 
which has ever been written. At the dinner about 
six hundred persons were seated, and James Rich- 
ardson presided. Governor Everett, a direct de- 
scendant of Richard Everard, one of the first settlers 
of Dedham, made a very felicitous and elegant speech. 
Other speeches were made by Judge John Davis, 



Josiah Quincy, Henry A. S. Dearborn, William Jack- 
son, Franklin Dexter, Alexander H. Everett, and 
Robert C. Winthrop. The ladies furnished a colla- 
tion in the court-house, using the court-rooiu as a 
drawing-room, and the library for the tables. There 
was also vocal music, and an address from the Gov- 
ernor in the court-room. At the time of this cele- 
bration there were nine men who had served in the 
Continental army, or had done military duty' in dis- 
tant campaigns in the Revolution, still living. Be- 
sides these, there were thirteen others who had done 
military duty during the Revolutionary war in the 
State. The whole services of the day were worthy 
of the event they commemorated. 

The two hundredth anniversary of the gathering of 
the First Church occurred Nov. 18, 1838, allowing 
for the difference between the old and new style. 
The Rev. Dr. Lamson prepared and delivered three 
historical discourses on the occasion, on Thanksgiving- 
da}', and the succeeding Sunday. These discourses 
contained a very accurate and complete history of 
the church down to the time of Dr. Lamson's set- 
tlement, and were printed with many pages of val- 
uable notes. They contained full notices of the 
lives of Allin, Adams, Belcher, Dexter, and Haven, 
and of their respective terms of service. Dr. Lamson 
was an excellent historical scholar and critic, and 
the discourses are admirable for their true historical 
method and perspicuity of style. 

The Rev. Dr. Burgess also delivered in "the new 
meeting-house of the First Church" a centennial 
discourse Nov. 8, 1838. Although not exclusively 
historical, it contained a full account of the pastors 
of the Dedham Church. It was printed in a 
volume of sermons of all the different pastors from 
1638 to 1800, which was prepared with great care 
and fidelity by Dr. Burgess in 1840. A printed 
discourse by Mr. Allin, the first pastor, was found, 
after a patient search, and inserted in the volume. 
The title of this collection of sermons was the " Ded- 
ham Pulpit," and the preservation of these sermons, 
which had become extremely scarce, was an appro- 
priate memorial of the second centennial of the 

On the 17th of January, 1836, the Rev. John 
White delivered an interesting and valuable his- 
torical discourse upon the first centennial anniversary 
of the church in the Third Parish. This, with the 
centennial di.scourse upon the history of the South 
Church in the Second Parish by the Rev. Mr. 
Durfee, delivered June 26, 1836, completed the ob- 
servance of the centennial anniversaries of all the 
Congregational Churches of the town. It is not a 

little remarkable that the First Church closed the 
second century of its existence only about two years 
after the Second and Third Churches closed their 
first century. Posterity cannot be too grateful to 
these faithful pastors for their efforts to preserve 
these memorials of the past. 

Some destructive fires occurred between 1830 and 
1850 which are worthy of record. On the 30th day 
of October, 1832, the Dedham Hotel and stable, 
owned by Timothy Gay, were consumed by fire, and 
one man and sixty horses perished in the flames, in- 
volving a loss of twenty-eight thousand dollars. On 
the 7th day of January, 1834, the stable attached 
to the Phoenix Hotel, which was rebuilt on the same 
site, was burned and fifty-three horses perished, with 
a loss of ten thousand dollars. Both these fires were 
the work of an incendiary, and one John Wade was 
convicted of the former offense, and sentenced to death, 
but his sentence was commuted to imprisonment in the 
State prison for life. The motive was the destruction 
of the property of the Citizens' Coach Company. Jan. 
27, 1837, the railroad station, with cars and loco- 
motive, were burned, with an estimated loss of ten 
thousand dollars. March 12, 1845, the silk-factory 
was burned, with a loss of forty thousand dollars. 
March 28, 1845, the factory near Cart Bridge, used 
for calico printing, was burned, with a loss of fifteen 
thousand dollars. On the site of the latter building 
a carpet-factory was burned in 1827. July 17, 1846, 
a paper-mill, known as Taft's Mill, belonging to the 
Norfolk Manufacturing Company, was destroyed, 
being the third mill burned on the same spot. In 
January, 1849, another railroad station was burned, 
and Jan. 17, 1850, the Phcenix stable was again 
destroyed. These visitations of the same spots by 
fire are somewhat remarkable. 

In 1840, the condition of the public schools still 
continued to be unsatisfactory. The school-houses 
were small and inconvenient. Even in Dedham vil- 
lage there had been up to a recent period a one-story 
school-house with two school-i'ooms. About the 
year 1848, there began to be a new interest in the 
improvement of the schools. The school committee 
recommended the abolition of the school districts, and 
the establishment of a high school in Dedham village. 
This latter proposition met with a decided opposition 
from the people of the other parishes, but at length 
it was carried by great efibrt, and the high school 
was established. It was opened Sept. 15, 1851, and 
Charles J. Capen was the first master. It was kept 
in the Masonic Building, on Church Street, and had 
forty-two scholars at its opening. Mr. Capen re- 
signed in 1852, and was succeeded by Carlos Slafter, 



who has remained the master ever since. The school- 
house was dedicated Dec. 10, 1855, and cost about 
five thousand five hundred dollars. 

In the South Parish a new school-house was built 
in 1851, and in 1856 it was much enlarged and im- 
proved, making the expense of the whole structure 
about ten thousand dollars. 

In Dedham village, May 23, 1859, a new and 
spacious school-house erected by the Centre School 
District was dedicated. It was named the Ames 
School, in honor of Fisher Ames. 

New school-houses had also been built within a 
few years at West Dedham and at East Dedham. 
The latter .school-house was enlarged and improved in 
1860, by adding four rooms at a cost of about six 
thousand dollars. In 1860, there were remaining but 
two or three of the small school-houses of the former 
time. The town also had begun to make more liberal 
appropriations for the support of the schools. In 
18-10 the appropriation was three thousand dollars; 
in 1850, five thousand dollars; and in 1856, nine 
thousand seven hundred and ten dollars. The reports 
of the school committee during this period indicate 
progress in the condition of the schools themselves, 
and the establishment of the high school did much 
to raise the efficiency of the grammar schools. In 
1867 the school committee gave names to the schools 
of the town. By the abolition of the school districts 
their former designations had become obsolete. The 
names of men who had by their benefactions or ser- 
vices done something worthy to be recognized, such as 
Dexter, Avery. Ames, Everett, Colburn, and Fisher, 
were thus perpetuated. 

In 1859 a committee reported in favor of building 
a new town-house, but no action was taken on the 

In 1849, the railroad from Dedham to Blackstone, 
then known as the Norfolk County Railroad, was 
opened. About the same time, and for the purpose 
of connecting with this road, the Boston and Provi- 
dence Railroad corporation built its new branch 
through West Roxbury to Dedham. There had been 
much discussion respecting the building of the rail- 
road to Blackstone for several years, and another rival 
route had been surveyed, running through the west- 
erly part of the county, known as the " Air-Line." 
The majority of the people of Dedham favored the 
Norfolk County route, and so instructed their rep- 
resentative, and the " Air-Line" was constructed 
through Dover and Needham. Not many years after- 
wards the Norfolk County Railroad passed into the 
hands of other corporations, and a new road con- 
structed through Dorchester connected with it about 

a mile and a half south of the village. The eifect of 
these changes in the ownership of the Norfolk County 
Railroad has been to leave Dedham without any direct 
railway connection with the westerly and southerly 
portions of the county, and to the obvious detriment 
of the shire-town. 

In addition to the formation of the Universalist 
Society in the South Parish in 1827 (of which an 
account has already been given), there were other 
religious societies formed during the first half of the 
present ceitury in other parts of the town. Mention 
has already been made of the organization of the 
" First Baptist Church" in West Dedham in 1824, 
of which the Rev. Samuel Adlam was the first pastor. 
The succession of pastors after him were Rev. Jona- 
than Aldrich, Jan. 3, 1828, to Feb. 27, 1830 ; Rev. 
Thomas Driver, May, 1830, to the autumn of 1838_; 
Rev. T. G. Freeman, from the spring of 1839, to 
April, 1841 ; the Rev. Joseph B. Damon, from Oct. 
13, 1841, to October, 1843; the Rev. J. W. Park- 
hurst, from October, 1843, to Nov. 24, 1850 ; the 
Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin, from Nov. 24, 1850, to 
Sept. 6, 1858 ; the Rev. Benjamin W^. Gardner, from 
Nov. 11, 1858, to Nov. 1, 1867; the Rev. L J. 
Burgess, from Nov. 1, 1867, to Sept. 9, 1871; the 
Rev. Samuel J. Frost, from Sept. 15, 1872, to April 
26, 1874 ; the Rev. S. C. Chandler, from Sept. 6, 
1874, to Jan. 20, 1878 ; the Rev. T. M. Merriman, 
from April 6, 1879, to May 6, 1883 ; the Rev. E. 
S. Uffbrd, from June 28, 1883, to the present time 

A Baptist Church was formed in East Dedham, 
Sept. 13, 1843, consisting of twenty-one members, of 
whom .sixteen were members of the Baptist Church 
at West Dedham. A small chapel was soon erected, 
which was removed to High Street, opposite Harrison 
Grove, in 1846. In 1848, the Rev. William C Pat- 
terson became the first pastor of the church, an4^e 
chapel soon proved too small for the congregation. 
The new church, built on the corner of Milton and 
Myrtle Streets, which is the present house of wor- 
ship, was built at a cost of less than five thousand 
dollars, and was dedicated Nov. 18, 1852. The 
Rev. Mr. Patterson continued to be the pastor of the 
church until 1863, when, at the request of the church, 
the relation of pastor and people was dissolved. In 
1866, the Rev. Charles Skinner was called to this 
church, but he remained less than a year. In 1869 
the Rev. A. Edson was recognized as pastor, and re- 
mained one year. In 1871, the Rev. K. H. Campbell 
was pastor for only a short time. 

In November, 1875, the Rev. Charles H. Cole was 
installed as pastor, and he remained until 1878. In 



February, 1879, the Rev. D. C. Bixby was called. 
The society was then in debt, and the house of wor- 
ship out of repair. By a great effort on the part of 
pastor and people, some repairs were made and a debt 
of nearly two thousand dollars canceled. Mr. Bixby 
closed his pastorate in November, 1880. He was 
succeeded by Rev. J. H. Wells, May 1, 1881, who is 
the present incumbent. During the year after his 
becoming the pastor the house of worship was re- 
paired at a cost of two thou.sand five hundred dollars. 
In 1882, Mr. Jonathan 3Iann, of Milton, presented 
the society with a fine bell weighing two thousand 
one hundred and sixty pounds. In 1883, the pastor 
procured pledges for the sum of two thousand two 
hundred dollars for the erection of a parsonage, and 
Mr. Mann purchased and presented a lot of land 
for the purpose, and at the close of the year 1883 
the parsonage was completed. The present number 
of church members is eighty, and the church and 
society are in a better condition than ever before. 

On the 3d day of November, 1858, a Baptist so- 
ciety was formed at South Dedham by members of 
the First Baptist Church in West Dedham who 
lived in South Dedham. The house of worship was 
dedicated April 25, 1862. The first pastor was the 
Rev. Joseph B. Breed, and his successors were the 
Rev. J. J. Tucker, from Sept. 1, 1862, to his death, 
June 13, 1864; Rev. C. Osborn, from April 5, 
1864, to Aug. 25, 1865 ; the Rev. George C. Fair- 
banks, from Sept. 6, 1866, to March 9, 1869 ; Rev. 
Edwin Bromley, from June 6, 1869, to April 6. 
1876; Rev. J. H. Gilbert, from Aug. 3, 1876, to 

; Rev. W. A. Worthington, from May 4, 1879, 

to Sept. 12, 1880, and soon after he was succeeded 
by the Rev. B. W. Barrows, the present pastor. 

The church edifice of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at East Dedham was dedicated Oct. 12, 
1843. As early as 1817, the Rev. PJnoch Mudge, 
with his colleague. Rev. Timothy Merritt, both Meth- 
odist preachers, had held meetings in Dedham. In 
1825 a "class" was formed of twenty members and 
attached to the church in Dorchester. Methodist 
meetings from time to time afterwards were held 
in Dedham', Lower Plains, and Mill Village. In 
1842, Mr. J. E. Pond, of Walpole, a local preacher, 
was engaged to supply every Sabbath, and this year 
the Rev. C. K. True baptized nine persons. Ser- 
vices were then held in Trescott's Hall. In 1858 
the church edifice was enlarged, and again, during 
the pastorate of Rev. Z. A. Mudge, in 1880, it was 
moved, raised, and new vestiies put in, and a 
thoroughly comfortable and commodious house was 
secured, at an expense of three thousand seven hundred 

dollars. Reopening services were held in the church 
on the evening of Oct. 22, 1880. 

The pastors of this church have been Rev. Henry 
P. Hall, 1844; Rev. J. L. Hanaford, 1845; Rev. 
William R Stone and Leonard P. Frost, 1846; Rev. 
Leonard P. Frost (.supplied), 1847; Rev. Daniel 
Richards, 1848-49 ; Rev. John G. Cary, 1850 ; Rev. 
Kinsman Atkinson, 1851-52 ; Rev. Howard C. 
Durham, 1853-54; Rev. John M. Merrill, 1855- 
56; Rev. Augustus Bailey, 1857; Rev. William 
Pentecost, 1858-59 ; Rev. Mosely Dwight, 1860-61 ; 
Rev. Ichabod Marcy, 1862-63; Rev. William P. 
Blackmar, 1864-66; Rev. J. W. P. Jordan, 1867; 
Rev. A. B. Smart (local preacher), 1868-69 ; Rev. 
F. T. George, 1870; Rev. James A. De Forest, 
1871-72; Rev. Z. A. Mudge, 1873-75; Rev. Wil- 
liam Cottle (local preacher), 1876 ; Rev. Charles H. 
Vinton, 1877 ; Rev. John Thompson (local preacher), 
1878; Rev. Z. A. Mudge, 1879-31; Rev. E. W. 
Virgin, 1882-84. 

On the 29th of October, 1860, it being just forty- 
two years from the day of his ordination as pastor of 
the church of the First Parish, the Rev. Alvan 
Lamson, D.D., resigned his office. Two years pre- 
vious he had preached a sermon reviewing the forty 
years of his ministry, and which may be regarded as 
his farewell discourse. His text on that occasion was 
from Deut. viii. 4, " These forty years/' and it is not 
often that a minister is permitted to take the retro- 
spect of so long a ministry himself Dr. Lamson's 
election and ordination as pastor was the occasion of 
a bitter and prolonged controversy, which resulted in 
a division of the church and parish, and a resort to 
litigation. But happily, after the strife which im- 
mediately followed his ordination had ended, the 
internal relations of his society became peaceful and 
harmonious, and so remained during the rest of the 
forty-two years ; and this was due in a great measure 
to the character and influence of Dr. Lamson. While 
from the beginning he was a Unitarian of the school 
of Channing, and his works and contributions to the 
reviews were mainly in exposition and support of 
Unitarian doctrines and some were published as 
denominational tracts, yet in his pulpit and in his 
intercourse with his people he avoided controveri^y 
upon doctrinal topics. He labored for peace, and he 
truly says, in his farewell discourse, " a polemic pulpit 
was always my aversion."' Dr. Lamson, in his work 
entitled " The Church of the First Three Centuries," 

' As ;in evidence of his de.'sire to conciliate, in 1846 the Rev. 
Dr. Bates, his predecessor, and a Calvinist, preached in his 
pulpit by his invitation. 



embodied his writings upon the views held upon the 
Trinity by early Christian writers. Besides, he 
preached many occasional sermons and wrote some 
tracts, all of which were published in pamphlet 
form. He was a scholar of extensive research, espe- 
cially in ecclesiastical history, and his writings are 
models of pure English, without affectation or redun- 
dancy. As a preacher, he was plain and straight- 
forward, and relied upon his theme to interest his 
hearers. As a man, he was retiring i n his manners, but 
to those who enjoyed his acquaintance he was genial and 
cordial. In the community where he lived and labored 
he was known as an active and intelligent promoter of 
all its interests, and he exerted a strong influence in 
raising the condition of the public schools ac a time 
when his eiforts were needed. He was a careful and 
patient student of the local history of Dedbam, espe- 
cially as connected with that of the Dedbam Church. 
His sermons publi-shed in 1838 and in 1858 contain 
the results of much research, and form a complete 
and exhaustive history of the church and parish. 
He was the first president of the Dedbam Historical 
Society, and attended its meetings so long as his 
health permitted. He died July 18, 1864, of paral- 
ysis, at the age of seventy-one years. 

In 1861 the Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, D.D., retired 
from the active labors of his pastoral office, after a 
ministry of forty years. The fact that both Dr. 
Lamson and Dr. Burgess should remain as pastors 
during the same number of years, and for so long a 
period, is somewhat remarkable. Dr. Burgess was 
born in Wareham, April 1, 1790, and was graduated 
at Brown University in 1809. He was a tutor for a 
time in that college, and afterwards a professor in the 
University of Vermont. In 1817 he visited the 
Colony of Liberia under the auspices of the American 
Colonization Society. He pursued his theological 
studies at Andover and Princeton. He also studied 
with Dr. Griffin, at Newark, N. J., and with Dr. 
Emmons, at Franklin. He adhered to the ancient 
faith of the early churches of the colony and the 
modifications of creeds which occurred during his 
time, even in his own denomination, did not affect his 
own belief. He was a Puritan in doctrine and in 
practice. He viewed with distrust the innovations 
upon old customs and practices in religious worship, 
such as the introduction of the organ in sacred 
music. He was a minister of the old school, impos- 
ing in his presence and precise but courteous in his 
manners. He was inflexible in adhering to his con- 
victions of duty, and to the prerogatives of a pas- 
tor. He was faithful and devoted to his pastoral 
duties, and during all his "ministry was liberal in his 

charities, and gave largely from the ample means at 
his command, not only to his own church and society, 
but to Christian missions, in which he took a great 
interest. His sermons were concise in expression, 
and his manner as a preacher was dignified and im- 
pressive. Dr. Burgess wrote little for the press. In 
1840, he edited a volume of sermons of the pastors of 
the First Church, entitled "Dedbam Pulpit;" he 
wrote for Sprague's "Annals" a "Reminiscence of 
Samuel J. Mills" in 1849, and the " Burgess Geneal- 
ogy," published in 1865. He died Dec. 5, 1870, at 
his estate, " Broad Oak," where he had built a man- 
sion many years before, and continued to reside after 
his withdrawal from the ministry, in 1861. He was 
the president of the Dedbam Institution for Savings 
from the date of its organization until his death. 

In the church and society of the Third Parish in 
West Dedbam the Rev. Calvin S. Locke was ordained 
as the successor of the Rev. John White (who died 
Feb. 1, 1852), on the 6th day of December, 1854. 
Mr. Locke remained the pastor until June, 1864. 
After a vacancy of two years, the Rev. Henry Westcott 
was with the society one year, and Rev. Elisha Gifford 
received a call Aug. 12, 1867, and resigned March 
11, 1872. The Rev. Edward Crowuinshield began 
his ministry Jan. 1, 1873, and closed his pastoral 
connection May 31, 1879. The Rev George W. 
Cooke has been the pastor since December, 1880. 
In the summer and autumn of 1855, repairs costing 
upwards of twelve hundred dollars were made in the 
church edifice. The floor was raised, a lower and 
more elegant pulpit was substituted for the old one, 
the walls and ceiling frescoed, and the pews exchanged 
for concentric seats. The Ladies' Benevolent Society 
carpeted, cushioned, and furnished the church. The 
new horse-sheds were built in 1869. The Rev. Mr. 
Locke, on the 7th of December, 1879, preached an 
occasional sermon, which was printed, and from which 
these facts are taken. The church was struck by 
lightning and seriously damaged in April, 1883. 

In the church connected with the First Parish, 
upon the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Lamsen in 1860, 
after the lapse of a few months the Rev. Benjamin 
H. Bailey was ordained as pastor March 14, 1861, 
and he remained until Oct. 13, 1867, when he re- 
signed. He was succeeded by Rev. George M. Fol- 
som, installed March 31, 1869, and resigned July 1, 
1875. The Rev. Seth Curtis Beach was installed as 
his successor Dec. 29, 1875, and is the present in- 
cumbent. In 1856 the parish erected a vestry, which 
was much enlarged and improved in 1879, at a 
cost of about three thousand three hundred dollars. 
The old meeting-house of 1763, which was remod- 



eled and improved in 1819, was again remodeled in 
1857 in the interior, by removins; the pews and sub- 
stituting the concentric seats for the pews, and the 
erection of a new and lower pulpit, placed in a recess 
at one end of the church. At the same time a large 
and excellent organ was placed in the gallery, built 
by the Messrs. Hook. 

The " New Meeting-House," as it was called in the 
act of incorporation, and which title was retained until 
1864, was much improved and refitted with a pulpit 
of rosewood in 1846. In 1857 a large and superior- 
toned organ was placed in a recess behind the pulpit. 
In 1866, the whole interior was remodeled and made 
more convenient. In 1864, the society was reorgan- 
ized under the name of the " Allin Evangelical Soci- 
ety," and the church in 1876 adopted the name of the 
" First Congregational Church in Dedham." 

The Rev. Jonathan Edwards was installed as pas- 
tor of the church Jan. 1, 1863. He was dismissed 
at his own request, on account of continued ill health, 
April 13, 1874. The Rev. Charles M. Southgate 
was installed as his successor Dec. 16, 1875, and he 
still continues to be pastor of the church. The con- 
fession of faith now in use was adopted in March, 
1875. The membership of this church Jan. 1, 1884, 
was three hundred and eleven. In 1876 the chapel 
connected with the church edifice was much enlarged 
and improved, at a cost of four thousand five hundred 

On the 7th day of December, 1856, St. Paul's 
(Episcopal) Church, erected in 1846, was wholly 
consumed by fire, with its organ and all its contents. 
The loss was a severe one to the parish, and to 
the village, since it was a tasteful and attractive 
church. Both the Unitarian and Orthodox Con- 
gregational Churches immediately tendered the use of 
their hou.scs of worship to the parish of St. Paul's 
Church, which offers were declined with thanks, and 
the use of the court-room in the court-house was ob- 
tained for the purpose of holding their services. Im- 
mediate measures were taken to rebuild the church of 
stone, and of somewhat larger proportions. The 
wealthier parishioners made large subscriptions. The 
stone was given by the heirs of John BuUard, from 
their quarry about a mile and a half from the village. 
The architect was Arthur Oilman, of Boston, and I. 
& H. M. Harmon were the contractors. The church 
was finished and the tower carried up two stories. 
The organ was given by Mr. Joseph W. Clark, and 
the stained-glass windows, made by Doremus, of 
New York, were the gift of Mr. Ira Cleveland. The 
stone font was the gift of Mrs. E. F. Babcock, the 
wife of the rector. The cost of the church thus con- 

structed was eighteen thousand three hundred and 
thirty-six dollars and fifty-one cents. 

In 1859 the tower and spire were finished, at an 
additional cost of twelve thousand one hundred and 
forty-three dollars and eighty-one cents. In 1875 
the brick chapel was erected, at a cost, including the 
furniture, of about seven thousand dollars, and paid 
for from a legacy given to the parish for the purpose 
by George E. Hatton, M.D., in his last will. The 
interior decorations, made by Mr. Arthur Noble in 
1882 and 1883, were also given by Mr. Cleveland, at 
an expense of three thousand five hundred dollars. 
The organ was also remodeled and enlarged in 1882, 
at the expense of Mr. J. W. Clark, the original donor. 
In 1881, Mr. Cleveland placed the chime often bells 
in the tower of the church, made by Meneely & Co., 
of Troy, N. Y., and costing five thousand three hun- 
dred and forty dollars. 

The services of the Roman Catholic Church began 
about the year 1846, and were at first held in private 
houses. Afterwards services were held in Temperance 
Hall until 1857. St. Mary's Church, on Washington 
Street, was built and completed in 1857. The Rev. 
P. OBeirne, of Roxbury, was the priest who had 
charge of the parish from 1846 to 1866. The old 
meeting-house of the Universalist Society in South 
Dedham was sold in April, 1863, to the Rev. P. 
O'Beirne. It has since been enlarged and improved, 
and is known as St. Catherine's Church. The Rev. 
J. P. Brennan had charge of the parish from 1866 to 
1877. The Rev. J. D. Tierney was curate during a 
portion of this time, and the Rev. D. J. O'Donavan 
was curate during the remainder. The Rev. D. J. 
O'Donavan was the priest in charge from January, 
1877, to August, 1878. 

In June, 1866, Martin Bates, the owner of the 
hotel last known as the Norfolk House, and which 
had been kept as a hotel for many years, conveyed 
that estate to Ann Alexis Shorb and others, Sisters < 
of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, in trust for 
the use of St. Mary's School and Asylum. The 
Sisters of Charity had a school in this building from 
1867 to 1879, since which time it has been sus- 

The land and house for parsonage, and the adjoin- 
ing land for a church site, were purchased by the 
Rev. J. P. Brennan in June, 1867. The Rev. 
Robert J. Johnson took charge of the parish in 
August, 1878, with the Rev. J. J. McNulty as 
curate. In 1878 a church was built at East Ded- 
ham, and is known as St. Raphael's Church. The 
Rev. Mr. Johnson now has charge over the two 
churches in Dedham and St. Catherine's, in Norwood. 



The corner-stone of the new church now being 
erected on High Street was laid Oct. 17, 1880. It 
is one hundred and fifty feet in length, and sixty-six 
feet in width. It is being built of Dedham granite, 
and when completed will be the largest and most im- 
posing church of the town. It is estimated that the 
number of Roman Catholics in Dedham is about two 
thousand. The number of scholars in the Sunday- 
school of St. Mary's Church is about four hundred. 

In 1852, a part of Dedham was set off to West 
Roxbury. Previous to this time the territory of 
Dedham had extended some distance north of Charles 
River, but by the legislative act of 1852 the centre 
of the channel of Charles River became the boundary- 
line between West Roxbury and Dedham, from Cow 
Island Pond to a point about one hundred and fifty 
rods easterly of Blue Rock Bridge. The same line 
is now the boundary-line between Dedham and 

In the same year, a small portion of the territory 
of Dedham was annexed to Walpole. A considerable 
portion of the village of East Walpole stands upon 
the portion of Dedham then annexed to Walpole. 

In 1853 the Dedham Gas-Light Company was in- 
corporated, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars. 
This company has its works at East Dedham. In 
1871 the name was changed to the Dedham and 
Hyde Park Gas Company, for the purpose of extend- 
ing its pipes to Hyde Park. This company continues 
to supply gas for lighting the streets and houses in 
Dedham village and East Dedham, and to some ex- 
tent in the neighboring town of Hyde Park. 

In 1862 the Dedham Historical Society was in- 
corporated " for the purpose of collecting and pre- 
serving such books, newspapers, records, pamphlets, 
and traditions as may tend to illustrate and perpetuate 
the history of New England, and especially the his- 
tory of the town of Dedham." This society has a 
valuable collection, especially of books and pamphlets 
relating to the history of Dedham. It also has one 
of the hand corn-mills imported by Governor Win- 
throp, a sermon by the Rev. John Allin printed in 
1672, together with many other objects of interest. 
The society has needed for many years a suitable 
room or building where its collection could be ar- 
ranged and made accessible. For a number of years 
it has been stored in a small room in the court-house, 
but this is quite insufficient for the purpose. With 
a suitable building, and a fund sufficient for the care 
and preservation of its collection, this society would 
be able to attract to itself and its purposes a much 
greater interest than it has succeeded in doing here- 

The officers of the society for 1883-84 are Henry 
0. Hildreth, president; Alfred Henries, vice-presi- 
dent ; Rev. Carlos Slafter, corresponding secretary ; 
Waldo Colburu, Erastus Worthington, Henry W. 
Richards, curators ; A. Ward Lamson, George F. 
Fisher, auditors ; Don Gleason Hill, historiographer ; 
George F. Fisher, chronicler. 



The Civil War, 1861-65— Companies of Dedham Men— Their 
Services in the War — Commodore G. J. Van Brunt — Expenses 
of the War for Bounties and Aid to Soldiers' Families — Me- 
morial Hall — Names of those who Fell Inscribed on the 

At the beginning of the civil war in 1861, there 
was no militia company in Dedham. None had ex- 
isted since 1842. There were a few men residing in 
Dedham who belonged to the regiments of volunteer 
militia, and they at once joined their companies and 
went to Washington for three months' service. But 
the inhabitants of Dedham, while they differed as to 
the political causes of the war, were united in their 
efforts to sustain the President in his call for seventy- 
five thousand volunteers. The young men immedi- 
ately took steps to form a company, in anticipation 
that their services would soon be required. The 
ladies with great promptness forwarded to the Gov- 
ernor, on the 23d of April, sixty flannel shirts for 
the soldiers about to depart. The town, at a meeting 
legally called on the 6th of May, by formal resolution 
pledged itself " to stand by the volunteers and protect 
their families during the war," and appropriated ten 
thousand dollars for this general The first 
company was formed early in May, and while waiting 
to be assigned to some regiment the men employed 
themselves in perfecting their drill. The town sup- 
plied them with uniforms, and allowed them com- 
pensation during a certain period. In August, this 
company was mustered into the service of the United 
States as Company F, Eighteenth Regiment, Ma.ssa- 
chusetts Volunteer Infantry. The regiment was com- 
manded by Col. James Barnes, a graduate of West 
Point, an officer possessing high qualifications, as was 
subsequently proved. All the commissioned officers 
and fifty-six men of this company belonged in Dedham, 
Its officers were Henry Onion, captain, with Charles 
W. Carroll as first lieutenant, and Fisher A. Baker as 
second lieutenant, the two latter having recently 
graduated from Dartmouth College. Nine Dedham 



men also enlisted in Company H of the same regi- 
ment. On the 2Gth of August, they left for the seat 
of war. They parted from their friends expecting a 
short campaign and a speedy return, so little was the 
nature of the conflict understood at its beginning. 
The regiment was assigned to Martindale's brigade, 
and, after being engaged in drill and working on the 
fortifications of Washington, on the 26th of Septem- 
ber it took up its position at Hall's Hill, Va. Here the 
company spent the winter in camp. The ladies sent 
them a supply of garments, and the citizens generally 
sent them a feast for New- Year's day. Some of their 
town.smcn visited them in camp, and a few obtained 
furloughs to visit their homes. Three deaths oc- 
curred during the winter, Sergt. Damrell and privates 
Guild and Stevens, whose remains were brought home 
for burial. 

On the 28th of October, 1861, Capt. Onion resigned 
his commission, and Lieut. Carroll was commissioned 
as captain, Second Lieut. Baker as first lieutenant, and 
Edward M. Onion as second lieutenant. The com- 
pany with its regiment served during the Peninsular 
campaign, but during all the battles before Richmond, 
the Eighteenth was detached from its brigade and did 
not participate in the engagements. Private Jordan, 
of Company H, who had left his company, was killed 
while in the ranks of the Ninth Regiment. In the 
battle at Gaines' Mills Adjt. Thomas Sherwin, of the 
Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry, was wounded, 
and was promoted major for gallant conduct, his com- 
mission dating June 28th, the day succeeding the 

In the series of battles prior to the second battle 
of Bull Run, the Eighteenth bore a prominent part, 
being attached to Porter's corps. In the battle of 
Bull Run it suffered severely. Of the Dedham com- 
pany, seven were either killed or died afterwards of 
wounds then received, and five others were wounded 
more or less severely. Among them was Carroll, the 
brave young captain, who fell mortally wounded, and 
was left on the field within the enemy's lines, where 
he died three days after. He was decently buried on 
the field, but his' remains were subsequently brought 
home. Corp. Edward Holmes, privates Robert R. 
Covey, George 0. Kingsbury, and Henry D. Smith 
were killed on the field. Privates P]dmund L. 
Tiiomas and George N. Worthen lingered, mortally 
wounded, but a few days in the hospitals, and 
died soon after, the former near Washington and the 
latter at Philadelphia. It is stated that of forty men 
of the company who were engaged, fourteen only came 
out unharmed. Of Company F, Corp. William 
Simpson and privates Elias W. Adams, Edward G. 

Cox, Sumner A. Ellis, Patrick Mears, and Isaac N. 
Parker were wounded, and soon after discharged by 
reason of their wounds. 

The first rumors of this disastrous battle reached 
Dedham on Sunday, Aug. 31, 1862. On the day 
previous, a telegraphic dispatch had been published 
that the enemy were retreating to the mountains. 
Special messengers had been sent to many of the 
towns near Boston, and the services in the churches 
of the village were interrupted with the announce- 
ment that a great battle had been fought, and a call 
made for lint, bandages, and stimulants. The re- 
ligious services were at once suspended, and men, 
women, and children went to work with a will. Six- 
teen large packages of necessary articles, including a 
large amount of clothing, bandages, lint, jellies, cor- 
dials, were sent on that Sunday afternoon, and more 
was afterwards dispatched. 

After the close of the Peninsular campaign the 
President had called for three hundred thousand men 
for three years, and the quota assigned to Massachu- 
setts was fifteen thousand. Of this number the quota 
of Dedham was sixty-nine. In the autumn and winter 
previous, a number of Dedham men had also enlisted 
in the Twentieth, Twenty-second, and Twenty-fourth 
Massachusetts Infantry, and were then at the seat of 
war. The realities of war had been fully brought home 
to the people, and the quota of Dedham was to be raised 
in view of them. The recruiting was carried on under 
the direction of the selectmen thenceforward during 
the war. On the 21st of July the town voted to pay 
a bounty of one hundred dollars to each volunteer, 
with aid to families, and appropriated six thousand 
nine hundred dollars for the bounties. A large and 
impressive meeting was held July 10th, before the 
legal town-meeting. A roll was opened and a call 
made for volunteers. The first man to sign the roll 
was the father of the boy who had been killed at 
Gaines' Mills. Another was a young man who had 
been recently graduated at Harvard College, and was 
just beginning his professional studies. A third 
announced his purpose in earnest words, to which 
subsequently a severe wound received in battle, nearly 
a year's confinement in four rebel prisons, and ad- 
hering to his regiment to the last day of its service, 
bore ample testimony. 

With such a spirit animating them, others were en- 
rolled, and soon the number was complete. Uniting 
with men from Needham and Weston, they consti- 
tuted Company I, Thirty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry, 
Col. Edward A. Wild. The captain was Sidney 
Willard, of Weston, but its first lieutenant was John 
Lathrop, and the second lieutenant was William Hill, 



both of Dedham. Without any opportunities for 
drill or organization, the regiment left Boston Aug. 
22, 1862, for the seat of war. On their arrival in 
Washington they were immediately assigned to the 
defenses of the city, throwing up earthworks and 
doing picket-duty. They were near their townsmen 
who were in the Eighteenth Regiment, who had pre- 
ceded them one year in the service, and they heard 
the guns around Centreville on the day of the dis- 
astrous battle of Bull Run. 

Both companies were now in the Army of the Po- 
tomac, the first having the discipline of veterans but 
with thinned ranks, while the second, as yet imperfect 
in the duties of the soldier, was fresh and vigorous. 
The Eighteenth still remained with Porter's corps, and 
the Thirty-fifth was in the Ninth Corps, under Burn- 
side. The army was then in motion towards Mary- 
land, to meet Lee in his first invasion of what may 
be termed the neutral ground of the Rebellion. The 
necessities of those days were inexorable, and called 
for long and rapid marches. Burnside's corps started 
first, and on the 14th September — only three weeks 
after they had left their homes — our men of the 
Thirty-fifth met the enemy at South Mountain. 
The Thirty-fifth on that day dislodged rebel sharp- 
shooters from an extensive tract of forest, and received 
a sharp attack from the enemy. Here private George 
F. Whiting was mortally wounded, and died on the 
7th of October. Sergt. Henry W. Tisdale and private 
Clinton Bagley were wounded, the former severely. 
With no knowledge of battalion movements, and 
having had but a brief period for drill, this new 
regiment encountered the disciplined brigades of the 
enemy, and stood the test firmly. 

But South Mountain was a prelude only to the 
memorable battle of Antietam, three days after. 
Porter's corps, which left Washington on the 12th, 
now joined the main army, and on the 17th supported 
batteries in the battle. The Thirty-fifth was engaged 
in the movements of Burnside's corps, which had a 
highly important part in the battle. They charged 
the enemy, drove him over the bridge, and held the 
crest of the second hill beyond, until ordered to retire. 
They behaved with such steadiness and gallantry as 
to receive the highest encomiums of their commander. 
Thus within a month from their departure from 
home this regiment had been twice on hard-fought 
fields, and in the thickest of the battles. But they 
had told fearfully upon the regiment. Of those pres- 
ent, two-thirds of the officers and nearly one-third of 
the men had been disabled. At Antietam, Corp. 
Edward E. Hatton (a true man and a brave sol- 
dier), and privates Charles H. Sulkoski and Joseph 

P. White, of South Dedham, were killed. Corp. 
pjdmund Davis was very severely wounded, and 
six others were wounded more or less severely, of 
whom private Nathan C. Treadwell died about a 
month after. Besides these, there were two of the 
company killed and several wounded who belonged 
elsewhere. Such was the share of Company I in 
the glory and sacrifices of Antietam. 

Company F of the Eighteenth surtained no loss at 
Antietam, but at Shepardstown, on the 20th, they 
were engaged with their regiment, which lost three 
killed and eleven wounded. The Maryland campaign 
ended with the retirement of Lee into Virginia, and 
whither also returned the Army of the Potomac, but 
with unequal steps. 

Soon after the call under which Dedham had fur- 
nished sixty-nine men for the Thirty-fifth Regiment, 
there came yet another call from the President, with 
an order for a draft, to which Dedham was required 
to respond with one hundred and twenty-two men 
for nine months' service. In anticipation of the 
draft, the town offered a bounty of two hundred dol- 
lars, with aid to families, to volunteers. The short 
term of service was a great inducement to some who 
were unable to enlist for three years, and soon the 
requisite number was made up, almost exclusively 
from Dedham. These chiefly constituted Company 
D, Forty-third Regiment Massachusetts Infantry. 
Its captain was Thomas G. Whytal, of West Rox- 
bury, the first lieutenant, Edward A. Sumner, and 
the second lieutenant, James Schouler, both of Ded- 
ham. On the 24th of October, 1862, it was ordered 
to North Carolina, where it remained during nearly 
the whole term of its service. The regiment was 
under fire at Kinston and Whitehall in December. 
The Dedham company, with two others, was detached 
for picket-duty for a time, and afterwards marched 
with the regiment on Trenton ; was ordered to the 
relief of Little Washington, and encountered the 
enemy at Blount's Creek. It was then occupied in 
picket-duty and those other nameless duties which 
constitute so large a part of a soldier's life in camp. 
On the 27th of June it was ordered to report to Gen, 
Dix, and proceeded to White House, on the Pamun- 
key, in Virginia, thence to Fortress Monroe, and 
thence to Baltimore. On the 7th of July, the term 
of service having expired, it was left to the option of 
the men to go to the front (this being immediately 
after the battle of Gettysburg), or to return home, 
and two hundred of the regiment remained, among 
whom were thirteen of the Dedham company. These 
returned home July 21st, and all were mustered out 
July 30, 1863. 



Such briefly is the record of the company of nine 
months' men. But one of its number had died, and 
his was an accidental death at Readville. It will not 
do, however, to infer from this that their service was 
light or unimportant. They were in a department 
where no considerable active operations were carried 
on during their term of service. But whenever 
called upon, as they often were, for special duty, 
their record shows it was well performed ; and there 
is no doubt but they would have acquitted themselves 
with honor in any exigency of the service. 

Nothing decisive had occurred with the Army of 
the Potomac after the battle of Antietam until the 
13th of December, 1862, when occurred that saddest 
of all the battles of the war, the assault upon Fred- 
ericksburg. The army was now under Buraside, and 
his name is inseparably associated with that ill- 
starred movement. In this assault, both of the com- 
panies bore a very prominent part. The Eighteenth 
was the leading regiment of its corps, and on the 
13th, having remained until one o'clock on the oppo- 
site side of the river, then crossed and engaged in the 
battle, which lasted until dark. The regiment 
charged the enemy and nearly penetrated his forti- 
fied position and stronghold on Mary's Heights, 
when it was compelled to return. It rallied again, 
however, and was in advance of the corps throughout 
the battle. The record adds: " It is believed that the 
dead of this regiment lay nearer the enemy's works 
than those of any other engaged upon that part of the 
field." Two Dedham men in this regiment were 
killed, privates Jonathan H. Keyes and Daniel 
Leahey, and several were wounded. The regiment 
lost in this engagement two officers and eleven men 
killed, and nine officers and one hundred and twelve 
men wounded. 

The position of the Thirty-fifth was scarcely less 
exposed, being in the advance of its corps, and they 
received a deadly fire at short range. They held 
their ground until, their ammunition being exhausted, 
their brigade was relieved. It was the last regiment 
but one to leave Fredericksburg. The gallant Maj. 
Willard, who commanded the regiment in the assault, 
was mortally wounded while leading his men sword 
in hand. He was the first captain of Company I, 
although not a resident of Dedham. Lieut. William 
Hill, of Company I, but who on that day was in 
command of Company K, and private George C. 
Bunker were killed on the heights and buried on the 
field. Four Dedham soldiers of this company were 
wounded more or less severely. The whole loss of 
the regiment was about sixty. The survivors of both 
companies may recall with satisfaction and soldierly 

pride the deeds performed on that bloody and unsuc- 
cessful day at Fredericksburg. 

The army now ceased active operations until the 
spring of 1863, when Gen. Hooker assumed command, 
and it entered upon the Chancellorsville campaign. On 
the 2d and 3d of May the Eighteenth was engaged, 
and lost one officer and thirteen men killed, but none 
of these were from Dedham. In the Second Massa- 
chusetts Infantry, private Michael Henihan, a Ded- 
ham soldier, was killed, his being the only name in 
that heroic regiment of a Dedham man who was killed 
during the war. 

The Thirty-fifth had now been detached from the 
Army of the Potomac and sent to another and dis- 
tant department. In March, 1863, it had proceeded 
with the reorganized Ninth Corps (Burnside's) to the 
Southwest, where its services were much needed. 
April and May it passed in Kentucky. Thence 
it was transported down the Mississippi to the vi- 
cinity of Vicksburg, where the men threw up earth- 
works and defenses. They were now with the Army 
of the Tennessee, under the command of Gen. Grant. 
Under Sherman, after the surrender of Vicksburg, 
they marched into the interior of Mississippi in pur- 
suit of the force of Gen. Johnston. After days of 
toilsome and painful marches, with frequent skir- 
mishing and a brief siege, they captured Jackson, 
the capital of the State. Here the Thirty-fifth had 
the honor of being the first regiment to plant its 
colors within the city, pulling down the rebel ensign 
from the State-House and of throwing to the breeze 
the stars and stripes. In this campaign, private 
David Phalen died in camp of disease. In August, 
the regiment almost exactly retraced its steps, and on 
the 1st of October was in Kentucky. 

The Army of the Potomac, in the mean time, had 
again moved into Maryland and Pennsylvania to repel 
Lee's second invasion. In the great victory of Get- 
tysburg the Eighteenth was engaged, and lost one 
man killed and thirteen wounded, but the name of 
no Dedham soldier appears among them. But Ded- 
ham was not without its representative in the sacrifices 
of that victorious field. On the 3d of July, Sergt. 
Edward Hutchins, of the First Company Andrews' 
Sharpshooters, received his death-wound, and lin- 
gered but two hours. He was a faithful and fearless 
soldier, and one well qualified for his peculiar service. 
The Eighteenth was in the battle at Rappahannock 
Station, Nov. 7th, and at Mine Creek on the 29th 
and 30th of the same month. These concluded its 
campaigns in 1863. 

The Thirty-fifth, in October, marched across the 
mountains through Cumberland Gap to Knoxville, 



Tenn. It was engaged at Loudon Bridge and Camp- 
bell's Station, and afterwards fell back to Knoxville, 
then besieged by the enemy under Gen. Longstreet. 
It was during this campaign, that private Charles 
Henry Ellis, the regimental clerk, was taken prisoner, 
was confined in Belle Isle prison, and, it is supposed, 
died in Richmond the succeeding year. During this 
winter, the regiment suffered much for want of food 
and clothing. In March its Western campaign ended, 
and it was transported again to Annapolis, Md., where 
the Ninth Corps was again reorganized. 

We are now brought to the last and greatest act 
of the drama, — Grant's overland campaign, — which 
on the one hand is characterized as " a campaign un- 
surpassed by any on record in the elements which 
make war grand, terrible, and bloody," but on the 
other, it should also be said, a campaign invested 
with a glory that will never fade, since it brought 
a victory and peace. At home the summer and 
autumn of 1864 were the darkest period of the war. 
Men had learned to feel the dread perils of battle 
to the cause of the country, as well as to the lives of 
our soldiers. All available able-bodied men had been 
sent to the field. The draft, like a heavy cloud, 
brooded over the community, A Presidential cam- 
paign had intervened to divide men in their counsels, 
if it did not destroy their harmony of action. The 
country seemed to rest under a shadow which nothing 
could dispel. It was, however, the darkness which 
precedes the dawn, though the day was as yet afar 

Again the two Dedliam companies were in Vir- 
ginia ; the Eighteenth Regiment being in Ayre's 
brigade, Fifth Corps (Warren's), numbering about 
three hundred men. The Thirty-fifth remained in 
the Ninth Corps, with about two hundred and fifty 
men ready for duty. The corps was still under 
Burnside, whose command was independent of Gen. 
Meade, then commanding the Army of the Potomac. 
All acted under the orders of Gen. Grant. 

On the 3d of May, 1864, at midnight, the march 
began, the Fifth Corps having the right of the 
column. On the 5th of May, while reconnoitring for 
the enemy, the Eighteenth was the first regiment to 
encounter Ewell's corps, then moving in pursuit. 
The first infantry man killed in the campaign be- 
longed to the Eighteenth, and it received the brunt 
of the first assault of the enemy in the battles of the 
Wilderness. During all those marvelous battles 
lasting three days, where neither cavalry nor artillery 
could be used, where " not only were the lines of 
battle entirely hidden from the sight of the com- 
mander, but no ofiicer could see ten files from him," 

the Eighteenth was engaged in skirmishing and in 
assaults upon intrenchments. No fatal casualties 
occurred among our Dedham men, but Col. Hayes 
was severely wounded, and several were killed and 
wounded in the regiment. 

The Thirty-fifth, with the Ninth Corps, crossed 
the Rapidan two days later, and passing over the 
battle-grounds at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, 
arrived in the Wilderness during the second day's 
battle. In the movement towards Spottsylvania the 
Fifth Corps were charged with the duty of seizing 
Spottsylvania Court-House. Both the Fifth and 
Ninth Corps were in line of battle on the north of 
Spottsylvania. Here occurred one of the most fierce 
and deadly struggles of the war. In the engagement 
of the 18th of May the Thirty-fifth participated. The 
result of the battles leaving the Union lines intact, 
another turning movement was determined upon. On 
the 20th of May the hostile armies again confronted 
each other at the North Anna River. The Eight- 
eenth, crossing at Jericho Ford, was then detached 
from its brigade to occupy an eminence where it was 
exposed to a heavy fire from Hill's corps, during 
which assault Lieut.-Col. White was wounded. The 
Thirty-fifth crossed on the 24th, when it began a 
brilliant skirmish, followed by the whole brigade. 
The enemy were driven into their works, but a sud- 
den storm and a fresh force of the enemy compelled 
the regiment to retire. 

On the 23d of May, at the battle on the North 
Anna River, Sergt. John Finn, Jr., Twenty-second 
Massachusetts Infantry, — a Dedham soldier who had 
well earned promotion, — received a wound on his 
arm which rendered amputation necessary, and he 
died from its effects on the 5th of June. 

Another flank movement of the Union army turned 
it towards the Chickahominy, " a wet ditcl' on the 
outer fortifications of Richmond," and a place of sad 
memories for soldiers of the campaign of 1862. 
But before the passage of the Chickahominy, another 
fearful battle awaited them at Cold Harbor. War- 
ren's corps, a few days previous, had encountered 
the enemy on the Shady Church road, where a 
branch of the Tolopotomy crossed it, and had fre- 
quent skirmishes with the enemy. While near 
Bethesda Church, and holding a line nearly four 
miles in extent, the enemy fell upon it with great 
vigor and inflicted a considerable loss. In the assault 
at Cold Harbor, the Fifth Corps did not actively par- 
ticipate. The Ninth Corps was partially engaged, 
and the Thirty-fifth was employed in throwing up 
earthworks. But in that bloody battle Dedham had 
a representative in the list of the killed. The 



Twentieth Massachusetts Infantry was with the Sec- 
ond Corps (Hancock's) holding the left of the assault- 
ing column. On the 3d of June, private Albert C. 
Bean, of Company I, was wounded, and died five days 
after. On the 7th of June, the Eighteenth reached 
the Chickahominy, and, after some days' skirmishing, 
crossed on the 1.3th of June. They passed the 
James on the 16th of June, and marched directly 
to the fortifications in front of Petersburg. Here 
they were engaged in throwing up earthworks in the 
presence of the enemy. On the 5th of July, private 
Cyrus D. Tewksbury, who had served from the be- 
ginning, was killed, — the last man of the Eighteenth 
to fall in battle. It is a somewhat curious fact, and 
perhaps worthy of mention, that the first of the Ded- 
ham men who fell in battle in 1862 and the last just 
named, were cousins, both belonging to the same 
company and regiment, and died on fields not many 
miles distant from each other. 

The Eighteenth had now reached nearly the end 
of its term of service of three years, and on the 20th 
of July it was ordered to Washington in anticipation 
of discharge. Twelve of our Dedham men had re- 
enlisted, and these, together with those whose term 
was not ended, remained with the Eighteenth Bat- 
talion and did good service. When the oflBcers were 
mustered out, this battalion was merged in the 
Thirty-second Regiment. Among these men was 
private Henry C. Everett, who died in Washington 
Jan. 19, 1865. 

On the 3d of September, 1864, the old Eighteenth 
was mustered out of service, and its honorable record 
closed. It had participated in some fifteen battles. 
Of the fifty-eight who enlisted from Dedham, eleven 
had fallen on the field, six had died from disease and 
wounds received in battle, eight had been discharged 
by reason of wounds, and thirteen by reason of dis- 
ability resulting from wounds. Of the whole com- 
pany, twenty-three men had either died or fallen in 

The regiment bore an honorable part in nearly all 
the great general battles of the Anuy of the Potomac, 
except those of the Peninsula before Richmond, and 
its tattered battle-flag bears no stain, save from the 
blood of its defenders. While often called to share in 
the defeat of the Army of the Potomac, yet in the 
darkest hours of the war it kept its high discipline, 
unswerving fidelity, and patriotic faith; and although 
It did not .see the days of final victory, it aided in 
accomplishing those unparalleled movements, and 
fighting those continuous battles, which made com- 
plete victory possible at the last. Upon the return 
home of the few brave men left of the company, they 

were welcomed with fitting ceremonies, in which all 
joined with grateful hearts, though sensible that the 
formalities of a public occasion but inadequately ex- 
pressed their debt of gratitude. 

The men of the Thirty-fifth were now destined to 
bear a part in the siege of Petersburg and the closing 
campaign. At first they were employed " in throw- 
ing up earthworks and batteries, laying down abattis," 
and in the construction of works necessary for a be- 
sieging army. At the memorable explosion of the 
" Mine," July 30th, it was their duty to advance, 
after the explosion, and turn the works of the enemy, 
which they accomplished. Private Michael Colbert 
was killed in the advance of the regiment over the 
works, and the regiment lost one officer and nine men 
killed, and three officers and twenty-eight men 
wounded. The dead were buried under a flag of 
truce. Being now in the immediate presence of the 
enemy, they were frequently engaged, and suffered 
considerable losses, especially while in position on the 
Weldon Railroad. At Poplar Spring Church, Septem- 
ber 30th, the regiment was repulsed by an attack on the 
right and rear, with a loss of nine killed and one 
hundred and fifty prisoners. In the same action John 
W. Fiske, formerly a sergeant in Company I, but re. 
cently promoted to be first lieutenant in the Fifty- 
eighth Massachusetts Infantry, which was also en- 
gaged, was killed, and buried on the field. He was 
an efficient officer, and much beloved. 

Nothing decisive occurred to the regiment during 
the winter of 1864-65. In March, 1865, it was re- 
moved to a part of Fort Sedgwick, about four hun- 
dred yards from the enemy's works, — a post of great 
danger, being subject to an almost continuous fire, — • 
where it remained one month. On the 2d of April 
it assaulted Fort Mahone, the rebel work opposite, 
and held a portion of it. During the same night, 
Petersburg was evacuated by the enemy, and on the 
next morning the men had the proud satisfaction of 
marching through the streets of Petersburg with 
colors flying, band playing, and of receiving, with 
shouts of victory and welcome, the President of the 
United States as he rode along their lines. On the 
9th of April occurred the surrender of Lee at Appomat- 
tox Court-House, and at last peace had come, crowned 
with honor and victory. The regiment passed in 
review at Washington, May 23d, reached Massachu- 
setts on the 13th of June, and was mustered out of 
service on the 27th. 

The Thirty-fifth saw nearly three years of active 
and arduous service, beginning almost with the day 
of its arrival in the field. On its colors are in- 
scribed, by an order of Gen. Meade, the names of 



thirteen battles, to which was afterwards added a 
fourteenth. The record shows that its campaigns 
were not limited to a State or a department, but that 
in Kentucky, East Tennessee, and Mississippi, as well 
as in Maryland and Virginia, it was actively em- 
ployed. In many of its battles its position was 
among the most exposed to the enemy, and sometimes 
in the most deadly conflicts. Indeed, it became a 
proverb among the soldiers that the commanding 
officer of the Thirty-fifth was sure to be struck down 
in every engagement. Of the sixty-eight who en- 
listed from Dedham, six were killed in battle, and 
one more died soon after of his wounds, five died in 
the service from disease, eight were discharged on 
account of their wounds, and eleven for disability. 

At the expiration of their service it was desired to 
give the men a public welcome, but with a soldierly 
modesty they declined the invitation, saying they 
preferred to pass without ceremony from the life of 
the soldier to that of the citizen. They went when 
days were dark, and men were few ; they returned 
when the anthems of victory were resounding through 
the land, and they would have received shouts of wel- 
come and of gratitude. Yet in their triumphs, as in 
their trials, they were true to themselves, and chose 
the conscious rewards of duty done, rather than the' 
loud plaudits of their fellow-citizens. 

The roll of the dead is not yet complete. In other 
regiments than those to which reference has been 
made — both of Massachusetts and of other States — 
are to be found the names of men born and reared in 
Dedham. The Twenty-fourth, Twenty- eighth. Thirty- 
ninth, and Fifty-sixth Massachusetts Infantry each 
had one man from Dedham among those killed in 
battle. From two regiments of Massachusetts cav- 
alry three names appear. Three died as prisoners of 
war, without a friend to minister to their last neces- 
sities, or even to raise for them a humble headstone. 
In that hecatomb at Fort Wagner — where the negro 
so nobly vindicated his right to the name and fame of 
the soldier — Dedham had one representative. Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia hold the ashes of 
Dedham men, and at the battle of Cane River, in 
Louisiana, while leading his men to the charge, Capt. 
Julius M. Lathrop fell, closing a long and honorable 
service, in which rank was nobly earned, with a tri- 
umphant and peaceful death. 

In this general survey of the services rendered by 
Dedham soldiers in the field during the civil war, no 
biographies of the heroic dead have been attempted. 
But among them were true and noble men, whose 
memories are. gratefully cherished in Dedham. The 
old town had its full share in the sacrifices and strug- 

gles of those memorable years. The record of her 
brave sons who marched to the battle-fields of the 
war is one of which she has always been proud, and 
has been ready to perpetuate. 

Besides those who served in the army during the 
war of the Rebellion, there were a number who had 
various positions in the navy. Prominent among 
these was Commodore Gershom J. Van Brunt, for 
many years a resident of Dedham. He was a native 
of New Jersey, and entered the service from that 
State in 1818. In the spring of 1861, he was as- 
signed to the command of the steam frigate " Minne- 
sota," was employed in the severe and trying blockade 
service at Hampton Roads, and also took an important 
part in the reduction of the Hatteras forts. He 
was subsequently intrusted with the supervision and 
equipment of the expedition to New Orleans under 
Gen. Banks, and at the time of his death was acting, 
under the orders of the War Department, as inspector 
of transports for the New England district. He 
received his commission as commodore in July, 
1862. He died at his residence in Dedham, Dec. 
17, 1863. Those who saw him in the early 
days of the Rebellion, or who knew of his service 
afterwards, will not soon forget his fervent zeal, lofty 
patriotism, and unswerving faith in the ultimate 
triumph of the flag of his country. 

The town was liberal in its appropriations of money 
for bounties and aid to soldiers' families during the 
war. The raising of each quota of men required 
larire sums of money and for a considerable period 
the constant eff'orts of the selectmen, who were 
officially charged with the business of obtaining vol- 
unteers. A statement of moneys expended during 
the war, made in 1868, is probably nearly accurate. 
It is taken from the appendix to the pamphlet con- 
taining the exercises at the dedication of Memorial 
Hall, Sept. 29, 1868 : 

Amount Exi^ended by the Town of Dedham for Soldiers' Boun- 
ties and Aid of Soldiers' Families during the War of the 

Whole number of men raised and mustered into tlie military 
and naval service, six hundred and seventy-two. 
Company F, Eighteenth Kegiment Massachusetts 
Infantry — 59 men. 
For outfit, uniforms, etc, under vote 

of May 6, 1861 $1591.66 

For drill, under votes of May 6 and 

May 27, 1861 2573.15 

For further pay for drill under vote 

of .June 4, 1866 4650.00 


Company I, Thirty-fifth Regiment Massachusetts 
Infantry — 69 men. 
For bounties under vote of .July 21, 1862 ($100). 6,900.00 



Company D, Forty-third Regiment Massachusetts 
Infantry, and other nine months' men — 126 

For bounties under votes of Aug. 25, 
and Sept. 15, 1862 ($200) $25,200.00 

For expenses of enlistment 520.00 


Men enlisted in other regiments and in navy, in- 
cluding substitutes provided by individuals — 
418 men. 

For bounties under votes of April 4 

and July 25, 1864 $26,856.00 

For expense of recruiting, estimated 

at 600.00 


Estimated amount expended in aid of soldiers' 
families, exclusive of State aid 16. 

Amount of State aid (nominally reimbursed to 
the town) 51 



During the year 1864, thirty-four enrolled men procured 
substitutes in the military and naval service, at an expense to 
themselves of not less than $20,000. 

Not long after the close of the war the erection of 
a soldiers' monument was proposed, and was consid- 
ered in town-meeting. But at a town-meeting held 
May 7, 1866, it was voted to erect a building to be 
called " Memorial Hall," the walls to be of Dedham 
granite. Its purposes were to provide a suitable place 
for the transaction of all the public business of the 
town, and also a suitable memorial of the soldiers of 
Dedham who had died in the service of their country. 
The land was purchased by subscription, and presented 
to the town for the purpose. The building was begun 
in the course of the year, and was finished in the 
summer of 1868. The cost of the building, me- 
morials, furniture of the hall, and the grading of the 
lot, including expense of the committee and architect, 
was less than forty- seven thousand dollars. The size 
of the building, the general arrangement of the rooms, 
and the manner of locating the building and the lot, 
were determined by the committee. The architect was 
Mr. Henry Van Brunt, and the memorials were de- 
signed by him, but the committee are responsible for 
the inscriptions. In some particulars the committee 
did not adopt the designs of the architect, and in 
others, though they adopted his designs, they did not 
adopt the designs considered most appropriate by him 
The stone- and brick-work was done by D. G. Corliss 
& Co., of Quincy. 

The following is a brief description of the building : 
The design, which was by Messrs. Ware & Van 
Brunt, architects, of Boston, recalls the provincial 
town-halls of England in outline and general char- 
acter, and is carried out in the peculiar, warm, yellow 

granite of the neighborhood, relieved by bands of 
blue Quincy granite. Its main exterior dimensions 
are one hundred and four by sixty-four feet on the 
ground, with an elevation of thirty-four feet to the 
cornice, and eighty-five feet to the summit of the 
tower, which surmounts the middle division of the 
front on Washington Street. On this front, in the 
most conspicuous place over the main entrance, is 
inserted a large tablet of Quincy granite, decorated 
with oak leaves and a crown of laurel, and bearing this 
inscription : 

" To Commemorate 

The Patriotism and Fidelity 

Of Her Sons 

AVho Fell 

In Defence of The Union, 

In The War 

Of The Rebellion, 

Erects This Hall. 


In the main vestibule, from which stairs to the 
right and left conduct to the hall above, in a broad 
niche facing the entrance, are five marble tablets in a 
Gothic framework of black walnut. The central tab- 
let, which is enriched by a carved canopy supported 
by columns, bears this inscription : 


Town of Dedham 

Has Caused 

To Be Inscribed Upon 

These Tablets, 

S^IjE namts of hn Sons, 

Who Fen 
Representing Her, 

|n .pefciuc of the Hnion, 

In The War Of 

The Rebellion— 1861-1865, 

And In Whose Honor 

She Has Erected 

This Hall." 

The tablets on either side contain the names of 
forty-six soldiers, with the rank, date, and place of 
death in each case, arranged in order of regiments. 

The following is the list of names on these tablets : 

Michael Henihan, Co. F, 2d Regt. ; killed at Chancellorsville 

May 3, 1863, aged twenty-five. 
Charles W. Carroll, capt. Co. F, 18th Regt.; wounded at 2d 

battle of Bull Run Aug. 30, 1862; died Sept. 2, 1862, aged 

Robert R. Covey, Co. F, 18th Regt. ; killed at 2d battle of Bull 

Run Aug. 30, 1862, aged thirty-six. 
Edward G. Cox, Co. F, 18th Regt.; wounded at 2d battle of 

Bull Run Aug. 30, 1862 ; died Oct. 22, 1864, aged twenty- 
Henry C. Everett, Co. F, 18th Regt. ; died Jan. 19, 1865, aged 




Edward Holmes, corp. Co. F, 18th Regt. ; killed at 2d battle 

of Bull Run Aug. 30, 1862, aged twenty-six. 
Jonathan H. Keyes, Co. F, 18th Regt. ; killed at Fredericks- 
burg Dec. 13, 1862, aged twenty. 
George 0. Kingsbury, Co. F, 18th Regt. ; killed at 2d battle of 

Bull Run Aug. 30, 1862, aged nineteen. 
Daniel Leahy, Co. F, 18th Regt. ; killed at Fredericksburg 

Dec. 13, 1862, aged twenty-eight. 
Leonard W. Minot, Co. F, 18th Regt.; died April 23, 1862, 

aged twenty. 
Henry D. Smith, Co. F, 18th Regt. ; killed at 2d battle of Bull 

Run Aug. 30, 1862, aged thirty. 
Nelson R. Stevens, Co. F, ISth Regt.; died March 1, 1862, 

aged nineteen. 
Edmund L. Thomas, Co. F, 18th Regt.; wounded at 2d battle 

of Bull Run Aug. 30, 1862; died Sept. 16, 1862, aged 

George N. Worthen, Co. F, 18th Regt.: wounded at 2d battle 

of Bull Run Aug. 30, 1862; died Sept. 4, 1862, aged 

twenty- four. 
Horace S. Damrell, sergt. Co. H, 18th Regt.; died March 7, 

1862, aged nineteen. 

Oscar S. Guild, Co. H, 18th Regt.; died Feb. 22, 1862, aged 

Joseph M. Jordan, Co. H, 18th Regt. ; killed at Gaines' Mills 

June 27, 1862, aged eighteen. 
Cyrus D. Tewksbury, Co. H, 18th Regt. ; killed at Petersburg 

July 5, 1864, aged twenty-four. 
Albert C. Bean, Co. I, 20th Regt. ; wounded at Cold Harbor 

June 3, 1864; died June 8, 1864, aged thirty. 
John Finn, Jr., sergt. Co. B, 22d Regt. ; wounded at North 

Anna River May 23, 1864; died June 5, 1864, aged 

William Heath, Co. I, 22d Regt. ; accidentally shot at Hall's 

Hill Dec. 7, 1862, aged twenty-five. 
David Fletcher, Co. I, 23d Regt. ; killed at Whitehall, N. C, 

Dec. 16, 1863, aged forty-two. 
Charles W. Phipps, Co. A, 24th Regt. ; killed at Deep Bottom 

Aug. 16, 1864, aged twenty-seven. 
Edward Sheehan, Co. B, 28th Regt.; died Nov. 17, 186.3, aged 

John H. Birch, Co. I, 35th Regt. ; died Aug. 15, 1863, aged 

George C. Bunker, Co. I, 35th Regt. ; killed at Fredericksburg 

Dee. 13, 1862, aged twenty-one. 
Michael Colbert, Co. I, 35th Regt.; killed at Petersburg July 

30, 1864, aged thirty. 
John G. Dymond, corp. Co. I, 35th Regt. ; died March 29, 

1863, aged twenty-eight. 

