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A Narrative Account of Its Historical Progress and Development 

from the First European Exploration of the Maumee and 

Sandusky Valleys and the Adjacent Shores of 

Lake Erie, down to the Present Time 


Assisted by a Board of Advisory and Contributing Editors 






Copyright 1917 


The Lewis Publishing Company 




<\ No section of the United States has experi- 

VAeneed more changes of sovereignty than has 

;kjNorthwest Ohio, and none has been the 

theater of more interesting liistorical events 

I than this same division. Contrasting v^ith the 

x^ romance of the coureurs du bois, who roamed 

^the trackless forests, the fascinating adven- 

*si tures of the early pioneers, and the marvelous 

■ \ achievements of the American arms, history 

records for us the tragedy of the St. Clair 

■ ~r, defeat and the disastrous Crawford campaign, 
K:>as well as the infamous memoirs of the Girty 

\ renegades. It has been a matter of intense 
interest and genuine pleasure to the writer 
to study the history of our section of the 
great State of Ohio, and attempt to transcribe 
it into a connected narrative form. There 
have been many county histories published, 
and two or three historical treatises of the 
Maumee Valley, as well as a number of val- 
uable histories of the entire State of Ohio, 
but in no instance, so far as the writer is 
aware, has there been a separate history of 
the northwestern section of the state. 

From an historical standpoint Northwest 
Ohio is almost an entity unto itself. The 
actual French occupation did not extend 
much farther into the state than the territory 
covered by this history, and the British settle- 
ments likewise were practically limited to the 
same section. More Indians resided within 
the territory covered by these twenty counties 
than in any other part of Ohio, and it practi- 
cally includes the territory reserved for them 
by the Treaty of Greenville, in 1795. Several 
of the most noted conflicts between the Ameri- 
cans and the aborigines took place upon this 
soil, and it was also the scene of the principal 
conflicts in the War of 1812 that occurred 

west of the AUeghenies, including one of the 
most famous victories of the American navy. 
It is also the arena of the only war that Ohio 
has ever waged on her own account. Hence 
it will be seen that Northwest Ohio deserves 
a history of its own, in which the important 
events can be elaborated upon and afforded 
a fuller description than any work covering 
the entire state. 

It has been the aim of the writer in the 
preparation of this work to transcribe the 
history into a readable form, and to give the 
events the space that each deserves. He has 
also attempted to be absolutely accurate in 
liis statement of historical facts and events, 
and, where there is a conflict of authority, to 
f oUow the one that seems to be the most re- 
liable. Errors have undoubtedly occurred in 
the work, for such is generally the case even 
when the greatest care and precaution have 
been taken. Repetitions wiU occasionally be 
found of the same events in the narrative 
history and in the county chapters. This has 
been unavoidable, and for it no apology is 
offered. There are occasionally incidents in 
connection with these events that did not 
seem to be a part of the general history, but 
which do have a particular interest in the 
county history, which is included for that 
very purpose. 

In each of the county chapters it has been 
the aim to include and condense the history 
of the county and towns vdthin the county, 
in the preparation of which I have had the 
counsel, and in many cases the most valuable 
aid from residents within the counties, who 
have kindly acted as advisory and contribut- 
ing editors in the preparation of this work. 
It is believed that a great deal of interest and 


much valuable information will be found in 
the special chapters describing the part that 
Northwest Ohio has had in literature, in edu- 
cation, in religion, in the wars, and in various 
other activities. Some of these chapters have 
been difficult to prepare, because it was not 
easy to locate the sources of accurate informa- 
tion. Some inaccuracies may be found, but 
the greatest care has been taken in their prep- 
aration, and the writer has done the very best 
that he could under the circumstances and 
with the data at his command. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge special 
indebtedness to the "History of the Maumee 
Basin" by his friend, the late Charles Elihu 
Slocum. Doctor Slocum spent many years in 
research and the collection of historical data 
for his work. He also wishes to express his 
appreciation of the courtesy of C. S. Van 
Tassel for permission to reproduce a number 
of illustrations from his ' ' Book of Ohio. ' ' 

Toledo, Ohio. 

Nevin 0. Winter. 


Aldrich, Lewis Cass; Histoi-y of Henry and 
Fulton Counties. 

Atherton, William; Narrative of the Suffer- 
ings and Defeat of the Northwestern Army. 

Atwater, Caleb; History of Ohio, 1838. 

Baughman, A. J. ; History of Seneca County. 

Baughman, A. J.; History of Wyandot 

Beardsley, D. B. ; History of Hancock County. 

Black, Alexander ; The Story of Ohio. 

Burnett, Jacob ; Letters. 

Butterfield, Consul W. ; History of the Girtys ; 
A life record of the three renegades of the 

Butterfield, Consul W. ; Crawford 's Campaign 
against Sandusky in 1782. 

Denny, Ebenezer; Military Journal. 

Drake, Benjamin; Life of Tecumseh. 

Evers, Charles H. ; Pioneer Scrap-Book of 
Wood County and the Maumee Valley. 

Finley, Rev. James B.; Life Among the In- 

Finley, Rev. James B. ; Autobiography, Cin- 

Finley, Rev. James B. ; History of the Wyan- 
dots Missions at Upper Sandusky. 

Gavitt, Elnathan C. ; Crumbs from My Saddle 

Gilliland, James V.; History of Van Wert 

Harper's Encyclopedia of United States His- 
tory. 10 volumes. 

Harvey, Henry; History of the Shawnee 

Heekewelder, John ; Narrative of the Mission 
of the United Brethren Among the Dela- 
ware and Mohegan Aborigines. 

Hopley, John E. ; History of Crawford 

Hosmer; Early History of the Maumee Val- 

Howe, Henry ; Historical Collections of Ohio. 

Jacoby, J. Wilbur ; History of Marion County. 

Jesuit Relations of Travels and Explorations. 
73 Vols. 

Kimmell, Dr. J. A. ; History of Hancock 

Kinder, George D. ; History of Putnam 

King, Rufus; Ohio. 

Knapp, H. S. ; History of the Maumee Val- 

Kohler, Minnie I. ; History of Hardin County. 

Lossing, Benjamin; Pictorial Field Book of 
the War of 1812. 

Lang, William ; History of Seneca County. 

McAfee; History of the Late War (1812). 

Meek, Basil ; History of Sandusky County. 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. 

Mikesell, Thomas ; History of Fulton County. 

Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly. 

Parkman, Francis; The Conspiracy of Pon- 
tiac, 2 vols. 

Parkman, Francis; Pioneers of France in 
the New World. 

Parkman, Francis ; Jesuits in North America. 

Parkman, Francis; La Salle and the Great 

Randall, Emilius 0., and Ryan, Daniel J.; 
History of Ohio. 

Reid, Whitelaw; Ohio in the War. 2 vols. 

Roosevelt, Theodore; The Winning of the 
West. Vol. I. 

Scranton, S. S. ; History of Mercer County. 

Scribner, Harvey ; Memoirs of Lucas County. 

Slocum, Charles E.; The Ohio Country be- 
tween the years 1783 and 1815. 


Slocum, Charles E. ; History of the Maumee 
River Basin. 

Smith, James; Captivity Among the Ohio 
Aborigines from 1755 to 1761. Printed in 
Drake's "Aborigine Captivities." 

Trent, James; Journal of. 

Van Tassel, C. S. : The Book of Ohio. 8 vols. 

Way, W, V. ; History of the Toledo War. 

Williamson, C. W. ; History of Western Ohio 
and Auglaize County. 

Winsor, Justin; Narrative and Critical His- 
tory of America. 

Zeisbarger, Rev. David; Diary. 


The British Lion and the Lilies op France 1 

The Conspiracies of Nicholas and Pontiac 10 

The Revolutionary Period 20 

The Crawford Expedition Against Sandusky 29 

The Renegades 43 

The Defeat op General St. Clair 54 

General Wayne's Campaign 68 

The Battle op Fallen Timbers and Its Results 83 


The Establishment op Civil Government 95 

The Disastrous Tear op 1812 104 


The Siege of Fort Meigs 116 

The Defense of Fort Stephenson 132 

Perry 's Great Victory at Put-in-Bay 146 

The Red Men of the Forests 152 

The Red Men of the Forests — Continued 164 

The Wyandots 174 

The Passing op the Red Man 187 

Christian Missions 201 

The Life of the Pioneer 211 

The Terrible Toledo Tug-of-War 227 

The Prehistoric Age 239 

Development and Transportation 244 

Northwest Ohio in the Wars 261 


Northwest Ohio in the State and Nation 280 

Northwest Ohio in Literature 296 

Religious Denominations ^ 303 


Educational and Philanthropic Institutions 321 

The Metropolis of Northwest Ohio 333 

Allen County 356 

Auglaize County 373 

Crawford County 385 

Defiance County 404 

Fulton County 416 

Hancock County 430 

Hardin County 445 

Henry County 461 


Lucas County 475 

Marion County 493 


Mercee County 509 

Ottawa County 521 

Paulding County 529 

Putnam County 542 

Sandusky County 558 

Seneca County 578 

Van Wert County 599 

Williams County 613 

Wood County 626 

Wyandot County 644 


Acker, Joseph L., 1297 

Ada, 459; early schools, 806 

Ada Normal School, 459 

Adams, John Q., 1103 

Addison, Clyde T., 1622 

Adler, Jonathan, 89 

Agerter, William T., 1599 

Aldrich, Frank H., 2271 

Alexander, Mark E., 1659 

Alexander, Thomas B., 1379 

Alger, 460 

Algonquin Indians, 153 

Allen county, Enlistments in the Civil War, 
264, 265; first white man, 356; first white 
child born in, 357; first courthouse, 359, 
367; churches, 361; press, 363 

Allen, Ernest B., 1409 

Allen, Horace N., 297, 1355; writings, 1356 

Allen, John C, 2061 

Allen, John J., 2072 

Allen, Maurice, 1390 

Allen, Theodore B., 1016 

Altenburg, John D., 1635 

Althausen, Albert, 1826 

Amanda, 371 

Ambassador to Korean Government, 1355 

American Bridge Company, 708 

Ames-Bonner Company, 975 

Anderson, James A., 894 

Anderson, Loretta A., 894 

Andreas, John H., 1728 

Andresky, John F., 1813 

Andric, Winfield S., 941 

Antin, Esther, 984 

Antin, Max, 984 

Antonio Hospital, 809 

Antrim, Ernest I., 1699 

Antwerp, 540 

Antwerp Company, 264 

Arcadia, 444, 2205 

Archbold, 429 

Arlington, 444 

Armstrong, Arthur M., 1985 

Armstrong, David, Jr., 1729 

Arnold, C. A. M., 2170 

Arnold, N. Esta, 2169 

Arps, George, 1524 

Arthur, Edward E., 807 

Ash, Julius W., 1573 

Ashley, Charles S., 1311 

Ashley, James M., 294, 1309 

Atmur, Miner A., 1691 

Attica, 597 

Atwood, A. A., 915 

Atwood Automobile Company of Toledo, 915 

Atwood, Charles G., 916 

Augenstein, Jacob B., 1203 

Auglaize county, Enlistments in the Civil 
War, 264, 265; history, 373; established, 
375; churches, 379; removal of Indians, 

Auglaize County Court House (view), 377 

Auglaize National Bank, 786 

Augusta county, 27 

Austin, James, Jr., 1038 

Automatic Boiler Feeder Company, 2260 

Averill, Frederick C, 2217 

Avery, Allen E., 1866 

Axline, J. Frank, 760 

Axline, Samuel P., 1275 

Bacon, Frank W., 1990 

Bacon, Nerval B., 978 

Baden, J. Adolph, 1050 

Badenhop, Fred, 1228 

Baggaley, Edwin H., 2204 

Baggaley, Ella B., 2204 

Bailey, Arthur N., 732 

Bailey, Charles F., 732 

Bailey, John N., 731 

Bairdstown, 642 

Baker, Eber, 504 

Baker, Herbert, 965 

Baker, Joseph P., 1408 

Baker, Samuel S., 2023 

Baker, William, 963 

Baking as a Fine Art, 1625; practiced in 

Stone Age, 1625; among Egyptians, 1626; 

modern, 1627 
Baldwin, Edward, 2192 
Baldwin, John T., 335 
Ball, James V., 590 
Ballmer, Aaron A., 1688 
Balmer, Edward E., 752 
Ball's Battle, 139 
Bamsey, George W., 1859 
Banks of the Maumee 199 
Baptist Church, 210, 305 
Barber, Jason A., 1365 
Barker, Calvin, 1067 

Barker, Frost & Chapman Company, 1067 
Barlow, Edwin B., 1974 
Barnes, Elbert T., 1151 
Barnes, Gilbert, 2160 
Barnhill, Jacob W., 1223 
Barnhill, Tobias G., 1555 
Baron, Charles S., 2114 
Barr, Charles H., 2120 
Barr, Eugene J., 1610 
Barr, Ortha O., 1610 
Bartlett, Matthew, 1413 
Bartley, Hattie J., 970 
Hartley, E. A., 969 
Bash, Harry M., 1365 


Bash, Jacob, 1365 

Basselmann, Fred, 1803 

Battle of Fallen Timbers, 83 

Battles, Clara E., 1684 

Battles of the Maumee (map), 6S 

Battles, William H., 1683 

Baum Company, 337 

Baum, Martin, 337 

Baumann, A. V., Jr., 1944 

Baumgardner, Leander S., 1431 

Baur, Robert, 1242 

Baxter, Clement S., 1642 

Baxter, Dow A., 1642 

Baxter Frank E., 1641 

Baxter, Fred H., 1642 

Baxter, Samuel A., 1640 

Bayliff, J. E., 1538 

Beach, John W. H., 2013 

Beach, William A., 1174 

Beam, William H., 1805 

Bear, 68, 615 

Bear trap, 615 

Beard, Ellsworth M., 2267 

Beard, Philander C, 2266 

Beatty, Richard A., 2014 

Beatty, William, 991 

Beaver Dam, 371 

Becker, Bernhard, 1068 

Beckett, J. W., 2071 

Beckley, J. M., 2110 

Bed warming pan, 219 

Beecher, Henry Ward, 701 

Beecher, Lyman, 701 

Belford, Fordyce, 1664 

Belgium, Ambassador to, 2237 

Bell, Henry W., 1858 

Bell, John, 568 

Bell, Thomas E., 1324 

Bellevue, 573 

Bellfy, Joseph, 1633 

Bellinger, W. C, 1934 

Benecke, Theodore F., 886 

Benien, Anna, 1792 

Benien, Henry, 1792 

Bennehoff, John H., 2035 

Bennett, George B., 809 

Bennett, John R., 814 

Bense, Margaret S., 1359 

Bense, William E., 1358 

Berdan, John, 344 

Berg, John C, 2152 

Berlin, Charles C, 800 

Berry, Richard J., 1558 

Biek, Adam W., 1441 

Bick, Catharine, 1277 

Biek, Jacob N., 1655 

Bick, John, 1277 

Bick, Nicholas, 1277 

Bicknell, John E., 2225 

Biddle, Thomas, 1323 

"Big Brother" movement, 1143 

Biggs, Don B., 1630 

Bihn, Joseph L., 1298 

Binzley, William T., 1215 

Bird-House Building Contest, 2005 

Birkenkamp, Herman H., 1094 

Birkenkamp, Louise, 1095 

Bischoff, Hermann F., 867 

Bish, Cyrus, 1797 

Bish, George W., 2199 

Bisher, John, 850 

Bishop, Edson D., 1454 

Bishop, Joseph H., 1693 

Bissell, Edward, 342 

Bitler, William, 728 

Bittikofer, F. G., 2122 

Bixel, John, 1873 

Blachly, Henry W., 744 

Black, Harry P., 1942 

Black, John, 1466 

Black, Kate A., 1467 

Black, Samuel C, 2255 

Blackford, Frank P., 729 

Blackhoof, 169, 204 

Blakeslee, 623 

Blanchard, Frank G., 2062 

Blanchard, Jean J., 431 

Blank, Amos, 1489 

Blank, Emma, 1490 

Blevins Auto Sales Company, 1027 

Blevins, Harrison W., 1027 

Bliss, Julius J., 2131 

Blockhouse, 214 

Bloom, Earl D., 1948 

Bloomdale, 642 

Bloomfield, John, 1199 

Bloomville, 597 

Blossom, Ansel, 600 

Blue Jacket, 155, 167 

Blue, Porter Z., 1181 

Bluffton, 371 

Bluflfton College and Mennonite Seminary, 

326, 833 
Bluffton News, 372 
Boardman, Avery W., 1295 
Boardman, Whitman A., 1129 
Bockelman, Carl H., 855 
Bockelman, Louis, 854 
Bockelman, William A., 1197 
Boggs, Nolan, 1060 
Bolles, Ellen C, 1376 
Bolles, William W., 1375 
Bollman, Elizabeth M., 858 
Bollman, Jonas F., 857 
Bond Hotel, 697 
Bond, Oliver S., 1020 
Bond, Sherman, 696 
Bond, Walter C, 1020 
Bonner, Joseph C, 2256 
Boone, Daniel, 135; (portrait), 136 
Boos, G. F., 788 
Bope, Edward V., 1586 
Bordeaux, Russell, 1475 
Bornhorst, B., 767 
Borough, Jay W., 2054 
Borton, Catherine, 1352 
Borton, Edwin L., 1352 
Bouton, Emily S., 297, 2095 
Bowdle, Jesse A., 771 
Bower, Budge B., 21 12 
Bower, Grace H., 2113 
Bowerman, George, 1186 
Bowers, Willis W., 1605 
Bowersox, Adam C, 1083 
Bowersox, Charles A., 613, 2027 
Bowland, John, 1465 
Bowling Green, 635, 638; bar, 2154 
Bowling Green Commercial Club, 1920 
Bowling Green State Normal College, 2135 
Bowman, Shadraeh W., 1906 
Box, Fred W., 853 
Braddock's defeat, 13 


Bradner, 642 

Bradner, J. E., 1995 

Bradstreet expedition, 20 

Bradstreet, John, 20 

Brainard, Webster S., 990 

Braun, Carl F., 1428 

Braun, Walter M., 1429 

Brayer, Caroline E., 928 

Brayer, John M., 927 

Brayton, W. G., 2231 

Brecheisen, George, 1541 

Brecheisen, Jacob, 884 

Brecheisen, Eebeeca M., 884 

Breekenridge, Edward P., 2108 

Brenneman, Abner, 1654 

Bretz, Fred, 2052 

Brewer, Justin, 1589 

Brioe, Calvin S., 360, 1686 

Brice, Calvin S. (portrait), 287 

Brieeton, 541 

Brickell, John, 164 

Briggs, Egbert L., 1663 

Briggs, O. G., 2162 

Brigham, Charles G., 1111 

Brigham, Charles O., 1110 

Brigham, Joel S., 2018 

Brigham, Mavor, 1285 

Brinkman, Charles W., 1482 

British expedition captured, 27 

British Lion, 1 

Britton, Emma J. B., 732 

Brodbeck, L. C, 1489 

Bronson, Edward S., 2243 

Brotherton, Cloyd J., 1601 

Brown, Calvin S., 979 

Brown, Daniel C, 1258 

Brown, Edward, 1833 

Brown, Hattie P., 794 

Brown, J. Albert, 1527 

Brown, Jacob, 1777 

Brown, James K., 1562 

Brown, Jennie F., 981 

Brown, John, 1379 

Brown, Martin, 793 

Brown, Pauline B., 1563 

Brown, Una, 1452 

Brubaker, Arthur, 1277 

Brubaker, Charles V., 1196 

Brubaker, Christian W., 1525 

Brubaker, Wilham D., 1275 

Brule, Etienne, 4 

Brumback County Library of Van Wert 

County, Ohio, 608, 1154" 
Brumback, John S., 608, 1157, 1699 
Brumback, Orville S., 1253 
Bruns, William H., 2053 
Bryan, 619 
Bryan Company, 264 
Bryan Democrat, 618 
Bryan Press, 619 
Buekland, 384 
Buckland, Ralph B., 265 
Buekland, Ralph P., 271 
Buckley, Harry W., 1697 
Buckminster Tavern (view), 446 
Buckongahelas, 171 
Bueyrus, 389, 395; churches, 398; first 

school, 399; banks, 400; mayor of, 2166 
Bueyrus Evening Telegraph, 394 
Bueyrus Forum, 393 
Bueyrus Journal, 393 

Bueyrus News-Forum, 394 
Bueyrus Public Library, 2131 
Bueyrus Publishing Company, 2211 
Buff, Jacob, 1834 
Buffalo, 68, 133 
Building a home, 214 
Burdick, Leander, 739 
Bureau of Statistics, 670 
Burgett, Charles E., 1740 
Burggraf, Fred W., 1595 
Burggraf, Mathias, 1558 
Burk, Sara E., 1943 
Burkettsville, 520 
Burnham, Henry E., 1258 
Burnside, James E., 2048 
Burt, Harry, 1716 
Burtsfield, Samuel S., 1115 
Busch, Henry L., 2048 
Buseh, J. Fred, 1178 
Busch, William, 1550 
Bushkuhl, H., 1324 
Butler, Frank D., 1380 
Butterfield, Consul W., 300 
Byington, Lee W., 1458 
Bykowski, Peter A., 1293 

Cable, Davis J., 1602 

Cable, John L., 1603 

Cady, Edward H., 2235 

Cain, John M., 1838 

Caledonia, 507 

Camp Perry, 528 

Campbell, Claude A., 1117 

Campbell, Frank T., 2206 

Campbell, George R., 726 

Campbell, T. A., 1483 

Campbell, William A., 1720 

Campbell, William W., 1201 

Camp meetings, 223, 308 

Canal Boat (view), 250 

Canal tolls, 253 

Canal war, 377 

Canals, 249 

Candle moulds, 219 

Candlestick, 219 

Canfield, D. R., 2097 

Carey, 657; prominent physician of, 2127 

Carey, John T., 2250 

Carle, Roscoe, 1955 

Carland, John C, 1112 

Carlin, James J., 509 

Carlin, James K., 1844 

Carnegie Library of Napoleon, 1281 

Carpenter, Clement D., 1273 

Carr, Spencer D., 665 

Carr, William C, 1353 

Carter, Richard, 2164 

Cartmell, T. J., 787 

Cass, Lewis, 107, 195, 190, 253 

Casteel, Wesley O., 1814 

Casterline, Cyrus L., 1425 

Castor, Orville T., 2252 

Catawba Island, 524 

Catholic church, 309 

Cavanaugh, James, 1781 

Cedar Point, 526 

Celina, 516; first newspaper, 518; fraternal 

organizations, 518; library, 518 
Celina Public High School (view), 517 
Celeron's journey, 11 
Central Ohio Conference Seminary, 308 


Chamberlain, E. C, 1999 

Champlain, Samuel de, 2 

Chapman, William B., 1358 

Chapman, William C, 1357 

Charcoal burners, 253 

Charloe, 529, 532 

Chatfield, 403 

Cherry, Andrew J., 1322 

Chesbrough, Alonzo, 958 

Chesbrough, Abram M., 959 

Chevraux, Charles V., 2253 

Childs, Trueman W., 2256 

Chippewas, 11 

Christian missions, 201 

Christie, John W., 790 

Christy bread knife, 2091 

Christy, Euss J., 2091 

Chroninger, Asenath B., 1620 

Chroninger, Benjamin F., 1619 

Church builder. A, 1998 

Church edifice, first permanent in Ohio, 309 

Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Eailroad, 

Cincinnati Literary Club, 1335 
Citizens' Banking Company of Weston, 2183 
Citizens' Bank Company, Upper Sandusky, 

Citizens' Building and Loan Company of 

Marion, 2162 
Citizens' lee Company, The, 1383 
Citizens' Loan i& Building (Company of 

Lima, 829 
Citizens' Savings Bank, Pemberville, 2056 
Civic Music League, 1005 
Civil government established, 95 
Civil War, 261, 262 
Civil war veteran's experience, 830 
Clady, Jacob, 1849 
Clapp, Charles E., 1417 
Clapp family, origin of, 1419 
Clark, Charles H., 1676 
Clark, Peter J., 1511 
Clark, S. E., 1448 
Clark, Walter S., 1584 
Clark, William D., 938 
Clarke, Howard, 1319 
Claty, Victor, 1763 
Clay, Eli C, 843 
Clearing of the forest, 217 
Clemons, Chesterfield, 417 
Cleveland family, 979 
Clifford, Henry S., 1491 
Close, Charles F., 2236 
Close, Elmer H., 679 
Close Eealty Company, The E. H., 680 
Cloverdale, 557 
Clutter, Albert W., 815 
Clyde, 572 

Clyde Cars Company, 841 
Clyde Kraut Company, 1870 
Coates, Frank E., 982 
Cochrun Family, 1614 
Coehrun, Paul W., 1615 
Coen, Frank M., 2162 
Coffinberry, Andrew, 296 
Cohen, Alies S., 1095 
Cohen, Simon, 2059 
Cohn, Aaron B., 995 
Cohn, Sam, 995 
Cole, Abner B., 1001 
Cole, A. C, 1645 

Cole, Charles W., 985 

Cole, Glenn K., 794 

Cole, Heath K., 2025 

Cole, Lillian, 901 

Cole name, genealogy of, 1830 

Cole, Newton S., 1830 

Cole, E. Clint, 1428 

Cole, William E., 1360 

Collingwood, Francis J., 2004 

Collins, David A., 1787 

Collins, Michael E., 1794 

Collins, Samuel, 1722 

Colt, Burt H., 1689 

Colt, Lillian M. B., 1689 

Columbus Grove, 555 

Commager, David H., 1470 

Commager, Henry S., 1468 

Commercial Bank and Savings Company, 
Bowling Green, 2149, 2264 

Commercial Bank of Bowling Green, 2184 

Commercial Club, 1920 

Commercial National Bank of Tiffin, 2169 

Commercial National Bank, Upper Sandusky, 

Commercial State Bank of Napoleon, 1203 

Company K, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infan- 
try, First to Civil War from Marion 
County (view), 263 

Conant, Alonzo, 1496 

Conant, Lida E., 1498 

Conant, Myrtle A., 1498 

Conaway, Frank A., 787 

Confederate prisoners, release of in the 
Northwest, 278 

Congregational church, 305 

Conlen, Thomas, 1366 

Conlin, Henry A., 693 

Conliss, Edward B., 2055 

Conn, Daniel, 1176 

Connecticut Land Company, 521 

Connecticut Missionary Society, 207 

Conrad, John W., 1819 

Conrad, Lyman, 1656 

Conradi, E. G., 766 

Consolidated Pump Co., West Toledo, 2258 

Conspiracies of Nicholas and Pontiac, 10 

Continental, 557 

Convoy, 612 

Cook, Adam, 1175 

Cook, B. E., 1510 

Cook, Charles M., 1220 

Cook, E. W., 2159 

Cook, F. W., 2159 

Cook, J. D., 1217 

Cook, William A., 2136 

Cooke, Uriah A., 1321 

Coon, Sanford S., 1614 

Coonrod, John B., 1915 

Cooper, Edwin H., 1099 

Copeland, George D., 2103 

Copeland, W. T., 786 

Cordes, Henry, Jr., 2070 

Cordill, William E., 1057 

Cordrey, J. E., 817 

Corduroy roads, 437, 1710 

Core, Harry S., 1874 

Corey, Elias B., 1165 

Corlett, William, 1089 

Corn, 216 

Cornstalk, Peter, 170 

Cory, Charles H., 1613 


Cotner, Frank B., 756 

Couch, Adelbert E., 1822 

Council House of the Wyandots, 653 

Counter, Charles W., 2271 

Coureurs des bois, 4 

Court House, Toledo (view), 323 

Court, Samuel M., 2165 
Cowell, John R., 975 

Cox, Benjamin, 432 

Cox, Jacob D., 483 

Coy, Henry C, 1283 

Coy, James D., 1449' 

Crabb, George E., 1423 

Cradles, 218 

Craig, Alex, 468 

Craig, George L., 687 

Craig, John, 685 

Craig, John F., 687 

Crane, George B., 445, 1580 

Crates, William E., 730 

Craw, Ira L., 2217 

Crawford, Catharine L., 1536 

Crawford, Colonel, 386; burning of (view), 

Crawford county, 275, 385; enlistments in the 
Civil War, 264, 265; pioneers, 387; court- 
house, 390; lawyers, 391; first physician, 
392; press, 393; schools, 2122 

Crawford expedition, 29 

Crawford, James, 1536 

Crawford, Wayne, 1961 

Crawford, William, 29 

Crestline, 395, 402 

Crestline Advocate, 395 

Cridersville, 384 

Crist, Elwood O., 305 

Crites, Stephen D., 1653 

Crockett, Davy, 1651 

Crockett, Malcolm, 1650 

Croghan, George, 12, 143 

Croghansville, 565 

Crook, Alice, 2196 

Crook, Edward W., 2194 

Crowe, J. J. 1422 

Crowell, Frank, 1788 

Crozier, Stephen A., 906 

Crystal Cave, 1387 

Cubberley, Nellie (Cook), 1221 

Cuff, Frederick V., 1223 

Cuff, John F., 1223 

Cuff, John v., 1222 

Cuff, William A., 1223 

Culbert, Albert E., 1956 

Cummings, Harry W., 1441 

Cummings,- Eobert, 998 

Cummins, John, 1621 

Cunningham, Arthur A., 2098 

Cunningham, William, 360 

Curtis, C. Locke, 1918 

Custar, 643 

Cut glass, 2088 

Cygnet, 642 

Cygnet Savings Bank, 2060 

Baiber, Etha, 1027 
Daiher, John, 1026 
D 'Alton, John C, 1023 
Paly, Francis, 1860 
Daly, William S., 1859 
Daman, Theodore. 730 
Damman, Henry F., 1760 

Damschroder, Christopher H., 1472 
Damschroder, J. H., 1472 
"Daniel Boone of Northwest Ohio," 1239 
Daniel, Charles F., 2215 
Daniels, Henry, 2197 
Darby, M. Hart, 1801 
Daudt, Christopher, 1124 
Daum, Charles H., 2104 
Davies, Thomas, 1108 
Davies, William T., 1698 
Davis, Charles M., 2226 
Davis, Eugene L., 1144 
Davis, James H., 844 
Davis, Eobert K., 1648 
Davison, Hamilton, 359 
Davison, John, 1810 
Dawley, Byron W., 1068 
Day, Frank W., 1946 
Day, J. M., 1561 
Day, James H., 836 
Day, John J., 1499 
Dayton & Michigan Railroad, 544 
Deal, W. H., 1982 
Dean, George C, 2103 
Dean, James L., 1319 
Dean, William M., 1654 
Decko, WUliam M., 952 

Dedication of Ohio-Michigan boundary ter- 
minus, 238 
Deer, 68, 375, 417, 615 
Defiance, 13, 109, 406, 410 
Defiance Banner, 412 
Defiance College, 327, 1950 
Defiance College Buildings (view), 405 
Defiance Company, 264 

Defiance county, 239, 404; enlistments in the 
Civil War, 264, 265; pioneers, 405; forma- 
tion of county, 407; lawyers, 408; press, 
412; churches, 413 
Defiance Crescent-News, 412 
Defiance Democrat, 412 
Defiance Poultry and Pet Stock Association, 

Degnan, Peter H., 1279 
Degnan, Walter, 1279 
DeGraff, Henry, 1446 
Dehnbostel, William, 868 
Dehnke, Henry, 779 
Deisler, Louis, 1596 
Delph, Otis W., 1751 
Delphey, John P., 1120 
Delphos, 372; first newspaper, 611 
Delta, 420, 427 
Delta Avalanche, 423 
Democrat Printing Co., 735 
Democratic Expositor, Wauseon, 423 
Denman, Ulysses G., 483, 677 
DeEan, Dennis, 1928 
DeEan H. C, 1928 
Der Deutsche Demokrat, 470 
Derrick, Gibsonburg, 2112 
Desgranges Family, 1752 
Desgranges, John W., 1752 
Deshler, 473 
Detjen, Henry, 723 
Detmer, Charles L., 1851 
DeTray, Ervin M., 1191 
Detroit center for Indians, 25 
Detwiler, George K., 1105 
Detwiler, Isaac H., 1104 


DeVilbiss, Thomas A., 2251 

Diekena, Charles, 185 

Dickman, C. H., 768 

Diebley, William E., 1970 

Diehl, Harvey B., 867 

Diehl, Mary E., 867 

Diemer, Francis P., 1236 

Diemer, Joseph J., 1750 

Dietriek, Joseph, 1795 

Dietrick, Mathias F., 942 

Dietriek, Mathias J., 1837 

Dietrick, William N., 1838 

Dildine, Daniel, Jr., 2226 

Dillery, William H., 2087 

Dilsaver, Amos, 1773 

Dime Savings Bank Company of Toledo, 1380 

Dime Savings Bank of Toledo, 1090 

Dirk, John V., 2189 

Dirlam, Ashley H., 2132 

Dirr, Charles, 2084 

Dirr, Jacob, 1898 

Dirr, Peter, 1899 

Dittenhaver, Guy C, 2175 

Dix, Stephen S., 1713 

Dixon, 612 

Dodge, Elliot J., 1506 

Dodge, Lewis C, 1557 

Dola, 460 

Dolph, George P., 1268 

Donaldsons, The, 802 

Donart, O. W., 1964 

Donnell, Otto D., 1411 

Donnelly, Patrick H., 842 

Donhenwirth, George, 2251 

Donovan, Dennis D., 689 

Donovan, James, 1225 

Donovan, John, 1823 

Donzy, Henry S., 2029 

Donzy, Sarah E., 2030 

Dorcas Carev Public Library, The, 1897 

Dore, Frank T., 2021 

Dorney, E. J., 2069 

Dorsey, Homer O., 2102 

Dotson, Francis M., 1063 

Doty Brothers, 1956 

Doty, Harry C, 1956 

Doty, Harve, 1956 

Douty, John H., 1241 

Downing, S. W., 1501 

Doyle, John H., 483, 1853 

Drawing knife, 219 

Drewes, George H., 1521 

Drewes, Henry, 932 

Dromgold, Stewart T., 1467 

Duohouquet, Francis, 381 

Duck, John, 1100 

Duck, William B., 1101 

Duding, Ferdinand A., 1784 

Dudley massacre, 125 

Duff, Alfred L., 1460 

Duff, John B., 2074 

Duffey, Warren J., 694 

Duggan, Charles B., 1376 

Duhme, William, 1532 

Dull, H. Taylor, 1779 

Dunbar, Paul L., poems of, 1531 

Dunipace, William, 2190 

Dunkirk, 460 

Dunkirk Standard, 460 

Dunlap, Thomas R., 1568 

Dunn, Charles F., 1478 

Dunn, Elijah T., 1589 
DuPont, William J., 2228 
Durbin Bank, McClure, 1820 
Durbin, Clark T., 1821 
Durbin, Dickinson L., 1820 
Durfee, Edward, 2230 
Durham, John W., 1396 
Dutch oven, 220 
Duttweiler, Frederick W., 1113 
Dwiggins, Charles B., 1587 

Early forts, 9 

Early Ohio, 1661 

Early sehoolhouses, 222 

Easley, Jacob N., 2123 

East, William S., 2172 

Eastman, Ephraira R., 1889: military career, 

Edgar, David H., 1576 
Edgerton, 623 
Edon, 623 

Educational institutions, 321 
Edwards, Samuel E., 1239 
Edwards, Thomas J., 1239 
Eggleston, Albert J., 729 
Eickhoff, Henry, 849 

Eighth Regiment, Volunteer Infantry, 278 
Eighty-second Regiment, 265 
Eisaman, Henry M., 1997 
Eisaman, William C, 1836 
Eiting, J. W., 751 
Elarton, John W., 870 
Elder, J. S., 2049 
Elgin, 612 

Ellis, William E., 1617 
Elmore, 528 
Ellithorpe, James, 1579 
Ellsworth, William W., 1806 
Emery-Butler Sanitarium, 1076 
Emery, C. Sumner, 1076 
Emrick, E. J., 788 
Engel, Chris P., 1504 
English traders, 6 
Enlistments in the Civil War, 264 
Ensminger, Andrew A., 2171 
Episcopal church, 305 
Eppstein, Joseph O., 969 
Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad, 255 
Evans, E. W., 1617 
Evans' map (1755), 6 
Evansport, 415 
Everett, Clayton W., 1353 
Ewald, Josejjh N., 1971 
Ewing, Jay D., 1867 
Ewing, J. Lee, 2183 
Ewing, Phillip W., 2266 
Express service, originated at Albany, 2233 

Falardeau, Victor M., 1019 

Falk, Max H., 822 

Fangboner, John, 2083 

Farmers and Citizens Bank, Payne, 2134 

Farmers Bank of Spencerville, 732 

Farmers National Bank, Bryan, 2028 

Farnsworth, Watson W., 1311 

Fassett, Elias, 999 

Fassett, Hamilton H., 1988 

Fassett, Margaret L., 1988 

Faulkner, Carlos W., 805 

Faweett, Clinton W., 2130 

Fawley, David A., 1742 


Fayette, 428 

Fayette Review, 423 

Fayram, Henry, 1911 

Feehan, James P., 1743 

Feighner, L. C, 2138 

Feltz, George, 832 

Feltz, L. A., 832 

Fenwiek, Bishop Edward, 313 

Ferris, Governor, 238 

Fifteenth. Ohio Infantry, 263 

Fifty-seventh Regiment, 265 

Finch, Carl D., 1938 

Finch Engineering Company, 1958 

Findlay, 107, 441; first frame house, 441; 

churches, 441; fraternal organizations, 

Findlay Business Training School, 1649 
Findlay College, 325 
Findlay Jeffersonian, 440 
Findlay Natural Gas Company, 443 
Findlay Public Library, 2008 
Findlay Weekly Republican, 441 
Finley, James B., 223 
Finley, James B. (portrait), 178 
Finley, James B., Preaching to the Wyau- 

dots (view), 180 
Fire-bugs, 624 
Firmin, John M., 1585 
First Catholic Bishop of Toledo, 1854 
First craft on Maumee River, 244 
First large standpipe in the world, 1218 
First Methodist service, 306 
First National Bank of Ada, 1569 
First National Bank of Defiance, 2245 
First National Bank of Dunkirk, 816 
First National Bank of Elmore, 1475 
First National Bank of Fremont, 1344 
First National Bank of Oak Harbor, 1584 
First National Bank of North Baltimore, 

First National Bank of Toledo, 667, 681 
First National Bank of Upper Sandusky, 

First National Bank of Weston, 2184, 2203 
First permanent church edifice, 309 
First piano brought to Lower Sandusky, 

First Railroad in Northwest Ohio (view), 

First religious services, 303 
First symphony orchestra in Toledo, 1087 
Fiser, Alice E., 1587 
Fishell, William J., 1638 
Fisher, Charles E., 1737 
Fisher, Charles W., 1629 
Fisher, E. W., 1983 
Fisher. Emmet E., 1685 
Fisher, John, 1539 
Fisher, Magdalena, 1630 
Fisher, W. C, 1729 
Fitch, Hudson, 1133 
Flail, 219 
Flatboats, 374 
Flax hatchel, 219 
Fleming, Clarence L., 1556 
Flood of 1913, 571, 594 
Florida, 474 

Flower Deaconess Home and Hospital, 307 
Flower Home for Girls, 308 
Flower, Stevens W., 1392 
Fogg, Thomas B., 716 

Folger, Jacob, 2254 

FoUett, Albert, 1643 

Follett, Emma J., 1643 

Foltz, George W., 1979 

Foneanon, Hiram H., 901 

Ford, George H., 1974 

Forest, 459 

Forest, clearing of, 217 

Fort Amanda, 356, 373 

Fort Ball, 110, 590 

Fori Barbee, 109 

Fort Defiance, 76, 110, 404, 410, 2245 

Fort Defiance as Restored (view), 77 

Fort Findlay, 432 

Fort Findlay, 1812 (view), 107 

Fort Findlay, Site of (view), 431 

Fort Industry, 100, 335 

Fort MeArthur, 106, 445 

Fort MeArthur Burying Ground (view), 106 

Fort Meigs, 475; siege of, 116, 117 

Fort Meigs (view), 117 

Fort Meigs Monument (view), 637 

Fort Miami, 3, 8, 73, 87, 94, 111, 114, 195, 

Fort Miami (view), 88 
Fort Necessity, 107 
Fort Recover}', 65, 509, 519 
Fort Recovery Bank, 784 
Fort Recovery Monument (view), 510 
Fort Recovery, Old Flagstaff from (view), 

Fort Sandoski, 10 
Fort Sandoski, Monument Marking Site 

(view), 133 
Fort Seneca, 138, 150, 578 
Port Stephenson, Attack on (view), 141 
Fort Stephenson, defense of, 132 
Fort St. Marys, 374 
Fort Winchester, 111, 404 
Forty-ninth Regiment, 265 
Foster, Charles, 2079 
Foster, Charles (portrait), 290 
Foster, Charles W., 596 
Foster, Marion G., 1590 
Foster, Michael L., 1638 
Fostnaught Family, The, 1708 
Fostnaught, James, 1708 
Fostnaught, Perry, 1709 
Fostnaught, Peter, 1710 
Fostnaught, Timothy, 1710 
Fostnaught, William, 1710 
Fostoria, 595 
Fostoria Academy, 597 
Fostoria Daily Review, 587, 1926 
Fostoria Democrat, 587 
Fourot, Benjamin C, 369 
Fourteenth Ohio Regiment, 264 
Fourteenth Regiment, Volunteer Infantry, 

Fowler, John W., 1351 
Fox, Everett E., 1455 
Fox, Frank W., 1371 
Fox, George F., 936 
Fox, Harry S., 1029 
Fox, H. C, 825 
Fox, Joseph F., 1044 
Fox, Nicholas, 1502 
Fox, Simon, 1370 
Fox, Stewart A., 1371 
Fox, Walter M., 1226 
Foxes, 68 


Francis, Owen, 828 

Franz, Elizabeth, 1843 

Franz, John, 945 

Franz, William, 1842 

Frazier, David J., 1780 

Frazier, F. M., 2216 

Frease, Charles C, 1250 

Frease, John H., 1189 

Frease, Lillian M., 1233 

Frease, Winfield S., 1233 

Frederick, Frank H., 2219 

Frederick, William H., 2025 

Freedom Valley Stock Farm, 783 

Freight rates, early, 257 

Fremont, 20, 135, 140, 192, 241, 245, 568; 
first schoolhouse in, 568; churches, 569; 
banks, 570 

Fremont & Indiana Railroad, 259 

Fremont Courier, 568 

Fremont Daily Messenger, 568, 2090 

Fremont in 1846 (view), 569 

Fremont Journal, 567 

Fremont News, 568 

French, Leonard E., 1382 

French take possession, 4 

Frese, Louis, 1475, 1592 

Frey, William J., 1402 

Frick, Daniel, 1904 

Friek, Esther, 1904 

Friedman, Charles K., 1131 

Fries, Edward M., 1936 

Fronce, Samuel J., 955 

Frysinger, Augustus, 748 

Frysinger, Cale, 748 

Fulks, Charles L., 816 

Fuller, John W., 265, 268, 1073 

Fuller, Marcellus B., 1675 

Fuller, Eathbun, 1075 

Fulton county, 416; enlistments in the Civil 
War, 264, 265; pioneers, 417; first court- 
house, 419; lawyers, 420; physicians, 421; 
newspapers, 422; tornadoes, 423; pioneer 
experiences, 1891 
Fulton County Tribune, 423 
Fulton, George B., 2148 
Fulton Line, 229 

Gackel, William J., 1481 

Gallon, 388, 394, 400; pioneers, 401; first 

schoolhouse, 402 
Galion Inquirer, 395 
Galion Leader, 395 
Gallier, John F., 1919 
Galvin, LeRoy S., 1721 
Gamble, Burton O., 1138 
Gamble Motor Car Company, 1139 
Gardner, Nathan, 1011 
Gardner, Robert S., 1012 
Gas, 366, 380, 442, 538, 567 
Gascoyne, George E., 726 
Gates, Joseph 8., 298 
Gates, Norford S., 1987 
Gathmann, Harmon C, 1187 
Gathmann, Mary, 1188 
Gautsehi, Frederick H., 1527 
Gaynor, Paul T., 1614 
Gearhart, Christian, 1180 
Geiger, Jacob, 2222 
Gemelch, Louis, 1578 
Genoa, 528 
Geology, 239 

Gerfen, E., 2100 

Gericke, Louisa, 879 

Gerieke, William, 879 

Gerken, Fred, 1802 

Gerken, Herman, 872 

Gerken, Herman, 1566 

Giauque, Florien, 2062 

Gibbs, Thomas, 1265 

Gibsonburg, 572 

Gibson, General, 265 

Gibson Monument, Tiffin (view), 271 

Gibson, William H., 270 

Gilboa, 556 

Gill, Ezra G., 2057 

Gill, Wmiam J., 1303 

Gillespie, Ralph S., 1912 

Gillette, Joseph, 1884 

Gillette, William J., 664 

Gilliland, Thaddeus S., 601 

Gillis, Simeon, 2144 

Gilson, Boston, 1564 

Gilson, Elmer D., 1164 

Girty, George, 43 

Girty's Island at Napoleon (view), 44 

Girty, James, 43, 382 

Girty, Simon, 43 

Gist, Christopher, 11 

Glaciers, 239; determining flow of water, 240 

Glandorf, 557 

Glass Block Company, 1729 

Glass, John, 468 

Glass manufacture, 2089 

Gleason, Lofnis E., 740 

Glessner Company, The, 865 

Glessner, Leonard C, 865 

Glosser, Frank D., 2187 

Gluss, Fred, 1793 

Gohlke, August F. W., 1695 

"Golden Rule" Jones, 2237 

Golden Rule police judge, 1038 

Good, Gerald L., 2205 

Good, William H., 1960 

Gordon, Charles E., 1691 

Gordon Lumber & Basket Manufacturing Co., 

The, 1695 
Gorsuch, George A., 1951 
Gosling, John A., 2126 
Gottlieb, D. S., 2030 
Graham, Charles A., 2066 
Gramling, Adam, 1636 
Gramling, Alice, 1637 
Gramling, Hezekiah, 847 
Granim, Benjamin A., 1609 
Grand Rapids, 640 
Grantham, Barfield B., 1127 
Graves, Charles H., 483, 678 
Graves, Henry F., 2133 
Gray, Clarence, 1944 
Gray, Harry S., 926 
Gray, Peter W., 1419 
Gray, William M., 1944 
Greater Toledo, inaugurated, 1107 
Green, Charles W., 2074 
Green county, original settler, 743 
Green, William, 387 
Greenaway, Thomas J., 1429 
Greene, John W., 1046 
Greene, The J. W. Company, 1046 
Greenspring, 573 
Greenville Treaty, first signatures to, 92 


Gribbell, Fred, 1824 

Grimm, Eugene, 768 

Groenewold, Bernard, 1438 

GroU Brothers, 898 

GroU, Charles T., 898 

GroU, David J., 898 

GroU, John J., 944 

GrosswiUer, Joseph ¥., 1280 

Grosswiller, Joseph F. Company, 1280 

Grove HiU, 541 

Groves, James A., 1456 

Grummel, PhiUip, 1923 

Grzezinski, Stanley A., 2086 

Guardian Trust & Savings Bank of Toledo, 

Guenther, Charles R., 1279 
Guise, John M., 1622 
Guitteau, William B., 1444 
Gunn, Fred A., 1484 
Gunn, Forrest L., 1437 
Gunn, Lyman S., 1512 
Gunnell, George, 1426 
Gurley, Leonard B., 296 
Guthery, F. E. 2118 
Gutmann, John N., 764 

Haag, Daniel E., 920 

Hafner, John W., 1965 

Hahn, Antone, 1245 

Hahn, George P., 1245 

Hahn, Herman J., 774 

Hale, E. B., 743 

Hall, Harry J., 1929 

Hall, Hiram E., 2179 

Halleek, Frank D., 1886 

HaUowell, Linford, 2050 

Halsema, John C, 763 

Hamilton, Allen Beecher, 701 

Hamilton county, 1792 (map), 96 

Hamilton, James K., 700 

Hamilton, Thomas E., 1668 

Hamilton, "William M., 1112 

Hammer, Abraham J., 1369 

Hammer, Irving H., 1369 

Hancock county, 430; enlistments in the 
Civil war, 264, 265; pioneers, 432; first 
schoolhouse, 435; lawyers, 439; physicians, 
439; courthouse, 440; newspapers, 440 

Hancock county bar, 2102 

Hanifan, Mathew W., 1986 

Hanna, James W., 1261 

Hanson, Clifford T., 1162 

Hard Hickory, 170 

Hardin county, 445; enlistments in the Civil 
war, 264, 265; pioneers, 446; lawyers, 450; 
physicians, 450; newspapers, 451; banks, 
452; courthouse, 453 

Hardin County Democrat, 452 

Hardin County Pioneer Association, 454 

Hardin County Kepublican, 451 

Harding, Warren G., 2266 

Harding, Warren G. (portrait), 289 

Hardy Banking Co., North Baltimore, 2054 

Hare, Cyrus D., 644, 1881 

Harman, William H., 1798 

Harmar, Josiah, 57; expedition, 57 

Harmon, Simon, 1454 

Harmon, William M., 917 

Harper, George E., 1694 

Harpster, 660 

Harrington, N. E., 1954 

Harris Line, 229 

Harris, Robert L., 1434 

Harris, WiUiam H., 972 

Harrison, Arthur M., 2245 

Harrison Boulder, 239 

Harrison, Eugene B., 1204 

Harrison, Mary, 1205 

Harrison-Perry Embarkation Monument, 
Tablet on, 135 

Harrison, William H., 85, 95, 138 

Harrison, WUliam H. (portrait), 108 

Harrod, Miner, 745 

Harroun, Charles F., 1287 

Harroun, Minerva A., 1287 

Harsch, Paul A., 1048 

Hartman, George W., 2079 

Hartman, H. A., 2200 

Hartman, John V., 1422 

Hartman, Levi, 1211 

Hartman, Walter, 2046 

Harvesting, 218 

Hashbarger, Samuel R., 1195 

Hatcher, Charles E., 1515 

Hatcher, Martha, 2199 

Hatcher, William P., 933 

Hatcher, WiUiam H., 2198 

Hattery, J. E., 819 

Haughton, Fred, 1346 

Hauman, George B., 2155 

Haverbeck, John T., 1746 

Haviland, 541 

Hawk, Abel J., 889 

Hawkins, Henry V., 153 

Hay, Frederick L., 1960 

Hav, V. H., 1681 

Hayes, Belle, 1149 

Hayes Library Americana, 1340 

Hayes, Lucy "W., 576 

Hayes Mansion, 573 

Hayes Memorial Library Building, 577 

Hayes, Rutherford B., 265, 280, 573, 1335 

Hayes, Thomas B., 1148 

Hayes, Webb C, 573, 576, 1340 

Havward, C. D., 1621 

Heap, J. E., 1206 

Heckler, Daniel A., 1182 

Heckler, Philip, 1750 

Hehmeyer, Fred, 826 

Heidelberg University, 321 

Heinemann, Gustav, 1507 

Heitman, WiUiam, 1513 

Helfrich, Stephen, 1318 

Heller, Samuel M., 710 

Heller Memorial Hospital (Samuel M.), 711 

Heminger, Mark T., 2038 

Henderson, Lillian, 755 

Henderson, Eobert D., 2223 

Henkel Company, The, 876 

Henry County, 230, 461; enlistments in the 
Civil war, 264, 265; lawyers, 466; physi- 
cians, 467 ; pioneers, 462, 780, 839, 847, 940, 
1240, 1619, 1660, 1731, 1878, 2085; first 
automobile, 2085 

Henry County Agricultural Fair, 467 

Henry County Bank, 795 

Henry County Grange Fair, 467 

Henry County Old Court House (view), 465 

Henry County Signal, 470 

Henry, Daniel C, 1878 

Henzler, Charles J., 1304 

Henzler, Garfield F., 1305 


Herbster, Herman A., 1386 

HerkenhofE, Charles F., 785 

.Herr, Albert H., 1463 

Herr, Henry, 1768 

Herriff, Briee B., 1881 

Herzing, Albert, 1733 

Hettel, Edward A., 1616 

Hettel, Mary B., 1616 

Hibbard, Burt, 1646 

Hickory, Hard, 170 

Hicksville, 414, 2194 

Hiett, Emery R., 986 

Hiett, Irving B., 1062 

Hiett, Company, The Irving B., 1154 

Hiett, John W., 1061 

Hiett, Oliver N., 1153 

Higby, David W., 800 

Higgins, David, 466 

Hildebrand, Samuel, 1411 

Hill, Avery S., 1375 

Hill, Charles W., 265, 269, 1367 

Hill, Herman A., 988 

Hine, Theodore B., 1252 

Hinton, Ora L., 1513 

Hirshberg, Herbert S., 1128 

Hirschberger, John F., 1635 

Historic Sites in Northwest Ohio (map), 3 

Hoadly, Jared, 418 

Hoag, Mary E. S., 1316 

Hoag, Walter W., 1317 

Hoch, Charles, 1633 

Hoch, Jacob C, 1617 

Hocking Valley & Toledo EaUway, 259 

Hockman, Peter, 1747 

Hoerath, O. W., 761 

Hoffman, Andrew, 947 

Hoffman, Charles P., 845 

Hoffman, Jacob J., 1748 

Hoffman, Mathias, 1637 

Hoge, Herman H., 764 

Hogrefe, Dietrich, 870 

Hogue, F. K., 1969 

HoUes, Alonzo, 1071 

Holbrook, George W., 375 

Holbrook, Ralph S., 1078 

Holeomb, Horace, 1403 

Holding, Anna L., 1157 

Holdridge, Hiram A., 1606 

Holgate, 474 

Holl, George W., 749 

Holland, 491 

Hollenbeck, Daniel K., 626, 1940 

Hoist, William O., 1373 

Home Banking Company, Gibsonburg, 2103 

Home Building, Savings & Loan Co., Marion, 

Hoops, J. August, 1817 

Hoops, J. Henry L., 1895 

Hopkins, F. M., 1926 

Hopley, John E., 301, 385, 1910 

Hopper, Wmiam R., 2125 

Horn, George J., 1631 

Hornung, Jacob, 1660 

Hornung, Julia W., 1662 

"Horton Hall," 1161 

Hosford, Asa, 388 

Hosford, William, 401 

Hosier, A. D., 1886 

Hosier, William F., 1395 

Hotel Boody, 696 

Houck, W. E., 758 

Hough, WilUam L., 1993 

"House-raising," 215 

Household utensils. Old Time, (view), 219 

Houser, Bruce, 1991 

Hover, Bryant G., 801 

Hover, William E., 1603 

Howard, E. B., 1506 

Howe, Clark D., 1381 

Hoyer, A. J., 2054 

Hoyng, Joseph F., 841 

Hoytville, 642 

Hubach, William G., 2137 

Hubbs, W. P., 1443 

Huber, Edward, 506, 2260 

Huber Manufacturing Company, 2260 

Huber, Thomas P., 978 

Huddle, John, 1141 

Hudson, Harry P., 1967 

Hudson, Shadraeh, 529 

Huenke, Louis, 951 

Hughes, Hugh, 2024 

Hughes, Roland A., 2060 

Hull, Edward E., 2003 

Hull, Levi, last settler killed by Indians, 188 

Hull, William, 104 

Hull's surrender, 108 

Hull 's Trail, 105 

Hultgen, Francis L., 578, 2073 

Hulse, Jonas J., 2268 

Huner, Carl D., 781 

Huner, Fred, 922 

Huner, Henry, 887 

Hunter, Charles L., 1732 

Huntley, J. H., 1500 

Huntington, James E., 1917 

Hunting trophies, 1783 

Huntsman, Wellington T., 1812 

Hurons, 11 

Husking bees, 221 

Huss, Nicholas, 1845 

Hutchins, Thomas, map in 1776, 6 

Hutton, Laura J., 2009 

Hutton, William J., 2009 

Ice, Jacob, 375 

Illinois Country, 27 

Illustrations, Maumee River, 8; Pontiac, 14; 
Monument on Olentangy Battle Field, 
Crawford County, 36; Burning of Col. 
Crawford by Indians in 1782 in Wyandot 
county, 40; Girty's Island at Napoleon, 44; 
Anthony Wayne, 70; Old Flagstaff from 
Fort Recovery, Mercer County, 73; Fort 
Defiance as Restored, 77; Death of Captain 
Wells, 80; Little Turtle, 84; Historic Tur- 
key Foot Rock along Maumee River, 86; 
Rear of Fort Miami, 88; Edward Tiffin, 
98; Fort Mc Arthur Burying Ground, 106; 
Fort Findlay, 1812, 107; William H. Harri- 
son, 108; Fort Meigs, 117; Indian Elm at 
Maumee, 121; Monument Marking Site of 
Fort Sandoski, 133; Daniel Boone, 136; 
Tecumseh, 137; Attack on Fort Stephen- 
son, 141; "Old Betsey," 144; Perry's Vic- 
tory at Put-in-Bay, 148; Perry's Victory 
Monument, 151; Indians in Canoes, 153; 
Old Shawnee Council House near Lima, 
154; Execution of Seneca John, 157; In- 
dian Portage, 165; James B. Finley, 178; 
James B. Finley IJreaching to the Wyan- 


dots, ISO; Old Mission Church at Upper 
Sandusky Before Restoration, 182; Old 
Mission House near Waterville, 209; Relie 
of the Pioneer Days, 214; Pioneer Fireplace, 
216; Old-time Household Utensils, 219; 
Governor Willis and Governor Ferris at 
Dedication of New Ohio-Michigan Bound- 
ary Terminus, 238; Old Canal Boat, 250; 
A Picturesque Old Lock on the Miami and 
Erie Canal, 251; Stage Coach, 255; First 
Railroad in Northwest Ohio, 258; Com- 
pany K, Fourth Volunteer Infantry, 263; 
William Harvey Gibson Monument, 271; 
United States Prison Quarters on John- 
son's Island, 274; Rutherford B. Hayes, 
281; Morrison R. Waite, 285; Calvin S. 
Brice, 287; Warren G. Harding, 289; 
Charles Fostor, 290; Court House at To- 
ledo, 333; Toledo in 1852, 334; Oldest 
Church Building in Toledo, 347; Last 
Council House of Shawnee Indians in 
Allen County, 357; Allen County's First 
Court House, Lima, 359, 367; Oil Tank 
Fire near Lima, 366; Court House, Wapa- 
koneta, 377; Scioto Trail at Bucyrus, 396; 
Defiance College Buildings, 405; Site of 
Fort Findlay, 431; Buckminster Tavern, 
446; Wheeler Tavern, 448, 449; Corn Field, 
Henry County, 462; Henry County Old 
Court House, 465; A Quiet Reach of the 
Maumee, 477; Lucas County Court House 
at Maumee, 478; Fort Miami, 489; New 
High School, Marion, 502; Fort Recovery 
Monument, 510; West Side Public and 
Celina Public High School, 517; Along 
the Picturesque Shore of Lake Erie, 523; 
Put-in-Bay from Perry Monument, 526; 
Lighthouse at Marblehead, 527; Paulding 
County Court House, 533; High School 
Building, Ottawa, 552; Putnam County 
Court House, Ottawa, 553; Water Works 
and Park, Ottawa, 554; Fremont in 1846, 
569; Postoffiee, Tiffin, 591; Y. W. C. A., 
Van Wert, 610; Williams County Court 
House, Bryan, 617; Scenic Road in North- 
west Ohio, 630; Fort Meigs Monument, 
637; Old Indian Jail at Upper Sandusky, 
648; Mill Stone from Old Indian Mill, 
Upper Sandusky, 659 
Independent Voters Movement of Toledo, 

Indian cemeteries, 382 
Indian Elm at Maumee (view), 121 
Indian Jail at Upper Sandusky (view), 648 
Indian Portage (view), 165 
Indians in Canoes (view), 153 
Indians disappearance of, 19; sympathies 
with the British, 25; inactive during first 
years of Revolutionary War, 25; number 
of, 153; characteristics, 158; doctors, 162; 
chiefs, 167; honor, 172; passing of, 187; 
thirst for intoxicating liquor, 189 
Iron furnaces, 253 
Iroquois Indians, 5, 153 
Irving, Elizabeth M., 1592 
Irving, John D., 1591 
Irwin, Samuel L., 1971 
Irwin, William E., 1860 

Jackson, A. H., 1947 
Jackson, Emmett J., 820 

Jackson, Lewis P., 1701 

Jackson, Willis, 1414 

Jacobs, Thomas K., 369, 1723 

Jacoby, J. Wilbur, 493, 2031 

Jahn, George H., 1145 

James, Benjamin F., 2033 

James, William B., 1928 

Jennings, Alfred B., 858 

Jennings, Frank A., 1677 

Jermain, Frances D., 2000 

Jermain, Sylvanus P., 2001 

Jesuits, 417, 201, 310 

Johannsen, S. M., 1551 

"Johnny Appleseed, " 600 

Johnson, Alexander, 1595 

Johnson, A. P., 2115 

Johnson, Charles H., 2173 

Johnson, George, 795 

Johnson, John, 195 

Johnson, John W., 905 

Johnson's Island, 273 

Johnson's Island, Prison Quarters (view), 

Johnston, Henry J., 2010 
Johnston, Peter E., 851 
Joliet, Louis, 2 
Jones, Alvin C, 1109 
Jones, Annie E., 1478 
Jones, Arthur L., 1719 
Jones, Helen B., 1169 
Jones, John C, 1272 
Jones, Samuel M., 344, 1166 
Jones, Susan F., 1503 
Jones, Thomas H., 1503 
Jones, William, 1476 
Jones, William, 2214 
Jones, William T., 2107 
Justice, James, 813 

Kaeek, C. H., 799 

Kalbfleisch, G. C, 1984 

Kalida, 557 

Kaminski, Sigmund G., 1161 

Kander, Harry, 2157 

Kanel, Sutton P., 2078 

Kargwell, 443 

Keeler, Coleman, 1856 

Keeler, Lucy E., 297 

Kehler, Mayme, 2116 

Keilholtz, Kenton D., 1286 

Keimer, Edward, 1579 

Keller, Amos, 2077 

Keller, Carl H., 674 

Keller, H. A., 2134 

Keller, Isaac N., 1857 

Kellerman, Carl F., 1607 

Kellermeyer, Leo G., 1480 

Kelley's Island, 239, 274 

Kelly, J. E., 1929 

Kelly, Marion C, 1632 

Kemerley, Albert H., 2228 

Kemp, R. F., 1981 

Kennedy, Otho W., 2161 

Kennedy, Raymond R., 1674 

Kennedy, Richard V., 1398 

Kennison, Charles C, 1093 

Kennison, Franklin P., 1092 

Kenton, 106, 454; banks, 452, 454; churches, 

456; fraternal organizations, 458 
Kenton Democrat, 452 
Kenton Public Library, 1581 

