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Full text of "History of North American pinnipeds, a monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America"

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
U 8. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES 

F. V. HAYDEN, GEOLOGIST-DJ-CHABQE 



MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS No. 12 



HISTORY 



OF 



NORTH ^ ME RIO A. 1ST 



PINNIPEDS 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE 



WALRUSES, SEA-LIONS, SEA-BEARS 




AND 



SEALS 



OF 



NORTH AMERICA. 



BY JOEL ASAPH ALLEN 

Assistant in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge 
Special Collaborator of the Survey 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT FEINTING OFFICE 

1880 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL AND 
GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF THE TERRITORIES, 

Washington, D. (7., July 1, 1880. 

The present series of monographs of the 'North American 
Pinnipedia, by Mr. J. A. Allen, may be considered as a second 
installment of the systematic History of North American Mam- 
mals, of which the Fur-Bearing- Animals by Dr. Elliott Cones, 
U. S. A., forming No. 8 of the Miscellaneous Publications of 
the Survey, was published as a specimen fasciculus. The first 
monograph of this series, treating of the Walruses, was prepared 
nearly three years since for publication in the Bulletin of the 
Survey, but before it was quite ready for the press, Dr. Coues, 
owing to his pressing engagements in other directions, invited 
Mr. Allen to extend his treatise to embrace the entire suborder 
of the Pinnipeds, to which he had already given special atten- 
tion, with a view to its incorporation as a part of the proposed 
general History of North American Mammals. Since, how- 
ever, considerable time must elapse before the whole work can 
be completed, it has been thought best not to delay the publi- 
cation of the part already prepared relating to the Pennipeds. 

As nearly all of the species belonging to this group found in 
the northern hemisphere are members of the North American 
fauna, the present treatise is virtually a monograph of all the 
species occurring north of the equator, and includes incideutally 
a revision of those of other seas. The literature of the whole 
group is not only reviewed at length, but the economic pha.se 
of the subject is treated in detail, embracing, in fact, a general 
history of the Sealing industries of the world. The technical 
treatment of the subject is based rnainjy on the rich material 
of the National Museum, supplemented at many important 
points by that of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Cam- 
bridge, which, through the kindness of the directors of these 
institutions, was generously placed at the author's disposal. 
That contained in the other principal museums of the country 

in 



IV PREFATORY NOTE. 

was also examined, so that so far as the species of the northern 
hemisphere is concerned the amount of material consulted 
doubtless far exceeds that ever before studied by any single 
investigator of the group. For the biographical part, to which 
much space has been allotted, matter has been freely gathered 
from all available sources. In addition to the results here first 
published, the work may be considered as a compendium of 
our present knowledge of the subject. 

In regard to the need of a work like the present, it may be 
stated that with the exception of Dr. Theodore Gill's important 
"Prodrome" of a proposed monograph of North American 
Pinnipeds, published in 1866, there has been no general treat- 
ment of the species since the excellent compilations of Drs. 
Harlan and Godman appeared, now more than half a century 
ago. Respecting foreign works, nothing has been recently 
published covering the ground here taken beyond a very gen- 
eral synopsis of the technical phases of the subject. The best 
accounts of the species occurring along the shores of Europe 
are in other languages than English, while no general history 
of the economic relations of the subject exists. In relation to 
the important Fur Seal Fisheries of Alaska, the author has been 
able to present in extenso the results of Captain Charles Bryant's 
long experience at the Fur Seal Islands, where for nearly ten 
years he was the government agent in charge of the islands. 
Although not received until the article on this species had 
been transmitted to the printer, it proves to be, to only a small 
degree, a repetition of the account given by Mr. Elliott, also 
reproduced at length. The history Captain Bryant gives of 
the changes in the numbers and relations of the different 
classes of these animals at the rookeries, under the present 
system of management of the Fur Seal business, forms a valu- 
able basis for generalization in regard to the future regulation 
of this industry, and is also an important contribution to the 
life-history of the species. 

The cuts, some thirty in number, illustrating the cranial char- 
acters of the Walruses, were drawn for the present work by Mr. J. 
H. Blake, of Cambridge, and engraved by Messrs. Eussell and 
Richardson, of Boston. The Survey is indebted to Professor 
Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, for a series of six- 
teen original figures, engraved by Mr. H. H. Nichols, of Washing- 
ton, from photographs on wood, illustrating the sknlls of CallorU- 
nus ursinus, Peale's "Halwhcerwcmtarcticus," Cystopliora cristata, 



PREFATORY NOTE. V 

and Macrorhinus angustirostris ; also to the Zoological Society 
of London for electros of Gray's "Halicyon richardsi," and of a 
series of historic figures of the walrus published in the Society's 
"Proceedings," by the late Dr. Gray, and to the proprietors of 
" Science Gossip," for electros of the full-length figures of seals. 
These were received through Dr. Coues, who also furnished the 
full-length views of Eumetopias stelleri and CaUorhinus ursinus. 
Mr. Allen desires me to express, in this connection, acknowl- 
edgments of his indebtedness to Prof. Spencer F. Baird, Secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, and to Prof. Alexander 
Agassiz, Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, for 
the liberality with which they have placed at his service the 
rich material relating to this group of animals contained in the 
museums respectively under their charge ; to Prof. Henry A. 
Ward, of Rochester, N. Y., for the use of much valuable 
material relating to the Walruses that he would not otherwise 
have seen ; and to Captain Charles Bryant, late special agent 
of the United States Treasury Department, for his report, 
kindly prepared at the author's request, for the present work. 
Also to Dr. Elliott Cones, Secretary of the Survey, for the use 
of many of the cuts, for valuable suggestions during the prepa- 
tion and printing of the monograph, and revision of the proof- 
sheets. 

F. V. HAYDEN, 

United States Geologist. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS., 

May 25, 1880. 

SIR : I have the honor to transmit herewith for approval 
and for publication the " History of North American Pinnipeds," 
being a monograph of the Walruses, Sea-Lions, Sea-Bears, and 
Seals of North America. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. A. ALLEN. 
F. V. HAYDEN, 

Washington, D. C. 

vn 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Title ............................................................................ I 

Prefatory note ................................................................... HI 

Letter of transmittal ............................................................. V 

Table of contents ............................................................ VH 

List of illustrations ................... ................... 

Characters of the PINNIPEDI^ 

Family ODOB^NID^ Walruses 

Synonymy ................... ................... 

General observations and characters of the group 
Genera 

Synopsis of the genera 
Genus OcoBjENUs 

Synonymy and history ............ . 

Species ... 

ODOB^NUS KOSMARUS Atlantic "Walrus 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 

External characters 

Sexual differences 

Individual variations and variations dependent upon age 

Measurements of skulls 

Dentition 

Fossil remains ____ ................................. ........... . 

Geographical distribution, present and past 
Ooast of North America 
Coast of Europe 
Nomenclature 
Etymology 
Literature 

General history 
Figures 

Habits and the chase 
Products 
Food 
Functions of the tusks ......................................... 137-138 

Enemies ......................................................... 138-139 

Domestication ................................................... 140-147 

ODOB.ENUS OBESUS Pacific "Walrus ................................. 147-186 

Synonymy and bibliographical references ....................... 147 

External characters and skeleton ................................ 147-155 

Measurements of skeleton .................................. 14iM5U 

Measurements of skulls ..................................... 155 

Differential characters ........... . ............................... 156-170 

Nomenclature ................................................... 170-171 

General history .................................................. 171-172 

Figures .......................................................... 172-174 

Geographical distribution ........................................ 174-178 

Habits, food, commercial products, and the chase ............... 178-186 

Family OTARIID^ Eared Seals .......................................... 187-411 

Synonymy and characters of the group ................................. 

Technical history ........................................................ 188-207 

Higher groups ....................................................... 188-190 

Genera .............................................................. 190-193 

Species .............................................................. 193-207 

IX 



1 

fr-186 
5 

5-12 

12-14 

14 

14 

14-17 

17-23 

23-147 

23-26 

26-38 

38-43 

43-45 

46 

47-57 
57-65 
65-79 
65-71 
71-79 
80 

80-82 

82-107 

82-92 

92-107 

107-133 

133-134 

134-137 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Characters of the PINNIBEDIA Continued. 
Family^OTAmrD^ Eared Seals. 

Synopsis of the genera and species 208-213 

Mythical and undeterminable species 214-216 

Geographical distribution 216 

Fossil Otaries 217-221 

Milk dentition 221-224 

Irregularities of dentition 224 

Position of the last upper permanent molar 225 

General observations 225-227 

Habits 227 

Products 228 

Destruction of Fur Seals for their peltries : 229-231 

Genus EUMETOPIAS 231 

EUMETOPIAS STELLERI Steller's Sea-Lion 232-274 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 232 

External characters 232-236 

External measurements 236 

Skull 237-238 

Measurements of skulls 238 

Teeth 239 

Skeleton 240-244 

Measurements of skeleton 242-244 

Sexual, adolescent, and individual variation 244 

Geographical variation 244 

Comparison with allied species 244-247 

Measurements of skulls of OTARIA JUBATA 247 

Geographical distribution 248 

General history and nomenclature 248-254 

Habits ' 254-274 

Genus ZALOPHUS 275 

ZALOPHUS CALIFOHXIANTS Califomian Sea- Lion 276-312 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 27C 

External cliura.-trrs 276-278 

Young 278 

Pelage 278 

Size 278-283 

External measurements 279-280 

Measurements of skeleton of female 281-283 

Skull 283-285 

Measurements of skulls 285 

Dentition ... 286 

Sexual differences 287 

Variation with age 287-289 

Comparison with allied species 289 

Geographical distribution 289-291 

General history and nomenclature 291-296 

Habits 296-312 

Genus C ALLORHINUS 312-410 

CALLORHINUS URSINUS Northern Fur Seal 313 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 313-314 

External characters 314 

Color 314 

Pelage 315 

Size 316-319 

External measurements 319 

Ears 320 

Fore limbs 320 

Hind limbs.. 320 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI 

1 * ' t ' r t 

Characters of the PINMPEDIA Continued. 
Family OTAKIID2E Eared Seals. 
Genus CALLOKHLXUS. 

CALLOBHINUS URSINUS Northern Fur Seal. 

Skull 320-323 

Measurements of skulls 323 

Teeth 324 

Skeleton 324-326 

Measurements of skeleton 325 

Sexual differences 325-327 

Differences resulting from age 327 

Individual variation 328 

Comparison with allied species 329-331 

Measurements of skulls of ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS 331 

Geographical distribution and migration 332-335 

General history and nomenclature 335-339 

Figures 339-341 

Habits 341-371 

The chase 371-U7S 

Mode of capture 372-378 

History and prospects of the Fur Seal business at the Prybilov 

Islands 378-381 

Enemies of the Fur Seals 381 

History of the Fur Seal Fishery at the Prybilov Islands, Alaska, 

from 1869 to 1877, by CHAKLES BRYANT 382-411 

Preliminary ami general observations 382-388 

Recent changes in the habits and relative numbers of the 

different classes of Seals 388-398 

Cause of the changes in the habits of the Seals, &c 398-102 

Albinos and sexually abnormal individuals 403 

Description of the young ; variation in color with age, &c. . . . 403 

Molting 404 

Sexual organs, &c 405 

Power of suspending respiration 406 

Natural enemies 406 

Effect of climatic influences 407 

Number of Seals required for the subsistence of the natives . . 409 

Winter resorts and habits of the Seals 410 

Family PHOCID^ Earless Seals 412-756 

Characters of the group 412 

Technical history 412-460 

Higher groups 412114 

Genera 414-421 

Species 421-460 

Classification 460-467 

Synopsis of sub-families and genera 461-463 

Synonymatiolist of the species 463-467 

Geographical distribution 467469 

Fossil remains 469-481 

North America 469-476 

Europe 476-481 

Milk dentition 481-484 

General habits and instincts 484-486 

Food 486 

Enemies 487 

Migrations 487-491 

Locomotion on land 491^96 

Seal hunting 496-546 



XII TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Characters of the PINNIPEDIA Continued. 
Family PHOCID^ Earless Seals. 

Sealing districts 496-522 

"West Greenland 497 

Newfoundland 497-199 

Jan Mayen or "Greenland" Seas 499-511 

Nova Zembla and Kara Sea 511 

White Sea 511-513 

Caspian Sea 513-517 

North Pacific 517 

South Pacific and Antarctic Seas 517-522 

Methods of capture, &c 522 

Shore hunting 522-530 

. Esquimaux methods 522 

By means of nets 523-528 

The seal-hox 528 

The seal-hook 529 

. The " Skrackta" 529 

Ice hunting 530 

In the Gulf of Bothnia 530-534 

Off the coast of Newfoundland 534-540 

In the Jan Mayen Seas 540-542 

Dangers and uncertainties of ice hunting 543-545 

Species hunted 545 

Abundance of Seals at particular localities 546 

Products .... 546-549 

Preparation of the products 549-551 

"Wasteful destruction of Seals 551-553 

Decrease from injudicious hunting 553 

Seals and Seal hunting in the olden time in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 553-557 

Sab-family PHOCINJE 557 

Genus PHOCA . . 557-559 

PHOCA VITULINA Harbor Seal 559-507 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 559-562 

External characters . 562-565 

Distinctive characters 565-571 

Individual and sexual variation 571-573 

Measurements of the skulls 574 

General history and nomenclature 575-584 

Geographical distribution 584-588 

Habits 588-597 

PHOCA (PU6A) FCETIDA Ringed Seal 597-629 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 597-600 

External characters . . 600-603 

Individual variation and variations dependent upon sex and age. 603-605 

Measurements of the skull 606 

Differential characters 607-614 

Phoca (Pusa) caspica 609-610 

Phoca (Pusa) sibirica 612-613 

Geographical distribution 614-616 

General history and nomenclature 616-619 

Habits 619-629 

PHOCA (PAGOPHILUS) GHCENLANDICA Harp Seal 630-654 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 630-632 

External characters 632-637 

Sexual and individual variation and variations dependent upon 

age 637 

Measurements of the skull 638 

General history and nomenclature 639 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XIII 



Page. 
Characters of the PINNIPEUIA Continued. 

Family PHOCID^. 
Sub-family PHOCIN.ZE. 
Genus PHOCA. 

PHOCA (PAGOPHILUS) GRCENLANDICA Harp SeaL 

Geographical distribution 640 

Migrations and breeding stations 641-647 

Habits 647-051 

Enemies 651 

Food 652 

Hunting and products 652-654 

Genus ERIGNATHUS 654 

ERIGNATHUS BAKBATUS Bearded Seal 655-675 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 655-657 

External characters , 657 

Skull and skeleton 658-661 

Measurements of the skeleton 660 

Measurements of the skull 661 

General history and nomenclature 662-666 

Geographical distribution 666-670 

Habits, products, and hunting 670-675 

Genus HISTRIOP.HOCA 675-676 

HISTRIOPHOCA FASCIATA Bibbon Seal 676-682 

Synonymy and bibliographical'references 676 

External characters 670-678 

Size 678 

General history 678-681 

Geographical distribution 681-682 

Habits 682 

Genus HAUICHCERUS 682-689 

General history and discussion of the ' ' Genus PUSA " of Scopoli . . 683-689 

HALICHCEEUS GRYPUS Gray Seal 689-706 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 689-690 

External characters 690-693 

Measurements of skulls 694 

Geographical distribution 695-696 

General history and nomenclature 696-698 

Habits 699-706 

Genus MONACHUS 707-708 

MONACHUS TROPICALIS "West Indian Seal 708-723 

Characters 708 

Dampier's account 708-710 

Hill's and Gosse's accounts, 1843,1851 710-715 

Gray's accounts, 1849, 1874 175-718 

Gill on the "West Indian Seals, 1866 718 

Analysis and discussion of the foregoing 718-720 

Affinities of the Jamaican or Pedro Seal 720-721 

Geographical distribution 721-723 

Sub-family CYSTOPHOKHIN2E 723 

Genus CYSTOPHORA 723 

CYSTOPHORA CRISTATA Hooded Seal 724-742 

Synonymy and bibliographical references 724-726 

External characters 726-729 

Skeleton and skull 730-733 

Measurements of skulls 732 

Measurements of the skeleton 733 

Geographical distribution and migrations 733-737 

General history arid nomenclature 738-740 

Habits 740-741 

Hunting and products . . : 741-742 



XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS. ^ 

Page. 

Characters of the PINNIPEDIA Continued. 
Family PHOCID^. 

Sub-family CYSTOPHORHIN.E. 

Genus MACRORHINUS 

MACRORHINUS ANGUSTIROSTRIS Californian Sea Elephant 743 

Bibliographical references 743 

External characters 743-746 

Skull 746-749 

Measurements of skulls 748 

Measurements of the skeleton of Macrorhinus leoninus 749 

Comparison with the Southern Sea Elephant 749-751 

Geographical distribution 751-752 

General history 752-753 

Habits 753-755 

Chase and products 755-756 

APPENDIX. 

A. Material examined 757-764 

Family ODOB^ENID^; 757-758 

Odobaenus rosmaraa 758 

Odobsenns obesus 

Family OTARIIU-S: 758-760 

Eumetopias stelleri 758 

Zalophus californianus 

Callorhinus nrsinus 760 

Family PHOCID.E 761-764 

Phoca vitulina 761 

Phoca fcetida 762 

Phoca groenlandica 

Erignathus barbatus 763 

Histriophoca fasciata 

Halichoerus grypus . . . 

Cystophora cristata 

Macrorhinus angustirostris ' 

B. Additions and Corrections 765-774 

Family ODOB.ENID.E 765-769 

Odobcenus rosmarus Atlantic Walrus 765-768 

Additional references 765 

Size a iid external appearance 

Geographical distribution 766-767 

Nova Zembla 766 

Franz-Josef Land 766 

Abundance in Wolstenholme Sound 766 

Spitzbergen, &c 766 

Iceland 766 

Supposed presence of "Walruses in the Antarctic Seas 766 

The "Walrus a formidable antagonist 

Curiosity and fearlessness of the "Walrus 767 

Locomotion ; use of tlie tusks in climbing 767 

Figures of the "Walrus 768 

Odobcenus obesus Pacific "Walrua 768 

Distribution 

Family OTARIID.E 769-774 

Otaries at the Galapagos Islands 

Fossil Otaries 770 

Capture of Sea Lions for menageries 770 

Zalophus californianus California Sea Lion 771 

Period of gestation 

Callorhinus ursinus 772 

Breeding off the coast of "Washington Territory 

Family PHOCID^: 

Extinct species 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 1, p. 41. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull of female in profile and lower jaw from above. 

Fig. 2, p. 42. Odobacenus rosmarus, skull of female from above. 

Fig. 3, p. 43. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull of female from below. 

Fig. 4, p. 93. Olaus Magnus's " Rosinarus seu Moreus Norvegicus." 

Fig. 5, p. 93. Olaus Magnus's "Porous Monstrosus Oceani Germanic!." 

Fig. 6, p. 94. Gesner's "Rosmarus." 

Fig. 7, p. 94. Gesner's "Vacca marina" (Addenda to Icones Animal). 

Fig. 8, p. 94. Gesner's "Rosmarus" (Icones Animal., 1560). 

Fig. 9, p. 95. De Veer's "Sea Horse," 1609. 

Fig. 10, p. 96. Hessel Gerard's ""Walruss," 1613. 

Fig. 11, p. 100. Martin's " "Wall-ross, " 1765. 

Fig. 12, p. 101. Buffon's " Le Morse," 1765. 

Fig. 13, p. 153. Odobcenus obesus, three views of head. 

Fig. 14, p. 156. Odobacenus obesus, skull in profile. 

Fig. 15, p. 157. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull in profile. 

Fig. 10, p. 158. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull from front. 

Fig. 17, p. 158. Odobcenus obesus, skull from front. 

Fig. 18, p. 159. Odobcenus rosmarus, occipital view of skull. 

Fig. 19, p. 159. Odobcenus obesus, occipital view of skull. 

Fig. 20, p. 160. Odabcenus rosmarus, skull from above. 

Fig. 21, p. 161. Odobcenus obesus, skull from above. 

Fig. 22, p. 162. Odobcenus obesus, young skull from above. 

Fig. 23, p. 162. Odobcenus rosmarus, young skull from above. 

Fig. 24, p. 163. Odobcenus obesu-s, young skull from front. 

Fig. 25, p. 163. Odobcenus rosmarus, young skull from front. 

J ig. 26, p. 164. Odobcenus rosmarus, skull from below. 

Fig. 27, p. 165. Odobcenus ubesus, skull from below. 

Fig. 28, p. 166. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw from above. 

Fig. 29, p. 166. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw from above. 

Fig. 30, p. 167. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw from side. 

Fig. 31, p. 167. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw from side. 

Fig. 32, p. 168. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw of young from above. 

Fig. 33, p. 168. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw of young from above. 

Fig. 34, p. 169. Odobcenus rosmarus, lower jaw of young from side. 

Fig. 35, p. 169. Odobcenus obesus, lower jaw of young from side. 

Fig. 36, p. 173. Odobcenus obesus, Cook's figure of the animal. 

Fig. 37, p. 259. Eumetopias stelleri, figures of animal 

Fig. 38, p. 317. Callorhinus ursinus, figures of animal. * 

Fig. 39, p. 321. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female in profile. 

Fig. 40, p. 321. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female from above. 

Fig. 41, p 322. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female lower jaw. 

Fig. 42. p. 322. Callorhinus ursinus, skull of female from below. 

Fig. 43, p. 563. Phoca vitulina, animal. 

Fig. 44, p. 580. " Halichcerus antircticus," Peale, skull in profile. 

Fig. 45, p. 580. " Halichcerus antarcticus," Peale, skull from above. 

Fig. 46, p. 581. " Halichcerus antarcticus, " Peale, skull from below. 

Fig. 47, p. 582. "Halichcerus antarcticus," Peale, lower jaw. 

Fig. 48, p. 583. " Halicyon richardsi," Gray, skull in profile. 

Fig. 49, p. 601. Phoca fcetida, animal. 

XV 



XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Fig. 50, p. 633. Phoca groelandica, animal. 

Fig. 51, p. 691. Halichcerns grypus, animal. 

Fig. 52, p. 727. Oystophora cristata, animal. 

Fig. 53, p. 728. Cystophora cristata, skull in profile. 

Fig. 54, p. 729. Oystophora cristata, skull from above. 

Fig. 55, p. 730. Oystophora cristata, skull from below. 

Fig. 56, p. 731. Oystophora cristata, lower jaw. 

Fig. 57, p. 744. Macrorhinus angustirostris, skull in profile. 

Fig. 58, p. 745. Macrorhinus angustirostris, skull from above. 

Fig. 59, p. 746. Macrorhinus angustirostris, skull from below. 

Fig. 60, p. 747. Macrorhinus angustirostris, lower jaw. 



HISTORY OF THE NORTH AMERICAN 

PINNIPEDS. 



The Pinnipeds, or Pitmipedia, embracing the Seals and Wal- 
ruses, are commonly recognized by recent systematic writers 
as constituting a suborder of the order Fercv, or Carnivorous 
Mammals. They are, in short, true Carnivora, modified for an 
aquatic existence, and have consequently been sometimes 
termed li Am/pMbiou8 Carnivora." Their whole form is modified 
for life in the water, which element is their true home. Here 
they display extreme activity, but on land their movements 
are confined and labored. They consequently rarely leave the 
water, and generally only for short periods, and are never found 
to move voluntarily more than a few yards from the shore. Like 
the other marine Mammalia, the Cetacea and Sirenia (Whales, 
Dolphins, Porpoises, Manatees, etc.), their bodies are more or 
less fish-bike in general form, and their limbs are transformed 
into swimming organs. As their name implies, they are fin- 
footed. Generally speaking, the body may be compared to two 
cones joined basally. Unlike the other marine mammals, the 
Pinnipeds are all well clothed with hair, while several of them 
have, underneath the exterior coarser hair, a thick, soft, silky 
under-fur. In contrasting them with the ordinary or terrestrial 
mammals, we note that the body is only exceptionally raised, 
and the limbs are confined within the common integument to 
beyond the knees and elbows, and are hence to only a slight 
degree serviceable for terrestrial locomotion. The first digit of 
the manus is generally lengthened and enlarged, as are both 
the outer digits of the pes. As compared with other Ferce, 
they present, in osteological characters, many obvious points of 
difference, especially in relation to the structure of the skull, 
limbs, and pelvis, and in dentition. The skull is distinctively 
characterized by great compression or constriction of the inter- 
orbital portion, the large size of the orbital fossa?, in the lachry- 
mal bone being imperforate (without a lachrymal canal) and 
contained within the orbit, and in the presence (generally) of 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 1 1 






2 CHARACTERS OF PINNIPEDIA. 

considerable vacuities between the palatine and frontal bones 
and the tympanic and exoccipital bones. The deciduous den- 
tition is rudimentary, never to any great extent functional, and 
frequently does not persist beyond the fostal life of the animal. 
In the permanent dentition, the canines are greatly developed, 
sometimes enormously so; the lower incisors are never more 
than four in number, and sometimes only two ; the upper incisors 
usually number six, but sometimes only four, or even two ; the 
grinding teeth (premolars and molars) are generally simple in 
structure, and usually differ from each other merely in respect 
to size, or the number of roots by which they are inserted. The 
pelvis differs from that of the terrestrial Ferce in the shortness 
of the iliac portion and the eversion of its anterior border ; the 
ischiac bones barely meet for a short distance in the male, and 
are usually widely separated in the female, the pelvic arch thus 
remaining in the latter permanently open ventrally. 

The existing Pinnipeds constitute three very distinct minor 
groups or families, differing quite widely from each other in 
important characters : these are the "Walruses, or Odobcenidce, the 
Eared Seals, or Otariidce, and the Earless Seals, or Phocidce. The 
first two are far more nearly allied than are either of these with 
the third, so that the Odobccnidcc and Otariidw may be together 
contrasted with the Plwcidw. The last named is the lowest or 
most generalized group, while the others appear to stand on 
nearly the same plane, and about equally remote from the Pho- 
cidcv. The Walruses are really little more than thick, clumsy, 
obese forms of the Otariau type, with the canines enormously 
developed, and the whole skull correlatively modified. The 
limb-structure, the mode of life, and the whole economy are 
essentially the same in the two groups, and, aside from the cran- 
ial modifications presented by the Odobccn idw : which are obvi- 
ously related to the development of the canines as huge tusks, 
the Walruses are merely elephantine Otariids, the absence or 
presence of an external ear being in reality a feature of minor 
importance. 

The characters of the suborder and its three families may be 
more formally stated as follows : * 

* The characters here given are in part those collated by Dr. Theodore N. 
Gill in 1873 ("Arrangement of the Families of the Mammals." Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, No. 230, pp. 56, 68, 69), by whom the distinctive 
features of these groups were first formulated. They have, however, been 
carefully verified and further elaborated by the present writer, while the 
families are here quite differently associated. 



CHARACTERS OF PINNIPEDIA. D 

Limbs pinniform, or modified into swimming organs, and enclosed to or 
beyond the elbows and knees within the common integument. 
Digits of the mauus decreasing in length and size from the first 
to the fifth ; of those of the pes, the first and fifth largest and 
longest, the three middle ones shorter and subequal. Pelvis 
with the iliac portion very short, and the anterior border much 
everted; ischia barely meeting by a short symphysis (never 
anchylosed) and in the female usually widely separated. Skull 
generally greatly compressed interorbitally ; facial portion 
usually short and rather broad, and the brain-case abruptly ex- 
panded. Lachrymal bone imperforate and joined to the maxil- 
lary, enclosed wholly within the orbit. Palatines usually sepa- 
rated by a vacuity, often of considerable size, from the frontals. 
Tympanic bones separated also by a vacuity from the exoccipit- 
als. Dentition simple, generally unspecialized, the molars all 
similar in structure. Deciduous dentition rudimentary, never 
truly functional, and generally not persistent beyond the foetal 
stage of the animal. Permanent incisors usually or -J> some- 
times -f- (Cysiopliora and Macrorliinns), or even f (Odoba'ints'); 

canines 1 ; molars * , , or jj- PINNIPEDIA. 

A. Hind legs capable of being turned forward and used in terrestrial loco- 
motion. Neck lengthened (especially in family II). Skull with 
the mastoid processes large and salient (especially in the males), 
and with distinct alisphcnoid canals. Anterior feet nearly as 
large as the posterior, their digits rapidly decreasing in length 
from the first to the fifth, without distinct claws, and with a 
broad cartilaginous border extending beyond the digits. Hind 
feet suceptible of great expansion, the three middle digits only 
with claws, and all the digits terminating in long, narrow, car- 
tilaginous flaps, united basally. Femur with the trochanter 
minor well developed GRESSIGRADA. 

I. Without external ears. Form thick and heavy. Anterior por- 

tion of the skull greatly swollen, giving support to the enor- 
mously developed canines, which form long, protruding tusks. 
Incisors of deciduous (fo3tal) dentition ; of permanent denti- 
tion . No postorbital processes, and the surface of the mastoid 
processes continuous with the auditory bulls; Odobcenidce. 

II. With small external ears. Form slender and elongated. Ante- 
rior portion of the skull not unusually swollen, and the canines 
not highly specialized. Incisors of deciduous dentition , only 
the outer on either side cutting the gum ; of permanent denti- 
tion |, the two central pairs of the upper with a transverse 
groove. Postorbital processes strongly developed. Surface 
of the mastoid processes not continuous with the auditory 
bullai Otariidce. 

B. Hind legs not capable of being turned forward, and not serviceable 
for terrestrial locomotion. Neck short. Skull with the mastoid 

* In view of the uncertainty respecting the proper notation of the grind- 
ing teeth, they will in the present work be designated simply as molars, 
with no attempt at distinguishing "premolars" from "molars." 



4 CHARACTERS OF PINNIPEDIA. 

processes swollen, but not salient, and without distinct alisphe- 
noid canals. Anterior limbs smaller than the posterior, the first 
digit little, if any, longer than the next succeeding ones, all 
armed with strong claws, which are terminal. Hind feet ca- 
pable of moderate expansion, short ; digits (usually) all armed 
with strong claws, and without terminal cartilaginous flaps. 
Femur with no trace of the trochanter minor.. .REPTIGRADA.* 
III. Without external ears. Postorbital processes wanting, or very 
small. Incisors variable (f, f , or f ). Deciduous dentition not 
persistent beyond foetal life .. PhotidcB. 

The Pinnipeds present a high degree of cerebral develop- 
ment, and are easily domesticated under favorable conditions. 
They manifest strong social and parental affection, and defend 
their young with great persistency and courage. They are car- 
nivorous (almost without exception), subsisting upon fishes, 
mollusks, and crustaceans, of which they consume enormous 
quantities. The Walruses and Eared Seals are polygamous, 
and the males greatly exceed the females in size. The ordinary 
or Earless Seals are commonly supposed to be monogamous, and 
there is generally little difference in the size of the sexes. The 
Walruses and Eared Seals usually resort in large numbers to 
certain favorite breeding grounds, and during the season of re- 
production leave the water, and pass a considerable period upon 
land. The Earless Seals, on the other hand, with the exception 
of the Sea Elephants, do not so uniformly resort to particular 
breeding grounds on land, and leave the water only for very 
short intervals. They usually bring forth their young on the 
ice, most of the species being confined to the colder latitudes. 
Only one of the various species of the Pinnipedia appears to 
be strictly tropical, and very few of them range into tropical 
waters. As a group, the Pinnipeds are distinctively character- 
istic of the Arctic, Antarctic, and Temperate portions of the 
globe, several of the genera being strictly Arctic or Subarctic 
in their distribution. The Walruses are at present confined 
mainly within the Arctic Circle, and have no representatives 
south of the colder portions of the Northern Hemisphere. The 
OtariidcB and PJiocidce, on the other hand, are abundantly 
represented on both sides of the equator, as will be noticed 
more in detail later. 

* For the suggestion of the terms Grcssigrada and Eeptigrada I am indebted 
to my friend Dr. Elliott Coues. 



FAMILY 

Walruses. 

" Trichetidce, GRAY, London Med. Repos., 1821, 303" (family). Apud Gray. 
Trichechidce, GRAT, Ann. of Philos., 1825, 340; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d 

ser., xviii, 1866, 229; Hid., 4th ser., iv, 1869, 268; Suppl. Cat. Seals 

and Whales, 1871, 5 (family). 
Trichecina, GRAY, London's Mag. Nat. Hist., i, 1837, 538; "Zool. Erebus and 

Terror, 3 " (subfamily). In part only, or exclusive of Halich&rus. 
TrichecUna, GRAY, Cat. Mam. Brit. Mus., pt. ii, 1850, 29; Cat. Seals and 

Whales, 1866, 33 (subfamily). In part only = Trichecina Gray, 1837. 
" TrichecMda; sen Campodontia, BROOKES, Cat. Anat. and Zool. Mus. 1828, 37." 
Trich-eclwidea, GIEBEL, Fauna der Vorwelt, i, 1847, 221: Saugeth., 1855, 127 

(family). 

Ti-ichecina, TURNER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1848, 85, 88 (subfamily). 
Rosmarida;, GILL, Proc. Essex Institute, v, 1866, 7, 11 ; Families of Mam., 

1872, 27, 69, 70 ( = " Tricliecliidos Brookes, Gervais"). ALLEN, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, 1870, 21. 

Eosmaroidea, GILL, Fain. Mam., 1872,70 ("superfainily" = Bosmaridce Gill). 
Broca, LATREILLE, Fani. Reg. Auim., 1825, 51 (family). 
Les Morses, F. CUVIER, Dents cles Mam., 1825, 233; Diet, Sci. Nat., lix, 1829, 

465 (family). 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Among the distinctive features of the Odobccnidce are the 
enormous development of the upper canines, and the consequent 
great enlargement of the anterior portion of the skull for their 
reception and support, the early loss of all the incisors except 
the outer pair of the upper jaw, the caducous character of the 
posterior molars, and the molariforui lower canines. The Wal- 
ruses share with the Eared Seals the ability to turn the hind 
feet forward, and consequently have considerable power of loco- 
motion on laud. This is further aided by a greater freedom of 
movement of the fore feet than is possessed by the Earless 
Seals. The Walruses differ from the Eared Seals by their 
much thicker bodies, shorter necks, and longer caudal vertebrae, 
the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae remaining of proportionately 
the same length. In consequence of their obesity, the ribs and 
the proximal segments of the limbs are longer in the Walruses 
than in the Eared Seals, while the distal segments of the limbs 
are relatively shorter. The scapula is long and narrow, instead 
of short and broad, as in the Otariidw, and its crest is placed 

5 



6 FAMILY ODOB^NHXE. 

more anteriorly. Accordingly, in respect to general form, we 
have slenderness of both body and limbs in the one contrasted 
with great thickness of body, and distally a disproportionate 
reduction of the extremities in the other. The most striking- 
differences, however, exist in the cranial characters, resulting 
from the great development of the upper canines in the Wal- 
ruses, and the consequent modifications of the facial portion of 
the skull. In the Otariidce, the general contour of the skull is 
strongly Ursine ; in the Odobcenidce, it is unique, owing to its 
great expansion anteriorly. In respect to other cranial features, 
the Walruses differ from the Eared Seals in having no post-orb- 
ital processes, and in the mastoid processes being not separated 
from the auditory bullae. The teeth are all single-rooted, and 
have in the permanent dentition no distinct crowns. 

On comparing the Odobccnidw with the Phocida', the differ- 
ences in general structure are found to be far greater than ob- 
tain between the Walruses and Eared Seals, especially in regard 
to the himl extremities ; these in the Phocida' being directed 
backward, and useless as organs of terrestrial locomotion. 
Hence, in so far as the Odobanida' and Otariidcc agree in liinb- 
aud skull-structure, they both similarly depart from the Phocine 
type. As already indicated in the synopsis of the suborder Pin- 
nipcdia, the Phocida' differ far more from either the Odobcenidw 
and Ota>-iida> than do these latter from each other. This differ- 
ence is especially emphasized in the skull ; for while the Odo- 
bwnida' and Otariida' agree in all important cranial characters, 
aside from the special features correlated with the immense 
enlargement of the upper canines in the former, they widely 
differ from the Phocida'. This is especially seen in the absence 
in the latter of an alisphenoid canal, in the greatly swollen audi- 
tory bulla?, the position of the carotid foramen, and the non- 
salient character of the mastoid processes. 

The few points in which the Walruses differ in myology from 
other Pinnipeds, Dr. Murie states to be "the presence of a co- 
raco-brachialis, a flexor brevis nianus, a pronator quadratus, an 
opponens pollicis, and a palmaris brevis," in the possession of 
which it differs both from Otaria and Phoca, but that in other 
respects they " muscularly present general agreement." " Com- 
pared with the Seals \Plioca ] there are two extra peronei and 
a flexor brevis hallucis." 1 " Though deficient in concha, the auri- 
cular muscles are remarkably large."* 

:r Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 545. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 7 

"Considering the very different attitudes assumed by the Tri- 
cJiecMdcc and Otarudce as compared with the Pliocidce? he further 
adds, " it is remarkable how very little deviation follows in the 
muscular development. The two former, as might be antici- 
pated, present a general agreement, especially iu the mode of 
implantation of the muscles of the hind leg, and in this respect 
recede from the Seal, yet but slightly." * 

In respect to the position and character of the viscera, a gen- 
eral agreement has beeen noted with those of the other Pinni- 
peds, and they present nothing that calls for special notice in 
the present connection. As Dr. Murie has stated, there is little 
appreciable difference exhibited throughout the Pinnipeds in 
the construction of the alimentary canal. " It is simply that of 
a Carnivore, with, however, a moderate-sized coecum. The great 
glandular superficies and correlated large lymphatics point to 
means of speedy and frequent digestion ; and in the Walrus 
these apparatus are extraordinarily developed."! 

In accordance with the characters already given (p. 3), if any 
subdivision of the Pinnipeds into groups of higher rank than 
families is to be made, it seems evident that the Odobcenidce 
and Otariida} are to be collectively contrasted with the Phocidcc; 
in other words, that to unite the Otariidce and PliocidcK as a 
group of co-ordinate rank with the Odobcenidw is to lose sight 
of the wide differences that separate the two first-named fami- 
lies, as well as of the many important features shared in com- 
mon by the Odolcenidcc- and Otariidce, by which both are trench- 
antly separated from the Pliocidcc. 

Although the Walruses are now very generally recognized as 
constituting a natural family of the Pinnipeds, ranking co-ordi- 
nately with the Eared Seals on the one hand and with the Earless 
Seals on the other, the affinities of few groups have been more 
diversely interpreted. As early as the thirteenth century, the 
author of the " Speculum Regale", one of the earliest works re- 
lating to natural history, in which the Walrus is mentioned, 
stated distinctly that the Walrus was an animal closely related 
to the Seals ; and we find that nearly all natural-history writers 
prior to the middle of the eighteenth century who referred to the 
Walruses, gave them the same association. It was the technical 
systematists of the last half of the eighteenth century who 
broke up this natural juxtaposition, and variously grouped 

* Trans. Zoo!. Soc. Loud., vol. vii, 1872, p. 459. 
t Trans. Zoo'l. Soc. Lornl., vol. vii, 1872, p. 4H1. 



FAMILY ODOB^ENHXE. 

them with forms with which they had no relationship. In the 
infancy of science, nothing was perhaps more natural than that 
animals should be classified in accordance with their mode of 
life, their habitat r or their external form, and we are hence not 
surprised to find that Eondelet, Gesner, Aldrovandus, Jonstou, 
and other pre-Linnsean writers, arranged the Pinnipeds, as well 
as the Sirenians and Cetaceans, with the fishes, or that, other 
early writers should term all four-footed creatures " Quadru- 
peds," and divide them into "Land Quadrupeds" and "Quadru- 
peds of the Sea." While all marine animals were by some early 
writers classified as "fishes,"* the Pinnipeds were much sooner 
'disassociated from the true fishes than were the Cetaceans and 
Sirenians, the mammalian affinities of which were not at first 
recognized by even the great Linne himself, who, as late as the 
tenth edition of his " Systema Xatune " (1758), still left them 
in the class u PiscesS" 1 

In view of the several excellent descriptions and very credit- 
able figures of the Atlantic Walrus that appeared as early as 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (a detailed account of 
which will be given later), it is surprising that the early sys- 
tematic writers should display such complete ignorance of some 
of the most obvious external characters of this animal, as was 
notably the case with Linne, Klein, Brisson, Erxleben, and 
Gmeliu, who strangely associated the Walrus and the Manatee 
as members of the same genus, and grouped them with such 
diverse creatures as Sloths and Elephants. Linne, it is true, in 
the earlier editions of the " System a ISTatura?," placed the Wal- 
rus with the Seals in the genus Phoca, in his order Ferce, a near 
hit at their true affinities. Later, however, following probably 
Klein and Brisson, he fell into the grave error of removing them 
to nearly the most unnatural association possible. In this con- 
nection, it may prove not uninteresting to sketch, in brief out- 
line, the strange history of the classification of this singular 
group of fin-footed Carnivores. 

As already stated, Linne's first allocation of the group was 
the natural one. Brisson,t in 1750, led in the long role of error 
by forming his third "order" of mammals of the Elephant, the 

*Most modern languages still retain relies of this ancient custom, as 
evinced, for example, in such English words as shell-fish, cray-Jixh, whale- 
JlsJuri/. Ncid-fmliery, etc., while hvalfisli (Swedish), wahisch (Danish), i 
(German), etc., are common, vernacular names applied to Cetaceans. 

tRegnu Animal, 1756, p. 4~. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

AValrus, and the Manatee, the two last named constituting his 
genus Odobcitus." This was a marked retrocession tVom even 
i IK- system of Klein,* of a few years' 1 earlier date, who brought 
together as one family the Seals, Otters, Beaver, AYalrus, and 
Manatee. Linne, in 17GO,t not only removed the AYalrus from 
the genus Phoca, in which he had previously placed it, to 2V/- 
chechus, but also transferred it from liis order Fern* to Brnta, 
which thus contained not only the AValrns, but such a diverse 
assemblage as Elephants, Sloths, and Anteaters. Linne's genus 
Tricht.rhnn, as at this time constituted, was equivalent to Bris- 
son's genus Odobcnux." Erxleben,| who recognized no higher 
groups than genera, placed the Walruses and Seals together im- 
mediately after the Carnivores. Schreber, at about the same 
date (1777), adopted a similar classification, the Walrus stand- 
ing next after the Elephant and preceding the Seals. Schre- 
ber's genus Trichirliitx contained also the Dugoug and the 
Manatee. Gmelin,|| in 17<S8, followed the Linua?an arrangement 
of 1760; the AYalrus, as usual from the time of Brisson to 
Gmeliu, standing next to the Elephant, and associated generic- 
ally with the Sireniaus. Blumenbach,^] from. 1788 till as late 
even as 1825, still arranged the Walrus and the Sirenians in 
the genus TricJicchiix. In other respects, the AValrus appears 
with new associates, the genus Trlcheclius being united with 
Ornithorhynclius to form a family" (!) of his ''order" Plita. 
The order Palmata, as the name implies, was composed of the 
web-footed mammals, and divided into three "families," namely, 
"A. Glires'- (consisting of the genus Castor)', U B. Fera?" (Plioca 
andiMfm); and >k C'. Bruta" (Ornifhortyynchus and Triclieclius). 
This is essentially also the arrangement proposed by Klein in 
1751. 

The first step toward dismembering the unnatural conglo- 
meration known previously under the names TricJiechus and 
Odobenuft was made by Eetzius** in 1794:, w r ho divided the 
genus TrichechH* of former authors into three genera, namely, 
Ulanatus, for the Manatee; Hydromalis, for Steller's Sea-Cow 
(= Rhytina Illiger, 1811) 5 and Triclieclius^ the last embrac- 



1. Disp. Brev. Hist. Nat., 1751, pp. 40, 02. 
tSyst. Nat., ed. 12, 17G6, p. 40. 
t Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 50::. 
Saugeth., ii, [1776?]- P- 2! Id. 
|| Syst. Nnt. : i, 50. 

HHaiidb. d. Naturgesch., 17S, p. 14','. and later editions. 
* Koiigl. Vetensk. Aead. iiya Handling., xv, 1704, pp. 28I1-300. 



10 FAMILY ODOB^ENIDJE. 

ing both the Walrus and the Dugong. While this was in 
the main a most important and progressive innovation, Eet- 
zius seems to have labored, like several still earlier writers. 
under the impression that the Walrus, like the Dugong, had )<<_> 
hind feet. Ozeretskovsky,* about a year later, and probably 
ignorant of Eetzius's paper, also placed, as curiously happened, 
the Walrus and the Dugong together in the genus Tnclieclim^ 
because he supposed the Dugoug liad liindfeet, like the Walrus ! 
These curious antithetical mistakes indicate how little was 
known by systematic writers about the structure of these ani- 
mals as late as the close of the last century. 

The elder Cuvier, t in 1798, while retaining the Walrus and the 
Sirenians in the genus Triclieclim, separated them from some of 
their former unnatural entanglements by again associating Tri- 
clieclius and Plioca in his group "Mainmiferes Amphibies," which 
he placed between the " Solipedes " and " Maminiferes Cetaces. 7 ' 
He divided this group into "I. Les Phoques (Phoca)" and "II. 
Les Morses (Trichecus, L.)"; the latter including "1. Tn'checus 
rosmarus"; "2. Trichecus dugong"; "3. Trichecus manattis." 

As already shown, Eetzius nearly disentangled the Walrus 
from the Sireuians, leaving of the latter only the Dugoug in 
the genus Tricheclius. G. Fischer, \ in 1803, completed the sep- 
aration by removing the Dugoug and the Manatee, to which he 
gave the generic names respectively of Platt/stomm (=Halieore, 
Illiger, 1811) and Oxystomus ( = ]\Ianatus, Eetzius, 1704), leaving 
only the Walrus in Triclieclim. The genus Triclieckus, howe^-er, 
as first instituted by Artedi (1738) and Linne (1758), as will be 
shown later, did not relate in any way to the Walrus, being 
applied exclusively to the Manatee. It was not till 1700 that 
the term was first made to cover both the then known Sireuians 
and the Walrus, although the embroilment of the two groups 
began with Brisson, ten years earlier. 

The Pinnipeds and Sirenians, collectively considered, were 
first separated as distinct groups by Illiger in 1811, who raised 
them to the rank of orders, they forming respectively his orders 
Pinnipedia and Natant-ia. The former consisted of two genera, 
Phoca, embracing all the Seals, and Trichechus, containing only 
the Walruses. They were regarded as forming a single family, 

"Nova Act. Acacl. Petrop., xiii, 1796, pp. 371-375. 
tTabl. Element,, p. 172. 

t Das National-Museum der Naturgeschichte, ii, 1803, pp. 344-358. 
Prodromus Svstematis Mammaliiim et Aviuni, 1811, pp. 138, 139 ; Abhaudl 
der Akad. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1804-1811, (1815), pp. 39-159, passim. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 11 

equivalent in extent with the order Pinnvpedia. The propriety 
of the changes introduced by niiger was not speedily recognized 
by contemporary writers ; Cuvier, and many subsequent syste- 
rnatists for half a century, placing the Pinnipeds among the 
Carnivora and the Sirenians among the Cetacea, with the rank 
respectively of families, the family PJiocidce embracing all the 
Pinnipeds. Dr. J. E. Gray, in 1821,* and again in 1825,f widely 
separated the Walruses from the Seals as a family, TrichecMdcc, 
Avhich he most strangely placed (together with the Sirenians) in 
the order Cete. Later, however, in 1837, he reunited the Wal- 
ruses and the Seals into the single family Phocidce, which he 
divided into five subfamilies, Trichechina being the third and 
central group, and embracing the genera Halichcerus and Triclie- 
chus. This highly artificial classification he retained till 1866, 
when, following other systematists, he again raised the Wal- 
ruses to the rank of a distinct family. 

Latreille, in 1825, not only treated the Pinnipeds as an 
order (Amphibia), but separated the Walruses from the others 
as a distinct family (Broca), the Seals forming his family Cyno- 
morpha. 

In 1829, F. Cuvierll divided the Pinnipeds into the Seals proper 
( " les Phoques proprenient dits"), and theWalruses ("les Morses") . 
Brookes, ff in 1828, again recognized the Walruses as forming 
a family (" TrichecMdw sen Campodontia") distinct from the 
< ther Pinnipeds. Wagler,** in 1830, made the Walruses merely 
a genus of his order Ursi. Xilsson, ft in 1837, divided the Pin- 
nipeds into two sections, the second of which embraced not only 
Triehechits, but also Halichcerus, Cystopliora, and Otaria. Tur- 
ner, || in 1848, from a study of the skulls, separated the Pinni- 
peds into three natural groups, considered by him to hold the 
rank of subfamilies, namely : Arctoccplialina, embracing Otaria 
and Arctoceplialus ; Tricliccina, consisting of the genus "Triche- 
cus " $ and Phocina, embracing all the other Seals. Gill, in I860, 

* "London Med. Repos., 1821, p. 302," aptid Gray. 
t Annals of PMlosophy, 2cl ser., vol. x, 1825, p. 340. 
t London's Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. i, p. 583. 
vS Fam. Reg. Anim., p. 51. 
|| Diet. Sci. Nat,, t. lix, p. 367. 

H "Cat. of Ms Anatoin. and Zool. Mus., p. 36," apud auct. 
**Naturl. Syst. Amph., p. 27. 

tt Vctcusk. Akad. Haudl., 1837, 235; Wiegmann's Arch. f. Naturg., 1841,. 
p. 306 (trausl.). 

tt Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1848, pp. 85, 88. 
^ Pror. Essex Institute, vol. v, p. 7. 



12 GENERA OF fHE FAMILY. 

was the next author who recognized the Walruses as forming a 
distinct family, which he termed Rosmarida\ In this step, he was 
immediately followed by Gray,* and by the present writer t in 
1870. Lilljeborg,! in 1874, also accorded them family rank, as 
has been the custom of late with various other writers. Gill, 
in 1872, raised them to the rank of a " superfamily " (Bosma- 
roidea), treating them as a group co-ordinate in rank with his 
" Phocoidea," consisting of the Phocidcc and Otariidce. 

Their final resting-place in the natural system has now prob- 
ably been at last reached, the majority of modern systematists 
agreeing in according to them the position and rank of a family 
of the Pinnipedia. To Illiger seems due the credit of first dis- 
tinctly recognizing the real affinities of both the Pinnipeds and 
Sirenians to other mammals, and with him originated the names 
by which these groups are now commonly recognized, the chief 
modification of ILliger's arrangement being the reduction of the 
Pinnipedia from a distinct order to the rank of a suborder of the 
Ferce. 

GENERA. 

The family Odoba'nidw (Triclicchidcc Gray and Brookes = .Ros- 
Mdt'ida' Gill) includes, so far as at present known, only the 
existing genus Odobccmts (= Triclieclms of many authors, not of 
Artedi nor of Linne) and the two extinct genera TrichecJiodon 
and Alacthcrium, recently described from fossil remains found 
in Belgium. Alactlierium.,\\ while evidently referable to the Odo- 
b(?nid(e, differs quite strikingly from the existing Walruses. 
The parts known are the left ramus of the lower jaw, the greater 
portion of the cranium (the facial portion and teeth only want- 
ing), several cervical vertebrae, a portion of the pelvis, and vari- 
ous bones of the extremities. The rami of the lower jaw are 
not anchylosed as in the Walrus, and the dentition is quite dif- 
ferent from that of Odobwnus, that of the lower jaw being I. 2, 
C. 1, M. 4. The symphysis occupies nearly half of the length 
of the jaw. Van Beneden describes the skull as resembling in 
some characters the skull of the Otaries, and in others those of 
the Morses. The molar teeth he says could not be easily distin- 
guished from those of the Morse if they were found isolated. 

* Aim. and Mag. Nat, Hist,, 3d ser., vol. xviii, 1850, p. i>29. 

t Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, p. 21. 

t Fauna ofer Sveriges ocli Norgos Eyggr., p. 674. 

^ Arrangement of Families of Mammals, 1872, p. 69. 

|| Van Beneden, Aim. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. de Belgique, i, 1877, p. 50. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 1 



o 



oaiiines were found at Anvers, but Yau Beuedeu is strongly of 
the opinion that the teeth described by Kay Lankester,* from 
the Red Crag of England, in 1865, and named Trichechodon hux- 
leyi, are those of his Alactlierium cretsii. The other bones re- 
ferred to Alacthcrium bear a general resemblance to the corre- 
sponding bones of the existing Walrus, but indicate an animal of 
much larger size. The femur and some of the other bones bear 
also a resemblance to corresponding parts of the Otaries. A cast 
of the cerebral cavity shows that the brain was not much unlike- 
that of the existing Walruses and Otaries, but with the cerebel- 
lum smaller. Alactlierium thus proves to have been a Pinniped 
of great size, closely related in general features to the Walruses 
of to-day, but presenting features also characterizing the Eared 
Seals as well as others common to no other Pinniped. The genus 
Trichechodon of Van Beneden (probably not = Trichechodon, 
Laukester, 1805) is much less well known, the only portion of 
the skull referred to it being part of a right ramus. The other 
bones believed to represent it are nine vertebrae, part of a pel- 
vis, a hnmerus, a femur, several metatarsal, metacarpal, and 
phalaugeal bones, etc., and part of a tusk. Says Van Beuedeu : 
" Tine branche de maxillaire est tout ce que nous possedons de la 
tete. Les dents rnanquent, inais le bord est assez coinplet 
pour qu'on puisse bieii juger de leurs caracteres par les alveoles. 
Xous pouvons, du reste, fort bieu aussi apprecier la forme de 
cet os, distinguer sa syinphyse et sa brievete. 

" L'os est brise a son extremity anterieure, la syinphyse est 
fort courte et 1'os n'a pas plus d'epaisseur sur la ligne mediaue 
que sur le cote. Les alveoles sont comparativement fort grandes : 
les trois dernieres sont a peu pre semblables, I'antexieure est la 
plus petite. C'est 1'inverse dans le Morse. La canine devait etre 
fort grande. II n'y a qu'une seule alveole pour une dent inci- 
sive. 

"Le corps du maxillaire est reniarquable pour sa courbure. 
Toute la partie poste"rieure qui constitue la branche du maxillaire 
manque. On voit sur la face externe trois trous mentonniers. 

" En comparant ce maxillaire a celui du Morse vivant, on voit 
que la symphyse est toute differente, qu'il existe une grande 
alveole pour la dent canine et des traces d'une petite alveole 
pour une incisive qui restait probablement cachee sous les gen- 
cives. Dans le Morse vivant, il n'y a pas de place pour une 
canine [graude] au maxillaii'e inferieur." 

* See beyond, ]>. &2. 



14 THE GENUS ODOB^ENUS. 



The otner bones are described as more or less resembling 
those of the Walrus, and do not much exceed them in size. 
Some of them are also said to closely resemble corresponding- 
parts of Alactlierium. 

Yan Benedens descriptions and figures of the lower jaw 
fragment indicate features widely different from those of the 
corresponding part in the Walrus, especially in the shortness of 
the symphysis and in the curvature of the part represented, but 
above all in. the number, relative size, and form of the alveoli, 
and particularly in the large size of that of the canine, which 
must have been almost as highly specialized as in the Sea Lions. 
That the tusks referred to it by Van Beneden (those described 
by Lankester especially, as well as the fragment he himself fig- 
ures) belong here, there seems to be at least room for reason- 
able doubt.* The differences presented by the jaw fragment 
of Trichechodon as compared with the corresponding part of 
Alactlierium are even still more marked. 

The more obvious characters distinctive of the three genera 
of the Odobcenidce, as at present known, may be briefly indicated 
as follows : 

of tlie <+cnera.\ 



1. ODOB^ENUS. Eanii of lower jaw firmly anchylosed, even in early life ; 

sympliysis short. Incisors (in adult) 0; canines 1 1: molars 3 3, the 
last much smaller than the others. 

2. ALACTHERIUM. Kami of lower jaw not anchylosed ; symphysis very long. 

Incisors (in adult) 2 2; canines 1 1; molars 4 4, the last smaller 
than the preceding ones. 

3. " TKICHECHODOX " (Van Beneden). Kami of lower jaw (apparently) 

unanchylosed. Incisors 1 1?, very small; canines 1 1, highly spe- 
cialized; molars 4 4, the first small, the last three much larger and 
suhequal. 

GENUS ODOBJENUS, Linne. 

Odolenus, LUSTSTE, Syst. Nat., i. 1735 (ed. Fe"e), 59 (applied exclusively to the 
Walrus in a generic sense). BEISSON, Regne Aniin., 1756, 48 (used 
strictly in a generic sense, but embracing "1. La Vache marine 
OfZoZ>ei<s"= Walrus; "2. Le Lauiantiue Manatnx." The characters 
given apply almost exclusively to the Walrus). 

* Van Beneden himself says : u M. Ray Laukaster avait vu en Angleterre 
diffe'rentes grandes dents, proveuaut du crag et qui diffe~raient surtout entre 
elles par leurs dimensions. Nous croyons devoir rapport er ces dents an genre 
Alactherium." Yet he cites " Trlcliccliodon Intxlet/i Ray Laukaster" as a syno- 
nym of Tricliechodon konninckii, described by himself much later! In view 
of the uncertainties of the case, it is to be regretted that he did not propose 
a new generic as well as specific name for his Trlcliecliodon konnincTcii. 

I With reference only to the lower jaw, the only known part, in case of 
the extinct types, readily susceptible of comparison. 



SYNONYMY AND NOMENCLATURE. 15 

Odolmuus, MALMGREX, Givers. K. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1863, (1864), 130. 
Kosnwrus, KLEIX, Quad. Disp. Brev. Hist. Nat., 1751, 40,92 (applied in a gen- 
eric sense exclusively to the Walrus). "ScoPOLi, Introd. Hist. 

Nat., 1777, ."GiLL ("ex Scopoli"), Proc. Essex lust., v. 1866, 7. 
I'ltoca, LIXXE, Syst. Nat., i, 1758 (in part only). 
Tricltechiis, LIXXE, Syst. Nat., 1768, 49 (in part only; not of Linne", 1758, nor 

Artedi, 1738 ; based exclusively in both cases on Sirenians). 
Trichcclnis (in part only), ERXLEBEN, SCHREBER, GMELIN, BLXJMENBACH, 

EETZIUS, and other early writers. 
Trichechus, G. FISCHER, Nat. Mus. Naturgesch. zu Paris, 1803, 344. ILLI- 

GER, Syst. Mam. et Av., 1811, 139. Also of GRAY, and most writers 

of the present century. 
Odobenofherium, GRATIOLET, Bull. Soc. Ge"ol. de France, 2 e se"r., xv, 1858, 

624 ( = " Trichech us rosmnnts" auct. founded on a supposed fossil). 
Odontobwnus, SUNDEVALL, Ofvers. K. Yet. Akad. Forh., 1859, 441. 
? Trichechodon, LANKESTER, Quarter. Jouru. Geol. Soc. Loud., xxi, 1865, 226, 

pi. x, xi (based on fossil tusks from the Red Crag, England). 

The name Trielieclim, for so long a time in general use for 
the "Walruses, proves not, as long- ago shown by Wiegmann,* von 
Baer, Miiller, Stannius, and later by other writers, to belong at 
all to these animals, but to the Manatee. The name Trlclieclim 
originated with Artedi in 1738, in a posthumous workt edited 
by Linne. The characters given were k> Denies plan! in utraque 
maxilla. Dors urn iiupenue. Fistula . . . . The cita- 
tions under Tricliechus embrace no allusion to the "Walrus, but 
relate wholly to Sirenians, or to the Manatee, as the latter was 
then known-! Artedi's description of the Manatee is quite full 
and explicit, but includes also characters and references belong- 
ing to the Dugong. Trichechus forms Artedfs "genus LI." 
and is placed in his ''order Y, Playiurl" (embracing the Ceta- 
ceans and Sirenians, the other genera of this order being Pliy- 
seter, Ddplilnus, Balccna, Monodon, and Catodon), and is hence 

* Respecting the proper generic name of the Walruses, Wiegmauu, in 1838, 
thus forcibly expressed his views : ' Die Gattung Odobenus [von Brissou,1756] 
hiitte beibehalten werdeu mitsseu, da der ganz abgeschmackte Name Triclie- 
cli us gar nicht dem Walrosse, sondern iirspriinglich dem Mauati angehort, und 
von Artedi fur diesen gebildet war, um die bei einem Fische oder vielmehr 
Wallfische auffalleude Behaarung zu bezeichueu." Archiv fur Naturge- 
schichtc, v. Jahrg., Band i, 1838, p. 116. 

tlchthyologia, 1738, pars i, p. 74; pars iii, p. 79; pars iv, p. 109. lu Arte- 
di's work the name is twice written Trichechus and twice Tliriclieclius. On p. 
74 of pars i. where it first occurs, its derivation is given, namely: "Triche- 
chus a -&pf^ crinis $ l%do<; iriscis quia solus inter pisces fere hirsutus sit." 

t The references in a general way appear to include all the Sireuians then 
known. 

^E. g., "Dentiuni duo utrinque eminent, longitndine spithauiiu crassitu 
pollicis." 



16 THE GENUS ODOB^ENUS. 

equivalent to the Cete of Liime (Syst. ISTat., ed. x, 1758). Linne y 
in 1758, first introduced Artedi's genus Triclieclnia, at \yliich 
time he placed in it only the Manatee, Dugong, and ^teller's 
Sea Cow, leaving the Walruses still in Plioca. His diagnosis 
of the genus* embraced none of the distinctive characters of 
the Walrus. In 1766 (12th ed., Syst, Nat.), lie transferred the 
Walrus from Plioca to TricJiecltm, making it the first species 
of the genus. The diagnosis, though slightly changed ver- 
bally, has still little, if any, reference to the characters of the 
Walruses, unless it be the phrase " Laniarii superiores solitarii,"! 
which is equally applicable to the Dugong, and is not at all the 
equivalent of "Phoca dentibus canines exsertis, " previously 
ascribed to the Walrus in former editions, when the Walruses 
were placed under Plioea. Hence, to whatever the generic- 
name Tricheclius may be referable, it certainly is not pertinent 
to the Walrus. This being settled, the question arises, 'What 
generic name is of unquestionable applicability to the Walruses ? 
Here the real difficult}* in the ease begins, for authors who 
admit the inapplicability of TricJiechus to this group are not 
agreed as to what shall be substituted for it. Scandinavian 
writers, as Mahngren (1804) and Lilljeborg (1874), and Peters 
(1864) among German authorities, have for some years employed 
Odobcenus, a name apparently originating with Liune (as Odobe- 
nus) in 1735, and adopted in a generic sense by Brisson in 1750. 
A modified form of it (Odontobwnux) was also employed by Snn- 
devall in 1859. Gill, in 1866, and other recent American writers. 
have brought into some prominence the name Rosmarus, first 
used in a generic sense by Klein in 1751, by Scopoli in 1777, by 
Pallas $ in 1831, and by Lamout in 1801 ; while the great mass 
of English and Continental writers still cling to Tricliecltus. 

The genera Odobenoiherium and Trichechodon, based on fossil 
remains of the Walrus, have also been recently introduced into 
the literature of the subject, the former by Gratioletin 1858, and 
the latter by Lankester in 1865 ; but these (especially the first) 

*"Dentes primores nulla, laniarii superiores solitarii, molares ex osse 
rugoso utrinque inferius duo. Laliia geniiata. Pedes posteriores coadivnati 
in pinnam." Syst. Nat., ed. x, i, 1758, p. 34. 

tThe second diagnosis of Triclieclius is, in full, as follows: "Dentcs prinio- 
res nulli ntrinque. Laniarii superiores solitarii. Molares ex osse rugoso 
utrinque ; inferius duo. Labia genimata. Pedes posteriores corupedes co- 
adunati in pinuam." Syst. Nut., ed. xii, 1766, i, p. 48. 

tZool. Eosso-Asiat., vol. i, 269. 

$ Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 141, 167. 



THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS. 17 

appear to be referable to the existing Walruses, and of course 
become merely synonyms of earlier names. Consequently the 
choice evidently lies between Odobccnus and Rosmarus. Odobcc- 
nus has sixteen years' priority over Rosmarus, if we go back to 
the earliest introduction of these names into systematic nomen- 
clature. * It is true that Eosmarus was the earliest Latin name 
applied to the Walrus, its use dating back to the middle of the 
sixteenth century, when it was employed interchangeably with 
Mors and Morsus by Olaus Magnus, Gesner, Herberstain, and 
others, but only in a vernacular sense. Although used by Klein 
systematically in 1751, Gill adopted it from Scopoli, 1777, proba- 
bly because Klein was not a " binomialist." Linne" used Odobcenus 
generically in 1735, as did also Brisson in 1756. The whole 
question turns on what shall be considered as the proper start- 
ing-point for generic nomenclature, about which opinion is still 
divided. If the early generic names of Artedi, Klein, Brisson, 
and Linne (prior to 1758) are admissible, as many high author- 
ities believe, then Odobcenus is unquestionably the only tenable 
generic name for the group in question, of which Rosmarus is a 

synonym, t 

SPECIES. 

The existing Walruses have been commonly considered as 
belonging to a single circumpolar species. A few authors have 
recognized two, or deemed the existence of two probable, while 
one appears to have admitted three. Altogether, however, not 
less than six or seven specific names have been given to the ex- 
isting species, besides several based on fossil remains of the 
Atlantic Walrus. In the present paper, the attempt will be 
made to establish the existence of two j but before entering 
further upon the discussion, it may not be out of place to 
glance briefly at the views previous authors have held respect- 
ing the point in question. 

Pennant appears to have been the first to call attention to 
the probable existence of more than a single species of Walrus, 
who, in 1792, in speaking of the Walruses of the Alaskan coast, 
says : " I entertain doubts whether these animals [of " Uualascha, 
Sandwich Sound, and Turnagain Eiver"] are of the same species 

* Odobcemts, Linu6, "Digit! ant., post. 5, palmipes. Eoss Morsus. Dentes 
intermedii superiores longissirni." Syst. Nat., 1735 (ed. Fe"e), 59. Rosmarus, 
Klein, Quad. Disp. Brev. Hist. Nat., 1751, 40, 92. 

tin accordance with custom in similar cases, the name of the family be- 
comes Odobccnidw, neither Eosmaridce nor Trichechidce being tenable. 
Misc. Pub. ISTo. 12 2 



18 THE GENUS ODOB.ENUS. 

with those of the Gulph of St. Laurence. The tusks of those 
of the Frozen Sea are much longer, more slender, and have a 
twist and inward curvature."* Shaw, a few years later, thought 
that the Walrus described and figured in the account of Cap- 
tain Cook's last voyage, though perhaps not specifically distinct 
from those of the Arctic shores of Europe, should be regarded 
as belonging to a different variety. t He appears, however, to 
have based his opinion wholly on figures of the animals, and par- 
ticularly on those given by Cook and Jonston (the latter a copy 
of Gerrard's, at second-hand from De Laet). Illiger, in 1811, 
formally recognized two species in his " Ueberblick der Saug- 
thiere nach ihrer Yertheilung liber die Welttheile,"| namely, 
Trlclieclms rosmarus, occurring on the northern shores of (West- 
ern ?) Asia, Europe, and North America, and T. obesus, occur- 
ring on the northwestern shores of North America and the ad- 
joining northeastern shores of Asia. While I do not find that 
he has anywhere given the distinctive characters of those two 
species, he, in the above-cited paper, also named the animal 
described and figured by Cook, T. divergens. F. Cuvier, in 1825, 
in describing the dentition of the "Morses," says : " Ces dents ont 
etc de'crites d'apres plusieurs tetes qui semblent avoir appartenu 
a deux especes, a en juger du moius par les proportions de quel- 
ques unes de leurs parties, et non settlement par Fe'tendue de 
leurs d6fenses, caractere qui avait deja fait soup9onner a Shaw 

* Arctic Zoology, vol. i, 1792, pp. 170, 171. 

tHe says: "An excellent representation is also given in pi. 52 of the 
last voyage of our illustrious navigator, Captain Cook. It is easy to see, 
however, a remarkable difference between the tusks of this last, and those 
of the former kind figured in Jonston, and it clearly appears, that though 
this difference is not such as to justify our considering them as two distinct 
species, yet it obliges us to remark them as varieties ; and it should seem, 
that, in the regions then visited by Captain Cook, viz. the icy coasts of the 
American continent, in lat. 70, the Walrus is found with tusks much longer, 
thinner, and far more sharp-pointed, in proportion, than the common Wal- 
rus ; and they have a slight inclination to a subspiral twist : there is also 
a difference in the position of the tusks in the two animals ; those of the 
variety figured in Captain Cook's voyage curving inwards in such a manner 
as nearly to meet at the points, while those of the former divaricate. These 
differences appear very striking on collating different heads of these ani- 
mals. Something may, however, be allowed to the different stages of growth 
as well as to the difference of sex. In order that these differences may be 
the more clearly understood, we have figured both varieties on the annexed 
plates "General Zoology, vol. i, 1800, pp. 236, 237, pis. 68, 68*. 

tAbhaudl. der Akad. der Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1804-1811, p. 64. Bead 
before the Academy Feb. 28, 1811, but apparently not published till 1815. 



THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS. 19 

IVxisteiice de deux especes de morses.' 7 * Fremery, iii 1831, 
having before him a series of eleven skulls, distinguished three 
species, namely, Tricliechus rosmarus, T. long-idem, and T. cookl. 
The first ( T. rosmarus) was principally characterized by having 
diverging tusks, about as long as the length of the whole head, 
faintly grooved on the outside, and with two distinct grooves on 
the inside ; by the possession of five back teeth, the last two 
very small ; by the lower edge of the nasal opening being but 
little produced ; by the occipital crest being strongly developed ; 
and by the great specific gravity of the bones of the skull. The 
second (T. longidens) was principally characterized by the tusks 
equalling or exceeding in length two-thirds of the length of the 
skull, with a single deep groove on the inner side ; by having 
only four back teeth, the last one small; a smaller develop- 
ment of the occipital crest (except in old animals /) ; and a lighter 
specific gravity of the bones. The third (T. cooJci), considered 
as a doubtful species, was based wholly on Shaw's plate 68 (from 
Cook), already noticed, and hence is the same as Hliger's T. 
diver gens. Wiegmann, von Baer, Stannius, and most subsequent 
writers, have properly regarded Frernery's characters of his T. 
rosmarus and T. longidens as based merely on ordinary indi- 
vidual or sexual differences. Wiegmann, and also Ternniinck, 
according to Fremery, believed the female to be distinguishable 
from the male by its longer and thinner tusks, with the crests 
and ridges of the skull less developed, while other differences, 
as the relative prominence of the bony lower edge of the nasal 
opening, were differences characteristic merely of different indi- 
viduals.t Stannius, however, in 1842, after passing in review 

* Dents des Mainmiferes, p. 235. 

t Wiegmann, in commenting upon Fremery's supposed specific differences, 
observes as follows respecting probable sexual and individual differences 
in the tusks and skulls of Walruses: "Hr. Fremery fiihrt an, dass Hr. 
Temminck einen (nach Deutlichkeit der Nahte) nocli jungen Schiidel des 
Reichsmuseums mit ausgezeichnet langen diinnen Stosszahnen fur den 
eines Weibchens gehalten habe. Ich erinnere micli aucli von Gronlands- 
fahrern gehort zu haben ; dass sich das Weibchen durch langere, dtiunere, 
dass Miinnchen durch kiirzere, aber viel dickere Stosszahne auszeichne." The 
alleged difference in the specific gravity of the bones of the skull he be- 
lieves also to be a sexual feature, as possibly also the difference in the num- 
ber of molar teeth. Respecting the prominence of the lower border of the 
nasal opening he says: "Die mehr oder minder starke Hervorragung des 
unteren Randes der Naseniiffnung kann ich dagegen uur fur erne individuelle 
Verschiedenheit halten, da ich sie bei einem Schiidel mit kurzeu Stoss- 
zahnen, der die iibrigen vom Verf. hervorgehobenen Merkmale besitzt, sehr 
stark, und mngekehrt bei einem alten Schiidel mit langen Stosszahnen kaum 

fiir Naturgesch., 1838, pp. 128, 129. 



20 THE GENUS ODOB^NUS. 

the characters assigned by Freinery as distinctive of several 
species, and after mentioning at length other features of varia- 
tion observed by him in a considerable series of skulls, describ- 
ing several of his specimens in detail, and arriving at the con- 
clusion that up to that time all the supposed species of Walrus 
constituted really but a single species, added another, under 
the appropriate name Trichechus dubius. This with subsequent 
authors has shared the fate of Fremery's species,* being consid- 
ered as based merely on individual variation. 

As will be more fully noticed later, two nominal species have 
been founded on the fossil remains of the "Walrus, namely, Tri- 
chechus virginianuSj DeKay, 1842, and Odobenoth&rium larte- 
tianum of Gratiolet, the former based on remains from Accoinac 
County, Virginia, and the latter on remains from near Paris, 
France. Lankester, in 1865, added still another, based on 
tusks from the Eed Crag of England, under the name Triche- 
chodon liuxleyi. 

Dr. Leidy, in 1860, in a paper on fossil remains of the Wal- 
rus from the eastern coast of the United States, again noticed 
the differences in the size, length, and curvature of the tusks 
in specimens from the northwest coast of North America and 
the common Walrus of the North Atlantic. He says : "In the 
course of the preceding investigations [referring to previous 
portions of his paper], I was led to examine a specimen, in the 
cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences [of Philadelphia], 
consisting of the stuffed skin of a portion of the head envelop- 
ing the jaws of a species of Walrus apparently differing from 
the true Trichccus rosmarus, of which, as characteristic, I have 
viewed the figures of the skull and skeletons as given by Dau- 
benton, Cuvier, and De Blainville. The specimen was pre- 
sented by Sandwith Drinker, Esq., of Canton, China, and was 
probably derived from the Asiatic shore of the Arctic Ocean. 
From the worn condition of the upper incisor and molars, it 
appears to have belonged to an old individual ; and in the case 
of the lower jaw, the teeth appear to have been entirely worn 
out. The tusks are very much larger and are narrower than in 

" Giebel, in 1855, referred to Fremery's and Stanuius's species as still need- 
ing confirmation : " Die von Fremery uacli der Beschaffenheit der Ziihne 
unterscMedenen Arteu, Tr. longidensundTr. Cookl; sind liiugst als unhaltbar 
erkannt worden und auch die YOU Staimius auf Schadeldifierenzen Tbegriin- 
dete Art, Tr. dubiits, cutbehrt uoch der weitern Bestatiguiig." SciuyetMerc, 
p. 128, footnote. 



THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS. 21 

the T. rosmarus, and they curve downward, outward, and in- 
ward, instead of continually diverging as in this species. At 
their emergence from the alveoli the tusks are two and three- 
quarter inches apart, near the middle five and a quarter inches, 
and at their tips only one inch. Their length is twenty-two 
inches and then 1 diameter at the alveolar border antero-posteri- 
orly two and a quarter inches, and transversely one and a half 
inches. Towards their lower part they are twisted from within, 
forwards and outwardly." After quoting Pennant's remark 
(already given, see p. 17) about similar differences noted by him, 
he adds that "the superior incisor and molar teeth are also very 
much smaller than in the fossils of T. rosmarus," and he gives 
measurements showing this difference. He then says : " The hairs 
of the upper lip of the T. rosmarus are stated by Shaw, to be about 
three inches long, and almost equal to a straw in diameter.* In 
the specimen under consideration, the hairs of the moustache 
are stiff-pointed spines, not more than one line long at the upper 
part of the lip, and they gradually increase in size until at the 
lower and outer part of the lip they are about one inch in length." 
He further adds, in the same connection : " Since presenting the 
above communication to the Society, the Academy has received 
from Mr. Drinker, of Canton, an entire specimen of the Walrus 
from Northern Asia. In this individual, which measures in a 
straight line eight feet from the nose to the tail, the tusks are 
ten inches long, and diverge from their alveoli to the tips, where 
they are five and a half inches apart, but they are slender, as in 
the stuffed head above mentioned, and appear as if they would 
ultimately have obtained the same length and direction. Per- 
haps the peculiarities noticed may prove to be of a sexual char- 
acter."t 

As will be shown later, we have here the more prominent ex- 
ternal differences characterizing the two species of Walrus for 
the first time explicitly stated from direct observation of speci- 
mens. If Dr. Leidy had had at that time good skulls of the 
two species for comparison, the other important cranial differ- 
ences (noted beyond) could not have escaped him, and he per- 
haps would have been led to formally recognize the Pacific Wal- 
rus as a species distinct from the Atlantic Walrus. 

I have met with nothing further touching this subject prior 
to Mr. H. W. Elliott's report on the Seal Islands of Alaska, 

* "Shaw's Zoology, vol. i, pt. i, p. 234." 

t Trans. Aiuer. Phil. Soc. Phila,., vol. x.i, pp. 85, 86. 



22 THE GENUS ODOB.ENUS. 

published in 1873, in which, tinder the heading " The Walrus 
of Bering Sea, (Eosmams arcticus) " he says: "I write 'the 
"Walrus of Bering $ra', because this animal is quite distinct' 
from the Walrus of the North Atlantic and Greenland, differing 
from it specifically in a very striking manner, by its greater size 
and semi-hairless skin." 5 " This is all he says, however, respect- 
ing their differences, no reference being made to the really dis- 
tinctive features. Thus the matter rested till, in 187G, Gill for- 
mally recognized two species in his " List of the Principal Use- 
ful or Injurious Mammals,"! in a catalogue of a " Collection to 
Illustrate the Animal Resources of the United States" in the ex- 
hibit of the National Museum at the International Exhibition 
of 1876, held in Philadelphia. This is merely a nominal list, in 
which appears, under " Bosmaridcv," the following, which I here 
fully and literally transcribe : 

ROSMARUS OBESUS, (Illiger,) Gill. 
The [Atlantic] Walrus. 
Atlantic Coast. 

ROSMARUS COOKII, (Freniery,) Gill. 
The [Pacific] Walrus. 
Paci:ir 



Here is simply a nominal recognition of two species without 
expressed reasons therefor. In an article on the Rosmaridce, 
published in 1877, Dr. Gill again says : " Two species appear to 
exist one (B. obesns] inhabiting the northern Atlantic, and the 
other (B. Coolri-i) the northern Pacific." \ 

Van Beneden, on the other hand, in 1877, distinctly affirms 
his disbelief in the existence of two species. In referring to the 
subject he says: "Nous ne croyons pas que les Morses du de"- 
troit de Behring different specifiqueinent de ceux de la mer de 
Baffin ou de la Nouvelle-Zenible, et c'est it tout, a notre avis, 
que Freniery a essaye de les repartir en especes distinctes 
d'apres les modifications de leurs dents." He further adds the 
testimony of von Baer as follows: " Von Baer s'est occupe en 
1835 de cette question a 1' Academic de St. P6tersbourg et 1'il- 
lustre naturaliste m'ecilvait, pen de temps avant sa mort, au 
sujet de la difference legere des Morses, a 1'Est et a 1'Ouest de 

* Report on the Prylrilov Group or Seal Islands of Alaska, 1873 (not paged). 
Also, Report on the Condition of Affairs in Alaska, 1875, p. 160. 

IThis "List" is anonymous, and is hence, perhaps, not properly quotable 
in this connection, although its authorship is known to the present 'writer. 

t Johnson's New Universal Cyclopaedia, vol. iii, 1877, p. 1725. 



SYNONYMY. 23 

la nier Glaciale, qu'il regardait les differences coinme des mo- 
difications locales*. Ce n'est pas 1'avis de Henry W. Elliot, qui 
considere le Morse du nord du Pacifique comme un animal 
distinct." t In another connection he refers to the subject as 
follows : " H y a des auteurs qni pensent que le Morse du Xord 
Pacifique est assez different de celui du Greenland, pour en 
faire une espece distincte. Nous ne partageons pas cet avis. 
Les modifications sont assez pen importantes et nous croyons 
pouvoir le niettre sur le compte de variations locales." J 

ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS, Holmgren. 
Atlantic Walrus. 

"Kosmarus, seu Morxns Xorvcgicus, OLAUS MAGNUS, Hist, de Gent. Sept. 
1555, 757 (figure) " ; also later editions. 

Bosmartis, GESXER, Hist. Anim. Aquat., 1558, 249; also later editions. 

Sosmarus, Wallross, JONSTON, Hist. Nat. de Piscibus et Cetis, 1649, 727, pi. 
xliv (two lower figures ; upper ono from Gesner, the lower from De 
Laet) ; also later editions. " KLEIN, Eeg. Anim., 1754, 67." "Sco- 
POLI, Hist. Nat., 1777, ." ZIMMERMAXX, Spec. Zool. Geograpli. 
Quad, etc., 1777, 330. 

Equiis marinus et Hippopotamus falso dictuts, Morse or Sea Horse, RAY, Syu., 
1G95, 191. 

WaUross, MARTENS, Spitzb., 1675, 78, pi. P, fig. b. EGEDE, Besclir. und Natur- 
Gesch. Gruiilaud, 1742, 54 ; 1763, 106 ; Descrip. et Hist. Nat. du Grocnl., 
1765, 61 (with a figure). CRAXTZ, Hist, von Gronl., 1765, 165; 
Englished., 1768, 125. GOETHE, "Morphol., 1, 1817, 211"; Act. Acad. 
Ca3S. Leop. Carol., xv, i, 1831, 8, pi. iv (dentition, etc.). VoxBAER, 
Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. Math, etc., vi e s6r., ii, 1835, 199 (blood- 
vessels of limbs). JAEGER, Mutter's Arch, fur Anat., 1844, 70 (den- 
tition Labrador specimens). 

Walross, MARTEXS, Zoologische Garten, xi, 1870, 283 (etymology). 

Wallrus sen Mors, EUYSCH, Theatr. Animal., 1718, 159, pi. xliv (figure same 
as Jonston's). 

Walrus, WORM, Mus. Worm., 1655, 289 (fig. from De Laet). WYMAX, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., iii, 1850, 242 (relation to Pachyderms). LEA, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 265 (use of the skin). WHEAT- 
LAND, Proc. Essex Institute, 1, 1854, 62 (remarks on a skull). 
SOXXTAG, Nar. Grinnell Expl. Exp. 1857, 113 (woodcut group of 
Walruses). MURRAY, Geogr. Distr. Mara., 1866, 128, map, xxviii* 
(distribution; in part). HAYES, Open Polar Sea, 1867, 404 (hunt- 
ing). PACKARD, Bull. Essex Institute, i, 1869, 137 (former exist- 
ence in Gulf of St. Lawrence). ATWOOD, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 

* " Les Morses des cotes de Sibe"rie ou de 1'est de 1'Asie out les dents cani- 
nes plus fortes que les Morses de Spitzberg et de Greenland, me disait-il 
dans une lettre " 

t Ann. du Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. Belgique, pt. 1, 1877, 45. 

t Ibid., p. 17. 



24 ODOB^ENUS ROSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

Hist., xiii, 1870, 220 (remarks cm a skull from the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence). TURNER, Jouru. Anat. and Phys., v, 1870, 115 (relations of 
pericardium). RINK, Danish Greenland, 1877, 126 (distribution), 
248, 252, 272 (chase). 

Arctic Walrus, PENNANT, Syuop. Quad., 1781, 335; Arctic Zool., 2d ed., i, 
1792, 168 (in part). 

Fossil Walrus, BARTON, London Phil. Mag., xxxii, 1805, 98 (no locality). 
MITCHELL, SMITH, & COOPER, Aun. New York Lye. Nat. Hist., ii, 
1828, 271 (fossil, Accomac Co., Va. doubtfully referred to the exist- 
ing species) ; Edinb. New Phil. Journ., v, 1828, 325 (abstract of the 
last). HARLAN, Edinb. New Phil. Journ., xvii, 1834, 360; Trans. 
Geol. Soc. Penu., i, 1835, 75; Med. and Phys. Researches, 1835, 277 
(same specimen). LYELL & OWEN, Proc. Lond. Geol. Soc., iv, 1843, 
32 (fossil, Martha's Vineyard, Mass.); Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 
xlvi, 1843, 319 (same). 

La Vaclie marine, BRISSON, Reg. Auiru., 1756, 48. 

"Morsch, GMELIN, Reise durch Russlaud, iii, 1751, 165. 

Morse ou Vaclie marine, BUFFON, Hist. Nat., xiii, 1765, 358, pi. liv (animal). 
DAUBENTON, Buffon's Hist. Nat,, xiii, 1765, 415, pi. Iv (skull). HOL- 
LANDRE, Abr6g6 d'Hist. Nat. des Quad. Vivip., i, 1790, pi. xii, fig. 3. 
F. CUVIER, Diet, des Sci. Nat., xxxiii, 1816, 27 ; Dents des Mam., 
1825, 233, pi. xcv. 

Morse, HUET, Coll. de Mam. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1808, 59, pi. liii (fig. from 
Buffon). 

Sea Coiv, SHULDHAM, Phil. Trans., Ixv, 1775, 249. 

Phoca, BONNANIO, Rerum Nat. Hist., i, (no date), 159, pi. xxxix, fig. 27 (a poor 
representation of De Laet's figure, with the young one omitted). 

Phoca rosmarus, LINNE, Syst. Nat., i, 1758, 38. 

Triclwchus rosmarus, LINNE, Syst. Nat., i, 1766, 49. MULLER, Prod. Zool. 
Dan., i. 1776, 1. SCHREBER, Siiugeth., ii, 1775, 262, pi. Ixxix (from 
Buffoii). ZIMMERMANN, Geogr. Geschichte, i, 1778, 299; ii, 1780, 
424. FABRICIUS, Fauna Grceul., 1780, 4. ERXLEBEN, Syst. Reg. 
Anim., 1787, 593. GMELIN, Syst, Nat., i, 1788, 59. SHAW, Nat, 
Miscel., 1791, pi. cclxxvi; Gen. Zool., i, 1800, 234 (in part), fig. 68, 
(from Jouston). BLUMENBACH, Handb. der Naturgesch. , 1788, 142; 
1821, 136; 1825, 112; Abbild. uatur. Gegenst., 1796-1810, No. 15, text 
and plate (from Jonston). DONNDORFF, Zool. Beytriige, 1792, 124. 
RETZIUS, Kong. Vet. Akad. Nya Handl., xv, 1794, 391 ; Fauna Sue- 
cicas, 1800, 48. OZERETSKOVSKY, Nov. Act. Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop., 
xiii, (1796), 1802, 371. BARTON, Phil. Mag., xxxii, 1805, 98 (fos- 
sil; locality not stated). G. CUVIER, Tableau e"le~nient., 1798, 172; 

Lecons d'Anat. Comp., 1800-1805, ; 2 e <Sd., , ; 3 e e"d., 1837, 

207, 257, 293, 329, 398, 472; Reg. Anim., i, 1817, 168; i, 1829, 171; 
Ossem. Foss., iv, 280; 3 e <5d., v, l e ptie., 1825, 234; v, 2 e ptie., 521, 
pi. xxxiii (osteology). ILLIGER, Prod. Syst. Mam. et Av., 1811, 139; 
Abhaudl. der Berliner Akad. (1804-1811), 1815, 56, 61, 64, 68, 75 (dis- 
tribution). DESMAEEST, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxi, 1818, 390; 
Mam., 1820, 253. SCORESBY, Account Arct. Regions, i, 1820, 502 (gen- 
eral history). " KERSTERN, Capitis Trichechi Rosmari Descrip. Ost., 
1821, ." SCARTH, Ediub. Phil. Journ., ii, 1825, 283 (Orkney); Jar- 
dine's Nat. Library, Mam., vii, 1838, 219, pi. xx (original figure 



SYNONYMY. 25 

of animal). HARLAN, Faun. Araer., 1825, 114 ; Ediub. New Phil. 
Journ., xvii, 1834, 360 (fossil) ; Trans. Geol. Soc. Penn., i, 1835, 72 
(same) : Med. and Phys. Eepos., 1835, 277 (same). GODMAN, Anier. 
Nat. Hist., i, 1826, 354. SCHLNZ, Naturg. der Saugeth., 1827, 169, pi. 
Ixv (two figures " Abbildung nacli Blunienbach und Schniid"). 
LESSON, Man. deMarn., 1827, 208. Eoss, App. Parry's Fourth Voy., 
1828, 192; App. Boss's Second Voy., 1835, xxi. FLEMING, Brit. Anim., 
1828, IS. EAPP, Naturw. Abhandl: Wiirtemb., ii, 1828, 107 (denti- 
tion) ; "Bull. Sci.Nat., xvii, 1829, 280" (abstract). FISCHER, Synop. 
Mam., 1829, 243. GUERIN-MENEVILLE, Icon, du Eegne Anim, de 
G. Cuvier, Mam., 1829-1838, 19, pi. xix, fig. 5 (animal). FREMERY, 
Bij drag tot de natuurk. Wetensch., vii, 1831, 384. DELONGCHAMPS, 
Me"m. Soc. Linn, de Normandie, v, 1835, 101 (dentition). WIL- 
SON, Nat. Hist. Quad, and Whales, 1837, 145, pi. cccxxxiv, fig. 2 
(animal); Encycl. Brit., 7th ed., xiv, 125. BELL, Brit. Quad., 
1837, 258 (animal and skull; original figures). Vox BAER, Me"m. 
Acad. St. P6tersb. Math., etc., 6 e se"r., iv, 1838, 97, pi. xlvii (distribu- 
tion). WIEGMANN, Arch. furNaturgesch., 1838, 113 (dentition). 
HAMILTON, Jard. Nat. Libr., Mam., viii, 1839, 103, pi. i (animal, and 
woodcut of skull, original figure). EICHARDSON, Zool. Beechey's 
Voy., 1839, 6. BLAINVILLE^ Oste'ographie, DesPhoques, 1840-51, 19, 
pi. i (skeleton), pi. iv (skull). DEKAY, Nat. Hist. New York, 
Zool., i, 1842, 56. ZIMMERMAXX, Jahrb. fur Mineral., 1845, 73. 
WAGNER, Schreber's Saugeth., vii, 1846, 84, pi. Ixxix. GIEBEL, 
Fauna der Vorwelt, 1847, 222 (fossil) ; Saugeth., 1855, 128; Odontog., 
1855, 82, pi. xxxvi, fig. 5 (dentition). NILSSON, Skand. Faun., 1347, 
318. GERVAIS, Zool. et Pal. Francais, i, 1848-52, 140. GRAY, Cat. 
Seals in Brit. Mus., 1850, 32; Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1853, 112 (on 
attitudes and figures) : Cat. Seals and Whales, 1836, 36, 367. OWEN, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, 103 (anat. and dentition) ; Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., xv, 1855, 226 (from the foregoing) ; Cat. Osteol. 
Coll. Mus. College Surg.,1853, 631 (skeleton); Encycl. Brit,, xvi, 
1854, 463, fig. 112 (skull) ; Odontography, 1854, 510, pi. cxxxii, fig. 8 
(dentition); Orr's Circle of the Sciences, Zool., i, 1854, 230, fig. 27 
(skeleton) ; Cornp. Anat. and Phys. Vertebrates, ii, 1866, 490, 498, 
507 ; iii, 1868, 338, 524, 780. BLASIUS, Faun. Wirb. Deutschl., i, 1857, 
262, figs. 148-150 (skull). VAN DER HOEVEN, Handb. Zool. Eugl. 
Ed. ii, 1858, 697. VON SCHRENCK, Eeisen iin Amur-Lande, i, 1859, 
179 (in part only). LEIDY, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. Phila., xi, 1860, 
pis. iv, v (in part) ; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d ser., vii, 1869, 
416. WOLF & SCLATER ; Zool. Sketches, i, 1861, No. 16. GERRARD, 
Cat. Bones Mam. Brit. Mus., 1862, 145. NEWTON, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, 499. SCLATER & BARTLETT, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, 818, 819. Vox MIDDENDOEFF, Sibirische Eeise, iv, 1837, 934 (in 
part only). BROWN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, 335, 427 (habits 
and distribution) ; Man. Nat. Hist. Greenland, 1875, 35. MURIE, 
Proc. Zool. Soe. Lond., 18G8, 67 (report on cause of death of speci- 
men in Zool. Card., Loud.); 1870, 581; Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., vii, 
pt. vi, 1871, 411, pis. li-lv (anatomy). GILPIX, Proc. and Trans. Nova 
Scotia lust. Nat. Sci., ii, pt. 3, 1870, 123 (with a plate). ICE EI:S, Z'.."I- 



26 ODOBJ3NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

ogist, 1871, 2550 (St. George's Bay, Newfoundland). HEUGLIN, Rei- 
sennacli dem Nordpolarnieer, iii, 1874, 43 (habits and distribution). 
DEFRANCE, Bull. Soc. G6ol., 3 e se'r., ii, 1874, 164 (fossil, France). 
GULLIVER, Proc. Zob'l. Soc. Lond., 1874, 580 (size of blood-corpus- 
cles). FEILDEN, Zoologist, 3d ser., i, 1877, 360 (distribution and 
food). VAN BEXEDEN, Aim. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. Belgique, i, 
1877, 39 (distribution, general habits, and fossil remains). RINK, 
Danish Greenland, its People and its Products, 1877, 126. 

Triclicclnts longidens, FEEMERY, Bijdrag tot deNatuurk. Wetensch., vi, 1831, 
384. 

Triclicchus vlrginianus, DEKAY, Nat. Hist. New York, Zool., i, 1842, 56, pi. 
xix, figs. 1, a, b (fossil, Accomac Co., Va.). 

f Trichcclius duUus, STANNIUS, Miiller's Arch, fiir Anat., 1842, 407 (without 
locality). 

Eosmarus arciicus, LILLJEBORG, Fauna ofvers Sveriges och Norges Ryggr., 
1874, 674. 

Eosmarus trichechus, LAMONT, Seasons with the Sea-horses, 1861, 141, 167 (two 
plates). GILL, Johnson's New Univ. Cyclop., iii, 1877, 633. 

Eosmarus obesus, GILL, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 13 (in part only) ; Interna- 
tional Exhib. 1876, Anim. Resources U. S., No. 2, 1876, 4 (Atlantic 
Walrus; no description); Johnson's New Univ. Cycl., iii, 1877, 
1725. PACKARD, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 1866, 271; Mem. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., i, 1867, 246 (fossil). LEIDY, Journ. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., viii, 1877, 214, pi. xxx, fig. 6 (fossil, South Carolina). 

Odobenotherium larleilanum, GRATIOLET, Bull. Soc. G6ol. de France, 2 e se'r., 
xv, 1858, 624, pi. v (fossil, near Paris, France). 

Odontobainus rosmarus, SUNDEVALL, Ofver. K. Vet. Akad. Forh., 1859,441; 
Zeitsch. Gesammt. Naturw. Halle, xv, 1860, 270. 

Odobcenus rosmarus, MALMGREN, Ofver. K. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1863, (1864), 130 
(food and habits), 505, pi. vii (dentition) ; Wiegmann's Archiv f. 
Naturgeschichte, 1864, 67 (translated from Ofvers. K. Vet. Akad. 
Forh., 1863, 130 et seq.). PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1864, 
685, pi. (dentition) ; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (3), xv, 1865, 355 
(abstract). RINK, Danish Greenland, 1877, 430. 

f Trichccodon liuxleyi, LANKESTER, Quarter. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., xxi, 
1865, 226, pis. x, xi (fossil; Red Crag, England). 

f Trichechus manatus, FABRICIUS, Fauna Grceiil., not Rhytina gigas; see 
BROWN, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 357, 358. 

fPlioca ursina, FABRICIUS, Fauna Groenl., not CallwTiinus ursinus; see BROWN, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 357, 348. 

Morse; Vache marine; Clieval marine ; Bete a la grande dent (French). 

Bos marimts, RUYSCH, 1. c. 

Hvalross (Swedish and Danish). 

Havhest; Hvalruus (Norwegian). 

Morslc (Lapp). 

Wallross; Meerpferd (German). 
Walrus; Sea Coiv; Sea Horse (English). 

EXTERNAL, CHARACTERS. As regards general form, the head, 
in comparison with the size of the body, is rather small, squar- 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 27 

isli ill outline, but much longer than broad, with the muzzle 
abruptly truncated and somewhat bilobed by the depression 
surrounding the nasal opening. The lower jaw is pointed and 
narrow anteriorly. The upper lip is heavily armed with thick, 
strong, pellucid bristles. The nostrils are somewhat crescentic 
in shape, placed vertically, with the upper part more expanded 
than the lower, and hence bear some resemblance to two com- 
mas placed with their convex surfaces toward each other. The 
eyes are situated rather high up, about midway between the 
muzzle and the occiput. The ear is wholly destitute of a pinna, 
forming merely an orifice on the side of the head in a deep fold 
of the skin. The most prominent facial character in the adults 
is, of course, the long protruding upper canines, which extend 
12 to 15 or more inches beyond the rictus. The neck is short, 
being only about as long as the head ; it gradually thickens 
toward the body, into which it insensibly merges. The body is 
exceedingly thick and heavy, presenting everywhere a rounded 
outline, and attaining its greatest circumference at the shoulders, 
whence it gradually tapers posteriorly. The tail is scarcely, if 
at all, visible, being enclosed within the teguments of the body. 
The fore limbs are free only from the elbow ; as in the Pinnipeds 
generally, they are greatly expanded, flat, and somewhat fin- 
like, but with much more freedom of motion than is the case in 
the Pliocldce. They are armed with five small flat nails, placed 
at considerable distance from the end of the cartilaginous toe- 
flap. The first or inner digit is slightly the longest, the others 
being each successively a little shorter till the fifth, which nearly 
equals the first. The hind limb is enclosed within the tegu- 
ments of the body nearly to the heel ; the free portion when 
expanded is fan-shaped, but when closed the sides are nearly 
parallel. The first and fifth digits are considerably longer and 
larger than the middle ones, the fifth being also rather larger 
than the first. They are all provided with small nails, placed 
at some distance from the end of the toe-flap. The soles of both 
fore and hind extremities are bare, rough, and " warty," and 
the dorsal surface of the digits as far as the proximal phalanges 
is also devoid of hair. In the young and middle-aged, the body 
is rather thickly covered with short hair, which, however, is 
thinner and shorter on the ventral surface of the neck and body 
and on the limbs than elsewhere. It is everywhere of a yellow- 
ish-brown color, except on the belly and at the base of the flip- 
pers, where it passes into dark reddish-brown or chestnut. The 



28 ODOB^ENUS ROSMAEUS ATLANTIC AVALRUS. 

bristles are pale yellow or light yellowisli horn-color. Iii old 
animals, the hair becomes more scanty, and often gives place to 
nearly bare scarred patches, frequently of considerable area. 
Very old individuals sometimes become almost naked, present- 
ing the same appearance that has been so often observed among 
very old males of the Alaskan Walrus. The skin is everywhere 
more or less wrinkled and thrown into folds, especially over the 
shoulders, where the folds are deep and heavy. The average 
length of four adult males examined is about 10 feet, varying 
from 9J to 11 feet. Authors, however, commonly give rather 
larger dimensions, and a length of twelve feet is said to be not 
infrequently attained. The largest bristles vary in length from 
2.25 to 2.75 inches. 

From Dr. Murie's paper on the general anatomy of a young 
individual I add a few further details. Dr. Mime describes the 
muzzle as capable of great mobility, and the mystacial bristles as 
curving in different directions according to the muscular tension 
of the parts to which they are attached.. "When the nostrils are 
relaxed they drop forwards and the bristles inwards. At such 
times the nares are apart fully 1 inch 5 but when they are con- 
tracted a septum 0.6 of an inch wide only divides them. Occa- 
sionally, when ah' ve, I observed the animal retract its upper lip, 
as a dog would in snarling ; and this caused a deep furrow in 
the facial region. This change in the features gives quite a 

different expression to the physiognomy When seen 

in front and from above, the face has a most curious expression, 
recalling to mind that of the cranium of an Elephant rather than 
the Walrus's ally Otaria. The auricular region then acquires 
a prominent aspect, as do the orbits. The great breadth of the 
muzzle also conies out better. The face is entirely hairy to the 

roots of the bristles On the lower surface of the muzzle 

and chin, the upper lip passes one inch beyond the lower lip, and 
the snout, with its adpressed bristles, one or two inches beyond 
that. A portion of the upper rosy lip, in this view, is seen thrust 
upwards or puckered outside the canines. These upper canine 
teeth, which grow to massive tusks in the adult and aged Wal- 
ruses, in ours had little more than protruded beyond the mandib- 
ular lips. The chin and anterior portion of the throat are very 
hairy; this diminishes backwards ; and on the throat the almost 
hairless skin is thrown into longitudinal and parallel narrowish 
flat-topped rug*." * 

* Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1872, vol. vii, p. 419. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 29 

Iii respect to the niystacial bristles, Dr. Murie's figures of the 
head and muzzle of the young specimen described by him 
(drawn from photographs, some from, the living animal) rep- 
resent them as quite long, the longest being said to be from 4 to 
5 inches hi length, and those of the sides of the muzzle as curv- 
ing inward and nearly meeting beneath the chin. Lament also 
speaks of them as being in the adult 6 inches in length. Ham- 
ilton describes the Orkney specimen as having the largest 
nearly 5 inches in length, "and as thick as a Thrush's quill." 
Dr. Kane says : " Tlie cheeks and lips are completely masked by 
the heavy quill-like bristles." The authors of the history of the 
Swedish expedition to Spitsbergen and Bear Island in 1861 
state that they are 4 inches long and nearly a line thick.* In 
the four or five adult male specimens I have had the opportu- 
nity of examining, the exserted portions of the longest bristles 
were less than 3 inches in length, and when extracted measured 
scarcely more than 4i, the shortest being mere points projecting 
through the skin. From Dr. Murie's figures and description of 
the young, and from other accounts, it would seem, that the 
bristles become shorter in adult life, being perhaps worn off 
by constant friction. The bristles in the specimens I have seen 
bore no resemblance to the long curving bristles figured and 
described by Dr. Murie as existing in the young animal. They 
were considerably (one-third) longer, however, in the youngest 
of four specimens in Professor Ward's collection than in the 
oldest, giving support to the opinion already stated that they 
become shorter as the annual advances in age.t 

As already noted, the fore feet are formed much as in other 
Pinnipeds, more nearly agreeing, however, with those of the 
Otarlidce than with those of the Phocidce, especially with respect 
to freedom of movement, having the power of pronation and 
supination to a considerable degree. " In the Walrus," says Dr. 
Murie, "the humerus, radius, and ulna can be so placed that 
they meet at an acute angle, the lower limb of which is in a 
great measure free. The digits, on the other hand, can together 
be turned backwards at a sharp angle with the radius and ulna, 
so that the bones of the limbs altogether form an S -shaped 
figure. In the Seal the antibrachium and digits bend on each 

* See Passarge's German translation, p. 132. 

tin Pallas's figure (in his "Icoues") of a young example of the Pacific Wal- 
rus, the mystacial bristles are represented as very long, as in the young of 
the Atlantic species. 



30 ODOB^ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

other more angularly, thus < In the act of swimming 

the Walrus evidently can use its fore limb as far as the elbow, 
with a kind of rotary movement of the manus and antibrachium ; 
but in the Seal the rotary action takes place only at the wrist, 
and above that a sort of ginglymoid or back and forward move- 
ment." 

"The palmar surface or sole of the manus is not unlike a par- 
lor shovel in figure. There is a great callous, roughened and 
warty pad at the proximal end or ball of the hand ; and this, 
from, discoloration incident to use, is of an intense dark brown 
or almost black colour. From the radial margin, where it is 
stoutest and roughest, it trends towards the base of the fifth 
digit. Circumscribed digital pads, as in Carnivora, there are 
none ; but furrows and ridges traverse obliquely forwards the 
policial to the opposite side." This "remarkable rough and 
warty palmar surface," continues Dr. Murie, "affords above 
everything a stay and firm leverage on slippery ground ; no 
stocking or wisp of straw used by man to bind round the foot 
when on smooth ice can equal nature's provision of coarse tegu- 
inentary papillae." Also, "The angle at which the carpo-meta- 
carpal joint is set, and the very odd manner of foot-implanta- 
tion on the ground, namely, semiretroverted, evidently make it 
an easier task to go forwards or upwards on a smooth surface 
than to retrograde."* The hind foot (pes) is similarly rough- 
ened and furrowed. The notion advanced by Sir Everarcl 
Home,t that the feet of the Walrus were provided with suc- 
torial power, like that of the disk of a fly's foot, by which they 
were enabled to maintain firm footing on smooth ice and rocks, 
Dr. Murie considers untenable. No one who has ever seen 
a Walrus walk, says Dr. Murie, could for a moment suppose 
that its massive weight was sustained by a pedal vacuum, as in 
a fly's foot. 

As regards the proportionate size of the limbs, the fore limbs, 
in an animal 8 to 10 feet long, are stated by Edwards,! to meas- 
ure from the " shoulder joint to the finger ends, two feet; expan- 
sion, one foot; the hind limbs measuring twenty-two inches, and 
extending, when outstretched, eighteen inches beyond the body, 
with an expansion of two feet." Scoresby says the fore feet are 
"from two to two and a half feet in length, and being expansive 

* Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud., vol. vii, 1872, pp. 420, 421. 

tPMl. Trans., 1824, pp. 233-235, pi. iv. 

tMSS. as quoted by Richardson, Suppl. Parry's Sec. Voy., p. 340. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 31 

may be stretched to the breadth of fifteen to eighteen inches." 
The hind feet, he says, have a length of " about two to two and a 
half feet," the breadth, when fully extended being "two and a 
half to three feet."* 

Dr. Gilpin t gives about the same dimensions for a specimen 
12 feet long, namely, fore-flippers, length 2 feet ; breadth 13 
inches; hind nippers, length 22 inches, breadth (when stretched) 
2 feet 6 inches. Dr. Murie gives for a specimen about 7f feet 
long: from shoulder-joint to extreme end of first digit, 23 
inches ; extreme length from os calcis to tip of fifth digit, 17 
inches; extreme breadth, when forcibly distended, 13 inches. 
My own measurements, taken from three unmounted skins of 
adult males preserved in salt in the collection of Prof. Henry 
A. Ward of Eochester, are as follows : manus, from carpal joint 
to end of digits, 14 to 15 inches ; transverse diameter at base, 
9 to 10 inches ; pes, from tarsal joint to end of longest digit, 
15 to 18 inches ; transverse diameter at tarsus, about 7 inches. 
The rigidity of the feet did not permit of ready expansion. 

In respect to the tail, Dr. Murie says: " Strictly speaking, 
the Walrus possesses no free tail, as do the Phocidce and Ota- 
riidce; for a broad web of skin stretches across from os calcis to 
os calcis, enveloping the caudal representative. This remarka- 
ble elastic ineinbrano-teguinentary expansion, reminding one of 
the more delicate web similarly situated in Bats, has posteri- 
orly, when the legs are outspread, a wide semilunar border 
with little if any medio-caudal projection. What appears as a 
tail when the limbs are approximated is in reality fibroid tissue 
and skin; for the caudal vertebrae stop short about an inch from, 
the free margin." | 

The number of inaminee is stated by various writers to be 
four. According to Edwards (as quoted by Eichardson ), these 
are placed, in the adult, 15 inches apart, in the corners of a 
quadrangle having the umbilicus in the centre. Owen and 
Murie give them as " two abdominal and two inguinal." 

In respect to general size, authors vary greatly in their state- 
ments, the length ranging for adults from about 10 to 12 and 
even 15 or 1C feet, while the weight given ranges from 1,500 to 
5,000 pounds ! Among what may be termed recent writers, Parry 

*Account of Arctic Regions, vol. i, p. 503. 

tProc. and Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Nat. Sci., vol. ii, pt. 3, p. 123. 

t Trans. Zoo'l. Soc. Lond., vol. vii, p. 425. 



Suppl. to Parry's Sec. Voyage, p. 340. 

' 'a 






32 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

gives the weight of a " moderate-sized female," but evidently 
from his account quite young, as 1,550 pounds. Scoresby says : 
"The Walrus is found on the shores of Spitzbergen twelve to 
fifteen feet in length and eight to ten in circumference."* Dr. 
Gilpin gives the weight of a full-grown male as 2,250, while La- 
inont says a full-grown old male will weigh at least 3,000 
pounds.t Aside from Dr. Murie's measurements of a young spe- 
cimen, I have met with no detailed measurements of the Atlan- 
tic Walrus, except those given by Dr. Gilpin,$ which are as fol- 
lows: 

Ft. la. 

Extreme length 12 3 

Length of head .... 1 5 

Breadth of muzzle 1 

Distance from nose to eye 8 

Distance between eyes 9 

Extension of tusk beyond the mouth 1 

Distance of tusks apart at base 4 

Distance of tusks apart at tips - 11 

Length of fore-flipper 2 

Breadth of fore-flipper 1 1 

Length of hind-flipper 1 10 

Breadth of hind-flipper, distended 2 6 

Thickness of skin 1 

Thickness of blubber 1 

Weight said to be 22 cwt. 

Fleming gives the length of the Walrus as 15 feet, with a 
circumference at the shoulders of 10 feet; and the length of the 
tusks as 20 inches. Hamilton || says an individual killed in Ork- 
ney, in 1825, which he saw, "was about ten feet in length," with 
the head 13J inches in length. From the size of the tusks (ex- 
serted S inches) it appears to have been far from fully grown. 
Daubenton gives the length of the specimen he described as 
Hi feet, with a circumference at the shoulders of 8 feet. Lainont 

* Account of the Arct. Reg., vol. i, p. 502. 

tMr. Laniont, in his " Seasons with the Sea-horses" (p. ), gives the 
weight of an old male as 3,000 pounds, but in his "Yachting in the Arctic 
Seas" (p. 89), he says, "A full-sized old bull Walrus must weigh at least 
5,000 Ibs., and such a Walrus, if very fat, will produce 650 Ibs. of blubber, 
but seldom more than 500 Ibs., Avhich is I think the average amount 
yielded by the most obese of our victims." He speaks, however, in another 
place (p. 183), of one that "yielded between 700 and 800 pounds of fat." 
The weight of the entire animal, as last estimated by Mr. Laniont, is prob- 
ably much too great. 

t Proc. & Trans. Nova Scotia lust. Nat. Sci., vol. ii, pt. 3, pp. 123, 124. 

$ Hist. Brit. Mam., 1828, p. 18. 

|| British Quad., p. 223. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 33 

speaks of having got one day "a very large and fat cow," the 
length of which he gives as 11 feet 5 inches.* My own measure- 
ments of three adult males from imstuffed (salted) skins are as 
follows : (1) length (from nose to tail), 10 feet 5 inches ; (2) 9 feet 
G inches ; (3) 10 feet 10 inches ; (4) 8 feet 5 inches. The first 
three were fully adult, while one of them, to judge from its 
broken, worn tusks and partly naked, scarred skin, was very old; 
the other was not more than two-thirds grown. These may all 
have been specimens of less than the average size. Adding, 
however, 15 to 18 inches for the length of the hind limb (not here 
included), would give a length of about 12 feet for the larger 
individuals.! 

Most of the old writers were content with stating it to be as 
large as an ox and as thick as a hogshead. The accounts of the 
color are also discrepant ; Fabricius's statement that the color 
varies with age, the young being black, then dusky, later paler, 
and finally in old age white, having been quoted by most sub- 
sequent compilers. Writers who have given the color from 
actual observation have never, however, confirmed Fabricius's 
account, they usually describing the color of the hair as " yel- 
lowish-brown," " yellowish- gray," " tawny," " very light yellow- 
ish-gray," etc., some of whom explicitly state that after extended 
observations they have never met with the changes of color 
with age noted by Fabricius. Thus, Mr. Eobert Brown says 
that although he has seen Walruses of all stages, from birth 
until nearly mature age, he never saw any of a black color, all 
being of " the ordinary brown color, though, like most animals, 
they get lighter as they grow old."! Scoresby says that the 
skin of the Walrus is covered " with a short yellowish-brown 
colored hair." 

Dr. Gilpin states that his Labrador specimen was thinly cov- 
ered with " adpressed light yellowish-green hair," about an inch 
in length. He adds that the surface of the whole skin was 



* Yachting in the Arctic Seas, p. 77. 

1 1 find it to be a nearly universal custom with writers (especially with 
non-scientific writers), in giving the length of Pinnipeds to measure from 
the point of the nose to the end of the outstretched hind flippers, so that 
"length" must generally be understood as the total length from " point 
to point," and not merely that of the head and hody. Taking, for example, 
Dr. Gilpin's specimen, and deducting the length of the hind flipper from the 
"extreme length," would leave 10 feet 5 inches. 

t Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, p. 428. 

Account of the Arctic Regions, vol. i, p. 503. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 3 



34 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

covered by " scars and bald warty patches," and that the skin 
itself was thrown into " welts and folds " on the neck and shoul- 
ders. 

Mr. Brown further says that " the very circumstantial account 
of the number of mystacial bristles given in some accounts is 
most erroneous ; they vary in the number of rows and in the 
number in each row in almost every specimen. They are ele- 
vated on a minute tubercle, and the spaces between these bris- 
tles are covered with downy whitish hairs."* 

Many other writers also note the scars and warty patches and 
partial absence of hair referred to above by Dr. Gilpin. Mr. 
Brown, in speaking of those he met with in Davis Straits, says : 
" I have seen an old Walrus quite spotted with leprous-looking 
marks consisting of irregular tubercular-looking white carti- 
laginous hairless blotches ; they appeared to be the cicatrices 
of wounds inflicted at different times by ice, the claws of the 
Polar Bear, Or met with in the wear and tear of the rough-and- 
tumble life a Sea-horse must lead in 1ST. lat. 74."* Mr. Laniont 
further adds that in the Spitsbergen seas the "old bulls are 
always very light-colored, from being nearly devoid of hair 5 
their skins are rough and rugose, like that of a Ehinoceros, 
and they are generally quite covered with scars and wounds, 
inflicted by harpoons, lances, and bullets which they have 
escaped from, as well as by the tusks of one another in fights 
among themselves.''! From these reports, especially that of 
Mr. Brown, Dr. Muriel has inferred that the Walrus is subject 
to skin diseases, and that the " glandular spots " thus produced 
are mistaken "for healed cutaneous wounds." However this 
may be, it is pretty well established that many of these marks 
are really scars of wounds. 

Eespectiug other external characters, especially the tusks, 
and their variations with age, sex, and accidental causes, I 
transcribe the following from Mr. Lament's entertaining book, 
which will be found so freely quoted in subsequent pages : 
" Old bulls," lie observes, " very frequently have one or both 
of their tusks broken, which may arise from using them to assist 

in clambering up the ice and rocks The calf has no 

tusks the first year, but the second year, when he has attained 
to about the size of a large Seal, he has a pair about as large as 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. Loiid., 1868, p. 428. 
t Seasons with the Sea-horses, p. 137. 
t Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud., vol. vii, 1872, p. 422. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 35 

the cauiue teeth of a lion ; the third year they are about six inches 
long. 

" Tusks vary very much in size and shape according- to the age 
and sex of the animal. A good pair of bull's tusks may be stated 
as twenty-four inches long,* and four pounds apiece in weight j 
but we obtained several pairs above these dimensions, and in 
particular one pair, which measured thirty-one inches in length 
when taken out of the head, and weighed eight pounds each. 
Such a pair of tusks, however, is extremely rare, and I never, 
to the best of my belief, saw a pair nearly equal to them among 
more than one thousand Walruses, although we took the utmost 
pains to secure the best, and always inspected the tusks care- 
fully with a glass before we fired a shot or threw a harpoon. 

" Cows' tusks will average fully as long as bulls', from being less 
liable to be broken, but they are seldom more than twenty inches 
long and three pounds each in weight. They are generally set 
much closer together than the bull's tusks, sometimes overlap- 
ping one another at the points, as in the case with the stuffed 
specimen at the British Museum. The tusks of old bulls, on the 
contrary, generally diverge from one another, being sometimes 
as much as fifteen inches apart at the points." t 

Mr. Brown observes : " The whalers declare that the female 
Walrus is without tusks ; I have certainly seen females without 
them, but, again, others with both well developed. In this re- 
spect it may be similar to the female Narwhal, which has occa- 
sionly no ' horn ' developed." $ 

Captain Parry states that Captain Lyon obtained the head of 
a small Walrus, remarkable on account of its having three tusks, 
all very short, but two of them close together on the right side 
of the jaw, and placed one behind the other. 

Scoresby gives the length of the tusks externally as from " ten 
to fifteen inches," and their full length when cut from the skull 
as from " fifteen to twenty, sometimes almost thirty," and their 
weight as from " five to ten pounds each, or upward." || 

The sexual differences described by Lamont were long since 

* This probably includes their whole length when removed from the sock- 
ets, of which probably not more than eighteen to twenty inches were ex- 
posed in life. 

tLoc. cit., pp. 137-140. 