Charles H. Ellis, corp. Co. I, 35th Regt.; died a pj-isoner of 
war Feb. 27, 1864, aged thirty. 

Edward E. Hatton, corp. Co. I, 35th Regt.; killed at Antietam 
Sept. 17, 1862, aged twenty-two. 

William Hill, 1st lieut. Co. I, 35th Regt.; killed at Fredericks- 
burg Dec. 13, 1862, aged thirty. 

David Phalen, Co. I, 35th Regt.; died July 30, 1863, aged 

Charles H. Sulkoski, Co. I, 35th Regt. ; killed at Antietam 
Sept. 17, 1862, aged twenty. 

Nathan C. Treadwell, Co. I, 35th Regt.; wounded before Rich- 
mond Sept. 28, 1862; died Oct. 26, 1862, aged nineteen. 

Joseph P. White, Co. I, 35th Regt.; killed at Antietam Sept. 
17, 1862, aged twenty-five. 

George F. Whiting, Co. I, 35th Regt.; wounded at South 
Mountain Sept. 14, 1862; died Oct. 5, 1862, aged twenty- 

Julius M. Lathrop, capt. Co. I, 38th Regt. ; wounded at Cane 

River April 23, 1864; died April 26, 1864, aged twenty- 
Charles L. Carter, Co. E, 39th Regt. ; died a prisoner of war 

Feb. 8, 1865, aged twenty-three. 
James J. Hawkins, Co. D, 43d Regt.; died Nov. 4, 1862, aged 

John H. Bancroft, Co. A, 54th Regt. ; killed at Fort Wagner 

July 18, 1863, aged twenty-four. 
Anson F. Barton, Co. G, 56th Regt. ; died Oct. 7, 1864, aged 

John W. Fiske, 1st lieut. Co. B, 58th Regt.; killed at Poplar 

Spring Church Sept. 30, 1864, aged twenty-three. 
William H. Tillinghast, Co. E, 1st Cav.; killed at Deep Bottom 

Aug. 14, 1864, aged forty. 
Joseph T. Stevens, corp. Co. I, 1st Cav.; died March 31, 1862, 

aged twenty-nine. 
Albert 0. Hammond, Co. M, 2d Cav. ; died Sept. 12, 1864, aged 

John E. Richardson, 4th Cav. ; died a prisoner of war in 1864, 

aged nineteen. 
Edward Hutchins, sergt. Andrew Sharpshooters ; killed at 

Gettysburg July 3, 1863, aged thirty-six. 

The first floor is occupied by two rooms for the 
town officers, a room for the school committee, and a 
small hall, besides two rooms rented for stores. The 
main hall on the second floor is fifty-six by ninety feet, 
with a balcony at the entrance and an ample stage 
opposite, from which there is ready retirement to 
four committee-rooms, all of which are accessible 
from Church Street by a private entrance and stair- 
case. The hall is capable of accommodating one 
thousand people. The building throughout is finished 
with chestnut. In 1881, steam heating apparatus 
was provided, the hall received a new floor and other 
repairs, and its walls and ceilings were elaborately 
decorated in colors, at a cost of Sl:667.53. 

A fine copy of Stuart's large portrait of Washing- 
ton in Faneuil Hail, executed by Alvan Fisher, an 
artist who resided many years in Dedham, and who 
died in 1863, was placed in the hall by his widow. 
The copy of Stuart's portrait of Fisher Ames was 
presented by Judge Seth Ames, and the portrait 
of Lincoln was procured by subscription. The clock 
was the gift of Mr. John Bullard, of New York, a 
native of Dedham. 

On the 29th day of September, 1868, the hall was 
dedicated. The occasion was one of great interest. 
The principal address was delivered by Erastus Wor- 
thington, and contained a historical account of the 
services of the Dedham soldiers during the war. 
Addison Boyden was the president of the day. The 
report of the building committee was briefly made by 
Waldo Colburn, and the keys delivered to Ezra W. 
Taft, chairman of the selectmen, who responded with 
appropriate remarks. Original hymns, written by 
Mrs. William J. Adams and William Everett, were 



sung, and a patriotic poem delivered by Horace H. 
Currier. The address and poem, with the other ex- 
ercises of the day, were published by the town. Ap- 
pended to these is a roll of officers and men from the 
town of Dedham who served in the army or navy of 
the United States during the war. 



Readville Annexed to Hyde Park — Dedham Public Library — 
Incorporation of Norwood — Death of Rev. Dr. Babcock — 
Steam Fire-Engine — Dedham Water Company — Temporary 
Asylum for Discharged Female Prisoners— Oakdale — Church 
of the Good Shepherd — Islington— Congregational Church — 
New Colburn School-House — Brookdale Cemetery — Town 
Seal — Conclusion. 

On the 22d day of April, 1868, the town of Hyde 
Park was incorporated, including within its limits 
that portion of the territory of Dedham known as 
Readville. For many years this had been a manufac- 
turing village, but its proximity to the village of Hyde 
Park, which had grown up quite rapidly, had served to 
increase its population. During the war, the plains on 
both sides of the Boston and Providence Railroad and 
between Sprague Street and the New York and New 
England Railroad had been used as a place of ren- 
dezvous for the regiments about to depart for the 
seat of war. From the summer of 1861 to the close 
of the war, these plains were almost continuously oc- 
cupied by the camps of the newly-raised regiments, 
and presented a warlike scene. The town of Hyde 
Park was made from the territory of Dorchester, 
Dedham, and Milton. The number of acres taken 
from Dedham was eight hundred and eighty-six. 
The taxable valuation of Readville May 1, 1867, 
was four hundred and seveuty-five thousand, eight 
hundred and forty-four dollars. It was estimated 
that Dedham lost by the annexation of Readville to 
Hyde Park, about one-tenth of its population, one- 
eleventh of its valuation, and one-twentieth of its 
territory. The town appointed a committee to ap- 
pear before the legislative committee and oppose the 
annexation of the whole of the territory asked for in 
the petition, but the Legislature gave substantially 
all the territory the petitioners desired. 

In 1871, a corporation was established by the 
Legislature, under the name of the Dedham Public 
Library. It is a private corporation, and the num- 
ber of its members is limited to thirty. But the 
purposes for which it was created were to form and 

maintain a public library and reading-room in Ded- 
ham, and the act of incorporation provides that so 
long as said corporation shall allow the inhabitants 
of Dedham free access to its library and reading-room, 
under reasonable regulations, the town may annually 
appropriate and pay to said corporation a sum not 
exceeding one dollar on each of its rateable polls. It 
is therefore a private corporation for the purpose of 
maintaining a free public library. The corporation 
was organized in November, 1871. About three 
thousand volumes were transferred to it by the Ded- 
ham Library Association, which had existed for some 
years previously. A fair was held by the ladies, on 
Feb. 22, 1871, which was very successful, and raised 
for the funds of the corporation, upwards of four 
thousand dollars. Soon after, Mr. Charles Bullard 
left by his will the sum of three thousand dollars, 
the income to be expended in the purchase of books. 
In 1876, Dr. Danforth P. Wight left by his will the 
sum of one thousand dollars for the same purpose, 
and in 1877, the corporation received one thousand 
dollars under the provisions of the will of Dr. George 
E. Hatton. In 1882, the funds were largely increased 
by a legacy of ten thousand dollars given by the 
will of Mr. John Bullard, of New York, a native of 
Dedham. The income of this fund is to be used in 
the purchase of books, unless the corporation shall 
become possessed of another like sum to be used in 
the erection of a library building, in which event the 
corporation may use the legacy of Mr. Bullard for 
that purpose. The want of a suitable library build- 
ing has long been felt by the friends of the library 
corporation, and in the course of time this want will 
doubtless be supplied. The corporation has funds to 
the amount of nineteen thousand four hundred dol- 
lars, the income of which is appropriated to the pur- 
chase of books and the cost of binding. The town 
has annually appropriated a sum which is used to 
meet the current expenses of the library. In 1882, 
the town appropriation was eleven hundred dollars. 
Books are delivered to the people at East Dedham and 
West Dedham, by agents of the library corporation. 
The library has increased to some extent by donations 
of books, but principally by purchase from the funds 
of the corporation. Since the organization of the 
corporation, Alfred Hewins has been its president. 

The town of Norwood was incorporated Feb. 23, 
1872. A small portion of the territory of Walpole 
was taken lor the new town, but it was mainly con- 
stituted from that portion of Dedham known as the 
South Parish, or South Dedham. In 1872 the valu- 
ation of Norwood was one million six hundred and 
eighteen thousand five hundred and fifty-six dollars, 



and the number of acres of land, six thousand two 
hundred and seventy-five. Probably the town of 
Dedham lost one-fifth of its valuation, and about one- 
fourth of its population, by the incorporation of Nor- 
wood into a separate town. In the scale of valuation 
and population it was a serious loss to Dedham, and 
tended to reduce the relative standing and importance 
of the town in the county. It also took away many 
intelligent and enterprising citizens. But the course 
of events had tended to this result for many years. 
The village of South Dedham was situated four miles 
from Dedham village, and the railroad communication 
between them had ceased over the Norfolk County 
Railroad. There was but little business connection 
or community of interests between the villages. Ex- 
cepting on election-days and at town-meetings, the 
people of South Dedham scarcely saw their fellow- 
citizens of the old parish. As early as 1722, the 
idea of a new town was entertained, and perhaps 
never wholly abandoned afterwards. But the occa- 
sion of the movement in 1872, was a warm con- 
troversy which arose respecting the establishment of 
a high school in South Dedham. The people of 
that villat^e alleged their remoteness from the high 
school at Dedham village, as a reason for its estab- 
lishment. The people of the other villages opposed 
the proposition mainly on the ground that there were 
not a sufiicient number of scholars in South Dedham, 
of the proper age and qualifications, to render another 
high school necessary or expedient. The proposition 
had been carried in two town-meetings, but at a third 
and very large town-meeting, the proposition was de- 
feated by a small majority. This was in the summer 
of 1871, and the petition for the new town was pre- 
sented to the next Legislature. The town of Ded- 
ham voted not to oppose the petition, further than 
it proposed to take more territory than had been in- 
cluded in the South Parish. The separation was 
made in an amicable spirit, and the two towns have 
always been united in the same district for electing a 
representative to the General Court, 

On the 25th day of October, 1873, the Rev. 
Samuel Brazer Babcock, D.D., the rector of St. Paul's 
Church, died in Boston, having been stricken with 
apoplexy some days previous, while absent from home. 
He had been rector of the parish for over forty years, 
and it is significant of the stability of affairs in Ded- 
ham village, that both the pastors of the Congrega- 
tional Churches and the Episcopal rector, should 
have remained over their respective parishes for so 
long a period. Dr. Babcock was born in 1808. He 
was graduated at Harvard College in 1830. During 
his rectorship, the old church had been taken down. 

a new one built and destroyed, and a third church of 
larger proportions and of more durable materials had 
been erected. Nearly all the members of his parish, 
who were here in 1832, had passed away. The parish 
had passed through a period of changes, in which it 
had become stronger and more united. Dr. Babcock 
had attached personal friends, who were liberal bene- 
factors of the parish, which during his rectorship 
was harmonious and prosperous. He was a man of 
genial manners, a devoted pastor, and an earnest 
preacher. His health, for some years previous to his 
death, had declined, but he ofiiciated in the church 
shortly before his death. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from Columbia College, New 
York, and from Griswold College, Iowa, in 1870. 
He was buried in the churchyard, and a marble 
monument was erected to his memory by two of his 
friends and parishioners. His successors have been 
the Rev. Daniel Goodwin, from November, 187-1, to 
September, 1879 ; and the Rev. Arthur M. Backus, 
from January, 1880, to the present time. 

In 1873, the attention of the people of the town 
was called to the necessity of providing new apparatus 
for the extinguishment of fires. The hand-engines 
in Dedham village and at the upper village were more 
than twenty years old, and were found to be quite 
inadequate for the service required at a fire of any 
magnitude. Upon the recommendation of a com- 
mittee appointed to consider the condition of the fire 
department, the town voted to purchase a steam fire- 
engine, of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, 
with a hose carriage, at a cost of five thousand dol- 
lars. The town also expended at the same time 
about two thousand five hundred dollars in the pur- 
chase of new hose. A new engine-house containing 
a lock-up was erected the same year. 

The discussion and investigation relative to the 
means of extinguishing fires, naturally led to the con- 
sideration of the greater question of procuring a full 
supply of water for domestic purposes, as well as for 
the extinguishment of fires. This subject had been 
talked about for some years, but no definite plan or 
source of supply could be decided upon. In 1876, 
however, a number of citizens obtained an act of 
incorporation as the Dedham Water Company, which 
gave the right to the corporation, to take water from 
Charles River, or from any pond or brook in the town. 
If water should be taken from Charles River, the 
amount of water was limited to a million and a half 
gallons daily. This corporation was organized Jan. 
31, 1877, and the capital stock was afterwards fixed 
at seventy-five thousand dollars. There was, how- 
ever, but little public interest in the subject, but the 



organization of the corporation was maintained. In 
the autumn of 1880, a sum was subscribed to obtain 
the services of an engineer, to examine and repoi't as 
to the best source of supply and cost of constructing 
the works. The engineer, Mr. Percy M. Blake, 
about Jan. 1, 1881, made a report, which was printed, 
with a contoured plan of the village. Mr. Blake 
recommended the plan of taking ground-water from 
the meadows on the southerly side of Charles River, 
near Bridge Street, and to pump it through the vil- 
lage to a stand-pipe to be located on Walnut Street. 
About the same time several large subscriptions for 
stock were obtained, and with a definite plan in 
view, and with efibrt on the part of some of the cor- 
porators, the whole amount of the capital stock was 
obtained. In January, 1881, the work of construc- 
tion was formally authorized by the directors of the 
corporation. The works were constructed under the 
direction of Percy M. Blake, engineer. The pump- 
ing-engines were constructed by the Knowles Steam 
Pump Works, of Warren, Mass. The water is taken 
from a collecting-well, twenty-six feet in diameter and 
eighteen feet deep, located between the engine-house 
and Charles River. The pumping machinery consists 
of two independent engines, one a compound con- 
densing engine, capable of raising seven hundred and 
fifty thousand gallons one hundred and eighty feet 
high in twenty-four hours ; the other a duplex high- 
pressure engine, capable of raising one million four 
hundred thousand gallons two hundred and thirty 
feet high in twenty-four hours. The iron reservoir 
on Walnut Street, is one hundred and three feet in 
height and twenty feet in diameter. It is built of 
iron of four grades of thickness, the first twenty- 
five feet from the base, being five-eighths of an 
inch thick ; the second twenty-five feet, half an inch ; 
the third twenty-five feet, three-eighths of an inch ; 
and the remainder, five-sixteenths of an inch. The 
reservoir was built by Kendall & Roberts, of Cam- 
bridgeport, Mass. The service-pipes are cement- 
lined pipes, and were furnished and laid by George 
Goodhue, of Concord, N. H. The total cost of the 
works, as reported by the directors, January, 1882, 
was about ninety-two thousand dollars. The in- 
crease in the expenditure over the estimated cost 
was owing to the enlargement of the reservoir or 
stand-pipe, and the laying of nearly ten miles of 
pipe instead of seven, as provided in the original 
contract. To meet this additional cost, the capital 
stock of the corporation was increased to one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. During the year 1883, 
the service-pipes were extended in East Dedham. 
The corporation provides about one hundred hy- 

drants for fire service in Dedham village and East 
Dedham, for which, with a supply for public build- 
ings, the town in 1883 contracted to pay annually for 
three years the sum of five thousand dollars. The 
quality of the water furnished by this company is of 
remarkable purity, and the supply is ample. The 
introduction of water into Dedham by this corpora- 
tion is the greatest work of a public nature ever 
accomplished in Dedham, whether we consider its 
cost, the eflfort required to carry it through to 
completion, or the benefits it confers upon the 
people of the town. The first president of the 
company was Royal 0. Storrs, but since his resigna- 
tion in 1882, Winslow Warren has been the president. 

About the year 1863, a private charitable insti- 
tution was established in Dedham, under the name 
of the Temporary Asylum for Discharged Female 
Prisoners. It owed its origin to the personal efforts 
of Miss Hannah B. Chickering, of Dedham, a lady 
of high character and ability, who devoted many 
years of her life to the welfare of prisoners in penal 
and reformatory institutions, and who was for a time 
a member of the Prison Commission of the common- 
wealth. During the last ten years, the buildings, 
which are located on what was formerly the farm of 
Capt. Eliphalet Pond, about a mile south of the 
court-house on Washington Street, have been much 
enlarged and improved. The institution is supported 
by the donations of a large number of its friends in 
Boston and vicinity, and by an annual appropriation 
from the Commonwealth. 

The village of Oakdale, in East Dedham, was begun 
about the year 1870. The land was divided into 
building lots, and sold by Charles C. Sanderson to 
parties who erected the dwelling-houses. Mr. San- 
derson also erected a building containing a public 
hall and a store. The school-house was built in 1878, 
at a cost of about five thousand dollars. A mission 
Sunday-school was begun here June 8, 1873, through 
the interest and efforts of members of the family of 
Horatio Chickering, who belonged to the Episcopal 
Church. Soon after, on the 29th of the same month, 
public services of the Episcopal Church were begun 
in Sanderson Hall, and for three years they were 
conducted by lay-readers. In 1874 Mr. Chickering 
purchased a lot of land for the purpose of building 
a church. He died in the spring of 1875, but he 
made provision in his will for the erection of the 
church, which was consecrated Nov. 2, 1876. The 
architecture of this church is attractive and appro- 
priate, and in it have been placed memorial windows 
in memory of Mr. Chickering and his sisters, Mrs. 
D. F. Adams and Miss H. B. Chickering. The Rev. 



William F. Cheney became the minister in charge in 
August, 1876. The parish was organized May 1, 
1877, under the name of the " Church of the Good 
Shepherd," and the Rev. Mr. Cheney was chosen 
rector, which oflBce he continues to hold. The parish 
was admitted into union with the convention of the 
Episcopal Church, in the diocese of Massachusetts, 
in May, 1878. Besides the liberal gifts of the church 
and land by Mr. Chickering, the parish has received, 
or is entitled to receive, other bequests from his 
widow, the late Mrs. Lucy Lee Chickering, and from 
his sisters. 

Between the years 1870 and 1875, a small number 
of houses was built upon lands owned and divided 
into lots by Alonzo B. Wentworth, about a mile and 
a half south of the court-house on Washington Street, 
and along the line of the New York and New Eng- 
land Railroad. It has a post-oflSce and railway 
station, and these are known by the name of Islington. 
In 1882, a Congregational Church was gathered 
here, having for its pastor the Rev. C. B. Smith, of 
Medford. In the same year a small but tasteful 
church was erected for this society at the junction of 
East and Washington Streets. 

In 1875, a new school-house for the Colburn 
School at West Dedham, with a hall on the third 
floor, was built by the town at a cost of about twelve 
thousand five hundred dollars. This is one of the 
best school-houses of the town, and is an example of 
the great advancement made in school architecture 
during the last twenty-five years. 

The necessity for a new cemetery had been appar- 
ent for many years, and in 1876 the town appointed 
a committee to consider and report what action should 
be taken concerning the purchase of a suitable tract 
of land for that purpose. The majority of that com- 
mittee made a report recommending the purchase of 
a tract containing about forty-three and one-half 
acres, bounded by Mother Brook, East and Harvard 
Streets. At the April meeting, 1877, this report 
was presented and recommitted, with instructions to 
obtain the prices of the lands. At an adjourned 
meeting, held April 16th, the committee reported, 
recommending the purchase of a portion of the lands. 
The town voted to adopt the recommendation by one 
majority, and then reconsidered the vote. At another 
adjourned meeting, it was voted not to purchase said 
lands, and another committee was appointed. That 
committee made a printed report at a meeting held 
Oct. 20, 1877, but not recommending any particular 
lot. It was then voted to purchase thirty-nine acres, 
more or less, of the lands recommended by the former 
committee, and a sum not exceeding twelve thousand 

dollars appropriated for the purpose. The land was 
purchased and proceedings taken to perfect the title to 
a portion, the reversion of which belonged to Harvard 
College under Statute 1877, Chapter 99. A topo- 
graphical plan was made by Mr. Ernest W. Bowditch, 
landscape gardener, of the whole tract. The name 
given by the town was " Brookdale Cemetery." The 
care and control of the cemetery was given to three 
commissioners appointed annually by the selectmen. 
A receiving-tomb was built, a portion of the land 
graded, and lots laid out. In 1880 the town set apart 
a portion of the cemetery for the exclusive use of such 
Roman Catholic residents of Dedham as may purchase 
lots therein. The expense of improving this beauti- 
ful cemetery has thus far been met by the sale of lots, 
and, notwithstanding the diflPerences of opinion which 
existed respecting its purchase, the people of the town 
quite generally have a feeling of pride and satisfaction 
in the possession of a rural cemetery so attractive and 

It was not until April, 1878, that the town adopted 
a common seal. It was then voted " that the town 
hereby adopts and establishes a common seal, with 
the following device, to wit : In the centre of the 
foreground a shield, upon which is inscribed the rep- 
resentation of an ancient oak ; on the right of the 
background, the representation of a factory building ; 
on the left, the implements of agriculture ; above, the 
sword and scales of justice; and beneath, in a scroll, 
the motto. Contentment ; in the upper semicircle 
of the border, The Town op Dedham, and in the 
lower semicircle. Plantation begun 1635, Incor- 
porated 1636; and that said common seal, when 
executed, remain in the custody of the town clerk." 

This design originated with a member of the Ded- 
ham Historical Society, who first submitted it to a 
committee of that society appointed for the purpose, 
and it having received the approval of the society, it 
was presented to the town for adoption. The design 
and seal were made by Henry Mitchell, of Boston. 

The oak upon the shield was intended to represent 
the Avery oak, a well-known landmark, and one of 
the original forest-trees of the town. The mill and 
the implements of agriculture signify that Dedham is 
both a manufacturing and an agricultural town. The 
scales and sword, signify that Dedham is the seat of 
justice, where the laws are administered and executed. 
The motto — Contentment — is the name first given 
to the settlement. The legend in the border gives the 
date when the General Court first ordered the planta- 
tion, and also the date of the grant giving the settle- 
ment the name of Dedham, which properly may be 
termed its incorporation. 



Here this history of Dedliam reaches its natural 
conclusion. In the retrospect of nearly two hundred 
and fifty years, we have endeavored to trace the 
transitions which have taken place from one period 
to another. The most impressive fact of history is 
the unnoted and gradual change which is constantly 
in operation. Probably there are few communities 
which have experienced less changes than the people 
of Dedham since the time of its settlement. They 
have been remarkable for the stability of their char- 
acter. For nearly two centuries they were mainly 
sturdy farmers, well informed in public affairs, jealous 
of encroachment upon their political rights, ready to 
maintain their opinions, and unfriendly to innova- 
tions. While, during the last half-century, these 
characteristics have been gradually modified by 
changes of occupations and a wider intercourse with 
men, still it cannot be said that the spirit which 
animated the fathers has not in some degree descended 
to the children. Many of the old families have 
entirely disappeared and are now disappearing. Not 
many new ones have permanently occupied their 
places since the beginning of the present century. 
The greatest change in the inhabitants has doubtless 
been effected by the establishment of the woolen-mills 
at East Dedham, where the operatives live only 
for a time and then make room for others. But 
numerically these constitute a considerable proportion 
of the inhabitants. The local business of Dedham, 
except in the woolen-mills, has substantially passed 
away. The sessions of the courts, and the transaction 
of other public business at the shire-town of the 
county, still bring people to Dedham from elsewhere. 
But these come by one railway train only to leave 
by the next departing train. The hotels, once the 
centres of social life and gayety, have disappeared. 
Dedham village is mainly a place of residence for 
those whose business is in Boston. These constitute 
the main body of its most valued citizens, and upon 
them and upon the interest which they may take in 
its local affairs, must chiefly depend its future char- 
acter and prosperity. Dedham has become simply a 
suburban town in the immediate vicinity of the great 
city of Boston. It should be the effort of its people 
to make it a desirable place of residence for all who 
may come there to live, by actively maintaining its 
churches, its schools, its public library, and other 
public institutions, its moral and social character, its 
local town government, and every undertaking made 
to elevate or alleviate the condition of its people. 



This branch of the Bullard family traces its an- 
cestry in this country to William Bullard, who was 
probably the oldest Puritan of the name who settled 
in New England. He was born in 1594 and arrived 
here in 1635, and is spoken of as " a man of charac- 
ter and consideration," and a " distinguished Puri- 
tan." He probably first settled in Watertown, and 
subsequently became one of the planters of Dedham. 
He was the fifty-third signer of her social compact, 
and is found among the first to whom her lands were 
assigned, and on whom taxes were imposed. The 
line of descent is as follows: William (1), Isaac (2), 
William (3), Isaac (4), Isaac (5), John (6), William 
(7). Isaac (2) was entered on the records of Ded- 
ham in 1651, and in 1652 and 1653 was taxed 
above the average of her citizens. He married Ann 
Wight in 1655, and resided in Dedham. William 
(3) lived upon the present Bullard homestead in 
Dedham, and in 1697 married Elizabeth Avery. He 
was spoken of as " an insatiate lover of real estate," 
and carefully preserved ancient papers. He owned 
lands in Dedham, Walpole, Sutton, Upton, Sherborn 
Dividends (Douglass), Natick, and Charlestown, and 
was one of the great land-owners of the colony. 

Isaac (4) was a coroner, and received in 1731 
from his father, William, a deed of the homestead in 
Dedham. He married Mary Dean in 1731-32. 
Isaac (5) was born July 10, 1744, married Patience 
Baker in 1766, and died June 18, 1808. He in- 
herited the ancient homestead, and erected in 1787 
a house (near the site of the original one) which 
gave place in 1856 to the present stone-house. 

He was a man of intelligence and sterling worth, 
much employed in the transaction of public business, 
being often placed on important committees with his 
friend and neighbor, Fisher Ames. He long served 
the ancient church of Dedham as deacon, and was 
for many years returned a representative to the Gen- 
eral Court, and annually elected treasurer of Norfolk 
County from its organization in 1793 until his death 
in 1808. 

John (6), whose portrait accompanies this memoir, 
was born in Dedham, Jan. 9, 1773, married Lucy 
Richards in 1802, and died Feb. 25, 1852. He in- 
herited the Bullard mansion in Dedham, and suc- 
ceeded his father in the regard and confidence of the 
citizens of Norfolk County, manifested in his election 
to the oflBce of county treasurer on the death of his 

^•^ f'lryJiRRltchie - 




father ; and so acceptable were his services, and so 
highly was he esteemed as a man, that amidst all the 
violence of religious and political feeling, and the 
changes of office, he was, by the annual voice of the 
county, continued in this responsible position from 
1808 to 1852, a period of forty-four years; father 
and son having held the office fifty-nine years, from 
the incorporation of the county to 1852. He was 
universally esteemed, and his death was a public loss. 
His children were Maria, born May 4, 1803, married 
H. F. Spear, M. D., resided in Dedham and Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and died in 1863; John, born Jan. 2, 
^,1807, married Jane E. McKillup, resided in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and died Jan. 13, 1881 ; Lewis, born Aug. 
13, 1810, an iron and steel merchant in Boston, died 
April 13, 1881 ; and William, born April 20, 1816, 
married, in 1841, Mary R. Henderson, died Sept. 28, 

John and William carried on together a successful 
business in hides and leather in New York City ; 
William returned to Dedham in 1856, and thereafter 
took an active interest in its banking institutions and 
in the improvement of the town. To his effijrts, with 
those of others, it is indebted for the " Memorial 
Hall" and the upper or " cart" bridge. 

William only of this generation had children, who 
are Wm. M., born Jan. 13, 1842 ; John E,., born 
March 3, 1846 ; Lewis H., born Dec. 21, 1848, and 
Mary, born Feb. 18, 1855. 


Mr. Barrows was born in Middleboro', Plymouth 
Co., in the year 1795. In his youth he lived at 
home, assisting his father in the cultivation of his 
farm until 1812, when he entered a cotton-mill as an 
operative, where he continued for two years. From 
there he went to Wrentham, in this county, where 
he engaged in the same capacity for a time, from 
whence he was called back to his native town to take 
the superintendence of the mill in which he first 
commenced his labors. Here he remained five years, 
and then took charge of a mill in Halifax, Mass., 
until his removal to Dedham, in 1825, to act as 
agent of Benjamin Bussey and George H, Kuhn, in 
the manufacture of broadcloths. In 1842 the 
mills passed into the hands of Mr. Edmunds. In 
1847, Gardner Colby became a partner with Ed- 
munds, Mr. Barrows continuing his position as agent 
up to 1864, when he retired, and the mills were sold 
to the Merchants' Woolen Company. Soon after Mr. 
Barrows purchased the mill of the Norfolk Manu- 

facturing Company, on Milton Street, to which he 
made large additions and improved machinery, and 
began again the manufacture of woolens on his own 
account. His success varied with the times. In 
1872, owing to his advanced age and the depression 
of the woolen business, he was induced to sell his mill 
to Mr. Harding, and retired from business with his 
fortune materially reduced. 

Mr. Barrows married, early in life, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Bosworth, of Halifax, Mass., by whom he had four 
children, two sons and two daughters. The latter 
only are living, — Elizabeth, wife of Col. Stone, of 
Dedham, and Sarah, wife of C. H. Miller, of Jamaica 

Mr. Barrows was one of the many instances of a 
poor lad acquiring wealth and high social positio 
through a long course of honorable toil. 


Samuel Brazer Babcock was the son of Mr. Samuel 
Howe Babcock, and was born in Boston, Sept. 17, 
A.D. 1807. His early education was commenced at 
the academy in Milton, but afterwards completed in 
the English High School in Boston. He was a mem- 
ber of the first class of 1821, and officiated as chap- 
Iain at the semi-centennial celebration. He pursued 
his classical studies at Claremont, N. H., under the 
Rev. James B. Howe, the father of the present Bishop 
of South Carolina. 

He entered Harvard University in 1826, and grad- 
uated in 1830. He pursued his theological studies 
at first under the Rev. Alonzo Potter, then the rector 
of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Boston, and after- 
ward completed the same in the Episcopal Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Cambridge, Mass. In 1832 he was 
ordained a deacon by Bishop Griswold. During that 
year he first came to reside in Dedham, On the 9th 
day of October of the same year he was married to 
Miss Emmeline Foxcroft, the daughter of Mr. Fran- 
cis Augustus Foxcroft, of Boston. She was a woman 
of refined taste and excellent judgment, and proved to 
be a true and valuable helper to him through his long 
and arduous ministry, not only in domestic and social 
life, but also in the discharge of his parish duties. 
By her kindness of heart and gentleness of manner, 
and her many charitable ministrations to the desti- 
tute and afflicted, she well deserved the epitaph in- 
scribed upon the monument under the shadow of tho 
church she so much loved, — " When the ear heard 
her then it blessed her, and when the eye saw her it 
gave witness to her, because she delivered the poor 



that cried, the fatherless, and those who had none to 
help them." 

In 1833 he was advanced to the jjriesthood, and 
appears in the Convention as minister of St. Paul's 
Church, Dedham, but does not report himself as 
rector until the Convention of 1834. In principle he 
was a stanch churchman, but he was truly catholic in 
spirit. His habitual cheerfulness of spirit and kind- 
liness of manner made him eminently successful in 
his visitations to the sick and sorrowful. In his pul- 
pit ministrations he did not present the gospel truths 
in forms of gloom. He taught no hopeless reproba- 
tion of the sinner. If he showed him the enormity 
of his guilt, he also pointed out a sure way of escape 
through the redemption of Jesus Christ. Believing 
in the holy Scriptures as the word of God, and accept- 
ing the creed of the church as its sure warranty, he 
indulged in no vain speculations. With the whole 
sincerity of his nature he himself rested, and he 
taught his people to rest, in the grand simplicity of 
the truth as it is in Jesus. 

In 1833, when he first took full charge of the 
parish, all its affairs were in a most unpromising- 
condition. The old church building itself hardly 
presented decent accommodations for the proper 
celebration of divine service. The parishioners were 
few in number, and had not been accustomed to de- 
vote much of their worldly wealth towards the support 
of the church; in fact, everything, both temporal 
and spiritual, had fallen into a most lamentable 
condition, and to all human appearance everything 
looked dark and discouraging. But he, by his 
cheerful disposition and his patient and untiring 
energy, gradually taught his people to hope for 
better things. Under his wise management his 
parish increased in stability and influence year by 
year. This growth continued to increase till in 1845 
he induced his old parishioners, and many new ones 
who had become members during his ministry, to 
make liberal subscriptions for the erection of a new 
church, and with the valuable aid which he obtained 
from churchmen outside of his own parish he suc- 
ceeded in raising sufficient funds to build a new and 
beautiful church, costing over seven thousand dollars. 
By the contributions of friends and the timely aid of 
the faithful women of his parish the church was duly 
furnished. It was consecrated Jan. 15, 1846. He 
now secDQed to have reached the result for which he 
had prayed and labored for so many years, and his 
heart was satisfied. 

For upwards of ten years afterward the temporal 
and spiritual interests of his parish were in a pros- 
perous condition, and he lived and labored joyously 

among his beloved people. But this prosperity was 
not permitted to continue. He was soon to meet a 
new and severe trial of his faith. 

On a cold Sunday morning in December, 1856, the 
beautiful church he so much loved suddenly disap- 
peared in flames. 

But the faithful servant of God did not yield to 
discouragement. On that same Sunday morning, 
while the flames were consuming the church, he 
celebrated, in another place temporarily prepared for 
the purpose, the holy communion, to strengthen the 
souls and encourage the hearts of his sorrowful 

When the time for action arrived he was ready, 
heart and hand, to aid in raising means for rebuilding 
the sanctuary. He was always full of hope, and he 
never doubted the success of the enterprise. By his 
own faith and zeal, and the energy and liberality of 
his parishioners, the sorrow for the loss of the former 
church was soon changed to joy. 

In its place there arose a new fire-proof stone 
church of much larger dimensions. This church, 
when the tower was finished and the spire erected in 
1869, cost over thirty thousand dollars. It was duly 
consecrated June 17, a.d. 1858. 

After this time, during the remainder of his min- 
istry, his life seemed to be almost entirely free from, 
trouble and anxiety. 

Sometimes the indications of failing health admon- 
ished him of the necessity of temporary relief from 
his pastoral labors, but the interests of his church 
continued to flourish, and he enjoyed the strong and 
undivided afiection of his people. He had calls to 
other fields of labor, but he chose rather to remain 
in the parish he so much loved, and among the people 
with whom he had so long dwelt. So great was his 
attachment to this, his only parish, that he was never 
willing to spend his vacation where he could not 
readily answer any call for his pastoral services. 

Thus he continued to grow in the love and rever- 
ence of his own people, and the high estimation of 
all who knew him. 

His influence was by no means confined to the 
limits .of his own parish. He did much for the 
educational interests of the town of Dedham. He 
was for a long time an active and influential member 
of the school committee, and was chairman of the 
board when the high school was established. 

He was the most active and influential agent in 
establishing the parishes at Wrentham and Hyde 
Park, and devoted much time and labor towards the 
accomplishment of the work. 

He was four years secretary of the Diocesan Board 

^-'^"^oyAH RUc>m- 






of Missions ; nineteen years he was treasurer of the ' 
Diocesan Convention, and was president of the Stand- ■ 
ing Committee from 1868 to 1873, the time of his 1 
death. He was specially interested in the Society for 
the Relief of Aged and Indigent Clergymen of the 
Diocese, and spared no efforts to enforce upon church- 
men the claims of this excellent charity. 

He was for many years a member of the General 
Board of Missions from Massachusetts, and twice a 
delegate to the General Convention. 

In 1870 he received the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity from Columbia College, New York, and the 
same year the same degree from Griswold College, 

Three years afterward, on a pleasant autumnal 
Monday morning, he went into the city, apparently 
in his usual health, to attend a meeting of the clergy, 
and, while drafting a resolution, he was suddenly 
seized by an attack of apoplexy, from the effects of 
which he died in Boston, Oct. 25, a.d. 1873. 

His remains were brought to Dedham, and in the 
succeeding week, in the presence of his family rela- 
tives and his many friends, were quietly laid to rest 
where he had always desired to be — under the shadow 
of his own church, and near the grave of the sainted 

Thus ended the comparatively long and useful life 
of one who was distinguished, not as a sensational or 
popular preacher, but as an earnest, devoted Christian 
minister, who was found faithful even unto death, 
and who now inherits the unfading crown of an 
endless life. 



Thomas Burgess and Dorothy, his wife, of Pilgrim 
memory, who arrived at Salem, Mass., about the year 
1630, afterwards removed within the limits of Ply- 
mouth Colony, and were among the original members 
of the church formed at Sandwich in 1638. Thomas 
Burgess was a prominent man in that place, becoming 
a large landholder, filling various oflSces, being in his 
later years called Goodman Burgess, and dying in 
1685, at the age of eighty-two. His descendants 
number at the present time several thousands, and 
are scattered throughout the country from Maine to 
California. In some branches of the family the name 
has been gradually changed into Burghess, Burges, 
Burgis, Borgis, Burge, and Burg. 

The Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, who belonged to the 
sixth generation from the forenamed Thomas, was the 
son of Prince Bureess and Martha Crowell. He was 

the ninth of eleven children, and was born in Ware- 
ham, April 1, 1790. The homestead which descended 
from Ebenezer of the third generation still belongs 
to the family, as is also the case with the patriarchal 
estate of the Pilgrim Thomas, in Sandwich. The 
parents of Dr. Burgess, no less than remoter ancestors, 
possessed to a marked degree the better traits and 
habits of early New England, as regards piety, indus- 
try, thrift, and public spirit. At the home in Ware- 
ham influences were peculiarly suited to the cultiva- 
tion of reverence, truthfulness, self-restraint, energy, 
and methodical ways. Domestic worship, morning 
and evening, was a truly hallowed season, and the 
Sabbath, strictly kept, was a day of elevated religious 
enjoyment. At eighteen years of age (April 24, 
1808) Dr. Burgess publicly expressed the hope that 
he had been savingly renewed, made profession of 
faith in Christ, and entered into fellowship with the 
church of his fathers. 

His fifteenth year found him master of a grammar 
school in his native town ; and entering Brown Uni- 
versity a year in advance, he graduated (1809) with 
honor. Though among the younger members, he 
was inferior to none of them in propriety of conduct, 
diligence in study, or extent of attainments,^ and was 
by all regarded as among the very first in the class 
for scholarship. Immediately upon graduation he 
was chosen principal of the University Grammar 
School. From the year 1811 to 1813 he was a tutor 
in the college. After spending some time in theolog- 
ical study with Dr. Emmons, at Franklin, he entered 
the Middle Class of the Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, and graduated in 1815. His only surviving 
classmate, the Rev. Herman Halsey, now (1884) 
ninety-one years of age, writes with his own hand: 
" In scholarship he was accounted the leading mem- 
ber of his class ; his character as a Christian was of 
the higher type ; as a man, modest and dignified , as 
a companion, amiable, unpretending, courteous, gen- 

Having completed his studies at Andover, he became 
Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 
the University of Vermont. That was the period of 
reorganization of the University. It had been closed, 
and the buildings had been occupied by our general 
sovernment durintr the war of 1812-15 with Great 
Britain. A rival institution had, in the mean time, 
diverted to itself the current of students ; political 
intrigues hindered resuscitation ; and after two years 
of waiting for prosperity which did not return till 
I some time later, Dr. Burgess was the more ready to 

1 MS. letter of the late Rev. Jacob Ide, D.D., a classmate. 



yield to solicitations that he would enter upon a special 
service in behalf of the American Colonization Society. 
Samuel J. Mills, who had become an agent of that 
society, was requested to enlist some one as an asso- 
ciate in visiting Sierra Leone and other parts of the 
West African coast, with a view to selecting a site for 
a colony of free blacks from the United States. 
" Will you go. Brother Burgess?" wrote Mills in 
1817. " Can we engage in a nobler effort? We go 
to make free men of slaves. We go to lay the foun- 
dation of a free and independent empire on the coast 
of poor degraded Africa. Your knowledge of the 
Spanish language may enable you to perform most 
important services. The information you have already 
obtained on the subject under consideration qualifies 
you to be eminently useful on the mission." While 
at Andover he had been deeply interested in behalf of 
the colored race, and a series of articles from his pen 
had appeared in the newspapers of Boston, and other 
articles elsewhere. He accepted the proposal. The 
two men received their commissions, and sailed from 
Philadelphia, Nov. 17, 1817. The voyage was mem- 
orable for a very signal deliverance. During a terrific 
storm the captain ordered the masts to be cut away. 
The ship drifted helplessly toward a ledge of rocks 
which extended both ways as far as the eye could 
reach, and on which the sea was dashing furiously. 
" We are gone for this world !" exclaimed the captain. 
Dr. Burgess went on deck, where the crew, in con- 
sternation and expecting death momentarily, gathered 
round him, and he commended them to the mercy of 
Almighty God. Fellow-passengers in the cabin were 
at the same time engaged in earnest prayer. The ship 
on coming within a few rods of the rocks was caught 
by a strong current, carried into deeper water, and 
borne along nearly parallel with the reef. She rounded 
the western extremity, just grazing on a shoal of sand, 
and was safe. All exclaimed, " It is the work of 
God !" 

Arriving in London, the two commissioners pre- 
sented their letters to Zachary Macaulay (father of 
the late Lord Macaulay), previously Governor of 
Sierra Leone, and to the Rev. Messrs. Pratt and 
Bickersteth, secretaries of the Church Missionary 
Society. William Wilberforce also received them 
cordially, and introduced them to Lords Bathurst and 
Gambler, preparatory to their introduction to His 
Royal Highness, the Duke of Gloucester, who was 
president of the African Institution. 

The required information having been obtained, 
and other preparations made, they embarked for 
Africa Feb. 2, 1818. A voyage of seven weeks 
brought them to their destination, where letters from 

Lord Bathurst, Secretary of State for the Colonies, to 
the Governor and other officers at Sierra Leone, secured 
for them civilities and assistance. The two agents 
having made needed exploration of the coast for more 
than two hundred miles, and held intercourse with 
native chiefs, embarked May 22d on their homeward 
voyage. Within less than a month Mills died of 
a pulmonary disease, and was buried in the ocean. 
Returning by way of England, Dr. Burgess arrived 
home Oct, 22, 1818. The report of the exploration 
served materially to concentrate the thought and en- 
courage the anticipations of those who were friendly 
to African colonization. He was requested to super- 
intend the establishment of that colony which became 
the Republic of Liberia ; but his health was impaired ; 
the effects of an African malarial fever were still upon 
him, and he had other duties in view. His interest, 
however, in the cause of colonization remained with- 
out abatement, and in 1827 the managers " Resolved, 
That the thanks of this society be presented to the 
Rev. Mr. Burgess for his continued exertions in the 
cause of this society." When in 1839 the constitu- 
tion was so altered as to admit directors for life, on 
the payment of one thousand dollars, he became one. 
In 1843 he was chosen a vice-president of the Massa- 
chusetts Colonization Society, and the year following 
its president, in place of Hon. William B. Banister, 
deceased ; but he declined on the ground that the 
office should be filled only by a layman. A town in 
Liberia was named Millsburgh, in token of combined 
respect for the two explorers. 

Some months in the winter and spring of 1819-20, 
Dr. Burgess spent in study with the Rev. Dr. Edward 
Dorr Griffin, at Newark, N. J., but on the last Sabbath 
of July in the last-named year he commenced supply- 
ing the pulpit of the First Church in Dedham. This 
church, the fourteenth in the order of seniority among 
churches organized in New England, was instituted 
Nov. 8, 1638. There had been a succession of six 
pastors, five of whom died in office, and one, then 
living, the Rev. Joshua Bates, D.D., had, early in 
1818, become the president of Middlebury College. 
In the autumn of that year the parish, having called 
a minister in opposition to the voice of a majority of 
the church, the latter, by a decision of the Supreme 
Court, lost its records and other property. A new 
house of worship, however, was ready for dedication 
at the close of 1819, and Dr. Burgess was installed 
pastor March 14, 1821. 

During the forty years of his active ministry in 
Dedham he commanded, with great uniformity, the 
respect of his fellow-citizens, and the unwavering 
confidence and deferential affection of his parishioners. 



In the pulpit he was always noticeably reverent, and 
there, as well as elsewhere, his devotional exercises 
were characterized by appropriateness, variety, and 
freshness. His sermons never failed to have a lucid 
arrangement, a practical aim, and well-considered, in- 
structive material. Mere speculation and imaginative 
flights were quite foreign to his ideas of what is best 
suited to the wants of a congregation, needing, as 
every congregation does, to be built up in a firm and 
intelligent apprehension of the great truths and duties 
of the evangelical system. Theologically he differed 
but little from Jonathan Edwards. Among the Scrip- 
ture doctrines uniformly inculcated, and always im- 
plied in his discourses, were the native depravity of 
the human heart, the consequent need of regenerating 
grace, the duty of immediate repentance and faith in 
the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ, who is God 
manifest in the flesh. The days of the Assembly's 
Catechism were not then numbered, and in that the 
young were faithfully taught. Neighborhood prayer- 
meetings were not unfrequently held ; and for years a 
week-day service, with preaching, was maintained at 
Mill village. Distance, darkness, inclemency of 
weather never detained him from any official ap- 
pointment. Indeed, his habits of punctuality, prompt- 
ness, and general fidelity were of a marked order. 

In pastoral labor the poor, the sick, and afflicted 
always received tender and faithful ministrations, and, 
where there was special need, were often thought- 
fully remembered in the way of temporal aid. The 
young of the congregation, whether in the Sunday- 
school or not, had a large place in his heart ; and in 
the form of little books or otherwise, they often 
received proofs of his affectionate thoughtfulness. 
Dr. Burgess took great pains to improve the service 
of song in the house of the Lord by his encourage- 
ment of singing-schools year after year. 

Secular education in the public schools enlisted his 
interest. He was the first, so far as is known, to intro- 
duce into New England the infant school with some- 
what of the kindergarten element. The first tem- 
perance gathering in Dedham was upon his invita- 
tion, which resulted in a town temperance society 
duly organized. He was also the first in the place to 
suggest au institution for savings, became the first 
president of the same (May, 1831), and continued 
in office till his death. Perhaps no savings-bank in 
the State has been more wisely and faithfully admin- 
istered. In the year 1826, Dr. Burgess built at his 
own expense a spacious vestry to the new meeting- 
house.^ During his active ministry there was scarcely 

1 Worthington's " History of Dedham," p. 125. 

a Congregational Church formed, or a house of wor- 
ship built in the vicinity, to which he did not con- 
tribute personal and pecuniary assistance. In sup- 
plying the families of Norfolk County with the Bible 
he took a prominent part. He held office in various 
local benevolent societies, and an active membership 
in several that were national. It would not be easy 
to reckon up the number of boxes containing useful 
and valuable articles that went from his house for the 
aid and comfort of home missionaries at the West. 

When the fortieth year of his pastorate and the 
seventieth of his life were completed (1861), Dr. 
Burgess resigned official responsibilities and salary. 
At the outset of his ministry the average Sabbath 
congregation was about one hundred. In the church 
of eighty resident members there was, at that time, 
not one young man. Growth, however, steady, 
healthful, and substantial, took place. Five or more 
seasons of marked religious interest occurred. One 
of these was in the year after his ordination, when 
fifty-two members were added to the church ; another 
in 1827, the fruits of which were seventy-three such 
additions ; yet another in 1832, when sixty-seven 
heads of families made public confession of faith 
in Christ. No professional evangelist was employed 
by him ; the occasional services of earnest and judi- 
cious ministers were welcomed. Upon his demission 
of pastoral duties the membership of the church 
numbered two hundred and fifty-three, all but six of 
whom had been received in the course of his min- 
istry. During the same period nearly an equal num- 
ber (two hundred and thirty-two) had left to consti- 
tute or to strengthen other churches, the Spring 
Street Church in West Roxbury being a colony from 
that in Dedham. The whole number admitted was 
six hundred and twenty-four, of whom one hundred 
and forty were removed by death, while the obituary 
list of the society amounted to between five and six 
hundred. Two hundred and seventy-five marriages 
were solemnized, and three hundred and ninety-five 
children baptized. 

When Dr. Burgess became a pastor annual minis- 
terial vacations had not come in vogue. As time 
advanced it became his practice to take a journey, at 
considerable intervals, with his family, visiting the 
Middle or Western States, or Canada. One voyage 
with an invalid brother-in-law, Mr, Edward Phillips, 
was undertaken in the summer of 1826, and in 1846 
-47, accompanied by his family, he made a tour in 
Europe, which embraced, besides the countries usually 
visited by Americans, two or three which were then 
less frequently resorted to, Russia and Sweden, a trip 
down the Danube to Constantinople, a visit to Greece, 



Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Sketches, to a limited 
extent, of the trip, which involved an absence of 
fifteen months, appeared in the form of letters to the 
Puritan Recorder. 

As a general thing Dr. Burgess refrained from 
frequent contributions to the periodical press, and 
such contributions, when made, were almost invaria- 
bly anonymous. For similar reasons, partly from 
native modesty and self-distrust, partly from a fixed 
purpose to allow nothing to interfere with professional 
duties, he refrained from authorship. He had schol- 
arly tastes, was more or less acquainted with the 
French, Italian, Spanish, and Arabic; was familiar 
with the Hebrew, as well as the Greek and Latin ; 
he had clearly defined opinions regarding the topics 
of the day ; he used the pen daily and with much 
ease ; and yet he shunned the enticement and the 
publicity of ordinary book-making. With rare ex- 
ceptions he declined, when requested, to give sermons 
into the printer's hands. Only a few were published, 

•' A Sermon preached before the Auxiliai'y Educa- 
tion Society of Norfolk County," 1825. 

" Wareham Sixty Years Since :" a discourse deliv- 
ered at Wareham, May 19, 1861. 

" Our Fathers Honorable and Useful to Posterity :" 
a Centennial Discourse delivered in Dedham, Nov. 8, 
1838. This was the closing sermon in the volume 
entitled " The Dedham Pulpit," pp. 517, which Dr. 
Burgess edited in 1840. 

A sketch of the Rev, Samuel John Mills, Jr., 
from his pen is found in Sprague's " Annals of the 
American Pulpit" (18-19), vol. ii. pp. 569-72. 

In 1865 appeared the " Burgess Genealogy," a 
volume of 212 pages. 

As a minister of the gospel, " This one thing I do," 
was his motto ; hence he declined the presidency of 
Middlebury College, which was ofi"ered him not long 
after his ordination. Other offers of eligible positions 
were also declined. It was a settled purpose with 
him not to allow his name to stand in any connection 
implying responsibility without endeavoring faithfully 
to meet the demands of the place. This led him to 
resign as trustee of the Andover Theological Seminary, 
when his tour of 1846-47 would occasion an absence 
from at least two meetings of that body. 

Whatever a man's public character may be, the 
home test is, after all, the chief test. In his domestic 
life and relations Dr. Burgess was peculiarly happy. 
May 22, 1823, he married Abigail Bromfield, a daugh- 
ter of Lieutenant-Governor William Phillips, who 
became a helpmeet, with warm sympathy in all his 
religious interests and labors. Hospitality, which 

now seems to be fast becoming a lost art, was gener- 
ously exercised at their house. Not only parishioners, 
but numberless other persons found a uniform and 
hearty welcome. For more than twoscore years it 
was a ministers' home, a frequent place for their rest 
and refreshment. Home and foreign missionaries 
found an asylum there. Distinguished visitors from 
a distance were often guests. 

A more afi'ectionate father, wisely indulgent, yet 
tenderly vigilant and firm, it would be hard to find. 
The early conversion of his children and their relig- 
ious culture were evidently his chief aim. The tes- 
timony of many who were well acquainted — having 
been inmates of the family for months, and some of 
them even for years — is that as head of the house- 
hold Dr. Burgess was most exemplary, prudent, sym- 
pathizing, noticeably thoughtful of the comfort and 
welfare of all, domestics included. One who spent 
three years in the family, a person of high culture, 
keen discernment, and connected with a different 
denomination, has said, deliberately, " He was the best 
man I ever knew." 

In stature Dr. Burgess was above the average 
height, erect, and finely proportioned. The first im- 
pression made upon a stranger would be that of dig- 
nity and gravity. One acquaintance used to pronounce 
him " the last of the Puritans." For the Puritans and 
Pilgrims he entertained a profound filial respect. His 
native county had a large place in his heart. On vis- 
iting Plymouth, holding his first-born child in a large 
willow basket, he set the little fellow on Pilgrim Rock, 
and, raising his hands towards heaven, engaged in 
silent prayer. 

Dr. Burgess' manners were in some measure old- 
time manners, with a touch of primitive New England 
stateliness. But it required no long acquaintance to 
discover a genuine benignity, a pervasive kindliness. 
No harsh judgments would escape from him ; no loss 
of temper would ever be witnessed ; no social or pro- 
fessional indiscretions would be detected. The clerical 
office was sure to be respected in the man. Egotism 
had no place ; for ostentation he cherished a deep dis- 
like. Regularity, personal neatness, and temperance 
in meats and drinks were characteristics. His three 
thousand manuscript sermons are models of unblem- 
ished orderliness ; not a blot and scarcely an erasure 
could be found on them. 

In all later years Dr. Burgess enjoyed excellent 
health, which was due in part, no doubt, to well-regu- 
lated exercise in superintending and cultivating his 
farm on the banks of Charles River. To human ap- 
pearance there was every reason to suppose that in 
longevity he might even surpass his ancestors. la 






March, 1870, however, at eighty years of age, he met 
with an injury which undermined his strength, and 
which induced or aggravated a fatal complaint. Only 
a few times could he appear at worship on the Lord's 
Day. Suffering became extreme, but it was borne with 
Christian heroism till December 7th, when, joyfully 
trusting in Him who is the resurrection and the life, 
he entered into rest. Underneath his name on a 
monument in the cemetery are these words, — 

" Whose faith follow." 


Alvan Lamson was born at Weston, Mass., Nov. 
18, 1792. The genealogy of the family does not 
seem to be very well known. John Lamson, the 
great-grandfather of Alvan, is believed to have gone 
from Reading to Weston, and is supposed to have 
been the son of Joseph Lamson, of Charlestown, or 
Joseph Lamson, of Cambridge, — the name Joseph 
Lamson appearing in both places. Joseph Lamson, 
of Cambridge, was the son of Barnabas Lamson (or 
Lamsonn, as he wrote his name), of Cambridge. 

John Lamson, of Weston, the grandfather of Alvan, 
was born in 1724, married Elizabeth Weston, of 
Lincoln, and died in 1785. 

John Lamson, the father of Alvan, was born in 
Weston, in 1760. He married Hannah Ayers. of 
Needham, Oct. 17, 1790, and died Sept. 3, 1833. 
He was a farmer, owning the land he cultivated. 

Alvan Lamson worked on his father's farm till he 
left home for the academy at Andover. He early 
showed a love of reading and study, being marked at 
the district school as exemplary in conduct and rank- 
ing high among his schoolmates. When still young 
he looked forward to studying for the ministry. 
After attending the district school and being for some 
time under the instruction of Dr. Kendall, the clergy- 
man at Weston, he went to Phillips Academy, And 
over, where he completed his preparatory studies, and 
in 1810 entered Harvard College. 

His class — the class of 1814 — contained several 
who stood high in after-life, among others, James 
Walker, who became professor and president of the 
college; Pliny Merrick, who was judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Massachusetts ; and William H. 
Prescott, the historian. He took a high rank among 
his classmates in the beginning, and maintained it to 
the end. In college, as at the academy, he depended 
largely on his own exertions for his support. 

For two years after graduating he was a tutor in 

Bowdoin College. He then entered the Divinity 
School at Cambridge, appearing in the catalogue as 
a member of the first class which graduated from the 
school (in 1817). 

In 1818 he was invited to become the pastor of 
the First Church and Parish in Dedham, and, after 
some hesitation, accepted the invitation. 

It was a time of change in religious societies. 
Differences of opinion and belief had become de- 
cided and sometimes irreconcilable, many old parishes 
were divided and new ones formed. There was dis- 
agreement in the Dedham Church and Parish as in 
others. A considerable majority — two-thirds, or 
more — of the parish sympathized with what was 
called the Liberal, or Unitarian belief, the larger 
number of the most active members of the church 
being more favorable to what has been known as the 
Orthodox faith. The invitation to Dr. Lamson was 
given by the parish without the concurrence or 
approval of the church, though a majority of the 
members of the church finally acquiesced in the 
action of the parish. Hence arose a controversy 
which was prolonged and bitter. The parish, and, 
in its turn, the church, summoned a council, and the 
conflict led to legal proceedings, the final decision of 
the Supreme Court ^ being that the parish and the 
portion of the church which remained with it still 
continued to be the First Church and Parish, re- 
taining all their rights and property. The members 
of the church and parish who were not satisfied with 
the consequences of this decision withdrew and 
formed a new association, the church thus consti- 
tuted being now known as the "Orthodox," or " Allin 
Congregational Church." 

After his settlement Dr. Lamson devoted himself 
to his parish and to literary pursuits. His life was 
earnest and laborious, but, like most lives given to 
study and the quiet performance of duty, it affords 
little on which the writer of a brief memoir may 
enlarge or which will arrest the attention of a casual 
reader. He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from his college in 1837, and acquired a high repu- 
tation as a preacher, writer, and scholar. He at- 
tended carefully to his pastoral duties, performing 
them with his best strength and ability. 

He fully appreciated the importance of good 
schools, and gave much time and labor to the care 
and improvement of the public schools of the town, 
being an active member of the school committee for 
a number of years, and diligently attending to some 
of its most troublesome and important duties. 

1 Baker vs. Fales, Mass. Rep., vol. xvi. p. 488. 



His health was never robust, and at times was 
quite feeble, and his work often brought weariness, 
nervousness, and discouragement, — uncomfortable 
days, and nights with little sleep. About middle 
life he was attacked by a serious illness, which, be- 
sides its effect on his general health, produced a 
paralysis of certain muscles, and which perplexed and 
baffled his physician. He suffered from this for 
several years, but was finally relieved by vigorous 
treatment at the hot sulphur springs of Virginia. 
During his absence there the cause of his illness was 
almost accidentally discovered. It arose from the 
use of water impregnated with lead. This water was 
brought from a spring on " Federal Hill." through 
logs, to two reservoirs in the village, and thence dis- 
tributed by lead pipes. It was supposed to have 
caused several cases of severe illness and some deaths. 

This visit to Virginia in pursuit of health, and a 
trip to Europe of a few months in 1853, were prob- 
ably his most extended absences from home after his 
settlement. Living thus in Dedham, which during 
the earlier part of his residence was a somewhat 
secluded village, he came to feel a strong attachment 
to the place and his people, and a deep interest in all 
that concerned them, and these feelings continued to 
the end of his life. 

Dr. Lamson had a strong literary taste. He had 
a high estimation of the Greek and Latin classical 
writers and the standard English and American 
authors, and was well versed in general literature. 
He was a ready though not a hasty writer. His 
style — always pure and simple — had force and 
beauty, and his writings won the warm praise of his 
contemporaries, who were most capable of judging of 
them. He was for a number of years a member of 
the examining committee in Rhetoric, during the 
professorship of Edward T. Channing, in Harvard 

He wrote many articles in the Christian Examiner, 
of which, with Rev. E. S. Gannett, he was editor from 
January, 1844, to May, 1849. He published a 
volume of sermons in 1857, and a number of occa- 
sional sermons and addresses, including " A History 
of the First Church and Parish in Dedham, in three 
Discourses," delivered Nov, 29 and Dec. 2, 1838. 
He was fond of historical and antiquarian researches, 
was a member of the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, and one of the original members of the Dedham 
Historical Society. 

He was especially interested in the history of the 
early church, and in the works of the early Christian 
writers, — the Fathers, as they are often called. In 
1860 he published a volume entitled " The Church 

of the First Three Centuries." He spent much time 
on this work after its first publication, and a revised 
and enlarged edition of it was issued in 1865, after 
his decease, under the supervision of Professor Ezra 
Abbot. He was familiar with the history and doc- 
trines of New England Congregationalism, and was 
summoned as a witness in a case in the New Hamp- 
shire Court,^ which depended on the meaning of the 
term " Congregational." He was also selected to 
write the article on Unitarianism, in Rupp's " History 
of all the Religious Denominations in the United 

Dr. Lamson was very fond of country life, thought 
much of his garden, and took great interest in agri- 
culture, pomology, and arboriculture. He was a 
member of the Norfolk Agricultural Society, and de- 
livered the annual address before it in 1857. 

His personal character was of much simplicity. He 
was conscientious, — sometimes more than conscien- 
tious, — scrupulously honest and honorable in his 
dealings, always anxious to avoid violating the rights 
of others, and often ready to sacrifice his own. But 
he was not wanting in judgment and sagacity. He 
was exact in the performance of all which he regarded 
as duty, desiring to leave nothing undone which 
properly belonged to him to do, but was generally in- 
dulgent in his judgment of others. He was no 
ascetic, and was never inclined to condemn a reason- 
able indulgence in the amusements of life. In his 
hours of leisure he enjoyed social intercourse, though 
a natural reserve and sensitiveness, and his studious 
habits, prevented him from seeking it as constantly as 
many do, and gave him the appearance of caring less 
for it than he really did. 

His connection with his parish continued till Oct. 
29, 1860, — forty-two years from the time of his 
settlement, — when his resignation, offered a little 
while before, took effect. After his retirement he 
still retained a lively interest in the affairs of the 
parish, taking part in the instruction of the Sunday- 
school, and holding himself ready to aid his successor 
and his people whenever his assistance was desired. 

He married, in 1825, Frances Fidelia Ward, 
daughter of Artemus Ward, who was a long time 
chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas. He 
died July 18, 1864, of paralysis, of which he had 

1 Attorney-General vs. Dublin, New Hampshire Rep., vol. 
xxxviii. p. 459. Dr. Lamson testified fully for the defendant in 
this case, but the court, in their decision, held that such evi- 
dence was not admissible, and that the meaning of the word 
Coniji-ef/ntional should be determined by the court as a question 
of law, reference being made to historical works and other 
works of authority. 

'/Zly (^^/j&'V-^ M. y^c/^ 



had a slight attack the preceding year, — an attack so 
slight that its true character was hardly recognized 
at the time. 

The following is a list of the publications of Dr. 
Lamson : 

Sermons, 12mo, pp. 424. 1857. 

The Church of the First Three Centuries ; or, 
Notices of the Lives and Opinions of some of the 
Early Fathers, with special reference to the Doctrine 
of the Trinity : illustrating its late origin and gradual 
formation. 8vo, pp. 352. 1860. 

Second edition of the same, revised and enlarged ; 
edited by Ezra Abbot. 8vo, pp. 410. 1865. 

An edition of this work, with additional notes by 
Henry lerson, was published by the British and 
Foreign Unitarian Association. London. 1875. 

Pamphlets. — Sermon on the Adaptation of Chris- 
tianity. 1825. 

Remarks on the Genius and Writings of Soame 
Jenyns, and on the Internal Evidences of Christianity. 

Sermon preached at the Ordination of Rev. Charles 
C. Sewall, at Danvers. 1827. 

Discourse at the Dedication of Bethlehem Chapel, 
Augusta, Me. 1827. 

Discourse on the Validity of Congregational Ordi- 
nation (Dudleian Lecture). 1834. 

Sermon on the Sin against the Holy Ghost. 1835. 

A History of the First Church and Parish in 
Dedham, in three Discourses, delivered Nov. 29 and 
Dec. 2, 1838. Published in 1839. 

A Discourse delivered on the day of the National 
Fast, on occasion of the death of President Harrison. 

Congregationalism. A Discourse delivered before 
the Massachusetts Convention of Congregational 
Ministers. 1846. 