Kenton Savings Bank, 1594 

Kenton, Simon, 25, 48, 135, 445 

Kephart, Orman P., 1670 

Kerns, Otis W., 1707 

Kerr, Eobert, 898 

Ketcham, Valentine H., Jr., 1863 

Ketcliam, Valentine H., Sr., 1861 

Kewley, Thomas, 1300 

Key, John A., 2262 

Kidd, W. D., 1968 

Kiefer, "William I., 733 

Kilbourne, James, 395 

Kildow, William H., 2016 

Killits, John M., 663 

Kilmer, Frederick A., 1696 

Kilmer, Henry A., 1695 

Kilmer, Otto H., 1696 

Kimball, W. S., 2036 

Kimmel, Jacob A., 430, 1906 

Kimmell, Job G., 1644 

Kinder, George D., 542, 2037 

King, C. A., 344 

King, Prank I., 1255 

King, Harry E., 881 

King of Tanners, 1431 

Kirby, 660 

Kirby, Edward G., 712 

Kirby, Moses H., 390 

Kirchenbauer, O. W., 1658 

Kirk, Albert, 1030 

Kirk, Ezra E., 717 

Kishler, O. J., 2234 

Kissell, Carson L., 727 

Klatte, John H., 1611 

Klein, Fred, 1639 

Kleinhans, Nelson W., 1461 

Kleis, C. August, 1349 

Kline, George, 780 

Klotz, John C, 1002 

Klotz, Solon T., 1003 

Klug, Chris H., 1537 

Knaggs, Antoinette, 1272 

Knaggs, George, 1270 

Kriapp, Elizabeth, 1550 

Knapp, H. S., 297 

Knapp, James A., 2241 

Knapp, Orio M., 1945 

Knapp, William, 1549 

Kneip, George P., 1865 

Knipp, Milton J., 1542 

Knisely, Isaac E., 985 

Knisely, Jacob, 165 

Knox, "Thomas, 1680 

Kobe, C. & Son, 2032 

Kobe, Karl P., 2032 

Koenig, John H., 1494 

Koenig, J. T., 720 

Kolb, Thomas M., 939 

Korean Government, ambassador to, 1355 

Kortheuer, Arthur W., 1085 

Kraemer, Dewilton A., 818 

Kramer & Dickman Creamery Company of 

Minster, 768 
Kranz, Peter J., 1209 
Krebs, J. C. L., 840 
Kreft, Prank G., 1290 
Kridler, James C., 718 
Krohn, Charles B., 921 
Krohn, Frank, 912 
Krohn, Rosa, 913 
Kruse, Henry J., 1451 
Kryder, George, 1744 

Kuhlman, Adam R., 1049 
Kuhlman, Garhart C, 1048 
Kuhlman, Herman H., 1608 
Kumler, John F., 1017 
Kumler, Langdon W., 965 

Ladd, Jonathan E., 1902 

Ladd, Walter H., 1491 

Lafayette, 371 

Lafayette Banking Company, 756 

Laird, Delia S., 2106 

Laird, William H., 2106 

Lake Erie, Along the Picturesque Shore of 

(view), 523 
Lake Erie & Western Railway, 260 
Lakeside, 308 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, 

Lalendorff, Henry, 1449 
Lamborn, L. L., 2182 
Lamson, John D. R., 2211 
Lane, Ebenezer, 408 
Lang, William, 594 
Lange, Fred, Jr., 1259 
Lange, Henry, 1516 
Langenhop, Ferdinand, 782 
Langlotz, C. A., 1663 
Lankenau, F. J., 1245 
Lantern, 219 
Lard lamp, 219 
La Rue, 508 
La Salle, Chevalier de, 2 
Lashuay, Abram M., 1980 
Lathrop, Jerome B., 1261 
Latty, 541 

Laughlin, J. H., 1991 
Laut, Hermann, 1556 
Lawton, Henry W., 279 
Leahy, Maurice, 2107 
LeaSure, George N., 2053 
Lecklider, Ira H., 1122 
Lee, Alfred M., 777 
Lee, John C, 483 
Lee, Rodney, 674 
Leggett, Nathaniel, 425 
Legowski, F. S., 2094 
Lehmann, .John J., 1953 
Lehr, Henry S., 805, 1808 
Leipsic, 555 
Leist, Elias J., 880 
Leist, Susanna, 880 
Lemart, 403 

Lenardson, John F., 1281 
Lenardson, Lovina B., 1281 
Leonhart, Jennie, 840 
Leppelman, John C. A., 2258 
Levy, Gus, 1440 
Lewis, Charles T., 1104 
Lewis Electric Welding & Manufacturing 

Company, 1885 
Lewis, Frank S., 1291 
Lewis, George H., 1288 
Lewis, G. L., 1885 
Lewis, Howard, 1363 
Lewis, John W., Jr., 2206 
Lewis, William, 114 
Libbey, Edward D., 2088 
Libbey Glass Company, 2088 
Liberty Center, 473 
Lieser, W. A., 819 
Light, Melvin C, 1668 


Lighthouse at Marblehead (view), 527 
Lighthouses, 249 
Lilies of France, 1 

Lima, 357; churches, 361; banks, 364; press, 
364; fraternal societies, 365; first hotel, 
368; first schoolmaster, 369; free schools, 
Lima Academy, 370 

Lima City Hospital, 370 

Lima Daily News, 364 

Lima, First Court House (view), 359 

Lima Gazette, 363 

Lima Home and Savings Association, 1664 

Lima Locomotive and Machine Works, 2172 

Lima Locomotive Corporation, 1599 

Lima News Publishing Company, 1721 

Lima Public Library, 370 

Lima State Hospital for Criminal Insane, 331 

Lima Times-Democrat, 364 

Lima Young Men's Christian Association, 

Lime manufacture, 527 

Linaweaver, Albert H., 1628 

Lincoln, John H., 2022 

Lindsey, 573 

Lingrel, George H., 807 

Linthicum, Larkin J., 864 

Literature, 296 

Little Otter, 160 

Little Sandusky, 645 

Little Turtle, 158, 168 

Little Turtle (portrait), 84 

Lochbihler, Joseph, 1528 

Lock on Miami and Erie Canal (view), 251 

Locke, David R., 298, 673, 1053 

Locke, John P., 2117 

Locke, Otis T., 2117 

Locke, O. T. & Son, 2117 

Locke, Robinson, 673 

Lockwood, James C, 1013 

Lockwood, Jay C, 977 

Locomotive, first, 258 

Locomotives, first in Toledo, 256 

Long, J. A., 723 

Long, Luke E., 1799 

Longnecker, Michael, 956 

Lonz, Margaret, 1374 

Lonz, Peter F., 1374 

Loose, Maximus E., 1212 

Love, David B., 803 

Love, Fred B., 1391 

Love, George R., 668 

Lowry, John H., 1567 

Lowry, Joseph M., 839 

Lowry, Samantha A., 840 

Loyd, Joseph J., 1238 

Lucas City, 341 

Lucas county, 227, 234, 239, 333, 475; enlist- 
ments in the Civil War, 264, 265; early 
settlers, 476; first courthouse, 479; lawyers, 
482, 2259; newspapers, 485; physicians, 
484; pioneers, 1011, 1856 

Lucas County Court House at Maumee 
(view), 478 

Lucas County Express, 486 

Lucas County Pioneer Association, 487 

Lucas, Robert, 107 

Ludeman, Henrietta, 1192 

Ludeman, Henry, 1191 

Lukens, Charles, 1051 

Lusk, Edward S., 719 

Lykens, 403 

Lyle, J. Pressly, 992 

Lynch, Edwin J., 135S 

Lynx, 68 

Lyons, 429 

Lytle, David, 1721 

Lytle, John E., 1969 

Maas, Bernard, 2168 

Maas Brothers, 2168 

Maas, Charles A., 2168 

Maas, John J., 2168 

MacGeorge, W. A., 2094 

Mack, John C, 1718 

Mackenzie, Eugene C, 2270 

Mackenzie, James, 2269 

Mackenzie, Joseph G., 1106 

Mackenzie, William L., 2270 

Maelachlan, Norman L., 1405 

MacLaren, Selah R., 1173 

Maeomber, Irving E., 1992 

Madden, H. F., 732 

Madden Realty Co., 732 

Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad, 257 

Maerker, Alfred E. H., 1208 

Magee, John H., 1618 

Magell, James, 468 

Mail route, 591; first, 417 

Major, Guy 6., 1224 

Major & Kumler, 965 

Major, Leonard, 1225 

Mangas, John P., 1763 

Manhattan, 340 

Mann, A. L. F., 750 

Mann, John, 468 

Manning, Alfred E., 1433 

Manor, Peter, 476 

Manton, John P., 2259 

Maps, Historic Sites in Northwest Ohio, 3; 
Military Posts, Forts, Battlefields and In- 
dian Trails, 18; United States in 1783, 21; 
United States Northwest of the Ohio River, 
1787, 24; Maumee Towns Desti'oyed by 
General Harmar, 57; St. Clair's Camp and 
Plan of Battle, 60 ; Battles of the Maumee, 
69; Wayne's Route Along the Maumee, 75; 
Development of Ohio Counties from 1787 to 
1792, 96; from 1796 to 1799, 96; Develop- 
ment of Hamilton county, 1792, 96; Ohio 
counties in 1799, 96; in 1802, 97; Toledo in 
Michigan in 1834, 228 

March, George, 5)59 

March, Philip, 1790 

Marion, 504; first election, 505; first public 
building erected, 505; first postmaster, 506; 
banks, 506; mayor of, 2125; schools, 2200 

Marion coimty, 275, 493; Enlistments in the 
Civil War, 264, 265; pioneers, 495; poU- 
tics, 496; lawyers, 498; physicians, 499; 
churches, 500; schools, 502; newspapers, 
502; fraternal organizations, 503; court- 
house, 505; schools, 2261 

Marion DaUy Tribune, 2182 

Marion Deutsche Presse, 503 

Marion Malleable Iron Works, 2260 

Marion Milling and Grain Company, 2260 

Marion Mirror, 502 

Marion National Bank, 2260 

Marion Star, 503, 2115 

Marion Steam Shovel Company, 2260 


Marker, William A., 770 

Market Savings Bank Company of Toledo, 

Marquette, James, 4 
Marseilles, 660 
Marsh, George H., 798 
Marsh, Maurice, 1860 
Marshall, Thomas E., 1486 
Mart Center, 415 
Martin, Charles, 1963 
Martin, Jerome M., 1645 
Martin, William E., 2248 
Mascho, Scott W., 1588 
Masters, Charles H., 1214 
Masters, Ezekiel, 1080 
Mastodon, remains of, 241 
Mathias, John E., 1508 
Mattox, Sheridan W., 2127 
Maumee, 480, 487, 488, 626 
Maumee Mission, 209 
Maumee pioneers, 225 
Maumee Eiver, first craft on, 244 
Maumee Eiver (view), 8 
Maumee Eiver (view), 477 
Maumee towns (map), 57 
Maumee Valley, first church at Perrysburg, 

Maumee Valley Pioneer Association, 488 
Maxwell, Earl B., 2234 
Maxwell, Lewis K., 1263 
Maxwell, W. Prank, 1066 
May, Catherine, 1480 
May, Samuel W., 1479 
McAllister, Joseph E., 1488 
McCarron, John W., 2152 
MeCaskey, Fred E., 1350 
McCaskey, Eobert, 1350 
McClellan, Eobert, 79 
McQelland, Elmer G., 1895 
McClure, 474 

McClure, Thomas U., 1767 
MeComb, 443 

MeConahy, Charles A., 756 
McElroy, Ealph E., 816 
McGuffey, 460 
McKee, Alexander, 46 
McKee, Albert P., 1316 
McKee, Charles P., 746 
McKee, C. P., Jr., 747 
McKee, John W., 836 
McKee, Eichard M., 1315 
McKee, William H., 796 ' 
McKesson, Lester V., 2238 
McKinney, Charles B., 1922 
McKitrick, Austin S., 801 
McLaughlin, Warren J., 1601 
McMahon, James W., 1099 
McMillen, William H., 1989 
McPherson, James B., 265, 266, 564; death 

of, 266; monument, 267 
McEeynolds, Peter W., 1950 
Meek, Benjamin, 2201 
Meek, Charles W., 709 
Medaris, Charles P., 1183 
Meek, Basil, 558, 1778 
Meek, George B., First American-born Sailor 

to die in Spanish-American War, 278 
Meeker, Eliza, 1140 
Meeker, Lawson A., 1141 
Meeker, WUliam A., 1140 

Mehring, John A., 1423 

Meigs, Eeturn J., Jr., 104 

Melhorn, C. M., 1586 

Melhorn, Donald P., 1586 

Mell, George E., 1680 

Melmore, 597 

Melrose, 541 

Melvin, James, 1267 

Mendon, 519 

Mercer, Fulton M., 2175 

Mercer, J. P., 2149 

Mercer county. Enlistments in the Civil War, 

264, 265; pioneers, 510; first courthouse, 

514; churches, 515 
Mercer County Bote, 518 
Mercer County Democrat, 518 
Mercer County Observer, 518 
Mercer County Standard, 518 
Merchants & Clerks Savings Bank of Toledo, 

692, 1020 
Mess, John B., 1878 
Messer, Nelson M., 1447 
Metealf, Benjamin P., 360 
Metheany, A. L., 888 
Methodist church, 178, 223 
Methodist Episcopal church, 303 
Methodist, first service, 306 
Methodist mission, 210 
Metzer, George G., 698 
Mexican War, 261 

Mexican War veteran, experiences of, 1211 
Meyer, Christ, 1840 
Meyer, F. Henry, 1835 
Meyer, Fred, 1966 
Mever, Henry, 1841 
Meyer, Henry D., 877 
Meyer, Henry H., 904 
Meyer, Henry J., 1804 
Meyer, Herman M., 874 
Meyer, J. H., 720 
Meyer, John C, 1825 
Meyer, Karl, 873 
Meyer, Leslie E., 1475 
Meyer, Lucas, 1498 
Meyer, WilUam H., 875 
Meyers, J. Frank, 1756 
Miami and Erie Canal, 251, 254, 317, 377, 

531, 610 
Miamis, 11, 158 

Michigan Southern Eailroad Company, 256 
Middle Bass Island pioneer, 1690, 2174 
Middlepoint, 612 
Mikesell, Thomas, 416, 1891 
Mikesell, William, 417, 1891 
Military posts (map), 18 
MUitary Eoad, 494 
MUlard, Clara M., 1131 
Millard, George W., 977 
Millard, Irwin I., 1130 
Millbury, 642 
Miller, 557 
Miller, A. H., 2109 
Miller, Anson H., 1344 
Miller, Anthony, 1623 
Miller, Emma C, 1624 
Miller, Frank, 1594 
Miller, George W., 2191 
Miller, Grace, 1624 
Miller, Henry, 79 
Miller, James D., 897 


Miller, John M., 936 

Miller, Levi B., 754 

Miller, Lewis E., 1917 

Miller, Margie A., 918 

Mills, John M., 1430 

Mill Stone from Old Indian Mill, Upper 

Sandusky (view), 659 
Milroy, Charles M., 737; Administration, 738 
Milton Center, 643 
Mink, Henry, 910 
Mink & Weber, 910 
Minster, 384 

Misamore Brothers, 1977 
Misamore, Edward W., 1692 
Misamore, Henry, 1977 
Misamore, John, 1978 
Misamore, Oakland S., 1977 
Misamore, Troy, 1978 
Mission Church at Upper Sandusky (view), 

Mission schools, 206 
Missions, 201 
Mitchell, Ammi F., 963 
Mitchell, Edward H., 1618 
Mitchell, Edward, 1634 
Mitchell, Frank J., 1462 
Mitchell, John, 1461 
Mitchell, Reuben B., 962 
Model Laundry Company, 1886 
Moeller, Joseph J., 792 
Moffitt, Clarence I., 1648 
Mohler, Frank P., 1905 
Mohler, Laura E., 1906 
Mohr, John A., 1882 
Monnette, Orra E., 1395 
Monroe, W. H. C, 2073 
Montgomery, James, 179 
Montpelier, 621 
Montpelier Enterprise, 619 
Mooney, Daniel F., 1931 
Mooney, Joseph J., 1932 
Mooney, William T., 1930 
Moor, Dudley W., 702 
Moor, William H., 702 
Moore, Francis L., 853 
Moore, Keziah, 1582 
Moore, Rufus B., 2154 
Moore, V. O., 1521 
Moots, Charles W., 1064 
Moraines, 240 
Moravian massacre, 31 
Moravians, forced migration, 30 
Morehead, Jedediah, 386 
Morey, William B., 721 
Morris & Barber, 1006 
Morris' journal, 20 
Morris, Lindley W., 1006 
Morrison, Mary B., 2009 
Morrison State Road, 570 
Moser, Paul T., 2246 
Mosiman, Samuel K., 835 
Motter, Harriet A., 1684 
Motter, Isaac S., 1684 
Mound-Builders, 614 
Mounds, 241 

Mount Blanchard, 430, 443, 460 
Mouser, Grant E., 2083 
Mouser, Harold K., 2138 
Moyer, Frank L., 2210 
Mud holes, 101, 224 
Mulcahy, Thomas, 1249 

Mulholland, Frank L., 1270 
Mumaugh, Emmett W., 1606 
Munshower, George W., 2129 
Murphy, Clayton L., 956 
Murphy, F. V., 2148 
Murphy, Joseph M., 1383 
Musser, J. H., 722 
Myers, Jessie F., 1307 
Myers, Park L., 1306 
Myles, Alexander, 856 

Nagel, Charles, 891 

Napoleon, 464, 467; incorporated, 469; 
schools, 471; churches, 471; fraternal or- 
ganizations, 472; banks, 473 

Napoleon Carnegie Library, 1281 

Napoleon Company, 264 

Napoleon Northwest-News, 470 

Napoleon State Bank, 730 

Napoleon Telephone Company, 1236 

Nasby, Petroleum V., 673, 1053, 2117 

National Bank of Commerce, Toledo, 665 

National Guard, 276 

National Orphans' Home, 594 

Navarre, Peter, 333 

Navin, Thomas, 1079 

Neely, L. G., 1736 

Neely House, 309 

Neely, Scott, 1520 

Neibling, William C, 758 

Nelson, Richard, 1570 

Neptune, 520 

Nettle LakOj 614 

Neubauer, John G., 1603 

Neuhausel Brothers, 1360 

Neuhausel, George C, 1360 

Neuhausel, John F., 1360 

Neuhausel, Martin, 1360 

Neuhausel, Nicholas, Jr., 1360 

Neuhausel, Nicholas, Sr., 1361 

Neumeier, Charles H., 1730 

Nevada, 658 

Neville, W. L., 1679 

Newbegin, Henry, 1943 

Newell, H. H., 2111 

Newhard Brothers Company of Carey, 2040 

Newhard, Jav P., 2040 

Newhard, Winfield J., 2040 

News-Forum, Bucyrus, 2211 

New Idea Spreader Company, 1672 

New High School, Marion (view), 502 

New Rochester, 532 

Newton, David L., 1880 

Newton, John V., 2076 

New Washington, 402 

New Washington Herald, 395 

New York Central lines, 256 

Nicholas, 10 

Nicholas conspiracy fails, 11 

Nichols, Mathias H., 359 

Nieman, Henry, 2212 

Nieman, Henry W., 1474 

Niles, Charles F. M., 1407 

Niles, Frank B., 1134 

Niles, Henry T., 1523 

Ninety-fifth Regiment, 264 

Ninety-ninth Regiment, 264 

Nischwitz, Frederick, 1548 

Nischwitz, Mary, 1549 

Nitrauer, David T., 1883 , 

Noble, Guy E., 1732 



Norris, C. H., 2174 
N'orth Baltimore, 640 
North Baltimore Times, 636 
Northern Indiana Railroad, 259 
Northern National Bank of Toledo, 963, 985 
Northwestern Normal, 323 
Northwestern Ohio Natural Gas Company. 
1099 ^ ^' 

Northwest Ohio Regiment, 264 
Northwest Ohio in the State and Nation, 

Northwest Ohio in the Wars, 261 
Northwest Territory importance of, 24: or- 
ganized, 26 
Norton, M. G., 2070 
Norton, Samuel, 395 
Norton, W. A., 1593 
Novel electric sign, 1102 
Nowicki, Frank S., 1317 

Oak Harbor, 528 

Oakwood, 541 

O'Connell, E. J., 1851 

O'Connell, John T., 309 

O'Connell, Louis, 2047 

O'Connor, Bernard E., 1608 

O'Connor, Daniel F., 1668 

O'Connor, Francis P., 1668 

O'Connor, John, 1667 

O'Connor, John H., 832 

O'Connor, John S., 831 

O'Donnell, O'Brien, 1143 

Ohio admitted into the Union, 99 

Ohio counties, 1802 (map), 97 

Ohio counties, from 1787 to 1792 (map), 96- 
from 1796 to 1799 (map), 96: develop- 
ment of, 1799 (map), 96 

Ohio & Indiana Railroad, 259 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society 
1340 •'' 

Ohio City, 612 

Ohio Company, 23, 55 

Ohio eontrovesry, 234 

Ohio Lantern Works, TifSn, 2114 

Ohio-Michigan boundary terminus. Dedica- 
tion of, 238 

Ohio Normal University, 807 

Ohio Northern University, 322, 1808 

Ohio Railroad project, 258 

Oil, 366, 380, 442, 538, 567, 612, 636, 2002 
Oil Tank Fire near Lima (view), 366 
OU wells, 1872 
"Old Betsey" (view), 144 
"Old Britain," Chief of the Pienkeshaws, 12 
Oldest Church Building in Toledo (view), 347 
Old Mission House near Waterville (view), 
209 ^' 

Olentangy Battle Field (view), 36 
One Hundred and Eleventh Infantry, 265 
One Hundred Eighteenth Regiment, 265 
One Hundred First Regiment, 265 
One Hundred Tenth Regiment, 265 
One Hundred Twenty-first Regiment, 265 
One Hundred Twenty-third Regiment, 265 
One Hundredth Regiment, 265 
Oppenheim, Bernard C, 1671 
Oppenheim, Joseph, 1670 
Orange county, 27 
Ordinance of 1787, 95 
Ormond, Benjamin K., 1582 
Ormond, John M., 1583 

Orontony, 10 

Orosz, Joseph, 1267 

Orosz, Mary, 1267 

Orthwein, Fred, 1789 

Orwig, Carey J., 2176 

Orwig, George B., 1269 

Osborn, Charles E., 1543 

O'Shea, Charles D., 801 

Oswald, Frederick, 1391 

Oswego council, 22 

Otis, L. M., 835 

O 'Toole, G. B., 309 

Ottawa, 552 

Ottawa county, 239, 521; Enlists in the Civil 
War, 264, 265; pioneers, 522; first court- 
house, 554 

Ottawa County Telephone Co., 2017 

Ottawa High School BuOding (view), 552 

Ottawa Water Works and Park (view), 554 

Ottawas, 11, 156 

Ottokee, 419, 420 

Ottoville, 557 

"Our Boy Solomon," 1255 

Overholt, Cloyee E., 1927 

Overmier, Marie E., 1864 

Overmier, Rowland C, 1864 

Overmyer, Arthur W., 2229 

Overmyer, Harry M., 1203 

Owen, Charles W., 1848 

Owen, Ezekiel, 356, 1983 

Owen, Owen & Crampton, 1848 

Owen, Wilber, 1848 

Pack saddle, 219 

Paine, John G., 1274 

"Pains and Penalties Act," 230 

Painter, Clyde R., 2068 

Palmer, Elmer A., 1163 

Palmer, Lottie R., 1570 

Pabner, Melvin R., 1363 

Palmer, Okee M., 1091 

Palmer, Rundle, 1569 

Pandora, 556 

Panning, Dietrich, 1520 

Panning, Fred, 1519 

Panning, Henry, 1517 

Panning, Henry C, 862 

Panning, Henry D., 1760 

Panthers, 68 

Paraguay, U. S. minister to, 1931 

Parent, W. H., 838 

Parker, Clark L., 1438 

Parks, George M., 1727 

Parrish, George F., 675 

Parrett, H. C, 1976 

Parry, J. R., 1719 

Parsons, John E., 966 

Parsons, John E., Jr., 967 

Paryski, Anthony A., 1231 

Passing of the Red Man, 187 

Patrons of Husbandry, 467 

Patterson, Cliarles A., 1870 

Patterson, Grove H., 2221 
Patterson, Nathan D., 2207 
Paulding, 539 

Paulding county, 239, 529 ; Enlistments in the 
Civil War, 264, 265; pioneers, 529; first 
courthouse, 532; lawyers, 534, 2205; physi- 
cians, 535; newspapers, 536; churches, 537; 


538; reservoir war, 539; first 

schoolhouse, 540; public schools, 2152 
Paulding County Court House (view), 533 
Paulding, John, 532 
Pawlowski, Ignatius W., 1160 
Payne, 540 

Peekham, Charles A., 1377 
Peelee Island, 1370 
Pemberville, 640 
Pemberville Savings Bank, 2210 
Pennsylvania System, 259 
Peoples Bank Company of Carey, 2133 
Peoples Savings Association of " Toledo, 986 
Peoples State Savings Bank of Toledo, 987 
Peper, William H., 899 
Perrin, Henry N., 1451 
Perry, Oliver H., 146, 525 
Perry, R. J., 1793 
Perry's battle flag, 147 
Perry's Cave, 526 
Perry's Great Victory at Put-in-Bay, 146; 

view, 148 
Perry 's Victory Monument, Put ■ in - Bay 

(view), 151 
Perry's willow, 150 
Perrysburg, 188, 628 
Perrysburg Journal, 635 
Peter Cornstalk, 170 
Peters, Loren, 2114 
Petersen, John H., 1465 
"Petroleum, V. Nasby," 673, 1053, 2117 
Pettisville, 429 

Philanthropic Institutions, 821 
Philbriek, Francis E., 2150 
Phillips, Bob v., 1898 
Philpott, Thomas D., 2019 
Phipps, William H., 2246 
Pickett, Stephen J., 1301 
Pigs, 218 
Pike Road, 398 
Pimienta, Jules M., 1401 
Pinney, Elijah O., 897 
Pioneer Association, Lucas county, 487 
Pioneer Days, Relic of (view), 214 
Pioneer express messenger, 2233 
Pioneer fireplace (view), 216 
Pioneer frying pan, 219 
Pioneer home, 1807 
Pioneer, life of, 211 
Pioneer pleasures, 220 
Pioneer sehoolhouses, 222 
Pioneer tavern, 436 
Pioneer weddings, 220 
Pioneer women, 218; courage of, 1577 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, 

Pius, Sister Mary, 810 
Place, Alfred W., 1909 
Place, Robert, 1908 
Plains, The, 496 
Plank roads, 254 
Plank road, 570 
Plumb, Charles F., 2147 
Poe, Edgar Allen, 1000 
Poe, Isaac N., 1000 
Poe, William M., 1001 
Pogue, J. W., 828 
Pohlman Farms, 907 
Pohlman, Henry F., 907 
Poland, Laffer C, 2134 
Polish Falcons, 2087 

Political movements, Toledo, 343 

Pomeroy & Co., 2233 

Pomeroy, George E., Jr., 2232 

Pomeroy 's Letter Express, 2233 

Pontius, W. Hardy, 895 

Pontiac, 10, 13; conspiracy, 16; death of, 19 

Poutiac (portrait), 14 

Pool, Henry J., 718 

Portage, 642 

Port Clinton, 133, 528; greatest fresh water 

fishing center, 528 
Port Lawrence, 336, 338 
Post, Charles C, 736 
Post, Isaac B., 1674 
Post, Leonidas H., 736 
Postage stamp, first, 2233 
Pottawattomies, 11 
Potter, Emery D., 1846 
Potter, Harry G., 1938 
Powell, Elmer A., 1877 
Powell, John, 462, 468 
Pratt, Charles, 703 
Pratt Company, 337 
Pratt, John S., 704 
Prairie Depot, 640 
Prehistoric age, 239 
Prehistoric man, 241 
Prentiss, Pearl C, 1200 
Presbyterian church, 207, 304 
Presbyterians, 223 
Preston, John, 405 
Preston, William, 405 
Price, B. T., 925 
Price, James L., 360 
Priddy, Thomas F., 1705 
Priddy, Thomas K., 755 
Prieur, Frederick H., 2139 
Prigge, Henry C, 1868 
Prior, Gerhard H., 1486 
Prize piece of weaving, 839 
Prohibition, 252, 2015 
Prophet, The, 101 
Protestant missionary work, 207 
Prospect, 508 
Providence, 491 
Public Library, Lima, 370 
Pugh, Luther S., 1772 
Put-in-Bay, 146, 525 
Put-in-Bay, from Perry Monument (view), 

Putin-Bay Island, 525 
Put-in-Bay U. S. Fish Hatchery, 1502 
Putnam county, 542; Enlistments in the Civil 

War, 264, 265; pioneers, 543; courthouse, 

545; lavpyers, 546; postoffice meeting, 546; 

newspapers, 547; banks, 548; churches, 

548; schools, 551; fraternal organizations, 

Putnam County Court House, Ottawa (view) , 

Putnam County Sentinel, 2037 

Quakers, 202 

Querin.iean, Alfred E., 911 

Quilting parties, 221 

Rae, James W., 1937 

Rahn, Charles A., 1933 

Railroads, 254 

Railway, pioneer west of the Alleghenies, 255 

Ramseyer, Mano S., 989 



Eaudabaugh, George M., 1740 
Bay, Edward H., 1296 
Eaydure, Winfield S., 1866 
Eayle, Jackson, 1844 
Eayle, John F., 1845 
Eeddin, Daniel W., 2081 
Eedding, Thomas M., 1279 
Eedfield, Albert E., 859 
Eedfield, Harriet, 859 
Red men of the forests, 152 
Eeed, Calvin H., 699 
Eeed, Joseph F., 1945 
Eeed, Lvnnel L., 1070 
Eeeder, William H. H., 1090 
Eees, Morris, 2040 
Eeliberg, Henry, 1509 
Rehberg, Herman D., 1689 
Eeid, Knott, 2012 
Reider, M. B., 2178 
Eeligion of the pioneer, 223 
Eeligious denominations, 303 
Eenegades, 43 
Eenninger, Samuel E., 1964 
Eenshler, John D., 1554 
Eentz, Amanda, 2044 
Eentz, Joseph L., 2044 
Eepublican Gazette, Lima, 1720 
Eettig, Adam B., 1850 
Eeuter, George A., 784 
Eevolutionary period, 20 
Revolutionary War graves, 261 
Reynolds, Charles E., 461, 1184 
Reynolds, Charles L., 679 
Reynolds, Frederick J., 667 
Reynolds, Harold S., 680 
Eeynolds, Sheldon C, 666 
Rhamv, William H., 1962 
Rhoades, Edward H., 1008 
Rhonehouse, George W., 1560 
Rhonehouse, Lovell B., 1447 
Rhonehouse, William L., 1446 
Rhu, Auguste, 2249 
Ehu, H. S., 2250 
Rieaby, George B., 1058 
Rice, Americus V., 546, 1330 
Rice, Caroline, 1278 
Rice, John, 1277 
Rice, John B., 811 
Richards, George S., 1075 
Richards, Silas S., 1855 
Rich-ardson, Ira A., 1415 
Richholt, Charles, 909 
Richie, Horace G., 1725 
Eichie, Walter B., 1685 
Eichey, George W., 734 
Rickenberg, Fred., 1696 
Rieker, George, 1665 
Ridgeway, 460 
Rieck, Charles, 2101 
Riedling, Charles G., 1494 
Riegel, V. M., 2261 
Rieger, Joseph M., 1839 
Riegle, Frank P., 2264 
Riessen, Henry J., 1485 
Rigal, Samuel, 893 
Riggs, Morris J., 708 
Riley, James, 600 
Riley, James W., 516 
Risingsun, 642 
Ritchie, Bvron F., 695 
Eitchie, James M., 1529 

Eitter, Warren A., 1198 

Eittman, Frank, 1499 

Eiver Eaisin massacre, 113 

Eoad in Northwest Ohio (view), 63C 

Eoads, 100 

Eobertson, Fray A., 2242 

Eobinson, Parker B., 1496 

Eobinson, William T., 1763 

Robinwood Hospital, 665 

Robison, David, Jr., 1041 

Eobison, James J., 1043 

Eobison, Willard D., 1044 

Robison, Willard F., 1043 

Eoby, John W., 1600 

Eoehe de Boeuf, 83 

Eockford, 519 

Rockwell, Charles J., 2050 

Rockwell, Fred B., 2052 

Eockwood, Ernest C, 2020 

"Eodney Lee," 674 

Eoebuek, Charles D., 928 

Eofkar, John H., 1457 

Eogers, Arthur J., 766 

Eogers, Charles, 2034 

Eogers, Mary M., 2035 

Eohn, John K., 1904 

Eohrs, Fred, 934 ' 

Rohrs, Fred, 1832 

Eohrs, Henry A., 783 

Eohrs, Henry H., 1818 

Eohrs, John C, 795 

Eohrs, John H., 924 

Eoos, G. Scott, 2022 

Eorick, Horton C, 1647 

Eosenblatt, Arthur, 1955 

Eosencrans, Henry S., 1553 

Rosinski, Benedict, 1010 

Ross, George W., 1518 

Boss, John, 1828 

Rothenberger, Eliza, 901 

Rothenberger, G. Fred, 900 

Eothenburger, Catherine J., 903 

Eothenburger, C. William, 903 

Eoundhead, 447 

Eouse, F. Lee, 2002 

Roush, William, 1676 

Rowe, William C, 983 

Rowland, John M., 1730 

Eowland, Margaret I., 1731 

Eoyce & Coon Grain Company, 2184 

Eoyce, Albert E., 2184 

Eoyce, Hattie M., 2185 

Eoyse, Albert E., 1816 

Rudolph, George V., 1783 

Rudolph, Henry J., 2153 

Eudolph Savings Bank, 1981 

Rudolph, William S., 1785 

Ruh, Carl E., 1598 

Ruh, Hermann, 1493 

Rulmann, R. A., 762 

Rummell, William R., 776 

Runkel, John F., 1504 

Runser, William W., 810 

Rupert, Frederick G., 822 

Euss, William, 1738 

Eussell, Alfred M., 2158 

Eussell, Arthur R., 848 

Russell, Sarah, 849 

Ruthrauff, John, 1555 

Ryan, Arthur W., 1398 



"Sainclare's Defeat," 66 

St. Clair's Camp and Plan of Battle (map), 

St. Clair expedition, 59 
St. Clair, General, 54 
St. Henry, 519 
St. Johns, 384 

St. John's University of Toledo, Ohio, 1077 
St. Marie, Louis, 1356 
St. Marie, Eose, 1357 

St. Marys, 44, 109, 155, 194, 374, 376, 382; 
during War of 1812, 374; oldest town in 
Auglaize County, 383 
Sallume, Najib N., 1385 
Sandersen, John, 1362 

Sandusky county, 234, 558; Enlistments in 

The Civil War, 264, 265; first election, 

559; pioneers, 562; first courthouse, 565; 

lawyers, 567; first printing press, 567 

Sandusky County Pioneer and Historical 

Association, 565 
Sandusky Plains, 385 
Sargent, Mary E., 1999 
Sargent, William A., 1998 
Sargent, Winthrop, 56 
Saul, Esther E., 1133 
Saunders, Oliver H., 1692 
Sautter, A. J., 2125 
Savage, Emmett L., 2205 
Sawmiller, John B., 1604 
Saxton, Frank G., 1289 
Sehaaf, P. E., 876 
Sehaal, Frederick C, 714 
Schaal, Melchior J., 713 
Schabow, H. A., 1552 
Schaffer, A. E., 735 
Schall, Christina B., 1875 
Schall, Peter, 1874 
Schaufelberger, John W., 691 
Scheets, George, 1441 
Sehenck, Daniel D., 1038 
Sehenck, Schuyler C, 1037 
Schiele, Andrew, 1505 
Schiele, Eobert, 1508 
Schiele 's Castle, 1505 
Schirmer, John, 1907 
Schlingman, Henry A., 1372 
Schlingman, Maurice W., 1318 
Schlosser, James S., 1302 
Schmehl, C. W., 1492 
Schmidt, Alphons P., 2060 
Sehmieder, Joseph E., 762 
Sehmitt, Theodore, 1294 
Schneider, Charles, 1504 
Schneider, Harry E., 752 
Schnoor, William, 1495 
Schondebnyer, Mathias, 2163 
Schondelmyer, Salina, 2163 
Schoolhouse of pioneer days, 222 
Schrembs, Joseph, 1854 
Schroeder, Casper H., 1378 
Schroeder, Charles H., 1378 
Schroeder, WOliam C, 1957 
Schroth, George E., 2090 
Schulenberg, William, 1552 
Schulty, Henry D., 1188 
Schultz, Louis W., 1260 
Schumacher, H. J., 808 
Schwab, Frank S., 1982 
Schwab, William A., 1996 
Schweinhagen, Martin D., 775 

Schwenck, W. J., 2151 

Schwertner, August J., 973 

Scioto Trail (view), 396 

Scofield, Jared, 462 

Scott, 612 

Scott, Charles E., 2031 

Scott, Jeanette E., 1390 

Stott, Josiah, 391 

Scott, Robert K., 293, 1387 

Scribner, Edwin, 463 

Sears, Eufus V., 2177 

Second National Bank of Toledo, 985, 993, 

1353, 2256 
Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 277 
Secor, Arthur J., 683 
Seeor, Elizabeth T., 682 
Secor Hotel, 1070 
Secor, James, 684 
Seeor, Jay K., 1070 
Secor, Joseph K., 681 
Seekamp, Henry C, 948 
Seiders, Charles A., 1758 
Selby, Clarence D., 743 
Selle, Lewis, 2081 
Seneca Advertiser, 586 

Seneca county, 578; Enlistments in the Civil 
War, 264, 265; pioneers, 579; courthouse, 
583; lawyers, 585; physicians, 586; news- 
papers, 586, churches, 588 
Seneca John, Execution of (view), 157 
Senecas, 156 
Seney Family, 1326 
Seney, George E., 1327, 1329 
Seney, Joshua, 1326 
Seney, Joshua E., 1327 
Seney, Julia E., 1329 
Senter, Asa C, 1193 
Seppanen, David, 1973 
Seventy-second Eegiment, 265 
Shafer, George, 2224 
Shafer, William, 2242 
Shaffer, Mabel, 1516 
Shaffer, Mary D., 1516 
Shaffer, WUliam, 1515 
Shakespeare Club of Celina, 518 
Shanks, George L., 1019 
Shanks, Henry P., 1018 
Shasteen, John, 462 
Shatzel, John E., 1978 
Shaving horse, 219 
Shaw, Walter F., 2075 
Shawhan, Eezin W., 2106 
Shawnee Council House near Lima (view}, 

Shawnee Indians in Allen County, Last Coun- 
cil House of, (view), 357 
Shawnees, 11, 154 
Shea, James, 1629 
Sbeahan, A. W., 757 
Sheats, John, 1132 
Sheats, Mary A., 1132 
Sheets, Adam C, 1714 
Sheets, Louis E., 2186 
Sheffield, Edward, 1282 
Sheffield, Phebe D., 1281 
Shepard, Dudley S., 1776 
Shepard, Jacob" B., 1765 
Shepherd, Howard I., 1399 
Sherman, John M., 1345 
Sherman, Joseph C, 862 


Sherwood, Kate B., 297, 671 

Sherwood, Isaac E., 272, 484, 669 

Sherwood, Norman C, 1939 

Shidler, Edward L., 916 

Shidler, James W., 1754 

Shields, Alfred W., 1007 

Shields, Thomas P., 974 

Shipman, Charles L., 2185 

Shirley, R. V., 1996 

Shoemaker, Charles H., 1308 

Shoemaker, Charles W., 1439 

Shoemaker, Frederick B., 1346 

Shoemaker Fund, 1348 

Shoemaker, James, 1235 

Shoemaker, Jane E., 1236 

Shoop, Paul B., 1927 

Shreves, LeRoy B., 1237 

Shuler, Emanuel W., 913 

Sibert, S. H., 1545 

Siders, Charles M., 890 

Siefield, Nana, 1364 

Siefield, Rudolph, 1364 

Siebenfoercher, Anthony S., 809 

Simpson, Bailis H., 1611 

Sinscing schools, 221 

Sisters of Charity, 810 

Sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 277 

Sixty-eighth Regiment, 265 

Skelding, George W., 1696 

Skeldon, Joseph L., 741 

Slaybaugh, A. A., 1946 

Sloan, George W., 1455 

Sloan, Isaac L., 1050 

Sloan, Joseph A., 1244 

Slocum, Charles E., 241, 300 

Slover, John, 32 

Smith, Albert E., 1809 

Smith, Augustus M., 1952 

Smith, Barton, 2099 

Smith, Benjamin L., 1580 

Smith, Charles, 1913 

Smith, Charles F., 715 

Smith, David, 1824 

Smith, E. B., 1918 

Smith, Hattie M., 1253 

Smith, James A., 2227 

Smith, James B., 1711 

Smith, John A., 920 

Smith, John A., 1274 

Smith, Lank M., 2211 

Smith, Michael, 1349 

Smith, Nicholas, 931 

Smith, Orville, 1230 

Smith, Svlvester S., 1252 

Smith, William D., 1534 

Smith, William R., 911 

Smith, William W., 994 

Smythe, J. M., 2028 

Sneath, Ralph D., 2169 

Sneath, Samuel B., 2272 

Snider, Oliver B., 2261 

Snider, Walter, 1584 

Snodgrass, James M., 2167 

Snuffers, 219 

Snyder, Eugene C, 1450 

Snyder, John D., 1588 

Snyder, Samuel L., 1827 

Soiar Refining Companv of Lima, 1603 

Soldan, Charles F., 2049 

Solether, Earl K., 1876 

Soncrant, Richard B., 1659 

Sonderman, Frank J., 791 

Songer, E. J., 2166 

Sonnenberg, Edward, 1535 

South, Charles, 2180 

Southard, James H., 693 

South Rangers, 261 

South Side Commercial Club of Lima, 1646 

Southworth, E. L., 1087 

Spangler, Daniel W., 866 

Spangler, John, 1770 

Spanish-American War, 276 

Spencer, Ralph G., 2252 

Spencerville, 372 

Spengler, Ernest, 1251 

Spongier, John F., 1251 

Spiegel Grove, 573, 1340 

Spiegel Grove Mansion, 575 

Spieker, Fred. G., 1299 

Spieker, Gideon, 1299 

Spieker, Henry J., 1299 

Spieker, John, 1299 

Spielbusch, John H., 1152 

Spinning wheels, 219 

Spitzer, Adelbert L., 690 

Spitzer, Carl B., 1257 

Spitzer, Ceilan M., 1247 

Spitzer, Frank P., 2056 

Spitzer, Rorick & Company, 690, 1248, 1257 

Spitzer, Sidney, 1160 

Spitzer & Company, Sidney, 1161 

Splint broom, 219 

Sprague, Charles F., 1664 

Springer, Clarence W., 1734 

Squire, Virgil, 2245 

StafCord, James M., 2006 

Stafford, Laura B., 2006 

Stafford, M. Grant, 1800 

Stage Coach, 255 

Stahl, Scott, 521 

State Bank of Bowling Green, 2153 

State Normal College, 329 

State Savings Bank of Woodville, 2049 

Steamboat, first, 245 

Steedman, James B., 265, 267, 468 

Steer, C. L., 1684 

Steffens, Henry, 773 

Stein, John G. H., 2208 

Steiuer, David W., 1597 

Steiner, Oliver S., 1598 

Steinkamp, J. G., 2017 

Steinle, Carl F., 1924 

Steinle Construction Company, 1924 

Sterling Grinding Wheel Company, Tiflin, 

Stewart, John, 178 
Stiekney, Benjamin F., 195 
Stine, David L., 1009 
Stine, Sidney L., 1010 
Stinebaugh, Isaac L., 1925 
Stitz, Edward C, 772 
Stockdale, Allen A., 1533 
Stollberg, John, 742 
Stolzenbach Baking Company, 1627 
Stolzenbach, Charles F., 1625 
Stophlet, John W., 1121 
Stophlet, Manfred M., 1072 
Stouder, Earl R., 1914 
Stout, J. F., 1739 
Stowe, Ancel R. M., 1936 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 701 
Stratton, Frank W., 1962 


Strandler, John, 610 
Strayer, A. Lincoln, 883 
Strong, Hazael, 462 
Strong, Lyman E., 1331 
Strontia Crystal Cave, 1507 
Stryker, 623 
Stryker Company, 264 
Suber, Albert A., 1710 
Sugar trough, 219 
Sulphur Spring, 403 
Summers, Herbert L., 791 
Suplioki, Andrew J., 1088 
Sutherland, Kirk E., 1973 
Sutphen, Margie, 1897 . 
Sutter, J. J., 1897 
Swanton, 428 
Swanton Enterprise, 423 
Swartz, Arthur A., 1320 
S-wayne, Noah H., 1406 
Sweet, Euxton S., 1916 
Sycamore, 659 
Sylvania, 487, 491 
Synck, Henry, 824 

Taber, Ira C, 971 
Tabler, Arza F., 1206 
Tadsen, Peter K., 1460 
Tallow candle, 219 
Tanner, Charles E., 1766 
Tate, A. L., 1908 
Taulker, Fred H., 1975 
Taylor, J. Alvin, 2091 
Taylor, John G., 1256 
Taylor, John W., 1775 
Taylor, McMillan, 1559 
Taylor, Eomain A., 2011 
Tecumseh, 101, 126, 130, 140 
Tecumseh (portrait), 137 
Temperance, 2015, 2239 
Tennissen, John A., 830 
Terminal moraines, 240 
Territorial legislature, first, 95 
Territorial road, 417 
Terwilleger, T. R., 827 
Thacher, Horace, 1025 
"The Flag that Makes Men Free," 671 
"The New Eight," 1167 
Thew, Henry C, 905 
Thomas, Eai-l J., 1632 
Thomas, Frank W., 1934 
Thomas, James, 477 
Thomas, William, 1325 
Thompson, Bert, 1848 
Thompson, Charles, 821 
Thornberry, E. L., 1846 
Thorp, "Washington C, 1417 
Thrasher, William M., 1473 
Thraves, Meade G., 2045 
Threshing, 218 

Threshing Machine, inventor of, 1999 
Thurstin, Ada M., 1888 
Thurstin, Eolliu S., 1887 
Thurstin, Wesley S., Jr., 1098 
Thurstin, Wesley S., Sr., 1097 
Thurston, Johnson, 705 
Tietje, Henry C, 929 
Tietjens, John W., 1177 
Tietjeus, Otto P., 1177 
Tiffany, Osbert D., 987 

Tifian, 590; first election, 593; first school- 
house, 594; an early merchant, 2106 

Tifiiu, Edward (portrait), 98 

TifSin PostofBce (view), 591 

Tifau Presse, 587 

Tifan Tribune, 587 

Tillotson, George S., 2124 

Tiro, 895, 403 

"Toast to Success," 1108 

Tobias, William F., 1771 

Tobey, Henry A., 1531 

Tod, Governor, 264 

Todd, Calvin D., 1647 

Todd, Edwin W., 1053 

Toledo, first city directory, 333 ; first election, 
335; early, 341; early industries, 342; first 
brick manufactured, 342; first foundry, 
342 ; first ear works, 342 ; first postoflfice, 
343 ; political movements, 343 ; a city in 
1867, 344; early taverns, 345; churches, 
346; first preacher, 346; oldest church 
building in, 347; fraternal orders, 349; 
schools, 350 ; first teacher, 351 ; banks, 352 ; 
first bank, 352; first street railway, 354; 
first gi-ain merchant, 666; new charter, 
737; pioneers, 988; Golden Eule mayor, 
1167; first High School system, 1368; bit 
of interesting municipal history, 1412; 
boulevard system, 2001; first children's 
playground, 2002 

Toledo in Michigan (map made in 1834), 

Toledo in 1852 (view), 334 

Toledo & Illinois Eailroad Company, 259 

Toledo Ameryka-Echo, 487 

Toledo Board of Trade, 355 

Toledo Blade, 257, 263, 486, 673, 1055, 2117 

Toledo Beach, 1016 

Toledo Boys' Home, 981 

Toledo Bridge and Crane Company, 1377 

Toledo Builders Supply Companv, 1049 

Toledo Club, 1445 

Toledo Commerce Club, 2002 

Toledo Company, 264 

Toledo Express, 487 

Toledo Gazette, 234 

Toledo Guards, 262, 264 

Toledo Lodge No. 53, Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks, 1419 

Toledo Museum of Art, 1348, 2089 

Toledo News-Bee, 487, 2055 

Toledo, Norwalk & Cleveland Railroad, 259 

Toledo Playground Association, 1993 

Toledo Public Library, 352 

Toledo Railways and Light Company, 982 

Toledo School of Medicine, 485 

Toledo State Hospital, 330 

Toledo Times, 487 

Toledo Tug-of-War, 227 

Toledo Universitv, 323, 485, 1936 

Toledo War, 227 

Toledo's Museum of Art (view), 351 

Tolerton, Elihu W., 1410 

Toll rates, 254 

Tomlinson, Fred, 1653 

Tompkins, Elmer E., 1594 

Tontogany, 643 

Tontogany Banking Company, 1965 

Tornadoes, 423 

Tov, Walter E., 1603 

Trabcrt, E. A., 1607 

Tracy, Joseph E., 2116 


Tragedies, 12 

Transportation, 244; early river, 244 

Treaty at the Maumee Bapids, 190 

Treaty ceding territory in Maumee Basin, 190 

Treaty of Greenville, 381 

Tredway, Horace, 1292 

Tremainesville, 340 

Triffit, E. L., 2112 

Trimble, Judge A. H., 725 

Trippy, Thomas J., 1725 

Tri-State Fair Association, 487, 1432 

Tritch, John C, 759 

Trommer Company, 1939 

Trout, Len L., 2067 

Trout, Martin C, 1118 

Trumbull, Harvey N., 1876 

Tucker, Charles A., 1811 

Tucker, Charles E., 1125 

Tucker, Edwin D., 1126 

Tucker, Sol D., 1126 

Tucker, William H., 676 

Tupper, Edward W., 109 

Turner, Sarah E., 845 

Turkey Foot Bock, 215 

Turkey Foot Eock (view), 86 

Turkeys, 68, 375 

Turtle, The, 12 

Tuttle, Miles H., 733 

Tyler, Julian H., 1085 

Tyler, Justin H., 469, 1084 

Tyler, H. M., Mrs., 1216 

TJhlman, Henry C, 2202 

IFllom, J. F., 2156 

XJlrich, Adam J., 1539 

TJlrich, William H., 1147 

TJlsh, Willis B., 1624 

Underwood, Chauncey C, 2142 

Underwood, John L., 2188 

Underground Bailroad, 275 

Union Mills, Bowling Green, 2178 

Union Savings Bank, 988 

United Fisheries Company, 1372 

United Grocers Corporation, 1146 

United States Fish Hatchery, 1502 

United States in 1783 (map), 21 

United States Northwest of the Ohio Eiver, 

1787 (map), 24 
United Underwear Company, 1943 
Upper Sandusky, 652; lawyers, 654; churches, 

656; fraternal orders, 657; banks, 657 
Upper Sandusky Telephone Company, 2270 
Urbanski, Joseph W., 1159 
Urbanski, Walter J., 1149 
Urschel, Burtis H., 2096 

Vail, W. L., 1658 

Van Buren, 443 

Van Buren county pioneer, 980 

Van Campen, Hiram, 1650 

Vance, Bobert T., 1649 

Van Fleet, George H., 2115 

Van Fleet, Henry C, 687 

Van Fleet, H. Frank, 1313 

Van Horn, Allison M., 1634 

Vanlue, 444 

Van Note, W. B., 2109 

Van Osdale, O. F., 2038 

Van Wert, 605; first school, 608; pioneer, 798 

Van Wert Bulletin, 607 

Van Wert county, 239, 599; Enlistments in 
the Civil War, 264, 265; pioneers, 600, 740, 
1705; lawyers, 603; physicians, 604; first 
saw mill, 605; newspapers, 606; banks, 
607; churches, 607 

Van Wert County Grange, 605 

Van Wert Eepublican, 607 

Van Wert Times, 607 

Veenfliet. E. M., 1827 

Veigel, J. Fred, 1571 

Venedocia, 612 

Veteran oil producer, 1866 

Viers, John B., 860 

Vistula, 336 

Voigt, Fred H., 1611 

Voigt, J. Henry, 885 

Voigt, Maria H., 885 

Vollmayer, John J., 1522 

Vollmayer, William G., 1005 

Voorhees, Edmund B., 2058 

Wabash and Erie canal, 316, 531 

Wachtmann, Detrick, 1453 

Wachtmann, Fred, 776 

Waddell, Michael, 2141 

Waggoner, Clark, 486 

Wagner, Mathias A., 826 

Wahl, Charles, 953 

Wahler, Frank M., 1815 

Waite, Morrison B., 263, 284, 483; (portrait), 

Walbridge. Horace S., 1014 
Walinski, Nicholas J., 1123 
Walker, Hattie D., 1707 
Walker. James A., 2167 
Walker, Bobert J., 1706 
Walker, William, 178 
Walker. William J., 2027 
" Walk-in-the-Water, " steamboat, 245 
Walters, Sumner E., 789 
Wampum, 167 
Wapakoneta, 155, 168, 380; town surveyed, 

382; incorporated, 382 
Wapakoneta Court House (view), 377 
Warner, Frank J., 1562 
Warner, Delia J., 1415 
War of 1812, 104, 261 
Washburn, Aaron G., 1284 
Washburn, Dwight O., 1290 
Washburn, Julia A., 1290 
Washburn, Lucy A., 1285 
Waterville, 490 
Waterville Company, 264 
Watson, James D., 1967 
Watson, James G., 1577 
Wauseon, 420, 424; churches, 426; first school 

house, 427 
Wauseon Company, 264 
Wauseon Hospital Association, 427 
Way Library, The, 2217 
Wayne, Anthony (portrait), 70 
Wayne's Campaign, 68 
Waynesfield, 384 
Wayne's spies, 78 

WajTie's route along the Maumee (map), 75 
Weadock, James J., 1667 
Weakley, Marion, 892 
Weamer, P. F., 770 
Weasel, Tony, 2007 
Weaver, Edward H., 949 


"Weaver, John, 930 

Weaver, John G., 1914 

Webb, Elmer D., 824 

Weber, A. A., 2121 

Weber, Casper, 1040 

Weber, Charles W., 911 

Weber, Eniil, 2007 

Webster, Holland C, 1314 

Webster, La Omri, 2174 

Webster, Nelson E., 529, 1852 

Weeks, Dana 0., 2262 

Weidling, Harry, 2006 

Weitz, Albert, 1636 

Welch, Alfred H., 297 

Welch, Ferdinand E., 1404 

Welles, George E., 1035 

Welles, William B., 1034 

Wells, WilUam, 78 

WeUs, William, Death of (view), 80 

Welty, Benjamin F., 1458 

Wenner, H. L., 2039 

West Cairo, 371 

West, Edward B., 1324 

West Leipsic, 557 

West Millgrove, 643 

West Unity, 622 

Westerman, Jacob, 1150 

Westerman, Lucretia, 1151 

Western Reserve, 26 

Westhoven, Albert J., 1192 

Westhoven, Frank A., 878 

Weston, 641, 2198; first known as Taylor- 

ville, 2193 
Westrick, John A., 923 
WetheriU, J. Cliff, 2140 
Wheeler Tavern (view), 448, 449 
"When the Frost is on the Pumpkin and 

the Fodder's in the Shock" (View), 462 
Whitaker, Charles H., 1228 
Whitaker, James, 559 
Whitaker, John H., 1227 
White, Thomas A., 750 
White, W. K., 1872 
Whitehall Stock Farm, 795 
Whitehead, John H., 1994 
Whitehead, Susie, 1995 
Whitehouse, 490 
Whitker, Frederick E., 2146 
Whitker, John W., 2101 
Whitlock, Brand, 299, 345, 483, 2236 
Wickenden, Thomas R., 1847 
Wiedeman, Henry, 765 
Wierman, Wm. C, 1464 
Wilcke, Carl, 1628 
Wilcox, Minot I., 1116 
Wilcox, Oren S., 1114 
Wilder, Clarke N., 2090 
Wilder, William W., 1869 
Wilhelm, John, 940 
Wilkins, Scott, 1682 
Willett, Roland A., 1471 
Willhoff, Jacob, 837 
Willford, J. Leonard, 1741 
Williams, Claude E., 2214 
Williams county, 230, 613; Enlistments in 

the Civil War, 264, 265; pioneers, 614; 

lawyers, 618; newspapers, 618 
Williams County Court House, Bryan (view), 

Williams, Frederick H., 1468 

Williams, Henry D., 368 

Williams, Homer B., 2136 

Williams, Samuel R., 1146 

Williamson, C. W., 373 

Williamson, Milton S., 1623 

Willich, August, 383 

Willis, Frank B., 292 

Willis, Governor, 238 

Willshire, 600 

Willys, John N., 1446 

Wilson, Arion E., 1078 

Wilson, Charles G., 1031 

Wilson, James, Jr., 724 

Wilson, James W., 812 

Wilson, John B., 1901 

Wilson, Justice, 976 

Wilson, Milo D., 1901 

Wilson, Robert B., 959 

Wilson, Sarah, 725 

Wilson, William E., 881 

Winchester, James, 109; taken prisoner, 114 

Wine Islands, 525 

Wingate, J. F., 1717 

Winkelmann, Fred, 793 

Winter, Adam E., 2274 

Winter, Martin, 2093 

Winter, Nevin O., 301, 394, 2275 

Wintzer, G. A., 761 

Wires, George W., Jr., 1726 

Wise, Lawrence H., 1703 

Wiseley, Curtis M., 1924 

Wisman, E. C, 2017 

Wistinghausen, Charles H., 1546 

Witte, Henry, 1762 

Wolf, George, 1572 

"Wolverines of Michigan," 237 

Wolves, 68, 582, 601 

Wonder, Joseph F., 2119 

Wood county, 229, 230, 626; Enlistments in 
the Civil War, 264, 265; early hotels, 629; 
pioneers, 629; courthouse, 632; lawyers, 
633; physicians, 634; newspapers, 635; 
pioneers, 1806, 1998, 2143, 2217; early 
settlers, 2163; school system, 2179; grain 
trade, 2189 

Wood County Abstract and Loan Company, 

Wood County Democrat, 636, 1935 

Wood County Fair Company, 1916 

Wood County Savings Bank Co., 2022 

Wood County Sentinel-Tribune, 636 

Woodruff, Adam B., 754 

Woodruff, Irvin, 818 

Woodruff, John, 1575 

Woodruff, John, Jr., 1576 

Woodruff National Bank, 804 

Woodruff, Eobert A., 804 

Woodward, George W., 1427 

Woodward, Milton M., 2253 

Wool cards, 219 

Woolson, Alvin M., 2219 

Wren, 612 

Wright, J. Walter, 2156 

Wright, Nathaniel C, 1288 

Wunderlich, Adolph F., 1059 

Wunderlich, Erhardt F., 1058 

Wyandot county. Enlistments in the Civil 
War, 264, 265; pioneers, 645; courthouse, 
649; lawyers, 649; physicians, 650; news- 
papers, 651; bar, 2111, 2265; pioneers, 2120 


Wyandot County Infirmary, 649 
Wyandot County Union Republican, 652 
Wyandot reservation, 388 
Wyandots, 11, 29, 174; last tribe removed 
from Ohio, 177; departure of, 184 

Tingling, C. J., 2010 

Yoder, David A., 1096 

Yonker, Charles D., 1920 

Yonker, Lewis L., 1921 

Young, Calvin C, 896 

Young, Charles L., 1135 

Young, Daniel W., 2128 

Young, George N., 1949 

Young Men's Christian Association, Lima, 

Young, Morrison W., 993 
Young, Nelson H., 957 
Young, Sarah A., 896 
Young, Samuel M., 967 

Younger, Charles S., 753 

Y. W. C. A., Van Wert (view), 610 

Zabel, Allen G. T., 962 
Zabel, J. Golden, 962 
Zabel, John O., 960 
Zaehrich, Christian, 918 
Zahrend, Fred, 869 
Zane, Jonathan, 32 
Zeigler, G. K., 2240 
Zeigler, J. M., 2240 
Zeis, Ira N., 2127 
Ziegler, Joseph, 1658 
Ziegler, Wilbur G., 297 
Zierolf, WiUiam N., 1234 
Zimmerman, Harry, 877 
Zipfel, William, 1474 
Zook, Jacob S., 1702 
Zopfi, WilUam J., 1642 
Zwayer, Benjamin J., 950 




The exact date of the initial appearance 
of the white man in Ohio is not certainly 
known. It is well authenticated, however, 
that the inceptive eft'orts made by Europeans 
to settle within the territory now constituting 
the State of Oliio was in the Maumee Valley. 
It was on or about the year 1680 that some 
hardy French ' established themselves along 
that liistoric stream, and constructed a small 
stockade not far from its mouth. Spain 
already claimed a priority to all of Northwest 
Ohio by right of discovery. Not having occu- 
pied the territory, or made settlements therein, 
her pretension was not considered worthy of 
serious consideration by the other contending 
and ambitious nations. So far as records go, 
the foot of the Spanish conquistador never 
trod the region of the Great Lakes, and the 
primeval forests of that region at no time 
echoed to the footfall of the Don. She based 
her claim wholly on a "concession in per- 
petuity," made by Pope Alexander VI. 

By authority of Almighty God, granted him 
in St. Peter, and by the exalted office that he 
bore on earth as the actual representative of 
Jesus the Christ, Pope Alexander had granted 
to the Kings of Castile and Leon, their heirs 
and successors, all of North America and the 
greater part of South America. These 
sovereigns were to be "Lords of the lands, 
with free, full and absolute power, authority 

and jurisdiction." This famous decree is one 
of the most remarkable documents in authen- 
tic history. It was a deed in blank conveying 
all the lands that might be discovered west 
and south of a line drawn from the Pole 
Arctic to the Pole Antarctic, 370 leagues west 
of the Cape Verde Islands. It was based upon 
the theory that lauds occupied by heathen, 
pagan, infidel, and unbaptized people had 
absolutely no title which the Christian ruler 
was bound to respect. Such human beings as 
the Indians, who happened to dwell thereon, 
were mere chattels that ran with the land in 
the same way as the fruits of the field or the 
wild game of the forests. The Pope desig- 
nated to Spain and Portugal the exclusive 
right of hunting and finding and dominating 
these unknown lands and j^eoples. 

Francis I, King of France, disputed the 
claims of Spain and Portugal to "own the 
earth." He inquired of the Spanish king 
whether Father Adam had made them his 
sole heirs, and asked whether he could produce 
a copy of his will. Until such a document 
was shown, he himself felt at liberty to roam 
around and assume sovereignty over all the 
soil he might find actually unappropriated. 
It is certain that the French preceded the 
British in this territory by at least half a 
century. Jamestown was founded just one 
year before Champlain sowed the seeds of the 


fleiir de lis on the barren cliffs of Quebec. 
These two little colonies, a thousand miles 
apart, were the advance stations of the Latin 
and the Anglo-Saxon, which were destined 
to a life and death struggle in the New World. 
In the history of mankind this struggle was 
no less important than that between Greece 
and Persia, or Rome and Carthage in the long 
ago. The position of- Canada, with the St. 
Lawrence opening up the territory adjacent 
to the Great Lakes, invited intercourse with 
this region, for the waterwa.ys provided a vast 
extent of inland navigation. 

The original claim of France was based on 
the discovery of the St. Lawrence by the brave 
buccaneer Cartier, in 1534. He had sailed 
up a broad river, which he named St. Law- 
rence, as far as Montreal, and called the 
country Canada, a name applied to the sur- 
rounding region by the Iroquois. This appel- 
lation was afterwards changed to New France. 
The later explorations by Champlain, La 
Salle, Joliet, and others simply confirmed and 
expanded her former pretensions. She main- 
tained the view that to discover a river estab- 
lished a right to all the territory drained by 
that stream and its tributaries. The waters 
of the Maumee and Sandusky, being tributary 
to the St. Lawrence, these valleys became a 
part of the vast domain kno^\^l as New France, 
with Quebec as its capital. This claim France 
was ready to maintain with all the resources 
and power at her command. 