JProc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, p. 429. 

Narrative of Parry's Second Voyage, p. 415. 

|| Account of the Arctic Regions, vol. i, p. 502. 



36 ODOB.ENUS KOSMARUS ATLANTIC AVALRUS. 

suspected by Wiegmann and Stannius (see anted,, p. 19), who 
believed that the female had longer, slenderer, and more con- 
verging tusks than the male. There is also a specimen in the 
collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
in which the tusks are very long and slender, and converge 
to such a degree that their points actually overlap. 

In concluding this rather rambling notice of the external char- 
acters and aspect of the Atlantic Walrus, I append the quaint 
and very correct description of this animal, written by the mis- 
sionary Egede as early as 1740. I give it from Kriinitz's Ger- 
man translation from the original Danish : 

" Der Wallross, oder das Meerpferd, ist eine Art von Fisch, 
dessen Gestalt eineni Seehunde gleichkonmrt : jedoch ist es 
weit grosser und starker. Seine Pfoten sind mit fiinf Klauen 
versehen, wie die Pfoten des Seehundes ; doch kiirzer von Na- 
geln ; und der Kopf is dicker, runder und starker. Die Haut 
dieses Thieres ist, vornehinlich am Halse, einen Daumen dick, 
und aller Orten faltig, und runzlig. Es hat ein dickes und 
braunes Haar. In dem obern Kinnbacken sitzen zwey kruinme 
Zahne, welche aus dem Munde liber der Unterlippe hervorragen; 
und einen oder zwey Fuss lang, und bisweilen auch wohl uoch 
langer sind. Die Wallrosszahne sind in eben solchem Werth, 
als die Elephantenzahne. Inwendig sind sie dicht und fest, an 
der Wurzel aber hohl. Sein Maul ist wie ein Ochseninaul ; 
unten und oben mit stachlichten Borsten, in der Dicke eines 
Strohhalms, besetzt, und diese dienen ihm anstatt eines Bartes. 
Oberhalb des Mundes sind zwey Naselocher, wie bey dem See- 
hunde. Seine rothe Augen sehen ganz feurig aus ; und weil 
sein Hals ganz ausserordenth'ch dick ist, kann er nicht leicht 
um sich herum sehen ; und dieserhalb dreht er die Augen im 
Kopfe heriun, wanu er etwas ausehen will. Er hat, gleich dem 
Seehunde, eineu sehr kurzeii Schwanz. Sein Fleisch hat erne 
Aehnlichkeit mit dem Schweinenfleische. Es pflegt sich dieses 
Thier mehreutheils auf dem Eise aufzuhalteu. Indessen kann es 
so lange auf dem Lande bleibeu, bis es der Hunger nothigt, in 
die See zu gehen ; indent es sich von denen Fischen und Meer- 
Insekten unterhalt. Wann es iin Zorne ist, briillt es wie ein 
Ochs. Die Meerpferde sind beherzt, und stehen sich einander 
bis in den Tod bey. Sie leben in bestandigem Kriege mit denen 
Baren, denen sie mit ihren grossen und starken Zahnen genug 
zu schaffen niachen. Oefters tragen sie den Sieg davon ; und 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 37 

wenigstens kampfen sie so lange, bis sie todt zur Erde nieder- 
fallen."* 

Another account of the Walrus, from its being one of the 
earliest extant, is also of especial interest in the present con- 
nection. Though repeatedly copied, in part or wholly, by the 
earlier authors, and also by von Baer, I think it deserving of 
reproduction here. It was written by Prof. A. E. Vorst, and was 
based on the young specimen taken to Holland in 1613. It is 
here copied from De Lae't (Descrip. Indite Occident.), by whom it 
was published in 1633 : 

" Belluam hanc marinaui vidi, magnitudine vituli, aut canis 
Britannici rnajoris, Phocae non dissimilem ; capite rotundo, ocu- 
Hs bovillis, naribus depressis ac patulis, qnos modo contrahe- 
bat, modo diducebat, auriuni loco utrinque foramina 5 rictus 
oris rotundo nee ita vasto, superiori parte aut labro mystaca 
gestabat setis cartilagineis, crassis ac rigidis constanteni. Infe- 
rior maxilla trigonaerat, lingua era ssa brevisque, atque osiuterius 
deutibus planis utrimque numitum, pedibus anterioribus posteri- 
oribnsque latis, atque extrema corporis parte Phocam nostratem 
plane referebat. Pedes anteriores antrorsuni, posteriores retror- 
suni spectabant cum ingrederetur. Di giti quinque inernbrana in- 
tersepiente distinct!, eaque crassa, posterioribus digitis ungues 
iinpositi, non prioribus, cauda plane carebat. Postica parte 
repebat niagis quam incedebat. Cute crassa, coreacea, piUsque 
brevibus ac tenuisibus obsita vestiebatur, colore cinereo. Grun- 
nitum apri instar edebat, sen crocitabat voce gravi et valida. 
Eepebat per areani extra aquani, quotidie per semihoram aut 
amplius dolio aqua pleno immittebant, nt se ibi oblectaret. Ca- 
tulus erat, ut fefebant qui attulerant ex nova Zeinbla, deceni 
hebdomadarum, dentes sen cornua exerta, ut adultiores, non- 
duni habens, tubercula tanien in superiori labro percipieban- 
tur, unde brevi proditura facile apparebat. Ferum et validum 
animal calebat ad tactum, validique per nares spiribat. Pul- 
mentarium ex avena mih'ove comedebat lente et suctu magis, 
quam deglutienclo, heruuique gestanteni cibum ac offerentem 
magno nisti ac grannitu accedebat, sequebaturque, nidore ejus 
allectus. Lardum ejus gustantibus hand insuave visum est. 

* Herrn Hans Egede, Missioniirs und Bischofes in Gronland, Besckreibung 
iind Natur-Gescliiclite Ton Gronland, iibersetzet von D. Joh. Ge. Kriinitz. 
Mit Kupfern. Berlin, verlegts August Mylius, 1763. pp. 10G-108. Since 
transcribing the above I have met -with an early (1768) English translation 
of this work, in which an English rendering of the above description may 
be found at p. 125. 



38 ODOB^NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

Conspiciebantur ibidem duo majorum capita, dentibus duobus 
exertis Elephantoriun instar, longis ac crassis et albicantibus 
munita, qui deorsmn versus pectus spectabant. Eoriua coria 
CCCC ant 1C poudo pendisse ferebant Angli qui attulerant. 
Hisce dentibus rapes ascendere seque sustinere ajebant, et pro- 
deuut iu continentem seu terrain ut soniuuun ibi capiant grega- 
tim. Pabulum ajebant illis esse folia oblonga ac magna, Iierba3 
cuj usdam e fimdo maris nascentis. Nee piscibus vivere aut carui- 
vormn esse. Vidi ibidem peneni ejusdern animalis osseuin, ro- 
tundum, cubitiun et amplius longmn, crassum, ponderosuni ac 
solidum, iu fine prope glaudem louge crassiorem ac rotundiorem. 
Hujus pulvere ad calculum pelleudum Moscovitse retuntur." * 

A still earlier description of the Walrus is given byPurchast 
in his account of the first voyage " into the North Seas," by 
William Barents, a Dutch navigator, who met with Walruses 
on Orange Island, in 1594, translated from the Dutch by W. 
Philip. The account says they "went to one of those Islands 
[of Orange], where they found about two hundred Walrushen, 
or Sea-horses, lying upon the shore to bast themselves in the 
Sunne. This Sea-horse is a wonderful strong Monster of the 
Sea, much bigger than an Oxe, which keeps continually in the 
Seas, having a skin like a Sea-calfe or Seale, with very short 
hayre, mouthed like a Lion, and many times they lye upon the 
Ice ; they are hardly killed unlesse you strike them just upon 
the forehead, it hath foure Feet, but no Eares, and commonly 
it hath one or two young ones at a time. And when the Fisher- 
men chance to find them upon a flake of Ice with their young 
ones, shee casteth her young ones before her into the water, and 
then takes them in her Armes and so plungeth up and downe 
with them, and when shee will revenge her-selfe upon the Boates, 
or make resistance against them, then shee casts her young ones 
from her againe, and with all her force goeth towards the Boate 

thinking to overthrow it They have two 

teeth sticking out of their mouthes, on each side one, each being 
about half an Ell long, and are esteemed to bee good as any 
Ivory or Elephants teeth, especially in Muscouvia, Tartar ia, 
and thereabouts where they are knowne, for they are as white, 
hard, and even as Ivorie." 

SEXUAL DIFFERENCES. The subject of sexual differences in 
the Walruses has received very little attention at the hands of 

* Novus Orbis seu Descriptio India} Occidentalis, pp. 38, 39, 1633. 
tills Pilgrinics, vol. iii, p. 476. 



SEXUAL DIFFERENCES. 39 

systematic writers, who have, indeed, no positive information to 
offer, and very little can be gleaned from other sources. All that 
I have met with, after pretty extensive research, has already been 
incidentally given in the foregoing account of the external char- 
acters. All that can be gathered is that in the female the tusks 
are smaller and thinner, and the general size of the animal may 
be inferred to be somewhat smaller than in the male. In fact, 
the external characters in the adult animal of the species under 
consideration have never as yet been given with much detail, 
the few naturalists who have met with it in life seeming to take 
it for granted that an animal so long known, and so familiar to 
them, must be well known, thereby rendering a careful and de- 
tailed description unnecessary. The very good description given 
by Dr. Grilpin (see anteh, pp. 31, 32, 33) of an adult is about all 
that I have met with in the way of detailed descriptions of the 
adults of either sex. 

The figures and descriptions given of the young, especially 
those recently published by Dr. J. Murie,* leave little to be desired 
as regards the external characters in early life. The absence of 
references to any strongly marked sexual differences in the 
adult might perhaps be taken as negative evidence that none 
exist ; but on the basis of analogy with the other Pinnipeds, 
especially with the Otariidce, we should hardly expect their 
absence. Even in the case of the skulls, few sexed specimens 
appear to have come under the observation of specialists. We 
here and there, however, meet with references to supposed sex- 
ual differences in the size and character of the tusks, and also 
in respect to the size of the skull and the density and weight of 
the bones in those of supposed females as compared with those 
of supposed males. Thus, Wiegmann, in 1832, in referring to 
the species described by Fremery, in 1831, says, in remarking 
upon Fremery's " Triclieclms Cookii^ that he remembers having 
heard from a Greenland traveller that the female Walrus has 
longer and slenderer tusks than the male, and states, on the au- 
thority of Fremery, that a young specimen in the Eoyal Museum 
of Holland, having long, slender tusks, was regarded by Tem- 
rninck as a female. He also considers, on the ground of analogy, 
that the greater or less development of the occipital and other 
crests of the skull, as well as the relative weight of the bones, 

* " Researches upon the Anatomy of the Pinnipedia. Part I. On the Wal- 
rus (Triclieclms rosmarus, Linn.)." Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud., vol. vii, 1872, pp. 
411-464, with woodcuts, and plates li-lv. 



40 ODOBJENUS ROSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

to be only differences of a sexual character.* Stanuius,t ten 
years later, cited the views of Teniniinck and Wiegmann (as 
above given) respecting sexual differences in Walruses, but adds 
nothing new to the subject. Lainont (see antea, p. 35) states 
that the " tusks vary very much in size and shape according to 
the age and sex of the animal." "Cows' tusks," he says, "will 
average fully as long as bulls', from being less liable to be broken, 
but they are seldom more than twenty inches long and three 
pounds each in weight. They are generally set much closer 
together than the bull's tusks, sometime overlapping at the 
points, as in the case with the stuffed specimen- at the British 
Museum." He gives the length of tusks in the male as 24 inches, 
and the weight as 4 pounds each. 

A skeleton, marked as that of a female, in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, collected in the Greenland seas by Dr. 
Kane, has the bones very light, soft, and porous, as compared 
with those of male specimens. The skull (see figg. 1-3) is much 
smaller, with the crests and ridges very slightly developed, and 
the tusks long and slender, and overlapping at the points. This 
skull, though of a rather aged individual, is 2 to 2^ inches 
shorter than male skulls of corresponding age, and about 2 
inches narrower; but these figures scarcely express the real 
difference between them, owing to the very much weaker devel- 
opment and slighter structure of all parts of the skull, which 
certainly has not one-half the weight of average adult male 
skulls. The weaker structure is especially marked in the lower 
jaw. The tusks, on the other hand, are several inches longer 
than in any male skulls of the Atlantic species I have yet exam- 
ined, but they are so much weaker and slenderer that their 
weight is more than one-half less. The same difference of light- 
ness and smaller size extends throughout all the bones of the 
skeleton, indicating that the size of the animal in life was far 
less than that of ordinary males. The very great length of the 

* Says Wiegmaiin : "Hr. Fremery fiilirt aii, dass Hr. Temniiiick einen (nach 
Deutliclikeit tier Nahte) uoch. jmigen Scliiidel des Reiclisinusemns iiiit aus- 
gezeiciinet laugeii diirmen Stosszalmen fur deu oines Wei.bch.eiis gelialteu 
liabe. Ich erinnere niich aucli vou Gronlandsfahreii geliort zu liaben, dass sicli 
das Weibcken dtirch langere, diinnere, das Mannchcn durcli kiirzere, aber viel 
dickere Stossziilme auszeiclme. Die geriiigere Entwicklung der Hinter- 
liauptleiste, die geringere Scliwere der Knochen, selbst das Zuriickbleiben des 
hintersten Backenzaknes iin Oberkiefer komite, wenn es wirklich. uur sexu- 
elle Verschiedenlieit sein sollte, mit Aiialogieu belegt werden." Arch, fur 
Naturgcsch., 1832, pp. 128, 129. 

t Mailer's Arch. fiir. Anat., 1844, p. 392. 



SEXUAL DIFFERENCES. 41 

tasks (see fig. 1) is doubtless abnormal, and is doubtless owing 
to their unsymmetrical development and overlapping at the 
points, which must have interfered to some extent with their 
use, and hence have preserved them from wearing. 




FIG. 1. Odobanus rosmarm, $ . 

In the National Museum at Washington are also four skulls, 
which, though unmarked as to sex, are unquestionably those of 



42 



ODOB^ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 



females.* They agree with the one already described as to 
small size, the absence of well-developed crests and ridges for 
muscular attachment, small, slender tusks, and general weak- 
ness of structure, as compared with male skulls of correspond- 
ing age.t The closed sutures show that they belonged to aged 
individuals, but in other respects might be presumed to be skulls 
of young animals, for which such skulls are doubtless usually 
mistaken. 




FlG. 2. Odobcenus rosmarus, $ . 

From these data it seems fair to conclude that there are well- 
marked sexual differences among Walruses, manifested espe- 
cially in the inferiority of size of the female, in the comparatively 
weak development of the bones of the skull, the smaller size of 
the bones of the general skeleton, and in the size and form of 
the tusks. These differences are, in short, just such as, from 
analogy, one would naturally expect to exist, and confirm the 

* This I inferred from their small size and light structure, aud was pleased 
to have my determination confirmed by so competent an authority as Dr. 
Emil Bessels, who pronounced them to be unquestionably those of females. 
Dr. Bessels's judgment, it is perhaps needless to say, is based on personal 
experience while on the Polaris Expedition, during whi>'h he secured and 
prepared numerous specimens of both sexes, which were lost with the ill-- 
fated vessel. 

tin the National Museum there is also a female skull of the Pacific "Walrus 
that presents corresponding differences as compared with male skulls of the 
same species. 



VAEIATIONS DEPENDENT UPON AGE, ETC. 43 

conjectures of Wieginann and Tenrminck. What other differ- 
ences obtain, especially in external characters, can as yet be 
only conjectured. It is to be hoped, however, that we shall 
not have long to wait for detailed accounts of the external 
characters of the adults of both sexes. 




FIG. 3. Odobcemis rosmarus, 9- 

INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS, AND VARIATIONS DEPENDENT 
UPON AGE. That a wide range of individual variation obtains 
in this species is sufficiently evident from an examination of 
even a limited series of skulls. These differences have been 
noted in considerable detail by Frernery, Wiegmann, Stannius, 
and Jaeger, as will be presently noticed more in detail in pre- 
senting the general history of the species. Still greater differ- 
ences, of course, result from differences of age. These collect- 
ively, as will be noted later, have formed the basis of several 
nominal species. All the Pinnipeds appear to be subject to a 
wide range of variations of this character, and none more so than 
the Walruses. These affect to a considerable extent the general 
proportions of the skull, and especially the form and relative 
development of different bones. These latter differences are 
best seen in comparatively young skulls, since most of the 
sutures close at a rather early age. Among these variations 
are especially noteworthy those of the nasal bones, the inter- 
maxillaries, and the frontals, and to a less degree those of the 
base of the skull. The crests and ridges for muscular attach- 



44 ODOB^NUS KOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

ineut of course greatly increase with age, and vary considerably 
in respect to direction, position, and relative development in 
different individuals. The bony crests at the junction of the 
intermaxillaries below the anterior nasal opening are especially 
variable with age, becoming gradually obliterated in adult life 
by the general thickening of the bones of the skull. They are 
certainly less prominent in old age than in youth, and the same 
is true of the incisive border of the interinaxillaries. The in- 
termaxillaries, as a rule, only meet the nasals in their upward 
extension, but in occasional specimens there is a narrow exten- 
sion of them posteriorly between the nasals and maxillaries, 
reaching for one-half to two-thirds the length of the nasals. 
This variation is seen in the skulls figured by Goethe* and by 
Blainville,t and has been noted in two skulls by Stannius.l In 
other cases the intermaxillary rises to the surface between the 
nasals and maxillaries only in the form of narrow isolated areas, 
as is seen in a skull figured by Goethe, and in two skulls I have 
myself examined. Hence Blainville, when he says, " . . . . et 
le pr6niaxillaire, epais, renionte jusque entre le nasal et le 
inaxillaire, de maniere a circonscrire avec le premier 1'orifice 
nasal . . . . ,"|| describes the exceptional instead of the normal 
condition. 

The nasals vary greatly in breadth and in length in different 
specimens, and even in the same specimen one is sometimes 
much wider than the other. The concavity and width of the 
bony palate is also subject to much variation, in this respect 
hardly two specimens being found to agree. In some, the con- 
cavity is nearly one-fourth greater than in others. 

*Act. Acad. Cses. Leop. Carol., xi, pt. i, pi. iv, fig. 2. 

t Ost6ograpliie, Des Phoques, pi. i. 

J Says Stannius : "Bisweilen aber, wie bei den Kieler Schadeln a und c, 
tritt noch eine diinne Leiste dieses Fortsatzes zwischen die das Oberkiefer- 
bein und das Nasenbein verbindende Liingsnalit und trennt eine Strecke weit 
diese Knochen. So sieht man es auch auf der in dem Blainville'schen Werke 
befindlichen Abbildung. Indem diese Leiste an einigen Stellen stiirker, an 
andern Stellen weniger stark oder gar nicM nach aussen liervortritt und zu 
Tage kommt, hat es bisweilen den An schein, als fiinden sich isolirte Knochen- 
stiickchen in der eben genaunten Nalit. "Wirklicli erwiihnt de Fremery eines 
zAvischen Nasenbein uud Oberkieferbein vorkommenden Ossiculum Wormi- 
anuin bei seinem aus Labrador stammenden Walross-Schadel." Mullen's 
Arcliiv fur Anat., 1842, p. 401. 

Act. Acad. Cses. Leop. Carol., Bd. xv, pt. i, 1831, pi. iv, fig. 1. 

II OstdograpMe, Des Phoques, p. 20. 



VARIATIONS DEPENDENT UPON AGE, ETC. 45 

The froiitals vary greatly in form, at their posterior border, 
especially in respect to their interparietal extension. This por- 
tion has sometimes a breadth equal to that of the nasal bones, 
and terminates quite squarely ; at other times, it has less than 
half this breadth, and is rapidly narrowed posteriorly. 

The tusks vary considerably in length, size, and form, and 
more especially in direction, in specimens of the same age and 
sex. They become much larger in old age than in middle life, 
but are then more or less abraded and broken at the points. 
The grooving on the sides varies more or less with each indi- 
vidual, and even in the two tusks of the same animal. The 
tusks generally widely diverge, but are sometimes nearly par- 
allel, but appear to be very rarely convergent, while in the 
female they are frequently more or less convergent, and some- 
times touch at the points, or even overlap. 

In regard to external characters, considerable changes result 
from age, especially in respect to the size and amount of abra- 
sion of the tusks, and through the loss of the hair incident to 
old age, and the shortening of the mystacial bristles. 

The following table of measurements (given in millimeters) 
shows to some extent the variations that occur in the general 
size and form of the skull. 



46 



ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 



& 


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DENTITION. 47 

DENTITION. The dentition of Walruses, for various reasons, 
lias been a perplexing subject, and lias engaged the attention 
of many eminent writers. In the adult stage it presents many 
abnormalities, and, besides, is subject to much individual varia- 
tion, both in the temporary and adult series. For a long time 
its deviations from the normal type were not well understood, 
and even now leading authorities do not appear to be quite in 
harmony in respect to the proper notation. As previously 
stated, the incisors of both jaws, except the outer pair in the 
upper, disappear soon after birth, and before middle life is 
reached the last tooth of the molar series on each side in both 
jaws also usually disappears. A brief history of the principal 
investigations, and opinions held at different times respecting 
the dentition of the Atlantic Walrus (for the investigations 
respecting the dentition of this group appear to have been based 
almost wholly upon this species), is herewith appended as forrn- 
ing a highly interesting chapter in the technical history of the 
species. In this historical sketch will be found noted many 
facts relating to the general subject, given by the authors whose 
papers are here briefly summarized. 

The dentition of the Atlantic Walrus has been discussed in 
greater or less detail by Eapp, von Baer, Wiegmann, Fremery, 
Stannius, Jaeger, Owen, Mahngren, Peters, and various other 
writers. Wiegmann, in 1838, pretty fully presented the early 
history of the subject, noting the almost total lack of informa- 
tion respecting the matter shown by Linne, who evidently paid 
little attention to the references to the subject made by previ- 
ous writers. The credit of first giving any definite statement 
respecting the number of the teeth and their character is due 
to Anderson, who, in 1734, gave the number of molars as four 
above and three below. Brisson, in 1756, gave the number as 
four both above and below ; while Crantz, in 17G5, again gives 
four above and three below, and quite fairly describes the nor- 
mal dentition of the adult.* In the same year, Daubenton gave 
also again four below on each side as well as four above. 

* I append hi full Crautz's description : 

"It had no sharp ineisores in its mouth, and none at all before, but only 
four teeth on each side ; on the right side of the uuder-jaAv three pretty broad 

concave grinders The two long tusks or horns growing out of 

its face above the nose, and bending down over its month, so as almost to 

barricade it np, seem to be more an impediment than a help to it 

The right tusk is about an inch longer than the left, and its whole length 



48 ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

No author prior to Schreber (1775) appears to have met with 
deciduous incisors, who found two such upper incisors on each 
side in a young- skull in the Museum of Erlaugen. These he 
correctly conjectured Avere temporary, disappearing' at a later 
stage of life.* 

To Goethe, however, is given the credit of recognizing the 
true character of the first tooth of the upper molariform 
series. Says Camper (as quoted by Wieginanu) : "Es 1st der 
Hr. Gothe, sachsenweimarscher Gekeimer Bath, der mir zuerst 
die ossa mtermaxillana des Wallrosses und der Schneideziihne 
desselben hat kennen lerneu, indent er mir eine vortreffliche 
Abhandlung mit schonen Zeichnungen dieser Knocheii ver- 
schiedener Thiere zugeschickt hatte." Camper, in criticising 
Linne's errors regarding the Walrus,! gives four incisors ( 2 ~\^ 
and four molars above and five below (=|) (or sometimes ouly 
four below). The observations of Schreber, Goethe, and Cam- 
per appear to have been generally overlooked by subsequent 
writers, so that it was left for G. Cuvier to discover anew the 
presence of deciduous incisors in the young Walrus. Between 
the canines he recognized two incisors similar to the molars, 
which he says the majority of observers had overlooked, because 
they are not fixed in the intermaxillary, and between these 
again two pointed small ones in young individuals. He gave 
the number of molars as four on each side, above and below, 
and stated that there are neither incisors nor canines in the 



is 27 inches, 7 of which are grafted into the scull ; its circumference is 8 
inches. They stand about three inches asunder in the head, and at their 
extremities 9 inches apart, bent a little downwards." H iuiory of Greenland, 
etc., English translation, London, 1767, p. 126. 

* Schreber's account is as follows: " . . . . Die ERSTE Gattung, das iii- 
sonderheit sogennante WALLKOSS, hat zwar, ob gleich kem Schrifsteller 
etwas davon sagt, zween Vorderziihne in der olern Rinrilade; sie sind aber sehr 
klein, ragen wenig aus ihren Holen hervor, und werden allem Ansehen 
uach auserhalb dem Zahnfieische nicht zn bemerken seyn, zuinal da sie nicht 
am Eande der obern Kinnlade, sondern mehr hineinwiiits stehen. Ich finde 
sie an einem zur Naturaliensauinilung hiesiger Uuiversitiit gehorigen Wall- 
rossschiidel; und da derselbe, besage seiner Grosse, von einem juugen 
Thiere ist ; so glaube ich beynahe gar, dass sie bey zuuelmiendem Alter des 
Thieres ausfallen und nicht wieder wachsen. Sio kouinien also hier in keine 
weitere Betrachtung, als dass sie dem Systematiker eiueu Wink geben, dis 
Thier nicht zu weit von dem Robbeugeschlechte zu entfernen." SauqetMere 
Th. ii, p. 260. 

1 1 quote the French edition of Camper's Avorks (CEuvres, torn, ii, p. 480, 
Paris, 1803), tho only one accessible to me. 



DENTITION. 49 

lower jaw.* F. Cuvier gave later also the same dental formula. 
He deemed tliat the peculiar or anomalous dentition of the Wal- 
ruses indicated that they were an isolated group, having affini- 
ties, on the one hand, with the Carnivora, and, on the other, 
with the Ruminants ! t 

According to Wiegmann, Budolpliif (in 1802) recognized 
the 1 first of the series of lower grinding teeth as a canine. 

Thus, as Wiegmann long since observed, the subject remained 
till Eapp was so fortunate, in 1828, as to have opportunity to 
examine a foetal specimen. In this example, he found six inci- 
sors in the upper jaw and five in the lower (f^). He also 
expressed it as his belief that the first lower molar should be 
regarded as a canine, because (1) it was somewhat further 
removed from the rest than the others were from each other; 
because (2) of its greater length and thickness in the adult aur- 
mal ; because (3) it stands close to the temporary or milk inci- 
sors, and shuts against the outermost of the upper incisors ; 
and because (4) it lacks the transverse depression seen on the 
inner side of the crown of the back-teeth. The dental formula 
recognized by him for the Walrus may be considered as 

T 3 3. n ! !. M 4 ~ 4 
A - 3lT3> ' r=Tl? ' -' 3 3' 

Freinery, in 1831, also made reference to the dentition of the 
Walruses ; but his paper bears mainly upon the question of 
whether there are one or more species of these animals, and 
will be further noticed in another connection. He notes partic- 
ularly the presence, in some of his skulls, of two small molars 
above, behind the large ones. 

Wiegmann, 1 1 in 1838, contributed facts additional to those 
already recorded, but his memoir is largely devoted to a discus- 
sion of the observations of preceding writers. He assents to 
Eudolphi's and Eapp's interpretation of the homological rela- 
tion of the first large tooth of the lower jaw; refers to finding 

* Begne Animal, torn, i, 1817, p. 168. 

t Dents des Main., p. 234. 

t Anatomisch-pliysiologiscne Abhandlungen, p. 145. 

Wiegmann says : "... . Ueberdies 1st Rudolph! der erste, der die uuteren 
Eckziibne erkennt. Er bemerkt niimlich, dass der erste Backenzalin des 
Unterkiefers sich von den iibrigen durch seine Grosse auszeichne, und wenn 
auch der Form nach eiuem Backenzaline ahnlicli, doch seiner Grosse nach 
beinahe fur einen Eckzahn zu halten ware, was spiiter durch Kapp, dem 
indessen diese Notiz nnbekannt blieb, ausser Zweifel gesetzt 1st." Arch, fiir 
Naturg., 1838, pp. 119, 120. 

|| Archiv fiir Naturgesch., 1838, pp. 113-130. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 4 



50 ODOB^ENUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

traces of alveoli of six incisors both above and below, and to 
the early deciduous character of the last (fifth) upper molar, 
and the frequent disappearance of the fourth. He concludes 
that the normal number of the back-teeth is f^|, and that in 
early life the dentition of the Walrus is not widely different from 
that of other Pinnipeds. 
The same year (1838), Macgillivray* considered the normal 

dentition of the Walrus to be I. 5|j C. ^ ; Pm. + M. ^| 
= = 32. His conclusion was based on the examination of a 
quite young specimen, of which he speaks as follows: "The 
normal dentition of the Walrus is shown by the skull of a young 
individual in the Museum of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons. 
In the upper jaw there are on each side three incisors, the first 
or inner extremely small, the second a little larger, the third or 
outer disproportionately large, being equal to the larger grind- 
ers. The socket of this tooth is placed in the intermaxillary 
bone, but towards its mouth it is partly formed by the maxillary. 
The small incisors have deep conical sockets. The canine 
tooth is displaced, being thrust outwards beyond the line of the 
other teeth, and causing the peculiar bulging of the head. The 
lateral incisor is on the level of its anterior margin, and the 
first grinder is opposite to its middle. There are five grinders, 
having conical obtuse sockets, and consequently single roots ; 
the first smaller than the last incisor, the second and third 
largest, the fourth much smaller, the fifth very small, all 
shortly conical, and blunt, with enamel on the tip only. The 
canine tooth is also at first enamelled at its extremity. In the 
lower jaw there are two very small conical incisors on each 
side; the canine tooth is wanting; five grinders, with single con- 
ical compressed roots, and short compressed conical crowns, 
enamelled at the point ; the first, second, and third nearly equal, 
the latter being a little larger, the foiirth much smaller, and 
the fifth very small. The tusks, or enormously developed 
canine teeth of the upper jaw, are compressed, conical, a little 
curved backward, directed downwards and a little forwards, and 
somewhat diverging, but in some individuals, when very long, 
they again converge towards the points. In adults, the incisors 
are obliterated, excepting the lateral pair of the upper jaw;, the 
fifth grinder in both jaws has also disappeared, and sometimes 
the fourth in one or both jaws." 

* British Quadrupeds, 1838, pp. 220, 221. 



DENTITION. 51 

Stamiius. in 1842, further contributed to the subject by 
adding observations respecting variation in the number of 
the teeth resulting from age, describing in detail the incisive 
dentition of a series of four skulls of different ages. In two 
young skulls, the outer temporary incisor of the upper jaw on 
either side remained; the alveoli of the second pair were still 
distinct, while the alveoli of the middle pair were nearly oblit- 
erated. In another, the alveoli of the inner pair of incisors were 
wholly obliterated ; those of the second pair were barely recog- 
nizable, while those of the outer pair were distinct, the teeth 
having fallen later. He was also able to recognize- the alveoli 
of six incisors in the lower jaws of the skulls just mentioned, 
and states that he thought Eapp's view of the homology of the 
first lower back-tooth (considered as a canine) was probably 
correct. He further takes exceptions to the value of the char- 
acters assumed by Fremery as the basis of several species of 
Walruses.* He adds, in respect to the tusks, that in old 
age they become wholly solid to the base. In regard to the 
upper molars, he notes the presence of five in several instances, 
and finds that, as a rule, the fourth disappears before the fifth, 
or, at least, that its alveolus becomes sooner obliterated. He 
also confirms the statement previously made by Wiegmann, 
that the alveoli become filled by depositions of bony matter in 
concentric layers at the bottom and on the sides. 

"These alleged specific characters he notices in detail, and considers them, 
as dependent upon age. He says: "Das Missliche dieser Charaktere erhellt 
schou aus deui Umstande, dass dieselben nur fur vollig ausgewachsene Thiere, 
nicht aber fiir junge anwendbar sind, denn das starkste "Wachsthuru der 
Eckzahne fallt erst offenbar in eine spatere Lebensperiode in welcher 
nainentlich die beiden innersten Schneidezahne und die beiden letzten Back- 
zahue jeder Seite der oberen Kinnlade schon geschwunden sind. Hierzu 
kommt noch der Umstand, dass auch die Eckzahne bei sehr alten Thieren 
an der Spitze bedeutend abgenutzt sind, demnach in spiiteren Lebeussta- 
dien an Lange wahrscheinlich wieder abnehmen. Endlich scheint es ja 
selbst, als ob die Lange dieser Ziihne je nach den Geschlechteru verschieden 
ware. 

" Eben so wenig Gewicht niochte ich auf die Fnrchungen dieser Ziihne 
legeu. Ihrer Zahl, wie ihrer Starke nach sind sie bei verschiedeuen iibri- 
gens nicht von eiuander abvreichendeu Individuen verschieden, wie ich 
mich dnrch Yergleichung einer grossen Anzahl von Walrosszahnen iiber- 
zeugt habe ; ja diese Furchen sind bisweilen an beiden, bisweilen nur an 
Einein dieser Z aline spurlos versclrwrinden." 

Respecting Triclieekus cooki, he adds: " Auch an einem Schadelfragmente 
des Kieler Museums finde ich etwas convergirende Eckzahne, mochte aber 
zweifelu, ob dieser Umstaud eine Artunterscheidung rechtfertigt." Mailer's 
Archiv far Anaiomie, etc., 1842, pp. 398, 399. 



52 ODOBJEXUS ROSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

Jaeger,* in 1844, described the dentition of three rather young- 
Walrus skulls from Labrador. In the youngest skull (8 inches 
long, G inches broad, Paris measure), which had the canines 
about two inches long, he notes that the last upper molar had 
already fallen from the right side, but still remained 011 the 
left, behind which, as well as behind the alveolus of the fourth 
molar on the right side, was a little shallow pit, in which, dur- 
ing foetal life, a tooth had perhaps stood. In front of these 
beforementioned teeth were three molars on each side, and in 
front of these a conical incisor, and the alveoli of the others 
were traceable, although already filled with a spongy substance. 
In the lower jaw, there were five teeth on each side, with traces 
of three already fallen foetal incisors on one side and of two on 
the other. The second skull (9f inches by 7|) was somewhat 
older, the canines being about five inches long. There were 
present in this skull three upper molars on each side, and a 
filled-up alveolus behind them. Of these teeth (as also in the 
other skull), the middle one was the largest and most worn.t 
In front of these, and somewhat distant from them (5"'), was an 
incisor on each side, and in addition to these another pair of small 
conical incisors. In the lower jaw of this skull were, on each 
side, four 'teeth homologized as C. 1 1, M. 3 3; Jaeger thus 
recognizing, as had Eudolphi, Kapp, Wieginann, Freniery, and 
Stannius, the first of the lower-jaw series as a canine. Behind 
these were traces of the alveoli of the fourth pair of molars. In 
the third skull (length 12i inches, breadth 10), still older, with 
tusks a foot long, were three upper " back-teeth" on each side, 
close together, the middle one being the largest, and in front of 
these a cutting-tooth. The lower jaw had also four teeth on 
each side, homologized as before. In this skull, there remained 
no trace of the middle incisors. Another still older skull had 
the same dental formula as the last. 

Owen,| in 1853, gave the following formula for the deciduous 
dentition of the Walrus: 1. 1=| ; C. i^J; M. |^-o=18. This was 
based on the examination of a young animal, which had 
died in the Zoological Gardens of London. He, at the same 
time, proposed the following as the formula of the normal or func- 
tional dentition of the Walrus: I. l^-J; O.J=-Jj Pin. |^|=18. 

"* Mailer's Arch., 1844, pp. 70-75. 

t In the young skulls described by Stannius, the middle molar is mentioned 
as being uniformly the largest and most worn. 
t Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, pp. 105, 106. 



DENTITION. 53 

Professor Owen, in referring to instances of deviation from this 
formula, dependent on differences of age and sex, stated "that 
occasionally a small tooth was found anterior to the normal series 
of four, and more commonly in the upper than the lower jaw ; and 
that, more rarely, a small tooth was superadded behind the nor- 
mal four, in the upper jaw, and still more rarely in the lower 
jaw; the formula of the dentition of such varieties, in excess, 
being, 1. 1=|, C.J=-J, Pm.|=f, M. ^=26." Owen here makes 
no reference to the literature of the subject, and evidently gave 
a very erroneous interpretation of the dental formula. In his 
later references to the subject he gives an entirely different in- 
terpretation, and one more nearly agreeing with that now com- 
monly accepted. In his latest reference to the subject,* he 
writes : " In the Walrus (Triclieclius rosmarus) the normal incisive 
formula is transitorily represented in the very young animal, 
which has three teeth in each preniaxillary and two on each 
side of the fore part of the lower jaw; they soon disappear 
except the outer pair above, which remain close to the maxil- 
lary suture, on the inner side of the sockets of the enormous 
canines, and commence the series of small and simple molars 
which they resemble in size and form. In the adult there are 
usually three such molars on each side, behind the permanent 
incisor, and four similar teeth on each side of the lower jaw ; 
the anterior one passing into the interspace between the upper 

incisor and the first molar The canines are of enormous 

size Their homotype below retains the size and shape of 

the succeeding molars." The formula of the normal dentition 
apparently here recognized is : I. |=|; C. j=^ j M. |=|=^=26. 

Giebel,t in 1855, gave six incisors both above and below as the 
number existing in the young before and for a short tune after 
birth. Of these, the lower are said to soon fall out, their alveoli 
then becoming filled with a bony .deposit. Of the upper inci- 
sors, the inner pair first disappear, and soon after them also the 
middle pair, leaving only the outer pair, which begin the rnola- 
riform series, and to which they are often referred, this outer 
pair persisting till late in life. The upper canines, he says, are 
never cast. \ In the lower jaw, the first permanent tooth is 
regarded as a canine, because it is thicker and rounder than the 
posterior teeth, and lacks the cross-furrow that marks the oth- 

* Anatomy of Vertebrates, vol. iii, p. 338. 
tOdontog., p. 82, pi. 36, fig. 7; Sangeth., p. 1'29. 

t They are, however, as shown by Malrngren (see beyond), preceded in the 
embryo by temporary teeth. 



54 ODOB^ENUS EOSMARUS - ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

ers. The young animal lias five upper molariform teeth (" Back- 
zahne"), the last two of which. are smallest and early disappear, 
and also later the third, leaving only two behind the canine, 
and an anterior molariform. incisor. In the lower jaw there are 
only four "Backzahne" on each side, of which the last and 
smallest very soon falls away. The dental formula given is as 

follows: "(5^) + i + (Hi)" = temporary dentition: 1. 1=|, C. 
fEij M - iEi> adult dentition: I. =-J, C. i=-J, M. =-=. While 
Giebel accepts the first permanent tooth of the molariform series 
of the upper jaw as an incisor, and the first in the lower jaw as 
a canine, he recognizes only two persistent molars on each side, 
above and below. 

Malmgreu,* in 1864, figured tile dentition from a foetal speci- 
men, and published an elaborate paper on the dentition of the 
Walrus, in which he reviewed at some length the history of the 
subject, noticing quite fully the writings of the early authors, 
from Crantz to the Cuviers, and the papers of Eapp, Owen, 
Wieginann, Mlsson, and other later writers. The formula he 

presents as that of the permanent dentition is : I. ^~, C. ~^, 
M - s5|=f = 18 5 and for the deciduous dentition: I. |=|, C. }-=, 



The specimen figured shows both the permanent and decidu- 
ous dentition. The deciduous teeth are most of them separately 
figured, of natural size, as minute, slender, spindle-rooted teeth, 
with short, thickened crowns. The permanent teeth are already 
in place, although even the upper canines had probably not 
pierced the gum. The middle pair of incisors of both jaws had 
already disappeared, leaving only their distinctly recognizable 
alveoli. His specimen appears to have had but a single cadu- 
cous molar behind the permanent series, from which he assumes 
the number of upper molars to be 4 4 instead of 5 5. 

The following year, Peters $ referred to Malmgren's paper, 
publishing a plate illustrating the dentition as existing in a some- 
what older skull (received from Labrador) than that figured by 
Malmgren. Peters here takes exception to Malmgren's assumed 
number of back-teeth, which, in accordance with the views of Eapp 

and Wieginann, Peters behoved should be |^|, instead of | ~. 

* Ofversigt af Konyl. Vet.-Akad. Forhaudl., 1863, pp. 505-522, pi. vii. 
t The paper bein.u; published in Swedish, I am iiuable to follow him ill his* 
discussion of the subject. 
t Moiiut.sb. K. P. Akad., 1865, pp. 685-687, pi. facing p. 685. 



DENTITION. 55 

According to Peters, Malmgren, from not finding more than 
four upper back-teeth in any of the many skulls of various ages 
he had examined, concluded that when a fifth is present it is 
abnormal. The young skull figured and described by Peters, 
however, has in the upper jaw the fourth and fifth back- teeth 
still in place on the right side, and the fourth on the left side, 
with an alveolus of a fifth. This Peters considered as affording 
new proof of the correctness of Wiegmann's formula. As 
already noticed, five molars have been recognised by Fremery, 
Eapp, Giebel, and Owen, and, though perhaps not always pres- 
ent, are frequently to be met with. 

The dental formula of the Walrus, as determined by Eapp 
and Wiegmanu, has been adopted by Van der Hoeven * and 
Blasius, t as well as by Peters, and essentially by Giebel. Gie- 
bel, however, gives only four deciduous lower incisors, instead 
of six. Owen, in his later works, agrees in this point with Gie- 
bel, but takes apparently no cognizance of the deciduous fourth 
and fifth molars, to which he refers, however, in his earlier 
papers. 

Gray, f in 1866, although quoting the formula given by 
Eapp, adopts the following : " Cutting teeth -| in young, in 
adult 5 grinders ~^ in adult, truncated, all single-rooted ; ca- 
nines, upper very large, exserted." He, however, quotes Eapp's 
formula, and also that given by Owen in his " Catalogue of the 
Osteological Series of the Museum of the Eoyal College of Sur- 
geons" (1853, p. 630). 

Professor Flower, in 1869, gave a diagram of the dentition of 
the Walrus based on many observations made by himself and 
on " those of others, especially Professor Malmgren," in which 
both the temporary and permanent dentition is indicated as fol- 
lows : Milk dentition : I. |=|, C. i=J, M. J^ j permanent denti- 
tion: I. =. C. i=^, M. |=|. He adds that it is probable that 

0' 1 X' o <> 

an anterior rudimentary incisor is developed in the upper if not 
in the lower jaw," making the temporary incisors hypotheticaUy 
f^f . " I believe," he says, " that the rudimentary milk teeth 
never cut the gum, and are absorbed rather than shed. This 

process commences before birth, The rudimentary teeth, 

however, in front of and behind the large teeth are not 

* Lehrbuch der Zoologie, 1856, p. 733, English ed. 
t Sikigcthiere Deutschlands, 1857, pp. 261, 262. 
t Cat. Seals aiid Whales, p. 35. 
$ Jouru. Auat. and Phys., iii, p. 272. 



56 ODOB^ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

unfrequently persistent to extreme old age, although commonly 
lost in macerated skulls. These rudimentary teeth are usually 
described as l milk-teeth '; even the posterior ones are some- 
times so called, but it appears to me an open question whether 
they do not rather represent permanent teeth in a rudimentary 
or aborted condition." 

Huxley, in his "Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals" (pp. 300, 
361), published in 1872, adopts the following as the dental for- 
mula of the Walruses : I. i=-J, C. =-J, p. m. m. |=| + ^J." He 

says : " The dentition of the Walrus is extremely peculiar. In 
the adult, there is one simple conical tooth in the outer part of 
the premaxilla, followed by a huge tusk -like canine, and three, 
short, simple-fanged teeth. Sometimes, two other teeth, which 
soon fall out, lie behind these, on each side of the upper jaw. In 
the mandible there are no incisors, but a single short canine is 
followed by three similar, simple teeth, and by one other, which 
is caducous." * Both here and in the formula no reference is 
made to the deciduous incisors, although the caducous molars 
are recognized. 

In the foregoing resume, we have seen how vague was the 
information bearing on this subject possessed by all writers 
prior to about the beginning of the present century ; IIOAV the 
earlier notices of the existence of incisors in the young were 
overlooked and rediscovered by later writers, as well as how 
slowly the first permanent tooth of the molariform series of the 
upper jaw came to be generally recognized as a true incisor and 
not a molar ; how, later, the number of incisors in the young was 
found to be six in the upper jaw and six in the lower jaw, with, 
as a rule, two small caducous molars on each side in the upper 
jaw, and one on each side in the lower behind the permanent 
grinding teeth; that the first permanent molariform tooth of 
the lower jaw was a canine and not a molar; and that by dif- 
ferent writers the number of incisors recognized in the lower 
jaw has been sometimes four and sometimes six, and the cadu- 
cous upper molars regarded sometimes as one and sometimes 
as two. Finally, that the true formula of the full dentition of 
the Walrus is I. |=|; C. =-\; Pm. M. f5|=g=34. It hence 
appears that the dentition of the Walruses is peculiar and some- 
what abnormal in four features, namely, (1) the early disap- 
pearance of all the incisors except the outer pair of the upper 

* Aiiat. Vertebr. Anim., pp. 3GO, 361. 



FOSSIL EEMAINS. 57 

jaw, (2) the enormous development of the upper canines, (3) the 
slight specialization of the lower canines, and (4) the caducous 
character of the two posterior pairs of molars of the upper jaw 
and the posterior pair in the lower jaw. The early dentition of 
the AValrus differs mainly from that of most other Pinnipeds in 
having six lower incisors instead of four, the incisive formula of 
other Pinnipeds, as generally recognized, being usually |^|, fre- 
quently f^J, and sometimes (as in MacrorMnus and Cystophora) 
|=| ? never, at least in the permanent dentition, |=|, but I am 
far from sure this number may not sometimes appear in the 
deciduous dentition. In the Sea Otter (Enliydris], there are 
said to be six lower incisors in the young, while only four are 
present in adult life. The middle pair of lower incisors so early 
disappear that even in very young specimens they are some- 
tunes wanting. Eapp found in a foetal specimen three on one 
side and only two on the other, and quite a number of promi- 
nent writers on the subject have recognized two pairs of lower 
incisors as the normal number. In many specimens, the alveoli 
of three pairs have been found, and, in addition to the instances 
already given, I may add that there is a young skull in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology that shows decided traces of 
three pairs, the outer incisor on one side being still in place. 

In view of all that is at present known respecting the sub- 
ject, I adopt the following formula} as being well-established, 
premising, however, that they are substantially in accord with 
the view of the case presented by Professor Flower in 1869 : 

Temporary dentition: I. |=|; C.^; M. ^ = g = 32. 

Permanent dentition : I. ^ ; 0. }={ j M. f^f = g = 26 ; the 
last two upper molars and the last lower one on each side 
being rudimentary and often absent. 

FOSSIL EEMAINS. Remains of the Atlantic Wajrus, in a fossil 
state, have been found at various points along the Atlantic 
coast from Maine to South Carolina, and in Europe as far south 
as England and France. The first noticed from American locali- 
ties was thus mentioned by Barton in 1805, but the locality 
is not given. He says: "The bones of one of these large 
animals have been found. These appear to have belonged to 
a species of trichechus; perhaps to the triclicclms rosmariis or 
morse."* Messrs. Mitchill, Smith, and Cooper described, in 

* London Phil. Mag., vol. xxxii, 1805, p. 98. 



58 ODOB^NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

1828,* a specimen consisting of the anterior portion of a skull, 
found on the sea-beach in Accomac County, Virginia. The same 
specimen was also described later by Harlan.t These writers 
all considered it as bearing the closest resemblance to the corre- 
sponding portion of the skull of the existing Walrus, to which 
they doubtfully referred it ; but later it was regarded by DeKay 
as representing a distinct species, to which he gave the name 
Triclieclius mrginianus.\ In 1844, Lyell described a tusk ob- 
tained from the Tertiary Clays of Gardiner, Maine, which 
Owen regarded as probably belonging to an extinct species. 
Lyell 1 1 also refers to a skull he obtained at Martha's Vineyard, 
Massachusetts. He describes this skull as "differing from skulls 
of the existing species (TricJiechus rotund run, Linn.), with which 
it was compared by Professor Owen, in having only six molars 
and two tusks, whereas those of the recent have four molars on 
each side, besides occasionally a rudimentary one. The front 
tusk is rounder than that of the recent walrus." fl 

In 1857, Dr. Leidy** described and figured a skull found on 
the sea-beach at Long Branch, Monmouth County, New Jersey, 
where it was obtained by Prof. J. F. Frazer in 1853, and refers 
to another specimen (consisting of the facial portion of a skull) 
discovered at the same locality by Prof. Geo. H. Cook. The 
first-named specimen, says Dr. Leidy, " has lost a portion of the 
cranium proper, and the exserted portion of one tusk, but other- 
wise, except being a little water-worn, is in a good state of 
preservation. It is unchanged in texture, and nearly so in 
colour; and it belonged to an old individual, as all the sutures 
are completely obliterated. The form of the facial portion of 
this specimen corresponds with that of the specimen from Vir- 
ginia, [described by DeKay and preceding writers,] above men- 
tioned ; and the entire skull closely resembles that of the recent 
Walrus, Trichechus rosmarus, as represented in the figures of 
Daubenton, Cuvier, and De Blainville ; and its measurements 
are also sufficiently near those given by the first-named author 
to recognize it as the same species. 

* Ann. Lye. Nat, Hist. New York, vol. ii, 1828, p. '271. 
tEilinb. New Phil. Joimi., vol. xvii, 1834, p. 360. 
iNat. Hist. New York, Zoology, pt. i, 1842, p. 56, pi. xix, figs. 1, a, I. 
5 See Packard, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist,, vol. i, 18G7, p. '240. 
||Amer. Jouru. Sci. and Arts, vol. xlvi, 1844, p. 319. 

IT As is well known, the existing Walrus has occasionally only Ihe number 
of teeth found in the Martha's Vineyard specimen. 

** Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. xi, 1857, p. 83, pis. iv, v, tig. 1. 



FOSSIL KEMAINS. 59 

" The tusks in tlie fossil curved downwardly in a diverging 
manner, and were about four inches distant from each other at 
their emergence from the alveoli, and ten inches at their tips. 
The remaining tusk in the specimen is thirteen inches long 
from its alveolar border, and in this latter position it is three 
inches in diameter antero-posteriorly and one and three quar- 
ters inches transversely . . . ." The other specimen, from 
New Jersey, mentioned above, he says is also "unchanged from 
its original texture, but is brown from the infiltration of oxide 
of iron. It also belonged to an old individual, as all the 
sutures are obliterated, and the third molars together with the 
greater part of their alveoli are gone. In its anatomical de- 
tails the specimen agrees with the corresponding portion of 
Professor Frazer's specimen, except it is an inch and a half 
broader in the position of the canine alveoli, and the antero- 
posterior diameter of the tusk is rather less."* Of both these 
specimens, Dr. Leidy gives figures, and they agree entirely with 
corresponding parts of the existing North Atlantic species. 
Dr. Leidy, however, notes differences between these specimens 
and those of the Walrus of the North Pacific. 

Dr. Leidy adds : " An important question now arises in rela- 
tion to the age or geological period to which the three Walrus 
skulls, thus discovered oil the coast of New Jersey and Virginia, 
belong. As they appear to be of the same species as the recent 
Triclieclius ros-marus, which once lived in great numbers in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, they are most probably the remains of 
individuals that were once floated upon fields of ice southerly, 
and left on the present United States coast. Or, perhaps they 
may be the remains of the same species which probably during 
the glacial period extended its habitation very far south of the 
latitude in which it has been found in the historic period.' 1 ! In 
view of the now well-known former extension of the habitat of 
the Moose, Caribou, Eeindeer, Musk Ox, and other northern 
mammals, southward to Kentucky, the latter hypothesis seems 
the more probable one, and that the species in glacial times 
inhabited the eastern coast of the United States southward to 
Virginia, if not even beyond this point. 

More recently, Dr. Leidy has announced the occurrence of 
Walrus remains in the phosphate beds of Ashley Eiver, South 
Carolina, and has described and figured a tusk from that locality. 

* Trans Anier. Phil. Soc., vol. xi, pp. 83, 84. 
tlbid., p. 84. 



60 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

"This specimen," lie says, "is as black as ebony, dense, heavy, 
and brittle, and is nearly complete, except at the thin border of 
the pulp cavity. The curvature is slight, and it indicates the 
tooth to be of the left side." He gives its dimensions or length 
externally, following the curvature, thirteen inches; near the 
root it has an antero-posterior diameter of three and five-eighths 
inches, and a transverse diameter of one and three-fourths inches, 
and at the middle the transverse diameter is two and one-eighth 
inches, while the antero-posterior diameter is about the same as 
at the base. "In robust character," he adds, "the tusk quite 
equals those of the largest mature recent skulls which have 
come under my observation, but is much shorter and more ab- 
ruptly tapering. The specimen looks like what we might sup- 
pose the tusks of the living animal would be were they broken 
off near the middle and then worn away little more than one- 
fourth the length in a curved line deflected from the course of 
the anterior longitudinal convexity to the tip. The comparative 
brevity of the tusk and its worn condition at the end may per- 
haps have depended upon just such an accident and subsequent 
wear. In a mature skull from the shore of Sable Island, and 
preserved in the Museum of the Academy, the tusks, which are 
of the usual size, are worn in the same manner as the Ashley 
specimen for more than half their length." 

After describing in detail the fluting of the tusks, and the 
variation noticeable in this respect in different skulls of the liv- 
ing Walrus, he concludes that, while the fluting differs some- 
what in the fossil tusks from that usually seen in the tusks of 
the existing animal, these differences cannot be considered as 
having specific value. In referring to DeKay's " Triclieclms vir- 
gin ianus," he says: "No remains of an undoubtedly extinct 
species known to me have been discovered anywhere." He 
finally adds, respecting the Ashley fossil, that " it is an inter- 
esting fact to have learned that this [the living] or a closely re- 
lated species formerly existed so far south as the Ashley Eiver, 
South Carolina."* 

The discovery of the greater part of the skeleton of a Walrus, 
including the skull, with the tusks over five inches long, and all 
the teeth except two, in the Quaternary Clays at Portland, 
Me., was made during July of the present year (1878). It was 
found in excavating for the foundation of the new "Boston & 
Maine" transfer station, at about seven feet from the surface. 

* Journ. Acacl. Nat. Sci. PMla., 2d ser., vol. viii, 1877, pp. 214-216, pi. 
xxx, tig. 6. 



FOSSIL EEMAINS. 61 

" It was partially imbedded in a layer of blue clay a foot in thick- 
ness, overlaid by a layer of lighter clay two feet two inches thick, 
containing- casts and shells of My a arenaria, Macoma subulosa, 
Mytylus cdulis, Cardium (Serripes) grcenlandicum, Astarte trun- 
cata, Saxicava distorta. Nucula antiqua, Leda tenuisulcata, L. 
truncata, Natica clausa and pusilla, and Balanus. The skeleton 
is in the Museum of the Portland Society of Natural History."* 
In Europe, Walrus remains were reported by Cuvier t as found 
at Angers, France, but Gervaisf found later that the only por- 
tion of those remains accessible to him belonged not to the 
Walrus, but to the Halitlierium. 

In 1858, however, a part of a cranium was described by Gra- 
tiolet, from the diluvial deposits of Montrouge, near Paris. He, 
however, considered it as distinct from the existing species, even 
generically, and gave it the name Odobenotlierium lartetianum. 
In 1874, a nearly entire skull was described by Defrance, from 
similar deposits near the village of Sainte-Menehould, Marne, 
which he not only considered as identical with the living species, 
but also referred the fragment previously described by Gratiolet 
to the same species. Eespecting these specimens he says : 

" En comparant entre elles les tetes du Triclieclms rosmarus 
de nos iners, de V Odobenotlierium Lartetianum et du Triclieclms 
de Sainte-Menehould, on leur trouve une resseinblance aussi com- 
plete que possible, sauf en ce qui concerne la forme et le vo- 
lume de I'apophyse niastoi'de, point qui presents des differences 
assez sensible. On sait que dans le T. rosmarus cette apophyse 
est tres-grande, presque verticale, et saillante la partie infe- 
rieure du crane; celle de 1' Odobenotlierium, e'galement tres- 
volumineuse, se prolonge presque horizontalernent en arriere, 
sans de"passer le crane inf6rieurement ; celle du Triclieclms de 
Sainte-Menehould pr6sente un volume plus consid6rable encore 
que dans les deux autres, sans se prolonger en arriere coinme 
dans 1' Odobenotlierium , rnais inferieurement comme dans le 
Triclieclms actuel. Ces nuances 16geres indiquent evideminent 
une e"troite parent^ entre ces trois individus ; aussi est-il diffi- 
cile de conrprendre que Gratiolet ait voulu 6tablir un nouveau 
genre sur des particularites pen accentue"e que celles que lui 
pre"sentait la portion de crane dont il etait possesseur, et qui ne 

" American Naturalist, vol. xii, p. G33, Sept. , 1878 ; see also Portland (Maine) 
Argus, of July , 1878. 
tOssem. Foss. 

tZool. et Pal6out. Frangaises, 1859, p. 88. 
{Bull. Soc. Ge"ol. de France, 2 s6r., xv, 1858, p. 624. 



62 ODOB.ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

sont d'ailleurs que des particularity relatives pour la plupart & 
Page et au sexe, ainsi que 1'a etabli M. Gervais." * 

Van Beuedent refers to Gratiolet's specimen at some length, 
giving its full history and exposing its true character. H e says : 
" On a trouve a Montrouge, pres de Paris, il y a quelques an- 
nees, uu crane dont on s'est beancoup occupe et que Gratiolet a 
decrit sous le nom d' 'Odobenotlidre. Lartet Pavait remis a Gratio- 
let. Nous avons examine cette tete avec tout le soin ne"cessaire 
et nous partageons completeinent 1'avis que M. Paul Gervais a 
expriine" a son sujet dans la Zoologie et la Pdleontologie frangaises 
(p. 88), c'est-a-dire, que ce crane fracture" et qui a subi Faction 
du feu, n'est autre chose qu'un crane de Morse vivant qui e"te" 
rapport6 du Nord. 

"Nous avons e~tudie cette piece avec M. Paul Gervais, ay ant 
devant nous tons les e"16nients de comparaison que possede le 
Museum, et c'est apres avoir serieusemeut h6site~ si POdobe"- 
uothere est un Morse ou non, que nous nous soinme range de Pavis 
de notre savant confrere. 

" Get Odobenothere repose sur un fragment de crane dont la 
cavite" ce"rebrale a ete utilisee pour uu usage quelconque et qui 
aura ete apporte dans cet etat par quelque pecheur du Nord. 
C'est le cote" droit et non le cote gauche qui est conserve. 

" Celui qui se trouve devant ce fragment de crane et qui a 
devant lui un choix de sections des diverses regions de la tete, 
comprend aisement comment a pu se tromper. 

" L'importance que Le Hon a attach^e a la presence de cette 
tete dans le Diluvium rouge, tombe ainsi completemeut ; a propos 
de la periode glaciaire, Le Hoii avait accord^ une grande valeur 
a cette pr^tendue de~couverte de gratiolet."| 

Lankester, in 1865, described fossil tusks, from the Eed Crag 
of England, of an animal evidently closely allied to the Walrus. 
He enumerates no less than twelve or fifteen specimens of these 
remains, mostly fragments, collected from various localities, all 
from the so-called " Eed Crag " formation of England, or its 
equivalent. The principal localities are Button, Felixstow, and 
Bawdsey, in England, but he refers also to their occurrence at 
different points in Belgium. The majority of the specimens 
of the tusk obtained, writes Mr. Lankester, " are its pointed 

-Bull. Soc, G(Sol. de France, 3 e ser., ii, 1874, pp. 169, 170. 

tDescrip. des Ossements Fossiles des Environs d'Anvers, Ann. Mus. d'Hist. 
Nat. de Belgigue, i, 1877, pp. 40, 41. 

t "LE HON, L'liominc fossile, 1867, p. 304. ID., Mouvement des mers . . . . , 
p. 48, 1870." 



FOSSIL REMAINS. G3 

terminations ; but other specimens, of the base and intermedi- 
ate portions, have come to light. Throughout its length," Mr. 
Laukester continues, " which in some examples must have been 
fully three feet, the tusk is slightly curved ; but in those which 
appear to be fully grown the curve is considerably greater 
towards the terminal point, the direction of the curve probably 
giving the tusk, if its Pinuigrade affinities be established, a 
retroflected position, as in the Ditiotherium. The Crag tusk 
is very much compressed laterally, so that its transverse sec- 
tion has an elliptical outline, whilst that of the D mother ium- 
tusk is nearly circular. The amount of lateral compression 
is, however, extremely variable, as it is also in the living Wal- 
ruses; the amount also of the lateral as well as the antero- 
posterior flection of the tusk appears to vary, as in the recent 
TrichectiSj the variability of which in the size and form of its 
tusks is well known. A single large furrow on the outer sur- 
face, two on the inner, and one on the inner curved margin, ex- 
tend along the whole length of the tusk in many specimens, 
exactlv similar to those on some tusks of Walrus ; but in both 

^ / 

the recent and fossil specimens they are subject to much varia- 
tion, in their major or minor development. Xo appearance of any 
wearing of the point of the tusks by use during life is observa- 
ble ; and indeed the greater backward curvature of that part 
seems to result from its freedom from usage, since in the Walrus 
the point of the tusk is rapidly worn away, which of course 
checks any tendency to curvature which might become appar- 
ent if the tusk were not used against such hard substances as 
rocks and blocks of ice. 

" From an examination of the general contour and form of the 
tusks, without regard to their substance or structure, one would 
unquestionably be led to regard them as belonging to an animal 
similar to the existing Walrus, inasmuch as it is in this animal 
alone that this form of tusk, with its longitudinal furrows, great 
length, and gentle curvature, is found." 

After describing in detail the structure of these fossil tusks, 
as shown in sections and as revealed by the microscope, Mr. 
Lankester further observes: "In its microscopical structure, 
the dentine of the fossil tusks presents a complete resemblance 
to that of the Walrus.* .... The dentinal tubes are very 

"Their microscopical structure, as well as external form, are illustrated 
by numerous ligtires, forming plates x ami xi, accompanying Mr. Laiikes- 
ter's paper. 



64 ODOBJSNUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

nearly of the same size, and equally closely packed, and are 
connected with stellate lacunae in some numbers near the peri- 
phery of the tooth. This structure, which is not peculiar to the 
Walrus, is, nevertheless, a test of affinity, inasmuch as the form 
of the lacunae varies in different animals. They are not met 
with in the tusks of the Proboscidea or the Hippopotamus, but 
occur in the curious incisors of the Dugong. The ' dentiual 

cells 'of the Crag tusks also resemble those of the Walrus 

In structure the cement exactly resembles that of the Walrus, 
displaying vascular canals, bone-lacunae, and canaliculi, of the 
same form and disposition but the proportion which it bears 
to the thickness of the other tooth-tissues appears to be larger 
in the Walrus than in the fossil. 

"From the foregoing remarks it will be apparent that we have 
in these fossil tusks characters which ally them most closely to the 
large canines of the genus Trichecus." After enumerating the 
points of form and structure which distinguish these tusks from 
those of other animals, and those which assimilate them to those 
of the Walrus, he thus generalizes the results of his investiga- 
tions : " Lastly, they resemble the large canine tusks of the 
living Tr-ichecus in their curvature, varying lateral compression, 
large surface-furrows, short and wide pulp-cavity, globular 
' osseo-dentine', and every detail of minute structure. They 
differ from them in their greater curvature at the point of the 
tusk, their greater lateral compression, and minor development 
of cement. 

" I accordingly propose to establish the genus Trichecodon to 
receive the animal thus indicated. The justification of a gen- 
eric separation must be sought in the fact of the great antiquity 
of the Bed Crag, and the consequent probability of the associ- 
ation of other and more distinctive attributes with those of the 
tusks." 

As regards its geological position and associations, Mr. Laii 
kester adds: "It appears that the Tricliecodon Huxley i, like the 

Cetacean remains of the Crag and large Sharks' teeth, 

is a derived fossil in the Bed Crag, belonging properly to the 
Middle Crag, which is not now observable in this country [Eng- 
land], but is well developed at and near Antwerp."* 

It thus appears that Mr. Lankester was as much, or more, in- 
fluenced in his generic differentiation of these fossils from their 

* Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, xxi 18P5 pp 
22G-231. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 65 

nearest living allies, by the geological evidence of their antiq- 
uity as by the actually observed and admittedly slight differ- 
ences of form and structure. Mr. Lankester does not inform us 
respecting the locality whence came his specimens of the tusks 
of the living Walrus with which lie compared the fossil tusks. 
In this connection it may be added (see further on this point the 
account of Odobcenus obesus given beyond) that the tusks of the Pa- 
cific species (Odobccnus obesns) are not only longer and slenderer 
than those of the Atlantic species (0. rosmarus), but are sharper- 
pointed and more incurved, and do not present the worn and 
broken appearance so often (indeed, usually) seen in the tusks 
of old individuals of the latter. Whether or not they present 
differences of structure has not, so far as known to me, been 
microscopically determined. The tusks of the Pacific species, 
furthermore, sometimes attain the size indicated for the tusks 
of " Tricliccodon huxleyi." For the present I must consider Lan- 
kester's Trichecodon liuxleyi as certainly not generically separ- 
able from the existing Walruses, although it may have differed 
from the existing Atlantic species in larger size and possibly in 
other characters, as so often happens among the immediate pro- 
genitors of existing species in other groups of mammals. 

Van Benedeu has recently reviewed at considerable length 
the history of the supposed and actual fossil remains of the 
Walrus,* showing that most of those reported as found in differ- 
ent parts of France and Germany were really those of different 
species of extinct Sirenians or other animals than the Walrus. 
Van Beneden, however, describes and figures a dorsal vertebra 
he considers as that of the Walrus, found near Deurne, and a sca- 
phoid bone from Anvers. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, PRESENT AND PAST. 1. 
Coast of North America. As already shown (antea, pp. 57-61), the 
Walrus, like the Musk Ox, the Caribou, and the Moose, ranged 
during the great Ice Period much beyond the southern limit of 
its boundary at the time the eastern coast of North America 
was first visited by Europeans. While its remains have been 
found as far south as New Jersey, Virginia, and even South 
Carolina, there is no evidence of its existence on the New Eng- 
land coast within historic time, or during the last three hun- 
dred and fifty years. During the last half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury they are known to have frequented the southern coast of 

* Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. de Belgique, i, 1877, pp. 39-42. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 5 



66 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

Nova Scotia, as well as the shores and islands to the northward ; 
but this appears to have been at that time their southern limit 
of distribution. 

In May, 1534, they were inet with by James Cartier, about 
the island of "Ramea" (probably Sable Island), who thus refers 
to them: "About the said Island [Rarnea] are very greate 
beastes as great as oxen, which have two -great teeth in their 
mouths like unto Elephants teeth, & live also in the Sea. 
We saw them sleeping upon the bauke of the water : wee think- 
ing to take it, went with our boates, but so soone as he heard 
us, he cast hmiselfe into the sea." * They were afterward hunted 
here for their tusks and oil. Thus Richard Fischer, in speaking 
of the same island, says: "On which Isle [of Ramea] are so 
great abundance of the huge and inightie Sea Oxen with great 
teeth in inoneths of April, May and June, that there have bene 
fifteene hundreth killed there by one small barke, in the year 
1591." t The same writer tells us that George Drake, two years 
later, "found a shippe of Saint Malo three parts freighted 
with these fishes." Another writer says that he had seen 
a "dry flat full at once" of their teeth, "which are a foote 
and sometimes more in length." They also, at about the same 
time, frequented the so-called "Bird Islands" off Cape Breton. 
Says Charles Leigh : " Upon the lesse of these Islands of Birds 
we saw greate store of Morsses or Sea Oxen, which were a 
sleepe upou the rockes : but when we approached nere unto 
them with our boate they cast themselves into the sea and 
pursued us with such furie as that we were glad to flee from 
them." It is later said that the number of these " Sea Oxen" 
was '/about thirty or forty ."f From the accounts of other 
writers we learn that these "Sea Oxen" were accustomed to 
resort to these various islands during April, May, and June, 
for the purpose of bringing forth their young. Thus, "Thomas 
James of Bristoll," in speaking of the "Isle of Raniea," says it 
was situated "in 47 degrees, some fiftie leagues from the Grand 
Bay, neere Newfoundland: and is about twentie leagues about, 
and some part of the Island is flat Sands and shoulds : and the 
fish conuneth on bankc (to do their kiude) in April, May & June, 
by numbers of thousands, which fish is very big : and hath two 
great teeth : and the skinue of them is like Buffes leather : and 
they will not away from their yong ones. The yong ones are 



? Hakluyt, Voyages, vol. iii, p. 254. t Ibid. , p. 238. t Ibid. , pp. 242, 249. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 67 

as good meat as Veale. And with the bellies of five of the 
saide fishes they make a hogshead of Traine, which Traiue is 
very sweet, which if it will make sope, the king of Spaine may 
burue some of his Olive trees." * Charlevoix also alludes to the 
Walrus fishery at Sable Island, which the English at one time 
established there, but says it was soon abandoned, being found 
unprofitable.! 

Molineux Shuldhain has left us quite a full account (and one 
that has been often quoted) of the habits of these animals, and of 
the wholesale destruction by which they were speedily extirpated 
from the Atlantic coast south of Labrador. This account, writ- 
ten in 1775, says: "The sea-cow is a native of the Magdalen 
Islands, St. John's, and Anticosti in the Gulph of St. Lawrence. 
They resort very early in the spring to the former of these 
places, which seems to be by nature particularly adapted to the 
wants of these animals, abounding with clams of a very large 
size, and the most convenient landing-places, called Echouries. 
Here they crawl up in great numbers, and sometimes remain 
for fourteen days together without food, when the weather 
is fair; but on the first appearance of rain, they immediately 
retreat to the water with great precipitation. They are, when 
out of the water, very unwieldy, and move with great difficulty. 
They weigh from 1500 to 2000 pounds, producing, according 
to their size, from one to two barrels of oil, which is boiled out of 
a fat substance that lies between the skin and the flesh. Im- 
mediately 011 their arrival they calf, and engender again about 
two months after; so that they carry their young about nine 
months. They never have more than two at a time, and seldom 
more than one. 

" The echouries are formed principally by nature, being a grad- 
ual slope of soft rock, with which the Magdalen Islands abound; 
about 80 to 100 yards wide at the water side, and spreading so 
as to contain, near the summit, a very considerable number. 
Here they are suffered to come and amuse themselves for a con- 
siderable time, till they acquire a boldness, being at their first 
landing so exceedingly timid as to make it impossible for any 
person to approach them. In a few weeks they assemble in 
great numbers ; formerly, when undisturbed by the Americans, 
to the amount of seven or eight thousand ; and the form of the 
echotirie not allowing them to remain contiguous to the water, the 
foremost ones are insensibly pushed above the slope. When 

* Hakluyt, Voyages, vol. iii, p. 237. t Charlevoix, vol. v, p. 21G. 



68 ODOBJ3NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

they are arrived to a convenient distance the fishermen, having 
provided the necessary apparatus, take the advantage of a 
sea wind, or a breeze blowing rather obliquely on the shore, to 
prevent the smeUing of these animals (who have that sense in 
great perfection, contributing to their safety), and with the as- 
sistance of very good dogs, endeavour in the night time to sepa- 
rate those that are the farthest advanced from those next 
the water, driving them different ways. This they call making 
a cut, and is generally looked upon to be a most dangerous 
process, it being impossible to drive them in any particular 
direction, and difficult to avoid them ; but as they are advanced 
above the slope of the echourie, the darkness of the night de- 
prives them of every direction to the water, so that they stray 
about and are killed at leisure, those that are nearest the shore 
being the first victims. In this manner there has been killed 
fifteen or sixteen hundred at one cut. They then skin them, 
and take off a coat of fat that always surrounds them, which 
they dissolve by heat into oil. The skin is cut into slices of 
two or three inches wide, and exported to America for carriage 
traces, and to England for glue. The teeth is an inferior sort 
of ivory, and is manufactured for the same purposes, but soon 
turns yellow."* 

According to Dr. A. S. Packard, jr., its bones are still found 
at the localities mentioned by Shuldham. "According to tra- 
dition," he further says, u it also inhabited some of the harbors 
of Cape Breton ; and I have been informed by a fisherman in 
Maine, whose word I do not doubt, that on an islet near Cape 
Sable, Nova Scotia [probably the "Isle of Kamea" of the early 
voyagers already quoted], its bones are found abundantly 
on the sandy shore, fifteen to twenty feet above the sea. In 
the St. Lawrence Gulf they were exterminated during the 
middle of the last century. The last one seen or heard of in 
the Gulf, so far as I can ascertain, was killed at St. August- 
ine, Labrador, twenty-five years since. One was seen at Square 
Island fifteen years since, and two shortly before that, and 
another was killed at the same place about eight years since. 
I saw the head of a young Walrus, which was found floating, 
dead, having been killed, apparently by a harpoon, in the drift 
ice north of Belle Isle."t 

Dr. J. Bernard Gilpin, writing a few years later (in 1869), in 
referring to the former occurrence of the Walrus on the shores 

* PMl. Trans., vol. Ixv, p. 249. 

t Proc. Bost. Soc, Nat. Hist,, vol. x, 1866, p. 271. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 69 

and islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, says: "At Miscou, 
Bay Chaleur, Perley found only their bones, but in such numbers 
as to form artificial sea beaches. These were doubtless victims 
of 'The Royal Company of Miscou', founded during the earlier 
part of the seventeenth century, by the King of France, and 
whose ephemeral city of New Rochelle, numbering at one time 
some thousands, has passed away leaving no sign. The mur- 
dered Sea-horses have left a more enduring monument than 
the murderers." He further adds: "Though we have no 
accounts later than the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of 
their inhabiting Sable Island, yet it is very probable that they 
continued to resort there until they entirely left these latitudes. 
Its difficulty of access, its being uninhabited, and its sandy 
bars fringed with a ceaseless surf, point it out as their last 
hold."* 

Dr. Gilpin also records the capture of a Walrus in the Straits 
of Belle Isle, Labrador, in March, 1869, which was dragged on 
the ice for five miles, and then taken by ship to St. John's, 
Newfoundland, and thence to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where it 
was described and figured by Dr. Gilpin. t Mr. Reeksf states 
that a "specimen was driven ashore in St. George's Bay," New- 
foundland, about 18C8, and alludes to the frequent occurrence 
of their bones along the Newfoundland coast. 

It is still an inhabitant of the shores of Hudson's Bay, Davis 
Strait, and Greenland, where, however, its numbers are annu- 
ally decreasing. In Greenland, according to Mr. Robert Brown 
(writing of its distribution in 1867), "it is found all the year 
round, but not south of Rifkol, in lat. 65. In an inlet called 
Irsortok it collects in considerable numbers, to the terror of the 
natives, who have to pass that way. ... It has been found 
as far north as the Eskimo live, or explorers have gone. On the 
western shores of Davis's Strait it is not uncommon about 
Pond's, Scott's, and Home Bays, and is killed in considerable 
numbers by the natives. It is not now found in such numbers 
as it once was ; and no reasonable man who sees the slaughter 
to which it is subject in Spitzbergen and elsewhere can doubt 
that its days are numbered^ It has already become extinct in 
several places where it was once common. Its utter extinction 
is a foregone conclusion." 

*Proc. and Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Nat. Sci., vol. ii, pt. 3, pp. 126-127. 
tlbid.. pp. 123-127, with a plate. 



|. ZoGiogist, 1871, 2550. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 433. 



/ A ,X 

\ 



70 ODOB^NUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

Kane and Hayes, during the years 1853 to 1855, found the 
Walrus very abundant about Port Foulke, on the western coast 
of Greenland, in latitude 79, but they seem to have, since 
that date, greatly decreased in numbers along the whole of the 
Greenland coast. Captain Feilden, in his paper on the "Mam- 
malia of North Greenland and Grmnell Land," observed in 1875 
by the British Arctic Expedition, after alluding to their former 
abundance about Port Foulke, as observed by Kane and Hayes, 
says: " Curiously enough, we did not see one of these animals 
in the vicinity of Port Foulke nor in Smith Sound, until we 
reached Franklin Pierce Bay. There, in the vicinity of Nor- 
man Lockyer Island, we saw several Walruses, and killed two 
or three. . . . Near Cape Fraser I saw a single Walrus; 
but as far as my observation goes, it does not proceed further 
north than the meeting of the Baffin Bay and Polar tides near 
the above mentioned Cape."* 

Mr. Ludwig Kumlien, naturalist of the Howgate Polar Ex- 
pedition of 1877, states :t "The Walrus is quite common about 
Cape Mercy and the southern waters of Cumberland Sound,, 
but at the present day rarely strays up the Sound. Their re- 
mains, however, are by no means rare, even in the greater 
Kingwah, and many of the old Eskimo hut foundations contain 
the remains of this animal. The Eskimo say they got mad and 
left. Certain it is, they are found around Annanactook only 
as stragglers at the present day. Considerable numbers were 
observed on pieces of floating ice near Cape Mercy, in July. 
About Nugumeute they are largely hunted by the Eskimo living 
there." 

Eespecting their occurrence more to the southward, on the 
Greenland coast, Dr. Sink states: "The Walrus is only rarely 
met with along the coast, with the exception of the tract between 
66 and 08 N. lat., where it occurs pretty numerously at times. 
The daring task of entering into contest with this animal from 
the kayak on the open sea forms a regular sport to the natives 
of Kangamiut in GG N. lat. The number yearly killed has 
not been separately calculated, . . . but they can hardly 
exceed 200." t 

The westernmost point at which it has been observed is said 
to be the western shore of Hudson's Bay. Mr. J. C. Eoss states 
it to be an inhabitant of the west coast of Baffin's Bay and 

*Tho Zoologist, 3d ser., vol. i, p. 360, September, 1877. 

t Iii MSS. notes lie has kindly placed at my disposal. 

t Danish Greenland, its People and its Products, pp. 126-127, 1877. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 71 

Repulse Bay, and to be occasionally met with in the northern 
part of Prince Regent's Inlet, but says it is unknown to the 
natives of Boothia.* Dr. Richardson says : "The Walruses were 
very numerous at Igloolik and on the other parts of the coast 
to the eastward of the Fury and Hecla's Strait. They are riot 
found, however, at the month of the Copper Mine River, 
although the black whale had been sometimes drifted thither."! 
He also refers to its being unknown to the Eskimos of the 
Coppermine and Mackenzie Rivers, f No species of Walrus 
appears to have ever been seen on the Arctic coast of America 
between the 97th and 158th meridians, or for a distance of 
about sixty degrees of longitude. 

2. Coast of Europe. On the western shores of Europe the Wal- 
rus has been taken at no remote date as far south as Scotland, 
and Mr. Robert Brown, in 18C8, stated that he suspected it to 
be a "not unfrequent visitor " to the less frequented portions 
of the Scottish shores, he considering it probable that " not a 
few of the i Sea-horses ' and ' Sea-cows ' which every now and 
again terrify the fishermen on the shores of the wild western 
Scottish lochs, and get embalmed among their folk-lore, may 
be the Walrus." 1 1 Fleming states that one was killed in the 
Sound of Stockness, on the east coast of Harris, in December, 
1817, fl while another, according to Macgillivray and others, was 
killed in Orkney in June, 1825. ** Mr. R. Brown adds that one 
was seen in Orkney in 1857, and another in IsTor' Isles about the 
same time, tt It appears to have never occurred in Iceland, ex- 
cept as a rare straggler. Many years ago they are said to have 
lived on the shores of Fiuinark, and at a much later date to 
have abounded on some of the islands off this coast. Mr. Lainont 
says: "We learn from the voyage of Ohthere, which was per- 
formed about a thousand years ago, that the Walrus then 
abounded 011 the coast of Finniarken itself; they have, however, 
abandoned that coast for some centuries, although individual 
stragglers have been occasionally captured there up to within 

* Ross's 3d. Voy., App., 1835, p. xxi. 
t Suppl. Parry's 2d Voy., p. 338. 
t Zoology of Beecliey's Voyage, Mara., 1839, p. 6. 
$ Hector Boece's History of Scotland, as quoted by British zoologists. 
|| Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, p. 433. 
II British Animals, p. 19. 

**Edinb. New Phil. Jouru., vol. ii, p. 389; British Quad., Jard. Nat. 
Libr., Mam., vol. vii, p. 223. See also Bell, Hamilton, etc., 1. c. 
ttProc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1868, p. 433. 



72 ODOBvENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. . 

the last thirty [now about forty-six] years. [*] After their 
desertion of the Fiumarken coast, Bear Island [or Cherie Island, 
lying about two hundred and eighty miles north of the North 
Cape] became the principal scene of their destruction ; and next 
the Thousand Islands [southeast of Spitsbergen], Hope Island 
[a little further north, but still in the southeast corner], and 
Byk Yse Island, which in their turn are now very inferior 
hunting-ground to the banks and skerries lying to the north of 
Spitzbergen. 

" Fortunately for the persecuted Walruses, however, these lat- 
ter districts are only accessible in open seasons, or perhaps once 
in three or four summers, so that they get a little breathing- 
time there to breed and replenish their numbers, or undoubt- 
edly the next twenty or thirty years would witness the total 
extinction of Eosmarus trichecus on the coasts of the islands of 
Northern Europe. 

" The Walrus is also found all round the coasts of Nova Zem- 
bla, but not in such numbers as at Spitzbergen; and he under- 
goes, if possible, more persecution in those islands from some 
colonies of Eussians or Samo'iedes, who, I am told, regularly 
winter in Nova Zenibla for the purpose of hunting and fish- 
ing.t 

" The war of extermination," says Mr. Lamout, in his later 
work, "which has been carried on for many years in Spitzber- 
gen and Novaya Zeinlya has driven all the Arctic fauna [mam- 
mals] from their old haunts, and, in seeking retreats more inac- 
cessible to man, it is probable that they have had in some 
degree to alter their habits. For example, up to about twenty 
years ago it was customary for all W^alrus-hunters to entertain 
a reasonable hope that by waiting till late in the season all for- 
mer ill-luck might be compensated in a few fortunate hours by 
killing some hundreds on shore ; in fact, favorite haunts were 
well known to the fishers, and were visited successively before 
finally leaving the hunting-grounds. Now, although the Arctic 
seas are explored by steamers and visited annually by as bold 
and enterprising hunters as formerly, such a windfall as a herd 
of Walruses ashore is seldom heard of. 

" Each year better found vessels and more elaborate weapons 

* Mr. Lament has since reported the capture of a large bull " in Magero 
Sound near the North Cape about 1868." Yachting in tlie Arctic Seas, p. 58, 
footnote. 

t Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 167, 168. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 73 

are sent out to harry the Walrus ; as a consequence every sea- 
sou there is greater difficulty in obtaining a cargo for two rea- 
sons, those animals which have ventured into what was safe feed- 
ing-ground last year meet their enemy, and half are killed, while 
the other half escaping will be found next year a step farther 
away. This intelligent retreating of the Walrus before a supe- 
rior enemy will, I believe, preserve the species after its scarcity 
in accessible waters renders it no longer an object of sport and 
commerce. That the Walrus, ... is being driven from every 
district where the hand of man is felt, is certain."* 

Mr. Alfred Newton, writing in 1864, respecting their former 
presence on the coasts of Fiumark, and their distribution at that 
date, observes : "I see no reason to doubt the assertion, or per- 
haps it would be safer to say the inference, that in former days 
Walruses habitually frequented the coasts of Fininark. In the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries they were certainly abund- 
ant about Bear Island ; they are spoken of there as l lying like 
hogges upon heaps/ [t] . . . ; yet for the last thirty years prob- 
ably not one has been seen there. Now they are hemmed in by the 
packed ice of the Polar Sea on the one side and their merciless 
enemies on the other. The result cannot admit of any doubt. 
.... Its numbers are apparently decreasing with woful ra- 
pidity. The time is certainly not very far distant when the 
Trielieehus rosmarus will be as extinct in the Spitzbergeu seas 
as Eliytina gigas is in those of Behriug's Straits." | 

In Eichard Chancellor's account of his " discoverie of Mos- 
covia," in 1553-1554, we read : u To the North part of that Coun- 
trey are the places where they have their Furres, as Sables, 
Marterns, greese Bevers, Foxes white, blacke, and red, Minkes, 
Ermines, Minivers, and Harts. There are also a fishes teeth, 
which fish is called a Morsse. The takers thereof dwell in a 
place called Postesora, which bring them upon Harts to Lam- 
pas to sell, and from Lampas carrie them to a place called Col- 
niogro, where the high Market is holdeu on Saint Nicolas day." 
On Hondius's map of Russia accompanying this account Lam- 
pas is placed on the White Sea, near the mouth of the Dwina 
Eiver. 

* Yachting in the Arctic Seas, 1876, pp. 59, 60. 

t [" It seemed very strange to us," says Jonas Poole, in his account of his 
visit to Cherie Island in 1604, " to see such a multitude of monsters of the 
Sea, lye like hogges upon heapes." Purchas Ins Pilgrimes, vol. iii, p. 557.] 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 500. 

Purchas his Pilgrhnes, vol. iii, pp. 213, 214. 



74 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

The Walruses appear to have been first met with oil Cherie 
Island in 1003, and to have become nearly exterminated there 
within a very few years. The history of their destruction there 
and at Spitsbergen during the early part of the seventeenth 
century is given in the following excerpts : "In the yeare 1003. 
Stephen Bennet was imployed by the Companie,* in a Ship 
called the Grace, to those parts Northwards of the Cape ["of 
Norway"], and was at Cherie Hand and killed some Sea-horses, 
and brought home Lead Oare from thence . . . 

" Heere it is to bee understood, that the Companie having by 
often resort and imployment to those parts, observed the great 
number of Sea-horses at Cherie Hand, and likewise the multi- 
tude of Whales, that shewed themselves upon the coast of 
Greenland [now Spitzbergen]; They lirst applyed themselves to 
the killing of Morces, which they continued from yeere to yeere 
with a Ship or two yeerely, in which Ships the Companie ap- 
pointed Tltomas Wehlcn Commander, and in the yeere 1609. the 
Companie imployed one Thomas Edge their Apprentice, for their 
Northern Voyage, and joyned him in Commission with the fore- 
sayd Welden. Now the often using of Cherie Hand, did make 
the Sea-horse grow scarce and decay, which made the Conipauie 
looke out for further Discoveries."! 

During the expedition of 1604, Jonas Poole, who has left an 
account of the "Divers Voyages to Cherie Hand in the yeeres 
1604, 1605, 1606, 1608, 1609," says that as they approached 
Cherie Island, "We had not furled our Sayles, but we saw 
inany Morses swimming by our ship, and heard withall so huge 
a noyse of roaring, as if there had beene an hundred Lions. 
Immediately wee manned our Boate. . . . wee landed, and 
saw abundance of Morses on thes hoare, close by the Sea-side," 
etc. They attacked them with muskets, " not knowing whither 
they could runne swiftly or seize upon us or no." Owing to in- 
experience, they succeeded in killing only fifteen out of " above 
a thousand," but secured a hogshead of teeth, which they picked 
up on the shore. Two days later they found, on another part 
of the island, " ueere a thousand Morses," of which they killed 
" thirtie or thereabouts, and when wee had taken off their heads, 
went aboard." The next day they went on shore again and 



* Incorporated sonic time prior to the year 1556, under the name "The 
chants of England," and called also the " Muscovia Merchants '' and rlv 
"Mnscovia Companie." 

t Pnrchas his Pilgrimes, vol. iii, p. 464. 



GEOGKAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 75 

" fell a killing of the beasts. . . . We killed that jday six- 
ty Morses, all the heads whereof were very principall." They 
departed soon after for England. 

The next year (1605) they returned to Cherie Island. On the 
8th of July, says the account, " we entred into a Cove, having 
all our men on shoare with shot and javelins, and slue abundance 
of Morses. The yeere before we slue all with shot, not think- 
ing that a javelin could pierce their skinnes: which we found 
now contrarie, if they be well handled, for otherwise, a man may 
thrust with all his force and not enter : or if he doe enter, he 
shall spoyle his Lance upon their bones ; for they will strike 
with their fore-feet and bend a Lance round and breake it, if it 
bee not all the better plated. They will also strike with their 
Teeth at him that is next them : but because their Teeth grow 
downward, their strokes are of small force and danger." They 
took in " eleven tunnes of Oyle, and the teeth of all the beasts 
aforesaid." 

The following year (1G06) they again set out for Cherie Island, 
arriving there July 3. They found the ice still about the island, 
and the Walruses not yet on shore ; " For their nature is such, 
that they will not come on land as long as any Ice is about the 
land." On the 14th they perceived on shore " of the beasts 
sufficient to make our voyage, wee prepared to goe killing. 
Master Welden and Master Bennet appointed mee to take eleven 
men with mee, and to goe beyond the beasts where they lay; 
that they and wee might meet at the middest of them, and so 
enclose them, that none of them should get into the Sea, . . 
. . and before six houres were ended, we had slayne about 
seven or eight hundred Beasts. . . . For ten dayes space 
we plyed our businesse very hard, and brought it almost to an 
end." They took in " two and twentie tuns of the Oyle of the 
Morses, and three hogsheads of their Teeth." 

In 1608 they again reached Cherie Island toward the end of 
June, and onthe22d "came into a Cove where the Morses were, 
and slew about 900. or 1000. of them in less than seven houres: 
and then we plied our business untill the second of July : at 
what time we had taken into our ship 22. tunnes and three hogs- 
heads of Oyle." On their return they took with them two live 
young Walruses, one of which lived till they reached London.* 

The voyage in 1609 was less successful. They slew at one- 
time eighty, at another one hundred and fifty, and at still an- 

* Purchas his Pilgrimes, vol. iii, pp. 557-560. 



76 ODOB^ENUS KOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

other time forty-five; but they lost most of them in consequence 
of bad weather. " In the yee're 1610. the Companie set out two 
Ships, viz. the Lionesse for CJierie Hand, Thomas Edge Com- 
mander ; and the Amitie, for a Northerns Discoverie, the Mas- 
ter of which ship was Jonas Poole : who in the nioneth of May 
fell with a Land, and called it Greenland, this is the Land that 
was discovered by Sir Hugli Willoughby long before [Spctsberg 
of the Hollanders], which Ship Anitie continued upon the coast 
of Greenland, discovering the Harbours and killing of Morces 
[the first killed by the English on Spitsbergen], untill the moneth 
of August, and so returned for England, having gotten about 
some twelve Tunnes of goods, and an Unicornes home. 

a In the yeere 1611. the Companie set foorth two Ships, the 
Marie Margaret Admirall, burthen one hundred and sixtie 
tunues, Thomas Edge Commander ; and the Elisabeth, burthen 
sixtie tunnes, Jonas Poole Master, well manned and furnished 
with all necessarie Provisions, they departed from Blackwall 
the twentieth of Aprill, and arrived at the Foreland in Green- 
land in the Latitude of 79. degrees, the twentieth of May fol- 
lowing, the Adinirall had in her six Biskayners expert men for 
the killing of the Whale : this was the first yeere the Compa- 
nie set out for the killing of Whales in Greenland, and about 
the twelfth of June the Biskayners killed a small Whale, which 
yeelded twelve Tunnes of Oyle, being the first Oyle that ever 
was made in Greenland. The Companies two Shalops looking 
about the Harbour for Whales, about the five and twentieth of 
June rowing into Sir Thomas Smith his Bay, on the East side 
.of the Sound saw on the shoare great store of Sea-horses: after 
they had found the Morses they presently rowed unto the ship, 
being in crosse Eoad seven leagues off, and acquainted the Cap- 
tayne what they had found. The Captayue understanding of 
it, gave order to the Master, Stephen Bennet, that he should take 
into his Ship fiftie tunnes of emptie Caske, and set sayle with 
the Ship to goe into Foule Sound. The Captayue went pres- 
ently away in one Shallop with sixe men unto the Seainorse, 
and tooke with him Lances, and comming to them they set on 
them and killed five hundred Morses, and kept one thousand 
Morses riving on shoare, because it was not profitable to kill 
them all at one time. The next day the Ship being gone unto 
the place & well mored where the Morse were killed, all the men. 
belonging to the Ship went on shoare, to worke and make Oyle 
of the Morses ; and when they had wrought two or three dayes, 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 77 

it fortuned that a small quaiititie of Ice coine out of Foule 
Sound, and put the Ship from her Moring. . . . The Ship 
being cast away without hope of recoverie, the Commander 
Thomas Edge gave order, that all the Morse living on shoare 
shook! be let goe into the Sea, and so gave over making of 
Oyle. . . ." Fitting up their boats as well as they could 
they soon after abandoned the coast of Spitsbergen ("Green- 
land"), and set sail for Cherie Island, where they found the 
"Elizabeth" and returned to Spitsbergen "to take in such 
Goods as the sayd Edge had left in Foule Sound, woorth fifteene 
hundred pounds."* 

As early as the year 1611, the previous persecutions of the 
Walruses at Cherie Island had made them very wary. Thomas 
Finch, in his account of a visit to this island by William Gour- 
don in August of that year, says: "At our comniing to the 
Hand, wee had three or foure dayes together very fine weather: 
in which time came in reasonable store of Morses, . . . yet 
by no ineanes would they go on those beaches and places, that 
formerly they have been killed on. But fortie or fiftie of them 
together, went into- little holes within the Eocke, which were so 
little, steepe and slipperie, that as soone as wee did approach 
towards them, they would tumble all into the sea. The like 
whereof by the Masters and William Go urdons report, was never 

done."t 

During the years 1612, 1613, 1614, and 1615, numerous vessels 
were sent out from England to Spitzbergen for the products of 
the Walruses and Whales, but generally met with indifferent 
success, being much troubled with Spanish, Dutch, and Dan- 
ish " interlopers." 

" In the yeere 1616, the Companie set out for Greenland eight 
Sayle of great ships, and two Pinnasses under the command of 
Thomas Edge, who following his course, arrived in Greenland 
about the fourth of June, having formerly appointed all his 
ships for their severall Harbours, for their making of their Voy- 
age upon the Whale, and having in every Harbour a sufficient 
number of expert men, and all provisions fitting for such a Voy- 
age. This yeere it pleased God to blesse them by their labours, 
that they full laded all their ships with Oyle, and left an over- 
plus in the Countrey, which their ships could not take in. 
They imployed this yeere a small Pinnasse unto the East- ward 
part of Greenland, Namely, the Hand called now Edges Hand, 

*Purclias his Pilgrimes, vol. iii, pp. 464, 465 tlbid., p. 536. 



78 OD01LENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

and other Hands lying to the North-wards as farre as seventie 
eight degrees, this Piimasse was some twentie tunnes, and had 
twelve men in her, who killed one thousand Sea-horses on 
Edges Hand, and brought all their Teeth home for London." 

In 1017, they " employed a ship of sixtie tunnes, with twenty 
men in her, who discovered to the Eastward of Greenland, as 
farre North- wards as seventy-nine degrees, and an Hand which 
he named Witches Hand, and divers other Hands as by the 
Map appeareth, and killed store of Sea-horses there . . ."* 

The Dutch, Danes, and Spaniards began, in 1612, also to 
visit Spitzbergen in pursuit of Whales and Sea-horses, but are 
reported by the English to have made indifferent voyages. The 
company soon also had rivals in the "Hull-men," who, as well 
as the Dutch, did them much "ill service."! 

About the years 1611 and 1612, the Whale-fishery was found 
to be more profitable than Walrus-hunting, and subsequently 
became the main pursuit, not only by the English, but by the 
Dutch and Danes. Yet the Walruses were by no means left 
wholly unmolested, having been constantly hunted, with more 
or less persistency, down to the present day, and, as already 
shown, were long since exterminated from Cherie Island and 
other smaller islands more to the northward, and greatly re- 
duced in numbers on the shores of Spitzbergen. 

Walruses have been recently reported as occurring on the 
outer or northwestern coast of Eova Zembla, but as not exist- 
ing on the inner or southeastern coast. Von Baer, on the au- 
thority of S. G. Gnielin and others, gave the eastern limit of the 
distribution of the Atlantic Walruses as the mouth of the Jene- 
sei Eiver, though very rarely single individuals wandered as 
far eastward as the Piasina Eiver. He even regarded the Gulf 
of Obi as almost beyond their true home.t Von Middeudorff, 
however, considers von Baer's eastern limit as incorrect, and 
cites old Eussian manuscript log-books ("handschriftliche 
Schiffsbiicher") in proof of their occurrence in nuVbers in Au- 
gust, 1736, as far east as the eastern Taimyr Peninsula, and of 
their being met with in August, 1739, as far east as Chatauga 
Bay. Still further eastward, in the vicinity of the mouth of the 
Lena Eiver, he gives similar authority for their occurrence in 
August, 1735, and says that Dr. Figurin attests their presence 

*Purchas Ms Pilgrimes, vol. iii, p. 467. tlbid., pp. 472, 473. 

JM6m. de 1'Acad. des Sci. de St. P^tersb., vi e s6r., Sci. math., phys. etnat., 
tome iv, 2^- pars, pp. 174, 184. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 79 

on the shores of the delta-islands of the Lena. Eespecting the 
more easterly coast of the Siberian Ice Sea, he says it is cer- 
tainly known that the Walmses of Behriug's Sea extend west- 
ward in great numbers to Koljutschiu Island. Only the males, 
liowever, reach this limit, the females not extending beyond the 
vicinity of the mouth of the Kolyma Elver.* 

It hence appears that about 1735 to 1739 Walruses were 
met with as far eastward as the mouth of the Lena River; but 
Wraugell, nearly a century later, explored quite thoroughly 
this whole region without meeting with them, and I have found 
only one reference to their existence on the Siberian coast be- 
tween the Kolyma and Jenesei Elvers later than those cited by 
von Middeudorff. 

According to a recent letter t from Professor Nordenskjold, of 
the Swedish Northeast Passage Expedition, "two Walruses" 
were seen in August, 1878, a little to the eastward of the Jenesei 
Eiver, and that open water was found as far as the mouth of 
the Lena. From this it would seein that there is nothing to 
prevent, at least in favorable years, the Walruses from passing 
eastward to the mouth of the Lena. There still remains, how- 
ever, a breadth of some thirty degrees of longitude (between 
130 and 100) where as yet no Walruses have been seen. They 
appear to have been only very rarely met with to the eastward 
of the Jenesei (longitude 82 E.), and to be uncommon east of 
the Gulf of Obi. 

At present the Atlantic Walrus ranges along the northeast- 
ern coast of North America from Labrador northward to Ee- 
pulse Bay and Prince Eegent's Inlet, and along the shores of 
Greenland ; in the Old World only about the islands and in 
the icy seas to the northward of Eastern Europe and the neigh- 
boring portions of Western Asia, where it rarely, if ever, now 
visits the shores of the continent. 

On the eastern coast of North America, Walruses have been 
met with as far north as explorers have penetrated, and as far 
as the Esquimaux live. They winter as far north as they can 
find open water, retiring southward in autumn before the ad- 
vance of the unbroken ice-sheet. Kane speaks of their remain- 
ing in Benssellaer Harbor (latitude 78 37') in 1853, till the sec- 
ond week of September, when the temperature reached zero 
of Fahrenheit, $ 

* Von Middeudorff's Sibirische Reise, Bd. iv, 1867, pp. 935, 936. 
t See Nature, vol. six, p. 102, December 5, 1878. 
t Arctic Exploration, vol. i, p. 140. 



80 ODOBvENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

NOMENCLATURE. Several specific names have been in more 
or less current use for the Atlantic Walrus, or rather for the 
Atlantic and Pacific species collectively. Accepting Odobwnu-s 
as the proper generic name of the group, there is nothing to 
prevent the adoption of rosmarus for the specific name of the 
Atlantic species. It was used for this species exclusively by 
Linne, Erxlebeu, and other early systematic writers, the Pacific 
Walrus being at that time unknown to the systeniatists. If Ros- 
marus be used as the generic name of the group, as it has been 
by a few late writers, as a substitute for the wholly untenable 
one of Trichechus, it will be, of course, necessary to adopt some 
other name for the species. Dr. Gill has used obesus of Illiger ;. 
but as this was applied by Illiger exclusively to the Pacific Wal- 
rus, it cannot properly be used for the Atlantic species. It 
would be difficult to select a subsequent name that would not 
be open to objection, if one should stop short of trichechus, used 
(inadvertently?) in a specific sense ("Rosmarus tricheclms") by 
Lamont in 1861. The name longidens of Freniery, 1831, was 
based on what subsequent writers have considered as probably 
the female, but the name is highly inappropriate, inasmuch as 
it is the Pacific species, and not the Atlantic, that has the longer 
tusks. There are left mrginianus of DeKay and duMus of 
Stamiius : the first is objection able on account of its geograph- 
ical significance ; the other is only doubtfully referable to the 
Atlantic species. Adopting Odolccnus for the genus, leaves 
rosmarus available for the species, thus settling the whole diffi- 
culty. 

As already noticed (antea, p. 20), two species besides virgi- 
nianus have been based on fossil remains, and have been made 
the basis of new genera. The first of these is the Odobenotlie- 
rium lartetianum of Gratiolet, since referred by Defrance to the 
existing species ; the other is the Trichecodon Imxleyi of Lan- 
kester, which there is perhaps reason for regarding as the large 
extinct progenitor of the existing Walruses. 

ETYMOLOGY. The term rosmarus was originally used by 
Olaus Magnus, about the middle of the sixteenth century, in a 
vernacular sense, interchangeably with morsus, the Latinized 
form of the Eussian word morsz (or morss). It was used in the 
same way by Gesner a few years later, as well as by numerous 
other pre-Linnaean authors. Eespecting the etymology of the 
word, von Baer gives the following : " In dern historisch-topo- 



ETYMOLOGY. 81 

graphischen Werke : De gentium septentrionalium conditionibus 
cet. Romae 1555 heisst es : Norvagium littus maximos ac grandes 
pisces ekphantis habet, qui morsi sen rosmari vocantur, forsitan 
ob asperitate mordendi sic appellati, (Eine recht witzige Etyuio- 
logie !) quia, si quern hominem in maris littore viderint apprelien- 
dereque poterint, in eum celerime insiliunt, ac dente lacerant et in 
momento interimunt." * 

The same author also gives the following from Herberstain 
(1567): "Under andern ist auch ein thier, so grosse wie ein 
ochs, und von den einwonern Mors oder der Tod geheissen 
wird." t Hence, either from superstitious notions of the terri- 
ble character of this animal, or from the resemblance of the 
Eussian word morss to the Latin word mors, these terms be- 
came early confounded, and rendered by the German word To<7, 
or death. | 

In the account of the exploits of the Norman Othere, where 
the Walrus first finds its place in literature, it is termed Horse- 
wael. As noted by Martens and other writers, equivalent 
words in other languages have become current for this animal, 
as Walross or Wallross of the Germans, Wallrus of the Dutch, 

* In an early (1658) English version of Olaus Magnus's work ("A Com- 
pendious History of the Goths, Swedes, & Vandals and other Northern 
Nations. Written by Olaus Magnus, Arch-Bishop of Upsal, and Metropoli- 
tan of Sweden", p. 231), this passage is rendered as follows: "The Norway 
Coast, toward the more Northern parts, hath huge great Fish as big as Ele- 
phants, which are called Morsi, or Rosmari, may be they are so from their 
sharp biting ; for if they see any man on the Sea-shore, and can catch him, 
they come suddenly upon him, and rend him with their Teeth, that they will 
kill him in a trice." From this it would appear that Morsus, as used by 
Olaus Magnus, might be simply the Latin word morsus, from mordere, to bite. 

tSee von Baer, Me"m. de Acad. des Sci. de St. Pe"tersb., vi e se'r., Sc. 
math., phys. et nat., tome iv, 2 de pars, pp. 112, 113. 

t Von Baer quotes a passage from the ' ' Rerum Moscoviticarum auctores 
varii," originally published early in the sixteenth century, in which occurs 
the phrase "scandut ex mari pisces morss nuncupati," which he regards as 
the first introduction into Latin of the Sclavic name Mop/Kb. In Western 
Europe it a little later became current in the form of Morsz, which was soon 
written Morss or Mors, from which Buffon later formed the name Morse, 
which has since been the common appellation of this animal among French 
writers. Von Baer further observes that the accidental resemblance in 
sound of this word to that of the Latin word for death (mors) appears to 
have contributed not a little to the strange conception of the terribleness of 
this animal which was early entertained and even still prevails in Western 
Europe, although the Russian accounts do not speak of it. 

iJZoolog. Garten, Jahrg. xi, 1870, p. 283, where the etymology of the 
names of the Walrus is briefly discussed. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 6 



82 ODOB^NUS KOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

and Walrus of the English. By the early Scandinavian writers 
it was termed Rosmlivalr, which later became resolved into Eos- 
mul, from which, perhaps, originated the Latin term Rostnarus, 
which has the same significance, introduced by Olaus Magnus 
and Gesner, and the Norwegian word Rostungr. Gesner and 
several subsequent writers also used the word Meerross, and we 
have in English the equivalent term Sea-horse, as one of the ap- 
pellations of the "Walrus, and also, but more rarely, Meerpferd 
in German, and Cheval marin in French. 

The current French term Morse appears, as already stated, to 
have been introduced by Buffon as a modification of the Kus- 
sian word morss, used by Michow (1517) and Herberstain (1549). 
Among other old vernacular names we find in English Sea 
Cow, in French Vaclie marine, in Latin Bos marinus, etc., while 
by the early French settlers in America it was commonly termed 
Bete a la grande dent. 

LITERATURE. 1. General History. Passing over the by some 
supposed allusions to the Walrus by Pliny as too vague and 
uncertain for positive identification, * we meet, according to 
von Baer, with the first positive reference to the present 
species in the account of the exploits of the famous Norman ex- 
plorer Othere, or Octher, who, about the year 871 (890 accord- 
ing to some authorities), made a voyage to some point beyond 
the North Cape, where he met with large herds of Walruses, 
some of the tusks of which he is said to have taken to England 
as a present to King Alfred, t Walruses appear to have been 

* See K. E. voii Baer, M6m. de 1'Acad. Imp. des Sci. de St. Pe"tersb., vi me 
se"r., Sci. math., pliys. et nat., tome iv, 3 me livr., 1836, (1837), pp. 101, 102. To 
this admirable monograph I am greatly indebted for information respecting 
the earlier publications bearing upon the history of the Walruses. To this 
exhaustive memoir the reader is referred for a full exposition of this part of 
the subject. The following short summary is based, so far as the early his- 
tory of the subject is concerned, mainly upon von Baer's monograph, an 
analysis of which will be presented at a subsequent page. (See postea, p. 88, 
footnote.) 

t Hakluyt's rendering of this account is as follows: "The principall 
purpose of his [Othere's] traveile this way, was to encrcase the knowledge 
and disco verie of these coasts and countreyes, for the more comoditie of fish- 
ing of horsewhales, which have in their teeth bones of great price and ex- 
cellencie : whereof he brought some at his returue unto the king. Their 
skinnes are also very good to make cables for shippes, and so used. This 
kind of whale is much lesse in quantitie then other kindes, having not in 
length above seven elles." HAKLUYT'S Voyages, vol. i, p. 5. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 83 

an object of chase on the coast of Finmark as early as 980, and 
must have been met with by the Norsemen when they visited 
Greenland about the end of the tenth century. Their tusks 
were an article of commercial value among the Mongolian and 
Tartar tribes as early as the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries. 
Aside from the various notices by Scandinavian writers, the 
earliest unmistakable reference to the "Walrus, other than that 
connected with Othere, as above mentioned, was, according to 
von Baer (1. c., p. 108), by Albertus Magnus, in the first half 
of the thirteenth century. 

Says this writer (as quoted by von Baer), whose account is here 
paraphrased : The hairy Cetaceans have very long tusks, by 
which they suspend themselves to the rocks in order to sleep. 
Then conies the fisherman and separates near the tail as much 
skin as he can from the underlying fat, and then attaches a 
cord, which has at the other end a large ring, which he makes 
fast to a post or tree. Then when the fish awakens (by all of 
these operations he was not yet awakened), they cast a huge 
sling-stone upon his head. Being aroused, he attempts to get 
away, and is held by the tail near to the place and captured, 
either swimming in the water or half alive on the shore. This 
ludicrous description von Baer believes had for its foundation 
misunderstood reports of the Walruses' habit of reposing upon 
the shore or upon ice-bergs, the use of their tusks in climbing 
up to these places of rest, and their deep sleep, and that the 
account of the mode of capture was based on an incorrect 
knowledge of the use of the harpoon; and that the account 
shows that as early as the thirteenth century the Walrus was 
harpooned on the coast extending from the White Sea north- 
wards. * 

* This curious legend is quoted by Gesner in his Historia Animalia Aqua-' 
tilia, 1558, p. 254. The following rendering appears also in the above-cited 
English version of Olaus Magnus: "Therefore, these Fish called Rosmari, or 
Morsi, have heads fashioned like to an Oxes, and a hairy Skin, and hair grow- 
ing as thick as straw or corn-reeds, that lye loose very largely. They will raise 
themselves with their Teeth as by Ladders to the very tops of Rocks, that 
they may feed on the Dewie Grasse, or fresh Water, and role themselves in 
it, and then go to the Sea again, unless in the mean while they fall very fast 
asleep, and rest upon the Rocks, for then Fisher-men make all the haste 
they can, and begin at the Tail, and part the Skin from the Fat ; and into 
this that is parted, they put most strong cords, and fasten them on the rug- 
ged Rocks, or Trees, that are near; then they throw stones at his head, out 
of a Sling, to raise him, and they compel him to descend, spoiled of the 
greatest part of his Skin which is fastened to the Ropes : he being thereby 



84 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

The Walrus is also referred to by Hector Boethius in 1526, in 
his History of Scotland ; * by Herberstain (or Herberstein, as 
also written) in 1549 ; by Pare about the year 1600 ; and by Al- 
drovandus in 1642. 

Herberstain also very correctly indicates the habits of these 
animals, which, he says, repair to the shore in large herds to 
repose, and that while the herd sleeps one of their number 
keeps watch. He compares their feet to those of the Beaver, 
and refers to the value of their tusks to the Eussians, Turks, 
and Tartars, and observes that they called them fish-teeth, t 

Even before the middle of the sixteenth century, Walruses 
had been met with on the eastern shore of North America. In 
May, 1534, they were seen by Cartier, and later in the same 
century by Fischer, Drake, and others, on the coast of Nova 
Scotia and adjacent islands, and later still by other explorers on 
the islands in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (see antea, p. 66), in 
the accounts of whose voyages \ occur interesting notices of 
these animals. 

In the year 1553, Edward VI of England sent an expedi- 
tion under Willoughby and Chancellor to the White Sea, which 
resulted in still further increasing our knowledge of the Wal- 
ruses, especially of their distribution eastward along the Arctic 
coast of Europe and Asia. Chancellor's short account refers 
especially to the uses made of the skins and tusks. 

The earliest delineations of the Walrus appear to have been 
made by Olaus Magnus in his " Tabula Terrarum Septeutrio- 
nalium" (1555), where he has portrayed many strange and fabu- 
lous animal forms which there is reason to believe were based 
upon this animal. 1 1 Gesner a few years later (1558), in his " His- 

debilitated, tearful, and half dead, he is made a rich prey, especially for his 
Teeth, that are veiy pretious amongst the Scythians, the Moscovites, Eus- 
sians, and Tartars, (as Ivory amongst the Indians) by reason of its hardness, 
whiteness, and ponderousnesse. For which cause, by excellent industry of 
Artificers, they are made fit for handles for Javelins : And this is also testi- 
fied by Mecliovita, an Historian of Poland, in his double Sarmatia, and 
Paulus Joviits after him, relates it by the Relation of one Demetrius, that 
was sent from the great Duke of Moscovy, to Pope Clement the 7th." Loc. 
cit., pp. 231,232. 

" "Scotorum Regui Descriptio, p. 90," as cited by various writers. 

t Herberstaiu, as cited by von Baer, 1. c., p. 111. 

I See Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. iii, ed. 1810, pp. 237, 238, 242, 249, 254, etc. 

See Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. i, ed. 1599, p. 237. 

|| Olaus Magnus's figures will be noticed later under the section devoted 
to the figures of the Walrus (postea, p. 92 et seq.). 



GENERAL HISTORY. 85 

toriimi Animaliuin" (in the volume devoted to the " Animalia 
Aquatilia "), faithfully copied all of Olaus Magnus's figures under 
the heading "De Cetis," and then presents, under the name 
EosmantSj the figure of the Walrus from Olaus Magnus. This 
figure, however, he judiciously criticises, stating that the tusks 
should be in the upper jaw, and not in the lower, as they were 
represented by Olaus Magnus. This last-named author, in the 
later editions of his work "De Gentium Septentrionaliuin Con- 
ditionibus," etc. (as in that of 1563), rightly places, according to 
von Baer, the tusks in the upper jaw. Gesner (continues von 
Baer) knew only the first edition of this work, and took his 
figure from the above-mentioned " Tabula Terrarum Septen- 
trionaliuin." Also were unknown to him the accounts of the Wal- 
rus given by " Herberstain, Chancellor, and Othere," so that he 
made extracts from only Michovius and Albertus Magnus. He 
also knew no better than to oifer, as a figure of the Walrus, a 
drawing he had received from Strassburg, representing, pretty 
fairly, the head and tusks, while the rest was purely a fabrica- 
tion. Some rhymes, which he further inflicts upon his readers, 
show clearly how " awful" the conceptions of the Walrus then 
were (or, as von Baer puts it, " Wie schauerlich noch die Vor- 
stelluugen vom Wallrosse waren ").* 

In 1608, a young living Walrus was taken to England, having 
been captured on Bear or Cherie Island off the coast of Nor- 
way, t while four years later (1612) another young Walrus, with 
the stuffed skin of its mother, was taken to Holland. The first 
appears to have been very intelligently described by 2Elius Ever- 
hard Vorstius, whose description is quoted by De Laet. f The 
specimen taken to Holland was well figured by Hessel Gerard, 
the young one doubtless from life, the figures being published 
by him in 1613, and subsequently repeatedly copied (as will 
be more fully noticed later). 

In 1625, Purchas, in his history of the voyages of the English 
to Cherie Island and Spitzbergen (then called "Greenland"), 
gives much interesting information respecting the chase of the 

* To show what these conceptions were, von Baer cites the passages 
already quoted (antea, p. 81), in reference to the singular misinterpretations 
given in Western Europe to the Russian name Morss. See von Baer, 1. c., 
p. 113. 

t Recueil de Voy. au Nord, 2 e e"d., tome ii, p. 368. 

JNov. Orb. s. Dcscrip. Ind. Occ., 1633, p. 41. 

See von Baer, 1. c., p. 128; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, p. 115. 



86 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

Walrus at these islands, and in one place a quaint description 
and some very curious figures of the animal.* 

In 1675, the Walrus was again described and wretchedly 
figured by Martens, t who is said to have been the first " natu- 
ralist" who ever saw the Walrus in its native haunts. Zorg- 
drager, $ in 1720, supplied by far the fullest account of these 
animals, as observed by him in Spitsbergen, that had appeared 
up to that date. He gives not only a quite detailed and truth- 
ful account of their habits, especially under persecution, but also 
of their wholesale destruction at that early time in the Spitz- 
bergen seas, and of their extermination at some of the points 
at which they had formerly been accustomed to land in immense 
herds. He also notes the increasing difficulties of their capture 
owing to the great shyness of man they had acquired in conse- 
quence of persecution, and describes the manner in which they 
were captured, and also their products. Copious extracts from 
Zorgdrager's account of the Walrus are given by Buffon (trans- 
lated into French from a German edition), and he has also been 
extensively quoted by even much later writers. 

The Greenland Walrus was described by Egede in 1741, by 
Anderson || in 1747, by Ellis fl in 1748, byCranz**in 1765, 
and by Fabricius tt in 1780, some of whom added much infor- 
mation respecting its habits and distribution, its usefulness to 
the natives and their ways of hunting it, as well as respecting 
its external characters. 

The above-cited accounts of the Walrus formed the basis of 
numerous subsequent compilations, and most of those last given 
are cited by the early systematic writers, few of whom, as pre- 
viously shown (see antea, pp. 8-11), had any just appreciation 
of even its most obvious external characters. Linn, as already 
noted (antea, p. 8), profited little by what had been written 
by preceding authors, while Brisson, Erxleben, and Gmelin 
manifest a scarcely better acquaintance with this badly misrep- 
resented and poorly understood creature. IsTo little confu- 
sion has hence arisen in systematic works respecting its posi- 

* See antea, p. 74-78, and posted. 
t Spitsbergen, pp. 78-83, pi. P, fig. b. 

t Bloeyende Opkomst der Aloude en Hedendaagsche Groenlandsche Vis- 
schery, etc., ed. 1720, pp. 1(35-172. 