The Memory of John Robinson. A Discourse de- 
livered at Dedham, Sunday, Dec. 21, 1851. 

Impressions of Men and Things Abroad. A Ser- 
mon preached at Dedham, Sept. 11, 1853, after 
an absence of some months in Europe. 

Agricultural Life in some of its Intellectual 
Aspects. An Address delivered before the Norfolk 
Agricultural Society, Sept. 30, 1857. 

A Sermon preached Oct. 31, 1858, the Sunday 
after the Fortieth Anniversary of his Ordination. 

A Discourse preached Oct. 28, 1860, on Resign- 
ing the Pastoral Charge of the First Church and 
Parish in Dedham, after a Ministry of Forty-two 

Funeral Sermons. — On Ebenezer Fisher, Jr. 1847. 

On Mrs. Mary Dean. 1851. 

On Rev. John White. 1852. 

On John Endicott. 1857. 

On Hon. James Richardson. 1858. 

Tracts (Unitarian). — On the Doctrine of Two 
Natures in Jesus Christ. First Series, No. 20. (Re- 
printed in England.) 

On the Foundation of our Confidence in the 
Saviour. First Series, No. 89. (Reprint of Sermon 
at Ordination of C. C. Sewall. j 

On Earnestness in Religion. First Series, No. 188. 

What is Unitarianism ? First Series, No. 202. 
(Reprint, after revision, of the article on " Unitarian 
Congregationalists," in Rupp's " History of all the 
Religious Denominations in the United States.") 


Ira Cleveland was born in the town of Hopkinton, 
Middlesex Co., Mass., Feb. 1, 1802. When four 
years old he moved with his father, Ira Cleveland, to 
a farm in Milford, Worcester County, and was occu- 
pied in attending school and in assisting his father 
in agricultural pursuits until he entered college. He 
prepared at a private academy in Mendon, entered 
Brown University in September, 1821, and graduated 
in 1825 valedictorian of his class. Soon after leaving 
his Alma Mater he began to study law at Marlboro', 
Mass., and in 1828 came to Dedham and entered 
the oflSce of the Hon. Horace Mann, where he was 
engaged in attending law lectures and preparing for 
admission to the bar. During the December term of 
the Court of Common Pleas, in 1829, he was duly 
admitted as an attorney-at-law, and in the usual 
course a counsellor in that and the Supreme Judicial 
Court. The ten years which followed were given ex- 
clusively to his law practice, which by his industry 
and wisdom increased until he received a goodly .share 
of the business of the county, and held a satisfactory 
position as an advocate. He always had a high re- 
gard for the justice and equity of the several legal 
tribunals and the integrity of their officers, but at the 
same time he was never disposed to favor litigation, 
and in most cases advised his clients to adjust their 
disputes by private agreement, rather than have re- 
course to an expensive and extended process by law. 

Mr. Cleveland, in 1840, was connected with the 
Dedham and Norfolk County Mutual Insurance Com- 
panies, and became so much engaged with the prosecu- 
tion of this business that he gradually withdrew from 
the bar. He was also appointed public administrator, 
which office he held forty-two years. At the present 
writing, although in his eighty-second year, he is ac- 



tively engaged with the above-named corporations, as 
president of one and treasurer of both. 

In the spring of 1837, Mr. Cleveland married Miss 
Frances M. Whitney, daughter of Major T. P. 
Whitney, of Wrenthani. His wedded life was brief 
He buried his wife and infant daughter in the year 
following. In his intense bereavement he found a 
deeply sympathizing friend in the Rev. Dr. Babcock, 
rector of St. Paul's Episcopal Church. He was 
affectionately taken into his family and provided with 
a home, where he remained until it was broken by 
death, a period of forty-three years. He now resides 
in the family of the present rector, the Rev. Arthur 
M. Backus. 

Mr. Cleveland, soon after coming to Dedham, in- 
terested himself and others in beautifying the streets 
and squares of the village. Many ornamental trees 
were planted in various quarters, and the village 
cemetery changed from a dilapidated condition to one 
of order and attractiveness. 

His more excellent labors have been in behalf of 
St. Pauls Church. He became a member of the 
church in 1838. The same year he was elected 
warden and a delegate to the Diocesan Convention of 
Massachusetts, and has acted constantly in these 
capacities until the present time. His gifts to the 
parish have been generous and frequent. He was 
actively engaged in forwarding the execution of the 
church building which was constructed in 1845, 
costing seven thousand dollars. After this church 
was burned, his efficient help enabled the parish to 
build the present beautiful stone edifice, at an expense 
of over thirty thousand dollars. The sum donated 
by him to assist in these two cases was greater than 
thirteen thousand dollars. He was largely instru- 
mental in erecting the costly monument to the memory 
of the late Bishop Griswold which stands on the 
north side of the church ; and, together with Joseph 
W. Clarke, Esq., placed the beautiful testimonial in 
marble, which stands near it, to the memory of his 
cherished friend and rector, Rev. Samuel B. Babcock. 
In 1881 he added to his constantly increasing bene- 
factions the gift of a chime of ten bells, the largest 
weighing three thousand and fifty pounds, at a cost 
of over five thousand dollars. In 1882 the gratitude 
of the parish was called for again through the oSbr 
to decorate the interior of the church at an expense 
of more than three thousand dollars. The acceptance 
of this gift enabled him to fulfill his heart's desire, 
and to make glorious that object upon which his affec- 
tion was set, viz., the House of God. 

Mr. Cleveland, although weighted with the burdens 
of over fourscore years, is wonderfully active and 

well preserved. His life has been unostentatious, yet 
not devoid of strength and earnestness. Intensity of 
purpose and persevering devotion are his prevailing 
characteristics. These, with his benevolence and 
generosity, will make him ever to be venerated, and 
his name one which his friends and associates will 
ever delig-ht to honor. 


Elder John White, the ancestor of Joseph W. 
Clark on his mother's side, was one of the first set- 
tlers of Cambridge, of Hartford, and of Hadley, Mass. 
He was a passenger in the ship " ]jyon," which sailed 
from England June 22, 1632. She brought one 
hundred and twenty-three passengers, thirty-three 
adult males, including John White. The General 
Court had assigned the town of Cambridge — then 
called Newtowne: — for their settlement, together with 
the company of Rev. Thomas Hooker, who had ar- 
rived a short time before and made a temporary settle- 
ment at Braintree. Here John White found his first 
home in this Western world. His home-lot, with his 
dwelling-house, was on a street called Cow-Yard Row. 
This home-lot with about thirty acres farming land 
was early allotted to him, and in August, 1633, the 
town granted him three-fourths of an acre more for 
a cow-yard. Gore Hall, the beautiful library building 
of Harvard University, probably now graces this cow- 

The location and quantity of his allotments indicate 
that in his contributions to the common stock he was 
in a middle place, neither among the wealthier nor 
poorer class. 

In February, 1635, the town made its first election 
of a board of seven men " to do the business of the 
whole town." They were then called Townsmen or 
selectmen. John White was one of the number 
chosen. Soon after the Rev. Mi-. Hooker and his 
people began to feel straitened in their accommo- 
dations, and determined to look out for a new home. 
They selected the valley of the Connecticut, and 
having obtained the reluctant consent of the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts, in June, 1636, the main body 
of the company effected their removal. 

Trumbull, the historian, says in his graphic narra- 
tive, " About a hundred men, women, and children 
traveled more than one hundred miles through a 
tedious and tractless wilderness to Hartford. They 
had no guide but their compass over mountains and 
rivers, through swamps and thickets, with no covering 
but the heavens ; they drove one hundred and sixty 

^ng ^tyAE-PAtcK^^ 




head of cattle and subsisted on the milk of the cows. 
Mrs. Hooker was borne on a litter through the wil- 
derness." In the records of Hartford, John White 
appears as one of the original one hundred proprietors. 
His home-lot was on what is now Governor Street; 
only eighteen of the original had a larger share than 
his. Here he was chosen one of the board of 
" Orderers," as the selectmen were called. Little is 
known of his private life except that he was a frugal 
and industrious farmer, careful in securing for his 
children a good education. 

Dissensions soon arose in the church between the 
minister and Elder Goodwin, and it was determined 
by the elder and his following to found a new colony. 
On the 18th of April, 1659, sixty persons signed an 
agreement to remove to Hadley. John White's name 
being fifth on the list, indicates that he was one of 
the leaders in this important step. The town record 
of Hadley says, " This plantation by the engagers 
did on the 9th of November, chuse by vote six per- 
sons (John White being one of them) to order all 
publick occasions that conscerns the good of the plan- 
tation for the yeare ensuing." The margin of the 
record calls this the first choice of " Townsmen." 

Thus were laid the foundations of Hadley, — the 
frontier settlement of that day, — looking out towards 
the northwest, north, northeast, and east on the 
boundless forest and its savage Indian occupants. 
John White's share in the common enterprise was 
one hundred and fifty pounds, the highest share 
being represented by two hundred pounds. He at 
once took an active part in the affairs of the town, 
and was sent a number of times as deputy or rep- 
resentative to the General Court at Boston. As evi- 
dence of his good report among the brethren, he was one 
of the " messengers" from Hadley when the church 
at Northampton was gathered, in the year 1661. 

After 1670 his name does not appear in the records, 
he having returned to Hartford. A new church was 
formed there, and he was chosen elder in it. The 
home of twenty-three years of the vigor of his life 
retained a strong hold on his affections, and it needed 
only the attraction of a church formed after his idea 
of a perfect Scripture model to win him back to his 
early home. His life was prolonged to a good old age, 
and in the winter of 1683-84 he rested from his 

His good sense and sound judgment are attested 
by the nature of the services his fellow-citizens sought 
from him. Each of the three important towns in 
which he lived received his aid in management of its 
prudential affairs. 

The capacity to discharge the duties of a townsman 

as well as those of representative to the colonial 
Legislature was in that day an indispensable pre- 
requisite to the appointment. The office of ruling 
elder in the church, which he held during the last 
ten or twelve years of his life, was one of great in- 
fluence and importance; it was designed to relieve 
the pastor of a considerable part of the responsibility 
attending the government and discipline of the 
church. It required a grave and discreet man, one 
who had earned a good report of those without and 
within the church. Such a one in all respects fur- 
nished for his work was our John White. 

To be the descendant of one whose qualifications 
caused him to be palled to these various duties in the 
church and in the State, and who has discharged 
them well, is a matter of just pride. 

His descendants should abundantly honor the an- 
cestor in whose footsteps they may so safely walk. 

Joseph W. Clark was born in Easthampton, Mass., 
Sept. 16, 1810. He was the seventh generation 
in descent from " the Most Worshipful William 
Clarke, Esq." (as the record has it), who died in 
Northampton, July 19, 1690, aged eighty-one. He 
was born in England in 1609, and sailed from 
Plymouth with his family in 1630, in the ship " Mary 
and John," for Boston, a few weeks before that dis- 
tinguished company of fifteen hundred, headed by 
John Winthrop, afterwards Governor, in a fleet of 
thirteen vessels, from the Isle of Wight for Salem. 
He settled flrst with the Dorchester colony, where he 
remained till 1659, when he was induced to join the 
Northampton colony, which was made up in good 
part by his companions on the voyage from England, 
particularly his lifelong friend, Elder John Strong. 

These two worthies were perhaps equally con- 
spicuous in stamping their unbending Puritan princi- 
ples upon this frontier colony. Two years later, viz., 
in 1661, at the organization of a train-band or militia 
company of sixty men, the number being incomplete, 
and not large enough to entitle them to a captain, 
William Clarke was chosen the highest officer, viz., 
" lieutenant," — at that time considered a most impor- 
tant position, securing to him ever after the dis- 
tinguishing title of Lieut. Clarke. 

He held other important positions, — as representa- 
tive to the General Court at Boston, and for more than 
twenty years one of the selectmen. He was one of 
the judges of the County Court, held alternately at 
Northampton and Springfield. He was mentioned^ 
moreover, as one of the seven pillars on which, with 
the first minister, the church there was originally 

The descendants of this godly man number many 



thousands, some of whom, even of the ninth genera- 
tion, are active to-day in the affairs of church and 
state in most of the States of the Union. 

He settled on a twelve-acre lot on what is now 
Elm Street, there being no street till long afterwards. 

The President Seelye place is part of this lot, and 
through the long period of over two hundred and 
twenty years some part of these twelve acres has con- 
tinued in possession of Lieut. William's descendants. 
In point of longevity and rapid increase, this is prob- 
ably the most remarkable family ever reared in the 

The record shows that the sixth child of Lieut. 
William had eleven children ; one died in early life, 
three lived to be above seventy, three above eighty, 
and four above ninety. Of these, six were sons, and 
each lived with the wife of his youth more than fifty 
years. Governor Caleb Strong says they were all 
living within his memory, all were respectable, and 
in good circumstances. One of the sons, Lieut. 
Ebenezer, who lived near the President Seelye place, 
attained the age of ninety-nine. At his death, in 
1781, there had sprung from the original pair, as 
stated by President Dwight, of Yale College, eleven 
hundred and forty-five persons, of whom nine hundred 
and sixty were then living. When it is remembered 
that all this relates simply to one of Lieut. William's 
sons, viz., Deacon John and his posterity, some faint 
idea may be formed as to the multitude of his de- 
scendants, which it is estimated would number not 
less than thirty thousand. His tomb and monument 
may be seen in the old cemetery at Northampton. 

Asahel Clarke, the fifth in descent from Lieut. 
William, was born Feb. 17, 1737, was a lieutenant 
in the Revolutionary army, and died in Easthampton, 
on his eighty-fifth birthday, in 1822. He married 
Submit Clapp, who died in 1818. They had twelve 
children. The sixth son, Bohan, was born in 1772, 
and died at Cambridge in 1846. He married, in 
1802, Polly White (J. W. Clark's mother), of Had- 
ley. She died in Romeo, Mich., October, 18G8. 
They had four sons and two daughters. 

When Joseph was eight years old his father re- 
moved to Northampton, having bought the mill 
property on Mill River with the homestead on South 
Street. Here he had only the advantages of a com- 
mon-school education till 1825, when he went to 
Providence to live with his brother, li^noch White, 
who had established a banking-house there as a 
branch of the eminent firm of S. & M. Allen & 
Co., of Philadelphia and New York, who had also 
similar branches in many of the Southern and West- 
ern cities. In 1829, before he was twenty years old. 

he was admitted as partner with his brother in the 
new firm of E. W. Clark & Bro. A few years later 
the concern established itself in Boston, and in 1836 
E. W. Clark removed to Philadelphia and founded 
the house of E. W. Clark & Co., which is continued 
to-day by the children of the two succeeding gen- 
erations, and enjoys deservedly a high position there. 
Joseph W. remained in Boston, under the style of 
J. W. Clark & Co. From these two parent houses 
in Philadelphia and Boston sprang E. W. Clark, 
Dodge & Co., of New York ; E. W. Clark & Bros., 
of St. Louis ; Clark's Exchange Bank, of Springfield, 
111. ; and E. W. Clark, Brothers & Farnum, of New 

In 1834 he married Eleanor Arnold Jackson, 
daughter of Nathan W. Jackson, of Providence, R. I. 
The first seven years of married life they lived in 
Boston, and three children were born there, viz. : Ran- 
dolph Marshall, Agnes White, and Eleanor Jackson. 
In 1840 he bought a beautiful residence on Blue Hill, 
in Milton, where three children were born, — Mary 
Frances, Annie Crawford, and Susan Groodman. Five 
years later he removed to Dedham, and since that time 
— thirty-nine years ago — he has lived there. Here 
Carrie Ward, the youngest child, was born. She died 
in Boston in 1872. Randolph Marshall married, in 
1863, Mary Vinton, daughter of Rev. A. H. Vinton, 
of St. Mark's Church, New York City. He died 
Sept. 11, 1872, in Dedham, leaving two daughters, 
who, with their mother, live in Boston. Agnes White 
married, in 1859, Charles Van Brunt, of Dedham, son 
of Commodore Van Brunt, of the United States navy, 
Mary Frances married, in 1863, Dr. Courtland Hop- 
pin, of Providence, R. I. He died in 1876, leaving 
three children. Annie Crawford married, in 1867, 
Edward Sturgis Grew. They have four children and 
live in Boston. He is partner in the commission 
house of Lawrence & Co., successors to the eminent 
firm of the last generation of A. & A. Lawrence & 
Co. Susan Goodman married, in 1867, Gustav Stell- 
wag, a German merchant, who lives in New York. 

In Dedham Mr. Clark took an active interest in 
all local improvements. He was the chief promoter 
of the Dedham and Hyde Park Gas Company some 
thirty years ago, and has for many years been presi- 
dent of the corporation. More recently the people 
are indebted to Mr. Clark, with two or three enter- 
prising citizens, for perhaps the i^reatest boon that 
has ever been conferred upon the town, the water- 
works, giving an ample supply of pure spring water 
for all domestic and fire purposes. But for his pecu- 
niary aid and influence it is not probable that this 
would have been accomplished perhaps for many 



years. From his earliest residence in town he has 
been intimately identified with St. Paul's Episcopal 
Parish, under the rectorship of his early and constant 
friend, Rev. Samuel B. Babcock, D.D. He was for 
many years junior warden, with his friend Ira Cleve- 
land as senior. He was a liberal contributor in all 
the departments of church and parish work. He 
was frequently chosen delegate to the diocesan con- 

Soon after the treaty with the Indians, by which 
the upper peninsula of Michigan was ceded to the 
United States when the vast wealth of the mineral 
deposits began to be known and appreciated, he be- 
came greatly interested in these lands, and has since 
that time been identified with the wonderful devel- 
opment of that region which has added so vastly to 
the national wealth, and has become one of the lead- 
ing sources of copper supply for the world, while this 
wilderness of ice and snow has been converted into a 
vigorous and thrifty commonwealth, with schools and 
churches, and the accompaniments of civilization as 
found in the Eastern States. He was one of the 
original proprietors of the land which made up the 
Calumet and Hecla mines when they were entered at 
one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre under the land 
department of the United States government. This 
is probably the richest copper-mining property ever 
developed in the annals of mining. The present valua- 
tion is about twenty-five million dollars, while an equal 
amount has been divided in money to the shareholders, 
aggregating little less than fifty million dollars. He 
is president of the St. Mary's Canal Mineral Land 
Company. This was the largest land company in the 
United States up to the time when the enormous sub- 
sidies for railroad building began to work. This grant 
was for seven hundred and fifty thousand acres from 
the United States government to the State of Michigan 
for the purpose of building a canal round the Falls 
of St. Mary's at the outlet of Lake Superior, and its 
completion opened to the world the vast commerce 
of that inland ocean. Now, since the Northern Pa- 
cific Railroad is extended to Puget Sound and the 
Pacific Ocean, the mind can hardly grasp the magni- 
tude of the interests involved. He is president of the 
Osceola Consolidated Mines, a legitimate and conser- 
vative company, which has been successfully worked 
some ten years, and in the past seven years has paid 
regular dividends aggregating about one million dollars 
to the shareholders. For more than forty years he 
has been one of the managers and treasurer of the 
" Episcopal Clerical Fund," a chartered society for 
the relief of aged and indigent clergymen, and a 
liberal contributor to its funds. In 1881 he made 

a gift of ten thousand dollars as a memorial to bis 
son, who was for many years greatly interested in 
its beneficent work. This fund is known as the 
"Randolph Marshall Clark Memorial Fund." He 
is one of the board of trustees of donations to the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and has been for forty- 
five years. He has traveled quite extensively at home 
and abroad, has made ten voyages across the Atlantic, 
made an extended tour through Norway and Sweden 
and Continental Europe. From Stockholm he crossed 
the Baltic through Finland to Petersburg and Mos- 
cow to Novgorod, at the head of navigation on the 
Volga; then down that river and the Don by the Sea 
of Azof and the Straits of Kertch into the Black Sea, 
visiting Sevastopol, Balaklava, and the intensely in- 
teresting fields of the great strife of France and Eng- 
land against Russia in 1854-55, returning, via Odessa 
and Galatz, up the Danube through Hungary and 
Austria. He also visited Cuba soon after the bloody 
termination of the Lopez expedition, having for its 
object the invasion and revolution of that island. 

The sudden death of Randolph Marshall was a 
severe shock to his father, and made him nearly for- 
get his interests in matters of daily life. But he 
soon resuined the management of his alfairs, which 
since his protracted absence in Europe he had almost 
wholly placed in his son's hands by unlimited power of 
attorney. His early education was under the eye of 
his pastor. Dr. Babcock, of Dedham : then he went 
to Churchill's military school, at Sing Sing, N. Y., 
where he prepared for Harvard University. He 
graduated with honor in the class of 1855. Then 
he spent some years in travel and study, and entered 
into mercantile life as treasurer of a factory in which 
his father was largely interested. The church of his 
choice in which he was reared carried the afi"ections 
and convictions of his manhood. He was a devout 

On breaking out of the Rebellion he enlisted in the 
Massachusetts First Cavalry as lieutenant, and went to 
South Carolina, where he served in the region about 
Hilton Head and Beaufort. He saw some hard 
service there. Then ordered North, he served on the 
lower Potomac, and the campaign culminated for him 
in the hard-fought battle at Antietam. He was pro- 
moted to captain in the Massachusetts Second Cavalry 
Regiment, but was soon after invalided by the surgeon 
of his regiment without his consent, or even his 
knowledge, and returned to his home with broken 
health. Disease contracted here probably cost him 
his life. 

He was thoroughly educated, — accomplished in 
French and German. He traveled much, crossed 



the Atlantic twelve times, spent a winter in Dresden, 
made a journey through Norway and Sweden, visited 
Russia twice, and had exceptional facilities for oh- 
servation which he did not fail to improve. His 
occasional letters to the press, over the signature of 
" Dolphus," were extensively copied through the 
country. His lecture on " Moscow and Central 
Russia" was received with marked favor. 

The exceptional relations of companionship and 
trust which always existed with his father were re- 
markably tender and touching. 

The following tribute to his worth is most appro- 
priate and expressive : 

"Military Order Loyal Legion, United States. 

" Headquarters Commandery of the State of 

" Boston, October 3, 1873. 

"At a stated meeting of this Commandery, held at the Parker 
House, School Street, on Wednesday evening, October 1, 1873, 
the following report of a committee to draft resolutions relative 
to the decease of Companion Captain Randolph M. Clark, 
late First Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers Cavalry, was 
adopted : 


" Companion Captain Randolph Marshall Clark, died at his 
boyhood"'s home, at Dedham, Massachusetts, September 11, 1873. 

"An earnest, upright man, strong in his convictions and 
conscientious in his expression of them, — he united with a cul- 
tivated mind sound judgment and thoroughness, — independence 
of thought and fearlessness of action, — kindliness of heart and 
tenderness of sympathy, — governed always by principles of 
right and justice, — a trusted friend, — a good soldier, — a valued 
citizen, — a true man. 

" Resolved, That by his death is stricken from the list of 
living companionship and added to the increasing roll of our 
fallen comrades, — who rest in peace, — another name, which 
shall be guarded in memory with tenderness. 

" Re&olved, That we deeply deplore the death of our com- 
panion in the midst of his usefulness, and realize the loss we 
are called to mourn. 

" Resolved, That we' tender our heartfelt sympathy to that 
home circle in which he was so loved. 

" Resolved, That the recorder be instructed to transmit a 
copy of these resolutions to the afflicted family of our deceased 
companion, and that this declaration of our remembrance be 
entered upon the records of this Commandery. 

"Arnold A. Rand, 

"Col. U. S. Vols., 
" George N. Macy, 

" Brevet Maj.-Gen. U. S. Vols., 
" Francis A. Osborn, 

"Brevet Brig.-Gen. U. S. Vols., J 


}■ Committee. 

[E.xtract from the Minutes.] 

"Charles Dkvens, Jr., 

"Bvt. Major-Gen. U. S. Vols., Commandey. 
" Jas. B. Bell, Recorder." 


Ezra W. Taft, son of Frederick and Abigail Wood 
Taft, was born in Uxbridge, Mass., Aug. 26, 1800. 
Early in life he commenced that business activity 
which has since been characteristic of the man. He 
came to Dedham in 1815 and went to work with 
Frederick A. Taft, who started the Dedham Manu- 
facturing Company. He remained here most of the 
time until 1820. In that year, then only twenty 
years of age, he went to the neighboring town of 
Walpole, where he hired a little mill and made forty 
thousand yards of negro-cloth for the Southern trade. 
In 1823 he went to Dover, N. H., and assisted in 
starting the Cocheco Mill, now one of the largest 
cotton-mills in New England, where he remained 
three years as overseer. In 1826 he returned to 
Dedham and took the agency of the Dedham Manu- 
facturing Company, which position he retained six 
years. In 1832, Mr. Taft severed his connection 
with this company and assumed the agency of the 
Norfolk Manufacturing Company at East Dedham, 
where he built the stone mill now standing, and re- 
mained in this connection thirty years. At the time 
Mr. Taft first identified himself with the manufactur- 
ing business all yarn was spun at the mills and sent 
out through the country to be woven. From this 
crude beginning he has lived to witness the develop- 
ment of the business until a modern woolen-mill is 
one of the wonders of the nineteenth century. 

In 1864, Mr. Taft retired from manufacturing, 
and since that time has devoted himself almost con- 
tinuously to the business of the town. For more 
than thirty years he was a member of the school 
committee, and for thirty-one years a director of the 
Dedham Bank, and since 1873 has been its presi- 
dent. He has been connected with the Dedham In- 
stitution for Savings since its organization, and is one 
of the investment committee at the present time. 
He has also been a member of the old Norfolk In- 
surance Company since its organization, and is a 
director in the Dedham Mutual Insurance Company. 
He was for fourteen successive years one of the se- 
lectmen of the town, during twelve of which he was 
chairman of the board. He also represented Dedham 
four years in the Legislature, besides filling many 
other positions of honor and trust. No citizen of 
the town of Dedham has been so continuously con- 
nected with bank and town business as Mr. Taft, 
who lives to enjoy the fruition of a successful busi- 
ness career. 

Mr. Taft's grandfather, Samuel Taft, lived to be 
over eighty years of age, and had twenty-two chil- 






dren. He was a noted hotel-keeper in Uxbridge 
during the Revolution, and had the honor of enter- 
taining Gen. Washington and staff on their journey 
north. A pleasing incident is related in this con- 
nection. Washington was so much pleased with Mr. 
Taft's two daughters that he sent them each a hand- 
some dress as evidence of his gratitude for their kind- 
ness and attention to him during his sojourn. 

Frederick Taft, father of the subject of this notice, 
was a very active public man in Worcester County. 
He was surveyor for all the southern portions of the 
county, and for twenty years was deputy sheriff. ' He 
lived to the advanced age of eighty-seven, and his 
wife, Abigail Wood, reached the age of ninety years. 

Mr. Taft is a member of the Orthodox Church, 
and a Republican in politics. He has ever labored 
zealously to advance the interests of the town, whether 
material, religious, or educational, all finding in him 
an earnest advocate, ever ready to take the laboring 
oar in all good works. 

Sept. 8, 1830, Mr. Taft united in marriage with 
Lendamine Draper, eldest daughter of Calvin Guild, 
of Dedham, and their feniily consists of six children, 
all of whom were present at Mr. and Mrs. Taft's 
golden wedding, which was celebrated Sept. 8, 1880. 


Well may the name and worth of Carlos Slafter 
have honorable mention in the liistory of Dedham, 
for to him, perhaps more than to all others, is the 
town indebted for the prosperity of the high school 
and for the measure of usefulness to which it has 
attained. This school was founded in 1851, and in 
1852 Mr. Slafter became its principal, and has re- 
mained in that capacity to the present time, a period 
of over thirty years. He watched with untiring zeal 
over its struggling infancy, and, as its hold on the 
community grew firmer and its usefulness broader, 
his watchful interest kept even pace with its benefi- 
cent development. He has constantly suggested and 
instituted measures for its progressive advantage. 
At an early day he arranged a course of study for 
three years, and soon after for four years ; and, with 
various modifications demanded by the advance in 
educational ideas, the four years' course has been 
continued. The sons and daughters of his earliest 
pupils have been graduated, some for college and 
some for normal schools, and many for business pur- 
suits. Mr. Slafter has been a careful observer of the 
progress and improvements in teaching, and has aimed 
to keep abreast of the times. He has found great 

sources of enjoyment in his calling, and yet has not 
been so absorbed in it as to lose interest in the affairs 
of the community in which he lives. 

The Dedham Library Association was formed at 
his suggestion, and to his energy and untiring de- 
votion is largely due the foundation of the public 
library, an institution of great public benefit, and of 
which the town has much reason to be proud. 

From early manhood, almost boyhood, Mr. Slafter 
has been an educational instructor. He is son of 
Sylvester and Mary Slafter, and was born in Thet- 
ford, Vt., July 21, 1825. The district school fur- 
nished his early means of education, and after a full 
term of study at Thetford Academy, at the age of 
sixteen years and a few months, he began to teach 
in the town of Fairlee, Vt. For several years he 
taught winter schools in the town of Lyme, N. H. 
Dividing his time between work on the farm and 
study at the academy, he entered Dartmouth College 
in the summer of 1845. By teaching winters he 
obtained the chief means of completing his college 
studies, and was graduated in 1849. At the close 
of his college course he decided to devote himself to 
the teacher's calling, although fully aware that it did 
not offer pecuniary rewards to satisfy the most 
ambitious minds. 

The two years after graduation he spent in Ded- 
ham, chiefly in teaching, but for several months he 
read law in the office of Ira Cleveland, Esq. In 
1851 he became principal of the high school in 
Framingham, Mass., but at the close of the year he 
was recalled to Dedham, where the years of his active 
life have been spent. 

In May, 1865, Mr. Slafter was ordained a deacon 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church, and was chap- 
lain several years for the Dedham jail and house of 
correction, but, finding clerical duties combined 
with teaching too burdensome, for several years he 
has wholly relinquished the former. 

In 1858 he married Rebecca, daughter of William 
and Rebecca (Dagget) Ballard, and their family con- 
sists of a son and daughter, — Theodore Shorey and 
Annie Rebecca, — the former an artist, educated in 
the Royal Academy of Munich, and is now in Bos- 
ton, and the latter, having spent three years in the 
Massachusetts Normal Art School, is now a teacher 
of art in the Westfield Normal School, at Westfield, 

Eliphalet Stone was born in Hubbardston, Wor- 
cester Co , Mass., May 12, 1813. At the age of 
six years he was left fatherless, and his family being 



in very moderate circumstances he was adopted by a 
relative. Though he was ambitious to acquire an 
education, his early advantages were extremely 
limited, being such as farmers' boys received forty 
years ago in the district school. He entered into the 
active business of life at an early age, and in 183.3 
settled in Dedham, since which time he has been 
largely engaged in the baking and grocery business, 
real estate and building, and for many years was the 
leading auctioneer in that part of the county, and 
what is a little unusual with so many " irons in the 
fire," he succeeded in all. He has been especially 
active in building residences in the east village, and 
has labored earnestly to advance the interests of this 
part of the town, and has lived to see it develop from 
an insignificant portion of the town to its present 
prosperous condition. 

Mr. Stone from early youth has manifested a lively 
interest in agriculture and horticultural pursuits, and 
has written many valuable papers on fruit culture. 

Col. Stone, as he is familiarly called, has been 
honored by his fellow-citizens with many positions of 
trust and responsibility, and for four years repre- 
sented the town of Dedham in the legislature, viz., 
1861, '62, '63, '69. This was during the dark days of 
the Rebellion, and it is but simply justice to Col. 
Stone to add, tluit during the war no person was 
more interested in the welfare of our soldiers than 
he, and that he even sacrificed his business interests 
to visit the soldiers upon the field, and made arrange- 
ments for their comfort, and also interested himself 
in making suitable provision for their fiimilies. Be- 
nevolence is one of his leading characteristics, and 
no one was ever turned empty-handed from his door. 

Although now past the scriptural age of three- 
score and ten, he apparently retains all the vigor and 
elasticity of youth, and is a specimen of the good- 
natured, whole-souled, careless man, whose greatness 
hangs lightly upon him. He has a prodigious amount 
of power, which he carries, apparently, with the ut- 
most indifference and ixnconcern to himself. He is a 
fine specimen of the gentleman of the old school. 
With much dignity and courtesy in his manners, he 
is strictly honorable, frank in his address, a keen 
observer of men, emphatic in the expression of his 
views, and is justly held in high esteem by the people 
of Dedham. He is a Republican in politics. 

Oct. 10, 1839, he united in marriage with Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the late Thomas Barrows, a notice 
of whom may be seen on a previous page of this 


The subject of this sketch traces his ancestry in 
this country to Richard Paul, one of the first settlers 
of Taunton, Mass., who is first mentioned as purchas- 
ing land in Taunton in 1637, and married Marjorie 
Turner, of Taunton, in 1638. The line of descent is 
as follows : Richard, Samuel, Samuel, Samuel, Eb- 
enezer, Samuel, Ebenezer. Samuel, the great-grand- 
father of Ebenezer, came to Dedham in 1719, and 
settled in a portion of the town which is now known 
as Hyde Park, bordering on the Neponset River, 
where five generations of the name subsequently lived 
from 1719 to 1867, — one hundred and forty-eight 
years. (A portion of this farm was occupied by the 
government during the war of the Rebellion, and was 
known as the " Readville Camp-Grounds.") His son, 
Ebenezer Paul, was born June 16, 1738, and died 
Aug. 20, 1803. Samuel, son of Ebenezer, was born 
July 21, 1784, and died July 8, 1833. 

Ebenezer, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
that part of Dedham now known as Hyde Park, Nov. 
26, 1819. He was reared as a farmer, and has fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits through life. He has 
given his time and attention to his favorite calling, 
and is ranked among the progressive agriculturists 
of the town. He is a worthy citizen and a man of 
sterling integrity. In 1867, after its occupancy by the 
government, he sold the Paul farm and purchased the 
Deacon Samuel Fales estate in Dedham, where he 
now resides. Politically, he is a Republican, and a 
member of the Orthodox Congregational Church. 

April 15, 1847, Mr. Paul united in marriage with 
Susan Dresser, of Dedham, a native of Lunenburg, 
Mass. They have had six children, five of whom 
are living, viz.: Henry M., born June 25, 1851; 
Edward C, born Oct. 10, 1853; Isaac F., born Nov. 
26, 1856; Ebenezer T., born Dec. 6, 1858; Susan 
F., born May 24, 1861, died Oct. 12, 1862; Martha 
D., born Nov. 1, 1865. 

Henry M. graduated from Dartmouth College in 
1873, and from Thayer School of Civil Engineering 
in 1875. He then went to Washington as assistant 
professor of astronomy in the United States Naval 
Observatory. He married Augusta A. Gray, of 
Washington, Aug. 27, 1878. In 1880 he was called 
to Japan to open the chair of astronomy at the Im- 
perial University of Tokio, which position he held 
till his return to his former position in Washington 
in the fall of 1883. He has one son, Carroll Paul, 
born in Tokio, Japan, May 6, 1882. Edward C. 
resides in Dedham, and is assistant cashier of the 
Dedham Institution for Savings. He married Jo- 


Enq ''byA.M RUchie 


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^^^ ^^^^ 



sephine M. Prince, of Dedham, Oct. 12, 1881. 
Isaac F. graduated from Dartmouth College in 1878, 
was admitted to the bar in 1882, and is now a prac- 
ticing lawyer in the city of Boston, where he resides. 
He married Ida L. Batcheller, of Fitzwilliam, N. H., 
March 22, 1883. Ebenezer T. resides on the home- 
stead. He married Marietta Taylor, of Wakefield, 
Mass., Nov. 7, 1882. Martha J), is at home with 
her parents, not having yet completed her education. 

Chauncey C. Churchill, son of William L. and 
Eliza Lamphear Churchill, was born in West Fairlee, 
Vt., Sept. 26, 1815. Like many of the leading men 
of to-day at the bar, among the clergy, and in busi- 
ness circles, he was reared on a farm, received the 
advantages of the common and high schools, and 
subsequently engaged in teaching. During four 
winters he engaged in this laudable vocation, in the 
mean time working on a farm during the fall and 
summer seasons. 

In 1839 he went to Salisbury, Mass., as an em- 
ploye in the Salisbury Mills, where he remained until 
1842. He then came to Dedham, and entered the 
employ of what is now the 3Ierchants' Woolen Com- 
pany's Mills, remaining thirteen years, until 1855. 

His business capacity, integrity, and usefulness 
as a citizen had won for him the confidence and 
esteem of the people of Norfolk County, and in 1855 
he was elected to the responsible and honorable 
ofl&ce of county treasurer, and has been successively 
re-elected to the present time, a period of nearly 
thirty years. 

In 1864 he was appointed deputy collector of in- 
ternal revenue, and served five years. He was also 
a member of the Dedham school committee for nine 
years, commencing in 1871. Although not a com- 
municant of any ecclesiastical body, he is an active 
member of the AUin Evangelical Society, in Ded- 
ham, and has been its collector and treasurer for 
a number of years. 

June 7, 1842, he united in marriage with Peme- 
lia Sabin, daughter of Deacon Benajah Sabin, of 
Salisbury, Mass., and their family consists of two 
children, a son, Chauncey S., and a daughter, Isa- 
dore Maria, wife of Charles H. Leeland, of Dedham. 
Mr. Churchill's long and honorable public service 
has won him liosts of friends, and he is justly re- 
garded as one of Dedham's most esteemed and 
honored citizens ; all movements looking to the 
welfare of his adopted town have found in him an 
earnest advocate. 

Dr. George A. Southgate dates his ancestry in this 
country to Richard Southgate, who came from Eng- 
land in 1714, the line of descent being as follows: 
Bichard, Richard, Isaac, Samuel, Samuel, George A. 
In 1718-19 the latter, with his family, consisting 
of wife and five children, accompanied by his brother 
John, joined a company who moved from Boston and 
vicinity to Strawberrry Hill, in Worcester County, 
and organized the town now known as Leicester. 

The elder Richard Southgate was the first treasurer 
of the town and a large landholder, receiving from 
the original grant seven hundred and forty acres of 
land. He was a civil engineer, and did much in 
making and laying out lots in the town. The lon- 
gevity of the family is remarkable. Richard died in 
Leicester, aged eighty-four, and his son Richard also 
died in Leicester, aged eighty-four. 

Isaac, son of the second Richard, also lived and died 
in Leicester at the age of eighty-one ; and Samuel, 
son of Isaac, lived and died in Leicester, in 1859, 
aged eighty-one ; and Samuel, father of the subject of 
this sketch, died in Dedham in 1877, aged seventy 

Dr. Southgate's mother was Charlotte Warren Ful- 
ler, daughter of Charlotte Warren. His maternal 
great-grandmother was Elizabeth Wheeler, and his 
great-great-grandmother Mary Belcher Bass Hen- 
shaw, whose father was Joseph Bass, who married 
Ruth Alden, daughter of John Alden and Priscilla 
Mullen. His mother and grandmother are both 
living in Leicester, aged seventy-three and ninety- 
three years respectively. 

Dr. Southgate was born in Leicester, Sept. 27, 
1833, and educated at Leicester Academy, where he 
fitted for college, and continued under a private tutor 
for two years. After spending two years in New 
York he entered the oflBce of Jonathan E. Linnell, 
' M.D., of Worcester, and when sufficiently advanced 
entered the medical department of Dartmouth Col- 
i lege, Hanover, N. H., under Dixi Crosby. He 
took his degree in Philadelphia in 1859, and in the 
! same year commenced practice in Millbury, where he 
I remained until July, 1863, when he removed to Ded- 
ham, where he has since remained in the active prac- 
tice of his profession. He was married June 13, 
1860, to Miss Mary Bigelow Willson, of West Rox- 
bury, daughter of Rev. Luther Willson, of Petersham, 
' and sister of Rev. E. B. Willson, now of Salem, for- 
merly of West Roxbury. They have five children, 
—Robert Willson, Delia Wells, May Fuller, Walter 
Bradford, and Helen Louise. Politically, he is a 
Republican, and in religion, liberal. 




Jeremiah W. Gay was born in Dedham, Aug. 30, 
1804. His father, Capt. William Gay, was born 
in Dedham, June 25, 1752. Nov. 25, 1790, he 
married Elizabeth Whiting, of Dedham, the daugh- 
ter of Joshua Whiting, by whom he had four children, 
— William King, who was born April 20, 1792, and 
died Jan. 6, 1860; Sophia, who was born Sept. 21, 
1793, and di6d, unmarried, at the age of seventy-eight 
years; Lucy, who was born Sept. 22, 1797, and died, 
unmarried, at the age of eighty-five years ; and Jer- 
emiah W., who was married to Hannah P]. Dean, 
daughter of Joseph and Hannah (Farrington) Dean, 
by whom he had two children, Joseph A., who died 
at the age of twenty-seven, and Lusher, who died at 
the age of three years. William King Gay married 
Susan Gould, by whom he had three children. Capt. 
William Gay died at the age of seventy-six years, and 
Elizabeth Whiting, his wife, died at the age of ninety- 
one years. The grandfather of Jeremiah W. Gay was 
Deacon Ichabod Gay, who married Elizabeth King, 
who died at the age of forty-two years. He after- 
wards married Lucy Richards, who also died at the 
age of seventy-three years. Deacon Ichabod Gay was 
a farmer, as were nearly all the ancestors of Jeremiah. 
He died, greatly respected, Dec. 14, 1814, at the age 
of ninety-one years. The great-grandfather of Jere- 
miah W. Gay was Lusher Gay, who was born Sept. 
26, 1685. The great-great-grandfather of the sub- 
ject of this sketch was Nathaniel Gay, who was born 
in 1642. Of Jeremiah W. Gay it may well be said 
that he has shown respect to the scriptural injunction, 
" remove not the ancient landmark which thy fithers 
have set up," for the old homestead has remained in 
the possession of the family from the time of the first 
settlement of Dedham down through six generations 
to the present time. The ancestors of Mr. Gay were 
buried in the First Parish cemetery and in the cem- 
etery in West Dedham. 

The educational advantages enjoyed by Mr. Gay 
were those of the common school. He has been a far- 
mer all his life, and the presence of a comfortable home 
with modern appointments, fine barns and outbuild- 
ings, and broad, well-tilled acres clearly indicate a 
large measure of success. Mr. Gay inherits the 
manly bearing and positive character of Deacon Icha- 
bod Gay, his grandfather, who was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war. The parents of Mr. Gay were 
members of the Unitarian Church, and were highly 
respected. Mr. Gay was in politics a member of the 
Whig party, and has been identified with the Repub- 
lican party from its organization. He has been an 

extensive reader on agricultural matters, is well ad- 
vised of the current news of the day, and is a man 
whose opinion on general matters is rendered of value 
by reason of the sturdy good sense with which he is 
endowed. Mr. Gay has lived in Dedham all his life, 
and has always been respected as a good citizen and 


Edwin Whiting, only son of Abner and Loacada 
Whiting, was born in Dedham, Jan. 27, 1806. 
His father was born in Dedham and married Loacada 
Whiting, by whom he had four children, three daugh- 
ters and one son. In 1786 he built the house in 
which his children were born, and which has been 
continuously occupied by members of the family up 
to the present time. There have been but two deaths 
in the old homestead, that of himself and that of his 

Edwin is of the seventh generation from Nathaniel 
Whiting, who settled in Roxbury, Norfolk Co., at 
a very early date. 

The ancestors of Edwin became farmers and mil- 
lers, and carried on an extensive business after the 
settlement of Dedham, prior to which one had settled 
on the banks of the Charles River and another on the 
Neponset River, where they gained a livelihood by 
trapping and hunting. Edwin's father was a farmer, 
and Edwin was reared on the farm, being the fourth 
child, his three sisters passing away at advanced ages. 
Edwin's father died at the age of seventy -seven, and 
his mother at the age of eighty-six. 

Mr. Whiting received the sort of education ordi- 
narily obtained in the district school, attending only 
the winter term, and working on the farm with his 
father during the summer. Thus he continued to 
live until the death of his father, when at the age of 
thirty-two years he took possession of the farm, making 
just and equitable settlement with his sisters for their 
portion of their father's estate. He subsequently 
inherited considerable property from his uncle, Ed- 
ward Whiting, who died without issue. Mr. Whit- 
ing's paternal grandfather was Joseph, and his ma- 
ternal grandfather was Joshua. Mr. Whiting married 
Rebecca Dean, who was the daughter of Joseph and 
Hannah (Farrington) Dean, of Dedham, by whom 
there was born to them a daughter and son. Mrs. 
Whiting died Feb. 12, 1882, and the daughter, 
Frances R., directs the household affairs for her 
father. The son, George E., carries on the farm 
affairs. Mr, Whiting has been a fai-mer all his life, 
and at one time owned a large tract of land about 

— '24' *^jyA}{HUrh'<: 

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the old homestead, but now his real estate possessions 
comprise some one hundred and forty acres only, he 
having invested to some extent in modern securities. 
Mr. Whiting was a Whig in politics, but at the 
present time takes but little interest in political 
affairs, being content to lead a quiet life at his home. 
He is independent in his religious convictions and a 
good citizen. 


Amos Ames, of Groton, Mass., was born Jan. 18, 
1734 ; was a farmer and large land-owner. He mar- 
ried Abigail Bulkley, born Oct. 28, 1733, daughter 
of Col. John Bulkley, who was a prominent citizen 
of Groton, where he died in 1772, aged sixty-nine 
years. Amos Ames died Aug. 4, 1817 ; Abigail, 
his wife, died Aug. 20, 1809. The Bulkley family 
traces its ancestry to Lord Viscount Bulkley, whose 
seat was at B^ron Hill, in the Isle of Anglesey. 
Rev. Peter Bulkley settled in Concord, Mass., in 
1636. His father was Rev. Edward Bulkley, D.D. 

Rev. Edward Bulkley, son of Rev. Peter and Jane 
Bulkley, was born at Odell, England, June 17, 1614 ; 
he emigrated to this country in 1634. He was 
licensed to preach the gospel, and was ordained at 
Marshfield in 1642. 

Hon. Peter Bulkley, oldest son of Rev. Edward 
Bulkley, was born Nov. 3, 1641 ; graduated in 1660. 
He settled in Concord. He held many important 
offices, and acquitted himself with honor. He mar- 
ried Rebecca Wheeler ; died at the age of forty-four. 

Joseph Bulkley, son of Hon. Peter and Rebecca 
Wheeler Bulkley, born Sept. 7, 1670. He made 
his will, which is found on the records of Middlesex, 
Mass. He lived in Littleton, Mass. 

John Bulkley, son of Joseph Bulkley, born about 
1703. He held a colonel's commission, and died in 
Groton, in 1772, aged sixty-nine. John, his son, 
born in 1748, graduated at Harvard in 1769 ; was 
a lawyer, and died Dec. 16, 1774. 

Amos and Abigail Ames had seven sons and three 
daughters. Three of the sons were in the Revolu- 
tionary army, the youngest being only sixteen years 
of age at the time of entering the service. All were 
taken prisoners, being confined on the prison-ship at 
Halifax ; they afterwards made their escape and again 
entered the army. 

Bulkley Ames, son of Amos Ames, farmer, was 
born in Groton, July 20, 1772 ; held many offices of 
trust, being selectman of the town for seventeen 
years in succession ; married Lydia Prescott, born 

Jan. 8, 1780, daughter of Ebenezer Prescott, of 
Westford, Mass., whose ancestors settled in Lan- 
caster about 1647. He was a large land proprietor, 
and owner of the iron-works at Forge Village, in 
Westford ; cousin of Col. William Prescott, of Bun- 
ker Hill fame. He died Jan. 22, 1811. 

Bulkley and Lydia Ames had three sons and one 
daughter. William Ames, son of Bulkley Ames, 
was born in Groton, Aug. 6, 1807. He was for a 
number of years partner of Jabez Coney, and largely 
interested in the millwright and machinery business ; 
was superintendent in the building of several fac- 
tories and public buildings ; married Susan Lewis, 
daughter of Capt. Samuel Lewis, of Dedham, who 
lived on the place upon which his ancestors settled 
in the early settlement of the town. She was bora 
April 26, 1814, died Feb. 13, 1880. He had two 
sons and two daughters. Politically he is a Repub- 




The town of Braintree was incorporated May 13, 
1640 (0. S.). It included within its limits the 
present towns of Braintree, Quincy, Randolph, and 
Holbrook. Previous to its incorporation Quincy was 
called Mount Wollaston, and Braintree, Monoticut. 
It took its name from the river which flows through 
it, and which is spelled in so many different ways in 
the ancient records that it is uncertain which is the 
correct one. It is now written Monatiquot. Hol- 
brook and a part of Randolph (perhaps the whole) 
were called Cochato, sometimes Cocheco. In one 
instance Cochato was called Beersheba. Tradition 
says that Randolph was once called Scadding, but I 
have never seen the name on the records. Quincy 
was set off as a separate town in 1792, and Randolph 
in 1793. Holbrook at that time was a part of Ran- 
dolph. In 1856 a small portion of Braintree was 
annexed to Quincy. It was that portion known in 
ancient times as Knight's Neck, but in later days as 
Newcomb's Landing. 

Religious Societies. — The first church in Brain- 
tree was organized Sept. 16, 1639, it being the Lord's 
day. The meeting-house was situated in the north 
part of the town, in the centre of the street now called 
Hancock, near the junction of Canal Street. When 
the way from Boston to Plymouth was laid out, in 


16-48, it was to be four rods wide, commencing at 
Smelt Brook, on the borders of Weymouth and 
Braintree, running over what is now Commercial 
Street in Braintree, and Franklin, School, and Han- 
cock Streets in Quincy, till it comes to the meeting- 
house, when it shall be two rods on one end of the 
house and two rods on the other end, thus leaving it 
in the centre of the street. At that time there were 
but a few inhabitants in the south part of the town. 
But the settlement continued to increase, and grad- 
ually to extend towards its southern limits. At what 
time the first house was erected in the limits of 
Monoticut, the ancient name of the present town of 
Braintree, is unknown. We know that in February, 
1639-40, only five months after the embodiment of 
the church, we find a grant of land to John French 
and John Collins, of Monoticut. Soon after 1643 
the iron-works were built on Monoticut River, which 
must have caused much increase of population in 
that part of the town. As early as 1658, and prob- 
ably earlier, the town had been settled as far south as 
Randolph line, on the old road to Taunton, for at 
that time John Moore resided on what is still known 
as Moore's farm, a plot of six hundred acres of land, 
bounded on the north and east by Monoticut River, 
and partly on the west by Great Pond. This portion 
of the river iu latter years has been called Moore's 
Farm River, in memory of the first settler upon its 
borders. As the settlement enlarged, the inhabitants 
felt that they needed a more convenient place of 
assembling themselves together, as some of them were 
obliged to travel many miles to attend upon public 
worship. About 1690 the inhabitants began to 
move in the matter of forming a new precinct in the 
south part of the town, but it was opposed by those 
living in the north part. A bitter feud existed be- 
tween the difl'erent sections of the town concerning 
this matter, of which but little is known at the 
present time ; but a person then residing at the north 
end, named John Marshall, has left a diary which 
contains some sharp allusions to members of the 
church, who, he says, acted in a disorderly manner, 
and withdrew from the Lords table. That he made 
charges which he could not maintain is evident from 
what afterwards transpired. The movement for a 
new society was continued until 1706, when a meet- 
ing-house was built near the corner of Washington 
and Elm Streets, in the present town of Braintree. 
That this was done legally no one claimed, but its 
founders did claim that might deprived them of their 
just rights, the opposers of the new movement being 
composed of the most influential citizens of the town, 
at tlie head of whom stood the Hon. Edmund 

Quincy, one of the leaders of the government of the 
colony. But the advocates of the new precinct were 
sustained by the advice and support of the leaders of 
the church in the vicinity, and on May 6, 1706, the 
meeting-house was raised in which they might wor- 
ship, and which was soon after completed. Sept. 10, 
1707, Rev. Hugh Adams was ordained its pastor, and 
the church was recognized on the same day. He was 
the son of John and Avis Adams, born in Boston, 
May 7, 1670, graduated at Harvard College in 1697, 
at the age of twenty-one years. In his diary he 
states that at his installation at Durham, N. H., " the 
Rev. Jonathan Cushing read publicly the testimonial 
of my ordination at Braintree, signed by the Rev. 
Increase Mather and his son Cotton Mather (of the 
Old North Church, in Boston), and Rev. Mr. James 
Keith, the hoary-headed pastor of the church in 
Bridgewater, who laid their hands on my head in that 
ordination." This testimonial was also signed by the 
Rev. Nehemiah Walker, pastor of the church in Rox- 
bury. We see in this account the names and in- 
fluence of those men who, without the consent of the 
authorities of the colony, dared to organize the new 
church in Braintree. Had those men of whom 
Marshall spoke acted in an unchristianlike and dis- 
orderly manner, as charged by him, we do not believe 
that such men as the Mathers, Keith, and Walker, 
leaders iu the church at that time, would have en- 
couraged them in their great undertaking, and lent 
their aid and presence to embody their new church, 
and, in addition, ordain a pastor to break for them the 
bread of life. But they had other opposition still to 
encounter, and they petitioned the legal authorities to 
be set ofi' from the old society, and establish a new 
precinct, to be called the South Precinct, in Braintree, 
By the action of the authorities in answer to their 
petition, they were compelled to pay their proportion 
of the expense of supporting the old society, which 
was raised by legal rates, and also to pay for the sup- 
port of their own pastor, the money necessary being 
raised by subscription. This double burden was a 
heavy tax upon the new precinct, as it was composed 
of men with moderate means. Rev. Mr. Adams re- 
mained as their pastor until Aug. 22, 1710, when 
the connection was dissolved, and he removed to 
Chatham, Mass., and afterwards to Oyster River 
parish, now Durham, N. H. During the pastorate of 
Mr. Adams the South Precinct was set off", and regu- 
larly established as the South Precinct of Braintree. 
This was not accomplished without opposition. 

A town-meeting was called to meet Nov. 3, 1708, 
to consult and consider about, and, if possible, to fix 
upon a suitable and reasonable line of division, dis- 



tinction, or limitation of the said South End assem- 
bly and society and of the North End congregation, 
that said line be lovingly agreed upon and settled, if 
it may be. There were those that did immediately 
declare against the dividing of the town, and that 
they did refuse to join with said inhabitants in that 
affair, and requested that it might be entered with their 
names in the town-book. These then entered their 
names : Lieut. John Cleverly, Ensign William Veasey, 
Solomon Veasey, Moses Penniman, James Penniman, 
Samuel Penniman, John Newcomb, Jr., James Brack- 
ett, Nathan Brackett, and John Sanders. The same 
day it was voted that Col. Edmund Quincy, Esq., and 
Sergt. Nehemiah Hayden be a committee to petition 
the General Court in the name of the town to set off 
the south part of the town as a separate precinct. 
This was granted, and the legal existence of this so- 
ciety commenced on Nov. 5, 1708, and has contin- 
ued to this day. The names of those who were 
especially active in securing the organization of the 
new precinct were Samuel White, Caleb Hobart, 
Nehemiah Hayden, Joseph Allen, Samuel Bass, 
Samuel Payne, Ebenezer Thayer, Samuel Niles, Jr., 
and Samuel French. 

The Rev. Samuel Niles, second pastor of the so- 
ciety, was ordained May 23, 1711. Rev. Peter 
Thacher (his father-in-law), of Milton, Rev. Joseph 
Belcher, of Dedham, Rev. John Danforth, of Dor- 
chester, and Rev. Mr. Thacher, of Weymouth, as- 
sisted in the services, the sermon being preached by 
the pastor-elect, as was the usual custom in those 
days. Rev. Mr. Niles was the son of Nathaniel and 
Sarah (Sands) Niles, of Block Island, and grandson 
of John Niles, one of the first settlers of Braintree. 
He was born May 1, 1673 ; baptized March 14, 
1697, by Rev. Peter Thacher, at Milton, owning 
his father's covenant ; joined the church at Mil- 
ton, January, 1699; entered Harvard College when 
twenty-two years of age, from whence he graduated 
in 1699 ; was licensed to preach soon after; acted as 
pastor of the church in his native place for two years, 
and until his ordination, in 1711, was actively engaged 
in farming and ship building, by which occupations 
he earned his living. He had three wives and a 
large family of children. He was an able preacher, 
and one of the strong supporters of the Calvinistic 
creed. He naturally became a leader in the op- 
position to the introduction of Unitarian principles 
into the Congregational Church of New England. 
He died May 1, 1762. He was pastor of this 
church for nearly fifty-one years, and was engaged 
in active service from the time of his settlement, and 
preached till the last Sabbath previous to his death. 

His funeral sermon was preached by Rev. Mr. Smith, 
of Weymouth, from the text, " And Samuel died." 
He kept a diary during the whole term of his pas- 
torate, which is now in possession of the Hon. Asa 
French, of Braintree, and which is very valuable to 
the genealogist. The third pastor was the Rev. Ezra 
Weld, ordained Nov. 17, 1762. He was born in 
Ponifret, Conn., June 13, 1736, graduated at Yale 
College in 1759, and died Jan. 16, 1816, aged nearly 
eighty years. He retired from active duties Aug. 
17, 1807, the society paying him two hundred and 
eighty-six dollars and sixty-six cents per annum dur- 
ing the remainder of his life. 

The Rev. Sylvester Sage was installed as the fourth 
pastor Nov. 4, 1807. In consequence of the health 
of his family he was compelled to ask for his dis- 
charge, which was granted, and he was dismissed by 
council May 4, 1809. Rev. William Allen was given 
an invitation to become pastor of this church May 
24, 1810, but he declined the call. Oct. 26, 1810, 
the town voted to invite Mr. Richard Salter Storrs 
to settle with them in the work of the gospel minis- 
try, which vote was unanimous. Nov. 5, 1810, it 
was voted to pay Mr. Storrs the sum of eight hundred 
and twenty dollars per annum as long as he is the 
minister, and that John Hobart shall carry the pro- 
ceedings to him for his consideration, and get his an- 
swer as soon as may be, for which service he shall 
receive the sum of six dollars. It was also voted that 
Dr. Daniel Fogg and Lieut. Nathaniel Thayer shall 
be a committee to assist the clerk in fixing and writing 
a letter to Mr. Storrs. July 3, 1811, Mr. Storrs was 
ordained the fifth pastor of the church. He was born 
in Longmeadow, Feb. 6, 1787, and was the son of 
Rev. Richard S. and Sally (Williston) Storrs, and 
graduated at Williams College in 1807. Previous to 
his ordination he spent six months in the missionary 
service in Georgia. After a long pastorate o^ more 
than sixty-two years, he passed from earth Aug. 11, 
1873. aged eighty-six years, six months, and five 
days, leaving behind him an unblemished reputation 
as a Christian, a scholar, a citizen, a neighbor, and a 
friend. In whatever path he trod, he left his footsteps 
so deeply imprinted that time will never erase them. 
I An earnest advocate of the education of the young 
I and tender mind, he spent much time in watching 
over the interests of our schools, for many years be- 
ing placed at the head of the committee of superin- 
I tendence by the free suffrages of his fellow-citizens. 
As a citizen he took an active part in the welfare of his 
State and nation, and was selected, Oct. 20, 1820, as 
I the delegate of the town to meet delegates of other 
! towns in convention at Boston, for the purpose of re- 



vising the Constitution of government of this com- 
monwealth. As a clergyman he stood at the head of 
bis profession, attracting hirge audiences when it was 
known that he was to take part in the services, his 
impassioned oratory almost magnetizing his hearers. 
He was an orator, created rather than manufactured. 
His deep, sonorous voice, commanding presence, and 
lightning-like eloquence conveyed to the hearts of his 
hearers the conviction that his words not only flowed 
from the mind, but also from the heart. He married 
three times, and had by his second wife one son, the 
Rev. Dr. Richard Salter Storrs, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
who is well known throughout the country. About 
1831 the church voted that their pastor, Rev. Dr. 
Storrs, should be at liberty for a term not exceeding 
five years, that he might accept the position of asso- 
ciate secretary and general agent of the American 
Home Missionary Society for the New England States. 
It therefore became necessary that a colleague should 
be procured to perform the duties of the pastorate 
during his absence. Mr. Edwards A. Park was se- 
lected for that purpose, and was ordained to the work 
of the ministry Dec. 21, 1831. Rev. Dr. Park re- 
mained as colleague pastor until Jan. 17, 1831:, when 
a council dissolved the connection in consequence of 
his acceptance of a professorship in Amherst College. 
The senior pastor did not resume his duties until 
1836, and the pulpit was supplied by transient cler- 
gymen, among whom may be named Rev. Paul Jewett 
and Rev. William R. Jewett, who preached most of 
the time. During the last few years of his life he 
was obliged to have assistance, and Rev. E. P. Tenney 
and William S. Hubbell were procured for that pur- 
pose, and I think the last gentleman was regularly in- 
stalled colleague pastor. The Rev. Thomas A. Emer- 
son, the sixth pastor, was installed May 7, 1874. He 
was born in Wakefield, Dec. 27, 1840, and was the 
son of Thomas and Emily (Swain) Emerson. He 
graduated from Yale College in 1863, and also from 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1869. He married, 
Oct. 27, 1875, Fannie Huntington Brewster, daughter 
of Rev. Dr. Robert and Ellen 'SI. (Griffin) Crawford, 
and granddaughter of Rev. Dr. Griffin, president of 
Williams College. 

During the existence of this church, a period of 
one hundred and seventy-seven years, they have 
worshiped in four diff"erent meeting-houses, the first 
having been built in 1706. About 1758, the house 
having become dilapidated, they resolved on having 
a new and more convenient house, and the first 
meeting was held within its walls on Thursday, June 
28, 1759, that being the day appointed for a public 
fast. It was in this house that the citizens of the 

old town of Braintree were accustomed to assemble 
for the transaction of their civil business, and it 
was here that those true men, led by John Adams, 
Esq., then a young lawyer, but afterwards President 
of the United States, were heard lifting up their 
voices in behalf of American independence. This 
house was torn down in 1830, to give place to a new 
house, which was dedicated to the worship of God 
Dec. 29, 1830, with appropriate services. June 3, 
1857, the present house of worship was dedicated 
by solemn services. 

Opposite the church is the spot selected to bury 
their dead. It was purchased of Josiah Hobart by 
Deacon Joseph Allen, Deacon Samuel Bass, and 
Dependence French, a committee appointed by the 
precinct for that purpose. The deed bears date 
March 10, 1718, and states the price paid for one- 
half acre of land to be ten pounds. Within its 
limits are buried the earthly remains of those three 
veterans in the ministry. Rev. Samuel Niles, Rev. 
Ezra Weld, and Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs. 

About 1810 the citizens of the east part of the 
town joined with the inhabitants of that part of 
Weymouth called the Landing, and formed the second 
society in Braintree, taking the name of the Union 
Religious Society of Weymouth and Braintree. It 
purchased the meeting-house of the Hollis Street 
Church, in Boston, and removed it to Braintree, and 
they still occupy it. Their first pastor was the Rev. 
Daniel Clark, installed Dec. 31, 1811, who was dis- 
missed Oct.-l, 1813, he not giving good satisfaction. 
Their second pastor was the Rev. Jonas Perkins, who 
was ordained June 14, 1815. He was born in North 
Bridgwater, Oct. 15, 1790, graduated at Brown Uni- 
versity in 1813, and died June 26, 1874. He was the 
son of Josiah and Anna (Reynolds) Perkins. He was 
the minister of my boyhood, and I knew him well. I 
can 6nd no language to express my appreciation of his 
worth as a citizen, pastor, neighbor, and friend better 
than that used by Hon. Joseph W. Porter in a sketch 
of his life, which I trust he will pardon me for 
copying : '■ The pastorate of Rev. Mr. Perkins, 
covering, as it did, forty-six years of active service, 
with fifteen added years upon the retired list, was 
long and successful, resulting in great good to the 
church and society, increasing largely their material 
as well as spiritual strength, adding to the member- 
ship of the church, principally during three powerful 
revivals, three hundred and twenty-two members. 
Consecrating his whole powers to the work of the 
gospel ministry, uniting in himself ripe scholarship, 
excellent judgment, with firmness of purpose, and 
the strictest integrity, his was a character of the 



most admirable proportions. A wise and faithful 
pastor, he was eminently a peace-maker, and when, 
at the full age of seventy years, in accordance with 
long-expressed plans, he resigned his office and re- 
tired from its duties, he carried with him the aifec- 
tion and respect, not only of his own church and 
society, but that of the whole community where he 
lived." Being a contemporary of Dr. Storrs, he 
served with him upon the school committee to the 
satisfaction of the town. Upon his resignation, Oct. 
15, 1860, the church was left without a pastor. But 
on Jan. 17, 1861, Rev. Lysander Dickerman was 
installed pastor over the society. He held that posi- 
tion until July, 1867, when he resigned the pas- 
torate. He was succeeded by Rev. A. A. Ells- 
worth, who supplied the pulpit for about three and 
one-half years, when the Rev. Lucien H. Frary ac- 
cepted a call from the church and society, and was 
installed pastor April 13, 1875, and still remains. 
He endeavors to follow in the footsteps of his 
venerable predecessor, who so long lived with this 
people, and I trust that the mantle of Jonas has 
fallen upon him. He is highly esteemed by all 
who know him. 