It is interesting to trace the gradual growth 
of geographical knowledge of French cartog- 
raphers by a study of the maps drawn by 
them in the last half of the .seventeenth cen- 
tury. Even after all the Great Lakes are 
known to them in a general way, the outlines 
and the relations of one to the other are at 
first indefinite and very far from being cor- 
rect. This is probably chargeable to the fact 
that the explorers acquired much of their gen- 
era] knowledge from the indefinite statements 
of the aborigines. In Champlain 's map, pub- 

lished in 1632, Lake Erie is shown, but in a 
very small way. Lake Huron, called Mer 
Douce, is several times as expansive, and 
spreads out from east to west rather than from 
north to south. The first map in which Lacus 
Erius first appears in anything like a correct 
contour is one designed by Pere du Creux, in 
the year 1660. In this map we perceive the 
first outlines of the Maumee and the Sandusky 
rivers, although no names are there given to 
them. In Joliet 's map of 16T2, the Ohio River 
is placed only a short portage from the Mau- 
mee, and not far from Lake Erie. The 
increasing correctness of these maps, however, 
makes manifest the fact that priests and 
traders and explorers were constantly thread- 
ing these regions, bringing back more perfect 
knowledge of the lakes and the rivers and 
smaller streams, which aided the cartogra- 
phers in their important work. 

Samuel de Champlain, in the early part of 
the seventeenth century, explored much of the 
lake region. He founded Quebec in 1608. He 
visited the Wyandots, or the Hurons, at their 
villages on Lake Huron, and passed several 
months with them in the year 1615. It is 
quite likely that he traveled in winter along 
the southern shores of Lake Erie, for the map 
made by him of this region shows some knowl- 
edge of the contour of the southern shores of 
this lake. Louis Joliet is credited with being 
the first European to plow the waters of fair 
Lake Erie, but this historic fact has never 
been satisfactorily settled. It is generally 
believed by some historians that Chevalier de 
La Salle journeyed up the Maumee River, and 
then down the to the Ohio and the 
Mississippi in the year 1669, although this 
fact has not been positively established, for 
some of La Salle's journals were lost. For a 
period of two years his exact wanderings are 
unknown. But he is generally credited as the 
first white man to discover the Ohio, even 
though the route by which he reached it is 
unsettled. Through the dense forests in the 


midst of blinding storms, across frozen creeks a boat which greatly astonished the natives 
and swollen streams, fearless alike of the howl- who saw it. She bore at her prow a figure of 
ing wolves and painted savages, the little band that mythical creature, with the body of a 

y^e E:R»e 

Historic Sites in Northwest Ohio 

of discoverers picked its way across the un- lion and the wings of an eagle. This vessel 

charted Ohio Valley. was a man-of-war, as well as a passenger 

We do know that La Salle traversed Lake boat, for five tiny cannon peeped out from her 

Erie from one end to the other in the Griffin, port-holes. He also built the first Fort Miami, 


near the site of Fort Wayue, on his return 
overland from this trip. It was a rude log 
fort, and a few of his followers were left there 
to maintain it. 

It was in the year 1668 that the official 
representative of France, on an occasion when 
representatives of many Indian tribes were 
present by invitation, formally took posses- 
sion of this territory at Sault Ste. Marie. A 
cross was blessed and placed in the gi'ound. 
Near the cross was reared a post bearing a 
metal plate inscribed with the French royal 
arms. A praj'er was offered for the king. 
Then Saint-Lusson advanced, and, holding his 
sword aloft in one hand and raising a sod of 
earth with the other, he formally, in the name 
of God and France, proclaimed possession of 
"Lakes Huron and Superior and all countries, 
rivers, lakes, and streams contiguous and ad- 
jacent thereunto, both those that have been 
discovered and those which may be discov- 
ered hei-eafter, in all their length and breadth, 
bounded on one side by the seas of the north 
and west and on tlie other by the South 
Sea * * *." 

The Jesuit fathers penetrated almost the 
entire Northwest Territory, and their reports, 
called the "Relations," reveal tales of suffer- 
ing and hardships, self-sacrifice and martyr- 
doms, that are seldom paralleled in history. 
But their zeal has cast a glamour over the 
early history of the country. One of the most 
renowued of the Jesuits was Father IMar- 
quette, who with Joliet navigated the Upper 
Mississippi and wore himself out by priva- 
tion and perils. As a result of exposure, he 
perished in a rude bark hut on the shore of 
Lake Michigan, attended by his faithful com- 
panions. He gazed upon the crucifix and mur- 
mured a prayer until death forever closed his 
lips and veiled his eyes. No name shines 
brighter for i-eligious devotion, dauntless per- 
severance, and sacrifice for the advancement 
of his country and his religion. Ohio, how- 
ever, was not the scene of the Jesuit explora- 

tions and missionary efforts. The only excep- 
tion was a mission conducted at Sandusky for 
a time by Jesuit priests from Detroit. 

It is quite likely that the coureurs des hois, 
who traversed the lakes and the forests in 
every direction, laden with brandy and small 
stocks of trinkets to barter with the aborigines 
for their more valuable fui-s, were among the 
earliest visitors to Northwest Ohio. Some of 
these forest tramps frequented the regions of 
the Sandusky and the Maumee. These men 
became very popular with the savages, by 
reason of their free and easy manners, and 
because they introduced to them the brandy, 
the use of which became one of their gi-eatest 

Les coureurs des bois were of a class that 
made themselves popular by terrorism. They 
were the forerunners of the cowboys of the 
western plains. Their occupation was lawless ; 
they themselves were half ti'aders, half ex- 
plorers, and almost wholly bent on divertisse- 
ment. Neither misery nor danger discour- 
aged or thwarted them. They lived in utter 
disregard of all religious teaching, but the 
priesthood, residing among the savages, were 
often fain to wink at their immoralities be- 
cause of their strong arms and efficient use 
of weapons of defense. Charlevoix says that 
' ' while the Indian did not become French, the 
Frenchman became savage." The first of 
these forest rovers was Etienne Brule, who set 
the example of adopting the Indian mode of 
life in order to ingratiate himself into the 
confidence of the savages. He became a cele- 
brated interpreter and ambassador among the 
various tribes. Hundreds, following the 
precedent established by him, betook them- 
selves to the forest never to return. These 
outflowings of the French civilization were 
quickly merged into the prevalent barbarism, 
as a river is lost in the sands of one of our 
western deserts. The wandering Frenchman 
selected a mate from among the Indian tribes, 
and in this way an infusion of Celtic blood 


was introduced among the aborigines, ilany 
of them imbibed all the habits and prejudices 
of their adopted people. As a result, they vied 
with the red savages in making their faces 
hideous with colors, and in decorating their 
long hair with the characteristic eagle feath- 
ers. Even in the taking of a scalp they 
rivaled the -genuine Indian in eagerness and 
dexterity. Not until Frontenae's day were 
these degenerate French vagabonds brought 
again under complete control. 

The coureur des hois M'as a child of the 
woods, and he was in a measure the advance 
agent of civilization. He knew little of as- 
tronomy beyond the course of the sun and the 
polar star. That fact was no impediment, for 
constellations can rarely be seen there. It was 
the secrets of terrestrial nature that guided 
him on his way. His trained eye could detect 
the deflection of tender twigs toward the 
south. He had learned that the gray moss 
of the tree tninks is always on the side toward 
the north ; that the bark is more supple and 
smoother on the east than on the west; that 
southward the mildew never is seen. Out on 
the prairie, he was aware that the tips of the 
grass incline toward the south, and are less 
green on the north side. This knowledge to 
an unlettered savant was his compass in the 
midst of the wilderness. Release a child of 
civilization amidst such environments and he 
is as helpless as an infant ; utterly amazed and 
bewildered, he wanders around in a circle 
helplessly and aimlessly. To despair and 
famine he quickly becomes an unresisting vic- 
tim. There are no birds to feed him like the 
ravens ministered to the temporal wants of 
the prophet Elijah. Not so with the coureur 
(les hoix. To him the forest was a kindly home. 
He could penetrate its trackless depths with 
an undeviating course. To him it readily 
yielded clothing, food," and shelter. Most of 
its secrets he learned from the red man of the 
forest, but in some respects he outstripped his 
instructor. He learned to peruse the signs of 

the forest as readily as the scholar reads the 
printed page. 

The English at last became aroused to the 
value of the immense territory to the west of 
the Alleghenies. But the sons of Britain were 
far less politic in dealing with the savages 
than the French. The proud chiefs were dis- 
gusted with the haughty bearing of the Eng- 
lish officials. In short, all the British Indian 
affairs at this time were grossly mismanaged. 
It was only with the Iroquois, those tierce 
fighters of the Five Nations, that the English 
made much headway. These warriors, who 
carried shields of wood covered with hide, had 
acquired an implacable hatred of the French. 
Their antipathy had much to do with the final 
course of events. In their practical system 
of government, their diplomatic sagacity, their 
craftiness and cruelness in warfare, the Iro- 
quois were probably unequaled among the 
aborigines. If they did nothing else, they com- 
pelled the French to make their advance to 
the west rather than to the south. The French 
laid claim, because of their discoveries, to all 
of this vast empire of the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory, and this claim had been confirmed by 
the Treaty of Utrecht. The English put forth 
pretensions to all the continent as far west 
as the Mississippi Uiver, and as far north as 
a line drawn directly west from their most 
northerly settlement on the Atlantic coast. 
Thus we find that Northwest Ohio was a part 
of the disputed territory. 

"We read in the report of a governor of New 
York, in the year 1700, the following: "The 
French have mightily impos'd on the world 
in the mapps they have made of this continent, 
and our Geographers have been led into gross 
mistakes by the French mapps, to our very 
great prejudice. It were as good a work as 
your Lordships could do, to send over a very 
skillful surveyor to make correct mapps of 
all these plantations and that out of hand, 
that we may not be cozen 's on to the end of ■ 
the chapter by the French." As a result of 


this recommendation official maps began to 
appear in a few years. In Evans' map (1755) 
the Maumee and Sandusky rivers, and some 
of their tributaries, are pretty well outlined. 
Over the greater part of Noi-thwest Ohio is 
printed the following: "These Parts -were 
by the Confederates (Iroquois) allotted for 
the Wyandots when they were lately admitted 
into their league." In Mitchell's map, drawn 
in the same year and published a score of years 
later, very little improvement is shown, al- 
though the outline varies considerably from 
that of Evans. The best map of the period 
that we have preserved is the one drawn by 
Thomas Hutchins, in 1776. The originals of 
all these are preserved in the Congressional 
Library, at Washington. 

In the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury a man by the name of John Nelson, who 
had spent many years among the French in 
America, made a report to the Lords of Trade 
concerning the difference in the English and 
French method of dealing with the natives, of 
which the following is a part: "The Great 
and only advantage which the enemy (French) 
hath in those parts doth consist chiefly in the 
nature of their settlement, which contrary to 
our Plantations who depend upon the im- 
provement of lands, &c, theirs of Canada has 
its dependence from the Trade of Furrs and 
Peltry with the Aborigines, soe that conse- 
quently their whole study, and contrivances 
have been to maintaine their interest and rep- 
utation with them . » * * The French 
are so sensible, that they leave nothing un- 
improved. * * * as first by seasonable 
presents; secondly by choosing some of the 
more notable amongst them, to whom is given 
a constant pay as a Lieutenant or Ensigne, 
&c, thirdly, by rewards upon all executions, 
either upon us or our Aborigines, giving a 
certaine sume pr head, for as many Scalps as 
shall be brought them ; fourthly by encourag- 
ing the youth of the Countrey in accompany- 
ing the Aborigines in all their expeditions. 

whereby they not only became acquainted 
with the Woods, Rivers, Passages, but of 
themselves may equall the Natives in sup- 
porting all the incident fatigues of such en- 
terprises, which they performe. " 

After the English once became aroused to 
the opportunity, it was not long until their 
explorers, cartographers, and traders began 
to infiltrate into the Ohio country from across 
the Blue Ridge Mountains. Clashes soon after- 
wards occurred between the French and the 
British, or between the allies of the one and 
the allies of the other. As early as 1740 trad- 
ers from Virginia and Pennsylvania journeyed 
among the Indians of the Ohio and tributary 
streams to deal for peltries. The English 
" bush-lopers, " or wood-rangers, as they were 
called by the eastern colonists, had climbed 
the mountain heights and had threaded their 
way through the forests or along streams as 
far as Michilimackinack. They sought favor 
with the dusky inhabitants by selling their 
goods at a lower ^rice than the French traders 
asked, and frequently offered a better figure 
for the peltries. It was a contest for suprem- 
acy between the British Lion and the Lilies of 
France. These two emblems were to contend 
for the greater part of a eentuiy over the in- 
comparable prize of the North American con- 
tinent. England based her claims on the dis- 
coveries of the Cabots in 1498, which ante- 
dated those of Cartier. She did not follow up 
her discoveries in this northwest territory by 
actual settlement, however, for a century and 
a half. She also made further claims to this 
region by reason of treaties with the Iroquois 
Indians, who claimed dominion over this ter- 
ritory because of their conquest of the Eries, 
who had formerly inhabited it. 

Peace had scarcely been concluded with the 
hostile tribes than the English traders 
hastened over the mountains. Each one was 
anxious to be first in the new and promising 
market thus afforded. The merchandise was 
sometimes transported as far as Fort Pitt 


(Pittsburgh) in wagons. From thence it was 
carried on the backs of horses through the 
forests of Ohio. The traders laboriously 
climbed over the rugged hiUs of Eastern Ohio, 
pushed their way through almost impenetrable 
thickets, and waded over swollen streams. 
They were generally a rough, bold, and fierce 
class, some of them as intractable and trucu- 
lent as the savages themselves when placed in 
the midst of primeval surroundings. A coat 
of smoked deerskin formed the ordinary dress 
of the trader, and he wore a fur cap orna- 
mented with the tail of an animal. He carried 
a knife and a tomahawk in his belt, and a rifle 
was thrown over his shoulder. The principal 
trader would establish his headquarters at 
some large Indian town, while his subordinates 
were dispatched to the surrounding villages 
with a suitable supply of red cloth blankets, 
guns and hatchets, tobacco and beads, and 
lastly, but not least, the "firewater." It is 
not at all surprising that in a region where 
law was practically unknown, the jealousies 
of rival traders should become a prolific source 
of robberies and broils, as well as of actual 
murders. These rugged men possessed strik- 
ing contrasts of good and evil in their natures. 
Many of them were coarse and unscrupulous ; 
but in all there were those warlike virtues of 
undespairing courage and fertility of resource. 
A bed of earth was frequently the trader's 
bed ; a morsel of dried meat and a cup of 
water were not unfrequently his food and 
drink. Danger and death were his constant 

While the newly transplanted English 
colonies were germinating along the narrow 
fringe of coast between the Alleghenies and 
the sea, France was silently stretching her 
authority over the vast interior of the North 
American continent. The principal occupa- 
tion of the Englishman was agriculture, which 
kept him closely at home. Every man owned 
his own cabin and his own plat of ground. 
The Frenchman relied mainly on the fur 

trade, and with his articles of traffic traversed 
the rivers and forests of a large part of the 
continent. A few nobles owned the entire soil. 
It was in a sense the contest between feudal- 
ism and democracy. The English clergymen 
preached the Gospel only to the savages within 
easy reach of the settlements, but the un- 
quenchable zeal of the Catholic Jesuit carried 
him to the remotest forest. In fact, had it 
not been for the hope of spreading the Chris- 
tian faith like a mantle over the New World, 
the work of colonization would doubtless have 
been abandoned. ' ' The saving of a soul, ' ' said 
Champlain, ' ' is wort:h more than the conquest 
of an empire." The establishment of a mis- 
sion was invariably the precursor of military 
occupancy. While the English were still gen- 
erally acquainted only with the aborigines of 
their immediate neighborhood, the French had 
already insinuated themselves into the wig- 
wams of every tribe from the Great Lakes to 
the Gulf of Mexico. In the actual military 
occupation of the territory the French far 
greatly antedated thdr more lethargic com- 
petitors. They had dotted the wilderness 
with stockades before the English turned their 
attention toward the alluring empire beyond 
the mountains. 

Had France fully appreciated the possibili- 
ties of the New World, the map of North 
America would be different than it is today. 
She sent more men to conquer paltry town- 
ships in Germany than she did to take posses- 
sion of empires in America larger than France 
herself. The Frenchman of that day was short- 
sighted — he did not peer into the future. The 
glory of conquest today seemed greater than a 
great New France of a century or two hence. 
Most nations are blind to the possibilities of 
the future. If they do vision the opportunity, 
they are unwilling to make the sacrifice of the 
present for the good of their great-grand- 
children and their children's children. Eng- 
land seemed to see the possibilities here better 
than the other nations, and yet, much of her 


success was doubtless clue to fortunate blun- 
dering rather than deliberate planning. 

Northwest Ohio at this time was a region 
where "one vast, continuous forest shadowed 
the fertile soil, covering the land as the grass 
covers a garden lawn, sweeping over hill and 
hollow in endless undulation. Green intervals 
dotted with browsing deer, and broad plains 
blackened with buffalo, broke the sameness of 
the woodland scenery. Many rivers seamed 
the forest with their devious windings. A vast 
lake washed its boundaries, where the Indian 

endowed. But so thin and scattered were the 
native population that a traveler might jour- 
ney for days through the twilight forest with- 
out encountering a human form. 

At the opening of the eighteenth eenturj', 
the Maumee River had already assumed con- 
siderable importance. Its broad basin became 
the first objective in the sanguinary struggle 
of the French and British to secure a firm 
foothold in Ohio, because of its easy route to 
the south and southwest. The favor of the 
Indians dwelling along its hospitable banks 

A Glimpse of the Beautiful Maumee 

voyager, in his birch canoe, could descry no 
land beyond the world of waters. Yet this 
prolific wilderness, teeming with waste fer- 
tility, was but a hunting-ground and a battle- 
field to a few fierce hordes of savages. Here 
and there, in some rich meadow opened to the 
sun, the Indian sciuaws turned the black mould 
with their rude implements of bone or iron, 
and sowed their scanty stores of maize and 
beans. Human labour drew no other tribute 
from that inexhaustible soil." ^ It is no won- 
der that the savage perished rather than yield 
such a delectable country, and that the white 
man was so eager to enjoy a land so richly 
1 Parknian's "Conspiracy of Pontiac. " 

was diligently sought by both the French and 
English. The French Post Miami, near the 
head of the Maumee, had been built about 
1680-86. It was rebuilt and strengthened in 
the year 1697 by Captain de Vincennes. It is 
also claimed that the French constructed a 
fort a few years earlier, in 1680, on the site 
of Fort Miami, a few miles above the mouth 
of the Maumee. In 1701 the first fort at De- 
troit, Fort Pontchartrain, was erected. Many 
indeed were the expeditions of Frenchmen, 
either military or trading, that passed up and 
down this river. They portaged across from 
Post Miami to the Wabash, and fi'om there 
descended to Vincennes, which was an impor- 


tant French post. At the beginning of King 
George II 's war, M. de Lougueville, French 
commandant at Detroit, passed up this river 
with soldiers and savages on their way to cap- 
ture British traders in Indiana. As early as 
1727 Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, re- 
quested the British authorities to negotiate a 
treaty with the Miamis, on the Miami of the 
Lakes, permitting the erection of a small fort, 
but this plan was not carried out. 

Many years before the Caucasian estab- 
lished his domicile in Ohio, the Sandusky 
River likewise was a favorite water route for 
travel between Canada and the Ohio, and from 
there to the Mississippi. The early French 
tradei-s and the Jesuit fathers employed this 
route, and it required only a short portage. 
At that time, traversing as it did a densely 
wooded country and considerable marsh land, 
it was navigable at all seasons of the year. 
The English did not penetrate this region 
until the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Here occurred the first clash in the rival ef- 
forts of the two races to secure a foothold in 
Ohio, and here was erected the fii'st fort of the 
island invaders into the Ohio country. 

The feeble forts erected by both French and 
English as outposts of empire were indeed 
dreary places. The men thus exiled from 
civilization lived almost after the manner of 
hermits. Time ever hung heavy on their 
hands, whether in winter or summer, because 
of the absence of diversion. With its long 
barrack rooms, its monotonous walls of logs, 
and its rough floor of puncheon, the frontier 
fort did not provide luxury for the occupants. 
There was no ceiling but a smoky thatch, and 

there were no windows except openings closed 
with heavy shutters. The cracks between the 
logs were stuffed with mud and straw to expel 
the chilly blasts. An immense fireplace at 
one end, from which the heat was absorbed 
long before it reached the frosty region at the 
opposite end, supplied the only warmth. The 
principal fare was salt pork, soup, and black 
bread, except when game was obtainable. This 
was eaten at greasy log tables upon which was 
placed a gloomy array of battered iron plates 
and cups. When a hunter happened to bring 
in some venison or bear meat, there was great 
rejoicing. Regardless of these drawbacks, it 
is said that these men, exiles from every re- 
finement, wei-e fairly well contented and gen- 
erally fairly thankful for the few amenities 
that came their way. 

' ' Their resources of employment and recrea- 
tion were few and meagi-e. They found part- 
ners in their loneliness among the young 
beauties of the Indian camps. They hunted 
and fished, shot at targets and played at games 
of chance ; and when, by good fortune a trav- 
eller found his way among them, he was 
greeted with a hearty and open-handed wel- 
come, and plied with eager cpestions touching 
the great world from which they were ban- 
ished men. Yet, tedious as it was, their se- 
cluded life was seasoned with stirring danger. 
The surrounding forests were peopled with a 
race dark and subtle as their own sunless 
mazes. At any hour, those jealous tribes might 
raise the war-cry. No human foresight could 
predict the sallies of their fierce caprice, and 
in ceaseless watchyig laj' the only safety." 



Northwest Ohio was a delightful home and 
a secure retreat for the red men. The banks 
of the Maumee and the Sandusky, and their 
connecting streams, were studded with their 
villages. Their light canoes glided over the 
smooth waters, which were at once a con- 
venient highway and an exhaustless reservoir 
of food. The lake provided them ready ac- 
cess to more remote regions. The forests, 
waters, and prairies produced spontaneously 
and in abundance, game, fish, fruits, and nuts 
— all the things necessary to supply their 
simple wants. The rich soil responded 
promptly to their feeble efforts at agriculture. 

In this secure retreat the wise men of the 
savages gravely convened about their council 
fires, and deliberated upon the best means of 
rolling back the flood of white immigration 
that was threatening. They dimly foresaw 
that this tide would ultimately sweep their 
race from the lands of their fathers. From 
here their young warriors crept forth and, 
stealthily approaching the isolated homes of 
the "palefaces," spreading ruin and desola- 
tion far and wide. Returning to the villages, 
their booty and savage trophies were exhibited 
with all the exultations and boasts of primitive 
warriors. Protected by aljnost impenetrable 
swamp and uncharted forests, their women, 
children, and propertj^ were comparatively 
safe during the absence of their warriors. 
Thus it was that the dusky children of the 
wilderness here enjoyed almost perfect free- 
dom, and lived in accordance with their rude 
instincts, and the habits and customs of the 

tribes. ' ' Amid the scenes of his childhood, in 
the presence of his ancestors' graves, the red 
warrior, with his squaw and papoose, sur- 
rounded by all the essentials to the enjoyment 
of his simple wants, here lived out the charac- 
ter which nature had given him. In war, it 
was his base line of attack, his source of sup- 
plies, and his secure refuge; in peace, his 
home. ' ' 

It was in Northwest Ohio that two of the 
most noted conspiracies against the encroach- 
ments of the invading race were formulated 
and inaugurated. One of these was against 
the French, and was led by chief Nicholas; 
the other was the more noted conspiracy of 
Pontiae, which had for its object the annihi- 
lation of British power. Orontony was a 
noted Wyandot chief, who had been baptized 
under the name of Nicholas. The tribe had 
just lately removed from the neighborhood of 
Detroit, having been in some manner offended 
by the French. He devised a plan for the 
general extermination of the French power 
in the West. Nicholas resided at "Sando- 
sket, ' ' and was ' ' a wily fellow, full of savage 
cunning, whose enmity, when once aroused, 
was greatly to be feared. ' ' He had his strong- 
hold and villages on some islands lying just 
above the mouth of the Sandusky River. It 
was he who granted permission to erect Fort 
Sandoski at his principal town, in order to 
secure the aid of the British. This was the 
first real fort erected by white men in Ohio. 
In 1747 five Frenchmen with their peltries ar- 
rived here, totally unsuspicious of threaten- 



ing danger, counting upon the hospitality and 
friendship of the Hurons. Nicholas was 
greatly irritated by their audacity in coming 
into his towns without his consent. At the 
behest of rival English traders, these men 
were seized and treacherously tomahawked. 
When this news reached Detroit, there was 
great indignation. Messengers were promptly 
dispatched to Nicholas demanding the de- 
livery of the murderers, but the request was 
defiantly refused. 

The crafty Nicholas conceived the idea of 
a widespread conspiracy, which should have 
for its object the capture of Detroit and all 
other French outposts, and the massacre 
of all the white inhabitants. The work of 
destruction was parcelled out to the various 
tribes of Wyandots and Miamis, of which he 
was the leader. He had also succeeded in 
rallying to his aid the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawattomies, and Shawnees, as well as 
some more distant tribes. The real purpose 
of this league was nothing less than the driv- 
ing out of the French from the lake country. 
No mercy was to be shown. The Miamis and 
Wyandots were to exterminate the French 
from the Maumee country ; to the Pottawatto- 
mies were assigned the Bois Blanc Islands, 
while the Foxes were to attack the settlement 
at Green Bay. Nicholas reserved to himself 
and his followers the fort and settlement at 
Detroit. A party of Detroit Hurons were to 
sleep in the fort and houses at Detroit, as 
they had often done before, and each was to 
kill the people where he had lodged. The 
day set for this massacre was one of the holi- 
days of Pentecost. 

Premature acts of violence aroused the sus- 
picions of the French, and reinforcements 
were hurriedly brought in. Like the later one 
of Pontiac, the conspiracy failed because of 
a woman. While the braves were in council, 
one of their squaws, going into the garret of the 
house in search of Indian corn, overheard the 
details of the conspiracy. She at once has- 

tened to a Jesuit priest, and revealed the 
plans of the savages. The priest lost no time 
in communicating with M. de Longueuil, the 
French Commandant, who ordered out the 
troops, aroused the people, and gave the In- 
dians to understand that their plans had been 
discovered. Eight Frenchmen were seized 
at Fort Miami (Fort Wayne), which was de- 
stroyed, and a French trader was killed along 
the Maumee. Nicholas finally sought peace 
and pardon, but vengeance smouldered in his 
breast. In 1748, he and his followers, number- 
ing in all one hundred and nineteen warriors, 
departed for the west after destroying all 
their villages along the Sandusky, and lo- 
cated in the Illinois country. 

In the spring of 1749 Celeron made his 
memorable journey down the 0-hi-o, the 
"beautiful river." He took possession of the 
country in the name of his sovereign and 
buried leaden plates asserting the sovereignty 
of France. It was a picturesque flotilla of 
twenty birch bark canoes that left Montreal 
in that year. The passengers were equally as 
picturesque, including as they did soldiers in 
armor and dusky savages with their primitive 
weapons. They successfully accomplished 
their journey and buried their last plate at 
the mouth of the Great Miami River. Chang- 
ing their course they turned the prow of their 
canoes northward, and in a few days reached 
Pickawillany (Pkiwileni). During a week's 
stay they endeavored to win the Jliamis to 
their cause, but were not very successful, 
even with a plentiful use of brandy. There 
was much feasting and revelry, but the cause 
of France was not advanced. Prom there they 
portaged to Fort Miami (Fort Wayne). Cele- 
ron himself proceeded overland to Detroit, 
while the majority of his followers descended 
the Maumee. The expedition traveled "over 
twelve hundred leagues," but added little to 
French prestige or dominion. In the follow- 
ing year Christopher Gist accomplished his 
remarkable expedition through Ohio, and at 



Pickawillany entered into treaty relations 
with the Miamis, or Twightwees, as the Eng- 
lish called them. At the same time French 
emissaries were dismissed and their presents 
refused. The chief of the Pienkeshaws here 
known as "Old Britain," by the English, and 
as "La Demoiselle" by the French, beeai;se of 
his gaudy dress. 

Major George Croghan was sent as an emis- 
sary to the Ohio Indians several times, and 
traversed this country in 1765. He says: 
"About ninety miles from the Miamis of 
Twightwee we came to where the large river 
that heads in a lick, falls into the Miami River. 
This they called the forks. The Ottawas claim 
this country, and hunt here where game is 
very plentyful. From hence we proceed to 
the Ottawa village. This nation formerly 
lived at Detroit, but is now settled here on ac- 
count of the -richness of the country, where 
game is always found to be plenty. Here we 
were obliged to get out of our canoes and drag 
them eighteen miles on account of the rifts 
which interrupted navigation. At the end of 
these rifts we came to a village of the Wyan- 
dots who received us very kindly, and thence 
we proceeded to the mouth of the river where 
it falls into Lake Erie. From the Miamis to the 
lake it is computed 180 miles, and from the 
entrance of the river into the Lake to Detroit 
is sixty miles — that is forty-two miles up the 
lake and eighteen miles up the Detroit River 
to the garrison of that name." 

During the long wars between the French 
and the British, and their Indian allies, which 
extended over a period of half a century or 
more, and only ended in 1760, there were no 
battles of any consequence between these two 
contending forces in Northwest Ohio. There 
were, however, many isolated tragedies that 
occurred. The expedition of French and In- 
dians under Charles- Langlade, a half-breed, 
which captured and destroyed Pickawillany, 
in Shelby County, came from Detroit and as- 
cended the Maumee and the Auglaise on their 

journey. It was composed of a considerable 
force of greased and painted Indians, together 
with a small party of French and Canadians. 
It was on a June morning, in 1752, that the 
peaceful village was aroused by the frightful 
war whoop, as the painted horde bore down 
upon the inhabitants. Most of the warriors 
were absent, and the squaws were at work in 
the fields. Only eight English traders were in 
the town. It was the work of only a few 
hours until Pickawillany was destroyed and 
set on fire. This was one of the many tragic 
incidents in the French and Indian war. 
"Old Britain" himself was killed, his body 
being boiled and eaten by the victors. The 
Turtle, of whom we are to hear much, suc- 
ceeded him as chief. 

The English began to arrive in increasing 
numbers, following the French along the water 
courses to greater and greater distances. 
They continued to pay increased rates for 
furs, and to sell their goods at lower prices. 
In this way they began to undermine the 
French prestige. But the poor Indian was in 
a quandary. An old sachem meeting Christo- 
pher Gist is reported to have said: "The 
French claim all the land on our side of the 
Ohio, the English claim all the land on the 
other side — now where does the Indian's land 
lie ? " Between the French, their good fathers, 
and the English, their benevolent brothers, 
the aborigine seemed destined to be left with- 
out land enough upon which to erect a wig- 
wam, leaving out of consideration the neces- 
sary hunting grounds. 

The British had evidently profited by the 
reports of their emissaries, concerning the 
success of the French in placing a bonus upon 
scalps, for we discover them engaged in the 
same nefarious business at a little later date. 
If the British inflicted less injury than they 
experienced by this horrible mode of warfare, 
it was less from their desire than from their 
limited success in enlisting the savages as 
their allies. Governor George Clinton, in a 



letter dated at New York, 25tli April, 1747, 
wrote to Colonel William Johnson, as follows : 
"In the bill am going to pass, the council 
did not think proper to put rewards for scalp- 
ing, or taking poor women or children prison- 
ers, in it ; but the assembly has assured me the 
money shall be paid when it so happens, if the 
natives insist upon it." On May 30th, Colonel 
Johnson wrote to the governor : " I am quite 
pestered every day with parties returning with 
prisoners and scalps, and without a penny to 
pay them with. It comes very hard upon me, 
and is displeasing to them I can assure you, 
for they expect their pay and demand it of me 
as soon as they return." 

Governor Clinton reported to the Duke of 
Newcastle, under date of July 23, 1747, the 
following: "Colonel Johnson who I have em- 
ploy 'd as Chief Manager of the Aborigine War 
and Colonel over all the natives, by their own 
approbation, has sent several parties of natives 
into Canada & brought back at several times 
prisoners and scalps, but they being laid 
aside last year, the natives were discouraged 
and began to entertain jealousies by which a 
new expense became necessary to remove 
these .jealousies & to bring them back to 
their former tempers; but unless some enter- 
prise, which may keep up their spirits, we 
may again loose them. I intend to propose 
something to our Assembly for this purpose 
that they may give what is necessary for the 
expense of it, but I almost despair of any suc- 
cess with them when money is demanded. ' ' 

It would be a tedious task, and is entirely 
unnecessary, to follow all the events in the 
desperate efforts of the Indians to adapt them- 
selves to the new situation. The French were 
far more aggi-essive, and many complaints 
came to the British authorities because of 
their delay in heeding the appeals of the sav- 
ages. These delays afforded the time to the 
French authorities to erect new forts and re- 
build others, in an effort to control one of the 
main routes to the Ohio River. Among these 

was Fort Junandat, at the mouth of the San- 
dusky River. With Braddock's defeat it 
seemed to the Indian mind that the English 
cause was weakening, and many of the tribes, 
heretofore British in sympathy, began to 
waver in their allegiance. William Johnson 
wrote: "The unhappy defeat of General 
Braddock has brought an Indian war upon 
this and the neighboring provinces and from a 
quarter where it was least expectant, I mean 
the Delawares and Shawnees." The English 
indeed began to think that "the Indians are a 
most inconstant and unfixed set of mortals." 
But it was such events that made possible a 
federation of the Ohio tribes, together with 
others farther west and north to drive the 
English from the western country. 

In making a study of the history of North- 
west Ohio, we learn that this most remarkable 
section of our state has produced many great 
and notable white men; men who have en- 
livened the pages of our nation's history, and 
helped to establish her destiliy. But we must 
not forget that it also lays claim to one of the 
greatest men of American Indian annals. His 
father was an Ottawa chief, while his mother 
was an Ojibwa (Chippewa), or Miami, squaw. 
The date of his birth is variously stated from 
1712 to 1720. He was unusually dark in com- 
plexion, of medium height, with a powerful 
frame, and carried himself with haughty mien. 
Most writers speak of his birthplace as "on 
the Ottawa River," but that tribe bestowed 
its name upon practicall}' every stream bj' the 
side of which they camped. According to 
the Miami chief, Richardville, the great chief 
Pontiac first saw the light of day near the 
]\Iaumee River, at the mouth of the Auglaize, 
which would be on or near the site of tlie pres- 
ent City of Defiance. The Maumee Valley was 
his home and stronghold. It was here that he 
planned his treacherous campaign, and here 
it was that he sought asylum when over- 
whelmed by defeat. 

Judged by the primitive standards of the 



aborigines, Pontiae was one of the greatest 
chiefs of which we have any record in our 
nation's history. His intellect was broad, 
powerful, and penetrating. In subtlety and 
craft, he had no superiors. In him were com- 
bined the qualities of an astute leader, a re- 
markable warrior, and a broad-minded states- 

the mouth of the Chogaga (Cuyahoga) River, 
and that they were under 'Ponteack' who is 
their 'present King or Emperor. ' * * * He 
puts on an air of majesty and princely gran- 
deur, and is greatly honored and revered by 
his subjects." Pontiae forbade his proceed- 
ing for a day or two, but finally smoked the 

^ , P N T 1 A C 

man. His ambitions seemed to have no limit, 
such as was usually the case with an Indian 
chief. His understanding reached to higher 
generalizations and broader comprehensions 
than those of any other Indian mind. The 
first place that we hear of Pontiae is in an 
account of the expedition of Rogers' Rangers, 
in the fall of 1760. Rogers himself says: 
"We met with a party of Ottawa Indians, at 

pipe of peace with Rogers, and permitted the 
expedition to proceed through his country to 
Detroit, for the purpose of superseding the 
French garrison there. This was the first act 
of British authority over this section of our 
country. His object was accomplished with- 
out any conflict. "He was an illiterate man, 
and unprincipled in money matters, but a good 
ranger and observer." His journal of the 



expedition affords interesting descriptions of 
the lake region. Like others his descriptions 
recount the wonderful profusion and variety 
of game. Rogers made an encampment for 
a few days near "Lake Sandusky," as he 
called it, from whence he sent a courier to De- 
troit. On his return in the following year, he 
reached Sandusky by the way of the Maumee. 

It was the fierce contest between the French 
and the English forces that afforded Pontiac 
the opportunity which always seems neces- 
sary to develop the great mind. It was with 
sorrow and anger that the red man saw the 
fleur-de-lis disappear and the Cross of St. 
George take its place. Toward the new in- 
truders the Indians generally maintained a 
stubborn resentment and even hostility. The 
French, who had been the idols of the Indian 
heart, had begun to lose their grip on this ter- 
ritory. The English, who were succeeding 
them in many places, followed an entirely dif- 
ferent policy in treating with the aborigines. 
The abundant supplies of rifles, blankets, and 
gunpowder, and even brandy, which had been 
for so many years dispensed from the French 
forts with lavish hand, were abruptly stopped, 
or were doled out with a niggardly and re- 
luctant hand. The sudden withholding of 
supplies to which they had become accustomed 
was a grievous calamity. When the Indians 
visited the forts, frequently they were received 
rather gruffly, instead of being treated with 
polite attention, and sometimes they were sub- 
jected to genuine indignities. Whereas they 
received gaudy presents, accompanied with 
honeyed words from the French, they were not 
infrequently helped out of the fort with a 
butt of a sentry's musket, or a vigorous kick 
from an officer by their successors. These 
marks of contempt were utterly humiliating 
to the proud and haughty red men. 

The fact that French competition in trade 
had practically ended doubtless influenced 
English officials and unscrupulous tradesmen 
in their treatment of the Indians. Added to 

these official acts was the steady encroachment 
of white settlers following the end of the 
French and Indian War, which was at all 
times a fruitful source of Indian hostility. By 
this time the more venturesome pioneers were 
escaping from the confines of the Alleghenies 
and beginning to spread through the western 
forests. It was with fear and trembling that 
the Indian "beheld the westward marches of 
the unknown crowded nations." Lashed al- 
most into a frenzy by these agencies, still an- 
other disturbing influence appeared in a great 
Indian prophet, who arose among the Dela- 
wares. He advocated the wresting of the 
Indian 's hunting grounds from the white man, 
claiming to have received a revelation from 
the Great Spirit. Vast throngs were spell- 
bound by his wild eloquence. Among his audi- 
ences were many who had come from distant 
regions to hear him. The white man was driv- 
ing the Indians from their country, he said: 
unless the Indians obeyed the Great Spirit, 
and exterminated the white man, then the lat- 
ter would destroy them. He enjoined them 
even to lay aside the firearms and clothing re- 
ceived from the white man. 

This was the state of affairs existing among 
the Indians in the years 1761 and 1762. 
Everywhere there was discontent and sullen 
hatred. The shadows of the forest were not 
blacker than the ominous darkness which per- 
vaded the Indian breast. This condition was 
not local, for it spread from the Great Lakes 
to the Gulf. It was far more nearly universal 
than any other Indian disturbance before or 
since that time. The French added fuel to the 
passion by telling the Indians that the English 
had evolved a plan to exterminate the entire 
race. This malicious statement aroused the 
fierce passions of the red men to fury. The 
common Indian brave simply struck in re- 
venge for fancied or actual wrongs. But the 
vision of the great Pontiac assumed a wider 
scope, for he saw farther. Recognizing the 
increasing power of the British, he realized 



that unless France retained her foothold on the 
continent the destruction of his race was 
inevitable. It therefore became his ambition 
to replace British control with that of France. 
The result was that far-reaching movement 
among the savages, which is known in history 
as Pontiac's Conspiracy. In the same year 
that the Seven Years War was officially ended 
by the peace concluded at Fontainebleau, 
which probably surpasses all other treaties in 
the transfer of .territory, including cur own 
section, in which the Lily of France was of- 
ficially displaced by the Lion of Great Brit- 
ain. The war belt of wampum was sent to 
the farthest shores of Lake Superior, and the 
most distant delta of the Mississippi. The 
bugle call of this mighty leader Poutiac 
aroused the remotest tribes to aggressive ac- 

"Why do you suffer these dogs in red 
clothing to enter your country and take the 
land the Great Spirit has given you? Drive 
them from it ! Drive them ! When you are 
in distress I will help you." These words 
were the substance of the message from Pon- 
tiae. That voice was heard, but not by 
the whites. "The unsuspecting traders jour- 
neyed from village to village ; the soldiers in 
the forts shrunk from the sun of the early 
summer, and dozed away the day ; the frontier 
settler, resting in fancied security, sowed his 
crops, or, watching the sunset through the 
girdled trees, mused upon one more peaceful 
harvest, and told his children of the horrors 
of the ten years' war, now, thank God! over. 
From the Alleghenies to the Mississippi the 
trees had leaved and all was calm life and 
joy. But through the great country, even 
then, bands of sullen red men were journey- 
ing from the central valleys to the lakes and 
the eastern hills. Ottawas filled the woods 
near Detroit. The Maumee post, Presque Isle, 
Niagara, Pitt, Ligonier, and every English 
fort, was hemmed in by Indian tribes, who 
felt that the great battle drew nigh which 

was to determine their fate and the possession 
of their noble lands." 

The chiefs and sachems everywhere joined 
the conspiracy, and sent lofty messages to 
Pontiac of the deeds they would perform. The 
ordinary pursuits of life were practically 
abandoned. Although the fair haired Anglo- 
Saxons and darker Latins had concluded 
peace, the warriors, who had not been repre- 
sented at the great European conclave, danced 
their war dance for weeks at a time. Squaws 
were set to work sharpening knives, moulding 
bullets, and mixing war paint. Even the chil- 
dren imbibed the fever and incessantly prac- 
ticed with bows and arrows. While ambassa- 
dors in Europe were coldly and unfeelingly 
disposing of the lands of the aborigines, the 
savages themselves were planning for the de- 
struction of the Europeans residing among 
them. For once in the history of the Ameri- 
can aborigines thousands of wild and restless 
Indians of a score of different tribes were 
animated by a single inspiration and purpose. 
The attack was to be made in the month of 
May, 1763. 

"Hang the peace pipe on the wall — 
Rouse the nations one and all! 
Tell them quickly to prepare 
For the bloody rites of War. 
Now begin the fatal dance, 
Raise the club and shake the lance, 
Now prepare the bow and dart — 
'Tis our fathers' ancient art; 
Let each heart be strong and bold 
As our fathers were of old. 
Warriors, up ! — prepare— attack— 
'Tis the voice of Pontiack." 

The conspiracy was months in maturing. 
Pontiac kept two secretaries, the ' ' one to write 
for him, the other to read the letters he re- 
ceived and he manages them so as to keep each 
of them ignorant of what is transacted by the 
other." It was also carried on with great 



secrecy, in order to avoid its being communi- 
cated to the Britisli. Pontiac reserved to him- 
self the beginning of the war. With the open- 
ing of spring he dispatched his fleet-footed 
messengers through the forests bearing their 
belts of wampum and gifts of tobacco. They 
visited not only the populous villages, but also 
many a lonely tepee in the northern woods. 
The appointed spot was on the banks of the 
little river Ecorces, not far from Detroit. To 
this great council went Pontiac, together with 
his squaws and children. When all the dele- 
gates had arrived, the meadow was thickly 
dotted with the slender wigwams. 

In accordance with the summons, "they 
came issuing from their cabins — the tall, 
naked figures of the wild Ojibwas, with quiv- 
ers slung at their backs, and light war-clubs 
resting in the hollow of their arms; Ottawas, 
wrapped close in their gaudy blankets ; Wj'an- 
dots, fluttering in painted shirts, their heads 
adorned with feathers, and their leggings gar- 
nished with bells. All were soon seated in a 
wide circle upon the grass, row within row, 
a grave and silent assembly. Each savage 
countenance seemed carved in wood, and none 
could have detected the deep and fiery pas- 
sions hidden beneath that immovable exterior. 
Pipes with ornamented stems were lighted and 
passed from hand to hand." Pontiac in- 
veighed against the arrogance, injustice, and 
contemptuous conduct of the English. He 
expanded upon the trouble that would fol- 
low their supremacy. He exhibited a belt of 
wampum that he had received from their 
great father, the King of France, as a token 
that he had heard the voices of his red chil- 
dren, and said that the French and the In- 
dians would once more fight side by side as 
they had done many moons ago. 

The plan that had been agreed upon was to 
attack all the British outposts on the same 
day, and thus drive the "dogs in red" from 
the country. The first intimation that the 
British had was in JIareh, 1763, when Ensign 

Holmes, commandant of Fort Miami at the 
head of the Maumee was informed by a 
friendly Miami that the Indians in the near 
villages had lately received a war belt with 
urgent request that they destroy him and his 
garrison, and that they were even then pre- 
paring to do so. This information was com- 
municated to his superior at Detroit, in the 
following letter to Major Gladwyn : — 

"Fort Miami, 
"March 30th, 1763. 

"Since my Last Letter to You, where I 
Acquainted You of the Bloody Belt being in 
this Village, I have made all the search I 
could about it, and have found it out to be 
True. Whereon I Assembled all the Chiefs of 
this Nation, & after a long and troublesome 
Spell with them, I Obtained the Belt, with a 
Speech, as You will Receive Enclosed. This 
Affair is very timely Stopt, and I hope the 
News of a Peace will put a stop to any fur- 
ther Troubles with these Indians, who are the 
Principal Ones of Setting Mischief on Foot. 
I send you the belt with this Packet, which I 
hope You will Forward to the General. " 

One morning an Indian girl, a favorite of 
Ensign Holmes, the commanding officer of the 
Fort Miami mentioned above, appeared at the 
fort. She told him that an old squaw was ly- 
ing sick in a wigwam, a short distance away, 
and beseeched Holmes to come and see if he 
could do anything for her. Although Holmes 
was suspicious of the Indians, he never 
doubted the loyalty of the girl, and readily 
yielded to her request. A number of Indian 
lodges stood at the edge of a meadow not far 
removed from the fort, but hidden from it 
by a strip of woodland. The treacherous girl 
pointed out the hut where the sick woman 
lay. As Holmes entered the lodge, a dozen 
rifles were discharged and he fell dead. A 
sergeant, hearing the shots, ran out of the 
fort to see what was the matter, and encoun- 
tered a similar fate. The panic-stricken gar- 



rison, no longer possessing a leader, threw open 
the gates and surrendered without resistance. 
On the 16th of May Ensign Pauli, who was 
in command at Fort Sandusky, which had 
been rebuilt and reoccupied, was informed 
that seven Indians were waiting at the gate 
to speak with him. Several of these were 
known to him, as they were Wyandots of his 

Map Showing Military Posts, Forts, 
Battlefields and Indian Trails in Ohio 

neighborhood, so that they were readily ad- 
mitted. When the visitors reached his head- 
quarters, an Indian seated himself on either 
side of the ensign. Pipes were lighted, and 
all seemed peaceful. Suddenly an Indian 
standing in the doorway made a signal by 
raising his head. The savages immediately 
seized Pauli and disarmed him. At the same 
time a confusion of yells and shrieks and the 
noise of firearms sounded from without. It 
soon ceased, however, and when Pauli was led 

out of the enclosure the ground was strewn 
with the corpses of his murdered comrades 
and the traders. At nightfall he was con- 
ducted to the lake, where several birch canoes 
lay, and as they left the shore the fort burst 
into flames. He was then bound hand and foot 
and taken to Detroit, where the assembled 
Indian squaws and children pelted him with 
stones, sticks, and gravel, forcing him to dance 
and sing. Happily an old squaw, who had 
lately been widowed, adopted him in place of 
the deceased spouse. Having been first 
plunged into the river that the white blood 
might be washed away, he was conducted to 
the lodge of the widow, but he escaped from 
such enforced matrimonial servitude at the 
earliest opportunity. 

It would not be withiirthe province of this 
history to describe in detail the prolonged 
siege which was undergone by the British 
garrison at Detroit against a host of besieging 
savages. At every other point the conspiracy 
was a success, and for the British there was 
only an unbroken series of disasters. The 
savages spread terror among the settlers 
throughout all the Ohio country. Cabins were 
burned, defenseless women and children were 
murdered, and the aborigines were aroused to 
the highest pitch of fury by the blood of their 
numerous victims. It was not until a letter 
reached Pontiae from the French commander, 
informing him that the French and English 
were now at peace, that the Ottawa chief aban- 
doned hope. He saw himself and his people 
thrown back upon their own slender resources. 
For hours no man nor woman dared approach 
him, so terrible was his rage. His fierce spirit 
was wrought into unspeakable fury. At last 
he arese and, with an imperious gesture, or- 
dered the frightened squaws to take down the 
wigwams. In rage and mortification, Pontiae, 
with a few tribal chiefs as followers, removed 
his camp from Detroit and returned to the 
Maumee River to nurse his disappointed ex- 



Following the withdrawal of the Indians, 
comparative quiet prevailed for several 
months. Pontiac was still uneonquered, how- 
ever, and his hostility to the English con- 
tinued unabated. He afterwards journeyed 
to the Illinois country, where the French still 
held sway, in order to arouse the western 
tribes to further resistance. His final sub- 
mission w^as given to Sir William Johnson, at 
Oswego. That official, ' ' wrapped in his scarlet 
blanket bordered with gold lace, and sur- 
rounded by the glittering uniforms of the 
British officers, was seen, with hand extended 
in welcome to the great Ottawa, who standing 
erect in conscious power, his rich plumes wav- 
ing over the circle of his warriors, accepted the 
proffered hand, with an air in which defiance 
and respect were singularly blended." Like 
the dissolving view upon a screen, this pic- 
turesque pageant passed into history and Pon- 
tiac returned to the Maumee region, which 
continued to be his home. Here he pitched his 
lodge in the forest with his wives and children, 
and hunted like an ordinary warrior. He 
yielded more and more to the seduction of 
' ' firewater. ' ' 

For a few years the records are silent con- 
cerning Pontiac. In 1789, however, he ap- 
peared at the post of St. Louis. He remained 
there for two or three days, after which he 
visited an assemblage of Indians at Cahokia, 
on the opposite side of the river, arrayed in 
the full uniform of a French officer, one which 
had been presented to him by the Marquis of 
Jlontcalm. Here a Kaskaskia Indian, bribed 
by a British trader, buried a tomahawk in his 

brain. Thus perished the Indian chief who 
made himself a powerful champion of his 
ruined race. His descendants continued to 
reside along the Maumee until the final re- 
moval of the remnant of his once powerful 
tribe beyond the Mississippi. His death was 
avenged in a truly sanguinary way. The Kas- 
kaskias were pursued by the Sacs and Foxes, 
and were practically exterminated for this vile 
deed. Their villages were burned, and their 
people either slain or driven to refuge in dis- 
tant places. 

Pontiac 's vision of the ruin of his people 
was prophetic. The Indian has disappeared, 
together with the buffalo, the deer, and the 
bear. His wigwam has vanished from the 
banks of the streams. Today, mementoes of 
his lost race, such as the rude tomahawk, the 
stone arrowhead, and the wampum beads, 
when turned up by the plow of the paleface 
farmer, become the prized relics of the anti- 
quary or the wonder of youth. But his pro- 
phetic eye went no further. Little did he 
dream that within the short space of a few 
human lives the blue lake over which he oft- 
times sailed would be studded with the ships 
of commerce ; that gigantic boats propelled by 
steam would replace the fragile canoe; that 
populous cities and thriving villages would 
arise by the score upon the ruins of the pris- 
tine forests; that the hunting grounds of his 
youth, and old age as well, here in Northwest 
Ohio, would become a hive of industry and 
activity, and the abode of wealth surpassed by 
no other section of this or adjoining states. 



After the defeat of Pontiac and the com- 
plete collapse of his conspiracy, the Indians 
became convinced that no more reliance could 
be placed on the French, and that their inter- 
ests would be best served by remaining on 
friendly terms with the British. But this de- 
cision did not come spontaneously, for several 
expeditions and ambassadors were dispatched 
to the various tribes and confederations before 
peace followed. 

Col. John Bradstreet, a man whose reputa- 
tion greatly exceeded his exploits, headed a 
large expedition which sailed up Lake Erie to 
Detroit in 1764. Israel Putnam was a mem- 
ber of this body, the entire expedition num- 
bering more than two thousand soldiers and 
helpers. It required a large flotilla to convey 
so large a force. Bradstreet had positive or- 
ders to attack the Indians dwelling along the 
Sandusky. He camped there for a time on his 
outward journey, but was misled by the In- 
dian subtlety, and sailed away without either 
following his orders to chastise these Indians 
or completing the fort which he began. The 
Indians promised "that if he would refrain 
from attacking them, they would follow him 
to Detroit and there conclude a treaty." At 
Detroit the troops were royally welcomed. An 
Indian council was at once summoned, and 
Montresor reports it as follows: "Sat this 
day the Indian council. Present, the Jibbe- 
ways, Shawanese, Hurons of Sandusky and 
the five nations of the Scioto, with all the sev- 
eral nations of friendly Indians accompanying 
the army. The Pottawattomies had not yet 

arrived. Pondiac declined appearing here 
until his pardon should be granted. * * * 
This day Pondiac was forgiven in council, who 
is at present two days' march above the Castle 
on the Miami (Maumee) River called la Roche 
de But, with a party of sixty or more sav- 
ages. ' ' The Indians agreed to call the English 
king "father," the term formerly applied to 
the French sovereign. After several weeks 
spent at Detroit, Bradstreet once more em- 
barked for the Sandusky, where he arrived in 
a few days. A number of prominent and 
lesser chiefs visited him here, but nothing 
whatever was accomplished. Their subtlety 
was too deep for the English commander. He 
camped where Fremont is now located, and 
began the work of erecting a fort on that site. 
This was finally abandoned and the expedi- 
tion returned to Fort Niagara. 

An interesting incident in connection with 
the Bradstreet expedition was a journey un- 
dertaken by Captain Morris, of which he kept 
a complete and interesting journal. Under 
instructions from his superior, he "set out in 
good spirits from Cedar Point (mouth of the 
Maumee), Lake Erie, on the 26th of August, 
1764, about four o'clock in the afternoon, and 
at the same time the army proceeded for De- 
troit. " He was accompanied by two Cana- 
dians and a dozen Indians, who were to ac- 
company him "to the Rapids of the Miami 
(Maumee) River, and then return to the 
army." There were also Warsong, a noted 
"Chippeway chief, and Attawang. an Uttawa 
(Ottawa) chief." The party proceeded up 

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United States in 1783 



the Maumee to the headquarters of Pontiac, 
"whose army consisting of six hundred sav- 
ages, with tomahawks in their hands," sur- 
rounded him. Pontiac squatted himself before 
his visitor, and behaved in a rather unfriendly 
fashion. The greater part of the Indians got 
drunk, and several of them threatened to kill 
him. After the savages had become more 
sober, Pontiac permitted the party to resume 
its journey up the river. 

At the site of Fort Wayne, another rabble 
of Indians met the embassy in a threatening 
manner, but Morris remained in a canoe read- 
ing "The tragedy of Anthony and Cleopatra," 
in a volume of Shakespeare which had been 
presented to him by the Indian chief. This 
was undoubtedly one of the strangest circum- 
stances under which the works of Shakespeare 
were ever perused. The journal of Morris re- 
veals a keen insight into the Indian nature. 
While Bradstreet was being deceived by their 
duplicity, ]\Iorris recognized their real char- 
acter, and said : "I wish the chiefs were as- 
sembled on board a vessel, and that she had 
a hole in her bottom. Treachery should be 
paid with treachery; and it is worth more 
than ordinary pleasure to deceive those who 
would deceive us. ' ' When he reached Detroit 
again, Bradstreet had already departed on his 
journey to the Sandusky. 

Maj. George Croghan was sent down the . 
Ohio to the Illinois country, in 1765. Of this 
journey we have a detailed and voluminous 
account in the journals kept by that officer. 
They are replete with copious descriptions of 
the country and streams, the topography, the 
game, and the Indian villages visited. He 
encountered much hostility, and was finally 
made a prisoner. This might have been his 
last experience, had it not been for some 
Pyankeshaws. Among these he found many 
of his former friends, who aided him. Accom- 
panied by Pontiac, who had joined him in a 
friendly mood, Croghan turned his footsteps 
eastward to Fort Miami, at the head of the 

Maumee. From there he descended that river, 
stopping at the Indian villages on its banks, 
and proceeded to Detroit. Here a notable 
gathering of aborigines assembled pursuant to 
his summons. It was a motley gathering of 
many tribes. Speeches innumerable were made 
and wampum belts exchanged, while the blue 
smoke from the peace-pipe curled in clouds 
to the roof of the council hall. His mission 
was crowned with success, for tribe after tribe 
yielded its submission. The trip of Croghan, 
during which he had traveled 2,000 miles 
through the heart of the hostile Indian coun- 
try, had a far-reaching effect. It cemented 
the allegiance of the dusky inhabitants of the 
forests to their new overlords. 

The Detroit meeting was followed by a 
council at Oswego, in the following spring, 
when new treaties were negotiated. The scene 
is described by Stone in his "Life of John- 
son": "Indeed the appearance of that coun- 
cil upon that summer's morning was exceed- 
ingly picturesque. At one end of the leafy 
canopy the manly form of the superintendent, 
wrapped in his scarlet blanket bordered with 
gold lace, and surrounded by the glittering 
uniforms of the British officers, was seen with 
hand extended in welcome to the great Ottawa, 
who, standing erect in conscious power, his 
rich plumes waving over the circle of his war- 
riors, accepted the proffered hand, with an 
air in which defiance and respect were singu- 
larly blended. Around, stretched at length 
upon the grass, lay the proud chiefs of the 
Six Nations, gazing with curious eye upon the 
man who had come hundreds of miles to smoke 
the calumet with their beloved superintend- 
ent. ' ' A number of clashes occurred after this 
date and before the Revolution, but they were 
generally with colonists or colonial forces 
which backed up the colonists in their entry 
into the Ohio region. 

To meet these advances of the whites the 
Ohio Indians formed a great confederacy on 
the Pickaway Plains, in July, 1772, in which 


the Shawnees, Wyandots, Miamis, Ottawas, 
Delawares, and even western tribes, united 
for mutual protection. They disputed the 
right of the Six Nations to convey a title to 
the English for all the huntings grounds south 
of the Ohio. Hence it was that the purpose 
of this alliance was not only to hurl back from 
their frontiers the white invaders, but also to 
surpass the Iroquois, both in strength and 
prowess. The Shawnees were the most active 
in this confederation, and their great chief 
Cornstalk was recognized as the head of this 
confederation. In the year 1774 many in- 
human and revolting incidents occurred. But 
the power of this alliance was finally broken, 
and the peace pipe was again smoked. 

This decision of the savages to remain loyal 
to the British was destined to cost the Ameri- 
can colonists many hundreds of additional 
lives, and an untold amount of suffering dur- 
ing the several years of bitter struggle for 
independence from the mother country. Pre- 
vious to this time the colonies had already lost 
some thirty thousand lives, and had incurred 
an expense of many millions of dollars in their 
efforts for protection against the French and 
their Indian allies. Of this sum only about 
one-third had been reimbursed to them by the 
British Parliament. Hence it was that a large 
indebtedness had accumulated, and the rates 
of taxation had become exceedingly burden- 

The war against the savages was almost 
without cessation. The campaigns were more 
nearly continuous than consecutive, and they 
seldom reached to the dignity of civilized war- 
fare. In most instances it is difficult to differ- 
entiate when one Indian war ended and an- 
other began. Incursive bodies of whites and 
retaliatory bodies of Indians, or vice versa, 
kept this section of the state in an almost 
interminable turmoil. An attack was imme- 
diately followed by reprisal, and an invasion 
was promptly succeeded by pursuit and pun- 
ishment. Most of the encounters rose little 

above massacres by one or both belligerents. 
The killing of some of the family of the ilingo 
chief, Logan, is an instance of white brutality. 
Bald Eagle, a Delaware chief, and Silver 
Heels, a friendly Shawnee chief, were also 
brutally murdered by the pale faces. It is no 
wonder that the Indians began to ask : ' ' Had 
the Indian no rights which the white man was 
bound to respect?" In Northwest Ohio the 
strength and aggressiveness of the savages was 
greater than in any of the other sections of the 
state, because of the nearness to the British 
outposts and the consequent incitations of the 
British emissaries. 

The land question was also troublesome, be- 
cause the demands for the lands of the sav- 
ages were becoming greater and more insist- 
ent. The Ohio Company, which was to a great 
extent responsible for the French and Indian 
war, resumed its activities immediately at the 
close of that conflagration. Other companies 
were likewise formed to seek grants of iin- 
'mense tracts of the rich country west of the 
AUeghenies. Among the group of western 
expansionists were the Washington brothers, 
including the "Father of his Country," Ben 
Franklin, and many others who are now his- 
torical figures. As an evidence of this, I quote 
from a letter to the Earl of Shelburne, secre- 
tary of state at London, and dated December 
16, 1766: "The thirst after the lands of the 
Aborigines, is become almost universal, the 
people, who generally want them are either 
ignorant of or remote from the consequences 
of disobliging the Aborigines, many make a 
traffic of lands, and few or none will be at any 
pains or expenee to get them settled, conse- 
quently they cannot be loosers by an Abori- 
gine War, and should a Tribe be driven to 
despair, and abandon their country, they have 
their desire tho' at the expenee of the lives 
of such ignorant settlers as may be upon it. 
* * * The majority of those who get lands, 
being persons of consequence (British) in the 
Capitals who can let them lye dead as a sure 



Estate hereafter, and are totally ignorant of 
the Aborigines, make use of some of the lowest 
and most selfish of the Country Inhabitants 
to seduce the Aborigines to their houses, where 
they are kept rioting in drunkenness till they 
have affected their bad purposes. ' ' 

The character of at least some of the im- 
migrants at this time is revealed by an excerpt 
from a report liy Sir William Johnson: "For 
more than ten years past, the most dissolute 

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' ,.: .•.-■---; • 



',-',!''>,-• J 


Territory op the United States Northwest 
OP THE Ohio River, 1787 

fellows united with debtors, and persons of 
wandering disposition, have been removing 
from Pensilvania & Virginia &c into the Ab- 
origine Country, towards & on the Ohio & a 
considerable number of settlements were made 
as early as 1765 when my Deputy (George 
Croghan) was sent to the Illinois from whence 
he gave me a particular account of the un- 
easiness occasioned amongst the Aborigines. 
Many of these emigrants are idle fellows that 
are too lazy to cultivate lands, & invited by 
the plenty of game they found, have employed 

themselves in hunting, in which they interfere 
much more with the Aborigines than if they 
pursued agriculture alone, and the Aborigine 
hunters already begin to feel the scarcity this 
has occasioned, which greatly increases their 
resentment. ' ' 

As a proof that this Northwest Territory 
was becoming of greater importance tlian for- 
merly, we find that in 1767 a post, or mart, 
was suggested for the Maumee River, as well 
as one for the Wabash, whereas formerly ,it 
was thought that Detroit was sufficient for this 
entire territory. In his report to the secre- 
tary of state in that year, the superintendent 
said among other things: "Sandusky which 
has not been re-established is not a place of 
much conseciuence of Trade, it is chiefly a post 
at which several Pennsylvania Traders em- 
barked for Detroit. St. Joseph's (near Lake 
]\Iichigan) and the Miamis at Fort Wayne 
have neither of them been yet re-established, 
the former is of less consequence for Trade 
than the latter which is a place of some im- 
portance. * * * At the Miamis there may 
be always a sufficiency of provisions from its 
vicinity to Lake Erie, and its easiness of access 
by the River of that name at the proper sea- 
son, to protect which the Fort there can yet 
at a small expence be rendered tenable against 
any Coup du mains. * * * this would 
greatly contribute to overcome the present 
excuse which draws the traders to rove at will 
and thereby exposes us to the utmost 
danger. ' ' 

Under the French regime, and under the 
British also, until the Revolutionary War, the 
commandant of the military post at Detroit,, 
to which Northwest Ohio was tributary, exer- 
cised the functions of both a civil and a mili- 
tary officer with absolute power. The crimi- 
nal law of England was supposed to be the 
ruling authority, but as a matter of fact the 
supreme law was generally the will of the com- 
mandant or the official of his appointing. 
Many times the official proved cruel and re- 



morseless, and as a result the greatest of dis- 
satisfaction arose. When the office of lieuten- 
ant governor and superintendent of aborigine 
affairs was created for Detroit and the sur- 
rounding country, including this section, 
Henry Hamilton was appointed and arrived 
at his post in December, 1775. He proved to 
be not only tactful but also cruel and remorse- 
less. The equipment of the savages with 
weapons was absolutely in the hands of the 
British officials, and everywhere war parties 
of these savages were thoroughly armed. They 
were frequently commanded by British officers 
themselves, and sent out over this territory, 
as well as other sections. In one report we 
read that fifteen war parties had been sent out 
from Detroit under British officers and 
rangers, many of the savages coming from 
Northwest Ohio. They brought in twenty- 
three American prisoners and 129 scalps. The 
white men who accompanied the savages were 
frequently as cruel and debased as the red 
men themselves. All the scalps brought in by 
the savages M^ere paid for, and frequently the 
commandant himself encouraged his dusky 
allies by singing the war song and by passing 
the weapons through his own hands, in order 
to show his full sympathy with them in their 
murderous work. On their return to Detroit, 
they were sometimes welcomed by firing the 
fort's cannon. 

