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Norfolk Couintv, Virgiinia, 


Rbprbsbnxativb Cixizbins, 



' The Truth in Love. ' ' 

'History is Philosophy Teaching by Examples." 



George Richmond. Pres.; S. Har.mer Neff. Secy.; C. R. Arnold, Treas. 

chicago, illinois. 


HE aim of the publishers of this volume has been to secure for the historic portion 
thereof full and accurate information respecting all subjects therein treated, and 
to present the data thus gathered in a clear and impartial manner. If, as is their 
hi>()c, they have succeeded in this endeavor, the credit is mainly due to the diligent and 
exhaustive research of Col. William H. Stewart, of Portsmouth, Virginia, whose high char- 
acter and recognized ability as a member of the bar of Norfolk County, together with his 
services as a patriot to his State and County, have brought him prominently before the 
people of the Old Dominion. Colonel Stewart has devoted himself to this important task 
as a labor of love, and his patient and conscientious effort in the compilation and presenta- 
tion of facts is conspicuously manifest in every page of the historical narration. His record 
gives a lucid topographical description of the county, portrays the 'earliest civilized settle- 
ments, furnishes a comprehensive review of its organization, its industrial growth, its 
achievements in war, and of the leading events in the stages of its development from l<i37 
to lOUO. Although the purpose of the author was to limit the narrative to the close of IHUO, 
he has deemed it proper to touch on some matters over-lapping into the succeeding year. 
The wide range and circumstantial thoroughness of this history are readily discernible by a 
perusal of its table of contents. 

In its preparation, the editor desires to make acknowledgment of invaluable assistance 
from Howe's History of Virginia, Burton and Forrest's History of Norfolk, Lull's History 
of the Navy Yard, Porter's Military History of Norfolk County, Jones' History of Baptist 
Churches and the American Archives. He has also been the recipient in the course of 
compilation of most appreciable personal favors from C. Whittle Sams, Esq., James T. 
Carr, Esq., Thomas B. Rowland, Esq., John W. H. Porter, Esc].. .\. H. Grandy, Esq., 
Capt. E. V. White, Col. William Lamb and others. 


The reviews of resolute and strenuous lives, which make up the biographical depart- 
ment of the volume, and whose authorship is independent of that the history, are 
admirably adapted to foster local ties, to inculcate civic virtue, and to emphasize the rewards 
of industry, dominated by intelligent purpose. They constitute a most appropriate medium 
of perpetuating personal annals, and will be of incalculable value to the descendants of those 
therein commemorated. They bring into bold relief careers of enterprise and thrift, and 
make manifest valid claims to honorable distinction. If "Biography is the only true His- 
tory, " it is obviously the duty of men of the present day to preserve in this enduring form 
the story of their lives, in order that their posterity may dwell on the successful struggles 
thus recorded and profit by their example. These sketches, replete with stirring incidents 
and intense experiences, will naturally prove to many of the readers of this book a most 
attractive feature. 

In the aggregate of personal memoirs, thus collated, will be found a vivid epitome of 
the growth of Norfolk County, which will fitly supplement the historic statement; for the 
development of the county is identified with that of the men and women to whom it is 
attributable. The publishers have endeavored in the preparation of the work to pass over 
no feature of it slightingly, but to give heed to the minutest details, and thus to invest it 
with a substantial accurac}- which no other treatment would afford. The result has ampl\- 
justified the .care thus exercised, for in our belief no more reliable production, under the 
circumstances, could be laid before its readers. 

We have given especial prominence to the portraits of representative citizens, which 
appear throughout this volume, and believe they will prove a most interesting feature of the 
work. We have sought to illustrate the different spheres of industrial and professional 
achievement as conspicuously as possible. To all who have kindly aided in the successful 
production of the book, by voluntarily contributing most useful information and data, we 
herewith tender our grateful acknowledgment. The Publishers. 

Chicago, 111., May, 1902. 


All the biographical sketches published in this volume were 
submitted to their respective subjects, or to the subscribers, from 
whom the facts were primarily obtained, for their approval or 
correction before going to press ; and a reasonable time was 
allowed in each case for the return of the tj-pe-written copies. 
Most of them were returned to us within the time allotted, or 
before the work was printed, after being corrected or revised ; 
and these nia\' therefore be regarded as reasonably accurate. 

A few, however, were not returned to us ; and as we have 
no means of knowing whether they contain errors or not, we 
cannot vouch for their accuracy. In justice to our readers, and 
to render this work more valuable for reference purposes, we 
have indicated these uncorrected sketches by a small asterisk (*), 
placed immediately after the name of the subject. They will 
all be found on the last pages of the book. 


Cable of Content! 

Virginia 13 

Its Statesmen — Soldiers — Grand Commonwealth. 


Settlement and Organization of Norfolk County 15 

Discovery of Virginia — New Norfolk Carved from Elizabeth City Shire — Lower New Norfolk Separated 
from Nansemond County — Early Settlements — Incidents of Pioneer Life— Early Settlers — Indian Tribes 
— Burgesses — Lower Norfolk County Divided — Physical Description of the County — Railroad and 
Steamship Lines — Colonial Homes — Articles of Apprenticeship — Bill of Sale for Slaves — Historical 


Military Hlstory of the County 30 

Indian Wars — Colonial Officers and Soldiers — Manner of Bearing Expenses of the Indian Wars — 
Colonial Military Tactics — Committee of Safety — Revolutionary Times — Dunmore's Doings — Battle of 
Great Bridge— Correspondence of Woodford and Howe — Destruction of Norfolk — Other Invasions and 
Depredations of the British — .Some Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolution — Itemized Statement of Losses 
Sustained by a Citizen of Norfolk During the Bombardment — British Property Confiscated — Daughters 
of the American Revolution. 


Military Hlstory of the County — Continued ' 59 

Period of Peace Succeeding the Revolution — England's Hostile Acts Towards Our Commerce and Coast 
Bringing the War of 1812— British Fleet in Hampton Roads— Depredations — Battle of Craney Island — 

The .Mexican War. 


Military History OF THE County— Continued 67 

Events Leading up to Secession — Abandoment and Destruction of the Navy Yard by the Federals — 
Occupation of the Navy Yard by Virginia — Fortification of Approaches to the Harbor — Battle of Sewell's 
Point— Devotion of the Confederate Women. 


Military History of the County — Continued TT 

The Great Battle of Hampton Roads — Destruction of the "Cumberland" and "Congress" — Famous Con- 
flict of the Iron-Clads — Victory of the "Virginia" over the ".Monitor" — Different reports of the Fight- 
Officers of the "\'irginia" — Evacuation of Norfolk County by the Confederate Forces. 


Military History of the County — Continued 99 

Norfolk County L'nder Military Rule — Post-Bellum or Reconstruction Times — Patriotism of Confederate 
Soldiers and Sailors — List of the Soldiers and Sailors of Norfolk County — Confederate Flags and (ireat 
Seal — Sisters of Mercy. 


Military History Of the County— Continued 137 

Confederate Monuments at Portsmouth and Norfolk — Confederate \'eterans' Camps of Norfolk, Ports- 
mouth and Berkley — United Daughters of the Confederacy Chapters at Norfolk and Portsmouth. } 


Military History of the County — Continued 162 

Spanish-American War — Roster of Jackson Light Infantry, Lee Rifles, Norfolk City Guard, Old 
Dominion Guard, Portsmouth Rifle Company— Citizen Sailors of the "Maine". 



The Agricultcral Resources 156 

Growth and Importance of the Trucking Industry -The "Father of Truckers" - The Chief Crops Grown 
Profitably Here -Tobacco, the Dethroned King -Early Regulations on the Growth of Tobacco. 


The Dismal Swamp ^ IHO 

The Wonderful Swamp Region of Norfolk County— O'Reilly's Description of the Dismal Swamp — Juni- 
per Water— Geology — Topography — Vegetation — Animal Life— Methods of Draining. 


Public Education and Liukaries. 177 

The First School of the County — The First General Public School Law Enacted — St Bride's Academy - 
Churcliland .Academy — First Complete Public School System Established in the County— Seaboard 
Teachers' Association — Public Schools Re-established After the War, Under the New Constitution - 
Public Schools of Norfolk — Public Schools of Portsmouth — Norfolk Academy — Norfolk's Libraries. 


Churches and Benevolent Organizations 188 

The Church of England in the Colony of Virginia — Elizabeth River Parish The Parish Divided into 
Elizabeth River, Portsmouth and St. Bride's Parishes — St. Paul's Church and Norfolk Long Ago — Other 
Protestant Episcopal Churches in the County. 


Churches and Benevolent Organizations— Continued 219 

Catholic Churches — Presbyterian Churches — Hebrew Synagogues — Church of Christ (Disciples)- 
Lutheran Church — Christian Churches — Baptist Churches — Methodist Episcopal Churches, South — Be- 
nevolent Organizations. 


Public Institutions and Buildings 2fil 

The Norfolk County Ferries — Hospital St. \'incent de Paul— The Public Buildings of Norfolk — The 
Public Buildings of Portsmouth — The Norfolk County Court House. 


The Bench and Bar 276 

Early Attorneys — Superior Court of Portsmouth — Norfolk City Court — Norfolk County Court — Rates for 
Tavern Keepers — Justices of the Peace from lt)37 — Sheriffs of the County — Clerks of the Norfolk County 
Court — Ministers Licensed to Perform the Rite of .Matrimony — The Courts of Norfolk — The Courts of 


The .Medical Profession 287 

Early Practitioners of Medicine in Norfolk County — Prominent Physicians of the First Half and Middle of 

the Nineteeth Century — Norfolk Medical .Society — Local and L'nited States Quarantine. 


The Press of Norfolk County 292 

Early and Defunct Newspapers of the County — Newspapers of Today. 


The Port, and Railroad and Water Communications 297 

Great Extent of Water Front —Reasons for the Commercial Advantages of the Port — Inland Water 
Routes — Railroad Lines — The Climate— Steamship Lines— Camparative Statistics on Exports anil 
Imports, Shipping, Real Estate Transfers and Coal Shipments— The \'irglnia Pilots. 


Statistics of the Population -in 

Tithes and Tithables From Early Court Records- Population of Norfolk County, 1790-1900, from the 
Census Reports — Population of Norfolk and Portsmouth — The I'JM Census by Wards and Districts. 




History of the City of Norfolk ■ 321 

Its Settlement and History as a Borough, by C. Whittle Sams — Its Commercial Advantages Recognized 
One Hundred Years Ago — Norfolk as a City — Norfolk Post Office — Norfolk Warehouse Association — 
Patriotism and Patriots of Norfolk — Suppression of the Slave Trade by Norfolk Committee of Safety — 
Notable Historical Incidents — The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities — The Wish- 
ing Oak — Fire History of Norfolk — Theatres — Charters of Norfolk— Changes Made in the Names of 
Streets Since 1865 — Mayors of Norfolk — Officers of the City of Norfolk — Losses Sustained in the Burning 
of Norfolk and Portsmouth by Lord Dunmore. 


History of the City of Portsmouth 368 

The Town — The First Act for Building the Tovifn — Grant to Craford — Will of the Founder — Dale Planta- 
tion — Extending the Boundaries — Tithables of 1798 — Incorporated as a town — Names of Squares — Effing- 
ham Street — Incorporated as a City — Changing the Wards — Historical Events — The Great Freeze — The 
August Storm — The Yellow Fever — The Gosport Iron Works — The United States Naval Hospital — Ports- 
mouth's Patriotism and Patriots — The Confederate Cause — The Portsmouth Fire Department — Great Con- 
flagrations — Mayors of Portsmouth — Roster of City Officers. 


Sketches of Berkley and Other Towns and Villages 399 

Berkley — Great Bridge — Port Norfolk and Pinner's Point — West Norfolk — South Norfolk — Gilraerton 
— Lambert's Point — Churchland — Ocean View — Willoughby Beach — Norfolk-on-the-Roads — Deep Creek. 


Banks, Industries, Commercial Institutions, Harbor Govern.ment and Masters of Arts 409 

Banks of Norfolk County — Industries — The Norfolk Silk Company — Lumber Mills — The Norfolk County 
F'isheries — Crab Fisheries — Oyster Industry — Rates of Wages for Skilled Labor and Clerical Work — The 
Business Men's Associations — The Board of Trade and Business Men's Association of Norfolk — The Ports- 
mouth Business. Men's Association — Government of Norfolk and Portsmouth Harbor — Masters of Arts 
of the L^niversitvof Virginia. 


The United States Navy Yard 418 

Advantages of its Situation — \'irginia Ownership — Gosport Navy Yard — Purchases of Land for the Navy 
Yard — Construction of the Stone Dry Dock — Improvement of the Navy Yard. 


The Confederate States Navy Yard 443 

The Evacuation and Destruction of the Navy Yard by the Federals — Occupation by the State Authorities 
— Turned Over to Confederate Government — Evacuation by the Confederates. 


The LIxited States Navy Yard 4.54 

Improvements — Simpson Dry Dock — Naval Constructor Bowles' Administration — Building the "Raleigh " 
and " Te.xas " — International Columbian Naval Rendezvous — Fitting out Ships for War with Spain — 
Records of Repair and Construction Work — The "Raleigh" and "Texas" in the Spanish-American War 
— Congressional Medals Awarded — U. S. Naval Hospital — Trophies of the Navy Yard Park — Command- 
ants of the Navy Yard. 


Sketches of Some of the Prominent .Men Who have Passed Away 488 

Capt. Adam Thorogood—Commodore Richard Dale — Commodore James Barron — Hon. Littleton W. 
Tazewell — Commodore Thomas Aloysius Dornin — Charles Reid — Hugh Blair Grigsby, LL. D. — Gen. 
Richard Lucian Page — Capt. Robert Baker Pegram — Capt. Charles Fenton Mercer Spottswood — Capt. 
James Wallace Cooke — Hon. George Blow — Capt. John Julius Guthrie — Capt. Carther Braxton Poindexter 
— Col. William White — Capt. William H. Murdaugh — Lieut. Dulany A. Forrest — Capt. James Barron 
Hope — Capt. William C. Wheeler— Naval Constructor George R. Boush — Capt. Walter R.' Butt — Lieut.- 
Col. William Frederick Niemeyer — Naval Constructor Samuel Wilson Armistead. 

Biographical. 505 

^2^ii-ii^ iSt<2<s!-^-^ 



Bistory of norfolk County 



Its Statesmk.n" — Soldiers — Gkand 

O, X'irginia! Beautiful name! A grand 
State! Her blue hills and green valleys and 
fertile plains bear eternal monuments of the 
chaste Ikjuot and magnificent chi\"alrv of her 

In colonial infancy, when South Carolina 
appealed for protection from the savage 
hordes, that were murdering her jjeople, \'ir- 
ginia gave her money and sent an army to save 

\\'licn Massachusetts invoked her noble 
spirit to resist the oppressions of George III, 
she gave great Washington to lead a feeble 
army to victory and success — eloquent Henry 
to kindle tlie lire of patri(rfism in the hearts, 
and scatter the incense of hope on the deeds of 
a people struggling for lijjerty — Mason to 
create the Jlill of Rights as the basis and 
foundation of government — Jefferson to indite 
a declaration to the world of a determination 
to absolve allegiance from the British Throne 
■ — ^ladison to draft the Constitution, the 
precious casket in which sparkles and glitters 
tlie jewel of American Freedom — Marshall, 
its most eminent expounder. Virginia gave 

! I^Ionroe, whose doctrine restrains the greeil of 
' imperial nations of the East and a cavalier of 
the ])urest days of chivalry for the emergency 
at Cuba — Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. Virginia gave 
to American literature a poet laureate, — James 
BarrO'U Hope. When her territory was re- 
quired, she donated the great Northwest to 
the American Union. 

A\"hen her Southern Sisters stirred the 
storm of war, and the world frowned on them, 
she clasjjed their hands and gave her blomn- 
ing lield^s for their battle grounds. 

Her Lee rose u]) to lead as the grandest 
soldier of the age — her "Stonewall" Jackson 
was the brightest marshal in all the armies — 
her soldiers, whom Pickett led, made Gettys- 
burg the shrine of heroism on the ^^'estern 
Continent — her Maury, as a i)hiloso])her, 
j moved the tln-oiics of the earth In bow lo his 

A proud Commonwealth, whose name in 
peace or war shines out in loveliest ligiit : I 
love Virginia! I love her for her grandeur in 
nature; I love her eternal mountains; her 
beautiful vallevs ; her crvstal rivulets; her 



noble rivers; her lowlands, and her tangled 
forests; I love the great billows that per- 
petually kiss her Eastern shores, and the white 
sand hills that drive them rushing and roar- 
ing back tO' the bosom of the mighty ocean ; 
I love her blue banner and its thrilling motto 
"Sic Semper Tyrannis." 

I love Virginia for her splendid history, 
fur lier untiring unselfishness, for her great 

soldiers and grand statesmen : I love her most 
for her beautiful and accomplisiied daughters 
whose transcendent virtues and graces have 
guilded her glorious memories through every 
generation with unfading splendor. 
! My heart bears to Virginia its most loyal 
i affection and my prayers shall ever be for her 
honor and her glory. — [Ed.] 




Discovery of Virginia ^ — ^New Norfolk Carved from Elizabeth City Shire — Lower 
New Norfolk Separated from Nansemoxd County — Early Settlement — In- 
cidents OF Pioneer Life — Early Settlers — Indian Tribes — Burgesses — Lower 
Norfolk County Divided — Physical Description of the County — ^Railroad 
and Steamship Lines — Colonial Homes — Articles of Apprenticeship — Bill of 
Sale for Slaves — Historical Incidents. 

discovery of VIRGINIA. 

Sir Walter Raleigh, the most gallant 
knight of Queen Elizabeth's Court, titted out, 
at his own expense, in the year 1585, the sec- 
nnd e.xpedition to discover and settle Virginia. 
The fleet was commanded by Sir Richard 
(irenville; and late in, June sailed through 
Ocracoke Inlet to Roanoke Island. The col- 
onists, 108 in numlier, were landed there, re- 
maining about one year, when desperate from 
])rivations they returned to England. During 
this period Ralph Lane while exploring north- 
ward, about 130 miles, from Roanoke Island, 
discovered tlie village of the Chesapeake In- 
dians on the Elizalieth River, and the great 
Chesapeake Bay. The first white men who 
ever trod the soil of Xorfulk Cmuity were 
Ralph Lane and his comrades. 

The Roanoke colonists learned from the 
Indians the use of tobacco, called by them 
uppozi'oc. The natives smoked' it : sprinkled 
the dust of it in their fishing traps, to make 
tliem lucky: burned it as a sacrifice to appease 
the anger of the gods : and scattered it in the 

air and on the water to allay the fury of the 
storm. Lane carried some to England, which 
is supposed to have been the first ever intro- 
duced into that kingdom. 

The next e.xpedition, sent out the ensuing 
}-ear, was directed to establish a colony at the 
\illage of the Chesapeakes under Gov. John 
\\'hite: but this was not carried out, owing 
to the refusal of the naval officer to co-operate 
in exploring- the country for that purpose. 
This colony was chartered by the title of "The 
Governor and Assistants of the City of 
Raleigh in Virginia." Had the orders of Sir" 
^\'alter Raleigh been carried out, the old 
"Burrough of Norfolk" would ha\-e been earlier 
Ijorn by another name. 

Capt. Christopher Newport discovered 
land on his entrance into Chesapeake Bay and 
named it Cape Henry, and Capt. John Smitli 
on his return from his three-months' cruise 
of discovery up the great bay sailed up the 
Chesapeake or Elizabeth River six or seven 
miles from its mouth and saw two or three 
cultivated patches and some cabins of the 
Chesapeake tribe of Indians, 



Stitli, in his history, writing oi Ralph 
Lane's explorers, says : 

To the Northward they went 130 miles to the Ches- 
apeakes. a Nation of Indians, seated on a small River, 
to the South of our Bay, now called Elizabeth river, 
from whom, as these first discoverers tell us, the Bay 
itself took its name. But some pretend to give another 
derivation of this word: and say, that Chesapeake sig- 
nified, in the Indian language. Tlic Mother of Waters; 
implying that it was the parent and grand reservoir of 
all the great rivers within jt. * * * * * This town of 
the Chesapeakes, we are told, for pleasantness of situ- 
ation, for temperature of climate, fertility of soil, and 
commodiousness to the sea, was not to be excelled by 
any in the world. 

This quaint language of the ancient his- 
torian very forcibly expresses the wonderful 
■.advantages which nature has bestowed on this 
locality, that is now rapidly developing into 
that greatness for which nature has for three 
hundred years in\-ited the white man tO' 

The Association for the Preservation of 
Virginia Antiquities on the 29th of April, 
1898, erected a tablet at Cape Henry in- 
scribed : 

Near this spot 

Landed April 26th, 1607, 

Capt. Gabriel Archer Christonher Newport, 

Hon. George Percy Bartholomew Gosnold, 

Edward Maria Wingfield 

With Twenty-five others 


Calling the Place 

Cape Henry 

Planted a Cross 

April 2Qth, 1607. 

"Dei Gratia Virginia Condita." 

Ralph Lane. Christciplier Newport and 
John Smith were the discm-erers of Lower 
Norfolk County. 


The plantations of Virginia were divided 
into eight shires in 1634, to be governed as the 
shires of England. Lieutenants were to be 
appointed as in the mother country with an 
especial duty to conduct the w'ars against the 
Indians. Elizabeth Citw extending on both 

sides of Hampton Roads, -was one of these 
original shires. New Norfolk was carved 
from' Elizabeth City ; and soon divided into 
Upper and Lower New Norfolk. The final 
determination of the boundaries between Isle 
of Wight, Upper Norfolk or Nansemond 
County, and Lower Norfolk County was en- 
acted by the General Assembly at James City 
or Jamestowi: at its session of 1642-43, which 
was the consummation of the organization of 
Lower Norfolk County. 

The topographical analysis of Virginia 
published with Jefferson's notes in 1792, says 
this county was named for the Duke of Nor- 
folk; but as it was first called New Norfolk 
County, it is reasonable to presume that it 
was named for Norfolk in England. 


The early settlement of this county was at- 
tended with all the difficulties, dangers and 
.exposures which environed the colonists in 
other sections of Virginia. The plantations 
were established along the banks of the Eliza- 
beth Ri\-er and its branches, and commimica- 
tion between them was almost entirely by boat. 
Out of the rugged life on these Virginia plan- 
.tations sprang a class of courtly gentlemen 
that has e^•er since been distinguished for open 
hospitality atid unbounded generosity. The 
planters were fond of society, indulged in all 
its pleasures and practiced all of its courtesies. 
The most influential citizens of Lower Norfolk 
County first settled in Elizabeth' City County ; 
but afterwards crossed Hampton Roads and 
made their plantations on the Elizabeth River, 
on the Lynnhaven River and on the East- 
ern, Southern and Western branches of the 


The first inhabitants were constantly in 
danger from treacherous and revengeful na- 
ti\'es; after the bloody massacre of 1622, laws 
were passed to enforce e\"ery precaution 



against amljush and sudilen assaults by the 
Indians. The settlers were required to sleep 
on their arms, keep watchmen behind palisad- 
ed houses at night, carry weapons while la- 
boring in the field and when assembled at 
church to worship God on the holy Sabbath. 
even when kneeling in prayer, their right 
hands must grasp the barrel of a faithful flint- 
lock as their uplifted left hands implored 
Heaven's protection. No hour in the day or 
night could they feel safe from the bloody 
hands of the wild men who roamed the wilder- 
ness as tigers, with all living creatures for 
their enemies. Besides all these dangers tO' 
their own lives, the country was infested with 
wolves, which destroyed their domestic ani- 
mals. The County Court on the 8th of Oc- 
tolier. 1639. took the matter in hand and re- 
solved "\\'hereas it doth appear that there 
are divers and many damages done unto cat- 
tie in this lower countv of New Norfolk by 
the hiultitudes of wolves which do frequent the 
woods and plantations, it is therefore ordered 
that any person whatsoever within the afore- 
said county shall kill any wolf and bring in 
the head to any ofiicer in said county, the said 
person for every wolf so killed shall be iiaid 
by the sheriff fifty pounds of tobacco." The 
price was afterward, in May, 1782, increased 
to 100 pounds net tobacco for every young 
wolf not exceeding six months of age, and 
200 pounds for those over that age in Norfolk 
and other counties named in the act of the 
legislature, which was to be in force for three 
years — so for one hundred and fifty years the 
yearly levy accounts of the county have 
charges for wolves' heads. 

There were few negro slaves in Lower 
Norfolk County during the early years of its 
histiiry. There were onlv two slave owners 
in the county in 1646 out of a population of 
about 700 souls, and 10 slaves. Six belonged 
to the estate of Capt. Adam TliDrogfXxl and 
the four others to Capt. Richard Parsons, who 
was granted a certificate for 200 acres of land 
for bringing them to the colony. Captain 
Thorogood sold one of his negroes, in Jan- 

uarv, 1637, to Christopher Burroughs with 
the option of paying for him in ten days or of 
returning him, and Mr. Burroughs decided to 
return him. 

I'irac)' was not uncommon in the early 
days of the Virginia Colony. One John Ball 
in 1642, an inhabitant of this county, influ- 

, enced Francis Lambert and certain servants of 
Capt. John Sibsey to unite with him in an 
expedition for plunder. They stole a lot of 
powder and balls from Phillip Land and de- 
signed stealing a shallop belonging to Captain 

' Sibsey, a pinnace from Captain Clayborne, a 
boat from Mr. Cotton, and then sailing out 
U])on the open seas. The plot was discovered 
and the culprits arraigned at the April court. 
The evidence was heard and their intentions 
were fully disclosed, "all of which the Court 
conceives to be very dangerous and bad ex- 
amples if not timely prevented, and have there- 

' fore ordered that the said Ball shall receive 
thirty lashes with a whip on his bare back, in 
the presence of the Court as a deserved pun- 
ishment for liis offense and to deter others 
from attempting or acting the like hereafter:" 
and b}- a further order of the court Francis 
Lambert was required "to give bond that he 
would, in future, forsake the said Ball's com- 
pany." Ball receixed his 30 lashes and had 
to pay the sheriff 20 ])Ounds of tobacco for 
administering the punishment. The servants 
of Captain Sibse\- were not tried ; but doubt- 
less were gi\'en solemn warning 1)v their mas- 
ter ti- sin no more. 

The men of those early days did not have 
the opportunities of these times to woo and 
wed aufl sometimes gain a fortune. \\'omen 
did not lea\e their native shores to seek for- 
tunes in the Western World with the eager- 
ness of' men, and he was fortunate who had 
])urchased a maiden for 120 pounds of tobacco 
from the cargo of a vessel which arrived at 
Jamestown with "ninety young women of 
good character for wives." It is not written 
whether the lord of any ])lantation in Lower 
Norfolk County secured one of this precious 
cargo for a wife: but the court records indi- 



cate tliat it was tlie custLim in tliese early days 
to require a man who married a widow to pay 
her first hiislDand's debts and many court or- 
ders were entered subsequent to^ this one of 
the 6tli of July, 1640, — "By virtue of an ex- 
ecutidu granted him on the 22nd of April, the 
sheriff \\ill levy upnn the estate of Thomas 
Cawson, who is indeljted tO' the said Allen five 
hundred pounds of tobacco by reason of mar- 
rying the widow Layton, whose husband, in 
his lifetime, was indebted as much to the said 
Allen." So' it appears that at least nne widt>w 
was worth o\-er four times the ^-alue of one 
of the maidens who came tiv Jamestown with 
the first installment. 

\\'e have read much about liricks imported 
from England t«:i construct the old colonial 
homes in which every Virginian has great 
pride : but this theory seems to be o\-erturne<l 
h_\- an order of the County Court (if the 15th 
of ^Nlarch, 1640. at which date Nicholas Wight 
was engag'ed in their manufacture at Kequo- 
tan, now Hampton, \'irginia. and appears to 
have supplied all the bricks used in Lower 
N<?rfolk Count}' about this period. 

The College of JJ'illiaiJi ami Mary Quar- 
terly says : 

Xo error is more persisted in tlian that our old 
colonial brick houses were made of "imported brick." 
There is no evidence that any house in Virginia was 
made of imported brick, while there is plenty of evi- 
dence of brick-niakine in \'irginia and of houses act- 
ually constructed of Virginia brick. The only circum- 
stances to support the tradition is that sometimes ships 
brought over a few bricks as ballast. But. like other 
ballast, they were generally dumped into the rivers and 
creeks. The tradition 'doubtless arose from the two 
kinds of brick in use in early Virginia: English brick. 
i. e.. brick made according to the English statute; and 
Dutch brick, i. e.. such brick as was commonly used in 
Holland. In the course of time a house which waa 
truly said to be made of "English brick." caine to sug- 
gest a construction of foreign brick, or imported brick. 

There was a tannery in full operation in the 
count}', carried on by Thomas Melton, who 
died in the midst of his operations, and tiie 
inventory of his estate shows that in addition 
to' the tools of the tannery he had on hand 
a stock of six hides, 28 deer skins and two 
goat skins. There was an incipient servile in- 

surrection in the ciaint}- in 163S during the 
absence of of Capt. John Sibsey from the 
count}- at James City in attendance upon the 
session of the House of Burgesses. His over- 
seer was extrernely severe with the servants 
on the plantation and in the language of the 
old record "they raised a meeting against 
him." The rising was easily suppressed and 
a hundred stripes apiece was the penalty for 
the participants. 

House carpenters were greatly in demand 
in the county, and a court order of the i8th 
of April, 1639, is a queer incident to us of 
those days. It says : "Whereas it ap])eareth 
to this Court that Thomas Hoult hath car- 
ried Thomas Cooper, of Elizabeth Ri\'er, car- 
penter, for Maryland, he, the said Cooper, be- 
ing much engaged in Virginia, it is therefore 
ordered that the said Thomas Hoult shall pro- 
ciu'e the (jii\-ernor (f Virginia's letter to the 
Governor of ^Nlarvland for his present re- 

All settlers were allowed to kill wild fowl 
and all wild animals in the common woods, 
e.xcept wild hogs. They could, howe\er, kill 
wild hoigs if found on their own land; but in 
order to encourage the destruction oi wolves, 
any jiersoii who killed a wolf was i>ermitted to 
kill a wild hog as a compensation. Had lui-d.- 
ern fire arms been in use. the colcinial sports- 
man would have realized indescribable pleas- 
ure; but the scarcitv of ammunition would 
not permit great indidgence in sporting. Mus- 
ket fiints even passed current for small change. 


The fnllowing are the names of some of 
the people who' lived in Lower Norfolk Coun- 
ty, between the years 1631 and 1645, and were 
among the first settlers. 

John .\v;s. Thomas .\llen, Thomas .\ndrews. 

ThoiTias Browne. Anne Eoswell. Job Brooke. John 
Barnett. Richard Betts. Dr. Thomas Bulloch. A\'illiani 
Berry. Robert Brodie. Jacob Bradshaw. 

Giles Collins. Thomas Cawson. John Carraway, 



John Clarke. Edward Coleman. Thomas Codd, Thomas 
Cheely. William Capps. 

William Deford. Richard Day. Daniel Dickson, 
John Drayton, Edward Dean, John Dicr. 

George Earle. 

John Farrer. John Ford, Richard Floyd. 

John Gardner. Jeane Gill>ert, Robert Gla.-cock. 
Alice Ga.<kins. John George. Cato Gari.son. John Gillam. 

Richard Horton. John Hallbeck. Richard Hitch- 
cock. Thoma-; Harington. Edward Hall. .Andrew Hill. 
Thomas Holt, (ieorge Hunter. Daniel Hopkinson. Bar- 
tholomew Hoskins. Henry Hankins. Cobb Howell. 
Thomas Hart. Richard Horner. Robert Harwood. Simon 
Hancock, John Holmes, Devine Hoges, George Harri- 

William Ironmonger. Thomas Ivy. 

Robert Johns. Henry Jackson. John Johnson. 

Richard Kempe. Richard King. Thomas Keeling. 
Xic Kent. Rowland Kenalds. 

Francis Linch. Thomas Lee. William Lanshier. 
Travis Lind. Thomas Lovitt. John Locke. 

Robert Martin. John McKire. John Mears. John 
Morris. William Mills. Thomas Marsh. Joe -Marshall. 

William Xash. 

Richard Owins. 

Himiphrey Price. William Penn. Thomas Parker. 
John Prince. Robert Page. John Phillips, Thomas 
Prichard. Rd. Poole. 

John Richardson. John Radford. 

-Alexander Stewart. John Sowell. Mary Stout. John 
Spenser. John Shaw. Elizabeth Silvester. John Strattnn. 
Thomas Sayer. Edm. Scarburg. Fred. Sinionds. James 
Smith. Thomas Sawyer, John Shelton, William Scott, 
John Spencer. 

Rot)crt Taylor. Thomas Turner, Thomns Todd, 
Thomas Tucker. 

Thomas L'nderwood. 

John White. John Webb. Ed. Wheeler, Thomas 
Warters. Edward Williams, Constantine Waddinaiton, 
Robert West, Henry Watson, John Watkins. John 
Wright. Richard Whitehurst. Robert Ward. George 
Wade. Thomas \". Walters. 

John Yates. 


.According to Capt. John Sinitli. that part 
of \"irginia tliat Hes between the sea and the 
mountains was inhabited by 43 different tribes 
of Inchans and 30 of them were united in a 
grand confederacy under tlie empercr Pow- 
hatan. His liere<litary dominions lay <n l>)th 
sides of the James River. This monarch was 
remarkable for the strength and vigor of his 
bodv as well as for the energies of his mind. 
He jxissessed great skill in intrigue and grc:it 
courage in battle. His equanimity in the ca- 
reer of victnrv was imly e<|ualed by his forti- 

tude in the hour of adversity. He commanded 
a resjiect rarely paid by savages to their 
wcrowaiicc, and maintainetl a ilignity and 
si)lendor worthy of the monarch of 30 nations. 
He was constantly attended by a guard of 40 
warriors, and during the night a sentry regu- 
larly watched his palace. His regalia was free 
from the glitter of art and showed only the 
simple royalty of the .savage. He wt>re a robe 
of skins, and sat on a throne spread with mats, 
and decked with pearls and Ijeads. The tribes 
of Norfolk County were under his sce])tre. 

It is described that the face of the Indian, 
when arrived at maturity, is a dark l;rown and 
chestnut. The continual exjKJsure tt^ the sun 
in summer and weather and smoke in winter 
and free use of bear's grease make his skin 
hard and dark. 

The hair is almost invariably of a coal 
black, straight and long: the cheek bones are 
high, and the eyes are black and full of a char- 
acter of wildness and fenxity that mark the 
unappeasable thirst of \engeance, and the free 
an<l uncontrolled indulgence of every tierce 
ami violent passion. The education of an In- 
dian, which commences almost with his birth, 
teaches him that dissimulation, which masks 
the thought ami smooths the coimtenance. is 
the most useful virtue: and there is a contin- 
ual effort to check the tierce sallies of the eye, 
and keep down the consuming rage of liis 
bos<im. His eye. therefore, is generally avert- 
ed or bent downwards. The terrible com- 
placency of the tiger is no inapt illustration of 
an TiKhan visage. 

The figure of an Indian is admirabl\' i)ro- 
portioned Ijeyond anything that has hitherto 
lieen seen in the human form. Tall, straight: 
the mu.scles hardened by continual action of 
the weather: the limbs supple by e.xercise and 
perhaps use of oil. He out-strips the bear, 
and runs down the buck and elk. Nf> such 
thing is to Ije found as a dwarfish, crooked. 
bah<ly-legged or otherwise misshapen Indian. 

The Indians had no idea of distinct and 
exclusive property : the lands were in common, 
and e\erv man had a right to ch(X)se or aban- 



•don his situation at pleasure. Their mude of 
computation was hv units, tens and luuKh-eds, 
and some could reckon to a thousand ; but to 
express great numbers thev had to resort Uj 
something- indefinite; as numerous as the 
pigeons in the woods or the stars in the heav- 
ens. Thev reckoned their years 1)\' winters, 
or coliiin/cs. which was a name taken from the 
call of the wild geese wliich thev fi.und in 
their annual \isits t(v Currituck Soinul. The}' 
di\-ided the year into h\"e seasc-ns : the bud- 
ding time or blossoming of the spring; the 
earing of the corn or roasting ear time; the 
summer or liighest sun ; the corn-gathering or 
fall of the leaf: and the winter or cohoiiks. 
They counted the months by the moons, liut 
had no distinction for hours of the day. They 
kept accounts by knots on a string, or notches 
■on a stick. 

The Indian tribes of tliis count}- were the 
Chesapeakes, village was near the pres- 
ent site of Norfolk, with loo fighting men, 
which, including women and children. prol.)a- 
bly made a population of 400. and the Nanse- 
mrmds. The tribe of the Curritucks lixecl on 
the south lieyond our present state line; but 
had hunting grounds in the southern part of 
the county. The Nansemonds were on the 
west and at ime time had a village in the coun- 
ty near Bower's Hill. Capt. Jolui Smith gave 
them 300 fighting men. .-Vfter the peace of 
1646 the Indians were allowed to own the 
land thc\' then held in ])ossession, and so' some 
of the Nansemonds continued to- live on their 
lands around Bower's Hill. The Basses. 
^^'ea\ 'i'rs. Terkins, Brighls and Prices are old 
families, when now reside thereabouts. The 
descendants and kin of the Nansemonds now 
residing in the county numljer over i8o per- 
sons. .An Indian chapel was Iniilt at Bower's 
Hill in 1850, where the red men of the Meth- 
odist faith wnrshiiied until it was destroyed by 
the ravages of war in 1862. 

The ci unity of Lower Norfolk was divided 
into two parishes, Lynnhaven and Elizal)eth 
River, which were rc])resented in the House 
of Burgesses, the first deliberate assembl\ 

oi America, which owes its foundation to the 
London Company and dates from June, the 
30th of July or the 9th of August, 1619, as 
historians variously' fix, — Henning says in 
June. It was convened by Gov. George 
"^I'eardh-. win; is the father of free govern- 
ment in America, at Jamestown, the capital of 
the Colony of \Trginia. The first representa- 
tion of L(-)wer Norfolk County of which we 
lia\e aiiv record was in 1637. This fact is 
shnwn b\- the court proceedings. 


Capt. John Sibsev and l^clxrt Haves — Taniiarv, 
I ('.?;. 

Henry Sewcl! and John Hill — 1639. 

Cornelius Lloyd and Edward Windham — 16-IJ-43. 

Cornelius Lloyd and John Sidney — 1644. 

Edward Lloyd and Thomas Mears — 1644-45. 

Cornelius Lloyd and X'phcr Burroughs — Novem- 
ber, 1645. 

Edward Lloyd. Thomas Mcars and Robert Eyers — • 
October, 1646. 

Lieuts. Jolui Sidney. Henry Woodhouse, Cornelius 
Lloyd and Thomas Mears — November. 1647. 

Bartholomew Hoskins and Thomas Lambert — Oc- 
tober. 1649. 

Cornelius Lloyd. Thomas Lambert. Henry Wood- 
house and Charles Burrows — April, 1652. 

Lieut. -Col. Cornelius Lloyd, Maj. Thomas Lambert 
and Charles Burrows — November, 1652. 

Col. Francis Ycrly and Lieut. -Col. Cornelius Cal- 
vert — July, 1653. 

Bartholomew Hoskins and Lyoncl Mason — No- 
vember. 1654. 

Capt. Richard Foster and Col. Tlionias Lambert — 
March. 1655. 

Col Jolm Sidney and Col. Thomas Lambert — 1656. 

Col. John Sidney and Mai. Lenuicl ^L^5on — • 
March. 1657. 1658-59 and 1650-60. 

Maj. Lemuel Mason — 1662. 

Capt. .\dam Thorogood and Ca]it. William Car- 
vcr^October. 1666. 

Col. William Craford— 1688. 

William Bradley and Thomas Veale — 1765. 

John Porter was elected to the House of 
Burgesses for the session 1663 as a colleague 
of ]\raj. Lemuel Mason and was expelled on 
tlie I2th of September from the House of 
P)Urgesses upon the information of John Hill, 
high sheriff o-f Lower Norfolk Count}", for 
lining the Quakers, opposition to infant bap- 
tism and refusing to take the oaths of al- 
legiance and supremacy. 

The biu-gesses had been elected by vote 



lOliKtcii 111 ill lu^eiiiiidci >. lull the riglil ui 
siift'rajje was extended and at court held Oc- 
tc'l)er iSth. 1639. it was ordered that "Wliere- 
as. bv act of Court made by Governor and 
Council at James City on tlie 10th of tlie pres- 
ent October, it is ordered the commissioners 
of each county, with tlie consent of all the 
freemen, shall choose Burgesses for their 
County, it is therefiire thought fit by the 
Court, as also with the consent of the free- 
men, that Mr. Henry Sewell and Mr. John 
Hill should be Burgesses for the County." 
The burgesses received no salary for their 
services, but their ex])enses were reimbursed 
by the county, and they were very liljeral to 
themselves. The expenses for the session of 
April. 1642. were reported at 5.501 pounds of 
tobacco, and an itemized acc<junt of the ex- 
penses of two burgesses at the session of 1640 
embraced "four hogs, twenty pounds of but- 
ter, two bushels of peas, a barrel of corn, a 
case of strong waters, a hogsJiead of Ijeer and 
a man to dress the said victuals." 

The election of members to the first Gen- 
eral Assembly by b<:>roughs caused the lower 
house to be called the of Burgesses. 
Burgesses were privileged from arrest for 
del)t. The right of suffrage was abridged in 
1655. but was again extended in i'^)57-58 to 
embrace all freeinen. The Grand Assembly 
of 1659-60 passed a law pri.>hibiting any bur- 
gess of that session from accepting any other 
place or office upon penalty of paying 10,000 
ptamds of tobacco for his contempt. The right 
of suffrage was again restricted in 1670 to 
freeholders and housekeepers: but was ex- 
tended in 1676 to embrace all freeholders and 
freemen. So it appears that the question of 
suffrage often agitated the inhabitants of the 
Colony as well as now those of a State in the 

Sheriffs were- first appointed for the sev- 
eral shires in 1634 with the same ix>wers as 
such officers had in England and in 1642-43 
their tenn was restricted to one year. The 
Assembly in 1655 enacted that the commis- 
sioners of everv countv should recommend 

three <jr iiuMe to liic ( io\crni r and Council, 
who should select from, those recommended 
the one whom they thought best fitted for 
sheriff, and this course was pursued all 
through the colonial days and long after the 
indqiendence, so it became a custom that the 
oldest commissioner or justice of the jieace 
could always become the sheriff if he so de- 


The territory, of which is written above, 
embraced all from the east line of Nansemond 
County to the Atlantic Ocean, which, as the 
population increased and spread, was too large 
for the convenience of the people, and hence 
there was a clamor for a division on the line 
of the two parishes of Elizabeth River and 
Lynnhaven, so an act was passed cutting 
Lower Norfolk Countv in two. and forming 
Princess .\nne County and the Norfolk Coun- 
ty to which these pages are especially dedi- 

At a General Assembly begun at James 
City, on the i6th day of Ai)rii. 1691. and in the 
third year of the reign of William and Mary, 
King and Queen of England, Scotland. France 
and Ireland, the Norfolk County to which these 
pages are devoted was organized and estab- 
lished by the following designated ACT XX, 
being the Act but" one passed that session: 

Forasmuch as by the largeness of the Count}' of 
lower Norfolk, many inconvenience? are found by the 
inhabitants of the lower part of said county bounding 
i^n the main ocean and the parts of Xorth Carolina, 
which have been by the said inhabitants much com- 
plained of, and now from the said inhabitants of tl" 
Eastern parts remonstrated to this general assembly as 
a grievance, wherein they pray to be redressed. 

Be it therefore enacted by their majesties lieutenani 
Go-.\-rnour. Council and Burgesses of this present gen- 
eral assembly, and the authority thereof, and it is here- 
/'v enacted. That the said county of lower Norfolk 
-h.T!l 1)6 divided and made two counties In manner fol- 
lowing, that is to say. beginning at the new inlet of 
Little Creeke. and so up the said Creeke to the dams 
between Jacob Johnson and Richard Drout. and so out 
of the said dams up a branch, the head of which branch 
Iveth between the dwelling house of William iloseley. 
Senr.. and the new dwelling house of Edward Webb, 



and so to run from the head of said branch on a direct 
line to the dams at the head of the Eastern branch of 
Elizabeth River, the which dams He between James 
Kemp and Thomas Ivy, and so down the said branch 
to the mouth of a small branch or gutt that divides the 
land which Mr. John Porter now lives on, from the 
land he formerly lived on, and so up the said small 
branch according to the bounds of the said plantation, 
where the said Porter now hveth. and from thence 
to the great swamp, that lyeth on the East side of 
John Shawlands, and so along the said great swamp 
to the North river of Corotucke, and down the said 
North river to the mouth of Simpson creeke, and so up 
the said creeke to the head thereof, and from thence by 
a south line to the bounds of Carolina, and that this 
division shall be, and remaine the bounds between, the 
said two counties, which shall hereafter be and be held, 
deemed and taken as and for two entire and distinct 
counties, each of which shall have, use. and enjoy all 
the liberties, priviledges and advantages of any other 
county of this colony to all intents and purposes what- 
soever, an;! that the uppermost of the said two cou^ities. 
in which Elizabeth river and the branches thereof are 
included, doe retain and be ever hereafter called and 
known by the name of Norfolk Conntie. and that the 
other of the said counties be called and known by the 
name of Princess Ann County ; and for the due ad- 
ministration of justice. Be it enacted by the authority 
aforesaid, and it is hereby enacted, That a court forJ 
the said Princess Ann County be constantly held by 
the justices thereof upon the second Wednesday of the 
month in such manner as by the law of this countrey 
is provided, and shall be by their commission directed. 


Norfolk County lies in the southeast cor- 
ner of the State, hordering on Hampton Roads 
and Chesapeake Bay, with only one county 
( Princess Anne) between it and the sea. It 
is about 32 miles long, north and south, and 
17 miles wide, containing nearlv ^^o square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Chesa- 
peake Bay and Ha.mpton Roads, on 'the east 
by Princess Anne County, on the south by 
North Carolina and on the west 1>y Nanse- 
mond County, Elizabeth Ri\-er and Hampton 
Roads. The county is penetrated liy seyeral 
arms of the sea. — Tanner's Creek. Broad 
Creek, Mason's Creek and Deep Creek, — 
which with the three branches of the FJizabetli 
Riyer. — the "Eastern Branch." "Western 
Branch" and "Si.uthern Branch." — and the 
North West River constitute a \'ery tine water 
system, and places each farm in Norfolk Coiin- 
tv within a few miles nf w.ater traus]>ortation. 

insuring to the Norfolk County farmer the 
cheapest transportation in the world. 

Two canals connect the waters of the 
Chesapeake with those o^f the North Carulina 
system of sounds and rivers, thus.makiijg all 
of Eastern Carolina tributary to the Norfolk 
and Portsmoutli harbor by water. Twehe 
railroads terminate in the Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth harbor, all connected by the Belt Line 
Railroad, cutting Norfolk County in all di- 
rections. Nine beautiful shell turnpikes alsn 
traverse Norfolk County in all directions. 
Therefore we may safel}' claim that the 
Norfolk Ciiunty farmer is better sui)])lied 
with transportation facilities than the farm- 
ers of any other county oif the United States. 
Nearly all the streams of water in N(n-folk 
County are afifected by the tide, the tide ebbing 
and flowing to the very head of the streams. 
This constant ebbing and flowing of the tide 
carries the salt, pure waters of the ocean twice 
e\-ery 24 hours up all these streams, and makes 
it r|uite impossible for any water tO' become 
stagnant or imjitu'e. These arms of the sea 
also' afiford the finest natiu'al drainage known. 
The excess of rainfall runs into' them without 
e\-en di)ing a dollar's worth of damage by 
flood or freshet. The soil (if Norfolk County 
is of t\v(y general kinds, viz. : a clay-loam 
and a sand-loam, all underlaid with a g( nd. 
substantial clay sul>soil. The surface of the 
county is from eight tO' 20 feet aliove the sea 
le\el. The mean annual rainfall is about ^2 
inches, well distrilnited throughout the year, 
of which amount about .^5 inches falls during 
the growing season, say from the ist of IMarch 
to the rst of October, The thermometer 
ranges in summer from 70 to 90 degrees, sel- 
dom going to' 95 al)ove zero, while in winter 
it never goes to 20 degrees abo\-e zero more 
tbani three days all told during the winter, 
'idiis cutting oft' of the two extremes of heat 
and cold is caused by the fact that the country 
is practicallv surrounded on three sides by 
salt water, and the water never goes to either 
extreme, as the water temperature is f|uite 
imiform throuo-hout the year. The Gulf 






o = 



-iJ!>»>. V ; 


Stream, tlial great wonder of the Atlantic, 
wliicli rolls only a few miles off our coast on 
its way to Europe, has a very pleasing effect 
on <nir winter clinaate. 


Below are the names of 12 railroads hav- 
ing terminals here. These roads reach cottr>n. ; 
sugar, rice, fruit and timber lands ot the 
South; coal fields, iron mines, granaries of 
the West, and great commercial and manu- 
facturing centers of the Xorth. 

Seaboard Air Line. 2.60a niilc.^. 

Southern Railway. 5.249 miles. 

-Atlantic Coast Line. 1.567 miles. 

Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. 1.455 miles. 

.Atlantic & Danville Railway. 278 miles. 

Norfolk & Western Railway. 1.570 miles. 

Xorfolk & Ocean View Railwav. to Old Point, 19 

Xorfolk & Atlantic Terminal Company, to Old 
Point. 18 miles. 

Xorfolk & Portsmouth Belt Line. 10 miles. 

Xorfolk. Virginia Beach & Southern Railroad. 40 , 

N'orfolk & Southern Railroad and water lines. 510 

Xew York. Philadelphia & X'orfolk Railroad. 112 

Xorfolk and Portsmouth harlior is tlie 
most l)eautiful and spacious on the Atlantic 
coast; it is safe for the smallest craft in tlie 
severest storms, and in the extremely cold 
weather is o])en to navigation. Its channel 
way. 28 feet depth at low water, is sufficient 
to float the largest vessels in the world. j 

Xorfolk County's shi]>]>ing is handled by I 
22 steamship lines, making direct trips from 
this port.— to Europe, to the West Indies 
and to the large cities on the .\tlantic Coast. 
Light draft l)oats navigate all rivers of Vir- 
ginia and Carolina, offering quick and cheap 
communication with 500 small cities, towns, 
villages and stations at which merchandise is 
delivered and farm pniducts and lumber load- 
ed for this market. These lines are as fol- 
lows : 

Clyde Line, to Philadelphia. 
Weems Line, to Rappahannock. 

Pcttit's Line, to Xorth Carolina. 

Bennett's Line, to Xorth Carolina. 

Xorfolk and M'est In<lia Fruit Line. 

Xorfolk and Old Point and Hampton. 

\'irginia Xavigalion Company, to Richmond. 

Baltimore Steam Packet Company, to Baltimore. 

Xorfolk and Xewport Xews and Smithficld. 

Norfolk and Wasliington Steamboat Company, to 

James River Steamboat Company. Norfolk to 

Norfolk and Xansemond River landings and .Suf- 

Old Dominion Steamship Company, to Richmond 
and Xew York. 

United States Shinoing Company, to Great Britain 
and the Continent. 

Baltimore. Chesapeake & Richmond Steamboat 
Comnany. to Baltimore. 

The Xorth .American Transport Company, to 
Great Britain and the Continent. 

X'orfolk and Back River. Poquosin and York riv- 
ers, including West Point. 

Petersburg & Xorfolk Line, to Petersburg. Xor- 
folk. Claremont and Richmond. 

Merchants" & Miners' Transportation Company, to 
Baltimore. Boston and Providence. 

Xorfolk and landings in East. Ware and Severn 
rivers in Mathews and Gloucester counties. 

Of the colonial homes in X'orfolk Countv, 
Virginia, few are prettier than that of the 
Talljot family on Tanner's Creek, about three 
miles north of Xorfolk. The plantation upon 
which this is situated is known as "Talbot 
Hall." and was purchased in 1774 by the 
great-grandfather of the present owner, 
Thomas Tallx>t, from \\'illiam Langley, to 
whose grandfather it had been patented in 
1675 as a tract of 829 acres, in consideration 
of his having imported into the colony 17 per- 

The house is built of bricks which were 
burned u]>on the premises nearby, and there 
is still a large sink or depression in the yard, 
whence the clay for the bricks was dug. I-'ifty 
years ago the exterior walls were stuccfied 
and a slate roof placed over the original 
shingle roof. The was started in 1799 
l)y Solomon Butt Talbot, and was three years 
in building — so careful was construction in 
those days. It stands solidly today with its 
thick walls and .stout timljers. There is a 
cellar and two stories and an attic. In the 
parlor over the mantel there stands out in re- 



lief ill the plastering an American eagle with 
17 stars over his head, and underneath the 
words "E Pluribus Ununi." Th.e 17 stars in- 
dicate that the plastering was not put up until 
after the admission of OItIo. the seventeentli 
State, into the Union, which occurred on No- 
vember 29th, 1802. It is said that during the 
Confederate War, this emblem saved the house 
from being burned by the passing Federal 

Surrounding the dwelling there is a large 
yard, which is half a mile in circumference, 
and contains about 10 acres. This yard fronts 
on Tanner's Creek, about one mile eastwardly 
from the bridge o-f the Sewell's Point trolley 
line, and commands a good view out to the 
Elizabeth River. It contains numerous out- 
buildings and some of the fines't and largest 
shade trees in this portion of the State. 
Among the ^■arieties of trees are elms, cedars, 
English walnut, lindens, cypress, magnolias, 
locusts, pine, spruce, black walnut, beech, 
oaks, mulberry, holly, persimmon, horse chest- 
nut and several varieties of fruit trees. In a 
corner of the yard over a cool spring there is 
an old brick dairy house, in which dairy prod- 
ucts were kept cool, long the davs of ice 
factories. On the shore there is a nice bath- 
ing beach, and the stream yields the finest fish 
and oysters. On everv liand tliere are sug- 
gestions of the Irmg ago. 

A list of the historic homes in Norfolk 
County would be incomplete without mention 
of the homestead of Kafler Talbot on Tan- 
ner's Creek, about a half mile eastwardly from 
the Indian Pole Bridge, and now reached over 
the Cottage Toll Bn'do-e Rc-id. Tlie nlnnfa- 
tion formerly contained t,ooo acres,, and the 
part upon which the main dwelling now 
■Stands is owned by George Cromwell. This 
dwelling was built about 1780, and is of brick, 
stuccoed, and has a shingle roof. The archi- 
tecture is unusual in that the rooms on the 
lower or parlor floor have cnlv about nine feet 
of pitch, while the ceilings unstairs are about 
JT feet high. The home, wliicli was formerly 
the scene of man\- brilliant fetes, occupies a 

commanding situation on Tanner's Creek. On 
the shore in front of the dwelling, at the be- 
ginning of the last century, Kader Talbot had 
marine railways and a shipyard, at which large 
sailing vessels were built. From the size of 
the vessels built, it is presumed that the pres- 
ent shoals at the mouth of Tanner's Creek 
did not then exist. Whenever a vessel was 
launched, there always followed an 
ioned "frolic" and dance at the dwelling, 
which was a great . occasion in the neighbor- 
hood. Kader Talbot died in 181S, and not 
man}- decades later his plantation, like so 
many of the old Virginia homesteads, became 
the property of another family. In 1816 he 
gave the homestead to his daughter. Elizabeth 
Cocke, who sold it in 1843 ^o P. N. Bristoll. 
Its present o\vner has been mentioned above. 

On page 24 of this work are shown views 
of the twO' Talbot homes, also a view of the 
colonial house built in 1744 by Willis Wilkins, 
and a reproduction from an old print of the 
first court house belonging" to the borough of 
Norfolk, which structure was" built in 1790. 
On a succeeding page of this history is shown 
a view of the mansion house on the plantation 
of Col. ^^^illiam Craf(;rd, tlie founder of Ports- 
mouth, which house is now occupied by the 
Guthries, children of the distinguished Captain 
Guthrie, who sacrificed his life in attempting 
to save the crew of the wrecked U. S. S. 
"Hunm." The celebrated Commodore Rich- 
ard Dale was born on this i^lantation. which 
was devised hv Colonel Craford to' his kins- 
man. Daniel Dale. 

In the early days, prior to the Revolution, 
shiip-builders had frequent occasion to take 
boys as apprentices and teach them the trade. 
.\ specimen of the contract of apprenticeship 
then in \-( igue, prepared by a con\-eyancer, reads 
as follows : 

Ndrfdik rminty: This Indenture witne.sseth that 
Mary Frost of the parish nf EHzabeth River and Coun- 
ty of Norfolk aforesaid Hatli pnt licr son Noah Frost 
"'ith his own Consent an aporenticc to .\. R. C. of said 
County and Parish aforesaid Shipliuilder to learn his 
art, and with him after the manner of an apprentice. 
To Sarve from llie Pate hearof until the full End and 



term ui In i' years from thence next Ensuing, and fully 
to be Conipicat ami Kiidctl. During which time the 
>aiil Apprentice his said master faitlifuU shall and will 
>arve. his secrets Keep, his lawfull Commands cvery- 
whare gladly do, he shall do no Damage to his said 
master nor see it Dun by Others without giving notice 
to his said master of the same. The gcxids of his said 
masters he shall not waste, he shall Nither buy nor 
sell without his masters leave. Taverns. Inns, or Ale- 
houses lie shall not haunt. .Xt Cards. Dice. Table, or 
any other unlawful! game he shall not Play. Forni- 
cation he shall not Commit. Xor from the Sarvice of 
his said master day or night he shall not absent him- 
self. But in all things as an Honest. Diligent and 
laithfull apprentice shall and will doe and behave him- 
self towards his said master, and all during the said 
term the said master his said apprentice shall teach 
the art of a Ship Builder which he now useth. shall 
Teach and Instruct or Cans to be Tought and In- 
structed as fir as in his power lies Dureing the said 
term, finding to his said apprentice meat Apparrell. 
washing and Lodging and all other Necessarys fitting 
for such an .Apprentice during the said Term, and for 
the True Ferformenls of all and Every the Covenants 
and agrcanients aforesaid Either of the said parties 
bindeth himself unto the other firmly by these Pres- 
ents. In witness whareof. the Partys alxjve said to 
this Indenture as also the said apprentice Hath sett 
tliare hands and seals This fnurtli Dav of Decemlier 


Mary X Frost 



Signed Scaled & Delivered 

Noah Frost 


In the Presents of 

John Willoughhv 

A. B. C. 


Peter Frost 

The following copy of a bill of sale, ex- 
ecuted in 1759, shows the usual form of con- 
tract under which slaves were sold, and indi- 
cates the value of slaves at that date. In this 
colony the pound and shilling equaled $3.33 
and $0.16 2-3, respectively. 

Know all men by these presents that I. Samuel 
Langley of Xorfolk Coimty in \'irginia for and in Con- 
sideration of the sum of One hundred and sixty-two 
potmds ten shillings current money of Virginia to me 
in hand by A. B. C. of Xorfolk County in Virginia 
aforesaid the receipt of which I do hereby acknowl- 
edge. Iiave bargained sold and delivered unto the said 
-V B. C. Six Xegroe Slaves Xamely. Bob, Kate, Nan. 
Slaven. Judey. Shebath. To have and to hold the said 
slaves forever, and I do hereby warrant and defend the 
said slaves against all persons whatsoever claiming or 
hereafter may claim unto the said .•V. B. C his Heirs 
and -Assigns forever. In witness whereof I have here- 

unto sett my hand and seal this twenty-first day of 
April, One thousand seven hundred and sixty-nine, 
witness Samuel Langley (Se.m.) 

James .Ashley 
Barth'w Thompson. 


Ensign Thomas W'illuughby came to \'ir- 
ginia at the age of twenty-three on the ship 
"Prosperous" in 1610. He first located on 
the peninsula and afterward settled near Ocean 
View in Norfolk County. 

A statement of Henry Scwcll's account 
with his factor in the year 1638 "of tobacco 
sent over in the ships 'Alexandria' and 'Amer- 
ica,' and for one-half i>f the cargo of a shal- 
lop loaded with- sassafras roots to be sold in 
England," shows his cash receipts to ha\e 
been £610, 19s. 8d. 

On the i8th day of ^larch, 1642, the 
County Court granted a certificate for 200 
acres of land to Capt. Richard Parsons for 
bringing into the Colony, John, the negro, his 
wife and child, Basteano, a negro, Christo- 
pher, an Indian and his o\vn tran->ix>rt. 

On June 15, 1668. William Fitzhugh 
wrote to ^\'illiam Cooper, his merchant in 
London, to send him "three couples of Rab- 
bits. " 

The following prescription dates back to 
the Revolutionary j-.eriod, and indicates the 
way our grandfathers took medicine. The 
ailment the pills were given for is not stated 
in the original. 

Half an ounce of Rhubarb, half an ounce of Jal- 
lap. mix with Casteal soap, add a little honey, make up 
into Pills about the size of a garden pea. 2 or 3 at 
night will do. 

In 1781, while the British were occupying 
Portsmouth, a number of officers took pos- 
session of the residence i;f Isaac Luke, Esq.. 
oiOsorth Court street for their headquarters. 
Isaac was a man of large means and kept the 
customary wine cellar of those days. On one 
occasion the British officers made a drunken 
revelry on his wine, broke the bottles o\er the 
floor and compelled him to walk barefooted 


u\er tlie l>roken glass. His daughter. Eliza- 
beth, then a young lady of 17 years, was be- 
trothed to Capt. \\'illiam Porter of the Vir- 
ginia Line in the American Army, and wore 
a handsome diamond engagement ring — this 
ring attracted the notice O'f one of the offi- 
cers and he attempted to rob her of it by force. 
Breaking from him, she ran out on the back 
porch, slipped the ring- from her finger and 
threw it among the weeds and tall grass which 
were growing in the Ijack yard. It thus es- 
cai>ed the clutches of the Englishman, buit, 
unfortunately, it was so well concealed there 
she herself was unable to find it, — the loss of 
the ring, however, did not ha^'e the effect upon 
her engagement that some superstitious i^er- 
sons might suppose. She and Captain Porter 
were married October 21, the following vear, 
one )'ear after the surrender of Cornwallis at 

December 20, 1787, an act was passed pro- 
\'i(Iing for the establishment of a marine lins- 
pital for the reception of aged and disabled 
seamen at Washington, in the county of Nor- 
folk. This building is now the Ryland In- 
stitute. Berkley. On December 24, 1790, it 
\\as ordered that the Marine Hospital be sold 
and nne-half of the proceeds go to Norfolk 
for supjwrt of the academy and one-half be 
paid trustees to erect a school in the town of 
Portsmouth to educate orphan children. 

At a County Court held on, the 20th nf 
May, 1795, Lieut. William Wilson, of Fort 
Nelson was tried for the murder of Lieut. 
Charles Harrison, of Fort Norfolk, and ac- 
quitted, and on the 26th Edward Voss, 
charged with being accessory to the death of 
Lieutenant Harrison, was discharged. This 
tri;il was evidently the result of a duel. 

(Jn July 13, 1803, Jerome Bonaparte ar- 
rived here in a vessel from the West Indies 
and left for Baltimore in a sloop with Captain 

On May 31, 1815, the steamtoat "Eagle," 
Captain Rodgers, was advertised to leave for 
Baltimore. She was the first steamboat re- 
ciirded as ajipearing in these waters. 

On December 15. 1815, a boat built near 
the Peak's of Otter arrived, bringing one bar- 
rel of flour that had been ground on the 
Staunton River and intended as a present to 
the boro'Ugh of Norfolk. She came down the 
Dan and Staunton rivers to the Roanoke, 
down that river to Albemarle Sound, toiiching 
at Edenton and Elizabeth City and through 
the Dismal Swamp Canal. R. S. \\'. Cabell, 
Philip Paine. Carter Harrison, and Samuel 
Pannil, members of the North Carolina Legis- 
lature, were passengers. The intention of this 
voyage was to demonstrate how the products 
of that section could reach tidewater. 

In 1 8 16 William Pennock advertised "200 
kegs of pickled oysters," part cargo of the 
schooner "Venus" from the Isle of Guernsey, 
coast of France and said to be of superior 

1816— May 19th— Died, William Pen- 
nock. He came here from Maryland soon 
after the Revolution. He was an' extensive 
merchant, owning at one time 'over 40 square- 
rigged vessels, all built here, and engaged in 
foreign trade, and the captains and mates resi- 
dent in Norfolk and Portsmouth. In fact, the 
principal occupation oi" both towns was ship- 
building and' seafaring. Simmon's directory 
of 1 80 1 gives names of 83 captains and mates 

On April 3, 1821. at the launching of the 
new steamboat "Hampton," built to ply be- 
tween Norfolk and Hampton, at this shipyard, 
near the draw bridge, Edmund Allmand, ship- 
builder, was killed b}- the falling of a spar. 

May 21, 1822, — Launched from shipyard 
of William F. -Hunter, ait foot of Nebraska 
street, Norfolk, steam brig "New York." Her 
owners were George and W'illiam Rowland, 
Capt. Richard Churchward, John Tunis, John 
Allmand and the builder. She was 260 tons, 
50 horse-power and built to ply between New 
York and Norfolk. The Scieiitifie Ainericaii 
credits her as being the second steam \-essel 
built in the L'nitecl States to navigate the 
ocean, succeecHng the historic "SaN'annah," 
Captain Rodgers. -V handsome oil painting 



of tliis ship was made to the order of the Old 
Dtuninion Steain>hi|) Company and deposited 
in Sailors' Snug Harbor. Staten Island. Xew 
York, and a copy of the same presented to the 
Norfolk Chamber of Commerce, where it now 

In 1826 lucifer matches were ad\ertised for 
sale by Joseph T. Allyn. Price. — 25 cents a 
bo.x of 100 matches. 

December 28. 1828. Capt. Roger Quarle-. 
an old shijj-master, died. In the \\ ar of 1812 
he fitted out at h'is own cost the privateer 
"Roger." and was noted for his success and 
skill, bringing many prizes that he captured 
from the British into this port. He died at 
the residence of Capt. Richard Drummond. 
who then owned all of Ghent. 

The new steamboat "Lady of the Lake." 
built by Capt. Guy C. Wheeler at his shii)- 
yard in Portsmouth, came down under her 
own steam July 3, 1830. from Mr. Russel's 
machine shop on Holt street. Briggs" Point, 
where her machinery was put in under Thom- 
as Murphy. Mr. Russel cast bells for 
churches, etc. : he made the iron railing around 
Christ Church, the patterns for which were 
taken from the Lnited States Bank, on Chest- 
nut street, Philadelphia. 

1829 — April i6th — The Virginia and 

North Carolina Transportation Companv con- 
tracted for and had completed in thirty days 
10 vessels for the canal trade at the following 
shipyards : Josq>h Porter. Portsmouth ; John 
0\erton. Portsmouth: Miles. Chambers & 
Hathaway. Portsmouth ; Ryan & Gayle. Port.s- 
mouth; Oney S. Cameron, ^'orfolk; Isaac 
Talbot, Norfolk: and Tohn G. Collev, Nor- 

On March 30. 1837. there arrived the 
Erench frigate "Andromede," frtnn Rio de 
Janeiro ; Lcniis Naix>leon Bonaparte ( after- 
ward King Louis Na]>oleon). passenger. He 
])ut up at I'rench's Hotel, corner of i\Iain and 
Chiuxh streets, Norfolk, now John Willis' 
furniture house. 

On November 28. 1817. the ship ".Atlas" 
from Havre. France, arrived in the port; a 
part of her cargo was furniture for the White 
House in Washington. This was severely 
commented upon. Was .\merican-made fur- 
niture not good enough for an American- 
made president? 

On December 4. 1817. a list of about 300 
persons was published for failing tr> attend the 
regular musters of the militia during the year, 
with the amount of fines imposed ranging 
from $5.00 to $25.00 each. 



Indian Wars — Colonial Officers and Soldiers — Manner of Bearing Expenses of the 
Indian Wars — Colonial Military Tactics — Committee of Safety — Revolutionary 
Times — Dunmore's Doings — Battle of Great Bridge — Correspondence of Wood- 
ford AND Howe — Destruction of Norfolk — Other Invasions and Depredations 
of the British — Some Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolution — Itemized 
Statement of Losses Sustained by a Citizen of Norfolk During the Bombard- 
ment — British Property Confiscated — Daughters of the American Revolution. 

The military history of Norfolk County, 
including the periods of peace, covers a period 
of three hundred years less seven. 

Capt. Christopher Newport sailed from 
Blackwell for America on the 19th day of De- 
cember, 1 60b. After a stormy voyage of over 
four months, while off the coast of Hatteras 
in quest of Roanoke Island, a violent gale of 
'wind providentially drove his little fleet into 
the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay on the 26th 
day of April, 1607, where the sailors sighted 
land and called it Cape Henry. The com- 
mander with 27 others landed there and while 
on shore making ohservations five natives 
came creeping- on all fours from behind the 
sand hills and wounded two men with their 
arrows ; but a few musket shots sent them 
flying back. Cape Henry was in Lower Nor- 
folk County, so upoai its soil the first colonial 
blood was shed and there was the scene of the 
lirst Indian hostilities in Virginia. This ex- 
pedition arrived at Jamestown on the 13th day 
of May, 1607. and established the first per- 
manent English settlement in America. 

Capt. John Smith returning' from his voy- 
age of discovery up the Chesapeake Bay, 
sailed up the Nansemond River seven or eight 
miles and found its banks consisting mainly 
of oyster shells. He had a fight with tb.e 
Nansemonds and Chesapeakes about eight 
miles from the mouth of the river. Sudden- 
ly arrows came fast and thick from both sides 
of the ri\er, but about twenty shots from 
muskets made all the bowmen flee. Over a 
hundred arrows stuck in Captain Smith's boat, 
yet no one was hurt, only Anthony Bagnall 
was shot in his hat and another in his sleeve. 
The Chesapeakes had 100 bowmen and the 
Nansemonds 200 fighting men. Captain 
Smitli captured all the corn he could take 
awav and returning arrived on the 7th day of 
September, 1608, at Jamestown. 

The Indians at first visited the colonists 
in a friendly way, but afterward they fre- 
quently attacked them. The careless strag- 
gling of the English gave the Indians oppor- 
tunities to kill or wound them. After the 
great massacre "of the 22nd of Alarch, 1622, 



when .^47 men, \\i>nicii ;ui<l cliildren were 
treacherously and inlunnanly Initchered, laws 
were passed forcing tlie colonists to guard and 
|)rotect themselves against hostile natives. 
The commanders of ])lantations were reciiiired 
to see that there was kept a supi)ly of ani- 
nuuiition, that their arms were in good order 
and that constant watch be kept at in"ght. AH 
men able to bear arms were required to carry 
them ti> church on ])enalty, if default was in 
the master, of two p(nnids of tobacco and if 
in the servants they were to be punished by 
the master. Under such severe tasks and con- 
tinual hardshii)s, no wonder wars of extermin- 
ation were declared. 

The Grand .\sseml)ly. in October. i(;_'y, 
at Jamestown, declared war and enacted that 
there should be three several marches against 
the Indians, in November, March and July, 
and every commander was required to levy a 
•force of as many men as could well be spared 
from the plantations ; about live months after- 
ward the same legislative body declared that 
the war begun must be eft'ectually followed and 
no peace concluded w ith the enemy. The colo- 
nial soldiers wounded in these expeditions 
were to be provided for by the se\eral planta- 

The Nanticoke Indians in Accomac Coun- 
ty in 1639 P^'t on their war paint, and marched 
out with a determination to exterminate the 
-settlers on the Eastern Shore, and as there 
were not many colonists there the plan had 
every prospect of a successful termination. 
Fortunately timely warning was given and aid 
was sent in time to avert the calamity. The 
counties were called U])on to furnish quotas of 
soldiers, and Lower Norfolk County made a 
draft for its share of men. The court held 
on the 17th day of July, 1639, resolved that 

AVhercas. at a court holdcii liy the Grand Council 
at York the first of the present July, it was ordered 
that there should he appointed fifteen sufficient men 
out of the Lower County of N'orfolk to march against 
the Xanticoke Indians, according tlicrefore to the said 
order, the Commander and Ct)mmissioners of this 
CoiHity have made choice of these men whose names 
are here mentioned to go on the said march : 


Thomas Rudder 
(lowering Lankaster 
Robert Ward 
Jolni (;iniam 
Tlinnias Lovett 
Jolni Clatter 
Mann. Warrington 
Henry Michaell 

-Mr. West 
(iecjrge Locke 
I<<iljert Mashone 
James at Joe Brown's. 
Will Rerry 
John tiraygosse 
Robert Smith 

In order to furnish rations and .iniuuiui- 
tion for these colonial soldiers, the lithaliles 
were di\ided into groups of jo, and it was 
further ordered by the court that "Every twen- 
ty persons being to provide two pountls of 
powder and two pounds of shot and forty 
jxiimds of biscuit and a half a bushel of peas 
a man for them sent for the said march." 
Cornelius Lloyd equipped the detachment with 
buff coatSj for which' the court allowed him 
250 pounds of tobacco each, which was raised 
by a levy on the tithable inhabitants of the 
county. The expedition was successful and 
the Lower Norfolk County detachment of sol- 
diers returned without having suffered any 
loss except a medicine chest, which fell over- 
board from one of the boats, as they were 
crt)ssing the Chesapeake Bay. 

A law was passed in October, 1644, fi;r 
defraying the exj)enses of the Indian wars, 
which law provided that six pounds of tobacco 
should be levied on every tithalile person with- 
in the several counties, and Lower Norfolk 
County, having 296 tithable persons, was as- 
sessed with 1,776 ]Kiunds of tobacco. Isle of 
Wight, Upi>er and Lower Norfolk, were as- 
sociated as one military district. iMery 15 
tithables were to furnish and pay one soldier. 
All negro men and women and all other 
men, between the ages of 16 and 60 were 
tithai)les. The 14 tithables were to agree with 
their one soldier upon the amount of pay he 
' was to receive, and in case they could not 
i agree, a council of war should determine how 
' much they should pay him. The yearly pay of 
a ci.nimander was fixed at 6,000 [)<»unds of 
tobacco: that of a lieutenant, at 4,000 pounds; 
and that of a sergeant, at 2.000 jwunds. 

The whole colony of Virginia was in 1645 



ablaze with excitement over the second at- 
tempt of Opechanuugh to exterminate the 
EngHsii. and Lower Norfolk Count}- sent her 
quota to the Pamunkey Rivei^ section. There 
is no mention of the killed, but Robery 
Davyes and Peter Sextmi were brought back 
home se\'erely wounded. They iinally re- 
covered from their wounds, and tlieir doctor 
and medicine bills were paid l)y a levy on the 
tithables in the county. 

War was declared by the Grand Assembly 
in March, 1645, against the Nansemonds and 
other neighljoring Indians, . and the military 
district composed of Isle of Wight, Upper 
and Lower Norfolk was directed to prosecute 
the war with \igi;r by cutting up their corn 
^nd doing an}- other acts of hostility against 
them. The expense of this war was to be 
borne bv the inhabitants of those counties ly- 
ing siiuth of the James River. The three 
counties raised a force of 80 soldiers and the 
Lower Norfolk contingent was under com- 
mand of County Lieutenant Robert Smith, 
one of the heroes of the war en the Eastern 
Shore. These soldiers invaded the terri- 
tories of the Indians, defeated them in battle 
and dro\-e them beyond the Roanoke River. 
On this occasion the tithaljle inhabitants of 
the county were di\ided into groups, and each 
group was recpiired to work the farm of one 
of the soldiers who' were sent to the war, 
though the expenses of the campaign were 
raised by a general levy on all the tithables 
of the- three counties. At a meeting of the 
council of war for the military district, held 
on the 25th day of October, 1645, said council 
being coanposed of Capt. Thomas \\^illoughby, 
Richard Bennett, Esf|., Capt. John Siiisey, 
Capt. Edward Windham, Capt. Thomas 
Dawe, Richard Preston, Anthony James and 
Francis Hough, an itemized statement of the 
campaign was prepared. The total cost was 
ascertained to be 38,314 pounds of tobacco, 
exclusive of the pay of three county lieuten- 
ants, -whose ]ia\- was fixed at 2,000 pounds ol 
tobacco eacli. to ]ye paid by their respective 
counties. To secure this amormt, a levy of 

28 iwunds of tobacco was made on each tith- 
able of Lower Norfolk Coimty, and 31 pounds 
per poll in Nansemond and Isle of Wiglit. 
The order states that the cHfference in the 
amount of the levy was "in regards that those 
counties had and made use of more of these 
provisions of victuals w-hich are brought into 
the account than those of the Low-er Norfolk 
did." Lower Norfolk had one soldier, Abra- 
ham Pitts, wounded, and another, whose 
name was not given, was bitten by a snake. 

Dr. Christopher Athely was "chirurgeon 
for the march," and was allowed 1,000 pounds 
of tobacco for the -v-oyage, and for the care 
of Abraham Pitts and "him that w'as hurt 
by a snake," 600 pounds, — in all, 1,600 potmds 
of tobacco. Dr. Thoaiias Ward was the 
"chirurgeon" who accompanied the Lower 
Norfolk contingent to the Pamunkey River. 

Each of the 80 soldiers was allowed 100 
pounds of tobacco, and Abraham Pitts, 
wounded in the service, and "him that was bit- 
ten with a snake," w-ere allowed 800 pormds 
each for the loss of their time and crop. 

For several years' after the tithables were 
divided into detachments of 40, and each de- 
tachment was required to maintain one of its 
number as a scout, whose duty it was to re- 
main in the w-oods at a distance from the set- 
tlements and g'ive w-arning of any inroads of 
the Indians. If the scout was a planter, the 
rest of the detachment was required to culti- 
vate his plantation, and if not a land owner, 
the}- were required to feed him, keep him sup- 
plied with ammunition and pay him for his 
services. This method of carrying on war 
was \-er}- economical to the government, 
though it bore heavih- upon men of small 
means . 

The law- prohibiting terms of peace and 
directing the cutting up of corn was repealed 
by the Grand Assembly in 1646, as well as 
the declaration of w-ar against the Nanse- 
monds. It w-as enacted that Indians coming 
on the lands of the colonists should not be 
killed unless taken in acts of mischief, but this 
was soon amended so that none should be 



killed unless for the commission <if what 
would be a felony for an Englishman. In- 
dian children, by leave of their parents, could 
be taken as servants on sueli terms as might 
be agreed upon l)et\veen parent and master, 
but it was recpiired' that the children should 
be educated and brought up in the Christian 
religion. The friendly Indians were allowed 
to hold the land they iwssessed. and no per- 
sons were allowed to settle on such land with- 
out the i^rmission of the government. 

A general war was again declared in 
1675-7O, because of "sundry murders, rapine 
and many depredations lately committed." 
The charge of this war was to be sustained by 
the whole colony. An army of 500 men was 
directed to be recruited to garrison forts and 
guard the frontiers. Capt. Jidward Wiggins 
with 40 soldiers from Isle of Wight, Xanse- 
mond and Lower Norfolk was to man a fort 
at the head of the Nansemond River. He was 
to ha\e 180 pounds of powder and 540 pounds 
of shot kq>t in the magazine. The military 
district was required to send provisions to this 
fortification. — five bushels of shelled corn and 
60 ])ounds of pork or 80 pounds of beef per 
soldier for four months, and so pnnide every 
fourth month. 

Col. Lemuel Mason and Maj. Francis 
Sawyer were commissioned to select persons 
to draft men into the army. Every foot sol- 
dier was allowed 1,500 pounds of tobacco and 
cask for each year's sendee, and every cav- 
alryman for himself and horse, 2,000 pounds 
and cask. The pay of a captain was 600 
ix)unds and cask for a month's service; a lieu- 
tenant, 400 pounds and cask; an ensign, 300 
pounds and cask ; a sergeant, 250 pounds and 
cask; a corporal and a drummer, each, 150 
pounds of tobacco and cask. 

An act for listing, arming and training 
militia was passed in October, 1705, It pro- 
vided that the colonel or chief officer of the 
'county should list all persons Ijetween 16 and 
60 years of age, to be divided into troops or 
companies, but these soldiers had to pro\idc 
themselves with arms and ammunition. .\ 

general nuister was to be held once every year, 
and company nuister once every three months. 
The governor was authorized to call out 
the militia on invasions or insurrections. 
So began the old militia musters, which ended 
in 180 1, when the 95lh and 7th regiments of 
Norfolk County went out of existence; for the 
volunteers in the Confederate Army left none 
to nuister in the ranks of the militia. 


Take Care 

Join your right hand to your Firelock I 

Poiz your Firelock i 

Join your left hand to your Firelock 2 

Cock your Firelock 3 

Present i 

Fire i 

' Recover your arms I 

Half cock your Firelock 3 

. Handle your cartreges 3 

Open your cartreges 2 

Prime 2 

Shut your Pan 3 

Cast alx)Ut to charge I 

Charge with your cartreges 3 

Draw your Raiimier 4 

Shorten your Rammer 3 

Put it in the barrel 6 

Ram down your charge 2- 

Recover your Rammer 3 

.Shorten your Rammer 3 

Return your Rammer 6- 

YiiuT Right hand under **** I 

Poise your Firelock i 

Shoulder your Firelock 3 

Rest your Firelock 4 

Order your Firelock 3 

Ground your Firelock 4 

I Take up your Firelock 4 

1 Rest your Firelock 3 

i Club your Firelock 4 

I Rest your Firelock 4 

Secure your Firelock 3 

.Shoulder your Firelock 5 

Present your arms 4 

Fare to ye Right ; 3 

To the Right 3 

To the Right ^3 

To the Right 3 

To the Right aI)out 3 

By the left as you were 3 

Fare lo the left 3 

To the Left 3 

To the Left 3 

To the Left 3 

To the Left about 3. 



B\- the Right as you were 3 

Poize your Firelock I 

Sliiiulder your Firelock 3 


Capt. Adam Thorogood qualified May 15, 1637. 

Capt. John Sihi^ey (|ualified May 15. 1637. 

Lieut. Francis Mason qualified ISIarch 20, iC)39. 

Capt. Thomas Willoughhy (lualified December 16, 

Capt. William Clayborne t|ualified December 16, 1643. 

Capt. Edward Windham qualified January 16, 1645. 

Capt. Francis Vardley qualified' 1651. 

Col. John Wilson qualified 1705. 

Capt. John Halstead qualified 1716. 

Capt. Thomas Hodges qualified 1716. 

Capt. Mathew Spivey qualified 1716. 

Capt. George Mason qualified 1716. 

Lieut. -Col. George Newton qualified 17,14. 

Capt. Willis Wilson qualified 17^4. 

Cant. Lewis Conner of Norfolk County Militia quali- 
fied JNKarch 10, 1740. 

Col. William Craford qualified as county lieutenant 
September 15, 174S. 

Caul. John Willoughby qualified as captain of com- 
pany on the north side of Tanner's Creek Septenilier 
15. "1748- ... 

Lieut. James Wilson qualified as lieutenant in Capt. 
Willis Wilson's comnany September 15, 1748. 

Col. Samuel Boush of Norfolk County ]\Iilitia quali- 
fied October 20. 1748. 

Capt. John Portlock of Norfolk County militia 
qualified August 16, 1752. 

Capt. Thomas Veale of Norfolk County militia quali- 
fied .August 16. 1752. 

Capt. Joshua Corurcw of Norfolk County militia 
qualified August 16, 1752. 

Capt. Robert Buraess of Norfolk Counlv militia 
qualified September 28, 1752. 

Capt. Marconi Herbert of Norfolk County militia 
qualified September 28, 1752. 

Capt. William Hodges of Norfolk County militia 
(pialified September 20. 1753. 

Cajit. Joseph Hutchings. Borough of Norfolk militi.T 
qualified September 20. 1753. 

Col. Robert Tucker qualified to be county lieutenant 
March 20. 1760. 

Capt. John Portlock qualified March 20, 1760. 

Capt. Joshua Nicholson qualified March 20. 1760. 

Capt. Thomas Talbot (pialified jMarch 20, 17(10. 

Capt. Thomas Veale qualified March 20, 1760. 

Capt. Samuel Happer (Utalified March 20. 1760. 

Catit. Roliert Burgess qualified March 20, 1760, 

Capt. Stephen Wright qualified Marcii 20, 1760. 

Capt. Joshua Corprew qualified Afarch 20. 1760. 

Lieut. William Hanner (pialified March 20. 1760. 

Lieut. John Herbert (|ualified March 20, 1760. 

Lieut. Thomas Nash. Jr. qualified March 20. 1760. 

Lieut. WillianrNicholson qualified March 20. 1760. 

Lieut. John Ferebee qualified March 20. 1760. 

Fnsign Isias Slack qualified March 20, 1760. 

Ensign John Scott (pialified March 20. 1760. 

Ensign Richard Ballentine (|ualificd March 20. 1760. 

of Norfolk County militia 
Burgess of Ni^rfolk County 
of Norfidk 

Ensign David Ballentine qualified March 20. 1760. 

Charles Stewart. Gent., qualified to be quartermaster 
of the Norfolk County militia March 20. 1760. 

Maj. Lemuel Willoughby, Borough of Norfolk mili- 
tia, qualified .\pril l6. 1761. 

Cant. William Orange, Borough of Norfolk luilitia, 
qualified April 16, 1761. 

Col. John Hutchings of Norfolk County qualified 
April 17, 1761. 

Lieut. Samuel Bacon qualified June IQ. 1761. 

Ensign Richard Scott, Borough of Norfolk militia, 
qualified June ig, 1761. 

Capt. David Porter of Norfolk County militia quali- 
fied Marcli iS, 1763. 

Lieut. Giles Rtmdolnh of Norfolk County militia 
qualified March 18, 1763. 

Lieut. Jerome Creech 
qualified March 18. 1763. 

Ensign George Wright 
militia ipialificd March 18, 1763. 

Capt. Thomas Willoughby, Borough 
militia qualified October 16, 1766. 

Col. John Willoughby qualified as lieutenant and 
chief commander of county militia October 15, 1767. 

Col. Josiah Wilson of Norfolk County militia quali- 
fied February 18, 1768. 

Lieut. -Col. George Veale of Norfolk County mditia 
qualified February 18, 1768. 

Lieut. John Boush. Borough of Norfolk militia, com- 
missioned March iS, 1772. 

Lieut. Caleb Hei-bert of Norfolk County militia, 
commissioned March 18, 1772. 

Lieut, ^laniuel Wale of Norfolk County militia, com- 
missioned ?ilarch iS, tt^2. 

"Capt. Nicholas Wonycott this day I7th April, 1772, 
produced a commission from John Earle of Dunniore. 
Viscount Fincastle, Baron Mury of Blair, of Moulin and 
of Tillamet. Lieutenant and Governor General of His 
^^aiesty's Colony and Dominion of Virginia, and \"icc 
Admiral of the same, to be Major of the Borough of 
Norfolk, and he having taken the oath to the govern- 
ment and subscribed the test entered on the execution 
of liis Commission." 

Lieut. Edward Archer. Borough of Norfolk militia, 
conuuissioncd May 21, 1773. 

Lieut. James Nicholson of Norfolk 
commissioned August 17. 1773. 

Ensign William Nicholson of Norfolk County mili- 
tia, commissioned August 17, 1773. 

County militia, 

Fcff Necessity fell in July, 1754, aiul in 
Octi:)l)er of that year Governor Uinwiddie 
inaugurated in'ea.sures to increase the Virginia 
forces to make anotlier aggressive movement 
against the French and Indians, As in every 
emergency. Norfolk Coitntv was readv witli 
htr siil(li(_i-s, and on the 22nd of Noveml^er, 
'7.^L Ji'hn McNeil aj^Jiicared hefore the Ctam- 
ly Ci"iM-t with his commission, and qualified 
as lieutenant of the A'ir.gitiia force raised for 
the Oliio expedition, and Simon Frazier, with 


35 comniission. qualified as atljiuan: i;f the 
5ame coniniaiul. 

Tlie removal of the gaiiipow der fiom tlie 
inagazine at W'illiamslnirg- on the JOtIi of 
April, 1775. kindled the fire of rexolution, 
which s])read over \'irginia like a sweeping 
blaze in the dry forests of autumn. Tlie royal 
government was dissolved and went down as 
a leaking sliip in an (xrean storm. Its laws 
were as silent as the Dead Sea. and the times 
which "tried men's souls" were begini. 

While Dunniore was planning in bombas- 
tic sentences to recover his authority, the con- 
\ention at Richmond organized an independent 
government, and ordered the enlistment of 
an army for the protection and defense of the 
state. The excitement in the colony r.^n high, 
and the sentiment of the ijeo])le for resistance 
to Dunmore's infamous warfare made tlie 
ploughmen halt in the fresii furrows to 
shoulder their muskets for Ijattle. The general 
Committee of Safety was formed and two 
regiments, to numl)er 1.020 soldiers, each. 
were ordered to be forthwith organized by 
some person selected by the Committee of 



Edward Archer 
.Arthur Boush 
Thonia-; Creech 
Mathcw Godfrey 
Jame* Grynies 
Caleb Herbert 
Bassett Moseley 
Charles Maye 
James Xicholson 
Thomas Xash. Jr. 

John Portlock 
David Porter 
lulward Strong 
William Smith 
George Veale 
James Wel)b 
John Willoiighby. 
Stephen Wright 
John Wilson 
.Abraham Wormington 



Goodrich Bouch 
John Brickel. Jr. 
William Bressie 
Henry Bressie 
Cornelius Calvert 
Benjamin Croocker 
George Kelly- 
Patrick Mackev 

Malachi Maund 
Paul Proby 
Samuel Portlock 
Daniel Sanford 
.Alexander Skinner 
Malachi Wilson. Jr. 
John Willoughby. Jr 

John Boush 
Thomas Claiborne 
John Hutchings 
Joseph Hutchings 
James Holt 
.^anuul Iiiglis 

Xiel Jamison 
John Lawrence 
riiomas Xewtoii. 
Tluimas Ritson 
Robert Taylor 
John Taylor 
William Davies (.SVirr/nry ) 
.Malhew Phripp ( C/ioiVhiuii ) 

The colony was dividetl into districts for 
the enrollment of minute-men: Norfolk, 
Nan.seniond, Isle of Wight. Princess Anne and 
the l)orough of Norfolk were joined in <>ne dis- 
trict. The committees of safety of the coun- 
ties in this district were directed to appcjint 
four members for each countv and two for 
the burough of Norfolk as deputies in meet 
in general convention for the purpose of fi.\- 
ing the number of minute-men to lie enrolled 
in each county and Iiorough. The minute-men 
after being organized in companies were 
trained 20 days in the i)lace selected by the 
de])uties and after being assigned to battalions, 
they were re(|uired to drill four successive days 
in each imnth. e.xcept the three winter months. 
An ordinance to increase the military force 
v\as passed on Friday, the first day of Decein- 
ber. 1775, which recited in the preamble, that 
"Whereas the Earl of Dunmore. by his many 
hostile attacks upon the good people of this 
colony, and attempts to infringe their rights 
and liberties, by his proclamation declaring 
freedom to our servants and slaves, and arm- 
ing them against us. by seizing our persons 
and proj^erties and declaring those who op- 
posetl his arbitrary measures in a state of re- 
bellion, hath made it necessary that an addi- 
tional numl)er of forces be raised for nur pro- 
tection and defense." This ordinance directed 
si.x additional regiments to be raised and the 
officers and soldiers were reipiired to take an 
oath as follows : 

I do swear, that I will l)e faithful and true to the 
Colony and dominion of Virginia : that I will serve the 
same to the utmost of my power, in defense of the 
just rights of .America against all enemies whatsoever; 
that I will to the utmost of my abilities, obey the law- 



fill commands of my suncrior officers, agreeable to the 
ordinances of the Convention and the articles of war to 
which I liave subscribed, and lay down ray arms peace- 
fully, when required so to do, either by the General 
Convention or General Assembly of Virginia. So help 
me God. 

It was not until May, 1776, that an ordi- 
nance was passed requiring magistrates, on 
taking an oath to be faitliful and true to the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, to support, main- 
tain and defend to the utmost power the con- 
stitution and government thereof, faithfully 
execute the office and do equal right and jus- 
tice to all men, so as to continue the admin- 
istration of justice. The justices were re- 
quired tO' appoint officers to make a tour of 
their county to administer this oath of al- 
legiance to all freeborn males abo\'e the age 
of 16 years : 

I do swear or affirm that I renounce and refuse alt 
allegiance to George III, King of Great Britain, . his 
heirs and successors and that I will be faithful and 
bear true allegiance to the Commonwealth of Virginia 
as a free and independent state, and that I will not. 
at any time, do or cause to be done, any matter or 
thing that will be prejudicial or injurious to the free- 
dom or independence thereof as declare<l by Congress; 
and also.- that I will discover and make known to some 
one justice of the peace for the said state, all treasons 
or traterous conspiracies which I now or hereafter 
shall know to be formed against this or any of the 
United States of America. 

These officers had to make lists of all who 
subscrilied to the oath and return them to the 
court. Tilt'}- were also required to rep(irt to the 
court all tho.'je who refused, and the lieutenant 
of the county was required forthwith to disarm 
them. They were incapacitated from holding 
office, serving, on juries, suing for debts or 
purch as i ng property- . 

On the iSth of July, 1777, the Norfolk 
County Court ordered that Alathew Godfrey, 
Gent., administer tlie oath or affirmation ap- 
pointed to, l)e taken by the Act of Assemlaly to 
oblige tiie free male inhaliitants of this state 
above a certain age to gi\-e assiu'ance of al- 
legiance to the same within the precinct on the 
south side of Tanner's Creek and on the north 
side as far as ^\'i]lis Cares: that lames Arch- 

deacon, (ient., administer it within the pre- 
cinct on the north side of the said creek as far 
as the said Cares; that Cornelius Calvert, 
Gent., administer it from Ferry Point as far 
as Portlock's Old Mill l^etween the Southern 
Branch and Princess Anne; that James Webb, 
Gent,, administer it from Portlock's Old Mill 
to the Great Bridge and between the Southern 
Branch and Princess Anne line ; that John 
Wilson, Gent,, administer it from the Great 
Bridge to the Carolina line on the west side 
of the road leading to the North West Land- 
ing and also' to the line of Portsmouth Parish ; 
that ^lalachi Wilson administer it from the 
Great Bridge to the Carolina line on the east 
side of the aforesaid road so far as the Prin- 
cess Anne line; that ^Villiam Smith, Gent., ad- 
minister the same in Portsmouth and from 
thence to N,ew Mill Creek : and that John 
Tatem, Gent., administer it from Ports- 
mouth to the Western Brancli, including bath 
sides thereof. 

These were exciting times in the county, 
and although the territory was exposed tO' the 
incursions of the enemy, every man was ex- 
pected to show his hand in the great contest 
for independence. Many Tories were arrested 
and tried f<ir treason. It is said that one of 
those who remained loyal to the King con- 
cluded an argument with a patriot neighbor 
by saying that nature taught them to be loyal, 
for even bees had a King! The suffering 
among the poor people was extremely distress- 
ing about this time, and the court being un- 
able to relieve them appealed to Col. Charles 
Harrison, the commanding officer at Ports- 
mouth, for humanity's sake to^ render tempor- 
ary relief until it could help them out of the 
next countv le\'v. Go\". Patrick Henry was 
officially informed of the deplorable condi- 
tion of many ])oor widows and orphans, and 
relief was autliorized by the legislature 
ihri'ugh the courts. Cornelius Calvert was 
appointed t<> furnish the wives, children and 
aged ]iarents of the poor soldiers the necessary 
]iro\ isions. Many poor men of the county 
iliickcd to the standard of Washington, thus 



exhibiting the highest patriotism and we may 
be well i)roucI of tliese soldiers whose names 
should l>e enrolled on the scrolls of fame. But 
alas! how few can be listed now, nearly 125 
years from those stirring, stormy days. 

The General Assembly at \\'illiamsburg 
on the JOtli day of Octolier, \'/'/'j, passed an 
act for recruiting \'irginia regiments in the 
Continental line. Congress had made Vir- 
ginias portion 8,160 rank and file. Some of 
the state troops were transferred to help make 
up the complement, and besides a certain 
number of single men were directed to be 
drafted from the militia ami Norfolk Coim- 
ty's proportion was 35 men. "They received 
a bounty of $15 on being enrolled. 

The Quakers did not want to fight at all ; 
but the Baptists and MethcKl'ists were willing 
to fight in defense of their country if not en- 
rolled in the same company or regiment; so 
the law provided that Quakers and ]\lennon- 
ites, who were drafted, could be exempt from 
personal service by furnishing substitutes to 
be paid by assessment on the whole society,- 
and the Governor was empowered by law to 
enlist Baptists and Methodists in separate 
companies with the right to elect their own 
Company officers. \\'hen formed into a regi- 
ment, the Governor appointed the field offi- 
cers from the same religious denomination as 
the oflficers elected bv the companies. 

Another act for raising additional bat- 
talions for the Continental line rctjuired 15 to 
be furnished by Virginia and offered a bounty 
of 100 acres of land for every non-commis- 
sioned officer and private, 150 acres for an 
ensign. 200 for a lieutenant, 300 for a captain. 
300 for a major, 400 for a lieutenant-ct>lonel 
and 500 acres for a colonel. Norfolk County 
was allowed one captain, one ist lieutenant, 
one 2nd lieutenant and one ensign. The 
act for recruiting 2.000 volunteers to join 
the army of Washington was ]>assed on 
the 4th day of May, 1778. It offered 
as an inducement to enlist at that import- 
ant and critical ])eriod. a bount\' of $30 
and a complete suit of regimentals, to consist 

of a coat, jacket, one pair of breeches, two 
l>air of shoes, two pair of stockings, two shirts 
and a hat; to be served with one gill of spirits 
per day until January i, 1779; also they 
should be exempt from drafts and tcixes for 
12 months after discharge and should be fur- 
nished during their continuance in service 
stores at the following rates: "Wine at five 
dollars per gallon, green tea at fcKir dollars 
per pound, bohea at two dollars per pound, 
coffee at two shillings and six pence per pound, 
chocolate at half dollar per pound, loaf sugar 
at two shillings and eip-ht i)ence and brown 
sugar at one shilling per pound." Soldiers 
who served during the war were exempted 
from ]>ersonal taxes and levies for life and 
those disabled received full i)ay for life. 

Boufity lands were promised to officers and 
soldiers who served three years or during the 
war. Tliere were in service during the i^evo- 
lution 21 Virginia regiments, viz.: 16 on the 
Continental establishment, three regiments of 
the State line pro^xr, two western regiments, 
and the State navy, which was composed of 
20 or 25 vessels; from these figures it was 
e.stimated, by a legi.slative committee in 1835, 
that the numl:)er of ])ersons entitled to land 
bounty was 11,000 and up to that time war- 
rants had been issued to about 6,136 persons. 

Apprehending an invasion of the eastern 
part of the state, the legislature in May. 1780, 
authorized the Governor to direct the county 
lieutenants or commanding officers of Princess 
.Anne. Norfolk. Nansemond, Isle of Wight. 
Southampton. . Sussex, Surry and Prince 
George to order one-sixth of their militia to 
hold them-selves ready to march at a moment's 
warning. It also ordered that the ships 
"Thetis." "Tempest," "Drag' mi" and brig 
"Jefferson" be repaired and maimed. 

An act for recruiting the State's quota 
for the Continental line passed in Octoljer, 
1780, required Norfolk County to furnish 56 
men. and at the same time an act for securing 
supplies for the army by seizure fixed allow- 
ance for "wheat at $66 2-t^ per bushel. Indian 
corn $20, peas $30, oats $15, pickled beef $8 



per pound, bacon $20, salt jxjrk $12, Ijrandy 
$60 per gallon, whiskey $40, taffia $50, West 
India rum $80, white biscuit $300 per 100 
pounds, ship's bread $200, fine flour $200 and 
seconds or ship stuff $150 per 100 weight." 

The scale of depreciation of paper money 
was fixed for specie : 

In December, i/"/7, four for one. 

In December. 1778, six for one., 

In December 1779, forty for one. 

In December, 1780. seventy-five for one. 

In December. 1781, one thousand for cine, 


The clouds of war were gathering in \'ir- 
ginia from April to October, 1775. The out- 
break came in the outrage at Norfolk on the 
liberty < f the ]M'ess. Under cover of the giins 
of the men-of-war in the harbor, a British 
ofificer \\ith a sf|uad of soldiers and sailors 
landed at the ferry wharf and marclied to tlie 
printing ofifice of the fearless patriot editor, 
James Holt, on Main street, whence thev car- 
ried off tlie type with appurtenances and two 
printers. When the corporatii>n authorities re- 
monstrated, Dunmore rq>lied that he had ren- 
dered great service in depriving them of means 
of having their minds jx.isoned and ijf exciting 
in them the sjiirit of rebellion and sedition. 

On the 15th day of October. 1775. soon 
after this q>isode a btxly of British troops was 
dispatched to Kempsville. in Princess Anne 
Count}", where tliey destroyed some firearms 
which had been deposited there, and captured 
Capt. Thomas ]\Iathews, of the minute-men. 
the first patriot prisoner of war taken on the 
soil of Virginia. 

On the 7th dav of November. 1775, Lord 
Dunmore proclaimed martial law. declaring 
all persons able to bear arms who did not rally 
to the King's standard to be traitors and offer- 
ing freedom to- the slaves of rebels who would 
join his Majesty's troops. All of this only 
intensified public irritation and increased the 
ardor of Virginians in the cause of freedom. 

On the 1 6th dav of November. Dunmore 

again invaded Princess Anne Coiuity. sur- 
prised and defeated the militia who- were on 
the march to join the cok^nial troops for the 
defense of the tide-water section of Virginia. 
John Ackiss, one of the minute-men, was 
killed on the field and Colonel Hutchings and 
eight others were wounded and taken pris- 
oners. So the first Virginia soldier gave his 
life for the independence of our State on the 
soil of Princess Anne County. Stirring 
events and thrilling times were now at the 
culminating point in Princess Anne and Nor- 
folk counties. The British were fortifving 
Norfolk and gathering to the ro^al banner all 
the Tories, and all the negroes who could be 
induced to leave their masters. These were 
armed for incursions into- the coimtry to de- 
stroy thecommissariate collected for the sub- 
sistence of Virginia troops. Suffolk, where 
most of the provisions were in store, was the 
objective point of Dunmore's designs. 

Col. William Woodford, anticipating these 
plans of the myal governor, dispatched 215 
light troops under Col. Charles Scott and 
Maj. Thomas Marshall tO' that place, and on 
the 25th day of Novemlier the gallant Wnod- 
ford arrived there with the main bod}- of the 
Virginia troops. 

Colonel Scott was one of the unique char- 
acters of the American Revolution. He was 
born in Cumberland Comity, Virginia, and 
raised the first company of \-olunteers sonth 
of the James River, which entered into actual 
service. He was promoted until be received 
the rank of major-general, and recei\-ed the 
thanks O'f Congress for gallant and meritor- 
ious coiiduct : subse(|uently he was governor 
of Kentucky. While governor he announced 
that he was going to Philadelphia diu-ing the 
session of Congress to' visit his old com- 
mander. He was told that ^^'ashington had 
become "stuck up" with the importance of his 
high office, and was too much of an aristocrat _ 
to notice him in his hunting shirt, buckskin 
leggins and long jjeard. Notwithstanding he 
went, and as he approached the house. \\'ash- 
ington and his wife recogmized the old hero. 



Ijoth rushed out and takin,sf him by tlie arm 
escorted him in. (iovernor Scott said that he 
was ne\er treate<l better and he found W'ash- 
ington "Ole Hoss" still. The soldiers' pel 
name for Washinj^ton was "Ole Hoss.'" 

Maj. Thomas ^larshall was the fatlier of 
John Marshall, the great jurist and most em- 
inent Chief Justice of the United States, who 
was also in Colonel Woodford's command. 

Colonel Woodford informed the comcu- 
tion then in session at Williamsburg of the 
military situation and the .\merican .\rchives. 
Vol. 4. Page yd. rejjrinted in the C<^Ior,ial Rec- 
<;rds of North Carolina. Vol. X. Page 341, 
in the rq)ort of jjroceedings says. December 
I. 1775. ".\ letter fnmi Col. Woodford of 
the Second Regiment was laid before the con- 
vention and read respecting the situation of 
the troops under his command and of them 
under Ix>rd Dunmore: that he had received 
an offer of assistance from the commanding 
officer of tlie troo])s situated in North Caro- 
lina, not far distant, which he had hitherto 
declined to call for, thinking the force suffi- 
cient, but that he would take liis measures as 
circumstances should occur. 

"Resolved, that tlie President be required in a Icucr 
to Col. Woodford to he sent hy express, to desire he will 
risk the success of his arms as little as po.ssible. and. 
if there is not a moral probability of securing with the 
troops he hath, he will embrace the offer of assistance 
from those of North Carolina by sending immediately 
for them." 

Lord Dunmore had fortified on the X'or- 
folk side of the Southern Branch of the Eliza- 
beth River at Great Bridge and Colonel Wood- 
ford marched his forces from Suffolk by way 
of Deep Creek to within cannon .shot of tlie 
enemy's work on the opposite side of the 
causeway where he constructed breastworks. 
On the 9th day of December, 1775. Cajj- 
tain Fordyce led his British grenadiers to 
storm these works, only to receive a signal de- 
feat. The assault was marked by great gal- 
lantry on the part of the British soldiers, and 
Fordyce fell within 15 steps of the breast- 
works. Twentv-one killed and wounded were 

left on the field, and it was estimated that a 
greater number was borne oft' j)efore the re- 
treat. The British hastily retreated to X'or- 
folk. and Dinimore fearing ])ursuil abandonefl 
his entrenchments and embarked his troops (ju 
his men-of-war tor security from attack. 

Phe rir^^iiiia C7(J.::('//t',])ublished on the 14th, 
li\e days after, gives the following ])articu- 
Jars of the battle of Creat Bridge : "The (Ireat 
liridge is built o\-er what is called the South- 
ern Branch of the Elizabeth Ri\cr, twelve 
miles above Xorfolk. The land on the east side 
is marshy to a considerable distance from the 
river, except at the two extremities of the 
bridge, where are two pieces of firm land. 
which niav not impro])erly be called islands, 
being entirely surrounded by water and marsh 
and joined to the mainland bv causeways. On 
the little piece of firm land on the further or 
Norfolk side Lord Dunmore had erected his 
fort, in such a manner that his cannon com- 
manded the causeway on his side and the 
bridges between him and us, .with the marshes 
around him. The island on this side of the 
ri\er contained six or seven houses, some of 
which were burnt down ( those nearest the 
bridge) l)y the enemy after the arrival <jf our 
troops: in the others, adjoining the causeway 

I on each side, were stationed a guard every 
night by Col. Woodford, but withdrawn Ije- 
fore day. that they might not be exposed to the 
fire of the enemy's fort in recrossing the cause- 
way to our camp, this causeway also being 
commanded liy their cannon. 

"The causeway on our side in length was 
ab(.ut 160 yards, and on the hither extremity 
our breastwork was thrown up. From the 
breastwork ran a street, graduallv ascending, 
about the length of 400 yards, to a church 
where our main body was encami>eil. The 
great trade to Norfolk in .shingles, tar, pitch 

' and turpentine, from the country l)ack of this, 
jiad occasioned so many houses to be built 
here, whence the articles were conveyed to 
Norfolk by water. But this by the l)y. Such 
is the nature of the place as described to me. 
and such our situation, and that of the enemv. 



"On Saturday, the 9th inst., after reveille 
beating", two or three great guns and some 
musketry were discharged by the enemy, 
which, as it was not an unusual thing, was 
but little regarded by Col. Woodford. How- 
ever, soon after he heard a call to the soldiers 
to stand by their arms, upon which, with all 
expedition, he made the proper dispositions to 
receive them. In the meantime the enemy had 
crossed' the bridge, firing the remaining houses 
on the island and some large piles of shingles 
and attacked our guard on the breastwork. 
Our men returned the fire, and threw them into 
some confusion ; but they were instantly ral- 
lied by Capt. Fordyce, and advanced along the 
causeway with great resolution, keeping up a 
constant and heavy fire as they approached. 
Two field-pieces, which had been brought 
across the bridge and placed on tlie edge of 
the island, facing the left of our breastwork, 
played briskly at the same time upon us. Lieu- 
tenant Travis, who commanded in the breast- 
work, ordered his men to reserve their fire un- 
til the enemy came within fiity yards, and then 
gave it to them with terrible execution. The 
brave Fonlyce exerted himself to keep up their 
spirits, reminded them of their ancient glory, 
and, waving his liat over liis head encour- 
agingly, told them the day i^'os their own. 
Thus pressing forward, he fell within fifteen 
steps of the breastwork. His wounds were 
many, and his death would have been that of 
a hero had' he met it in a fietter cause. The 
progress of the enemy was ncjw at an end, and 
they retreated over the causeway with pre- 
cipitation, and were dreadfully galled in their 
rear. Hitherto, on our side only the guard, 
consisting of twenty-five, and some others, in 
the whiile not amounting to more than ninety, 
had been engaged. Only the regulars O'f the 
14th Regiment, in nuniber 120, had aclvanced 
upon the causeway ; and about 230 negroes and 
tories had, after crossing the bridge, continued 
u])nn the island. The regulars, after retreat- 
ing along the causeway, were again rallied by 
Ca])t. Leslie, and the two field-pieces continued 
])la)ing upon our men. It was at this time that 

Col. Woodford was advancing do'wn the street 
to the breastwork with the main body, and 
against him was now directed the fire of the 
enemy. Never were cannon better served ; yet 
in the face of them and musketry, which kept 
up a continual blaze, our men marched on with 
the utmost intrepidity. Cob Stevens, of the 
Culpepper battalion, was sent round to the 
left t(j flank the enemy, which was done with 
so- much spirit and acti\-ity that a rout im- 
mediately ensued ; the enemy fled into their 
fort, leaving behind them the twi> field-pieces, 
which, however, they took care to spike up 
with nails. 

"]\Iany were killed and wnunded in the 
flight, but Colonel \^'oodford \ery jirudently 
restrained his troops from pursuing the enemy 
too far. From the beginning of the attack 
till the repulse at the breastwork might be 
fourteen or fifteen minutes ; till the total defeat, 
upward of half an hour. It is said that some 
of the enemy preferred death to captivity, from 
fear of being scalped, which Lord Dunmore 
cruelly told them would be their fate should 
they be taken alive. 

"Thirty-one killed and wounded fell into 
our hands, the number Ijorne off was much 
greater. Through the whole engagement every 
officer and soldier behaved with the greatest 
calmness and courage. The conduct of our 
sentinels I cannot pass over in silence. Before 
they cpiitted their stations they fired at least 
three rounds as the enaiiy were crossing the 
bridge, and one of them, posted behind some 
shingles, kept his gromids until he had fired 
eight times, and after he had received the fire 
of a whole platoon made his escape across the 
causeway to our breastwork. The scene was 
closcfl with as nnich humanity as it was con- 
ducted with bravery. The work of death being- 
over. e\ery one's attention was directed tO' the 
succor of the unhappy sufferers; and it is an 
undoubted fact that Captain Leslie was so af- 
fecte<l with the tenderness of our troops to 
those capaljle of assistance that he gave signs 
from the fort of iiis thankfulness. 

"What is not paralleled in history, and will 



scarcely lie credible, except tu such as acknuwl- 
edjjfe a Providence over human affairs ; this 
\ ictory was g'ained at the ex|>ense of no nmre 
than a slight wound in a soldier's hand ; and 
one circumstance which rendered it still more 
amazing is, that a iield- piece raked the whole 
length of the street and absolutely threw 
double-headed shot as far as the church and 
afterward, as our trot)i3S ai>iJroached, can- 
nonaded them heavily with grape shot." 

An article in the next issue of the G(j;r//i' 
says: "A correspondent, on whose inf(,rma- 
tion we may depend, informs us that our sol- 
diers showed the greatest humanity and tender- 
ness to the wounded prisoners. Several of 
them ran tlirough a hot tire to lift up and bring 
in some that were l>leeding and who they 
feared would die if not .speedily assisted by the 
surgeon. The prisoners expected to be .scalped, 
and cried out, 'For God's sake, do not murder 
IIS.' One of them, unable to walk, cried out 
in this manner to one t>f our niien, and was 
answered by him, 'Put your arms around my 
neck and I will show y<^u what I intend to do.' 
Then taking him with his arm over his neck, 
he walked slowly along, bearing him along 
with great tenderness to the breastwork. 
Captain Leslie, seeing two of our soldiers ten- 
derly removing a wounded regular from the 
bridge, stepped ufxtn the platform of the fort, 
and. bowing with great respect, thanked them 
for their kindness. These are instances of a 
noble disposition of soul. Men who can act 
thus must be invincil)le." 

Colonel Woodford, making rep^jrt of the 
liattle of Great Bridge to Edmund Pendleton, 
President of the Convention, writes: "Great 
Bridge, near Norfolk. Decemlier 9, 1775. 
The enemy were reinforced about three o'clock 
this morning (as they tell me) by every soldier 
of the Fourteenth Regiment at Norfolk, 
amounting to two hundred, commanded by 
Cai)tain Leslie, and this morning, after reveille 
l)eating, crossed the bridge by laying down 
some planks, and made an attack to force our 
l)reastwork (the prisoners say the whrile num- 
ber amounted to live hundred \olunteers and 

blacks) with two i)ieces of cannon, but none 
marched u]> but His Majesty's soldiers, who 
b.eha\ed like Hii^lislniien. We have found of 
their dead Cajjtain I-'ordyce and twelve pri- 
vates, and have Lieutenant Batut, who is 
wounded in the leg, and seventeen ])rivate pris- 
oners, all wounded. They carrietl their can- 
non back mider cover of the the guns of the 
fort, and a number of their dead. I should 
suppose, to sjieak within compass, their loss 
must he upward of fifty. Some powder and 
cartridges were taken. 1 sent an i.fficer to in- 
torm them if they would not fire ujx n our peo- 
ple thev should collect the dead and wounded : 
this they agreed to, and there has been no 
firing since, ^^'e are now under arms, expect- 
ing another attack. There is but one man of 
ours hurt and he is wounded in the hand. The 
prisoners inform us that Lord Dunmore has 
got a reinforcement of Highlanders, which I 
expect will be up next." 

Gre.\t Bridge, December loth. 1775. 
Sir :- 

1 imi>t atHilogize for the hurry in which I wrote 
you yesterday ; since which nothing of moment has 
happened, hut the abandoning of the fort by the enemy. 
We have taken possession of it this morning, and found 
therein the stores mentioned in the enclosed hst: to- 
wit: 7 guns, four of them sorry: I bayonet: 29 spades; 
2 shovels : 6 cannon : a few shot : some bedding ; a 
part of a hogshead of rum : two or more barrels, the 
contents unknown, but supposed to be rum: 2 barrels 
of bread: about 20 quarters of beef: half a box of 
candles ; 4 or 5 dozen quart bottles : 4 or 5 iron pots : a 
few axes and old lumber. The spikes. I find cannot be 
got out of the cannon without drilling. From the vast 
effusion of blood on the 1)ridgc. and in the fort, from 
the account of sentries, who saw many bodies carried 
out of the fort to be interred, and other circumstances, 
I conceive their loss to be much greater than I thought 
it yesterday, and the victory to be complete. I have 
received no late information from Xorfolk and Princess 
-Ann nor yet fixed on a plan for improving this advant- 
age. I have dispatched scouting parties, and from their 
intelligence I shall regulate my future operations. En- 
clo.sed is an inventory of the arms. etc.. taken yester- 
day, to-wit : 2 silver-mounted fusils with bayonets; 
one steel do. without bayonet: 24 well fixed iruskets, 
with bayonets: 6 muskets, without bayonets: 28 car- 
touch boxes and pouches; 3 silver-mounted cartouch 
boxes, 2 cannon do: 26 bayonet belts: 27 caps: 2 hats; 
one barrel with powder and cartridges : one silk hand- 
kerchief, with linen in it; 2 watches; cash 12s 6d. ; 
I pair gloves : 4 stocks and buckles : 2 snuff-l)Oxes ; 10 
knives; barrel with ball and oakum: 12 coats: 12 
waist-coats; 11 pair shoes; 12 pair of gaiters; i pair of 



Ijreeches ; i shirt ; i pair of stockings : a parcel of old 
knee buckles: a parcel of old buttons: and a black 

The arms I shall retain for the use of the army; the 
other articles I shall dispose of at vendue, and apply 
the money arising from the sale in such manner as the 
Convention shall be pleased to direct. 