Det gamle Gr<|>nlauds nye Per lustration, etc., 1741, p. 45. 

|| Nachricliten YOU Island, Gronland und der Strasse Davis, p. 258. 

If Voyage to Hudson's Bay, p. 134. 

** Historic von Gronland, pp. 165, 167. 

tf Fauna Groenl., p. 4. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 87 

tioii and affinities (see antea, pp. 7-12). The accounts by Hout- 
tuyn, Buffon, Pennant, P. S. L. Miiller, and Schreber are excel- 
lent for their time. These authors all recognized the close 
relationship of the Walrus to the Seals, and quite correctly 
indicated its external characters and habits. Some of these 
accounts, however, include references to both species. 

Daubenton, in Buffon's "Histoire Naturelle," * gave a de- 
scription and figure of a Walrus's skull, and made the first 
contribution to our knowledge of its internal anatomy, based 
on the dissection of a fostal specimen. 

Since the beginning of the present century, the Walrus has 
been the subject of almost numberless notices, as well as of sev- 
eral elaborate papers, devoted in most cases to special points 
in its anatomy, very few of which need be here enumerated, t 

The elder Cuvier, beginning with his " Le9ons d'Anatomie 
comparee" (1800-1805), and ending with the third edition of his 
"Ossernens fossiles" (1825), contributed considerably to our 
general knowledge of its structure and affinities, especially of 
its osteology ; he in 1825 J first figuring and describing its skel- 
eton. A paper by Sir Everard Home, in 1824, figured and de- 
scribed the stomach and feet from specimens taken to England 
from Hudson's Bay, preserved in salt. This paper is noteworthy 
mainly on account of the singularly erroneous interpretation 
there made of the structure and functions of the feet, Home 
supposing that these organs were provided with sucking discs, 
by means of which the creature was enabled to adhere firmly 
to the ice in climbing. The skeleton of the Walrus was again 
figured and described by Pander and d' Alton || in 1826, and 
still later by BlainviUe fl about 1840. Von Baer, ** in 1835, 
published some account of the arterial system of the Walrus, 
based on a dissection of a young specimen. Its general anato- 
my, especially its limb-structure, myology, vascular and respi- 
ratory systems, viscera and generative organs, and external cha- 

* Tome xiii, 1765, pp. 415-424, pll. liv, Iv. The skull had been previously 
figured by Houttuyn (in 1761), as will be noticed later. 

t Those relating to its dentition have been already noticed in detail (see 
anted,, pp. 47-57) ; several others have also been specially referred to, and 
nearly all are cited in the references given at pp. 23-26. 
.t Ossem. Foss., 3 e e"d., tome v, ii me pt., pp. 521-523, pi. xxxiii. 

Phil. Trans., 1824, pp. 233-241, pi. iv. 

|| Skelete der Robben und Lamantine, pll. i, ii. 

IT Osteographie, Des Phoques, pll. i and iv. 

** Mem. de 1'Acad. St. Pe"tersb., vi me s6r., Sci. math., phys. et nat., tome 
ii. me . 1835, pp. 199-212. 



88 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

racters, were quite fully and satisfactorily treated by Dr. J. 
Murie* in 1872. 

Illiger, in 1811, in a paper on the geographical distribution of 
the mammals of the Northern Hemisphere (see anted, p. 18), first 
nominally recognized the Pacific Walrus as a species distinct 
from the Atlantic animal, while Fremery, in 1831, recognized 
three species, and Stannius, in 1842, admitted two,t but, as 
already noticed, only one species of Walrus has been commonly 
recognized. The matter of variation dependent upon sex, age, 
and individual peculiarities, has received, as already 'noticed 
(see antea, pp. 38-43), special attention at the hands of Wieg- 
mann, Stannius, Jaeger, and other writers. 

Unquestionably, the most important paper relating to the lit- 
erature, geographical distribution, and habits of the Walruses 
is the well-known and justly celebrated memoir by von Baer,| 

* Trans. Loncl. Zool. Soc., vol. vii, pp. 411-462, 8 woodcuts, and pll. li-lv. 

t For a notice of the literature of this part of the subject see an tea, pp. 
17-23. 

t Anatomische und zoologische Untersuchuugen iiber das Wallross (Triche- 
chus rosmarus) und Vergleichung dieses Thiers mit andern See^Saugethieren. 
Von Dr. K. E. v. Baer. Gelesen den 6. Nov. 1835. <M6ni. de 1'Acad. Im- 
pe"r. des Sciences de Saint-P<Stersbourg, vi me ser., Sc. math., phys. et nat., 
tonie iv me , pp. 96-236. [Mit einer Tafel.] Public par ordre de 1' Academic. 
En Fe"vrier, 1837. 

The paper has the following contents : 

I. Zoologische Abtheiluug. 

Cap. I. Veranlassuug und Inhalt dieser Untersuchuugen (pp. 97-100). 
1. Veranlassuug. 2. Anatomische Untersuchung. $ 3. Zoologischo 
Nachforschungen. $ 4. Alter des lebend beobachteten Thiers. 

Cap. II. Geschichte der Kenutniss des Wallrosses und kritische Muste- 
rung der bisher gelieferteu Abbildungen (pp. 100-130). 1. Urzeit undAlter- 
thum. $ 2. Mittelalter. 3. Vom Schlusse des fiiufzehnten Jahrhuixlerts bis 
auf Linne" und Buffon. 4. VonLiune' und Bufibnbis jetzt. 5. Uebersicht 
der bisher gelieferten Abbildungen vom Wallrosse. 

Cap. III. Beobachtungen an dem lebenden Thiere (pp. 130-148). 1. Frti- 
here Falle von der Anwesenheit lebeuder Wallrosse in mittleren Breiten. 2. 
Allgemeines Ausehen des Tliiers. 3. Der Kopf. 4. Die Bewegungen. 5. 
Blaseu oder Ausspritzeu von Wasser. ^ 5 [6is]. Wartung des jungeu Wall- 
rosses. $ 6. Geistiges Naturel des Thiers. $ 7. Bildsamkeit und Auhang- 
lichkeit. 

Cap. IV. Allgerneine Betrachtungen iiber die Bildsamkeit der See-SJiuge- 
thiere und iiber die Auhanglichkeit der Individuen Einer Art unter eiuander 
(pp. 148-171). $ 1. Aufgabe. j 2. Geziihnite Walbrosse. ^S 3. Geziihmte Rob- 
ben. $ 4. Wahre Cetaceeu. ^ 5. Gesellschaftliches Leben. 6. Liebe der 
Aeltem zu den Jungen und der Jungen gegen die Aeltern. 7. Gatten- 
Liebe. 8. Allgemeine Begriinduug dieser Verhaltnisse. 

Cap. V. Verbreituug der Walkosse (pp. 172-204). 1. Sie wohnen in zwei 
getrennten Verbreituugs-Bezirken. 5 2. Oestlicher Verbreituugs-Bezirk. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 89 

published iu 1837. This elaborate memoir, so often already 
cited in the present article, gives a general summary of nearly 
all papers, references, and figures relating to the Walruses that 
appeared prior to 1835, the date of its presentation to the Impe- 
rial Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg for publication. 
It also contains many original biological and anatomical ob- 
servations, based on a young living specimen brought to Saint 
Petersburg in 1828, which, surviving for only a week after its 
arrival, soon fell into his hands for dissection. * 

You Baer, after a few preliminary remarks respecting the 
occasion and objects of his paper, and a few words on the 
anatomy of the Walrus, devotes some thirty pages to a critical 
and exhaustive historical resume of the literature relating to the 
general subject. Then follow some eighteen pages detailing 
his observations on the living animal, in which he gives some 
account of the few young individuals that had, up to that time, 
been taken alive to Middle Europe ; also a detailed account of 
the external appearance of the specimen he had examined in 
life. He notes especially its attitudes, movements, and limb- 
structure, and compares it in these points with the Seals. After 
describing the position and character of the limbs in the Seals, 
and the restriction of their movements on land to a wriggling 
movement, with the belly lying on the ground, he refers to the 
freer use of the extremities possessed by the Walrus, which he 
found was able to truly stand upon its four feet, and says that, 

3. Westliclier Verbreituugs-Bezirk. 4. Periodiscke Wanderuugen der 
Wallrosse. 5. Physisclie Verkiiltnisse, welcke die Verbreitung der Wall- 
rosse bedingen. 

Cap. VI. Eliernalige Verbreitung der Wallrosse (pp. 205-228). 1. Mei- 
nuugen Member. 2. Veranderungen im Vorkommen der Wallrosse in den 
drei letzten Jakrkuuderten. 3. Ob an den Orkadisclien luseln Wallrosse 
bis ins 16te Jakrhundert sick aufgekalten kaben ? 4. Beweiss, dass, so weit 
kistoriscke Nackrickten zuriickgeken, kein Wallrossfang an der Kiiste von 
Lappland getrieben worden ist. $ 5. Ob die Wallrosse iin Mittelalter bei 
Island kaufig \varen. 6. Verbreitung der Wallrosse zur Zeit der Romer 
und Grieckeu. 7. Ekemaliges Vorkommen an der Nordkiiste der Conti- 
nente. 

Cap. VII. Paaruug (pp. 228-230). 

Cap. VIII. Nakrung der Wallrosse (pp. 231-233). 

Cap. IX. Stellung des Wallrosses iin Systeme, oder Verwandtsckaft mit 
andern Tkieren (pp. 234, 235). 

* He seems, kowever, to kave never publisked in full tke results of kis 
observations upon its anatomy, ke apparently reserving tke anatomical 
part of kis memoir in tke kope of perfecting it tkrougk tke study of addi- 
tional material. 



90 ODOByENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

in respect to the use of its limbs, it occupies an intermediate 
place between the Pinnipeds and the ordinary four-footed Mam- 
mals, among which latter its less pliant feet give it the appear- 
ance of a cripple. If we should call, he says, the Seal a crawler 
or slider, we should have to term the Walrus a waddler, suice in 
walking it throws its plump body to the right and left. Here we 
have fairly described, for the first time, the flexibility of the ex- 
tremities, the bending of the hind feet sometimes forward, 
sometimes backward, and the free turning of the fore feet, 
although an allusion was made to this by Vorstius * two centu- 
ries before, yet the fact of flexibility remained generally unre- 
cognized till 1853, when a young living specimen reached London. 
Von Baer points out the fallacy of Sir Everard Home's notion 
that the feet of the Walrus are provided with suction -discs, and 
the " blowing " of the Walrus mentioned by Martens, who de- 
scribed it as throwing water from its nostrils like a whale. 

Following this chapter on its external features, movements, 
temperament, behavior, etc., is an interesting dissertation of 
some twenty or more pages on the dornesticability of the marine 
mammals in general, which is devoted largely to a history of 
the behavior of the Seals in captivity, with a short notice of 
the different examples of the Walrus, the Sireuiaus, and the 
smaller Cetaceans that had been observed in confinement. The 
next thirty pages are given to a discussion of the geograph- 
ical distribution of the Walruses, the treatment of which subject 
is marked by the same pains-taking research that characterizes- 
the other parts of this learned monograph. He shows that 
Walruses are confined to two widely separated habitats, and 
not, as previously supposed, found all along the Arctic coasts. 
He describes them as limited to two regions, an eastern and a 
western, the first including the northwestern coast of North 
America from the Peninsula of Aliaska northward, and the 
corresponding parts of the neighboring Asiatic coast. To the 
eastward he could trace them only to the vicinity of Point Bar- 
row, and to the westward only to a few degrees beyond East 
Cape. 

The western region, he affirmed, embraces only the Arctic 
coast of Europe eastward to the mouth of the Jenesei Eiver r 

* "Pedes anteriores antrorsuni, poster! ores retrorsuni spectabant cuin in- 
grederetur," says Vorstius as quoted by De Lae't (see antea, p. 37). The kind 
feet are also represented as turned forward in Hessel Gerard's figure, pub- 
lisked in 1613 (see postea}. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 91 

and, on the other side of the Atlantic, the shores of Greenland 
and Arctic America westward to the western shores of Hudson's 
Bay and Fox Channel. There is thus left between these two 
regions nearly the whole of the coast of Asia bordering on the 
Polar Sea on the one hand, and almost the whole of the coast 
of North America formed by the Arctic Sea on the other. 

In the later portion of his chapter on the distribution of the 
'Walruses he devotes a few pages to a consideration of their 
migrations, and the physical causes which limit their distribu- 
tion. Their migrations, he believes, are very imperfectly known, 
but he inclines to the opinion that they only periodically visited 
such points in their former range as Sable Island and other 
southerly lying islands. The causes which limit their range he 
considers to be mainly temperature, since he finds the southern 
boundary of their distribution is deflected northward and south- 
ward in accordance with the curves of isothermal lines. 

The former range of the Walruses is also considered at length, 
to which subject are devoted nearly twenty-five pages. A short 
account is given of their reproduction and food, the paper clos- 
ing with an inquiry into their systematic relationship to other 
animals. The map accompanying his memoir shows not only 
the distribution of the Walruses as at that time known, but 
indicates also the region over which they are known to have 
formerly occurred, and also the habitat of the BJiytina, or Sea- 
cow of Steller. 

The reception in London, in 1853, of a young living Walrus 
gave rise to a paper by Owen * on its anatomy and dentition, 
and another by Gray,t " On the Attitudes and Figures of the 
Morse." A short paper was contributed by Sundevallf in 1859 
on its general history. 

Leidy, in I860, published an important paper on the fossil 
remains of Walruses found on the eastern coast of the United 
States, while Gratiolet, Defrance, Lankester, and Van Beneden 
have also written about those that have been met with in 
France, England, and Belgium. 

Malrngren, in 1864, in a paper on the Mammalian Fauna of 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, pp. 103-106. 

tlbid., pp. 112-116, figs. 1-10. 

t Oin Walrossen, Ofversigt K. Vet. Akad. Fork. (Stockli.), xvi, 185'J, pp. 
441-447 ; also translated in Zeitschr. gesammt. Naturw. Halle, xv, 1860, pp. 
270-275. 

$ Sec antea, pp. 61-65. 



92 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

Fininark and Spitzbergen,* published many interesting notes 
relating to its habits and food, and later a special paper on its 
dentition (noticed antea, p. 54.) Malrngren's observations on 
their habits, distribution, etc., also appear in the history of the 
Swedish Expedition to Spitsbergen and Bear Island in the year 
1861, t together with a somewhat detailed and very interesting 
general history of the animal, with several illustrations. 

Brown, in 1868, in his " Notes on the History and Geograph- 
ical Eelations of thePinnipedia frequenting the Spitzbergen and 
Greenland Seas,"! devotes several pages to the Walruses (pp. 
427-435), in which he considers especially their habits and food, 
geographical distribution, and economic value. 

In addition to the special papers cited in the foregoing pages, 
their general history has been more or less fully presented in 
several general works treating of the mammalia, and in several 
fauna! publications^ Much information respecting their general 
history may also be found in the narratives of various Arctic 
explorers, as Parry, Wrangell, Keilhau, Kane, Hayes, Larnont, 
and others, whose contributions will be more fully noticed in the 
following pages relating to the habits of the Walruses. 

2. Figures. As von Baer facetiously remarks, no animal 
has had the honor of being depicted in such strange and widely 
diverse representations as the Walrus. These, as has been 
previously stated, began with Olaus Magnus, about the middle 
of the sixteenth century, who opened the series with half a 
dozen phantastic figures, based apparently upon this animal, 
only one of which, however, bore the name Kosmarus (Rosma- 

* lakttagelser och anteckniugar till Finmarkens ocli Spetsbergeiis Diigg- 
djursfauua. Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl. 1863, (1864), pp. 
127-155. [Walruses noticed, pp. 130-134.] Also republished in German in 
Wiegniann's Arch, fur Naturgesch., 1864, pp. 63-97. 

tl have seen only Passarge'a German translation, entitled "Die schwe- 
disclien Expeditionen nach Spitzbergen und Baren-Eiland ausgefiihrt in 
den Jahren 1861, 1864, und 1868, unter Leitung von O. Torell und A. E. 
Nordenskiold. Aus dem Schwedischen iibersetzt von L. Passarge. Nebst 9 
grossen Ansichten in Tondruck, 27 Illustrationen in Holzschnitt und einer 
Karte von Spitzbergen in Farbendruck. Jena, Hermann Costenoble, 1869." 
See pp. 131-143 (general history), 147, 151, etc. 

iProc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 405-440. 

$ See, among others, Macgillivray, British Quad., 1838, pp. 219-224 ; Ham- 
ilton, Amphib. Carnivora, etc., 1839, pp. 103-123; Nilsson, Skaud. Faun., i, 
1847, pp. 318-325; Giebel, Siiugethiere, 1855, pp. 127-129; Lilljeborg, Fauna 
Sveriges och Norges Daggdj., 1874, pp. 654-667 ; etc., etc. 



FIGURES. 93 

rus seu Morsus Norvegicus}.* This figure t represents an animal 
standing half erect, resting against a rock, having four feet, 




FlG. 4. "Eosniarus seu Morsus Norvegicus. Olaus Magnus, 1568, p. 789." 

a long, thick, cylindrical tail, terminating abruptly in an irreg- 
ular expansion, with a low dorsal spiny crest, and two rather 
long porcine tusks projecting downward from about the middle 
of the mouth. Another, | a prone figure, called Porcus mon- 




FIG. 5. "Porcus monstrosus Ooeani Germaniti. Olaus Magnus, 1568, p. 788." 

strosus Oceani Germanici, has a thick, short body, a fish-like 
tail, and a swine's head, ears, and tusks; the latter placed 
only in the lower jaw and directed upward. Behind the prom- 
inent pointed ears are two horns. The body is covered with 
heavy scales, among which are placed three eyes. The back is 
crested with large, somewhat recurved, spines of irregular size, 
and the feet are webbed and fin-like, especially the anterior. 
Another, called Vacca marina, represents the head of an ox, 
with a long beard on the chin. A fourth represents a dolphin- 
like body, with four feet, a fish's tail, a pair of long, ascending, 

*My remarks respecting Olaus Magnus's figures are based on Gesuer's 
(Hist. Animal. Aquat., 1558, pp. 247-249), and Gray's copies of them (Proc. 
Zoul. Soc. Lond., 1853, p. 113), Olaus Magnus's work not being accessible to 
me. The figures herewith given (Figs. 4-12) are from electros of Gray's 
figures. 

t See Fig. 4, copied by Gray from Olaus Magnus. 

I See Fig. 5, copied by Gray from Olaus Magnus. 



94 



ODOB.ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 



curved tusks near the posterior angle of the mouth, and long 
spines from the chin, throat, head, and back. * A fifth t is a 




FIG. 6. "Sosinarns. Gesner, Addenda, 368, 10, 1560. (Reduced one- 
ninth.)" 

creature having a swinish head, with long, ascending tusks in 
the lower jaw, four short, clawed feet, and a rather long, cylin- 




FlG. 7. " Tacca manna, Gcsner, Addenda, p. 369, 1560." 

drical body wrapped in armor ! Another is a monstrous sea 
animal, with a circle of long spines around the head, and tufts 
of spines from the nostrils and chin, four feet, the anterior only 
with claws, a forked tail with the points laterally recurved, and 

* See Fig\ 6, copied by Gray from Gesner. 
t See Fig. 7, copied by Gray from Gesner. 



FIGURES. 95 

two great tusks iii the upper jaw,' but no other resemblance to 
the Walrus.* 

The figures published by Olaus Magnus were, according to 
von Baer, all faithfully copied by Gesiier, t who added to them 




FlG. 8. "Eosmarus. Gesuer, Icoues Animalium, 1560, p. 178. De Cetis, 
Orel. xii. (Reduced two-thirds.)" 

another, which he received from Strassburg. Thisf represents, 
as von Baer terms it, the " morphological paradox" of a verte- 
brate with two pairs of feet, a pair of wings or floats (" Flossen"), 
and a fish's tail. The head has considerable resemblance to that 
of a Walrus, with the large tusks properly situated in the upper 
jaw, and the eyes and nose are passably represented. The feet 
are all directed backward, in a swimming posture, and armed 
with strong claws. The Seal-like body has engrafted upon it the 
tail of a fish, while at the shoulder is seen a sort of wing-like 
appendage. The figure of the head is said to have been drawn 
in Strassburg from an actual specimen afterward sent by the 
bishop of Drontheim to the Pope, but to this was added a 
wholly imaginary figure of the body. Gesner's figure was sev- 
eral times copied, among others by Ambrosinus in 1642, in 
his Addenda to Aldrovandus's work, and also by Jonston|| in 
1657. 

In 1598, De Veer, in a work entitled " The Navigation into 
the North-Seas," fl gave an illustration entitled "The Portrait- 
ure of our boats and how we nearly got into difficulty with the 
Seahorses." In this picture are depicted several Seal-like aui- 

* This figure is uot included iu Gray's series. 

t Icoues Animalium, 1553, and Historia Animalium, 1558. 

t See Fig. 8, copied by Gray from Gesner. 

" Paralipouiena, etc., adiiexa ad Aldrovaudi Historiani Monstroruin, 
p. 106," according to von Baer. 

il De Piscibus, pi. xliv. 

IT Amsterdam, 1598; translated and republishcd in London in 1609, and 
reprinted from the London edition by the Hakluyt Society in 1853, the last- 
named being the edition here quoted. 



96 ODOB^NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

rnals standing on the ice, with long tusks and an arched body, 
supported on a decurved bifurcate tail and the fore limbs, while 
the heads of several others are seen in the water. They are 
represented as having distinct pointed ears and no hind feet, 
unless the tail-like ending of the body may be supposed to rep- 
resent the hind limbs.* An explanation of the inaccuracy of 




FIG. 9. "Sea Horse, 1609." 

these figures is evidently afforded by the context (pp. 218-219 
of the Hakluyt edition), in which we find the following: "And 
passing along by it ["Admiralty Island"], we saw about two 
hundred seahorses lying upon a flake of ice, and we sailed 
close by them and draue them from there, which had almost 
cast us doun ; for they being mighty strong fishes [Zee-mon- 
sters, the editor says is the term used in the original Dutch], 
and of great force swam towards us (as if they would revenge 
on us for the despight that we had done them) round about 
our scuts [boats] with a great noyse, as if they would have de- 
voured us ; but we escaped from them by reason of a good gale 
of wind ; yet it was not wise of us to wake sleeping wolves." 




FIG. 10. ' ' Wa1nt88. Ad vivum delineatum ab Hesselo G. A. 1613. (Reduced 

four-sevenths. ) " 

In 1613 a very correct and in many ways admirable repre- 
sentation of the Walrus was published by Hessel Gerard t (or 

* One of these figures has been copied by Gray (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1853, p. 114, fig. 6), but omitting the ears and somewhat reduced in size. 
Gray's figure is here reproduced (see Fig. 9). 

t " Histoire de Spitsberghe," as cited by Gray. Blmnenbach and von Baer 
cite doubtfully "Descriptio ac delineatio geographica detectionis freti, s. 
transitus ad occasnm supra terras Aniericanas in China atque Japonem duc- 
turi, etc." Von Hessel Gerard. Amsterdam, 1613. 4. 



FIGURES. 97 

Gerrard, as also written), drawn from life from a young animal, 
which, with the stuffed skin of its mother, arrived in Holland in 
1012. This representation consists of two figures, one of a full- 
grown animal, the other of a young one a few months old.* The 
hind portion of the larger animal is partly hidden by the figure 
of the smaller one. The general form of the body, the tusks, 
and extremities are all faithfully portrayed, the hind limbs being 
turned forward in their natural position, the first figure, and 
the only one for the next two hundred and fifty years, in which 
the hind limbs are placed in a natural position. This figure 
has been many times copied, first by De Laet t in 1G33, and sub- 
sequently from De Laet, by WorniiusJ in 1665, by Jouston, 
Shaw, 1 1 Schinz,^} Gray,** and doubtless by many others. Most of 
the early authors, as Wormius, Jonstou, and others, copied, not 
directly from Gerard, but from De Laet, while Shaw copied 
from Jonston, and Schiuz from Blumenbach, in several cases 
these second and third hand representations doing great injus- 
tice to Gerard's original figure. Blumenbach,tt through the 
kindness of his friend Forster, was enabled to take his from 
Gerard's original imprint, and it is a much finer illustration 
than that afforded by De Laet, the one usually copied. Von 
Baerjf also refers to a colored copy of Gerard's figure, which he 
obtained, with a collection of natural-history illustrations, from 
a bookseller in Leipsic, in which the coloring was truthfully 
executed, agreeing closely with the color of the young animal 
he saw alive in St. Petersburg. Gerard's often-copied drawing 

* See Fig. 10, copied by Gray, and here reproduced. 

tNovus Orbis, seu Descrip. Ind. Occident., 1633, p. 38. 

JMus. Worm., p. 289. 

$ De Piscibus et Cetis, 1649, pi. xliv (also in subsequent editions). 

|| General Zool., i, 1800, pi. Ixviii*. 

If Naturgesch. und Abbild. der Siiuget., pi. Ixv, lower figure. 

**Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, p. 115, fig. 9. Gray's figure is here given 
(see Fig. 10). 

tt Abbild. uaturhist. Gegenstiinde, 1796-1810, No. 15 (plate and text). 

ttLoc. cit., p. 129. 

Von Baer's account of this important early figure is as follows : " Diese 
vortreffliche Zeichnung wurde in Kupfer gestochen und einigen Exemplaren 
von dein Abdrucke der Descriptio ac delineatio geograpliica detectionis freti, s. 
transitus ad occasum supra terras Americanas in Chinam atque Japonem ducturi 
etc., der von Hessel Gerard in Amsterdam 1613, 4. besorgt ist, beigegeben. 
In dieseni Buche wurde der Originalkupferstich von Forster gefunden und 
Blunienbach mitgetheilt. Da er sich, wie Blumenbach sagt, in keiner an- 
deru Ausgabe desselben Werkes und auch in dieser nnr in den wenigsten 
Exemplaren findet, so ist wohl wahrscheinlich, dass er gar nicht zu dem 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 7 



98 ODOB^NUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

was well worthy of repetition, being incomparably better than 
any other made prior to those taken from the living specimen 
received at the Zoological Gardens in London in 1853. 

Pnrchas, in his " Pilgriines,"* gives some very interesting, 
and in many respects excellent, representations of the Walrus, 
to which I find no reference in the writings of von Baer or Gray, 
or, in fact, anywhere. In the principal of these figures, the 
general form of the Walrus is more correctly delineated than 
in any figure, except Gerard's, that appeared prior to 1857. 
Barring its facial expression, and the presence of what seems 
to be a mane, it is excellent. The general outline of both the 
body and the limbs are surprisingly truthful, as is likewise the 
attitude. The hind feet are turned forward, and the size and 
position of the tusks are correctly represented. The face, how- 
ever, has a most ludicrous half-leonine, half-human expression, 
which is heightened by the addition of an ear having the gen- 
eral form of a human ear. In addition to this, the creature is 

Werke gehort und nur von dein Herausgeber oder von den Kiiufern einigen 
Exemplaren beigebundeuist. Ich habe nicht Gelegenheit gehabt, dasliier 
genannte Werke zu sehen uud darnach zu bestiininen, ob das Kupfer zu deni 
Buche gehort, verniuthe aber eines Theils aus der angegebeuen Seltenlieit 
seines Vorkommens uud andern Theils aus deni Umstande, dass die Figur 
in niehreren Werkeu des 17. Jahrhunderts wiederholt wurde, dass sie danials 
bekannter war, als im ISten. Ja, ich besitze selbst eiu colorirtes Blatt, das ich 
in einer Sainuilung naturhistorischer Abbilduugen in Leipzig aus dem Nach- 
lasse eines Naturalienhiiudlers kaufte und welches, zwar nicht der Original- 
Kupferstich, doch cine Copie desselben 1st. Die Farbe, welche beide Thiere 
auf nieineni Blatte haben, ist ganz iibereinstimniend mit der Farbe des 
jungen Wallrosses. das hier zu sehen war. Da nun die erwachsenen Wall- 
rosse in der Regel heller sind, so ist es mir wahrscheinlich, dass auch die 
Colorirung danials nach dem jungen Thiere gemacht ist." VON BAER, I. c., 
pp. 128, 129. 

Gray says : "In a small quarto tract, called the ' Histoire du Pays nomine" 
Spitsberghe, e"crit par H. G. A., Amsterdam, chez Hessel Gerrard A.', 1613, a 
plate at page 20 contains an excellent figure of the Morse and its young, ' ad 
vivum delineaturn ab Hesselo G. A.' This figure was repeated in De Laet's 
'Ainer. Descript.', p. 28, 1633, by Jonston, 'Pisces', t. 44, in 1657, and by 
Shaw, 'Zoology', t. 68*, from Jonston." Gray copies this figure with the 
following title: "Fig. 9. Walruss. Ad vivum delineaturn ab Hesselo G. A. 
Histoire de Spitsberghe, by H. G. A., 1613. Another edition, same date. 
(Reduced four-sevenths.)" Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, p. 115. 

It would thus appear that either Gerard's figure was published simulta- 
neously in several different works, since that mentioned by Gray is not the 
one cited by von Baer, or else that, as von Baer suspected, and as seems 
more probable, the plate did not really belong to the work von Baer cites, 
but merely happened to be bound with it. 

*Vol. iii, pp. 472-473 bis. 



hi 



: 



FIGURES. 99 

represented as having a heavy mane, extending from the head 
to the middle of the back. The figure bears the quaint legend, 
"The Seamorce is in quantity as bigg as an oxe." Another illustra- 
tion on the opposite page shows " The manner of killing y e 
Seamorces," and represents a small herd of Walruses attacked 
by a party of hunters armed with lances. The Walruses are 
all headed toward the water, the men being between them and 
the sea. The Walruses are depicted in the attitude of walking, 
all having the hind feet turned forward, these figures giving 
apparently a correct idea of the Walrus's manner of progres- 
sion on land. These two illustrations form part of a series that 
embellish a map of " Greenland" (Spitzbergen), the others rep- 
resenting different scenes in Whale-fishing and " the manner 
of killing Beares." 

Zorgdrager,* in 1720, gave a figure of a Walrus which has a 
Seal -like head with two long tusks in the upper jaw, and the 
general body-contour of a Walrus. The posterior third of the 
body and hind limbs are fortunately, to judge by the rest of the 
figure, left to the imagination, being hidden behind the figure 
if a Seal ("Zee Bob"),- the fore limbs bear no resemblance to 
those of a Walrus. 

In 1741, Egede t gave a Seal-like figure of a Walrus, with its 
calf, confronting a Polar Bear. The open mouth displays a 
series of long sharp teeth, looking even less like Walrus tusks 
than the general form of the animal does like the outline of a 
Walrus. This figure of the Walrus is surprisingly poor, con- 
sidering the excellent description Egede gives of the animal. 

In 1748, Ellis J further enriched the iconographic literature of 
the Walrus by furnishing a figure,- respecting which he says : 
"I shall not detain the Header with an Account of a Creature 
[" Sea Horse"] so often described, but refer him to the Cut, in 
which he will find it very truly represented." The figure, how- 
ever, is one of the worst imaginable, considering the oppor- 
tunity Ellis evidently had for observation. In some respects 
it bears some resemblance to that given by De Veer. Ellis's 
figure combines a Lynx-like face with Lion-like fore limbs, short, 

* Bloeyeude Opkoinft cler Aloncle eu Hederitlaagsclie Groenlandsche Vis- 
scliery, 1720, plate facing p. 162, upper left-hand figure. 

t Besclireibung nud Naturgeschicbte von Gronland, 1763, p. 106, pi. vi, 
lower left-hand figure, Kruuitz's German translation. The work appeared 
in Danish as early as 1741. 

t Voyage to Hudson Bay, pi. facing p. 134, middle figure. 

Loc. cit., p. 236. 



100 ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

round, prominent ears, small, pointed, inward- curving tusks, no 
hind feet, and a body tapering to a doubly emarginate fish-like 
tail, possibly intended to represent hind limbs. 

Poutoppidon, in his Natural History of Norway, published 
in 1751, gave a figure of the Walrus in which the resemblance 
consisted mainly in the presence of two huge tusks in the upper 
jaw. Only the head, neck, and upper portion of the body are 
represented; but the general outline, as far as seen, is sug- 
gestive of the animal it was intended to represent. 

Houttuyn,* in 1701, gave a very fair figure of the skull and os 
penis of a Walrus. As P. L. S. Miiller, in 1773, used Houttuyn's 
plates in his " Natursy stern," these figures are there again called 
into service, to which was added a noteworthy representation 
of the animal.t This represents an apparently young Walrus 
as lying partly on the side, with the diminutive hind feet 




FIG. 11." Wall-Ross, Marten's Spitzbergeu, &c. 1675, t. P, fig. &. (Eeduced 

three-tenths. ) " 

turned forward. The general outline of the body indicates 
the obese form of the Walrus; but the head, with its small, 
short tusks, has scarcely the faintest resemblance to the head 
of that animal. 

* Natuurlyke Historic of uitvoerige Beschryving der Dieren, Plaiiten en 
Mineraalen, volgeus het Samenstel van den Heer Linnaeus. Met naaw- 
keurige Af beeldingen. Eerste Deels, tweede Stuk, 1761, pi. xi, figg. 1, 4. 

tDes Eitters Carl von Linne" Kouiglich Schwedischen Leibarztes, &c. &c. 
vollstiiudiges Natursystem nach der zwolften lateinischen Ausgabe und uach 
Anleitung des holliindischen Houttuynischen Werks mit einer ausfiihrliclieu 
Erkliirung ausgefertiget von Philipp Ludwig Statins Miiller, etc. Erster 
Theil. Niirnberg, 1773. PI. sxix, fig. 2. This is one of the few original 
plates added by Miiller to Honttuyn's series 



FIGURES. 101 

In 1765, a most wretched and ludicrous caricature of the 
Walrus was contributed by Martens.* In this figure, the much- 
abused Walrus is represented as having an enormously large 
and shapeless head, in which the small tusks are set widely 
apart ; it has small Seal-like fore feet, and no hind limbs, or, if 
present, they are directed backward, and look more like a fish's 
tail than distinct limbs. The tusks alone give the figure any 
suggestion of what it was intended to represent. 

The next figure of which I have knowledge was published by 
Buffon,t also in 1765, and soon after copied by Schreber.f This 




FIG. 12. "Ze Morse, Buffon, xiii, t, 548, 1765. (Reduced two-fifths.)" 

was evidently drawn from a stuffed specimen, to which the taxi- 
dermist had given the attitude and general form of a common 
Seal. In 1827, a very fair figure of the head (the animal being 
supposed to be in the water, with only the head visible) was 
published in Griffith's Animal Kingdom (vol. ii, pi. v), which 
was later repeated by Hamilton, and also elsewhere. In 1836, 
a very fair, colored figure (evidently from a stuffed specimen), 
barring the posterior direction of the hind limbs, appeared in the 
"Disciples edition" || of Cuvier's Eegne Animal, copied from Pal- 

* Spitzbergische Reisebeschreibiuig, pi. P, fig. &. This fig. is also repro- 
duced by Gray (1. c., fig. 7), and is here copied as Fig. 11. 

t Histoire Naturelle, t. xiii, pi. liv. 

t Sauget., pi. Ixxix. 

Amphibious Carnivora, p. 106, in Jard. Nat. Library, Mam., vol. viii. 

|| Le Regne Animal, etc., par Georges Cuvier. "Edition accompague'e des 
planches gravies, .... par une reunion de disciples de Cuvier," etc. Paris, 
1836 et seq. 

The Walrus is figured in "Mammiferes," pi. xliv. The history of the 
figure is given as follows: "Figure dessine'e d'apres cello qu'a donnee Pal- 
las dans la Zoographia Eosso -Asiatica, et re'forme'e, pour le pose, d'apres nn 
croquis inddit de Choris; au vingtieine environ de la grandeur naturelle." 

The only copy of Pallas's "Icones" accessible to me is imperfect, and has 
not the figure here copied. There is, however, a quite different one, which 
will be noticed later in another connection. Whether Pallas's figure here 
copied represents the Atlantic or the Pacific species cannot well be deter- 
mined. 



102 ODOB^ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

las. Another much like it was published soon after in Macgil- 
livray's British Quadrupeds, * and still another, also quite simi- 
lar, in Hamilton's Marine Caruivora.t The vignette-titlepage of 
the last-named work also represents a " Walrus hunt," in which 
a boat's crew are depicted as attacking a group of five old Wal- 
ruses. The plate in Hamilton's "Amphibious Carnivora" pur- 
ports to have been drawn from a specimen in the Edinburgh 
Koyal Museum, and seems to be essentially the seme as that 
in Macgillivray's British Quadrupeds, with a somewhat altered 
position and different background. In each of these plates 
are represented two other distant figures of the Walrus. lu 
each, the tusks are long, and seem to represent the Pacific 
rather than the Atlantic species, as is also the case in the "Dis- 
ciples edition" of the Begne Animal. In all these last-named 
figures, the hind limbs are directed posteriorly, but in other 
respects they are fair representations. 

Dr. Kane, | in 1856, gave several illustrations of the animal, 
and also of its breathing-holes, and of the implements employed 
by the Iimuits in Walrus-hunting. In Sonntag's "Narrative 
of the Grinnell*Exploring Expedition," published in 1857, a 

* Jardine's Nat. Library, Mam., vol. vii, 1838, pi. xx. 

tlbid., vol. viii, 1839, pi. i. 

t Arctic Exploration, vol. i, pp. 141 (" Walrus Sporting"), 142 ("Walrus- 
hole), 419 ("portrait"); vol. ii, plate facing p. 214 ("Walrus Hunt off Pi- 
kantlik" a nearly full figure. 

This curious and apparently little known brochure, by the eminent 
astronomer of the Expedition, is well worthy of attention, notwithstanding 
the ludicrously sensational character of the titlepage affixed by the en- 
terprising publishers. The titlepage, transcribed in full, is as follows: 
"Professor Sonntag's Thrilling Narrative of the Grinnell Exploring Expe- 
dition to the Arctic Ocean, in the years 1853, 1854, and 1855, in search of 
Sir John Franklin, under the command of Dr. E. K. Kane, U. S. N. Con- 
taining the History of all previous explorations of the Arctic Ocean, from 
the year 1618 down to the present time ; showing how far they advanced 
northward, what discoveries they made and their scientific observations. 
The present whereabouts of Sir John Franklin and his party, if they are 
still alive. A statement of the only practicable method by which the North 
Pole may be reached; the reasons why all exploring expeditions have 
hitherto failed to penetrate the icy barriers of the Polar Regions. Highly 
important astronomical observations, proving that there is no such thing as 
apparent time at the North Pole ; sufferings of Dr. Kane's exploring party ; 
how they were buried for two years in the ice, enduring a degree of cold 
never experienced by any human being before ; their miraculous escapes 
and unprecedented hardships; their abandonment of the ship ; and perilous 
journey of four hundred miles over the ice. With nearly one hundred 
splendid engravings. By Professor August Sonutag, Astronomer to the 



FIGURES. 103 

group of four old Walruses is figured (full-page woodcut, p. 113). 
The animals are disposed in various attitudes, and represent 
admirably the grim visage, postures, and uncouth proportions 
of the Atlantic Walrus. The figure in the foreground is pre- 
sented in profile, with both fore and hind limbs in a natural 
position; behind this are two old veterans seen in half-profde, 
and behind these a third lying on its back with the hind liinbs 
thrust upward. This illustration, evidently a study from life, is 
by far the best representation of the adult Atlantic Walrus with 
which I am acquainted. In 1857, Dr. Gray reproduced, as pre- 
viously detailed (antea, pp. 93-100), a series of the early figures 
from Olaus Magnus, Gesner, Jonston, Gerard, Martens, Buffon, 
and Cook. 

The next original figures of the Walrus with which I am 
acquainted were drawn from the living specimen in the Gar- 
dens of the Zoological Society of London by Mr. Wolf, and 
appear in Wolf and Sclater's "Zoological Sketches,"* published 
in 1861. In plate xviii is represented a group of Walruses in 
various attitudes. Those in the foreground are young and tusk- 
less, with a heavy array of long mystacial bristles, and much 
thinner necks and shoulders than the Walrus is commonly repre- 
sented as having, doubtless owing to the very emaciated condi- 
tion of the living original. 

At about this date (1861), some very good pictures of groups 
of Walruses were published by Mr. Lament in his entertaining 
and instructive book entitled " Seasons with the Sea-horses." 
In a spirited plate (called "Chase of the Walrus"), facing the 
titlepage, is portrayed a group of Walruses in the sea, attacked 

Expedition, formerly of the Royal Observatory at Vienna, and late of the 
U. S. National Observatory, "Washington City, D. C. Philadelphia, Perm. : 
Jas. T. Lloyd & Co. Cincinnati, Ohio : Jas. T. Lloyd & Co." No date. 
Large 8vo, pp. 176, paper. Copyright dated 1857. 

The piiblishers state: "The undersigned having purchased Professor 
Sonntag's Narrative of the Grinnell Expedition, some months since, have 
used their best judgment and abilities in preparing this thrilling narrative 
for the press, to make it as acceptable to the reading public as possible," etc. 

The name of the author is alone sufficient guaranty of the trustworthy 
and instructive character of the -work, which, despite the dime-novel aspect 
of its exterior, is a valuable contribution to the history of the Arctic Re- 
gions. Pages 80 to 85 are devoted to a general account of the Walrus. At 
page 83 is a sketch of a "Desperate attack of Walruses on the English 
Boat," based apparently on Captain Beechey's account of an adventure with 
these animals. 

*Vol. i, pi. sviii. 



104 ODOBJENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

by a boat's crew, one of the poor animals having been already 
harpooned. Another plate, facing page 72, entitled "Walruses 
on the Ice," represents a herd on the ice in various attitudes, 
most, but not all, of which have the hind feet extended back- 
ward, in the manner of Seals. In his later work, " Yachting hi 
the Arctic Seas," he has given (plate opposite p. 56) a very fine 
side-view of the head, and on p. 221 a large vignette figure of 
the head seen in front. 

Mr. Brown also refers to " the excellent figures of the Wal- 
rus taken by the artist of the Swedish Expedition," namely, a 
"chromolithograph and head, both drawn byHerrvon Yhlen," 
"under the direction of such well-informed naturalists as Torell, 
Malmgren, Smith, Goes, Blomstrand, &c.," in which "the fore 
flippers are represented as rather doubled back, and the hind 
nippers extended." This work (" Sveuska Expeditioner til 
Spetsbergen ar 1861, pp. 168-182, pi. facing p. 169, and head 
p. 308 ") I have been unable to see, but presume the figures are 
the same as those in the German translation of this work, 
which appeared in 1869. * The frontispiece of this work repre- 
sents a group of four old Walruses resting on the ice, with a 
fifth in the water in the foreground. A woodcut of the head of 
a young, or more probably a female, is given on p. 132, and on 
p. 136 a hunting-scene. 

In 1867 appeared figures of the second living specimen 
received at the Zoological Society's Gardens. According to Dr. 
Murie t these were published in " The Field," " Land and Water," 
" Illustrated London isews," and elsewhere. The figure origi- 
nally appearing in " The Field " (drawn by Mr. Wood) is repub- 
lished by Dr. Murie in his " Memoir on the Anatomy of the 
Walrus " \ from the original wood-block. This is a rather more 
robust figure than those published by Wolf and Sclater, but is 
likewise tuskless (being also that of a very young animal), and 
shows similarly the long, descending, curved mystacial bris- 
tles. 

In 1870, Dr. Gilpin figured a male Walrus killed in March, 
1869, in the Straits of Belle Isle, Labrador. In this figure, the 
general form of the body is very well represented, but the hind 

* Die sclrwedischen Expeditionen nach. Spitzbergen und Biiren-Eiland, 
ausgefiihrt in den Jakren 1861, 1864 und 1868, etc. (for full transcript of 
the titlepage see anted, p. 92). 

t Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. vii, 1872, p. 413. 

t Loc. cit., p. 416. 



FIGURES. 105 

limbs are turned backward, as in the common Seals. A view 
of the muzzle forms a second figure, and the form of one of the 
fore limbs is given in outline. 

Wells, in his "Gateway to the Polynia/' published in 1873, 
gives a plate (facing page 201) in illustration of the "Walrus. 
The figure in the foreground represents an individual flat on 
its belly with all the limbs directed posteriorly. Other figures 
represent other individuals reposing in various attitudes. 

The above-enumerated figures of the Walrus embrace all the 
original figures of the Atlantic species thus far known to me, and 
all to which I have seen references, so far as figures of the entire 
animal are concerned. In recapitulation, it may be stated that 
Gesner's figure, published in 1558, is the first that had an actual 
foundation in nature, all the preceding (the mythical ones of 
Olaus Magnus) being purely fictitious or based on erroneous 
conceptions. Gesner's, as already noticed, was a curious combi- 
nation of reality with myth, the head only being drawn from 
nature, and a fanciful body added ! The first really drawn from 
nature (" ad vivuni ") was Hessel Gerard's excellent figure pub- 
lished in 1613. Subsequently appeared numerous figures in the 
works of travellers, drawn apparently either from memory or by 
artists who had never seen the animal they so confidently 
attempted to depict. 

The first representation based on a museum specimen appears 
to have been Buffon's, in 1705, which has been aptly described 
as being merely a common Seal with tusks. Other figures fol- 
lowed later, as those in the so-called " Disciples edition " of Cu- 
vier's Eegne Animal, and in the two already cited volumes of 
Jardiue's Naturalist's Library, drawn also from stuffed speci- 
mens, in which the hind limbs were always placed in a wholly 
false attitude, though in other respects passably fair figures. Not 
until a living specimen reached London, in 1853, did the cor- 
rect attitudes of the animal and the natural position of the hind 
limbs become generally known to naturalists, and not until 
then was the truthfulness of Gerard's early figure duly recog- 
nized and appreciated, notwithstanding that von Baer, nearly 
twenty years earlier, testified to its excellence, and correctly 
described the flexibility of the limbs. Now, through the two 
living specimens seen and figured in London, and through 
excellent recent figures of the Pacific Walrus, the attitudes and 
external bearing of few of our marine mammalia are better 
known than those of the Walruses. 



106 ODOB.ENUS ROSMAKUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

In addition to the above-described figures of the general ani- 
uial, representations of various anatomical details, both of the 
osteology and the soft parts, have been from, time to time pub- 
lished. As early as 1701, the skull, as previously stated, was 
figured by Houttuyii, and again by Daubenton* in 17G5, these 
being the earliest figures of the skull to which I find reference. 
Goethe, in his "Morphologie" (see anted, p. 48), gave important 
figures illustrative of the dentition and structure of the ante- 
rior portion of the skull. 

Home, t in 1824, published a series of excellent figures of the 
extremities and stomach. G. Cuvier, in 1825, figured skulls 
and the skeleton, his figures of the skull being also reproduced 
in the "Disciples" edition of Cuvier's Regne Animal. Pan- 
der and d' Alton, in 1826, in their " Vergleichende Osteolo- 
gie,"|| gave an excellent figure of the skeleton and detail illus- 
trations of the skull and limbs. In the figure of the skeleton,, 
the hind feet are turned forward in a plantigrade position, and 
the fore limbs are given their natural pose. Von Baer,fl in 
1835, figured the blood-vessels of the limbs, and, in 1840, 
De Blainville ** figured the skeleton and the skull. Gray, tt 
in 1850, gave a view of the skull, the same figure being re- 
peated in some of his later works. $$ Owen, in 1845, figured 
the dentition in his " Odoutography " (pi. cxxxii, fig. 8), the 
skull and dentition in 1854, and gave another figure in 
1868. mi In 1857, Walrus skulls were figured by Blasius, flfl and 
Leidy *** the same year figured a fossil skull from Monmouth 
County, New Jersey. Later, as already noticed (anted, p. 54), 
the milk dentition was figured by Malmgren, and also by 

* Buff oil's Histoire Nat., tome xiii, pi. Iv. An artistically much improved 
(but unaccredited) copy of Daubentoii's figures appears in Hamilton's "Am- 
phibious Carnivora" (Jardine's Naturalist's Library, Mam., vol. viii, pp. 
100,101). 

t Phil. Trans., 1824, pp. 235-241, pll. iv-viii. 

I Ossem. Fossiles. 

Mam., pi. xliv. 

|| Liel'erung xi. Die Robben uud Lamautiue, pll. i, ii. 

1TMem. do 1'Acad. St. Petersb., Sci. Nat., vi me ser., 1835, t. iii, pi. . 

** Oste"og., DCS Phoques, pll. i (skeleton) and iv (skull); eight figures. 

tt Cat. Mam. Brit. Mus., p. 31, fig. 11 (small Avoodcut). 

tt Cat. Seals and Whales, 1808, p. 35, fig. 12. 

$6 Eiicycl. Brit., article Odoutography, p. 403, fig. 112. 

Illl Comp. Aiiat. and Phys. Yrrtebr., vol. iii, p. 333, fig. 265. 

[<ff Fauna Wirbelth. Deutschl., pp. 201, 202, figg. 143-150. 

*** Trans. Amor. Phil. Soc. Phila., (2), vol. xi, pll. iv, v. 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 107 

Peters. Dr. Murie, in 1874, gave numerous figures illustrative 
of its external characters, myology, dentition, generative, di- 
gestive, and vocal organs, based on a dissection of the young 
Walrus that died in the Garden of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don in 1867, these being the only figures, so far as known to me, 
devoted to the general anatomy. Doubtless other figures of the 
skull, and possibly of the dentition, have appeared that are not 
here noted. 

HABITS AND THE CHASE. The Walruses are at all times more 
or less gregarious, occurring generally in large or small compa- 
nies, according to their abundance. Like the Seals, they are 
restricted in their wanderings to the neighborhood of shores or 
large masses of floating ice, being rarely seen far out in the open 
sea. Although moving from one portion of their feeding-grounds 
to another, they are said to be in no true sense a migratory ani- 
mal.* They delight in huddling together on the ice-floes or on 
shore, to which places they resort to bask in the sun, pressing one 
agaiust another like so many swine. They are also said to repair 
in large herds to favorable shores or islands,! usually in May 
and June, to give birth to their young, at which tunes they some- 
times remain constantly on land for two weeks together, with- 
out ever taking food. | They are believed to be monogamous, 
and to bring forth usually but a single young at a time, and 
never more than two. The period of gestation is commonly be- 
lieved to be about nine months. The young are born from April 
to June, the time probably varying with the latitude. Malrn- 
gren states that the pairing of the Walruses takes place about 
the end of May or the beginning of June ; that the female gives 
birth to a single young in May or June ; and that the period of 
pregnancy lasts probably for a year. He states that Dr. A. von 
Goes found a mouth-old foetus in the uterus of a female on the 
8th of July, in latitude 80 N., but adds that females with ma- 
ture young in the uterus have been taken as late as the end of 

* See Brown, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 433. 

t Says Zorgdrager (writing in 1750), as quoted by Buffou, in referring to 
this habit : " Aucieunemeut & avail t d'avoir 6t6 persecutes, lea morses s'avau- 
coient fort avant dans les terres, de sorte que dans les liautes marges ils 
e~toieut assez loin de 1'eau, & que dans le temps de la basse iner, la distance 
etant encore beaucoup plus grande, on le abordoit aise~nient." Hist. y<(t. f 
tome xiii, p. 3(56. 

* See Sliuldham, Phil. Trans., vol. Ivi, 1777, p. 249, quoted anted, p. G7. 



108 ODOB^NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

June or July. The females, he believes, suckle their young for 
two years, and that hence not less than three years elapse be- 
tween each birth. The females with their newly -born young 
are said to keep aloof from the society of other Walruses, and 
that females are never found to be pregnant during the year 
following the birth of their young. Females in the second year 
of suckling their young collect in large herds and live apart 
from the full-grown males. Of thirty full-grown Walruses killed 
by Malmgren's harpooner in Henlopen Straits, in the month of 
July, not one was a male. Where the full-grown males were at 
this time was unknown, but they were believed by the hunters 
to be " on the banks," remote from the land, while the females 
with their young sought the bays and open sea near the shores, 
the two sexes thus living in separate herds.* 

Notwithstanding the explicitness of Malmgren's account, 
who no doubt correctly details his own experience in the 
matter, there is much rebutting testimony, most observers 
reporting that both sexes and the young occur in the same 
herds, t The only detailed account of the pairing and repro- 

* See further Holmgren's paper, as translated in Arch, flir Naturgesch., 
1864, pp. 70-72. 

t Says Dr. Kane: " The early spring is the breeding season, ... at 
which time the female with her calf is accompanied by the griin-visagecl 
father, surging in loving trios from crack to crack, sporting around the berg- 
water, or basking in the sun." Arctic Exploration, vol. ii, p. 131. 

Dr. Hayes, referring to a herd upon which he made an attack, thus ob- 
serves : ' ' Besides the old bulls, the group contained several cows and a few 
calves of various sizes some evidently yearlings, others but recently born, 
and others but half or three quarters grown.. Some were without tusks, 
while on others they were just sprouting ; and above this they were of vari- 
ous sizes up to those of the big bulls, which had great curved cones of ivory 
nearly three feet long." Open Polar Sea, p. 406. 

Lament also refers to the presence of young and old, males and females, 
in the same herd, and to the custom of the Walrus-hunters of striking a 
young one in order to detain the herd, which, through sympathy, join con- 
certedly in its defense, thus affording the hunters opportunity for further 
slaughter. Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. . 

Through the kindness of Prof. Henry A. Ward, of Rochester, N. Y., I am 
in receipt, in answer to inquiries respecting the habits and reproduction of 
the Walrus, of the following information from the pen of Captain Adams, 
of the whaling-steamer "Arcturus," from Dundee to Baffin's Bay. Captain 
Adams, writing from long experience in Walrus-hunting, says: "I am of 
opinion that the female Walrus prefers low flats of land on which to bring 
forth her young. The time is in mid-spring. In early May I have seen very 
young Walruses on the ice with their mothers. I have also seen afterbirths 
on the ice, but still think that low flat laud is preferred when attainable. I do 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 109 

duction of the Walrus is that long since given by Shuldhaui, 
based on observations made a century ago at the Magdalen 
Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (see antea, p. 07), to which 
he says they repair " early in spring " and immediately bring- 
forth their young. Captain Parry states that he met with 
females accompanied by their young in Fox Channel, July 13, 
and Mr. Lamout speaks of meeting with young accompanied 
by their parents at the same season (July 15) in the vicinity of 
Spitsbergen. Captain Hayes refers to meeting with " calves 
newly born " as early as July 3 in Frobisher's Bay. Captain 
Parry says that Walruses killed by the Esquimaux in March (in 
the years 1822 and 1823) were observed to be with young. * 

When repairing to the land or to the ice-floes to rest, those 
first arriving are described as generally composing themselves 
for a nap at the place where they first land, but their comrades 
still in the water having a strong desire to laud at the same 
spot, the latter force those already on shore higher up, while 
they in turn are pushed forward by later comers, their habits in 
this, as well as in many other respects, resembling those of the 
Sea Lions and Sea Bears. 

The Walrus, like the common Seals, is said to have its breath- 
ing-holes in the ice. These are described by Dr. Kane as being 
similar to those of the Seals, having "the same circular, cleanly- 
finished margin," but made in much thicker ice, with the " radi- 
ating lines of fracture round them much more marked." The 
ice around the holes is much discolored, while near them are 
numbers of broken clam-shells, and in one instance Dr. Kane 
found " gravel, mingled with about half a peck of coarse shin- 
gle of the beach. " t Kane says the Walrus often sleeps in the 
water between the fields of drift-ice. " In this condition," he 
relates, U I frequently surprised the young ones whose mothers 
were asleep by their sides." | Other writers refer to the same 
habit. 

not think that the females and young live in separate herds from males, but 
the males herd alone in early spring. In the middle of summer both sexes 
herd together ; then the males are very wild. I have seen many females 
alone in the autumn. I do not think the females nurse their young over 
twelve months." Communicated lij Prof. H. A. Ward in a letter of date March 
31, 1878. 

* Narrative of Parry's Second Voyage, p. 415. 

t Arctic Exploration, vol. i, 1856, pp. 141, 142. On page 142 is a figure 
of a "Walrus hole." Mr. Eobert Brown gives a similar account (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 429), using, in fact, in part the same phraseology. 

t Ibid., vol. i, p. 141. 



110 ODOB^ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

The voice of the Walrus is a loud roaring or "hucking," and 
can be heard to a great distance, often giving notice of the pres- 
ence of a herd long before they can be seen. " Like some of the 
higher order of beings to which he has been compared," says Dr. 
Kane, he "is fond of his own music, and will lie for hours list- 
ening to himself. His vocalization is something between the 
mooing of a cow and the deepest baying of a mastiff: very round 
and full, with its bark or detached notes repeated rather quickly 
seven to nine times in succession." * Other writers speak of the 
roaring of a herd as being distinguishable at the distance of 
several miles. 

The Walrus, unless molested, is represented as inoffensive 
and harmless, but as exhibiting when attacked great fierceness, 
and even vindictiveness, proving a powerful and often dan- 
gerous antagonist. Their strong affection for their young and 
their sympathy for each other in times of danger are strong 
traits in their character, in which qualities they are rarely ex- 
ceeded by any members of the mammalian class. When one 
of their number is wounded, the whole herd usually join in an 
intelligent and concerted defense. With their enormous size 
and threatening tusks it is little wonder that they inspired the 
early voyagers with terror, and that their powers and ferocity 
were to some degree overestimated. Their aspect is, in short, 
as affirmed by recent intelligent observers, little less than ter- 
rible. That the accounts given by the early navigators of the 
fierce attacks made upon them by the " Sea Horses," as they 
commonly termed them, are not to be by any means wholly 
attributed to the superstitious fears so prevalent respecting 
sea-monsters in the early times, is evident from the trustworthy 
accounts given us of these creatures by the intrepid explorers 
of the Arctic region in our own times, as will be' shown by 
the copious testimony presently to be given. That there is 
much in his aspect that is truly formidable is evident from Mr. 
Lament's graphic description, who says: "The upper lip of the 
Walrus is thickly set with strong, transparent, bristly hairs, 
about six [?] inches long, and as thick as a crow-quill; and this 
terrific mustache, together with his long white tusks, and fierce- 
looking, blood-shot eyes, gives Rosmarus trichecus altogether a 
most unearthly and demoniacal appearance as he rears his head 
above the waves. I think it not unlikely that the old fable of 
the mermaid may have originated by their grim resemblance to 

* Arctic Exploration, vol. i, 1856, p. 410. 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. Ill 

the head of a human being when in this position."* The 
confounding, in early times, of the Eussian name Morss by the 
peoples of Western Europe with the Latin word Mors and the 
German word Tod, as already alluded to (antea, p. 81), finds its 
explanation doubtless in exaggerated accounts of its terrible 
aspect and power. 

The Walrus, either through confidence in its own power, or 
through ignorance of the character of its human foes, is generally 
not easily alarmed, and permits a near approach before manifest- 
ing uneasiness or fear, sometimes, indeed, treating its human 
visitors with quiet indifference. When found reposing on land, 
it is, in fact, easily dispatched, unless it has been previously 
subjected to repeated attacks, when it profits by dearly-bought 
experience and makes a timely retreat to the water, and thus 
commonly escapes its pursuers. With due caution, however, 
the Walrus-hunters succeed in cutting off their retreat to the 
sea, when hundreds of the then helpless creatures fall victims 
to the hunter's rapacity. Says Zorgdrager, as translated by 
Buffon : " On inarchoit de front vers ces aniinaux pour leur cou- 
per la retraite du cote de la mer ; ils voyoieut tons ces prepara- 
tifs sans aucune crainte, & souvent chaque chasseur en tuoit 
un avaut qu'il put rengagner 1'eau. On faisoit ime barriere de 
leurs cadavres & on laissoit quelques gens a 1'assut pour assoni- 
iner ceux qui restoient. On en tuoit quelquefois trois on qua- 

tre cents On voit par la prodigieuse quantite d'os- 

semens de ces aniinaux dont la terre est jouchee qu'ils out ete 
autrefois tres nouibreux."t This manner of attack was also 
well described a little later by Lord Shuldham, his detailed ac- 
count of their destruction at the Magdalen Islands during the 
last century being fully corroborated by scores of modern ob- 
servers at numerous other localities. According to Lord Shuld- 
ham, the hunters allowed them to come on shore to the number 
of several hundred, and then cautiously approaching them from 
the seaward, under cover of the darkness of night, would en- 
deavor, by the aid of well-trained dogs, to cut off their retreat 
to the water and drive them further inland. These attacks 
were sometimes so successful that fifteen or sixteen hundred 
have been killed in a single attack.! A similar wholesale de- 
struction of Walruses was carried on by the English in the 

* Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 141, 142. 
tBuffou's Hist. Nat., torn, xiii, pp. 366, 367. 
t For Lord Shnldham's account in full sec antea, p. 67. 



112 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

early part of the seventeenth century at Cherie or Bear Island,, 
as already related (antea, pp. 73-78). Mr. Lamont, in his " Sea- 
sons with Sea-horses," gives a similar account of their recent 
destruction in the Spitsbergen Seas, where he says, by a similar 
mode of attack, two ships' crews killed nine hundred in a single 
day.* 

The habits of the Walruses as met with in their native 
waters, their strong affection for their young and for each 
other, inducing the whole herd to join in defense of a wounded 
comrade, and their power and courage in the water in repelling 
the attacks of man, I have chosen to detail in the language of 
actual observers, believing the vivid portrayal of a few scenes 
from real life, by trustworthy eye-witnesses, to be far preferable 
to any epitomized account of the subject, however well and 
carefully elaborated. The personal incidents involved and the 
circumstances of pursuit are necessarily important accessories 
to a correct appreciation of the scenes described. 

As stated in several of the earliest accounts of these animals, 
they are always more or less wary, and at times difficult to ap- 
proach, usually keeping a sentinel on guard while the herd is 
asleep. Respecting their habits at such times, Mr. Robert Brown 
observes as follows : " On the floes, lying over soundings and 
shoals, the Walruses often accumulate in immense numbers, 
and lie huddled upon the ice. More frequently, in Davis's Strait 
and Baffin's Bay, they are found floating about on pieces of drift 
ice, in small family parties of six or seven ; and I have even seen 
only one lying asleep on the ice. Whether in large or small par- 
ties, one is always on the watch, as was long ago observed by 
the sagacious Cook : the watch, on the approach of danger, will 
rouse those next to them ; and the alarm being spread, presently 
the whole herd will be on the qui vive."\ 

Mr. Lamont thus describes a scene in the Spitsbergen waters : 
"At 3 a. ni. this morning [July 13, 1859], we were aroused by 
the cheering cry of 'Hvalruus paa Ysen' (Walruses on the ice). 
We both got up immediately, and from the deck a curious and 
exciting spectacle met our admiring gaze. Four large flat ice- 
bergs were so densely packed with Walruses that they were 
sunk awash with the water, and had the appearance of being 
solid islands of Walrus! 

"The monsters lay with their heads reclining on one another's 

*Mr. Lament's account will be given later iu full. (See p. 114.) 
t Robert Brovoi in Proc. Zool. Soc. LoncL, 1868, p. 429. 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 113 

backs and sterns, just as I have seen Bhinoceroses lying asleep 
in the African forests : or, to use a more familiar simile, like a 
lot of fat hogs in a British straw-yard. I should think there 
were about eighty or one hundred on the ice, and many more 
swam grunting aud spouting around, and tried to clamber up 
among their friends, who, like surly people in a full omnibus, 
grunted at them angrily, as if to say, 'Confound you, don't you 
see that we are full 1 ' There Avere plenty more good flat icebergs 
about, but they always seem to like being packed as closely 
as possible for mutual warmth. These four islands were several 
hundred yards apart, . . . ."* 

Mr. Lamont thus refers to the number seen on another occa- 
sion, and incidentally to their watchful habits: "We had a 
pleasant row of four or five miles over calm water quite free of 
ice, and were cheered for the latter half of the distance by the 
sonorous bellowing and trumpeting of a vast number of Wal- 
ruses. We soon came in sight of a long line of low flat icebergs 
crowded with Sea-horses. There were at least ten of these bergs* 
so packed with the Walruses that in some places they lay two 
deep on the ice. There can not have been less than three hun- 
dred in sight at once ; but they were" very shy and restless, and, 
although we tried every troop in succession as carefully as pos- 
sible, we did not succeed in getting within harpooning distance 
of a single Walrus. Many of them were asleep ; but there were 
always some moving about who gave the alarm to their sleep- 
ing comrades by flapping them with their fore feet, and one troop 
after another manage to shuffle into the sea always just a second 
or so in time to avoid a deadly harpoon." t 

"With reference to the Walrus," says Captain Hall, "Mr. 
Eogers told me that one day, when out cruising for WTiales, he 
went, with two boats and crews, half way across Frobisher Bay, 
and then came to an iceberg one hundred feet above the sea, 
and, mounting it, with a spy-glass, took a look all around. 
Whales there were none ; but Walrus i Why', to use his figu- 
rative but expressive words, ' there were millions out on the 
pieces of ice, drifting with the tide Walrus in every direc- 
tion millions on millions'."! While these numbers are not, 
doubtless, to be taken literally, they certainly imply an immense 
number of Walruses. The context states that while the whalers 

* Seasons with, the Sea-horses, p. 72. 

tlbicl., pp. 80, 81. 

t Arctic Researches, etc., p. 234. 

Misc. Pub. No. 12- 



114 ODOB^NUS KOSMARUS ATLANTIC 

in Frobisher's Bay had met with no Whales, "Walrus, in any 
numbers could be obtained, and many had been secured for 
their skins and tusks." 

The Walruses in the Spitsbergen waters, according to Mr. 
Lainont, usually congregate in August in great numbers on 
land, " sometimes to the number of several thousands, and all 
lie down in some secluded bay or some rocky island, and there 
remain in a semi-torpid sort of state, for weeks together, with- 
out moving or feeding." They do not usually do this, he adds, 
till near the end of August, or some mouths later than they 
were found to do in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries on 
the shores and islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. This is 
possibly owing to the difference in the climate, although it 
seems hardly probable that this can be the whole cause of the 
difference. Mr. Lainont, in this connection, makes no reference 
to the time of bringing forth of the young, and does not give 
this as one of the reasons for their visiting the laud. He alludes, 
however, to their sudden disappearance at this time from the 
ice-floes. He says the Walrus-hunters consider themselves 
fortunate if they find one of these resorts, as then they can kill 
in a few hours a " small fortune's-worth of them." His account 
of these " trysting-places," however, is mainly at second hand, 
and possibly the date is not carefully given.* 

Mr. Lament's account of the great havoc the hunters often 
make with the then helpless beasts, destroying many hundreds 
in a few hours, is quite similar, so far as the destruction of life 
is concerned, to the account given by Lord Shuldhani of their 
destruction a century and a half ago at the Magdalen Islands. 
Beferring to one of the southwesternniost of the Thousand 
Islands, Mr. Lamont says: "It seems that this island had long- 
been a very celebrated place for W r alruses going ashore, and 
great numbers had been killed upon it at different times in by- 
gone years. In August, 1852, two small sloops sailing in com- 
pany approached the island, and soon discovered a herd of Wal- 
ruses, numbering, as they calculated, from three to four thousand, 
reposing upon it. Four boats' crews, or sixteen men, proceeded 
to the attack with spears. One great mass of Walruses lay in 
a small sandy bay, with rocks enclosing it ou each side, and on 
a little mossy flat above the bay, but to which the bay formed 
the only convenient access for such unwieldy animals. A great 
many hundreds lay on other parts of the island at a little dis- 

* Seasons -with the Sea-horses, pp. 173, 174. 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 115 

tance. The boats landed a little way off, so as not to frighten 
them, and the sixteen men, creeping along shore, got between 
the sea and the bay full of Walruses before mentioned, and im- 
mediately commenced stabbing the animals next them. The 
Walrus, although so active and fierce in the water, is very un- 
wieldy and helpless on shore, and those in front soon succumbed 
to the lances of their assailants ; the passage to the shore soon 
got so blocked up with the dead and dying that the unfortunate 
wretches behind could not pass over, and were in a manner bar- 
ricaded by a wall of carcasses. Considering that every thrust 
of a lance Avas worth twenty dollars, the scene must have been 
one of terrific excitement to men who had A r ery few or no dol- 
lars at all; and my informant's eyes sparkled as he related it. 
He said the Walruses were then at their mercy, and they slew, 
and stabbed, and slaughtered, and butchered, and murdered 
until most of their lances were rendered useless, and them- 
selves w r ere drenched with blood and exhausted with fatigue. 
They went on board their A r essels, ground their lances, and had 
their dinners, and then returned to their sanguinary work; 
nor did they cry 'Hold, enough! 7 until they had killed nine 
hundred Walruses, and yet so fearless or so lethargic were the 
animals, that many hundreds more remained sluggishly lying on 
other parts of the island at no great distance. . . . When I 
Aisited the island six years afterward, there still remained abun- 
dant testimony to corroborate the entire truth of the story. 
The smell of the island was perceptible at several miles' dis- 
tance, and on landing we found the carcasses lying as I have 
described them, and in one place two and three feet deep. The 
skin and flesh of many remained tolerably entire, notwithstand- 
ing the raA^ages of Bears, Foxes and Gulls. So many Wal- 
ruses have been killed on this island at different times that a 
ship might easily load Avith bones there. . . ."* The worst 
feature of this wholesale slaughter was the fact that their small 
vessels, already partly loaded, could carry away only a small 
portion of the spoil. A subsequent attempt to reach the island 
later in the season for the purpose of securing the rest failed, 
OAviug to its being surrounded by impenetrable ice. 

Eespecting the parental affection displayed by the Walruses, 
Mr. Lament relates the following : u I never in my life witnessed 
anything more interesting and more affecting than the wonder- 
ful maternal affection displayed by this poor Walrus. After she 

" Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 175-177. 

(( 



116 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

was fast to the harpoon and was dragging the boat furiously 
through the icebergs, I was going to shoot her through the head 
that we might have time to follow the others ; but Christian 
called to me not to shoot, as she had a < junger' with her. Al- 
though I did not understand his object, I reserved my fire, and 
upon looking closely at the Walrus when she came up to breathe, 
I then perceived that she held a very young calf under her right 
arm, and I saw that he wanted to harpoon it ; but whenever he 
poised the weapon to throw, the old cow seemed to watch the 
direction of it, and interposed her own body, and she seemed 
to receive with pleasure several harpoons which were intended 
for the young one. At last a well-aimed dart struck the calf, 
and we then shortened up the lines attached to the cow and 
finished her with the lances. Christian now had time and breath 
to explain to me why he was so anxious to secure the calf, and 
he proceeded to give me a practical illustration of his meaning 
by gently i stirring up ' the unfortunate junger with the butt 
end of a harpoon shaft. This caused the poor little animal to 
emit a peculiar, plaintive, grunting cry, eminently expressive of 
alarm and of a desire for assistance, and Christian said it would 
bring all the herd round about the boat immediately. Unfor- 
tunately, however, we had been so long in getting hold of our 
poor decoy duck that the others had all gone out of hearing, 
and they abandoned their young relative to his fate, which 
quickly overtook him in the shape of a lance thrust from the 
remorseless Christian. 

" I don't think I shall ever forget the faces of the old Walrus 
and her calf as they looked back at the boat ! The countenance 
of the young one, so expressive of abject terror, and yet of con- 
fidence in its mother's power of protecting it, as it swam along 
under her wing ; and the old cow's face showing such reckless 
defiance for all that we could do to herself, and yet such terrible 
anxiety as to the safety of her calf! 

" This plan of getting hold of a junger and making him grunt 
to attract others is a well-known l dodge' among hunters; and, 
although it was not rewarded on this occasion, I have several 
times seen it meet with the full measure of success due to its 
humanity and ingenuity." * 

When in the water, to again quote from Mr. Lamont, " the herd 
generally keep close together, and the simultaneousness with 
which they dive and reappear again is remarkable ; one moment 

* Seasons -mth the Sea-horses, pp. 70, 71. 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 117 

you see a hundred grisly heads and long gleaming white tusks 
above the waves; they give one spout* from their blow-holes, 
take one breath of fresh air, and the next moment you see a 
hundred brown hemispherical backs, the next a hundred pair of 
hind nippers flourishing, and then they are all down. On, on, 
goes the boat as hard as ever we can pull the oars ; up come 
the Sea-horses again, pretty close this time, and before they can 
draw breath the boat rushes into the midst of them : ivhish ! 
goes the harpoon : birr ! goes the line over the gunwale : and a 
luckless j unger on whom Christian has kept his eye is 'fast 7 : 
his bereaved mother charges the boat instantly with flashing 
eyes and snorting with rage ; she quickly receives a harpoon in 
the back and a bullet in the brains, and she hangs lifeless on 
the line : now the junger begins to utter his plaintive grunting 
bark, and fifty furious Walruses are close round the boat in a 
few seconds, rearing up breast high in the water, and snorting 
and blowing as if they would tear us all to pieces. Two of these 
auxiliaries are speedily harpooned in their turn, and the rest 
hang back a little, when, as bad luck would have it, the junger 
gives up the ghost, owing to the severity of his harpooning, and 
the others no longer attracted by his cries, retire to a more pru- 
dent distance. But for the l untoward ' and premature decease 
of the junger, the men tell me we should have had more Wal- 
ruses on our hands than we could manage. We now devote our 
attention to 'polishing off' the two live Walruses well-sized 
young bulls who are still towing the heavy boat, with their 
two dead comrades attached, as if she were behind a steam-tug, 
and struggling madly to drag us under the icebergs : a vigor- 
ous application of the lances soon settles the business, and we 
now, with some difficulty, tow our four dead victims to the near- 
est flat iceberg and fix the ice-anchor, by which, with the pow- 
erful aid of block and tackle, we haul them one by one on the 
ice and divest them of their spoils. . . . 

" While we were engaged in cutting up these Walruses, there 
were at least fifty more surrounding the iceberg, snorting and 
bellowing, and rearing up in the water as if smelling the blood 

*It is, perhaps, almost needless to say that the "spouting" here referred 
to is merely the spray thrown upward by the forcibly expelled breath as they 
rise to the surface, although a " spouting from their blow-holes" has occa- 
sionally been attributed to them since the time of Martens, .who says they 
" blow water from their nostrils like a whale." See on this point von Baer 
(1. c., pp. 139-147), who has discussed the matter at length in his above- 
cited memoir on the Walruses. 



.118 ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

of their slaughtered friends, and curious to see what we were 
doing to them now. They were so close that I might have shot 
a dozen of them ; but, as they would have been sure to sink be- 
fore the boat could get to them, I was not so cruel as wantonly 
to take their lives. When the Walruses were all skinned, we 
followed the herd again with success ; and when we left off, in 
consequence of dense fog suddenly coming on, we had secured 
nine altogether a very fair morning's bag we thought. . . . 
During this morning's proceedings I realized the immense 
advantage of striking a junger first, when practicable. This 
curious clannish practice of coming to assist a calf in distress 
arises from their being in the habit of combining to resist the 
attacks of the Polar Bear, which is said often to succeed in kill- 
ing a Walrus. If, however, Bruin, pressed by hunger and a 
tempting opportunity, is so illadvised as to snap a calf, the 
whole herd come upon him, drag him under water, and tear 
him to pieces with their long sharp tusks. I am told this has 
been seen to occur, and I quite believe it." * 

Capt. William Edward Parry, in his narrative of his second 
voyage for the discovery of a northwest passage, makes frequent 
reference to the Walrus, and his report of encounters with them 
shows that serious and even fatal consequences sometimes re- 
sult to the boats' crews who venture to attack them. 

"In the course of this day [July 15, 1822, in Fox Channel] 
the Walruses," says Captain Parry, "became more and more 
numerous every hour, lying in large herds upon loose pieces of 
drift-ice ; and it having fallen calm at one P. M., we despatched 
our boats to endeavor to kill some for the sake of the oil they 
afford. On approaching the ice our people found them huddled 
in droves of from twelve to thirty, the whole number near the 
boats being perhaps about two. hundred. Most of them waited 
quietly to be fired at, and even after one or two discharges did 
not seem to be greatly disturbed but allowed the people to land 
on the ice near them, and, when approached, shewed an evident 
disposition to give battle. After they had got into the water, 
three were struck with harpoons and killed from, the boats. 
When first wounded they became quite furious, and one, which 
had been struck from Captain Lyon's boat, made a resolute 
attack upon her, and injured several 'of the planks with its enor- 
mous tusks. A number of the others came round them, also 
repeatedly striking the wounded animals with their tusks, with 
'* Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 81-83, 84. 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 119 

the intention of either getting them away or else of joining in 
the attack upon them. Many of these animals had young ones 
which, when assaulted, they either took between their fore-flip- 
pers to carry off, or bore away on their backs. Both of those 
killed by the Fury's boats were females, and the weight of the 
largest was fifteen hundred-weight and two quarters nearly; 
but it was by 110 means remarkable for the largeness of its 
dimensions. The peculiar barking-noise made by the Walrus, 
when irritated, may be heard, on a calm day, with great dis- 
tinctness at the distance of two miles at least. We found mus- 
quet-balls the most certain and expeditious way of despatching 
them after they had been once struck with the harpoon, the 
thickness of the skin being such, that whale-lances generally 
bend without penetrating it. One of these creatures, being 
accidentally touched by one of the oars of Lieutenant Mas's 
boat, took hold of it between its flippers and forcibly twisting 
it out of the man's hand, snapped it in two."* 

Again, says the same writer, "The Heckla's two boats had 
one day a very narrow escape in assaulting a herd of these ani- 
mals [Walruses] ; for several of them, being wounded, made so 
fierce an attack on the boats with their tusks, as to stave them 
in a number of places, by which one was immediately swamped 
and the other much damaged. The Fury's being fortunately 
in sight prevented any further danger ; two of the Walruses 
were killed and secured, and the damaged boats lightened and 
towed to the shore, from which they had been several miles dis- 
tant." t 

In addition to the foregoing testimony respecting the power 
and courage of these animals when in the water, I add the fol- 
lowing : Mr. Lamont states that " a boat belonging to a sloop 
from Tromsb'e had been upset two or three days before, in our 
immediate vicinity, and one of the crew killed by a Walrus. It 
seemed that the Walrus, a large old bull, charged the boat, and 
the harpooner, as usual, received him with his lance full in the 
chest ; but the shaft of the lance broke all to shivers, and the 
Walrus, getting inside of it, threw himself on the gunwale of 
the boat and overset it in an instant. While the men were floun- 
dering in the water among their oars and tackle, the infuriated 
animal rushed in among them, and, selecting the unlucky har- 
poouer, who, I fancy, had fallen next him, he tore him nearly 

* Narrative of Parry's Second Voyage, p. 268. tlbicl., p. 469. 



120 ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

into two halves with his tusks. The rest of the men saved them- 
selves by clambering on to the ice until the other boat came to 
their assistance. 

" Upon another occasion I made the acquaintance of the skyp- 
par of a sloop who had been seized by a bereaved cow "Walrus, 
and by her dragged twice to the bottom of the sea, but without 
receiving any injury beyond being nearly drowned, and having 
a deep scar plowed in each side of his forehead by the tusks of 
the animal, which he thought did not wish to hurt him, but mis- 
took him for her calf as he floundered in the water. 

" Owing to the great coolness and expertuess of the men fol- 
lowing this pursuit, such mishaps are not of very frequent oc- 
currence, but still a season seldom passes without two or three 
lives being lost in one way or another."* 

Among the numerous writers who have described a " Walrus 
hunt," no accounts that I have seen more vividly portray the 
scene, or give more information respecting the nature and 
habits of the Atlantic species, than Dr. I. I. Hayes, for which 
reason I deem no apology is necessary for transcribing his 
lengthy account in full. Under date of July 3, 1801 (the scene 
being in Frobisher's Bay), he says : 

"I have had a Walrus hunt and a most exciting day's sport. 
Much ice has broken adrift and come down the Sound, during 
the past few days ; and, when the sun is out bright and hot, 
the Walrus come up out of the water to sleep and bask in the 
warmth on the pack. Being upon the hilltop this morning to 
select a place for building a cairn, my ear caught the hoarse bel- 
lowing of numerous Walrus; and, upon looking over the sea, I 
observed that the tide was carrying the pack across the outer 
limit of the bay, and that it was alive with the beasts, which 
were filling the air with such uncouth noises. Their numbers 
appeared to be even beyond conjecture, for they extended as far 
as the eye could reach, almost every piece of ice being covered. 
There must have been, indeed, many hundreds or even thou- 
sands. 

"Hurrying from the hill, I called for volunteers, and quickly 
had a boat's crew ready for some sport. Putting their rifles, a 
harpoon, and a line into one of the whale boats, we dragged it 
over the ice to the open water, into which it was speedily 
launched. 

"We had two miles to pull before the margin of the pack 

* Seasons witli the Sea-horses, pp. 84, 85, 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 12.1 

was readied. On the cake of ice to which we first caine, there 
were perched about two dozen animals ; and these we selected 
for the attack. They covered the raft almost completely, lying 
huddled together, lounging in the sun or lazily rolling and 
twisting themselves about, as if to expose some fresh part of 
their unwieldy bodies to the warmth great, ugly, wallowing 
sea-hogs, they were evidently enjoying themselves, and were 
without apprehension of approaching danger. We neared them 
slowly, with muffled oars. 

"As the distance between us and the game steadily narrowed, 
we began to realize that we were likely to meet with rather 
formidable antagonists. Their aspect was forbidding in the 
extreme, and our sensations were perhaps not unlike those 
which the young soldier experiences who hears for the first time 
the order to charge the enemy. We should all, very possibly, 
have been quite willing to retreat had we dared own it. Their 
tough, nearly hairless hides, which are about an inch thick, had 
a singularly iron-plated look about them, peculiarly suggestive 
of defense ; while their huge tusks, which they brandished with 
an appearance of strength that their awkwardness did not 
diminish, looked like very formidable weapons of offense if 
applied to a boat's planking or to the human ribs, if one should 
happen to find himself floundering in the sea among the thick- 
skinned brutes. To complete the hideousness of a facial expres- 
sion which the tusks rendered formidable enough in appearance, 
Nature had endowed them with broad flat noses, which were 
covered all over with stiff whiskers, looking much like porcu- 
pine quills, and extending up to the edge of a pair of gaping 
nostrils. The use of these whiskers is as obscure as that of the 
tusks; though it is probable that the latter may be as well 
weapons of offense and defense as for the more useful purpose 
of grubbing up from the bottom of the sea the mollusks which 
constitute their principal food. There were two old bulls in the 
herd who appeared to be dividing their time between sleeping 
and jamming their tusks into each other's faces, although they 
appeared to treat the matter with perfect indifference, as they 
did not seem to make any impression on each other's thick hides. 
As we approached, these old fellows neither of which could 
have been less than sixteen feet long, nor smaller in girth than 
a hogshead raised up their heads, and, after taking a leisurely 
survey of us, seemed to think us unworthy of further notice ; 
and, then punching each other again in the face, fell once more 



122 ODOB^ENUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

asleep. This was exhibiting a degree of coolness rather alarming. 
If they had showed the least timidity, we should have found some 
excitement in extra caution ; but they seemed to make so light 
of our approach that it was not easy to keep up the bold front 
with which we had commenced the adventure. But we had 
come quite too far to think of backing out ; so we pulled in and 
made ready for the fray. 

" Beside the old bulls, the group contained several cows and 
a few calves of various sizes, some evidently yearlings, others 
but recently born, and others half or three quarters grown. 
Some were without tusks, while on others they were just sprout- 
ing; and above this they were of all sizes up to those of big bulls, 
which had great curved cones of ivory, nearly three feet long. At 
length we were within a few boat's lengths of the ice raft, and 
the game had not taken alarm. They had probably never seen 
a boat before. Our preparations were made as we approached. 
The Walrus will always sink when dead, unless held by a harpoon- 
line ; and there were therefore but two chances for us to secure 
our game either to shoot the beast dead on the raft, or to get 
a harpoon well into him after he was wounded, and hold on to 
him until he was killed. As to killing the animal where he lay, 
that was not likely to happen, for the thick skin destroys the 
force of the ball before it can reach a vital part, and indeed, at 
a distance, actually flattens it; and the skull is so heavy that 
it is hard to penetrate with an ordinary bullet, unless the ball 
happens to strike through the eye. 

" To Miller, a cool and spirited fellow, who had been after 
whales on the 'nor- west coast', was given the harpoon, and he 
took his station at the bows; while Kuorr, Jensen, and myself 
kept our places in the stern-sheets, and held our rifles in readi- 
ness. Each selected his animal, and we fired in concert over 
the heads of the oarsmen. As soon as the rifles were discharged, 
I ordered ray men to i give way ', and the boat shot right among 
the startled animals as they rolled off pell-mell into the sea, 
Jensen had fired at the head of one of the bulls, and hit him in 
the neck ; Kuorr killed a young one, which was pushed off in 
the hasty scramble and sank ; while I planted a minie-ball 
somewhere in the head of the other bull and drew from him a 
most frightful bellow, louder, I venture to say, than ever came 
from wild bull of Bashau. When he rolled over into the water, 
which he did with a splash that sent the spray flying all over 
us, he almost touched the bows of the boat and gave Miller a 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 123 

good opportunity to get in his harpoon, which he did in capital 
style. 

" The alarmed herd seemed to make straight for the bottom, 
and the line spun out over the gunwale at a fearful pace; but, 
having several coils in the boat, the end was not reached before 
the animals began to rise, and we took in the slack and got 
ready for what was to follow. The strain of the line whipped 
the boat around among some loose fragments of ice, and the 
line having fouled among it, we should have been in great jeo- 
pardy had not one of the sailors promptly sprung out, cleared 
the line, and defended the boat. 

" In a few minutes the whole herd appeared at the surface, 
about fifty yards away from us, the harpooned animal being 
among them. Miller held fast to his line, and the boat was 
started with a rush. The coming up of the herd was the signal 
for a scene which baffles description. They uttered one wild 
concerted shriek, as if an agonized call for help ; and then the 
air was filled with answering shrieks. The ' hub! luik! hitk!' of 
the wounded bulls seemed to find an echo everywhere, as the 
cry was taken up and passed along from floe to floe, like the 
bugle-blast passed from squadron to squadron along a line of 
battle 5 and down from every piece of ice plunged the startled 
beasts, as quickly as the sailor drops from his hammock when 
the long-roll beats to quarters. With their ugly heads just 
above the water, and with mouths wide open, belching forth 
the dismal 'luik! link! luik!" 1 they came tearing toward the boat. 

" In a few moments we were completely surrounded, and the 
numbers kept multiplying with astonishing rapidity. The water 
soon became alive and black with them. 

" They seemed at first to be frightened and irresolute, and for 
a time it did not seem that they meditated mischief; but this 
pleasing prospect was soon dissipated, and we were forced to 
look well to our safety. 

" That they meditated an attack there could be no longer a 
doubt. To escape the onslaught was impossible. We had raised 
a hornets' nest about our ears in a most astonishingly short space 
of time, and we must do the best we could. 

" It seemed to be the purpose of the Walrus to get their tusks 
over the gunwale of the boat, and it was evident that, in the 
event of one such monster hooking on us, that the boat would 
be torn in pieces, and we would be left floating in the sea help- 
less. We had good motive therefore to be active. Miller 



124 ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

plied bis lance from the bows, and gave many a serious wound. 
The men pushed back the onset with their oars, while Knorr, 
Jensen, and myself loaded and fired our rifles as rapidly as we 
could. Several times we were in great jeopardy, but the timely 
thrust of an oar, or the lance, or a bullet saved us. Once I 
thought we were surely gone. I had fired and was hastening 
to load ; a wicked-looking brute was making at us, and it seemed 
probable that he would be upon us. I stopped loading, and was 
preparing to cram my rifle down his throat, when Knorr, who 
had got ready his weapon, sent a fatal shot into his head. 
Again, an immense animal, the largest that I had ever seen, 
and with tusks apparently three feet long, was observed to be 
making his way through the herd, with mouth wide open, bel- 
lowing dreadfully. I was now as before busy loading ; Knorr 
and Jensen had just discharged their pieces, and the men were 
well engaged with their oars. It was a critical moment, but, 
happily, I was in time. The monster, his head high above the 
boat, was within two feet of the gunwale, when I raised my 
piece and fired into his mouth. The discharge killed him in- 
stantlv and he went down like a stone. 

*/ 

u This ended the fray. I know not why, but the whole herd 
seemed suddenly to take alarm, and all dove down with a tre- 
mendous splash almost at the same instant. When they came 
up again, still shrieking as before, they were some distance from 
us, their heads all now pointed seaward, making from us as fast 
as they could go, their cries growing more and more faint as 
they retreated in the distance. 

" We must have killed at least a dozen, and mortally wounded 
as many more. The water was in places red with blood, and 
several half-dead and dying animals lay floating about us. The 
bull to which we were made fast pulled away with all his might 
after the retreating herd, but his strength soon became ex- 
hausted ; and, as his speed slackened, we managed to haul in 
the line, and finally approached him so nearly that our rifle-balls 
took effect and Miller at length gave him the coup de grace with 
his lance. We then drew him to the nearest piece of ice, and I 
had soon a fine specimen to add to my Natural History collec- 
tions. Of the others we secured only one ; the rest had died 
and sunk before we could reach them. 

" I have never before regarded the Walrus as a formidable 
animal ; but this contest convinces me that I have done their 
courage great injustice. They are full of fight j and, had we not 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 125 

been very active and self-possessed, our boat would have been 
torn to pieces, and we either drowned or killed. A more fierce 
attack than that which they made upon us could hardly be 
imagined, and a more formidable looking enemy than one of 
these huge monsters, with his immense tusks and bellowing 
throat, would be difficult to find. Xext time I try them I will 
arm my boat's crew with lances. The rifle is a poor reliance, 
and, but for the oars, the herd would have been on top of us at 
any time."* 

Captain Hall, in his "Arctic Eesearches," also thus makes 
reference to a Walrus-fight in Frobisher Bay : " On their way 
back, Mr. Lamb, in charge of the second boat, had a fight with 
some Walrus in the following manner. Approaching a piece of 
ice on which some of these creatures were basking, he attacked 
one of them, whereupon all the rest immediately rushed toward 
the boat, and vigorously set upon him and his crew. For a 
time it seemed necessary to fly for safety ; but all hands resisted 
the attack, and would have got off very well, but that one of 
the Walrus herd pierced the boat's side with his tusks, and 
made the invaders retreat to repair damages. Mr. Lamb had 
to drag his boat upon an ice-floe near by, and stuff in oakiun 
to stop a serious leak thus caused. Finally he succeeded, 
though with some difficulty, in getting back, and thus ended his 
encounter with a shoal of Walrus."t 

Dr. Kane, in describing the Innuit method of attacking the 
Walrus from the ice, says : "When wounded, he rises high out 
of the water, plunges heavily against the ice, and strives to 
raise himself with his fore-flippers upon its surface. As it 
breaks under his weight, his countenance assumes a still more 
vindictive expression, his bark changes to a roar, and the foam 
pours from his jaws till it froths his beard. . . . He can 
strike a fearful blow ; but prefers charging in a soldierly man- 
ner. I do not doubt the old stories of the Spitsbergen and Che- 
rie Island fisheries, where the Walrus put to flight the crowds 
of European boats. Awuk [Walrus] is the lion of the Esqui- 
maux and they always speak of him with the highest respect. 

" I have heard of oomiaks being detained for days at a time 
at a crossing of straits and passages which he infested. Gov- 
ernor Flaischer told me that, in 1830, a brown Walrus, which 
according to the Esquimaux is the fiercest, after being lanced 

* The Open Polar Sea, pp. 404-411. 

tArctic Researches and Life among the Esquimaux, pp. 334, 335. 



126 ODOB^NUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

and maimed at Upernavik, routed his numerous assailants, 
and drove them iu fear to seek for help from the settlement. 
His movements were so violent as to jerk out the harpoons that 
were stuck into him. The governor slew him with great diffi- 
culty after several rifle-shots and lance-wounds from his whale- 
boat. 

"On another occasion, a young and adventurous limit 
plunged his nalegeit into a brown Walrus; but, startled by the 
savage demeanor of the beast, called for help before using his 
lance. The older men in vain cautioned him to desist. < It is a 
brown Walrus, 1 said they; 'Aiivelc-Eawlc!' 'Hold back!' Find- 
ing the caution disregarded, his only brother rowed forward 
and plunged the second harpoon. Almost in an instant the 
animal charged upon the kayacker, ripping him up, as the de- 
scription went, after the fashion of his sylvan brother, the wild 
boar. The story was told me with much animation; how the 
brother remaining rescued the corpse of the brother dead ; and 
how, as they hauled it up on the ice-floes, the ferocious beast 
plunged in foaming circles, seeking fresh victims in that part 
of the sea which was discolored by his blood. 

" Some idea may be formed of the ferocity of the Walrus," 
continues Dr. Kane, "from the fact that the battle which 
Morton witnessed, not without sharing some of its danger, 
lasted four hours ; during which the animal rushed continually 
at the Esquimaux as they approached, tearing off great, tables 
of ice with his tusks, and showing no indication of fear what- 
ever. He received upward of seventy lance-wounds,^Morton 
counted over sixty; and even then he remained hooked by 
his tusks to the margin of the ice, unable or unwilling to retire. 
His female fought in the same manner, but fled on receiving a 
lance-wound. The Esquimaux seemed to be fully aware of the 
danger of venturing too near ; for at the first onset of the Wal- 
rus they jumped back far enough to be clear of the broken ice. 
Morton described the last three hours as wearing, on both 
sides, the aspect of an unbroken and seemingly doubtful com- 
bat."* 

Erorn the foregoing it appears that the early accounts of the 
courage of the Walrus and its attacking and even destroying 
boats in defense of its young, or in retaliation for an assault, 
finds ample corroboration. I conclude the abundant evidence 
on this subject by the following from the pen of Mr. Eobert 

* Arctic Exploration, vol. i, pp. 414-417. 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 127 

Brown, who says: "When attacked, unlike the other Seals 
(unless it be the Cystopliora [Hoodel Seal]), it [the Walrus] will 
not retreat but boldly meet its enemies. I was one of a party 
in a boat which harpooned a solitary Walrus asleep on a piece 
of ice. It immediately dived, but presently arose, and, not- 
withstanding- all our exertions with lance, axe, and rifle, stove 
in the bows of the boat ; indeed we were only too giad to cut 
the line adrift and save ourselves on the floe which the Walrus 
had left, until assistance could reach us. Luckily for us the 
enraged Morse was magnanimous enough not to attack its 
chop-fallen enemies, but made off grunting indignantly, with a 
gun-harpoon and a new whale-line dangling from its bleeding- 
flanks."* 

The foregoing pages sufficiently indicate the methods and im- 
plements commonly employed in destroying the Walrus for com- 
mercial or other purposes. To complete the account of the 
chase it is only necessary to note the special equipment of a 
Walrus-hunter, and to describe the manner of disposing of the 
animal when captured, with a brief account of its products and 
their uses. This will be given from Mr. Lament's work, already 
so often quoted, who, in a chapter devoted to the subject, has 
furnished the only connected and detailed account known to me. 
From this I condense the following : 

A well-appointed Walrus-boat for five men is twenty-one feet 
long by five feet beam, having her main breadth about one-third 
from the bow, and strongly built. She is botc -shaped at both 
ends, and should be light, swift, and strong, and easy to man- 
age, and hence has the keel well depressed in the middle. She 
is always "carvel-built," being thus much less liable to injury 
from ice or the tusks of the Walruses than if "clinker-built," 
and easier to repair when damaged. She is braced with thick 
and strong stem- and stern-pieces, to resist concussions with the 
ice. There is a deep notch in the centre of the stem -piece, and 
three others in a block of hard wood on each side of it, for the 
lines to run through, in addition to which there is also some- 
times an upright post on the bow for making fast the lines, but 
usually the foremost thwart is used for this purpose. Each man 
rows with a pair of oars hung in grummets to single stout thole- 
pins. The steersman rows with his face to the bow, and steers 
with his pair of oars instead of with a single oar or rudder ; and 
each man rowing with a pair of oars enables the crew to turn 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. LoncL, 1868, p. 



128 ODOB^NUS KOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

the boat much quicker than it could be done otherwise, while 
the shortness of the oars renders them easier to handle and less 
in the way among the ice than longer ones would be. The har- 
pooner rows the bow-oars and is the commander of the boat, he 
alone using the weapons and the telescope. The strongest man 
in the boat is placed next the harpooner, to haul in the line when 
a Walrus is struck and to be the assistant of the harpooner. 
The boats are always painted white outside to assimilate their 
color to that of the ice. Each boat is provided with six har- 
poons, placed in racks, three on each side of the bow (inside), 
and protected by a painted canvas curtain. To each harpoon 
is attached twelve or fifteen fathoms of line, each coiled sepa- 
rately in flat boxes under the front thwart, the end being firmly 
fastened to some strong part of the boat. The lines should be 
of the finest quality of two-inch tarred rope, "very soft laid," 
of the best workmanship and materials. Four shafts for the 
harpoons are usually carried, made of white-pine poles about 
twelve feet long, and about an inch and a half in thickness, 
fitted at one end to enter the socket of the harpoon. The har- 
poons are used for either thrusting or darting, and a skillful 
harpooner is said to be able to secure a Walrus at a distance of 
four or five fathoms. When possible, they are thrust into the 
victim, and a precautionary twist given in order to disengage 
the shaft and more securely entangle the barbs in the monster's 
blubber or skin. In addition to the harpoons are usually car- 
ried four or five very large lances, with heavy, white-pine shafts 
about nine feet long, and increasing in thickness from an inch 
and a half to two and a half where it enters the socket of the 
lance. This is for the double purpose of giving the necessary 
strength to the shaft, and to afford buoyancy enough to float 
the lance-head in ease it becomes disengaged from the animal, 
the lance-head being secured to the shaft by a double thong of 
raw seal-skin. Each boat is also provided with five "haak- 
picks," or boat-hooks, which may be used in dispatching Seals, as 
well as for the ordinary uses of a boat-hook ; also with several 
axes, a large one for decapitating the dead Walruses, and a small 
one for cutting the line in case the Walrus proves too fierce and 
mischievous, or in case of accidents ; five or six large, sharp 
" flensing " knives ; an ice-anchor, with tackle for hauling the 
dead Walruses on to flat icebergs ; lockers supplied with vari- 
ous smaller implements and a small outfit of provisions, to guard 
against the uncertainties arising from accidents and thick 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 129 

weather. In the way of additional weapons, heavy rifles with 
plenty of ammunition are considered desirable, and often prove 
of great service when the Walruses are too wary to permit a 
near approach, as often happens. Generally a mast and sail 
are, or should be, also carried, though by no means always 
needed.* 

According to the same writer, the manner of "flensing,'" or 
taking off' and securing the skin and blubber, is as follows : 
The huge beasts being drawn up on to an ice-floe, the skin, with 
the blubber adhering, is then removed by dividing the skin into 
halves t by a slit along the ventral and dorsal lines of the body. 
It is then loaded into the boats and taken to the ships and 
thrown into the hold in bulk. Afterward, as leisure or oppor- 
tunity offers, the skins are drawn up, spread across an inclined 
platform erected on deck for the purpose, and the blubber re- 
moved. This is done by two men who act as " blubber-cutters," 
clad in oil- skin suits, and armed with large, sharp knives hav- 
ing curved edges. The blubber is then dexterously removed 
from the skin, cut into slabs of twenty or thirty pounds' weight, 
and thrown down the hatchway, where tw T o men are stationed 
to receive it and slip it into the square bung-holes of the casks. 
From its oiliness it soon finds its own level in the casks, which, 
when full, are tightly closed. | 

Captain Hall describes the Esquimaux method of taking the 
Walrus as follows : " The hunter has a peculiar spear, to which 
is attached a long line made of Walrus hide ; this line is coiled, 
and hung about the neck ; thus prepared, he hides himself 
among the broken drifting ice, and awaits the moment for strik- 
ing his game. The spear is then thrown, and the hunter at 
once slips the coil of line off his head, fastens the end to the ice 
by driving a spear through a loop in it, and waits till the Wal- 
rus comes to the surface of the water, into which he has plunged 
on feeling the stroke of the harpoon ; then the animal is quickly 
dispatched by the use of a long lance. The recklessness and 
cool daring of the Inuuit is forcibly shown in this operation, for 
if he should fail to free his neck of the coil at just the right 
moment, he would inevitably be drawn headlong beneath the 
ice." 

* Compiled from Lament's Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 43-51. 
tin the case of full-grown Walruses; brit in the case of " calves," the skin 
is left entire. 

t Compiled from Lament's Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 76, 77. 
Arctic Eesearches, etc., p. 500. 

Misc. Pub. No. 12 9 



130 ODOB^ENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

"In attacking the Walrus in the water they [the Esquimaux] 
use the same gear [as in attacking Whales], but much more 
caution than with the Whale, always throwing the Jcatteelik from 
some distance, lest the animal should attack the canoe and 
demolish it with his tusks. The Walrus is in fact the only 
animal with which they use any caution of this kind."* This 
"gear," or katteelik, is said to be the largest -of their weapons, 
and to be used only in attacking Whales and Walruses. It 
has a shaft of light wood, about four feet in length, like those 
of their weapons used in killing Seals, but the shaft is much 
thicker than in the others, especially near the middle, where is 
lashed a small shoulder of ivory for the thumb to rest against, 
in order to give additional force in throwing or thrusting the 
spear. The spear-point is of ivory, fitted into the socket at the 
end of the shaft, where it is secured by double thongs, in such 
a way as to give it steadiness when a strain is put upon it in the 
direction of its axis, but provided with a spring that disengages 
it when a lateral strain endangers its breaking. To the line 
attached to the JMtteelilc a whole Seal-skin, inflated like a bladder, 
is fastened, for the purpose of impeding the progress of the 
animal in the water when struck, f 

Dr. Kane gives a graphic account of a Walrus hunt by a party 
of Innuits. They set off with three sledges drawn by dogs, for 
the open water, ten miles distant. As they neared the new ice, 
they would from time to time remove their hoods and listen in- 
tently for the animal's voice. Myouk, one of the party, becom- 
ing convinced, by signs or sounds, or both, that the Walruses 
were waiting for him, moved gently on and soon heard the cha- 
racteristic bellow of a bull. The party now forming in single 
file followed in each other's steps, winding among hummocks 
and approaching in a serpentine course the recently frozen ice- 
spots surrounded by firmer ice. " When within half a mile of 
these, the line broke, and each man crawled toward a separate 
pool ; Morton on his hands and knees following Myouk. In a 
few minutes the Walrus were in sight. They were five in num- 
ber, rising at intervals through the ice in a body, and breaking- 
it up with an explosive puff that might have been heard for 
miles. Two large grim-looking males were conspicuous as the 
leaders of the group. 

" Now for the marvel of the craft. When the Walrus is above 



* Narrative of Parry's Second Voyage, p. 510. 

t See Parry's Second Voyage, pp. 507, 508, and pi. facing p. 550, figs. 20, 21 



HABITS AND THE CHASE. 131 

water, the hunter is flat and motionless ; as he begins to sink, 
alert and ready for a spring-. The animal's head is hardly be- 
low the water-line before every man is in a rapid run; and 
again, as if by instinct, before the beast returns, all are motion- 
less behind protecting knolls of ice. They seem to know before- 
hand not only the time he will be absent, but the very spot at 
which he will reappear. In this way, hiding and advancing by 
turns, Myouk, with Morton at his heels, has reached a plate 
of thin ice, hardly strong enough to bear them, at the very brink 
of the water-pool the Walrus are curvetting in. 

" Myouk, till now phlegmatic, seems to waken with excite- 
ment. His coil of Walrus-hide, a well-trimmed line of many 
fathoms' length, is lying at his side. He fixes one end of it in 
an iron barb, and fastens this loosely by a socket upon a shaft 
of Unicorn's [Narwhal's] horn : the other end is already looped, 
or, as sailors would say, ' doubled in a bight'. It is the work of 
a moment. He has grasped the harpoon : the water is in mo- 
tion. Puffing with pent-up respiration, the Walrus is within a 
couple of fathoms, close before him. Myouk rises slowly ; his 
right arm thrown back, the left flat at his side. The Walrus 
looks about him, shaking the water from his crest : Myouk throws 
up his left arm ; and the animal, rising breast-high, fixes one 
look before he plunges. It has cost him all that curiosity can 
cost: the harpoon is buried under his left flipper. 

u Though the Awuk [Innuit name of the Walrus] is down in 
a moment, Myouk is running at desperate speed from the scene 
of his victory, paying off his coil freely, but clutching the end 
by its loop. He seizes as he runs a small stick of bone, rudely 
pointed with iron, and by a sudden movement drives it into the 
ice : to this he secures his line, pressing it close down to the 
ice surface with his feet. 

" Now comes the struggle. The hole is dashed in mad com- 
motion with the struggles of the wounded beast ; the line is 
drawn tight at one moment, the next relaxed : the hunter has 
not left his station. There is a crash of the ice ; and rearing up 
through it are two Walruses, not many yards from where he 
stands. One of them, the male, is excited and seemingly terri- 
fied : the other, the female, collected and vengeful. Down they 
go again, after one grim survey of the field ; and on the instant 
Myouk has changed his position, carrying his coil with him and 
fixing it anew. 

" He has hardly fixed it before the pair have again risen, 



132 ODOB^NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

breaking up an area of ten feet diameter about the very spot 
he left. As they sink once more he again changes his place. 
And so the conflict goes on between address and force, till the 
victim, half exhausted, receives a second wound, and is played 
like a trout by the angler's reel." 

The method of landing the beast upon the ice is thus de- 
scribed : " They made two pair of incisions in the neck, where 
the hide is very thick, about six inches apart and parallel to each 
other, so as to form a couple of bands. A line of cut hide, about 
a quarter of an inch in diameter, was passed under one of these 
bands and carried up on the ice to a firm stick well secured in 
the floe, where it went through a loop, and was then taken back 
to the animal, made to pass under the second band, and led off 
to the Esquimaux. This formed a sort of l double purchase ',. 
the blubber so lubricating the cord as to admit of a free move- 
ment. By this contrivance the beast, weighing some seven 
hundred pounds, was hauled up and butchered at leisure." * 

Eeferring again to the chase of the Walrus, Dr. Kane says 
the manner of hunting varies considerably with the season of 
the year. In the fall, when the pack is but partly closed, they 
are found in numbers about the neutral region of mixed ice and 
water, when the Esquimaux assail them in cracks and holes 
with nalegeit and line. This fishery, as the season grows colder, 
darker, and more tempestuous, is attended with great hazard, 
and scarcely a year passes without a catastrophe. The spring 
fishery begins in March. The Walrus is now taken in two ways. 
Sometimes when he has come up by the side of an iceberg or 
through a tide-crack to enjoy the sunshine, he lingers so long 
that he finds his retreat cut off by the freezing-up of the open- 
ing through which he ascended. The Esquimaux, scouring the 
ice-floes with keen hunter-craft, then scent him out by the aid 
of then 1 dogs and despatch him with spears. Again they are 
found " surging in loving trios from crack to crack, sporting 
around the berg-water or basking in the sun," when they are 
attacked by their vigilant enemies with the spear and harpoon. 
This mode of attack " often becomes a regular battle, the male 
gallantly fronting the assault and charging the hunters with 
furious bravery. Not uufrequently the entire family, mother, 
calf, and bull, are killed in one of these combats." t 

* Arctic Exploration, vol. i, pp. 407-414, 417. t Ibid., vol. ii, pp. 131-133. 



PEODUCTS. 133 

PRODUCTS. The commercial products of the Walrus are its 
oil, hide, aud tusks. The oil is said to be much inferior in quality 
to that of Seals, but is used for nearly the same purposes.* The 
yield is also much less in proportion to the size of the animal, in 
the largest specimens seldom exceeding five hundred pounds.t 
The hide is said to be a valuable commodity, and '< sells for from 
two to four dollars per half skin, calves only counting for a half; 
it is principally exported to Russia and Sweden, where it is used 
to manufacture harness and sole leather ; it is also twisted into 
tiller-ropes, and is used for protecting the rigging of ships from 
chafing. In former times nearly all the rigging of vessels on 
the north coasts of Norway *and Russia used to be composed of 
Walrus-skin. [] When there is a superfluity of the article in the 
market I believe it is boiled into glue. It is from an inch to an 
inch and a half thick, very pliable in its green state, but 'slightly 
spongy, so that I should doubt the quality of the leather made 
from it." 

As noted in the earlier portions of this paper, the tusks were 
in very early times a valuable article of traffic among the bar- 
barous tribes of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Brown 
states that "there is said to be a letter in the library of the 
Vatican proving that the old Norse and Icelandic colonists in 
Greenland paid their 'Peter's Pence' in the shape of Walrus 
tusks and hides." || The ivory afforded by the tusks, though 

*Lainont says it is usual to mix the Seal and Walrus oil indiscriminately 
together, and that ' ' the compound is always exported into Southern Europe 
Tinder the name of Seal oil." Yachting in the Arctic Seas, p. 89. 

t Scoresby states that he ' ' never met with any that afforded above twenty 
or thirty gallons of oil." Account of the Arctic Regions, vol. i, p. 503. 

t [In the instructions given to Jonas Poole by the Muscovie Company in 
March, 1610, occurs the following : "And in as much as we have agreed here 
with a Tanner for all the Morses hides which wee kill and bring into England, 
and have sent men of purpose for the slaying, salting, and ordering of the 
same, whereof we have appointed one to goe in your ship : We would have 
you reserve the hides, and stoore your ship therewith in stead of ballast. 
And if you obtayne a greater quantitie then you can bring away with you, 
having alwayes regard to commodities of more value, which are Oyle, Teeth, 
and Whales finnes [whalebone], that none of them be left behind ; We would 
have you leave the said overplus of hides in some convenient place, till the 
next yeere, that we send more store of shipping." Purchas his Pilgrimes, vol. 
iii, p. 709.] 

Seasons with the Sea-horses, p. 77. 

j|Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 434. 



134 ODOBJENUS EOSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

inferior iii quality to Elephant ivory, is used for nearly the same 
purposes. It is said, however, to sooner become yellow by ex- 
posure, to be of coarser texture, and hence to have less commer- 
cial value. I have met with no statistics relating to the amount 
annually obtained, or the price it brings in market. * 

The flesh of the Walrus is sometimes used as food by Arctic 
voyagers, and forms an important article of diet with the Esqui- 
maux and Tschuchchis. Captain Hall states that while his 
party remained at Cape True they were never in want of food, 
"Walrus," he says, "was abundant, and was indeed almost 
exclusively our diet. We had Walrus brains for supper ; stewed 
Walrus, or Walrus boiled, for dinner ; but always Walrus, and 
no bread."! Eichardsou states that "their flesh is preferred 
by the Esquimaux before that of the Small Seal (Phoca liispida), 
their feet or fins are considered delicacies, and the heart and 
liver were pronounced by our navigators to be excellent. The 
tongue is said to be good when fresh, but becomes oily by keep- 
ing." \ In the narrative of Cook's last voyage it is stated that 
the fat of the Pacific Walrus " is as sweet as marrow," but that 
it soon grows rancid unless salted, when it will " keep much 
longer." The lean flesh is described as being coarse and black, 
and as having a rather strong taste, but the heart is said to be 
"nearly as well tasted as that of a bullock." Captain Parry, 
in a passage already quoted (antea, p. 119), states that the meat 
was not only eaten by his men, but was " eagerly sought after 
on this and every other occasion throughout the voyage, by all 
those among us who could overcome the prejudice arising chiefly 
from the dark color of the flesh. In no other respect that I 
could ever discover, is the meat of the Walrus when fresh-killed 
in the slightest degree offensive or unpalatable. The heart and 
liver are indeed excellent." || 

FOOD. The food of the Walruses has long been a subject of 
dispute, not less from the varied character of the substances 

* Mr. Lament says, respecting products of the Walrus and their value : 
"Curiosity led me ouce to weigh and value the marketable parts of a large 
bull Walrus, and the following results were arrived at : Weight of Walrus 
blubber = 520 pounds, about one fifth of a ton, which at 407. a ton is worth 
81. ; 300 pounds of skin at 2d. a pound = 2?. 10s., and 8 pounds of ivory at 5s. 
a pound = '27., giving a value of 127. 10s." Yachting in the Arctic Seas, p. 89. 

t Arctic Researches, etc., p. 557. 

tSuppl. Parry's Second Voyage, p. 338. 

Cook's Last Voyage, vol. ii, p. 457. 

II Narrative of Parry's Second Voyage, p. 268. 



FOOD. 135 

found in their stomachs by different observers than from the 
peculiar conformation of their teeth. Martens, j udging from the 
appearance of their excrement, thought it must subsist mostly 
upon sea-grass. Anderson, however, correctly stated that they 
subsisted upon Mollusca, which they obtained from the bottom 
of the sea by digging with their tusks. Cranz also says its food 
seems to consist wholly of " muscles and such kind of shell- 
fish" and "sea-grass." F. Cuvier, Bell, and others, thought the 
dentition indicated that their diet must be mainly, if not wholly, 
vegetable. Most modern observers who have given attention 
to the matter state that they have often found vegetable mat- 
ter mixed with other food in their stomachs, some claiming the 
food to be in small part vegetable, but mainly animal, while 
others think the fragments of sea-weed so frequently met with 
in their stomachs are only accidentally present. Mr. Brown, who 
appears to have had excellent opportunity of obtaining infor- 
mation on this point, observes: "I have generally found in its 
stomach various species of shelled Mollusca, chiefly Mya trun- 
cata, a bivalve very common in the Arctic regions on banks and 
shoals, and a quantity of green slimy matter which I took to 
be decomposed Algte which had accidentally found their way 
into its stomach through being attached to the shells of the 
Mollusca of which the food of the Walrus chiefly consists. I 
cannot say that I ever saw any vegetable matter in its stomach 
which could be decided to have been taken in as food, or which 
could be distinguished as such. As for its not [sic] being car- 
nivorous, if further proof were necessary, I have only to add 
that whenever it was killed near where a Whale's carcass had 
been let adrift, its stomach was invariably found crammed full 
of the Twang or flesh of that Cetacean. As for its not being- 
able to hold the slippery cuirass of a fish, I fear the distin- 
guished author of l The British Mammalia ' [Bell ] is in error. The 
Narwhal, which is even less fitted in its want of dentition for 
an ichthyophagous existence, lives almost entirely upon pla- 
tichthyoid fishes and Cephalopoda. Finally the experimcntum 
crucis has been performed, in the fact that fish have been taken 
out of its stomach ; and a most trustworthy man, the captain 
of a Norwegian sealer, has assured me (without possessing any 
theory on the subject) that he has seen one rise out of the water 
with a fish in its mouth.' 7 * 
That it will readily subsist on fish, as well as other animal 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, pp. 430, 431. 



136 ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

food, is further proven by Mr. Bartlett, who states that the one 
received at the Gardens of the London Zoological Society in 
1867 was fed on fish, mussels, whelks, clams, and the stomachs, 
intestines, and other soft parts of fishes, and that while on the 
way from the Davis's Straits to the Shetland Islands was fed 
on strips of boiled pork, and subsequently during the voyage 
on mussels. He says he is inclined to believe it would eat car- 
rion or decomposed flesh, and raises the question whether the 
Walruses may not " be the scavengers of the Arctic seas, the 
Vultures among mammals," and suggests that the strong bris- 
tles of the muzzle may have something to do with the gather- 
ing of this kind of food, " as well as with shrimp-catching." 
He further states that it declined every kind of sea-weed 
offered.* 

Mr. Lamont informs us that he has found their stomachs 
to contain great quantities of sand-worms, star-fish, shrimps, 
clams (Tridacna), and cockles (Carcliwn), and that he believes 
that they also eat marine algae, or sea- weeds. 

Malnigreu states that he found that the Walruses of Spitz- 
bergen subsist almost exclusively upon two species of mussel, 
namely, Mya tnmcata and Saxicava rugosa, which live buried 
from 3 to 7 inches deep in the mud, in 10 to 50 fathoms of water. 
By aid of their grinding teeth and tongue they remove the shells, 
and swallow usually only the soft parts of the animal. Only once 
among many thousands examined did Malmgren find any to 
which a piece of the shell adhered. The young subsist for two 
years almost solely upon the milk of the mother, they being 
unable to dig mussels from the mud until their tusks have 
attained a length of 3 or 4 inches, which length is not acquired 
till the animals have reached the age of two years.t 

In common with some other Pinnipeds, the White Whale and 
probably other Cetaceans, the Walrus takes into its stomach 
small stones and gravel, but for what purpose appears as yet 
unknown. Mr. Brown tells us that considerable quantities of 
these are always seen around its atluk, or breathing-holes.f 

* Proc. Zoo'l. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 820. 

t See Malmgren as translated in Toschel's Arch, fiir Naturgesch., 1864, 
pp. 68-72. The reasons here given to account for the long period of nursing 
seem reasonable, but other authorities believe that they derive nourishment 
from the mother for only one year. 

tProc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 430. 