The following is one instance of a presenta- 
tion of scalps from the Indians to the com- 
mandant at Detroit: "Presenting sixteen 
scalps, one of the Delaware chiefs said, 
'Listen to your children, the Delawares who 
are come in to see you at a time they have 
nothing to apprehend from the enemy, and to 
present you some dried meat, as we could 
not have the face to appear before our father 
empty.' " 

During the first couple of years of the Revo- 
lutionary War, the Ohio Indians were inactive. 
As yet they scarcely knew with which side to 
affiliate, and they could not understand the 

quarrel. But their sympathies were with the 
British. Governor Hamilton, at Detroit, lost 
no opportunity to attract them to his cause. 
He danced and sang the war-song and mingled 
with them freely. Detroit became the great 
center for the Indian gatherings. All of the 
materials of war were .supplied to them there. 
"They were coaxed with rum, feasted with 
oxen roasted whole, alarmed with threats of 
the destruction of their hunting ground and 
supplied with everything that an Indian could 
desire." The Americans practically ignored 
them at this time. Then came the brutal mur- 
der of Cornstalk and his son Ellinipsico, in 
1777, when on an errand of friendship for the 
colonists. The death of this brave and mag- 
nanimous chief was the signal for the Ohio 
tribes to go on the warpath. As there were 
no white settlements in Ohio as yet, their 
depredations were committed in Kentucky and 
on the Virginia border. Hence it was that 
this year is known as the "bloody year of the 
three sevens." Standing in the midst of a 
long series darkened by ceaseless conflict with 
the savages, it was darker than the darkest. 
It was bloodier than the bloodiest. The 
Shawnees, Ottawas, Wyandots, together with 
a few Delawares and Senecas, all took a part in 
the disturbances. The policy of hiring Indians; 
by paying bounties on scalps was on a par with 
British employment of mercenary Hessians. 
Hamilton, at Detroit, became known among 
the Americans as "the hair buyer." Many 
scalps and prisoners were taken through 
Northwest Ohio to Detroit by parties of sav- 
ages. They were assisted by an ignoble group 
of renegade Americans, Simon Girt}', Alexan- 
der McKee, and Matthew Elliott. When the 
noted prisoner, Simon Kenton, reached the 
Upper Sandusky town, the Indians, young 
and old, came out to view him. His death was 
expected to take place here. 

"As soon as this grand court was organized, 
and ready to proceed to business, a Canadian 
Frenchman, one Pierre Druillard who usually 


went by the name of Peter Druyer, was a cap- 
tain in the British service, and dressed in the 
gaudy appendages of the British uniform, 
made his appearance in the council. As soon 
as the council was organized. Captain Druyer 
requested permission to address the council. 
This permission was instantly granted. He 
began his speech by stating 'that it was well 
known that it was the wish and interest of the 
English that not an American should be left 
alive. That the Americans were the cause of 
the present bloody and distressing war — that 
neither peace nor safety could be expected, 
so long as these intruders were permitted to 
live upon the earth.' He then explained to 
the Indians, 'that the war to be carried on 
successfully, required cunning as well as 
bravery — that the intelligence which might be 
extorted from a prisoner, would be of more 
advantage, in conducting the future opera- 
tions of the war, than woiild be the lives of 
twenty prisoners. That he had no doubt but 
the commanding officer at Detroit could pro- 
cure information from the prisoner now be- 
fore them, that would be of incalculable ad- 
vantage to them in the progress of the present 
war. Under these circumstances, he hoped 
they would defer the death of the prisoner till 
he was taken to Detroit, and examined by the 
commanding general ! ' 

"He next noticed, 'that they had already a 
great deal of trouble and fatigue with the 
prisoner without being revenged upon him; 
but that they had got back all the horses the 
prisoner had stolen from them, and killed one 
of his comrades; and to insure them some- 
thing for their fatigue and trouble, he himself 
would give one hundred dollars in rum and 
tobacco, or any other article they would 
choose, if they would let him take the prisoner 
to Detroit, to be examined by the British 
General.' The Indians without hesitation 
agreed to Captain Druyer 's proposition, and 
he paid down the ransom. As soon as these 

arrangements were concluded, Druyer and a 
principal chief set off with the prisoner for 
Lower Sandusky. From this place they pro- 
ceeded by water to Detroit, where they ar- 
rived in a few days." "With Kenton's escape 
was happily terminated one of the most re- 
markable adventures in Ohio history. 

It was in 1778 that the Legislature of Vir- 
ginia organized the Northwestern Territory 
into the country of Illinois. A court of civil 
and criminal procedure was established at 
Vineennes. The various claims of the Eastern 
States to the territory west of the Alleghenies 
was the cause of friction between these states 
for years. These claims were based on the 
colonial charters and upon treaties with the 
aborigines, and were generally very indefi- 
nite regarding boundaries, because the greater 
part of the region had never been surveyed. 
It was finally advocated that each state should 
cede her claims to the newly organized Union. 
Congress passed an act in 1780 providing that 
the territory so ceded should be disposed of 
for the benefit of the United States in general. 
This act met a ready response from New York, 
which assigned her claim in 1781, but the other 
states did not act for several years. Virginia 
ceded to the United States all her right, title, 
and claim to the country northwest of the 
Ohio River in 1784. The following year the 
Legislature of Massachusetts relinquished all 
her assertions to this territory, excepting De- 
troit and vicinity. In 1786, Connecticut 
waived all her assertions of sovereignty, ex- 
cepting the section designated as the Western 
Reserve, and opened an office for the disposal 
of the portion of the Reserve lying east of the 
Cuyahoga River. This session cleared North- 
west Ohio of all the claims of individual states. 
The claim of Virginia was based upon her 
charter of 1609 in which her boundaries were 
described as follows: "Situate lying and be- 
ing in that part of America called Virginia 
from the point of land called Cape or Point 



Comfort all along the sea coast to the north- 
ward two hundred miles, and from the said 
point of Cape Comfort all along the sea coast 
southward two hundred miles, and all that 
space or circuit of land lying from sea to sea, 
west and northwest. ' ' Virginia statesmen and 
jurists interpreted this charter as granting all 
that vast territory bounded on these lines and 
extending to the Pacific Ocean as included 
within that colony. Jurisdiction was exer- 
cised over it from the very beginning. Early 
in the eighteenth century her pioneers had 
crossed the Allegheny Mountains. It was at 
first a part of Spottyslvania County, which 
was afterwards sub-divided into Orange 
County, which included all of the present site 
of Ohio, as well as much more. This immense 
domain was afterwards sub-divided, and 
Northwest Ohio became a part of Augusta 
County. Another sub-division was made, and 
this section of the country was included in 
Illinois Country, which embraced all the terri- 
tory within the border limits of Virginia, 
northwest of the Ohio River, and east of the 
Mississippi. Thus it remained so far as 
governmental relations were concerned, until 
Virginia ceded to the general government all 
her rights to the dominion northwest of the 
Ohio River. 

In 1778 the British organized a large expe- 
dition, consisting of fifteen large bateaux and 
several smaller boats, which were laden with 
food, clothing, tents, ammunition, and the in- 
evitable rum, together with other presents for 
the savages. At the outset the forces con- 
sisted of 177 white soldiers, together with a 
considerable number of Indians. This ex- 
pedition started from Detroit with a destina- 
tion of Vincennes. Oxen carts and even a 
six-pounder cannon were sent along on shore, 
together with beef cattle. The expedition en- 
countered severe storms in crossing Lake Erie, 
and because of the low stage of the water it 
required sixteen days to make the journey 

from the mouth of the Maumee to its head. 
This force was attacked by American troops 
under Colonel Clark, and they were defeated. 
The governor, Henry Hamilton, and all of his 
officers were made prisoners, and conducted 
to Virginia, where they were closely confined 
and put in irons. The supplies of the expe- 
dition were also captured by the Americans, 
and they proved very useful in the work 
which was laid out before them. 

In 1780 a larger expedition than usual of 
savages was gathered together to attack the 
isolated settlements of Americans now being 
established throughout Ohio. It was under 
the command of Capt. Henry Bird, with 
the three Girtys as guides and scouts. These 
Indians were well equipped and it is said had 
pieces of artillery, which was very unusual, 
if not without precedent among those people. 
They passed up the Maumee River to the 
mouth of the Auglaize, and then traversed 
that river as far as it was navigable. They 
numbered about one thousand men when they 
reached Ruddell's Station, in Kentucky. 
Ruddell's Station yielded, and was followed 
by Martin's Station, a few miles distant. 
Several hundred captives were taken. Cap- 
tain Bird tried to save the captives, but many 
were massacred, and the expedition returned 
to Detroit by the way of the Maumee. It was 
the most successful foray undertaken by the 
British against the Kentucky settlements. 

Under date of July 6, 1780, Governor De 
Peyster wrote : " I am harried with war par- 
ties coming in from all quarters that I do not 
know which way to turn myself." * * * 
On the 4th of August, he again reported to 
Colonel Bolton, his superior officer on the 
lakes, that * * * "I have the pleasure to 
acquaint you that Captain Bird arrived here 
this morning with about 150 prisoners, mostly 
Germans who speak English, the remainder 
coming in, for in spite of all his endeavors to 
prevent it the Aborigines broke into the forts 


and seized many. The whole will amount to P. S. Please excuse the hurry of this letter — 

about 350. * * * Thirteen have entered the Aborigines engross my time. We have 

into the Rangers, and many more will enter, more here than enough. Were it not abso- 

as the prisoners are greatly fatigued with lutely necessary to keep in with them, they 

traveling so far some sick and some wounded, would tire my patience. ' ' 



"Come all you good people, wherever you be, 
Pray draw near awhile and listen to me ; 
A stor}^ I '11 tell j-ou which happened of late, 
Concerning brave Crawford's most cruel 
defeat. ' ' 

—Old Song. 

One of the most tragic incidents in the 
early history of the territory beyond the Alle- 
ghenies is that connected with tl^e expedition 
against the Wyandots under the leadership 
of Col. William Crawford, in 1782. Corn- 
wallis had already surrendered his army at 
Yorktowu, and the war with England was at 
an end. The patriotic minds of the colonists 
were already busy with the great problem of 
self-government then confronting them. The 
western frontier, however, was anything but 
peaceful. The blood-curdling war cry of the 
savages still aroused their midnight slumbers, 
and children were frequently snatched into 
captivity by dark hands thrust out from hid- 
den places. The center of the Indian power 
was on the Sandusky River. Along this 
stream was also the chief trading post for 
the Indians, and the principal depot in the 
Ohio interior for the distribution of arms and 
provisions by the British to their savage allies. 
These circumstances made it the rendezvous 
for the rallying of tribesmen for border 
forays, and it was thus a real menace to the 
Colonials. The failure of the formidable ex- 
pedition against this Indian stronghold fell 
like a thunderbolt from a clear sky upon the 
eastern settlements, where a feeling of seren- 

ity had succeeded the news of the success of 
the Revolution. For those dwelling west and 
north of the Ohio River, it seemed to portend 
ruin and disaster. 

We are inclined to heap execrations upon 
the red men once living where we now dwell 
in peace, because of the heartless and bloody 
vengeance wreaked hy them upon the mem- 
l)ers of the unfortunate Crawford band who 
fell into their toils. We must remember, how- 
ever, that both the leader and his followers 
suffered for the misdeeds of other white men 
in a massacre, equally as bloody and far more 
unjustified, of the peaceable and guiltless 
Moravian Indians, at Gnadenhutten, only 
three months previously. It was not a slaugh- 
ter perpetrated in the passion of battle, and 
in the excitement of the moment; it was a 
bx;tchery in cold blood, and performed as 
coldly as if the victims had been animals fat- 
tened for food. Because of the recurrent 
massacres by Indians in Pennsylvania of 
white people, a body of men was hastily gath- 
ered to exterminate the guilty savages. To 
them, however, with their hearts saddened by 
the occurrences, every man with a copper- 
colored skin looked alike, and they slaugh- 
tered scores of innocent and Christian Indians 
without a qualm of conscience. Continuing 
in their desire to exterminate the Indians, a 
second expedition was formed to proceed far- 
ther into the Ohio territory in pursuit of the 
wandering savages. 

On their part, *he Indians of this western 
country' were aroused to furv bv the massacre 



of the peaceful Moravian Indians. Even 
those red men to whom the Christian religion 
made no appeal -were horrified at the thought 
that their people, who, listening to the seduc- 
tive words of white preachers, had laid aside 
the tomahawk and the war-club, were now 
cold in death, and they only waited an 
opportunity for vengeance. The peaceful 
Moravians had been invited by these same 
Delawares to settle on the banks of the Mus- 
kingum, after they had been driven from 
Pennsylvania by the persecutions of their 
encroaching white neighbors. The prospect 
for the conversion of the entire Delaware 
nation had begun to loom bright. It is prob- 
ably true, as claimed, that in a few isolated 
instances some of the Moravian braves had 
joined with their brethren in forays against 
the border settlements, in which helpless in- 
fancy, virgin beauty, and hoary age were 
alike dishonored. In at least one or two 
instances the evidence against them seems 
quite convincing. It is not surprising that 
there was a deep and widespread feeling of 
revenge against the red men, for, when the 
slain were relatives, or dear friends, it was 
natural to harbor revenge. But white men 
should be held to a higher standard of honor 
than the untutored children of the forests. 
As a direct result of the mission influence, 
the Delawares had remained entirely neutral 
during the bloody year of 1777, when so many 
massacres took place throughout the Ohio 

British emissaries and some white Ameri- 
can renegades had finally aroused the suspi- 
cions of the Wyandots toward these Christian 
Indians. A war party came and forcibly 
removed them to their own villages near 
Upper Sandusky. It was in June, 1781, that 
a numerous Indian force appeared at these 
Moravian settlements. Among these were the 
Half King and Pomoacan,»from Upper San- 
dusky; Abraham Coon, a white chief from 
Lower Sandusky; The Pipe and Captain 

Wingemund, of the Delawares; Matthew El- 
liott, and many others, all journeying under 
a British flag. They were warmly welcomed 
and entertained by the missionaries and the 
Christian Indians. The outcome is a tale of 
hypocrisy and honeyed lies on the part of 
these invaders, and of frightful sufferings on 
the side of their victims. Their houses were 
looted and property destroyed ; the spoils were 
divided among the Wyandots, who "dressed 
themselves in the clothes which they had 
stolen, and strutted about the camp in child- 
ish vanity." All of the Moravians were 
assembled and marched away, closely guarded 
by Delaware and Wyandot warriors. It was 
indeed a sorrowful journey for these Indians. 
They were forced to abandon the fruits of 
eight years' toil and leave a large amount of 
unharvested grain and vegetables. It was 
even more grievous to bid farewell to the 
churches, to which they were much attached. 

This forced migration of the Moravians 
took place about the time of the surrender 
of Yorktown, and it was only the beginning 
of a score of years' wanderings for these 
homeless outcasts. Near Upper Sandusky 
they were practically abandoned to their fate, 
and there they erected log huts for their habi- 
tation in the midst of a howling wilderness. 
This settlement became known as Captive's 
Town. With no provisions, and little game 
being in sight, they were thrown upon their 
own resources. The men were curtly informed 
that they must join the war parties, and that 
Pomoacan was their chief. Some of them 
were compelled to make a trip to Detroit to 
report to the British commander, De Peyster, 
who had succeeded "the hair buyer." 

In order to harvest their crops, however, 
for food was very scarce, a large number of 
the Moravians returned to Gnadenhutten in 
the following spring. While engaged in this 
peaceful work, the whites under Williamson 
arrived. Their dress alone marked these 
Indians as non-combatants. Their clothes 



were plain, and there was not a sign of paint 
to be seen on their skin, so we are told ; there 
were no feathers on their heads, and the hair 
was worn the same as that of the frontier 
whites. With seductive words, and also with 
promises that they would be safely conducted 
to Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), the Americans 
induced the Indians to lay down their arms 
and assemble at Gnadenhutten. A council 
was held, and a large majority voted for 
death. "Some were for burning them alive, 
others for taking their scalps." They (the 
Indians) were told to prepare for death. 
They accepted their fate with resignation, 
though protesting their innocence of any mur- 
ders. Their last night on earth was spent in 
prayer and exhortations to each other "to 
place a iirm reliance in the mercy of the 
Savior of men." 

On the following morning the bloody work 
of execution M^as begun with knife, gun, spear, 
and tomahawk. Several of the butcherers 
immediately seized Abraham, surnamed the 
Mohican, one of the patriarchs of the con- 
verts, "whose long, flowing heard had at- 
tracted their notice the day before as fit for 
making a fine scalp, tied him and another 
convert with a rope, and dragged them to 
the cooper shop, the 'slaughter house,' selected 
for the killing of men." The two men were 
deliberately slain and scalped. The rest, says 
Doctor Schweinitz, whose account we are 
closely following, suffered in the same way, 
two by two. When all the men and boys were 
dead, the women and small children were 
brought out, two by two as before, taken to 
the ' ' slaughter house ' ' selected for the women, 
and "dispatched with the same systematic 
barbarity." Ninety-six Indians were put to 
death, two boys escaping as if by a miracle, 
to be witnesses to the savage fury of the white 
man. Sixty-two of the slain were adults, and 
thirty-four were children. Upon their return 
these men boasted of their inhuman activities. 

In 1782 permission was granted by the War 

Department for the organization of a large 
volunteer gathering against the Indians of 
the West. The rendezvous for this expedition 
was established at Mingo Bottom, along the 
Ohio River, a few miles below Steubenville, 
and the date was the 20th of May. Up and 
down the Youghiogheny and the Mononga- 
hela, and in all the border settlements, there 
was unusual stir when the news arrived that 
an expedition against Sandusky was in prepa- 
ration. Each volunteer was obliged to fur- 
nish his own equipment, while a limited sup- 
ply of ammunition and flints was all that was 
promised by the department. Furthermore, 
there was no assurance whatever of remunera- 
tion from the Government for either losses or 
services during the campaign. Even under 
these circumstances the volunteering was very 

For ten days before the day for the ren- 
dezvous the borderers came riding in from all 
directions, equipped in customary fashion for 
the campaign. The pioneer soldier of 1782 
would indeed be a curiosity on our streets 
today. His buckskin hunting shirt, reaching 
half way to the knees, was belted in at the 
waist. Through his belt was thrust the cruel 
tomahawk, the glittering scalping knife, and 
the string of an ammunition pouch. His feet 
were encased in moccasins instead of shoes. 
His head was covered with a hat of felt or 
fur, which was not infrequently decorated 
with the tails of animals. Over his shoulder 
the frontiersman carried the necessary rifle. 
The indispensable knapsack, made of coarse 
tow cloth, was strapped to his saddle, and in 
it would be found a few toilet and useful 
articles which only a woman could design. 
From the pommel of the saddle hung a can- 
teen, while a blanket which he carried was 
used as a covering for the saddle by day and 
the rider by night. Trained to the use of the 
rifle from childhood, nearly all of these men 
of the frontier were unerring shots. Each 
man took along a plentiful supply of powder. 



bullets, bullet-patches, and some extra flints. 
The edge of the tomahawk was given a few 
turns on the grindstone, and the scalping 
knife was made keener than ever by the same 

When this grim and motley assemblage was 
completed, the first duty was to elect officers. 
Under the spreading boughs of the maple and 
the sycamore, the walnut and the hickory, 
these frontiersmen gathered for this purpose 
with grim determination written upon their 
faces. All were in the highest spirits. Wil- 
liam Crawford received 235 out of the 465 
votes cast, and was declared colonel in com- 
mand of the expedition. Second in authority 
was David Williamson, who had been one of 
the leaders in the iloravian massacre. Dr. 
John Knight was designated as the surgeon. 
Colonel Crawford was cool and brave, and had 
had considerable military experience in fron- 
tier warfare. He was well fitted by nature 
and temperament to be a soldier and a leader, 
and was perfectly at home in the backwoods. 
A warm friendship existed between him and 
General Washington. At that time he was 
fifty years of age. John Slover and Jonathan 
Zane, both practical frontiersmen, were the 
guides of the expedition. Zane was probably 
the most experienced hunter of that day in 
the western country, and few men enjoyed 
the confidence of their fellow-men more 
than he. 

On the 25th of May the expedition set out 
for the Sandusky country, 150 miles away. 
The instructions from Gen. William Irvine 
were opened, and they read in part as fol- 
lows: "The object of your command is, to 
destroy with fire and sword (if practicable) 
the Indian town and settlement at Sandusky, 
by which we hope to give ease and safety to 
the inhabitants of this country; but, if im- 
practicable, then you will doubtless perform 
such other services in your power as will, in 
their consequences, have a tendency to answer 
this great end. ' ' The expedition adopted the 

shortest route, which led through what is now 
the counties of Jefferson, Harrison, Tusca- 
rawas, Holmes, Ashland, Richland, and Craw- 
ford, and nearly to the center of Wyandot. 
Though not an Indian had been seen, the 
greatest precautions were constantly taken 
against ambuscade and surprises. The wily 
nature of the aborigine was well known to the 
leader. As the avowed purpose was to sur- 
prise the savages, the progress was designed 
to be swift. Day after day the Americans' 
advanced without finding the print of a 
single moccasin, or hearing the crack of 
a single hostile rifle. We must remember that 
this march was not the advance of an army 
to the music of a fife or drum ; it was rather 
a swift and stealthy movement of a mighty 
.serpent winding its way warily through 
the forests toward the unsuspecting foe. The 
entire journey, except the last thirty miles, 
was through an almost unbroken stretch of 

On the ninth day of the march, the anny 
emerged from the dark and shaded forests, 
through which they had this far traversed, 
into the sunlight of the rolling prairies. These 
plains were a favorite hunting ground for the 
Indians. "To most of the volunteers," saj-s 
Mr. Butterfield, the historian of this expedi- 
tion, ' ' the sight of the plains was a novel one. 
The high, coarse grass, the islands of timber, 
the gradually undulating surface, were all 
objects of surprise. Birds of strange plumage 
flew over them, prairie hens rose before them, 
sailing away and slowly drooping to the grass 
on either hand. Sandhill cranes blew shrill 
pipes, startled by the sudden apparition. 
Prairie owls, on cumbrous wings, fluttered 
away in the distance, and the noisy bittern 
was heard along the streamlets. Wild geese 
were frightened from their nests, and, occa- 
sionally, in widening circles far above them, 
soared the imperial eagle." 

On the morning of the 4tli of June, the 
men were stirring and ready for the march 



before the ascending sun had illumined the 
landscape. Throughout the entire camp there 
was a noticeable bustle of excitement. The 
men knew that they were near their destina- 
tion, and they felt within themselves that a 
crisis was approaching. The guns were 
carefully examined and fresh charges placed 
in them. Packs were readjusted, and saddle 
girths were carefully tightened. The army 
was now encamped within the County of 
"Wyandot, and not many miles distant from_ 
the present town of Upper Sandusky. The 
sight was familiar to Slover, who had spent 
several years as a captive of the Ohio Indians. 

From this camp there were several trails 
leading in different directions. The army 
followed a well-marked path which led down 
a diminutive stream, known as the Little San- 
dusky, in a westerly direction. The army 
advanced with the greatest caution, for Slover 
assured Crawford that the Wyandot village 
was near at hand. Soon they reached an open- 
ing in the woods where, in a beautiful loca- 
tion, they could see the Wyandot town, which 
had been the goal of the expedition. To their 
intense surprise, not a sign of life was visible. 
The shrill war cry and the barking of the dogs 
were alike wanting. All was solitude and 
silence. When they reached the village, they 
found to their surprise that this Wyandot 
town was without an inhabitant. The empty 
huts were silent and tenantless. The ashes of 
the camp fires seemed to have been Ijeaten by 
many a rain since the hot coals had glowed 
in their midst. This fact upset all the calcu- 
lations of the leaders, since no one had had 
an intimation of their removal. The men 
began to suspect that some great mistake had 
been made and that there was no settlement 
nearer than Lower Sandusky, some thirty 
miles below. This deserted village was dis- 
tant in a southeasterly direction from Upper 
Sandusky, the county seat of Wyandot 
County, about three miles. 

Let us turn our attention to the vanished 

Vol. I— I 

foe for a moment. Unknown to the white 
man, every movement of this expedition, from 
the time of its gathering at IMingo Bottom 
until this day, had been known to the Indians. 
The evident purpose had been reported to the 
waiting chiefs from day to day by their 
subtle scouts. The spies reported that no 
quarter was to be giv-'ii to the Indians. In 
every forest through s.Aich the army had 
passed lurked unseen savages, who keenly 
watched their course. As soon as the Mus- 
kingum was crossed, it became evident that 
the destination of the Americans was the San- 
dusky, and that the Indians must summon 
every available resource for defense. When 
the old Wyandot town had been deserted, the 
Indians had removed to the point about eight 
miles below the old town. Here the Indians 
of various tribes were concentrating to resist 
this invasion. The squaws and children had 
been removed to a hidden ravine. Messengers 
had also been dispatched to Detroit, begging 
the British commandant to dispatch instant 
and powerful aid to his Indian allies. Even 
at this time reinforcements from the Dela- 
wares were on their way, as well as a couple 
of hundred braves from a Shawnee town some 
forty miles distant. All of the Indians were 
kept ready for instant advance, as soon as it 
was decided to strike a blow against the white 
invaders. Only a few miles distant was the 
Village of The Pipe, or Captain Pipe, a fa- 
mous war chief of the Delawares. Near it 
was the headquarters of the Half King, chief 
of the Wyandots. Of all the savage enemies 
of the Americans in the western wilderness 
during the Revolution, Captain Pipe had been 
the most implacable. 

Upon the discovery of the abandoned 
Wyandot town, a council of war was imme- 
diately held. Opinion was divided upon the 
question of advance or retreat. Zane coun- 
seled an immediate withdrawal. The very 
failure to discover Indians led the wise ones 
to surmise that some ambuscade or surprise 



was being prepared. Furthermore, there 
remained but five daj's' provisions for the 
forces. It was, however, finally decided to 
continue the progression during the after- 
noon, and, in case the enemy M'as not encoun- 
tered, that retrogression should be commenced 
during the night. In the van of the army 
rode a party of scouts, who were attempting 
to find the main stream of the Sandusky. At 
one side of the route was a cranberry marsh, 
absolutely impassable to horsemen, which aft- 
erwards reaped disaster for a number of 
Crawford's followers. The scouts had not 
advanced very far ahead of the main army 
when they suddenly encountered a consider- 
able body of Indians running directly toward 
them. These were the Delawares under The 
Pipe. One of the scouts, who was mounted on 
the fleetest horse, at once galloped back to 
inform Crawford of the enemy 's whereabouts. 
The others withdrew slowly as the savages 
advanced to the attack. The council of war 
had just ended when the breathless scout ar- 
rived with the news of the discovery of the 
Indians. In a moment the army was ablaze 
with enthusiasm, and all started forward at 
full speed. 

The Indians took possession of an island 
grove in the midst of the prairie. The mili- 
tary eye of Crawford at once recognized the 
strategic value of this grove of timber, and a 
quick forward movement forced the Indians 
out. The Indians kept themselves under cover 
in the thick and high grass of the treeless 
prairie. They would creep forward stealth- 
ily until close to the trees, and then fire upon 
the Americans from their concealment. Some 
of the Americans climbed the trees, and from 
this vantage point took deadlj^ aim at the 
feathered heads of the enemy moving about 
in the grass. The battle raged with fury 
until the shadows of night had fallen. Not 
a foe was visible on either side. Nevertheless, 
from every tree and log in the grove the air 
was ablaze with incessant flashes of the Amer- 

ican rifles, and every vantage point in the sur- 
rounding prairie gave forth continuous explo- 
sions, while over all hovered a bank of white 
smoke. The afternoon was very hot, and the 
soldiers suffered greatly from the lack of 
drinking water. One of the company, John 
Sherrard, greatly distinguished himself by 
making a dozen or more trips to a pool of 
stagnant water discovered by him, on each 
of which he broiight back his hat and canteen 
filled with water. 

"I do not know how manj' Indians I 
killed," said one of the sharpshooters, "but I 
never saw the same head again above the grass 
after I shot at it." The issue of the battle 
was doubtful for some time. Towards sunset 
the fire of the savages lessened, and their cau- 
tion increased. They seemed fearful of ex- 
posing themselves to the deadly aim of the 
frontiersmen. It was very evident that they 
had suffered severely. By nightfall they had 
withdrawn beyond the range of the American 
rifles. Victorj' seemed to rest with the Ameri- 
cans. To guard against a night surprise, 
each party built a line of huge campfires, 
and then fell back beyond them for some 
distance. The loss of the American army was 
five killed and nineteen wounded. The site 
of the battle is now known as Battle Island, 
and is almost three miles north of the court- 
house at Upper Sanduskj^. 

At sunrise, on the morning of the 5th, occa- 
sional shots at long range were exchanged by 
the contending forces with little damage to 
either side. The Americans remained under 
the shelter of the island of timber. As the 
day advanced, however, the enemj^'s firing 
became irregular. The Americans thought 
that this was an evidence of weakness. In 
this they were mistaken, for the Indians were 
simply awaiting reinforcements. The troops 
were kept busy in giving attention to the 
wounded and those who were sick through 
drinking the stagnant water. During the day 
four more Avere wounded. The grove occu- 



pied by the Americans soon became the scene 
of animation and excitement. Preparations 
were made for an immediate battle. Then it 
was that a scout reported reinforcements com- 
ing from the rear of the Wyandots. To his 
astonished vision was disclosed the fact that 
they were white soldiers, which proved to be 
Butler 's Rangers from Detroit. At full speed 
a band of painted Shawnees came galloping 
over the prairie. Small squads were sighted 
coming from other directions. Then it was 
decided at a council of war that the only safe 
recourse was a retreat. It was decided to 
begin the retrogression as soon as the protec- 
tion of night had fallen. The dead were 
buried, and litters were made for the 
wounded. The army was to march in four 
divisions, keeping the wounded in the center, 
seven of whom were in a dangerous condition. 
The sentinels were called in, and the army 
formed for the march, with Crawford at the 

The enemy were not sleeping, as the Ameri- 
cans soon learned, and quickly discovered the 
movement of the Americans, but probably 
did not quite understand it. A hot fire was 
opened by them. This excited some of the 
men, and interfered with the orderly plan 
of retreat that had been adopted. The great 
wonder is that it did not degenerate into an 
utter rout. Some of the men in the foremost 
ranks started to run ; the whole army was soon 
in full flight, leaving the seven seriously 
wounded behind. Five of the wounded were 
assisted upon comrades' horses, however, 
while two were abandoned to their fate. It was 
not long until some of the straggling groups 
were in close conflict with the Delawares and 
the Shawnees. The main body of the enemy 
feared that Crawford's movement might be 
only a maneuver or a feint, and not a flight, 
and therefore hesitated to pursue. It was 
doubtless due to this fact that the greater 
part of Crawford's forces escaped. Some of 
the Americans became embedded in the cran- 

berry swamp, and were there obliged to aban- 
don their much needed horses. ■ 

A little before daylight the main body found 
themselves on the trail formerly followed, and 
discovered that they had described a sort of 
semicircle around the present Town of Upper 
Sandusky. A halt was made while straggling 
parties kept coming up to the main body, 
until nearly 300 of the volunteers were to- 
gether once more. It was then found that 
among the missing was Colonel Crawford, of 
whom nothing was known. Whether he had 
been killed or captured, or had fortunately 
escaped, was only a matter of conjecture. 
Dr. John Knight, John Slover, and a number 
of others were also numbered among the 
missing. The command now devolved upon 

On the morning of the 6th, the pursuing 
enemy again caused a halt of the retreating 
army. This spot is almost midway between 
Bucyrus and Gallon, at the edge of what was 
known as the Plains, and not far from a small 
branch of the Olentangy River, frequently 
called Whetstone Creek. It had been exceed- 
ingly hot, but clouds had begun to gather, and 
there was everj' indication of an approaching 
storm. The savages and their white allies 
seemed in strong force. Williamson did all that 
he could to encourage his men. A conflict fol- 
lowed, which is known as the Battle of the 
Olentangy. It was less than an hour before 
the savages gave way on all sides, for they had 
attacked from front, rear, and left flank. 
Three of the Americans were killed and eight 
wounded in this action. The loss of the 
enemy was never ascertained. The battle had 
scarcely ended when the rain began to fall in 
torrents. The troops were drenched to the 
skin, and their guns were rendered almost use- 
less. No sooner had the wounded been at- 
tended to, however, and the dead buried, than 
the retreat was continued. The enemy rallied 
their forces and renewed their pursuit, but 
keeping at a respectable distance. At night 



they encamped on the Sandusky River near 
the present Village of Leesville. The soldiers 
slept upon their arms that night. At day- 
break the retreat was continued, with the 
enemy annoying their rear. The last hostile 
shot was fired near Crestline, where the pur- 
suit was abandoned. Not a single savage was 
again seen. It was indeed a welcome adieu. 
Nearly all reached their homes in safety. On 
the 13th they arrived at Mingo Bottom, and 
on the following day they were discharged, 
thus ending a twenty days' campaign. 

rifled and filled with apprehension. When it 
ceased Slover was untied, and he was placed 
under the guard of three men for the night. 
His guards fell asleep. Slover managed to 
unloose his hands, seized a horse, and galloped 
away to safety. He heeded not the lacerations 
from the branches, but realized only that he 
was flying from the fiends who would torture 

During the first night of the flight Colonel 
Crawford missed his son, John Crawford, his 
son-in-law, William HaiTison, and his nephew, 

Monument on Olkxtaxgy Battle Field, Crawford County 

John Slover had some exciting adventures 
before he reached home. In what is now 
Wayne County, he and his party were am- 
buscaded by a band of Shawnees. Two of the 
men were shot and instantly killed; one 
escaped, and thi'ee were taken captives. 
Reaching a village, the inhabitants were al- 
most crazy with jo.y over the prospect of tor- 
turing their victims. Slover was kept pris- 
oner for several days, the Indians endeavoring 
to extract information from him. While pre- 
paring to burn him at the stake, a terrific 
storm arose. The trees swayed in a frightful 
manner. The thunder peals seemed almost to 
split the air asunder. The savages were ter- 

WjUiam Crawford. Alarmed at their ab- 
sence, he commenced to search for them in the 
darkness and shouted their names aloud. He 
hastened back among the trees in his endeavor 
to find the missing men. Doctor Knight came 
up and declared that the young men must be 
ahead of them, as the grove was tlien nearly 
deserted. Crawford answered that he was 
positive they were not in front, and begged 
Knight not to leave him. The doctor gave his 
word and joined in the anxious search. By 
this time the grove was rapidly filling up 
with the savage enemy. Two others joined 
Knight and Crawford, and the four endeav- 
ored to make their escape. 



At sunrise, Crawford and his companions, 
whose progress had been slow and circuitous, 
discovered themselves only eight miles from 
the battlefield. They were traveling through 
a heavy timber. On all sides were giant oaks 
and elms mingled with maples and beaches, 
hickories and poplars. High overhead the 
branches sometimes intertwined themselves, 
until only scintillating glimpses of the sun 
could be obtained. It was indeed the forest 
primeval through which they were jom-ney- 
ing. Game was plentiful, but they did not 
dare to discharge a gun for fear of attracting 
the attention of any lurking savage who might 
be in the vicinity. Their horses were already 
jaded and had to be abandoned. Early in the 
afternoon, they fell in with more stragglers. 
On the second morning they found a deer, 
which had been freshly killed. While roast- 
ing some of the venison, another volunteer ap- 
proached and joined the little party. They 
followed the trail of the pursuing enemy, 
which probably was an error in judgment. 
An old man joined the little party, but he 
was unable to keep up with them. Whenever 
he got behind, he would call out. He finally 
dropped farther behind and an Indian scalp 
halloo was soon heard, after which no call 
came from the old man. While advancing 
along the south hank of the Sandusk.y, at a 
point east of the present Town of Leesville, 
in Crawford County, three Indians started 
up within twenty steps of Knight and Craw- 
ford. Knight sprang behind a tree and was 
about to 'fire, but Crawford shouted to him 
not to do so. One of the Indians, a Delaware, 
ran up to Knight, took him by the hand, and 
called him "Doctor." 

Crawford and Knight were at once led cap- 
tives to the camp of the Delawares. Their 
capture occurred on Friday afternoon. On 
Sunday evening, five Indians came into camp 
carrying two small bloody objects. Because 
of the dusk, it was difficult to discern what 
they were. Crawford stooped, looking closely, 

and turned deathly sick. He said to Doctor 
Knight: "They are the scalps of Captain 
Biggs and Lieutenant Ashley. ' ' In all, there 
were now eleven prisoners in this camp. 
Great indeed was the joy of the Indians when 
they discovered that Crawford was the "big 
captain," and word was immediately sent to 
Captain Pipe. This important news de- 
manded a grave council of the Delaware 
chiefs. It was decided that Crawford should 
be burned, but, as they were subject to the 
sway of the Wyandots, and the latter tribe 
had abandoned death by fire, it was necessary 
to obtain the consent of the Half King, head 
chief of the Wyandots. This was taken by a 
subterfuge, and preparations then began to 
go forward for the death of the white leader. 

Fearing a refusal, if application was made 
direct to the Wyandot sachem, the two Dela- 
wares resorted to stratagem. A messenger, 
bearing a belt of wampum, was dispatched to 
the Half King, with the following message: 
' ' Uncle ! We, your nephews, the Lenni Len- 
ape, salute you in a spirit of kindness, love 
and respect. Uncle! We have a project in 
view which we ardently wish to accomplish, 
and can accomplish if our uncle will not over- 
rule us! By returning the wampum, we will 
have your pledged word!" 

Pomoacan was somewhat puzzled at this 
mysterious message. He questioned the mes- 
senger, who, having been previously in- 
structed by the Pipe and Wingenund, feigned 
ignorance. The Half King, concluding it was 
a contemplated expedition of a Delaware 
war party, intended to strike some of the 
white settlements, returned the belt to the 
bearer with the word — "Say to my nephews, 
they have my pledge." This was a death- 
warrant to the unfortunate Crawford. 

Knight and his nine companions, on the 
morning of the 11th, were met by Captain 
Pipe at the old Wyandot town. With his own 
hand this chief painted the faces of all the 
prisoners black. While thus engaged he told 



Knight in very good Englisli that he would 
be taken to the Shawnee town to see his 
friends. When Colonel Crawford was brought 
before him, he received him with pretended 
kindness and joked about his making a good 
Indian. But it was all a subterfuge. Here 
was a man upon whom to wreak vengeance. 
It was Williamson they wanted, because he 
was one of the Gnadenhutten murderers, but 
Williamson had escaped, and Crawford was 
the official leader of this expedition, which had 
dared to invade their precincts. He must 
suffer, and that in the most cruel way known 
to the American savage. It is said that he 
offered Girty $30,000 to save him, and the 
white savage partly promised, but this is not 
well authenticated. 

The whole party now started towards the 
Wyandot town, but Crawford and Knight 
were kept near the rear. They passed by the 
corpses of four of their companions that had 
been scalped and tomahawked. Almost every 
Indian they met struck them either with sticks 
or their fists. On their way they met Simon 
Girty, but he had not a single word of kind- 
ness or encouragement for the prisoners. 
Crawford was taken on the 11th of June to 
a place near what is known as Tymochtee, a 
few miles north of Upper Sandusky. At this 
place he had an interview with Simon Girty, 
of which little has been preserved. The rene- 
gade coolly told him that he was destined for 
the stake. Here he found a large fire burning 
and many Indians were lying about on the 
ground. Nevertheless, the dissembling war 
chiefs, both of whom well knew Crawford, told 
him he would be adopted as an Indian after 
he had been shaved. 

When the party conve.ying Crawford ap- 
peared, the scene of idleness was transformed 
to one of animation. The Pipe painted him 
black, and a dozen warriors ran forward and 
seized him. They tore the clothes from him 
with eager hands, and he was made to sit on 
the ground. Surrounded by a howling mob. 

he at once became the object of showers of 
dirt, stones, and sticks. While some were 
engaged in this — ^to them — sport, others 
quickly fixed in the ground a large stake, 
some fifteen feet long, which had been pre- 
viously prepared. StiU others ran quickly to 
and fro, piling up around the stake great 
piles of light and dry hickory wood, which 
had been gathered and prepared for the 

Wingenund had retired to his cabin that 
he might not see the sentence executed, but 
Crawford sent for him, with the faint hope 
that he would intercede for and save him. 
Wingenund accordingly soon appeared in the 
presence of Crawford, who was naked and 
bound to a stake. 

"Do you not recollect me, Wingenund?" 
began Colonel Crawford. 

"I believe I do," he replied. "Are you 
not Colonel Crawford?" 

"I am. How do you do?" 

"So! — yes! — indeed!" ejaculated Winge- 
nund, somewhat agitated. 

"Do you not recollect the friendship that 
always existed between us, and that we were 
always glad to see each other ? ' ' queried Craw- 

"Yes! I remember all this, and that we 
have drunk many a bowl of punch together, 
and that you have been kind to me." 

"Then I hope the same friendship still 

"It would, of course, were you where you 
ought to be, and not here," said the Indian 

' ' And why not here ? I hope you would not 
desert a friend in time of need. Now is the 
time for j'ou to exert yourself in my behalf, 
as I should do for you were you in my place." 

"Colonel Crawford! you have placed your- 
self in a situation which puts it out of my 
power, and that of others of your friends, to 
do anything for you." 

"How so. Captain Wingenund?" 



"By joining yourself to that execrable man, 
Williamson and his partj' — ^the man who, but 
the other day, murdered such a number of 
Moravian Indians, knowing them to be 
friends ; knowing that he ran no risk in mur- 
dering a people who would not fight and 
whose only business was praying?" 

"But I assure you, Wingenund, that had I 
been with him at the time this would not have 
happened. Not I alone, but all your friends, 
and all good men, whoever they are, reprobate 
acts of this kind. ' ' 

' ' That may be ; yet these friends, these good 
men, did not prevent him from going out 
again to kill the remainder of these inoffen- 
sive, yet foolish Moravian Indians. I say fool- 
ish, because they believed the whites in prefer- 
ence to us." 

"I am sorry to hear you speak thus; as to 
Williamson's going out again, when it was 
known he was determined on it, I went out 
with him to prevent his committing fresh 
murders. ' ' 

"This the Indians would not believe, were 
even I to tell them so." 

' ' Why would they not believe 1 ' ' 

"Because it would have been out of your 
power to have prevented his doing what he 

"Out of my power! Have any Moravian 
Indians been killed or hurt since we came 

"None; but you first went to their town, 
and finding it deserted you turned on the 
path towards us. If you had been in search 
of warriors only, you would not have gone 
thither. Our spies watched you closely." 

Crawford felt that with this sentence ended 
his last ray of hope and now asked with emo- 
tion: "What do they intend to do with 

"I tell you with grief. As Williamson, 
with his whole cowardly host, ran off in the 
night at the whistling of our warriors' balls, 
being satisfied that now he had no Moravians 

to deal with, but men who could fight and 
with such he did not wish to have anything 
to do — I say, as they have escaped and taken 
you, they will take revenge on you in his 
stead. ' ' 

"And is there no possibility of preventing 
this? Can j'ou devise no way of getting me 
off? You shall, my friend, be well rewarded 
if you are instrumental in saving my life." 

"Had Williamson been taken with you, I 
and some friends by making use of what you 
have told me, might perhaps have succeeded 
in saving you ; but as the matter now stands, 
no man would dare to interfere in your be- 
half. The blood of the innocent Moravians, 
more than half of them women and children, 
cruelly and wantonly murdered, calls loudly 
for revenge. The relatives of the slain who 
were among us cry out and stand ready for 
revenge. The nation to which they belonged 
will have revenge." 

"My fate is then fixed, and I must prepare 
to meet death in its worst form." 

' ' I am sorry for it, but cannot do anything 
for you. Had you attended to the Indian 
principle, that as good and evil cannot dwell 
together in the same heart, so a good man 
ought not to go into evil company you would 
not be in this lamentable situation. You see 
now, when it is too late, after Williamson has 
deserted you, what a bad man he must be. 
Nothing now remains for you but to meet 
your fate like a brave man. Farewell, Colonel 
Crawford ; — they are coming. I will retire 
to a solitary spot." 

The savages then fell upon Crawford. 
Wingenund, it is said, retired, shedding tears, 
and ever after, when the circumstance was 
alluded to, was sensibly affected. 

This conversation is related by Hecke- 
welder. It has generally been pronounced 
apocryphal by critics, for that writer is fre- 
quently accused of romancing when an oppor- 
tunity afforded. The relations of Wingenund 
and Crawford had been friendly, however, 



and Crawford in his extremity doubtless did 
call upon the chief. If so, the substance of 
this conversation doubtless passed between 
them, and for that reason it is incorporated 
in the narrative. 

The account of the burning of Colonel 
Crawford is related in the words of Doctor 
Knight, his companion, who was an unwilling 
eye-witness of this tragic scene, near which 
he stood securely bouud and guarded : 

"When we went to the fire the colonel was 
stripped naked, ordered to sit down by the 

thirty or forty men, sixty or seventy squaws 
and boys. 

"When the speech was finished, they all 
yelled a hideous and hearty assent to what 
had been said. The Indian men then took up 
their guns and shot powder into the colonel's 
body, from his feet as far up as his neck. 
I think that not less than seventy loads were 
discharged upon his naked body. They then 
crowded about him, and to the best of my 
observation cut off his ears; when the throng 
had disper.sed a little, I saw blood running 

Burning of Col. Crawford by Indians in 1782 in Wyandot County 

fire, and then they beat him with sticks and 
their fists. Presently after I was treated in 
the same manner. They then tied a rope to 
the foot of a post about fifteen feet high, 
bound the colonel's hands behind his back and 
fastened the rope to the ligature between his 
wrists. The rope was long enough for him to 
.sit down or walk around the post once or 
twice and return the same way. The colonel 
then called to Girty, and asked if they in- 
tended to burn him ? Girty answered, ' ' Yes. ' ' 
The colonel said he would take it all patiently. 
Upon this. Captain Pipe, a Delaware chief, 
made a speech to the Indians, viz., about 

from both sides of his head in consequence 

"The fire was about six or seven yards 
from the post to which the colonel was tied; 
it was made of small hickory poles, quite 
through in the middle, each end of the poles 
remaining about six feet in length. Three or 
four Indians by turns would take up, indi- 
vidually one of these burning pieces of wood, 
and apply it to his naked body, already burnt 
black with the powder. These tormentors 
presented themselves on every side of him 
with the burning fagots and poles. Some of 
the squaws took broad boards, upon which 



they would carry a quantitj- of burning coals 
and hot embers, and throw on him, so that iu 
a short time, he had nothing but coals of fire 
and hot ashes to walk upon. 

' ' In the midst of these extreme tortures, he 
called to Simon Girty and begged of him to 
shoot him ; but Girty making no answer, he 
called to him again. Girty then, by way of 
derision, told the colonel he had no gun, at 
the time turning about to an Indian who was 
behind him, laughed heartily, and bj^ all his 
gestures seemed delighted at the horrid scene. 

"Girty then came up and bade me prepare 
for death. He said, however, I was not to die 
at that place, but to be burnt at the Shawa- 
nese towns. He swore by G — d I need not 
expect to escape death, but should suffer it in 
all its extremities. 

"Col. Crawford at this period of his suffer- 
ings, besought the Almighty to have mercy on 
his soul, spoke very low, and bore his torments 
with the most manly fortitude. In the midst 
of his tortures he begged of Girty to shoot 
him, but the white savage made no answer. 
He continued in all the extremities of pain, 
for an hour and three-ciuarters' or two hours 
longer, as near as I can judge, when at last, 
being almost exhausted, he lay down on his 
belly ; they then scalped liim, and repeatedly 
threw the scalp in my face, telling me, that 
'That was my great captain.' An old scjuaw 
(whose appearance in every way answered 
the idea that people generallj' entertain of the 
devil) got a board, took a parcel of coals and 
ashes and laid them on his back and head, 
after he had been scalped ; he then raised him- 
self upon his feet and began to walk round 
the post; they next put a burning stick to him, 
as usual, but he seemed more insensible to 
pain than before." 

When the news of the torture and death of 
Colonel Crawford reached the Shawnee vil- 
lages, the exultation was very great. Not so, 
when the awful story was repeated in the 
settlements upon the border. A gloom was 

spread over every countenance. Crawford's 
unfortunate end was lamented by all who 
knew him. Heart-rending was the anguish in 
a lonely cabin upon the banks of the Youghio- 
gheny. There were few men on the frontiers, 
at that time, whose loss could have been more 
sensibly felt or more keenly deplored. 

The language of Washington, upon this 
occasion, shows the depth of his feeling : "It 
is with the greatest sorrow and concern that 
I have learned the melancholy tidings of 
Colonel Crawford's death. He was known to 
me as an officer of much care and prudence; 
brave, experienced, and active. The manner 
of his death was shocking to me ; and I have 
this day communicated to the honorable, the 
Congress, such papers as I have regarding it. ' ' 

The Indian brave, Tutelu, who had Doctor 
Knight in charge, now took him away to 
Captain Pipe's house, three-quarters of a mile 
from the place of the colonel's execution. He 
was bound all night, and thus prevented from 
seeing the last of the horrid spectacle. Next 
morning, being June 12th, the Indian untied 
him, painted him black, and they set off for 
the Shawnee town, which was somewhat less 
than forty miles distant from that place. 
They soon came to the spot where the colonel 
had been burnt, as it was partly in their way ; 
he saw his bones lying among the remains of 
the fire, almost burned to ashes. After he was 
dead, they had probably laid his body on the 
fire. The Indian told him that was his cap- 
tain, and gave the scalp halloo. It is a well- 
received tradition that the precise spot where 
the doctor outwitted, overpowered and 
escaped from his Indian guard was at the 
crossing of the Scioto by the old Shawnee 
trail, not far from Kenton, in Hardin County. 
This old Shawnee trail ran from the Wyandot 
and Delaware villages on the Sandusky and 
Tymochtee to the Shawnee towns on the Big 
Miami and Mad rivers. The details, as given 
by Knight, are in substance as here related. 

They started for the Shawnee towns, which 



the Indian said were somewhat less than forty 
miles away. Tutelu was on horseback, and 
drove Knight before him. The latter pre- 
tended he was ignorant of the death he was 
to die, though Simon Girtj- had told him that 
he was to die. He affected as cheerful a coun- 
tenance as was possible, under the circum- 
stances, and asked the savage if they were not 
to live together as brothers in one house, when 
they should get to the town. Tutelu seemed 
well pleased at this remark, and answered 
"Yes." He then asked Knight if he could 
make a wigwam. Knight replied that he 
could. The Indian then seemed more 
friendly. The route taken by Tutelu and 
Knight was the Indian trace leading from 
Pipe's Town to Wapatomika, which ran some 
six or eight miles west of what is now Upper 
Sandusky. Its direction was southwest from 
Pipetown to the Big Tymochtee. They trav- 
elled, as near as Knight could judge, the first 
day about twenty-five miles. The doctor was 
then informed that they would reach Wapa- 
tomica on the next day, a little before noon. 
"When night fell the prisoner was carefully 
tied and both laid down to rest. The doctor 
attempted several times to untie himself dur- 
ing the night, but the Indian was very watch- 
ful and scarcely closed his eyes, so that he did 
not succeed in loosening the tugs with which 
he was bound. At daybreak, Tutelu arose and 
untied the doctor. Tutelu, as soon as he had 
untied the doctor, began to mend the fire, 
which had been kept burning. As the gnats 
were troublesome, the doctor a.sked him if he 
should make a smoke behind him. He an- 
swered, "Yes." The doctor picked up the 
end of a dogwood fork, which had been burned 
down to about eighteen inches in length. It 

was the longest stick that he could find, yet 
it was too small for the purpose he had in 
view. He then gi-asped another small stick 
and, taking a coal of fire between them, went 
behind the Indian. Turning suddenly about, 
he struck the Indian on the head with all his 
strength. This so stunned him that he fell 
forward, with both his hands in the fire. He 
soon recovered and, springing to his feet, ran 
off howling into the forest. Knight seized his 
gun and followed, trying to shoot the Indian. 
Using too much violence in pulling back the 
cock of the gun, however, he broke the main- 
spring. The Indian continued his flight pre- 
cipitatel.y, with the doctor vainlj' endeavoring 
to fire his gun. 

Doctor Knight finally returned to the camp 
from the pursuit of Tutelu, and made prepa- 
rations for his homeward flight through the 
wilderness. He took the blanket of the Dela- 
ware, a pair of new moccasins, his powder- 
horn and bullet-pouch, together with the gun, 
and started on his journey in a direction a 
little north of east. About half an hour be- 
fore sunset he came to the Sandusky Plains, 
when he laid down in a thicket until dark. 
Taking the north star as a guide, he contin- 
ued in a northeasterly direction, passing near 
Gallon and then into Richland County, and 
so on, until on the evening of the twentieth 
day after his escape, he reached the mouth of 
Beaver Creek, on the Ohio, and was again 
among friends. During the whole journej', 
he subsisted on roots, a few young birds that 
were unable to fly out of his reach, and wild 
berries that grew in abundance through the 
forest. Doctor Knight afterwards removed to 
Shelbyville, Kentucky, where he died in 1838. 



Of all historic characters the name of the 
traitor to his race or to his country is buried 
deepest in the mire. His name becomes a 
byword and a reproach among the natives 
of the earth. By whatever name the traitor 
is known, whether turncoat, tory, apostate, or 
renegade, mankind have for him only uni- 
versal expressions of contempt. For him 
there remains only a pillar of historic infamy. 
He lives in the midst of the fiercest passions 
^\'hich darken the human heart. He is both 
a hater and the hated. The white renegade 
M-ho has abandoned his race and civilization 
for the company of the savages of the forest, 
is the abhorred of all. For him there is no 
charity. His virtues, if he had any, pass into 
oblivion. His name is inscribed with that of 
Brutus, of Benedict Arnold, and of Judas 
Iscariot. He may have been really better than 
he seems, his vices may have been exaggerated, 
but of these things it is difficult to form a 
correct and impartial opinion, for the exact 
truth cannot be obtained. The whirlwinds of 
abuse throw dust into the eyes of the most 
painstaking historian. 

The history of our border warfare furnishes 
us a number of instances of white men who 
deserted to the Indians and relapsed into a 
state as savage as their associates. North- 
west Ohio, with its memories of the Girtys, 
McKee. and Elliot, has more than its full 
share of these ingrates. Of all these known 
instances of white renegades, however, there 
is none which equals the cruelty and absolute 
baseness of Simon Girty, or Gerty, as it is 

sometimes spelled. Girty was an Irishman, 
who was born in Pennsylvania, not a great dis- 
tance from Harrisburg. His father, who was 
also named Simon, was of a roving disposi- 
tion and somewhat intemperate. It was in a 
drunken bout that he was killed by an Indian 
called "The Fish," on the very border of 
civilization. The Indian in turn was slain by 
John Turner, who made his home with the 
Girtys and afterwards married the widow, by 
whom he had a son, also named John. 

Simon Girty and his brothers did not owe a 
great deal to either parent, and this point of 
heredity may have had something to do with 
the low grade of morality of three of them. 
There were four brothers in this family, of 
whom Simon, born in 1741, was the second. 
The entire family were captured by a maraud- 
ing party of French and Indians in 1756. 
The stepfather was put to death with horrible 
torture, all of which the boys, then in their 
teens, and the miserable mother were com- 
pelled to witness. She sat on a log with an 
infant son in her arms, a terrified spectator 
of the dreadful scene. The separation of the 
boys and their mother followed soon after- 
wards. James was formally adopted by the 
Shawnees, George by the Delawares, and 
Simon was taken by the Senecas, whose lan- 
guage he speedily learned. After three years 
all of these brothers were returned to their 
friends at Pittsburg, in accordance with a 
treaty, but voluntarily reverted to savage life 
at a later period. 

James Girty was not quite so much ad- 



dieted to intoxication as Simon and George. 
He thoroughly adopted the savage life, how- 
ever, married a Shawnee squaw, and became 
a trader with the Aborigines in after years. 
His principal trading-post for years was 
called Girty 's Town, on the site of the present 
City of St. Marys. Another place where he 
had a trading stand at a later period was 
, large island, which is still known 

speetable family and died in 1820, at a ripe 
old age. On one occasion, in 1783, in company 
with his half-brother, John Turner, he visited 
Simon at Detroit. At that time their patri- 
otism seemed to be wavering, but soon after- 
wards both took the oath of allegiance. John 
Turner accumulated considerable property. 
For presenting a burial ground to the citi- 
zens of the locality in which he lived, Turner 

Girty 's Isi,and at Napoleon 

as Girty "s Island, a short distance above 
Napoleon. George married a Delaware 
woman, who bore him several children. He 
died while intoxicated at the trading post 
of his brother James. The fourth brother, 
Thomas, who was the oldest, escaped soon 
after his capture, and was the only one of the 
family to remain loyal to the United States 
during all the troubles with the mother coun- 
try. He made his home on Girty 's Run, which 
was named after him, where he raised a re- 

was known as "the benefactor of Squirrel 
Hill." The career of Thomas Girty and John 
Turner, Jr., have no further part in this 

The adventures of the three Girty rene- 
gades have furnished the material for many 
a volume of traditional and thrilling fiction. 
Whether plausible or not, readers have been 
inclined to accept at their face value the most 
absurd statements regarding their reputed 
activities. The Indian name of Simon Girty 



was Katepakomen. For a number of years 
after his return from captivity, Simon re- 
mained loyal to the American cause and 
attained considerable influence. He took part 
in Dunmore's War in 1774 with the Virginia 
forces, acting as guide and interpreter, and 
is said to have been as willing to kill a lurk- 
ing savage as anj^ of his companions. During 
this campaign he became a warm friend and 
bosom companion of Simon Kenton, also one 
of the scouts. During these years he also made 
the acquaintance of Colonel Crawford, to 
whom he was indebted for favors. He repaid 
these at a later date by refusing the mercy 
shot begged for by that officer when in his 
deepest suffering. 

Girty was commissioned a second lieutenant 
of the militia at Pittsburg for his services 
on behalf of Virginia. "On the 22nd of Feb- 
ruary, 1775, came Simon Girty in open court 
and took and subscribed the oath. ' ' This was 
"To be faithful and bear true allegiance to 
his majesty King George the Third." At this 
time, says Mr. Buttertield, "Girty, notwith- 
standing there was trouble of a serious nature 
between the colonies and the mother country, 
was well disposed toward the latter." He is 
included in a special list of loyal subjects by 
Lord Dunmore in a report to his government. 
In 1775 he accompanied James Wood, a com- 
missioner to the Indians, on a long trip 
through the Ohio wilderness, as guide and 
interpreter, at a salary of five shillings a day. 
The trip took them to the Wyandots at Upper 
Sandusky, the Shawnees, and other tribes, and 
he performed his duties faithfully. His sym- 
pathies at this time were strongly with the 
colonies. But his loyalty to the colonial cause 
ended shortly after his return from this jour- 
ney. He was employed in one other expedi- 
tion dispatched to the Six Nations, but was 
dismissed "for ill behavior," after three 
months' service. Just what the unsatisfactory 
conduct was is not now known, for the rec- 
ords do not reveal it. Girty was still loyal, 

however, for he exerted himself afterwards in 
enlisting men in the volimteer army. 

It is said that jealousy over the fact that 
he was not named as a captain, which com- 
mission he expected as a reward for his serv- 
ices, was the real reason for his desertion 
of the American cause in 1778, in the early 
years of the Revolution. He was made a sec- 
ond lieutenant in a company, but did not go 
to the front with the organization. He re- 
mained in Pittsburg on detached duty. On 
one occasion he was arrested for disloyalty, 
but was acquitted on the charge. He was 
again sent to the Senecas with a message. 
George Girty was likewise considered loyal 
and joined a company of patriots, being com- 
missioned as a second lieutenant. He took 
part in at least one expedition against the 
British, as also did Simon. 

About this time evidence was secured that 
Alexander McKee, a trader and British rep- 
resentative at Pittsburg, was making prepara- 
tions to join the British. He had for some 
time been under constant surveillance. It was 
on the night of the 28th of March, 1778, that 
Simon Girty, in company with Matthew El- 
liot, Alexander McKee, Robert Surphlit, a 
man named Higgin, and the two negi'o serv- 
ants of McKee, took their departure from 
Pittsburg for the Indian country on their 
way to Detroit. It is needless to say that 
great consternation followed the departure of 
so many well known charactei-s. No other 
three men, such as McKee, Girty and Elliot, 
could have been found so well fitted to work 
for and among the Aborigines. The real mov- 
ing cause that made Girty a base deserter of 
his native land and of his people is not 
definitely known. At any rate, from this time 
he became a renegade, and was faithless to 
his race and his fellow countr.ymen. 

The little band of traitors stopped for a 
brief time with the Moravian Indians by the 
Tuscarawas, and from there proceeded to the 
headquarters of the Delawares, near the pres- 



ent site of Coshoctou. Their intrigue with 
this tribe nearly changed its peaceful policy 
into one of open hostility against the Ameri- 
cans. General Washington had been killed, 
they said, and the patriot army cut to pieces. 
They represented that a great disaster had 
come upon the American forces, so that the 
struggle was sure to end in a victory for Great 
Britain, and that the few thousand troops yet 
remaining were intending to kill every Indian 
they should meet, whether friendly or hostile. 
Leaving the Delawares, Girty and two com- 
panions went westward to the villages of the 
Shawnees. That the Indians were not en- 
tirely fooled by Girty is shown by a message 
which the principal chief of the Delawares 
sent to the Shawnees : ' ' Grandchildren ! " so 
ran the message, "ye Shawnese! Some days 
ago, a flock of birds, that had come on from 
the east, lit at Goshhochking (Coshocton), 
imposing a song of theirs upon us, which song 
had nigh proved our ruin! Should these 
birds, which, on leaving us, took their flight 
toward Scioto endeavor to impose a song on 
you likewise, do not listen to them, for they 
lie !" It was here that they met James Girty, 
who was easily persuaded to desert his coun- 
try. He went to Detroit a few weeks later, 
and was employed as interpreter to remain 
with the Shawnees. A proclamation was 
afterwards, and in the same year, issued by 
Pennsylvania publicly proclaiming Alexander 
McKee, formerly Indian trader, Simon Girty, 
Indian interpreter, James Girty, laborer, and 
Matthew Elliot, Indian trader, as aiding and 
abetting the common enemy and summoning 
them back for trial. It was not until the fol- 
lowing year that George Girty joined his 
brothers, and thus completed the trio of rene- 
gade brothers. He was immediately engaged 
by the Indian department as an interpreter 
and dispatched to the Shawnees. He acted as 
disbursing agent in dealing out supplies to 
that tribe. 