Lieutenant Batutt having. an inclination to inform 
the King's troops of the humane treatment he met 
with here, I dispatched Ensign Hoomes. with a flag of 
•truce who returned with the enclosed answer from the 
Commander of the Fort : viz : "Captain Leslie presents 
his compliments to Mr. Batut and returns Col. Wood- 
ford his sincere thanks for his kind treatment of prison- 
ers. He is happy Mr. Batut's wounds are so slight : 
but is extremely .sorry for the loss of poor Fordyce." 

The unfortunate Captain Fordyce was a Captain of 
the Grenadiers of the Fourteenth Regiment : most of 
the soldiers were Grenadiers of that regiment. As the 
Captain was a gallant and brave officer, I presumed to 
enter him with all the military honors due his great 
merits: which I hope will meet with the approbation of 
the honorable convention. 

About two hundred and fifty Carolina men are ar- 
rived under the Command of Col. Vail. They are com- 
posed of regulars, minute-men, malitia and volunteers, 
and have brought with them si.x cannon. I have re- 
ceived no certain account of Col. Howe, where he is. 
what number of force he commands, how armed and 
how provided, or where he intends to join me. I shall 
pay due reo-ard to the reinforcements vou mention and 
the establishment of the ^losts. I am just informed by 
Lieutenant Batut. that a servent of Maj. Marshall's 
who was in the party with Col. Scott and deserted, in- 
formed Lord Dunmore that not more than three hun- 
dred shirt-men were here: that imnrudent man caught 
at the bait and dispatched Capt, Leslie, with all the 
regulars who arrived at the Fort about four o'clock in 
the morning. I have enclosed to the honorable con- 
vention a general return of the forces under my com- 
mand : also a list of sick and wounded. It is my wish 
to receive orders for what is to be done with the 
wounded prisoners when able to travel. I recollect 
nothing more to add at present, than that I am with 
great respect your most obedient servant. 


To Edmund Pexdletox, 

President of the Conventio.y. 

An extract from a letter of a midshipman 
(American Archives, Vol. 4, Page 452) on 
board His Majest\'s ship "Otter," commanded 
by Captain Squire, dated January 9, i/jf). de- 
scril>es the battle as follows : 

"December 9. Our troops, -with alsout 60 
town men from Norfolk and a detachment of 
sailors from the ships, among wliom I had the 
honor to march, set out from Norfolk to at- 
tack, once more, the Rebels at Great Bridge, 
who had been lodsfed there some time and had 

erected a breastwork opposite to our fort on 
their side of the river. We arrived at the fort 
an hour after three in the morning and after 
refreshing ourselves prepared to attack the 
Rebels in their intrenchments. Captain Squire, 
ever ready to' assist My Lord in the public 
cause, had sent his gunners and men to manage 
twO' pieces of cannon, who were in the front 
and ordered to begin the attack. But Imw can 
it be supposed that with 200 men we could 
force a strong entrenchment defended by at 
least 2,000? Yet this was attemj^ted, and 
we marched up to' their works with the in- 
trepidity of lions. But alas ! we retreated with 
much fewer JDrave fellows than we took out. 
Their fire was so hea\-y that had we not re- 
treated as we did we shr.uld ex'erv one lieen 
cut off. Figure tO' yourself a strong breast- 
work built across a causeway, (ju which six 
men only could advance abreast : a large 
swamp almost surrounded them, at the l^ack 
of which were two' small breastworks to flank 
in om- attack on their intrenchments. Lender 
these disadvantages it was impossible to suc- 
ceed; vet our men were so enraged that all 
the entreaties and scarcely the threats of our 
officers could prevail oii them to retreat, which 
at last they did : the cannon were securetl with- 
in the fort. We had sixty killed, wounded and 
taken prisoners ; among whom were the gal- 
lant Captain Fordyce, of the Grenadiers of tlie 
Fourteenth Brigade, Lieutenants Napier and 
Leslie, and Lieutenant Batut wounded and 
taken prisoner, men all unixersally esteemed 
and for whom all shed tears ; we set out on our 
return to Norfolk about seven o'clock in the 
ex'ening, at which place we arrived at twelve, 
and the soldiers were embarked on board ves- 
sels prepared for that purpose." 

"December 14. The Reliels having now 
nothing to obstruct their passage, arrived and 
took possession of Norfolk, and in the evening 
saluted us with a volley of small arms, which, 
the next morning. I was sent on shore to their 
Commander to inform him if another shot was 
fired at the 'Otter' they nnist expect the town 
to l.;e knocked about their ears." 



After the battle i;t (;reat Bridge 250 Xuith 
Carolina tniops arrived, iiiuler Colontl \'ail, 
and on the uth 300 more, under Colonel 
Hi>\ve. who. with Colonel \\'<xjdford. occu- 
pied Xorfolk on the 14th. Colonel Howe, 
whose commission had precedence o\er Colonel 
\\'oodfurd"s. now assumed command. 

The proceedings of the Virginia Conven- 
tion at W'illiamshurg, on Thursday, tiie 14th 
day of I)cceml)er, 1775 ( .\merican Archives, 
\'ol. 4, Page 84J say: "The President laid 
before the Committee a letter from Colonel 
Woodford enclosing a petition from the ijoor 
inhabitants of the Town of Xorf(jlk request- 
ing protection. * * * The President also laid 
liefore the Convention a letter from Colonel 
Howe, of X'orth Carolina, informing him that 
he had joined Colonel Woodford with the 
troops under his conunand and should lie hap])y 
to afford him his licst assistance." 

Resolved, tliai the President be required to write 
to Col. Howe acknowledging the receipt of his obliging 
letter and thanking him for his good intentions toward 
the Colony. 

On Friday, December 22 (American Ar- 
chives, Vol. 4, Page 95), the Convention ten- 
dered thanks to the X'orth Carolina troops un- 
der Colonel Howe: 

Resolved, uiiaiiiiimusly, that the Thanks of this 
Convention are justly due to the brave otticers. gentle- 
men volunteers, and soldiers of Xottli Carolina, as 
well as our brethren of that Province in general, for 
their prompt and generous aid in defense of our com- 
mon rights against the enemies of .-Iniciha and of the 
British Constitution: and that the President be desired 
to transmit a copy of this resolution to Colonel Howe. 

A correspondence between C<donel Howe 
an<l the British officers began on the 24th of 
December, wliich Colonel Howe transmittetl 
to tlie convention (American Archives, Vol. 4. 
Page 452) : "Yesterday by a flag of truce I 
received a letter from Captain Bellew. copy 
of which I have the honor to transmit }ou, 
with a copy of those I have written to him. 
Though Colonel WcKxlford and myself were 
sensible, it was our duty to withliold from 
him. as much as in our power lay, those sup- 

plies he wished to obtain. _\et the moderate 
conduct he has ])ursued, and the sentiments of 
humanity by which he seems to be actuated, 
induced us to delay an answer till to-day and 
couch it in terms which cannot but show him 
that occasion, not inclination, had influence 
upon our conduct. Captain Bellew's letter was 
brought us by one of his lieutenants. He ex- 
pressed for himself and exery officer on Ijoard 
the reluctance they should feel if, comjielled by 
necessity, they should be obliged by marauding 
parties to snatch from tlie indigent farmer of 
this Colony those provisions they were so will- 
ing to purchase. I thought proper, sir, to 
give you this information, and through you, 
Colonel Woodford and myself beg leave to 
submit it to the consideration of your honor- 
ab-le Board, whether we arc to shcnv ain- in- 
dulgence to those peo]>le, and if we are. to 
what bounds we are to extend it. Major 
Kuffin and alxvut i<So Minutemen arrived last 
night: it was a seasonable relief to oim" S(ildiers 
almost worn out with duty this very bad 
weather. 1 \Vas honored with your letter yes- 
terday and we are made happy to find our 
proceedings are approved of: the order it con- 
veys and all others which we may receive we 
shall endea\dr !■> execute with the greatest 

Another letter iwnt Colonel Howe (Amer- 
ican Archives, Vol. 4, Page 474) to the presi- 
dent of the convention under date of the 25th 
day of Decemljer says : 

"I am at present, sir, so indispensal)Iy en- 
gaged that I ha\e not time to Ije so particular 
I as I could wish had I anything of importance 
to communicate, but except some salutes from 
the men-of-war, matters remain just as they 
were when I wrote \ox\ last. Xo effectual 
steps have been taken in resi)ect to the ex- 
change of prisoners, for which the enclo.sed 
copies of letters between Lord Dunmore and 
myself will, I hope, accoimt in such manner as 
to leave me in the. opinion of vour honorable 
ijody free from blame." 

.\ letter from Lord Dimmore to Colonel 
Howe : 




Ship "Dunmore," Dec. 25th. 1775. 

I have tliis moment received yours of the 24th and 
in compliance with your request, have empowered the 
bearer, Mr. Lawrie, to agree to any one of your Lieu- 
tenants in our custody, being exchanged in place of 
Mr. Batut. Lieut, of the 14th Regiment, and to an 
equal number of vour privates in lieu of those of the 
14th with you now. I am^ Sir, 

Your most, ob'dt humble serv't. 

Dun MORE. 
To Robert Howe, Esquire. 


The reply to Lord Dunmore by Colonel 


Norfolk, Dec. 25th, 1775. 
My Lord:— 

Desirous as we are to regain our friends in your 
custody, and to return to the army the officers and men 
of their corps who have fallen into our hands, we can 
by no means, submit to place the officers and soldiers of 
the army, who liave been taken in the battle upon a foot- 
ing with those officers of Militia and the peasants, that 
you have thought proper to deprive of their liberty. 
We have since our march from the Great Bridge, taken 
a number of those who were in action at that place; 
among them, some who acted under your commissions 
as field-officers ; those I conceive, may be equitably ex- 
changed for those of the same rank in your hands ; and 
relucta:it as I am to continue in confinement either your 
prisoners or ours, I shall consent to no exchange but 
such as equity shall warrant. 

I beg leave to refer you to Mr. Lawrie for particu- 
lars. I should be glad to be favored with a list of the 
prisoners you have in your hands, the rank they bear 
and the manner in which they were taken. 

I am. My Lord, your Lordship's most Ob'dt., 
humble Serv't, 

Robert Howe. 
To His Excellency Lord Dunmore. 

Lord Dunmore's reply : 


Ship "Dunmore," Dec. 26th, 1775. 

Yours of last night I received and really am at a 
loss to know what your meaning is; you certainly, when 
}'0U proposed an exchange of prisoners, could never 
have meant to pay your own people so poor a compli- 
ment, as not to look upon those whom the Convention 
thought proper to appoint to hold military commis- 
sions in any other light than officers ; those you talk 
of as officers of Militia and Peasants, whom you say 
I have thought proper to deprive of their liberty, come 
under that predicament, and were taken armed against 
their liege Sovereign. 

If the rank of officers in each army is not to be our 
guide, I own I am at a loss to know what rule we are 
to be governed in exchange of prisoners, 

I am Sir, Your humble servant, 

To Robert Howe Esquire in. Norfolk. 

Colonel Howe's answer : 

Norfolk, Dec. 27T11. 177=;. 
My Lord :— 

I was not understood by Your Lordship last night 
and it gives me concern. You do me justice, however, 
when you suppose I could not mean, even by implica- 
tion, to degrade any connuissions issued by Conven- 
tion, whose authority I acknowledge, whose appoint- 
ment I honor and to whose service I have devoted 

I 'am. I find, to inform j-our Lordship of what I 
really thought you before acquainted : that Conven- 
tions, from the fatal necessities of the times, have been 
compelled to establish three different military bodies: 
Militia, Minute Battalions, and Regular Regiments; 
and that they have made a distinction in the rank of 
each. What I said, therefore, in respect to militia 
officers, was not without its propriety, had my 
meaning extended no further than as to their rank. 
You, My Lord, sometimes effect so much to despise 
any rank derived from Conventions, that courtesy itself 
cannot induce you. even in the common forms of ad- 
dress, to admit those appellations whicli they have 
fixed to particular characters. Circumstances, however, 
at other times have so far an influence upon Your 
Lordship as to prevail upon you not only to admit that 
rank, but to endeavor to carry it higher than even the 
Conventions intended. 

A Colonel in the Minute Service ranks only with a 
Lieutenant Colonel of the Regulars; a Colonel of Mili- 
tia, only with a Lieutenant Colonel of Minute-Men, 
This must make it plain, that a IMilitia Lieutenant, 
though your Lordshio had taken him in battle, cannot 
be deemed an equitable exchange for a Lieutenant of 
Regulars, much less. My Lord, if a man should have 
been torn from his farm and arbitrarily deprived of 
his liberty, because a Convention had nominated him 
an officer, without his having done anv one act that 
could warrant his seizure, and continue his confinement 
longer than despotism prevails over rights and privi- 
leges. In this case. I might indeed compassionate h's 
fate, but should betray the confidence reposed in me 
by my country, should I attempt to release him by a 
prisoner of equal rank taken in battle, who it would be 
my duty to consider as a pledge in my hands, for the 
redemption of some brave man. that by the chance of 
war may happen to be captured. 

The Convention in order to establish a Militia, 
have appointed Captains in particular districts to train 
and e.xercise, in arms, all persons from 16 to 60 years 
of age, without instructing or directing them to act 
against Government ; these may meet and go through the 
manual exercise, and then return home without the 
least guilt. Six months after, should some or all of 
these people be taken from their ploughs, made prison- 
ers and offered in exchange for those that are prison- 
ers of war, could an officer be justified, who admitted 
of such an exchange? or would you, Aly Lord, should 
we seize upon the per.son of the peasants, who come 
into this town every day and who attend to j'our Proc- 
lamation and subscribed vour Test, admit of them in 



exL-liaiigv.' t'lr our orticor> aiul inoii, wlio you assert were 
lakeu in arms? 

Inforuiation had given mc to think, and till your 
last letter, 1 had no reason to doubt, tliat some of these 
officers and men you offered us. were such as I have 
(lescrilied ; and it was to that I alluded when I said 
that I could not put those prisoners taken in battle, 
upon a lix)ting with the Militia officers and peasants, 
whom you. My Lord, had thought proper to deprive of 
their liberty. I was explicit. I thought, when I. told 
Your Lordship, that I looked upon those officers, who 
under your appointment, fought at the Great Bridge, 
though taken since the action, as prisoners who would 
he equitably offered in exchange for those of ours of 
the same rank taken by you : and when I desired an 
exact list of the men in your custody, the rank they bore 
and the manner in which they were taken. I imagined 
it would be granted me: I wish now to obtain such a 
list. My Lord; and if I do. you will find that I shall 
not degrade those commissions issued by Convention, 
the rank of which you seem so desirous I should main- 
tain; but join you heartily, if you choose it. in one 
nieasure at least, that of returning .to their friends such 
prisoners we have of yours, and restoring to the bosom 
of their country those that you have torn from it. 

I have not had in my power, till within the last 
hour, to answer your favor of last night; the delay 
you will please excuse. 

I am, My Lord, Your Lordship's, 

Most ob'd't humble serv't, 

Robert Howe. 
To His ExcELt,EXGV Lord Dunmore. 

It ajipears that tlie ])ickets of the Colonial 
army at Xorfolk were offen.sive to tlie eves of 
tlie British naval officers on the ships in the 
harbur. and tlie commander of the "Liver- 
pool"' wrote to Colonel Howe to have them 
witiidrawn from tlieir sight. 

.Ship "I^iverpooi,," off Norfolk. 
Df.ce.mber 30TH. 1775. 
.-Ks I hold it incompatible with the honor of my 
commission to suffer men in arms against their Sover- 
eign and the Laws, to appear before His Majesty's 
ships. I desire you will cause your sentinels in the town 
of Norfolk to avoid being seen, that women and chil- 
dren may not feel the effects of their audacity, and it 
would not be imprudent if both were to leave the town. 
I am. Sir. your most huinble servant, 

Hexrv Bellew. 
To Robert Howe, Esn. 


This letter had Colonel Howe's jM-ompt re 

N'oRi-or.K. DF.cE^rnER 30TH. 1775. 
I am too mvch of an officer to wish you to do anv- 
thing incompatible with the honor ot your commission 
or to recede myself from any point which I conceive 

to be my duty. L'nder llic inlluence iii recipn.r.ii uri- 
ings consequences may ensue which cither, perhaps, 
would choose to avoid. Our sentinels have received 
orders not to fire at your boats, or any other, unless 
approaching the shore in a hostile manner. H they 
exceed this order, we would punish them ourselves; or 
if you do it, we shall thank you for it. l(, however, 
your resentment extends farther than merely to them, 
I should wish the inhabitants of the town, who have 
nothing to do in this matter, may have time to remove 
with their effects. And, as to the rest, I should be un- 
worthy of the respect of a man of your character, if I 
consulted anything but my duty. 

1 am. Sir, your most ob'dt humble servant, 

Robert Howe. 
To Henry Bellew, Esq. 

The proceedings of tiie Virginia Con\en- 
tion (American Archives, Vol. 4, Page 103) 
on Tuesday, January 2, 1776, show that "The 
president laid before the convention a letter 
from Colonel Howe and also a letter from 
Colonel \\'oodford informing the convaition 
they had received petitions from several of the 
persons who liad joined Lord Duinnore and 
were on board the vessels in the harbour at 
Norfolk, desiring that they miglit have leave 
to return, as their wives and children were 
greatly distressed. That tiiey had given for 
an.swer,, the women and cliilclren were at \\\y- 
erty to come on shore, and should receive as- 
sistance and protection, but not to be at liberty 
to return or give intelligence to our enemies; 
tliat the men should iiave no other violence 
oft'ered tiiem than to remain ))risoners till tiiev 
could be fairly and impartially tried by their 
Country for taking up arms against it. Whicii 
Ijeing read, 

"Resolved, that this Convention will immediately 
resolve itself into a Committee on the said letters. 

"The Convention accordingly resolved 
itself into the said Committee, and after some 
time spent therein Mr. President resumed tiie 
chair and Mr. Mercer reported that the Com- 
mittee had, according to order, had under their 
consideration the letter from Colonel Howe 
and Colonel Woodford and had come to the 
following resolution thereup(.n. which he read 
in his place and afterward delivered it at the 
Clerk's table, where the same was again twice 
read and agreed to by the Convention. 



"Resolved, that tlic Convention do highly approve 
of the offer made by Col. Howe and his officers to the 
distressed women and children now en board the ves- 
sels in the harbour at Norfolk, and the terms offered 
to those who have taken up arms against this Coun- 
try ; and that Col. Howe be requested to repeat the 
same in the name of the Delegates and Representatives 
of this Colony." 

On, the 30th day of Decemlser. 1775, tlie force in Hampton Roads and the har- 
])0v lit Niirfolk and Portsmouth was com- 
]5osed (if the following vessels: 

Ship "Liverpool," 28 guns. Henry Bellcw. Com- 

Sloop "Otter," 16 guns, JIallicw Squire. Com- 

Sloop "Kingfisher." 18 guns. James Montague, 

Sloop . 8 guns. Robert Stew;irt, Commander. 

-Sliip "Eilbeck." . Lord Dunmore, Com- 


• And .six or seven small tenders. 

Royalist famihes took refuge on tlie ships, 
^\here, from tlie scarcity of provisions, great 
distress prevailed. Marketing in tlie town and 
vicinity was hy no means pleasant, and the 
Christmas holidays of 1775 were passed in in- 
■\-oluntar}- fasting, especially by the lately tin 
impudent loyalists. 

Colonel Woodford had issued a peaceful 
])roclamation tO' the inhaljitants of Princess 
Anne and Norfolk counties, and consecjuently 
many resorted to his cam]); hut the Tories 
taken in amis were each coupled with hand- 
cuffs to one of his negro fellow-soldiers as a 
stigma for traitorous conduct. 

The vigilance of the colonial troops kept 
the enemy confined to their ships, preventing 
foraging in the country, and consequentlv Brit- 
ish ciimmissary supplies were naturally cut ofY. 
Lord Dunmore sent a flag of truce to ask for 
a su]jply of food, but being answered in the 
negative, he resolved to bombard, and, if need 
1)e, ti> destroy the town. Accordingly, notice 
was given on the 31st of December, of the 
intended attack in order that the women and 
children might be remo\ed to places of safety, 
and on Monday, January i, 1776, the bom- 
bardment began. 

At this time Norfolk was "the most flour- 
ishing and richest town in the Colon_\-." The 
natural advantages which invite and promote 
navigation and commerce had been acti\ely sec- 
onded by the industry and enterprise of its citi- 
zens. Its population had reached 6,000. and 
■"many of the inhabitants were in aftfuent cir- 

The "Liverpool" opened fire, and soon mt 
less than 60 guns were hurling their iron hail 
into the de\-oted town. The ball now seen in 
the wall of St. Paul's Church is said to have 
been thrown by the "Liverpool" l\'ing off the 
foot of Church street. 

Parties of niarines and sailors were sent 
from the ships tr> fire the warehouses on the 
wharves, and as the wind was from the south 
the greater part of the town was soon in flames, 
which rapidly spread among the wood-built 
houses. The conflagration lasted 50 hours, 
destroying property \-alued at ,$1,500,000. 
Notwithstanding the incessant cannonade, not 
a single patriot soldier was killed, though three 
or four women ancl children were slain in the 

Still the \'irginia forces held the town, or 
the site of the late town, for several weeks, 
when the remaining buildings were appraised 
by Colonel Stevens, and, after the removal of 
their occupants, were destroyed, lest they af- 
ford shelter for the enemy. It is said that St. 
Paul's church was the only edifice left stand- 
ing in the town, but a few days before the 
most flourishing in X'irginia, but vrhicli was 
for a season abamloncd to utter desolation. 
Even the communion plate of St. Paul's was 
carried off to the old cemetery. The question 
is often asked: Who burned Norfolk, Lord 
Dunmore or Colonel Howe or an irrespon- 
sible mob? It seems that after Dunmore had 
destroyed part, if not four-fifths of the town, 
the destruction was completed by order of the 
Virginia Convention, of which F.dmund Pen- 
dleton was president, and according to "Camp- 
bell's History of Virginia" it was opposed 
amcmg the civil and military authority by only 
one man, Cicn. Andrew Lewis. Thus the 


o ■= 

g 1 

o 2 



\'irginians c<»ini)leted wlial their (.Micniics hc- 

Accounts of the extent of the destruction 
of Norfolk by tlie attack of Dunmore on Jan- 
uary I, 1776, vary very much. One historian 
says : 

"Tliough it does not seem to l)e generally 
known, the whole question of the destruction 
of Norfolk was investigated in the year 1777 
bv commissioners appointed by the General 
Assembly. Their reixjrt was made October 
10, 1777, and I suppose is still on lile in the 
Auditor's department. At any rate, it was a 
matter of discussion in the House of Delegates 
in 1835-36, and was published with the pro- 
ceedings of that year. This report is accom- 
l)anied by a schedule of all the property de- 
stroyed — time when, by whom, and value — and 
also by the depositions establishing the facts. 
It establishes that, out of 1,333 burned, 
only 54 were destroyed by Lord Dunmore, and 
that on January i, when the historians state 
that he burned the whole town, he burned only 
19 houses — 32 having been burned by him 
November 30, 1775, and three January 21, 
1776. It establishes that 863 houses were 
burned by the troojis of the State before Jan- 
uary 15. 1776, and that 416 houses were de- 
stroyed by order of the Convention in Feb- 
ruary. It goes on to say : 

" "Upon an inspection of the schedule and 
the deiK>sitions which have been taken, it will 
appear that very few of the houses were de- 
stroyed by tile enemy, either from their can- 
nonade or by the parties they landed on the 
wharves; indeed, the efforts of tiiese latter 
were so feeble that we are induced to believe 
that most of the houses which they did set 
fire to might have l>een saved had a disposition 
of that kind prevailed among the soldiery, but 
they ap])ear to have had no such intention ; on 
the contrary, they wantonly set fire to the 
greater part of the houses within the town, 
where the enemy never attempted to approach, 
and where it would have l)een impossible for 
them to have penetrated.' " 

Colonel Howe, in a letter to the \'irginia 

Convention, dated at NDrfolk, January ..;, 
1776 (American Archives, Vol. 4, Page 538), 
reports that : 

"The cannonade of the tc)wn began alxmt 
a quarter after three yesterday, from upwards 
of 100 pieces of cannon, and continued till 
nearly ten at night without intermission : it 
abated a little and continued until two this 
morning. Under cover of their guns they 
landed and set tire to the town in .several places 
near the water, though our men strove to pre- 
vent them all in their power; but the houses 
near the water being chiefly of wood, they took 
(ire immediately and the fire spread with 
amazing rapidity. It has now become general 
and the whole town will, I doulit not. be con- 
sumed in a day or two. Expecting that the 
fire would throw us into confusion, they fre- 
quently lantled and were every time repulsed, 
I imagine with loss, but with what loss I can- 
not tell ; the burning of the town has made 
se\eral avenues which yesterday they had not, 
so that they may now fire with greater effect; 
the tide is now rising and we expect at high 
water another cannonade. I have onl\- to wish 
it may l>e ineffectual as the last, for we have 
not one man killed and but few wounded. I 
cannot enter into the melanch<ily consideration 
(;f the women and children running through a 
crowd of shot to get out of the town, some of 
them with children at their breasts; a few have. 
1 hear, been killed: does it not call for ven- 
geance Ixith from God and man ? 

"It is but justice to inform you thai I had 
the pleasure to find every officer ready to e.xe- 
cute orders at a moment's warning and that 
the men liehaved with steadiness and spirit. 
Colonel Stevens went down, at my command, 
and headed some men near the water, where he 
emraged a party who had landed, with a snirit 
and conduct of a good officer. 

"Of my friend Colonel Woodford it is 
almost needless to speak, but I cannot avoid 
expressing that I received from Inm every as- 
sistance which conduct and spirit could give 

And on January 4. 1776, at three o'clock 



r. M. he further reported to tlie Conven- 
tiiiu : 

"Alxiut a quarter past three on Monday 
afternoon the whole fleet began a heavy can- 
ncjnade, which lasted some hours, without in- 
termission, and, indeed, continued off and on 
till last night, since which time we have been 
tolerably cjuiet. Under the fire of their ships 
they landed in many places and set fire to the 
houses on the wharves. In these attempts 
many of them we are certain were killed and 
nexer failed being repulsed by our people. \\& 
had not a man killed, and only five or six 
Avounded, one supposed mortally, and twO' or 
three women and children are .said to have 
been killed. Providence certainly interfered 
in our favor or more lives must have been lost. 
They once landed and got into the streets with 
field-pieces, but were beaten back with loss and 
no execution done by their fire. Nine-tenths of 
the town is destrovetl, but the fire is now 

The midshipman on the "Otter," in the 
letter heretofore mentioned, wrote January 9 : 

"The detested town of Norfolk is no more! 
Its destruction happened on' New Year's day! 
About four o'clock in the afternoon the signal 
was given from the 'Li\-erpool,' when a dread- 
ful cannonading began from the three ships, 
wliich lasted until it was too hot for the Rebels 
In stand on their wharves. Our boats now 
landed and set fire to the town in several 
])laces. It burnt fiercely all night and the next 
da}, nor are the flames yet extinguished; but 
no more of Norfolk remains than about twelve 
houses which have escaped the flames." 

After the destruction of Norfolk there was 
some skirmishing, in which the British suf- 
fered most severely. On the 6th day of Feb- 
ruary. 1776, Col. Robert Howe retired from 
Norfolk, with his command and stationed his 
forces at Kempsville, Great Bridge and Suf- 
folk. The residents of Norfolk were under 
tliese most distressing circumstances forced to 
leave the site of their homes to seek shelter 
from the rigors of winter. The good people 
of Suffolk received these distressed refugees 

with open doors ami unbounded hospitality un- 
til every building in the town was croAvded. 

Although Lord Dunmore was left free to 
occupy Norfolk in ashes, the \'igilance and en- 
ergy of tlie American troops prevented him 
from obtaining supplies from the country at 
large, and at last, forced 1)y hunger and dis- 
ease, he ordered the quarters of his soldiers 
on shore to be burned, re-embarked his troops, 
and oil June i sailed from Hampton Roads for 
Guynn's Island in Mathews county. The aid 
of the North Carolina troops, under Col. Rob- 
ert Howe, was highly appreciated by the pa- 
triots of Virginia, and the self-sacrificing de- 
votion of these soldiers elicited unstinted 
praise (American ^Vrchives, Vol. 4, Page 
116) : 

"Wednesday, January 10, 1776. Tlie 
President laid before the Convention a letter 
from the Council of Safety for the Province of 
North Carolina informing the Convention that 
the\' had sent orders to Colonel Howe, Com- 
mander of the troops at Norfolk, to remain in 
the Colony witli the North Carolina troops as 
long as the public service might require, or 
until it should be absolutely necessary to recall 
him for the defense of their Province, and had 
directed him to receive all of his orders re- 
specting his operations whilst in the Colony 
from the Convention or Committee of Safety. 
"Ordered, that the President be desired to 
write to the Council of Safety of North Caro- 
lina, acknowledging receipt of their very polite 
letter and thanking them for the assistance 
offered this Colony against the enemies of 

So not only the troops themselves were 
ardent in their help to our colony, but the con- 

I stituted government of the prmince c\-inced the 
highest friendsliip toward us and most faith- 
ful iiatriotism to- the cause of liberty. The 
Duke of Richmond, speaking in the of 

' Lords on March 5, 1776, "Observed that the 
war. if carried nn, would not onlv be a war of 
heavy expense and long continuance, but 
wiiuld be attended with circumstances of 

'. cruehy, civil rage and devastation hitherto un- 




precedented in tlie annals of mankind. We 
were imt only to rob tlie Americans of tlieir 
property, and make tliem slaves to fight our 
iiattles, but we made war on them in a manner 
wliich would shock the most barbarous nations 
by firing their towns and turning out the 
wretclied inliabitants to perish in the cold, 
of want and nakedness. Even still more, this 
barbaric rage was not only directed against 
our enemies but our warmest and most zeal- 
ous friends. This we instanced at Norfolk, 
\'irginia. as Administration iiad so frequently 
called it, which was reduced to ashes by the 
wanton act of one of our naval commanders. 
Such an act was no less inconsistent with every 
sentiment of humanity than contrary to every 
rule of good policy. It would turn the whole 
continent, as well friends as foes, into the most 
implacable and inveterate enemies. It would 
incense our friends and render our enemies at 
once fierce, desperate and unrelenting. It dis- 
graced our arms : it would render us despised 
and abhorred and remain an indelible blot on 
the dignitv and honor of the English nation." 

Drake's Biography says "Rob" Howe, 
Major-General Revolutionary Army, who was 
born in England and died in 1787 at the resi- 
dence of General Clark near Wilmington, 
North Carolina, was an early patriot in our 
cause. He, with Cornelius Harnett, of North 
Carolina, were specially, and the only ones, ex- 
cepted from pardon by General Clinton. Cor- 
nelius Harnett was grand master of No. i 
Lodge of Masons in Norfolk. 1773. General 
William Woodford, born in Caroline county, 
Virginia, in 1735, and died in New York City 
in 1780; upon the assembling of the \'irginia 
troops in Williamsburg, \'irginia, in 1775. he 
was made colonel of the Second Regiment, 
and was made prisoner at the siege of Charles- 
ton. South Carolina. 

After the departure of Lord Dimmore's 
fleet in May, 1776, there was no other invasion 
of Norfolk county until three years afterward. 
The State Government fit X'irginia had erected 
a fortification on the point now occupied by 
the United States Naval Hospital to defend 

Portsmouth, Gosport Na\ \ Yard and the bor- 
ough of Norfolk. It was named {or one of 
the most popular and patriotic \'irginians of 
that day — Thomas Nelson — a statesman who 
signed the Declaration of Independence, a 
soldier who trained his own artillery upon his 
<^wn house at glorious Yorktown, which sealed 
that declaration an everlasting reality. The 
fortification was garrisoned by 130 soldiers 
under command of Maj. Thomas ^Iathews. 

On the 9th of May, 1779. "^'i^ British fleet 
from Xew York, commanded by Sir (jeorge 
Collier, anchored in Hampton Roads. On the 
nth of May a large force was landed about 
three miles from here at the Glebe farm, now 
Port Norfolk, and proceeded to march to 
Portsmouth. Bv a singular coincidence tliis 
force was commanded by General Mathews, of 
the British army. Major Mathews, the com- 
mandant of Fort Nelson, finding himself out- 
flanked l)y a superior force, wisely abandoned 
the fort and retreated to the Dismal Swamp. 

The British promptly occupied Gosport, 
Norfolk and Suft'olk. They burned Suffolk, 
destroyed upward of 100 \csseis at Norfolk 
and Gosport and all the niilitary and naval 
stores which they could not take away on the 
fleet. They remained but a short time after 
their work of destruction and plunder, and 
then re-embarked for New York. 

In October, 1780, Brigadier-General Leslie 
landed at Portmouth with 3,000 troops, cap- 
tured and destroyed a number of vessels and 
many stores, but soon sailed for Qiarleston 
to join the forces of Cornwallis" then oper- 
ating in the South. 

In 1 78 1 Benedict Arnold made his head- 
quarters in Port.smoutii. and finally Corn- 
wallis ordered its evacuation to concentrate all 
of his forces at Yorktown. where his capitu- 
lation took place on the 19th dav of October. 


While tlie numl)er of regiments and the 
names of officers, soldiers and sailors of Vir- 



ginia in the Re\'olutionar_v W'lw luue been pre- 
served in the arcliives of the State, there is no 
mention on the rolls of the county from which 
the soldiers enlisted, and consequently it is im- 
possible to obtain the number and only a few 
of the names of the soldiers from Norfolk 
county, but I am convinced from the court 
records, which refer to many different com- 
panies in which particular soldiers had en- 
listed, that it furnished its full quota. 

At a county court held on the 21st of 
Anril, 1818, "William Hoffler, a resident of 
the County of Norfolk, \^irginia, this day 
made declaration on oath that he served in the 
Revolutionary War against the common en- 
emy first as a Captain and afterward as a Ma- 
jor in the Continental line from the year 1778 
to the siege of Little York, in 1781, when he 
was discharged, tliere being no further occa- 
sion for his services in the First Virginia State 
Regiment, conimanded by Col. George Gibson 
in General [Muhlenberg's Brigade, and it more- 
over ap'pears by the testimony of Col. Stephen 
Wright that the declaration aforesaid is true, 
and the Court being satisfied of the truth of 
the facts therein stated, it is ordered that the 
same be certified." 


Armstrong. John — Lieutenant in niililia. qualified July 

21, 1785. 
Armstrong, James — Private in Capt. Thomas Bressie's 

Airs. John — Private. 
Auspach, Philip — Private. 
Applewhaite, Dr. John — Surgeon in \'irginia State 



Butler, John — Private in Continental line. 
Baynes, John — Captain in militia, qualitied 1785. 
Bressie, Thomas — Major in militia, resigned 1785. 
Boush, Robert — Captain in militia, qualified 17S5. 
Butt, Josiah-^Captain in militia, qualified 1785. 
Bartee, .'\ndrc — Ensign in militia, qualified 17S5. 
Boushcll. William. Jr. — Ensign in militia, qualified 1785. 
Powers, John — First lieutenant in militia, qualified 

July 15, 1784. 
Boush. Charles S.— Ensign in militia, qualified Mav 

21. 1784. 

Boushell. William — Captain in militia, qualified 1784. 
Boushell. John — Second lieutenant in tiiilitia, appointed 

April 16. 1784. 
Butt, John — Captain in militia, appointed April 16, 1784. 
Bartee, Willis — First lieutenant in militia, appointed 

April 16. 1784. 
Boutton, Ben. — First lieutenant in militia, appointed 

April 16, 1784. 
Ballentine. John — Second lieutenant in militia, appoint- 
ed April 16, 1784. 
Balance, Samuel — Ensign in militia, appointed April 

16, 1784. 
Booker, William — Captain in militia. 
Brown, Anthony — Private in militia, 20th \'irginia 

Brazier, Henry— Private Captain Morgan's company of 

Bressie, William— Captain in militia, qualified Octoljer 

16, 1777. 
Butt, Nathaniel — Ensign in militia. 
Burgess. George W. — Captain in militia. 
Boushell. Joseph — Ensign in militia. 
Bartee. Lemuel — Ensign in militia. 
Brown. William — Private in militia. 
Bloxom. Scarborough — Midshipman in the row galley 

Bowers, David— Private in Captain Thompson's militia 

company in U. S. service. 
Block. Mathew — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Bright. John— Private in Captain Samuel Carr's com- 
Butler. Thomas — Sailing master and pilot in Virginia 

State Navy. 
Browne. Thomas — Captain, died in 177S. 
Branham. John — Private. 
Boush. Goodrich — Captain in Virginia State Xavy at 

organization ; conimanded armed vessel : died in 

the service. 
Barron. James— In Virginia State Navv. afterwar'ls 

commodore V. S. Navy: born Septeiiiber 15. 176S. 

died .\pril 21 1851 : buried in Trinity churchyard. 

Portsmouth; killed Decatur in a duel. 
Buchanan. John— Lieutenant in Continental line, killed 

in campaign of 1777. 
Erickell. John — Cantain. 

Conner. Cbarle— Major in militia, qualified Julv 21 

Corfcw, John, Jr.— Captain in militia, qualified Julv 2T 

Carter. James— Private in Captain Davis' company, ist 
Virginia Regiment, from 1776 to end of war. 

Creekmnr, Wilham— Private in Captain Hofller's com- 
pany, 1st Virginia Regiment. 

Cherry. Theonhiluf — Second lieutenant in militia. 

Culpepper, Willoughliy- Private in Captain Yates" bat- 
tery. U. S. Art. 

Cherry. PeiL — Private in Captain Smith's company. •!8th 
Virginia Regt. 



Conner, Asa — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Campbell. James — Private in Captain Samuel Carr's 

Cunningham, James — Lieutenant in Virginia State Navy. 
Carter. Joseph — Private in Captain Davis' company, ist 

Virginia Regt. 
Calvert. Christopher — Captain in Virginia State Navy. 
Cox, John — Private. 


DeKIamar. Charles — Major in Virginia State line, died 

Duflic, James — Private in Captain W'illiam Grimes' com- 
pany, 15th Virginia Regt. 

Darly, Zadock — Private in Captain Thomas Bressje's 

Dozier, Willoughbv — Private in Captain Lee's companv, 
U. S. Inf. ■ 

Dimford. William — Sailing master in Virginia State 

Downcs, James — Boatswain in U. S. Xavy. 


Eastwood. Willis — Ensign in militia, appointed April 

i6; 1784. 
English, Charles — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

company, 2d Virginia Regt. 


Fcrebee. John — Second lientcnant in militia. 
Foreman. Ivy — Second lieutenant in militia. 
Flcmming. Henry — Private. 

Flora. William — Private in Captain William Grimes' 
company. 15th \'irginia Regt. 

Grimes. Joshua — Captain in militia, qualified July 21, 

Godfrey, William — Lieutenant in militia, qualified July 

21. 1785. 
Gaskins, James — Captain in militia, qualified May 21, 

. 1784.. 
Grimes, William — Second lieutenant in militia, qualified 

July 15, 1784. 
Godfrey, Nathaniel — Second and first lieutenant in nvli- 

Grimes. Josiah — Second lieutenant in militia. 
Godchild. William — Ensign in militia. 
Grimes, Thomas — Private in Captain Goodall's battery, 

U. S. Art. 
Grizzel. David — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie'< 

Goffigan. Laban — Lieutenant in Virginia State Navy. 
Grimes, William — Corporal. 


Hebden. Jesse — Private in Captain Ragsdale's company. 

Herbert, Arthur — Ensign in militia, qualified July 21, 

Happer, William — Ensign in militia, qualified July 21, 


Hodges. John — Captain in militia, qualified July 21. 1785. 

Hall, George Thomas — Captain in militia, qualified May 
21, 1784. 

Hatton, Samuel — Second lieutenant in militia, appointed 
April 16. 1784. 

Hodges, Nathaniel — Private Captain W. T. Cock's com- 
pany, 35th Virginia Regt. 

Hanbcry. Job — Ensign in militia. 

Hodges, Mason — Second lieutenant in militia. 

Hodges, Joseph — Ensign in militia. 

Hall. William — Captain 1778, in room of Josiah Wilson, 

Hodges, James— First lieutenant in militia. 

Hoffler, James — Private in Captain Yates' battery, U. 
S. Art. 

Hodges, Randolph — Private in Captain Thomas Bres- 
sie's company. 

Hawkins. Benj. — Private in Captain Samuel Carr's 

Healy. Samuel — Lieutenant in Virginia State Navy. 

Howe. Bannister — Virginia State Navy. 

Hudson. John — Captain in Virginia State Navy. 

Hughlet. William — Midshipman in Virginia State Navy. 

Holland. Kitchen — Private. 


Ives. James — Ensign in militia, appointed .'Xpril 16, 1784. 
Ingram, William — Captain in militia, appointed April 
16, 1784. 


Jones. Richard — Private in militia, killed in service. 

Joliff. Richard — Second lieutenant in militia. 

Joliff, Joshua — Captain, in room of Willis Hoffler, dead. 

Joliff, Jeremiah — Second lieutenant in militia. 

Jones. Michael — Lieutenant in Virginia State Navy. 

Jackson, John — Private. 

Johnson, Dr. William — Surgeon in Virginia State Navy. 


Kay, John — Lieutenant in ^'irginia State Navy: trans- 
ferred from the army. 

Kennedy. Robert — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Kennedy. Robert. Jr. — Private in Captain Thomas Bres- 
sie's company. 

King. William — Captain in militia. i|ualified July 15, 

Keeling, Thorogood^First lieutenant in militia, quali- 
fied May 21, 1784. 

Kerr, Robert — Sergeant in 2d company, Charles Harri- 
son's artillery. 

King. John — Private in 38th Virginia Regt. 

Keal. Robert — Private in Captain Morgan's company of 

Kendal, Carter — Sailor. 



Kelly, William — Private in Captain Samuel Carr's com- 


Linton. Bernard — Private in 2d Virginia Regt. 

Lewelling, John — Ensign in militia, qualified July 21, 

Luke, Paul — Ensign in militia, appointed April 16, 1784. 

Langley. Richard — First lieutenant in militia, appointed 
April 16, 1784. 

Lillo, John — First lieutenant in militia. 

Lee, Sherwood — Ensign in militia. 

Lester. Thomas — Private in State artillerj' service, cer- 
tified by Capt.-Lt. William Porter. 

Lynton, Barnit — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Love, Edmond — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Lockhart, John — Private. 

Latimer, Moseley — Private. 


Mathews, Thomas — County lieutenant of militia, quali- 
fied in 1785. 
Moodv, Isaiah — First lieutenant in militia, qualified in 


Murden, Jeremiah — Captain in militia, appointed April 
16, 1784. 

Murden. William — Second lieutenant in militia, appoint- 
ed April 16, 1784. 

Murden, Maximilian — Ensign in militia, appointed April 
16. 1784. 

Maund, Matt. — Captain in militia. 

Mathews, James — Second lieutenant in militia, appoint- 
ed April 16, 1784. 

Morlev. Ma.ximilian — First lieutenant in militia, appoint- 
ed April 16. 1784. 

Manning, Thomas — Private in Captain Bradley's com- 

Miller. Mathew — Captain in militia. 

Maund. Malachi — Captain in militia. 

Maund. March — Ensign in militia. 

Mekins. Stephen — Private in Captain Yates' battery, U, 
S. Art. 

Mott, John — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's com- 

McDaniel. Silvanus — Private in Captain Thomas Bres- 
sie's company. 

McCoy, Meshech — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Morris. Christopher — Pilot in Virginia State Navy. 

Martin. Dr. Josenh — Surgeon in Virsrinia State Navy. 

Martin. Dr. Hugh — Surgeon in Virginia State Navy. 

McClanning. John — Private. 

Moore, Peter — Private. 


Nash. Thomas. Jr. — Captain in militia, qualified Jnlv 21. 

Nicholson. William — Captain in militia, appointed April 

16, 1784. 

Nicholson, Robert — Private. 
Nicholson. Rev. Jesse — Chaplain. 


Osborn. James — Private in Captain Yates' batterv, U. 

S. Art. 
Oldham, Joshua — Sailing master in Virginia State Navy. 

died in 1818. 


Powell, Richard — Lieutenant in militia, qualified July 

21, 1785. 
Powers. William — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

companv 2d Virginia Regt. 
Point. Griffin — Major in militia, qualified November 21, 

Portlock, William — Ensign in Captain John Nash's com- 

Portlock, John — First lieutenant in militia. 

Portlock. Archibald — Second lieutenant in militia. 

Powers, John — First lieutenant in militia. 

Powers. Caleb — Private in Captain Samuel Carr's com- 

Powers, William — Private in Captain Samuel Carr's 

Parslev. Joel — Private in Captain Sanniel Carr's com- 

Porter. William — Captain in 12th Virginia Regt. 

Pell. Dr. Joseph S. — Surgeon in Virginia State Navy. 

Parsens, William — Captain in Continental line. 


Randall. William — Lieutenant in militia, qualified July 

-'• '785- . . ... 

Randolph. William — First lieutenant in militia, appoint- 
ed .\pril 16. 1784. 

Ramsey. Henry — Private in Captain Yates' batterv, U. 
S. Art. 

Ramsev. Bennett — Private in Captain Yates' battery. U. 

Ray, Dr. Andrew — Surgeon. 

Rhodes. Benjamin — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Rhodes. William — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Rodgers. John — Captain, died in 1816. 

Shipwash. William — Private in militia, killed in service, 

^Se 45- 
Smith. Samuel — Lieutenant In militia, qualified Julv 21. 


Sikes, Jesse — Captain in militia, appointed .\prll 16. 1784. 

Satchwell, Enaanuel — Second lieutenant in militia, ap- 
pointed April 16, 1784. 

Soloman, John — Private in Captain William Grimes' 
company, 15th Virginia Regt. 

Scott, Tennant — Ensign in mlllt'a. 

Simmons, James — Private in Captain John Gregory's 


Simmons. Willis — Private in Captain John Gregory's 

Sawyer. Mesliech — Private in Captain Thomas Bres- 

sie"s company. 
Smith Underwood — Private in Captain Thomas Bres- 

sic's company. 
Suggs, Thomas — Private in Captain Sanuiol Carr's com- 
Stewart. Charles — Second lienteiiant in istli Virginia 

Saubat, John Baptiste — Captain. 

Snaile. Thomas — Lieutenant in \'irginia State Navy. 
Stewart. Ma.xy — Private in I^t Regiment, Continental 

Slarl-e. William — Private in Regiment, Continental 


Tart. James — Second lieutenant in militia, (lualifu-d July 
15. 1784- 

Talbot. Solomon B. — Second lieutenant in militia, ap- 
pointed .\pril 16, 1784. 

Thomas. .Amos — Private in Captain MacGill's company 
in state garri,son regiment. 

Truss, Josiah — Second lieutenant in militia, qualified 
N'ovember 21. 1777. 

Talbot. Kader — First lieutenant and captain, in room of 
Captain James Nicholson, deceased. 

Tabb. John — Knsign in militia. 

Thompson, Henry — Ensign in militia. 

Tripp. . — Private in Captain Thomas Mathew's com- 

Taylor, Peter — 

Townsend. Job — Private in Captain Samuel Carr's com- 

Turner. John — Private in Captain Samuel C;irr's com- 

Taylor. Thomas B. — Private in Virginia State line. 

Tankard. Dr. John — Surgeon. 

Thomas. Charles — Captain. 

Taylor. Peter — Private. 

Thomas, John — Captain in Virginia .State Navy. 

Tumlin, James — Private. 

Veale. Sanuul — Captain in militia, appointed .\pril 16, 

Veale. Dennis — Captain in militia, in room of Captain 

John Brickell. 
Veale. Dempsey — Captain in militia. 


Williamson. Roger — Private in Captain Samuel Carr's 

Wyatt. Spivy — Ensign in militia, cpialified Julv 21, 178.^. 

Wilson. William, son of John — Captain in militia, quali- 
fied July 21. i/S.v 

Wilson. William — First lieutenant in militia, appointed 
.'Vpril 16, 1784. 

Woodward. Francis — Private in Captain William Hoflf- 
ler's company, ist Virginia Regt. 

Watts, William^ — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

company, jd Virginia Regt. 
Woodward, John — Private in Captain George Vashan's 

company, died in service. 
Wormington, Abner — Private in Captain W. T. Cock's 

company. ,S5th \'irginia Regt, 
Wilson, Lemuel — Captain in militia, qualified November 

21. 1777- 

Willoughby, John — Captain in militia. 

Williams. Samuel — Ensign in militia. 

Willoughby. John — Private in Captain Sanuiel .Archer's 
company of artillery. 

Wright. Patrick — Captain. 

Willey. John — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's com- 

Wilcocks. John — Private in Captain Thomas Bressie's 

Wilson. John — Colonel and connn.-iiuler of the county 

Wilson. Sanmel — Sailing master in Virginia State Navy, 
died in 1806. 

Walker, Thomas — Captain. 

Wonevcult. Edward — Captain. 

Wakeiield. William— Private. 

Wood. William — Pilot in Virginia State Navy. 

\\'ood. .•\llen — Pilot in Virginia State Navy. 

White. -Archibald — Private in Captains Kelsie and 
Sharp's companies. 

Wdson. Willis — Colonel 4th Rcr,imer.t .\rtillery. and 
lieutenant of the county in 1787; died September II, 
1798; bu'ied in Trinity churchyard. Portsmouth. 

Wright, D. — Private in Continental line. 

On January i. 177''), Lord Dunmoi-e hum- 
i Ijarded Norfolk and set fire to the town. 
' Thomas Talbot was one of the sufferers. The 
i following' is a copy of an old paper, detailing 
an estimate of the items' of loss, showing a 
I total of £3.308 (about $10,000). The State 
' of Virg'inJa a little later on compeiisated his 
estate for this loss out of its treasury. The burned were situated in the business 
district of Norfolk, h'ing near the present Con- 
federate monument, and the descriptions given 
below indicate the character and size of the 
structures then there: 

One Brick store hon-e two story high 38 by 26; 
three rooms below and three above stairs: 
Rooms all completely finished. The store and 
cellar windows were of Iron Barrs £ 350 

One Brick two story house 32 by 19 two rooms 
and a passage below stairs; six l8-liglit windows 
in the lower Rooms and four. 12-light clossct 
windows; eight 12-light windows in the second 
floor and two rooms and a passage as also in, the 
garret. .A. Kitchen of two rooms under the 
house 420 

One store house 45 by 20 with a cellar 43 



One wooden dwelling house ^7% by 25. Three 
rooms below stairs and two above. One room 
adjoining same Tennament 16 by 15 210 

One Brick two story house 61 by 25. a store room 
at one end, two rooms and a passage below 
stairs besides the store room, 3 rooms and a 
passage above stairs, a cellar with three rooms 
under the house ; a Kitchen for said house of 
brick 20 by 16 S50 

One brick house for two Tennants 40 by 17. two 
rooms below and two above stairs; This house 
stands next the house where Mr. Dunn formerly 
lived 1 10 

One Iirick 2 story house 50 by 30 for two Ten- 
nants 3 rooms below and 3 above stairs at eacli 
end compleat with Kitchen, Cow-house, smoke- 
house, little House, &c for each 769 

One other Brick two story 50 by 30 in the same 
manner compleated in every respect as the house 

last described with Kitchen. &c, &c 770 

A small garden to each of the Tennaments 30 

Stable about 18 by 14 feet 20 

A necessary house to each dwelling 24 

One stable and shed 10 



By tlie State of Virginia and sold by order of 
tlie conventiun in the Ijorough of Norfolk on 
the 8th uf August, 1780: 

British Owners. 

John Greenwood, i lot land 

John Greenwood, hi lot land 

John Greenwood, J';, lot land Willis Wilson ... 

Andrew Stevenson, 'j lot land Tully Robinson . 

Thomas JMcKnight. i lot land Chris. McConnico 

William Farrar, i lot land Richard Nester .. 

William Farrar. 5 lots land Robert Barron . . 

Benjamin Knight. 2 lots land Chris. McConnico 

Andrew- Sprowle ^ Robert Barron . . . 

Andrew Sprowle, 450 acres James Marsden . . 

Andrew Sprowle, in Portsmouth, i lot No. 11 William Skinner 

Andrew Sprowle, in Portsmouth, i lot No. 12 John Waddon ... 

Andrew Sprowle, in Portsmouth. ; lot No. 29 John Morris .... 

Andrew Sprowle, in Portsmoutli. i lot No. 24 Thos. Pearse .... 

Andrew Sprowle, in Portsmouth, i lot No. 74 Ed. Wone3xott .. 


Martin Murphy i 


Sprowle, in 
Sprowle, in 


I lot No. 197 ....Hugh Brown 

I lot No. 198 ....Richard Barr 

175 acres James Maxwell .. 

Robert Gilmour, i lot Martin Murphy . 

Robert Gilmour. i lot .James IMarsdcn . . 

Willoughby Morgan, i lot Philip Ritter 

James Campbell & Co.. 7 acres ....William Plume .. 

James Campbell & Co.. at Deep Creek. 150 acres ....Sol. Shepherd ... 

Neil Jamieson, I lot land James Marsden .. 

Neil Jamieson. 93 acres , Fernetia Jamieson 

Talbot Thompson, i lot .Joel Mohun 

Thomas Applewhite, i lot ". Richard Nester .. 

James Dunn, i lot 
James Dawson, J/ 
James Dawsoii, ^ 
James Dawson. ]/> 
Jonathan Eilbcck. I 

Roliert Barron 

lot John Ross 

lot ....Thomas Calvert 

lot ■. John Tabb .... 

lot .James Maxwell 

Jonathan Eilbeck, i Negro, Sam John Kcarnes . 

Jonathan Eilbeck. i Negro. Newport John Kearnc~ 

Jonathan Eilbeck. i Negro. Toby John Kearno . 

Jonathan Eilbeck. i Negro. Bob John Kcarnes . . 

Jonathan Eilbeck, i Negro, James John Tabb 

Jonathan Eilbeck, i Negro, Taiufr John Tabb 

Jonathan Eilbeck, i Negro, Perrv Soln. Talbot ... 

Josiah Hodges, in Portsmouth, riot land Roliert ElltiUt .. 

Thomas Farrar, 3 lots land Nath. Bou>-h ... 

Thomas Farrar. I lot land Paul Loyall . . . , 

John Cramond, i lot land '. William Wilson 

John Cramond. 104 acres Tully Robbins . . 

William Chisholm. 14 acre- Jamc- Marsden . 
















' 5,17 














William Chisholm. 14 acres Jame> Marsden L 5'00 

William Chisholm, 14 acres John Heaiies 4.300 

William Chisholm. 14 acres Robert Elliott looo 

William Chisholm. ■ < lot land John Ross 950 

William Orange, J^S lot land William Goodchild 8.500 

William Orange, land Paul Loyall 60,000 

William Grange, land .James Langley 3.70o 

Jamieson Campbell and Calvert Co William Plume 

John Hardv, ' S lot land Robert Elliott 

John Hardv, ' < lot land Xath. Roush 1.250 

John Hardy. ' S lot land Willis Bramble 1.050 

John Hardy. ' '< lot land James Leitch 1.300 

William John?on Rysam. ■<> lot land Robert Barron 2,600 

John Ballantine. 2 Xegroes Tlinma'; Matthews 5.100 

Collin Ray, in Portsmouth, land John Kcarncs 8.600 

Collin Ray. in Portsmouth, land John Kearnes 1.300 

John .Agnew. land Thomas Matthews 6,500 

John .\gnew, land Thomas Matthews ,34.000 

John Agnew. land Charles Turner 3.100 

John .-Xgnew. land Thorogood Keeling 2.800 

Rogers Stewart, land Samuel Davis 16,400 

Jnbn Gooderich, Sr.. land No. 6 Richard N'ester 17.000 

John Gooderich. Sr.. land No. 7 Richard Nester ■. 40.000 

John Gooderich. Sr.. 55 acres John Kearnes 3.150 

Robert Speddin. lot No. 9 John Kearnes 56.500 

Robert Speddin. 20 acres Richard Nester 3.700 

Robert Speddin. Negro Man. Jonas Thomas Matthews 7.000 

James Miller, lot No. 27 Capt. .Aaron Maladow 1.750 

James Miller, land George Dixon 9.000 

James Miller, land James Gaskins 3.400 

Beniamin Bannerman. lot No. 40 Thomas Pearse 21. wo 

Benjamin Bannerman, lot No. 49 '. . Ralph Pickett 1.800 

Beniamin Bannerman. land Paul Loyall 5.600 

Benjamin Bannerman. land ' George T. Hall 960 

John Ewing. lot No. 61 George Kerr 10.100 

William Rankin, lot No. 97 Isaiah Moody 4500 

.Alex. Montgomery, lot No. 114 John Kearnes 4.500 

John Gooderich. Jr.. 3 acres Robert Elliott 4.000 

John Brown, i lot Hugh Brown 3.400 


George and John Bownes. lots No. 51. 52 Thomas Herbert £ 25.000 

George and John Bownes, lot No. 121 Story Wood 1,300 

George and John Bownes. lot No. 122 James Gaskins 1.200 

George and John Bownes. lot No. 131 Samuel Vealc g.^o 

George and John Bownes. 25 acres Benjamin Culpepper 2.500 

George and John Bownes. 5 acres and Negro, Jack Thomas Matthews 7.100 

George and John Bownes. Negro. Afoses Thomas Matthews 8.000 

George and John Bownes. Negro, Mont Thomas Matthews . 

George and John Bownes. i Cow. I Horse Thomas Matthews 410 



James Hodges. 180 acres Sol. Sheohard 

William Orange, land James ^^arsden 26.900 

.Andrew Snrowle. adioining the distillery Thomas Brown 000 

-Andrew Sorowle. adioining the distillery Paul Wellington 460 

Andrew Sprowle. adioining the distillery Thomas Brown 900 

The whole amount is stated as £946.486 

( Note by Thos. B. Rowland. — The amounts in £ are so fabulous that I may construe it as in colonial de- 
preciated ciirrencv. say $3-33 to the £ or 6 shillings to the dollar: that, in my memory, was the count or cal- 
culation. Therefore, the £ sterling appearing in the foregoing lists is not to be regarded as being by any 
means equal to the £ stcrline of thi> jir<--,ni i4av "> 




There are two chapters of the national so- 
ciety of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution in Norfolk county, the objects of which 
are : To perpetuate the memory and spirit of 
the men and women who achieved American 
independence, by the acquisition and protection 
of historical spots and the erection of monu- 
ments ; by the encouragement of historical re- 
search in relation to the Revolution, and the 
publication of its results ; by the preservation 
of documents and relics, and of the records of 
the individual services of Revolutionary sol- 
diers and patriots ; and by the promotion of 
celebrations of all patriotic anniversaries. 

To carr}- out the injunction of \Vashing- 
ton in his farewell address to the American 
people, — "To promote, as an object of primary 
importance, institutions for the general dif- 
fusion of knowledge," thus developing an en- 
lightened public opinion and affording to 
young and old such advantages as shall de- 
velop in them the largest capacity for perform- 
ing the duties of American citizens. 

To cherish, maintain and extend the insti- 
tutions of American freedom ; to foster true 

patriotism and love of country, and to aid in 
secin-ing for mankind all the blessings of lib- 

Great Bridge Chapter, Norfolk, Virginia. 

The officers of the chapter elected at its or- 
ganization were : Mrs. Hugh Nelson Page, 
regent; Mrs. Richard Walke, vice-regent; 
Mrs. Littleton Waller Tazewell, treasurer; 
Mrs. Philip Edward Yeatman, recording sec- 
retary; Miss Blanche Baker, corresponding 
secretary : Mrs. LeRoy Hamilton Shields, his- 
torian ; Mrs. John Graham, registrar; and Rt. 
Rev. Alfred ]\I. Randnlph. cliai)lain. 

Fort Nelson Chapter, Portsmouth, Virginia. 

The officers of the chapter elected at its 
organization in 1896 were: Mrs. Charles R. 
Nash, regent ; Mrs. James C. Cresap, vice- 
regent; Miss Lucv M. Wright, recording sec- 
retary; Miss Esther M. Wilson, correspond- 
ing secretary ; Mrs. Alexander B. Butt, treas- 
iTrer; Mrs. James F. Maupin, registrar; and 
Mrs. Charles T. Parrish, historian. 



Period ok Peace Sicceeding the Revolution — England's Hostile Acts Towakd 
Our Commerce and Coast Bring the War of ISli! — British Fleet in 
Hampton Roads — Depredations— Battle of Craney Island — The Mexican 

period of peace. 

Great Britain liad conquered the Canadas 
from France in 1760, and had for long years 
previously endeavored to obtain the possession 
of the Province of Louisiana and the control 
of the Mississippi River. France, aware of 
England's designs, made a secret treaty with 
Spain in 1763 and turned over the province t'> 
the Spanish authorities, with the agreement 
that Spain should make a retrocession when- 
ever called for. After a period of nearly four 
decades Spain made a recession of Louisiana, 
in 1801.. back to France, and in view of the 
war with England, Xapoleon Bonaparte, on 
April 30, 1803. sold and ceded to the United 
States for the small sum of about $15,000,000 
the Province of Louisiana, a vast territory now 
consisting of 15 States of this Union. On De- 
cember 20, 1803. the tricolored flag was hauled 
down at Xew Orleans and replaced by the stars 
and stri])es. Thus were the cherished hopes of 
England again foiled. 

In 1804 the British frigate "Cambrian."' 
Captain Bradley, entered the harbor of Xew 
York with other cruisers, seized one of our 
merchant vessels, just arrived, and impressed 
and carried ofif a number of her seamen and 

passengers. In 1806 three British ships of 
war l)oarded and burned tiie French ship "Im- 
petueux," of 74 guns, which had run aground 
on the coast of Xorth Carolina, a few hundred 
yards from the shore. Our coasting vessels 
were freipiently fired upon, and in certain in- 
stances some of the crew killed. Captain 
Douglass, of the "Leopard," subsecjuently 
blockaded the port of X'orfolk, obstructed citi- 
zens in tlieir ordinary communication between 
that and other places, and, in fact, besieged the 
cit\- on tlie land side, 

THE WAR OF l8lj. 

l-"<>r all these hostile acts of violence on our 
commerce and coast, in violation of the laws 
(if neutrality, England refused to gi\e any 
satisfaction or make any reparation or ajjology. 
Finally these outrages culminated in 1807 by 
the attack of His Britannic Majesty's ship 
"Leo])ard" on the .American frigate "Chesa- 
peake " off the capes of Virginia, which after 
five years of diplomatic negotiation determined 
President iladison to send a war message to 
Congress, and soon after, June 18, war was 
formally declared. 

The Prcsidenl's manifesto declared liiat 



the reasons for war were British excesses in 
violating- the American flag on the great high- 
way of nations ; the impressment of American 
seamen ; the harassing" of American vessels as 
they were entering their own harbors, or de- 
parting from them, and wantonly spilling the 
blood of the citizens of America within the 
limits of her territorial jurisdiction ; the issuing 
of orders by which the ports of the enemies of 
Great Britain were blockaded, and not sup- 
porting these blockades by the adequate appli- 
cation of fleets to render them legal, and' en- 
forcing them from the date of their proclama- 
tion, in consequence of which American com- 
merce had been plundered on every sea, and 
her products cut off from legitimate markets ; 
the employing of secret agents to subvert the 
government and dismember the Union ; and 
finally, the encouragement of the Indian tribes 
to hostility. The war lasted until 1815, al- 
though the treaty of peace was concluded De- 
cember 24, 18 14. The country after a period 
of 30 years of peace was not prepared for war 
and consequently suffered the disgrace and 
humiliation of the capture and destruction of 
its capital liy the enemy. Norfolk county was 
again agitated by the war and constantly 
menaced by the powerful fleets of Great Brit- 
ain. On the 22d of June, 1813, they made an 
attempt to capture or destroy our towns by an 
attack on Craney Island, but were gallantly re- 
pulsed by our soldiers and sailors, which saved 
Norfolk and Portsmouth from destruction. 

On the 5th day of Febniary, 1813, Admiral 
Warren's fleet was anchored in Lynnhaven 
Bay and all the ports and harbors of Chesa- 
peake Bay were declared in a state of strict 
and vigorous blockade. It was repeated that 
they had landed at Cape Henry for the i>ur- 
pose of procuring wood and water, and there 
was great alarm and consterntion tln-nughout 
all the tide-water section of Virginia. The 
Governor ordered out 3,000 men, and the 
legislature voted $300,000 for the means O'f 
immediate defense. 

On the ] f'lth of Feliruarv there were fi\^e 

rigates in the bay and one stationed at the en- 
trance of the capes to prevent the possibiliy of 
vessels coming in or going out, and the Ameri- 
cans were making active preparations to meet 
any attack that might be attempted on Norfolk 
and Portsmouth. The "Constellation" lay be- 
tween the forts and these cities in fighting 
trim, and 18 gunboats were arranged in line 
half a mile from Craney Island. Everything 
was in martial order here. Scouting parties, 
look-out and watch-boats were so thick on 
the river that a cockle shell could not have 
come up the river without discovery. There 
was so much confidence in the ability of our 
forces to defeat any assault of the enemy, it 
was proposed to send eight or 10 gunboats 
down and attack the British frigate anchored 
in Hampton Roads. 

The schooner "Lottery," Captain South- 
comb, bound from; Baltimore for France, in 
going out of the bay was discovered by the 
squadron. The British immediately manned 
and dispatched their boats and a pilot-boat 
after her, and, it beine calm, succeeded, after 
a desperate action, in capturing the schooner. 
A number of men were killed and wounded in 
the boats, and Captain Southcomb and two 
of his men were severely wmuided. The brave 
captain soon died of his wounds. A flag of 
truce dispatched on a pilot-boat to the fleet for 
the remains of Captain Southcomb was 
bronght up with the following letter from Cap- 
tain Byron, of the British ship "Belvidera," to 
Capt. Charles Stewart, of the "Constellation." 

"Belvider.\," Lynnhaven Anchorage. Feb. 15, T813. 
Sir: — 

I received your letter of this morning by Dr. Ray. 
The unfortunate and gallant Captain John Southcomb 
expired this morning. It will be satisfactory in some 
degree to his widow to know he had truly a religious 
sense of his situation, lately delirious, without the ex- 
cess of pain that might have been expected. Capt. 
Gould and his stevi'ard have taken charge of his effects; 
his body will be placed in the cartel, as soon as the 
coffin can be prepared. The two wounded men. at 
their own request, went up in the former cartel, which 
I am sorry to hear got on shore. I am extremely flat- 
tered with the part of your letter thanking me for at- 
tentions and humanity to the unfortunate, which gives 



me the most perfect assurance of the generous feeling- 
of Captain Stewart. 

I liavc the honor to be, Sir, with great respect, 
Vour obedient servant. 

R. Byrox. 

'Die officers of the "Belvidera" spoke in 
terms of the highest comnieiidation of the gal- 
lant manner in which tlie ■"Lottery" was de- 
fended, and in Captain Byron her unfortunate 
commander found a brave, a generous and a 
humane enemy. Every means was essayed to 
administer comfort to him while he lived; nor 
would the chivalrous Byron suffer his body, 
when lifeless, to be removed until he had en- 
closed it in a neat mahogany coffin which he 
had ordered to be made for the occasion. 

When the flag of truce bearing the corpse 
departed minute guns were tired on board the 
"Belvidera,"" and her colors were lowered to 

Such sensibility, such noble, generous con- 
duct to a fallen enemy gave Captain B)ron a 
more conspicuous niche in the temple of fame 
than the achievement of a great victory could 
entitle him. 

Captain Soutlicombs remains were inter- 
red in Norfolk with the honors of war, which 
burial was attended by the officers and crew of 
the frigate "Constellation." 

On tlie morning of the gth of March. 
1813, there was great excitement in Norfolk 
and Portsmouth and every man was under 
arms in ciinse(|uence of the enemy"s squadnv.i 
receiving a reinforcement the previous night. 
Their boats were constantly passing and re- 
passing between the different ships, and oc- 
casionally they would take soundings up the 
channel which induced the Ijelief of an im- 
mediate attack by land and sea. Both forts 
were well manned and the men were busily en- 
gaged heating shot. Every exertion was made 
to reiM?l tlie enemy. Many women and children 
left the towns and fled to the country. The 
court records were moved to a place of safet}" 
by the clerk and both communities were 
stripped for the fight : but the squadron did 
not then attack, only taking a position in 
Hampton Roads so as to effectually cut off 

communication with Petersburg and Rich- 
mond. The ships only remained in this iK)si- 
tion until the 22d of March, when they got 
under way and returned to Lynnhaven Bay ; 
the "Dragon," of 74 guns, was the nearest to 
the Roads, being anchored off \\'illoughby"s 
Point, — this movement was doubtless made as 
a base for the expeditions sent up the Rappa- 
hannock River. 

On the i8th of June, Commodore Cassin, 
conmianding the American fleet in the Eliza- 
beth River, detached Captain Tarbell with 15 
gunboats to attack the British frigate "Junon"' 
anchored in the bay. It. being perfectly calm, 
the gunboats had an excellent opportunity of 
proving their utility in smooth water. The 
attack lasted an hour and a half, in which time 
the enemy was so severely handled that she 
would have been compelled to strike her colors 
had not a breeze sprung up, when two other 
frigates coming to her assistance compelled 
the gunboats to withdraw. Abram Allison, a 
master"s mate, was the only person killed on 
board the gunboats. Commodore Cassin, in 
his report to the Secretary of the Navy, dated 
June 27,. 1813. at Navy Yard. Gosport, says: 


On Saturday at II P. M. Captain Tarbell niovitl 
with the flotilla under his command, consisting of 
fifteen gun-boats in two divisions. Lieut. John M. Gard- 
ner first division, and Lieut. Robert Henly the seconil, 
manned from the frigate, and fifty musketeers, which 
General Taylor ordered from Craney Island, and pro- 
ceeded down the river; but adverse winds and squalls 
prevented his approaching the enemy until Sunday 
afternoon at 4 P. >L. when the flotilla commenced a 
heavy galling fire on a frigate at about three-quarters 
of a mile distance, lying well up the Roads, two other 
frigates lying in sight. .At half-past four a breeze 
sprung up from E. N. E. which enabled the two frigates 
to get under way. one a razee or very heavy ship, and 
the other frigate, to come near into action. 

The boats in consequence of their approach hauled 
off. though keeping up a well-directed fire on the razee 
and other ship, which gave us several brcidsides. The 
frigate first engaged, supposed to be the "Junon." was 
certainly very severely handled — had the calm contin- 
ued one half hour, that frigate must have fallen into 
our hands or been destroyed. She must have slipt her 
mooring so as to drop nearer the razee, which had all 
sails set coming up to her with the other frigate. The 
action continued one hour and a half with the three 
ships. Shortly after the action, the razee got alongside 



of the ship, and had her upon a deep careen in a little 
time with a number of boats and stages around her. I 
am satisfied considerable damage was done to her. for 
she was silenced some time, until the razee opened her 
fire, when she commenced again. Our loss is very 
trifling. Mr. Allison, master's mate on board No. 139, 
was killed early in the action by an 18-pound ball, 
which passed through him and lodged in the mast. No. 
154 had a shot between wind and water. No. 67 had 
her franklin shot away and several of them had soiue 
of their sweeps as well as their stantions shot away — 
but two men slightly injured by the splinters .from the 
sweeps. On the flood tide several ships of the line and 
frigates came into the Roads and we did expect an at- 
tack last night. There are now in the Roads thirteen 
ships of the line and frigates, one brig and several 

I cannot say too nuicli of the officers and men on 
this occasion, for every man appeared to go into action 
with so much cheerfulness, apparently, to do their duty, 
resolved to conquer. I had a better opportunity of dis- 
covering their actions than any one else, being in my 
boat the whole action. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

J.S.ME.S C.\ssix. 

Oil tlie morning of June 22 tlie British fleet 
under command of Vice-Admiral Cockburn 
made a vigorous and desperate attack on 
Craney Lsiand. The batteries were manned 
\\\\\\ troops stationed on the island and a de- 
tacliment of sailors commanded by officers of 
the "Constehation," who opened a heavy fire 
wliicli compelled the enemy to retreat with 
great loss. Three barges were sunk — one was 
captured with 18 men on board belonging to 
a foreign regiment. Our officers, soldiers, 
sailors and marines exhil.>ited the utmost cool- 
ness and enthusiasm. 

The following is the official report of the 
battle by Commodnre Cassin, Commandant of 
Na\-v Yard : 

Navy Y.\kd. Gosport, June 23. 1813. 

I have the honor to inform you that on the 
20th. the enemy got under way, in all 13 sail, and 
dropped up to the mouth of James River, one ship 
bearing a flag at the mizzen. At ,t p. m. they were 
discovered making great preparation with troops for 
landing, having a number of boats for the purpose. 
Finding Craney Island rather weak manned. Captain 
Tarbell directed Lieutenants Neale. Shubrick and 
Saunders, with 100 seamen on shore, at 11 A. M. to a 
small battery on the N. W. point of the Island. Tues- 
day 22nd. at the dawn the enemy were discovered land- 
ing round the point of Nanseniond River, said to be 
4.000 troops ; and at 8 .\. m. the barges attempted to 

land in front of the Island, out of reach of the shot 
from the gun-boats, when Lieutenants Neale, Shu- 
brick and Saunders, w'ith the sailors, and Lieutenant 
Breckinridge with the marines of the "Constellation," 
450 in number, opened the fire, which was so well di- 
rected, that the enemy were glad to get off, after sink- 
ing three of their largest boats. One of them called 
the "Centipede," .Admiral Warren's boat. 50 feet in 
length, carried 75 men, the greater part of whoin were 
lost by her sinking. Twenty soldiers and sailors were 
saved, and the boats hauled up. I presume there were 
40 fell back in the rear of the Island and commenced 
throwing rockets from Mr. Wise's houses; wlien gun- 
boat 67 threw a few shot over that way, they dis- 
persed and went back. 

We have had all day deserters from the army com- 
ing in; I have myself taken in 25, and eighteen pris- 
oners belonging to the "Centipede." 

The officers of the "Constellation" fired their 18- 
pounder more like rifle men than artillerists. I never 
saw such shooting, and seriously believe they saved 
the Island. In the evening their (the enemy's) boats 
came around point Nansemond, and at sunset were 
seen returning to their ships full of men. At dusk 
they strewed the shore along with fires, in order to run 
away by the light. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

John Cassin. 
The Hon. William Jones. 

Secretary of the Xavy. 

The British troops under Sir Sidney Beck- 
with landed on the east side of Hoffler's Creek; 
which is the dividing line between Nansemond 
and Norfolk counties, marched up, took pos- 
session of Captain ^\'ise's residence, and threw 
up rockets as mentirmed by Commodore Cas- 
sin. They plundered the house and carried 
off nearly all the property on the premises. 
This house is ncnv standing and is owned by 
Mr. Ballard. Capt. George D. Wise was then 
the owner, — in fact he owned all the land from 
Hoffler"s Creek to, and including, Cranev 
Island. He was a captain of militia and was 
probably on duty at the time his Imuse was 
•pillaged. He was the first Wise who emigrated 
from the Eastern Shore to Norfolk Count}', 
and his descendants, Capt. William F. Wise 
and John S. \\"i^e, are resident and prominent 
citizens of the Western Branch. 

Forrest's History says : "On this memor- 
able day (June 22nd, 1813), Craney Island 
was attacked liy the British, and defended in 
a manner that reflected lasting honor \\\)0\\ 
the noble baiul of heroes who took part in 



that important battle, as well as upon the 
State and cotintry at large. It was indeed a 
brilliant affair. Tiie cool deliberation and 
mature judgnnent; the bravery and enthusiasm 
which were so strikingly manifested on the 
occasion by our comparatively small force. 
and the complete success of the day. all united 
to render this battle one of the most decisive 
and victorious that occurred during the war. 

"Craney Island lies about live miles from 
Norfolk, commanding the inward approach 
from Hampton Roatls : and on its defense de- 
pended the safety of the borough, as well as 
Portsmouth and the surrounding country. 
The splendid rejjulsc of the enemy there 
doul)tless prevented a more severe and bloody 
contlict. if not an exhibition of inhumanity 
and barbarity similar to that which took place 
at Hampton shortly after this engagement. 

■'The fortifications of this small island 
were ordered by Maj.-Gen. Wade Hampton, 
during his command of this district, and the 
W'Orks were executed under the direction of 
Colonel Armistead. 'Die enemy's fleet had 
come up to Newport News on the 21st and was 
soon in readiness to cover the intended attack 
of the I»ats the following day. The British 
presented a very formidal)le and imposing 
array. There were about twenty \esscls. con- 
sisting of seventy-fours, frigates and trans- 
ports, and an amied force of about 4,000 men. 

"A small battery was erected by the Vir- 
ginians on the Island, and mounting one 18- 
pounder, two 24.-pounders, and four 6-pound- 
ers. Our force consisted, principally, of about 
400 militia men, one company of riflemen, and 
two companies of light artillery, one of which 
was commanded by Capt. .\rthur Emmcrson, 
of Portsmouth. * * * Gtn. Robert B. 
Taylor, the commanding officer of the district 
at this time, increased this small force by a de- 
tachment of 30 men from Fort Norfolk, com- 
manded by Capt. Pollard, of the U. S. Army. 
Lieutenant Johnson, of Culpepper, and Ensign 
.\. -Ktkinson. of Ca])t. Hamilton Shield's com- 
pany of riflemen, from Isle of Wight, with 
about 30 volunteers, were also added, by order 

of the chief officer. Lieutenants Xeale, Shu- 
brick and Saunders, with about 150 seamen, 
also joined our force, by the direction of (_"ap- 
tain Tarl)ell, of the U. S. Ship 'Constellation." 
then at the naval anchorage, and they acted a 
brave and noble part in the battle. * * * 
Captain Emmerson and Lieut, ihonias God- 
win each commanded a 24-i)ounder, and the 
i8-i>ounder was commanded bv Captain Rooke, 
who was at this time master of a merchant shij) 
— the 'Manhattan' of New 'S'ork — then at an- 
chor in our harlior. * * * These three 
pieces of ordnance \\erc ser\-cd by men from 
the 'Constellation.' 

"Lieutenant Howie, .Sergeants \'oung and 
Livingston, and Corporal r^loffatt, separately 
commanded the 6-pounders, at which was sta- 
tioned the artillery company of Portsmouth. 
The whole force concentrated at the Island was 

■ in command of Colonel I-Seatty, assisted by 
Majors Wagner and Faulkner. * * * 
About 2,600 of the British troops landed at a 
distance of two miles below the Island, and the 
action was commenced by that division of the 
enemy's force. * * * Congreve rockets 
were thrown uixmi the Island, from a house on 
the mainland, within cannon shot of our bat- 
tery, and owned by Capt. ( leorge Wise. * * * 
Captain Rooke, who was nearest this point, was 
ordered to fire into the house, the view of which 

i was partially obstructed by a thick growth of 
trees. * * * A brisk fire of grape and 
cannister-shot was immediately o|>ened uixm it : 
and such was the precisif)n with which the gims 
were served, that the British were completely 
routed, with a loss of many killed and wound- 
ed ; among the former two of the officers. . 
* * * The 18-pounder, served as it was 

I with extraordinary rapidity, and aimed with 
unerring precision, dealt death and de.struction 
at every fire. * * * Meanwhile the enemy 
was approaching the Island with 50 barges 
filled with soldiers to the number of 1,500, ad- 
\ancing in regular column-(,rder. led on by the 
.Xdmiral's boat of 24 oars, and 52 feet long 
with a l)rass 2-pounder in her bow.* * * 
When CajJtain Emmersc-n sunposed that they 



were near enough to be reached by his 24- 
pounder, he cried out, in a loud, stern voice, 
'Now, boys, are you ready f and the quick re- 
sponse was 'IVe are ready:' 'Fire!' rejoined 
the brave and enthusiastic Captain ; and the bat- 
tery forthwitli opened upon them a dreadful 

fire of grape and cannister. 


foremost boats advanced, however, until they 
grounded, when so quick and galling was the 
fire, that they were thrown intO' the greatest 
confusion, and forthwith commenced a hasty 
retreat. * * * Four or five of the boats 
were sunk, one of them the Admiral's barge; 
and many others were so shattered that it was 
with ditficulty they were kept afloat." 

The report of the battle of Craney Island 
was made to the British Admiralty office by 
.\dmiral the Right Honorable Sir John Bor- 
lase Warren, Bart, and K. B., commander in 
chief of His Majesty's ships and vessels on the 
American and West Indian Station : 


San Domingo, H.\mpton Roads, 

Chesapeake, June 24TH, 1813. 

I request you will inform their lordships, that from 
information received from the enemy's fortifying 
Craney Island, and it being necessary to obtain posses- 
sion of that place to enable the light ships and vessels 
to proceed up the narrow channel toward Norfolk, to 
transport the troops over on that side for them to at- 
tack the new fort and lines in rear of which the "Con- 
stellation" frigate was anchored, I directed the troops 
under Sir Sidney Beckwith to be landed upon the con- 
tinent within nearest point to that place, and a rein- 
forcement of seamen and marines from the ships; but 
upon approaching, the island itself being fortified with 
a number of guns and men from the frigate and the 
militia, and flanked bv 13 gun-boats, I considered in 
consequence of the reoresentation of the officer com- 
manding the troops of the difficulty of their passing over 
from the land, that the persevering attempt would cost 
more men than the number with us would permit, as 
the other forts must have been stormed before the 
frigate and dock yard could be destroyed ; I therefore 
ordered the troops to be re-embarked. 

I am happy to say the loss in the above affair (re- 
turns of which are enclosed) has not been considerable, 
and only two boats sunk. 

I have to regret, that Captain Hanchett of His 
Majesty's Ship "Diadem." who volunteered his services, 
and led the division of boats with great gallantry, was 
severely wounded by a ball in the thigh. 

The officers and men behaved with much bravery, 
and if it would have been possible to have got at the 

enemy, I am persuaded would have soon gained the 

I have the honor to be, etc., 

John Borlase Warren. 
J. W. Croker, Esq. 

A general return of killed, wounded and missing 
in the affair near Craney Island June 22d, 1S13. Total 
3 killed, 8 wounded, 52 missing. 

Sidney Beckwith, Q. M. G. 

The negro stealing of some of the British, 
and the cruel manner in which they tore them 
away from their homes aroused general indig- 
nation. Captain Lloyd of His Majesty's Ship 
"Plantagenet" was notorious in this infamous 

The Norfolk Herald of that day comment- 
ing on negro stealing said : "Since the war it 
has been our lot to notice many acts of our 
enemy, perpetrated in direct violation of the 
laws of nations and of civilized usage. This 
has been as much a subject of regret as indig- 
nation with us. The customary evils of war 
are sufficient scourges for the human race, but 
to aggravate them, and that without the 
shadow of an excuse, is abominable. The mode 
of warfare pursued by the enemy in the Chesa- 
peake, has been ignoble and highly reprobatory,, 
particularly as relates to the kidnapping of 


"If negroes desert from their masters and 
fly to the enemy, it is no fault of the enemy if 
he keeps them ; but to go on shore and take 
them away by force is a most unjustifiable pro- 
ceeding. To take cattle, or other stock, would 
be consistent with the usage of civilized war- 
fare; but to take negroes, who are Iiniiiau 
beings; to tear them forever from their kin- 
dred and connections, is what we, should never 
expect from a Christian nation, especially one 
that has done so much to abolish the "Slave 
Trade." There are negroes in Virginia, and 
we believe in all the Southern States, who have 
their interests and affections as strongly en- 
grafted in their hearts, as the whites, and who 
feel the sacred ties of filial, parental and con- 
jugal affection, equally strong, and who are 
warmlv attached to their owners and scenes of 
their nativitv. To those no inducement which 



tile enemy cuukl urter would be sufficient to 
tempt them away. To drag them away, then, 
by force, would l)e the greatest crueltv. Yes, it 
is reserved for England, who boasts of her re- 
ligion and love of humanity, to practice this 
piece of cruelty, so repugnant to the dictates of 


Edward Moreland. private in Captain Shield's com- 

Jonathan Harrison, corporal in Captain McDonald's 

Benjamin Spratlcy. lieutenant in Colonel William 
Sharp's command. 

Alexander Stewart, private in Captain Grimes' com- 

William Langhorne. soldier. 

The muster mil of a companv of militia in- 
fantry, — attached to the 30th Regiment of the 
third requisition from the State of Virginia, 
commanded by Maj. Dempsey Veale and mus- 
tered into the service of the United States at 
the camp near Fort Xelson on the 26th day of 
April, 1813 
Cranev Island, is given as follows 

which was engaged in battle of 

John Hodges, captain. 
Tully R, Wise, lieutenant. 
Kader King, ensign. 
Thomas Bhnit, sergeant. 
William Bruce, sergeant. 
Richard Carney, sergeant. 
Thomas Carney, sergeant. 
Solomon Creech, sergeant. 
Josias Eastwood, sergeant. 
John Wainwright. sergeant. 
Samuel Rose, corporal. 
Samuel Ross, corporal. 
William Pearce, corporal. 
George Foskey, corporal. 
James Taylor, corporal. 
William (_)rton, corporal. 
William .Xswell, private. 
Thomas .\ndrews, private. 
Henry Best, private, 
David Bowers, private. 
Henry Consaul. private. 
Daniel Clcmons, private. 
William Deans, private. 
Edward Ktheredge, private. 
George r.theredge, private. 
Richard I'.tlnredgc. private. 
Samuel Freeman, private. 
Thomas Hadley, private. 

Thomas Hollowcll, private. 

Thomas Hobgood, private. 

James Hobgood, private. 

William Harris, private. 

David James, private, 

Theophilus Ives, private, promoted corporal. 

David Ives, private, promoted corporal. 

Thomas King, private. 

Keily King, private. 

.Arnold King, private. 

John Love, private. 

Stephen McPherson, private. 

John Miller, private. 

Jeremiah Murden, private, 

Robert Manning, private. 

Willis Manning, private. 

William Miars. private. 

Joel Miars, private. 

Thomas Nash, private. 

Thomas K. Orton, private. 

Daniel Peake, private. 

Samuel Powell, private. 

Stephen Ross, private, 

Jesse Taylor, private. 

Thomas C. Tucker, private, 

Thomas Taylor, private, 

Richard Taylor, private. 

George Wright, private, 

William Wallace, private. 

Caleb Ward, private. 

Capt. John Hodges was elected on joint 
ballot of both Houses of the General Assemblv, 
brigadier-general of the Ninth Brigade in tlie 
Fourth Division of the militia of the ("ommon- 
wealth and commissioned b_\- Gov. |ohn Tvjer 
on the 7th day of January, 1826, 

There were in the \\'ar of 1812, 155.364 
soldiers. — the South furnished 96,812 and the 
Xortli 58,552. 

TIIF. .Mi-:.\ic.\x W.\K. 

E.\ce])ting Indian hostilities, there was a. 
period o\ peace in the United States from 1815 
to 1846 when the war with .Mexico began. Al- 
though the seat of war was far away, it fired 
the Southern heart and the soldiers from 
"Di.xie" nearly doubled the Xorthern .soldiers 
who went to subdue ]\[c.\ico. The South fin'- 
nished 43,630 and the North only 23.054 men. 

.V meeting was called in .\shland Hall. Nor- 
folk, on the i6th day of December. 1846. at 
which elofjuent speeches aroused enthnsi;ism 
and a \nluntcer cejmpany of young men was or- 



ganized. O. E. Edwards was elected captain. 
The services of tliis company were first tend- 
ered to tlie Governor of Virginia, who de- 
cHned them, then they were tendered to the 
Governor of North Carolina, who also refused 
them : but finally the general government ac- 
cepted their ofifer and they embarked from 
Fort ^IcHenry, Maryland, on the 27tli of 
March, 1847, for Mexico. The company was 
assigned a howitzer batter\- and fought with 
great gallantry at the National Bridge and 
other places. After the return of Captain Ed- 
jWards to Norfolk, his fellow citizens presented 
him with an elegant sword for his gallant and 
meritorious conduct. 

Portsmouth also sent a volunteer company 
to Mexico. It was assigned as Company F, 
First Regiment Virginia Foot. Col. John F. C. 
Hantramch. Lieutenant-Colonel Randolph and 
Maj. Jubal A. Early. The following is the 
muster mil made in Mexico April 30, 1848, 
and certified by Capt. W. S. Duggan, Captain 
North Carolina Volunteers, Acting Inspector 

John P. Young, captain. 
John K. Cooke, first Heiitenant. 
Edward T. Blamire. second heiitenant. 
Wilham M. Levy, third Heiitenant. 
John Lappin. first sergeant. 
Joseph H. James, second sergeant. 
Eugene D. CounciH. third sergeant. 
Francis L. Benson, fourth sergeant. 
Jolm Mesley. first corporal. 
Nathaniel Dyes, second corporal. 
Henry Webster, third corporal. 
Sparrell Jones, third corporal. 
.Mdrich. W. M.. private. 
Benton, Jesse, private. 
Bighani. James S. A., private. 
Burdine. John, private. 
Barnes. John, private. 
Butt. James W., private. 
Catterson, James, private. 
Callaghan, Thomas, private. 
Cohen. Louis, private. 
Cherry. William, private. 
Creckmur. Charles J., private. 
Callis, Baily, private. 
Cook, Charles, private. 


Donnell, John S., private. 
Forbes, John, private. 
Grimes, Joshua, private. 
Grimes James, private. 
Gayle. Benjamin, private. 
Hawkins, Nathaniel B.. private. 
Howell. Richard S.. private. 
James. William D., private. 
Johnson, Richard E., private. 
Lamb, Samuel, private. 
Lawrence, Christopher, private. 
McCready, Jeremiah, private. 
Manning, William W.. private. 
Miller, Samuel W., private. 
Morse, Daniel, private. 
Norfleet, Christopher, private. 
Orton, George W.. private. 
Overly. John W.. private. 
Pitts, Virginius L., private. 
Parker. F. W., private. 
Reed. William, private. 
Reynolds. Samuel, private. 
Ricliardson. George W.. private. 
Rawlins. Edward, private. 
Shelling, John, private. 
Spratt, James W., private. 
Spencer, John, private. 
Turner, Henry, private. 
Tottin, Samuel, private. 
Tabb. A. G., private. 
Whitson. James, private. 
White, William, private. 


R. L. Page, captain. 

W. L. Rodgers, captain. 

R. B. Pegram, captain. 

David B. Park, sailing master. LT. S. S. "St. Marys." 

William Whitehead, boatswain, U. S. S. "Missis- 

G. A. Creiger. apothecary. 

James F. Milligan, ofificer frank not known). 

Hugh McKay, officer (rank not known). 

Daniel Knowles. officer (rank not known). 

John Gillis, officer (jank not known). 

John Smith. 

Charles Evans. 

Christian Johnson. 

James Ray. 

Edward Hart. 

John Owins. 

John G. Orphelia. 

John Johnson. 

John Adams. 

Samuel Stansbury. 

Lindsay Pugh. 

Marcellus George. 

Isaac Rosthentoll. 



Events Leading ip to Secession — Abandonment and Uestkiction of the Xa\v Vakd 
BY THE Federals — Occupation of the Xavv Yard by \'ikginia — Fortification 
of Approaches to the Harbor — Battle of Sewell's Point — Devotion of the 
Confederate Women. 

events leading up to secession'. 

The military spirit of Xorfolk County was 
re-aroused by the invasion of \'^irginia by John 

Every good citizen was moved by the in- 
spiration of patriotism ; old and young were 
willing and anxious to take up arms to main- 
tain the peace and dignity, and protect the 
honor of this old Commonwealth. 

Our volunteer companies were called to 
frequent drills and new military organizations 
were formed and equipped for service. The in- 
dignation of the people was stirred from its 
depths and all were ready to avenge the aflfront 
in martial ranks. 

The Republican candidate was elected 
President of the United States in the fall of 
i860 on a platform highly obnoxious to the 
Southern people inasmuch as it proposed to 
restrict their rights and violate the funda- 
mental law. At the time of the adoption of the 
Articles of Confederation, under which the 
War for Independence was waged, slavery ex- 
isted in all the States that were parties to that 
compact. Tlie legal right to prr?pertv in slaves 
was not denied, but as the Republicans con- 
sidered slavery morallv wrong, tlicv were will- 

I to violate the Constitution by restricting 
slavery to certain limits and by ijrohibiting its 
introtluctitm into the territories, which were the 
common property of all the States of the 
; Union. "The fervid phraseology of the period 
1 is essentially deceptive, and has done much to 
confuse the percqjtions and mislead the sym- 
pathies of the world with the struggles of the 
South for equality of rights within the Union, 
I and for security with independence by seces- 
' sion. No charg^ was more unjust, for ex- 
ample, than the accusation that the South 
sought the 'extension of slavery' when it in- 
sisted on equal rights in the territories. The 
' question was merely whether the slaveholder 
, should be {)ermitted to go with his slaves into 
I territory into which the non-slaveholder could 
' go with liis property of any sort. It was simply 
a question of the dispersion of slaves rather 
than of the "extension of slavery." Removal is 
not extension." If the rights and privileges of 
the citizens of the Southern States could be 
curtailed and denied in this particular, why not 
in any other? I'rincijjle was the thing at stake 
and not slavery or the extension thereof. The 
verv ff)undatic>n ( f the Union would be up- 
rooted, the sovereignty and equality of the 
States lost if submission to this "Republican"? 



doctrine was einlured. Houur could dictate no 
other ciiurse fi ir the Soutlieni States than 
separation, in peace if possible, by war if es- 
sential to maintain principle and honor. 

South Carolina seceded from the United 
States for this great fundamental principle in 
December, i860, and was soon followed by the 
other extreme Southern States. 

Thev formed a Confederacy and estab- 
lished their capital at Montgomery, Alabama, 
with Hon. Jefferson Davis as Pro\-isional 


IMost of the Federal military posts within 
these Confederate States were surrendered to 
the provisional government : Init the command- 
er of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor re- 
fused toi capitulate. General Beauregard in 
command of the Confederate forces there pre- 
pared to force its surrender; but not until a 
Federal fleet was ordered to relieve Fort Sum- 
ter did he open his guns upon it. This fired the 
Northern heart. Fort Sumter after a vigor- 
ous boml:iardment from the Confederate forts 
surrendered and preparations for \\ar were 
begun most vigorously on both sides. 

Lincoln issued his proclamation calling on 
the States for 75,000 troops to conquer the 
Confederacy and then our Virginia State Con- 
vention, with its large majority in favor of 
the Union, passed the ordinance of secession. 

Virginia made every endeavor for peace 
and the preser\-ation of the Union upon the 
just principles that our fathers established ; but 
Lincoln scorned her appeals and forced the 
South to enter into a war for self-defense and 

Here in Norfolk County, war's excitement 
and rush held' high carnival, when the link 
which bound \'irginia to the Union was se\-- 
ered. On and during the 20th day of A]n-il, 
1 86 1, the greatest excitement prevailed among 
the jieople of Norfolk and Portsmouth. All 
tile military companies in Portsmouth were on 
that dav called nut liv the State commander 

and during the night of that day were stationed 
and picketed in small squads at various points 
around and near the Navy Yard. The entire 
county was excited, and on e^■ery hand arrange- 
ments of a warlike nature were lieing made 
for the sectional strife, which then it was ap- 
parent was imminent. On the day and night of 
the 20th of April, obstructions were being 
placed in the Elizabeth River leading to the 
harbor for the jnu-pose of preventing the in- 
gress of vessels and tlie departure of the 
United States war vessels then in the harbor. 
About midday the gates of the Gosport Navy 
Yard were closed to all outsiders, and heavily 
guarded by L^nited States marines. During the 
day the marines, sailors and attaches of the 
United States Navv on the vessels moored at 
the whar\-es within the ^■ard could lie seen de- 

I stroying small arms, and throwing them over- 
board into the river. 

On the evening of that day, about dark, the 
LTnited States steamer "F''awnee'' came steam- 
ing intij the port fr(.im the cit_\- of Washington, 

; with a large number of marines, sailors and 

\ soldiers on board. She came in with lianners 
liying and a band of nnisic i)la_\ing the national 
airs, her guns loaded and run out of their ports. 
She proceeded to the Navy Yard, and imme- 

j diately disembarked the marines, sailors, sol- 
diers and their otificers, and soon there began 

' a general commotion in the Xa\-y Yard, caused 
by the removing of \-aluable materials there- 
from, and the destruction of cannon and other 
articles which could not be remo\-ed from the 
Navy Yard. This cummijtion, remo\-al and 
destruction continued during the entire night 
and shortl}- before da}'lig"ht O'f the 21st, when 
all the marines, sailors, soldiers, officers and 
every person within the yard except one or 
two who made their escape therefrom iluring 
the night, were taken aboard the "Pawnee" and 
die sail frigates "Constitution" and "Cumber- 
land." The "Pawnee," with the latter two ves- 
sels in tow, then departed, and ]iroceeded un- 
molested to Fortress Monroe. Simultaneously 
with the departure of these ^■essels, the shi])- 
liouse and other buildings in the Xa\'\- Yard. 



and also all the other vessels left at the wharves 
of the yard and anchored in the stream, were 
fired by the United States forces, and all were 
consnmed with jr^eat rapidity. Soon the fire 
was communicated from tiie ship-house to the 
main entrance sjovernmcnt iniildinpfs. and from 
there to many wooden huiklings in the city on 
Lincoln street which were entirely destroyed. 
They also attempted to blow up the stone dry- 
dock, but the fuse failed to ignite and this 
valuable work was saved for the Confederacy. 
The local soldiers and citizens after the Na\v 
Yard was aban<loned were actively engaged 
in work on furtifications until a cordon of 
earthworks embraced tlie twin cities. Forts 
were constructed on Craney Island, at Boush's 
Bluff, Lambert's Point. Sewell's Point, Pin- 
ner's Point : and Fort Nelson of Revolutionary 
fame again bristled with great guns. The in- 
fantry companies were drilled in heavy artillery 
tactics : and manned these new forts. Troops 
came from other sections of \'irginia. from 
Georgia, from Louisiana ; and the Old North 
State, true to her Revolutionary traditions, 
again sent her soldiers to help Virginia. 

The following report of Maj.-Cien. Will- 
iam B. Taliaferro, of the Virginia Provisional 
Arm\- to the Governor of Virginia regarding 
military movements in Norfolk County and 
Gosp<^rt Navy Yard, dated, Richmond, \'ir- 
ginia, April J3. 1861, gises a detailed state- 
ment of the exciting events : 

Sir: — I have the honor to report that in obedience 
to your orders I proceeded to Norfolk on the night of 
the l8th instant, to assume coniniaird of such troops 
of the State as should 1)e ordered into service at tliat 
point, and to determine what course sliould be pur- 
sued with reference to the existing difficulties at that 
place. I was accompanied by Captain Pcgrani, of the 
Navy of Virginia, who had been ordered by you to 
co-operate with nie in all necessary naval operations. 
I reached Xorlolk on the morning of the 19th inst.. 
and found the city in a state of great excitement, 
which had proceeded to such an e.xtent that in a meet- 
ing of the citizens the affairs of the town had been 
committed to the management of a committee of safety, 
composed of some of the most respectable and intelli- 
gent citizens. 

The cause of this excitement was the inauguration 
of certain demonstrations against the Washington Gov- 
ernment by the sinking of ships in the harbor by citizens 

of the town in the channel of the river, some nine 
miles below the city, thus attempting to prevent the 
egress of the vessels of war from the harbor. 

I found the military force of the city, none of 
which had been called into service, to consist of a bat- 
talion of volunteers and a few detached companies, in 
all numbering not a great deal over ,^00 men. and the 
force of the town of Portsmouth to consist of a regi- 
ment of volunteers of about the same strength. 

The militia of the two towns were without arms, 
and there was no naval force in the State service to 
co-operate with me. The only artillery consisted of a 
few 6-poundcr field-pieces. 

The harbor of Norfolk and approaches thereto were 
entirely unprotected against attack from Federal ves- 
sels. There were no works in condition at Craney 
Island, Fort Norfolk, or any point commanding the 
main channel, and even had their works been in per- 
fect preservation we had no heavy ordnance with which 
to make then available. On the east, fronting the sea 
and Lynnhaven Bay. the city was open to attack by a 
force landing at those points, and a large force had 
already reinforced Fort Monroe and might at any 
time menace the city from that direction. 

On the other hand, the Navy Yard, occupying an 
area of 90 acres, and fronting upon Elizabeth River, 
whilst it was garrisoned by only a small force of ma- 
rines, and protected on the land side by a trifling brick 
wall, was commanded and covered entirely by the ships 
of war stretched out along the river, their heavy bat- 
teries bearing upon all parts of it. These ships had 
springs upon their cables with which to maneuver, had 
netting with which to resist boarding, and were using 
every precaution of guard boats, sentries, etc., to pre- 
vent surprise. 

The force on the ships and in the yard was about 
600 men. but there was another clement of the numeri- 
cal strength of the place to be considered, in the politi- 
cal opinions and sympathies of many of the operatives 
in the yard, not citizens of Virginia. 

In this condition of affairs the alternative was pre- 
sented of either attempting to take, by boarding, the 
ships of war which commanded the yard, or of wait- 
ing until such heavy ordnance could be procured as 
would enable me to erect batteries with which to com- 
mand the ships, as well as to protect the harbor and 
keep off reinforcements, and at the same time to give 
me an opportunity of assembling such force as could 
protect the land approaches and justify me in making 
a demand for the surrender of the ships and yard, 
which demand could be enforced if rejected. 

Notwithstanding the excitement and eagerness of 
some ill-advised pcr.sons for inmiediatc hostile action, 
I regarded the latter as the wiser plan under the cir- 
cumstances, subject, however, to be modified by sub- 
sequent events. 

To have boarded the ships would have required, 
by the estimate of some of the most experienced naval 
officers, at least 800 men. — sailors, or such men as were 
familiar with boats. We were entirely without such a 
force, and I regarded it as impracticable to Iward with 
volunteer troops unaccustomed to boats or vessels, un- 
less siich force were overwhelming. 

The marine force in the yard was inappreciable, in 



my estimate, a? it would have required only a few 
minutes to have overpowered them and possessed our- 
selves of the yard ; Init the condition to be satisfied 
was the ability to hold the place under the batteries of 
the ships. This I believed impracticable. 

In this view I was sustained by Hie opinion, in 
writing, of Captain Pegrani. that it would be, in his 
opinion, unwise to inaugurate offensive operations with 
less than 5.000 men. unsupported by heavy artillery. 
Other officers gave much higher estimates. 

I therefore telegraphed your excellency of the de- 
fenseless condition of the cities of Norfolk and Ports- 1 
mouth, and urged that heavy guns should be sent with 
which to protect the approaches to the harbor and to 
arm a field-work I had projected at a point called St. 
Helena, commanding the naval anchorage and Navy 
Yard ; and I also ordered the Petersburg battalion. 
Major (David A.) Weisiger, to proceed to Norfolk, 
which force, when it arrived. I stationed in the rear of 
the city of No'rfolk to observe any threatened attack 
from Fort Monroe. 

Knowing how important it was to secure a supply 
of powder for the State, I determined to seize the pow- 
der magazine at old Fort Norfolk, and accordingly, on 
the night of the igth, I directed Captain (General) 
Terry Sinclair, of the Navy, to proceed to the maga- 
zine with Captain Taylor's company of infantry, to be 
so disposed as to prevent attack: and I directed Cap- 
tain Harrison, of the Navy, to impress the "Glen Cove" 
steamer, and with Captain (Jacob) Vickery's company 
of artillery and two 6-pounder pieces to watch the har- 
bor and fire into any boats from the Navy Yard which 
might attempt to land at the magazine. 

This duty was performed without any attempt at 
resistance, and about 1,300 barrels of powder were 
transferred to lighters and vessels, and sent to Rich- 
mond on the 20th. The residue, estimated at over 
1.500 barrels, was transported in carts to a point beyond 
the range of the guns from the water. To accomplish 
this it was necessary to press into the service of the 
State all the carts and horses which could be procured. 
The whole volunteer force of Norfolk, under Major 
Taylor, was ordered out to aid in removing the powder 
from the magazine, all of whom worked with e.xtraor- 
dinary zeal and uncomplaining patience, notwithstanding 
the severe labor and danger they encountered. A quan- 
tity of ordnance stores were removed at the same time. 
Ascertaining that one 32-pounder and 10 i8-pounder 
pieces had been found in the old custom house, I direct- 
ed carriages to be immediately constructed for them, 
and ordered them to be placed in battery at old Fort 
Norfolk as .soon as the powder was removed. The 
guns were transported to the fort on the 20th. but were 
not put into battery luitil next day. 

I did not think it prudent at the time to throw up 
earthworks at Craney Island or any other point, be- 
cause in answer to my telegrams, I was informed that 
the freshet in the James River rendered it impossible 
to transport the guns from Bellona Arsenal (Virginia), 
and it was useless to expose the Working parties to 
attack until I had pieces to mount, when the works 
coidd be speedily erected tmder cover of night and 
without loss. 

Such was the condition of affairs when, on the 

night of the 20th. the sloop of war "Pawnee." passing 
the obstructions in the harbor, steamed up to the Navy 
Yard with a force of 500 men, shortly after which, 
under the orders of Flag-Officer Paulding, was inau- 
gurated and in part consummated one of the most 
cowardly and disgraceful acts which has ever disgraced 
the government of a civilized people. The ships of 
war were sunk, and most of them burned at anchor : 
the ship-houses and some other property- fired ; and, to 
render the atrocity of the act still greater, the dry 
dock was mined and a slow match, which was arranged 
so as not to ignite the train until our people should 
have filled the yard and the works in their efforts to 
save the government property, set fire to and left 

When this diabolical act had been committed, the 
steamer, with the marines on board, passed down the 
river, and in the course of that evening anchored under 
Fort Monroe. 

I immediately directed Colonel (James G. ) Hodges 
with the Portsmouth regiment to take possession of the 
Navy Yard, to endeavor to extinguish the flames wher- 
ever it was possible, and to protect the government 

Fortunately, the damage was not so great as that 
at first apprehended. Only an inconsiderable portion 
of the property, with the exception of the ships, was 
destroyed, and some of the ships may yet be made 

Two officers — Captain Rodgers, of the Navy of 
the United States, and Captain Wright, of the Army 
of the United States — were taken prisoners, having 
been cut off from the ships by the flames. These gen- 
tlemen I sent, under charge of Major Robbins. to. this 
place to await the decision of your excellency as to 
what disposition should be ultii;nately made of them. 

On the same morning I directed Colonel (T. M. 
R.) Talcott. of the Engineers, to proceed with a force 
of militia and with all the negroes I could press into 
the service of the State to erect earthworks at Hos- 
pital Point ; and under the superintendence of Captain 
Fairfax, of our Nav}-, I ordered heavy guns to be placed 
in battery at old Fort Norfolk. I also directed Colonel 
Talcott, under cover of night, to proceed to Craney 
Island and repair the old w-orks there, and gave orders 
for the immediate mounting of as many pieces as would 
[ be necessary to supply the several works. It was won- 
derful with what promptness these several orders were 

Before night, with the large force emnloyed. con- 
siderable progress had been made on the works, and 
many guns were in condition to be placed in position, 
and with the obstructions in the channel, placed under 
the supervision of Captain .\rthur Sinclair. I regarded 
the city as safe from any immediate attack. 

On the night of the 21st I received your order 
assigning Major-General Gwynn to the conmiand, and 
on the 22d, in obedience to an order of that date, 
returned to Richmond. I presume Flag-Officer For- 
rest, who was assigned by your order to the command 
of the Navy Yard, will make a full report of the 
damage done to and return a schedule of the property 
saved and on hand in the yard. 

I beg to be permitted to speak in the highest term.s 



of commendation of the patriotism and zeal displayed 
by the citizens in rendering assistance, and of the 
energy which characterized the commissary and quar- 
termaster departments under the embarrassing circum- 
stances of their immediate organization. 

The engineer department, under the control of 
Colonel Talcott, deserves every commendation. 

On the 23rd day of April, 1861, Gen. Wal- 
ter Gwvnn assumed command of this depart- 
ment. He was appointed by Gov. John Ellis 
to command the North Carolina State troops 
and was relieved from duty here by Gen. Ben- 
jamin Huger on the 28th day of May. 


The first engagement in Mrginia on the 
19th day of May, 1861. at the beginning of the 
war is called the "Battle of Sewell's Point.'" 
At II o'clock Sunday morning a detachment 
of the Norfolk Light Artillery Blues under 
Lieut. Thomas Nash, Jr.. and a detachment of 
the Norfolk Juniors under Lieutenant Holmes 
were ordered from Boush's BlufT to Sewell's 
Point for duty. The Columbus (Georgia) 
Light Guard, Capt. P. H. Colquitt, and the 
Woodis Rifles, Capt. William Lamb, had pre- 
ceded these from Ocean Mew. General Gwynn 
was on hand directing the construction of an 
earthwork. By 5 o'clock P. ^M., three guns 
were mounted and while the work was rapidly 
progressing the L'nited States steamer "Monti- 
cello," which had run over from Old Point the 
day before, fired a shot at the workmen, which 
struck the battery and threw the turf high in 
the air. All was confusion for a moment ; but 
immediatelv preparation was made to return 
the fire with two 32-pounders. and two rifled 
cannon brought up and manned by the Woodis 
Rifles. Captain Colquitt was in command and 
called for a \'irginian to raise his Georgia flag 
on the ramparts. Maj. Williain E. Taylor 
promptly responded and unfurled it in defiance 
of the "Monticello's"' attack. The first gun 
was fired by a detachment of the Juniors under 
Thaddeus Gray, who acted with conspicuous 
gallantry during the whole affair, although 
everv man acted bravelv and stood to their 

posts like veteran soldiers. The "Monticello" 
fired rapidly but wildly, most of her shots fly- 
ing wide of the mark. After a brisk engage- 
ment, the ship turned her stern to the fort and 
with five holes in her was towed back to Old 
Point. Although the Fort was struck several 
times, none of the defenders was injured: but 
Private Alexander Sykes of the Wise Light 
Dragoons, on picket some distance away, was 
slightly wounded on the leg by the fragment 
of a bursting shell. He was the first soldier 
wounded in the State. The beautiful flag 
which waved in triumph over the Fort in the 
second battle of the Confederate States was 
presented to the City Light Guards by Miss 
Ellen Ingraham, of Columbus. Georgia, one of 
the most lovely and beautiful daughters of our 
sister State of Georgia. This afifair, though 
small, was the forerunner of the great battles 
which ploughed' Virginia's fields from her 
Eastern sands to the mountain tops of her 
Western limits. This was the first battle and 
the only battle of the Provisional Anny of the 
State government ; and the first battle of Hamp- 
ton Roads. 

Hainpton Roads is the name eiven to the 
broad expanse of water between the mouth of 
the James River and the entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay. Newport News Point, on the north 
side of the river, and Pig Point on the south, 
at the junction of the Nansemond River with 
the James, may be considered as marking the 
mouth of the James River. Between these two 
points the distance is about five miles. Craney 
Island lies at the mouth of the Elizaljeth River, 
some six or seven miles east of Pig Point. 
Sewell's Point is about the same distance north 
of Craney Island. These four jwints, there- 
fore, from nearly a parallelogram. Old Point 
is five miles north of Sewell's Point, the scene 
of the battle. 

Captain Colquitt's official report, dated ^fay 
19, 1861. to Major-General Gwynn, command- 
ing the forces at Norfolk Harbor, says : 

SIR : — I have the honor to rcp' irt to you an engage- 
ment- this evening between the Confederate troops, con- 



sisting of the City Liglit Guards. Cohiiiilnis. Georgia; 
Woodis Rifles, Captain Lamb, detacliment of the Nor- 
folk Juniors, under Lieutenant Hohiies ; detachment of 
Light Artillery Blues, under Lieutenant Nash, all under 
my command, and the steamer "Monticello" and Fed- 
eral steam-tug. which lasted one hour and a half, in 
which nobody was hurt on our side. The enemy 
fired w-ith great accuracy, several balls passing through 
the embrasures of the Fort, one striking a 32-pounder 
within the battery, and one shell bursting in the Fort. 
From three to five shots from our battery took effect, 
we think ; others struck around the steamer. Thf 
troops acted with great bravery, and I had to restrain 
them in their entllusiasm. The flag of Georgia was 
hoisted over the Fort in the absence of the Confeder- 
ate flag. Our firing was less frequent than that of the 
enemy, as our ammunition was scarce ; only two rounds 
left after the engagement. Your aides. Major William 
E. Taylor. R. R. Collier and Colonel Thomas Newton, 
were present and aided in the struggle. 

I have the honor to be, your obt. servant. 

Peyton H. Colquitt. 

General Gwvnn made his report to Gen. 
Robert E. Lee. commanding the forces of Vir- 
ginia, as foHows : 

M.\Y 20, 1861. 

Sir: — I have the honor to inform you that, late in 
the evening of the i8th inst., I received intelligence of 
an attack, made by the enemy's steamer "Monticello," 
on the unfinished works at Sewell's Point. This bat- 
tery was not sufiiciently advanced at the time to re- 
ceive its armament and garrison. The "Monticello" 
carried three guns, one of which was a heavy lo-inch 
Dahlgren. With these she kept up a constant fire with 
solid shot and shell for more than an hour, when a 
steam-tug, from Old Point, carrying one gun. came to 
her aid, and the two vessels continued the cannonade 
until the close of the day, without any serious injury 
to the works. The tug then returned to Old Point, 
and the "Monticello" moored, with broadside on. with 
the intention, apparently, of continuing the attack, in 
order to demolish the works or prevent their progress. 
Early on the morning of the 19th I hurried on the 
guns and equipment, and repaired to Sewell's Point, 
to expedite the works for their reception, and by 5 
P. M. succeeded in getting three 32-pounders and two 
small rifled guns into position, while detachments of 
infantry and artillery, ordered from neighboring posts, 
occupied the battery and contiguous points. During all 
this time the "Monticello." apparently not suspecting 
the operations going forward, was engaged in prepar- 
ing for another effort, by calculating the range and 
distance, and adjusting her guns to suit. With instruc- 
tions to Captain Colquitt, of Georgia, to whom I gave 
the command of all the forces and guns at the post, 
to continue the preparations, reserving fire until the 
enemy renewed the cannonade, I returned to Norfolk. 

At 5:30 o'clock the "'Monticello" again opened fire from 
all her guns, and with much greater precision than on 
the preceding day. It was instantly returned, and with 
such effect that she was driven off and returned to Old 
Point. The engagement continued for an hour and a 
half without intermission on either side, and. though 
the enemy's fire was well directed, one shell bursting 
within an embrasure and several others directly over 
the battery, while solid shot repeatedly passed through 
the embrasures and struck the crest and sides of the 
merlons, hurling masses of earth from the outside 
among the gunners, I am happy to inform you that no 
casualty of moment occurred to the troops, nor was 
material injury done the battery. What damage or loss 
was sustained by the enemy I was not able to discover, 
but his retreat indicated that our fire had become too 
warm for further endurance. As early as I received 
information of the second attack and repulse, I ordered 
forward more troops, and hastened during the night to 
Sewell's Point, to make such other dispositions as 
might be necessary to defend the post against any fur- 
ther and more formidable assaults which the enemy's 
large naval and military forces at Old Point would 
enable him to make. I cannot close this brief account 
of the engagement without expressing my admiration 
of the enthusiasm and bravery manifested by the 
troops. Where officers and men displayed so much 
merit, it would be invidious to discriminate, and I 
therefore refer you to the accompanying report of Cap- 
tain Colquitt for further particulars. His position, as 
commanding officer of the post, gave him an opportu- 
nity of displaying the qualities which adorn the soldier, 
and the general appreciation of his gallantry and merit 
by those under his command enable me to commend him 
most warmly to your consideration. In conclusion. I 
would state that, in consequence of the want of a Vir- 
ginia or Confederate flag for the occasion, the flag of 
Georgia, belonging to Captain Colquitt's company, was 
planted on the ramparts during the engagement, and, 
while the hottest fire was prevailing, two members of 
his company, whose names I will forward to you when 
reported to me as deserving particular notice, fearless- 
ly passed to the outside of the battery, and deliberately 
removed the sand and other obstructions to the range 
of on€ of the guns, while shot and shell were striking 
all around them. 

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, W.\lter Gwynn. 

Capt. Henry Eagle, L'. S. N., commanding 
the "Monticello,"' in his report tO' Flag-Officer 
S. H. String-ham, V . S. N., dated :\Tay 19, 
I 86 I. savs: 

From the time I reported to you yesterday I kept 
a strict watch on the movements of the enemy in and 
about the Sewell's Point battery. 