FUNCTIONS OF THE TUSKS. 137 

FUNCTIONS OF THE TUSKS. The functions of the tusks have 
been also a matter of dispute, more especially as to whether they 
are to any degree organs of locomotion. Eeferences to their use in 
effecting a landing upon ice-bergs or upon icy or rocky shores have ' 
come down to ns from the earliest times, and enter into nearly 
all the accounts of this animal that have hitherto appeared. Thar 
they are thus used rests upon the testimony of a multitude of 
observers, yet some have claimed that this is not one of their 
functions. Malmgren states most explicitly that these reports 
are false, and that the tusks are useful only as weapons, and for 
the far more important service of digging up the mollusks, that 
almost exclusively constitute their food.* Other writers, how- 
ever, who appear to have had equally as good opportunity for 
observation, refer to the tusks as being of considerable service to 
the animals in climbing. Cranz says: "The use the Sea-cow 
juakes of these tusks seems to be in part to scrape muscles and 
such kind of shell-fish out of the sand and from the rocks, for these 
and sea-grass seem to be its only food ; and also to grapple and 
get along by, for he fastens them in the ice or rocks, and thus 
draws up his unwieldy helpless trunk j and finally 'tis a weapon 
of defence both against the white bear on the land and ice, and 
the sword-fish in the sea."t 

Most of the other early accounts of the "Walrus contain simi- 
lar statements respecting the use of the tusks as locomotive 
organs, and many later writers also refer to this use of them. 
Mr. Brown says: "I have seen it also use them [the tusks] to 

* Says Malmgren : " ILL Bctreft' der eigeutlichen Bestimmuug tier Ziilme 
bin icli iui Stande die uothige Aufklaruug zu geben. Es liisst sicli nicht 
bestreiten, dass dieselbeu als Waflen angewendetTverdeu uud als solche aucli 
furclitbar sind ; dass sie aber auch als Lokomotiousorgane dienen sollten, 
ist eine Fabel, und daher der Name Odontobosmis Steenstr. nicht passend. 
Gleich deii Robben bewegen sicli die WaLrosse nur mit Hiilfe ihrer Fiisse, 
sowohl auf dem Eise als au den saudigen Meeresgestaden, an deueu sie bis- 
\veilen hiuaufsteigen, uni zu sclilafeu, oft zu Huuderten ueben einander. 
Die Bestiinmung der Z alone ist eiue gauz andero und fttr die Existenz des 
Walrosses bei -vreitem -wichtigere, denn nur niit Hiilfe derselben kann es zu 
seiner Nahrung komnien. Icli faud, dass das Walross sicb ausscblieslich 
von zwei Muscheln, My a trnncata und Saxicava ruyosa, nakrt, welclie in einer 
Wassertiefe von 10-50 Fadeu 3-7 Zoll in dem Bodenlenm eiiigegraben leben. 
Um an diese zu kommen, muss das Walross sie aus dem Lelim aufgraben." 
Ofcersigt Vetensk. Akad. Forluindl. Stockholm, 1863, p. 131, as translated in 
Areliiv filr Naturgesch., 1864, p. d-. 

tTlie History of Greenland, etc., Brethren's Society's English translation, 
London, 1767, p. 127. 



138 ODOB^NUS EOSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALEUS. 

drag its Luge body on to tLe ice. In progressing on sLore it 
aids its clumsy progression by tLeir means."* 

Dr. Kane observes: "Even wLen not excited, Le manages Lis 
tusks bravely. TLey are so strong tLat lie uses tLein to grapple 
tLe rocks with, and climbs steeps of ice and laud wLicL would be 
inaccessible to Lim witLout tLeir aid. He ascends in tLis way 
rocky islands tLat are sixty and a Lnudred feet above tLe level 
tLe of sea; and I Lave myself seen Lim in tLese elevated posi- 
tions basking witL Lis young in tLe cool sunsLine of August and 
September.'' t 

ENEMIES. In respect to tLe enemies of tLe Walruses, man is, 
of course, tLeir cLief foe ; but, after man, all writers rank tLe Polar 
Bears as tLeir principal adversaries. In tLeir conflicts witL tLis 
formidable antagonist, tLe Walrus is usually tLe reputed victor. 
Says Mr. Brown : " TLe Eskimo used to tell many tales of tLeir 
battles ; and though I Lave never been fortunate euougL to see 
any of tLese scenes, yet I Lave heard tLe wLalers give most 
circumstantial accounts of tLe Walrus drowning tLe Bear, etc. 
TLese accounts may be taken merely for wLat tLey are worth :, 
but still this sLows tLat tLey are not wholly confined to Eskimo 
fable, and ought therefore not to be hastily thrown aside. There 
is no doubt, however, that the Bear and Walrus are (like all 
the Pinnipedia) but indifferent friends." | 

Captain Hall, however, relates the following story, rife among 
tLe Innuits, of a very ingenious way tLe Polar Bear Las of kill- 
ing the Walrus. The bear is said to take up Lis position on a 
cliff to wLicL Walruses are accustomed to resort in fine weatLer 
to bask in tLe sun on tLe rocks at its base. TLe Bear, mounted 
on tLe cliff, watches his opportunity, and " throws down upon 
tLe animal's Lead a large rock, calculating tLe distance and 
tLe curve witL astonisliiug accuracy, and tlius crushing the tliick,. 
bullet-proof skull. If tLe Walrus is not instantly killed simply 
stunned tLe Bear rushes down to the Walrus, seizes the rock, 
and hammers away at the head till the skull is broken. A fat 
feast follows. Unless tLe Bear is very hungry, it eats only the 
blubber of the Walrus, Seal and Whale." Captain Hall accom- 
panies Lis account Avith a picture of a Bear in tLe act of Lurling a 
stone upon tLe Lead of a Walrus ! TLe story, doubtless AvitLout 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 430. iProc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, p. 430. 
t Arctic Exploration, vol. i, p. 415. Arctic Eesearches, etc., p. ->\1. 



ENEMIES. 139 

basis in fact, is of interest in its bearing upon the mythical history 
of the Walrus. In fact, Dr. Kane, on the other hand, says : " The 
generally-received idea of the Polar Bear battling with the Wal- 
rus meets little favor among the Esquimaux of Smith's Straits. 
My own experience is directly adverse to the truth of the story. 
The Walrus is never out of reach of water, and, in his peculiar 
element, is without a rival. I have seen the Bear follow the 
Ussuk [Bearded Seal, Erignafhus larbatus] by diving ; but the 
tough hide and great power of the Walrus forbid such an at- 
tack." * 

The Walrus is also greatly persecuted with parasites. These, 
according to Brown, are two species of Hcematopinus, one of 
which invariably infests the base of the mystacial bristles, and 
the other its body. " I have seen," says this writer, "the Wal- 
rus aw liking loudly on the ice, tumbling about and rushing back 
from the water to the ice, and from the ice to the water, and then 
swimming off to another piece, and repeating the same ope- 
ration, as if in pain. A few hours afterwards I saw a flock 
of Saxicola cenanthe (it was on a land floe, close to the Fru 
Islands) alight 011 the spot. On going over, I found the ice 
speckled with one of these species of Hcematopinus, on which the 
birds had been feeding ; and the unfortunate Walrus seems to 
have been in the throes of clearing itself of these troublesome 
friends, after the approved fashion. Subsequently I have seen 
these and other small birds alight on the back of the Walrus to 
peck at these insects, just as crows may be seen sitting on the 
backs of cattle in our fields." t It seems also to be infested with 
intestinal parasites. Dr. Murie, $ in his report upon the causes 
of the death of the specimen in the Zoological Society's Gardens, 
found it infested by a species of Ascaris (A. Mcolor, Baird) to 
such an extent that it was probably the cause of its death. He 
states that he removed from its stomach about "half a pailful" 
of small round worms, two and a half to three inches in length. 
Their presence had evidently induced chronic gastritis, death 
resulting from ulceration. Circumstances seemed to indicate 
that they had not been introduced with its food since its cap- 
ture, but that it was infested Avith them before its capture and 
confinement. 

* Arctic Exploration, vol. i, p. 263. 
tProc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, p. 430. 
tlbid., pp. 67-71. 



140 ODOB^ENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

DOMESTICATION. The Walrus possesses a high degree of 
cerebral development, and seems to be easily susceptible of 
domestication. It appears, however, to be difficult to keep 
alive in confinement, especially when taken far south of its 
natural home. Doubtless the long period occupied in its trans- 
portation from the Arctic regions to the zoological gardens of 
European cities, during which time it is necessarily subject to 
very unnatural conditions and unsuitable food, does much 
toward reducing it to a greatly enfeebled state before it reaches 
European ports. It appears, however, that three specimens 
have at different times reached England, while two at least 
have been taken to Holland and one to St. Petersburg. In each 
case they were quite young animals, probably less than a year 
old. The first specimen seen alive in England reached London 
August 20, 1608. The account of the capture of this specimen 
and of its arrival in London is thus detailed by Purchas. It was 
brought in the ship " God-speed," commanded by Thomas Wel- 
deii, on its return from a voyage to Cherie (now Bear) Island. 
The account says : " On the twelfth [of July, 1GOS,] we took into 
our ship two young Morses, male and female, alive : the female 
died before we came into England : the male lived about ten 
weeks. When wee had watered, we set sayle for England about 
foure of the clock in the morning. . . . The twentieth of 
August, wee arrived at London, and having dispatched some pri- 
vate business, we brought our living Morse to the Court, where 
the king and many honourable personages beheld it with ad- 
miration for the strangenesse of the same, the like whereof had 
never before been seene alive in England. Not long after it 
fell sicke and died. As the beast in shape is very strange, 
so is it of strange docilitie and apt to be taught, as by good 
experience we often proved."* It hence appears that this spe- 
cimen lived for only about three weeks after its arrival in Lon- 
don. 

Another is reported to have been exhibited alive in Hol- 
land in 1612. This specimen was secured with its mother, which 
died on the voyage to Holland, but its skin was preserved and 
stuffed, the two forming the originals of Gerard's famous draw- 
ing already noticed. Yon Baer,t however, 'raises the question 
whether the London and Holland specimens were not really the 

* Purchas his Pilgrimes, etc., 1624, vol. iii, p. 560. 
tLoc, cit., p. 131. 



DOMESTICATION. 141 

same individual exhibited at different times in the two coun- 
tries, and devises an ingenious explanation for the origin of the 
supposed discrepancy of dates. He seems to be led into theso 
doubts by the similarity of some of the circumstances attend- 
ing the capture and exhibition of these animals, and the close 
agreement of the dates. Master Welden's account of the cap- 
ture and transportation of his specimen to London, and of its 
early death there, seems, however, too explicit to be overthrown 
by mere conjecture. There is apparently no reason for suppos- 
ing that the London specimen was ever seen alive in Holland. 

From a statement in Camper's writings, it would appear that 
a living specimen reached Amsterdam about or before ] 786, as 
he refers to having seen the living Walrus in that city.* But 
of this specimen there appears to be no further record. The 
specimen taken to St. Petersburg from Archangel, and described 
by von Baer, lived only a week after its arrival in St. Peters- 
burg. 

In 1853, a second living specimen reached London, and was 
placed in the Gardens of the Zoological Society, where, how- 
ever, it survived only a few days, dying apparently of improper 
and insufficient food. A third specimen, captured in Davis's 
Straits, August 28, 1867, reached the Zoological Society's Gar- 
dens in London about October 28 of the same year, where it 
lived till December 19, or for nearly five weeks, when it died of 
chronic gastritis induced by the immense number of intestinal 
worms ( Ascaris), by which it was unfortunately infested.t The 
first London and Holland specimens were quite young animals, 
as were also probably all the others. The second London speci- 
men (1853) was a " very young" female, but I have seen no fur- 
ther statement respecting its probable age or its size. The 
third London specimen (1867), a male, was judged to be less 
than a year old. but measured 8 feet in length and weighed 
about 250 pounds. No other specimen has thus far, so far as I 
can learn, been taken alive to any point south of the Scandi- 
navian ports, to which, according to Brown, they have of late 
been frequently carried. $ 

That the Walrus, when young, possesses, like the common 
Seals, a high degree of docility and intelligence, is amply evi- 

* Camper says : " . . et que j'en avois vu plusietirs meine un 

vivant a Amsterdam." (Euvres, tome ii, 1803, p. 481. 
tbee Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 818, and 1868, p. 67. 
tProc. Zool. Soc., 1868, p. 431. 



142 ODOB^NUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

dent from observations made upon it in captivity. In fur- 
ther illustration of this point I quote the following from Mr. 
Brown's important paper on the Seals of Greenland and Spitz- 
bergen, from which I have already quoted so largely. Mr. 
Brown says, in referring to the subject of its naturalization in 
zoological gardens : " I cannot better conclude these notes on 
the habits of the Walrus than by describing a young one I saw 
on board a ship in Davis's Straits, in 1861, and which, had it 
survived, was intended for the Zoological Society. It was 
caught near the Duck-Islands off the coast of North Green- 
land, and at the same time its mother was killed ; it was then 
sucking, and too young to take the water, so that it fell an easy 
prey to its captors. It could only have been pupped a very few 
hours. It was then three feet in length, but already the canine 
tusks were beginning to cut the gums. When I first saw it, it 
was grunting about the deck, sucking a piece of its mother's 
blubber, or sucking the skin which lay on deck, at the place 
where the teats were. It was subsequently fed on oatmeal and 
water and pea-soup, and seemed to thrive upon this outre nour- 
ishment. jSTo fish could be got for it ; and the only animal food 
which it obtained was a little freshened beef or pork, or Bear's 
flesh, which it readily ate. It had its likes and dislikes, and its 
favorites on board, whom it instantly recognized. It became 
exceedingly irritated if a newspaper was shaken in its face, 
when it would run open-mouthed all over the deck after the 
perpetrator of this literary outrage. When a 'fall'* was 
called it would immediately run at a clumsy rate (about one 
and a half or two miles an hour), first into the surgeon's cabin, 
then into the captain's (being on a level with the quarterdeck), 
apparently to see if they were up, and then out again, grunting 
all about the deck in a most excited manner ' awuJc ! awiik ! ' 
When the men were ' rallying 't it would imitate the operation, 
though clumsily, rarely managing to get more than its own 
length before it required to turn again. It lay during the day 
basking in the sun, lazily tossing its nippers in the air, and ap- 
peared perfectly at home and not at all inclined to change its 
condition. One day the captain tried it in the water for the 

* " When a boat gets ' fast' to a whale, all the rest of the crew run shout- 
ing about the decks, as they get the other boats out, 'A fall ! a fall! ' It is 
apparently derived from the Dutch word ' Val', a whale." 

t "When a ship gets impeded by loose ice gathering around it, the crew rush 
in a body from side to side so as to loosen it, by swaying the ship from 
beam to beam. This is called 'rallying the ship'." 



DOMESTICATION. 143 

first time ; but it was quite awkward and got under the floe, 
whence it was unable to extricate itself, until, guided by its 
piteous 'awiiking', its master went out on the ice and called 
it by name, when -it immediately came out from under the 
ice and was assisted on board again, apparently heartily sick 
of its mother element. After surviving for more than three 
mouths, it died, just before the vessel left for England. As I 
was not near at the time, I was unable to make a dissection in 
order to learn the cause of its death.'' * 

Mr. Lamont thus describes a young Walrus he saw 011 board 
the ^Norwegian brig " Xordby," in the possession of Captain Eric- 
sou : " Before parting company, we went on board the i Nordby ' 
to see a young live Walrus (' a leetle boy-Walrus', as Ericson 
in his broken English called it), which they had on board as a 
] trt . This interesting little animal was about the size of a sheep, 
and was the most comical lac-simile imaginable of the old Wal- 
rus. He had been taken alive after the harpooning of his mother 
a few weeks ago, and now seemed perfectly healthy, and tanie 
and playful as a kitten. It was, of course, a great pet with all 
on board, and seemed much more intelligent than I believed ; 
the only thing which seemed to destroy its equanimity was pull- 
ing its whiskers, or pretending to use a 4 rope's end' to it, when 
it would sneak off, looking over its shoulder, just like a dog- 
when chastised. They said it would eat salt Jish, salt-beef, 
blubber, or anything offered it : but I strongly advised Ericson 
to give it, if possible, a mixture of vegetables or sea-weed along 
with such strong diet. I assured him that, if he succeeded in 
taking it alive to the Eegent's Park or the Jardin des Plantes, 
he would get a large price for it ; but before I left Spitzbergen 
in September, I heard with regret that the curious little beast 
had died." t 

Mr. Lamont, on one of his later Arctic expeditious, captured 
several young Walruses, and seems to have had three alive at 
one time on board the "Diane." The first was captured on May 
27, and safely landed on board, " uttering the most discordant 
cries which ever assailed the ears of man.' 17 "A harsh note or, 
more properly speaking, noise, something between a grunt and 
a bark henceforth, till we were hardened to the annoyance, 
broke our slumbers at night and destroyed the peace and quiet 
of the day. Though particularly anxious to secure and carry 

'Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud.. l^oS, pp. 131, 43.J. 
t Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 39, 40. 



144 ODOBJENUS ROSMARUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

home a young specimen of this interesting animal, we soon found 
the company of so noisy a shipmate, with the anxiety connected 
with its weaning, was not an unmixed blessing." Again he 
says : " . . . . we found amusement in attempts to wean 
the Walrus-cub, who still proved obstreperous when attempts 
were made to inject preserved milk into his guzzle by means of 
a special piece of apparatus borrowed from the doctor's case. 
In all other respects he comported himself with the ' strange 
docilitie ' noted by Master Thomas "VVelden of the God Speed 
in 1608. He became a great pet with the men : a dear, loving- 
little creature, combining the affection of a spaniel with the pro- 
portions of a prize pig. What struck us in watching its singu- 
lar dexterity was that there could be any difference of opinion 
as to the hind-flippers of the Walrus being used in conjunction 
with the forepaws after the ordinary method of quadrupeds for 
walking on land or ice. i Tommy ' also exhibited a marvellous 
knack in climbing, or rather wriggling, his supple carcase up on 
to casks and packages in the hold." Later two others were cap- 
tured, and the three were kept in a pen together. The unlucky 
fate that finally befell "Tommy" is thus related : "'Tommy', 
the first young Walrus picked up at Xbvaya Zenilya, a month 
ago, to the great grief of every one except ' Sailor ' and the cook, 
was found dead, with his face immersed in a pail of gruel and 
one of the others lying on top of him clearly suffocated. They 
were confined in a pen forward well out of the way ; for they 
lately had become a great nuisance, crawling about the deck, 
always in someone's way, and had taken to roaring like bears 
down the companion at night. A few nights before his death 
this little beast had fallen down the hatchway ; this might have 
had something to do with his untimely end. [Nothing was found 
on examination but a total absence of fat, the rest of the dis- 
section was reserved for the anatomical rooms of the University 
of Edinburgh, our late companion and playmate being duly 
salted and packed in an old pork-barrel." * Of the fate of the 
others I find no record, but they evidently did not live to reach 
England. " Taking into consideration," says Mr. Lamont, on 
an early page of his work last cited, " the facility with which a 
Walrus cub may be captured, it seems strange that they are 
not more often met with in the zoological gardens of Europe." 
After alluding to previous attempts to take them to European 
cities, he says : " Until some special vessel, with cows on board, 

* Yachting in the Arctic Seas, pp. 47, 48, 62, 218. 



DOMESTICATION. 145 

or plenty of Swiss preserved milk, visits the Walrus hauuts and 
thus solves the difficulty of weaning, it will not be easy to import 
a young Walrus in good condition, and many of the interesting 
habits and traits of this animal will remain unknown. Although 
the calf of the previous season frequently accompanies the dam 
with her more recent offspring, at that age the ' half- Walrus ' 
is too unwieldy a beast to be captured alive ; if this were prac- 
ticable, there can be no doubt its nutrition would be a simple 
matter." * 

From the foregoing accounts of the survival for a considera- 
ble period in captivity, and from the hardships we are told the 
third London (1867) specimen t survived during its long voyage 
to London, it is evident that with a sufficient supply of proper 
food, and due arrangement for the comfort of the captives dur- 
ing transportation, coupled with a speedy voyage, as by steam- 
ship, young Walruses might easily be taken in numbers and 
brought safely to southern ports. Whether, however, they 
could long endure the great change of climate they would be 
thus forced to experience is a matter of more uncertainty, yet 
they in all probability would not sutler more than the Polar 
Bear, or the Sea Lions and Sea Bears, which have of late been 
frequently seen in different zoological gardens. A Sea Lion, as 
is well known, not only survived a voyage from Buenos Ayres, 

* Yaclat-iiig in the Arctic Seas, p. 82. 

tTMs specimen was captured iu Davis Strait, Aiigust 25, "by a noose 
swung over his head and one fore limb from the ship and hauled on board. 
For some days the captive was kept tied to a ring-bolt on deck, and refused 
food altogether. Subsequently he was induced to swallow thin strips of 
boiled pork, and was thus fed until the vessel reached the Shetlands, when 
a supply of fresh mussels was provided for its use. A large box with openings 
at the sides was fabricated ; and the animal, secured therein, was brought 
safely to Dundee on the 26th ult. [October]. From that port to London 
the Walrus had been conveyed in the steamer 'Anglia' under the care of the 
society's superintendent." Proc. ZoiiL Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 819. Mr. Bartlett 
further says, in referring to the specimen: "As regards the present animal, 
I may state that on my arrival at Dundee, on the 29th of October, I found 
the young Walrus in a very restless state, and, as I thought, hungry; it was 
being fed upon large mussels ; about twenty of these were opened at a meal, 
and the poor beast was fed about three times a day. [!] I immediately told 
the owners that I thought the animal was being starved. Stevens at once 
agreed and a codfish was procured from the neighborhood, and by me cut 
into long thin strips. On offering these pieces of cod to the animal, he greed- 
ily devoured them. Since that time I have fed the Walrus upon fish, mussels, 
irlidks, clams, and the stom/'lin aud intestine* and other soft parts of fishes cut 
small; for I liiul that it cannot swallow anything larger than a walnut." 
Ibid., pp. 819, 820. 

Misc. Pub. No. 12 10 



146 ODOBJENUS ROSMAEUS ATLANTIC WALRUS. 

across the tropics, to London, but lived tliere for more than, a 
year,* and finally died " from natural causes." 

Since writing the above I have met with the following from 
the pen of Mr. Alfred Newton, respecting the feasibility of ob- 
taining living specimens of the Walrus for the Gardens of the 
London Zoological Society. Eeferring to the specimen taken to 
London in 1608, Mr. Newton says: "NoW surely what a rude 
skipper, in the days of James I, could without any preparation 
accomplish, this Society ought to have no difficulty in effecting ; 
and I trust that the example may not be lost upon those who 
control our operations. From inquiries I have made, I find it is 
quite the exception for any year to pass without an opportu- 
nity of capturing alive one or more young examples of Triche- 
clim rosmarus occurring to the twenty or thirty ships which 
annually sail from the northern ports of Norway, to pursue this 
animal in the Spitsbergen seas. It has several times happened 
that young Walruses thus taken are brought to Haimnerfest ; 
but, the voyage ended, they are sold to the first purchaser, gen- 
erally for a very trifling sum, and, their food and accommodation 
not being duly considered, they of course soon die. Lord 
Dufferin brought one which had been taken to Bergen, and 
succeeded in bringing it alive to Ullapooljt and Mr. Lamont 
mentions another which he saw in the possession of Captain 
Erichson. $ In making an attempt to place a live Walrus in 
our Gardens, I do not think we ought to be discouraged by the 
bad luck which has attended our efforts in the case of the larger 
marine Mammalia. Every person I have spoken with on the 
subject corroborates the account given by honest Master Wei- 
den of the l strange docilitie' of this beast; and that in a mere 
financial point of view the attempt would be worth undertaking 
is, I think, manifest. To the general public perhaps the most 
permanently attractive animals exhibited in our Gardens are 
the Hippopotamuses and the Seals. What then would be the 
case of a species like the Walrus, wherein the active intelli- 
gence of the latter is added to the powerful bulk of the for- 
mer ?"* 

Since Mr. Newton wrote the above, another specimen has 
reached London, as already detailed, but this was ten years 

* Sec Muric, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. vii, 1872, p. 528. 
t " Letters from High Latitudes, pp. 387-389." 
t" Seasons with the Sea-horses, pp. 26,27." 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p. 500. 



ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 147 

ago. What efforts have been made, if any, since that date, 
I know not, bnt the skill, energy, and money which, some 
fifteen years ago, placed a White Whale (Beluga catodon) in the 
Aqnarial Gardens of Boston, and has recently safely brought 
another to Xew York, and has taken others alive into the inte- 
rior nearly to Cincinnati (the latter dying, however, before quite 
reaching that city), ought certainly, if directed toward securing 
living specimens of the Walrus for public exhibition, meet with 
easy success. As to the influence of a change from an Arctic 
climate to mild temperate latitudes, it may be well to recall the 
fact that not many centuries since the natural habitat of the 
Walrus extended to the southern shores of Nova Scotia and 
Cape Breton. 

ODOB^ENUS OBESUS, (III.) Allen. 
Pacific Walrus. 

"Wallross, STELLER, Beschreib. von deni Lande Kamtsch., 1774, 106." 

Sea Horse, COOK'S Third Voyage, ii, 1784, 456, pi. Hi; ibid., abridged ed., 

iii, 40. 
Trichcclnts rosmarus, SHAW, Gen. Zoo'l., i, 1800, 234 (in part), fig. 68* (from 

Cook). VON SCHBENCK, Eeisen im Amur-Lande, i, 1859, 179, (in 

part). LEIDY, Trans. Anier. Phil. Soc., xi, 1860 (in part). VON 

MIDDENDORFF, Sibirische Eeise, iv, 1867, 934 (in part). Also in 

part of most recent authors. 
2Vic7i.ee/iMs obesus, ILLIGER, Abhandl. d. Berlin. Akad. (1804-11), 1815, 64, 

70, 75 (distribution). 
Triclteclivs divergens, ILLIGER, Abhaudl. d. Berlin. Akad. (1804-11), 1815, 68 

(based on Cook's description and figure of the Pacific Walrus). 
Hosmarus obesus, GILL, Proc. 'Essex Inst., v, 1866, 13 (in part only). CALL, 

Alaska and its Resources, 1870, 503, 577. SCAMMOX, Marine Mam., 

1874, 176 (figure of animal). 
Trichccltus cookii, FREMERY, Bijdrag. tot de uaturkuund. Wetensch., vi, 

1831, 385. 
Eosmarus cooM, GILL, Intern. Exh., 1876, Anirn. Resources U. S., No. 2, 1876, 

4 ("Pacific Walrus"; no description); Johnson's New Univ. Cycl., 

iii, 1877, 1725 (no description). 
Eosmartts arcticus, PALLAS, Zool. Rosso-Asiat., 1831, 269, "pis. xxviii, 

xxix." ELLIOTT, Cond. of Affairs in Alaska, 1875. 121, 160 

(Prybilov Islands). 

Rosmarus tridieclnis, GILL, Johnson's New Univ. Cyclop., iii, 1877, 633 (in 
part only). 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS AND SKELETON. Similar in size 
(or possibly rather larger) and probably in general contour 
(though commonly depicted and described as more robust or 
thicker at the shoulders) to the Odobccnus rosmarus, bnt quite 
different in its facial outline. The tusks are longer and thinner, 



148 ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

generally more convergent, with much greater inward curva- 
ture; the uiystacial bristles shorter and smaller, and the muzzle 
relatively deeper and broader, in correlation with the greater 
breadth and depth of the skull anteriorly. The Pacific Walrus 
has been supposed to further differ from the Atlantic species 
by the more naked condition of the skin; but this seems to be 
merely a feature of age, baldness being more or less common in 
old age to both species. The color of the hair is nearly the same 
in both. A large old male in the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy, Cambridge, collected at the Prybilov Islands by Capt. 
Charles Bryant, is entirely destitute of hair, except around the 
edge of numerous old scars, and on the breast and ventral sur- 
face where here and there are patches very thinly clothed with 
very short hair, hardly sufficient in amount to remove the gen- 
eral impression of almost complete baldness. The longest mys- 
tacial bristles are scarcely more than an inch in length, while 
the greater part barely project beyond the skin. There is an- 
other similar specimen in the collection of the National Museum. 
A much younger specimen (a female) in the collection of Prof. 
H. A. Ward, of Eochester, is as well clothed with hair as is the 
Atlantic species at the same age, from which the color of the 
hair does not appreciably differ. The mystacial bristles are 
somewhat longer than in the above-described very old specimens, 
but are rather shorter than in the Atlantic species at the same 
age. Probably in young individuals the bristles are much longer 
than in the adult, as is the case in the Atlantic species. The 
chief external difference between the two species appears to 
consist in the shape of the muzzle and the size and form of the 
bristly nose-pad, which has a vertical breadth at least one-fourth 
greater than in the Atlantic species. Very important differ- 
ences between the two species are exhibited in the skull, as will 
be presently described. 

The old male Alaskan Walrus in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology has a length as mounted of 3350 mm. (about 10 feet), 
and a circumference at the shoulders (axillae) of 3050 mm. The 
skeleton, as measured while the bones were still connected by 
cartilage, gave a total length of 9 feet (2G4C mm.), of which the 
skull measured 15i inches (354 mm.) ; the cervical vertebrae 
13 (330 mm.) ; the dorsal vertebra? 45 (1130 mm.) ; the lumbar 15 
(370 mm.) ; and the caudal 23 (580 mm.). The fore limb, from 
the proximal end of the humerus to the end of the first or 
longest digit has a length of 40 inches (1010 mm.), and the hind 
limb, from the proximal end of the femur to the end of the Ion- 



MEASUREMENTS. 149 

gest digit, a length of 54 inches (1040 mm.). The scapula, has a 
length of IGi inches (420 mm.), and the innominate bones a 
length of 13 inches (330 mm.). The measurements more in de- 
tail of the principal bones, taken from the skeleton as mounted, 
are as follows : 



Measurements of an adult male skeleton of Odobcenus 

mm. 

Total length of skeleton ........................................... 2890 

Total length of skull ............................................... 390 

Extreme breadth of skull .......................................... 305 

Length of canines (from plane of molars) ........................... 559 

Length of lower jaw .............................................. 290 

Breadth at condyles . .............................................. 238 

Length of cervical series of vertebrae ............................... 400 

Length of dorsal series of vertebrae ................................. 1170 

Length of lumbar series of vertebrae ................................ 380 

Length of the sacral and caudal series of vertebras .................. 550 

Length of tirst rib, osseous portion ..... ............................ 150 

Length of first rib, cartilaginous portion ........................... 95 

Length of first rib, total ........................................... 245 

Length of second rib, osseous portion ............................... 240 

Length of second rib, cartilaginous portion ........................ 160 

Length of second rib, total ........................................ 400 

Length of third rib, osseous portion ................................ 310 

Length of third rib, cartilaginous portion .......................... 180 

Length of third rib, total .......................................... 590 

Length of fourth rib, osseous portion ............................... 440 

Length of fourth rib, cartilaginous portion ......................... 190 

Length of fourth rib, total ......................................... 630 

Length of fifth rib, osseous portion ................................. 480 

Length of fifth rib, cartilaginous portion ........................... 220 

Length of fifth rib, total ........................................... 700 

Length of sixth rib, osseous portion ................................ 565 

Length of sixth rib, cartilaginous portion .......................... 255 

Length of sixth rib, total .......................................... 820 

Length of seventh rib, osseous portion .............................. 575 

Length of seventh rib, cartilaginous portion ........................ 285 

Length of seventh rib, total ........................................ 860 

Length of eighth rib, osseous portion ............................... 580 

Length of eighth rib, cartilaginous portion ......................... 275 

Length of eighth rib, total ......................................... 855 

Length of ninth rib, osseous portion ................................ 570 

Length of ninth rib, cartilaginous portion ........................ 345 

Length of ninth rib, total .......................................... 915 

Length of tenth rib, osseous portion ................................ 5t >0 

Length of tenth rib, cartilaginous portion ....................... 

Length of tenth rib, total ............... ........................... 9rtn 

Length of eleventh rib, osseous portion ............................. 525 

Length of eleventh rib, cartilaginous portion ....................... 380 

Length of eleventh rib, total ........................... - ........... 905 



150 ODOB^NUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

H1TTTL 

LeDgtli of twelfth, rib, osseous portion 500 

Length of twelfth rib, cartilaginous portion 320 

Length of twelfth rib, total 820 

Length of thirteenth rib, osseous portion 450 

Length of thirteenth rib, cartilaginous portion 210 

Length of thirteenth rib, total 660 

Length of fourteenth rib, osseous portion 365 

Length of fourteenth rib, cartilaginous portion 120 

Length of fourteenth rib, total 485 

Length of fifteenth rib, osseous portion 70 

Length of fifteenth rib, cartilaginous portion 00 

Length of fifteenth rib, total 70 

Length of sternum, osseous portion 540 

Length of sternum, total 650 

Length of scapula 420 

Breadth of scapula 245 

Greatest height of its spine (at base of acromion) 53 

Length of the humerus 390 

Transverse diameter of its head 110 

Antero-posterior diameter of its head 132 

Transverse diameter of distal end 138 

Length of radius 273 

Length of ulna 362 

Longest diameter of proximal end of ulna 130 ! 

Length of carpus 48 

Length of first digit 124 

Length of metacarpal of second digit 87 

Length of third digit 68 

Length of fourth digit 68 

Length of fifth digit 75 

Length of femur 250 

Circumference of neck of femur 135 

Least transverse diameter of shaft 55 

Transverse diameter of shaft at end 118 

Length of tibia 380 j 

Length of fibula 375 

Length of tarsus 172 

Length of inetatarsal of first digit 142 

Length of second digit 126 

Length of third digit 123. 

Length of fourth digit 132 

Length of fifth digit 158 

Length of innominate bone 430 

Greatest width of pelvis anteriorly 320 

Length of ilium 475 

Length of ischio-pubic bones 245 

Length of thyroid foramen 153 

Length of os penis 710 

Width of maims at base of metacarpus 140 

Width of pes at base of metatarsus 130- 



MEASUREMENTS AND EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 151 

Bespecting the size and external dimensions, Mr. Elliott says, 
" the adult male is about 12 feet in length from nostrils to tip 
of tail [probably in a curved line over the inequalities of the 
surface] and has 10 or 12 feet of girth, and an old bull, shot by 
the natives on Walrus Island, July 5, 1872, was nearly 13 feet 
long, with the enormous girth of 14 feet. The immense mass 
of blubber on the shoulders and around the neck makes the 
head and posteriors look small in proportion and attenuated."* 
He estimates the gross weight of a well-conditioned old bull at 
"two thousand pounds," the skin alone weighing from ''two 
hundred and fifty to four hundred pounds," and the head "from 
sixty to eighty." The head, he adds, will measure eighteen 
inches in length from between the nostrils to the occiput.! 

Captain Cook says the weight of one, " which was none of the 
largest," was eleven hundred pounds without the entrails, the 
head weighing forty-two and the skin two hundred and five. 
Of this specimen lie gives the following measurements: 

Ft. In. 

Length from the snout to the tail 9 4 

Length of the neck from the snout to the shoulder-bone 2 6 

Height of the shoulder 5 

(fore 2 4 

Lengtli of the fins < , 

(hind 2 6 

/ fore 1 2i 

Breadth of the fins { . . ," 

j hind 2 

(breadth 5 

Snout { TO 

( depth 1 3 

Circumference of the neck close to the ears 2 7 

Circumference of the body at the shoulder 7 10 

Circumference near the hind fins 5 6 

From the snout to the eyes 7 1 

This was evidently either a female or not fully grown. The 
circumference, as here given, is somewhat less than the length. 

Bespecting the external appearance of the old males as ob- 
served in life by Mr. Elliott on Walrus Island, Mr. Elliott says : 
" I was surprised to observe the raw, naked appearance of the 
hide, a skin covered with a multitude of pustular-looking warts 
and pimples, without hair or fur, deeply wrinkled, with dark 
red venous lines, showing out in bold contrast through, the thick 
yellowish-brown cuticle, which seemed to be scaling off in 
places as if with leprosy. They struck my eye at first in a 

* This is well shown in Mr. Elliott's figures. 

t Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 161, 162. 

t Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, etc., vol. ii, p. 459. 



152 ODOI^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

most unpleasant manner, for they looked like bloated, mortify- 
ing, shapeless masses of flesh ; the clusters of swollen, warty 
pimples, of a yellow, parboiled flesh-color, over the shoulders 
and around the neck, suggested unwholesomeuess forcibly." * 
The old male, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, of which 
measurements are given above, is almost wholly naked, except 
about the numerous old healed gashes and scars, which are 
generally bordered with very short, stiff, brownish hair. Cap- 
tain Scamnion, however, who has also observed them in their 
native waters, states that the hair that covers " most individu- 
als is short and of a dark brown ; yet there is no lack of exam- 
ples where it is of a much lighter shade, or of a light dingy 
gray. . . . The young, however, before its cumbrous canines 
protrude . . . is of a black color." t 

The mystacial bristles appear to vary in length in different 
individuals. Pallas's figure of a rather young animal represents 
them as thick and long. In the old specimen in the Museum f 
Comparative Zoology they are very short, and do not form a very 
prominent feature of the physiognomy. On the upper part of 
the muzzle they are merely short, small-pointed spines, one- 
fourth to one-half or three-quarters of an inch in length ; they 
increase somewhat in length toward the edge of the lip, where 
the longest obtain a length of about two inches. They are quite 
slender, the coarsest having a diameter of not more than eight 
one-hundredths of an inch. 

Captain Scamnion states that " The cheeks are studded with 
four or five hundred spines or whiskers, some of which are rudi- 
mentary, while others grow to the length of three or four inches. 
They are transparent, curved, abruptly pointed, and about the 
size of a straw, but not twisted, as has been stated by some 
writers." J Mr. Elliott describes them as being " short, stubbed, 
gray- white bristles, from one-half to three inches long." The 
descriptions of the bristles of the Atlantic Walrus, as given by 
numerous writers, agree in representing them as much longer 
and thicker than in the Pacific species, the dimensions usually 
assigned being a length of four or five inches, or even, in some 
cases, six, and about one-twelfth of an inch thick. The figures 
and descriptions commonly represent them as forming, by their 

* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, p. 160. 

t Marine Mammalia, p. 177. 

I Marine Mammalia, p. 176. 

Condition of Affairs in Alaska, p. 161. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 



153 



size and length, next to the long tusks, one of the most striking 
features of the physiognomy. In Cook's and Elliott's figures of 
the Pacific species, how- 
ever, they are by no means 
a prominent feature, and 
there are no such allusions 
to the formidable aspect 
they give to the facial ex- 
pression as are commonly 
met with in the accounts 
of the Atlantic species. A 
direct comparison of speci- 
mens of corresponding ages 
shows them to be much 
shorter than in the Atlan- 
tic Walrus. 

The eyes of the Atlantic 
Walrus are described as 
fiery red, one writer com- 
paring them to glowing 
coals. Mr. Elliott refers to 
those of the Pacific species 
as having the sclerotic coat 
"of a dirty, mottled coffee- 
yellow and brown, with 
an occasional admixture of 
white ; the iris light-brown, 
with dark-brown rays and 
spots" ; and in no case have 
I seen any reference to 
their being " red." While 
most writers who have de- 
scribed the Atlantic Wal- 
rus from life refer to the 
redness of the eyes as a 
remarkable and striking 
feature, Cook, Scammon, 
and others (Mr. Elliott ex- 
cepted) make no reference to the color of the eyes, which would 
hardly have escaped them had they possessed the redness char- 
acteristic of the Atlantic species. 

Mr. Elliott further describes the eyes as small, but prominent, 
" protruding from their sockets like those of a lobster," and 




FIG. 13. 



oibesus. 



154 ODOILENVS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

states that the animals have the power of rolling them about in 
every direction, so that when aroused they seldom move the 
head more than to elevate it, the position of the eyes near the 
top of the head giving them the needed range of vision. 

The nostrils, as in the Atlantic species, are at the top of the 
muzzle ; they are " oval, and about an inch in their greatest 
diameter." The auricular opening is placed nearly in a line with 
the nostrils and eye, and hence near the top of the head in a 
fold of the skin. The animal is said to have a keen sense of 
smell and an acute perception of sound, but a limited power of 
vision. * 

An idea of the uncouth and peculiar facial aspect of the Pa- 
cific Walrus may be derived from the above-given figures (Fig. 
13) drawn by Mr. Elliott, to whose kindness I am indebted for 
their presentation in the present connection. 

I append herewith measurements of a considerable series of 
skulls, of different ages, one only of which is marked as that of a 
female, they being mostly skulls of middle-aged or very old 
males. 

*See Elliott, 1. c., pp. 161, 162. 



MEASUREMENTS OF SKULLS. 



155 



to 


"o 


^ 'S 
-3 -o 

^s t*} 

53 B 
!> > 


<B 

-1 

at 

rH 


13 

<D 

cf 

O 



3 


Ealhcr young. 


Rather young. 
Rather young. 


O 




3 


"o 

2 3 

s > 


fci) 

5 

o 

3 
_ 


Middle-aged. 
Old. 


ssaooid 
piono-ioa JB jqStaq '^.vf aa^voq; 


o 
o 

rH 


00 t> 






8 


O rH 
00 00 




- 


00 IO 


t t rH 




t- CM 

CO O 


'qj.LtHO[ '.MuL' .TOAVO'j 


CS 
Cl 


* Cl 
Cl Cl 






IO 


O CO 
CM Cl 






(M 


O '30 
00 C~ 
Cl Cl 




^1 Cl 


qjaaj JO 831.138 

njjoji.iB[ora aq; jo qqi^aai 


Cl 

o 

rH 


O CS 


00 


<M 

O 
rH 


Cl 
00 


IB t^ 


(M 

O 
rH 



C 
rH 


in in 

CS CS 


O 
00 


CO 
rH 


sdij JB jiBde aoirejstp 'samuBO 


00 
3 


o oo 

C^ I." 


^ 


** 


CO 


Cl 00 

rH rH 


00 
^f 


IM 


o 


i 


LO 
rH 
rH 


QSBq $v saSpa iBttiaj 
-sa uaa^ijaq aouBjsip 'samuBO 


Cl 
d 

Cl 


OO CO 
CS O 
rH Cl 


in 

OS 
rH 


IM 


A 


O CO 
(M rH 


O 
H 
IM 


O 

CM 


1 


rH 


CO 


asBq ^6 aanajajranojio 'samuu^ 


o 

CO 
CM 


O CO 
rH O 
Cl Cl 


O 


rH 
PI 


CO 
H 


00 O 

rH rH 


O 
rH 
CM 


CM 
i-l 


s 


OO 
CD 
rH 


CM 
CO 
rH 


aqj jo UAOJJ jo aaBjd raojj 
pamsBani 'q}8aa[ 'santucf) 


00 


IO O 

O IO 


IO 


IO 

r. 
IO 


O 


ci m 


in 




CS 
CO 


Utl 

1 1 


CO 

~ 
CO 


CO 


earn; 
-BiBdjoaSpa ,iapmq o; sauB[ 
-ItsBtiiiajai jojapioq jouaitty 


s 


CO Cl 
Cl Cl 


00 

rH 


f 


oo 


in oo 

00 t- 

rH rH 


11 


0> 
- 1 
CM 


8 

(M 


oo 

o 


CO CO 
CO 00 
Cl r-l 


\'[jouajiiB qjpi.iv 'sauoq JBSB^J 




' ' 







s 










IS 


;; 


-.i'l-ioua jsod qjpiA 'sauoq IBSBX 






















* 






2 

1 

>s 



CO 

o 







a 



I 



qjSuai 'sonoq p3SBx; 




O t* | 


-qaonaa^aqsaDUB^p^W 


M * 00 
00 OC t^ t~ 


SOC^OOOO^OL^-^i-H 
t?" t*~ *^ t*~ OC C*~ Ci 5O t* t** 


sassaoojd ptojSBta ;B qjplAV 


Cl 00 O Tj 

ci cs o y 

CO Cl CO C 


*OOOi-!OaO-* CO<D 
j^Hifi^COCiO ,00-^* 

i n c-i 01 c-i C"i co 51 co w 


BraoSjCz ^B q^piM. jsajBaag 


rH t- I' 

CO * IO c" 
'CM Cl Cl C 


roooocou'r-^t-. eo ^ o 
soortirsco'^ir- TI -^f co 

1 CM Cl rt t-t W <M & iM !M i-l 


.q^ 9T 


CO Cl IO C" 

co o> r- c: 

CO CO CO C* 


:ooooacoo ooo-^f 

5 O O f t - O CO COiftC 1 ! 
5^COCOCO-^C7 COCOCC 


sag 


"0 "0 "0 *1 


^"O^O^O^O^O^O^O^D^O^D O*- 










J4 J9 J9 j 


s cs ci d c3 


. 


02 M 03 G 

e3 rt TS c 

^- 1 1 ^^ r- 


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la . c8 w 08 CO 

- ^-< 1 ^M 1 1 ^H 


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<3 <^ <] < 


1 < < <1 <1 < 


1 


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55 .' : : ; :25s5cc 


^ 


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?OD , , . , i 323230O?jf 

^r-SSrSC^SCij^r^ 

- *" l '< s 1 s ^'*1 v rf' 




^ r- 


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t> t> > i- 


^.'~ - '" Hp ""''~ Hr "";>-j-^-t> r -~' 




^ r 


- p -<q -<j -q H <l . |> l> (> l> H 


g 


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CJ ^1 CO 
t- t- i 1 

i i r t ^ 


X t- ? C^ * 05 CO 

x -* t r- o t- 


o 







SI 



Q 



156 



ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALEUS. 



DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. As already stated, the Pa- 
cific Walrus differs from the Atlantic Walrus very little in 
external characters, except in facial outline and in the size and 




FIG. 14. Odobazniis obesus. 

* l set " or curvature of the tusks. The skulls, however, afford 
many important differential characters, and on these differ- 



DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 



157 



ences I venture to predicate the existence of two species, using 
the term " species " in its commonly accepted sense. To show 
more readily what these differences are, I present herewith a 
series of figures of skulls of both old and young of the two 
forms. The skulls selected for this purpose are average exam- 
ples of a considerable series, the adult skulls being those of 
males of strictly comparable ages. 




FIG. 15. OdolxEnus rosmarus. 



The skulls of the two species seen in profile (Figs. 14 and 15) 
exhibit the following- differences : The first and most obvious 



158 



ODOB^NUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 




is perhaps that presented by the tusks, which, in the Pacific 
species (Fig. 14), are much longer and thicker than in the other 

(Fig. 15), less incurved and 
more convergent; their alve- 
oli are deeper and thicker, 
with heavier walls, thereby 
giving much greater fullness 
to the front wall of the skull, 
I even modifying the form of 
| the nasal bones. The front 
outline, as seen in profile, is 
very oblique in the Atlantic 
species, while in the Pacific 
species it is nearly vertical, 
the front edge of the nasal 
bones being very little poste- 
rior to the front border of the 
base of the tusk, while in the 
Atlantic species they scarcely 

FIG. 16. OdobivHu* ru*>nrus. pass beyond a vertical line 

drawn from the hinder border of the tusk. The orbits in the 

Pacific species are 
placed more ante- 
riorly than in the 
other. 

In the front view 
of the skulls, the 
muzzle is seen to be 
much smaller in the 
Atlantic species 
(Fig. 16) than in the 
Pacific (Fig. 17), 
with, however, not 
very marked differ- 
ences in outlines and 
proportions. The 
receding upper bor- 
der in the latter is a 
marked feature. 
The difference in 
size here shown is 
FIG. i7.0dol(enus obcsus. an important one, 

since the two skulls compared differ very little in general size, 




DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 



159 



they giving very nearly the same measurements in respect to 
extreme dimensions of length and breadth. The difference is 




FIG. 18. OtJobfi'nun 



hence one of proportion, resulting from the far greater develop- 
ment in both breadth and depth of the anterior portion of 
the skull in the Pacific species. But while the skull of the 




FIG. 1'.'. Odubinntx 



Atlantic species is smaller anteriorly than the other, it has the 
occipital region (Fig. 18) more heavily developed than is the 
case in the Pacific species (Fig. 10). The difference in develop- 
ment of the mastoid processes is strongly apparent, not only as 
respects massiveuess, but in the general outline. In the Pacific 



160 



ODOB^NUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALEUS. 



species there is a thinness and anterior deflection not seen in 
the other. The sculpturing of the occipital plane (after allow- 
ing for a considerable range of individual variation in this 
respect) is quite different, as well as the relative degree of 
verticality. The occipital breadth of the skull, as compared 
with the total length of the skull, is not greatly different in the 
two forms. In the Pacific species, the occipital condyles are 
narrower than in the other, and are placed at a somewhat dif- 
ferent angle, both laterally and vertically. 




FIG. 20. Odobcenus rosmarus. 

The difference in relative development of the anterior and 
posterior portions of the skull in the two species is best seen 
from above (Figs. 20 and 21). In this view, the narrow facial 
breadth in the Atlantic species (Fig. 20) is in striking contrast 
with its great occipital breadth, whereas in the Pacific species 
(Fig. 21) the two regions are more equally developed. Another 
difference brought out in this view is the greater interorbital con- 
striction in the Pacific species, which is not only relatively but 
actually much narrower than in the other, while the point of 



DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 



161 



greatest constriction is considerably posterior to tlie same point 
in the Atlantic species. 

There are also important differences in the form of the differ- 
ent bones of the skull, as shown in the young. In the Pacific 
species (Fig. 22), the nasals are nearly one-third longer and 
narrower than in the Atlantic species (Fig. 23), and the frontals 
have a quite different posterior outline, they being abruptly 




FIG. 21. Odobcenus obesus. 

narrowed just behind the orbital fossse to less than half the 
breadth they present in the Atlantic Walrus, and extend further 
posteriorly in a narrow point instead of being rather abruptly 
truncated. In the Atlantic species, the lateral anterior angle 
of the frontals is in a line with the most laterally projecting 
portion of the maxillaries, while in the Pacific species the 
breadth at this point is considerably greater than at the ante- 
rior border of the froutals. While the frontals present in each 
species a considerable range of variation in respect to their pos- 
terior outlines, the average difference is very nearly as here rep- 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 11 



162 



ODOBJENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 



resented. The young skulls here compared are of nearly the 
same age ; but unfortunately the absence of the occipital por- 
tion of the skull in the only Pacific specimen of this age (Fig. 
22) I am able to figure renders it impossible to compare by fig- 
ures the occipital region in young specimens. Other specimens 




FlG. 22. Odobtenus olesus. 



FIG. 23. Odobwnns rosmarus. 



young enough to have the sutures still open show the differ- 
ences seen in the occipital region of older skulls. 

Another difference, but one apparently less constant than the 
others, is the presence in the young skull of the Pacific "Walrus 
(Figs. 22 and 24) of an extension posteriorly of the interinaxilla- 
ries for two-thirds of the length of the nasals. In the Atlantic 
skull (Figs. 23 and 25), the interrnaxillaries do not enter into the 
dorsal outline of the skull, but terminate at the anterior bor- 
der of the nasals. This difference is open to exceptions, and is 
not offered as a character of importance, since the same modifi- 
cation or backward prolongation of the intermaxillaries occurs 
occasionally in the Atlantic species, and is sometimes absent in 
the Pacific species, while in some examples the intermaxillaries 
reach the dorsal surface only as isolated ossicles between the 
nasals and maxillaries. As a rule, however, the conditions in 
this respect shown in the young skulls here figured appear to 
be diagnostic of the two species. 



DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 



163 



A comparison of the skulls as seen from below^ (Figs. 26 and 
27) shows not only the considerably greater contraction of the 
skull anteriorly, and the greater massiveness and different form 
of the mastoid processes in the Atlantic Walrus, but other 
weighty differences. These are especially seen in t;he size and 
form of the auditory bulla?, and, to a less extent, in the form of 
the occipital condyles, the form of the glenoid cavity, the orb- 
ital fossaj, etc. In the Atlantic Walrus (Fig. 26), the auditory 




FIG. 24. Odobccnus obesus. 



FIG. 25. Odobcenus rosmarus. 



bullce are relatively larger than in the other (Fig. 27), more 
quadrilateral in outline, and rather more swollen. The differ- 
ences in size and outline are very considerable, the auditory bullae 
in the Pacific species being, as respects outline, nearly triangular. 
The inner anterior angle is also strongly developed, being by 
far the most inwardly salient portion of the bulla?, while in the 
Atlantic skull it is greatly suppressed. As regards the occipital 
condyles, they are broader and shorter in the Atlantic species, 
and less produced anteriorly. The space between them is also 



164 



ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 



considerably broader than in the other, and the plane of artic- 
ulation is more nearly vertical. This seeins correlate with the 
greater incurvation of the tusks ; these, being almost vertical 
in the Pacific species, allow a greater declination of the head. 

Another .difference apparent in this aspect of the skull is the 
relative posterior extension of the condylar portion, which, in the 
Pacific species, extends much further beyond the posterior bor- 
der of the mastoids than in the other. This is obviously due to 
greater length of the basioccipital segment of the skull in the 
Pacific species, which is clearly shown in the annexed figures 




FIG. 26. Odobccmis rosmarus. 

(Figs. 26 and 27). The position of the foramina of the basal 
portion of the skull is also quite different in the two, as is 
especially seen in respect to the condylar foramina, which are 
situated more posteriorly in the Atlantic species than in the 
other, due, perhaps, to the shortness in this form of the basi- 
occipital region. 



DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 



165 



Another difference not yet noted consists in the greater 
length and massiveness of the zygomata in the Pacific species, 
in which they are fully one- third heavier than in the Atlantic 
species; they being in the former both deeper and thicker. 
(This is well shown in the above given figures of the skulls as 
seen in profile and from above and below, but especially as 
as seen from below.) The orbital fossa? are also quite different, 
they being relatively long and narrow in the Pacific, and shorter 
and broader in the Atlantic AYalrus. 




FIG. 27. Odobcenuis obesus. 

To sum up in a word the above-detailed cranial differences 
between the two species of Walruses, the skull of the Pacific 
animal is heavily developed anteriorly and relatively much less 
so posteriorly, while in the Atlantic Walrus just the reverse of 
this obtains, the skull in the latter being heavily developed 
posteriorly and relatively less so anteriorly. The axis of vari- 
ation being at the posterior border of the orbital fossae, the 



166 



ODOBJSNUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 



zygomata share the general character of the anterior half of the 
skull. 




FIG. 28. Odolcenus rosmarus. Adult. 

But equally striking differences are seen in a comparison of 
the lower jaws of the two species. These differences correlate 




FIG. 29. Odolamus obesus. Adult. 

in a most interesting manner with those that characterize the- 
cranium. Thus, in the Atlantic species (Figs. 28 and 30), the 



DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 



167 



mandible is far less massive anteriorly than in the Atlantic 
Walrus (Figs. 29 and 31), while it is much more massive pos- 
teriorly. There is also considerable difference in the mandibles 
o!' the two in other respects. Thus, not only is the mandible 
of the Pacific Walrus much thicker, both laterally and ver- 
tically, at the symphysis, but the border of the ramus is widely 
unlike in the two forms. In the Atlantic Walrus (Fig. 30), the 




FIG. 30. Odobcunus rosmarus. Adult. 

inferior border of the ramus, from the posterior end of the sym- 
physis to the front of the jaw, rises by a gradual and nearly 
uniform curve ; in the Pacific Walrus (Fig. 31), the inferior bor- 
der scarcely rises at all, the jaw in front being simply bluntly 
rounded. In respect to the posterior portion of the ramus, the 
differences consist in the greater breadth of the condylar por- 
tion in the Atlantic species, and the greater thickness of the 




FIG. 31. Odobcemis obesus. Adult. 

coronoid process. These differences are ah 1 strongly pro- 
nounced in even quite young skulls, this being especially the 
case with respect to the inferior border of the symphysial por- 
tion of the jaw (Figs. 32 and 34). Another difference consists 
in the position of the coronoid process, which in the Pacific 
Walrus, especially in the young, is central to the axis of the 
ramus, while in the Atlantic species it rises more from the inner 



168 



ODOB^NUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 




edge, and tlie process itself lias an inward curvature not seen 
in the other (Figs. 33 and 35). 

The cranial differences here detailed as obtaining between 

the Atlantic and Pacific 
Walruses a.re borne out by 
a large series of the sknlls of 
the two species, numbering 
not less than twelve to fifteen 
of each. There is in each spe- 
cies a considerable range of 
individual variation; but the 
differences presented by the 
skulls here figured fairly rep- 
resent average conditions. 
The only exception to be 
made is in respect to the 
tusks of the Pacific speci- 
FIG. 32.Odobcenn8 rosmarns. Young, men figured, which are per- 
haps above the average in size, while they are remarkably di- 
vergent, more so than in any other specimen of this species 
that I have seen. Ordinarily, or as a rule, they are more or 

less convergent, and some- 
times even meet or overlap, 
while in the Atlantic species 
they are, as a rule, divergent. 
While in the Pacific species 
the tusks descend almost ver- 
tically, in the Atlantic spe- 
cies they are quite uniformly 
strongly incurved. 

In view of the differences 
in the skulls here described, 
together with the correlating 
differences of facial expres- 
sion, notwithstanding the ab- 

FIG. 33. Odobainns olesus. Youug. sence of other very strongly 
marked external differences, I have little hesitation in accord- 
ing to these two forms specific rank. Added to these differ- 
ences is the fact of then 1 unquestionably long geographic 
separation. Whether an individual of one species may not oc- 
casionally find its way to the habitat of the other is a question 
for future consideration. That such an occurrence is not irnpos- 




DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERS. 



169 




sible seems evident from the fact of the existence, during por- 
tions of the year at least, of areas of open water along those 
portions of the Arctic coast supposed to separate the habitats 
of the two species. Further than this, I have seen a skull (now 
in the Museum of the Boston Society of Natural History) which 
Capt. Charles Bryant (certainly a trustworthy authority) 
assures me was taken by his assistant, on Walrus Island, in 
the summer of 1871 or 1872, that agrees in every particular 
with the skulls of the Atlan- 
tic species. This skull hav- 
ing been somewhat fantas- 
tically painted (the lower 
surface deep red and the 
upper yellowish- white), led 
me at first to doubt the cor- 
rectness of the alleged local- FIG. 34. Odobanus rosmanis. Young, 
ity, supposing that if really obtained at the Prybilov Islands 
it might have been brought there from some distant point. 
This quaint ornamentation proves, however, an aid in fixing 
the locality of its capture as Walrus Island. It differing so 
widely from the form usually occurring in those waters, it at 
once attracted attention, and was mounted on a bracket and 
preserved as a curiosity, the paint being applied, as Captain 
Bryant informs me, to facilitate its being kept free of dust ! 
Captain Bryant states (in a letter to the writer) that he has 
himself "seen two specimens like it," but adds that he "did not 
succeed in killing them." Hence, of course, their resemblance 
to the one now in question is 
only presumed, the animals 
being only seen alive. He 
writes, further, that this 
"head" was recognized as 
"different from any before 
seen there." I will merely add 

that this skull is indistin- FIG. 35. Odolainus olesus. Young, 
guishable in any essential detail from skulls of corresponding- 
age from the Atlantic waters, and points to the occasional oc- 
currence of Odobcenus rosmarus within the habitat of Odoltmms 
obesus. As von Middendorff has shown (see anted,, p. 78), the 
Walrus (presumably the Atlantic species) has occurred much 
further to the eastward than the limits assigned it by von Baer, 
he having traced it, satisfactorily to himself, apparently, to 




170 ODOBJENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

within thirty degrees of the western limit of the range of the 
Pacific animal. In view of these facts, the question arises as 
to whether the Atlantic species may not occasionally pass along 
the northern coast of Asia so far as to sometimes reach the 
habitat of the Pacific species. 

NOMENCLATURE. The first specific name applied to the Pa- 
cific Walrus is obesus, given by Illiger in 1815, in his " Ueber- 
blick der Saugethiere uach ihrer Vertheilung iiber die Welt- 
theile."* In this paper this name is three times used as a dis- 
tinctive appellation for the Pacific Walrus, namely, (1) in his 
list of the species of Northern Asia, in which " Tricliecltus ros- 
marus" and " Trichechus obesus" are both given; (2) in his list 
of the species of North America ; and (3) in his remarks respect- 
ing the first-named list. In these remarks (1. c., p. 75) he says, 
"Die beiden Arten des Waitresses, TrichecJtus obesus \uu\ [T.] 
Rosmarus, siud schon bei Nord-Asien vorgekommen." For Eu- 
rope he gives only T. rosmarus (1. c., p. 50), respecting the dis- 
tribution of which he says, " Der Trichechus Rosmarus, das Wall- 
ross, lebt an den eisigen Kiisten von Nord-Europa, Nord-Asien, 
und des ostlichen Nord- America " (1. c., p. Gl). It is thus not 
quite clear whether he considered his T. rosmarus to have a 
complete circuinpolar range, with T. obesus as a second species 
occurring only on the northeastern shores of Asia and the north- 
western shores of North America, or whether, as is more probable,, 
he merely meant that T. rosmarus ranged eastward along the Arc- 
tic coast of the Old World to the northern shore of Western Asia 
(as is the fact), and was replaced on the Pacific shores of Asia and 
America by T. obesus. In either case he recognized as a distinct 
species, under the name T. obesus, the Walrus of the North Pa- 
cific and adjacent portions of the Arctic Ocean. In the same 
paper is also a reference to a Trichechus " divergensf respecting 
which he thus observes : "Auser deni schou bei Europa erwiihn- 
ten Wallross, Trichechus Itosmarus, fiudet sich an der westlichen 
Nord-Amerkamschen und uahen Ost-Asiatischen Kiiste, und 
dem Eise dieser Meere, vielleicht aber auch an der ganzen Kiiste 
des Eismeers das von Cook beschriebene und abgebildete Wall- 
ross, das ich wegen mehrerer Verschicdenheiteu, besonders der 
Hauziihne, als eigue Art miter dein Namen divcryens aufge- 
fiihrt habe " (1. c., p. 08). He thus, in the same paper, appears to 
recognize two species of Pacific Walruses. The name divcryens^ 

*AbhaiuI. der Akad. der Wissensch. xu Berlin, 1804-1811, (1815), pp. o-l, 
70. 75. 



NOMENCLATIVE AND HISTORY. 171 

however, does not again occur, so far as I can find, either in 
this paper or in any of the writings of this author. The name 
obesus has several pages priority over divergens, and must hence 
be adopted for the Pacific Walrus. 

The next names applied to the Walruses are those used by 
Fremery, who, in 1831, recognized three species, namely, TricJie- 
cli us rosmarus, T. longidens, and T. cooki. The first is the com- 
mon Walrus of the North Atlantic. The second was founded 
on a skull with long, slender, and somewhat converging tusks, 
the locality of which is not stated, but the species is usually 
considered as based on the skull of a female Atlantic Walrus. 
The third is obviously the Walrus described and figured by Cap- 
tain Cook. The latter is hence synonymous with obesus (and 
divergens) of Illiger. The second (longidens) has generally been, 
as just stated, considered as based on a female skull of the 
common Atlantic Walrus. 

In 1842, Stannius, while referring all the previously given 
names to one species, characterized what he believed to be a 
second species, under the name dubius, based on a large skull 
presenting unusual features of individual variation. I do not 
find that the locality of this specimen is distinctly given, but 
von Middendorff appears to consider Stannius's T. dubius to 
have reference to the Pacific Walrus.* 

In 186G, Gill, in adopting Rosmarus as the generic name of 
the Walruses, took Illiger's name obesus for the specific name of 
the single species he (Gill) at that time recognized. Later (as 
already noticed, see antea, p. 22), in naming the two presumed 
species of Walruses, Gill chose obesus as the name of the Atlantic 
species, and took cooki i of Fremery for the Pacific species, over- 
looking the fact that obesus was originally applied to the Pacific 
species, in obvious allusion to its supposed more robust or 
thicker form as compared with the Atlantic Walrus. 

HISTORY. The Pacific Walrus appears to have received its first 
introduction into literature through the early exploration of the 

* Voii Middendorff says: " Ersterer verglich [he refers at this point in a 
footnote to Stannius's paper] Schiidel uud Gebisse der Walrosse unter einan- 
der und faud die Hauer bei den Walrossen der Beringsstrasse etwas lauger, 
diinner und gelinde spiral! g gcgen eiuander gekruinmt, iui Vergleiche uiit 
deneu des atlantischeu Eismeeres. Seine eigeuen schliesslichen Zweifel 
spricht aber der vorgeschlagene Name, Trichechus <76is, deutlich geuug 
aus."Sibirisclw Eeise, Bd. iv, p. 792. I do uot understand, however, that 
Stannius's T. dubins had any reference to either these characters or to the 
Pacific Walruses. (Compare Stannius's paper iu M tiller's Arch, fiir Auat., 
1842, pp. 392, 405-407). 



172 ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALEUS. 

eastern portion of the Arctic coast of Asia, about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, by the Cossack adventurer Staduchin, who 
found (about 1G45 to 1648) its tusks on the Tschuktschi coast, 
near the inouth of the Kolyma Eiver. A century later Deschnew 
found also large quantities of Walrus teeth on the sand-bars at 
the mouth of the Anadyr. These explorations, so interesting 
geographically, appear not to have been known in Moscow till 
Miiller, in 1735, discovered the reports of them at Jakutsk which 
he published in his " Samnilung russischer Geschichte." * 
Hence not until the last half of the eighteenth century did the 
Pacific Walrus become fairly known, mainly through the explora- 
tions of Steller, Kraschininnikoff, Cook, Kotzebue, Liitke, Bil- 
lings, Pallas, and others, each of whom referred to or gave 
more or less full accounts of it. The Pacific Walrus was first 
figured in Cook's "Last Voyage,'? and subsequently by Pallas. 
Later it was noticed by Wrangell on the Tschutkchi coast and 
by Beechey in Behring's Straits and the neighboring waters. 
More recently we have notices of it by Dall, Scaminon, and 
Elliott, the two last-named authors giving us by far the most 
detailed account of these animals which has, to my knowledge, 
thus far appeared, and from whose writings I have freely bor- 
rowed in the preparation of the following pages. 

FIGURES. The first figures of the Pacific Walrus appear to 
be those published in Cook's "Last Voyage," t in 1784, when a 
group of Walruses is represented as resting on the ice. The 
more prominent of these figures was copied by Shawf in 1800, 
and later by Godman and others. It was also reproduced by 
Gray in 1853, || and is here republished (Fig. 36). 

According to von Baer, Pallas, in his "Icones,"^ gave two 
illustrations of the AA 7 alrus. The one, he says, shows the animal 
from the side, the other as lying on its back. Von Baer describes 
these as being far better than any figures of the Walrus that 
had preceded them, with the exception of Gerard's (1612), al- 
ready described. The structure of the hind feet, he says, is well 
represented, except that the nails on all the feet are too long. 

* For this history hi greater detail, see von Baer, 1. c. , pp. 175-177. 

t Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, etc., under the direction of Captains Cook, 
Clerke, and Gore, in the years 1766-1780, vol. ii, pi. lii. 

t General Zoo'l., vol. i, 1800, pi. Ixviii, facing p. 234. Also Nat. Miscel., 
pi. Isxvi. 

SAmer. Nat. Hist., vol. i, 1826, pi. 

|| Proc. Zoo'l. Soc. Lond., 1853, p. 116. 

1 "Icoues ad Pallasii Zoographiam, fuse, ii." 



FIGURES. 



173 



The fore foot, however, he says, is wrongly represented. Von 
Baer criticises the form of the nose, the front part of which he 
says is too prominent, and has the angles or wings (Nasenfliigel) 
too distinct, and adds that the coloring is also faulty. But von 
Baer's comparison is made with the young specimen of the At- 




lantic Walrus he observed in St. Petersburg, and perhaps indi- 
cates the differences between the two species, rather than any 
incorrectness in Pallas's drawings. Yon Baer also refers to the 
figures in Cook's "Last Voyage" as being somewhat exagger- 



174 ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

ated in regard to the pliuiip or robust form of the animal, unless, 
as he says, the Eastern (or Pacific) Walruses are fatter than the 
Western ones. Pallas, in his "Zoographia Eosso-Asiatica," 
cites "tab. xxviii. et xxix." of his accompanying "Icones," but 
the only copy of the "Icones" I have seen contains only one 
plate, marked as referring to page 269 of his "Zoographia" 
(the plates are not numbered), where the Walrus is described. 
This is a most indifferent and badly colored figure of an appar- 
ently not half-grown animal, in which the tusks are quite short, 
the mystacial bristles long and thick, the hind feet extended 
backward, the tail distinct and prominent, as well as the thighs 
and shoulders, and all the toes of both the fore and hind limbs 
are provided w T ith long, conspicuous nails. 

The next illustration of the Pacific Walrus appears to have 
been published by Mr. H. W. Elliott * in 1873. This is the result 
of a careful study of the animals from life t (on Walrus Island, 
Alaska, in July, 1872), by an artist not only qualified to do jus- 
tice to the subject from an artistic point of view, but who brings 
to his work the trained eye of a naturalist. This illustration 
represents a group of some ten or more old males quietly repos- 
ing on the rocks in a variety of postures. The figures in the 
foreground are expressive and detailed, and afford by far the 
best representations of an adult Walrus yet extant. The edi- 
tion of the work embraced only one hundred and twenty-five 
copies, and can hence, unfortunately, have but a very limited 
circulation. Two of the figures seen in the foreground, how- 
ever, have been reproduced by Scammonf from Mr. Elliott's 
drawings, and give a good idea of the form of these unwieldy 
creatures. 

I can refer with certainty to no heretofore-published figures 
of the skull or general anatomy, but some of the representations 
of the skull already mentioned in the account of the figures of 
the Atlantic species may possibly represent this species. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The habitat of the Pacific 
Walrus embraces a much smaller extent of coast and a much 
narrower breadth of both latitude and longitude than the Atlan- 
tic species. It is confined on the one hand to a comparatively 
small stretch of the northern and eastern coasts of Asia, and to 

* Eeport on the Prybilov Group, or Seal Islands, of Alaska (plates not num- 
bered and text unpaged). Washington, 1873. 
tSee beyond, p. 179. 
t Marine Mammals of the Northwest Coast of North America, 1874, p. 177. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 175 

a, still smaller portion of the opposite American coast. To the 
westward the Walrus appears not to have been traced beyond 
Cape Schelatskoi (157 30' east longitude), and to have occurred 
in large herds only as far west as Koljutschin Island (185 east 
longitude). These herds are reported as composed almost solely 
of males, the females rarely passing- beyond the mouth of the 
Kolyma Eiver.* Wrangell, who passed two winters at the 
mouth of the Kolyma River, asserts confidently that the Wal- 
rus of Behring's Straits were abundant at Cape Jakan (176 30' 
east longitude), but only once reached Cape Schelatskoi, while 
he found them numerous at Koljutschin Island. Thence east- 
ward they form the chief subsistence of the Tschutschi.t 

On the eastern coast of Asia, Steller (according to von Baer) 
reports that as early as 1742 none were killed by the Russians 
south of Karagiuskoi Island in latitude CO . He reports, how- 
ever, finding one on the southern point of Kaintschatka, but von 
Baer questions whether in this isolated instance of its supposed 
occurrence so far south there may not be some mistake, and 
that the animal was really a large Seal or a Sea-cow (Rliytina).\ 
Krashiiminikow states that in his day they were confined to the 
northern seas. He says, "On voit pen de chevaux inarms dans 
les environs de KanitscltatJxt, ou si 1'on en trouve, ce n'est que 
dans les mers qui sont an nord. On en preiid beaucoup plus 
] >res du cap Tchukotskoi, oil ils y sont plus gros & plus nombreux 
que par-tout ailleurs". Liitke found a dead one as far south 
as Karagiuskoi Ostrow (latitude 58). || Higher up the coast 
from Cape Thaddeus northward and westward, they were met 
Avith in great numbers by the early Russian explorers. In the 
Arctic Sea north of Behriug's Straits they have been met with 
abundantly as far north as ships have penetrated, their north- 
ward range being only limited by the unbroken ice sheet. 

On the American coast they have been traced eastward only 
as far as Point Barrow, where they were observed by Beechey 

* See von Middendorff, Sibiriscke Reise, Bd. iv, p. 936, footnote. 

t "Auf cler Inscl Koliutschin werden manchmal eine grosse Menge Wall- 
rosse erlegt, inclem die Eingebornen sie, wenn sie aus deni Meere anf das Ufer 
steigen, pliitzlich iiberfallen, ihneri deii Riickweg iiis Wasser abschneideii 
imd mit Peitschen und Stocken welter hinauftreiben, wo sie sie dann mit 
lei filter Miihe erlegen. Das Wallross 1st dern sitzeuden Tsckuktsclien, wenii 
aucli nielit so unmittelbar, docli fast eben so allgt.'mciii uiitzlick, als deni 
Nomaden das Rennthier." Nordkiiste von Sibirien, vol. ii, 1839, pp. 224, 225. 

tSee von Baer, 1. c., p. 183. 

Hist. deKamtsch., etc., as translated "by "M. E. . . ." (Eklous), toni. 1, 
1767, p. 283. 

II Voyage autour du Monde, tom. ii, p. 178. 



176 ODOB^NUS OBE-SUS PACIFIC WALEUS. 



in 1823. Cook, in 1799, found them numerous in the neighbor- 
hood of Icy Cape. They were also met with by Beechey on 
Diomede and Saint Lawrence Islands, and on other islands 
more to the southward.* Liitke found great herds at Saint 
Mathew's Island, in latitude 60,t where their teeth were seen 
later by Billings.J They formerly resorted in summer in large 
numbers to Saint Paul's and Saint George's Islands, where, ac- 
cording to Sarytschew, 28,000 pounds of their teeth were ob- 
tained in a single year. They still resort, in small numbers, to a 
neighboring islet (Walrus Island), and even to the easternmost of 
the Aleutian chain, as will be presently more fully noted. For- 
merly they were also abundant on Nuuivak Island, situated to 
the eastward of Mathew's Island, and not far from the Alaskan 
coast. 

On the coast of the mainland they have been met with in 
great herds at different times in Kotzebue and Norton Sounds 
and in Bristol Bay. Captain Cook appears not to have ob- 
served them south of latitude 58 42', at which point he found 
them in Bristol Bay, as well as more to the northward. There 
appears to be no certain proof that they were in early times ever 
met with on the outermost of the Aleutian Islands, || and no 
early reference to their occurrence anywhere south of Bristol 
Bay and the Prybilov Islands. Brown, however, as late as 
1868, says: " On the northwest coast of America I have known 
it to come as far south as 50 north latitude."^} Of this I can 
find only a partial confirmation, and think that possibly there is 
a mistake in respect to the latitude here given.** Elliott says, 

* Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific aud Behring's Straits, vol. ii, p. 271. 

t Voyage autour du Monde, toin. ii, p. 176. 

t Sauer's Account of Billings' Exped. to the North Parts of Eussia, p. 235. 

Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, etc., vol. i, pp. 433, 455, 457; vol. ii, pp. 
245, 248, 249, 259. 

|| On this point, see von Baer, 1. c., p. 182. 

1[ Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, p. 432. 

** Mr. Brown further states in the same connection that "It [the Walrus] 
is found all along tlie clrcumpolar shores of Asia, America and Europe" and that 
"It is not unlikely that it may even be found in the Antarctic regions" ! L. c., p. 
432. This idea I haA^e not seen elsewhere revived since the early part of the 
present century. (On this point see von Baer, 1. c., p. 173, and footnote.) 
Dr. Gray refers to the reported occurrence by Bonelli of "Sea Horses" on 
the Island of Saint Lorenzo, Callao. As this author describes "the two 
great white tusks projecting from the mouth on either side," and further 
says that "the tusks are of great value and form an important article of 
commerce/' Dr. Gray concludes these remarks "cannot apply to the tusks 
of the Sea Bear"; but he adds that he had "nevrr heard of the genus Triclie- 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 177 

writing in 1874, that "not more than thirty or thirty-five years 
ago small numbers of these animals were killed now and then 
on islands between Kodiak and Oonemak Pass" (lat. 55 to 57). 
He adds none "are now found south of the Aleutian Islands."* 

Eespecting their present distribution, Captain Scainmon, writ- 
ing in 1874, from personal observation, says: "Great numbers 
of Walruses are found where the waters of the Arctic Sea unite 
with those of Behriug Straits, and also in Behriug Sea, and 
that innumerable herds still resort in the summer months to dif- 
ferent points on the southern or central coasts of Alaska, par- 
ticularly at Amak Island and Point Moller, on the northern 
shore of the Alaskan peninsula. Within the last ten years many 
of these animals have been destroyed by the whalers, both in 
the Arctic and Behring Seas."t 

According to Mr. Elliott, the Walruses are now to be seen 
in the Prybilov Islands only on Walrus Island,! they being 
so shy and timid that they deserted the other islands as they 
became populated by man. In early days, or when the Eus- 
sians first took possession, a great many Walruses were found 
at Northeast Point, and along the south shore of Saint Paul's 
Island, but with the landing of the traders and seal-hunters 
the Walruses abruptly took their departure, and Walrus Island 
alone is now frequented by them, being isolated and seldom 
visited during the year by the natives. He adds that they 
are now most numerous, outside of the Arctic circle, in Bristol 
Bay, where " great numbers congregate on the sandy bars and 
flats, and where they are hunted to a considerable extent for 
their ivory." 

They are now far less numerous than formerly, having greatly 
decreased in numbers within the last fifty years. So numerous 
were they in Behring's Straits about 1821, that a Eussian writer 

chus living out of the Arctic Ocean, ami should have believed that he [Bo- 
nelli] had mistaken the Sea Bear (Otaria leonina) for the Sea Horse," if he 
had not so particularly described the tusks. Cat. Seals and Whales, p. 37. 
The reference by Bouelli to the great white tusks of the tl Sea Horses" relates, 
in all probability, to the large canines of the Sea Elephant, which were for- 
merly employed for a variety of tises. 

* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, p. 1G4, footnote. 

t Marine Mammalia, p. 180. 

t A low rocky island, about half a mile long by one-eighth of a mile in 
breadth, situated a few miles to the southeastward of the eastern end of 
Saint Paul's Island. 

$ Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 161, 164. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 12 



178 ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

* 

reports meeting with, herds there embracing thousands, and 
even hundreds of thousands, of individuals.* 

During recent years, in addition to the number killed by the 
natives, the whalers are said to have destroyed as many as 12,000 
annually, so reducing their numbers that the natives have be- 
come anxious lest they shall soon lose this source of subsist- 
ence, upon which they are so dependent. 

HABITS, FOOD, COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS, AND THE CHASE. 
The Pacific Walrus appears to agree quite nearly in habits with 
its closely allied congener of the Atlantic waters. It has the 
same gregarious propensity, the same intense affection for its 
young, the same strong sympathy for a distressed comrade, 
lives upon similar food, and is limited in its distribution by 
about the same isotherms. Its leading characteristics were 
concisely stated nearly a century since by Captain Cook in the 
following words : 

" They lie, in herds of many hundreds, upon the ice ; hud- 
dling one over the other like swine; and roar or bray very loud; so 
that, in the night, or in foggy weather, they gave us notice of 
the vicinity of the ice, before we could see it. We never found 
the whole herd asleep ; some being always on the watch. These, 
on the approach of the boat, would wake those next to them ; 
and the alarm being thus gradually communicated, the whole 
herd would be awake presently. But they were seldom in a 
hurry to get away, till after they had been once fired at. Then 
they would tumble one over the other, into the sea, in the utmost 
confusion. And, if we did not, at the first discharge, kill those 
we fired at, we generally lost them, though mortally wounded. 
They did not appear to be that dangerous animal some authors 
have described ; not even when attacked. They are rather more 
so, to appearance, than in reality. Vast numbers of them would 
follow, and come close up to the boats. But the flash of a nius- 
quet in the pan, or even the bare pointing of one at them, would 
send them down in an instant. The female will defend the 
young one to the very last, and at the expense of her own life, 
whether in the water or upon the ice. Nor will the young one 

* Von Middendorff says, " Tausende ja Htmderttansende im lebensfrische- 
ren Berings-Eisrneere," and cites as authority a Russian writer named 
Hiilsen. Von Middendorff continues, " Ln Jahre 1821 iiber sah er [Hiilsen] 
dort ini Dezember Tausende, zu Ende des Juni Hunderttausende von Wal- 
rossen zugleich,welche die Luft mit ihrem Stohnen erfullten undvon deneu 
einige, fruchtlos kratzend, sich bemiihten an den Schiffswandungeu empor- 
zukliniinen." SiMrische Seise, Bd. iv, p. 913, and footnote. 



HABITfs. 179 

quit the dam, though she be dead ; so that, if you kill one, you 
are sure of the other. The daui, when in the water, holds the 
young one between her fore fins."* 

In Captain King's continuation of the narrative of Cook's 
last voyage, reference is made to a " Sea Horse" hunt, "Our 
people," says the account, " were more successful than they 
had been before, returning with three large ones, and a young- 
one, besides killing and wounding several others. The gentle- 
men who went on this party were witnesses of several remark- 
able instances of parental affection in those animals. On the 
approach of our boats toward the ice, they all took their cubs 
under their fins and endeavored to escape with them into the 
sea. Several, whose young were killed or wounded and left 
floating on the surface, rose again and carried them down, some- 
times just as our people were going to take them up into the 
boat, and might be traced bearing them to a great distance 
through the water, which was colored with their blood. We 
afterward observed them bringing them, at times, above the 
surface, as if for air, and again diving under it with a dreadful 
bellowing. The female, in particular, whose young had been 
destroyed and taken into the boat, became so enraged that 
she attacked the cutter and struck her two tusks through the 
bottom of it," t 

The accounts given by subsequent observers confirm the 
general truthfulness of this brief but comprehensive sketch, 
and supply some further details respecting its interesting his- 
tory. Mr. H. W. Elliott, recently an agent in the employ of 
the Treasury Department of the United States Government, 
stationed at the Prybilov Islands, has made these animals a 
special study, under opportunities unusually favorable for 
observation. On Walrus Island, well known as being still a 
favorite resort for a large herd of old males, he was able to ap- 
proach within a few yards of a herd of several hundred old 
bulls, which lay closely packed upon a series of low basaltic- 
tables, elevated but little above the wash of the surf. Here he 
studied and painted them from life,! seated upon a rocky ledge 
a few feet distant from and above them. He describes these 
scarred, wrinkled, and almost naked old veterans as of by no 
means prepossessing appearance. He says they are sluggish 

* Cook's Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, etc., vol. ii, p. 458. 
tlbid., vol. iii, p. 248. 
t See antea, p. 174. 



180 ODOBJSNUS OBESU8 PACIFIC WALRUS. 

and clumsy in the water and almost helpless on land, their im- 
mense bulk and weight, in comparison with the size and strength 
of their limbs, rendering them quite impotent for terrestrial 
movement. " Like the seal, it swims entirely under water when 
traveling, not rising, however, quite so frequently to breathe j 
then it 'blows' not unlike a whale. On a cool, quiet May 
morning, I watched a herd oft* the east coast of the island, 
tracing its progress by the tiny jets of vapor thrown off as the 
animals rose to respire. 

" In landing and climbing over the low rocky shelves," he 
continues, " this animal is almost as clumsy and indolent as 
the sloth ; they crowd up from the water, one after the other, 
in the most ungainly manner, accompanying their movements 
with low grunts and bellowmgs ; the first one up from the sea 
no sooner gets composed upon the rocks for sleep than the sec- 
ond one comes prodding ' and poking with its blunt tusks, de- 
manding room also, and causing the first to change its position 
to another still farther off from the water ; and the second is 
in turn treated in the same way by the third, and so on, until 
hundreds will be packed together on the shore as thickly as 
they can lie, frequently pillowing their heads or posteriors upon 
the bodies of one another, and not at all quarrelsome ; as they 
pass all the time when on land in sluggish basking or deep 
sleep, they seem to resort to a very irregular method of keep- 
ing guard, if I may so term it, for in this herd of three or four 
hundred bulls under my eye, though all were sleeping, yet the 
movement of one would disturb the other, which would raise 
its head in a stupid manner, grunt once or twice, and before 
lying down to sleep again, in a few moments, it would strike 
the slumbering form of its nearest companion with its tusks, 
causing that animal to rouse up for a few minutes also, grunt 
and pass the blow on to the next in the same manner, and so 
on, through the whole herd; this disturbance among themselves 
always kept some one or two aroused, and consequently more 
alert than the rest. 

" In moving on laud they have no power in the hind limbs, 
which are dragged and twitched up behind; progression is 
slowly and tediously made by a succession of short steps for- 
ward on the fore feet. How long they remain out from the 
water at any one time I am unable to say. Unlike the seals, 
they breathe heavily and snore. 

" The natives told me the walrus of Bering Sea is monoga- 



HABITS FOOD. 181 

mous, and that the difference between the sexes in size, color, 
and shape is inconsiderable; that the female brings forth her 
young-, a single calf, in Jnue, usually on the ice-floes in the 
Arctic Ocean, above Bering Straits ; that the calf closely resem- 
bles the parent in general proportions and color, but that the 
tusks which give it its most distinguishing expression are not 
visible until the end of the second year of its life; that the 
walrus mother is strongly attached to her offspring, and nurses 
it later in the season in the sea ; that the walrus sleeps pro- 
foundly in the water, floating almost vertically, with barely more 
than the nostrils above water, and can be easily approached, if 
care be taken, to within easy spearing distance ; that the bulls 
do not fight as savagely as the fur-seal or sea-lion, the blunted 
tusks of the combatants seldom penetrate the thick hide ;* that 
they can remain under water nearly an hour, or twice as long as 
the seals, and that they sink like so many stones immediately 
after being shot." 

Mr. Elliott adds : "As the females never come down to the 
Prybilov Islands, 1 have never had an opportunity of observing 
them. . . . The reason why this baud of males, many of 
them old ones, should be here by themselves all through the 
year is not plain to me ; the natives assure me that the females, 
or their young, never have been seen around the shores of these 
islands. Over in Bristol Bay great numbers of walrus con- 
gregate 011 the sandy bars and flats, where they are hunted 
to a considerable extent for their ivory." On Walrus Island, 
however, they are said to be comparatively unmolested, the 
natives here " not making any use of their flesh, fat, or hides." 
They are hence shot here only by the natives of Saint Paul's 
Island, who visit Walrus Island for the purpose of getting eggs, 
in June and July, when they often shoot the Walruses wan- 
touly.t Their comparative immunity here from persecution is 
hence apparently the reason why they select this island as one 
of their favorite reposing grounds. 

Their food is described by Mr. Elliott as consisting exclu- 
sively of shell-fish (principally clams), " and the bulbous roots of 
certain marine grasses and plants, which grow in great abun- 
dance in the broad, shallow lagoons and bays of the mainland 

* That their blows are at times not lacking in force is sufficiently proven 
by the too well-known fact of their striking them through the planking of 
a ship's boat. 

t Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 160-164. 



182 OUOB^NUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALEUS. 

coast. I liave taken from the paunch of a walrus," he adds, 
" over a bushel of crushed clams, shells and all, which the animal 
had but recently swallowed, since digestion had scarcely com- 
menced. Many of the clams in the stomach were not even 
broken ;* and it is in digging these shell-fish that the service 
rendered by the enormous tusks becomes evident."! Mr. W. 
H. Ball also says, "They feed principally upon shell-fish which 
they swallow whole, and the shells, which remain after they 
have digested the contents, are found in large numbers about 
the localities they frequent."! 

Among the enemies of the Pacific Walrus are not only to be 
reckoned man, both savage and civilized, but also the Polar 
Bear and the Orca or "Killer," while, like the Atlantic species, 
it is said to be greatly infested with parasites. According to 
Captain Scammou, the Polar Bear, when meeting with a herd 
in its prowliugs, " selects and seizes one of the smallest indi- 
viduals with his capacious jaws, and the resisting struggles of 
the poor victim to free itself are quickly suppressed by repeated 
blows with Bruin's paws, which cause almost instant death. 
The murderous beast then quickly tears the skin from the body 
by means of his long, sharp claws, when the remains are de- 
voured." That carnivorous Cetacean, the Orca, he continues, 
"also watches for the young cubs of the Walrus, and if there 
is floating ice at hand, the mother with her charge clambers 
upon it to avoid the pursuer ; if this fails, however, the cub will 
mount the mother's back as the only place of refuge. But the 
Killer is rarely baffled in obtaining the object it seeks by this 
mode of the mother's protection, for the pursuing animal dives 
deeply, and then comes head up under the old Walrus, with 
such force as to throw the cub from the dam's back into the 
water, when it is instantly seized and swallowed by its adver- 
sary. Instances have been known, however, when the Orca 
has paid dearly for its murderous temerity, as the enraged 
Walrus, when bereft of her young, will sometimes strike her 
tusks into her foe with such eflect as to cause a mortal wound 
or instant death." 

Captain Scammon says the period of gestation is "about nine 

* Compare on this point Maluiyreu's statement that the Atlantic Walrus- 
rejects the shells, swallowing only the soft parts. See anted, p. 136. 
t Condition of Affairs in Alaska, p. 162. 
t Alaska and its Eesonrces, 1S70, p. 504. 
Marine Mammalia, pp. IK), 181. 



AFFECTION. 183 

months," and that both sexes and the young are often found in 
company. He adds that the paring season occurs during the 
" last of the spring months or the first of summer." His gen- 
eral account of their habits is quite in harmony with the early 
account given by Cook. "The mother and her offspring," lie 
says, " manifest a stronger mutual affection than we have ob- 
served in any other of the marine mammals ; the cub seeks her 
protection, clinging to her back whenever there is cause for 
alarm, and she will at ah 1 times place herself between the foe 
and her helpless charge; frequently has she been known to 
clasp to her breast the terrified little one, embracing it with her 
fore flippers, while receiving mortal wounds from the whale- 
man's lance." Captain Scammon further states, in respect to the 
affection of the young for its mother, on the authority of Capt. 
T. W. Williams, an experienced and observing whaling master, 
that " a female was captured two miles from the ship and the 
young cub kept close to the boats that were towing its dead 
mother to the vessel ; and when arrived, made every effort to 
follow her as she was being hoisted on board. A rope with a 
bowline was easily thrown over it, and the bereaved creature 
taken on deck, when it instantly mounted its mother's back and 
there clung with mournful solicitude, until forced by the sailors 
to again return to the sea ; but even then it remained in the 
vicinity of the ship, bemoaning the loss of its parent by utter- 
ing distressful cries." "A male, and a female with her cub," 
continues our author, " are often seen together ; yet herds of 
old and young, of both sexes, are met with, both in the water 
and upon the ice. When undisturbed they are quite inoffensive, 
but if hotly pursued they make a fierce resistance ; their mode of 
attack is by hooking their tusks over the gunwales of the boat, 
which may overturn them, or they strike a blow through the 
planking, which has repeatedly been the means of staving and 
sinking them."* 

The commercial products of the Pacific Walrus are, as in the 
case of the other species, its tusks, oil, and hide. They are, fur- 
thermore, to the Tschuktschi what the Greenland Walrus is to 
the Esquimaux, their most important source of food, utensils, 
and means of commercial interchange. Cook, Wraugell, and 
numerous other explorers of the Arctic waters beyond Behring's 
Straits, unite in the testimony that they form the chief means of 
support of the coast tribes. To quote the words of a recent 

* Marine Mammalia, p. 178. 



184 ODOB^ENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

writer, their "flesh supplies them with food; the ivory tusks 
are made into implements used iu the chase, and for other do- 
mestic purposes, as well as affording a valuable article of barter 
and the skin furnishes the material for covering their summer 
habitations, planking for their baidarras, harness for their dog- 
teams, and lines for their fishing-gear."* 

According to Wraugell, "the Walrus is almost as useful to 
the settled as the Eeiudeer is to the nomad Tschuktschi. The 
flesh and the blubber are both used as food, and the latter for 
their lamps ; the skin is made into durable thongs for harness 
and other purposes, and into strong soles for boots ; the intes- 
tines furnish a material for light water-proof upper garments 
for summer use; a very durable thread is prepared from the 
sinews ; and, lastly, the tusks, which are of the finest ivory, are 
sometimes formed into long narrow drinking vessels, such as 
takes a long time to hollow out, but are more frequently sold to 
the Eeindeer Tschuktschi, who dispose of them to the Rus- 
sians.'^ 

As already incidentally noted in the foregoing pages, their 
tusks have been an important article of traffic from the earliest 
times to which the history of this region extends, and the source 
of this valuable commodity was the "Eldorado" of the Russian 
adventurers of the middle of the seventeenth century who first 
explored the Arctic coast of Eastern Asia. Now, as then, the 
tusks have the highest commercial value of any of the products 
of the Walrus, and thousands of these animals have annually 
been sacrificed, for perhaps the greater part of the last two cen- 
turies, in order to meet the demand for them. Mr. Dall, writing 
in 1870 of the Alaskan Walrus, states that "the quantity of 
Walrus tusks annually obtained will average 100,000 pounds."! 
Allowing the average weight of a pair of Walrus tusks to be 15 
to 20 pounds (I have found the weight of large tusks to vary 
from 6 to 8 pounds each, the very largest 1 have seen weighing 
less than 9 pounds) a very high estimate this enormous 
quantity implies the destruction of more than six thousand 
Walruses annually in the waters bordering Behring's Straits. 

According to Captain Scammoii, the whalers have of late been 
largely instrumental in the destruction of the Alaskan Walrus, 
they having, owing to the scarcity of Whales, become more or 



* Scanimou, Marine Mammalia, p. 180. 

t Wrangell's Polar Expl., Harper's Arner. ed., p. 282. 

t Alaska and its Resources, p. 504. 



PRODUCTS. 



185 



less interested in Walrus-hunting. According to a quotation 
given by Captain Scaminon from The Friend* of March 1, 1872, 
"the whalers first began to turn their attention to Walrus- 
catching about the year 1868, and the work has continued up 
to the present time [1874]. Usually, during- the first part of 
every season, there has been but little opportunity to capture 
whales, they being within the limits of the icy barrier. Hence, 
much of the whalers' time during the months of July and Au- 
gust has been devoted to capturing the Walrus ; and it is esti- 
mated that at least 60,000 of these animals have been destroyed 
by the whale-fishers in the Arctic Ocean and Behring Sea dur- 
ing the last five years, which produced about 50,000 barrels of 
oil, with a proportionate amount of ivory ."t This would make 
an average annual destruction of 12,000, in addition to the large 
number habitually destroyed by the natives. 

In the "Annual Eeview" of the products of the North Pacific 
Whaling Fleet { for 1877, it is stated that the whalers arriving 
at the port of San Francisco during 1877 reported 74,753 pounds 
of Walrus teeth and 2,178 barrels of Walrus oil. The amount 
of Walrus ivory "received in the customs district of San Fran- 
cisco " for 1876 is given as 33,034 pounds. The same authority 
gives the following statistics for previous years, beginning with 

-| or-o 

1.0 io : 



Tear. 


Number of 
vessels. 


Pounds of 
ivory. 


1873 


16 


12 142 


1874 


12 


7 600 


1875. 


11 


25 400 


1876 




7 000 


1877 


16 


74 000 









Total for the last five years, 153,076 pounds, with an estimated 
value of about $55,000. This amount implies an annual destruc- 
tion of at least ten to twelve thousand Walruses. It thus ap- 
pears that for the last ten years the number of Walruses taken 

* A newspaper published in Honolulu. 

t Marine Mammalia, p. 181. 

t '-'Commercial Herald and Market Eeview," vol. xii, No. 531, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., Jan. 17, 1878. 

There is an unexplained discrepancy here, for another statement in the 
same connection gives the quantity of "Walrus teeth " for 1876 as 33,934 
pounds. 



186 ODOBJENUS OBESUS PACIFIC WALRUS. 

by the whalers alone cannot fall far short of one hundred and 
twenty thousand. It is hence little wonder that these animals 
are rapidly declining- in number, and that the natives manifest 
alarm at the disappearance of their main reliance for support. 

The destruction of the Alaskan Walrus is now largely effected 
by the use of firearms, even the natives shooting them on shore 
with rifles and heavy muskets, although they still also practice 
their former method of pursuing them in the water and there 
dispatching them with spears and lances. 



FAMILY OTARIOm 

Eared Seals. 

Phoqiies a oreilles, BUJFFON, Hist. Nat. Suppl., vi, 1782, 305. 

Pliocacea auriculata, PERON, Voy. Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 37. 

Otaria, PERON, Voy. Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 37 (genus). 

Otariina, GRAY, Ann. of Phil., 1825, 340 (subfamily). 

Otariadcc, "BROOKES, Cat. Anat. and Zool. Mus., 1828, 36." GRAY, Ann. and 

Mag. Nat., Hist., 3d ser., xviii, 1866, 228. ALLEN, Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., ii, 1870, 19. 

Otariidcv, GILL, Proc. Essex lust., v, 1866, 7. 

Arctoceplialina, GRAY, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., i, 1837, 583. 
Otarides, GERVAIS, Hist. Nat. des Mammiferes, ii, 1855, 305. 

Fore limbs placed far back, and, like the hind limbs, compar- 
atively free and serviceable for terrestrial locomotion j hind feet 
susceptible of being turned forward. The digits of the manus 
successively decrease very much in size and length from the 
first to the fifth, without well-developed nails, and with the 
mauus bordered with a naked cartiliginous extension. Of 
the pes the three middle digits are shorter and weaker than 
the others, with well-developed nails ; the others strong and 
thick, the first rather stouter than the fifth, both with only rudi- 
mentary nails ; all terminate in hairless, long cartilaginous flaps, 
which vary in length in the different genera. Soles and palms 
and most of the upper digital surface hairless. Scapula large, 
the blade very broad, the crests high, and the acromion greatly 
developed. Femur with a trochanter minor, which in adult 
males is strongly developed. Pubic bones unauchylosed, and 
in the females considerably separated. Ilia long and slender, 
not abruptly turned outward posteriorly. Acetabula opposite 
the posterior end of the second sacral vertebra. Skull with well- 
developed orbital processes, and an alisphenoid canal ; mastoid 
process strong and salient, distinct from the auditory bullae, which 

o o 

are small and but slightly inflated. Incisors always.^, the two 

middle pairs of upper with the crown deeply grooved trans- 
versely, the outer caniniform. Dental formulae: Milk dentition, 

T 3_3 f ^ i i ,, 3 3 , . . T 3 3 ,-, 1 1 -..- 5 5 

I. 2!^,, C.j^, M.-|; permanent dentition, I. g~, C. j^, M. ~ r 
or ^, = 34 or 36. Ears with a subcyliudrical external conch. 
Testes scrotal. 

187 



188 FAMILY OTAEIIDvE. 

TECHNICAL HISTORY. 

HIGHER GROUPS. The Eared Seals were referred by the 
older writers to the Linnaean genus PJioca. Buffon, in 1782, re- 
cognized the Seals as consisting of two groups, characterized 
by the presence or absence of external ears. Peron, in 1816, 
first divided the Seals into two genera, he separating the Eared 
Seals from the earless ones under the name Otaria. Later, 
Brookes, in 1828, raised the group of Eared Seals to the rank of 
a family, under the name of Otariada: This classification was 
not, however, generally adopted till 1866, when it was revived 
by Gill, and immediately adopted by Gray, and it has been ac- 
cepted by most subsequent writers. Gray, Turner, and others, 
had previously considered the Eared Seals as forming a sub- 
family of the Phoci-dce, for which Gray, at different times, used the 
names Otariina and Arctocephalina, which latter was also adopted 
for the name of the group by Turner in 1848. In 1870 I di- 
vided the Eared Seals into two groups, which I provisionally 
adopted as subfamilies, with the names TricMphocinw and Ouli- 
pliodnoBj in allusion to the nature of the pelage. The charac- 
ters assigned, while perhaps of small importance, relating mainly 
to size, character of the pelage, and size and shape of the ear, 
and insufficient to characterize divisions of this grade, serve 
to mark two natural groups, the so-called Sea Lions, or Hair 
Seals, forming the one, and the Sea Bears, or the Fur Seals of 
commerce, the other. 

Dr. Gray, in I860,* divided the family into five "tribes," 
which he termed, respectively, Otariina, Callorhinina, Arcto- 
cephalina, Zalopliina, and Eumetopiina, mainly with reference to 
the number of the grinders and the position of the hinder pair. 
These < ' tribes " he at the same time combined into two " sections," 
the one embracing the Otariina (consisting of his genus Otaria}, 
and the other all the others, this division being based on the 
posterior extension of the bony palate. To his first primary 
division ("Section I"), consisting, as just stated, of the single 
genus Otaria as limited by Gray, and, as seems to me, embrac- 
ing only the single species 0. jubata of recent authors, he re- 
stricted the name "Sea Lions," applying to the other, embrac- 
ing all the other Eared Seals, the name "Sea Bears." This 
latter group, however, embraces not only the animals commonly 
called Sea Bears by other authors, as well as by travelers and 

*Auu. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. iv, pp. 64-270. 



HIGHER GROUPS. 189 

sealers (i. <?., the "Fur Seals'- of commerce), but also the two 
Sea Lions (commonly so called) of the northern hemisphere, 
and all the Eared Hair Seals of the South, except Otar-iajubata. 
This classification, with scarcely any modification, he followed 
also in his papers treating- of this group in 1871 5* but in 1872 1 
he proposed a new arrangement of the " Sea, Bears." The sub- 
division of this group into "tribes" is not here clearly indi- 
cated, although he arranges the genera in four unnamed sec- 
tions. In 1873 f he proposed another arrangement of the "Sea 
Bears," in which they were placed in two primary divisions, in 
accordance with whether the number of molars isi? or j^. His 

O D O O 

later modifications were more formally presented in his last gen- 
eral account of the group published in 1874, in which the clas- 
sification then presented differed very much from that adopted 
by him in 1868 and 1871. Although a new "tribe" ("Tribe 2, 
Gypsophotina") w T as instituted, his former "tribes," Callorlii- 
nina, Arctocephalina, and Eumetopiina, were united into one, 
under the name Arctoceplialina, thus reducing the whole num- 
ber of "tribes" to four, as follows: 1. Otariina; 2. Gypsoplw- 
cina; 3. Arctocephalina ; 4. Zalopliina. As before, he recognized 
two primary "sections," by means of which Otaria is opposed 
to all the other genera as a group co-ordinate in rank with all 
the rest. Also the "sections," or primary divisions, are still 
based on the posterior prolongation of the bony palate, and the 
" tribes," or secondary divisions, on the number of the molars 
and the position of the hinder pair relative to the "front edge 
of the zygomatic arch." It is needless to add that a more purely 
artificial and valueless basis could scarcely be devised. In his 
later schemes, Eumetopias is placed under the division charac- 
terized as having the molars ~, qn the wholly theoretical 
ground that "the fifth upper molar on each side [is] wanting," 
leaving "the sixth separated from the fourth by a wide space." 
On similar grounds his Phocarctos elongatus, based, as I shall 
later give reasons for believing, in part on an adult female 
Eumetopias stelleri and in part on the young of the Japan species 
of ZaloplmSj is considered as lacking the " fifth grinder" when 
adult, though possessing it when young. As late as 1873, Eu- 
metopias is placed in a group explicitly characterized as having 

Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, p. 11. 
tProc. Zoul. Soc. Loncl. , 1872, p. G55. 
tProc. Zool. Soc. Loncl., 1873, p. 779. 
Hapd-List of Seals. 



190 FAMILY OTAKIID^E. 

" thick under-fur" ! In his latest notice of the species (iu 1874) his 
synonymy of the species shows that he still believed the skin 
of a young CallorMnus ursinus, referred in 1866 to his Arctoce- 
plialus monteriensiSj belonged to this species, although in 1871* 
he properly assigned it to CallorMnus ursinus, which I had 
shown in 1870 was its proper allocation. 

Dr. Gill, in 1871,t made two primary divisions of the family, the 
genus Zaloplms alone constituting one division, which was thus 
contrasted with all the others. The characters cited as the basis 
of this division are the rostral profile (whether " more or less 
decurved," or "straight or incurved") and the sagittal crest. 
The last distinction was based wholly on a misapprehension 
of the facts in the case,! an( l the nrs ^ proves to be open to very 
obvious exceptions. Although Dr. Gill, in his later papers on 
this group, retains these divisions as originally proposed by 
him, he has adduced no additional characters in support of 
them. 

GENERA. The first generic division of the Eared Seals was 
made by F. Cuvier in 1824, who separated them as "Arctoce- 
phales" (Arctocephalus) and "Platyrhinques" (Platyrliinclms), 
with "Pkoca ursina" (= Arctoccplialus delalandi, F. Cuvier; A. 
antarcticus, Gray) as the type of the former and u Phoca leonina" 
(= Otaria jubata of recent authors) as the type of the latter. Suc- 
ceeding writers very generally adopted the name Arctoceplialm 
for the greater part of the species, while Platyrliinclms was con- 
sidered as equivalent to Otaria of Peron, of prior date. Otaria 
has, by some writers, even down to the present time, been used 
in a generic sense for all the species of the family, sometimes 
with and sometimes without subgeneric divisions. In 1859, Gray 
separated generically the* Northern Fur Seal from ArctocepJialus 
under the name CallorMnus^ and the group has been since very 
generally recognized as of generic or subgeneric value. Prior 
to this date the only commonly recognized genera were Otaria 
and Arctoceplialus. The next generic subdivisions of the Ota- 
ries were instituted by Gill in 1866, || namely, Eumetopias and 
Zaloplms , the former having for its type and only species the 
Northern Sea Lion, or Leo marinus of SteUer, while the latter 

* Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, p. 15. 

tAmer. Nat., vol. iv, Jan., 1871, p. 681. 

t See Am. Nat., vol. v, Marcli, 1871, p. 41. 

Me"m. cluMus. d'Hist. Nat., vol. si, 1824, 205. 

|| Proc. Esses Institute, vol. v, pp. 1-13, March, 1866. 



GENERA. 191 

-\vas founded on the Otaria gillespi of M'Baiu. The genera recog- 
nized were five in number, namely : 1. Otaria ("Peron, 1816, 
type Phocajubata Schreber"); 2. Arctocephalus ("F. Cuvier, 1824, 
.... type Phoca itrsina Linnseus," hence = CallorMnus, Gray, 
1859, and not Arctocephalus, F. Cuvier); 3. Eumetopias, Gill (uov. 
gen., "type Otaria californiana Lesson, = Arctocephalus monte- 
riensis Gray," the intended type being Otaria stelleri of Miiller) ; 
4. Zalophus, Gill (nov. gen., "type Otaria Gilliespii, Mac-bain"); 5. 
Halarctus, Gill ("type Arctocephalus Delalandii, Gray," hence = 
Arctocephalus, F. Cuvier, 1824). Although three new names 
were proposed, only two new genera were added, Halarctus be- 
ing synonymous with Arctocephalus of F. Cuvier, and Arctoce- 
phalus, as here defined, with Callorhinus, Gray, as speedily and 
almost simultaneously pointed out by Gray* and Peters,t and 
as has been since freely conceded by Gill. A few months later 
Professor Peters t adopted, in a sub gen eric sense, the genera 
previously recognized by Gray and Gill, and added two other 
subgenera, namely, Phocarctos and Arctophoca. The type of 
Phocarctos was Gray's Arctocephalus hooker i (then known to Pe- 
ters apparently only through Gray's description and figures), 
with which, however, was associated the Otaria ullocc of von 
Tschudi, which latter appears to be merely Otaria julata, fern. 
The type of Arctophoca was originally Otaria philippii, Peters, 
sp. nov., probably = Arctocephalus falldanrlicus, fern. ; at all 
events, a Fur Seal from the Island of Juan Fernandez. These 
groups were first established in May, 18C6, but the following 
Xovember, Phocarctos ullocc was removed by Dr. Peters to his 
section or subgenus Otaria, and Otaria falklanclica, Shaw ( = 
" 0. nigrescens, Gray"), was taken as the type of Arctophoca, to 
which 0. pliilippii was now apparently referred as a subspecies 
or a doubtful form. Thus Arctocephalus falklandicus is here re- 
moved from Arctocephalus, where he formerly placed it, to be- 
come a new type of Arctophoca! 

In September, 1806, | Gray adopted the above named generic 
and subgeneric divisions, to which he added Neophoca as a " new 
genus," based on his Arctocephalus lolatus, referred previously 
by Peters to Zalophus, and Euotaria and Gypsophoca as subgeu- 
era of Arctocephalus. Euotaria was based on his Arctocephalus 
nifjrescens, and Gypsophoca on his Arctocephalus cincreits. In 

* Auu. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. xvii, pji. 444-447, June, 1866. 
tMonatsb. d. k. P. Akatl. zu Berlin, 1*66, pp. 261), '276, 670-672. 
t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., vol. xviii, pp. 2^8-237. 



192 FAMILY OTARIID.E. 

1868 * he raised Euotaria and Gypsophoca to the rank of genera, 
ten genera of Eared Seals being now recognized by this author. 
In his formal synopsis of the family presented in 1869,t these 
ten genera were all retained, and are the following: 



1. Otaria. 

2. Callorliinus. 

3. Phocarctos. 



6. Gypsophoca. 

7. Zalophus. 

8. Neophoca. 



4. Arctoceplialus. 9. Euinetopias 



5. Euotaria. 



10. Arctoplioca. 



In 1871 he again treated two of them (Euotaria and Gypso- 
phoca) as sub genera of Arctoceplialus, thereby reducing the 
number of genera to eight. In 1873 $ eight genera of " Sea 
Bears" alone (i. e., Eared Seals exclusive of Otaria) are enumer- 
ated, Euotaria being omitted. In 1874, however, both Euota- 
ria and Gypsoplioca are given full generic rank, but no reference 
is made to Arctoplioca, the species (ArctopJiocaphilippii) formerly 
referred to it being neither recognized nor accounted for. The 
number of genera is thus reduced to nine. Dr. Gill, in 1872 1| 
and in 187G, ff retained the five generic groups first recognized 
by him in 18GG, with, however, the corrections in nomenclature 
introduced by Gray and Peters later in the same year. These 
five genera, namely, Otaria, Eumetopias, Zalophm, Callorliinus, 
and Arctoceplialus, were adopted by myself in 1870, in my paper 
on the Eared Seals of the North Pacific.** 

Dr. Peters, in 1871,tt referred all the South American Fur 
Seals (of which he then recognized four, namely, A. falldandicus, 
A. nigrcsccns, A. argentata, A.pMlippii) to his subgenus ("Unter- 
gattung") Arctoplioca. Dr. Peters's later views respecting the 
genera of the Otatriidce are given in his paper on the Eared Seals 
published in August, 1877,|| in which he reduces the genera to 
three, namely, Otaria, Eumetopias, and Arctoceplialus. The Fur 
Seals are all united under Arctoceplialm ; Otaria includes only 0. 
jubata (to which his 0. leonina and 0. ulloce are referred as " Lo- 
calrassen"), Eumetopias being made to include all the other 

*Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. i, pp. 99-110, Feb., 1868. 

tAnii. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. iv, pp. 264-270. 

JProc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1873, p. 779. 

$ Ha lid-List of Seals. 

|| Arrangement of Families of Mammals, p. 09. 

*[Joliuson's Cyclopedia, vol. iii, p. 1018. 

**Bull. Mus. Gomp. Zool., vol. ii, No. 1, August, 1870. 

ttMonatsb. d. k. P. Akad. d. AVissmsch. zu Berlin, 1871, p. 564. 

U Monatsb. d. k. P. Akad. d. Wissenscli. zu Berlin, 1877, pp. 505-507. 



SPECIES. 193 

Hair Seals ( = the subgenera Eumetopias, Zaloplim, and Phoc- 
arctos of Peters's earlier papers). 

SPECIES. Prior to about the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, the Eared Seals then known were commonly referred to 
two species, one of which was termed, in common parlance, the 
Sea Bear, Ours marin, Meerbar, etc., and the other Sea Lion, 
Lion marin, Meerlowe, etc. They were hardly more definitely 
known in technical terminology, the "Sea Bear" being Phoca 
ursina, and the " Sea Lion" the Phoca jubata. The first of these 
names originated with Linue" in 1758,* and the other with 
Forster in 1775.t Phoca ursina was based originally on Stel- 
ler's Urst(s marinus, and Phoca jubata on the Southern Sea Lion, 
or u Lion marin," of Pernetty, to which species these specific 
names have of late been properly restricted. Ziminerruanu, in 
[1782,| named the Southern Sea Bear Phoca australis (=" Falk- 
land Seal, Pennant II, p. 521," the Sea Bear of Forster), which 
Shaw, in 1800, renamed Phoca falldandica. Both names were 
based on the "Falkland Isle Seal" of Pennant, but Zininier- 
mann's seems to have been entirely overlooked by subsequent 
writers. As it has eighteen years' priority, it must be adopted 
in place of falldandica. 

During the last half of the last century and the early part of the 
present, the early voyagers to the southern seas (as Auson, Per- 
netty, Forster, Weddel, Peron andrLesueur, Quoy and Gamiard, 
Lesson and Garnot, and Byron, among others) met with different 
species of Sea Lions and Sea Bears. They described these ani- 
mals very imperfectly, their accounts relating mainly to their 
habits and localities of occurrence, and they brought with them 
to Europe very few specimens. Desmarest in 1817, and Lesson 
in 1828, gave names to the species thus obscurely indicated, the 
latter renaming several that had already received names. To 
these authors, and to the often-quoted remark of Peron that he 
believed there were not less than twenty species of Otaries, we 
are indebted for much of the confusion and obscurity that must 
ever be inseparable from the early history of this group. Des- 
marest alone, in his article on the Otaries in the " Dictionnaire 
d'Histoire naturelle" (vol. xxv, 1817, pp. 590-603), recognized 

* Syst. Nat. i. 1758, 37. 
tDescrip. Aniui., pp. 66, 317. 
i Geograph. Geschichte, Theil iii, 1782, p. 276. 

G. Cuvier, according to Gray (Catalogue of Seals, 1850, p. 2), had skulls 
of only two species of Eared Seals when he wrote the " Ossemens Fossiles." 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 13 



194 . FAMILY OTAKIID^E. 

nine species, only two of which have any tangible basis, or can 
be determined except conjecturally, and mainly on the basis of 
their habitat. In fact, it is almost impossible to say whether 
they are "hair" Seals or "fur" Seals; the descriptions show 
merely that they were some kind of Eared Seal. Desmarest's 
species are the following: 1. Otaria leonina (= Otaria jubata+ 
Eumetopias stelleri}; 2. Otaria ursina (= Callorliinm ursinus); 
3. Otaria per oni (n. sp., based on a vague account by M. Bailly* 
of an Eared Seal seen in great numbers on Eottnest Island, west 
coast of Australia. Desrnarest doubtfully refers to it two mounted 
skins in the Paris Museum, both of very young animals, the 
larger only about two feet and a half long, brought from " Ter- 
res Australes"); 4. Otaria cinerea (Peron et Lesueur, Voy. an 
Terr. Austr., ii, 77; habitat, "lie Decres," coast of Australia; 
an Eared Seal, with rough hair, described only in general terms, 
and undeterminable ; probably = Zaloplms lobatus) ; 5. Otaria 
albicollis (Peron et Lesueur, 1. c., 118; habitat, "He Eugene," 
oast of Australia ; an Eared Seal, eight or nine feet long, char- 
acterized by a white spot on the middle and upper part of the 
neck ; perhaps the same as the last, but not certainly deter- 
miuable) ; G. Otaria flavescens (Shaw, Mus. Lev. ; Gen Zoo'L, i, 
200, pi. Ixxiii; habitat, Straits of Magellan; a "Yellowish Seal, 
with pointed ears " ; not deterniinable, but probably = 0. jubata) ; 
7. Otaria falklandica (= Plioca faUdandica Shaw=P/iOca aiis- 
t rails, Zimrn.; " Cinereous Seal, with small pointed ears, and the 
cutting-teeth marked with furrows " ; presumably the common 
Fur Seal of the Falkland Islands) ; 8. Otaria porcina (= Plioca 
pore ilia, Molina ; habitat, coast of Chili ; wholly undeterminable) ; 
0. Otaria pus ilia (= LL Plioca pusilla, Linn."; a wholly mythical 
" Otary " as described by Desinarest, supposed to inhabit the Medi- 
terranean Sea!] Of these nine species, only one (Otaria ursina}, 

*Pe"ron et Lesueur's Voy. Terr. Austr., vol. i, p. 189. 

t In view of recent attempts to revive the name pusilla as a tenable desig- 
nation for some species of Eared Seal, it seems desirable to state fully the 
original basis and early history of this name. It was given originally by 
Schreber, in 1776, to " Le Petit Phoque " of Buffon, Schreber even copying 
Buffon's figure (Hist. Nat., xiii, 1765, pi. liii). Buifon introduces his notice 
of this species as follows : " Le second [ espece] (Blanche LIII) qui est le phoque 
de la Me"diterran6e & des niers du Midi, & que nous pre"sumons etre le plioca 
des Anciens^ paroit etre d'une autre espece, car il differe des autres par la 
qualite" & la couleur du poil qui est ondoyant & presque uoir, tandis que le 
poil des premiers est gris & rude, il en differe encore par la forme des dents 
& par celle des oreilles ; car il a une espece d'oreille externe tres-petite a la 
ve'rite' . . . ." Then follows a good description of a young Fur Seal; but in 



SPECIES. 195 

or possibly a second (O.falkland-ica}, is positively referable to 
aiiy particular species as now known. 