After his visit to the Shawnees, Simon 

Girty and Alexander McKee stai-ted for De- 
troit by the way of Sandusky. They reached 
that fort by the middle of June. It is needless 
to say that Girty, as well as McKee, was wel- 
comed by "hair buyer" Hamilton, the com- 
mandant of the post. McKee was made 
captain and interpreter of the Indian depart- 
ment. Girty was immediately employed in 
the British service at a salary of about $2 
per day as interpreter, and sent back to 
Sandusky to assist the savages there in their 
warfare upon the Americans. Up to this time 
he had not taken a part in slaying a fellow- 
countryman. He formally took up his resi- 
dence with the Wyandots in 1781, and his 
influence soon began to be felt among aU the 
Indian tribes of Northwest Ohio. With his 
perfect knowledge of the Wyandot, Delaware, 
and other Indian tongues, he was indeed an 
invaluable aid to the British. He became 
almost as cruel and heartless as the most 
hardened savage. He was also an expert 
hunter. He joined the Wyandots, the Shaw- 
nees, and the Senecas in their murderous 
forays against the border settlements, and was 
always recognized as a leader. He main- 
tained his headquarters at Sandusky, and 
exercised great influence over the Half King, 
the head chief of the Wyandots. His name 
became a household word of terror all over 
what is now the State of Ohio, for with it was 
associated everything that was cruel and in- 
human. Especially was his name terrifying 
to women and children. 

According to the records that come down 
to us Girty took part in many noted instances 
of border warfare, some of them extending 
down into the bloody battleground of Ken- 
tucky. In fact, his first maraud was into that 
country. Ruddle's Station was surrendered 
after Girty had been admitted and made se- 
ductive promises that the captives would be 
protected from the Indians. After the sur- 
render, the savage fury broke forth, and they 
were either killed or made prisoners of the 



ludiaiis. At Biyan 's Station he sought to 
iutimidate the garrison by telling them who 
he was, and elaborating upon what would 
happen if they did not surrender. He had 
almost succeeded, so we are told, when one 
young man, named Aaron Reynolds, seeing 
the effect of this harangue, and believing his 
story, as it was, to be false, of his own accord 
answered him in the tone of rougli banter so 
popular with backwoodsmen : "You need not 
be so particular to tell us your name ; we know 
your name and you too. I 've had a villainous, 
untrustworthy cur-dog this long while, named 
Simon Girty, in compliment to you; he's so 
like you — just as ugly and just as wicked. 
As to the cannon, let them come on ; the coun- 
try's roused, and the scalps of your red cut- 
throats, and your own too, will be drying on 
your cabins in twenty-four hours." This 
spirited reply produced good results. Girty 
in turn was disheartened, and, with his 
Indians, soon withdrew. It is true that this 
account is questioned by some, but Roosevelt 
adopts it in his "Winning of the West," as 
do many of the writers. If it is true, it cer- 
tainly revealed to the renegade the esteem in 
which he was held by the backwoods pioneers. 
The directing genius in the famous siege 
of Fort Laurens, on the Tuscarawas River, 
was no other than Simon Girty. He assisted 
in killing a number of American soldiers and 
taking their scalps, as was the custom. Im- 
placable in his hatred, and tireless in his 
movements, he was recognized as one of the 
chief agents of the British. To judge from 
the varied information we have of him, he 
seems to have been anything but a loafer, but 
was constantly engaged in some form of activ- 
ity. Although classed on British records only 
as an interpreter, he seems frequently to have 
acted practically as a .sub-agent in his dealings 
with the aborigines. His treatment of Colonel 
Crawford, who had befriended him, has been 
related elsewhere. Captain Elliot was the 
only one of the renegades who showed any 

compassion, and he did all he could to save 
Crawford. Of Girty 's cruelty on this occa- 
sion. Col. John Johnson said: "He (Simon 
Girty) was notorious for his cruelty to the 
whites who fell into the hands of the Indians. 
His cruelty to the unfortunate Col. Crawford 
is well known to myself, and although I did 
not witness the tragedy, I can vouch for the 
facts of the case, having had them from eye- 
witnesses. When that brave and unfortunate 
commander was suffering at the stake by a 
slow fire in order to lengthen his misery to 
the longest possible time, he besought Girty 
to have him shot to end his torments, when 
the monster mocked him by firing powder 
without ball at him." He had evidently re- 
received his information from the Wyandots. 
George Girty was just as criiel as his more 
noted brother. In company with forty war- 
riors he took Slover, one of Crawford 's party, 
and tied him after stripping him and paint- 
ing him black. He then cursed him, telling 
Slover he would not get what he had for many 
years deserved. He seemed to take a delight 
in knowing that death was to be his doom. 
A sudden storm came up, however, after the 
Indians had tied the prisoner to the stake," 
and Slover escaped. 

Simon Girty 's headquarters were along the 
Sandusky, where he exercised great influence 
over the Half King, who was head chief of 
the Wyandots. When the Moravian Indians 
were captured by the Wyandots and brought 
to Sandusky, he seemed to take delight in 
treating the Christian Indians and the white 
missionaries with cruelty. "The missionaries 
in particular were as a thorn in their eyes, 
being not only considered as the cause that 
the Delawares would not join in the war, but 
they also mistrusted them of informing the 
American Government the part they (the 
white savages) were acting in the Indian 
country. ' ' 

Just before he started on an expedition 
with a war party, Girty commissioned a 


Frenchman by the name of Francis Levallie, 
from Lower Sandusky, to conduct the mis- 
sionaries to Detroit, and drive them all the 
way by land as though they were cattle. The 
Frenchman, however, was more humane and 
treated them kindly. He sent word to De- 
troit for boats to be sent to Sandusky to carry 
the missionaries to Detroit. Before the boats 
arrived, however, Girty returned and, accord- 
ing to Missionary Heckwelder, ' ' behaved like 
a madman, on hearing that we were here, and 
that our conductor had disobeyed his orders, 
aud had sent a letter to the commandant at 
Detroit respecting us. He flew at the French- 
man, who was in the room adjoining ours, 
most furiously, striking at him, and threat- 
ening to split his head in two for disobeying 
the orders he had given him. He swore the 
most horrid oaths respecting us, and contin- 
ued in that way until after midnight. His 
oaths were all to the purport that he never 
would leave the house until he split our heads 
in two with his tomahawk, and made our 
brains stick to the walls of the room in which 
we were! Never before did any of us hear 
the like oaths, or know any one to rave like 
■him. He appeared like an host of evil spirits. 
He would sometimes come up to the bolted 
door between us and him, threatening to chop 
it in pieces to get at us. How we should 
escape the clutches of this white beast in 
human form no one could foresee. Yet at the 
proper time relief was at hand; for, in the 
morning, at break of day, and while he was 
still sleeping, two large flat-bottomed boats 
arrived from Detroit, for the purpose of tak- 
ing us to that place. This was joyful news!" 
Only one instance is recorded to the credit 
of Girty. As heretofore mentioned he and 
Simon Kenton had served together in a 
border war. When Kenton was captured by 
the Shawnees, he was sentenced to be burned 
at Wapatomika, an Indian village within what 
is now Logan County. Girty, who had just 
returned from an expedition into Kentucky. 

came to see the prisoner, who was sitting upon 
the floor silent and dejected with his face 
painted black, which was a custom among the 
Indians when captives were doomed to the 
stake. Hence it was that he did not recognize 
Kenton until the latter spoke to him. His 
first intention was only to gain information 
from the captive. Only a few words had been 
exchanged, however, before he recognized him. 

' ' What is your name ? ' ' Girty asked. 

"Simon Butler," answered Kenton, for 
that was the name he then bore. 

As soon as he heard his friend's name, 
Girty became greatly agitated. Springing up 
from his seat he threw himself into Kenton's 
arms, calling him his dear and esteemed 
friend. "You are condemned to die," said 
he, "but I will do all I can — use every means 
in my power to save your life." It was due 
to his efforts that a council was convened, and 
Girty made a long and eloquent speech to the 
Indians in their language. He entreated them 
to have consideration for his feelings in this 
one instance. He renlinded them that three 
years of faithful service had proved his devo- 
tion to the cause of the Indians. ' ' Did I not, ' ' 
said he, "bring seven scalps home from the 
last expedition ? Did I not also submit seven 
white prisoners that same evening to your dis- 
cretion? Did I express a wish that a single 
one should be saved? This is my first and 
shall be my last request. From w-hat expedi- 
tion did I ever shrink ? What white man has 
ever seen my back? Whose tomahawk has 
been bloodier than mine?" This council de- 
cided against him by an overwhelming major- 
ity, but a later one at Upper Sandusky, 
through the skillful manipulation of Girty, 
consented to place Kenton under his care and 
protection. As a result he was taken to San- 
dusky and thence to Detroit, from whence he 
made his escape in safety to Kentucky. 
Kenton ever afterwards spoke of Girty in 
grateful remembrance. Girty told Kenton 
that he had acted too hasty in deserting his 



coiintrj', and was sorry for the part he had 
taken. It is the only expression of regret that 
is recorded of the renegade. 

For a number of years now, very little is 
mentioned concerning the life of this noted 
desperado. He remained among the Indians, 
however. His last expedition against the 
Americans was in 1783, when he led a band of 
red men to Nine Mile River, within five miles 
of Pittsburg. Here it was he first learned 
that hostilities had ended, but he did not place 
credence in the rumor. ' ' He never again visi- 
ted his native state, painted and plumed as a 
savage, to imbrue his hands in the blood of 
his countrymen," saj^s Butterfield. He re- 
mained as an interpreter in the British Indian 
Department on half pay, practically a pen- 
sioner. His headquarters were at first at 
Detroit. This leisure gave him time to think 
of something else besides fighting, and he 
resolved to marry. The ob.ject of his affec- 
tions was Catherine IMalott, then a prisoner 
among the Indians, and much younger than 
himself. They were married in August, 1784, 
in Canada, near the mouth of the Detroit 
River, and here they took up their abode in 
the neighborhood of the present Town of 
Amherstburg. His wife is said to have been 
a very comely maiden, and she probably mar- 
ried the renegade to escape from her position 
as prisoner among the Indians. At the time 
of her marriage, she was not more than half 
the age of her husband. His daughter Ann, 
was born in 1786. A son, Thomas, another 
daughter, Sarah, and a second son, Prideaux, 
the last one bein^ born in 1797. were his other 

After Great Britain had acknowledged the 
independence of the colonies, Simon Girty was 
one of the leading agents in keeping the sav- 
ages loyal to the British. For the succeeding 
decade he stands out as a very prominent 
figure throughout Northwest Ohio, and prac- 
tically the entire Northwest. There is prob- 
ably not a countv in this section of our state 

where there is not some record of his activi- 
ties. To him and others of his kind was due 
the dissatisfaction with and disloyalty to the 
treaty negotiated at Fort Mcintosh. His 
harangues had potent influence. He was 
under the direction of his old-time friend 
McKee. He no longer lived with the red men, 
but constantly visited them as British emis- 
*sary. He played his part well. Of this we 
have the testimony of General Harmar him- 
self. Matthew Elliott was an able second, for 
he had taken up his residence with the Shaw- 
nees. In 1788 Girty attended an Indian 
council at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. 
Here he was received into the conference by 
the Indians as one of them. He was the 
mouthpiece of McKee, who had established a 
store there. 

By none was the rising war cloud welcomed 
more than by the white savage, Simon Girty. 
He was present at the gi'and council held in 
October, 1793, at the Glaize (Defiance). Mc- 
Kee, Elliott, and other whites were also there, 
but Simon Girty was the only white man ad- 
mitted to the deliberations. To no one else 
did these children of the forests feel safe in 
confiding their innermost thoughts. Well had 
he earned the confidence reposed in him. It 
was no doubt a proud moment in his life, and 
one upon which he afterwards reflected with 
pleasure. At Fallen Timbers Girty, Elliott. 
and McKee were all present, but the.y kept at 
a respectable distance near the river, and did 
not take a part in the flghting. All three 
made good their escape. After this he and 
McKee assisted in furnishing food to the 
Indians, whose crops had been destroyed by 
General Wayne. This event practically 
ended his wild career in the Ohio country. 
On only one other occasion, only a few months 
later, did he appear as a British emissary 
among the Ohio Indians. Nevertheless his in- 
fluence remained strong for a long time. He 
continued to visit Detroit occasionally, until 
the Americans occupied it. He happened to 



be there when the American ti-oops ap- 
proached, but fled precipitately to the oppo- 
site bank. He could not wait for the boat, 
but plunged his horse into the river and swam 
to the opposite shore. He never again crossed 
to the fort, except during the War of 1812, 
when the British troops again occupied it. 
For sixteen years he did not step foot on 
American soil. 

The last time that James Girty joined in an 
expedition against his countrymen, so far as 
is knovra, was in 1782. The point where the 
portage at the head of the St. Marys began 
was an ideal place for the establishment of 
a trading post. It was then the site of a 
small Indian village, but is now occupied by 
St. Marys. Girty had married a Shawnee 
woman, who was known as Betsey by the 
whites. He established himself there in 1783, 
as a trader, and it soon became known as 
Girty 's Town. For a number of years he 
enjoyed a practical monopoly of the Indian 
trade here. He shipped his peltry down the 
St. Marys to the Maumee. At every report 
of the approach of the Americans, James be- 
came alarmed, and on several occasions had 
his goods packed for immediate flight. Upon 
the approach of General Harmar, he moved 
to the confluence of the Maumee and Au- 
glaize. Here he occupied a log cabin. 

An incident is related of young Oliver M. 
Spencer, who took dinner at Girty 's home 
after being released from Indian captivity. 
While regaling himself Girty came in and 
saw the boy for the first time. The latter 
seated himself opposite Spencer, and said to 
him : "So, my young Yankee, you 're about to 
start for home ? " The boy answered : "Yes, 
sir; I hope so." That, Girty rejoined, would 
depend upon his master, in whose kitchen he 
had no doubt the youthful stranger should 
first serve a few years' apprenticeship as a 
scullion. Then, taking his knife, he said 
(while sharpening it on a whetstone) : "I 
see your ears are whole yet; but I'm greatly 

mistaken if you leave this without the Indian 
earmark, that we may know you when we 
catch you again.'" Spencer did not wait to 
prove whether Girty was in jest or in down- 
right earnest, but, leaving his meal half fin- 
ished, he instantly sprang from the table, 
leaped out of the door, and in a few seconds 
took refuge in the house of a trader named 
Ironside. On learning the cause of the boy's 
flight, Elliott uttered a sardonic laugh, derid- 
ing his unfounded childish fears, as he was 
pleased to term them. Ironside, however, 
looked serious, shaking his head as if he had 
no doubt that if Spencer had remained Girty 
would have executed his threat. 

When Wayne approached in 1794, James 
Girty packed up his goods and fled to Canada, 
but came back once more to again trade with 
the Indians along the Maumee. Trade was 
not so profitable as before, and he returned 
to Canada, at Gosfield. His last trading place 
in Ohio was a few miles above Napoleon, at 
Girty 's Point, near Girty 's Island. Like his 
brother Simon, he was also too old and infirm 
to take part in the War of 1812. He died on the 
15th of April, 1817. He was thrifty and had 
accumulated considerable propertj'. His wife 
died first, and two children survived him, 
James and Ann. He was temperate in his 
habits, but fully as cruel as his brothers. 
Neither age nor sex were spared by him dur- 
ing the savage expeditions in which he took 
part. He would boast, so it is said, that no 
woman or child escaped his tomahawk, if he 
got within reach of the victim. 

George Girty, after the battle of Blue 
Licks, in 1782, returned to the upper waters 
of the Mad River. It is known that he con- 
tinued to reside with the Delawares, but gave 
himself so completely up to savage life that 
he practically lost his identity. He is heard 
of occasionally in Indian forays. He married 
a Delaware squaw, and had several children. 
During his latter years he was an habitual 
drunkard, and died during a spree at the 



cabin of James, near Fort Wayne, but his 
family remained witli the tribe. 

When war broke out between the United 
States and the Indians about 1790, Simon 
Girty again fought with the Indians and 
against the Americans. The last battle in 
which he was known to have been actually en- 
gaged was at the defeat of St. Clair, in Mercer 
County, where he fought most courageously. 
Here he captured a white woman. A Wyandot 
squaw demanded the prisoner, on the ground 
that custom gave all female prisoners to the 
squaws accompanying the braves. Over 
Girty 's objection this was done, and he was 
furious. Even after the defeat of the Indians 
by General Wayne he still advised a contin- 
uance of the war against the Americans, so 
blinded had he become in this hatred. 

In his later j'cars Girty seems to have made 
an eifort to command a degree of respect as 
a decent citizen. The British Government 
granted him some land in the Township of 
Maiden, Essex County, Canada, described as 
"beginning at a post on the bank of the river 
Detroit, marked 10/11; thence east 131 
chains; thence south 12 chains, 52 links; 
thence west to the river Detroit, and thence 
northerly along the shore of the river against 
the stream to the place of beginning, contain- 
ing 164 acres." He was abhorred by all his 
neighbors, however, for the depi'avity of his 
untamed and undisciplined nature was too 
apparent. After the birth of the last son, 
Simon and his wife separated because of his 
cruelty toward her when drunk. In the War 
of 1812 he was incapable of active service, 
because his sight had almost left him. He is 
said, however, to have rallied a band of Wyan- 
dots to the standard of Tecumseh. When the 
British army returned he followed it, leaving 
his family at home. When General Harrison 
invaded Canada, Girty fled beyond his reach, 
but his wife remained at the home and was 
unharmed. In 1816, after peace was con- 
cluded, he returned to his farm, where he died 

on the 18tli of February, in the year 1818. 
He actually gave up liquor for a few months 
prior to his dissolution. He is said to have 
been very penitent, as the end drew nigh. 
He was buried on his farm. A squad of Brit- 
ish soldiers attended the funeral, and fired a 
parting salute over his grave. His youngest 
son was on one occasion a candidate for Par- 
liament, but was defeated. He became a man 
of considerable influence, and finally moved 
to Ohio, where he died. All of his children 
lived and married. Thomas died before his 
father, but left three children. The widow 
of Simon survived him for many years, and 
did not die until 1852. All of her children 
enjoyed unsullied reputations. 

Oliver M. Spencer, who was taken prisoner 
by the Indians while a youth in 1792, in his 
narrative of his captivity makes some men- 
tion of the Girtys. While at Defiance, the old 
Indian priestess, Coo-coo-Cheeh, with whom 
he lived, took him to a neighboring Shawnee 
village called Snaketown, on the site of Na- 
poleon. There he saw the celebrated chief. 
Blue Jacket, and Simon Girty, of whom he 
speaks as follows: 

"One of the visitors of Blue Jacket (the 
Snake) was a plain, grave chief of sage ap- 
pearance; the other, Simon Girty, whether it 
was from prejudice, associating with his look 
the fact that he was a renegado, the murderer 
of his own countrymen, racking his diabolic 
invention to inflict new and more excruciat- 
ing tortures, or not; his dark, shaggy hair, 
his low forehead, his brows contracted, and 
meeting above his short flat nose; his gray 
sunken eyes, averting the ingenuous gaze ; his 
lips thin and compressed, and the dark and 
sinister expression of his countenance, to me, 
seemed the very picture of a villain. He 
wore the Indian costume, but without any 
ornament ; and his silk handkerchief while it 
supplied the place of a hat ; hid an unsightly 
wound in his forehead. On each side, in his 
belt, was stuck a silvermounted pistol, and at 



his left hung a short broad dirk, serving 
occasionally the uses of a knife. He made of 
me many inquiries; some about my family, 
and the particulars of my captivity ; but more 
of the strength of the different garrisons; 
the number of Amei-icans troops at Fort 
Washington, and whether the President in- 
tended soon to send another army against the 
Indians. He spoke of the wrongs he had 
received at the hands of his countrymen, and 
with fiendish exultation of the revenge he had 
taken. He boasted of his exploits, of the num- 
ber of his victories, and of his personal 
prowess; then raising his handkerchief, and 
exhibiting the deep wound in his forehead 
(which I was afterwards told was inflicted by 
the tomahawk of the celebrated Indian chief, 
Brandt, in a drunken frolic) said it was a 
sabre cut, which he received in battle at St. 
Clair's defeat; adding with an oath, that he 

had 'sent the d d Yankee officer' that 

gave it 'to h 1. ' He ended bv telling me 

that I would never see home ; but if I should 
turn out to be a good hunter and a brave war- 
rior, I might one day be a chief. His pres- 
ence and conversation having rendered my 
situation painful, I was not a little relieved 
when, a few hours after ending our visit, we 
returned to our quiet lodge on the bank of 
the Maumee. " 

Girtj^'s one great fear was of capture by 
the Americans, and he always endeavored to 
ascertain from prisoners what might be in 
store for him should he be captured by them. 
It seemed as though the idea of falling into 
the hands of his outraged countrymen was a 
terror to him. 

"The last time I saw Girty," writes Wil- 
liam Walker, "was in the summer of 1813. 
From my recollection of his person, he was 
in height five feet six or seven inches; broad 
across the chest; strong, round, compact 
limbs; and of fair complexion. To any one 
scrutinizing him, the conclusion would forci- 

bly impress the observer, that Girty was en- 
dowed by nature with great powers of 
endurance." Spencer was not favorably im- 
pressed with his visage, and leaves us the 
following picture: "His dark shaggj- hair, 
his low forehead; his brows contracted, and 
meeting above his short, flat nose; his gray 
sunken eyes, averting the ingenuous gaze ; his 
lips thin and compressed; and the dark and 
sinister expression of his countenance ; — to me 
seemed the very picture of a villain." 

"No other country or age," says Butter- 
field, "ever produced, perhaps, so brutal, 
depraved, and wicked a wretch as Simon 
Girty. He was sagacious and brave; but his 
sagacity and bravery only made him a greater 
monster 'of cruelty. All of the vices of civ- 
ilization seemed to center in him, and by him 
were ingrafted upon those of either. He 
moved about through the Indian country dur- 
ing the war of the Revolution and the Indian 
war which followed, a dark whirlwind of fury, 
desperation and barbarity. In the refine- 
ments of torture inflicted on helpless pris- 
oners, as compared with the Indians, he 
'out-heroded Herod.' In treachery he stood 
unrivaled. There ever rankled in his bosom a 
most deadly hatred of his country. He seemed 
to revel in the very excess of malignity toward 
his old associates. So horrid was his wild 
ferocity and savageness, that the least relent- 
ing seemed to be acts of positive goodness — 
luminous sparks in the verj- blackness of 
darkness ! " i 

Of Girty 's foolhardiness there is ample tes- 
timony. He became involved in a quarrel at 
one time with a Shawnee, caused by some mis- 
understanding in trade. While bandying 
hard words to each other, the Indian, by innu- 

1 Consul W. Butterfield made a more extended study 
of the life of the Girtya than any other person. In 
his "History of the Girtys, " published in 1890, he 
modified many of his harsher statements expressed 
about Simon Girty in his "Crawford's Campaign 
against Sandusky," published seventeen years earlier. 



endo, questioned his opponent's courage. 
Girty instantly produced a half-keg of pow- 
der, and snatching a firebrand, called upon 
the savage to stand by him. The latter, not 
deeming this a legitimate mode of settling 
disputes, hastily evacuated the premises. 

The last picture that we have of Simon Girty 
is shortly before his death. "I went to Mai- 

den," said Mr. Daniel, "and put up at a 
hotel kept by a Frenchman. I noticed iu the 
bar-room a gray-headed and blind old man. 
The landlady, who was the daughter, a woman 
of about thirty years of age, inquired of me: 
'Do you know who that is?' On my reply- 
ing 'No' she replied 'it is Simon Girty.' He 
had then been blind about four years. ' ' 



Although by the Treaty of Paris, which was 
concluded at Versailles in 1783, all the terri- 
tory south of the middle of the Great Lakes 
and their connecting waters, and east of the 
Upper Mississippi River, was gi'anted to the 
United States, and Great Britain specifically 
covenanted to withdraw her troops from De- 
troit, and other parts of this territory, the 
British did not comply with their agreement 
until some thirteen years afterward. During 
this time there were no large war parties of 
the aborigines for several years, but small 
bands of Shawnees and Wyandots continued 
to invade Kentucky and the border settlements 
of Pennsylvania with the loaded rifle and the 
uplifted tomahawk. For this reason agoniz- 
ing appeals kept coming in to Washington 
asking for protection and praying that troops 
be dispatched into the Ohio country. When 
John Adams, the American minister to Great 
Britain, protested to the British government, 
that country defended itself by saying that 
some of the states had violated the peace 
treaty, also, in regard to the payment of their 
debts to Great Britain. This was true, for 
some of the southern states had attempted to 
offset the value of slaves impressed into Brit- 
ish service against legitimate claims due from 
them. The real motive doubtless was the 
hope that the league of American states would 
prove only an ephemeral union that would 
soon be torn asunder. 

The new American Government was very 
reluctant to enter into a struggle with the 
Indians of the Northwest Territory, of which 

Ohio was then a part. But the frontier was 
steadily advanced westward by venturesome 
backwoodsmen, and the Government was in- 
evitably drawn in by the necessity of sup- 
porting them. There was no well developed 
plan. Many of the leaders were averse to 
spreading westward f they were as strong anti- 
expansionists as is any American today. They 
were quite content to permit the red men to 
rove the forests and hunt in peace. They 
did not covet the lands of the Indians. They 
endeavored to prevent settlers from encroach- 
ing upon them. But backwoodsmen are 
naturally aggressive. They revert in a sense 
to primeval conditions. Rough, masterful, 
aggressive, and even lawless, they feared not 
the red man nor were they intimidated by the 
threatening wrath of the Government. Once 
established in a location, they freely appealed 
to Washington for help. Then it was that 
the men east of the Alleghenies, whose fathers 
or grandfathers had also been frontiersmen, 
rather grudgingly came to their help. When 
letter after letter arrived from the Ohio 
country, with accounts of the horrible atroci- 
ties there being perpetrated, the congressmen 
began to be besieged and the governors for- 
warded appeals to the President. Then it was 
that some active movements were undertaken 
to relieve the conditions in the West. 

With all every provocation possible placed 
before it, the American Government hesitated 
to make open war against the Indians of Ohio. 
And yet, although the Northwest Territory, 
a vast empire larger than any country in 



Europe save Russia, had become the public 
domain of the confederated states, the aborigi- 
nal inhabitant, and the one actually in pos- 
session, had still to be dealt with. This must 
be accomplished either by purchase or con- 
quest. The Iroquois claim to these lands was 
extinguished by the treaty of Fort Stanwix, 
in 1785. An American commissioner, by the 
name of Ephraim Douglas, was sent to the 
Indians residing in Ohio in 1783 to conclude 
treaties with them. Carrying a white flag of 
peace he visited Sandusky, passing some days 
with the Delawares there, and then journeyed 
to the Wyandots, Ottawas, and Miamis along 
the Lower Maumee. This was in the month 
of June. From there he proceeded to Detroit, 
where he met representatives of many other 
tribes. Long talks were indulged in to con- 
vince them that the war was ended. These 
Indians were perfectly willing to give their 
allegiance to whichever nation promised them 
the most presents, so it appeared. As the 
Americans at this time had not learned how 
to deal with these simple inhabitants of the 
forests, their allegiance was still retained by 
the British in most instances, and many lives 
were sacrificed as a consequence. 

By a treaty entered into between United 
States commissioners and the chiefs and 
sachems of the Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa, 
and "Wyandot Indians at Fort Mcintosh, the 
limits of their territory as agreed upon were 
the Maumee and the Cuyahoga rivers, on the 
west and east respectively. Within this terri- 
tory, which included nearly all of Northwest 
Ohio, and almost three-fourths of the entire 
state, the Delawares, Wyandots, and Ottawas 
were to live and hunt at their heart's pleasure. 
They were authorized to shoot any person 
other than an Indian, whether a citizen of the 
United States or otherwise, who attempted to 
settle upon these exempt lands. "The 
Indians may punish him as they please, ' ' was 
the exact language of the treaty. On their 
part the Indians recognized all the lands west. 

south, and east of these lines as belonging to 
the United States, and "none of their tribes 
shall presume to settle upon the same or any 
part of it." Reservations were exempted by 
the United States of a tract six miles square 
at the mouth of the Maumee, and two miles 
square at Lower Sandusky, for military posts. 
Three chiefs were to remain with the Ameri- 
cans as hostages until all American prisoners 
were surrendered by the savages. In a treaty 
made the following year at Fort Finney, the 
Shawnees "acknowledged the United States 
to be the sole and absolute sovereign of all the 
territory ceded by Great Britain," but they 
immediately ignored this treaty. 

It was some time after the independence 
of the colonies was achieved before a definite 
government was adopted for the Northwest 
Territory. Army officers and discharged sol- 
diers were clamoring for the lands. Thomas 
Jefferson evolved a scheme for the creation 
of the vast domain into a checkerboard 
arrangement of states, to which fanciful 
names were assigned. Northwest Ohio nar- 
rowly escaped being a part of Metropotamia. 
Some of its neighbors would have been Cher- 
ronesus, Assenisipia, Ulinoia, Pelisipia, Poly- 
potamia, and Michigania. The ordinance was 
passed but never really went into effect, for 
it was soon afterwards superseded by the 
famous Ordinance of 1787. The main factor 
in the passage of this measure was the famous 
Manasseh Cutler, representing the Ohio Com- 
pany. This ordinance in its wise provisions 
ranks close to the Constitution, being pre- 
ferred by the convention at the same time. 
The most marked and original feature in its 
provisions was the prohibition of slavery after 
the year 1800. On July 27, 1887, Congress 
passed the ordinance by which the Ohio Com- 
pany was granted 1,500,000 acres, and 
a little more than twice as much was set 
aside for private speculation, in which many 
of the most prominent personages of the day 
were involved. This was the Scioto Company. 



They paid two-thirds of a dollar an acre in 
specie or certificates of indebtedness of the 

The Ohio Company was the first real at- 
tempt to settle Ohio, and this company had its 
full share of troubles. The lands granted 
were on the Ohio and Muskingum rivers. As 
Senator Hoar has said : ' ' Never did the great 
Husbandman choose his seed more carefully 
than when he planted Ohio; I do not believe 
the same number of persons fitted for the 
highest duties and responsibilities of war and 
peace could ever have been found in a com- 
munity of the same size as were among the 
men who founded Marietta in the spring of 
1788, or who joined them within twelve 
months thereafter." Many of the settlers 
were college graduates, bearing classical de- 
grees from Harvard and Yale. Arthur St. 
Clair was appointed the first governor of this 
new territory, and Winthrop Sargent was 
named as secretary. The ordinance required 
that the governor, to be appointed by Con- 
gress, must reside in the district and must be 
the owner of 1,000 acres of land. Governor 
St. Clair came of a distinguished Scotch fam- 
ily, and had had a distinguished career in 
the Revolution. He did not actively enter 
upon his duties until the summer of 1788. 

To allay the restlessness known to exist 
among the aborigines, because of the rapid 
influx of .settlers, Congress directed that com- 
missioners proceed to the homes of the dif- 
ferent tribes, in order to make treaties which 
would avert future conflicts. The carrying 
out of this policy was committed to Governor 
St. Clair.i 

As an outcome of this policy a treaty was 

entered into with several tribes, and a con- 
sideraible sum of money was paid to the 
Indians. This was at Fort Harmar, and some 
200 Indian delegates attended the council. 
Among the signatures are those of chiefs 
known as Dancing Feather, Wood Bug, 
Thrown-in-the-water, Big Bale of a Kettle, 
Full Moon, and Tearing Asunder. It was 
signed by the Wyandots, Delawares, and 
Ottawas, among others. But they were not 
the head chiefs. The Shawnees and Miamis 
remained away. It required only a few 
weeks, however, to demonstrate the insin- 
cerity and treachery of the Indians, for their 
maraudings began anew with the opening of 
another spring. Gen. Josiah Harmar, with a 
small body of troops, made a detour of the 
Scioto River, destroying the food supplies and 
huts of the hostile savages wherever they 
were found. Onlj- four of the Indians, so he 
reported, were shot, as ' ' wolves might as well 
have been pursued. ' ' 

Recourse was finally had to Antonie Game- 
lin, a French trader. Gamelin had visited the 
Indians innumerable times, and had dealt with 
them for many years. No trader was more 
highly esteemed by these aborigines. His 
long intercourse, honest dealing, good heart, 
and perfect good fellowship had given him 
universal popularity among the tribes. Much 
as they liked him, and always avowing their 
faith in him, the Indians passed him on from 
tribe to tribe, with no answer to the speech 
or invitation until he arrived on the Maumee. 
Here the chiefs were outspoken. "The Amer- 
icans," they said, "send us nothing but 
speeches, and no two are alike. They intend 
to deceive us. Detroit was the place where 

1 The instructions to Governor St. Clair were as 
follows: 1. Examine carefully into the real temper 
of the aborigines. 2. Remove if possible all causes 
of controversy, so that peace and harmony may be 
established between the United States and the aborig- 
ine tribes. 3. Regulate trade among the aborigines. 
4. Neglect no opportunity that offers for extinguish- 
ing the aborigine claims to lands westward as far as 
the Mississippi River, and northward as far as the 

completion of the forty-first degree of north latitude. 
5. Use every possible endeavor to ascertain the names 
of the real head men and warriors of the several 
tribes, and to attach these men to the United States 
by every possible means. 6. Make every exertion to 
defeat all confederations and combinations among the 
tribes; and conciliate the white people inhabiting the 
frontiers, toward the aborigines. 



the fire was lighted ; there is where it ought 
first to be put out. The Eiaglish commander 
is our father since he threw down our French 
father ; we can do nothing without his appro- 
bation." When Gamelin returned, he reported 
the situation as hopeless. Other traders ar- 
riving vouchsafed the information that war 
parties were on the move. 

11th, that Harmar shoiild conduct an expedi- 
tion against the Maumee towns, which were 
reported to be the headquarters of all the rene- 
gade Indians who were committing the depre- 
dations. Troops from Kentucky, New York, 
and from the back counties of Pennsylvania, 
were ordered to assemble at Fort Washington 
(now Cincinnati) on the 15th of September, 

:\Iaimee Towns Destroyed by Gener.vl Harm. 

Harmar "s Expedition 

General Harmar reported to General St. 
Clair many raids and murders by the sav- 
ages, and it was agreed between them, at a 
meeting held at Fort Washington, on July 

1790. The object of this expedition was not 
onlj' to chastise the savages, but also to build 
one or more forts on the JIaumee and to estab- 
lish a connecting line of refuge posts for sup- 
plies, from which sorties could quickly be 
made to intercept the savages. Actuated by 


what might he termed by the "peace at any 
price" partisans a commendable spirit, but 
which we now know was the sheerest folly and 
really suicidal, St. Clair forwarded word of 
this expedition to the British commander, to 
assure him that no hostile intentions were held 
towards Detroit "or any other place at pres- 
ent in the possession of the troops of his 
Britannic Majesty, but is on foot with the sole 
design of humbling and chastising some of 
the savage tribes, whose depredations have 
become intolerable and whose cruelties have of 
late become an outrage, not only on the people 
of America, but on humanity." 

The army under General Harmar marched 
northward from near Fort Washington, on 
the 4th of October, 1790. It was composed 
of almost 1,500 soldiers, of whom about one- 
tifth were regulars, and included an artillery 
company with three light brass cannon. The 
rest of his troops were volunteer infantry, 
many of whom were raw soldiers and unused 
to a gun or the woods, and some of them were 
indeed without effective guns. Between the 
"regulars" and the militia jealousy seemed 
to exist from the very inception of the expe- 
dition. General Harmar was much disheart- 
ened, for at least half of them served no other 
purpose than to swell the number. They were 
inadequately clad and almost destitute of 
camp equipment. Some of the men were too 
old and infirm for the contemplated duties. 
We have a detailed account of the march from 
day to day in Ebenezer Denny's Military 
Journal. It reveals the hardships endured 
from the muddy roads, marsh lands, and lack 
of provender for the horses. The troops aver- 
aged nearly ten miles a day. On the 17th a 
scouting detachment encountered a body of 
Indians, and quite a number of the Ameri- 
cans were killed. This was the first serious 
incident of the campaign. The roiat was due 
"to the scandalous behavior of the militia, 
many of whom never fired a shot, but ran off 
at the first noise of the Indians and left a 

few regulars to be sacrificed — some of them 
never halted until they crossed the Ohio. ' ' 

The Harmar expedition eventually reached 
a place near the headwaters of the Maumee, 
and not far from Fort Wayne, Indiana. A 
large village of the Indians was destroyed, 
and the army then proceeded on. ' ' The chief 
village, ' ' says Denny, ' ' contained about eighty 
houses and wigwams, and a vast quantity of 
corn and vegetables hid in various places, 
holes, etc. ' ' On the representation by Colonel 
Hardin that he believed the town was again 
occupied by the aborigines, as soon as the army 
passed on, a detachment of "four hundred 
choice militia and regulars ' ' was sent back on 
the night of the 21st. They encountered the 
Indians in strong force arid, owing to the un- 
reliability of the militia, were overwhelmingly 
defeated. General Harmar then lost all confi- 
dence in his troops and started for Fort Wash- 
ington, which fortress they reached about ten 
days later. Of his troops 183 had been killed 
and thirty-one wounded. The loss of the sav- 
ages must have been severe, for they did not 
annoy the expedition on its retreat. One of 
the officers wrote that "a regular soldier on 
the retreat near the St. Joseph's River, being 
surrounded and in the midst of the Indians, 
put his bayonet through six Indians, knocked 
down the seventh, and the soldier himself 
made the eighth dead man in the heap." The 
Indians were led by Chief Little Turtle, of 
whom much will be heard hereafter. It was 
indeed a sorrowful march for General Harmar 
back to Fort Washington. 

So severe was the adverse criticism of the 
conduct of this expedition by its commander 
that President Washington appointed a board 
of officers to act as a court of inquiry. Al- 
though the verdict of this court was an acquit- 
tal, the incident proved to be General 
Harmar 's undoing. The real causes of the 
catastrophe probably were the incompetence 
of some of the officers and bickerings among 
others which caused distrust and disorder, 




and the general lack of discipline among the 
militia. As a result of this disaster General 
Harmar resigned his commission, but after- 
wards rendered good service as adjutant-gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania in furnishing troops for 
General Wayne 's campaign. 

Another natural result of this defeat was 
an increase of anxiety and dread among the 
frontier settlers. They feared the over-pacific 
policy of sending embassies to placate the 
savages, instead of strong military expedi- 
tions to crush them if they would not yield. 
The savages greatly rejoiced that they had 
been able to administer such a decisive defeat 
upon trained troops. They became bolder in 
their operations in the Maumee and Sandusky 
valleys, as well as in other parts of the North- 
western Territory. The year 1791 proved to 
be a bloody year in many jsarts of Ohio. But 
the great problem was how to prosecute the 
war against the savages, without arousing the 
active hostility of the British. 

General St. Clair recommended another 
punitive expedition against the savages, in 
order to establish the series of forts in the 
Maumee country, which had not been accom- 
plished by General Harmar. It was purposed 
to build a chain of forts, some twenty-five 
miles apart, beginning at Fort Washington as 
one terminal. The importance of such a series 
of fortified outposts appeared obvious to the 
military authorities, as it would make easier 
the punishment of the hostile tribes. From 
the Government standpoint the expedition was 
not necessarily hostile, so that the pipe of 
peace was carried along in the same wagon 
as the grape and the canister. And yet it 
was intended to be impressive and irresistible. 
In the carrying out of the campaign St. Clair 
was granted the widest latitude and carried 
almost plenary powers, although his instruc- 
tions were elaborate and specific. In taking 
leave of his old military comrade, President 
Washington wished him success and honor, 
and added this solemn warning : 

"You have your instructions from the sec- 
retary of war, I had a strict eye to them and 
will add but one word, — Beware of a sur- 
prise ! You know how the Indians fight. I 
repeat it, Betvare of a surprise." 

With these warning words sounding in his 
ear, fresh with Washington's characteristic 
emphasis, St. Clair departed for the West. He 
planned to advance on the 17th of September, 
1791. The arm}-, as finally a.ssembled, was 
about equal to that under General Harmar. 
This army of 2,300 " efi'ectives, " as they were 
called, was fairly well provisioned, and had 
some courageous officers: but it was sadly de- 
ficient in arms and the necessary accouter- 
ments. In its personnel, it -was almost as 
incomplete as that of Harmar. Fort Hamilton 
was established near the site of the present 
city of that name, and Fort St. Clair was built 
about twenty-five miles farther north. The 
third fortification, called Fort Jefferson, was 
erected in Darke County. 

General Harmar predicted defeat for this 
new army, and his predictions proved to be 
correct. Cutting its way through the forests 
and building bridges over streams, the army 
advanced slowly, making not more than five 
or six miles a day. Although signs of Indians 
were frequently encountered, and the scouts 
and stragglers occasionally exchanged shots 
with the lurking s3vages, the army was not 
properly safeguarded against surprise in a 
country of such dense forests. St. Clair did 
not seem to realize the extreme danger of his 
position so far in the enemy country. By the 
time the foot-sore and bedraggled army 
reached the eastern fork of the Wabash, about 
11/^ miles east of the Ohio-Indiana line, it had 
dwindled to about 1,400 men. Here the army 
camped on the night before the battle, while 
"all around the wintry woods lay a frozen 
silence." Signs of Indians were now unmis- 
takable. During the night there was picket 
firing at intervals, and the sentinels reported 
considerable bodies of the aborigines skulking 


about the front and both flanks. To the officers 
this was a matter of ^ave concern, and scout- 
ing parties were sent out in the early morning. 
A light fall of snow lay upon the ground. 
The army lay in two lines, seventy yards apart, 
with four pieces of cannon in the center of 
each. Across the small stream, probably 
twenty yards wide, a baud of 300 or 400 

disorder. They broke and fled in panic toward 
the body of regulars, thus spreading confu- 
sion and dismay everywhere. The drum beat 
the call to arms at the first shots, and the vol- 
leys brought many casualties among the In- 
dians, but their onward rush soon surrounded 
the entire camp, while the outlying guards and 
pickets were driven in. Only now and then 


or 9rC|.<MR» CANP AMO SATTkC. 

St. (^'lair's Camp and Plan op Battle 

militia were encamped. These men sustained 
the first brunt of the battle. 

There was no time for the terror-stricken 
soldiers to properly form to meet the impend- 
ing onslaught of the denizens of the forest, 
who quickly encircled the entire camp of the 
Americans. Protected by logs and trees, they 
crowded closer and closer. The heavy firing 
and the blood-curdling whoops and yells of the 
painted enemy threw the militia into hopeless 

could fearful figures, painted in red and 
black, with feathers braided in their long 
scalp-locks, be distinguished through the 
smoke. "They shot the troops down as hun- 
ters slaughter a herd of standing buffalo." 
Instead of being frightened by the thunder 
of the artillery, the Indians made the gunmen 
special objects of their attacks. Man after 
man was picked off until the artillery was 
silenced. The Indians then rushed forward 



and seized the guns. It is doubtful if there 
ever was a wilder rout. As soon as the men 
realized that there was some hope of safety 
in flight, they broke into a wild stampede. 
Intermixed with the soldiers were the few 
camp followers, and the women who had ac- 
companied the expedition. Neither the com- 
mand of the officers nor their brave example 
seemed to have the slightest effect. 

From a report made by Ebenezer Denny, 
who was adjutant to General St. Clair, I quote 
as follows: "The troops paraded this morn- 
" ing (4th November, 1791) at the usual time, 
and had been dismissed from the lines but a 
few minutes, the sun not yet up, when the 
woods in front rung with the yells and fire of 
the savages. The poor militia, who were but 
three hundred yards in fi-ont, had scarcely 
time to return a shot — they tied into our 
camp. The troops were under arms in an 
instant, and a smart fire from the front line 
met the enemy. It was but a few minutes, 
however, until the men were engaged in every 
quarter. The enemy from the front filed off to 
the right and left, and completely surrounded 
the camp, killed and cut off nearly all the 
guards and approached close to the lines. 
They advanced from one tree, log, or stump 
to another, under cover of the smoke of our 
fire. The artillery and musketry made a tre- 
mendous noise, but did little execution. The 
Aborigines seemed to brave everything, and 
when fairly fixed around us they made no 
noise other than their fire which they kept 
up very constant and which seldom failed to 
tell, although scarcely heard. * * * 

"The ground was literally covered with the 
dead. The wounded were taken to the center, 
where it was thought most safe, and where a 
great many who had quit their posts unhurt 
had crowded together. The General, with 
other officers, endeavored to rally these men, 
and twice they were taken out to the lines. 
It appeared as if the officers had been singled 
out; a very great proportion fell or were 

wounded and obliged to retire from the lines 
early in the action. * * * The men, being 
thus left with few officers, became fearful, 
despaired of success, gave up the fight, and 
to save themselves for the moment, abandoned 
entirely their duty and ground, and crowded 
in toward the center of the field, and no exer- 
tions could put them in any order even for 
defense; (they became) perfectly ungovern- 
able. * * ^ 

"As our lines were deserted the Aborig- 
ines contracted theirs until their shot centered 
from all points and now meeting with little 
opposition, took more deliberate aim and did 
great execution. Exposed to a cross fire, men 
and officers were seen falling in every direc- 
tion; the distress, too, of the wounded made 
the scene such as can scarcely be conceived 
— a few minutes longer, and a retreat would 
have been impossible — the only hope left was, 
that perhaps the savages would be so taken 
up with the camp as not to follow. Delay 
was death ; no preparation could be made ; 
numbers of brave men must be left a sacri- 
fice, there was no alternative. It was past 
nine o'clock when repeated orders were given 
to charge toward the road. The action had 
continued between two and three hours. Both 
officers and men seemed confounded, incapa- 
ble of doing anything; they could not move 
until it was told that a retreat was intended. 

"During the last charge of Colonel Darke," 
says Major Fowler, "the bodies of the freshly 
scalped heads were reeking with smoke, and 
in the heavj' morning frost looked like so 
many pumpkins through a cornfield in De- 
cember." It is no wonder that green troops, 
unused to scenes of carnage, became paniekA' 
before such horrible spectacles. 

General St. Clair behaved gallantly through- 
out the dreadful scene. He was so tortured 
with gout that he could not mount a horse 
without assistance. From beneath a three- 
cornered cocked hat, his long white locks were 


seen streaming in the air as lie rode up and 
down the line during the battle. He had three 
horses shot from under him, and it is said 
that eight balls passed through his clothes, 
and one clipped his gray hair. He finally 
mounted a pack horse and upon this slow 
animal, which could hardly be urged into a 
trot, joined the army in the retreat which 
almost developed into a rout. Colonel But- 
ler, second in command, was mortally 

"During the action Gen. St. Clair ex- 
erted himself with a courage and presence of 
mind worthy of the best fortune. He was 
personally present at the first charge made 
upon the enemy with the bayonet and gave 
the order to Col. Drake. "When the enemy 
first entered the camp by the left flank, he 
led the troops that drove them back, and 
when a retreat became indispensable, he put 
himself at the head of the troops which broke 
through the enemy and opened the way for 
the rest and then remained in the rear, mak- 
ing every exertion in his power to obtain a 
party to cover the retreat; but the panic was 
so great that his exertions were of but little 
avail. In the height of the action a few of 
the men crowded around the fires in the cen- 
ter of the camp. St. Clair was seen drawing 
his pistols and threatening some of them, and 
ordering them to turn out and repel the 
enemy. ' ' 

Guns and aceouterment were thrown away 
by hundreds in their frantic haste. For miles 
the march was strewed with fire-locks, car- 
tridge-boxes, and regimentals. The retreat 
proved to be a disgraceful flight. Fortunate 
indeed was it that the victorious savages fol- 
lowed them only a few miles, and then re- 
turned to enjoy the spoils of the battlefield. 
This was rich, indeed, for they secured great 
quantities of tents, guns, axes, clothing, blank- 
ets, and powder, and large numbers of horses 
• — the very thing that the savages prized high- 
est. "A single aborigine," wrote Denny, 

"might have followed with safety on either 
flank. Such a panic had seized the men that 
I believe it would not have been possible to 
have brought any of them to engage again."' 
The number of savages actually engaged and 
their losses has never been learned. Simon 
Girty is said to have told a prisoner that there 
were 1,200 in the attack. Good authorities 
place the number at 2,000. Little Turtle was 
again the acknowledged leader, and Blue 
Jacket was next in authority. It is quite likely 
that Tecumseh was also an active participant. 
The principal tribes engaged were Delawares, 
Shawnees, Wyandots, Miamis, and Ottawas, 
with a few Chippewas and Pottawatomies. 

" Oh ! " said an old squaw many years after- 
wards, "my arm that night was weary scalp- 
ing white men. ' ' 

There were many individual instances of 
heroism and marvelous escapes. None were 
more thrilling than those of William Ken- 
nan, a young man of eighteen. Becoming sep- 
arated from his party, he saw a band of In- 
dians near him. McClung, in his "Sketches 
of Western Adventure, ' ' says : 

"Not a moment to be lost. He darted off 
with every muscle strained to its utmost, and 
was pursued by a dozen of the enemy with 
loud yells. He at first pressed straight for- 
M^ard to the usual fording-place in the creek, 
which ran between the rangers and the main 
army; but several Indians who had passed 
him before he rose from the grass' threw 
themselves in the way and completely cut him 
off from the rest. By the most powerful ex- 
ertions he had thrown the whole body of pur- 
suers behind him, with the exception of one 
chief who displayed a swiftness and perse- 
verance equal to his own. In the circuit which 
Kennan was obliged to take the race con- 
tinued for more than 400 yards. The distance 
between them was about eighteen feet, which 
Kennan could not increase nor his adversary 
diminish. Each for the time put his whole 
soul into the race. 



'.'Kennau as far as he was able, kept his 
eye upon the motions of his pursuer, lest he 
should throw the tomahawk, which he held 
aloft in a menacing attitude. * * * As he 
had slackened his pace for a moment the 
Indian was almost in reach of him when he 
recommenced the race ; but the idea of being 
without arms lent wings to his feet, and for 
the first time he saw himself gaining ground. 
He had watched the motions of his pursuer 
too closely, however, to pay proper attention 
to the nature of the ground before him, and he 
suddenly found himself in front of a large 
tree which had been blown down, and upon 
which brush and other impediments lay to 
the height of eight or nine feet. 

"The Indian (who heretofore had not 
uttered the slightest sound) now gave a short, 
quick yell, as if secure of his victim. Kennan 
had not a moment to deliberate. He must 
clear the impediment at a leap or perish. 
Putting his whole soul into the effort he 
bounded into the air with a power which 
astonislied himself, and clearing limbs, brush 
and everything else, alighted in perfect safety 
upon the other side. A loud yell of aston- 
ishment burst from the band of pursuers, not 
one of whom had the hardihood to attempt 
the same feat. Kennan, as may be readily 
imagined, had no leisure to enjoy his triumph, 
but dashing into the bed of the creek (upon 
the banks of which his feat had been per- 
formed) where the high banks would shield 
him from the fire of the enemy, he ran up 
the stream until a convenient place offered 
for crossing, and rejoined the rangers in the 
rear of the encampment, panting from the 
fatigue of exertions, which have seldom been 
surpassed. No breathing time was allowed 
him, however. The attack instantly com- 
menced, and, as we have already observed, 
was maintained for three hours with un- 
abated fury. 

"When the retreat commenced, Kennan 
was attached to Maj. Clark's battalion, and 

had the dangerous service of protecting the 
rear. This corps quickly lost its commander, 
and was completely disorganized. Kennan 
was among the hindmost when the fight com- 
menced, but exerting those same powers 
which had saved him in the morning, he 
quickly gained the front, passing several 
horsemen in the flight. Here he beheld a 
private in his own company, an intimate 
acciuaintance, lying upon the ground with his 
thigh broken, and in tones of the most pierc- 
ing distress, implored each horseman who 
hurried by to take him up behind him. As 
soon as he beheld Kennan coming up on foot, 
he stretched out his arms and called aloud 
upon him to save him. Notwithstanding the 
imminent peril of the moment, his friend 
could not reject so passionate an appeal, but 
seizing him in his arms he placed him upon 
his back and ran in that manner for several 
hundred yards. Horseman after horseman 
passed -them, all of whom refused to relieve 
him of his burden. 

"At length the enemy was gaining upon 
him so fast that Kennan saw their death cer- 
tain unless he relinquished his burden. He 
accordingly told his friend that he had used 
every possible exertion to save his life, but 
in vain; that he must relax his hold around 
his neck or they would both perish. The un- 
happy wretch, heedless of every remonstrance, 
still clung convulsively to his back, and im- 
peded his exertions until the foremost of the 
enemy (armed with tomahawks alone) were 
within twenty yards of them. Kennan then 
drew his knife from its sheath and cut the 
fingers of his companion, thus compelling him 
to relinquish his hold. The unhappy man 
rolled upon the ground in titter helplessness, 
and Kennan beheld him tomahawked before 
he had gone thirty yards. Relieved from his 
burden, he darted forward with an activity 
which once more brought him to the van." 

The prediction of General Harmar before 
the army set out on the campaign that defeat 


would follow was founded upon his own ex- 
perience and particular knowledge. He saw 
the poor material that the bulk of the army 
was composed of. They were men collected 
from the streets and prisons of the cities, who 
were hurried out into the enemy's country. 
The officers commanding them were totally 
unacquainted with the business in which they 
were engaged, so that it was utterly impossible 
that they could win against a wily foe. Be- 
sides, not any one department was sufficiently 
prepared; both the quartermaster and the 
contractors extremely deficient. It was a mat- 
ter of astonishment to General Harmar that 
the commanding general, St. Clair, who was 
acknowledged to be a perfectly competent 
military officer, should think of hazarding 
with such troops and under such circum- 
stance his reputation and life, and the lives 
of so many others, knowing as he did the 
enemy with whom he was going to contend, an 
enemy brought up from infancy to war, and 
perhaps superior to an equal number of the 
best men that could be taken against them. 

In this overwhelming defeat General St. 
Clair's army lost 593 privates killed land 
missing; thirty-nine officers were killed, and 
the artillery and supplies, consisting of cloth- 
ing, tents, several hundred horses, beef cattle, 
etc., together with muskets and other equip- 
ment, were thrown awaj' and gathered up by 
the savages. The casualties exceeded half of 
the forces actually engaged. Many women 
were along, which would look as though no 
serious opposition had been expected. The 
cause of the disaster is variously stated, but 
its completeness is the one overwhelming and 
undisputed fact that stands out clearly on the 
page of history. The war department had 
been negligent in sending supplies, and it had 
become neeessai-y to detach one regiment, the 
real flower of the army, to bring up provi- 
sions and military stores. It was during its 
absence that the conflict occurred. Mistakes 
had also been made in the labeling of boxes. 

A box marked "flints" was found to contain 
gun-locks. A keg of powder, marked ' ' for the 
infantry," was cannon powder, so damaged 
that it could scarcely be ignited. The armj^ 
was on practically half rations during the 
entire campaign. The undisciplined charac- 
ter of the soldiers and the inexperience of the 
officers in border warfare undoubtedly had a' 
great deal to do with it. The one glaring fault 
that might be charged to the commanding 
general was that he failed to keep scouting 
parties ahead in order to prevent surprise 
and ambuscade. 

It required six weeks for the aide of General 
St. Clair to convey, on horseback, the news of 
this crushing defeat to the Government. It 
was toward the close of a winter's day in 
December that an officer in uniform was seen 
to dismount in front of the President's house, 
in Philadelphia. Handing the bridle to his 
servant, he knocked at the door of the man- 
sion. Learning from the porter that the 
President was at dinner, he said that he was 
on public business, having dispatches which 
he could deliver only to the commander-in- 
chief. A sergeant was sent into the dining- 
room to give the information to Tobias Lear, 
the President 's private secretary, who left the 
table and went into the hall where the officer 
repeated what he had said. Mr. Lear replied 
that, as the President's secretary, he would 
take charge of the dispatches and deliver 
them at the proper time. The officer made 
answer that he had just arrived from the 
western armj^, and his orders were explicit 
to deliver them with all promptitude, and to 
the President in person ; but that he would 
await his directions. Mr. Lear returned, and 
in a whisper imparted to the President what 
had passed. General Washington rose from 
the table and went to the officer. He was 
back in a short time, made a word of apologj' 
for his absence, but no allusion to the cause 
of it. 

General Washington's hours were early, 



and by 10 o'clock all the company had gone. 
Mrs. Washington left the room soon after- 
wards, the President and his secretary re- 
maining. The nation's chief now paced the 
room in hurried strides and without speaking 
for several minutes. Then he sat down on a 
sofa by the fire, telling his secretary to sit 
down. He rose again, and, as he walked 
backward and forward, Mr. Lear saw that a 
storm was gathering. In the agony of his 
emotion, he struck his clenched hands with 
fearful force against his forehead, and, in a 
paroxysm of anguish exclaimed: 

"It's all over! St. Clair's defeated— 
routed ; the officers nearly all killed — the men 
by wholesale — that brave army cut to pieces — 
the rout complete! too shocking to think of 
— and a surprise in the bargain ! ' ' 

He uttered all this with great vehemence. 
Then, pausing for a moment, he walked about 
the room several times, greatly agitated, but 
saying nothing. Near the door he stopped 
short and stood still a few seconds ; then, turn- 
ing to the secretary, who stood amazed at this 
spectacle of Washington, the President, in his 
wrath, again broke out, saying : 

"Yes, sir, here, in this very room, on this 
very spot, I took leave of him ; I wished him 
success and honor. You have your instruc- 
tions, I .said, from the secretai-y of war, I had 
a strict eye to them, and will add but one 
word — beware of a surprise ! Y''ou know how 
the Indians fight us. He went off with that 
as my last solemn warning thrown into his 
ears. And yet, to suffer that army to be cut 
to pieces, hacked by a surprise, — the very 
thing I guarded him against! God! 
God ! he 's worse than a murderer ! How can 
lie answer it to his country? The blood of 
the slain is upon him — the curse of widows 
and orphans — the curse of heaven!" 

This explosion came out in appealing tones. 
His frame was shaken with his emotion. Pres- 
ently the President sat down on the sofa once 
more. He seemed conscious of passion and 

uncomfortable. He was silent as his wrath 
began to subside. He at length said, in an 
altered voice: 

"This must not go beyond this room." 

Another pause followed — a longer one — 
when he said in a tone quite low. 

"General St. Clair shall have justice. I 
looked hastily thi'ough the dispatches — saw 
the whole disaster, but not all the particulars. 
I will hear him without prejudice, he shall 
have fully justice; yet, long, faithful, and 
meritorious services have their claims. ' ' And 
absolute justice was accorded him. One of 
the strongest records in St. Clair's favor is 
the fact that he retained the "undiminished 
esteem and good opinion of President Wash- 
ington. " The popular clamor was tremen- 
dous, and General St. Clair demanded a court 
of inquiry. This request was complied with 
and the court exonerated him of all blame. 
He followed the example set by General Har- 
mar and resigned his commission. 

About a .year later General Wilkinson 
visited this battlefield, which was in Mercer 
County, with his command. They found 
scattered along the way the remains of many 
Americans, who had been pursued and killed 
by the savages, or who had perished of their 
wounds while endeavoring to escape. The 
field was thickly strewn with remains, showing 
the horrible mutilations by the bloodthirsty 
savages. Limbs were separated from bodies 
and the flesh had been stripped from many 
bones, but it was impossible to tell whether 
this had been the work of the wolves or the 
Indians. It was at this time that Fort Re- 
covery was erected on the site of the disaster. 
As late as 1830 a brass cannon was found 
buried near the scene of the conflict. 

St. Clair's defeat was made the subject of 
a song, which has been sung hundreds of times 
with deep emotion. It cannot claim high rank 
as poetry, but it deserves preservation as a 
relic of those days long since gone by. 


Sainclaire's Defeat He leaned his back against a tree, and there 

resigned his breath, 
'Twas November the fourth, in the year of j^^^ ^-^^ ^ ^^jj^,^^ ^^^^-^^ ^^^ -^ ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

ninety-one, ^^^^^. 

We had a sore engagement near to Fort Jef- ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^.^ ^^^.^^ ^.^ ^^.^.^ ^^ 
f erson : 

Sainclaire was our commander, which may 

remembered be, 
For there we left nine hundred men in t' 

West'n Ter'tory. 

At Bunker's Hill and Quebeck, where many 

convey ; 

And unto the celestial fields he quickly bent 
his way. 

We eharg'd again with courage firm, but soon 
again gave ground. 

a hero fell "^^^ war-whoop then redoubled, as did the 

Likewise at Long Island (it is I the truth can 

foes around. 

^gU) They killed Major Ferguson, which caused 

But such a dreadful carnage may I never see ^^^ ^^^ ^° '^^y' 

again "Our only safety is in flight, or fighting here 

As hap'ned near St. Mary's upon the river to die." 


"Stand to your guns," says valiant Ford, 

Our array was attacked just as the day did "let's die upon them here 

dawn. Before we let the sav'ges know we ever har- 

And soon were overpowered and driven from bored fear." 

the lawn. Our cannon-balls exhausted, and artill'ry- 

They killed Major Duldham, Levin and Briggs men all slain, 

likewise. Obliged were our musketmen the en 'my to 

And horrid yells of sav'ges resounded through sustain. 

the skies. 

Major Butler was wounded in the very second 


His manly bosom swell'd with rage when 

forc'd to retire; „ ^ , , _,., ^ , . ,,,^ , , 

. , , , . ., , 1, Says Colonel Gibson to his men, "My boys, be 

And as he lay in anguish, nor scarcely could ^. ^- .j > j ^ ^ 

Yet three hours more we fouglit them, and 

then were fore 'd to yield, 
When three hundred bloody warriors lay 

stretch 'd upon the field. 

he see, 
Exclaim 'd, "Ye hounds of hell, 0! revenged 
I will be." 

not dismay 'd; 
I'm sure that true Virginians were never yet 

We had not been long broken, when General Ten thousand deaths I 'd rather die, than they 

Butler found should gain the field ! ' ' 

Himself so badly wounded, was forced to quit With that he got a fatal shot, which caused 

the ground. him to yield. 

"My God!" says he, "what shall we do, we're Says Major Clark, "My heroes, I can here no 

wounded every man? longer stand. 

Go charge them, valiant heroes, and beat them We'll strive to form in order, and retreat 

if you can. the best we can." 


The word, Retreat, being pass 'd around, there Some had a thigh and some an arm broke on 

was a dismal cry, the field that day, 

Then helter-skelter through the woods, like Who writhed in torments at the stake, to close 

wolves and sheep they fly, the dire affray. 
This well-appointed army, who but a day 

before, To mention our brave officers, is what I wish 

Defied and braved all danger, had like a cloud to do ; 

pass'd o'er. No sons of Mars e'er fought more brave, or 

with more courage true. 

Alas ! the dying and wounded, how dreadful To Captain Bradford I belonged, in his artil- 

was the thought, lery. 

To the tomahawk and scalping-knife, in He fell that day amongst the slain ; a valiant 

mis'ry are brought. man was he. 



Me-au-me was the way the French explorers 
understood the Indians of the Maumee basin 
to pronounce the name of their tribe. Hence 
it was that the French recorded the name as 
Miami. On account of this tribe having a 
village by the upper waters of this river, the 
French referred to it as the River of the 
]\Iiamis. As the same name had been bestowed 
upon a river emptying into the Ohio River, 
this northern Miami became familiarly known 
as the Miami of the Lake. The peculiar and 
rapid pronunciation of the three syllables as 
Me-au-me led the English settlers who located 
in this basin to pronounce it in two syllables, 
and so it was that the name became finally 
fixed as JIaumee. It is also occasionally re- 
ferred to or written as Omi, or Omee, which 
was evidently another misspelling of the 
French designation. No definite Indian name 
of the great river has descended to us, al- 
though the Shawnees sometimes referred to 
it as Ottawa Sepe, and the Wyandots knew 
it as Was-o-hah-con-die. 