Several noises were heard during the night, but 
not distinct enough for me to trace them. At 5:30 
P. M. I heard distinct blows, as if from an ax, secur- 
ing timber platforms for gun carriages inside of the 


AXl) l^I'-.l'RESEXTATIX']-: ClTlZliXS. 


cnibra-iui-. iiiJ iiiinicdialely I ordered a sliol t.. iic 
fired over them. The rebels immediately hoisted a 
white flag (mistake— Ed.) with some design on it, and 
fired a shot that cut the fore-spencer vangs near the 
gatT. I immediately went to quarters and returned 
their fire, which was continued by them. I expended 15 
stand of grape, 12 lo-inch shot, 32 lo-inch shell, 10 
shell for 32-poundcrs, and 45 32-pound shot, making a 
total of 1 14 shots, which I think did some execution 
among the rebels. T only desisted for want of ammu- 
nition, having only 5 8-pound charges remaining for the 
pivot gun. I regret that want of ammunition com- 
pelled me to retire, as I am satisfied that I could have 
silenced the battery in a short time. I cannot too 
highly praise the courage and patriotism of the oflicers 
and men under my command. They acted nobly and 
with great coolness during the repeated firing, as above 
will show. The action continued from 5 130 P. M. to 
6:45 P. M., a duration of an hour and fifteen minutes. 
The battery is masked, thirteen embrasures liaving been 
erected behind a sand bank. 

The rebels had three ritled cannon and fired several 
volleys of minie balls, which struck the ship. The 
ship was struck five times by rifled cannon shot in the 
bull and upper works. The damage can be repaired 
by ourselves. I herewith enclose the report of the 
medical officer of this ship, by which you will perceive 
that two men were slightly wounded during the action. 

Commander D. L. Ijraitic re])orte(l ti) Cap- 
tain Eag'le tliat after tlie Monticelli) liad fired 
a number of times tlie steamer "Tlnfmas Free- 
born" came along and Commander Ward came 
on board, tliat he went witli Commander \\'ard 
in his boat to the "Tliomas Freeliorn," and 
took it, at his request, in as close to tlie earth- 
works as he thought necessary. Commander 
^^"ard then fired a number of shots from his 
forward gim. a heavy 32-pounder, wiiich did 
some slight injury to the embrasure. "There 
were some twelve or fourteen shots firt'd in all 
and the 'Thomas Freeborn' then withdrew 
from her position, and returned to Hamilton 
Roads." \Miile on board the "Freeborn," 
Commander Braine did not see any armed men 
in the battery nor anv pieces of ordnance. 

Gen. Rol)ert E. Lee in his report to (jov- 
ernor Letcher, dated June 1 1, iSOi. of the mili- 
tary and naval preparations for the defense of 
\''irginia, from the period of her separation 
from the L'nited States government to the date 
of transfer of militarv operations of the State 
to tlie Confederate government says: 

"Six batteries have l>een erected on the 
Elizabeth' River to guard the approaches to 
Norfolk aiul the Xavy Yard. They mount 85 
guns. 32-pounders and 8 and 9-inch colum- 

"The frigate 'United States' has been pre- 
pared for a shoal ship, provided with a deck 
battery of nineteen guns, 32-pounders and 9- 
inch coluiubiads, for harbor defense. The 
frigate 'Merrimac" has been raised and it is in 
the dry dock and arrangements are made for 
raising the 'Germantown' and "Plymouth.' 

"In addition to the batteries described, 
other works have been constructed for their 
land defense, exceeding, in many instances, the 
works on the batteries themselves. An exten- 
sive line of field works has been erected for the 
securitv of Norfolk on the sides toward the 
bay." ' 

At man^- other points, as will be seen from 
the report, the great commander in an incredi- 
bly short time had made wonderful progress 
with the defenses of Virginia. 

Report of the armanent of batteries around 
Xorfolk and Portsmouth, October 29th, 1861. 

sewfxl's poi.vt. 

For defense of the river — 

33-pounders, 61 cwt 4 

32-pounders. 57 cwt 7 

32-pounders. rifled 3 

IX 6-19 

Interior defenses — 

32-pounders. 61 cwt . . . . .^. 6 

32-pounders, 27 cwt I 

42-poundcrs, carronades 3 — 10 




IX ....; 8 

32-pounders, 6r cwt 2 

32-pounders, 57 cwt 2 

32-pounders, 27 cwt 2 

i8-pounders, 4,737 pounds i 

Total 15 


32-pounders, 57 cwt 8 

32-poimders, 51 cwt 5 



8-inch guns, SS cwt 2 — 15 

November report adds one gun, rifled (English) I 

Total -. 16 

pixxer's poixt. 

32-pounders, 57 cwt 7 

32-pounders, 42 cwt 4 

Total II 

Lambert's point. 

32-pounders, 57 cwt 9 

8-inch gun, 63 cwt I 

Total 10 



32-pounder?. 61 cwt 4 

taxxer's creek. 

32-pounders, 62 cwt 3 

42-pounders, carronades 2 

Total 5 

boush's bluff. j 

32-pounder J. 42 cwt 5 

extrexched camp. 

32-pounders, 61 cwt IS 

42-pounders, carronades 14 

Total 29 


32-pounder?. 61 cwt 16 


Heroines of no era have given the world a 
higher standard of devotion than the Con- 
federate women. Amid tlie stirring and excit- 
ing times which marked the beginning of war 
in Norfolk County they tendered to the soldiers 
a welcome to their homes and ofifered any as- 
sistance within their power for the cause of the 
South. The ladies of the Episcopal churches 
in Norfolk gave notice to the soldiers who 
were encamped in and near Norfolk that they 

would be at Christ's Church lecture room every 
morning from 9 to 12 o'clock, to receive any 
work, — either making, washing, or mending 
clothing. Out on the country farms sewing- 
circles were formed and uniforms were made 
for entire companies from the cloth furnished 
by the county. An association of ladies was 
formed in Portsmouth called the "Sisters of 
]\Ierc_\'" to nurse the soldiers in the hospital, 
like angels of mercy. All were untiring in 
their good offices and their charming voices, 
with unstinted praise for patriotism, made 
e\ery man a soldier. 

How truly has Whitcomb Riley spoken of 
their graces and power : 'T think the reason 
the Southern women have such deliciously soft 
voices may be traced to the deference of the 
men. Southern men look upon their women as 

"When a Southern man's wife or daughter 
begins to talk she doesn't have to yell for the 
purpose of attracting his attention or getting 
him to stop his story and give her a chance. 
When a Southern woman speaks, the Southern 
man is silent and attentive. He listens to her 
words as if they were honey dropping to his 
lips. This attitude of respect upon the part of 
the man for the woman, which seems to be 
universal through the South, makes the South- 
ern woman the gentle, sweet-voiced creature 
that she is," and as she is, I may add, makes 
the man a hero and Christian gentleman. 

There is a United States survey steamer 
named the "Endeavor." The former name of 
this steamer was the "Ladv Davis," so named 
because the ladies of this section furnished the 
money to build it for the Southern Confeder- 
acy; manv sacrificed their jewelry to raise the 
money. It was built on W. H. Graves' marine 
railway, on the Eastern Branch of the Eliza- 
beth River, but was never used by the Con- 
federacy, as the Northern army captured it on 
the stocks and appro])riated it to their own use. 
It is 125 feet keel. 18 feet beam and 10 feet 
deep, and is used in coast survey work under 
the seamanship of Captain Young. 



Thk Gkeat Battle t)F Hampton Roads — Destkiction of the "Cimbekland" and 
"Congress" — Famous Conflict of the Iron-Clads — Victory of the "Virginia" 
OVER the "Monitor"- — Different Reports of the Fight-^Officers of the 
" X'iRGiNiA " — Evacuation of Norfolk Cofntv by the Confederate Forces. 

Under the Confederate rule tliere were 
two masked batteries constructed on Sewell's 
Point, — one of four gun's on Doyle's farm just 
opposite the Rip Raps or Fort \\'(X)1, formerly 
Fort Calhoun, which \vas never unmasked; 
the other, defended by two 32-pounder rifle- 
lx)re cannon located on the sand hill site be- 
tween the pavilion and hotel at Xorfolk-on- 
Ihe-Roads, was walled up with heavy timbers 
and covered with several layers of railroad 
iron. These guns v>ere smooth-bore 32-pound- 
ers which had been left at the Xavy Yard 
when Commodore McCauley evacuated it ; and 
afterward the Confederates converted them 
into rifle-ljores with a range of three miles. 
This battery, garrisoned by th^ Jaf kson Greys, 
was unmasked on the day of the great histori- 
cal naval battle and engaged the United States 
men-of-war as they passed up from Old Point 
toward Newport Xews. A shell from a gun 
on the Rip Raps er.tered the embrasure of the 
right hand gim and wounded Lieut. William 
C. Wallace and Private Alexander B. Cooper. 
The range of these guns was much greater 
than that of any on the ships, for the latters' 
bnxidsides fired at the battery fell far short, 
while our shells reached and went over the 

ships. The effect of the battery guns was not 
known at the time but the reports of the Fed- 
eral captain give an account of the damage 
from this batterj'. 

The log of the U. S. S. "Roanoke" says : 
"At 2 130, coming in range of Sewell's Point 
battery they opened fire and several shot and 
shell passed over and fell around this ship. 
One rifle shot passed through the foresail and 
cut away a shroud on each side of the fore 
rigging; put on stops at once. The forward 
pivot-gim was trained on Sewell's Point bat- 
tery and fired, but fell short." 

'The log of the U. S. S. "^Minnesota" : "At 
1 :30 went to quarters. At 2 :oo, when ofif Sew- 
ell's Point, the enemy opened fire on us, which 
was immediately responded to by this ship. 
One of the enemy's shot took effect upon the 
mainmast. We immediately fished and se- 
cured it w^ith a hauser over the masthead. 
Captain Van Brunt of this ship in his olificinl 
report says: "While passing Sewell's Point 
the rebels there opened fire upon us from a 
rifle battery, one shot from which going 
through and crippling my mainmast. I re- 
turned the fire with my broadside guns and 
forecastle pivot." The log of the U. S. S. 


"St. Lawrence" : "At 5 125, passing Sewell's 
Point, the batteries opened on ns, firing some 
half dozen shot .and shell, one of which passed 
over our cpiarter deck forward the mizzenmast 
and just clearing the bows of the whaleboat, 
another carrying away the starboard c|uarter- 
block foreyard." Capt. H. Y. Purviance of 
this ship reported that: "At half past two we 

got under 

war in tow oi; the 'Cambridge,' 

and, when aljreast of the rebel ]>attery at Sew- 
ell's Point, the battery opened fire, one of the 
shells exploding under the forefoot of the 'St. 
Lawrence,' doing, however, no material in- 
jury. The fire was returned and it is be- 
lieved with some effect." Captain Purviance 
was greatly mistaken, for not one shot O'r shell 
from the ships reached near the shore and the 
onlv damage done to our battery was from a 
Sawyer shell which came from the Federal 
battery on the Rip Raps. Opposite to Fort 
Monroe at a distance of 1,900 yards between 
that fortification and our battery at Sewell's 
Point is Fort Wool, formerly Fort Calhoun, 
but more generally known as the Rip Raps. 
It is an artificial island mjade by throwing 
overboard rocks, from vessels on the shoal 
water with a depth of 20 feet. The sound 
made by the pieces of stone thrown from the 
vessels while making the artificial foundation 
for this fort when the heap neared the surface 
of the water, was "rip! rap!" "rip! rap!" hence 
the popular name "Rip! Raps!" The official 
change of the name from that of the able and 
distinguished South Carolinian to that of the 
Federal general could not wipe out the name 
which came from the "rip raps" of the rocks. 
These Federal officers were also mistaken 
about solid shot, for the only ammunition used 
by our battery was shell. 

And now let us hear about the "Virgin- 
ia's" victories. When two men figiit and one 
cries "enough !" he who cries is whipped. 
When two men clinch in a fight and one dis- 
entangles himself and runs away lieyond the 
reach of his antagonist, he wiio runs is 
wdiipped. The "Virginia" and "Monitor" 
were in close contact; the "Monitor" drew off 

to shallow water out of the reach of the "Vir- 
ginia," and dared not return to the contest. 
The "Virginia" was victorious, the "Monitor" 
was defeated. It takes brazen effrontery to 
claim a victory for the "Monitor" under the 
true version of the battle. 

The "Virginia" left the Xa\}' 
11:00 o'clock A. M. on March 8, 
steamed down the river past our 
through the obstructions, acn>.■=-^ 

Road, to the mouth of the James _,, 

where, off Newport News, lay at anchor the 

Yard at 
I 861, and 


C. S. S. "Virginia" in Dry Dock. 

frigates "Cumberland" and "Congress," pro- 
tected by strong batteries and gunboats. The 
action commenced about 3 :oo P. M. by firing 
the bow^gun at the '"Cumberland," less than 
a mile distant. iV powerful fire was immedi- 
ately concentrated upon the "Vir.ginia" from 
all the batteries afloat and ashore. The frig- 
ates "Minnesota," "Roanoke" and "St. Law- 
rence," with the other vessels started innnecH- 
ately from Old Point. The "Virginia" fired 
at the "Congress" in passing, but continued 
to head directly for the "Cumberland," which 
vessel she had determined to> ruri into, and 
in less than 15 minutes from the fire of the 
first gun rammed her just forward of the star- 
board fore-chains. There were heavy spars 
about lier bows, ])robably to ward off tor- 
pedoes, through which the "Virginia" had to 
break before reaching tlie side of the ship. 
The noise of the crashing timbers was distinct- 



ly lieard above the din of tlie battle. There 
was no sign of the liole alx>ve water. It must 
have l>een large, as tlie sliip soon commenced 
to careen. The shock to tlie "\'irginia" on 
striking was slight. She immediately backed 
the engines. The blow was not repeated. 
The "\'irginia" lost her j)row and had her 
stem slightly twisted. The "Cumberland" 
fought her guns gallantly as long as tliey were 
above water. She went down bra\ely, with 
colors flying. One of her shells struck the sili 
ofc the bow-port of the ■■\'irginia" and ex- 
ploded ; the fragments killed two and wounded 
a numljer. The- "\'irginia's" after nine-inch 
gun was loaded and ready for firing, when its 
muzzle was struck by a shell which broke it 
ofY and fired the gun. Another giui also had 
its muzzle shot ofif : it was broken- so short that 
at each subsequent discharge its port was set 
on fire. The damage to the armor was slight. 
The enemy's fire appeared to be aimed at the 
"\'irginia's" ports. Had it been concentrated 
at the water-line she would have been seri- 
ously hurt, if not sunk. Owing to the ebb 
tide and her great draft, she could not close 
with the '"Congress" without first going up 
stream and then turning, which was a tedious 
operation, besides subjecting her twice to the 
full fire of the batteries, some of which she 

Lieut. Catesby Ap. R. Jones, tlie "Virgin- 
ia's' executive officer, says : "\\'e were ac- 
companied from the yard by the lugs 'Beau- 
fort,' Lieutenant-Commander W. H. Parker, 
and 'Raleigh,' Lieutenant-Commander J. W. 
Alexander. As soon as the firing was heard 
up the James River, the "Patrick Henry,' Com- 
mander John R. Tucker: 'Jamestown,' Lieu- 
tenant-Commander J. X. Barney, and the tug 
'Teaser,' Lieutenant-Commander W. A. 
Webb, under command of Capr. John R. 
Tucker, stood down the river, joining us about 
^ :oo o'clock. All these vessels were gallantly 
fought and handled, aiul rendered valuable 
and effective service. The prisoners from the 
"Congress' stated that when on lx)ard that ship 
it was seen that we were standing up the river, 

' that three cheers were given under the im- 
pression that we had quit the fight. They 
were soon undeceived. When they saw us 
lieading down the stream, fearing the fate of 
the 'Cumberland,' they slipped their cables, 
made sail and ran ashore bows on. We took 
a position off her quarter alxjut two cables' 
length distant, and ojiened a deliberate fire. 
Very few of her guns bore on us and they were 
soon disabled. The other batteries continued 
to play on us, as did the 'Minnesota,' then 
aground about one and one-half miles off. The 

I 'St. Lawrence' a'so opened on us shortly after. 
There was great havoc on board the 'Con- 

; gress.' She was several times on fire. Her 
gallant commander, Lieut. Joseph B. Smith, 
was struck in the breast by a fragment of .1 

i shell and instantly killed. The carnage was 
frightful. Xocliing remained biU to strike 
their colors, which they did. They hoisted 
the white flag, half-masted, at the main and 
at the spanker gaff. The 'Beaufort' and 'Ral- 
eigh' were ordered to burn her. They went 
alongside and received several of her officers 
and some 20 of her men as prisf.ners. The 

; officers urgently asked permission to assist 
their wounded out of the ship. It was granted. 
They did not return. A sharp fire of mus- 
ketry from the shore killed some of the pris- 
oners and forced the tugs to lea\e. A boat 
was sent from the 'Virginia' to burn her, cov- 
ered by the 'Teaser.' A fire was opened on 
them from the shore and also from the 'Con- 
gress,' with both of her white flags flying, 
wounding Lieutenant Minor and others. A\"e 
replied to this outrage upm the usages of civ- 
ilized warfare by re-opening on the 'Congress' 
with hot shot and incendiary shell. Her crew 

I escaped by lx)ats, as did that of the 'Cumber- 
land.' Canister and grape would have prc- 

I vented it : but in neither case was r.ny attempt 
made to stop them, though it has l^een other- 
wise stated, possibly from our firing on the 
shore or at the 'Congress.' 

"We remained near the 'Congress' to pre- 
vent her recapture. Had she been retaken it 
might have been said that the flag officer per- 



mitted it, knowing that his brother was an offi- 
cer of that vessel. 

"The 'Patrick Henry' received a sliot from 
the shore in one of her boilers and had to be 
towed out of the fight. She, however, soon 
returned and was again hotly engaged. A 
distant and unsatisfactory fire was at times 
liad at the 'Minnesota.' The gunboats also en- 
gaged her. We fired canister and grape occa- 
sionally in reply to musketry from the shore, 
which had become annoying. About this time 
the flag officer was badly wounded by a rifle- 
ball and had to be carried below. His bold 
daring and intrepid conduct won the admira- 
tion of all on board. The executive and ord- 
nance officer, Lieut. Catesby Ap. R. Jones, 
succeeded to the command. The action con- 
tinued imtil dusk when we were forced to seek 
an anchorage. The 'Congress' was riddled and 
on fire. A transport steamer was blown up. 
A schooner was sunk and another captured. 
We had to leave without making a serious at- 
tack on the 'Minnesota,' though we fired at 
her as we passed on the other side of the Mid- 
dle Ground, and also at the 'St. Lawrence.' 
The latter frigate fired at us by broadsides — • 
not a bad plan for small calibres against iron- 
clads, if concentrated.. It was too dark to 
aim well. We anchored off our batteries at 
Sewell's Point. The squadron followed. The 
'Congress' continued to burn. 'She illumin- 
ated the heavens and varied the scene by the 
firing of her o-wn guns and by ihe flight of 
her balls through the air,' until shortly after 
midnight, 'when her magazine exploded anrl 
a column of burning matter appeared high in 
the air, to be followed by the stillness of 
death.' " I well remember that even after the 
excitement and work of the day, many of our 
soldiers remained on the beach to witness the 
explosion, and a grand spectacle it was ! 

Of the appearance of the "Monitor," Lieu- 
tenant Jones says : "One of the pilots chanced 
about II :oo P. M. to be looking in the direc- 
tion of the 'Congress' when there passed a 
strange-looking craft, brought out in bold re- 
lief bv the brilliant light of the burning ship. 

which he at once proclaimed to be the 'Erics- 
son.' We were, therefore, not surprised in 
the morning to see the 'Monitor' at anchor 
near the 'Minnesota.' The latter sliip was still 
aground. Some delay occurred fromi send- 
ing our wounded out of the ship; we had but 
one serviceable boat left. Admiral Buchanan 
' was landed at Sewell's Point. 

"At 8 :oo A. M. we got under way, as did 
the 'Patrick Henry,' 'Jamestowm' and 'Teaser.' 
We stood toward the 'Minnesota' and opened 
fire on her. The pilots were to have placed us 
half a mile from her, but we were not at any 
time nearer than a mile. The 'Monitor' com- 
menced firing when about a third of a mile dis- 
tant. We soon approached and were often 
within a ship's length ; once, while passing, we 
fired a broadside at her only a few yards dis- 
tant. She and her turret appeared to be under 
perfect control. Her light draft enabled her 
to move about us at pleasure. She once took 
position for a short time where we could not 
bring a gun to bear on her. Another of her 
movements caused us great anxiet\- ; she made 
for our rudder and propeller, both of which 
could have been easily disabled. We could 
only see her guns when they were discharged ; 
immediately afterward the turret revolved rap- 
idly and the guns were not seen again until 
they were again fired. "W'e wondered how 
proi>er aim could be taken in the very short 
time the guns were in sight. The 'Virginia,' 
how^ever, was a large target, and generally so 
near that the 'Monitor's' shot did not often 
miss. It did not appear to us that our shell 
had any effect upon the 'Monitor.' We had 
no solid shot. Musketry was fired at the look- 
out holes. In spite of all the care of our pilots 
we ran ashore, w'here we remained over 15 
minutes. The 'Patrick Henry' and 'James- 
town,' with great risk to themselves, started 
to our assistance. The 'Monitor' and 'Minne- 
sota' were in full play on us. A small rifle- 

eaui on Ijoard the 'Minnesota." 

on the 

steamer alongside of her, was fired with re- 
markable precisi(in. ^^'hen we saw that our 
fire made no impression i)n the '^Monitor' we 



(Ictcniiiiied to run into her if possible. We 
found it a very difficult feat to do. Our great 
length and draft in a comparatively narrow 
channel, with but little water to spare, made 
us sluggish in our movements, and hard to 
steer and turn. When the opportunity pre- 
sented, all steam was put on ; there was not, 
however, sufficient time to gather full head- 
way before striking. 'The blow was given 
with the broad wooden stem, the iron prow 
having been lost the day before. The 'Moni- 
tor' received the blow in such a manner as 
to weaken its effect, and the damage was to 
her trifling. Shortly after, an alarming leak 
in the bows was reported. It, however, did 
not long continue. 

"\\'hi!st contending with the "^Monitor" we 
received the fire of the 'Minnesota,' which we 
never failed to return whenever our guns could 
be brought to bear. We set her on fire and 
did her serious injury, though much less than 
we then supposed. Generally the distance was 
too great for effective firing, ^\'e exploded 
the boiler of a steamer alongside of her. 

"The fight had continued over three hours. 
To us the 'Monitor' appeared unharmed. We 
were, therefore, surprised to see her run off 
into shoal water where our great draft would 
not permit tis to follow, and where our shell 
could not reach her. The l'.;ss of our prow 
and anchor, and consumption of coal, water, 
etc.. had lightened us so that the lower part of 
the forward end of the shield was awash. We 
for some time awaited the return of the 'Mon- 
itor' to tlie Roads. After consultation it was 
decided that we should proceed to the Navy 
Yard, in order that the vessel should be 
brought down in the water, and completed. 
The pilots said if we did not then leave that 
we could not ])ass tlie bar until noon of the 
next day. \\"e therefore, at 12:00 M. {|uit the 
Roads and stood for Norfolk. Had there teen 
any sign of tlie 'Monitor's' willingness to re- 
new the contest \ve would have remained to 
tight her. ^^'e left her in the shoal water, to 
which she had withdrawn, and which she did 

not lea\e until after we had crossed the bar 
on our way to Norfolk. 

"None were killed or wounded in the light 
with the 'Monitor.' The only damage she 
did was to the armor. She fired 41 shots. We 
were able to receive most of them obliquely. 
The effect of the shot striking obliquely on 
the shield was to break all the iron and some- 
times to displace several feet of the outside 
course; the wooden backing would not be 
broken through. When a shot struck directly 
at right angles the wood would also be broken 
through, but not displaced. Generally the 
shot were much scattered; in three in- 
stances two or more struck near the same 
]>lace, in each case causing more of the iron to 
be displaced and the wood to liulge inside. .N. 
few struck near the water-line. The shield 
was never pierced, though it -was evident that 
two shots striking in the same place would 
have made a large hole through armor, wood- 
en backing and everything. The ship was 
docked ; a prow of steel and wrought iron put 
on and a course of two-inch iron on the hull 
below the roof, extending in length 180 feet. 
W^ant of time and material prevented its com- 
pletion. The damage to the armor was re- 
paired : wrought iron port-shutters were fitted, 
etc. The rifle-guns were sujjplied with bolts 
of wrought and chilled iron. The ship was 
brought a foot deeper in the water, making 
her 23 feet." 

The combat between the "\'irginia'' and 
"Monitor" was one of the grandest and most 
thrilling sights I ever witnessed. I saw it 
from the beach in front of our battery on 
Sewell's Point, where both vessels were in fuU 
view. The day was clear and bright with just 
enough wind to make wavelets on the Roads 
move toward us in regular and measured suc- 
cession. I could see the ])uff of smoke from 
the port-holes of the vessel, hear the boom 
of the cannon, then watch the solid shot which 
had glanced from the iron shield of the ship, 
richocheting over the surface of the water and 
sinking' as its force was siicnt near our shore. 



Grand! sublime! mag-niticent ! Awful! was 
the wrestle of these terrible iron monsters in 
deadly conflict, like some fabled leviathans out 
of the broad, deep seas. There, was the 
world's most radical change in naval warfare 
— there, was the passing of wooden men-of- 
war. — there, was the greatest event in all the 
history of marine engagements. It had n:) 
parallel in all the annals of time. But one 
year before was published ''Ordnance and 
Naval Gunnery,"' by Lieut. E. Simpson, U. S. 
N., designed as a. text-book for the L'nited 
States Naval Academy, which said : "Iron 
vessels are utterly unfit for war," and giving 
the comments of Sir Howard Douglass on the 
French ship "La Gloire," and the British 
"Warrior" summed up that, "The opinion of 
this great authority is, that there is not mucli 
to be feared from these iron-clad monsters." 
Alas! for the theories of these distinguished 
writers ; here they were buried in the waters 
of Hampton Roads in the bright sunlight of 
a Sabbath day without hope of resurrection. 
A brilliant and magnificent victory for the 
"Virginia!" The North was overwhelmed 
with consternation and dread while the South 
was jubilant over the results of the great bat- 
tle. Presideut Davis reported to the Confed- 
erate Congress on the loth of April this brill- 
iant triumph. 


April 10. 1862. 
To the Scr.atc and House of Rcl^rcscntatives of the 
Confederate Stales: 

I herewith tr:insmit to Congress a comnumication 
from the Secretary of tlie Xavy, covering a detailed 
report of Flag-Officer Buchanan of the brilliant tri- 
innph of liis squadron over the vastly superior forces 
of the enemy in Hampton Roads, March 8 and g last. 

Jeffersox D.wis. 



Richmond, V.\., .\pnl 7, 1862. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith copy 
of the detailed report of Flag-Ojficer Buchanan of the 
brilliant triumph of his squadron over the vastly su- 
perior forces of the enemy in Hampton Roads, on 
March 8 and 9 last, a brief report by Lieutenant Jones 
of the battle of the 8th having been previously made. 

The conduct of the officers and men of the squad- 
ron in this contest reflects unfading honor upon them- 
selves and upon the navy. The report will be read 
with deep interest, and its details will not fail to arouse 
the ardor and nerve the arm of our gallant seamen. 

It will be remembered that the "Virginia" was a 
'; novelty in naval architecture, wholly unlike any ship 
that ever floated : that her heaviest guns were equal 
novelties in ordnance ; that her motive power and her 
I obedience to her helm were untried : and her officers 
: and crew strangers comparatively to the ship and each 
other, and yet, under all these disadvantages, the dash- 
ing courage and consunnnate professional ability of 
Flag-Officer Buchanan and his associates achieved the 
most remarkable victory which naval annals record. 

When the flag-officer was disabled the command of 
I the ''Virginia" devolved upon her executive and ord- 
nance officer, Lieut. Catesbj' Ap. R. Jones, and the cool 
[ and masterly manner in which he fought the ship in 
j her encounter with the iron-clad "Monitor" justified the 
; high estimate which the country places upon his pro- 
i fessional merit. To his experience, skill and untiring 
' industry as her ordnance and executive officer the ter- 
rible effect of her fire was greatly due. Her battery 
was determined in accordance with his suggestions, and 
in all investigations and tests which resulted in its thor- 
ough efficiency he was zealously engaged. 

The terms of commendation used by the flag- 
officer in characterizing the conduct of his officers and 
men meet the cordial indorsement of the Department, 
and the concurrent testimony of thousands who wit- 
nessed the engagement places his own conduct above 
all praise. 

W'itli much respect, your obedient servant, 


Secretary of the Navy. 
To THE President. 

report of fl.\g-officer fraxklix buchax.\x, c. s. x.wv. 

Naval Hospital. 
Norfolk, Va., March 27, 1862. 

Sir: Having been confined to my bed in this 
l)uilding since the 9th instant, in consequence of a 
wound received in the action of the previous day, I 
have not had it in my power at an earlier date to pre- 
pare the official rc|X)rt. which I now have the honor 
to submit, of the proceedings on the 8th and 9th in- 
stant of the James River Squadron, under my com- 
mand, composed of the following-named vessels: 
Steamer "Virginia," flag-ship. 10 guns: steamer "Pat- 
rick Henry," Commander John R. Tucker. 12 guns: 
steamer "Jamestown." Lieutenant-Commanding J. X. 
Barney, two guns; and gunboats "Teaser." Lieutenant- 
Commanding W. .\. Webb: "Beaufort." Lieutenant- 
Commanding W. H. Parker: and "Raleigh." Lieuten- 
ant-Commanding J, W. -Mcxander. eacli one gun. 
Total, 27 guns. 

On tlie 8th instant, at 11 .A. M.. llic "Virginia" 
left the Navy Yard (Norfolk), accompanied by the 
"Raleigh" and ''Beaufort." and proceeded to Newport 
News, to engage the enemy's frigates "Ciunberland" 
and "Congress," gunboats and batteries. When within 



less than a mile of the "Cumberland," the "Virginia" 
commenced the engagement with that ship with her 
bow-gun. and the action soon became general, the 
"Cumberland." "Congress." gunboats and sliore bat- 
teries concentrating upon us their heavy fire, which was 
returned with great spirit and determination. The 
"Virginia" stood rapidly on toward the "Cumberland." 
which ship I had determined to sink with our prow if 
possible. In about 15 minutes after the action com- 
menced we ran into her on her starboard Ix)w. The 
crash below the water was distinctly heard, and she 
commenced sinking, gallantly fighting her guns as long 
as they were above water. She went down with her 
colors flying. 

During this time the shore batteries, "Congress" 
and gunboats kept up their heavy concentrated fire upon 
us, doing us some injury. Our guns, however, were 
not idle ; their fire was very destructive to the shore 
batteries and vessels, and we were gallantly sustained 
by the rest of the squadron. 

Just after the "Cumberland" sunk, that gallant 
officer. Commander Jphn R. Tucker, was seen stand- 
ing down the James River under full steam, accom- 
panied by the "Jamestown" and the "Teaser." They 
came nobly into action and were soon exposed to the 
heavy fire of the shore batteries. Their escape was 
miraculous, as they were under a galling fire of solid 
shot, shell, grape, and canister, a number of which 
passed through the vessels without doing any serious 
injury except to the "Patrick Henry." through whose 
boiler a shot passed, scalding to death four persons and 
wounding others. Lieutenant-Commanding Barney 
promptly obeyed a signal to tow her out of the action. 
As soon as damages were repaired the "Patrick Henry" 
returned to her station and continued to perform good 
service during the remainder of that day and the fol- 

Having sunk the "Cumberland." I turned our at- 
tention to the "Congress." We were some time in 
getting our proper position in consequence of the shoal- 
ness of the water and the great difficulty of managing 
the ship when in or near the mud. To succeed in my 
object I was obliged to run the ship a short distance ' 
above the batteries on the James River in order to ! 
wind her. During all the time her keel was in the 
mud ; of course she moved but slowly. Thus we were 
subjected twice to the heavy guns of all the batteries 
in passing up and down the river, but it could not be i 
avoided. We silenced several of the batteries and did j 
much injury on shore. A large transport steamer ; 
alongside the wharf was blown up, one schooner sunk 
and another captured and sent to Norfolk. The loss 
of life on shore we have no means of ascertaining. 

While the "Virginia" was thus engaged in getting 
her position for attacking the "Congress," the prison- 
ers state it was believed on board that ship that we 
had haiiled oflf. The men left their guns and gave 
three cheers. They were soon sadly undeceived, for 
a few minutes after we opened upon her again, she 
having run on shore in shoal water. The carnage, 
havoc and dismay caused by our fire compelled them 
to haul down their colors and to hoist a white flag at 
their gaflt and half-mast and another at their main. 

The crew instantly took to their boats and landed. 
Our fire immediately ceased, and a signal was made 
for the "Beaufort" to come within hail. I then or- 
dered Lieutenant-Commanding Parker to take pos- 
session of the "Congress," secure the officers as pris- 
oners, allow the crew to land, and burn the ship. He 
ran alongside, received her flag and surrender from 
Commander William Smith and Lieutenant Pendergast. 
with the side-arms of those officers. They delivered 
themselves as prisoners of war on board the "Beau- 
fort," and afterward were permitted at their own re- 
quest to return to the "Congress" to assist in moving 
the wounded to the "Beaufort." They never returned, 
and I submit to the decision of the Department 
whether they are not our prisoners. While the "Beau- 
fort" and "Raleigh" were alongside the "Congress." 
and the surrender of that vessel had been received from 
the conmiander. she having two white flags flying, 
hoisted by our own people, a heavy fire was opened 
upon them from the shore and from the "Congress," 
killing some valuable officers and men. Under this 
fire the steamers left the "Congress," but as I w-as not 
informed that any injury had been sustained by those 
vessels at that time, Lieutenant-Commanding Parker 
having failed to report to me, I took it for granted that 
my order to him to burn her had been executed, and 
waited some minutes to see the smoke ascending from 
her hatches. During this delay we were still subject 
to the heavy fire from the batteries, which was always 
promptly returned. 

The steam frigates "Minnesota" and "Roanoke" 
and the sailing frigate "St. Lawrence" had previously 
been reported as coming from Old Point, but as [ 
was determined that the "Congress" should not again 
fall into the hands of the enemy. I remarked to that 
gallant young officer. Flag-Lieutenant Minor. "That 
ship must be burned." He promptly volunteered to 
take a boat and burn her. and the "Teaser." Lieutenant- 
Commanding Webb, was ordered to cover the boat. 
Lieutenant Elinor had scarcely reached within 50 yards 
of the "Congress" when a deadly fire was opened upon 
him, wounding him severely and several of his men. 
On witnessing this vile treachery. I instantly recalled 
the boat and ordered the "Congress" destroyed liy hot 
shot and incendiarj' shell. About this period I was 
disabled, and transferred- the conmiand of the ship to 
that gallant, intelligent officer, Lieut. Catesby Jones, 
with orders to fight her as long as the men could 
stand to their guns. 

The ships from Old Point opened their fire upon 
us. The "Minnesota" grounded in the north channel, 
where, unfortunately, the shoalness of the channel pre- 
vented our near approach. We continued, however, to 
fire upon her until the pilots declared it was no longer 
safe to remain in that position, and we accordingly re- 
turned by the south channel (the Middle Ground l)eing 
necessarily betxveen the "V'irginia" and "Minnesota." 
and the "St. Lawrence" and the "Roanoke" having re- 
treated under the guns of Old Point), and again had 
an opportunity of opening upon the "Minnesota," re- 
ceiving her heavy fire in return, and shortly afterward 
upon the "St. Lawrence." from which vessel were re- 
ceived several broadsides. 



It had by this time becfime dark and we soon 
anchored off Sewell's Point. The rest of the squad- 
ron followed our movements, with the exception of the 
"Beaufort," Lieutenant-Commanding Parker, who pro- 
ceeded to Norfolk with the wounded and prisoners 
as soon as he had left the "Congress," without report- 
ing to me. The "Congress." having been set on fire 
by our hot shot and incendiary shell, continued to 
burn, her loaded guns being successively discharged as 
the flames reached them, until a few minutes past 
midnight, when her magazine exploded with a tre- 
mendous report. 

The facts above stated, as having occurred after 
I had placed the ship in charge of Lieutenant Jones, 
were reported to me by that officer. 

At an early hour next morning (the pth), upon the 
urgent solicitations of the surgeons. Lieutenant Minor 
and myself were very reluctantly taken on shore. The 
accommodations for the proper treatment of the 
wounded persons on board the "Virginia" are exceed- 
ingly limited, Lieutenant Minor and myself occupying 
the onl\- space that could be used for that purpose, 
which was in my cabin. I therefore consented to our 
being landed on Sewell's Point, thinking that the room 
on board vacated by us could be used for those who 
might be wounded in the renewal of the action. In 
the course of the day Lieutenant Minor and myself 
were sent in a steamer to a hospital at Norfolk. 

The following is an extract from the report of 
Lieutenant Jones of the proceedings of the "Virginia" 
on the gth : 

"At daylight on the gth we saw the 'Minnesota' 
was still ashore, and that there was an iron battery 
near her. At 8 o'clock we ran down to engage them 
(having previously sent the killed and wounded out 
of the ship), firing at the 'Minnesota' and occasionally 
at the iron battery. The pilots did not place us as near 
as they expected. The great length and draft of the 
ship rendered it exceedingly difficult to work her. We 
ran ashore about a mile from the frigate, and were 
backing 15 minutes before we got off. We continued 
to fire at the 'Minnesota,' and blew up a steamer 
alongside of her, and we also engaged the 'Monitor,' 
and sometimes at very close quarters. We once suc- 
ceeded in running into her. and twice silenced her fire. 
The pilots declaring that we could get no nearer the 
'Minnesota." and believing her to be entirely disabled, 
and the 'Monitor' having run into shoal water, which 
prevented our doing her any further injury, we ceased 
firing at 12 (o'clock) and proceeded to Norfolk, 

"Our loss is two killed and ig wounded. The 
stem is twisted and the ship leaks. We have lost the 
prow, startward anchor and all the boats. The armor 
is somewhat damaged : the steam-pipe and smoke- 
stack both riddled : the muzzles of two of the guns ' 
shot away. It was not easy to keep a flag flying. The 
flag-staffs were repeatedly shot away. Tlie colors were 
hoisted to the smoke-stack and several times cut down 
from it. 

"The bearing of the men was all that could be 
desired ; the enthusiasm could scarcely be restrained. 
During the action they cheered again and again. Their 
coolness and skill were the most remarkable from the I 

fact that the great majority of them were under fire 
for the first time. They were strangers to each other 
and to the oflicers. and had but a few days' instruction 
in the management of the great guns. To the skill 
and example of the officers is this result in no small 
degree attributable." 

Having thus given a full report of the actions on 
the 8th and gth, I feel it due to the gallant officers who 
so nobly sustained the honor of the flag and country 
on those days to express my appreciation of their 

To that brave and intelligent officer, Lieut. Catesby 
Jones, the executive and ordnance officer of the "Vir- 
ginia," I am greatly indebted for the success achieved. 
His constant attention to his duties in the equipment of 
the ship; his intelligence in the instruction of ordnance 
to the crew, as proved by the accuracy and effect of their 
fire, some of the guns having been personally directed 
by him ; his tact and management in the government of 
raw- recruits; his general knowledge of the executive 
duties of a man-of-war, together with his high-toned 
bearing, were all eminently conspicuous, and had their 
fruits in the admirable efficiency of the "Virginia." 
If conduct such as his (and I' do not know that I have 
used adequate language in describing it") entitles an 
officer to promotion. I see in the case of Lieutenant 
Jones one in all respects worthv of it. .-Xs a flag-officer 
I am entitled to some one to perform the duties of 
flag-captain, and I should be proud to have Lieutenant 
Jones ordered to the "Virginia" as lieutenant-conmiand- 
ant ; if it be not the intention of the Department to 
bestow upon him a higher rank. 

Lieutenant Simms fully sustained his well-earned 
reputation. He fired the first gun. and when the com- 
mand devolved upon Lieutenant Jones in consequence 
of my disability he was ordered to perform the duties 
of executive officer. Lieutenant Jones has expressed to 
me his satisfaction in having had the services of so 
experienced, energetic and zealous an officer. 

Lieutenaiy Davidson fought his guns with great 
precision. The muzzle of one of them was soon "shot 
away. He continued, however, to fire upon it, though 
the woodwork around the port became ignited at each 
discharge. His buoyant and cheerful bearing and voice 
were contagious and inspiring. 

Lieutenant Wood handled his pivot-gun admirably, 
and the executive officer testifies to his valuable sug- 
gestions during the action. Hs zeal and industry in 
drilling the crew contributed materially to our success. 

Lieutenant Eggleston served his hot shot and shell 
with judgment and effect, and his bearing was delib- 
erate, and e.xerted a happy influence on his division. 

Lieutenant Butt fought his gun with activity and 
during the action was gay and smiling. 

The IMarine Corps was well represented by Cap- 
tain Thorn, whose tranquil mien gave evidence that the 
hottest fire was no novelty to him. One of his guns 
was served effectively and creditably by a detachment 
of the United Artillery of Norfolk under the command 
of Captain Kevill. The muzzle of their gun was struck 
by a shell from the enemy, which broke off a piece of 
the gun, but they continued to fire it as if it was un- 


Midshipmen Foiite. Mamiadiike. Littlepage. Craig 
and Long rendered valiialile services. Their conduct 
would have been credital)lc to older heads, and gave 
great promise of future usefulness. Midshipman Mar- 
maduke. though receiving several painful wounds early 
in the action, manfully fought his gun until the close. 
He is now at the hospital. 

Paymaster Scmple volunteered for any service and , 
was assigned to the command of the powder division, 
an important and complicated duly, which could not 
have been better performed. 

Surgeon Phillips and .\ssistant Surgeon Garnett 
were prompt and attentive in the discharge of their 
duties. Their kind and considerate care of the 
wounded, and skill and ability displayed in the treat- 
ment, won for them the esteem and gratitude of all 
who came under their charge, and justly entitled them 
to the confidence of the ofticers and crew. 

I beg leave to call the attention of the Department 
to the case of Dr. Garnett. He stands deservedly high 
in his profession, is the head of the lists of assistant 
surgeons, and. there being a vacancy in consequence of 
the recent death of Surgeon Blacknall. I should be 
much gratified if Dr. Garnett could be promoted to it. 

The engines and machinery, upon which so much 
depended, performed much better than expected. This 
is due to the intelligence, experience and coolness of 
Acting Chief Engineer Ramsey. His efforts were ably 
seconded by his assistants. Tynan. Campbell. Herring, 
Jack and White. As Mr. Ramsey is only acting chief 
engineer. I respectfully recommend his promotion to 
the rank of chief, and would also ask that Second As- 
sistant Engineer Campbell may be promoted to the first 
assistant, he having performed the duties of that grade 
during the engagement. 

The forward officers — Boatswain Hasker. Gunner 
Oliver and Carpenter Lindsay — discharged well all the 
duties required of them. The boatswain had charge 
of a gun and fought it well. The gunner was inde- 
fatigable in his efforts. His experience and exertions 
as a gunner have contributed very materially to the 
efficiency of the battery. .Acting Master Parrish was 
assisted in piloting the ship by Pilots Wright. Will- 
iams, .Clarke and Cunningham. They were necessarily 
much exposed. 

It is now due that I should mention my personal 
stafif. To that gallant young officer. Flag-Lieutenant 
Minor, I am much indebted for his promptness in the 
execution of signals: for renewing the flag-stafTs when 
shot awaj% being thereby greatly exposed; for his 
watchfulness in keeping the Confederate flag up: his 
alacrity in conveying my orders to the different divis- 
ions: and for his general cool and gallant bearing. 
My aid. Acting Midshipman Roots, of the Navy : Lieu- 
tenant Forrest, of the .Army, who served as a volunteer 
aid. and my clerk. Arthur Sinclair. Jr., are entitled to 
my thanks for the activity with which my orders were 
conveyed to the diflferent parts of the ship. During 
the hottest of the fight they were always at their posts 
giving evidence of their coolness. 

Having referred to the good conduct of the offi- 
■cers in the flag-ship immediately under my notice, 

I come now to a no less pleasing task when I attempt 
to mark my approbation of the bearing of those serv- 
ing in the other vessels of the squadron. 

Commander John R. Tucker, of the "Patrick 
Henry," Lieutenant-Commanding J. N. Barney, of the 
"Jamestown," and W. A. Webb, of the "Teaser." 
deserve great praise for their gallant conduct through- 
out the engagement. Their judgment in selecting their 
positions for attacking the enemy was good; their con- 
stant fire was destructive, and contributed nuich to the 
success of the day. The general order under which 
the squadron went into action required that, in the 
absence of a signal, each commanding officer was to 
e.xercise his own judgment and discretion in doing 
all the damage he could to the enemy, and to sink be- 
fore surrendering. From the bearing of those officers 
on the 8th I am fully satisfied that that order would 
have been fully carried out. Commander Tucker 
speaks highly of all under him. and desires particularly 
to notice that Lieut. -Col. Callender St. George Noland, 
commanding the post at Mulberry Island, on hearing 
of the deficiencv in the complement of the "Patrick 
Henry." promptly ofTered the services of lo of his men 
as volunteers for the occasion, one of whom, George 
E. Webb, of the Greenville Guard. Commander Tucker 
regrets to say. 'was killed. Lieutenant-Commanding 
Barney reports that every officer and man on board of 
the ship performed his whole duty, evincing a courage 
and fearlessness worthy of the cause for which we are 

Lieutenant-Commanding Webb specially notices the 
coolness displayed bv .Acting Ma-iter Face and Third 
Assistant Engineer Quinn when facing the heavy fire 
of artillery and musketry from the sliore whilst the 
"Teaser" was standing in to cover the boat in which, 
as previously stated. Lieutenant Minor had gone to 
burn the "Congress." Several of his men were badly 

The "Raleigh" early in the action had her gun 
carriage disabled, which compelled her to withdraw. 
.As soon as he had repaired damages as well as he could, 
Lieutenant-Commanding .Mexander resumed his posi- 
tion in the line. He sustained himself gallantly during 
the remainder of the day. and speaks highly of all un- 
der his command. That evening he was ordered to 
Norfolk for repairs. 

The "Beaufort." Lieutenant-Commanding Parker, 
was in close contact with the enemv frequently during 
the day and all on board behaved gallantly. Lieuten- 
ant-Commanding Parker expresses his warmest thanks 
to his officers and men for their coolness. Acting Mid- 
shipman Foreman, who accompanied him as volunteer 
aid. Midshipmen Mallorv and Xewton. Cantain's Clerk 
Bain and Mr. Gray, pilot, are all specially mentioned 
by him. 

On the 2ist instant I forwarded to the Depart- 
ment correct list? of the casualties on board all the 
vessels of the squadron on the 8th; none, it appears, 
occurred on the gth. 

While in the act of closing this report I received 
the communication of the Department, dated 22nd in- 
stant, relieving me temporarily of the command of the 



squadron for the naval defense of the James River. 
I feel honored in being relieved by tlie gallant Flag- 
Officer Tatnall. 

I much regret that I am not now in a condition to 
resume my command, but trust that I shall soon be re- 
stored to health, when I shall be ready for any duty 
that may be assigned me. 

Very respectfully, 

Fr.\nkhn Buch.^n.^n, 

Hon. S. R. AI.xllorv. 

Secretary of the Navy. 


of the 


1855 to 1862. 

The v. S. Str. "jMerrimac" was a steam 
frigate. Her luill was Iniilt at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, her engines at Cold Spi ings, New 
York, and she was placed in commission in 
1855. Early in 1856 slie was officered and 
manned — with a crew of 650 specially se- 
lected men and an armament of 50 gurrs. She 
was estimated to represent the best type of 
war ship then known, and was sent to Euro- 
pean waters as a specimen of the finest naval 
architecture then afloat, and from reports of 
her ro}-al entertainment abroad she unques- 
tionabh' proved to be all the United States 
government had claimed for her. Returning 
after a four years' successful cruise she was 
ptit out of commission at the Portsmouth, Vir- 
ginia, Navy Yard, and upon the evacuation of 
Norfolk and Portsmouth, April 19, 1861, this 
ship, with others, was dismantled and burned 
to the) water-line. After mature considera- 
tion the Confederate authoritiets determined 
to raise the 'JMerrimac' and upon her hull to 
construct a powerful battery for the protection 

of Norfolk Harbor and the mouth of the 
James River. Upon plans supplie'd by a Vir- 
ginian the work of construction ijroceeded un- 
til its coanpletion. 

The "Virginia," as she was afterward 
named, was covered amidships with a roof 
170 feet long, built at an angle of 45 degrees, 
constructed oi 20-inch heart pine and cov- 
ered with 4-inch oak. Upon this wood back- 
ing there were two iron plates two inches 
thick and eight inches wide, one laid horizon- 
tallv antl the other vertically, bolted through 
the wood and clinched on the inside. Her 
bow was armed below water with a cast iron 
prow about 6 feet long, to be used as a ram. 
Her weakest element was her motive power, 
her old engines and boilers, which had already 
been condemned. Her ordnance consisted of 
10 guns; two 7-inch steel-banded Brooke rifles 
moimted as pivot-guns at the bow and stern; 
two 6-inch rifles of the same pattern, and six 
9-inch Dahlgren smooth-bore broadside guns. 
Her commander was Commodore Franklin 
Buchanan, one of the bravest and ablest offi- 
cers of the old service. Her second in com- 
mand was Lieut. Catesby Ap. R. Jones, dis- 
tinguished both by ability and great gallantry. 
Her crew numbered 350, most of whom had 
volunteered from the army for the occasion, 
and the emergencies oi the service allowed no 
time for either testing her engines or drilling 
her crew. 

About 12 o'clock M., March S, 1862, tlio 
"Virginia" cast loose from the wharf at the 
Navy Yard and steamed slowl}' to the work 
of the day — passing down the Elir'abeth River 
cheered by our batteries, also by the soldiers 
and citizens who lined every available point 
on both sides oi the river to witness the un- 
tried engagement of this new idea war-ship — 
the result of which was eagerly awaited by the 
whole world, for never had there been a bolder 
attack than was about to be made that day. 

Passing through the obstructions at Cra- 
ney Island she headed directly for Newport 
News, where the U. S. ships "Cumberland'" 
and "Congress" la}- riding at anchor, blockad- 

1 " Merrimac " destroyed at the burning of the Norfolk 4 " Virginia" sinking the "•Cumberland." March 8th, 

Na\7 Yard. April 19th. 1861. 1862. 

2 " Merrimac " in dry dock, being converted into the iron , 5 " N'irginia " engaged in battle with the " Monitor," in 

battery " Virginia." ! Hampton Roads, March 9th, 1862. 

3 ■■ Virginia" passing Fort Norfolk, March 8th. 1863. 6 Destruction of the "Virginia." May 1 ith. 1862. 

7 E. V. White, of Engineer Corps, in Confederate Naval uniform, taken Feb. 25th, 1862. 
The above views (Nos. i-6t are taken from original oil paintings by Mr. B. A. Richardson, of Norfolk, Va. 



ing tlie James River. It was calm and clear 
— a Ijeautiful day — nothing" in the scene gave 
indication of the-bloody and mortal conflict 
soon to occur. Ere slie reached these sliips 
several large men-of-war started from Old 
Point to the help of their sister sivips ; among 
tiiem the "Minnesota," which grounded near 
Newport News point. The "C'umberland" 
was the first to open fire, and from these shots 
the first fatality alx)ard our vessel occurred — 
t\v"0 wounded and one killed — by shot strik- 
ing the hi\g chain and driving the same back 
into the ship. This opening fire was followed 
immediately by the "Congress"' and every 
other available Federal givii that could be 
brought to bear on the "Virginia." Resent- 
ing her fire until within easy range the "\''ir- 
ginia's" bow-rifle was fired with terrible ef- 
fect : and, as has elsewhere been staled, opened 
a hole in the "Cumberland" large enough for 
a horse and cart to drive through. We made 
directly fur the "Cumberland." When at 
probably 50 yards distance, with slackened 
speed but with determined purjwse we moved 
en toward the gallant ship and struck her the 
deadly blow, but with little jar to the "Vir- 
ginia." backing our engines until we had 
cleared the disabled vessel. .\ shot from the 
"Congress" struck the muzzle of one of our 
broadside 9-inch Dahlgren guns, breaking off 
alx)ut two feet of it, killing one man and 
wounding a few others. Reversing our en- 
gines we passed the "Cumberland" which, 
though now sinking, was bravely fighting he'' 
guns and exhiljiting a heroism worthy of all 
praise, and which entitled her to the renown 
that has since that day l>een attached to her 

^^'e then moved up the James River to "i 
place of easy turning for our ship and started 
back, being joined in the meantime by the 
James River fleet, consisting of several 
steamers. Then, with probably one hundred 
guns firing upon us from variou.; ]X)ints, we 
came within 200 yards of the now grounded 
"Congress," uprm which we opened fire. Af- 
ter we had delivered several w ell-directed 

shots that sent destruction tu that ship and 
many souls to their eternal home, she hoisted 
the white flag and all firing ceased. Arrange- 
ments were then commenced for receiving the 
surrender and removing the dead and 
wounded from both the enemy's ships and our 
own. While our officers were aboard the 
"Congress" and many on the upper deck of the 
"Virginia," e.xposed because of the Federal's 
white flag, which was a signal for help, be- 
ing displayed, the enemy opened fire from the 
shore battery upon us. wounding many, 
amongst them Commodore Buchanan, shot 
through the thigh, and Lieutenant Elinor, shot 
through the side. Our boats were ordered to 
clear the "Congress" and Commodore Bu- 
chanan turned the command of ovs ship over 
to Lieut. Catesby Jones and instructed him to 
I set fire to the "Congress." I received orders 
for three hot shots and soon that vessel was in 
flames. The "Cuml^erland" the while had 
gone dinvn beneath the waters of the James, 
taking with her in that awful plunge many 
\\ho had gallantly remained at their posts of 

It being now nearly dark and the work of 
transferring the dead and wounded to be con- 
veyed to the naval hospital Ijeing completed, 
we steamed over to the buoy at Sewell's Point 
and came to anchor for the night. As one of 
the unfortunate ones at being on first watch, 
with so little rest, I was only compensated 
for the performance of this ardurais duty by 
witnessing the grand and impressive sight of 
the explosion of the "Congress" later in the 
night — a- scene too solemnly beautiful to at- 
tempt to describe. 

Some idea may be gained from Northern 
■writers of the consternation and excitement 
created at the North by this great naval en- 
gagement, from some of whom I quote, as 
follows : 

"The swift work done by the 'Merrimac' 
on this occasion spread consternation through- 
out the Northern States. The blockade of 
the Atlantic Coast maintained at that time 
could not long last before this mightv and in- 




vulnerable engine of destruction. New York, 
Boston and Washington would soon be threat- 
ened. The most alarming crisis of the Civil 
War was at hand. As the sun went down that 
night over Hampton Roads every Union heart 
in the fleet and in the fortress throbbed with 
despair. There was no gleam of hope. The 
'Merrimac' was impervious to balls and could 
go where she pleased. In the morning it 
would be easy work for her to destroy our 
whole fleet. She could then shell Newport 
News and Fortress Monroe at her leisure, set- 
ting e\-erything: combustible in flames and 
drixing every man frouT the guns. As 
the news of the terrible disaster was flashed 
over the cotmtr}' by the telegraph wires all 
faces wore an expression of consternation. 
The writer was in Washington at the time. 
Congress was in session. The panic cannot 
be descril>ed. There was absolutely nothing to 
prevent the 'Merrimac' from, ascending the 
Potomac and laying the Capitol in ashes, pro^ 
viding there was sufficient depth of water to 
float the steamer and no one knew whether 
there was this depth or not, for no one knew 
the draught of the 'Merrimac' Baltimore. 
Philadelphia, New York, Boston and Portland 
were in a state of terror. 'The 'Merrimac' 
could laug'h at forts,' says Abbott in his his- 

"The experiment of an hour had wrought 
an entire change in the naval architecture and 
in defensive fortifications throughout the 
world, ^^'ooden frigates had almost ceased to 
be of any value. The blow which sunk the 
'Cumberland' demolished also the fleets of 
England and France. All navies went down 
with that frigate into the abyss together. It 
is not too much to say that such a night of 
anxiety, of terror, of bewilderment, as fol- 
lowed the triumphant return of the 'Merrimac' 
to her anchorage behind Craney Island, this 
world has seldom witnessed before." 

The next morning Sunday (March 9th), 
after an early breakfast, a consultation was 
held, the command having devolved on 
the gallant, able and courageous Cates- 

by Ap. R. Jones, than whom none de- 
served more honor for bravery and cool dar- 
ing, under whose supervision, as executive 
ofificer, it may liere be stated, the construction 
of the armament of the shi]) had been com- 
pleted. It was decided to finish the destruction 
of the now almost abandoned "^Minnesota.' 
even while our ship was taking water freely 
at the opening in^ her bow, caused from the loss 
of the cast iron prow, left in the "Cumberland" 
when we ran into her. Our pumps had been 
kept Inisy during the night relieving the ship 
of water. However, we got imder wa_\-, mak- 
ing for the "Minnesota," when suddenly we 
grounded on what is known, as the "Middle 
Ground of Hampton Roads," and there we 
stuck for two or three hours. But Ijefore we 
had grounded the "Monitor" was discovered 
coming out from where the "^^liunesnta" lav 
aground. ^Ve opened fire upon her with our 
bow-rifle, but with no effect. Straight on 
she came toward us and when in a good posi- 
tion she let loose her heavy .guns, giving us a 
good shaking up. Thus she continued circling 
around us, and every now and then throwing 
the heavy missiles against our sides. We, in 
response, as she passed around, brought every 
gun aboard our ship to bear upon her. It was 
now Greek against Greek : iron against iron ! 
In the desperation of the fight the ships closed 
— actually touching" sides — hurling hundred- 
pound shot which rattled against the mailed 
and impenetrable sides of the combatants ni 
this tremendous duel and glanced off like hail ! 
The contest was for the time so Ijot that the 
muzzles of the hostile guns almost touched 
each other, and both ship were enveloped in a 
cloud of smoke which no eye could penetrate! 
Flash and thunder-roar burst forth incessantly 
from the tumultuous maelstrom of darkn'^ss ! 
Such bolts were never hurled from the fab/led 
hands of Jupiter 01yni])us! Xe\-er Ijefnre had 
ships met carrying such heavy guns. From 
both vessels the firing was executed with 
great rapidity and with equal skill, l)ut \\itli 
little effect on either vessel. Thus the duel 
raged with uninterrupted fur_\- for four long 



hours. Howes'cr, our weak points seemed to 
\x known by the commander of tlie "]\Ionitor," 
and .so well did he attack these that soon on 
the starlxiard midship over the outboard dehv- 
erv. lie so l^ent in our plating that the massive 
oak timliers were cracked, and from this and 
the continued ricochet shots of the "]\Iinne- 
50ta"' considerable concern was beginning to 
be felt In- our commander and all on board. 
Soon we were relieved Ijv the moving of our 
ship from the p<jsition wliich. for such trying 
minutes, we liad occupied. Then, with a set- 
tled detemiination on the part of our comman- 
der to run the "Monitor" down as a last re- 
sort, seeing that our shots were ineffective,' 
I was directed to convey to the engine room 
orders for every man to be at his ix>st. We 
cauglit and did run into the "Monitor" and 
came near running Iier under tlie water ; not 
that we struck her exactly at right angles, but 
with our starlxiard bow we drove against her 
with a detemiination of sending her to the 
lx)ttom. and so near did we come to accom- 
plishing our object that from the ramming 
and shot of our rifle-gun that blinrled her com- 
mander, she withdrew to shoal water near the 
"Minnesota," whence we could not follow — 
ne\-er again to offer or accejit battle with the 
"Virginia." After waiting on the ground of 
our victory without any signs of her return, 
for possibly an hour or more, we steamed u]) to 
the Navy Yard, receiving the shouts and huz- 
zas of the thousands of our peo]:le who had 
witnessed the fight. 

I wish to emphasize the facts just related 
of the collision with the "Monitor," and our 
desire to repeat it, and of her withdrawal from 
the field, as well as her refusal then or there- 
after to engage in battle with the "Virginia." 
riOtwithstanding that this statement is in posi- 
tive contradiction to the theory accepted in 
some parts of the North and published in the 
school histories of to-day. 

By 4:00 o'clock we were in the dry-dock 
at the Navy Yard. The grand old ship was 
a picture to behold. You could hardly put 
your hand on a spot on the si<'es or smokestack 

lhat had not been battered b\- the shots of bur 

Large improvements to tiie "\'irginia" 
were made under the suiJervision (jf Commo- 
dore Tatnall, of Georgia, who had assumed 
command owing to the disability of Commo- 
dore Buchanan. These improvements con- 
sisted of a new wrought iron prow, port cov- 
ers, etc. When complete she went down to 
Old Point and offered battle to the "Monitor" 
and all of the great wooden warships of the 
U. S. Navy, including the "Vanderbilt." which 
ship had lieen specially brought forward tO' 
accomplish our destruction. We manned care- 
fully four small steamers fully equipped to 
capture the "Monitor" if sh? came within 
I'each, and while one or more o.f these boats 
might have been destroyed if cither had 
reached her. so well was our late antagonist's 
build then understood, she would, in my de- 
liberate judgment, have been ca])tnrcd. Neither 
the "jNIonitor" nor any of the large ships the 
United States government had ordered there 
would come out from under the guns of Fort- 
ress Monroe, while one of our steamers, the 
"Jamestown," was sent in near Hampton ;ind 
captured three schooners loaded with hay and 
grain, and carried them safely to Norfolk. 

After cruising about in challenge for bat- 
tle, without having it accepted, the Commo- 
dore ordered a gun fired to the windward, re- 
turned to the buoy off Sewell's P(jint, and an- 
chored for the night. The next day we came 
to Norfolk for repairs to the boiler. .\ few 
days thereafter, comjjleting our repairs, we 
heard heavy firing and received orders to go 
the help of our batteries at Sewell's Point that 
were being bombarded by the "^Tonitor" and 
other ships. We were soon under way and 
steered directly for the "Monitor" and other 
Federal ships then shelling at that point : but 
as we approached they ceased firing and re- 
treated below the forts, wc: following until 
we exchanged several shots with the Rip Raps. 
With considerable disappoiiitment Commo- 
dore Tatnall ordered the ship back to her buoy 
at Sewell's Point. The next dav, I think, or 



soon thereafter, we noticed our batteries were 
not flying our fiag and upon inquiring the 
cause we learned that Norfolk was being evac- 
uated, thus ending the necessity for holding 
our present position. 

The next thing to do was either to go out 
to sea, which all agreed to do if permitted, or 
to go up the James River. Orders were re- 
ceived to go up to Richmond. Upon consul- 
tation with the pilots we learned that if we 
could lighten the ship enough to let her draw 
four or five feet less we could get over the bar. 
This action was agreed upon and all were ser 
to work throwing over the ballast and other 
articles in order to bring her up to i8 feet 
draught. We were informed, however, by 
12 o'clock Saturday night that we could not 
get up the river for some reason and now being 
exposed by having some two feet of the 
wooden hull out of the water, nothing was 
left but to destroy the ship in order to keep 
her from falling into the hands of the enemy. 
She was then run aground above Craney Isl- 
and and the work of destruction commenced. 
We had but few boats with which to land our 
large crew safely on shore: consequentlv we 
had to leave all our personal effects on board 
the steamer. 

I was one of lo selected to destroy the 
ship and held the light for Mr. Oliver, the 
gunner, to uncap the powder in the magazine 
to insure a quick explosion and, necessarily, 
was among the last to leave her decks. A 
more beautiful sight I never beheld than that 
great ship on fire; the flames issuing from the 
port-holes, through the grating and smoke- 
stack. That conflagration was a sight ever to 
be remembered. 

Thus closed ihe life^Saturday night. May 
12, 1862 — of our gallant sliip. Our crew 
landing Sunday morning, possiblv about 4 
o'clock, we had to walk to Suffolk, arriving 
there that night, ha\'ing been without food 
since Saturday noon. We took the train and 
reached Richmond the next da}- and were or- 
dei-ed to Drury's Bluff. There we kept the 
enemy from Richmond — stopped the progress 

of the entire fleet, including the "Monitor/' 
that had refused to meet the same men when 
on the decks of the "Virginia." With consid- 
erable loss to them, and but little to us, we 
drove the entire Federal fleet back down the 

E. V. White, of Georgia, 
(now a resident of Portsmouth. Va.) 
Ass't Engineer Str. "Virginia," C. S. Navy. 

In writing the above recollections I think 
it pertinent to state my position during those 
trying times of the memorable "\^irginia." 

I was stationed on the gun deck in charge 
of the gong and speaking tube leading to the 
engine room and directly under the command- 
ing officer of the ship for conveying his orders 
to that department for starting, liacking and 
stopping the engines and bringing hot shot 
to the guns from the fire-room — having five 
port-holes on bow and sides through which to 
witness all that was occurring during those 

E. V. w. 

The commander of the "Gassendi," a 
French man-of-war, who witnessed the com- 
bat, made a report to his government from 
which the following are extracts : 

"On the morning of the 8th, light breeze 
from the N. N. \\'. ; very fine weather; slight 
ebb tide. About 12:40, a mass, having the 
appearance of a barrack's roof surmounted by 
a large funnel, appeared at the entrance of 
Elizabeth River, a little inside of Sewell's 
Point. Every one recognized the 'Merrimac' 
immediately, which, accompanied by two gun- 
boats, the 'Beaufort' and the 'Raleigh,' ad- 
vanced slowly toward the channel of Hamp- 
ton Roads. After several evolutions, executed 
doubtless to assure herself of the good work- 
ing of her machinery, the 'Merrimac' seemed 
for an instant to turn back toward Norfolk; 
but in a short after she boldly started again on 
her course at an apparent speed of six knots, 
standing for the Federal sailing frigates 
'Cumberland' and 'Congress,' anchored at the 
entrance of the Tames Ri\er. The two gun- 




boats remained at the entrance of the Elizabeth 
River to watcli the movement of the Federal 
vessels anchored off Fortress Monroe. 

"The Federal na\-al force at the anchorage 
consisted of the screw frigate 'Minnesota,' for 
more than a month cleared for action, with 
steam up; of the screw frigate 'Roanoke.' also 
cleared for action, but which an inexplicable 
negligence had allowed to remain for four 
months with her main shaft broken, and which 
tried to deceive the enemy b}- a useless blowing 
off of steam: of the sailing frigate 'St. Law- 
rence,' which had arrived the da)- before to 
replace the 'Cumberland' at Newport News, 
and which had anchored at quite a distance 
outside: of (wo three-masted ships, each 
armed with six cannon. There were besides 
four gunboats, paddle-wheel or screw : half 
a dozen tugboats (each carrying a 30-pounder 
Parrott), and an equal number of ferry boats. 
Not one of these vessels appeared to notice the 
arrival of their formidable enemy in the Roads 
and it was more than a quarter of an hour 
after her appearance that a shot fired by one 
of the giinboats announced that she was in 

":\t about i :30 the 'Minnesota' hoisted her 
jib and started at moderate speed, aided bv a 
tugboat towing by the starboard side. The 
'Roanoke,' towed by two tugboats, followed 
her more slowly still. Having arrived near 
the Rip Raps the 'Minnesota' stopped and ran 
out lines as though to take the 'Roanoke' in 
tow: l)ut she soon appeared to relinquish that 
and about 2 o'clock she at length started at 
a speed of seven or eight knots standing 
toward Newport News, where the engagement 
took i>lace. Her tuglxiat (the 'Dragon'), then 
went to the aid of the 'Roanoke,' which con- 
tinued to advance slowly, her three tugs be- 
ing unable without great difficultv to make her 
stem the current. 

"The paddle-wheel gunboat, '\\'hitehall,' 
and the screw gunboat , 'Mystic,' bore ofi 
toward Newport News also, but they took a 
very minor part in the fight. As these vessels 
come abreast of Sewell's Point batterv that 

battery oi^ened fire on them. They replied to 
it; but this fire at long range (about 2,500 
meters), to which was added that of the Rip 
Raps, could Init jiroduce an insignificant effect. 

"About 2 :30 the 'Minnesota' ran aground 
on the shoals north of Hampton Middle 
Ground, a mile from Newport News. The 
Southern batteries and gunboats fired upon her 
at long- range. The 'Roanoke' fearing, doubt- 
less, to take ground also, which her want. of 
speed rendered imminent, then changed her 
course and, spreading her sails, came back to 
the anchorage off the Fortress, where she ar- 
rived about 4 o'clock. The tugs went to the 
aid of the "Minnesota.' The 'Mystic' came 
back to thel anchorage also about the same 
hour, and the frigate, 'St. Lawrence,' which 
up to that time had steadily proceeded toward 
the scene of the engagement, imitated likewise 
the maneuver of tlie 'Roanoke' and 'M)'stic.' 

"The 'Merrimac,' howe\-er. had continued 
to direct her course toward the frigates which 
she wished to destroy. The two gunboats had 
rejoined her and at 2 o'clock she was at the en- 
trance of the James River. She was immedi- 
ately greeted by a violent cannonade from the 
two frigates and from the batteries of New- 
port News. The Confederate battery at Pig 
Point replied. The fight was then hidden 
from us in a great measure by the point, which 
allowed us to see only the masts of the frig- 
ates : but w-e were able to estimate the force 
of the fire, which during a quarter of an hour, 
particularly, was of the hottest. We could 
see the entrance of the river constantly swept 
in all directions by the shot that ricochetted 
and the strength of the detonations indicated 
to us that they were guns of the heaviest cali- 
bre, which were testing the armor of the 'Mer- 
rimac' This vessel, after having delivered a 
broadside at the 'Congress,' the nearest of the 
two frigates, advanced toward the 'Cumber- 
land,' whose formidal)le batter\- might well 
be dreaded, and struck her amidships at a 
speed of four or five knots, partially breaking 
her ram. .\fter drawing off two ships' lengths, 
and having delivered a second broadside at 



the 'Congress,' the 'Merrimac' a second time 
i-ammed the 'Cumberland,' whicli sank ahnost 
immediatel)'. It was then about 2 -.^o. It 
^\■ould seem that this second blow Avas unnec- 

"The two steamers, 'Yorktown' and 
'Jamestown,' which, having' descended the 
James River, 'awaited a little higher up the 
moment of attack, after having opened lire 
upon the 'Congress' in passing', appeared in 
Hampton Roads and engaged in a very sharp 
light with the twoi Federal gunboats and tlie 
stranded 'Minnesota.' 

"The 'Merrimac' reappeared also outside 
the point, fired alternate!}' at the 'Congress' 
and the batteries of Newport News, while the 
Southern gunboats did likewise. Toward 3 
o'clock that frigate hoisted her jib, sheeted 
home her topsails, ran forward a ship's length 
and grounded immediately on the sand banks 
south of the entrance of the river. Almost at 
the same instant she struck her colors, which 
she replaced by a white flag and a little later 
she hoisted another at the mainmast. 

"It was at this time that the following inci- 
dent occurred, of which the Southern papers 
complain : 

"So soon as the white flag had announced 
to the Confederates the surrender of the frig- 
ate, they ceased firing' and one of their gun- 
boats, the 'Raleigh,' approached her and ran 
alongside of her on the starboard side to take 
off the officers and to tell the crew to go ashore 
in their boats ; but at the moment that the gun- 
boat in good faith came alongside the frigate 
guns fired by the Federals hid i-n the edge of 
the woods and snnie also from the 'Congress,', 
killed and wounded many officers and sailors 
of the 'Raleigh.' Some men, even on the 'Con- 
gress,' were struck by balls coming from the 
land. This incident, of which the Confeder- 
ates have bitterly complained, has been copied 
by the majority of the Northern newspajiers : 
not one has contradicted it. One of them (the 
Nexv York Herald, of the 14th) has, on the 
contrary confirmed it. 

"The '^Nlerrimac' continued to fire at the 

batteries of Newport News up to the moment 
that the 'Raleigh' drew off from the 'Congress' 
(about 4 o'clock). All of them drew near to 
the 'Minnesota" which, still aground and 
slightly inclined to starboard and surrounded 
by three or four gunl)oats, exchanged shots at 
long range with the 'Yorktown' and 'James- 
town.' The 'Roanoke' was already en roiile 
for the anchorage. The 'St. Lawrence,' which 
arrived on the scene of action, took part but 
for a short time and everything looked as 
though the resistance of the 'Minnesota' could 
not be prolonged. 

"However, the shoalness of the water did 
not permit the 'Merrimac' to' draw near tO' the 
frigate and the other vessels were of too slight 
a build to expose themselves near her power- 
ful battery. 

"The combatants appeared, besides, ex- 
liausted by the emotions and fatigue of a con- 
tinued struggle of more than three hours. Per- 
haps the Confederates, almost sure of taking 
the frigate on the morrow, did not wish to 
damage the hull nor the machinerj' too much. 
However it may be, the fire slackened a great 
deal. About 6 o'clock it had entirely ceased 
and the vessels disappeared little by little {n 
the fog which obscured the horizon. i\t 7:30 
the 'Congress' was on fire and blew u]> at 
midnight with a tremendous report. The Con- 
federates had succeeded, besides, in cutting out 
in the James River and taking to Norfolk the 
water tank 'Reindeer,' .which alone supplied 
the fort and vessels with water. 

"Everything seemed des])erate on the even- 
ing of the 8th and a general panic appeared 
to take possession of everyone. The terrible 
engine oif war, so' often announced, had at 
length appeared and in an hour at most had 
destroyed two of the strongest ships of the 
Union, silenced twO' powerful land batteries 
and seen the rest of the naval force, wliich the 
day before blockaded the two rivers, retreat 
before her. Several vessels changed their an- 
chorage and all held themselves in readiness 
to stand out to' sea at the first movement of 
the enemy. Everything was in confusion at 



Fortress ^lonroe; ferry boats, gunboats and 
tugboats were coming and going in all direc- 
ti(ins: dnnns and bugles beat and sounded 
with unusual spirit. Fortress Monroe and 
the batten.- of the Rip Raps exchanged night 
signals without intermission. In spite of the 
assistance of half a dozen steamers, the 'Min- 
nesita' could not succeed in getting afloat 
again and I learned that a council of war held 
on the subject even entertained for a moment 
the thought of burning her. Already seven or 
eight giuis had been thrown overboard and 
some others spiked, when alx>ut 8 140 the 
"Monitor (Ericsson battery) arrived, which 
was to save the '^linnesota' and the rest of the 
\essels at the anchorage. 

"The sending of this new auxiliary restored 
the shaken confidence. She immediately direct- 
ed her course toward the place where the frig- 
ate was stranded and anchored beside her. 
The Confederate vessels had taken their posi- 
tion under Sewell's Point, and the nig-ht passed 
without incident, each one awaiting viith im- 
patience the results of the trial of the morrow. 

"On the morning of the 9th, slight breeze 
from the east; ver}' fine weather; light fog. 

"At daylight, at the entrance of the Eliz- 
abeth River, the Confederate vessels were seen 
under steam, the 'Minnesota' still unmovable, 
and to the left of her, scarcely visible, a small 
black mass, surmounted by a curl of smoke. 

"At 8 o'clock the fog completelv dispersed. 
The T^Ierrimac' preceded by the 'Jamestown' 
and 'Yorktown,' stood for the Federal frigate. 
The ligliter vessels commenced the attack, but 
tlie little jjlack mass had put itself in motion 
and soon a cloud of smoke and the noise of 
two loud reports apprised the gunboats with 
whom they had to deal. They were then seen 
to abandon the attack and retire under the bat- 
teries of Sewell's (Point), leaving the 'Merri- 
mac' to defend alone the honor of their young 
flag. The '^linnesota,' occupied in efforts to 
get herself afloat, only tcwik part in the fight 
at long intenals, and the action resolved it- 
self into a veritable duel between two batteries. 
They engaged in the fight at first at long 

range, but tlie two enemies were not slow in 
coming together, each one striving to find the 
weak spot in the armor of her adversary. In 
this contest of naval tactics entirely in a nar- 
row channel of little depth, the 'Monitor,' 
whose draft is not half that of the 'Merrimac,' 
had an enormous advantage over the latter. 
Sure of her workings she could run at full 
speed, approach or retire, as she judged best, 
without fear of running aground. The Con- 
federate batterv\, on the contrary, could not 
move nor perform any e^^olutions except with 
the greatest precaution, in spite of the evi- 
dent great skill of her pilot. 

"At the commencement of the action she 
grounded and remained immovable for a cjuar- 
ter of an hour. However, the fight continued 
with an equal ardor. Several times in their 
evolutions the two adversaries fired upon each 
other at a distance of a few meters, and in 
spite of their powerful batteries the projectiles 
bounded off perfectly harmless, apparently. 

"Once the 'Merrimac' ran into the ']\Ioni- 
tor,' but whethsr her ram had been completely 
broken the day before or whether it was placed 
too high, she struck her enemy at the water- 
line and produced only a slight depression on 
the powerful armor plating which protected 
that part. Shortly after, the flagstaff" of the 
-Merrimac' was shot away by a ball and the 
tops in the Roads, as well as the ramparts of 
the fortress, saluted this accident with frantic 
hurrahs as a victory. But soon a sailor ap- 
peared on the gratings showing at the end of 
a staff the flag which had for an instant dis- 

"Two or three times the Ericsson battery 
drew near to the 'Minnesota' and stopped fir- 
ing to cool her guns. The frigate then fired a 
broadside at the 'Merrimac' which replied 
witli energ}-, and one of her Ixills struck the 
boiler of the tugboat 'Dragon,' w-hich moored 
alongside of the stranded vessel held herself 
in readiness to take her in tow. The boiler 
exploded, causing the 'Dragon' to sink, scald- 
ing and wounding several men. 

"At length, about 12:30, after four hours 



of fighting, the 'Merrimac' started for Sewell's 

"The 'Monitor' came up to the 'Minnesota' 
and a Httle while after all the Confederate flo- 
tilla returned to Norfolk. 

"During tlie following nieht the stranded 
frigate was gotten afloat, and at 2 a. m. of the 
1 0th, one of the gunboats which had taken part 
in the fight, the 'Whitehall,' took fire and ble-w 
up at two caible lengths from the 'Gassendi.' 
At da}-light the 'Minnesota' and tlie 'Monitor' 
anchored in the Roads. 

"The 'Merrimac' appeared to me to have 
received 50 or 60 shot. The funnel was 
literally riddled, and the flagstaff shot away. 
None of the shot had made a very serious im- 
pression. The first iron plate of the armor, 
sometimes the second, was broken, but no- 
where was the armor penetrated. Owing to 
the slope of the sides, even when the iron 
would break under the blow, there was no in- 
ternal bending of the entire structure, as near- 
ly always happened tO' the Ericsson battery. 
The unbroken plate remained almost intact. 
However, from the concussion caused by two 
shots, one at the edge, the other below the 
water-line, a piece of wood flew ofif inside, 
but the vessel did not make water in either 
case. The sloping arrangement of the sep- 
arate and not very wide plates, fastened on 
the inside by nut-bolts, allowed the 'Merrimac' 
to be promptly repaired. 

"During- the morning of the 9th a ball 
from the 'Monitor' parted her ('Merrimac's') 
chain a little below the hawse hole, the anchor 
dropped and the chain, violently driven in- 
ward, seriously wounded a man. A gun was 
broken at the muzzle. They, nevertheless, con- 
tinued to fire it without accident. 

"It is asserted that at the time of the ram- 
ming of the 'Cumberland' a part of her crew 
leaped on the roofing of the 'Merrimac,' but 
they slid off the incline plane and the greater 
part were drowned. It is doubtless tO' this 
incident that the disappearance of 200 men 
from that ship is due. 

"The 'Monitor' was hit Ijy 23 projectiles. 

Some shells were thrown Ijy the 'Minnesota" 
at the 'Merrimac,' and they produced no more 
effect than a blow of a hammer. The balls 
from the 'Merrimac,' especially those fired al- 
most muzzle to muzzle, produced some re- 
sults. Three cylindro-conical balls fired from 
the rifle guns made an indentation nearly four 
inches deep on the armor plating. Two of 
them made an equally deep indentation on the 
inside of the turret, and a man leaning against 
the inside walls at the place receiving the blow- 
was thrown forward and wounded. A third 
projectile struck one of the iron plates of the 
pilot-house and made such a depression that 
iron splinters were violently thrown off and 
blinded the captain, who at that moment was 
leaning his head against the plate. The other 
shots which reached the 'Monitor, and were 
for the most part round did not appear toi me 
to have produced a very great effect, those es- 
pecially which struck the sides perpendicular- 
ly : two, however, struck the side at the edge 
of the deck, lifting and tearing it. causing the 
iron plates to give way and breaking three of 
them. The others onlv produced insignificant 

The above minute detail of the great com- 
bat by a foreigner and disinterested witness 
should put at rest forever the oft repeated as- 
sertion that the 'Monitor' defeated the 'Vir- 
ginia.' The French ship was at anchor be- 
tween Sewell's Point and the Rip Raps ; and 
her commander had a good view of all that 
transpired, and his plain statements conclu- 
sively prove that the "Monitor" did not obtain 
a victory over the "Virginia." 

Surgeon D. B. Phillips of the "Virginia" 
reported the casualties of the 8th as follows : 

"Flag-officer F. Buchanan wounded in the 
left thigh, a minie-ball having passed entirely 
through the fleshy portion, grazing femoral 
artery and inflicting a serious wound. Lieut. 
R. D. Minor wounded in the left side. Mid- 
shipman Marmaduke, slight wound on the 

arm. Killed, Charles Dunbar, and Wal- 

deck. Wounded, William Burkes, seaman; 
John Capps, Company E, 41st Regiment; A. 



J. Dalton, Company E, 41st Regiment; Em- 
erson Ivas, seaman ; and John Leonard, sea- 
man." Tlie Federal loss in the battles of the 
8th and 9th of Marcii was 201 killed and 108 
wounded — the Confederate loss, 7 killed and 
\~ wounded. 

On the 8th and 9th of March, 1862, the 
Confederate States fleet successfully encoun- 
tered, defied and beat a force equal to 2,960 
men and 220 gmis as follows: 

"Congress," burned. 480 men. 50 guns. 
"Cumberland." sunk. 360 men. 22 guns. 
"Minnesota."' riddled. 550 men, 40 guns. ' 

"Roanoke." driven off, 550 men, 40 guns. 
"St. Lawrence." driven off, 550 men. 40 guns. 
Two or three gunboats, disabled, 120 men, 6 guns. 
"Monitor." iron-clad, disabled and driven off to 
shoal water, 150 men, 2 guns. 

Forts at Xewport Xews silenced, 200 men. 20 guns. 


Commodore Franklin Buchanan, of Maryland. 

Lieutenant Catesby .\p. R. Jones, of Virginia. 

Lieutenant Charles C. Simms, of Virginia. 

Lieutenant Robert D. Minor, of Virginia. 

Lieutenant Hunter Davidson, of Virginia. 

Lieutenant John Taylor Wood, of Louisiana. 

Lieutenant J. R. Eggleston. of Mississippi. 

Lieutenant Walter R. Butt, of Portsmouth, Vir- 

Midshipman R. C. Foiite, of Tennessee. 

Midshipman H. H. ^^armaduke, of Missouri. 

Midshipman H. B. Littlepage. of Virginia. 

Midshipman W. J. Craig, of Kentucky. 

Midshipman J. C. Long, of Tennessee. 

Midshipman L. W. Roots, of Virginia. 

Paymaster. James Semple. of Virginia. 

Surgeon. D. B. Phillips, of Virginia. 

Assistant Surgeon. .A. S. Garnett, of Virginia. 

Captain of Marines. R. T. Thorn, of Alabama. 

Chief Engineer, H. Ashton Ramsey, of Virginia. 

Assistant Engineer, John W. Tynan, of Virginia. 

Assistant Engineer. Louden Campbell, of Virginia. 

.Assistant Engineer, Benjamin Herring, of North 

.Assistant Engineer, E. V. White, of Georgia, now 
of Portsmouth. Va. 

Assistant Engineer. E. A. Jack, of Virginia. 

Assistant Eneincer. Robert Wright, of Virginia. 

Boatswain. Charles H. Hasker. 

Gunner. Hugh Lindsay. 

Clerk. Arthur Sinclair. Jr. 

Volunteer .Aid, Douglas F. Forrest. 

Captain. Thoma- Kevill, L'nited Artillery, 

Pilot, William Parrish. 

Pilot. William Clarke. 

Pilot, Hezekiah Williams. 

Pilot, George Wright. 
Sergeant Tabb, Signal Corps. 

Commodore Josiah Tatnall relieved Ad- 
miral Buchanan in command. On the lith 
of April he took the "Virginia" and steamed 
down to Hampton Roads, expecting to have a 
desperate encounter with the "Monitor." In 
vain did the "Virginia" endeavor to prevail on 
the "^lonitor" to leave her place of retreat, 
under the guns of Fortress Monroe. Proudly 
she sped to and fro through the water, chal- 
lenging her opixsnent to come forth and do 
battle, but the challenge was unheeded. Find- 
ing her efforts to coax the "Monitor" out un- 
availing, she opened at 4 o'clock, precisely, on 
a large gimlx>at and a small tug boat with a 
large gun on her, both of which kept lurking 
around the shore, close into Hampton Creek, 
immediately in the vicinity of the Chesapeake 
Female Seminary (now the Soldiers" Home) ; 
at these she fired three shots, which were 
promptly responded to by each of them. The 
first shot the "Virginia" fired, appeared, from 
the position the writer occupied, to strike the 
water and pass right over the tugboat, going- 
over on the land. The gun on board the small 
tugboat seemed to have a much longer range 
than that on lx)ard her larger consort, the shot 
from which fell short each time as far as the 
little tug boat's gun overshot the mark. 

This battle was carried on at long range, 
be it remembered, as these vessels kept their 
position in shallow water where they knew 
it was impossible for the "Virginia" to get at 
them. Several of the shot from the little tug 
boat passed away over the "Virginia," and 
came in verj- uncomfortable proximity to the 
English and French vessels lying in the rear. 
There were some nine or ten shots exchanged 
on this occasion, and the "Virginia," finding 
it impossible to get the "Monitor" out, retired 
to her anchorage near the city, 

• The prizes captured by the fleet were the 
brig "ilarcus," of Stockton, Xew Jersey: brig 
"Saboah," of Providence, and schooner "Cath- 
rine T, Dix," of-Accomac, The two brigs 
were loaded with hay — one of them having 



stalls for the accommodation of horses. The 
schooner was not loaded. 

The prisoners numbered 13 in all. — 11 
■white men and twO' negroes. The latter, as 
also three oi the white men, hailed from the 
Eastern Shore of Virginia. 

The fleet returned about 6 o'clock and 
came to anchor between Fort Norfolk and 
Cranev Island. Shortly after their return, two 
Federal steamers, which had been caught at 
Newport News, and which remained out of 
sight while the "Virginia" was in the Roads, 
embraced the opportunity afforded them b}- 
her withdrawal, to advantage, and proceeded 
at once to Old Point. 

One battery engaged the Federal fleet 
when they ])onibarded the Sewell's Point fort- 
ifications on the 8th of May. This attack was 
vigorously made by the "Monitor" and the 
whole squadron from Old Point. The shower 
of great shells thundered and exploded all 
around us and some of the guns at the main 
fortifications were silenced ; but as soon as the 
"Virginia" hove in sight our assailants imme- 
diately retreated under the guns of Fortress 
Monroe. Although thus twice challenged, the 
"Monitor" would never risk another fight 
with the "Virginia." 

On the loth of May the evacuation of Nor- 
folk county was ordered and all troops were 
withdrawn from the seaboard. The C. S. S. 
"Virginia" was destroyed by her own crew, 
who had made her the marvel of the world ; 
Lieutenant Jones says: 

"In order that the ship might be carried up 
the James River we commenced to lighten her, 
but ceased on the pilots saying they could not 
take her up. Her shield was then out of wa- 
ter; we were not m fighting condition. We 
therefore ran her ashore in the bight of Cra- 
ney Island, landed the crew and set the ves- 
sel on fire. The magazine exploded about 4 .-30 
on the morning of the nth of Mav. i86j. 

The crew arrived at Drewry"s Bluff the next 
day, and assisted in defeating the 'Monitor,' 
'Galena' and other vessels on the 15th of May. 
Commodore Tatnall was tried by court-mar- 
tial for destroying the 'Virginia,' and was 'hon- 
orably accpiitted' of all the charges. The 
Court stated the facts and their motives for 
acquitting him. Some of them are as follows : 
'That after the evacuation of Norfolk, West- 
over, on the James River, became the most 
suitable position for her tO' occupy ; that while 
in the act of lighting her, for the purpose of 
taking her up to that point, the pilots for the 
first time declared their inability to take her 
up. * * * That when lightened she was 
made vulnerable by the attacks of the enemy. 
* * >!= Yi^g only alternative, in the opin- 
ion of the Court, was to abandon and burn the 
ship then and there, Avhich, in the judgment 
of the Court, was deliberately and wisely 
done.' " 

There are side by side in the cemetery at- 
tached to the Naval Hospital at Portsmouth, 
the graves of two oi the subjects of Queen 
Victoria, both of whom were killed on the 
8th of March, 1862, — in the .same battle, but 
on opposite sides. The "Virginia," as she 
steamed down the harlxir on that day to en- 
gage the Federal fleet in Hampton Roads, was 
accompanied by several small gunboats, among 
which was the "Beaufort," and on the "Beau- 
fort'' was a gallant British sailor named Will- 
iam Robinson. He was a young man only 28 
years old and was conspicuous for his braver\-. 
He was killed by a musket ball fired from the 
shore batteries at Newsport News, and was 
buried here. By his side lies the remains of a 
young Irishman, Thomas Fay, who' was killed 
on the United States frigate "Cumberland" by 
a shot from the "Virginia," and thus these 
two men, subjects of the same nation, fighting 
as volunteers against each other, fell on the 
same dav and were biu'ied together. 



Norfolk Cointv indek Military Rule — Post-Bellum or Reconstruction Times — 
Patriotism of Confederate Soldiers , and Sailors — List of the Soldiers and 
Sailors of Norfolk County — Confederate • Flags and Great Seal — Sisters 
of Mercy. 

The evacuation of Norfolk county by the 
Confederates was the occasion of great dis- 
tress to the people and their worst fears of 
military rule l)y the invaders were fully real- 
ized. It is a dark and dreadful chapter in the 
history of our county. The infamous tyranny 
of the Federal commanders exceeded that of 
Dunmore's in the Revolutionary era. Old 
men, women and children were subjected to 
even,' conceivable indignity from both white 
and black soldiers, ^^'here the out-posts were 
stationed in the countn,-, negro soldiers paced 
in front of the farm houses and sometimes at 
the dead of night they would fire musket balls 
through the window glass to terrify the de- 
fenseless women and children. Upon flimsy 
pretexts old men were thrown into prison, in- 
carcerated in jails or the casemates at Fortress 
Monroe: savages of war were turned loose to 
tyrannize over the people, and destroy their 
property. David M. Wright, a prominent 
physician and lesi^ected citizen of Norfolk, 
with proud spirit, resenting an insult by an in- 
solent officer of a negro company, shot him 
down in hot blood, and was executed under 
Butler's rule. 

A Confederate flag was stretched across 

the narrow gateway to the ferry to force the 
people to trample upon it — a contemptible 
scheme to humiliate the inhabitants. A young 
lady, not to be forced to degrade her own flag, 
picked it up. concealed it under her cloak and 
disap|)eared in the crowd. .\ file of soldiers 
was quickly called to reco\er the banner, but 
could never find the dashing girl who rescued 
the Southern Cross. 

Churches were seized, converted into hos- 
pitals, barracks, and stables, and some entirely 
destroyed. Ten or 12 public school houses 
were torn down and the material used for 

The noble and devout rector of Trinity P. 
E. Church, Portsmouth, who ministered to the 
spiritual needs of his flock for 50 years — hon- 
ored, respected, loved by them and the good 
citizens of all denominations, was thrown into 
prison and humiliated as a common felon be- 
cause he omitted from jjrayers the name of the 
murdering his kinsmen 

whose minions were insulting and 

Hear the Orders ! 

He.xdolwrters, Xorfolk and Portsmouth. 
XoRFOLK. V.\., Feb. 25, 1864. 
IV'. It having been reported to the General com- 



manding that J. H. Wingfield, of Portsmouth, is an 
avowed secessionist and that he takes every oppor- 
tunity to disseminate his traitorous dogmas much to 
the annoyance of his loyal neighhors. and that on one 
occasion at a place of worship, while the prayer for 
the President of the United States was being read, his 
conduct was such as to annoy and disgust the loyal 
portion of the congregation, and believing a wholesome 
example is necessary for the benefit of Mr. Wingfield 
in particular, and the class in this community he rep- 
resents in general, men of education and ability, who 
use the talents God has given them for the purpose of 
stirring up strife against the government of the United 
States, it is therefore ordered that the Provost Marshal 
arrest Mr. J. H. Wingfield and that he be turned over 
to Colonel Sawtelle, to work for three (3) months 
cleaning the streets of Norfolk and Portsmouth, thus 
employing his time for the benefit of that government 
he has abused, and in a small way atone for his dis- 
loyalty and treason. 

By command of 

Brig.-Gen. E. a. Wild, 
George H. Johnston, 

Capt. and A. A. G. 

He.\dquarters i8th Army Corps, 


Fortress Monroe, March i, 1864. 
The remainder of the sentence imposed by Brig.- 
Gen. Wild upon the Rev. Mr. Wingfield is remitted. 
He will be sent to Capt. Cassel's at Fortress Monroe 
for custody. 

His punishment is remitted not for respect for the 
man, or for his acts, or because it is unjust, but because 
its nature may be supposed to reflect upon the Christian 
Church, which by his connection with it has been al- 
ready too much disgraced. 

By command of 

Maj.-Gen. Butler, 
A. F. Puffer, 

Capt. A. D. C. 

The names oi Butler and Dnnniore are im- 
perishable insignias of infamy to the people of 
Norfo-lk Cotmtv. 


The "Red Rock" days came upon the peo- 
ple of Norfolk County after Appomattox. 

The tyranny of Butler, Viele and Wild, 
was reinforced by the swagger of the carpet- 
baggers and the 1x)asts of the insolent negroes. 

Confederate soldiers bearing the honora- 
ble parole of Gen. U. S. Grant were arrested 
and dragged before the provost miarshal to 
have the buttons cut from their war-worn 
uniforms in the presence of gaping, motley 

crowds of negroes and whites. No despot's 
sceptre ever struck more crushing humiliation 
to a brave and proud people than these uni- 
formed cormorants in the name of Republican 
government. They used the camp followers 
to gather the "spoons" and rifle graves for 
their pockets. The new Constitution was the 
nest oi fraud, which laid the burdens of taxa- 
tion to enrich the coffers of carpet-baggers, 
who hood-winked their negro allies with the 
cry of "40 acres and a mule" from the conhs- 
cated property. Intelligence, worth and virtue 
were silenced under the hideous rule of ignor- 
ance and vice. Plunder under the forms of 
law was the aim of the ravenous schemers, 
who cried aloud in the name of loyalty to hide 
their booty. 

The most contemptible of all the crimes in 
these unhallowed days was the shackling of 
our captive chieftain Jefferson Davis, and the 
indignation in every Southern home is aptly 
expressed in the editorial of the Norfolk Day 
Book of Tuesday evening, June 19, 1868 : 
"No man, except with a dead soul, like that 
of the Tribune, can read the account of the 
shackling of Jefferson Davis, without feel- 
ing his bosom heave with emotion and indig- 
nation. The monstrosity of the order was well 
calculated to astound the political \-ictim, the 
embodiment of the lost cause, and make him 
grasp for breath, and clutch his throat with 
the bony fingers of his right hand, his wasted 
figure towering to its full height, swelling with 
indignation and shrinking, not in terror, as is 
said, l_)ut in the indignation of his courageous 
manhood, from the sight of the rattling shack- 
les. Properly did he characterize the orders 
when, losing temporary control of his feelings, 
he shouted, — 'They are orders for a jailor — 
a hangman — which no soldier wearing a sword 
should accept. I tell you the world will ring 
with this disgrace. The war is over, the 
Siiuth is conquered. I have no longer any 
countrv but America, and it is for the honor 
of America, as for my own honor and life, 
that I plead against this degradation. Kill 
me! Kill me!' he cried passionately, throwing 



his arms wide open, and exposiiig" his heart, 
"rather than indict on me, and mv people, 
tlirongli me. tliis insnU. worse than death.' 

"He resisted witli all his strength, it is re- 
ported, the effort of the smith to place the 
shackles on his feet, nntil at last overcome 
they were fastened on. When the order was 
accomplished, Mr. Davis lay for a moment as 
in a stnpor. Then slowly raising- himself, 
and tnrning round, he dropped his shackled 
feet to the floor. The harsh clank of the strik- 
ing chain .seems to have recalled him to a 
sense of his situation, and dropping his face 
into his hands, l.e hurst into a passionate flood 
of sohhing. a manly outburst of feeling, sway- 
ing to and fro, and muttering at brief intervals 
'Oh. the shame, the shame!' And yet there are 
ghouls and ravens in the garb of humanity, 
who will chuckle over this description, either 
as a sensational ston.-, or, if true, justify the 
unnecessary outrage, and the unjust and in- 
human order. 

"The South, however, will view the state- 
ment by which the iron entered into the soul of 
the emljodiment of her cause, as a shackling 
of herself, which was the foreshadowing of 
that ]X)litical shackling, which the radical 
Thugs in Congress are now seeking to rivet 
upon her limbs, led on by the bloodthirsty 
men that control the legislation of the coun- 
try. The clank of those fetters will resound 
through the future for centuries to come, and 
the biting irons will take their place I)eside 
those which once bound the limbs of the great 

Another episode which amused the ire of 
our people was the conduct of conquering he- 
roes (?) in regard to the memorial window in 
Trinity P. E. church. Portsmouth. \'irginia. 

The following extracts from letters written 
here in t868 show the condition of the minds 
of Southerners on the subject. 

From a letter dated April 14. i8r>S. — 

* * * Sunday wc were all much surpriscrl on going 

to church to see a magnificent memorial window in the 

middle south window. It represents Virginia weeping 

for her sons. .\ female figure is leaning on a monu- 


mcnt. and inscrihed on the monument: "To the mem- 
ory of James G. Hodges,, Bristoe B. Gayle. .\lc.\ander 
B.' Butt. Frank N. .\rmistcad. William H. Cocke. Will-, 
iam II. Bingley, St. Julien Wilson. Stephen A. Cowley, 
-V. Dulaney Forrest, who died during the years 1861 
and 1865 in defense of their native State, Virginia, 
against the invasion by the U. S. forces." 

On the upper part of the window is the face of an 
angel, with outstretched wings, and it is the most 
beautiful thing I ever saw. The Yankee pew-holders 
took offense at the word iiirasion, I suppose, and yes- 
terday your father received the following communi- 
cations, which I think you would like to see. You 
will see that no reason is given for their withdrawal. 
One of the "dissatisfied." in a conversation with your 
father, expressed the hone that there will be some alter- 
ation made in the window so that the Navy Yard 
people may return. But I reckon they will wait a long 
time for that. Not one member of the whole congre- 
gation will ever give their consent to have one word 
erased — not if the whole Yankee nation would come 
to see us. .Ml this took place yesterday. This morn- 
ing Mr. T. E. rented one of the pews vacated by "Their 
Honors." Captain H. thinks he will take another, and 
I reckon that Mr. N. will take one. Mr. G. says he 
will increase his pew-rent too per cent. We do not 
know by whom the window was presented to the 
church. We at first thought it was our old pastor, but 
we hear now that he did not. The donor wishes his 
or her name to be kept secret. Caotain Rodgers says 
in his letter: "I regret very much to leave Trinity 
Church, but as I cannot with propriety continue to be- 
a member of its congregation. I beg leave to withdraw 
' from it and give up my pew." H. Newell, chief engi- 
I neer. wrote: "Circimistances compel nic to withdraw 
[ from the congregation of Trinitv Church. You will' 
please consider my pew vacated." 

Commander Pattison writes: "I regret the neces- 
sity that compels me to relinquish my pew in Trinity 
Church from this date." Capt. George H. Cooper says: 
"Owin.g to circum-tances T respcctfullv resign the pew 
taken by me in Trinity Church." He only rented it 
last Saturday. Some are afraid that the military are- 
carrying such a hand that there will be an order 
sent to have the window taken out. but I reckon they 
will have to do it themselves, for not one of us woulft 
lend a hand. 

From a letter dated April 30. t868. 

Since I last wrote you we have been in a real 
stew, first on account of the memorial window, which 
it was thought the military would order to be removed. 
Yesterday I heard that they thought it was a matter 
with which they had no right lo interfere, and there- 
fore no notice would be taken of it. To-day we learn 
that an order had been issued for its removal, but that 
the officers of the Navy Yard had protested against it 
and the order had been countermanded. 

It is no more than they should have done, as thev 
were the ones to kick up such a fuss alwut it. I shall 
be much stirnrised if the matter remains quiet. * * ♦ 

Two of the officers took their pews again and the 



other officers also, as they heard that a cover had been 
placed over the inscription, which was really the case. 
Our dear old pastor, wdio presented the window to the 
church, was so disturbed to think that he had given 
offense, when his only object was to give a pleasant 
surprise, that he had a piece of black cloth placed over 
the inscription. That, again, caused the "Rebel" blood 
to rise and a young Confederate soldier removed the 
cloth, for which ever3'one condemns him, as it was 
placed there by the donor, and the Confederate was 
not a resident of this place and had no right to med- 
dle with it at all. 

Your father asked Captain Cooper, when he told 
him that they had heard that the inscription had been 
covered, if they took their pews with the knowledge 
that the cloth had been taken off. He said they were 
aware of that. But the next day he returned to say 
that he and Lieutenant Hammersly would retain their 
pews, but the other officers declined taking theirs. 
Citizens of the city have come in and rented the 
vacated pews. 

From a letter dated May i6. 1868. 

Since I wrote you last the Yankees have com- 
pelled us to take out of our church our beautiful 
memorial window. They actually (so we hear from 
various sources, and Father Plnnkett says he read the 
order at the Navy Yard ) received an order from Wash- 
ington from the Secretary of the Navy to close the 
Navy Yard gates if the window was not removed be- 
fore Saturday night. Of course . the throwing of a 
thousand or more men out of emplovment was cal- 
culated to bring on a horrible state of things, and fears 
were entertained that the church would be torn down. 
That would have roused the Southerners, who as it is 
are much excited, and our dear old pastor concluded 
that the best way to preserve the peace would be to 
take the window out. but we all hope that the time is 
not far distant when it can be put back again. * * * 
We have learned through Father Plunkett that an 
appropriation had been made by the "Best Govern- 
ment in the World" for the repairs of the Hospital 
building and the sea-wall, but afterward orders had 
been received to suspend the work until it was known 
what would be done with the window. 
Headquarters Sub. District of Norfolk and Ports- 

Norfolk. Va., .\nril 18. 1868. 
To the Vestrymen of Trinity Church. Portsmouth. Vir- 

Gentlemen : Information having reached these 
headquarters that a memorial window has been placed 
in your church, commemorative of the dead of your 
church "who fell during the late rebellion,'' in lan- 
guage which has given offense to the Union sentiment 
of some of the attendants of the church, causing some 
U. S. officers to relinquish their pews and withdraw 
from the church, the Major Commanding desires you 
to furnish him w'ith an exact copy of the inscription on 
the above window for his information. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

E. W. Stone, 
Lieut, and A. A. G. 

All exact copy was ordered to be furnished 
Ijy the register, also a copy of the following 
resolution : 

Resolved. That the vestry of the church disclaim 
any intention in permitting the erection of the inemorial 
window lately placed therein to give offense to any per- 
son or persons attending upon the services of the 

It seems from the above that the window 
was removed from the church in May, 1868, 
and was replaced in September, 1870, with the 
inscription changed to read as follows : 

Given through respect for the Patriotism of the 
Dead and from sympathy with their bereaved friends 
by their old pastor on Easter Sunday, 186S. 

And so the beautiful memorial window re- 
mains to-day and the truth of the unholy in- 
rasioii of Virginia by U. S. forces will be re- 
membered .as long as her mountains hold to 
their foundations or her rivers empty into the 
sea — 

Take down your memorial window, 

Tenderly take it away. 
Lay it aside as a relic; 

In its place put another of grey. 

In lieu of the gorgeous colors 

Which glowed in the sun of May, 

Let a cold light fall on the chancel. 
Through a window of modest grey. 

Let it have no word of inscription; 

Never a hint of the fray ! 
Let it cast into the church a twilight. 

Tender and soft and grey. 

Then will the simple tribute 

Even the ruthless stay, 
.\nd make them feel all the glory 
Of the soldiers who fell in grey. 

— James Barron Hope. 
To the congregation of Trinity Church. Portsmouth, 

On the i6th day of March, i86g, M'aj. 
Gen. George Stoneman, commanding the First 
Military District, Virginia, removed all of the 
old magistrates elected by the white people of 
Norfolk County and appointed men who could 
subscrilje to the iron-clad oatli in their places. 
The presiding justice, W. H. C. Lovitt, not 



having been reinoved with his colleagues, re- 
signed, and F. W. Lemosey was selected under 
the new regime of reconstruction. Tlie mili- 
tary commander also remcned other countv 
officers at the same time. Maj. Samuel Etlier- 
idge. sheriff, was removed and Thomas W. 
^lahew appointed in his place. Griffin F. Ed- 
wards, elected clerk of the County Court al- 
most unanimously by the white voters, was 
turned out by military edict and J. P. Hodges 
appointed in his place. Capt. A\'. Scott Sykes, 
county surveyor, was also removed by the 
same power and Benjamin B. Chandler ap- 
pointed in his place. The term of Capt. \\ O. 
Cassell. the attorney for the Commonwealth. 
expired on the ist of January, 1869, and on 
the 19th a military edict named J. H. Reming- 
ton of New York to fill the office — and soon 
followed the enfranchisement of the negroes. 
Even now some of the evils of the reconstruc- 
tion period still fester in the bod}- politic; but 
the struggle of the Anglo-Saxon will go on 
until every vestige of negro rule will be blotted 

These reconstruction times were bitter days 
to those in whose bosoms throbbed Southern 
hearts. The yoke was heavy and strong; but 
it chastened the soul and made our people 
strive for new fortunes on industrial lines. 
The Confederate soldiers took the lead in agri- 
cultural and commercial pursuits ; and the 
great development in the fields of Norfolk 
County and the sulendid comijiercial growth 
of her cities are testimonials of Anglo-Saxon 
perseverance and power. 

Norfolk County, including its two cities, 
sent the flower of its manhood to the army of 
the Confederate States; few except the old 
men and boys remained at home. Its artillerv 
and cavaln*- companies made high marks in 
the game of war. Its sailors were as brave 
as Nelson's. Its infantry was unexcelled in 
the corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
The sons of Norfolk County shared the dan- 
gers of even,- war from the colonial wars to 
the Spanish- American War; but none w-ith 
the patriotic unanimitv and enthusiasm as the 

Confederate War. The Nezi' York Sun argu- 
ing against the increase of the regular army 
and comparing the material of the contending 
armies said "The Confederate rank and file 
were composed wholly of raw men, and in the 
first two years of the war, volunteers. Yet 
what an infantry they were ! Those of us who 
saw them charge in line of battle never ap- 
proach a Confederate cemetery without taking 
off our hats in homage to the devoted braves 
who ever walked straight into the jaws of 
death without flinching." The Confederate 
])rivate infantryman is the tyjiical hero of the 
South. The Old South has grand memories 
and the New South has splendid anticipations. 
The spirit which moved the Old leads the New 

It is that spirit which seeks truth through 
roughest paths and heeds no danger in its pur- 
suit. It is that spirit which warmed the hearts 
and steeled the nerves to bear the burdens of 
both the Old and the New South, ^ly ideal 
hero embraced it with superb unselfishness. 

Some would say he should be Robert E. 
Lee, whose great heart and lofty leadership 
enchained the everlasting affection of the 

Some would sa}' he should l^e "Stonewall'' 
Jackson, whose magic power so often awakened 
the wonder of the world. 

Some would say he should be Jefferson 
Davis, whose polished manhood lield with un- 
yielding nerve the pearl of Southern pride. 

Some would say he was among the hosts of 
cavalrymen and artillerxmen, who flashed their 
swords and pulled their lanyards in battles 
often won. 

Yes ! These are the jewels of the South, 

and there are honors and memories for them ; 

but I would take away the stars and trimiuings 

and titles, for there was charm and ins])iration 

in theiTi. 

I would eliminate, too. the higher grades of 

The purest spirit, the deepest love, the 
greatest hero, the noblest manhood, was in the 
infantry private of the South. 



He was reared when the "irrepressible con- 
flict" quickened the pulse nif the jieople. He 
was inspired hy the intellectual gladiators of 
the South. 

He gloried in the heroism of his ancestors, 
■who had won the Republic from England. He 
shouldered the burdens of his convictions, he 
grasped his musket for his cause, he inhaled the 
smoke of battle, be felt the sting of the bullet, 
he bled from shot and shell. 

He dared to die when he could foresee his 
unurned ashes scattered on the soil of his 

Where is loftier heroism? 

\Miere is nobler patriotism? 

\Miere is truer manhood? 

Where is grander chivalry ? 

Where is a more ideal hero? 

For principles, he bore the heaviest cross. 

For principles, lie courted an unknown 

He touched elbows in the unwavering" line 
of charge. 

He gained victory with the point of the 

He dauntlesslv rushed over earthworks. 

He stood like a "stone wall" tin the tield. 

He was strongest in battle. 

He was gentlest in victory. 

He was most powerful in the face of 

He was tenderest to^ the captured. 

His pride was grand, his ])raverv exalted, 
his heroism majestic ! 

His marvelmis simplicity of conduct was 
consonant with bis beautv of heart ! 

His life in camp was characterized bv 
praiseworthy endurance. 

He met his pri\-ations with the calmness of 
a philosopher. 

He enjoyed the pastimes of bis tent witii 
the guilelessness of a child. 

He doted on his faded uniform and jeered 
at the "slick" silk hat, even on the head of a 
Confederate Congressman. 

When the first year of his ser\-ice had 
passed, be was bright with hope. 

Fort Sumter had fallen and ]\Ianassas had 
em1:)lazoncd his ba}'onet with glory! 

The second year passed, with 564 battles 
and engagements, including Shiloh, the Seven 
Days' battle, which made the dark waters of 
the Chickahominv run red. Second Manassas 
and Fredericksburg, and his prowess was 
proved to the civilized world. 

The third year passed, with 627 battles and 

It saw his pride at the highest and his hoi^e 
brightest when, fresh from the victories of 
Chancellorsville, be invaded the soil of Penn- 

Alas ! for human hopes ! 

Gettysburg turned backward his footsteps 
and started anxiety in his breast. 

How long coidd these bloody years last ? 

Surely, not longer than seven, as his an- 
cestors' revolution had cost ! 

Then the fourth year passed, with 779 bat- 
tles and engagements. 

His anxiety was (i\-er. 

He saw the ine\'itable end. 

Hope of success was gone. 

It was only a question of the da}'s be might 
be spared before the bullet pierced his heart. 

He saw the end before the statesmen in the 
Capital at Richmond even surmised it. He 
knew iix-erwbelming numbers would crush out 
the soldiery of the South. 

His comrades were falling, and no recruits 
came to fill their places. 

He saw the end and felt it in the summer of 
1864, but his allegiance to the ami}-, bis duty 
to himself and his family bade him go almost 
daily to a hopeless slaughter, and often he 
marched to battle for his personal honor, with- 
out the slightest hope for his cotuitry's inde- 

Can you imagine heroism more sublime 
than the private infantryman's who held the 
front lines o-f the Confederacv during the last 
half G'i 1864. and the winter and spring of 

Aroimd Petersburg, along the disastrous 
line iif retreat to .\pp(imattox, and even there. 



he sliiHildered liis musket and yielded readv 
oljedience to tlie order for a cliarj^e, until his 
matchless commander said his duty to his coun- 
try had been "faithfully performed." and fur- 
ther resistance would \ie a useless sacrifice. 

He had enlisted as a i)ri\ate. he fought as a 
jjrivate. and then he returned to pri\ate life to 
battle for bread. 

His country was lost, but a dauntless spirit 
directed him in the evolution to another citizen- 
ship. He g;uidcd the plow, wielded the axe, 
and did whatever his hand found to do. with 
the same unassuming fortitude which marked 
his career in the armw 

He inspired courage in the voung. He ga\-e 
life to the weak, and grappled the new order 
of things with masterly mind. 

Napoleon said: "True heroism consists in 
]x\ng superior to the ills of life in whatever 
shape they may challenge him to combat." 

The infantryman not only felt as the illus- 
trious warrior when he uttered this sublime 
sentiment, but he has demonstrated its truth 
by rising superior to all the evils of disaster, 
imbuing his associates with that resolute en- 
durance which made him the breakwater of 
the Confederacy, and has made the bone and 
sinew of progress and prosperity of the New- 

As bis is the glory of the ]>ast, so his is the 
strength of the present. Whenever you find 
him, whether labi ;ring on your streets, building 
your ships ov tilling your fields, pause and lift 
your hat. for the Confederate ])rivate infantry- 
man is the typical hero of the South. 

He is entitled to the al)solute respect of the 
grandest in the land. Already many stately 
granite shafts commemorate our hero leaders, 
but shall there not l)e one higher by an hundred- 
fold and a thousand times more beautiful in 
design than anv of these, dedicated to the in- 
fantry privates of the South ? 

Aye! I wish a shaft of burnished gold 
could lift its head from \'irginia"s \alley. in 
which sleep the remains of Lee and Jackson, 
in memory of the private infantrymen rif the 
Confederacv, emblazoning their glorv to com- 

ing generations, for their heroism is the grand- 
est type of all the thousand bloody fields which 
have heralded Southern valor. 

The private infantrymen were lowest in 
rank, yet highest in their loyalty to the finest 
sense of honor the human mind can conceive — 
grandest in humility, greatest in sincerity, pur- 
est in purpose; and never can temples of fame 
enshrine the memory of knightlier souls! The 
names of such heroes should be handed down 
to posterity. 

The organizations and rosters of Norfolk 
County's .soldiers are given in the history of 
Norfolk County. 1861-65, by John \\'. H. 
Porter of Portsmouth, inum which for the 
most part is compiled the following alphalietical 
list of the gallant men embodied for the blood- 
iest war in which .\mericans were ever en- 
gaged. Many names not given in this list may 
be found in tlie roll of comrades of the several 
Camps of Confederate Veterans, in the succeed- 
ing cliapter. 


.^shburv, Jolin — Private in Co. C, 6tli Va. Inf. 

.-Vbdell. Thomas F.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

All-tin. Martin — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

.-M)>olem. Thomas — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

.\danis. Thomas S. — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 

.•\rcher. Robert L.^Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Det. div. prov. guard. 

.Arrington. Peter — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Prom, sergt.-maj. 

.-\ndcr!i(in, Jolin T. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 

.•\bdell. William H.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 

.•\tkins(in. Junius A. — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 

.■Anderson, Charles — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Trans, to Huger's Battery, 1862. 

.\bdcll. Jaines — Private in Norfolk Light .-\rt. Blues. 

.\ddison, James — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

.Anderson. Charles \V. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 
Blues. . 

.Ashton. William — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 

.Allen. George J. — 4th Corporal United .Art. 

.Applewhite. A. — Private in United Art. 

.AJbr-ght. Charles W. — Private in United .Art. 

.Abdell. Joseph — Private in Young's Harbor Guard-.Art. 

.Allen. William A. — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

-Aydlott, Thomas — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Ashly, William F. — 3d corporal Co. F, i6th Va. Czr- 



Ansel. John H. — Private in Co. F, i6tli Va. Cav. 
Armistead, B. .1. — Sergeant in Co. I. 13th Va. Cav. 
Armstrong, James E. — Sergeant in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Aydlott. Jolm — Private in Co. I. 38th Va Inf. Prom. 

corns, sergt. 
Allen. John R.— Private in Co. I. ,38th \'a. Inf. 
Ansel. .Andrew J. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Asbold. William— Private in Co. B, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Aydelott. Jacob — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Accinelly. B. J. — Ord. sergeant in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ashton. Gerdon C. — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ashby. William — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Avdeiott, Henry C. — Private in Co. H. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Adkins. G. B.— Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Armistead. F. W. — ist lieutenant in Co. I. 6lst Va. 

Inf. Not re-elected: joined 13th Va. Cav. 
Abfolem. Leonard — Private in Co. K, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Archer. John W. — Private in 3d Va. Inf. 
Anderson. Charles — Private in Co. K. 3d Va. Inf. 
Ashton. Edear — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Ashton, J, V. B.— Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Atkinson. George K. — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Atkinson. George W. — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Anderson. John — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Ash, Theophilus F. — Corporal in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Anderton. William T. — Private in Co. G. Qth Va. Inf. 
Adams. Wilhani D. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Adams. Charles S. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Averett. Thomas H. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Allie. Heine— Private in Co. H. 7th S. C. Regt. 