The South Congregational Church was the third es- 
tablished in the town. It built a house of worship in 
South Braintree, and ordained for its first pastor the 
Rev. Lyman Matthews, Aug. 4, 1830. He continued 
in that position about fourteen years, and resigned 
Oct. 4, 1844, at which time he removed to Vermont. 
This is the longest pastorate in the society, and the pul- 
pit has been occupied by many clergymen during the 
period of forty years which has passed since Rev. Mr. 
Matthews resigned. Some of them were installed, 
while others were hired from year to year. Among 
those who have ministered unto them for any con- 
siderable time I remember Rev. Francis V. Tenney, 
Rev. William B. Hammond, Rev. Dennis Powers, 
Rev. Lucius R. Eastman, Jr., Rev. L. Wheaton Allen, 
Rev. Albion H. Johnson, and Rev. Edwin Smith. 
Rev. E. 0. Dyer is supplying the pulpit at present. 
A few years since their meeting-house was burned, 
and another was erected on the same site. 

The First Baptist Society was organized about 1842, 
and built their meeting-house the same year. Their 
first pastor was, I think, the Rev. John Blain, al- 
though he was never settled over the society, being 
what was called an Evangelist. 

Rev. George N. Waitt commenced his labors with 
them Sept. 10, 1843, and resigned his place in March, 
1846. Previous to the coming of Mr. Waitt — that is, 
during the winter of 1842 and 1843 — the sect called 
Millerites, who predicted the destruction of the earth 

in that year, obtained a foothold in the society, and 
held meetings there frequently, sometimes every day 
in the week. There was great excitement in the town. 
It succeeded in making many proselytes, some of them 
being the leading members of this young church. 
It was a blow from which they never fully recovered, 
although time ought to have convinced the followers 
of Miller of their error. The ministrations of the 
Rev. Mr. Waitt also tended to injure the welfare of 
the society. Rev, Aaron Haynes then took charge of 
the society, but failed to heal the difficulties with 
which they were surrounded. He only remained one 
year. Rev. George Daland then took charge, and re- 
mained with them about nine years, the longest 
pastorate they enjoyed during their existence. During 
the ministry of Rev. Mr. Daland, an offshoot from 
this society, comprised of some disaffected members, 
held meetings in Monatiquot Hall, but a few rods 
from the old house, but they had but a brief existence. 
Rev. Ruel B. Moody, Rev. Thomas C. Russell, and 
Rev. George B. Williams officiated as pastors during 
the few following years. The society became so weak 
that it was unable to support the preaching of the 
Gospel, when they sold their house to the Methodists, 
and some of them joined that church. 

The Second Baptist Church in Braintree was or- 
ganized about 1869. It was composed of members 
of the First Baptist Church, who withdrew to form 
a church in the north part of the town. They 
bought the old school-house which stood near the 
j corner of Washington and West Streets, and re- 
modeled it as a chapel, removing it to Washington, 
1 and afterwards to Elm Street, nearly opposite the 
church of the First Congregational Society. Rev. 
George B. Williams, the former pastor of the First 
Baptist Church, went with them, and broke unto 
them the bread of life. But the society failed for 
want of support, and the chapel was sold, and- after- 
wards used as a factory for the manufacture of boots. 
It existed about seven years. 

About the year 1831 a number of the citizens of 
the town united together for the purpose of sustain- 
ing preaching by Methodist clergymen, and held their 
meetings in the hall of Samuel V. Arnold. These 
meetings were held at intervals, and the only person 
who ministered unto them, as far as I can learn, was 
the Rev. Jefferson Hamilton, who removed afterwards 
to the South. It endeavored to obtain the town hall 
in which to hold their meetings, but the town refused 
to open its doors for their accommodation. Whether 
they ever enjoyed a legal existence is very much 
doubted, although spoken of in the records of the town 
as the Methodist Episcopal Society of Braintree. It 



existed but a short time, and gradually died out. But 
a society of this denomination met Feb. 22, 1874, 
and formed themselves into a legal organization. At 
the time of its organization the pulpit was supplied by 
Rev. Louis E. Charpiot. He was succeeded by Rev. 
William Livesey, who died during his term of service, 
and Rev. Joseph Hammond finished the term. In 
1876, Rev. Edward M. Taylor, from Pennsylvania, 
was appointed to the station, and remained three 

Rev. Marcus F. Colburn was the next pastor, but 
his health failing, he was relieved by Rev. William I. 
Ward. During the pastorate of the Rev. Mr. Col- 
burn, a branch Sabbath-school was established in the 
east part of the town, and a preaching service held 
there each Sunday evening. In 1881, Rev. George 
E. Brightman was appointed its pastor, and still re- 
mains, but his term of service will expire in April 
next, the full term of three years being then com- 
pleted. At their organization they purchased the 
meeting-house formerly occupied by the First Baptist 
Society, which was completely destroyed by fire in 
the latter part of the year 1883. Since that time 
they have held their meetings in the town hall. 
They will undoubtedly rebuild the coming summer, 
about three thousand dollars having been subscribed 
for that purpose. 

About fifty years ago the doctrines of Universalism 
were preached to its hearers by difi"erent clergymen 
of that denomination, chiefly through the instru- 
mentality of Samuel V. Arnold, the meetings being 
held in his hall. A society was formed soon after- 
wards, but it never gained a foothold, and went out 
of existence on the death of Mr. Arnold. The Uni- 
tarians also held meetings at the town hall for some 
years, but have been discontinued, although they had 
all the money they needed, but failed for want of 
hearers. Rev. Edward C. Towne, Rev. Fiske Bar- 
rett, and others ministered unto them during the time 
of their existence. 

In 1877 the Catholics organized a society, which is 
a branch of the Quincy diocese. For some time they 
held their meetings in a hall, but a few years since 
built a church on Central Avenue, where they con- 
tinue to hold their services. The attendance on the 
Sabbath is quite large. These are all the religious 
organizations of which we have any knowledge, al- 
though the Spiritualists have held meetings in the 
east part of the town. 

Schools. — As soon as a clmrch was established by 
the early settlers of New England they began to take 
measures to educate their children. Although the 
schools were partly supported by assessments upon 

each scholar, they were made payable in wood. This 
enabled the parent to pay those assessments easily, as 
all of them owned land which was well covered with 
wood. If a new settler came into town they could 
purchase land for from three to six shillings per acre. 
The schools of the town were supported by labor, as 
all other institutions were at that time. Gold and 
silver were rarities at that time, and the trade was 
almost wholly carried on by barter. The first men- 
tion in the town records of schools is the following 
paper, which T copy in full : 

" This day Mr. fflint made acknowledgement of the sale of 
the house and lote which was lately John Paflins, and since his 
death sold unto the said Henry fflint by William Penn, by vir- 
tue of an execution, sued out by him in the presence of all the 
townsmen, the said Henry fflint doth acknowledge himself fully 
satisfied, By Doctor John Morly for the sd house, only the sd Mr. 
Doctor doth promise that if he should be called forth oflf the 
towne to sirrender backe again the sd house to Mr. filint at 
the same rate of seaven pounds which he payd, being allowed at 
the discretion of indifferent men for such charges as he has 
binne att, in witness hereof the sd Henry fflint and Mr. Doctor 
have hereunto set their hands the day and year above written 
in the presence of 

"Samuel Bass. "Henry fflint. 

" Richard Bkackett. " John Moely. 

" Moses Paine. 

" Thomas Blanchee. 

" Martin Sanders. 

" Matthew Barnes. 

" William Allis." 

On the upper corner of the record is the year 1648, 
the day or month being torn oS". Henry Flint, teacher 
of the First Church in Braintree, was probably the 
schoolmaster, and was succeeded by Dr. John Morly, 
who afterwards taught school in Boston or Charles- 
town. Previous to the execution of this paper, how- 
ever, is an account of land recovered from Mr. Cod- 
dington, who had removed to Rhode Island. Tradition 
says that William Coddington gave the town of Brain- 
tree certain lands, the income of which should be ex- 
pended for the support of schools in said town. Upon 
the division of the town this fund was divided, each 
town being allowed their portion. Quincy has hon- 
ored his name by naming streets, school-houses, etc., 
by the name of Coddington. The record is headed 
" The Schoole Lands, 1640." In the margin are 
these words, " The deed of the Land recovered of Mr. 
Coddinton." The record is incomplete, owing to the 
worn state of the paper, much of it being illegible, but 
enough is left to understand something of its mean- 
ing. It was covenanted between the town of Brain- 
tree and Richard Right that the said Richard Right 
shall put the town of Braintree in full possession of 



land formerly called Mr. Coddington's Neck, to the 
said town to be held forever (then giving its bounds) 
in consideration of all the said lands the said town of 
Braintree hath given to the said Richard Right ninety- 
eight pounds, — shillings, and eight pence, being 
ground allowed by the courts to the town of Braintree 
out of the goods of — Coddington. Richard Right 
was the legally appointed attorney for William Cod- 
dington in Massachusetts. That the town of Brain- 
tree sued Coddington is undeniable, that the courts 
allowed the town this land is substantiated, and that 
the town paid for this land is equally true. Did 
Coddington then give this land for the benefit of the 
schools ? I answer, decidedly, Xo ; and until some 
evidence is produced to substantiate that claim, I shall 
adhere to that opinion. 

In the year 1716 the first school was established 
in the present limits of Braintree. It was called a 
"reading- and writing-school." Oct. 1, 1716, the 
selectmen have agreed with Joseph Parmiter to keep 
the school at Monotoquod for six shillings per week 
and his diet. What his diet cost we know not, as 
Mr. Peter Hobart received about six pounds for diet 
and a pair of shoes, together with a part of his school 
wages. He was engaged the next year at eleven 
shillings per week. 

To endeavor to trace the formation of all the schools 
would require much space. There are now in the 
town a high school kept in the town house in apart- 
ments especially built for it, two school-houses 
where four schools are kept, one house with three 
schools, one with two schools, and five with one 
school. Besides this, in 1877 a beautiful building 
was built on Washington Street, near the town hall, 
from the bequest of Gen. Sylvanus Thayer, who en- 
dowed the institution with about two hundred and 
eighty thousand dollars, to which was added by the 
town the sum of twenty thousand dollars. This 
school, free to all the citizens of the old town of 
Braintree, prepares its pupils for admission to college, 
and is under the supervision of Rev. Jotham B. 
Sewall, formerly professor in Bowdoin College, as- 
sisted by an able corps of teachers. Besides the do- 
nations to the town which I have named, Nathaniel 
Thayer left to the town the larger part of his estate, 
and is now a part of the school fund of the town, 
which yields an annual income of from three hundred 
to four hundred dollars, and which is used for the sup- 
port of schools. 

May 4, 1842. John Ruggles Hollis, a native of 
this town, died, and left a will bequeathing to the 
South Congregational Society a sum of money, the 
income of which was to support a high grade of school 

for the education of the children of those who were 
members of said society. The society built a build- 
ing near the church, and established a school called 
the Hollis Institute, which was in successful operation 
until 1858, when the high school was opened, and it 
ceased to exist. It could hardly be called a free 
school, as a small tuition was charged each scholar 
per quarter, as the income of the fund was not large 
enough to pay for its support. Rev. William M. 
Thayer and Benjamin Kendall were among the prin- 
cipal teachers. Upon its discontinuance the fund was 
taken for the purpose of building a new meeting-house, 
and the institute building was changed into a dwell- 

Manufactures. — The first establishment for man- 
ufacturing purposes in the town was on Monatiquot 
River, in the easterly part of the town. About the 
year 1643 a company called the " Company Under- 
takers of the Iron-Works" was formed for the pur- 
pose of establishing iron-works in Massachusetts. 
The citizens of the town of Boston, then, as now, 
ever ready to extend aid to foster the manufacturing 
interests of the nation, granted Jan. 19, 1643, 
unto John Winthrop, Jr., and associates, three thou- 
sand acres of land for the encouragement of an iron- 
work to be set up about Monatiquot River, the 
said land to be laid out next adjoining and most con- 
venient for their said iron-works. The title to this 
land was not completed until Nov. 23, 1647, when 
a deed was given of two thousand eight hundred and 
sixty acres of land, bounded as follows, viz. : South 
and west by Boston Common, on the north by divers 
lots belonging to Boston, on the east by Weymouth 
lands and Weymouth Pond. Also one hundred and 
forty acres bounded on the south by Mr. Henry 
Webb's farm, Monatiquot River on the west, and on 
the north and east with certain lots of Boston. Pat- 
tee, in his history of old Braintree and Quincy, 
locates this land on the borders of the towns of 
Quincy and Milton, the land lying in both towns. 
That this is incorrect is evident to every careful exam- 
iner of our records. Although it is difficult after the 
lapse of so many years to give it a precise location, 
yet the records of Suffolk County give light enough to 
designate nearly its location, The plot of two thou- 
sand eight hundred and sixty acres was situated in the 
easterly part of the present town of Braintree. The 
line of the town of Weymouth was its easterly bound, 
and it extended southward as far as what is now Hol- 
brook line. Where the easterly line was, is evident from 
this fact, that when the way was laid out from Braintree 
to Cochato, or Holbrook, it butted on the land given 
by the town of Boston for the encouragement of the 



iron-works. It is therefore, clearly to be seen that 
the tract of land was situated in that part of old 
Braintree commencing at Holbrook line and running 
northerly nearly along the line of what is now Wash- 
ington Street at Cranberry Brook to Union Street, 
thence running easterly to Weymouth line, the 
north line being at not a great distance from Union 
and Commercial Streets. This land was afterwards 
sold to John Holbrook and Samuel White, of Wey- 
mouth, and a portion of this land is now in the pos- 
session of the descendants of Samuel White. Many 
of the old deeds and later conveyances refer to the 
fact of its having been part of the land given for the 
encouragement of the iron-works. But it may be 
said that the one hundred and forty acres was located 
near Milton, and upon that the iron-works were located. 
Let us briefly consider this point. How was it 
bounded ? On the north and east by certain lots of 
Boston, says the grant. On the north was the South 
Commons, and on the east what was called Little Com- 
mons. Its western boundary was Monatiquot River. 
Its southern boundary was Mr. Henry AVebb's farm. 
A portion of Webb's farm was sold to Samuel Allen 
in 1648, and remained in the family until within a 
few years, and is situated near the station on the 
South Shore Railroad, at East Braintree. These 
boundaries place the location of the one hundred and 
forty acres of land as being near the junction of 
Commercial and Adams Streets. This land came into 
the possession of the creditors of the company, and 
was afterwards sold by them. A portion of it was 
bought by Elder Nathaniel Wales, who built a house 
upon it in 1692, and is occupied by his descendants 
at the present time. In the appraisement of the com- 
pany's property when it failed are lots of land named 
after diiferent individuals, probably after those who 
had previously owned it. We find among the names 
those of Thayer, French, Penn, Ruggles, and New- 
comb, who all owned land in the vicinity of what we 
claim as being the true location. The Suffolk records 
contain many allusions to these lands, but they are 
too voluminous to copy for this work. The company 
was not successful in business, and failed in 1653. 
Why it was so we know not at this late day, but pre- 
sume that the persons who conducted its affairs were 
inefficient and unacquainted with the business, as one 
of the employes of the company, James Leonard, 
soon after its failure went lo Taunton and formed a 
company to carry on the same business there, which 
was successfully continued for many years. The 
difficulty appears to be that Leader, Gilford, and 
others whom the company selected as agents or over- 
seers, had no personal interest in the business except 

their yearly salary, and that the proprietors knew but 
little or nothing of the business. The location of the 
dam was about forty rods above the bridge on Shaw 
Street, in East Braintree. Although unsuccessful, it 
produced some good results to the town, as it brought 
into the town new settlers, who built dwelling-houses 
and reclaimed wild lands. Soon after 1680, John 
Hubbard, of Boston, rebuilt the dam, and erected a 
saw-mill, iron-works, and forge on or near the same 

These works were occupied some years, but there 
was a continual contention between the owner, Thomas 
Vinton, who bought them of the Hubbard family, 
and the town concerning the passage of the fish up 
the Monaticut River. Alewives and other fish ran 
in large quantities up the river to the ponds to lay 
their spawn if they were not hindered by obstructions 
in the river. The people were jealous of their rights, 
and claimed that they were deprived of a portion of 
their living by these obstructions, as it was their cus- 
tom to preserve in the proper season all the alewives 
they could consume in their families during the suc- 
ceeding year. To deprive them of their fish was to 
deprive them of their living, and they would not 
submit to this loss. So great was the disaffection 
that a number of men went one night and destroyed 
the dam. Thereupon law-suits arose, until finally the 
town purchased the dam and privilege, and this settled 
the difficulties. For many years nothing was done 
with this privilege until Caleb Hunt and others ob- 
tained the right from the town to build a mill. They 
built a new dam about forty rods below the ancient 
one, where a saw-mill was established, and afterwards 
a grist-mill, which for many years was owned by 
Abraham Hobart, and is now occupied by the firm 
of Ambler & Hobart, extensive grain dealers. 

About the year 1790, Col. William Allen erected 
a grist-mill on the river on the south side of Commer- 
cial Street, near the stone bridge. It was occupied 
by himself and partners for some years, and after- 
wards purchased by Jonas Welch, who commenced 
the manufacture of chocolate. The chocolate made 
proved to be the best in the market, and brought the 
highest price. Welch's chocolate became celebrated 
throughout the country. Upon the death of Mr. 
Welch the business passed into the hands of Alexan- 
der Bowditch, who continued the business for some 
years. About 1853 another building was erected for 
the manufacture of carpeting upon the same privilege, 
but did not prove a success. It was also used for a 
short time as a manufactory for boot- and shoe-lasts. 
About twenty years ago it was burned to the ground 
together with the old grist- and chocolate-mill. Al- 



though several companies have endeavored to purchase 

the privilege, they were unable so to do, and the site is 
still bare and desolate, with hardly a vestige remaining 
to mark the spot. 

Not far from 1680 a young man by the name of 
John Bowditch, supposed to come from Salem, came to 
the town, and, marrying the daughter of John French, 
settled here, built a dam, and set up a fulling-mill near 
Commercial Street, on one of the best sites for a mill 
privilege on Monatiquot River. This privilege re- 
mained in the hands of the Bowditch family until about 
1796, when it was sold to other parties. During the 
time it was in their hands a grist-mill was built, but 
when is unknown. When the mill was sold by the heirs 
of John Bowditch, a grist-mill is mentioned, but no 
fulling-mill. The business of fulling cloth, as separate 
from the weaving thereof, had departed. It is remem- 
bered by the oldest citizens that one Abigail Bowditch, 
a maiden lady, took sole charge of the grinding of corn, 
and would with ease take a two-bushel bag of meal 
upon her shoulder, carry it up the stairs to the 
street, and place it in the wagon, without assistance. 
For about twenty years it was occupied by Jonathan 
Thayer, Amasa Penniman, Walter Rogers, Benjamin 
Smith, and other parties in the manufacture of various 
kinds of goods. To attempt to describe the varieties 
of business carried on there would fill many pages of 
manuscript, and then would be incomplete from lack 
of evidence, the information being mostly derived 
from tradition. About 1823 a company was formed, 
purchased the privilege, and commenced enlarging and 
improving the property. John Edson acted as their 
agent. Cotton-gins were manufactured quite exten- 
sively, and a mill was built for the making of cotton 
cloths, which stood until last year, when it being old 
and dilapidated, was torn down. This company sold 
it to the Boston Flax Company, who did a large and 
successful business in the manufacture of twine, linen 
goods, etc., employing about six hundred men, women, 
and children. It gave an impetus to the growth of 
that village hitherto unsurpassed in the history of 
Braintree. During the thirty years of its existence 
houses were built for the use of the employes, stores 
were opened, and business was brisk, not only in the 
immediate locality, but throughout the town. 

About 1880 they removed their machinery to Lud- 
low, Mass., and sold the establishment to the Jenkins 
Manufacturing Company. Since that time it has been 
occupied by its owners in the manufacture of shoe- 
lacings, by the Columbia Rubber Company in that of 
rubber cloth, and F. B. Allen in that of fans. The 
village has not yet recovered from the effects of the 
removal of the Boston Flax Company. 

Not far from 1760 Hobart Clark came to town, 
and built a fulling-mill upon or near Adams Street. 
This privilege was used only a few years, and I can 
find no evidence that it was occupied by any other 
person except Adam Hobart, Jr., who had a lathe 
there a short time, but what he did I find no account 
of. This dam finally became rotten, and is now only 
known as having caused a vexatious law-suit, which 
will be mentioned in another place. 

Another dam was erected on Adams Street about 
the year 1835 by the Hon. Benjamin V. French, a 
native of the town, who had acquired a fortune while 
a merchant in Boston. He was a man of active 
business habits, and did much for the improvement 
of his native town. He purchased a large farm and 
carried on the business extensively. He cleared un- 
cultivated pastures and meadow lands, built heavy 
stone walls, planted all kinds of fruit and ornamental 
trees, and so improved the condition of his farm that 
it was the attraction of the town for many years, 
visitors coming from all parts of the country to view 
and enjoy its beauties. He was well known as one 
of the leading agriculturists and horticulturists in 
the State. If I were to name any one man as the 
greatest benefactor of the town, it would be the Hon. 
Benjamin V. French. The dam he built on Mo- 
natiquot River was not used for some years after its 
erection. The owners of the Bowditch privilege 
bought the Hobart Clark privilege, and built a 
temporary dam that flowed the water back so far 
that the French privilege was useless. In order to 
obtain his rights, Mr. French was obliged to institute 
a suit at law, which, after being carried to the high- 
est courts in the State, was finally decided in his 
favor. He immediately proceeded to erect a grist- 
mill, which went into successful operation. He 
carried on the grain business for about twenty years, 
when the torch of the incendiary applied Jo the 
building destroyed in one hour all the labor of years. 
This loss, together with his large expenditures on 
his farm, crippled his resources, and compelled him 
to surrender his valuable property into the hands of 
his creditors. The privilege passed into the hands 
of Benjamin Lyman Morrison, who now improves it as 
a woolen yarn manufactory, and who has done a re- 
munerative business. 

At what time the old Thayer mill, as it was for- 
merly called, was built we know not, neither by whom 
the enterprise was started. On the laying out of 
Middle Street as a public way in 1690 it was men- 
tioned as passing over the dam. This dam was the 
boundary line of Middle Street on its west side. It 
was first used for a saw-mill, afterwards for a grist- 



mill. About the year 1816, Robert Sugden, a native 
of England, leasing the premises, commenced the 
manufacture of woolen goods, and carried it on a 
number of years. It was still owned by the Thayer 
family. About the year 1831, Alva Morrison, a na- 
tive of New Hampshire, leased the privilege, and began 
the manufacture of woolen goods, especially woolen 
yarns. His business proved successful, and he after- 
wards purchased the property. He continued to im- 
prove this property from time to time, until a short 
time previous to his death, by the erection of new 
buildings and other improvements, until he was the 
owner of one of the best factories on the river. His 
prosperity was mainly due to his skill, and also espe- 
cially to his faithfulness in putting upon the market 
the best goods that were manufactured. In the 
country around, the old stocking-knitters would say 
that if their customers wanted the best stockings they 
must have Morrison's yarn to knit. No better praise 
need be given to his memory. Hon. Alva Morrison 
remained in the town of his adoption for the remain- 
der of his long life, a period of more than fifty years' 
residence, always taking an active interest in town 
and State affairs, honored by his townsmen in many of 
the most important positions it could confer upon him. 
He will be well remembered, especially by his poorer 
and more afflicted neighbors, who were the recipients 
of his freely-given bounties for their relief and com- 
fort. The business is now conducted by his three 
sons, Alva S., R. Elmer, and Ibrahim, under the firm- 
name of Morrison Brothers. 

In the year 1822, Oliver Ames and Elijah Howard 
purchased of Asa French, Esq., an unoccupied privi- 
lege at the foot of Pearl Street for the purpose of 
working in iron, and during the three following years 
built shops, dwellings, and other buildings necessary 
for the carrying on of the shovel and nail and tack 
business. The shovel business has been a part of the 
extensive works of the Ameses, who have a national 
reputation. The nail and tack business was carried 
on by Elijah Howard, of North Easton, and his son, 
Jason G. Howard, and their copartner, Apollos Ran- 
dall, a native of Easton, who made this town his res- 
idence, after entering into business, as long as he 
lived. The tack and nail business is not carried on 
at present. Jason G. Howard, the only surviving 
partner, has retired from business, and resides in 

In the year 1868, James T. Stevens and George 
D. Willis built a small factory on the corner of 
Tremont and Taylor Streets, and commenced the 
manufacture of nails and tacks. Steam-power was 
used. F(ir various reasons they removed their fac- 

tory to Weymouth about 1871. In 1872 they 
bought a piece of land adjoining the shovel-works, 
and erected buildings thereon, using the waste water of 
the pond of the shovel-factory and also steam-power. 
Mr. Stevens having a thorough knowledge of his 
trade, being a practical mechanic, and Mr. Willis 
proving an excellent salesman, have built up a good 
business with a reputation for good work. 

Just off Hancock Street arc two privileges now oc- 
cupied by the HoUingsworth & Whitney Manufactur- 
ing Company, which it will be necessary to take up sep- 
arately. One is called the upper mill, the other the 
lower mill. The first we know of the lower mill it 
was used for sawing lumber until about 1810, when it 
was enlarged, and a grist-mill added. It was owned 
by Abraham Thayer, a native of the town. The 
upper mill is of an older date. At what time this 
privilege was first occupied is not known, but as long 
ago as 176-4 it was sold by Daniel Hayden to Azariah 
Faxon, and described as a saw- and grist-mill. Mr. 
Faxon owned it about thirty years, when he sold it 
to Jonathan Thayer. It was used for the manu- 
facture of various articles of merchandise by different 
individuals until about 1820, when it was purchased 
by the Blake & Revere Copper Foundry Company, 
who manufactured bells and did other copper work 
for several years. About the year 1832, John M. 
and Lyman HoUingsworth, two brothers who came 
from Milton, purchased both the upper and lower 
privileges, and commenced the manufacture of paper. 
It was at this mill that they discovered how to make 
manilla paper from the old rope, which could be 
bought at a small price, and transformed into paper 
which was very strong and almost impervious to 
water. This discovery was made in 1842. When 
they removed from the town their brother, Ellis A., 
took charge of the business, under the firm-name 
of HoUingsworth & Whitney, and so well have they 
succeeded that they make at this establishment alone 
about five tons of paper per day, and which finds a 
ready sale. About 1882, upon the death of both 
the partners, a stock company was formed, although 
the stock is nearly, if not all, owned by their heirs. 
The HoUingsworth brothers all made a good fortune 
in their business. This company has built on the 
old site the most convenient mill in the State. 

Just in the rear of the Braintree Cemetery, situated 
on Pond Street, is an old dam. In the only reference 
to it I have found in the records it is called Samuel 
Niles' dam, and probably was used as a site for a saw- 
mill. This was in 1731, and the mill was then prob- 
ably not in existence, as it is spoken of as formerly 
known by that name. It must be of very ancient 



date, most likely before 1675. No tradition exists, 
as far as I can learn, of what the dam was used for. 

There is a privilege situated near the corner of 
Pond and Granite Streets which was in 1730 in pos- 
session of Col. William Hunt, who occupied it for a 
forge. The ore was taken from the bottom of Great 
Pond by dredging, so tradition says. Iron ore has 
been found in considerable quantities, and at one time 
was exported from the town. The cinders made at 
this forge can be seen at this time. It was afterwards 
purchased by David Holbrook, and remained in the 
family for four generations, used for a saw- and grist- 
mill. Since the death of Moses Holbrook it was pur- 
chased by George White, and afterwards used as a 
saw-mill by him until his death, which was caused by 
an accident while at work in the mill. After his 
death it was compelled to yield to the torch of the 

Another saw- and grist-mill was situated near Wash- 
ington Street, on Cranberry Brook, and is known as 
Ludden's mill. But little is known of its history, 
but the ruins of the dam are plainly to be seen. Still 
another saw-mill was situated on the same brook, far- 
ther up the stream, and near Liberty Street. It was 
the property of William Wild, a native of the town, 
who removed to that vicinity about 1750. Nothing 
but the dam remains. 

These privileges were all situated on the Monati- 
quot River or its tributaries. Said river takes its rise 
near the great Blue Hill, in Canton, and is called 
Blue Hill River until it reaches Great Pond, in Brain- 
tree, when it takes the name of Moore's Farm River. 
Near the place where it receives the waters of Little 
Pond it joins the Cochato River, which rises near the 
borders of Holbrook and Stoughton, and near the 
junction it receives the waters of Cranberry Pond, and 
flows into Boston Harbor. In the year 1818 the 
owners of the privileges on Monatiquot River obtained 
of the General Court authority to use the waters of 
Houghton's Pond, in Milton, and Great, Little, and 
Cranberry Ponds, in Braintree, that they might have 
those waters to use during the droughts of summer. 
They have enlarged and deepened the natural outlets 
of Great and Little Pond for that purpose. Monati- 
quot River, after it arrives at the line between Brain- 
tree and Weymouth, is sometimes called Weymouth 
Fore River, but the name on the ancient i-ecords is 
that of Monoticut. Near the Weymouth Hue there 
was formerly much ship-building carried on by Sam- 
uel Arnold, Nathaniel R. Thomas, and others. But 
the business has not been carried on for some years. 
The river is navigable as far as Shaw Street bridge, 
and on its borders in ancient times were situated 

many wharves, from whence the products of the coun- 
try were conveyed to the markets, and receiving 
goods in return. Prominent among these places may 
be mentioned a wharf called William Penn's upper 
landing place as early as 1645, and probably earlier. 
It was situated near the foot of Mill Lane. The only 
wharf now used in that vicinity is occupied by Joel 
F. Sheppard, a native of New Jersey, for the trans- 
action of a coal and wood business. Besides the 
water received from the ponds, the river is fed by a 
large number of springs, with which the town abounds. 
The most noted of these springs is situated at the 
foot of a gravel plain, from whence flows a steady 
stream of pure water which never freezes, but con- 
tinues to flow with a never-failing supply, although 
the earth is parched by the heat of summer ; nor does 
it increase during the heavy rains of spring and au- 
tumn. The people come for miles around, and carry 
away barrels every day through the summer for fam- 
ily use. It has been analyzed by competent chemists, 
and found to contain medical qualities. The water 
of Monatiquot River is also used by the tannery of 
Col. Albion C. Drinkwater, which is situated on the 
corner of Adams and Elm Streets. He pronounces 
it the best water in the State of Massachusetts for 
tanning purposes. About the year 1800 the manu- 
facture of shoes was commenced in the town by Sam- 
uel Hayden, who disposed of his goods in Boston. 
This, with the addition of boots, soon became an ex- 
tensive business, and from that time to the present 
they have been manufactured in this town, not as 
large now as at a former period. The number of the 
manufacturers are so many that I cannot devote the 
space for their names. Sufiice it to say that almost 
every dwelling had a shop built near it, where the 
workmen took their work from the manufacturers and 
made the boots for market. These have gradually 
gone to decay or have been removed for other pur- 
poses, so that now one can scarcely be found, the 
workmen laboring in factories. The Braintree thick 
boot bore the highest price in the market, and 
sustained its good name for many years. On the 
borders of Little Pond, Warren Mansfield commenced 
a wheelwright business, which gradually enlarged 
until he was compelled to erect a stone factory with 
steam-power to fill his numerous orders. He became 
a large manufacturer of cars, wagons for the military 
service of the government during the Rebellion, and 
also large wagons, which he shipped to Cuba and South 

During the last few years a factory has been built 
for the manufacture of Cardigan jackets, and is run 
by steam-power. The business is carried on by 



Joseph Winter and wife, natives of England. They 
are doing a good business, making the best goods in 
the market. 

Joseph I. Bates has also lately started a new 
business for this town, manufacturing what he calls 
" Bates' Consumption Pills," for which he finds a 
ready sale. 

Old Colony Bulletin. — On June 5, 1875, appeared 
the first number of the Old Colony Bulletin, which 
was published in South Braintree by Mr. C. Franklin 
David. It was issued fortnightly, and remained in 
existence some six months, when its publisher re- 
moved to Abington. Its first editor was Mr. A. E. 
Sproul, who is now on the reportorial staff of the 
Boston Herald., and well adorns the profession, prov- 
ing himself an able and ready writer. 


BRAINTREE— ( Co»^/»»erf). 

During the year 1807, when it was feared that 
the country would become involved in a foreign war, 
it was voted by the town that the men who turned 
out for the service of the country should fare as well 
as the Third Regiment should fare. At a meeting of 
the town, held May 12, 1808, it was voted to give 
the men who enlisted in the United States service 
three dollars each. Under this vote the town paid 
three dollars each to twenty-two men, as appears by 
the order-book. The persons paid were Thomas 
Hollis, Jr., William Thayer (3d), John Hollis (2d), 
Moses French, Joshua Sampson, Jr., George New- 
comb, Ebenezer Hayward, Alexander Holbrook, 
Asaph Faxon, Jr., Samuel Holbrook, James Hol- 
brook, Isaac Allen, James French, Abia Holbrook, 
Levi Thayer, Jr., Jonathan Thayer, Jr., Samuel 
Robinson, Jonathan Hill, Thomas Wild, Warren 
Loud, John Cushing, and Charles Bass. 

In the war of 1812 the town of Braintree, like 
most of the towns in the State, was opposed to the 
war with Great Britain, and the state of feeling can 
be seen by the vote for Governor at the election held 
Nov. 12, 1812, a high state of political feeling exist- 

^ The historj' of the Revolutionary war is being written for 
this volume by the Hon. Charles P. Adams, Jr., of Quincy. I 
shall therefore leave it to his able pen. 

ing at the time. For the Federal candidate there 
were thrown eighty-six votes, for the Republican only 
fifty. At a town-meeting called May 28, 1812, it 
was voted to make each man's pay, with the United 
States pay, fourteen dollars per month, as long as 
they are out in the service. It was also voted that 
if the drafted men are called out for military duty 
more than by order of the government, the town 
agree to pay them one dollar for each day. Sept. 
16, 1814, a town-meeting was held to see if the town 
will take into consideration the alarming situation 
which threatens our shores by invasion by the hostile 
foe, with respect to the defense. Voted to add four 
persons to the selectmen, which shall be denominated 
a Committee of Safety. The selectmen at that time 
consisted of Caleb French, Dr. Jonathan Wild, and 
Major Amos Stetson. The persons added were 
Messrs. Jonas Welch, Capt. Thomas Hollis, Lieut. 
William Reed, and Minott Thayer. Voted that the 
town raise the sum of three hundred dollars to pay 
the troops, and that we pay the same that Randolph, 
Milton, and Quincy pay. The only persons I have 
heard of in the United States service were John, 
Isaac, and Ebenezer Holbrook and James French. 
The latter died in the service at Plattsburg, N. Y., 
in 1814. 

Upon the breaking out of the Rebellion, in 1861, 
one of the first towns to respond to the call for troops 
was Braintree. It already had a company of in- 
fantry, who had joined themselves together for the 
purpose of perfecting themselves in military drill, and 
to enjoy the pleasures of the training-field. They 
little dreamed that they would be called at a few 
hours' notice to leave their comfortable homes and 
loved and loving friends to mingle in the dangers of 
war. But so it proved. On the 15th day of April 
of that year they received orders late in the afternoon 
to report in Boston on the following day, to go — 
they knew not whither. But they did not shrink 
from the peiforraance of their duty. Many of them 
had families dependent upon their daily labor for the 
necessaries of life, and knew not how they could sus- 
tain those families in comfort while they were absent 
in their country's .service. But they marched with 
full ranks, in full trust that God would provide means 
and would open the hearts of their townsmen, so that 
these loved ones would be cared for in their absence. 
On the morning of April 16th the Braintree Light 
Infantry, Company C, Fourth Regiment Massachu- 
setts Volunteer Militia, were formed at their armory 
prepared for duty. They marched for Boston to join 
their regiment, and in a few days sailed for Fortress 
Monroe, where they remained the term of their en- 



listment, and returned to their homes July 22d, the 
same year. Immediately after their departure the 
selectmen of the town issued their warrant for a town- 
meeting to be held on April 26th, to provide for the 
families of the soldiers. The warrant was dated April 
19th, only three days after their departure, and was 
signed by David H. Bates, N. H. Hunt, and Phillips 
Curtis. At that meeting it was voted that a sum not 
exceeding S1500 be appropriated for the support of 
the families of those who have left the town and 
their homes in obedience to the call of the President 
of the United States. David H. Bates, N. H.Hunt, 
Phillips Curtis, J. H. D. Blake, Jason G. Howard, 
Caleb Hollis, and Elisha Thayer were appointed a 
committee to expend and distribute the above appro- 
priation. Under this vote the committee expended 

Another call was made for troops, and the State 
passed a law authorizing towns to aid the families of 
soldiers, and on August 19th of the same year the town 
voted to borrow $1000, to be expended according to 
law. The sum expended under this vote was refunded 
by the State. July 14, 1862, the town voted to 
offer a bounty of one hundred dollars to each indi- 
vidual volunteer resident of Braintree who shall, un- 
der the direction of the selectmen, within thirty days 
from date, volunteer for the war. The selectmen, 
under this vote, expended the sum of §8637.30. 
This sum also includes the money paid agreeable to a 
vote passed Aug. 18, 1862, whereby the selectmen 
were authorized to pay each volunteer resident who 
shall enlist previous to the first day of September 
under the late call of the President for nine months 
$125, to the number of the quota assigned to the town, 
and $7500 was appropriated for that object. During 
the year 1864 the town paid the sum of $8360.77 for 
bounties and expenses of recruiting the quota of the 
town. June 1, 1864, it was voted to authorize the 
selectmen to pay from the treasury the sum of $125 
for each person volunteering in the quota of Braintree 
previous to the first day of March, 1865, under any 
call from the President of the United States. 

During the year 1865 the town paid for bounties 
and expenses the sum of $9495, making a total of 
$27,930.51 which had been paid by the town in its 
corporate capacity for the prosecution of the war. 
This is in addition to the sum refunded by the State, 
and also to many private contributions for the same 

The following is a register of the officers and pri- 
vates, as far as has been ascertained, who served in the 
army. There may be errors, but if so, they are diffi- 
cult to correct from lack of records : 


Three Years' Regiments. 
Warren M. Babbitt, asst. surg. 55th Mass. Inf. and surg. 103d 
U. S. colored troops, from Aug. 11, 1863, to April .30, 1866. 
Cephas C. Bumpus, capt. 32d Inf. and 3d Heavy Art. 
George A. Thayer, capt. 2d Inf. 
Norman F. Steele, capt. 32d Inf. 
Edgar L. Bumpus, brevet capt. 33d Inf. 
Everett C. Bumpus, 1st lieut. 3d Heavy Art. 
Edward H. Melius, 1st lieut. 3d Heavy Art. 
Richard M. Sanborn, 1st lieut. 3d Cav. (complimentary). 
Theodore C. Howe, 1st lieut. 3d Cav. (complimentary). 
James B. Leonard, 2d lieut. 32d Inf. 
Ebenezer C. Thayer, Jr., 2d lieut. 2d Louisiana Inf. 
Marcus M. Pool, 2d lieut. 1st Heavy Art. 

Volunteer Militia. 
Cephas C. Bumpus, capt. Co. C, 4th Inf., for 3 months. 
James T. Stevens, capt. Co. I, 42d Inf., for 100 days; 1st 

lieut. Co. C, 4th Inf., for 3 months. 
Isaac P. Fuller, 2d lieut. Co. C, 4th Inf., for 3 months. 
John C. Sanborn, 2d lieut. Co. B, 43d Inf., for 9 months. 
Charles A. Arnold, 2d lieut. Co. I, 42d Inf , for 100 days. 

Fourth Regiment, Company C, Mass. Vol. Militia (Braintree 

Light Infantry). 
Mustered into service April 22, 1861 ; discharged July 22, 1861. 

William M. Richards, sergt. John Finegan. 

Joseph L. Frasier, sergt. Roland E. Foster. 

Andrew G. King, sergt. William B. Foster. 

Edgar L. Bumpus, sergt. Nathan T. Freeman. 

Samuel M. Hollis, corp. Henry W. Gammons. 

Reuben F. Hollis, corp. Charles Giflbrd. 

John T. Ayers, corp. Joseph E. Holbrook. 

•John C. Sanborn, corp. George F. Howard. 

Charles A. Arnold. Thomas Huston. 

Marcus P. Arnold. L. Frank Jones. 

James T. Bestick. James B. Leonard. 

John E. Boyle. William Leggett. 

Everett C. Bumpus. Thomas J. Morton. 

John R. Carmichael. Edward H. Melius. 

John Coughlan. Francis McConity. 

Chandler Cox. William H. McGann. 

Nelson Cox. Albert S. Mason. 

Marcus F. Cram. Marcus A. Perkins. — 

Thomas J. Crowell. Henry H. Shedd. 

William Cunningham. Norman F. Steele. 

William A. Daggett. Thomas B. Stoddard. 

Solon David. Elihu M. Thayer. 

Henry W. Dean. Joseph P. Thayer. 

James Donahoe. Loring AV. Thayer. 

Peter Donahoe. Andrew Toomey. 

Lawrence A. Dyer. Henr^' AV. Wright. 
Alpheus Field. 

There were ten others from other towns who ac- 
companied them, making the whole number of rank 
and file sixty-six men. 

Besides these, Charles H. Crickmay went with 
Company H, Fourth Regiment, and Jeremiah Dal- 
ton, Jr., with Company G, Fifth Regiment, both of 



The following were mustered in Oct. 11, 1862, 
and discharged July 30, 1863, and served in Com- 
pany B, Forty-third (nine months') Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers : 

Edward H. Melius, sergt. 
Charles W. Bean, corp. 
Charles A. Arnold, corp. 
Thomas B.Stoddard, corp. 
Jonathan R. Clark, corp. 
Hiram E. Abbott. 
John R. Carmichael. 
Silas B. Crane. 
Robert M. Cummings. 
William B. Denton. 
Edward A. Fisher. 
Hosea B. Hayden. 
Hosea B. Hayden (2d). 

William G. Hill. 
Albert 0. Hollis. 
George A. Howe. 
Charles B. Leonard. 
George A. Mower. 
AVilliam W. Mower. 
Shubael M. Norton, 
John F. Pool. 
Jacob C. Snow. 
Cranmore N. Wallace. 
Francis A. AVallace. 
Morrill Williams. 

Forty-fourth Regiment,^ Company II. 
EveretC. Bumpui, Sept. 12, 1862, to June 18, 1863. 

Uom2}a>iy I. 
Joseph H. J. Thayer, Sept. 12, 1862, to June 18, 1863. 

Forty-fifth Regiment,^ Company A. 
John AV. Fowle, Oct. 13, 1862, to July 7, 1S63. 

Forty-seventh Regiment,^ Comjiany K. 
James AVillis, Oct. 31, 1862, to Sept. 1, 1863. 
John Wilson, Oct. 31, 1862, to Sept. 1, 1863. 

Forty-eighth Regiment,^ Company I. 
John Frecl, Oct. 18, 1862, to Sept. 3, 1863. 

Company A'. 
James Dooley, Nov. 1, 1862, to Sept. 3, 1863. 

The following were mustered in July 14 to Nov. 
11, 1864, and served in Company I, Forty-second 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, being enlisted as 
one hundred days' men : 

Cranmore N. Wallace, sergt. 
John R. Carmichael, sergt. 
Isaac P. Fuller, sergt. 
Robert Gillespie, sergt. 
William L. Pratt, corp. 
Francis A. Wallace, corp. 
Marcus A. Perkins, corp. 
George W. Abbott. 
J. Fred. Allen. 
Fred. C. Armstrong. 
B. Herbert Bartlett. 
Henry W. Dean. 
Otis B. Dean. 
Edwin F. French. 
William L. Gage. 
Caleb H. Hayden. 
Charles T. Hayden. 
Lorenzo Hayden. 

Waldo Holbrook. 
AValter Holbrook. 
Davis W. Howard. 
"Moses Hunt. 
Moses N. Hunt. 
Newell A. Langley. 
.John McDermott. 
Ruel B. Moody. 
George W. Nickerson. 
Henry Pratt. 
Samuel Rennie. 
Charles R. Smith. 
Thomas 0. Sullivan. 
Francis P. Thayer. 
Lucian M. Thayer. 
Fred. H. Wales. 
George D. Willis. 
James M. Willis. 

Edward Fisher was corporal in Company A, Forty-second 

Regiment, from July 14 to Nov. 11, 1864. 
Nelson Reals belonged to Twentieth Unattached Company 

from Aug. 11 to Nov. 18, 1864. 

1 Nine months' regiment. 

Persons who enlisted for three years in the service 
of the United States : 

Second Battery Light Artillery. 
William E. Foye, Sept. 3, 1864, to June 11, 1865, 

Seventh Battery Light Artillery. 
John Brennon, Jan. 1, 1864, to Nov. 10, 1865. 

Twelfth Battery Light Artillery. 
Silas B. Crane, March 26, 1864, to. June 22, 1864. 
First Heavy Artillery, Company C. 
Paul Nadell, July 5, 1861 ; transferred to navy, April 13, 1864. 
Marcus M. Pool, July 5, 1861, to May 15, 1865, 
James E. Hobart, July 5, 1861, to August 16, 1865. 

First Heavy Artillery, Company E. 
James T. Bestick, sergt., Aug. 6, 1862, to March 26, 1865. 
Calvin Briggs, Aug. 6, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Edward S. Dean, Aug. 6, 1862, to July 8, 1864. 
Henry W. Gammons, Aug. 6, 1862, to July 8, 1864. 

Company I. 
John F. Salmon, July 5, 1861, to July 8, 1864. 

Compinny M. 
Linus C. Bird, March 3, 1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Denis Foley, March 6, 1862, to Aug. 16, 1865. 
Elisha P. Goodnow, March 3, 1862, to May 19, 1864, 
AVilliam Higgins, March 17, 1862, to Feb. 15, 1865. 
Michael McDonald, March 6, 1862, to March 6, 1865. 

Second Heavy Artillery, Comj^any C. 
John E. Boyle, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 26, 1865. 
Nehemiah T. Dyer, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 26, 1865. 
George P. Hollis, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 26, 1865. 
Albert T. Pool, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 30, 1865. 
Andrew C. Toomey, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 30, 1865. 

Company F. 
Fred. AA^ Ingraham, sergt., Sept. 5, 1864, to June 26, 1865. 
George Atwell, Sept. 5, 1864, to Jan. 17, 1865. 
Hiram S. Thayer, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 26, 1865. 

Company 0. 
John Navan, Aug. 29, 1864, to June 30, 1865. 

Company H. 
Samuel Meeker, Aug. 9, 1864, to Sept. 3, 1865. 

Company L. 
Edward Freel, sergt., Dec. 22, 1863, to Sept. 3, 1865. 
Orrin H. Belcher, corp., Dec. 22, 1S6.3, to Sept. 3, 1865, 
Horatio W. Cole, corp., Dec. 22, 1863, to Sept. 3, 1865, 
Henry B. Dyer, Dec. 22, 1863, to June 22, 1865. 
Jacob A. Dyer, Dec. 22, 1863, to Sept. 3, 1865. 
Henry Joy, Dec. 22, 1863, to May 26, 1865. 

Third Heavy Artillery, Compxiny I). 
Lewis Hobart, March 30, 1864. 

Company E. 
John Cronin, corp., Aug. 27, 186.3, to Sept. 18, 1865. 
Patrick Regan, Aug. 27, 1863, 

Compiany F. 
Edward H. Melius, sergt., Sept. 16, 1863, to Sept. 18, 1865. 
Shubael M. Norton, Sept. 16, 1863, to Sept. 18, 1865. 
Caleb S. Benson, Aug. 24, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
AVilliam B. Denton, Sept. 24, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 



Lawrence A. Dyer, Sept. 16, 1863, to Sept. 18, 1865. 
Pearl S. Grindall, Sept. 16, 1863, to Nov. 1, 1864. 
Elias Holbrook, Aug. 24, 1864, to June 20, 1865. 
Charles H. Howe, Aug. 23, 1864, to June 20, 1865. 
Hosea Jackson, Aug. 23, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Hervey N. Jillson, Aug. 24, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
John G. Minchin, Aug. 23, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Martin Y. B. Minchin, Aug. 23, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Henry 0. Pratt, Sept. 16, 1863, to Sept. 18, 1865. 
Andrew J. Rubert, Aug. 24, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Samuel W. Savill, Aug. 24, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 

Comjiany G. 
Eli W. Chase, Oct. 20, 1863, to Sept. 18, 1865. 
Robert M. Cummings, Oct. 20, 1863, to Sept. 18, 1865. 

Third Heavy Artillery, Company K. 
Robert Rennie, corp., May 12, 1864, to Sept. IS, 1865. 

Company L. 
Charles F. Arnold, corp., Aug. 29, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Amos W. Hobart, artificer, Aug. 29, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Cyrus G. Bowker, Aug. 29, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Alfred H. Butler, Aug. 29, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Elbridge Joy, Aug. 29, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Joseph P. Thayer. Aug. 29, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 

Fourth Heavy Artillery, Company C. 
Grace W. Allen, sergt., Aug. 9, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Nahum Sampson, sergt., Aug. 15, 1864, to May 5, 1865. 
William C. Stoddard, corp., Aug. 9, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Cyrus Cummings, wagoner, Aug. 13, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
John G. N. Henderson, Aug. 10, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Lathrop C. Keith, Aug. 9, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
William C. Knight, Aug. 11, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
John Laing, Aug. 12, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Angus McGilvray, Aug. 10, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Michael Nugent, Aug. 10, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 

Company F. 
John Flynn, Aug. 15, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 

Company G. 
Robert T. Bestick, Aug. 26, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
George C. H. Deets, Aug. 26, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
Samuel V. Holbrook, Aug. 26, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 
James Toole, Aug. 26, 1864, to June 17, 1865. 

Comptany K. 
William M. Strachan, sergt., Aug. 18, 1864, to June 17, 1865 

First Battery Heavy Artillery, Compiany A. 
Benjamin J. Loring, sergt., Feb. 26, 1862, to Feb. 27, 1865. 
George S. Huff, sergt., Feb. 26, 1862, to Feb. 27, 1865. 
Charles E. Pratt, Corp., Feb. 21, 1862, to Feb. 27, 1865. 
Henry Bayley, July 1, 1864, to June 22, 1865. 
Frank Osborn, Feb. 24, 1862, to July 20, 1862. 
Elihu M. Thayer, Feb. 19, 1862, to Oct. 20, 1865. 

Company B. 
Calvin T. Dyer, Sept. 10, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 
John Q. Ela, Dec. 3, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 
Edward A. Hale, Oct. 29, 1862, to June 29, 1865. 
George B. Jones, Oct. 29, 1862, to June 29, 1865. 
Charles H. Loring, Oct. 10, 1862. 

Michael B. McCormick, Jan. 13, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 
George H. Randall, Aug. 7, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 

Wilbert F. Robbins, Dec. 4, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 
William H. Saunders, Oct. 25, 1862, to June 29, 1865. 
Jacob C. Snow, Aug. 18, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 
Benjamin F. Spear, Aug. 7, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 

Company C. 
Francis White, q.m. -sergt., Aug. 22, 1863, to Oct. 20, 1865. 
Warren C. Mansfield, Aug. 3, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 
William H. McQuinn, Aug. 18, 1862, to June 29, 1865. 
Samuel E. Whitmarsh, April 22, 1863, to Oct. 20, 1865. 

Company D. 
Charles Blake, June 6, 1863. 

First Cavalry, Company H. 
Peter A. Drollett, Oct. 12, 1861, to Oct. 8, 1864. 
Alvin Jackson, Oct. 12, 1861, to Jan. 15, 1865. 

Comjiany K. 

William A. Daggett, bugler, Sept. 16, 1861, to Sept. 21, 1864. 

James B. Frazier, Nov. 26, 1861, to Jan. 4, 1865. 

Henry A. Hobart, sergt., Nov. 26, 1861. 

George F. Penniman, Sept. 25, 1861, to Sept. 25, 1864. 

Second Cavalry, Company F. 
Henry W. Gammons, Jan. 2, 1865, to July 20, 1865. 
George F. Thayer, April 3, 1863, to April 1, 1865. 

Company H. 
Owen Fox, Oct. 9, 1863, to July 6, 1864. 

Third Cavalry, Company B. 
Edwin L. Curtis, sergt., Dec. 11, 1863, to Sept. 28, 1865. 

Company D. 
Richard M. Sanborn, sergt., Jan. 30, 1864, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Theodore C. Howe, q.m.-sergt., Dec. 7, 1863, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Hosea B. Hayden, corp., Dec. 31, 1863, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
William G. Hill, corp., Dec. 5, 1863, to July 29, 1865. 
Joseph W. Huff, Corp., March 11, 1864, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Charles B. Leonard, corp., Dec. 21, 1863, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Jonathan R. Clark, blacksmith, Dec. 31, 1863, to Sept. 28, 

George Y. Chick, Dec. 5, 1863, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Stephen W. Dawson, Jan. 29, 1864, to his death. 
John Halpin, Dec. 28, 1863, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Isaac R. Harmon, Feb. 15, 1864, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Philip McQuinty, Jan. 5, 1864, to July 29, 1865. 
George A. Mower, Feb. 9, 1864, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
James Spear, Dec. 10, 1863, to Sept. 28, 1865. 
Charles S. Thayer, Feb. 15, 1864, to Aug. 19, 1865. 

Company E. 
James Riley, Sept. 20, 1862. 

Company G. 
Patrick Dunlay, Nov. 1, 1862, to May 20, 1865. 

Com J) any I. 
Royal Belcher, Aug. 5, 1862, to May 20, 1865. 
James Smith, Aug. 5, 1862, to May 20, 1865. 

Company K. 
John T. Ayres, sergt., Aug. 6, 1862, to Oct. 19, 1864. 
Timothy Curran, Corp., Aug. 6, 1862; transferred to Yet. Res. 

John G. Ingraham, corp., Aug. 6, 1862, to March 1, 1863. 
Jonathan S. Paine, corp., Aug. 6, 1862 ; transferred to Vet. 

Res. Corps. 
William A. Bishop, bugler, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 30, 1865. 



Edward E. Patten, saddler, Aug. 6, 1862, to Nov. 15, 1864. 

John F. Albee, Feb. 29, 186i, to June 22, 1864. 

Edward Bannon, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

John Barry, Aug. 6, 1862, to Sept. 28, 1865. 

Lewis D. Bates, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Leonard Belcher, Aug. 6, 1862, to March 1, 1863. 

Elisha S. Bowditoh, Dec. 7, 1863, to Sept. 19, 1864. 

James E. Burpee, Aug. 6, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Patrick Cahill, Dec. 12. 1863, to July 5, 1865. 

Stephen Connor, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Chandler Cox, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Marcus F. Cram, Aug. 6, 1862, to Jan. 26, 1864. 

William L. Cram, Aug. 6, 1862. 

John Craddock, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Birdsey Curtis, Aug. 6, 1862. 

Charles C. Davis, Aug. 6, 1862, to Jan. 23, 1863. 

Joseph Desotelle, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

John Flood, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865, 

Charles E. Fogg, Aug. 6, 1862, to Aug. 9, 1865. 

William H. French, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865, 

Thomas C. Gardner, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Peter T. Godfrey, Aug. 6, 1862. 

Oliver S. Harrington, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Almon E. Ingalls, Dec. 21, 1863; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

George A. Joy, Aug. 6, 1862, to April 27, 1863. 

James Kennedy, Jan. 1, 1864; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

William S. Leach, Aug. 6, 1862, to Aug. 7, 1863. 

Frederic Marr, Aug. 6, 1862. 

AVilliain P. Martin, Feb. 22, 1864; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Frank McConerty, Aug. 6, 1862 ; absent. 

Michael McMurphy, Aug. 6, 1862. 

William W. Mower, Dec. 21, 1863. 

Albert S. Nason, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Daniel W. Niles, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865, 

Samuel H. Paine, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Charles E. Pratt, Aug. 6, 1862, to Nov. 15, 1863. 

Isaac Raymond, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Oliver Simmons, Aug. 6, 1862, to Feb. 18, 1863. 

Quincy Sprague, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

George H. Stevens, Dec. 21, 1863 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Ansel P. Thayer, Aug. 6, 1862, to Sept. 19, 1864. 

Ephraim F. Thayer, Dec. 31, 186.3, to Aug. 8, 1865, 

Major Tirrell, Aug. 6, 1862, to May 21, 1865. 

Americus V. Tirrell, Aug. 6, 1862, to Jan. 18, 1864. 

John F. Wild, Dec. 26, 1863, to April 8, 1864. 

Thomas S. Williams, Dec. 5, 1863 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Company M. 
Garrett G. Barry, .sergt., Dec. 13, 1861, to April 8, 1864, 

Fourth Cavalry, Company D. 
Alvin Jackson, Jan, 9, 1864, to Jan. 15, 1865. 

Compiany F. 
William L. Cram, Jan. 27, 1864, to Nov. 14, 1865. 

Fifth Cavalry. 
Jlmes M. Cutting, vet. surg., Sept. 16, 1864, to Oct. 31, 1865, 

Second Infantry, Com2)any G. 
William Foley, May 25, 1861, to July 26, 1863. 
Dennis Moriarty, May 25, 1861, to April 1, 1802. 
William Welsh, May 25, 1861, to Jan. 31, 1863. 

2'i^iiith Infantry, Company B, 
John Healey, June 11, 1861. 

Company C. 
John P. Murphy, June 11, 1861, to June 21, 1864. 

Company G. 
Cornelius Furfy, June 11, 1861, to July 1, 1862. 
Richard Furfy, June 11, 1861, to June 21, 1864. 

Company H. 
John Foley, Aug. 21, 1863, to June 10, 1864. 

Company K. 
Anthony Columbus, Aug. 21, 1863, to June 10, 1864. 

Eleventh Infantry, Company B. 
John P. Maloney, sergt., June 13, 1861. 
William M. Tirrell, sergt., June 13, 1861, to June 24, 1864, 
James Wilkie, corp., June 13, 1861. 

Eleventh Cavalry, Com2>any D, 
Owen Greelish, June 13, 1861, to Aug. 22, 1861. 

Company E. 
Francis Marmont, Aug. 14, 1863, to July 14, 1865. 

Company K. 

James Barrett, June 13, 1861. 
Thomas H. Neal, June 13, 1861, to Oct. 22, 1862. 
Samuel W. Saville, June 13, 1861, to June 24, 1864, 
Thomas Wilson, Aug. 12, 1863, to July 14, 1865. 

Twelfth Cavalry, Company C, 
Francis W. Kahle, July 22, 1863, to March 6, 1864, 
Michael Preston, July 5, 1861, to Dec. 31, 1862. 
Ephraim F. Thayer, June 26, 1861, to Feb. 28, 1863. 
John Q. Whitmarsh, June 26, 1861, to Sept. 18, 1862. 

Comjjuny E. 
Christopher P. Tower, June 26, 1801, to March 9, 1863. 

.Company F. 
Joseph P. Davis, June 26, 1861, to July 8, 1864. 

Company II. 
Charles A. Pope, sergt., June 26, 1861, to Nov. 30, 1863. 
Warren Stetson, July 17, 1863, to June 25, 1864, 
John Q. A. Thayer, June 26, 1801, to July 8, 1864. 

Thirteenth Cavalry, Compiany G. 
Hiram S. Thayer, July 16, 1801, to Aug. 1, 1864. 

Sixteenth Cavalry, Company I. 
William Cunningham, Aug. 30, 1861, to July 15, 1863. 

Cotnpany K. 
James Bradley, July 2, 1861, to July 27, 1864. 

Seventeenth Cavalry, Company E. 
Albert T. Pool, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 30, 1865. 
John F. Pool, Sept. 5, 1864, to June 30, 1865. 

Comp((ny G. 
John Navan, Aug. 29, 1804, to June 30, 1865. 

Eiijhteenth Cavalry, Company E. 
Asa W. Holbrook, Aug. 24, 1801, to Oct. 26, 1864. 

Company K, 
Thomas Smith, Jr., corp., Aug. 24, 1801, to Jan. 26, 1863. 



Nineteenth Cavalry, Company B, 
Duncan Crawford, Aug. 3, 1863, to Jan. 14, 1864. 

Company E. 
Daniel Carrigan, Sept. 2, 1861, to June 30, 1865. 
James Carrigan, July 26, 1861; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Company K. 
Samuel D. Chase, Corp., Oct. 31, 1862, to June 30, 1865. 
Marcus P. Arnold, Oct. 29, 1862, to June 30, 1865. 
N. Augustus White, Aug. 19, 1861; no record of discharge. 

Twentieth Cavalry, Comjiany F. 
Duncan Crawford, Jan. 14, 1864; trans, to navy. 

Company G. 
John Goodman, Sept. 4, 1861, to Sept. 3, 1864. 

Company I, 
Charles Holbrook, Dec. 9, 1S61, to Oct. 15, 1862. 

Company K. 
Thomas J. Crowell, corp., Aug. 21, 1861, to Dee. 13, 1862. 

Twenty-second Cavalry, Company E. 
Jeremiah Dalton, 2d corp., Oct. 1, 1861, to June 27, 1862. 

Company F. 
Charles L. Holbrook, July 28, 1863, to Oct. 26, 1864. 
Edward Huff, July 17, 1863, to Oct. 26, 1864. 

Comjiany I. 
Charles H. Crickmay, corp., Sept. 6, 1861, to June 30, 1862. 
Alexander R. Fogg, Sept. 6, 1861, to June 27, 1862. 

Twenty-third Cavalry, Cotnjjany H. 
George B. Jones, Sept. 28, 1861, to Sept. 8, 1862. 

Twenty-fourth Cavalry, Company B. 
George White, Sept. 18, 1861, to Dec. 18, 1863. 

Company C. 
Daniel Austin Thayer, July 29, 1862, to Jan. 4, 1864. 

Company G. 
Loring X. Hayden, Nov. 15, 1861, to Jan. 20, 1866. 
Edward M. French, Nov. 13, 1861, to Aug. 4, 1863. 
W. Martin Harmon, Nov. 13, 1861, to April 30, 1863. 
Abraham W. Hobart, July 26, 1862. 
Seth Taunt, Dec. 5, 1861, to July 15, 1865. 
George N. Thayer, Sept. 16, 1861, to Jan. 20, 1866. 

Company H. 
James L. Curtis, July 29, 1862, to Jan. 20, 1866. 

Twenty-seventh Cavalry, Company D. 
Maxon G. Healy, July 23, 1862, to Sept. 27, 1864. 

Twenty-eighth Cavalry, Company B. 
John Connors, Aug. 10, 1863, to July 6, 1864. 
Amos A. Loring, Jan. 5, 1864, to his death, 

Compjany C. 
Henry Barton, Dec. 13, 1861, to Dec. 19, 1864. 

Company D. 
John Connor, sergt., Jan. 2, 1864, to Aug. 19, 1864. 
Adams H. Cogswell, Jan. 2, 1862. 

Charles Gray, Aug. 10, 1863, to Sept. 15, 1864. 
AVilliam Reevers, Aug. 12, 1863, to June 20, 1865. 

Company F. 
Thomas Smith, Jan. S, 1862, to Sept. 30, 1862. 

Company G. 
Charles Miller, Aug. 12, 1863. 
Francis Winn, Dec. 19, 1861. 

Company I. 
Frederic Smith, Aug. 11, 1863. 

Peter Higgins, Aug. 14,1863. 

Twenty-ninth Cavalry, Comjiany A. 
John W. Sweeney, May 21, 1861, to Aug. 28, 1862. 

Com2}any B. 
Ira D. Bryant, May 14, 1861. 
James Freel, May 14, 1861. 
George S. Whiting, no record; now draws a pension. 

Company D. 
John Conley, Aug. 20, 1864, to July 29, 1865. 
James Flynn, Aug. 19, 1864. 