The Maumee Valley was a wonderful hunt- 
ing ground in the early days, and harbored 
a great abundance of valuable game. There 
were bear, red deer, wolves, panthers, lynx, 
wild cats, foxes, and turkeys, and the shaggy 
buffalo had at one time roamed here. Even 
down to the founding of Toledo, the red deer 
were very plentiful. The wild turkey was 
an important game bird, for it sometimes 
weighed as much as thirty pounds. With a 
"call" made of a (piill, or the wing-bone of 
the turkey, these birds could be decoyed 
almost into the hunter's presence, if he was 

securely hidden from sight. The cowardly 
wolves were a great pest to the early pioneers. 
Liberal bounties were ofi'ered, and many were 
thus killed, but the wily hunters would fre- 
quently release the females from their traps 
in order to have a new supply for the next 
season. All sorts and variety of foxes were 
indigenous, from the red and black to the sil- 
ver grey. The lynx was only an occasional 
visitor, but wild cat were very numerous. 
Small game, such as prairie chicken, quail, 
partridge, and snipe, abounded in great num- 
bers. Quail could be bought for eighteen cents 
a dozen in the market. Wild ducks and geese 
were hardly considered worth the attention 
of the hunter. 

The Maumee Valley is justly entitled to the 
appellation of "The Bloody Ground." This 
beautiful and fertile region, now so well 
adapted to the highest cultivation, and con- 
taining all the necessary elements for com- 
mercial and agricultural prosperity, has been 
the theater of a greater number of sanguinary 
battles and has caused the expenditure of 
more treasure, perhaps, than any similar ex- 
tent of territory in the United States. It was 
in this region that the Iroquois made war upon 
the Miamis, and claimed to have conquered 
all the northwest country. Here it was that 
Pontiac gathered together his Indian hordes 
and threw them with a savage fury against 
the whites. It was in this vicinity, again, that 
' ' Mad Anthony Wayne, ' ' with his fiery impet- 
uosity, dashed his intrepid little army against 
the unseen savages at Fallen Timbers, and 
crushed them with a disaster from which they 


never wholly recovered. Thei-e were two 
sieges of Fort Meigs, during one of which 
occurred the butchery of Colonel Dudley's 
command, and there were many other conflicts 
of lesser note within this valley. It was not 
far distant that the massacre of the River 
Raisin occurred. All of these conflicts tend 
to show that this territory was opened up to 
civilization through a pathway of blood almost 
without parallel on the continent. 

small and insignificant tribes. The great num- 
ber of scalps and other rich booty secured 
filled their savage breasts with the greatest 
joy, and everything seemed ominous of final 
victory in driving the hated Americans from 
this bountiful country. As a local poet ex- 
pressed it: 

"Mustered strong, the Kas-kas-kies, 
Wyandots and the Miamis, 

FI \N nil 
the t, IVirN-lm-M, M.ninf. 

Ill.t ,.UM .us t.. Ih. i.llli. Ml .||. 

|,,r,'il. . il ..I />• ./ ./■ /.'""/ a - 

inc t ih. P, s/n. h/ h 1 I 

F'.n U,„„„ 

l,.,l )l.ij^ .nMnnr.i.U In.inh.N 
the ^I iiM .( uitl, .iu Hnti'-h hall, I 
Ot PkkIu, s ,,u,unpm,nl 

,I„A, ll„ pi.Mht -ilr ..."■W^,l.-I\l!h-. Tii.' '■-.■ 

I\v.. MLL'<. Ill 111.' Vf;,|- lM:i. 1^ ^llM\Ml -I: ihr ■■.. 
i,iis <>\ till IIMT. and al".v,. tlu' Biill^h I'-it. tlii 

Closely following the rout of St. Clair, the 
Maumee Valley was the theater of many 
tragic occurrences. Previous to the defeat of 
General Harmar's army, the savages did not 
court peace; much less were they inclined to 
welcome the overtures made to them for peace 
after that disa-ster and the equally serious 
repulse of St. Clair. They rallied all the 
available warriors of the neighboring tribes — 
the Miamis under Little Turtle, the Delawares 
under Buckongehelas, the Shawnees under 
Blue Jacket, and bands of Wyandots, Otta- 
was, Pottawatomies, Kickapoos, and other 

Also the Potawotamies, 
The Delawares and Chippewas, 
The Kickapoos and Ottawas, 
The Shawanoes and many strays, 
From almost every Indian nation. 
Had joined the fearless congregation, 
Who after St. Clair's dread defeat. 
Returned to this secure retreat." 

President Washington was greatly disap- 
pointed in the outcome of the expedition of 
General St. Clair, who had been a member 
of his former staff. The increased apprehen- 



sion on the frontier is clearly revealed by the 
urgent petitions that were continually com- 
ing in from the settlers, demanding and 
beseeching protection from threatened ma- 
raudings. Almost daily fresh and revolting 
stories of massacres reached Washington, and 
the prospect indeed appeared lugubrious. For 
the next expedition unusual care was taken in 
the selection of a commander. The man upon 

of "Mad Anthony." He had a reputation 
for hard fighting, dogged courage, and daring 
energy. But in spite of his sobriquet, "Mad 
Anthony 's ' ' head was always cool. It was also 
decided that the men should be trained and 
disciplined according to the peculiarity and 
difficulty of the service in which they would 
be engaged, in order that there might be no 
possibility of another repulse even by a larger 

Major-General Anthony Wayne 

whom the choice finally fell from among nu- 
merous candidates in 1792 was Anthony 
Wayne, and the result demonstrated the wis- 
dom of this choice from among many of the 
older commanders. Wayne was not yet fifty 
years of age. He was the hero of Stony Point, 
where he had forced his way into the citadel 
itself at the point of the bayonet. It was this 
daredevil feat which had given him the name 

aborigine army than had ever before been 
assembled. General Wayne at once issued a 
proclamation to the settlers that they should 
studiously avoid all action that would tend to 
anger the Indians. 

General Wayne proceeded to Pittsburg to 
organize his army, and in December, 1792, the 
' ' Legion of the United States ' ' was assembled 
at Legionville, about twenty miles below the 



"smoky city." Here they encamped until the 
following spring, when they floated down the 
Ohio River and landed at Hobson's Choice, a 
point not far from Cincinnati. This was so 
named ' ' because it was the only ground which 
was in any degree calculated for the purpose. ' ' 
Here they remained several months before 
permission was granted to proceed farther 
north. During all these months Wayne drilled 
both officers and men with unceasing patience. 
It is interesting to read the log of this army 
in its march through the rich Miami Valley, 
now studded with thriving cities and prosper- 
ous villages. There were no roads, not even 
paths, and the only landmarks to indicate 
their journey were such places as "Five-mile 
Spring," "Seventeen-mile Tree," "Twenty- 
nine Mile Tree, ' ' etc. At length they reached 
Fort Jefferson. 

In April of this year (1793) General Wilk- 
inson sent two messengers with a peace mes- 
sage to the Miamis of the Maumee, and two 
other messengers were dispatched on a like 
mission to points farther north. Not one of 
these four, all of whom were men of note, re- 
turned to civilization, but all of them suffered 
violent deaths. Councils were held with the 
Indians in 1792 and 1793, at Sandusky, Miami 
of the Lake, and the Auglaize. Lengthy de- 
bates were indulged in, as well as elaborate 
ceremonies. British, Americans, and Indians 
all took part. The raidings of the savages 
upon the ixnprotected settlements continued 
unabated. The Shawnees were especially im- 
placable towards the Americans. Finally Wil- 
liam May started out from Fort Hamilton to 
treat with the Miamis of the Maumee. As was 
expected, he was captured by the Indians, but, 
instead of being killed, he was sold as a slave 
to the British. After serving them for sev- 
eral months in the transportation service be- 
tween Detroit and the lowest Maumee rapids, 
where Alexander McKee maintained a large 
supply house for firearms and ammunition, he 

finally succeeded in escaping and made a re- 
port to General Wayne at Pittsburg. 

Prom the sworn testimony of Mr. May, it 
was learned that there had gathered in the 
summer of 1792 by the Maumee River, at the 
mouth of the Auglaize, which was then the 
headquarters of neighboring tribes, more than 
3,000 warriors of many nations, all of whom 
were fed with rations supplied by the British 
from Detroit. These had been seen by May 
himself, and he reported that others were ar- 
riving daily. This is said to have been the 
largest council of the aborigines ever held in 

Up and down the great Maumee, 

The Miami of the Lake, 

'er the prairie, through the forest. 

Came the warriors of the nations. 

Came the Delawares and Miamis, 

Came the Ottawas and Hurons, 

Came the Senecas and Shawnees, 

Came the Iroquois and Chippewas, 

Came the savage Pottawatomies, 

All the warriors drawn together 

By the wampum for a council 

At the meeting of the waters. 

Of the Maumee and the Auglaize, 

With their weapons and their war-gear. 

Painted like the leaves of autumn. 

Painted like the sky of morning. 

It seemed to the British as though they were 
nearing a culmination of their hopes and am- 
bitions in the formation of a confederation 
against the encroachment of the Americans. 
There were representatives of tribes so remote 
that they carried no guns, but bore spears, 
bows, and tomahawks, and were clothed in 
buffalo robes instead of blankets. The Seneca 
chief. Corn Planter, and several other sachems 
of the Six Nations of New York, were present 
in the interest of the Americans. Corn Planter 
reported that there were present chiefs from 
nations so distant that it required a whole 



season to come, and that some twenty-seven 
tribes were reported from Canada. "The 
whole of them know," said he, "that we, the 
Six Nations, have General Washington by the 

In 1793, President Washington appointed 
three commissioners to attend the great coun- 
cil which was to be held at the foot of the 
lowest rapids of the ]\Iaumee, or at Sandusky, 
on the 1st of June. For this council runners 
had been dispatched even to the remote Creeks 
and Cherokees in the South, urging their at- 
tendance. They proceeded to Fort Niagara 
and from there embarked on a British sloop 
and were taken to Detroit, where they re- 
mained for several weeks. At this time the 
great council was in progress at the foot of 
the Maumee Rapids, but these commissioners 
were not allowed to attend it. In its place, a 
deputation of some twenty Indians, with the 
notorious Simon Girty as interpreter, pro- 
ceeded to Detroit to see them. They presented 
a brief written communication from the coun- 
cil, of which the most important part was 
this : " If you seriously design to make a firm 
and lasting peace, you will immediately re- 
move all your people from our side of the 
river" (the Ohio). This was undoubtedly 
directly instigated by the British agents. The 
commissioners had received reliable informa- 
tion that all of the tribes represented at this 
council, with the exception of the Shawnees, 
Wyandots, Miamis, and Delawares, were fa- 
vorable to peace, and that many others were 
chafing at the long delays. Owing to these 
commissioners not being able to visit the coun- 
cil, and probably to unfaithful translations by 
the interpreter, which was not an uncommon 
occurrence, they were unable to make any 
progress. They therefore presented a long 
statement and defense of the American set- 
tlements on the ground that they were abso- 
lutely justified by previous treaties with the 
aborigines. As the British still refused to 
allow the commissioners to proceed to the 

Maumee, they announced that negotiations 
were at an end and returned to Fort Erie. 
They then reported to General Wayne. 

It became the firm conviction of General 
Wayne that it was useless to make any fur- 
ther delay in his proposed expedition. Al- 
though his forces were not so numerous as he 
had expected, he decided to advance, and so 
left Fort Jefferson. The first blood was shed 
near Fort St. Clair, south of Hamilton, where 
a detachment was attacked and a number of 
men killed. The savages also carried off about 
seventy horses. This demonstrated to Wayne 
that his advance was likely to be contested 
step by step. A little later he established 
Port Greenville, on the present site of the 
town of that name, which he named in honor 
of his friend of the Revolutionary war. Gen. 
Nathaniel Green. This encampment was 
about fifty acres in extent, was fortified, and 
a part of the army passed the winter at the 
stockade. The fixed determination of this 
man, known as "Mad Anthony," is shown by 
a report in which he says: "The safety of the 
Western frontiers, the reputation of the legion, 
the dignity and interest of the nation, all for- 
bid a retrograde manouvre, or giving up one 
inch of ground we now possess, until the en- 
emy are compelled to sue for peace." Regu- 
lar drill and teaching of the devices known 
to backwoods warfare were continued during 
the entire winter. A detachment under Maj. 
Henry Burbeck was dispatched to the battle- 
field of General St. Clair's defeat and in- 
structed to erect a fortification there. They 
reached the site of this tragedy on Christmas 
Day, 1793. The stockade enclosure with 
blockhouse erected by them was given the 
name of Fort Recovery. A reward was offered 
for every human skull discovered, and several 
hundred were thus gathered together and 

The Indians were not unobservant of this 
steady advance toward their principal re- 
treats, and the building of fortifications, and 



it is quite possible that a treaty of peace 
might have been secured at this time, had it 
not been for the continued adverse influence 
of the British. The chiefs kept in close com- 
munication with the British officials at Detroit 
and with M 'Kee, who was in charge of a trad- 
ing post and supply station at the rapids, 
near the present Village of Maumee. The 
British carried to a still further extreme their 
entire disregard of the treaty entered into at 
the close of the Revolution. They were gradu- 
ally changing from passive to active hostility. 

able means to avoid the carnage of war, send- 
ing at least five different embassies in which 
the most generous terms of peace were offered 
to the hostile tribes. The British were very 
apprehensive lest the lucrative fur trade might 
slip away from them, and it was the traders 
who were constantly encouraging the authori- 
ties in their alliance with the savages. 

On the 17th of April, we read as follows, 
in a comniunication from Detroit : ' ' We have 
lately had a visit from Governor Simcoe; he 
came fi'om Niagara through the woods. 

Old Flagstaff from Fort Recovery, Mercer Couni 



They informed the Indians that the peace with 
the United States was only a temporary truce, 
and at its expiration "their great fathers 
would unite with them in the war, and drive 
the long knives (as they called the Ameri- 
cans) from the lands they had so unjustly 
usurped from his red children." As a matter 
of fact, the Revolutionary War was still con- 
tinuing in this territory by and with the con- 
nivance of the British authorities. Peace was 
frustrated by the secret encouragement of the 
British, and their retention of the forts at 
Detroit, Niagara, and Mackinac. The United 
States Government had exhausted every avail- 

* * * He has gone to the foot of the 
(Maumee) rapids and three companies of 
Colonel England's regiment have followed 
him to assist in building a fort there." This 
fort was a veritable stronghold, and it was 
named Fort Miami. One official wrote that 
this fort "put all the Indians here in great 
spirits" to resist the Americans. It was sit- 
uated on the left bank of the IMaumee River, 
wilhin the limits of the present Village of 
;\Iaumee, which was a long advance into 
United States territory. He reported with the 
greatest pleasure the rapid growth of the 
warlike spirit among the redskins. "This 



step," referring to Fort Miami, said he, "iias 
given great spirit to the Indians and im- 
pressed them with a hope of our ultimately 
acting with them and affording a security 
for their families, should the enemy pene- 
trate to their villages." Guns, gun-locks, 
flints, and the other necessities of warfare of 
the best design were freely supplied through 
this post. Fort Miami received regular re- 
ports of the advance of General Wayne 's com- 
mand, and the fort was strengthened and 
further garrisoned to meet the anticipated 
conflict. The Indians reported that the army 
marched twice as far in a day as St. Clair's, 
that the troops marched in open order ready 
for immediate battle, and that the greatest 
precaution was exercised at night by breast- 
works of fallen trees, etc., to guard against 
ambush and surprise. 

On the 7th of July, 1794, General Wayne 
reported that a few days previously one of 
his escorts had been attacked by a numerous 
body of the aborigines under the walls of 
Fort Recovery, which was followed by a 
general assault upon that fort and garrison. 
The enemy was quickly repulsed with great 
slaughter, but they immediately rallied and 
continued the siege for two days, keeping up 
a very heavy and constant fire at a respectable 
distance. They were ultimately compelled to 
retreat, however, at a considerable loss, and 
the Upper Lake Indians were so disheartened 
that they began to return home. The Ameri- 
can casualties were twenty-two killed, thirty 
wounded, and three missing. The loss of 
horses was very large, for the savages were 
very anxious to gain mounts. It was apparent 
that the Indians were reinforced by a con- 
siderable number of the British ; likewise that 
they were armed and equipped with the very 
latest style of firearms, and seemed to be pro- 
vided with an abundance of ammunition. 
"Another strong corroborating fact that there 
were British, or British militia in the assault, 
is that a number of ounce balls and buckshot 

were lodged in the blockhouses and stockades 
of the fort." 

' ' There was a considerable number of armed 
white men in the rear," said General Wayne 
in his dispatch, ' ' whom they frequently heard 
talk in our language, and encouraging the 
savages to persevere in the assault ; their faces 
generally blacked." It seems as though the 
attack upon Fort Recovery was not a part of 
the British and Indian program. The trader 
McKee wrote to Detroit as follows : 

"(Maumee) Rapids, July 5, 1794. 

"Sir: — I send this by a party of Saganas 
(Saginaws) who returned yesterday from 
Fort Recovery where the whole body of Ab- 
origines, except the Delawares who had gone 
another route, imprudently attacked the fort 
on Monday the 30th of last month, and lost 
16 or 17 men besides a good many wounded. 

' ' Everything had been settled prior to their 
leaving the fallen timber, and it had been 
agreed to confine themselves to take convoys 
and attacking at a distance from the 
forts, if they should have the address to 
entice the enemy out; but the impetuosity 
of the Mackinac Aborigines and their eager- 
ness to begin with the nearest, prevailed with 
the others to alter their system, the conse- 
quences of which from the present appear- 
ance of things may most materially injure the 
interests of these people. 

"The immediate object of the attack was 
three hundred pack horses going from this 
fort to Fort Greenville, in which the Aborig- 
ines completely succeeded, taking and killing 
all of them. Captain Elliott writes that they 
are immediately to hold a council at the 
Glaize in order to try if they can prevail upon 
the Lake Aborigines to remain; but without 
provisions, ammunition, &c., being sent to 
that place, I conceive it will be extremely dif- 
ficult to keep them together. 

"With great respect, I have the honor to be 
' ' Your obedient and humble servant. 

"A. McKee." 



In the spring General Wayne's forces were 
increased by about 1,600 Kentucky cavalry- 
men, until the total number of troops under 
his immediate command exceeded 3,000. 
General Wayne and every man under him 
keenly realized that this was to be a momen- 
tous campaign. If this third army was de- 
feated, the entire country within the 
boundaries of the Alleghenies, the Ohio, and 

Th» pt'icksd line* .■'how the rouU of the army of the United ■ 
Wayne during the campBi^n of I794-. Aia Lncampments. 6 

have been drilled in the art of scientific war- 
fare, as practiced in Europe, but in physical 
power and patient endurance they were abso- 
lutely unsurpassed in any country. The army 
broke camp at Fort Greenville, on the 28th 
of July, 1794, and proceeded by the way of 
Fort Recovery. The route led through what 
was long known as the Black Swamp Country. 
It was indeed a tedious progress, for roads had 

General Wayne's Route Along the Maumee 

This is a copy of the original map by Dr. Belknap whicli is found in the library of Harvard 

College. It is the only map of this campaign. 

the ^Mississippi would be completely domi- 
nated by the British, and absolutely lost to the 
Americans. These men were not knights in 
burnished steel on prancing steeds ; they were 
not cavalier's sons from baronial halls; they 
were not even regularly trained troops; but 
they were determined men who were sturdy 
and weather-beaten. Most of them had no 
regular uniforms, but they wore the indi- 
vidual costume of the border. They may not 

to be cut, swampy places made pas.sable by 
throwing in brush and timber, and streams 
bridged with logs. Wayne halted at Girty's 
Town long enough to build Fort. Adams. 
Lieutenant Boyer has left us a detailed ac- 
count of this expedition, which is most in- 
teresting reading. While marching through 
this country, so inhospitable for an army, we 
find the following entry : 

' ' The weather still warm — no water except 



in ponds, which nothing but excessive thirst 
would induce us to drink. The mosquitos are 
very troublesome, and larger than I ever saw. 
We are informed there is no water for twelve 
miles." On August 3d, he reported that an 
accident occurred which came very near end- 
ing the existence of the commander-in-chief. 
A tree, in falling, struck General Wayne, but 
he was not so badly injured as to prevent him 
from riding at a slow pace. Another extract 
from this diary reads as follows : 

"Camp Grand Oglaize, 8th August, 1794. 
Proceeded in our march to this place at five 
o'clock this morning, and arrived here at the 
confluence of the Miami and Oglaize Rivers 
at half past ten, being seventy-seven miles 
from Fort Recovery. This place far excels 
in beauty any in the western country, and 
believe equalled by none in the Atlantic 
States. Here are vegetables of every kind in 
abundance, and we have marched four or five 
miles in corn fields down the Oglaize and 
there are not less than one thousand acres of 
corn round the town. The land is general of 
the fir nature. 

' ' This country appears well adapted for the 
enjoyment of industrious people, who cannot 
avoid living in as great luxury as in any 
other place throughout the states. Nature 
having lent a most bountiful hand in the 
arrangement of the position, that a man can 
send the produce to market in his own boat. 
The land level and river navigable, not more 
than sixty miles from the lake." 

Wayne had planned to surprise the enemy 
at the junction of the Auglaize and Maumee, 
but a deserter had carried to the savages the 
news of the approach of the Americans. 
Hence it was that the American commander 
found the headquarters of the red men abso- 
lutely deserted. Information reached hiin 
here of the assistance that the savages ex- 
pected from the garrison at Detroit. At this 
point, and on a prominence overlooking the 
confluence of the Auglaize and the Maumee, 

General Wayne erected a fortress where he 
could defy the hostile aborigines and the 
British. This was the strongest fortification 
constructed by him on this expedition, and 
he styled it "an important and formidable 
fort." He said this location Avas "the grand 
emporium of the hostile Indians of the west. ' ' 
Here began a string of Indian towns that 
extended along the banks of "the beautiful 
Miami of the Lake. ' ' This fort was begun on 
the 9th of August, and completed on the 17th 
of the same month. Thus only eight days 
were occupied in its building. 

"I defy the English, Indians, and all the 
devils in h — 1 to take it, ' ' said General Wayne 
after surveying its blockhouses, pickets, 
ditches and fascines. 

"Then call it Fort Defiance," suggested 
General Scott, who chanced at that very in- 
stant to be standing at his side. 

Hence the name of Fort Defiance affixed 
itself to this advance outpost in this wilder- 
ness. "Thus Sir," wrote General Wayne to 
the secretary of war, "we have gained pos- 
session of the grand emporium of the hostile 
Indians of the West, without loss of blood. 
The margin of those beautiful rivers in the 
Miamis of the lake and Auglaize — appear 
like one continued village for a number of 
miles, both above and below this place ; nor 
have I ever before beheld such fields of corn 
in any part of America from Canada to 

Upon his return to this place, after his 
successful battle with the enemy, Wayne rein- 
forced Fort Defiance, as a study of the British 
Fort Miami had suggested some improve- 
ments. At each of the four angles, there was 
a blockhouse. Outside the palisades and the 
blockhouse, there was a wall of earth eight 
feet thick, which sloped outwards and up- 
wards, and was supported' on its outer side 
by a log wall. A ditch encircled the entire 
works, excepting the east side, which was 
near the precipitous bank of the Auglaize 



River. The ditch was some fifteen feet wide 
and eight feet deep and was protected by 
diagonal pickets eleven feet long, secured to 
the log walls at intervals of a foot and pro- 
jected over the ditch. At one place there was 
a falling gate, or drawbridge, which was 
raised and lowered by pulleys. There was 
also a protected ditch leading to the river, so 

dotted with the wigwams and tepees of the 
dusky aborigines. The council house echoed 
to the voice of many a noted chief. Up and 
down the two rivers passed Indians of all 
tribes. The waters that are now disturbed 
by the sputtering launches then yielded to the 
graceful bark canoes propelled by the almost 
noiseless paddles of the dusky occupants. 

Fort Defiance .\s Restored 
Erected in 1794, it stood at the confluence of the Maumee and Auglaize 
City of Defiance. 

ivers — now within 

that water could be procured from the river 
without exposing the carrier to the enemy. 

How different is the scene today about the 
confluence of the Maumee and the Auglaize. 
A little over a century ago trails led through 
the woods in every direction to the head- 
quarters of the other tribes of this region,— 
north, south, east, west, The site where now 
stands the City of Defiance, and the fields 
which smile with the wheat and the corn, were 

With furtive glances into the enclosing thick- 
ets and forests for lurking enemy, they sil- 
ently glided along. If canoes were loaded 
with the deer or the bear, or other trophies of 
the chase, then great was the excitement 
among young and old. Camp fires were 
lighted, pots were set to boiling, and feasting 
followed until all were surfeited with food. 
A wild halloo indicated the return of a war 
party bearing scalps of the slain enemy, and 


then there was dancing and rejoicing among 
those encamped in this region that is so peace- 
ful in this twentieth century of our Lord. 
The outlines of these earth works are still 
well maintained. 

Wayne's Spies 

It was no wonder that the Indians looked 
upon Wayne as a "chief who never sleeps." 
No detail, no precaution was overlooked in 
his plan of campaign. Unlike St. Clair, 
General Wayne maintained in his employ 
during the whole of his march toward and 
down the Maumee Valley, a body of trained 
spies and scouts, whom he had selected from 
the wild white Indian fighters. These men 
had been cradled in frontier cabins, and had 
grown to manhood on the very hunting 
grounds of the Indians. Some of them had 
been captives from childhood among the 
aborigines, and knew well the speech, customs, 
and habits of these children of the forests. 
Many of them were athletes, tall, strong, fleet- 
footed, and keen-eyed. They were all skillful 
marksmen and absolutely without fear. They 
scoured the woods in every direction, and 
brought in many captives from whom much 
information was secured. To them the yell of 
the savage had no terror, for it was only 
empty bluster to their minds. They were the 
most adventurous and daredevil characters on 
the frontier. They not only spoke the 
Indians' tongue, but in the arts of woodcraft, 
in the methods of frontier war and in hunting, 
they generally excelled the Indians them- 
selves. These men were the eyes and the ears 
of the army — they were invaluable to Wayne. 
Their deeds excel in thrilling interest the 
imaginations of the novelist. 

The most noted of these scouts was William 
Wells, the chief. He was a man of great in- 
telligence and unfaltering courage. We have 
no record of his birth, but he had been cap- 
tured when only twelve years of age, while 

an inmate of the family of Nathaniel Pope, 
in Kentucky. He had spent his early man- 
hood among the Miamis, was formally adopted 
into the tribe, and had espoused a sister of the 
great chief, Little Turtle. (Some accounts 
say his daughter.) He was the father of 
three daughters and one son, whose descend- 
ants live in and around Toledo and Fort 
Wayne. One became the wife of Judge Wol- 
cott, of Maumee. The Indian name of Wells 
was Black Snake. He fought with the Indians 
against Harmar and St. Clair, and he now 
found himself opposed to his former friends. 

For a long time Wells was worried for 
fear he may have killed some of his friends 
or kindred. He recalled the dim memories 
of his childhood home, of his brothers and 
his playmates, and sorrow seemed to fill his 
soul. The approach of Wayne's army, in 
1794, stirred anew conflicting emotions, based 
upon indistinct recollections of early ties, of 
country and kindred on the one hand, and 
existing attachments of wife and children on 
the other. He resolved to make his history 
known. With true Indian characteristics, the 
secret purpose of leaving his adopted nation 
was, according to reliable tradition, made 
known in a dramatic manner. Taking with 
him the war-chief. Little Turtle, to a favorite 
spot on the banks of the Maumee, Wells said : 
' ' I leave now your nation for my own people. 
We have long been friends. We are friends 
yet, until the sun reaches a certain height 
(which he indicated). From that time we 
are enemies. Then, if you wish to kill me, you 
may. If I want to kill you, I may." At the 
appointed hour, crossing the river. Captain 
Wells disappeared in the forest, taking an 
easterly direction to strike the trail of 
Wayne's army. 

The bonds of affection and respect which 
had bound these two singular and highly- 
gifted men, Wells and Little Turtle, together 
were not severed or weakened by this abrupt 
declaration. They embraced "and the large 



tears coursed down the sun-bronzed cheeks 
of the chieftain, who was unused to mani- 
festing emotion." Captain Wells soon after 
joined Wayne's army, and, by his intimacy 
with the wilderness, and his perfect knowledge 
of the Indian haunts, habits, and modes of 
Indian warfare, became an invaluable auxil- 
iary to the Americans. He served faithfully 
and fought bravely through the campaign, 
and at the close, when peace had restored 
amity between the Indians and the whites, 
rejoined his foster-father, the Little Turtle, 
their friendship and connection being severed 
only by the death of the latter. He settled 
a short distance from the confluence of the 
St. Mary and St. Joseph rivers, on a stream 
since called "Spy River," where the Govern- 
ment subsequently granted him a half section 
of land. When his body was found among 
the slain at Fort Dearborn, in August, 1812, 
the Indians are said to have eaten his heart 
and drunk his blood, from a superstitious 
belief that they should thus imbibe his warlike 
endowments, which had been considered by 
them as pre-eminent. At any rate, we know 
that he served General Wayne faithfully and 

The experiences of these scouts form fas- 
cinating reading. Some of them are indeed 
stranger than fiction. Of these spies, Henry 
Miller is another who deserves more than a 
passing notice. He and a younger brother, 
named Christopher, had been made captives 
by the Indians while quite young, and adopted 
into an Indian family. He lived with them 
until about twenty-four years of age, when, 
although he had adopted all their customs, 
he began to think of returning to his rela- 
tives among the whites. He tried to persuade 
his brother to join him, but Christopher loved 
the freedom of the forest and refused. Henry 
set off alone through the woods, and arrived 
safely among his friends in Kentucky. 

In June, 1794, while the headquarters of 
the army was at Greenville, Wayne dispatched 

Wells and his corps, with orders to bring an 
Indian into the camp as prisoner. Accord- 
ingly, he proceeded cautiously with his little 
party through the Indian country. They 
crossed the St. Marys and thence to the 
Auglaize without encountering any straggling 
parties of Indians. In passing up the latter 
stream the scouts discovered a smoke, when 
they dismounted, tied their horses, and cau- 
tiously reconnoitred. They found three 
Indians encamped on a high, open piece of 
ground, clear of brush or any undergrowth, 
rendering it exceedingly difBcult to approach 
them without being discovered. While recon- 
noitering, they discovered not very distant 
from the camp a fallen tree. Toward this 
shelter they crept forward on their hands and 
knees with the caution of the cat, until they 
reached it, by which time they were within 
seventy or eighty yards of the camp. The 
Indians were sitting or standing about the 
fire, roasting their venison and having a good 
time in general. The plans of the white men 
were quickly settled. 

"You two," said Robert McClellan,i who 
was almost as swift of foot as a deer, "kill 
the two Indians at the left and right, and I 
will catch the one in the center. Do not fail 
with your shots." Resting the muzzles of 
their rifles on a log of the fallen trees, they 
aimed for the Indians' hearts. 

Bang! went the old flint-lock muskets, 
which had been put in prime condition. With 
a characteristic whir the bullets sped forward 
with unerring fidelity and penetrated the 
throbbing hearts of the two Indians. Hesi- 
tating not a single moment, McClellan darted 
forward with uplifted tomahawk towards the 
astonished Indian still remaining. The latter 

1 McClellan "was one of the most athletic and active 
men on foot that has appeared on this globe. On the 
grand parade at Fort Greenville, where the ground 
was very little inclined, to show his activity, he leaped 
over a road-wagon with the cover stretched over; 
the wagon and bows were eight and a half feet high. ' ' 
His name has since been immortalized in Washington 
Irving 's "Astoria." 



dashed off down the river, but finding himself 
in danger of being headed off if he continued 
in that direction, he turned about and made 
directly for the river. At that place the 
river had a precipitous bank about twenty 
feet high, but, without a pause, he sprang off 
into the stream and sank to his middle in 
the soft mud at its bottom. When MeClellan 
arrived, he saw his quarry within his gi-asp. 
He instantly leaped upon the painted savage, 

became sulky, and refused to converse either 
in the Indian tongue or English. When 
thoroughly washed and the paint all removed, 
he turned out to be a white man; neverthe- 
less, he still refused to speak, or to give any 
account whatever of himself. Scalping the 
two dead Indians, the party set oft" for head- 

While jogging along Henry Miller began 
to entertain some suspicions tliat the pris- 



as he was wallowing and endeavoring to extri- 
cate himself from the mire. The Indian drew 
his knife, but ]\IeClellan was too quick for 
him. Raising his tomahawk, he informed the 
savage that he would kill him instantly unless 
the knife was dropped. The prisoner then 
surrendered without any further resistance. 
At this juncture Miller's two companions 
reached the bank, where they discovered both 
pursuer and pursued quietly sticking in the 
mud. The prisoner being secure, they lei- 
surely selected a place where the bank was 
less precipitous and dragged the captive out. 
Upon being securely bound, the prisoner 

oner might possibly be his brother Christo- 
pher, whom he had left with the Indians 
many 3'ears before. He therefore spurred 
his horse alongside of him, and called him by 
his Indian name. At the unexpected sound 
the captive was startled. He stared around, 
and eagerly inquired how he came to know 
his name. The mystery was soon elucidated. 
There was no longer doubt that the prisoner 
was Christopher Miller. It was indeed a 
mysterious providence that appeared to have 
placed him in such a situation in the camp 
that his life was preserved. 

When the little band reached Fort Green- 



ville, their prisoner was placed in the guard- 
house. Wayne often interrogated him as to 
what he knew of the future intentions of the 
Indians. Captain Wells, and his brother 
Henry, were almost constantly with him, urg- 
ing him to abandon the idea of ever again 
joining the Indians, and to affiliate with the 
whites. For some time he was reserved and 
sulky. At length, however, he brightened up 
and consented that if they would release him 
from his contineraent, he would remain among 
them. Captain Wells and Henry Miller 
urged Wayne to release him. Wayne did so, 
with the observation that should he deceive 
them and return to the enemy, they would 
be one the stronger. Pleased with his change 
of condition and mounted on a splendid horse, 
and otherwise equipped for war, Christopher 
Miller joined the company of Wells, and con- 
tinued through the war a brave and intrepid 
soldier. When on these excursions the scouts 
were always mounted on elegant horses, for 
they had the pick of the stables, and the.v 
were usually dressed and painted in Indian 

"On one of Captain Wells' peregrinations 
through the Indian country, as he came to the 
bank of the river St. Mary, he discovered a 
family of Indians coming up the river in a 
canoe. He dismounted, and concealed his 
men near the bank of the river, whilst he 
went himself to the bank, in open view, and 
called to the Indians to come over. As he 
was dressed in Indian style, and spoke to them 
in their own language, the Indians, not ex- 
pecting danger, went across the river. The 
moment the canoe struck the shore. Wells 
heard the cocks of his comrades' rifles cry, 
' nick, nick, ' as they prepared to shoot the In- 
dians ; but who should be in the canoe but his 
Indian father and mother, with their chil- 
dren ! As his comrades were coming forward 
with their rifles cocked, ready to pour in the 
deadly storm upon the devoted Indians, Wells 
called to them to hold their hands and desist. 

He then informed them who those Indians 
were, and solemnly declared, that the man 
who would attempt to injure one of them, 
would receive a ball in his head. He said to 
his men, that 'that family had fed him when 
he was hungry, clothed him when he was 
naked, and kindly nursed him when sick ; and 
in every respect was as kind and affectionate 
to him as they were to their own children.' 

"Those hardy soldiers approved of the mo- 
tives of Captain Wells, in showing lenity to 
the enemy. Tfiey drew down their rifles and 
tomahawks, went to the canoe, and shook 
hands with the trembling Indians in the most 
friendly manner. Captain Wells assured 
them they had nothing to fear from him ; and 
after talking with them to dispel their fears, 
he said, 'that General Wayne was approaching 
with an overwhelming force; that the best 
thing the Indians could do was to make peace ; 
that the white men did not wish to continue 
the war. ' He urged his Indian father for the 
future to keep out of the reach of danger. 
He then bade them farewell; they appeared 
grateful for his clemency. They then pushed 
off their canoe, and went down the river as 
fast as they could propel her. ' ' 

On one occasion Wells and his party rode 
boldly into an Indian village near Maumee. 
Dressed in Indian style, as they were, and 
speaking the Indian tongue perfectly, their 
true character was not suspicioned. Passing 
through the village the scouts made captive 
an Indian man and woman on horseback. 
With the prisoners they then set off for Fort 
Defiance. Passing by a camp of Indians they 
decided to attack it. Tying and gagging their 
captives, the scouts boldly rode into the In- 
dian encampment with their rifles lying across 
the pommels of their saddles. They inquired 
about General Wayne's movements and the 
Indians freely answered. One Indian was 
suspicious, however, and Wells overheard him 
speaking to another. Wells gave the precon- 
certed signal, and each man fired his rifle 


into the body of an Indian. They then put 
spurs to their horses and dashed away. Me- 
Clellan was shot through the shoulder and 
Wells through the arm. Nevertheless they 
succeeded in reaching Fort Defiance with their 
prisoners, and the wounded all recovered. 

The real service of this little band of spies 
during the campaign exceeded in effective- 
ness that of any other corps of equal number 
belonging to the army. They brought in at dif- 
ferent times not fewer than twenty prisoners, 
and they killed more than an equal or greater 
number. As they had no rivals in the army, 
they aimed in each incursion to outdo their 
former exploits. What confidence, what self- 
possession was displayed by these men in their 
hazardous encounters! To ride boldly into 
the enemy's camp, in full view of their blaz- 
ing camp-fires, and enter into conversation 
with the savages without betraying the least 
appearance of trepidation and confusion, and 
openly commence the work of death, proves 
how well their souls were steeled against fear. 
They had come off unscathed in so many des- 
perate conflicts that they became callous to 
danger. Furthermore, they thoroughly un- 
derstood every trait of the savage character. 

General Wayne kept his daring scouts and 
spies threading the forests far in advance, and 
on either side of his marching troops. They 
lurked along the streams and rivers, watch- 
ing every movement of the enemy, and har- 
ried the hostile bands of savages wherever 
found. Occasionally one of these would be 
killed or fall into the clutches of the enemy. 
At Roche de Bout William May was captured 
and was recognized as a former captive who 

had escaped. Brickell, who says the captors 
knew May, for he had been their prisoner once 
before, then briefly relates the sequence. They 
told May : "We know you — you speak Indian 
language — you not content to live with us; 
to-morrow we take you to a tree — (pointing 
to a very large burr oak at the edge of the 
clearing which was near the British fort) we 
will tie you up and make mark on your breast 
and we will try what Indian can shoot near- 
est it." It so turned out. The next day, the 
very day before the battle, the savages bound 
May to the tree, made a mark on his breast 
and riddled his body with bullets, shooting at 
least fifty into him. This ended poor May, 
the over-brave scout. 

Thus guarding his army with ceaseless vig- 
ilance, and deceiving the enemy by cutting 
false roads through the forests, Wayne 
marched practically without opposition until 
he suddenly appeared at the forks of the 
Auglaize and Maumee, where there had been 
numerous villages of the Indians. From long 
association with the French they had acquired 
some considerable agricultural skill. Hence 
it was that Wayne's troops found orchards of 
the apple and peach, and vast fields of corn 
and other vegetables growing here. The corn 
was just in the stage of the roasting ear, and 
Wayne's soldiers revelled in the abundance of 
fresh food. Wayne sent his men up and down 
the river, burning villages and laying waste 
the orchards and the corn fields. What had 
been before a picture of peace and plenty soon 
became a scene of smoking ruin and deso- 



From the information received through his 
scouts, as well as from his own intuition, Gen- 
eral Wayne had become convinced that a con- 
flict with the Indians could not be avoided. 
He nevertheless decided to send one more 
formal oiifer of peace to the Indian warriors 
who were assembled with their British allies 
r^und and about Port Miami, about forty 
miles below. Here the agents of England 
were dispensing weapons, ammunition, and 
provisions to their red allies'. He warned them 
not to be misled "by the false promises and 
language of the bad white men (British) at 
the foot of the rapids." Not awaiting an 
answer to his oifer of peace, Wayne, after a 
week's delay, marched from Fort Defiance 
down the river. He left that fort on August 
15th, and arrived at Roche de Boeuf three 
days later. 

Roche de Boeuf (or bout) was a celebrated 
landmark among the savage tribes. It is a 
massive frowning rock which still rises from 
the western edge of the river, about a mile 
above the Village of Waterville, where an elec- 
tric railroad now crosses the stream. The fol- 
lowing legend of the Roche de Boeuf was 
related by Peter Manor, the celebrated Indian 
scout and guide. Evidences of its truth are 
found in the many relics and skeletons found 
in this vicinity: "At the time when the plum, 
thorn-apple and wild grape were the only 
products, and long prior to the advent of the 
pale-faces, the Ottawas were camped here, en- 
gaged in their games and pastimes, as was 
usual when not clad in war-paint and on the 

lookout for an enemy. One of the young 
tribe, engaged in playing on Roche de Boeuf 
(rock in the river), fell over the precipice 
and was instantly killed. The dusky husband, 
on his return from the council fires, on being 
informed of the fate of his prospective suc- 
cessor, at once sent the mother in search of 
her papoose, by pushing her over the rocky 
sides into the shallow waters of the Maumee. 
Her next of kin, according to Indian law, 
executed the murdering husband, and was in 
turn executed by the arrival of the principal 
chiefs of the tribe. This sudden outburst cost 
the tribe nearly two-thirds of its members, 
whose bodies were taken from the river and 
buried with full Indian honors the next day. ' ' 

It was at this rock that Wayne met his 
returning peace messenger, with an evasive 
answer from the Indians to the effect that if 
Wayne would tarry ten days longer, the tribes 
would treat with him for peace. Wayne recog- 
nized that this was only a savage ruse to se- 
cure delay so that more warriors might be 
assembled ; hence he resolved to press on with 
his army, which now numbered about 3,000 
men. Two-thirds of this force were regulars, 
both infantry and cavalry, and the other 1,000 
were mounted Kentucky riflemen. 

Through his spies and Indian captives, 
Wayne learned that at least 2,000 braves from 
the tribes of the Shawnees, Delawares, Wyan- 
dots, Ottawas, Miamis, Pottawatomies, Chip- 
pewas, and Iroquois were gathered near Fort 
Miami, with their right resting on Swan 
Creek. Associated with them were the noto- 




rious trio of renegades, M'Kee, Girty, and 
Elliot, together with some seventy white 
rangers from Detroit, who were dressed in In- 
dian costume and could scarcely be distin- 
guished from the savages themselves. The 
Indians were under the command of Blue 
Jacket, a Shawnee chieftain, and Little Turtle, 
the head chief of the Miamis. As a warrior 
Little Turtle was fearless but not rash ; shrewd 
to plan, bold and energetic to execute. No 

peril could daunt him, and no emergency could 
surprise him. Like Pontiac, he indulged in 
gloomy apprehension of the future of his peo- 
ple, and had been one of the leaders in the 
defeat of both Generals Harmar and St. Clair. 
It is said that Little Turtle was averse to 
battle, and in council said: "We have beaten 
the enemy twice under separate commanders. 
We cannot expect the same good fortune 
always to attend us. The Americans are now 
led by a chief who never sleeps. The night 
and the day are alike to him. During all the 
time that he has been marching upon our vil- 

lages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of 
our young men, we have never been able to 
surprise him. Think well of it. There is some- 
thing whispers me it would be well to listen 
to his offers of peace." Blue Jacket leaped 
up in the council, however, and silenced Lit- 
tle Turtle by accusing him of cowardice. 
Little Turtle then replied: "Follow me to 

The Indians swept up through the woods 
in long columns and established themselves in 
wh'at seemed to them an impregnable position, 
on and around Presqi;e Isle Hill, about two 
miles above Maumee. Only a year or two 
previously a tornado had torn down the forest 
trees, interlacing them in such a manner as to 
form a secure covert for the savages, and ren- 
dering it very difficult for cavalry to operate. 
It was also a rainy morning. The Indians 
formed in three long lines, their left resting 
on the river, and their right extending some 
two miles into the forest at right angles to the 
Maumee. Wayne halted at Roche de Boeuf 
on the 19th, long enough to construct light 
works for the protection of his supplies and 
baggage. About 8 o'clock in the morning of 
the following day, Wayne marched down the 
river farther, realizing that the Indians were 
near and that a battle could not be delayed 
much longer. As a precaution he sent for- 
ward a battalion of the mounted Kentuckians, 
with instructions to retreat in feigned confu- 
sion as soon as they were fired upon, in order 
to draw the Indians out of their covert and 
increase their confidence. The order of the 
advance, as stated by Wayne in his subsequent 
official report, was: "the legion on the right, 
its right iiank covered by the Miamis (Mau- 
mee), one brigade of mounted volunteers on 
the left, under Brigadier-General Todd, the 
other in the rear, under Brigadier-General 
' Barbie. A select battalion of mounted volun- 
teers moved in front of the legion, commanded 
by Major Price, who was directed to keep 
sufficiently advanced, so as to give timely no- 



tiee for the troops in case of action, it being 
yet undetermined whether the Indians would 
decide for peace or war." 

The Kentuckians kept far enough in ad- 
vance to give Wayne time to form his troops 
in perfect order after the shooting should 
begin. After about an hour' march, the Ken- 
tuckians received such a hot fire from the 
Indians concealed in the woods and high grass 
as to compel them to retreat. Wayne immedi- 
ately drew up his forces in two lines, placing 
one troop of cavalry near the Maumee and 
the other farther inland near the right flank. 
He then gave orders to his front line to ad- 
vance and charge with trailed arms. They 
were to rouse the savages from their covert at 
the point of the bayonet, to deliver a close 
and well-directed fire at their backs, and then 
to charge before the Indians had a chance to 

"General Wayne," said Lieut. William H. 
Harrison, then an aide on that officer's staff, 
just as the attack was ordered. "I'm afraid 
you'll get into the fight yourself and forget to 
give me the necessary field orders. ' ' He knew 
that in the heat of the battle Wayne was apt 
to forget that he was the general and not a 

"Perhaps I may." replied Wayne, "and if 
I do, recollect the standing order for the day 
is, charge the d — d rascals with the bayonets." 

In the face of a deadly fire the American 
troops dashed upon the savages among the 
fallen trees, and prodded them from their hid- 
ing with cold steel. What a sight it was ! A 
host of painted and plumed warriors, the very 
pick of the western tribes, with their athletic 
and agile bodies decked in their gay strap- 
pings, with their coarse raven hair hanging 
over their shoulders like netted manes, met 
their white foes face to face. Each carried his 
flint, ready for instant use, while hung over 
his shoulders were the straps of the powder 
horn and shot-punch. The frontiersmen 
among Wayne's troops also carried the deadly 

tomahawk and scalping knife, as well as their 
dusky opponents. It was truly a tragic tab- 
leau here among the fallen timbers that nature 
had prepared for this historic event. In the 
midst of the noise of shot the Miami of the 
Lake tumbled over the rocks that there form 
the rapids in gentle rhythm. It is indeed a 
landscape upon which Nature had lavished 
her charms. 

All of the orders of General Wayne were 
obeyed with alacrity and promptitude. Such 
was the impetuosity of the initial charge that 
the Indians and their white allies were driven 
from their coverts almost immediately. They 
abandoned themselves to flight, and dispersed 
with terror and dismay. Wayne heaped en- 
comiums upon all his officers in his official re- 
ports, saying that the bravery and conduct of 
every oificer merited his highest approbation. 
They followed up the fleeing and painted sav- 
ages with such swiftness and fury, and poured 
such a destructive fire upon their backs, that 
but few of the second line of Wayne's forces 
arrived in time to participate in the action. 
' ' Such was the impetuosity of the first-line of 
infantry," reported Wayne, "that the In- 
dians, and Canadian militia, and volunteers, 
were drove from all their coverts in so short 
a time, that, although every possible exertion 
was used by the officers of the second line of 
the legion, and by Generals Scott, Todd, and 
Barbie, of the mounted volunteers, to gain 
their proper positions, but part of each could 
get up in season to participate in the action, 
the enemy being drove, in the course of an 
hour, more than two miles, through the thick 
woods already mentioned, by less than one-half 
their numbers." Many of the Indians en- 
deavored to escape by swimming the river, but 
they were cut down in the midst of the stream 
by the cavalry. The woods were strewn for 
miles with dead arid wounded savages and the 
Canadian rangers. In the course of one hour, 
the whole force of the enemy was driven back 
more than two miles through the thick woods. 


From every account that we have, it is cer- 
tain that the enemy numbered at least 2,000 
combatants. The troops actually engaged 
against them were less than half that number. 
The battle was too brief to be very sanguinary 
in its results. The Americans lost thirty-three 
killed and about 100 wounded. The death loss 
occurred almost entirely at the first fire of the 
savages, who took deadly aim as the Americans 
swept down upon them. The cavalry gal- 
loped boldly among the Indians, leaping their 
horses over the fallen logs and dodging in and 

was Me-sa-sa, or Turkey-foot, an Ottawa chief, 
who lived on Blanchard's Fork of the Au 
Glaize River. He was greatly beloved by his 
people. His courage was conspicuous. "When 
he found the line of the dusky warriors giving 
way on the foot of Presque Isle Hill, he leaped 
upon a small boulder, and by voice and gesture 
endeavored to make them stand firm. He al- 
most immediately fell, pierced by a musket 
ball, and expired by the side of the rock. Long 
years afterward, when any of his tribe passed 
along the Maumee trail, they would stop at 

Historic Turkey Foot Rock Along il.MTMEE River, Before Removed from 
Originai, Location 

out among the trees. They swung their long 
sabres with telling effect among the dismayed 
and yelling Indians. The loss of the Indians 
was far more serious than that of the Ameri- 
cans, but the number has never been definitely 
reported. At least 100 bodies were found 
upon the field, but many of the killed and 
wounded were dragged away by their friends. 
The Indian tribes were represented as follows : 
Wyandots 300, Shawnees 350, Delawares 500, 
Miamis 200, Tawas 250. There were also small 
bands of other tribes. 

"Among the brave warriors in the battle 
who was the last to flee before Wayne's legion, 

that rock, and linger a long time with mani- 
festations of sorrow. ' ' Peter Navarre used to 
say that he had seen men, women, and chil- 
dren gather around that rock, place bits of 
dried beef, parched peas and corn, and some- 
times some cheap trinket upon it, and, calling 
frequently upon the name of the beloved Ot- 
tawa, weep piteously. They carved many rude 
figures of a turkey's foot on the stone, as a 
memorial of the lamented Me-sa-sa. The stone 
is still there, by the side of the highway at the 
foot of Presque Isle Hill, within a few rods 
of the swift flowing Maumee, although an 
effort was made a few years ago to remove it 



to Toledo. Many of the carvings are still 
quite deep and distinct, while others have 
been obliterated by the abrasion of the ele- 
ments and acts of vandals. 

Turkey-foot Rock is limestone, about 51/2 
feet in length and three feet in height. In 
allusion to the event which the rock commem- 
orates, Andrew CofBnberry, in a poem entitled 
"The Forest Ranger, a Poetic Tale of the 
Western Wilderness of 1794," thus wrote, 
after giving an account of Wayne's progress 
up to this time : 

"Yet at the foot of red Presque Isle 
Brave Me-sa-sa was warring still; 
He stood upon a large rough stone, 
Still dealing random blows alone ; 
But bleeding fast — glazed were his eyes. 
And feeble grew his battle-cries ; 
Too frail his arm, too dim his sight. 
To wield or aim his axe aright ; 
As still more frail and faint he grew. 
His body on the rock he threw. 
As coursed his blood along the ground. 
In feeble, low, and hollow sound, 
]\Iingled with frantic peals and strong. 
The dying chief poured forth his song. ' ' 

At the time Captain Campbell was endeav- 
oring to turn the left flank of the enemy, three 
Indians, being hemmed in by the cavalry and 
infantry, plunged into the river and endeav- 
ored to swim to the opposite side. Two 
negroes of the army, on the opposite bank, 
concealed themselves behind a log to inter- 
cept them. When within shooting distance, 
one of them shot the foremost through the 
head. The other two took hold of him to drag 
him to shore, when the second negro fired and 
killed another. The remaining Indian, being 
now in shoal water, endeavored to tow the 
dead bodies to the bank. In the meantime the 
first negro had reloaded, and, firing upon the 
survivor, mortally wounded him. On ap- 

proaching them, the negroes judged from their 
striking resemblance and devotion that they 
were brothers. After scalping them, they let 
their bodies float down the stream. 

Another circumstance goes to show with 
what obstinacy the conflict was maintained by 
individuals in both armies. A soldier, wKo 
had become detached a short distance from 
the army, met a single Indian in the woods. 
The two foes immediately attacked each other, 
the soldier with his bayonet, the Indian with 
his tomahawk. Two days after they were 
found dead. The soldier had his bayonet 
imbedded in the body of the Indian; the In- 
dian had his tomahawk implanted in the head 
of the soldier. 

The victorious Americans pursued the flying 
savages to the very palisades of Fort Miami. 
The Indians evidently expected the British to 
throw open the gates of the fortress and admit 
them to its protection. To their surprise and 
indignation, however, the British basely 
abandoned them in the hour of their sore 
defeat, and thej^ were obliged to scatter in 
the forest for safety from the American 
bayonets. The British looked on with ap- 
parent unconcern at this humiliation and 
defeat of their late allies. That the Indians 
were astonished at the lukewarmuess of their 
white allies, and had regarded the fort as a 
place of refuge in ease of disaster, was evident 
from circumstances. It was voiced in a speech 
by Tecumseh in his reproach of General 
Proctor after Perry's victory on Lake Erie. 

Wayne seriously contemplated storming 
Fort ]Miami, and rode up with his aides to 
within a few hundred feet of it, from which 
vantage point he surveyed it with his glasses 
from all sides. It is said that a gunner had 
his piece trained on this spot and was in the 
very act of applying the light, when the com- 
mandant threatened with uplifted sword to 
cut him down instantly if he did not desist. 
Independent of its results in bringing on a 


possible war with Great Britain, Wayne knew 
that Fort Miami was garrisoned by a force of 
450 men and mounted ten pieces of artillery. 
Against this he had no suitable armament to 
attack a strongly fortified place. He saw 
that it would cost the lives of many of his sol- 
diers, so he wisely concluded not to sacrifice 
his troops and precipitate war between the 
two countries by making the attack. 

The Americans contented themselves with 
proceeding immediately to burn and destroy 
all the supplies and buildings without the 

The first letters exchanged betwen the two 
commanders read as follows: 

"Miami (Maumee) River, 

August 21st, 1794. 
"Sir: — An army of the United States of 
America, said to be under your command, 
having taken post on the banks of the Miami 
for upwards of the last twenty-four hours, 
almost within the reach of the guns of this 
fort, being a post belonging to His Majesty 
the King of Great Britain, occupied by His 

Rear of Port Miami 
Built about 1680 by the French and rebuilt by the British, on the Maumee River. 

walls of the fort, including the residence of 
the trader, Alex M'Kee. While this ravaging 
and burning was proceeding, it is said that the 
British stood sullenly by their guns with 
lighted torches, but not daring to fire, well 
knowing what the result would be. Wayne 
sent out his cavalry, and they destroyed the 
Indian villages for miles up and down the 
river. After staying in the vicinity of the 
fort for three days, he marched slowly back 
to Fort Defiance. 

Some interesting correspondence took place 
between General Wayne and Major Campbell 
during the enactment of the preceding scene. 

ilajesty's troops, and which I have the honor 
to command, it becomes my duty to inform 
myself, as speedily as possible, in what light 
I am to view your making such near ap- 
proaches to this garrison. I have no hesita- 
tion, on my part, to say, that I know of no 
war existing between Great Britain and 

"I have the honor to be, sir, with great 
respect, your most obedient and very humble 
servant, William Campbell, 

"Major 24th Reg't Comd'g a British Post on 

the banks of the Miami. 
"To Major General Wayne, etc." 


"Camp, on the Banks of the Miami, 

August 21st, 1794. 

"Sir: — I have received your letter of this 
date, requiring from me the motives which 
have moved the army under my command to 
the position they at present occupy, far within 
the acknowledged jurisdiction of the United 
States of America. Without questioning the 
authority, or the propriety, sir, of your inter- 
rogatory, I think I may without breach of 
decorum, observe to you, that were you en- 
titled to an answer, the most full and satis- 
factory one was announced to you from the 
muzzles of my small arms, yesterday morning, 
in the action against the horde of savages in 
the vicinity of your post, which terminated 
gloriously to the American arms; but, had it 
continued until the Indians, etc., were driven 
under the influence of the post and guns j'ou 
mention, they would not have much impeded 
the progress of the victorious army under ray 
command, as no such post was established at 
the commencement of the present war, be- 
tween the Indians and the United States. 

"I have the honor to be, sir, with great 
respect, your most obedient and very humble 
servant, Anthony Wayne. 

"Major General, and Commander-in-Chief of 

the Federal Army. 
"To Major William Campbell, etc." 

Jonathan Adler, who was at that time living 
with the Indians, has given in a manuscript 
left by him the Indian account of the Battle 
of Fallen Timbers. It is as follows: • 

"We remained here (Defiance) about two 
weeks, until we heard of the approach of 
Wayne, when we packed up our goods and 
started for the old English fort at the Jlau- 
mee rapids. Here we prepared ourselves for 
battle and sent the women and children down 

Note. — According to Mr. Knapp, in his * ' History of 
the Maumee Valley," Fort Industry, near the mouth 
of Swan Creek, was built at this time. This statement 
does not seem to be well authenticated, and the fort, 
or stockade, was probably not constructed until 1804. 

about three miles below the fort ; and as I did 
not wish to fight, they sent me to Sandusky, 
to inform some Wyandots there of the great 
battle that was about to take place. I re- 
mained at Sandusky until tlhe battle was 
over. The Indians did not wait more than 
three or four days, before Wayne made his 
appearance at the head of a long prairie on 
the river, where he halted, and waited for an 
opportunity to suit himself. 

"Now the Indians are very curious about 
fighting; for when they know they are going 
into a battle, they will not eat anything just 
previous. They say that if a man is shot in 
the body when he is entirely empty, there is 
not half as much danger of the ball passing 
through the bowels as wiien they are full. 
So they started the first morning without eat- 
ing anything, and moving up to the end of 
the prairie, ranged themselves in order of 
battle at the edge of the timber. There they 
waited all day without any food, and at night 
returned and partook of their suppers. The 
second morning, thej' again placed themselves 
in the .same position, and again returned at 
night and supped. By this time they had 
begun to get weak from eating only once . a 
day, and concluded they would eat breakfast. 
Some were eating, and others, who had 
finished, had moved forward to their stations, 
when Wayne's army was seen approaching. 
Soon as they w^ere within gunshot, the Indians 
began firing upon them ; but Wayne, making 
no halt, rushed on upon them. 

"Only a small part of the Indians being 
on the ground, they were obliged to give back, 
and finding Wayne too strong for them, at- 
tempted to retreat. Those who were on the 
way heard the noise and sprang to their 
assistance. So some were running from and 
others to the battle, which created great con- 
fusion. In the meantime, the light horse had 
gone entirely around, and came in upon their 
rear, blowing their horns and closing in upon 
them. The Indians now found that they 



were completely surrounded, and all that 
could made their escape, and the balance were 
all killed, which was no small number. Among 
these last, with one or two exceptions were 
all the Wyandots that lived at Sandusky at 
the time I went to inform them of the ex- 
pected battle. The main body of the Indians 
were back nearly two miles from the battle- 
ground and Wayne had taken them by sur- 
prise, and made such a slaughter among them 
that they were entirely discouraged, and made 
the best of their way to their respective 

Not long after this defeat a trader met a 
Miami warrior, who had fled before the ter- 
rible onslaught of Wayne's soldiers. 

"Why did you run away?" the trader 
asked the Indian. 

With gestures corresponding to his words, 
and endeavoring to represent the effect of the 
cannon, the Indian replied: 

' ' Pop ! pop ! pop ! — boo ! woo ! woo ! — whish ! 
whish! boo! woo! — kill twenty Indians one 
time — no good, by dam ! ' ' 

Immediately following the battle of Fallen 
Timbers, many of the savages fled to Detroit, 
the British headquarters. The following 
winter was a time of great suffering among 
the aborigines in the Maumee Valley. Their 
crops had been destroyed by General Wayne 's 
army, so that they were rendered more than 
ever dependent upon the British, and they 
were not prepared for so great a task. They 
remained huddled together along the IMaumee 
River, near the mouth of Swan Creek, where 
much sickness prevailed on account of ex- 
posure, scant supplies, and the want of sani- 
tary regulations. What few animals they 
possessed either died or languished on account 
of improper food and care, and were eaten. 
Even the dogs suffered the latter fate, and the 
Indian is pretty hungi-y when he will devour 
his faithful canine. 

General Wayne returned to Fort Defiance 
after his great victory, because this was a 

safe camping place and afforded plentiful 
food for both man and beast. So intent were 
the soldiers on foraging that several were 
killed or captured by skulking savages. This 
led to very stringent regulations. Any soldier 
caught half a mile outside the lines of sen- 
tinels, without a proper pass, was to be treated 
as a deserter, and the sentry permitting a 
soldier to go by without this pass was subject 
to a punishment of fifty lashes. The soldiers 
were much troubled with the fever and ague, 
and these ailments caused much distress. 

"Fort Defiance 4th September, 1794. The 
number of our sick increases daily ; provision 
is nearly exhausted ; the whiskey has been out 
for some time, which makes the hours pass 
heavily to the tune of Roslin Castle, when in 
our present situation they ought to go to the 
quick step of the merry man down to his 
grave. Hard duty and scant allowance will 
cause an army to be low spirited, particularly 
the want of a little of the wet. * * * xf 
it was not for the foi'age we get from the 
enemy's fields, the rations would not be suffi- . 
cient to keep soul and body together." 

These statements appear in the diary of 
Lieutenant Boyer. He was evidently not of 
the "dry" persuasion, for a week later he 
writes: "The escort arrived this day about 
8 'clock, and brought with them two hundred 
kegs of flour and nearly two hiuidred head of 
cattle. Captain Preston and Ensigns 
Strother, Bowyer and Lewis, joined us this 
day with the escort. We received no liquor 
b'y this command, and I fancy we shall not 
receive any until we get into winter quarters, 
which will make the fatigues of the campaign 
appear double, as I am persuaded the troops 
would much rather live on half rations of beef 
and bread, provided they could obtain their 
full rations of whiskey. The vegetables are 
as yet in the gi-eatest abundance." 