Bailey. Thomas A. — Private in Co. E. 32d Va. Inf. 
Brown, John W.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Bullock. William— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Boggs. William — Private in Co. I, .?8th Va. Inf. 
Bush. William— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Blunt. Thomas— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Butt. Henry James — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Bright. George W. — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Baxter. Thomas F. — ist lieutenant in Co. B. 6ist Va. 

Inf. Prom. capt. 
Baxter. Benjamin F. — ist sergeant in Co. B. 6ist Va. 

Barnard, Willoughby B. — 4th sergeant in Co. B. 6ist 

Va. Inf. Prom, ist .sergt. 
Brown. Ivy C. — Corporal in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. Prom. 

1st sergt. 
Ballance. Stephen R. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ballance. Stephen R.. Tr. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. 

Bowden. John .\. — Private in Co. R. 6lst.Va. Inf. 
Beaslev. Toachim — Corporal in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Bunnel. Kenneth — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ballentine. James >r — Private in Co. B. '^i^t Va. Inf. 
Bray. Thomas .A.— Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Bourke. Thomas — Private in Co. B. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Banks, William— Private in Co. P. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Banks, James M.— Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Beals. Benjamin J. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Bell. Enoch F.— Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Byrum, William F.— Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Berry. Martin — Private in Co. C. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Boushell, M. A. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Bogart. John H. — ist sergeant in Co. C, 6lst Va. Iif. 
Bradley. Reuben — Private in Co. C. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Butt. John— Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Burford. Samuel — Private in Co. C, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Byrum, James C. — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Byrum, Gideon F. — Private in Co. C, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Butt, A. B.— 3d lieutenant in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Butt, Robert P.— Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Barrett. Joseph E. — Private in Co. D, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Butt, Wesley G— Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Barber. George W. — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
I Ballance. Martin — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Butt, .Andrew — Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Butt. Thomas — Private in Co. E, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Brinkley. William D.— Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Brittingham, Francis O. — Private in Co. H. 61 st Va. 

Ballantine. John — Private in Co. H. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Berryman, Edward F. — Private in Co. H, 61 st Va. Inf. 

Prom, sergt. 
Bouden. William — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Brummell, Richard — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Barecroft. Edward — Private in Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Beal, John — Private in Co. I. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Balls, John R.— Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Burfoot, Jesse — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Burton, George — Private in Co. K, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Bateman, Martin — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Bradley. Charles M.— Private in Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Bailey. Charles L. — Private in Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Bean, Frederick — Private in Co. K. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Bradley. James — Corporal in Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Biddle. Phillip W.— Captain in Co. F, 41 st Va. Inf. 
Butt, Frederick — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Butt, Henry— Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Butt. Francis — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Barrett. William S. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Iiif. 
Banks, Edwin — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Butler, James N. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Bailey. William H. (i)— Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Bailey. William H. (2)— Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Ballentine. Thomas R. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Buck, David — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Butt. Alexander B.— Adjutant in 41st Va. Inf. 
Barnes. Edward — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Brown. Bartlett— Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Bateman. Raynor— Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Benton. Joseph J. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Britton. James J. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Bright. Thomas J. — Private in Co. A. 3d \'a. Inf. 
Brownley. Daniel T. — 4th sergeant in Co. B. 3d \'a. Inf. 

Prom. 1st sergt. 
Borum, Edward C— Sergeant in Co. B. 3d \'a. Inf. 
Borum, John — Private in Co. B. 3d Va'. Inf. 
Bush. Joseph M.— Private in Co. B. 3d \a. Inf. 
Bowen. Hine — Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Broughton. Joseph— Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Butler. John— Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Butters. Francis H.— Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Bright. .Tohn T.— Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Butler, Thomas — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 



Bloxon. William H. — Sergeant in Co. TI. .id Va. Tnf. 

Prom. oril. .sergt. 
nrown. William — Musician in Co. H. .^d Va. Inf. 
Ham-It, Cieorgc — Private in Co. H. 3d V'a. Inf. 
Barrett. Solomon H. — Private in Co. H. .^d Va. Inf. 
Hceks. William H.^Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Boswick. William — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Barroni, Osceola — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Bland. Thomas — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Bassett. William Henry — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Bright, Johnathan — Private in Co. D, Qth Va. Inf. 
Bright. John W.— Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Grimes" Battery. 
Brent. John — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Brown. James — Drummer in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Boutwcll Richard — Private in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Grimes' Battery. 
Bateman. Rohert — Private in Co. D, oth Va. Int. 
Byrd. Daniel — Private in Co. D. oth Va. Inf. 
Brounley. .A. M. — Private in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Beaton. John K. — First sergeant in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Brittingham, William H. — Corporal in Co. G. 9th Va. 

Brownley. William K. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Boyd, Henry C. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Buxton. John T. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Berrv. George T.— Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to navv 1863. 
Bennett, William 'B.— Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Barrett. W. H.— Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Burton. Rohert P.— Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Brownley. Charles — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Bailey. James M. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Bailey. Ephraim — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Boushell. John— Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. Prom. 

Capt. Naval Bat. 
Bidgood. Willis — Corporal in Co. I. gth \\-i. Inf. 
Barnes. Belson — Corporal in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Barnes. George— Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Bidgood, Nathaniel— Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. Fur. 

snhst. 1862. 
Bidgood. J. H.— Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Bidgood. Tully W.— Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Bunting. William H.— Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to navy 1862. 
Bunting. Lloyd— Private in Co. I. gth \'a. Tnf. Trans. 

to Co. C. 13th Va. Cav. 
Bunting. Francis H.— Private in Co. I, gth Va. Tnf. 
Bunting. Solomon — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Burly, William — Private in Co. T, gth Va. Inf. 
Bushy. William .■\.— Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Bntler, Rohert M.— Third lieutenant in Co. K gth Va. 

Bilisoly, L. .Augustus — First lieutenant in Co. K. gth 

Va. Inf. 
Bilisoly, A. L.— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. From. 

1st lieut. 
Benson. F. R. — Private in Co. K. gth \'a. Inf. Trans. 

Signal Corps 1862. 
Bilisoly. .Adolphus — Private in Co. K. gth Va, Inf. 

Prom, sergt. 
Bilisoly, U. B— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Brown, James W. — Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans. Norfolk L. A. Blues 1862. 
nilisoly. R. E.— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Brown, Joe Sam. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Trans. Norfolk L. A. Blues 1862. 
Brooks, E. S.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Brooks, Tudor F. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Trans. Com. Dept. Mahone's Brig. 
Bennett. John C. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Barnes. George W. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Beeks, G. W.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Butt, Josiah— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Bennett. William M,— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Blamire, E. T. — Captain of Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. Not re- 
elected 1862. 

Barrand. Thomas — Captain of Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 

Bayton. William H. — First sergeant of Co. C, l6th Va. 

Bain, R. T. K.— Corporal of Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. Fur. 
suhstitute 1862. 

Brittingham. James E. — Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. 

Brownley. Joseph F. — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 

Brown, Eugene H.. — Corporal of Co. C. i6th \"a. Inf. 
Ap. engr. in navy. 

Butt. Wilson A.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Buff. August— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. Ap. hos- 
pital steward. 

Brotherton. William E. — Second sergeant of Co. A. 6th 
Va. Inf. 

Bailey. \\'illiani T. — First corporal of Co. A. 6ih Va. 
Inf. Prom, first sergt. 

Baker. Isaiah G. — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Int. 

Banks. William T.— Private in Co. A, 6th \'a. Inf. 
Prom, sergt. 

Beasley, James W.— Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 

Bowman. .Ahraham — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 

Butt, John J.— Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Bell, Joseph S.— Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 

Balsom. .Arthur J. — 4th corporal in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 

Bell. Washington— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 

Bateman. .Arthur — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 

Brown. Edward — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 

Bland, Samuel — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 

Bourk. John— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 

Bclolc. John W.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Tnf. 

Brady. James E. — ist corporal in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 

Benson. Chris. C. — 2d corporal in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

Blunt, Stephen — 4th corporal in Co. D, 6th \'a. Inf. 

Bradley. Edward H,— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 

Ballentine. Thomas — Private in Co. D. 6tli Va. Inf. 

Ballance. John— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 

Burgess. Miles — Private in Co. D. 6lh Va. Inf. 

Butt. L. p. — 4th corporal in Co. G. 6th Va. Tnf 
hospt. steward, 1862. 

Biggs. William G. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va 

Bell Douglas— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
l8tli Battalion Art. 1862. 

Bell, R.ihert S.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
l8th Battalion Art. 1862. 

Biggs, James H. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Bcale. Brooke — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Ap 
suh-oflficer in navy. 






Boush, John T.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. Det. 

wagon driver, iS6j. 
Brown, Henry F.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Barnes, James— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Bonfanti, John— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Beane. Wilhani W.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Beale, Charles L.— 3d lientenant in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Baldry. John R.— 3d sergeant in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Bew, George W.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Bunge. F.— Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Buis. John H.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Braithwaite. Thomas— Private in Co. H, I2lh Va. Inf. 

Prom, corpl. 
Bryan. Fred P.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Brocket!, William— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 

Ap. engr. in navy. 1862. 
Brownley, William M'— Private in Co. H, t2th Va. Inf. 
Bracey, George — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Blow. W. W.— Ordnance dept. 
Bunting, John W. — Private in Heavy Art. 
Beal, Edward— Private in Otey Battery Art., Lynch- 
Brown, George— Private in Fayette Art.. Richmond. 
Burford, Martin L. — Private in Co. D, Art. 
Boyce. David — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Boiiamion, W. H. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Beaton, Edward E. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Brownley, A. M, — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Bell, W. H.— Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Bland, Thomas — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Brent. George — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Backus, William T., Jr.— Private in Portsmouth Light 

Batten, William .A. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Bright William Jordan — Private in Portsmouth Light 

Boutwell, Richard M. — Pri\ate in Portsmouth Light 

Beale, H.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Bell, A. S.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Benson, O. S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Bishop. W. I. E.— Private in Norfolk Light -Art. Blues. 
Bell, N.— Private in Norfolk Lisbt An. Pdnes. 
Brock, L.— Private in Norfolk Lisrht .Art. Blues. 
Brickhouse, B, D— Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Brooks. E. W.— Private in Norfolk Light .^rt. Bines. 
Brown, V. H. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Browne, Jos. S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Brown, E. P. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Butler, R. M. — Conioral in Norfolk Lip-ht .-Xrt. Blues. 
Boothe. William — Corporal in Norfolk Light Art. 

Brickhouse. S. M. — Corporal in Norfolk Light Art. 

Busky, C. H. — Corporal in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Bedo-t. Fred.'L. — _'(1 sergeant of Norfolk Light Art. 

Balsom, Benjamin F. — 4lh sergeant of Xnrfolk Light 

Art. Blues. .\p. coins, sergt. 
Barnes, John C. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Barnes, Samuel /\. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 


Billups, Andrew J. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Bobee. Louis — Private in Norfolk Light .•\rt. Blues. 
In charge Ambulance Corps. 

Boole. John J. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Burford, Martin — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Boutwell, L. W.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Butt. George W. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 

Butt. C. N. G.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Det. clerk in Treas. Dept. 

Brown. Richard — Private in Norfolk Light ."Krt. Blues. 

Browning, Henry C. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Butt, Nienieyer — Private in .Atlantic Art, 

Buford, Jabez — Private in Atlantic Art. 

Buchanan, J. W. — Private in Atlantic Art. 

Bauni. .Adam — ist sergeant in United Art. 

Bullock. John T. — Ord. sergeant in LTnited Art. 

Bell. Miles K.— Private in United Art. 

Belotc. John — Private in United Art. 

Betts, W. M.— Private in United Art. 

Bisby. Henry T. — Private in United Art. 

Bowers. George — Private in United Art. 

Bishy, W. J.— Private in United Art. 

Bunting. John — Private in United Art. 

Black. John T.— Private in United Art. 

Baker, George W. — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Benson. George — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Ratten. Noah T.— Private in Co. C, isth Va. Cav. 

Brown. Roscoe H. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Bunting. George S. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Berry. John — Private in Co. F, iSth Va. Cav. 

Berry. Samuel — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Brice, George D. — Private in Co. F. iSth Va. Cav. 

Bullock. Joseph A. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav.- 

Benson, Francis R. — 1st sergeant in Signal Corps. 

Barnes. V. H. — Private in Signal Corps. 

Beach. William F. — Private in Signal Corps. 

Berwick. William — Private in Signal Corps. 

Blamire, Jpmes A. — Hospital Steward. Richmond. 

Brownley. M. D. — Private in Naval Brigade. 

Barron. Samuel — Captain in C. S. Navy. 

Barron. Samuel. Tr. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 

Bradford. Otey — Lieutenant in C. S. Navv. 

Blacknall. Dr. George — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 

Barrom. Beniamin A. — Gunner in C. S. Navy. 

Brown. Eugene H. — Assistant engineer in C. .S. Navy. 

Brown. John B. — Assistant 'engineer in C. S, Navy. 

Brocketl. William B. — .Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 

Baker. Thoma* — Gunner in C. S. Navy. 

Bain, Robert M. — Carpenter in C. S. Navy. 

Bennett. William — Saihnaker in C. S. Navy. 

Benthall. Robert — .Act. master's mate in C. S. Navy. 

Briggs, William — In C. S. Navy. 

Bridges, Thomas W. — Navy Department. 

Rilisoly, V. B. — Surgeon in C. S. .Army. 

Boykin. Robert M. — Cantain and assistant commissary.. 

Brown. Richard T. — Private in Co. C. nth Va. Regt. 

Bagnall Richard D. — .Assistant surgeon in 3d Ga. Inf. 

Berry. Joseph D. — 2d lieutenant in Co. L, 17th N. C. 

Brit, F.lisha— Private in Co, .A, 4th N. C. Regt. 



Bratt. Mark— Private in 2d N. C. Battalion. 
Binglcv. William H.— Private in 3d N'. C. Cav. 
Briirlit'. Mark— Private in Co. B, 32d X. C. Regt. 


Carpenter, William M.— Private in Co. I. 4"tli N. C. 

Carter. John B.— Private in Co. C. i7tli N- C. Regt. 
Crow. Benjamin M. — Sergeant in 1st Va. Inf. 
Coimcil. James C. — Lieutenant-colonel in 26th Va. Inf 
Cox. John W.— Private in Co. E, 26th \'a. Inf. 
Chaplain. William M. — ist lieutenant in Co. I, 38th Va. 

Cooper, M. \'. B— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Cooper, James — Private in Co. I. ,^8th Va. Inf. 
Capps. .-\. J.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Callis. Henry— Private in Co. I.' 38th Va. Inf. 
Constable. Charles W.— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Cofer. Robert E— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Cofer. Reuben F.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Choate. James C. — Captain of Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Cherry, John H. — 1st corporal in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Cherry, James C. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Cherry. Jatnes E. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Casey. Raynor — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. Maurice — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. Miles — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. Marshall — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Cofficld. J. A— Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Creekmore, Malachi — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. David — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. Joshua — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. Joseph — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Coston. Thomas — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Carbon. Robert W. — Sergeant in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Cuthrell. Enos — Private in Co. F. 4i5t Va. Inf. 
Cutherell. John W. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Cutherell. Joseph E. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Carter. William E. — Private in Co. F, 4i5t Va. Inf. 
Creekmore. Gregorv — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Curling. .'Xshwell — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Castine. Jeremiah — Private in Co. A. 6l5t Va. Inf. 
Creekmore. Josiah — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Castine. J. T. — Private in Co. A. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Cooper, J. A. — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Cooper. J. .A. — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cooper. C. C. — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Creekmore, Marshall O. — Private in Co. .•\, 61 st Va. 

Creekmore, John W. — Private in Co. A. 61st \'a. Inf. 

Prom, sergt. 
Creekmore. Willoughhv W. — Private in Co. A, 61 st 

\'a. Inf. 
Culpepper, Daniel R. — Private in Co. .X. 6rst Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. John — Private in Co. .X. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cotton. Benjatnin C. — Private in Co. B. 6tst Va. Inf. 
Creekmore. Seth — Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Curling. Joseph H.. Sr. — Private in Co. B. 6ist ^'a. Inf. 
Curling. Joseph H.. Jr. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cooper. William A. — Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Cartwright, James E. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cox. Sharp K. — Private in Co. C. 615! Va. Inf. 
Creekmore, Theophilus — Private in Co. C, 6lst Va. Inf. 

Cowell, Benjamin B. — Private in Co. C, 61st \'a. 

Prom, corpl. 
Curtis, Thomas — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Chaniberlaine. Tliomas — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. 
Chamherlaine, William — Private in Co. D, 61 st Va. 
Coston. William C. — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. 
Coston, Henry C. — Private in Co. D. 61 st Va. Inf, 
Coston, Thomas J. — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. In 
Cherry, William Alexander — Private in Co. D, 

Va. Inf. Prom, corpl. 
Cooke, Thomas J. — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cotton. John— Orderly at Col.'s Headqrs., 61 st Va. 
Charlton. Joshua — Corporal in Co. E. 6ist Va. In 
Charlton. Samuel Q. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. 
Cartwright. Denipsey — Private in Co. E, 61 st Va. 
Cherry, Absalom— Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Cherry. Richard — Private in Co. E, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Corbit. Richard — Private in Co. E. 61st Va. Inf. 
Creekmore. Wesley P. — Private in Co. E, 61 st Va. 
Curling. Bartlett — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Curling. Edmond — Private in Co. E. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Cutherell. George — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cutherell, Milton — Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf, 
Cutherell. William E. — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. 
Carr. James F. — 2d lieutenant in Co, H, 61 st Va. 

Ap. commissary. 
Crumpler. Solomon B. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. 
Culpeppei^. Franklin J. — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. 
Cherry. Richard J.— Private in Co. H. 61 st Va. 

Prom, sergt. 
Cherry. Miles — Private in Co. H, 61 st V^. Inf. 
Cherry. John — Private in Co. H. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Cherrv. David — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cherry. Paul W— Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cooke. .A.ntonio M. — Private in Co. H. 6lst Va. 
Chamherlaine. Willis — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. 
Cason. John S. — 1st sergeant in Co. K. 6ist Va. 

Prom. 3d lieut. 
Culpepper. William .A. — Private in Co. D. gih \'a. 

Prom. 1st sergt. 
Curherell. Leonard — Private in Co. D. gth Va. In 
Cross. John — Private in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Cowper, Walter G. — Private in Co. D. 9th Va. 
Cleaves. Lemuel T. — Captain of Co. G. 9th Va. 
Culpepper. Roland H — Private in Co. G. oth Va 
Creecy. George A. — Private in Co. G. oth Va. In 
Collni'i George W. F. D. — Private in Co. G. 9th 

Culpepper. Reuben — Private in Co. G. gth \'a. In 
Crocker. J. O. B. — Captain of Co. I. gth Va. Inf 
Carney. Richard — Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Capns. Josiah — Private in Co. I. oth \'a. Inf. 
Cutherell. George A. — Private in tTo. K. gth Va. In 
Collins. A. E— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Cocke, John N. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Cocke, William H.— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 

ass"t sur. 14th Va. 
Cassell. Charles E. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. 

Proin. 1st lieut. Topo-Engr. 
Creekmur. Charles J. — Private in Co. K. Qth Va. 
Cherry. Eugene — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Cutchin, J. F. — Private in Co. A. l6th '^'a. Inf. 
Culpepper, A. T. — Lieutenant in Co. C, i6th Xz. 
Collins, William W.— Private in Co. C, l6th Va. 



















Cooper, John G. — Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. 
Cutherell, Samuel — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Furnished substi. 1861. 
Cain, George D. — Musician in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Coffin, Thomas W. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. Ap. 

hospt. steward. 
Cooper, Fleming — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Cooke, Ezekiel — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Coston. James — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Carter, Henry C. — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Crane. Samuel — ,^d sergeant in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Clarke, John J.— Private in Co. C, 6th Va, Inf. Prom. 

Corprew, Samuel S. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Coleman, John M.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Crawley, George F. — 2d lieutenant in Co. D. 6th Va. 

Inf. Prom. capt. Co. C. 
Carty, Robert J. — 1st sergeant in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Coates, Wilson — 5th sergeant in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Corprew, George — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Clarke, William H.— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Chamberlaine. William W. — 3d lieutenant in Co. G. 

6th Va. Inf. Prom. capt. and A. A. G. on staff 

Gen. Walker. 
Catlett, John R. — ist sergeant in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Chisman, John R. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Clark, Fred W.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Cole, Cornelius M. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Core, John H.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Collier, James M. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. As- 
signed Med, Dept. :86i. 
Cannon. Dougljs C — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans. Signal Coros 1861. 
Cason, Benjamin F. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Ifif. 

Prom. ?d lieut. Co. B, gth Va. 
Crockett, George — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Charlton. Joseph — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Cusick, Thomas — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Charlton. Cary — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Connor, Thomas L. — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Carroll. H. W.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Carlon, John — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Connor, J'ame^ — Private in Co, H, 12th Va, Inf, 
Carter, John R. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Crump, George R. — Private in Co. I, 72th Va. Inf. 
Crismond, George E. — Private in Portsmouth Light 

Cummings, Southall — Private in Portsmouth T.ieht Art. 
Creckninre, Walter A. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Culver, George D. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Clarke, W. T. — Sergeant in Norfolk Light .'Xrt. Blues. 
Cooke, John S. — Private in Norfolk Light .A-rt. Blues. 
Collins, W. W.— Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Capps, L. O. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Cornick, H. — Private in Norfolk Light .^rt. Blues. 
Carroll, William S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Cocke. W. R. C— Private in Norfolk Light .^Vrt. Blues. 
Cox, William R. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Cutherell. William S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 


Cocke. P. St. George — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Connor. Christopher O. — Private in Norfolk Light Art 

Curran, Albert G. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Currier. Robert A. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Carter, Richard W. — Assistant to commissary sergeant, 
Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Callis, William — Private in Atlantic .\rt. 

Cosby. W. H. — 5th sergeant in United Art. 

Carr, W. H. — 6th sergeant in LTnited Art. 

Carstaphan, John — 2d corporal in United Art. 

Capps, John — Private in United Art, 

Clarke, Alexander — Private in L^nited Art, 

Clarke, Fred S. — Private in L^nited Art. 

Cameron. Charles — Private in United Art. 

Cook, Edward — Private in LTnited Art. 

Chestnut, Nicholas — Private in LTnited Art. 

Cain, Richard C. — Private in-Lhiited Art, 

Cornell, J. R.— Private in United Art. 

Conovvay, Ed. J. — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Colonna, George M. — Private in Young's Harbor 

Colonna, William — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Corbett, Thomas H. — Private in Young's Harbor 

Curtis, Edward — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Crockett, John — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Chandler, Lindsay — Private in Pendleton's .\rt. 

Crow, Charles — Lieutenant in Purcell Battery, Rich- 

Cooper, John F. — Captain Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Cooper, Arthur — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Cooper, Edward P. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Culpepper, Daniel M. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va, Cav. 

Cox, Thomas — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 

Coleburn, William — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Creamer, James — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 

Creekmore, Alexander O, — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. 

Creekmore, J. J. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav, 

Capps, Andrew J. — Private in Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 

Camm, Robert J. — Private in New Orleans Cadets. 

Corprew, O. H. B, — Caotain and assistant quarter- 
master in Mahone's Div. 

Clarke, W. H.— Pilot in C. S. Navy. 

Cherry. Virginus — Seaman in C. S. Nav}'. 

Cone. Edward — Seaman in C. S. Navy. 

Cornick, James — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 

Carlon. James — Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 

Corran. A. G. — Master's mate in C. S. Navy. 

Cooke. James W. — Captain in C. S. Navy. 

Cornick, Henry — Master in C. S. Navy, 

City, George W. — Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 

Cowley, Stephen A. — Captain and adjutant general. 

Cocke, W. M. — -A-ssistant surgeon in C. S. Army. 


1 1 1 

Cherr)-, I. J. — Assistant surgeon in C. S. Army. 
Covert. J. M. — Assistant surgeon in C. S. Army. 
Ctxike. Giles B. — Major and assistant inspector general. 
Cunningham. Arthur C. — Lieutenant-colonel in lOth 

Ala. Regt. 
Cooke. William G. — Private in Co. K, 30th Battalion. 
Carr, John Robert — 

Cooper. James Samuel — Private in Co. I. 
Carroll, John F. — Private in Co. A. 

Davis, Elzj-^Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Dier. Edward F.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Dozier, James W., Jr. — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Downing, Charles \V. — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 

Prom. capt. 
Detrick. John — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Dashiell. Levin H. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Dey, Apollos O.— Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Dey. David — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Davis. William T.— Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Deyscr, Luke — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Dunford. \'irgil H. — Private in Co. I, 41st Va. Inf. 
Dudley. William R. — Sergeant in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Diggs. Benjamin F. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Deford. John W. — Private in Co. .\, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Davis, William G. B.— Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Davis. James — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Doxev. David W. — Private in Co. B. 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Dudley. Willis W.— Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Darnold. John W. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Deconier. John — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Do.xey. Grandy B. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Dunstan. W. H. — Corporal in Co. D. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Davis, John Harrison — Private in Co. D. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Drewn-. William — Second lieutenant in Co. E, 61 st Va. 

Deford. Richard H.— Private in Co. E, 61st Va. Inf. 
Dillon. Lee W.— Private in Co. K, 6i5t Va. Inf. 
Duke. Gideon — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Davis, John W.— Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. Det. 

to work in Xavy Yard 1863. 
Dunn. Edward — Private in Co. B, 3d \'a. Inf. Ap. 

drum major 1861. 
Dixon. John R. — Corporal in Co. F. 3d Va. Inf. Prom. 

Deans. Joseph— Private in Co. H. 3d ^"a. Inf. 
Dongan. James W.— 1st lieutenant in Co. H, 3d Va. 

Dolly, William— 1st lieutenant in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
DeGraw. William — Corporal in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Furnished sub. 1861. 
Deakin. George — Corporal in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Darden. Richard — Corporal in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Day. William — Corporal in Co. D_. 9th Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Gov.'s Guard. 
Darden. Samuel — Cornoral in Co. D. qth Va. Inf. 
Darden, Joseph L.— Corporal in Co. D. 9th \'a. Inf. 
Denson. Virginus S. — Private in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Dozier. Cornelius M. — 2d lieutenant in Co. I, gth Va. 

Dennis. Samuel— Private in Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 

Duncan. Blanch. — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Duncan. John — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Duncan. Richard — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Daughtrey, William — Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Duke. Henrj' — Private in Co. I, 9th \'a. Inf. Tran-. 

to Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 
Duke. Lewis — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Dyson, Walter W. — Private in Co. K, gth V'a. Inf. 
Dent. William — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. De- 
tached 1861. 
Daughtrcy. Robert T. — Private in Co. K, gth \'a. Inf. 
Davis. J. C. .\. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Dunderdale. J. A. F. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Davis, W. W. — Sergeant in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Dann. Silas — Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Darden. Edward — Private in Co. C, 16th Va. Inf. 
Deal. William — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. - 
Diggs. William W. — Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. 
Deal. Willis— Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Denson. .\lexander J. — 2d lieutenant in Co. C, 6th Va. 

Inf. Prom. 1st lient. 
Dashiell. James W. — 3d lieutenant in Co. C. 6th \'a. 

Inf. Prom. 2d lieut. 
Doyle. N'athan C. — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Dunn. Thomas — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Donald. Caleb J.— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Deiches. W. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Det. in 

Dey. James B.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Dashiell. James J.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Dunbar. John T. — Private in Co. H, 6th ^■a. Inf. Ap. 

sergt. 1863. 
Dunn. William F. — Private in Co. H, 6th \'a. Inf. 

Prom, corpl. 
Dunn. William .\. — Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Dashiell. Charles — 2d lieutenant in Co. H, 12th \'a. Inf. 
Dashiell, John M.— 3d corporal in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Dozier, Thomas L. — Private in Co. H. 12th \'a. Inf. 
Davis. Thomas H. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Davis. William H.— Private in Co. H, 12th \'a. Inf. 
Diggs, Jame^ — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Dobbs. .Andrew J. — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Dashiell, F. S.— Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Drewry. John B. — Private in Co. F. 32d Va. Inf. 
Drummond. Thomas F. — Lieutenant in Co. F, 46th \'a. 

Dilsburg. John H. — Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Denson. A. J. — Private in Xorfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Doughtie. H. S. — Private in Xorfolk Light .-Xrt. Blues. 
Drummond, R. I. — Private in Xorfolk Light .\rt. 

Blues. ' 
Drummond. C. H. — Private in Xorfolk Light Art. 

Dunn. J. R. — Private in Xorfolk Light An. Blues. 
Davis. .Alexander — Private in Xorfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Douglas. Thomas H. — Private in Xorfolk Light .Art. 

Dozier. Tully F. — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 
Duke. W. p. — Private in L'nited .Art. 
Duncan. James — Private in L'nited .Art. 
Dalton. .A. J. — Private in L'nited Art. 
Deane, John — Private in L'nited -Art. 
Dudlev, William F. — Private in United .Art. 



Davis, John — Private in Young's Harbor Guard-Art. 
Dray, William H. — Corporal in ,3d N. C. Art. 
Dunaway, A. B. — Corporal in Co. D, gth Va. Cav. 
Dennis, M. W. — Private in Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 
Driver. Elliott J. — Private in Co. C. I3tli Va. Cav. 
Duke, Hardy — Private in Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 
Dunford. Emanuel — Private in Co. C. 13th Va. Cav. 
Dockerty, William — Private in Co. I. 13th Va. Cav. 
Dickinson, Hud&on AI. — Lieutenant in Co. I, 8th Va. 

Davis. Charles T. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Davis, Gideon V. — Private in Co. F, isth Va. Cav. 
Denby. .\ndrew J. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Denby, Edward — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Dixon, Ralph — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Duke, Joseph T. — Private in Co. I. 24th Va. Cav. 
Dilworth. John R. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Darden. Goodman — Major of Co. C, 8th N. C. Regt. 
Denson. C. B. — Captain of Co. E, loth N. C. Regt, 
Denson, Joseph E. — Private in Co. E. loth N. C. Regt. 
T)iggs, C. C. — Private in Co. A, 3d Ga. Regt. 
Downing, Charles W. — Captain in Cohoon's Battalion 

DeBree. \. M. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
DeBree. John, Jr. — .Assistant surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
DeBree. John — Paymaster in C. S. Navy. 
Dornin, F. B. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 
Doland. J. T. — Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 
Dunderdale. John — Boatswain in C. S. Navy. 
Dungan. Edward J. — 2d assistant engineer in C. S. 

Duncan. James H. — Lieutenant in Co. B. Baker's Regt. 
Duffield. Charles B. — Major and adjutant general. 

Etheredgc, William H. — Cantain of Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Prom. Maj. 41st Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. John N. — Lieutenant in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 

Edmond. John J. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 

Edmunds. Henry — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 

Edmunds, .-^bel — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 

Elliott. Kemn B. — Private in Co. F, 4rst Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Charles O. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 

Edmondson. Gabriel — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Henry S. — Sergeant in Co. A, 6rst Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Jos-ah — Corporal in Cn C. 61 't Va. Inf. 

Eason. George W. — Private in Co. C. 6i*t Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Dennis M. — Sergeant in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 

Edmunds. Luther — Musician in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Frederick — Private in Co. E. 61 '^t Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Isaiah — Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. John — Private in Co. E. fiist Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Martin — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va, Inf, 

Evans, Charles — Corporal in Co. I. 5i,st Va. Inf. 

Eure. Hillary — Private in Co. I 6ist Va. Inf. 

Eure, Henry — Private in Co. I, fn-^t Va. Inf. 

Eure, -Augustus — Private in Co. I. 6lst Va. Inf. Fur- 
nished stibst. 

Edwards. John R. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Prom, lieu-t. 

Etheredge, Evan D. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 

Etheredge, James M. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 

Etheredge, Cornelius — Private in Co. E, 3d Va. Inf. 
Trans, to navy. 

Etheredge. John E. — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 

Edgar, George — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 

Eastman. Lewis — Private in Co. D, pth Va, Inf. 
Trans, to navy. 

Etheredge, Samuel R. — Private in Co, G, gth Va. Inf. 

Edwards, Amos W, — Private in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 

Edmonds, Samuel W. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf 

Everett, Charles — Private in Co. I. 38th 'Va. Inf. 

Etheredge, Charles A. — Sergeant in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Edmonds. John T. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 

Evans. Peter — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

Etheredge, George W. — Private -in Co. D, 6th Va, Inf. 

Elliott. John W.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Edwards, Walter A. — 3d sergeant in Co, H, 6th Va. 
Inf. Prom, ist sergt. 1863. 

Edmonds, William — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 

Eason, Israel — Private in Co. F, 15th Va, Cav. 

Ewell. John — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 

Elliott, J. W.— Corporal in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Elliott. Thomas H. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Ewell, Jesse — Pri-'ate in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Evans. Arthur — Private in Atlantic Art. 

Eisenbiess, Thaddeus E. — 2d lieutenant in LTnited Art. 

Edmonds. Andrew — Corporal in Young's Harbor 

Everett, Lemuel — Private in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Etheredge. William E. — Private in Young's Harbor 

Etheridge, John— Private in Co. B, .c8th N. C. Inf 

Emmerson. John — ist corporal in Signal Corps. Prom, 
capt. and A. C. S. 

Evans, Richard — Master in C. S. Navy. 

Elliott, William H. — Co.xswain in C. S. Navv ; also 
34th Va. Inf. 

Etheredge. A. E. — Captain and assistant quarter mas- 


Fraley, Edward K. — Private in Co. A. 2d La. Inf. 
Falk. Victor N.— Private in Co. B, 5th La. Inf. 
Fitchell. William— Private in Co. I. 38th Va, Inf, 
Forrest. John — Private in Co. I, 38th Va, Inf. 
Frost, W. W.— Private in Co. I, 38fh Va. Inf. 
Flora. Henrv C— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Ferguson. Henry — Private in Co. T. 38th Va. Inf. 
Forbes, Eliiah B.— Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Foreman. Josephus — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Fisher, Caleb — Private in Co. F, dtst Va, Inf, 
Forrest, John R.— Private in Co. F, 41st Va, Inf. 
Foreman. Washington — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Foreman, Thomas — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Fitchett. William E.— Private in Co. F, 41st Va, Inf, 
Fentress, John — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Ferrell, John — Private in Co, A, 61 st Va, Inf, 
Foreman, .Acelius G. — Private in Co, A, 6ist Va, Inf, 
Foreman, W. .\.— Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Fulford, James — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Fulford. James E. — 2d lieutenant in Co. B, 6lst 
Va, Inf, Prom, ist lieut. 



Fisher, A. B. C— 2d sergeant in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom. 3d licut. 
Fcrrcll. Ge<irge — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Int. 
Fanshaw. Alpheiis — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Fentress. Joseph — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Foreman, Jolni W. — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Forbes, E. W. — Corporal in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Forbes. Nathaniel — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Fiilford. Thomas H. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Flarity, Thomas — Private in Co. D. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Flanagan, Edward — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Fleniniing, Malon R. — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ferebee, Grandy — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Foster, James S. — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Foreman. Isaiali — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Foreman. Janus R. — Private in Co. H, 61st Va. Inf. 
Friedlin, .-Xmile C. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ferrill, John— Private in Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Fowler, A. J. — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Fi>rbes, Simeon — Private in Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Flannagan, .Andrew — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Fentress. Batson — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Fentress, Joshua — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Friedlin. John — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Fisher, William C. — Private in Co, A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Forward, John W. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Fitchell, George P. — Private in Co. B. 3d \a. Inf. Det. 

to work in Xavy Yard. 
Foils, Henry — Musician in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Franklin. Thomas — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Friedlin. .-Xdolpli — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Flcmming, Thomas — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Flemniing, Caleb — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Futtett. George — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Ferebee. George \V. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Ferebee. Joseph K. — Private in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Fiendly. James W. — Private in Co. G, pth Va. Inf. 
Field. Richard — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Foster. Frank S. — Private in Co. K. gth ■ \'a. Inf. 

Trans. Signal Corps 1862. 
Foster, .\. R. — Private in Co. K. gth ^^l. Inf. Trans. 

Signal Corps 1862. 
Forbes. Thomas N. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Fiske, Melzar G.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Forsyth. John — 3d corporal in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom, color sergt. 
Flora. Joel — Private in Co. .V, 6th Va. Inf. Fur. subst. 

1862: subst. deserted. 
Field. Robert — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Fredericks. Lewis — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Face. James P.— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Flannagan. John T. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Frestine. John W. — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Frestine, J. E. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Fulcher. Gabriel F. — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Fisher, James E. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Finley, Thomas— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Fowler, Robert — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Flournoy. E. H.— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

1st lieutenant 1864. 
Fentress, Thomas — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. .\p. 

hospt. steward 1862. 
Fitchctt, Julius M— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Fitchetl's Bat. 1862. 

Fletcher, Oliver N.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Freeman, Robert — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Ap. master's mate navy 1864. 
Foreman. Columbus W. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans. Co. B, 5th Va. Cav., 1863. 
Freeman, Joseph N. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Ap. engr. navy, 
Ferris, James — Private in Co. H, 6th Va, Inf. 
Ferratt, John B. — Private in Co. D, 14th Va. Inf. 
Flcnmiing, James H. — Private in Co. F, 26th Va. Inf. 
Fitzgerald. William H. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. 

Inf. -Ap. master in navy 1863. 
Fauth, Bernard — Lieutenant in Portsmouth Light Art. 

Joined Signal Corps. 
Fitzsimmons, Thomas — Private in Portsmouth Light 

Forbes, V. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Fentress, William T. — Lieutenant in Portsmouth Light 

Fitzgerald. W. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Fitzgerald, E. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Fletcher. F. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Floyd, John W.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Ferguson. William K. — Private in Norfolk Light Art, 

Ferrat, John B. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Det. hospt. steward 1863. 
Forden, William B. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Forrest, William S., Jr — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Fugitt. William — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Flannigan, Fletcher — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Fisher, Charles — Private in L^nited Art, 
Fowler, John — Private in United Art, 
Flynn, John — Private in L'nited Art, 
Fisher, Labcn J. — Private in Co. C, isth Va. Cav. 
Fentress, Joshua — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Fentress, David — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Fentress. William H. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va, Cav. 
Fentress, James — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Foreman, Claudius T. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. 

Foremati, William H. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. 

Foreman. .Alexander — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. 

Frizzell, Joseph — Private in Co. F, 15th V'a. Cav. 
Frizzell. John — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Fulford, .Arthur — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Forbes, Peter S. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Flora. John T. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. Trans. 

to N. C. Regt. 
Fiske, James W. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Fiske. Richard B. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Fletcher. Hannibal — Private in Co. I, l^th Va. Cav. 
Ferguson. George S. — Private in Co. E, ist Va. Cav. 
Ford, William — Private in Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 
Freer. George H. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Forbes, Robert A. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Freeman, R. J. — .Assistant surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
Freeman. W. J. — .Assistant surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
Forrest, Dulaney A. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Freeman, J M., Jr. — Engineer in C. S. Navy. 




Garrett. W. T.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Graham, Josepii — Private in Co. 1, 38tli Va. Inf. 
Graham, Tinsley — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Godfrey, Gervais K. — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Godfrey, WilHam T.— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Guy, George — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Gray. WiUiam T. — Lieutenant in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Godfrey. Josephus — Corporal of Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Godfrey, Walton — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Gibson, Peter H. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Gill)ert. Robertson — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Gilbert. Richard B. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Grimes, J. A. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Grimes. J. F. A. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Guinn, Franklin — Private in Co. A, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Gwynn. Isaac F. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gregory, William H. — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Grimstead, Jonathan — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Garret, James E. — Sergeant in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gallup, John — Corporal in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Glenn, Samuel T. — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Grandy. Abner W. — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gallop. John C. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Guilford, James — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Godwin. .A. D. R. — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Godfrey. L. W. — ist lieutenant in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Gammon. Joshua B. — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gifford. Samuel — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gammon. Alexander — Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Gibson, Vs'illiam M. — Private in Co. E, 6Tst Va. Inf. 
Grimes. John F. — Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Gwynn. Ashbury — Private in Co. E. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Gwynn. Frederick — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gilbert, Thomas — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gleason. James A. — ist sergeant in Co. H, 6lst Va. Inf. 

Prom. 1st lieut. 
Gallup, John, Sr. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gilding. George F. — Private in Co. H, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Gallagher, Carney — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gallagher. Edward — Private in Co. H, 6l5t Va. Inf. 
Godwin. Laban T. — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, sergt. , 

Griggs. Charles W. — Private in Co. K. 6ist ^^•l. Inf. 
Garress. Isaiah — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gallop. Samuel — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Gallop. John, Sr. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Gallop, John, Jr. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Godfrey. Stenhen — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Godfrey, Mark — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Gordon. Beniamin F. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Grant. Vernon C. — 3d lieutenant in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 

Ap. quartermaster. 
Guy. Robert — 2d sergeant in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 

Elected lieut. 
Grimes. Bartlett— Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. Trans. 

to navy. 
Grimes. James E. — Private in Co, H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Goodson. Calvin — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Gleason. George W. — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Graham. Thomas — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Grant, Frank H. — Private in Co. B, 9th Va. Inf. 
Grant, George W. — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Goodson, Henrj' — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Grimes' Battery. 
Greenwood, James — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to navy. 
Gray, William — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Gayle, Nathaniel G. — Lieutenant in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to navy 1865. 
Grant, Jordan W. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Gaskins. Thomas S. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Grant. Benjamin F. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
George, Thomas — Corporal in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to navy 1863. 
Grimes, Joshua — Sergeant in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Grimes, T. J. — Sergeant in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
George. J. W. — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Gurley. J. — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Godwin, Leroy C. — Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Signal Corps 1862. 
Gray, J. N. — Sergeant in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Grant. L. H. — Drummer in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Griffin, Cornelius — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Godwin, D. J. — Colonel of gth Va. Inf. 
Guy, Joseph L.^Private in Co., A, i6th Va. Inf. 
Gayle, John H. — Captain of Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Gayle. Levin J'. — Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Adj. I2th Ala. Regt. 
Gayle, John M.— Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Grant, Robert S. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Grant. Edward — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Godwin, William — Private in Co. C, 16th Va. Inf. 
Godwin, Ellison — Private in Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 
Gornto, William — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Gregory, Q.uinton T. — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Gregory, John W. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Gaitley, John R. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Garrett, Edward — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Gale. Peter M.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Gills. Joseph P.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Gordon. William R. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

.Ap. Hosp't. Steward 1862. 
Goodridge. F. E. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Det. 

—1861— Lieut. Ord. Dept. 
Goodridge. George K. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Det.— 1861. 
Guvott, Robert S.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. .Ap. 

Ord. Sergt. gth Va. Regt. 
Gwynn. T. P.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. .Ap. first 

Lieut. Marines C. S. Navy. 
Gatch. Thomas .A. — First lieutenant of Co. H. 6th Va. 

Gray, William — Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Gillerlain. Peter J.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Gale, William — Musician in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Grav. James R — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Griffin. .A. J.— Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Griffin. John— Private in Co. H. T2th Va. Inf. 
Grimes, Cary F. — Captain Portsmouth Light Art. 
Griffin. J. B. — Private in Portsmouth Liglit .Art. 
Griffin. James W. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Goodson, Henry P. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Grandy, Charles R. — Captain of Norfolk Light Art. 

Gaskins, G. O. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 



Ghisclin. H.— Private in Norfolk Liglu Art. Blues. 
Gliiselin. R.— Private in Norfolk Liglit Art. Blues. 
Gordon, J. P.— Private in Norfolk I-iRlU .\rt. Blues. 
Gordon. George W. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Graves, C. M.— Private in Norfolk Light .Xrt. Blues. 
Gordon. ^^ — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues, 
Gale. James D.- — Third lieutenant Norfolk Light Art. 

Prom, first licut. 
Gale. Joseph A. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Det. 

Hosp't. steward i86j. 
George. Joseph D. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. 
Gale. A. C— Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. 
Gibbs. William — Private in Norfolk Light .'Vrt. 
Guyot. Thomas — Private in Norfolk Light .Xrt. 
Gormlev. J. J.- — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Det. in 

Hosp't. 1862. 
Gordon. Samuel — First corporal .'\tlantic Art. 
Griggs. George D. — Private in .\tlantic Art. 
Griffin. \Y. .\. — Private in .\tlantic Art. 
Glcnnan. William — Private in United .Art. 
Georgan. Michael — Private in United .Art. 
Godfrey, Augustus — Corporal Young's Harbor Guard, 

Gilbert. James — Private in Young's Harbor Guard. — 

Griffin. John — Private in Young's Harbor Guard. — Art. 
Gatewood, Robert — Chaplain Starke's Battery. .'Krt. 
Gould. B. W. F.— Private in Co. C. I.^h Va. Cav. 
Guy. Thomas G. — Private in Co. A. 15th Va. Cav. 
Gammon. John W. — Private in Co. F. T5th Va. Cav. 
Grandy. Thomas G.^ — Private in Co. F, l.sth Va. Cav. 

Trans, to N. C. Regt. 
Gornto. David T. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Guy. Benjamin F. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Gaffney. Lawrence — Private in Co. C, 1st Va. Inf. 
Green. Joseph T. — Private in Co. F. 26th Va. Inf. 
Giles. James — Colonel 29th Va. Inf. 
Grant. .A. H. — Private in Co. D, 4th Va. Reserves. 
Garnett. Robert F. — Home Guard. 
Grandv. P. H.— ^L^ior 1st N. C. Regt. 
Grandy. .\. H.— Lieutenant Co. B. 8rii N. C. Regt. 
Grimes. George W. — Lieutenant Co. G. 17th N. C. Regt. 
Griffin. Randolph — Private in Co. C, 3d Ga. Regt. 
Gayle. B. B. — Colonel 12th .Ala. Regt. 
Godwin, E. C. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Gait. F. L.— Surgeon C. S. Navy. 
Gayle. Nat. C. — Carpenter. C. S. Navy. 
Grav, James — Seaman. C. S. Navy. 
Gibbs. John R.— Master. C. S. Navy. 
Green. James F. — .Assistant engineer. C. S. Navy. 
Gormley. Crawford — Gunner. C. S. Navy. 
Guthrie. John Julius — Captain. C. S. Navy. 
Gayle. Nathaniel C. — Carpenter, C. S. Navy. 
Godwin. .Archibald C. — Brigadier-general. 
Grice. George W. — Major and commissary. 
Griffin. John T. — Captain and assistant civil engineer. 
Ghiselin. James W.— Private: killed at Shiloh. 1862. 


Henderson, James L. — 
Hester. Thomas — Private. 
Hodges, H. H.— Private. 

Hudgins, R. D.— Private in Co. .A. 3d Va. Battalion Inf. 
Hervey, W. T. — Private in Co. F, Forrest's Brigade. 
Hodges, James Gregory — Colonel 14th Va. Inf. 
Holstead. Benjamin F. — First lieutenant Co. I, 38th 

Va. Inf. 
Hudgins, William H. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Hudgins, Samuel N. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Holland, John — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Harvey, John — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Harvey. Henry — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Howe. William — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Hudgins. John D. — Corporal in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hodges. Riley W.^Privatc in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hodges, William W. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hodges. David — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hanbury, William T. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Howell, Jesse B. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Hughes. Isaac B. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Halstead. Henry — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hodges. Jolin H. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Hodges. John K. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hall. Samuel — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hodges. Samuel — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hall. Edward — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hodges. George A. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hudgins. \\'illiam — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Hall, George W. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Herbert, Melnotte — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 

Pro. Tst lieut. Co. D. 
Hodges. George T. — Lieutenant Co. .A, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Harrison. William H. — Private in Co. .A. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Halstead, J. P.— Private in Co. .A. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Halstead. T. E.— Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hodges, Isaiah — Private in Co. .A, 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Hodges, Cal«f) — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hodges. Thomas H. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hopkins. J. W. M.— Captain Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Halstead. John H. — Corporal Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hall, Thomas F.— Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
'Hall. Samuel— Private in Co. B, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Halstead. William M.— Private in Co. B, 6lst Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
Harris. Samuel — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Harrison. John S. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hodges, Celius — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hodges, Thomas W. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hodges. John W.— Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hanbury, John W.— Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Halstead. Miles W.— Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Harris. Miles D.— Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hill, Solomon A.— Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hughes. Charles H. — Musician in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Haynes. V. .A. — First lieutenant in Co. D, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Hughes. Edward — Private in Co. D, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Howard. J. Wiley — Private in Co. D. 61 st Va. Inf. 

Prom, cornoral. 
Hogg. John — Private in Co. D. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Humphries, John — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hall. Carey W.— Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hall. James S. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hewett. M. W.— Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hanbury. Fred — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hanbury, Horatio B. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hanbury, James C. — Private in Co. E, 61 st Va. Inf. 



Hodges, Daniel — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hozier, Jeremiah E. — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hodges, Thomas — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
Hodges, William — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hozier, John W. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
Hodges. John T. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Halstead, Thomas — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Haj-nes. John W. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, sergeant. 
Harrel, Alexander — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hobday, John. Jr. — Second lieutenant Co. I. 6ist Va. 

Inf. Prom. Capt. 
Plyslop, Denwood — Private in Co. I, 6lst Va, Inf. 
Halloway. Joseph — Private in Co. I. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Hewlett, Joseph F. — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Heckrotte, Oliver — Private in Co. I. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Horton. Daniel W. — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Herbert, Max. A. — Captain Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Herbert. Joseph T. — First lieutenant Co. K, 6ist Va. 

Inf. Prom, captain. 
Herbert, Max A.. Jr. — Third lieutenant Co. K, 6ist 

Va. Inf. Prom. 2d lieutenant. 
Hozier, John Q. — Sergeant Co. K, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Hozier, James K. P. — Private in Co. K, 61 st Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
Plitchcock, Malachi — Private in Co. K. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Hunter, John B. — Private in Co. K. 6i3t Va. Inf. 
Halstead, William R.— Private in Co. K. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Harrison, Thomas — Private in Co. K, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Halstead. Chris. — Private in Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, sergeant. 
Hodges, Nathan — Second corporal Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Hodges, James — Private in Co. .A.. 3d Va. Inf. 
Hodges, Joshua — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Hodges, Patrick H. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Hodges. Josiah — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Halstead, W. W.— Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Herring. Gideon — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Halstead, Wilson — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Herbert, William — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Hanbnry. Samuel W. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Hutchings. George W. — Second lieutenant Co. B, 3d 

Va. Inf. Elected caotain. 
Hutchings, Robert A. — Third sergeant Co. B, 3d Va. 

Herbert, William E. — Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Host. — Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Hawkins, William — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Navy. 
Hall, Henry C— Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Heath. William — Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Hanrahan, William R. — Corporal Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 

Sergt. Signal Corps. 
Harley, Thomas D. — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Hunley, John — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Howard, James T. B. — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Hawkins. William — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Hickman, Joseph — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Hoops, John — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Host, George — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Hofifler, Elias — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Herbert, William E. — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 

Hansford, James — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Hansford, Richard — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Houston, John — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Hall, Samuel — Private in Co, D, gth Va. Inf. 
Hall, Gary J.— Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Hampton. Augustus — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Happer, Richard W. B.— Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Howell, Fletcher — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Hand, Samuel T., Jr. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Harvey. Walter — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Harding, Milton L. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Hennicke. Henry O. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Hargroves. John R. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Holt. Edwin W.— Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Hundley, James H. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Herbert. John D. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Hoffler, Samuel — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. Prom. 

ord. sergt. 
Hennicke. Fred — Private in Co. G. Qth Va. Inf. 
Harrison, Keelv — Sergeant Co. I, gth Va. Inf. Trans. 

Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 
Harrell. Edward — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Henry, William C. — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Hambleton. William H. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Handy, S. O.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Hargroves, W. W. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to N. C. Regt. 
Host, Andrew C. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Hudgins, J. Madison — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Prom, captain and asst. coms. subs. 
Hume, R. G. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Norfolk L. A. Blues 1862. 
Hobday, A. T. — Private in Co. K, gth \'a. Inf. Trans. 

Com. Dept. 
Hennicke. .\lbert V. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Ap. hospital steward. 
Haynes. James K. — Private in Co. C. 16th Va. Inf. 
Hunter. Samuel W. — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Hubbard. Alonzo S. — Private in Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 

Det. work in Navy Yard. 
Hopper, John Lee — Third sergeant Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. 1st lieut. 
Hall. William H. — Second corporal Co. .\. 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom, sergt. 
Hudgins. George McK. — Private in Co. .\, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom, sergt. 
Hozier. William J. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Hud-nn. Philio— Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Hill. Severn J. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Hodges. Solomon — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Hayman, John — Captain Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Henderson, Thomas J. — First sergeant Co. C, 6th Va. 

Hopkins. John — Private in Co, C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Hollingsworth. John J. — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Hogwood, John — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Hopkins, Andrew — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Harrell. John W.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Hardy. Edward M.— Captain Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Holmes, Alexander T. — Private in Co. G, 6tli Va. Inf. 

Det. Qr. Master Dept. 
Hipkins. Richard — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Det. 

Qr. Master Dept. 
Hardv, Thomas A. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 



Humor. \V. \V— Private in Oi. C. 6th Va. Int. Ap. 

Q. M. Scrgt. Sth N. C. 1861. 
llynian. I". M.— Private in Co. G. 6tli \'a. Inf. Trans. 

Signal Corps 1862. 
Hill, W. H.— Second sergeant Co. H. btli Va. Inf. .\p. 

Ord. Sergt. 1862. 
Hoguood. George — Fonrtli sergeant Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
l-liggins. Francis C. — Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Hughes. William H.— Sergeant Portsmouth Light Art. 

Prom, lieutenant Lee's Battalion. 
Hopkins. Joshua H. L.— Private in Portsmouth Liglit 

Hopkins. Hillary — Private in Portsmouth Liglit Art. 
Hansford. W. R.— Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Hudgins. Cicorgc C. — Second sergeant Norfolk Light I 

.\rt. Blues. 
Hodges, John M.— Private in Norfolk Lieht .\rt. Blues, 
Haines. J. M. D.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Hill, A.— Private in Norfolk Light An. Blues. 
Halstead, R. L.— Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Hallctt, William R.— Private in Norfolk Light. Art. 

Hatton, John F.— Private in Norfolk Light .^rt. Blues. 
Haughton. .\.. Jr. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Higgins, I. — Private in Norfolk Light An. Blues. 
Higgins. .-X. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Hume. R. G. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Huger, Frank — Captain of Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Prom. lieut.-col. .Art. 
Hamtnett. Israel J. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. 

Herhert, Henrv W. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Hendren, J. Hardy — Captain of .Atlantic Art. 
Hendren. Judson — Second sergeant of .Atlantic Art. 
Haughton, Arniistead — Fifth sergeant of .Atlantic .Art. 
Harris. .Ahraham M. — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 
Higgins. John H. — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 
Hitchings, Ed. T. — Private in L'nited .Art. 
Hundley. James — Private in L'nited .Art. 
Hoggs, George W. — Private in United .Art. 
Hogan, Eugene — Private in L'nited .Art. 
Hansel. Warren — Private in Young's Harbor Guard. — 

Holt. Ed. E. — Private in Young's Harbor Guard. — .Art. 
Hvllcr, Thomas — Private in Young's Harbor Guard. — 

Holland. K. H. — Private in Riley's Battery. — .Art. 
Heise. Christian C. — Private in Riley's Battery. — .Art. 
Hancock. Francis A. — Private in Doyle's Cav. 
Holt. William — Private in Stuart's Cav. 
Haynes, Mich. — Private in Stuart's Cav. 
Harris. Hunter — Private in Dearing's Cav. 
Hajiper, George D. W. — Private in Wise's Legion Cav. 
Hope, .A. M.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va, Cav, 
Harrell, Joseph H. — Private in 13th Va. Cav, 
Hancock, William S. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Hawkins. Wallace W. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Hancock, Francis .A. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Harrison. Joseph M.— Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Hardy. J. Henry Clay— Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Hanbury. Miles .A.— Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Hanbury. William T. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Hearring, Edward L.— Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 

Hewlet, .Ambrose — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Holmes, William H. — Private in Co. I', istli Va. Cav. 
Holmes, Henry — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Holland. William— Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Halstead. W. F.— Private in Co. I, 15th Va. Cav. 
Humphries. Samuel — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Hudgins. R. K. — Captain of ordnance dcpt. 
Hyman, F. M. — Fourth corporal Signal Corps. 
Hastings. William T. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Hatton. William L. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Handy. F. .A. G. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Hull. Jacob B. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Halstead. William H. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Handy. Moses P. — Courier. 

Herbert. R. L. — Private in Co. A. Na\al Battalion. 
Hall. E. G. — .Assistant engineer C. S. Navy. 
Harding, William F. — .Assistant engineer C. S, Navy, 
Hughes, B. F. — Gunner C. S. Navy. 
Hasker. Charles J. — Lieutenant C. S. Navy. 
Halstead, George N, — .Assistant surgeon C. S. Navy. 

Ironmonger, James W. — Private in Co. B. 14th \'a. Inf. 
Ironmonger. James — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Ives, Jesse — Sergeant of Co. D. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Ives, Walter C. — Third lieutenant of Co. E. 6ist Va. 

Ives. .Alonzo — Sergeant of Co, E, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Ives. Curtis O. — Corporal of Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ives. Feli.x G. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ironmonger. C. E. — Private in Co. D. cjth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Grimes' Battery. 
Ironmonger. Thomas W. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va, 



Jeam, Cincinnatu? — Private in Mahone's Brigade. 
Janiieson, James D. — Private in Co. F, 33d N, C. Inf. 
Jordan, Miles H. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Janies, George T. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
James, John — Sergeant of Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Jones. John W. — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Jones, Robert C. — Lieutenant of Co. I. 41st Va. Inf. 
Jones. Walter C. — Private in Co. I. 41st Va. Inf. 
■Jennings. Lemuel — Private in Co. A, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Jennings. Wickers P. — Private in Co. -A. 6lst Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
.Tones, Celius W. — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
James. Benjamin — Third lieutenant of Co. C, 6ist Va. 

Inf. Prom, ist lieut. 
James. William H. — Sergeant of Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Jordan. William Thomas — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. 

Jarvis. Thomas — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Jarvis. .Alexander A. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Johnson. .Alonzo — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Johnson. James H. — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
Johnson. John B. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va, Inf. 
Johnson. Lender — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
Jordan, William — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 



Jones. Walter J. — Private in Co. I. 6lst Va. Inf. Prom. 

lieut. 41st Va. Inf. 
Jackson, William A. — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Fur. substitute. 
Jackson, Abner — Private in Co. K. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Jennings, Edward — Private in Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Joliff, John W. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Joynes, William P. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Joynes, Custis T. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Jordan, Alonzo B. — Captain of Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Engr. Corps. 
Jarvis, Benjamin — Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Jordan, James — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
James, Cornelius — Private in Co. F, 3d Va. Inf. 
James, Edward — Private in Co. F, 3d Va. Inf. 
Jovner, Cordv J. — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Joilett, W. H.— Private in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Johnson, Columbus — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Jolinson. Augustus — Private in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Jobson, J. Tyler — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Jarvis, John E. — Private in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Jones, Lucillicus D. — Corporal of Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
Johnson. Thomas — Private in Co. I. oth Va. Inf. 
Jones. Nathan E. K. — Private in Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
Jordan, John L. — Private in Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
Johnigan. Richard — Private in Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
Jordan, O. D.— Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 
Jordan. Joseph W. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
James, George W. — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Jarvis. J. M. — Private in Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 
Jack. John — Private in Co. A. i6th Va. Inf. Det. work 
Navy Yard. 

Judkins. Samuel — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Jones. Robert C— Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 

Joyce. John M. — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 

James. Joseph P. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

James, Richard Y. — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 

Johnson. William W. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

Jordan. Joseph P. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

Jones. John S. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 
Cant. -Gen. Garnet's Staff. 

Jacquimon. A. H. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. Dis- 

Johnson. William B. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 

Johnson. Jacob T. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 

Jacobus. Tuliu.- — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 

Jordan, S. F. — Second corporal of Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 

James, William E. — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 

Johnson, J. Cave — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 

Jenkins. John S. — .^diutant of nth Va. Inf. 

Jones. William H. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 

Jones, George T. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 

Johnson, Ed. H. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 

Johnson. J. W. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Jones. George — Private in Norfolk Light .-Vrt. Blues. 

"joynes, S. H.^Private in Norfolk Light .-Xrt. Blues. 

Joynes, W. C. — Private in Norfolk Li.eht .-^rt. Blues. 

Johnson. A. W. — Private in Norfolk Light .-Xrt. Blues. 

James, Robert T. — Private in Norfolk Lieht .\rt. Blues. 

Jordan, Joseph A. — Second corporal of Norfolk Light 
Art. Blues. 

Joynes, Thomas C. — Sixth sergeant of .\tlantic Art. 

Jones, John W. — Private in United Art. 

James, Stephen — Private in Art Co. — Richmond. 

Johnston, James — Mustering and inspecting officer — - 

Huger's Div. 
Jennings, Noah M. — Private in Co. F. Tjth Va. Cav. 
Jordan. Edward — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Joliff, Josiah — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Johnson. James V. — Private in Co. F. 15th \'a. Cav. 

Trans, to navy. 
James, William A. — Private in Signal Corps. 
James. Rowland — Private in Signal Corps. 
Jenkins. Charles E. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Johnston. Charles H. — Courier, Gen. Pemberton. 
Jones, J. Pembroke — Lieutenant C. S. Navy. 
Jeffrey, Richard — Surgeon C. S. Navy. 
Jackson. Thomas .•\. — Chief engineer C. S. Navy. 
Jordan. M. P. — Assistant engineer C. S. Navy. 
Jordan, Charles W. — Assistant engineer C. S. Navy. 
Jordan. John R. — Assistant engineer C. S. Navy. 
Johnson. John C. — .Assistant engineer C. S. Navy. 
Jack. .'Mexander E. — Assistant engineer C. S. Navy. 
Johnson, ,\mes C. — Engineer C. S. Navy. 
Jones. John — Seaman C. S. Navy. 


King, George — Private in Jackson's Div. 
Kuhn. Thomas C. — Private in Co. I. ,-?8th Va. Inf. 
Kirby. John H. — Sergeant of Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Kirby. William H. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Knight, William H.— Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Keaton. Samuel — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Kinsey. James M. — Private in Co. B, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Kinsey. William H. — Private in Co. B, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Kinsey, Samuel — Private in Co. B. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Kher, William — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Keeling. Joseph — Private in Co. D. 61 st Va. Inf. 
King, Joseph — Private in Co. I. 6ist Va. Inf. 
King, Edward — Private in Co. I. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Kilgore. M, P. — Private in Co. I. 6ist Va. Inf. Prom. 

Keeling. Robert N. W. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Kilgore. Malory — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Kitchen, Enos I. — Private in Co. E. 3d Va. Inf. 
King. James — First sergeant of Co. F. 3d Va. Inf. 
King. Moscoe — Private in Co. F. 3d Va. Inf. 
Kilby. John — Private in Co. F, 3d Va. Inf. 
Kirby, Johnson — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Keeling. William — Private in Co. H. -(d Va. Inf. 
Kelsick. John R.— Private in Co. G. 9th Va, Inf. 
Kilbv. John T. — Captain of Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. .\p. 

Surgeon C. S. A. 1862. 
Keeter. W. W.— Cantain of Co. T. 9th Va. Inf. 
King, Thomas — Captain of Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
King. Jatnes — Captain of Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
Kearns, Edward — Captain of Co. K, 9th \'a. Inf. 
Kilbv. W. T. — Private in Co. K. 9th \'a. Inf. Trans. 

Norfolk L. A. Blues. 
Keeling. Joseph W. — Private in Co. K. oth \'a. Inf. 
King. Leslie R. — Private in Co. K. 9th Va. Inf. Ap. 

engineer in navy. 
King, Leonard J. — Lieutenant of Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 
Karn, Joseph H. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Kelly, William— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Kerr, Edward — Private in Co. G, 6th \'a. Inf. i 



King. J. Barry— Private in Co. G, 6th \'a. Inf. Prom. 

.<crgt.-niaj. 6th \'a. Inf. 
Keeling. Solomon S. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans. Med. Dept. 1861. 
Kccfe. George T. — Fir^t corporal of Co. H, 12th \'a. 

Kellnm. W. P. M.— Private in Co. H, i.'th \'a. Inf. 
Kceley. Harrison — First sergeant of Co. C, 13th Va. 

King. George \V.— Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Keeling. John L. — Commissary sergeant of Norfolk 

Light .\rt. Blues. 
Ki<k. Richard — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Krou-e. John H. — Private in .Atlantic .'\rt. 
Knowles. Daniel — Second lieutenant of United Art. 
Knight. George — -Private in L'nited .Art. 
Kirsh. John H. — Private in Young's Harbor Guard — 

Kennedy. John — Private in Xaval Battalion. 
King. Charles K. — Lieutenant C. S. Xavy. 
King. Goodman — Seaman C. S. Navy. 
King. Leslie G. — .\ssisiant engineer C. S. Navy. 

Lester. J. T.— Private in Co. B. ist N. C. Inf. 
Lee. Daniel W. — Sergeant of Co. G. 4th N. C. Inf. 
L>Tich, Samuel — Private in Co. — . 7th N. C. Inf. 
Luke. G. G. — Lieutenant-colonel of 56th N. C. Inf. 
Lair<l. W. Samuel — Private in Co. — , ist Va. Inf. 
Lamhcth. Robert T. — Private in Co. — . 26th Va. Inf. 
Lcath. Josiah — First sergeant of Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Lambert. Thomas J. — Private in Co. I. .38th Va. Inf. 
Lamonte. Joshua — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Lamonte. Henry — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. | 

Lambert. John X. — Private in Co. I. .38th Va. Inf. 
Lambert. Henry J. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Land. Henry — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Lowe. John Z. — Corporal of Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. } 

Lowe. William J. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Lockhart. Benjamin H. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. \ 
Lynch, Onessimus M. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Lewis. .Abner — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Lynch. John — Private in Co. .\. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Lynch. LcRoy — Private in Co. .A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Lee. .Me.xander O. — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Lee. Madison — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Lee. John J. — Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Lindsay, .\mbrose H. — Second lieutenant of Co. B, 6ist 

Va. Inf. 
Lupton. J. VV. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Lee. Willis— Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Lester. .A. E. — Drummer of Co. D, 61st Va. Inf. 
Lane. James E. — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Lindon. Mitchell — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Las^iter. Janien — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Lewton. William — Private in Co. K. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Liverman. Hardy — Private in Co. .A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Livcrman. Maurice — Private in Co. .V. 3d Va. Inf. 
Lumber. William H. — Fourth corporal of Co. B. 3d 

\'a. Inf. 
Leggett. Walter — Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Loudoun. James T. — Private in Co. B. 3d Va. Inf. 
Lawrence, .\lbert — Private in Co. F. 3d Va. Inf. 

Lassiter. James — Private in Co. F, 3d Va. Inf. 

Lingo, John W.- — Third lieutenant of Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 

Lee. Charles P.— Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 

Lash, Joseph — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 

Linscot, David — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 

Lash, James — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 

London, J. T. — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 

Lanier. Thomas J. — Private in Co. A. gth Va. Inf. 

Linn, George — Lieutenant of Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 

Linn. Charles B. — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Grimes' Battery. 
Long. L. C. — Private in Co. D. gth \'a. Inf. 
Land. James W. T. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Lattimer. John W. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Lewis, George W. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Lewcr, Henry B. — Sergeant of Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Lewis. William — Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Litchfield. Jacob — Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Lewis. Ambrose — Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Lassiter. John — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Lewis. Jacob — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Langhorne. John C. — Private in Co. K, gth \"a. Inf. .\p. 

capt's. clerk in Navy. 
Lash, John W.— Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. Det. 

with sharpshooters of Regt. 
Lattimer. Charles W.— Private in Co. C, l6th \'a. Inf. 

Trans, to Navy. 
Linn. John — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Lynch. Stephen — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Lee. Ivy — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Lamb. William— Captain of Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Col. 36th N. C. Inf. 
Land. Thomas F.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Lawrence. George W. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Lester. John T.— Second lieutenant of Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Langley, William H. — First corporal of Co. G, 6th Va. 

Inf. Det. Commissary Dept. 1863. 
Langhorne. William W.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Lawson, Adrain S. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Co. A. 5th Va. Cav. 1864. 
Laylor, George — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Lewis, George E. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Lovett. Edward J.— Private in Co. H. uth Va. Inf. 
Lewis, Thomas J— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Lewis, William— Private in Co. H. T2th Va. Inf. 
Longworth. James — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Lufsey, James — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Lanier, Samuel — Private in .Art. Corns. 
Lewis, Robert — Private in Portsmouth I ight .Art. 
Lynch, Wilson B. — Private in Portsmouth Liglu .Art. 
Liverman. H. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Lee, L. M., Jr.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Land. W. A.— Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
LeCompte, J. W.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Lee, F. D.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Levitt, R. C— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Lovitt, H. C— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Lattimer. Carlton C. — Fourth Corporal of Norfolk Light 

Art. Blues. 
Lipscomb. Charles R.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Legett. Robert— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blue.s. 
Leary, William — Fourth corporal of .Atlantic .Art. 
Lambert, Henry — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 



LeDoyne, John H. — Private in Atlantic Art. 

Lakin. Edward — Second lieutenant of United Art. 

Lacoste. Emanuel — Musician in United Art. 

Lacoste. Samuel — Musician in United Art. 

Lacoste, Eugene — Musician in United Art. 

Land. George \V. — Private in United Art. 

Lovely. George — Private in L'nited Art. 

Lawrence. David — Private in L'nited Art. 

Lewis. John — Third lieutenant of Young's Harbor 

Guard — Art. 
Lukeland. Straughan — Private in Co. H. gth Va. Cav. 
Lee. James W. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Larke. Robert W. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Lockheart, John — Private in Co. F. 15th Va: Cav. 
Leigh. Roscoe — Private in Co. L 15th Va. Cav. 
Lathrop. William B. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Levy. Richard B. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Livesay. James E. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Lyell. George E. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Lindsay. A. L. — Major of Signal Corps. 
Luke. \V. F. — Engineer in C. S. Navy. 
Langley. Lemuel — blaster in C. S. Navy. 
Levy. Charles H. — .Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 
Lindsay, Hugh — Carpenter in C. S. Navy. 


Marrow. William C. — Quartermaster. 

Myrick, John D. — Captain and asst. adjt. gen. 

Moore. George T. — Private in Morris' Guards. 

Martin. Joseph B. — Sergeant-major of 4th N. C. Inf., 

and 14th N. C. Inf. 
Martin. George G. — Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Reserves. 
!Maver. John F. — Sersjeant of Co. A. 3d Va. Reserves. 
Mills. William H.— Private in Co. C,"i8th Va. Inf. 
Miller. Goodson — Private in Co. F, 26th Va. Inf. 
McFall. J. C— Private in Co. D. 28th Va. Inf. 
Mallnry. Francis — Colonel of 56th Va. Inf. 
Martin, George A. — Captain of Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 

Prom, lieut.-col. 
;\Iorris, A. W.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Martin. William — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Mott. Lewis — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
May. Joseph S. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Morse. Henry — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Minor. William B.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Murden. John F. — Sergeant of Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Merchant. Francis M. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 

Prom. Lieut, of Co. K. 
Miller. William H.— Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
McClanen. Wilson L. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Murphy. William J. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Murphy. James T. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Murden. Samuel — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Murden. Reuben — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Murden. Henry — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Murden. Caniillus — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
.Manning, Canning — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
McPherson. Robert — Private in Co. F. /list Va. Inf. 
Miller. W. H.— Private in Co. F. /list Va. Inf. 
Morecock. J. H. — Private in Co. G. 41st Va. Inf. 
Morecock, Thomas J. — Private in Co. G. 41st Va. Inf. 
Moore. Walter S. — Ensign in 6ist Va. Inf. 

Mansfield. Laban — Corporal of Co. A, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Mahoney. William — Musician of Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Mathias, Simon — Private in Co. A, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Morgan, W. P.— Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Morgan, A. C. — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Miller. J. J. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Miller, J. H.— Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Miller, Lovett— Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mercer, Samuel M. — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Murphy, T. O. C— Private in Co. A. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Morgan, John J. — Private in Co. A, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Martin. Charles — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mathias. Hilliard W. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Maund. David W. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
McClanan, Henry B. — Private in Co. B. 6ist \'a. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
McPherson. Jesse — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Miles. .\. W.— Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Mercer. Jacob B. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Miller. Jesse — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mills. James— Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Marchant. Johnston — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mansfield. Mathias — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mercer. Samuel — Private in Co. C. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Miller. Frederick — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mathews. Ephraim — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mercer. James P. W. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Miller, Peter F. — Private in Co. C. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Miller. Peleg — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Melson. Henry — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
McPherson. James M. — Private in Co. C. 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Moore, William — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mathews. Elbert — Private in Co. D. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Miller. Philip — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Moore, William J. — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Marsh. Ben. — Private in Co. D. 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Maj'o. George Washington — Private in Co. D. 61 st \'a. 

Murray, John T. — Private in Go. D. 61st Va. Inf. 
McPherson, Peter — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mansfield. Edward L. — Corporal of Co. H. 6ist A"a. Inf. 
Miller, Christopher — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Miller. J. F.— Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mansfield. James — Private in Co. H. 6ist \'a. Inf. 
McWider. William H.— Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mansfield. Willoughby — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
Mears. Thomas — Private in Co. H. 6ist \'a. Inf. 
McTyre. Robert W. — Private in Co. H. 6ist \"a. Inf. 

Prom, corporal. 
McGlone. J. — Private in Co. H. fust Va. Inf. 
Morris, William H. — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Melson. Levi — Private in Co. H. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Mitchel, John — Private in Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Mason, William — Private in Co. I. 6ist Ya. Inf. 
Manning. S. D. — Private in Co. I. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Marchant. F. M. — Private in Co. I. 61 st Va. Inf. Prom. 

1st lieut. 
Mears. Thomas F. — Private in Co. I. 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Martin. Fred — Third sergeant of Co. .■\. 3d ^'a. Inf. 

Prom. 1st lieut. 
Miller. Patrick H. — Private in Co. A. 3(1 \'a. Inf. Prom. 

1st sergt. 
Morse, Luke — Private in Co. A. 3d \'a. Inf. 



McGuire. Dudley P.— Privau- in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Ky. Rcgt. ass't. sur. 
McConnt'I. G. B. — Private in Co. A. yl Va. Inf. 
Matliicson. .Alf.x. C. — First sergeant of Co. B. 3d Va. 

Inf. Elected lieut. 
Moran, William — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Morrisctt. Peter — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Mnrdcn, Joslui.i — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Mitchell. George W. — First lieut. of Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Mahone. Richard — First sergeant of Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Mitchell. Benianiin — First sergeant of Co. H. 3d Va. 

Merkle. George — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Mahoney. James H. — Private in Co. H, 3d \'a. Inf. 
Mahone, Harrison — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Mahone. Wilnier — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
McElwee. .Andrew — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
McFarland. William — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. • 
Mclntyre, George — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Moore, Fred E. — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Minter. .Andrew — Private in Co. D. gth \'a. Inf. Trans. 

fo Grimes' Battery. 
Morris. William T. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Matthews. J:)lin W. — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Mvers, Thomas H. — Orderlv sergeant of Co. D. gth Va. 

Morris, Frank — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. Trans 

to Co. I, 15th Va. Cav. 
Mathews. W. R. — Private in Co. G. oth Va. Inf. 
Monte. William G. — Private in Co. G, oth \'a. Inf. 
Murphy, Enos — Private in Co, G. gth Va. Inf. 
Moreland, J. B. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Myers. Stephen H. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Morgan. James W. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Mathews. H. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
"Moore, Joseph P. — Private in Co. K, gth \"a. Inf. 

Trans, to Norfolk L. .A. Blues. 
Myers, Robert W. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Morris. Charles S. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Manning. James — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Mercer. James — Private in Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 
McCov. Francis — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
McCoy. Martin V. B.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va, Inf. 
McPherson. Noah — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Moreland, Robert .A. — Private in Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 
Moreland. W. H.— Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Mnndcn, Nathan — Private in Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 
McKenny. William N. — Captain of Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Not re-elected 1862. 
Moore, Henry L. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Monroe. Thomas E. — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Messick. William J. — Private in Co. A. 6th \'a. Inf. 
Mason. .Alex. — First corporal of Co. C. 6th \'a. Inf. 
Moore, W. F. — .Sergeant of Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Minnis. Clinton C— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Morris, Frank — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Moreland, Robert — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Martin. Samuel J.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Martin. Jo-lnia— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
McLean. William— Fifth sergeant of Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Marsden. B. A.— Private in Co. G. 6th Vii. Inf. Prom. 

2d lieut. P. A. C. S. 

Merritt, John B. — Private in Co. G. 6th \'a. Inf. 
Moore. Walter S. — Private in Co. d. 6th \'a. Inf. Prom. 

sergt. -maior 6ist Va. Inf. 
McPhail. Charles H.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va, Inf. 
McKenny. William N. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Det. .Army Intelligence office 1862. 
Murray, John — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Fur. subst. 
Myrick, David — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Milhado, .A. G. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Trans. 

Signal Corps i86j. 
Mapp, Richard .A. — Private in Co. G. 6th \'a. Inf. Trans. 

Signal Corps 1862. 
Marsden. James B. — Private in Co. G. 6th \'a. Inf. 

Prom. Lieut. Provost Guard. 
Morris, Jesse S. — Private in Co. G. 6th \'a. Inf. Prom. 

Med. Dept. 
Mallory, Charles O'C— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Sergt. -Maj. 55th Va. Regt. l86r. 
Mordecai. Philip M.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Mannix, W. R.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Mitchell, Edward F.— Private in Co. H. 6th \'a. Inf. 

Det. not with Co. 
Moore. John A. — Private in Co. H. I2tli Va. Inf. 
Marks, R. .A.— Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Moreland. James — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Moreland. Thomas — Private in Co. H, 12th \'a. Inf. 
.Murray. James T. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Mayer. Lew-is — Private in Co, H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Mayer. William— Private in Co. H. 12th \'a. Inf. 
McNamara, John R. — Private in Co. H. 12th \'a. Inf. 
Morris. James E. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Mahoney, William B. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Moreland. Edward — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
.Montgomery. Richard — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
McHorncy. Stephen — Private in Portsmouth Liglit .Art. 
Miller, P. H. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Morgan. .A. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Miles, Henry — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Matthews. Edward — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Matthews. John W.— Private in Port-mouth Light .Art. 
Murphy. John — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
McDonnell. Alexander H. — Private in Portsmouth 

Light Art. 
March, Edward G. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Myers. William T. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Murray. Dennis — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Miller. Thomas E. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Miller. John — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Montague, W. D. — Corjjoral in Norfolk Light .Art. 

McKown, C. K, — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Moore. Joseph P.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
McGuire, J. B. — Private in Norfolk Liglit .Art. Blues. 
Morse, B. N. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Maupin. G. W. O.. Jr.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Malborn. O. L. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Masi, F. J. — Private in Norfolk Li.ght .Art. Blues. 
Moore, J. E. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
McCarrick. D. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Moore. Joseph D. — Second lieutenant of Norfolk Light 

-Art. Blues. Prom, to captain. 
Merwin. W. F. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 



Mitchell. T. G.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Moreland, Richard R. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Morris. G. W. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Morris, Joseph — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Marrow, William C. — First lieutenant of Atlantic Art. 
Mathias, David — Fourth sergeant of Atlantic Art. 
Mathias, Henry B. — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Murray, John T. — Private in United Art. 
McCarty, Neal — Private in United Art. 
Manning. A. J. — Private in United Art. 
Murray, George — Private in United Art. 
Maloye, Jack— Private in United Art. 
Morris, John — Private in United Art. 
Miller. Redman — Private in United Art. 
Murray. John C. — Third sergeant of Young's Harbor 

Guard — Art. 
Martin, John — Private in Young's Harbor Guard — Art. 
Morrison, Joseph — Private in Young's Harbor Guard — 

Murphv. Thomas — Private in Young's Harbor Guard — 

Madison. James H. — Private in Parker's Art. 
Marsden. F. C. — Private in Richmond Howitzers — Art. 
McKenny, James M. — Private in Richmond Howitzers 

Martin. James G, — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Martin, James E. — Private in Co. F, isth Va. Cav. 
McPherson. Thomas G. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Mears. Elvington R. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Miller. Augustus — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Miller. James — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
McClanhan. John H. — Private in Co. — . 15th Va. Cav. 
Miller, John — Private in Capt. Cooper's 8th Va. Cav. 
McDonald, Edward — Private in i6th Va. Cav. 

Mapp, Richard A. — Third sergeant in Signal Corps. 
Martin, Eugene S. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Moore. F. M. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Maund. David W. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Minter. William R. — Private in Naval Brigade. 
Mcintosh, Charles F. — Commander C. S. Navy. 
McCarrick. Patrick — Lieutenant in C. S, Navy. 
Minor, Lewis D. — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
McClenakan. W. F. — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
Mayo. VV'yndlean R. — Master in C. S. Navy. 
Mallory, C. K. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 

McMahon. Hugh in C. S. Navy. 

AlcCarrick. P. H. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 
McBlair, William — Master's mate in C. S. Navy. 
Murdaugli. William H. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Mnrdaugh. John W. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Manning. Edward W. — Chief engineer in C. S. Navy. 
Meads. R. J. — Carpenter in C. S. Navy. 
Mahoney, E. A. — Sailmaker in C. S. Navy. 
McBlair, Charles R. — Master's mate in C. S. Navy. 


Nichols. John T.— Private in Co. A, 8th N. C. Inf. 
Needom. Wilson— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Nash. V. W.— Lieutenant in Co. — , 32d Va. Inf. 
Nash. Cincinnatu? — Private in Co. A, 41st Va. Inf. 
Prom, sergt. 

Nash, Henry — Private in Co. A. 41st Va. Inf. 
Nichols, Thomas J. — Private in Co. B, 41st Va. Inf. 
Nichols, Willoughby — Private in Co. B, :iist Va. Inf. 
Nichols, James — Private in Co. B. 41st Va. Inf. 
Northern. James — Private in Co. C, 41st Va. Inf. 
Nash, James E. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Nicholson, Allen F. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Nash, John C. — Third corporal of Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Nash, James E. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Nash. William H.— Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Norsworthy, Francis — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Nichols, Thomas J. — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Nichols, Jerry — Private in Co, H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Nottingham, Jacob — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Newman, John B. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Nash, Richard James — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Niemeyer, John C. — First lieutenant in Co. I, gth Va. 

Neville, William A. — Private in Co. K. 9th Va. Inf. 
Nelson. John — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Nellums, William— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Nottingham. Obadiah — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Newton, Thomas — Private in Co. F. 6th Va. Inf. 
Nottingham, W. W.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Naw. V. J.— Private in Co. E. 12th Va. Inf. 
Norfleet, Nathaniel — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Norwood, John W. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Nunnaly. E. J. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Newby, S. W. — Private in Portsniouth Light Art. 
Nash, John H. — Orderly sergeant in Norfolk Light 

Art. Blues. 
Nash. W. — Private in Norrolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Newton, — . — . — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Ninuno, P. E. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Norvell, C. R.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Nelson. Richard — Fourth sergeant in United Art. 
Nimmo, John — Lieutenant in Richmond Howitzers — .\rt. 
Northern, James L. — First lieutenant in Co. F, 15th Va. 

Nicholas, Willoughby L. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. 

Norsworthy, Joseph C. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Nash. William C. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Newton, Virginiu.s^Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 
Nash, D. M. W.— Master in C. S. Navy. 
Nelson, L. J. — Boatswain in C. S. Navy. 
Niemeyer. Woodis H. — Captain's clerk in C. S. Navy. 


Omler. Joseph — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 

Old. W. W.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. Prom. 

captain and A. A. G. 
Old. George D. — Corporal in Co. .\. 6ist Va. Inf. Prom. 

captain and commissary. 
Only, Naheriah — Private in Co. .A.. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Overton, C. N.— Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Overton. Grandy — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Only, William H. — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Overton, Samuel S. — Private in Co. C. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Only, John— Private in Co. D. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Only, James — Private in Co. D. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Only, Thomas E. — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Outens, John — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 



Only, .•\bsa1oni — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Only. Alexander — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Osborne. Raison — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ottley. William X. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Owens. George — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Only. Hallowell— Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Only, Joseph — Private in Co. H, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Oglevi. Cieorge — Corporal in Co. I. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Outten. William — Second corporal in Co. B, 3d Va. 

Inf. Prom. 3d sergt. 
0"Donnell. Patrick — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Owens. John C. — Captain of Co. G, 9th \'a. Inf. Prom. 

Col. 9th Va. Inf. 
Owens. A. B. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Owens, Edward M. — Private in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Oliver, William J. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 1 

Owens, Thomas C. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. ! 

Owens, Ammon H. — Private in Co. C. 6th ^'a. Inf. 
Oakley, Thomas — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Owens. John — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Owens. Thomas F. — Captain of Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Owens, William T. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Oakham, Thoinas J. — Lieutenant in Portsmouth Light i 

Overman, Quinton — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Oniel. Charles — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Orgain, Jolui G. — Captain of Co. C. i8th Battalion Art. 
Old, John F. — Fourth sergeant in Co. F, 15th \'a. Cav.. j 
Old. James Y. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Owens, John — Gunner in C. S. Xavy. 

Pedrick. C. M. — Hospital steward. 
Pierce. Thomas W. — Alajor and commissary. 
Ponlock. Robert G. — .A.ssistant adjutant general. 
Pittman. Jolin C. — Private in Co. K, 2d K. C. Inf. 
Penden, John L.. — Private in Co. H, 2d N. C. Cav. 
Powell. John — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Peyton. James .\. — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Pugh, Abraham — -Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Peed. Charles W.— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Ponlock, .\rthur E. — Captain of Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Portlock, William F. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Portlock. Dempsy — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Pherral, Isaac — Private in Co, F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Pritchard. Wiley — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Pritchard. Joseph — Private in Co. .■\, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Parsons. Johnson T. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Parker. Peter— Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Powers. Wesley — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Co. C. 
Paul. William James — Private in Co. C. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Powers, John — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Parker. George — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Portlock. Gustavus W. — First sergeant in Co. E, 61 st 

Va. Inf. 
Pitt, .\ugustus R. — Sergeant in Co. E. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Portlock. Thomas E. — Private in Co. E, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Peek. Calvin L. — Corporal in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. Prom. 

Peek, .\mmon — Private in Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Peel. Thomas — Private in Co. I. 6i3t Va. Inf. 

Porter, Thomas — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Parker. William S. — ^Private in Commissary Dcpt. Va. 

Peaks, John D. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Parker, William — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Signal Corps. 
Parsons. William H. — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Navy. 
Powell. Benjamin F. — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Peed, Julian — Private in Co. H, 3d \'a. Inf. 
Peed, Leroy S. — Private in Co. D. oth \'a. Inf. 
Pitt. L. D.— Private in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. Trans, to 

Phillips. .Michael — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Pliillips. William R. — Private in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Pugh. Lindsay — Private in Co. G. 9th Ya. Inf. Det. to 

work in Navy Yard. 
Prentis, Joseph — Sergeant in Co. I, 9lh \'a. Inf. 
Parker, Thomas — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Parker, W. J. — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Parker, Willis M.— Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 
Pierce, Thomas W. — Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 

Ap. Major and Quartermaster. 
Pierce, William H. — Private in Co. K, 9th \'a. Inf. 
Porter, John W. H. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Signil Corps. 
Poulson. George — Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Perkinson. Charles W. — Second lieutenant in Co. .\, 

6th \"a. Inf. Elected Capt. 1862. 
Pitts, Marcellus — Private in Co. A, 6tli Va. Inf. 
Phillips, Thomas W. — First lieutenant in Co. C, 6th 

Va. Inf. 
Padgett, Timothv D. — Fourth sergeant in Co. C, 6th 

Va. Inf. 
Peters. John — Private in Co. C. 6th \'a. Inf. 
Powell, Henry — Private in Co, C, 6th \'a. Inf. 
Peed, John W. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Pitt, William J.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Parr, William — Private in Co, D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Purdy. John J.— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Parsons. Elias -\. — Private in Co. F, 6th Va. Inf. 
Pentz. George McK. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans. Maryland Line 1862. 
Portlock. Robert G. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Sergt.-Maj. gth Va. Inf. 1862. 
Plummer. Joshua — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Peek, William N.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Pierce. Elisha — Private in Co. I, 6th Va. Inf. 
Peed, W. .\.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Pope, John — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Phillips, Devereu.x M. — Private in Co. I. 12th Va. Inf. 
Parker, Ephraim — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Peed. Robert — Private in Portsmouth. Li,ght .Art. 
Phillips. William — Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Parker, Thomas — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Peet. William T. — First lieutenant in Norfolk Light 

.\rt. Blues, 
Petty, J. C. — Private in Norfolk Light An. Blues. 
Peet, J. D.— Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Porter. Robert T. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Peed, Fred M. — Third sergeant in Norfolk Light Art. 

Blues. Prom. 2d lieut. 
Parrott. Augustus — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 




Peed, George W. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Phillips. Thomas B. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Patterson. John H. — Private in Atlantic Art. 

Pinkham. Charles — Private in Atlantic Art. 

Porter. Fayette F. — Second sergeant in United Art. 

Pagaud. W. H. — First sergeant in Young's Harbor 
Guard— Art. 

Philpots, A. Q. — Private in Goochland Art. 

Parkerson, William H. — Private in Manley's Battery, — 

Pollard. T. Pollard— Private in Co. A, loth Battalion 

Peters, Osmond — Captain of Art. — Assigned to ord- 
nance duty. 

Parker, Staord H. — Lieutenant of ordnance. 

Parker, George D. — Captain of battery — Fort Fisher. 

Pritchard, Lemuel J. — Third lieutenant in Co. F, i-Sth 
Va. Cav. 

Pritchard. William — Fourth corporal in Co. F, 15th 

Va. Cav. 
Parsons, Napoleon B. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Pitts, Andrew J.— Private in Co. F. isth Va. Cav. 
Petty. William— Private in Co. F, 15th Va. CaV. 
Peyton, Joseph A. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Palmer, George O. N. — Private in Co. L 15th Va. Cav. 
Parker. Robert — Private in Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 
Parker. Joseph A. — Private in Cavalry. 
Parker, William H. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Peters, William R. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Page. Hugh N. — Captain of Virginia Navy. 
Parker, William H. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Parris, Lewi.s — Master in C. S. Navy. 
Pegram, James W. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 
Parker. John H. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Porter, J. L. — Chief constructor in C. S. Navy. 
Pierce. Joseph — Constructor in C. S. Navy. 
Poindexter, C. B. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 


Quillan, John— Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Qullin. Richard H.— Private in Co. L 9th Va. Inf. 
Quinn. Michael— Chief engineer in C. S. Navy. 


Robbins, .\sher. 
Reid. John. 

Ryan. Rev. Abram J. — Chaplain. 
Ricketts, Augustus — Private in Letcher Rangers. 
Rou-e, Allen M.— Private in Co. I. 2d N. C. Inf. 
Richardson, John Q.— Major of S2d N. C. Inf. 
Ross, Joseph— Private in Co. F. 4th Ga. Inf. 
Russell, William P.— Private in Co. L. ^2d Va. Inf. 
Ross. John E.— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Reed, David— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Reed, John— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Ross, Edward— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Rogers, Roderick— Private in Co. 'l, 38th Va. Inf. 
Robinson, William— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Rainy, Malachi— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Revel, John- Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Randolph, James A.— Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 

Roane. Lemuel T. — Orderlv sergeant in Co. C, 26th Va. 

Ried, William M. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Rogers, Charles E. — Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Rolison, John — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Rhoner, John — Private in Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Robertson, David S. — Sergeant in Co. D. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Richardson, Benjamin — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Rutter, Thomas — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Rawson. Charles — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Rudd, William D.— Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Robinson, E. — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ribble, Joseph — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. Fur, 

Rodman. Pierce — Private in Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Ross, George — Corporal of Co. H, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Reed, Littleton D. — Second sergeant in Co. K. 6ist Va. 

Reed. Thomas P. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Read. Charles— Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Richardson. John W. — Drummer in Co. F. 3d Va. Inf. 
Roberts, Thomas — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Rowell. William — Private in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Reed, Robert E.— Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Richardson. William J. — Captain of Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Maj. and Lt.-Col. 9th Va. Inf. 
Revell, Randall — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Robertson, William D. — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Roane. Alonzo B. — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Ruthlege, Anthony — Private in Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
Richardson. George Clay — Private in Co. I. 9th Va. Inf. 
Robinson, James H. — Second lieutenant in Co. K. 9th 

Va. Inf. 
Richardson, John H. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Signal Corps. 
Rodman. Robert C. — Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 
Richardson. N. F.— Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Signal Corps. 
Richardson. Charles E. — Private in Co. K. gth \"a. Inf. 

Trans, to N. C. Regt. 
Reid. Charles — Private in Co. K. 9th Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Signal Corps. 
Rudd. Benjamin — Private in Co. K. gth \'a. Inf. Trans. 

to Signal Corps. 
Riddick, James W. — Private in Co. K. gth \'a. Inf. 

Prom. Capt. and Adjt. N. C. Brig. 
Ramsay. T. — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Roberts, John R.— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Ruthledge, Absalom F. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Robinson. Benjamin — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Ralph, John— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Robertson, Duncan. Jr. — First lieutenant in Co. G. 6th 

Va. Inf. 
Reid. James T. S. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. 1st Lieut. Ord. Stafif. 
Reynolds. Henry S. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Det. Coms. Dept. 1862. 
Robinson, William — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to 32d N. C. Regt. 
Robinson, William C. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Robertson. Gary — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Sergt.-Maj. 1864. 
Robbins, George S. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Rosenburg. Midi. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 



Rowc. Stephen D. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Int. 

Trans, to Co. A. 5th Va. Cav. 1862. 
Rowland. John H. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Int. 

Trans. Co. D. 20th Va. Bat. Heavy .Art. 
Ridky. William G.— Private in Co. G.' 6th Va. Inf. 
Ross. John R.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Int. 
Roberts. Wilhani J. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Reynolds. William C— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Xavy 1863. 
Ranisav. William H. — First sergeant in Co. H. 12th Va. 

Randolph. X. B.— First Sergeant in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Rogers. John M.— First Sergeant in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Robinson. John R.— First Sergeant in Co. H, 12th Va. 

Inf. Prom. Sergt. 1862. 
Russ. Francis — Lieutenant in Portsmouth Light .-Xrt. 
Reynolds. Joseph S. — Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Rogers. F. D. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Reardon. Michael E. — Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Rieger. Joseph — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Rehm. Fred — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Reid. John S.— Private in Norfolk Light .-\rt. Blues. 
Reynolds. Robert E.— Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. 

Roberts. John B.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Rogers. John C— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Rogers. W. H. R.— Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Rainier. J. T. — Corporal in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Rogers. Charles — First corporal in Norfolk Light .\rt. 

Ransomc. .Alexander — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Reed. Nathaniel G. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Robbins. Joseph \V. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Robinson. Edward C. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Rose. Louis — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. .Ab- 
sent — sick. 
Rye. Richard — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Roberts. W. Roy — Second lieutenant in .Atlantic .Art. 
Richard-on. William — Private in -Atlantic .Art. 
Robinson. F. J. — Private in United .Art. 
Rhea. George W. — Private in L'nited .Art. 
Reid. Charles — Private in L'nited -Art. 
Roberts. Henry — Second lieutenant in Young's Harbor 

Guard — .Art. 
Richardson. John F. — Second sergeant in Young's Har- 
bor Guard — .Art. 
Reed. Charles C. — Private in Co. .A. Smith's .Art. 
Robertson. Thomas C. — Private in oth \'a. Cav. 
Robbins. John C. — Private in 24th Va. Cav. 
Reid. William C. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Trans, to Navy 1862. 
Russell. Thomas B. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Ricks. James R. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Reed. Washington — Private in Signal Corps. 
Riley. Otev — C. S. Navy. 

Reardon. L. B. — .Assistant paymaster in C. S. Navy. 
Roots. L. M. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 
Rani-ay. H. .A. — Chief engineer in C. S. Navy. 

Smith. Peter — Private in N. C. Regt. 
Speight. Henry — Private in 68th N. C. Inf. 
Semms. W. C. — Private in Co. .A. 7th N. C. Inf. 
Sadler. W. W.— Private in Co. F. 33d N. C. Inf. 
Smitli. W. D. — Private in Co. .A. 3d N. C. Battalion. 
Sharp. W. D. — Private in Co. F. 40th N. C. Heavy .Art. 
Satclitield. Thomas C. — Private in Co. E. 44th Va. Bat- 
Stringer. James W. — Private in Co. .A, ,38th Va. Inf. 
Sawyer. C. T. — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Smith. James E. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Stringer. Thomas J. — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Smith. W. S. — Corporal in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Shermadine. William — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Sykes. William— Private in Co. I. 38th \'a. Inf. 
Spence. .Abner — Private in Co. I. .38th Va. Inf. 
Sykes. Jesse — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Sykes. James W. — Private in Co. F. aist Va. Inf. 
Sykes. .Alexander F. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Speight. David — Private in Co. F. 41st \'a. Inf. 
Scaff. John D. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Squires. Seth W. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Spivey. Edwin — Private in Co. I. 4lsti Va. Inf. 
Scott. William T. — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Scott. Joseph — Private in Co. A. 6rst Va. Inf. 
Sivells. D. T.— Private in Co. .A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sivells. .Alexander — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va 
Speight. Benjamin F. — Private in Co. 

-Private in Co. .A. 6ist 

A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Va. Inf. Prom. \'a. Inf. 

A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
6ist Va. Inf. 
in Co. A. 6lst "V'a. Inf. 
lieutenant of Co. B. 6ist Va. 

Sykes. W. O. 

Sykes. Joseph — Private in Co. .A 
Sykes. Josephus — Private in Co. 
Sykes, Henry — Private in Co. .A. 
Sykes, J. C. C. — Private 
Stott, Tames .A. — Th'rd 

Inf. Prom. 2d lieut. , 

Saunders. Daniel — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Scarfif. Charles S.— Private in Co. B. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Steel. William W.— Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Stewart. Ash well— Private in Co. B. 61 st Va. Inf. 
.Stewart. Tn/ewcll — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Stewart. William — Private in Co. B, 6Tst Va. Inf. 
Stanley. Samuel — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Stanley. Hillary — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sykes. William — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sykes. George .A. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Simmons. .Ashville — First lieutenant in Co. C. 6ist Va. 

Shirley. John — Sergeant in Co. C. 6lst Va. Inf. 
Stewart. .Adrian D. — Private in Co. C. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Sawyer. Nelson — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Savills. Marcus A. — Private in Co. C. 6Tst Va. Inf. 
Sawyer. Joseph — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Speight. Raynor — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sawyer. Gideon L. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Stewart. David H. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sawyer. William J. — Private, in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. George F. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Singleton. John — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Shepperd. John — Private in Co. D. 6ist \'a. Inf. 



Saunders, William D. B.— Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. 

Stewart, Thomas — Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Stokes, James— Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Stokes, Robert — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va, Inf. 
Stokes, Wilson F. — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Simmons, John R. — Third sergeant in Co. H, 6ist Va. 

Inf. Prom, ist sergt. 
Sorey, John C. — Corporal in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sherwood, John M. — First sergeant in Co. I, 6ist Va. 

Shepherd, Edward C. — Second sergeant in Co. I, 6ist 

Va. Inf. 
Sibley, William— Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
St. George, William E. — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Smith, W. J.— Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sawver, John I. — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Stafford, Richard— Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sykes, Joseph J. — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Stephens, Joseph L. — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Sorey, Evan — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Staylor, Thomas — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. j 

Sullivan, Henry — Sergeant in Co. C, ist Va. Inf. ' 

Simmons, W. A. — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Sawyer, Kader — Private in Co. A, 3d Va. Inf. 
Simmons, Thomas — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 
Smith, George A. — Private in Co. B, 3d Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Navy. 
Sturtevant, William P. — First sergeant in Co. H, 3d 

Va. Inf. 
Sherwood. Robert A. — Corporal in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Smith, James — Third sergeant in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Stoakes, Isaiah — Second sergeant in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Savage, Thomas — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Scott, Robert G.— Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Stoakes, Edward — Private in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 
Southall, J. H. — Surgeon in 5Sth Va. Inf. 
Sale, Henry G. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Skinner, Abraham — Private in Co. D, pth Va. Inf. 
Seacrist, Barclay — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Stublin, William C. — Sergeant in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
Skelling, John C. — First lieutenant in Co. D, gth Va. 

Inf. Not elect, at reorganization. 
Savage, T. A. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Sherwood, O. B. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Sale, John E. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Smith. William F. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Stores, John Wesley — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Savage, William — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Spivey, Jethro — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Sawyer, Albert — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Skeeter, W. J.— Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Small, Benjamin — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Savage. Mike L. — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Spaiilding, John .\. — Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Smith, William Alfred — Private in Co. K, gth Xa. Inf. 

Trans, to Signal Corps 1862. 
Smith, William A. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Savage, T. J. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Signal Corps 1862, 
Smith, Arthur— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Co. I, 15th Va. Cav. 
Sanner, Joseph — First sergeant in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Md. Line 1862. 

Spady, Thomas V. — Private in Co. C, i6th \'a. Inf. 

Det. as Courier. 
Smaw, Daniel G. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Shelton, William Naylor — Corporal in Co. C, i6th Va. 

Inf. Det. to work in Navy Yard. 
Sibley, Robert E. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Scott, Albert A. — Private in Co. C, 16th Va. Inf. Det. 

Hosp't. Steward. 
Stringer, Thomas D, — Fourth corporal in Co. A, 6th 

Va. Inf. 
Steward, George H. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Lieut. 
Stott, Samuel — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Sheppard, James H. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Spratt, Stewart M. — Third sergeant in Co. C, 6th Va. 

Inf. Prom, ist lieut. 
Shipp, William T. — Private in Co. C. 6th \'a. Inf. 
Small, Caleb — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Sledd, Joshua — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Sigman, Jehu, Jr. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Sigman, Peter— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Sigman, Joseph M. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Stanly, Robert J. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Sheppard, John H. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Stine, William — Third corporal in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Swift, William H.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom, sergt. 
Scarft, William — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Spencer, Levi — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Smith, John F. — Private in Co. F, 6th Va. Inf. 
Simmons, Albert B. — Third sergeant in Co. G. 6th Va. 

Styron, Oscar M. — Second corporal in Co. G. 6th Va. 

Seal, John R.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Smith, Johnathan K. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Segar, John — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Trans, to 

Co. H, 38th Va. Inf. 1862. 
Saunders, Palmer — Private in Co. G, 6th \'a. Inf. Ap. 

Midshipman in Navy. 
Stokes, Montford N.— Private in Co. G. 6th Xa. Inf. 

Prom. Lieut. Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Sharp, John H. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

2d Lieut. P. \. C. S. 1861. 
Stone, George F. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Segar, Arthur S. — Private in Co, G, 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Lieut, in another regt. 
Shipp, John S. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Smith, Henry — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Smoot, William — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Dis- 
charged 1862. 
Southgate, Lewellyn — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Ap. Sergt. -Maj. Col. Godwin's command. 
Stone, David D. — Private in Co. G. 6th ^■a. Inf. 
Seal, William B. — Private in Co. G. 6th \'a. Inf. .\p. 

Hosp't. Steward 1862. 
Smith, Josiah H. — First lieutenant in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Smith, Alexander M. — First corporal in Co. H, 6th 

Va. Inf. Prom. Color-bearer 6th Va. Inf. 
Simmons, John L. — Fourth corporal in Co. H, 6th Va. . 

Smith, Andrew — Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Int. 
Smith. John E. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Corporal — Trans, to Navy 1863. 




, Inf. 

in Richmond Howitzers^ — 

in Riclnnond Howitzers — 

Stubl).-. William J.— Private in Co. H, 6tli \'a. Inf. 

Det. Provost Guard. 
Strvkcr. Martin— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Svkes, William A.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Scott. William T.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Seldner. Isaac — First sergeant in Co. H, 6th Va. 
Sale. John F. — Fourth sergeant in Co. H, 12th Va. 

Prom. Lieut. 1864. 
Shelton. E. W. — Fourth corporal in Co. H, I2tli Va 
Shepherd. John S.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Stone. William— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Scrihner, James D. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Shipp. Josiah P.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf, 

Trans, to Co. G. 1862. 
Sinicoc, Augustus — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Starke. .-X. W. — Lieutenant-colonel -Art. 
Smith. Francis — Major Heavy Art. 

Saunders. John S. — Lieutenant-colonel attached to Ord- 
nance Dept.. C. S. A. 
Saunders, Hunter — Private 

Santos. Alexander — Private 

Swain. William — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Stoakes. Joseph M. — Private in Portsmoutli Light Art. 
Stoakes. H. C. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Shephard. Edward J. — Private in Portsmoutli Light Art. 
Stores. Richard — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Spragg. .Aaron — Private in Portsmouth Liglit .\rt. 
Saundcr-i. Robert — Private in Portsmoutli Light Art. 
Sheppard. William E. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Snow. John \\". — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Stores. James — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Summers. E. T. W. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Straub. E. G. — Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Saunders. S. S. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Sebrell. \. C. H.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Smiley. C. D. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Sterrett. J. S. — Private in Norfolk Light .\vt. Blues. 
Segar. T. F. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Smith. E. C. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Smith. James W. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Smythe. William — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Stewer. Edwin — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Swank. W. A. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Smith. C. A.. Jr. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Smith. J. E.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Simmons. J. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Smilev. Thomas S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Stephens, Richard H.. Jr.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Summers. William R. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Stephens, John W. — Third corporal in Norfolk Light 

Art. Blues. Prom, ist Sergt. 
Sale. John H.. Jr. — Third lieutenant in .Atlantic Art. 
Scott, Robert— Private in Atlantic Art. 
Sharpley. John J. — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Solon. Thomas — Private in United Art. 
Smith. George — Private in United Art. 
Smith. John D. — Private in L'nited Art. 
Stokes. James — Private in L'nited Art. 
Snider, John — Private in United Art. 

Scott, Wyatt W.— Private United .Art. 

Sadler, George — Corporal in Young's Harbor Guard- 

Simpson, W. W. — Private in Doyle's Cav, 

Swann, Christopher M. — Private in Co. A. 5th Va. Cav. 

Skeeter, Joseph — Private in Co. C. 13th Va. Cav. 

Spivey, Jetliro — Private in Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 

Spivey, Henry — Private in Co. C. 13th Va. Cav. 

Stokes, Lemuel — Private in , 13th Va. Cav. 

Smith, William T. — 2nd sergeant in Co. F. isth \'a. Cav. 

Simpson, William — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 

Stroud, Cornelius — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 

Svkes. Cornelius — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. Fur. 
Subst. 1862. 

Sanderlin, John W. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Trans, to N. C. Regt. 

Silvester, Keeling — Private in Co. ¥. 15th Va. Cav. 

Steward, Solomon — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Sadler, Robert — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 

Slack. Edward — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Smith, Samuel — Private in Co. I, 15th Va. Cav. 

Stabury. William H. — Private in Signal Corps. 

Spooner, .Alfred B. — Private in Signal Corps. 

Selden. William — Captain in Engineers C. S. A. 

Sale. George L. — Hospital steward. 

Sinclair. Arthur — Commander in C. S. Navy. 

Spottswood. C. F. M. — Commander in C. S. Navy. 

Sinclair. George T. — Commander in C. S. Navy. 

Sinclair. Arthur, Jr. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 

Sharp, William — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 

Skinner, Thomas L. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 

Sinclair, W. B. — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 

Saunders. Palmer — Midsliipman in C. S. Navy. 

Sinclair, W. H. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 

Schisano, Stephen — (junncr in C. S. Navy. 

Smith, W. T. — Boatswain in C. S. Navy. 

Skinner, W. W. — Master's mate in C. S. Navy. 

Smith. William — Master's mate in C. S. Navy. 

Sinclair, W. B. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 

Sullivan, Robert — Petty officer in C. S. Navy. 

Schroeder. Charles — Chief engineer in C. S. Navy. 

Shannon, Jesse C. — Assistant surgeon in C. S. N'avy. 

Seay. Robert — In C. S. Navy. 

Sullivan, Anthony — In C. S. Navy. 

Toomer, Charles H. — Lieutenant in 41st Ala. Inf. 

Toomer, Shelton — Private in 3rd Ala. Inf. 

Tripple, W. F. — Commissary sergeant in I. N. O. L. 

Guards, ist La. Regt. 
Tufts, O. — Captain in Co. A, isl Ga. Inf. 
Trinieger. George M. — Private in Co. G .i^th Va. Inf. 
Tucker. W. H.— Private in Co. I. 38th V-.x'.'li^f. 
Tucker. Samuel — Private in Co. I. 38th Va Inf. 
Tebault. Daniel — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Tripple, Charles — Private in Co. I. 38th Va Inf. 
Tart, George T. — Sergeant in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Tatem. .Arthur H. — Corporal in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Tatem, Nathaniel C. — Private in Co. F. 4rst \'a. Inf. 
Tatem, Elijah — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Tatem, John W. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Taylor. James F.— Private in Co. F. 41 st Va. Inf. 
Toy, James — Musician in Co. .A. 6ist Va. Inf. 



Thompson. William — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Tucker. John H. — 3rd sergeant in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Prom. 1st Sergt. 
Tucker. James E. — Corporal in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Thompson. Christopher — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Thomas. John W. — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Tatem. Camillus A. — Sergeant in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Tatem. Benjamin F. — Private in Co. E, 6i5t Va. Inf. 

Prom. Quartermaster Sergt. 
Taylor. Thomas H.— Private in Co. H. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Tranham. A. S. — Private in Co. H, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Turner. :\Iills— Private in Co. H, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Thornton. David W. — 3rd sergeant in Co. I. 6ist Va. 

Toppin. Smith — Private in Co. I. 61 st Va. Inf. Prom. 

Taylor. Revel! I. — _'nd lieutenant in Co. K, 61st Va. Inf. 

Prom. 1st Lieut. 
Tatem, George W. — 3rd sergeant in Co. K, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Tucker, James A. — Private in Co. A, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Tucker, Willis — Private in Co. A. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Taylor, John — Private in Co. A. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Taylor. \\'illiam C. — ist lieutenant in Co. B. 3rd Va. 

Thomas. A\'illiam — Private in Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Taylor. James E. — Private in Co. F, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Tabb. John — ^Musician in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Tee. John C. — Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Tabb. Thomas — Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Thomas. Samuel — Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Thomas. L. W. — Lieutenant in Co. D. 26th Va. Inf. 
Thompson. John W. — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Tonkin. William F. — Lieutenant in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
Tompkins. Thomas G. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Thomas. William James — Private in Co. D, pth Va. Inf. 
Turner, G. M.— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Taylor. Beniamin — Private in Co. I. oth Va. Inf. 
Tabb. William H.— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 

Prom. Sergt. -Mai. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Tyler. Julius H.— Private in Co. B. i6th Va. Inf. 
Tart. John Quincy — Private in Co. B. i6th Va. Inf. 
Tyler. Henry C. — Private in Co. B, i6th Va. Inf. 
Tomlinson. Ed. R. — Drummer in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Toy. Crawford H. — Chaplain in ,S3rd Va. Inf. 
Tulane. Alonzo J. — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Taylor. Robert B. — Captain in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Taylor. Richard — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Tarrant. Elea^er — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Talbot. John B.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Turner. George W. — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Trifford. William— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Thorogood. George — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Taylor. David R.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Thomas. Richard S. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Det. Army Intelligence office, 1862. 
Todd. George M. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Taylor. Robertson — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. Ap. 

Q. M. Sergt. Adjt.. 6th Va. Inf., and Adit. Div. 
Todd. H. S.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. Prom. 

Lieut. Co. B, gth Va. Inf. 
Taylor. William E. — Private in Co. H. 12th \'a. Inf. 
Tomkins. E. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Tyler. John B. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 

Thomas, B. D. — Quartermaster sergeant in Xorfolk 

Light Art. Blues. 
Thompson. E., Jr. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Taylor. W. J. — Private in Norfolk Liglit Art. Blues. 
Taylor. J. Theodore — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Thomas, J. D. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Taylor, John — Private in Norfolk Light 'Art. Blues. 
Tilghman. John L. — ist lieutenant in Norfolk Light 

Art. Blues. 
Taylor, Beverly K. — ist sergeant in Atlantic Art. 
Thompson, Henry — 3rd sergeant in Atlantic Art. 
Thompson. David S. — Private in .\tlantic Art. 
Totten. Samuel — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Taylor. John G. — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Timberlake, David — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Thayer, Stephen B. — Private in .A-tlantic Art. 
Thompson. George — Private in L^nited Art. 
Trower, William — 4th sergeant in Young's Harbor 

Guard — Art. 
Taylor. Ezekiel — Corporal in Young's Harbor Guard — 

' Art. 
Tabb, Robert B. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Tyson, William G. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Tabb. Charles — Private in Signal Corps. 
Tucker, John S. — Seaman in C. S. Navy. 
Tucker. John R. — Captain in C. S. Navy. 
Thorborn. R. D. — Commander in C. S. Navy. 
Taylor, Richard — Assistant paymaster in C. S. Navy. 
Tucker, John T. — Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 
Turner, Samuel V. — Sailmaker in C. S. Navy. 
Tyman. John W. — Chief engineer in C. S. Navy. 


LTrquhart. William — Private in Co. D. gth Va. Inf. 
L'rquhart. J. W. — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Co. H. 5th Va. Cav. 
Urquhart. A. B. — Private in Co. G. 6th \'a. Inf. Trans. 

to Co. H, 5th Va. Cav. 

Vandenberg. James — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Vellines, Watson B. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Volkman, C. W. — Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Virnelson, William B. — Private in Co. G, gth \'a. Inf. 
Virnelson, Joseph H. — Private in Co. G. gth \'a. Inf. 
Voss, James — Private in Co. D. oth Va. Inf. 
Voss, Albert C— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
Vaden. W. L.— Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Vaughan. E. S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Veale. Samuel — Private in Norfolk Light Arl. Blues. 
Vellines, John A. — Private in Atlantic .-Xrt. 
Virnelson. Joseph E. — .\ssistant engineer in C. S. N^avy. 
Vernon. W. H. — ist lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 


Wright. John L. — Sergeant in Co. K. 54th N. C. Inf. 
Wright. Minton A. — Lieutenant in 57th N. C. Inf. 
Williams, Daniel A. — Sergeant in 17th N. C. Inf. 
Waterfield. John— Private in 7th N. C. Inf. 
Wright, Thomas H. — Sergeant-major in 46th X'. C. Inf. 



Wright. J. 1!.— Drum-major in 47th N. C. Inf. Trans. 

to Ootli \'a. Rfgt. 
Whitfhnrsl. John— Private in _'nd X. C. Battahon. 
Welsh. Patrick— Private in X. C. Rcgt. 
Willey. John M.— Private in 68th X. C. Int. 
Wyatt. John — Sergeant in X. C. Regt. 
Wootten. Peck — Private in Wvthe Rifles. 
Walker. R. P.— Disc— disabihtv. 
Webb. Wilhani T.— Disc— 1863. 
Wingfield. Thomas H, — Medical inspector in Army of 

Xonhern Virginia. 
Watt>. E. M. — Surgeon in Simms' Brigade. 
White. Franklin J. — Surgeon in C. S. .Army. 
Wingfield. William C. — Major and commissary. 
White. John R. — Captain and assistant commissary. 
Whiting, John S. — Hospital steward. 
Walters. Edward M. — Private in Xelson's Guards, 32nd 

Va. Inf. 
Williamson. John G. — Sergeant in Co. .A. 3r<l Va. Re- 
Wright, Cary W. — Sergeant in Co. F. 32nd N'a. Inf. 
Whiteluirst. John J. — 2nd lieutenant in Co. I, 38th Va. 

Williams, .\. B. — 3rd lieutenant in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. C. P.— Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. W. .\.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. George — Private in Co. I. 38th Va..Inf. 
Wilder, James M. — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Wilder, Benjamin — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
West. John— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Wood. Lorenzo — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Waterfield. Benjamin — Private in Co. I, .38th Va. Inf. 
Waterman, .\bsalom — Private in Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 
Walker, W. W.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Woodward, Samuel — Private in Co. I. 38th Va. 
Widgeon. John T. — Lieutenant in Co. F, 41st Va. 
Williamson, H. T. — Corporal in Co. F. 41st Va. 
Whitehurst, Christopher — Private in Co. F. 41st Va 
Williamson. \'irginius — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. 
Williamson, Samuel — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. 
Williams, Samuel — Private in Co, F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Woodhouse, Moses C. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Wright, David L. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf 
Woodward, Oden — Private in Co, F 
Williamson, Everett — Private in Co, 

Prom. Orderly Sergt. 
Wallace, William C. — Captain in Co. A. 6lst Va, 
Warden, James — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Warden. Richard H, — Private in Co. A, 61 st Va. 
Waller, George W, — Private in Co, A, 6ist Va. 
Wood, Joseph X. — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. 