Thirtieth Cavalry, Compjany F. 
Samuel F. Harrington, Nov. 18, 1861, to July 5, 1866. 

Thirty-first Cavalry, Company K. 
Ebenezer C. Thayer, Jr., corp., Jan. 29, 1862, to Sept. 30, 1864. 
John W. Dargan, Jan. 23, 1862, to Nov. 27, 1864. 
William Kayhoo, Jan. 17, 1862, to Feb. 14, 1864. 
John Rennie, Feb. 6, 1862, to Nov. 1, 1862. 

Thirty-second Cavalry, Comjyany E. 
Loring W. Thayer, sergt., Dec. 2, 1861, to Sept. 30, 1864. 
Norman F. Steele, sergt., Deo. 2, 1861; 2d lieut. 
James B. Leonard, corp., Dec. 2, 1861 ; 2d lieut. 
Leonard F. Huff, Dec. 2, 1861, to Aug. 23, 1862. 
Henry T. Wade, Dec. 2, 1861, to July 2, 1863. 

Compa)iy F. 
Asa W. Holbrook, Jan. 21, 1864, to June 29, 1865. 

Company H. 
John Foley, Aug. 21, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 

Company I. 
William Daley, musician, Aug. 11, 1862, to June 29, 1865. 
Anthony Columbus, Aug. 22, 1863, to his death. 

Company L. 
Charles L. Holbrook, July 28, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 
Edward Huff, July 17, 1863, to June 29, 1865. 

Thirty-third Cavalry, Company E, 
Edgar L. Bumpus, sergt., Aug. 5, 1862, to May 15, 1864. 

Company K, 
Martin Branley, Aug. 8, 1862, to Nov. 24, 1862. 
T. Horace Cain, Aug. 8, 1862, to July 7, 1865. 
William Mulligan, Aug. 8, 1862, to June 11, 1865. 
John W. W. Rowell, Aug. 8, 1862, to Dec. 28, 1863, 
James N. Tower, Aug. 8, 1862, to June 11, 1865. 
Nathaniel A. White, Aug. 8, 1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Thirty-fifth Cavalry, Company E, 
William D. Lyons, Aug. 19, 1862, to April 20, 1863. 



Company H. 
John Davis, Aug. 19, 1S62, to Aug. 23, 1863. 

Thirti/sixth Cavalrij, Comjyanij K. 
Albert G. Wilder, corp., Aug. 11, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps 
Daniel W. Dean, Aug. 8, 1862, to his death. 
Seth Dean, Aug. 8, 1862, to Jan. 27, 1863. 

Thirty-eighth Cavalry, Company I. 
Edward Freel, Aug, 21, 1862, to Feb. 14, 1863. 
John V. Hunt, Aug. 21, 1862, to June 30, 1865. 
James W. Thayer, Aug. 21, 1862; trans to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Stephen Thayer, Aug. 21, 1862, to June 30, 1865. 

Company K, 
Hiram P. Abbott, corp., Aug. 20, 1862, to June 30, 1865. 
Henry H. Sbedd, Aug. 20, 1862, to Oct. 24, 1862. 
George H. Bryant, Aug. 20, 1862, to March 24, 1863. 
Warren R. Dalton, Aug. 20, 1862, to June 30, 1865. 
Charles David, Aug. 20, 1862, to Feb. 13, 1863. 
Edward David, Aug. 20, 1862, to June 14, 1863. 
Solon David, Aug. 20, 1862, to June 30, 1865. 

Thirty-ninth Cavalry, Company G. 
James Bannon, Sept. 2, 1862, to April 12, 1865. 
Warren Stetson, July 17, 1863, to May 18, 1865. 

Company H. 
John Preston, Sept. 2, 1862, to Jan. 29, 1863. 

Fortieth Cavalry, Company F. 
Michael McMurphy, Sept. 3, 1862, to March 24, 1863. 

Company H. 
Daniel F. Leonard, Sept. 1, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Fifty-sixth Cavalry, Company E. 
Michael P. Foley, Jan. 12, 1864, to July 12, 1865. 

Fifty-eifjhth Cavalry, Comptany E. 
Joseph Jenkins, March 1, 1864, to July 14, 1865. 

First Com2>any Sharpshooters. 
Josiah H. Hunt, Oct. 31, 1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
N. Warren Penniman, Oct. 13, 1862, to July 25, 1864. 

Veteran Reserve Corps. 
William Butler, Sept. 3, 1864. 
Patrick Callahan, May 16, 1864. 
Barney Peeney, May 16, 1864. 
Peter Hutchneck, May 17, 1864. 
Edward Kellogg, May 17, 1864. 
Jethro Lynch, May 16, 1864. 
Jesse B. Nourse, May 11, 1864. 

United States Rerjulars. 
Albert F. AVood, April 11, 1861, to April 11, 1864. 

Abijah Allen, Dec. 22, 1863, to May 31, 1865. 
Hiram A. French, Dec. 22, 1863, to May 31, 1865. 
Eugene D. Daniels, Dec. 22, 1863, to May 31, 1865. 
Luther Hayden, Oct. 26, 1864, to June 13, 1865. 
Francis W. Holbrook, Jan. 4, 1864, to May 31, 1865. 
Jacob S. Lord, Oct. 26, 1864, to June 13, 1866. 
Jonathan Thayer, Jr., Oct. 26, 1864, to June 13, 1865. 

Seventieth Infantry {Colored). 
John Bell, Jan. 31, 1865. 

Seventieth New York Infantry. 
Levi Bunker, June 20', 1861, to June 16, 1863. 
Edward S. Bunker, July 13, 1861, to Sept. 11, 1862. 
Alfred E. Parker, July 15, 1861, to May 5, 1862. 

Twenty-fifth New York Infantry. 
Thomas Smith, May 13, 1861, to June, 1862. 
Third Maryland Infantry, 
John Finegan, February, 1862, to March 12, 1863. 
Alonzo A. Tower, February, 1862. 

Twelfth Vermont Infantry. 
Benjamin F. Arnold, Oct. 4, 1862, to Dec. 29, 1864. 
Nelson Arnold, Oct. 18, 1862, to June 19, 1864. 

The folIowiDg enlisted in unknown orgaaizations, 
viz. : 

William S. Adams. 
William C. Bright. 
Symmes G. Buker. 
James Dooley. 
Michael Doran. 
Edward Doyle. 
Daniel H. Ellis. 
John Freel. 
James Flynn. 
Patrick Glancy. 
James T. Godfrey. 
John Hanlon. 
Albert Howard, Jr. 

Lewis U. Hubbard. 
John W. Langley. 
Bernard McGovern, 
George E. Nelson. 
John O'Neil. 
John Smith. 
Charles E. Smith. 
William Taylor. 
Edward Tilden. 
William Townsend. 
Peter Whitmarsh. 
William 0. Wright. 

The following enlisted in the navy, viz. 

Michael Tenney. 
Duncan Crawford. 
Royal J. Freeman. 
George Howe. 
Thomas J. Martin. 

George A. Raymond. 
William H. Spear. 
Charles Smith. 
Paul Nadell. 
William H. Matthews. 

Besides these there were thirty-four who were 
strangers, some of whom were assigned by the State 
as the quota of the town. 

Names of those who fell on the field or from 
wounds received in battle : 

Elisha Paine Goodnow. 
George Frederic Thayer. 
Owen Fox. 
John T. Ayres. 
Edward Everett Patten. 
Ansel Penniman Thayer. 
John Francis Wild. 
Garrett George Barry. 
Alvin Jackson. 
Cornelius Purfy. 
Thomas John Crowell. 
Charles Henry Crickmay. 

Those who died in 
prison life were : 

William Higgins. 
Charles Gray. 

From disease : 

Silas Binney Crane. 
John Ferdinand Albee. 

Alexander R. Fogg. 
Jeremiah Dalton (2d). 
Lawrence McLaughlin. 
Loring Winthrop Thayer. 
Henry T. Wade. 
Edgar Lewis Bumpus. 
Edward David. 
Ebenezer Coddington Thayer, 

Thomas Smith. 
Alfred Emmons Parker. 
Nelson Arnold. 

prison or from the effects of 

.Tames Bannon.. 

Benjamin Franklin Arnold. 

Elisha Strong Bowditch. 
William Sanford Leach. 



Francis W. Kahle. 
Daniel Austin Thayer. 
William Martin Harmon. 
Amos Atkins Loring. 
Leonard F. Huff. 
Anthony Columbus . 
T. Horace Cain. 
Daniel W. Dean. 
Seth Dean. 

Henry Winslow Dean. 
John Finegan. 
Levi Bunker. 
Edward S. Bunker. 
Paul Nadell. 
Stephen W. Dawson. 
Dennis Moriarty. 
John Connors. 

The women of the town deserve honorable men- 
tion. They contributed to the needs of the soldiers 
such articles as bedding, clothing, lint, bandages, and 
delicacies of diet as far as was within their means. 
An illustration of the spirit of some of the women in 
raising funds for these purposes of mercy is worth 
preserving. One summer, when money was hard to 
get, a townsman jocosely offered, without thinking 
his proposal would be accepted, to give the ladies a 
load of hay, lying in the wet meadows, if they would 
carry it away. They promptly accepted the gift, and 
several of the younger women went into the fields, 
loaded the hay, had it properly weighed, and duly 
deposited in the barn of a purchaser, and converted 
the proceeds into stockings, drawers, and shirts for 
the men at the front. 

For the most of the above statistics I am indebted 
to the labored researches of the Rev. George A. 
Thayer, a native of Braintree, an officer in the army, 
and who now resides at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

As an outgrowth of the war, soon after its close 
the soldiers of the United States army formed an 
organization which they called " The Grand Army of 
the Republic." A branch was formed June 4, 1869, 
and named Gen. Sylvanus Thayer Post, No. 87, De- 
partment of Massachusetts. It was organized by 
Gen. James L. Bates, assisted by Capt. Charles W. 
Hastings. The charter members were Capt. James 
T. Stevens, George D. Willis, Francis W. Holbrook, 
Joseph E. Holbrook, Robert P. Bestick, Lucian M. 
Thayer, Marcus A. Perkins, John R. Carmichael, 
William A. Dagget, and Edward S. Dean. They now 
number sixty-three comrades. They have strewed 
with flowers the graves of their departed comrades on 
Memorial Day each year since their organization. 
Nine of their comrades they have borne to the silent 
tomb and performed over their graves the usual ser- 
vice. They have expended for the relief of their 
members the sum of one thousand three hundred and 
two dollars and thirty-five cents. They held their 
meetings for some time in Holbrook Block, until its 
destruction by fire in June, 1882, when they lost 
nearly all their property. But though small in num- 
bers, they, by the aid of their townsmen, have fur- 
nished a fine hall in Rosenfeld's block, which they 

occupy at present. It has been beautifully decorated, 
mainly through the labor and taste of Comrade Thomas 
B. Stoddard, who deserves this notice. The Past 
Commanders are James T. Stevens, James T. Bestick, 
George D. Willis, Abijah Allen, Henry A. Monk, 
Edwin L. Curtis, William L. Gage, Thomas Fallon. 
Marcus A. Perkins has served as Quartermaster 
nearly fifteen years. 

Early in the year 1865 a meeting of the citizens of 
the town was held in the town hall to devise measures 
to secure the erection of a suitable memorial to the 
soldiers from the town who died or were killed in 
service. They decided to hold a fair, and were joined 
by the ladies to further the object. From the fair 
and a musical entertainment about fourteen hundred 
dollars were realized. By the will of Mr. Harvey 
White a legacy was given towards the accomplishment 
of the same purpose. The town in its corporate capa- 
city contributed the remainder of the necessary sum 
for its completion. The town selected, in 1867, a 
committee, consisting of Messrs. F. A. Hobart, Asa 
French, Horace Abercrombie, Levi W. Hobart, E. W. 
Arnold, Jason G. Howard, Edward Avery, Alva 
Morrison, and Edward Potter, to procure plans and 
estimates for some memorial. June 27, 1873, the 
town voted '• that the soldiers' monument committee 
be instructed to erect txpon some portion of the town- 
land, near the town house, a statue cut in granite, 
after a model submitted by Messrs. Batterson & Can- 
field, of Hartford, Conn., with a pedestal designed by 
H. & J. E. Billings, architects of Boston, at a cost 
not exceeding five thousand dollars above the foun- 

Jason G. Howard and Edward Potter having re- 
moved from the town, James T. Stevens and William 
M. Richards were chosen to fill the vacancies. Al- 
verdo Mason, Marcus A. Perkins, Charles W. Procter, 
and Abijah Allen were also added to the committee. 
Under the above vote the monument was erected. 

The statue is a full-sized model of a soldier, stand- 
ing with his musket in position at rest, and is cut 
from Westerly granite. The inscriptions placed upon 
the pedestal are, upon the front, " The town of 
Braintree builds this monument in grateful remem- 
brance of the brave men whose names it bears ;" also, 
" 1874." Upon the reverse this simple inscription, 
" Dying they triumphed." Upon the north and south 
sides are the names of those of the quota of Brain- 
tree who died or were killed in the service : also 
" 1861" at the top and " 1865" beneath, denoting the 
duration of the war. 

The funds placed at the disposal of the committee 
were: citizens' fund and interest, $2338.19; town 



appropriations, $3628.07 ; Harvey White's legacy, 
8500.00: total, $6460.26. On the 17th of June, 
187-4, this monument was dedicated with appropriate 
ceremonies. There let it stand till time shall be no 
more, as a record that shall tell future generations of 
the bravery and heroism of our citizen soldiers in 
defense of the union of the States which was founded 
by our fathers, maintained by our brothers, and which, 
we trust, will be transmitted to the latest generation. 

Miscellaneous. — Besides the bequests to the town 
before mentioned, Josiah French, a native of the town, 
and one who had been honored by the town in electing 
him to some of the most important oflBces, left, as de- 
scribed in his will, the following property, viz. : " I 
give and devise to the town of Braintree, in the 
county of Norfolk, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
a certain piece of mowing and tillage land lying and 
situate in said Braintree, containing five acres, more 
or less, and bounded as follows : easterly on Washing- 
ton Street, northerly on land of Capt. Ralph Arnold, 
southerly on town land, and westerly on land of Peter 
Dyer. To have and to hold the same to the said town 
of Braintree forever, to be used and occupied by the 
said town as a common or common field for companies 
and buildings for town or public business, but no pri- 
vate dwelling-houses or buildings whatever to be 
placed on said premises, but to be forever French's 
common, except the wood I give my wife." This 
will was dated March 19, 1845, and probated Feb. 11, 
1851. After a vexatious law-suit, the town obtained 
possession of the property. It is situated in the geo- 
graphical centre of the town, and upon it, in 1858, 
was built a large and commodious house, which is 
used for town hall, high-school room, and for various 
town purposes. It has cost the town for building 
improvements upwards of twenty thousand dollars, 
and is a credit to the town. The remaining portion 
of the land is used as a play-ground for the youth, 
there being on the west side a fine grove. Josiah 
French, the donor, died Jan. 1, 1851, aged about 
seventy- four years. Long may his memory be cher- 
ished and his gift appreciated. 

From the incorporation of the town to 1730 the 
town-meetings were held in the meeting-house of the 
North Precinct ; from 1730 till 1750, in the same 
place and the meeting-house of the Middle Precinct 
alternately ; from 1750 to 1830, in Middle Precinct 
meeting-house. The town hall erected on the corner 
of Washington and Union Streets was first occupied 
'as a place for the meetings of the town on March 1, 
1830. It was occupied until 1858, when it was sold 
to private parties, who removed it to Taylor Street, 
and remodeled it into two dwellin<i;-houses. 

Thayer Public Library. — At a special town- 
meeting held May 16, 1870, the following communi- 
cation from Gen. Sylvanus Thayer was received and 
read by Asa French, Esq.: 

"To THE Citizens ok the Town of Braintree: 

" Gentlemen, — To establish a free public library in this town, I 
propose to erect a fire-proof building, suitable for the purpose, 
towards the cost of wliich the town shall contribute the sum of 
ten thousand dollars, the amount needed to complete tlie build- 
ing to be paid by nie. And I will loan to the town the said sum 
of ten thousand dollars, for sucli time as it shall require it, to 
comply with this offer, at six per cent, interest. Upon the ac- 
ceptance of this proposition by the town, I will give the further 
sum of ten thousand dollars, as a permanent fund, the income 
of which shall annually bo devoted to the maintenance of said 
library. Should the town take favorable action upon this mat- 
ter, I shall be happy to confer with a committee with reference 
to the immediate consummation of the project. 

" Respectfully, S. + Thayer. 

" Braintree, May 16, 1870." 

At the same meeting this proposition was almost 
unanimously accepted, the town appropriating the sum 
named, and a committee appointed to confer with 
Gen. Thayer, with full authority to act for the town 
in locating said library building and in carrying out 
the plan covered by this proposition. Asa French, 
Edward Avery, Francis A. Hobart, Alva Morrison, 
and Charles H. Dow were chosen said committee. 

Oct. 27, 1870, a meeting of the town was called to 
see if the town would rescind the above vote, but after 
a thorough discussion it was decided not to rescind, by 
a vote of two hundred and nineteen for rescinding and 
three hundred and twenty-eight opposed. At the 
same meeting Warren Mansfield, Joseph A. Arnold, 
and Jacob S. Dyer were added to the library com- 
mittee. This action was taken in consequence of a 
disagreement of the citizens where the library building 
should be located. 

April 7, 1873, the committee reported to the town 
that the plans for the building had been carefully pre- 
pared under the personal supervision of the donor, 
although the building had not been commenced at his 
decease. The executors of his will recognized the 
validity of the contract, and set apart the sum of 
twenty thousand dollars to be applied for the erection 
of said building. They also reported that a lot of 
land had been purchased by subscription and pre- 
sented to the town as a site for the building. This 
land joined the land given the town by Josiah 
French. They further reported that the contract for 
the erection of the building had been executed, and 
that it would be completed the coming season. Asa 
French, Francis A. Hobart, and Henry A. Johnson 
were appointed trustees on the part of Gen. Thayer's 


Wt'iiOTolitanPullLsSiug S.£nfiTaviag Co,¥ewTorlr 



estate, and Nathaniel H. Hunt and N. F. T, Hayden 
were chosen by the town. 

The library was opened to the public Sept. 1, 1874, 
and is kept open a portion of each day in the week^ 
except on the Sabbath. It contains at the present 
time (1884) six thousand five hundred and thirty vol- 
umes, and has upon its books as borrowers the names 
of two thousand five hundred and seventy-four persons. 
Besides the gifts mentioned, it has been the recipient 
of about five hundred dollars' worth of books from E. 
Anderson Hollingsworth, and also a large number of 
valuable and beautiful reference books from Jonathan 
French, of Boston, whose father was a native of the 
town. Miss Abbie M. Arnold is the librarian. She 
has held the situation since the opening, and gives 
general satisfaction. 

Puritan Lodge, No. 179, I. 0. of 0. F., was organ- 
ized April 11, 1877, and numbers about seventy 
members. They hold their meetings in Odd-Fellows' 
Hall in the south village. 

Braintree Lodge, No. 1494, Knights of Honor, 
numbering about sixty, was organized Feb. 26, 1779, 
and holds its meetings in Grand Army Hall. 

In closing these sketches, permit me to acknowledge 
my indebtedness to the Registers of Probate and 
Deeds for Suffolk and Norfolk Counties, to John 
Ward Dean, Esq., Librarian of the New England 
Historic-Genealogical Society, and to the aged citizens 
of the town, for information which has enabled me to 
give so many facts in the history of our town. 



Caleb Stetson was born in Braintree, Mass., Jan. 
6, 1801. He was the eldest of the three sons of 
Amos Stetson. He received the best education the 
country at that time afforded, spending six months at 
school and the remaining six playing or working on 
the farm. He was offered a collegiate education by 
his father, who had a prosperous business, but he de- 
clined it, his spirit of enterprise being more active 
than his love of study. In 1815 he was sent to a 
private school, with a view to the study of law, for 
which profession he had a growing taste, and which 
he would have honored had he completed his studies. 

His father was three or four times elected to repre- 
sent the town of Braintree in the Legislature of Mas- 
sachusetts, and was one of the selectmen and asses- 
sors of Braintree for many years. In the war of 

1812 he was major of the State militia, and was or- 
dered out for service, in 1813, for coast defense. 

After two years' application to the study of law Ca- 
leb Stetson abandoned the profession and began to 
assist his father in his store. His aptitude for busi- 
ness soon became conspicuous in the management of 
his father's affairs, which he conducted with great 
success for five years. At the age of twenty-two he 
married Susannah, daughter of the late Deacon Hunt, 
of Weymouth, a most estimable lady, by whom he 
had six children. 

Mr. Stetson selected for his business the manufac- 
ture of boots and shoes. His father furnished him 
a capital of three hundred dollars, and he went to 
work, this being all the aid he received from any one. 
Adding industry and good judgment to his small 
fund, he conducted a prosperous business in Braintree 
for years. 

In 1826 he became initiated into the mysteries of 
Freemasonry, becoming a member of Orphans' Hope 
Lodge in Weymouth. During the anti-Masonic ex- 
citement which followed the reported death of Wil- 
liam Morgan, of New York, Mr. Stetson found him- 
self so unpleasantly situated in Braintree that he 
removed to Boston, where, though anti-Masonry 
prevailed to some extent, it was far less aggressive 
than in the country towns. He eventually acquired 
great wealth in the shoe business, and extended his 
operations into other branches of industry. His ac- 
tive labors have covered more than half a century of 
time. He has passed through four or five severe 
financial revulsions in trade, — say, 1826-28, 1836-37, 
1847-49, 1857-61, — and what is very remarkable, 
he has had no occasion to ask any renewal or ex- 
tension of his liabilities for a single day during his 
whole life, — a prosperous business period of over 
forty years. All correct cash bills have been instantly 
paid on presentation. In 1842 Mr. Stetsonr was 
elected a director in the Shoe and Leather Dealers' 
Bank, in Boston, and in 1857 he was made president. 
This ofl5ce he held ten years, with great distinction to 
himself and great profit to the bank. 

Although Mr. Stetson was an observing and unde- 
viating Democrat, of unquestionable courage and pa- 
triotism, he was no politician in the low sense of that 
word. He was no oflSce-seeker. In 1835 he and his 
wife became members of Rev. Dr. Adams' church, 
Boston. After the death of his wife, in 1863, he 
became connected with the Episcopal Church. In 
1852 he was elected a representative to the General 
Court from Braintree, and was made chairman of the 
House Committee on Banks and Banking. The bill 
establishing a Board of State Bank Commissioners 



was prepared by him. In 1854 he was nominated 
by the Democratic State Convention as the candidate 
for Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts. The same 
year he was elected a presidential elector on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. This honor he declined, and after that 
date he accepted no nominations whatever for political 

His first appearance as a public writer was in 1835. 
The late Hon. Amasa Walker published a series of 
articles advocating extensions of the credit system to 
six, eight, and ten months to Southern and Western 
purchases. These were answered by Mr. Stetson with 
much ability. The general crash of 1837 proved his 
wisdom and foresight. In 1836 he wrote several 
articles in favor of the sub-treasury. The many fail- 
ures of banks turned his attention to the subject of 
banking, and he opposed the further issue of currency 
under the general system then established. He con- 
sidered that the banks were unsafe under the general 
laws of Massachusetts, as it tended to encourage their 
increase without real capital. He advised the safety- 
fund system, which was afterwards adopted in New 
York and Massachusetts in 1854. 

In 1854 he published a pamphlet, over the signa- 
ture of " Silex," of about one hundred pages, giving 
a history of mining and the probable effect which the 
discovery of gold would have on the future value of 
property. To this was appended some twelve or fif- 
teen letters, written and published in the Boston 
Traveller in the winter of 1853. 

On Mr. Stetson's return from Europe, he visited 
California. While at San Francisco he was so ill that 
it was only with great difficulty that he could be 
brought home, and for four years there was hardly a 
hope of his recovery ; but by skillful medical attend- 
ance and good nursing he was restored almost to his 
original vigor and health. To escape the severity of 
Northern winters he has spent them for several years 
at the South, having purchased a plantation of five or 
six hundred acres in Georgia. 

In reply to an inquiry made by a friend how it had 
been possible for him to accomplish so much in his 
life, he replied, " The last forty years of my life, I 
have risen out of my bed, when well, at four a.m., and 
have done all my correspondence and written all arti- 
cles for the press or otherwise from four to seven a.m. 
before eating or drinking anything. It is now five 
A.M., the day of our forefathers' landing, and I am 
nearly seventy-eight years of age." 

For practical common sense and industry ; for 
sterling integrity and consistency of practice in har- 
mony with the profession of principle ; for his noble 
and generous sympathies as a friend and citizen, and 

as an example of legitimate success worthy to be fol- 
lowed by young men, but few who live to the ripe age 
of fourscore years have a more commendable record 
than Caleb Stetson, of Braintree. His name will be 
an enduring honor, both to his native town and coun- 


Ellis A. Hollingsworth, son of Mark and Waitstill 
(Tileston) Hollingsworth, was born in Milton, Mass., 
March 6, 1819. His grandfather, Amor Hollings- 
worth, was born on the old family homestead in 
Chester County, Pa., held by a deed given from 
William Penn, and rendered historic by being the 
place whereon the memorable battle of Brandywine 
was fought between the forces under Lord Howe and 
Gen. Washington, The family were originally 
Quakers, who came to America with William Penn, 
— probably from Chester County, England. 

Amor afterwards moved to Delaware, where his 
son Mark was born. Mark received a good com- 
mon-school education, and, after having served his 
time at paper-making, he immediately started for 
Boston to see Bunker Hill and Long Wharf This 
trip decided his future career. Not returning, he 
engaged with Hugh McLean, manufacturer of paper 
at Milton Upper Mills, now called Mattapan, and 
said to be one of the oldest establishments of the 
kind in America, a company having obtained from 
the General Court, about the year 1728, the exclu- 
sive privilege of making paper for the term of ten 
years, upon condition that they should make, after 
the third year, five hundred reams per year for each 
succeeding year of the remaining ten, one hundred 
and fifty reams of which were to be writing-paper, 
and a fine of twenty shillings was imposed upon every 
ream made by any one else. After McLean's death, 
Mark Hollingsworth, in 1809, purchased these mills, 
and, associating himself with Edmund Tileston, his 
brother-in-law, under the firm-title of Tileston & Hol- 
lingsworth, established the business of paper-manu- 
facturing, which has continued from that time until 
the present in the same families and under the same 
firm-name, the eldest son of each generation succeed- 
ing, without an exception, to the business, Mark 
Hollingsworth was a Quaker, and was characterized 
by the attributes of his people, a quiet, positive, re- 
flective man, and a hater of shams. He possessed 
much mechanical ingenuity, and by his tact and in- 
dustry acquired a competency which made him for his 
own time wealthy. He died in March, 1855. Ellis 
Anderson was the youngest son of a family of eight 

-Sn/fi 2^ A JIMtclvJ! 







attaining maturity, viz. : Leander M., Amor, John 
Mark, George, Lyman, Maria H. (Mrs. E. K. Cor- 
nell), Cornelia W. (Mrs. W. Babcock), and Ellis 

When young, Ellis Anderson, owing to precarious 
health, was placed with a progressive and scientific 
farmer of the State of New York, with whom he 
remained until he had obtained a thorough knowl- 
edge of agriculture, both theoretically and practically, 
and for which he ever after manifested a fondness in 
the application of his knowledge to the care of a farm 
of his own. He married Susan J., only daughter of 
Rufus and Susanna Sumner, a cousin of the Hon. 
Charles Sumner. Their children are Sumner and 
Ellis. In 1849, under the stimulant of the gold 
excitement, he went to California, and after a sojourn 
of a year or more he returned to Massachusetts, and 
iu 1851 took possession of his father's mills at South 
Braintree, Mark Hollingsworth having purchased the 
old Revere Copper Works at South Braintree, and 
there established a paper manufactory. 

One of the most fortunate discoveries of modern 
times was the invention at this mill in 1843 of ma- 
nilla paper, the production of which has become so 
valuable in every branch of industry. Ellis Anderson 
continued the manufacture of this paper, and after- 
wards in association with Leonard Whitney, Jr., of 
Watertown, under the firm-name of Hollingsworth 
& Whitney, they commenced the making of their 
paper into bags by machinery. The enormous in- 
crease of business necessitated the construction and 
purchase of new mills, which were accordingly erected 
in Watertown, Mass., and in Gardiner, Me. The Po- 
quonock mill at Hartford, Conn., was purchased, and 
partnerships were formed with large manufacturers 
both in Baltimore and in Philadelphia. Mr, E. A. 
Hollingsworth showed a wonderful adaptability to the 
details of business, and possessing a clear compre- 
hension of the mechanical processes, through his 
care, economy, and ability the business not only as- 
sumed large proportions, but was put upon a solid 
financial basis. He was in many respects a most 
remarkable man. He did nothing upon the impulse 
of the moment, but gave elach subject the most care- 
ful thought and consideration. Apparently of vigor- 
ous health, he was yet for years a great sufferer, but 
possessed of wonderful physical endurance he trans- 
acted business day after day when others would have 
withdrawn from the task. Calmly, patiently, and 
without complaint, he was a personal exemplification 
of the motto inscribed upon the Hollingsworth coat 
of arms, " Disce ferenda pati" (Learn to suffer what 
must be endured). Although thus heavily engrossed 

in his immense business, his mind took cognizance of 
other more scientific and literary pursuits. A student 
of the Journal of Speculative Pldloso'pliy ^ of which 
he was among the first subscribers, he was accus- 
tomed to remark that his acumen, insight, and success 
was largely the result of his philosophical researches. 
A lover of the beautiful in nature, he would point 
out what would be obscure to a common observer. 
He took an interest in collecting minerals and shells, 
and a fanciful delight in gathering grasses, of which 
he had numbered nearly five hundred varieties. In 
reference to his last visit to his Gardiner mills, a 
friend writes, " We met him, on the north side of the 
Cobbossee, gathering ferns and grasses ; we little 
thought then that this was the last time we were to 
see him." Mr. Hollingsworth was a Unitarian in his 
religious views, although by no means bigoted or 
sectarian, and a Republican in politics. He was ex- 
tremely unconventional, and by his lack of ostentation 
and display showed the spirit of his Quaker ancestry. 
His kind heart and sound judgment gave him an 
interest in all good and progressive works, of which 
he was also a generous contributor. Although his 
fellow-townsmen honored him with the presidency of 
the Braintree Savings-Bank, he would not consent to 
other offices of public trust. Of a retiring nature, 
he had comparatively small acquaintanceship with his 
fellow-citizens ; but it arose rather from ill health, 
and from his quiet, unobtrusive manner, than from 
any pride of position or lack of geniality. With 
intimate friends he was ever social and communi- 
cative. Original and keen-witted, he would give 
expression to his thoughts with a clearness and purity 
of language that gave him few equals. A quick 
observer of the comic in life, and possessing a great 
fund of quiet humor, he could tell a story so humor- 
ously as to draw tears with laughter. Independent, 
self-reliant, and tenacious of purpose, he v?as ever in 
social and family relations companionable, loving, 
and tender. 

Sincerely beloved and deeply lamented by the 
community at large, a wide circle of business friends, 
and by those who knew him best, he passed this life 
Jan. 6, 1882. 


The Morrison Family originated in the island of 
Lewis, on the west coast of Scotland, from Scandinavian 
stock. There are many ways of spelling the name, 
but from about 1800 Morrison has been generally ac- 
cepted. It is Gaelic, from Moor's son, signifying re- 
nown, famous, a mighty one. Their heraldic crest is 



three Moors' heads, pointing clearly to their origin. 
The chief of the clan Morrison was a ruler of Lewis for 
many generations, and many instances of their prow- 
ess, mechanical skill, and humor may be cited. " The 
record of this remarkable family is one of thrilling 
interest, and an air of romance still lingers about 
the descendants of the Brieve of Lewis. In various 
walks of life, in peaceful scenes, in foreign climes, they 
are as celebrated as were their ancestors in the feuds 
and bloody dramas of the past. In the fields of dis- 
covery, in politics, in the conflicts of arms, in business 
and mercantile life, their history is one of progress, 
and their record one of honor."' 

John Morrison, born in Scotland, county of 
Aberdeen, 1628, was one of the first settlers of Lon- 
donderry, N. H.. previous to which he assisted in de- 
fending Londonderry, Ireland, in its memorable siege of 
1688-89. He and his family were among the number 
driven beneath the walls, and subsequently admitted 
into the city, remaining there until its relief. He re- 
moved to America in 1720 with a young family. His 
sons James and John, who had preceded him to the 
New World, deeded him on Christmas, 1723, a tract of 
land, now situate in Derry, N. H., where, on Jan. 19, 
1736, being near his end, and " very sick and weak in 
body, but of perfect mind and memory," he made his 
last will and testament, and shortly thereafter died at 
the reputed age of one hundred and eight years. His 
son James was one of the proprietors of the ancient 
town of Londonderry, N. H., and one of those to whom 
its charter was given, from which he is koown as 
" Charter James Morrison. ' He was one of the earliest 
settlers of the town, and the land then " laid out" in 
1728 is now owned by his great-great-grandson. He 
was prominent in town aiFairs, and selectman in 1725. 
By his wife, Mary Wallace, who died in Ireland, he had 
two sons, Halbert and Samuel. He died about 1756. 
Samuel, born in Ireland in 170-4, came to London- 
derry with his father in 1719, a lad of fifteen, and 
shared the hardships of the new settlement. He was 
deeded a farm which was afterwards set off" into 
Windham, still owned in the Morrison name and with 
unchanged boundaries. He was moderator of the 
first town-meeting held in Windham in 1742, and 
presided at fifty-one consecutive meetings. He was a 
member of the first board of selectmen, acting in this 
capacity at diff"erent times for seven years. He was 
town clerk four years. He was a lieutenant in the 
French and Indian war, and was present at the cap- 
ture of Louisburg, July 26, 1758. He married 
Martha, daughter of Samuel Allison, of Londonderry, 
born March .31, 1720. She was the first female child 
of European parentage born in that town. Their son 

Robert lived all his life in Windham, N, H. ; was born 
Feb. 6, 1758, and was a farmer. He had twelve 
children, among them Ira and Alva. 

From the " History of the Morrison Family" we 
extract the following graphic sketch : 

"Hon. Alva Morrison [John (1), James (2), 
Lieut. Samuel (3), Robert (4) ] was born at Wind- 
ham, N. H., May 13, 1806. His father died when 
he was nearly two years old. From that time until 
he was twenty years of age his life was passed quietly 
at home with his mother. He received whatever 
education the district school was able to give, and 
worked at farming. From his earliest years he ex- 
hibited that spirit of industry which led to his success 
in after-life. In the spring of 1 826, desiring to acquire 
a knowledge of some business other than farming, he 
left his boyhood's home and went to Stoughton, 
Mass., where his brother Leonard was at work in a 
woolen-factory. He worked at the same place, but 
the proprietor soon becoming insolvent, he went to 
Canton and obtained a situation in a woolen-factory 
in that town. Here he remained only until the 
factory at Stoughton started again under the control 
of a new owner, when he returned to his former situ- 
ation. It was while in Stoughton that he married, 
July 11, 1830, Mira, only daughter of Col. Consider 
Southworth, of that town. (See his biography in 
Stoughton history.) She was born Nov. 3, 1810. He 
remained in the same factory until May, 1831, when he 
moved to Braintree, which was ever after his home. 
Having acquired a thorough knowledge of the busi- 
ness, he, in company with his brother Leonard, com- 
menced the manufacture of woolen goods. They 
soon sustained a high reputation, as the goods made 
by them were the best in the market. They remained 
in company five years, when they dissolved partner- 
ship. Alva continued the business at Braintree, and 
Leonard started anew at Salem, N. H. By close 
attention to business and strict integrity they accumu- 
lated wealth. He remained in business until 1871, 
when he retired and was succeeded by his sons, who 
still maintain the high reputation he established in 
1831, He was several times chosen as representa- 
tive and senator, and was the recipient of other im- 
portant trusts from his fellow-townsmen, who relied 
implicitly upon his high integrity and intelligence. 
He was a large-hearted, whole-souled man. In his 
private as well as public life he was highly esteemed 
for great energy of character and strength of purpose. 
The wealth which he accumulated he made generous 
use of in public and private benevolence. He was 
greatly interested in the honor and success of his 
country. He was a man of much reading ; he loved 




? ta^f^^ 



and appreciated the best books of English literature. 
In the intervals of business he was given to study 
books of science and theology, and upon these sub- 
jects formed independent and progressive, though 
thoroughly reverent opinions. Religion was with 
him a practical thing for every-day use, and his sense 
of duty toward his fellow-man and God was the 
highest. He was very domestic in his tastes, and found 
his greatest enjoyment in his home. In return for 
his great love of his family, he found them ever ready 
to bestow on him the warmest affection and sympa- 
thy. He died May 28, 1879." The business estab- 
lished by Alva and Leonard Morrison in 1831, and 
continued for a few years, was making satinets. Mr. 
Morrison abandoned this in 1837 and began to make 
woolen yarns. He made good goods and established 
a first-class reputation. During all financial reverses 
Mr. Morrison paid every dollar of every obligation, 
and never asked an extension. Strong in his sense 
of justice and the principles of universal right, he 
was among the first to join the anti-slavery move- 
ment. In those days that meant almost social ostra- 
cism, and in these days we can little conceive the 
courage required to maintain those principles. He 
was a member of the secret society organized to aid 
escaped slaves, and his name was placed at the head 
of the Free-Soil ticket for years. From 1856 he 
supported the Republican party until Grant's second 
administration, when, with Charles Sumner, Wendell 
Phillips, and others, he abandoned it. A man of 
unusual powers and usefulness, a citizen of command- 
ing presence and acknowledged integrity, the whole 
community felt a loss when Alva Morrison passed 
away. His children were M. Lurett, Alva S., Mary 
C. (deceased), E. Adelaide, Robert Elmer, Augus- 
tus M. (deceased), and Ibrahim. 

Alva S. Morrison, son of Alva and Mira (South- 
worth) Morrison, was born Nov. 9, 1835, in Braintree. 
Attended common and private schools, which attend- 
ance was supplemented by two years passed in Con- 
ference Seminary, at Northfield, N. H. He received 
a thoroughly practical business education in his 
father's mills, working in every department, and when 
old enough was placed in charge of the financial in- 
terests, and was admitted partner in April, 1856. 
From that time Mr. Morrison has attended personally 
to the development of the business, and under his 
careful management it has grown slowly and steadily. 
Previous to 1856 the firm had been " A. Morrison & 
Co.," Horace Abercrombie, his son-in-law, being a 
partner. An increase of business demanded a larger 
and more commodious building, and in 1856 the pres- 
ent stone mill was erected a little to the east of the old 

building. When R. Elmer became of age, in 1864, he 
was admitted partner, and Mr. Abercrombie retired, 
and the firm became " A. Morrison & Sons." In 
1872, Ibrahim was admitted as partner, and the firm 
became " A. S. Morrison & Bros." The brothers 
have worked together harmoniously, used good mate- 
rial, given good work, maintained the high reputation 
previously established, and Morrison's yarns and un- 
derwear are standard among dealers thi'oughout New 
England. The excessive demand for their goods 
necessitated another large building in 1874, since 
which time their business has doubled. During the 
Rebellion " Alva Morrison & Co." for four years man- 
ufactured hosiery and underwear, and in 1879 this 
firm's successors introduced the manufacture of 
"gents' fashioned underwear," which department is 
a very prominent one in their business. " A. S. Mor- 
rison & Bros." have ever kept abreast of the progress 
of improvement, and availed themselves of each new 
advance in machinery or otherwise to secure for their 
manufactory the best possible result. Their special- 
ties are yarns for manufacturing purposes, knitting 
yarns, and the underwear spoken of. Their trade- 
mark is the family coat-of-arms with the three 
Moors' heads. Alva S. has steadily and earnestly de- 
voted himself to business, and has preferred this to 
meddling with public affairs, but has served on school 
committee seven years, and, believing in the princi- 
ples of economy and equality enunciated by Thomas 
Jefferson, he is active in support of Democracy, and 
as a Democrat was elected to represent his district in 
1883. He has been twice married, first, Nov. 9, 
1857, to Elizabeth A., daughter of Ira and Elizabeth 
W. Curtis, of Weymouth. She died Jan. 1, 1874. 
Their surviving children are Anna G., Walter E., 
Fred. G., and Mira I. He married, second, Rebecca 
H., daughter of Edward Holyoke, of Marlboro, June 
13, 1875. By this marriage he has one daughter, 
Alice Southworth. For the last quarter of a century 
Mr. Morrison has been one of the representative and 
successful manufacturers of Braintree, and his success 
has been worthily won by his skill, attention, and ap- 
plication in his chosen field of labor. 

Ira Morrison, [John (1), James (2), Lieut. 
Samuel (3), Robert (4), Ira (5) ] was born July 18, 
1798, in Windham, N. H. He was first a hatter and 
afterwards a farmer, and settled first in Hopkinton, 
N. H., next in Ripley, Me., and in 1845 he moved to 
Braintree, Mass., and subsequently bought a farm in 
Salem, N. H., where he resided until a year or two 
previous to his death, which occurred in Braintree, 
March 10, 1870. He married Sophia Colby, and had 
four children, among them Benjamin Lyman. Ira 



was a quiet, unostentatious person. " His life was 
his best memorial. It was marked by uprightness, 
strong love for his family and friends, warm hospi- 
tality to those who visited his home, deep interest in 
the cause of religion, humble hope in our Divine 
Lord, and a death whose sorrows never checked his 
faith, and whose happy submission left to all who 
loved him the confidence that when he was absent 
from the body he was present with the Lord." 

Ben.jamin Lyman Morrison, son of Ira and 
Sophia (Colby) Morrison, was born in Ripley, Me., 
March 28, 1828. He received the limited educational 
advantages of a farmer's boy at the common schools, 
and when seventeen came to Braintree, and went to 
work in the yarn-mill of his uncle Alva, and, with 
the determination to make manufacturing his life- 
work, remained with him twelve years, thoroughly 
mastering every branch and all details of the business. 
During this period, by strict economy, he had laid up 
a small capital, and after a fruitless tour through the 
West, in search of a location in which to begin busi- 
ness, he returned to Massachusetts, purchased a dis- 
carded set of machinery of his uncle, and established 
himself in an unpretending way as a manufacturer of 
woolen yarn in Stoughton, Mass., in company with 
Asahel Southworth. This partnership continued eight- 
een months, when Mr. Morrison returned to Brain- 
tree, and leased a mill at East Braintree. This was 
about 1860. Remaining there four years, his industry 
and close personal attention being well rewarded, he 
was requested by Horace Abercrombie, who owned a 
flouring-mill not far away, to join him in partnership, 
and make of his property a manufactory of yarn. 
Mr. Morrison accepted this proposition. They formed 
the firm of " Abercrombie & Morrison." Within a 
year's time Mr. Morrison purchased the interest of 
Mr. Abercrombie in the mill, and conducted business 
in his own name until Jan. 1, 188], when his son 
Lyman W. became a partner. The firm-name has 
since been " B. L. Morrison & Son." Since 1878 the 
machinery has been run by steam- as well as water- 
power. Mr. Morrison has been satisfied with a sure 
and safe business. He has personally given his at- 
tention to each department, manufactured a high grade 
of goods, and has been prosperous. He married, Nov. 
22, 1855, Lydia D., daughter of Nathaniel and Eliza- 
beth (Hollis) Penniman, who belonged to an old 
Braintree family. Their children are Lyman W. and 
Helen M. In politics Mr. Morrison is Republican. 
He was chosen a representative in 1872. He is a 
member of Delta Lodge, F. and A. M., of Weymouth, 
and is a liberal in religion. jNIr. Morrison is a man 
of strict integrity, genial nature, industrious habits. 

and one whose honor is unquestioned, and whose word 
is as good as his bond. He is a man of kind affec- 
tions and feelings. He has concientiously been faith- 
ful to his trusts, devoted to his duties, and a sincere, 
generous, and true friend. 


David Thayer, A.M., M.D., of Boston, is a native 
of Braintree, Mass., where he was born July 19, 
1813. His ancestors, who were among the first set- 
tlers of the town of Braintree, were of Puritan stock, 
and came from England previous to 1640, in the 
" Mayflower," with the Pilgrims who landed at Plym- 
outh in 1620. His flither was Deacon Nathaniel 
Emmons Thayer, and his mother Deliverance, daugh- 
ter of Deacon Elephaz Thayer, a soldier in the war 
of the Revolution, who served under Washington at 
West Point. 

Dr. Thayer obtained the rudiments of his education 
in the common school of his native town, but his 
active mind sought a wider range of thought. He 
early showed a love of reading, and lost no opportunity 
of increasing his knowledge in this way. After work- 
ing all day on the farm, the late hours of the night 
often found him absorbed in study. He was by no 
means a book-worm. He loved out-door amusement, 
and was always eager to join his comrades in their 
active sports. 

There is a French saying that the time best em- 
ployed is that which one loses. Its truth was demon- 
strated in the case of young Thayer, when, in common 
with every one of his school-fellows, he seemed des- 
tined to become a shoemaker. Though the experi- 
ment proved a failure, the time thus lost was well 
employed, as all idea of his ever becoming an accom- 
plished artist in this useful branch of industry was 
happily abandoned, and he was allowed to seek the 
highest education he so eagerly desired. He became 
a student at Weymouth Academy, and in 1833 he 
entered Phillips' Academy at Andover to fit himself 
for college. It was here that he gave his adherence 
to the cause he served in later years with unswerving 
faith and zeal. George Thompson, the noted English 
anti-slavery orator, lectured in Andover. Young 
Thayer heard him, became convinced of the crime of 
slavery, and joined with a number of his fellow-stu- 
dents who wished to form an anti-slavery society. 
This the faculty of Phillips' Academy and of the 
theological seminary forbade. To join the anti slavery 
society already formed by the citizens, and to discuss 
the slavery question in the Philomathcan Society in 


i:^^^^^ ^-€^^^^- 




the Academy, was also forbidden. Then about forty 
of the students revolted and asked for their creden- 
tials, and left the Academy in a body. Among them 
was David Thayer, who was readily given an honor- 
able discharge. He completed his preparations for 
college at Appleton Academy, New Ipswich, N. H., 
and entered Union College in 1836. 

During his college course he showed a preference 
for modern languages, which he acquired with facility, 
and for the natural sciences, and he took up the study 
of medicine under Prof. B. F. Joslin, M.D., LL.D. 
At this time his inclination was for a life of travel 
and exploration, and a knowledge of languages and 
of medicine would, he thought, be valuable aids. He 
graduated in 1840, then started out on his travels, 
going to the South and West. He remained in Ken- 
tucky a year or two. teaching and continuing his 
studies. The illness of his father recalled him to 
Braintree in 1842. 

While at home he continued the study of medicine, 
and after the death of his father he entered the med- 
ical department of Harvard College, but without 
any intention of ever becoming a practitioner of med- 

It was in compliance with the earnest desire of his 
mother, after the death of his father in the same year, 
that he abandoned the idea of foreign travel, and de- 
cided to enter the profession. He took his medical 
degree iu 1843 at the Berkshire Medical Institute, 
Pittsfield, Mass. 

Dr. Thayer began the practice of his profession 
in Boston, and in 1844, with J. E. Murdock, the 
eminent elocutionist, he established the Boston Gym- 
nastic Institute, a school for physical education and 
the culture of the voice. It soon became popular, 
and was well patronized by the best people of Boston. 
It was at this period that Dr. Thayer began his in- 
vestigations of homoeopathy. He had read of the 
new method of practice, and he now began to experi- 
ment with homoeopathic remedies. Therapeutics had 
ever been his favorite field in medical science, and 
tracing out the secret relations between diseases and 
their remedies possesses for him a peculiar fascination. 
In 1845 he began to treat cases of diarrhoea with a 
drug homoeopathically prepared. The result was a 
cure in all the thirty-five cases. The success of this 
experiment incited him to further investigation. 

And in the same year he opened a dispensary in 
Boylston Hall, for the free medical treatment of the 
poor in connection with Dr. C. F. Hoffeudahl, a 
homoeopathic physician of long experience. This 
wider field of observation confirmed the results of 
former experiments, and Dr. Thayer became a convert 

to the new school of practice. He joined the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy in 1847, and twenty-three 
years later he was elected its president. 

In 1854, Dr. Thayer, in order to apply a crucial test 
to the claims of homoeopathy, selected several dis- 
eases over which allopathic treatment has little or no 
power to cure. These diseases were gall-stone disease, 
rachitis (or the distortion of the spine, incurvation of 
the long bones, deformed chests, etc.), calculi of the 
kidney, and organic disease of the heart. The result 
of these observations and tests was so satisfactory as 
to convince every unprejudiced mind of the efficacy 
of homoeopathic medicines in these grave diseases. 

In December, 1854, he made the discovery which 
has brought him enviable fame, — the discovery of the 
homoeopathic specific for gall-stone colic. A patient 
who had suflFered periodically for years from severe 
attacks of gall-stone colic came under Dr. Thayer's 
observation. Allopathic treatment could not cure the 
disease, and could only alleviate the suffering in part 
by opiates and hypodermic injections. The doctor 
carefully noted and studied the symptoms of the case ; 
then he set to work to search the homoeopathic materia 
medica for drugs whose provings corresponded with 
these symptoms. Several were selected which cor- 
responded with the totality of the symptoms, but 
these failed to give relief. Finally cinchona, which 
has periodicity for one of its characteristics, was tried 
in the third decimal attenuation, and proved success- 
ful. Months, years passed, and the patient had no 
return of the pain. The cure was radical. Dr. Thayer 
continued to study the disease, and has treated near a 
thousand cases of gall-stone colic with equal success. 
His remarkable cures of gall-stone colic became known 
and talked about, and were reported to medical socie- 
ties. These reports were published, and physicians 
all over the country availed themselves of his discov- 
ery. Recently a noted French physician in Paris 
wrote to Dr. Thayer a letter of congratulation oa 
making one of the greatest discoveries in therapeu- 
tics, and translated his paper on '■ Gall-Stone Colic and 
its Remedy" into the French language, and published 
it in the Bulletin de la Sociefe Medicale Homoso- 
pathique de France. 

Dr. Thayer early became an Abolitionist, and iden- 
tified him.self with Garrison and his party. His house 
was an asylum for fugitive slaves for many years be- 
fore the civil war, and his heart and hand were ever 
prompt in aiding the distressed. John Brown visited 
him, and received generous contributions of money in 
aid of his project of freeing the slaves in Missouri. 
The doctor was also an active worker for the cause of 
Abolition in politics, and was associated with the 


prominent men of the party. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts House of Representatives 
five times. While in the Legislature he was largely 
influential in securing the charters of the Massachu- 
setts Homoeopathic Medical Society, the Dispensary, 
the College, and the Homoeopathic Hospital, in 

At a period of the civil war when there was great 
need of medical aid in our army. Dr. Thayer oifered 
himself to Governor Andrew for any service where he 
could be useful. The Governor forwarded the letter, 
with a cordial recommendation of the writer, to Sur- 
geon-General Dale. In answer, Dr. Thayer received 
this brief reply, " When your services are needed you 
will be notified." It is perhaps needless to add that 
had this offer come from an allopathic practitioner of 
like ability and standing it would have been accepted. 

Dr. Thayer was one of the eight homoeopathic phy- 
sicians, also members of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society (allopathic), who were summoned for trial 
before a committee of that society in 1873 for " con- 
duct unworthy and unbecoming an honorable physi- 
cian and member of the society," viz. : for practicing 
homoeopathy. Though educated an allopathic physi- 
cian, Dr. Thayer had practiced homoeopathy since 
1847, and had been allowed to continue a member of 
this society while guilty of such alleged conduct for 
twenty- six years ! The trial resulted in the expulsion 
of these physicians. Dr. Thayer's speech in his own 
behalf and of one of his colleagues was a forcible, clear, 
and logical defense, and was also a powerful argument 
in favor of homoeopathy. The facts he stated could 
not be disputed, his conclusions could not be denied. 
It was published in a pamphlet and widely read, gain- 
ing for him many friends outside of Boston. 

When the Boston University was established, Dr. 
Thayer was very active in organizing the Homoeopathic 
College as its medical department. He received the 
first nomination as candidate for dean of the college, 
but declined the honor. He has occupied the chair 
of professor of Practice and that of Institutes of 
Medicine in Boston Univer-sity for eight years. He 
was for twenty-five years surgeon of the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery Company. 

In 1878, when the yellow fever was scourging New 
Orleans, the death-rate enormous, and the infection at 
its height, Dr. Thayer, learning that homoeopathic 
treatment was wanted there, wrote to the president of 
the Relief A.ssociation offering his services. The 
fearlessness and genero.sity of this offer were charac- 

Five years later, when he had passed his seventieth 
birthday, he visited Europe for the benefit of his 

health, and returned enriched with the results of many 
original observations and reflections. While visiting 
the hospitals of Europe his sympathies were aroused 
by witnessing the cruelties inflicted on the poor people 
who resort to these institutions for medical and sur- 
gical aid ; nor was he blind to the manifest tyranny 
of the governments, as shown by the sad, bitter lot of 
their toiling peasantry, crushed by taxation, and the 
degraded condition of women ; and the general aspect 
of all the nations of Central Europe forced him to the 
conclusion, so epigrammatically stated by his friend 
Wendell Phillips, that under such sore and cruel op- 
pression '' Dynamite and the dagger are the proper 
substitutes for Faneuil Hall and the Daily Advertiser." 

Dr. Thayer has given special study to malarial fever 
and kindred zymotic diseases. His paper on " Miasm" 
was published in full in the " Publications of the 
Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society" in 
1879. In the " Transactions of the American Insti- 
tute of Homoeopathy" for 1883 is published his 
" History of Malarial Fevers." In the former of 
these papers Dr. Thayer brought accumulated evidence 
to show that there is some ground for the belief that 
miasm becomes infectious by attenuation, — by being 
diffused through a great extent of atmospheric air, — 
and that this law finds analogy in that principle re- 
cognized in the homoeopathic school of medicine, viz. : 
that specific medicine ispoicerfnl to owe Just in pro- 
portion to its attenuation within limits not yet dis- 
tinctly dejined, and in that well-known fact, that the 
toxic effect of certain drugs is also increased by being 
attenuated and minutely subdivided. He also brings 
evidence to show that some of the miasmata in their 
crude and unaftenuated state are not only non-in- 
fectious, but seem sometimes to act as prophylactics 
against the which the miasmata in an at- 
tenuated state have the power to produce. 

Dr. Thayer's eminent success as a physician is due 
in no small measure to his great industry. The late 
Dr. Carroll Dunham, whom all good homoeopaths 
reverenced, once wrote to a patient : " It is impos- 
sible for the physician to do his best in any case 
unless the patient submit himself without reserve or 
qualification to such inquest as the physician may 
from time to time deem necessary, throwing himself 
as much as possible into the state of passive foUow- 
your-leadism which a lawyer requires in a discreet 
client. The physician must say, as the lawyer does, 
select counsel in whom you can place full confidence, 
place all the facts before him without reserve, give 
access to all sources of knowledge, then let him con- 
duct the examination and the case according to his 
untrammeled judgment." It is just this power of 





winning confidence, inducing the patient " to place all 
the facts before him without reserve," that gives a 
physician the surest means of forming a correct diag- 
nosis, and Dr. Thayer possesses it in an enviable 
degree. His nature is peculiarly sympathetic, and 
acts as a magnet upon those who approach him in 
professional as well as social relations, while his 
downright honesty inspires absolute trust and reliance. 
" There isn't a bit of humbug about him ; he tells 
the truth without fear or favor," one patient was 
heard to say to another as both sat in his waiting- 
room. His uncompromising honesty and absolute 
fearlessness command the respect of all, even his 
enemies, — for so positive a character is sure to have 
enemies, — who have reason to know that he is " a 
good fighter." An eminent divine, in commenting 
upon the notorious trial and the expulsion of the 
homoeopathic physicians from the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, spoke of the homoeopath defiantly 
shaking his little bottle of pellets in the faces of his 
judges, referring to Dr. Thayer. His attitude upon 
this, as upon all occasions when aroused to defense, 
shows the courage and self-reliance which are his 
dominant traits. Convinced that he is right, he 
would maintain his ground unshaken, and defy the 
whole world were it arrayed against him. How 
richly this granite strength of character is marbled 
with golden veins of tenderness and charity his many 
friends, who know and love him well, can testify. 
This tenderness was beautifully shown in his life-long 
devotion to his mother, who lived to the age of 
ninety-two years. It was in loyalty to her wishes 
that he relinquished the cherished plans of his youth, 
and entered the profession whose honors and rewards 
now crown his ability and untiring industry. For 
years before her death, no matter what the pressure 
of professional work or his own fatigue, through heat 
of summer and winter storms, he left the city every 
week to visit her retired home, and found in her 
loved presence the charm that banished weariness and 
pain. Such filial love is as rare as it is worthy of 
emulation. His charity, both of spirit and of deed, 
is one of his noblest, most endearing traits. Towards 
human error and imperfection he is ever lenient, and 
if his tongue cannot speak good, it speaks no evil. 
As he has risen by dint of his own unaided eff"orts, 
he knows how to sympathize with those who are 
struggling, and the poor and the oppressed have 
always found in liira a true friend. When he finds 
a fellow-creature in distress, his ever-ready sympathy 
is excited, perhaps too easily, and he has often parted 
with large sums of money to help persons who seemed 
to need it more than himself. The oppressed always 

found in him a true friend, and the oppressor an un- 
relenting enemy. The exacting duties of his profes- 
sion and the constant demands of a large practice have 
left him no leisure for the scholarly pursuits in which 
he delights ; but even now, as in youth, after a hard 
day's work, the midnight hour often finds him enjoy- 
ing the sounding lines of Homer or the eloquence of 
Demosthenes. He is an independent thinker, having 
his own views upon all subjects he investigates. His 
tendencies are liberal and progressive to a degree that 
has sometimes exposed him to criticism. He believes 
that no candid or scientific mind will turn aside from 
the investigation of what may prove to be a hidden 
truth, and may enlarge the resources which the phy- 
sician brings to the aid of suffering humanity. Be- 
lieving that " that life is most acceptable to the 
Almighty which is most useful to His creatures," he 
has honestly striven to serve his fellow-men, doing 
good wherever he found opportunity, and verily such 
shall have their reward. 

The White family of which we write is largely repre- 
sented in colonial New England. They were extensive 
land-owners and generally successful agriculturists. It 
may be truly said of them, in summing up their general 
characteristics, that they abstained from the allure- 
ments of the vices of the day in which they lived. 
They were remarkable for their temperance, integrity, 
and perseverance, and with sincerity practiced the 
virtues of the genuine type of New England charac- 
ter, and in whatever condition of life they have been 
placed their descendants have honored their position 
and name. By searching old records we find Thomas 
(1) White, probably brother or cousin of William 
White (father of Peregrine), admitted freeman of 
Massachusetts colony March 3, 1635, being an inhab- 
itant of Weymouth, of which he was one of the first 
settlers, and whose earliest records bear his name. 
He was a man of ability and determination, was for 
many years selectman of Weymouth, representative 
to the General Court in 1637, 1640, 1657, 1671, and 
was commander of a military company, at that time 
a post of distinguished honor and responsibility. 
Thomas (2), son of the first Thomas, of Weymouth, 
was born in Weymouth, and married Mary Pratt ; 
settled in Braintree, and was admitted freeman in 
1681. He was a man of education, distinction, and 
worth, and held a high social position in the town of 
his adoption. His children were Thomas, Mary, 
Samuel, Joseph, and Ebenezer (3). His death oc- 
curred in April, 1706. 



Ebenezer (3), youngest son of Thomas (2) and 
Mary (Pratt) White, of Braintree, was born in 1683, 

married Lydia , and lived in East Braintree. 

They had seven children, — Lydia, Elizabeth, Eben- 
ezer, William (died in infancy), William, Anne, and 
Thomas (4). Ebenezer was a farmer, quiet, unpre- 
tending, devoting himself entirely to agriculture. 

Thomas (4), son of Ebenezer and Lydia 

White, married Deborah Nash, Aug. 23, 1753. He 
was a man of decided energy and pluck, was captain 
of a military company ordered to Dorchester Neck 
(South Boston), March, 1776. His children were 
Thomas, Deborah, Alexander, Silence, Solomon, and 
Elihu (5). 

Elihu (5) married Sarah, daughter of Ellet and 
Sarah (Pratt) Loud. He was by birth and education 
a farmer, but afterward engaged in commerce, made 
foreign voyages, and acquired a competency. He was 
a captain in the militia, deputy fish commissioner of 
the State for many years. He had nine children, of 
whom all attained maturity, — Sarah (deceased) ; El- 
liott L. (deceased), remained at home, and filled im- 
portant ofiices in the town ; Elihu (deceased), was a 
graduate of Brown University, and physician in Bos- 
ton ; Harvey (deceased), who engaged in commercial 
business ; Harriet A. (deceased) ; Sarah, married An- 
drew Glover, of Glover's Corner, Dorchester ; Deborah 
Prince ; Catharine S. (deceased) ; and Naaman L. 
(6), whose ancestral line is Thomas (1), Thomas (2), 
Ebenezer (3), Thomas (4), Elihu (5), Naaman L. 

Naaman L. White, son of P]lihu and Sarah (Loud) 
White, was born on the place where he now resides 
in Braintree, June 24, 1814. He was fitted for college 
at Amherst and Phillips' Andover Academy. He 
entered Harvard LTniversity in 1831, in a class which 
has furnished its full proportion of men who have i 
since distinguished themselves in the various walks 
of life. 

It has been said that nowhere is the character and 
ability of a man more accurately weighed and gauged 
than in the close contact, the constant and intimate 
association, and the sharp competitions of college life. 
However this may be, the appreciation in which Mr. 
White was held by his as.sociates is perhaps some- 
what indicated by the number of literary societies 
into which he was chosen during the college course. 
There were at that time three leading literary so- 
cieties in the college, conducted by the undergrad- 
uates, — the Harvard Union, devoted principally to 
public debate, the Institute of '76, and the " Hasty- 
Pudding Club." It was usual for each member of 
every class to belong to some one of these societies, 

— as a general rule, to not more than one. Mr. 
White was elected into and became an active mem- 
ber of all three. Of the last-named society he was 
the president, and at one of its anniversaries he was 
chosen the orator. 

During two years of the college course he was ap- 
pointed by the faculty a class-monitor, — an ofiice of 
truth and responsibility, in which weekly reports to 
the president were required, and for which a small 
salary was allowed. He also competed with the best 
scholars of his class for many of the prizes off"ered by 
the University for literary excellence, and at one time 
he was awarded the first prize for the best-written 
essay on a subject given out by the college, and also 
the first Boylston prize for declamation ; so that his 
prize-money and salary were sufiicient not only to 
pay all college bills for that term, but left a liberal 
supply for pocket-money besides. 

He was a fine helles-lettres scholar, and particu- 
larly good in the ancient classics and in the modern 
languages and literature. At the same time he was 
so far proficient in mathematics and the severer 
studies connected therewith as to receive at one of 
the exhibitions of the junior year a mathematical 
part, — an appointment which required of the recipient 
of it to propose some original proposition or problem 
in the higher mathematics, and to write out, in de- 
tail, a full demonstration of it, which papers were 
to be deposited in the college library. At the close 
of the junior year he was elected a member of the 
Phi Beta Kappa Society. It was also during this 
year that the Harvardiana, a literary periodical, was 
started by members of his class, and during the re- 
mainder of the college course he was a frequent 
contributor to its pages. He was graduated with 
high honor in 1835. The subject of the com- 
mencement part assigned him was the " Character 
of Chief Justice Marshall," a rather large subject for 
so young a man, but which he sustained with such 
credit as to receive the warm approbation of such 
men as Judge Story and Charles Sumner, who were 
of the audience. 

After graduation he was engaged one year as prin- 
cipal of the classical department of the Weld School, 
in Roxbury, then one of the most popular and 
flourishing boarding-schools in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton. After leaving this school he commenced the 
study of law in the office of Judge Sherman Leland, 
and subsequently, successively, in the offices of John 
C. Park and Rufus Choate. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1 839, and opened a law-office in his native town. 
For thirty years he had a quite large and lucrative 
practice, principally in the county of Norfolk. He 



then gradually withdrew from active pursuit of his 
profession, and devoted himself principally to the care 
and arrangement of his own ample estate and of the 
estates in trust of his friends who availed themselves 
of his services. 