From Fort Defiance a part of General 
Wayne's Legion marched to the head of the 
Maumee, which place thej- reached without a 



collision with the enemy. Here Colonel Ham- 
tramck erected a fort, which he named after 
the hero of Fallen Timbers, and which name 
it has borne ever since. After a few weeks 
there they marched to Greenville by the way 
of Fort Recovery and Girty's Town. They 
arrived at Greenville on the 2nd of November, 
just three months and six days after they had 
departed from it on their victorious cam- 

The effect of Wayne's victory over the 
Indians cannot be correctly measured by the 
number of savages slain in battle. The results 
had convinced them of their inability to wage 
successful war against the Americans, when 
led by a chief whom they could neither sur- 
prise nor defeat. They had seen the hoUow- 
ness of the English promises of assistance. 
When danger approached, they had witnessed 
the king's soldiers creep into their fort like 
whipped curs and shut their gate on the poor 
Indian when he went there for protection, 
leaving him to the mercy of Wayne's soldiers. 
They had seen their villages burned and their 
women and children left destitute for the 
winter. Hollow promises of the British did 
not allay the pangs of hunger or the pene- 
trating chill of the winter. Then it was that 
they began to turn their attention toward 

Impatient and murmuring at the failure of 
the British to protect and supply them accord- 
ing to promise, the Indians turned to the 
Americans, who were perfectly willing to pro- 
tect them and supply their wants. Communi- 
cations from the hostile tribes were encour- 
aged by General Wayne and his officers. 
Some of the chiefs personally visited Fort 
Defiance and Fort Wayne, as well as General 
Wayne himself at Greenville. The Wyandots 
were probably more solicitous for peace than 
any other tribe. One of their chiefs called 
upon General Wayne and said: "I live in 
Sandusky. We Wyandots now wish for peace 
and are determined to bury the hatchet and 

scalping knife deep in the ground. We pray 
you have pity on us and leave us a small piece 
of land to build a town upon. The Great 
Spirit has given land enough for all to live 
and hunt upon. We have looked all around 
us for a piece to move to and cannot find any. 
We want to know your mind. We intend to 
build a stockade (on Sandusky River) and 
blockhouse to defend ourselves till we hear 
from you. We don't know whether we are 
right or wrong in doing it, but have pity on 
us. ' ' 

The diplomatic warfare waged by these 
untutored aborigine chiefs would have re- 
flected credit upon the statesmanship of an 
enlightened people. They clung to every vital 
principle affecting their interests with the 
same desperate tenacity with which they had 
fought their last battle at Fallen Timbers. 
The diplomacy of General Wayne was so suc- 
cessful, however, that on the first of January, 
1795, he sent a message to the petitioning 
Wyandots at Sandusky that the chiefs of 
various other tribes would soon visit him at 
Greenville in the interests of peace, and invit- 
ing them to join the others. The Delawares 
visited Fort Defiance and exchanged a num- 
ber of prisoners. As word reached General 
Wayne of the great number of Indian chiefs 
who were on their way to visit him, a large 
council house was constructed at Greenville 
for the deliberations. A great quantity of 
clothing and other useful articles were ob- 
tained for presents, and bountiful supplies 
were accumulated for the feeding and enter- 
tainment of large numbers. The chiefs began 
to arrive the first of June. Each day brought 
new additions, and the general council was 
opened on June 16th with a goodly attend- 
ance. In all more than 1,000 chiefs and 
sachems gathered together. The tribes rep- 
resented were the Delawares, Wyandots, 
Pottawattomies, Shawnees, Chippewas, Miami, 
Eel River, Weas, Piankeshaws, Kickapoos, and 
Kaskaskias. Half a dozen interpreters were 




The First Signatures to the Greenville Treaty 



kept busy during the fifty days that the 
council lasted. The chiefs complained much 
of the bad faith of the citizens of the 
"fifteen fires," — so called because fifteen guns 
were always fired as a salute, one for each 
state of the Union. 

After smoking the Calumet of Peace, an 
oath of accuracy and fidelity was administered 
to the interpreters. The flow of oratory was 
interminable. A large number of belts and 
strings of wampum were passed by the various 
tribes during the deliberations. Some of these 
contained a thousand or more beads of 
wampum. As many of these beads represent 
a day's work each, their value to the aborig- 
ines was very great. The Indians continued 
to arrive during all the month of June and 
even later. Little Tui-tle was one of the 
slowest to enter into the spirit of the meeting, 
but he gradually became one of its warmest 
participators, making many addresses. On 
the 7th of August, 1795, the famous Treaty 
of Greenville was entered into between 
General Anthony Wayne and the sachems and 
war chiefs of the participating nations. The 
boundary lines established by the treaty were 
as follows: The general boundary line "be- 
tween the lands of the United States and the 
lands of the said Indian tribes, shall begin at 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and ran 
thence up the same, to the portage between 
that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Mus- 
kingum ; thence down that branch to the 
crossing place, above Fort Lawrence (Laur- 
ens) ; thence westerly, to a fork of that 
branch of the Great Miami river running into 
the Ohio, at or near which fork stood Lora- 
mie's store and where commences the portage 
between the Miami of the Ohio, and St. 
Mary's River, which is a branch of the Miami, 
which runs into Lake Erie ; theilce a westerly 
course to Fort Recovery, which stands on a 
branch of the Wabash; thence. South West- 
erly in a direct line of the Ohio, so as to inter- 
sect that river, opposite the mouth of the 

Kentucke, or Cuttawa river." In order to 
facilitate intercourse between the whites and 
Indians, the tribes ceded to the United States 
several tracts of land, one tract ' ' twelve miles 
square, at the British fort on the Miami of 
the Lake, at the foot of the rapids." This 
reached down into the heart of the present 
city of Toledo. ' ' One piece, six miles square, 
at the mouth of said river where it empties 
in the lake," of which a part is also within 
Toledo. "One piece, two miles square, at the 
lower rapids of the Sandusky" comprises 
practically all of the City of Fremont. ' ' One 
piece, two miles square, at the head of the 
navigable water or landing on the St. Marys 
river, near Girty's Town," was at St. Marys. 
' ' One piece six miles square, at the confluence 
of the Auglaize and Miami rivers,"- where 
Fort Defiance now stands, is partly included 
within the City of Deflance. "One piece, six 
miles square upon Sandusky lake, where a 
fort formerly stood," is in Ottawa County. 
Other tracts were granted, but they do not 
pertain to this history. 

"And the said Indian tribes will allow to 
the people of the United States a free passage, 
by land and by water, as one and the other 
shall be found to be convenient, through their 
county, along the chain of posts hereinbefore 
mentioned; that is to say, from commence- 
ment of the portage aforesaid, at or near 
Loramie's store, thence along said portage 
to the St. Mary's, and down the same to Fort 
Wayne, and thence down the Miami to Lake 
Erie ; again, from the commencement of the 
portage, at or near Loramie's store along the 
portage, from thence to the river Auglaize, 
and down the same to its junction with the 
Miami, at Fort Defiance; again, from the 
commencement of the portage aforesaid, to 
Sandusky river, and down the same to San- 
dusky bay and Lake Erie, and from Sandusky 
to the post which shall be taken at or near 
the foot of the rapids of the Miami of the 
lake: and from thence to Detroit. * * • 


And the said Indian tribes will also allow to 
the people of the United States the free use 
of the harbors and mouths of rivers, along 
the lake adjoining the Indian lands, for shel- 
tering vessels and boats, and liberty to land 
their cargoes where necessary for their 
safety. ' ' 

Wayne did not survive long to enjoy the 
honor of his victory, for he died a couple of 
years later. On his passage down the lake, he 
was seized with a violent attack of gout of 
the stomach, which terminated in his death 
before reaching his destination. One of his 
last acts was to receive, as representative of 
the United States authority, Port Miami early 
in 1776, when the British government for- 
mally surrendered its northern posts in pur- 
suance -of a treaty negotiated by Chief Justice 
Jay. So pleased were the Indians with their 
treatment by General Wayne that each of 
the more prominent chiefs desired to have the 
last word with him. Buck-on-ge-he-las, the 
great war chief of the Delawares, seemed to 
voice the sentiments of all when he said: 

"Your children all well understand the 
sense of the Treaty which is now concluded. 
We experience daily proofs of your increas- 
ing kindness. I hope we may all have sense 
enough to enjoy our dawning happiness. 
Many of your people are yet among us. I 
trust they will be immediately restored. Last 

winter our King (Te-ta-boksh-he) came for- 
ward to you with two (captives) and when 
he returned with your speech to us, we im- 
mediately prepared to come forward with the 
remainder, which we delivered at Fort De- 
fiance. All who know me, know me to be a 
man and a warrior, and I now declare that 
I will for the future be as true and steady a 
friend to the United States as I have hereto- 
fore been an active enemy. We have one bad 
man among us who, a few days ago, stole 
three of your horses; two of them shall this 
day be returned to you, and I hope I shall 
be able to prevent that young man from doing 
any more mischief to our Father the Fifteen 
Fires. ' ' 

The Indians, who almost worshiped per- 
sonal bravery, acquired a wholesome respect 
for General Wayne. A number of anecdotes 
are related about General Wayne in proof of 
this, among which is the following: Several 
mouths after the battle of Fallen Timbers a 
number of Potawatomie Indians arrived at 
Fort Wayne, where they expressed a desire 
to see "The Wind," as they called General 
Wayne. On being asked for an explanation 
of the name, they replied, that at the battle 
of the 20th of August, he was exactly like a 
hurricane, which drives and tears everything 
before it. 



At the close of 1796 it was estimated that 
the number of white people dwelling within 
the present limits of the State of Ohio was 
about 5,000. Most of these were located along 
the Ohio River and its tributaries, and within 
fifty miles of that stream. When the Maumee 
and Sandusky country was first organized, in 
that year, it was made a part of Wayne 
County, which included all of Michigan, and 
a part of Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. It 
also extended east to the Cuyahoga River. 
Detroit was the place for holding court. The 
original Wayne County — for it must be re- 
membered that the outlines of this division 
were changed several times — was divided into 
four townships, of which the northwestern 
Ohio basin was in the one named Hamtramck. 

Under the provisions of the Ordinance of 
1787, a population of "five thousand free male 
inhabitants of full age" entitled the territory 
to representative government. Accordingly, 
Governor St. Clair issued a proclamation call- 
ing for an election in December, 1798, for rep- 
resentatives to the Territorial Legislature, as 
it was estimated that the population of the 
entire territory then fulfilled that require- 
ment. It was necessary for a voter to be a 
freeholder of fifty acres. The first election in 
Wayne Countj' was held at Detroit and one 
or two other places on the first Monday of 
December, according to the proclamation. 
The three men elected were Solomon Sibley, 
Jacob Visgar, and Charles F. Chabe'rt de Jon- 
caire, all of Detroit and vicinity. 

The first Territorial Legislature convened at 
Cincinnati, on the 16th of September, 1799, 

and at once selected ten names of citizens who 
were sent to the President of the United States 
from whom he was to nominate a legislative 
Council, or Senate, for the territory, to be 
composed of five members. This was the 
inauguration of representative government in 
the Northwest. Territory, and it made Cincin- 
nati the capital of an empire reaching from 
the Ohio to the Mississippi, and as large as 
modern Texas. 

The Lower House consisted of twenty-two 
members, of whom seven came from the old 
French settlements of Illinois, Michigan, and 
Indiana. Neither Northwest Ohio nor the 
Western Reserve furnished a single delegate. 
The Senate, as finally chosen, consisted of 
Jacob Burnett, James Findlay, of Hamilton ; 
Robert Oliver, of Washington ; David Vance, 
of Jefferson, and Henrj' Vanderbery, of Knox 
counties. The members of the Legislature 
were compelled to carry their provisions and 
blankets, camp at night, swim their horses 
across streams, and penetrate the gloomy for- 
ests guided only by blazed trees and the com- 
pass. The only roads were bridle paths or 
Indian trails. Prior to this time Governor St. 
Clair and three associate judges had exercised 
all the executive, legislative, and .judicial 
powers under the Ordinance of 1787. The 
governor not only was commander-in-chief of 
the military forces, but he appointed all the 
magistrates and civil officers and was the chief 
executive in the enforcement of law. 

William Henry Harrison was selected by 
the Legislature as the first delegate, or repre- 
sentative, to Congress from the vast territory 

j\I.\p Showing Development of Ohio 
Counties— From 1787-1792 

il.M' Showin(5 Development of Ohio 
Counties— From 1796-1799 

¥ ¥*i 


J^-\^_ \ \W\ 

/"-" — ""-Ttr 

ji I 


/ \y 





Map Showing Development of 
Hamilton County, 1792 

]\rAP Showing Development of Ohio 
Counties, 1799 



northwest of the Ohio River. He received 
twelve votes in joint ballot of the two houses, 
on the 3d of October, 1799, while Arthur St. 
Clair Jr., son of the governor, received ten 
votes. He at once proceeded to Philadelphia 
and took his seat in Congress, which was in 
session in that city. No single event of this 
period in western history had so far-reaching 
and so beneficial an influence in the future 
welfare of Ohio as this choice. Harrison at 
this time was only twenty-six years of age, but 
he had already established an enviable name 
for himself in the army. He instituted meas- 
ures for the benefit of this territory without 
delay, and succeeded in opening up lands in 
small tracts of sections and half-sections, 
which quickly brought thousands of hardy 
and industrious farmers across the AUeghe- 
nies. This far-seeing policy gives him claim 
to high rank among our great statesmen. 

The difficulties attending the organization 
and administration of government for so ex- 
pansive a territory were immediately recog- 
nized. A committee in Congress reported that 
there had been but one session of a court hav- 
ing jurisdiction over crimes in five years ; and 
the immunity which offenders experienced 
had attracted to it the vilest and most aban- 
doned criminals, and likewise had deterred 
useful citizens from making settlements 
therein. As a result of this recommendation 
all that part of the Northwest Territory lying 
to the westward of a line beginning at the 
Ohio River, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and thence running north, 
was eliminated from this jurisdiction and 
created into the Territory of Indiana. By 
this ordinance Wayne County was reduced to 
about one-half of its original size. The first 
post road between Cincinnati and Detroit was 
established in 1801. For a couple of years, 
however, on the north end of this route there 
was not a single postoffice, so that the mail 
was carried as a military or semi-military ex- 
press as formerly. It was in 1801 that the 

first capitol building for Ohio was built at 
Chillicothe, which city had been designated 
by Congress as the seat of government. At 
the session of the second general assembly 
held there, Wayne County was again repre- 
sented by delegates from Detroit. 

From the very beginning almost the gover- 
nor and Legislature clashed. St. Clair stub- 
bornly maintained that he alone had the 
authority to create new counties and locate 




1 ^ 

/! 2 ) 

/i bV 





S \^^^/ i 



/799 'i 

^ 1802. 

Ohio Counties, 1802 

county seats, and in this attitude he ran 
counter to the pet projects of some of the 
members. It was the clash of autocracy and 
democracy. By the time of the second session 
of the Legislature, the contest had reached 
a white heat. To the arbitrary methods of 
Governor St. Clair was due the inauguration 
of proceedings to have Ohio admitted as a 
state. Failing in their efforts to prevent the 
appointment of the governor, Edward Tiffin, 
Thomas Worthington, and others set on foot 
the movement which finally displaced that 
disliked official. These men were adherents 
of the party of Jefferson, who came into office 


at this opportune time. Edward Tiffin, a phy- 
sician by profession, loomed head and shoul- 
ders above all the others. Each party availed 
itself of every possible means to further its 
interests, but Tiffin assumed the leadership 

affected, in order to ascertain their 
that body passed an enabling act in April, 
1802, thus ending a five years' struggle for 
statehood. There were at that time seven 
counties in the entire state. The census of 

Hon. Edward Tiffin — First Governor of Ohio 

in the assaults upou the governor, and the 
latter discovered in him a foeman worthy his 
steel. President Jefferson was anxious for 
more republican states, and welcomed the op- 
portunity to create another. Congress ap- 
proved the proposition and, although there 
had never been a vote of the people to be 

1800 credited the territory with a population 
of 45,028, of whom 3,206 lived in Wayne 
County, but Wayne lay mostly in what is now 

On the fourth of March, 1802, a convention 
of representatives was called to formulate a 
constitution for the proposed State of Ohio. 



No assembly in any commonwealth ever ap- 
proached and performed its iwork with a 
greater realization of its responsibility than 
did this one. In its ranks were men who after- 
wards rose to the highest distinction. An ex- 
ceedingly democratic constitution was finally 
agreed upon and signed with commendable 
promptness, the entire session continuing but 
twenty-five days. Ohio was admitted into the 
galaxy of states on the 19th of February, 1803, 
being the seventeenth state in numerical suc- 
cession. In reality, it was the first actual ad- 
dition to the original colonies. Vermont 
(1791) had been detached from New York, 
while Kentucky (1792) and Tennessee (1796) 
had been carved from territory claimed by 
Virginia. Ohio was admitted by virtue of her 
rights under the Ordinance of 1787. The ini- 
tial election was held on January 11th, the 
premier Legislature under the constitution 
convened at Chillieothe, on the first Tuesday 
of March, 1803. Edward Tiffin was elected 
the first governor without opposition. 

At the beginning of statehood the number 
of white settlers resident in the Maumee Val- 
ley and the Sandusky Valley was very small. 
A few traders and pioneers had established 
themselves near the watercourses, but North- 
west Ohio had no representation in the Gov- 
ernment until after the organization of coun- 
ties in April, 1820. Previous to this it was 
included in two or three counties at different 
times. "Wayne County disappeared with the 
old territory. Immediately following state- 
hood it became a part of Hamilton County, 
but that unit exercised little jurisdiction, if 
any, over the settlers, because it was still 
aborigine territory. Following statehood the 
population of the state, and the southern half 
in particular, increased very rapidly. In 
1810, the enumeration approached a quarter 
of a million. In the northern part even Cleve- 
land, the most important and flourishing set- 
tlement, was a very small and unimportant 

Following the decisive defeat of the Indians 
at Fallen Timbers, and the Treaty of Green- 
ville closely following, the Indians remained 
in comparative quiet for several years, seem- 
ingly being satisfied with the annuities paid 
to them by the United States Government. 
For several years a number of forts were main- 
tained in the Maumee Valley. There were 
Fort Defiance, Fort Adams, Fort Recovery, 
Fort Loramie, and Fort Head of the Auglaize, 
each of which was garrisoned by small bodies 
of troops, in order to hold the aborigines in 
cheek. Fort Miami was evacuated by the Brit- 
ish, in 1796, and turned over to Colonel Ham- 
tramck, but a garrison was not maintained 
there very long. The report of Hamtramek is 
as follows: 

" Sir : On the 7th instant two small vessels 
arrived from Detroit in which I sent a de- 
tachment of artillery and infantry consisting 
of sixty-five men, together with a number of 
cannon with ammunition, &c., &c., the whole 
under the command of Captain (Moses) Por- 
ter. On the 9th a sloop arrived from Detroit 
at Swan Creek, purchased by Captain Henry 
De Butts, which carries fifty tons, and which 
is now loaded with flour, quarter-master's 
stores and troops. That, together with eleven 
batteaux which I have, will be sufficient to 
take all the troops I have with me, leaving 
the remainder of our stores deposited at this 
place, which was evacuated on this day, and 
where I have left Captain Marsehalk and Lieu- 
tenant Shanklin with fifty-two men, infantry, 
and a corporal and six of artillery, that is, in- 
eluding the garrison at the head of the Rap- 
ids. I have endowed Fort Miami with one 
month's provisions for both the troops and 
the Shawanese. The latter, you recollect, you 
promised siibsistence until the crops were 
ripe. The number of the Shawanese is about 
one hundred and eighty, besides twenty-six or 
thirty Ottawas. I shall embark in two hours, 
with all the troops for Detroit. * * *" 

Almost at the beginning of the nineteenth 



century a stockade fort was built at the con- 
fluence of Swan Creek and the ilaumee River. 
The exact year is not known, but it was not 
later than 1804. Clark Waggoner publishes in 
his "History of Lucas Countj'" a letter from 
the War Department, which reads as follows : 

"A stockade Fort was erected about the 
year 1800, near the mouth of Swan Creek, on 
the Maumee River, and, as near as can be 
determined upon what is now Summit Street, 
in the City of Toledo, to which was given the 
name of Fort Industry. It was at this Fort 
that a treaty was held with the Indians, July 
4th, 1805, by which the Indian title to the 
Fire Lands, (Huron and Erie Counties) was 
extinguished, and at which were present Mr. 
Charles Jouett, LTnited States Commissioner, 
and Chiefs of Ottawa, Chippewa, Pottawato- 
mie, Shawnee, Muncie and Delaware Indian 
tribes. ' ' 

Fort Industry was placed in charge of 
Captain J. Rhea. The remains of this forti- 
fication were examined by General John E. 
Hunt in his early years, when they were in 
good condition and preservation. They were 
not entirely obliterated as late as 1836. Many 
early settlers had distinct recollections of this 
fort, which, in the natural features of the 
country, occupied a prominent position on the 
bluff, on the site near the south side of Sum- 
mit, between Jefferson and Monroe streets. 
That a conflict had occurred at Toledo at some 
time appears highly probable, from the fact 
that early settlers recovered hundreds of bul- 
lets from the ground above described. In 
the work of grading the streets, human bones 
and remains of garments, to which buttons 
were attached, were exhumed in considerable 
quantities. These circumstances afford almost 
conclusive evidence that a sanguinary conflict 
had occurred on the plateau now daily trav- 
ersed by the busy throngs in the thriving City 
of Toledo. In 1805, a treaty was held with 
the Indians at Fort Industry. At this con- 
ference, there were present chiefs and warriors 

of the Wyandots, Ottawa, Chippewa, Dela- 
ware, Shawnee, Pottawatomi and Seneca 
tribes. By the treaty made here another ad- 
justment of the land question was made with 
the natives upon the payment of certain sums 
of money to them. None of the territory of 
Northwest Ohio was included, but the Indians 
ceded all of their claims to the Western Re- 
serve and the Firelands. 

By a treaty effected at Detroit, in 1807, a 
number of Indian tribes, the Chippewas, Ot- 
tawas, Pottawatomis, and Wyandots, quit- 
claimed to the United States all their asser- 
tions to the country north of the middle of the 
Maumee River, from its mouth to the mouth 
of the Auglaize, and thence extending north 
as far as Lake Huron. For this territory 
they received $10,000 in mone.y and goods, 
and an annuity of $2,400. Certain tracts of 
land were also reserved for the exclusive use 
of the Indians. These reservations within this 
territory were six miles square on the north 
bank of the Maumee, above Roche De Boeuf, 
"to include the village where Tondagame, or 
the Dog, now lives." Another reservation 
of three miles square included what is known 
as Presque Isle, and still another of "four 
miles square on the ]Miami (^Maumee) Bay in- 
cluding the villages where Meskemau and 
Waugau now live." It was furthermore pro- 
vided that in the event the reservations could 
not be conveniently laid out in squares, they 
should be surveyed in parallelograms or other 
figures found most practicable to obtain the 
area specified in miles. 

It was not long after this date until settlers 
began to gather at the foot of the Rapids of 
the IMaumee. This circumstance rendered 
roads necessary. As a result, by a treaty with 
the Indians at Brownstown, Michigan, in 1808, 
a road 120 feet in width was reserved to con- 
nect the fort at the Maumee rapids with the 
line of the Connecticut Reserve, which is the 
old and much traveled road now running from 
Perrvsburg to Fremont, then called Lower 



Sandusky. It also provided for a tract of 
land, for a road onlj^, of 120 feet in width to 
run southwardly from what is called Lower 
Sandusky to the boundary line established by 
the Treaty of Greenville, with the privilege of 
taking, at all times, such timber and other ma- 
terials from the adjacent lands as may be 
necessary for making and keeping in repair 
the said road, with the bridges that may be 
required along the same. " * * * No com- 
pensation was granted the Indians in money 
or merchandise for these roadways, as they 
were desirable and beneficial to the aborigine 
nations as well as to the United States, ' ' reads 
a clause in the cession. 

Congress failed to construct the east and 
west road, but eventually ceded its rights to 
the state. The contract was finally let in 
1824, and the road was completed in 1826. 
For years it was the main thoroughfare over 
which thousands journeyed in their search for 
a western paradise. In his search for a land 
flowing with milk and honey, the pioneer cer- 
tainly was obliged to undergo torture in cross- 
ing this "black swamp" counti-y. On the 
desert a traveler can stop almost anywhere 
and pitch his tent, but here, in certain seasons, 
the travelers were wading all day in mud and 
water, and could with difficulty discover a dry 
place where they might rest their weary limbs. 
On this highway, however, there was a tavern 
for almost every mile of road between Perrys- 
burg and Lower Sandusky. The right to mud 
holes was recognized. A young man started 
with a wagon and team of mules for ^Michigan, 
with .$100 in his pocket. He became mired so 
frequently, and was obliged to pay $1 so many 
times to people living near the mud holes to 
extricate him from his difficulties, that his 
money was exhausted long before his journey 
had ended. Not discouraged in the least, this 
traveler decided that the place to find what 
you have lost is right where you have lost 
it. He accordingly located near a mud hole. 

and remained there until he had earned his 
hundred dollars back. 

General Harrison, writing to the "War De- 
partment, says: "An idea can scarcely be 
formed of the difficulties with which land 
transportation is effected north of the 40th 
degree of latitude in this country. The coun- 
try beyond that is almost a continual swamp 
to the lake. Where the streams run favorable 
to your course a small strip of better ground is 
generally found, but in crossing from one 
river to another the greater part of the way 
at this season is covered with water. Such is 
actually the situation of that space between 
the Sandusky and the Miami Rapids, and 
from the best information that I could acquire 
whilst I was at Huron the road over it must 
be causewayed at least one-half of the way." 

Shortly after the opening of the nineteenth 
century, reports of many kinds concerning 
the activities of Tecumseh commenced to reach 
the officials in the Northwest Territory. This 
chief's aim seemed to be to repeat the history 
of Pontiac, only that, in this case, the con- 
spiracy was directed against the Americans 
instead of the British. His reputed brother, 
Elskwatawa, generally known as The Prophet, 
had gained something of notoriety as a sor- 
cerer. He began to relate stories of his dreams 
and visions, which he claimed were inspired 
by the Great Spirit, and these greatly aroused 
the aborigines. Tecumseh aimed to unite his 
followers with the British, in an effort to drive 
the Americans from this territory. Numerous 
efforts were made to pacify him, but his own 
activities and those of The Prophet continued. 

Tecumseh was a son of a Shawnee chieftain, 
and he was born in the Shawnee Village of 
Piqua, on the banks of the Mad River, in 
1768. The name signifies "one who passes 
acrcss intervening space from one point to 
another," and this well expresses his extraor- 
dinary career. He ever evinced a burning 
hostility to the Americans. He refused to 



attend the council at Green\'iUe. He likewise 
declined to attach his name to that treaty, and 
never ceased to denounce it. It was about that 
time that he and his followers removed to the 
White River, in Indiana, but he continued in 
close relations with all the tribes of Northwest 
Ohio. At several councils with the Americans, 
Tecumseh exhibited the remarkable power of 
oratory for which he became noted. His 
brother likewise began to come into promi- 
nence among the Indiazis, among whom he was 
known as the "Loud Voice." During the 
course of his revelations he said that the 
Great Spirit' directed the Indians to cast off 
the debasing influence of the whites, and re- 
turn to the customs of their fathers. His 
audiences numbered thousands, and many 
were recalled to the neglected and almost for- 
gotten practices of their fathers. 

The Prophet's Town, as it was called, on 
the banks of the Tippecanoe, was visited by 
thousands of savages, who were roused to the 
highest pitch of fanaticism. The two brothers 
wandered from the everglades of Florida to 
the headwaters of the Mississippi, and in 
words of greatest eloquence impressed upon 
the natives the necessity of united action 
against the pale-faced intruders. In 1810 
General Harrison summoned Tecumseh and 
his followers to Vineennes. Tecumseh rose 
to the highest pitch of eloquence, as he vividly 
portrayed the wrongs of the red man. A few 
months later occurred the victorious battle of 
Tippecanoe, during the absence of Tecumseh 
among southern tribes. The War of 1812 
followed a short time afterwards, and Tecum- 
seh allied himself with the British. He fought 
bravely and nobly until he fell in the Battle 
of the Thames. The voice that had roused the 
savages for a final stand against the en- 
croachments of the whites was forever stilled. 
With it vanished the hopes of the aborigines 
ever to regain their lost hunting grounds in 
Northwest Ohio. 

Bodies of savages were continually passing 

to and from Maiden, the British headquarters 
after the evacuation of Detroit, and they al- 
ways returned liberally provided with rifles, 
powder and lead. One savage was found to 
have been given an elegant rifle, twenty-five 
pounds of powder, fifty pounds of lead, three 
blankets and ten shirts, besides quantities 
of clothing and other articles. The British 
agent addressed a Miami chief, to whom he 
had made a present of goods, as follows : ' ' ]\Iy 
son keep your eyes fixed on me ; my tomahawk 
is -now up ; be you ready, but do not strike 
until I give the signal." Capt. John John- 
ston, agent of the Fort Wayne Trading Post, 
wrote that "since writing you on the 25th 
ultimo, about one hundred Sawkeys (Sacs) 
have returned from the British agent who 
supplied them liberally with everything they 
stood in want of. The party received forty- 
seven rifles and a number of fusils (flintlock 
muskets) with plenty of powder and lead. 
This is sending firebrands into the Mississippi 
country inasmuch as it will draw numbers of 
our Aborigines to the British side in the hope 
of being treated with the same liberality." 

William Henrj^ Harrison, then governor of 
Indiana Territory, was not idle during thia 
time. He instituted preparations for defense, 
and was visited by many of the leaders of 
the hostiles. Tecumseh himself came on a 
visit to Harrison at Fort Wayne, accompanied 
by several hundred followers. He intended 
some treachery, but the Americans were too 
alert. There were a number of trading agen- 
cies in operation in the Northwest Territory 
under the auspices of the general government, 
of which only one was in Northwest Ohio, 
and this was at Sandusky. Meetings of citi- 
zens were held at many places in 1811, and 
petitions for protection were forwarded to 
the National Government. Governor Harrison 
was allowed additional troops, after which he 
advanced against the savages and won his 
great victory at the battle of Tippecanoe. 

This defeat did not stop the depredations 



and isolated murders, so that the whole coun- 
try was kept under the gravest apprehension. 
"We do not have absolute I'ccord of many mur- 
ders in Northwest Ohio. Captain John John- 
ston, however, in a report, stated that three 
Americans had been killed at Defiance and 
two at Sandusky by the savages. A committee 
of Congress reported to that body that the 
British had been working among the savages 
with the intention of securing them as allies 
against the Americans. 

Of the movements of Tecumseh, William 
Wells wrote from Fort Wayne, on the first of 
March, 1812: "In my letter of the 10th 
ultimo I informed you that the Aborigine 
chief Tecumseh had arrived on the Wabash. 

I have now to state to you that it appears he 
has determined to raise all the Aborigines he 
can, immediately, with intention no doubt 
to attack our frontiers. He has sent runners 
to raise the Aborigines on the lUinoig and the 
upper Mississippi; and I am told has gone 
himself to hurry on the aid he was promised 
by the Cherokees and Creeks. The Prophet 's 
orator, who is considered the third man in 
this hostile band, passed within twelve miles 
of this place on the 23rd ultimo with eight 
Shawanese, eight Winnebagoes and seven 
Kickapoos, in all twenty-four, on their waj-- 
as they say to Sandusky, where they expected 
to received a quantity of powder and lead 
from their father the British. ' ' 



The war cloud that had been gathering for 
several years tinally resulted in a formal 
declaration of war against Great Britain, on 
the 18th of June, 1812. The ostensible reason 
assigned was the continued interference with 
American trade and the impressing of Ameri- 
can seamen into the British service. These 
incidents were an attack upon our national 
pride, and a humiliation that could not he 
endured. But one of the strongest moving 
causes was the encouragement of the savages 
in their attacks upon tlie Americans, and the 
continued maintenance of fortified posts upon 
American soil. It was in reality a continua- 
tion of the Revolutionary War, for hostile 
acts had at no time entirely ceased. The neces- 
sity of such operations as should wrest from 
the enemy the command of the upper lakes 
and the northwest frontier at once became 
apparent, and was promptly acted upon. 
Prom every American living within that terri- 
tory came urgent appeals for protection. It 
was not fear of the British enemies that 
actuated them, but dread of the outrages of 
their savage allies. 

By reason of her location on the exposed 
frontier, the young State of Ohio was placed 
in a most trying situation. By virtue of her 
position the conflict was destined to be fought 
largely within or adjacent to her boundaries, 
and especially in Northwest Ohio. Circum- 
stances demanded of her the very best both 
in men and money. In no respect did she fail, 
and Ohio performed more than her full share 
in this second conflict with Great Britain, 
generally known as the War of 1812. It was 

indeed fortunate for Ohio, and the country 
as well, that such a vigorous and able man 
as Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., occupied the 
gubernatorial chair at this period. He was 
one of the type of men who did so much to 
lay the foundations of the state, and his father 
had been one of the original settlers at 
Marietta. He had had some military expe- 
rience, and was a man of unusually strong 
executive power. He lost no time in mobiliz- 
ing several regiments of state militia, in which 
citizens of the best families enrolled them- 
selves. In his promptness and effectiveness 
in this respect, he was not equalled by the 
governor of any other state. 

Governor William Hull, of ^Michigan Terri- 
tory, also a brigadier-general of the United 
States Army, was made commander-in-chief 
of the Ohio troops. Many protests were filed 
against his appointment, although he had a 
creditable career in the Revolutionary War. 
It was said that he was too old, and too 
broken down in body and mind to conduct 
such a rigorous campaign. Furthermore, the 
people resident there had no confidence in him, 
and the Indians were said to despise him. 
All of the protests were without effect, how- 
ever, for the nomination was confirmed. ' ' On 
the very same day it passed the Senate, ' ' says 
a report, "the poor, weak, vain old man was 
seen in full dress uniform, parading the streets 
of Washington, making calls." A little later. 
General Hull arrived at Dayton, the place of 
rendezvous, and assumed command of the 
volunteer army already assembled there. 
Governor Meigs congratulated the men on the 



fact that they were to serve under a dis- 
tinguished officer of the Revolutionary War, 
and one who was especially fitted both by 
training and expei'ience to conduct success- 
fully just such a campaign as they were 
about to enter upon. It was a fact that 
General Hull had won honors at Stony Point, 

fortress, erected in our territory by a foreign 
nation in times of peace, and for the express 
purpose of exciting the savages to hostility, 
and supplying them with the means of con- 
ducting a barbarous war, must remind you of 
that system of oppression and injustice which 
that nation has continually practiced, and 

Hull's Trail in Hardin County 

but he had now lost his energy of mind and 
body. He addressed his troops as follows: 
"In marching through a wilderness memor- 
able for savage barbarity, you will remember 
the causes by which that barbarity have been 
heretofore excited. In viewing the ground 
stained by the blood of your fellow-citizens, 
it will be impossible to suppress the feelings 
of indignation. Passing by the ruins of a 

which the spirit of an indignant people can 
no longer endure." 

The army of General Hull moved north- 
ward, on June 1st, to Urbana, where it was 
joined by another regiment of regulars under 
Lieutenant Colonel Miller, a veteran of Tippe- 
canoe. The army now numbered approxi- 
mately nineteen hundred men. It was the 
intention and desire of General Hull to pro- 



ceed to Detroit as directly as practicable. 
He seemed to doubt that war between the 
United States and Great Britain would follow. 
The course of the army led through an almost 
trackless forest and impassable swamps until 
it reached the ilaumee River. Ague chills 
shook the sturdy frames of the pioneer soldiers, 
and the ambuscade of the savage foe was ever 
imminent. Danger lurked by the river bank 
and on the trail everywhere. As a result 
progress was extremely slow. One regiment 
was detailed to cut a road through the woods 

west and the other at the southeast angle. 
Seventy or eighty feet of the enclosure was 
composed of a row of log com-cribs, covered 
with a shed roof and sloping inside. A part 
of the pickets were of split timber and lapped 
at the edges; others were of round logs set 
up endways and touching each other. The 
rows of huts for the gari-isou were placed a 
few feet from the walls. It was a post of 
danger, and must have beeu an exceedingly 
dreary spot. Not a vestige of the fort now 
remains, but the graves of sixteen of the garri- 

FoRT McArthur Burying Ground, near Kentiin, Hardin County 
The boulders seen upon the ground are the headstones of the soldiers' gn 

and to build blockhouses, which should be used 
as deposit stations, and to protect the line of 

In obedience to orders a road was carved 
out of the primeval wilderness from Urbana 
to the Scioto River, and there were built two 
blockhouses connected by palisades, which 
later received the name of Fort McArthur. 
The site was about three miles southwest of 
Kenton. It was situated in a low, flat place 
in the unbroken woods, in a country noted 
for its great forests as well as expansive 
marshes. The fort enclosed about half an 
acre. One of the blockhouses was in the north- 

son are located near by. The road cut by this 
army, and generally known as Hull's Trail, 
was for many years the principal highway 
from Bellefontaine to Detroit. Only in one 
place can it now be identified by an open lane 
through a woods still standing. 

When the army arrived at Fort McArthur, 
a detachment was sent ahead to cut a road 
farther north. Heavy rains had rendered 
the morasses adjoining the Blanchard River 
almost impassable. Hence it was that the 
army was obliged to stop when only sixteen 
nailes from Fort McArthur, and there erect 
another stockade and blockhouse, which was 



appropriately named Fort Necessity. This 
fort was situated near the south line of Han- 
cock County, a little bit east of the center. 
Here word was brought by Robert Lucas and 
William Denny of increased activity among 
the British and Indians, and that their alliance 
bore a threatening attitude. Although war 
had been declared at this time, it was several 
days afterwards before the news reached the 
army. After a few days' delay the army 
advanced, and in a three days' march arrived 

Colonel Lewis Cass was directed to take his 
troops and prepare the road north to the 
Maumee. In order to move rapidly, much of 
the heavy luggage was stored at Fort Findlay. 
After a few days' march the army arrived at 
the Maumee, opposite to the field where was 
fought the battle of Fallen Timbers. Ford- 
ing the rapids the next encampment was near 
Fort iliami. So absolutely imbecillic was 
General Hull that when he arrived at the 
Maumee, in the latter part of June, he decided 

Looking south from river. 

P'lWT Findlay, 1812 
Painted by Dr. A. H. Lineweaver, from sketch made in 1879, 
supervised by Squire Carlin. 

at the Blanchard River. Here an advance 
detachment had already nearly completed 
another palisade enclosure. 150 feet square, 
with a blockhouse at each corner and a ditch 
in front. General Hull bestowed upon this 
place of refuge the name of Fort Findlay. 
The site was within the present City of Find- 
lay, and only a few squares noi'th of the court 
house. Its service was that of a resting place 
and temporary storage of supplies. It was 
abandoned late in 1814, but a blockhouse and 
a couple of small houses where travelers stop- 
ped for the night were still standing a dozen 
years after its military character had ended. 

to forward his baggage, stores, and sick by 
vessel to Detroit. He was warned against this, 
but stubbornly refused to heed the advice. He 
seemed to treat the probability of war as a 
joke. Hence it was that, on the 1st of July, 
he embarked his disabled men and most of his 
impedimenta on board a packet, which pro- 
ceeded down the Maumee bound for Detroit. 
Thirty soldiers were detailed to guard the 
vessel. It is almost needless to say that it 
was captured by a British gunboat when oppo- 
site Maiden. He had also sent by it his official 
papers and plans of campaign, which were 
immediately placed in the hands of General 



Brock. These he never ought to have per- 
mitted to pass out of his own possession under 
any circumstances. 

Hull's Surrender 

It would not be within the scope of this 
history to detail the waverings and cowardice 
of General Hull, which has been elaborated 
upon so frequently. Suffice it to say that 
his troops arrived in Detroit on the 5th of 
July. With scarcely a show of resistance, 
Detroit was surrendered to the British with 
nearly two thousand American soldiers, on the 
16th of August. The white flag of surrender 
was raised without consulting his officers. 
As most of the troops were from Oliio, this 
state felt the disgrace and humiliation more 
keenly than any of the other commonwealths. 
It was an almost irreparable loss, and gave 
the British wonderful prestige with the 
natives. As a result of his action, Hull was 
accused of both treason and cowardice, and 
was found guilty of the latter. A popular 
song that arose had in it this verse : 

"Old Hull, you old traitor. 

You outcast of Nature, 
May your conscience torment you as long as 
you live; 

And when old Apollyon 

His servants does call on. 
May you be ready your service to give." 

One interesting incident in connection with 
Hull's surrender was furnished by Capt. 
Henry Bruch and his company of 230 volun- 
teers, with a hundred beef cattle and other 
supplies, which had been sent by Governor 
Meigs to reinforce the army at Detroit. They 
were prevented by the British from ad- 
vancing beyond the River Raisin from the 
first days of August without relief from 
Detroit. General Hull included this force in 
his surrender; but when Captain Elliott, son 

of the notorious Capt. Matthew Elliott, and his 
attendants came to claim this prize. Captain 
Brush placed them under arrest and imme- 
diately started his command and supplies 
southward, and conducted them back to Gov- 
ernor ]\Ieigs. The surrender of Hull exposed 
all Northwest Ohio to incursions of the enemy. 
All eyes now turned toward William Henry 
Harrison as the man of the hour. Governor 
Scott, of Kentuek}-, swept aside technicalities 

WiLLLvji Henry Harrison 

and appointed Harrison to the comuiaud of 
the state troops raised to wipe out the disgrace 
of Hull's surrender. At the head of these 
troops Harrison proceeded northward. When 
just north of Dayton he received word from 
Washington that General Winchester had been 
appointed to the chief command, but that he 
himself had been raised to the rank of briga- 
dier-general. He was disappointed, but his 
men were even more chagrined. As immediate 
action seemed necessary, and witliout awaiting 
either the arrival or orders of General Win- 
chester, Harrison proceeded to the relief of 
Fort Wayne, then being besieged by the 



Indians. By this prompt action another 
bloody massacre was doubtless averted. Gen- 
eral Harrison, under orders from his supe- 
riors, turned over his command to Winchester 
without a murmur, although it was known 
that he had much more experience in Indian 
fighting than had his successor. Few men 
understood the dusky native of the forests as 
did Harrison. General James Winchester 
was a Tenncsseean, and a Revolutionary offi- 
cer, but little known among the frontier men 
of this section. In charge of several thousand 
troops, most of whom were from Kentucky, 
he entered upon an extensive campaign in 
Northwest Ohio. He was authorized to call 
upon Governor Meigs for re-enforcements. 
He soon afterwards requested two regiments 
of infantry to join him at the "Rapids of the 
Miami of the Lake about the 10th, or the 15th 
of October next, well clothed for a fall cam- 
paign. It is extremely desirous to me that 
no time be lost in supplying this requisition. 
The cold season is fast approaching, and the 
stain on the American character by the sur- 
render of Detroit not yet wiped away. ' ' 

General Winchester dispatched some spies 
down the Maumee, but the first detachment, 
consisting of five men, was waylaid and killed 
by the savages. He advanced cautiously in 
order to provide against surprise. He dis- 
covered indisputable evidence of the recent 
retreat of British troops at one or two places 
along the Maumee, not far from Defiance. In 
their haste, the British threw one cannon into 
the river, which was afterwards recovered and 
employed in the campaign. The march along 
the Auglaize was made under the most dis- 
tressing conditions. The rain descended in 
torrents. The flat beach woods were covered 
with water, and the horses sank up to their 
knees in the mud at almost every step. "From 
Loraine on the south to the river St. Mary, and 
then to Defiance at the north, was one con- 
tinuous swamp knee deep to the pack horses, 
and up to the hubs of the wagons." At 

times it was impossible to move a wagon with- 
out a load. Happy indeed were they who 
could find a dry log at night in which a fire 
could be kindled. Many passed the night 
sitting in the saddles at the root of trees 
against which they leaned, and thus obtained 
a little sleep. Fort Jennings was built on this 
marsh by Colonel Jennings, as a protection for 
supplies. Fort Amanda was also erected by 
Colonel Poague, and named by him in honor 
of his wife. It was in the usual quadrangular 
form, with a blockhouse at each corner. 

Late in September, the position of the two 
officers was reversed, and General Harrison 
was given the supreme command of the North- 
western Army. The letter of notification, 
which reached him at Piqua, read: "The 
President is pleased to assign to you the com- 
mand of the Northwestern Army which, in 
addition to the regular troops and rangers in 
that quarter, will consist of the volunteers and 
militia of Kentucky, Ohio, and three thousand 
from Virginia and Pennsylvania, making your 
whole force ten thousand men. * * « Col- 
onel Buford, deputy commissioner at Lexing- 
ton, is furnished with funds, and is subject 
to your orders. * * « You will command 
such means as may be practicable. Exercise 
your own discretion, and act in all cases ac- 
cording to your own judgment." 

When General Harrison received the noti- 
fication of his appointment, there were about 
3,000 troops at Fort Barbee (St. Marys), 
a considerable number of which were cavalry. 
The cavalry were under the command of 
General Edward W. Tupper. This army 
was at once set in motion for Defiance with 
three da.y's rations. They arrived at Fort 
Jennings the fii*st night, notwithstanding a 
severe rain, and camped there without tents 
until morning. Receiving word here that the 
enemy had retreated, a part of the troops were 
sent back to Fort Barbee. General Harrison 
continued down the Auglaize with his cavalry. 
When he reached the camp of General Win- 



Chester, he discovered a sad state of affairs, 
as one of the Kentucky regiments was on the 
verge of mutiny. Its commander reported to 
Harrison that he alone could cheek it. He 
ordered a parade of the troops, and addressed 
them in his characteristic way. He said that 
any troops that wanted to retire could do so, 
as he already had soldiers to spare. But he 
likewise spoke of the reception that would 
await them at home. Their fathers would 
order their degenerate sons back to the field 
of battle to recover their wounded honor, 
while their mothers and sisters would hiss 
them from their presence. Under the in- 
fluence of this animated address, the mutinous 
Kentuckians soon subsided and gave three 
hearty cheers for the popular commander. 

General Winchester immediately issued the 
following order : 

"Camp at Defiance, October 3, 1812. 
I have the honor of announcing to this army 
the arrival of General Harrison who is duly 
authorized by the executive of the Federal 
Government to take command of the North- 
western Army. This officer is enjoying the 
implicit confidence of the States from whose 
citizens this army is and will be collected 
and, possessing himself great military skill 
and reputation, the General is confident in 
the behalf that his presence in the army, in 
the character of its chief, will be hailed with 
unusual approbation. 

J. Winchester, 
Brig. Gen. U. S. Army." 

General Harrison planned a three column 
march into the enemy's countr}^ The right 
wing of his army was to be composed of three 
brigades from Virginia and Pennsylvania, to- 
gether with some Ohio troops, and was to 
proceed down the Sandusky River. During 
their march, they erected Fort Ferree, at 
Upper Sanduskj^ Fort Ball, on the site of Tif- 
fin, and Fort Stevenson, at Lower Sandusky. 

General Tupper's command was styled the 
center, and was to move along Hull's trail by 
the way of Forts McArthur, Necessity, and 
Findlay. The main command devolved upon 
General Winchester, and was known as the 
left wing. It included the United States 
troops, and six regiments of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky militia. These troops were to superin- 
tend the transportation of supplies to the new 
Fort Winchester, in readiness for the advance 
movement, and they were instructed to pos- 
sess the corn and other crops that had been 
abandoned as soon as possible. General Harri- 
son had suggested to General Winchester that 
two regiments of infantrj' be sent southward, 
to be near the base of food and clothing sup- 
plies, and that General Tupper with all the 
cavalry, almost 1,000 in number, should 
be sent down the Maumee and beyond the 
rapids to disperse any of the enemy found 
there. They were to return to Fort Barbee 
by way of the Tawa towns, on the Blanchard 
River. These orders were never executed. 
One reason was the scarcity of powder and 
food, M'hich made so long an excursion almost 
impossible. Another was the ill feeling be- 
tween Generals Winchester and Tupper, and 
the weakening of Tupper's force by the with- 
drawal of some troops, whose enlistment had 
expired. General Tupper was eventually dis- 
missed from his command by Winchester, 
who gave it to Colonel Allen, under whom the 
troops refused to march. Instead of leading 
his command down the Maumee River and 
then to St. Marys, as he was ordered to do. 
General Tupper went directly across country 
to Fort McArthur. For this act charges of 
insubordination were placed against him, and 
his arrest was ordered. At the trial a year 
later, he was acquitted. 

When the troops under General Winchester 
reached the confluence of the Auglaize and 
the Maumee rivers, they found Fort Defiance 
in ruins. Even had it remained in good condi- 
tion, that stockade would have been inadequate 



for the larger army which it was now called 
upon to shelter. The entire area embraced 
within the palisades of the fort, built by 
General Wayne almost a score of years earlier, 
would not exceed one-quarter of an acre. 
General Harrison, who had by this time joined 
the army, drew a plan for a new fort a dozen 
times as extensive as Fort Defiance. A force 
of men were detailed with axes to cut timber 
for the buildings and the palisades. This new 
fort was named Fort Winchester by General 
Harrison, in deference to the superseded com- 
mander. For a considerable length of time, 
this fortress was the only obstruction against 
the incursions of the British and the Aborigi- 
nes in Northwestern Ohio. 

Fort Winchester was con.structed in a beau- 
tiful location along the high and precipitous 
west bank of the Auglaize River, about eighty 
rods south of Fort Defiance. It was in the 
form of a parallelogram, and enclosed three 
acres or more of land. There was a strong 
two-story blockhouse at each corner, and a 
large gate midway on each side with a sentinel 
house above. The whole enclosure was sur- 
rounded by a strong palisade of logs placed on 
end, deep in the ground, snugly matched 
together, pointed at the upper ends, and 
rising twelve or fifteen feet above ground. A 
cellar was excavated under the blockhouse at 
the northeast corner, from which an under- 
ground passageway was made to the river, 
where there was also a barrier of logs in order 
to protect the water supply of the garrison. It 
fulfilled its mission during the war as an im- 
portant stronghold for the defense of the 
territory of the upper rivers, as a rendezvous 
for troops and, later, for the storing of sup- 
plies to be boated down the Maumee River as 
necessitated by the advancing troops. 

A number of ambuscades by the savages 
occurred around Fort Winchester. These gen- 
erally happened to soldiers who had strayed 
away from the fort either to gather food 
or to shoot game. Five soldiers were killed 

and scalped while after the wild plums that 
Avere so plentiful. "Some breaches of dis- 
cipline were noted, and their punishment 
relieved the monotonj- of camp life. On the 
8th October Frederick Jacoby, a young man, 
was found asleep while posted as guard. He 
was sentenced by court martial to be shot. 
A platoon was ordered to take places before 
the paraded army and twenty paces from the 
prisoner who, blindfolded, was on his knees 
preparing for the order to the soldiers to fire. 
A great stillness pervaded the army. Just as 
the suspense was at its height a courier arrived 
with an order from General Winchester saving 
his life by changing the sentence. This sen- 
tence and scene produced a profound effect 
upon the soldiers. It was their first real view 
of the sternness of military discipline; and 
they recognized its necessity and /justness 
while in the country of the stealthy and 
savage enemy." 

The greatest suffering, however, was caused 
by the -lack of provisions and inadequate 
clothing. Fort Winchester was completed on 
the 15th of October, 1812. Nevertheless a 
large number of the troops continued to camp 
outside the enclosure. The longest stay was 
made at Camp Number Three, several miles 
down the Maumee, for here there was an 
abundance of fircM'ood, and the ground was 
dry. Of this place, one who was with the 
army said: "On the 25th December, 1812, 
at sunrise we bade adieu to this memorable 
place. Camp Number Three, where lie, the 
bones of many a brave man. This place will 
live in the recollection of all who suffered 
there, and for more reasons than one. There 
comes up before the mind the many times the 
dead march was heard in the Camp, and the 
solemn procession that carried our fellow suf- 
ferers to the grave ; the many times we were 
almost on the point of starvation; and the 
many sickening disappointments which were 
experienced by the army from day to day, and 
from week to week, by the failure of promised 



supplies." Most of the soldiers were pro- 
vided only with summer clothing, and it was 
well into the winter before any heavier out- 
fitting was received. Army life was certainly 
deprived of its glamour. The rations were 
constantly short. Some days they consisted 
only of beef and other days only of flour, or 
some hickory nuts which were gathered near 
the camp. The absence of salt was also greatly 
felt. It is no wonder that sickness increased 
because of the inadequate food and the thin 
clothing worn by the soldiers. Their weakened 
condition rendered the men an easy prey to 
pestilence. Three or four deaths a day, with 
the constant succession of funeral rites, greatly 
depressed the soldiers. Hunger drove many 
away from the camp in search of food. The 
delay of contractors and the inclemency of 
the weather both contributed to delay, so that 
a fall campaign against Detroit became abso- 
lutely impossible, much to the regret of the 

General Harrison, from his headquarters at 
Franklinton, now Columbus, was kept fully 
informed, and he in-turn advised the depart- 
ment, but communications were slow and the 
"War Department was so demoralized that sup- 
plies did not reach this outlying fortress. No 
other troops operating in this part of the state 
had to endure such hardships as befell this 
army in the fall and early winter of 1812. 
The difficulties of transportation were so great, 
because the mud became almost impassible. 
There was one attempt to send food of which 
we have an account. This was made by 
Captain Robert McAfee, and is reported as 
follows : 

"About the first of December, Major Bod- 
ley, an enterprising officer who was quarter- 
master of the Kentucky troops, made an 
attempt to send near two hundred barrels of 
flour down the River St. Marys in pirogues 
to the Left Wing of the army below Defiance. 
Previous to this time, the water had rarely 
been high enough to venture in a voyage on 

these small streams. The flour was now ship- 
ped in fifteen or twenty pirogues and canoes, 
and placed under the command of Captain 
Jordan and Lieutenant Cardwell, with up- 
wards of twenty men. They descended the 
river and arrived about a week afterward at 
Shane's Crossing upwards of one hundred 
miles by water but only twenty by land from 
the place where they started. The river was 
so narrow, crooked, full of logs, and trees 
overhanging the banks, that it was with great 
difficulty they could make any progress. And 
now in one freezing night they were com- 
pletely ice bound. Lieutenant Cardwell waded 
back through the ice and swamps to Fort 
Barbee with intelligence of their situation. 
Major Bodley returned with him to the flour, 
and offered the men extra wages to cut 
through the ice and push forwards; but hav- 
ing gained only one mile by two day's labor, 
the project was abandoned, and a guard left 
with the flour. A few days before Christmas a 
temporary thaw took place which enabled 
them with much difficulty and suffering to 
reach within a few miles of Fort Wayne, where 
they were again frozen up. They now aban- 
doned the voyage and made sleds on which the 
men hauled the flour to the Fort (Wayne) 
and left it there!" 

General Harrison himself reported to the 
Secretary of War as follows: "Obstacles are 
almost insuperable ; but they are opposed with 
unabated firmness and zeal. » # * j fg^r 
that the expenses of this army will greatly ex- 
ceed the calculations of the government. The 
prodigious destruction of horses can only be 
conceived by those who have been accustomed 
to military operations in the wilderness during 
the winter season. * * * j (jj^j j^qi make 
sufficient allowance for the imbecility aiid in- 
experience of the public agents, and the vil- 
lainy of the contractors. * * * if the 
plan of acquiring the naval superiority upon 
the lakes, before the attempt is made on 
Jlalden or Detroit, should be adopted, I 



would place fifteen hundred men in canton- 
ment at the Miami Rapids — Defiance would be 
better if the troops had not advanced from 
there — retain about one thousand more to be 
distributed in different garrisons, accumulate 
provisions at St. Marys, 'Tawa Town (Fort 
Jennings), Upper Sandusky, Cleveland, and 
Presque Isle, and employ the dragoons and 
mounted infantry in desultory expeditions 
against the Aborigines." 

Following a custom of the day captives 
were occasionally brought in to give informa- 
tion. In one official report to Governor Meigs 
by General Tupper we find as follows : 

' ' Camp, near Mc Arthur 's Block-house. 

November 9th, 1812. 

Sir: — I have for some time thought a pris- 
oner from near the Maumee Rapids would 
at this time be of much service, and highly 
acceptable to General Harrison. For this pur- 
pose, I ordered Captain Hinkton to the 
Rapids, with his company of spies, with orders 
to take a prisoner if possible. He had just 
returned and brought in with him Captain 
A. Clark, a British subject, who resides two 
miles above Maiden, and was out with a 
party of about five hundred Indians and fifty 
British, with two gunboats, six bateaux, and 
one small schooner at the foot of the Rapids^ 
to gather in and carry over to Maiden the 
corn. Captain Clark had but just arrived 
with the van of the detachment. The vessels 
and boats had not yet anchored when the 
spies surprised him as he advanced a few rods 
from the shore to reconnoitre, and brought 
him off undiscovered ; and this from a number 
of Indians, who were killing hogs and begin- 
ning to gather corn. At the same time, several 
of Captain Hinkton 's spies lay concealed on 
the hank within five rods of the place where 
some of the first boats were landing. Captain 
Hinkton has conducted this business with 
great skill and address. Captain Clark was 

taken prisoner on the 7th instant, a little be- 
fore sun setting. * * * 

I am, very respectfully. 
Your Excellency 's Most obedient servant, 
Edward W. Tuppee, 
Brigadier Gen. Ohio Quota." 

As a result of the information obtained 
from Captain Clark, Tupper decided to make 
a quick march to the Maumee Rapids. He 
started on November 10th along Hull's Trail 
with 650 men and a light six-pounder cannon. 
The gun they were finally obliged to abandon. 
Arriving at the rapids, he decided to send a 
part of his troops across and attack the enemy 
on the following morning. The men were 
obliged to wade through an icy current that 
was waist high, and some lost their guns. The 
British fled, but the Indians made some iso- 
lated attacks and succeeded in killing a few 
of the soldiers. Because of scarcity of food, 
the commander decided to return to Fort 
Mc Arthur. As soon as Tupper 's message 
reached General Winchester, he selected a 
body of almost 400 troops whom he sent 
down the river to join those of Tupper. When 
their advance scouts reached the camp of 
Tupper, they found it deserted and the body 
of one slain and scalped American there. All 
the signs indicated a hasty retreat. When 
these scouts returned. Colonel Lewis decided 
to lead his men back to Camp Number Three. 

River Raisin Massacre 

In January, General Winchester finally 
started down the Maumee. This was contrary 
to the instructions of General Harrison, who 
had ordered him southward to Fort Jennings 
in order to protect supplies. Harrison did 
not want to make an advance until everything 
was ready. In a letter, dated January 8, 
1813, he wrote to the secretary of war: "My 
plan of operation has been, and now is, to 



occupy the ]\Iiami Rapids, and to 
there as much provisions as possible, to move 
from thence with choice detachments of the 
army, and vrith as much provision, artillery 
and ammunition as the means of transpor- 
tation will allow, make a demonstration 
towards Detroit and, by a sudden passage of 
the strait upon the ice, an actual investiture 
of Maiden. * * * It was my intention to 
have assembled at the Rapids from 4,500 to 
5,000 men, and to be governed by circum- 
stances in forming the detachment with which 
I should advance." 

On the tenth of January, 1813, General 
"Winchester reached a point opposite the site 
of the battle of Fallen Timbers. He had with 
him an army of 1,300 men. Here he estab- 
lished an improvised encampment and store- 
house. The soldiers were able to gather corn 
from the fields, which was boiled whole and 
supplied them with some additional food. 
Some improvised devices were made to pound 
the corn into meal. The enemy were encamped 
in considerable numbers around and about the 
site of Fort Miami, but they retreated. Sev- 
eral hundred men under General Payne were 
sent ahead to rout a body of savages said to 
be "in an old fortification at Swan Creek," 
but no Indians were discovered there. A num- 
ber of messengers arrived at his camp from 
Frenchtown (now Monroe) representing the 
danger to which the inhabitants were exposed 
from the hostility of British and Indians and 
almost tearfully begging for protection. These 
representations excited the sympathies of the 
Americans and turned their attention from 
the main object of the campaign, causing them 
to overlook to a great extent proper military 

Col. William Lewis was first dispatched to 
the relief of Frenchtown with 550 men, on 
January 17th. A few hours later Col. John 
Allen followed with 110 men, and overtook 
the others at the mouth of the river. March- 
ing along the frozen borders of the bay 

and lake, they reached there on the after- 
noon of the following day. Attacking the 
enemy, who were posted in the village, they 
gained possession of it after a spirited engage- 
ment. Learning that the savages were col- 
lecting in force, General Winchester became 
alarmed and started from the Maumee rapids 
on the 19th with all the troops that he could 
detach to the relief of that settlement, in all 
about 250 men. They arrived there on the 
twentieth instant. Had General Winchester 
followed the advice of those wiser than him- 
self, a disaster might have been prevented. 
Having lived for so many months, however, 
in primitive sun-oundings, after a life of 
luxury, he relaxed himself in the good home 
of Colonel Navarre, where he was established, 
and was not as vigilant as he should have 
been. He left his troops in open ground, and 
took no precautions against surprise. Peter 
Navarre and his brothers, who were acting as 
scouts, reported that a large body of British 
and Indians were approaching and would 
attack him that night. Other information of 
a similar nature was brought in, but he was 
unmoved by these reports. He seemed to be 
under an evil spell. As a result, an attack 
was made upon him in the early morning of 
the 22nd. 

The British and their dusky allies ap- 
proached entirely undiscovered. General Win- 
chester attempted to rejoin his troops, but was 
captured by an Indian and led to Colonel 
Proctor. Winchester was pursuaded to order 
his troops to surrender, but the gallant Major 
Madison refused until the third request was 
received. Several hundred of his men were 
killed in battle or afterwards massacred, and 
the dreaded Indian yell was heard on every 
side. The remainder of his troops were taken 
prisoners and marched to Amherstburg. Most 
of them were afterwards released upon parole. 
General Winchester was kept as a prisoner 
for more than a year. 

Surrender was doubtless induced bv the 



statement of the British commander that an 
Indian massacre could hardly be prevented in 
case of continued resistance, and a promise of 
help to all the wounded. But the promise was 
not kept. Only thirty-three of the Americans 
escaped death or captivity. This great disaster 
at the River Raisin was most lamentable, but 

it was not without its good results. ' ' Remem- 
ber the Raisin" became a slogan that spurred 
many to enlist in the army, and perform 
valiant service for their country. It exercised 
the same effect upon them as did "Remember 
the Alamo," among the Texans. 



It had been with the intention of prose- 
cuting a winter campaign for the recovery of 
Detroit and the Michigan Territory that Gen- 
eral Harrison dispatched General Winchester 
to the Maumee Rapids. As soon as the news 
of the unauthorized advance toward the River 
Raisin by that commander reached General 
Harrison, at Upper Sandusky, he apprehended 
the threatening danger and hastened to the 
IMaumee River in advance of his troops. Upon 
his arrival at Camp Deposit (Roche de Boeuf), 
the day following the disaster, he ordered a 
detachment under General Payne to follow 
Winchester in order to render any needed aid. 
The cold was very severe, however, the road 
was covered with snow and filled with miry 
places, so that the progress of the troops was 
exceedingly slow. They had not proceeded 
far until several fugitives were overtaken, who 
reported the total defeat of General Winches- 
ter's command. A council was quickly held 
and the entire body decided to return to Camp 
Deposit, excepting a few scouts who were to 
render all possible aid to stragglers who were 
escaping. At a council held at this post, it 
was determined that the position was on the 
wrong side of the river, and was too exposed 
to be successfully maintained against a power- 
ful enemy. The troops therefore set fire to the 
blockhouse and retired towards the Portage 
River, about half way on the road to Lower 
Sandusky, where they fortified a camp and 
awaited the advancing reinforcements. 

Things had indeed begun to look lugubrious 
for the Americans. Thus far all the military 
operations in the Northwest had resulted fa- 

vorably for the enemy. Mackinac had been 
surrendered; General Hull had yielded to 
cowardice; there had been a bloody massacre 
at Chicago. The efforts of General Harrison 
to assemble sufficient troops to attempt the 
reconquest of Michigan had already extended 
over five fruitless months. The overwhelming 
defeat and massacre of American troops at 
Frenchtown seemed to be the culmination of 
a series of calamitous misfortunes. Of what 
had been lost, nothing whatever had been re- 
gained. The entire frontier was greatly 
alarmed. From every settlement came urgent 
and almost pitiful appeals for protection. 
The settlers lived in daily fear of the blood- 
curdling war cry of the savages, and the man 
who left home feared that he would never 
again behold his beloved ones. Here is a 
specimen appeal from Daj'ton to Governor 
Meigs, dated February 2, 1813 : 

"Since the news reached this place of the 
destruction of the left wing of the Northwest- 
ern Army under Winchester, the inhabitants 
are much alarmed. Man.y families, even in 
this town, are almost on the wing for Ken- 
tucky. If the posts at Greenville, are to be 
abandoned, this place will be a part of the 
frontier in ten days after. The collections of 
Indians on our frontiers also heighten the 

Receiving word through his scouts that 
several hundred Indians had gathered on the 
north shore of ]\Iaumee Bay, General Harri- 
son detached 600 soldiers, with one cannon, 
and led them in person against the savages. 
Upon his approach their camp was abandoned. 