Prom. Corp'l. 
Wood, Keeling — Private in Co. .\. 6lst \'a, Inf, 
Woodward, Joseph T. — Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. 
Woodward. Leander — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va, 
Whitehurst, Robert — Private in Co, A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. WiUouijhbv — Private in Co. .-X. 6lst Va. Inf 
Williams, D. A.— Private in Co. .\, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Williams, Marcellus — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va, 
Wright. Peter— Private in Co. A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
West, VV, W— Private in Co. .A, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Whitehead, Martin \'.— Private in Co. A. 6ist Ya 
Williams, Joseph — Private in Co. A, 6lst Va, Inf 
Williams, M, D, — Private in Co, A, 61 st Va, Inf, 


41st Va. Inf, 
F, 41st Va. Inf. 






Warden, William H, — Private in Co, A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Williams, F^rancis H, — 5th sergeant in Co. B. 61 -t Va. 

Willianis, Thomas — Corporal in Co. B, 6lst \'a Int. 

Prom, Orderly Sergt. 
Waterfield, Cone — Private in Co. B, 6ist Va, Inf. 
Waterfield, William T. — Private in Co, B. 61st \':\, Inf. 
Waterfield, .-Mcxandcr — Private in Co. B, 6ist ^'a. Inf. 
Waterfield, Malachi — Private in Co. B. 61st Va. Inf. 
Wicker, C. W.— Private in Co. B, 61st Va, Inf. 
Waterfield, John C. — Private in Co. B, 6ist X.'. Int. 
White, William — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
White, Ryland C— Private in Co, B, 61 st Va, Inf. 
Whitehurst, Walter S.— Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Williams, Wilson W, D, — Private in Co. B. 6lst \'a. 'nf, 
Williams, Quinton T, — Private in Co, B. 6ist Va, Inf, 
Wicker, William T, — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va, Inf. 
Wilson, St. Julien — 2nd lieutenant in Co, C, 6ist Va. 

Inf, Prom, ist Lieut, 
Waller, Josiah — Private in Co, C, 6ist Va. Inf, 
Waterfield, Saunders — Private in Co. C. 61 st \"a. Inf, 
Warren. John — Private in Co, C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Whateley, Leven — Private in Co, C, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. David — Private in Co, C, 6rst Va, Inf. 
Wright, William — Private in Co. C, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Woodward. Litaness — Private in Co. C, 61 st \'a. Inf. 
White, John — Private in Co, D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ward, Baker— Private in Co, D. 6lst Va. Inf, 
Walker. William M.— Private in Co. D, 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Wood, John M. — Private in Co. D, 6lst \'a. Inf. 
Williams. Hillary — Private in Co, D, 61 st Va, Inf, 
Walker, Lewis Wilson — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Wilkins, James M. — 1st sergeant in Co. E, 6ist \'a, Inf, 
Williamson, Thomas, Corporal in Co, E, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Wagner, Lewis — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf, 
Williamson, Charles C. — Private in Co. E, 61 st \'a. Inf. 
Williamson, Elton — Private in Co, E, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Williamson, Henry — Private in Co. E, 6ist Va, Inf. 
Wilkins, W, L. S. — Private in Co. E. 61 st \'a. Inf. 

Prom. 2nd Sergt, 
White, William F. — Private in Co, E, 6ist \'a. Inf. 

Prom. Capt, 
Wilson, Joshua T. — Private in Co. E, 6lst Va. Inf, 
Wright, Benjamin — Private in Co. E, 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Wright, John L, — ist lieutenant in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf, 

Prom, Capt. 
Wilkins. Richard — Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
White, George T. — Private in Co. H. 61 st Va. Inf, 
Wyatt, H, T— Private in Co. H, 6ist Va. Inf. 
White, John D, — Private in Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 
White, Richard — Private in Co, I, 61 st Va, Inf. 
Ward. Julius — Private in Co, I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Whitson, William — Private in Co. I, 6lst Va, Inf. 
Wise, Stephen — Private in Co, I. 6i5t Va, Inf, 
West, Delaware — Private in Co. K, 61 st Va.. Inf, 
Wilson, John — Private in Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Wilson, Willis— Private in Co, K, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Wilson. Benjamin R. — Private in Co. K, 61 st \'a. Inf. 
Williams, William — Private in Co. K. 6ist ^'a. Inf. 
Williams, Jordan — Private in Co, K. 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Wickings, James J. — Private in Co, K, 6ist \'a. Inf. 
Wright, William S, — .Adjutant in 6ist Va. Inf. 
White. John R, — 1st lieutenant in Co. A. 3rd \'a. Inf. 

Prom. Capt. 



White, Edward P.— Private in Co. A, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Whitehead, John D.— Private in Co. A, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Williams, William J.— Private in Co. A, 3rd Va. Inf. 

Prom, and Lieut. 
White, Osceola T.— Private in Co. A. 3rd Va. Inf. 

Prom. 3rd Lieut. 
Weston, W. W. — Private in Co. A, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Walton, Robert — 3rd corporal in Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Wilkins, William— Private in Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. Prom. 

Corns. Sergt. 
Wilkins, Andrew — Private in Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. 
White, Charles — Private in Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Whitehead, John D. — Captain in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. William — 2nd lieutenant in Co. H, 3rd Va. 

Inf. Not re-elected 1862. 
White, William F. — 4th lieutenant in Co. H, 3rd Va. 

Inf. Prom. Capt. 
White, John S.— Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Weddon, John R. — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
West. William E.— Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Welslager. George — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Wrenn, John W. H. — Adjutant in 3rd Va. Inf. 
Walker, James Robert — 3rd corporal in Co. B, 9th Va. 

Williams. Thomas F. — Private in Co. B, 9th Va. Inf. 

Webster, Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Williams, Samuel — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Walton, George W. — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Walton, John W. — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to navy. 
Wilkerson, William — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Watson, Joseph W. — Private in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
White, Joseph — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
White, Richard W. B.— Sergeant in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Walsh. Joseph — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. De- 
tached 1861. 
Wrench, John — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. Trans. 

to Grimes' Battery. 
Wrenn, Edward — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Wood, William J. — Lieutenant in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
White, William H. — 1st sergeant in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Williams. Lemuel H. — Corporal in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
White, George A. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst, Marshall P.— Private in Co. G, gth Va. Int. 
Williams, Millard C. — Private in Co, G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Woodhouse. Thomas C. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Williams, Thomas H. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Whitfield. Lewis — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Walton, Henry — Corporal in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. Prom. 

Color Corporal. 
Wagner, Jame.s — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. Prom. 

Orderly Sergt. 
Wilson, A. J.— Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
White, Thomas J.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Signal Corps 1862. 
White, Frank J.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. Prom. 

Surgeon C. S. A. 
Williams, David A.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Williams, E. B.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Williams, A. J'.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. Ap. 

Hosp't. Steward. 
Wilson, William H.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Wilkins, James E.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Williams, W. W.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Williams, Walter— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Williams, Joseph — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Ward, Edward B. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Adj. i6th Va. Inf. 
Watters, James P. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst, John W.— Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. 
Wills, John S.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Wills, Joseph P.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
White. N. E.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. Re- 
enlisted in Norfolk L. A. Blues. 
I Wilson, William S.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Watts, A. S. — Sergeant in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. Elected 

sheriff and disc. 
Wallace, Thomas D. — ist sergeant in Co. A, 6th Va. 

Inf. Prom. Lieut. ; not re-elected 1862. 
Whitehurst, William H.— Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. 1st Sergt. 
Wilkins, William P.— Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Warren, John M.— Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 
Williams, Newton J. — Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Williams, William Carter — Captain in Co. B, 6th Va. 

Wright, Joseph, Sr. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Watters, David C. — ist lieutenant in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wright, Joseph Sr. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Woodhouse, John J. — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Corporal. 
White, Thomas R.— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Walters. Alfred— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Wray, John W.— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wallace, William — Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Maryland Line 1862. 
Webster, W. D.— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wiatt, James M. F. — 2nd sergeant in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 

Elected 3rd Lieut. Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Williams, John J. — 3rd corporal in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Sergt. 
White, Wilham — 3rd sergeant in Co. D, 6th Va. Int. 

Trans, to navy 1864. 
Wills, George T.— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Williams, Robert S.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
; Wilkins. William F.— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wood, James M.— Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Wood, Alexander — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Woodhouse. Charles — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
j Warren, W. J.— Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
j Wright. Howard S. — 4th sergeant in Co. G, 6th Va. 

Inf. Prom. Ensign 6th Va. Inf. 
Ward, Josiah J. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Whiting, Wilham N.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst, Frank M.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. 1st Lieut. Co. B. 6th Va. Inf. 1863. 
Williams, John N. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wise. William M. B.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Co. A, 46th Va. Inf., 1862. 
Walke, Richard. Jr.- Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Ord. Officer 1862. 
I Wicker, D. H. C. (Sub. )— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Walsh, William V.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 
I Wise. William B.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom Lieut, in N. C. Regt. 
Walker, R. P.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. Ap. 

2nd Lieut. P. A. C. S. 



Wilgerson. Henry D. — Private in Co. G. 61I1 \'a. Inf. 

Prom. 2iid Lieut. Co. B, gth Va. Inf. 
Williani>. Thomas A. — Private in Co. (j, 6th Va. Inf. 

.\|). Sergt.-Maj. Prom. Lieut. Co. K. 
W'alke. I-;aac T. — Private in Co. (i, 6tli \'a. Inf. Trans. 

to X. L. .\. Blues. Prom. OrU. Officer. 
WiUianison. Henry W. — Captain in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Prom. Lieut. -Col. 6th Va. Inf. 
Walker. George B. — Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Trans, to Sussex Cav. 1861. 
Wright. Daviil— Captain in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wirniington. James A. — 2nd corporal in Co. H, 6th Va. 

Inf. Prom. Sergt. 
Wellons. Walter R. — .?r(l corporal in Co. H. 6th \'a. Inf. 
Wise. H. A.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Westhrook. D. A. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Wise. George W. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Winhall. Hiram — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Wyatt. John L. — Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wood. William F.— Private in Co. II. 6th Va. Inf. 
Williamson. Harrv W. — Lieutenant-colonel in 6th Va. 

Walker. Luther — 2nd sergeant in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
White. Caleb D. — Private in Co. H. I2tli \'a. Inf. Prom. 

Corporal 1864. 
Williams. Thomas T. — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Walker. William H.— Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf 
Ward. Mathias— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
White. J. J. P.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
White. Ed. J.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
\\'hitehurst. Leven — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Woodhouse. W. S. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Wjlkins. Henry H.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Wilkinson. Samuel D. — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
White. William — Colonel in 14th Va. Inf. 
Wilson. .Arthur E. — Captain and commissary in 14th 

\'a. Int. 
Welih. Richard — Lieutenant in Portsmouth Light Art. 

Trans, to 13th Va. Cav. 
Williams. Charles C. — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Williams. Charles L. — Private in Portsmouth Light .\rt. 
Warren. Casy R. — Private in Portsmoutli Light .\rt. 
Whitehead, William — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Wing. Thomas P. — Private Portsmouth Light .\rt. 

Prom. 1st Sergt. 
Wil-on. Willis — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Wel>l). James. Jr. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Weymouth. John — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Widgeon. Jacob — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
Whitehead. Severn — Private in Portsmouth Light -Art. 
Waller. James T. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
Whitehead. A'irginius — Private in Portsmouth Light Art. 
White. Thomas J. D. — Private in Portsmoutli Light .Art. 
Webb. Thomas C. — Private in Portsmouth Light .Art. 
W'right. J. R. — 4th sergeant in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wilkins. T. J. — Corixjral in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wright. E. L. — Corporal in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Watters. .A. M.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
West. William M.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Whiting. T. B. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Whiting. J. R. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wilkin^. C. L. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wilkins. John F. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Whitehurst. L. H. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Woodhouse, P. D. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 
Worrell, J. R.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wright. W. S.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Wilkins. W. .A.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Ward. J. T.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wilson. D. C. B.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Woodhouse, John — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Woodward, W. W. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

White, N. E.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wilkins. G. W.— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
White. C. E.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Whitmore. C. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
White. William O. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Wliitclnirsl. James O. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Whitlield. Richard W. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Wickers, John — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Wright. Junius — Private in Norfolk Light -Art. Blues. 
Wells. John M. — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 
White. Thomas R. — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 
Winslow. Joseph — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 
Whitehurst. Nathan — Private in .Atlantic .Art. 
^\'illiams. James M. — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Wilkins. Nathaniel — Private in Atlantic .Art. 
Williams. Carter W. — 2nd lieutenant in United .Art. 
Wells, Hezekiah — Private in United .Art. 
Winder. John E. — ist lieutenant in Young's Harbor 

Guard — .Art. 
White, William — Private in Young's Harbor Guard — 

Wynn, William — Private in Young's Harbor Guard — 

Webster. Richard T. — Sergeant in Nottoway .Art. 
Walke, Isaac — Lieutenant in Ordanance. 
Wilson. Thomas — Private in Louisiana Guard — .Art. 
Watkins. W. H.— Private in Rockbridge Cav. 
Wilkerson. Nathaniel — Private in Co. — . 13th Va. Cav. 
Woodward, James T. — Private in Co. — . 13th Va. Cav. 
Wise. William F. — 2nd lieutenant in Co. C. 13th Va. 

Wilson. .Andrew J. — Private in Co. C. 13th Va. Cav. 
Williams, John W.— Private in Co. E. 13th Va. Cav. 
Wilkins. William H. — 2nd lieutenant in Co. F, 15th 

Va. Cav. 
Wilson. John J. — 2nd corporal in Co. F. i.^th Va. Cav. 
Warden. Kosciusco — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Williamson. Joshua J.^Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Williams. David — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Wallace. Solomon — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Wilson. .Amsey W. — Private in Co. F. i.^th Va. Cav. 
Wilson. George .A. — Private in Co. F. i.sth Va. Cav. 
White. Thomas J. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 
Whitemore. Marchant — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Wilkins. Thomas B.— Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Wilkinson. John — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Ward. William H. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Whittle. William C, Jr. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Winder. W. L. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Worth. .Algernon S. — 2nd lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Wyndham. R. Mayo — Master in C. S. Navy. 
Whitehead. William B.— Master in C. S. Navy. 



Wilkinson. Heniy — Master in C. S. Navy. 
Wright, Joshua C. — Midsliipnian in C. S. Navy. 
Wilkinson. W. W. — Midshipman in C. S. Navy. 
Williamson. William P. — Enginccr-in-chief in C. S. 

Webb. VVilliam A. — Commander in C. S. Navy. 
Worth, A. S. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Williamson. Charles H. — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
Wysham, William E. — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
Warner. James H. — Chief engineer in C. S. Navy. 
West, Joseph S. — Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 
White, Thomas J. — Assistant engineer in C. S. Navy. 
Walcott. S. F.— In C. S. Navy. 
White, Fred. A. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Williamson, William A. — Private in Signal Corps. 
White, James H. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Walldren, Thomas — Private in Signal Corps. 
Wallace, George W. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Wiles, Samuel — Private in Signal Corps. 
White, William A. — Private in Signal Corps. 
White. James C, Jr. — Private in Signal Corps. 


Yates, Samuel — Private in Co. D, gth \'a. Inf. 
Yates, Josiah D. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Young, M. P. — Private in Co. K. Qth Va. Inf. Ap. 

engineer in navy. 
Youre. Stephen — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Young. George W. — Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Young. Martial — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Young. J. B. — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Young. Thomas A. — Private in Co. G. 5th Va. Inf. 
Young. Jame.s — Private in Atlantic Art. 
Young, John J. — Captain of Young's Harbor Guard — 

Young, C. M. — Sergeant in Signal Corps. 
Young, Moses P. — Assistant engineer in C. S .Navy. 


Zills. J. M.— Corporal in Norfolk Light .Vrt. Blues. 

Cherry, Ralph — Colored musician in Co. A. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Blamire, George — Colored musician. 

On an accompanying' page are presented 
views of the several Ci-ntederate flags, and an 
engraving of the Great Seal of the Confeder- 
acy. The following explanation of the flags 
will not be amiss : 


Xo. I. — The "Stars and Bars" was the 
first flag of the Confederate States, aiul is said 
to have Ijeen adopted by the Confederate Con- 
gress at Montgotnery, Alabama ; during- the 
first year of the war, its use was quite general 
throughout Virginia. 

Xo. 2, — The "Battle-Flag" was designed 
by General Beauregard, adopted by Gen. Jo- 
seph E. Johnston after the first battle of Man- 
: assas, and afterward adopted by the Confeder- 
I ate Congress. The reason for its adoption was 
that in battle the "Stars and Bars" were fre- 
quently mistaken for the "Stars and Stripes." 
It remained as the "Battle-Flag" uiuil the 
close of the war. 

X^o. 3. — On May i, 1863, the Confederate 
Congress adopted this flag as the national flag. 

Xo. 4. — On March 4, 1865, the Confeder- 
ate Congress adopted this design as the flag of 
the Confederate States, because the other when 
limp, was too much like a flag of truce. 

\W give herewith an interesting letter 
from Gen. Bradle}- T. Johnson to the Ricli- 
mond Dispatch; on the subject of the Con- 
federate flags, also a copy of the Act of Con- 
gress of May I, 1863. and the amendment 
thereto of March 4. 1865 : — 

To the Editor of the Dispatch: 

The Confederate flag, with the memories it arouses, 
is very dear to many people, and we think it liut 
justice to perpetuate a true and accurate description 
of it. I can find no record of the "Stars and Bars" in 
the Acts of Congress. It was used by companies and 
regiments in Virginia in 1861, without authority, and 
just as a matter of taste. 

-After Manassas. General Beauregard had prepared 
at his headquarters a design for a flag, which was 
painted in water-colors. It was a red square, on which 
was displayed a blue St. .Andrew's cross, bordered with 
white, and charged with 13 white, five-pointed stars. 

This was adopted in general orders from army 
headquarters, and became the battle-flag of the Con- 
federacy, which should blaze in many a coming trial, 
showing its followers the way to duty and to death. 

Three flags were made by "the three Cary girls" 
out of their own silk frocks, one for Joe Johnston. 
Beauregard and Van Dorn each, and were always floated 
at the headquarters of these generals, and on the march 
and in the battle showed where they were. 

This was Beauregard's battle-flag! 

May I, 1863, an Act of Congress was passed to 
establish the flag of the Confederate States, and it pro- 
vided that the battle-flag should be the union of the 
new flag, and that the field should be white. I never 
saw this flag with troops. General Lee had one in 
front of his headquarters. The first time this flag 
was ever used, and I suspect the first that was ever 
made, was used as a pall over the bier of "Stonewall" 
Jackson as he lay in state in the Governor's house at 
Richmond, in May, 1863. But this flag looked too 
much like a flag of truce, and did not show at sea, so 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 


No. 3. 

No. 4. 

Flags .\nd Gre.-\t Seal of a N.\tion that Fell. 



the story went, nnd conseqiientlj- on March 4. 1865. just 
28 days hcfore the death of the Confederacy. Congress 
passed another Act, adding a broad red bar across the 
end of it. I never saw this Hag. nor have I ever seen a 
man who did see it — or who saw a man who did see it — 
with this exception: Col. Louis Euker tells nie that 
riding down to Gen. Custis Lee's quarters in Novem- 
ber or December. 1864. he saw this flag flying over 
Howard's Grove Hospital, and his companion, a Ger- 
man gentleman, then serving in the Ninth Virginia 
Cavalry, asked him what that flag was, and this in- 
cident impressed itself on his memory. 

There is no possibility of doubting the accuracy of 
Colonel Euker's memory. He is as nearly certain to 
be right as any man I know, but there is a confusion 
here. The flag was not adopted until March 4. 1865. 
and he saw it several months before. I explain this 
by thinking the design for the new flag was known 
and canvassed. I have a colored lithograph now. made 
by Hoyer & Ludwig. at the time, for Maj. .\rthur L. 
Rogers, who designed this alteration, and gave me the 
picture in Deceinber. 1864. So. I take it. the doctors 
at the hospital had made themselves a new flag to 
set tlie fashion. But that was not a flag authorized 
by law, and I have yet to see a man who saw such a 
flag or saw any man who saw a man who saw one. 
.After -March 4. 1865. we were not making flaes. Please 
print the Acts of Congress establishing the flags. The 
last act has never been printed ! 

Bradley T. Joh.vson. 

Herewith is given the Act of May i, iSf),v 
and also tlie amendment thereto, passed March 
4. 1865: 

An Act to establish the Hag of the Confederate States; 
The Congress of the Confederate States of .America 
do enact. That the flag of the Confederate States shall 
be as follows : The field to be white, the length double 
the width of the flag, with the union (now used as the 
battle-flag) to be a square of two-thirds the width of 
the flag, having the ground red : thereon a broad saltier 
of blue, bordered with white, and emblazoned with 
white mullets or five-pointed stars, corresponding in 
number to that of the Confederate States. (First Con- 
gress, third session. Approved May I, 1863.) 

The foregoing was amended by tlie follow- 
ing act : 

The Congress of the Confederate States of America 
do enact. That the flag of the Confederate States shall 
be as follows: The width two-thirds of the length, 
with the union (now u-ed as the battle-flag) to be in 
width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so 
proportioned as to leave the length of the field on the 
side of the union twice the width of the field below 
it : to have the ground red. and a broad blue saltier 
thereon bordered with white and emblazoned with mul- 
lets or five-pointed stars, corresponding in number to 
that of the Confederate States ; the field to be white. 
except the outer half from the union to be a red bar 

extending the w-idth of the flag. (Second Congress, 
second session. Approved March 4, 1865.) 

Tiiic (;ki:.\t .>^e.\i,. 

The (jrcat Seal was pro\ided at the third 
session of the first Congress of the Confederate 
States of America, as follows : 

(No. 4.) Joint resolution to establish a seal for thr 
Confederate Slates. 

Resohcd, by the Congress of the Confederate States 
of America. That the seal of the Confederate States 
shall consist of a device representing an equestriait 
ixirtrait of Washington (after the statue which sur- 
mounts his monument in the capitol square at Rich- 
mond\ surrounded with a wreath composed of the 
principal agricultural products of the Confederacy (cot- 
ton, tobacco, sugar cane, corn, wheat and rice), and- 
having around its margin the words : "The Confederate 
States of America, twenty-second February, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-two, with the following motto : "Deo 

Approved .April 30, 1863. (C. S. Statutes at 

Hon. J. P. Benjamin, Secretary of State of 
the Confederate States, in his dispatch of May 
20. 1863, ( Xo. 23) to Hon. James M. Mason, 
Commissioner of the Confederate States near 
the government of Great Britain, expressed the- 
will of Congress with regard to the projx)sefl 
.seal in the folhnving manner: 

(No. 23.) 
Dep.\rtme.vt of St.\te, 

Richmond, May 20, 1863. 
Hox. J.vME.'; M. Mason", 
&c.. &c.. &c.. . 


Congress has passed a law establishing a seal for 
the Confederate States. I have concluded to get the 
work executed in England, and request that you wilt 
do me the favor to supervise it. You will receive 
herewith a copy of the .Act of Congress describing the 
seal, and a photographic view of the statue of Wash- 
ington. The photograph represents the horse as stand- 
ing on the summit of an obelisk, but in the seal the 
base ought to be the earth, as the representation is to . 
be of a horseman and not of a statue. The size de- 
sired for the .seal is the circle on the back of the 
photograph. The outer margin will give space lor the 
words "The Confederate States of America, 22d Feb- 
ruary. 1862." I do not think it necessary that the 
date should be expressed in words, the figures 22. 1862, 
being a suflScient compliance with the requirements o£ 



the law. Indeed, I knuw that in the drawing sub- 
mitted to the committee that devised the seal, the date 
was in figures and not in words. There is not room 
for the date in words on the circumference of the 
seal without reducing the size of the letters so much 
as to injure the effect. In regard to the wreath and 
■the motto, they must be placed as your taste and that 
of the artist shall suggest, but it is not deemed im- 
perative, under the words of the Act. that all the agri- 
cultural products (cotton, tobacco, sugar cane, corn, 
wheat and rice) should find place in the wreath. They 
are stated rather as e.xamples. I am inclined to think 
that in so small a space ^< the wreath must necessarily 
occupy it will be impossible to include all these products 
with good effect, and in that event I would suggest 
that cotton, rice and tobacco, being distinctive products 
of the southern, middle and northern States of the 
Confederacy, ought to be retained, while wheat and 
corn being produced in equal abundance in the United 
States as in the Confederacy and therefore less dis- 
tinctive than the other products named, may better be 
omitted, if omission is found necessary. It is not de- 
sired tliat the work be executed by any but the best 
artist that can be found, and the difference of expense 
between a poor and a fine specimen of art in the en- 
graving is too striall a matter to be taken into con- 
sideration in a work that we fondly hope will be re- 
quired for generations yet unborn. 

Pray give your best attention to this, and let me 
know about what the cost will be and when I may 
expect the work to be finished. 

The seal was presented ti) tlie State of 
South Carolina about 1887. and is kept in the 
office of the Secretary of State. It is about 
three inches in diameter, nearly correspond- 
ing in size to the engraving that appears on a 
preceding page. 

Air. ^lason cc^ntracted with 'Slv. ^^'yon, an 
artist lit London, to execute the seal, the price 
<f which is shown hv the ti:llowing Ijill : 

J. M. M.Nsox, Esq. — 

To Joseph S. Wyon. 

Chief Engraver of Her Majesty's Seals, Etc., 
287 Regent Street. London, W. 
1S64 July 2. Silver Seal for the Confederate 
States of America, with ivory handle, box 

willi spring lock and screw press £84 

.^,000 wafers 4 10 

I.003 seal papers 7 

1,000 strips of parchment 18 

100 brass boxes 16 5 

100 cakes of wax 7 

100 silk cords 6 5 

1 perforator 5 

3 packing cases lined with tin 3 

il22 10 
By cash. 21 March, £42. 
Settled by cheque for lialance. 6th July, 1864. 


rrcjbably the first organization for nursing 
the Confederate soldiers originated in Ports- 
mouth, Virginia. In the spring of 1861. soon 
after the arrival of the Southern troops, the 
various camps around the city were attacked 
with measles and other diseases. The accounts 
of the sad condition of these brave luen who 
had sacrificed sO' much in our behalf, aroused 
the women of Portsmouth to make an effort 
to ameliorate their condition. A meeting of 
the most prominent ladies of the community 
resulted in the formation of a society to nurse 
the sick Confederates from the Sottthern 
States. The following is a verbatim ccpy of 
the circular sent out to solicit aid from our 
citizens : 

The Sisters of Mercy. The ladies of Portsmouth 
desirous to do all that they can to ameliorate the con- 
-Jition of the sick strangers who have so nobly left 
their homes and come to the defense of Virginia have 
formed themselves into a society called "The Sisters 
of Mercy." They will nurse the sick either at the 
hospitals or at any other place in the city to which 
they may be conveyed: will prepare nourishment, and 
do all in their power to promote the comfort and health 
of their patients. 

Managers — Mrs. W. H. Wilson, Mrs. Bilisoly, Mrs. 
Fannie Toomer, Mrs. J. C. White, Mrs. Tatem. Mrs. 
Abbie K. Staples, Mrs. Elizabeth Bourdette. Mrs. M. 
W. Armistead, Mrs. W. C. Smith. Mrs. Pinner, Mrs. 
C. A. Grice, Mrs. Cozbell, Mrs. Bettie Parrish and Mrs. 
H. C. Orr. 

This appeal met with a generous response 
from all classes of society, and the ladies went 
to W(irk with skill, energ\- and devotion to 
make the aiYair a success. Alany of the sick 
soldiers were toarding at the Ocean Plouse, 
and the first few weeks after the society was 
organized the ladies devoted their time to 
nursing these men. They were unfortunate in 
this atteiupt. and after losing two ])atients they 
determined to open a house e.\clusi\-elv under 
their own contr(5l. which should comlMue the 
comforts of a home with the care and attention 
of ;i \\ ell-kept hospital.- In accordance with 
this iilan, the\' made effrirts to secure a suitable 
l)uil(ling and arranged matters to/ place the 
1 society on a wcrkin"' base. 



The American House, a larj^e. unfurnished 
huilding- formerly used as a hotel, was placed 
at their disposal, and with busy hands and 
warm hearts the ladies went rapidly to work. 
All tlie essentials necessary to a comfortable 
home were soon collected. 'i"he colonels of the 
(jeorgia regiments ga\e substantial aid by de- 
taching men to assist in the heavier work of 
lun'sing. On the 8th o\ June. 1861, "The Hos- 
])ital of the Sisters of ^lercy" was ready for 
the first installment of sick Confederates. 

The work was arranged s\stematically, and 
it has often been said, that at no time during 
the war was more devoted work carried out 
more quietly and un(;stentati(_msly. To each 
day of the week two managers were ap])ointed, 
wliose duty it was to provide the meals for that 
day. see that the sick were well attended, visit 
])atieiits. give such care as they needed, super- 
intend the servants, provide tempting dishes 
for those whose appetities could not take the 
usual nourishment, in fact from early morn 
until 9 P. M. become house mothers to that 
suffering band so far away from their homes 
and loved ones. The town was divided into 
districts, and to each manager certain streets 
were assigned, and from contributors on those 
streets the meals for that day were furnished. 
In this manner most of the meals were i>ro\'ided 
by the housekeepers ready cooked. Several la- 
dies .sending breakfast, many more dinner and 
others supper. The merchants sent uncooked 
provisions, the commissary furnished the 
sick with rations. Those of our ladies 
circumstances did not allow them to contrib- 
ute were glad to help the cause liy cix)king the 
provisions thus provided. In this manner a 
large amount of well cooked nourishment was 
always ready. Such breakfasts, such dinners, 
such suppers as found their way to that .Amer- 
ican House could only he found in Southern 
homes, in ante-bellum times. Each contributor 
seemed to vie with the other as to who should 
send most and best. Those were the early days 
of the Confederacy. Hope sat at every hearth- 
stone, smiling faces and bright eyes talked of 
^\ar but knew it not. The days of fat bacon, 

black-eyed peas and rye coffee were yet in the 
dim future, but when the darkness fell, the 
same hearts and hands were found just as 
earnest, just as faithful, just as devoted and 
to none in history can a higher place be given 
than to the women of the South. 

From the 8th of June, 1861, when the first 
sick soldier was admitted, until the evacuation 
of Norfolk in May, 1862. the hospital was 
successfully carried on. The number of pa- 
tients received was large and the death rate 
remarkably small, the list before me containing 
the names of 149 admissions up to August 1, 
1861. In March, 1862. the ladies were re- 
quested by Dr. Klacknall to transfer their 
labors to the U. S. Xaval Hospital, at that 
time being used by the Confederate authorities 
as a government hospital. After some debate 
and hesitation it was decided to agree to hi.s 

The .\merican Hmise was given up and 
the organization bestowed its attention on the 
sick at this hospital. 

\\'hen the evacuation of Norfolk occurred, 
six sick and wounded soldiers were left to the 
care of these ladies who removed them to pri- 
vate houses and nursed them until their re- 

When this work \\-as completed the societv 
found its "occupation gone," but its spirit still 
lived. During the dark days of Federal occu- 
pancy the needy wives and children of our ab- 
sent soldiers were supplied w ith food and other 
necessities from the scanty stores of this brave 
and devoted band. Since the surrender "The 
Sisters of Mercy" has developed into "The 
Ladies Memorial Aid Society" whose object 
is to assist the widows and orphans of our sol- 
diers, and to care for and decorate the graves 
of our brave men. who so freely gave their 
lives in our defense. Nobly have they fulfilled 
their mission. 

From June u. 1866. when "The Ladies 
Memorial Aid Society" was organized, until 
May 24. 1900. each year the public has beheld 
only one phase of their work. — the well-known 
demonstration, Portsmouth ^lemorial Day, 



liaving been originated, .sustained and exclu- 
sively managed by this society until the organ- 
i/^ation of Stonewall Camp, C. V., since which 
time this work has been shared between them. 
This society has had under its care more than 
65 orphans whom they have assisted to educate 
as wdl as tO' feed and clothe: very many 
widows whose needs have always been care- 
fully supplied. They have relie\'ed numbers 

of sick soldiers and Imried many of those who 
have died. 

It is impossible to give even a faint outline 
of their labor of love during these thirty-six 
years of ceaseless activity. In all this time 
there has never Ijeen an interruption either 
in their organization or in their systematic 

Virginia S. Staples. 




Confederate Monuments at Portsmouth and Norfolk — Confederate Veterans' Camps 
OF Norfolk, Portsmouth and Berkley — United Daughters of the Confederacy 
Chapters at Norfolk and Portsmouth. 

confederate soldiers monuments. 


On J\Iay S, 1S75, a meeting of the citizens 
of Norfolk County was called to organize a 
monumental association. Judge J. F. Crocker 
was chosen to the chair, and the following 
permanent committee appointed : Judge J. F. 
Crocker, president: Maj. William H. Eth- 
ridge, of Norfolk County, and Col. William 
White, of Portsmouth, vice-presidents; I\Iaj. 
George \\'. Grice, treasurer ; Oscar X. Smith, 
secretary. Directors : B. A. Armistead, John 
T. Griffin, J. G. Wallace, Thomas H. Brown, 
Alonzo Ives, Thomas M. Hodges, of Norfolk 
County, j\Iaj. W. C. Wingfield, E. G. Ghio, 
Capt. James H. Toomer, Col. D. J. Godwin, 
Capt. John H. Gavle, Capt. W. H. Murdaugh, 
,i\Iaj. F. W^ Jett.' Capt. C. ^^■. !^rurdaugh. 
Judge L. R. Watts, Capt. C. T. Phillips, and 
Col. William H. Stewart, of Portsmouth. 
Charles E. Cassell. then of Portsmouth, was 
chosen architect. At a meeting held in the 
following Noveml>er, a committee was ap- 
pointed to select a site for the monument. The 
one selected was at the intersection of High 
and Court streets, opposite the court house, 
and the directors accepted it. 

On December 14, 1876, the corner-stone 
was laid with imposing ceremonies. Judge C. 
W. IMurdaugh delivered the address. The 
cap-stone was raised by the ladies and the 
children June 15, 1881. 

The monument is a plain granite shaft 
35.6 feet high, surmounted by a capstone, and 
resting upon a base 20 feet high, 15 feet 
square. It has on the four corners of the base 
bronze figures representing the arms of mili- 
tary service, — Infantryman, Cavalryman, Sail- 
or and Artilleryman. 

The monument bears only the inscription, 
"To Our Confederate Dead," and the dates 
1861, 1862, 1863. 1864, 1865, around the 
shaft. It was dedicated June 15, 1893, with 
simple and impressive ceremonies. Capt. R. 
C. Marshall delivered the oration. The mili- 
tary turned out, and the Grand Camp Con- 
federate Veterans of Virginia, then in session 
in Portsmonth, attended the services. 

The lowest bid for the monument was 
$19,000, but the Raleigh & Gaston Railroad 
Company gave us the granite from their quar- 
ry ; and we only paid for the cutting of it, — 
$1,730. That road and the Seaboard & 
Roanoke Railroad Company transported it to 
Portsmouth free of charge. Through the gen- 
erosity of these corporations, W. II. V. Will- 



iams, the last treasurer, reported that the beau- 
tiful monument, entirely paid for, only cost 
$9,236.34. This amount was raised by volun- 
tary subscription and through the inde- 
fatigable efforts of Maj. F. W. Jett and the 

This was one of the first monuments erect- 
ed to' the "Confederate Dead." Quite a num- 
ber of individual memorials hail been raised 
in Richmond and elsewhere. 

Portsmouth has the proud distinction of 
having furnished us more soldiers than it had 
voters. Only 900 names appeared on the vot- 
ino' list, but when the muster call was sounded, 
1,400 bra\e hearts donned the grey. 


About the first day of January, 1868, an 
effort was begun to raise funds for the erec- 
tion of a monument in Norfolk to the memory 
of Confederate soldiers and sailors. 

On the 22nd of February, 1899, the cor- 
nerstone of the beautiful monument which now 
stands on Market Square was laid with Ma- 
sonic rites in the presence of a great concourse 
of people. The shaft is 50 feet high and is 
to be surmounted by a statue eight and one- 
half feet high, and there will be four figures 
at the base six feet and nine inches high, — 
on one face of the monument is the Con- 
federate Battle-Flag and on another the Great 
Seal of the Confederacy. 

The monument was erected under the 
auspices of the Pickett-Buchanan Camp, Con- 
federate Veterans, and is a beautiful testi- 
monial to the devotion and valor of the "Con- 
federate Dead." 


Pickctt-BucJianan Camp, Norfolk. 

Pickett-Buchanan Camp, Confederate Vet- 
erans, was named for Alaj.-Gen. George E. 
Pickett, who commanded the Virginia Di- 
vision, which made the immortal charge at 
Gettysburg, and Admiral Franklin Buchanan, 

who commanded the iron-clad "Virginia" on 
the 8th of March, 1862. 

The camp was chartered on the 19th day 
of February, 1885, at Norfolk, Virginia, for 
the purpose not only of keeping fixed upon the 
records of memory the deeds and characteris- 
tics of their comrades who have made greater 
sacrifices — even of life — than ha\-e been de- 
manded of them, for the Sacred Lost Cause ; 
but, as far as they can, to keep alive that fra- 
ternity l:)orn of the dangers of the battle-field 
— ^^the hardships of the march and camp^ — and 
to alle\-iate, as far as they can, the temporal 
needs of those who are }-et with them in time 
and sentiment. 


Addison, James S. — Private in Co. D, Huger's Battery — 
Art. ■ 

Adams, James — Private in 6lst Va. Inf. 

Avery. J. W. — Major 17th S. C. Volunteers. 

Anderson, E. Willonghby — Captain of Artillery. 

Anderson, John R. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Archibald, M. R.— Sergeant in Co. A, ist Ga. Inf. 

AUyn, Joseph T. — ist lieutenant and ordnance olTicer, 
Lane's Battalion. 

Armstrong, Rev. George D. — Volunteer on staff of Gen- 
eral Longstreet. 

Arps, George L. — Quartermaster sergeant, 17th N. C. 

Anderson, J. S. — Private in Co. D, Huger's Battery — • 

Anderson, Charles W. — Sergeant-major, 34th Tenn. Inf. 

Anderson, J. H. — Private in 1st Co. Riclimond Howit- 
zers — Art. 

Anderson. Peter — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Auter. Charles G. — Sergeant-maior in 24th Tenn. Inf. 

Abdell, W. H.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 

Askew, J. M.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 


Berry, Nathan VV.— Private in Co. A, 1,3th Va. Cav. 

Broughton, Thomas B. — Hospital steward. 

Bradford, Edmund — Maj. quartermaster. 

Barry, James E. — 1st lieutenant United Art. 

Burwell, D. S. — Private in 3rd Co., Richmond Howit- 
zers — Art. 

Brooke, William T. — Private in Co. D, 43rd Battalion 
Va. Cav.. Mosby's command. 

Bluford, George W. — Private in Co. D. 1st Va. Reserves. 

Blamire, E. B. — Private in Co. K, 9th Va, Inf. 

Bradford, J. D. — Lieutenant-colonel Regular C. S. Art. 

Bullock, A. M. — Sergeant United Art. 

Borland, Thomas R. — Private in Co. K, Qth Va. Inf. 



Sutler. George W— Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 

HaxliT. B. F. — Sergeant in Co. R. 13th Va. Cav. 

lirowne, W. B. — Private in Co. F, 15th Va. Cav. 

Baldwin. Charles — Private in Co. A, 44th Va. Inf. 

Barker. J. E.— Private in Co. H. 13th Va. Cav. 

Brock. C. H.— Private in Co. H. i.^th Va. Cav. 

Bonney, James H. — Corporal in Co. B, i6th Va. Int. 

Blackford, William W. — Lieutenant-colonel ist Regt. 
Engineer Troops. 

Butt, \\illiani J. — jnd lieutenant Huger's Battery — .\rt. 

Barnes, W. A. — Private in I5tli Va. Cav. 

Belote, Smith — Private in Co. G, l6th Va. Inf. 

Brown, Henry F. — Private in Co. H, 6tli Va. Inf. 

Banks. Ilcartwell J. — Private in Co. F, Gth Va. Inf. 

Ba.Nter, O. F.. Jr. — Private in Co. I. 15th V^a. Cav. 

Bomar. Robert H. — Sergeant in ist Co. Hampton Legion 

Baker. William — Private in United Art. 

Brown. Dixon — Private in Smith's Battalion — Art. 

Bnsh. Isaac F. — Private in Independent Signal Corps. 

Bell. H. F.— Private in Co. I, 15th Va. Cav, 

Rnskey, C. H. — Corporal in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Burgess, Thomas J. — Sergeant in Co. A. 7th Ga. Cav. 

P.riggs, J. R. — Private in l8th Va. Battalion. 

Burnes. W. .■\.— Private in United Art. 

Black, Thomas — Private in United Art. 

liranham. John B. — Private in Lusts Lee's Connnand 
and Treasury Dept. 

Buchanan. James — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Brown. Philip F..— Private in Co. C, 16th Va. Inf. 
Barcroft, Edward J.— Private in Co. I. 38th Va. Inf. 
Barrett. R. Cad.— Private in Co. A. 13th Va, Cav. 
Banks, Edgar— Private in Co. B. 6th Va. Inf. 
Burroughs. John J. — ist lieutenant .\rtillery. Trans. 

Miss, Dept. and Army of Tenn. 
Burroughs. William H. — Captain .■\rtillery. Army of 

Bland, Robert E. — Private in Co. G, 1st Va. Cav. 
Bryan. Fred. P. — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Bell. James N. — Sergeant-major in 6th Va. Inf. 
Boteler, .A. R.. Jr. — Captain and ordnance officer, 

Hoke's Brigade. 
Bell. Thomas K. — Ordnance sergeant in X. C. Junior 

Baylor, John W.— Private in Co. A, 12th Va. Inf. 
Barnes, George B. — Captain and A. Q. M. 
Brockenbrough, J. M. — Colonel of 40th Va. Inf. 
Boole. John J. — Private in Hill's Corps. 
Burrows. Rev. J. L. — Of Committee to Care for the 

Bremond. L. — Captain and A. Q. M. 
Barnes, James E. — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Burruss, N. — Captain, instructor of tactics and ordnance 

Broughton, Robert S. — Corporal in Norfolk Light .'Krt. 

Butt, Anthony S. — Courier to Gen, R. E. Lee. 
Boyd. Thomas I. — ist lieutenant in Co. C, 4th Va. Inf. 
Bremmer, John A. — Private in Co, H, 6th Va, Inf, 
Buchanan. Robert H. — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Brown. W. .A. — Corporal in Pendleton's Battery — Art. 
Battle, Dorsey — ist lieutenant and aid to General Lewis, 
Banks, R. B. — Lieutenant in Norfolk Light .Art, Blues. 
Baily, Thomas L. — Sergeant in Co. F, i8th Va. Int. 

Baylor. R. B.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 
Banks, Robert — Sergeant in Co, D, 6th Va, Inf. 
Bass, William Colin — Private in Co, A, 3rd Va, Cav. 
Hohamion. G. A. — In C. S. Navy. 
Borum, Charles — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Baker. John C. — Lieutenant and drill master in N. C. 


Creekmur, \\', P. — Private in Co. G. 4th N. C. Cav. 

Churn, Severn B. — Private in 19th Va. Battalion — .Xrt. 

Cooke, .-\, B, — Major and quartermaster. 

Chamberlaine, George — Captain and A. C. S. in gth 
Va. Inf. 

Curlin, Z. T.— Private in Co. B. 6lst Va. Inf, 

Caffee, James H, — Private in 5th Va. Cav. 

Calcutt, C, J, — Bugler in Co. B, ist Regular Heavy Art. 

Culpeper, Jo.seph S, — In Independent Signal Corps. 

Creekmur, C, J, — In C. S. Navy. 

Costin, William F, — Private in United Art. 

Colonna, William B, — Private in United Art, 

Cam Frank — In C. S. Navy. 

Charles. James G. — Private in Floyd's and Manly's 
Batteries— Art. 

Cutchin, J, F, — Corporal in Co. A, i6th Va. Inf. 

Crocker, Rufus S. — Private in United Art. 

Constable, Henry B, — Private in Commissary Depart- 

Craig. Edward — Private in Co. E, 6th Va. Inf. 

Carter, L. H. — Quartermaster sergeant in Co. .A, 1st 
Va. Inf. 

Clark. F. W.— Private in Co. D. 1st Ga, Inf. 

Chamberlaine, .-V. E. — Private in Norfolk Light .Vrt. 

Cowand, D, G. — Private in Co, B, 6ist Va, Inf. 
Cecil. James F. — Lieutenant in Co. C. 4th Va. Inf. 
Clarke, George F — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cason. John S. — Lieutenant in Co. K, 61st Va. Inf. 
Causey, Charles H. — ^Cantain in Co. B, 3d Va. Cav. 
Coleman, Junius .A. — Lieutenant in 25th Battalion Va. 

Inf. K.' K — jd lieutenant in Co, .\, igth Battalion 

Va. Inf, 
Chamberlaine, \V. W. — Captain and .A. .\. G.. Gen. R. 

L. Walker. 
Carter, William W. — Private in Co. B. .^otb \'a. Inf. 
Cross, Thomas H. — Private in Co. A. i6th 'V'a. Inf. 
Cooke, Merritt T. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art, Blues. 
Cooke. Henry Selden — Master in C, S, Navy, 
Cralle, Richard K. — C. S. Navy steamer "Virginia." 


Dalton. .\. J. — Sergeant in States Co., 1st Ky. Cav. 
Dann, W. F,— Private in Co, H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Dann. S. S. — Sergeant in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Duncan, A. G. — Private in Co. .A. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Dornin. Thomas L. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Doyle, John E. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues, 
Doyle. Walter H.— Private Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Dozier, T, F. — Private in Hendren's .Art. 
Dawes, S, S — In Co. F, McHenrv's Battalion. 
Dobbs. A. J— Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 



Duff, William J.— ist lieutenant in Co. D. 55th Va. Inf. 

Drumniond. Thomas L. — Private in Co. F. 46tli Va. Inf. 

Dunn, David R. — Sergeant-major in Paschal's Battalion. 

Diggs, William J. — Private in United Art. 

Dodson. J. E. — Private in Co. C. Qth Va. Inf. 

Dunn. George R. — Major and A. Q. M. 

Dibbrell, Watson S. — Private in 1st Co. Richmond 
Howitzers — Art. 

Dobie, Richard A. — Private in Sturdivant's Battery — 

Downing. Thomas — Private and drill master. 

Davis. William Henry — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 

Dupuy. Dr. H. R. — Hospital steward in Stark's Bat- 
talion — Art. 

Dann. S. S. — Private in Co. A. 12th Va. Inf. 

Day, John H. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Di.xon. George W. — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 

Drnmmond, H. P. P. — Private in Co. I, 15th Va. Inf. 

Deakins. Solon — Corporal in Co. I, 12th Va. Inf. 

Dougherty, E. C— Private in Co. B, i8th Va. Inf. 

Etheridge. Dennis — Private in Co. F. T5th Va. Cav. 
Evans. Richard — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Elliott, Charles G. — Captain and A. A. G. 
Edwards, John A. — Private in Co. D, Huger's Battery 

Eason, John T. — Prixate in Co. P.. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Edwards, Walter A. — Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Ewell. Jesse — Private in Huger's Battery — Art. 
Emmerson, George W. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Elliott. J. Augustus — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Elliott. Thomas E. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Everett, J. C. — Lieutenant in charge of Conscript Dept. 
Edwards, Oscar E. — Special messenger ordnance dept. 
Etheridge, O. M.— Private in Co. F, isth Va. Cav. 
Ellison, W. A.— Private in Co. B, 6th Va. Inf. 
Edmonds, L. R. — Private in Co. C. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Eanes. John — Private in Co. B, gth Va. Inf. 
Ellis, W. B.— Private in Co. K, 12th Va. Inf. 
Etheridge, S. A. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Elam. Thomas G. — Private in Co. E, 14th Va. Inf. 

Flowers. Josenh W. — Private in Co. H, nth Va. Inf. 
Foster. William E. — MajoLand ordnance officer. 
Fisher. Lahan J. — Private in 15th Va. Cav. 
Freeman. Virginiu' — Chief cneineer in C. S. Navy. 
Freeman, Robert — Private in 6th Va. Inf. 
Freeman. .Arthur C. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Freeman, E. B. — Private in Co. .A. 7lh Tenn. Cav. 
Fentress, Hillary — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Fitz. Newton — Private in Engineer Service. 
Face, William H. — Boatswain in C. S. Navy. 
Foreman, L. J. — Seaman in C. S. Navv. 
Fatherly, M. W.— Captain of Co. C, 5th N. C. Inf. 
Foster, T. Stanard — Courier and Dept. of Reserves. 
Flournoy, Samuel — First lieutenant in Co. K, 6th Va. 

Fulgham, J. H. — Orderly sergeant in Co. C, 13th Va. 

Frost, W. H.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Farmer, James A. — Master blacksmith in C. S. Navy. 
Foreman, Cary — Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Ferguson. George S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Ferrall. John B. — Private in Co. A. 14th Va. Inf. 
Ford. Royall — Private in Courtney Art. 
Ferguson. R. R. — Captain of Co. K. S3d Va. Inf. 


Gwaltney, Richard H. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Glennan, M. — Quartermaster sergeant in 36th N. C. Inf. 
Gornto. George R. — Private in Co. G, 15th Va. Cav. 
Graves, William A. — C. S. Navy. 
Greenwood. Fred. — ist Co. Signal Corps. 
Guy, E. E. — Engineer Dent.. Charlotte, N. C. 
Goode. John — Private in Co. A, 2d Va. Cav., captain on 

General Early's staff. 
Gary, S. Wentworth — Lieutenant in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 
Grimes, J. M. — Private in pth Va. Inf. 
Gilmer. James W. — Lieutenant in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Gale. J. D. — ist lieutenant in Co. D. Richardson's Bat- 
tery — Art. 
Garnett. T. S., Jr.— .A. D. C. to ]\Iaj.-Gen. J. E. B. 

Gillis, John — Sergeant in L^nited Art. 
Griswold. A. C. — Private in United Art. 
Graham, T, B. — Private in Co. I, 5th Va. Cav. 
Green. John Shackleford — Lieutenant-colonel in 6th 

Va. Cav. 
Grandy, A. W. — Private in Co. B. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Groner, V. D. — Colonel in 6ist Va. Inf. 
Gillespie. J. F.— Private in Co. A, 48th Va. Inf. 
Goodrich. A. J. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Grandy. C. W. — Major and A. Q. M., Johnston's .^rmy. 
Goode, Robert W. — Private in Co. G. ist Va. Cav. 
Graves, William C. — Private in Co. D, 3d Va. Cav. 
Gordon, J. D.— Private in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Gibbs, John M. — Captain of schooner "North Wind." 

Lighthouse service. 
Graham, John B. — Private in Co. I. ,38th Va. Inf. 
Gornto, W. T. — Private in Co. C, 5th Va. Cav. 
Godfrey. William J.— Private in Co. C. .38th Va. Inf. 
Gauntt, A. W. — ^Captain of Co. C, 19th Va. Inf. 
Gilbert, Timothy — Private in 15th Va. Cav. 
Grey, Thaddeus S. — Master's mate in C. S. Navy. 
Gamage. John O. — Private in Norfolk Light .^rt. Blues. 
Godwin, E. S.— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 


Henrv. E. M. — Captain of Co. .A.. Qth Va. Cav. 

Hill, C. W.— Private in Co. G, 6th Va. Inf. 

Hamilton, James — Private in Young's Harbor Guard — 

Hall. John P. — Private in Huger's Battery — Art. 
Hudson, J. J. — Corporal in Lunenburg Art. 
Hudgins, J. M. — Captain and A. C. S. 
Hodges, Samuel — Private in Norfolk Light .-^rt. Blues. 


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a ■- 

Z a 

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Haves. Joseph— Private in Co. B. Sth N. C. Troops. 

Henderson, T. B.— Lieutenant 3d N. C. Cav. 

Henderson, Thomas W. — Courier Headquarters, A. 
X. V. 

Harris. William — Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 

Harris. William H.— Private in Co. D, Huger's Bat- 
terv — Art. 

Hunter. J. Frank— Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Hudgins. Humphrey — .\rniistead's Battery — .'Krt. 

Horbach J. P. — Maior and quartermaster. 

Holladay. William J.— Private in Co. .\, 19th Va. Bat- 
talion — .\rt. 

Hodges. S. T.— Private in Co. L i5tJi Va. Cav. 

Huniphrevs, David — Captain of Co. C. 7th Va. Cav. 

Hudgins. William R.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Harrison. Hcartwell B. — Private in Co. E. 12th Va. Inf. 

Holmes. W. H— Private in Xorfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Holt. L. D. — Private in Co. H. 13th Va. Cav. 

Holt. Thomas J. — Private in Co. F. 6th Va. Inf. 

Hall. Joseph Henry — Private in 41st Va. Battalion Inf. 

Hill. Joseph S.— Private in Co. .\. 6th Va. Inf. 

Hoggard. Horatio C. — Private in Co. I. 15th Va. Inf. 

Howell. H. A,— Private in Co. H. 2d N. C. Troops. 

Herbert. .A. T. — Sergeant in Co. I. 5th Va. Cav. 

Hunter. Wallace W. — Quartermaster sergeant in Sth N. 
C. Inf. 

Hargrove. John T. — Corporal in Co. E. i.ith Va. Cav. 

Harwood. John L. — Private in Co. H. 32d Va. Inf. 

Hannah. William M.— Private in Staunton Hill .\rt. 

Hudgin.;. William E. — ist lieutenant in C. S. Xavy. 

Hudgins. Moses — Private in Co. G. i6th Va. Inf. 

Huestes. B. H. — Private in Co. E. 32d Va. Inf. 

Hope. James Barron — A. Q. M. in Smith's Battery — 
.\rt.. and War Dept. 

Hudgins. Lewis M. — Lieutenant 3d X. C. Cav. 

Hayes. B. T.— Private in Co. A. 3d Va. Inf. 

Hendren. J. Hardy — Captain of Artillery. 

Hodges. John H. — Private in Norfolk Light .\rt. Blues. 

Henry, John B. — Private in Co. A. 1st Va. Engineers. 

Hill. John T. — Sergeant in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Holt. Xcnophon — Private in Co. D. i6th Va. Inf. 

Hart. Edward D. — Corporal in Co. D. 41st Va. Inf. 

Harrison. B. F. — Corporal in Co. F. 4Tst Va. Inf. 

Henrv. X'athaniel — Chief engineer in Quartermaster's 
Dept.. C. S. Navy. 

Hughes. Thomas X^. — Private in Co. I. loth \'a. Cav. 

Hancock. R. J. — Sergeant in Co. I. 6th Va. Inf. 

Hart. .Alexander — Major in Wheat's La. Battalion. 

Hobbs. George W. — Sergeant in Co. .A. Xaval Bat- 


Irvine. Walter F. — Orderly sergeant in La. Guard — -Art. 
Ishon. George C. — Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
I'Anson. \'ernon — Private in Reserves, C. S. Army. 
Ironmonger. Lemuel L. — Sergeant in Co. H. 6th Va. Inf. 
Ives. Luther C. — Private in Co. I. i.=th Va. Cav. 
Iredell. C. J. — Captain in Co. E. ist X. C. Inf. 
Irvine. Jesse B. — Private in McGregor's Battery — .Art. 


Jackson. T. B. — Lieutenant of Co. C, 3d Va. Inf. 
Jarvis, William R. — C. S. Navy. 

Joyner. R. W.— Captain of Co. E, 27th X''. C. Inf. 

Jolms. Vensy — Major and A. Q. M. 

Johnson. E. R. — Gunner in C. S. Navy. 

James. Robert T. — Private in Co. D. Huger's Battery — 

Johnson, Joshua C. — Private in Co. F, 3d Va. Inf. 

Jenkins, John W. — Sergeant in Co. B, gtli Va. Inf. 

Joynes, Curtis T. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Jacobs. Richard T. — Orderlv sergeant in Co. L. loth Va. 

Jordan. Joseph C. — Private in Co. D. Richardson's Bat- 
talion Art. 

Jones. R. Henry — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Jones, Caius J. — Sergeant in Co. I. 3d Va. Cav. 

Johnston. George W. — Private in Co. K. 15th Va. Cav. 

James. Henry W. — Private in Norfolk Lisrht .Art. Blues. 

Johnson. John T. — Captain of Co. A, Chambliss Regt. 

Jones. William M.— Captain and .A. Q. M. 

Jett, Jetson — Captain of Co. E, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Joynes. Thomas C— Private in Co. B. i8th Battalion 
Va. Inf. 

James, John F. — Private in Co. F. 6th Va. Inf. 

James, R. W. — Sergeant in Co. I, ist Va. Inf. 

Jones. Hillary P.— Colonel 4th Corps Art.. A. N. V. 

James, Charles E. — Private in Co. I, Signal Corps. 


Kevin. Thomas — Captain of United .Art. 

Keeling. Georee H.— Private in Co. K. isth Va. Cav. 

Keeling. J. Milner — Private in 5th Va. Cav. 

Keeling. Robert S.— Private in Co. I, 15th Va. Cav. 

Keeling. Thomas W. — Quartermaster .sergeant in 6th 
Va. Inf. 

Kevin. John P. — Private in LTnited .Art. 

Kennedy, Joseph A. — Lieutenant in Co. .A. nth Va. Inf. 

Kirk. Richard— Private in iSth Battalion .Art. 

King. Joseph — Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Kendall. George E. — Gunner in Batterv D. Lynchburg 

Keehng. Melville C. — Corporal in Norfolk Light .Art. 

King. J. Barry— Captain and .A. Q. M.. Lightfoot's Bat- 

Keeling. John P.— Private in Co. F. 6th Va. Inf. 

Kins'. Warrington C. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Keelin. John E.— Sergeant in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Kennedy. Charles H. — Commander of C. S. Xavy. 


Lee. Paul H. S.— Private in Co. D. 3d Ala. Cav. 

LeFaucheur. Louis J. — Signal Service Dept. 

Lee. Charles C. — Private in Co. D. Huger's Battery— 

Ludlow. John R. — Captain of Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Leigh. James V.— Maior and Q. M.. Clark's Battalion. 
Lowery. Thomas — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. 
Loyall. Benjamin P. — Commander of C. S. Xavy. 
Lowe. John Z. — Private in Co. E. 41st Va. Battalion Inf. 
Lee. T. J.— Private in Co. G. 38th Va. Inf. 
Land, L. W. T— Private in Co. F. 6th Va. Inf. 



Lovitt, David R.— Private in Co. A. 6th Va. Inf. 
Lassiter, Thomas J. — Private : detached on mail service. 
Lawrence. David R. — Private in Co. B, 6th Va. Inf. 
Lac3', Rev. W. S. — Chaplain of 47th N. C. Troops. 
Little. James — Private in Provost Marshal Dept. and 

Ambulance Corps. 
Lee, James \V. — Private in Co. E. 12th ^'a. Inf. 
Lewellen, J. Richard — Lieutenant-colonel of 12th Va. 

Lockwood, J. B. — Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Loyall, George — A. Q. M. Trans. Miss. Dept. 
Lee, W. J.— Private in Co. I. 13th Va. Inf. 
Lee, E. E. — Private in Co. I, 13th Va. Inf. 
Lamb. William — Colonel. 


McFall, C. J.— Private in Co. D, 28th Va. Inf. 

McCourt, Charles A.— Private in Co. G. 6th Va. Inf. 

Manning, George W.— Private in Co. A. i^^th Va. Inf. 

Moore, John H.— Private in Co. G. i6th Va. Inf. 

Minson, William F. — Signal quartermaster, C. S. Navy. 

Martin, J. B.— Captain of La. Rest. Regulars Inf. 

Mullen, John — Colonel of 19th Miss. Inf. 

Milligan, James F. — Major of Independent Signal Corps, 

Marsden. B. .A.. — 2nd lieutenant 1st Battalion Va. Reg- 

McCarrick, James W.— 12th Va. Inf., and master C. S. 

Morris, James— Private in Co. G, i6th Va. Inf. 

Moore. John W.— 2nd sergeant in Co. B, 6th Va, Inf. 

McLean. John A.— Private in Co. E, 61. st Va. Inf 

Miller, Miles S.— Private in Co. K, ^th Va. Cav. 

Macon, E. B.— Private in Co. F. 6th Va. Inf. 

McKay. Hugh— Corporal in Co. A. 20th La. Inf. and C. 
S. Navv. 

March. A. B.— Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Morris, David P. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 

Myers. A. — Maior and commissary. 

Mulcahy, M.— Master of roads. 

Modlin, James Alfred— Private in Co. H, ist N. C. Inf. 

McCoy. Josepii — Private in Co. D. 6th Va. Inf. • 

Marshall, J. H.— Private in Co. F. 3rd N. C. Inf. 

McCurdy, T, B. — ist lieutenant in Thomas Art. 

^lowle, Jacob — Privaie in L^nited Art. 

Moore, Theo. L. — Private in Co. K, 15th Va. Cav. 

IMontgomery. F. P. — Private in Co. F, N. C. Inf. 

Morris, 'Frank — Private in Co. I, 13th Va. Cav. 

Morse, C. W.— Corporal in Co. I. 68th N. C. Cav. 

Moore, John W. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va, Inf. 

Mann, Earnest J. — ist lieutenant in Co. I, 6th Va, Inf. 

Moore, Henry V. — Lieutenant in Norfolk Light Art. 

McCourt. John A. — Private in tSth Va. Battalion Art. 

Morris. John Jesse — Lieutenant and ordnance officer in 
Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Marable. William H. — Private in Signal Corps. 

Moore, John W. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Mears, Oswald B. — Orderly sergeant in Co. C, 15th Va. 

Mercer. Alfonso — Private in Co. G. ,^th Va. Cav. 

Mars, John H. — Private in United Art. 

Martin, W. B. — Cadet. Virginia Military Institute. 
McRorie, John — Lieutenant and drill master. 
Murden, David F. — Private in Co. F, 15th Ya. Cav. 


Nash, C. A. — Lieutenant in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Nottingham. Thomas J. — Private in Navy Battalion. 
Nash, Dr. Herbert M. — Chief surgeon in 3rd Corps Art. 
Nottingham. F. E. — Corporal in Co. E, 19th Va. Battal- 
ion Inf. 
Neal, John B.— Major of ist N. C. Cav. 


Orr. Henry E. — Captain of Co. H. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Old. William W. — Captain on Gen. Ed. Johnston's staff. 
Osborne, N. M. — 1st lieutenant Artillery. 
Orgain, John G. — Captain .of Co. C, l8th Va. Battal- 
ion Art. 
Outten, E. A. — Sergeant in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 
Oliver, Charles B. — Lieutenant of C. S. Navy. 


Pfcil, August — Sergeant in Co. E, 6th La. Inf. 

Pearce, Edward — Boatswain's mate in C. S. Navy. 

Pettitt, Robert W.— Railroad duty, 1861 ; private i'n C. 
S. Navy. 1863. 

Pickett. Charte.s — Major and adjutant-general in Gen- 
eral Pickett's Div. 

Phillips, Tames Tasncr — Colonel nf gth \'a. Inf. 

Pearce. Frank — Private in 13th Va. Cav. 

Powell. E. T. — Quartermaster's clerk, 5th Va. Cav. 

Parker, James F. — Private in Co. A, 19th Va. Battal- 
ion Inf. • 

Parker, G. T.— Private in United .\rt. 

Parks. Marshall — Va. Provisional Service, Captain of 
post and commissioner for establishing North Car- 
olina Navy. 

Pepper, William T. — Private in 21st Va. Inf. 

Puller. Samuel D. — Captain of Co. A, 5th Va. Cav. 

Phillips. Samuel C. — Private in Young's Harbor Guards 

Payne. Walter T.— Private in 44th Va. Battalion Inf. 

Powell. Albert — Private in Co. C. 6ist. Va. Inf. 

Page. R. L. — Commodore of C. S. Navy. 

Pegram. R. B. — Commander of C. S. Navy. 

Pit"t, William Peter— Private in United Art. 

Pollard. B. G — Private in Richmond Howitzers — -\rt. 

Perry, Oliver H. — Sergeant in Co. B, ist Md. Cav. 

Pond. W. H.— Private in Artillery. 

Powell. J. R. — 1st lieutenant in 3rd N. C. Battalion .\rt. 

Pifer, A. W. — Captain of Co. .\. 39th Battalion Scouts. 

Pumpfrey. Lemuel — Sergeant in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 


Royster. Lawrence — Cadet. Virginia Military Institute. 
Rogers. George T. — Colonel of 6th Va. Inf. 
Refd. C. C— Private in Co, A. Smith's Battalion .\rt. 
Riddle. Charles— Private in 1st Md. Battery— .Art. 



Rosson. John A. — Private in Co. A, Mosby's Command. 

Richardson. B. A. — Private in Smith's Battalion Art. 

Rogers. Crawford S. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Rainey. William H.— Private in 6th Va. Inf. 

Rowland. Thomas B. — Quartermaster's Department. 

Roberts, John B. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 

Robertson, J. E. — Private in Ransom's Brigade, N. C. 

Royster, \V. B. — Private in Ransom's Brigade, N. C. 

Robinson, L. D. — Private in Co. F, isth Va. Cav. 

Roberts, Henrv. — Captain C. S. Navy. 

Ruffin. T. B.— Corporal, Co. B. 12th Va. Inf. 

Rogers. Theo. F. — Private Norfolk Light Artillery 
' Blues. 

Russell, Thomas H. — Private Co. F, 5th Va. Cav. 

Rogers. William F. — Captain Revenue Marine. 

Rawlins. William— Private L'nited .Art. 

Reid. J. T. S. — Lieutenant of Ordnance. 

Roberts, Winsficld M.— Private Co. K, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Rose, J. H.— Private Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 

Revcll, George A. — Private Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 

Rickhow. William — Paymaster's clerk. C. .S. Navy. 

Reynolds, William D. — Captain. Quartermaster's Dept. 

Reynolds. Henry S. — Captain and A. C. S. 

Rawley. John W. — Major and A. Q. M. 

Rcw. W. W. — 2nd lieutenant Co. H. 61 st Va. Inf. 

Reid. George C. — Captain and A. Q. M. 

Randolph, Robert G.— Private Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 

Riddick. R. E.— Private Co. A, Lee's Local De- 

Roberts. John A. — Private Co. D, 12th Va. Inf. 

Rawlins, W. M. — Sergeant Co. B, 39th Va. Battalion 

Randolph. Rt. Rev. A. M.— Chaplain, C. S. .Army. 

Smith. .A. Meade — Major and C. S.. Gen. Rosser's 
Brigade Cav. 

Small. N. W. — Captain in Signal Corps. 

Simmons, B. F. — Lieutenant in Co. B, 8th N. C. Regt. 

Swann, C. M. — Private in Co. A, 5th Va. Cav. 

Savage, Thomas O. — Private in Co. B. 19th \'a. 
Battalion Art. 

Sykes, N. W. — Private in Co. F. 15th Va. Cav. 

Smith. Herbert L. — Private in Co. K. 5th Va. Cav. 

Sharp, Walter — Ordnance clerk, special service. 

Sykes, John J. — Sergeant in Co. F, 6th Va. Inf. 

Simpson. Joseph — Private in Co. B, 8th N. C. Regt. 

Smith, John W. — Sergeant in Co. B, i8th Va. Bat- 
talion Inf. 

Salomon sky. Joseph — Corporal in Co. F, 4th Ga. Inf. 

Smith, Frank M. — Private in Co. E, .^th Texas Inf. 

Sharp. John H. — Private in Otey's Battery — .Art. 

Saunders. John C. — Corporal in Signal Corps. 

Smith, Richard — Private in Co. B. 6rst Va. Inf. 

Smiley, Walter F. — Private in Huger's Battery — Art. 

Serpell. G. M. — Corporal in Co. B, 1st Md. Cav. 

Shepherd, John C. — Private in Co. I. 15th Va. Cav. 

Solomon. E. M. — Musician in United .Art. 

Sivills. E. H. — Private in Co. A. 61 st Va. Inf. 

Smoot. T. D. — Private in Pendleton's Art. 

Simonds, George — Private in Co. H, 12th Va. Inf. 
Scott, James E. — Private in Co. I, 15th Va. Cav. 
Sutton, W. T. — Surgeon in Hoke's Brigade. 
Starke, Lucien D. — Captain and -A. C. S. ; and Act. 

Insp. Gen. Martin's Brigade. 
Savage, .Alexander — Colonel in 13th Va. Cav. 
Shepherd, William H. — Sergeant in Co. B, 19th Va. 

Scultalus. George — Private in United Art. 
Selden. William — Surgeon in C. S. Army. 
Stubbs, William S.— Private in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Saunders, Allen — Private in Ordnance Department. 
Stevens, R. H. — Private in Cutt's Battalion — .Art. 
Spruil, Joseph G. — Private in Co. K, 3d N. C. Cav. 
Smith, R. Worthy — Private in 5th and 15th Va. Cav. 
Steen, John — Private in Smith's Battalion — .Art. 
Sharp, Charles — Private in United Art. 
Smith, James ^larsden — Private in Co. C. Mosby's 

Southgate, F. M. — Master in C. S. Navy. 
Senaca, J. L. — Private Co. I, 6th Va. Inf. 
Slade, .Alexander — Sergeant in Co. F, i6th \'a. Inf. 
Starr, Rev. Dr. William G. — Chaplain in 47th Ala. Inf. 
Smith, F. M. — Corporal in Co. A. 12th Va. Inf. 
Sullivan, W. J. — 3rd sergeant in Co. F, 3r(l Va. Int. 


Tarrall. H. A.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 

Todd, George M. — Private in Co. A, 6th Va. Inf. 

Topham, Frank — C. S. Navy. 

Taylor. Washington — Lieutenant and adjutant in Scott's 
Battalion Inf. 

Turner, James E. — Pilot in James River Squadron. 

Thomas. J. W., Jr. — Lieutenant in Artillery Corps. 

Taylor. Walter H. — Colonel and adjutant-general. 

Tebault, B. F. — Treasury Dept. and assistant to sec- 

Turner, Daniel J.. Jr. — Independent Signal Corps and 

Taylor, W. A. S.— -Adjutant in 6ist Va. Inf. 

Tucker, Rev. B. D.— Otey's Battery. 13th \'a. .Art. 

Taylor. Richard C. — Major of .Artillery. 

Thompson, Joseph — Private in Co. I, 6ist \'a. Inf. 

Taft, Peter— C, S, Navy, 

Taylor, James M. — Private in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 

Turner, Henry L. — Private in Young's Harbor Guards — 

Tavlor, William E. — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. 

Tunstall. Dr. .Alexander — .Adiutant in 6th Va. Inf. 

Taylor, John M. — Private in Garrett's Battalion .Art. 

Tredwell, Adam — Captain, assistant P. M., staff of com- 

Turner. Robert G. — C. S. Navy, steamer "Virginia." 

Tabb. Dr. R. B. — Druggist and assistant physician. 
Chimborazo Hospital. 

Taylor. Robert B. — Major in 6th Va. Inf. 

Todd. West wood .A. — Lieutenant and ordnance officer, 
Weisiger's Brigade. 

Turner, Benjamin — Private in Co. F. lOth Ala. Inf. 

Thompson, William E,^ — Private in Co. K, 5th Va. Cav. 

Thomas, Benton D. — Private in Lightfoot's Battalion 



Trower, John R. — Master in C. S. Navy. 
Thompson, Tazewell — Major and commissary. 
Taylor, John C. — Staff of General ^Nlahone. 
Terrant. F. M, 

Todd. Henry S. — Lientcnant and adjutant. 
Tatem, N. C. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Turner, E. L, — Private in Co. F, 13th Va. Cav. 
Topham, Frank — Private in C. S. Navy. 


Upsher. Caleh L. — Lieutenant in Co. F., pth Va. Inf. 


Vesey*. William J. — Private in Co. B. T3th Va. Cav. 
Vermilliiin, John — ist lieutenant in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 
Vellines. M. J. — 1st sergeant in Co. E. 9th Va. Inf. 
Vaughan. John N. — Private in Taylor's Cav. 
Vaughan, R. Frank — Sergeant in Norfolk Light Art. 


Walke, Dr. Frank A. — Surgeon in 46th Va. Inf. 
Wilbern. William G. — Lieutenant in Co. H, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wilson. George W. — Private in Co. K. 1.3th Va. Cav. 
Windsor. C. H. — 2nd Co.. Independent Signal Corps. 
Walker, James H. — Tst sergeant in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. James Howard — Orderly sergeant in Co. G. 

i6th Va. Inf. 
Worthington. H. L. — Private in Co. C. igth N. C. Regf. 
Wilkinson. James — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Ward, B. F. — Sergeant in Young's Harbor Guard — 

Walters, James B. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Walke, W. Talbot— Adjutant in 3gth Va. Cav. 
Walke. Richard — Captain and A. A. and inspector gen- 
eral in 3rd Corps — .^rt. 
Woodhouse, H. C. — ist lieutenant in Co. H. 12th Va. 

Woodhouse. John T. — Major in i6th Va. Inf. 
Webster. W, W.— Jeffer's Battery— Art. 
Wrenn. John W. H. — Captain of Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Williams. Theo. A. — Lieutenant, commanding Co. K, 6th 

Va. Inf. 
Woodley, Joseph R. — ist lieutenant in Signal Corps. 
White, A, A, — Private in Signal Service and clerk in 

Engineer's Department. 
Walke. A. H.— Private in Co. K, T^th Va. Cav. 
Warren. James E. — Private in Co. C. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Williams. John N. — Private in 6ist Va. Inf. and ist Co. 

Richmond Howitzers — Art. 
Winefield, R. C. M.— Private in Norfolk Light .^rt. 

White. E. V. — Sergeant in 2nd Ga. Battalion Inf. and 

engineer in C. S. Navy. 
Webber, John S. — Sergeant in Co. A. 38th Va. Battalion 

Woodhouse, G. H. H. — Private in Co. F. 6th Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst. S. T. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
Williams. H. W. — Sergeant in Co. G. 43rd Battalion 

Va. Cav. 
White, Ryland C— Private in Co. B, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Watts, John Thomas— Private in Alexander's Battalion 

Williamson, John T.— Private in Co. H, 12th Va Inf 
White, W. J.— Private in Co. H. 12th Va. Inf. 
Wilson, William A. — 2nd lieutenant in Co. F, 27th N 

C. Inf. 
Wright, Henrv X.— Chief engineer in C. S. Navv. 
Wright, Joseph Alonzo— Private in Co. C, 6th Va. Inf. 
Wright. W. A.— Ordnance sergeant in Co. A, 1st N. 

C. Inf. 
Whitel.urst. James Henry — Private in Co. I. <8th Va. 

Walters, James H. — Sergeant in Norfolk Light Art. 

Whitehurst, F. M.— ist lieutenant, commanding Co. F, 

6th Va. Inf. 
Walton, Dr. Richard P. — Surgeon in C. S. Army. 
Woodhouse, William W. — Electrician at headquarters, 

Mosby's command. 
White. William H. — Drill master of Virginia Military 

Institute Cadets. 
Walton, Joseph A.— Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. ; and 

Independent Signal Corps and Scouts. 
Weaver. Samuel W. — Captain Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 
Williams, W. Wallace — Sergeant in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Ward, Dr. Thomas B. — Surgeon in Weisiger's Brigade. 
Wynn. B. F.— Private in Co. C. 6th Va. Inf. 
Worthington, Dr. R. H. — Assistant surgeon in C. S. 

Warren, T. S. — Adutant in 5 ist Va. Inf. 
Wedden, Charles S. — Quartermaster sergeant in Co. D, 

7th N. C. Inf. 
Webster, R. T. — ^Quartermaster sergeant in Lightfoot's 

Walters, John — Private in Norfolk Light .Art. Blues. 
Worrell, Edward W. — Sergeant in Co. C, i6th N. C. 

Wrenn, Rev. Virginius — Private in Marshall's Batter)- — ■ 

Whitworth. John S. — Captain of Co. I, 6th Va. Inf. 
West. William A. — Commissary Sergeant in 6ist Va. 

West. John T. — Captain of Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 
West, LeRoy McC— Corporal in Co. A.. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Wallace. John G. — Captain of Co. C, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Winborne. E. J.— Private in Co. A, i6th Va. Inf. 
White. A. L.— Private in Co. K, ist S. C. Inf. 
Whitehurst, James H. — Private in Co. B, 6th Va. Inf. 
White. E. P. — Commissary sergeant in Co. I, 14th Va. 

Williams. R. H. — Sergeant in Co. H, 26th Va. Inf. 
Webb. Robert W. — Orderly sergeant in 32nd N. C. Inf. 
Whittle. William C. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 
Wil'on. Charles W. — Captain of Company A, 6th Va. 

Walker, T. D.— Private in Co. G, 4th N. C. Cav. 
Warden. K, — Private in Co. F. isth Va. Cav. 


Young, Walter J. — Orderly sergeant in Young's Harbor 

Guard — Art. 
Young, N. F. — Private in Otey's Battery, 13th Va. 

Battalion Art. 
Yeatman, C. E. — Lieutenant in C. S. Navy. 



Stoiu'^x.-ull Ciiiiip. Pditsiinntlli. 

Ex-C(intetleratcs ul Xcrfolk County and 
Portsmouth assemljled at the Council Cliam- 
lier on tlie 9th of A])ril, 1884. to organize a 
Confederate cam]). Capt. \'. O. Cassell was 
elected first commander. On the i6th of July, 
1884. the association adopted the name of 
Stonewall Camp. Confederate X'eterans. 

The objects of this organization are to 
cultivate, preserve and strengthen those kind 
and fraternal feelings, which bind together 
those who honorably served in the army and 
navy of the Confederate States; to perpetuate 
the memory and histor}- of the dead ; to assist 
such former comrades in arms as need help 
and protection : and to extend needful aid to 
the widows and orphans of those who have 


Allen. Henry A. — Captain of Co. K. ptii \'a. Inf. 
Allen. Mathcw W. — Private in Grimes' Battery — .'X.rt. 
Archer. James H. — Drimimer in Co. B.. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Ashton, R. Xewton — Private in Co. K. 5th Va. Cav. 
Ashton. John C. — Private in Norfolk Light Art. Blues. 
.\rrington, James E.— Private in 3rd Va. Inf. 
Ash, John \V. — Sergeant in Grimes' Battery — Art. 


Baird. J. Thompson— Lieutenant in Co. C. l6th Va. Inf. 
Ballentinc. D. W. — Sergeant in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Barlow. T. J. — Quartermaster sergeant in Co. C. 31st 

Va. Inf. 
Banty. X. J. — Private in Co. G. 6l5t Va. Inf. 
Barber. George W. — Private in Co. D. 6lst \'a. Inf. 
Beaton, John \V. — Captain of Co. H. 41st Va. Inf. 
Benson. F. R. — Private in Co. K. gth \'a. Inf. 
Bilisoly. J. J. — 1st lieutenant in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Bilisoly. J. L. — Hospital steward in Co. K. oth Va. Inf. 
Bland. George W. — Private in Co. D. 9th \'a. Inf. 
Bourke, Joseoh B. — Private in Co. G. gth \'a. Inf. 
Browne. S. V. — Hospital steward in Co. K. gth \'a. Inf. 
Brown. E. H. — Engineer in C. S. Xavy. 
Brown. H. C. — Private in Xaval Brigade. 
Brooks. E. K. — Private in Co. K. 9th Va. Inf. 
Bunting. J. \V. — Private in Co. A. Heavy .\rt. 
Butt, Channing M. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Butts, D. G. C. — Cadet in Virginia Military Institute. 
Bohannan. Churchill — Private in Grimes' Batterv — Art. 
Bendall. F. M.— Private in Co. I. 12th Va. Inf. 
Backus, \V. T. — Private in Co. I. 13th Va. Cav. 
Bartee. T. B. — Sergeant in Co. A. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Brown. B. J. — Lieutenant in 85th X. C. Inf. 

Butt, Dr. H. F. — Brigade surgeon. X. C. Inf. 
Beaton. James H. — Private in Co. I, 61 st X. C. Inf. 
Barrett, T. S. — Private in Ordnance Dcpt. 
Bailey. Thomas .A. — Private in Co. D, 9th \'a. Inf. 
Butt. Walter R. — Lieutenant in C. S. Xavy. 
Brownly, Jos. J. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Bunting, L. D. — Private in Co. C, 13th \'a. Cav. 
Binford, James M. — Captain of Co. C. 23rd \'a. Cav. 
Brown, James W. — Private in Xcrfolk Light Art. 

Barrett, S. H.— Private in Co. H., 3rd \'a. Inf. 

Carty. F. .\V. — 2nd sergeant in Co. D, 6th Va. Inf. 
Crismond. John W. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Crismond. James P. — Private in Co. K. 9th Va. Inf. 
Cherry, W. H. — Private in Grimes' Battery — .\rt. 
Cowper. Clarence — Private in Co. C. 16th Va. Inf. 
Cooke. W. G. — Private in Local Forces 4th Battalion. 
Collonna. John W. — Private in .\rmistead's Batterj- — 

Crocker, James F. — .\djutant in 9th Va. Inf. 
Charlton. L. W. — Corporal in Co. E. 61 st Va. Inf. 
Capps, F. M. — Private in Co. I, 13th Va. Cav. 
Cutherell, Arthur — Private in Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Colbourn. A. -A. — Private in Co. F. 46th Va. Inf. 
Culpepper. A. T. — ist lieutenant of Commissary Dept. 
Cherry. James — Private in Grimes' Battery — .Art. 
Cooke. John K. — Captain and major: agent C. S. Army. 
Cutherell. \\'. H. — Private in (irimes' Battery — .\rt. 
Curlin, M, W. — Major in Xaval Forces. 
Collins, \V. B. — Quartermaster sergeant in Co. K, gth 

Va. Inf. 
Cooke. W. S. — 2nd lieutenant in Co. H. 3d Va. Inf. 
Cassell. V. O.— Captain of Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Cooke, A. M.— Private in Co. H, 61 st Va. Inf. 


Dunn. J. Thomas — Private in Co. F". 41st Va. Inf. 
Dunn. W. H. — Private in Grandy's Battery — .Art. 
Denby, Joshua — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Dewberry. W. T. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
DeGarylx)dy. I. — Private in Co. F. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Drewery. B. J. — Private in Co. F. 32nd Va. Inf 
Drewery. J. T. — Private in Southamton Lee .\rt. 
Diggs. C. C. — Private in Co. .\. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Deans. Robert E. — Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Dashields. T. J.— Sergeant in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Dunford. V. H. — Private in Co. I. 41st Va. Inf 
Darden. H. K. — Private in Co. .\. i6th Va. Inf. 
DeLausans. William — Private in 56th X. C. Inf. 
Dwyer. Thomas K. — Engineer in C. S. Xavy. 
Dunn. J. R. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Denby, James E. — Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Dillon. James E. — Sergeant in Grimes' Battery — .\rt. 
Deans. T. H.— Private in Co. H. 3rd \'a. Inf. 
Deans, John E. — Captain of Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Dashields. J. J. — Private in Co. A, i6th Va. Inf. 


Edwards, Griffin E. — .\djutant in 6ist Va. Inf. 



Edwards, William T. — Private in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Edwards, O. H. — Corporal in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Edwards, L. B. — Private in Co. G. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Edmonds, W. C. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Enimerson, William — Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. 
Eckert, C. H.— Private in Co. B, ist Md. Cav. 

Foreman, W. N. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Foreman, John E. — Private in Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Fendley, J. W. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Fiske, W. A.— Private in Co. B, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Fulford. J. C. — Lieutenant in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Fauny, Robert — Private in Co. F, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Freeman. Thomas E. — Private in Co. C, 24th Va. Cav. 
Ford, William H. — Private in Upshaw's Cav. 
Flanagan, E, J. — Private in Co. D, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Frazier, R. R. — Lieutenant in 32nd Va. Inf. 

Gaskins. J. R. — Private in Co. F, 3rd Va. Cav. 
Glea.son, Thomas H. — Lieutenant in Co. H, ^rd Va. 

Godwin, L. C. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Godwin, C. W. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Goodwin. J. M. — Private in 13th Va. Cav. 
Gosney, B. F. — Private in Co. B, 5th Va. Cav. 
Griffin, K. R. — Lieutenant in Crutchfield's Brigade. 
Guy, H. C. — 1st lieutenant in 54th Regt. of militia; 

trans, to Naval Brigade. 
Gwynn, G. W. — Private in Co. I, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Gayle, N. G. — C. S. Navy. 

Gayle, L. C. — Sergeant in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Grice. A, P. — Lieutenant in Quartermaster's Dept. 
Gay. H. B.— Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Guthrie. -B. W.— Master in C. S. Navy. 
Gaskins, J. H. — Private in Grimes' Batterj' — Art. 


Halstead, J. E.— Private in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Herbert, J. L.— Private in Co. C, l6th Va. Inf. 

Hodges, Josiah — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 

Harvey, A. W.— Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 

Herring. R. H. — Private in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 

Harris. R. L.— Private in Co. A, i6th Va. Inf. 

Humphries, Young — Private in Co. D. 6lst Va. Inf. 

Hoofnagle. R. H. — Private in C. S. Navy. 

Hester. Thomas — Musician in Co. A, 8th N. C. Regt. ; 
trans, to C. S. Navy. 

Humphlet. J. T. — Sergeant in Co. I, gth Va. Inf. 

Hanrahan, Geo. T. — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 

Hope, W. M. — Constructor in C. S. Navy. 

Hope, A. M.— Private in Co. H, 5th Va. Cav. 

Holloway, Joseph — Private in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Hodges, Thomas M. — Captain of Co. A. 3rd Va. Inf. 

Hume, J. H. — Private in Signal Corps, Wood's Bat- 

Hudgins, H. C. — Lieutenant rn Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 

Hudgins, G. W. — Private in Webb's Battalion. 

Hall, C. J. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. ; trans, to 
C. S. Navy. 

Ironmonger, A. C. — Private in Grimes' Battery — .\rt. 
Ironmonger, C. E. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Arc. 
Ives, F. M. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Ivy, I. O. — Private in Co. C, 13th Va. Cav. 


James, R. B. — Sergeant in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Jenkins, J. S. — Adjutant in Co. C. I4th Va. Inf. 
Jenkins. Miles — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Jett, F. W. — Captain. Promoted major of Engineer 

Johnson, Theo. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 


King, G. W. — Private in Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 
Knott, Elvington — Private in Co, C, 13th Va. Cav. 
Kreiger, George A. — Sergeant in Co. M, ist Va. Local 

Linn, C. B. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Lewis, W. A. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Leavitt, J. M.— Private in Co. C, 12th Va. Inf. 
Laycock, E. — Private in Co. F, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Lewis. M. K. — Sergeant in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Loomis, James M. — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va, Inf. 
Langhorne, James K. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. : 

assistant engineer, C. S. Navy. 
Langhorne, W. S. — Private in 1st Si.gnal Corps. 
Lash, G. W. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Lawrence. J. R. — Sergeant in Co. D. 6"th N. C. Inf. 
Lewis, John F. — Lieutenant in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Lilliston. R. W. — Drum major in 6th Va. Inf. 
Lovitt. John A. — Gunner in C. S. Navv. 
Lash. John W.— Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Lohman, W. G. — Private in Co. H, 41st Va. Inf. 
Lynch, W. B. — Grimes' Battery — Art. 


Marshall. R. C— Lieutenant in Co. H, 6th Va. Cav. 

Mathews. Alonzo — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 

Marsh. A. D.— Private in Co. D, 61 st Va. Inf. 

Mahoney, E. N. — Private in 3rd Co. Richmond How- 
itzers — Art. 

Mears, E. J. — Corporal in Co. I. 61 st Va. Inf. 

Meads, J. W. — Private in 4th Navy Regt. 

Minter, A. M. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 

Miller, J. C— Private in Co. I. 61 st Va. Inf. 

Moore. George T. — C. S.. Navy. 

Monserrate, M. D. — Color bearer in Co. H, 3d Va. Inf. 

Maunin, George W. O. — Private in Co. H. 15th Va. 

McDonell, George W. R. — Sergeant in Grimes' Battery 

McHoney, W. H.— Private in Co. H. 3rd A'a. Inf. 

Morrisett. William — Private in Co. B. 3rd Va. Inf. 

Murphy, Enos — Private in Portsmouth Rifles. 

Moore, W. A. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 

Martin. J. E.— Private in I5tli N. C. Inf. 



Morris, J. T.— Private in Co. B. 6th \"a. Inf. 
Miirtlaugh. C. \V. — Captain of Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Murdcn. David T.— Private in Co. F. I5tli Va. Cav. 
MacMahon. Huph — Sergeant in 3d Md. Battery. 
McAlpine, Dr. Charles R. — Captain of Co. I, 6ist Va. 

Inf. Promoted to major. 
McKoy. R. K. — Sergeant in Co. D. 9th Va. Inf. 
McDonell, A. F. — Private in Lynchburg Battery — Art. 


Niemeyer. \V. F. — Lieutenant-colonel of 5ist Va. Inf. 
Neville. H. \\'. — Private in Local Forces. 
Neville. W. S. — Private in Co. G. 9th Va. Inf. 
Niemeyer, H. V. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Nicholson, F. J. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 


Owens, B. H. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Owens. Joseph T. — Captain of Co. D, 26th Va. Inf. 
Owens. Charles — Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 
Oakham. T. J. — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 
Oliver, George E. — Private in i6th Va. Inf. 


Powers, John — Captain of Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Peters. Osmond — Captain in C. S. Navy. 

Powell. M. \V.— Private in Co. F, 9th Va. Inf. 

Peters. James H. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Parrish. J. J. — Private in N. C. Inf. 

Powell. Rev. J. D. — and lieutenant in Dance's Battery — 

Parker. A. K. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art, 
Parrish. Dr. James — Surgeon in 3rd Va. Cav. 
Peed. S. S.— Private in Co. G, gth Va. Cav. 
Parker, R. H. — Surgeon in 2nd N. C. Battalion. 
Pate. William J.— Private in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Peters, Osmond J. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Peed, C. C. — Private in Co. G. Naval Brigade. 
Peters. William H. — Agent in C. S. Navy. 
Perry. E. A. — Private in Co. D, 6lst Va. Inf. 
Phillips. C. T.— Adjutant in Co. G. gth Va. Inf. 
Phillips, H. O.— Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Porter. John W. H. — Lieutenant in 1st Va. Reserves. 
Potter, James — C. S. Navy. 
Procter, J. C. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Purcell, Thomas — Private in Co. F, gth Va. Inf. 
Pruden, E. J. — Private in Co. F. gth Va. Inf. 
Pollard. T. L. — Private in Co. A. loth Va. Art. 
Piffins, Isaac — Private in 31st N. C. Inf. 


Ritter. James A. — Private in Co. F. 41st Va. Inf. 
Russ, S. P. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Riddick. J. B. — Captain of Co. I, 41st Va. Inf. 
Rives. G. E.— Private in Co. H, 13th Va. Cav. 
Robinson, J. H. — Lieutenant in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Ray, Thomas W. — Private in Petersburg Battery — Art. 
Russ. Francis — Lieutenant in Grimes' Batterv — Art. 
Reynolds, H. C— Private in Co. D. 6ist Va. Inf. 
Richardson, James H. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 

Richardson, W. J. — Lieutenant-colonel of gth Va. Inf. 

Richardson, N. F. — Private in 2nd Signal Corps. 

Ridley. R.— Private in 13th Va. Cav. 

Ross, Joseph — Private in Co. F, 4th Ga. Inf. 

Round, C. A. — Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 

Rowan, W. H.— Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 

Rustic, J, T, — Assistant constructor in C. S. Navy. 


Sykes, W. S.— Captain of Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 

Saundys, John S.— Private in Co. A, 15th Va. Cav. 

Syers, Charles— Sergeant in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Smith, O. v.— Private in 3rd Co. Richmond Howitzers- 

Stewart. John F. — .Adjutant in 3rd \'a. Inf. 

Scott. Thomas — Private in Signal Corps. 

Sinith, Joseph J. — Musician in Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Smith, James K.— C. S. Navy. 

Sheppard. W. E. — Private in Co. D, gth Va. Inf. 

Sherwood, William — Captain and commissary of Ma- 
hone's Brigade. 

Slater, L. P.— 32nd Va. Inf. 

Smith, John — Private in Co. K. gth Va. Inf. 

Smith, Williamson — Private in Co. A, i6th Va. Inf. 

Smith. John E. — C. S. Navv. 

Smith. W. J.— Private in 6th Va. Inf. 

Small, C. C— Private in 17th N. C. Inf. 

Stewart, James T. — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 

Stewart, William H. — Lieutenant-colonel of 6ist Va. Inf. 

Spivey, A. A.— Private in Co. D, 54th N. C. Inf. 

Shannon, Thomas — Lieutenant in Co. F, 8th N. C. Regt. 


Taylor, ^\'illiam?on B. — Private in Co. I. gth Va. Inf. 
Tee, John C. — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Thompson. John H. — Captain of Grimes' Battery — .Art. 
Toomer, James H. — Captain of Engineer's Corps. 
Tvnan. F. T. — Orderly sergeant in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Tyler, H. C— Private in Co. B, i6th Va. Inf. 
Tabb, H. A.— Private in Co. H. 3rd Va. Inf. 
Tyson, Luther — Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Thomas. L. W. — Lieutenant in Co. D, 26th Va. Inf. 
Tabb, William H.— C. S. Navy. 


Vanderson. John T. — Captain of Co. D. 15th V'a. Cav. 
Vermillion, Denis — Captain of Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
\'ermillion, .A. P. — Private in Co. K, gth Va. Inf. 
Vermillion. Richard — Lieutenant in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Veale, A. E.— Private in Co. H, sgth Va. Inf. 
Virnelson, Thomas H. — Sergeant in Grimes' Batterv— 

Veale,, James — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Vermillion, G. S. — Private in Signal Corps. 


Walcott, S. F.— C. S. Navy. 
Ward. Aaron — Private in Co. F. nth N. C. Inf. 
Warren. J. J. — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Watts, George W. H.— Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 



Watts, L. R. — Private in Signal Corps. 

Walker, C. W. — Courier for General Blancliard and in 

Navy Reserves. 
Wiesdorf, Ed.— Musician in 6th Va. Inf. 
Weaver, Joseph F. — C. S. Navy. 
Welton, James L. — Private in Co. I. I2th Va. Inf. 
Williamson, C. H.— Private in Norfolk Light Art. 

Williamson. Dr. C. H. — Surgeon in C. S. Navy. 
Williams, Hillary G. — Sergeant in Co. D, 6ist Va. Inf. 
Williams, Luther — C. S. Navy. 

Williams, Herbert J. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Williams, D. E. — Private in Co. K, 9th Va. Inf. 
Williams, E. A. — Sergeant in Co. C, 47th N.- C. Inf. 
Williams. Edward — C. S. Navv. 
Wilkerson. G. P.— Private in Co. G, gth Va. Inf. 
Whitehurst, N. E.— Private in Co. C. i6th Va. Inf. 
Wood, John W. — Orderly Sergeant in Co. G. 9th Va. 

Womble, George B. — Private in 19th Va. Heavy Art. 
Wilkins, Henry — Private in Co. I, 9th Va. Inf. 
Wilson, John — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
Whitehurst, D. W. — Private in Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 
Watson, J, — Naval Battalion. 

Wrench, John — Private in Grimes' Battery — Art. 
White, L. H. — Lieutenant in Co. A, 3rd Va. Inf. 
White, R. W. B.— Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Walton, D. S. — Lieutenant-colonel in Engineer Corps. 
Wood. W. J. — Private in 4th Va. Battalion. 
Watson. Joseph W. — Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 
Webb, Richard — Private in Co. B, 13th Va. Cav. 
Williams, J. Q. A.— C. S. Navy. 

Williamson, Lewis W. — Private in Co. K. 9th Va. Inf. 
Wellener, Joseph W. — Private in Co. C, i6th Va. Inf. 
Williams, David— C. S. Navy. 

Yost, John W. — Private in Co. H, 3rd Va. Inf. 
Young, John W. — Private in Signal Corps. 
Young, C. W. — Private in Co. G, 9th Va. Inf. 
Young, Joseph L. — Private in Printer's Guards. 

Zink, S. B.— Artillery. 

Niciiicycr-SIiaiv Camp. Berkley. 

The Niemeyer-Shaw Camp, Confederate 
Veterans, was organized in Pine Street Hall,- 
in Berkley, on Max 2, 1892. There were pres- 
ent 27 veterans. Peleg Pritchard presided 
and E. E. Hathaway was chosen secretary. 
The purposes of the organization are the same 
as those of Pickett-Buchanan Camp. It was 
named for Lieut. -Col. William F. Niemeyer, 
who' fell at Sixjttsylvania, and Col. Henry M. 
Shaw, who' was killed in the battle of Roanoke 

Island. The commanders of the camp since 
it was instituted have been Capt. John S. 
Whitworth, Dr. George W. Wallace, John A. 
Morgan, L. M. Wingtield and D. L. Cox. 



Brent, John T.— Private in Co. D, 9th Va. Inf. 

Borum. S. T. 

Berry, John D. 

Bland, Samuel — 5th Co. Washington Light Art. 

Bass, Robert J. 


Cox, E. L. — Lieutenant in Co. C. 68th N. C. Inf. 

Childrey, J. E. 

Casey, James A. — Co. I, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Davis, W. H. 

Eason, I. N. 
Ellington, William. 
Ellington, P. A. 
Eley, J. M. 


Frost, P. 

Gresham. T. B. — 15th Va. Cav. 
Graves, D. A. — C. S. Navy. 
Gibson, P. H.— 38th Va. Inf. 


Hanbury, H. B.— Co. E. 6ist Va. Inf. 

Hayes, Joseph — Co. B. 5th N. C. Inf. 

Hathawav, E. E. — 38th Va. Inf. 

Hozier, j. E.— Co. F, 6rst Va. Inf. 

Huffly, James. 

Halstead. Dr. Geo. N. — Assistant Surgeon in C. S. Navv. 

Harrell, J. R. 

Hoge, A. J.— C. S. Navy. 

Howard, J. 

Hickman, James — Co. H. 3rd \'a. Inf. 

Harris, J. L. — Co. G, 13th Va. Cav. 


Ives, Felix — Co. E. 61 st Va. Inf. 

Krause, C. A. 
Kirby, W. H.— Co. E. 41st \"a. Inf. 

Lawrence. H. M. 




Luke, G. G. 

Lacy, George. 

Lowe, T. J. 

Lawrence. J. L. — Co. G, irth N. C. Inf. 

Lane, W. P.— Co. F, sth N. C. Inf. 


Miller. \V. H. 

Merwin, Wm. 

Morgan. John A. — Co. A, ist N. C. Inf. 

Martin. George A. — Colonel in 38lh Va. Inf. 


Old, George M.— Co. I, 15th Va. Cav. 

Pritchard, Peleg — Corporal in Co. A, 6i5t Va. Inf. 

Payne. M. 

Parrott. Robert. 

Petty, W. W. 

Poindexter, E. H. — Captain in C .S. Navy. 

Parker. George — Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 

Pain. C. — C. S. Xavy. 

Parrot. Albert — Co. F, 5th Va. Cav. 

Perkins. \\". L. M.— Co. F, 43d X. C. Inf. 

Parkerson, S. 

Randolph, Robert. 
Rudil, Edward — C. 


S. Xa\T. 



Slaymaker. Rev. W. 

Sexton, William. 

Sawjer, Isaac L. — 15th Va. Cav. 

Spence, W. S. 

Sawyer. D. A.— Co. A, Sth X. C. Inf. 

Sykes, Thomas H. — Sergeant in Co. A, 6ist Va. Inf. 

Stafford, Richard — Co. I, 61 st Va. Inf. 

Stoakes. James. 

Sykes, X. M.— Co. F, 41st Va. Inf. 


Whit worth, John S.— Co. I, 6th Va. Inf. 

Whitehurst. James H. — Co. I, 38th Va. Inf. 

Wingfield. L. M.— Stuart's Horse — .\rt. 

Wood, J. F. 

White. M. V. 

Warren. John. 

Wallace. George W. — Private Signal Corps. 


Motto: — "Lord God of hosts, be with us yet. 
Lest we forget, lest we forget." 

The objects of tliis association are educa- 
tional, memorial, literary, social and benevo- 

lent : to collect and preserve the material for 
a truthful history of the war between the Con- 
federate States and the United States of Amer- 
ica : to honor the memory <.)f those who served 
and those who fell in the service of the Con- 
federate States; to record the part taken by 
Southern women, as well, in untiring effort 
after the war in the reconstruction of the 
South, as in patient endurance of hardship 
and jKitriotic devotion during the struggle ; to 
cherish ties of friendshij) among the members 
of the society ; and to fultill the duties of sacred 
charity to the survivors of the war and those 
dependent upon them. 

Pickett-Buchanan Chapter, Xo. 21, of Norfolk. 


Mrs. James Y. Leigh, president. 
Mrs. Frances W. Smith, ist vice-president. 
Mrs. R. Page Waller, 2nd vice-president. 
Mrs. Walter P. Burrow, recording secretary. 
Miss Emily Doyle, corresponding secretarj-. 
Mrs. Thomas W. Henderson, treasurer. 
Mrs. Charles G. Elliott, parliamentarian. 


Mrs. Charles G. Elliott, president. 
Mrs. Washington Taylor. 1st vice-president. 
Mrs. Walter H. Doyle, 2nd vice-president. 
Mrs. Walter P. Burrow, recording secretary. 
Miss Emily Doyle, corresponding secretarj-. 
!Mrs. Thomas W. Henderson, treasurer. 

Portsmouth Chapter, No. 30, Portsmouth. 
(Organized in 1896.) 


Mrs. Sallie Magruder Stewart, president. 
Mrs. Martha A. .\shton. vice-president. 
Miss Virginia Griffin, recording secreiarj-. 
Mrs. Alice H. Jenkins, corresponding secretary. 
Mrs. Rebecca Marshall Xash. treasurer. 
Miss Lizzie Ball Porter, historian. 

OFFICERS i.v 1900. 

Mrs. Eugenia Schroeder Crimip. president. 

Mrs. Charles T. Parrish. vice-president. 

Miss Virginia Griffin, recording secretary. 

!Miss Loretto M. Tooraer. corresponding secretary. 

Mrs. William H. Stewart, treasurer. 

Miss Mamie Schroeder, registrar. 

!Mrs. John W. H. Porter, historian. 



Spanish-Amerjcan War — Roster of Jackson Light Infantry, Lee Rifles, Norfolk 
City Guard, Old Dominion Guard, Portsmouth Rifle Company — Citizen Sailors 
ON the " Maine. " 

Tlie war Ijetween tlie United States and 
Spain was demanded by public opinion, which 
had foi" many years sympathized with the 
licpeless struggle of the Cuban patriots for 
release from the thraldom of Spain. Tlie de- 
struction of the "Maine" exhausted the pa- 
tience of the people and popular impulse 
forced the issue. Congress passed the bill 
f(jrmall_\' declaring war on the 25th of April, 
1898. and dating it from April 21st. The 
President had issued his proclamation calling 
f(jr 125,000 men distributed pro rata among 
the States on the 23rd (jf April, two- days 
previous to the declaration of war, and the 
soldiers of our twin cities responded with that 
fer\or of patriotism which lias from the earli- 
est settlement of Norfolk County responded to 
the calls of justice. The terms of the treaty 
•of peace with Spain were \-erl)ally agreed upon 
November 28, 1898. The following are ros- 
ters of officers and men from Norfolk and 
Portsmouth, who were mustered into the serv- 
ice of the United States iiursuant to the 
proclamation of the President. 


(Recruited at Norfolk.) 


Col. George W. Taylor. 


Dr. C. R. Vance, surgeon, major, Norfolk. 
Dr. George M. Peed, assistant surgeon, captain, Ports- 
Dr. W. L. Old, assistant surgeon, captain. Norfolk. 
Capt. Alexander Higgins. quartermaster. Norfolk. 
Capt. P. E. Yateman, adjutant, Norfolk. 



This co»ifany Xi'as mustered into the United States 
service May ly, iSg8, and was mustered out April 27, 

Captain, Thomas J. Nottingham. 

1st lieutenant, William H. Wassum. 

2nd lieutenant. Edward W. Jones. 

1st sergeant, William C. Shelley. 

Quartermaster sergeant, Thomas Q. Lackland. 

Sergeants. William V. King, Joshua L. Gilbert, 
Harry A. Mason, Arthur P. Burgess. 

Corporals, John E. Griggs. Frank J. Lawless. John 
McCloud. Frank McLaughlin, Harry W. Waikart. 

Musicians, Charles L. Henley. Walter H. Hamilton. 

-Artificer. Frank W. Woodhouse. 

Wagoner. Samuel H. Forrest. 


Ernest L. Banks. 
Frank H. Bondurant, 
.■\rniistead Bowland, 
Albert F. Barrett, 
Samuel S. Bonway, 
Eugene J. Buym. 
Harry B. Chillson, 
Douglas C. Cannon. 
Philip A. Churchill, 

Henry \\'. Ciiopcr, 
Robei-t L. Doherty. 
James H. Downing. 
Harry W. EllingsWorth, 
Harry L. Fentress, 
Joseph Fentress. 
William H. Forrest, 
"erhert C. Griffin. 
Benjamin Hancock. 




Walter F. Hendricks. 
James C. Hitchiiigs. Jr.. 
Cary T. Hodges. 
William H. Hodges, 
Oelisciis M. Hodges, 
Joseph J. Hennellv. 
Gcoros \V. Hill. 
Milo M. Holloman. 
Richard H. Humphries, 
Edwar<l Jack. 
Joseph E. Kevill, 
Ruby L. Lash. 
Henry H. Lash. 
George D. Lawton, 
Ernest L. Lightfoot. 
Julius T. Lansberg, 
Thomas E. Lewis, 
Clarence P. Linn, 
Harry Monday. 
Dempsey Morrisett, 
George F. McGuire, 
John McRorie. Jr.. 
Louis B. Montague, Jr., 
Edgar .A. Moore, Jr., 
Harry L. Morris, 

Edward F. McLaughlin, 

N'ictor E. N'ottinghani. 
Thomas M. O'Brien, 
James W. Rufiin, 
Harry W. Roberts. 
■ Chark-s H. Rowland, 
Luther J. Rowland, 
Lenncr D. Rawls. 
Andrew L. Stephens, 
Edwin W. Slater, 
Marvin AL Stokeley, 
James D. Shadbolt. 
Frank G. Skinner, 
.\lonzo Smith, 
Harrold Soul. 
William \V. Toole. 
Garent Waller, 
James B. Warwick. 
Walter Walker. 
Miles W. White, 
John G. Wilson. 
James E. Waterfield, 
Ben .\. Williams, 
John .\. Wolf. 



This coinpaiiy zcas iiiiislcrcd into tin- United Statics 
scn-icr May 14, 1898, and vas mustered out April 2y, 

Captain. Henry H. Sheen. 

1st lieutenant. William C. Hill. 

2nd lieutenant. Vincent C. Burrow. 

1st sergeant. William G. Sturdivant. 

Quartermaster sergeant. Whitney S. LeCompte. 

Sergeants. Frederick L. Curdts. William H. Har- 
rison. Granville M. Tilghman. James T. Shackelford. 

Corporals. John W. Creekmore. Samuel P. Butt, 
Collins Hill. Oscar V. Sessoms. Wade H. Hayes. Ed- 
ward M. Curdts. 

Musicians. Charles A. Bender, .Andrew L. Jones, 
Luther W. Sykes. 

.Artificer, Charles T. Sykes. 

Wagoner. William Woodward. 


.Xubrev W. Allen. 
William ^L Baker, 
.Archie C. Bates, 
.Archie M. Beattie, 
Leonard C. Billings, 
William J. Bippus, 
Richard t). Brinkley, 
William S. Brinkley, 
James H. Brown. 
William E. Coleman. 
John J. Cummings, 
Frederick W. Dodenhoft, 
Robert K. Eckles, 

Benjamin E. Edwards. 
Percy Etheridge. 
William T. Fritzingcr, 
Clyde L. George, 
John P. Graves, 
Samuel H. Grcshani. 
William Gwin. 
P. T. Henly. 
George C. Harman. 
Lafayette Haughton. 
Robert H. Herndon. 
William L. Heard. 
John C. Hill, 

Anthony L. C. Hill, 
Kubie -A. Hord. 
William T. Howland, 
.Albert G. Hume, 
C. T. Long, 
Otto King, 
Frank L. Koerner. 
.Arthur G. McCoy. 
Frank JL Morgan. 
Lawrence B. Myrick, 
Thomas L. Xunnelly, 
Joseph F. Parks, 
James E. Parsons. 
William B. Parham. 
Charles H. Pettus, 
William 1). Pritchard, 
James K. Reid, 
Hugh S. Reid. 
Joseph M. Saunders, 
Samuel T. Schaffer, 

Frank G. Story, Jr., 
William -A. Seddinger, 
Joseph H. Sherrard, 
.Augustine L. Sherwood, 
Charles E. Sheppard. 
Patrick Smith, 
William S. Smith. 
Oscar G. Scott, 
\\'ashington M. Spence, 
Joseph R. Starvo, 
Edward N. Waddy. 
Samuel Wasserman, 
Harry V. Welsh. 
Ravniond H. Walker, 
Allen O. White, T. White. 
William J. Williams. 
H. L. Wrenn. 
William Woodard, 
Karl R, Wood. 

NORFOLK crrv cr.^R/'. 


This company teas mustered into the L'nited States 
service May is. iSqS. and teas mustered out .-ipril ^7, 

Captain. Marshall Tarrall. (Promoted to major.) 

1st lieutenant. Bernard W. Salamonsky. (Promoted 
to captain.) 

2nd lieutenant. Clinton L. Wright. (Promoted to 

1st Sergeant. George T. Layor. 

Quartermaster sergeant. Walter H. Church. (Pro- 
moted to 2nd lieutenant.) 

Sergeants. Mills Powell. Sidney E. Smith. Enoch R. 
Gale. James ^L McCoy. 

Corporals. Andrew S. Morris. Louis D. Linn. Charles 
B. Berr. Andrew J. Kerns. Charles L. Davis, Benjamin 
F. Tally. 

Musicians. William H. Curdts. Louis M. Lanier. 

.Artificer. .Alvin C. Downing. 

Wagoner, Eugene Wyorth. 


Nichols .Albone. 
Walter F. .Allen, 
Charles M. Barrett, 
Edward G. Brock. 
Charles Beck. 
Edward H. Baieleo, 
Richard G. Baylor, 
Eugene Caffee, 
Roswell F. CaflPee, 
Gilbert C. Cole. 
George Christian, 
Clifton H. Dodson. 
Zclla L. Daniels. 
John P. Dougherty. 
Charles H. Dixon, 
John H. Eaton, 

William .A. Foster, 
W. Q. Folks. 
Charles B. Farley. 
Iii>epli Ferris. 
John W. Gaylord, 
James W. Gorin, 
Henry T. Gray, 
John L. Clardiner. 
Charles G. Greaves, 
Henry Harwood. 
Thomas S. Jackson. 
Mo-es Jacobs, 
John Jones. 
Daniel -A. Lassiter. 
Jnhn E. Milow. 
Frank .A. Milton, 



John E. Morris, 
John A. Morrisey, 
Major F. Moore, 
Edward W. Moore, 
Edgar N. Mallone, 
Louis Myers, 
James C. McGinnis, 
William H. McClennan. 
Henry W. McDermott, 
William H. Nelson, 
James A. Potts. 
William Powell. 
Jeremiah Perr\', 
Constantine Politicari, 
Peter Rokos. 
Richard E. Riddick, 
Benjamin Rippi, 

Edgar L. Sweezey, 
Oscar L. Shipp, 
William L. Thomas, 
George B. Sheppard, 
John J. Walsh, 
Ben. T. White, 
Caudiiis L. White. 
Henrv T. White, 
Frank \V. Walker, 
William H. Williams, 
Ernest F. Wilkins. 
Harry E. Williams, 
Isaac F. Wilkinson, 
Hunter Wing. 
Edward F. Wilson. 
George H. Worrell. 



This comfiany zvas mustered into the United States 
service Me.y 21. 1898, and n'as mustered out April 2(), 

Captain. George A. Brooks. 

1st lieutenant. Albert G. Epes. 

2nd lieutenant. William H. Dunn. (Resigned No- 
vember 22. 1898.) 

1st sergeant, George S. Hutchins. (Promoted to 2nd 

Quartermaster sergeant. Walter R. Bennett. 

Sergeants. William W. Wright. Jr.. Thomas E. 
Munds. Benjamin H. Lassiter. James C. Hutchins. 

Corporals. Claude N. Markham. Kenneth J. Griffin, 
Lewis L. Bilisoly. William B. Burton. George M. Job- 
son. Nathaniel O. Williams. 

Musicians. William H. Journee. Harry P. Lane. 

Artificer. George R. Myers. 

Wagoner, George E. Whitehurst. 

Thomas Allen. 
Frederick V. Abbott. 
Harry L. Belote. 
Cornelius Borum. 
William E. Calvert. 
Patrick J. Campbell, 
George W. Cherry. 
Henry L. Culpepper, 
Walter H. Cramer, 
William H. Dorn, 
Harry Fields. 
Charles Grant. 
William M. Gray, 
John A. Green, 
Harry Gregg, 
"Lewis J. Gorsuch. 
Clarence Hingertv, 
L-e B. Hodges, 
Henry F. Housch, 
John T. Hughes. 
Eustace B. Hundley, 


Isaac D. Jones. 
Frank J. Keller. 
Geo. E. Kramer. 
Cliarles A; Lewis, 
Charles H. Lassiter, 
Charles Linn. 
Louis N. LaTouche, 
Hugh S. Martin, 
Pete V. Maiette, 
George B. Madison, 
.\ddis ]McCuIlev. 
William T. McCloskey, 
Harry C. Mattis. 
George H. Morisette, 
William J. Miskill, 
William L. Marshall, 
Joseph Nicholson, 
Aaron Porter. 
Milton H. Porter, 
Charles H. Perry, 
Walter Quillin, 

William Ricketts, 
John L. Reynolds, 
Robert J. Russell, 
William T. Roberts, 
Philip L. Seay. 
Theodore Seed, 
John E. Taylor, 
John H. Toomer, 
Robert L. Taylor, 
Thomas E. Tucker, 

Ambrose P. Tyler, 
George P. Thompson, 
Littleton B. Tucker, 
Robert C. Vaughan, 
Claude Vaughan, 
George W. West, 
William H. Williams, 
Bayless Welsch, 
Fernando J. White, 
Wilbur Waldrop. 



This company was mustered into the United States 
sen ice Mjy ig. i8gS, and mustered out December 19, 

Captain, E. W. Owens. 

1st lieutenant. John W. Leigh. 

2nd lieutenant. William R. Parrish. 

I St sergeant. James L. Busby. 

2nd sergeant. William L. Dilsbury. 

Sergeants. Charles E. Slote. Leroy F. Vaughn, Will- 
iam H. Brown. Richard A. Alexander. 

Corporals, John A. Nobrega, Charles T. Rudd. Harry 
Davis, Jesse L. Duffee, Amos J. Weston, Henry A, J. 

Drummer. George H. Lamar. 

Bugler. John W. Hodges. 

Artificer, Harry E. White. 

Wagoner, Elijah Rickets. 


Louis Banks, 
John M. Barnett. 
Charles E. Connell, 
Patrick Cox. 
George O. Diggs, 
Walter M. Duffee, 
Joseph M. Davis, 
Prince A. Fox. 
Nicholas Grootewall. 
John W. Green. 
James L. Gray. 
John C. Gallager. 
Benjamin F. Godwin. 
Albert Gay. 
George .•\. Hawes, 
Fred Hanson. 
John J. Hunt. 
William R. Hill. 
Enoch -J. Harlow. 
William M. Harris, 
John E. Tarvis. 
Arthur Ketcham, 
Lloyd A. Kay. 
James Kilgrow. 
George F. Keough, 
Treville Latouche. 

Joseph Lane, 
.Samuel A. Lecroy. 
lenacy A. Langewicz. 
Peter Lynch. 
James J. jNIurnhy. 
William H.. Martin. 
James W. ^Miller. Tr.. 
W'lliam H. Aliller. 
Pck McDearmon. 
Francis W. Nutter, 
Clifford L. Parker. 
Ernest Pendleton. 
William B. Perry. 
John W. Percival. 
Richard T. Powers. 
Carrington J. Rhodes, 
AMlliam .\. Rouse. 
Henry O. Russ, 
John Starke, 
Thomas Saunders. 
William H. Sebrell. 
Robert Snodgriss. 
Patrick J. Sheehy. 
Louis Shacklock. 
Joseph T. Sullivan, 
George \". Smith, 



Henry S. Tyler, 
Henry J. Terrell, 
Nathaniel Varney, 
James Walsh, 
Henry T. White, 

Ernest C. Walters, 
Emory B. Wood, 
Charles H. Wingficid, 
Earl H. Wright, 
James H. Young. 


Lieut. Kenneth McMpine, U. S. S. "Texas." 
Capt. Wendell Gushing Neville. U. S. Marine Corps. 
Evan T. Hunley, Boilermaker, U. S. Navy, and many 
others whose names could not be obtained. 