As a lawyer, in his business relations with his 
clients, he gave them his honest opinion upon their 
cases, derived from study, observation, and experience, 
whether that agreed with their own preconceived 
opinions or not, or whether it apparently promoted 
his own immediate business interests or not ; and it 
may be truly said that the amount and volume of 
litigation in the community where he dwelt was di- 
minished, rather than increased, by his influence. 
He was in the habit of saying to his clients that 
" laws are highly needful for the welfare and preser- 
vation of society, but that individual law-suits should 
not be commenced except under the pressure of 
absolute necessity, as they were an expensive luxury, 
in which few persons could afford to indulge." If he 
saw any sign of undue excitement or heat of passion, 
his counsel would be that a little delay would not 
prejudice his client's rights, and that a few nights' 
sleep and a few days of reflection might be highly 
beneficial. These suggestions and a little delay would 
most generally bring about a change of views, and 
avoid a long, troublesome, and, perhaps, comparatively 
fruitless suit. 

He was particularly averse to what lawyers some- 
times call " fancy actions," designed to vindicate 
by legal process the personal character and repu- 
tation of the party. He told his clients that though 
there might be exceptional cases of outrageous libel 
or slander where a resort to the law might be not 
only commendable, but necessary, and where a jury 
would give, and rightly give, exemplary damages, 
yet in ordinary and the great majoi'ity of cases of this 
kind the party would be far better off to pass the 
slander by in silence, and trust to livinc it down, rather 
than make a spectacle of himself by entering the 
arena of litigation, where the worst and bitterest 
passions were sure to be aroused, and where the 
general public would take little interest, except as they 
would be interested in a gladiatorial combat, without 
regard to the moral or intellectual character of either 
of the combatants ; that such a contest would be 
almost sure to degrade both parties to one common 
level. His theory and advice to his friends in matters 
of this kind was, that the common estimate of character 
entertained by the community where one dwells is in 
the end much more correct than we are apt to imagine ; 
and that, as a rule, it is better to rely upon this es- 
timate, more conducive to peace of mind and more 

consistent with true manly dignity, than to invoke 
the aid and redress of the law ; and that persistent 
and malignant slander very seldom, in the long run, 
hurts the object at which it is aimed, but is almost 
sure to recoil with redoubled force upon the head of 
the author of it. 

Through life he has rather avoided than sought 
public office. He has acted upon the principle that 
no man has a right to pass through the world as a 
" deadhead," enjoying the benefits and privileges of 
society, but refusing to bear a fair share of its labors 
and burdens. Yet he held that the office should 
seek the man, and not the man the office. Soon after 
he commenced the practice of law in Braintree, he 
was twice elected to represent the town in the State 
Legislature. He has also filled most of the more 
important offices in the town, — selectman, assessor, 
overseer of the poor, and surveyor of highways. He 
was particularly interested in educational matters, 
and in the welfare of the public schools, holding that 
the educational department of the town, on account 
of its present and prospective influence upon the 
character of its citizens, is by far the most important 
department in the town. Uniformly he advocated 
the most liberal appropriations for educational pur- 
poses. For more than fifteen years he was a mem- 
ber of the general school committee, and for the 
greater part of that time was chairman of the board. 
At the present :time he is president of the Braintree 
School-Fund Corporation, a corporation having in 
charge the real estate, public funds, and securities 
left to the town by will, and the income of which is 
specially devoted to the support of its public schools. 
For several years he has been president of the Wey- 
mouth and Braintree Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, and also a director and vice-president of the 
Weymouth Savings-Bank. He was a trial justice in 
the county of Norfolk for several years, and held that 
office till the change in the system of administering 
justice in this commonwealth by the creation of Dis- 
trict Courts. Early in life he was appointed brigade 
inspector of the State militia, an office which gave 
him the military rank of major. But having no 
great predilection for military life or glory, especially 
in time of peace, he resigned the office after holding 
it one year. 

In early manhood he became a member of the 
Congregational Church connected with the parish, 
where he had been accustomed to worship. Like 
most thoughtful persons, his mind had frequently 
been turned to the serious consideration of the great 
problems of life, death, and immortality, — of his per- 
sonal relations to God as his Creator, preserver, and 



final judge, and to Christ as his personal Saviour. 
He joined that particular communion as more nearly 
coinciding with his views upon these subjects than 
any other religious organization. 

There was nothing of narrowness or bigotry about 
him. Claiming the fullest freedom for himself, he 
willingly conceded the same to all others. Regarding 
religion as a personal matter between each man and 
his Maker, with which no other may authoritatively 
interfere, there was little in him of what might be 
called proselytism, or of that lingual activity and 
volubility which finds expression in public exhorta- 
tions and advice. He held that the best and most 
eflBcient lay preaching consisted in an exemplary 
Christian walk and life. 


Luther Osborn Crocker was born in West Dedham, 
Jan. 11, 1829. He was the son of Luther Harlow 
Crocker and Mary Osborn, and grandson of Daniel 
Crooker (now Crocker), being a descendant of Zenas 
Crooker, the first American ancestor. Daniel, the 
grandfather, was probably born in Pembroke. Luther 
Harlow Crocker, the father, was born in Pembroke in 
1804. His advantages for obtaining an education 
were very limited. When very young, he was put to 
labor on the farm. Arriving at suitable age, he went 
to Randolph, and learned the trade ©f wheelwright, 
serving a regular apprenticeship. From there he 
went to West Dedham, and worked at his trade. While 
there he married Mary Osborn, a native of Hanson. 
He remained there until 1838, when he removed to 
Hingham. He engaged in various occupations. At 
one time he worked at shoemaking. Then he in- 
vested what little capital he had accumulated in the 
foundry business, but lost it through the fault of 
those connected with him. Naturally endowed with 
large inventive powers, and being very ingenious, he 
originated many inventions. 

While residing in Hingham he engaged in the manu- 
facture of stoves from original patterns made by him- 
self. After being engaged in this business for about 
two years he received an advantageous offer from 
New Albany, Ind., which he accepted. Here he 
was engaged in making patterns for hemp and spin- 
ning machinery, " breakers," etc. After about two 
years the main factory was removed to Louisville, 
Ky. Thither he removed with his family, who 
had remained until this time in Hingham. This 
was about 1842. A few years after the firm failed, 
and Mr. Crocker started again in the manufacture of 
stoves, again making the patterns himself He here 

manufactured the same stove he did at Hingham 
(Andrews' and Austins' patent), having an oven at 
each end, with the fire between them. Various kinds 
of heaters were designed, originated, and manufac- 
tured by him. During the years from 1842 to 1849 
he engaged in the manufacture of gas- and water-pipe, 
wagon-boxes, shaftings, pulleys, hemp-breaking and 
shackling machines, invented by himself, which pro- 
duced this result without injuring the hemp, the 
effort to produce which had previously cost hundreds 
of dollars, and that in vain. This was the crowning 
work of his life, and was patented by him. A cool- 
ing fan, to be placed in offices, dining-rooms, etc., run 
by machinery, which was wound up as a clock is 
wound, was also invented by him. 

His brain teemed with positive and original crea- 
tions, and he was the inventor of many other ingeni- 
ous contrivances for utility and amusement. He 
made the machinery for the manufacturing of the 
hemp raised on the plantation of one Thompson. 
His agreement with him was that he should furnish 
machinery, keep it in order for one year, and receive 
one-half of the profits. He invested several thousand 
dollars in this enterprise, which, however, proved 

In 1849 he removed to Cincinnati, and was em- 
ployed by the gas company in making draughts and 
patterns for the necessary castings, pipe, etc., re- 
maining in their employ until 1855. During that year 
he removed to the Scioto Valley to take charge of a 
saw-mill, grist-mill, and a mill for reducing iron ore to 
pig metal, acting as overseer for a large and wealthy 
firm. In 1861 he returned to Cincinnati, again 
entering the employ of the gas company. With the 
opening of the civil war the firm engaged in the 
manufacture of shot and shell, Mr. Crocker remaining 
with them until nearly the close of the war. 

He was a member of a local military organization. 
When the rebels threatened Cincinnati the company 
was asked to volunteer as soldiers. Mr. Crocker was 
the first, and, with one exception, the only man to 
give his services. Like a true patriot, as he was, he 
joined the army, and performed military duty both in 
camp and under fire. He was at this time over sixty 
years old, and from the exposure he contracted dis- 
ease from which he never recovered. He died at 
Hanson, Mass., in 1872. A man of marked and pos- 
itive character, he left the world wealthier for his 
having lived in it. 

Luther 0. Crocker was the oldest child of his par- 
ents. He inherited the inventive genius of his father, 
and early in life manifested it in numberless ways. 
Not caring for books, he neglected what opportunities 




were presented for obtaining an education. His 
attendance at school would not probably exceed six 
months, so that experience and observation have been 
his principal teachers. Inured to labor from early 
childhood, he was employed at various occupations 
until he was seventeen years old, when he began to 
run a stationary engine for one of his father's hemp- 
breaking and shackling machines. This business 
suiting his taste, he was employed as engineer in 
various places until 1865. During the war he was 
employed at the Bridge water Iron- Works to run the 
engine and look after the machinery. Here was built 
the iron for the iron-clad " Monitor," made famous by 
its encounter with and victory over the rebel ram 
" Merrimac." 

Whilst employed as engineer at the Boston Flax 
Mills, in East Braintree, he invented the now so well 
known ticket-punches for the use of railroad conduc- 
tors. This punch was invented in 1865. The first 
one made was placed in the hands of Conductor 
Osborn, one of the oldest conductors on the Old 
Colony Railroad, for trial. Finding it worked well, 
after devising various improvements, he obtained a 
patent April 30, 1867. During his spare moments 
he made several punches, when his eyes were opened 
to what might be done by devoting his whole time to 
their manufacture, by unexpectedly receiving an order 
for a large number of his punches from Chicago. As 
his entire bank account at this time was only seventy- 
five dollars, and he had his family expenses to meet, 
the outlook was not very promising. Inquiry was 
made about this time by a person — he having seen 
one of the punches in use — who the inventor was 
and where he lived. Learning his name and address, 
he called upon Mr. Crocker, and offered to take joint 
interest in the patent and furnish capital for their 
manufacture. This proposition being accepted, the 
patent was issued to them as joint owners. This 
gentleman soon endeavored to manufacture by himself 
in another State, which caused Mr. Crocker to resort 
to legal measures to secure his rights. This he did by 
invalidating the first patent, and procuring one in his 
own name. This patent was dated Sept. 21, 1869. 

Mr. Crocker soon began their manufacture himself, 
but in a very short time his buildings, tools, and stock 
were destroyed by fire, — a total loss. Although he 
had lost all, nothing daunted, he at once commenced 
to build up his business. Aided by his strong 
physique and indomitable pluck, he succeeded in 
building up a permanent and lucrative business by 
working from sixteen to eighteen hours a day. His 
over-exertion and mental anxiety soon told the strain 
to which his system had been subjected, as for several 

years he was so thoroughly prostrated as to be unable 
to read or even to hear so much as the rustling of a news- 
paper. To-day the machinery for his manufactory is 
run by an eight horse-power steam-engine, and he keeps 
five men constantly employed in the manufacture of 
these punches. Their reputation is "A 1.' They are 
in use on all the principal railroads in this country and 
the civilized world, as well as in all places where and 
for all purposes which canceling punches are used. 
The punch used on the first through train of the 
Union Pacific Railroad was manufactured by him. 
He made two "Anchor" punches for the well-known 
and popular author Charles Dickens ; also one 
for Duke Alexis, of Russia, which cut out all his 
armorial bearings. He was awarded a medal by the 
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association in 
1869, and a silver medal by the National Exposition 
of Railroad Appliances, at Chicago, in 1883, as being 
the best punch manufactured. He manufactures over 
one thousand different designs, all of which are orio-- 
inal with him. 

He bought the site upon which his house and shop 
now stand when it was a barren ledge of rocks, but 
through his taste and skill it has been transformed into 
one of the handsomest places in the town of Brain- 

Mr. Crocker was married, Aug. 15, 1854, to Olive, 
daughter of Capt. Cyrus Munroe, an officer in the 
war of 1812. Her mother's name was Deborah 
Thomas. Their children are Oscar Munroe, mar- 
ried Anna L. Noyes (he is employed as telegraph 
operator in the office of the general manager of the 
Old Colony Railroad Company at Boston) ; and Luther 
0., who is connected with his father in manufactur- 
ing. Luther married Jennie Pratt. They have one 
son, — Fred. 

Mr. Crocker is in politics Republican, an attendant 
at the Congregational Church, and a member of Delta 
Lodge, F. and A. M., Weymouth, Mass. 




Previous to the 17th of November, a.d. 1719, 
that tract of land now known as the town of 
Bellingham existed merely as an* unimportant por- 
tion of the town of Dedham, which town then ex- 
tended from Mendon line to the line of Providence, 



R. I., by way of the Petucket River; thence to 
Attleborough and Wrentham, in our own State, and 
then running its northern boundaries, which serve 
no purpose in our present work. That portion of 
this area lying between Mendon and Wrentham first 
came to particular consideration on the 27th of 
October, a.b. 1713, when the Dedham proprie- 
tors granted thirty-five acres of it to one Jacob 
Bartlett, who was found already settled on the prem- 
ises. At this early period so vast and extensive was 
the territorial area that acquiring land by purchase 
was almost altogether unknown. As a matter of 
record, the first public gathering on the above-named 
tract was a meeting of the settlers called by virtue of 
a crown wai'rant, the return upon which was as fol- 
lows : 

"In pursuance of a warrant to me directed by John Chand- 
ler, Esquire, one of her Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the 
Countj' of Suffolli, These are to give Publiek notice that a 
meeting of the proprietors of that tract of land belonging to 
Dedliam lying between Wrentham, Mendon, and Providence 
is appointed to be held and kept at the house of Deacon 
Thomas Sanford, in Mendon, on the eleventh day of March 
next ensuing, at eight o'clock in the morning, then and there 
to agree upon a division of land and what relates thereunto, 
of which all persons concerned are to take notice and give 
their attendance accordingly. Dated this twenty-fifth day of 
February, a.d. 1714. Jonathan Wight, Constable." 

On the following March the scattered populace 
assembled as above, having previously divided the 
land into three divisions, containing lots of from 
twenty to sixty acres each, and, having chosen Capt. 
John Ware, of Wrentham, moderator, and Thomas 
Sanford clerk, they proceeded to draw slips of paper 
from a box. On each slip of paper was a number 
corresponding to a lot of land, and he who drew a 
number became the owner in fee-simple of the tract, 
the numbers running as high as one hundred and 
twenty-one, thus showing one hundred and twenty- 
one settlers located or about to locate. From the 
year 1714 to 1719 the chief, and, indeed, the only, 
public business consisted in the laying out of land to 
new-comers and the granting of additional territory 
to those already settled. In the year 1719 the people 
became exceedingly restless over the difiiculty expe- 
rienced in attending church at Dedham Centre and 
the performing of town business there. Accordingly, 
as the outgrowth of this agitation, a petition was j 
drawn up, — ' 


"To his Exclency Samuel Shute, Esq., Capt. General and | 
Governor in Chieff in & over his Majesties Province of ye 
Massachusitts Bay, in New England, & to ye Honourable Coun- j 
cil ct House of Representatives in General Court conveined at 

" The Petition of The Inhabitancc of a Tract of Land be- 

longing to Dedham, westward of Wrentham, and ye Inhabitance 

of a Considerable Farm adjoyning thereto and ye Inhabitance 
of a small Corner of Mendon ajacent Thereto (to ye number of 
four families) Humbly Shewette : That Whereas ye above Sd 
Inheritance are Scituated at a Remoat Distance from ye Respec- 
tive Towns where they at present belong : (viz.) The Inhabit- 
ance of the Town of Dedham, to ye number of three and 20 
Families are about Twenty miles Distance from the Town where 
thej' belong and Doe Deuty, & being very Remoate fi-om ye 
Public worship of God, & The Inhabitance, to the number of 
thirteen families of ye above Sd Farme being Six or Seven 
miles Distance from ye place of Public worship : & ye Inhab- 
itance of Mendon afore Sd being about four miles Distance ; 
and Considering our Remoateness & ye Inconvenianeys we La- 
bour under by Reason of the same : and that ye uniting and 
Incorporating of ye above Sd Tracts togeather & making of 
Them a Town may put us in a way in Some Convenient Time 
to obtain ye Settlement of ye Gospel among us Ac (the uniting 
of ye Above Sd Tracts of Land, Together will make a Town of 
aboute seven Miles Long & three miles & half wide) and Fur- 
ther Considering what ye Inhabitance of ye above Sd Tract of 
Dedham Land & the Farme are already Incorporated into a 
Training Companie and that they have little or No Benefit of 
Town Privelidges or having No benefit of ye Schools we do Re- 
spectively Pay to. The whole Number of Families belonging 
to ye above Sd tracts being forty & Lands enough already Laid 
out to accommodate 20 or 30 more: The Inhabitance of Ded- 
ham Land being voated off by ye Town for that end. 

" Our Prayer Therefore is that your Honours would Gra- 
ciously plese to consider our DifFeculty Circumstances and grant 
us our petition, which is That ye above Mentioned Tracts of 
Land (as by one Piatt hereto affixed & Described) may be in- 
corporated togeather & made a Town & Invested with Town 
Preveliges. That we may be Inabled in Conveniant Time to 
obtain ye Gospel & public worship of God settled, & our Incon- 
veniances by Reason of our Remoateness be Removed: granting 
us such Time of Dispence from Public Taxes as in wisdom you 
shall think Conveniant, & in your so doing you will greatly 
oblige us who am your Humble petitioners : and for your 
Honours, as in Consciance we are Bound, Shall forever pray. 
Dated ye 17th Day of November 1719. 

"John Darling 

Nicholas Cook 

Pelatiah Smith 

Tho. Burch 

.John Thompson 

Ebenezer Thayer 

Cornelius Darling 

Ramli. Hayward 

John Marsh 

Oliver Hayward 

Samll. Rich 

John Thompson Jr 

Isaac Thayer 

Ebenener Thompson 

Richard Blood 

Joseph Holbrook 

Zuriel Hall 
" In the House of Representatives 

'•Nov. 26, 1719 Read <fec. 
" Ordered that the Prayer of the Petitioners be Granted & That 
a Township be Erected & Constituted according thereunto & the 
Piatt above : Provided They Procure and Settle a learned or- 
thodox Minister within the Space of three years now coming. 

" And That John Darling, John Thompson & John Marsh be 
Impowered to Call a Town Meeting any time in March next to 

Daniel Corbet 

William Haywarit 

James Smith 

Nicolas Cook, Jr 

Jonathan Hayward 

Seth Cook 

Samll. Thompson 

Samll. Darling 

Joseph Thompson 

Nathiiniel Weatherby 

Samll. Smith 

The Inheritance of Mendon 

John Holbrook 

John Corbet 

Peter Holbrook 

Eliphalet Holbrook. 



choose Town Officers <t- manage ye other prudentiall affairs of 

ye Town. The name of the Town to be called Bellingham. [ 

" Sent up for Concurrence i 

" John Burrill, Speaker. , 
"• In Council Xov. 27, 1719 

" Read and Concurred | 

" Joseph "Willard, Sec. \_ 

" A true copy examined I 

" P. J. Willard, Sec" 

Why or how the name happened to be Bellingham 
cannot be told, although it was undoubtedly borrowed 
from Sir Richard Bellingham, an early colonial Gov- 
ernor. As will be noticed from the order of incorpo- 
ration, Bellingham never had a corporate charter, but 
came into existence solely on the proviso that a learned 
orthodox minister was settled in three years, and this 
being complied with, she took her stand among the 
sister towns of the colony. In accordance with the 
allowing of the petition, the citizens came together at 
the house of John Thompson, and organized a town- 
meeting. Thus it was on March 2, 1720, the first 
town-meeting was held in Bellingham. The action of 
that meeting was the election of Pelatiah Smith 
moderator; Selectmen, John Darlin, Pelatiah Smith, 
John Thompson, Nathaniel Jillson, and John Corbet ; 
Town Clerk, Pelatiah Smith ; Treasurer, John Hol- 
brook ; Tithingmen, John Marsh, Nicholas Cook ; 
men for the due observance of swine, Samuel Darling, 
Oliver Hayward ; Constables, William Hayward and 
Nicholas Cook. The matter of a house for public 
worship being considered, John Darlin, Nicholas 
Cook, Sr., John Corbet, John Holbrook were chosen 
a committee to find a suitable place to locate the 
building. John Corbet, Pelatiah Smith, Nathaniel 
Jillson, and Nicholas Cook were chosen a committee 
to build the bouse, so far as covering and inclosing 
was concerned. At a meeting called in May, it being- 
desirous to have funds, it was " Voted that no inhabit- 
ant shall take in any cattle from any outside town 
without first paying twelve pence per head into the 
town treasury, this vote to stand in full force for the 
term of one year." In the 14th of November meet- 
ing at John Thompson's house the town decided 
" That the meeting-bouse should be sett whare thare 
Is a stake Standing Near Weatherlys corner with a 
heap of stones Laid about said Stake and a pine-tree 
marked Said Stake Standing In an old Road that goes 
from mendon to wrenthau, the Demension of the 
meeting-house Voted to be : fourty foott long thirty 
foott wide. Eighteen foott Between Joynts. The 
Stated price for the Laborers for a Narrow axx man 
finding himself tow shillings and a sixpence pr Day, 
Broad axx man three shillings pr day, finding them- 
selves." It was also decided at this same meeting 

that forty pounds be raised for the town expenses for 
that year. The location of the building is fixed in 
the vicinity now known as Crimpville, near the resi- 
dence of Albert Burr. At a meeting held Nov. 23, 
1721, the vote was passed that the meeting-house 
should be lathed and plastered with white lime, also 
an " allej'-way" should be left four feet wide through 
the centre and an " alley-way" four feet wide between 
the ends of the seats and the sides of the building. 
In January, 1772, seventy-four pounds were received 
from the Great and General Court as a part of the 
fifty thousand pound bank. A very common practice 
in our town at this early period was the allowing of 
swine to go at large during the late fall and winter 
months, sometimes extending the time even so late as 
June. On one occasion in particular the town de- 
clared any rams found at large between July and 
November might be taken up by any one, and the 
owner obliged to pay three shillings for each offense, 
but nothing was to be paid unless the ram was first 
captured. In April, 1720, the inhabitants laid out 
sixty-six acres of land about the meeting-house for a 
training-field. On a survey the area measured seventy- 
seven acres, the records saying eleven acres were for 
bad land. In January, 1723, the town decided to 
grant fifty acres of land to the first minister settling 
in town, and shortly afterward Thomas Smith entered 
upon his duties. In this same year a difficulty arose 
with Wrentham on account of the dividing-line be- 
tween the two towns, and considerable spirit was man- 
ifested by the people before the line was amicably 
adjusted, Bellingham going so far as to choose a com- 
mittee to go before a court of law, and a tax was levied 
on cows to defray the expense thereof. The town after- 
ward sold one hundred and fifty acres of common 
land, and realized one hundred and forty pounds, 
which was expended in surveying and other incident- 
als connected with establishing the final line. April 
22, 1726, a town-meeting was called, in whicb^if was 
decided to have a new minister, Rev. Mr. Smith hav- 
] ing left and Rev. Mr. Sturgeon then acting as pastor, 
I In the following meeting it was fully decided to dis- 
miss Mr. Sturgeon, and pay his board-bill of twenty- 
six shillings and his bill for firewood at the same time. 
In the following winter Rev. Jonathan Mills was 
ordained. A familiar and common practice among 
our early settlers was to warn people outside the town 
lines. Numerous instances occur, and we give a form 
as showing how the end was accomplished : " Suf- 
folk SS. To the constable of the town of Bellingham 
' Greeting. In his Majesties name you are required 

forthwith to warn his wife and children out of 

our town of Bellingham within fourteen days as the 



law directs and make return of this warrant with your 
doings herein-unto the Selectmen." So, as will be 
observed, an eiFeotual road was opened to rid the town 
of those people liable to become paupers. The old 
meeting-house location having become obnoxious, or 
at least not desirable, on Feb. 1, 1754, a new build- 
ing stood completed near the town centre, concerning 
which more will be said hereafter, and a town-meeting 
was straightway called about money matters. In 
searching records we find it no uncommon thing to 
see the result of a negative vote recorded as '' passed 
in the nagetive." In 1755, John Corbet asked the 
privilege of building a mill and dam on the Charles 
River, but the town refused to grant him the right. 
In the same meeting the first call (we have observed) 
for a member to the General Court was brought up, 
and the town decided not to send anybody. The 
Great and General Court being not only surpri.sed but 
incensed at this answer to its decree, promptly fined 
the town. A town-meeting was straightway called, 
and a vote passed to draw up a petition asking the 
General Court to abate the fine. In addition to this, 
the town voted two pounds and ten shillings to carry 
on the petition and to cover unforeseen charges. On 
the same day the town decided to assess the soldiers 
who enlisted in his Majesty's service, and not being 
quite decided as to the efi"ect of this vote, an addi- 
tional vote was recorded that the town would stand 
by the assessors in the assessment of said soldiers. 

In the early part of the year 1757 a demand was 
again made for a representative, and the town again 
voted " in the nagetive" at its May meeting. At 
about this time the first continuous town pauper came 
to the surface, and being considered an evil, but neces- 
sary fixture, he was passed from hand to hand in 
a manner not to be envied even by a convict of our late 

At the meeting of 1759 the abatement of a tax 
was first requested, but the town decided not to abate. 
In April, 1761, the town again voted not to send a 
representative. In 1761 a town-meeting was con- 
vened, and a committee chosen to find the centre of 
the town. At an adjourned meeting it was voted to 
build a second meeting-house (Baptist), and to locate 
the same on the knoll in the crotch of the roads at 
the town centre. In May, 1762, the General Court 
again asked for a delegate, but the town passed over 
the warrant by a large vote. On March 6, 1764, the 
townsmen came together and elected oflBcers for the 
year. On the 15th of the same month, at an ad- 
journed meeting, the town voted to annul the votes of 
March 6th, and then proceeded to elect other and 
diff"erent officers in their stead. At this action, a 

protest signed by nineteen citizens was sent to the 
General Court and also entered on the record of the 
town. The Legislature decided that the March 6th 
meeting was legal and the after-vote void, much to 
the satisfaction of the officers first chosen. The town 
neglected to choose town officers in full in 1765, and a 
command so to do was sent by the court at Boston. 
The result of this action was a meeting in which Bel- 
lingham was burdened that year with nine selectmen 
and seven assessors. This action stood but one year ; 
the town choosing the usual number of selectmen and 
three assessors at the next annual Assembly. At the 
March meeting in 1773, the condition of the country 
being in an unsettled state, and the town being greatly 
inconvenienced by the excessive taxation, a committee 
consisting of John Metcalf, John Corbett, Samuel 
Scott, William Holbrook, and Benjamin Partridge 
were chosen to look into the condition of afi"airs, and 
report at the next meeting. The town being so neg- 
ligent about sending a representative, a fine was again 
imposed, and a petition of abatement was sent as pay- 
ment. Some expense accruing in the conveying of 
the petition, and no immediate action being taken 
on the part of the Legislature, the town voted Oct. 
22, 1773, as follows : " Put to vote to see if the town 
will send to Court any more to get the fines of that 
we are fined for not sending a Representative in years 
passed. Passed in the negative." 

The industry of the town, as also that of nearly every 
other town surrounding, was agriculture. The largest 
farm ever known here went by the name of Rawson's 
farm, and its area amounted to nearly nineteen hun- 
dred acres, and was located at the north end. 

The public business up to the time of the Revolu- 
tion appears to have been the settlement of town 
lines and the consideration of church affairs. 

Taxation becoming more and more burdensome, 
the people asked the General Court in May, 1774, to 
assess the town for a less sum, and the committee laid 
before the court the poverty of the people ; in addi- 
tion to which they sought to be excused from sending a 
representative and from being fined. On Sept. 2, 1774, 
nineteen shillings were voted to the General Court to 
assist in carrying on expenses ; also to agree to the 
covenant whereby the citizens declared the purchase 
of no goods imported from Great Britain. The sum 
of twenty-five dollars was voted for ammunition, and 
delegates were chosen to the convention at Dedham, 
wherein prudential measures were adopted on current 
affairs. On Sept. 30, 1774, the town chose Luke 
Holbrook as its first delegate, he to attend " the 
Provincial Congress to be held in Concord on the 
second Tuesday of Oct. next." December 19th, seven 



pounds additioual were set out to the purchase of pow- 
der and bullets. Stephen Metcalf was elected the con- 
gressional delegate for February. In the January 
meeting the motion was put to see if the town would 
pay those men ready to go at a minute's warning in 
defense of the colonies, and " not a hand was raised 
in the aflBrmative." On April 25, 1775, the town 
" Voted six dollars bounty to its share of men (each) 
of the thirteen thousand six hundred enlisted, if 
Congress does not give it." Dr. John Corbett was 
then chosen to the Congress assembled at Watertown. 
Stephen Metcalf was also empowered. At the meet- 
ing of November 3d the first vote to establish a new 
county was taken, and Belliugham voted " ?to" unani- 
mously. At the next meeting, held shortly after, the 
town resolved " that it is the opinion of the inhabit- 
ants of this town that it is constitutional and necessary 
for each county in this colony of Massachusetts Bay 
to have county assemblies erected and established 
in them, the members to be chosen one or more 
in each town each year, with power to grant county 
taxes and establish roads, and to perform all acts 
proper for county assemblies. All that are chosen to 
be paid for by those that chose them." Bellingham 
was heartily in accord with the popular feeling con- 
cerning the stand taken by Great Britain, and so 
deeply did she feel the injustice that on July 4, 1776, 
a town-meeting was convened, and the people declared 
(almost at the same moment the declaration was 
proclaimed in Philadelphia), '• that in case the Hon- 
orable Continental Congress should think it necessary 
for the safety of the United Colonies to declare them 
independent of Great Britain, the inhabitants of this 
town with their lives and fortunes will cheerfully 
support them in the measure." The sum of two 
hundred and forty pounds was voted to pay enlisting 
soldiers. Concerning the form of a new government 
for the State, Bellingham responded to the General 
Court as follows, "dated Sept. 17, 1776, concern- 
ing a form of government for this State, as voted in 
town-meeting, called in conformity to said resolve, on 
due notice for that end, held at Bellingham on the 
20th of October, and by adjournment on the 2d of 
December after : 

" We are of opinion that the settling a form of government 
for this State is a matter of the greatest importance of a civil \ 
nature that we were ever concerned in, and ought to be pro- , 
ceeded in with the greatest caution and deliberation. It ap- j 
pears to us that the late General Assembly of this State, in 
their proclamation dated Jan. 23, 1776, have well expressed [ 
that 'power always resides in the body of the people.' We 
understand that all males above twenty-one j-ears of age, meet- 
ing in each separate town and acting the same thing and all 
their acts united together, make an act of the body of the people. 
We apprehend it would be proper that the form of government , 

for this State to originate in each town, and by that means we 
may have ingenuity of all the State, and it may qualify men 
for public station, which might be effected if the present Hon- 
orable House of Representatives would divide this State into 
districts of about thirty miles diameter, or less if it appear most 
convenient, so that none be more than fifteen miles from the 
centre of the district, that there may be an easy communica- 
tion between each town and the centre of its district, that no 
town be divided, and that each town choose one man out of each 
thirty inhabitants to be a committee to meet as near the centre 
of the district as may be; to meet about six weeks after the 
House of Representatives have issued their order for the towns 
to meet to draw a form of government, and the same committee 
to carry with them the form of government their town has drawn 
at the district meeting and compare them together, and propose 
to their towns what alteration their town in their opinion ought 
to make, and said committee in each district adjourn to carry 
to their several towns, and lay before them in town-meeting for 
that end, the form of government said district has agreed to, 
and the town agrees to or alters as they see meet; after which the 
district committee meet according to adjournment and revise 
the form of government; after which each district committee 
choose a man as a committee to meet all as one committee at 
Watertown at twelve weeks after the order of the House of 
Representatives for the town, first meeting to draw a form of 
government, which committee of the whole State may be em- 
powered to send precepts to the several towns in this State to 
choose one man out of sixty to meet in convention at Water- 
town, or such other town as each committee shall judge best. 
Six weeks from the time of said district's last sitting the said 
one man out of sixty to meet in convention to draw from the 
forms of government drawn by each district committee one 
form of government for the whole State; after which said 
convention send to each town the form of government they 
have drawn for the town's confirmation or alteration, then ad- 
journ, notifying each town to make return to them of their do- 
ings at said convention, and at said adjournment said conven- 
tion draw a general plan or form of government for this State, 
so that they add nothing to nor diminish nothing from the 
general sense of each town, and that each town be at the charge 
of all they employ in the affair. 

" Doctor John Corbett, 
" Coroner John Metcalf, 
"Elder Noah Alden, 
" Deacon Samuel Darling, 
" LiECT. Seth Hall, 

" Committee." 

According to the desire of the General CoTirt^ a 
vigilance committee was chosen on March 5, 1777, 
consisting of Jonathan Draper, Daniel Pennimao, 
Asahel Holbrook, David Scott, and Ezekiel Bates. 
In April, a certain party being sick, a town-meeting 
was straightway convened, and it was voted that the 
man had the smallpox, and in consequence of this 
vote a hospital was established in the woods. On the 
records we find, " Voted that the town forbid any 
person from having the smallpox in the house of 
Daniel or Silas Penniman, except said Silas, now sick, 
and if any person or persons be so presumptuous as to 
have the smallpox in either of them two houses they 
shall forfeit to the town ten pounds, to be recovered 
by the treasurer." Ezekiel Bates was chosen to look 



into, receive evidence, and decide on Tory cases. The 
form of government proposed on May 28, 1778, by 
the General Court was voted on by the town, and 
unanimously adopted by a vote of seventy-three per- 
sons. The names of those citizens of this town who 
served in the Continental army are as follows : 

Amos Ellis. 
Nathan Holbrook. 
Abijali Holbrook. 
Seth Holbrook. 
Nathaniel Thayer, Jr. 
Dennis Darling. 
Nathaniel Scott. 
David Scott. 
Lot Perry. 
Joseph Perry. 
Asahel Holbrook. 
David Peri-y. 
Henry Holbrook. 
Joel Leg. 
Joseph Frost. 
Stephen Wj'man. 
Elisha Hayward. 
Amariah Holbrook. 
Abel Bullard. 
Benjamin Twitchell. 
John Rockwood. 
William Chase, Jr. 
Tbaddeus Gibson. 
John Phillips. 
Moses Hill. 
Ichabod Bozworth. 
Amos Thompson. 
Benjamin Clark. 
Josh Phillips. 
Caleb Phillips, Jr. 
James Bailey. 
Asa Holbrook. 
John Cook. 
Daniel Cook, Jr. 
Samuel Adams. 
Oliver Perry. 
David Staples. 
Nathan Freeman. 
Cyrus Thompson. 
Joseph Rockwood, Jr. 
Aaron Hill. 
Eben Darling. 
David Belcher. 
Elias Thayer. 
John Coombs, Jr. 
Moses Darling, Jr. 
Levi Darling. 

Samuel Pickering. 
Simon Alvison. 
John Chilson. 
Robert Smith, Jr. 
Elisha Aldcn. 
Caleb Thompson. 
David Cook, Jr. 
Jabez Mefcalf. 
Stephen Perry. 
John Godman. 
Joshua Darling. 
Levi Daniels. 
Peter Albee. 
Daniel Trask. 
Abner Wight. 
Phineas Holbrook. 
Sylvenus Scott, Jr. 
Samuel Arnold. 
David Jones. 
Joseph Ward, Jr. 
John Arnold. 

Capt. Jesse Holbrook. 
George Slocomb. 
Silas Penniman. 

Ezekiel Hayward. 

Jonathan Scott. 

Levi Rockwood. 

Silas Adams. 

John Chilson. 

Ezekiel Thayer. 

Samuel Wight, Jr. 

John Upham. 

John Hall. 

Noah Alden, Jr. 

Ichabod Draper. 

Ichabod Seavcr. 

Joseph Partridge. 

Richard Darling. 

Joseph Dartridge. 

Amos Adams. 

Samuel Twist. 

David Thompson. 

Stephen Eastey. 

Hennery Holbrook. 

Elijah Holbrook. 

In early days the delegates were not allowed their 
own judgment in public affairs, but were instructed. 
Rev. Noah Alden, pastor of the Baptist Church at 
that time, was chosen a delegate, and the town in- 
structed him as follows : " Sir, — You being chosen by 
the inhabitants of this town to represent them in a 
convention proposed to be held at Cambridge on the 
1st day of September next, for the sole purpose of 

framing a Constitution or form of government for the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, we, your constituents, 
being legally assembled in town-meeting on this 16th 
day of August, 1779, claim it as our inherent right 
at all times to instruct those that represent us, but 
more necessary on such an important object as that 
of a form of government, which not only so nearly 
concerns our interests, but our posterity. We do, in 
the first place, instruct you, previous to your entering 
upon the framing the form of government, you see 
that each part of the State have properly delegated 
their power for such a purpose, and that a bill of 
rights be framed wherein the natural rights of in- 
dividuals be clearly ascertained, — that is, all such 
rights as the supreme power of the State shall have 
no authority to control, — to be a part of the Constitu- 
tion ; that you use your influence that the legislative 
power consist of a Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, the representatives to be annually chosen 
from the towns, as they were previous to the year 
1776. That the Constitution be so framed that elec- 
tions be free and frequent, most likely to prevent 
bribery, corruption, and unchaste influence. That 
the executive power be so lodged as to execute the 
laws with dispatch. The Senate to have knowledge 
of the House, but to revise and propose amend- 
ments to it, and when not agreeing to act as one 
body, the senators to be annually chosen by the peo- 
ple. That the holding the Court of Probate, granting 
of license, and registering deeds in but one town in 
the county, as heretofore established, has been a 
grievous burden to us. That you use your influence 
that the Constitution be so framed that each incor- 
porated town may have power to hold and exercise 
powers of a Court of Probate, and to grant licenses, 
and to record their deeds within the several towns. 
We further instruct you that, when you have drawn 
a form of government or the outlines thereof, you 
cause a fair copy thereof to be printed. That you 
use your influence that the convention adjourn to 
some future day, and the copies so printed be laid 
before your several towns for their consideration and 
I amendment, to be returned to the convention at their 
I adjournment. In this way we think the sense of the 
\ State at large will be most likely to be collected. 
That the judicial be so established that justice may 
be impartially demonstrated without being obliged to 
be at such an enormous expense to gentlemen of the 
law to argue causes. That right of trial by jury be 
kept sacred and close, as has been the late usual 
practice in this State. That the statutes of Old 
England, or any part thereof, nor any foreign laws 
be adopted in this Constitution. That a county as- 



sembly be established to grant county taxes in each 
county, and to act in all other matters appertaining 

In October, 1780, a committee was chosen to favor 
a new county to be set off from Suffolk. At the 
meeting of April 2, 1781, the town assisted in the 
election of John Hancock, Governor, and his honor, 
Thomas Gushing, Lieutenant-Governor. Stephen 
Metcalf was again elected representative. The name 
of no other man appears as representative from Belling- 
ham for a long term of years. On the 6th of May, 
1782, he was again elected, and instructed by the town 
as follows : 

" Sti; — Having chosen you to represent the town in the Gen- 
eral Court the ensuing year, we think meet to give you the 
following instructions : Whereas, the Governor's salary for a 
year has been eleven hundred pounds, and Counselors seven 
shillings for one day, and Senators 10 shillings a day, we think 
them sums exorbitant, and we instruct you to use your utmost 
endeavors and influence to have those salaries lessoned and all 
others in this Commonwealth to be set at a reasonable rate, and 
that all persons under pay from the Commonwealth that are 
not absolutely necessary for the business thereof be dismissed, 
and that there may be a law made that every representative be 
paid out of his own town treasury such sums as lie and his town 
shall agree upon for his attendance while he is sitting, and that 
the General Court be removed out of Boston and set in some 
other town, and that the annual expense of this State be ascer- 
tained that is used for its own support, and the annual income 
thereof, and how the money has been expended that has been 
granted toward its support, and how much it is in debt when 
what is granted is all paid, that so the people, who have a right 
to know, may know how the money is expended that they pay; 
and a separate account of the annual expense this Common- 
wealth is at for and toward Continental charges, and how much 
this State is in debt for Continental affairs, and that there be 
printed, published, and sent to each town in the State every 
year the state of its treasury and of what money has been and 
from time to time is granted and how exjiended, that for this 
Government and Continental affairs, separate, and whereas the 
mode of trials in our common law courts, the attorneys' fees 
that they demand is so extravagant that poorer .sort of people 
are necessitated to sufl'er every injury without being able to 
obtain redress in common course of law of which a redress 
ought to be obtained." 

The same gentleman was chosen by the town at its 
first afBrmative action on a new county to represent 
its will. In 1784 tlie town voted not to send any one 
to the General Court. On the following year Stephen 
Metcalf was again empowered to attend, but before 
leaving the town instructed him to use his " utmost 
endeavor that the Stamp Act made last session of the 
General Court be repealed, and that a law be passed 
allowing no action in any other county than where 
the defendant resides. Also that the Governor's salary 
and other servants of the State be made less, and all 
other needless expense reduced." The town being 
interested in fishing to some extent, chose Joseph 

Holbrook to join with the other towns on the Charles 
River in a petition to the General Court, for " ways 
to be opened through dams on the river to allow the 
free passage of fish." In 1787 the town cast sixty- 
seven votes for Governor, sixty-three of which were 
for John Hancock ; also in the same meeting Lieut. 
Aaron Holbrook was chosen representative in place 
of Judge Metcalf, who alone had represented the 
town previously. Lieut. Holbrook was instructed to 
influence the establishment of courts in a small circuit, 
also that he do his best to establish credit, " that he 
use his power to have what was"called a dry-tax light, 
and that the banefull ' gugaws' of Briton and all 
West India goods that the Publick can best do with- 
out be heavily dutied. We charge you to encourage 
home manufactorys." In December, 1787, Rev. 
Noah Alden was sent to the convention in Boston to 
give expression to the town's mind on the proposed 
Constitution, and which expression had been previoasly 
declared in that it was against the adoption. The 
first action taken by the town in national govern- 
ment affairs was at a meeting held Dec. 18, 1788, in 
which, as national representative, Fisher Ames re- 
ceived eight votes and William Heath six. Electors 
for choice of President, Jabez Fisher and Caleb Davis, 
two votes each. As representative to the General 
Court, Lieut. Holbrook served two years, the town in 
the year 1789 sending no one. In 1791, Lieut. 
Holbrook was returned to the General Court, and 
specially empowered to seek a division of Suffolk 
County. At the same meeting it was " put to vote to 
see if the town will provide a house for the inocula- 
tion of the smallpox, and voted no. Secondly, voted 
that the town disapprove of the smallpox coming 
into town Contrary to Law." 

In 1784 (one hundred years ago) Belliugham had 
as her citizens the following persons: 

David Metcalf. 
Stephen Metcali. 
John Metcalf. 
.John Metcalf, Jr. 
Jonathan Metcalf, Jr. 
John Coombs. 
John Coombs, Jr. 
Jonathan Hill. 
Aaron Hill. 
David Hill. 
Robert Smith. 
Abel Smith. 
Ebenezer Fisher. 
Amos Ellis. 
Benjamin Partridge. 
Joseph Partridge. 
Job Partridge. 
John Partridge. 
John Corbit, M.D. 

Benjamin Spear?T- - 
Xathan Holbrook. 
Seth Holbrook. 
Eben Holbrook. 
Amzi Holbrook. 
Aaron Holbrook. 
Joseph Holbrook. 
Joseph Holbrook, Jr. 
Peter Holbrook. 
Asahel Holbrook. 
Asa Holbrook. 
Jesse Holbrook. 
Darias Holbrook. 
Amariah Holbrook. 
Joel Jencks. 
Ezra Forestall. 
Benjamin Boss. 
Nathaniel Butterworth. 



Samuel Cobb. 
Joshua Bullard. 
Obediah Adams. 
Samuel Adams. 
Amos Adams. 
Silas Adams. 
Jejjtha Wedge. 
Daniel Wedge. 
David Hay ward. 
Hezekiah Hayward. 


Jonathan AVright. 
Jonathan Howe. 
David Lawrence. 
David Penniman. 
Samuel Penniman. 
Josiah Penniman. 

Johnson Streetor. 
Joseph Thompson. 
Josiah Wheelock. 
Ehen Wheelock. 
Gideon Albeo. 
Nathan Albee. 
Stephen Albee. 
Abel Albee. 
.Tames Albee. 
Asa Pond. 
Eli Pond. 
Lisa Pond. 
John Clark. 
Samuel Clark. 
Isaac Bates. 
Timothy Merriman. 
Amariah Jones. 

A total of seventy-one, all of whom resided in the 
thirty-one dwelling-houses then standing, with an 
accompaniment of twenty-nine barns. John Metcalf, 
Jr., possessed two saw-mills, and John Corbit one, 
the only mechanical industry in town. Acres of 
land cultivated, 127 ; English mowing land, 170 ; 
meadow-grass, 151 ; pasture land, 330 ; woodland, 
171 ; other land, 1974. Annual amount of cider, 
in barrels, 110. Number of horses, 35; oxen, 
40 ; cows, 152 ; young stock, 52 ; sheep, 86 ; and 
swine, 38. 

In 1793 and 1796 no representative was sent, and 
in May of the same year a warrant was issued bear- 
ing the words " Norfolk County," all previous 
having " Suffolk SS." upon their fiice. The nine 
towns in the new county, through some dissatisfac- 
tion, considered the proposition of returning to Suf- 
folk. Bellingham loudly remonstrated against it, 
and chose a committee to oppose any such action. 

In the next annual meeting Joseph Holbrook was 
elected representative, and his pay placed at one 
dollar per day, the town-fathers further declaring " if 
he receive more, he shall pay it to the town." About 
this time the General Court ordered a survey of the 
different towns in the State, and Judge Metcalf was 
cho.sen to the work here, but we cannot give the 
result of his effort, as it is not a matter of record. 
In 1796 the town located guide-boards for public 
convenience, and in the next meeting considered the 
feasibility of uniting with other towns for the pur- 
pose of establishing a post-road to Dedhani, what 
is now known as the old Boston and Hartford turn- 
pike. Two years previous to this, however, the 
matter was privately agitated, as the following letter 
will show : 

"Dkdham, March 27, 17'.»1. 
" '*>''■, — After your good wishes expressed toward establishing 
a line of stages on the middle road between Boston and Hart- 
ford, we fool a little disappointed at not receiving so prompt an 

answer to our proposal, which I had the honor to present with 
the articles of association of the first branch inclosed to you 
lately, requesting your speedy answer, which is not yet re- 
ceived. Here a number of us have associated to run carriages 
statedly from Boston to Smith's, in Bellingham, as soon as the 
rest of the line is completed, but cannot proceed to the expense 
of purchasing eight coach-horses with carriages until some 
confidential persons along the road shall assure of its being 
continued through to Hartford. And if you think best to have 
no connection with us, we request to know it immediately, that 
others may be taken into the company, with full resolution to 
carry it into effect, and we hope yet we shall not have to regret 
the disinclination of so able a partner. 
" In haste, though with esteem, I am 

" Your very humble servant, 

" Fisher Amks." 

" To Senator Metcalf, Bellingham." 

" Philadelphia, April 1, 1794. 
" Stephen Metcalf, Esq. : 

" My Bear Sir, — On my motion the road to Hartford by 
Dedham, Mendon, and Pomfret, is agreed to in the committee 
of the whole House on the post-office bill. It will probably 
pass the House, and I will endeaver by proper explanations to 
procure for it a due consideration in the Senate. Should it be 
established by law that a mail shall be put on the middle road, 
it will be important that the towns should exert themselves 
more than they have done heretofore to work on the highway 
and render the middle road passable. I thought it might be 
useful to give you early information on this subject. There is 
again a hope of peace. Some among us have their passions 
raised to the war pitch, and others would like a war against 
their debts ; but the prevailing desire is peace. It will be 
necessary, however, to prepare for war, as it is thought that it 
will prove the most effectual way to avoid it. Our happy 
country seems to stand in need of little more than peace and 
good order to secure its prosperity. I own I dread war, by 
which we can gain nothing and may lose everything as a 
people. The arrangements which the present critical posture 
of affairs demands will delay the session of Congress for some 
time. It is however expected that we shall rise by the middle 
of May at the latest. I am, dear sir, with esteem and regard, 
" Yours truly, 

" Fisher Ames." 

This road was finally established and a post-mail 
placed on the same through Mr. Ames' influence with 
the national government, the towns and States of 
Massachusetts and Connecticut assisting in the con- 

The town finding some diSiculty in obtaining the 
church for public meetings, chose a committee to pass 
upon the feasibility of constructing a new building, 
and the finding of a suitable location therefor. This 
committee — 

" having met and taken the matter into consideration, agree- 
able to appointment, beg leave to report : That we are 
of opinion that the most central and convenient spot for 
erecting said building is on the land now occupied by David 
•Tones, situated at the end of the road leading from Ezekiel 
Bates' dwelling-house to the road known as the Taunton road, 
and is bounded partly on the west by the said Taunton road. 
The said Jones proposes giving the town one acre of land for 
the purpose of setting said house and other buildings upon, 
providing said town will agree to erect such a building as will 



best accommodate the religious society in said town for a house 

of public worship. 

"EzEKiEL Bates, 1 
" Laban Bates, | 
"John Scammell, i 
" Eliab Wight, J 


"Bellingham, March 15, A.d. 1800. 
" We, the undersigned, do hereby propose to the inhabitants 
of said Bellingham that we will undertake the building of a 
public house in said town for the purpose of better accommo- 
dating said inhabitants to transact their public concerns in. We 
propose said house to be forty-five by fifty feet on the ground, 
twenty-five feet posts, and one porch of fourteen feet square, 
which shall be built of good materials and be well wrought ; 
providing said town will grant the sum of one thousand dollars, 
five hundred to be assessed and paid into the treasury for the 
above purpose by the first day of April, 1801, and the other five 
hundred to be paid by April 1, 1802, and also to grant us the 
privilege of building pews in said house for the accommodation 
of the religious society in said town, and giving us the benefit of 
the sale of said pews to defray in part the expense of said build- 
ing ; and if the above proposals should be accepted by a vote of 
said town, we do hereby jointly and severally agree and en- 
gage to completely finish said house without any other expense 
to said town, and we will give bonds to indemnify for the above ] 

" In testimony whereof we have hereto set our hands. 
" Laban Bates, " John Scammell, 

" Eliab Wight, " John Chilson, 

'•Simeon Holbrook, "Joseph Fairbanks, 
"Seth Holbrook, "Samuel Darling, Jr., 

"Stephen Metcalp, Jr., " Elisha Burr." 

In the September meeting the above was accepted 
by the town, and the first sum of five hundred dol- 
lars assessed. Joseph Fairbanks having set up a saw- 
and grist-mill on the Charles River, near where the 
Caryville Mills now stand, the selectmen laid out the 
road now known as Pearl Street, the road running to 
the Franklin line from the old turnpike. From 1796 
to 1800 the town was not represented in the Legisla- 
ture, but in the last-named year Laban Bates was 
elected to that office, serving also in 1804. In 1802 
the town declined to be represented. In December 
of the same year the town accepted of the new meet- 
ing-house (our present town hall), and Thomas Bald- 
win, of Boston, was decided upon to preach the dedi- 
cation sermon. A committee was chosen, and the 
clergy in surrounding towns invited. A subscription - 
paper was then circulated for the support of services. 
This not meeting with much favor, the town voted 
two hundred dollars in lieu thereof, and Rev. N. W. 
Rathburn was called. At the next annual meeting 
John Bates was chosen town clerk, in place of Eliab 
Wight, who had served the town in that capacity for 
a long term of years. In 1804 the town exchanged 
the old training-ground for a new one about the new 

The difficulty arising from the attendance upon 

public duties at Bellingham Centre on account of the 
great distance, and this, aided by the growth of West 
Medway, so nearby, culminated in 1807 in a petition 
for a new town formed from parts of Bellingham, 
Franklin, Medway, and HoUiston. A viewing com- 
mittee from the Legislature visited the premises and 
reported adversely. In 1816 the matter was again 
agitated, and a hearing granted by the standing com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives. This com- 
mittee decided favorably, providing a portion of that 
part taken from Bellingham was relinquished ; but 
the people declining to do this, the decision was again 
adverse. In 1823 the matter was brought up again, 
and several hearings granted. In May, 1824, the fol- 
lowing petition was sent to the Senate and G-eneral 
Court. " The undersigned, inhabitants of the West 
Parish in Medway, humbly represent that your peti- 
tioners, comprising a small part of the towns of Med- 
way, Bellingham, Holliston, and Franklin, were incor- 
porated for parochial purposes about seventy-five years 
past by an act of the Legislature, since which time re- 
ligious worship has been regularly supported and parish 
privileges constantly exercised therein. That within 
a few years past two commodious houses for public 
worship, a parish house, and other buildings equally 
adapted to town and parish purposes have been erected, 
and that said parish as herein described contains about 
two hundred and fifty ratable polls, twelve hundred 
inhabitants, and nine hundred acres of land. They 
further represent that the inconveniences and evils of 
transacting town business in their several towns at the 
distance of from four to seven miles from their homes, 
while the distance to the centre of the parish does in 
no instance exceed three miles, the remoteness of 
your petitioners in Holliston from the shire-town of 
their county (Worcester) as at present situated, and 
the expense and inconvenience of performing military 
duty in their several towns at the distances above men- 
tioned, render an incorporation of your petitioneis for 
town purposes highly desirable and necessary. Your 
petitioners therefore humbly pray that they may be 
incorporated as a town, with all the privileges of other 
towns within this commonwealth, according to the fol- 
lowing boundaries, viz. : Beginning at the Milford line, 
on the northerly side of Nahum Clark's farm, and 
running easterly, including said farm and across the 
land of Henry Adams, to a stake and stones on the 
northerly side of a town road ; thence across said 
road to the northeast corner of said Adams' farm ; 
thence to a white-oak tree standing on the east side 
of the road, about twenty rods north of Capt. 
Jonathan Harding's barn ; from thence to the 
south side of the farm belonging to the estate of A. 



Morse, opposite his dwelling-house ; from thence to 
continue a straight line on the southerly side of said 
Morse's farm to the Pond road, so called ; thence run- 
ning southerly on said road about twenty-five rods ; 
thence easterly a straight line along the south side of 
Capt. M. Rockwood's home farm to the old grant 
line (so called) ; thence southerly on said line and 
Candlewood Island (so called) ; road to the old county 
road ; thence running southerly across said road and 
Charles River to the end of a road near Amos Fisher's 
house, in Franklin ; thence southwesterly on said road 
to a town road leading from the factory village in 
Medway to Franklin meeting-house ; thence to the; 
corner of the road near the house of Joseph Bacon ; 
thence, following said road by Luther Ellis' house, to 
the southeasterly corner of Leonard Lawrence's land 
on the westerly side of said road ; thence to the 
southeast corner of Stephen Allen's meadow-land ; 
thence westerly across Mine Brook to a white-oak tree 
on the line between Bellingham and Franklin ; thence 
westerly, on a division line of lands of Stephen Met- 
calf and Jesse Coombs, to a town road in Bellingham ; 
thence westerly across Charles River to a stake and 
stones beside the turnpike road west of Elijah Dew- 
ing's barn ; thence, crossing said road and running 
northwesterly, to a town road on the division-line of Na- 
than Allen and Benjamin R. Partridge, easterly from 
said Allen's house ; thence northerly on said division 
line to Hollistontown line ; thence running westerly 
on Holliston's line to farm corner (so called) ; thence 
northerly on the town line of Milford to the corner 
first mentioned. And as in duty bound will ever 

At this time (1825) Bellingham's valuation was 
$15,627; number of polls, 215; inhabitants, 1034. 
The amount of valuation taken into the proposed 
new town, $2157 ; number of polls, 28; inhabitants, 
201. This would have left a valuation of $13,570, 
and 187 polls, with 833 inhabitants. The number of 
acres of land in Bellingham, 11,466; the number 
proposed to have been taken, 1133; leaving 10,333. 
The new town as a whole would, had it been set off, con- 
tain a valuation of $14,793, with 234 polls, and 1225 
inhabitants. Out of all the persons to have been set 
off (134), only 61 objected, and 173 asked the State 
government to incorporate them, they representing a 
valuation of $11,280.70 ; but, for some reason to the 
writer unknown, the town was never established, and 
the question from that day to this has not been agi- 
tated, though it seems from present indications it may 
arise before long. In 1827, Maj. John C. Scammel 
served as representative. No one served in 1828, 
but in 1829 Col. Joseph Rockwood was elected, and 

served two years, with Maj. Scammel returned in 
1831. In 1829, John Cook was chosen town clerk, 
and the matter of a town farm was first discussed. 
In 1830 the annual town expense reached one thou- 
sand one hundred dollars. The committee authorized 
purchased the farm of Seth Holbrook, paying therefor 
three thousand five hundred dollars. The farm con- 
tained one hundred and fifty-five acres, and also its 
equipment of stock and tools. Rules for the disci- 
pline of inmates were adopted at the time the town's 
paupers were removed there. The expense the first 
year was four hundred and twenty-four dollars and 
eighty-four cents. The town's stood at 
this time on the land owned by Simeon Barney, and 
which house was built in 1811. In 1836 the small- 
pox again made its appearance, and a hospital was 
erected on the town farm, and the sum of one hundred 
and fifty dollars was expended in inoculation. In 
1837 the town petitioned for a post-office, and selected 
Rev. Joseph T. Massey as postmaster. In the latter 
part of the year 1837, Edward C. Craig was appointed 
town clerk in place of John Cook (2d). Mr. Craig 
was appointed to the office at the next meeting. In 
1840 the third story in the meeting-house was fin- 
ished off for an armory, and at this time the roll 
numbered one hundred and thirty-two of those per- 
sons doing and subject to military duty. Edward C. 
Craig declining to serve, Francis D. Bates was chosen 
town clerk in 1842. In this same year the choosing 
of tithingmen was abolished. In 1842 the town 
granted James Freeman the right to construct a shop 
on the town's land adjacent to the church, and in 1843 
stoves were procured and placed in the town meeting- 
house for heating purposes. The selectmen generally 
occupied the position of Board of Health, but the first 
regular board consisted of Nahum Cook, George W. 
Blake, and James P. Thayer, elected May 1, 1843. 
In 1845, James M. Freeman was chosen town clerk. 
In 1846, Noah J. Arnold was chosen to favor the 
construction of a railroad from Woonsocket, R. I., to 
Boston. Mr. Freeman was retired in 1846 as town 
clerk, and Amos Holbrook elected. In 1832 and 
1834, Stephen Metcalf served as representative; in 
1836, no one; and 1837, John Cook (2d) ; in 1838, 
Asa Pickering; 1839 and 1840, no one; 1841, 
Dwight Colburn; 1842, Edward C. Craig; 1843, 
Jeremiah Crooks; 1844, James W. Freeman; and 
in 1845 and 1846, no one. At the meeting in No- 
vember, 1846, four votes were taken on a represen- 
tative, and no choice was made in either ballot. On 
the next day four more ballots were taken, with the 
same success. On the following day, after two more 
ballots, it was voted to dismiss the warrant without 



sending a representative. The first printed school 
committee report was issued in 18-47. In the same 
year the town was unsuccessful in electing a repre- 
sentative. In 1848 a movement was instituted on 
the part of the town of Roxbury, seeking to have the 
county-seat removed thereto, but the idea never met 
with much favor, our own town voting no unani- 
mously. Francis D. Bates was again chosen town 
clerk. About this time a diflSculty arose with the 
Norfolk County Railroad, and the town forbade the 
company crossing or otherwise interfering with the 
town roads. In 1849 a board of town auditors was 
first chosen, which board consisted of Samuel Met- 
calf, George Nelson, and Edward C. Craig. In 1851, 
Martin Rockwood acted as representative. In the 
same year leave was granted James P. Thayer, Alan- 
son Bates, and others to build a boot-shop on the 
town's land at the centre. 

In 1851 ten ballots were taken before Edwin Fair- 
banks was elected representative. Next year, the 
crows becoming so numerous as to cause a great deal 
of damage, a bounty of twenty-five cents was allowed 
on old birds and one-half as much on young crows, 
the bounty extending over a period of four months. 
The orthodox church at this time having become a 
thing of the past, and the building being occupied 
solely by the town, it was decided expedient to finish 
ofi" the lower floor and rent it for boot-shop purposes. 
Fenner Cook served at the State-House in 1853, and 
Willard Thayer, after a long struggle, was finally 
elected delegate to the convention on revising the 
State Constitution. In the same year all that tract 
of land about the town house was sold, reserving one 
acre for the town hall and yard. 

As crows previously became so far a nuisance as 
to demand a bounty, so this year a bounty of twenty- 
five cents was allowed on woodchucks. In Novem- 
ber the town so far relented as to allow, for the first 
time, the leasing of the town hall for " public enter- 
tainments of a moral nature." In the same month, 
after an uninterrupted and persistent efi'ort to choose 
a representative for the next year, the idea was ' 
finally abandoned, and no choice was made. The 
Charles River Railroad being agitated, and the town 
recognizing the benefit naturally derived from direct 
communication with Boston, resolved, in 1849, — 

" That it is of vital importance to the present and future wel- 
fare of this town to have the Charles River Railroad extended 
to the State line, near the village of Woonsocket, in the State 
of Rhode Island, and the town in its co-operative capacity does 
most earnestly pray that the said railroad may be chartered 
agreeably to the report of the committee on railroads and canals 
which is now before the honorable Senate on its final passage, i 
as the passage of the bill chartering said railroad would be the ' 

means of building it, and thus opening a communication by 
railroad to the inhabitants of Bellingham not only with Boston, 
but with Woonsocket and Providence, in the State of Rhode 
Island, and with the city of New York." 

This resolution passed unanimously, and the railroad 
is now known as the Woonsocket Division of the New 
York and New England Railroad. In the year 1856 
the town abated the taxes on the stock of the above 
road. In 1854 and 1855, Charles Cook (2d) served at 
the State capitol. At the March meeting Eliab Hol- 
brook was elected town clerk. About this time applica- 
tion was made for the town hall for a dance, and the 
town considered the request, as it " Voted that the 
town let the town hall for all good and lawful dances." 
In 1856, Martin Rockwood was sent to the General 
Court, and during the next year Ruel F. Thayer 
acted as town clerk. In 1858, Horace Rockwood 
served as representative. In 1858 our present tax 
collector came to light in the same ofiicial position 
which he has held for a long term of years, with 
short intervals of rest. We refer to Hon. Daniel J. 
Pickering, collector. In 1860 the renowned Dr. 
George Nelson was placed on the school committee, 
and the Baptist clergyman, Rev. Joseph T. Massey 
(previously named), elected town treasurer. In 1861 
the citizens liable to military duty were a follows : 

Sanford W. Allen. Anson E. Cook. 

Addison H. Allen. James 0. Chilson. 

Elijah Arnold. Louis M. Chilson. 

Louis Arnold. Whipple 0. Chilson. 

Albert Arnold. Hiram M. Cook. 

George Ames. Munroe F. Cook. 

Samuel A. Adams. William E. Cook. 

Edmund J. Adams. Nathan A. Cook. 

Dexter D. Bates. John D. Chilson. 

Addison S. Burr. William E. Coombs. 

Seneca Burr. Stephen F. Coombs. 

Crawford Bowdich. John Carr. 

Albert F. Bates. Henry B. Cook. 

Alanson Bates. William H. Carey. 

William Bates. Albert H. Colburn. 

Edward Butler. Julius Cross. 

Henry W. Blake. Joseph Cross. 

Nathaniel Bozworth. Alvin H. Clark. 

Boswell Bent. Sherman R. Chilson. 

Chnrles Barrows. Moses Drake. 

Andrew Boyce. Thomas McDowell. 

Frederick J. Bemis. Joseph L. Daniels. 

Charles E. Burr. Perry H. Dawley. 

Adams J. Barber, Jr. Lyman C. Darling. 

Smith Bnrlingame. Alfred 0. Darling. 

James Burlingame. William A. Darling. 

Joseph U. Burr. A. M. Darling. 

Davis P. Chilson. Luke Darling. 

Elisha N. Crosby. Edwai-d McDowell. 

Hiram A. Cook. Alexander McDowell. 

Samuel W. Claflin. Ariel B. Drake. 

Willard N. Chilson. William McDowell. 