Three years later (in 1820) Desinarest again, in his "Mamuia- 
logie" (Encyclopedic Methodique, vol. clxxxii, pp. 248-252), re- 
described the Otaries, reducing the number of species to eight 
by uniting his Otaria pusilla to his Otaria peronl under the 
latter name, which now relates not only to the Fur Seals of the 
western coast of Australia, but also to those of the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Lesson, eight years later, in his article on the Otaries (Dic- 
tionuaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. xiii, 1828, pp. 419- 
426), raised the number to fifteen. One is purely mythical ; five 
or six can be determined as equivalent to species now commonly 
recognized, but the greater part are not satisfactorily identifia- 
ble. His species are the following : 1. Otaria fabricii (=" Phoca 
w#wa Fabricius " ; habitat, Greenland; wholly undeterminable ; 
certainly not an Eared Seal, and probably wholly mythical) ; 2. 
Otaria stelleri ( =Leo marinus, Steller, =Eumetopias stelleri, which 
here receives its first distinctive name) ; 3. Otaria calif or niana 
(=" jeune Lion inarin de la California.," of Choris, and hence = 
Zaloplms gillespii of recent authors, which here received its first 
specific name*) ; 4. Otaria ~kraschenninikowii (= Ursus marinus, 

a long footnote to this description he gives quotations from Olaus Magnus, 
Zorgdrager, Charlevoix, and from collections of voyages, which relate to the 
Seals of both the Arctic and Antarctic regions, none of which probably re- 
fer to any species of Eared Seal. On the following page he says: "C'est 
par nne convenauce qui d'abord paroit assez le~gere, & par quelques rapports 
fugitifs qne nous avons juge" que ce second phoque (pi. LIII) e~toit le plioca 
des anciens ; on nous a assure" que 1'individu que nous avous vu veuoit des 
Indes, &, il est aumoinstres-probablequ'ilvenoit desniers dn Levant; . . ." 
Hist. Nat., xiii, 1765, pp. 340, 341. Though assumed to be a Mediterranean 
species, the origin of the specimen here described and figured as "Le Petit 
Phoque" is avowedly unknown, and a certainly ereoneous habitat is as- 
signed to it. This is the sole basis, however, for the Phoca pusilla of all the 
earlier systematists, and of some modern ones. As already stated, Desina- 
rest'?; Otaria pusilla is purely mythical; for while he describes an Eared Seal, 
he claims for it a Mediterranean habitat, and deems it to be the species 
described by Aristotle, Pliny, and .Elian, and figured by Belou, and even 
goes so far as to say, "Buffon et Erxleben paroissent avoir confondu, avec 
ce phoque, de jeunes individus d'autres especes particulieres aux Terres Aus- 
trales, et particulieremeut a 1'ours-marin de Tile de Juan-Fernandez. Quant 
a lui, il semble propre a la Mediterran6e." The Phoca pusilla of Erxleben and 
Gmeliu is a heterogenous compound of Eared and Earless Seals from both 
hemispheres. 

* See further remarks, postea, Tinder Eumetopias stellerl and Zaloplms calif or- 
nianus. 



196 FAMILY OTARIID.E. 

Steller=CallorMnu8 ursinus); 5. Otaria pernettyi(= Otaria juba- 
ta) ; C. Otaria forsteri (embraces all the Fur Seals of the Southern 
Hemisphere) ; 7. Otaria molUssina (" Lesson et Garnot, Zoologie 
de la Coquille, pi. iii, p. 140" ; habitat, " lies Malouines " ; the long 
description contains nothing in itself distinctive of any species, 
but it has been determined, by Mlssoh and Gray, from the skull 
and skin in the Paris Museum, to be a young Otaria jubata) ; 8. 
Otaria peroni (= " Otaria peroni, Desm., sp. 382"; embraces 
" Plioca pusilla Linn.", "Petit Phoque, Buffou," "Otarie de La- 
lande, F. Cuvier," and " Loup inarm, Pages"; habitat, Cape 
of Good Hope ; formerly referred by Gray to his Arctoceplialus 
delalandi, to which it is mainly referable); 9. Otaria eoronata 
("Desm., spec. 383; Pkoca eoronata, Blaiuv."; undeterminable, 
and habitat unknown) ; 10. Otaria cinerca ("Peixm et Lesueur," 
as above); 11. Otaria albicollis ("Peroii et Lesueur," as above); 
12. Otaria flavescens (= u Plioca flavescens, Shaw," as above; not 
determinable) ; 13. Otaria shaici (= Phoca . falMandicus, Shaw, 
therefore = Arctocephalus falklandicus, auct.) ; 14. Otaria liau- 
villii (" G. Cu^er, Oss. Foss., t. v, p. 220"; = Arctoceplialus faUc- 
landicm, auct.; habitat, "lies Malouines"); 15. " Otaria moli- 
naii" ( = u Plioca porcina, Molina"; no tangible description, and 
wholly undeterminable). 

Fischer, in 1829-30,* appears to have recognized fifteen (only 
twelve have numerals prefixed) species of Eared Seals, which 
are the same as those described by Lesson in 1828, with the ex- 
ception that Lesson's Otaria fdbridi is not admitted, and Gray's 
Arctocephalus lobatm is added. 

Hamilton, in 1839,t recognized twelve species, as follows : 1. 
" Sea-Lion of Steller" (= Eumetopias stelleri) ; 2. " Sea-Lion of 
Forster" (= Otaria jubata} ; 3. " Sea-Lion of Pernetty" (= Ota- 
ria jubata, mainly); 4. "Pusilla, or Cape Otary" (" Otaria 
pusilla, Desm.," but really based on a skull from the Cape of 
Good Hope); 5. " Ursine Seal, or Sea Bear of Steller (= Cal- 
JorMnus ursinus] ; 6. " Ursine Seal, or Sea Bear of Forster " 
( = Arctocephalus falklandicus, auct.); 7. " Sea Bear, from speci- 
men in the British Museum" (=? Otaria jubata, according to 
Gray); 8. " Lesson's Otary, 0. molUssina, Lesson" (=Arctocepha- 
Im falldandicus] ; 9. and 10. "Ash-coloured and white-necked 
Otaries" (= Otaria cinerea and 0. alMcollis, Peron); 12. "Com- 
mon Fur-Seal of Commerce" (= Arctocephalus falldandicus}* 

* Synopsis Maruinaliurn, pp. 230-234, 374 (i. c. 574). 

t Amphibious Carnivora, etc. (Jardine's Nat. Library, Mam., TO!, viii). 



SPECIES. 197 

He very judiciously refers to Otaria porcina, 0. coronata, 0. 
dclahindi, and 0. liauvillii as species so slightly indicated "as 
still to reuiaiu doubtful.' 1 

Xilsson, iu his celebrated paper ou the Seals, published in 
1837, * reduced the species to three, reuniting all the Sea Lions 
(except one) under the name Otaria jubata, and all the Sea 
Bears under the name Otaria ursina. His third species is the 
Otaria australis of Quoy and Gaimard, from Australia (= Arc- 
toceplialus lolatus, Gray, Spicel. Zool., i, 1828). Miiller, in his 
appendix to Nilsson's paper, t recognized five species, as repre- 
sented in the Berlin Museum, namely: 1. Otaria stelleri; 2. 
Otaria ursina; 3. Otaria platyrhinchus (= 0. jubata, auct.) ; 4. 
Otaria chilensis (described as new from a skull received from 
Chili, but really = 0. jubata) ; 5. Otaria lamari ( = Arctocepha- 
lus lofiatus Gray, as above). He recognized as " eine sechste 
Art v the Otaria australis, Quoy and Gaimard, and Nilsson. 

The next general review of the group is contained in Gray's 
Catalogue of the Seals of the British Museum, published in 
1850, in which eight species are formally recognized. These 
are: 1. Arctocephalus ursinus ; 2. A. falldandicus ; 3. A. cine- 
reus (= u ? Otaria cinerea, Pron," as noticed above) ; 4. A. loba- 
tiiN ; 5. A. australis ("Quoy and Gaimard" = A. lobatus, Gray) ; 
6. A. hookeri ; 7. Otaria stelleri ; 8. Otaria leonina. All but A. 
australis probably represent good species. In 1866, in his 
u Catalogue of Seals and Whales," he raised the number to 
twelve by adding, 1. Arctoceplialm monteriensis (first described 
by him in 1859 = Eumetopias stelleri) plus a skin referable to 
CaUorhinus ursinus}] 2. A. calif or nianus, n. sp. ( = A. monterien- 
sis , Gray, 1859, in part, really = Eumetopias stelleri] ; 3. A. nigres- 
cens, first named in Zool. Erebus and Terror ; not mentioned 
in Cat. Seals of 1850, but revived in 1859, when it was really 
first published (= A. falklandicus); 4. A. delalandi (= Petit 
) Buffou, hence Phoca pu^illa, Schreber, plus Otaria dela- 
F. Cuvier, 1828, the Fur Seal of the Cape of Good 
Hope); 5. A. "Gilliespii" (= Otaria gillcspi) M'Bain, 1858, = 
Otaria californiana, Lesson, 1828). O|' these five, two (A. mon- 
teriensis and A. californianus) are strictly nominal, as is prob- 
ably a third (A. nigrescens) ; two valid species (A. " delalandi r 

* K. Vet. Akad. Haudl. Stockholm, 1837, pp. 235-245. Translated by Peters 
in Wiegrnann's Archiv fur Naturgesch., 1841, pp. 301-333, with notes and an 
appendix by J. Miiller. 

tAViegmann's Archiv, 1841, pp. 333, 334. 



198 FAMILY OTARIIDJ3. 

and A. u yilliespii ") are added to those recognized by this author 
in 1850. 

The same year (1S6G), Peters* recognized fourteen species 
(three of them were treated as doubtful), as follows: 1. Otaria 
julata; "?2. Otaria leonina n (=0. julata); 3. Otaria godefroyi (n. 
sp. = 0. julata); 4. u '? Otaria lyronia" (=Phoca lijronitt, Blain- 
ville, = 0. julata) ; 5. Otaria Looker!; G. Otaria til lot i' (= 0. 
nUoa\ vonTschudi, = 0. julata, fern.); 7. Otaria pusilla (= Petit 
Phoque, Buffon, Phoca pusilla, Schreber, Otaria delalandi, F.Cu- 
vier, etc.); 8. Otaria cinerea (=" 0. cincrca, Peron and Lesueur, 
Quoy and Gaiinard " ; " 0. stelleri, Schlegel," in part,etc.) ; I 9. 
Otaria falklandica (= Arctocephahts falklandicus, auct.); 10. 
Otaria n ruin a ( = Calhrliinus ursiHiis); 11. Otaria stelleri (Eume- 
topias stelleri} ] 12. Otaria gillespi (=ZalopJius calif ornianus) ; 13. 
Otaria lobata (= Arctoceplialus hiatus, Gray, 1828, Otaria aus- 
tralis, Quoy and Gaimard, 1830, 0. stelleri, " Schlegel," in 
part, = Zalophm hiatus) ; 14. Otaria pliilippii (n. sp. = Arcto- 
cepJialusfalMandicus, auct.). Six months later, on again review- 
ing the group,! the same writer reduced the number of species 
to ten. In this paper he referred the 0. lyronia, 0. leonina, and 
0. yodeffroyi of his former paper to O.julata, and his 0. pliilippii 
to 0. falklandica. 0. ullow is still retained as a valid species, 
and u Otaria stelleri, Schlegel," is determined to be the 0. 
t/HlcNpi, M'Bain. 

In ISGSf Dr. Gray described as a new species Arctoceplialus 
itirosits (= A. antarcticus, s. pusillus) from the Cape of Good 
Hope, and Professor Turner added, as a new species, Arcfo- 
ceplialm sclnstliyperoes (later corrected to scMstuperus by Giin- 
ther), from Desolation Island, considered later by Gray,|| after 
an examination of the type, to be referable to his A. delalandi 
(therefore = A. antarcticus). M'Bain, the sameyear,^ described 
an imperfect skull of what he called " 0. idiom?" (= Otaria 
julata, fern.), adding that in case it proved to be a new species it 
might be called " 0. graii. n 

In 1870 ** I was able to recognize only six species as well 
established, but gave two more as probably valid, the latter 

* Monatsb. d. k. P. Akad. Wisseusch. zu Berlin, 1866, pp. 261-281. 

tlbid., 1866, pp. 665-672. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. i, p. 219. 

Journ. Anat. and Phys., vol. iii, pp. 113-117. 

|| Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. iv, p. 264. 

II Ibid., pp. 109-112. 

**Bull. Mns. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, pp. 44, 45. 



SPECIES. 199 

I 

1 icing- Arctocephalus cinereus, Gray (Australia and New Zealand), 
and .1. antarcticus^ Gray (Cape of Good Hope). The others are : 
1. Otaria jiibata (under which was wrongly included 0. Jiookeri, 
Gray); 2. Eumctopias stclleri ; 3. Zaloplius gillespi ; 4. Zaloplius 
lobatus ; 5. Callorliinus ursinus ; G. ArGtoc&phalus falklandicus. 

In 1871, Phih'ppi and Peters* added Arctoceplialus (Arcto- 
j>ln>c) nryentata, a Fur Seal from the island of Juan Fernandez 
( = Arctoceplialus australis, fem.). The latter here divided the 
Fur Seals of South America into four species, two of which (A. 
falldandwa and A. nigrescens) are from the Atlantic Ocean and 
two (A. argentata and A.pMlippn) from the Pacific. 

The same year (1871) Grayt recognized thirteen species of 
Eared Seals, as follows : 1. Otaria julata (embracing 0. leonina, 
of Gray and Peters, and 0. yodeffroyi, 0. lironia, 0. ullow of 
Peters). 2. Callorhinns ursinus. 3. Pliocarctosliookeri. 4. Arcto- 
ceplialus antarcticus (Cape of Good Hope = Plioca antarctica, 
Thunberg, 1811, and Plioca [s. Otaria] pusilla and (lelalandi, 
auct.). ^.Arctoceplialus nigrescens (=A. auxtralis). G. Arcto- 
ceplialus cinereus. 7. Arctoceplialus for ster I ("New Zealand, "= 
"Phoca ursina-j Forster," = Otaria forsteri, Lesson, formerly re- 
ferred by him to his A. falMandicus !}. 8. Arctoceplialux falk- 
landicus. 9. u Arctoceplialus? nivosus r (=A. antarcticus). 10. 
Zalophus gillcspL 11. Neoplioca lobata. 12. Eumetoplas stelleri 
(embracing his Arctoceplialus monteriensis and A. californianus}. 
13. Arctoplioca pliUippii (= Arctoceplialus austr alls}. A.forsteri 
is the only species added, while no less than six species, recognized 
by either himself or Peters in 18G6, are reduced to synonyms. 

Gray, in 1872,t added Gypsoplioca tropicalis, based on a young* 
skull from Auckland Island, to which specimens from Xorth 
Australia are also referred. This Clark believes to be in part 
based on the young of Otaria lioolceri, and in part referable to 
Arctoceplialus cinereus. 

Scott, in 1873, in his account of the Otaviidcv,\\ described (p. 
19) what he regarded as two new species of Arctocephalus, 
namely, u Arctoceplialus Grayii" and ^Arctoceplialus euloplius." 
The first is equivalent to Gray's A. falldandlcus of his Cata- 

* Mouatsb. d. k. P. Akacl.Wissensch. 'zu Berlin, 1871, pp. 558-566. 

t Suppl. Cat. Seals and AVhales. 

tProc. Zool. Soc. Lontl., 1872, pp. 659, 743. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1873, p. 759. 

|| Mammalia, Eecent and Extinct, an elementary treatise for the use of the 
public schools of New South Wales. By A. W. Scott, M. A. Sidney, 1873. Sec- 
tion B, Pinuata, Seals, Diigongs, Whales, &c. &c. &c. Otariidse, pp. 7-25. 



200 FAMILY OTARIID^E. 

logue of Seals and Whales (18GG, p. 55), ami the "Supplement" 
to the same (1871, p. 25), which Mr. Scott gives as a synonym. 
After quoting Gray's description of A. falldawlicm, he says : 
" This is clearly a species distinct from the common Southern 
Fur Seal. . . . The specific name Falklandicus having 
been appropriated almost by general consent for another ani- 
mal, I beg to substitute that of Grayii." The Arctoceplialus 
culoplim is based on verbal information from Mr. Morris, an 
experienced sealer, who informed him " that during his sealing 
voyages he occasionally met with a fur-seal, which he and 
those connected with him in the trade readily recognized as a 
distinct kind by the diminutive size of the adult animal ; by 
a top-knot of hair on the crown of the head ; and by the soft, 
beautiful under-fur, unlike in colour to, and much more valua- 
ble for articles of ladies' wear than that of any other fur-seal 
they were in the habit of capturing." " This seal," continues 
Mr. Scott, " appears to be rare, only a few specimens having 
been taken ; some were seen on the south-east coast of New 
Zealand, evidently stragglers driven far away from home. Mr. 
Morris has been told that they were formerly common on the 
shores of Patagonia and the Island of Juan Fernandez." With 
all due deference to the opinions of Mr. Morris and Mr. Scott, 
this information hardly forms a satisfactory basis for the erec- 
tion of a new species in this obscure group, w T here external 
characters, when well known, are of slight distinctive value. 
The Arctoceplialus euloplius can only be assigned to the category 
of vaguely described and indeterminable species, of which the 
writings of Peron, Desmarest, and Lesson were so prolific half 
a century ago. Only six other species were recognized by Mr. 
Scott, namely: 1. Arctoceplialus ursinnx (= Cnllorhinm ursi- 
nits). 2. Arctoceplialus falklandicus (embracing all the Southern 
Fur Seals, with the exception of his two " new species," already 
noticed). 3. Zaloplius gillespi. 4. Z.lobatux. o. Otaria stelleri. 
6. O.jubata (== 0. jubata and Phocarctos hooker i Gray). 

In 1873, Dr. Gray described* a Eumetopias elongatm, based 
in part On a skull from Japan he had the previous yeart referred 
to E. stelleri, and in part on a young skull, also from Japan, 
which, doubtless, is the saine as the Otaria siclleri of Temminck 
(Fauna Japonica). 

*Proc. Zool. Soc., 1873, p. 776. tlbid., 1872, p. 738. 



SPECIES. 201 

In 1874, the same author* added two more "new species" of 
Otaria, this time wholly from old material, from unknown loeali- 
tieSjWhich he had had before him in the British Museum for nearly 
twenty years, and which lie had hitherto uniformly referred to 
Otaria jubata ! Having, however, found that the lower jaws 
differed from those of the other specimens in being " straight, 
not bowed on the side, and elongate," and that " the scar of the 
temporal muscle is elongate, narrow in front," instead of being 
" broad, rounded in front." One of the species, based on the 
" skull of an adult male 11 inches long, and G wide at the ;, 
condyles," etc., he calls " Otaria minor, the Smaller Sea Lion." } 
The other, based on " the skull of an adult (female) 9J inches long, 
and o^ broad at the condyles," he calls " Otaria pygmcea, the 
Pigmy Sea Lion." The last-mentioned skull is " partly broken 
behind, and wants all the grinders and the greater part of the 
cutting teeth." They are unquestionably referable to the re- 
stricted genus Otaria, and there is nothing in the descriptions 
indicating that Dr. Gray's reference of them for twenty years 
to 0. jubata was erroneous. The skull of Otaria minor is later 
figured in the "Hand-List of Seals" (pi. xvi), and is evidently 
that of a young male Otaria jubata. 

In this year (1874) also appeared the lastt of Gray's long 
series of publications relating to the Eared Seals, in which we 
have his latest views respecting the species of this group. In 
this work two other "new species" are added, making in all 
eighteen species of Otariidcc now recognized by Dr. Gray! 
These are: 1. Otaria jubata. 2. Otaria minor (see above, last 
paragraph). 3. Otaria ullow (=0. ullocv, von Tschudi and 
Peters, and 0. pygmcca, Gray, both formerly, and, I believe, cor- 
rectly, referred by him to 0. jubata). 4. Gypsophoca tropicalis 
( = Arctoceplialus cinerem). 5. Phocarctos hooker i. H. Phocarc- 
tos elongatus (= Eumetopias stelleri, in part, and Otaria stelleri, 
Temniinck, in part). 7. Callorhinus ursinus. 8. Arctoceplialus 
antarcticus. 9. Euotaria cinerea (includes Aretocephalus forsteri 
of Gray's Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales [see above, p. 199] ). 
10. Euotaria nigreacens ( = Aretocephalus austraUs). 11. Euota- 
ria latirostris (n. sp., based on a skull supposed to have come 
from the Falkland Islands, formerly referred to his A. nigres- 
cens. He now says, " The skull may belong to the Arctoccplia- 
lusfalldandicus, of which [/. < j ., his A. falldandicus] the skull is 

*Ann. find Mag. Nat. Hist., 41 h ser., vol. xjii, p. 324. t Hand-List of Seals, etc. 



202 FAMILY OTAEIID^E. 

not known, or it may be a distinct species"). 12. Euotaria com- 
pressus (n. sp. ; liab. "South Africa 1 ? Wtfnwcfc"; formerly re- 
ferred by him to Arctoceplialus hookerl as "9 skull, South 
Sea, Mr. Warwick's collection"*). 13. Euotaria schisthyperocs 
(= Arctoceplialus scMsfhyperoes, Turner, formerly referred, with- 
out reservation , by Gray himself to his Arctoccplia Ins an t rctic us). 
14. Eumetopias stelleri. 15. Zaloplius (jillespi. 10. Neophoca 
lobata. Two other species are also given, as follows : 17. "Arcto- 
ceplialm? nivosus" ( = A. antarcticus) ; 18. "Arctocephalus? falk- 
lanaicus " (=A. amir alls). These are Fur Seals, referred doubt : 
fully to Arctoceplialus from lack of knowledge of the skulls. 
The first, he says, "may be the skin of Euotaria compressa or 
.sr/< Mlnjporoes "; to the latter he refers the li Arctoceplialus gray!! " 
and "eulopliHs" of Scott (see above, p. 200), the latter, however, 
doubtfully. 

In 1875 Dr. Peters described t still another species, based on 
two specimens, an old male and a young female, brought home 
by the German Transit-of- Venus Expedition (supposed by him 
to have both come from Kerguelen Island), to which he gave 
the name Arctophoca gazella. Externally A. gazella appears to 
differ little from the other Southern Sea Bears, the distinctive 
characters resting in the form of the hinder border of the bony 
palate, which has a triangular projection at the middle, in the 
very small size of the tympanic bones, and in other details of 
the skull-structure.^ Later he found that only one of the speci- 
mens on which A. gazella was based came from Kerguelen 
Island, the other having been brought either from "der Insel 
St. Paul oder Amsterdam." In 187C, therefore, in referring 
again to these specimens, after the discovery of the error in 
locality respecting one of the specimens, he renamed the Saint 
Paul or Amsterdam Island skin Otaria (Arctophoca) elegan*. 

In 1877, Dr. Peters again reviewed || the whole group of 
Eared Seal, of which he at this time recognized three genera 
and thirteen species. He refers to having had access to much 
new material, and it is greatly to be regretted that he has not 

*Cat. Seals, Brit, Mus.,1850,p. 46; Cat, Seals and Whales, 1866, p. 54. 

tMouatsb. d. k. P. Akad. Wisseusch. zu Berlin, 187."), pp. 393-399. 

iln this paper he refers incidentally to the South American Fur Seals, 
stating that in consequence of the reception of more material since the 
publication of his last paper lespectiug them, he is led to unite the Arcto- 
cephaltts argeniata with A. pliflippii, and Ihe A. nigrescens with A. falklandica 
(1. c., p. 395). 

v>Ibid., 1876, pp. 315, 31H. 

|| Ibid.. 1877, pp. 505-507. 



SPECIES. 203 

stated of what it consisted, and especially what types it em- 
braced, and that he has not presented the results of his investi- 
gations in detail, with .more explicit expression of his later 
views respecting the numerous synonyms of the group, very 
few of the many nominal species being here definitely allocated. 
He having here made radical changes of nomenclature, not 
only from that of his former papers of 1866, but from that of 
all previous authors, without giving his reasons for such a pro- 
cedure, such information would have in this connection espe- 
cial value. Of the restricted genus Otaria he recognizes only 
the single species O.jubata. He gives its habitat as extending 
from the Bio de la Plata and Callao and the Chincha Islands 
southward. He refers 0. leonina, F. Cuvier, and 0. -uttoa', von 
Tschudi, to this species as " local races," and leaves it to be 
inferred that his 0. gocleffroyi and Gray's 0. minor and 0. pyg- 
mcea are regarded by him as purely synonyms. Gray's Phoc- 
arctos elongatus, he says, belongs, without doubt, to Eumetopias 
yiUespi, and gives Japan as falling withiu its range. Gray's 
Zalophns lobatus he refers to Otaria cinerea, Peron, to which he 
also assigns 0. albicollis of the same author and 0. australis 
of Quoy and Gahnard. He adopts Peron' s apparently wholly 
indeterminable name cinerea* for this species, without giving 
his reasons or stating whether he has obtained new light on 
this intricate matter since 1866, when he referred it to a group 
having thick under-fur, and associated with it the Otaria cinerea 
of Quoy and Gaimard, and the Otaria forsteri of Lesson, both 
of which he now treats as distinct species belonging to another 
genus. Xo reference being made to Turner's Arctoceplialus 
scJiisthyperoes, nor to Gray's A. nivosus and Eiiotaria com- 
pressa, nor to the 0. peroni, 0. liauriUi, etc., of the French 
writers, it is to be inferred that they are regarded as syno- 
nyms, but of what species we are left in doubt. He adopts 
Arcioceplialus pusillus (from Schreber) as the name of the South 
African Fur Seal, on the supposition that Buffon's "Petit 



* It has been supposed by Gray arid others that P6ron took with him to 
France no specimens of his Otaria cinerea, but G. Cuvier (Oss. Foss., v, 3d 
ed., p. 221) refers to a specimen of Ot.iry "vient de Peron (c'est la seule 
qu'il ait rapportee), elle n'a que deux pieds ueuf ponces de long, et est un 
peu plus blanchatre que celle du Cap." He adds in a footnote, "C'est pro- 
bablemeut celle dont il parle sous le noni A'otarie eendree de 1'ile Decres; 
Voy. aux Terres Australes, t. ii, p. 54." The Otary of the Cape here referred 
to is the one brought by M. Delahmde, which is the Fur Seal of the Cape 
of Good Hope. 



204 FAMILY OTARIID^. 

Phoque," ou which the name pusilla rests,* must have come 
from the Cape of Good Hope.t The Fur Seals of South 
America are recognized as belonging to two species, those of 
the east coast, the Falkland Islands, the southern extremity of 
the continent, and the west coast northward to Chili being re- 
ferred to Arctocephalns falldandicm, while those from Juan Fer- 
nandez and Masafuera Islands are assigned to A philippi. We 
are therefore left to suppose that his and Gray's A. nigrescens, 
his A. argentata^ Gray's Euotaria latirostris, and Scott's A. 
grayi and A, eulophus, are regarded by him as synonyms of 
these species. The Fur Seal of Australia he calls Arctocephalus 
brevipes, citing " Otaria cinerea Quoy et Gaiinard, Voy. Astro- 
labe, Zoolog. i, p. 89 (non Pe"ron)." He also recognized A. ele- 
gam from Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands (to which he 
doubtfully referred A. tropicalis. Gray); A. gazella, from. Ker- 
gueleii Island; and the A.forsterij Lesson, from New Zealand 
and the Antarctic Seas to the southward of New Zealand. Four 
of his species, namely, Arctocephalus elegans, A.forsteri, A. ga- 
zella, and A. pliillppii, appear to me to be invalid, while under 
his Eumetopias gUlespi, I believe he has confounded two quite 
distinct species, namely, Zalophus gillespi and Z. lobatux. Pe- 
ters's thirteen species are the following : 



1. Otaria jubata (Forster). 

2. Eumetopias stelleri (Lesson). 

3. Eumetopias gillespi (M'Baiu). 

4. Eumetopias cinerea (Pe"ron). 

5. Eumetopias liookeri (Gray). 

6. Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber). 



8. Arctocephalus brevipes, Peters. 

9. Arctocephalus elegans, Peters. 

10. Arctocephalus forsteri, Lesson. 

11. Arctocephalus gazella, Peters. 

12. Arctocephalus philippi, Peters. 

13. Arctocephalus ursinus (Liiine"). 



7. Arctocephalus falklandicus, Shaw, j 

Five are Hair Seals and eight are Fur Seals. Three only are 
given as found in the northern seas, while ten are recognized 
as occurring in the southern. 

From the foregoing it will be seen how widely opinions have 
differed respecting the number of species and their generic 
affinities among recent writers on this group, and how unstable 
have been the views of the two leading authorities in this field 

* See anted, p. 194, second footnote. 

t G. Cuvier supposed it to have come from the Cape, because Pages (see 
Buffou's Hist. Nat., Suppl., vi, 357) had reported the young Otaries of the 
Cape a,s of a black color (Oss. Foss., 3d ed., v, 220) ; but it is now well known 
that all Fur Seals are black when young. On the other hand, Daiibeutou 
insisted that Buffon's "Petit Phoijue" (see Desmarest, Mam., p. 251) came 
from "1'Inde." 

t Antea, p. 20^, footnote. 



SPECIES. 205 

during the last ten or twelve years. Peters and Gray have both 
repeatedly during this time radically modified their views re- 
specting both the number of genera and species ; greatly, in the 
case of Gray at least, out of proportion to the new material they 
have examined. This fluctuation of opinion shows, in a most 
emphatic manner, how imperfect our knowledge still is respect- 
ing the Otaries of the Southern Hemisphere. Those of the 
Xorthern are much better known, the oulv doubts still existing 

/i/ O 

having relation to those of Japan. Kespecting all the others, 
there has been for the last eight years an almost perfect uuai- 
uimity of opinion, so far as the question of species is concerned. 
In 1870 I could find no satisfactory basis for the discrimina- 
tion of more than a single species of Fur Seal in the Southern 
Hemisphere, and to iny mind the case is now scarcely better, 
since I have as yet had opportunity of examining only speci- 
mens from South American localities, with the exception of a 
skin and skull of a very young individual from Australia. I 
now add one species of Hair Seal to the number I then recog- 
nized. These, which will be discussed more fully later, are the 
following : 

Hair Seals or Sea-Lions. 

1. Otaria jubata. 

2. Eumetopias stelleri. 

3. Zaloplius californiauus. 

4. Zalophus lobatus. 



Fur Seals or Sea-Bears. 

6. Callorhinus ursinus. 

7. Arctocephalus falklandicus. 
?8. Arctocephalus antarcticus. 
19. Arctoceplialus forsteri. 



5. Phocarctos hookeri. 

Although taken severely to task by Gray and others for my 
" conservatism," especially respecting Otaria hookeri, auct. (the 
justness of which in this instance I now concede), but also as 
regards the Southern Fur Seals, I must still confess my inability 
to satisfactorily distinguish them by the published figures and 
descriptions. I find only such differences indicated as a large 
series of specimens, embracing both skulls and skins, of two 
allied species (namely, Callorhinus ursinus &n&AretocepMlusfalk- 
landicus, auct.. av.stralis, Zimm.) show to have no importance as 
specific characters. Indeed, I find Gray himself, in his latest ref- 
erence to two of these species, writing as follows : " The Xew- 
Zealand skull [ u Euoiaria cineiea"] is very like the skull of the 
Southern Fur-Seal (Arctocepltalus niyrescens) from the Falkland 
Islands and the south-west coast of Patagonia. It differs in the 
position and form of the grinders, and in the form of the palate, 
and its contracted Sides and truncated hinder part ; it differs 
considerably from it in the outline and prominence of the tern- 



206 FAMILY OTARIHXE. 

poral bullse and the os petrosum. The upper surfaces are very 
much alike, and the orbits are very large and of the same size. 
The lower jaws are very similar; but the callosity of the Falk- 
land Island specimen is rather longer, and the crown of the teeth 
is longer and rather more slender the crown of the New-Zea- 
land specimen being as long as broad, that of the Falkland 
Island specimen being one-third longer than broad."* I cite 
the differences here noted by Gray to show how trivial are the 
grounds of separation. A skull of each of the supposed species 
only is here compared. The differences are just such as occur 
between undoubted specimens of Callorhinm ursinus, no two of 
which, even of the same age and sex, can be compared without 
observing differences, while there is no difficulty in selecting 
specimens that are very unlike in characters that have been 
taken, in discussing other species of this group, as having great 
significance. Again Dr. Gray, in comparing his GypsopTi-oca 
tropicalis from North Australia with Peters's ArctopJioca argen- 
tata and A. pJiiUpjpiifEom Juan Fernandez and Masafuera, says: 
" These three skulls have nearly the same teeth, and appear to 
me to belong to one group ; but whether they are three distinct 
species (two from the west coast of South America and one from 
North Australia) I will not attempt to determine, as I have only 
seen the skins and skulls of the one from the latter region ; but 
they are all Fur-Seals and may be distinct."! Dr. Gray says 
his genus GypsopJioca " is most like ArctopJioca in the position 
of the teeth; lut the palate -is much narrower, the face shorter ', and, 
the hinder part of the skull much larger and more ventricose" $ but, 
as Clark has shown, and as is evident from Gray's figures, Gyp- 
sophoca was based on a young skull, and young skulls of Otaries 
differ from adult ones of the same species in just these characters. 
It may here be noted that in several instances the so-called "spe- 
cies" of Fur Seals differ from others recognized by the same 
authors only through differences that can be demonstrated to 
be, in other well-known allied species, simply sexual. Hence, 
until writers on this group have learned to discriminate the 
sexes, and to make due allowance for the great changes in 
contour and details of structure that result from age in the 
skulls of Otaries, we can hardly hope to have the subject of 
species placed on a proper basis. 

* Hand-List, p. 36. 

t Hand-List, p. 28 ; first printed iu Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 661. 

t Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 659. 

ttrid., 1873, p. 759. 



SPECIES. 207 

The distribution of the Fur Seals in the Southern Seas pre- 
sents no obstacle to the supposition of their conspeciflc rela- 
tionship. They occur not only on both the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts of the South American continent, about its southern ex- 
tremity, and on all the outlying islands, including not only the 
Falklands, the South Shetland, and South Georgian, but at 
other small islands more to the eastward, at Prince Edward's, 
the Crozets, Kerguelen, Saint Paul, and Amsterdam, the south- 
ern and western shores of Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, 
.and at the numerous smaller islands south of the two last 
named. They have been found, in fact, at all the islands mak- 
ing up the chain of pelagic islets stretching somewhat inter- 
ruptedly from Cape Horn and the Falkland Islaads eastward 
to Australia and New Zealand, including among others those 
south of the Cape of Good Hope, so famous in the annals of the 
seal-fishery. It has been stated by Gray and others that the 
Cape of Good Hope Fur Seals (really those of the Crozets and 
neighboring islands) are far inferior in commercial value to 
those of other regions ; but in tracing the history of the sealing 
business I have failed to notice any reference to the inferior 
quality of those from the last-named locality, or that there has 
been any difference in the commercial value of the Fur Seal 
skins obtained at different localities in the Southern Seas. The 
quality differs at the same locality, wherever the Fur Seals are 
found, with the season of the year and age of the animals, so 
that skins may conie not only from the Cape of Good Hope, 
but from any other of the sealing-places, that one " might feel 
convinced could not be dressed as furs," being "without very 
thick under fur." 

In this connection I may add that Gray's figure (Hand-List 
of Seals, pi. xxiii) of an old male skull of Arctocephalus antarc- 
ticus so closely resembles an aged male skull (No. 1125, M. C. 
Z. Coll.) of Arctocephalus australis ( = falklandicuSj auct.), that 
the latter might have served as the original of the figures ! while 
other skulls of the last-named species bear a striking resem- 
blance to Gray's figures of his JEuotaria cinerea (Hand- List, pi. 
xxvi) and his E. latirostris (ib., pi. xxvii). In fact, the series of 
skulls of Arctocephalus australis in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, from the Straits of Magellan and the west coast of 
South America, presents variations that seem to cover all of 
Gray's species of Arctocephalus and Evotaria as figured by him 
in the Hand-List of Seals. 



208 FAMILY OTARIID^E. 

Synopsis of the Genera and Species. 
A. Pelaee harsh, without Tinder-fur. Ears short. Molars- ' = -)S or '^- - : 

o 1> J.U i) <> 



. Species generally of large size. Color yellowish-brown ; red- 



10 
To 
dish-brown when young TRICHOPHOCAC.E 

I. Genus OTARIA, Gill ex Pcron. 

Otaria, PERON, Voy. aux Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 37, footnote (in part). 
[Platyrlrinclius] Platyrhinque, F. CUVIER, Me~m. du Mus., xi, 1824, 208, pi. iv, 

fig. 2. 
Platyrhincus, F. CUVIER, Diet, des Sc. Nat,, xxxix, 1827, 555. LESSON, 

Man. de Mam., 1827, 203 (in part). 
Otaria, GILL, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 7. 
CHAR. GEN. Palatine bones extending nearly to the pterygoid processes, 

(* R 19 

deeply concave, truncate behind. Molars r^i == Tn- 

1. Otaria jubata ("Forster") Blainville. 

Phoca jiibota, " FORSTER, 1775"; SCHREBER, ERXLEBEN, GMELIN, and other 

early writers. 
Phoca jubata, FORSTER, Descrip. Auim. ad Licht., 1844, 317 ("Terra Statuum; 

Insula Novi-anni"). 
Otaria julata, DESMAREST, Mam., 1820, 248 (in part), and of most recent 

writers. 

f Phoca flavcscens, SHAW, Gen. Zool., i, 1800, 260 (young). 
Otaria leonina, PERON, Voy. auxTerr. Austr v ii, 1816, 40. Also of DESMAREST, 

GRAY, PETERS, and some others. 
Platyrhincus Iconinus, F. CUVIER, LESSON. 
Phoca Ityroni, BLAINVILLE, Journ. de Phys., xci, 1820, 287. DESMAREST, 

Mam., 1820, 240 (fide Gray, Suppl. Cat, Seals and Whales, 1871, 13). 
Otaria moUomna, LESSON et GARNOT, Voy. Coq., Zool., i, 1826, 140, pi. iii 

("lies Malonines"). 

Plalyrhynvus moUossinus cturania', LESSON, Man. de Mam., 1827, 204. 
Otaria per netty i , LESSON, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 420. 
Otaria platyrhhichus et chilensis, MuLLER,Wiegmann'sArchiv fiirNaturgesch., 

1841, 333. 
Otaria leonina, godcffroyi, Injronia. et M//O>, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 

1866, 264, 266, 269, 270, 670, 671. 

Otaria //o j , VON TSCHUDI, Fauna Peruana, 1842-44, 135, 136, pi. vi. 
Arctocephalus falklandiats, BURMEISTER, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser. r 

xviii, 1866, pi. ix, figs. 1-4 (at least in part). 
Otaria minor, et p>/<jni'a, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., viii, 

326. . 
Otaria hoolccri. SCLATER, Proc, Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 80. 

HABITAT. Galapagos Islands (Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool., from Hassler 
Expedition), and coasts of South America from Peru and Chili on the Pacific 
side, and Rio de la Plata on the Atlantic side southward. 



SPECIES. 209 

II. Genus PHOCARCTOS, Peters. 

Arctocepnalus, in part, of GRAY, prior to 1866. 

Phocarctos (subgenus), PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 269. 

CHAR. GEX. Palatine bones ending considerably in front of the pterygoid 

processes, deeply concave in front, narrowed and ernarginate behind. Mo- 
66 12 



2. Phocarctos hookeri (Gray) Peters. 

Arctocephalus hooTceri, GRAY, "Zool. Voy. Erebus and Terror, pll. xiv, xv"; 

Cat, Seals and Whales, 1866, 53, fig. 15. 
Phocarctos Jtookcri, GRAY, Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 15; Hand- 

List Seals, 1874, 29, pi. xx. 

Otaria jnlata, ALLEX, Bull. Mus. Couip. Zool. ; ii, 1870, 45 (in part). 
Otaria hookeri, CLARK, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1873, 754, figs. 

HABITAT. Auckland Islands. (Originally described from specimens sup- 
posed to have come from the "Falkland Islands and Cape Horn." See Clark, 
as above cited, and Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. xiv, 1874, 

pp. 29-30.) 

III. Genus EUMETOPIAS, GiU. 

Otaria, in part, of earlier authors. 

Eumetopias, GILL, Proc. Essex Inst.,v, 1866, 7, 11. 

CHAR. GEX. Palatine bones ending very far in front of pterygoid pro- 

cesses, flat, or nearly so ; hinder border hollowed or emarginate. Molars 

r- ; fifth pair separated by a considerable space from the fourth pair. 

O ~~~ J.U 

3. Eumetopias stelleri Peters.* 

HABITAT. Pacific coast of North America from California to Alaska; 
Pacific coast of Asia from Japan northward. 

IV. Genus ZALOPHUS, Gill. 

Arctocephalus, in part, of GRAY, prior to 1866. 

Zalophtts, GILL, Proc. Esses Inst., v, 1866, 7, 11. 

Neophoca, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., xviii, 1866, 231; Suppl. 

Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 28. 
Eumetopias, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1877, 506 (in part). 

CHAR. GEN. Palatine much as in Eumetopias. Sagittal crest very high. 
Interorbital region greatly constricted. Molars ^-= = ~ , in a continuous 

& ~~ y J.U 

series. 

4. Zalophus californianus (Lesson) Allen.t 
HABITAT. Coast of California. 

5. Zalophus lobatus (Gray) Gill. 

ft Otaria alUcollis, PERON, Voy. Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 118. 
Otaria cinerea, GRAY, King's Narr. Austral., ii, 413. 

Arctoceplialus lobattis, GRAY, "Spic. Zoolog., i, 1828, pi. "; Cat. Seals, 1850, 
44 ; Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 50. 

* For synonymy, see infra, under the general history of Eumetopias stelleri. 
t For synonymy, see infra, under the general history of the species. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 - 14 



210 FAMILY OTARIID^. 

Neoplioca lobata, GRAY, Ann, and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser., xviii, 1866, 231; 

Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 28 ; Hand-List Seals, 1874, 

43, pi. xxx. 
Otaria australis, QUOY & GAIMARD, Zool. Voy. Astrolabe, i, 1830, 95; 1833, 

pi. xiv (animal), xv, figg. 3, 4 (skull), "Nouvelle Hollande.'-' 
Arctocephalus australis, GRAY, Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 57 (not Plioca 

australis of Zinimernianu and Kerr). 

Otaria stelleri, TEMMINCK, Faura Japon. (a,t least in part). 
Phocarctos elongatus, GRAY, Hand-List of Seals, 1874, 30, pll. xxi, xxii. 
Eumetopias cincrea, PETERS (ex Pexon), Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1877, 506. 

HABITAT. Australian Seas. Japan?? 

B. Pelage soft, with abundant under-fur. Ears longer. Molars ^^^- Size 
smaller. Color gray ; black when young OULIPHOCAC^. 

V. Genus CALLORHINUS, Gray. 

Callorhinus, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 357. 

Arctocephalus, GILL, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 7, 11 (not of F. Cuvier). 

r* f* 1 t\ 

CHAR. GEN. Facial portion of the skull short, convex. Molars jr^ = jjj- 
6. Callorhinus ursinus Gray.* 

HABITAT. Shores of the North Pacific, from California and Japan (Peters) 
northward. 

VI. Genus ARCTOCEPHALUS, F. Cuvier. 

[Arctocephalus'] Arctocephales, F. CUVIER, M&n. du Mus., xi, 1824, 205, pi. 
iv, fig. 1. 

Arctocephalus, F. CUVIER, Diet, des Sci. Nat., xxxix, 1827, 554. 

Halarctus, GILL, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 7, 11. 

Arctophoca, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866. 276. GRAY, Suppl. Cat. 
Seals and Whales, 1871, 31. 

Euotaria, GRAY, Ann, and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., iv, 1869, 269; Hand- 
List Seals, 1874, 34. 

Gypsophoca, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., iv, 1869,269; Hand- 
List Seals, 1874, 27. 

CHAR. GEN. Facial portion of skull slender, elongated, pointed, gently 
declined. Molars ^^ ^, much larger than in Callorhinus. 

7. Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann) Allen. 

Plioca ursina-, in part, of various early writers. 

Plioca australis, ZIMMERMANN, Geograph. Geschichte, iii, 1782, 276 (= "Falk- 
land Seal, Pennant, ii, 521"). KERR, Anim. King., 1792, 127 
(=" Falkland Seal, Penn., Hist. Quad. N., 378"). 

Pltoca falJclandica, SHAW, Gen. Zool., i, 1800, 256 (= "Falkland Isle Seal" of 
Pennant the Fur Seal of the Falkland Islands). 

Otaria falklandica, DESMAREST, Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxv, 1817, 601, and of 
many subsequent writers. 

Otwia -s. Arctocephalus falMandicus, GRAY, PETERS, and others. 

'* For synonymy see infra, under the general history of the species. 



SPECIES. 211 

Otaria sliawi et haucillei, LESSON, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 425. 

Arctoccphalits nigrescens, GRAY, PETERS. 

Otaria (Arctophoca) pliillppii, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 276, 

pi. ii. 
Otaria (Arctophoca) argcntata, PHILIPPI & PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 

1871, 560, pll. i, ii. 

Arctocephalus grayi, SCOTT, Mam. Eecent and Extinct, 1873, 19. 
Euotaria latirostris, GRAY, Hand-List Seals, 1874, 37, pi. xxvii. 

HABITAT. Galapagos Islands (specimens in Mus. Comp. Zool., Hassler 
Exp.*) and shores and islands of South America, from Chili and the Eio de la 
Plata southward. 

* Specimens of both Otaria jubata and Arctocephalus mtsiralis were col- 
lected by members of the Hassler Expedition at the Galapagos Islands, show- 
ing that they both range much farther northward than has hitherto been gen- 
erally supposed. For the following observations respecting their numbers 
and habits I am indebted to my friend Mr. J. H. Blake, artist of the Expe- 
dition, who has kindly transcribed them from his note-book: 

"Charles Island, Galapagos Group, June 10, [1872]. On an island at the 
eastern side of Post-Office Bay is a Sea Lion rookery, where at almost any 
time can be seen hundreds of Sea Lions lying at a little distance from the 
water. Two of our company, in a little boat about ten feet long called the 
' Dingy ', went near the shore where they were, when the Seals immediately 
ran into the water and surrounded the boat. The Seals came close to and 
under the boat, so that there was danger of their capsizing it, some of them 
being as large as the boat, and some were even larger; hence it was deemed 
prudent to leave them. Toward evening the Captain, with others, took a 
larger boat and lauded on the shore below the Seals, and while they were 
running toward the water one measuring six or seven feet in length was shot. 
Many of them were of enormous size, and great numbers could easily have 
been killed. They made a noise when rushing to the water louder than the 
waves on the shore. We saved one skeleton, and next day two half-grown 
Seals were brought on shipboard and also saved. 

"Jarvis Island, June 16, 1872. At this island we saw many Seals, and some 
were killed, one small one being preserved in alcohol. I went on shore in 
the second boat, and as our boat landed we were surrounded with Seals of 
different sizes, which came near the boat. Near where we landed was a 
mother Seal and her two young ones lying together in a shallow excavation 
they had made in the sand. They lay very quietly and appeared to be not 
much disturbed by our presence as we gathered about them, except when 

we offered to touch the young The mother was about six feet long, 

and of a light grayish color, with the head small and shaped like that of a 
dog. The young resembled their mother but had shorter noses and were 
about three or four feet long. 

"In walking along the beach I came to another small rookery where 
there were family groups similar to that above described, lying about in all 
kinds of positions, and so comfortably situated I did not disturb them. 
One Seal, about six or seven feet long, which I met with at some distance 
from the wa.ter, I drove some distance to study its movements in walking 
and running. It would nearly raise itself from the ground and walk like 



212 FAMILY OTARIID.E. 

8. Arctocephalus aiitarcticus (Thuuberg) Allen. 

Plioca ursina, FORSTER, and in part of many early "writers. 

1 Plioca pusilla, SCHREBER, Sa'uget., iii, [1776?], 314 (=Le Petit Phoque r 
Buffou, based on a young Fur Seal, from an unknown locality, 
but supposed to Lave come from India or the Levant,* but as no- 
Seals exist there, and as many animals Avhich, in former years, 
purported to have been brought from India were found to be 
really African, some late writers have assumed that Buffou's- 
"Petit Phoque" must have been also African, but the pertinence 
of the name pusilla to the African Fur Seal is not beyond reason- 
able doubt). t Also of ERXLEBEX, GMELIX, and others. 

f Otaria pusilla, DESMAREST, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Xat., xxv, 1827, 602 (based 
on the same). 

Otaria pttsilla, PETERS, Mouatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 271, 671 (name adopted 
from Schreber). 

Arctocephalus pnniUm*, PETERS, Mouatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1877, 506. 

f " Plwca parva, BODDAERT, Elenchus Auiin., pi. Ixxvii" (=- Buffou's Petit 
Phoque, as above). 

Plioca aittarctica, THUXBERG, Mdm. Acad. St.-Petersb., iii, 1811,222. 

.trctofi'jilialiiH antarclifiis, ALLEX, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, 1870, 45. 
CIIAY, Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 17. 

f Gloria pi-roni, DESMAREST, Mam., 1820, 250 (= Otaria pusilla, Desmarest, 
as above). 

Otaria pcroni, " SMITH, South African Quart. Journ. ii, 62." 

any four-footed animal by bending the fore-ilippers and turning the hind- 
flippers forward as here represented [in some sketches accompanying these 
notes, but not here reproduced]. They galloped along the sandy shore at 
quite good speed. In going over the rocks they tumbled about in every way 
but would still manage to get along with surprising rapidity. I saw many 
lying on the shore asleep, and there were hundreds more in the water near 
the shore. On approaching within a few feet of them they would come 
towards me as if they had been tamed. From a projecting rock I watched 
their movements in the water a beautiful sight. They would roll over 
under water, turning complete somersaults, swim on their backs or sides, 
and in almost every position would glide about in the most graceful manner 
around the rock on which I was sitting, looking up at me. They often put 

their noses together in the most affectionate way When annoyed 

by flies alighting on their noses they would open their mouths widely and 
snap at them as dogs do. 

"Just back of the beach, and separated from the ocean by a row of man- 
grove trees, was a lagoon of brackish water in which were a number of 
Seals, while lying about on the border of the lagoon were many skeletons of 
those that had died." 

* Buifon says: " .... on nous a assure" que 1'individu quo nous avous vu 
venoit des Indes, & il est au moins tres-probable qu'il venoit des mers du 
Levant." Hist. Nat., tome xiii, p. 341. 

tGray says: "It is as likely to have come from the Falkland Islands as 
from the Cape, as the French had traffic with Les lies Malouines, as they 
call them." Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, p. 19. 



SPECIES. 213 

Otaricde Delalande, F. CUVIER, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxxix, 1826, 558.* 
Arctocephalus delalandi, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 107,369, pi. Ixix; 

Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 52; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d 

ser., xviii, 1866, 235. 

Arctocephalus falklandicus (in-part), GRAY, Cat. Seals, 1850, 42. 
Arctoceplialus scliisthyperoes, TURNER. Jonru. Anat. and Phys., iii, 1868, 

113, fig. 

Arctocephalus nirosus, GRAY, Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 27. 
? Euotaria compressa, GRAY, Hand-List, 1874, 38, pi. xxiv(" South Africa?"). 
HABITAT. Cape of Good Hope. 

?9. Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) Gray. 

Pnoca ursina, FORSTER, Descrip. Anim. (ad Lichtenstein), 1844, 64 (New 
Zealand) = Sea Bear, Forster, Cook's Second Voyage, 1777, 
= Ours Marin, Buffon, Hist. Nat., Suppl., vi, 1782, 336, pi. xlvii, 
so far as it relates to Forster's figure and notes). 

Otaria forsteri, LESSOX, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 421 (=Sea Bear 
of Forster, which became, later, Phoca ursina, Forster, exclusive 
of references to Steller's Ursus marinus). 

Arctocephalus forsteri, GRAY, Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 25. 

Otaria cinerea, QUOY & GAIMARD, Zool. Voy. Astrolabe, i, 1830, 89; Atlas, 
1833, pll. xii (animal), xiii (animal), xv, figg. 1,2, skull (" Nouvelle 
Hollande"; probably not Otaria cinerea, Pe~rou, Voy. Terr. Austr., 
ii, 1866, 54, 77, which, however, is indeterminable). PETERS, 
Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 272, 671 (exclusive of some syno- 
nyms). 

Arctocephalus cinereus, GRAY, Cat. Seals, 1850,43; Cat. Seals and Whales, 
1866, 56; Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 24, etc. 

Euotaria cinerca, GRAY, Hand-List Seals, 1874, 34, pi. xxvi. 

.? Otaria lamarii, MtLLER, Wiegruann's Arch. f. Naturges., 1841, 334 (in part 
at least, fide Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 271, 272). 

Gypaophoca tropicalis, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, 659, figg. 5, 6; 
Hand-List Seals, 1874, 28, pi. vviii. 

f Arctophoca gasella, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1875, 396 (Kerguelen 
Island). 

f 01 aria (Arctoplioca) elegans, PETERS, Mouatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1876, 316 (St. 
Paul and Amsterdam Islands). 

Arctocephalus hm-ipes, forsteri, ? elegans, et fgazella, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. 

Berlin, 1877, 507. 

HABITAT. Australia, New Zealand, Auckland Island; ? Kerguelen Island; 

? Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands. 

*" Otaria ddalandii, F. CUVIER, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxxix, 423," cited by 
Fischer (Syu. Mam., 232), and repeatedly by Gray and by Peters, is evidently 
erroneous, as the article "Phoque" begins on p. 540, and no species of Seal or f 
Otary is mentioned on p. 423. The correct citation is not " Otaria dela- 
landii," but " Otarie de Delalande," as given above. G. Cuvier refers (Oss. 
Fos., 3d ed., v, 1825, 220, pi. xviii, fig. 5, skull) to it as "Otarie du Cap " " recu 
par M. Delalande." 



214 FAMILY OTARIHXffi. 

MYTHICAL AND UNDETERMINABLE SPECIES. 

In the preceding pages reference has been made to various 
species described too imperfectly to admit of recognition. 
Some of these I have doubtfully allocated as above ; others I 
have made no attempt to determine. Among these are the 
following : 

1. Phoca pusilla-, SCHREBER, Sauget, iii, [1776?], 314, based, 
as already stated (see above, p. 194), on Buffon's " Petit Phoque," 
a young Fur Seal from an unknown locality. Buffou speaks of 
it as reported to have been brought from the Indies and the 
Levant (Hist. Nat., xiii, 1765, 341), and later (ib.,345) calls it "le 
petit phoque noir des Indes & du Levant." 

2. Phoca longicollis, SHAW, General Zool., i, 1800, 256, based 
on the Long-necked Seal of Grew (Museum, 1686, 95) and 
Parsons (Phil. Trans., xlvii, 1751-52, pi. vi). Though said by 
Shaw to be "earless," Gray* contributes the following his- 
tory: "There formerly existed in the Museum of the Royal 
Society an Eared Seal without any habitat ; it is called the 
Long-necked Seal in Grew's 'Rarities', p. 95, described and 
figured under that name by Parsons in the Phil. Trans, xlvii, t. 
6, and noticed in Pennant's ' Quadrupeds', ii, p. 274. Dr. Shaw, 
in his ' Zoology', i, p. 256, translated the name into Phoca lon- 
gicollis, and copied Parsous's figures. The name and the form 
of the front feet are enough to show that it is an Eared Seal ; 
for the neck of these animals is always long compared with the 
neck of the Earless Seals or Phocidcc. Fischer, in his ' Synopsis ', 
p. 240, overlooking this character and the description of the 
front feet, considers it as the same as the Sea-Leopard of Wed- 
dell (Phoca WeddcUii) from the Antarctic Ocean, an Earless 
Seal. Though the habitat is not given, there can be no doubt, 
when we consider the geographical distribution of the Eared 
Seal, that it must have been received either from the southern 
part of South America or from the Cape of Good Hope, as the 
animals of the N< >rth Pacific and of Australia were not known 
or brought to England in 1686. As no account of the color of 
the fur is given, it is impossible to determine to which species 
inhabiting these countries it should be referred. It is most 
probably the Sea Lion (Otaria leonina), as that is the animal 
which is most generally distributed and commonly brought to 
England. The sailors sometimes call it the 'Long-necked 

*Aiin. and Mag. Nat, Hist,, 4tli ser., i, 1868, pp. 217, 218. 



SPECIES. 215 

I 

Seal 7 ." Gray, however, had formerly referred it doubtfully 
(Cat. Seals, 1850, 43; Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 56) to 
. 1 rctoceplialus falklandicus. 

:;. rhoca flavescens, SHAW, Gen. Zob'L, i, 1800, 260, a small, 
yellowish" Eared Seal, despribed from a specimen in the 
Leverian Museum brought from the Straits of Magellan. It is 
the "Eared Seal" of Pennant (Quad., ii, 278), and the Otarla 
flarcwnx of Desinarest (Mam., 1820, 252). From its size (about 
two feet long), color, and habitat, it is presumably referable to 
Otarla jttbata, but has been referred by Gray to his Pliocarctos 
hookcri, 

4. Ota ria d'nerea, PERON, Yoy. Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 54, 77, 
is merely referred to in such general terms that it is wholly in- 
determinable. The name, however, has been commonly referred 
to the Hair Seal of Australia, for which species the name has 
been adopted by Peters (see above, p. 203). 

5. Otaria albicolUs, PERON, Voy. anx Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 
118. An Eared Seal, eight to nine feet long, distinguished by 
a large white spot on the middle and upper part of the neck. 
Observed in great numbers on the islands near Bass Straits. 
No tangible characters given, and wholly unrecognizable. Be- 
ferred, however, by Peters, in 1877, to his "Eumetopias cinerea 
(Peron),"the Zalopltus lobatus of Gray. 

6. Otarla coronata, DESMAREST, Mam., 1820, 251. Says 
Desmarest : " PJioca coronata, Blainv. Espeee nouvelle observee 
dans le Museum de Bullock, a Loudres." Locality unknown. 
Though said to be an Eared Seal, one foot and a half long, 
black, sparsely and irregularly spotted with yellow, the fore 
feet are said to have five toes, nearly equal, and armed with 
very strong, curved, sharp uails, while the hind feet have five 
nails, "mais depasses par des pointes membran&uses" a combi- 
nation of characters unknown in nature. 

7. Otaria porcina, F. CUVIER, Diet, des Sci. Nat.,xxxix, 1826, 
559. Based on the Phoca porcina, Molina, Hist. Nat. du Chile, 
260, recognizable merely as an Eared Seal, which Gray and 
Peters have thought possibly referable to the Arctoceplialus 
falklandicus. 

8. Otaria peroni, DESMAREST, Mam., 1820, 250. The same 
as Phoca pusilla, Schreber, and the Petit Phoque of Buffon, 
already noticed. 

9. Otaria fabricii, LESSON, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii,1828, 
,= P/ioca ursina. Fabric-ins, Faun. Grcenl., 6. Based on a 



216 FAMILY OTARIID^E. 

/ 

supposed species of Eared Seal erroneously believed by Fabri- 
cius to exist in the Greenland seas, but who never saw the 
animal, and described it mainly from what were doubtless fab- 
ulous reports rife among the Greenlanders. The supposed 
species is entirely a myth, at leasj so far as having any relation 
to an Otary. (See, further, Brown, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
pp. 357, 358.) 

10. u Otaria aurita, HUMBOLDT." This is unknown to me. 
Peters, in 1877, referred it doubtfully to Arctocephahis falkland- 
icus. 

11. Arctoceplialus eulophus, SCOTT, Mam. Recent and Ex- 
tinct, 1873, 19. Based wholly on the testimony of an " expe- 
rienced sealer." Not determinable. Habitat. "New Zea- 
land," "Patagonia," "Juan Fernandez"! (See above, p. 199.) 

Other species, composite in character, are determinable only 
by reference to the types, among which are Otaria stelleri, Tem- 
minck, Otaria lamari, Miiller, etc., noticed elsewhere. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The most striking fact in respect to the distribution of the 
Otariidce is their entire absence from the waters of the North 
Atlantic. 

As already noticed, the Eared Seals are obviously divisible 
by the character of the pelage, into two groups, which are com- 
mercially distinguished as the "Hair Seals" and the "Fur Seals," 
which are likewise respectively known as the "Sea Lions" and 
the " Sea Bears." The two groups have nearly the same geo- 
graphical distribution, and are commonly found frequenting the 
same shores, but generally living apart. Usually only one spe- 
cies of each is met with at the same localities, and it is worthy 
of note, that, with the exception of the coast of California, no 
naturalist has ever reported the occurrence together of two 
species of Hair Seals or two species of Fur Seals, although 
doubtless two species of Hair Seals exist on the islands and 
shores of Tasmania and Australia, as well as on the Californian 
coast. 

The Hair and Fur Seals are about equally and similarly 
represented on both sides of the equator, but they are confined 
almost wholly to the temperate and colder latitudes. Of the 
nine species provisionally above recognized, two of the five 
Hair Seals are northern and three southern; of the four Fur 



FOSSIL OTARIES 217 

Seals, three are southern and one only is northern, but the 
three southern are closely related (perhaps doubtfully distinct, 
at least two of theni), and are evidently recent and but slightly 
differentiated forms of a common ancestral stock. Of the two 
Eared Seals of largest size (Eumetopias stelleri and Otaria ju- 
bata], one is northern and the other southern, and, though dif- 
fering geuerically in the structure of the skull, are very similar 
in external characters, and geographically are strictly represent- 
ative. Zalopkus is the only genus occurring on both sides of 
the equator, but the species are different in the two hemispheres.* 
The Fur Seals of the north are the strict geographical repre- 
sentatives of those of the south. Phocaretos liookeri is Austral- 
asian, and has no corresponding form in the Northern Hemi- 
sphere. No species of Eared Seal is known from the North 
Atlantic. Several of the southern species range northward 
into the equatorial regions, reaching the Galapagos Islands and 

the northern shores of Australia. 

^ 

FOSSIL OTARTES. 

. The only fossil remains unquestionably referable to the Ota- 
ries are those found by Dr. Haastt in the Moa Caves of New 
Zealand. These have been referred by Dr. Haast to the species 
of Eared Seals still inhabiting the New Zealand coast. \ Hence 
no fossil remains have thus far been discovered outside of the 
present habitat of the group, their supposed occurrence in the 
Tertiary formations of Europe requiring confirmation. The 
absence of the Otariidw from the North Atlantic renders any 

* This statement is made with some reservation, owing to the fact that 
it is not quite clear what the species are that are found in the Japan Seas. 
Both Eumetopias stelleri and CaUorhinut* ursinns extend southward, appa- 
rently in small numbers, along the east coast of Asia to Japan. Zalophus 
lobatins has been accredited to Japan, but apparently on the basis of Tem- 
minck's Olaria stelleri, which is evidently a composite species, which has been 
referred, at different times, in part to Z. lobatus and Z. calif ornian us ( fjil- 
lespii, auct.). The latter has as yet been certainly found nowhere except on 
the Pacific coast of the United States, and Z. lobatus has not been positively 
identified from any point north of Australia. Temniinck's figures 1-4, pi. xxii, 
of the Fauna Japonica, seem unquestionably to represent skulls of Zalopli us, 
but whether the Australian or the California!! species, or a third, as yet un- 
named, is apparently by no means settled. If it proves to be the Z. lobatus, 
it forms an exceptional case of the same species occurring 011 both sides of 
the equator. 

t Nature, vol. xiv, pp. 517, 518, Oct. 26, 1876. 

4 Dr. Haast identifies them as "Arctocfplialas lobatus (!) and A. cinereus" 
and "Gypsophoca tropicalis." 



218 FAMILY 

indications of their former presence in Europe of special interest,. 
and calls for a critical examination of the supposed evidence of 
their former existence there. 

Gervais, many years since, * described and figured a tooth 
which he referred, with doubt, to Otaria (" Otaria '? prisca" 1 ), 
but Van Beneden has since determined it to be referable to 
Sfnialodoii. M. E. Delfortrie,t in 1872, described two fossil teeth 
from the bone breccia of Saiut-Medard-en- Jalle, near Bordeaux, 
which he considered as representing two species of Otary, which 
he named, respectively, Otaria oudrlana and Otaria ledercii. 
The first is based upon a last upper molar having some resem- 
blance to the last superior molar of Eumetopias stelleri ; the 
other is an "incisive inferieure externe," not much unlike the 
corresponding tooth of some of the Otaries. M. Delfortrie 
observes that these teeth have a striking analogy to those of 
Otaria jtibata figured by Blainville, and to those of Eumetopias 
stelleri and Callorliinus ursinus figured by myself. "Cette ana- 
logie," saysM. Delfortrie, " disons-nous, nous perrnet d'attribuer 
sans hesitation a des Otarides, les deux dents de Saiut-Medard, 
en en faisant toutefois deux especes distinctes, en raison des 
caracteres bien tranches qu'elles pre"sentent." Eespecting these 
teeth, Professor Van Beneden remarks : "Ces dents de V Otaria 
Oudriana me semblant bien se rapprocher de celles de 



In another connection, the same writer adds: "Sans avoir vu 
les originaux nous ne pouvons toutefois nous defendre de Fidee 
que ces rnolaires et ces incisives pourraient bieu appartenir a 
un animal fossile voisiu du Pelagim monaclim de la Mediterra- 
nee. oSTous esperons que 1'on pourra bientot comparer avec le 
soin uecessaire ces dents interessantes avec les especes voisines 
vivantes et fossiles et nous ue serious pas surpris de voir ren- 
coutrer certaines affiuites qui t-chappent jusqu'a present. Le 
genre Pahvoplioca que nous decrivons plus loin n'est pas bieu 
eloigne des Pelagius de la Mediterranee, et la dent qui a servi 
de type a VOtaria Oudriana n'est pent etre qu'une premolakt 
de notre Palivoplioca ; celle sur laquelle est etablie VOtaria Lc 
clercii, est pent etre une incisive superieure du nieme animal.'' 
I agree entirely with M. Van Beneden that these teeth cannot be- 

*Zoologie et la Pal^ontologie franyaises, 1850-55, p. 276, pi. viii, fig. 8. 
t Actes de la Socie"t6 Lir>n6enne de Bordeaux, xxviii, 4 e livr., 1872. 
tAnn. du Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. de Belgique, i, prem. part., 1877, p. 25. 
S Ibid., p. 57. 



FOSSIL OT ARIES. 219 

accepted as satisfactory proof of the presence of Otaries in the 
Tertiary fauna of Europe. 

Van Benedeii also refers to a huinerus of an Otary in the Mu- 
seum of the Geological Institute of Vienna, supposed to have 
been taken from the bed of the Danube, and adds that it bears 
a close resemblance to the same part in Otaria jiibata, if indeed 
it is not referable to that species, but adds: "Get os, en 
tout cas, n'est pas fossile." He also refers to a skull found by 
Valenciennes on the shore in the department of Lande, men- 
tioned by Gervais,* and says it is still unknown how it came to 
be found on the coast. 

Van Benedeii, however, believes that he has proof of the ex- 
istence of fossil Otaries in Europe in his Mesotaria ambigua, t a 
species presenting- many remarkable characters, which ally it, 
he believes, in some points, to the Otaries. This species is rep- 
resented by the greater part of the bones of the skeleton and 
numerous teeth, but the skull is not known.t The teeth, he 
says, are unlike those of any other genus, while the bones indi- 
cate a special mode of life, and a size about equal to or rather 
larger than that of PJioca grcenlandica.^ The ilium is described 
as resembling more the same part in the Otaries than the Seals, 
and as indicating a mode of life more terrestrial than aquatic. 
The humerus, on the other hand, is stated to more resemble 
That of the Seals than that of the Otaries. 

Of the femur he says : " Nous avons trois femurs assez complets 
qui indiqueut que cet os s'eloigne par sa conformation des autres 
Amphiteriens. La fete, aiusi que le col, tieunent de 1'Otarie, 
comme les coudyles, et le grand troclumter, pen large, ne s'eleve 
pas au-dessus de la tete de 1'os. La tete est comparativenieut 
petite. La cavite trochanterique est profonde et etroite vers le 
milieu de 1'os et tout centre le col. Le caractere se rapporte a la 
position du membre poste"rieur qui rapproche aiusi des Otaries 
1'animal qui nous occupe. Les Me"sotaries etaieut moins aqua- 
tiques que les Phoques actuels." 

Upon careful comparison of his excellent figures (pi. ix) of 
the femur, humerus, scapula, and fragment of pelvis, with the 

* Zoologie et la Paleontologic francaises, p. 276. 

tAnu. du Mns. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. de Belgique, i, 1877, p. 56, pi. i. 

+ Vaii Beneden reports having two canines, three molars, seven, cervical 
vertebra?, and an axis, six dorsal and seven lumbar vertebrae, a right ilium and 
a left ischinm, the distal end of a scapula, four right and rive left humeri, a 
left and a right femur, six tibia?, and four nietatarsal bones. 

Thi' parts of the skeleton figured by Van Beueden correspond very nearly 
in size with the corresponding parts of Cystophora cristata. 



220 FAMILY OTARIID^. 

corresponding parts of the skeleton in five species of Otaries, 
representing all the genera of that group, and with the princi- 
pal types of the Phocids, I fail to appreciate any important ap- 
proach toward the former, or any marked departure from the 
latter, especially the subfamily Cystophorince. In the femur, for 
example, there is in Mesotarla no trace of a trochanter minor, 
which is always strongly developed in the Otaries, as well as 
in the Walruses, but absent in the Phocids, this feature alone 
serving to at once distinguish the Gressigrade from the Eepti- 
grade Pinnipeds. The thick short form of the femur in Mes- 
otaria, with its greatly enlarged distal extremity, and the great 
transverse breadth and thickness of the whole bone in propor- 
tion to its length, gives it a very close resemblance in its gen- 
eral form and proportions to the same part in Cystophora and 
Macrorhinus (Morunga of many authors), while it places it in 
strong contrast with the same bone in any of the Otariids. 
The scapula is also a very characteristic bone among the Pin- 
nipeds, and even the small portion (the lower extremity) shown 
in Van Beneden's figure (pi. ix, fig. 7) serves to emphasize and 
confirm the relationship of Mesotaria with the Phocids, and the 
wide divergence of this type from the Otariids, as shown espe- 
cially in the obliquity of the articular surface of the gleuoid 
cavity. The portion of the pelvis figured (pi. ix, fig. 8) is de- 
cidedly Phocine in its proportions, and in the divergence of the 
iliac crest, while it is very unlike the same part in the Otariids. 
Finally, it may be noted that the tout ensemble of all the bones 
of Mesotaria represented in Van Beneden's plate is strikingly 
that met with in the heavier types of Phocids, especially the 
genera Cystophora and Macrorhinus , and very unlike that of the 
Otaries. In all the latter, the bones are relatively small, dense, 
and slender, and especially is this the case with the bones of 
the limbs, none of them approaching the thick stout form char- 
acterizing these parts in Mesotaria. The proportions, to say noth- 
ing of details of structure in the principal bones in the Otaries, 
are so widely different from what is met with in the Phocids, that 
general contour alone serves at once as a basis for their dis- 
crimination. 

In view of the foregoing, it seems to me evident that if the 
distribution of the Otariidce formerly embraced the shores of 
Europe, we have still to wait for evidence of such a former dis- 
tribution ; and that in Europe, as on the Atlantic seaboard of 
J~orth America, the only fossil remains of Pinnipeds thus far 



MILK DENTITION. 221 

found are referable to the Phocids on the one hand, and to the 
Walruses on the other, indicating for the Otariids the same 
curiously limited habitat as now. 

MILK DENTITION. 

The milk dentition in the Pinnipeds rarely persists much 
beyond foetal life, and is never to any great degree functional, 
and the dental fornitila of the temporary teeth is substan- 
tially the same in all. In the Walruses, however, two of the 
posterior upper milk molars and the last lower one often remain 
till a comparatively late period of life, but all traces of the 
others disappear soon after birth. The two middle pairs of 
incisors probably never pierce the gums, and the others scarcely 
persist beyond the fcetal period. The formula for the temporary 
dentition of this group is usually recognized as I. jj ^|, C. ]- ^, 

M. 5-5? (or M. ^). In the Seals, however, the number of 

molars appears to never exceed | ^ . In the Earless Seals "the 
milk-teeth are extremely rudimentary in size and form, and per- 
fectly functionless. The majority of them never cut the gums 
and are absorbed actually before birth, and certainly within a 
week after birth scarcely a trace of any of them remains."* 
The milk molars are three in number on each side, both above 
and below, and are replaced respectively by the second, third, 
and fourth molars of the permanent set. The canines are 
all represented in the temporary set. The number of tem- 
porary incisors varies in the different genera, it corresponding 
apparently with the number in the permanent set. In PJi oca 
vitulina, P. grcenlandica, and P. fcetida, they have been found 
to be |^|, but the two inner ones of the upper jaw are absorbed 
long before birth. In the Elephant Seal, Professor Flower 
found, in a specimen eleven inches long, " a complete set of 
very minute teeth, viz. I. f , C. 1, M. |, on each side ; all of the 
simplest character."t 

In the Eared Seals, the milk molars are of the same num- 
ber as in the Phocince, namely I ^|, and hold, approximately at 
least, the same position relatively to the molars of the perma- 
nent set. They are separated by wide diastenia, and the middle 

* FLOWER, " Remarks on the Homologies and Notation of the Teeth of the 
Mammalia," Jonrn. Phys. and Anat., iii, 1868, p. 269. 
t Ibid., p. 271, fig. 4. 



222 FAMILY OTARIID^. 

molar is much smaller than either of the others. The middle 
incisors are replaced early in fcetal life by the permanent ones, 
which are ready to cut the gum at birth. The outer upper 
incisor remains much longer, persisting quite till after birth, as 
do also the temporary molars, while the canines are not shed 
for some weeks, at least five or six weeks. As Professor Flower 
has observed, " It is very interesting to note that in the Eared 
Seals (genus Otaria [or family Otariidce]), which more nearly 
approach the terrestrial Carnivora in many points of structure 
as well as habits, the milk-teeth are less rudimentary and 
evanescent than in the true Seals, the canines especially being 
of moderate size and retained for several weeks."* 

The milk dentition of the Eared Seals has already been de- 
scribed in two species of Arctocephalus, and I am able to add 
some account of it in Eumetopias and Zalophus. 

Van Beneden found, in 1871, in a young skull of " Otaria pu- 
silla"^ ("= Otaria delalandi," Guv., = Arctocep1ialiis antarcticus, 
Allen, ex Thunberg), the Fur Seal of the Cape of Good Hope, the 
milk dentition to be I. ^, C. ^ M. |^f ; but he supposed the 
absence of the other lower incisors to be due to their having 
already fallen. The two inner superior incisors were much 
smaller than the outer one, appearing like little white grains 
stuck upon the gum. The outer had a long slender root and a 
distinct crown. The canines were comparatively large, with 
long roots and a lengthened crown, and both the upper and 
lower were of similar form. The superior molars were sepa- 
rated by considerable intervals, the first being over the space 
between the first and second permanent molars, the second over 
the space between the second and third, and the fourth over 
the fourth permanent tooth. The middle milk molar he found 
to be much smaller than either the first or third, the two last 
named being of nearly equal size, but only the third was double- 
rooted. The lower milk molars were smaller than the upper, 
all single-rooted, and held the same position relatively to the 
permanent teeth as the upper ones. The middle one, as in the 
upper series, was much smaller than either the first or third. 

Later Malm described the milk dentition of Arctoceplialus 
nigrescens\ (=Arctocephalus australis) as existing in a specimen 

* Journ. Phys. and Anat., iii, 1868, p. 269. 

t "Sur les dents de lait de V Otaria pusilla," Bull, de la Acad. Roy. de Bel- 
gique, t. -ys-yi, 1871, pp. 61-67 (illustrations). 
JCEfver. af Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 1872, No. 7, p. 63. 



MILK DENTITION. *223 

measuring 730 mm. from the nose to the end of the tail, the skull 
having a length of 123 mrn., the specimen when killed having 
been probably a few weeks old. The formula of the milk den- 
tition found by Malm in this species is given as I. ^, C. ^, M. ^-|. 
The third or last lower molar he describes as standing over the 
fourth of the permanent set, and as having two diverging roots. 
The first of the two upper milk molars stands over the third 
permanent molar, and the second (also double-rooted) over the 
fourth, these milk molars being probably in reality the second 
and third respectively, the first having doubtless already fallen, 
as had all the incisors except the exterior upper ones, owing to 
the post-fcetal age of the specimens. The formula given by 
Malm corresponds nearly with that of young skulls of Zaloplius, 
presently to be noticed, taken probably from individuals one or 
two mouths old. 

In a very young skull of Eumetopias stelleri (No. 4703, Nat. 
Mus., San Francisco, Cal., Dr. AY. O. Ayres, labelled by the 
collector as "three or four days old"), the milk teeth have all 
fallen (probably by maceration), but the alveoli of all but the 
middle incisors are still distinct, and indicate the following 
formula: I. J-^J, C. j^i, M. |^|. Thus, of the incisors the pres-^ 
ence of only an outer pair is indicated, the middle ones, being 
rootless and probably implanted only on the gum, would leave 
no trace of their former presence. The alveoli of the molars 
show that, both above and below, the middle one Avas much 
smaller than the others. These alveoli are exterior to the per- 
manent teeth, Avhich do not vertically replace them, that of the 
first upper milk molar being opposite the space between the 
first and second permanent molars ; the second opposite the 
space between the second and third permanent molars, Avhile 
the third is nearly opposite the fourth tooth of the permanent 
set. In the lower jaw the alveoli of the milk molars are re- 
spectively just behind and exterior respectively to the second, 
third, and fourth permanent teeth. 

In three fcetal skulls of Zaloplius (No. 6156, Mus. Comp. Zool., 
Xos. 15660, 3 , 15661, 9 , Nat. Mus., all from the Santa Barbara 
Islands), the milk teeth are all still in situ, except the middle 
incisors, Avhich are replaced by permanent incisors that Avere 
apparently about ready to pierce the gum. As in Eumetopias \ 
and Arctocephalvs, the middle molar, both above and below, 
is much the smallest, and is placed very close to the third, leav- 



224 FAMILY OTARIIDJE. 

ing a very broad interval between the first and second. The 
first (in No. 15660) stands above the second permanent tooth ; 
the second is just behind the third, while the fourth is a little 
anterior to, but nearly over, tne fourth. In No. 6156 the milk 
molars stand directly over the second, third, and fourth per- 
manent ones. In several other young skulls, the third milk 
molar is still in place, while all the others, except the canines, 
have disappeared. Some of them were probably several weeks 
old, showing that at least the canines are persistent for a con- 
siderable period after birth. In two young skulls of CallorhinuSj 
known to have been killed when between four and five weeks 
old, the milk canines are still in place, and a trace remains of 
the alveolus of the third superior milk molar. 

In all probability, the dental formula is the same in all the 
Eared Seals, the incisors, except the exterior upper, disappear- 
ing before birth. Of the molars the middle is smaller than the 

o 

others, while the third is longest persistent. The canines ap- 
pear to remain for several months. 

IRREGULARITIES OF DENTITION, 
i 

The Eared Seals seem to rather frequently present cases of 
supernumerary molars, and more rarely cases of suppression of 
molars. In respect to supernumerary molars, I am able to 
record the following instances : In Callorhinus ursinus I have 
noted the following irregularities : Skull No. 2922 (M. C. Z. 
Coll.) has M. ^=|, the normal number being J=|; in another 
(Nat. Mus. Coll., No. 11701), M. ^5; and in still others (M. C. 
Z. Coll., No. 1787 ; N. M. Coll., 12270), M. |5f. In each case, 
the identity of. the species is beyond question. In Zaloplms 
calif ornianm = yiUespii, auct., I have noted the following: two 
skulls (Nat, Mus. Coll., No. 15254; M. C. Z. Coll., No. 6162) 
each with M. |^|, and one (M. C. Z. Coll., No.6163) with M. g,, 
the normal number being M. |=|. In nearly every case the 
supernumerary molars were as perfectly developed as the others. 
About five per cent, of the skulls of these two species (of which 
I have examined not less than thirty of each) present one or 
more supernumerary molars. I have also found suppression of 
molars in Arctoceplialiis australis (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 1131, 



~ X I 

The supernumerary molars are placed (in all the instances I 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 225 

have seen) behind the last molar of the normal series. They 
are usually smaller than the normal molars, sometimes almost 
rudimentary, usually without accessory cusps, and with a 
smooth or nearly smooth cingulum. They are hence generally 
recognizable by their size and form. In cases of suppression 
it is usually the antepenultimate molar that is missing. This 
molar also frequently falls late in life, but traces of an alveolus 
in such cases usually attest its former presence. 

POSITION OF THE LAST UPPER PERMANENT MOLAR. 

In species with the superior molars 5 5, the last (except in 
Eumctopias] is placed opposite the posterior edge of the zygo- 
rnatic process of the maxillary, varying slightly in position in 
different individuals belonging to the same species, mainly, 
however, in consequence of the thickening of the mastoid pro- 
cess in old age. In species having the superior molars 6 6, 
the last is usually* entirely behind the zygoinatic process 
of the maxillary, the fifth molar holding the same relative posi- 
tion as in the five-molared species. The exception presented 
by Eumetopias seems at first view to favor the theory that the 
last molar is homologically the sixth, and that the fifth is sup- 
pressed, but in reality its position is posterior to that of the 
last molar in the six-uiolared species, while the space between 
it and the fourth is equal to or greater than that occupied 
by two molars. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The largest species of the Otaries (genera Otaria and Eume- 
topias) are Hair Seals, while the smallest (genera CallorMnus 
and Arctocephalus) are Fur Seals; but the species of Zalophus, 
although Hair Seals, are intermediate in size between the other 
Hair Seals and the Fur Seals. All the Hair Seals*have coarse, 
hard, stiff hair, varying in length with age arid season, and are 
wholly without soft underfur. All the Fur Seals have an abund- 
. ant soft, silky underfur, giving to the skins of the females and 
younger males great value as articles of commerce. The 
longer, coarser overhair varies in length and abundance with 
season and age. All the Hair Seals are yellowish- or reddish- 
brown (in Zalophus sometimes brownish-black), generally dark- 
est when young, and becoming lighter with age, and also in the 
same individuals toward the moulting season. There is also 

* In Phocarctos both the fifth and sixth are behind the posterior edge of 
the zygomatic process of the maxillary. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 15 



226 



FAMILY OTARIID^. 



considerable range of individual variation in representatives 
of the same species, so that coloration alone fails to afford sat- 
isfactory diagnostic characters. All the Fur Seals are black 
when young, but they become lighter with age, through an 
abundant admixture of grayish hairs which vary from yellow- 
ish-gray to whitish-gray. The southern Fur Seals are generally, 
when adult, much grayer than the northern. There is hence a 
wide range of color variation with age in the same species, as 
there is also among conspecific individuals of the same sex and 
age. While some have the breast and sides pale yellowish-gray, 
others have these parts strongly rufous, the general tint also 
showing to some extent these differences. 

There is also a wonderful disparity in size between the sexes,* 
the weight of the adult males being generally three to five 

* The sexual difference in size varies only slightly in the different genera ; 
it is greatest, apparently, in Otaria, and least in Arctocephalus. It is very 
much less in Arctoceplialus australis than in the northern Fur Seal ; while 
relatively small in Zaloplius, it is very great in both Otaria and Eumeiopias. 
In Otaria jubata, the average dimensions of eight old male skulls are, length 
350 mm., breadth 223 mm.; of four old female skulls, length 261 mm., breadth 
143 mm. In JEumctopias stelleri the average length of ten old male skulls is 
375 mm., breadth 221 mm. ; of two old female skulls, length 296 mm., breadth 
157 mm. In Zalophus californianus very old male skulls obtain a length of 
290 mm. to 330 mm., while very old females reach 220 mm. to 237 mm. Five 
old male skulls average, length 269 mm., breadth 157 mm; five old female 
skulls, length 219 mm., breadth 103 mm. In Arctocephalus australis two old 
male skulls average, length 260 mm., breadth 145 mm., two old female 
skulls, length 230 mm., breadth 121 mm. In CalJorhinus ursinus eight adult 
male skulls (not generally very old) average, length 243 mm., breadth 123 
mm. ; four female skulls of nearly corresponding age average, length 188 mm., 
breadth 96 mm. These data may be tabulated as follows, 100, in the column 
of "Approximate ratio," representing the male sex : 




Species. 


H 
O 
02 


Number of 
specimens. 


4 

to 

1 


Breadth. 


Approximate ratio. 


Otaria jubata 


cf 

$ 
cf 
$ 

cf 
? 
cf 

? 
rf 
? 


8 
4 
10 
2 
5 
5 
2 
2 
8 
4 


350 
261 
375 
296 
289 
219 
260 
230 
243 
188 


223 
143 
221 
157 
157 
103 
145 
121 
123 
92 


Length 75-100, 
Breadth 64-100 > 
Length 79-100 > 
Breadth 76-100 5 
Length 81-100 > 74 _ m 
Breadth 66-100 i 
Length 88-100 > 85 _ m 
Breadth 83-100 $ 
Length 77-100 J =76 _ 100 . 
Breadth 75-100 > 


Do 


Euraetopias stelleri 


Do 


Zalophus californianus 


Do 


Arctocephalus australis .......... 


Do 


Callorhinus nrsinns . - . ...... 


Do 





HABITS. 227 

times that of the adult females of the same species. There 
are also very great differences in the form of the skull, espe- 
cially in respect to the development of crests and protuberances 
for muscular attachment, these being only slightly developed 
in females and enormously so in the males. With such remark- 
able variations in color and cranial characters, dependent upon 
age and sex, it is not a matter of surprise that many nominal 
species have arisen through a misappreciation of the real signifi- 
cance of these differences.* 

HABITS. 

The Eared Seals show also a remarkable resemblance in their 
gregarious and polygamous habits. All the species, wherever 
occurring, like the Walruses and Sea Elephants, resort in 
great numbers to particular breeding stations, which, in seal- 
ers' parlance, have acquired the strangely inappropriate name 
of " rookeries." The older males arrive first at the breeding 
grounds, where they immediately select their stations and await 
the arrival of the females. They keep up a perpetual warfare 
for their favorite sites, and afterward in defense of their harems. 
The number of females acquired by the successful males varies 
from a dozen to fifteen or more, which they guard with the utmost 
jealousy, might being with them the law of right. The strong- 
est males are naturally the most successful in gathering about 
them large harems. The males, during the breeding season, 
remain wholly on land, and they will suffer death rather than 
leave their chosen spot. They thus sustain, for a period of sev- 
eral weeks, an uninterrupted fast. They arrive at the breeding 
stations fat and vigorous, and leave them weak and emaciated, 
having been nourished through their long period of fasting 
wholly by the fat of their, own bodies. The females remain 
uninterruptedly on land for a much shorter period, but for a con- 
siderable time after their arrival do not leave the harems. The 
detailed account given a century ago by Steller, and recently con- 
firmed by Bryant and Elliott, of the habits of the northern Fur 
and Hair Seals during the breeding season, is well known to 
apply, in greater or less detail, to nearly all the species of the 
family, and presumably to all. As the observations by Messrs. 
Elliott and Bryant are presented later in this work at length, it 
is unnecessary to give further details in the present connection. 

*0f about fifty synonyms pertaining to the Eared Seals, probably two-thirds 
have been based, directly or indirectly, upon differences dependent on sex and 
age, and the rest upon the defective descriptions of these animals by travellers. 



228 FAMILY OTARIIDyE. 

PRODUCTS. 

The products of the Eared Seals vary in importance with the 
species, the Hair Seals yielding- only oil, their skins being- 
almost valueless except to the natives of the countries these 
animals frequent. The products of the Eared Hair Seals are, 
consequently, not different from those of the common Earless 
Seals, and at present are of far less commercial importance, in 
consequence of the more limited source of supply. The Fur 
Seals, on the other hand, are hunted almost exclusively for 
their fur, which forms the well-known and highly- valued "Seal 
fur" of furriers. The fur differs in quality with season and 
the sex and age of the animals, the most valuable being 
obtained from the females and rather young males. In the 
young of the second year taken "in season," the skin "un- 
plucked" forms a rich and soft fur, the very thick, silky red- 
dish-brown underfur being slightly overtopped by short, very 
soft, fine, gray overhair. Later in the season, and especially 
in the old animals, the overhair is coarser and longer, and even 
somewhat harsh, beneath which, however, is still the heavy 
soft underfur. Dealers sort the skins into grades, in accord- 
ance with the size of the skins and the quality of the fur, these 
features depending upon the age and sex of the animal, rather 
than upon the species. Dr. Gray refers to what he calls Arvto- 
cephaluti falldandicus as being " easily known from all other 
Fur Seals in the British Museum by the evenness, shortness, 
closeness, and elasticity of the fur, and the length of the under- 
fur. The fur is soft enough to wear as a rich fur, without the 
removal of the longer hairs, which are always removed in other 
Fur Seals."* This, however, is not a peculiarity of the Falk- 
land Island Fur Seal, the overhair in prime young skins of the 
Alaskan Fur Seal being equally rich and soft. They are also 
often made up and worn " without the removal of the longer 
hairs," and are by some preferred to the prepared or "dressed" 
furs of the furrier. The Australian Fur Seal appears to differ 
little in the quality or color of its pelage from the Alaskan and 
Falkland Island species. The Fur Seal of the Cape of Good 
Hope, although one of the Fur Seals of commerce, appears to 
have, according to Gray's account of the few examples he has 
examined, a shorter coat of underfur. I have, however, met 
with no statement respecting the Cape Fur Seal peltries that 
indicates that they are inferior in quality to those of other local- 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., i, 1868, p. 103. 



DESTRUCTION OF FUR SEALS. . 229 

ities. As regards color and the variations of color with age, 
the Cape of Good Hope species appears not to differ apprecia- 
bly from the others.* 

DESTRUCTION OP THE FUR SEALS FOR THEIR PELTRIES. 

The value of the peltries of the Fur Seal has led to whole- 
sale, destruction, amounting at some localities almost to exter- 
mination. The traffic in their skins appears to have begun 
toward the end of the last century. Captain Fanning, of the 
ship " Betsey," of New York, obtained a full cargo of choice Fur 
Seal skins at the island of Masafuera, on the coast of Chili, in 
1798, which he took to the Canton market. Captain Fanning 
states that on leaving the island, after procuring his cargo, he 
estimated there were still left on the island between 500,000 
and 700,000 Fur Seals, and adds that subsequently little less 
than a million of Fur Seal skins were taken at the island of 
Masafuera alone,t a small islet of not over twenty-five miles 
in circumference, and shipped to Canton-! Captain Scammou 
states that the sealing fleet off the coast of Chili, in 1801, 
amounted to thirty vessels, many of which were ships of the 
larger class, and nearly all carried the American flag. Not- 
withstanding this great slaughter, it appears that Fur Seals 
continued to exist there as late as 1815, when Captain Fanning 
again obtained them at this island. 

In the year 1800, the Fur Seal business appears to have been 
at its height at the Georgian Islands, where, in the single season, 
112,000 Fur Seals are reported to have been taken, of which 
57,000 were secured by a single American vessel (the "Aspasia," 
under Captain Fanning). Vancouver, at about this date, re- 
ported the existence of large numbers of Fur Seals on the south- 
west coast of New Holland. Attention was at once turned to 
this new field, and in 1804 the brig " Union," of New York, Capt. 
Isaac Pendleton, visited this part of the Australian coast, but not 
finding these animals there in satisfactory numbers, repaired to 
Border's Island, where he secured only part of a cargo (14,000 
skins), owing to the lateness of the season. Later 60,000 were 
obtained at Antipodes Island. About 1806, the American ship 

* See Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4thser.,i, 1868, pp. 218, 219 ; Scott, 
Mam. Recent and Extinct, 1873, pp. 14, 15 ; also Pages, in Buffon's Hist. Nat., 
Suppl., vi,p. 357. 

tFanning's Voyages to the South Sea, etc., pp. 117, 118. 

t Ib. ; p. 364. 

$tt>., p. 299. 



230 FAMILY OTARIID^E. 

"Catharine," of New York (Capt. H. Fanning), visited the Cro- 
zette Islands, where they landed, and found vast numbers of 
Fur Seals, but obtained their cargo from Prince Edward's 
Islands, sitiTated a few hundred miles southeast of the Cape of 
Good Hope, where other vessels the same year obtained full 



cargoes. 



In 1830, the supply of Fur Seals in the southern seas^ had 
so greatly decreased that the vessels engaged in this enterprise 
"generally made losing voyages, from the fact that those 
places which were the resort of Seals," says Captain Benjamin 
Pendleton, "had been abandoned by them, or cut off from 
them," so that the discovery of new sealing grounds was 
needed. Undiscovered resorts were believed to exist, from the 
fact that large numbers of Fur Seals were seen while cruising' 
far out at sea, which must repair once a year to some favorite 
breeding station.* 

Captain Weddell states that during the years 1820 and 1821 
over 300,000 Fur Seals were taken at the South Shetland Isl- 
ands alone, and that at the end of the second year the species 
had there become almost exterminated. In addition to the 
number killed for their furs, he estimates that not less than 
100,000 newly-born young died in consequence of the destruc- 
tion of their mothers. So indiscriminate was the slaugh- 
ter, that whenever a Seal reached the beach, of whatever de- 
nomination, it was immediately killed. Mr. Scott states, on 
the authority of Mr. Morris, an experienced sealer, that a like 
indiscriminate killing was carried on at Antipodes Island, off 
the coast of New South Wales, frour which island alone not 
less than 400,000 skins were obtained during the years 1814 
and 1815. A single ship is said to have taken home 100,000 
in bulk, which, through lack of care in curing, spoiled on the 
way, and on the arrival of the ship in London the skins were 
dug out of the hold and sold as manure! At about the same 
time there was a similar wasteful and indiscriminate slaughter 
of Fur Seals at the Aleutian Islands, where for some years 
they were killed at the rate of 200,000 a year, glutting the mar- 
ket to such an extent that the skins did not bring enough to 
defray the expenses of transportation. Later the destruction 
of Fur Seals at these islands was placed under rigid restric- 
tions (see infra the general history of the Northern Fur Seal), 
in consequence of which undue decrease has been wisely pre- 

* Farming's Voyages, p. 487. 



GEM US EUMETOPIAS. 231 

vented. But nowhere else has there been systematic protection 
of the Fur Seals, or any measures taken to prevent wasteful or 
undue destruction. 

GENUS EUMETOPIAS, Gill. 

<>/<d-ia, in part of various authors. 

Arctoceplialus (iu part), GRAY, Cat. Seals and Whales, I860, 51. 
Eumetopias, GILL, Proc. Esses Institute, v. 7, 11, July, 1866. Type " Otaria 
calif ornianns, Lessou, = Arctoccplialus monteriensis, Gray." 

Molars 5-1:5 =-nr 5 the upper hinder pair separated from the 
others by a considerable interval; the last only double-rooted. 
Postorbital processes quadrate. Palatine surface of the inter - 
maxillaries flat, only slightly depressed, and greatly contracted 
posteriorly ; the palatals moderately produced, extending about 
three-fourths of the distance from the anterior end of the zygo- 
matic arch to the pterygoid process; their posterior margin 
straight, or slightly or deeply einarginate; rarely deeply so in 
old age. 

Eumeioplas differs from Otaria, as restricted by Gill, in hav- 
ing one pair less of upper molars, a much less posterior exten- 
sion of the palatine bones, and in having the posterior portion 
of the palatal surface less than one-third, instead of more than 
one-half, the width of the anterior portion, and but slightly in- 
stead of deeply depressed; also in the greater depth of the 
skull anteriorly, and in the less development of the occipital 
and sagittal crests. In Eumetopias the depth of the skull at 
the anterior border of the orbits is nearly as great as in the 
plane of the occiput, while in Otaria these proportions are as 
13 to 18, there being in the latter a marked declination anteri- 
orly in the superior outline of the skull. The breadth of the 
skull at the temporal fossae is also much greater than in Otaria; 
that is, the skull is much less constricted behind the orbits. 
The postorbital processes also differ considerably in form in 
the two genera, while another noteworthy difference is the un- 
usually great development in Otaria of the pterygoid hamuli. * 

* A comparison of adult male skulls of Eiimetopias and Otaria, of strictly 
corresponding ages, shows the following differences : 

Eumetopias stelleri (No. 1765) : height of skull in occipital plane 155 mm.; 
height of skull at anterior edge of orbits 152 mm. 

Otaria jiibata (No. 1095): height of skull in occipital plane 180 mm.; height 
of skull at anterior edge of orbits 130 mm. 

Comparing the same skulls in respect to the development of the pterygoid 
hamuli it is found that when placed on a plane surface the skull of E. std- 



232 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's 'SEA LION. 

Eumetopiax differs from Zaloplim through the presence of a, 
wide space between the fourth and fifth pairs of upper molars, 
the less einarginatiou of the posterior border of the palatine 
bones, the quadrate instead of the triangular and posteriorly 
pointed form of the postorbital processes, the less relative 
breadth of the posterior nares, and the larger size of the facial 
angle; also through its much broader muzzle, the less degree 
of the postorbital constriction of the skull, and its much less 
developed sagittal crest. 

Eumetopias differs too widely from Callorlrinm and Arctoce- 
plmlus, in dentition and cranial characters as well as in size and 
pelage, to render comparison necessary. The genus is at once 
distinguishable from all the others of the family by the wide 
space between the fourth and fifth upper molars. In distribu- 
tion it is restricted to the shores and islands of the North Pa- 
cific Ocean, ranging from Southern California northward to 
Behring's Straits. Its geographical representative is the Otaria 
jiibata of the Southern Seas, which ranges from the equatorial 
regions (Galapagos Islands) southward. 

EUMETOPIAS STELLERI, (Lesson} Peters. 

Steller's Sea lion. 

Leo marinus, STELLER, Nov. Comui. Petrop., xi, 1751, 360. 

PJioca julata, SCHEEBER, Saugeth., iii, 1778, 300, pi. Ixxxiii B (iu part only; 
not P. jitbata, Forster, with which, however, it is in part con- 
founded). GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 63 (in part ; = P. julata, 
Schrebcr). PANDER &. D'Ai/rox, Skelete der Robben uud Lamaii- 
tine, 1826, pi. iii, figs, d, e, /.HAMILTON, Marine Amphib., 1839, 232 
(in part not the figure of the skull). 

Phoca (Otaria) julata, RICHARDSON, Zoo'l. Beechey's Voy., 1839, 6. 

Otaria jubaia, PERON, Voyage Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 40. NILSSON, Arch. f. 
Naturgesch., 1841, 329 (in part only ; includes also the true Otaria ju- 
lala). ? VEATCH, J. R. Browne's Resources of the Pacific Slope, 
[app.], 150 (probably only in part, if at all). 

Otaria stelleri, LESSON, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 420. J. MULLER, Ar- 
chiv f. Naturgesch., 1841, 330, 333. SCHINZ, Synop. Mam., i, 1844, 
473. GRAY, Cat. Seals in Brit. Mus., 1850, 47 ; Cat. Seals and Whales 
in Brit. Mus., 1866, 60. SCLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond., 1868, 
190. SCOTT, Mam. Recent and Extinct, 1873, 22. 

Phoca stelleri, FISCHER, Synop. Mam., 1829, 231. 

leri rests anteriorly on the mastoid processes and the points of the canines, 
the points of the pterygoid hamuli being several millimetres above the plane 
of rest, while in O. jiibata the skull in the same position rests posteriorly on 
the pterygoid hamuli, which project 5 mra below a plane connecting the mas- 
toid processes and the points of the canines. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 233 

Otaria (Enmetopias) xtcllci-i, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, I86h', 274,671. 

Eumctopias slcllcri, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d ser.,xviii, 1830,233; 
Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales in Brit. Mus., 1871, 30 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Loud., 1872, 737 (in part), tigs. 4, 5 (the young skull on which 
Arctocephalus monter'u n;,i:*, < ,1 ,-i\ , was in part based); Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, 776 (its occurrence in Japan stated to be doubtful) ; 
Hand-List of Seals, etc., 1874, 40. ALLEN, Bull. Mus. C?>mp. Zool.,ii, 
1870, 46, pll. i, iii, figg. 9-15, and tig;;. 1-5 in text. SCAMMOX, Marine 
Main., 1874, 124, four woodcuts of animal pp. 12'J, 127. ELLIOTT, r 
Report ou the Prybilov or Seal Islands of Alaska, 1873 (text not ' 
paged, rive plates) ; Condition of Affairs in Alaska, 1875, 152; Scrib- 
uer's Monthly, xvi, Oct., 1878, 870 (popular account, with figures). 

Stemmatopias steUeri, VAN BENEDEN, Ann. du Mus. Roy. d'Hisf. Nat. du Bel- 
gique, pt. i, 1877, 15 (in text), lapsus penna' for Eumetopias stelleri? 

Phoca leonina, PALLAS, Zoog. Rosso-Asiat., i, 1831, 104 (= P. jubata, Gineliu). 

A.rctocephalus inontericnsis, GKAV, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 358, 360, pi. 
Ixxii, skull (in part only ; the skin referable to Callorhiuus ursinus') ; 
Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 49. 

Arctocephalus calif ornian us, GRAY, Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 51 (A. montc- 
riensis, Gray, 1859, in part ; not = Otarla californiana, Lesson). 

Eumetopias californianus, GILL, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 13 (= Arctocephalus 
monteriensis, GRAY, 1859, " and possibly also [identical] with Otaria 
stelleri, Miiller"; hence not = 0. California/no,, Lesson). 

? Eumetopias dongatus, GRAY, Proc. Zoiil. Soc. Lond., 3873, 776, figs. 1, 2 
(=E. steUeri, Gray, ib., 1872, 737, figs. 1-3, Japan?). 

? Phocarctos elongatits, GRAY, Hand-List Seals, etc., 1874, 30, pi. xxi, xxii. 

Meerlnwcn. STELLER, Beschreib. von sonderbarer Meerthiere, 1753, 152. 

Le Lion marin, BUFFON, Hist. Nat., Suppl., vi, 1782, 337 (in part only). 

Leouiiu' Seal, PENNANT, Arctic Zool., i, - , 200 (in part only). 

Lion Marin, CHORIS, Voyage Pittoresque, lies Aleontienno, 1822, 12 (not 
= Lion mariii dc la Californie, pi. xi, "Port San-Francisco et ses 
Habitants"). 

Leo marinus, the Sea King, ELLIOTT, Scribuer's Monthly, xvi, 879, Oct., 1878. 

"See-Vitchie, ! ' Russian; Lion marin, French; SeeWwe, German; Sea Lion, 
Hair Seal, English. 

HABITAT. Shores of the Xorth Pacific, from Behring's 
Straits southward to California and Japan. 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. Length of full-grown male eleven 
to twelve and a half or thirteen feet, of which the tail forms 
three or four inches ; girth about eight to ten feet 5 weight vari- 
ously estimated at from one thousand to twelve hundred or 
thirteen hundred pounds.* The weight of the full-grown female 

* A skull of this species in the National Museum (No. 4702), collected at 
Fort Point. Bay of San Francisco, July, 1854, bears a label with the follow- 
ing legend: ''Length 13 ft. 8 in. ; weight, by estimate, one ton." 

Captain Bryant, in some MSS. notes on this species recently received, 
states that the full-grown male measures 13 to 14 feet from the tip of the 
aiose to the end of the ouMretchcd Innd-fcet, and from 7i to 9 feet in girth 



231 EUMETOPIAS STELLEHI STELLER's SEA LION. 

is said to range from four hundred to five hundred pounds, with 
a length of eight to nine feet. The color varies with age and 
season. The young are "of a rich dark chestnut-brown." 
The adults, on their first arrival at their breeding-grounds in. 
spring, present no sexual dissimilarity of color, which is then 
light brownish-rufous, darker behind the fore limbs and on the 
abdomen. Later the color changes to " bright golden-rufous 
or ocher." The pelage is moulted in August, and the new coat, 
when fully grown in November, is "light sepia or vandyke- 
brown, with deeper shades, almost dark upon the belly." At 
this season the females are somewhat lighter-colored than the 
males, and occasionally specimens of both sexes are seen with 
patches of dark brown on a yellowish-rufous ground (Elliott). 
In two adult males in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
and another adult male in the National Museum, the general 
color of the upper side of the body varies from pale yellowish- 
brown to reddish-brown, becoming much darker toward the 
tail. The sides below the median line are reddish, shading- 
above into the lighter color of the back, and below passing into 
the dusky reddish-brown of the lower surface, which latter be- 
comes darker posteriorly. The limbs are dark reddish-brown, 
approaching black, especially externally. The hairs are indi- 
vidually variable in color, some being entirely pale yellowish, 
others yellowish only at the tips and dark below, while others 
are wholly dark reddish-brown or nearly black throughout. 
The relative proportion of the light and dark hairs determines 
the general color of the body. The pelage consists of two kinds 
of hair, the one abundant, straight, stiff, coarse and flattened, 
and constituting the outer coat; the other very short, exceed- 
ingly sparse and finer, and in such small quantity as to be 
detected only on close inspection. The hair is longest on the 
anterior upper portion of the body, where on the neck and 
shoulders it attains a length of 40 mm.; it decreases in length pos- 
teriorly, and toward the tail has a length of only 15 mm. It is- 
still shorter on the abdomen, becomes still more reduced on the 
limbs, and disappears entirely toward the ends of the digits. 
The end of the nose, the soles and palms, the anal region, and 
the extra-digital cartilaginous flaps are naked and black (in 

around the chest, and that the average weight is over one thousand pounds. 
He gives the length of the full-grown female as fr to 9 feet, and the circum- 
ference at the shoulders as 4, the females being relatively much slenderer 
than the males. The weight of the female he states to be one-third that 
of the male. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 235 

life " dull blue-black "). The whiskers are long, slender, and 
cylindrical, white or brownish- white, and set in four or five 
rather indistinct rows. Some of the longest have sometimes a 
length of 500 mm., or about twenty inches, with a maximum thick- 
ness of 2 nun. They are set in several rows, and number between 
thirty and forty, increasing in length from the inner ones to the 
outer, which are longest. The ears are short and pointed, 
broader, but only half the length of those of the Northern Fur 
Seal (CallorMnus ursinus). 

The fore feet are large, triangular, situated a little in front of 
the middle of the body. They terminate in a thick, hard, mem- 
branous flap, which is slightly and somewhat irregularly in- 
dented on the inner side. The terminations of the digits are 
indicated by small circular horny disks or rudimentary nails. 
The hind feet are broad, and gradually widen from the tarsus, 
reaching their greatest breadth at the end of the toes. Their 
length is short as compared to their breadth, the distance be- 
tween the ends of the outer toes when spread exceeding half 
of the length of the foot, measured from the tarsal joint. The 
toes terminate in strong cartilaginous flaps, covered with a 
thick leathery naked membrane, which is deeply indented oppo- 
site the intervals between the toes, and serves to connect the 
diverging digits. The three middle toes are provided with long, 
well-developed nails ; the outer toes are without true nails, but 
in place of them are thickened, horny disks. The outer toes 
are slightly longer than the three middle ones, which are sub- 
equal. The nails on all the feet are bluish horn-color. 

The following table of external measurements of two males, 
one very aged and the other adult, both from St. Paul's Island, 
Alaska, indicates the general proportions of the body. A part 
were taken from a moist flat skin before stuffing, and the others 
from mounted skins. 



236 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

Measurements from Two Skins of EUMETOPIAS STELLERI. 





No. 2920, Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
cf , about 10 years old. 


No. 2921, Coll. 
Mus. Comp. 
Zool. ,cf, about 
15 years old. 


Unmounted. 


Mounted. 


Mounted. 


Length of body . 


2,750 
100 
2,302 
575 
337 
559 
216 
483 
200 
179 
152 
164 
164 
215 
368 
190 
372 
37 
342 
800 


2,790 
100 

560 
335 
540 
210 
445 
200 
156 
147 
150 
150 
190 
365 
195 
370 
35 
342 
800 
2,230 
1,000 
1,000 
3,450 


3,010 
110 

620 
300 
610 
230 
440 
220 
210 
190 
190 
165 
170 
380 
210 
420 
35 

2,600 
1,020 
980 
3,790 




Extent of outstretched fore limbs 




Breadth of hand ...... .. ... 


Len*th of foot . .... 


Breadth of foot at tarsus 


Breadth of foot at ends of the toe-flaps . 
Len'Hh of flap of outer toe 


Length of flap of second toe 
Length of flap of third toe ... . ........ 


Length of flap of fourth toe . . 


Length of flap of inner toe 


Distance from end of nose to eyo . 


Distance from end of nose to ear 


Distance between the eyes 


Distance between the ears 


Length of the ear 


Length of longest barbule 


Dist. between points of longest barbules 
Circumference of the body at fore limbs. 
Circumference of the body near the tail. 
Circumference-of the head at the ears.. 
Length of body to end of hind limbs . . 



Captain Scamrnon gives the following external measurements 
of a full-grown male taken at the Farallone Islands, July 17, 
1872. 

ft. in. mm. 

Length from tip of nose to end of hind flippers 12 

Length of hind flippers 2 2 

Breadth of hind flippers (expanded) 9 

Circumference of body behind fore limbs 7 

From nose to fore limbs 5 

Length of fore flipper _ 2 6 

Breadth of fore flipper 1 4 

Distance between extremities of fore limbs. . . 10 



Length of ear. 



Length of tail 

Length of longest whiskers 1 

Length of longest hind claw 



=3,660 
= 660 
= 220 
=2,150 
=1,526 
= 753 
= 470 
=3,035 
= 47 
= 177 
= 457 
= 32 



SKULL. 237 

SKULL. The skull varies greatly in different individuals, 
even of the same sex, not only in its general form, but in the 
shape of its different bones. In the males the occipital and me- 
dial crests are not much developed before the fifth or sixth 
year. The bones thicken greatly after the animal attains ma- 
turity, and the palate becomes more flattened. In the adult 
male the brain-box may be described as subquadrate, nar- 
rower anteriorly, where the skull is abruptly contracted. The 
greatest diameter of the skull is at the posterior end of the 
zygoma, and is equal to three-fifths of its length. The post- 
orbital processes are strongly developed and quadrate; the fore- 
head is flat, and the facial profile is either abruptly or grad- 
ually declined; the muzzle is broad, its breadth at the canines 
being rather more than one-fourth the total length of the skull. 
The palatal surface of the intermaxillaries is flat, or slightly de- 
pressed anteriorly, and very slightly contracted posteriorly. Lat- 
erally the mtermaxillaries reach nearly to the end of the palatals. 
The latter are much contracted posteriorly, and terminate quite 
far in front of the hainuli pterygoidei. Both the anterior and 
posterior nares are a little narrower than high. The nasals are 
widest anteriorly. The last (fifth) pair of upper molars is placed 
far behind the fourth pair, the space between them being about 
equal to that occupied by two molars. The males in old age 
have exceedingly high occipital and sagittal crests, most devel- 
oped posteriorly; anteriorly they diverge and terminate in the 
hinder edge of the postorbital processes. 

The lower jaw is massive and strong. Its coronoid processes 
are greatly developed, as are the tuberosities at the angle of 
the rami, and a second tuberosity on the lower inner edge of 
each rarnus. 

The skull in the female is not only much smaller than in the 
male, but lacks entirely the high crests seen in the male, and 
all the processes are much less developed. The teeth, espe- 
cially the canines, are much smaller, and the bones are all thin- 
ner and weaker, the weight of the adult female skull being- 
only about one-third of that of the male of corresponding age. 
The skull of a full-grown female of this species attains only 
about the linear dimensions of an adult male skull of CaUorJiinus 
ur sinus. 



238 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 



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TEETH. 



230 



TEETH. The last upper molar is double rooted, and its crown 
-directed backward. All the other molars are single-rooted, with 
.u slight median longitudinal groove on the outside. Their 
crowns are irregularly conical, pointed, and jut out over their 
contracted necks ; inner side of the crowns hollowed. Surface 
of the crowns roughened with minute longitudinal grooves and 
ridges. The upper molars have no trace of the supplemental 
points to the crowns seen in many species of this family. The 
lower molars, particularly the third and fourth, have very 
slight accessory cusps. ]N"ecks of the molars uniform in size 
with the upper part of the fangs. Fangs of the molars gradu- 
ally tapering, those of the first and second upper much curved 
inward; that of the third less so; that of the fourth straight; 
the two fangs of the fifth are directed abruptly forward, the 
posterior one much the smaller. Canines of both jaws very 
large; the upper, however, much the larger; the lower more 
curved. Of the six incisors of the upper jaw, those of the 
outer pair are much larger than the middle ones, two-thirds 
as long as the canines, and much like them in form. The mid- 
dle ones have their antero-posterior diameter nearly twice their 
lateral diameter, and their crowns are divided transversely. 
The fangs of the inner pair are slightly bifid. Of the four 
lower incisors, the outer are much the longer.* 

Measurements of the Teeth.) 
A. TEETH OF THE UPPER JAW. 





Molars. 


Canines. 


Incisors. 


1 


5 
* 


3 


S 


g 

tH 


f* 

v 

"3 




Middle. 


^ 



a 
s 

M 


Total length 


27 
9 

12 
11.5 
6.5 


33 
13 
6 
14 
13 
9 


36 
13 
6 
15 
13 
10 


37 
13 
6 
18 
13 
10 


40 
11 
6 
23 
11.5 
8.5 


84 
34 
6 


63 
23 

7 


29 
5 

7 


25 
4 
7 


Length of the crown 


" neckj 


" root 


Ajitero-posterior diameter |j 


24 
20 


15 

12 


7 
5 


6 

A 


Lateral diameter || 





* For figures of the teeth, see Bull. Mus. C'onip. Zool., vol. ii, pi. i. ngg. 
5-5 e (oue-half natural size). 

t These measurements are taken from a middle-aged specimen, in which 
the dentition is perfect and normal. In old age many of the teeth are usually 
broken, and a portion of them often entirely wanting, through loss from 
accident. As the lower canines could not be removed without removing a. 
portion of the jaw, they have not been fully measured. 

t The distance from the crown to the alveolus. 

$ The portion of the tooth inserted in the jaw. 

|| At the base of the crown. 



240 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

B. TEETH OF THE LOWER JAW. 






Molars. 


Canines. 


Incisors. 


1 


,d 

* 


-d 

CO 


3 


-s 

11 


-*- 

6 


C 

s 
a 

M 




28 
10 
5 
13 
9 
G 


42 
12 
5 
25 
13 
9 


42 
14 
5 
23 
15 
10 


39 
12 

5 

22 
12.5 
9 


30 
10 
:, 
15 
10.5 
8.5 


35 

7 

20 

17 


31 

8 
4 
10 
7 
9 


25 
5 
4 
1C 
G 
5 




" neck* 


" roott 









SKELETON. Vertebral formula : Cervical vertebrae, 7: dorsal, 
15; lumbar, 5; caudal (including- the four sacral), variable; 
probable average, 1G. 

Ten of the fifteen ribs articulate with the sternum; their 
sternal portions are entirely cartilaginous. Their osseous por- 
tions evidently increase much in length after middle age. The 
apophyses of the vertebrae are well developed. Of the neural 
spines of the dorsal vertebra?, the first, second, and third are 
sub-equal, 130 mm. long; they gradually shorten posteriorly, the 
last having a length of only 75 mm. 