Tlie follnwing citizen sailors were on the 
"Maine"' when she was blown up in Havana 
Harbor : 

Charles .Anderson, Norfolk. 
Robert Hutchings. Norfolk. 
Charles Rushworth, Norfolk. 
Patrick O'Ncil. Norfolk. 
James O'Rouke. Norfolk. 
James W. Allen. Portsmouth. 
Thomas Kane, Portsmouth. 
James T. Gordon, Portsmouth. 
Robert White, Portsmouth. 
Charies O. White, Portsmouth. 
Michael Flarherty, Portsmouth. 

The hospital ship "Solace" came in the har- 
bor on July 1 6, 1898, and delivered at the U. 
S. Naval Hospital, 59 wounded Americans 
and 47 Spaniards. 



Growth and Importance of the Trucking Industry — The "Father of Truckers" — 
The Chief Crops Grown Profitably Here — Tobacco the Dethroned King — 
Early Regulations on the Growth of Tobacco. 

"He tliat tilleth his land shall ha\'e plenty 
of bread" and Emerson says : "The first farm- 
er was the first man, and all historic nobility 
rests on possession, and use of land." Why is 
not the intelligent use of the hoe and plow as 
honorable as the plane of the carpenter, the 
file of the machinist, the hammer of the black- 
smith, the pen of the lawyer, the sword of the 
soldier? Agriculture is the basis of the Re- 
l^ublic's wealth. It is the unfailing source of 
prosperity tov the people. The skilful culti- 
vation of lands not only brings material pros- 
perit)-, but makes attractive scenery which 
cheers the soul of man — the vines and olives 
of the hillsides of the Holy Land, the pastures 
and flocks of its ^•alleys, the wheat and 
barley of its river l;)anks were the re- 
sources which made Terusalem beautiful. 

Rural training. 

practical gardening" and farm- 

ing" should be taught in the schools tO' impress 
the utility and glory of agriculture upon the 
y-oung. The agricultural resources of Nor- 
folk County ha\'e already been great: but will 
be far greater, when the vast areas of untilled 
ground are made to yield toi the plow and hoe, 
l^roducing their full capacity. Away from the 
salt water in the southern portion of the coun- 
ty, corn, cotton, Irish potatoes and grass are 
-but the great agricultural 

the principal crops- 

liusiness of the county is horticulture or 
"trucking." The late Richard Cox was the 
first successful trucker of the county and was 
called the "Father of Truckers." He came 
to this county in 1844 from New Jersey and 
located on the Armistead farm near the mouth 
of the ^^'estern Branch, which farm he culti- 
vated on shares, realizing in the first year 
$1,000 for the owner, who had oft'ered t(.) rent 
it tO' him for $200. Hugh Bates was the first 
trucker who settled in Norfolk county and 
W. I. Bishop was the second, — ^both from New 
Jersey. Thev preceded Mr.. Cox two or three 
years but neither made a success of the Inisi- 
ness. So by right of prosperous achievements 
Richard Cox was the "Father of Truckers," 
having successfully introduced the agricultural 
pursuit which is the chief basis of the wealth 
of Norfolk County. He cultivated the Armi- 
stead farm until 1856 when he purchased a 
farm at the mouth of the Western Branch. 
Here he fully realized that "He that tilleth his 
land shall have plenty of bread." The first 
hot-bed e\-er made in this section was his work 
and is still on the old homestead adjoining 
Port Norfolk. The Census Bureau in iSgi 
issued a Ixilletin on truck farming that is of 
much interest to truckers and shows its growth 
since the introduction 56 years ago. The 



twelftli census gives the value uf the farm 
products in the entire 12 census districts of 
the State at $76,507,155. after paying freights 
and commissions. 

The same authority gives tlie trucking 
area of the Norfolk section as 45.375 acres, 
and a product value of $7,692,859. This is 
over 10 per cent, of the entire product. 

Norfolk County's climatic and topographic 
conditions are such as to indicate its natural 
adaptaliility for the profitahle raising of gar- 
'den truck. It is located on the Atlantic Coast 
in Latitude 36 degrees 5 1 minutes North, and 
enji.ys the benefit of the tempering influence 
of tlie Gulf Stream. Its soil is a rich sandy 
loam, quickly responsive to fertilization and 
cultivation and gives abundant yields. 

A. JeiYers, proprietor of the Cornucopia, 
or Southern Horn of Plenty, who keeps thor- 
oughly in touch with the agricultiual develop- 
nient of this section, gives as his opinion that 
the increase of acreage and product since the 
1890 census is fully ^o per cent : "The aggre- 
gate sales of market garden vegetables. — from 
the area embraced in a circle drawn 20 miles 
around this seaport, — have reached a point ex- 
ceeding 85.000,000 in a single vear. Xo other 
agricultural area in the United States, or in 
the world, can make such a good showing, and 
equal the output of this portion of Eastern \'ir- 
ginia near the sea. — this portion of the middle 
Atlantic Seaboard." 

At least 30 different crops are grown here 
extensively and profitably, such as asparagus, 
apples. l)erries. l)eans, beets, snap-1>eans, cab- 
Ijages, cucumljers, canteloupes, celery, kale, 
radishes, onions, potatoes ( lx>th Irish and 
sweet), peas, lettuce, spinach, squash, turnips, 
tomatoes and watermelons and a large number 
of other market garden vegetables, also hay, 
oats, corn and other regular farm crops. The 
larger and more important crops are: Berries 
(alx)ut quarts per annum), beans 
(200.000 half-barrel baskets), cabbages (225.- 
000 Ijarrels), cucumbers (100,000 barrels and 
boxes), kale (100,000 barrels), lettuce (10,- 
000 baskets), sweet potatoes (60,000 barrels). 

Irish potatoes (450,000 barrels), peas (100,- 
000 ba.skets), radishes (50,000 barrels and 
baskets), spinach (120,000 barrels), tomatoes 
(70,000 boxes), and watermelons (600,000). 
Some of the early shipments of the pioneer 
truckers brought fabulons prices. Mr. Cox 
received $15 a barrel for green [leas, Sio a 
barrel for tomatoes, and sold cucumljers for 
$45 and $50 » barrel. ]VIr. Bishop received 
S90 for the first crate of berries shipiied to 
New York. 


Tol)acc() was king in the coliinial days of 
\'irginia and the staple crop of all the plan- 
tations. The laws not only regulated the in- 
spection and sale but also the planting and 
curing. It was the principal currency for 
nearly 150 years. Salaries, taxes and all man- 
ner of obligations were payable in tobacco. 
The yearly salary of the King's attorney was 
1. 000 pounds of tobacco and the sheriff i,2oa- 
pounds. In order to prevent an inflatii;.n of 
the currency or excessi\e production the plant- 
ing was limited to from 1,500 to 2,000 plants 
per poll. Inspectors were recpiired to view the 
plantations and make oath before the loth day 
of July that ih'ey had counted the plants ; they 
were recjuired to report to court the result of 
their ins]3ection. If a ])lanter exceeded the 
number of plants allowed by law he was re- 
quired to cut down his whole crop or be im- 
prisoned. Warehouses for lietter upholding 
the prices of tobacco were established by law 
in 1632, to which all producers were obliged 
to bring all of their tobacco liefore the last day 
of December, except enough for home con- 
sumption, to be repacked and inspected by 
sworn officers. Xo tobacco could be paid or 
received in payment until inspected. All bad 
tobacco was burned and the planters prohib- 
ited from planting any more tobacco. The 
law prohil)ited the planting or replanting of 
tobacco after the loth of July. In 1639 to- 
bacco, by reason of the excessive quantities 
produced, being so low in price that the plant- 



ers could not subsist l>y it or be enabled to raise 
more staple commodities or pay their debts, a 
law was enacted that the tobacco of that year 
be viewed by sworn viewers and the rotten, 
the unmerchantable and half of the good be 
burned, so' the whole quantity made in the 
Colony would not exceed 1.500,000 pounds 
without stripping and smoothing. The next 
year 170 pounds of to-bacco stripped and 
smoothed was allowed tO' be made per poll, 
which would make, in the whole, 1,300,000 
pounds ; and all creditors were rec|uired to take 
40 pounds for 100 pounds. The casks could 
only be purchased from, coopers and the middle 
men were not permitted tO' speculate 011 cooper 
wares. A hogshead was required to be 43 
inches long and the head 26 inches in di- 
ameter, with proportionate bulge, The pen- 
alty for manufacturing one of oversize was 
3,000 pounds of tobacco, and a cask made of 
timber not well seasoned was required to be 
burned. A cask held 350 pounds and any 
cooper who worked timber not fallen and 
hewed three months forfeited 500 pounds of 
tobacco. In 1705 the law was that "Whoso'- 
ever shall hereafter pack, or cause the same to 
be packed, any hogshead of tobacco^, they pack 
or cause the same to be packed fairly, without 
deceit and equally good throughout as it ap- 
pears at the head." * * * "And if any person 
or persons whatsoever shall pay away or put 
to sale any hogshead of tobaccO' which he hath 
deceitfully, or hath caused, or suffered to be 
deceitfully packed, by putting thereuntO' any 
stones or intermingling any dirt, sand, to- 
bacco stalks, stems, seconds, ground leaves or 
other trash whatsoever, shall forfeit for every 
hogshead so deceitfully packed 1,000 pounds 
of tobacco." 

Act of Assembly, 1639: 

It is thought fit and esta1)lislied that in and for the 
several circuits and precincts hereunder mentioned there 
be yearly chosen and appointed men of experience and 
in dignity for the careful viewing of each man's crop of 
tobacco, the viewers of this year being nominated and 
appointed by the Assembly are as followeth (viz). 
The viewers for the present year are hereunder named 

(viz.) commissioners being joined to see the said exe- 


From Captain Willoughby's to Daniel Tanner's 
Creek: Captani Thos. Willoughby, William Shipp, 
Robert Jones. 

For the Western Branch to Elizabeth River: Lieut. 
Francis Mason, Henry Camelyn, Thomas Wright. From 
Daniel Tanner's Creek, the Eastern Branch on both 
sides, Mr. William Julian, John Gates, George Fandon. 

For the Southern Branch on both sides : Captain 
John Sibsey, Thomas Means, Robert Martin. For the 
Little Creek and Eastern shore : Henry Sewell, Robert 
Hayes, Christo. Burrows. 

• For the south side of the river, Mr. Edward Wind- 
hain, John Stratton, Thos. Keeling. 

The overproduction being so great as to 
glut all the markets, the legislature suspended 
tobacco^ planting from February i, 1666, to 
February i, 1667. 

All tobacco for export was required tO' be 
shipped from a port designated by law and 
Norfolk was one of the places first designated. 
There were tobacco warehouses at Norfolk, 
Portsmouth and Great Bridge. Although there 
were thousands of acres planted in tobacco in 
the first century of the existence of Norfolk 
County, now at the end of the nineteenth cen- 
tury there is not an acre cultivated in the 
whole county. There are, howe\-er, in the 
cities of the county many flourishing manufac- 
tories, where tobacco leaves are rolled into de- 
lightful cigars. On November 18, 1785, two 
lots, Nos. 181 and 183, belonging to Thomas 
Veale, were selected as a suitable place for a 
tobacco wareho'use in Portsmouth and the 
commissioners valued them at 120 pounds cur- 
rent money. On the 19th day of November, 
1 76 1, Malachi Murden, Gent., produced his 
commission from Hon. Francis Fauquier, 
Esq., under the seal of the Colony, dated the 
1 2th day of November, as assistant inspector 
of tobacco at the public warehouse established 
in Princess Anne and Norfolk counties, took 
the oath and gave the bond for the office. On 
December 3, 1742, the court allowed Capt. 



\\'illis W'il.Miii and liis smi Lemuel \\'ilsun 
10,000 pouiuls of tobacco for Ijuilding a ware- 
house at Great Bridge. On the 17th of IN [arch, 
1786, it was ordered bv tlie court that 'Ihimias 
Brown, William King and John C"i>w])er meet 
and let out to the lowest bidder the building of 
a wareiiouse for the receptinn of tobacco in 
Portsmouth. — 60 by 40 feet, with a shed on 
eacli side 10 feet wide, one funnel of brick and 
a wharf agreeable to law, — and make report 
to the court. On .\pril 2, 1787, Henry Brown, 
contractor, finished the warehouse for 419 
pounds current money. 

There was a large tobacco warehouse at 
Town Point in Norfolk Borough. On the 17th 
day of January, 1771, the court ordered that 
George Veale, Thomas Veale, John Portlock 
and ^lalachi \\'ilson view the warehouse built 
on Town Point and re]>ort their opinion, and 
on the 1 8th day of January the commissioners 
apjxvinted to view the warehouse built on the 
Town Point land reported that they had 
viewed the same and were of the opinion that 

the said house is \-ery convenient and ^uffK•ient 
for a warehouse for the insi>ection of tobacco 
agreeable to Act of General Assembly and the 
court agreed to pay 127 pounds current money 
for the same at the laying of the next levy, 
with interest from the time when the key is 
tlelivered until payment, which the proprietor 
of the Town Point Company agreed to accept. 
On August 18, 1757, the court recom- 
mended (to the Governor and Council) Ben- 
jamin Dingly Gray and Jesse Sykes to be in- 
spectors of tobacco and the recommendations 
were equivalent to appointment. On August 
17, 1767, Peter Butt and Jeremiah Murden, 
Sr., were recommended. On the 20th day of 
August, 1789, the court recommended John 
Morris and John Branan to l>e first inspectors 
of tobacco and James Gaskins and Benjamin 
Crow additional inspectors at the warehouse in 
Portsmouth. On December 18, . 1843, the 
court recommended \\'alter DeLacy and Rob- 
ert Stanwood'to be inspectors of tobacco for 



The wonderful Swamp Region of Norfolk County — O'Reilly's Description of the 
Dismal Swamp — Juniper Water — Geology — Topography — Vegetation — Animal 
Life — Methods of Draining, 

The Dismal Swamp is a noted section of 
Virginia and North CaroHna and has a large 
area in Norfolk Count}-. Its limits are not well 
defined, but it embraces thousands of acres of 
wild land that have produced untold quantities 
of \-aluable timber. Even away back in early 
colonial days the lumberman's axe resounded 
in its great forests, and when the Indians 
hunted in its depths it was one vast green of 
flourisliing juniper trees, except where the 
towering cypress and pines overtopped the ash, 
maple and gum trees that flourished on some 
of its lands of different soil. Around the lake 
of the Dismal Swamp and on the tongue-like 
peninsulas which lick in from the borders, these 
latter are indigeiKnis ; but the largest area was 
covered by the evergreen of the white cedars, 
that have left the tangled beds of everlasting 
roots, overgrown by shrubs and vines noit 
higher than a man's head, making expanses 
which are termed "lights," because you can 
stand on a stump and overlook them as far as 
the eye can reach. There are still some oases 
in these "lights," that grow clumps of green 
trees which reproduce very rapidly after the 
timber has been cut, and for these the 
"lights" are still valued at $i.oo per acre, 
although it may take a hundred acres to pro- 
duce one of "green." When these "lights" 

are swept by fire the black stump roots demon- 
strate the heavy growth of juniper which has 
been there, and the corduroy roads penetrating 
in every direction remind us of the labor of the 
mules and swamp slaves, who' were the happy 
lords of the domain. The old shanties on beds 
of shavings are g'one, the drawing-knife no 
longer glistens in the sunlight, the maul and 
frow are silent forever ; new schemes have 
taken hold of the old swamp and now mule 
cars ou tramways, and in some places steam 
engines, haul the log timber that formerly 
came out in riven shingles by mule carts on 
corduroy paths. 

The numerous trees and shrubs flourish 
luxuriantly in the water or morass. The 
juniper tree (Ciiprcssits tliyoidcs) stands 
firmly \n the softest part of the quagmire sup- 
ported by long tap-roots. Ferns, reeds and 
myriads of shrubs form a carpet that is never 
exposed to the sun on account of the dense 
shade of these trees. 

Trunks of large trees lie buried in this 
soil, and e\-en where dense growths of juniper 
trees are standing as many more may be found 
buried in the peaty soil. In this loose soil they 
are easily Ijlown down, and soon sink from 
sight. \Vhen kept wet they never decay, save 
the sap-wood, which is not more than one or 



two inches tliick. A very large pruportiun ut 
tlie lumber made into shingles is obtained by 
sounding below the surface : it is then dug out 
and "worked up." 

The Dismal Swamp is on a hillside 22 feet 
alK>ve the level of the sea. If a wide and deep 
ditch were dug from tidewater to the lake in 
tiie center of this swamp the water thereof 
would run out to the sea like a mill-race, and 
the swamp would be a thing of the past. This 
swamp was surveyed by Washington at an 
early day, and he owned large tracts in the 
swamp. There are no waters in the United 
States so pure as those of this swamp. For- 
merly government vessels leaving for long 
ocean voyages secured the juniper water from 
the swamp on accour.t of both its medicinal 
and keeping qualities. Invalids who, with rod 
and gun, go into this swamp and spend a 
week or months sleeping on juniper boughs. 
drinking juniper water and inhaling the ju- 
niper impregniated air, rapidly improve in 
health. a]jpetite and general robustness. 

The celebrated poet, Jolm Boyle O'Reilly, 
said ; "The region uf the Dismal Swamp was 
intended by nature to be a pleasure ground, a 
Iiealth resort and a game preserve for the east- 
ern side of the continent. In spite of all that 
has been done and left undone to destroy it, 
the swamp itself is, probably, the healthiest 
spot in America. Its delicious juniper water 
prevents malaria more effectually and perfectly 
than the famed eucalyptus of Australia. The 
flying game of the continent centers in this 
region, and the lake in winter is the best shoot- 
ing ground in the country. Xow that wealthy 
clubs and individuals are buying up the coast 
shooting, this incomparalile natural preserve 
ought to be secured for the nation or the 
State." Lake Drummond is a beautiful sheet 
of water nestling in the very bostim of tlie 
great unkept e.xpanse of vines and woods. 
The shores are ragged with roots and stumps 
made bare by the washing of the sleepless 
waters. Lake Drummoufl is poetically known 
as the "Lake of the Dismal Swam])." which 
has been immortalized in ])oetry b\- the noble 

bard Moure, who wrote froin Xorftjlk, \ ir- 
ginia, in 1803, a ballad entitled "The Lake of 
the Dismal Swamp," prefaced by a short love 
story uf a young man who lost his mind upon 
the death of a girl he loved, and imagined her 
not dead but 

Gone to the Lake of the Di>inial Swamp. 

O'Reilly saxs it is the \ery eye of material 
anguish: — '"Its circle of silvery beach is 
flooded and hidden, antl still the pent-up 
water, vainly beseeciiing an outlet, is raised 
and driven in unnatural enmity to the riiots of 
the tall juniper, cypress and gum trees that 
completely surround its shore. The wa\-es 
that should murmur and Ijreak on a strand of 
incomparable brilliancy are pushed bex'ond 
their proper limits and compelled to soften and 
sap the productive earth ; to wash bare and 
white the sinews of the friendly trees and in- 
undate a wide region of extraordinary fer- 
tility. The bleached roots of the doomed trees 
seem to shudder and shrink from the weltering 
death. There is an evident bending upw ard of 
the overtaken roots to escape suiifocation. The 
shores of the lake are like a scene from the 
Inferno, flatted, twisted and broken, the 
roots, like living things in danger, arch them- 
selves out of the dark fltxHl, pitifully striving 
to hold aloft their noble stems and branches. 
The water of the lake, dark almost as blood, 
from the surface flow of juniper sap and other 
vegetable matter, is forced from si.\ to ten 
feet above its natural level and dri\-en by winds 
hither to this bank to-day and thither to 
morrow, washing every \-estige of earth from 
the helpless life-g)-ves, till its wlmle circum- 
ference is a woeful network of gnarled trunks 
and intertwined fibres. l)leached and dry as the 
bones of a skeleton, and sheltering no life but 
that of the l)lue lizard and red-throated moc- 
casin. These bare roots and blasted stum]:is 
circle the waters like a hideous crown, till the 
lake becomes a realization of the Medusa. 
Here, far from the voices of mankind, the 
Gorgon stares at heaven, Init sees with intru- 



verted eyes (.niv tlie writhing liorror of her 
own brow ; hears only tlie hiss, and shrinks 
from the kiss of her serpent locks, gazing into 
no' living eyes but those of her own damnable 
strands. The lake of the Dismal Swamp is a 
victim waiting for deliverance. Release her 
and she is no longer }iledusa ; the snake lair 
Avill give place to bands of gold and light ; the 
region contaminated by her oppression will re- 
joice and blossom like a garden." 

O'Reilly, who made a canoeing tour 
through the Dismal Swamp, wrote as follcnvs 
to a friend, the letter being published in the 
Boston Herald: 

I.N' THE DlSM.\I. S\V.\MP. 

Wednesday Morning. May i6, 1888. 

Dear Ned : I write this from near the heart of the 
Dismal Swamp, and send it by an obliging canal man 
to Norfolk. 

This place is wonderful and beautiful. It is a 
desolate land crying for attention and reclamation. 

The story of the Dismal Swamp is a tragedy of 
nature and a disgrace to civilization. 

Mr, Moseley and I have had twenty-four hours of 
continued amazement and enjoyment. 

This is the most defamed land on the earth. The 
Dismal Swamp is the greatest sanitarium on the Amer- 
ican continent 

In two hours we start for the lake, at the very 
centre where they dug for the lady 

"A grave too cold and damn. 

For a heart so warm and true. 
And all night long by her tireflv lamp 

She paddles her light canoe." 

Faithfully yours. 

John Boyle O'Reilly. 

Last night we stopped at Mr. Wallace's, in the Dis- 
mal Swamp, — one of the largest and most beautiful 
farms in America. Last winter he killed on his farm 
30 bears, 

O'Reilly sent the following telegrams to 
some of his Boston friends : 

"The most wonderful and beautiful sheet of water 
on the continent." 

"This message is sent to Suffolk by canal-chance- 

"The greatest fishing I have ever seen, Mr, Mose- 
ley shot a bald-headed eagle last night — a splendid bird." 

"Every hour unfolds new beauties and interesting 


Have you ever tasted juniper water? It 
is nature's own remedy for kidney and other 
troubles of the human system. It is found in 
unlimited quantities in the recesses of the 
great Dismal Swamp, and the Dismal Swamp 
Canal and Lake Drummond are bodies of 
juniper water. Its medicinal virtues come 
from the vast quantity of juniper roots and 
juniper berries that have been soaking for ages 
in the recesses of the great Dismal Swamp. 
This water is of a light brown color, pleasant 
tO' the taste and keeps for years. 

Its virtues were known long agOi to the 
toilers of the sea and for more than a hundred 
years it has been in much demand for "ship's 
use" on account of its health-giving and long- 
keeping qualities. 

The juniper water is here in immense 
quantities and fortunes are awaiting the men 
who will put it on the market and ship it all 
over the world. Capital and enterprise have 
long overlooked this wealth given us sO' prod- 
igally by nature, but the day will probably 
come when our juniper water will take its 
rightful place among the great medicinal 
waters of the world. 

The e.xcavations for the canal tluough the 
swamp showed varied material, but it consisted 
chiefly of hard clay mixed with sand. The 
deepest excavation extended to a depth of 
17/^2 feet below the normal surface of the 
water. It is interesting to note that at this 
depth a large number of fossils and oyster 
shells, together with coral and other calca- 
reous matter, were brought up by the dredges. 
"The specimens belong to a deposit of the 
Miocene age. and include ovster shells weigh- 
ing as much as five pounds apiece and fully 
12 inches in length." There are many very 
productive farms on the peninsulas in the Dis- 
mal Swamp, but perhaps the finest is the Dover 
farm, which is almost a square block, em- 
bracing a thousand acres of cleared land and 
reaching nearer the lake than any other culti- 
vated land. The agricultural resources of the 



Dismal Swamp are just beginning to be ap- 
l)recialed. Tlie cliapter is concluded with the 
following interesting article on the Disnial 
Swamp, by Nathaniel Southgate Shaler. taken 
from the tenth annual report of- the United 
States Geological Survey : 


The Dismal Swamp is the northernmost 
part of the characteristic swajnp country 
which borders the southern Atlantic Coast. 
It lielongs altogether to that group of inun- 
dated lands where the lack of drainage is due 
to an original deficiency of sloi>e, combined 
with the flow-retarding influence of vegeta- 
tion on the movement of water from the land. 

Although swamps of a similar character 
are imperfectly de\eloped in the region north 
of the Potomac, they do not take on a con- 
spicuous aspect until we pass southward of 
that stream : and this for the reason that the 
surface of the countrv north of- it is consider- 
ably higher than in Southern \'irginia and the 
Carol inas and has developed a stronger topog- 
raphy. The streams are sufticienth- incised to 
l)ermit almost everywhere the read_\- drainage 
of the water despite the obstructing effect of 
vegetation. Moreo\er. in the region north of 
the Potomac the ordinary cane and other 
plants which obstruct drainage make l)ut a 
scanty growth. 

The principal determining cause which has 
led to the formation of the Dismal Swamp is 
found in the character of the surface on which 
the marsh accumulation rests. The whole oi 
this coast from New York southward has the 
form of an ancient sea-bottom more or less 
modified by river action, the measure of the 
modification being determined bv the average 
height to which the sea-floor has been elevated 
above the le\el of the ocean and the steepness 
of the slope toward the sea. In New Jersey 
the plain is tolerably elevated and the slope 
from the interior toward the shore is steep 
enough to insure a swift discharge of the wa- 
ter. In Northern Virginia the height of the 

plain is somewhat reduced and the slope pro- 
portionately diminisheil. From the James 
River southward the elevation of the plain at 
equal distances from the shore is still further 
lowered, the incisive action of the streams hav- 
ing yet further reduced it. leaving parts of the 
surface in the form (iriginally belonging to the 
sea-bottom. In this condition the surface for 
a consideraljle distance from the coast rises at 
an a\erage rate of about iS inches to the mile. 
It is not a perfect inclined plane, for it is cast 
into slight elevations and depressions in a 
manner that reminds one of the ocean after a 
time of great storm, when the waves have 
fallen to a height of two or three feet, re- 
taining at the same time their original hori- 
zontal amplitude. Within tlie limits of a 
scpiare mile the variations of the surface of 
this inclined ]ilane amount to not more than 
two or three feet. There is no distinct order 
in the elexations. Ijut in general their major 
axis seem parallel to the existing and former 
shore lines. 

Turning to the field in which the Dismal 
Swamp lies, we find that on the west, in the 
Dismal Swamp district, this Iiillowy plain is 
sharply bounded by an escarpment formed by 
the sea when the surface of the continent was 
about 28 feet below its present level. This 
old sea-bench, to which I shall give the name 
of the Nansemond shore-line, extends from 
near Suffolk, Virginia, where it is rather ob- 
scurely indicated, hax'ing l:)een somewhat 
efifaced by erosion, southward with extreme 
distinctness of front to Albemarle Sound. 

The eastern boundarv of the swamp dis- 
trict is determined hv certain low ele\'ations, 
apparently dune-like in their nature, which lie 
in the county of Princess Anne, east of the 
raihv.ay extending from Norfolk to Elizabeth 
City. This latter system of elevatipns, which 
attain a height of only a few feet, serve in a 
measure to retain the swamp waters upon tlie 
surfaces on which the\- lie. They are, how- 
ever, of relatively small importance compared 
with the effect produced by the vegetation of 
this district. Although a large part of the 



area occupied by the swamps of this section of 
the shore is without distinct marks of sub- 
aerial erosion, the surface is considerably 
divided intO' the region next the sea by the 
curious, fiord-like indentations which char- 
acterize the whole of our southern coast, but 
which are more marked in Virginia than else- 
where. These indentations extend for some 
•distance into the inundated areas, where they 
terminate rather abruptly within the wide field 
■of swamp deposits. These streams are deeper 
in most instances than the open waters of the 
great bays into which they discharge. Thus, 
in Albemarle Sound the water is in most cases 
not half as deep as it is where the branches of 
the sound penetrate into the swamp district. 

It is ditTicult to obtain any satisfactory in- 
formation concerning the beds below the level 
■of this district for the reason that the unac- 
cented topography fails to re\-eal good natural 
sections and the artificial cuttings, such as 
wells and ditches, extend only to a trifling 
■depth. On the northern border of the swamp 
deposits composed of stratified sand, contain- 
ing occasional beds of shells, are exhibited 
from point to point. The following" species 
determined by Dr. W. H. Dall, paleontologist 
of the United States Geological Survey, indi- 
cate in a general manner that the beds are of 
Pliocene age. Of the 29 species which appear 
in my collection, a list of which is given be- 
low, 24, according tO' Dr. Dall, belong to liv- 
ing" forms, and fi\"e are extinct. The extinct 
species are found in the so-called Pliocene of 
Florida and South Carolina and Virginia. 
There can be no cjuestion that the deposit is 
of preglacial age. 




Crepidula convexa. Saj'. 
Turritella apicalis, Hp. (var.) 
Scalaria clathratiila, Adams. 
Eulima so. 

Turbonilla interrupta. Totten. 
Lioniesiis Stimpsoni, Dall, 
Anachis avara. Say, 
Ethalia sp. fragni. 

Cadulus carolinensis. Bush. 

Ostrea virginica, Gmel. 

Pecten eboreus. Conr. 

Area incile, Conr, 

Cardium islandiciim, Lin. 

Crassatella undulata, Say. 

Eripliyla Itinata. Conr. 

Mactra congesta. Conr. 

Abra aquabs. Say. ' 

Tellina tenia, Say. 

Telbna modesta, Verrill. 

Liicina crenulata, Conr. 

Goutdia cerina, Ad. 

Callista convexa, Say. 

Pecten exasperatus, Sby. 

Leda acuta, Conr. 

Yoldia limatula. Say. 

Nucula tenuis. Mtg, 

Cbione albida, Gmel, 

Dosinia elegans, Conr. 

Balanus sp. 

Traces of this same deposit occur for a few- 
miles south of Suffolk and I suspect the exist- 
ence of similar beds near Elizabeth City. 
From certain comminuted fragments taken 
from the bottom of the main Dismal Swanip 
Canal, it seerns to me not improbable that the 
beds were touched at several points in making 
that excavation. I am, therefore, disposetl to 
believe that the foundation rocks beneadi tb.e 
swamp district consist mainly of the beds indi- 
cated by the foregoing list of fossils. 

It is evident that the strata of Pliocene age 
which underlie the swamp were accumulated 
in shallow but quiet water. This is shown by 
the character of the species as well as b}" the 
fact that many "of them are delicate forms, 
yet have suffered no wear from the action of 
currents. The deposit in which these fossils 
occur has apparently suffered no other dislo- 
cation than that which attended its ele\"ation 
above the ocean, which has bniught it tn a 
height of about 35 feet above the present sea- 
level. As the species are of a littoral nature, 
we may assume that the total elevation re- 
quired to bring them to their present position 
may not have exceeded 100 feet. It may have 
been somewhat less. It is evident, howexer, 
that the surface of these beds was for a time 
at a higher level than that to which they now 
attain, as is shown b}- the fact that they are 
deeply incised by streams which have created 



a tolerably accented topography, the elevations 
of which luue been obscnretl b}- subsequent 

This irregular form of the surface of the 
Pliocene strata is only proxed for the region 
about Suffolk. Faint traces of the same series 
of beds at other points lead me, however, to 
the conclusion that it is probably character- 
istic of the whole field. The character of the 
surface must have been given to the Pliocene 
beds at a time when they were more elevated 
abo\e the sea than they are at present. After 
' the erosion of this surface came the subsidence 
which formed the terrace in which the Xanse- 
mond bench is excavated, which lies consider- 
ably above the Ie\el of the Dismal Swamp. 
This requires a subsidence of more than 50 
feet after the Pliocene deposits were carved 
by streams. The bpich on which the Dismal 
Swamp deposits lie was afterward formed dur- 
ing another i:)€riod of elevation when the sea 
lay at about 30 feet above its present level. 
The sands worn from the escarpment which I 
ha\e termed the Xansemond bench were dis- 
tributed o\-er the new sea-floor in such fashion 
as to level off the inequalities brought about by 
subaerial or marine erosion. 

The true measure of the inequalities which 
characterize the bed-rock surface of this dis- 
trict is not readily apprehended by an inspec- 
tion of the area within the field of the swampy 
districts ; the peaty accumulations have un- 
questionablv done much to destroy such topog- 
graphy as may have existed in the region. 
Even on the higher level of the upper Xanse- 
mond bench, which forms the summit of the old 
Xansemond shore, bounding the western mar- 
gin of the main Dismal Swamp, there are 
niunerous original hollows now filled in with 
peaty matter of a consolidated sort on w'hich 
ordinary forest trees have found a lodgment. 
I am informed by farmers that the\' frequently 
discover places in these fields which contain 
a peaty deposit many feet in depth. In Sfime 
cases the accumulation is quite profound, per- 
mitting a sharp stick to be passed down to the 
dei)th of eight or ten feet. There may thus be 

within the limits of the Dismal Swamp a num- 
l)er of stream valleys which have l>een so en- 
cumbered by the accumulation of vegetable 
matter that they are no longer ex'ident to the 


In its original condition, before this region 
had been affected by tillage, the area of in- 
undated lands in the Dismal Swamp district 
was considerably greater than it is at the pres- 
ent time. If we include in the swamp lands 
in this part of Virginia and North Carolina 
fields \\-hich have been won to the plow by 
ditching, the original area of the morass was 
perhaps one-third greater than at the present 
time. Xear to its northern, eastern and south- 
ern boundaries the wetter parts of the swamp 
passed outwardly into fields where the inun- 
dations were less considerable, and in conse- 
quence the sur.face less incumbered by peaty 
matter. It appears tolerably e\'ident that when 
the subjugation of the land began the swamj) 
was extending its margin, taking possession of 
the lower land, the' swales between the bil- 
lowy ele\-ations of the plain, and climbing up 
the gentle elevations between these low- places. 
The prcx:ess of artificial drainage went on rap- 
idly until the drainage power of the small 
canals, dug to unwater the surface, was lost 
as they were e.xtended into the swamp. The 
greater portion of this peripheral drainage 
work was finished before the middle of the 
present century. The lands won from the 
margin of the morass and from swamps more 
or less distinctly connected with the main area, 
probably amounted to somewhere near 700 
s(|uare miles; the area of swamp lands remain- 
ing between the waters of All:>emarle Sound 
and those of the James River probably 
amount to not far from 1,500 square miles. 
In the last century the Dismal Swamp Canal 
Company constructed a canal in a general 
north and south direction from the waters of 
James River, at Deep Creek, to the w-aters of 
Albemarle Sound, near South \Mlls, X'orth 

1 66 


This canal was intended to afford a line of 
ship communication suited to the vessels oi 
that age between the bay district of North 
Carolina and that of the Chesaijeake. It was 
expected to furnish a passage for merchant- 
men and war vessels between these great sys- 
tems of inland waters, and this expectation 
was realized. It was designed, moreover, to 
provide a means of access to the vast and then 
untouched forests of juniper, cypress and pine 
which abounded in this held. This important 
waterway was one of the must considerable 
hydraulic works which had Ijeen undertaken 
in that century. 

For the time when it was executed the Dis- 
mal Swamp Canal was a costly and well-con- 
trived work. FoT three-quarters of a century 
or more it was an important means of transit 
betweai Albemarle Sound and Chesapeake 
Bay. Of late its use for this purpose has been 
in the main superseded by another canal nearer 
the coast. 

The effect arising from its construction 
through the swamp upon the general condition 
of the region has evidently been considerable. 
Its course is about at right angles to the gen- 
eral slope of the country. The first canal was 
originally designed to afford 12 feet of water 
and had a width oi 50 feet or mure ; the 
amount of excavated material heaped upon the 
banks was considerable. As no pains were 
taken to provide channels of escape through 
the barrier for the swamp water coming from 
the west, the western dike of the canal serves 
to retain the waters in all that region, and at 
the same time to fend these waters from the 
region east of the excavation. The water has, 
no doubt, been retained in the part of the 
swamp lying west of the canal in order to 
keep the several ditches which feed the canal 
or which provide the ways of floating its tim- 
ber from the recesses to the navigable depth. 
By a system of locks which have a total lift of 
20 feet the water in the canal is maintained at 
a little higher level than it had before the 
canal was constructed. 

The result of this interference with the 

natural drainage of swamp has been that the 
western section of the morass is probably 
rather wetter than it was before the barrier 
was constructed, while the section to the east 
of the canal, deprived of the water which 
originally flowed into it, has become partially 
desiccated. In the section to the west of the 
canal, within the limits of the morass, there 
are probably no areas which in an ordinary 
season are sufticiently dry to pennit tillage, 
though in periods of peculiar drought a large 
part of the surface may attain this measure of 
desiccation. In the section to the east of the 
canal the higher parts of the ground at many 
places are in an ordinary summer season so 
dry that they might be tilled without incon- 
venience from water. In that part of its area 
considerable portions of the surface have been 
improved by ditching, the swamp covering re- 
maining only in the lower grounds adjacent 
to the slugg^ish streams which traverse the 
district. Something of this relative difference 
in the measure (jf the desiccation has doubt- 
less come about in consequence of the barrier 
imposed by tlie embankments of the Dismal 
Swamp Canal. 

An interesting feature in the topography 
of the Dismal Swamp is the presence of a con- 
siderable lake occupying a tolerably central 
position in the part of the morass which lies 
to the west of the main canal. The basin it 
occupies is e\'erywhere shallcw : probabl}- in 
its natural state the maximun depth was not 
over six feet. At first I purposed to make 
careful stud}- of the depth and form of the 
basin, but a little obser\-ation slujwed me that 
the depth i:f water had been much affected by 
retaining dams. The measure uf the effect 
produced by the obstructions to natural drain- 
age not being determinal>le, it did not seem 
worth while tu make a careful study of the 

There is a tradition, which appears in its 
origin mythical, to the effect that this basin 
was formed by fires which occurred in some 
remote time. Intelligent local observers, in 
proof of this hypothesis, note the fact that, 

The Mansion House on the Plantation of Col. William Craford, the Founder of Portsmouth, Located at 

Swimming Point. 

Lake Drummond in the Dismal Swamp. 



during dry seasons, patches uf the swanii) a 
few acres in extent have been seen to burn to 
such a deptli as to form a place for the accumu- 
lation of permanent water. Not only is proof 
wanting to justify the supjiosition that Lake 
Drummond was thus formed, but there are 
good reasons why its origin must be other- 
wise explained. It is difficult to believe that 
in the course of a single dry season a forest 
fire could burn over an area as large as is occu- 
pied by this lake. or that the conflagration could 
so completely have removed the whole dqwsit 
of peaty matter. Moreover, even in the dryest 
season, it appears to be the only peripheral 
portions of the swamp which become suffici- 
ently desiccated to Inirn to any depth, this cen- 
tral portion remaining wet at any depth be- 
neath the surface even in the periods of great- 
est droughts. 

If Lake Drummond were an unparalleled 
feature of our swamp areas, it might be reason- 
able to explain its origin l)y the hypothesis of 
an extensive forest fire in a period of great 
drought, but there are numerous instances in 
which similar lakes occur in the central por- 
tion of our greater swamp areas. I have been, 
therefore, leld to the conclusion that this cen- 
tral lake of the Dismal Swamp was formed in 
the following way, viz : The gently sloping 
platfcjrm on which the Dismal Swamp rests 
evidently emerged from the sea in a somewhat 
rapid manner ; the aljsence of any marine 
bench on its surface appears to be conclusi\e 
evidence of this. At first we may assume that 
the sterile character of the soil would have pre- 
vented the simultaneous growth of forest 
trees and other ])lants of a higher order over 
the greater part of the plain. The growth of 
such plants would naturally have begun on 
the periphery of the district, either on the 
western border, where the soil had already 
been formed, or ne.xt to the sea. where the 
humidity would favor the growth of plants 
even on barren sands. I conceive that Ijegin- 
ning on the margin the f(jrest would advance 
toward the center of the field, and the fallen 

trees and other entanglements would serve to 

form an oljsiruction to the outflow of the water, 
and thus to retain the central part of the area 
in the condition of a shallow lake. The area 
of this basin wouUl \)C gradually narrowed by 
the growth of the cypresses, black gums and 
other trees which can naaintain their rocits 
beneath the level of permanent water. Not- 
withstanding the fact that the level of the 
water of Lake Drummond has been raised since 
the construction of the Dismal Swamp Canal, 
the forest is still slowly gaining up<jn the area 
of the lake at several points. Leaves and 
drifted wood accunndate ne.xt the shore and 
shallow the basin so that gradually trees can 
find a foothold in what was recently ojjen 

If this view be correct, Lake Drummond 
must be considered as belonging to the type 
of peat-inclosed lakes which are so common 
in' the small morasses of the glaciated area. 
To the same group we shall probably have to 
refer the numercjus other lakes in the region of 
swamps south of Albenixirle Sound. Lake 
Phelps, Pingo Lake, Mattanuiskcet Lake. Alli- 
,gator Lake and other basins on the more 
southern part of North Carolina probably lie- 
Jong to the same type of swamp-inclosed 


Although the physical conditions of the 
Dismal Swamp district are extremely uniform, 
the vegetation exhibits a considerable diversity 
in its distriinition in different parts of the area. 
The higher land, lying not more than three 
feet above the lowest adjacent le\els, is gener- 
ally cxcupied by a grtnvth of pines, altogether 
composed of the conunon s[iecies of sotithern 
pine so far as observed. These pine-clad ele- 
vations often rise so little above the surface 
of the swamp that the eye fails to detect the 
difference in level. Yet the lessened moisture 
due to the perceptible elevation is sufficient to 
give over the field to the possession of conifer- 
ous trees. The lower levels of the swam]) are 
mainly occupied by three species of trees. 



wliicli are greatly, tliough siimewhat diversely, 
tulerant of water about their rijots. Th-.^se are 
the taxodium (ir bald cypress, the juniper and 
the black gum. The juniper occupies areas 
which are commonly somewhat desiccated 
through the dry season. The tupulo, or gum, 
and the cypress can inhabit areas which are in 
most cases water-co\-ered even during the 
growing season. The cypress is the most tol- 
erant of water of these species, often attaining 
its best development in places where summer 
droughts at no time remu\e the water far from 
the surface of their roots. 

The peculiar tolerance cif these two species 
to water about tiieir liases — a feature which is 
somewhat sharply contrasted with the other 
forest trees of this country — is probably to be 
explained by the fact that in both forms we 
have provisions by which the roots are enabled 
to have access to the air, and thus secure the 
aeriation required by the processes which take 
place in their underground branches. The 
knees of the cypress ha\'e long been a subject 
of discussion on the part of botanists, and 
A^arious conjectures concerning the service 
which they perform have been made. A study 
of the region of the Mississippi Valley, which 
subsided during the earthciuake of 1811, 
showed me very clearly that wherever by such 
accidents the vascular summits of these pro- 
jections were brought below the level of the 
summer waters, the trees inevitably died. In 
other cases, where by artificial dams the sur- 
face of the water had been raised in a swamp 
area, I found that the trees, the summits of 
which were suffused bv the water in the sum- 
mer season, were quickly killed, while others 
continued to live. 

It is an interesting fact that the knees of 
the cypress develop only where the roots upon 
which they rest lie beneath the surface of the 
water during the growing season of the year. 
They sometimes appear abo\-e the surface of 
the soil which is bare of water in the summer 
time, but, digging down to the place occupied 
bv the roots, water will generally, if not al- 

ways, be found so far present in the soil that 
it tills the excavation. 

Another important fact in this connection 
is exhibited in the specimens of this species 
which grow upon ele\'ated land secure from 
summer inundation, or where the trees stand 
on the margin of a swamp with parts of their 
roots on the dry land and part beneath the 
water. In the case where the tree is altogether 
removed from the chance of inundation, the 
roots bear no knees whatever, or at least they- 
exhibit slight enlargements from point to 
point, which, though they indicate the posi- 
tions the knees might occupy, never develop 
into such structures. On the margin of the 
swamp the roots which are beneath the water 
will bear knees, while those in the dry soil 
exhibit no such protuberances, or, at most, 
the slight prominences just mentioned. 

In the Dismal Swamp the knees of the 
itaxodium never attain any considerable height 
above the surface, the tallest seen having an 
elevation of not more than three feet above 
the roots from which they spring. In the 
swamps of the Mississippi Valley, where the 
water of the marshes is often deeper than it is 
at any point in the Dismal Swamp, the knees 
sometimes attain an altitude of six feet or 

The black gum contrives to secure a result 
similar to that attained by the taxodium by 
quite another contrivance of its roots, ^^'here 
this tree occupies positions in which the water 
remains during- the summer season, the roots, 
; in all cases in which I have been able to o]y- 
ser\-e the facts, have the habit of arching up- 
ward a few feet from the base of the bole. 

Where the region is only moderately wet, 
where the water in the summer season comes 
near the surface, the emergence of the root is 
accomplished by a gentle upward flexure which 
brings its surface a little above the top of the 
ground : where the water stands yet higher the 
whole of the root may emerge from the soil. 
In rare cases, where the water during the 
growing season stands two feet or more above 



the level of the roots, the flexure in tliat part 
of the tree is still more noticeable. 

It is tolerably easy to determine the depth 
of inundation during the growing season by a 
close insj)eclion of these root-arches of the 
tupulo. The bark is very rugose and in the 
damp swamp is frequently the seat oi a con- 
siderable growth of annual plants. In some 
cases I was able to observe this coat of vege- 
tation on many of the root-arches around the 
same tree. The annual vegetation was every- 
where at the same height, and therefore may be 
taken as evidence that the roots are deeply 
covered by water in the summer time, but that 
the knee arches rise a foot or more above the 
surface of the water, or to about the same ex- 
tent as the summits of the knees (f the tax- 

The amount of root arching in individuals 
of this species as well as the dexelopment of 
similar knee processes in the taxodium differ 
considerably in the individual trees. In some 
forms, lying at the same height as others, 
which are abundantly provided with these 
arched processes, the flexures are almost want- 
ing. It appeared to me, however, that in the 
cases where the arches are not well developed, 
the trees are always of an inferior growth and 
apparently not well reconciled to their en- 

It is also a noticeable fact that the llexures 
of the roots do not develop in the youth of the 
plant, but liegin to be evident after the tree has 
attained a diameter of a foot or more. Some- 
tiiing of the same sort may be observed in the 
case of the taxodium. The older the tree, the 
more extensive proportionately are the knee 
processes. A young tree an inch or two in 
diameter without any knees at all may often 
be observed growing near specimens of the 
same species a foot or more in diameter, all 
of which have abundant knee processes. It 
seems clear that in both of these genera the 
knees are features which are not developed 
until the plant attains a considerable size. 

It a])]iears to be a characteristic common to 
nearlv all trees which have become reconciled 

to very wet soils that their trunks are much 
expanded at the crown, tajjering from that 
point upward more rapidly than trees in other 
situations. The two varieties of gum and cy- 
press are conspicuous for this feature. It 
seems evident on eye inspection — I have made 
no comparative measurements — that the ex- 
pansion of these trees at the crown where they 
occupy wet situations is much greater than 
when the)- occur upon relatively dry ground. 
Not infrequently with gunis and cypresses, the 
diameter of the tree at the crown is o\er twice 
as great as it is at the height of 10 feet above 
the surface, and in some cases I have found the 
ratios as high as three to one. An eye in- 
spection, without measurement, of several 
other species in stations diverse as regards the 
amount of moisture to which they were sub- 
jected, appears to indicate that this expansion 
of the crown in wet conditions is a common 
feature of forest trees. It seems possible that 
the enlargement of the tree just above the 
level of permanent water may be due to the 
same physiological conditions which determine 
the development of knees such as occur in the 
taxodium, or of sharp He.xures of the roots, 
like those exhibited in the nyssa. When I tlrst 
observed this feature I was disposed to think 
that it was perhaps designed tO' support the 
trees in their somewhat insecure foothold in 
the soft earth of the morass. Further inspec- 
tion has satisfied me that this view is untenable 
and that the peculiarity is more likely to be 
due to the cause abox'c mentioned. 


The singular nature in the physical condi- 
tions in our morasses is marked in the animal 
as well as in the \egetable fonns which in- 
habit their areas. AMiere a morass occupies 
but a small surface the exceptional features of 
its animal forms are not usually conspicuous. 
The larger swamps, those which are to be 
measured by square miles, generally ha\e ;> 
peculiar fauna. The characteristics exhibited 
by the animals which occupy our morasses are 



usually related to the nature of the vegetation 
and the peculiar wetness of the earth. Thus, 
owing to the fact that nut-bearing trees are 
relatively rare, the arboreal rodents are gen- 
erally absent. The inundated nature of the 
soil makes it unfit for occupation by the sub- 
terranean forms of that group. Thus this 
important order of mammals is imperfectly 
represented in our larger morasses. So, too, 
with the reptilian forms. Certain of our ser- 
pents which have accustomed themselves to 
dry situations are generally absent from the 
swamps. The predaceous mammals, such as 
the fox and wolf, find these marshy lands un- 
suited to their needs. The species of birds 
which nest upon the ground are also rare. 
The birds generally, excepting acj^uatic forms, 
are less plentifully developed in our marshy 
areas than in the upland districts. 

I have not yet been able to undertake any 
systematic incjun"y into the animal life of our 
inundated lands. My general observations, 
however, show that the biological conditions 
of these areas are such as to afford an interest- 
ing subject for research. Thus the swamps 
of Ohio and other States north of Kentucky 
contain a good many species which are other- 
wise limited to Tennessee and other Southern 
States. It seems probable that these outlying 
groups of southern fauna occupying northern 
districts wall be cHscovered in other sections of 
the country. 

I have already noted the fact that a num- 
ber of species of trees show a singularly 
specialized structure which fits them to the 
peculiar environment which the swamps af- 
ford. It seems likely that this reconciliation 
with the environment will also be exhibited in 
the animal species which inhabit these areas. 
From the facts which ha^■e met my observa- 
tion, I am inclined to think that the fishes of 
our larger and more isolated swamp areas will 
be found to present certain interesting peculi- 

Owing to the isolatiijn of the swamp areas, 
the species have been kept from the com- 
mingling of blood which necessarily occurs in 

extensi\-e river systems. Thus the smaller 
fishes which inhabit the pools of our swamps, 
have secured something like the measure of 
isolation which characterizes the inhabitants 
of our caverns, and it seems likely that the 
species of the detached morasses may have a 
trace of the same specific and generic peculi- 
arities which are to be noted in the under- 
ground world. With this brief sketch of the 
conditions of animal life in the swamps, I will 
now proceed to give a few notes which I have 
been able to make on the fauna of the Dismal 
Swamp district. 

Bird life is only moderately abundant, and 
is characterized by the general absence of the 
ground forms. The serpents which tolerate 
moist ground are of frequent occurrence, but 
are not known to present any peculiarities of 
species. The mammalian life is more peculiar 
than that of the other groups. The rodents 
are conspicuous by their absence. Bears are 
remarkalily abundant. About 200 are killed 
each year within the limits of this field of 
morasses. Deer are now rare, but they ha\-e 
been somewhat plenty. The most peculiar 
feature in the mammalian life is the fact that 
large numbers of wild horned cattle are found 
within the morass. These have feralized from 
domestic herds about the swamps. Estimates 
as to the number of these creatures vary con- 
siderably. I am inclined tO' think that there 
are probably about 500 now living within this 
area. They are extremely wild, and when 
hunted are often dangerous to the sportsman. 
Several observant persons have reported to 
me that fierce combats frecjuently take place 
between the bulls and the bears. John G. 
Wallace, of ^^'allaceton, states that he has sev- 
eral times heard the bellowing of the hijrned 
cattle when they were engaged in such com- 
bats. Another obser\'er stated to me that some 
years ago he found a bull and a l>ear lying dead 
beside each other, both having been killed in 
the combat. 

It is said that the bears have a peculiar 
habit in their assault upon the horned cattle ; 
they spring upon their backs and rend the 



muscles which support the head of their prey, 
and thus escape tlie dauber from its horns. 
The evidence as to this peculiar habit rests 
iil)on the fact that where the horned cattle have 
been killed in their contests with the bears the 
neck muscles are found divided. 

I lia\-e not myself had an opi)i)rtunity of 
seeing any of these cattle, hut it is stated that 
they are generally of a black color and of 
small size. They appear to range through all 
portions of the s\vam|>, but during the lireed- 
ing season to prefer the slightlx' elex'ated por- 
tions where the canes abound. They feed 
mainly on the tender shoots of the cane, and 
are saiil to dwell generally in herds of from 
20 to 50 individuals. Occasionally members 
of the wild herds are tolled out into the culti- 
vated fields by offerings of salt, and are led 
to join the domestic cattle. The greater part 
of the wild cattle, however, evidently live for 
generations without obtaining access to saline 
materials, a fact which shows that salt is not 
really necessar\- to them, fur within the 
morass they can have no opiX)rtunity whate^'er 
of obtaining it. There are no salt springs, 
the tidal rivers which penetrate to the swamp 
are all fresh and there are no licks, such as 
were afforded l)y the slightly saline clays of 
the Mississippi Valley, to which the buffalo 
abundantly resorted. 


During the time when sla\es were held in 
this part of the country, a considerable por- 
tion of the morasses which originally con- 
stitute the Dismal Swamp was drained. This 
task was accomplished by the simplest engin- 
eering expedients. Ditches ha\ing a depth 
rarely exceeding six feet were dug wherever 
convenience dictated. Each farmer planned 
the system for his own land without any re- 
lation to a general scheme for impro\-ement. 
It is evident that the work was done in most 
cases without even the surveyor's aid. The 
aggregate labor expended in this ill-directed 
system has been great. Properly applied, it 

would have gone far toward winning the 
whole of the unreclaimed swamps between Al- 
bemarle Sound and the James River to agri- 
culture. There are hundreds of miles of these 
trenches but few of which exhibit any concep- 
tion of the conditi(-ins which should ha\'e regu- 
lated their construction, in any scheme for 
the improvement of this region, the existing 
system of ditches will have to be neglected 
save in so far as the ditches may serve for 
the drainage of the small patches of land for 
which thcv were contrived. 

There can be no question that the whole 
of the swamp area of this district, excepting 
certain small strips near the mouths of the 
larger indentations which extend northward 
from Albemarle Sound, is ready to be won to 
tillage by simple and comparatively inexpen- 
sive improvements. The average inclination 
of the surface is about 20 inches per mile, and 
this is sufficient to give a strong current to 
water flowing in ditches having a width on 
the water surface of four feet and a total 
depth of water of three feet. The character 
of the soil is very favorable for such improve- 
ments. The considerable amount of vegetable 
matter in the earth causes the canals which are 
not used for navigation tO' maintain their 
banks in good order. There are few tree 
trunks buried in the swamp deposits, as is well 
known by the excavation of ditches contrived 
for couN'eying timber. The aggregate length 
of these channels is at least 20 miles. At no 
point in their various courses have they en- 
countered any considerable difficulty from the 
trunks of. trees lying prostrate Ijeneath the 
surface. The rank growth of the vegetation, 
particularly the roots which seize upon the 
banks of the canals, will save all costs for 
re\'etting their slopes. 

In devising a plan for the drainage of this 
area, it will be necessary to take account of 
the existing canals ; for, although these have 
not been contrived for the purpose of desic- 
cation and are in certain ways unsuited to 
that object, the constructions are so large that 
it will be necessary to introduce them into the 



permit tlie 
The drain- 
side of the 

scheme of drainage works. If the principal 
canal, that which is now navigable to \essels, 
were deprived of its locks and a similar course 
were taken with the Jericho canal or ditch, ex- 
tending from Lake Drummond to the James 
River near SutYolk, the result would be that 
a strip of land ijordering on these water-ways 
would. pro\-ided' the embankment (.m either 
side of the water-ways were cut through at 
a sufficient number of places to 
exit cf the water, at once become 
dry for the uses of agriculture. 
age level of the swamp un either 
main channel would be lowered about five feet. 
This alone would afi^ord a base level low 
enough for the drainage of at least four miles 
west of the canal and about two miles east 
of it. The difference in the distance to which 
the ditches might Ije made effective would be 
determined b}- the slightl)- varying slope from 
the west toward the sea. Along the Jericho 
ditch the drainage would be less effective be- 
cause of the small size and shallowness of that 
excavation. At present the ditch averages not 
more than 15 feet of effecti\-e width with a 
depth of not more than three feet. The level 
of the water, moreover, is nearer the general 
level of the swami> than in the case of the Dis- 
mal Swamp Canal. 

If the level of the bottom of the Dismal 
Swamp Canal were lowered to 12 feet below 
the present le\-el of the water with an average 
width of 12 feet and an average depth of water 
with the new plane of four feet, it would 
dotibtless furnish a sufficient e.xit way for all 
the swamp waters which would be drained to 
it from either side, and it would then be pos- 
sible by branch ditches to^ unwater the whole 
country on the western sde of its path and 
nearly the whole of the area to the east. At 
the same time the depth of the water remain- 
ing in the canal would be sufficient for all the 
purposes of transportation which would arise 
from the agricultural use of this area. Tribu- 
tary ditches, starting with the depth of eight 
or 10 feet and a width of water-wa}- of about 
eight feet, should be extended with diminish- 

ing size and depth to- near the western margin 
of the swamp. They would probably not need 
to be nearer together than intervals of two 


Their average length would be about 

eight miles and thus the total length of this 
system would be about 80 miles. Smaller 
and shallower ditches, having a width of 
water-way of not more than four feet where 
they connected with the main channels, would 
need to be carried iii a general north and south 
direction from the secondary channels so' that 
no portion of the surface would be more than 
a mile from the water-way. Even smaller 
ditches would have to be extended across the 
surface so that no considerable portion of the 
area would be without a channel for its flood 
waters in the summer season. Practical ex- 
perience in the district seems to indicate that 
with this kind of drainage channels the soil 
would, after it had been subjugated to the 
plo'w, remain in a fit condition for tillage. 

In the section east of the Dismal Swamp 
Canal, a gentle though slight slope toward the 
sea would make the drainage toward the chan- 
nel of that^canal less easy than on the northern 
slope. It is probable, however, that within 
the range of three miles which would include 
the greater portion of that area the channel 
of the canal would, if supplemented by side 
ditches., afford an adecpiate means for unwa- 
tering the land. The regimi }-et further to the 
east would ha\-e to be made the subject of an 
independent scheme of drainage which should 
discharge the waters into other main ways. 

If these excavations could be acccmplislied 
only by hand labor it is doubtful if, even with 
the present demand for agricultural lands, it 
would prove profitable to undertake the drain- 
age of this morass. But recent improvements 
in methods. of exca\-ation make it possiljle to 
unwater land of this description at a relatively 
small cnst as cnmjiared with older methods of 
hand lalior. The \vh()le r,{ the work can lie 
accomplished b\' machine dredging, the en- 
gines being operated by steam power. In the 
principal ditch the ditching can be done froin 
the usual form of boats and in the smaller 



cliannels the apparatus can be conveyed along 
the patli of its work Iiy means r,\ niovalile 
tramways on either side of tlie ditch. 

After tlie main works are constructed, llie 
cost of cutting away the timher and of first 
I)lowing tlie land \\ill, according to trust- 
worthy information given by \arious persons 
who have of late years undertaken such work 
in this district, amount to about $30 per acre. 
In the average present conditiivn of the for- 
ested portions of the swamp the return for this 
labor in the way of timber may amount to 
about $60 per acre, which proi)ably would 
meet tlie expenses of clearing the forest away 
and of pro\iding the smaller drainage chan- 

The area which would be won to tillage 
by such a system of drainage, though only a 
jjortion of this swamp district, is about J50 
s(piare miles or 160.000 acres. 1 am assured 
by various trustworthy farmers that when first 
won to the plow this land has a measure of 
fertility which will enable the tiller to reckon 
an annual product of from 80 to 100 bushels 
of shelled maize per acre. It is. therefore, safe 
to estimate the money value of this area when 
thus improved at not less than $16,000,000. 

.\gainst this estimate of the tillage value 
• of this region we must set such returns as it 
now makes in the way of timber products. I 
have not been enabled to obtain any accurate 
statistics as to the ])rofits derived from the 
timber industry now carried on in this swamp. 
Nearly all of the original forest has been re- 
UKned. culled by the woodmen or destroyed 
by fire. The supply of exported timber is 
gathered from the growth of cypress, juniper 
and pine. From all the data I have been able 
to procure I am led to the conclusion that the 
aggregate profit from the timber does not ex- 
ceed $50,000 per annum, and that it may be 
much less than this amount. Year by year 
the value of this ])roduct is diminished through 
the occurrence of forest fires in the dry sea- 
sons, which eradicate from large areas not 
only the growing trees but even their seeds. 
Such fires burn down to a considerable depth 

in the peaty matter and thus destroy the germs 
as well as the parent trees. On these surfaces, 

' which include at ])resent perhaps as much as a 
tenth of the swamp area, the forest wins its 

: way in a very slow manner. The swamps 
are principally occupied by annual plants. 
With the increase of the population around 
the margin of the swamp, these fires are apt 
to become more common. When they happen, 

; they cannot be extinguished save by heavy 
rains, and they make the use of the swamp, 
except on certain selected areas, ineligible as 
a nursery of timl)er. We thus find that if the 
swamp were brought to the use of agriculture 
at an aggregate C(!st of say $4,000,000. the 
gain to the interests of the community would 

, be very large. On the one side of the ac- 

! count, we may have a revenue from the timher 
which is not likely to exceed .Si 00,000 ])er an- 
num; and on the other an income from agri- 
cultural products which would doubtless ex- 
ceed $j, 000, 000 per annum, wlide the ct st of 
improxement at the present rate of interest on 
mone_\- would not exceed $200,000 a year. 

This region is \-ery favorably placed for 
cultivating and marketing garden crops. Al- 
ready the Norfolk district furnishes a large 
share of the garden products used by four or 
fi\e million of peo])le dwelling in the cities be- 
tween the James Ri\-er and the coast of Maine. 
The greater part of the territory which now 
furnishes these su])])lies has a poor soil which 
can be made to yield satisfactor\- returns only 
by a costly system of fertillizing. Exjieri- 
nients already made within the Dismal Swamp 
district shows that this soil is excellently 
aflapted for the cultivation of vegetables. The 
annual demand for such garden crops is sure 
to increase apace, and there is no other field so 
well suited for the enlargement of this form of 
agriculture as the area occupied by the morass 
of the Dismal Swamp district. The drainage 
channels could readily afford water transixir- 
tation to within a mile of every part of the 
tilled area. In a manner hereafter to be noted 
a large portion of the surface could, if desired, 

, be irrigated bv the higher King waters. No- 



where else in the world is there near to great 
markets so large a field of land suited to gar- 
den crops which is not used for such purix)ses. 
If availed of for this form of tillage, the an- 
nual return from the land would probably not 
be less than $ioo per acre or a total of some- 
where near $16,000,000 per annum for the 
region which it is proposed to drain. It 
would, of course, be some decades before it 
would be profitable to bring all this vast area 
into such use, but after a time of service in 
ordinary field crops it seems to me likely that 
the whole of the surface would be thus util- 

It will be seen by the description of the 
Nansanond escarpment or old bench that sev- 
eral considerable streams which cross that line 
have their head waters in the subordinate 
swamps lying in general at the height of sev- 
eral feet above the western margin of the 
swamp. Owing to the topographic conditions 
of these inland morasses, they could readily 
be converted into- great storage reservoirs in 
which irrigation waters would be retained. I 
estimate that it would be possible to store in 
these higher swamps for the purposes of sum- 
mer irrigation bodies of water ha\ing 24 

scpiare miles of area and an average depth of 
five feet, the whole of which could be used for 
agricultural purposes in the region east of the 
Dismal Swamp Canal. This would afford, 
making allowance for evaporation, a sufficient 
amount of water to meet in dry seasons the 
exigencies of garden tillage of an area of 
about 150 square miles or say about 100,000 
acres. With a somewhat more costly system 
of storage which would not probably tax the 
tilled land for reservoirs to the annual amount 
of more than $10 per acre, the water could be 
husbanded and would afford irrigation facili- 
ties to the whole of this. district. 

It is thus evident that we have in this re- 
gion a combination of the advantages for high- 
grade tillage such as are rarely found in any 
part of the world, an excellent soil, ready 
water communication, a favorable climate and 
opportunities for obtaining abundant irriga- 
tion water- in times of drought. In a word, 
the region affords all the advantages of the 
best artificially unwatered soils in Belgium and 
Holland with a cost for the improvement far 
less than that required to win to agriculture 
the low-l\'ing semi-marine swamps of that sec- 



The First School of the Cointv — The F"irst General Public School Law Enacted 
— St. Bride's Academy — Churchland Academy — First Complete Public School 
System Established in the County — Seaboard Teachers' Association — Public 
Schools Re-established After the War, Under the New Constitution — Public 
Schools of Norfolk — Public Schools of Portsmouth — The Norfolk Academy — 
Norfolk's Libraries. 

Very early in tlie sexenteentli century tlie 
people of Norfolk County and of Elizabeth 
River Shire (of which Norfolk County was 
at one time a part) began to be interested in 
education. Not only were parochial and pri- 
vate schools opened for the better classes, but 
arrangements began to be made for the edu- 
cation of the poor. In thi.s shire Benjamin 
S\ines by devise, confirmed by law, in 1642, 
gave certain lands for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a free school, "and for the encourage- 
ment of all others in the like pious perform- 

In 1659 Symes and Eaton bequeathed to 
Elizabeth City County an amount equivalent 
to $10,150, the interest to be applied to the 
education of the p<X)r, the proceeds of which 
are still being used in said county. 

Richard Russell, by will probated Decem- 
ber 2, 1667, set apart a portion of his estate 
to I)e devoted to the education of six of the 
poorest children in Norfolk County ; and Capt. 
Hugh Campbell, in 1691, donated land and 
tobacco for the "emp^iyment of suitable per- 
sons to give instruction to the people living 

on tlie Northwest Ri\'er, Ncjrfolk County." 
Yet, while throughout the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries there were a number of pa- 
rochial and pri\-ate schools located in the towns 
of Norfolk and Portsmouth, and in the county 
at Hickory Ground, Great Bridge and Syca- 
more Hill, where the children of the well-tn-do 
classes could receive instruction in reading, 
writing and arithmetic, it was not until the 
beginning of the nineteenth century that any 
organized system of free public education was 
undertaken l>y the corporate authority of the 
county or State. 

Through the influence and suggestinn nf 
Thomas Jefferson, the Cleneral Asseinbly of 
Virginia, on the 22nd day of December, 1796, 
enacted a school law, entitled "An Act to Es- 
tablish Public Schools," the preamble of which 
is as follows : 

Whereas, it appeareth that the great advantages, 
which civilized and polished nations enjoy beyond the 
savage and liarbaroiis nations of the \v.Drld, are prin- 
cipally derived from the invention and use of letters, 
by means whereof the knowledge and experience of past 
ages are recorded and transmitted, so that man. avail- 
ing himself in succession of the accumulated wisdom 



and discoveries of his predecessors, is enabled more suc- 
cessfully to pursue and improve not only their acts, but 
that also which tends to illuminate and ennoble his na- 
ture and understanding; and 

Whereas, upon a review of the history of mankind, 
it seemeth that however favorable Republican govern- 
ment, founded upon the principle of equal liberty, justice 
and order, may be to human happiness, no real stability 
or lasting permanence thereof can be rationally hoped 
for, if the minds of the citizens be not rendered liberal 
and humane, and be not fully impressed with the im- 
portance of those principles from whence these bless- 
ings proceed. With a view, therefore, to lay the first 
foundation of a system of education which may tend to 
produce the desirable purpose, 

Therefore be it enacted by the General Assembly of 
Virginia, that in every County of the Connnonwealth 
there shall be chosen annually by the electors qualified to 
vote for delegates to this Assembly, three of the most 
honest and able men of the County, to be called Alder- 
men of the County. 

This Act further provided that these alder- 
men should lav off the county intO' sections, 
liave autliority to appoint teacher-s, visit 
schools, examine pupils and so' forth; That the 
householders of each section should meet and 
select a place for the location of a school, and 
'that all free male and female children should 
he entitled to attend three years free, and as 
much longer as their parents, or guardians, 
should provide for by paying necessary ex- 

Under this .\ct the electors of Norfolk 
County, on the i6th dav of April, 1798, 
elected' William' \\'hite, Robert Butt and 
James Browne, aldermen, as shown by the fol- 
lowing writ, or certificate, of the sheriff, dated 
Aijril 17, 1798 : 

I do certify that pursuant to an Act of the General 
Assembly, passed 22nd day of December, 1796, entitled 
an Act to Establish Public Schools, a poll was taken at 
the Court House on Monday, the l6th day of April, 1798, 
for the election of three Aldermen ; and that William 
White, Robert Butt and James Browne were duly 

(Signed) Robert Shelton, Deputy Sheriff, 

for Wilson Butt, Sheriff. 

Thus in 1799, at the opening of the nine- 
teenth century, schools were opened in several 
localities of Norfolk County for the free in- 
struction of children' for three years. Two 
of these schools are worthy of special mention 

as centers of education for the people of this 
county, which has always favored public edu- 
cation. One located at Hickory Ground, a 
community in the southeast sectjon of the 
county along- the "Great Road," on which was 
the "Great Bridge," where one of the first bat- 
tles of the Revolution was fought and won 
by the Virginia troops. This community was 
early a center of culture and influence, and the 
school became a prominent factor in the edu- 
cation of its men and women through the 
early years of the nineteenth century, and 
grew and devehjped intO' a high school or 
academy fur primarv, grammar and high 
school work. In 1835 it was rebuilt, a com- 
modious brick structure taking the place of 
the old frame or log building, and it was in- 
corporated by the General Assembly under the 
name of St. Bride's Academ}'. A new site 
was donated by Josiah \\'ilson, who' in con- 
sideration of "love, zeal and earnest desire for 
the rising and future generations, and believ- 
ing that a well grounded education will be a 
powerful and happy auxiliary to obtain this 
object, doth grant to Natheniel Wilson, Rich- 
ard W. Silvester, Samuel Browne, Jr., Na- 
hamani Foreman. D'a^^id C. ^^'ils<.^n, William 
Wilson, "W'illiam Scott and \\'illiami Tatem, 
trustees, etc." 

Thisi school had several excellent teach- 
ers, who' ranked with the best educators of the 
State or nation. Among whom may be men- 
tioned Robert Ould, lawyer, judge and Con- 
federate commissioner for exchange of pris- 
oners; G. T. Exall, E. S. Dulin and William 
T. Davis, each of whom, in after years, lie- 
came professors or presidents of colleges it 
this State and Missouri. The second was lo- 
cated in the northwest section of the county 
and in the community now known as Church- 
land, also' a wealthy and cultivated section. 
This school was known iiT 1802 as the Craney 
Island School, and in 1840, when the record 
shows it was rebuilt, it was called the Syca- 
more Hill School,^ and in 1854 it was again 
rebuilt and enlarged to a building of three 
rooms, and was enriched by James H. Carney, 



who by will set apart $1,500 to Ije invested 
and the proceeds to he applied for the henelit 
of the school, "to provide free education for 
all the children of the conmiunity," which en- 
dowment continues to assist in ihe mainte- 
nance of this school to the present day. 

In Xoveml)er, 1872, the County Court in- 
corporated one branch of this school under the 
style of the Churchland Academy, with J. T. 
Griffin, W. T. Carney and others as trustees, 
for instruction in hig'her English and classics. 
This school, like St. iJride's Academy, has 
been greatly instrumental in shaping and de- 
veloping the educational work of this county, 
and also had many excellent and distinguished 
teachers, among whom may be named Col. A. 
K. Yancey, John R. Bagly, Josiah Ryland, 
W. T. Rhinehart and C. W. Coleman, who in 
after years were trustees, professors and presi- 
ilents of colleges at Richmond, \'irginia, 
Thonias\ille, Georgia, Tuscalousa, Alabama, 
and Mexico, Missouri. 

On the 3rd of ^larch, 18 19, an Act was 
passed to reduce into one Act the several Acts 
concerning the Literary Fund. This was the 
fund derived from escheats, confiscations, for- 
feitures, derilict personal property, fines, etc. 
Section 13 provided for applying part of the 
income to the primary object of its institution 
and directed the courts of the counties, cities 
and corporate towns to appoint not less than 
five nor more than 1 5 discreet jiersons school 
trustees to determine what number of poor 
children "they will educate, etc." 

Rut it was not until 1845 ^^^''■^ Norfolk 
County reorganized and put into operation a 
comjjlete and efficient system of puljlic schools 
for the benefit of all the free white children of 
the county. 

By authority of an Act of the General As- 
sembly of \'irginia, enacted on the 17th day 
of February, 1845. ^^ board of school com- 
missioners met at Deep Creek and organized 
by the election of Leroy G. Edwards, chair- 
man ; George T. Wallace, clerk ; and' Stephen 
B. Tatem, treasurer, and arranged for the 

opening of jo schnuls with three local trus- 
tees or commissioners for each, who were in- 
structed to provide a building and employ a 
teacher for a term of 10 months at a salary of 
$30 per month, to he paid out of public funds, 
and such additional salary as might be pledged 
by the election of Lero\- G. Edwards, chair- 
provided for were oi)ened in the fall of the 
same }'ear, and soon became efficient and pop- 
ular, as is shown by the rejjort of the president 
of the school board at its fifth annual meeting 
in June. 1849, from which the following ex- 
tracts are taken : 

"During the last \ear 1.306 children have 
received correct and regular instruction at our 
several schools in all such branches as are 
taught in good English schools, such as si)ell- 
ing, writing, reading, arithmetic, geography, 
grammar, history, mental and moral philoso- 
phy, astrononi}', composition, rhetoric, etc. In 
several of the schools where the children were 
far enough advanced we have classes in higher 
mathematics, Latin and French." '■' '■■ * 
"The classics did not enter into our original 
scheme, nor do we now require the qualified 
teacher to teach them, lor a practical and use- 
ful English education, such as farmers, me- 
chanics and persons of ordinary vocation need, 
is our standard." * '•' '•' "It is a source of 
regret to us that we cannot afford better pay 
to our teachers, and that we have to add to 
this by pri\-ate contributions in districts where 
the teachers are deserving and the people able 
to do so, hut we are proud of our people, who 
nobly battled for the cause of popular educa- 
tion, and who willingly contributed the pe- 
cuniary aid necessary to perpetuate it. 

"The people are as ardently its friends 
now as ever, and are reaping the reward of 
their labors. 

"The good effects of our schools are ol>- 
vious to all observers, arid it is most pleasing 
to contemplate not only what has been done 
but what is yet to be done. 

"We might dilate here on the imi)ro\cd 
and impro\ing moral and physical condition 



of onr people and county, but will only state 
that at least 95 per cent, of the indigent chil- 
dren of the county are now being educated. 

"That our system is yet imperfect we free- 
ly admit, and we are in want of an agent whose 
duty shall require him to visit, direct, super- 
vise, investigate and report each school sep- 
arately, one cjualified to examine and license 
teachers and so forth." 

As a result of this report, and at the same 
meeting in 1849, Rev. Thomas Hume was 
elected the first superintendent of schools for 
the county, with a salary of $500 per annum. 
Suijerintendent Hume made a faithful and 
efficient officer and ser\-e(l for two years, when 
he was succeeded by Leroy G. Edwards, who 
had for seven years been chairman of the 
board of commissioners, and who carried his 
lo\-e and zeal for the cause into the superin- 
tendent's office, where he did a splendid work 
through the next 10 years. 

From 1845 to 1861 the schools grew in 
number tO' 30, with good frame school houses 
and with fair appliances and an excellent corps 
of teachers, who were zealous in their work. 
These teachers in 1845 assembled at Deep 
Creek, Norfolk Count}", and organized a 
teacher's institute, under the name of the "Sea- 
board Teachers' Association," which was 
probably the first teachers' association that 
e\"er met in the State or the South, for in its 
proceedings it is stated that "This organiza- 
tion is just twenty-five years after the first 
teachers' association of the United States, or- 
ganized in Essex County, Massachusetts." 
Prof. X. B. Webster was made president, and 
in his address among otlier things lie said: 
"Fellow teachers, we beseech your influence 
in behalf of the great cause of education and 
of civil liberty; a national association of en- 
lightened educators would constitute the 
strongest bond of union between the conflict- 
ing interests of the various' sections of our 
great Confederation of States. It is true now, 
as in the days of Cicero, that common desires 
or aversions tend' to canent more closely the 
tie of amity. If the wicked Cataline pursued 

this policy in his base attaript to ruin his coun- 
try, shall not the friends of education adopt 
for their motto, and ardently loving the light 
of knowledge, and hating the dark tyranny of 
ignorance, associate themselves together for 
the accomplishment of their noble object, and 
prove to the world that intelligence and lib- 
erty are inseparable?" 

But this splendid system of 30 schools 
wliicli for 16 years had been open for 10 
months per year, and )iad done so much for 
the county, came suddenly to an end. In the 
spring of 1862 the Federal Army took ix>s- 
session of the cities and the county of Nor- 
folk, and the schools were not only closed, but 
the buildings destroyed, some were burned and 
others were torn down by the United States 
soldiers, and the timbers moved to the mili- 
tary camps and used to build winter quarters 
for the troops. Among those so destroyed 
were the buildings located at Wallaceton, 
Cornland, Good Hope, Bell's I\Iill and Tan- 
ner's Creek. 

So completely were the schools and re- 
sources of our people destroyed by this ter- 
rible war that for a period of nine years, from 
1862 to 1871, there were no schools, public or 
private, worthy of mention within the county, 
and such education as the children received 
was imparted at home ])y the mothers and 
older sisters. In 1868 by the adoption of a 
new Constitution, the State of Virginia was 
relieved from the burden of military govern- 
ment, and as soon thereafter as practical the 
General Assembly provided by law for the es- 
tablishment of a free public school system 
throughout the State. Under this Act in De- 
cember, 1870, Capt. John T. ^^'est was com- 
missioned by Gov. Gilbert C. Walker as super- 
intendent of schools for Norfolk County, with 
instructions to recommend to the State board 
of education three men from each magisterial 
district of the county, suitable to form a coun- 
ty school lioard. 

The following gentlemen were recom- 
mended, and were appointed school trustees 
by the State board of education, to-wit : 



John T. Griffin. D. T, Driver and W. J. Nicholson ] 
for Western Branch District. 

Capt. Thomas M. Hodges, Willis W. Tncker and 
James F. Carr for Deep Creek District. 

William R. Dudley, C. T. Foreman and E. H. Will- 
iams for Pleasant Grove District. 

Harrison Etheredgc. Griffin Jennings and Jesse D. 
Sykes for Butts Road District. 

Maj. William H. Etheredgc. Milton Cuthcrell and 
Henr>' Butt for Washington District. 

Washington T. Capps. Joseph R. Guy and James 
Sammons for Tanner's Creek District. 

January 20, 1871, this Ijoaicl met at the 
Court House and organized witli Supt. John 
T. West, ex-ofticio cliairnian, and Capt. Thom- 
as M. Hodges, clerk. After hearing- a report 
of Superintendent West as to the powers of 
the board and the deplorable condition of ed- 
ucation in the county, the board with entire 
unanimity instructed the district trustees to at 
once organize separate schools for white and 
colored children wherever practical in their re- 
spective districts, and by resolution requested 
the board of sui^ervisors of the county to sub- 
mit to the vote of the people at the approach- 
ing May election the question of levying a 
tax of 30 cents on the $100 of real and per- 
sonal property to form a district and county 
fund, supplementary to that of the State. The 
board of su]3er\isors promptly submitted the 
question, and the people by a large majority 
voted the levy. This assured a moderate sup- 
port for the 19 white and 1 1 colored schools 
which had been opened by April i. 1871. 

Thus began the reorganized i)ublic school 
system of Norfolk County, which has grow-n 
in power, efficiency and ])opularity to this 
writing. Superintendent West continued the 
supervision of these schools through three 
terms until 1882, when he was succeeded by 
Jesse E. Baker, who served for four years, 
when Capt. John T. ^\'est was again elected 
superintendent, and has been re-elected each 
successive term to the present time, when he 
is at the head of a system of 125 schools (73 
for white and 52 for colored pupils) with an 
enrollment of 7.000 children, and an a\erage 
term of nine months for white and eight 
months for colored. 

The last report of Superintendent ^\'est 

shows that these schools are taught by a 
trained and experienced corps of teachers with 
a graded course of study from the primary to 
the high school. That there are 76 school 
buildings, fully ec[uipped with patent desks, 
slate black boards, maps, globes, charts, etc., 
and valued at $65,000, and that there are now 
in the course of erection two $15,000 build- 
ings with eight nx)ms each, and that there 
was expended for the past year : 

For teachers' wages $ 36.466.75 

For clerks and treasurers 1.613.43 

For real estate, buildings and repairs 6.716.40 

For contingent expenses 5.103.90 

Total $49,500.48 


A report of the superintendent in 1885 
says : "A system of public schools was inaug- 
urated in the year 1857. P'or many years be- 
fore this date provision had been made by the 
city or borough for the instruction of the 
poorer classes. A schcKil on the Lancasterian 
plan was located on the site of the present 
Fenchurch street school, and a night school 
was also opened for those whose occupation 
during the day debarred them from other 
means of instruction." 

Thomas C. Tabb, a prominent lawyer, was 
charged with organizing and putting into op- 
eration a system of schools to meet the needs 
of the public. On his retirement, William U. 
Bagnall was elected superintendent and re- 
mained in office until his death in 1867. The 
vacancy was filled bv the election of Hon. 
William \\'. Lamli. An (irdinance was passed 
by the City Council in 187 1 to reorganize the 
public schools under provisions of Acts of the 
General Assembly. >Ir. Lamb was appointed 
to continue in the office of superintendent, 
which he held until his death in the year 1874. 
The officers of the public school board are 
Hon. John B. AX'hitehead, president : Richard 
.V. Dobie. superintendent ; and Richard C. 
Taylor, secretary. 

Since 1857 there have been 10 superintend- 
ents, as follows : 





Thomas C. Tabb, 1857 to 1865. 
William D. Bagnall, 1865 to 1867. 
William W. Lamb, 1867 to 1874. 
Gen. Richard L. Page. 1874 to 1882, 
Rev. C. S. Blackwell, 1882 to 1884. 
R. G. Banks, 1884 to 1886. 
James Barron Hope, 1886 to 1887. 
George W. Taylor, 1887 to 1890. 
Kenton C. Murray, 1890 to 1896. 
Richard A. Dobie, 1896 (Still in office.) 

Remarkable progress has been made in the 
past few years in bringing the public schools 
up to a higher plane, and in all that pertains 
to them, — their teachers, the school buildings, 
courses of study, and results achieved, — they 
Avill compare favorabh- with the public schools 
■of any city in the South, 

Much needed facilities have recenth' been 
afforded by the completion of three handsome, 
commodious, well-arranged and well-located 
school buildings and a site has recently been 
secured for a new public school building in 
Atlantic City Ward. 

Norfolk has 12 school-houses, 10 brick 
and two frame, with a total of 65 rooms. 
There is an average of one acre of land to- each 
school, and the total value of the public school 
property is $150,000. 

The cost of public education for the year 
ending July 31, 1899, was as follows: 

Teachers' wages $40,780.00 

Secretary of the board 500.00 

City superintendent 1,350.00 

City treasurer, commissions 110.40 

Rents 1,250.00 

Fuel and lights 683.42 

Janitors 1,888.90 

Text books for indigent children 470.77 

Apparatus 49.00 

Other contingent expenses 976.07 

Total cost ' $48,058.56 

Superintendent Dobie" s report for the year 
ending July 31, 1899, gives the following 
figures regarding the enrollment and attend- 
ance : 

Total number of pupils enrolled '. . 3,343 

Average monthly enrollment 3.092 

Average daily attendance 2,677 

A^umber of teachers employed 65 

White teachers — males, 6; females, 48; total 54 

Colored teachers — males, i; females, lo; total,... 11 

Average number of pupils enrolled to each teacher. 48 

Total number of days taught 198 

Average age of pupils, 10.62 years. 


Although the origin of public education 
may be traced to an early date ; and while pub- 
lic schools existed before, the regxilar free 
school system was not established by Act of 
Assembly until 1845. Prior to the incorpora- 
tion of the city, the schools were managed in 
conjunction with Norfolk County. The town 
trustees, after the Act of 1845, secured the 
title to two lots, one on the corner of Middle, 
and Glasgow streets in the First Ward of the 
city, and one near Fourth street, in the Fourth 
^Vard. They built a brick academy on the 
first lot and opened four schools, and on the 
second lot a wooden building, with four 
schools. Some of the most prominent and 
successful citizens of Portsmouth received 
their education in these schools. They seem 
to have been supported by small tuition and 
admittance fees in certain instances, taxes as- 
sessed for the purpose, and contributions from 
the Literary Fund. The academy on the first- 
named lot was burned in 1857 and a larger 
and better one was erected in its place. It 
was known as "First District Academy." The 
city of Portsmouth was incorporated in 1858 
and one-third of the profits of the "Norfolk 
County Ferries" was divided each month be- 
tween the county and city for school purposes. 
After the Confederate War, all the schools re- 
opened with an addition of two, and continued 
until the present system in a prosperous con- 
dition. A large brick building was completed 
in ^lay, 1879, '^^ ^ cost of about $7,500 for the 
colored schools, which was then the finest 
school building in the city. In 1885 the school 
building in the Fourth Ward was constructed at 
a total cost of $12,000, to take the place of the 
old wooden building. A lot was purchased on 
Green street and a handsome building was 
constructed and the schools removed from the 
first district building to that home. Here the 

City Col'rt Hoise, Norfolk, Va. 

The Norfolk Academy. Norfolk, Va. 




first liigli school was instituted aljniit 13 years 
ago w ith Prof. L. P. Slater as principal ; 
and lie was succeeded in iSS<; by Prof. Willis 
A. Jenkins, the i)rese!it head-master. A hand- 
some new brick structure was erected for the 
new Fifth Ward in 1898. and now there are 
four handsome school buildings in the city 
with 38 schools and 2.000 scholars. The su- 
perintendents under the present system have 
been: James F. Crocker. (Iritifin F. Edwards 
and John C. Ashton, who is still in office. 

The value of school property. August 1, 
1900. was ?47,ooo. The exi>enses for the 
year ending July 31, 1900, were $19,691.03. 
The officers of the public school board are : 
David A. ^^'illiams. president : (ieorge A. 
'J'abb, treasurer : and William A. Culpepper, 


In January. 1804, a charter of incorpora- 
tion was granted to the "Trustees of the the 
Norfolk Academy," composed of the follow- 
ing gentlemen: Thomas Xewton. Jr.. John 
Xi\is<in. Thomas Blanchard. Theoderick 
Armistead, Robert Broiigh, John E. Holt. Lit- 
tleton W. Tazewell. Phillip Barraud. Alex- 
ander Jordan. Richard H. Lee and Arthur 
Lee. This corporation was endowed with all 
the powers usual to such bodies and is still 
a close corp<iration. that is, one in which va- 
cancies are filled by the vote of the remaining 

The original school building was situated 
on Church street, a part of its site now being 
occupied by the First Presbyterian Church. 
With the exception of one year. 1805. the 
school remained in its original location until 
it was removed in 1841 to its present site, in 
the square lx)unded by Bank street, Charlotte 
street. Cumberland street and Grigsby Place. 
1 he jjresent building was planned bv Thomas 
Ustick Walter. D. C. L.. LL. D..'of Phila- 
delphia, the architect nf Ciirard College and of 
extensions to many public iniildings in Wash- 
ington, D. C. For classicahiess of stvle and 

for appropriateness of design, we doubt if its 
equal can be found among ])reparatory schools 
of the South. In 1862 the academy building 
was seized l)y the Uniteil States authorities 
and used by them for three years as a hospital, 
its name being the "Delemater Hospital." 

The character of the work done by the 
Norfolk Academy has alwaxs kept pace with 
the demands made upon preparatory schools 
l;y the leading colleges of Virginia and of 
the States north of us. Gratluates of the Xor- 
fiilk Acadeni)- have won honor at the Univer- 
sity of \'irginia, Johns tlopkins University, 
Lehigh University, Cornell University, Prince- 
ton University, Harvard University and the 
L^nited States Academies at Anna])nlis and 
West Point, as well as at scores of minnr col- 
leges in this and other States. 

The first principal of the Norfolk Academy 
was Rev. James Whitehead, who remained in 
charge for only a short time. In fact there 
were frequent changes of administration until 
1845. when Col. John B. Strange (V. M. I.) 
assumed charge of the school. He remained 
principal until 1855. and was succeeded by 
John S. Gamble, who, in turn, was followed 
by William R. Gait. From 1865 to 1882, 
Re\-. Robert Gatewixid, who had been former- 
ly employed as assistant teacher at the acad- 
emy, was principal, and under his adminis- 
tration the school was particularly successful 
in the training of bovs for the United States 
Naval Academy. In 1882 R. W. Tunstall 
and James H. Dillard were elected joint prin- 
cipals, but the latter resigned in 1887 to ac- 
cept a flattering offer in St. Louis, Missouri, 
as president of Marv Institute, from which 
place he was called a few years afterward to 
the professorship of Latin in Tulane Univer- 
sity, New Orleans. K. W. Tunstall was sole 
principal from 1887 to 1900, when he resigned 
to accept the professorship of Latin and Greek 
at T(jnie Institute, Port Deposit, Maryland. 
J. F. Blackwell. who had been his first assist- 
ant for 1 1 years, was elected ]>rinciiial in May. 
1900. The present board of trustees consists 

Richard II. 

of the following gentlemen 



Baker, Sr., president; Htm. \\illiam Lamb, 
vice-president ; Smith N. Brickhoiise, William 
W. Chamberlaine. George \\'. Dey, Judge 
D. Tucker Brooke, Dr. Douglas C. Cannon, 
Judge F. Al. W'hitehurst, John B. Jenkins, 
Judge T. S. Garnett, H. B. Bagnall, and 
George Chamberlaine, secretary and treasurer. 

The Norfolk Academy has had but one 
endowment in all its long history, this having 
been made by Dr. Augustine Slaughter, with 
the understanding that one or t\vo poor boys 
should be educated annuall_\- from the inter- 
est derived from this sum, amounting to 

By an order of the court, this sum was 
used, together with other funds, in the erec- 
tion of the present building and a deed of trust 
upon the property executed by the trustees of 
the Norfolk Academy. In lieu of interest 
upon this mortgage, the academy has ever 
since educated from six to 10 boys annually 
free of charge. It will thus be seen that the 
Norfolk Academy has maintained its high 
character from tuition fees alone, which, in 
consideration of the moderate charges — $60 
to $80 per annum — is rather remarkable. It 
seems strange that no public-spirited alumnus 
or philanthropist, except Dr. Slaughter, has 
seen fit to endow this school, which has been 
such a power for good in Norfolk and its vi- 
cinity, and it is to be hoped that its needs in 
this line will not \'ery much longer remain 

Norfolk's libraries. 

The recent handsome gift of Andrew Car- 
negie to Norfolk for the erection of a library 
building did much tO' increase the large and 
growing interest in the Norfolk Public Li- 
brary, which, though not generally known, has 
been in existence for nearly three-quarters of 
a century, but not without some interruptions. 
Some of this history has never been put be- 
fore the public, and to gi\-e it just at this time 
will serve to make it doubly interesting. 

While tliere were many private libraries of 

value known to have existed in Norfolk in the 
early part of the nineteenth centry, conspicu- 
ously those of Gen. Robert B. Taylor, Hon. 
Littleton \\'. Tazewell, Hon. William ^^'irt, 
Hon. \^'illiam B. Lamb and others, there is no 
public library known to have been in the city 
of Norfolk before March 22, 1827, when the 
Lyceum was opened through the exertions of 

j Hon. William iMaxwell, one of the most dis- 
tinguished lawyers that Virginia ever pro- 
duced, and who in late years left Norfolk for 
Richmond to become the editor of the J'ir- 
giiiia Historical Register, and manager of the 
Virginia Historical Society. 

The Lyceum was erected on the north side 
of Wolf street, \\hich then ran, as now, from 
Catherine (now Bank) to Cumberland. There 
was a small lane to the east of it, which has 
since become Chapel street, running through 
from Wolf to Freemason. 

Besides ha\-ing a circulating librar}-, the 
building was used for public lectures and 
meetings of literar\- associations. The library 
lasted over a decade, when it was sold, and the 

■ building was purchased by the Odd Fellows, 
who enlarged it by putting a second story (.m 
the same. The building was subsequently tle- 
stroyed by tire. 

Some twenty years after, there was a li- 
brary established by the Washington Institute, 
which flourished for a while, but was broken 
up by the fever of 1855. 

In August, 1870, tlie Norfolk Library 
Association was organized and Dr. Samuel 
Selden elected president. In October, 1872, 
it was chartered by the Circuit Court, and Dr. 
William Selden was selected president. He 
was followed in the presidency by a number 
of other leading citizens, and the library llour- 

I ished; but it was moxed from the Norfolk 

i Academy to the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation Building on Alain street, against the 
judgment of many of those interested. It re- 
mained there a \'ery sliort time and was then 
moved to the present library building. The 
move from the Norfolk. Academy, where the 
rent was free, proved vevy disadvantageous,. 



ami alter tlie suhscnptinns were all paid up 
the inci.iine was iiisiifiicieiU to keep the library 
{joiiiii'. <'"i<l it ^^^^ alxnit to be sold in 1894 for 
debt, when, with the consent of the stock- 
luilders. the books were transferred t(j a few 
gentlemen upon the condition that they would 
pay the debts of the institution and organize 
a public librarv. CHI. William Lamb was 
elected president and John L. Roper vice- 
presidejit of the new organization. William 
H. Sergeant was elected librarian, a most 
fortunate selection, as he gave for a \ery 
small remuneration the benefit of his experi- 
ence as tJie former librarian of the Mercantile 
Library of Baltimore. In getting the charter 
from tlie legislature, the president had inserted 
authority for the Councils of the city of Nor- 
folk to a])i)i"oi)riate a sum not exceeding 
$5,000 a year toward the sui>piirt and main- 
tenance of the library. After the adoption of 
the charter, the Councils were ])ersuaded to 
appropriate $1,500 a year, and they have con- 
tinued it to the present time. 

The library has gone on increasing, and 
the attendance in the year 1900 amounted to 
53,000, and 26,000 volumes were given out. 

The librarian and his efficient assistant are 
to a great extent the instructors of our young 
people in their search after knowledge, espe- 
cially in their assistance to the young in pre- 
paring essays, orations and debates, and they 
have made the library the capstone of our pub- 
lic school system. 

Recentlv Mr. Myers, one of the directors, 
wrote Andrew Carnegie and asked that he e.x- 
tend the same generosity toward this com- 
munitv that he had to f)tliers in the matter of 

a lilirar\', and he rcsjxinded \ery promptly 
through his secretary that he would give the 
city i)f Norfolk $50,000 towards the erection 
of a library building if the city wnuld guar- 
antee an a]j])ropriation nf .$5,000 a year toward 
the support of the libr.'irx- and a suitable 

Colonel Lamb, president of the Norfolk 
Public Library, went before the Councils and 
requested them to make this api)ropriation and 
to recpiest y\r. Carnegie tu make the gift 
through this institution, which already jxjs- 
sessed a most \-alual)le library, and whose pres- 
ident and directors were the trustees for the 
benefit of the public in the conduct of the 
! library without any reward, except their satis- 
faction in C(_>ntributing to the entertainment 
and instruction of the community by offering 
them the benefits of a well-conilucted library, 
and both Councils responded favorabl}' by a 
unanimous vote. 

At the same time, througli a fa\-orable de- 
cision of the Supreme Court of Virginia in 
the case in which the late II. I). Van W'ycke 
was interested, he left through his executor, 
Capt. W. W. Old, about $15,000 toward the 
purchase of a lot for the ])ublic library. 

It is now only a fpiestion of a short time 
before the city will have a public lilirary build- 
ing for a well-conducted library, which will 
be a source of great pride to the communitj'. 

There are three collections of books ac- 
cessible to the public at Norfolk — the library 
of the Niirfolk Library Association, 8,000 
volumes: the X(irf(jlk V. M. C. A. Library 
and the Law Library of the Norfolk and 
Portsmouth I'ar .\ssociation. 




The Church of England in the Colony of \'n';GiNL-\ — Elizabeth River Parish — The 
Parish Divided into Elizabeth River, Portsmouth and St. Bride's Parishes — 
St. Paul's Church and Norfolk Long Ago — Other Protestant Episcopal 
Churches in the County. 

the church of ENGLAND. 

Tlie Church of England was the Churcli of 
the Colony of Viro^inia and Governor Wyatt's 
instructions under date of July 24. 162 1, re- 
quired him "To keep u]> religion of the Church 
of England as near as may he." 

The Act of the General Assembly of ^^larch 
5, 1623-24, provided: 

That there shall be in every plantation, where the 
people use to meete for the worship of God. a house or 
roome, sequestered for that purpose, and not to be for 
any temporal use whatsoever, and a place empaled in, 
sequestered only to the l)uryal of the dead. 

That whosoever shall absent himselfe from divine 
service any Sunday without an allowable e.xcuse shall 
forfeit a pound of tobacco, and he that absenteth him- 
.selfe a month shall forfeit fifty pounds of tobacco. 

That there be an uniformity in our Church as neere 
as may be to the canons in England : both in substance 
and circumstance, and that all persons yield readie 
obedience unto them under painc of censure. 

That the 22nd of March be yearly solemnized as 
holliday. and all other hollidays (except when they fall 
two together) betwixt the feast of the annunciation of 
the blessed virgin and St. Michael the archangel, then 
only the first to be observed by reason of our neces- 

That no minister be absent from his Church above 
two months in all the Yeare upon penalty of forfeiting 
Inlf his means, and whosoever shall absent above fowre 
months in the year shall forfeit his whole means and 
•cure. " ■ .... 

That whosoever shall disparage a minister with- 

out bringing sufficient proofe to justify his reports 
whereby the mindes of his parishioners may be alien- 
ated from him. and his ministry prove the less effect- 
ual by their prejudication, shall not only pay 500 lb. 
waight of tobacco, but also aske the minister so 
wronged forgiveness publickly in the congregation. 

That no man dispose of his tobacco before the 
minister be satisfied, upon pain of forfeiture double 
his part of the minister's means, and one man of every 
plantation to collect his ineans out of the first and best 
tobacco and corn. 

The 22nd of March was set apart as a holi- 
da_\- in commemoration of the escape of the 
Cclotiy from entire annihilation bv tlie terrible 
massacre by the Indians on the 22nd of March, 

The fees of ministers for marriage were 
twii shillings and for burying, one shilling. 
Their deportment was regulated by law. which 
prohibited them from drinking to excess, spend- 
ing their lime idly by playing at dice, cards or 
anv ether unlawful game; and they were en- 
joined to occupy themseh-es with honest stud- 
ies, to excel others in purity of life and be ex- 
amples to the people. They were required on 
every Sunday before the evening prayer for an 
hdur (.r mure to instruct and catechise chil- 
dren. Parents and masters who neglected to 
send children to Sabbath-school were censured 
bv the courts. 



From the earliest records of Lower Nor- 
folk County there was a church at Lvnnhaven 
near tiie home of Capt. Adam Thoroijood. At 
a session of the County Court held on the 21st 
of Xoveml>er, 1638, in compliance with aai 
order from the "Go\ernor and Council for the 
building; and erecting of a Church in the upper 
part of this Count}-, with reference to the Com- 
mander and Commissioners of the said Court 
for the appointing of a place fitting and con- 
venient for the situation and huilding thereof," 
the court appointed Capt. John Sibsey and 
Henry Sewell a committee to carry out the 
order, and the churcli was located on Mr. 
Sewell's land on a site donated by him for the 

At the court held 0111 the 15th of May, 
1637. it was ordered that John Wilson, min- 
ister of Elizal.)eth River Parish, should solem- 
nize bans of matrimony between the parties 
therein named, so I conclude that he was the 
tirst minister of the parish. He had a hard 
struggle with ]3overty, his tithes were unpaid, 
judgments for his debts were obtained against 
him which he was unable to pay, and with the 
])rison staring him in the face, he died in 1640. 
The sheritt was directed to take charge of his 
estate, collect the tithes due him and pay his 
debts, and it was ascertained tliat only two men 
in the count}" hail paid their tithes for the 
previous year. 

Notwithstanding this condition of affairs. 
Rev. Thomas Harrison became an applicant 
for minister f)f the parish and was appointed 
by the court, on the 6th of Jul}', 1640. Lieut. 
I'rancis Mason and Tliomas ]\Iears qualihetl 
as church wardens of Elizabeth Ri\'er Parish. 

On the 25th of May, 1640, the County 
Court ordered: "Whereas the inhabitants of 
this being this day confronted for the 1 
])roviding of themseb-es an able minister to 
instruct them concerning their souls hereat. I 
Mr. Thomas Harrison, Clerk, hath tendered 
his services to God and the said inhabitants in 
that behalf which his said tender is well liked 
of, with the general approbatiiw of the said 
inhabitants, the parishonerg of the parish 

Church at iMr. Sewell's P(nnt who to testify 
their zeal and willingness to promote God's 
science do hereby promise and the Court now 
sitting doth likewise order and establish the 
same to ]ray 100 pounds yearly to the said Har" 
rison salary as long as he shall continue min- 
ister to the said parish, a recompense of his 
]>ains and in full satisfaction of his rates 
(tithes) within the limits which is to be paid 
to him as follows : Captain John Sibly, Lt. 
Francis Mason, Mr. Henry Sewell are tt) pay 
for themseh-es and the inhabitants of this 
parish' for Capt. \^'illoughb}•'s plantation to 
Daniel Tanner's Creek thirty-two pounds, ten 
shillings sterling. j\Ir. Cornelius Lloyd, Tvlr. 
Heni-y Gotten and Job Hill are to pay for the 
inhabitants of the Western Branch and Camey 
Point thirty-three pounds sterling. Mr. Wm. 
Julian, Mr. John Gatier, Ensign Thomas Lam- 
bert, Thomas Swayn. Thomas Meare and Ira 
.\tkins are to pay thirtv-six po.unds sterling 
for the inhabitants from Daniel Tanner's Creek 
and of all the Eastward and Southward 
Branches. In testimony whereof we the said 
undertakers have hereunto' subscribed our 

'AMiereas there is a difference among the 
inhabitants of the aforesaid parish concerning 
the emploA'ing a minister being now enter- 
tained to have among them the inhaljitants 
from Daniel Tanner's Creek and upward the 
three branches of the Elizal)eth River, in Re- 
spect they are the greatest number of teachable 
persons not thinking it fit and equal that they 
should ])ay the greatest part of one hniidred 
])oun(!s. which is by aforesaid -\ct alloted for 
the minister's annual sti])end unless the said 
minister may teach and instruct them as often 
as he shall teach the jiarish Church at Mr. 
Sewell's Point. It is therefore arranged 
amongst said inhabitants that the said minister 
shall teach every other Sunday amongst the 
inhabitants in Elizabeth River at the house of 
Robert Glascock until a convenient Church be 
built and erected here for God's science which 

I go 


is agreed to be furnished at tlie charge of the 
inhabitants (jf Ebzabetli River before the first 
day of May ensuing." It was not finislied, so 
the court ordered its completion and ser\'ices 
were held in it in October, 1641. 

When Henry Sewell died, his wife soon 
followed him to the grave. They were buried 
under the chancel of the church and Rev. Mr. 
Harrison performed the last sad rites and for 
his ser\-ices charged 1,000 pounds of tobacco, 
for which he sued the administrator, and the 
court gave judgment and ordered the tobacco 
to be paid in 10 days. Rev. Mr. Harrison be- 
came imbued with Puritanism and on the 15th 
of April, 1645, charges were preferred against 
himi by Mathew Phillips and Thomas Ivey, 
church wardens of the parish, "For not reading 
the book oi common prayer and for not ad- 
ministering the sacrament of baptism accord- 
ing toi the canons and order prescribed, and for 
not catechising on Sunday in the afternoon ac- 
cording to Act of the Assembly." The matter 
was transferred to the Quarter Court at James 
Cit)' for trial ; but Mr. Harrison shortly after- 
ward moved to Plymouth, Massachusetts. 

August 10, 1648, Capt. John Sib.sey, Fran- 
cis .Mason, Thomas Lambert, John Hill. Cor- 
nelius Lloyd, Henry Catlin and Thomas Sayer, 
vestrymen of Elizabeth River Parish, met and 
elected Mathew Phillips, Thomas Browne, 
Jolm Fferinghaugh and Thomas Ivy to fill 
' vacancies in the vestry. Thev adjourned tO' meet 
in October, when they added) SheritT Richard 
Conquest to their liody and directed that Re\'. 
Richard Po'wis, who. had lieen preaching to 
the inhabitants of the parish for about four 
years, should have and receive one year's full 
tithes in tobaccO' and corn. John Hill and 
AVilliam Crouch were elected churchwardens 
for Elizabeth River Parish. In 1649 \Mlliam 
Crouch and James Warner were churchwar- 

Tlie churchwardens were re(|uired to keep 
the church in repair, pnnide books and orna- 
ments, to connect minister's dues, and render an 
account of disbursements, tO' present to court 
blasphemous, wicked and dissolute per.sons. to 

cause vestries toi be summoned to meet within 
one month after receiving order for proces- 
sioning land, to give notice at church of per- 
sons and times apjxDinted to procession, to e.x- 
amine inj presence oi vestries, and compare 
with "the originals, the registers of returns 
made b}- processicjners. and certify the same, 
to bind out by order of court chiklren of poor 
persons unable toi maintain or educate them. 

The law required that 12 of the most able 
men of each parish should be chosen by the 
major part of the parish tO' be a vestry, out of 
whicli number the minister and vestry w^ere to 
make choice of two churchwardens yearly. 

On the 17th day of January, 1734, Rev. 
Moses Robertson, John Ellegcod, churchwar- 
den. Ccl. George Xewton. Maj. Samuel Boush. 
Stephen \\'right. John Corprew, Thomas 
Wright and Willis ^^'ilson, Gents., vestrymen, 
conveyed to Samuel Smith the Glebe, now em- 
braced in the city of Norfolk. On the 5th of 
March, 1761, the General Assembly at Will- 
iamsburg, Virginia, upon the petition of the in- 
haljitants setting forth the great inconveniences 
of SO' large a jjarish, divided Elizabeth Ri\er 
Parish into three distinct parishes from the 
1st (;f INlay, 1761. All that part of the old 
parish lying northward and eastward of the 
Elizabeth River and the Eastern Branch was to 
retaii<< the name of Elizabeth River Parish. 
All that section between the Eastern and 
Southern Branches of the Elizabeth River, 
running up New Mill Creek to Rothery's ^lill, 
thence south 30 degrees west to the great Dis- 
mal Swamp, as far as the line di\-iding the 
Colony from Xorth Carolina, and then down 
the said line to the line of Princess Anne Coun- 
ty, thence ali ng that line to the Eastern Branch, 
was named St. Bride's Parish. And all that 
section west of this parish was named Ports- 
mouth Parish. St. Bride's alludes to the spirit- 
ual marriage of St. Catharine who. accca'ding 
to legend, had the liridal ring ]>laced on her 
finger In- cur Sa\-i( r in his childhood. As St. 
Catharine was ne\-er married corporeally, she 
has been called the "Bride of Heaven," that is 
"Saint Bride." The vestrv of the old Eliza- 




lictli River Parish liaving been sjuilty of ille.sfal 
practices (:i)pressi\e to tlic inlial)it:ints was dis- 
solved, and ail tlie acts were declared null and 
void. The sheriff was directed in advertise 
one month lieture the 8th day of June a con- 
venient time and place where the freeholders 
and ii<:iise-l<eepers of the parishes, respectively, 
should meet and elect 12 of the most able and 
discreet ]>ersons of the respective parishes to 
be vestrymen. The vestry of St. Bride's Par- 
ish was directed to sell the glebe land of the 
old parish and divide the purchase money be- 
tween the three vestries to be ap])lied toward 
jnirchasing in their respecti\e parishes 
for the use and benefit of the ministers. 

The vestry of the old i)arish, ha\ing le\Med 
and collected considerable money ti> build walls 
around the churchyards, was directed to make 
division thereof between the three parishes in 
proportion to the number of tithables in each 
parish, to he used toward building churches 
and such (;ther public uses as the \estries should 
think i)r(:])er. The first election for \-estry- 
men in the three new ])arishes resulted as 
follows : 


No. of 

No. of 

Mathew Godfrey 201 .Saunders Calvert 1")T 

John Hutchings 19^ Lewis Hansford 14ti 

Joshua Nicholson 18S Charles Sweny 144 

George Abvvon isi Christopher Perkins.. 138 

Robert Tucker 171 |nhn Tucker 131 

William Oraoge KiT William Ivy 109 

June 4th, ITtU. 


No. of No. of 

Votes. Votes. 

John Tatem 281 George Veale 219 

Thomas Creech 280 Thomas \'eale 219 

James Ives 279 Thomas Grimes 169 

John Ferebee 279 William Crawford }b9 

Giles Randolph 273 leremiah Creech 129 

John Herbert 2.j3 Richard Carney 128 

June -jth, 1761. 

James Webb 249 

Joshua Corprew 249 

William .Smith 240 

Thomas Nash, Jr 2.39 

JuneOth, 17(J1. 


No. of 

No. of 

lohn Portlock 2.51 Samuel Happer 2.32 

Robert Tucker 2.i0 James Wilson 228 

H.-nrv Herbert 20-5 

John Wilson 18(5 

Malachi Wilson, Jr. . . 17<> 
William Happer 1")5 

These vestrymen-elect subsequently ap- 
peared in court and qualified by taking and 
subscribing to the following oaths: 


-. do declare, tliat 1 do believe that 

there is not any transuhslaiitiatioii in the sacrament of 
the Lord's supper, or in the elements of Bread and 
Wine at or after the consecration thereof hy any per- 
son whatsoever. 

I. , do declare that I will he conformable 

to the doctrine and Discipline of the Clnirch of Eng- 


As provided in the .\ct of General As- 
semblv dividing Elizabeth R\\ev Parish into 
three. Henry Herbert. \\'illiam Smith. John 
Portlock. Thomas Xash. Jr., James Wilson, 
Joshua Corprew and John Wilson, vestrymen 
of St. Bride's Parish, sold the glebe land at 
public auction to John Tucker for three pounds 
and si.x pence per acre. 172 acres, amounting 
to 520 pounds and six shillings. — their deed is 
dated October 20. 17A1. 

August I. 1763, William .Smith and .\nii 
his wife conveyed to James Pasteur, minister, 
John Portlock, churchwarden, and James 
Webb. Joshua Corprew. Robert Tucker. Jr., 
Thomas Xash. Jr.. Samuel Happer, William 
Happer. Malachi Wilscii, Jr.. Jol'n Wilsuii. 
James Wilson. Jr., and Henry Herbert, \estry- 
men of St. Bride's Parish. 200 acres of land 
in said i)arish for £350. 

October 12, 1765. Samuel Boush and Cath- 
arine his wife, in consideration of £125, con- 
veyed to Rev. Thomas Davis, minister. Will- 
iam Orange and Jo.shua Xicholson. church- 
wardens, and John Hutchings. Sr.. William 
]\y. Robert Tucker. George Abyvon, Lewis 
Hansfcrd, Mathew Godfrey, John Willough- 
by. John, Jr., and Paul Loyall. 
vestrjTnen of Elizabeth River Parish, four lots 
or two acres of land known by the numbers 
-19' 50. 57 and 58. 



In connection with tlie above, tlie follow- 
ing receipt will be of interest : 

Rec'cd 30lh Jaiiry 1/75 from Captain A. B. C. (Ex- 
ecutor), by the Hands of Mr. Tabb forty shillings for 
preaching a sermon at the funeral of the late X. Y. Z. 

Thos. Davis. 

In 1 764. Thomas Nash and Samuel Happer 
were churchwardens for St. Bride's Parish; 
Mathew Godfrey and Lewis Hansford for 
Elizabeth River Parish ; and Thomas Creech 
and Amos Etheridge for Portsmouth Parish. 
In 1767, John Whiddon and John Corprew 
qualified as vestrymen for St. Bride's Parish. 
In 1 77 1 Arthur Boush and Matthew Phripp 
qualified as vestrymen for Elizabeth River 
Parish, — in 1772, John Taylor was elected a'cs- 
Iryman for the parish. 

Oil the 17th day of December, 1773, the 
' County Court ordered the sheriff to "Advertise 
the Parish land and negroes will be hired out 
on the first of January next." William Hap- 
per and John Corprew were churchwardens 
for St. Bride's Parish in 1774, and Mathe\v' 
Phripp and John Hutchings for Elizabeth 
River Parish in 1775. 

Under the Commonwealth the vestries of 
Portsmouth and Elizabeth River parishes were 
dissolved and new \estries ordered l>efore 
April I, 1779. Pursuant to> this, January 18, 
1779, — "This day Thomas Veale, John Her- 
bert, Samuel Veale, John Morris, William 
Bail}', WiTliam Booker, George W. Burgess, 
John P>aine, ^Villiam More, Da\'id Porter, 
Joshua ?.Iiers and Jolm Powers took the oath 
of vestrymen of the Parish of Portsmouth and 
entered upon the duties of their office." And 
on the 1 8th of March, Mathew Godfrey, James 
Taylor, Mathew Phripp, Thomas Newton, Jr., 
Paul Loyall, George Abyvon. John Tabb, 
Goodrich Bcush, John \\'i!loughby and Pruson 
Bo'wdoin took tlie oath as vestrymen of Eliza- 
beth Ri\-er Parish and entered upon the duties 
of their office. These were the first church 
officials in Norfolk County who qualified under 
the Commonwealth oi Virginia. On the i6th 
of October, 1783, Isaac Luke and William Por- 

ter qualified as vestrymen of Portsmouth 

On the 1 6th day of July, 1784, James Tay- 
lor, Gent., produced tO' the County Court an 
account of the hire of the negroes belonging 
to the several parishes in the county, amount- 
in tO' £81, 19s. 7d. ; after deducting sundry ex- 
penses, it was ordered that the said Taylor 
should pay to the churchwardens of each par- 
ish their proportion of the said money in his 
hands. On the 19th of September, 1788, Paul 
Proby and Paul Loyall -were ordered by the 
court to pay the overseers of the poor £7, lis. 
13/d., the balance in their hands, and to col- 
lect the money due for the hire of the par- 
ish negroes for 1783, and the clerk was di- 
rected to deliver them a copy of the said ac- 
count of the hire of the negroes. 

St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Norfolk Long .-^go .\nd its Old Mother Church, 
A lecture delivered in St. Paul's Sunday-school 
room May 12. i8yQ, by Col. William Lamb at the re- 
quest of the Ladies' Parish Aid Society of .St. Paul's 
Church, Elicabeth River Parish. 

I would not presume to come before this or 
any other audience in the capacity of a public 
lecturer of my own volition, but I was invited 
by the ladies of the Parish Aid Society to de- 
liver one of this course of lectures, and I 
thought it my duty to accept. I have come, 
however, with no such interesting or instructix'e 
literary or scientific effort as you ha\'e heard 
from the distinguished gentleman who has pre- 
ceded me, but with a plain story of Norfolk 
Long Ago and its Old Mother Church, with 
some common place incidents in a boy's life 
associated with old St. Paul's; 

I have chosen this subject because I had a 
right to feel that all who' would assemble here 
this evening must be more or less interested in 
that ancient, ivy-covered building, from its 
broad foundation, to its sheltering eves, where 
the sparrows build their nests, up to the peaks 
of its homely gables and in every thing con- 
nected with its history and surrc^unclings. That 



Old Cluircli and its GkI's acre compose our 
Westminster Alihey. Here tlie wortliy fore- 
fatliers of Norfolk sleep. It is true they had 
no titles in the bixjks of heraldry, but the ties 
of consanguinity and marriag-e gave them titles 
more precious to the loxed and loving ones than 
any that Parliament, or King or Oueen. cimld 
jx)ssibly bestow. 