Henry Cook. 0. N. Evans. 

Elisha Chase. John H. Eaton. 



John Eddy. 
Albert W. Follett. 
Joseph Fairbanks. 
Edwin Fairbanks. 
William Fairbanks. 
Calvin Fairbanks. 
John E. Fisher. 
Louis L. Fisher. 
Charles Farrington. 
Joseph Fisk. 
Oliver Gardner. 
Edward Gallagan. 
John W. Gerstle. 
Alonzo H. Gayer. 
Joseph Gerstle. 
Thomas 11. Gay. 
Thomas B. Getchell. 
Joel Howard. 
George Uixon. 
Joseph H. Holbrook. 
Charles P. Hancock. 
Frank E. Hancock. 
Jarius Hancock. 
Michael Harpen. 
John W. Higgins. 
George H. Howard. 
Thomas Hines. 
Joseph Hope. 
Charles N. Hixon. 
Luther Hixon. 
George Jennison. 
James A. Joslin. 
Horace Inman. 
Dudley Keach. 
AVilliam Keach. 
Amos Keach. 
Frederick Kingman. 
Peter McKean. 
David Lawrence. 
Warren Lazelle. 
George Matterson. 
Joseph Moore. 
John C. Metcalf. 
Francis Metcalf. 
Frederick B. T. Miller. 
Solyman Miller. 
James Malone. 
George Xelson (2d). 
Ellis T. Xorcross. 

Amos L. Osgood. 

Asa Pickering (2d). 
William Page. 
Amos Partridge, Jr. 
Charles Partridge. 
Vernon S. Partridge. 
Asa Partridge. 
Calvin N. Rockwood. 
A'ernon B. Rockwood. 
Henry U. Rockwood. 
George B. Rockwood. 
Louis H. Rockwood. 
Henry Rhodes. 
Thomas R. Richards. 
William Sherburne. 
Charles H. Shippee. 
Edgar N. Scott. 
Erastus D. Slocum. 
William Spragiie. 
George N. Tillinghast. 
Benjamin Tinkham. 
Andrew J. Tingley. 
Martin Tingley. 
Charles W. Thayer. 
Charles Tingley. 
Henry Thayer. 
Charles Williams. 
Sylvanus White. 
Elbridge AVhitney. 
Henry A. Whitney. 
Willis Whitney. 
Samuel Sturtevant. 
Cornelius Sullivan. 
Daniel Shea. 
Lucian Sheppard. 
Hazard P. Slocum. 
Ruel F. Thayer. 
.James P. Thayer. 
Charles T. Thayer. 
Joseph Thompson, Jr. 
Charles Thomas. 
Benjamin M. Usher. 
Alonzo N. Whitney. 
Jonathan Wright. 
Elijah D. Wilcox. 
Benjamin W. Woodbury. 
Henry Wilcox. 
Henry Waterman. 

In all one hundred and sixty-nine. 

The commencement of the civil war drew out 
the first public action of the town in an appropria- 
tion of two thousand dollars to fit out and drill 
those men who had gone and were going in defense 
of their country. In the same year Hon. Daniel J. 
Pickering was sent as representative. In July, 1862, 
the town ofi'ered a bounty of one hundred dollars for 
each volunteer until seventeen were obtained, and to 
all who enlisted in ten days after that date ten dol- 
lars additional was paid. A call coming in August 
of the same year for more men (nine months'), a 
bounty of two hundred dollars was offered, and those 

enlisting for three years received seven hundred dol- 
lars. In September five thousand dollars were voted 
to pay the town's enlisting soldiers. In 1868, George 
H. Townsend was sent as representative. In 1865 
one thousand dollars was expended in paying State 
aid to soldiers' families. In the same year Hollis 
Metcalf and others asked the town to lay out and 
widen the street now known as Pearl Street. The 
town refusing the prayer of the petition, the county 
commissioners granted the same, and charged the 
expense to the town. In 1866, William Fairbanks 
was elected to serve the district at the State-House. 

Of those persons from our town who served in the 
war of the Rebellion, the following names appear in 
the " Record of Massachusetts Volunteers," none ap- 
pearing on the town books : 
George Swift. 

Elisha H. Towne. 
Charles E. Burr. 
Patrick Gallagher. 
John Terlin. 
Peter McKeen. 
George L. Metcalf. 
John C. Metcalf. 
Edward J. Adams. 
Charles P. Hancock. 
Jarius Lawrence. 
Thomas McDowell. 
Willard 0. Freeman. 
George A. Richardson. 
Robert Poste. 
James Davis. 
Thomas D. Getchell. 

John V. Coombs. 
Amos R. Bent. 
Joseph Osgood. 
Pardon L. Crosby. 
Asa Pickering. 
Frederick Bates. 
Martin V. B. Cook. 
John J. Gertsell. 
Joseph Gertsell. 
Samuel D. Gregory. 
Handel Holbrook. 
Joseph W. Holbrook. 
AVillis Whiting. 
James W. Pickering. 
Garrick F. Moore. 
Howard Carleton. 

A total of thirty-three. In 1872, Seneca Burr was 
chosen representative, and in 1875, Rev. Joseph T. 
Massey, pastor of the Baptist Church, was sent. In 
1879, Hiram Whiting was empowered, and in 1882, 
Nathan A. Cook. In 1870, Rev. J. T. Massey was 
elected town clerk, and served ten years, Roland 
Hammond, M.D., being then chosen to the office on 
account of Mr, Massey resigning his pastorate and 
leaving the town, to spend the remainder of his life 
near his boyhood home in Virginia, where he has 
purchased the " Thomas Jefferson"' estate. In April, 
1882, Dr. Hammond tendered his resignation, and 
Arthur N. Whitney was appointed by the selectmen 
to serve out the unexpired term, and in 1883, Henry 
A. Whitney, the present incumbent, was elected. 

Having considered in chronological order the most 
important events in the town's past career, it may be 
advisable to look for a moment to its people, its facili- 
ties, and its industries as they now exist. Our people, 
collectively considered, travel very little, and the pos- 
terity of the early families to a great extent still reside 
within the town limits, and on the same homesteads 
occupied by their fathers. Few mechanical indus- 



tries have settled here ; still, those that have, find 
warm support on the part of the citizens. Perhaps 
because farming alone constitutes the chief industry 
of the town, this may serve as a reason why so 
many of our younsr men leave town on arriving at 
that period when it becomes necessary for them to 
strike out for themselves. 

By the last census the town had as its inhabitants 
612 males and 635 females, a total of 1247. Of 
this number, 360 were ratable polls, 307 of whom 
were born in town, 24 were naturalized, and the re- 
mainder persons coming in from other towns. There 
are 25 individuals following professional pursuits in 
town and out, and 26 are engaged in trade, 178 in 
farming, and 356 in manufacturing and mechanical 
industries, making a total of 1069, who are continually 
adding to the common stock. There are 11 foreign- 
born and 5 native-born who can neither read nor 
write. Of those citizens who have been and are 
specially prominent and beneficial to the town we 
may mention Stephen Metcalf, Stephen Metcalf, Jr., 
Noah Alden, Noah Arnold, Rev. Joseph T. Massey, 
Cornelius H. Cutler, William Fairbanks, Hiram W. 
Whiting, E. Baron Stowe, Ruel F. Thayer, and 
Nathan A. Cook. The town is divided into localities, 
as follows : At the south end of the town, " Rake- 
ville" and " Scott Hill" ; west of and approximate 
to the town centre, " Crimpville" ; toward the north 
part of the town, " North Bellingham" ; and at the 
extreme north end, " Caryville,'' named from William 
H. Cary, formerly a resident, but now of Medway. 
Bellingham Centre has a post-office, with one mail 
per day from Boston. North Bellingham has a post- 
office, with two mails per day from Boston, and Cary- 
ville also has a post-office, and besides having two 
mails per day to and from Boston, has one to Milford 
and one to Medway. Bellingham is in the form of 
a parallelogram, is nine miles long by two wide, and 
is bounded by Medway and Franklin on the north 
and east, the State of Rhode Island on the south, and 
the towns of Mendon and Milford on the west. The 
Charles River enters the town at South Milford, and 
flows through the town centre. North Bellingham, 
and Caryville. At the centre are two dams, one the 
property of Seneca Burr, who runs a saw- and grist- 
mill ; the other, known as " the old red mill," is owned 
by the Rays, of Franklin, and is now used to grind 
rags, etc., for use at other mills. At North Belling- 
ham the Ray Woollen Company has an extensive 
privilege for the manufacture of satinet cloth, and 
which was formerly run by Noah Arnold as a cotton- 
mill. Dr. Seth Arnold, of "Dr. Seth Arnold's 
Balsam," formerly resided here with his relative. 

This privilege consists of two granite mills having 
eight sets of machinery and a capacity of three 
thou.sand yards per day. This mill is superintended 
by Hiram Whiting, Esq. One mile below on the 
river, and four miles from the centre, is the Caryville 
Mills, having a capacity of three thousand jards of 
satinet, as at North Bellingham. This privilege is 
owned by Taft, McKean & Co. (Moses Taft, William 
A. McKean, Addison E. Bullard), and was formerly 
run by William Cary, from whom the locality was 
named. Previous to the present company the con- 
cern was run under the name of C. H. Cutler & Co., 
the latter firm coming into existence on the death of 
C. H. Cutler, five years ago. At Rakeville is an 
establishment where farm tools are made, and which 
business was established by Jerold 0. Wilcox, and 
is now carried on by his son, D. E. Wilcox. The 
main line of the New York and New England Rail- 
road runs through the southeast portion of the town, 
and the station there is termed Rand's Crossing. 
The Woonsocket Division of the same road runs the 
entire length of the town, with stations at the centre. 
North Bellingham, and Caryville. The Milford, 
Franklin and Providence Railroad, just completed, 
runs across the town, and crosses the Woonsocket 
Division of the New York and New England Rail- 
road at Bellingham Centre, and also has a station in 
town named South Milford, so, as will be observed, 
there are four stations in the town besides the junc- 
tion at the centre. The passenger service is so ad- 
justed that nearly every station in town can forward 
its traffic to and from Boston five times daily, the 
distance being about twenty-nine miles. In town 
there are five stores, four factories, three grist-mills, 
and seven saw-mills. Formerly there were four boot- 
and shoe-factories, producing over 225 twelve-pair 
cases per week, three of which establishments were 
at the town centre and the largest at Caryville. To 
the one at Caryville we now refer. This business 
was established in 1848 by E. & W. Fairbanks. In 
1864 the latter bought out the former, and made 
within ten years two substantial additions thereto, so 
that ninety hands found employment in making 
boots for the Western trade. The annual production 
consisted of 7000 cases, in the making of which 
were consumed 125,000 pounds of sole leather, 350,- 
000 feet of upper leather, 160 bushels of pegs, and 
7500 pounds of nails. 

In the year 1874 the proprietor, William Fair- 
banks, died, and, virtually, with his death the entire 
business became lost to the town. Immediately upon 
his decease the business was disposed of by his ex- 
ecutor to Houghton, Coolidge & Co., of Boston, 



who undertook its continuance, but discontent and 
dissatisfaction arising, on the night of the 25th 
of July following the entire factory was burned, 
with nothing saved, the whole entailing a pecuniary 
loss of nearly one hundred thousand dollars. Thus 
was los^ to the town one of its most prolific sources of 
income, which has never been regained. In 1882 
the Ray Woolen Company constructed a granite mill, 
which has in some measure atoned for this loss, and 
as the census of 1875 appears tlie best source of in- 
formation, we give the condition of the town for that 
year, which is, in fact, substantially its present basis, 
excepting the boot and shoe industry, which does not 
exist with us in any capacity. We find in the entire 
town two hundred and fifty dwelling-houses occupied 
and seven vacant. With these we find three hundred 
and nineteen families, and for their use are one public 
school and three Sunday-school libraries, containing 
eleven hundred and seventy-five volumes. In addi- 
tion to these, at the town clerk's office are one 
hundred and thirty-four volumes of " Massachu- 
setts Reports," war records, and public documents. 
The amount of personal property in town is valued 
at $109,160; real estate, $418,808; the total val- 
uation, $527,968 ; number of farms, 157 ; acres 
in farms, 8000 ; acres unimproved, 3000 ; value of 
farms and buildings, $361,639: total value of farm 
property, $430,156 ; woodland in acres, 1232 ; cul- 
tivated land, 2331 ; number of horses, 185 ; cows, 
300 ; total income from farm property, $94,017 ; 
capital invested in boot and shoe business, $25,000 ; 
product, $33,000 ; wages paid annually'to laborers on 
boots and shoes, $175,000 ; stock used in manufac- 
ture, $332,940 ; capital invested in factory for manu- 
facturing farming tools, $2500 ; product, $18,000 ; 
sum invested in satinet cloth making, $150,000, pro- 
ducing a valuation of $330,000. In town are 11 
manufacturing establishments, 5 engines, and 5 water- 
wheels, with an aggregate of 405 horse-power and 
machinery to the value of $50,000; also 29,778 
domestic animals, valued at $23,000. The total 
amount of capital invested in town is $180,000, 
and this sum realizes annually $038,547. Quite a 
number of years ago, previous to the building of the 
Woonsocket Division Railroad, an iron-mine was dis- 
covered in that tract of land known as " Cedar 
Swamp," and this mine was worked for several years, 
the ore being carried to Taunton and worked up into 
locomotives. For the last twenty-five years, however, 
nothing has been done with it. On the road leading 
from North Bellingham Station to what is called 
" Bellingham Four Corners" is a whetstone quarry, 
from which in the past quantities of the material 

have been put on the market, but this also has gone 
into disuse. 

At tlie centre of the town, in the triangle fronting 
the Baptist Church (Rev. Daniel A. Wade, pastor), 
is a soldiers' monument measuring in height about 
fifteen feet, placed there by the citizens of Bellingham 
in commemoration of those who gave their lives in 
support of tlie national Constitution. 

At the present time there are but two churches in 
town, — the Centre Baptist, to which previous refer- 
ence has been made, and the North Bellingham Bap- 
tist, a short sketch of which is as follows: 

The North Bellingham Baptist Church^ is the 
outgrowth of an interest established here in 1847 as 
a society called the " North Bellingham Baptist So- 
ciety," which worshiped in a chape! built for the 
purpose by Bates & Arnold, at that time prominent 
cotton-manufacturers in this town, and formally ded- 
icated to the worship of God in September or October 
of that year, Re,v. Dr. Granger, of Providence, R. I., 
preaching the dedication sermon. 

The society had no settled pastor for many years, 
but depended upon supplies from week to week, 
though with a few brief exceptions they have had 
uninterrupted preaching, the late Rev. Otis Converse, 
of Worcester, supplying them for upwards of a year 
at a time on three or four different occasions. They 
have always maintained a Sabbath-school, which is 
still in existence. 

On the 13th of October, 1867, a church was formed 
consisting of ten persons, as follows : William Hunter, 
of Goose River Church, Nova Scotia; Roswell Bent, 
of East Dcdham Church ; Ann Bent, of First Baptist 
Church, Lowell ; Elizabeth Hunter, Mary Hunter, 
Jane Hunter, Barbara Hunter, of Goose River 
Church, Nova Scotia; Rebecca Bemis, Matilda S. 
Murphy, of West Medway Church. 

At the same meeting the following persons were 
received as candidjUes for baptism, and it was fur- 
thermore voted that they be considered as constituent 
members, viz., John B. Philips, Stephen F. Coombs, 
Hiram E. Hunter, Catherine Thomas, and Nancy S. 
Coombs. The first baptism occurred the following 
Sabbath, October 20th, when the foregoing persons 
were baptized. Rev. Samuel Hill oflBciating. Since 
that time some seventy-five different persons have 
united with the church, forty-five of whom have 
been received on profession and the balance by letter. 
Of this number the church has lost fifteen by dismis- 
sion to other churches, five by death, and four by ex- 
clusion, leaving its present membership fifty-one. 

1 By P. F. Coombs. 



It lias had five deacons, viz., William Hunter, 
Justin E. Pond, George H. Greenwood, Charles 0. 
Drake, and Roswell Bent, vphich latter is the present 
incumbent. Stephen F. Coombs has been its clerk 
since its organization, with the exception of ten 
months, and was superintendent of the Sabbath- 
school eleven years. About the middle of March, 
1882, the church extended a unanimous call to Rev. 
Edwin D. Bowers, of Rockport, Mass., to become its 
pastor, which action was concurred in by the society 
a few days afterward, he accepting, and entered upon 
that relationship the 1st of April following, and so 
continues at the present time. Worship is still held 
in the chapel, which is large enough for all purposes, 
having been improved and beautified at different times 
as necessity demanded. 

Educational, — Readily appreciating the advan- 
tages derived from a thorough education, our town has 
always gone to a deal of trouble and expense in pro- 
viding proper schools, and the result is most gratifying. 
As a matter of fact, she entered upon this duty of 
intellectual culture soon after her incorporation, in 
1719. On May 7, 1792, the town was divided into 
six districts, and in 1798 into seven, continuing later 
on into a division of nine. She began by appro- 
priating fifty dollars to sessions held only in the win- 
ter at private houses, and, of course, early observing 
the inconvenience of this method, in 1795 six hundred 
dollars was set off to the construction of a school- 
house in each district, but this amount being decidedly 
inadequate to the desired end, eleven hundred dollars 
more followed the same channel in two years there- 
after. In 1793 fifty pounds was expended in school- 
ing, and in 1796 the appropriation increased to three 
hundred dollars. SiLce that time the amount has 
been annually increased by small additions, until in 
the year 1882 the sum of two thousand one hundred 
and sixty-nine dollars and twenty-five cents was ex- 
pended in educational work. The sum appropriated 
for each child between five and fifteen years of age 
amounts to nine dollars and thirty-five cents. The 
largest amount per pupil is expended by the town of 
Milton, which is twenty-six dollars and eighty-eight 
cents. The percentage of valuation expended for this 
work reduced to decimals is .0039, and sixteen out of 
the twenty-four towns in the county spend a less per- 
centage of their valuation than does Bellingham, 
the town of Milton standing at the foot of the list. 
Our town has two hundred and thirty-two pupils, and 
the average attendance for 1882 was one hundred 
and ninety-one, or, in per cent., .8233. In 1883 
the average attendance jumped from .8233 to .92, 
which, we believe, places the town number one in 

the county, as in 1882 the towns of Dedham and 
Randolph alone excelled her. Medway, our next- 
door neighbor, ranks number sixteen. In the county, 
the towns of Dover, Medfield, Norfolk, and Sharon 
have a less number of pupils than our own town. 

The superintendent's (Rev. D. A. Wade) report 
for 1883 shows a marked improvement over 1882, 
and subsequent years will no doubt excel each other, 
consecutively, in this work, so highly essential to com- 
mon advancement and well-being. The annual meet- 
ing of 188-t has entered upon the duty of reducing 
the number of school committees from nine to three, 
and no doubt in a very few years the number of 
schools will be reduced, and consequently those re- 
maining be made larger, and this under the advice of 
the State Board of Education. In whatever else our 
town may have failed, she cannot be charged with 
having been asleep to the mental and moral worth of 
her children. 

In addition to schools, our people are susceptible to 
the moulding influences of the press. For daily news 
we depend on Boston and also on the Woonsocket 
evening Reporter^ an Associated Press sheet. For 
weekly news of other towns, as well as our own locals, 
we depend on the Milford Journal, Woonsocket 
Patriot, Franklin Sentinel, and Dedham Transcript, 
the last named having the court and county news. 
These papers constitute a constant source of reliable 
information, and meet with an increasing circulation 
among our citizens. Bellingham has two titles, which 
may or may not serve to cause a smile on the coun- 
tenances of those who have been accustomed to hear 
them repeated for many years. The first is " Bel- 
lingham Navy- Yard," and the second " Blue Jay 
Town." As to the first named, we cannot give its ori- 
gin, but, sure enough it is, whoever coined it never 
lived to see it die, and from present indications I pre- 
sume ^oe never shall. As to the latter title, we must 
admit its force, for in truth the town is as full of blue 
jays as the annual town-meeting is full of independent 
ideas. As will be noticed by the reader of this arti- 
cle, our town offers very low taxes and excellent busi- 
ness facilities to new-comers. Situated, figuratively 
speaking, approximate to Boston and Providence, an 
excellent market is always open for the disposal of any 
production. Railroad-stations for passenger and 
freight traffic are located in each section of the town, 
and the larger towns beyond give us a much better 
railroad accommodation than is usually found in 
towns having ten times our own population. Excel- 
lent water privileges exist, but, of course, in the 
present age of steam their value is much less than 
formerly. First-class roads and enough of them, pure 



well-water and plenty of it, no license, together with 
other facilities and a desire on the part of the citizens 
to aid and assist, render to business men a rare oppor- 
tunity for the establishment of mechanical industries, 
such as very {"cw towns offer, and such as we believe 
will produce successful competition. If this article 
shall serve as a fortunate inducement, the writer will 
have been amply repaid for the time and labor spent 
in its compilation. 



Amos Harrison Hoibrook, son of Amos and Lucretia 
(Burr) Hoibrook, was born Nov. 23, 1818, in the 
house where he now resides in the town of Bellingham 
(and which was also the birthplace of his father j. 
Joseph Hoibrook, the first settler on this place, came 
from Braintree before 1700, and the Bellingham 
branch has never changed its home. The line to 
Amos H. is Joseph (1), Jesse (2), Amariah (3), 
Amos (4), Amos H. (5). Joseph had sons, — Joseph, 
Jesse^ Elijah, and David. The three lots he owned as 
proprietary lots were divided into four shares, the 
eldest's being a double portion, following the English 
manner of preference for the elder. Of these shares, 
Amos H. now owns three, all but that of the elder, 
and thus the land has been in the possession of the 
Hoibrook family since its original occupation by the 

Joseph was a deacon of the church, and was one of 
the petitioners for the organization of the town of Bel- 
lingham. He was a man of great energy and perse- 
verance. When over sixty years old he rode horse- 
back to New Jersey to engage a professor for Provi- 
dence College on its establishment, and was on the 
road six weeks. was captain of the Belling- 
ham company, and was ordered to Ticonderoga in 
1755, and did good service. He helped his sou 
Amariah build the house now occupied by A, H. in 
1780, and also in his old age was probably engaged 
with the patriot, or Continental, army in Rhode Island 
during the Revolution. He was prominent in town 
affairs and public business, was selectman in 1780, al- 
ways a farmer, and served his day and generation well. 
He married a Thayer, and had two children, — Amariah 
and Jesse (2). He lived to a good old age, and, with 
his father and descendants, is buried in the cemetery 
at North Bellingham. Elijah lived on his portion, his 
house being about one hundred rods east of the old 

home, was also a farmer, was married before 1750, 
had four sons, who were all soldiers in the Revolution. 
After the war some of them settled in Virginia. Ama- 
riah was born June 6, 1756. He went as a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war. During his service he 
returned home and married Molly Wright, of Wren- 
tham, now Franklin, born March 28, 1759, died Aug. 
24, 1845. They had nine children, — Tryphena, Na- 
hum, Amos^ Amariah, Joel, Abigail, Nathan, Asa, 
Lyman, — all of whom lived to advanced age, except 
Nathan, who died when about forty-five. Amariah (2) 
died Sept. 7, 1797. He served during the war in Rhode 
Island, Roxbury, Mass., and New Jersey, under Gen. 
Washington. He was paid off at expiration of ser- 
vice in New Jersey with Continental money, and was 
unable to purchase a dinner with all of it. Had it not 
been for some silver he had in his possession pre- 
viously, he would have fared badly before reaching 
his home in Bellingham. He engaged in farming on 
the homestead after the Revolution, held some town 
oflBces, was a man of sterling integrity, and held 
in great esteem by his fellow-citizens. Amos was 
born April 27, 1783, lived at home until he was four- 
teen years old, then went to West Medway to learn 
the blacksmith's trade, where he remained six years. 
He worked as journeyman about two years, then es- 
tablished himself at Bellingham Four Corners for a 
few years. He married, Dec. 1, 1808, Lucretia, 
daughter of Elisha and Lucretia Burr, of Bellingham 
(an old New England family). She was born Oct. 
12, 1787, died May 10, 1860. Their children were 
Whitman, born Jan. 29, 1811 ; Lucretia, born Aug. 
20, 1815; Amos H. ; Almira, died young; Olive 
(Mrs. C. F. Cushman), born April 26, 1827. About 
the time of his marriage he moved to the old home- 
stead, buying out the interests of his father's heirs, 
and passed his life there. He worked at his trade 
in connection with farming, and was many times 
chosen selectman, was a captain of the militia, highly 
esteemed for his sound sense and good judgment. 
He was a Democrat in politics. His death occured 
May 16, 1867. 

Amos H.^ the present occupant of the Hoibrook 
farm, has been twice married, first to Nancy, daugh- 
ter of David and Sally Adams, of Bellingham, Dec. 15, 
1853. By this marriage he had two children, — Ida 
M. (deceased) and Nannie A. Mrs. Nancy Hoibrook 
died Nov. 19, 1862, and he married, June 9, 1864, 
Mary J., daughter of Andrew and Margaret Burnham, 
of Medway. They had one child, M. Florence. Mrs. 
Mary J. Hoibrook died when Florence was but four 
years old, March 3, 1869. She had enjoyed vigorous 
health, and on the day of her death she was cheerful 

^n^ ^1>yA_HBitoh,ie. 

Ekci ^ ay 




and happy, and visited friends half a mile distant ; 
while on the way she complained of severe pain in 
her head, and became unconscious ; in ten hours after 
she breathed her last. She possessed talents of a high 
order, and had a good academic education. Kind, con- 
si(}erate, and dignified in all her social relations, she 
won the love and confidence of her associates. She 
was the light and joy of the domestic, circle, — a de- 
voted wife and faithful, loving mother. Her loss was 
deeply felt by all who had her acquaintance ; •' None 
knew her but to love her." She was a member of 
the Baptist Church, and distinguished for Christian 

Mr. Holbrook had the advantage only of common 
school education, supplemented by attendance at high 
school in Bellingham and Franklin for a short time. 
He has always resided on the old ancestral acres, has 
held various official positions, — town clerk for ten years, 
assessor, selectman for many years, — and in every po- 
sition has ever been worthy of the universal respect 
and esteem with which the people, among whom he 
has always been resident, now hold him. He has never 
given a promissory note but once in his life, and that 
was to his brother in settlement of his father's estate, 
of whom they were the heirs. His politics have been 
Free-Soil, Whig, and Republican. He was chosen 
special county commissioner two terms, from 1865 to 
1872, has frequently been sent to State and county 
conventions by his town. 

He is one of Bellingham's most .substantial citizens, 
and one of the truly prosperous farmers, having in 
possession one hundred and eighty acres in Belling- 
ham and Franklin. 


Nathan A. Cook was born in Uxbridge, Mass., 
Sept. 14, 1823. He comes of good Puritanic stock, 
reaching back through the early settlement of New 
England to an English family of good repute. 
Walter Cook, the first American ancestor, was a resi- 
dent of Weymouth, Mass., in 164.S. The line of 
descent to Nahum runs thus : Walter (1), Walter (2), 
Nicholas (1), Nicholas (2), Ezekiel, Ziba, Nahum, 
Nathan A., which shows Nathan to be in the eighth 
generation. We can tell but little of the two Walters, 
but Nicholas (1) was one of the signers of the pe- 
tition for the organization of Bellingham, which pre- 
viously belonged to Dedham and Mendon. He was a 
very prominent man in town aiFairs. His will was 
made Oct. 10, 1778, and disposes of real estate at 
" Candlewood Hill." From Nicholas to Nathan all 

this family have been connected with afi'airs of note in 
town and with public office. 

Ziba was a farmer all his life, born and reared in 
Bellingham, and passed most of his days on Scott Hill. 
He married Joanna, daughter of Seth and Amy 
(Cook) Aldrich, and had six children, — Duty, Nahum, 
Ziba, Eunice, Joanna, Amy, — who all attained ma- 
turity. He was a member of the Christian Church. 
He was born May 6, 1764, and died at Blackstone, 
July 15, 1840, aged seventy-six. His son Nahum 
was born in Bellingham March 28, 1796, married Sibil, 
daughter of Bazaliel and Jemima (Morse) Balcom, 
of Douglas, Mass., and settled in Uxbridge as a farmer. 
After a residence there of four years he returned to 
Bellingham, purchased the place where, with his son 
Nathan, he now resides. At one time he owned real 
estate in six towns. His children were Xathan A. 
and Amy A. Amy married Alvah Aldrich, of Belling- 
ham; had fivechildreu. — Albert A., George E., Hattie 
A., Charles W., and Weston. She died Feb. 9, 1879. 
Mrs. Sibil Cook died June 26, 1858. Nahum and 
wife were for many years members of the Reformed 
Methodist Church. He has held various town offices 
during his life, and stands well in the regards of 
those who know him. He is of positive character, 
strict, stern, and straightforward. His " yea is yea, 
and his nay is nay," and dissimulation is unknown to 
him ; he came of good Democratic stock, and has al- 
ways adhered tenaciously to their principles. At one 
election for member of Congress there was but one 
Democratic vote cast in town, and that was his. The 
printed ballots for some reason did not arrive, and 
Mr. Cook cut the printed ticket from his newspaper 
and deposited it. Although eighty-seven years old, 
he still attends town-meetings and elections. 

Nathan A. Cook was reared a farmer, and received 
his education at Franklin Academy and Holliston 
Academy. This last school was a noted institution, 
under the celebrated instructor " Master Rice^' On 
account of failing health, Mr. Cook was compelled to 
return to country life. He taught winter terms of 
school seventeen consecutive winters, and was called, 
when member of school committee, several terms 
when teachers had failed. His home has been with 
his father during his whole life, with the exception of 
two years, and he has succeeded to the management 
of the ancestral acres, of which, in the towns of 
Bellingham and Blackstone, they have about one 
hundred and twenty-five acres. He married, March 
28, 1845, Sena A., daughter of Stephen and Miranda 
(Cook) Cook. Their children were George E., who 
died at twelve years of age ; Nahum H., born Jan. 12, 
1849 (he married Ellen R. Farrington, and is now a 



merchant and deputy postmaster at Bellingham 
Centre) ; Irwin F., born Jan. 31, 1855, was educated 
at the academy at Woonsocket, R. I., and Business 
College, Providence, in which school he became a 
successful instructor. He afterwards taught in the 
public schools of Attleborough, and won high en- 
comiums as a teacher. He sought the most difficult 
schools, and spared no exertions nor labor to bring them 
into perfect discipline. He was soon principal of the 
graded school of North Attleborough, and filled that 
position with marked success. His delicate physical 
nature, how&yer, could not stand the labor which his 
indomitable will placed upon him, and he died of con- 
sumption Sept. 22, 1880, keeping at work until within 
a very few days of his death. An Attleborough 
paper in noting his funeral says, " Mr. Cook was 
universally respected and beloved, and gained the love 
of his friends and pupils to an unusual degree. He 
was devoted heart and soul to his profession, having, 
as his highest aim, his greatest ambition, to be a good 
teacher. Long it will be ere his memory is forgotten." 
Nathan A. Cook has been much in public business. 
He has often been called upon to fill positions of 
honor, responsibility, and trust. He was appointed 
justice of the peace about thirty years ago, and has 
held that commission ever since. He is in his second 
term as trial justice. He has been selectman three 
terms, town treasurer, assessor, overseer of the poor, 
member of the school committee, superintendent of 
schools, collector of taxes, and, with Samuel Warner, 
of Wrcntham, represents the Eighth District of 
Norfolk County in the State Legislature. To this 
office he was elected in 1882, receiving in his own 
town all of the votes cast but five. He is Republican 
in politics. He has done much probate business, settled 
many estates, is exact, methodical, and accurate, and 
is justly popular. He is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, an exhorter of that communion, and 
is clerk of the Quarterly Conference of the East Black- 
stone Society. He is a member, also, of Montgomery 
Lodge, F. and A. M., Milford, Mass., joining it in 



Early History as Precinct — First Cession of Dedham — Pur- 
chase of Wrentham — The New Precinct — Church Organized — 
First Minister — Meetiug-House — Church Music — Discords — 
Precinct Ministers — Revs. Haven, Barnunn, Emmons — Civil 
History — Move for a Town — Town History — Incorporation — 
Why named Franklin — Town Library — Topography — Maps 
— Indian Traditions — Revolutionary War — Sentiments in 
Town-Meeting^Soldiers' Second Meeting- House — Its Site, 
Cost, Bell — Moved and Modernized — Interior Glimpse of 
Home Life — Military Affairs — Trainings and Musters — The 
Poor — Burial-Grounds — Post-Offices — Temperance — Early 

More than two hundred and forty years ago, when 
the forest-trees had withdrawn their shadows hardly 
the distance of an Indian's arrow-flight from Boston 
Common, the Puritan immigrants began to feel an 
impulse to "go West." 

Following rather than leading this impulse, the 
Governor and his court, in session at Newtowne, Sept. 
2, 1635, ordered "that there shall be a plantation 
settled about two miles above the falls of Charles 
River, on the northeast side thereof, to have ground 
lying to it on both sides the river, both upland and 
meadow, to be laid out hereafter as the court shall 

September 8th of the next year, 1636, this order 
was followed by another, naming the new settlement 
" Deddham," and this grant of territory was so large 
as to include what now forms thirteen towns and 
parts of four others. 

Twenty-four years passed away, and the new settlers 
so spread that in 1660 thirty-four of them bought of 
the Wampanoags six hundred acres of land still farther 
west for one hundred and sixty pounds. They adopted 
the Indian name of Wollomonopoag. Among their 
still familiar names were Anthony Fisher, Sargent 
Ellis, Robert Ware, James Thorp, Isaac Bullard, 
Samuel Fisher, Samuel Parker, John Farrington, 
Ralph Freeman, and Sargent Stevens. 

Oct. 16, 1673, a petition for the incorporation of 
Wollomonopoag as a town was presented to the Gen-' 
eral Court, and with, to us, astonishing promptness, 
was granted " the next day," — so say the colonial 
records. Thus Wrentham, the namesake of the 
p]nglish home of some of the settlers, took her place 
and name in history. 

The settlement increased so steadily that in 1718 
it was divided into four school districts, each with a 

1 Compiled from "Blake's History of Franklin" and other 
sources, by Mrs. E. L. Morse. Copyright reserved. 



three months' school. These afterwards became sub- 
stantially the shoots of three substantial towns, the 
chief of which was Franklin, the others Norfolk and 
Bellingham. The next year (1719) the first precinct 
was set off and called Bellingham. 

After many petitions and refusals, Wrentham reluc- 
tantly gave her consent, and, on the 23d of December, 
1737, Governor Belcher with his signature cut off a 
second precinct, which in forty years grew into the 
town of Franklin. 

The New Precinct, — The first warrant to organ- 
ize the new precinct was issued by Jonathan Ware, 
justice of the peace, and was addressed to Robert 
Pond, Daniel Hawes, David Jones, Daniel Thurston, 
and John Adams, five of the freeholders. The other 
petitioners were — 

David Pond, 
John Failes, 
Samuel Morse, 
Michael Wilson, 
Ezra Pond, 
Samuel Metcalf, 
Ebenr. Sheckelworth, 
Ebenr. Partridge, 
Thomas Man, Sr., 
John Smith, 
Eleazer Metcalf, 
Josiah Haws, 
Joseph Whiting, 
Eleazer Fisher, 
Simon Slocum, 
James New, 
Uriah Wilson, 
Edward Hall, 
Nathaniel Fisher, 
Samuel Partridge, 
Daniel Maccane, 
Baruch Pond, 

Nathaniel Fairbanks, 
Jonathan Wright, 
Benjamin Piockwood, 
John Richardson, 
Job Partridge, 
Thomas Rockwood, 
Robert Blake, 
John Fisher, 
David Lawrence, Jr., 
Eleazer Ware, 
Eleazer Metcalf, Jr., 
Ebenezer Lawrence, 
Michael Metcalf, 
Ebenezer Hunting, 
Edward Gay, 
Nathaniel Haws, 
Ebenr. Clark, 
David Darling, 
Ichabod Pond, 
Lineard Fisher, 
David Lawrence. 
In all, 48. 

The first meeting was held on the 16th of Janu- 
ary, 1737-38, at twelve o'clock. The needful officers 
were chosen, and four days later, at a second meeting, 
they went to work with a will. First, they voted 
eighty pounds for preaching, and appointed a com- 
mittee to secure it ; another committee was chosen 
to provide materials for a meeting-house in place of 
the small building heretofore provided, to be forty 
feet long, thirty-one wide, and twenty-feet posts. They 
also sent a request to Wrentham for the fulfillment of 
a promise made them ten years before, that money 
paid by them, amounting to one hundred and thirty 
pounds eleven shillings, towards its meeting-house 
should be repaid to them. At first Wrentham re- 
fused, but after four months' delay the request was 

First Church and Minister. — Meantime, a church 
must be organized to occupy the new meeting-house 

when built and listen to a minister yet to be called. 
Some twenty brethren, having secured letters from 
the mother-church at Wrentham, kept the 16th of 
February, 1738, "as a day of solemn fasting and 
prayer to implore the blessing of God and His direc- 
tion in the settling of a church, and in order to the 
calling and settling of a gospel minister in said place." 
And on that day in a large assembly the covenant 
was read and accepted, and Rev. Mr. Baxter, of Med- 
field, moderator, pronounced them a duly-organized 
church of our Lord Jesus Christ. Without any lis- 
tening to miscellaneous candidates, they united upon 
their first selected preacher. On Nov. 8, 1738, Rev. 
Elias Haven was installed as the first pastor of the 
new church. The audience assembled, not in the 
meeting-house, as it was not yet built, but in a 
valley near its future site. After sixteen years of 
ministerial work, performed in physical weariness and 
pain, Rev. Mr. Haven died of consumption, and God 
gave him rest from his labors, Aug. 10, 1754, in his 
fortieth year. The stones placed by a remembering 
town over his grave in the old cemetery still stand, 
and the inscription thereon may be legible for years 
to come. 

The Meeting-House. — The precinct having an 
organized church, a settled minister and his salary 
provided, and materials ready for a church building, 
its next duty was to select a site whereon to build. 
This, as in the first settlement of all New England 
towns, must be at the centre of its territory ; for in 
those early days no house was permitted to be built 
above half a mile from the meeting-house without 
leave of the Court. At a meeting of the settlers, 
held the 7th of April, 1738, five men were sent into 
a corner " to Debate and Consider and Perfix upon a 
place for Building a Meeting-House on and bring it 
to the Precinct in one hour." Meanwhile, the rest 
spent that hour in voting and unvoting until they 
reached an apparent finality, — to set the house " at 
the most convenientest place on that acre of Land 
That was laid out By Thomas Man for the use of the 
West Inhabitants in said Precinct." But who shall 
decide where this "most convenientest place" is? 
3Ir. Plimpton, " survair" of Medfield, is selected to 
bring his implements to bear on the solution, who 
reports for the west corner of Man's lot " as near as 
they conveniently can." But next year. May 9, 
1739, a new question arises, whether this be in the 
exact centre of the precinct, and a new surveyor is 
called to this problem. He and his two chainmen 
are put under oath to honestly " survey the ground 
where the meeting-house shall shortly lie." May 23d 
he reports in writing as follows : 



" To the Inliahitants of Wrentluiin Westerly Precinct. 

" Gext^ : — These maj' Inform you that I the Subscriber Have 
Been and Measured to find the Center of s* Precinct, Mess'. 
Decon Barber and Benj. Rockwood being chainman, and ac- 
cording to what we find by Measuring on the Grou"* from the 
Northerly End to tlie Southerly End and from the Westerly Side 
to the Easterly Side of the Same I find the Center of s<i Measur- 
ing to be South westerly from the Present Meeting-house a little 
Beter than an Hundred Rods, where we Pitched a Stake and 
Made an heap of Stones. 

"Ei.EAZKTi Fisher, Snri^ei/or." 

The deed of one acre of land from Thomas Man 
was accepted Sept. 11, 1739, and was put for safe- 
keeping into the care of Simeon Slocum. In the 
same month of September, another committee put 
seats in the barn-like building according to the tim- 
ber provided, and " one lock and key and bolts and 
latches for the doors, and cants" for the gallery 
stairs, and also a foundation for the pulpit and pul- 
pit stairs, and rails round the galleries, and made five 
" pillows," — a small number for a modern audience. 
The bills, presented March 3, 1740, show that the 
committees had been reasonably expeditious. The 
final cost of the meeting-house was £338 13s. 6d., 
as reported in October, 1741. The boys, too, were 
promptly at work, for in July, 1740, Capt. Fairbanks 
is directed to get the windows mended, and to prose- 
cute the depredators. 

Part 2^(^ssti with the meeting-house arose the 
" horse-houses," whose long strings of successors 
afterwards made the Franklin Common so famous. 
They were all planted and grew on Thomas Man's 
acre. Among them were Richard PuflFer's " small 
diner-house," and Isaac Heton and Dr. Jones had 
a " small noon-house." 

Of this oldest real meeting-house no picture or 
description is in existence. Some of the sashes, two 
feet square with five-inch panes of glass set diagonally 
in lead, were visible in an old house not many years 
ago, but of their present whereabouts, if they exist 
at all, no man now knoweth. 

The building stood on the slight hill north of the 
present Catholic Church, in a surrounding girth of 
dwarfish pitch-pines. It was guarded by platoons of 
horse-sheds and some small dinner-houses, where the 
forefathers of the hamlet shared their lunch and ex- 
changed opinions, and the mothers nursed their in- 
fants and compared news during the hour's noon in- 
termission of the Sabbath service. 

This first house was used — subjected to occasional 
internal modifications as the congregation increased 
and the taste changed — until Oct. 12, 1789, forty- 
eight years from its completion. A committee was 
then chosen to sell the outgrown and aged building 
within twenty days, or to pull it down at their dis- 

cretion. As there is no record of its sale, it was 
probably taken down. Next to the house and its 
minister comes 

The Church Music of "y" Olden Time."— The 
" Old Bay Psalm-Book" was used at first in all the 
colonial churches. A chorister started the tunes 
with a pitch-pipe, and the congregation, each in his 
own good time, — which might be faster or slower 
than the leader's, — followed on or hastened ahead. 
All sang the same part, and with an energy begotten 
of facing northeasters, felling forest-trees, and shout- 
ing to tardy oxen winding among their stumps. No 
two sang alike, and the sounds were so grievous to 
the ears of the people that their distress found voice 
in a vote of the precinct, June 26, 1738, " To sing 
no other tunes than are Pricked Down in our former 
Psalm-Books which were Printed between Thirty and 
forty years Agoe, and To Sing Them as They are 
Prickt down in them as Near as they can." The 
older people remonstrated against this invasion of 
their liberties, but the precinct refused, in September, 
" to ease those that were inclined to sing the old way." 
Six months later, March 8, 1738-39, the church 
" voted to sing by rule, according to note," and chose 
Joseph Whiting to set the tunes in the church. 

Later in the same meeting some curious soul stirred 
up the brethren by the query, " What notice will the 
church take of one of the brethren's stricking into a 
pitch of the tune unusually raised February 18th?" 
For answer, another vote was recorded : 

" Whereas, our brother, David Pond, as several of our 
brethren, viz., David Jones, Ebenezer Hunting, Benj. Rock- 
wood, Jr., Aaron Haws, and Michael Metcalf, apprehend, 
struck into a pitch of the tune on February 18th, in the public 
worship in the forenoon raised above what was set ; after most 
of the congregation, as is thought, kept the pitch for three 
lines, and after our pastor had desired them that had raised 
it to fall to the pitch that was set to be suitable, decent or to 
that purpose; the question was put, whether the church ap- 
prehends this our brother David Pond's so doing to be disor- 
derly ; and it passed in the affirmative, and David Pond is 
suspended until satisfaction is given." 

But David Pond froze over at this cold blast of 
reproof and suspension, and his musical thermometer 
went below zero, where it stayed for thirteen years. 
At last, Jan. 12, 1751-52, he melted into confession 
of error, and all discord was drowned in harmony. 

Another vote of the church on this subject is sig- 
nificant. May 18, 1739, it was voted " tliat the man 
that tunes the Psalm in the congregation be limited 
till further direction to some particular tunes, and the 
tunes limited are Canterbury, London, Windsor, St. 
David's, Cambridge, Short One Hundredth, and One 
Hundredth and Forty-eighth Psalm tunes ; and Benj. 



Rockwood, Jr., to tune the psalm." Ten years' 
practice so wore upon these seven permitted tunes 
that, April 5, 1749, the church removed the limita- 
tion and the hymns thereafter flowed smoothly on in 
many separate streams like the voice of many waters. 
All went musically, as between the tunes, for a time ; 
but on April 15, 1760, sprang up a war of rival 
hymn-books which lasted for five years, until the 4th 
of July, 1765, when it was decided by the victory of 
Dr. Watts' version of the psalms over the Old Bay 
Psalm-Book, and Tate and Brady's version of psalms 
and hymns. Dr. Watts remained in possession of the 
field for nearly ninety years, until the Puritan hymn- 
and tune-book, born in Mendon Association in 1858, 
raised him also onto the shelf of antiques. 

The Precinct Ministers. — Rev. Elias Haven, the 
first minister of the young church, after sixteen years 
of pastoral labor in failing health, through which he 
was tenderly helped by a loving people, died of con- 
sumption in 1744, and was buried in the central 
cemetery of the town, where a stone still stands to his 
memory. Then came the trying experiences of hear- 
ing candidates and selecting his successor. But they 
sat down patiently to scrutinize whomsoever came be- 
fore them ; and the sitting, if not the patience, lasted 
for six years. One after another preached in review 
before them. Aaron Putnam, Joseph Haven, Stephen 
Holmes, Thomas Brooks, a Mr. Norton, Joseph 
Manning, to whom they said, " Stay with us," but 
he declined; Messrs. Parsons, Goodhue, Phillips, 
Payson, who also declined their call ; Jesse Root and 
Nathan Holt, who refused to stay ; John Eals, Mr. 
Gregory, and at last came Caleb Barnum, of Danbury, 
Conn. He, the fourteenth candidate, was urged to 
stay by one hundred and two votes, and was off'ered 
seventy pounds salary per annum, and one hundred 
and thirty-three pounds settlement as an additional 
motive. After several months of consideration, he 
finally accepted, and was settled June 4, 1760, and 
six years after the death of Mr. Haven. 

Rev. Caleb Barnum was the son of Thomas and 
Deborah, born in Danbury, June 30, 1737 ; gradu- 
ated at Princeton, 1757, and received an A.M. in 
1768 from both Princeton and Harvard. His brief 
pastorate of eight years was full of divers disturb- 
ances, not the least of which was the hymn-book 
conflict already mentioned. Some difiered also from 
his opinions and beliefs as preached from the pulpit, 
and some left to attend Separatists' meetings, but the 
majority vindicated the pastor. The difi"erences 
seemed to be more between the precinct and the 
church than in the church itself; but the minister 
stood as a central figure between the two parties, and 

was attacked by both. His resignation was caused 
by these dissensions, and being made final, despite 
their reluctance to grant it, he was dismissed March 
6, 1768. 

The next February he was installed over the First 
Congregational Church in Taunton. In 1775 he 
joined the army of the Revolution, and became chap- 
lain of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, 
Col. John Greaton, then near Boston, Feb. 10, 1776. 
On the return of his regiment from Montreal he was 
taken sick at Ticonderoga, and discharged July 24, 
dying at Pittsfield, Aug. 23, 1776, aged thirty-nine. 

Once more the pulpit was empty, and again a pro- 
cession of candidates appeared. One and another 
was called upon to stop, but each declined, and they 
all moved on. Then the people looked each upon his 
neighbor, and asked, " Why will no one stay with 

The meeting-house, now thirty years old, and too 
small as well as growing old-fashioned (for there was 
even then a fashion for meeting-houses), was pondered 
upon as a possible obstacle. Therefore, in 1772, they 
chose five men to " consult upon the conveniences 
and inconveniences of enlarging and repairing their 
meeting-house, and to draw a plan thereof and 

Meanwhile, the committee of supply had in some 
way heard of a young graduate of Yale College who 
had preached in New York State, and was now 
among the New Hampshire hills. He was small in 
stature, with a thin, small voice, and he hesitated 
about appearing before a church containing two such 
vigorous and bellicose parties. But he came, Oc- 
tober, 1769, and essayed to fill the vacant pulpit. So 
well did he supply their needs, and so thoroughly did 
they test him, that on Nov. 30, 1772, the church, by 
a vote of thirty-two out of thirty-four, invited him 
to become their pastor. Two weeks later the precinct 
heartily seconded their invitation, and April 21, 
1773, Nathanael Emmons was settled as the third 
precinct minister. The service was held out of doors, 
like that of both of his predecessors, in the valley 
west of the present Catholic Church. 

The memory of Dr. Emmons' life and ministry is 
still bright in the town where he lived and labored 
for more than fifty years. His namesakes are found 
in many a family, and many a town and State, while 
anecdotes of him and his pithy apothegms are still 
current, and still bright as new coins, and more valu- 
able for use. 

In one aspect Dr. Emmons has been and still is 
misrepresented. He was not curt, dogmatic, and 
repellent. He was not unsocial and austere to his 



people, nor a bugbear to the young. He was affable, 
genial, and witty, and enjoyed a good joke as keenly 
as any. In the pulpit his clear-cut and logical sen- 
tences sharpened the intellects of his hearers and 
made them alert, discriminating, and clear-headed 
thinkers, having settled opinions of their own. He 
ruled, therefore, only by always moving in the line of 
his people's intelligent convictions. They knew him 
to be simply following truth, and they had to follow 
his guidance because he justified to them every step 
of his way. 

Dr. Emmons' active ministry continued about fifty- 
four years, from April 21, 1773, to May 28, 1827. 
Twice during this time, in 1781 and again in 1784, he 
became discouraged in his work and asked for a dis- 
mission ; but his people unanimously refused to grant 
it. Before the close of 1784 a powerful revival added 
seventy to his church, quickened his weary spirit, 
and ended his discouragements. During his fifty-four 
years of work three hundred and eight were gathered 
into the church. But his slender physique could not 
forever second the strong spirit within, and in his 
eighty-third year he fainted in the pulpit while 
preaching a sermon from Acts ii. 37 (see " Emmons' 
Works," vol. vi., p. 688). He then knew that his 
earthly work was done, and a quiet waiting for the 
Master's call to " come up higher" was all that re- 
mained to him here. His letter of resignation to his 
people is worthy of a place in this history for its 
loving simplicity : 

"Frankli.n, May 28, 1827. 

"To the members of the Church, and to the members of the 
Religious Society in this place. 

" Brethken and Friends : I have sustained the pastoral 
relation to you for more than fifty years, which is a long min- 
isterial life. The decays of nature, and increasing infirmities 
of old age and my present feeble state of health, convince me 
that it is my duty to retire from the field of labor which I am 
no longer able to occupy to my own satisfaction nor to your 
benefit. I therefore take the liberty to inform you that I can 
no longer supply your pulpit anji perform any ministerial labor 
among you; and, at the same time, that I renounce all claims 
upon you for any future ministerial support, relying entirely 
on your wisdom and goodness to grant or not to grant any gra- 
tuity to your aged servant during the residue of his life. 

"Natdanael Emmons." 

After thirteen years of patient waiting, he died 
Sept. 23, 1849, at nearly ninety-six. Dr. Emmons' 
funeral, Monday, September 28th, was attended by 
ministers and people from far and wide. It was the 
last service held in the old church which his voice had 
dedicated fifty-two years before. The next day the 
carpenters began their alterations. 

Dr. Emmons' dwelling-house stood on the north 
corner of the present Main and Emmons Streets. 

It was removed some years ago, and it now does duty 
as a tenement-house, as historic buildings are wont 
to do in our hurrying age. June 17, 1846, a granite 
monument, paid by a public subscription, was erected 
with public services near the centre of the Common, 
across which the venerable pastor had traveled to 
and from his church for more than half a century. 
An address was given in the church by Rev. M. 
Blake, and then the large company adjourned to the 
Common, where the dedicatory address was made by 
the then pastor, Rev. T. D. Southworth. These 
addresses were printed. 

A few years ago this monument was moved into 
a new part of the cemetery, out of public sight and 
contrary to the unalterable provision of the society 
which procured, located, and erected it on the 

The ecclesiastical history of the precinct, which 
in those early years was practically identical with its 
civil record, here practically ends. 

Precinct Civic History. — In 1740-42 move- 
ments were made in the precinct to petition Wren- 
tham for leave to become a town by themselves ; but 
lack of maternal sympathy quieted them till March 
4, 1754, when a petition was actually presented to 
and refused by Wrentham. Discouraged by this 
rebuff, and absorbed in the political events which 
preceded the Revolution, the people postponed fur- 
ther action, and continued to journey to Wrentham 
to vote or stayed at home. But the question soon 
came up again in earnest. War meetings became 
more frequent and important, and the ride of five to 
eight miles to Wrentham so often was wearisome for 
man and horse. The population of the precinct had 
also increased, and was fully large enough to justify 
a separation. Therefore, Dec. 29, 1777, another 
petition was addressed to Wrentham " for liberty to 
be set off into a district township, according to grant 
of court that they were at first incorporated into a 
precinct, with a part of said town's money and stocks. 
Deacon Jabez Fisher, Esq., Jonathan Metcalf, Samuel 
Lethbridge, Asa Whiting, Dr. John Metcalf, Joseph 
Hawes, and Capt. John Boyd, chief men of the 
precinct, are put in charge of the matter." In re- 
sponse to this petition, Wrentham sent nine men as 
a joint committee to consider the matter. February 
21st they reported that '• said inhabitants be set off 
as a separate township by themselves." The process of 
division was speedily begun. It involved many and 
complicated matters of importance. The men already 
raised as the whole town's quota for the Continental 
army were proportionately accredited to each section. 
Firearms and military stores were also similarly 





divided. The salt allowed by the General Court 
and all other properties were duly adjusted. Even 
of the five solitary paupers dependent upon the whole 
town, two were assigned to the forthcoming town. 
All preliminaries being thus arranged, another com- 
mittee was elected to present their petition to the 
General Court. The charter of incorporation, granted 
in answer to this petition, appears among the acts of 
1778, and is dated in the House of Representatives, 
February 27th, and in the Council, March 2d. It 
is as follows : 

" State op Massachusetts Bay. 

" In the year of our Lord 1778. 

"An Act incorjMJi-athig the Westerly Part of the Town of 
Wrentham in the Connty of Suffolk into a Town by the name of 

" Whereas, the Inhabitants of the Westerly part of the 
town of Wrentham in the County of Suffollv have Represented 
to this Court the Difficulties they Labor under in their present 
situation, and apprehending themselves of sufficient Numbers 
it Ability, request that thej' maj- be incorporated into a sepa- 
rate Town. 

"Be it There/ore Enacted By the Cotincil & Hotise of Rep- 
resentatives in General Court Assembled & by the Authority 
of the same, That the Westerly part of said Town of Wrentham 
separated by a line, as follows, viz., Beginning at Charles 
River, where Medfield line comes to said river ; thence running 
south seventeen degrees and an half AVest until it comes to one 
rod East of y" Dwelling-House of A\''illiam Man ; thence a 
strait line to the eastwardly corner of Asa Whiting's barn; 
thence a strait line to sixty rods due south of the old cellar 
where the Dwelling-House of Ebenezer Healy formerly stood ; 
thence a Due West Cource by the Needle to Bellingham line, 
said Bellingham line to be the West Bounds and Charles 
River the Northerly Bounds, Be and hereby is incorporated 
into a Distinct and separate Town by the name of Franklin, 
and invested with all the powers. Privileges, and immunities 
that Towns in this State do or may enjoy. And be it further 
enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That the inhabitants of 
said Town of Franklin shall pay their proportion of all State, 
Count.y, and Town charges already granted to be raised in the 
Town of Wrentham and also their proportion of the pay of the 
Representatives for the present year ; and the said Town of 
Wrentham and Town of Franklin shall be severally held punc- 
tually to stand by & perform to each other the Terms & proposals 
Contained and Expressed in a vote of the Town of Wrentham 
passed at Publick Town-meeting the sixteenth Day of Feb- 
ruary, 1778, according to y« plain and obvious meaning there- 
of; and Be it also Enacted by y*' authority aforesaid, That 
Jabez Fisher, Esq., Be & he hereby is authorized & required 
to issue his warrant to one of the principal inhabitants of said 
Town of Franklin, authorizing & requiring him to Notifie and 
warn the Freeholders & other inhabitants of said Town to 
meet together at such time and place as shall be expressed in 
said warrant, To choose such officers as Towns are authorized 
by Law to Choose, and Transact other such Lawfull matters as 
shall be expressed in said warrant. And be it further enacted. 
That the inhabitants living within y® Bounds aforesaid who in 
the Late Tax in the Town of Wrentham were rated one-half 
part so much for their Estates and Faculties as for one single 
Poll shall be taken and Holden to be Qualified and be allowed 
to Vote in their first Meeting for the Choice of ofiicers and such 

other meetings as may be Called in said Town of Franklin 
untill a valuation of Estates shall be made by Assessors there. 
" In the HorsE of Representatives. 

"Feb. 27, 1778. 
" This Bill having been read three several times, passed to 
be engrossed. Sent up for Concurrence. 

"J.Warren Syke. 
" In Council. 
"March 2d, 1778. 

" This Bill, having had two several Readings, passed a Con- 
currence, to be engrossed. 

" Jno. Avery, Dinj. Secy." 

In the original draft of the charter, as preserved in 
the State archives, the name of the new town is 
written as Exeter. Why its name was first written 
Exeter is a conundrum, whose answer is inaudible 
among the echoes of the past. Why it was changed 
to Franklin is apparent. After the Declaration of 
Independence in 1776, Benjamin Franklin with two 
others was sent forthwith to France, to arrange for a 
treaty of alliance with Louis XVI. The king dallied 
with the ambassadors until the close of 1777, when 
the capture of Burgoyne settled his doubts, and a 
treaty of amity and commerce was formed with them 
in January, 1778. News of their success reached 
this country while the petition of the new town was 
waiting decision. The charter was doubtless amended 
in honor of that event, and Exeter was changed for 
the honored name of Franklin, the first of the 
twenty-nine towns in our States who have since fol- 
lowed her example in calling themselves by the same 

Dr. Franklin showed his appreciation of the com- 
pliment by sending the town a valuable library of one 
hundred and sixteen volumes, selected by Rev. Richard 
Price, of London, a strong friend of Franklin's and 
of American liberty. Of these, mostly folio volumes, 
the most secular and sensational was " The Life of 
Baron Trench." These one hundred and sixteen seed 
volumes were subsequently increased by a social library 
to some five hundred, and have since multiplied to 
three thousand or more, constituting the present 
Public Library, for which maintenance annual grants 
of money are made by the town. 

Topography. — Franklin, i-n the limits of its orig- 
inal charter, included 17,602 i acres, or 27.6 square 
miles ; lying longer north and south than its width 
east and west. It is twenty-seven and a quarter miles 
southwesterly from Boston by the New York and 
New England Railroad. 

The earliest map of the territory of Franklin was 
made in 1735, by Samuel Brooks, surveyor, and is 
kept in the town office of Wrentham. It contains 
only the four ponds, Uncas, Beaver, Popolatic, and 
Long, two or three short streets, and the names of the 



first settlers. The outline of the West Precinct is 
dotted within it, and follows nearly the present boun- 
daries of Franklin. A later map is in the archives of 
the State-House at Boston, and is dated May 27, 1795. 
It was from surveys made by Amos Hawes and Moses 
Fisher in September, October, and November, 1794. 
Nov. 2, 1795, the selectmen were directed to have 
another map of the town drawn on parchment, but if 
this was done the map cannot now be found. In 
1832 a map of the town was surveyed by John G. 
Hales and lithographed, in compliance with an act 
passed by the State Legislature in 1830. No survey 
has been made since by the town. 

Charles River forms its northern boundary and re- 
ceives the overflow of the ponds that lie, like bits of 
broken mirrors, among its hills. Chief of these ponds 
are Beaver, Uncas, Popolatic, and Kingsbury's, with 
their outlets of Mine Brook, and Stop, or Mill River, 
drawing their surplus waters through Charles River 
into Massachusetts Bay and the sea. The geological 
formation of the town is sienitic, though very few 
ledges of rock appear on the surface. Traces of lime- 
stone have been found, and a deposit of amethysts, 
now exhausted. Green meadows, deep, shady valleys, 
and sunny hills make the natural scenery of Franklin 
beautiful. It is one of the highest towns in the county, 
and from some of its elevated highways the blue hills 
of Milton and the round head of Mount Wachusett, 
in Princeton, are visible. 

Its own hills and rocks have retained but few tra- 
ditions of their aboriginal owners and their deeds. 
Yet Indian Rock still records the story of the forty- 
two of King Philip's warriors, who stopped for a night 
and lai(i themselves down to sleep around its base. 
They had been on the war-path to Medfield, burning 
the houses of its settlers, and were on their way back 
to Narragansett. It is said a man named Rocket, in 
searching for a lost horse, found their trail, which he 
followed till he saw them asleep at Indian Rock. He 
hastened back to the settlement, and before daylight 
he was back again, with a dozen men in command of 
Capt. Robert Ware, to watch and take care of the 
sleeping murderers. When the Indians arose at day- 
light a dozen bullets quickly found their mark. 
Their punishment was so swift and fatal that only 
one or two escaped to tell others of the steady and 
sure aim of the white man. Hence came the name 
of the ledge, which still rears its monumental head 
above the trees some five hundred yards east of the 
Common. The Fourth of July, 1823, was celebrated 
on this rock, and its stony breast is still marked with 
the graven initials of the managers of that celebration. 
They then proposed erecting a commemorative monu- 

ment on the site, but Franklin did not care to revive 
such tragic memories, and the trees have now hidden 
even the path to Indian Rock. 

Uncas Pond also holds the tradition that the wily 
Mohegan sachem, in some of his campaigns with the 
Pequots in this region, made the shores of this pond 
one of his occasional haunts, and the early settlers at- 
tached his name to the wood-sheltered sheet of water 
as a memento of the fact. But the settlement was 
too insignificant at the time of the Indian war to at- 
tract any massacres or conflagrations as befell its neigh- 
bors, Medfield and Wrentham, and it has to be content 
without its legends of savage warfare. 

The Revolution. — The young town took her stand 
courageously beside her older sisters in the troublous 
times of the colonies. Instead of the horn of Ceres, 
she must grasp for a while the sword of Mars. Many 
of her men had been enrolled two years before among 
the five companies of minute-men formed within the 
whole town of Wrentham. Some of her inhabitants 
were among those who, on the first alarm from Con- 
cord, " marched from Wrentham on the nineteenth 
of April (1775) in the Colonial service." The ex- 
igencies of the Revolution demanded many town- 
meetings. Thirty-one were held in the five years 
between January, 1773, and Feb. 16, 1778, this 
being the last before the separation of Franklin from 

At one of these meetings, held at Wrentham June 
5, 1776, one day less than a month before the Dec- 
laration of Independence, a paper of instructions to 
their representatives to the General Court was, "after 
being several times distinctly read and considered by 
the town, unanimously voted in the aflirmative with- 
out even one dissentient," This paper is inserted as 
a sample voice of the times, indicating the clear and 
decided convictions of that day, and the hopelessness 
of attempting to dragoon such study yeomanry into 

" Gentlemen, — We, your constituents in full town-meeting, 
.June 5, 1776, give you the following instructions: Whereas, 
Tyranny and oppression, a little more than one century and a 
half ago, obliged our forefathers to quit their peaceful habita- 
tions and seek an asylum in this distant land, amid an howling 
wilderness surrounded with savage enemies, destitute of almost 
every convenience of life was their unhappy situation," but 
such was their zeal for the common rights of mankind that 
they (under the smile of Divine Providence) surmounted every 
difficulty, and in a little time were in the exercise of civil gov- 
ernment under a charter of the crown of Great Britain. But 
after some years had passed and the Colonies had become of 
some importance, new troubles began to arise. The same spirit 
which caused them to leave their native land still pursued 
them, joined by designing men among themselves. Letters 
began to be wrote against the government and the first charter 
soon after destroyed. In this situation some years passed be- 



fore another charter could be obtained, and although many of 
the gifts and privileges of the first charter were abridged by 
the last, yet in that situation the government has been tolera- 
bly quiet until about the year 1763, since which the same spirit 
of oppression has risen up. Letters by divers ill-minded per- 
sons have been wrote against the government (in consequence 
of which divers acts of the British Parliament made, mutilat- 
ing and destroying the charter, and wholly subversive of the 
constitution) ; fleets and armies have been sent to enforce them, 
and at length a civil war has commenced, and the sword is 
drawn in our land, and the whole united colonies involved in 
one common cause : the repeated and humble petitions of the 
good people of these colonies have been wantonly rejected with 
disdain ; the prince we once adored has now commissioned the 
instruments of his hostile oppression to lay waste our dwellings 
with fire and sword, to rob us of our property, and wantonly to 
stain the land with the blood of its innocent inhabitants; he 
has entered into treaties with the most cruel nations to hire an 
army of foreign mercenaries to subjugate the colonies to his 
cruel and arbitrary purposes. In short, all hope of an accom- 
modation is entirely at an end, a reconciliation as dangerous 
as it is absurd; a recollection of past injuries will naturally 
keep alive and kindle the flames of jealousy. We, your con- 
stituents, therefore think that to be subject or dependent on the 
crown of Great Britain would not only be impracticable, but 
unsafe to the State. The inhabitants of this town, therefore, in 
full town-meeting, unanimously instruct and direct you (i.e., 
the representatives) to give your vote that, if the Honorable 
American Congress (in whom we place the highest confidence 
under God) should think it necessary for the safety of the 
United Colonies to declare them independent of Great Britain, 
that we, your constituents, with our lives and fortunes will most 
cheerfully support them in the measure." 