The sternum is normally composed of nine thick and broad 
osseous segments, the first and last very long, the eighth short- 
est. Between the eighth and ninth a shorter cartilaginous 
one is sometimes intercalated (as in specimen No. 2920). 

The pelvis is well developed. The ilia are very long and nar- 
row antero-posteriorly. The pubic bones are unauchylosed, 
they being merely approximate at their posterior extremities. 
Probably in the females (as in CallorMnus ursimts), they are 
widely separated, and the whole pelvis is much smaller than in 
the males and differently shaped. 

The humerus, as in the other Pinnipeds, is short and thick, 
with the greater tuberosity enormously developed. The bones of 
the forearm are also A^ery large and strong, with all their pro- 
cesses greatly developed ; in length they but slightly exceed the 
humerus. The length of neither of the segments of the arm 
quite equals the length of the bones of the first digit (including 
its inetacarpal bone) of the hand. The first digit of the hand is 
the longest, twice as long as the fifth, and very thick and strong. 

* The distance from the crown to the alveolus. 
tThe portion inserted in the jaw. 
t At the hase of the crown. 



SKELETON. 



241 



The bones of the hinder limbs are also short and thick, espe- 
cially the femur, which is scarcely more than one-third as long 
as the tibia. The latter in length about equals the foot. The 
relative length of the digits is as follows, the longest being 
mentioned first: 5th, 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th. The third and 
fourth are of equal length, and but little shorter than the sec- 
ond. In respect to size, the metatarsal and phalaugeal bones 
of the fifth digit are nearly twice as large as those of the first, 
while those of the first are about twice the size of those of 
either of the other three. As previously noticed, the three 
middle digits of the foot are supplied with long narrow nails ; 
the first and fifth with rudimentary ones. 

Measurements of the Bones of the Hand (Metacarpal and Phalanyeal). 





Middle-aged specimen. 


Very old specimen. 


















*! 




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3 

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5 

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_tc 

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5 
> 


Length of metacarpal and pha- 
langes 


352 
152 
140 
60 


310 
110 
95 
80 
25 


240 
85 
70 
60 
25 


200 
80 
55 
45 
20 


177 
80 
65 
20 
12 


357 
ICO 
140 
57 


320 

no 

95 
80 
35 


250 
90 
70 
65 
25 


205 
80 
CO 
45 
20 


185 
85 
65 
18 
17 




Length of 1st phalanx 


Length of d phalanx 


Len"th of 3d phalanx 









Measurements of the Bones of tlie Foot (Metatarsal and Phalangeal). 





Middle-aged specimen. 


Very old specimen. 


1st digit. 


-*a 
ti 

'S 

^ 

IM 


| 
-d 

CO 


43 

'Eb 

'5 

A 
ts 

^ 


4^ 

'& 

'B 

A 
S 


i 

3 

43 

CD 
i-H 


^> 
'S> 
<3 

-d 
e* 


-t5 

'So 
S 

73 

CO 


-t3 

'EC 
3 

A 

43 

< 


5th. digit. 


Length of metatarsal and phalan- 


310 

120 
140 

50 


290 
95 
90 
75 
30 
40 


290 
95 
90 
75 
30 
40 


305 
110 
90 
80 
25 
37 


328 

130 
93 
70 
35 


320 
145 
130 
45 


317 
110 
100 
80 
27 
50 


327 
110 
105 
85 
27 
55 


350 
120 
105 
95 
30 
50 


350 
130 
110 
75 
35 


Len^th of metatarsal bone 


Length of 1st phalanx 


Length of d phalanx 


Len^li of 3d phalanx 


Length of nail -. . .. 















The hyoid bone is greatly developed. Each ramus consists 
of five segments, its two rami being connected together by a 
transverse segment articulating with the juncture of the fourth 
and fifth segments. All the parts of the hyoid bone are very 
thick, especially the transverse and anterior segments; rela- 
tively much more so than in Callorhinus. In the common Phocu, 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 1C 









242 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 



the hyoid bone is reduced almost to a bony filament. The length 
of the hyoid bone in the present species is 270 mm. ; of the trans- 
verse segment, 65 mm. ; circumference of the transverse segment, 
45 mm.; of this segment at the thickest part, 95 mm. 

The os penis is 170 mm. long, slightly arched, somewhat flat- 
tened above, especially posteriorly, sharply convex below, and 
abruptly expanded and squarely truncate at the end. Its cir- 
cumference at the base is 72 mm.; just behind the terminal ex- 
pansion, 32 mm. ; of the terminal expansion itself, 65 mm . 

Measurements of the Skeleton. 





No. 2920, 
d-.lOy'rs 
old. 


No. 2921, 
cf , 15 y'rs 
old. 




2,750 


2,935 




374 


385 


Length of cervical vertebra? ..... ...... ........ 


500 


540 




1,050 


1,090 


Length of lumbar vertebra? 


340 


400 


Len "^b. of caudal vertebras .... ......................... 


440 


520 


Length, of first rib ... . ............... .. .. . . 


260 


240 




130 


140 




130 


100 




345 


305 


Len^li of second rib osseous portion ...... . . ... 


175 


185 


Length of second rib cartilaginous portion 


170 


120 


Length, of third rib .... ......... .. 


410 


410 




230 


270 


Lengtb of tbird rib, cartilaginous portion 


180 


140 


Lcn o 'tb of fourtb rib .. .- ..... 


470 


470 


Lengtb of fourtb rib, osseous portion 


280 


330 


Lengtb of fonrtb rib cartilaginous portion 


190 


140 


Length of fifth rib 


535 


530 


Lengtb of fiftb rib osseous portion .. . ........ ...... 


320 


370 


Lengtb of fiftb rib, cartilaginous portion 


215 


160 


Lengtb of sixtb rib 


580 


590 


Length, of sixtb rib, osseous portion.. 


360 


420 


Lengtb of sixtb rib, cartilaginous portion .. .. 


220 


170 


Lengtb of seventh rib 


640 


620 


Lengtb of seventh rib, osseous portion 


400 


440 


Length of seventh rib, cartilaginous portion 


240 


180 


Length of eighth rib 


670 


670 


Length of eighth rib, osseous portion. 


420 


480 


Length of eighth rib, cartilaginous portion 


250 


190 


Length of ninth rib 


710 


685 


Length of ninth rib, osseous portion ... 


420 


485 


Leno'th of ninth rib, cartilaginous portion 


290 


200 


Length of tenth rib 


750 


745 


Lengtb of tenth rib, osseous portion 


420 


485 


Lengtb of tenth rib, cartilaginous portion 


330 


260 


Lengtb of eleventh rib, osseous portion only. ............ ... 


430 


510 









SKELETON. 



243 



Measurements of the Skeleton Continued. 





No, 2920, 
cf , 10 y'rs 
old. 


No. 2921, 
cf, 15 y'rs 
old. 


Length of twelfth rib osseous portion only . .. .... 


490 


500 


Length of tliirteentli rib osseous portion only . ... .. ....... 


450 


470 


Length of fourteentli rib osseous portion only. .................... 


410 


460 


Length of fifteenth, rib osseous portion onlv. 


340 


350 




700 


840 


Length, of sternum 1st sement .. ... ... ......... ......... 


130 


180 


Length, of sternum, 2d segment 


70 


90 


Len^li of sternum 3d seinent 


70 


85 


Length of sternum 4th sement ... .. .. 


65 


80 


Leu^h of sternum 5th seornent ..... ......... 


63 


85 




60 


75 


Len^h of sternum ?th segment ... 


60 


73 


Length of sternum 8th segment .. . .... 


55 


65 


Length of sternum, 9th segment 


70 


77 


Length of supermini erv cartilage (between 8th and 9th) 


30 




Length of scapula 


830 


370 


Breadth of scapula . ... .... .... 


350 


380 


Greatest height of its spine 


45 


52 


Len "th of humerus ..................... 


300 


285 


Circumference of its head .. ... ....................... 


300 


290 


Least circumference of the humerus . . .... 


170 


180 


Length of radius 


260 


260 


Length of ulna 


310 


310 


Longest diameter of upper end of ulna 


100 


130 


Length of carpus 


80 


80 


Length of metacarpus and 1st digit 


350 


360 


Length of metacarpus and 2d digit . 


310 


320 


Length of metacarpus and 3d digit 


240 


250 


Length of metacarpus and 4th dilt 


200 


205 


Length of metacarpus and 5th diit 


170 


185 


Length of femur 


170 


220 


Circumference of neck. ... 


125 


120 


Length of tibia 


320 


340 


Length of fibula 


310 


330 


Length of tarsus 


140 


160 


Lenirth of metatarsus and 1st digit 


310 


270 


Length of metatarsus and 2d digit 


290 


290 


Length of metatarsus and 3d digit 


290 


270 


Lenfth of metatarsus and 4th digit 


305 


285 


Length of metatarsus and 5th digit 


227 


310 


Length of innominate bone 


320 


360 


Greatest width of the pelvis anteriorly 


140 


160 


Length of ilium , ......... , 


140 


160 


Length of ischio-pubic bones 


140 


200 


Length of thyroid foramen 




200 


Length of os penis 


170 


170 


Width of hand at base of dibits 


160 




Width of foot at base of digits 


130 


140 









244 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

The above table gives the principal measurements of the bones 
of the skeleton. Measurements of two specimens are given, as 
in previous tables, for the purpose of illustrating the variations 
that occur in the relative size of different parts after maturity 
is attained, and also for the purpose of illustrating individual 
variation, which in some particulars these specimens exhibit 
in a marked degree. The ribs, it will be observed, differ but 
slightly in total length in the two; not nearly so much as 
would be expected from the much greater bulk of the body of 
the older specimen. It will be noticed that the principal differ- 
ences in the ribs consist in the relative length of the bony to 
the cartilaginous portions, in the older the ossified portion be- 
ing much longer and the cartilaginous much shorter than in the 
younger. An irregularity will be also observed in respect to the 
sternum, the younger specimen having a supernumerary car- 
tilaginous segment between the eighth and ninth normal ones. 

SEXUAL, ADOLESCENT, AND INDIVIDUAL VARIATION. In 
respect to external characters, my material, consisting merely of 
three adult males, does not furnish many facts touching these 
points. These specimens, however, differ considerably from 
each other, not only in color, but in size and proportions. Some 
of these differences are clearly due to age (one of the specimens 
being much younger than the others), but others equally great 
cannot be thus explained. The body increases greatly in bulk, 
and the bones in size and density, after the animal has reached 
its adult length. The crests of the skull are almost wholly 
developed after this period, and in great measure also the spines 
or ridges of the scapula. The tuberosities for the attachment of 
muscles also increase in size, as do the vertebral or osseous por- 
tions of the ribs, as shown by the measurements already given. 
The teeth also change much in size and form after maturity is 
attained, and in old age often become much worn and broken 
by long use. The general form of the skull in the males differs 
considerably in different individuals of the same age, and also 
undergoes great modification with age.* As already stated, this 
consists mainly in the development of the crests and processes 
for the attachment of muscles, and in the size and form of the 
teeth. 

Mr. Elliott states that the young, when first born, have a 
weight of about twenty to twenty-five pounds, and a length of 

* See Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, pp. 56-60. 



COMPARISON WITH ALLIED SPECIES. 245 

about two feet, and describes their color at this age as being 
''dark chocolate-brown." When they art 1 a year old he says 
they have the same color as the adults. On their arrival at the 
Prybilov Islands in spring, Mr. Elliott states that he was un- 
able to discern any marked dissimilarity of coloring between 
the males and females, and adds that the "young males and 
yearlings" have the same color as the adults, with here and 
there an animal marked with irregularly disposed patches of 
dark brown. After their arrival, the general color gradually 
becomes somewhat lighter or more golden, and darker again 
after the moult. 

As already noted, the sexual differences in the skull are 
strongly marked. They are, however, only parallel with those 
seen in the other species of Otaries. The skeleton of the female 
is still unknown to me, but may be presumed to differ from that 
of the male very much, as is found to be the case in the Fur Seal, 
as described further on. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION. The material at hand seeins to 
indicate that there is no marked variation in size with locality. 
A considerable series of skulls from the California coast indi- 
cates that the species attains fully as large a size there as at the 
Prybilov Islands. One of the largest skulls I have seen came 
from the Faralloue Islands, the extreme southern limit repre- 
sented by the specimens before rue. 

COMPARISON WITH ALLIED SPECIES. Eumetopias stelleri is 
the largest of the Eared Seals, very much exceeding in size any 
of the other species of the family except Otaria jubata^ which 
alone it sufficiently resembles in external features to render com- 
parison necessary. While widely distinct from the latter in 
cranial characters, it seems to quite closely resemble it in exter- 
nal features, so far as may be judged from descriptions. The 
character of the pelage, the color, and the conformation of the 
limbs are much the same in both. In neither is there a distinct 
"mane," so often attributed to them, and especially to the 
Southern Sea Lion, although the hair on the neck and shoul- 
ders is longer than elsewhere, the resemblance to the mane of 
the Lion being due to the heavy folds of skin over the shoul- 
ders when the head is raised, more than to the existence of an 
abundance of lengthened hair that can in any true sense be 
considered as forming a inane such as is seen in Leo.* The skins 

* According to Captain Bryant, "At the fourth year of age the neck and 
shoulders thicken, from having a thick layer of fat under the skin, the skin 



246 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

of these two species at my command are in the one case those 
of very young animals, and in the other of very old males. A 
fine series of the skulls of each enables me, however, to speak 
witli confidence in respect to the matter of comparative size. 
The largest old male skull of Eumetopias stelleri has a length of 
400 mm., while none fall below 375 mm., the average being about 
390 mm. In Otaria jubata, the largest old male skull in a series 
of a dozen barely reaches 372 mm., and several fall below 340 mm.; 
the average being about 355 mm., or about 50 rum. shorter than 
the average of a similar series of Eumetopias stelleri. Adult 
female skulls of the last-named species reach 290 to 300 mm., 
while old female skulls of Otaria jubata about 265 mm. Accord- 
ingly it seems fair to conclude that the linear measurements of 
Otaria jubata are about one-eighth less than those of Eumetopias 
stelleri, with a corresponding difference in the bulk and weight of 
the entire animal in the two species. As very few measure- 
ments of the skulls of Otaria jubata have been as yet published, 
I append the following for comparison with those of Eumeto- 
pias stelleri already given (antea, p. 238). The wide differences in 
dentition and cranial structure have already been sufficiently 
indicated. 

itself being loose and flabby. When the animal is at rest on a rock with its 
hind flippers folded under its body, its head erect and the shoulders thrown 
back, the loose skin and fat lies in folds, looking like the mane of a Lion ; 
hence its name Sea Lion. This thickening of the neck is peculiar to the 
adult male." MSS. notes. 



COMPARISON WITH ALLIED SPECIES. 



247 



o 
to 
4 



O <H 
SB bfi 
CB 6B 



0000^0^30000 



jo !}T[ 



CO CO ^ CO C'l CO CO 



'S3UIUTJO %V 



^THrHi (Oi f 



esaoojd piouajS o 
{tx'cai.iajtii jo jgpjoq 



OOt-t OOlOOOCOOCOO 



lO 
<N 



tO 
OCO 



snjnmcq pio3'A'.i8}d 0} 

t jo japjoq fjuojj; 



COt-^iO 



OOOOOOO 



'sauoq 



00 O t- I-H O 



^joiia;sod q^piAi. 'sauoq pssBjsi 



P 

< 



'sanoq ITJSBJJ 



aoire^st(j 



Olft 

(Ni-i 



Cl rH rl C3 rH 1M 



OD 

i 






tt> : 



248 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLEE's SEA LION. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The known range of this 
species extends along the west coast of North America from 
the Faralloue Islands, in latitude 37 40' N., to the Prybilov 
Islands. Its northern limit of distribution is not definitely 
known, but it does not appear to have been met with north of 
about the latitude of St. Matthew's Island (about latitude 61). 
Neither Mr. W. H. Ball nor Mr. H. W. Elliott has met with it 
above this point, and they have both informed me that they 
have no reason to suppose it extends any further northward 
or beyond the southern limit of floating ice. According to 
Steller, it existed in his time along the whole eastern coast of 
Kamtchatka and southward to the Kurile Islands. He found 
it abundant on Behring's and Copper Islands, where it is still 
well known to exist. If Dr. Gray's Eumetopias elongatus, as 
originally described in 1873 (the same specimen was referred by 
him in 1872 to E. stelleri), be referable, as I believe (see infra, 
p. 252) to the female of E. stelleri, the range of this species ap- 
pears to extend southward on the Asiatic coast as far as 
Japan. 

Although the Sea Lions of the California coast that have of 
late years attracted so much attention appear to be the smaller 
species (Zalopluis caUfornianus), the occurrence of the present 
species there is also fully established, where it is resident the 
whole year, and where it brings forth its young, as proven by 
specimens transmitted some years since by Dr. Ayres to the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

GENERAL HISTORY. The Northern Sea Lion was first de- 
scribed in 1751 by Steller, who, under the name of Leo marinus, 
gave a somewhat detailed account of its habits and its geograph- 
ical range, so far as known to him. His description of the an- 
imal, however, is quite unsatisfactory. Steller's Leo marinus, 
in size, general form, and color, closely resembles the Southern 
Sea Lion (Otaria jubata), with which Steller's animal was con- 
founded by Pennant, Buffon, and by nearly all subsequent 
writers for almost a century. Peron, in 1816, first distinctly 
affirmed the Northern and Southern Sea Lions to be specifically 
distinct, without, as Temminck says, *' avoir vu ni 1'une ni 1'autre, 
et sans etablir leurs caracteres distiuctifs.' 7 * Lesson, in 1828, 
gave it the specific name it now bears, in honor of Steller, its 
first describer. The following year Fischer, on the authority of 

* Faun. Jap., Mam. Harms, 1842, p. 7. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 249 

Lesson, also recognized its distinctness from the southern spe- 
cies. ISTilsson, in 1840, in his celebrated monograph of the Seals, 
reunited them. Miiller, however, in an appendix to Dr. W. 
Peters's translation of Nilssou's essay, published in the Archiv 
fur jSaturg'eschichte for 1841, separated it again, and pointed 
out some of the differences in the skulls that serve to distin- 
guish the two species. Gray, in his Catalogue of the Seals, 
published in 1850, also regarded it as distinct. But one is led 
to infer that he had not then seen specimens of it, and that he 
rested his belief in the existence of such a species mainly on 
Stellers account of it, as he himself expressly states in his 
later papers. The skull received subsequently at the British 
Museum from Monterey, California, and figured and described by 
Gray, in 1859, as a new species, under the name Arctocephalus 
moteriensis 7 proved, however, to be of this species, as first 
affirmed by Dr. Gill, and later by Professor Peters and by Gray 
himself. With the exception of the figures of an imperfect 
skull of Steller's Sea Lion from Kamtchatka, given by Pander 
and D' Alton in 182G, Dr. Gray's excellent figure* (a view in 
profile) is the only one of its skull published prior to 187G. The 
only specimens of the animal extant, up to about ten years 
since, in the European museums, seem to have consisted of the 
two skulls and a stuffed skin in the Berlin Museum mentioned 
by Peters, and the skull in the British Museum figured and 
described by Gray. 

TVith the Monterey skull above mentioned, Dr. Gray received 
another very young skull, and the skin of a Fur Seal, both of 
which were said to have belonged to one animal, and which he 
hesitatingly referred to his Arctocephalua mont&rien8is.\ Later, 
however, he regarded them as representing a new species,! 
which he called Arctoceplialus California-nils. Still later he refer- 
red his A. calif orniamiy to Eumetopias stelleri (=Arctocepkalus 
monteriensis, Gray, of earlier date), and in 1872 1| published figures 
of this young California skull. Concerning the skin above re- 
ferred to he remarked at one time as follows: "If the skin sent 
last year by Mr. Taylor to Mr. Gurney, and by that gentleman 
presented to the Museum, is the young of this species [A. mon- 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, pi. Ixii. 
tProc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1859, p. 358. 
tCat. Seals and Whales, 1866, p. 49. 

Anu. and Mag. Xat. Hist,, 3d series, 1866, vol. xviii, p. 233; Hand- 
List of Seals, etc., 1874, 40. 

|| Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, pp. 740,741. 



250 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

teriensis], the young animal is blackish, silvered by the short 
white tips to the short black hairs; those on the nape and 
hinder parts of the body with longer white tips, making those 
parts whiter and more silvery. The under-fur is very abund- 
ant, reaching nearly to the end of the hair. The end of the 
nose and sides of the face are whitish. The whiskers are elon- 
gated, rigid, smooth, and white. The hind feet are elongate, 
with rather long flaps to the toes. The skull is small for the 
size of the skin, and I should have doubted its belonging to 
the skin if it were not accompanied by the following label: 
' Skull of the Fur Seal I sent last year. It is very imperfect, 
from my forgetting where I had put it ; but it must do until acci- 
dent throws another in the way; the other bones were lost. 
A. S. T.'"* Dr. Gray, in his "Hand-List," published in 1874, 
refers the skulls of both A. montcriensis and A. californiamix 
to Eumetopias stelleri, but makes no reference to the skin. As 
he seems, however, to have become settled in his opinion that 
this skin is identical with his A. monteriensis, this may ac- 
count for the statement made by him in 1866, t and subse- 
quently reiterated, $ that the Eumetopias stelleri is a species in 
which "the fur is very dense, standing nearly erect from the 
skin, forming a very soft, elastic coat, as in 0. falktandica and 
0. stelleri, which," he erroneously says, "are the only Seals 
that have a close, soft, elastic fur." 

Lesson gave the name Otaria calif orniana to a supposed species 
of Eared Seal based solely on a figure entitled " Jeuuelion inarm 
de la Californie," published by Choris. || The following is the 
only allusion Choris makes to this animal, in this connection, 
in his text: "Les rochers dans le voisinage de la baie San- 
Francisco sont ordinaireinent converts de lions inarms. PL 
XI." In his chapter on the "lies Ale"outiennes," in describing 
the " Lions marins," he says: "Cesanimaux sont aussi tres-com- 
nmns au port de San-Francisco, sur la cote de Californie, ou 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1850, p. 358. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th series, 1866, vol. i, p. 101. 

Ubid., p. 215. 

Dr. Gray's mistake seems to have misled others in respect to the real 
characters of Eumetopias stelleri, which Dr. Veatch, on the authority of Gray, 
refers to as the "fur-coated Eumatopias," which he supposed to be the 
proper name of the Fur Seal of the North. (See "Report of Dr. John A. 
Veatch on Cerros or Cedros Island," in .1. Ross Browne's "Resources of the 
Pacific Slope," [appendix], p. 150, 1869.) 

|| Voyage Pittoresque, pi. xi, of the chapter entitled "Port San-Francisco 
et ses habitants." The date of this work is 1822. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 251 

on les voit en nombre prodigienx sur les rochers cle la bale. 
Cette espece m'a paru se distinguier de ceux qui frequentent 
les iles Aleoutiennes ; elle a la corps plus flnet et pins allonge, 
et la tete plus fine : quant a la couleur, elle passe fortement au 
brim, tandis que ceux des iles Aleoutiennes son$ d'une couleur 
plus grise, ont le corps plus rond, les mouvements plus difficiles, 
la tete plus grosse et plus <paisse; la couleur du poll des 
moustaches plus noiratre que celui des iles Aleoutiennes." * 

It thus appears that Choris clearly recognized the larger and 
the smaller Sea Lions of the west coast of North America, and 
correctly pointed out their more obvious points of external 
difference. Hence Lesson's name Otaria californiana, founded 
on Choris's "Lion marin de la Californie," must be considered as 
applying exclusively to what has till now been commonly known 
as Zaloplms gillespii. 

Dr. Gill, however, in his "'Prodrome," adopted provisionally 
Lesson's name (californiana] for the present species, but at the 
same time asserted its identity with the Arctoceplialus monte- 
riensis of Gray (1859), and also suggested its probable identity 
with the so-called Otaria stelleri of Miiller. Peters, a few months 
later, came to the conclusion that Gill's suggestion was correct, 
since which time the name stelleri has been universally accepted 
for the larger northern Hair Seal. The Otaria stelleri of Tem- 
minck, t formerly supposed by Grayf and also by Peters 
to include both the Australian Eared Seals (viz, Arctoceplialus 
cinereus and Zaloplms lolatus), has finally been referred by 
the latter, after an examination of the original specimens in 
the Leyden Museum, to the so-called Zaloplms cjillespii.\\ I be- 
lieve, however, that the skull of the young female figured 
in Fauna Japonica (pi. xxii, figg. 5 and 6) belongs to some 
other species. It certainly differs greatly in proportions, as 
well as in dentition, from the other skulls figured in that work 
(same plate), and called 0. stelleri. 

The northern Sea Lion having become generally recognized 
as specifically distinct from the Sea Lion of the southern seas, 
Dr. Gill, in 1866, separated the two genetically. This had 
indeed already been done practically by Dr. Gray, inasmuch as 

* Voy. Pittor. aut. du Moiide, Iles A16outieuues, p. 13. 
t Fauna Japonica, Mam. marins, p. 10. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d series, 1866, vol. xviii, p. 229. 
Monatsberichte Akad. Berlin, 1866, pp. 272, 276. 

|| Ibid., p. 669. See further ou this point postea, under Zalophus calif or- 
nianus. 



252 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLEli's SEA LION 

lie placed his A. monteriensis ( = 0. stellerij aiict.) in the geiius 
ArciocephaluSj and the southern Sea Lion in Otaria, with which 
he associated the 0. stellerL He failed, however, to recognize 
the identity of his A. monteriensis with his 0. stelleri, and hence 
the entire generic diversity of the northern and southern Sea 
Lions seems to have escaped his observation. The latter fact 
was first pointed out by Dr. Gill in his u Prodrome," as above 
stated. 

Dr. Gray has recently described and figured the skull of what 
he at first regarded as a second species of Eumetopias from 
Japan, and which he called Eumetopias elongatus,* but he sub- 
sequently transferred it to his " genus " PhocarctosJ In his first 
mention of it, however, he referred it to Eumetopias steUeri.$ 
The "Phocarctos clongatus" was first described from a " nearly 
adult" skull (pi. xxi, Hand-List), eleven inches long and seven 
and a half broad at the coudyles, and placed "in the genus 
Eumetopias^ because it had a space in the place of the fifth 
upper grinder." Judging from the figures and Dr. Gray's de- 
scription, it seems to differ in no important point from the skull 
of an adult female, E. stelleri. Later he received from Japan 
a younger skull (pi. xxii, Hand-List), "seven and a half 
ii idies long and four and a half inches broad," which agrees in 
general form with the other, but has a " shorter palate," six 
upper molars (instead of five), and differs "in the form of the 
internal nostrils." He considered the two as both belonging 
to the same species, and, from the presence of six upper molars 
in the young skull, transferred the species to " Phocarctos." 

Judging from Dr. Gray's figure of this skull (Hand-List of 
Seals, pi. xxii), it seems to be referable to Zalophus (the Japan 
species, probably Z. lobatus), the last pair of upper molars 
being in all probability supernumerary, as they are smaller 
than the others and differ from those preceding them just as do 
the supernumerary molars in skulls of Zalophus calif ornianus. 

Dr. Gray seems to have believed that Eumetopias has in early Life 
six upper molars on each side, and that the fifth, or last but one, is 
deciduous, thus leaving a vacuity between the last two molars 
on either side. Of this I have seen no evidence ; on the con- 
trary, I have found in a very young skull the same number of 
molars as in the adult. Thus skull ~$o. 4703 (NationalMuseum), 

*Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873,776, figg. 1, 2. 

t Hand-List Seals, etc., 1874,30, pll. xxi, xxii. 

tProc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, 737, figg. 1 (head), 2, and 3 (skull). 

$Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, pp. 738,739; Hand-List of Seals, pi. xxi. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 253 

from San Francisco, Cal., labelled by the collector, Dr. Ayres, 
as " 3 or 4 days old," shows distinctly the alveoli of the milk 
dentition, with the permanent molars, five in number, just 
cutting the gum. The last (fifth) upper molar is placed but 
little further from the fourth than the fourth is from the third. 
The broader space between the fourth and fifth molars is al- 
ready indicated, but is, even relatively, much less than in the 
adults. The last molar stands close to the end of the maxilla, 
and hence has the same relative position at this early period 
that it has in old age. As the size of the skull increases, how- 
ever, the space between the fourth and fifth molars becomes en- 
larged. Dr. Gray says that in a " foetal skull" of this species 
" from California the hind upper grinder is at a considerable 
distance from the others, as in the very old skull in the [British] 
Museum and the two adult skulls figured by Mr. Allen ; but 
there is to be observed on each side a concavity in the place of 
the fifth grinder on the right side it is a shallow, small cavity 
which has enclosed a rudimentary tooth ;* on the other side the 
concavity is larger, but not so evidently the cavity for a tooth. t" 

As is well known, the Otaria stelleri of Temminck's " Fauna 
Japonica" is a Zaloplim (at least in part).} 

Since the publication of my paper on the Eared Seals, in 1870, 
our knowledge of this species has greatly increased, mainly 
through the published observations of Captain Scammon and 
Mr. H. W. Elliott. Captain Scammon, however, seems to have 
not distinguished the two species occurring in California, -since 
he gives no distinct account of the smaller California!! species, 
although he appears to have given measurements of a female 
of the latter, and evidently blends, in a general way, the history 
of the two. Mr. Elliott has not only published a very full 
account of its habits, as observed by him during several years' 
residence at Saint Paul's Island, but also a most admirable 
series of sketches of the animals, drawn from life. In the fol- 

*As already stated, Dr. Gray appears to have believed that the last or 
fifth grinder is homologically the sixth, because it has two roots, and that the 
fifth is deciduous, a theory I believe unsupported. Was not the small cav- 
ity he here refers to as having enclosed a tooth merely the alveolus of the 
last milk molar, which I have ftmnd to occupy just this position? Dr. Gray 
himself, in previously referring to the same skull, alludes to " a small pit" 
" at the back edge of the fourth grinder," "from which no doubt a small 
rudimentary tooth has- fallen out." Suppl, Cat. Seals and Whales, pp. 29, 30. 

t Hand-List of Seals, p. 41. 

t For further remarks on " Otaria stelleri" Temniinck see infra, under Za- 
lopli us calif orn ianus. 



254 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER'S SEA LION. 

lowing pages I shall borrow largely from liis excellent account 
of its habits.* 

HABITS. Aside from Steller's early account of the northern 
Sea Lion, little had been published relating to the habits of this 
species prior to 1870. Now, however, with possibly one excep- 
tion, none of our Pinnipeds is better known. 

Steller gave a very full description of the habits of the Sea 
Bear (Callorhinus ursinus), and remarked that, with some few 
exceptions (which he specifies), those of the Sea Lion closely 
resemble those of that animal. Choris states: "On y [Pile 
Saint-Georges] tue une grand quantite" de Lions Marins ; niais 
seulement des males, a cause de leur grandeur ; on se sert de 
leur peau pour recouvrir les canots, et des intestins pour faire 
le kamleyki, especes de blouses que Pon endosse par-dessus les 
autres vetements lorsqu'il pluet pour ne pas se mouiller. La 
chair, que Poii fait se"cher, est dure ; c'est une bonne nourriture 

pour Phiver Les jeunes sont tres-tendres et ont le 

gout de poisson." 

" Le rivage etait convert de troupes iunoinbrables de lions 
marins. L'odeur qu'ils repandent est insupportable. Ces ani- 
inaux 6taient alors dans le temps du rut. L'on voyait de tons 

*Mr. Elliott's account was first printed in his " Report on the Pry bilov 
Group, or Seal Islands, of Alaska," in 1873. The work is an oblong quarto 
of about 130 pages, interleaved with about 40 photographic plates. The 
text, however, is unpaged, and the plates are not numbered, so that it is 
almost impossible to cite it definitely. As the edition was limited to one 
hundred and twenty-five copies, and was privately distributed, it is almost 
inaccessible, and can hardly be said to have been published. [*] The text, 
however, was reprinted, in substance, in 1875, in octavo form, as one of the 
Reports of the Treasury Department (of which Mr. Elliott was Assistant 
Special Agent at the Fur Seal Islands), under the title "A Report upon the 
Condition of Affairs in the Territory of Alaska." This edition is the one 
quoted in the present work. The quarto report contains five plates devoted 
to the Sea Lion. The first gives a nearly front view of an adult male. The 
second shows several natives creeping along the shore in order to get be- 
tween a herd of Sea Lions and the water to intercept their retreat. A third 
is entitled " Capturing the Sea Lion Springing the Alarm," and indicates 
the stage of the hunt when the hunters expose themselves to view and rush 
upon the herd to drive them inland. A part are retreating land-ward, while 
others are plunging precipitately into the sea. The fourth, ' ' Shooting Sea 
Lion Bulls," represents the killing of the old males' with firearms. The 
fifth and last depicts the slaughter of the females, and is entitled, "Spear- 
ing Sea Lion Cows, 'The Death Whirl/" 

[*It is well known that opinions of "what constitutes publication? " differ. I have the 
author's permission to record here my own view, which is, that a printed work is "pub- 
lished" if a single copy is placed in a public library. ELLIOTT COTJES.] 



HABITS. 255 

cotes les males se battre entre eux pour s'enlever les uns aux 
iiutres les feinelles. Chaque male en rassemble de dix a vingt, 
tse inontre jaloux, ne souffre aucun autre male, et attaque ceux 
qui tentent de s'approcher; il les tue par ses inorsures ou s'en 
fait tuer. Dans le premier cas, il s'empare des femelles du 
vaincu. Nous avons trouve plusieurs males 4tendus morts sur 
la plage, des seules blessures qu'ils avaient re9ues dans les com- 
bats. Quelques femelles avaient deja des petits. Les A16outes 
en prirent plusieurs douzaines pour nous. L'animal n'est pas 
dangereux ; il fuit a 1'approche de I'homme, excepte" depuis la 
mi-mai jusqu'a la ini-juin, qui est le plus fort temps du rut, et 
ou les femelles mettent bas leurs petits; alors il ne se laisse 
pas approeher et il attaque meine."* Choris's plates (Nos. 
XIV and XV of the chapter on the Aleutian Islands, the 
work is not regularly paged) doubtless give a very good idea of 
the appearance of these animals and the Sea Bears when assem- 
bled on the land. Plate XIY, entitled "Lions Mariiis dans 
1'ile de St.-Georges," gives a view of a large assemblage of these 
animals, in which the various attitudes are duly represented, 
the animals in the foreground being depicted with considerable 
accuracy of detail. 

In 1870 I was able to add the following remarks by Captain 
Bryant: "The Sea Lion visits St. Paul's Island in considerable 
numbers to rear its young. It is one of the largest of the 
Seal family, the male frequently measuring thirteen feet in 
length, and weighing from fifteen to eighteen hundred pounds.[t] 
Its habits are the same as those of the Fur Seal. When roused 
to anger it has a very marked resemblance, through the form 
of its head and neck, to the animal from which it is namexl, and 
its voice, when roaring, can be heard to a great distance. Its 
body is thickly covered with fine, short, dark [?] brown hair, 
without any fur. Its skin is of considerable value as an article 
of commerce in the Territory, it being used in making all kinds 
of boats, from a one-man canoe to a lighter of twenty tons' bur- 
den. The natives of all the Aleutian Islands and of the coast as 
far east as Sitka, besides those of many ports on the mainland 
to the north, rely on this island for a supply of the skins of this 
animal. The rookery is on the northeast end of the island, and 
the animals have to be driven ten or eleven miles to the village 

* Voy. Pittoresque autour du Monde, lies A16outieunes, pp. 12, 13. 
t Sec antea, p. 233, second paragraph of footnote, for Captain Bryant's 
later statements respecting size and weight. 



256 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

to bring -their skins to the drying-frames. It sometimes 
requires five days to make the journey, as at frequent intervals 
they have to be allowed to rest. It is a somewhat dangerous 
animal, and the men frequently get seriously hurt by it in driv- 
ing and killing it. They are driven together in the same man- 
ner as the Fur Seals are; and while confining each other by 
treading upon each others' flippers the small ones are killed 
with lances, but the larger ones have to be shot. 

" This animal is the most completely consumed of any on the 
island. Their flesh is preferred to that of the Seal for drying 
for winter use. After the skins are taken off (two thousand of 
which are required annually to supply the trading-posts of the 
Territory), they are spread in piles of twenty-five each, with 
the flesh side down, and left to heat until the hair is loosened; 
it is then scraped off, and the skins are stretched on frames to 
dry. The blubber is removed from the carcass for fuel or oil, 
and the flesh is cut in strips and dried for winter use. The lin- 
ings of their throats are saved and tanned for making the legs 
of boots and shoes, and the skin of the flippers is used for the 
soles. Their stomachs are turned, cleaned, and dried, and are 
used to put the oil in when boiled out. The intestines are 
dressed and sewed together into water-proof frocks, which are 
worn while hunting and fishing in the boats. The sinews of the 
back are dried and stripped to make the thread with which to 
sew together the intestines, and to fasten the skins to the canoe- 
frames. The natives receive thirty-five cents apiece for the 
skins when ready for shipment. But these skins are not so much 
valued by the trader for the profit he makes on their sale, as 
for the advantage it gives him in bargaining with the hunters, 
since by buying these they are able to secure a right to the 
purchase of the hunter's furs on his return, the natives always 
considering such contracts binding."* 

The following careful description of their movements on land 
was also communicated to me by Mr. Theodore Lyman in 1870, 
who had recently observed the Sea Lions on the " Seal Bocks" 
near San Francisco. His remarks may, however, relate in part 
to the smaller species. 

" These rocks," he says, " are beset with hundreds of these 
animals, some still, some moving, some on the land, and some 
in the water. As they approach to effect a landing, the head 
only appears decidedly above water. This is their familiar 

*Bull. Mns. Comp. Zool., ii, pp. 64, 65. 



HABITS 257 

element, and they swim with great speed and ease, quite un- 
mindful of the heavy surf and of the breakers on the ledges. 
In landing, they are apt to take advantage of a heavy wave, 
which helps them to get the forward flippers on terra firma. 
As the wave retreats, they begin to struggle up the steep rocks, 
twisting the body from side to side, with a clumsy worm-like 
motion, and thus alternately work their flippers into positions 
where they may force the body a little onward. At such times 
they have a general appearance of sprawling over the ground. 
It is quite astonishing to see how they will go up surfaces having 
even a greater inclination than 45, and where a man would have 
to creep with much exertion. When the surface is nearly 
horizontal, they go faster, and often proceed by gathering their 
hind-quarters under them, raising themselves on the edges 
of their fore-limbs and then giving a push, whereby they make 
a sort of tumble forwards. In their onward path they are 
accompanied by the loud barking of all the Seals they pass ; 
and these cries may be heard a great distance. Having 
arrived at a good basking-place, they stretch themselves out in 
various attitudes, often on the side, sometimes nearly on the 
back, but commonly on the belly, with the flippers somewhat 
extended. They seem much oppressed with their own weight 
(which is usually supported by the water), and it seemed an 
exertion for them even to raise the head, though it is often kept 
up for a long time. They play among themselves continually 
by rolling on each other and feigning to bite. Often, too, they 
will amuse themselves by pushing off those that are trying to 
land. All this is done in a very cumbrous manner, and is 
accompanied by incessant barking. As they issue from the 
water, their fur is dark and shining; but, as it dries, it becomes 
of a yellowish brown. Then they appear to feel either too dry 
or too hot, for they move to the nearest point from which they 
may tumble into the sea. I saw many roll off a ledge at least 
twenty feet high, and fall, like so many huge brown sacks, into 
the water, dashing up showers of spray."* 

From the accounts given by various observers, the Sea Lions 
evidently move with much less facility on land than do the Fur 
Seals, doubtless mainly from their much greater size. The young 
and the females of several of the different species of these 
animals are described as walking with much greater ease and 
rapidity than the half- grown and the more unwieldy old males. 

*Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, pp. 66, 67. 

Misc. Pub. No. 12 -17 



258 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

Captain Bryant states that the Fur Seal may be driven at the 
rate of a mile and a half per hour, while, according to the same 
authority, the Sea Lions can be driven with safety but about 
two miles a day. 

Captain Scaimnon, in 1874, published a very interesting 
account of the Sea Lions of the Aleutian Islands, particularly 
as respects the methods employed in their capture, portions of 
which will be quoted later. His account is devoted largely, 
however, to the Sea Lions of the California coast, and certainly 
includes the history of the smaller species, if in fact this part 
does not relate mainly to the latter. At about the same time 
appeared Mr. H. W. Elliott's more detailed history of the north- 
ern species, which is so full and explicit that I transcribe it 
almost entire. 

The Sea Lion, he says, "has a really leonine appearance and 
bearing, greatly enhanced by the rich, golden-rufous of its coat, 
ferocity of expression, and bull-dog-like muzzle and cast of eye, 
not round and full, but showing the white, or sclerotic coat, 
with a light, bright-brown iris. 

"Although provided with flippers to all external view as the 
fur-seal, he cannot, however, make use of them in the same free 
manner. While the fur-seal can be driven five or six miles in 
twenty-four hours, the sea-lion can barely go two, the conditions 
of weather and roadway being the same. The sea-lions balance 
and swing their long, heavy necks to and fro, with every hitch 
up behind of their posteriors, which they seldom raise from the 
ground, drawing them up after the fore feet with a slide over 
the grass or sand, rocks, &c., as the case may be, and pausing 
frequently to take a sullen and ferocious survey of the field and 
the drivers." 

"The sea-lion is polygamous, but does not maintain any such 
regular system and method in preparing for and attention to 
its harem like that so finely illustrated on the breeding-grounds 
of the fur-seal. It is not numerous, comparatively speaking, 
and does not ' haul ' more than a few rods back from the sea. 
It cannot be visited and inspected by man, being so shy and 
wary that on the slightest approach a stampede into the water 
is the certain result. The males come out and locate on the 
narrow belts of rookery-ground, preferred and selected by 
them; the cows make their appearance three or four weeks 
after them, (1st to 6th June,) and are not subjected to that 
intense jealous supervision so characteristic of the fur-seal 



HABITS. 



259 





FIG. S7.Eumetopias sti-Ueri. Adult male, females, arid young. 



260 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

harem. The bulls fight savagely among themselves, and turn 
off from the breeding-ground all the- younger and weak males. 

"The cow sea-lion is not quite half the size of the male, and 
will measure from 8 to 9 feet in length, with a weight of four 
and five hundred pounds. She has the same general cast of 
countenance and build of the bull, but as she does not sustain 
any fasting period of over a week or ten days, she never comes 
out so grossly fat as the male or l see-catch.' 

u The sea-lion rookery will be found to consist of about ten 
to fifteen cows to the bull. The cow seems at all times to have 
the utmost freedom in moving from place to place, and to start 
with its young, picked up sometimes by the nape, into the 
water, and play together for spells in the surf- wash, a move- 
ment on the part of the mother never made by the fur-seal, 
and showing, in this respect, much more attention to its off- 
spring. 

" They are divided up into classes, which sustain, in a gen- 
eral manner, but very imperfectly, nearly the same relation one 
to the other as do those of the fur-seal, of which I have already 
spoken at length and in detail ; but they cannot be approached, 
inspected, and managed like the other, by reason of their wild 
and timid nature. They visit the islands in numbers compara- 
tively small, (I can only estimate,) not over twenty or twenty- 
five thousand on Saint Paul's and contiguous islets, and not 
more than seven or eight thousand at Saint George. On Saint 
Paul's Island they occupy a small portion of the breeding- 
ground at Northeast Point, in common with the Callorhinus, 
always close to the water, and taking to it at the slightest dis- 
turbance or alarm. 

" The sea-lion rookery on Saint George's Island is the best 
place upon the Seal Islands for close observation of these ani- 
mals, and the following note was made upon the occasion of 
one of my visits, (June 15, 1873 :) 

" 'At the base of cliffs, over 400 feet in height, on the east 
shore of the island, on a beach 50 or 60 feet in width at low 
water, and not over 30 or 40 at flood-tide, lies the only sea-lion 
rookery on Saint George's Island some three or four thousand 
cows and bulls. The entire circuit of this rookery-belt was 
passed over by us, the big, timorous bulls rushing off into the 
water as quickly as the cows, all leaving their young. Many 
of the females, perhaps half of them, had only just given birth 
to their young. These pups will weigh at least twenty to 



HABITS. 261 

twenty-five pounds on an average when born, are of a dark, 
chocolate-brown, with the eye as large as the adult, only being 
a suffused, watery, gray-blue, where the sclerotic coat is well 
and sharply defined in its maturity. They are about 2 feet 
in length, some longer and some smaller. As all the pups seen 
to-day were very young, some at this instant only born, they 
were dull and apathetic, not seeming to notice us much. There 
are, I should say, about one-sixth of the sea-lions in number on 
this island, when compared with Saint Paul's. As these ani- 
mals lie here under the cliffs, they cannot be approached and 
driven ; but should they haul a few hundred rods up to the 
south, then they can be easily captured. They have hauled 
in this manner always until disturbed in 1868, and will undoubt- 
edly do so again if not molested. 

" 'These sea-lions, when they took to the water, swam out to 
a distance of fifty yards or so, and huddled all up together in 
two or three packs or squads of about five hundred each, hold- 
ing their heads and necks up high out of water, all roaring 
in concert and incessantly, making such a deafening noise that 
we could scarcely hear ourselves in conversation at a distance 
from them of over a hundred yards. This roaring of sea-lions, 
thus disturbed, can only be compared to the hoarse sound of a 
tempest as it howls through the rigging of a ship, or the play- 
ing of a living gale upon the bare branches, limbs, and trunks 
of a forest grove.' They commenced to return as soon as we 
left the ground. 

"The voice of the sea-lion is a deep, grand roar, and does not 
have the flexibility of the CallorMnns, being confined to a low, 
muttering growl or this bass roar. The pups are very playful, 
but are almost always silent. When they do utter sound, it is 
a sharp, short, querulous growling. 

" The natives have a very high appreciation of the sea-lion, 
or see-vitchie, as they call it, and base this regard upon the supe- 
rior quality of the flesh, fat, and hide, (for making covers for 
their skin boats, MdarJdes and bidarrahs,) sinews, intestines, &c. 

"As I have before said, the sea-lion seldom hauls back far 
from the water, generally very close to the surf-margin, and in 
this position it becomes quite a difficult task for the natives to 
approach and get in between it and the sea unobserved, for, 
unless this silent approach is made, the beast will at once take 
the alarm and bolt into the water. 

" By reference to my map of Saint Paul's [not here repro- 



262 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA LION. 

duced] a small point, near the head of the northeast neck of 
the island, will be seen, upon which quite a large number of 
sea-Lions are always to be found, as it is never disturbed except 
on the occasion of this annual driving. The natives step down 
on to the beach, in the little bight just above it, and begin to 
crawl on all fours flat on the sand down to the end of the neck 
and in between the dozing sea-lion herd and the water, always 
selecting a semi-bright moonlight night. If the wind is favor- 
able, and none of the men meet with an accident, the natives 
will almost always succeed in reaching the point unobserved, 
when, at a given signal, they all jump up on their feet at once, 
yell, brandish their arms, and give a sudden start, or alarm, to 
the herd above them, for, just as the sea-lions move, upon the 
first impulse of surprise, so they keep on. For instance, if the 
animals on starting up are sleeping with their heads pointed in 
the direction of the water, they keep straight on toward it ; but 
if they jump up looking over the laud, they follow that course 
just as desperately, and nothing turns them, at first, either one 
way or the other. Those that go for the water are, of course, 
lost, but the natives follow the land-leaders and keep urging 
them on, and soon have them in their control, driving them 
back into a small pen, which they extemporize by means of 
little stakes, with flags, set around a circuit of a few hundred 
square feet, and where they keep them until three or four hun- 
dred, at least, are captured, before they commence their drive 
of ten miles overland down south to the village. 

"The natives, latterly, in getting this annual herd of sea- 
lions, have postponed it until late in the fall, and when the ani- 
mals are scant in number and the old bulls poor. This they 
were obliged to do, on account of the pressure of their sealing- 
business in the spring, and the warmth of the season in August 
and September, which makes the driving very tedious. In this 
way I have not been permitted to behold the best-conditioned 
drives, i. c., those in which a majority of the herd is made up 
of fine, enormously fat, and heavy bulls, some four or five hun- 
dred in number. 

"The natives are compelled to go to the northeast point of 
the island for these animals, inasmuch as it is the only place 
with natural advantages where they can be approached for the 
purpose of capturing alive. Here they congregate in greatest 
number, althoiigh they can be found, two or three thousand of 
them, on the southwest point, and as many more on ' See- 
vitchie Cammin ' and Otter Island.' 



HABITS. 263 

" Capturing the sea-lion drive is really the only serious busi- 
ness these people on the islands have, and when they set out 
for the task the picked men only leave the village. At North- 
east Point they have a barrabkie, in which they sleep and eat 
while gathering the drove, the time of getting which depends 
upon the weather, wind, &c. As the sqnads are captured, night 
after night, they are driven up close by the barrabkie, where 
the natives mount constant guard over them, until several hun- 
dred animals shall have been secured, and all is ready for the 
drive down overland to the village. 

"The drove is started and conducted in the same general 
manner as that which 1 have detailed in speaking of the fur- 
seal, only the sea-lion soon becomes very sullen and unwilling 
to move, requiring spells of frequent rest. It cannot pick itself 
up from the ground and shamble off on a loping gallop for a 
few hundred yards, like the CaUorhinus, and is not near so free 
and agile in its movements on land, or in the water for that mat- 
ter, for I have never seen the Eumetopias leap from the water 
like a dolphin, or indulge in the thousand and one submarine 
acrobatic displays made constantly by the fur-seal. 

* This ground, over which the sea-lions are driven, is mostly 
a rolling level, thickly grassed and mossed over, with here and 
there a fresh-water pond into which the animals plunge with 
great apparent satisfaction, seeming to cool themselves, and 
out of which the natives have no trouble in driving them. The 
distance between the sea-lion pen at Northeast Point and the 
village is about ten miles, as the sea-lions are driven, and occu- 
pies over five or six, days under the most favorable circum- 
stances, such as wet, cold weather ; and when a little warmer, 
or as in July or August, a few seasons ago, they were some 
three weeks coming down with a drove, and even then left a 
hundred or so along on the road. 

" After the drove has been brought into the village on the 
killing-grounds, the natives shoot down the bulls and then sur- 
round and huddle up the cows, spearing them just behind the 
fore-flippers. The killing of the sea-lions is quite an exciting 
spectacle, a strange and unparalleled exhibition of its kind. 
. . . . The bodies are at once stripped of their hides and 
much of the flesh, sinews, intestines, (with which the native 
water-proof coats, &c., are made,) in conjunction with the throat- 
linings, (oesophagus,} and the skin of the flippers, which is ex- 
ceedingly tough and elastic, and used for soles to their boots or 
' tarbosarsJ 



264 EUMETOPIAS STELLEEI STELLER's SEA LION. 

"As the sea-lion is without fur, the skin has little or no com- 
mercial value ; the hair is short, and longest over the nape of 
the neck, straight, and somewhat coarse, varying in color greatly 
as the seasons come and go. For instance, when tkeEumeioplas 
makes his first appearance in the spring, and dries out upon 
the land, he has a light-brownish, rufous tint, darker shades 
back and under the fore nippers and on the abdomen 5 by the 
expiration of a month or six weeks, 15th June, he will be a bright 
golden-rufous or ocher, and this is just before shedding, which 
sets in by the middle of August, or a little earlier. After the 
new coat has fairly grown, and just before he leaves the island 
for the season, in November, it will be alight sepia, or vaudyke- 
brown, with deeper shades, almost dark upon the belly; the cows, 
after shedding, do not color up so dark as the bulls, but when 
they come back to the land next year they are identically the 
same in color, so that the eye in glancing over a sea-lion 
rookery in June and July cannot discern any noted dissimilar- 
ity of coloring between the bulls and the cows ; and also the 
young males and yearlings appear in the same golden-brown 
and ocher, with here and there an animal spotted somewhat 
like a leopard, the yellow, rufous ground predominating, with 
patches of dark-brown irregularly interspersed. I have never 
seen any of the old bulls or cows thus mottled, and think very 
likely it is due to some irregularity in the younger animals 
during the season of shedding, for I have not noticed it early 
in the season, and failed to observe it at the close. Many of 
the old bulls have a grizzled or slightly brindled look during 
the shedding-period, or, that is, from the lT)th August up to the 
10th or 20th of November ; the pups, when born, are of a rich, 
dark chestnut-brown ; this coat they shed in October, and 
take one much lighter, but still darker than their parents', but 
not a great deal. 

"Although, as I have already indicated, the sea-lion, in its 
habit and disposition, approximates the fur-seal, yet in no 
respect does it maintain and enforce the system and regularity 
found on the breeding-grounds of the CallorMnus. The time 
of arrival at, stay on, and departure from the island is about 
the same ; but if the winter is an open, mild one, the sea-lion 
will be seen frequently all through it, and the natives occasion- 
ally shoot them around the island long after the fur-seals have 
entirely disappeared for the year. It also does not confine its 
landing to these Prybilov Islands alone, as the fur-seal unques- 



HABITS. 265 

tionably does, with reference to our continent ; for it has been 
and is often shot upon the Aleutian Islands and many rocky 
islets of the northwest coast. 

" The sea-lion in no respect whatever manifests the intelligence 
and sagacity exhibited by the fur-seal, and must be rated far 
below, although next, in natural order. I have no hesitation 
in putting this Eumetopias of the Prybilov Islands, apart from 
the sea-lion eomrnon at San Francisco and Santa Barbara, as a 
distinct animal ; and I call attention to the excellent descrip- 
tion of the California sea-lion, made public in the April num- 
ber for 1872 of the Overland Monthly, by Capt. C. M. Scaminon, 
in which the distinguishing characters, externally, of this animal 
are well defined, and by which the difference between the 
Eumetopias of Bering Sea and that of the coast of California 
can ai^once be seen ; and also I notice one more point in which 
the dissimilarity is marked the northern sea-lion never barks 
or howls like the animal at the Farralones [sic] or Santa Bar- 
bara. Young and old, both sexes, from one year and upward, 
have only a deep bass growl, and prolonged, steady roar ; while 
at San Francisco sea-lions break out incessantly with a l honk- 
ing' bark or howl, and never roar. 

" I am not to be understood as saying that all the sea-lions met 
with on the California!! coast are different from E. stelleri of 
Bering* Sea. I am well satisfied that stragglers from the north 
are down on the Farralones, but they are not migrating back 
and forth every season ; and I am furthermore certain that not 
a single animal of the species most common at San Francisco 
was present among those breeding on the Prybilov Islands in 
1872-'73. 

"According to the natives of Saint George, some fifty or sixty 
years ago the Eumetopias held almost exclusive possession of 
the island, being there in great numbers, some two or three 
hundred thousand; and that, as the fur-seals were barely per- 
mitted to land by these animals, and in no great number, the 
Russians directed them (the natives) to hunt and worry the 
sea-lions off from the island, and the result was that as the sea- 
lions left, the fur-seals came, so that to-day they occupy nearly 
the same ground covered by the Eumetopias alone sixty years 
ago. This statement is, or seems to be, corroborated by Choris, 
in his description of the lies S.-George's et S.-Paul's [sic], visited 
by him fifty years ago ; * but the account given by Bishop Yen- 
"* Voyage Pittoresque autotur du Monde." 



266 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER'S SEA LION. 

iaminov,* differs entirely from the above, for by it 

almost as many fur-seals were taken on Saint George, during 
the first years of occupation, as on Saint Paul, and never have 
been less than one-sixth of the number on the larger island. 
.... I am strongly inclined to believe that the island of Saint 
George never was resorted to in any great numbers by the fur- 
seal, and that the sea-lion was the dominant animal there until 
disturbed and driven from its breeding-grounds by the people, 
who sought to encourage the coming of its more valuable rela- 
tive by so doing, and making room in this way for it. 

" The sea-lion has but little value save to the natives, and is 
more prized on account of its flesh and skin, by the people liv- 
ing upon the islands and similar positions, than it would be 
elsewhere. The matter of its preservation and perpetuation 
should be left entirely to them, and it will be well looked after. 
It is singular that the fat of the sea-lion should be so different 
in characters of taste and smell from that of the fur-seal, being 
free from any taint of disagreeable flavor or odor, while the 
blubber of the latter, although so closely related, Is most repug- 
nant. The flesh of the sea-lion cub is tender, juicy, light-col- 
ored, and slightly like veal ; in my opinion, quite good. As the 
animal grows older, the meat is dry, tough, and without flavor." t 

Captain Scammon gives a few particulars respecting the 
"drive," not especially referred to by Mr. Elliott. -"This 
'drive,'" he says, "to the good-natured Aleuts, is what the 
buffalo hunt has been to the red-skins on the plains of the 
Platte, or matanza-time> with the old Californians, for the party 
starts out as on a sporting foray, and at night they stealthily 
get between the herd of Sea Lions and the water ; then, with 
professional strategy, they manage to l cut out ' six or eight of 
the largest at a time, and drive them a short distance inland, 
where they are guarded until a band of two or three hundred 
are assembled. Formerly the implement used in driving was a 
pole with a small flag at the end ; but, since our adopted coun- 
try-folk have become Americanized, that Yankee production, a 
cotton umbrella, has been substituted, and it is said that any 
refractory siutcli in the 'drive' is instantly subdued by the sud- 
den expansion and contraction of an umbrella in the hands of 
a pursuing native. 

"To collect the desired number for the yearly supply involves 

"*Zapeeskie ob Ostrovah Oonahlashkenskaho Otdayla, St. Petersburg, 
1840." 
t Eeport upon Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 152-159. 



HABITS. 267 

several days ; therefore a throng of villagers, it is said, sets out 
prepared with everything needful for the campaign. As the 
work of driving goes on only at night, the day is passed in 
sleeping and cooking their food by smoldering tires of drift- 
wood and seal-fat, sheltered by their umbrellas, or a sort of 
tent contrived by spreading blankets and garments over whales' 
ribs in lieu of tent-poles never forgetting in their repast the 
fragrant c/w, which is quaffed in numberless cups from the 
steaming sam-o-var. At length, the whole troop of animals 
being assembled, a flash of umbrellas here and there, with the 
call of the herdsmen, brings all into a moving phalanx. But 
the time for driving must be either at night, after the dew is 
fallen, or upon a dark, misty, or rainy day ; as the thick mat of 
grass that covers the land must be wet, in order that the ani- 
mals may easily slip along in their vaulting gait over the green 
road to their place of execution. Under the most favorable 
circumstances, the march does not exceed six miles in the 
twenty-four hours ; and it being a distance of four leagues or 
more to the village, three days and nights, or more, are spent 
before they arrive at the slaughtering-place. There they are 
allowed to remain quiet for a day or two, to cool their blood, 
which becomes much heated by the tedious journey; after 
which they are killed by shooting. The dead animals are then 
skinned, and their hides packed in tiers until fermented suf- 
ficiently to start the hair, when they are stretched on frames to 
dry, and eventually become the covering or planking for the 
Aleutian baidarkas and laidarras. The fat is taken off and 
used for fuel, or the oil is rendered to burn in their lamps. The 
flesh is cut in thin pieces from the carcass, laid in the open air 
to dry, and becomes a choice article of food. The sinews are 
extracted, and afterward twisted into thread. The lining of the 
animal's throat is put through a course of tanning, and then 
made into boots, the soles of which are the under covering of 
the Sea Lion's fin-like feet. The intestines are carefully taken 
out, cleaned, blown up, stretched to dry, then tanned, and 
worked into water-proof clothing. The stomach is emptied of 
its contents, turned inside out, then inflated and dried for oil- 
bottles, or is used as a receptacle for the preserved meat ; and 
what remains of the once formidable and curious animal is 
only a mutilated skeleton." 

Captain Scammon adds the following respecting their cap- 
ture on the Asiatic coast : "Crossing Behring and the Okhotsk 



2G8 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER'S SEA LION. 

Seas, to the coast of Siberia, including the peninsula ot Kam- 
schatka and the island of Sagkalien, the mode of capture by the 
natives changes from that of the eastern continental shores.* 
The inlets and rivers ot these Asiatic regions swarm with sal- 
mon from June to September, and at this season the Seals fol- 
low and prey upon them as they ascend the streams. The 
natives then select such places as will be left nearly bare at 
low tide, and then set their nets which are made of seal- 
thongs to strong stakes, so placed as to form a curve open to 
the confluence of the stream. These nets are similar to gill- 
nets, the meshes being of a size to admit a Seal's head, which ' 
gives free passage to the shoals of fish and the pursuing ani- 
mal, as soon as entangled in the net, struggles forward in his 
efforts to escape, but is held firmly in the meshes, where it re- 
mains till low water, when the natives, in their flat-bottomed 
skin-boats, approach and dispatch the victim with their rude 
bone implements. As the season becomes warm, the animals 
of both sexes congregate in their favorite rookeries, and the 
females climb to the most inaccessible places among the rocks 
and crags to bring forth and nurture their offspring. But here 
they are hunted by the natives accustomed to the use of fire- 
arms, who shoot them for the skins of the young ones, which 
are used for clothing. 

"In this region also, during the spring and fall, after the 
'net-sealing' is over, great numbers of Sea Lions are captured 
upon the floating ice, with gun or spear ; and during the rigor- 
ous months, the seal-hunters cut through the congealed mass 
what they term i breathing-holes '. Through these the Seals 
emerge, to the frosted surface, and, if the sun peers through the 
wintry clouds, the creatures, warmed into new life, may stroll 
hundreds of yards away; the watchful hunter, secreted behind 
a cake of ice or a bank of snow, rushes out from his covert, and 
places a covering over the hole, effectually preventing the an- 
imal's escape, and then dispatches it with knife and spear. Its 
skin is stripped off, scraped clean, closely rolled, and laid away 

'Although Captain Scammon purports to be speaking of "Sea Lions," I 
have recently become convinced (since the copy of this article was sent to 
the printer) that very little, if anything, in this paragraph and the next 
relates to any species of Eared Seal. In the first place, the locality is one 
not known to be frequented, except casually, by Otaries, while the account 
of the capture in nets and in the ice, and especially the reference to 
"breathing holes," renders it almost certain that the animals referred to 
are Phocids. 



HABITS. 269 

until the hair starts this process is called 'scouring'; then the 
hair is scoured off and the bare hide is stretched to season a 
process usually requiring about ten days when it is taken 
down and rubbed between the hands to make it pliable ; this 
completes the whole course of dressing it. The prepared skins 
are then converted into harness for the sledge-dogs and rein- 
deer, and water-proof bags ; if wanted for the soles of mocca- 
sins, or to cover their skin-boats, they are dried with the hair 
on, and become nearly as stiff as plates of iron. The blubber 
of the animals, if killed in the fall or winter, is preserved by 
freezing, and is used for food, fuel, and lights, as desired ; while 
the same part of those taken in the spring and summer is put 
in the skins of young Seals, and placed in earthen vaults, where 
it keeps fresh until required for consumption. The residue of 
the animal is tumbled into a reservoir, sunk below the surface 
of the ground, where it is kept for the winter's supply of food 
for the dogs, which live upon the frozen flesh and entrails of 
the Seals, whose skin furnishes the tackle by which they trans- 
port the primitive sledge over the snow-clad wastes of Siberia 
and Kamschatka."* 



Since the foregoing was transmitted for publication I have 
received from Captain Charles Bryant a very full account of 
this species, based on his many years' observations as United 
States Treasury Agent at the Fur Seal Islands, and kindly pre- 
pared by my request for use in the present connection. Although 
so much space has already been devoted to the history of this 
species, it seems desirable to give Captain Bryant's report 
nearly in full, although repeating in substance some of the 
details which have already been presented, since it contains 
some new points, and is at least based on long experience. 
Some portions, relating especially to the products of the Sea 
Lion and their uses, are omitted, since they are fully anticipated 
by what has already been given. 

"From fifteen to twenty thousand Sea Lions," says Captain 
Bryant, "breed annually on the Prybilov or Fur Seal Islands. 
They do not leave the islands in winter, as do the Fur Seals, 
to return in spring, but remain during the whole year. They 
bring forth their young a mouth earlier than the Fur Seals, 
landing during the months of May and June. They advance 
but little above high tide-mark, and those of all ages land 
together. The strongest males drive out the weaker and moiio- 

* Marine Mammalia, pp. 136-138. 



270 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER'S SEA LION. 

polize the females and continue with them till September. They 
go with them into the water whenever they are disturbed, and 
also watch over the young. When in the water they swim 
about the young and keep them together until they have an 
opportunity to land again. The females also keep near, rushing 
hither and thither, appearing first on one side and then on the 
other of the groups of young, constantly uttering a deep hoarse 
growl at the intruder whenever they come to the surface. 
When left undisturbed they all soon land again, preferring to 
spend the greater portion of their tune at this season on the 
shore. During the breeding season they visit the same parts 
of the shore as the Fur Seals, but the Sea Lions, by their supe- 
rior size and strength, crowd out the Seals, the latter passively 
yielding their places without presuming to offer battle to their 
formidable visitors. After having been disturbed the Sea Lions 
continue for some time in a state of unrest, occasionally uttering 
a low moaning sound, as though greatly distressed. Even after 
the breeding season they keep close to the shore near the breed- 
ing station until the severe weather of January. After this 
time they are seen only in small groups till the shores are free 
from snow and ice in the spring. 

"The capture of these animals is laborious and hazardous, 
and must be managed by the most skilful and experienced of 
the natives. They are so sensitive to danger and so keenly on 
the alert that even the screaming of a startled bird will cause 
the whole herd to take to the water. 

"The only place frequented by the Sea Lions that, by the 
nature of the ground, is practicable for their capture, is ten or 
twelve miles from the village where all the natives reside. 
They keep so near the shore that the favorable time to get 
between them and the water is when the tide is lowest ; and 
they are so quick of scent that the wind must blow from them 
toward the sea, so they may not smell the hunters as they at- 
tempt to approach them. The chiefs select a party of fifteen or 
twenty of the best men, who leave the village prepared for an 
absence of a week or ten days, for the place selected for the 
hunt. Near this they have a lodging-house, where they wait 
for favoring conditions of wind and tide. Under cover of the 
darkness of night, the chief takes the lead and the men follow, 
keeping a little distance apart, creeping noiselessly along the 
shore at the edge of the receding tide until they get between 
the Sea Lions and the water. At a given signal the men start 



HABITS. 271 

up suddenly, fire pistols, and make all the noise possible. The 
animals thus suddenly alarmed immediately start in whatever 
direction they chance to be headed ; those facing the water rush 
precipitately into it. These the hunters avoid, letting them 
pass them, and start at once after those heading inland, shout- 
ing at them to keep them moving until some distance from the 
shore. The Sea Lions, when once fairly in motion, are easily 
controlled and made to move in the desired direction till they 
reach some convenient hollow, where they are guarded by one 
or two men stationed to watch their movements and prevent 
their escape until enough have been obtained to make a herd 
for driving, numbering usually two or three hundred individ- 
uals. They sometimes capture in this way forty or fifty in a 
single night, but oftener ten or twenty, and many tiines none 
at all. As at this season Sea Lions of all ages and sizes con- 
gregate together, it often happens that females are caught while 
their cubs escape, or the reverse, but as the capture is con- 
tinued for several successive nights at the same place, and the 
new captives are driven to the herd already caught, the mothers 
and their young are again brought together. They recognize 
each other by their cries long before they meet, and it makes 
lively work for the herders to prevent the herd from rushing to 
meet the new coiners. When the recruits join the herd the 
mothers and cubs rush together with evident pleasure, the 
mothers fondling their young, and the latter, hungered by sepa- 
ration, struggle to nurse them. After a sufficient number have 
been thus obtained they are driven to the village for slaughter, 
in order that all parts of the animal may be utilized. 

" The distance to the village is, as already stated, about ten or 
twelve miles, and the route lies near the shore. Along the way 
are several small ponds through which they pass and which 
serve to refresh them on their slow toilsome journey. The 
journey is necessarily slow and tedious, for the Sea Lions are 
less well fitted for traveling on land than the Fur Seals, which 
are able to raise their bodies from the ground and gallop off 
like a land animal. The Sea Lions travel by bending the pos- 
terior part of the body to the right or left, extending their long 
flexible necks in an opposite direction to balance themselves, 
and then slowly raising their bodies by their fore limbs and 
plunging forward, by which movement they thus gain an ad- 
vance of only half a length at a time. When they arrive in 
sight of the ponds they make a hurried scramble for them, and, 



272 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER'S SEA LION. 

rushing in pell-mell, roll and tumble in the water as though it 
afforded immense relief to their heated and wearied bodies. 
When it is convenient to do so they are allowed to rest over 
night in the water, by which they acquire fresh vigor for the 
completion of the journey. This severe and unnatural exertion 
overheats and exhausts these poor beasts and necessitates long 
halts to enable them to rest and cool. It usually requires five 
days to make the journey, averaging two miles per day. Three 
men conduct the herd, and camp at night with their charge. 
On starting they kill a young cub for their subsistence, using 
the flesh for food and the blubber for fuel in cooking it and 
making their tea. 

"After two days' travel the animals become very tired, and as 
soon as they are permitted to halt they drop at full length with 
their limbs extended. But their rest is not peaceful, for some 
restless one soon starts up and flounders over the others as if 
seeking a better place. This disturbs the whole herd, which 
constantly keeps up a low moaning apparently expressive of 
sore distress. A most apt description of such a scene was once 
given by a military officer who was seated with me on the edge 
of a sand-dune watching a herd resting in this condition. After 
a long silence he observed, ' This is the first thing I have ever 
seen or heard that realizes my youthful conception of the tor- 
ment of the condemned in purgatory.'" 

"When the herd is once fairly halted and at rest it requires 
from half an hour to an hour to get it moving again in march- 
ing order. The process is quite novel and worth describing. 
The Sea Lions have now become so accustomed to their captors 
that they will sooner fight than run from them, and they are 
too much deafened by their own noise to hear or fear any other 
sound. As they lie on the ground in a compact mass, one of 
the men takes an umbrella (before the introduction of umbrellas 
a flag was used) and goes twenty to thirty yards to the rear of 
the herd and approaching stealthily until he is quite near sud- 
denly expands the umbrella and runs with it along the edge of 
the herd ; then closing it he retires to repeat the maneuver. 
This has the effect to rouse the rear rank, which thus suddenly 
alarmed plunges forward and arouses those in front, which 
immediately begin struggling and biting. The return of the 
man with the umbrella communicates another shock and adds 
another wave to the sluggish mass. This is repeated at intervals 
of four or five minutes till the successive shocks have aroused 



HABITS. 273 

the whole herd, when, with much roaring and bellowing, the 
whole mass begins to move, gradually extending itself in a 
long irregular line in open order, each animal lumbering along 
as best it can. By shouting and waving flags at the rear and 
on the flanks of the herd, they are kept moving until it is neces- 
sary to halt them again for rest. Seen when thus moving in a 
long irregular line, the slow heaving motion of their bodies and 
the swaying of their long flexible necks give a grotesque 
appearance to the scene and suggest anything but a herd of 
Lions. The island, being composed of volcanic rock, is full of 
subterranean fissures covered thinly with soil and vegetation, 
and the earth so resoijnds with the noise of the tread of the 
Sea Lions that the sound may be heard to the distance of two 
miles. The approach of a herd to the village is always an occa- 
sion of interest and excitement to all of the inhabitants, who 
go out en masse to meet them and escort them to the slaughter- 
ing ground, where they are allowed to rest and cool before they 
are killed. 

"The Sea Lions are too formidable to be killed with clubs, 
like the Fur Seals. When all is ready for the slaughter the 
herd is started up a sloping hillside; the hunters follow, armed 
with rifles, and shoot the full-grown males from behind, the 
back of the skull being the only part a ball can penetrate. 
After all of these have been killed, the head of the column is 
checked and turned, back so that the animals become massed 
together, and piled on each other five or six deep. In this way 
those below are held by those above while the hunters, armed 
with short lances, watch their opportunity to rush up to the 
struggling mass and thrust their lances into some vital part of 
the doomed beasts. This is attended with some danger to the 
hunters, who sometimes receive serious wounds from being hit 
with the lances that the Sea Lions, in their death agonies, seize 
in their mouths and wrench from the hands of the hunters. 

"Nearly every part of these animals is valuable to the natives, 
but they have no commercial value outside of Alaska. Their 
skins are indispensable to the Sea Otter hunters of the Aleutian 
Islands, for the covering of their canoes in which they hunt 
these auim als. The natives also use them for co veriu g their large 
boats used in loading and unloading vessels. . . . Its flesh 
is preferred for food to that of the Fur Seal, that of the full-grown 
animal being finer in texture, lighter in color, and of a sweeter 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 18 



274 EUMETOPIAS STELLERI STELLER's SEA. LION 

flavor, and it dries more readily in preserving it for winter use; 
the flesh of the young at the age of four mouths is esteemed 
a great luxury "by the natives and is not -easily distinguished 
from veal by educated palates. . . . Only the skeleton is 
left to waste. 

" The stomachs of the full-grown Sea Lions are found to always 
contain from six to ten pounds of stones, varying in size from 
that of a hen's egg to a large apple. These stones are the same as 
those found on the beaches, worn round and smooth by the surf. 
The natives say they take these stones into the stomach for 
ballast when they leave the breeding-grounds, and cast them 
out again when they land in the spring. I have, however, had 
no means of verifying this, as the only season when they are 
taken is during the winter. 

"As soon as the animals have all been killed the men proceed 
to remove the skins and blubber, and the other useful parts, 
Avhich the chiefs divide and distribute among the several fami- 
lies. . . . Only a few of the skins are required for use on 
the island, the remainder being shipped to Ounalashka and other 
points where they are sold to the Sea Otter hunters. The value 
of the skins at the island is sixty cents each. About eight hun- 
dred are annually taken at St. Paul's Island, without appar- 
ently any decrease in the stock. 

"There are many other places in the Territory where these 
animals bring forth their young, but as they resort mostly to 
outlying rocks and ledges they cannot be captured in any con- 
siderable numbers. 

"The Sea Lion of Alaska, so far as my opportunities of 
observation have enabled me to judge, is a much larger species 
than that of California, the largest males I have ever seen at 
San Francisco and vicinity being not much larger than the full- 
grown female at the Fur Seal Islands, while I have seen at San 
Francisco females with young that were not much larger than 
i yearling of the species found at St. Paul's." 

The food of the Sea Lion is well known to consist, like that 
of the other species of Eared Seals, of fish, rnollusks, and crus- 
taceans, and occasionally birds. As shown by animals kept in 
confinement, they require an enormous quantity. Captain 
Scammon states that the daily allowance of a pair kept in 
Woodward's Gardens, San Francisco, amounted to forty or 
fifty pounds of fresh fish. 



GENUS ZA.LOPHUS. 275 

GENUS ZALOPHUS, Gill. 

Arctocepltaliis (in part), GRAY, Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 55. 

Zaloplms, GILL, Proc. Essex Institute, Jnly, 1866, v, 7, 11. Type Otaria 

yillespii, McBaiu. 
JYcopTioefl, GRAY, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d series, 1866, xviii, 231 

Type Arctocephalus Idbatus, Gray. 

Molars -|^|, large, closely approximated, the last under the 
hinder edge of the zygomatic process of the maxillary. Muz- 
zle narrow. Superior profile, from the postorbital process ante- 
riorly, gently declined. Bony palate moderately contracted 
posteriorly, and but slightly depressed. Hinder edge of the 
palatals deeply concave. Pterygoid hooks slender. Posterior 
nares broader than high ; anterior higher than broad. Post- 
orbital cylinder narrow and elongate. The postorbital con- 
striction of the skull is deep and abrupt, giving a quadrate or 
subquadrate form to the brain-box, which varies to triangular 
through the varying degree of prominence of its latero-anterior 
angles. The postorbital processes are triangular, developed 
latero-posteriorly into a rather slender point. The sagittal 
crest, in very old males, forms a remarkably high, thin, bony 
plate, unparalleled in its great development in any other genus 
of the family. The general form of the skull is rather narrow, 
much more so than in EumetopiaSj and nearly as much so as in 
Arctocephalus, the breadth to length being as GO to 100. 

Zaloph .v, so far as the skull is concerned, is the most distinct 
generic form of the family, it being thoroughly unlike all the 
others. In general form, as in size, it more nearly resembles 
Arctocephalm than any other genus, but differs from it in the 
dental formula, as well as in its enormously produced crests. 
It differs from Otaria in having one pair less of upper molars, 
in the slight depression of the bony palate, the less extension 
posteriorly of the palatines, the much narrower muzzle, the 
much less abrupt declination of the facial profile, its much 
higher sagittal and occipital crest, and in its narrower and 
more elongated form. 

It differs from Eumetopias^ as already pointed out, in having 
all the upper molars closely approximated, in the greatly con- 
cave outline of the posterior border of the palatines, and other- 
wise much as it differs from Otaria. 

Zaloplim differs from Callorhinus in its smaller number of 
upper molars, its high crests, narrower and more elongated 
muzzle, and in the more declined profile of the face. In the 



276 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION, 

nature of its pelage, and in other external features, it is radi 
cally distinct from the whole group of Fur Seals, as it is also in 
its high sagittal crest. In size it is nearest Arctocephalits. The 
body is rather slender, and the head is narrow, long, and 
pointed, and with this slenderness of form is coordinated a. 
corresponding litheness of movement. 

The genus is restricted, so far as known, to the shores of the 
North Pacific and the Australian Seas, and is apparently repre- 
sented by two species, the one confined mainly, if not wholly, 
to the western coast of the United States, and the other to tem- 
perate (and tropical?) portions of the eastern coast of Asia, 
from Japan southward, and the northern shores of Australia. 
The genus is thus southern or subtropical in its distribution, 
occurring on both sides of the equator, but not in the colder 
waters of either hemisphere. 

ZALOPHUS CALIFOENIANUS (Lesson) Allen. 
Californian Sea Lion. 

Otaria californiana, LESSON, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 420 (based 
on "Le jeuneLion niarin de la Californie," Choris, pi. xi). SCHINZ, 
Synop. Mam., i, 1844, 473 (from Lesson). 

flioca calif orniana, FISCHER, Syii. Mam., 1829, 231 ( = Otaria californiana, Les- 
son). 

Otaria gillespii, M'BAIN, Proc. Edinb. Eoy. Soc., i, 1858, 422. 

ArotooepJialits gilUespii,* GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 110, 360, pi. Ixx 
(from cast of the skull described by M'Bain) ; Cat. Seals and Whales, 
1866, 55. 

Zalo2>lti<* f/illespii, GILL, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 13. GRAY, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., 3d ser., xviii, 1866, 231; Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 
1871,28; Hand-List Seals, etc., 1874, 41. SCOTT, Mam. Rec. and 
Extinct, 1873, 20. THOMPSON, Forest and Stream (newspaper), xii, 
1879, 66 (habits and breeding in confinement). 

Otaria (Zaloplms) gillespii, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 275, 671. 

? Otaria jubata, VEATCH, J. R. Browne's Resources of the Pacific Slope, 
[app.], 1869, p. 150 (mainly, if not wholly; Cerros Island, L. Cal.). 

Lion Mar in de la Californie, CHORIS, Voy. Pittoresque. 

Sea Lion \_of California'], SCAMMON, Overland Monthly, viii, 1872, 266 (in 
part). GURNEY, Zoologist, 1871, 2762 (Southern California). 
STEARNS, Amer. Nat., x, 1876, 177 (in part). 

Lobo marino, Spanish; Sea Lion and California Sea Lion, English. 

HABITAT. Coast of California. 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. Color .dark chestnut -brown, 
darker (blackish-brown) on the limbs, ventral surface, and the 

* Spelled "gUliearpii"l)j Gray and most other writers, but "yillcspii" by 
M'Baiu, who named it for his friend Dr. Gillespie. 



EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 277 

extreme posterior part of the body, but varying, greatly in differ- 
ent individuals and at different seasons. Whiskers whitish or 
yellowish- white, a few of them usually dusky at base. Length 
of adult male 7 to 8 feet; of adult female about 5.75 feet. 
Pelage short, harsh, and stiff. 

A series of a dozen specimens varies greatly in color from 
yellow through various shades of brownish-yellow to dark red- 
dish-brown and even blackish-brown. At the season of moult 
they change from reddish-brown to yellowish or golden-brown. 
An adult female (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5787) taken about Septem- 
ber 1, 1877, is golden brownish-yellow, passing into dark brown 
on the limbs and ventral surface. Top of the nose, between 
and around the eyes, anterior edge of hand, and outer edge of 
foot, pale yellowish-white. Said by the collector (Mr. Paul 
Schumacher) to have just shed its coat. A nearly adult male 
(M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5785), taken at 'the same date, is dull dark 
yellowish-brown, passing into blackish-brown on the limbs and 
ventral surface ; around base of hind limbs and tail and behind 
the axillae nearly black. A third (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5788) is 
dingy yellowish-brown, lighter on top of head, hind neck, and 
over the shoulders, and darker posteriorly, beneath, and on the 
limbs, where the color becomes very dark chestnut-brown, and 
blackish around the eyes and nostrils. A fourth, a very old male 
(M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5786), is dark yellowish-brown above, varied 
with dusky, and with small dots and narrow streaks of white, 
the white streaks and spots indicating the position of wounds 
received in fighting. A large whitish spot on the back of the 
neck.* Lower surface pale yellowish posteriorly, passing into 
darker anteriorly. A sixth (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5677), an adult 
female, has the body everywhere dark yellowish-brown, passing 
into darker on the limbs and ventral surface. Still another 
(M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5785), a nearly full-grown male, differs from 
the foregoing in being light yellowish on the chin and about 
the mouth, very dark or blackish on the throat and sides of 
neck ; breast yellowish-white ; sides of body and ventral sur- 
face very pale yellowish- white, as is also the central portion of 
upper surface of both fore and hind limbs ; top of head and 
greater part of dorsal surface very dark brown or blackish, 
slightly varied with white ; shoulders and breast washed with 
gray ; edges of the flippers very dark brown. 

* Iu this specimen the atlas is firmly anchyiosed with Hit- skull, the result, 
doubtless, of injury in early life, to which, perhaps, this whitish spot is due 



278 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

Three specimens observed alive in Central Park, New York 
City, in April, 1878, differed very much in color. One (a male) 
was qnite pure gray along the back, rather darker on the sides y 
and yellowish-gray on sides of belly ; throat and breast pale 
yellowisli-brown ; ventral surface and limbs dark brown ; sides 
of nose pale yellowish-white. Another (male) was dark brown 
varied with black. The third (female) was deep brownish-yel- 
low on the throat and breast, blackish over the ventral surface 
and limbs ; general color above, deep brownish-black. 

Captain Scammon says:* "The color of the adult male is- 
much diversified ; individuals of the same rookery being quite 
black, with scattering hairs tipped with dull white, while others 
are of a reddish-brown, dull gray, or of light gray above, darker 
below. The adult female is not half the bulk of the male, and 
its color is light brown.' 1 He refers particularly to one speci- 
men as being " black above, a little lighter below, with scatter- 
ing hairs of light brown or dull white." 

YOUNG. Captain Scammon. says: u The young pups, or 
whelps, are of a slate or black color, and the yearlings of a 
chestnut-brown." In the Museum of Comparative Zoology are 
several young specimens taken at the Santa Barbara Islands 
by Mr. Paul Schumacher (M. C. Z. Coll., Nos. 5678 and 5679) 
that are everywhere nearly uniform dark reddish-brown. The 
skulls show that they were quite young, the milk canines and 
last milk superior molars on each side being still in place ; they 
were probably not more than two or three months old. The 
Museum also has a foetal specimen, received from the same lo- 
cality and collector. In this (M. C. Z. Coll., 'No. 5839) the body 
is nearly uniform dark gray, with the top and sides of the head 
and the nape darker. Nose and face, to and around the eyes, 
black. Limbs brownish-black. The whiskers are mostly gray- 
ish-white, dusky at the base ; some of the shorter ones entirely 
blackish. 

PELAGE. In the adult animal the pelage is short, stiff, and 
harsh, especially the new hair about the time of the moult. 

* Under the .head of " Eumetopias slellerl" (Marine Mam., p. 128), but, judg- 
ing from the context, I thiuk his remarks are based on the Sea Lions of the 
Santa Barbara Islands, and really refer to the present species. The speci- 
mens sent by him to the National Museum under this name from these islands 
are really Zalophus calif orn ianus. He spent much time at these islands, and 
his only detailed reference to the animals as seen by him in life relates to 
these islands and unquestionably to this species. 



SIZE. 279 

Tn the foetal specimen the pelage is longer, and very soft to the 
touch, feeling like fur, but is simply soft straight hair, not at 
all like the uuderfur of the Fur Seals, or even the first coat of 
CallorMnus ursintis, under the long soft hair of which is an 
abundance of soft silky uuderfur. In the foetal Zalophus a 
very slight admixture of fine curly underfur can be detected on 
close inspection ; but in no sense is the first coat in this species 
comparable, in respect to underfur, with the first coat in the 
Fur Seals. In the older specimens of Zalophus, above described, 
which have already acquired their second coat, the pelage is 
still longer and softer than in the adults. 

SIZE. I am unable to give the dimensions of very old males- 
A male (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5780), in which the crests of the 
skull are well developed, and the teeth slightly worn, but which 
is evidently only middle-aged, gives the following measure- 
ments : Total length from nose to end of tail* 2160 mm. ; to end 
of outstretched hind-flippers, 2542 mm. (collector's measurement 
from fresh specimen, "8 ft. 4 in."); hind foot (from body), 
380 mm.; fore foot (from, axilla), 360 mm. ; tail, 1.10 mm; ear, 
35 mm. ; longest whisker, 225 mm. The collector gives the girth 
behind the axillae as 1337 mm. ("4 ft, 5 in."). Another speci- 
men (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5789, young male),"with the crests of the 
skull wholly undeveloped, gives a length from nose to end of tail 
of 2140 mm. ; to end of outstretched hind limbs, 2480 mm. (col- 
lector's measurement from fresh specimen, "8 ft. 2 in."); hind- 
flipper, 340 mm. ; fore-flipper (from axilla), 370 mm. ; tail, 80 mm. ; 
ear, 33 mm. ; longest whisker, 190 mm. The collector gives the 
girth behind the axilla) as 1220 mm. (" 4 ft."). 

A fully-adult female (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5787) gives a length 
(from tip of nose to end of tail) of 1800 mm.; to end of out- 
stretched hind-flippers, 2054 mm. (collector's measurement from 
fresh specimen, "6 ft. 9 in."); girth behind axilla?, 1247mm. (col- 
lector's measurement, "3 ft. 9 in."); hind-flipper, 270 mm.; fore- 
flipper, 310 mm.; tail, 70mm.; ear, 30 mm.; longest whisker, 
110 mm. 

Another adult female (M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5788) gives the fol- 
lowing: Nose to end of tail, 1570 mm.; nose to end of outstretched 

* This measurement is by estimate based on the collector's measurement 
of the total length to end of outstretched hind-flipper, taken from the fresh 
specimen, the calculation being based on a study of the skeleton. The 
total length of head and body, as taken from the mounted specimen, is 
obviously much too short. 



280 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

hind-flippers, 1996 mm. (collector's measurement from fresh speci- 
men, "6 ft. 7 in."); girth "behind axilla, 1068 mm. (collector's 
measurement, "3 ft. 6 in.") ; tail 80 mm.; ear, 34 mm.; longest 
whisker, 100 mm. The skeleton of an adult female (M. C. Z. 
Coll., No. 6) has a total length to end of tail of 1706 mm. ; to end 
of phalanges of hind flipper, 1908 mm. 

The collector's measurements of the young (two or three 
months' old) specimens are : Male, nose to end of outstretched 
hind-flippers, "4 ft," (1220 mm.); girth, "2 ft." (610 mm.). 
Female, nose to end of outstretched hind-flippers, "3 ft. 8 in." 
(1120 mm.) ; girth, I ft. 11 in." (583 mm.). The foetal specimen 
(M. C. Z. Coll., No. 5839, stuffed), already described, measures 
from nose to end of tail 850 mm.; from nose to end of out- 
stretched hind-flippers, 970 mm. ; hind-flippers (from heel), 
115 mm.; fore-flipper (from axilla), 200 mm.; tail, 45 mm.; 
ear, 25 mm.; longest whisker, 55 mm. 

Captain Scammon gives the following measurements of " Sea 
Lions," taken at Santa Barbara Island in April and May, 
1871-73. They include an " adult female " (column 1); a male 
(column 2), " about ten months old," taken April 4, 1872 ; a 
female (column 3), "supposed to be a yearling"; and "a new- 
born female Sea Lion pup " (column 4), taken May 3, 1873. 





1* 


2t 


s: 


4 


Length from tip of nose to end of hind-flippers 


ft. in. 
6 4 


ft. in. 

4 10 


ft. in. 
4 10 


/(. in. 
2 4 


Length from tip of nose to base of tail 




3 10* 


3 10* 


1 11 


Length of hind-flippers ... .... ... 


1 i 


11$ 


11 


5J 


Length of fore-flippers. ........... 


1 4 


1 3 


1 2i 


7 


Girth behind axillap 


3 3 


9 g 


o 7 


1 3 


Girth at base of hind-flippers 


1 6 


11J 


1 i 


6| 


From tip of nose to eye 


3 a 


3A 


3 


U 


From tip of nose to ear 


n 8 


n ? 


6 


4 


Len^li of ear 


n i 1 


1 


li 




Length of tail 


n ' 


2J 


U 1J 

91 


I 1 


Length of longest whiskers 


6 


5^ 






From base of tail to posterior teats 


1 2 








From base of tail to anterior teats 


1 10 






! 


Distance between posterior teats 


5 








Distance between anterior teats 


8 








Thickness of blubber 




OAl 


OA3 


Onl 













* Adult female. 

t Male, teu months old. 

t Female, aboiit one year old. 

Female, newly born. 



SIZE. 281 

Measurement* of the Skeleton of an Adult Female.* 

mm. 

Whole length, of skeleton (including skull) 1706 

Length of skull 236 

Length of cervical vertebrae 320 

Length of dorsal vertebrae 640 

Length of lumbar vertebrae 230 

Length of caudal vertebrae (+ sacral) 280 

Length of first rib, total 140 

Length of first rib, osseous portion 75 

Length of first rib, cartilaginous portion 65 

Length of second rib, total 173 

Length of second rib, osseous portion 100 

Length of second rib, cartilaginous portion 73 

Length of third rib, total 240 

Length of third rib, osseous portion 158 

Length of third rib, cartilaginous portion 82 

Length of fourth rib, total 280 

Length of fourth rib, osseous portion 185 

Length of fourth rib, cartilaginous portion 95 

Length of fifth rib, total 335 

Length of fifth rib, osseous portion 220 

Length of fifth rib, cartilaginous portion 115 

Length of sixth rib, total 370 

Length of sixth rib, osseous portion 250- 

Length of sixth rib, cartilaginous portion 120 

Length of seventh rib. total 395 

Length of seventh rib, osseous portion 270 

Length of seventh rib, cartilaginous portion 125 

Length of eighth rib, total 445 

Length of eighth rib, osseous portion 295 

Length of eighth rib, cartilaginous portion 150 

Length of ninth rib, total 445 

Length of ninth rib, osseous portion 290 

Length of ninth rib, cartilaginous portion 155 

Length of tenth rib, total 430 

Length of tenth rib, osseous portion 280 

Length of tenth rib, cartilaginous portion 150 

Length of eleventh rib, total , 413 

Length of eleventh rib, osseous portion 280 

Length of eleventh rib, cartilaginous portion 133 

Length of twelfth rib, total 395 

Length of twelfth rib, osseous portion 260 

Length of twelfth rib, cartilaginous portion 135 

Length of thirteenth rib, total 362 

Length of thirteenth rib, osseous portion 247 

Length of thirteenth rib, cartilaginous portion 115 

Length of fourteenth rib, total 310 

Length of fourteenth rib, osseous portion 215 



No. 6159, Collection of Museum of Comparative Zoology. 



282 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

mm. 

Length of fourteenth rib, cartilaginous portion 95 

Length of fifteenth rib, total 220 

Length of fifteenth rib, osseous portion 180 

Length of fifteenth rib, cartilaginous portion 40 

Length of sternum, ossified portion 550 

Length of sternum, 1st segment 110 

Length of sternum, 2d segment 50 

Length of sternum, 3d segment 53 

Length of sternum, 4th segment 5( i 

Length of sternum, 5th segment 4tr 

Length of sternum, 6th segment 47 

Length of sternum, 7th segment 46 

Length of .sternum, 8th segment 38 

Length of sternum, 9th segment 55 

Length of scapula 180 

Greatest breadth of scapula 250 

Greatest height of its spine 18 

Length of humerus 155 

Antero-posterior diameter of proximal end of humerus 63 

Transverse diameter of proximal end of humerus ( i."> 

Transverse diameter of distal end of humerus 57 

Length of radius 155 

Length of ulna 194 

Longest diameter of upper end of ulna 07 

Length of carpus 40 

Length of 1 st metacarpus and its digit 218 

Length of 2d metacarpus and its digit 1 ^ 

Length of 3d metacarpus and its digit 150 

Length of 4th metacarpus and its digit 120 

Length of 5th metacarpus and its digit '-" > 

Width of mauus at base of metacarpals , 80 

Total length of fore limb (excluding scapula) - r >68 

Length of femur -. 90 

Longest diameter of proximal end of femur 46 

Longest diameter of distal end of femur 48 

Least autero-posterior diameter of shaft of femur 13 

Length of tibia 185 

Length of tarsus 40 

Length of 1st metatarsus and its digit 222 

Length of 2d metatarsus and its digit 187 

Length of 3d metatarsus and its digit 180 

Length of 4th metatarsus and its digit 180 

Length of 5th metatarsus and its digit 183 

Width of pes at base of metatarsals ">7 

Total length of hind limb 537 

Length of innominate bone 170 

Greatest width of pelvis anteriorly 100- 

Length of ilium 70 

Length of isehio-pubic bones l (l(l 



SKULL. 283 

Matxmrments of the Metacarpal and Phalangeal Bones of an Adult Female* 





1st digit. 


I'd digit. 


3d digit. 


4th digit. 


5th digit. 


Length of inanus to end of 


258 


26 


187 


147 


112 


Length of nietacarpal of 


90 


58 


55 


48 


42 


Length of 1st phalanx of 


78 


CC 


55 


35 


31 
dl 


Length of 2d phalanx of 


50 


47 


36 


23 


15 


Length of 3d phalanx of 




9 


15 


I 9 


10 















Measurements of the Metatarsal and Phalangeal Hones of an Adult Female.* 





1st digit. 


2d digit. 


3d digit. 


4th digit. 


5th digit. 


Length of pes (posterior end of os 
calcis) to end of 


280 


2CO 


9 55 


50 


950 


Length of metacarpal of 


79 


61 


60 


60 


65 


Length of 1st phalanx of 


75 


60 




54 


*W 


Length of 2d phalanx of 


40 


46 


48 


48 


37 


Length of 3d phalanx of 




16 


16 


16 


oo 


Length of nail of 




16 


18 


15 

















SKULL. The skull in Zaloplius calif ornianus, as compared 
with the skull in allied genera, is remarkable for the narrow- 
ness and great elongation of the facial portion, which is even 
much more elongated and slenderer than in Arctoccplialus. In 
its general configuration (excepting, of course, the great devel- 
opment of the sagittal and occipital crests in the very old males) 
it more resembles the Arctocephaliue type than any other. 
The maximum breadth (i. <?., at the zygomata) in the females 
barely equals or falls a little short of half the length, while in 
the old males it rather exceeds this proportion. In very old males 
the crests of the skull are enormously developed, and, con- 
trary to what usually obtains in the other genera of this family, 
are considerably developed in very old females. The superior 
outline (in old males) slopes rapidly from the high sagittal 
crest to the end of the nasals. The postorbital processes are 
long and rather narrow, and are directed backward in old age; 
the nasals are long and narrow, decreasing in width posteriorly. 
The superior edge of the intermaxilla? is very narrow, and is 
prolonged backward nearly to the middle of the nasals. The 
postorbital cylinder is long and narrow, and often abruptly 
contracted posteriorly. The bony palate is nearly flat, but little 
depressed, and is rather deeply emarginate posteriorly. The 
*Specirnen No. 6159, Coll. Mus. Conip. Zoology. 



284 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

palato-niaxillary suture is about opposite the hinder edge of 
the last inolar. The pterygoid hamuli are small. The posterior 
uarial opening is wider than deep ; the anterior has these two 
dimensions about equal. 

In Zaloplim the superior aspect of the skull, before the devel- 
opment of the crest, is strikingly like that of Arctoceplialns, as 
indeed is also the inferior aspect, aside from the dental for- 
mula. In Zaloplius the auditory bulla? are rather less swollen 
than in ArGtocephalus, but in all other respects there is a strik- 
ing resemblance. The anteorbital portion of the skull, how- 
ever, is more attenuated, and relatively much longer. With 
this exception there is little difference in the general confor- 
mation of the skull in middle-aged females of these two genera, 
while both differ widely from Otaria, Eumetopias, and CallorM- 
nus. The great development of the crests of the skull late in 
life in Zalophus gives it at that time a highly peculiar confor- 
mation. 



SKULL. 



285 



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groans AJBIII 


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28G ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALTFORNIAN SEA LION. 

DENTITION. The teeth in Zaloplms are all strongly devel- 
oped and very firmly implanted. All are single-rooted except 
the last molar, which is imperfectly double- rooted. The molars 
all have a distincly beaded cingnlnni on the inner side. The 
lower molars and the fifth and sometimes the fourth upper 
molars have a small but distinct anterior cusp. The canines 
and the incisors present the usual form seen among the Otaries. 

The teeth of a middle-aged male skull present the following 
measurements : 

Measurements of the Teeth. 
A. TEETH OF THE UPPER JAW. 





Molars. 


Canines. 


Incisors. 


5th. 


4th. 


3d. 


2d. 


1st. 


Outer. 


Middle. 


Inner. 


Antero-posterior diameter. 


9 

7 

8 


9 

7 
8.5 


10 
9 
10 


10 
8 
9.5 


7 
5 
9 


17 
13 
26 


6 

4 
15 


5 
3 
5 


5 
2.5 

4 


Height of crown ...... 





B. TEETH OF THE LOWER JAW. 





Molars. 


Canines. 


Incisors. 


5th. 


4th. 


3d. 


2d. 


1st. 


Outer. 


Inner. 


Antero-posterior diameter . . 
Transverse diameter . . 


9 
6.5 

8 


12 
8 
9 


11 
9 
9 


10 
7 
7.5 


8 
7 
6 


18 
11 
25 


5 
6 
6 


4 
4 
5 


Height of crown 





The molars are usually closely approximated, but sometimes 
there is a small space between the two hindermost of the series, 
and occasionally they are all slightly and evenly spaced. The 
hinder edge of the last upper molar is generally anterior to or 
about even with the posterior border of the zygomatic process 
of the maxillary. When more than five upper molars are pres- 
ent, the sixth or supernumerary is posterior to the fifth, and is 
usually smaller than the fifth (sometimes almost rudimentary) 
and lacks the accessory cusps seen in the fifth. 

The milk dentition (fully represented in three skulls before 
me and partly so in five others) does not differ from that of the 
other species of the family, and has been already fully described 
(see antea, p. 223). 



VARIATION WITH AGE. 287 

SEXUAL DIFFERENCES. From the testimony of Captain 
Scanimou, and from the material I have been able to examine, 
the female differs from the male in color in being rather lighter, 
or of a more yellowish-brown. The most notable difference is 
in size, the female being- very nmch the smaller, but not quite 
so great a sexual disparity in size obtains in this species as 
in Eumetopias stelleri and Ccdlorliinm ursimis.* Unfortunately 
the material at my command will not enable me to give full 
statistics on this point. Most of the male specimens in a large 
series sent to the Museum of Comparative Zoology, by Mr. 
Schumacher, from Santa Barbara Islands, are young or middle- 
aged, only one having the teeth perceptibly worn or the crests 
of the skull very highly developed. A comparison of very old 
skulls of both sexes shows that nearly the usual amount of sex- 
ual variation in size common to the Otaries obtains in the pres- 
ent species. The table of measurements (on page 285) of ten 
skulls five male and five female all fully adult and most of 
them very old, gives all the information I am able to offer re- 
specting sexual variation in size. 

As usual in this group, the dental armature (especially the 
canines and cauiuiform incisors) is much weaker in the female 
than in the male, by means of which the skulls of females can 
be readily distinguished from those of males of about the same 
size. The whole skull is slighter and weaker, and all the pro- 
cesses and ridges for the attachment of muscles much less devel- 
oped. There are, however, in very old female skulls, distinct, 
but comparatively low, and thin sagittal and occipital crests, 
which attain the height of 3 to G mm., while in the males they 
sometimes rise to 35 or 40 mm. The limbs are also much weaker 
and slenderer, as of course are all the bones of the skeleton. 

VARIATION WITH AGE. As already noticed, the color of the 
young at birth is dark gray or slaty, and the pelage has at this 
time a delicate softness, due to the silky texture of the hair. 
The pelage is wholly devoid of a second coat of true under- fur, 
like that of the Fur Seals, but from its softness might readily 
be mistaken on casual observation for true fur. This is very 
soon replaced by a coarser and harsher, but still quite soft 
pelage, in comparison with that of adults, of nearly uniform 
chestnut or dark reddish-brown color. This is succeeded by the 
Jiarsh, stiff pelage of the middle-aged and adult animals. 

* See antea, p. 226. 



288 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 






The skull changes greatly iu its proportions with age. The 
capacity of the brain-case does not greatly increase after birth, 
it enlarging mainly by the thickening of its walls. The ante- 
rior half of the skull develops rapidly and alters very much in 
form. At birth the inter- and anteorbital portions of the skull 
are very short, they together forming rather less than half the 
length of the skull, while in full-grown skulls they comprise about 
two-thirds of its length. In a young skull (Kat. Mus., Xo. 15660, 
taken from an animal killed a few days after birth), which has 
a total length of 146 mm., the brain-case alone has a length of 
78 mm., the interorbital region* a length of 31 mm., and the ante- 
i orbital a length of 37 mm., giving a total length from the an- 
terior wall of the brain-case to the front border of the iutermax- 
illse of 68 mm. In this skull (as in several others before me of 
about the same age) the occipital coudyles are wholly anterior 
to the plane of the occiput. In a very old female skull (M. C. Z. 
Col., ISTo. 6150), with a total length of 233 mm., the occipital con- 
dyles project 15 mm. behind the occipital plane. Of the remain- 
ing 218 mm. of the length, the brain-case occupies 83 mm., the 
interorbital region 65 mm., and the auteorbital 71 mm., and the 
two regions together 136 mm. In the first the ratio of the 
length of the brain-case to that of the rest of the skull is as 78 
to 68 ; in the last as 83 to 136. In a middle-aged male skull, 
the total length is 282 mm., of which the coudylar extension is 
22 mm. Of the remaining 260 mm., the brain-case occupies 95 
mm., the interorbital region 78 mm., and the anteorbital 87 mm., 
making the proportionate length of the brain-case to the rest of 
the skull as 95 to 165. The ratios between the different regions 
in these three skulls are as follows : 





Young. 


Female. 


Male. 


Eatio of brain-case to whole skull 


53. 5 100 


33. fr 100 


33. 7 100 


Ratio of interorbitcil region to "whole rknll 


21. 2 100 


28 100 


30. 85 100 


Ratio of anteorbital re"ion to whole slull .^ 


25. 3 100 


30.5100 


27. CG 100 


Coudylar extension to whole skull 




G 100 


7. 7 _100 











The width of the brain-case in these skulls is respectively 
90 mm., 97 mm., and 107 mm. 

In adult skulls the breadth of the interorbital region is rela- 
tively, and generally absolutely, much less in adult skulls than 
at birth, and the point of greatest constriction is placed much 

*That is, the narrow portion of the skull bounded laterally by the tempo- 
ral fossae and orbits. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 289 

more posteriorly, being in the adult at the posterior end of the 
temporal fossa 3 , arid in the young at the orbits. The breadth 
of the skull just in front of the brain-box in very young skulls 
(those taken a few days after birth) is 40 to 42 mm., in those 
three or four mouths old, 38 mm. ; in adult females, usually 22 to 
30 mm. ; in adult males, about 30 to 35 mm. The amount of con- 
striction varies somewhat in adult skulls of the same sex, the 
constriction increasing with the advance of age. There is a 
corresponding contraction posteriorly of the palatal region. In 
very young skulls, the palate is widest at the pterygoid ha- 
mnli ; in those a few mouths old it is nearly straight, but later 
in life becomes narrowed posteriorly, the contraction being- 
greatest in aged specimens, in which the width at the pterygoid 
hamuli is a third less than it is at the last molar. 

The crests of the skull do not begin to develop until the ani- 
mal reaches adult size, and attain their highest development in 
very old specimens. In a series of thirty skulls, ouly two have 
the crests remarkably developed, these being the two old male 
skulls described by me in 1870.* In ouly one of the skulls of 
the series, aside from the two above mentioned, are the teeth 
much worn. The two very old skulls show, by their large size 
and rugose character, that the deposition of bony matter is 
continued to a very late period in life. 

COMPARISON WITH ALLIED SPECIES. Zalophns californianus 
is too distinct in cranial characters and dentition to require com- 
parison with any of the Hair Seals of other genera, while its 
pelage and color afford obvious points of difference from the 
Fur Seals. As respects the conformation of the skull, it finds 
its nearest allies in Arctoccphalus, from which, however, it is 
readily distinguished by its more elongated muzzle and dental 
formula. It appears to closely resemble its congener, Z. lobatus, 
both in size and color. Having no specimens of that species 
at command, I am unable to state the points of difference be- 
tween the two. The descriptions and figures of Z. lobatus indi- 
cate their close alliance. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The exact boundaries of 
the habitat of Zalopltus californianus cannot at present be given. 
The only specimens I have seen are from the coast of California 
and its islands, from San Diego and San Xicolas Island north- 
ward to the Bay of San Francisco. Captain Scammou (see 

*Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, p. 69; see ineasiirements at p. 70. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 19 



290 ZALOPHUS CALIFOENIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

infra, pp. 301, 302) twice alludes incidentally to its presence 
"along the Mexican and Californian coasts," and Dr. Veatch 
states that "Sea Lions" (which he calls " Otaria jiibata, but 
which are, almost beyond doubt, the present species) had 
populous breeding stations twenty years ago, and doubtless 
have still, on Cerros or Cedros Island, in about the latitude of 
28 J, off the Lower California coast. Whether they occur south- 
ward of this point at the present time I am unable to state, but 
should infer that such was the case from Scauiinou's allusion 
to their capture along the "Mexican" coast. In any case, it 
appears probable that in Darnpier's time they ranged as far 
south as the Chametly and Tres Marias Islands, respectively 
in latitudes about 23 and 21, at which points he saw "Seals" 
in the year 1G86. In describing the Chametly Islands (the most 
northerly of the two groups mentioned by him under this name), 
situated off the West coast of Mexico in latitude 23 11', he 
says: "The Bays about the Islands are sometimes visited with 
Seals; and this was the first place where I had seen any of 
these Animals, on the North side of the Equator, in these Seas. 
For the Fish on this sandy Coast lye most in the Lagunes or 
Salt-Lakes, and Mouths of Elvers; For this being no rocky 
Coast, where Fish resort most, there seems to be but little Food 
for the Seals, unless they will venture upon Cat-Fish."* 

He also met with Seals at the Tres Marias Islands (in lati- 
tude "21 5'"), and consequently two degrees south of the Cha- 
metly Islands, in describing one of which islands, named by 
him St. George's Island, he says: "The Sea is also pretty well 
stored with Fish, and Turtle or Tortoise, and Seal. This is the 
second place on this Coast where I did see any Seal : and this 
place helps to confirm what I have observed, that they are sel- 
dom seen but where there is plenty of Fish."t 

It is of course not certain that the Seals here alluded to are 
Zaloplius californianusj since the Sea Elephant of the Califor- 
nia coast also occurs at Cedros Island, and probably still further 
south, the two species having apparently about the same range. 
If they had been the latter, Dainpier would probably have made 
some allusion to their large size. 

The species of Zaloplius occurring in Japan has been by some 
writers considered to be the same as the Califoruian one ; but, 
though doubtless closely allied, its affinities, as will be noticed 

* A New Voyage round the World, 5tli ed., vol. i, 1703, pp. 2C3, 264. 
tlbid., p. 276. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 291 

later (see infra, p. 293), appear to be not as yet satisfactorily 
determined. As Zalophus caMfornianus has not yet been detec- 
ted on the American coast north of California, its occurrence 
on the Asiatic coast seeins hardly to be expected. 

GENERAL HISTORY. This species has hitherto been believed 
to be free from any serious complications of synonymy, and to 
have been first brought to the notice of the scientific world by 
M'Bain in 1858. The only synonym hitherto quoted has been 
Otaria stelleri, "Schlegel" (/. e., Temminck), which Dr. Peters* 
stated, after an examination of the original specimens preserved 
in the Leyden museum, to be identical with the 0. (lillevpU of 
M'Bain. A re-examiuatiou of the subject, in the light of much 
new information and material, shows that the first notice of the 
species was published by Choris in 1822, under the name of 
"Lion marin de la Califoruie,'' who gave a rather poor figure 
of it in plate XI of his chapter entitled "Port San-Francisco et 
ses Habitants." As already stated under the head of Eume- 
topias stelleri, his only reference to it in the text of this chapter 
is as follows: "Les rochers, dans le voisinage de la bale San- 
Francisco sout ordinairement converts de lions marins, pi. XI." 
In his account of the Aleutian Islands, however, he again refers to 
it, and clearly indicates its characteristic external features. He 
says: "Ces auimaux [Lions marins] sont aussi tres-cominuus an 
port de San -Francisco, sur la cote de Califoruie, on on les voit 
en noinbre prodigieux sur les rochers de la baie. Cette espece 
m'a paru so distinguer de ceux qui frequenteut les iles Aleou- 
tieunes ; elle a le corps plus fluet et plus allonge, et la tete plus 
fine : quant a le couleur, elle passe fortement an brim, taudis 
que ceux des iles Aleontieunes sout d'uue couleur plus grise, 
out le corps plus roud, les uiouvemeuts plus difficiles, la tete 
plus grosse et plus epaisse; la couleur du poil des moustaches 
plus uoiratre que celui des iles Aleoutieunes."t 

The importance of this reference turns upon its being an explicit 
indication of the character of his "Lion inarm de la Californie," 
the subject of "PI. XI"; this being, as is well known, the basis 
of Lesson's Otaria californiana, which has hitherto been re- 
ferred to Eumetopias stelleri, but -which is really the same as 
the so-called Zalophus gillesp.ii. Lesson says: "Cette espece, 
d'apres la figure de Choris, a le pelage ras, uniforinernent fauve- 
brunatre, les moustaches pen fournies ; le niuseau assez pointu ; 

*Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, p. 669. 
tVoy. pittoresque, Iles Al^outiennes, p. 15. 



292 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

les membres anterieurs sont re gutters, plus grands que les pos- 
terieurs. Cinq rudiinens d'ougles occnpent I'extremite des 
phalanges, et sont debordes par nne large bande de la mem- 
brane. Les pieds posterieurs sont minces, ayant trois ongles ail 
milieu et deux rudiinens d'ongles internes et externes. Cinq 
festons lanceoles et etroits de"passent de cinq a sex ponces les 
ongles. La queue est tre"s-courte. Des cotes de la Calif ornie." * 
His sole reference is "jeune Lion maiin de la Californie, Choris, 
Voy. pittoresq., pi. 11," and his description seems to be based 
wholly upon this figure. Immediately preceding this is his 
description of the " Otarie de Steller, Otaria Steller ii, 1ST. ; Lion 
Marin, Leo marinus, Steller, <le Bestiis Marinis," etc., which 
closes with "Peut-etre FOtarie de Steller est-il identique avec 
1'Otarie suivant?" While it may be urged that the Eumetopias 
stclleri also occurs in San Francisco Bay, Choris does not seem 
to have recognized it there, while he did observe a species that 
seemed to him to be different from the Sea Lions and Sea Bears 
of the Aleutian Islands, and in describing these differences he 
has indicated most clearly the distinctive points of difference, as 
seen in the living animals, between these species. Furthermore, 
it turns out that the Zalophus gillespii, auct., is still the common 
species of that locality and of the California coast generally. 
On this point Mr. Elliott, who has had ample opportunity of 
observing both species in life, t says: "I have no hesitation 
in putting this Eumetopias of the Prybilov Islands apart from 
the Sea Lion common at San Francisco and Santa Barbara, as a 
distinct animal," but adds, " I am not to be understood as saying 
that all the Sea Lions met with on the Californian coast are dif- 
ferent from E. stelteri of Bering Sea. I am well satisfied that 
stragglers from the north are down on the Farallones, but they 
are not migrating back and forth every season; and I am fur- 
thermore certain that not a single animal of the species most 
common at San Francisco was present among those breeding on 
the Prybilov Islands in 1S72-'73. W J 

If I am right in considering the Zalophus gillespii, auct., as 
identical with Otaria californiana of Lesson, of which I think 
there is no reasonable doubt, the synonymy of this species has 
narrowly escaped further complications, Dr. Gill, in his first 
mention of Eumetopias, saying: "Type, Otaria californiana 

*Dict. class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 420. 

tl have in liaiid colored drawings of both species, made by Mm from life,, 
wliich he has kindly placed at my disposal. 
t Cond. of Affairs in Alaska, p. 158. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 293 

Lesson = Arctocephalus monteriensis Gray." But he cites as 
type of Zalophus, in the same connection, " Otaria Gillcspii 
Macbaiu," and subsequently, in the same paper, so character- 
izes his genera ^Eumetopias and Zaloplim as to leave no doubt 
that Eumetopias relates to the Otaria stelleri of Miiller, and 
Zalo2)hitstothQ Otaria gillespii of M'Bain. He further says that 
his Eumetopias californianus "is identical with the Otaria 
monteriensis of Gray, and possibly also with Otaria Stelleri 
Miiller."* 

The Otaria stelleri of the Fauna Japouica is unquestionably 
a Zalophus and not a Eumetopias, but is probably not identical 
with the Zalophus of the California coast, although, as already 
stated, so considered by Peters, t Not only do the skulls 
figured by Teminiuck show that the species is not Eumetopias 
stelleri, but his comparative remarks respecting its relationship 
to 0. jubata indicate unmistakably the same thing. Although 
I at one time accepted Peters' s determination of Teinminck's 
Otaria stelleri, a subsequent examination, in the light of much 
new material and information, has led me to doubt its correct- 
ness. The range of Zalophus californianus (=()iUcspii) has not 
been reported as extending northward on the American coast 
beyond California, and no specimens of this species (except one 
cited by Gray, the identification of which seems open to ques- 
tion) have been thus far recognized from Japan or any portion 
of the Asiatic coast. Teminiuck, with good series of the Japan 
species and of the Zalophus lobatus before him (he seems not to 
have had the true E. stelleri}, was unable to recognize any ap- 
preciable differences between them. In comparing his Otaria 
stelleri with the Otaria austraUs of Quoy and Gaimard, he says: 
"Tin crane absolurnent semblable a celui figure par les voyageurs 
dont nous venous de parler [Quoy et Gaimard] a e"te decrit sous 
le noin d'Arctocephalus lobatus, par Gray, Spic. Zool., I, p. 1, 
pi. 4, fig. 2 et 2 a ; ce crane proveuant de la collection de feu 
Brookes fait maiuteuant partie du Musee des Pays-Bas ; il ne 
se distingue en effet par aucun caractere essentiel de celui de 

* Proc. Essex lust., v, 1866, pp. 7, 11, and 13 (footnote). 

t Peters says: "Uebrigeus zweifle ich jetzt auch gar nicht uielir daran, 
dass 0. GilUespu Macbaiii und 0. japonica Schlegel [Ms. = O. stelleri, Fauna 
Japonica] zu derselbeu Art geuoren, da die Schadel beider uiclit allein in der 
Form, sonderu auch in der Grosse rniteiuander iibereinstiuimeu. Denu der 
alte Schiidel von 0. Gilliespii 1st O. m 295 laiig, wiihrend alte Schadel des 
Leideuer Museums von 0. japonica O. m 270 bis O. m 310 laug sind." Monatsl). 
J.kad. Berlin, 1666, p. 669. 