In 1680. an Act was passed by the Colonial 
Assemblv of the Colony of \'irginia for the 
purchase of 50 acres of land at convenient 
points in the Colony, "for the establishment of 
towns for the encouragement of trade and 

Under this Act 50 acres were purchased 
August 16, 1682, from Nicholas Wise, a house j 
car]>enter of Elizalieth River in the 
county of Lower Norfolk, by Capl. William 
Kobinsiin and Lieut. -Col. Anthony Lawson, 
feofees, in trust for said county, for and in ; 
consideration of the sum of io.ckdo pounds of 
good merchantalile tobacco and caske. The 
grant embraced all the land on the Elizabeth 
River fj-om the eastern to the western limits 
of the present Main street, bounded on the 
north by Back Creek, which at that time tlowed 
from the river eastwardly nearly to Church 
street. Its owner, Nicholas Wise, could not 
write his name, so he made his mark to the 
deeil. and affixed his seal in the presence of four 
witnesses. This was the hrst of "Norfolk 

In 1705, a considerable i»pulation had 
been attracted to this place by its favorable 
situation for health and trade, and in October 
of that year Norfolk was incoqwrated as a 

In September, 1736. Norfolk Burough was 
established by royal charter, it being consid- 
ered by King George II a healthful and pleas- 
ant place, commodious for trade and naviga- 
tion. Samuel Boush, Gent., was appointed 
mayor under the charter, but he died before 
qualifying, and in November following George 
Newton, Gent., was elected to fill the vacancy. 
In 1739. three years after the lx)rough was in- 

coqiorated. our Old Church was built, as we 
learn from the date on its southern gable. 

I'orrest in his "History of Norfolk." pub- 
lished in 1853. says: "Samuel Boush. Esq., 
the first mayor of the Bonnigh of Norfolk, 
three years after liis ap])ointment, presented to 
the parish the grounds occupied by St. Paul's 
Church, including the old graveyard. The 
initials of his name may Ije seen in large capi- 
tals in the brick wmrk of the south end of the 
church with the date 1739." Bishop Meade 
in his "Old Churches of Virginia," published 
in 1857, in speaking of the vestry in 1749, 
says: ".\mong the first was Col. Samuel 
Boush. who gave the land on which St. Paul's 
and its graveyard stands, and whose tomb- 
stone, at the d(X>r of the cluu\-li, tells where his 
Ix^dy lies." lii December, 1828. when the 
trustees of Christ Church refused Dr. French 
the use of the Old Church of which they were 
temporary custodians, they said : "That this 
propert}'. as they are advised, was a donation 
from -Mr. Samuel Boush for the exclusive use 
of the congregation of the church they' repre- 
sent and none other, under a forfeiture of the 
same. " These st;itements were made in gtxicl 
faith from tradition, but the record contradicts 

Mr. Forrest makes Mr. Boush. the first 
mayor of our borough, present the land three 
years after his decease, while Bishop Meade 
makes the son, Colonel Boush, the donor. The 
trustees i>f Christ Church seem to have been 
advised that it was a gift or legacy from the 
father to the parish upon certain conditions. 
Now neither Samuel Boush, Sr., nc^r his son, 
Colonel Boush. could have gi\en or devisetl 
this land except by deed or will of record in the 
clerk's office of Norfolk County, and I have 
diligently searched the complete records of 
deeds and wills from 1680 to the will <if Col- 
onel Boush recorded in 1759: neither father 
nor son gave any land to Elizabeth River Par- 
ish within the limits of Norfolk County. I 
found from the deed of Peter MallnMie, — con- 
veying to his daughter. .\])phia Malbone, "A 



]ott of land in Norfolk Towne l^ acre begin- 
ning' at a white stone, the sonthernniost corner- 
stone of my first lot, next to the Chnrch." — 
that a church stood, August iq. 1726. in the 
church grounds,' where we n<iw are and not 
far from the present Cove street. The deed of 
Col. Samuel Bousli to Capt. Simon Hancock,- 
No\-ember. 1737, and the deed of Peter Mal- 
bone to Capt. Nathaniel Tatem, No\-ember, 
1738, also show that the first church was stand- 
ing next to' ami nurth of Malbone's land, and 
(;n Church street, which last recital contradicts 
the tradition that the present church, erected 
in 1739, gave the name to Church street. Un- 
doubtedly when the corporate limits were ex- 
tended lUider the charter of 173'> to Town 
fSridge. the present Church street was laid out 
and gi\-en its name from the former church, 
which was then taken down after the erection 
of the ])resent one. 

Having found that this ccmeter\- was not 
the gift ( f Samuel Boush, let us inipiire when 
it was dedicated to the dead. 

I'y a general law, passed in the Colony in 
1667. the right was vdsted in the Count_\- 
Courts, when expedient, to set aside and ap- 
propriate not more than two acres of land for 
church and burial pur|)oses. As one and three- 
fourths acfes is the area of this cemetery, it 
Avas doubtless thus appropriated to its present 
uses. "Norfolk Towne" was laid out in 1682, 
and soon became inhaljited. Capt. Samuel 
Boush gave a chalice to the "Parish Church of 
Norfolk Towne," in March, 1700, showing 
that a church must ha\'e been erected. But in 
1^)86, 14 years before this and four years after 
the town was laid out. Francis Lord Howard. 
Governor, gave "wdth the ad\ice and consent 
of the C( unsell of State" 100 acres of land 
adjiining Norfolk for a glelie for Elizabeth 
River Parish. 

/\s these glebes, together with the pavment 
<i,f tithes of tobacco and corn, were for the sup- 
port c>f the minister and church in each parish, 
it is not reasonable to suppose that i(>S,6 is the 
date of the erection of the first church on these 
grounds. 53 }-ears before the present structure 

was built? Tradition informs us that Col. 
Samuel Boush imi>orted and ga\-e the bricks 
toward the erection of the present church. It 
may be that he had the initials of bis father's 
name put upon the southern gable as a memo- 
rial of one who had been so long and so' con- 
spicuously associated with the parish : or the 
vestry may have piu his initials there in con- 
sideration of his liberality. W'hetlier they were 
intended for the initials of father or son, the 
history of Elizabeth River Parish, from 1700 
down tO' the Re\'olution, .s'hows ni> name more 
w'orthy of being thus perpetuated than that of 
Samuel Boush. Three generations of the same 
name during that period were prominent in the 
affairs of the parish. 

There is no doubt that this gra\-eyard has 
been the burial-ground of our fathers for 
nearly 200 _\ears, Tradition so reports it, and 
I ha\'e con\-ersed with our oldest people and 
they liave never heard of any other used before 
it. 1 called on old Capt. Edward L. Young a 
few weeks before his recent death. He was 
in his 97th year, and for nmre than half a 
century bad occupied positions wdiich made bim 
familiar with the topography of Norfolk and 
its surroundings. Although his ph}-sical sig"ht 
was gone, his mental \'ision was unimjjaired, 
and he was very positive that no public burial- 
gro'und existed prioT to the establishment of 
this cemetery for If there had been, he 
would undoubtedl}' ha\-e found some evidences 
c;f it while he was the public surx'eyor for the 
borough and city of Norfolk. 1 have been re- 
peatedly informed that tier upon tier of cof- 
fins ha\-e been unearthed in this yard by the 
sexton when digging" gra\-es previous to the es- 
tablishment of Cedar Grove Cemetery. There 
is no nio-nument to be found, except the two 
recently brought from James River, with a date 
anterior to 1 7-1-4. and one with this date was 
remoxed from the private burial place oi the 
Taylor family, which was on the site of the 
present Custom House lot. But the aljsence 
of ancient monuments proves nothing against 
the claim that this was the original God's acre 
of "Norfolk Tdwne,'' for within the memory 



I'i some of diir present inliahitanls twd-tliirds 
of tlie momiiiients wliicli were in this yard in 
their day have chsajipeared. Many were 
doubtless destroyed and carried a\\a\- (hn^ing 
the occu])ancy of our Old Cluircli and its grave- 
yard by British troops durinjj the Revolution, 
and some from hein,s; constructed of soft sand- 
stone liave cruml)lcd witli a_fje. Tiiere were 
numlierless graves in tliis yard that ne\er iiad 
a headstone, for tombstones at tiiat early day 
had to l)e imi'M)rted and were necessarily ex- 

A century and luore ago it was a common 
custom to have family vaults for burials ad- 
joining- the residences of the wealthier class of 
citizens. The remains of some of them can 
still be found in 'different parts of our citv. 
and in my boyhood ga\e rise to many negro 
superstitions of haunted houses. It seems a 
strange taste to us in these modern times, when 
more than two g;enerations of a family seldom 
occupy the same residence, but the early davs 
of our town and lx)rough were the davs of 
primogeniture and entails. \\'hen men accumu- 
lated wealth they did not have the ])resent thirst 
for public notoriety. Official position was not 
then the gift of the multitude. Commissions 
came 3.000 miles across the sea. and were of- 
ten brought by the fortunate recipients of roval 
favor. Our solid forefathers sought to found 
a name in the community in whicli thev lived 
by establishing a home for their descendants. 
They buiilt for themselves substantial resi- 
dences, surrounded by con\enient out-houses 
and enclosed by brick walls, storm proof against 
the equinoctial gales; and when their loved 
ones died, they buried them in a faniilv vault 
in the garden, under the shadow of their roof- 
tree, and away from the crowd's ignoble strife. 
^\'e do not think these houses of the olden 
times would suit i-ur habits and customs now. 
but they were grand old establi.shmcnts. I can 
recollect some of them before the light of i 
other days had clean gone out (;n the old hearth- 
stones, and their memr-ry has been melli^wed 
and hallowed by time. I recall one representa- 
tive home, standing at a corner, with its thick 

walls, two stories and a half high. .\ broad 
wain.scoated hall running through the build- 
ing: a capacious ])arlor with its brass andirons 
and lion-le.gged fender on one side; a sunny 
sitting room and a l)ig hospitable dining room 
on the other; the broad sideboard, as dissipated- 
looking as the tap room of an old time country 
tavern ; no caqiets, but wa.xed hard-pine fl(x>rs, 
with an occasional rug. and on the large one 
in the dining room its constant companion, the 
house dog; no counterfeit chromos nor daubs 
with Dutch gilt frames disfigured the walls, 
but so.nie mastcrjiieces adorned the parlor, a 
l)air of hunting scenes in water colors enlivened 
the tlining room, while in the hall ancestors 
with pretty faces emerged out nf indescribable 
dresses, with no waists to sjieak of, and intelli- 
,gent and brave-looking gentlemen were nar- 
rowly escaping strangulation in villainous 
stocks. Upstairs was redolent with rose-leaves 
in vinegar; the bed rooms, with great, high- 
post bedsteads, with curtains defying the 
chan.ges of temperature witlu)ut. The kitchen, 
a Dutch-roofed, one-st(jry brick house, with 
tremendous chimneys at either end. sufficiently 
far from the mansion to pre\-ent the smell of 
cooking even with a fa\('ring w ind ; and a large 
s(|uare smoking-house, where the familx' bacon 
was cured, stood in the paved \ard ; then there 
was the stable for the horse and the inevitable 
cow. which an English ])oet said every lady 
in Xorfolk kept somehow; the wood-shed with 
its autumn-])ile. reminding one of a steamboat 
landing on the James River in the olden time. 
Then the flower garden flanking the residence. 
with the (;ld-fashioned lilacs, snow Ijalls. wall 
flowers and roses; and the big back garden for 
vegetables, with a stray sunflower cr two, and 
in it. enclosed by a forbidding wall, the fam- 
ily burial vault. We do not believe your mod- 
ern cook, with all her cooking stoves and 
patented contrivances, could e\er reach the per- 
fection of those old Virginia negroes who ])re- 
sided over the old-time kitchen. And such a 
kitchen I The capacious chimney, large enough 
to roast an ox, with the crane that could 
swing pots enough to lioil the oil for Mor- 



giania to scald the "Forty Thieves," with the 
back-log of oak smouldering away, and the 
hickory sticks cracking, singing and treading 
snow in front. How the Lynnhavens would 
open their mouths before that fire! And the 
steak and chops and cuts of venison would 
broil superlatively on those living coals ! The 
dinners of our forefathers often gave the gout, 
but dyspqjsia, never. 

Of a wintry night, when the December 
winds would howl around the old Dutch- 
roofed kitchen, how the old Guinea negro nurse 
Avould make the white teeth of the piccaninnies 
chatter, and the older heads roll their eyes, 
when she would tell how on such a night, long 
time agO', she had seen with her own eyes 
"Old Massa," who was buried in the garden, 
come from the vault and walk around the lot, 
looking sad and distressed, because "Young 
Missis," wiho was of one of the first families 
in Virginia, had "done gone" and married one 
of the "poo-r white trash." And then the blasts 
of wind, stirring the leaves and slamming the 
blinds, would make those "darkies" start and 
listen, until they became so^ scared that none 
would go to bed that night, but break of day 
would find them fast asleep around the kitchen 

^\'e admit with modern philosophers that 
the world has grown better with advancing 
years ; we suppose that to doubt it would be to 
question the humanizing influences of Chris- 
tianity, but in those days individual character 
was as grand and massive as it is now. Those 
sterling men who moulded our institutions have 
no superiors in our times. Doubtless the great 
mass of huimanity had not attained the in- 
tellectual and spiritual elevation that has since 
been reached, but the professional and middle 
classes seem, looking at them through the vista 
of the past, to have had a solidity that we sel- 
dom find now. Like our Old Church many 
may have had a seemingly rude exterior, but 
they had all the elements of true greatness 
within. They had not l^ecome imbued with 
the modern idea of becoming great men, and 
leaving their foot-prints in the sands of time. 

They had the good sense toi realize that few- 
can reach the pinnacle of earthly fame ; that 
their noblest work was to act well their part 
in their day and generation, for the winds of 
heaven will cover over, and the tides of ocean 
will wash out, all footprints on the sand be- 
fore the moon can wax and wane, ^\'here 
are the footprints left by the hundreds who 
now sleep silently around us ? And yet, who 
would not rather choose the lot of many who 
lie in these forgotten graves, than of those who, 
to gain an earthly name, stirred from its depths 
man's mad ambition, deluged once smiling 
lands in human blood, and sowed the seeds of 
sorrow in countless broken hearts. 

Like some aged Nestor, our Old Church 
has stood wliile a hundred and forty years 
have rolled over its head. It was erected in 
the Colony of Virginia which, under the fos- 
tering administration of Governor Gooch, was 
then peopling the lovely valley beyond the 
Blue Ridge with that splendid stock of Scotch- 
Irish, whose descendants have done so much 
toward the elevation of Virginia character. 
It was about the same time that the rich lands 
boirdering on the Shenandoah were settled by 
the Germans from Pennsylvania, who' long af- 
ter retained their language, correct habits and 
simplicitv of manners. Bancroft, the histo- 
rian, in writing c»f this period, says : "The 
1 8th century was the age of commercial am- 
bition, and Virginia relinquished its commerce 
to foreign factors. It was the age when na- 
tions rushed into debt, when stock-jobbers and 
bankers compeited \Aith landholders for i>o- 
litical power; and Virginia paid its taxes in 
tobacco, and alone of all the Colonies, alone 
of all civilized States, resisting the universal 
tendency of the age, had no debts, no banks, 
no bills of credit, no paper money." 

It was the very year, 1739. that England 
declared war against Spain, and the "Mistress 
of the Seas," in sending her fleets to capture 
the Colonies of the discoverers of America, 
took the first step which led the way to the in- 
dependence of her own. 

France and Spain were allies, and the loyal 



Colonv n{ \'irufiiiia. and her principal seajxirt. 
Norfolk, synipatliized with tlie mother coun- 
try. Tlie Indian wars had not then \)een in- 
cited upon our Western borders by the French. 
Dut the Colonists were in the midst of exciting 
times, for we find in the early records of the 
ijoroug'h, in September, 1741, three years af- 
ter the erection of our church, a resolution b\- 
the lioard of aldermen, that for the future the 
inhabitants of this borough shall, to prevent 
any invasion or insurrection, be armed at the 
church on Sundays, and other days of worship 
or .Divine .service, under ]>enalty of five shill- 
ings. Imagine our present congregation at- 
tending church armed ! The vestrymen pass- 
ing the plates with swords dangling at their 
sides, and the squad of young men who bal- 
ance themselves on the curbstone in Church 
street, when the people are passing out, each 
with his gun, presenting arms to the young 
ladies as they pass in review- ! 

In 1746, we find the inhal)itants of the 
borough manifesting their loyalty by a grand ; 
procession in celebration -of the defeat of the j 
Pretender, by His Royal Highness the Duke 
of Cumberland, at the battle of CuUoden. It 
was a gay affair. The\- had an effigy of the 
Pretender seated in an arm-chair drawn in a 
cart, musicians of every description were in 
the crowd, and a nurse carrying a warming- 
pan with a child peeping out of it was an at- 
tractive feature of the occasion. A vast crowd 
came from the surrounding country to see the 
sights. The efiigy was hung, liquor was plenti- 
fully distrilnited, salutes were fired and the 
borough illuminated. At night the efiigy was 
burned, and the ladies were entertained with a 
ball. A correspondent of the jrHliaiiisbiirg 
Gazette wrote: "The evening concluded with 
innocent mirth and unaffected joy, becoming a | 
people loyal to their King and zealous for their 
country's good." 

The crowds from the surrounding country 
which are always rq)orted at the fairs and 
celebrations in Norfolk in the olden time, re- 
mind us of an Act of the General .Assembly in 
'^JbJ' which teaches us a lesson that it would 

be well for our city fathers to heed. The Act 
recites that whereas most of the inhabitants 
are obliged to pass over the five ferries lead- 
ing to Norfolk in order to get to church, court 
and general muster, and that by expenses of 
ferriage many poor ]>eople are prevented from 
bringing their small wares and commodities 
to the market of the borough, therefore a tax 
is le\ied and the ferries made free to all living 
in the county. Others, !)esides the inhabitants 
of the county, had to pay a small amount for 
the support of the ferries. In our boasted age 
of progress no one from the surrounding coun- 
try can get to Norfolk for business or pleasure 
without paying for it. \\'e are surrounded by 
a cordon of toll-gates and toll-houses. And in 
mentioning this fact. I mean no reflection on 
the public-spirited gestlemen who in the last 
decade have added much to the attractiveness 
of our surroundings by the substantial l)ridges 
and shell roads which lead into our city. While 
speaking of ferries, I would venture the Dpin- 
ion that if our forefathers in 1757 could re- 
visit these scenes, nothing would excite their 
surprise more than the improvement in the 
means of transportation between Norfolk and 
Portsmouth, especially as managed by the pres- 
ent eflicient superintendent of the ferry, Capt. 
William H. Murdaugh, of the United States 
and Confederate -States navies, who has s]3ared 
no efforts to add to the convenience, comfort 
and safety of passengers. 

I am indebted to my friend \Mlliam Port- 
lock, clerk of the Circuit Court of Norfolk 
County, for finding for me in his office, when I 
had well nigh 'given up the search, the old 
vestry book of Elizabeth River Parish from 
1749 to 1 76 1. It is the only parish vestry book 
I know of in existence. Ijetween 1739 and the 
election of a vestry in 1832, upon the reinvest- 
ment of the Old !\Iother Church. The first 
record is dated Octolier 18. 1749. Rev. Charles 
Smith was the minister from the time the ves- 
try book commences, until it ends, upon the 
division of the parish in 1761. when he re- 
moved to Portsmouth, where Trinity Church 
was built the next year, 1762, which church 



was rebuilt and enlarged in 1829. Tlie 
Mutlier Churcli pajid the minister 16.000 
pounds of tobacco, and Tanner's Creek Cliapel. 
4.000 pounds of tobacco, annually. After 
1753. the minister was allowed 4 per cent, for 

The fulluwing appear as \estr_vmen at dif- 
ferent periods between 1749 and 1761. In the 
first meeting was Col. George Newton, Col. 
^^'iIlian^ Craford, Col. Samuel Boush, Capt. 
William Hodges. Capt. Willis W^'ilson, Jr., 
Charles Sweny. Capt. James Ivy. Capt. John 
Phripp and Samuel Bousli. The last two had 
just taken the place of John Scott and Capt. 
Samuel Langley, former vestrymen. To these 
were afterward added to fill vacancies from 
deaths and resignations : Capt. \\'illiam Ivy. 
Col. Robert Tucker. Alathew Godfrey. James 
Webb. Thomas Newton. Maj. John Willowby. 
Capt. George Veale and Robert Tucker. 
Thomas Nash was clerk of Great Bridge Chap- 
el, and the Southern Branch Chapel, and 
Sampson Powers, and afterwards Thomas 
Cranberry, was clerk of the Western Branch 
Chape!. James Pasteur signs tlie proceedings 
as clerk c-f the vestry in 1751. In 1755 George 
Chamberlaine is clerk of the vestry of Tanner's 
Creek Chapel, and clerk of the Mother Church. 
October 9. 1750. at a meeting of the vestry, it 
was ordered, "That Capt. John Cook. Capt. 
John Phripp. Capt. ^Nlax. Calvert and Mr. 
Charles Sweny. shall ha\-e leave and are hereby 
empc.wered. to build a gallery in the Church in 
Norf()lk Towne. reaching from the gallerv of 
'Mr. John Taylcr. deceased, to the school-boys' 
g-allery. equally t)et\nx them, and their heirs 
forever to have and to hold." Ordered. "That 
i\Ir. Matt. Godfrey. Mr. Wm. Nash. Capt. Tri- 
magan Tatem and Mr. Wm. Ashley shall have 
leave and are hereby emix>wered, t© build a gal- 
lery in the Church in Norfolk Towne, reach- 
ing from the pulpit to the schoolbov's gallery, 
equally betwixt them, etc." In old times the 
people of quality seemed to have preferred the 
galleries lx>th in the churches and theatres. 
Now the ground floor in the churches, and 
Avhat was formerly the pit in the theatres, com- 

mand the highest prices. So much for fash- 

Ordered, "That James Pasteur do have the 
bricks and timbers of the Old Church to build 
a house on the school land of such dimensions 
as shall be agreed upon lietwixt he, the said 
James Pasteur, and those who shall grant him 
liberty to build on the said land." This same 
year Joseph Mitchell contracts to build a house 
for the vestry, 50 by 20, with a porch 10 feet 
wide and a chimney in the middle with four 
fire-places, which we suppose was for the poor 
of the parish. Dr. .Vrchibald Campbell was 
employed by the vestry as the physician of the 
parish. The Old Church was a slaveholder 
at this time, and the vestry hired out Davy in 
1750 for £8 15s.. Soil for £6 los. and Ishmael, 
Sarah and Nell at f i los. each. 

At a meeting held October 8. 1751. the fol- 
lowing interesting entry was made: "Receiv- 
ed into the vestry Capt. George ^^'hitweill. 
Commander of His ]\Iajesty's Ship 'Triton,' 
a siher-plate as a compliment for his wife, 
Marv Wliitwell, lieing interred in the Church." 
And this reminds me of another piece of sih'er. 
a large flagron. given to the Old Cliurch, the 
year after the division of the parish, which 
bears the following inscription : 

The Gift of Chrisloplicr Perkins. 

To the 

Churcli of Norfolk in \'irginia. 

In Memory of Elizaheth. his wife. 

Who was interred therein 

1st September. 1762. 

How touchingly these beautiful gifts, now 
gone from the Old Church.* rtmind us of the 
beauty, the grace and the lo\'eliness that lie 
forgotten here. O Death, in this world, thou 
hast thv sting! O Grave, in this world, thou 
hast thy victory ! 

October 26. lys^'- — "f^i'- Joihn Ramsey 
came into the vestry and agreed to attend and 
administer ph\'sick, etc.. to all the poor be- 

*Strange as it may appear, these pieces of silver, 
ahhongh fomid. iiave never been returned to the Old 
Church to which thev were !?iven. 



Imitjiiit;- ti> lliis Parish, within two miles of I 
the I'ninnifjh of Norfolk, and if he crosses the 
ferry, his ferriagfes to be i)ai(l. for the sum of 
£20 i>er year, to commence friMii this clay, to 
be in tobacco; but in case he doth not chuse to 
take tobacco at such price as the vestry shall 
rate the same, then the ijo is to be paid him 
in cash."' Octoljer 30, 17,^9, — "The vestry , 
a.y^rees with Dr. John Ramsev, that for the 
future he is not oblig^ed to administer medicine 
to. nor attend, any sick but those at the Po<jr , 
House for the sallery formerly agreed on." 

December 17, 1756. it is recorded : "Where- ^ 
as the Poor Moiise was burnt by accident 
( doubtless the house built by Mitchell in 1750). 
a new one is ordered to lie erected near the 
same place 34 by 28, two windows in front and 
two in back, lower flocr tiled and up])er floor 
plank. I-'ire-ijlace in each room. Bricks to l)e 
well burnt, antl mortar made of three bushels 
of lime to one of sand." 

October 24. 1738: the vestry were evident- 
ly <>i)posed to tramps, for it is ordered: "That 
the clerk of the vestry do publicklv advertise 
that all persons who shall hereafter take any 
strouling. sick or indigent person into their 
houses, without an order or the consent of the 
Churchwardens or any of the vestrymen for the 
time lM;ing. shall at their own cost bear all 
damages that shall accrue liy reason of having 
so taken him." 

Novemljer, 1759, was the date of the com- 
mencement of our cemetery wall, for we find it 
ordered: "That Mr. Matthew Godfrey and 
Mr. James Webb be continued Church \\'ard- 
ens for the ensuing year, and they are herebv 
empowered to let out the Building the walls 
round the Church Yards, to the lowest bidder 
at such time as they shall think proper." 1 
judge from this order that the yard which 
Craford gave" the ]>airish in 17.32. when he 
laid out Portsmouth, was included in the order, the cinirch was not erected for .several 
years after this. I know of no other church- 
yards in the original limits of Elizabeth River 
Parish, except these two, which were sur- 
rounded bv walls. 

October. 17, 1760. it was ordered: "That 
Mr. Josqjh Mitchell have the bricks of the Old 
Church, on condition that he clears the Church- 
yard of all the rubbish." 1 infer from this 
entry that Pasteiu* did not avail himself of the 
order passed 10 years pre\ious. allowin.g him 
the bricks and timber of the Old Church, to 

, build a house on the school land. 

April 20, 1 76 1. — The last meeting of the 
vestry in the original Elizalicth River Parish 

, was held, and we copy the entire proceedings i 
"Ordered that Robert Tucker, Gent., apply to 

i John Randolph, Esq., clerk of the House of 
Burgesses, for a copy of the law for dividing 
the Parish of Elizal)eth River, and that the 
said Robert Tucker, Gent., deliver the same 
to Benj. Waller. Gent., for his opinion thereon, 
to know whether the jxjor belonging to the 
other Parishes in the Division, now at the 
Poor-house in this Parish, are not to be sent to 
the respective Parishes, asd whether the pres- 
ent vestry should not meet before the time of 
tlissolution, to proportion the expense of the 
poor, minister's stipend and other necessary 
char.ges on the inhabitants, to l')e collected at 
the time of the collection by law appointed on 
the whole, a.s when the Parish was intire." 

Thus end the records of the old vestry 
book, from which we ha\e made these ex- 
tracts. belie\ing the\' would be of interest to 

In 1759. there was considerable ill feeling 
in many of the parishes of Virginia, between 
the clergy and laity, because ministers were 
made to receive money instead of tobacco, for 
their salaries. Tobacco at that time command- 
ed a high price and the clergy justly con- 
tended that as they were forceil to receixe to- 
bacco when it was a drug on the market, they 
should be allowed to profit by any rise in its 
\alue. The records of this ])arish. howe\er. 
show no controversy on this subject, and in 
1764. an Act was passed by the General As- 
sembly, allowing the minister to live in Nor- 
folk and to have his salary paid in money, our 
lands having Ijecome t<X) iX)or to ])roduce to- 
bacco to advantage. I would mention that in 



1/34. two years before the borough was char- 
tered, an Act was passed authorizing the sale 
of 86 acres of the glebe, given by Lord How- 
ard, on account of its unproductiveness, and 
the purchase of land elsewhere in Norfolk 
County. This glebe comprised within its lim- 
its that portion of our city lying west of a line 
drawn from the residence of one of our'\'^estry- 
men. Richard H. Baker, Esq., to the home of 
the \enerable Mrs. Keeling, on Bute street, as 
well as portions north of it. 

Our fathers in the early days of the Old 
Church were loyal to the parent government, 
but it was not the loyalty that comes from fear, 
but that better quality which springs from 
filial love. They were justly proud of tliat 
constitutional monarchy, which made every 
man's home his castle, preserved to him and 
his offspring, life, liberty, and the undisturbed 
pursuit of happiness; with the writ of habeas 
corpus, trial by jury, and exemption from ta.x- 
ation without representation, ^^'hen therefore 
repeated wars had burdened the mother coun- 
try with debt, and made its inhabitants groan 
under taxation, Parliament in an evil hour 
sought by the passage of the Stamp Act and 
other unjust measures to wring from the Col- 
onies, without their consent, a revenue to re- 
lieve the embarassment of the realm. True 
to their innate love of liberty and right, our 
A'irginia fathers protested against this flagrant 
wrong. They organized in Norfolk, March. 
1766. an association called "The Sons oif Lib- 
erty'" at a public meeting at the Court House, 
on Market Square, and Rev. Thomas Da\'is, 
rector of our Old Church, was chosen chair- 

A manly and patriotic protest, in the shape 
of a preamble and resolutioss, was unani- 
mously adopted, and signed by 57 of the lead- , 
ing inhabitants of the borough, the secretary, 
James Holt, signing first and our minister next. 
They declared that, "Having taken into con- 
sideration the evil tendency of that oppressive ; 
and unconstitutional Act of Parliament, com- 
monly called the Stamp Act, and being desirous | 
that our sentiments should be known to pos- 

terity, and recollecting that we are a part of 
that Colony who first, in General Assembly, 
openly expressed their detestation of the said 
Act, which is pregnant with ruin and produc- 
tive of the most pernicious consequences; and 
unwilling to rivet the shackles of slaven.^ and 
oppression on ourselves and millions yet un- 
born, have unanimously come to the following 
resolutions : 

1. Resolved, that we acknowledge our Sovereign 
I Lord, King George III, to be our rightful and lawful 

King, and that we will, at all times, to the utmost of 
our power and ability, support and defend his most 
sacred person, crown and dignity : and will be always 
ready, when constitutionally called upon, to assist His 
Majesty with our lives and fortunes, and defend all his 
just rights and prerogatives. 

2. Resolved, that we wiil, by all lawful w-ays and 
means which Divine Providence hath put into our 
hands, defend ourselves in the full enjoyment of, and 
preserve inviolate to posterity, those inestimable priv- 
ileges of all free-born British subjects, of being ta.xed 
by none but representatives of their own colonies, and 
of being tried only by a jury of their own peers; for if 
we quietly submit to the execution of the said Stamp 
.\ct. all our claims to civil liberty will be lost, and we 
and our posterity become absolute slaves. 

3. Resolved, that we will on any future occasion 
sacrifice our lives and fortunes, in concurrence with the 
other Sons of Liberty, in the American provinces, to 
defend and preserve those invaluable blessings trans- 
mitted by our ancestors. 

4. Resolved, that whoever is concerned directly or 
indirectly, in using, or causing to be used, in any way 
or manner whatever within this Colony, unless author- 
ized by the General .Assembly thereof, those detestable 
papers called the Stamps, shall be deemed to all in- 
tents and purposes an enemy to his country, and by 
the Sons of Liberty treated accordingly, etc. 

It is hard for us in this day to realize the 
exalted courage and patriotisiu of those men 
who thus declared in ad\'ance the great prin- 
ciples which were subsequently adopted in our 
Declaration of Independence, and upon which 
our American Republic was constructed. The 
people oif Norfolk need not go to Virginia's 
ancient capital, or visit the plains of Yorktown, 
in search of consecrated ground, filled with the 
spirit of an unselfish patriotism and hallowed 
by the memories of heroic sacrifice, ^^'e stand 
on holy ground! The pastor and 56 of the 
congregation of the 01d_Church pledged their 
lives and fortunes to bequeath to us the great 



principles of civil lil)erty. and they kept like 
true men tiieir plighted faith to God and man. 
The hattle-tields of the Revolution could tell 
that some of these ga\e their lixes: and that 
they gave their fortunes, the smouldering ruins 
of their once happy homes in the old borough 
showed, on that dismal New Year's night, 
when yonder church was left alone to mark the 
spot of the most tlourishing (seaport in the 
American Colonies. The dust and ashes of 
many are nf)w beneath the sod in this sanctuary 
of the dead, and the Old Church, with its 
battle scar, stands a fitting monument to those 
whose memories should never ])erish so long 
as liberty has her abode in the old borough 
they loved and served so well. 

From this time forward Ilritish misrule 
was slowly but steadily advancing the cause 
of colonird imlependence. and vet in the midst 
of those thoughtful times, our forefathers had 
their sports and jolly gootl times. There was 
no sombre Quakerism or sour Puritanism ap- 
parently in the .old borough. Here is a letter 
we find in the J'irgiiiia Ga.ccHc, i)ul)lished in 
\\"illiamsburg in 1774: 

XoRFOLK, ,Uay 3d, 1774. 

Yesterday was celebrated in this place the anni- 
versary of St. Tamminy. the tutelar Saint of the Amer- 
ican Colonies. At one o'clock a royal salute of twenty- 
one gun-. fr.:iiTi a battery erected for the purpose, ush- 
ered in the rcioiciiigs of the day; and in the evening a 
grand entertainment was given at the Mason's Hall, 
by the Sons of the Saint, to which there was a general 
invitation, and the company exceedingly numerous and 
brilliant, consisting of near 400 persons. At six the 
ball was opened by one of our Burgesses in the charac- 
ter of King Tamminy. properly accoutered in the an- 
cient habit of this country, at which lime another royal 
salute was given. The ladies, whose fair bosoms on 
this occasion seemed more ]>articularly animated with 
a generous love of their country, indulged the company 
with their presence till four in the morning, and after 
their retirement the Sons of St. Tanuniny. according 
tr> the immemorial custom of the countries, encircled 
their King and practiced the ancient mysterious war- 
dance, so highly descriptive of the warmest attachment 
and freedom of spirit. The whole was conducted with 
the strictest decorum, and to the universal satisfaction 
of ilie assembly: while the cordiality with which the 
sons of the Brother saints. St. George. St. Andrew. 
St. Patrick, and St. David, entered into the general 
mirth of the evening, gave particular pleasure, and was 
truly emblematical of that happy Union which has long 

subsisted between the parent State and her Colonies, 
while Britain was just and .Vmerica was free, and 
which every lover of his country would wish should 

still subsist for ages yet to come. 

Think of the girls dancing tmtil four in 
the morning in the month of IMay! Who 
would have imagined that our great-grand- 
mothers could have been guilty of such dis- 
sipation! But they had an e.xcuse for it, that 
the girls haven't got now; there were no street 
lamps in those days, and we don't blame them 
for not wanting to go stumbling home in the 
dark, even with a St. David, a St. George or a 
St. Patrick for a guide. 

I have come now to the .-\merican Re\olu- 
tion, a most interesting period in the historv of 
the Old Church, and while I would like to 
dwell upon it, to give in detail the accounts of 
the bombardment of Xcirfulk bv the frigate 
"Liverpool"' and other \essels of Dunmore's 
fleet, and to give you a picture of the scenes 
enacted within the walls of the cemetery, and 
how the women and children (if the old bor- 
ough, who had not been able to get away, 
gathered under the shadow of the walls of the 
Old Church, as in a citadel, to protect them 
from the shots of the enemy ; but the historv 
of that period would furnish material for a 
lecture in itself, and I have not time to dwell 
upon it. I would only mention one matter as 
associated with the Old Church. It is com- 
monly reported that the British carried away 
the l)aptismal font, which was of marble, to 
Scotland. This we think is an error, arising 
from that fact that the communion plate was 
taken by the enemy to Scotland. It was doubt- 
less a valuable service. Under Act XIV of 
the Colonial Assembly, Charles II, 1661-62, it 
was enacted that the churchwardens take care 
and be empowered dtu^ing their churchwarden- 
ship "to keepe the church in repaire, provide 
books, and decent ornaments, viz : A great 
Bible, two common prayer books, a communion 
cloth and napkin, a pulpit and cushion this 
present year, and after annually, something to- 
ward communion plate, pulpit cloth and bell, as 
the ability of the parish will permit, etc." As 



this -was the weaUhiest parish next to Bruton, 
at Williamsburg, in the Colony, there can be 
no doubt that the wardens had accumulated a 
fund which enal)led them to get a beautiful and 
probably a massix'e communion service, which 
tempted the enem_\- to carry it home as a 

Bishop !Meadc tells us in his "Old Churches 
of Virginia," in 1857. that some tidings of 
the communion plate had recent!)- been re- 
ceived, and hopes are entertained of its recov- 
ery. Over 20 years have passed since then, 
and the Old Mother Church has not yet re- 
covered her communion set, but the ladies of 
our congregation have in the last few years 
supplied the parish with a silver ser\-ice, and 
the lost plate w<;uld be chiefly valuable now as 
a sacred relic of the past. "God mo\-es in a 
mysterious way," and perha]os after an absence 
of a century the communion plate will be re- 
stored to the vestry of the Old Church from 
which it was taken during the Revolution. 

No records have yet been found of the 
vestry of the Old Church since 1761. It is al- 
most certain, however, that with the rebuilding 
of Norfolk after the surrender of Cornwallis 
at Yorktown. October. 1781, that the Old 
Church was soon repaired, and that after the 
meeting of the first convention in Richmond, 
in 1785. Re^■. Walker Maury took charge and 
continued its minister until October. 1788. 
when he died in his ,^6th year, and was buried 
in this \artl. After this comes the trying pe- 
riod in the life <if the nld parish church, which 
created much scandal, and contributed largely 
to building up the other Evangelical denomina- 
tions, notably the Presbyterian, in the borough. 
In 1789-91, Rev. James Whitehead appears 
in the several conventions, as minister of Eliza- 
beth River Parish, Norfolk: after this the Old 
Church was not again represented until the 
convention in .Mexandria, in 1832. It was 
during the ministry of Mr. W^hitehead that a 
most unfortunate controversy occurred in the 
congregation of the Old Church concerning- the 
rival claims of himself and Rev. William Bland 
for the possession of the edifice. Mr. ^^'hite- 

head was a line scholar, and had charge of the 
Norfolk Academy, was a leading Alason, and 
a gentleman of high social influence. He was 
also a man of property, if we can judge from 
the following squib in the Norfolk Herald, 
April I, 1800: "It is understood that Parson 
W . owns some \'ery \alual)le property in \\'ater 
street, part of which is now a mere sink. If 
he will use his exertions to fill it up and make 
that part of the town passable, he shall have 
the prayers of his congregation." Bishop 
Aleade said that from all accounts he had re- 
ceived, Mr. Whitehead was a worth}- minister 
of the Gospel. 

Parson Bland, as he was called, was a man 
of culture, an attractive preacher, very popular 
with some of the old families on account of 
his zealous patriotism during the Revolution, 
and an especial fa\-orite with the sea-captains 
who frequented the borough, many of whom 
attended his week-day, as well as Sunday, 
services. He was unfortunately a man of 
strong passions, and not as teniperate in his 
habits as he should lia\-e been while in Norfolk. 
It is said he would repeatedly exhort his con- 
■gregation to do as he told them and not as he 
did. It is stated that the controversy between 
the rival pars(jns was carried on in the news- 
papers in Norfolk during the week, and also 
in the pulpit on the Sabbath, the same pulpit 
serving both ministers, the one in the morn- 
ing, and the other in the afternoon ; each party 
had their separate vestries who' had respecti\-e- 
ly elected them rector. I have seslrched the files 
of all the Norfolk papers I could obtain from 
1794 to 1800, but found no allusion in them 
to any controversy. As the diocesan conven- 
tions of 1789 and 1790 are reported to have 
decided in favor of Parson \\'hitehead's vestry, 
it mav be the newspaper contro\ersy took place 
at that time, but I could find no Norfolk papers 
of those years. I haxe it from a reliable source 
that the rivalry for the possession of the Old 
Church did not altogether interrupt the social 
relations of the two Episcopal parsons. Al- 
though Mr. Whitehead had much the larger 
proportion of the Episcopalians with him, and 



had tlie recognition of tlie diocesan convention 
in 1790, yet he was unalile to get comi)lete 
control of .the Old Church, and therefore 
sometime prior to the fall of 1798, he and 
his snjjporters left the ^lotiter Clnu\-h of 
Elizabeth River Parish in the undisputed 
jwssession of Mr. Jjlaiid, his vestry and 
friends. Mr. \\liitehead and ins congrega- 
tion, after leaving the Old Church, wor- 
siiiped in the Court House on East Main 
street. In the spring of 1800 he announced 
in the papers a subscription on foot for the 
building of an Episcopal Churcli. and tlie sup- 
porters of the new movement, after suljscribing 
a sutticient amount for the purpose, erected a 
splendid building on the present site of the 
First Presbyterian Church. On St. John's 
Day. the 24th of June, 1800, the corner-stone 
of Christ Church was laid with Masonic cere- 
monies and a sermon preached by Mr. White- 
head in the Old Church, the proceedings end- 
ing with a sumptuous dinner at the borough 

The establishment of Christ Church. Nor- 
folk, was one of the grand results of religious 
liberty in \'irginia. After the Revolution, it 
was natural that those who dissented from the 
doctrines of the Church of England should set 
u|) for themselves their own forms of church 
government. Ijut this was tlie tirst example of 
■a church in the Diocese of Virginia. Protestant 
Episcopal in faith but Congregational in gov- 
ennnent. It was an American idea, horn of 
the ])rinciples of the great struggle for civil 
and religious libert\-. Church and State had 
been divorced, but the men who projected this 
new movement were tired of the want of dis- 
cipline under the old regime: they demanded 
the right to choose their own spiritual advisers, 
an<l while true to the doctrines of the English 
Church, they carried into ecclesiastical matters 
the principle they maintained in temporal af- 
fairs, of opposition to taxation without repre- 
sentation, and ignoring the old custom of the 
election of a vestry to .govern the parish, they 
appointed a minister, trustees and other of- 
ficers, by the votes of the pew-holders in gen- 


eral meeting assembled. And the experiinent 
resulted in the establishment of a congregation, 
which has been an ornament and an honor to 
the Episcopal Church in Virginia for more 
than tiiree-(iuarters of a century, aboimding in 
exemplary piety and giwid works. P)Ut while 
cheerfully according our admiration, we cannot 
admit the claim of this congregation to be the 
Mother Church of I'Llizabeth River Parish. 
No! That l^elongs to our Old Church, who, 
although for awhile sleepin.g as deathlike as the 
dead around her, has now risen from her slum- 
ber to be our mother still. Had Mr. AMiife- 
head's congregation left the old ])arish building 
under protest, and elected a vestry according to 
the canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of Virginia, it mi.ght have had a strong claim 
to the title of the ilother Church, but it seems 
to he a thing imix)ssible, that a congregation 
without a vestry. electin.g its minister and trus- 
tees contrary to canon law, could Ije the legal 
successor of the parish church, or.ganized and 
.governed strictly in accordance with the laws 
and. customs of the English Church. What 
constitutes a parish church ? Parishes under 
the colonial .government had metes and Ixnmds- 
established by civil as well as ecclesiastical law, 
but the Act of the General Assembly of 1798 
wiped out the last vestige of Church and State 
in \'irginia, and with it the legal existence of 
])arish divisions, except so far as their organ- 
ization was preser\ed liy the canons, customs 
and traditions of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of \'irginia. How then could a con- 
gregation igufiring all obedience to those can- 
ons, customs and traditions, so far as thev re- 
lated to parish .government, justly claim to lie 
the successor of a con.gre.gation which had 
ne\er tleparted from them ? This principle we 
think was recognized hv the congregation of 
Christ Church in ]\[ay, 1866, when by a vote 
of 56 ayes to 14 noes, they aflopted the follow- 
ing resolutions, offered 1)y Tazewell Tavlor, 
Esq., \iz : 

RL-Mf>lvccI. * * * * (;,2( ,i,p (.g^g jjj^j manage, 
iiient of 'he Church be hereafter confided to a vestry 
of the Clnirch, so to lie choien. and this Church shall 



be hereafter governed as all other Churches of the 
Diocese similarly situated, according to the canons and 
laws of the Church, etc. 

Resolved, that the pew-holders now proceed to 
elect nine vestrymen, pew-holders, who with the min- 
ister of the Parish shall be the vestry of the Church 
(Christ Church Parish), for the ensuing year until 
Easter Monday, 1867. or thereafter until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified to act. 

INlr. Taylor was one of the ablest lawyers 
who e\er adorned the bar of Norfolk, and no 
one more fully comprehended the use of the 
English language, and these resolutions from 
his pen show that he regarded his congrega- 
tion as indejjendent of Elizabeth River Parish, 
althr.ugh wiithin its bounds, for in these reso- 
lutions amending the constitution of the 
church, so as to make it conform to the canons 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Dio- 
cese of Virginia, he gives the congregation the 
name vi "Christ Church Parish." A few days 
after. Mav 7th, the newly chosen vestry se- 
lected him to- represent this parish in the State 
Council. It is clear then from its own recofds, 
that Christ Churcli was ne\"er considered' a 
parish, but a Congregational or Independent 
E]:)iscr,pal Church in the diocese until May, 
1S66, when it called itself Christ Church Par- 
ish, antl hence has no shadow of a claim to 
the title of the Mother Church of Elizabeth 
River Parish. 

The services connected with the commem- 
oration of the death of Washington were held 
in the Old Church on the 22nd of February. 
1800, a full and interesting account of which I 
found in the Norfolk Herald of February 25 
of that year. The procession, consisting of the 
military and civic societies of the borough and 
neighborhood, was the largest ever seen here 
up ti> that time, and filled the church to over- 
tlnwing-, so that a great concourse had to re- 
main I utside. There were no galleries in the 
church, those erected prior to the Revolution 
ha\-ing been destroyed, and the present ones 
built subseciuent to 1832, the sittings were con- 
Ihicd t(i the ground floor. A sentinel admitted 
none but ladies in the church up to the arrival 
of the ]irocession. Pra\'ers were offered by 
Rev. Mr. ^^'hitehead, an oration delivered hv 

Dr. Read, the mayor, an original monody pro- 
nounced by Mr. Blancharcl, an address made 
on behalf of the soldiers by Mr. Hiort oi Cap- 
tain Myers' couipany. After which the bier 
was deposited' in the grave amid a solemn 
dirge by the band, and three volleys fired o\-er 
it by the troops. 

After the formation of the new congrega- 
tion. Rev. William Bland continued his minis- 
trations in the Old Parish Church until the 
20th of May, 1803, wihen he died. Upon his 
death the congregation seems to ha\e been scat- 
tered like a flock that had lost its shepherd. 
For a while the Old Church was occupied by 
our Baptist friends, until their new church was 
built on Cumberland street, and then h\ a col- 
ored congregation of the same denomination, 
and subsequently it was used as a Bible class 
and Sunday-school room for Christ Church, 
the trustees of that body holding the property 
by sufferance. July i, 1831, at a meeting of the 
trustees of Christ Church, a communication 
was handed in by Mr. Steed from Rev. Dr. 
Ducachet on the subject of getting up another 
Episcopal congregation for the Old Church. 

\\'hereui»n it was unanimously "Resolved. 
That the trustees, so far as they are individ- 
ually concerned, will rejoice to see the measure 
carried successfully into eft'ect, and as indi\-id- 
uals of the congregation of Christ Church, it 
shall receix'e their hearty concurrence and pe- 
cuniary support. As a body acting as the rep- 
resentatives of a very large portion of the Epis- 
copalians in this Parish, they are willing, so 
far as their authority may extend, to grant the 
use of the Old Church for so desirable a pur- 
pcse, not ck)ubting but it will be approved by 
ever\- Episcopalian among us. They trust, how- 
ever, that suitable arrangements may be made 
to manage the temporal affairs of the Church 
and sui)i)ort of its minister, entirely iiule- 
pendent of and free from any interference with 
the fiscal concerns C(;mmitted to their charge; 
in other words, that the two churches and con- 
gregations in money matters must be kept en- 
tirely distinct, each depending on its own re- 
source, and each to have a separate board of 



trustees or wardens it) atleiul U> its interests." 
"Resolved. That a copy of the foregoing be 
handed to Rev. Dr. Ducachet." 

Two things are \ery apparent from this ac- 
tion of the trustees of Christ Church ; first. 
that they were unwiUing to see tlie Old Church 
revi\ed as a missionary etifort, for which Clirist 
Church woulil l)e in the least degree pecuniarily 
responsible, while they would be pleased to see 
a new and independent congregation of Epis- 
copalians organized : secondly, that the trustees 
did not claim to represent all the Episcopalians 
within the bounds of Elizabeth River Parish, 
nor the ownership of the Old Church, but could 
only grant the use of it, so far as their author- 
ity might extend. April 24. 1832. 10 months 
after the above proceedings, we find a meeting 
of the Episcopalians of Norfolk convened, in 
accordance with a public notice in its news- 
papers, at the Old Church for the purpose of 
electing vestrymen, taking suitable measures 
for repairing that building and organizing a 
new congregation. Cieorge Xewton, Esq., 
was called to the chair, and Charles W. .Skin- 
ner appointed secretary. 

Rev. Henry ^^'. Ducachet then, by request, 
addressed the chair, and ex])lained the i)urpose 
and object of the meeting. It was then, on 
motion, "Resolved, That the meeting proceed 
to the election of five vestrymen : whereupon 
the following gentlemen were elected by ballot 
to serve as vestrymen until Easter Monday 
next, viz: William H. Thompson, Richard B. 
Maury, George Rowland, .\lpheus Fobes and 
Alexander Gait": and u])i.n nution, no further 
Lnisiness ofi^ering. the meeting was dissolved 
and adjourned sine die. 

This was the resurrection of the Mother 
Church ! A ])arish w itliout a vestry is not ex- 
tinct, but is in a state (;f quasi or suspended 
animation until another vestry is elected, as 
was this Elizabeth River Parish from 1803 to 
1832. .-\nd whether the Episcojialians who 
formed that meeting were aware of the re- 
sponsibility and result of their action or not, 
when in pursuance of a public call they met. 
and in accordance with the canons, customs and 

traditions of the Protestant Ejjiscopal Church, 
elected five vestrymen for the Old Church, 
they if^so facto elected the legal successors of 
the former vestry of b'lizabeth River Parish, 
which vestry, from the moment of election, 
were invested with all the rights, pri\ileges 
and immunities of their predecessors. 

Previous to the Revolution, there being no 
bishop in Virginia, our church buildings were 
not consecrated, and were generally called af- 
ter the parish in wihich they were situated, 
or from some other geographical name. The 
Mother Church of Elizabeth River Parish was 
generally called the "Old Church," and by 
some the "Borough Church." As it was neces- 
sary to ask readmission into the diocese under 
some distinctive name, the vestry of the Old 
Church, May 7. 1832. resolved that a name 
should be gi\-en it and it was unanimouisly 
agreed that it be called St. Paul's Church, and 
from that day to this the ancient edifice has 
borne that name. 

At the same meeting a petitinn to the con- 
vention of the Protestant I-lpi.scopal Church of 
the State of Virginia, assembled at .\le.xandria, 
was adopted. It recited that. "The great in- 
crease of worshipers at Christ Church, in the 
Borougli of Xorfolk. liaxing rendered it im- 
possible for .ill tn be accommodated there who 
are attached u> the doctrines and worship of 
the E])iscopal Church, it has been deemed ad- 
visable to organize another congregation with- 
out delay. In pursuance of this design, sub- 
scriptions have been raised to repair the Old 
Church belonging to the Parish, and a ve.stry 
after due notice elected. The said vestrv, 
therefore, pray to be recognized 1)\- the Con- 
A'ention of the Diocese as representing the new 
congregation under the style and title of 'St. 
Paul's Church." Xorfolk. an{l' also that our del- 
egate to the convention. Richard B. Maury, be 
admitted to a seat in that body." Our con- 
gregation was duly atlmitted as St. Paul's 
Paul s Church, Xorfolk, Elizabeth River Par- 
ish, by the diocesan con\ention, assembled in 
.Alexandria, May, 1832. 

It is not my purpose to speak of the Rev. 



Ebenezer Boyden, the first rector of St. Paul's, 
or any of his worthy successors, the most of 
whom I have known to love and esteem : but I 
shall conclude this lecture with a few recollec- 
tions of my boyhood associated with the Old 

The vestrv-room, as I first remember it, oc- 
cupied nearh' the whi>le of the head of the 
cross. From a door in the center the minister 
ascended into the plain, white parallelogram 
pulpit, with reading desk and communion table 
immediatel}- beloiw. On either side of the pul- 
pit hung a tablet, on one the Ten Command- 
ments ; on the other the Lord's Prayer and 
Apostle's Creed. Those tablets were first as- 
sociated in my mind with the descent O'f Moses 
from Ivluunt Sinai, and I imagined them the 
exact counterpart of the original ones Avhich 
the meekest man in the world had destroyed in 
a fit of hasty temper at the backsliding of the 
children of Israel. My crude theology- Wad 
not then taught me that the inscription on the 
left hand tablet was from the new dispensa- 

I well remember going into that vestry- 
rooui before ser\-ice on one Sunday morning 
long ago-, and being allowed to sit in the cush- 
ioned arm-chair that was used by John Han- 
cock, when president of the Continental Con- 
gress, when the Declaration of Independence 
was declared in 1776. I had not then any 
xerv distinct ideas of Mr. Hancock or his 
Declaration, but I felt the dignity oi the posi- 
tion, although my feet could not reach the floor. 
This chair had been given to Rev. Mr. Miller, 
our pastor, by a descendant of General Bayley, 
a member of Congress from the eastern shore 
of Virginia, who had ]nn-chased it in Phila- 
delphia when the furniture of old Independ- 
ence Hall was sold, and it is still preserved in 
our vestry-room as a valued relic. 

The organ gallery was opposite the pulpit, 
in the foot of the crcvss, and it was not more 
than half the size of the present gallery. The 
organ was a diminuti\-e one, painted white, 
wlith paneling, and reminded one of a child's 
coffin. Our childish recollections of objects 

are generally larger than we find them in af- 
ter years, and therefore I am sure our first 
organ was very small. I was an honoraiy 
member of the choir, by virtue of one of my 
household being one of its number. Although 
I never sang, on two occasions I supplied the 
place of the absent bellows-boy. If my memorv 
serves me, the organ sonnded louder on those 
two Sundays than usual, although I noticed the 
congregation did not seem to* be sensible of the 

We had fairs for the benefit of St. Paul's 
in those days. Church fairs were somewhat 
different then from what they are now. Nor- 
folk was a r>'.uch smaller place, less metropoli- 
tan and they were more like social gatherings ; 
the crowds thiat attended were less promis- 
cuous, indeed it was not ever^'body whoi could 
gain admittance. Then children were ad- 
mitted at half-price during the day, but after 
"bell ring" it was a great privilege to be al- 
lo'weil. to remain and it was with the admoni- 
tion that they were to be seen and not heard. 
Now, as a rule, children cram the fair rooms 
in the evening, filling up the interstices be- 
tween the grown i>eople, and wearying visitors 
by their importunities to buy. From being 
most pleasant gatherings they have become 
quite a burden to the fair exhibitors, and b\- 
no means as attractive as they should be to 

Norfolk was a social old place in those 
times, and in summer evenings it was a cus- 
tom for the good people tO' take tea on their 
front ])orches. Old Catharine street, now 
called Bank, after sunset on a pleasant even- 
ing was a perfect tea party, from the Exchange 
Bank to the Bell Church, every porch being 
redolent with the aroma of the Chinese herb. 
It wias a great wrong in the Councils to have 
changed the name of Catharine street ; it had 
been so called for more than a century, was 
immortalized in verse, and referred to in let- 
ters of distinguished European tourists. 

A fair at St. Paul's was a great event in 
my home. For weeks beforehand, there would 
be consultations and meetings of committees 

Hi':iFll.\l- SI. \iNlENT DE PaUL. NORFOLK. Va. 
before it was destroyed by fire.) 

Si. Tail ^ 1;. iis;\m EPISCOPAL Church, Norfolk, Va. 
(The canncn-ball tr. m the British ship -Liverpool.- which lod.ed in the wall, may be seen under the eves, at the riiht of the picture.) 



on ways and means, culminating in sewing 
circles in tlie mornings and evenings, first at 
one Imuse and tlien at another, and finally there 
would arise the most savory smells from the 
kitchen and store-room. No fear of the 
pendent dishcloth could keep me from the 
kitchen at those times, and no jackal ever hov- 
ered around a moving immigrant train with 
more pertinacity than I hung around the store- 
room dix>r to get a taste of the viands or the 
liherty to scrape the emptied icing dishes. I 
rememl)er one fair in particular. — it was the 
first. It was held in the old Arcade building. 
which stood where Johnson's Hall now stands, 
and took its name from extending o\er the ad- 
joining lane by an archway. The lane is still 
known as "Arcade Lane." Our pastor. Rev. 
Mr. Miller, was there, and in my eyes a more 
ini])ortant personage than the door-keeper him- 
self. 1 can see his lieaming, honest, counte- 
nance as he smiled blandly on the scene, sug- 
gestive as it was of a replenished treasury for 
Old St. Paul's. i)aying particular attention to 
the dignitaries of other communions who had 
come to aid the Old Church. Some lordly 
looking gentlemen with gold seals and gold- 
headed canes walked around with an air of im- 
portance and wealth, which made me expect 
to see them march suddenly up to a table and 
sweep its wliole contents, slippers, mats, pin- 
cushions and all. in one purchase, but I noticed 
l)efore the evening was passed, that these gold- 
lieaded men. as a rule, bought nothing Imt their 
suppers, of which they seemed to get quite 
their money's worth. 

The tirst tower to Old St. Paul's, witliin the 
memory of man, was put on the foot of the 
cross, by order of the vestry, by Isaac Smith, a 
skillful mechanic, some 36 years ago. The 
reader of Howe's "Pictorial History of Vir- 
ginia," will rememl)er it in the picture of the 
Old Church, in the chapter on Norfolk County. 
Its pro])ortions were in keeping with the rest 
of the buileling, but was at the wrong end. It 
had a base fitting over the gable, with a square 
tower above, having a blind window on each 
side, and surmounted by a short spire at each 

corner. The architect, following the crucial 
form of the Old Church, surmounted each of 
these with a modest, gilded Latin cross. Never 
was there a greater tempest in a tea-pot than 
%\ias created by those four innocent crosses. 
The poor pastor. Rev. Mr. Miller, blameless of 
the work, was suddenly discovered to have 
Puseyite tendencies. A large portion of the 
congregation was outraged, and some of the 
infiuential members of Church, who felt 
a spiritual responsibility alxjut St. Paul's, as 
the weaker congregation, were moved Ijeyond 
measure. Whether the souls of our neighbor- 
ing Methodist brctliren, our Baptist friends, or 
the sterling Covenanters across the way, were 
disturbed in their Sunday worship by the .sud- 
den apparition under their windows of the 
quadrupled emblem of Rome, we do not re- 
member, but we shall never forget that one 
good Catholic, cur friend Eli Ikirrot, was re- 
ported to have solemnly protested against the 
innovation, as on his way to and from busi- 
ness to his home, as he passed the Old Church, 
he was forced to cross himself four times. 

Never did Jewish custom more speedily re- 
move that unsightly cross for the coming holi- 
day, than did those emblems of faith disappear 
from that tower by order of the vestry. .And 
fur the want of some unobjectionable substitute 
four gold balls were placed in their stead, as 
if some celestial planets of the smaller sort 
had fallen from space and Ijeen im]>aled on the 
points of the spires. What a sensible change 
has occurred in the intervening years ! Now 
the Greek and Latin cross not only adorn our 
Old Church, but .scarcely a Christian home in 
our city but is beautified by a representation 
of that cross, to which we are taught in simple 
faith to cling, .\mon.g the manifold changes 
vvihich have come in the progress of time, the 
world has learned that the worship of the 
Creator in spirit and in truth is not incom- 
patible with the cultivation of the love for the 

Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed 
like one of those little flowers that bursting 
frorii the dust through the mysterious pro- 



cesses of nature in spring-time, in this ceme- 
tery, teaches us the sublime lesson of the resur- 
rection from the dead. 

I was attending Mr. Gait's school, in the 
old frame building, known as the Old Acad- 
emy, which stood on Church street, just across 
the way, when Captain Seabury, one of the 
vestrymen of the church, after employing a 
servant to dig awav the sod and debris in the 
angle formed by the southeast corner of the 
church and street wall, discovered the cannon- 
ball fired during the Revolution by the British 
frigate "Liverpool," and which had become 
dislodged and fallen from its position in the 
wall. Whh others I witnessed the resurrec- 
tion of that ball wliich on New Year's Day, 
1776, was one of those missiles of death fired 
in a bombardment which inaugurated the most 
momentous year in our American history. 
That relic of the past was carefully preserved 
imtil replaced in the wall where it first lodged, 
and I ha\-e regretted that scepticism, the fruit 
of igni- ranee, has made it common in this day, 
to doubt the authenticity of this fact. I verily 
believe that some people are born iconoclasts ; 
they break their rattles when babies, destroy 
their dolls with infinite zest before they can 
walk, and when grown, seem to delight in dis- 
crediting the traditions of their fathers. There 
are some degenerate Virginians who' tell you 
that the thrilling story of the rescue of Capt. 
John Smith by the Indian heroine Pocahontas 
is all a romance: when it is a fact as well es- 
tablished in the colonial history o-f Virginia, 
as the ducking of Grace Sherwood in Princess 
Anne Countv, for witchcraft, or the more cruel 
burning of poor weak-minded women upon the 
same charge on the common in Salem town, in 
the Colony of Massachusetts. Bishop Meade 
correctly states, in his "Old Churches of Vir- 
ginia." that the identical ball fired into the 
church by the British man-of-war was found 
and preserved, and that a' governor of Vir- 
ginia applied to have it sent to the State Li- 
brarv for safe keeping. 

Nearly opposite the southern gate, on 
Church street, at tlie foot of one of those splen- 

did elms, which were brought from the neigh- 
borhood of Hampton during Rev. Mr. Miller's 
pastorate, there are four tombstones, side by 
side : one of the central ones, now lying prone 
upon the ground, has doubtless attracted your 
attention by the large heraldic device which 
occupies more than half of the stone. It is the 
grave of John Taylor, whose motto was, "Fide 
ct Fiducia." My good friend Dr. Grigsby, 
when he lectures on the dead of St. Paul's, will 
doubtless tell you all about the one \\hose mor- 
tal remains lie underneath. My story is about 
something on the upper side of that slab. Diu"- 
ing a recess at the Old Academy, as was often 
my wont, I was playing "Old ^Mortality" 
among the tombs in this cemetery, and having 
often heard it said, that there was no monu- 
ment sho'wng a burial earlier than the eight- 
eenth century, my attention was riveted on 
"1600" on this stone. The inscription was 
\-ery much ef¥ected, much more so than now, as 
it has since been partially restored, and was 
very difficult tO' decipher, but after a hasty 
in\-estigation I was satisfied that the deceased 
had died and was therefore buried in 16 hun- 
dred and blank. I annoimced the discovery to 
some of my playmates, but they treated it as 
a matter of indifference when the old gentle- 
man died, ])eing more interested in the price 
of tops and ma,rbles, around the corner at Jor- 
dan's, or in the success of a game of "hop 
scotch," a sidewalk amusement in our early 
days, evidently invented by some disciples of 
St. Crispen, for speedilv destroving the soles 
cf shoes. At home in the evening, however. 
I found a more interested audience, and when I 
announced with all the enthusiasm of a second 
Christopher Columbus that I had disco\-ered in 
St. Paul's churchyard a tombstone bearing date 
in the seventeenth century. Anno Domini 16 
hundred and something, my i-onored father, 
whose love for the Old Church and its sur- 
roundings was proverbial and whose retentive 
inemory made him familiar with every grave 
in that burial-ground, smiled increduously, told 
me it was quite impossible, and tliat he would 
,gi\'e me a thousand dollars if I coulil find a 


21 I 

t(>inI)stone witli so old a date. To make it 
l)indiiig. 1 liad tlie promised reward reduoe<l to 
writing, and witli the dcKiiment in my posses- 
ion went to l)ed tliat night a happy Ixiy. The 
sudden accpiisition of weahli is a mixed bless- 
ing. I\iches not only !ia\c wings, but they 
ha\e their weigiits along uth their enjoyments. 
I passed a restless night! I s])ent that tlmus- 
sand dollars in a hundred different ways. In 
the first impulse of gratitude I appropriated 
one hundred dollars to charities: I am ashamed 
to confess that l>efore I fell asleeji I had re- 
duced the amount to ten. 1 recall now with 
sorrow, what latent selfishness was developed 
in my heart by the anticipated possession of 
that thousand dollars, and yet I was not more 
selfish than the average boy. The rising sun 
found me up and dressed and on my way to 
verify my discovery, so as to claim the prom- 
ised reward. I am constitutioinally opposed to 
very early rising. 1 ha\e always thought it a 
philosophical rejily to the trite remark, that 
"The early bird catches the wonu." that "It 
is the early worm that gets caught by the bird." 
The poet who sung "Early to bed and earl\- to 
rise, make men healthy, wealthy and wise," not 
only stole the sentiment and words from that 
old heathen Aristotle, Ijut he lived under a 
different sky and a \ery dififerent clime from 
ours. My observation has been that the 
wealthiest and wisest of our citizens do not 
cross Stone Bridge before nine in the morning, 
and many ha\e lived to a good old age. \\'c 
delude ourselves, i)ossil)ly, with the idea that 
it is malarious before seven in the summer and 
eight in the w inter, in this regon : and it is a 
very comfortable delusion to those who can 
afford it. I had no such misgivings, however, 
on the morning mentioned. I can recall now 
how delightfully fresh everj-thing smelt and 
felt. The atmosphere was so rarified that I 
breathed freer than usual, in striking contrast 
to my accustomed feelings as I wended mv way 
to school down those same familiar streets, 
especially when unlearned lessons gave me an 
unwholesome fear of the rod. My heart beat 
in sympathy with all nature, displaying itself 


in iniusual politeness to the colored uncle 
aunties 1 met hurrying to work, and in gener- 
(;us impulses toward the ragged urchins on 
earlv errands, and actually restraining me 
from shying a rock at some tem])ting cats. 
.\t last the old churchyard was reached, the 
wall scaled, and "Young Mortrdity" was down 
u])on his knees searching after truth. .Mas, 
hi w frail and weak is poor humanity! How 
liable to error! Investigation disclosed that 
the occupant of that tomb was born in iT) hun- 
dred and something: he had lived too long, for 
further down, almost illegible, his death was 
recorded in 1744. There were tears shed o\-er 
that grave that morning, and the passing 
stranger, ignorant of the ordinance prohibiting 
interments in this cemetery, may have wasted 
his sym])athy on the lacrymose youth who had 
missed a warm breakfast in the fruitless ipiest 
after filthy lucre. 

Generation after generation ha\e come and 
gone, but still the Old Church stands, l-lm- 
pires have arisen and have fallen, the Colony 
has bec(.me the State, peace has had its victo- 
ries and war its dread alanns, but still the 
|)rayer and song of praise ascend from its hal- 
lowed walls. 

For nearly a century and a half children 
have there been dedicated to (icd. and have 
confirmed their baptismal vows aroimd its 

sacred altar. 

Loving hearts anifjiig them have 

been mad.c one in God's holy ordinance: and 
from its doors one after another has been car- 
ried out by sorrowing friends. There can be 
no heart in all this city that does not sometimes 
warm at the sight of Old St. Paul's. 

Those to the manor born and bred nnist 
ha\e some sacred memories associated w itli the 
Old Church and its burial-ground, while those 
who have come from other places to cast their 
lot with us must lie reminded by it of their old 
homes. It is the oldest inhabitant, and bids 
a silent hut impressive welcome to all who 
come to live within our gates. 
I To one who like myself, can count fixe gen- 
erations of his name who have w(;rshi])ed after 
the manner of their fathers in that house of 



God, there springs up an attachment which 
makes it second not even to his liome. that 
makes it a part and parcel of his life, to which 
he clings the firmer as the ehbing tide of time 
sweeps from him forever on this shore other 
landmarks and associations of childhood, youth 
and maturer years. 

William Lamb. 
Norfolk, Va.. May u. 1879. 

Christ Protcsta-nt Episco[>al Church. Xorfulk. 

On the 24th clay o-f June, 1 800, the corner- 
stone of Christ Church was laid, $16,000 hav- 
ing been suhscriljed for the erection of the 
building. The new church was duly completed 
and occupied. It stood where the First Pres- 
byterian Church now stands. On March 9, 
182/, between i and 2 o'clock in the morning, 
a fire bro'ke out in tlie workshops on the south- 
ern corner of Main and Church streets, and 
the flames extending up Church street des- 
troyed the edifice of Christ Church. On the 
20th day of June, three months later the corner- 
stone of the new Christ Church was laid, the 
one in wihich divine ser\ices are now held. 
The church was completed and consecrated oai 
the 9th of Novemlier, 1828, at a co-st of about 

Rev. Henry William Ducacliet was the rec- 
tor and continued his ministry until November, 
1834, when he resigned: then Rt. Rev. Will- 
iam Meade took charge for two }ears, when he 
resigned the church into the hands of Rev. 
Martin P. Parkes. The last named was a 
graduate of W'est Point, and as an army ofificer 
was stationed at Fortress ^lonro-e, where he 
w-as converted at a Methodist revi\al, and after 
working among that denomination awhile lie- 
came an Episcopalian and received the holy 
orders of the church from the hands of Bishop 
Meade. Upon his resigr./atioin. Rev. Upton 
Beall liecame the rector of Christ Church, — 
his death occurred on the loth of March, 1847. 
The vacancy was supplied by Re\'. Cieorge D. 
Cummings, who remained until ]833. when 
Rev, Charles IMinnigerode, D. D., was called 
to the service of the church. During the yel- 

low fever. Dr. Minnigerode w'as in Europe and 
Rev. Lewis Walke supplied his place through 
that awful scourge, until he and his wife were 
stricken down with the disease from which she 

The next rector was Rev. Erskine M. Rod- 
man, who commenced in 1857 and continued 
until 1864. St. Paul's Church having been 
seized and occupied by the Federal authorities 
during the war. Rev. N. A. Okeson, D. D., 
officiated at Christ Church until 1865 when, in 
December, Rev. O. Sievers Barten, D. D., be- 
came rector and served until his death. Rev. 
Carl Eckhardt Grammer, S. T. D., was called 
and assumed charge on the ist of March, 1898. 
The assistant minister is Rev. John H, Dickin- 
son. The other officers of the church are as 
follows. Senior warden, B. P. Loyall ; junior 
warden, T. A. Williams: registrar, R. M. 
Hughes : treasurer, D. S. Burwell ; lay reader, 
G. A. Frick. The number of communicants is 

St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal Churcli, 

In October, 1873, a chapel erected by the 
guild members of St. Paul's and Christ congre- 
gations, under the name of St. Luke's, was 
opened for di\'ine services. This chapel has 
grown into- a strong, vigorous and self-sus- 
taining parisli, having one of the most beau- 
tiful and elaborate Episcopal edifices in the 

St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal Church, 

was organized in 1886, and on the 191)1 of No- 
\en:ijcr of the same year the first \estry was 
elected. During this year the edifice was erect- 
ed, and on March 14, 1887, conse:rated by 
Bishop ^^'hittle. Its first rector was Rev. Bev- 
erley D. Tucker, who resigned December i, 
1886, and was succeeded by Rew \\'. L. Gra- 
vatt, who accepted a call from the church De- 
cember 15, 1886, and entered upon his duties 



in February. 1887. He was succeeded by Rev. 
A\'. R. Smith, who in turn was succeeded by 
tlie present rector. Rev. Charles E. \\\x)dson. 
The buildino- cnipleted cost $2,410.07. 

There are two chapels in Elizabeth River 
Parish. — Emanuel in Huntersville. .suburb of 
Norfolk, and St. Mark's at Lambert's Point. 


Rev. John Wilson 

Rev. Thoni.Ts Harrison' 

Rev. Ri.-hard Powis 

Rev. William Xern 

Rev. James Falconer 

Rev. Garzia 

Rev. Moses Robertson. .. f 

Rev. Charles Smith. . . .' .• 

Rev. Thomas Davis 

Rev. Walker Maury 

Rev. James Whitehead 

Rev. William Bland 

R*v. .\ndrc\v Snns 

Rev. Samnel Lowe 

Rev. Enoch Lowe 

Rev, William Wicks 

Rev. George .\. Smith 

Rev. Henry William Uucachct 

Rev. Ebenezer Boyden 

Rt. Rev. William Meade 

Rev. Martin P. Parks 

Rev. Thomas .\tkinson 

Rt. Rev. Joseph P. B. Wilmer 

Rev. Upton Beall 

Rev. Benjamin ^L Miller 

Rev. Leonidas T. Smith 

Rev. David Caldwell 

Rev. George D. Ciimming.s 

Rev. William ^L Jackson 

Rev. Charles Minnigerode 

Rev. Lewis Walke 

Rev. Xicholas .-X. Okeson 

Rev. Erskme M. Rodman i , 

Rev. O. Sievers Barten 

Rev. Beverley D. Tucker 

Rev. W. L. Gravatt 

Rev. John B. Xewton 

Rev. .\. S. Lloyd 

Rev. William .\. Barr 

Rev. W. R. Smith 

Rev. Charles E. Woodson 

Rev. Carl Eckhardt Granmer 


86 T 


Trinity Protestant Episcopal Churcli. Ports- 

It was in the early part o{ 1761. in the reign 
of George III. that an Act was passed author- 
izing the division of Elizabeth River Parish, 
•which was coincident with Norfolk Countv, 

into three parts, that part west of the Southern 
Branch to be I'ortsniouth Parish.' 

The election for vestrymen of this parish 
was held under the supervision of the sheriff, 
and on the Sth day of June, 1761, they a|)- 
jjeared before the County Court and qualified 
as the law directed. In 1762 the vestry caused 
to be erected, at the S()Uthwest corner of High 
and Court streets on land dedicated by Col. 
William Craford, Trinity Church ; and they 
also purchased from him the Glebe, 175 acres, 
now the site of Port Norfolk. Two other 
churches were built in Portsmouth Parish, one 
near the village of Deep Creek and one near 
Hodge's Ferry, on the north side of the \\^est- 
ern Branch. These two churches ha\e long 
since disappeared. 

It would seem that for some reason Rev. 
Charles Smith, who had been rector of Eliza- 
beth River Parish, gave up St. Paul's Church, 
Norfolk, and became the first rector of Ports- 
mouth Parish, and continued in charge until 
his death at the Glelje at Port Norfolk, in 1773. 
His tombstone with an interesting inscription 
lies in this churchyard. He was succeeded bv 
Rev. John Braidfoote, who was a native of 
Scotland and had been only a short time in the 
ministry when the Revolutionarv ^^'ar broke 
out. He was a zealous patriot, and served as 
chaplain in the Revolutionary Army, returning 
to his parish after the close of the war. He 
married Blandinah !Moselley of Norfolk. He 
died at the Glebe mow Port Norfolk). 1779, 
and was buried by the side of his predecessor 
in an unmarked grave. His descendants are 
still the parishioners of Trinity Parish. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Arthur Emmer- 
son, who took charge of the church in 1785. 
He was a native of Accomac Countv, and was 
42 years old when he_t<x)k charge. He was the 
son of a clergyman, and was ordained in Eng- 
land by the Bishop of London. He was iii 
charge of a parish in Brunswick County 
and also Nansemond. He was for 16 
\ears rector of Port.smouth Parish, and 
lived at the Glebe until, on account of bad 
health, he moved into Portsmouth and bought 



tlie property next to tlie churchyard. Here he 
spent tlie remainder of his days, faithfully dis- 
charging li/.s duties as far as health would 
]iermit. Dr. Wingfiekl wrote in 1855 : "He 
is spoken of by those who knew him who> are 
now living, as a truly pious man, and consistent 
Christian, but being always in delicate health, 
he was unable to perform much active labor 
and resorted much to his books, both for in- 
struction and recreation. He was buried un- 
der the present door-way of the old church, 
which was the chancel of the old church, but 
when the church was enlarged or changed, his 
body was removed to Accomac. He died in 
1 80 1, leaving behind a record of a noble Chris- 
tian life and unsullied character." 

The next rector was Rev. George Ycung, 
who remained in charge eight years. He re- 
moved to Prince George County, where he died 
and was buried in 181 1. 

From 1809 to 1821, the services of the 
church ceased to be rendered on this spot. 
The flock was scattered and strayed into other 
folds. The church building, though of brick, 
became much out of order and at one time wias 
converted into a school-house. "It was utterly 
unfit for holding divine service. But for the 
timelv efforts of a few who were still attached 
to the old building, from having in their child- 
hood been carried there by their pious fore- 
fathers, that too would soon have fallen to 
ruins, as most of the congregation had gone 
off and united with surrounding denomina- 
tions, leaving but a very small remnant who 
remembered and preserxed their attachment 
for the old church and her solemn ways." 

In 1820 an incident occurred that awoke 
the sleeping activity oi the church here. Some 
members of the Presbyterian Church invited a 
minister of that denomination tO' come and 
hold occasional services for them in the old 
disused church. They obtained permission of 
the few remaining members who held on to it, 
and put some repairs on it to preserve it from 
utter ruin. The Episcopalians, along with 
others, attended these services, which were 

held at shorter and shorter intervals. At last 
this minister, without asking anyone's permis- 
sion, indicated that he would virtually take 
possession of the church, by giving out notice 
that he would ha\-e service there every Sunday. 
The members of the congregation, esteeming 
his interpretation of the laws of hospitality 
rather broad, asked for the keys of the church, 
and declined to extend any further courtesy to 
this minister who' desired to assume control 
of the old church. They then invited Rev. 
Enoch AI. LoAve, of Christ Church, Norfolk, 
to come over occasionally and ha\e services for 
them. This he did until 1821 (Easter) when 
he called a meeting and had a vestry elected as 
follows, viz : \\'illiam Dickson, John Dickson, 
Arthur Emmerson, John Cox, John \\'ilson. 
D. A. Reynolds, George \\'ebb and William P. 
Young. The vestry invited AI. B. Chase, 
chaplain in the U. S. Navy, to ha\'e ser\ices 
for them, and sent M. B. Chase and Arthur 
Emmerson to the convention which met in 
Norfolk. This convention was held in Christ 
Church, which at that time was the only Epis- 
copal Church occupied in Norfolk. It had only 
160 communicants. There were less than 175 
in the community comprising Ixith cities, where 
we now have a dozen churches and chapels, 
and J, 000 communicants. In Hawk's reports 
for the convention of 182 1, is the following 
note: "The old congregation of Portsmouth 
Parish has been revived and promises to be- 
come a flourishing branch of our Zion." The 
delegates from Portsmouth Parish petitioned 
foi- its admission to the convention. 

Rev. John H. Wingfield, then a deacon, 
who had l)een instructed by old Bishop Raxens- 
croft. and had been at work in Halilfax County, 
attended this convention and stayed over a few 
days, preaching Sunday at the church here. 
The vestry immediately met and called him. 
After consultation with Rev. Mr. Ravenscroft, 
afterward Bishop of North Carolina, he ac- 
cepted and began the work, to which he gave 
the best energies of his life for 50 years. We 
can now best trace the history of the parish by 



transcriliing' from Hawk's liistory tlie rq)orts 
Mr. W'ingtielcl rendered brieHy at each con- 
vention until 1835. 

"In 1822, he rqjorts 10 communicants, 
and says the report from this parisli is highly 
favorable Iwth as resj^ects the spiritual and 
temporal condition of the church. In 1823, he 
rei)orts to the convention : 'The Rector of this 
parish is happy in having it to say that the 
state of his charge has suffered nothing since 
his last reix)rt. The church has been put in 
neat and comfortable repair and the congre- 
gation has somewihat increased." There have 
been 10 added to his list of communicants, all 
of whom lie has reason to hope are of tlie num- 
ber of such as shall be saved. Communi- 
cants i8. 

"In 1824. he rejjurts to the cmivention: 
'The congregation of Portsniuuth Parish in- 
creases slowly, and the general state of the 
church here is prosperous : an increased at- 
tendance on the preached word is more regular 
and general. The gospel kingdom is gaining 
ground, and the Rector rejoices in the hope 
of a "day of better things" not far distant.' 
Communicants 19. 

"In 1825, he reports to the convention: 
'Trinity Church, Portsmouth Parish. The 
Rector laments that he has nothing very favor- 
able to report concerning his charge. Init he is 
not discouraged, having some reason to hope 
that a Ijetter state of things will succeed." Com- 
nuniicants 16. You will observe that this 
church received its name of Trinity Church in 
1825. 63 years after it was fcamded. 

"In 1826 he makes the following report 
to the con\ention : 'Trinity Church, Ports- 
mouth : There has been very little change in 
the state of this parish since the last conven- 
tion. The congregation has somewhat in- 
creased, and seems to be generally a little more 
serious and attentive. Meetings have been es- 
tablished in the week at prixate houses for 
prayer and exhortation, which appear to be 
viewed with interest. There is a catechetical 
class of about 2^ children, who manifest con- 

siderable interest in the instructions the Rector 
imparts to them on the catechism, collects and 
articles of the church." Communicants 15. 

"In 1827 he reports he has been blessed 
with the pleasing satisfaction of Ijeholding an 
increasing interest on the subject of religiim 
among his charge, manifested by the accession 
of several families to his congregation: by a 
more regular attendance in the ])ublic minis- 
tration of the word: bv a greater number of 
persons taking an active part in the services 
of the sanctuary, and by more devotion in tlie 
manner in which those services are conducted. 
But that which proves to him most satisfactor- 
ily the increase c^f religious feeling among his 
people is the conversion — the true conversion, 
he trusts — of thi^ee individuals of his small 
charge within the last six weeks, and the in- 
ciuiring state in which ahnut half a dozen or 
more are at this time. He reports a Sunday- 
school started with 12 teachers and 80 scholars, 
and also that with the close of the past year he 
ceased his regular monthly ministrations in the 
Parish of Lynnhaven. Communicants 15. 

"In 1828 he reports eight persons added to 
the communion, and also that measures were 
being- taken to add side galleries to the church. 
Communicants in full, 24. 

"In 1829 he reports the congregation as 
large as the numl>er of pews will admit. 
He also reports liberal subscriptions tn the 
amount of $1,800. obtained for the purpose of 
enlarging the church, to which it is intended to 
add a steeple and vestry-room. 'The whole 
design will leave us with a debt of $1,700, for 
the liquidation of which we depend u]X)n the 
future increase of our congregation and the 
assistance of friends abroad and at home.' The 
number of communicants in 1829 was 24. 

"In 18.30. he reports to the convention as 
follows : 'Our house of worship has been al- 
most entirely rebuilt since last convention. To 
the accomplishment of this object we are par- 
ticularly indebted to one individual, who, be- 
sides his own personal labor and a lilieral do- 
nation of $100, generously advanced $1,000, 



without which the work must ha\-e Ijeen greatly 
retarded, if not suspended altogether. " Com- 
municants, TiT,. 

"In 1 83 1, he reports 32 communicants. 

"In 1832. he reports the parish growing. 
Communicants, 37. 

"In 1833, he reports 39 communicants, and 
speaks with sorrow of the loss of life from 
cholera, by which Portsmouth had Ijeen visited 
during the year. 

"In 1834, he reports ^7 communicants, and 
says : 'There is a Temperance Society, in this 
parish numbering about 200 members and con- 
tinually increasing.' 

"In 1835, lie reports communicants 34, and 
says: 'Since the last con^■ention, by the exer- 
tions of the ladies of the congregation, the 
debt due for the rebuilding of the church has 
been fully discharged and the state of the par- 
ish now, in outward things, is more prosper- 
ous than it has ever been since I took charge 
of it in 1822. I regret I cannot say as much 
concerning its spiritual condition. Though re- 
ligious seiwices are as abundaiit, and more so 
than ex'er, yet there is a general indifference 
manifested on the subject of personal piety, 
which prevails to a lamentable extent. "All 
seek too much their own, not the things which 
are Jesus Christ's." ' " Here ends the report 
as given in Hawk's "History of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Virginia." 

The church had been on this spot at that 
time y2i years. 

We will now turn to Dr. \\'ingfield's ad- 
dress, givai in 1871. He says in that ad- 
dress, "I have mentioned all that was done with 
our old building up to the year 1828." He 
then tells of rebuilding the old church, the 
changing of the chancel from the east toi the 
west end of the church, the old chancel hav- 
ing been where the front entrance is now. In 
1840 the congregation had again so increased 
in numbers as to require further accommoda- 
tions. To procure this, side galleries were 
erected, many seats in which were at one time 
rented and occupied — one by white and the 
other by colored persons, to whom they were 

respectively appropriated. "These were," he 
said, "our most prosperous days. In 1842, we 
had 2/ confirmed and in 1843 nineteen." Then 
came a time of congregational trouble, which 
brought much sorrow tO' all and afifected the 
growth of the church until 1853, when the 
prospects again began to brighten, which has 
continued up to the present time. 

Dr. A\'ingfield goes on to say: "In the 
}'ear 1856, this recess chancel and present ves- 
try-room were erected at the cost of $1,200, 
and thus was commenced the 'beautifying of 
this sacred edifice, which has been gradually 
carried on until it has reached the state in 
wbich you now behold it. During the late civil 
strife, it was shamefully and sacreligiously 
profaned and defaced, from which condition 
it has since been restored and other adornments 
added in memory of loved ones whom we would 
not forget." The church during the Confed- 
erate War was used as a hospital, boards being 
nailed to the tops of the pews. 

Dr. \\'ingfield during his old age was as- 
sisted by his son, the present Bishop of North- 
ern California, and also by Rev. John S. Lind- 
say, now in Boston. He celebrated his 50th 
anniversary of rectorship in November. 1871, 
and died a few days after. "Self-sacrificing, 
devoted to the service <yi Christ and the Church, 
patient in his labors, humble in his opinion of 
his Avorth, he has entered intO' that rest which 
reniaineth for the people of God." His last 
words spoken in this place were : "Let us re- 
member we must all appear before the judg- 
ment seat of Christ, to account for our im- 
provement of our many religious privileges. 
May we hear Him say, 'Well done, good and 
faithful servants, enter ve into the jovs of vour 
Lord.' " ' 

After Dr. \\'ingfield's death. Rev. Thomas 
A. Tidball became rector. The list of com- 
municants at this time was about 120 persons. 
He remained rector six years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Reverdy Estill, now, of St. 
Paul's, Louisville, Kentucky. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Charles J. Holt, 
who remained onlv a short time and went to 



New York. He was followed by Rev. F. F. 
Reese, now of Macon, Geortjia, and he was 
succeeded hy Rev. R. \\'. Forsyth, now of 
Philadelphia. Me was succeeded by Rt. Rev. 
James B. Funsten, now Bishop of Idalio, wlio 
resigned in 1899. when Rev. A. G. Thompson 
was called on and preached his first sermon on 
DecemlK^r j, 1899. During Rev. Mr. Funs- 
ten's pastorate the church was enlarged. A 
watch service commenced in this church at 
11:30 o'clock P. M., December 31, 1900: 
Hymn 421 — Psalms 47 and 48 — Lessons 12 
Ch. Ecclesiastes, 25 Cli. St. Matthew, begin- 
ning at 31st \'erse — Hymn 196; the bells tolled 
out the nineteenth century, while the congre- 
gation were at i)rayer, and rang in the new. 
The services closed at 12:20 o'clock A. M., 
January i, 1901, in the twentieth century. 

In Deed Bonk No. 56, Page 21. in the 
clerk's office of the Norfolk County Court can 
be found the fnjlnw jng deed: 

Whereas, the Legislature of \'irginia. nlieii tliey 
took from the Episcopal Church the Glebes belonging 
to the same, did secure to the said Church the houses 
of Public worship, and all the Plate and Burying 
Grounds attached to them, to be used and disposed of 
as the said Episcopal Church should see fit to ordain 
according to her rites and ceremonies : — Therefore we 
the subscribers. Rector. Wardens and Vestrymen of 
Trinity Church. Portsmoutli Parish, to whom it be- 
longs, according to the canons of the said Episcopal 
Church, to manage the affairs of the said Trinity 
Church, in the said Portsmouth Parish. Do hereby 
convey and grant in our own names, as officers of said 
Church, in said Parish, for the time being and in be- 
half of the Congregation of said Church in said Parish 
to Ro. .A. .\rmistcad his heirs and assigns, forever, all 
right and title to Pew Xo. .^.^ in said Church in said 
Parish for and in consideration of his having paid to 
us. for the benefit of said Church in said Parish, the 
sum of forty-five dollars and. he agreeing to pay an- 
nually the sum of si.xteen dollars (to be paid quarterly 
for the support of the minister of said Churcli in said 
Parish), the said Ro. A. .\rniistead. further agreeing 
for himself his heirs and assigns that the said Pew \o. 
53 shall never be used for any other purpose than that 
for which the said Church has been consecrated and 
set apart and the rules and usages of the Episcopal 
Church in these United States sanction. In testimony 
whereof, we the said Rector. Wardens and Vestrymen 
of the said Church in said Parish have to these pres- 
ents set our hands and seals this 31st day of May in 
the year of our Lord i8.?o. 

(Signed) J. H. Wingfield. Rector. 


Ii'oi.T WiLSO.v, Warden^ 

J NO. Co.x. 

John Cocke, 

J.\MES Reed. 

Henry .A. T. Young. 

R. B. Bl-tt. 

s. m. l.\timer, 

J. Thompson, 

M. Cooke. 

Alex. G.\lt, 

Ro. A. Armiste.\d. 

On the 1st of Septemljer, 1800, Nancy 
Veale, wife of Capt. Isaac Luke, Jr., died in 
Portsmouth, in her 25th year, from grief on 
account of the death of her son, a little boy 27 
months old, whose death occurred only five 
days before her own. She had previously 
lost two little girls. After her death her hus- 
band, who was the captain and owner of a 
merchant ship, made a voyage to England and 
had carved in London, out of Italian marble, a 
slab representing a beautiful urn, alxmt five 
feet long and three feet across, tO' the memory 
of his wife and three children. This slab was 
fastened with large copper lx>lts to a brick wall 
which separated a small portion of Trinity 
Episcopal Church burying-ground, near the 
church, from the main jjortion of the cemetery, 
but during the Confederate War, while Ports- 
mouth was in jx>ssession of the Federal troops, 
some of them tore it down from the wiall to get 
the copper bolts out of it and in doing so broke 
it into eight pieces of different sizes. After 
the war, some of the relatives had the pieces 

, gathered together and fastened or cemented- 
upon a flat brick foundation built upon the 
ground. It was just inside the private gateway 

j leading into the churchyard from High street. 
When the church walls were extended, this 
slab, which was in the line of the extension, 
was taken up and carefully arranged in another 
portion of the ground with the intention of 
replacing it in some permanent location in the 

I cemetery. The artist wbo came from New 
York to design the interior decorations of the 
clunxh suggested having it set on the wall in- 
side the building. He said it was one of the 
handsomest pieces of memorial carving he had 
ever seen, and was a treasure of which no other 



cluirch in the country could boast. The sug- 
gestion was adopted and the memorial slab is 
fastened to the east wall of Trinity Church. 

Captain Luke did not long survive his wife. 
Aftei' bringing the slab home he sailed on an- 
other voyage, but his ship ne\er returned, nor 
was anything ever heard of him again. 
A\'hether his ship went down in a storm or 
was taken by pirates will never be known. 

All Saints' Chapel, Park View, Portsmouth, 
a mission of Trinity, now has the regular min- 
istration of Rev. Edgar Carpenter, who has 
lately been added to the church force in the 
city. This congregation is rapidly increasing 
and will soon l)ecome a separate organization. 

St. Joliii's Protestant Episcopal Cluirch. Ports- 

has had its location changed and been entirely 
rebuilt during the last twO' years. The old 
brick building and lot on Court street were 
sold, and a handsome stone church erected on 
the corner of London and Washington streets. 
It was dedicated September i, 1898. The 
church is of graceful proportions and of purely 
Gothic architecture. 

In 1896 St. John's Church reported to the 
convention 76 communicants. This year 
( 1900 ) it will report about 175, a gain of over 
100 per cent, in the last four years. St. John's 
has its mission in the rapidly growing suburb 
of Port Norfolk. The value of St. John's 
Church property, including lot for parish build- 
ing, is about $31,000. 

The old St. John's Church was established 
in Alay, 1848, and the church building conse- 
crated May 29, 1850. The first rector was Rev. 
James Chisholm, who died of yellow fe\'er 
Septemlier 15, 1855. Then followed Rev. 
Robert Jope from March, 1856, to December, 
1858: Rev. Henry Wall, 1861-62: Rev. John 
Crosbv, i86s: Rev. R. H. McKim, 1866-67: 
Rev. John Steele, 1868: Rev. J. D. Powell, 
186S to 1895: Rev. Z. S. Farland, December 
], 1895 .' 


There are two Episcopal churches and two 
missions in St. Bride's Parish : but for many 
years the church work in this parish was ex- 
tinct. The first church was built in 1662 at 
Great Bridge, on the Great Road just oppo- 
site the point where the New" Mill Creek road 
joins this great highway to North Carolina. 
Rev. James Pasteur was the first pastor. It is 
said that the funeral rites of Captain Fordyce, 
the English officer, who was killed in the bat- 
tle of Great Bridge, took place in this church, 
and that Re\-. John Hamilton Rowland, grand- 
father of Thomas B. Rowland of Norfolk, 
officiated. Sometime in the year 1776, Rev. 
Emanuel Jones, Jr., became the minister. In 
the year 1787, Rev. Needier Robinson was 
the rector, but remained only one year. The 
church went into disuse and was torn down 
about the year 1845. 

Re\-, Rolaert Gatewood established St. 
Paul's Church in Berkley in 1872, reviving the 
work of St. Bride's Parish : afterward St. 
Thomas' Church was organized : and since two 
missions, — St. Mary's and Money Point, — • 
have been established. Rev. E. C. Burr was 
the first rector of St. Thomas' Church ; he was 
succeeded by Rev. J. R. Hubert. D. D., and 
Rev. H. S. Lancaster. The present rector is 
Rev. Clarence N. Conant. 

Since 1637 the Episcopal Church in Nor- 
folk County has grown rapidly in wealth and 
influence, and added much in strengthening the 
moral and religious forces of this section. 

Belo'W we give the names of Protestant 
Episcopal churches in Norfolk, Portsmouth 
and Berkley, number of members, \aluation 
of property and money paid out in 1897-98. 


St. Luke's (Norfolk).... 625 

St. Peter's (Norfolk 230 

Christ (Norfolk) 554 

St. Paul's (Norfolk). ... 398 

Trinity { Portsmniitlil ... 361 

St. John's ( Portsmcnth ) . . 80 

St. Paul's (Berkley) 50 

St. Thomas' (Berkley).. 80 



paid out. 


$T 1,000 













Catholic Churches — Presbyterian Churches — Hebrew Synagogues — Church of Christ 
(Disciples) — Lutheran Church — Christian Churches — Baptist Churches — Meth- 
odist Episcopal Churches, South — Benevolent Organizations. 


St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church. Xorfolk, 

Of which Rev. Father Julm J- Duherty is pas- 
tor and Father O'Hara is assistant, occupies 
as its church domicile one of the finest speci- 
mens of Gothic architecture in \'irginia. Just 
when tlie first CathoHc Cliurch in Xorfolk was 
erected is in doubt, but on the grounds occu- 
pied by the present edifice there existed so late 
as 1850. an old church building, which had 
been for many years abandoned, the congrega- 
tion worshiping in a church building the walls 
of which are to a large degree preserved in the 
large Doric edifice at the rear of the present 
church, which until its destruction by fire in 
1856 was used as a church, and which, since 
then rebuilt, was for many years used as the 
domicile of St. ]\Iary's Male Academy, and 
since the removal of that valuable school to its 
present habitat, some three years ago, has been 
used as a hall for school and church fetes. 

The present church edifice was dedicated in 
1858. It was built under the supervision and 
as the result of the labors of Rev. Father 
O'Keefe, who succeeded Rev. Father Hitzel- 
berger in 1852, at the end of a 10 years' pas- 
torate, and was pastor of the church througji 
the terrible yellow fever scourge of 1855, ^'^' 

maining at his post of duty with a heroism that 
won the hearts of Xorfolk people without ref- 
erence to denominational belief. 

The destruction of the church by fire in 
1856 was a heavy blow to the congregation, 
but, rallying under Father O'Keefe's leader- 
ship, with splendid determination and self- 
sacrifice they put their shoulders to the task, 
and the new church building was the result. 
The old church was named St. Patrick's, but in 
1854 the dogma of the immaculate conception 
was promulgated by Pope Pius IX, and the 
new church was the first of any prominence, if 
not the first, in fact, in this country to take the 
name of St. Mary's of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion. The building alone (the shell) cost $65,- 
000, and to-day the propertv is valued at be- 
tween $125,000 and $150,000. It is now free 
from debt, and may be consecrated in the near 
future. Father Doherty has for 20 years been 
pastor of the church, and has seen it grow to a 
position of power and influence that must be 
pleasant to contemplate ; he numbers in his con- 
gregation many of the most prominent of Xor- 
folk's citizens. 

The church has under its care St. ]\Iary's 
Male. Academy, St. Mary's Female Academy 
and Orphan Asylum, and the St. \'incent de 
Paul Hospital. 

St. Marv's Male Academv is under the 



direct administration of the Xavierian Broth- 
ers. It is situated in a square bounded by 
Holt, Reilly, Mariner and Walke streets, has 
ample grounds, and has now about 200 names 
on its rohs. 

Another branch of Christian education un- 
der the charge of St. Mary's Church is the St. 
Mary's Female Academy and Orphan Asylum, 
both under the care and government of the 
Sisters of Charity, the first of which has about 
200 pupils on its rolls, the latter caring for ' 
some 50 orphans ; to each is given the loving- 
care and direction for \^■l^ich the Sisters are 

The data obtained in this sketch of St. 
Mary's Catholic Church only dates back as far 
as 1852, when Rev. Father Mathew O'Keefe 
became the pastor ; the congregation was wor- 
shiping at that time in the old church on Holt 
street, known as St. Patrick's, — on the morn- 
ing of December 8, 1856, this church was de- 
stroyed by fire, only three of its walls being left 
standing. Arrangements were at once made to 
rebuild, using the old house as a temporary 
place of worship while the new church was in 
course of erection, and on March 25 the con- 
gregation was again in possession of their old 
church. On the same day, which was the fes- 
tival of the Annunciation, the corner-stone of 
the present edifice, St. Mary's, was laid, and 
on the 3d of October, 1858, it was dedicated 
by Rt. Rev. Bishop McGill. In the interval 
between the laying of the corner-stone and the 
dedication of St. Mary's edifice the congrega- 
tion continued to- worship in their old church, 
while the work of erecting the new one was 
vigorously entered upon and pushed forward 
to completion. 

The present church, which is one of the 
handsomest and most imposing edifices in the 
city, was completed at a cost of $125,000. 
Since the building of this church an elegant 
pastor's residence adjoining it on the corner 
of Chapel and Virginia streets was erected at 
a cost of $12,000. St. Mary's Female Acad- 
emy and Orphan Asylum cost $30,000. The 

total valuation of the church property is 

The present pastor. Rev. Father John J. 
Doherty, succeeded Rev. Father O'Keefe in 
the fall of 1887, over 13 years ago, and under 
his ministrations the church has grown in 
numbers and influence. The present member- 
ship of St. Mary's is about 2,000 souls. 

Sacred Heart Roiuaii Catholic Church, 

In 1895 a number of the members, realizing 
the importance of having a second church in 
the city, withdrew from St. Mary's and formed 
a new congregation under the name of the 
Sacred Heart Church. A lot was purchased on 
the corner of York and Dunmore streets at a 
cost of $23,000, and a neat edifice erected 
thereon for $7,000. This church was built 
under the supervision of its first pastor. Rev. 
Father McCarty, who was succeeded by Rev. 
Father T. J. Wilson, whose successor is the 
present pastor, Rev. Father R. A. Drake. The 
membership consists of 1,000 souls. 

St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church, Ports- 

The f'lHo-wing historical account of this chvrch was 
written bi/ Mrs. Olivia S. Cooke, one of its oldest commn ni- 

The fi\"e Catholic churches which have 
been erected in the parish, now the city, of 
Portsmouth, Virginia, were all under the 
patronage of St. Paul. 

Early in the nineteenth century the land 
on which the present church was built was 
given by Patrick Robertson for that purpose; 
he also gave the land situated on the north side 
of High street, adjoining the land on which 
is now the Ocean House, with the tenements 
thereon, said land extending to Middle street. 
This was given for the benefit of the church 
when it should be erected. The congregation 
at that time was very small, consisting of a 
few French and Irish families. 



The first clnircli was a very small ijiick edi- 
fice. ])laced well back from either street and 
facing east, with a brick floor level with the 
srround. Immediatelv bevond the stone door- 
sill was the grave of the doiu>r, covered with 
a marble slab, uiXDn which his name was en- 
craved. The sacristv was in the northeast 
corner of the building and separated from the 
body of the church by tongue and gnxixed 
slabs: there was neither puli)it nor organ, and 
the whole interior was very i)lain. When this 
church was built the writer does not know. 
This parish was attended by the priest of Nor- 
folk, who also had a small congregation, com- 
posed of French refugees from San Domingo, 
who came here in October. 1799. The name 
of the re\erend father was DeLacy, who was 
also a refugee. The first priest who came to 
take charge of the Portsmouth congregation 
was Rev. jiiseph Van Ilorsigh. a native of 
Antwerp, who came in 1824, and remained un- 
til 1834- when he was sent to Washington, 
D. C".. where he lived until his deatli, April, 
185 1. 

The congregation increased so rapidly, it 
was found necessary to have a larger building; 
therefore the first church was pulled down and 
re])lacetl by a very attractive building. This 
church was built of brick, stuccoed all over, 
and the floor was aljout four feet fn;m the 
ground. Unlike its predecessor, it faced High 
street and was located back about eight feet 
from the pavement. This building was erected 
during the pastorate of Rev. Father Joseph 
Van Horsigh. After the church was com- 
pleted a row of cedars was planted on the 
west, north and east sides, which gave the 
building a very picture.sque appearance. A 
handsome fence separated the steps to the en- 
trance of the church from the street, and just 
inside the gate was a willow tree on either 
side, which added greatly to beautify the pic- 
ture. In this church there was a pulpit, an 
organ gallery, which was ]>laced over the door, 
an organ and a bell. Over the sanctuary altar, 
which was opposite the entrance to the church. 


letters. "'Rever- 

were the words in large 
ence IMy Sanctutary."' 

After Rev. Father Horsigh left the parish, 
in 1834, the ne.xt priest who succeeded him 
was a young German by the name of Burgess, 
who did not speak I-lnglish \ery plainly: he 
only remained six months. After his removal 
the next priest who came was Rev. Father 
Joseph Stoakes; he remained about 18 months 
or more. The congregation was then w ithout 
a priest for nearly two years, when, in the 
spring of 1839, Rev. Father Walter Moriarty 
was sent to take charge of the seemingly for- 
gotten congregation. 

During Rev. Father Aloriarty's time he 
had the church frescoed : the designs were 
"The Crucifixion." over the altar; "The Im- 
maculate Conception," on one side of the altar, 
and "The Annunciation,"' on the other side, 
and the "Twehe Apostles," six on each side 
of the church. The Rev. Father remained in 
charge until August, 1844. 

From that time until October of the same 
year the Catholic flock was left again without 
a shepherd, when the dear Lord took com- 
passion on this poor parish and sent to it Rev. 
Father Devlin, the priest and martyr. Fle re- 
mained in charge of the Portsmouth congre- 
gation 1 1 years, when he. too, was taken frcjm 
it. In 1855, when the two cities of Ports- 
mouth and Norfolk were visited by the dread- 
ful scourge, yellow fever, the good father was 
indefatigable in his efforts to relieve the sick 
of all grades, classes and religions, without 
any distinction, until, overcome by the terrible 
strain upon his system, he, tot), fell a victim to 
the fever. After rallying twice, the third at- 
tack concjuered and' he was called to fill a 
martyr's grave. He did not leave his charge 
without a monument to his memory, which 
was the third church built on the same site. 

The congregation ha\ing the second time 
outgrown the church, the one built during the 
administration of Rev. Father \'an Horsigh 
was pulled down and a nuich larger one built. 
This church was commenced in 18:; i. and also 




fronted High street and stood a little back 
from the street. The first mass offered' up in 
this church was on Sunday, February 13, 1853, 
and Re\'. Father Joseph H. Plunkett, a dear 
friend of Father De\'lin's, preached at night on 
"Purgatory." After the death of Father Dev- 
lin in October, 1855, Rev. Father Plunkett re- 
quested his' place, and was sent in January, 
1856, to fill it. Notwithstanding the havoc 
made in the congregation by the fever, the 
church had to he enlarged by running galleries 
on the east and west sides of the building. 

This church was of short duration, for it 
was scarcely finished' when it was leveled to 
the ground by fire in April, 1859, caused by 
the hand of an incendiary; not, as at first be- 
lieved, from any malice to Catholics, but as a 
means to rescue friends who were confined in 
the jail, which building was on the southeast 
corner of High and \\'ashington streets, op- 
posite the church. This belief was strength- 
ened ]jv the absence of the very persons the 
ne.xt morning; how they escaped no one knew, 
but all thought it occurred during the excite- 
ment at the fire, especially as many persons 
remembered seeing a hack standing not far 
from the jail "on A\'ashington street. 

The fourth church was commenced as soon 
as arrangements could be made to begin so 

great an undertaking'. 

The first thing that 

take charge 

Brady was sent to 
which had been 

was done was to fill up the marsh on the west 
side of the church, for that part of the yard, 
as well as what is now Washington street, was 
then, and for many years previous, nothing 
but a marsh. After that the foundation of the 
fourth church was commenced, making the 
front on ^Vashing■ton street, with an entrance 
also on High. This church was commenced 
about i860, but many years elapsed before it 
was completed, the war between the States 
being a drawback. It was, however, so ar- 
ranged that it could be used for divine service. 
At the close of the war Rev. Father Plun- 
kett began to solicit subscriptions and was en- 
abled t(i improve his handsome edifice greatly. 
This church was very much larger than any of 
the iithers. and yet none too large, as the con- 

gregation had increased in proportion. Like 
its predecessor, it met the same sad fate, as it 
W'as burned to the ground on Sunday, 4 a. m., 
March 28, 1897. 

Rev. Father Plunkett, like his friend, Fa- 
ther Devlin, did not live to see the destruction 
of his beautiful monument, for his anxietv and 
efforts to get the church completed Isrought on 
a spell of sickness, which finally caused his 
death at St. Vincent's Hospital, Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, on February 3. 1870. Father Plunkett 
was brought over to his home on the following 
day and laid in state before the altar on which 
he had offered up the holy sacrifice so often ; 
he was buried on Sunday, February 6, at the 
foot of the altar, just on the outside of the 
sanctuary rail. Rev. Father William Hanley 
was sent as assistant to Father Plunkett dur- 
ing his sickness and remained for some time 
after his death. 

Rev. Father Tlmmas J. 
of the parish 
filled for 14 years by the much Ijeloved and 
lamented Father Plunkett. Rev. Father Bradv 
took charge in October, 1870, and went to 
work with a good will and deternunation to 
carry on the work which was so well begun by 
Rev. Fathers Devlin and Plunkett. In the 
course of time Rev. Father ^^'illiam Hanley 
was sent as his assistant. Rev. Father Brady 
by his efforts had nearly relie\-ed the church of 
the debt commenced by Father Plunkett, when 
it was burned. The pressure on the mind of 
our good and much beloved pastor. Rev. Fa- 
ther Brady, caused by this terrible calamity, 
was very great. Howe\-er, steps were immedi- 
ately taken to build another and much hand- 
somer church, and on February 2. 1898, the 
first dirt was thrown up to begin its founda- 
tion. Father Brady began work with a firm 
determination, andi by his zeal and the exer- 
tions of his congregation, with the kind assist- 
ance of outside friends, the fifth and the most 
beautiful church of all is on a fair way of 
being completed in a much shorter time than 
was at first expected. As this will be the good 
father's monument, it is to be ho-ped he will not 



only live to see it completed, but that lie will 
live to offer up di\ ine service in it for many 
years yet t<> come. 

Tiie first sacrament of confuMnation tiiat 
ever to<.)k place in the Catholic Church in Ports- 
nioutii was in 1830. in tiie first little churcli. 
Archbishop \\'hitefiel(l. Fourth .\rclibisiiop of 
Baltimore, was the celebrant, and Mrs. Olivia 
S. Cooke is the last of that little band who 
were then made soldiers of Christ. The first 
marriage that ever took place in church wa,s in 
the sec<;nd eilifice: the parties were Miss \'ir- 
ginia Bilisoly, daughter of Sylvester Antonio 
Bilisoly and sister of the late Jose])h A. 
Bilist)ly. to Dr. Laurensco Jose Moniz, of Lis- 
bon. Portugal. Ke\ . Father Van Horsigh per- 
formed the cerenmny. which took place in July, 
1S33. The second marriage, which took place 
in the same church, was that of Patrick Henry 
Ciioke to Olivia S. Bilisoly. on Monday. Sep- 
tember 16. 1844. The stationed priest of Nor- 
folk at that time. Rev. Father Alexander Hitz- 
elberger. was the celebrant. 

( !Mrs. ) Olivia S. Cooke. 

fact may be readily accounted for, however, by 
the periods of intolerance and persecution, of 
long duration, through the intervening years. 
From the records of the Norfolk County 
Court we learn that Rev. Josias Mackie was 
licensed in 1692 to preach at three points, — 
the house of Thomas Ivy, on the Eastern 
Branch ; the house of Richard Phillpot, on Tan- 
ner's Creek, and the house of John Roberts, on 
the Western Branch, and. in 1696. the house 
of John Dickson, on the Southern Branch. At 
a court held for Norfolk Countv in Januarv, 

These arc to certify to their worships. His Majes- 
ty's justices tor Xorfolk County, that I the suh>crihcr 
do pitch upon a house, last summer erected and now 
liuilt upon tlie land hclonging unto Ricliard Butt. Senr.. 
in the Southern Branch for one of our appointed places 
of public meeting for divine worship and administra- 
tion of Gospel ordinances, requesting tliat the same 
may be entered a record under niy hand the first year 
of His Majesty's reign, this 17th day of Jamiary. 1714. 

Josias M.vckie. 

The above request granted and ordered to be re- 

Thos. Bl-tt. Dcl'uly Clerk. 


First Prcshytcri.iii Church. Xorfolk. 

Presbyterianism in Norfolk is a heritage 
from the early days of religious life and ac- 
tivity in .America. Rev. Francis Mackemie was 
one c»f the first and most prominent of the 
apostles of this faith in the New World. His 
lal)ors were spent chiefly in Maryland and the 
regii>n northward, but in May. 1684. he vis- 
ited the part of \'irginia lying on the Elizabeth 
River, and there found an organized Presby- 
terian Church, of which, in a letter preserved 
by the Massachusetts Historical Society, he 
says: "I found there a desolate people mourn- 
ing the loss of their dissenting minister, whom 
the Lord had been pleased to remo\e by death 
the ])revious summer." We may infer that 
their work began some time before this, and 
date the Ijeginning of their church life some 
time about the year 1680. From this time to 
1 7 10 there are no records of the church. Tliis 

Norfolk became a town in 1705. Mr. 
Mackie died in 1716, as recorded by the Nor- 
folk County Court, and his people are spoken 
of in a letter of the Philadelphia PrcsbNlery 
as "the congregation on the Elizabeth River." 

In 1801 the General Assembly appointed 
Rev. Benjamin Grigsby to itinerate through 
the lower parts of Virginia. By invitation of 
the church in the borough of Norfolk, of which 
John jMcPhail and William McKinder were 
ruling elders, he because identified' with its 
work, and during the year 1802-03 succeeded 
in having a building erected at a cost of $12,- 
000. This building still stands at the corner 
of Bank and Charlotte streets, in good preser- 
vation ; and the church organizatioh in the 
"Borough of Norfolk" continues as the First 
Presbyterian Church. In 18 14 the number of 
communicants in this church was 43. In 1840 
the congregation, which numbered 122 com- 
municants, removed to its new building on 
Church street, which is the present spiritual 



hunie of the large and* flourishing assemlily of 
their descendants and successors. 

FroiiT the completion of the church l>uild- 
ing in 1802 to the year 1822 the elements for 
the communion service in the church were fur- 
nished' by the grandmother of Hugh Blair 
Grigsby and John B. Whitehead, and' from 
that date to^ December, i860, l>v their mother; 
and by Mrs. John B. \Vhitehead, with the ex- 
ception of three years during the Confederate 
War, until her death, and then by her daughter 
until the present time. So' from under the 
same roo-f for a hundred years less five have 
been borne the sacred elements for communion 
in the First Presbyterian Church. 


Rev. Francis Makeniie 1683-1692 

Rev. Josias Mackie 1692-1716 

Rev. Benjamin Grigsby' 1801-1810 

Rev. John H. Rice. D. D 1811-1814 

Rev. John D. Paxton, D. D 1814-1819 

Rev. Joshua T. Rns.sell 1820-1824 

Rev. Shepard K. Kollock, D. D 1825-1834 

Rev. John D. Matthews, D. D 1835-1840 

Rev. Samuel J. Cassells 1841-1846 

'Rev. S. J. P'. Anderson, D. D 1846-1851 

Rev. G. D. Armstrong, D. D., LL. D 1851-1891 

Rev. James I. Vance, D. D. . . .Oct. 2, i8gi-Feb. 1, 1895 

Rev. James R. Howerton. D. D June 19, 1895 

Rev. Edward Mack, D. D 1900 

In 1 85 1 Rev. George D. Armstrong be- 
came pastor, and for 40 years continued in 
the relation, sharing with the church the joy 
of her achievements, as well as the sadness 
and burden of her trials. These latter were no 
ordinary dispensations, such as are common to 
men, but scenes of bleeding hearts, and want 
and death — of pestilence and war. In 1855, 
during the summer of the pestilence, the church 
was brought almost to desolation. By the ist 
of September only 87 communicants remained 
in the cit_V. Some had died and many had fled 
from the fever. The pastor remained. Of the 
87 remaining nrembers few escaped the pesti- 
lence, and 32 (lied. After the scourge passed 
away hope returned, the life of the church was 
revi\'ed and she kept on her way until the war 
came on, and again her trials were multiplied. 

Her, pastor was remo\-ed under an arbitrary 
military order and confined to a harsh military 
exile for 15 months. 

After the war prosperity returned and the 
church continued to be a center (jf light and of 
moral and* spiritual power in the community, 
an exponent of evangelical Christianity and a 
perpetual admonition' against all imrighteous- 

In July, 1891, the congregation celebrated 
the 40tli anniversary of the installation of Dr. 
Armstrong as pastor. This anniversary also 
marked the termination of the pastorate that 
had been so long and tenderly cherished. 

Rev. Edward Mack, D. D., is the pastor 
of the church at this writing; there are 17 offi- 
cers, a membership of 600, and the estimated 
value of church property is $85,000. 

All the Presbyterian churches of the com- 
munit}-, including those of Portsmouth and 
Berkley, are the offspring of this mother 

Second Presbyterian Church, Xorfolk, 

Was organized in 1872 with 50 members, three 
elders and three deacons. In February, 1873, 
Rev. N. M. Woods was called to the pastorate, 
and the present church building on Freemason 
street was erected at a cost of about $15,000. 
After the retirement of Rev. Mr. Woods, Rev. 
E. O. Frierson \\-as called to the pastorate, and 
continued in charge for several years. He was 
succeeded by Rev. R. Moreton, who' contiinied 
to supplv the pulpit for a limited time. 

In October, 1888, Rev. ^\'illiam S. Lacy 
was installed pastor, and' continued in this po- 
sition, honored and loved by his people and the 
good people of the entire cit}-, until failing 
health compelled him tO' resign in 1899. ^x- 
tensi\-e improvements were made in the church 
building this year, adding much to the attract- 
iveness and comfort. In January, 1900, Re\'. 
J. Ernest Thacker entered uimn the pastorate. 
The memliership now numbers 254, with five 
elders and seven deacons. The church prop- 
erty is valued at $25,000. 




Collcv Memorial Presbyterian CJiurch. 

X or folk'. 


Was organized in iiS83. uilli Rev. L. H. Bald- 
win as pastor. His active services continued 
until 1S89. during which time the work ])ros- 
l)ered. Rev. R. .A. Robinson was elected ])as- 
tor in 1890. In January, 1898, Rev. C. \\'. 
Maxwell was installed pastor, and continues 
in that position. The members number 177. 
with live elders and six deacons. The esti- 
mated value of the church propert\- is $00,000. 

Parle Avenue Presbyterian Cliureh. Xorfolh, 

\\'as organized in 1884 with a roll of 40 com- 
municants, three ciders and three deacons. 
Rev. E. B. McCluer was its first pastor, and 
continues in that position. The church has had 
a moderate but substantial growth. Its mem- 
bership now numbers 180. with four elders and 
seven deacons; the church property is valued 
at about $12,000. 

Lambert's Point Prcsbvterian Church. 