Sept. 15, 1774, soon after the encampment of Gen. 
Gage on Boston Common, Wrentham voted to buy 
two cannon " of the size and bigness most proper and 
beneficial for the town," and ordered them to be made 
fit for action. Ammunition was also bought, and 
men were armed and trained in military exercise. 
The last vote of the whole town touching the war 
previous to the incorporation of Franklin, Feb. 16, 
1778, was the acceptance of a committee's report, 
that the full quota of the town, "being the full 
seventh part of the male inhabitants of the town," 
had been secured. 

The First Meeting of the town of Franklin was 
called by Jabez Fisher, justice of the peace, and was 
held Monday, March 23, 1778, at 9 o'clock, a.m. 
The requisite town officers were chosen. They were 
Asa Pond, town clerk ; Asa Whiting, treasurer ; 
Samuel Lethbridge, Deacon Jonathan Metcalf, Asa 
Whiting, Hezekiah Fisher, Ensign Joseph Hawes, 
selectmen ; and Ensign Hawes was representative to 
the General Court. The Committee of Correspondence, 
who looked after the affairs of the war, were Capt. 
John Boyd, Deacon Daniel Thurston, Lieut. Ebenezer 
Dean, Capt. Thomas Bacon. After adjournment 
they meditated for a month upon the new State Con- 
stitution, preparatory to an intelligent and wise de- 

cision. Money as well as men were furnished often 
and heartily, and the town bore with marked una- 
nimity the heavy expenses of the Revolution as well 
as the depreciation of the currency as their home 
part of the price paid for liberty. 

The depreciation of money was rapid and severe 
in its results upon values. In July, 1781, the ratio 
of paper to silver was as one to forty ; in September 
of the same year, one to one hundred and fifty. In 
the following February the town paid £400 for ten 
shirts to Deacon Joseph Whiting, who, of course, 
would not overcharge. 

The patriotic little town looked sharply after its 
home enemies. It voted to report all Tories to the 
proper court. It directed the soldiers' families to be 
" supplied with the necessaries of life at a stipulated 
price at the town's cost." They voted not to deal 
commercially with any who did not conform to the 
scale of prices recommended by the Concord conven- 
tion of 1779. They furnished their quota of beef 
for the army — thirty-three thousand nine hundred 
and eight pounds — in eighteen months, taking almost 
the cattle on a thousand hills. They voted in 1779 
— when the money credit of the government was 
rapidly sinking — that all who had money to lend, 
should " avoid lending to Monopolizers, Jobbers, 
Harpies, Forestallers, and Tories, with as much 
caution as they avoid a pestilence," and rather to 
lend to the Continental and State treasuries. There 
was the irrepressible spirit of liberty here. 

Franklin has not preserved any muster-rolls or 
other data to make up a list of its soldiers in the 
Revolutionary war. From the muster-rolls of Wren- 
tham preserved in the archives of the State one can 
select the residents of Franklin proper only by simi- 
larity of name. But an examination of these rolls 
shows that they do not include all who should be on 
them, for the names of many men whose military 
record is known from other sources are not -on the 
lists. Of the five companies of Wrentham, under 
the command of Capts. Oliver Pond, Benjamin 
Hawes, Samuel Kollock, Elijah Pond, and Asa Fair- 
banks, the last two of the companies were mostly of 
Franklin names, as follows : 

Capt. Asa Fairbanks' Oompany. 

Asa Fairbanks, captain. 
Joseph Woodward, lieutenant. 
Joseph Haws, " 

James Gilmore, sergeant. 
Joseph Hills, " 

David Wood, corporal. 
Peter Adams, private. 
.John Clark, " 

Asa Metcalf, 
Matthias Haws, 
John Fairbank, 
Joseph Streeter, 
John Adams, 
Jfathan Wight, 
Philemon Metcalf, 
Asa Whiting, 




Jesse Ware, private. 

Peltiah Fisher, " 

Isaac Heaton, " 

Peter Fisher, " 

Elisha Harding, " 

Levi Chaffee, " 

William Sayles, " 

James Smith, " 

Joseph Harding, " 

William Gilmore, " 

Ichabod Dean, " 

Capt. Elijah 
Elijah Pond, captain. 
Asa Pond, lieutenant. 
Jonathan Bowditch, 2nd lieu 

Robert Blake, sergeant. 
Timothy Pond, " 
Duke Williams, corporal. 
Samuel Pond, " 

Amos Bacon, drummer. 
Nathan Daniels, clerk. 
Elisha Roekwood, private. 
Abijah Thurston, " 
Robert Pond, " 

Zepha Lane, " 

Eleaz. Partridge, " 
Joseph Ellis, " 

Abijah Allen, private. 

Jonathan Hawes, " 

John Pearce, " 

Will Man, " 

Ebenezer Dean, " 

Matthew Smith, " 

Asahel Perry, " 

John Clark, Jr., " 

Joseph Hills, " 

Aaron Fisher, " 

Joseph Guild, " 

Pond's Cmiipaiii/. 

Benjamin Pond, private. 
Timothy Roekwood, " 

- Ellas Ware, " 

Elisha Buliard, " 

Daniel Thurston, " 
Nathaniel Thayer, " 

Peter Darling, " 

Simeon Fisher, " 

Elisha Partridge, " 
Simeon Daniels, " 

John Allen, " 
James Fisher, " 

John Metcalf, " 
Elisha Pond, " 

John Richardson, " 
Elisha Richardson, " 

In Capt. Cowell's company, of Col. Benjamin 
Hawes' regiment, sent on a secret expedition, 23d of 
September, 1777, occur the names of Michael and 
Timothy Metcalf and Benjamin Roekwood, Frank- 
lin men. 

There were at least seventeen Ponds that flowed 
from Franklin into the American army and are not 
recorded. One, Elisha Pond, escaped one night from 
the old Sugar-House at New York, where he had 
been imprisoned and nearly starved by the British. 
Another Pond, Pennel, " died Dec. 16, 17 — , in York 
harbor on board a guard-ship, supposed to be poisoned 
by ye British doctors." So his only record says, writ- 
ten in stone in the City Mills graveyard. Philip 
Blake was blacksmith and commissary to a portion of 
the American army on Dorchester Heights, and was 
afterwards in Sullivan's retreat on Rhode Island, but 
his name is not on any roll. Some of the lists must 
have been lost. John Newton, an English soldier, 
impressed on board a British man-of-war, escaped from 
his ship in Boston harbor by swimming three miles 
on a dark and stormy niglit. He reached the shore 
too exhausted to walk or stand ; but when rested, he 
fled towards Dedham. He was met on the way and 
was asked, "Who are you?" He only answered, 
" John — going !" and he went on, beyond curious 
querists, until he reached Franklin. His first as- 
sumed American name he kept, and his descendants 
still live in Franklin with the name modernized into 

Gowen. John Adams, ancestor of the Adams family, 
was also a victim of English impressment who found 
a home among the Franklin patriots. David Lane, 
afterwards called McLane, and a native of Attle- 
borough, came to Franklin, and married a wife in 
1786. Ten years after he started for Canada as gen- 
eral of a secret project, said to be originated by the 
French minster to this country, to incite the Canadians 
to revolt against Great Britain, and thus to aid the 
United States. McLane's directions were to raise 
men in Quebec and seize the garrison and then cap- 
ture the city. But McLane was betrayed by one of 
his men and taken as a spy. He was publicly 
executed on the glacis outside the city walls of 
Quebec, — the last and probably the only instance in 
America of the ancient brutal mode of hanging, 
drawing, and quartering a traitor. McLane was, with- 
out doubt, more an unhappy lunatic than a criminal. 
But the spirit of those days was full of animosity and 
cruelty. The later wars of the Republic will find 
mention farther on. 

The Second Meeting-House. — The war was at 
last ended, and the country had won for itself inde- 
pendence, and settled down to repair damages. The 
old town question soon presented itself again, — whether 
to repair the house of worship or build anew. There 
were evidently two opinions in the town, for April 
26, 1784, two hundred pounds were voted to buy 
material for a new building. But October 3d of the 
next year the opposition carried the day, and the 
constable was ordered " to pay back the money col- 
lected for the meeting-house and return the tax-bill 
into the town clerk's office, and that the town clerk 
pull off the seal of the warrants and write on the 
back that they are null and void ;" and secondly, 
" that a committee view the meeting-house and report 
what is best to be done to repair it." As a result, 
£6 2s. 10c?. were spent in patching the shingles, sup- 
plying glass to the upper windows, and boarding up 
the lower. But this putting of new cloth upon the 
old garment was an economy of short duration. A 
new meeting-house became more and more a visible 

One question towards it had been settled January, 
1784, in regard to the fixedness of the centre of 
Franklin. Two surveyors and three chainmen had, 
at a cost of £26 3.s. 4c?. (of which £1 12s. 11(7. was 
for " lickquer"), discovered that " forty-seven rods 
from the centre of the west door of the meeting-house 
where it now stands" was the same unmoved centre 
found fifty years ago near the same Morse's mud- 

On Dec. 17, 1787, Deacon Samuel Lethbridge, Asa 



Whiting, and Ensign Joseph Whiting presented the 
following report which was accepted, and a larger 
site for the new building than the Thomas Mann's 
acre was bought : 

" We have agreed with Mr. John Adams for the 
wedge of land lying between the way from the meet- 
ing-house leading to the Rev. Nathanael Emmons 
and the way from the said meeting-house to Ensign 
John Adams', being nine acres, at £1 10s. per acre; 
also thirty-eight rods of land west of said way at the 
same rate ; also one and a half acres in the hollow 
south of the old meeting-house at three pounds. And 
of Nathaniel Adams one hundred and forty rods of 
land east of the way from said meeting-house leading 
to Mr. Emmons at the rate of £1 10s. per acre. Also 
a road three rods wide through his improved land, 
beginning at the road from John Adams', Jr., to go a 
straight course between his house and well to the 
land above mentioned, for which he is to receive as a 
satisfaction eight pounds in money and the acre of 
land on which the meeting-house now stands, with 
the road that is now wanted, in by his house, to said 

Two years later (1789) fifty-nine and a half rods 
lying north of the new meeting-house were bought 
at sixpence per rod. This lot completed the nine 
acres, of which the present Franklin Common was 
a part. This land, when first bought, was covered 
with a dense growth of pitch-piues, standing with 
their feet firmly planted among small bowlders. It 
cost sixty dollars and niuety-one cents to clear this 
untamed spot and cover it with grass. Three sides 
of this wedge-shaped nine acres were afterwards 
trimmed with slender Lombardy poplars. They 
were planted April 6, 1801, by William Adams, 
according to a previous vote of the town. Some 
twenty years afterwards the south end of the Com- 
mon was sold for building sites, and on the centre lot 
Dr. Amory Hunting built a house in front of the old 
gun-house, since removed. After the meeting-house 
had been moved to its present site and reversed, the 
town bought the Common of the parish and com- 
mitted it to the care of a voluntary association. This 
association has bordered it with hardy trees, crossed 
it with walks, and surrounded it with a durable fence. 

A plan for the new meeting-house was presented 
by a committee of thirteen, and accepted by the 
town December, 1787. Its dimensions were as fol- 
lows : Sixty-two feet long and forty wide, with a porch 
at each end fourteen feet square. It had fifty-nine 
pews on the floor and twenty-one in the gallery, be- 
sides the singers' and boys' seats. The centre of the 
house had at first long benches on each side of the 

main aisle, afterwards exchanged for narrow pews. 
The frame still lives, unaltered in size, within a new 

The building was carried on with characteristic 
energy and finished in July, 1788, seven months 
from the acceptance of the plan. The cost, as ren- 
dered by the committee to the town, March 7, 1791, 

was as follows : 

£ 8. d. f. 

.Lumber at Boston 57 19 3 

Carting from Boston 16 19 3 

Rum, sugar, molasses, and 

lemons at Boston 12 6 3 

Lickyuers bought at home 3 3 4 

Cost of raising the house 26 8 9 

Nails and other iron-ware at 

Boston 15 7 5 

Nails and other iron-ware at 

home 25 15 2 

Painting, tarring, and glazing 73 6 5 

Boards, clapboards, and shin- 
gles at home 33 5 

Plastering and whitewashing 18 4 3 2 

Underpinning the house 26 12 5 

Boarding the workmen.... .... 81 14 8 

Carpenters' work 233 8 

Door - stones and paving 

round the house 25 13 

Window-weights 5 18 4 

Cost of the curtain (behind 

thepulpit) 3 7 3 

Expenses of the committee... 69 3 7 

Total £726 3 4 2 


Hezekiah Fisher, to purchase £ s. d. f. 

the glass 29 4 4 "3 

Nathaniel Thayer 2 10 7 3 

Jonathan Wales 1 16 

Josiah Hawes 14 3 

Nathan Man 1 3 6 1 

(So added in the original) £ 35 8 8 3 

£ s. d. f. 

Total of class-tax 293 17 1 1 

Received from sale of pews... 622 11 

Interest on securities for pews. 13 17 6 

From the old house 13 12 6 

£943 18 1 1 

Total cost of meeting-house, £1054 9 2 1 
Or, at the then value of paper currency, $3514.86. 

This bill was not accepted as readily as the plan 
had been ; but examination of the charges by an 
auditing committee, March 10, 1794, showed that 
£18 5s. 5c?. more were due to the committee than 
they had charged. The honest town voted that 
this balance should be paid, with interest for four 
years, and receipts in full were exchanged. The bill 
probably included the cost of preparing the land. lo 
1806 the east porch was raised into a belfry to re- 
ceive a clock and bell, which had been given to the 
parish, costing seven hundred and forty-five dollars. 
The bell has never told the name of the giver, nor 
the clock-hands pointed to the time or place of its 
record, and none of the living know the generous 
donor or donors. 



In 1830, while workmen were painting the belfry, 
they spattered the bell, whereon some bright genius 
among them, thinking to better the matter, painted 
the luckless bell all over. Under this covering the 
voice of the bell was almost silenced, — it was supposed 
forever. It was thereupon sent to the foundry at 
East Medway in exchange for a heavier one. The 
dumb bell came forth from the fiery furnace freed 
from the smothering paint and musically toned as 
ever. It now tells the people of Paxton the times 
of public assemblings. 

The second house was used for fifty-two years, 
when it was moved about eighty feet directly north, 
and turned a quarter round, with its belfry towards 
the south. The old square pews were exchanged for 
modern slips, and all the congregation were seated in 
platoons with their faces toward the pulpit. In 1856 
the interior walls were frescoed. 

Upon the completion of the third and present Con- 
gregational meeting-house, the second, which was in 
its turn the old, was sold and deeded, through Davis 
Thayer, Jr., to J. L. Fitzpatrick, and by him trans- 
ferred to the Right Rev. J. J. Williams, now arch- 
bishop of Boston, for the use of the Catholic congre- 
gation. The last sermon in it before its sale was 
preached by Rev. Luther Keene, the pastor, in which 
he stated that in its eighty-four years of service there 
had been 8736 Sabbath sermons preached from its 
pulpit, which had been in the charge of 13 ministers; 
900 infants received the rite of baptism ; and unnum- 
bered dead reposed in it while the last services for 
them were being held before burial. 

Before the doors of the old sanctuary are closed 
after the last service held in it before its alteration in 
1840 (which was the funeral of Dr. Emmons), let us 
reproduce its interior as described by one who re- 
members it well : " What picture can produce its 
interior ! Its high box pulpit and impending sound- 
ing-board, hung by a single iron rod an inch square ; 
the two pegs on each side of the pulpit window, on 
one of which sometimes hung the old pastor's blue- 
black cloak, and on the other always his three-cor- 
nered clerical hat! Jiy no means omit the short 
little preacher in the pulpit, with clear, sharp eyes, 
bald, shining head, small, penetrating voice, and 
manuscript gesture ; the square pews, seated on four 
sides, with a drop-seat across the narrow door, and 
the straight, cushioned chair in the centre for the 
grandmother, filled every one with sedate faces over 
which gray hairs usually predominated. The open 
space before and below the pulpit, where in winter a 
massive wood stove reared its iron head and opened 
its square mouth to be filled morning and at noon 

with blocks of hard wood big enough to hold fire 
through the following services, and keep the circle 
of old men who sat around it in a sleepy warmth 
while the unfortunate sitters in the outer corners 
shivered with cold. To it at noon came the mothers, 
bringing their small tin hand-stoves, with perforated 
sides and an iron box within to hold live coals, for 
a fresh supply to keep their feet warm through the 
afternoon service. The long balustrades hemming 
the side galleries were crowned with hats against the 
two stairways, which a puff of wind from the open 
porch-doors sometimes sent scattering down upon the 
uncovered heads below. The singers' seats filled the 
long gallery fronting the pulpit, in which nothing 
louder than a wooden pitch-pipe for years dared to 
utter a note. But about 1825 a singing-school 
timidly prepared the way for a violin, which soon 
introduced a bass-viol for the support of itself and 
the new singers. The boys had seats in the south- 
west elbow of the gallery, each boy with one eye on 
the tithing-man sitting high up in the northwest cor- 
ner pew and the other eye wandering or asleep, while 
both ears were enviously open to the neighing of the 
horses in the hundred horse-sheds and the twitter of 
birds in the Lombardy poplars near by." 

Not only was the irrepressible boy from the first 
looked after by the tithing-man, chosen " to take care 
of y" children, to prevent their playing in meeting," 
but in May, 1791, another duty was laid upon these 
same officers. "May, 1791, on complaint that divers 
persons have from time to time behaved in a very unbe- 
coming manner by standing in the porches of the meet- 
ing- house of this town on the Lord's Day, and other- 
wise conducting in a manner not only inconsistent with 
the purpose for which they professedly assemble, but 
highly unbecoming a person of good breeding or the 
character of a gentleman : Voted, that such conduct 
ought to be highly reprobated and discountenanced by 
every sober man, and they will hold them as scan- 
dalous and infiimous persons ; and the tithing-men 
are to take their names and publicly expose them 
next town-meeting, and post up this vote and the 
names of all future offenders." Absentees had to 
justify themselves for their absence. Even after the 
congregation were all safely in their pews, and under 
the vigilance of such sentinels, the minister could 
not always control their attention. It is said that on 
one July Sunday in 1790, when the audience were 
unusually torpid and sleepy, Dr. Emmons closed his 
manuscript, took down his three-cornered hat, came 
down from the pulpit, and went quietly home, leaving 
his comatose congregation to finish their naps or dis- 
miss themselves without a benediction. After giving 




them a fortnight to consider their ways and be 
wise, he explained the reasons of this conduct, and 
his penitent church voted: " 1. It is reasonable the 
pastor should insist upon having the proper attention 
of the people in time of public worship. 2. It is 
reasonable ihe church shall desire and endeavor that 
proper attention be given in the time of public wor- 
ship, and discountenance all inattention." 

As a result of the alterations and modernizings of 
1840, the top of the old sounding-board lighted upon 
a well-house in Ashland ; the old pulpit ended a long 
journey in the lecture-room of the Chicago Theologi- 
cal Seminary. At the same time, also, the long rows 
of horse-sheds were demolished, save a very few 
moved to the rear of the new site. The noon-houses 
had disappeared some years before 1840. They had 
been built for a resort in the intermissions on cold 
Sundays. They were four-square, with a seat on 
each side and a narrow floor in front of it. A large 
stone hearth filled the centre, on which a fire was 
built in a pile within reach of the cold feet aimed at 
it from the four sides, while the smoke found its way, 
when ready, through a wigwam-like hole in the roof. 

Home Life. — In these early colonial towns the 
meeting-house was as literally their social as their 
geographical centre. The families settled on their 
farms in concentric circles to the outer limits of the 
territory, and, being busy all the week at home, the 
Sunday noon intermissions spent in the horse-sheds 
and noon-houses were their only opportunities for in- 
terchange of family greetings and friendly gossip. 
The rude connecting roads were too long, rugged, and 
lonely to be traveled for evening gatherings, and the 
young folks had to supplement their Sunday talks 
by the few weeks of the winter school. The town 
industries were home industries among the stumps 
and rocks of the slowly civilizing acres and at looms 
in the attics. A corn-mill and a saw- mill were their 
only external necessities. These they had to build as 
soon as possible, — the meeting-house first, and then the 
corn-mill. Then both soul and body could be equipped 
for other work. Most of their daily food was raised 
at home, and they clothed themselves in homespun 
cloth made from the flax of their fields and the fleece 
of their flocks, whose bodies they ate. A rare visit 
to Boston secured what their farms could not supply. 
The country grocery was an invention of a later age 
and a larger liberty. 

The population of the town increased slowly, from 
less than one thousand at its incorporation in 1778 to 
seventeen hundred and seventeen in 1840. The first 
sixty-two years of its town life showed less than six 
per cent, increase. 

For many years after the war for liberty the chief 
business of its town-meetings was discussions of town 
boundaries and laying out of roads. On March 23, 
1795, the selectmen were directed to erect the first 

Military Affairs. — The military spirit, first called 
forth by the stern service of the He volution ary war, 
did not die out with the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, but was revived at least on two days of the year, 
— of the May training of the two military companies, 
the North and the South so called, and of the fall 
muster of the regiment to which they belonged. The 
May trainings were the times for a public comparison 
of these two companies, when they both manoeuvred 
at opposite ends of the Common, marched around Davis 
Tha^'er's store and Dr. Emmons' house, and halted in 
front of Joseph Hill's store under the poplars, and 
when the voices of the captains, and the fifes and 
drums were heard through the town. A troop of 
cavalry was enrolled, mostly within the town, and the 
horses, fresh from the plow and harrow, pranced and 
danced at the unwonted music of the bugle among 
the sweet ferns at the south end of the Common. 
But greater was the excitement, especially among the 
boys, when the Franklin Artillery appeared in all its 
brazen majesty on the same Common where its gun- 
house, cannon, tumbrels, and harnesses were kept. 
The dark-blue uniforms, the Bonaparte chapeaux with 
their long, black, red-tipped plumes, the flashing long 
swords, the slow march to the dirge-like " Roslyn 
Castle," as the lumbering brass four-pounders were 
dragged over the tufts of grass and bushes by drag- 
ropes, angling outwards like wild geese lines reversed, 
were always followed by a crowd. But the climax of 
military excitement was reached when, about 1825, 
the Franklin Cadets made their first public appear- 
ance. Their white pantaloons, blue coats, abundantly 
buttoned and silver-laced, black shining leather caps 
crowned with black-tipped, white perpeudicular 
plumes, and above all their new glinting muskets, 
made each boy wish himself a man and a cadet. 
Many of the after prominent citizens of the town 
were proud to be called captain of such an admirably- 
drilled corps. The Franklin Cadets, the Wrentham 
Guards, and the Bellingham Rifles were the flower of 
the old Norfolk County regiment. 

The fall musters, however, condensed the highest 
interest. They came after the sowing and reaping of 
the year were done, and all were glad for a holiday. 
The following description of an old-time regimental 
muster from a frequent participant will be enter- 

" The day before muster a detailed squad of men 



marked out, by a long rope and with the heads of old 
axes, a straight and shallow furrow as a toe-line for 
the regiment, which they generally adhered to until 
afternoon. A boundary was also roped along the 
eastern side, next the road, which marked the limit 
for spectators. On this side were built rough booths 
for the sale of eatables and drinkables and gewgaws 
to the crowd of the coming day. With the earliest 
daylight came noisily-driven teams into town, bring- 
ing soldiers and civilians, lads and lassies from far and 
near. Tents and marquees were hastily pitched 
around the meeting-house and along the west side of 
the Common. Luncheon-boxes and extra garments 
were stowed in these, guards were set, and at six 
o'clock the long roll from a score or less of kettle- 
drums called the companies together. Drills, evolu- 
tions, and marchings displayed the skill of the cap- 
tains and astonished the fast-gathering crowds until 
nine o'clock, when, at the vociferous shouting of the 
adjutant, the musical squads headed their companies 
up to the toe-line. The musicians were then gath- 
ered at the head of the regiment, near the gun-house, 
to receive the colonel and his staff whenever they 
should emerge from the tavern near at hand. On 
their appearance and reception, the wings wheeled 
into an inclosing (square with the officers in the cen- 
tre, while the chaplain, on horseback, prayed for the 
country and the protection of life and limb. On 
straightening out again, then came the march of the 
single fife and drum down and back the length of the 
line, the official inspection, the regimental manoeuvre- 
ings, and the dodging of the line of guards by the 

" At one o'clock came dinner, in tent, booth, on the 
grass, anywhere, hilariously moistened, — possibly with 
venerable cider at least, — until at three o'clock a big 
gun and a solemn cavalcade of colonel and staff with 
chaplain and surgeon called the scattered bands into 
line for the grand finale — the sham-fight. Some- 
times the infantry tried to capture the guns of the 
artillery ; sometimes, divided into two equal battal- 
ions, they furiously bombarded each other ; some- 
times a tribe of pretentious Indians rushed from be- 
hind Dr. Pratt's barn with indescribable yells upon 
the cavalry, only to be ignominiously chased back to 
their invisible wigwams. Sometimes the whole regi- 
ment formed a hollow square, facing outwards, with a 
cannon at each corner in defense of their officers, 
and banged away at unseen and unanswering enemies, 
while the cavalry dashed in all possible directions to 
repel imaginary sallies. Trumpets blared, drums rat- 
tled, horses reared and snorted, children screamed, 
ramrods, forgotten in the hurried loading, hurtled 

through the poplars, till a cloud of villainous salt- 
petre enwrapped in suffocating folds soldiers, specta- 
tors, booths, and landscape, and until cartridge-boxes 
were emptied and military furore was satiated. The 
hubbub subsided about five o'clock into an occasional 
pop from tardy muskets, and the wounded — by pocket- 
pistols — were picked up in the booths and along the 
poplars, and the crowd took their winding — to some 
very winding — way to their supperless homes." 

The Poor. — It was not until 1799 that public pro- 
vision had to be made for their poor by this thrifty 
town. Then there were but five persons. They 
were at first boarded by the lowest bidder, who must 
be approved by the selectmen, and was held strictly 
to take good and generous care of them, furnishing 
everything needed except clothes and medical care. 
These were separately supplied by the town. If he 
failed in any respect, he was to remove his charge 
elsewhere at his own expense. In 1835 the dwell- 
ing-house and farm of Alpheus Adams were bought 
for an almshouse at a cost of three thousand dollars. 
In 1868 the house was burned, but another was 
speedily built a few rods farther east. At no time 
since 1835 has the number of its inmates exceeded 
twelve. The appropriation for 1883 was four thou- 
sand dollars. 

Burial-Grounds. — Land was set apart at the be- 
ginning of the settlement for the burial of the dead. 
One " God's acre" was at Stop River, now the City 
Mills Cemetery ; the other at the Centre. Both of 
these are still used for the same purpose. They were 
open and uncared for until 1768, when they were 
fenced by stone walls. In 1793 committees were 
chosen to repair the fences, choose sextons, and fix the 
fees for burial. These cemeteries have been enlarged 
from time to time as needful, and the dead of to-day are 
laid near where the forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

In 1864, November 8th, a third burial-ground was 
bought and approved by the town. This is called 
the Catholic Cemetery, and lies some one hundred 
and fifty rods west of their churah. 

The Post-Office. — Franklin had no regular post- 
office until 1819. Letters and papers were few and 
far between. These were left at Wrentham by the 
carriers, who passed three times a week between 
Providence and Boston. Any one who chanced to 
visit Wrentham brought them to the owners. In 
1812, Herman C. Fisher, then a lad of fifteen, was 
hired by a few families to go on horseback Satur- 
days to South Wrentham and bring the mail to Na- 
thaniel Adams', afterwards Davis Thayer's, store. 
His route was through Wrentham and Guinea to the 
old tavern on the Boston and Providence turnpike. 



About 1815, David Fisher, keeper of Wrentham tav- 
ern, was appointed postmaster. This brought the 
Franklin mail much nearer ; but letters for the 
northern part of the town were brought from Med- 
way village. About 1819 the stone store at City 
Mills was built by Eli Richardson, who secured a 
post-office there. For a while Mr. Richardson brought 
the letters and papers for Franklin Centre to meeting 
in the box of his sulky every Sunday, and H. C. 
Fisher carried them to the store of Maj. Davis 
Thayer to be distributed. But after two years the 
Centre people began a movement for a post-office of 
their own. In 1822 they succeeded in securing a 
regular office, of which Maj. Thayer was postmaster. 
His successors have been Spencer Pratt, Theron C. 
Hills, David P. Baker, Cyrus B. Snow, Charles W. 
Stewart, David P. Baker again, A. A. Russegue, as- 
sistant. Smith Fisher, and J. A. Woodward, the 
office moving with the appointment from place to 
place. Mr. Woodward held from 1871 to May 14, 
1883, when a fall from a scaffolding of his house 
caused his sudden death, to the grief of the whole 
community, with whom he was held in the highest 
respect for his uniform urbanity and kindliness. His 
successor, and the present postmaster, is Oliver H. 
Ingalls ; assistant, Laura E. Blake. The income from 
the office at first was not more than thirty dollars per 
year; but it gradually increased till in 1882 the 
salary was raised to seventeen hundred dollars. It is 
now rated in the third class of post-offices. 

Temperance. — Most of the people in the olden 
time drank liquors to some extent and without scru- 
ple, under the impression that they were healthful 
and strength-giving. There were some who on spe- 
cial occasions would get so thoroughly drunk that 
good people cast about for some external check upon 
the appetite. When said strength became too fre- 
quent and dangerous to the home-peace, their names 
were posted by the selectmen so that the dealers, 
" who in regard of their remoteness from Boston had 
liberty to sell strong waters to supply the necessity of 
such as stood in need thereof," should not sell to such 
under a penalty. But the evil habit of drinking in- 
creased in spite of church and minister. As early 
as 1825, after a lecture given in the Popolatic school- 
house by a son of Dr. Lyman Beecher, Caleb Fisher, 
Elisha Bullard, and several others not only signed a 
pledge, but refused to furnish liquor to their men at 
work. The example spread, and Franklin became and 
still is a temperance town. It has always voted no 
license, and now has two active temperance organiza- 
tions — a Temperance Alliance and the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union. 

Early Industries. — Sawing or splitting the forest- 
trees into boards for their houses and grinding the 
corn raised on their cleared land were the first neces- 
sities of the new settlement. The first corn-mill was 
built in 1685, by John Whiting, on the site of the 
present Eagle Mill, at the foot of the long and for- 
merly steep hill of that name, and about midway be- 
tween the two communities. This mill was owned 
by Whitings for more than a century. In 1713 the 
North Precinct settlers sought for mill privileges nearer 
home, and Daniel Hawes, Jr., and Eleazar Metcalf 
associated with others to utilize the falls in Mine 
Brook for a saw-mill. The following is the contract 

which they signed : 

"AVrentiiam Feb. the 7 171.3. 
" We hose names are hereunto subscribed doe agree to build 
a saw mill at the place called the Minebrook : Daniel Hawes 
wone quarter, John Maccane wone quarter, Eleazar Metcalf and 
Samuel Metcalf wone quarter, Robert Pond Sen. wone quarter. 
We doe covenant & agree as follows : 

" 1 We doe promis that we wil each of us carry on &, do our 
equal proporchon throught in procuring of irones & hueing 
framing of a dam & mill ct all other labor throught so faire as 
the major part shall se meat to doe then to com to a reckoning. 
"2 We doe agre that all of us shall have liberty for to work 
out his proporsion of work & in case aney wone of us neglect to 
carry on said work till it be done k fit to saw & he that neglects 
to carry on his part of said mill shall pay half a crown a day to 
the rest of the owners that did said work. 

•' 3 We doe agre that said land shall be for a mill pond soe 
long as the major part shall se fit. We du all so agre that no 
won shall sell his part of said mill till he has first made a ten- 
der to the rest of the owners. We du al so agre that no won 
shall sell his part in the land til he hes tenderd it to the rest 
of the owners. 

" Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of 
" Ezra Pond " Eobart Pond 

"Jonathan Wright "Daniel Haws 

his " John Maccane 

" Robert X Pond "Eleasar Metcalf 

mark " Samuel Metcalf." 

On the back is the still further agreement: 

" to lay out each man's loot as they are drawn — the first loot 
is to be gin four foot from the upper sil of the streak sil and soe 
up unto the ind of the sleapers, and to devid it equal into fewer 
loots & from the sleapers towards the road so as not to interrupt 
the road. 

' RoBART Pond 
■John Maccane 
'Samuel Metcalf 

"Daniel Haws 
" Eleaser Metcalf 
"Daniel Thurston 
"March the 7 1717. 

This first saw-mill came into and remained in the 
hands of the Whitings. 

In the laying out of a surveyor's district. May 29, 
1736, there is mention of " The Iron Works," said to 
be located near the foot of Forge Hill. " Ben Works' 
saw-mill" and " Adams' corn-mill" at City Mills, sites 
now occupied by other works ; but of other mills or 
factories no record is preserved until the beginning 
of the present century. 




FllA'NKhl'N— {Continued). 

Later Town Histor}' — Ecclesiastical — Ministers of the First 
Churcli — Other Churches and Meeting-Houses — South Frank- 
lin Congregational — Grace Universiilist — Baptist — Catholic 
— Methodist — Town Library — Public Schools — High School 
— Franklin Academy — Dean Academy — College Graduates — 
Statistics of Material Growth — Town Industries — Straw 
Goods — Feltings, etc. — Newspapers — Railroads — Banks — 
Fire Protection — The Piebellion — List of Soldiers — Precinct 
and Town Officers — Centennial Celebration. 

Ministers of the First Congregational Church. 
— Rev. Elam Smalley was settled as the succes- 
sor, not colleague, of Dr. Emmons, June 17, 1829. 
He was dismissed July 5, 1839. and installed Sep- 
tember 19th over the Union Church, Worcester. 
He remained there until 1853, when he was dis- 
missed to become pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian 
Church, Troy, N. Y., but was soon compelled by fail- 
ing health to give up his work and try a voyage to 
Europe, seeking restoration and strength ; but with- 
out benefit, for he died soon after his return, in New 
York City, July 30, 1858, aged fifty-eight. Mr. 
Smalley was born in Dartmouth, fitted himself for 
college, and was graduated at Brown University, 
1827, whence he received D.D. in 1849. He studied 
theology with Rev. Otis Thompson, of Rehoboth. 
He supported himself while in college mainly by 
teaching singing-schools, in which he was eminently 
successful. His only son, George W., is the well- 
known London correspondent of the JVno York 

Rev. Tertius Dunning Southworth was in- 
stalled the fifth pastor of the church Jan. 23, 1839, 
and dismissed April 25, 1850. After leaving Frank- 
lin he preached statedly in Lyndon, Pownall, and 
Bennington, A^t., nearly five years, teaching a school 
at the same time in his house. Thence he went to 
Pleasant Prairie, Wis., where he preached for ten 
years, part of the time under commission of the 
the American Home Mission Society, until a rheu- 
matic fever disabled him from further active service. 
He returned in 1869 to his early home in Bridge- 
water, N. Y., where he died Aug. 2, 1874. He was 
buried in a silken surplice given him by the ladies of 
Franklin thirty years before. Rev. Mr. Southworth 
was born in Rome, N. Y., July 25, 1801 ; graduated 
at Hamilton College, 1827 ; spent one year at Au- 
burn Theological Seminary, N. Y., and graduated at 
Andover, 1829 ; ordained at Utica, N. Y., Oct. 7, 
1832 ; installed at Claremont, N. H., June 18, 1834, 

remaining there until he came to Franklin in the 
summer of 1838. 

Rev. Samuel FIunt was installed Dec. 4, 1850, 
and dismissed July 6, 1864. He next entered the 
service of the American Missionary Association in 
establishing schools among the freedmen in North 
Carolina. He became associated in 1868, as secre- 
tary, with Hon. Henry Wilson, afterwards Vice- 
President. He aided in preparing Mr. Wilson's 
work, " The Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in Amer- 
ica," and edited the last volume after Mr. Wilson's 
death. Mr. Hunt was born in West Attleborough, 
March 18, 1810; graduated at Amherst College, 
1832 ; studied theology from 1836 to 1838 in Prince- 
ton, N. J. ; preached a year in Mansfield, Mass., and 
was ordained in Natick, July 17, 1839, whence he 
came to Franklin. He died in Boston, July 23, 1878. 

Rev. GtEORGE A. Pelton was installed for one 
year, Aug. 9, 1865, but withdrew during the year 
following for a Western field. 

Rev. Luther Keene, the eighth regularly in- 
stalled pastor of the old church, was installed Oct. 9, 
1867, and died suddenly in the midst of his days 
April 17, 1874, aged forty-four. His last public ser- 
vice was April 5th. He was born in Milo, Me., Jan. 
30, 1830; graduated at Amherst College, 1859, and 
at Bangor in 1862. He was first settled in North 
Brookfield, in October, 1862, as pastor of a Union 
Congregational Church. After five years he resigned 
to come to Franklin. His ministerial labors, though 
short, left permanent results. The membership of the 
church was nearly doubled, and a new meeting-house 
and a commodious parsonage near it were built. Rev. 
Mr. Keene was the first occupant of the parsonage, 
and dedicated the new church Jan. 4, 1872, preaching 
from John xii. 5. 

After Mr. Keene's death the church remained with- 
out a settled pastor, depending on the broken and 
evanescent impressions of transient supplies, until the 
wiser conclusion of the church led to the installation 
of the present efficient pastor on Dec. 8, 1880. 

Rev. George E. Love.toy, now in office, is a 
native of Bradford, Mass., and was resident licentiate 
at Andover, 1873. His pastorate previous to Frank- 
lin was in Bedford, Mass. Since his ministry here 
between sixty and seventy have been added to the 
church, increasing its present membership to two 
hundred and ninety-two. 

The present Congregational Church was built during 
1871, as has been mentioned. Its site was bought, 
bordering the southeast corner of the Common, and 
the building committee in charge pushed the work 
through with business-like energy. They were Messrs. 



Davis Thayer, Jr., Henry M. Greene, Albert E. Dan- 
iels, Osman A. Stanley, Dr. George King, E. H. Sher- 
man, and Frank B. Ray. John Stevens was the 
architect, and Hanson & Hunniwell the builders. The 
organ was built by Stevens, of Cambridge. The di- 
mensions of the main building are 100 by 60 feet; 
audience-room, 60 by 80, and 29 feet high ; chapel 
attached to the rear, 45 by 55 feet ; two wings, 25 by 
14 feet; height of steeple, 164 fe'et ; whole cost of 
the house furnished, $36,000. It has 650 sittings in' 
the main audience-room, and 100 in the gallery. The 
chapel will seat 500, and the dining-room 400. 

Other Churches and Houses of Worship. — 
South Franklin Congregational Church. — 
Through the summer of 1855 meetings were held on 
alternate Sundays in the South Franklin district 
school-house. A Sunday-school was formed, and a 
library given by friends. The scattered families of 
that region showed so much interest in meetings near 
their homes, that a council of churches was called 
Aug. 20, 1855, at the house of Willard C. Whiting. 
As a result, September 13th, a church of eighteen 
members was organized. During the spring following 
fifteen hundred dollars were secured by subscription 
for a meeting-house. The corner-stone was laid Sept. 
5, 1856, and the house was dedicated July 25, 1857. 
This church has not yet felt strong enough to enjoy 
a settled ministry, but has been supplied by acting 
pastors to the present date. 

Grace Church, Universalist. — On Oct. 4, 
1856, a Universalist parish was organized. At first 
their services were held in the town hall, but under 
the inspiration of a generous offer from the late Oliver 
Dean, M.D., it was determined to build a house. 
This was located close upon Main Street, and was 
consecrated May 5, 1858. The cost, besides the land, 
was about seven thousand dollars. The building was 
used until June, 1874, when it was sold to the Bap- 
tists, and removed to School Street. In 1873 the 
parish built the present " Grace Church" directly in 
the rear of its first building. This graceful and 
beautiful house of worship is one of the architectural 
attractions of Franklin. It cost, with all its appoint- 
ments, furniture, organ, and steam-heating apparatus, 
fifty-two thousand dollars, of which sum Dr. Dean 
originally gave two thousand dollars. Rev. A. N. 
Adams was the first settled pastor. He was installed 
May 5, 1858, and on the same day in which the first 
church building was dedicated, and was dismissed in 

In 1860 a church was organized, also a Sunday- 
school, and all the other auxiliaries which help to sus- 
tain vigorous church work. The pastors have been 

Rev. A. N. Adams, 1858-60; Rev. N. R. Wright, 
1861-62 ; Rev. S. W. Squires, 1862-66; Rev. H. D. 
L. Webster for a few months, succeeded by Rev. Rich- 
ard Eddy, 1867-69. After being without a pastor for 
nearly three years, Rev. A. St. John Chambre (D.D. 
1878) was installed July 1, 1872. He closed his 
pastorate in 1880, and was followed by Rev. L. J. 
Fletcher, D D., just deceased. The of church 
members numbers now about one hundred and eight 
from a parish of about ninety families. 

The Baptist Church was organized in 1868 
with thirteen members. Its pastors have been Rev. 
J. W. Holman, M.D., succeeded by Rev. George 
Ryan in May, 1873. In 1876 the church was dis- 
banded. September, 1881, Rev. A. W. Jeff"erson, 
from Poultney, Vt., was sent into this field to awaken 
anew the denominational interest. As a result of his 
labors the church was reorganized in June, 1882, 
and now numbers thirty-five, with a Sunday-school 
of about sixty-five. This society first held their ser- 
vices in the town hall until a neat chapel was built 
on East Street during the pastorate of Rev. Mr, 
Rounds. In 1874 the society purchased the build- 
ing in which they now worship of the Uuiversalists, 
moved it to School Street, and made some alterations. 

Catholic Church. — In 1851 the Catholics were 
given the use of the town hall for a service, conducted 
monthly by Rev. M. X. Carroll, from Foxborough. 
In 1862 he was succeeded by Rev. M. McCabe, of 
Woonsocket. From 1863 to 1873, Rev. P. Gillie, of 
Attleborough, held occasional services. From 1872— 
76, Rev. Francis Gonesse, of Walpole, had charge of 
the parish. In February, 1877, Rev. J. Griffin 
became and still remains the resident pastor. In 
1871 the society bought the old Congregational 
Church, and remodeled its interior for their forms 
of worship. A large and commodious parsonage has 
been built directly west of the church. 

The Methodist Church. — As early as 1853 a 
Methodist meeting was held in the town hall by 
Rev. John M. Merrill. He gathered quite a large 
congregation. In 1855, Rev. Pliny Wood succeeded 
him. In 1856, Rev. M. P. Webster took up the 
work, but the enterprise failed so rapidly that the 
Conference decided in 1857 to suspend the services. 
In 1871 meetings were again started under the charge 
of Rev. John R. Gushing, of Boston. He organized 
a Sunday-school, and gathered a good congregation. 
In April, 1872, the Conference sent Rev. E. P. King 
into this field. He organized a church of thirteen 
members, and laid the corner-stone of a church build- 
ing October 3d. The house was dedicated June 25, 
1873. The same year the church membership in- 



creased to sixty-six. April, 1874, Mr. King was 
transferred, and Rev. J. N. Short became pastor for 
three years. He was followed in 1878 by Rev. 
William Wignall, 1878-79; Rev. 0. W. Adams, 
1880-81 ; Rev. A. C. Godfrey, 1882 ; and Rev. M. D. 
Hornbeck, the present pastor, since April, 1883. 

SwEDENBORGiAN. — A fcw members of the New 
Jerusalem Church have lield meetings constantly for 
seventeen years at the house of the late J. A. Wood- 
ward, but they have never been organized into a 
distinct church. 

Town Library. — Mention has been made of the 
library presented by Dr. Franklin to the town as a 
birthday-gift. With its one hundred and sixteen 
volumes was afterwards connected a private library 
of one hundred and twenty-five volumes for the use 
of its shareholders. At first the use of the public 
library was limited to members of the parish ; but in 
1791 it was "opened to the whole town, until the 
town shall order otherwise." These antiquated books 
became so little esteemed, that in 1840 they were 
found stowed away in their venerable bookcase in a 
barn. In 1856 a library association was formed 
to which the town by vote gave in charge the old 
Franklin and Social Library. 

These libraries were formed into a free town library, 
to which the town has appropriated money annually 
for its increase and support ; in addition to this town 
grant, amounting now to five hundred dollars, the 
library has the income of three thousand dollars, a 
legacy of Dr. Dean, for the purchase of books. The 
report for 1883 is as follows : 

Librarian's salary $150.00 

Room rent 100.00 

Incidentals 201.75 

116 new books 187.77 

Total, $639.52 

Volumes added 217 

Loaned 12,785 

Number of borrowers. 657 

Whole number of vol- 
umes 3,000 

Waldo Daniels has been the librarian from the 

Public Schools. — The first grant of money by the 
town for the support of schools was £200, voted May 
20, 1778. This was divided in proportion to the 
number of children living in each school district be- 
tween the ages of four and sixteen. The grants of 
money in succeeding years have steadily increased 
with the increase of school attendance. In 1782 it 
was only £80, and varied but little till 1796, when it 
was $320 ; increasing till in 1814 it was $600, and 
in 1839, $1000. In 1873 it reached $6000. It has 
increased largely each year, till the appropriation for 
1883 was $8300. These sums include the total annual 
"rant for schools. 

In 1795 the number of children in town required 
six school-houses, whose location was decided by a 
committee chosen for the purpose. Now the town 
supports ten mixed schools, exclusive of the High 
School.- The Central School is graded into four de- 
partments and six schools. 

At first the clergyman visited and catechised each 
school annually. As the notice of his coming visit 
was announced from the pulpit the previous Sunday, 
great were the preparations for it. After the close 
of Dr. Emmons" ministry this duty of examination 
by law devolved upon the school committee, and with 
them it now rests. 

A High School was established by the town in 
1868. It was opened on May 20th with twenty-two 
scholars. Miss Mary A. Bryant, principal. She was 
succeeded by Miss Annie E. Patten and Thomas 
Curly. Lucien I. Blake, of Amherst College, was 
principal in 1877-78, followed by Theodore Parker 
Farr, a graduate of Tufts College. The present 
principal is Mrs. M. A. B. Wiggins. 

Private Schools. — At the request of many parents, 
Mortimer Blake, a graduate of Amherst College, 
began in September, 1835, at his own charges, a 
private school of a higher grade than the town public 
schools. He occupied first the Central District school- 
house with fifty-six scholars, fourteen of whom came 
from other towns ; but within the first year of this 
school's existence a large two-story building was 
erected at the western foot of the Common by a stock 
company with accommodations for one hundred pupils, 
besides recitation-rooms and exhibition hall. This 
building was in after-years used for a store and straw- 
shop alternately, till now — minus the cupola — it is 
used entirely for tenements. The bell now hangs in 
the belfry of the South Franklin Church. The school 
continued for several years, and during the first princi- 
pal's connection with it its term-rolls often numbered 
one hundred scholars. It included the names of 
many scholars since well known, and not a few re- 
nowned as educators and heads of important institu- 
tions of instruction, as well as lawyers, physicians, 
and ministers. The academy gradually subsided 
under the rise of public high schools, although the 
succeeding principals, Bigelow and Baker, endeavored 
faithfully to maintain it. 

A Kindergarten was opened a few years since by 
Miss Lydia P. Ray, a graduate of Vassar College, in a 
building fitted especially for the purpose. It is now 
taught by Mrs. J. C. Blaisdell, and numbers about 
twenty little children. 

Dean Academy. — At the annual session of the 
Massachusetts Uuiversalist Convention, held in 



Worcester, Oct. 18-20, 1864, the subject of a State 
denominational school, to be of the highest grade be- 
low that of colleges, was brought before the Council 
by Dr. A. A. Miner, president of Tufts College. A 
committee was appointed with full discretionary 
powers, Rev. A. St. John Chambre, of Stoughton, 
chairman. Dr. Oliver Dean offered a tract of eight or 
nine acres which he had bought of the estate of Dr. 
Emmons, and $10,000 towards a building, besides 
$50,000 as a permanent fund, and his offer was ac- 
cepted. May 16, 1867, the corner-stone of Dean 
Academy building was laid with appropriate public 
ceremonies. As the work of building went on, Dr. 
Dean increased his donations to nearly $75,000. The 
style of the edifice was French Lombardic, and its 
total cost, exclusive of furniture and gas apparatus, 
was $154,000. It was two hundred and twenty feet 
front ; the main centre fifty by sixty feet deep, of 
four stories ; and two wings, each fifty-eight by forty- 
four feet in depth, with still other wings in the rear 
and three stories high. It was dedicated May 28, 
1868, Rev. E. C. Bolles, of Portland, giving the 
address. The school had been commenced with forty- 
four pupils, Oct. 1, 1866, in the vestry of the Uni- 
versalist Church, under Mr. T. Gr. Senter, principal. 
The summer term of 1868 was opened in the new 

Four years later, during the night of July 31, 
1872, this magnificent building with nearly all its 
contents was destroyed by fire. The young school 
became suddenly homeless, and Principal Senter re- 
signed. The Franklin House was bought and the 
school resumed in it, with C. A. Daniels as principal 
for one year, and Dr. J. P. Weston for five years. 
After two years of labor and great anxiety, a second 
and the present edifice was completed and dedicated 
June 24, 1874. It occupies substantially the same 
foundations, and diflFers but little from the previous 
one, except being in Gothic style. 

Until the year 1877, Dean Academy was open 
to both sexes ; but the demand for a young ladies' 
school led the trustees to limit it accordingly. The 
new arrangement opened in 1877-78, with about 
fifty pupils, under Miss H. M. Parkhurst, principal. 
After two years' trial the limitation was removed, 
and the school is now open to both sexes. Professor 
Lester L. Burrington, from the Illinois State Nor- 
mal University, became the principal in 1879, and 
the school is still under this faithful and devoted 

College Graduates. — The interest of the town in 
education is further indicated by its long roll of col- 
lege graduates and professional men. Few towns can 

show a larger ratio of educated men and women. 
Since its incorporation as a precinct, fifty-three of its 
young men and one lady are known to have graduated 
from college. Their names are here given. Many 
others, natives, but hailing elsewhere, are graduates. 
The honorable women of the town who married pro- 
fessional men are not a few. The total number given 
in Blake's " History of Franklin" is one hundred and 


Name. Institution. Graduated. 

Professor Aldis S. Allen, M.D...Yale 1827 

Benjamin F. Allen Brown 1817 

Judge Asa Aldis Brown 1796 

J. Frank Atwood, M.D Harvard 1869 

Henry M. Bacon Amherst 1876 

Rev. Abijah R. Baker, D.D Amherst 1830 

David E. Baker Amherst 1878 

Rev. Mortimer Blake, D.D Amherst 1835 

Gilbert Clark, M.D Eclectic Medical, Phila 1873 

Rev. Henry M. Daniels Chicago Theological 1861 

Rev. William H. Daniels Middletown 1868 

Hon. Williams Emmons Brown 1805 

Elisha Fairbanks, Esq.. Brown 1791 

Theodore P. Farr Tufts 1878 

Professor A. Metcalf Fisher Yale 1813 

Rev. Charles R. Fisher Trinity 1842 

Hon. George Fisher Brown 1813 

Lewis W. Fisher Brown 1816 

Elisha Harding, M.D Brown 1819 

Rev. Thomas Haven Harvard 1765 

Peter Hawes, Esq Brown 1790 

Rev. Isaac E. Heaton Brown 1832 

Rev. Sanford J. Horton, D.D. ...Trinity 1843 

Rev. Samuel Kingsbury Brown 1822 

S. Allen Kingsbury, M.D Brown 1816 

Hon. Horace Mann, LL.D Brown 1819 

Edward McFarland, Esq Holy Cross, Worcester 1873 

Alfred Metcalf, Esq Brown 1802 

John G. Metcalf, M.D Brown 1820 

Judge Theron Metcalf Brown 1805 

George T. Metcalf, Esq Brown 1853 

Erasmus D. Miller, M.D Brown 1832 

Lewis L. Miller, M.D Brown 1817 

Rev. William Phipps Amherst 1837 

Rev. George G. Phipps Amherst 1862 

Benjamin Pond, M.D Medical, Dartmouth 1813 

Rev. Daniel Pond Harvard 1745 

Samuel M. Pond, Esq Brown 1802 

Rev. Timothy Pond Harvard 1749 

Metcalf E. Pond, D.D.S Boston Dental College 1874 

' Jenner L. S. Pratt, M.D ;.... Columbia, New York 1842 

Spencer A. Pratt, Esq Brown 1830 

Miss Lydia P. Ray Vassar College 1878 

William F. Ray, A.M Brown 1874 

Rev. Albert M. Richardson .Oberlin 1846 

Professor Henry B. Richardson. Amherst 1869 

Frank E. Rockwood, Esq Brown 1874 

Lucius 0. Rockwood, Esq Brown 1868 

Henry E. Russegue, M.D Boston University 1878 

George W. Smalley Yale 

Rev. William M. Thayer Brown 1843 

Abijah Whiting, Esq Brown 1790 

Nathan Whiting, Esq Brown 1796 

Rev. Samuel Whiting Harvard 1769 

In addition to those mentioned in the above list 
were several others who died in the course of their 
collegiate studies or were arrested by change of cir- 

Material Progress. — The following table, com- 
piled from the earliest reliable sources, exhibits the 
growth of the town : 




£2401 188. 

£2803 H.S. 6<J. 












119 132 



262 ' 227 j 183 



131 139 

157 j 180 
178 I 163 
180 ! 143 
208 149 









270 j 788 

275 1 729 

265 1 733 

274 1 599 

274 i 563 


191 i 448 


192 493 


142 508 




! 466 


40 393 







These tables indicate that the progress of the town 
has in hite years been rapid for staid New England. 
The impulses of this growth are found in the devel- 
opment of business, as the f;icts fullowiiig indicate. 
They have been carefully gathered from original 

Later Industries. — The beginning of the present 
centuiy marks the introduction of the straw business, 
in which the town still holds a foremost rank. The 
braiding and making of rye-straw into bonnets came 
from Providence, R. I. A milliner of that city, Mrs. 
Naomi Whipple, and her assistant, Miss Hannah Met- 
calf, unraveled a piece of imported braid and learned 
the secret of its plaited strands. She made and sent 
a case of bonnets, from braid of her own manufacture, 
to New York, which sold with the rapidity of foreign 
goods. Sally Richmond, a scholar at Wrentham 
Academy in the summer of 1799, taught the art of 
braiding to the ladies where she boarded, and thus 
came the new industry to Wrentham and Franklin. 
The storekeepers at first exchanged their goods for 
the braid ; but as it accumulated, they began to make 
it into bonnets, carrying it with wooden forms from 
house to house to be sewed into shape by the farmers' 
wives and daughters. The bonnets so made were 
gathered and pressed at first with common hand-flats, 
afterwards with jack-presses worked by the foot. So 
grew up the great industry which now employs thou- 
sands of people in this region. 

The first straw manufactory in Franklin was begun 
in 1812 by Asa and Davis Tha3er. After the death 
of Asa Thayer, in 1816, a partnership was formed be- 
tween Davis Thayer and Herman C. Fisher, to which, 
in 1825, Albert E. Daniels was admitted. Another 
early firm was Asa Rockwood & Son. 

The trip to New York, where their sales were made, 
was not to these first merchants a night ride in a 
steamer. They went with a horse and wagon to Prov- 
idence and thence in a sailing-vessel, whenever a cargo 
and wind and tide were ready, waiting sometimes two 
weeks for a favorable wind. When tliey should return 
to their factories was still more uncertain. Between 

the two termini of their business, their lives were 
drawn in unequal and indefinite lengths which unusual 
patience alone could equate. 

Thayer, Fisher & Daniels after a while separated 
into individual firms. Thayer became Thayer, Gay 
& Co., then 1). Thayer, Jr., & Bros , until their final 
transfer to Hubbard, Snow & Co. 

Hermon C. Fisher became Fisher &, then 
H. C. Fisher alone a few years, afterwards Fisher & 
Adams, and, after the death of Mr. Simeon Adams, 
Fisher again until he was succeeded in the business 
by Horace M. Gowen. This line is now extinct. 

Albert P]. Daniels became Daniels & Green, then 
Daniels & Son, when the business was transferred to 
Green & Baker, then to Henry M. Green alone; again 
it became Farmer & Sherman, then Basssett, Sherman 
& Co., and now is Oscar M. Bassett & Co. Other 
firms have also engaged in the straw business, — Hart- 
well Morse & Co., for twenty years ; Horace S. Morse 
& Capron, fur twelve years, in the old academy build- 
ing ; Foster, Pratt & Day, and Gen. Sumner & Co., 
about 1855-60. In 1869 no less than seven manufac- 
tories of straw goods were in active operation, making 
a million hats and bonnets per year. These were at 
that time all made, pressed, and finished by hand ; 
but about 1872 the hydraulic press was introduced, 
and in 1875 sewing-machines came into use. They 
greatly increased the amount of production, but with 
a large decrease of employes as well as a reduced 
value in products. Two firms only are now manufac- 
turing straw goods in Franklin, as below : 

Hubbard, Bassett & Co. are at the New York 
end of the line, and Hubbard, Snow & Co. occupy 
in Franklin the large factory formerly used by Davis 
Thayer Bros. They have three hundred and twenty- 
five employes at the factory, and two hundred and 
fifty outside to whom work is carried. They manu- 
factured in 1883 nineteen thousand cases, each con- 
taining on an average four dozen hats or bonnets ; 
total, nine hundred and twelve thousand. Oscar M. 
Bassett & Co., successors of Bassett & Sherman, 
have manufactured only since Sept. 1, 1883 ; but they 
already employ about two hundred hands and make 
all varieties of straw goods. 

Felt, Satinet, and Cassimere Manufactures 
have become another leading industry in Franklin. 
Col. Joseph Ray came with his family to Franklin in 
1839, and engaged in making cotton goods. One of 
his sons, Frank B. Ray, started the first woolen-mill 
in town at Unionville, a village a mile and a half 
west of the Centre. He at first prepared wool shoddy 
to sell to others, using probably the first shoddy picker 
in the country. 



In 1870 he started the first felt machinery in town. 
This enterprise of felt manufactures grew rapidly by 

the formino; of new firms and the addition of cassi- ; 

. . . ' 

mere and satinet goods. Moi'se & Waite, in 1871, i 

were followed by Rays, Rathburn & McKenzie, 

and The Franklin Felting Company, — Enoch Waite, 

James P. and Joseph G. Ray. There arc now seven 

of these felting-mills running. The firm of J. P. & 

J. G. Ray are running four mills, viz. : a shoddy- j 

mill, using from six to eight thousand pounds of 

rags per day, and employing fifty hands ; a cassimere- j 

mill, with six sets of machinery, one hundred and 

twenty-five hands, and making 200,000 yards per ■ 

year ; a cotton warp woolen satinet mill, with eight 1 

sets, one hundred and fifty hands, and 1,000,000 ' 

yards per year, — this mill is located in Bellingham ; 

the City Mills, now in Norfolk, for all kinds of felt- I 

goods, eighty hands, and 500,000 yards per year. | 

Their wool and waste trade amounts to one million 

dollars per year. I 

Frank B. Ray has one felt- and one shoddy- 
mill, both in Franklin. 

William F. Ray, son of Frank B. Ray, runs a 
mill at Norfolk, for wool extracts and shoddy, em- 
ploying fifteen hands and producing 400,000 pounds 
per year. 

A Satinet - Mill, built by Ray, Rathburn & 
McKenzie in 1872 for a felt mill, was bought, 1881, 
by C. J. McKenzie and changed to a satinet-mill. 
It runs three sets of woolen machinery, employs 
forty hands, and produces 350,000 yards per annum. 

The Felting-Mill of the Franklin Felting Com- 
pany was purchased, in the spring of 1883, by Adel- 
bert D. Thayer. It has a capital of forty thousand 

Another Cassimere-Mill has this year (1883) 
been started by Addison M. Thayer, with forty thou- 
sand dollars capital. 

Of these ten mills, three are just beyond the town 
limits, but are owned and operated by Franklin firms. 

The Franklin Cotton Manufacturing Com- 
pany has just been formed. This corporation is 
erecting at Unionville a granite building one hundred 
and thirty-three feet long and fifty-five feet wide and 
two stories high, to be run by both steam and water, 
as the supply serves. They will make a new kind of 
fancy cotton goods, with imported English machinery, 
and intend to commence Jan. 1, 1884. Capital, one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The officers are 
George Draper, of Milford, president; James P. 
Ray, of Franklin, treasurer. 

The Shoe Business has never put more than 
one foot into the town. In 1850, N. C. Newell 

bought Dr. Emmons' barn, moved it, and began 
manufacturing therein. He was succeeded by James 
M. Freeman, who enlarged both business and shop, 
but he retired in 1879, and the business also. 

The Franklin Rubber-Boot Company was 
organized, 1882, with a capital of seventy-five thou- 
sand dollars. Moses Farnum, president ; Joseph G. 
Ray, treasurer ; Horace Jenks, superintendent of 
the works. They are located near Beaver Pond, and 
are employing one hundred and twenty hands, 
and make 800 pairs of rubber boots and the same 
number of overshoes per day. 

Lu3iber and Box Factories. — E. L. and 0. F. 
Metcalf commenced as contractors and builders in 
1843. In 1847-49 they were actively engaged in 
building depot, bridges, etc., for the Norfolk County 
Railroad and Southbridge branch. In 1856 they 
bought the Frost water-mill, about two miles from 
the Centre, fitting it up with wood-working ma- 
chinery, and also opened a lumber-yard at the village. 
In 1867 they built a steam-mill near the railway 
station, which has been enlarged until its present 
dimensions are sixty by one hundred and eight feet, 
with wings thirty by fifty feet and thirty by forty 
feet, all two stories high. In 1870 they added a saw- 
mill and, in 1873 a grain-mill. They employ a 
large number of hands in the sash, door, blind, and 
box departments. 

The original firm, after almost forty years of suc- 
cessful business, dissolved in 1881 by mutual con- 
sent, Erastus L. going out, and Walter M. Fisher 
taking his interest in the business, which is now 
carried on with the firm-name of 0. F. Metcalf & 

In the northwestern part of the town is another 
lumber- and box-factory, started by Lucius W. 
Daniels in 1874, making 50,000 packing-boxes and 
using 750,000 feet of lumber per year. The saw- 
mill demands 400,000 feet of lumber per year to 
keep its saws busy. 

At Nason's Crossing, about half a mile south of the 
Centre, Joseph M. Whiting has been engaged for 
several years running a grist-mill. 

Machinery. — Joseph Clark owns the one ma- 
chine-shop in Franklin, located at Nason's Crossing. 
He manufactures largely woolen machinery, as well 
as repairs cotton machinery of all kinds, employing a 
large number of men and adding much to the town 

Canned Goods. — North Franklin is a head centre 
of the canning industry. The large factory of Rich- 
ardson & Hopkins commenced ten years ago on a 
small scale. Their buildings have been enlarged and 



machinery added, including two forty horse-power 
boilers. During the busy season, they now employ 
about one hundred and fifty hands. They make their 
own cans, of which in 1882 they produced 400,000. 
This firm put up last year 112,000 cans of corn, 90,- 
722 of tomatoes, 45,387 of squash in three-pound 
cans, and 1267 in gallons; peas and beans, 15,000 ; 
pumpkins, 5140 ; cranberries, 3000. Fifteen thousan