294 ZALOPHUS CALiFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

FOtaria australis et de ceux de POtarie de Steller, tires de nos 
individus du Japon. Le Musee des Pays-Bas enfin vieut de 
recevoir, comine nous 1'avons constate plus haut, un tres jeuno 
iudividu d'une Otarie, prise sur leg iles Houtman pres de la 
cote occideutale de la Nouvelle Hollande, et qui ne parait differer 
ni de 1'Otarie australe de Quoy et Gaimard, ni du Lion inarm de 
Steller. II parait resulter de ces donnees que 1'Otarie de Steller 
n'habite pas seulernent le uord de Focean pacifique, niais qu'elle 
se trouve aussi dans les parties australes de cette mer."* It 
appears to me probable that if we change the phrase "1'Otarie 
de Steller" in the last sentences above quoted to read Zalo- 
plius lobatus, we have the case correctly stated.t Indeed, Gray, 
in his earlier papers (down to 1866), positively referred the 
Otaria stelleri of Teinminck to his ArctocepJiahis lobatus. Later $ 
he says it "includes both the Australian Eared Seals, viz, 
Arctoceplialm clnereus and Neoplioca loba ta? but finally doubt- 

*Faun. Jap., Mam. Marius, p. 8. 

t. Just what Tenmiinck's young skulls referred to Otaria stelleri are seems 
not so clear, they Laving six superior molars on each side. As elsewhere 
stated, I have found supernumerary molars in about one skull in ten in adult 
specimens .of Zalophiis californianus, and occasionally in other species of 
Eared Seals, but Temminck describes all his four young skulls as having 
each six superior molars on each side, or alveoli indicating their recent 
presence, but the probabilities are entirely against the sixth being super- 
numerary. In referring to his" Otaria ste/to'i,"he says: "la sixieme molaire 
de la machoire superieure est sujette a tomber al'e"poque de 1'apparition des 
dents permanents," and gives this as one of the characters which distin- 
guish it from 0. julata. What he had before him is hard to recognize, for 
the skulls he described had long passed the age when all traces of the tem- 
porary dentition are lost. It is only supposable that the young skulls be- 
longed to some six-molared species ; for no species of Otary is known to 
lose at any stage the hinder pair of upper permanent molars, and thus 
undergo a change in the dental formula from M. |^-.- to M. 4-^| At one 
time (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, p. 62) I thought it probable that the 
young skull here figured (as well as the other young skulls Temmiuck de- 
scribes) might have been that of CallorJiinus ursimis, but the form of the 
nasals and the frontal extension of the intermaxillaries in the one figured 
show that such could not have been the case. Dr. Gray at one time re- 
ferred it without doubt to Arctocephahts cinereus, which is probably its cor- 
rect allocation, although later he doubtfully assigned it to his Pkocarctos 
i-lontjaim (Hand-List, 1874, p. 31), but a little further on in the same work 
(p. 4-2) lie says, "figures 5 and 6 [of Temminck's plate xxii] are evidently 
(imwopliora," but thinks they may belong to an undescribed species. 

tSuppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, p. 24. 
$ Hand-List of Seals, 1876, p. 42. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 295 

fully accepted Peters's reference of it to the Zalophus gillespii. 
Peters himself first (in 18G7) referred the species (except the 
figure of the young skulls) to ZalopJius lobatm, which were as- 
signed to Arctocephalus cinercus, but later, as above stated, he 
identified it with Zaloplnis gUlespii.* 

The references to this species are still very few. Aside from 
Choris's account, and Lesson's (based on Choris's) and Fischer's 
(based on Lesson's) and Temmiuck's, the first of importance is 
M'Bain's description of a skull from California in 1858, which 
specimen was redescribed and figured from a cast by Gray, in 
1859. Dr. Gray, as late as 1871, t appears to have seen only this 
specimen, but in 1874f cites (without full description) a "skull 
from Japan. Aside from this its Japan record still rests 
wholly on Dr. Peters's determination of "Schlegel's" (/. e., 
Temminck'sll) specimens in the Leyden Museum. Dr. Gill, in 
1806, had examined a skull from California in the museum of 
the Smithsonian Institution, which led him to separate the 
species generically from the other Eared Seals. This skull, 
and another (belonging to the museum of the Chicago Acad- 
emy of Sciences), also from California, I was able to describe in 
detail in 1870. ]\ These Californian skulls are the only ones thus 
far described, ** but Scammon, in his " Marine Mammalia," under 
the name li Eumetopias stelleri," has given detailed measure- 

*Monatsb. der Akad. der Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1866, (1867), pp. 272, 276, 
668. 

tSuppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, p. 28. 

I Hand-List of Seals, p. 41. 

$ "1589&. Skull, 12 inches long, with canines very large ; no other teeth ; 
no lower jaw ; frontal crest very high. Japan, 73. 3. 12. 1." 

|| Dr. Peters cites Schlegel as the author of that part of the "Fauna Ja- 
ponica" relating to the Mammals, although published as "par C. J. Tem- 
miuck." Misled by Peters, I made, the same error in my paper on the 
Eared Seals, published in 1870. 

H They were not figured in the regular edition of my paper on the Eared 
Seals (Bull. Mus. Cornp. Zool., vol. ii, No. 1), biit two photographic plates, 
representing both specimens, were added to afewof the author's copies (about 
twenty-five), which were sent to some of the more prominent workers in this 
field. These interpolated plates have been referred to by Dr. Gray (Hartd- 
List of Seals, p. 42) as though they formed a part of the original work. 

** During the last year, I may here add, as an indication of the amount of 
material relating to this species now accessible, that I have examined not 
less than a dozen skins, representing adults of both sexes, and young of 
various ages from a fcetal specimen upward, and more than twenty skulls, 
likewise embracing young, even with the milk dentition, and both sexes of 
various ages, aud two complete skeletons. 



296 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

ments of what I take to be examples of this species from, .the 
Faralloue and Santa Barbara Islands. * 

HABITS. Several more or less full accounts of the habits of 
the Californian Sea Lions have been given by different writers, 
who have, however, failed to distinguish the two species occur- 
ring along the Califoruiaii coast, and consequently their descrip- 
tions are not wholly satisfactory. The large Northern species 
certain! y occurs, and rears its young, as far south as the Faral 
loues, but probably exists there only in small numbers, while I 
have seen no evidence of its presence at Santa Barbara Island. 
Even Captain Scarnnion, in his account of the Sea Lions of 
California, has not distantly recognized the two species occur - 

* Captain Scainmou published his first account of the Sea Lions in the 
"Overland Monthly" magazine (vol. viii, pp. 26G-272, March, 1872), in an ar- 
t'n-lc entitled "About Sea Lions," which is .substantially the same as that in 
the " Marine Mammalia," with the omission of figures and about two pages 
of tabulated measurements and other details, based on specimens subse- 
quently obtained at the Farallone and Santa Barbara Islands. In a foot- 
note in the "Marine Mammalia" (p. 125), he refers to bis former article as 
follows: "Since the publication of the article 'About Sea Lions,' in the 
'Overland Monthly' of September, 1H71 [7er/e March, 1872!], we have had 
opportunity of making additional observations upon these animals at the 
Farallone Islands, where we saw the largest females we have ever met with 
on the California coast. Hence, what we have formerly taken to be the 
Eumetopias Stelleri may prove to be the Zalophus G-illesp'rit ; but if such be the 
fact, both species inhabit the coast of California, at least as far south as 
the Faralloues. Moreover, both species, if we may be allowed the expres- 
sion, herd together in the same rookeries. On making a series of observa- 
tions upon the outward forms of Sea Lions, it will be found that a confusing 
variety exists in the figures of these very interesting animals, especially in 
the shape of the head some having a short muzzle with a full forehead 
[Eumetopias stelleri'}] others with forehead and nose somewhat elongated 
[Zaloplius calif or manus=gillespi, auct.]; and still others of a modified shape, 
between the two extremes [. stelleri, female?]." In this connection it may 
be noted that four of the five specimens of which Captain Scammon gives 
measurements in the "Marine Mammalia," were taken after the publication 
of the article in the "Overland Monthly, "namely, No. 1, "full-grown male," 
Faralloues, July 17, 1872; No. 3,' male "about ten mouths old," Santa Bar- 
bara Island, April 4, 1872 ; No. 1 Z>is, female, supposed to be a yearling, and 
No. 2 bis, female, new-born pup, same locality, May 3, 1873. The other, No. 2 
(referred to in the " Overland Monthly" paper), adult female, Santa Barbara 
Island, April 12, 1871. The first (No. 1, full-grown male) I refer with little 
hesitation to E. stelleri, and the second (No. 2, adult female), to Z. califor- 
nianus, especially as I find skulls in the National Museum, received from 
Captain Scammon, agreeing respectively with these in locality, sex, and 



HABITS, 297 

ring there, and his description doubtless refers in part to both 
species, but unquestionably relates mainly to the present one.* 
His " Sketch of a sealing season upon Santa Barbara Island," 
in 1852, presumably relates exclusively to Zaloph-us calif or - 
n'nnt-us, but in addition to this I quote a few paragraphs from 
his general account of "the Sea Lion," since it is the testimony 
of a trustworthy eye-witness. "On approaching an island, or 
point, occupied by a numerous herd," he observes, " one first 
hears their long, plaintive howlings, as if in distress ; but when 
near them, the sounds become more varied and deafening. The 
old males roar so loudly as to drown the noise of the heaviest 
surf among the rocks and caverns, and the younger of both 
sexes, together with the -clapmatches,' croak hoarsely, or send 
forth sounds like the bleating of sheep or the barking of dogs ; 
in fact, their tumultuous utterances are beyond description. 
A rookery of matured animals presents a ferocious and defiant 
appearance ; but usually at the approach of man they become 
alarmed, and, if not opposed in their escape, roll, tumble, and 
sometimes make fearful leaps from high precipitous rocks to 
hasten their flight. Like all the others of the Seal tribe, they 
are gregarious, and gather in the largest numbers during the 
' pupping season, 7 which varies in different latitudes. On the 
California coast it is from May to August, inclusive, and upon 
the shores of Alaska it is said to be from June to October, dur- 
ing which period the females bring forth their young, nurse 
them, associate with the valiant males, and both unite in the 
care of the little ones, keeping a wary guard, and teaching 
them, by their own parental actions, how to move over the 
broken, slimy, rock-bound shore, or upon the sandy, pebbly 
beaches, and to dive and gambol amid the surf and rolling 
ground-swells. At first the pups manifest great aversion to the 
water, but soon, instinctively, become active and playful in the 
element ; so by the time the season is over, the juvenile crea- 
tures disappear with the greater portion of the old ones, only 
a few of the vast herd remaining at the favorite resorts through- 
out the year. During the pupping season, both males and fe- 
males, so far as we could ascertain, take but little if any food, 
particularly the males, though the females have been observed 

*Tliat Captain Scammoii confounded the two species of Northern Sea 
Lions is evident not only from his published writings, but from his having 
transmitted to the National Museum specimens of Zu I'liilua from Santa Bar- 
bara Island, labelled by him " Eumetoplas stcUcri." 



298 ZALOPHUS CALIFOENIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

to leave their charges and go off, apparently iii search of sub- 
sistence, but they do not venture far from their young ones. 
That the Sea Lion can go without food for a long time is un- 
questionable. One of the superintendents of Woodward's Gar- 
dens informed me that in numerous instances they had received 
Sea Lions into the aquarium which did not eat a morsel of nour- 
ishment during a whole month, and appeared to suffer but little 
inconvenience from their long fast . 

"As the time approaches for their annual assemblage, those 
returning or coming from abroad are seen near the shores, ap- 
pearing wild and shy. Soon after, however, the females gather 
upon the beaches, cliffs, or rocks, when the battles among the 
old males begin for the supreme control of the harems; these 
struggles often lasting for days, the fight being kept up until 
one or both become exhausted, but is renewed again when suf- 
ficiently recuperated for another attack ; and, really, the atti- 
tudes assumed and the passes made at each other, equal the 
amplification of a professional fencer. The combat lasts until 
both become disabled or one is driven from the ground, or per- 
haps both become so reduced that a third party, fresh from his 
winter migration, drives them from the coveted charge. The 
vanquished animals then slink off to some retired spot as if dis- 
graced. Nevertheless, at times, two or more will have charge 
of the same rookery; but in such instances frequent defiant 
growliugs and petty battles occur. So far as we have observed 
upon the Sea Lions of the California coast, there is but little at- 
tachment manifested between the sexes ; indeed, much of the 
Turkish nature is apparent, but the females show some affec- 
tion for their offspring, yet, if alarmed when upon the land, they 
will instantly desert them and take to the water. The young 
cubs, on the other hand, are the most fractious and savage little 
creatures imaginable, especially if awakened from their nearly 
continuous sleeping ; and frequently, when a mother reclines to 
nurse her single whelp, a swarm of others will perhaps contend 
for the same favor. 

"To give a more detailed and extended account of the Sea. 
Lions we will relate a brief sketch of a sealing season on 
Santa Barbara Island. It was near the end of May, 1852, 
when we arrived, and soon after the rookeries of i clapiiiatches, 7 
which were scattered around the island, began to augment, 
and large numbers of huge males made their appearance,, 
belching forth sharp, ugly howls, and leaping out of or dart- 



HABITS. 299 

ing through the water with surprising velocity, frequently 
diving outside the rollers, the next moment emerging from 
the crest of the foaming breakers, and waddling up the 
beach with head erect, or, with seeming effort, climbing some 
kelp-fringed rock, to doze in the scorching sunbeams, while 
others would lie sleeping or playing among the beds of sea- 
weed, with their heads and outstretched limbs above the sur- 
face. But a few days elapsed before a general contention with 
the adult males began for the mastery of the different rooker- 
ies, and the victims of the bloody encounter were to be seen on 
all sides of the island, with torn lips or mutilated limbs and 
gashed sides, while now and then an unfortunate creature 
would be met with minus an eye or with the orb forced from its 
socket, and, together with other wounds, presenting a ghastly 
appearance. As the time for 'hauliug-up' drew near, the island 
became one mass of animation ; every beach, rock, and cliff, 
where a seal could find foothold, became its resting-place, while 
a countless herd of old males capped the summit, and the 
united clamorings of the vast assemblage could he heard, on a 
calm day, for miles at sea. The south side of the island is high 
and precipitous, with a projecting ledge hardly perceptible 
from the beach below, upon which one immense Sea Lion man- 
aged to climb, and there remained for several weeks until the 
season was over. How he ascended, or in what manner he re- 
tired to the water, was a mystery to our numerous ship's crew, 
as he came and went in the night ; for ' Old Gray,' as named 
by the sailors, was closely watched in his elevated position dur- 
ing the time the men were engaged at their work on shore. * 

"None but the adult males were captured, which was usually 
done by shooting them in the ear or near it; for a ball in any 
other part of the body had no more effect than it would in a 
Grizzly Bear. Occasionally, however, they are taken with the 
club and lance, only shooting a few of the masters of the herd. 

" * Relative to the Sea Lions leaping from giddy heights, an incident oc- 
curred at Santa Barbara Island, the last of the season of 1852, which we 



here mention. A rookery of about twenty individuals was collected 
on the brink of a precipitous cliff, at a height at least of sixty feet above 
the rocks which shelved from the beach below ; and our party were sure 
in their own minds, that, by surprising the animals, we could drive them 
over the cliff. This was easily accomplished ; but, to our chagrin, when we 
arrived at the point below, where we expected to find the huge beasts help- 
lessly mutilated, or killed outright, the last animal of the whole rookery 
was seen plunging into the sea." 



300 ZALOPHUS CALIFORN.IANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

This is easily accomplished with au experienced crew, if there 
is sufficient ground back from the beach for the animals to re- 
treat. During our stay, an instance occurred, which not only 
displayed the sagacity of the animals, but also their yielding 
disposition, when hard pressed in certain situations, as if nat- 
urally designed to be slain iu numbers equal to the demands of 
their human pursuers. On the south of Santa Barbara Island 
was a plateau, elevated less than a hundred feet above the sea, 
stretching to the brink of a cliff that overhung the shore, and 
a narrow gorge leading up from the beach, through which the 
animals crowded to their favorite resting-place. As the sun 
dipped behind the hills, fifty to a hundred males would congre- 
gate upon the spot, and there remain until the boats w r ere low- 
ered in the morning, when immediately the whole herd would 
quietly slip off into the sea and gambol about during the day, 
returning as they saw the boats again leave the island for the 
ship. Several unsuccessful attempts had been made to take 
them 5 but at last a fresh breeze commenced blowing directly 
from the shore, and prevented their scenting the hunters, who 
lauded some distance from the rookery, then cautiously ad- 
vanced, and suddenly yelling, and flourishing muskets, clubs, 
and lances, rushed up within a few yards of them, while the 
pleading creatures, with lolling tongues and glaring eyes, were 
quite overcome with dismay, and remained nearly motionless. 
At last, two overgrown males broke through the line formed 
by the men, but they paid the penalty with their lives before 
reaching the water. A few moments passed, when all hands 
moved slowly toward the rookery, which as slowly retreated. 
This inaneuvre is termed ' turning them,' and, when once accom- 
plished, the disheartened creatures appear to abandon all hope 
of escape, and resign themselves to their fate. The herd at 
this time numbered seventy-five, which were soon dispatched, 
by shooting the largest ones, and clubbing and lancing the 
others, save one young Sea Lion, which was spared to see 
whether he would make any resistance by being driven over 
the hills beyond. The poor creature only moved along through 
the prickly pears that covered the ground, when compelled by 
his cruel pursuers ; and, at last, with an imploring look and 
writhing in* pain, it held out its fin-like arms, which were pierced 
with thorns, in such a manner as to touch the sympathy of the 
barbarous sealers, who instantly put the sufferer out of its mis- 
ery by a stroke of a heavy club. As soon as the animal is 



HABITS. 301 

killed, the longest spires of its whiskers. are pulled out, then it 
is skinned, and its coating of fat cut in sections from its body 
and transported to the vessel, where, after being ' minced,' the 
oil is extracted by boiling. The testes are taken out, and, with 
the selected spires of whiskers, find a market in China the 
former being used medicinally, and the latter for personal orna- 
ments. 

"At the close of the season which lasts about three months, 
on the California coast a large majority of the great herds, 
both males and females, return to the sea, and roam in all 
directions in quest of food, as but few of them could find sus- 
tenance about the waters contiguous to the islands, or points 
on the mainland, which are their annual resorting-places. They 
live upon fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and sea-fowls; always 
with the addition of a few pebbles or smooth stones, some of 
which are a pound in weight.* Their principal feathery food, 
however, is the penguin in the southern hemisphere, and the 
gulls in the northern ; while the manner in which they decoy 
and catch the gaviota of the Mexican and California coasts dis- 
plays no little degree of cunning. When in pursuit the animal 
dives deeply under water and swims some distance from where 
it disappeared ; then, rising cautiously, it exposes the tip of its 
nose above the surface, at the same time giving it a rotary mo- 
tion, like that of a water-bug at play. The unwary bird on the 



* "The enormous quantity of food which would be required to maintain, 
the herd of many thousands, which, in former years, annually assembled 
at the small island of Santa Barbara, would seeni incredible, if they daily 
obtained the allowance given to a male and female Sea Lion on exhibi- 
tion at Woodward's Gardens, San Francisco, California, where the keeper 
informed rne that he fed them regularly, every day, forty pounds of fresh 
fish " 

[That the destruction of fish by the Sea Lions on the coast of California 
is very great is indicated by the following item, which recently went the 
rounds of the newspapers: "In a recent meeting at San Francisco of the 
Senate Committee on Fisheries, the State Fish Commissioners, and a com- 
mittee representing the fishermen of the coast, the question as to the destruc- 
tive performances of the sea-lions in the harbor was actively discussed. 
One of the fishermen's representatives said that it was estimated that there 
were 25,000 sea-lions within a radius of a few miles, consuming from ten to 
forty pounds each of fish per day ; the sea-lions were protected while the 
fishermen were harassed by the game laws. Another witness declared that 
salmon captured in the Sacramento river often bore the marks of injury 
from sea-lions, having barely escaped with life ; but it was supposed that 
the salmon less frequently fell victims to the amphibian than did other 
fishes that cannot swim as fast." Country, January 26, 1878.] 



302 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CAL1FORNIAN SEA LION. 

wing, seeing the object near by, alights to catch it, while the 
Sea Lion at the same moment settles beneath the waves, and 
at one bound, with extended jaws, seizes its screaming prey, 
and instantly devours it.[*] 

" A few years ago great numbers of Sea Lions were taken 
along the coast of Upper and Lower California, and thousands 
of barrels of oil obtained. The number of Seals slain exclu- 
sively for their oil would appear fabulous, when we realize the 
fact that it requires on an average, throughout the season, the 
blubber of three or four Sea Lions to produce a barrel of oil. 
Their thick, coarse-grained skins were not considered worth 
preparing for market, in a country where manual labor was so 
highly valued. At the present time, however, they are valued 
for glue-stock, and the seal-hunters now realize more compara- 
tive profit from the hides than from the oil. But while the 
civilized sealers, plying their vocation along the seaboard of 
California and Mexico, destroy the Lobo marino, for the product 
of its oil, skin, testes, and whiskers, the simple Aleutians of 
the Alaska region derive from these animals many of their in- 
dispensable articles of domestic use "t 

To Captain Scammou's graphic account I add a few lines from 
the pen of a non-scientific writer respecting the Sea Lions of 
the Faralloues: "The Sea Lions, which congregate by thou- 
sands upon the cliffs, and bark and howl and shriek and roar 
in the caves and upon the steep sunny slopes, are but little dis- 
turbed, and one can easily approach them within twenty or 
thirty yards. It is an extraordinarily interesting sight to see 
these marine monsters, many of them bigger than an ox, at 
play in the surf, and to watch the superb skill with which they 
know how to control their own motions when a huge wave 
seizes them, and seems likely to dash them to pieces against 
the rocks. They love to lie in the sun upon the bare and warm 
rocks ; and here they sleep, crowded together, and lying upon 
each other in inextricable confusion. The bigger the animal 
the greater his ambition appears to be to climb to the highest 
summit ; and when a huge, slimy beast has with infinite squirm- 
ing attained a solitary peak, he does not tire of raising his 

[* Tliis account appeared originally in Captain Scaminon's account of the 
' Islands off the "West coast of Lower California," in J. Ross Browne's "Re- 
sources of the Pacific Slope," second part, p. 130 (1869), and has been quoted 
by Mr. Guruey in the " Zoologist" for 1871, p. 2762.] 

tMarine Mammalia, pp. 130-135. 



HABITS. 303 

sharp -pointed, mag-got -like head, and complacently looking 
about him. They are a rough set of brutes, rank bullies, I 
should say ; for I have watched them repeatedly, as a big fel- 
lo\v shouldered his way among his fellows, reared his huge front 
to intimidate some lesser seal which had secured a favorite spot, 
and first with howls, and if this did not suffice, with teeth and 
main force, expelled the weaker from his lodgment. The smaller 
Sea Lions, at least those which have left their mothers, appear 
to have no rights which any one is bound to respect. They g'et 
out of the way with abject promptness, which proves that they 
live in terror of the stronger members of the community; but 
they do not give up their places without harsh complaint and 
piteous groans.' 7 * 

Dr. John A. Veatch, in his account of the Cerros or Cedros 
Island, situated off' the coast of Low r er California (between the 
parallels of 28 and 25), doubtless refers to this species under 
the name of Otariajnbata. He says : " He [the Sea Lion] is more 
prolific [than the Sea Elephant], and there are fewer induce- 
ments for his destruction. He is, however, by no means beyond 
danger from the oil-man. At certain seasons, when the Lion 
chances to have a little fat on his bones, he is slaughtered 
most mercilessly. Fortunately for him his skin is nearly worth- 
less, or there would be double inducement for his destruction. 
Toward the north end of the island there is a great breeding- 
place for these animals. It is a small bay, two or three miles 
in length, and perhaps three-fourths of a mile in breadth, sur- 
rounded on the land by a perpendicular cliff, and on the ocean- 
side by a belt of kelp. It is thus protected both from winds 
and waves. It is bordered with a sandy beach, some 200 paces 
in breadth. The access by laud is exceedingly difficult, and can 
only be gained by careful clambering down where breaks and 
fissures offer hand and foot-hold. This sequestered and quiet 
place is the comfortable and appropriate resort of the lionesses 
to bring forth and rear their young. It is, indeed, a great seal- 
nursery. My first visit to this interesting locality was in the 
latter part of the month of July [1859]. Seals, in countless 
numbers, literally covered the beach. They were of every con- 
ceivable size, from the young' ones, seemingly a few 7 days old, 
up to the full-grown animal. So unconscious of danger were 
the little ones, that they scarce made an effort to get out of the 

* Charles Nordhoff, "The Faralloii Islands," in Harper's Magazine, vol. 
xlviii, p. 620, April, 1874. 



304 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CAL1FORNIAN SEA LIOX. 

way. I picked tip many of them in my bands; after a brief 
struggle, the little captive would yield, and seemed to fear no 
further harm. Hundreds slept so soundly that I rolled them 
over before they could be induced to open their great baby 
eyes. While thousands slept and basked on the shore, an 
equal number floated lazily in the water, or dipped and dived 
about in sport. 

"The mother-seals were more timid than their young, but 
1 seemed less alarmed than surprised at my approach. The look 
of startled inquiry was so human and feminine nay, lady-like., 
that I felt like an intruder on the privacy of the nursery. 
1 "I could not discover any individual claim set up by the 
mother for any particular little lion, but, like a great socialistic 
community, maternal love seemed to be joint-stock property, 
and each infant communist had a mother in every adult female. 

"The f<tt hers of the great family appeared, in point of num- 
bers, to be largely in the minority; counting, as I judged, not 
the hundredth part of the adult animals. A few bearded, 
growling old fellows tumbled about in the water, yelling and 
howling in a most threatening manner at me, and approaching 
within a few feet of where I stood. A pebble tossed at one of 
them, however, would be answered by a plunge beneath the 
surface and reappearance at a safer distance. 

"I witnessed an unexpected act of tenderness on the part of 
one of the hugest and most boisterous old threateners for a little 
one that seemed to claim him for papa. He was blowing and 
screaming at me fearfully, when a young one at my feet hus- 
tled into the water, glided off to the old one, and, childlike r 
placed its mouth up to his. The old savage ceased his noise, 
returning the caress, and seemed, for several seconds, to forget 
his wrath at the unwelcome intruder. This show of affection 
saved his life. I was, at the moment, rifle in hand, waiting a 
chance to dislocate his neck. I wanted the skull of an otaria 
for my collection, and his huge size suggested him as an appro- 
priate victim. I at once lost all murderous desire, and left him 
to the further enjoyment of paternal felicity. 

" The noise and uproar of the locality can scarcely be im- 
agined. A hundred thousand seals grunting, coughing, and 
shrieking at the same instant, made a phocine pandemonium 
I shall never forget. I will observe here that the male was 
four times as large as the female."* 

* J. Ross Browne's Resources of the Pacific Slope. Sketch of the Settle- 
ment and Exploration of Lower California, 1869, p. 150. 



HABITS. 305 

Mr. Elliott, in referring to the differences between the Cali- 
foruian and Alaskan Sea Lions, calls attention to the dissimi- 
larity of their voices. The Northern Sea Lion, he says, "never 
barks or howls like the animal at the Farallones or Santa 
Barbara. Young and old, both sexes, from one year and up- 
ward, have only a deep bass groid, and prolonged, steady roar; 
while at San Francisco Sea Lions break out incessantly with 
a 'honking' bark or howl, and never roar."* 

The Californian Sea Lion is now a somewhat well-known 
animal with the public, various individuals having been at 
different times on exhibition at the Central Park Menagerie in 
New York City, and at the Zoological Gardens at Philadel- 
phia and Cincinnati, as well as Woodward's Gardens in San 
Francisco. They have also formed part of the exhibition of 
different travelling shows, especially that of P. T. Barnuni. 
They have also been carried to Europe, where examples have 
lived for several years at the Zoological Gardens of London, 
Paris, and elsewhere. Their peculiar "honking" bark, re- 
ferred to by Mr. Elliott? is hence not unfamiliar to many who 
have never met with the animal in a state of nature. Their 
various attitudes and mode of life on the Farallones have also 
been made familiar to many by the extensive sale of stereo- 
scopic views of the animals and their surroundings. The Sea 
Lions that have been exhibited in this country all, or nearly 
all, belong to the present species, although often wrongly 
labelled "Eumetopim stelhri* The true J2. stelleri haa, how-- 
ever, at least in one instance, been exhibited in Eastern 
cities. 

The California!! Sea Lion seems generally not to suffer greatly 
in health by confinement, if properly cared for, although deaths 
from tuberculosis have repeatedly occurred. They are always 
objects of great attraction to visitors, and various accounts of 
their habits in confinement have been published. Mr. Henry 
Lee, in referring to two that had been for a short time at the 
Brighton (England) Aquarium, says: "They have grown so 
much, and are so plump and sleek, that a visitor seeing them now 
[February, 1876] for the first time since the day of their arrival, 
would hardly recognize in them the pair of lean, ill-conditioned 
animals, with ribs as visible as those of an old cab-horse, which 
waddled out of their travelling crates to follow Lecomte and a 
herring on the 13th of October last. What their rations had 

- : 

* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, p. 158. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 20 




306 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

been since they left their home I am unable to say, but I ani 
inclined to suspect it was often like a midshipman's half-pay, 
'nothing a-day,' and as they had no means of 'finding them- 
selves,' they probably had many a ' banyan day ' whilst on their 
way to Europe. Fortunately their capability of fasting is very 
great. Mr. Woodward, the proprietor of ' Woodward's Gar- 
dens,' San Francisco, with whom I have recently had the pleas- 
ure of becoming acquainted, tells me that in numerous instances 
he has received sea-lions which have not eaten a morsel dur- 
ing a whole mouth, and appeared to suffer little inconvenience 
in consequence. Fearing, however, that it would tell injuriously 
upon the health of one which persisted longer than usual in 
total abstinence, he had the beast lassoed and held fast whilst 
food was forced into its stomach down an india-rubber hose- 
pipe. As the males are believed to take no sustenance for three 
or four months together during the breeding-season, this was 
probably unnecessary. We had no trouble of this kind with 
ours. They ate with appetite immediately, and although when 
they arrived they looked like the omoibus horses in Punch, 
which, as their driver informed an outside passenger, had been 
fed on butter-tubs, and showed the hoops, ' nous avons change tout 
cela." 1 Nearly half-a-hundred weight of fish a day for the last six- 
teen weeks has been gradually converted into sea-lion flesh and 
blubber, and the result is apparent in the greatly increased size 
and weight of these valuable animals. Herrings and sprats 
are the food which they like best, and which we prefer to give 
them, both because they are very nutritious, and because, as 
they are netted fish, there is no fear of their containing hooks. 
When herrings cannot be obtained, whiting are generally sub- 
stituted ; but these have to be opened, one by one, and care- 
fully searched for fish-hooks which may have been left in them ; 
for it may be remembered that the first Otaria possessed by the 
Zoological Society died in great pain, in 1867," from having swal- 
lowed a hook which had escaped discovery among its food. 
As these animals do not masticate, they are, of course, unable 
to detect and reject from the mouth any foreign substances con- 
cealed within the body of a fish When one of the 

sea-lions takes a fish from his keeper, the head is no sooner inside 
its mouth than the tail disappears after it, before one can say 
the proverbial ' Jack Robinson '. There is not a moment's pause 
for deglutition ; one after another the fish, whole and unbitten, 
disappear from sight as instantaneously as so many letters 



HABITS. 307 

slipped into a pillar-box. It is therefore easy to administer 
physic whenever medical treatment may be thought desirable ; 
and the necessity for it has occasionally occurred. Soon after 
her arrival the female exhibited symptoms of distemper, a dis- 
ease to which these animals, like dogs, are liable "* 

In captivity these animals appear to become strongly attached 
to each other, so much so that in case one of a pair dieSj the 
other is very apt to die soon after, of grief. They have also 
been known to propagate in confinement, an instance of which is 
related by Mr. F. J. Thompson in his interesting paper recently 
published in "Forest and Stream," on "The Habits and Breed- 
ing of the Sea Lions in Captivity," t based on observations 
made at the Zoological Garden in Cincinnati, Ohio. As his 
paper contains, besides a general account of the habits of these 
interesting animals, several novel points, I give it place in 
full: 

"In the early part of June, 1877, I went, sent by the Zoolog- 
ical Society of Cincinnati, to Chicago to receive some black 
sea-lions (Zaloplnis yillespiei) which had arrived there from the 
southern coast of California. On my arrival I found that the 
female had calved on the previous night, therefore thought it 
best to lie over for a day in order that the young might acquire 
a little extra strength to bear the fatigue of the rail way journey 
to Cincinnati. They all arrived in the garden in fine condition, 
but had to be kept in their shipping crates for the first few days, 
until an old beaver pond could be arranged as temporary quar- 
ters for them, while the large basin intended for their perma- 
nent home could be built. During this time, on account of 
a heavy freshet in the Ohio Eiver, the water in the pond became 
quite muddy, which affected them so much that they were un- 
able to retain their food, invariably vomiting up their fish some 
one or two hours after feeding. By giving small doses of Ro- 
chelle salts fora few days, all recovered, but the calf died from 
a violent attack of cholera infantum, caused no doubt by its 
mother's milk being affected by the muddy water. 

"A short time before the calf was taken sick my attention 
was attracted to the peculiar appearance of the mother on 
emerging from the water after taking her customary bath. 
She was completely covered with a whitish oleaginous sub- 
stance, about the consistency of semi-fluid lard, which seemed 

* Land and Water, Feb. 5, 1876, p. 104. 

t Forest and Stream (newspaper), vol. xii, p. 66, Feb. 23, 1879. 



308 ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

to ooze out all over her. As soon as she got into the crate 
with the young one, she commenced rolling, so that in a short 
time the young one and the inside of the crate were completely 
covered with it. The calf seemed to enjoy it hugely, and rolled 
about until his coat glistened as if he had just left the hands of 
a first-class tonsorial artist. It instantly struck me that his 
mother had been preparing him for the water, and I immedi- 
ately tested the matter by taking him out and placing him on 
the edge of the pond, when in a few moments he began to pad- 
dle about in the water, something he had never before attempted 
although he had been almost daily placed in the same posi- 
tion. 

"As soon as the large basin was completed, and they were 
transferred to it, I had a fine opportunity of observing the 
tyrannical attentions of the male toward the female during rut- 
ting season. He constantly swam back and forth along the 
partition, which separated him from another male, frequently 
endeavoring to get through, splintering and tearing the rails 
with his powerful canine teeth. If the female attempted to 
approach the division she was immediately forcibly driven back, 
when he would redouble his efforts to get through, barking and 
roaring as if beside himself with rage. This would be kept up 
until late at night, when the female was allowed to go into the 
house situated in the centre of the basin, when he would follow 
and place himself immediately in the doorway so as to prevent 
her egress. He never seemed to sleep soundly, as he invari*- 
bly kept up a series of grunts and muffled roars, as if he were 
fighting his battles over again in his sleep. I would frequently 
annoy him by stealing up softly and then suddenly scraping 
the gravel with my foot, when he would instantly start up, 
plunge into the basin, swim rapidly back and -forth, barking 
with all his might, until he was satisfied there was no interloper 
about, when he would sullenly return to his post and gradu- 
ally drop off again into his troubled sleep. Frequently at 
night the two males would climb to the roof of the house, 
and in their efforts to get at each other through the partition, 
would raise such a din that persons living at quite a distance 
from the garden would frequently ask me the cause of the 
uproar. 

"At the end of some two months there was a change, when 
the female commenced playing and coquetting with the male, 
frequently pinching him so sharply as to make him snarl with 



HABITS. 309 

pain, and if he seemed to be much out of humor she would 
soothe him by swimming up and giving him a good old-fash- 
ioned conjugal kiss.- Finally they quieted down to the hum- 
drum of regular wedded life, and early in October I noticed 
that the female was suffering from a violent catarrh, which 
gradually disappeared, followed by a dry cough, particularly at 
night. It was in March when I first thought she showed signs 
of pregnancy, and in May, from her appearance when out of 
the water, I became convinced of it. On June 25 the young 
one was born, making the period of gestation as nearly as I 
could judge about ten months, and it was some days before the 
mother would allow me to handle it, and when I did succeed in 
so doing it was always at the risk of getting a nip, as he was 
certainly the most ill-tempered, snarling little brute with which 
a dry nurse could be vexed. I soon found out that there was 
but one way of handling him with impunity, and that was by 
suddenly catching him just back of the nippers and quickly 
lifting him clear of the floor, when he would snap and struggle 
for a few moments and then quietly give up. I frequently took 
him out of the house for the purpose of showing him to friends, 
and for the first three or four weeks he never made the slight- 
est attempt to get into the water, although I invariably placed 
him on the lip outside of the door and loosed my hold in order 
that he could be fully seen. During this period the mother 
was let out for a bath twice daily, and after she had played 
about as long as she wished she would swim up to the closed 
door, rear up on the sill and bellow until she was allowed to 
get in to her calf. Invariably in the morning, so soon as I 
would start across the bridge in order to turn her out, the male 
would swim up to the door and await her appearance, always 
exacting his morning kiss before he would allow her to plunge 
into the water. After playing with her for a few minutes he 
would commence sentry duty, back and forth along the parti- 
tion, occasionally making fierce rushes if the other approached 
too near to it. 

"In the meanwhile, as the young one never showed the 
slightest inclination to go into the water, in spite of frequent 
opportunities to do so, I began to watch for a second appear- 
ance of the oleaginous matter. During the fifth week after 
birth, on going into the house one morning, I found marks of 
grease in every direction, and the youngster shone as if he had 
just emerged from an oil tank. Taking a bucket, I filled it with 



310 ZALOPHUS CALIFOENIANUS CALIFORNIAN SEA LION. 

water, placed it in his way, and he immediately stnck his head 
to the bottom of it. Fearing an accident, as the water in the 
basin only reached within about a foot of 'the top of the lip sur- 
rounding the house, I had the carpenter construct a small, 
shallow, wooden tank inside the larger one, with a sloping plat- 
form leading into it. So soon as the door was opened connect- 
ing with it he followed his mother, and in a short time was 
having high jinks swimming and diving to his full bent. When 
he tired he would quietly rest in the water with his head lying 
across his mother's neck, or he would scramble up on the plat- 
form, stretch himself, have a short nap, and then commence 
his play again. So soon as I thought he had gained sufficient 
strength the small tank was removed, and he was allowed the 
run of the larger one, when his wonderful swimming powers 
came into full play. I have frequently seen him dash off with 
such velocity that the water would part and fly from each side 
of his neck with a fairly hissing sound. Again he would dive, 
and then suddenly make a succession of salmon-like leaps with 
such rapidity that I could easily imagine with what little dif- 
ficulty he would be able to capture the swiftest of fish. One of 
the favorite ways of amusing himself was by taking a chip 
several of which were always kept in the basin out on the lip, 
lying on his back, and playing with it with front flippers and 
mouth, almost precisely as an infant would act with a common 
rattle. At first he was rather shy of the old male, but gradu- 
ally took the greatest delight in swimming about with, and 
trying to induce him to join in a game of romps; but the old 
fellow was proof against all his wiles, and always good-na- 
turedly endeavored to get rid of him. 

"I noticed that the female's cough disappeared immediately 
after the birth of the young one; but about the middle of 
August both her appetite and actions became variable, some 
days feeding and seeming lively as usual, on others she would 
either take but little or entirely refuse her food. She gradu- 
ally grew worse until September 8, when, on going to the 
basin in the morning, I missed her, and found the male busily 
engaged in diving just at one particular spot. He finally 
succeeded in bringing the body to the surface, and when the 
keepers attempted to remove it he repeatedly charged, and it 
was only by great care and watchfulness that they avoided 
being bitten. On dissection it was found that tuberculosis, 
that scourge of all zoological collections, was the cause of her 
death. 



HABITS. 311 

"The young one did not seein to notice the loss of his mother 
until about twenty-four hours after her death, when he com- 
menced to sulk, and obstinately refused to eat, in spite of every 
effort and strategein to induce him to do so. He gradually 
wasted away, and finally died of starvation on October 16, 
having viciously attempted to bite me a few hours before his 
death. 

" The old male grieved so over the loss of his mate that for 
some time I was afraid we would lose him also, and at the end 
of about six weeks he became so thin that I thought it best to 
remove him to a small tank in-doors/ Since, he has been improv- 
ing slowly up to within ten days, since when he shows a marked 
improvement." 

The Otaries, wherever occurring, appear to closely agree in 
their habits, especially during the breeding season. As an 
interesting supplement to the history of the two Northern spe- 
cies of Sea Lions already given I transcribe the following 
concise account of the great Southern Sea Lion (Otaria ju- 
bata), based on recent observations made at the Falkland 
Islands, without, however, endorsing the author's "ballasting" 
theory : 

"The Sea Lion attains its full growth at nine years, and 
annually comes back to the place it was born to breed and shed 
its hair. The former operation occurs between the 25th of Decem- 
ber and the 15th of January, the latter in April and May. The 
Lions commence to arrive at their 'rookery' in November to 
wait for the females, who do not haul up until within two or 
three days of pupping. They are fatter at this time than at any 
other, and have to take in a quantity of ballast to keep them 
down, without which they could not dive to catch fish. I have 
opened them at this time, and found, in a pouch they have in- 
side, upwards of twenty -five pounds of stones, some as large as a 
goose-egg. As they get thin they have the power of throwing 
these stones up, retaining only a sufficient quantity to keep 
them from coming up too freely to the surface. 

"They are very savage in the breeding-season, and are con- 
tinually fighting, biting large pieces out of. each other's hide, 
and sometimes killing the females. At this time they become 
an easy prey to man, as they will stand and be killed without 
trying to get away. 

"The Lioness has her first pup at three years of age, never 
more than one at a time, and comes up to have intercourse with 



312 GENUS CALLORHINUS. 

the Lion at two, and as soon as the pup is born They 

suckle their young five months before they are taken to the 
sea, by which time the pup has shed its first hair. Before the 
mother takes her pup to fish she has to ballast it, and I have 
seen a Lioness trying for hours to make her pup swallow small 
stones at the water's edge. 

" The female keeps her pup with her until two or three weeks 
before the next breeding-season, when she drives it from her. 
About this time the yearlings will be found some few miles 
from the old rookery. . . . 

" The Lions stay as long -as two months on shore, during the 
breeding-season, without going into the water. During that 
time their fat gives them sufficient nourishment. After the 
season is over some of them are so thin and weak that they 
are but just able to crawl into the water. I have killed them in 
this state, and not one particle of stone have I found in them."* 

GENUS CALLORHINUS, Gray. 

Callorhinus, GKAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,1859, 359. Type "Arctocephalus 

ursinm, Gray," = Phoca ursina, Linne". 
Arctocephalus, GILL, Proc. Essex Institute, v, 1866, 7, 11. Type " Phoca 

ursina, Linnsens." Not Arctocephalus, F. Cuvier, 1824. 

Molars g=|, small. Facial portion of skull short, broad, con- 
vex, and but slightly depressed ; nasals short, rapidly narrow- 
ing posteriorly. Palatal surface short, narrowed behind, with 
the hinder border rather deeply concave. Toe-flaps very long, 
nearly as long as the rest of the foot. 

Callorhinus, in coloration, character of the pelage, size, gen- 
eral form, and dental formula, is rather closely allied to Arcto- 
cephalus, from which, however, it is readily distinguished by the 
form of the facial portion of the skull, which in Arctocephalus is 
narrower, longer, and much less convex, with much longer na- 
sals. From the other genera of the Otaries it is distinguish- 
able not only by coloration and the character of the pelage, but 
by its weaker dentition, and the strongly marked cranial differ- 
ences, which are too numerous and obvious to require detailed 
enumeration. It is the only North American genus which has 
the upper molars 6. 

Very young skulls and skulls of females of the different spe- 
cies of Otaries differ from each other very little in general form, 
and in some cases are not readily distinguishable, especially in 

* Letter from Captain Henry Pain, of the S. S. " Scanderia'' to Mr. F. Cole- 
rnau of the Falkland Islands Company, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, pp. 
681, 682. 



CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 313 

figures. In all, the interorbital region is relatively broad and 
short, and becomes relatively more and more narrowed and 
lengthened in the adult. In young specimens, and always in 
the females, except in Arctocephalus, the mastoid processes re- 
main almost wholly undeveloped. Among the North American 
species, Eumetoplas is easily recognized at any age by its dental 
formula and large size. The young and females of Callorhinus 
and Zaloplius are easily separated, aside from differences of den- 
tition, by the shape of the muzzle, but especially by the ascend- 
ing limb of the intermaxillary. In Zaloplms it gradually nar- 
rows posteriorly and ends in a slender point near the middle of 
the nasals. In Callorhinus it widens posteriorly and ends ab- 
ruptly quite near the anterior border of the nasals. 

The distribution of the genus is almost exactly the same as 
that of Eumetopias, namely, the shores of the North Pacific, 
and, like that genus, is represented by only a single species, 
the well-known Alaskan " Fur Seal." 

CALLORHLNTJS TJRSLNUS, (Linne) Gray. 

Northern Fur Seal; Sea-Bear. 

Ursus marinus, STELLER, Nov. Coinm. Acad. Petrop.,ii, 1751, 331, pi. xv. 

Phocaursina, LINNE, Syst.Nat., i,1758, 37 (from Steller). SCHREBER, Siiugth., 
iii, 1758, 289. SHAW, Gen. Zool.. i, 1800, 2P5, pi. Ixii. GODMAN, 
Amer. Nat. Hist., i, 1826, 346 (in part). FISCHER, Synop. Mam., 
1829, 231. PALLAS, Zoog. Rosso- Asiat., i, 1831, 102. 

Otaria ursina, PERON, Voy. Terr. Austr., ii, 1816, 39, 41. DESMAREST, Nouv. 
Diet. Hist. Nat., xxv, 1817, 595 ; Mam., i, 1820, 249. HARLAX, Faun. 
Amer., 1825, 112. GRAY, Griffith's Cuvier's An. Kingd., v, 1829, 
182. HAMILTON, Marine Amphib., 1839, 253, pi. xxi. NILSSON, 
Arch. f. Naturg., 1841, 331 (in part only). MULLER, Arch. f. Naturg., 
1841, 333. WAGNER, Schreber's Saugt., vii, 1846, 65 (in part only) ; 
Arch. f. Naturg., 1849, 39. VON SCHRENCK, Amur-Lande, i, 1859, 
189. 

Phoca (Otaria) ursina, RICHARDSON, Zool. Beechey's Voy., 1839, 6. 

Otaria (Callorhinus) ursinus, PETERS, Monatsb. Akad. Berlin, 1866, 373, 672. 

Arctocephalus ursinus, LESSON, Man. de Mam., 1827, 203. GRAY, Cat. Seals, 
1850, 41 (not of F. Cuvier, or only in part) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1859, 103, 107, pi. Ixxiii (skull). GILL, Proc. Essex Institute, v, 
1366, 13. SCOTT, Mam. Recent and Extinct, 1873, 8. CLARK, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Loud., 1878, 271, pi. xx (colored figures of male, female, 
and young). 

Callorhinus ursinus, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 359, pi. Iviii (skull) ; 
Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 44, fig. 16 (skull) ; Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 3d ser., xviii, 1866, 234 ; Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, 1871, 15 ; 
Hand-List Seals, etc., 1874, 32, pi. xix (skull). ALLEN, Bull. Mas. 
Comp. Zool., ii, 73, pll. ii, iii (skull, etc.). SCAMMON, Marine 
Mamrn., 1874, 141, pi. xxi, figg. 1, 2, and figg. 1-6 in text (animal). - 
ELLIOTT, Coiid. Affairs in Alaska, 1874, 123. 



314 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

Phocanigra, PAXLAS, Zoog. Rosso- Asiat.,i, 1831, 107 (young). 

Otaria krachenninilcowi, LESSON, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 420 (= 

Ursus marinvs, Steller. 
f Oiaria fabricii, LESSON, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xiii, 1828, 419 (=Phoca 

ursina, Fabricius, F. Gro3nl. 6 ''Greenland"). 
Arctocephalns monteriensis, GRAY, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 360 (in part 

only). 
Arctoceplialus californianus, GRAY, Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, 51 (in part 

only = A. monteriensis). 

Meet-bar, STELLER, Beschreib. von souderbaren Meerthieren, 1753, 107. 
Le Chatmarin, KRASCHENNINIKOW, Hist. Kamtsch., i, 1764, 316. 
Ours marin, BUFFON, Hist. Nat., Suppl., vi, 1782, 336, pi. xlvii (in part). 
Ursine Seal, PENNANT, Syuop. Quad., 1771, 344 (based mainly on Steller) ; 

Hist. Quad., ii, 1793, 281 (in part). 
Fur Seal, SCAMMON, Overland Monthly, iii, 1869, 393 (habits). 

DESCRIPTION.* 

COLOR. (Male.) The general color above, except over the 
shoulders, is nearly black, varying in different individuals of 
equal age from nearly pure black to rufo-grayish black. Over 
the shoulders the color is quite gray. The sides of the nose and 
the lips are brownish, as is a considerable space behind the angle 
of the rnouth, and a small spot behind the ear. The neck in front 
is more or less gray. The breast and the axill3 are brownish- 
orange. The limbs are reddish-brown, especially near their 
junction with the body, as is also the abdomen. The hairs in- 
dividually vary considerably in color, some being entirely black 
nearly to their base, and others entirely light yellowish-brown ; 
others are dark in the middle and lighter at each end. The naked 
skin of the hind limbs, the nose, and the anal region is black. 

(Female.) The general color of the female is much lighter than 
that of the male. Above it is nearly uniformly gray, varying to 
darker or lighter in different individuals and with age. The 
color about the mouth is brownish, varying to rufous, of which 
color are the axillae, the breast, and the abdomen. The sides 
are brownish-gray. At the base all the hairs are usually brown- 
ish, like the under-fur, with a broad subterminal bar of black, 
and tipped for a greater or less distance with gray. The vari- 
ation in different individuals in the general color results from 
the varying extent of the gray at the ends of the hairs. 

* The technical matter here following includes that previously given in my 
former paper on the Otariidce, with here and there slight verbal changes, and 
the addition at a few points of considerable new matter, especially in the 
tables of measurements, which are based almost wholly on an examination 
of new material. The remarks on individual variation might be amplified 
by reference to many other specimens, but this has not been thought nec- 
essary. 



PELAGE. 315 

( Young.) The general color of the upper surface of the body in 
the young, previous to the first moult, is uniformly glossy black. 
The region around the mouth is yellowish-brown. The neck in 
front is grayish-black. The axillae are pale yellowish-brown ; a 
somewhat darker shade of the same color extends posteriorly 
and inward toward the median line of the belly, uniting on the 
anterior portion of the abdomen. The greater part of the lower 
surface, however, is dusky brownish-gray, the rest being black, 
but less intensely so than the back. Specimens of equal age 
vary much in color, some specimens corresponding nearly with 
the above description, while others are much darker. On the 
head and sides of the neck a portion of the hairs are found on 
close inspection to be obscurely tipped with gray. After the 
first moult the pelage becomes gradually lighter, through the 
extension of the gray at the tips of the hairs, especially in the 
females, the two sexes being at first alike. Contrary to what 
has been asserted, the young are provided from birth with a 
long coat of silky under-fur, of a lighter color and sparser than 
the under- fur of the adults. 

PELAGE. The pelage in this species consists of an outer cov- 
ering of long, flattened, moderately coarse hair, beneath which 
is a dense coat of long fine silky fur, which reaches on most 
parts of the body nearly to the ends of the hairs. The hairs are 
thicker toward the end than at the base, but their clavate form 
is most distinctly seen in the first pelage of the young. In 
length the hair varies greatly on the different parts of the body. 
It is longest on the top of the head, especially in the males, 
which have a well-marked crest. The hair is much longer on 
the anterior half of the body than on the posterior half, it being 
longest on the hinder part of the neck, where in the males it is 
very coarse. On the crown the hair has a length of 42 mm. ; on 
the hinder part of the neck it reaches a length of 50 to 60 mm. 
From this point posteriorly it gradually shortens, and near the 
tail has a length of only 20 mm. It is still shorter on the limbs, 
the upper side of the digits of the hind limbs being but slightly 
covered, while the anterior limbs are quite naked as far as the 
carpus. The males have much longer hair than the females, 
in which it is much longer than in Eumetopias stelleri.* 

* From the; accounts given by most writers it would seem that Otaria jubata 
is provided with a conspicuous mane, but in the few accurate descriptions 
in which the length of the longest hairs is stated, the so-called "flowing 
mane" which refers only to the greater length of the hair on the neck and 
shoulders as compared with the other regions of the body does not appear 



316 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

The whiskers are cylindrical, long, slender, and tapering, and 
vary with age in length and color. In the young they are black ; 
later they are light colored at the base, and dusky at the ends. 
In mature specimens they are either entirely white, or white at 
the base and brownish- white toward the tips. 

SIZE. Mr. Elliott has given a table showing the weight, size, 
and rate of growth of the Fur Seal, from the age of one week to 
six years, based on actual weight and measurement, with an esti- 
mate of the size and weight of specimens from eight to twenty 
years of age. From this table it appears that the pups when a 
week old have a length of from twelve to fourteen inches, and a 
weight of six to seven and a half pounds. At six months old 
the length is two feet and the weight about thirty pounds. At 
one year the average length of six examples was found to be 
thirty-eight inches, and the weight thirty-nine pounds, the males 
and females at this time being alike in size. The average weight 
of thirty males at the age of two years is given as fifty-eight 
pounds, and the length as forty-five inches. Thirty-two males 
at the age of three years were found to give an average weight 
of eighty-seven pounds, and an average length of fifty - two 
inches. Ten males at the age of four averaged one hundred 
and thirty-fire pounds in weight, and fifty-eight inches in length. 
A mean of five examples five years old is: weight, two hundred 
pounds ; length, sixty-five inches. Three males at six years 
gave an average weight of two hundred and eighty pounds, 
and a length of six feet. The estimated average weight of males 
from eight years and upward, when fat, is given as four hun- 
dred to five hundred pounds, and the average length as six feet 
three inches to six feet eight inches. Mr. Elliott further adds 
that the average weight of the females is from eighty to eighty - 

to be any more truly a mane than ill Eumtlopia* sMlcri, Callorltinus vrsinus, 
Zalophus californianus, Arctocfphalus "falklandicus", or in any of the Arctoce- 
phali. All the Sea Bears and Sea Lions, according to authors, have the hair 
much longer on the anterior than on the posterior half of the body ; and in 
the Hair Seals it is not longer than in the Fur Seals. The resemblance to 
the mane of the Lion, with which in several species this long hair has been 
compared, is doubtless partly imaginary and partly due to the loose skin on 
the neck and shoulders being thrown into thick folds when these animals 
erect the head. I have not, however, seen the distinct crest formed by the 
long hairs on the crown of the males of C. urshtxs mentioned as occurring in 
the other species, unless it is alluded to in the specific name coronata, given 
by Blainville to a South American specimen of Fur Seal, and in the name 
eulophus of Scott. It is certainly not possessed by the E. stelleri. 



SIZE. 



317- 




318 CALLORHINUS UESINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

five pounds, but that they range in weight from seventy-five to 
one hundred and twenty pounds, and that the five and six year 
old males, on their first appearance in May and June, when fat 
and fresh, may weigh a third more than in July, or at the time 
those mentioned in the table were weighed, which would thus 
indicate an average maximum weight of about 375 pounds for 
the six-year-old males. According, however, to my own meas- 
urements of old males, from mounted and unmounted specimens, 
the length is between seven and eight feet; and of a full-grown 
female, about four feet. Captain Bryant states* that the males 
attain mature size at about the sixth year, when their total 
length is from seven to eight feet, their girth six to seven feet, 
and their weight, when in full flesh, from five to seven hundred 
pounds. The females, he says, are full grown at four years old, 
when they measure four feet in length, two and a half in girth, 
and weigh eighty to one hundred pounds. The yearlings, he 
says, weigh from thirty to forty pounds. The relative size of 
the adults of both sexes and the young is well shown in the 
accompanying cut (see p. 317), drawn by Mr. Elliott. 

The subjoined table of external measurements may be taken 
as indicating the general size of the adult males and females, 
and the young at thirty-five days old. In some respects the 
dimensions are only approximately correct, being taken from 
mounted specimens ; in the main, however, they are sufficiently 
accurate. A few measurements taken from the soft skin are 
also given ; I accidentally omitted to make a complete series of 
measurements of the skins before they were mounted. In addi- 
tion to the six specimens of Captain Bryant's collection, I am 
indebted to Mr. W. H. Ball for measurements of a male and a 
female, taken by him t from the animals immediately after they 
were killed. The female (said by Mr. Dall to be six years old) 
is evidently adult, but the male, being but little larger, seems 
not to have been fully grown. In the last column of the table 
a few measurements are given of a male specimen of the Arcto- 
ceplialus "falMandicus," taken by Dr. Gr. A. Maack from a fresh 
specimen collected by him at Cabo Corrieutes, Buenos Ayres. 
This specimen appears also to have not been fully grown. 

* Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. ii, p. 95. 

t At Saiut George's Island, Alaska, August, 1808. 



SIZE 



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J j a=g^af^2 g-g-g55| 

* ^J ^J O ^|J O O ^i ^s ? .f. 
O O SH O O 005'" 

^I^^^JpQl^pQpQ^^QQQl-^H^^ 


Circumference of body in front 
Circumference of body in front 
Circumference of head at the a 





320 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

EARS. The ears are long, narrow, and pointed, being abso- 
lutely longer than those of the E. stelleri, though the latter 
animal is two or three times the larger. 

FORE LIMBS. The hands are very long and narrow, with a 
broad cartilaginous flap extending beyond the digits, which 
has a nearly even border. Both surfaces are naked the whole 
length ; not covered above with short hair, as in Eumetopias and 
Otaria. The nails are rudimentary, their position being indi- 
cated by small circular horny disks, as in all the other Eared 
Seals. 

HIND LIMBS. The feet are very long, nearly half their length 
being formed by the cartilaginous flaps that project beyond the 
ends of the toes. They widen much less from the tarsus to the 
ends of the toes than these parts do in E. stellerij and the length 
of the toe-flaps is relatively many times greater than in the 
latter species. The toes of the posterior extremities are of 
nearly equal length. The outer are slightly shorter than the 
three middle ones. The nails of the outer toes are rudiment- 
ary and scarcely visible ; those of the middle toes are strong 
and well developed. 

SKULL. In adult specimens the breadth of the skull is a little 
more than half its length, the point of greatest breadth being at 
the posterior end of the zygomatic arch. The muzzle or facial por- 
tion is broad and high, or greatly produced, much more so eveu 
than in Ewmetopias.* The postorbital processes vary from finb- 
quadrate to sub-triangular, sometimes produced posteriorly into 
a latero-posteriorly diverging point, as in Zahphm. The post- 
orbital cylinder is broad and moderately elongated. The post- 
orbital constriction is well marked, giving a prominently quad- 
rate form to the brain-case, the latero-anterior angles of which 
vary somewhat in their sharpness in different specimens. The 
sagittal and occipital crests are well developed in the old males, 
nearly as much as in Eumetopias, as are also the mastoid pro- 
cesses. The palatine bones terminate midway between the last 
molar teeth and the pterygoid hainuli ; their posterior outline 
is either slightly concave, or deeply and abruptly so. The pala- 
tal surface is flat, but slightly depressed posteriorly, and but 
moderately so anteriorly. The zygomatic foramens are broad, 
nearly triangular, and truncate posteriorly. The posterior and 
anterior nares are of nearly equal size in the males, with their 

* See figs. 39-41, female, rather young, about natural size. Specimen 
No. 6537, National Museum. 



SKULL. 



321 




FIG. 39. CaUorhinus ursinus. Female. 




FIG. 40. CaUorhinus ursinus. Female. 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 2L 



322 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

transverse and vertical diameters equal; in the females the 
posterior nares are depressed, their transverse diameter being 
greater than the vertical. The nasal bones are much broader 
in front than behind. 

The lower jaw is strongly developed, but relatively less mass- 
ive than in Eumetopias. The corouoid processes are high and 
pointed, but much more developed in the males than in the 
females. The ramial tuberosities are greatly produced, espe- 
cially the hinder one. 




41. CaUorhinus ursiiins. Female. 




FlG. 4%.Callorl\iHus uniiinix. Female. 



SKULL. 



323 



be 

=S 

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*- *- * * *- t- 



324 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

TEETH. The dentition is relatively much weaker than in 
either Eumetopias or Zalophus, or even in Arctoceplialus. As 
usual in the Otaries the outer pair of upper incisors is much 
larger than the others and. caniniform ; the two central pairs 
are flattened antero-posteriorly, and in youth and middle age 
their crowns are deeply divided by a transverse groove. The 
lower incisors are smaller than the upper and are hollowed on 
their inner face but are not grooved. The canines are large 
and sharply pointed, the lower somewhat curved. The molars 
are small and closely approximated, with sharply conical crowns 
and all single-rooted. They have no accessory cusp, or only 
very minute ones in early life. The roots are usually grooved 
both externally and internally, sometimes slightly so, but some- 
times so deeply that the fang seems to consist of two connate 
roots. The distinctness of these grooves varies not only in dif- 
ferent individuals, but in the corresponding teeth of the two 
sides of the mouth in the same skull,* so that it is not improb- 
able that teeth may be found in which the grooves of the fangs 
may be entirely obsolete, or so deep as to nearly or quite divide 
the fang into two distinct roots. The roots of the molars are 
very short, and but partly fill their alveoli ; hence when the 
periosteum is removed they fit so loosely that they require to be 
cemented in to prevent their constantly falling out whenever 
the skull is handled. The canines and the incisors have much 
longer roots, which more nearly fill their sockets. 

SKELETON. Vertebral formula : Cervical vertebrae, 7 ; dorsal, 
15 ; lumbar, 5 ; sacral, 3 ; caudal, 8 to 10. 

The skeleton in its general features resembles that of Eume- 
topias stelleri, already described. The bones of C. ur sinus are, 
however, all slenderer, or smaller in proportion to their length, 
than in that species, the general form of the body being more 
elongated. The scapulae are shorter and broader than in E. 
stelleri, the proportion of breadth to length being in the one as 
11 to 10 and in the other as 13 to 10. The pelvis is more con- 
tracted opposite the acetabula in C. ursinus than in E. stelleri, 
and the last segment of the sternum is also longer and nar- 
rower. The differences in the skull of the two forms have 
already been pointed out in the generic comparisons. In pro- 
portions, the principal difference, aside from that already men- 
tioned as existing in the form of the scapula, consists in the 



See Bull. Mus. Corup. Zool., vol. ii, pi. ii, figs. 6 b and 7 e. 



SKELETON. 



325 



longer neck and longer hind feet in C. ursinus; the ratio of 
the length of the cervical vertebrae to the whole length of the 
skeleton being as 15 to 100 in E. stelleri, and as 23 to 100 in C. 
urninus; and the ratio of the length of the foot to the tibia 
being in the former as 13 to 10, and in the other as 16 to 10. 
The following measurements of two adult males and two adult 
females indicate the length of the principal bones, and of the 
different vertebral regions. 

Measurements of the Skeleton. 





Adult d" 
No. 2922. 


Adult cT 
No. 2923. 


Adult ? 
No. 2925. 


Adult ? 
No. 2924. 


Whole length of skeleton (including skull) 
Length of skull . . ............. 


2,040 
275 


1,840 
245 


1,370 
200 


1,215 
185 


Length of cervical vertebrae 


430 


360 


200 


172 


Length of dorsal vertebras 


770 


680 


520 


470 


Length of lumbar vertebrsB 


270 


245 


185 


173 




160 


145 


105 


95 


Len'th of caudal vertebra; . . -. 


140 


145 


160 


120 


Length of first rib 


212 


178 


120 


110 




112 


105 


55 


55 


Len'th of fir^t rib cartilaginous portion .. .. 


100 


73 


65 


55 


Length of third rib .. 


395 


370 


205 


175 




265 


210 


140 


115 


Len'th of third rib cartilaginous portion ... 


130 


90 


65 


60 


Length of sixth rib 


465 


400 


323 


265 




350 


295 


230 


190 




115 


105 


93 


75 


Length of tenth rib --- ...... 


590 




405 


335 




360 


340 


265 


215 


Length of tenth rib cartilaginous portion .... 


230 




140 


120 


'Length of twelfth rib, osseous portion only 
Length of fifteenth rib, osseous portion only... 
Length of sternum ................. 


345 
210 

640 


320 
205 
590 


210 
150 
385 


200 
130 
370 


Length of sternum 1st sement . ... 


135 


127 


76 


73 




68 


54 


37 


34 


Length of sternum 3d segment 


65 


57 


39 


36 


Length of sternum 4th segment 


65 


55 


40 


36 


Length of sternum 5th segment . ........ .... 


60 


57 


40 


37 




58 


55 


40 


36 


Length of sternum 7th segment . ... 


63 


57 


43 


409 


Length of sternum, 8th segment 


115 


110 


70 


70 


Length of scapula 


250 


217 


140 


120 


Breadth of scapula 


295 


285 


170 


160 


Greatest height of its spine 


35 


27 


14 


12 


Length of Lumerus 


220 


220 


130 


130 


Length of radius* 


205 


195 


128 


128 


Length of ulna 


243 


223 


160 


157 


Length of carpus 


55 


55 


35 


35 













326 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHEEN FUR SEAL. 

Measurements of the Skeleton Continued. 





Adult cf 
No. 2922. 


Adult d 
No. 2923. 


Adult ? 
No. 2925. 


Adult 2 
No. 2924. 


Breadth of curpus - . . ....... . 


100 


80 


60 


55 


Length of 1st digit* and its metacarpal bone 
Length of 2d digit and its metacarpal bone 


250 
245 


250 
235 


180 
178 


177 


Length, of 3d di'it and its metacarpal bone 


215 


195 


155 




Length of 4th diit and its metacarpal bone 


170 


150 


125 




Len^h of 5th di^it and its metacarpal bone 


127 


115 


100 




Length of femur 


150 


135 


82 


85 


Length of tibia 


250 


225 


167 


157 


Length of fibula 


230 


210 


145 


150 


Length of tarsus 


87 


84 


57 


60 


Breadth of tarsus 


67 


65 


40 


37 


Length of 1st digit t and its metatarsal bone 


270 


260 


200 




Length of 2d digit and its metatarsal bone 


265 


260 






Length of 3d digit and its metatarsal bone 


265 


260 






Length of 4th digit and its metatarsal bone 


264 


255 






Length of 5th digit and its metatarsal bone 


290 


280 






Length of innominate bone 


234 


210 


145 


140 


Greatest (external) width of pelvis anteriorly. . 
W^dth of posterior end of pnbic bones 


115 
17 


110 
14 


70 
30 


75 
25 


Length of ilium 


100 


95 


60 


60 


Length of ischia-pubic bones .... 


134 


110 


75 


73 


Length of thyroid foramen 


67 


63 


45 


45 


Breadth of thyroid foramen 


34 


25 


20 


20 













* Fore limb. 



t Hind limb. 



SEXUAL DIFFERENCES. The sexes differ in color, as already 
stated, in the females being much lighter than the males, or 
grayer. In respect to the skeleton they differ extraordinarily 
in the form of the pelvis, as already described, all the parts of 
which in the female are greatly reduced in size, and instead of 
the pubic bones meeting each other posteriorly, as they do in the 
males, they are widely separated. The innominate bones are 
also much further apart in the females, and the bones forming 
the front edge of the pelvis are less developed, so that the pelvis 
in the female is entirely open in front. In consequence of the 
remarkable narrowness of the pelvis in the male, the form of 
this portion of the skeleton is necessarily varied in the female, 
to permit of the passage of the foetus in parturition. As already 
remarked, no such sexual differences are seen in the Phocidce. 

In respect to other parts of the skeleton, the absence of the 
great development of the sagittal and occipital crests seen in 
the males has already been noticed. The bones of all parts of 
the skull are much smaller and weaker, especially the lower 



VARIATION WITH AGE. 327 

jaw and the teeth. The attachments for the muscles are corre- 
spondingly less developed throughout the skeleton. The most 
striking sexual difference, however, is that of size; the weight 
of the full-grown females, according to Captain Bryant, being 
/r.v.s- than ONE-SIXTH that of the full-grown males. This estimate 
Mr. Elliott has since found to be correct by actual weight of 
large series of specimens. 

DIFFERENCES BESULTING FROM AGE. The differences in 
color between the young and the adult consist, as already stated, 
in the young of both sexes during the first three or four months 
of their lives being glossy black, and gradually afterwards 
acquiring the color characteristic respectively of the adult 
males and females. In respect to the differences in the skeleton 
that distinguish the young, I can speak only of the skull, in 
which the relative development of its different regions differs 
widely from what is seen in the adult of either sex. The two 
young skulls before me, said to be from specimens thirty-five 
days old, are both females, but at this age the sexes probably 
do not differ in osteological features, especially in those of the 
skull. In these young specimens the anterior or facial portion 
of the skull is but little developed in comparison with the size 
of the brain-case. The muzzle is not only excessively short, 
but the orbital space is small, and the postorbital cylinder 
is correlatively reduced almost to zero, the postorbital processes 
being close to the brain-case. The zygomatic arch is hence 
A-ery short; the zygomatic foramen is as broad as long, instead 
of being nearly twice as long as broad, as in the adult. On the 
other hand, the brain-case is exceedingly large, the greatest 
breadth of the skull being at the middle of the brain-case in- 
stead of at the posterior end of the zygomatic arch. As will 
be seen by the table of measurements of the skull already 
given, the brain-case is nearly as large as in the adults, and the 
bones being thinner, it must have a capacity as great as that 
of the skulls of the adult males and females, there being, in 
respect to this point, but slight difference in the sexes. As the 
young advance in age, the anterior portion of the skull, or that 
part in advance of the brain-case, greatly elongates, especially 
the postorbital cylinder, and increases also in breadth, the 
skull in a great measure losing the triangular for-rn and the 
narrow pointed muzzle characteristic of the young. The post- 
orbital processes also greatly change their form as they further 
develop. 



328 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

The limbs are also relatively much larger than in the adult, as 
mentioned by Quoy and Gaiinard in respect to the Arctocephalus 
cinereus of Australia,* which enables them to move on land with 
greater facility than the adult, as the above-mentioned authors 
have stated to be the case in the Australian species. 

It is not true, however, that the young of C. ursinus are devoid 
of under-fur, as some writers have affirmed.t 

INDIVIDUAL VARIATION. The two males were both not only 
full-grown, but quite advanced in age, though in all probability 
the crests of even the older skull (No. 2922) would have been still 
further developed. The other male (No. 2923) was somewhat 
younger, but already had the sagittal crest considerably pro- 
duced; the teeth, however, were but moderately worn, the mid- 
dle upper incisors still retaining the groove dividing the surface 
of the crowns. In the younger male skull the posterior outline 
of the palatines is but slightly concave, whereas in the other it 
is deeply and abruptly emarginate in the middle, as deeply so 
as in the young (one month old) skulls; showing that differ- 
ences in this respect do not necessarily depend upon differences 
in age. They also differ in the form of the postorbital pro- 
cesses, in the younger they having nearly the same form as in 
Eumetopias, whereas in the older nearly that seen in Zalophus. 
The postorbital cylinder is also much shorter in the younger, 
though these two skulls do not present nearly the great differ- 
ence in this respect exhibited by two very old male skulls of 
Zalophus already described. Another difference is seen in the 
parieto-rnaxillary suture. In the younger specimen it is nearly 
straight and directed forward, the nasals extending consider- 
ably beyond it. In the other it curves at first moderately back- 
ward, and then abruptly in the same direction; the rnaxillaries 
extending in this case slightly beyond the nasals, instead of end- 
ing considerably in front of the end of the latter. The nasals 

* Voyage de 1' Astrolabe, Zoologie, touie i, p. 89. 

.t It may be added that the young specimens above described had not 
fully shed their milk teeth. The incisors appear to have been renewed, but 
both the first and second sets of canines were still present (see Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., vol. ii, pi. iii, fig. 5), the permanent ones being in front of the 
others. The three molars of the first set have been replaced by the perma- 
nent ones, the first and second of which are already quite large. The hinder 
molars are in one of the specimens but jiist in sight, and doubtless had not 
cut through the gum. In the other they are a little more advanced. The 
middle one is quite prominent ; the first is much smaller, while the last or 
sixth molar is far less advanced than either of the others. 



COMPARISON WITH ALLIED SPECIES. 329 

themselves are iimcli narrower in the younger specimen, espe- 
cially anteriorly, and hence have a very different form in the two 
examples. 

In respect to the teeth, it may be added that the older skull 
has seven upper molars on one side and six on the other, the 
normal number being six on each side. I have before me two 
other skulls in which the molars are f, and two others in 
which they are f f ! The form of the molar teeth, especially 
of the fangs, differs markedly in the two skulls ; those of the 
younger having the longitudinal grooves of the fangs of nearly 
all the teeth almost wholly obsolete, while in the other speci- 
men the roots of nearly all the molars are more or less strongly 
grooved. 

Of the two female skulls one is very aged,* as shown by the 
closed sutures and the greatly worn and defective teeth. The 
younger, however, is also quite advanced in years. Differences 
of a similar character to those seen in the males also occur 
between these, but they are less marked. 

There are also considerable variations in color. Not only 
is one of the young females much darker below and about the 
face than the other, but similar variations are seen in the old 
females and in the males. 

COMPARISON WITH ALLIED SPECIES. In cranial characters 
Callorhinus ursimis, as already noticed, is widely different from 
any of the species of Arctocephalus, to which, however, it is 
most closely allied. While in the latter the facial portion of the 
skull is narrow and depressed, in C. ursinus it is broad, high, 
and short. The ascending portion of the iuterinaxilke is also 
much broader and shorter, and the- whole dental armature 
is much weaker. In the character of the pelage the Northern 
and Southern Fur Seals present no marked differences, but in 
respect to color the latter are much grayer than the former. 
Another obvious difference consists in the great elongation of 

* Respecting the age of these specimens of Fur Seals, Captain Bryant has 
responded to my inquiries as follows : "The grown females (the mothers of 
the pups) were average specimens. The only means I had of determining 
their age was by the evidences afforded by dissection. These were that 
the older female had given birth to seven young and the other five, which 
would make their ages respectively ten and eight years. The two grown 
males were also selected as average specimens in size and color. Judging 
from their general appearance and color, I estimated them to be ten years 
old. The two pups were thirty-five days old, and in that time had doubled 
their size from birth. They were both females." 



330 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

the toe-flaps of the posterior limbs, which in C. ursinus are 
greatly developed, their extension beyond the digits being 
nearly equal to the length of the rest of the foot in adult 
females 140 mm. beyond the toes. In Arctocephalus australis 
(= falMandicus, auct.), on the other hand, they extend, as in 
most of the other Otaries, only a short distance beyond the 
toes, the indentations between them being but little posterior 
to the ends of the toes. 

The extremes of sexual variation seem to be presented by 
CallorMnus ursinus and Arctocephalus australis; the former 
presenting the greatest and the latter the least amount of sex- 
ual variation in size of any of the five American species of 
Otaries, to which my comparisons are limited by lack of mate- 
rial. The adult males of these two species differ little in size, 
while the female of Arctocephalus australis is very much larger 
than the female of C. ursinus. The average length of the 
skull in the adult males of both species is about 245 mm. ; of 
the females of A. australis about 233 mm., against 185 mm. 
in C. ursinus. 

For purposes of comparison I submit the following measure- 
ments of skulls of A. australis for corresponding measurements 
of C. ursimis (see antea, p. 323) : 



COMPARISON WITH ALLIED SPECIES. 



331 





B 

1 

M 


bio 

9 " T3 
p <x> o 
O fed ao 

** C3 cS 
S-t 0) 

3 !3 

-g 2 -6 3 d fi 
M ^ E o 




jsajo jo ;q3iajj 


rH 




BatnnBO jo qjpBajg; 


00 M t> O OQ 00 

^ o ITS 10 co co 




ssaoojd prona^ 


O CO O SO 00 ift 
t- CO O5 OO ^* IO 




jo gSpa ^nojj mojj 






siipiniBq proSA'ja^d 


gO O C<1 CO rH 
in in co T){ 


OD 

M 


jo aSpa !jaojj mojj 




< 
M 
H 

CO 


aaojaq 
qjpiii. 'saaoq IBSB^J 


00 O fli 
C*-l CO rH 


p 

< 

CO 

p 


pmqaq 
q^piii. 'eauoq {BSBJJ 


CO CO 

r-t rH 


hJ 

<fl 



PU 


'q'jSnaj 'eanoq JESB^J 


b- ia o 

CO CO CO 


H 
Q 

Q 


^onaa^ a 


<o -^ o co co 01 

W CO CO CO W C^J 


<! 
v^ 


898890 


g | | S S S 


0* 
r2 


-HpraioS 


O IO O O OS N 
^ <* O rj. H IM 


-^ 

g 






s 


*lCj2tI9T TB'JOX 


co 10 o m t~ irt 

CO CO O O CO IM 
W O (M CM IM IN 


* 


g 


"o "D "o "D o o 


5 




...... 


1 




. . : : : 


s 

e 
>S 






^ 




. . II 




Locality. 


Straits of Magellan 
Straits of Magellan 
Paraca Bay, Straits of Magellan . . 
Galapagos Islands 
do 
Patagonia 




MaqnmnanSo 


CD lO 00 i t O CO 
01 IM o CO CO CO 









332 CALLORHINUS UESINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATION. The Fur 
Seal is well known to have been formerly abundant on the 
western coast of North America, as far south as California, but 
the exact southern limit of their range I have been unable to 
determine. Captain Scammon speaks of having seen them " on 
one of the San Benito Islands, on the coast of Lower Califor- 
nia," and again says, " On the coast of California many beaches 
were found fronting gullies, where [Fur] Seals in large numbers 
formerly gathered ; and, as they there had plenty of ground 
to retreat upon, the sealers sometimes drove them far enough 
back to make sure of the whole herd, or that portion of them 
the skins of which were desirable."* He also states that the 
" Fur Seal and Sea Elephant once made the shores [of Guadalupe 
Island] a favorite resorting-place," and refers to their former 
occurrence on Cedros Island, in latitude 28.t Although at 
one time abundant on the California coast, they are by no means 
numerous there now, having been nearly exterminated by un- 
restricted destruction by the sealers. The writer above cited 
refers also to- their capture by the Indians at the mouth of the 
Strait of Juan de Fuca. The Seals appear here and on the 
neighboring coast, he adds, " some years as early as the first of 
March, and more or less remain till July or August ; but they 
are most plentiful in April and May. During these two months 
the Indians devote nearly all their time to sealing when the 
weather will permit." He reports their increase there in later 
years, and that while only a few dozens were annually taken 
there from 1843 to 1864, fully five thousand were taken in 18694 
Captain Bryant has given a similar report, referring especially 
to their abundance along the coasts of Oregon, Washington 
Territory, and British Columbia in 1869, as compared with for- 
mer years. He says those taken "were mostly very young 
Seals, none appearing to be over a year old. Formerly in 
March and April the natives of Puget Sound took large num- 
bers of pregnant females, but no places where they have 
resorted to breed seem to be known off this coast." He thinks 
it probable, however, that they may occupy rocky ledges off 

* Marine Mamm. , pp. 152, 154. 

t J. Ross Browne's Resources of the Pacific Slope, second part, p. 128. 

t Marine Mamm., p. 154. 

There are sis skulls in the National Museum from Puget Sound and the 
neighboring coast (collected at several different points by Messrs. Scammon 
an Swan), all of which are females. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



333 



shore which are rarely visited by boats.* In his MS. report just 
received he states that a half-breed hunter told him that he 
found in summer " on Queen Charlotte's Island, groups of these 
animals consisting of two or more beach-masters with a dozen 
or more females and pups, but no half-grown males." 

As is well known, the Prybilov or so-called " Fur Seal Isl- 
ands," off the coast of Alaska, form the great breeding-ground 
of the Fur Seals, to which hundreds of thousands annually 
resort to bring forth their young. The Prybilov Group con- 
sists of four small islands, known respectively as Saint Paul's, 
Saint George's, Otter, and Walrus Islands. The two last named 
are of small size, and are not used as breeding-grounds by the 
Seals, although Otter Island is visited by a large number of " non- 
breeding Seals." Saint Paul's Island is the largest, containing 
an area of about 33 square miles, and having a coast-line of 
about forty-two miles, nearly one-half of which is sand-beach. 
Of this, sixteen and a half miles, according to Mr. Elliott, are 
occupied in the breeding-season by the Fur Seals. Saint 
George's Island is somewhat smaller, with only twenty-nine 
miles of shore-line. It presents a bold coast, a grand wall of 
basalt extending continuously for ten mites, with no passage- 
way from the sea. It has, in all, less than a mile of sand-beach, 
and only two and a quarter miles of eligible landing grounds 
for the Seals. 

A few old male Fur Seals are said to make their appearance 
at the rookeries on these islands between the 1st and 15th of 
May, they acting, as it were, the part of pioneers, since their 
number is not much increased before the first of June. At 
about this date, and with the setting in of the humid, foggy 
weather of summer, the male Seals begin to land by " hundreds 
and thousands," to await the arrival of the females, which do 
not appear before about July first. The young are born soon 
after, and toward the last of this month the rookeries begin to 
lose their compactness and definite boundaries, but they are 
not fully broken up till about the middle of September. The 
Seals begin to leave the islands about the end of October, the 
greater proportion departing in November, while some remain 
till the end of the following mouth, and even later. 

The number of Fur Seals present on Saint Paul's Island in 
July, 1872, was estimated by Mr. Elliott to exceed three million, 
and on Saint George's Island in July, 1873, at about one hun- 

*Bull. Mus. Coiup. Zool., ii, p. 88. 



334 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

tired and sixty-three thousand.* Although these islands form 
"by far their most populous resorts, they are said to occur in 
considerable numbers on some of the islands to the northward, 
but I am unable to find definite statements as to their numbers 
or favorite stations. Mr. Elliott, after examining Saint Mathew's 
and Saint Lawrence Islands, became convinced that they were 
not only not resorted to as breeding stations by the Fur Seals, 
but that these islands, by their constitution and climatic condi- 
tions, were unsuitable for this purpose, and adds, "it may be 
safely said that no land of ours in the north is adapted to the 
wants of that animal, except that of Saint Paul and Saint 
George."t Mr. W. H. Ball states that " They have never been 
found in Bering Strait, or within three hundred miles of it."f In 
early times these animals are well known to have been abundant 
on Behriug's and Copper Islands. According to Kraschenini- 
kow, they were so numerous upon Behring's Island about the 
middle of the last century as to cover the whole southern shore 
of the island. Their range on the Asiatic coast is given by Stel- 
ler and others as extending southward along the Kamtschatkan 
coast to the Kurile Islands. Krascheuinikow states that they 

* As of interest in the present connection, I quote the following from Dam- 
pier respecting the abundance of the Southern Fur Seal at the Island of 
Juan Fernandez, two hundred years ago, or about a century before the 
beginning of the Seal slaughter there, which in less than a generation nearly 
exterminated the species at that locality. Dampier and his party spent 
fifteen days on this island in the year 1683. He says: "Seals swarm as 
thick about this Island [ " of John Fernando," as he terms it, ] as if they had 
no other place in the World to live in ; for there is not a Bay nor Rock that 
one can get ashoar on, but is full of them. ... These at John Fernan- 
da's have fine thick short Furr ; the like I have not taken notice of any where 
but in these Seas. Here are always thousands, I might say possibly millions 
of them, either sitting on the Bays, or going and coming in the Sea round the 
Island, which is covered with them (as they lie at the top of the Water play- 
ing and sunning themselves) for a mile or two from the shore. When they 
come out of the Sea they bleat like Sheep for their young ; and though they 
jiass through hundreds of others young ones before they come to their own, 
yet they will not suffer any of them to suck. The young ones are like 
Puppies, and lie much ashore, but when beaten by any of us, they, as well 
as the old ones, will make towards the Sea, and swim very swift and 
nimble ; tho' on shore they lie very sluggishly, and will not go out of our 
way unless we beat them, but snap at us. A blow on the Nose soon kills 
them. Large Ships might here load themselves with Seals Skins and Trane- 
oyl: for they are extraordinary fat." A New Voyage Round the World, "fifth 
edition, corrected," 1703, vol. i, pp. 88, 90. 

t Cond. of Aff. in Alaska, pp. 217, 224. 

i Alaska and its Resources, p. 493. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 335 

appeared there, however, only in spring and in September, none 
being seen there from the beginning of June till the end of 
August, at which time he says they return from the south with 
their young. Von Schrenck speaks of their occurrence in the 
Ochotsk Sea and the Tartarian Gulf as far south as the 46th 
degree of latitude, or to the southern point of Saghalieu Island. 
The natives reported to him the occurrence of great numbers 
of the animals on the eastern coast of that island. Captain 
Scainrnoii also refers to their abundance twenty years since on 
the eastern side of Saghalien.* 

Except during the season of reproduction, these animals ap- 
pear to lead a wandering life, but the extent and direction of 
their migrations are not yet well known. Steller spoke of their 
migrations as being as regular as those of the various kinds of 
sea-fowl, and they are recorded as arriving with great regularity 
at the Prybilov Islands, but where they pass the season of 
winter is still a matter of conjecture. 

GENERAL HISTORY. The Northern Fur Seal was first made 
known to science by Steller in 1751, under the name Ursus 
mar mm. During his visit to Karntschatka and its neighboring 
islands, in 1742, he met with these animals in great numbers 



* Captain Scammou relates in au. off-hand way, merely as an interesting 
incident of sealing life, the following- : "In the midst of the Crimean War, 
an enterprising firm in New London, Connecticut, fitted out a clipper bark, 
which was officered and manned expressly for a sealing voyage in the 
Okhotsk Sea. The captain was a veteran in the business, and many thought 
him too old to command, but the result of the voyage proved him equal to 
the task. The vessel proceeded to Robin Island a mere volcanic rock, situ- 
ated on the eastern side of the large island of Saghalien. Many outlying 
rocks and reefs are about it, making it dangerous to approach, and affording 
but slight shelter for an anchorage. Here the vessel (of about three hun- 
dred tons) lay, with ground-tackle of the weight for a craft of twice her 
size. Much of the time fresh winds prevailed, accompanied by the usual 
ugly ground-swell ; and, in consequence of her being long, low, and sharp, 
the deck was at such times frequently flooded ; nevertheless, she ' rode-out 
the whole season, though wet as a half-tide rock,' and a valuable cargo of 
skins was procured, which brought an unusually high price in the European 
market, on account of the regular Russian supply being cut off in conse- 
quence of the war. This is only given as one of the many that may be re- 
lated of sealing life." Marine Mammalia, pp. 150-152. In this connection 
I can hardly help adding that it is to be regretted that Captain Scammou 
has not favored us with more of these " incidents," from the important bear- 
ing they have upon the former distribution and abundance of this and other 
species of Seal, and that he has not given more explicit references to the 
localities at which the Fur Seals were formerly hunted on the southern por- 
tion of the North American coast and elsewhere. 



336 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

at Behriug's Island, where he spent some time among them, and 
carefully studied their habits and anatomy, a detailed account of 
which appeared in his celebrated memoir entitled " De Bestiis 
Marinis," in the Transactions of the St. Petersburg Academy 
for the year 1749.* This important essay was the source of 
nearly all of the accounts of this animal that appeared prior to 
the beginning of the present decade. The twenty-eight quarto 
pages of Steller's memoir devoted to this species, gave not only 
a detailed account of its anatomy, with an extensive table of 
measurements, but also of its remarkable habits, and figures of 
the animals themselves. A little later Krascheniuikow, in his 
History of Kamtschatka,t under the name " Sea Cat," gave also 
a long account of its habits, apparently based mainly on Stel- 
ler's notes,! but it embraces a few particulars not given in "De 
Bestiis Marinis." Steller's description of the habits of this 
animal has been largely quoted by Buffon, Pennant, Schreber, 
Hamilton, and other general writers. 

Buffon, Pennant, Schreber, Gmelin, and nearly all writers on. 
the Pinnipeds, down to about 1820, confounded the Northern. 
Fur Seal with the Fur Seals of the Southern hemisphere, blend- 
ing their history as that of a single species. Peron, in 1810, first 
recognized it as distinct from its southern allies, and it was so- 
treated somewhat later by Demarest, Lesson, Fischer, Gray, and 
other systematic writers, but its distinctive characters were not 

*Nov. Comm. Acad. Petrop., ii, pp. 331-359, pi. xv, 1751. This, as is well 
known, is a posthumous paper, published six years after Steller's death, 
Steller dying of fever November 12, 1745, while on his way from Siberia to 
St. Petersburg. The description of the Sea Bear was written at Behring's 
Island in May, 1742. 

tHist. Kaintchatka (English edition), translated from the Russian by 
James Grieve, pp. 123-130, 1764. 

t Krascheninikow, it is stated, "received all of Mr. Steller's papers," to 
aid him in the preparation of his " History of Kamtschatka." 

Nilsson and Miiller in 1841, and Wagner in 1846 and 1849, on the other 
hand, still considered all the Sea Bears as belonging to a single species. 
Wagner, in 1849 (Arch, fur Naturg., 1849, pp. 37-49), described the osteo- 
logical characters of the Northern species from three skeletons in the 
Munich Museum received from Behring's Sea. One of these was apparently 
that of a full-grown female ; a second was believed to be that of a half-grown 
male, while the third belonged to a very young animal, in which the per- 
manent teeth were still not wholly developed. Wagner compares the species 
with Steller's Sea Lion, and with the figures of the skulls of the Southern 
Sea Bears given by F. Cuvier, Blaiuville, and Quoy and Gairnard, and notes 
various differences in the form of the teeth and skull, but believes that these 
differences must be regarded as merely variations dependent upon age. 



GENERAL HISTOEY. 337 

clearly set forth till 1859, when Dr. J. E. Gray described and 
figured its skull, and showed that the Northern species was not 
even congeneric with the Sea Bears of the South. Very few 
specimens of either the Northern or Southern Sea Bears appear 
to have reached European museums prior to about that date, 
so that naturalists had not previously been able to rna"ke a direct 
comparison of this species with any of its Southern affines. 
Dr. Gray, in referring to this point in 1859, wrote as follows : 
"I had not been able to see a specimen of this species in any 
of the museums which I examined on the Continent or in Eng- 
land, or to find a skull of the genus [Arctocephalus] from the 
North Pacific Ocean, yet I felt so assured, from Steller's de- 
scription and the geographical position, that it must be distinct 
from the Eared Fur Seals from the Antarctic Ocean and Aus- 
tralia, with which it had usually been confounded, that in iny 
' Catalogue of Seals in the Collection of the British Museum ' 



' 



[1850] I regarded it as a distinct species, under the name of 
Arctocephalus ursinus, giving an abridgment of Steller's descrip- 
tion as its specific character." "The British Museum," he adds, 
u has just received, under the name Otaria leonina, from Am- 
sterdam, a specimen [skull and skin] of the Sea Bear from 
Behring's Straits, which was obtained from St. Petersburg";* 
which is the specimen already spoken of as figured by Dr. 
Gray. From the great differences existing between this skull 
and those of the southern Sea Bears, Dr. Gray, a few weeks 
later, separated the northern species from the genus Arctoce- 
phalus, under the name Callorhinusj 

It seems, however, that there were two skulls of Steller's 
Sea Bear in the Berlin Museum as early as 1841,! and three 
skeletons of the same species in the Museum of Munich in 1849, 
yet Dr. Gray appears to have been the first to compare this 
animal with its southern relatives, and to positively decide its 
affinities. 

Misled, however, by erroneous information respecting speci- 
mens of Eared Seals received at the British Museum from Cali- 
fornia, a skin of the Callorliinus ursinus was doubtfully described 
by this author, in the paper in which the name Callorhimts was 
proposed, as that of his Arctocephalus monteriensis, which is a 

s Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. , 1859, p. 102. 
t Ibid. ,1859, 359. 

} See ArcMv fiir Naturgesch., 1841, p. 334. 
$ Ibid., 1849, 39. 

Misc. Pub. No. 12 22 



338 CALLORHINUS UESINUS NOETHERN FUR SEAL. 

Hair Seal. This skin, was accompanied by a young skull, pur- 
porting, by the label it bore, to belong to it, but Dr. Gray 
observes that otherwise he should have thought it too small to 
have belonged to the same animal. Seven years later,* he de- 
scribed the skull as that of a new species (Arctocephalus cali- 
fornianus)', still associating with it, however, the skin of the 
CallorMnus ur sinus. The skull he subsequently considered as 
that of a young A.monteriensis ( = Eumetopias stelleri} ; and refer- 
ring his A. californianus to that species, he was consequently 
led into the double error of regarding the Eutnetopias stelleri as 
a Fur Seal (as already explained under that species and else- 
where in the present paper), and of excluding the CallorMnus 
ursinus from the list of Fur Seals. To this I called attention 
in 1870, and in 1871 Dr. Gray correctly referred his A. monteri- 
ensis and A. californianus in part (the " skin only") to Callo- 
rMnus ursinus. t 

What may be termed the second or modern epoch in the 
general history of this species began in 1869, when Captain C. 
M. Scammon published a highly important contribution to its 
biology,| he describing at considerable length, from personal 
observation, its habits, distribution, and products, as well as 
the various methods employed for its capture. The following 
year Mr. W. H. Dall devoted a few pages to its history, in 
which he made many important suggestions relative to the 
sealing business. During the same year I was able to add not 
only something to its technical history, || but also to make pub- 
lic an important communication on its habits kindly placed at 
my disposal by Captain Charles Bryant,^ Government agent in 
charge of the Fur Seal Islands of Alaska. In 1874, Captain 
Scammon republished his above-mentioned paper,** adding 
thereto a transcript of Captain Bryant's observations already 
noted. Almost simultaneously with this appeared Mr. H. W. 
Elliott's exhaustive Eeport on the Seal Islands of Alaska,tt in 

* Cat. Seals and Whales, 1866, p. 51. 

t Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales, p. 15 ; Hand-List of Seals, 32. 
t Overland Monthly, vol. iii, Nov. 1869, pp. 393-399. 
Alaska and its Resources, 1870, pp. 492-498. 
|| Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, pp. 73-89. 
1 1bid., pp. 89-108. 

** Marine Mammalia, 1874, pp. 141-163. 

tt Eeport on the Prybilov Gronp, or Seal Islands of Alaska, 4to, unpaged, 
1873 [1874]. 



FIGURES. 339 

which the present species properly conies in for a large share 
of the author's attention. The work is richly illustrated with 
photographic plates, taken from Mr. Elliott's sketches, about 
twenty-five of which are devoted to the Fur Seal. The text of 
this rare and privately distributed work has been since re- 
printed,* with some changes and additions, and has been 
widely circulated. It contains very little relating to the Fur 
Seal that is strictly technical, but the general history of its life 
at the Prybilov Islands is very fully told, while the commercial 
or economic phase of the subject is treated at length. A few 
minor notices of this species have since appeared (mostly popu- 
lar articles in illustrated magazines, chiefly from the pen of Mr. 
Elliott), but nothing relating to its general history requiring 
.special notice in the present connection. 

FIGURES. The first figures of the Northern Sea Bear were 
given by Steller, in his paper already cited. They represent an 
adult male, in a quite natural attitude, and a female reclining 
on her back. In respect to details, these early figures were 
naturally more or less rude and inaccurate. They were copied, 
however, by Buffon, Schreber, Pennant, and other early writers, 
and are the only representations of this species known to me 
that were made prior to about the year 1839, except Choris's 
plate of a group of these animals entitled " Ours inarms dans 
Tile de St. Paul",t published in 1822. This represents three 
old males, surrounded by their harems, and indicates very faith- 
fully the mode of grouping and the variety of attitudes as- 
sumed by these animals when assembled on the rookeries. 
Hamilton, in 1839, gave a figure of the "Sea Bear of Steller 
(Otaria ursina}" 1 ^ which he tells us is "from the engraving of 
the distinguished Naturalist of the Kurick*, the original of 
which I have not seen. This represents a male and female, the 
latter reclining on its side, with a pup resting on its right 
flipper. 

The first figure of the skull is that published by Gray in 
1859,|| a view in profile of the skull of an adult male. A 
wood-cut of the same was given in 1866,fl and a fine lithographic 

* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, 1875, pp. 107-151. 

t Voy. pittor. autour du Monde, lies Ale"cratiennes, pi. xv. 

\ Marine Amphibia;, pi. xxi. 

Ibid., p. 266. 

|| Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, pi. Ixviii. 

IT Cat. Seals and Whales, p. 45, fig. 16. 



340 CALLOEHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

plate in 1874,* representing the skull in profile, from above 
and from below.t 

In 1870 I gave figures of two adult male skulls (two views 
of each), of an adult female skull (three views), of a very young 
skull (three views), and of the scapula, dentition, etc. These, 
so far as known to me, are the only figures of the skull or other 
details of structure thus far published. 

In 1874 Captain Scammon gave figures of the animal, $ a ziuc- 
ograph of an old male, from a sketch by Mr. Elliott, a wood-cut 
of the head of a female seen from below (drawn by Elliott), || two 
outline figures representing the female as seen from below and 
in profile, and two others in outline illustrating "attitudes of 
the Fur Seals." fl Mr. Elliott, in his first Report on the Seal 
Islands,** in a series of over two dozen large photographic 
plates (from India ink sketches from nature) has given an ex- 
haustive presentation of the phases of Fur Seal life so faithfully 
studied by him at St. Paul's Island. Among these may be 
mentioned especially those entitled "The East Landing and 
Black Buttes The beach covered with young Fur Seals"; 
" The North Shore of St. Paul's Island " (giving an extensive 
view of the rookeries) ; " Lukannon Beach " (Fur Seals playing 
in the surf, and rookeries in the distance); "Old male Fur Seal, 
or < Seecatch ' ' (as he appears at the end of the season after 
three mouths of fasting) ; " Fur Seal Harem " (showing the rela- 
tive size of males, females, and young, various attitudes, posi- 
tions, etc.); 'Fur Seal males, waiting for their 'harems'" (the 
females beginning to arrive); Fur Seal "Eookery" (breeding- 
grounds at Polavina Point) ; "Fur Seal Harem" (Beef Eookery, 
foreground showing relative size of males and females); "Fur 
Seal Pups at Sleep and Play"; "Hauling Grounds" (several 
views at different points); "Capturing Fur Seals"; "Driving 
Fur Seals"; "Killing Fur Seals Searing gang at work," etc. 

The only other pictorial contributions to the history of the 

* Hand-List of Seals, pi. xis. 

' 1 1 infer this to be the same specimen in each case, not only from the re- 
semblance the figures bear to each other, but from Ur. Gray, so far as I 
can discover, referring to only the single skull from Behring's Strait, re- 
^ ceived in 1859. 

t Marine Mammalia, pi. xxi, two figures. 

$ Ibid., p. 143. 

|| Ibid., p. 145. 

If Ibid., p. 149. 

** Report on the Prybilov Group, or Fur Seal Islands, of Alaska, unpaged, 
and plates not numbered. 



HABITS. 341 

Fur Seal of noteworthy importance is Mr. Clark's colored plate, * 
on which are represented a nearly full-grown male, a female 
and a pup, prepared from skins sent to the British Museum by 
the Alaska Commercial Company. In these the attitudes are 
excellent and the coloring fair. 

HABITS. The habits of the Fur Seal of the north seem to 
have been well known to Steller and his companions a century 
and a quarter ago, and their seemingly marvellous accounts of 
them prove to have been only to a slight degree erroneous. As 
a matter of historic interest, and for comparison with our pres- 
ent knowledge of the subject, as well as in some respects sup- 
plementary to it, I herewith subjoin a few extracts from the ac- 
count left us by Krascheninikow, based partly, apparently, on 
his own observations, but largely on those of his fellow-trav- 
eller, Steller. " The Sea Cat", says Krascheuinikow, t " is about 
half the size of the Sea Lion; in form resembling the Seal, but 
thicker about the breast, and thinner towards the tail. They 
have the snout longer than the Sea Lions, and larger teeth ; with 
eyes like cow's eyes, short ears, naked and black paws, and black 
hair mixed with gray, which is short and brittle. Their young- 
are of a bluish black color. 

" The Sea Cats are caught in the spring and in the month of 
September, about the river Sheepanova; at which time they go 
from the Kurilskoy Island to the American coast ; but the most 
are catched about the cape of Kronotzkoy, as between this and 
the cape Shupinslioy the sea is generally calm and affords them 
properer places to retire to. Almost all the females that are 
caught in the spring are pregnant ; and such as are near their 
time of bringing forth their young are immediately opened and 
the young taken out and skinned. Xone of them are to be seen 
from the beginning of June to the end of August, when they 
return from the south with their young. The natives were 
formerly at a loss to conceive where such great herds of preg- 
nant fat animals retired in spring, and why they returned so 
weak and lean was owing to their fatigue. 

.... "The male and female differ so much in the form and 
strength of their bodies, that one who does not carefully exam- 
ine them would take them for different species of animals ; be- 
sides the females are wild and fearful. The male has from. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1878, 271, pi. xs. 

1 1 use liere Grieve's English translation from the Russian, published in 
1764. 



342 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

eight to fifteen, and even sometimes fifty females, whom he 
guards with such jealousy that he does not allow any other to 
come near his mistresses : and though many thousands of them 
lie upon the same shore, yet every family keeps apart ; that is, 
the male with his wives, young ones, and those of a year old, 
which have not yet attached themselves to any male ; so that 
sometimes the family consists of 120. They likewise swim at 
sea in such droves. Such as are old, or have 110 mistresses, live 
apart ; and the first that our people found upon Bering's Island 
were such old ones, and all males, extremely fat and stinking. 
These sometimes lie asleep a whole month without nourishment, 
and are the fiercest of all, attacking all that pass them, and their 
pride or obstinacy is such that they will rather die than quit 
their place. When they see a man coming near them some of 
them rush upon him and others lie ready to sustain the battle. 
They bite the stones that are thrown at them, and rush the 
most violently upon him who throws them ; so that though you 
strike out their teeth with stones, or put out their eyes, yet, 
even blind, they will not quit their place : nay, they dare not 
leave it, for every step that any one moves off he makes a new 
enemy, so that though he could save himself from the attacks 
of men, his own brethren would destroy him ; and if it hap- 
pens that any one seems to retire the least, then others draw 
near no [to] prevent his running away ; and if any one seems 
to suspect the courage of another, or his design to run away, he 
falls upon him. This suspicion of one another is sometimes car- 
ried so far, that for a whole verst one sees nothing but these 
bloody duels ; and at such time one may pass between them 
without any manner of danger. If two fall upon one, then some 
others come to support the weakest ; for they do not allow of 
unequal combat. During these battles the others that are swim- 
ming in the sea raise their heads, and look at the success of 
the combatants ; at length becoming likewise fiercer, they come 
out and increase the number. 

.... "When two of them only fight the battle lasts fre- 
quently for an hour : sometimes they rest awhile, lying by one 
another; then both rise at once and renew the engagement. 
They fight with their heads erect, and turn them aside from 
one another's stroke. So long as their strength is equal they 
tight with their fore paws ; but when one of them becomes weak 
the other seizes him with his teeth, and throws him upon the 
ground. When the lookers on see this they come to the assist- 



HABITS. 343 

ance of the vanquished. The wounds they make with their 
teeth are as deep as those made with a sabre ; and in the month 
of July yon will hardly see one of them that has not some 
wound upon him. After the end of the battle they throw them- 
selves into the water to wash their bodies. The occasions of 
their quarrels are these : The first and most bloody is about 
their females, when one endeavors to carry off the mistress of 
another, or the young ones that are females; the females that 
are present follow the conqueror. The second is about their 
places, when one comes too near that of another, which they 
don't allow, either for want of room, or because they are jeal- 
ous of their coining too near their mistresses. The third is 
owing to their endeavouring to do justice, and end the quarrels 
of others. 

.... "Another reason of the Sea Cats going in the spring 
to the eastwards to the Desert Islands must be, that resting 
and sleeping without nourishment for three months, they free 
themselves from the fat which was troublesome to them, in the 
same manner as the bears who live the whole winter without 
nourishment ; for in the months of June, July, and August, the old 
ones do nothing but sleep upon the shore, lying in one place 
like a stone, now and then looking at one another, and yawn- 
ing and stretching, without meat or drink; but the young ones 
begin to walk in the beginning of July. When this animal lies 
upon the shore and diverts himself, his lowing is like that of a 
cow ; when he fights he growls like a bear ; when he has con- 
quered his enemy, he chirps like a cricket ; but being vanquished 
or wounded, he groans or mews like a cat ; coming out of the 
water, he commonly shakes, strokes his breast with his hinder 
paws, and smooths the hair upon it. The male lays his snout 
to that of the females, as if he was kissing her. When they 
sleep in the sun they hold up their paws, wagging them as the 
dogs do their tails. They lie sometimes upon their backs, at 
other times like a dog upon their bellies ; sometimes contract- 
ing, at other times extending themselves. Their sleep is never 
so sound but that they awake at the approach of any person, 
how softly soever he goes, and are presently upon their guard ; 
besides their smell and hearing are surprisingly acute. 

" They swim so fast that they can easily make ten versts in an 
hour; and when they happen to be wounded at sea they seize 
the boats of the fishers with their teeth, and drag them along 
with such swiftness that they appear to fly and not to swim 



344 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

upon the water. By this means the boat is frequently over- 
turned and the people drowned, unless he who steers it be very 

skillful, and observes the course of the animal They 

fasten their fore paws in the rocks, and thus draw up their body, 
which they can move but slowly in such places, but upon a 
plain, one is in danger of being overtaken by them. Upon 
Bering's Island there are such numbers of them that they cover 
the whole shore; so that travellers are frequently obliged for 
safety to leave the sands and level country and go over the hills 
and rocky places. It is remarkable that in this island the Sea 
Cats are found only upo the south coast which looks towards 
Kamtscliaika. The reason for this may be, that this is the first 
land they meet with going east from the Kronotzkoy pass."* 

Steller and Krascheninikow both evidently considered the 
" Sea Cats " dangerous to man, both on laud and in the sea. 
They also attributed to them a degree of magnanimity and 
intelligence in relation to their contests with each other uncon- 
firmed by modern observers. In several respects the accounts 
of these authors in the main virtually identical border upon 
the mythical, but, generally speaking, are remarkably free from 
exaggeration, considering the times at which they were written. 

As already stated, they formed the source of all our knowl- 
edge of these strange beasts prior to the beginning of the pres- 
ent decade. Choris makes only very brief mention of them 
and says very little about their habits, t Veuianimov, in his 
"Zapieska" published at Saint Petersburg, in Eussian, in 1840, 
and known to me only as quoted and translated by Mr. H. W. 
Elliott,| has given valuable statistical information respecting 
the sealing business as prosecuted by the Eussians at the Pry- 
bilov Islands, but seems to have given no detailed account of their 
habits. Our first important recent information respecting the 
economy of these animals is that given by Captain Charles 

* Krascheniuikow's Hist. Kamtschatka, Grieve's English translation, pp. 
123, 131. 

tHis account in full is as follows: "L'ours inarins, en russe sivoutclt, cou- 
vre par milliers les rivages des lies Kotoviya [Islands of Saint Paul and 
Saint George], ou sont jete'es abondarninent des pl'antes marines (fucus*). 
On entend de tres-lom le cri de ces auimaux, lorsqu'on est en mer. Les 
femelles sont beaucoup plus petites que les males; elles out le corps pin* 
tluet et de couleur jaunatre. Les males out jusqu'a six pied de haut lors- 
qu'ils levent la tete ; les jeunes sont ordiuairenient d'un brun noir ; il para it 
que les femelles ne font jarnais plus d'un petit." From the description of 
"lies S. Georges et S. Paul," in "Voy. pittoresq. autour du Monde. " 

* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 241-242. 



HABITS. 345 

Bryant, in 1870.* Mr. Elliott's account, published three or 
four years later, is far more detailed, and respecting most points 
may be considered as fairly exhaustive of the subject, more than 
thirty pages of his report being devoted exclusively to the 
habits of the species. Captain Bryant has now kindly placed 
at my disposal a communication embodying the results of his 
eight years' observations on these animals, prepared by my 
request expressly for the present work. While replete with 
new information, it does not, to any gr,eat extent, duplicate 
the account of the habits of the species published by Mr. Elliott, 
being devoted mainly to a detailed history of the changes in 
the relative preponderance of the different classes of Seals 
resulting from the different systems of selecting the animals to 
be killed for their furs, and to other features of the general 
subject not hitherto fully presented. Its importance as a con- 
tribution to the economic phases of the subject can scarcely be 
overrated, while at the same time it forms a most valuable 
contribution to the biology of the species. Believing it desira- 
ble to present in the present connection a full and connected 
history of the species, I offer no apology for the copious extracts 
from Mr. Elliott's graphic account of the habits of the Fur Seal 
which here follow : 

"The fur seal (CaUorliinus ursimis), which repairs to these 
islands to breed in numbers that seem almost fabulous, is by 
far the highest organized of all the Pinnipedia, and, indeed, for 
that matter, when laud and water are fully taken into account, 
there is no other animal superior to it from a purely physical 
point of view ; and few creatures that can be said to exhibit a 
higher order of instinct, approaching even intelligence, belong- 
ing to the animal kingdom. . . . . 

"Observe it as it comes leisurely swimming oii toward the 
land ; how high above the water it carries its head, and how 
deliberately it surveys the beach, after having stepped upon it ; 
it may be truly said to step with its fore flippers, for they reg- 
ularly alternate as it moves up, carrying the head well above 
them, at least three feet from the ground, with a perfectly erect 
neck. 

.... "We observe as the seal moves along that, though it 
handles its fore limbs in a most creditable manner, it brings up 
its rear in quite a different style ; for after every second step 
ahead with the fore feet it arches its spine, and with it drags 

* Bull. Mus. Couip. Zool. ii, pp. 89-108. 



346 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

and lifts together the hinder limbs to a fit position under its 
body for another movement forward, by which the spine is 
again straightened out so as to take a fresh hitch up on the 
posteriors. This is the leisurely and natural movement on land 
when not disturbed, the body being carried clear of the ground. 

"The radical difference in the form and action of the hinder 
feet cannot fail to strike the eye at once. They are one-seventh 
longer and very much lighter and more slender ; they, too, are 
merged in the body like those anterior ; nothing can be seen of 
the legs above the tarsal joint 

"Now, as we look at this fur seal's progression, that which 
seems most odd is the gingerly manner (if I may be allowed to 
use the expression) in which it carries these hind flippers. 
They are held out at right angles from the body directly oppo- 
site the pelvis, the toe-ends and flaps slightly waving and curl- 
ing or drooping over, supported daintily, as it were, above the 
earth, only suffering its weight behind to fall upon the heels, 
which are opposed to each other scarcely five inches apart. 

" We shall, as we see him again later in the season, have to 
notice a different mode of progression, both when lording it 
over his harem or when he grows shy and restless at the end 
of the breeding-season, and now proceed to notice him in the 
order of his arrival and that of his family, his behavior during 
the long period of fasting and unceasing activity and vigilance 
and other cares which devolve upon him, as the most eminent 
of all polygarnists in the brute world ; and to fully comprehend 
this exceedingly interesting animal, it will be necessary to refer 
to my drawings and paintings made from it and its haunts. [*] 

" The adult males are first to arrive in the spring on the 
ground deserted by all classes the preceding year. 

"Between the 1st and 5th of May, usually, a few bulls will 
be found scattered over the rookeries pretty close to the water. 
They are at this time quite shy and sensitive, not yet being' 
satisfied with the land, and a great many spend day after day 
before coming ashore idly swimming out among the breakers a 
little distance from the land, to which they seem somewhat 
reluctant at first to repair. The first arrivals are not always 
the oldest bulls, but may be said to be the finest and most am- 
bitious of their class. They are full grown and able to hold 
their stations on the rocks, which they immediately take up after 
coming ashore. 

[* See Mr. Elliott's " Report on the Prybilov Group, or Fur Seal Islands, of 
Alaska,' 1 especially the plates already mentioned at p. 340.] 



HABITS. 347 

" I ain iiot able to say authoritatively that these animals coine 
back and take up the same position on the breeding-grounds 
occupied by them during the preceding season. From niy 
knowledge of their action and habit, and from what I have 
learned of the natives, I should say that very few, if any of 
them, make such a selection and keep these places year after 
year. One old bull was pointed out to me on the Eeef Gar- 
butch Rookery as being known to the natives as a regular visitor 
at, close by, or on the same rock every season during the past 
three years, but he failed to re-appear on the fourth ; but if 
these animals came each to a certain place and occupied it reg- 
ularly, season after season, I think the natives here would know 
it definitely ; as it is, they do not. I think very likely, how- 
ever, that the older bulls come back to the same rookery-ground 
where they spent the previous season, but take up their posi- 
tions on it just as the circumstances attending their arrival will 
permit, such as fighting other seals which hare arrived before 
them, &c. 

" With the object of testing this matter, the Russians, during 
the early part of their possession, cut off the ears from a given 
number of young male seals driven up for that purpose from 
one of the rookeries, and the result was that cropped seals were 
found on nearly all the different rookeries or 'hauling- grounds ' 
on the islands after. The same experiment was made by agents 
two years ago, who had the left ears taken off from a hundred 
young males which were found on Lukanuon Rookery, Saint 
Paul's Island ; of these the natives last year found two on No- 
vastosh-nah Rookery, ten miles north of Lukanuon, and two 
or three from English Bay and Tolstoi Rookery, six miles west 
by water; one or two were taken on Saint George's Island, 
thirty-six miles to the southeast, and not one from Lukannon 
was found among those that were driven from there ; and, prob- 
ably, had all the young males on the two islands been driven 
up and examined, the rest would have been found distributed 
quite equally all around, although the natives say that they 
think the cutting off of the animal's ear gives the water such 
access to its head as to cause its death ; this, however, I think 
requires confirmation. These experiments would tend to prove 
that when the seals approach the islands in the spring they 
have nothing but a general instinctive appreciation of the fitness 
of the land as a whole, and no especial fondness for any partic- 
ular spot. 



348 CALLORHINUS UESINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

"The lauding of the seals upon the respective rookeries is 
influenced greatly by the direction of the wind at the time of 
approach to the islands. The prevailing winds, coming from 
the northeast, north, and northwest, carry far out to sea the 
odor or scent of the pioneer bulls, which have located them- 
selves on different breeding-grounds three or four weeks usu- 
ally in advance of the masses ; and hence it will be seen that 
the rookeries on the south and southeastern shores of Saint 
Paul's Island receive nearly all the seal-life, although there are 
miles of eligible ground on the north shore. 

"To settle this question, however, is an exceedingly difficult 
matter ; for the identification of individuals, from one season 
to another, among the hundreds of thousands, and even millions, 
that come under the eye on a single one of these great rook- 
eries, is really impossible. 

"From the time of the first arrivals in May up to the 1st of 
June, or as late as the middle of this month, if the weather be 
clear, is an interval in which everything seems quiet; very few 
seals are added to the pioneers. By the 1st of June, however, 
or thereabouts, the foggy, humid weather of summer sets in, 
and with it the bull-seals come up by hundreds and thousands, 
and locate themselves in advantageous positions for the recep- 
tion of the females, which are generally three weeks or a month 
later, as a rule. 

"The labor of locating and maintaining a position in the 
rookery is really a serious business for those bulls which come 
in last, and for those that occupy the water-line, frequently 
resulting in death from severe wounds in combat sustained. 

" It appears to be a well-understood principle among the able- 
bodied bulls that each one shall remain undisturbed on his 
ground, which is usually about ten feet square, provided he is 
strong enough to hold it against all comers; for the crowding 
in of fresh bulls often causes the removal of many of those who, 
though equally able-bodied at first, have exhausted themselves 
by fighting earlier, and are driven by the fresher animals back 
farther and higher up on the rookery. 

" Some of these bulls show wonderful strength and courage. 
I have marked one veteran, who was among the first to take 
up his position, and that one on the water-line, where at least 
fifty or sixty desperate battles were fought victoriously by him 
with nearly as many different seals, who coveted his position, 
and when the fighting season was over, (after the cows have 



HABITS. 349 

mostly all hauled up,) I saw him, covered with scars and gashes 
raw arid bloody, an eye gouged out, but lording it bravely over 
his harem of fifteen or twenty cows, all huddled together on the 
same spot he had first chosen. 

" The fighting is mostly or entirely done with the mouth, the 
opponents seizing each other with the teeth and clenching the 
jaws; nothing but sheer strength can shake them loose, and 
that effort almost always leaves an ugly wound, the sharp 
canines tearing out deep gutters in the skin and blubber or 
shredding the flippers into ribbon-strips. 