Was organized in 1897. The church is pros- 
])ering under the ministry of Rev. C. IX dil- 
keson. The church has an attractive building, 
a faithful .set of officers and an earnest i^eople. 
'I'he number nf members is 63, with two elders 
and two deacons: the estimated \alue of the 
church pro])crty is $5,000. 

Park Place Presbyterian Church. .Yorfolk. 

Is the youngest church of this communion in 
the city. ha\ing been organizetl in May. 1899. 
with a membership of 7,2. Rev. George W. 
Lawson is its zealous and popular ])astor. The 
membership is now 39. with three elders and 
tliree deacons. The church has a handsome 
building, valued at $7,000. 

.-}r)nslrong Memorial PresbYferinn Church. 

This churcli was named for the distin- 
guished divine. Kew fleorge D. Armstrong, 
D. D. It was establi.shed alxxit 10 vears ago. 

with II meml)ers, and they have increased to 
106. The church building cost about $0,000. 
The first pastor was Rev. E. L. Scott ; he was 
succeeded bv Rev. E. B. McCluer : then Rev. 
H. G. Miller, who was followed by Re\-. W. .\. 
Slaymaker, the present pastor. 

first Presbyterian Church. Portsmouth. 

In the nmnth (if May in the year i8_'_'. the 
old church which stood (;n the northwest cor- 
ner of Middle and London streets in the city 
of Portsmouth was solemnly dedicated to the 
worship of God by Rev. Benjamin H. Rice, of 
Petersburg, Virginia, and the church, known 
as the Middle Street Presbyterian Church, was 
formally organized with five members. How 
long previous to that date Presbyterian serv- 
ices had been held in this city is not kmiwn 
with accuracy ; it is known, however, that 
prayer meetings with occasional preaching, 
conducted under PIresbyterian auspices, had 
been held for .several years previnus to the 
organization of this church. Rev. John D. 
Paxton. D. D.. of Norfolk, and Re\-. Joshua 
T. Rus.sell, between 1814 and 1824, held oc- 
casional services in p/rivate houses in (iosport; 
and for a vear i>r nmre Presbyterian services 
were held in Trinity Protestant Episcopal 
Church, which at that time had no regular 
recti ir. After these services in Trinity Church 
were discontinued the Presbyterians used the 
school-house of Anson Brooks on the south- 
east corner of .Middle and London streets. 

During 1820 or the early part of 1821 the 
first steps were taken towards the building of a 
Presbyterian church, the leading sjjirits being 
Anson Brooks and Francis Grice. and it was 
mainly through the efforts of these gentlemen 
the first church was built. The lot. 180 by 
56^4 feet, was purcha.sed in July. 182 1, for 
the sum of $500 from Mrs. Barbary Dougald, 
of Al)erdeen. Scotland. The five members who 
constituted the church were Francis Cirice, his 
mother, Mary Grice, Dorothy King, Jane Dick- 
son and Ai)igail Maulson. The first i>astor 
was Rev. T. T- Pierce, wlio continued until 



January, 1823, and the first member received 
into tlie churcli was Mrs. Susan Perry. The 
first child baptized was Virginia Grice, daugh- 
ter of Francis Grice. The first regularly in- 
stalled pastor of this church was Rev. Joseph 
C. Smith, who continued about three years and 
was succeeded b}- Re\'. R. F. Cleveland, who 
served only one year. The next pastor was 
Rev. William Neill, who continued until the 
dissension between the Old and Xew School 
Presbyterians arose. He sided with the "Old," 
but the majority of his flock went with the 
"New School." 

Re\'. James Stratton succeeded him. In 
December, 1842, L. W. Boutwell was elected 
and ordained a ruling elder, and in December, 
1843, H. V. Xiemeyer; the fomier fell a vic- 
tim to the yellow fever and the latter died in 
1883, ha\ing served for 40 years. 

Rev. James M. Kinball was elected pastor 
in February, 1848, and died March 2, 1849, 
from the effects of a fall. He had a twin 
brother so much alike that it was with diffi- 
culty one could be distinguished fronr the other. 
Some months after the death of the minister 
this brother visited the city and, unannounced, 
appeared at the weekly prayer meeting in the 
church, which caused great consternation in 
the assembly, and some thought the deceased 
pastor had arisen from the grave. 

Rev. G. W. Xoyes was the next pastor, and 
he was succeeded by Rev. Charles Evaiiis. 
Under this pastor. Dr. John W. H. Trugien 
was ordained a ruling elder, who, although 
having a large practice, always made it a point 
to attend divine services at his church. He 
was one of the heroes who fell at his post of 
duty, laboring to relieve the suffering of his 
felliiw men during' the pre\^alence of yellow 
fever in 1855. Rev. Alexander Porter became 
pastor next, and while he serve<l the church 
the High Street Presbyterian Church was or- 
ganized with 17 members and Rev. Robert J. 
Taylor was called tO' its charge, who left in 
1862 to Ije a chaplain in the Confederate 

Rev. I. W. K. Handy succeeded Rev. Mr. 

Porter in December, 1854, and remained in 
charge until 1862, when he was arrested, 
thrown into prison by the Federal government 
and held for 15 months. Tlie two churches 
were without pastors during the Confederate 
War, and at its close were united, with the 
Rev. James Murry as minister, who was suc- 
ceeded in the spring of 1867 by Rev. D. C. 
Irwin, who was followed in 1873 by Rev. J. 
M. Rose. On the 7th of January, 1877, while 
the congregation were engaged in religious 
service, the building was discovered to be on 
fire. The benediction was pronounced and the 
congTegation retired' in an orderly manner. A 
short while after the sacred edifice was in 

The location was changed to the northeast 
corner of King and Court streets and a hand- 
some new church edifice was dedicated on the 
26th day of September, 1877. Rev. Mr. Rose 
having resigned. Rev. R. Henderson was in- 
stalled on April 14, 1881, who served until 
1884, when Rev. T. Peyton Waltotu was called 
tO' fill the vacancy. Rev. R. L. McMurran suc- 
ceeded him and entered upon his duties Oc- 
tober 25, 1885, and this devoted Christian 
labored here until his death. September 28, 
1892. The vacancy was supplied by Rev. John 
L. Allison, who was succeeded by Rev. R. B. 
Eggleston, the present pastor. The elders are : 
William H. Stokes, Paul C. Trugien, William 
A, Culpepper, E. L. Lash, E. R. Barksdale 
and E. S. Burgess ; the membership is 300. 

There is a church at Pinner's Point and a 
mission chapel at Prentice Place, suburbs of 
Portsmouth, both ser\-ed by Rev. J. \\'. Lacy. 
The property, all told, consists of five build- 
ings, with an estimated value of $30,000. 


There are two' Hebrew Synagogues in Nor- 
folk and several congregations which are 
without a regular place of worship. 

Bcth-El, Norfolk. 

The synagogue of the Orthodox Hebrews, 
was founded Iw A. L. Goldsmith and Jacob 



Ulustadter. Mr. Goldsmith was the graiid- 
fatlier ot Messrs. Nusbaum, of this city. The 
building is located on Cumlierland street, op- 
posite the Xorfolk Academy. J. \\\ Spagat 
is president and Lewis Nusbaum vice-presi- 
dent. The late Samuel Seldner was president 
for a number of years. The rabbi, Rev. H. 
Benmoshe, is a native of London, England, 
and enjoys repute as a scholar. There is a 
Sabbath-school attached to the synagogue, 
having about J^ to 100 children iij regular 

Oltef Sliolem Temple, A^orfolk. 

Is the Reformed Church, and was founded in 
1836. Rev. S. R. Cohen is the rabbi. He 
succeeded Rev. B. Eberson, who for many 
years officiated as rabbi and is now traveling 
abroad. The officers of the congregation are 
as follows : I. Moritz, president ; Jacob Hecht, 
vice-president ; Mr. Gdldman. secretary ; V. 
Strasburger, treasurer. The congregation has 
recently given out the contract for a handsome 
new house of worship, to be situated on Free- 
mason street, near Granby. The present lo- 
cation is on Church street, facing- Freemason. 
Their services are largely attended. The choir 
is excellent, containing some of the best vocal 
talent. The congregation numbers about 96 
families, and is constantly growing, 

Chcvra Goiiiley, Porfsiiioiitli. 

The colony of Hebrews in Portsmouth of 
Russian. Polish and other nativity growing to 
such an e.xtent, it became necessan,- for them 
to have a place of worship, and just a few 
years ago. after using the City Hall and other 
places, they purchased the club room of the 
old Portsmouth Club, which for many years 
stood on Middle street. This structure they 
moved to a vacant lot which they had bought 
on High street near Washington, and on which 
they made many impnnenients. Not long ago 
they bought a lot on \\'ashington street near 
County, but subsequently sold it. This con- 

gregation, which is known as Chevra Gomley, 
has purchased the Central Methodist Church 
structure, the congregation of which will move 
into the new edifice to be erected in the very 
near future at the corner of South and Wash- 
ington streets. 

Church of Christ (Disciples), Norfolk. 

Prior to 1867 there was not a member of 
this body of Christians in Xorfolk. During 
that year a gentleman and his wife moved here 
from Richmond, \'irginia. They Ijegan in a 
few months to celebrate the Lord's Supper, 
which is a weekly custom with this body of 
Christians, in their own home, having from 
time to time their friends to meet with them. 
Xi>w and then a new member would move into 
Xorfolk, and soon the plan was adopted of 
holding Lord's Day services from house to 
house. This was continued from year to year 
until 1873. when a liall was procured and iledi- 
cated and a church organized with 13 members. 
A pastor was at once employed. This hall was 
used until 1879, when the present building was 
erected on Freemason street between Brewer 
and Bank. The church was dedicated in De- 
cember, 1879. The present membership is 
about 200. This church, while poor, has al- 
wavs been self-supporting, and has done a 
marvelous work in the way of contrilniting to 
every good work. It is pre-eminently a mis- 
sionary church. It has had from time to time 
a number of able and cultured pastors. It has 
accomplished great good in this city and com- 
mimity. The present pastor is Rev. Ben C. 
Herr, an accomplished gentleman, a fine 
scholar, a preacher of rare ability and a m<->st 
excellent pastor. The outlook for the church 
has never been brighter. The members (Dis- 
ciples) number 450; die valuation cf the 
cluirch property is $25^000. 

Lutheran Church, Xorfolk. 

On the 20th of May, 1896, Rev. J- E. 
Shenk was sent to X'^oi-folk bv the Lutheran 



Synod to sur\-ey the tield and gather together 
the scattered members of that church who were 
residing here and form a congregation. Al- 
though an entire stranger, Rev. Mr. Shenk en- 
tered with a will upon his arduous labors and 
with a firm reliance in the Great Head of the 
Church and knowing no^ such word as fail 
succeeded in a very short time in organizing 
a church of that denomination with about 20 
members. W'ith this small nucleus Rev. Mr. 
Shenk continued unceasingly to> labor until at 
the end of six years he has now a congregation 
of 158 members, a fine Sunday-school and a 
comfortable and cosy edifice on Charlotte 
street, purchased from the M. E. Church, 
which has been handsomely fitted up with an 
attractive stone front and modern improve- 
ments on the interior, at a cost of about $8,- 
000. ' Services are held there regularly every 
Sunday morning and night and on W' ednesday 
e\'enings of each week. 


Memorial Clirisficvi Temple. A'orfolk. 

The history of this church dates back to 
the year 1889. The first meeting was held No- 
veml>er 11, 1889, ^'^ ^^'^^ residence of Mr. and 
Mrs. A. L. Hill, No. 222 Freemason street. 
This was an informal meeting, which resulted 
in the appointment oif a finance committee, 
and through this committee a call was at once 
extended tO' Rev. C. J. Jones, D. D., of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, November 16. 1889. Dr. Jones ac- 
cepted this call and entered upon his work early 
in the following year. About this time the 
committee to provide a place of worship pur- 
chased the Charlotte street chapel. March 7, 
1890. and the friends of the enterprise met in 
the said chapel and enrolled 40 members. At 
a subsecpient meeting, held April 18, 1890. 12 
new names were added. May 29. 1890, the 
church met and elected officers as follows: 
Deacons, Col. .\. Savage, Samuel A. Ether- 
edge and A. M. Eley; secretary, T. A. Jones; 
treasurer, A. Savage: ushers, P. H. Savage 
and James A. Elev. 

Under the labors of Dr. Jones, the new or- 
ganization rapidly increased in its member- 
ship. In 1895 Dr. Jones tendered his resig- 
nation, to take effect August 31st, he having 
accepted a call to Marion, Indiana. July 31, 
1895, Rev. J. Pressley Barrett, the present 
pastor, was called and entered upon his duties 
the first Sundiay in September, having been 
formally installed on the evening of August 
27th, the day before Dr. Jones left for Marion. 

The work of this church has been en- 
couraging. Under, the labors of the present 
pastor and his associates the church has wit- 
nessed several gracious revivals, and its de- 
velopment along spiritual and missionary lines 
has been marked. Up to the year 1895 the 
church had been supported in part by the 
mission boards of the church at large. In the 
beginning of the present pastorate the church 
undertook its own support, and' its success 
has been phenomenal, for, while it is not a 
wealthy congregation, it has surprised its 
friends generally by not only supporting itself 
but also by supporting a native preacher in 
Japan and from time to time several Bible 
women in India and Africa. 

It is now undertaking to raise the neces- 
sary funds to send and support a missionary 
in Armenia. It hopes to find the missionary 
for Armenia among its own membership. 

Its financial condition is encotu'aging. It 
receives no offerings other than the free-will 
offerings of the people. It will ha\e no enter- 
tainment or 03'ster supper monev for its work, 
and since the adoption of this rule its finances 
ha\'e Iieen in a growing condition, and they 
find the money easier to raise by direct giving 
than by indirect methods. It has received 37 
members since No\-ember i, 1899, and now 
has 300 members. It has for the past two' or 
three years raised annuall}- from $2,500 to 
$2,700. It hopes soon to reach' its motto : 
To gi\-e as much annually for the support of 
the gospel in the foreign field as it does for its 
home wOrk. 

The present edifice was erected under the 
zealous labors of Dr. Jones at a cost of $18,- 



000. and the church as a bcxly has discharged 
its iiulehtcdness and now enjoys the privileg;es 
of its handsome, coinniodiou 
free from debt. 

brick Iniilding 

PriK'idciicc Christian Cliitrcli 

Is one of the oldest clnirches in Norfolk 
County, four miles from Xorfnlk, mi the hio-h- 
way to Great Bridge. 

About the l)eginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury man\- ministers of the gospel, viewing the 
increase of bitterness among the various sects 
of Christians in the State, and lieliexing it the 
result of a di\'ersity of sentiment on doctrines 
of minor im])ortance. felt seriously impressed 
with the idea that these troubles might be 
ended bv an association upon principles more 
liberal than those hitherto pursued. They 
contended that Christians might live in the ut- 
most love and affection by allowing each other 
the privilege of thinking for themselves, which 
])ri\ilege each one. taken separately, wishes to 

They therefore united together under the 
common a])i)ellation. — Christian. — which was 
given tn the primitive Disciples at Antioch. 
taking for their rule both of faith and prac- 
tice the Holy Scriptures. Animated by tlie 
spirit of Christ, some ministers commenced 
laboring for the ?^Iaster in St. Bride's Parish. 
Norfolk County. Virginia, and '"many found 
forgi\-eness for their complicated crimes." 
These, with Elder X. P. Tatem. who after- 
ward became pastor, gave to each other the 
right hand of fellowship in 1804 and organ- 
ized a church known as "Providence." From 
1804 to 1 81 7 no records of the church con- 
fei^ences have been preserved. 

Delegates from the ^•arious churches of 
Tidewater. Virginia, met at Providence in 
^lay. 1817. and formed a union which after- 
ward became what is now the Eastern \'ir- 
ginia Christian Conference. 

Tn Mav, 1820. at a conference held at Re- 
publican Chapel. Isle of Wight County. Elder 
Nelson Miller, of Providence Church, was 

chosen a delegate to meet the brethren of the 
North in general conference, which was held 
at Windham, Connecticut, to seek to bring 
alx)ut a union between the brethren of the 
North and of the South. This was accon:- 
lilished and continued until the breaking out 
cif the war between the States. A conference 
of the churches of this section met in Ports- 
mouth. May, 1821. 

The record shows the membership of 
Providence Christian Church in 182 1 to have 
been only 36. In 1829 the membership was 
considerably over 100. 

Following are some of the jiastors of the 
church and the time which the}- served as such, 
viz : 

Rev. \'. P. Tatem 1804- 

Rov. Tn.;luia TJvpsav 1804- 

Rev. Nelson Miller TS04- 

Rev. Mills B. Barrett iS.^o- 

Rev. Tnslnia Livesay ^^4r■- 

Rev. William Tatem iSjg- 

Rev. Na-h Tatem l8=iJ- 

Rev. Mills B. Barrett t8:;6- 

Rev. W. H Bovkin 1860- 

Rev. P. .'^. P. Corbin 1868 

Rev. C. .\. .Annie 1869 

Rev. W. R. WclloiT^ 1870- 

Rev. T. N. Manning 1870- 

Rev. R. C. Tuck iSyj- 

Rev. H. H. Butler 1878- 

Rev. G. A. Beebe 1878- 

Rev. R. A. Ricks iR<S7- 

Rev. T. Presslev Barrett, D. D i8qo- 

Rev. W. S. Lone. n. n i8g6- 

Rev. T. P. Barrett. D. D i8g8- 

Rev. G. W. Tickle i8q9- 

Rev. J. P. Barrett. D. D 1900 

Bcrca Clirisliaii Clnirch. 




Near Great Bridge, Norfolk Cminty, was pur- 
chased from the Methodists alxmt 1865, and 
since which time its congregation has steadily 
increased. It is now served \)v Rev. J. ^^^ 

Rev. 'S\. P. Porter is jiastor of the Chris- 
tian Church in TVrkley. 

CliiircJihind Baptist Cliiiirh 

Is called after the village of that name, which 



is the center of the richest agricultural dis- 
trict of this section. The church was first 
called Shoulder's Hill, being a branch of the 
original Shoulder's Hill Church, about six 
miles distant in Nansemoaid County. A 
church was built here in 1829, when the place 
was called Sycamore Hill, and for a period of 
32 years the congregation worshiped alter- 
nately at Shoulder's Hill and Sycamore Hill. 

Regular pastoral services were kept up 
during the Confederate War by Rev. Reuben 
Jones, who had been pastor since 1855. On 
the third Sunday night in November, 1873, 
the edifice was destroyed by an incendiary fire. 
In the spring of 1869 a new building, which 
cost upward of $6,000, was dedicated by Rev. 
J. L. Burrows, D. D. 

The Churdhland Baptist Church is one of 
the very few country churches that employs a 
pastor all the time and furnishes a parsonage 
for him in which to live. This church is 
somewhat noted' for its liberal and systematic 
contributions to the objects of benevolence; 
and for the fidelity and promptness with which 
they pay the pastor's salary ; and for the good 
Sabbath-school work; and for the orderly de- 
portment of the congregations. 

Rev. Reuben Jones served this church un- 
til his death, when the vacancy was filled by 
Rev. A. B. Dunaway, D. D., now of Port Nor- 
folk, and after the latter's resignation, the pres- 
ent pastor, Rev. William V. Savage, was 
called. The church property is valued at $1,- 
200. There are 185 members. 

Court Street Baptist C'hurcli, Portsmouth, 

Was constituted in the year 1789. under the 
labors of Rev. Thomas Armistead, who was 
an officer in the Revolutionary Army. He was 
of high family and rich connections. He was 
pastor until the year 1792. In 1791 the Ports- 
mouth Baptist Association was formed in this 
church. After the resignation of Rev. Mr. 
Armistead the church declined greatly, and at 
one time between 1792 and 1802 the church 
employed a colored man by the name of Jacob 

Bishop to be its pastor. Thomas Etheredge 
and Jacob Grigg, in their turn, served the 
church as pastors for a short while. 

In 1802 Rev. David Biggs became pastor, 
and the church became once more prosperous, 
but his 'removal to the western country caused 
a decline in the Baptist cause in Portsmouth. 

It is cause of deep regret that the records 
of the church are lost from the foundation to 
the year 1854. The facts mentioned above 
are taken from Semple's "History of the Rise 
and' Progress of the Baptists in Virginia." 

We learn from the older members of the 
church that the next pastor after Rev. Mr. 
Biggs was Rev. Thomas Bunting, but how 
long he was pastor and what was the con- 
dition of the church we have no means of 
knowing. The next pastor was Rev. Smith 
Sherwood, who served the church a short 
time, but labored in the lower part of the as- 
sociation all of his life; he left a family when 
he died, the most of whom are still living, 
and some of them are members of this church 
at this time. Rev. Mr. Sherwood was suc- 
ceeded in the pastorate by Rev. Mr. Woolford, 
but we are unable to give any information in 
regard to the condition of the church at that 

The next pastor, so far as we can learn, 
was Rev. D. M. ^Vood'Son, A\-ho was an able 
preacher and an upright man. He took charge 
of the dhurch in 1821, and remained 10 years. 
The church was quite prosperous under his 
labors, but in consequence of a cancer he be- 
came' unable to preach, and after his resigna- 
tion Rev. Thomas Hume, Sr., was called to 
the pastorate. He became pastor on the 17th 
day of ]\Iarch, 1833, and continued in that re- 
lation until October, 1854, at which time he 
commenced a new interest in that portion of 
the city of Portsmouth known as Newtoavn, 
and the Fourth Street Baptist Church was the 
result of his labors. Under the guidance of 
Elder Hume, the church attained a higher de- 
gree of prosperity than had ever marked her 
history. At the conmiencement of his labors 
the church worshiped in a small, wood house 



at tlie corner of Queen and Court streets, but 
in a few years they erected a brick house front- 
ing on Court street. For the completion of 
this liouse tlie members made great sacrifices. 
Many of tlie male members, who were me- 
chanics, worked on tlie building at night after 
having worked all day where they were em- 
ployed, nie house was completed in the year 
183S, and remains a moiutment to their zeal, 
de\i»tion and self-denial. Under the wise coun- 
sel of Rev. Mr. Hume the church became one 
of the most liberal churches in the State, and 
was active in the cause of missions, Sunday- 
schools and all means of spreading the king- 
dom of Christ. On the resignation of Rev. 
Mr. Hume, Rev. S. M. Carter supplied the 
pulpit for a short time. 

In 1855. when the yellow fe\er scourged 
the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, many 
of the leading members of the church died. 
Rev. Cornelius Tyree was called to the pas- 
torate, but after accepting the call asked to be 
excused from his obligations. Of course the 
church yielded to his request. 

On the 22d of July, 1856, Rev. ^l. R. Wat- 
kinson was chosen pastor. His labors were 
very acceptable and his preaching was very at- 
tractive. Large congregations waited on his 
ministry. Great prosperity characterized' the 
church for nearly five years, when, on the 
breaking out of the war Ijetween the States, 
Rev. Mr. Watkinson, in April, 1861, left the 
city of Portsmouth, and in a few days sent his 
resignation to the church by mail. After the 
resignation of Rev. Mr. ^^'atkinson, Revs. 
Thomas Hume and J. F. Deans supplied the 
pulpit in succession till February 23, 1862, 
when Re\\ I. B. Lake was elected pastor, but 
in the consequence of the evacuation of the 
city by the Confederate troops he did not serve 
more than one month. 

There was no pastor from the time of Rev. 
^[r. Lake's leaving until about the ist of 
April. 1863. when Rev. C. E. ^^^ Dobbs was 
chosen for a supply at first, and on the 27th 
of Sq)tember was chosen pastor. 

In May, 1863, the church had great diffi- 

culty in preventing the colored members from 
acquiring entire control of the basement of 
the church. The city was at that time under 
military rule, and the commanding officers 
s\mipathized with the colored i)eople. Great 
care was necessary to avert such a misfortune. 
When the matter was carried before the pro- 
vost judge he declined to interfere and the 
trouble passed away. 

May 9, 1864, Rev. C. E. W". Dobbs, the 
pastor of the church, was imprisoned by order 
of Gen. B. F. Butler, and the church shortly 
after was occupied as a hospital by the Fed- 
eral forces, and continued to l)e so used until 
Rev. S. B. Gregory, missionary of the Bap- 
tist Home Mission Society of the North, came 
about the middle of December, 1864. 

On February 10, 1865, the colored niem- 
l>ers of the church were granted letters of dis- 
mission for the purjiose of organizing an in- 
dependent church. This church after its or- 
ganization was known as Zion's Baptist 
Church. Richard Cox gave the lot upon 
which the house was built. It i 
and prosperous body. 

On the nth of June, 1865, Rev. William 
^I. Young was elected pastor, but declined the 
call. On the 3d of Septembtr, 1865, Re\-. 
J. L. Johnson was called to the pastorate, 
and continued pastor until May 31, 1867. His 
pastorate was quite successful. The smallness 
of his salary was the cause of his resignation. 
August II, 1867, Rev. M. R. ^^^atkinson was 
elected pastor by a vote of 39 against 36 cast 
for Rev. A\'illiam M. Young. This call Rev. 
^Ir. \\'atkinson declined. October 3, 1867, 
Rev. I. B. Lake was elected pastor but de- 
clined. Novemljer 10, 1867, Rev. Harvey 
Hatcher was unanimously elected pastor, and 
entered upon his duties the first of December 
following. During the pastorate of Mr. 
Hatcher the church built a pool for baptismal 
purposes. He resigned on the 27tli of Feb- 
ruary, 1870. On the 20th of March, 1870. 
Rev. William M. Young was elected pastor, 
but again declined. 

Rev. C. W'ilson Smith, of England, w^as 

now a large 



elected pastor, and commenced his labors May 
I, 1870; he resigned on the 8th of April, 
1 87 1, to take effect in the following July. He 
was re-elected the nth of June. 1871, by a 
vote of 39 to 26. On the 8th of July, 1871, 
the church recjuested him to resign, not on ac- 
count of any moral objection, but because the 
church was divided, but Rev. C. Wilson Smith 
declined to do so, until, in mass meeting held 
July 16, 1871, there were 55 votes in favor of 
his resignation,. to zj in favor of his remain- 
ing, whereupon he resigned. 

Sq>tember 17, 1871, Rev. A. E. Owen 
Avas unanimously elected pastor, and remained 
as such to July. 1S99, when Rev. R. B. Gar- 
rett was called to the church. This church 
has sent out from her members the following 
ministers, ^•iz. : J. W. M. Williams, J. L. 
Reynnldsiin, Richard .\llen, C. E. W. Dobbs, 
Thomas Hume, Jr. ( who was baptized into 
the church, but licensed bv the Fourth Street 
BaiJtist Church), H. Petty, T. J. Knapp, W. 

F. Higginbotham, George J. Hobday, C. A. 

G. Thomas, E. G. Corprew (colored), Ed- 
Axard B. Morris, John \\^ Daugherty and W. 
P. Hines. The present membership is 501. 

Fourth Street Baptist Church, Portsmouth, 

^^'as constituted .\]>ril g, 1855, by members of 
the Court Street Baptist Church, — Rev. 
Thiomas Hume, Sr., moderator, and Samuel 
J. Staples, secretary. The exercises contingent 
upon the formal recognition of the church 
were conducted by Dr. J. L. Burrows and 
Rev. Tliomas Hume, Sr. 

The house of w"orship is located in South 
Portsmouth. The church edifice, originally 
built of clapboards, was afterward" enlarged 
liy the addition of 16 feet tn its length, and 
the erection of a gallery and belfry, and at 
present it is a commodious brick structure. 

Rev. Thomas Hume, Sr., was the first 
pastor, who served the church with great suc- 
cess until May, 1861, at which time he left 
the city, it being evacuated by the Confederate 
forces. Soon after the constitution of the 

church, the terrible scourge of the yellow fever 

became epidemic "in our cit}-. During its 
pre\-alence six of the members fell victims to 
its relentless hands; and others were scat- 
tered, and consecpiently lost to this particular 

Again in 1861, the numljer of members 
was depleted and scattered b}- a call to arms ; 
but at the close of the war, a few were found 
ready to cultivate the field, and s])end and be 
spent in the Master's service. During the 
war and' after its close Revs. J. D. Elwell and 
C. E. W. Dobbs supplied the pulpit. Rev. 
John Phillips also' preached a series of ser- 
mons, resulting" in great good and the admis- 
sion of many members upon a profession of 
faith and baptism. 

July 12, 1866, Rev. J. C. Hidai accepted 
the call of the church to the pa.storate, and 
continued to serve the church with eminent 
usefulness to the close of his pastorate in Sep- 
tember. 1868. 

In January, 1869, Rev. X. B. Cobb was 
elected pastor in connection with the church 
at Kempsville, Princess Anne County. Vir- 
ginia, who, with his amiable wife, was emi- 
nentlv useful. If his whole time could ha\e 
been given to this one church, his ministry 
would lia\'e been an eminent success. Not- 
withstanding the di\'ision of his time between 
these two churches, the largest and most suc- 
cessful revival was carried on during his pas- 
torate with which the church has ever been 
blessed. Rev. Mr. Cobb continued until No^ 
\-ember. 1870. It is also clue to Rev. Mr. 
Cobb to state that he was instrumental in mak- 
ing collections for and ])urchasing a bell for 
the chiu"ch. 

Shortl}- after the resignation of Rev. ]\Ir. 
Cobb, Rev. Patrick Warren made a visit to 
the church with a \-iew to the pastorate, but, 
in a few weeks after his return to Washing- 
ton, sickened and died. 

Rev. M. R. Watkinson. of Camden, New- 
Jersey, labored a month with the church, the 
result of which was a great outpouring of the 
Holy Spirit. It was about this time that at- 



tention was called u> Kev. R. W. Cridlin, as 
a suitable person for pastor. He was called 
to the i)astorate in May, 1871. which he ac- 
cepted. Rev. Mr. Cridlin's stay resulted, under 
the blessing of God, in uniting and strength- 
ening the church, and greatly building up the 
congregation and the cause of Christianity in 
our midst ; thus giving evidence that the 
church would soon Ijecome self-sustaining. 
But his wife's health failed, and he felt com- 
lielled to leave for other fields of labor. In 
June, 1874, he resigned, to the great sorrow 
of the church and the entire community. 

Rev. O. T. Simpson became pastor in Oc- 
tober, 1874, but on account of the death of his 
estimable wife resigned after one year's serv- 
ice. The church then engaged the services of 
Rev. E. M. Buyrn. first as a supply, then as 
pastor, which office he held only for a short 
time. Again the church was witliout a pa.stor, 
during which time Rev. M. R. Watkinson 
made a second visit, which resulted in 14 pro- 
fessions. A second time did Rev. Mr. \Vat- 
kinson decline the call to the pastorship of the 
church. Rev. R. \\'. Cridlin sei-ved his sec- 
ond term as pastor of tliis church. Rev. W. 
F. Fisher is the present pastor, with 360 mem- 

This church has been instrumental in 
licensing some of the most useful preachers 
of the Baptist Church : George M. West. 
January 17. 1856; Thomas Hume, Jr., April 
12, i860: I. B. Lake, July 12, i860; John 
N. Ward, August 22. 1858, — the last named 
was ordained Ijv Elders Hume, Teasdalc and 
Goodall. And here Rev. I. T. Wallace was 
examined with a view to has ordination. 
The following ministers have been manbers of 
this church, viz.; Th(;mas Hume, Sr., Thomas 
Himie, Jr., R. W. Cridlin, C. A. Raymond, 
I. B. Lake, C. Gotxlall, V. Palen, George M. 
West, John N. Ward. H. Avers and N. B. 

First Baptist Church, Norfolk. 

There had existed a Baptist Church in 

Norfolk some lo or 13 years prior to the \ear 
1817, known as the First Baptist Church. It 
was composed largely of coloretl members, 
and Rev. James Mitchell was their pastor. 
This church got into trouble, and the white 
members, with the exception of the pastor's 
famih", withdrew and Ijuilt a new house of 
worship on Cuml)erland street, and consti- 
tuted themselves into a church known as the 
Cumberland Street Baptist Church. 

This church was constituted September 20, 
181 7, consisting of 25 members. The pres- 
bytery was composed of Martin Ross, Aaron 
Spivey, and Richard Dabbs. Rev. George 
Patterson, who had Ijeen associate pastor with 
Rev. James Mitchell in the First Baptist 
Church, was chosen pastor, but remained onl}' 
four months, receiving in that pericxl three 
new meml3€rs, and settled in Alexandria, Vir- 
ginia. Rev. Samuel Cornelius became pastor 
January 28, 1818. He continued five years 
and nine months. Lnder his administration 
61 new nieml)ers were added to the church. 

Rev. Noah Davis, father of Prof. Noah 
K. Davis of the L'niversity of Virginia, be- 
came the pastor in October, 1823, and labored 
as pastor only 16 months, and as occasional 
supply for eight months. Rev. Mr. Davis 
left to become the gaieral agent of the Amer- 
ican Baptist Tract & Publication Society in 
Philadelphia, of which he was the fi>under. 

Rev. R. B. C. Howell, then a young grad- 
uate of Columbian College, \\'ashington, D. 
C was ordained in this church, January 2j. 
T827, by Rev. William Staughton, D. D., and 
Rev. Samuel Wait, .\. ^I. He first served the 
church as a supply for three months ; after 
that was elected i)a,stor April 17, 1827, but 
did not accept until the end (jf the year. This 
w-as the commencement of the public career 
of a distinguished divine: he very soon made 
his mark in the community. His talents and 
aggressi\-e power S(X)n brought him in conflict 
with the Pedobaptists, and called forth his 
three sermons on baptism, which were pub- 
lished in pamphlet form. He also published 
three tracts, of some 40 pages each, in reply to 



Dr. Dncachet, rector of Christ Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, on the office of sponsors in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and of other 
matters in dispute between Baptists and Epis- 
copalians. This year (1827) started Dr. 
Howell on the line of controversy, which he 
kept up a good part of his life. The church 
building was enlarged about this time. Dr. 
Howell resigned July 7, 1834, and left for 
Nashville, Tennessee, early in November, 
1834, having labored with the Cumberland 
Street Baptist Church nearly seven years and 
a half and received to her membership 364 

The church was destitute of a pastor six 
months. During the period 12 members were 
added as the fruits of a meeting held by Rev. 
Thomas Hume, Sr., and others. 

Rev. John Goodall became pastor in Jan- 
uary, 1S35. He was a man of decided ability; 
his ultra-Baptistic sentiments, and his per- 
petual preaching on baptism, drove all the con- 
gregation from his pulpit except his own peo- 
ple. He remained only one year and received 
12 members. The church was destitute of a 
pastor the whole of the next year (1836). 
During this time, Rev. Stephen Gardiner was 
ordained by Revs. T. C. Braxton, D. M. 
Woodson, Thomas Hume, Sr., A. Paul Repi- 
ton, and J. Hendren. During this year the 
church had occasional preaching by Revs. 
Comstock, Gardiner, Tinsley and others, and 
six members were added. 

Rev. Joseph S. Baker, M. D., was made 
pastor in March, 1837. This was a period of 
great excitement and trouble, on account of 
disciplinary action against Re\-. James 
Mitchell, pastor of the colored church, known 
as the First Baptist Church. Dr. Baker re- 
mained pastor three years, and received 106 
new members. 

Rev. Joseph B. Breed, from the North, be- 
came pastor in 1840. He continued two years 
and received 60 mem1>ers. As the fruits 
of a meeting held by Rev. Joseph H. Fox, 
some 40 members were added to the church. 

Rev. E. G. Robinson, D. D., a distin- 

guished president of Brown University, was 
ordained in this church as its pastor in Novem- 
ber, 1842, by Revs. J. B. Jeter, J. Walker, J. 
'R. Scott and Thomas Hume, Sr. Rev. Dr. 
Robinson was a man of exalted intellect, high 
culture and a magnificent preacher — all intel- 
lect and but little emotion — intensely opix>sed 
to revivals and religious excitement — at heart 
a strong Abolitionist. The church received 16 
members and built the lecture room. 

Rev. John W. M. Williams, D. D., sup- 
plied the Cumberland Street Baptist Church 
one year while Rev. Dr. E. G. Robinson, the 
pastor, served as chajjlain at the University 
of Virginia. Rev. Mr. Williams was or- 
dained in this church February 27, 1844. 
Rev. Dr. E. G. Robinson returned from the 
university, but remained only a short time. 
In 1846 Revs. Latham and Kingsford 
preached in the church occasionally and a few 
members were added. 

Rev. C. R. Hendricson, after laboring a 
short time as a supply, became pastor in June, 
1847, and labored 17 months. He was a fine 
pulpit orator, and added to the church 50 
members. The pastor fell into serious trouble 
and the church divided on the question of re- 
taining him as pastor; a majority voted to 
continue him, which resulted in the with- 
drawal of nearly all of the wealth}- and influ- 
ential portion of the church, 74 memljers in 
number. On May 7, 1848, these persons were 
regularly dismissed to be constituted into a new 
church, now known as the Freemason Street 
Baptist Chujixh. Rev. Mr. Hendricson 
thought it prudent to leave, and he settled in 
Elizabeth City, North Carolina. 

Rev. Reuben Jones entered upon the pas- 
torship of this church June 23, 1848. The 
members were generally poor, but they were 
a praying, working people, and strongly at- 
tached to the old mother church. In 1849, 
Rev. J. S. Re}-nol(lson held a meeting with 
the church, wliich resulted in the baptism of 
aljcjut 100 persons, many of whom prcn-ed ut- 
terly worthless. Rev. G. W. Johnson, frojn 
the Methodist Protestant Church, was bap- 



tized and ordained about this time. The 
cliurch was beautifully frescoed, the pews 
cushioned and otiier improvements added dur- 
ing iiis pastoral administration. iVfter live 
years and a half with this church, the pastor 
resigned antl left in December. 1853, for Hele- 
na, Arkansas, having receiveil into the church 
about 180 new members. 

Rev. Meriwether \\'inston, a native Vir- 
ginian, was called from one of the churches 
in Philadelphia to be the next pastor. He was 
a very tluent and attractive speaker, but left 
after one j^ear's service, about the commence- 
ment of the great i)estilence of 1855. and set- 
tled in Savannah, Georgia. Rev. James L. 
Gwaltney settled as pastor the latter part of 
1856. One of the first duties was to preach 
the funeral of all the members who had died 
with the yellow fever. He remained only 
one year and then returned to Boutetourt 

Rev. J. C. Long, afterward a professor in 
Crozer Theological Seminary at Upland, Penn- 
sylvania, became the ne.xt pastor of this 
church the first of 1859, and continued until 
the Confederate War closed his labors in May, 
1861. His term of service embraced about 
three years. 

During the four dark years of the Con- 
federate War, the Cumberland Street Baptist 
Church was served successively for short 
periods, bv Revs. C. H. Tov, C. Goodall and 
J. D. Elw'cll. 

In February. 1864, Rev. H. J. Chandler 
was called to be pastor, and he accepted ; but 
before he had time to take charge, that is, on 
February 9th, the keys of the church were 
taken possession of by the provost marshal 
and handed . over to Rev. Ira Prescott and 
held by him for the Baptist Home Mission 
Sfxiety in Xew York. The congregation in- 
dignaiuly declined to accept the services of a 
pastor forced upon them by military authority. 
After preaching a while to empty seats. Mr. 
Prescott delivered up the keys of the church 
to Deacon March, which the latter accepted 

' upon the si>ecific condition that he, Prescott, 
would go away and never come to the church 

When Re\'. Thomas Hume, Sr., took 
charge of this church in July, 1865, it was in 
a very feeble, dispirited condition. His lalxjrs 
at first were almost gratuitous. The congre- 
gation and membership gradually increased. 
His health began to fail, and while spending 
the spring in Florida to recuperate, Rev. Mr. 
-McGonigal, from Xew York, supplied the 
cluu-cli. He labjred earnestly and successfully, 
and added a considerable number of members 
to the church. Rev. Mr. Hume resignetl July 
I, 1874, a short time before his death, which 
sad event occurred at his residence in Ports- 
mouth, Virginia, March 8, 1875, being about 
63 years of age. He was pastor of the Cum- 
berland .Street Baptist Church nine }ears. 
Under his administration, the church was 
lifted to a high plane of Christian zeal, be- 
nevolence and holy acti\'ity. 

Rew Thomas Hume, Jr., was immediately 
called to succeed his father, July 17, 1874. 
He held this call under consideration for sev- 
eral months, during which time. Rev. Samuel 
Saunders, late from the theological seminary, 
became temporary supply for the church. 

September 18, 1874. Rev. Samuel Saun- 
ders, by request of the lower N^orthamiJton 
Baptist Church, was ordained in this church 
with the following order of exercises, viz.: 
Sermon, by Rev. C. H. Toy; charge to can- 
didate, by Rev. Reuben Jones; presentation of 
the Bible, by Rev. A. E. Owen; right hand of 
fellowship, by Rev. G. J. Hobday; ordaining 
prayer, by Rev. J. F. Deans ; charge to the 
church, by Rca'. A. C. Barran. 

Re\-. Thomas Hume, Jr., formally accept- 
ed the pastorate Xo\embcr 21. 1874, and 
shortly thereafter, December 27. 1874, was in- 
1 stalled by a large presbytery in the presence of 
a very large assembly : Sermon by Rev. W. 
; E. Ilatcher, D. I). ; charge t<j pastor by Rev. 
W. D. Thomas, D. D.; charge to the church 
bv Rev. Reuben Tones, .\fter four vears of 



faithful and eminently successful labor, Rev. 
Mr. Hume resigned in December, 1878.. 

Rev. W. W. Wood served a short time as 
a supply, and then liecame the pastor July i, 
1879, continuing in that position until 1884. 
He was followed bv Rev. Tiberius Gracchus 
Jones, D. D., and Rev. E. B. Hatcher, the 
present pastor, succeeded Rev. Air. Jones, 
in 1893. The First Baptist Ch,urch is the 
mother of all the Baptist churches in Xorfolk. 
It has ^JO members and its jiroperty is valued 
at $40,000. 

Frcciiiasoii Slrcct Baptist CInirch, Xorfolk. 

In ]\Iay, 1848, the Cumberland Street Bap- 
tist Church (or First Baptist Church) after 
free consultation gave a fraternal dismissal 
to certain persons, about 75 in numlier, who 
were the same month constituted into a church, 
Rev. J. B. Jeter and other ministers conduct- 
ing the services. 

Two of these, Thomas D. Toy and Will- 
iam Dey, had some months before purchased 
a piece of ground at the corner of Freemason 
and Bank streets. A plan o^f a building was 
obtained from Thomas U. Walter, of Phila- 
delphia, workmen secured and the building 
begun : the lectm-e room was completed in 
May, 1849, and the whole house, including 
the spire, about October, 1850. The dedica- 
tion sermon , was preached by Dr. Richard 
Fuller, of Baltimore. The cost of the honse 
was about $35,000, and of the land $5,000. 
The architecture and acoustics are uncommon- 
ly good. 

The church worshiped, in the meantime, 
the first year in the Odd Fellow's Hall, cor- 
ner of \Vashington and Avon streets. For 
one month after the constitution, the pulpit 
was filled by Rev. J. B. Taylor, of Richmond, 
and in June follcnving, Rev. Tiberius Grac- 
chus Jones was secured as pastor, and the 
church began its life. 

The first pastor. Rev. Tiberius Gracchus 
Jones, commenced about August, 1848, and re- 
mained in all 19 years, from 1848 to 1871, 

with absences amounting to four vears. It 
was his first pastorate: he and the church 
grew out together, and were endeared to each 
other by the thousand experiences of ecclesias- 
tical and individual life. His lofty eloquence, 
noble nature and gaiuine piety, gave him a 
lasting hold on the church and communitv. 
Under his care, the church grew in numbers 
and efficiency. The Sunday-school flourished, 
and Baptists took a position in the community 
that the_\- liad ne\-er before held. In 1863, dur- 
ing the occupation of Norfolk by Federal 
troops, he went to Baltimore and became pas- 
tor of the Franklin Square Baptist Church of 
that city, returning to Norfolk in 1865, as 
soon after the end of the war as possible. In 
1867, he was elected president -o^f Richmond 
College, but gave up the position after serv- 
ing twoi years; and in 1869 resumed the pas- 
torship of his old church in Norfolk. In 1871 
he accepted a call to the First Baptist Church 
in Nasln-ille, Tennessee. Dr. Jones returned 
tO' Norfolk in 1884, liecoming pastor of the 
First Baptist Church, and so continuing until 
a few years before his death, which occurred 
June 27, 1895, at tiie age of 74 years. 

During the temporary absence of Dr. 
Jones, from 1863 tO' 1865, the church had the 
services of Rev. H. J. Chandler and Rev. Dr. 
Bealor, who faithfully discharged their duties 
in that trying time, ministering to the handful 
that remained in the city, ami keeping up the 
church organization. 

From 1867 to 1869, while Dr. Jones was 
at Richmond College, Rev. J. Lipscomli John- 
son (later a professor in the University of 
Mississippi) acted as pastor. His ministry 
was markedly successful, especially in that he 
had great influence over the younger part of 
the congregatitm, and the church was greatly 
attached to him. 

After Dr. Jones' removal to Nashville. 
l\e\-. William LX Thomas (then in Green\-ille, 
South Carolina) became pastor. His faith- 
ful and able ministry began in (October, 1871. 
He served until 1882, when he was succeeded 
by Re\-. J. L. Burrows, D. D. Rev. M. B. 



Wharton succeeded Dr. lUirmws in 1S91, and 
resigned in 1899, when Kc\' J. J. Taylor, tlie 
present pastor, was called. 

The history of the church has been marked 
by the usual variations of prosperity and ad- 
versity. Of its constituent membership only 
a few persons now remain. It suffered no 
little by the yellow fever scourj^e of 1855, and 
during the late war, when, however, by the 
exertion of some of the members, the build- 
ing was saved from injury. The church has 
never been without the kernel of earnest, spir- 
itual-minded members, and has never given 
countenance to injurious errors or fanatical 
views. At various times special meetings have 
been held, with greater or less effect; in 1849, 
by the beloved Keynoldson : in 1852 and 1874, 
by Rev. Cornelius Tyree; in 1870, by Rev. A. 
B. Earle; and in 1876, by Rev. William E. 

In 1872 the pastor. Rev. Dr. Thomas, ar- 
ranged a series of lectures on denominati(jnal 
tfjpics, the e.xjjenses being Iwrne by the church. 
which were deli\ered in the church by some of 
the prominent Bajjtist preachers of the coun- 
try, and, being afterward printed and cir- 
culated in pamphlet shape, made a contribution 
to the literature of the subject. The lecturers 
were Rev. .\l\ah Hovey. nf Xcwton Thclogi- 
cal Seminary ; Rev. Howard Osgood, of Cro- 
zer Theological Seminary ; Rev. J. L. Bur- 
rows; Rev. X. M. NA'ilson : and Revs. John A. 
Broadus and William AN'illiams, of the South- 
ern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

The Sunday-school, under the superin- 
tendence successively of Thomas D. Toy, T. P. 
Warren, J. H. Hendren. J. A. Yancey, W. 
H. Morris and C. E. Jenkins, has been notably 
successful, both as to members and as to its 
general efficiency and liberality. Unusual 
care has lieen given to the music in the church. 

The choir has Ijeen under the directorship, 
first of Thomas D. Toy. then of SaJiiucl 
Borum. and then of R. B. Toy. The organ- 
ists have been Possett. Whitmaji. Southard 
and Miss J. McKenny. Under the direction 
of R. B. Tov, the singing of classic music in 

the church and the Sunday-sclnxil has been 
introduced without diminishing the congrega- 
tional singing. The church continues to be an 
earnest body, with a growing interest in mis- 
sions and education. One minister of the gos- 
pel has gone out from it, Rev. C. H. Toy, and 
one licentiate, Re\-. T. P. W'arren. The prop- 
erty of the Freemason Street Baptist Church 
is valued at .$40,000, and the church has 821 

Jl'est Norfolk Baptist Cluirch 

Is situated in the village of that name at the 
mouth of the Western Branch of the Eliza- 
beth River. It is an offspring of the Church- 
land Baptist Church, not far distant, and was 
organized in 1895. The building is worth 
.Si, 500, and the church has 93 members. Rev. 
A. B. Dunaway, D. D., the first pastor, was 
succeeded by Rev. Braxton Craig and he by 
the present pastor. Rev. Vernon I'Anson. 

South Street Baptist Church. Portsmouth, 

Is at the northwest corner of South and 
Effingham streets in Portsmouth. It was or- 
ganized in 1889, the first pastor being Rev. 
J. W. Daugherty, who continued until 1894, 
when he was fi>llowed by Rev. J. W. Mitchell, 
the present incumbent. The church property 
is valued at $21,000, and the church has the 
names of ^;^/ members on its rolls. 

Port Norfolk Baptist Church 

Is located in the northernmost suburb of 
Portsmouth, — Port Norfolk. It was organ- 
ized in 1898 as a mission from Calvar}- Bap- 
tist Church. Rev. A. B. Dunaway, D. D.. 
was the first pastor and continues to this date. 
The church building cost over $5,000, and 
there are 124 members. 

South Norfolk Baptist Church 

Is a mission of the Berkley Avenue Ba])tist 



Church, located in the suburbs of Berkle}'. It 
was organized in 1893, has 115 manbers, and 
the building is worth $2,000. Rev. S. S. Rob- 
inson is the present pastor. 

Park View Baptist Liuircli, Portsmouth, 

Is located on Hatton street, Portsmouth. It 
was organized in 1899, has 115 members, and 
the church building is valued at $6,000. Rev. 
A\'. P. Hines is pastor. 

Giliiicrtoii Baptist Clniirli 

Is located in the village of that name, at the 
mouth of the "new cut" of the Dismal Swamp 
Canal, on the Southern Branch of the Eliza- 
beth River and at the end of the trolley line 
south of Portsmouth. It was organized in 
1895 under Rev. F. H. J\Iartin, who served the 
church until 1898, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. E. E. Dudley, who remained until 1899, 
when l\e\'. j. T. Riddick assumed charge of 
the flock. It has 71 meml>ers and the build- 
ing is valued at $1,500. 

Cak'ary Baptist Clnircli 

Is an oiTspring of the Court Street Baptist 
Church in Portsmouth. It is located in the 
suburb called Scottsville and was organized in 
1889. The first pastor was Rev. J. W. Daugh- 
erty, who' ser\-ed several years and was suc- 
ceeded by Revs. R. ^A^ Baylor, F. H. Martin, 
P. C. Davis and Samuel Saunders. The 
church building and parsonage are valued at 
$3,000. It has 2T,7i members. 

Biirroics Memorial Baptist Cliiircli 

Is located at Lambert's Point, sul>urb of Nor- 
folk and the seat of the great coal piers of the 
Norfolk & Western Railway: It was organ- 
ized in 1894 and has 138 members. Rev. R. 
H. White was chosen pastor in 1895 and he 
was succeeded by Rev. G. W. Cox. The 
church property is valued at $2,500. 

Park Avenue Baptist Cliurcli. Norfolk. 

On May 24. 1885, the Park Avenue Bap- 
tist Church was organized, with Rev. R. W. 
Cridlin as its first pastor. He was succeeded 
in turn by Rev. D. W. Gwin, D. D., who 
served the church from 1889 to 1893, and was 
succeeded then by its present pastor. Rev. 
James J. Hall. The church has a membership 
of over 700, and is now in a sound financial 
and spiritual condition. The present hand- 
some edifice is situated on the corner of Park 
and Brambleton ax'enues, Brambleton Ward, 
Norf(jlk, the erection of which was begun un- 
der its present pastor in 1895. 

Central Az'euue Baptist Church, A'orfolk. 

This church, which is located in Atlantic 
City Ward, Norfolk, at the corner of Central 
and Fort avenues, is about to erect a hand- 
some edifice on Olnev Road, at a cost of about 
$20,000. Its former pastur was Rev. T. A. 
Hall, who was succeeded by Rev. E. E. Dud- 
ley, who is still ser\ing the church. It has 189 

Grace Baptist Church. Norfolk, 

On the corner of Princess Anne a\enue and 
Church street, is an offshoot of the Cumber- 
land Street Baptist Church. The following 
named ministers have ser\-ed as pastors : Rev. 
Vernon FAnsoii, Re\-. W. S. Leake and Rev. 
Lundy R. Wright. Re\-. Dr. A. E. Owen is 
the present pastor. The church is grovving 
in numbers and has 193 members. 

Spurgeon ^[elnorial Baptist Church, Norfolk, 

Was organized in 1892, — a ci-ilony from the 
Park Avenue Baptist Church. Rev. J. J. 
Wicker was the first pastor, and he was suc- 
ceeded in 1896 by Rev. F. H. Martin, who 
was succeeded in 1898 by Rev. L. R. Chi-istie. 
It has a memlsership of 196 and its property is 
worth $3,000. 



Pli'ijsaiit Groz-c Baf^tist .Clinrch. 

Tliis church, the outgrowtli of the Xnrtli 
West Baptist Cluirch. was constituted in 1845. 
located in Xorfolk C(-unt\. Its organization 
is (hie ti> tlie indefatigahle lalmrs of Deacon 
'I'honias Jefferson Harrison, a pious and in- 
fluential Ilaptist. then Jivin"- in the neighbor- 
hood. It was througli his efforts also, and 
that of John Ox)per and Mr. Warden, that the 
house of worship was built. Mr. Warden, 
though not a member of any church, was a 
warm friend of the then feeble church, and 
gave liberally of his means to its support. 

Tlie first pastor was Rev. (i. .\. Exail. a 
teacher in an academy alx)ut two miles from 
the churcii. Flis i)astoratc was of short dura- 
tion, being called away upon some importAnt 
business. His place was immediately su])plied 
by Rev. E. F. Dulin, of the same academy. 
From 1846 to 1848 the church was without a 
])astor, but was su])plied by pastors of other 
churches, among whom were Revs. Thomas 
Hume. Sr., Jeremiah Hendren and Robert 
Gortlun, and David Riggs, of Pungo. 

In 1848 the church called Kew Lemuel 
Sanderlin, of North Carolina, who entered 
upon his duties in April. Rev. Mr. Sanderlin 
contiiuied to labor acceptably until the close of 
summer (August),. i<^54, when he was re- 
moved by death. The church was then with- 
out a pastor until Septeml:)er, 1855, when Ke\'. 
Joseph H. Wt>ml)le became the minister. 
Upon Re\". Mr. Womble's resignation. Rev. 
Abner Berry was called to the pastorate, and 
served in that capacity until near the close of 
his life. — May, 1858. After his death Rev. 
William D. Pritchard became pastor and 
served 14 years, — an evidence of worth and 
api)reciation. During his pastorship Re\-. 
Thomas G. Wood, a member of this church, 
was licensed to preach, and subsequently or- 
dained at a union meeting of the lower district 
of the Portsmouth Ba))tist .\ssociati<m, by 
Revs. A. Paul Repiton. D. I).. William D. 
Pritchard, J. A. Speight and R. W. Cridlin. 

In Decemljer, 1871, and subsequently, the 

church dismisseil 43 members ( nearl}- one- 
half) to constitute tlie church at Centreville. 
This left them in a very feeble condition, so 
that they had to a])piy to the state board for 
aid. The state board, through the union 
meeting of the lower district, sent Ke\'. J. A. 
S])eight. the then missionary of the lower dis- 
trict, to preach for them one Sabbath in a 

' montli. 

Re\-. Samuel Saunders succeeded I\e\-. Mr. 
Speight in January, 1873, and ser\ed sexen 
mouths, leaving to go to the Southern Baptist 

j Theological Seminary. Rev. X. M. Munden, 
the present pastor, commenced his services 
with the cliurch in October, 1873. In 1874 
the church was remodeled. It now numbers 
121 members. 

/.((/.'(• Dnuiiinond I-)uf>tisl Clmrcli 

Is located in .Xorfolk County, 20 miles from 
Xorfolk, and three miles east from the Dis- 
mal Swamp Canal, it was constituted July 
2/, 1850, Revs. Thomas Hume. Sr., and J. G. 
Councill officiating. At the time of the or- 
ganization there were but nine members — five 
males and four females, who had taken let- 
ters from the Xorth West Baptist Cluirch. 
In July, 185 1, the new house of worship, Ijuilt 
on a lot donated by Michael Sykes, was dedi- 
cated, and the same year the church was ad- 
mitted into the Portsmouth Baptist Associ- 

From the time of organization Revs. Will- 
iam Gates Thompson and Evan Forbes ser\ed 
the church as pastors, during which time there 
were seven added to the membership. From 
1856 to 1857 the church with difficulty main- 
tained an e.xistence. 

In the winter of 1864 and 1863 the colored 
peoule, led by one Johnson Hodges, took pos- 
session of the house of worship, but were 
promptly ejected by tl^e Federal forces. In 
1866 they again attemnted its occupancy, but 
I were dispossessed by the civil authorities. 

During all these years the church was sup- 
])lied irregularly with preaching, respectively, 

2 40 


by Revs. Lemuel and Dorsey Sanderliu, ^^'il!- 
iam D. Pritchard, Absalom Cherry and J. F. 
Deans, and Joseph Lassel, of tlie [Methodist 

In February, 1S67, the cliurcli again 
called a pastor, and was served until 1873 by 
Revs. \\'illiam L. Fitcher, Jesse Wheeler and 
A\'illiam D. Pritchard, during which time 58 
persons were added to the membership. For 
the next four years, 1873- 1876, inclusive, Rev. 
J. Al. C. Luke "goes in and out among them;" 
23 members were added to the church, and 
much material progress was made. Next in 
the pastorship was Rev. O. T. Simpson, who 
served the church for one year. At the ex- 
piration of this time Rev. J. F. Tuttle was 

The church at present is in a healthy, vig- 
orous condition, is in co-operation with the 
general work of the denomination. Rev. D. 
G. Lancaster is .the present pastor and there 
are 1 1 o members. 

Salem Baptist Church 

Was originally called Tanner's Creek and is 
situated about fi\-e miles northeast of Norfolk. 
Dr. Howell said it was brought into- existence 
under the following circumstances : On Tan- 
ner's Creek, some six miles from the city of 
Norfolk, in the direction of Hampton Roads, 
was a very fertile, wealthy and populous 
neighborhood. Here was an old forsaken 
colonial meeting house, which their fathers had 
occupied before the Revolution. This house a 
Mr. Brown and others living near fitted up 
for service, and induced Jeremiah Hendren, 
of Norfolk, to hold there regular prayer and 
exhortation meetings. The congregation now 
became full, and the leaders made application 
to the Cumberland Street Baptist Church to 
license him to preach, which it did on July 2, 

Early in the next year the brethren at Tan- 
ner's Creek purposed establishing a Baptist 
church there, looking to the services of Rev. 
Mr. Hendren as prospective pastor. For this 

purpose they applied to the churches in Nor- 
folk and Kempsville for the appointment of a 
presbytery. The former sent Rev. R. B. C. 
Howell, the latter Rev. Smith Sherwood. 
Being" assembled, this presbytery first consti- 
tuted the church, next they ordained Rev. Mr. 
Hendren to the full work of the ministry, and 
installed him as the pastor of the church, and 
then they ordained the deacons. Rev. JNIr. 
Hendren continued to serve them as their pas- 
tor until his death, — which occurred in Janu- 
ary, 1864, — some 35 years. 

This church was alwaj^s a feeble body. 
Rev. Mr. Hendren, being engaged in mercan- 
tile business in Norfolk, was not dependent 
upon the church for support, but was enabled 
to preach for them almost gratuitously during 
the whole of his long pastorate. 

In the year 1833 the Portsmouth Baptist 
Association met in this church, and was hon- 
ored with the presence of the illustrious John 
Kerr and Ira M. Allen, of Philadelphia. This 
session was a memorable one, on account of 
the strong and very decided ground taken by 
the lx)dy against the teachings of Alexander 
Campbell and his followers, which at that time 
were distracting the Baptist churches of Vir- 
ginia and the country. 

In the year 1836 the name of this church 
was changed from Tanner's Creek to Salem, 
its present name. There are no records of the 
church prior tO' the Confederate ^^'ar. The 
membersliip had run down ver}- low. 

In 1866 Rev. Edward Jordan was pastor. 
He was succeeded by Rev. R. H. Baylor in 
1867. Of the next two years we have no rec- 
ords, but we are in possession of some facts 
concerning that period. The meeting-house 
was in a state of rapid decay, and the church 
well nig-h extinct. 

J. Hardy Hendren, of Norfolk, desirous of 
building some kind of monument in memory 
of his father, concluded that the best memorial 
he could erect would be to rebuild his father's 
old church, which he did, largely at his own ex- 
pense. Soon a spacious and neat house of 
worship was constructed out of the old one. 



and opened for public worship some time alwut 
the year 1S70. Soon he had a flourisliing 
Sunday-school, with all the modern appliances 
and facilities, two regular pastors. Revs. .A. 
Paul Repiton and J. A. Speight, with frequent 
baptisms. To help forward the cause, Rev. 
.\. B. Earle was invited to hold a meeting in 
the fall of 1871, which he did with only little 
success. For two or three years the church 
ran forward gloriously on the flood tide of 
prosjjerity, and then the ebb tide began. 

October 10, 1872, Rev. T. G. Wood was 
elected pastor. In January, 1873, f^^^'- J- -^• 
Speight was elected to the same office. So the 
church had two pastors laboring jointly for 
a short time. In September, 1874, Rev. A. 
Paul Repiton was again made pastor. Revs. 
J. A. Speight and J. F. Tuttle were joint pas- 
tors in 1876; Rev. Air. Warren, of Norfolk, 
supplied the church in 1S77; Rev. R. W. Crid- 
lin, in i88s and 1886: Rev. W. P. Hines, in 
1 878- 1 888- 1 896- 1 897; Rev. J. J. Wicker, in 
1892; and l^ev. Kelly Hobbs, in 1899 '^"f^ 
1900. There are 40 members. 

Deep Creek Baptist Church 

Is called after the \illage of that name, situ- 
ated on the Dismal Swamp Canal, in Norfolk 
County, eight miles from the city of Ports- 
mouth. There were a number of Baptists in 
Deq> Creek as far back as 1785. In that year 
12 members were receixed fnim Deep Creek 
into the fellowship of the Shoulder's Hill Bap- 
tist Church. One of these, Jeremiah Ritter, 
subsequently became a preacher, and was for 
several years the jjastor (jf the Shoulder's Hill 
Baptist Church. But there is no evidence of 
any regularly organized church at Deep Creek 
until the year 1830, when the Deep Creek Bap- 
tist Church was admitted into the Portsmouth 
Baptist -Association, with Rew Jeremiah Hen- 
dren for its delegate. The tody was never 
again represented in the association ; after 
being waited u\Kn\ by a committee of the as- 
sociation, and borne with for several years, it 
was dropped in 1840. 

The present church was organized August 
29, 1869, by Revs. N. B. Cobl), Harvey 
Hatcher and George J. Hobday, with 17 mem- 
l)ers. The first pastor was Rev. .A. Paul Repi- 
ton, who filled the pulpit from .April 24, 1870, 
uatil July 26, 1873, a little more than three 
years. Rev. Air. Repiton was an attractive 
man and gave a fresh impetus and prestige to 
the Baptist cause in the village. 

Rev. J. AI. C. Luke was the next pastor, 
who occupied that position from January 4, 
1874, to July 19, 1876, when he resigned, hav- 
ing served over two years, not without a meas- 
ure of success. Re\-. A. E. Owen, D. D., filled 
the pastorate of this church from November i, 
1877, ""^il 1881. Then followed in succes- 
sion: Rev. J. F. Tuttle, Rev. J. A. Speight, 
Rev. W. V. Everton, Rev. J. W. Harris, Rev. 
W. F. Fisher and Rev. J. T. Riddick, the pres- 
ent pastor. 

Xorfh West Baptist Church. 

This church is located in Norfolk County, 
aljout a mile from North ^^'est River Bridge, 
near the North Carolina line. It appears on the 
minutes of the Portsmouth Baptist Association 
first as the North Upper Bridge, and then as 
the North West Upper Bridge Church. In 1820 
it assumed its present name. It so happened that 
Baptist preachers, traveling from Shiloh, 
North Carolina, to Pungo, Virginia, preached 
at private houses in the neighlxirhood on their 
way. Rev. Edward Alinlz, from Nansemond 
County, also paid them frequent visits and 
preached to the people. Out of the fruits of 
their lalxirs the North West Baptist Church 
was constituted in 1782, and was received into 
the Kehukee Baptist .Association at Shoulder's 
Hill in 1785. The records of this church from 
1782 to 1800, — 18 years, — were destroyed 
when the meeting-house was burned in 1818. 
A new church was built in 1821. The present 
house of worship was erected in 1895. 

Rev. Jacob Grigg was the first pastor after 
1800, and he served as such from 1S02 to 
1805, a period of three years. Air. Sample 



speaks of Rev. !Mr. Grigg as "a preacher un- 
surpassed by any in Virginia for deqj in- 
vestigation and for clear and lucid exhibitions 
of divine truth." Rev. Dempse}' Casey be- 
came pastor in 1805, and continued to serve 
until 1 8 14, a period of nine years, with only 
partial success. Rev. Peter Lugg succeeded 
Rev. yir. Case}', and remained from July, 
1814, to February, 1819, a period of five years. 
Rev. Reuben Dowdy served as pastor from 
1 82 1 to 1824, a period of four years. Rev. 
Matthias Etheridge, one of their own mem- 
bers, was next called to the pastorate, and held 
the ofitice from 1825 to 1837, 12 years. He 
was the father of Dr. H. S. Etheridge, of Wal- 
laceton, \'irginia. Rev. William B. Dawley 
then followed, to hold the office only one year. 
Rev. Matthias Etheridge was again chosen 
pastor, and ser\-ed a second term of three 

To say nothing of others who filled the 
office of clerk, it is worthy of statement that 
Joseph Williams was elected clerk of the 
church in 1842, and served over 50 years. 

Rev. Evan Forbes, of North Carolina, was 
made pastor in November, 1842, and served 
until September, 1848, a period of six years. 
October 5, 1844, about 20 members were dis- 
missed to constitute the Pleasant Grove Bap- 
tist Church. Rev. Lemuel Sanderlin was 
chosen pastor in September, 1848, and served 
the church as such for several years. April 
'2^, 1850, a number of members were dis- 
missed to constitute the Lake Drummond Bap- 
tist Church. Rev. Joseph H. Womble was 
chosen pastor in 1854, and served the church 
two years. Rev. A. Barry was pastor in 1856. 
Rev. J. D. Elwell assumed the pastorate in 
January. 1857, and remained about six years. 
Rev. A. J. Lowe was pastor in 1864 and 1865. 
Rev. J. F. Deans had charge of the church in 
1866, and l)aptized during the year 60 per- 
sons. Re\-. X. B. Cobb was pastor two years, 
— 1867 and 1868. Rev. William F'itcher 
served the church one year, in 1869. Rev. A. 
Paul Repiton was pastor from 1870 to 1872. 
Rev. T. Babb then took charge onlv for a few 

months. Rev. J. A. Speight was pastor of this 
church from June, 1872, to the close of 1879, 
— about seven vears and a half. Then fol- 
lowed Revs. O.'C. Horton, J. A. Speight, W. 
V. Everton, J. B. Chittey and P. S. C. Davis, 
the present pastor. The church now has 213 

Cciitrcz'illc Baptist Clutrch. 

This church, located on the Great Road, 
about four miles from Great Bridge and 16 
miles from Norfolk, is a branch from the Pleas- 
ant Grove Baptist Church, and was consti- 
tuted February 7, 1872, Revs. A. E. Owen, 
R. \\'. Cridlin and ]. A. Speight, with brethren 
W. A. Smith, J. B. Howell, A. O. Lee and 
J. ]\I. Sawyer composing the council. The 
house of worship had been previously con- 
structed, and was dedicated January 7, 1872. 
Re\'. N. M. Munden officiating. The church 
was organized with 41 meinbers, representing" 
all lhe essential elements of efficiency usually 
found in the most highly fa\'ored country 

Re\-. J. F. Tuttle was pastor in 1882, and 
was followed successivelv bv Rev. T- A. 
Speight, Rev. W . V. Everton, Rev. J. M.' Dun- 
away, Rev. P. S. C. Davis, Rev. J. B. Chitty 
and Rev. S. B. Overton, the present pastor. 
This church has jy members and its building 
is valued at $1,200. 

Miilhcrrv Baptist Church. 

This church is located near the Western 
Branch in Norfolk County, about six miles 
west of Portsmouth. It was constituted in 
December, 1849, '^X ^ presbytery consisting of 
Rev. Thomas Hume, Sr., and Rev. James G. 
Council], the missionary of the lower district. 
The ser\-ices were held in the public school- 
house, and six manbers entered into the or- 
ganization. The church was erected in 1850. 
Rev. James G. Councill was the first pastor 
and served for four years, increasing the mem- 
bership to 84 whites and two colored. In 



Sq)teml)er, 1857, Rev. Isaiali T. Wallace was 
ordained in the church. When the Confed- 
erate ^\'a^ broke out the members became 
dispirited and scattered. The cluirch building 
was torn down by the Federal troops, and 
after the war the church membership was al- 
most extinct. The church edifice was rebuilt, 
but the membership became gradually reduced 
to six, and in 1899 tlie church was dropped 
from the association. 

Bethel Baptist Church 

Is situated in Norfolk County, about 10 miles 
from the city of Norfolk. It was organized in 
1889. Rev. P. S. C. Davis is the pastor. The 
building is valued at 81,500 and the church 
has a membership of 98. 

Berkley Avenue Baptist Church, Berkley, 

Was organized September 8. 1873, by the 
following presbytery, called together for that 
purpose, viz: Revs. A. Paul Repiton, D. D., 
R. W. Cridlin, A. E. Owen, N. M. Munden 
and \\'illiam D. Pritchard. Only 16 members 
entered into the original constitution. 

Rev. J. F. Deans immediately took the pas- 
toral oversight of this little flock, and preached 
for them until 1875. Alxnit this time Re\-. E. 
M. Buyrn came to Berkley, and astonished the 
people by his pleasing elocution, but his stay 
was short. From 1875 to 1877 there was no 
regidar preaching, except an occasional ser- 
mon on Sunday afternoons by the pastors of 
Norfolk and Portsmouth and Sunday night 
preaching for a few months b\' Re\\ Reuben 
Jones, of Churchland. On July 16, 1878, 
Rev. Robert V'andeventer, from Crozer Theo- 
logical Seminary, took the pastorate. The 
membership increased from 24 to 60. In 1881 
they erected a house of worship, on a central 
and eligible lot. which was given them by ^Ir. 
Berkley. Rev. FI. N. Ouisenhury was pastor 
in 1892, succeeded by Rev. C. W. Duke in 
1896. who was followed in 1898 by Rev. T. 
C. Skinner, the present pastor. This church 
^•35 337 members and the property is valued 
at $12,000. 

Broadway Baptist Church 

Is situated between Great Bridge and Kemps- 
ville in Norfolk County, about four miles from 
Berkley. It was organized in 1899, has a 
memljership of 17, and its property is valued 
at $300. Rev. S. S. Robertson is pastor. 


There are, in all, 35 Methodist Episcopal 
churches in Norfolk County. 


Epworth 852 members. 

Queen Street 589 members. 

>rcKendrce • 580 members 

Cumberland Street 58/ members. 

Centenarv 353 members. 

Lekie's Memorial 263 members. 

Trinity 237 members. 


Monum'cnta! 650 members. 

Central 603 members. 

Wright Memorial 432 members. 

Owens Memorial 240 members- 
Park View 213 members 


Port Norfolk loi members. 

West Norfolk 57 members. 

Churchland 55 members. 

Joliffs ^-'ot reported. 

Olive Branch Not reported. 

Brighton Not reported. 

Cottage Place Not reported. 


Chestnut Street, Berkley 425 members. 

Liberty Street. South Norfolk 176 members. 

Oak Grove 77 members. 

Oaklette 37 members. 


Lambert's Point 215 members. 

Huntersville loi members. 

Bethel 52 members. 

Denby's Not reported. 


Good Hope 154 members. 

Bethesda 128 members. 

Tabernacle Not reported. 


Gilmerton Not reported. 

Deep Creek Not reported. 

Indiana Not reported. 


Indian Creek 44 members. 

Mount Pleasant Not reported. 



Cumberland Street M. E. Church, South, 

The first Methodist Society founded in 
Virginia was organized in Norfolk in 1772, 
and is accredited to Rev. Roljert Wilhams, 
who, on his arrival here, preached his lirst ser- 
mon on the Court House steps, which was on 
the site of the great dry goods store on Main 
street at the head of Market Square. History 
records that they owned no church edifice here 
before 1793 or 1794. Their regular place of 
worship until the Revolutionary struggle is 
supposed to have been the old shattered build- 
ing, the "Play House," referred tO' in the 
writings of Pilmoor and Ashbury. 

Tlie first church erected on Cumberland 
street was on the site where the present build- 
ing stands, and was completed in 1802. 

In March, 1803, 97 years ago, Bishop Ash- 
bury preached in it. The present edifice is the 
third one built, the second building having been 
destroyed by fire on the night of March 2, 
1848. The third church was finished in Janu- 
ary, 1849, ^i^d on the 8th of that month was 
dedicated by Rev. John E. Edwards, D. D. 
The Methodists numbered at that time, white 
and colored, between 600 and 700 members. 

In 1S48 and 1849, such was the growth of 
Methodism that the time had ripened for the 
building of a new church edifice, and measures 
were taken to accomplish the result, and the 
erection of the Granby Street Church was 
commenced under the leadership of Rev. Dr. 
John E. Edwards, and the building was com- 
pleted and dedicated by Dr. Edwards in 1850, 
who was its first pastor. From tliis church also 
sprang Centenary and McKendree, two influ- 
ential and self-sustaining stations. Queen 
Street Church was the direct product of the 
Cumberland Street Church, as was also the 
Chestnut Street CIuutIi in Berkley. The 
Huntersville Church is a child of the Granby 
Street Church, now Epworth. So- that from 
the small number of 600 members, Methodism 
in Norfolk during the last 128 years has grown 
to nearly 4,000, with about 12,000 adheraits. 

The total membership in the Norfolk district 
is about 7,000; total value of church property 
in Norfolk, $265,000; number of pastors, 
eight; local preachers, three. 

Epzvorth M. E. Church, Sonlli, Norfolk, 

Is one of the finest buildings in the South. It 
was formerly Granby Street Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, which was organized 50 
years ago. 

Dr. William A. Smith, \yhile pastor of the 
Cumberland Street Church, saw the need of a 
new organization, and declared to his people 
that the interests of Christ's kingdom and of 
Methodism demanded that they build another 
church and organize a new society. Under 
the pastorate of Dr. J. E. Edwards, in 1848- 
49, measures were taken to accomplish this 
result. A lot on the corner of Freemason and 
Granbv streets, — a most eligible location, — 
was secured, and the Granby Street Church 
was built. It was completed in 1850, and on 
the 1st of December of that year 116 members 
withdrew from the Cumberland Street Church 
and organized the Granby Street Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. The church was 
dedicated on Sunday, December — , 1850, by 
Dr. John E. Edwards, who was its first pastor. 
The official board consisted of the following 
stewards: H. W. Williams, James Hicks, 
Nathaniel Nash, E. J. Griffith, G. \Y. W. 
Camp, C. F. Martin, E. R. Gale. Trustees : 
J. H. Nash, Benjamin W. Gatch, James M. 
Brooks. William P. Griffith, William Callis, 
E. H. Delk, William Taylor, Horatio N. Will- 
iams. Dr. John E. Edwards was the first 
pastor of the church, filling the station from 
1850 to 1852. He was succeeded by Dr. D. S. 

The subject of a new church building had 
been agitated for several _\-ears. The congre- 
gation felt that a more modern and more com- 
modious building was needed. In March, 
1892, Dr. William E. Evans called upon the 
congregation for a suliscription for this pur- 
pose, and the sum of $42,000 was at once 



realized. The conmiiUee apix)iiited to select 
a suitable site purchased a large and elevated 
lot on the corner of Freemason and Boush 
streets, one square west of the old site, and on 
this was built a church which is second to 
none in Virginia or in the South. The corner- 
stone was laid with Masonic rites on the 24th 
day of April. 1894, in the presence of a large 
concourse of people, and Rev. A. Coke Smith, 
I). D., delivered an elocjuent and able address. 
It was completed and dedicated on the 19th 
day of Januarx', 1896, by Rev. Dr. A. Coke 
Smith, who delixercd a powerful sermon, from 
Titus, 2d chapter, ixlh to 14th verses, to an 
inimense audience. It is a magnificent struct- 
ure, with an interior symmetrical and charm- 
ing, and withal comfortable; an exterior stately 
and imposing; and with its elegance and rich- 
ness of frescoing, fittings and furnishings un- 
suqiassed. It is truly a work of art, and an 
ornament to the citv of Norfolk. The memliers 
of the congregation felt more than gratified at 
the happy consummation of their long-cher- 
ished hopes and plans, but perha])s no one felt 
ha])pier than did William Taylor, the oldest 
living member, who came out from the old 
Cumberland Street Church and helped to build 
the Granl)y Street Church, and, after serving 
on the Epworth Church Building Committee, 
was spared to see the dedication of their grand 
church edifice. The following are the officers 
of the church : 

William Taylor, Chairniaii. 
H. C. Davis, J. D. Gale. 

J. L. Roper. A. J, Deiiby, 

M. C. Ferebee, B. D. Thomas. 

R. A. Dodson, R. O. Nottingham, 


John L. Roper, Chairman. 

W. M. Jones. Secretary. 

L. Clay Kilby. Church Treasurer. 

K. T. Bockover. Poor Fund Treasurer. 

W. B. Roper, Choir Fund Treasurer. 

John H. Thompson, Recording Steward. 

J. W. Perry, 
B. G. Pollard, 
T. S. Southgate, 
W. T. Simcoe. 
John T. Bolton, 
William A. Wrcnn, 

G. R. .Atkinson, 
-M. L. T. Davis, 
J. L. Walker, 

W. D. Rountree. 
R. D. Thomas, 
D. J. Turner, 

W. J. N'esev, 
McD. L. Wrcnn, 
J. Svdnev Smith, 
C\ \\'. Harrcll. 
F. C. Deming, 
A. C. Miley. 

McKendree M. E. Church, South, Norfolk. 

There is ])robably no other congregation 
in the Virginia Conference which has grown 
more rapidly than that now worshi])ing in the 
McKendree Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, of Norfolk, \'irginia. I'Brambleton 

This section of the city has increased so 
rapidly in ].>opulation that in a few years it 
has been transformed from a small suburb of 
500 people into a populous and one of the 
most important residential wards of the city, 
with over 6,000 inhabitants, — a community of 
thrifty, industrious business men and mechan- 
ics, a large percentage of whom own their 

This fully explains the fact that, in the 
same short time, the little chapel which was 
built for this progressive congregation, about 
15 years ago, by its worthy mother, the Gran- 
by Street Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
has been re])laced by a commodious and well- 
appointed edifice, with a seating capacity of 
over 800, and every modern appliance for the 
comfort and convenience of those who seek its 
walls to worship. This property cost alx)ut 
$25,000, and is truly a monument to Method- 
ism. The new church was dedicated on Oc- 
tober 2, 1892, Dr. R. X. Sledd preaching the 
sermon. The church was named for the late 
Bishop McKendree. 

Queen Street M. E. Church. South. Norfolk. 

Early in 1877 the church building was fin- 
ished. It stood on the southeast corner of 
Queen and Newton streets, where one of the 
buildings of the Rallentine Arcade now 
stands, was a rectangular brick structure, 
without tower or spire, plain and neat in ap- 
pearance, comfortably furnished, had no gal- 



leries, and would accommodate about 400 per- 
sons. At first it had but one room, but after- 
ward a pastor's study was built in the rear of 
the pulpit. The dedicatory services were held 
on Sunday, February 25, 1877, with large con- 
gregations in attendance. Rev. John E. Ed- 
wards, D. D., preached btjth morning and 

The house of worship above described, 
after several years of use. was found to have 
been defectively constructed ; the walls were 
bulging in such a manner as to render the 
whole structure unsafe. It was decided to pull 
down the building, sell the lot, purchase a bet- 
ter one oil the opposite side of the street, a 
little further east, and erect a much larger and 
better edifice. In December, 1885, a lot was 
bought on the corner of Queen and Pulaski 
streets, a temporary tabernacle was erected for 
the use of the congregatioi:, and some time 
during 1886 the present handsome building 
was begun. The lecture-room wing was first 
built and occupied. The opening services were 
held (m Sunday, February 27, 1887, sermons 
being preached by Rev. W. V. Tudor, D. D., 
Rev. L. B. Betty, and Rev. A. G. Brown. 
Work on the auditorium was begun in July, 
1888, and the entire building was completed 
in 1 89 1. The dedicator}- exercises were held 
on Sunday, January 11. i8yi, and in spite of 
the \ery inclement weather large congrega- 
tions were in attendance. Bishop Robert K. 
Hargrove, D. D., officiated and preached both 
morning and evening. This cburcJT has con- 
tinued to grow very rapidly, and is now one 
among the largest in the district. 

Mdiiiiincntal -M. E. CInircIi. South. Ports- 

The day after Re\-. Robert Williams 
preached in Norfolk, which was in the early 
part of 1772. he preached in Portsmouth on 
the invitation of Isaac Luke, a prominent citi- 
zen of the place. Rev. Air. Williams remained 
in the twin cities a month or more, preaching 
to large congregations. 

.\ class was formed 

under the care of Isaac Luke, and Monumental 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, goes 
back in unbroken secpience to that organiza- 

Nine years prior to this it is said' that the 
great \\'hitfield appeared in Portsmouth. 
William Maxwell's recollections of his mother, 
printed in the Antiquary, reports her as say- 
ing in referring to her mother : "She took 
me, too, to church along with her ever}- Sun- 
da}-, and I got some good, I suppose, from the 
sermons I heard, though I cannot say that I 
remember any of them, particularl}-, e.xcept 
one. This was a sermon which I had the 
happiness to hear from the great Mr. ^Vhit- 
field, when I was alxiut 12 or 13 years old. 
He preached in Portsmouth and stood out, I 
remember, on the steps of a house not far 
from the Ferry wharf, for such crowds of 
people had come in from all cpiarters to hear 
him that no house could hold them all. • And 
there he held his white handkerchief in his 
hand and talked away with a loud, sweet 
voice that I shall never cease to be hearing. 
His text was from the 3d chapter of John, 
'Ye must be born again.' 'Poor Nichodemus, 
methinks I see him now — a ruler of the Jews — 
and vet did not know that he must be born 
again.' At another time he broke out, 'Alas, 
I tell vou I might as well think to stop yon 
vessel under sail, by wa\'ing this handker- 
chief at her,' wa\ing while he spoke, 'as for 
one of you to think of getting to heaven with- 
out being born again.' All the people were 
moved. For my part, I thought I ne\er heard 
anything like him before, and, no doubt, he 
did me more good than I knew- at the time — 
for I have felt his words, or rather the words 
of our blessed Savior himself, in my heart from 
that time to this." As ]\[rs. Maxwell was 
born June 20, 1750, it must have been during 
Whitfield's visit in 1763 that she heard him in 

The first house in which the Methodists 
worshiped in Portsmouth, apart from private 
residences, was the one which stood at the in- 
tersection of South and Effingham streets. In 



1792 tlie coiii^regation purchased a lot in (ilas- 
gow street from Director Friedly. and traili- 
tion says that tlie Iiouse on Soutli and Efhng- 
h.ani streets was mo\ed on wheels or round 
jKiIes to the new site. The first ]\Iethodist 
cluirch was a plain AVLXxlen structure, alxait 
40 by 30 feet, its longest side parallel to and 
on tlie line of Glasgow street, it was twice 
enlarged to meet the demands of a constantly 
increasing congregation. In the first instance 
an addition of about 20 feet was added to the 
east end. and along this a "singing gallery," 
as the records term it, was erected for the 
choir. In the second instance an "L" was 
aildetl to the side furthest from the street, and 
two additional galleries were a)nstructed. 
This made the gi-ound plan of the building in 
the fomi of a "T." and with the pulpit moved 
to the center and fronting the new extension, 
the church was ci>nsidered the most conveni- 
ently arranged of any in this section. No 
trace of the building save the foundation re- 
mains. It was given up to the colored people, 
and was destroyed by fire in 1856. Re\-. Jesse 
Nicholson is buried in the church\ard. The 
inscription on his tomb is: "Sacred to the 
-Memory of Jesse Nicholson, Patriot of the 
.\merican Revolution. A most exemplary 
Christian — 45 years a minister of the M. E. 
Cluirch. a man loved and venerated for his 
many virtues, died September 26, 1834, aged 
75 years." He was a Revolutionary soldier, 
county surveyor. Methodist minister, school 
teacher, and postmaster of Portsmouth. He 
lived on High street, the present site of the 
Hume stores. He was always a highly re- 
spected citizen and a useful man. 

A large brick church edifice was erected on 
Dinwiddie street between 1830 and 1833. with 
a seating capacity for 1,000 persons. During 
the Confederate \\'ar this building was seized 
by the Ncrthern Methotlist Episcopal Church 
and while in its possession was consumed by 
fire in 1864. .Afterward a building was erected 
I in the rear portion of the same lot and was 
used for pul)lic worship until 1876, when the 
present Monumental Church was completed. 

This edifice is Gothic, with a lofty spire, richly 
stained glass windows, with a seating" capacity 
of 800. 

Clu'stintt Street M. E. Cluirch, South, 

The history of this church is \'ery inter- 
esting, and is but another proof of the active, 
progressive spirit of the people called Metho- 

In the year 1870 several Alethodist fami- 
lies moved to the little \illage then called 
Ferry Point; there was at that time no steam 
ferry communication with Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth, foot boats being used at irregular in- 
ter\-als. There was no church in the place ex- 
cept the Christian Church, Rev. Stephen Bar- 
rett, pastor. Soon, on account of the distance 
from, and the great inconvenience in reaching, 
the churches of which they were members, 
these few ]\Iethodists determined to form a 
society and make arrangements for regular 
church services ; a room was secured in the old 
Court House, fitted up for religious services 
and called the chapel, and here the)- met for 
divine worship, with some one of the Methodist 
preachers of Norfolk and Portsmouth preach- 
ing on Sunday afternoon and the society hold- 
ing class and jjrayer meetings during week 
nights. This continued until November 27, 
1870, when Rev. A. G. Brown, presiding el- 
der of the Norfolk District, met the society in 
the chapel and formally organized the church. 

The following was the first official roll : 
H. C. Oieatham. preacher in charge; H. B. C. 
\\alker. M. C. Keeling. H. V. Moore, C. S. 
Rogers and Enos Cuthrell, stewards. 

Central .1/. E. Church. South. Fortsinouth. 

Forty-four years ago, in 1856, Wesley 
Chapel Mission was established by the Din- 
widdie Street Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, to meet the increasing demands of 
Methodism in Portsmouth. 

The demand for a larger editice beoming 



imperative, the old cliurch was sold in April, 
1870, to a colored Baptist congregation, and 
a site purchased on County street, near Wash- 
ington street, and a new building' commenced, 
tO' be called Central Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. The corner-stone was laid 
with Masonic ceremonies, April 22, 1870, D. 
D. Fiske, master of Naval Lodge, No. 100, 

A. F. & A. M., officiating. Rev. P. A. Peter- 
son delivered on this occasion a very able and 
interesting address on "Historic Methodism." 

From the time of the delivery of the old 
church to its purchasei's to September 4, 1870, 
the membership of Wesley Chapel, numbering" 
about 225, worshiped in Oxford Hall, on High 
street, between Court and Middle. On the 
25th day of October. 1874, the building being 
complete, it was dedicated by Rev. Robert N. 
Sledd, D. D. Below is given the first board 
of stewards, and then the board now in office : 
Wesley Chapel — George L. Neville, B. H. 
Owens, John L. Thomas, James M. Butt, 
John H. Thompson. Central Church — Reu- 
l)en Bohlken, John L. Thomas, William Ives, 

B. B. Warren, W. L. Hewlett, W. B. Wilder, 
B. H. Owens, George W. Wonycotte, Harvey 
Lane, J. E. Thompson, F. A. Friedlin, W. E. 
Weber and Thomas C. Rice. The church has 
outgrown its present building and is preparing 
to erect a fine stone structure on the north- 
west corner of South and Washington streets. 

Memorial M. E. Church, South, 

]] 'rigli 


In 1861 the name of Gosport Station was 
changed to Second Street. There Methodism 
prospered for many years. It has been esti- 
mated that 1,500 souls were converted in that 
house. The location, style and size of this 
building not meeting the demands of the grow- 
ing congregation, November 11, 1882, while 
under the pastoral care of Rev. George M. 
Wright, a lot was purchased through W. H. 
Elliott on the corner of Randolph and Fourth 
streets, and the foundation for a new church 
edifice, to be called Centenarv, was begun Tulv, 

September 13th, of the same year, the cor- 
ner-stone was laid by Naval Lodge, No. 100, 
A. F. & A. M. April 12, 1885, the building 
Avas formally dedicated by Rev. R. N. Sledd, 
D. D. The church is a handsome edifice, and 
is eligibly located. Its size, outside measure- 
ment, is 45 by 90 feet; height of spire, 130 
feet : audience room. 42 by 63 feet, with a 
gallery 14 by 42 feet; seating capacit}-, 500. 
The interior is attractive, the walls and alcove 
in the rear of the pulpit being tastefully fres- 
coed, the windows of beautiful stained glass, 
the pews comfortable. It is heated by a fur- 
nace located in the basement, and is lighted by 

Board of stewards : Chairman, C. A. Mc- 
Lean ; secretary, George Davis ; treasurer, R. 
A. Etheridge; members, G. T. Townsend, 
John E. West, E. Cross, A. C. Bushnell, J. C. 
Sumners, Edward Powell, R. H. McLean, A. 
P. Cuthriell, J. O. Bailey, T. B. Tyler, T. J. 
King, William Anderton, J. J. King and C. A. 

On the 23d of July, 1885, Rev. George M. 
Wright, to whom the church felt indebted for 
his untiring efforts to build their beautiful 
house of worship, died. Shortly afterward, at 
the suggestion of the pastors of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, in Norfolk, Ports- 
mouth and Berkley, the Ouarterl_\- Conference 
by unanimous vote changed the name of the 
church to Wright Memorial. 

Oak Grove ^[. E. Churcli, South, 

Is located near the site of the British fort at 
Great Bridge. It was first called Cutherell's 
meeting-house, but in 1842 it was removed 
from that site about one mile distant to the 
present location, when the name was changed 
to Oak Grove. The church building was oc- 
cupied by the Federals as barracks and hos- 
pital for about three years during the Con- 
federate War; it was almost entirely destroyed 
during their occupancy. The board of stew- 
ards is constituted as follows: Maj. \\'illiam 
H. Etheredge, Frank Williamson, Charles N. 



l-'oreiiiaii, Alexaiuler Stokes and Luther 

Deep Creek M. E. Cliiirch, South. 

This church, prior to the' Confederate 
War, was called Rehobeth; during the war it 
was entirely destroyed by the h'ederal troops, 
who used the materials to construct barracks. 
A new building has since been erected on a 
new site in the heart of the village. 


Miuoiiry in Norfolk. 

This article was wrillcii for the "Century" edition 
of the Virginian-Pilol by Fast Master Henry L. Turner. 

We find from the earliest records, accord- 
ing to "Auld and Smellie's Freemason's 
Pocket Companion," piiblished in Edinburgh, 
A. D. 1765, under the heading: An exact list 
of the Regular English lodges according to 
their Seniority and Constitution ur.der the 
Grand Lodge of England, which was organ- 
ized in 1 71 7, recorded No. 172, — "The Royal 
Exchange, in the Borough of Norfolk, in 
Virginia, the 1st Thursday of December, 


This lodge was one of the original eight 
which met in ^\■illiamsburg on the 6th of Ma}-, 
1777, by request of Williamsburg Lodge, No. 
6. The deliberations of this convention re- 
sulted in the fomiation of the Grand Lodge 
of Virginia on the 13th day of October, 1778. 
At the meeting of the Grand Lodge of Vir- 
ginia, held in October, 1786, a committee regu- 
lated the rank and standing of the several 
lodges then under its jurisdiction. This lodge, 
Royal Exchange, No. 172, was changed to 
Norfolk Lodge, No. i, and constituted as 
dating from 1741. There is a difterence in 
dates here: the original charter was dated 
1733, and it is claimed to be the oldest lodge 
in existence in the United States. It was, 
however, kept on the register of the Grand 
Lodge of England until 181 3. Mathew 

riiripp, Esq., was the representative of this 
lodge in the Williamsburg Convention. He 
was honored by Ijeing chosen the president of 
the convention. In the Grand Lodge of 1778 
we find the names of Mathew Phripp and Paul 
Loyall (this gentleman was evidently one of 
the ancestors of the Loyall family now in our 
cityj, representing Lodge No. i at the session 

of the Grand Lodge of 


m 1790. 

Thomas Matthews, of Norfolk Lodge, No. i, 
who was the speaker of the House of Dele- 
gates, was elected grand master, being the 5t!i 
grand master. In 1793 Mr. Matthews was 
presented by the Grand Lodge of Virginia with 
an elegant past master's jewel. At the Grand 
Communication held December, 1798, a char- 
ter was granted for the establishment of a 
lodge to be known as Napthal Lodge, No. 56, 
with Robert Brough, grand master; John K. 
Read, S. W. ; and James Kerr, J. W. This 
lodge was regularly represented for some 
years by Mr. Brough. 

The year 1801 was very unhealthy, as 
the lodges lost by death during this year 1 1 
members. The year 181 3 seems to have been 
very peculiarly unhealthy or there must have 
been an epidemic, as Norfolk Lodge, No. i, 
l(jst 14, — among the number P. G. M. Mat- 
thews, — and Napthali Lodge, No. 56, 26; a 
total of 40. At the Grand Communication 
held December, 181 3, Robert Brough, of 
Napthali Lodge, No. 56, was elected grand 
master. The two lodges lost by death during 
181 5, 13. Norfolk health at that time must 
have been very poor, for there certainly could 
not have been more than 150 Masons, and a 
death rate of 10 per cent, was fearful. With 
a membership at the present time, A. D. 1900, 
of 450, the death rate for the last three years 
has averaged one-half of one per cent., show- 
ing a vast improvement in the health, cer- 
tainly, of the members of the fraternity. 

There was also a lodge in the city known 
as the Lodge of Truth, which evidently 
worked in the French language, as the names 
of its members recorded as visiting Norfolk 
Lodge, No. I, and Napthali Lodge, No. 56, 



\vere those of Frenchmen ( in fact, some of the 
descendants of those good French Masons were 
known to flie writer), but all records in rela- 
tion to it have disappeared. Probably they 
may be in the possession of some of the de- 
scendants of those good old Frenchmen. Ma- 
sonry flourished, and on October 24, 1824, 
there occurred in the borough of Norfolk a 
]\Iasonic affair which is not only interesting to 
the craft in this city but to the craft where- 
soever dispersed. I shall transcribe from the 
record book of Napthali Lijdge, No. 56, the 
records as they appear: 

At a called conimiinication of Lodges No. i, 16. 56 
and 100. held at the Mason's Hall pursuant to notice. 
Lodge No. I. presiding, on Sunday morning. Oct. 24. 

A. D. 1824, A. L. 5824. 

Present Wors. Benj. Pollard .Master. 

Brother Jno. Myers. S. Warden. 

Brother Geo. Weaver. J. Warden. 

Brother W. D. Roberts. L. Deacon. 

Brother Willoughby Butt. J. Deacon. 

Brother P. J. Cohen. Treasurer. 

Brother M. B. O'Xeil. Secretary. 

Brother John Warrington. Tyler. 

And a large concourse of members from each of 
the Lodges and visiting brethren. * * * * On mo- 
tion made and seconded. 

"Resolved. That by a general suliscription among 
the brethren now present, a P. M. Jewel he purchased 
and presented to our distinguished Brother General 
Lafayette, the deficiency if any to be made good from 
the funds of each Lodge now represented." 

A committee consisting of W. M. Senar of Lodge 
No. 16. and W. M. Mordecai Cooke, of Lodge No. 100, 
with Brothers Moses Myers. Thomas Newton. William 

B. Lamb. Stephen Wright and four deacons were dis- 
patched to wait on Brother Lafayette, and announce to 
him. that the Lodge was prepared for his reception. At 
12 minutes before 11 o'clock he appeared, and having 
been received with the most e.xalted honors and pre- 
sented by the Wor. M. B. Pottare with the Masonic 
Badge, he was by him addressed in the following ele- 
gant and dignified speech : 

"Most Venerated Brother, among the variety of 
cordial welcomes, and heartfelt congratulations with 
which you have been greeted since your arrival in our 
happy country, permit us to enroll that of the Free and 
.\cceplcd ^Lasons of the Borough of Norfolk and Town 
of Portsmouth congregated here in our Lodge for the 
purpose of tendering you the assurances of their re- 
spect and fraternal love. We will not detain your at- 
tention by eulogies on the antiquity of our order, nor 
dwell on the honorable character it has universally 
maintained. Neither will we fatigue you with a re- 
capitulation of the many virtuous and distinguished 
characters, who have adorned our annals; but in the 

presence of the friend and companion of our beloved 
Washington, permit us to boast that he was a meiuber 
of our Craft; and was proud to be hailed as the Grand 
Master of the Lodge of Virginia, from which stock we 
derive our descent as Masons, Vou. Sir. who have 
stood in the presence of Princes and Potentates, have 
often practically experienced the sovereign influence of 
our principles wherever there has been found capacity 
to comprehend them; and in the day of danger, and on 
the field of carnage, have probably witnessed the benev- 
olence and magic sympathy they have extolled amidst 
the din of battles, and from the deadliest foes. We 
are not. however, ignorant of your sentiments on this 
subject; they are recorded in the toasts with which you 
were pleased to honor the fraternity in the City of 
New York, in which you have contrasted names dear 
and precious to enlightened man, throughout the civil- 
ized world, with those with which are associated with 
darkness and despotism, with the degradation of human 
nature, and the perpetuation of ignorance and super- 
stition. Permit me. Dear Brother, as we may never 
again be favored with the honor and happiness of your 
presence, to record for the edification of successors and 
of generations who arc to follow us. that we have your 
sanction to enroll the name of Lafayette with those of 
Washington and Franklin, in our annals, for which 
purpose allow us to confer on you the title of honorary 
member of Lodges Nos. i. 16. 56 and 100 here assem- 
bled, and permit us also to invest vou with a Past 
Master's Jewel, bestowed by the unanimous vote of the 
Brethren as a lasting memorial of tbeir respectful re- 
gard. We also beg that you will yourself inscribe your 
name in the Books of the Constitutions of the several 
Lodges which are here presented by their respective 
secretaries, for that purpose. We wish your signature 
to be preserved among the archives and ancient land- 
marks of our order, to which our successors and ofif- 
spring may point with elated feelings, and honor it. as 
a Star in the East, that Masons yet unborn may glory 
in your name and be stimulated to emulate your 

To which the General returned a neat and appro- 
priate reply. He was then presented by the W. M. with 
the Jewel and by request became an honorary member 
of each of the Lodges then represented by affixing his 
signature to the respective constitutions. .And ALister 
Elect Geo. Washington Lafayette fliis son) and Brother 
Le Vasseur. were also presented with badges and be- 
came honorary members of each Lodge in a similar 
way. (The Book of Constitutions of Norfolk No. i. 
containing these signatures, is in the Masonic Temple. 1 
The procession having been formed, the General and 
his suite were conducted to Christ Church where the 
Rev. Dr. Wilmer delivered an eloquent sermon adapted 
to the occasion, .^fter which the General was con- 
ducted to his lodgings, they moved thence to the Lodge, 
when after having spent some time (by partakin.g of a 
handsome collation) in the most affectionate and broth- 
erly manner the Lodge was closed in ancient form. 

J.\MES Willoughby. 

Teste. Master. 

Fr.incis A. Perier. 


From the minutes of Bro. M. B. O'Neil. 



'llius ended one of the most notable events 
in the history of Norfolk. There is now liv- 
ing in Norfolk a venerable lady who danced 
with General Lafayette at the ball given by the 
citizens in his honor. Napthali Lodge, No. 
5O, became extinct in 1843. ^^'^^ records of 
the venerable lodge are now held by special 
act of the Grand Lodge of Virginia by At- 
lantic Lodge, No. 2, as their custodian, and 
are highly prized by that lodge. After this 
time Norfolk Lodge, No. i, was the only 
lodge in the city until October 14, 1854, when 
Atlantic Lodge, No. 2, was chartered, with 
George L. L'pshur as worshipful master. It 
started out under most favorable auspices, but 
in less than one year from its charter, Norfolk 
was visiteil by the fearful scourge of \e!low 
fexer. The heroic Upshur fell at his post, 
battling with the dread disease. Norfolk 
Lodge, No. I, lost many of its members also. 

On June 12, 1867, a num1)er of the 
brethren of both lodges united in forming 
Owens Lodge, No. 164, with Thomas F. 
Owens as its first master. He, in 1869, was 
elected most worshi|)ful grand master of the 
State, being the third and last grand master 
selected from the Norfolk ^lasons. Decem- 
ber 15, 1869, Ruth Lodge, No. 89, was char- 
tered, with James B. Blanks as its first master. 
This lodge was comiX)sed of young men who 
had settled in Norfolk from different parts of 
the State and other States, and was originally 
intended to be called the Lodge of the Strang- 
ers. .During tiiis time Kempsville Lodge was 
chartered (December 12, 1871), and drew 
many members from Atlantic Lodge. It was 
afterward removed to Princess Anne Court 
House, and the name changed to Princess 
Anne Lodge, No. 25. Berkley Lodge. No. 
167, was chartered December 11, 1871, and 
drew strength from both Nos. i and 2. 
Elizabeth Lodge. No. 34, was chartered in 
1 87 1, with P. yi. James E. Wright, of No. 
I, as its first master. Decemlier 9, 1897, 
Corinthian Lodge. No. 266. was chartered and 
Atlantic Lodge furnished its first master in 

the person of i'ast .Master L. Jack Oliver, the 
present district dejjuty grand master. 

The first temple erected in the city was 
situated on the corner of Freemason and 
Cumberland streets: the next, on the east side 
of Church street nearly opposite the Odd Fel- 
lows" Hall, and was the property of Norfolk 
Lodge, No. I. The present temple on the cor- 
ner of Freemason and Brewer streets was 
erected in 1874-75, and is the home of most 
of the fraternity. In addition to the lodges 
named, there is Norfolk United Chapter, R. 
A. M., No. I, chartered January 18, 1820, 
and Grice Commandery, K. T., No. 16, char- 
tered April 20, 1866. 

Norfolk Lodge, No. 1. A. 1-". & A. .M., 
.Mexander T. Hofheimer, W . M., Isaac 
Moritz, secretar\-, meets in the Masonic Tem- 
ple the first Tuesday of each month. Num- 
ber of members, 120. 

Atlantic Lodge, No. 2, A. F. & A. M., 
Henry L. ^Myers, W. M., George W. Wilson, 
secretary, meets in the ^lasonic Temple the 
second' Monday of each month. Number of 
members 80. 

Elizal)eth Lodge. No. 34. A. F. & A. M., 
R. A. I'ebworth, \\'. :\I., R. F. Cleverly, sec- 
retar\-, meets in Odd Felhms" Hall, Atlantic 
City Ward, the first Tuesday of each month. 
-Xumber of members, 55. 

Ruth Lodge, No. 89, A. F. & .\. M., Law- 
rence Royster, W. M., William N. Grubb. 
secretary, meets in the Masonic Temple the 
third Tuesday of each uKJUth. Number of 
manbers, 100. 

Owens Lodge. No. 164, .V. F. & .\. M., 
Walter H. Hall. W. M., B. .\. Marsden, sec- 
retary, meets in the Masonic Temple the sec- 
ond Thursday of each month. Number of 
members, 68. 

Corinthian L(;dge. Xo. 266. A. F. & A. 
.M., S. R. Hill, W! .M.. L. Jack Oliver, sec- 
retary, meets in Ingram's Hall, Brambleton 
Ward, the second Tuesday of each month. 
Number of memliers. ^^. 

Norfolk United Chapter. R. A. :M., No. i. 



Newton Fitz, high priest, John W'aUers, sec- 
retary, meets in the [Masonic Temple the first 
Monday of each month. 

Grice Commandery. No. ib, K. T., Harry 
Hodges, eminent commander, George B. 
Jenkins, recorder, meets in the Alasonic Tem- 
ple the fourth Monday of each month. 

There are 45S affiliated ]\Iasons in the city 
and about 250 non-affiliates. 

The members of the fraternity are at all 
times glad tu welcome visiting brethren. They 
can always be certain of a cordial greeting 
and an Old Virginia welcome. I have en- 
deavored to give a slight outline of the his- 
tory of Masonr_\- in our city by the sea for 
the last 170 years, but space allowed me is 
too limited to go into detail. There are many 
interesting" occasions which could not be de- 
scribed in so limited a space, but I hope that 
I have said enough to assin"e the craft 
throughout the United States and the world 
that the true spirit of Masonry lives and 
flourishes in the "Old Borough." 

Henry L. Turner, 
P. M. Atlantic No. 3. 

Xorfolk L<nlgc. Xo. ^8, B. P. 0. E. 

"The faults of our brothers we write upon the sand ; 
Their virtues upon the tablets of love and memory." 

Ever since the Benevolent & Protective 
Order of Elks has been organized, these beau- 
tiful words have been the motto of evei'j' mem- 
ber of the order. Once every year Elks all 
over the country liold memorial exercises in 
memory of their absent brothers who have 
passed away, and these impressive exercises 
are always attended by thousands of people, 
no matter where they are held. 

On the 15th day of November, 1885, a 
meeting was held in this city for the purpose of 
organizing Norfolk Lodge, No. 38, B. P. O. 
E. Frank L. Slade presided at this meeting, 
and after the objects of the order were ex- 
plained, the session adjourned to meet again 
on the 29th, and on that date Norfolk Lodge 
was instituted in the same room that they now 

occupy in the Academy and Music building. 
After the lodge had been duly instituted, the 
following officers were elected: Exalted ruler, 
Frank L. Slade; esteemed leading knight, 
Henry C. Chase; esteemed loyal knight, M. 
P. Waller; esteemed lecturing knight, Frank 
H. White; secretary, Thomas J. Arrington; 
treasurer, Frank H. Camp; tyler, T. G. 
Church; esquire, A. G. Gale; chaplain, E. M. 
Allen ; inner guard, W. A. Foster ; trustees : 
John F. Trudewind, M. \\'. Jenkins and S. S. 

February 27, 1887, a committee was ap- 
pointed to select a suitable place in the cem- 
etery for an Elks' Rest, and they selected an 
admirably located plot, on which was later un- 
veiled a magnificent bronze elk. Elks from 
many other cities participated in the unveil- 
ing ceremonies, which were very elaborate. 

The present officers of Norfolk Lodge are : 
W. H. Venable, exalted ruler; W. H. Sar- 
geant, Jr., esteemed leading knight; D. J. 
MacFarland, esteemed loyal knight; W. J. C. 
Stockley, esteemed lecturing night ; W. B. 
Langle}', secretary ; \\'. W. Dey, treasurer ; 
R. E. Riddick, esquire; E. T. \\'right, tyler; 
H. E. Chase, chaplain; F. H. Tholl, inner 
guard; A. ]\Ioses, organist; board of trustees: 
R. D. Nichols, E. R. Joynes, A. P. Jones. 

Young Men's Cliristian Assocafion. 

The association was organized February 
28, 1856, in the room of the Freemason Street 
Baptist Church. Dr. S. K. Jackson was the 
first president, with T. F. Owens, C. A. 
Santos and A. M. McPheters as vice-presi- 
dents and Charles H. Langley and A. L. 
Seabury, secretary and vice-secretary, respect- 
ively. The venerable W. D. Reynolds, who is 
a member of the board of (H rectors, was one 
of the active workers in the early days, and 
has alays retained an active interest is the 
affairs of the association. 

The association was incorporated in 1886 
and the new building movemait inaugurated. 
■Evangelist Moodv was largelv instrumental in 



•ii"' ■ 



(_ Li- i 

._, ^l '1 



arousing tlie citizens to tlie inipiirtance of such 
a builcling, and under tlie energetic leadersliip 
of General Secretary Dadmun, the necessary- 
funds were secured and the enterprise pushed 
to a successful completion. It was thought by 
some tiiat tiie building was too large for the 
size of the city, but the subsecpient growth of 
the city and development of the various asso- 
ciation activities have already proved the wis- 
dom of those who plaiuied and Iniilt for the 
future growth, as well as for present needs. 

In no city in the State has there been a 
more cordial support of this valuable work for 
young men and boys than in Xorfolk. The 
liberality of the citizens has been rewarded 
during the past year with the largest results in 
the history of the association. The gymna- 
sium classes have been crowded to overflow- 
ing, frequently as high as 60 and 70 gathering 
u\K>n the floor for exercise at one time. The 
enrollment in the educational classes has been 
nearly double that of any previous year, with 
a total of over 118, who have been attracted 
to the various evening classes conducted for 
the benefit of employed young men. The 
steady increase in attendance and interest at 
the Bible classes, literary society and gospel 
meetings for men and boys on Sunday after- 
noons have been most gratifying to all. It is 
e.\])eoted that the present year ( 1900) will 
eclipse all previous records in several respects. 

The present officers and board of directors 
are as follows: Dr. L. Lankford, president: 
W. W. Vicar, vice-president ; \V. B. Roper, 
second vice-president : Dr. N. .\. McCurdey, 
third vice-president : C. C. Couper, recording 
secretary: T. S. Southgate, W. H. Barnard. 
Barton Myers, Alfred Clay, Frank Hitch, 
Luther Sheldon. T. J. Nottingham. A. S. 
Couper. W. D. Reynolds, G. Benson Ferebee, 
Harry K. Walcoitt and J. I. Jenkins. H. A. 
Meacham is general secretary : Ambrose Page, 
junior secretary: W. H. \\'ard, physical di- 
rector : Robert Douglass, membership sccre- 

Woiiiciis Christian Temperance Union. 

The president is Mrs. Annie Barnes; vice- 
president, Mrs. A. J. Makinson; correspond- 
ing secretary, Aliss Carrie Lambert; record- 
ing secretary, Mrs. T. E. Lee; treasurer, Mrs. 
A. J. Makinson. 


Is the greatest visible work nf the Norfolk 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, and 
its friends. It is managed by a board which 
fills vacancies by members of its own choos- 
ing, all of whom must be members of some 
local branch of the \V. C. T. U. The man- 
agers collected from the members of the W. 
C. T. U. in the State, and from friends of 
rescue work, all the price of the Chapel street 
property except $1,000, which was given by 
Charles N. Crittenden as a memorial to his. 
little daughter. The Home is supported by 
voluntary oiTerings and b\' an allowance of 
$300 per year from the city treasury. Last 
summer (1900) the old wing of the building 
was torn down and rebuilt, and the whole 
place renovated and put in good sanitary condi- 
tion. A large per cent, of the girls received at 
the Home are saved. 

Tlic Mar\ /•". BaUciiiinc Ilmuc 

Vor ag'e<l women is located on Park avenue, 
between Bond street and Corprew avenue. 
The president is Thomas R. Ballentine : sec- 
retary, W. W. Vicar : treasurer, Caldwell 
Hardy: matron, iMiss E. E. Sclden. A view 
r>f the Home is shown on a near by page. 

The Episeupdj Chnreh Home 

I'or aged, infirm and indigent females, lo- 
cated at No. 417 Bute street, has for its offi- 
cers: President, C. \\'hittle Sams; matron, 
i Miss A. C. Clemmitt. 




The Turncy Home for Boys 

Is located at Xo. 268 Bank street; the matron 
is Mrs. Mary F. Hallett. 

The Girls' Home 

Is located at No. 210 Brewer street. It is 
managed by the following named officers : 
President, Mrs; Jane Lauder; vice-president, 
Miss Ma}' Reed; secretary, Mrs. Lewis B. 
White; treasurer, Miss Nonie Wilkinson; 
matron, Miss Ada Ransome. 

The Jaeksoii Female Orphan Asylum 

Is located at No. 112 Charlotte street. Rich- 
ard H. Baker is president; B. P. Loyall, sec- 
retary: J. L. Farrant, treasurer; Miss F. A 
Woodley, matron. 

Norfolk Seamen's Friend Society. 

Col. William Lamb, president; Rev. J. B. 
]\Ierritt. chaplain. 

Norfolk Society for Prevention of Cruelty to 

L. Clay Kilby, president; W. B. Barton, 

Tlnnnus, Jefferson Lodge, No. 43, Orangemen. 

W. M., J. P. Grunewald; secretary, J. W. 
Shell ; treasurer, G. M. Baker. 

Friendship Council, No. 4, Order of Chosen 

Counselor, J. H. Rose; secretary, J. W. 

Independent Order of Odd FelloiM. 

Canton No. 31, Patriarchs Militant: Cap- 
tain, Andrew Dusch ; clerk, George W. Hill. 
Old Dominion Encampment, No. i : Chief 

patriarch, R. D. \\"illiamson; S. \\'., W. R. Mc- 
Dowell; H. P., Jonathan Martin; J. W., W. 
R. Brown; scribe, R. H. \\'orsham; treasurer, 
J. P. Epps. 

Jerusalem Encampment, No. 4 : Chief 
patriarch, E. A. Runaldi ; scribe, James E. Mc- 

Washington Lodge, Xo. 2 : X'. G., B. D. 
Blick; secretary, James H. Hill. 

Lafayette Lodge, Xo. 9: X. G., Miles 
^^'ood ; secretary, Henry Wetzel. 

Atlantic Lodge, No. 51: X''. G., J. C. 
Phillips ; secretary, J. D. Armstrong. 

Harmony Lodge, Xo. 19: X'. G.. H. F. 
Graves ; recording secretary, John T. Cross. 

Lambert's Point Lodge: X. G., B. A. 
Allen ; secretary, B. F. Albright. 

Vandalia Lodge, X^o. 47: X. G., G. W. 
Crocker; secretary, G. C. Erwin. 

Norfolk Lodge, No. :i2: X. G.. C. P. 
Schmtis : secretary, George W. Toms. 

Columbia Lodge, X^o. 44: X. G., Dr. 
George D. Levy; secretary, H. S. Coles. 

Huntersville Lodge, Xo. 123: X^. G., E. 
V. Atwood ; recording secretary, T. B. Kelly. 

Knights of Pythias. 

L'niform RanTv, First Virginia Regiment: 
Colonel, G. W. Bately; lieutenant-colonel, S. 
J. Harwood; major, W. C. Corbitt ; adjutant, 
Henry L. Myers ; quartermaster, W. C. \Vithy ; 
commander, J. T. Lawrence. 

Virginia Company, X^o. 2 : Cap- 
tain, A. Dusch; treasurer, George W. Battley; 
recorder, William H. Holland. 

Endowment Rank, Section Xo. 3862 : 
President, C. H. Spann ; secretary, George W. 

Section Xo. 47 : President, Jacob 

Kraemer ; secretary, Ira T. Holt. 

Xorfolk Lodge, Xo. 9: C. C, Abe Moses; 
K. of R. and S., J. L. Williams. 

Charity Lodge, No. 10: C. C, J. T. Hud- 
gins; K. of R. and S., R. D. Williamson. 

Brambleton Lodge, No. 56: C. C, W. C. 
Spann; K. of R. and S., W. A. Wicklmuse. 



Rallibtiiie Ludge. Xo. y^^ : C. C, George \\ . 
Hoff: K. of R. and S.. James E. JIanowell. 

Hcf^tasopliiaiis or Sci'^'ii Wise Men. 

\'irginia Conclave, Xo. i : Arclion, A. C. 
Ward: cliancellor. William, Rawlings. 

Frien<lsliip Conclave, Xo. 2 : Archon, A. 
S. Jones: scribe, W. G. Gregory. 

Columbia Conclave, Xo. 7 : Chancellor, O. 
(i. Allen: treasurer, R. D. Sniithers: scribe, 
.John Hall. 

Harmony Conclave, Xo. 1 1 : Archon, 
Charles I. Stengle: chancellor, John O. Car- 
roll ; scribe, H. C. Willis : treasurer, A. F. Mor- 

Improved Order of Heptasoplis. 

Latuhnark Concla\e, X'o. .245: Archon, 
F. L. Ri;niH'y: treasurer. W. X. (Inilib; sec- 
retary, W. M. Simpson : financier. IC. \\'. Reid. 

X< rt'cilk Conclave. Xo. -'3-': Archon, Dr. 
L. Liift'in: treasurer, J. X. McHride; secre- 
tary. J. W. Bates. 

Knigliis of Honor. 

Orient Lodge, Xo. 734 ; Reporter, E. T. 

Xorfolk Lodge. Xo. 956 : Dictator, R. 
Gatewood : reporter, G. ^^^ Wilson ; treasurer, 
W. X. Grubb. 

Old Dt