" They usually approach each other with averted heads and a 
great many false passes before either one or the other takes the 
initiative by griping; the heads are darted out and back as 
quick as flash, their hoarse roaring and shrill, piping whistle 
never ceases, while their fat bodies writhe and swell with exer- 
tion and rage, fur flying in air and blood streaming down all 
combined make a picture fierce and salvage enough, and from 
its great novelty, exceedingly strange at first sight 

" In these battles the parties are always distinct, the offensive 
and the defensive; if the latter proves the weaker he with- 
draws from the position occupied, and is never followed by his 
conqueror, who complacently throws up one of his hind flippers, 
fans himself, as it were, to cool himself from the heat of the 
conflict, utters a peculiar chuckle of satisfaction and contempt, 
with a sharp eye open for the next covetous bull or ' see-catch.' * 

"The period occupied by the males in taking and holding 
their positions on the rookery offers a favorable opportunity in 
which to study them in the thousand and one different atti- 
tudes and postures assumed between the two extremes of des- 
perate conflict and deep sleep sleep so sound that one can, by 
keeping to the leeward, approach close enough, stepping softly, 
to pull the whiskers of any one taking a nap on a clear place; 
but after the first touch to these whiskers the trifler must jump 
back with great celerity, if he has any regard for the sharp 
teeth and tremendous shaking which will surely overtake him 
if he does not. 

"The neck, chest, and shoulders of a fur-seal bull comprise 
more than two-thirds of his whole weight, and in this long 
thick neck and fore limbs is embodied the larger portion of his 
strength ; when on land, with the fore feet he does all climbing 

* " ' See-catch,' native name for the bulls on the rookeries, especially those 
which are able to maintain their position." 



350 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

over rocks, over the grassy hummocks back of the rookery, the 
hind flippers being gathered up after every second step for- 
ward, as described in the manner of walking; these fore feet 
are the propelling power when in water, almost exclusively, the 
hinder ones being used as rudders chiefly. 

" The covering to the body is composed of two coats, one be- 
ing of short, crisp, glistening over-hair, and the other a close, 
soft, elastic pelage, or fur, which gives distinctive value to the 
pelt. 

"At this season of first l hauling up ' in the spring, the pre- 
vailing color of the bulls, after they dry off and have been ex- 
posed to the weather, is a dark, dull brown, with a sprinkling 
of lighter brown-black, and a number of hoary or frosted-gray 
coats ; on the shoulders the over-hair is either a gray or rufous- 
ocher, called the 'wig;' these colors are most intense upon 
the back of the head, neck, and spine, being lighter underneath. 
The skin of the muzzle and flippers, a dark bluish black, fading 
to a reddish and purplish tint in some. The ears and tail are 
also similar in tint to the body, being in the case of the former 
a trifle lighter; the ears on a bull fur-seal are from an inch to 
an inch and a half in length ; the pavilions tightly rolled up on 
themselves so that they are similar in shape and size to the lit- 
tle finger on the human hand, cut off at the second (phalangeal) 
joint, a shade more cone-shaped, for they are greater in diame- 
ter at the base than at the tip. 

" I think it probable that the animal has and exerts the power 
of compressing or dilating this scroll-like pavilion to its ear, 
accordingly as it dives deep or rises in the water ; and also, I 
am quite sure that the hair-seal has this control over the meatus 
externus, from what I have seen of it; but I have not been able 
to verify it in either case by observation ; but such opportunity 
as I have had, gives me undoubted proof of the greatest keen- 
ness in hearing ; for it is impossible to approach one, even when 
sound asleep ; if you make any noise, frequently no matter how 
slight, the alarm will be given instantly by the insignificant- 
looking auditors, and the animal, rising up with a single motion 
erect, gives you a stare of astonishment, and at this season of 
defiance, together with incessant surly roaring, growling, and 
' spitting.' 

" This spitting, as I call it, is by no means a fair or full expres- 
sion of the most characteristic sound and action, peculiar, so 
far as I have observed, to the fur-seals, the bulls in particular. 



HABITS. 351 

It is the usual prelude to their combats, and follows somewhat 
in this way : when the two disputants are nearly withiu reach- 
ing or striking distance, they make a number of feints or false 
passes at one another, with the mouth wide open and lifting 
the lips or snarling, so as to exhibit the glistening teeth, and 
with each pass they expel the air so violently through the 
larynx as to make a rapid choo-choo-choo sound, like the steam- 
puffs in the smoke-stack of a locomotive when it starts a heavy 
train, and especially when the driving-wheels slip on the rail. 

"All the bulls now have the power and frequent inclination 
to utter four entirely distinct calls or notes a hoarse, resonant 
roar, loud and long ; a low gurgling growl ; a chuckling, sibi- 
lant, piping whistle, of which it is impossible to convey an ade- 
quate idea, for it must be heard to be understood ; and this 
spitting, jnst described. The cows* have but one note a hol- 
low, prolonged, bla-a-ting call, addressed only to their pups ; on 
all other occasions they are usually silent. It is something like 
the cry of a calf or sheep. They also make a spitting sound, 
and snort, when suddenly disturbed. The pups i l)la-at ' also, 
with little or no variation, the sound being somewhat weaker 
and hoarser than that of their mothers for the first two or three 
weeks after birth ; they, too, spit and cough when aroused sud- 
denly from a nap or driven into a corner. A number of pups 
crying at a short distance off bring to mind very strongly the 
idea of a flock of sheep i baa-aa-ingS 

" Indeed, so similar is the sound that a number of sheep 
brought up from San Francisco to Saint George's Island during 
the summer of 1873 were constantly attracted to the rookeries, 
running in among the seals, and had to be driven away to a 
good feeding-ground by a small boy detailed for the purpose. 

* "Without explanation I may be considered as making use of misapplied 
terms in describing these animals, for the inconsistency of coupling ' pups ? 
with 'cows' and 'bulls,' and 'rookeries' with the "breeding-grounds of 
the same, cannot fail to be noticed; but this nomenclature has been given 
and used by the English and American whalemen and sealing-parties for 
many years, and the characteristic features of the seals suit the odd naming 
exactly, so much so that I have felt satisfied to retain the style throughout 
as rendering my description more intelligible, especially so to those who are 
engaged in the business or may be hereafter. The Eussians are more con- 
sistent, but not so 'pat.' The bull is called 'see-catch,' a term implying 
strength, vigor, &c. ; the cow, 'matkah,' or mother; the pups, 'kotickie,' 
or little seals ; the non-breeding males, under six and seven years, ' hollus- 
chickie,' or bachelors. The name applied collectively to the fur-seal by 
them is ' morskie-kot,' or sea-cat." 



352 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL, 

" The sound arising from these great breeding-grounds of the 
fur-seal, where thousands upon thousands of angry, vigilant 
bulls are roaring, chuckling, piping, and multitudes of seal- 
mothers are calling in hollow, bla-ating tones to their young, 
which in turn respond incessantly, is simply indescribable. It 
is, at a slight distance, softened into a deep booming, as of a 
cataract, and can be heard a long distance off at sea, under 
favorable circumstances as far as five or six miles, and fre- 
quently warns vessels that may be approaching the islands in 
thick, foggy weather, of the positive, though unseen, proximity 
of land. Xight and day, throughout the season, the din of the 
rookeries is steady and constant. 

" The seals seem to suffer great inconvenience from a com- 
paratively low degree of heat ; for, with a temperature of 46 
and 48 on land, during the summer, they show signs of dis- 
tress from heat whenever they make any exertion, pant, raise 
their hind flippers, and use them incessantly as fans. With the 
thermometer at 55-60, they seem to suffer even when at rest, 
and at such times the eye is struck by the kaleidoscopic appear- 
ance of a rookery, on which a million seals are spread out in 
every imaginable position their bodies can assume, all indus- 
triously fanning themselves, using sometimes the fore flippers 
as ventilators, as it were, by holding them aloft motionless, at 
the same moment fanning briskly with the hind flipper, or flip- 
pers, according as they sit or lie. This wavy motion of flapping 
and fanning gives a peculiar shade of hazy indistinctness to 
the whole scene, which is difficult to express in language ; but 
one of the most prominent characteristics of the fur-seal is this 
fanning manner in which they use their flippers, when seen on 
the breeding-grounds in season. They also, when idling, as it 
were, off shore at sea, lie on their sides, with only a partial ex- 
posure of the body, the head submerged, and hoist up a fore or 
hind flipper clear of the water, while scratching themselves or 
enjoying a nap ; but in this position there is no fanning. I say 
' scratching, 1 because the seal, in common with all animals, is 
preyed upon by vermin, a species of louse and a tick, peculiar 
to itself. 

"All the bulls, from the very first, that have been able to 
hold their positions, have not left them for an instant, night or 
day, nor do they do so until the end of the rutting-season, which 
subsides entirely between the 1st and 10th of August, begin- 
ning shortly after the coming of the cows in June. Of necessity, 



HABITS. 353 

therefore, this causes them to fast, to abstain entirely from food 
of any kind, or water, for three months at least, and a few of 
them stay four months before going into the water for the first 
time after hauling up in May. 

" This alone is remarkable enough, but it is simply wonderful 
when we come to associate the condition with the unceasing 
activity, restlessness, and duty devolved upon the bulls as 
heads and fathers of large families. They do not stagnate, like 
bears in caves ; it is evidently accomplished or due to the ab- 
sorption of their own fat, with which they are so liberally sup- 
plied when they take their positions on the breeding-ground, 
and which gradually diminishes while they remain on it. But 
still some most remarkable provision must be made for the en- 
tire torpidity of the stomach and bowels, consequent upon their 
being empty and unsupplied during this long period, which, 
however, in spite of the violation of a supposed physiological 
law, does not seem to affect them, for they come back just as 
sleek, fat, and ambitious as ever in the following season. 

11 1 have examined the stomachs of a number which were 
driven up and killed immediately after their arrival in spring, 
and natives here have seen hundreds, even thousands, of them 
during the killing-season in June and July, but in no case has 
anything been found other than the bile and ordinary secretions 
of healthy organs of this class, with the exception only of find- 
ing in every one a snarl or cluster of worms (Nematoda), from 
the size of a walnut to that of one's fist, the fast apparently 
having no effect on them, for when three or four hundred old 
bulls were slaughtered late in the fall, to supply the natives 
with 'bidarkee' or canoe skins, I found these worms in a lively 
condition in every paunch cut open, and their presence, I 
think, gives some reason for the habit which these old bulls 
have of swallowing small bowlders, the stones in some of the 
stomachs weighing half a pound or so, and in one paunch I 
found about five pounds in the aggregate of larger pebbles, 
which in grinding against one another must destroy, in a great 
measure, these intestinal pests. The sea-lion is also troubled 
in the same way by a similar species of worm, and I have pre- 
served a stomach of one of these animals in which are more 
than ten pounds of bowlders, some of them alone quite large. 
The greater size of this animal enables it to swallow stones 
which weigh two and three pounds. I can ascribe no other 
cause for this habit among these animals than that given, as 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 23 



354 CALLORHINUS UESINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

they are of the highest type of the carnivora, eating fish as a 
regular means of subsistence ; [*] varying the monotony of this 
diet with occasional juicy fronds of sea- weed, or kelp, and per- 
haps a crab, or such, once in a while, provided it is small and 
tender, or soft-shelled. 

u Between the 12th and 14th of June the first of the cow-seals 
come up from the sea, and the bulls signalize it by a universal, 
spasmodic, desperate fighting among themselves. 

" The strong contrast between the males and females in size 
and shape is heightened by the air of exceeding peace and 
amiability which the latter class exhibit. 

" The cows are from 4 to 4| feet in length from head to tail, 
and much more shapely in their proportions than the bulls, the 
neck and shoulder being not near so fat and heavy in propor- 
tion to the posteriors. 

"When they come up, wet and dripping, they are of a dull, 
dirty-gray color, darker on the back and upper parts, but in a 
few hours the transformation made by drying is wonderful; 
you would hardly believe they could be the same animals, for 
they now fairly glisten with a rich steel and rnaltese-gray luster 
on the back of the head, neck, and spine, which blends into an 
almost pure white on the chest and abdomen. But this beauti- 
ful coloring in turn is altered by exposure to the weather, for 
in two or three days it will gradually change to a dull, rufous 
ocher below, and a cinereous-brown and gray-mixed above ; this 
color they retain throughout the breeding-season up to the time 
of shedding the coat in August. 

" The head and eye of the female are really attractive ; the 
expression is exceedingly gentle and intelligent ; the large, lus- 
trous eyes, in the small, well-formed head, apparently gleam 
with benignity and satisfaction when she is perched up on some 
convenient rock and has an opportunity to quietly fan herself. 

" The cows appear to be driven on to the rookeries by an ac- 
curate instinctive appreciation of the time in which their period 
of gestation ends ; for in all cases marked by myself, the pups 
are born soon after landing, some in a few hours after, but most 
usually a day or two elapses before delivery. 

[* The habit of swallowing stones is one apparently common to all of the 
Pinnipeds. The common belief among sealers and others is that they take 
in these stones as ballast. Compare on this point annotation already given 
respecting the Southern Sea Lion (Otaria jubata), anlea, p. 311. Mr. Elliott's 
explanation appears to be more reasonable tJian most that have been pro- 
posed.] 



HABITS. 355 

" They are noticed aiid received by the bulls 011 the water- 
line station with much attention ; they are alternately coaxed 
and urged up on to the rocks, and are immediately under the 
most jealous supervision ; but owing to the covetous and ambi- 
tious nature of the bulls which occupy the stations reaching 
way back from the water-line, the little cows have a rough-and- 
tumble time of it when they begin to arrive in small numbers 
at first ; for no sooner is the pretty animal fairly established on 
the station of bull number one, who has installed her there, he 
perhaps sees another one of her style down in the water from, 
which she has just come, and in obedience to his polygamous 
feeling, he devotes himself anew to coaxing the later arrival 
in the same winning manner so successful in her case, when 
bull number two, seeing bull number one off his guard, reaches 
out with his long strong neck and picks the unhappy but pas- 
sive creature up by the scruff of hers, just as a cat does a kit- 
ten, and deposits her on his seraglio-ground ; then bulls number 
three, four, and so on, in the vicinity, seeing this high-handed 
operation, all assail one another, and especially bull number 
two, and have a tremendous fight, perhaps for half a minute or 
so, and during this commotion the cow generally is moved or 
moves farther back from the water, two or three stations more, 
where, when all gets quiet, she usually remains in peace. Her 
last lord and master, not having the exposure to such diverting 
temptation as had her first, he gives her such care that she not 
only is unable to leave did she wish, but no other bull can seize 
upon her. This is only one instance of the many different trials 
and tribulations which both parties on the rookery subject 
themselves to before the harems are filled. Far back, fifteen or 
twenty stations deep from the water-line sometimes, but gen- 
erally not more on an average than ten or fifteen, the cows 
crowd in at the close of the season for arriving, July 10 to 14, 
and then they .are able to go about pretty much as they please, 
for the bulls have become greatly enfeebled by this constant 
fighting and excitement during the past two months, and are 
quite content with even only one or two partners. 

" The cows seem to haul in compact bodies from the water up 
to the rear of the rookeries, never scattering about over the 
ground ; and they will not lie quiet in any position outside of 
the great mass of their kind. This is due to their intensely 
gregarious nature, and for the sake of protection. They also 
select laud with special reference to the drainage, having a 



356 CALLOEHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

great dislike to water-puddled ground. This is well shown on 
Saint Paul. 

" I have found it difficult to ascertain the average number of 
cows to one bull on the rookery, but I think it will be nearly 
correct to assign to each male from twelve to fifteen females, 
occupying the stations nearest the water, and those back in the 
rear from five to nine. I have counted forty-five cows all under 
the charge of one bull, which had them penned up on a flat 
table-rock, near Keetavie Point; the bull was enabled to do 
this quite easily, as there was but one way to go to or come from 
this seraglio, and on this path the old Turk took his stand and 
guarded it well. 

"At the rear of all these rookeries there is always a large 
number of able-bodied bulls, who w r ait patiently, but in vain, 
for families, most of them having had to fight as desperately 
for the privilege of being there as any of their more fortunately- 
located neighbors, who are nearer the water than themselves ; 
but the cows do not like to be in any outside position, where 
they are not in close company, lying most quiet and content in 
the largest harems, and these large families pack the surface of 
the ground so thickly that there is hardly moving or turning 
room until the females cease to come up from the sea ; but the 
inaction on the part of the bulls in the rear during the rutting- 
season only serves to' qualify them to move into the places va- 
cated by those males who are obliged to leave from exhaustion, 
and to take the positions of jealous and fearless protectors for 
the young pups in the fall. 

"The courage with which the fur-seal holds his position, as 
the head and guardian of a family, is of the very highest order, 
compared with that of other animals. I have .repeatedly tried 
to drive them when they have fairly established themselves, 
- and have almost always failed, using every stone at my com- 
mand, making all the noise I could, and, finally, to put their 
courage to the full test, I walked up to within 20 feet of a bull 
at the rear and extreme end of Tolstoi Rookery, who had four 
cows in charge, and commenced with my double-barreled 
breech-loading shot-gun to pepper him all over with mustard- 
seed or dust shot. His bearing, in spite of the noise, smell of 
powder, and pain, did not change in the least from the usual 
attitude of determined defense which nearly all the bulls as- 
sume when attacked with showers of stones and noise ; he 
would dart out right and left and catch the cows, which tiiu- 



v 

HABITS. 35'7/ 




idly attempted to run after each report, and fling and drag 
them back to their places ; then, stretching up to his full height, 
look me directly and defiantly in the face, roaring and spitting 
most vehemently. The cows, however, soon got away from 
him ; but he still stood his ground, making little charges on me 
of 10 or 15 feet in a succession of gallops or lunges, spitting 
furiously, and then retreating to the old position, back of which 
he would not go, fully resolved to hold his own or die in the 
attempt. 

"This courage is all the more noteworthy from the fact that, 
in regard to man, it is invariably of a defensive character. The 
seal, if it makes you turn when you attack it, never follows 
you much farther than the boundary of its station, and no ag- 
gravation wilt compel it to become offensive, as far as I have 
been able to observe. 

"The cows, during the whole season, do great credit to their 
amiable expression by their manner and behavior on the rook 
ery; never fight or quarrel one with another, and never or sel- 
dom utter a cry of pain or rage when they are roughly handled 
by the bulls, who frequently get a cow between them and tear 
the skin from her back, cutting deep gashes into it, as they 
snatch her from mouth to mouth. These wounds, however, 
heal rapidly, and exhibit no traces the next year. 

"The cows, like the bulls, vary much in weight. Two were 
taken from the rookery nearest Saint Paul's Village, after they 
had been delivered of their young, and the respective weights 
were 56 and 101 pounds, the former being about three or four 
years old, and the latter over six. They both were fat and in 
excellent condition. 

" It is quite out of the question to give a fair idea of the posi- 
tions in which the seals rest when on laud. They may be said 
to assume every possible attitude which a flexible body can be 
put into. One favorite position, especially with the cows, is to 
perch upon a point or top of some rock and throw their heads 
back upon their shoulders, with the nose held aloft, then, clos- 
ing their eyes, take short naps without changing, now and then 
gently fanning with one or the other of the long, slender hind 
flippers ; another, and the most common, is to curl themselves 
up, just as a dog does on a hearth-rug, bringing the tail and 
the nose close together. They also stretch out, laying the head 
straight with the body, and sleep for an hour or two without 
moving, holding one of the hinder flippers up all the time, now 
and then gently waving it, the eyes being tightly closed. 



358 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

" The sleep of the fur-seal, from the old bull to the young pup, 
is always accompanied by a nervous, muscular twitching and 
slight shifting of the flippers ; quivering and uneasy rolling of 
the body, accompanied by a quick folding anew of the fore flip- 
pers, which are signs, as it were, of their having nightmares, 
or sporting, perhaps, in a visionary way far off in some dream- 
land sea ; or disturbed, perhaps more probably, by their intes- 
tinal parasites. I have studied hundreds of all classes, steal- 
ing softly up so closely that I could lay my hand on them, and 
have always found the sleep to be of this nervous description. 
The respiration is short and rapid, but with no breathing (un- 
less your ear is brought very close) or snoring sound ; the heav- 
ing of the flanks only indicates the action. I have frequently 
thought that I had succeeded in finding a snoring seal, espe- 
cially among the pups, but a close examination always gave 
some abnormal reason for it, generally a slight distemper, by 
which the nostrils were stopped up to a greater or less degree. 

"As I have said before, the cows, soon after landing, are de- 
livered of their young. 

" Immediately after the birth of the pup, (twins are rare, if 
ever [occurring],) it finds its voice, a weak, husky blaat, and 
begins to paddle about, with eyes wide open, in a confused sort 
of way for a few minutes until the mother is ready to give it 
attention, and, still later, suckle it; and for this purpose she 
is provided with four small, brown nipples, placed about eight 
inches apart, lengthwise with the body, on the abdomen, be- 
tween the fore and hinder flippers, with some four inches of 
space between them transversely. The nipples are not usually 
visible ; only seen through the hair and fur. The milk is abun- 
dant, rich, and creamy. The pups nurse very heartily, gorging 
themselves. 

"The pup at birth, and for the next three months, is of a jet- 
black color, hair, eyes, and flippers, save a tiuy white patch 
just back of each fore foot, and weighs from 3 to 4 pounds, and 
12 to 14 inches long ; it does not seem to nurse more than once 
every two or three days, but in this I am most likely mistaken, 
for they may have received attention from the mother in the 
night or other times in the day when I was unable to watcn 
them. 

"The apathy with which the young are treated by the old on 
the breeding-grounds is somewhat strange. I have never seen 
a cow caress or fondle her oifspring, and should it stray but a 



HABITS. 359 

short distance from the harem, it can be picked up and killed 
before the mother's eyes, without causing her to show the 
slightest concern. The same indifference is exhibited by the 
bull to all that takes place outside of the boundary of his se- 
raglio. While the pups are, however, within th;} limits of his 
harem-ground, he is a jealous and fearless proteclor; but if the 
little animals pass beyond this boundary, thr;i they may be 
carried off without the slightest attention in 1 iieir behalf from 
their guardian. 

" It is surprising to me how few of the pv [js get crushed to 
death while the ponderous bulls are floundering over them 
wheu engaged in fighting. I have seen two bulls dash at each 
other with all the energy of furious rage, meeting right in the 
midst of a small 'pod' of forty or fifty pups, trampling over 
them with their crushing weights, and bowling them out right 
and left in every direction, without injuring a single one. I do 
not think more than 1 per cent, of the pups born each season 
are lost in this manner on the rookeries. 

" To test the vitality of these little animals, I kept one in the 
house to ascertain how long it could live without nursing, hav- 
ing taken it immediately after birth and before it could get 
any taste of its mother's milk ; it lived nine days, and in the 
whole time half of every day was spent in floundering about 
over the floor, accompanying the movement with a persistent 
hoarse blaating. This experiment certainly shows wonderful 
vitality, and is worthy of an animal that can live four months 
without food or water and preserve enough of its latent strength 
and vigor at the end of that time to go far off to sea, and return 
as fat and hearty as ever during the next season. 

"In the pup, the head is the only disproportionate feature 
when it is compared with the proportion of the adult form, the 
neck being also relatively shorter and thicker. I shall have to 
speak again of it, as it grows and changes, when I finish with 
the breeding-season now under consideration. 

"The cows appear to go to and come from the water quite fre- 
quently, and usually return to the spot, or its neighborhood, 
where they leave their pups, crying out for them, and recogniz- 
ing the individual replies, though ten thousand around, all to- 
gether, should blaat at once. They quickly single out their 
own and attend them. It would be a very unfortunate matter 
if the mothers could not identify their young by sound, since 
their pups get together like a great swarm of bees, spread out 



360 CALL.ORHINUS UESINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

upon the ground in 'pods' or groups, while they are young, 
and not very large, but by the middle and end of September, 
until they leave in November, they cluster together, sleeping 
and frolicking by tens of thousands. A mother comes up from 
the water, where she has been to wash, and perhaps to feed, 
for the last day or two, to about where she thinks her pup 
should be, but misses it, and finds instead a swarni of pups in 
which it has been incorporated, owing to its great fondness for 
society. The mother, without at first entering into the crowd 
of thousands, calls out, just as a sheep does for her lambs, lis- 
tens, and out of all the din she if not at first, at the end of a 
few trials recognizes the voice of her offspring, and then ad- 
vances, striking out right and left, and over the crowd, toward 
the position fro'm which it replies ; but if the pup at this time 
happens to be asleep she hears nothing from it, even though it 
were close by, and in this case the cow, after calling for a time 
without being answered, curls herself up and takes a nap, or 
lazily basks, and is most likely more successful when she calls 
again. 

" The pups themselves do not know their mothers, but they 
are so constituted that they incessantly cry out at short inter- 
vals during the whole time they are awake, and in this way 
a mother can pick, out of the monotonous blaating of thou- 
sands of pups, her own, and she will not permit any other 
to suckle. 

"Between the end of July and the 5th or 8th of August the 
rookeries are completely changed in appearance; the systematic 
and regular disposition of the families, or harems, over the 
whole extent of ground has disappeared ; all order heretofore 
existing seems to be broken up. The rutting-seasou over, those 
bulls which held positions now leave, most of them very thin 
in flesh and weak, and I think a large proportion of them do 
not come out again on the land during the season ; and such as 
do come, appear, not fat, but in good flesh, and in a new coat 
of rich dark and gray-brown hair and fur, with gray and 
grayish-ocher i wigs' or over-hair on the shoulders, forming ;i 
strong contrast to the dull, rusty-brown and umber dress in 
which they appeared during the summer, and which they hud 
begun to shed about the 15th of August, in common with the 
cows and bachelor seals. After these bulls leave, at the close 
of their season's work, those of them that do return to the land 
do not come back until the end of September, and do not haul 



HABITS. 361 

up ou the rookery-grounds as a rule, preferring to herd together, 
as do the young males, on the sand-beaches and other rocky 
points close to the water. The cows, pups, and those bulls 
which have been in retirement, now take possession, in a very 
disorderly manner, of the rookeries; also, come a large number 
of young, three, four, and five year old males, who have not 
been permitted to land among the cows, during the ruttiug- 
seasou, by the older, stronger bulls, who have savagely fought 
them off whenever they made (as they constantly do) an attempt 
to land. 

" Three-fourths, at least, of the cows are now off in the water, 
only coming ashore to nurse and look after their pups a short 
time. They lie idly out in the rollers, ever and anon turning 
over and over, scratching their backs and sides with their fore 
and hind flippers. Nothing is more suggestive of immense 
comfort and enjoyment than is this action of these animals. 
They appear to get very lousy on the breeding-ground, and the 
frequent winds and showers drive and spatter sand into their 
fur and eyes, making the latter quite sore in many cases. They 
also pack the soil under foot so hard and solid that it holds 
water in the surface depressions, just like so many rock basins, 
on the rookery; out and into these puddles they flounder and 
patter incessantly, until evaporation slowly abates the nuisance. 

" The pups sometimes get so thoroughly plastered in these 
muddy, slimy puddles, that their hair falls off in patches, giving 
them the appearance of being troubled with scrofula or some 
other plague, at first sight, but they are not, from my observa- 
tion, permanently injured. 

" Early in August (8th) the pups that are nearest the water on 
the rookeries essay swimming, but make slow and clumsy prog- 
ress, floundering about, when over head in depth, in the most 
awkward manner, thrashing the water with their fore flippers, 
not using the hinder ones. In a few seconds, or a minute at 
the most, the youngest is so weary that he crawls out upon 
the rocks or beach, and immediately takes a recuperative nap, 
repeating the lesson as quick as he awakes and is rested. They 
soon get familiar with the water, and delight in it, swimming 
in endless evolutions, twisting, turning, diving, and when ex- 
hausted, they draw up on the beach again, shake themselves as 
young dogs do, either going to sleep on the spot, or having .1 
lazy frolic among themselves. 

" In this matter of learning to swim, I have not seen any 



362 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

' driving 7 of the young pups into the water by the old in order 
to teach them this process, as has been affirmed by writers on 
the subject of seal life. 

" The pups are constantly shifting, at the close of the ruttiug- 
season, back and forth over the rookery in large squads, some- 
times numbering thousands. In the course of these changes 
of position they all come sooner or later in contact with the sea ; 
the pup blunders into the water for the first time in a most 
awkward manner, and gets out again as quick as it can, but so 
far from showing any fear or dislike of this, its most natural 
element, as soon as it rests from its exertion, is immediately 
ready for a new trial, and keeps at it, if the sea is not too 
stormy or rough at the time, until it becomes quite familiar 
with the water, and during all this period of self-tuition it 
seems to thoroughly enjoy the exercise. 

" By the loth of September all the pups have become familiar 
with the water, have nearly all deserted the background of 
the rookeries and are down by the water's edge, and skirt the 
rocks and beaches for long distances on ground previously un- 
occupied by seals of any class. 

"They are now about five or six times their original weight, 
and are beginning to shed their black hair and take on their 
second coat, which does not vary at this age between the sexes. 
They do this very slowly, and cannot be called out of molting 
or shedding until the middle of October, as a rule. 

" The pup's second coat, or sea-going jacket, is a uniform, 
dense, light pelage, or under-fur, grayish in some, light-brown 
in others, the fine, close, soft, and elastic hairs which compose 
it being about one-half of an inch in length, and over-hair, two- 
thirds of an inch long, quite coarse, giving the color by which 
you recognize the condition. This over-hair, on the back, neck, 
and head, is a dark chinchilla-gray, blending into a white, just 
tinged with a grayish tone on the abdomen and chest. The 
upper lip, where the whiskers or mustache takes root, is of a 
lighter-gray tone than that which surrounds. This mustache 
consists of fifteen or twenty longer or shorter whitish-gray 
bristles (one-half to three inches) on each side and back of the 
nostrils, which are, as I have before said, similar to that of a 
dog. 

"The most attractive feature about the fur-seal pup, and 
upward as it grows, is the eye, which is exceedingly large, dark, 
and liquid, with which, for beauty and amiability, together with 



HABITS. 363 

intelligence of expression, those of no other animal can be com- 
pared. The lids are well supplied with eyelashes. 

" I do not think that their range of vision on land, or out of the 
water, is very great. I have had them (the adults) catch sight 
of my person, so as to distinguish it as a foreign character, three 
and four hundred paces off, with the wind blowing strongly 
from them toward myself, but generally they will allow you to 
approach very close indeed, before recognizing your strange- 
ness, and the pups will scarcely notice the form of a human 
being until it is fairly on them, whereupon they make a lively 
noise, a medley of coughing, spitting, snorting, blaating, and 
get away from its immediate vicinity, but instantly resume, 
however, their previous occupation of either sleeping or play- 
ing, as though nothing had happened. 

" But the power of scent is (together with their hearing, be- 
fore mentioned) exceedingly keen, for I have found that I would 
most invariably awake them from soundest sleep if I got to the 
windward, even when standing a considerable distance off. 

" To recapitulate and sum up the system of reproduction on 
the rookeries as the seals seem to have arranged it, I would 
say, that 

" First. The earliest bulls appear to land in a negligent, indo- 
lent way, shortly after the rocks at the water's edge are free 
from ice, frozen snow, &c. This is generally about the 1st to 
the 5th of May. They land first and last in perfect confidence 
and without fear, very fat, and of an average weight of five 
hundred pounds ; some staying at the water's edge, some going 
away back, in fact all over the rookery. 

" Second. That by the 10th or 12th of June, all the stations 
on the rookeries have been mapped out, fought for, and held in 
waiting for the cows by the strongest and most enduring bulls, 
who are, as a rule, never under six years of age, and sometimes 
three, and even occasionally four times as old. 

"Third. That the cows make their first appearance, as a class, 
by the 12th or 15th of June, in rather small numbers, but by 
the 23d and 25th of this month they begin to flock up so as to 
fill the harems very perceptibly, and by the 8th or 10th of July 
they have most all come, stragglers excepted ; average weight 
eighty pounds. 

" Fourth. That the rutting-season is at its height from the 10th 
to the loth of July, and that it subsides entirely at the end of 
this month and early in August, and that it is confined entirely 
to the land. 



364 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

" Fifth. That the cows bear their first young when three years 
of age. 

" Sixth. That the cows are limited to a single pup each, as a 
rule, in bearing, and this is born soon after landing; no excep- 
tion has thus far been witnessed. 

" Seventh. That the bulls who have held the harems leave for 
the water in a straggling manner at the close of the rutting- 
season, greatly emaciated, not returning, if at all, until six or 
seven weeks have elapsed, and that the regular systematic 
distribution of families over the rookeries is at an end for the 
season, a general medley of young bulls now free to come up 
from the water, old males who have not been on seraglio duty, 
cows, and an immense majority of pups, since only about 25 
per cent, of their mothers are out of the water at a time. 

" The rookeries lose their compactness and definite bounda- 
ries by the 25th to 28th July, when the pups begin to haul back 
and to the right and left in small squads at first, but as the 
season goes on, by the 18th August, they swarm over three and 
four times the area occupied by them when born on the rook- 
eries. The system of family arrangement and definite compact- 
ness of the breeding-classes begins at this date to break up. 

"Eighth. That by the 8th or 10th of August the pups born 
nearest the water begin to learn to swim, and by the 15th or 
20th of September they are all familiar more or less with it. 

"Xinth. That by the middle of September the rookeries are 
entirely broken up, only confused, straggling bauds of cows, 
young bachelors, pups, and small squads of old bulls, crossing 
and recrossing the ground in an aimless, listless manner ; the 
season is over, but many of these seals do not leave these 
grounds until driven off by snow and ice, as late as the end of 
December and 12th of January. 



u 



["Hauling-grounds." ] This recapitulation is the sum and 
substance of my observations on the rookeries, and I will now 
turn to the consideration of the hauling-grouuds, upon which 
the yearlings and almost all the males under six years come 
out from the sea in squads from a hundred to a thousand, and, 
later in the season, by hundreds of thousands, to sleep and 
frolic, going from a quarter to half a mile back from the sea, as 
at English Bay. 

"This class of seals are termed 'holluschukie' (or 'bachelor 
seals') by the natives. It is with the seals of this division that 
these people are most familiar, since they are, together with a 



HABITS. 365 

few thousand pups aud some old bulls, the only ones driven up 
to the killing-grounds for their skins, for reasons which are ex- 
cellent, and which shall be given further on. 

"Since the 'hollusehukie' are not permitted by their own 
kind to laud on the rookeries and rest there, they have the 
choice of two methods of landing and locating. 

" One of these opportunities, and least used, is to pass up 
from and down to the water, through a rookery on a pathway 
left by common consent between the harems. On these lines 
of passage they are unmolested by the old and jealous bulls, 
who guard the seraglios on either side as they go and coine ;. 
generally thfcre is a continual file of them on the way, travel- 
ing up or down. 

"As the two and three year old holluschukie come up in small 
squads with the first bulls in the spring, or a few days later, 
these common highways between the rear of the rookery-ground 
and the sea get well defined and traveled over before the arrival 
of the cows ; for just as the bulls crowd up for their stations, so 
do the bachelors, young and old, increase, t These roadways 
may be termed the lines of least resistance in a big rookery ; 
they are not constant ; they are splendidly shown on the large 
rookeries of Saint Paul's, one of them (Tolstoi) exhibiting this 
feature finely, for the hauling-ground lies up back of the rook- 
ery, on a flat and rolling summit, 100 to 120 feet above the sea- 
level. The young males and yearlings of both sexes come 
through the rookery on these narrow pathways, and, before 
reaching the resting-ground above, are obliged to climb up an 
almost abrupt bluff, by following and struggling in the little 
water-runs and washes which are worn in its face. As this 
is a large hauling-ground, on which fifteen or twenty thousand 
commonly lie every day during the season, the sight always, at 
all times, to be seen, in the way of seal climbing and crawling, 
was exceedingly novel and interesting. They climb over and 
up to places here where a clumsy man might at first sight 
say he w r ould be unable to ascend. 

"The other method by which the 'holluschukie' enjoy them- 
selves on land is the one most followed and favored. They, in 
this case, repair to the beaches unoccupied between the rook- 
eries, and there extend themselves out all the way back from 
the water as far, in some cases, as a quarter of a mile, and even 
farther. I have had under my eye, in one straightforward 
sweep, from Zapad-nie to Tolstoi, (three miles,) a million and a 



366 CALLORHINUS UESINUS NORTHEEN FUR SEAL. 

half of seals, at least, (about the middle of July.) Of these I 
estimated fully one-half were pups, yearlings, and * holluschu- 
kie.' The great majority of the two latter classes were hauled 
out and packed thickly over the two miles of sand-beach and 
flat which lay between the rookeries ; many large herds were 
back as far from the water as a quarter of a mile. 

"A small flock of the younger ones, from one to three years 
old, will frequently stray away back from the hauling-ground 
lines, out and up onto the fresh moss and grass, and there 
sport and play, one with another, just as puppy-dogs do ; and 
when weary of this gamboling, a general disposition to sleep is 
suddenly manifested, and they stretch themselves "out and curl 
up in all the positions and all the postures that their flexible 
spines and ball-and-socket joints will permit. One will lie upon 
his back, holding up his hind flippers, lazily waving them in 
the air, while he scratches or rather rubs his ribs with the fore 
hands alternately, the eyes being tightly closed ; and the breath, 
indicated by the heaving of his flanks, drawn quickly but regu- 
larly, as though in heavy sleep ; another will be flat upon his 
stomach, his hind flippers drawn under and concealed, while he 
tightly folds his fore feet back against his sides, just as a fish will 
sometimes hold its pectoral fins ; and so on, without end of va- 
riety, according to the ground and disposition of the animals. 

"While the young seals undoubtedly have the power of going 
without food, they certainly do not sustain any long fasting 
periods on land, for their coming and going is frequent and 
irregular ; for instance, three or four thick, foggy days will 
sometimes call them out by hundreds of thousands, a million 
or two, on the different hauling-grounds, where, in some cases, 
they lie so closely together that scarcely a foot of ground, over 
acres in extent, is bare ; then a clearer and warmer day will 
ensue, and the ground, before so thickly packed with animal- 
life, will be almost deserted, comparatively, to be filled again 
immediately on the recurrence of favorable weather. They are 
in just as good condition of flesh at the end of the season as at 
the first of it. 

"These bachelor seals are, I am sure, without exception, the 
most restless animals in the whole brute creation ; they frolic 
and lope about over the grounds for hours, without a moment's 
cessation, and their sleep after this is short, and is accompanied 
with nervous twitchings and uneasy movements $ they seem to 
be fairly brimful and overrunning with warm life. I have never 



HABITS. 367 

observed anything like ill-humor grow out of their playing to- 
gether ; invariably well pleased one with another in all their 
frolicsome struggles. 

"The pups and yearlings have an especial fondness ior sport- 
lug on the rocks which are just at the water's level, so as to be 
alternately covered and uncovered by the sea-rollers. On the 
bare summit of these water- worn spots they struggle and clam- 
ber, a dozen or two at a time, occasionally, for a single rock ; 
the strongest or luckiest one pushing the others all off, which, 
however, simply redouble their efforts and try to dislodge him, 
who thus has, for a few moments only, the advantage ; for with 
the next roller and the other pressure, he generally is ousted, 
and the game is repeated. Sometimes, as well as I could see, 
the same squad of ' holluschukie ' played around a rock thus 
situated, off ' Nah Speel' rookery, during the whole of one day; 
but, of course, they cannot be told apart. 

"The 'holluschukie,' too, are the champion swimmers; at 
least they do about all the fancy tumbling and turning that is 
done by the fur-seals when in the water around the islands. 
The grave old bulls and their matronly companions seldom 
indulge in any extravagant display, such as jumping out of the 
water like so many dolphins, describing, as these youngsters 
do, beautiful elliptic curves, rising three and even four feet 
from the sea, with the back slightly arched, the fore flippers 
folded back against the sides, and the hinder ones extended and 
pressed together straight out behind, plumping in head first, 
re-appearing in the same manner after an interval of a few sec- 
onds. 

"All classes will invariably make these dolphin-jumps [*] when 
they are suddenly surprised or are driven into the water, turn- 
ing their heads, while sailing in the air, between the 'rises' 
and plumps,' to take a look at the cause of their disturbance. 
They all swim with great rapidity, and may be fairly said to 
dart with the velocity of a bird on the wing along under the 
water ; and in all their swimming I have not been able yet to 
satisfy myself how they used their long, flexible, hind feet, other 
than as steeriug'niediums. The propelling motion, if they have 
any, is so rapid, that my eye is not quick enough to catch it ; 
the fore feet, however, can be very distinctly seen to work, 

[* Mr. J. H. Blake, who accompanied Professor Agassiz on the Hassler Ex- 
pedition to South America in 1871, as artist of the expedition, observed the 
Southern Sea Lions (Otaria jubata) performing similar evolutions.] 



368 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

feathering forward and sweeping back flatly, opposed to the 
water, with great rapidity and energy, and are evidently the 
sole propulsive power. 

"All their movements in the water, when in traveling or sport, 
are quick and joyous, and nothing is more suggestive of intense 
satisfaction and great comfort than is the spectacle of a few 
thousand old bulls and cows, off and from a rookery in August, 
idly rolling over, side by side, rubbing and scratching with the 
fore and hind flippers, which are here and there stuck up out 
of the water like lateen-sails, or ' cat-o'-nine tails,' in either case, 
as it may be. 

"When the 'holluschukie' are up on land they can be readily 
separated into two classes by the color of their coats and size, 
viz, the yearlings, and the two, three, four, and five year old 
bulls. 

" The first class is dressed just as they were after they shed 
their pup-coats and took on the second the previous year, in 
September and October, and now, as they come out in the 
spring and summer, the males and females cannot be distin- 
guished apart, either by color or size; both yearling sexes 
having the same gray backs and white bellies, and are the same 
in behavior, action, weight, and shape. 

"About the 15th and 20th of August they begin to grow 
1 stagey,' or shed, in common with all the other classes, the pups 
excepted. The over-hair requires about six weeks from the 
commencement of the dropping or falling out of the old to its- 
full renewal. 

" The pelage, or fur, which is concealed externally by the 
hair, is also shed and renewed slowly in the same manner; but, 
being so much finer than the hair, it is not so apparent. It was 
to me a great surprise to ' learn,' from a man who has been 
heading a seal-killing party on these islands during the past 
three years, and the Government agent in charge of these in- 
terests, that the seal never shed its fur ; that the over-hair only 
was cast off and replaced. To prove that it does, however, is a 
very simple matter, and does not require the aid of a micro- 
scope. For example, take up a prime spring or fall skin, after 
every single over-hair on it has been plucked out, and you will 
have difficulty, either to so blow upon the thick, fine fur, or 
to part it with the fingers, as to show the hide from which it 
has grown; then take a 'stagey' skin, by the end of August 
and early in September, when all the over-hair is present, about 



HABITS. 369 

one-third to one-half groicn, and the first puff you expend upon 
it easily shows the hide below, sometimes quite a broad welt. 
This under-fur, or pelage, is so fine and delicate, and so much 
concealed and shaded by the coarse over-hair, that a careless 
eye may be pardoned for any such blunder, but only a very cas- 
ual observer could make it. 

"The yearling cows retain the colors of the old 'coat in the 
new, and from this time on shed, year after year, just so, for the 
young and the old cows look alike, as far as color goes, when 
they haul up on the rookeries in the summer. 

"The yearling males, however, make a radical change, com- 
ing out from their. ' staginess' in a uniform dark-gray and gray- 
black mixed and lighter, and dark ocher, on the under and up- 
per parts, respectively. This coat, next year, when they come 
up on the hauling-grounds, is very dark, and is so for the third, 
fourth, and fifth years, when, after this, they begin to grow 
more gray and brown, year by year, with rufous-ocher and 
whitish-gray tipped over-hair on the shoulders. Some of the 
very old bulls become changed to uniform dull grayish-ocher 
all over. 

" The female does not get her full growth and weight until the 
end of her fourth year, so far as I have observed, but does the 
most of her growing in the first two. 

"The male does not get his full growth and weight until the 
close of his seventh year, but realizes most of it by the end of 
the fifth, osteologically, and from this it may be, perhaps, truly 
inferred that the bulls live to an average age of eighteen or 
twenty years, if undisturbed in a normal condition, and that 
the cows attain ten or twelve under the same circumstances. 
Their respective weight, when fully mature and fat in the spring, 
will, I think, strike an average of four to five hundred pounds 
for the male and from seventy to eighty for the female. 

" From the fact that all the young seals do not change much in 
weight, from the time of their first coming out in the spring 
till that of their leaving in the fall and early winter, I feel safe 
in saying, since they, too, are constantly changing from land to 
water and from water to land, that they feed at irregular but 
not long intervals during the time they are here under obser- 
vation. 1 do not think the young males fast longer than a week 
or ten days at a time as a class. 

"They leave evidences of their being on these great repro- 
ductive fields, chiefly on the rookeries, such as hundreds of 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 24 



370 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

the dead carcasses of those of them that have been infirm, sick, 
killed, or which have crawled off to die Jt'oni death -wounds re- 
ceived in some struggle for a harem ; and over these decaying, 
putrid bodies, the living, old and young, clamber and patter, 
and by this constant stirring up of putrescent matter give rise 
to an exceedingly disagreeable and far-reaching l funk,' which 
has been, by all the writers who have spoken on the subject, re- 
ferred to as the smell which these animals have in rutting. If 
these creatures have any such odor peculiar to them when in 
this condition, I will frankly confess that I am unable to dis- 
tinguish it from the fumes which are constantly being stirred 
up and rising out from these decaying carcasses of old seals and 
the many pups which have been killed accidentally by the old 
bulls while fighting with and charging back and forth against 
one another. 

" They, however, have a peculiar smell when they are driven 
and get heated; their steaming breath exhalations possess a 
disagreeable, faint, sickly tone, but it can by no means be con- 
founded with what is universally understood to be the rutting- 
odor among animals. The finger rubbed on a little fur-seal 
blubber will smell very much like that which is appreciated iu 
their breath coming from them when driven, only stronger. 
Both the young and old fur-seals have this same breath-smell 
at all seasons. 

"By the end of October and the 10th of November the great 
mass of the 'holluschukie' have taken their departure; the few 
that remain from now until as late as the snow and ice will 
permit them to do, in and after December, are all down by the 
water's edge, and hauled up almost entirely on the rocky 
beaches only, deserting the sand. The first snow falling makes 
them uneasy, as also does rain-fall. I have seen a large haul- 
ing-ground entirely deserted after a rainy day and night by its 
hundreds of thousands of occupants. The falling drops spatter 
and beat the sand into their eyes, fur, &c., I presume, and in 
this way make it uncomfortable for them. 

" The weather in which the fur-seal delights is cool, moist, 
foggy, and thick enough to keep the sun always obscured so as 
to cast no shadows. Such weather, continued for a few weeks 
in June and July, brings them up from the sea by millions; 
but, as I have before said, a little sunlight and the temperature 
as high as 50 to 55, will send them back from the hauling- 
grounds almost as quickly as they came. These sunny, warm 



MODE OF CAPTURE. 371 

days are, however, on Saint Paul's Island, very rare indeed, 
and so the seals can have but little ground of complaint, if we 
may presume that they have any at all." * 

THE CHASE. The manner of capturing the Fur Seals has 
greatly varied at different times and at different localities. 
Krascheninikow states that on Behring's Island, a century and 
.a quarter ago, the common way of killing them was to first 
strike out their eyes with stones, and then beat out their brains 
with clubs. This he says was a work of so much labor that 
"three men were hardly able to kill one with 300 strokes." In 
consequence of their seldom landing on the Kamtschatka coast, 
the same writer states that the natives were accustomed to 
pursue them in boats, "and throw darts or harpoons at them." 
He says they had to be particularly cautious not to let the 
wounded Seal "fasten upon the side of the boat and overturn 
it," to prevent which he says some of the fishermen stood ready 
"with axes to cut off his paws."t 

Captain Scammon thus describes the pursuit of the Fur Seal 
by the Indians of Vancouver Island: "When going in pursuit 
of seals, three or four natives embark in a canoe at an early 
hour in the morning, and usually return the following evening. 
The fishing-gear consists of two spears, which are fitted to a 
pronged pole fifteen feet in length ; to the spears a line is at- 
tached, which is fastened to the spear-pole close to, or is held 
in the hand of ; the spearman, when he darts the weapon. A 
seal-club is also provided, as well as two seal-skin buoys the 
latter being taken in the canoe to be used in rough weather ; 
or if a seal, after being speared, can not be managed with the 
line in hand, a buoy is 'bent on', and the animal is allowed to 
take its own course for a time. Its efforts to escape, by diving 
repeatedly, and plunging about near the surface of the water, 
soon exhaust the animal somewhat ; and when a favorable time is 
presented, the spearman seizes the buoy, hauls in the line until 
within reach of the seal, and it is captured by being clubbed. 
But generally the line is held in the hand when the spear is 
thrust into the seal ; then the pole is instantly withdrawn, and 
the canoe is hauled at once to the floundering creature, which 
is dispatched as before described. Indians from the Vancouver 
shore frequently start in the night, so -as to be on the best seal- 



* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 123-150. 
t Hist. Kamtsch. (English ed.), p. 130. 



3.72 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

ing ground in the morning. This locality is said to be south- 
west of Cape Classet, five to fifteen miles distant." * 

In hunting Seals for their commercial products the common 
method of killing them appears to have generally been by club- 
bing them, as is at present practiced on the Seal Islands of 
Alaska, one or two heavy blows upon the head being sufficient 
to dispatch them. The method of attack is very much like that 
practiced in destroying herds of Walruses, already described. 
A large party cautiously land, when possible, to the leeward of 
a rookery, and then, at a given signal, rush upon the Seals, with 
loud shouting, and with their clubs soon destroy large numbers. 
It has generally been practiced without system or restraint, 
resulting in the speedy destruction of large rookeries. As is 
well known, the Southern Sea Bears or Fur Seals (Arctoceplialus 
" falklandicus^ A. forsteri, A. "cinereus," etc.) were long since 
practically exterminated at many localities where they were 
formerly very abundant, as has been the case with the Northern 
Fur Seal on our own Californian coast. At one time the same 
destructive and ruinous policy was pursued by the Kussians at 
the Prybilov Islands, but the folly of such a practice was soon 
perceived, and through government interference their extermi- 
nation there has been happily prevented. Their destruction is 
at present regulated by the United States Government, the 

i whole matter being judiciously and systematically managed. 

< The manner of taking and killing the Seals, and the method 
adopted to prevent their decrease, has been described in detail 
by Mr. Elliott, and is here appended. 

"TAKING THE SEALS. By reference to the habits of the fur- 
seal, it is plain that two-thirds of all the males that are born (and 

I, they are equal in number to the females born) are never per- 
mitted by the remaining third, strongest by natural selection, 

"" to land upon the same ground with the females, which always 

* herd together en masse. Therefore, this great band of bachelor 
seals, or ' holluschuckie,' is compelled, Avheii it visits land, to 
live apart entirely, miles away frequently, from the breeding- 
grounds, and in this admirably perfect manner of nature are 
those seals which can be properly killed without injury to the 

'rookeries selected and held aside, so that the natives can visit 
and take them as they would so many hogs, without disturbing 
in the slightest degree the peace and quiet of the breeding- 

J grounds where the stock is perpetuated. 

* Marine Mammalia, pp. 154, 155. 



MODE OF CAPTURE. 373 



'The manner in which the natives capture and drive the 
hollusclmckie up from the hauliug-grouuds to the slaughtering- 
fields near the villages and elsewhere, cannot be improved upon, 
and is most satisfactory. 

"In the early part of the season large bodies of the young- 
bachelor seals do not haul up on land very far from the water, 
a few rods at the most, and the men are obliged to approach 
slyly and run quickly between the dozing seals and the surf, 
before they take alarm and bolt into the sea, and in this way a 
dozen Aleuts, running down the long sand-beach of English 
Bay, some driving-morning early in June, will turn back from 
the water thousands of seals, just as the mold-board of a plow 
lays over and back a furrow of earth. As the sleeping seals 
are first startled they arise, and seeing men between them and 
the water, immediately turn, lope and scramble rapidly back 
over the land ; the natives then leisurely walk on the flanks and 
in the rear of the drove thus secured, and direct and drive them 
over to the killing- grounds. 

"A drove of seals on hard or firm grassy ground, in cool and 
moist weather, may with safety be driven at the rate of half a 
mile an hour; they can be urged along with the expenditure of 
a great many lives in the drove, at the speed of a mile or a mile 
and a quarter even per hour, but this is highly injudicious and 
is seldom ever done. A bull seal, fat and unwieldy, cannot 
travel with the younger ones, but it can lope or gallop as it 
were over the ground as fast as an ordinary man can run for a 
hundred yards, but then it falls to the earth supine, utterly 
exhausted, hot and gasping for breath. 

"The seals, when driven thus to the killing-grounds, require 
but little urging; they are permitted to frequently halt and 
cool off, as heating them injures their fur; they never show 
fight any more than a flock of sheep would do, unless a few old 
seals are mixed in, which usually get so weary that they prefer 
to come to a stand-still and fight rather than to move ; this action 
on their part is of great advantage to all parties concerned, and 
the old fellows are always permitted to drop behind and remain, 
for the fur on them is of little or no value, the pelage, very much 
shorter, coarser, and more scant than in the younger, especially 
so on the parts posteriorly. This change in the condition of 
the fur seems to set iu at the time of their shedding, in the 
fifth year as a rule. 

As the drove progresses the seals all move in about the same 



374 CALLOEHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

way, a kind of a walking-step and a sliding, shambling gallop r 
and the progression of the whole body is a succession of starts,. 
made every few minutes, spasmodic and irregular. Every now 
and then a seal will get weak in the lumbar region, and drag 
his posterior after it for a short distance, but finally drops breath- 
less and exhausted, not to revive for hours, days perhaps, and 
often never. Quite a large number of the weaker ones, on the 
driest driving-days, are thus laid out and left on the road; if 
one is not too much heated at the time, the native driver usually 
taps the beast over the head and removes its skin. This will 
happen, no matter how carefully they are driven, and the death- 
loss is quite large, as much as 3 or 4 per cent, on the longer 
drives, such as three and four miles, from Zapadnie or Polaviua 
to the village on Saint Paul's, and T feel satisfied that a consid- 
erable number of those rejected from the drove and permitted 
to return to the water die subsequently from internal injuries 
sustained on the drive from overexertion. I therefore think it 
improper to extend drives of seals over any distance exceeding 
a mile or a mile and a half. It is better for all parties con- 
cerned to erect salt-houses and establish killing-grounds adja- 
cent to all of the great hauliug-grouuds on Saint Paul's Island 
should the business ever be developed above the present limit. 
As matters now are, the ninety thousand seals belonging to 
the quota of Saint Paul last summer were taken and skinned in 
less" than forty days within one mile from either the village, or 
salt-house on Northeast Point. 

" KILLING THE SEALS. The seals when brought up to the kill- 
ing-grounds are herded there until cool and rested ; then squads or 
' pods ' of fifty to two hundred are driven out from the body of 
the drove, surrounded and huddled up one against and over the 
other, by the natives, who carry each a long, heavy club of hard 
wood, with which they strike the seals down by blows upon the 
head ; a single stroke of a heavy oak bludgeon, well and fairly 
delivered, will crush in at once the slight, thin bones of a seal's 
skull, laying the creature out lifeless; these strokes are usually 
repeated several times with each animal, but are very quickly 
done. 

" The killing-gang, consisting usually of fifteen or twenty men 
at a time, are under the supervision of a chief of their own se- 
lection, and have, before going into action, a common under- 
standing as to what grades to kill, sparing the others which are 



MODE OF CAPTURE. 375 

unfit, under age, &c., permitting them to escape and return to 
the water as soon as the marked ones are knocked down ; the 
natives then drag the slain out from the heap in which they 
have fallen, and spread the bodies out over the ground just free 
from touching one another so that they will not be hastened in 
'heating' or blasting, finishing the work of death by thrusting 
into the chest of each stunned and senseless seal a long, sharp 
knife, which touches the vitals and bleeds it thoroughly ; and 
if a cool day, another i pod ' is started out and disposed of in 
the same way, and so on until a thousand or two are laid out, or 
the drove is finished; then they turn to and skin; but if it is a 
warm day, every 'pod* is skinned as soon as it is knocked down. 

" This work of killing as well as skinning is performed very 
rapidly ; for example, forty-five men or natives on Saint Paul's 
during June and July, 1872, in less than four working- weeks 
drove, killed, skinned, and salted the pelts of 72,000 seals. 

"The labor of skinning is exceedingly severe, and is trying 
to an expert, requiring long practice before the muscles of the 
back and thighs are so developed as to permit a man to bend 
down to and finish well a fair day's work. 

"The body of the seal, preparatory to skinning, is rolled over 
or put upon its back, and the native makes a single swift cut 
through the skin down along the neck, chest, and belly, from 
the lower jaw to the root of the tail, using for this purpose a 
large, sharp knife. The fore and hind nippers are then succes- 
sively lifted, and a sweeping circular incision is made through 
the skin on them just at the point where the body-fur eudsj 
then, seizing a flap of the hide on either one side or the other of 
the abdomen, the man proceeds to rapidly cut the skin clean 
and free from the body and blubber, which he rolls over and 
out from the skin by hauling up on it as he advances with his 
work, standing all the time stooping over the carcass so that 
his hands are but slightly above it or the ground. This opera- 
tion of skinning a fair-sized seal takes the best men only a min- 
ute and a half, but the average time on the ground is about 
four minutes. 

"Nothing is left of the skin upon the carcass save a small patch 
of each upper lip, on which the coarse mustache grows, the skin 
on the tip of the lower jaw, the insignificant tail, together with 
the bare hide of the flippers. 

" The blubber of the fur-seal is of a faint yellowish white, and 
lies entirely between the skin and the flesh, none being depos- 



376 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

ited in between the muscles. Around the small and large intes- 
tines a moderate quantity of hard, firm fat is found. The blub- 
ber possesses an extremely offensive, sickening odor, difficult to 
wash from the hands. It makes, however, a very fair oil for 
lubricating, burning, &c. 

"The flesh of the fur-seal, when carefully cleaned from fat or 
blubber, can be cooked, and by most people eaten, who, did 
they not know what it was, might consider it some poor, tough, 
dry beef, rather dark in color and overdone. That of the pup, 
however, while on the land and milk-fed, is tender and juicy but 
insipid. 

"The skins are taken from the field to the salt-house, where 
they are laid out open, one upon another, 'hair to fat,' like so 
many sheets of paper, with salt profusely spread upon the fleshy 
sides, in 'kenches' or bins. After lying a week or two salted 
in this style they are ready for bundling and shipping, two skins 
to the bundle, the fur outside, tightly rolled up and strongly 
corded, having an average weight of twelve, fifteen, and twenty- 
two pounds when made up of two, three, and four year old skins 
respectively. 

"The company leasing the islands are permitted by law to 
take one hundred thousand, and no more, annually ; this they 
do in June and July ; after that season the skins rapidly grow 
worthless by shedding, and do not pay for transportation and 
tax. The natives are paid forty cents a skin for the catch, and 
keep a close account of the progress of the work every day, 
as it is all done by them, and they know within fifty skins, one 
way or the other, when the whole number have been secured 
each season. This is the only occupation of some three hun- 
dred and fifty people here, and they naturally look well after it. 
The interest and close attention paid by these Aleuts on both 
islands to this business was both gratifying and instructive to 
me while stationed there." 

In regard to the preparation and value of the skin Mr. Elliott 
states as follows : 

"The common or popular notion regarding seal-skins is that 
they are worn by those animals just as they appear when offered 
for sale. This is a very great mistake; few skins are less 
attractive than the seal-skin as it is taken from the creature. 
The fur is not visible, concealed entirely by a coat of stiff over- 
hair, dull gray, brown, and grizzled. The best of these raw 
skins are worth only $5 to $10, but after dressing they bring 



PEEPARATION OF THE SKINS. 377 

from $25 to $40; and it takes three of them to make a lady's 
sack and boa."* 

As an interesting- supplement to this portion of the subject, 
I transcribe a letter from George C. Treadwell & Co., leading 
furriers, and long familiar with the manner of preparing the 
skins, addressed to Mr. Elliott (dated Albany, October 22, 
1874), in which the process of dressing the skins for market is 
very clearly set forth. The letter (extracted from Mr. Elliott's 
Report) is as follows : 

"The Alaska Commercial Company sold in London, Decem- 
ber, 1873, about sixty thousand skins taken from the islands 
leased by our Government of the catch of 1873. The remain- 
der of the catch, about forty thousand, were sold in March. 
This company have made the collection of seal from these 
islands much more valuable than they were before their lease, 
by the care used by them in curing the skins, and taking them 
only when in season. We have worked this class of seal for 
several years when they were owned by the Russian American 
Fur Company, and during the first year they were owned by 
our Government. 

"When the skins are received by us in the salt, we wash off 
the salt, placing them upon a beam somewhat like a tanner's 
beam', removing the fat from the flesh-side with a beaming- 
knife, care being required that no cuts or uneven places are 
made in the pelt. The skins are next washed in water and 
placed upon the beam with the fur up, and the grease and 
water removed by the knife. The skins are then dried by mod- 
erate heat, being tacked out on frames to keep them smooth. 
After being fully dried they are soaked in water and thoroughly 
cleansed with soap and water. In some cases they can be un- 
haired without this drying process, and cleansed before drying. 
After the cleansing process they pass to the picker, who dries 
the fur by stove-heat, the pelt being kept moist. When the 
fur is dry he places the skin on a beam, and while it is warm 
he removes the main coat of hair with a dull shoe-knife, graspin.u 
the hair with his thumb and knife, the thumb being protected 
by a rubber cob. The hair must be pulled out, not broken. 
After a portion is removed the skin must again be warmed at 
the stove, the pelt being kept moist. When the outer hairs 
have been mostly removed, he uses a beamiug-kuite to work 
out the finer hairs, (which are shorter,) and the remaining 

* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 80-85. 



378 CALLOEHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

coarser hairs. It will be seen that great care must be used, as- 
the skin is in that soft state that too much pressure of the knife 
would take the fur also ; indeed, bare spots are made ; carelessly- 
cured skins are sometimes worthless on this account. The 
skins are next dried, .afterward dampened on the pelt side, 
and shaved to a fine, even surface. They are then stretched, 
worked, and dried ; afterward softened in a fulling-mill, or by 
treading them with the bare feet in a hogshead, one head being 
removed and the cask placed nearly upright, into which the 
workman gets with a few skins and some fine hard- wood saw- 
dust, to absorb the grease while he dances upon them to break 
them into leather. If the skins have been shaved thin, as 
required when finished, any defective spots or holes must now 
be mended, the skin smoothed and pasted with paper on the 
pelt side, or two pasted together to protect the pelt in dyeing. 
The usual process in the United States is to leave the pelt suf- 
ficiently thick to protect them without pasting. 

" In dyeing, the liquid dye is put on with a brush, carefully 
covering the poiuts of the standing fur. After lying folded, 
with the points touching each other, for some little time, the 
skins are hung up and dried. The dry dye is then removed, 
another coat applied, dried, and removed, and so on until the 
required shade is obtained. One or two of these coats o dye 
are put on much heavier and pressed down to the roots of the 
fur, making what is called the ground. From eight to twelve 
coats are required to produce a good color. The skins are then 
washed clean, the fur dried, the pelt moist. They are shaved 
down to the required thickness, .dried, working them some 
while drying, then softened in a hogshead, and sometimes run 
in a revolving cylinder with fine sawdust to clean them. The 
English process does not have the washing after dyeing. 

" I should, perhaps, say that, with all the care used, many skins 
are greatly injured in the working. Quite a quantity of English- 
dyed seal were sold last season for $17, damaged in the dye. 

" The above is a general process, but we are obliged to vary 
for different skins; those from various parts of the world require 
different treatment, and there is quite a difference in the skins, 
from the Seal Islands of our country I sometimes think about 
as much as in the human race." * 

HISTORY AND PROSPECTS OF THE FUR SEAL BUSINESS AT 



' Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 85, 86. 



HISTORY AND PROSPECTS OF FUR SEAL BUSINESS. 37$ 

THE PEYBILOV ISLANDS. From the speedy extermination of 
the Fur Seals of the Southern hemisphere at many points where 
they existed a century ago in apparently inexhaustible numbers,* 
the preservation of the Northern Fur Seals at the two small 
islands that now, so far as known, form their principal breeding- 
stations, becomes a matter of much zoological interest as well as 
of practical importance. The islands of Saint George and Saint 
Paul were discovered, respectively, in 1786 and 1787, and im- 
mediately after, it is stated, as many as six companies established 
themselves at these islands, all vieing with each other in the de- 
struction of the Seals in consequence of the great commercial 
value of the skins. No record appears to have been kept of the 
number annually killed between 1787 and 1805, at which time 
the number of Seals frequenting the islands had greatly de- 
creased. Then follows for two years a cessation of the slaugh- 
ter, which was resumed in 1808. Up to 1822 the destruction 
of Seal life was indiscriminate and wholly without restriction 
from government or other sources. In this year it was ordered 
that young Seals should be spared each year for the purpose of 
keeping up the stock. This order was so honestly enforced that 
in four years the number of Seals on Saint Paul's Island in- 
creased tenfold. The number annually taken these years was 
only 8,000 to 10,000, instead of 40,000 to 50,000, the number for- 
merly killed yearly. Subsequently the killing was allowed to 
greatly increase, which prevented any augmentation in the 
number of Seals. In 1834 the number allowed to be killed on 
Saint Paul's Island was reduced from 12,000 to G,000. After 
this date the conditions of increase were more carefully studied 
and more carefully regarded, so that there was a gradual numer- 
ical increase from 1835 to 1857, when the rookeries are said to 
have become very nearly as large as now, the natives believing, 
however, that there has been, since the last-named date, a very 
gradual but steady increase. The great diminution seems to- 
have set in about 1817, and to have continued till 1834, when, 
as Mr. Elliott expresses it, "hardly a tithe of the former num- 
bers appeared on the ground." From 1835 to 1857 there was 
a steady increase, when the maximum then reached appears to 
have been maintained. 

In regard to the number now present on these islands, Mr. 
Elliott estimated, from a careful survey of the breeding-grounds, 

* See anted,, p. 334, footnote, e. g., respecting their former abundance and 
early almost total extirpation at the Island of Juan Fernandez. 



380 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

that in 1873 there were on the Prybilov Islands "over four 
million seven hundred thousand" Fur Seals, and that one million 
are born there annually, divided about equally between males 
and females. So many of these are destroyed by their natural 
enemies during the following six months that only about one half 
return the succeeding spring. During the next winter about 
one-tenth of the remainder are also destroyed at sea, after 
which very few appear to die from natural causes. Only oue- 
fifteenth of the annual increase of males can, in consequence of 
the peculiar habits of the animals, share in the office of repro- 
duction. Assuming the above statement to be a fair estimate 
of the number of Seals annually born on the islands, Mr. Elliott 
states it as his belief that, after making due allowance for the 
number that perish at sea during early life, and for the perpet- 
uation of the stock, 180,000 young male Seals may be annually 
taken for their skins. 

"With regard to the increase of the seal-life," says Mr. Elliott, 
" I do not think, it within the power of human management to 
promote this end to the slightest appreciable degree beyond its 
present extent and condition in a state of nature; for it cannot 
fail to be evident, from my detailed description of the habits 
and life of the fur-seal on these islands during a great part of 
the year, that could man have the same supervision and con- 
trol over this animal during the ichole season which he has at 
his command while they visit the land, he might cause them to 
multiply and increase, as he would so many cattle, to an indefi- 
nite number, only limited by time and means ; but the case in 
question, unfortunately, takes the fur-seal six months out of 
every year far beyond the reach, or even cognizance, of any one, 
where it is exposed to known powerful and destructive natural 
enemies, and many others probably unknown, which prey upon 
it, and, in accordance with a well-recognized law of nature, keep 
it at about a certain number which has been for ages, and will 
be for the future, as affairs now are, its maximum limit of in- 
crease. This law holds good everywhere throughout the animal 
kingdom, regulating and preserving the equilibrium of life in n 
state of nature. Did it not hold good, these Seal Islands and 
all Bering Sea would have been literally covered, and have 
swarmed with them long before the Eussians discovered them; 
but there were no more seals when first seen here by human 
eyes in 1786-'87 than there are now, in 1874, as far as all evi- 
dence goes." 



ENEMIES. . 381 

"What can be done to promote their increase? We cannot 
cause a greater number of females to be born every year ; we 
do not touch or disturb these females as they grow up and live, 
and we save more than enough males to serve them. Nothing 
more can be done, for it is impossible to protect them from 
deadly enemies in their wanderings for food." 

u In view, therefore, of all these facts," continues Mr. Elliott, 
" I have no hesitation in saying quite confidently that, under 
the present rules and regulations governing the sealing inter- 
ests on these islands, the increase or diminution of the life will 
amount to nothing; that the seals will continue for all time in 
about the same number and condition." * 

ENEMIES OF THE FUR SEALS. Man, of course, stands first in 
importance as an enemy of the Fur Seals, but under the restric- 
tions respecting the killing these animals now enforced at the 
Prybilov Islands, does not appear to have a very marked 
influence in effecting their decrease. That they suffer greatly 
from other animals is evident from the fact that only about 
one-half of the Seals annually born at the Seal Islands ever 
return there again. What these enemies are is not as yet well 
known, since it is only within a few years that the matter has 
been so closely studied as to render it apparent that there is 
this very large decrease of young Seals during their absence 
from the islands. It has been known, however, for many years 
that Killer Whales (different species of Oreo) prey habitually 
upon the young, from these having been found in their stomachs. 
Michael Carroll, Esq., in his " Seal and Herring Fisheries of 
Newfoundland " and in the reports on the Canadian Fisheries, 
alludes to the great destruction of young Seals on the Atlantic 
coast by this animal and by sharks and sword-fishes, and also 
by their being crushed in the ice. The Orca and the sharks 
are alluded to by Mr. Elliott as preying extensively upon the 
young Seals, and it may be that many others are destroyed by 
enemies not at present well known. 

Since the foregoing was prepared for publication, I have re- 
ceived from Captain Bryant the subjoined account, based on 
long personal experience at Saint Paul's Island. Although in 
some points anticipated by Mr. Elliott's published Eeport, and 
covering to a great extent the same phases of the subject, it 
contains so much additional matter that at the expense of some 
* Condition of Affairs in Alaska, pp. 88, 89. 



382 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

reiteration I have deemed it best to introduce it entire. The 
report is addressed as a personal communication to me in re- 
sponse to my earnest solicitation for the final results of his 
many years of observation upon the Alaskan Fur Seal. By way 
of explanation of the character of his report he observes : 

a The object I wish to attain in writing these notes is to put 
011 record the result of my observations on the Fur Seals of 
Saint Paul's Island during eight years' residence as Treasury 
agent in charge of the interest of the United States Treasury 
Department. In order to do this some account of their habits 
and the condition of affairs on my first arrival there seems 
necessary as a starting point, in order that the changes that 
have since occurred may be more clearly understood. As you 
have had the result of my first season's observations there, [*] I 
need not be so diffuse in my descriptions as would be otherwise 
necessary, and you will understand that where any of my for- 
mer statements are omitted or changed it is due to correction 
made necessary by my longer experience. I shall endeavor to 
make this report as brief as is consistent with the successful 
attainment of the objects before stated." 

" HISTORY OF THE FUR-SEAL FISHERY AT THE PRYBILOV 
ISLANDS, ALASKA, FROM 1869 TO 1877. PRELIMINARY AND 
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. The island of Saint Paul is of 
purely volcanic origin, consisting of a collection of elevated 
cones and elongated ridges, connected by low valleys composed 
of beds of marine sand that has gradually been thrown on the 
shores by the action of the waves. This sand is of so light a 
character that when dry it readily drifts over the hills, thereby 
covering the lava surface. It also washes into the coves formed 
by the projecting points of land, where it constitutes broad, 
low beaches. The shores of the points and ridges which extend 
out into the sea are mostly composed of irregular masses of 
broken rock, washed by the surf and rains, so that no sand 
accumulates on them except in an occasional crack or gully. 
These rocky slopes are selected by the breeding Seals as the 
places for bringing forth their young, they having a repug- 
nance to occupying the sandy spaces. 

" The male Fur Seal attains its full growth and strength at the 
age of six or seven years, when it weighs, at the time of land- 



[* See Bull. Mus. Coinp. Zoo!., vol. ii, 1870, pp. 89-108.] 



CONDITION IN 1869. 383 

Ing, from three hundred and fifty pounds to four hundred ; in 
-exceptional cases a weight of four hundred and fifty pounds is 
attained. The males acquire the power of procreation in the 
fourth year, and at five years share largely in the duty of repro- 
duction. 

u The females bring forth young in their fourth year, and then 
weigh from fifty-five to sixty -five pounds. They continue to 
increase in size until the sixth year, often attain a weight of 
ninety pounds, and, in exceptional cases, even one hundred and 
eight, the general average being eighty pounds. It will be 
thus seen that the greater strength and weight of the males 
enable them to control the females, which they do absolutely 
when on the breeding-places. The young Seals at birth weigh 
six pounds, and the young males, when they leave the island 
at the age of four and a half months, weigh thirty-eight pounds, 
but a large portion of this weight consists of excessive fat, so 
that when they return to the island the following year, although 
they have grown longer, they have lost their superabundant 
fat, and weigh only forty- two pounds. At the age of two years 
their average weight is sixty-one pounds ; at three one hundred 
and seven. After this they increase in weight much more 
rapidly, attaining their full size at six. Subsequently, their in- 
crease in weight ie due to excessive fatness, rather than to con- 
tinued growth. 

" In spring a careful watch is kept for the arrival of the first 
Seals, which come with great uniformity, the record showing 
only four days' variation in the last seven years in the time of 
their being first seen in the water near the island. The time of 
lauding, however, varies with the condition of the shores, some 
seasons the beaches being obstructed by snow and ice. Asa 
rule, a few effect a landing within five or six days after their 
first appearance. The males invariably come first and entirely 
by themselves. The first arrivals are of old Seals, which coast 
along the shore for two or three days, and are at first exceed- 
ingly sensitive to disturbing influences, but soon after landing 
become torpid and indifferent to objects approaching to within 
eight or ten rods. They continue in this state until they be- 
come so numerous as to begin to crowd on each others' premises. 
After the first fortnight they arrive quite rapidly. The groups 
are then composed of Seals of all ages, from two years upward, 
with a few yearlings, but those of full size predominate. Most 
of the yearlings arrive with the females in July. 



384 CALLOBHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

"As before stated, the Seals select and occupy for their breed- 
ing-stations the rocky slopes of the projecting head-lands. [*] 
On their arrival at the island the full-grown Seals separate from 
the younger, the former hauling up on the shore singly or in 
groups of two or three, separated by quite wide intervals. The 
young gather in a single body where the shore is smooth and 
spend their time in play, pushing and tumbling over each other, 
or gathering in groups of from three to ten around some rock 
near the shore, passing hours in apparently trying to crowd 
each other off the rock, of which each seems to be striving to 
gain possession, to the exclusion of the others. Later, as the 
number of Seals on the beaches increases, the young ones are 
crowded back to the upland, and find access to the water by 
passing along the sandy belts which extend down to the sea. 
As the shore line becomes completely occupied those which are 
old and strong enough fight their way to a place on the breed- 
ing-grounds, while the younger and weaker seek the sandy 
openings and crawl up to join their own class. Here they 
spend the time alternately in playing and sleeping, usually 
going into the water for an hour or two every day. It is only 
the 'beachrnasters,' or breeding bulls, on the rookery that 
remain continuously in their places, for if they were to leave 
them they would be immediately occupied by some other beach- 
master, and they could regain possession only by a victory over 
the trespasser. The struggle among the old bulls goes on until 
the breeding-grounds are fully occupied, averaging one old male 
to each square rod of space, w r hile the younger, meantime, find 
their way to the upland. During the latter portion of the laud- 
ing time there is a large excess of old males that cannot find 
room on the breeding places ; these pass up with the younger 
Seals and congregate along the upper edge of the rookery, and 
watch for a chance to charge down and fill any vacancies that 
may occur. These, to distinguish them from the beachmasters r 
are called the l reserves,' while those younger than five years 
are denominated by the natives ' holluschucke,' a term denot- 
ing bachelors or unmarried Seals. It is from these latter that 
the Seals are selected to kill for their skins. 

"By the middle of June all the males, except the great body 
of the yearlings, have arrived; the rookery is filled with the 

[* This .statement, as well as the following account of the habits of the 
Fiir Seal, relates to the state of the rookeries as observed in 1869, as is- 
stated later (postfa, ]>. :IS8) in the present report.] 



CONDITION IN 1869. 385 

beach masters; uie 'reserves' all occupy the most advan- 
tageous position for seizing upon any vacancies, and the bach- 
elors spread over the adjoining uplands. At this time the first 
females make their appearance. They are not observed in the 
water in any numbers until they appear on the shore. Imme- 
diately on lauding they are taken possession of by the nearest 
males, who compel them to lie down in the spaces they have re- 
served for their families. For a few days the females arrive 
slowly, but by the 25th of the mouth thousands laud daily. As 
soon as the males in the line nearest to the shore get each seven 
or eight females in their possession, those higher up watch their 
opportunity* and steal them from them. This they accomplish 
by seizing the females by the neck as a cat takes her kitten. 
Those still higher up pursue the same method until the entire 
breeding space is filled. In the average there are about fif- 
teen females to one beachmaster. Spon after the females have 
landed each gives birth to a single young one. During parturi- 
tion the female lies extended on the rocks, and keeps up a fanning 
motion with her hind flippers. They appear to suffer little in la- 
bour. The young Seal remains in the placenta until liberated 
by the mother, who rends the envelope with her teeth, which 
she sometimes does before parturition is completed. Once freed 
from the sac, the little fellow is very active and soon learns to 
nurse. The mother suckles her young while lying on her side ; 
the teats being situated on the belly. Two days after the birth 
of the young the female is in heat and receives the male. Dur- 
ing copulation the female extends herself on the rocks in the 
same manner as when giving birth to her young. The act of 
coition continues for from seven to ten minutes, during which, 
at intervals of two or three minutes, occur rapid vibrations of 
the body of the male, accompanied by a fanning movement of 
the hind flippers by the female, who is otherwise quiescent. 
Ordinarily the operation is similar to that of the cat, but in 
some instances, when a male and female are by themselves, 
without danger of interruption, I have seen the male deliber- 
ately turn the female on her back and copulate in that manner. 
This, however, happens more frequently in the water than on 
the land. It is often observable that while the females are 
landing in great numbers they come in heat faster than the males 
on the rookeries can cover them. In such cases some of the 
females break away and escape into the water to inee/~fresher 
and more vigorous mates. It is in this way that the class of 
Misc. Pub. No. 12 25 



386 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

youiig males of four and five years of age perform a most im- 
portant service. While sufficiently developed to be fully able 
to serve the females, they lack the physical strength to success- 
fully contend for a place on the rookery. They haul up with 
the bachelors at night, but during the day are in the water 
swimming along the shore of the rookery, always on the alert 
for the females that seek the water as above stated. On meet- 
ing them they immediately accompany them to a little distance 
from the shore and then perform the act of coition. The fe- 
males, after remaining for a short time in the water, again 
return to the shore to their former places. The old males find- 
ing they have been served express their disgust in a most evi- 
dent manner. The jealous watchfulness of the male over the 
female ceases with her impregnation, after which she is allowed 
to go at will about the rookery. From that time she lies either 
sleeping near her young or spends her time floating or playing 
in the water near the shore, returning occasionally to suckle her 
pup. The male, meanwhile, watches over the young, and makes 
additions to his harem as long as the landing season continues. 
The females, after giving birth to their young, temporarily re- 
pair again to the water, and are thus never all on shore at once, 
so that by the end of the season there will be twice as many 
young Seals on shore as there are females. As the season ad- 
vances, or by the 15th of July, the earliest-born young Seals 
gather in large groups of from three hundred to five hundred 
in number on the upper edge of the breeding-places, thus sep- 
arating themselves in a measure from the beachmasters. They 
spend their time in play until tired, when they fall asleep, often 
sleeping so soundly that one can almost lift them from the 
ground by the flipper without awaking them. 

"By the 25th of July the females have all arrived and given 
birth to their young. At this time the beachmasters, after hav- 
ing been confined to the same rock for an average period of 
ninety days, without eating or drinking, fighting and struggling 
with each other for their places, have become so lean and ex- 
hausted as to present a remarkable contrast to the fat and sleek 
condition in which they arrived at the island. They are now mere 
skeletons, almost too weak to drag themselves into the water ; 
they now crawl away, and are seen only in small numbers hanging 
about the shores away from the breeding-places. As these leave, 
the reserves and younger Seals come in to take their places, 
covering any straggling female that may have arrived late or 



CONDITION IN 1869. 387 

missed impregnation earlier. The withdrawal of the beach- 
masters leaves the breeding-grounds in possession of the younger 
males, with the pups gathered in masses on the upper side. 

"As already stated, the females now mostly spend their time 
in the water, returning on shore only to suckle their young as 
they require food. On landing, the mother calls out to her 
young with a plaintive bleat like that of a sheep calling to her 
lamb. As she approaches the mass several of the young ones 
answer and start to meet her, responding to her call as a young- 
lamb answers its parent. As she meets them she looks at them, 
touches them with her nose as if smelling them, and passes 
hurriedly on until she meets her own, which she at once recog- 
nizes. After caressing him she lies down and allows him to 
suck, and often falls into a sound sleep very quickly after. 

"By the 20th of August the young, then forty or forty-five 
days old, move down to the edge of the water, where they begin 
to learn to swim. The greater part of the young seem to resort 
to the water from a natural instinct, but some require to be urged 
in by the older ones, and I have in a few instances observed the 
parents take them by the neck and carry them into the water, 
and when they have become tired return with them to the shore 
again. When once in the water the young Seals soon appear 
to delight in it, spending most of their time there in play, tum- 
'bling over each other like shoals offish. It seems strange that 
an animal like this, born to live in the water for the greater por- 
tion of its life, should be at first helpless in what seems to be 
its natural element ; yet these young Seals, if put into it before 
they are five or six weeks old, will drown as quickly as a young 
chicken. They are somewhat slow, too, in learning to swim, 
using at first only the fore flippers, carrying the hind ones 
rigidly extended and partially above water. As soon as they 
are well able to swim (usually about the last week of August) 
they move from the breeding-places on the exposed points 
and headlands to the coves and bays, where they are sheltered 
from the heavy surf, and where there are low sand-beaches. 
Here they occupy a belt of shore near the water entirely sepa- 
rated from their parents, where they play until weary, and then 
haul up on to the beach to rest and sleep, often covering an area 
of several acres in extent in one compact body. The mothers 
lie apart (when not in the water) at a convenient distance, 
for the young to find them to nurse. Thus they remain until 
October, when the oldest and strongest begin to leave for the 



388 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

winter, and others soon follow. By the middle of December all r 
both young and old, are gone, and are seen no more until the next 
season, when they return to repeat the cycle above described. 

"Having now carried the breeding Seals through their annual 
round, we will return to the young males, or holluschucke that 
were left in June spread out in the rear of the breeding Seals. 
This class is made up of a very small number of yearlings (the 
greater part of these coming later, as before stated), and those 
of all ages between two and six years old, with a few superannu- 
ated males, which, being unable to hold their place on the rook- 
eries, retire here with the younger Seals for quiet and rest. All 
of the Seals between four and six years of age pass a large por- 
tion of their time during the day in the water, returning to the 
shore at night. While in the water they swarm along the shore 
of the breeding-places, watching for opportunities of mating 
with any females that may chance to be in the water. To this 
class I shall have to return later, when I come to refer to the 
changes in the movements of the Seals growing out of the effect 
of the present mode of taking them for their skins. 

" It is from the holluschucke class that the animals are selected 
and killed for their skins. As the process of driving has been 
so often described in detail, I shall refer to it only so far as is 
necessary to explain its effects under the present management. 
In the foregoing description I have followed the observations 
made during the first year of my residence on the island (1869), 
as the normal conditions then existed in a greater degree than 
afterwards, when other influences came into operation. 

"RECENT CHANGES IN THE HABITS AND RELATIVE NUM- 
BERS OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF SEALS. In Order to be 
able to understand fully what the changes are that have occurred, 
it will be necessary to go back to a date still earlier. Accord- 
ing to information derived from the natives, and hence some- 
what meagre and vague, it appears that in the year 1842 large 
quantities of ice and snow accumulated on the island and re- 
mained on the breeding-places when the Seals arrived. They 
landed and brought forth their yomig on it, but a large portion 
of them were lost by the breaking up of the ice, the young be- 
ing drowned, while thousands of females were crushed by the 
sliding of the masses of snow from the higher grounds. The 
number of Seals became thus so reduced that the natives for 
two vears were not allowed to kill them for food. From that 



RECENT CHANGES IN HABITS AND NUMBERS, ETC. 389 

time up to the transfer of the islands to the United States great 
care was given to their increase, at which time were established 
the methods in practice when I arrived on the island in 18G9, 
and which still continue with little modification. The islands 
were then in charge of Kazean Shisenekoff, a Creole born on 
the island and educated in the school at Sitka. He appears to 
have been a man of great natural ability. He left a family ot 
sous, part of whom inherit their father's talent, the oldest out 
being pontenori or arch-priest for the diocese of the Territory. 
This Kazean governed the islands twenty-seven years, and his 
memory is revered by the people like that of a saint. He kept 
a record in manuscript of his observations and left it on the 
island at his death, but before my arrival there it had been 
used to paste over the cracks in the ceiling of the hut of one 
-of the natives and so was lost. During the administration of 
this able governor these nurseries of the Seals had been de- 
veloped from almost nothing to the condition in which they 
were at the transfer of the islands to the United States. For 
many years they were able to kill only a small number, but the 
.Seals gradually increased so that they killed as many as 40.000 
in one year. The result of this judicious system was seen in 
the condition of affairs in the spring of 1867, when, knowing 
the islands were to be surrendered to the United States, the 
Eussians took all the Seals they could, amounting to 75,000. 
During the season of 1808, when there was no legal protection 
for the Seals, 250,000 were taken. 

" This brings us to the year of 18G9, the date of my first visit; 
and on that year's observation is based the foregoing descrip- 
tion of the habits of the Seals. One of the first objects to be 
attained was an approximate determination, at least, of the 
number of Seals frequenting the islands ; but to count them 
was impossible. After the rookeries were filled I discovered 
that on the breeding-grounds there were no open spaces ; that, 
-as a rule, they began to fill at the water-line and extended no 
further back than they could occupy in a compact body. Mak- 
ing as careful a calculation as possible of the space occupied, 
and ascertaining the average number to the square rod, I found 
that this gave the astonishing number of 1,1 30,000 for the breed- 
ing Seals alone. The other or non-breeding Seals that is, the 
males not on the breeding-grounds were at that time occupying 
the upland in the rear of the females in groups of from five or 
six hundred to as many thousands. These being more restless 



390 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHEEN FUR SEAL. 

in their habits, it was uot so easy to calculate their numbers ;- 
but after comparing these groups with the masses of breeding 
Seals in their vicinity, and estimating their proportional num- 
bers, I found that they were nearly as numerous as the breed- 
ing Seals, numbering at least one million. Adding to these the 
young of the year, nearly equal in number to the females, it 
became evident that there were on the island at that time not 
less than 3,230,000 Seals. 

" Under the Eussian regime the work was all done by the hand 
labor of the natives, the Seals being not only driven in, killed, 
and skinned by them, but the skins were carried on their backs 
to the salt-houses. The work of salting and preparing for ship- 
ment was necessarily slow, tedious, and exhausting, and as 
skins of young animals were smaller to take off and lighter to 
carry, and the choice of animals being left to the natives, they 
seldom killed any over three years of age, and only a small por- 
tion of this age. As a natural consequence, the killing falling 
on this younger and more numerous class, a larger number of 
males than were really necessary for breeding purposes escaped 
to grow up, so that at this date more than 30 per cent, of the 
male non-breeding Seals were of procreative age. Owing to 
the large number of young males constantly in the water about 
,the rookeries, in addition to the beachmasters, all the females. 
( were impregnated before the 10th of August. 

" The number of full-grown males at this date may be consid- 
ered as three times greater than the number required, or equal 
to one full-grown male to every three or four females. In con- 
sequence of this large excess of males, and their strong desire 
to possess the females, they crowded the rookeries to the extent 
of leaving only fighting room, and kept up a continuous strug- 
gle for the mastery, regardless of both mother and young, and 
often destroying each other. There being always a large re- 
serve on the alert, the contending forces were recruited as fast 
as the combatants became crippled or exhausted, so that there 
was no cessation in the strife, day nor night, while the noise of 
the mingled voices could be heard at the distance of five miles 
from the rookeries. 

" The Eussians contracted with dealers in Europe for a given 
number of .skins at a fixed rate per skin, and then ordered them 
taken at the islands. The killing being left to the parties there,, 
they, for their own convenience (as before stated), killed mostly 
from the younger class. The killing commenced on the 1st of 



EECENT CHANGES IN HABITS AND NUMBERS, ETC. 391 

June, O. S., or the 12th of our style, and continued through 
the entire season, or until the number ordered was obtained. 
During June and July, the breeding season, the greater part 
of the four-, five-, and six-year-old Seals being in the water, the 
killing naturally fell heaviest on the two- and three-year-olds. 
After the arrival of the yearlings, they being a more numerous 
class, the killing fell largely on them for the remainder of the 
season. This system prevailed not only during 1868 and 1869, 
when the natives were allowed to kill for food and to sell for 
supplies, but the same practice was followed during the season 
of 1870. Although the lease bears this date, it was not put in 
practical operation until 1871, when all this became changed. 

" Until this year (1871) the Fur Seal skins that had been sold 
in the market of London had varied greatly in price, ranging 
from one dollar to sixteen dollars per skin, but only a very 
small percentage brought the latter price, the average price 
being about four and a half dollars each. 

" Having now stated the condition and numerical proportions 
of the different classes of Seals on the islands at the time the 
United States Government leased the right to take one hun- 
dred thousand skins per annum to the Alaska Commercial 
Company, a brief statement of the effects of this provision will 
throw further light on the habits of the Seals. Owing to the 
erroneous information prevailing at the time the lease was 
made, respecting the proportionate number of Seals at that time 
visiting the islands of Saint Paul and Saint George, 75,000 of 
the annual quota were assigned to Saint Paul's and 25,000 to 
Saint George's. 

" The parties having the lease paying a tax of a certain sum 
per skin, and as it cost as much to get a poor skin to market as 
a good one, pains were taken to determine at what age the skin 
was of most value. It proved that Seals of the ages of three, 
four, and live years were the most desirable, and the lessees hav- 
ing the right to select their skins, took only Seals of those ages. 

" This matter, however, was not fully understood until the sea- 
son of 1873, when it was found that the skins of highest value 
were those taken from animals three years old, those older yield- 
ing skins of less value, while those older than five years were 
not worth taking. From this date only the three-year-old Seals 
have been taken. The selection of this class instead of the 
younger animals was a great change, the effect of which soon 
became manifest, as I shall presently show. 



392 CALLOEHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

" When the agent and employes of the company came to the 
islands in 1871, they had no knowledge of the business, and had 
to learn it of the natives, so that they naturally at first followed 
the old routine, with only the difference that instead of confin- 
ing the killing to the younger classes, as before, a larger per- 
centage of ( half-bulls,' or four- and five-year-olds, were killed. 
The 75,000 Seals killed by the Russians in 1867, the 250,000 
killed by various parties in 1868, and the 85,000 taken by the 
natives in 1869, being mostly young animals, the markets had 
become so overstocked with small skins as to render them un- 
salable, and the manufacturers in London notified the agent 
of the Alaska Commercial Company that only large skins were 
desirable; hence the agent selected for killing all the larger 
Seals available. Seventy thousand of the quota of seventy- 
five thousand were taken during the months of June and July, 
the remainder being left to be supplied by the skins of animals 
required for food by the natives during the remainder of the 
season. During this year (1871) no material changes were ob- 
served in the movements of the Seals as compared with former 
years. 

" This brings the history of the subject to the year 187U. The 
product of 1871 had been sold in Europe, and the demand for 
larger skins had become more imperative than before, and it 
being in the interest of the lessees to suit their customers, they 
instructed their agent residing at the islands, whose duty it was 
to select the animals for killing, to take only large skins. Un- 
der these instructions their agent, as far as possible, confined 
the killing for skins to Seals of from four to six years old, and 
often a seven-year-old got killed by straggling into the younger 
groups to rest. The effect of killing the class that formed so 
important an element in the reproduction of the species showed 
itself in the diminished number doing service in the water along 
the shore. The reserves also showed quite a perceptible de- 
crease in number, in comparison w.ith their number in 1860, 
The female breeding Seals showed, through the increased space 
occupied by them, an increase in numbers equivalent to 15 
per cent, over their number in 1869, or an increase of 5 per 
cent, a year, while the selection of the four-, five-, and six-year- 
olds, instead of the younger as formerly, had spared so large a 
number under four years of age that when the yearlings came 
on shore the two classes united seemed to flood the island with 
their living masses, thronging the beaches and spreading up the 



RECENT CHANGES IN HABITS AND NUMBERS, ETC. 393 

hillsides, their moving troops looking like armies. This year 
a part of the reserves located on new places, and by gathering 
a few females around them appeared to be forming new rook- 
eries. At the breaking up of the rookeries, during the last 
days of July and the early part of August, all the females with 
their young did not go to the coves as before, but a consider- 
able number remained, herding with the young bulls, while the 
pups learned to swim on the shore of the breeding-ground. 
The weather proved exceptionally fine in November, December, 
and January, and a part of the females remained with their 
young a month later than usual, and groups of two-, three-, and 
four-year-olds were seen in the water near the shore as late as 
February. 

" During the latter part of the winter and spring of the follow- 
ing year (1873), great masses of ice from the north passed the 
island, coming from the northwest and drifting toward the south- 
east, keeping the island nearly enclosed until the 23d of May, 
and remaining in scattered belts for seven or eight days later. 
The earliest arrival of the Seals that landed was May 15, and 
all that arrived in May showed by their exhausted condition 
that they had encountered obstructions in coming. At the 
usual time, however, June 15, the rookeries were occupied by 
the beachmasters, but there were a smaller number to a given 
area than formerly, the great body of the reserves of 1809 hav- 
ing become reduced one-half. The females showed the same 
average increase of about 5 percent, over the previous year, 
but none of the attempts to form new rookeries were con- 
tinued. The increased number of females found room by nil- 
ing up the spaces between the old rookeries through which 
the young Seals had been in the habit of passing to the up- 
lands to the rear of the reserves, and where such spaces were 
not to be found the females crowded over the ridge into the 
inner slopes, in some places actually locating on clear sand- 
beaches. The closing of the passes by the breeding Seals had 
the effect of forcing the young Seals to coast along the shore 
entirely past the rookery, where they found resting places in 
the beaches by themselves, thus rendering their separation 
from the breeding Seals more complete than before, so that 
when wanted for driving they were found in large bodies in- 
stead of small groups as formerly, when they remained in the 
lear of the rookeries, and when each group had to be driven 
.separately before they could be massed for the general drive. 



394 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

This change has ever since remained permanent, and greatly 
facilitates the gathering of the droves for slaughter. It was also- 
apparent that the killing of so many half-bulls the two previous 
years had reduced to a minimum the number that hovered in 
the vicinity of the breeding-rookeries, keeping the beachuiasters 
in continual alarm. The effect of this change could also In- 
perceived in the lessening of the noise resulting from the fight- 
ing on the breeding-grounds. 

" When the season for the breaking up of the rookeries arrived, 
only a small part of the females moved to the coves with their 
young, the remainder lingering on the breeding-places with 
their pups, and gathering around the half-bulls and remnant of 
the reserves that had not left the shore, as if their first cover- 
ing had failed of impregnation, and they had again become in 
heat and were seeking the males. 

" The introduction of mules and carts for the purpose of haul- 
ing the seal-skins had greatly lessened the amount of physical 
labor for the natives, and the full quota of 75,000 seal-skins 
were ready for shipment by the 1st of August, The killing then 
ceased, except for fresh food for the natives, ainounitug to about 
two hundred and fifty Seals a week. For this purpose care was 
taken to kill, as far as possible, only animals whose skins would 
be accepted by the company as a part of the quota for the next 
season, it being for the interest of all concerned to obtain the 
necessary quota of 75,000 skins and feed the natives with as 
little waste of Seal life as possible. In September and October 
a few females were seen to land and bear their young females 
which had been covered out of season the previous year. This, 
was the first time this had been observed, and was spoken of 
by the natives, who are thoroughly familiar with every detail, 
as exceptional. 

" The dissatisfaction of the London manufacturers with the 
quality of the skins sent to market still continuing, the com- 
pany, during the winter of 1872 and 1873, sent their agenr to 
London to find out under what conditions the skins were of 
greatest value. This investigation established the fact previ- 
ously noted that the best skins were obtained from three-year 
olds. At four the value has already depreciated, while skins 
of large-sized two-year-olds and five-year-olds are of still poorer 
quality than those of the four-year-olds. On this basis was es- 
tablished the rule by which the killing has since been regulated. 

" During the fall of 1873 the weather was again very mild, ar.d 



RECENT CHANGES IN HABITS AND NUMBERS, ETC. 395 

thus continued into the winter. The females, consequently, 
lingered in small numbers, with their young, till into January, 
while some of the young bulls, in groups of ten or twenty, were 
seen as late as February 10. 

" The rapid decrease of the reserves, with the attendant 
changes in the movements of the Seals, caused considerable 
anxiety. The wise ones among the natives shook their heads 
ominously, and said they had predicted this from slaughtering 
so many half-bulls during the previous three years. I felt this, 
but could not order differently, the company having the right 
to select their own animals ; but at the same time I thought that 
this might not be the whole cause. I watched, as did all on 
the island, the coming of the Seals in 1874, with intense anx- 
iety. In the spring of that year the shores became, at the usual 
time, fairly clear of ice and other obstructions, and on April 13, 
the usual time for their arrival, the chief reported that Seals 
had been seen in the water. Soon after two or three beach- 
masters landed, and these were followed, on succeeding days, 
by scattered groups of three to five at a time. By the 23d of 
May enough young bulls had landed on the point to make a 
drive for the purpose of obtaining fresh food for the people. 

" The changes that had been observed in the movements of the 
Seals during the year 1873 were noticeable in a more marked 
degree. The beachmasters took their positions on the breed- 
ing-grounds farther apart than formerly, and there being less 
cause for fighting there was less noise and tumult. The reserves 
appeared in about the same numbers as in 1873, but there was 
an increase in the proportion of the younger over the older 
animals, as if a larger number of the former were coming for- 
ward to take the place of the old stock of the period before the 
leasing of the island. There was, on the whole, an evident gain 
over the previous year, which gave us hope that the crisis of 
depletion had passed. When the females came it was found 
that their numbers had not materially changed. When the 
time arrived for the breaking up of the rookeries they all 
remained, only moving up farther from the water, where the 
reserves and half-bulls met them, forming families in the same 
manner as on their first landing earlier in the season ; and they 
remained here with their young until the time of leaving the 
island for the winter, going from here instead of from the bays, 
as formerly. This has now become their fixed habit, they 
remaining on, and going from, the breeding-places direct. 



396 CALLOEHINUS UESINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

"At this point it is necessary to take up another thread of 
this subject. I have already stated that, under erroneous infor- 
mation as to the relative proportion of the numbers of Seals 
breeding on Saint George's and Saint Paul's Islands, the quota 
had been fixed at 75,000 for the latter and 25,000 for the former 
island. Samuel Falconer, my assistant in charge of Saint 
George's Island, had reported a rapid decrease in the number 
of Seals of the quality desired for their skins. Assistant Agent 
H. W. Elliott, who had resided with me on Saint Paul's during 
the season of 1872, I now assigned to assist Mr. Falconer on 
Saint George during the season of 1873. He, by his residence 
on Saint Paul's, was able to give the relative difference in the 
proportionate number of Seals on the two islands. After his 
examination it was found necessary to change the original di- 
vision, and assign to Saint Paul's 90,000 and to Saint George's 
only 10,000. This, however, disturbed the relative compensa- 
tion allowed the natives for the support of their families, and 
twelve of the sealers were removed from Saint George's to 
Saint Paul's to assist in taking the skins on that island. 

u In 1875 the sealing began, as usual, June 1, and with this 
additional assistance and the improved facilities for doing the 
work, 85,000 skins were taken by July 24, leaving the balance 
to be supplied from Seals killed for food. The agent of the 
company, whose duty it was to select the skins, having become 
convinced that it was detrimental to the future increase of the 
Seals to kill the half-bulls, confined the killing to those less 
than five years old. This left a larger number to mature as 
breeding males. This year more two-year-olds were taken 
than previously since 1870. This proved to be an important 
change, resulting in the sparing of a much larger percentage 
to mature. The movements of the females were the same as in 
1873 ; that is, they occupied the breeding-grounds with their 
young until the time of leaA T ing the island, and when departing 
left directly from the breeding-ground. But it was observable 
that there were many young Seals born in August, or later in 
the season than formerly, showing that a portion of the females 
had been covered out of season. The weather proved favorable, 
continuing warm till into January, thus affording the Seals 
born in August time to learn to swim and get strong enough to 
insure their safety at sea. Many of the bachelor class also 
remained around the island until February, when the ice com- 
ing down drove them away 



EECENT CHANGES IN HABITS AND NUMBERS, ETC. 397 

u The season of 1870 was marked by no special change in the 
movements of the Seals from that of the preceding year. The 
Seals came at their usual time, beginning to arrive the 12th 
of April, and the same conditions of location obtained as in 
1874 and 1875. The beachmasters, by occupying the entire 
length of the old breeding- ground, compelled the younger Seals 
to pass completely beyond to the bays and sand-beaches, while 
the increased number of females, through lack of space on the 
old grounds, began to occupy the sand-beaches nearest the 
rookeries.* 

" The average time of landing of the females was a little later, 
or, rather, a portion landed after the 20th of July to have their 
young, showing that they were not covered in their first heat 
the previous season. 

" The beachmasters and reserves showed an increase in num- 
ber over the previous year, due to young bulls just matured. 
The old stock of the year prior to the lease had apparently 
nearly died out, leaving a new and more vigorous stock to 
supply their places. 

" In the autumn the weather, which for three years had been 
so mild, proved unusually rough and severe. October 30th there 
was a severe gale, accompanied with snow, which covered the 
breeding-grounds to a depth of ten inches, and drove all the 
Seals, both young and old, into the water, and only a compara- 
tively small number returned again to the shore. Among 
these were large numbers of females which had lost their young, 
and for several days they went about the breeding-grounds 
plaintively calling for their pups. In November, when the time 
had arrived for driving the young Seals to kill for the supply 
of winter food for the natives, it was found that only half the 
number (five thousand) requisite for that purpose flould be ob- 
tained. Undoubtedly great numbers of the young Seals which 
were driven to the water by the storm must have become sep- 
arated from their parents and lost. As I was relieved before 
the time for their return the next season, there was no one on 
the island experienced enough to perceive to what extent the 

" * I may here state that the repugnance the females have to occupying the 
sandy beaches for a breeding-ground appears to arise from the evident dis- 
comfort they experience from the sand getting into their hair and fur while 
obliged to remain there, especially when rains occur. The young Seals 
also appear to suffer in health if rains occur before they are old enough to 
take to the water, they becoming scurfy precisely as young piga do when 
compelled to live in muddy places." 



398 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

injury prevailed, and as the product of 1877 will not arrive at 
the proper age for killing until 1880, it must be left to the 
future to determine the extent of the loss. 

" CAUSES OF THE CHANGES IN THE HABITS OF THE SEALS, 
ETC. It will now be well to try and trace some of the causes that 
operated to produce changes in what had been the usual habits 
of these animals. At the date of the transfer of these islands to 
the United States the non-breeding Seals (and by this class I 
mean the males of all ages not in active service on the breed- 
ing-places) were, as nearly as can be ascertained, equal to 
the whole number of both beachrnasters and females. Thirty 
per cent, of this non-breeding class were capable of pro- 
creation. During the years 1867, 18G8, and 1869 there were 
taken 410,000 Seals, mostly of the product of 1866, 1867, and 
1868. This large number killed in so short a time, left only a 
small portion of the product of those years to mature, to furnish 
the half-bulls in 1871, 1872, and 1873. During these years (the 
first years under the lease), the demand, for reasons before 
stated, was for large skins, and it had to be met by killing four-, 
five-, and six-year-olds. This destruction of the remnant that 
escaped from the excessive killing in the years of 1868 and 1869 
had the effect to exterminate the product of those years and 
create a chasm that had to be bridged over by the products 
of years prior to 1865, which had to supply the males neces- 
sary for breeding, until the products of later years could ma- 
ture. Again, during the season of 1870 the natives, to pur- 
chase supplies and for their own food, killed 85,000, mostly one- 
and two-year-old Seals. This operated in the same direction, 
reducing to a minimum the products of 1868 and 1869, and 
rendering the breach still wider. There was consequently only 
a limited number to fill this gap until those spared by the com- 
pany in 1871, 1872, and 1873, when only half-bulls were taken, 
had matured. Before these had time to attain maturity the 
large surplus of reserves of the year 1869 became so reduced 
in numbers by natural causes as to induce the changes we have 
noted in the movements of the female breeding Seals. The old 
males, having become weakened and exhausted, failed to im- 
pregnate the females in their first heat and forced them to seek 
the younger males in their second heat instead of going to the 
beaches with their young as formerly. This caused many fe- 
males to bear their young later in the season, and consequently, 



CAUSES OF CHANGES IN HABITS, ETC. 399 

Curing ttiis and the following years, resulted iu considerably 
delaying the time of their impregnation. Owing to the mild 
weather late in autumn, the mothers of these late pups were 
able to stay until their young were old enough and strong 
enough to insure their safety. 

" The decrease in the number of breeding males may be con- 
sidered as having reached its minimum in 187G. In 1877, the 
last season I spent at the islands, there was an evident increase 
in the number of this class. A review of the different classes 
will now assist us in drawing our conclusions. The reserves 
and beachmasters belong to a single class, the only difference 
being that those which get on shore first and hold a place for 
a family are denominated beachmasters, while those of the same 
class that arrive too late for this purpose are termed reserves. 
In 1809 the beachmasters were numerous enough to occupy the 
breeding-ground in the proportion of one to the square rod, 
leaving a surplus or reserve of double this number, or three 
times as many as could find space on the breeding- ground. 
There being so large an excess of males of breeding age, they 
crowded each other to the extent of leaving only fighting-room, 
averaging one beachmaster to seven females. The beachmas- 
ters were continually fighting for the possession of the females, 
often killing each other in their struggles, while many more be- 
came so crippled as to have to retire from the breeding-grounds, 
so that during the season the injured and exhausted amounted 
to fully 30 per cent. This condition continued until the ef- 
fect of the excessive killing iu 1865 became apparent, resulting 
in the reduction of the reserves from natural causes. Those 
already old died out. and the products of 1866 and 1867 being- 
reduced by overkilling in 1868, fewer were left to mature to 
make up for the natural loss. Consequently, in 1870, or be- 
fore the Alaska Commercial Company began to take the ani- 
mals for their skins, this class had perceptibly decreased. Dur- 
ing the succeeding three years, nearly all of the half-bulls being- 
killed, there was no new stock to replace the natural decrease 
from old age and exhaustion, nor many half-bulls to assist in the 
duties of reproduction. This rendered the season of service for 
the old Seals more protracted. In three years, or by 187:>, the 
old reserves had become so reduced in number that when the 
Tookeries were fully occupied there were only half as many 
beachmasters there as formerly, or only one to two square rods 
of area, while each beachmaster had on the average about fifteen 



400 CALLORHINUS URS1NUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

females. The reserves were now only about half as numerous 
as the beachm asters. As a result of these conditions, the fe- 
males were imperfectly covered, and instead of going in August 
to the beaches remained on the breeding-grounds until their 
second heat, herding with the younger or less matured males, 
while the young Seals learned to swim from the shores of the 
rookeries. Another marked result was that on the rookeries the 
beachrnasters were so far separated and had each so many more 
females that there was less occasion for fighting, and conse- 
quently less uproar and destruction from wounds. At this date 
occurred the change in the system of killing, the younger males 
being taken instead of the half-bulls. Since this time the rel- 
ative number of breeding males has been steadily increasing. 
It is still, however, below the proper proportion, and under the 
present system will require three years at least to supply the 
deficiency. The period of gestation being nearly one year, it 
is necessary that the females should be all impregnated in their 
first heat, lest, as was the case in 187G, early storms occur and 
force the late-born young to enter the sea before they have ac- 
quired sufficient strength and endurance to insure their safety. 
Similar changes in their movements and relative numbers were 
noticed in the holluschucke or bachelor class. This class in- 
cludes all under six years old, with a very small number of 
superannuated males, and also the half-bulls. The custom of 
killing the younger Seals for their skins, by the Eussiaus, had 
allowed so large a number of half-bulls to mature every year 
that in 18G9 the proportion of half-bulls to the whole number 
was fully 20 per cent,, but in 1871, 1872, and 1873, when this 
class were taken for their skins, it decreased to less than 5 per 
cent., and did not show any perceptible increase until 1870. 

"In 1869, the rookeries, where they extended along the shore, 
were not continuous, but broken into sections by the small gul- 
lies formed by the streams from the melting snows in spring. 
These open spaces appeared to be regarded by all classes as 
neutral ground, and all the Seals not old enough to maintain a 
position on the breeding-places passed through them to the up- 
lands in the rear of the rookery, going and returning at will. 
When on the upland these younger Seals occupied places near 
the reserves. When they were wanted for their skins the men 
passed rapidly between them and the reserves, cutting them off 
from these open passages and turning them inland. Here the 
small squads collected from the different divisions were gath- 



CAUSES OF CHANGES IN HABITS, ETC. 401 

ered into herds of from six hundred to eight hundred each ; 
that number being as many as can be driven to advantage in 
one flock. 

"The decrease of the reserves from 1870 to 1872 gave ample 
room on the old breeding-places without forming new rookeries. 
Later the increase of the females made it necessary for them to 
occupy the open places which had before afforded passages for 
the young males from the water to the uplands, so that the 
young males on their arrival, after trying in vain to find land- 
ing-places as before, passed the rookeries and occupied the 
beaches of the coves and bays beyond. This began in 1872, 
and in 1875 had become general, and may now be considered as 
a fixed habit. As it saves gathering them in small groups, it 
greatly facilitates the process of obtaining the drives without 
detrimental effect to the rookeries. 

" When I made my estimate of the number of the Seals in 1869, 
the proportionate number these groups bore to the breeding- 
rookery near which they were located suggested the inquiry 
whether the young returned to the exact point where they were 
born. I found on questioning the natives that they believed 
they did thus return. To test this matter I had, in November, 
1870, fifty young males selected from one rookery, and marked 
on the right ear, and fifty more selected from another rookery, 
two miles distant from the first, were marked on the left ear. 
The result was that in 1873, when they were of the proper age 
to be taken for their skins, four of them were killed on Saint 
Paul's Island, at points more or less distant from the place 
where they were marked, and two were found on the island of 
Saint George. 

" Passing now to the consideration of the females, we meet 
with greater difficulties and arrive at less satisfactory results, 
owing to the fact that our knowledge of them during the first 
three years is less definite. During the first four months after 
birth the sexes do not appreciably differ. When the Seals are 
driven to the uplands in November for the purpose of selecting 
young males for the winter supply of food for the natives, the 
sexes, as nearly as can be judged, are equal in numbers ; but 
at this time the females average at least one-tenth smaller than 
the males. 

"At this stage they leave the island for the winter, and very 
few appear to return to the island until they are three years old. 

Misc. Pub. No. 12 26 



402 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NOETHERN FUR SEAL. 

at which age they seek the males for sexual intercourse. On 
the other hand, the males return the following year with the 
mature females. On their arrival they laud on the island and 
pass some distance inland, where they repose in large herds 
during the breeding-season, and linger about the island until 
after the females and their young are gone. They continue to 
return each year, arriving earlier as they approach to maturity, 
until old enough to become beachmasters. But the young 
females, as already stated, are not seen in numbers until they 
are three years old, when they arrive about the height of the 
breeding-season. Considerable numbers land on the breeding- 
places, but a larger portion are covered by the males before 
they have time to land. In the females there are no definite 
external indications of age as there are in the males, and in as- 
signing the age of three years I have accepted the judgment of 
the natives, who are familiar with every phase of Seal life, and 
are governed mainly in their opinion by the appearance of the 
teeth. In the few I have had killed from time to time for ex- 
amination the differences have been pointed out to me, but I do 
not consider myself competent to judge, and in the absence of 
more definite evidence' I accept the statements of the natives. 
At this age they weigh about forty-five pounds, are of a steel- 
gray color on the back, with pearly white breast and belly, the 
gray of the back gradually shading into the white on the sides, 
and their coat has a very soft, velvety appearance. When they 
return the following year to give birth to their first young they 
average sixty pounds, and the color of the back is of a deeper 
shade and extends lower down on the sides. They still con- 
tinue to grow for two or three years, and attain an average 
weight of eighty pounds. At six or seven years old the col^r 
of the back has become brown and extends to the belly, which 
is then only a few shades lighter than the back. When the 
young females first land their color is bright and soft, but in 
two or three days the white tint gradually becomes of a rusty 
shade, so that when visiting the rookeries daily it is easy to dis- 
tinguish the Seals that have just landed. After they have been 
on shore ten days they become all of the same shade, and are 
individually undistiuguishable. As the females are never killed, 
but are left to die from old age or natural causes, there are no 
means of ascertaining their length of life. In exceptional cases 
they become barren and haul up with the young males. 



VARIATION IN COLOR WITH AGE, ETC. 403 

"ALBINOS AND SEXUALLY ABNORMAL INDIVIDUALS. Three 
or four albinos are found every year, which are of a pinkish 
white color, sometimes mottled with liver-colored spots, and the 
eyes and the skin covering the flippers are also pinkish. On 
one or two occasions I have seen the young pup black, except 
a narrow light stripe extending from the corners of the mouth 
along the sides to the posterior extremities. These conditions 
are very unusual. 

"Among the males we find sometimes an imperfect develop- 
ment of the organs of generation. Individuals thus defective 
are not distinguishable until the fourth year, when instead of 
the neck thickening and the hair on it growing curly and longer 
as in the perfect male, they retain the slim form of the neck, 
characteristic of the female, non-development of the testes hav- 
ing the same effect upon their development that castration has 
upon the domestic bull. 

"Occasional instances of hermaphroditisni also occur, in which 
the same individual has a nearly perfect development of the 
organs of both sexes. These herd with the males, but are 
readily distinguishable from them by their having the posterior 
part of the body fuller and thicker as in the full-grown female. 

" DESCRIPTION OF THE YOUNG; VARIATION IN COLOR WITH 
AGE, ETC. The young Seals are all born with a coat of short, 
stiff black hair covering the whole body. When sixty days old 
this is replaced by a very soft and silky covering three-fourths of 
an inch in length. This is a fine steel-gray on the back and 
white on the throat, breast, and abdomen. This coat of overhau- 
ls shed annually in August and September, becoming coarser 
and darker with age each year. At seven years the back has 
attained a dark brown, shading gradually to two or three shades 
lighter on the belly. At the fifth year the hair on the neck and 
shoulders grows coarser, curling at the ends, and on many of 
these the curly tips are white, giving a grizzled or silver- gray 
appearance. The fur commences to grow with the first coat of 
overhair, as a soft light down, the overhair entirely covering , 
and concealing it. On the male this continues to grow to three- 
eighths of an inch in length, increasing evenly in thickness and 
fineness all over the body until the third year, when it is in its 
greatest perfection. After this, as the male develops the char- 
acteristics of his sex, as the thickening of the neck and shoul- 
ders, the fur also becomes longer and thicker, while, as the 



404 CALLORHINUS URSINUS NORTHERN FUR SEAL. 

animal grows older, the fur on the posterior portion of the back 
gets thinner. The skin thus deteriorates in value ; the fur being 
unequally developed on different parts of the body, prevents the 
use of the whole skin in the same garment. The color of the 
fur is not indicated by the overhair, and as a rule shows greater 
variation in shade than the latter, varying from a smutty white 
to a rich maroon, the latter shade being the most rare. 

" MOULTING. A diversity of opinion exists on the island as to- 
whether or not the fur is shed with the overhair. I have given 
close attention to the subject and find that all the evidence is 
against the opinion that the fur is shed. The great quantity 
of overhair annually shed by this immense number of animals- 
covers the ground like dead leaves in a forest. It is blown by 
the winds around the rocks, and becomes trodden into the soil r 
so that when the earth is dry if