Near the lower part of the bay, the horses 
drawing the cannon broke through the ice 
while pursuing the fleeing enemy. It was only 
after great exertion and much suffering from 
the severe cold that the submerged gun was 
recovered on the following day. The expedi- 
tion was abandoned when scouts reported that 
the savages had crossed into Canada. General 
Harrison wrote to the Secretary of War from 
"Headquarters, Foot of the Miami (Maumee) 
Rapids, February 11, 1813," as follows: 
"Having been joined by General Leftwich 

Pennsylvania brigade, and the Ohio brigade 
under General Tupper, and a detachment of 
regular troops of twelve months volunteers 
under command of Colonel Campbell, to march 
to this place as soon as possible. * * * 
The disposition of the troops for the remain- 
der of the winter will be as follows : A battal- 
ion of militia lately called out from this State, 
with a company of regular troops now at Fort 
Winchester will garrison the posts upon the 
waters of the Auglaize and St. Mary. The 
small blockhouses upon Hull 's trace will have 

Meigs on the Maumee River 
Built in 1812. (From painting on wall of Wood County Court House.) 

with his brigade, and a regiment of the Penn- 
sylvania quota at the Portage River on the 
30th ultimo, I marched thence on the 1st in- 
stant and reached this place on the morning 
of the 2nd with an effective force of sixteen 
hundred men. I have since been joined by a 
Kentucky regiment and part of General Tup- 
per 's Ohio Brigade, which has increased our 
number to two thousand non-commissioned 
officers and privates. * * * I have or- 
dered the whole of the troops of the Left Wing 
(excepting one company for each of the six 
forts in that quarter) the balance of the 

a subaltern's command in each. A company 
will be placed at Upper Sandusky, and an- 
other at Lower Sandusky. All the rest of the 
troops will he brought to this place, amount- 
ing to from fifteen to eighteen hundred men. 
"I am erecting here a pretty strong fort 
(Meigs) capable of resisting field artillery at 
least. The troops will be placed in a fortified 
camp covered on one flank by the fort. This 
is the best position that can be taken to cover 
the frontier, and the small posts in the rear 
of it, and those above it on the Miami (Mau- 
mee) and its tributaries. The force placed 



here ought, however, to be strong enough to 
encounter any that the enemy may detach 
against the forts above. Twenty-five hundred 
would not be too many. But, anxious to re- 
duce the expenses during the winter within 
as narrow bounds as possible I have desired 
the Governor of Kentucky not to call out (but 
to hold in readiness to march) the fifteen hun- 
dred men lately required of him. All the 
teams which have been hired for the public 
service will be discharged, and those belong- 
ing to the public, which are principally oxen, 
disposed of in the settlements where forage is 
cheaper, and every other arrangement made 
which will lessen the expenses during the 
winter. Attention will still, however, be paid 
to the deposit of supplies for the ensuing cam- 
paign. Immense supplies of provisions have 
been accumulating along the Auglaize River, 
and boats and pirogues prepared to bring them 
down as soon as the river opens." 

The experience of General Harrison in fron- 
tier warfare, especially under General "Wayne 
in this valley, induced him to select as the site 
of a fort for this section the high right bank 
of the Maumee River, just a short distance 
below the lowest fording place and near the 
foot of the lowest rapids. The original plan 
of this fort embraced something over eight 
acres of ground, and the irregular circumfer- 
ence of the enclosure measured about IV3 miles 
in length. At short intervals there were block- 
houses and batteries, and between these the 
entire space was picketed with timbers fifteen 
feet long, from ten to twelve inches in diame- 
ter, and placed three feet into the ground. It 
was built under the personal supervision of 
Captain Eleazer D. Wood, chief engineer of 
the army. The army at this camp at that time 
numbered about 1,800 and, as soon as the out- 
lines of the fort were decided upon, the differ- 
ent branches of labor were assigned to the 
various corps in the army. 

"To complete the picketing," says Captain 
Wood, "to put up eight blockhouses of double 

timbers, to elevate four large batteries, to build 
all the storehouses and magazines required to 
contain the supplies of the army, together 
with the ordinary fatigues of the camp, was 
an undertaking of no small magnitude. Be- 
sides, an immense deal of labor was likewise 
required in excavating ditches, making abatis 
and clearing away the wood about the camp ; 
and all this was done, too, at a time when the 
weather was inclement, and the ground so hard 
that it could scarcely be opened with the mat- 
tock and pickaxe. But in the use of the axe, 
mattock, and spade consisted the chief mili- 
tary knowledge of our army; and even that 
knowledge, however trifling it may be sup- 
posed by some, is of the utmost importance 
in many situations, and in ours was the salva- 
tion of the army. So we fell to work, heard 
nothing of the enemy, and endeavored to busy 
ourselves as soon as possible. ' ' It was named 
in honor of Governor Meigs. 

The spies with General Harrison kept him 
pretty well informed concerning the move- 
ments of the enemy. When reports reached 
him that the British vessels were frozen in the 
ice near Maiden, he conceived an audacious 
plan for their destruction. A detachment of 
more than 200 soldiers and ofificers, together 
with a score or more of friendly Indians, 
marched forth from the new fort, with six 
days' provisions and combustibles with which 
to inflame the vessels. All of these men had 
volunteered for the enterprise. General Har- 
rison explained to them that it was an under- 
taking fraught with peril and privation, but 
to those who deported themselves meritori- 
ously appropriate reward would be meted 
out. They proceeded to the blockhouse which 
had been erected at Lower Sandusky. Then, 
with sleds and pilots, the expedition started 
for the lake. After proceeding about a mile 
upon their way, the object of the expedition 
was explained to the soldiers and the Indians 
by Captain Langham. The project appeared 
so hazardous that about twenty of the militia 



and six or seven Indians returned to the fort, 
permission for which was given to anyone so 
desiring. These remaining descended the river 
in sleds, crossed the bay on the ice to the 
peninsula, and then marched across it to the 
lake, where the islands were plainly in sight. 
Here there were more desertions. They pro- 
ceeded as far as Middle Bass Island, where 
the guides began to express misgivings because 
of uncertain weather conditions. When they 
reached the lake, however, the success of the 
expedition seemed so remote, because of the 
thinness of the ice and by reason of the 
abounding spies of the enemy, that the expe- 
dition was formally abandoned. 

General Harrison himself was untiring in 
his movements. He was kept busy visiting the 
various camps in his work of supervision, for 
we find dispatches dated from various head- 
quarters. About the first of March word 
reached Fort Meigs that General Proctor had 
ordered the assembling of the Canada militia 
and the Indian allies early in April, prepara- 
tory to an attack on Fort Meigs. To encour- 
age the Indians, he had assured them of an 
easy conquest, and had promised that General 
Harrison shoidd be delivered up to Tecumseh 
himself. That Indian chief had an unquench- 
able hatred for the American commander since 
the battle of Tippecanoe. The mode of attack, 
so it was reported, would be by constructing 
strong batteries on the opposite side of the 
river, to be manned by British artillerists, 
while the savages would invest the fort on 
that side of the river. It was thought that 
"a few hours action of the cannon would 
smoke the Americans out of the fort into the 
hands of the savages," as one of the officers 
expressed it. 

The forces within Fort Meigs had been 
seriously weakened at this time by the ex- 
piration of the term of the enlistment of many 
of the Virginians and Pennsylvanians, who 
had already started for their homes. Not 
more than 500 effective soldiers remained. In 

fact, it was a very difficult task, because of 
the irregularity and short time of the enlist- 
ment, to maintain an efficient body of soldiers 
and also of supplies owing to the ditBculties 
of transportation in the winter season. The 
Legislature passed an act adding $7 a month 
to the pay of any of 1,500 Kentuckians already 
in the service, who would remain until others 
were sent to relieve them. General Harrison 
was almost discouraged at times, for in one 
communication he writes: "I am sorry to 
mention the dismay and disinclination to the 
service, which appears to prevail in the west- 
ern country." General Harrison forwarded 
messages to the troops that were known to be 
advancing, urging them to hasten as their 
presence was badly needed at Fort Meigs. As 
soon as the ice broke, advantage was taken of 
the high water to transport supplies down the 
river to Fort Meigs from the supply depots 
farther up on the Maumee and the Auglaize. 

Port Meigs enjoyed comparative quiet for 
several weeks, because of the absence of hostile 
attacks, and the soldiers gradually became a 
little more venturesome. In March, a small 
party of soldiers while hunting game near 
Port Miami were shot at by a British recon- 
noitering party, and Lieutenant Walker was 
killed. Another bullet lodged in a Bible or 
hj-mn-book, carried by a soldier in his breast 
pocket, saving him from death or a severe 
wound. Intense excitement again arose about 
the first of April over a desperate encounter 
of about a dozen French volunteers who, while 
reconnoitering by boat in the channels about 
the large Ewing Island below the fort, were 
surprised and violently assailed at close quar- 
ters by two boatloads of savages. In the en- 
counter that ensued only one Indian escaped 
death, but several of the Frenchmen were also 
slain, and only three returned unscathed. 

The Canadian militia assembled at Sand- 
wich on the 7th of April, pursuant to call, 
and on the 23d of that month General Proc- 
tor's army, consisting of almost 1,000 regu- 



lars and militia, embarked at Maiden on 
several vessels and sailed for Fort Meigs, being 
convoyed by two gunboats carrying artillery. 
The savages, amounting to fully 1,500, crossed 
the Detroit River and made their way to the 
rendezvous on foot, although a few sailed the 
lakes in small boats. The vessels arrived at the 
mouth of the Maumee River on the 26th inst., 
and a couple of days later the army landed 
near the ruins of Fort Miami, about two miles 
below Fort Meigs, and on the opposite side of 
the river. General Harrison was kept accu- 
rately informed of all these movements 
through his scouts. One of these, who was 
also employed as a runner, was Peter Navarre. 
General Harrison dispatched Navarre with let- 
ters to the garrison at both Lower and Upper 
Sandusky, and to Governor Meigs, at Urbana, 
telling them of the formidable force approach- 
ing them. 

This enemy did not remain idle long after 
their landing, as the following letter to Gov- 
ernor Meigs will show : 

' ' To His Excellency Governor Meigs : 

"Sir: * * * 

"Yesterday the British let loose a part of 
their savage allies upon the fort from the 
opposite shore, whilst the former were con- 
certing plans below. There is little doubt the 
enemy intends erecting batteries on the op- 
posite shore. No force can reduce the fort. 
All are in fine spirits, anxiously waiting a 
share of the glory to be acquired over the 
British and their savage allies; though one 
thing is certain, whilst their forces are so far 
superior they cannot be driven from their posi- 
tion on the opposite shore. Captain Hamilton, 
who was detached with a discovering party 
estimated their forces at three thousand — in- 
dependent of the Indians lurking in the neigh- 

"I am now in pursuit of General Clay, and 
expect to come up with him today. 

"With sentiments of highest respect, I have 
the honor to be, 

' ' Your obedient servant, 

"William Oliver." 

The effective force at Fort Meigs at this 
time numbered about 1,100 soldiers, which was 
wholly inadequate to cope with such a large, 
well trained, and far better equipped army. 
General Harrison himself had arrived on the 
12th with considerable reinforcements. Most 
of the savages immediately crossed the river 
and began to invest and harass Fort Meigs 
at every possible point, filling the air with 
their hideous yells and the firing of musketry 
both day and night. For the purpose of pro- 
tection the timber had been cleared from the 
fort on all sides for about three hundred yards, 
with the exception of stumps and an occasional 
log. Behind these the savages would advance 
at night and sometimes disable a picket. These 
wily foes also climbed the trees at the rear of 
the fort, from which vantage points they were 
finally routed with far greater losses than they 

"Can you," said General Harrison in a 
stirring appeal to his troops, "the citizens of 
a free country who have taken arms to defend 
its rights, think of submitting to an army 
composed of mercenary soldiei-s, reluctant 
Canadians goaded to the field by the bayonet, 
and of wretched naked savages? Can the 
breast of an American soldier, when he cast 
his eyes to the opposite shore, the scene of his 
country's triumphs over the same foe, be in- 
fluenced by any other feelings than the hope 
of glory? Is not this army composed of the 
same materials as that which fought and con- 
quered under the immortal Wayne ? Yes, fel- 

1 There still stands at Maumee an old elm tree,, 
directly opposite Fort Meigs, which is known as the 
' ' Old Indian Elm. ' ' Tradition says that the savages 
jierched themselves there, killing and wounding several 
of the garrison, and a number of these dusky sharp- 
shooters were killed by the soldiers within Fort Meigs. 
This tall and aged tree is carefully preserved by the 
citizens of the village. 



low soldiers, your General sees your counte- 
nances beam with the same fire that he wit- 
nessed on that glorious occasion ; and, although 
it would be the height of presumption to com- 
pare himself with that hero, he boasts of be- 
ing that hero's pupil. To your posts, then, 
fellow citizens, and remember that the eyes 
of your country are upon you ! ' ' 

Having certain knowledge that General 
Green Clay with his Kentucky troops was ap- 
proaching, General Harrison sent forward 

ers named Walker, two others named respec- 
tively Paxton and Johnson, also young Black 
Fish, a Shawnoese warrior. With the latter 
at the helm, the other four engaged with the 
rowing, and himself at the bow in charge of 
the rifles and ammunition of the party, Combs 
pushed off from Defianee, amid cheers and 
sad adieus determined to reach Fort Meigs 
before daylight, the next morning. The voy- 
age was full of danger. Rain was falling 
heavily, and the night was intensely black. 

Elm at ^Iauiiee 

Captain William Oliver with a message urg- 
ing haste. Oliver, with one soldier and one 
Indian as attendants, made his way safely to 
General Clay and his command of 1,200 men, 
part of whom were under Colonel William 
Dudley. The news of Harrison's danger had 
already reached these commands, and they 
had dispatched Leslie Combs and some sol- 
diers, together with a Shawnee guide, to in- 
form General Harrison of their approach. 

' ' Combs and his party began thT?ir journey 
at Defiance, on the first of May. His com- 
panions who were volunteers, were two broth- 

They passed the Rapids in safety, but not until 
quite late in the morning, when heavy can- 
nonading was heard in the direction of the 
fort. It was evident that the expected siege 
had commenced, and that the perils of the 
mission were increased manifold. For a mo- 
ment Combs was perplexed. To return would 
be prudent, but would expose his courage to 
doubts ; to remain until the next night, or pro- 
ceed at once, seemed equally hazardous. A 
decision was soon made by the brave youth. 
'We must go on, boys,' he said; 'and if you 
expect the honor of taking coffee with General 



Harrison this morning, you must woi'k hard 
for it.' He went forward with many misgiv- 
ings, for he knew the weakness of the garrison, 
and doubted its ability to hold out long. 
Great was his satisfaction, therefore, when on 
sweeping around Turkey Point, at the last 
bend in the river by which the fort was hid- 
den from his view, he saw the stripes and stars 
waving over the beleaguered camp. Their joy 
was evinced by a suppressed shout. Suddenly 
a solitary Indian appeared in the edge of the 
woods, and a moment afterward a large body 
of them were observed in the gray shadows of 
the forest, running eagerly to a point below 
to cut off Combs and his party from the fort. 
The gallant captain attempted to dart by 
them on the swift current, when a volley of 
bullets from the savages severely wounded 
Johnson and Paxton — the former mortally. 
The fire was returned with effect, when the 
Shawnoese at the helm turned the prow to- 
ward the opposite shore. There the voyagers 
abandoned the canoe, and with their faces to- 
ward Defiance, sought safety in flight. After 
vainly attempting to take Johnson and Pax- 
ton with them, Combs and Black Fish left 
them to become captives, and at the end of 
two days and two nights the captain reached 
Defiance, whereat General Clay had just ar- 
rived. The "Walkers were also there, having 
fled more swiftly, because unencumbered. 
Combs and his dusky companion had suffered 
terribly. The former was unable to assume 
command of his company, but he went down 
the river with the re-enforcements, and took 
an active part in the conflict in the vicinity 
of Fort Meigs." 

The soldiers of the Northwestern Army, 
while at Fort Meigs and elsewhere on duty, 
frequently beguiled their time by singing pa- 
triotic songs. A verse from one of them suf- 
flciently indicates their general character: 

"Freemen, no longer bear such slaughter, 
Avenge your country's cruel woe. 

Arouse and save your wives and daughters. 
Arouse, and expel the faithless foe. 

Chorus — 

Scalps are bought at stated prices. 
Maiden pays the price in gold." 

Excessive rains hindered the British in 
planting their cannon as they wished. At 
times as many as 200 men and several oxen 
would be engaged in the work of pulling a 
single twenty-four-pounder through the mud. 
At first the work was carried on only by night, 
but a little later, owing to the impatience of 
the commander, the work was continued by 
day, although some of the men were killed by 
shots from Fort Meigs. By the 30th of April 
they had completed two batteries nearly op- 
posite Fort Meigs. One of these was on the 
site of the present Methodist Church, and the 
other was on the site of the Presbyterian 
Chm-ch, in the Village of Maumee. The first 
battery contained two twenty-four-pounders, 
while the other mounted three howitzers. A 
third battery of three twelve-pounders was 
afterwards placed, as well as sevefal mortars 
in strategic positions. General Harrison or- 
dered earthworks to be thrown up to protect 
the men from any cannon shots which might 
be fired at them from these newly erected 
batteries. Thus the shots from the enemies' 
cannon were opposed by solid walls of earth 
twelve feet high and twenty feet thick at the 
base. Behind these ramparts the defenders 
were placed, so that they were fairly well pro- 
tected from the big (for that day) guns of 
the enemy across the river. A few guns were 
placed by the British on the fort side, and to 
meet this new danger other traverses of earth 
were thrown up. A well was also dug behind 
the Grand Traverse, in order to provide a 
certain supply of water in case the investment 
should become complete. The British fired 
almost incessantly with their cannon at Fort 
Meigs on the 1st, 2d and 3d of May. Little 



damage was done to the fort, and the casual- 
ties were inconsiderable. Two Americans 
were killed on the first day, and one man so 
severely wounded that he died of tetanus ten 
days later. No fewer than 500 balls and shells 
were thrown on the first day of the siege, so it 
was estimated. 

The supply of balls and shells within the 
fort was limited, and the defenders replied 
only occasionally when a good target offered. 
In order to increase the supply a reward of a 
gill of whiskey was offered to the soldiers for 
every British ball brought in bj^ them of a size 
to fit their guns, and delivered to Thomas L. 
Hawkins, keeper of the magazine. At night 
the soldiers might have been seen outside the 
stockade searching around for balls whose lo- 
cation they had noticed during the day. It is 
said that more than a thousand gills of 
whiskey were paid out as rewards. Before 
completing their plans, the British constructed 
a third battery of three twelve-pounder cannon 
on the night of ilaj' 1st, located between the 
two batteries mentioned above. 

One of the militiamen voluntarily stationed 
himself on the embankment, and gratuitously 
forewarned the Americans of every approach- 
ing shot. In this he became so skillful that 
he covlA in almost every case predict the prob- 
able destination of the missile. As soon as 
the smoke issued from the muzzle of the gun, 
he would cry out "shot" or "bomb," as the 
ease might be. In spite of aU the e.xpostula- 
tions of his friends, at the danger incurred 
by himself, this brave soldier maintained his 
post for hour after hour. 

Consider the contempt with which a gun- 
ner in the Great War of Europe, who fires a 
monster that hurls half a ton or more of steel 
and explosive for a distance of twenty-five 
miles, would look upon these pygmy cannon. 
It was about all these guns could do to heave 
a six or eight pound ball across the river to 
Fort Meigs, a distance of a quarter of a mile. 
So leisurely was its flight that this man from 

the embankment could gauge the direction and 
warn his comrades. It was like a game of ten 
pins, with the balls tossed from catapaults in- 
stead of hands, and with humans as the tar- 
gets. It seems like an absurdity to us today 
in the light of modern development in the 
matter of man-killing machines. 

"Hey, there, blockhouse number one," the 
sentinel cried out. Then the boys of that 
defence would promptly duck for cover. 

"Main batter}^ look out," would come his 
stentorian voice over the palisades. The men 
of that battery then had warning to seek shel- 
ter and would follow his advice "now for the 

"Good bye, old boy, if j'ou will pass by," 
was the greeting to a wild shot that missed the 
fort altogether. 

But even these leisurely flying iron balls 
were deadly, when a human target interposed 
in their flight. One day, while he was watch- 
ing and jocularly commenting on the course 
of the balls, there came a shot that seemed to 
def.y all the militiaman's calculations. He 
could not gauge the angle. He stood motion- 
less and perplexed. No word of warning or 
jesting arose from his lips. His eyes seemed 
transfixed. But the ball was approaching 
jiearer and neai'er, and in an instant he was 
swept into eternity. The gunners had hit 
their mark. Poor man! he should have con- 
sidered that when there was no obliquity in 
the issue of the smoke, either to the right or 
the left, above or below, the fatal messenger 
would travel in the direct line of his vision. 

' ' The aborigines, ' ' says Rev. A. M. Lorraine, 
who was with the Americans, "climbed up 
into the trees, and fired incessantly upon us. 
Such was their distance that many of their 
halls barely reached us but fell harmless to the 
ground. Occasionally they inflicted danger- 
ous and even fatal wounds. The number 
killed in the fort was small considered the 
profusion of powder and ball expended on us. 
About eighty were slain, many wounded, and 



several had to -suffer amputation of limbs. 
The most dangerous duty which we performed 
within the precincts of the fort was in cover- 
ing the magazine. Previous to this the powder 
had been deposited in wagons and these sta- 
tioned in the traverse. Here there was no se- 
curity against bombs ; it was therefore thought 
to be prudent to remove the powder into a 
small blockhouse and cover it with earth. The 
enemy, judging our designs from our move- 
ments, now directed all their shot to this 
point (particularly from their twenty-four- 
pounder battery). Many of their balls were 
red-hot. Wherever they struck they raised a 
cloud of smoke and made a frightful hissing. 
An officer passing our quarters said: 'boys, 
who will volunteer to cover the magazine?' 
Fool-like away several of us went. As soon 
as we reached the spot there came a ball and 
took off one man's head. The spades and dirt 
flew faster than any of us had before wit- 

"In the midst of our job a bomb-shell fell 
on the roof and, lodging on one of the braces, 
it spun round for a moment. Every soldier 
fell prostrate on his face and with breathless 
horror awaited the vast explosion which we 
expected would crown all our earthly suffer- 
ings. Only one of all the gang presumed to 
reason on the case. He silently argued that, 
as the shell had not bursted as quickly as 
usual, there might be something wrong in its 
arrangement. If it bursted where it was, and 
the magazine exploded, there could be no es- 
cape ; it was death anyway ; so he sprung to 
his feet, seized a boat-hook and, pulling the 
hissing missile to the ground and jerking the 
smoking match from its socket, discovered that 
the shell was filled with inflammable svibstance, 
which, if once ignited, would have wrapped 
the whole building in a sheet of flame. This 
circumstance added wings to our shovels ; and 
we were right glad when the officer said 'that 
will do; go to your lines.' " 

A white flag approached the fort, and the 

bearers asked for a parley. A demand was 
then made for the surrender of the fortress by 
General Proctor. This was answered by a 
prompt refusal. The conversation is reported 
as follows : 

Major Chambers. — "General Proctor has 
directed me to demand the surrender of this 
post. He wishes to spare the effusion of 
blood. ' ' 

To this demand General Harrison replied: 
"The demand, under present circumstances, 
is a most extraordinary one. As General Proc- 
tor did not send me a summons to surrender 
on his first arrival, I had supposed that he 
believed me determined to do my duty. His 
present message indicates an opinion of me 
that I am at a loss to account for." 

Major Chambers then continued: "Gen- 
eral Proctor could never think of saying any- 
thing to wound your feelings, sir. The char- 
acter of General Harrison, as an officer, is 
well known. General Proctor's force is very 
respectable, and there is with him a larger 
body of Indians than has ever before been 

"I believe I have a very correct idea of 
General Proctor's force," said General Harri- 
son. "It is not such as to create the least 
apprehension for the result of the contest, 
whatever shape he may be pleased hereafter 
to give to it. Assure the general, however, 
that he will never have this post surrendered 
to him upon any terms. Should it fall into his 
hands, it will be in a manner calculated to do 
him more honor, and to give him larger claims 
upon the gratitude of his government, than 
any capitulation could possibly do." 

Things had begun to look dark for the be- 
sieged. When Captain Oliver, accompanied 
by Maj. David Trimble and fifteen soldiers 
who had evaded the encircling savages, arrived 
on the night of the 4th with the welcome news 
that Gen. Green Clay's command, in eight- 
een large flatboats had reached the left bank 
of the ilaumee at the head of the Grand Rap- 



ids, it brought great cheer. The river was so 
high that the pilot declined to run the boats 
over the rapids at night. Captain Hamilton 
with a subaltern and canoe was immediately 
dispatched to meet General Clay, and convey 
to him this command: "You must detach 
about eight hundred men from your brigade, 
who will land at a point I (Hamilton) will 
show, about one or one and a half miles above 
Fort Meigs, and I will conduct them to the 
British batteries on the left bank of the river. 
They must take possession of the enemy's can- 
non, spike them, cut down the carriages, then 
return to their boats and cross over to the 
Fort. The balance of your men must land 
on the Fort side of the river, opposite the first 
landing, and fight their way to the Fort 
through the savages. The route they must 
take will be pointed out by a subaltern officer 
now with me, who will land the canoe on the 
right bank of the river to point out the land- 
ing for the boats." 

General Clay himself remained in charge 
of the troops landing on the right bank of 
the Maumee. But the subaltern was not at the 
rendezvous, and some confusion resulted. 
Sorties were made from the garrison to aid 
these. They were sub.jected to a galling fire 
from the British infantry and the Indians 
under Teeumseh, but safely reached the for- 
tress. Another detachment under Colonel Bos- 
well landed and drove away the threatening 
savages. For their relief General Harrison 
dispatched several hundred men under com- 
mand of Colonel John Miller, who attacked 
the nearest battery and drove away the enemy 
four times as numerous. The troops advanced 
with loaded but trailed arms. The first fire of 
the enemy did little damage, but the Indians 
proved to be good marksmen. Then it was 
that a charge was ordered, and the enemy fled 
M'ith great precipitation. The American 
troopers and militia alike covered themselves 
with glory in this encounter. Twenty-eight 
Americans were killed in this sortie and 

twenty-five were wounded. Forty-three pris- 
oners were brought back to the fort. It was 
one of the bravest incidents of the entire siege. 

The Dudley ilASSACRE 

Had the wise orders of General Harrison 
been carried out in full, the terrible massacre 
which occurred would have been avoided. 
Colonel Dudley executed his task gallantly 
and successfully up to the point of the cap- 
ture of the batteries, and without the loss of 
a man. He reached them unobserved, and the 
gunners fled precipitately. The Americans 
rushed forward and spiked eleven of the 
largest guns, hauling down the enemy's flag. 
Great and loud was the applause that reached 
them from the fort across the river. But 
most of Dudley's troops were unused to war- 
fare with the savages. They were extremely 
anxious for a combat — and they were Ken- 
tuckians. This sometimes meant rashness 
rather than prudence in border warfare. 

Colonel Dudley had landed with 866 men. 
Of these only 170 escaped to Fort Meigs. 
Elated with their initial success, and being 
fired upon by some of the Indians, the Ken- 
tuckians became infuriated and boldly dashed 
after their wily opponents without any 
thought of an ambuscade. The commands of 
Colonel Dudley and warnings from the fort 
were alike unheeded by these impetuous south- 
erners. They thought that the victory was al- 
ready won, and thoughtlessly rushed into the 
ambuscade that had been prepared for them 
near the site of the old courthouse in the Vil- 
lage of Maumee. 

' ' They are lost ! they are lost ! ' ' exclaimed 
General Harrison, as he saw this move. "Can 
I never get men to obey orders ? " He offered 
a reward of $1,000 to any man who would 
cross the river and apprise Colonel Dudley 
of his danger. This duty was promptly un- 
dertaken by an officer, but the enemy had 
arrived on the opposite bank before he 



could reach it. Many indeed were those 
killed, including Colonel Dudley himself, in 
the fierce contest that waged for about 
three hours. Many more were wounded, and 
the others were taken prisoners. Those who 
could perambulate were marched towards Fort 
Miami. Those who were wounded too badly to 
move were immediately slain and scalped by 
the savages, and an equally sad fate met those 
who were taken to the fort. The Kentuekians 
had become demoralized as their commanding 
officers were killed and shots reached them 
from aU sides. The companies became mixed, 
and it developed into each man fighting for 
himself as best he could in the confusion. 

Lieutenant Underwood has left a vivid ac- 
count of the battle, from which the following 
is taken : 

"While passing through a thicket of hazel, 
toward the river in forming line of battle, I 
saw Colonel Dudley for the last time. He 
was greatly excited; he railed at me for not 
keeping my men better dressed (in better 
line) . I replied that he must perceive from the 
situation of the ground, and the obstacles that 
we had to encounter, that it was impossible. 
When we came within a small distance of the 
river we halted. The enemy at this place had 
gotten in the rear of our line, formed parallel 
with the river, and were firing upon our 
troops. Having nothing to do, and being 
without orders, we determined to march our 
company out and join the combatants. We 
did so accordingly. In passing oiit we fell 
on the left of the whole regiment and were 
soon engaged in a severe conflict. The Aborig- 
ines endeavored to flank and surroiind us. 
We were from time to time ordered to charge. 
The orders were passed along the line, our 
field officers being on foot. * * * We 
made several charges afterwards and drove 
the enemy a considerable distance. * * * 
At length orders were passed along the lines 
directing us to fall back and keep up a re- 
treating fire. As soon as this movement was 

made the Aborigines were greatly encouraged, 
and advanced upon us with the most horrid 
yells. Once or twice the officers succeeded in 
producing a temporaiy halt and a fire on the 
Aborigines, but the soldiers of the different 
companies soon became mixed, confusion en- 
sued, and a general rout took place. The 
retreating army made its way towards the 
batteries, where I supposed we should be 
able to form and repel the pursuing Aborigi- 
nes. They were now so close in the rear as to 
frequently shoot down those who were before 
me. * * * In emerging from the woods 
into an open piece of ground near the battery 
we had taken, and before I knew what had 
happened, a soldier seized my sword and said 
to me, 'Sir, you are my prisoner!' I looked 
before me and saw, with astonishment^ the 
ground covered with muskets. The soldier 
observing my astonishment, said 'your army 
has surrendered' and received my sword. He 
ordered me to go forward and join the pri- 
soners. I did so." 

Tecumseh was far more humane than his 
white allies. While the bloodthirsty work was 
proceeding a thundering voice in the Indian 
tongue was heard from the rear, and Tecumseh 
was seen approaching as fast as his horse could 
carry him. He sprang from his horse, rage 
showing in every feature, we are told. Be- 
holding two Indians butchering an American, 
he brained one with his tomahawk and felled 
the other to the earth. He seemed torn with 
grief and passion. Seeing Proctor standing 
there, he rode up to him.^ 

= One of the prisoners has left this picture of 
Tecumseh on this occasion : ' ' The celebrated chief 
was a noble, dignified personage. He wore an elegant 
broadsword, and was dressed in Aborigine costume. 
His face was finely proportioned, his nose inclined to 
be aquiline, and his eyes displayed none of that savage 
and ferocious triumph common to the other Aborigines 
on that occasion. He seemed to regard us with un- 
moved composure and I thought a beam of mercy 
shown in his countenance, tempering the spirit of ven- 
geance inherent in his race against the American 
people. ' ' 



"Why don't you stop this?" sternly in- 
(juired the Indian Chief. 

Drawing his tomahawk, he threw himself 
between the Americans and Indians, and dared 
an Indian to murder another prisoner. They 
were all confounded and immediately desisted. 

"Sir," said Proctor, "your Indians cannoi 
be commanded." 

"Begone," said Tecumseh, "you are unfit 
to command; go and put on petticoats." 

After this incident, the prisoners were not 
further molested. It is certainly convincing 
proof that the British authorities did not dis- 
courage the inhumanities of their savage 
allies, and it is believed that many of the 
officers encouraged them in their savagery and 
atrocities. Inimical as was Tecumseh toward 
the Americans, insatiable as was his hatred of 
us, we cannot but admire him as a man. In 
personal courage he was excelled by none. 
In oratory few were his peers, but in humanity 
he stood out in striking contrast to the customs 
of his own tribe, one of the most savage of all. 
He was never guilty of wanton bloodshed, 
and ever used every effort to restrain his fol- 
lowers from all deeds of cruelty and torture in 
dealing with their captives. All honor to a 
chieftain of that kind. In his opposition to 
Americans, he was simply endeavoring to 
save and protect his own people in their an- 
cestral rights, — and this is the measure of 
patriotism even among our own people. 

A British officer, who took part in the siege, 
tells of a visit to the Indian camp on the day 
after the massacre. The camp was filled with 
the clothing and plunder stripped from the 
slaughtered soldiers and officers. The lodges 
were adorned with saddles, bridles, and richly 
ornamented swords and pistols. Swarthy sav- 
ages strutted about in cavalry boots and the 
fine uniforms of American officers. The 
Indian wolf dogs were gnawing the bones of 
the fallen. Everywhere were scalps and the 
skins of hands and feet stretched on hoops, 

stained on the fleshly side with verraillion, 
and drying in the sun. 

" As we continued to advance into the heart 
of the encampment," says Major Richard- 
son, "a scene of a more disgusting nature 
arrested our attention. Stopping at the 
entrance of a tent occupied by the Minoumini 
(Menomeni) tribe we observed them seated 
around a large fire over which was suspended 
a kettle containing their meal. Each warrior 
had a piece of string hanging over the edge 
of the vessel, and to this was suspended a food 
which, it will be presumed we heard not with- 
out loathing, consisted of a part of an Ameri- 
can. Any expression of our feelings, as we 
declined the invitation they gave us to join in 
their repast, would have been resented by the 
savages without ceremony ; we had, therefore, 
the prudence to excuse ourselves under the 
plea that we had already taken our food, and 
we hastened to remove from a sight so revolt- 
ing to humanity." 

Some of the soldiers, who finally escaped 
from their captivity, have left us terrible tales 
of their treatment by the savages, all of which 
was done without a word of protest from the 
English officers. The young men were gen- 
erally taken by the savages as prisoners back 
to their villages, and some of them were never 
heard of afterwards by their friends. Most 
of them, however, were embarked on board 
boats bound for Maiden. 

"I saved my watch by concealing the 
chain," says Lieutenant Joseph R. Under- 
wood, "and it proved of great service to me 
afterwards. Having read when a boy Smith's 
narrative of his residence among the Abo- 
rigines, my idea of their character was that 
they treated those best who appeared the 
most fearless. Under this impression, as we 
marched down to the old garrison (P'ort 
Miami) I looked at those whom we met with 
all the sternness of countenance I could com- 
mand. I soon caught the eye of a stout war- 



rior painted red. He gazed at me with as 
much sternness as I did at him until I came 
within striking distance, when he gave me a 
severe blow over the nose and cheek-bone witli 
his wiping stick. I abandoned the notion ac- 
quired from Smith, and went on afterwards 
with as little display of hauteur and defiance 
as possible. On our approach to the old garri- 
son the Aborigines formed a line to the left 
of the road, there being a perpendicular bank 
at the rigljt on the margin of which the road 
passed. I perceived that the prisoners were 
running the gauntlet and that the Aborigines 
were whipping, shooting and tomahawking 
the men as they ran b.y their line. When I 
reached the starting place, I dashed off as 
fast as I was able, and ran near the muzzles 
of their guns, knowing that they would have 
to shoot me while I was immediately in front 
or let me pass, for to have turned their guns 
up or down the lines to shoot me would have 
endangered themselves as there was a curve 
in their line. In this way I passed without 
injury except some strokes over the shoulders 
with their gun-sticks. As I entered the ditch 
around the garrison the man before me was 
shot and fell, and I fell over him. The passage 
for a while was stopped by those who fell 
over the dead man and me. How many lives 
were lost at this place I cannot tell, probably 
between twenty and forty. ' ' 

' ' We heard frequent guns at the place dur- 
ing the whole time the remaining prisoners 
were coming in, ' ' wrote Leslie Combs. ' ' Some 
were wounded severely with war clubs, toma- 
hawks; etc. The number who fell after the 
surrender was supposed by all to be nearly 
equal to the killed in the battle. As soon as 
all the surviving prisoners got within the 
stockade the whole body of Aborigines, regard- 
less of the opposition of our little guard, 
rushed in. There seemed to be almost twice 
our number of them. Their blood-thirsty 
souls were not yet satiated with carnage. One 
Aborigine shot three of our men, tomahawked 

a fourth, and stripped and scalped them in 
our presence. * * * Then all raised the 
war-hoop and commenced loading their guns 
* * * Tecumseh, more humane than his 
ally and employer (Proctor) generously inter- 
fered and prevented further massacre. Col- 
onel Elliott then rode slowly in, spoke to the 
Aborigines, waved his sword, and all but a 
few retired immediately. ' ' 

The fifth day of May was indeed a sad 
day for Fort Meigs. The Dudley massacre 
was the third great loss suffered by the Ameri- 
can armies of the Northwest in less than a 
year after the beginning of the War of 1812. 
Harrison said that ' ' excessive ardor * * ■* 
always the case when Kentucky militia were 
engaged * * * was the source of all their 
misfortunes. ' ' 

The main body of the savages now with- 
drew from the British command, partly be- 
cause they were tired of the continued siege, 
and partly because their thirst for blood and 
butchery was satiated. But Proctor did not 
retire until he had dispatched another white 
flag, with a demand upon General Harrison 
to surrender. The reply was such as to indi- 
cate that the demand was considered au 
insult. His gunboats were moved up the 
Maumee, as near to Fort Meigs as possible. 
Because of the withdrawal of his dusky allies 
General Proctor felt himself compelled to give 
up the siege on the 9th instant and return 
with his remaining forces to Amlierstburg, 
Canada, where he disbanded the militia. Be- 
fore finally withdrawing he gave a parting 
salute from his gunboats, which killed ten or 
a dozen and wounded twice that number. 
"However," says one of those present, "we 
were glad enough to see them off on any 
terms." The British forces are estimated to 
have numbered more than 3,000 men. Of 
these 600 were British regulars, 800 were 
Canadian militia, and 1,800 were Indians. 
Harrison's forces at the maximum did not 
much exceed 1,000 effective men. This does 



not of course, include those under Colonel 

The total loss at the fort during the entire 
siege was eighty-one killed and 189 wounded. 
The British reported loss of only fifteen killed, 
forty-seven wounded, and forty-one taken 
prisoners. The men welcomed the relief from 
the terrible tension to which they had been 
subjected. They were glad to get to the river 
and wash themselves up, for there had been 
a great scarcity of water within the stockade. 
Many had scarcely any clothing left, and that 
which they wore was so begrimmed and torn 
that they looked more like scarecrows than 
human beings. 

Of the part taken by his troops, General 
Harrison had only words of commendation. 
In his reports to the secretary of war, he 
described the savages as the most effective 
force. A long list of names received special 
mention. Among these were General Clay, 
Major Johnson, Captain Wood, Major Ball, 
Colonel Mills, Captain Croghan, and many 
others. The Pittsburg Blues, the Pittsburg 
volunteers, the Kentuckians, and some of the 
United States regulars were also given special 

After the enemy had withdrawn, Fort 
Meigs was greatly strengthened. The damage 
which the British guns had wrought was re- 
paired, the British battery mounds were 
leveled, while the open space in front was 
extended; better drainage and sanitary con- 
veniences were also established, for the lack 
of which the garrison had suffered consider- 
able sickness. Reinforcements were hurried 
forward from Upper Sandusky, while General 
Harrison made a tour of the various other 
fortresses within his jurisdiction. The extent 
of the frontier under his command was indeed 
extensive, and it required constant watchful- 
ness as well as great executive ability to guard 
against invasion and to prevent the advance of 
the enemy within it. At Lower Sandusky he 
met Governor Meigs, with a strong force of 

Ohio volunteers hastening to the relief of 
Fort Meigs. General Clay was again 
left in charge of Fort Meigs.* 

Comparative calm followed the abandon- 
ment of the siege of Fort Meigs for a couple 
of months. But Harrison was not inactive 
during this time. He fully appreciated the 
strength of the Indian allies of Britain, and 
also realized that Tecumseh was endeavoring 
to draw to his support the Indians in North- 
west Ohio. Heretofore it had been the Ameri- 
can policy not to employ friendly Indians in 
its service, except in a few instances. This 
policy the Indians could not understand. In 
order to clarify the situation, a council was 
called at Franklinton (Columbus) on the 21st 
of June. The Wyandots, Delawares, Shaw- 
nees, and Senecas were represented by fifty 
of their chiefs and head men. The most in- 
fluential chief present was Tarhe, chief 
sachem of the Wyandots, and lie became the 
spokesman of all tribes present. Harrison 
said that the time had come for an expression 
of the tribes as to their stand, for the Great 
Father wanted no false friends. As a 
guarantee of their good intentions, the 
friendly tribes should either move into the 
settlements, or their warriors should accom- 
pany him in the ensuing campaign. To this 
proposal all the warriors present unanimously 
agreed, asserting that they had long been 
anxious for an opportunity to fight for the 
Americans. Harrison promised to let them, 
know when their services were wanted. He 
promised to deliver Proctor into their hands 

3 In June, 1870, a party of veterans who had served 
with the army in the movements about Fort Meigs met 
at Perrysburg and Maumee. Fifty-seven years had 
passed and these men were now truly veterans. Michael 
Morgan, eighty-nine, was the oldest, and Peter Navarre, 
eighty-five, was a prominent member of the little com- 
pany. Horace Thatcher, sixty-nine, was the youngest. 
About half of those present lived in Kentucky. It 
was indeed a memorable occasion, and these gray- 
haired survivors, many of them with tottering steps, 
were made to feel that the citizens of Perrysburg and 
Maumee welcomed the survivors of the events of more 
than half a century earlier which freed this village 
from danger of savages and white enemies as well. 



on condition tliat they should do no other 
harm than to put a petticoat on him. The 
satisfactory outcome of this council caused 
a spirit of safety and confidence to spread 
over this section. Although the tribes were 
not called upon to take part in the war, many 
of the Indians of their own free will did 
accompany Harrison in his later campaigns. 

In July General Proctor again headed an 
expedition for the mouth of the Maumee. On 
the 20th of the month the boats of the enemy 
were discovered ascending the Maumee toward 
Fort Meigs. With him was an army estimated 
to number at least 5,000. The Indians also 
began to appear in the neighborhood in 
considerable numbers. It is believed that 
they were in greater force than ever before. 
A picket guard, consisting of a corporal and 
ten soldiers, was surprised about 300 yards 
from Fort Meigs on the night of their arrival, 
and all but three were killed or captured. 
Fourteen soldiers, whose tenn of enlistment 
had expired, desired to return home on foot 
by way of Fort Winchester. They were 
attacked by savages when only a few miles 
above the fort, and only two escaped. Re- 
inforcements arrived at the fort, which 
greatly added to its strength. Among these 
were Lieutenant Montjoy, with twenty United 
States troops, who reached the fort from the 
blockhouse on the Portage River with the loss 
of one man. The American force within the 
fort was small and numbered only a few 
hundred. They were in charge of General 
Clay, who immediately sent word to Gen- 
eral Harrison at Lower Sandusky. Captain 
McCune, the messenger, made two trips back 
and forth between Lower Sandusky and Fort 
IMeigs, and on the last trip narrowly escaped 
capture or death. Harrison said that he was 
unable to send additional troops at once, but 
advised great precaution against surprise and 
ambuscade by the wily enemy. 

"On the afternoon of the 25th, Captain 
McCune was ordered by Harrison to return 

to the fort and inform General Clay of his 
situation and intentions. He arrived near 
the fort about daybreak on the following 
morning, having lost his way in the night, 
accompanied by James Doolan, a French 
Canadian. They were just upon the point of 
leaving the forest and entering upon the 
cleared ground around the fort, when they 
were intercepted by a party of Indians. They 
immediately took to the high bank with their 
horses, and retreated at full gallop up the 
river for several miles, pursued by the Indians, 
also mounted, until they came to a deep ra- 
vine; putting up from the river in a south- 
erly direction they turned upon the river 
bottom and continued a short distance, un- 
til they found their further progress in that 
direction stopped by an impassable swamp. 
The Indians, foreseeing their dilemma, from 
their knowledge of the country, and expecting 
they would naturally follow up the ravine, 
galloped thither to head them oif. McCune 
guessed their intention, and he and his com- 
panion turned back upon their own track for 
the fort, gaining, by this maneuvre, several 
hundred yards upon their pursuers. The 
Indians gave a yell of chagrin, and followed 
at their utmost speed. Just as they neared 
the fort, McCune dashed into a thicket across 
his course, on the opposite side of which other 
Indians had huddled, awaiting their prey. 
When this body of Indians considered them 
all but in their possession, again was the 
presence of mind of McCune signally dis- 
played. He wheeled his horse, followed by 
Doolan, made his way out of the thicket by 
the passage he had entered, and galloped 
around into the open space between them and 
the river, where the pursuers were checked 
by the fire from the block-house at the western 
angle of the fort." 

It was probably due to the information 
brought by Captain McCune that another 
disaster or massacre was averted. Proctor 
and Tecumseh had formulated a plan for the 



capture of Fort Meigs by strategy. A sham 
battle was staged by Tecumseh along the 
road toward Lower Sandusky, near enough 
so that the noise might be distinctly heard by 
the troops in the fort. When the Indian yells, 
intermingled with the roar of musketry, 
reached the garrison, the men instantly flew 
to arms. Thinking that a severe battle was 
being fought, the men could hardly be re- 
strained from marching out to the defense, 
as they supposed, of their gallant commander- 
in-chief. This was precisely the purpose of 
the enemy. The shooting was intended to 
convey the impression to the besieged that an 
advancing force of reinforcements was being 
attacked by the Indians, thus hoping to draw 
out the garrison. General Clay had had too 
much experience, however, in Indian warfare, 
and refused to be drawn into their plans. 
Furthermore, he did not think that Harrison 
would come thus iinannouneed so soon after 
the messenger. After several futile attempts 
to draw the Americans from their protection, 
the enemy departed from Fort Sleigs on July 
27th, having been in its vicinity less than 
two days. After leaving Fort Meigs for the 
second time, a part of the British army sailed 
around through Lake Erie and up the San- 
dusky River to Fort Stephenson, hoping to 
find it an easy prey. The result is related in 
another chapter, for it is a fascinating story 
in itself. 

It is rather interesting to read of the 
doings about camp in this early day. There 
were a number of court martials that we 
have a record of for drunkenness and insub- 
ordination at Fort Meigs. Herewith are two 
general orders issued at that fortress that 
make interesting reading in this day and age. 
The first relates to what was probably the 
first official celebration of our national natal 
day in this vicinity. 

(General Order) 
' ' Camp Meigs, July 4, 1813. 

' ' The General commanding announces to the 
troops under his command the return of this 
day, which gave liberty and independence to 
the United States of America ; and orders that 
a national salute be fired under the superin- 
tendence of Captains Gratiot and Gushing. 
All the troops reported fit for duty shall 
receive an extra gill of whisky. And those 
in confinement and those under sentence 
attached to their corps, be forthwith released 
and order to join their respective corps. 

' ' The General is induced to use this lenience 
alone from consideration of the ever memo- 
rable da}% and flatters himself that in future, 
the soldiers under his command will better 
appreciate their liberty by a steady adherence 
to duty and prompt compliance with the 
orders of their officers, by which alone they 
are worthy to enjoy the blessings of that 
liberty and independence the only real legacy 
left us by our fathers. 

"All courts martial now constituted in this 
camp are hereby dissolved. There will be 
fatigue this day. 

"Robert Butler, 
"A. Adjt. Gen." 

(General Order) 

"Camp Meigs, July 8, 1813. 

"The commanding General directs that the 
old guard, on being released, will march out 
of camp and discharge their arms at a target 
placed in some secure position, and as a reward 
for those who may excel in shooting, eight gills 
of whisky will be given to the nearest shot, 
and four gills to the second. The officer of 
the guard will cause a return, signed for that 
purpose, signifying the names of the men 
entitled to the reward. 

"By order of G. Clay, Gen. Com. 

"Robert Butler, A. Adjt. Gen." 



"A hundred leagues from Niagara, on the 
south side (Lake Erie) is a river called Sandos- 
quet, which the Indians of Detroit and Lake 
Huron take when going to war with the Flat- 
heads and other nations toward Carolina. 
They ascend this river Sandosquet two or 
three days, after which they make a small 
portage of about a quarter of a league. Some 
make canoes of elm bark and float down a 
small river (Scioto) that empties into the 
Ohio. Whoever would wish to reach the Mis- 
sissippi easily, would need only to take this 
beautiful river or the Sandosquet; he could 
travel without any danger of fasting, for all 
who have been there have repeatedly assured 
me that there is so vast a quantity of buffalo 
and of all other animals in the woods along 
that beautiful river, they were often obliged 
to discharge their guns to clear a passage for 
themselves. They say that two thousand men 
could easily live there." 

Thus writes an anonymous scribe in a re- 
port upon the Indians of Canada, in the year 
1718. In early maps and writings the name is 
variously spelled. In a map published in Lon- 
don in 1733, the bay is called "Lake San- 
doski." An Amsterdam cartographer of a 
few years earlier designated it as "Lac San- 
douske." Early English traders speak of the 
river as St. Dusky and St. Sandoske, and there 
are still other variations in the spelling. It 
was not until about the time of the Revolution 
that the modem orthography of the name be- 
came fixed. The name is said to be derived 
from the term Tsaendoosti, pronounced San- 
doos-tee, and the meaning is "it is cold and 

fresh," as applied to water, or "at the cold 

The beautiful Sandusky River rises in Rich- 
land County, and from there flows through 
the counties of Crawford, Wyandot, Seneca, 
and Sandusky, with many graceful bends until 
it finally mingles its waters with those of the 
bay of the same name. Although not more 
than ninety miles in a direct line, because of 
its many meanderings the distance traversed 
by the Sandusky is a half greater than a 
direct course would be. 

It seems almost impossible to believe that 
less than 100 years ago, the Valley of the San- 
dusky, with its broad and fertile fields, pro- 
ductive orchards and sightly woodlands, and 
the site of such thriving cities as Fremont, 
Tiffin, Upper Sandusky, and Bucyrus, was a 
favorite resort of Indians with their primi- 
tive agriculture, rude cabins, and picturesque 
council fires. Right here at Lower Sandusky 
was one of the most important Wyandot vil- 
lages. For centuries the red men had their 
homes along the banks and swarmed in the 
forests and plains of the valley of their be- 
loved river, named Juuque-in-dundeh, which, 
in the Wyandot language, noted for its de- 
scriptive character, signifies "at the place of 
the hanging haze or mist (smoke)." The 
name was not inappropriate when one con- 
siders the surrounding forests, prairies, and 
marshes, and the burning leaves and grass at 
certain seasons of the year. Through this 
village passed one of the main Indian trails 
from the Ohio country to Detroit. There was 
good navigation from here to Detroit and 



Canada, and it required only a short portage 
not far from Bueyrus from the Sandusky to 
the Scioto on their way to the Ohio River, 
and from there down to the Mississippi. In 
the high waters of spring, this portage did not 
exceed half a mile. 

Much of what is now marshland at the 
mouth of the Sandusky was originally prairie. 
It has gradually been inundated, however, un- 
til it forms the excellent hunting grounds of 
today. The shores of the mainland have re- 
ceded as much as forty rods in places since the 
first recorded government surveys, less than 
a century ago. It is known that heavy timber 
grew a century ago where there are now two or 
three feet of water. This has been caused by 
the terrific lashings of the nor 'casters. Eagle 
Island, right at the mouth, contained an area 
of 134 acres in 1820, according to a survey of 
that date, and was covered with heavy timber, 
mostly locust and walnut. Today there is 
scarcely an eighth of an acre of dry ground, 
and it is indicated only by a few willows. 
Peach, Graveyard, and Squaw islands, where 
Nichola.s and his band sought asylum, would 
scarcely furnish enough dry land today on 
which to set up their tepees. Many believe 
that the real site of Fort Sandoski is at least 
an eighth of a mile out in the bay, and under 
water all the time. In the early days the 
muskrat were plentiful and these, together 
with the mink and otter, also found here, 
furnished much of the medium of exchange. 
In the year 1800 one firm shipped 20,000 
muskrat hides and 8,000 coon skins. The 
former were worth 25 cents each, and the 
latter 50 cents per pelt. Thousands of musk- 
rats are still caiight here each year, but the 
mink and marsh raccoon are being rapidly ex- 
terminated. The waters are still alive with, 
fish, and in the spring and fall many hunters 
gather here to shoot the ducks and geese as 
they halt on their migrations. Pigeons are 
said to have been so plentiful that they dark- 
ened the air around their roosting places. Al- 

though buffalo were reported near Lake Erie 
as late as 1772, by the first George Croghan, it 
is extremely doubtful whether they were in 
such numbers as mentioned by the writer 
quoted at the beginning of this chapter. 

The first foothold established by the white 
man in Northwest Ohio was at a site not far 
from Port Clinton, and facing Sandusky Bay, 
on the Marblehead peninsula. It was on an 
old established portage where Indians and 
trappers crossed the mile or more of this 
peninsula in order to avoid the dangers that 
lurked around Marblehead point and the 

Monument Marking Site of Old Fort 


islands, and it also saved some fifty miles or 
more of travel. It is now known as the "de 
Lery portage," because of the leader of a 
French expedition in 1754, of which journals 
have been preserved. This was also one of 
the routes utilized by the French on their 
way from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. 
They carried their canoes around Niagara 
Falls, hugged the south shore of Lake Erie, 
and landed near here. Then they ascended 
the Sandusky River, and portaged to the Sci- 
oto on their southerly journeys. 

Fort Sandoski was erected on this spot by 
English traders who were conspiring with the 
famous Wyandot, Chief Nicholas, to drive the 



French from Detroit and all the upper posts. 
Thus it is that memories of French monks and 
traders are intertwined with visions of British 
redcoats. This was in the year 1745. It is 
said to be the first fort erected bj' white men 
in Ohio. The conspiracy of Nicholas, like that 
of Pontiac, a little later, failed through the 
treachery of one of his followers, who in this 
case was a woman. After his defeat Nicholas 
destroyed his fort and all his villages, and 
removed his warriors and their families to the 
Illinois country. 

It was in 1748 that old Fort Sandoski was 
destroyed, both the English and the Indians 
taking their departure. The French re-estab- 
lished their fort for a time, and we read from 
an old manuscript of an English captive as 
follows : ' ' The French go in three days from 
Fort Detroit to Fort Sandusky, which is a 
small palisaded fort with about twenty men, 
situated on the south side of Lake Erie and 
was built in the latter end of the year 1750." 
The English traders returned soon afterwards, 
however, which caused the French to send a 
formidable force to establish their possessions 
along the south shore of Lake Erie. As a re- 
sult, they built Fort Junandat in 1754, on the 
opposite side of Sandusky Bay from old Fort 

The fort was reconstructed by the British 
in 1751, after the surrender of Quebec, and 
was finally destroyed at the outbreak of 
Pontiac 's Conspiracy, on May 18, 1763. On 
this occasion the fort was burned and the 
entire garrison massacred with the exception 
of the commandant. Ensign Pauli, as related 
elsewhere. There he was given a punishment 
which may have been worse than that meted 
out to his compatriots, for he was condemned 
to many an Indian squaw. A British relief 
expedition arrived at this fort only to dis- 
cover the fort destroyed and the garrison 
massacred. Captain Dalyell was so incensed 
at the horribly disfigured bodies, that he 
delayed here long enough to make an excur- 

sion into the Indian country and destroyed 
the Wyandot camp at the Lower Falls of the 
Sandusky (now Fremont). 

In the following year Colonel Bradstreet 
entered Sandusky Bay and encamped a short 
distance west of the portage. The Indians 
failed to appear according to promise, and he 
proceeded with his troops up to the lower 
rapids to the Wyandot village. With this ex- 
pedition was Israel Putnam, who afterwards 
distinguished himself at Bunker Hill. During 
the Revolutionary war Samuel Brady, while 
on a scout, was captured near Fremont and 
sentenced to death at the stake. On the day 
assigned for the execution a large body of 
Indians assembled. But the withes with 
which he was bound were loosened and he 
found that he could free himself. A chief's 
squaw was near, so he caught her and threw 
her on the burning pile. In the confusion 
that followed Brady escaped. 

The "de Lery portage" was also used by 
General Harrison and his entire army in Sep- 
tember, 1813, when he moved his forces from 
Fort Seneca. Following his predecessors he 
hauled his vessels and supplies over this port- 
age. He constructed a fence the penin- 
sula in order to confine the thousands of 
horses, cows, et cetera, with his command, 
until he should return from his expedition 
across the lake. Here they were left guarded 
by a few soldiers. After the battle upon the 
Thames, tlie victorious army returned to Port 
Clinton, gathered up their horses, and started 
upon their homeward journey. The site of 
this old fort is now indicated by a pyramidal 
monument of boulders, which was dedicated 
on May 30, 1912, and on the four sides of 
which appear tablets with appropriate histori- 
cal inscriptions. It is believed that the exact 
site of old Fort Sandoski has been established. 
This was due to the painstaking work of 
Col. Webb C. Hayes and Charles W. Burrows 
in locating and studying the de Lery journals 
found in the Laval University, Quebec. In 



one of the journals maps were found, solar 
observations, and descriptions of the daily 

Tablet on Harrison-Perry Embarkation 


journeyings of the expedition that seem to 
have settled a matter long in doubt. The 
monument was placed there by the Ohio 

State Archaeological and Historical Society. 

From the time that the Caucasian first 
planted his foot in the lower Sandusky Valley, 
it became an important military center, and 
every narrative relating to the place is an 
enliglitening glimpse into the enemy's camp. 
At tliat time the Wyandots had corn fields all 
along the river bottom, which were cultivated 
by the squaws and boys, each family having 
an allotment with no fences separating them. 
The plains now covered by the lower part of 
the City of Fremont were cleared land when 
first seen by white men, and produced corn 
season after season. As much of this section 
of the state was an almost impenetrable 
swamp at certain seasons of the year, the San- 
dusky River, like the Maumee, became a com- 
mon thoroughfare for all the Indian tribes. 
War parties usually came to this point on 
foot or in canoes down the river. If captives 
were to be taken to the north from the interior, 
they were generally brought here and trans- 
ported in canoes to points in Detroit or 
Canada, where they were disposed of either 
to the French or to the English. Preceding 
and following, the Revolutionary War, more 
captives were brought here than to any other 
place in Ohio. Among the famous captives 
who passed through here in the custody of the 
aborigines were Daniel Boone and Simon 
Kenton, in the year 1778. The white savages, 
]\IcKee, Elliott, and Simon Girty, likewise 
journeyed this way on their journey to De- 
troit to join the notorious Hamilton and lead 
the red savages in their attacks upon the 

During the period of the Revolution a party 
of negroes were captured by the Indians in 
Virginia and brought to the Sandusky River, 
where they were held as slaves. They were 
placed in charge of a tract of land about 
four miles below Fremont, which they culti- 
vated for the Indians, and their help no doubt 
was very grateful to the squaws. Even to this 
day the name "Negro Point," or "Nigger 



Bend," is commonly applied to this particular 
spot along the river. 

At the beginning of the War of 1812, there 
was no such place as Fremont. There was a 
Government reservation here known as Lower 
Sandusky, which could hardly claim rank as 
a civilized town, for it was rather a village 

to all that section of the Sandusky River 
below an undefined line separating it from 
Upper Sandusky. It gradually came to be 
applied exclusively, however, to the town 
growing up around Fort Stephenson and 
within the reservation. In 1829, it was incor- 
porated by the Legislature as the "Town of 





l^t^ J^ 


^ ^ 

S. J^ll^[ ■ 


i \. 

^ f^% 






S % 



IB^- ^' 

Daniel Boone 

of Wyandot Indians than a settlement of 
white people. Its history dates from a treaty 
entered into at Fort Mcintosh, on the 21st of 
January, 1785, when a two-mile tract was 
ceded to the United States Government. Tliis 
was reaffirmed by the Treaty of Greenville. 
It is now comprised within the corporate 
limits of Fremont, and has constituted a dis- 
tinct military or civil jurisdiction since the 
date of the original treaty. The name Lower 
Sandusky was sometimes understood to apply 

Lower Sandusky," and, just a score of years 
later, the name was changed to Fremont. It 
is really a matter of regret that this historic 
place does not bear a designation connected 
in some way with its history. The change 
was made in order to avoid confusion over a 
name borne in some form or other by several 
other places within the state, and just at that 
time the name of General Fremont loomed 
large upon the horizon. 

Fort Stephenson was erected upon a pretty 



knoll overlooking the Sandusky River, which 
is novp occupied by the City Hall, the Birchard 
Library, and a monument. It would hardly 
be classed as a fort by modern military ex- 
perts, for it was nothing more than a feeble 
earth works, surrounded by a ditch and stock- 
ade, with a little blockhouse at one corner, 

and its tribes had been confederated through 
the genius of the master mind of Teeumseh. 
This Indian chieftain was a man of no ordi- 
nary power, and he had gathered together 
the aborigines in order to resist any farther 
advance of the whites. If a white man, he 
would rank high as a patriot. It was to meet 


which served as a sort of bastion to sweep the 
ditch. Its garrison was only a handful of 
men, as modern armies go, and its only artil- 
lery was a little six-pound gun, which could 
hardly be classed as a cannon by the side of a 
modern forty-two centimeter monster. 

There was at this time no legalized settle- 
ment of the Caucasians west of the newly 
established Village of Cleveland. The whole 
of Northwest Ohio was then Indian territory, 

such a condition that Fort Stephenson was 
built here at Lower Sandusky, on what was 
called the hostile (west) side of the river, so 
that a crossing might always be available for 
troops. It also promised to be a frontier 
place of importance, because of the oppor- 
tunity it afforded for trade with the Indians 
in times of peace, and a depot of supplies for 
interior settlements whenever they might be 
formed. It was named after Colonel Stephen- 



sou, who at one time eommauded the post, 
and it is supposed to have been coustrueted 
under his personal supei-vision in 1822. 

Like the usual fort, or stockade, in this 
heavily timbered section, the walls of Fort 
Stephenson were made of logs about 18 
inches thick and 10 feet or more in height, 
some of which were round and othei-s flat on 
one side. These logs were set perpendicularly 
in the earth, each one being crowded close 
against its neighbor and sharpened at the top. 
The entire enclosure measured about an acre. 
When Captain Crogan arrived at Fort 
Stephenson, he labored day and night to 
place it in a state of defense. He excavated 
a ditch several feet deep and about nine feet 
wide, throwing the earth against the foot of 
the pickets, and grading it sharply down to 
the bottom of the ditch. A little later the 
enclosure was doubled in size and, in order 
to prevent the enemy from scaling the walls, 
large logs were placed on top of the fort and 
so adjusted that the least weight would cause 
them to fall from their position upon any one 
attempting to clijnb over. 

As heretofore mentioned, Gen. William 
Henry Harrison had been placed in command 
of all the troops operating in Ohio. His head- 
quarters were at Fort Seneca, i or Seneca 
Town, as it is sometimes called, about nine 
miles up the river from Fort Stephenson. 
As his main stores were kept at Upper San-, this advantage of nine miles was of 
great advantage. General Harrison examined 
Fort Stephenson and the surrounding heights. 

and seriously considered the question of trans- 
ferring the fort to a more commanding emi- 
nence on the opposite side of the river. 
Captain Croghan expressed his willingness to 
make this change, but the order was never 
given by Harrison. That General Harrison 
did not consider Fort Stephenson strong 
enough to resist an attack of an enemy pro- 
vided with what was then considered heavy 
artillery was well known. 

Harrison expected that if the English at- 
tacked at all they would convey their forces 
by water from Detroit, and would bring with 
them artilleiy which would make Fort 
Stephenson untenable. It was because of this 
that he left with Croghan these orders: 
"Should the British troops approach you in 
force with cannon and you discover them in 
time to effect a retreat, j'ou will do so imme- 
diately, destroying all the public stores. You 
must be aware that an attempt to retreat in 
the face of an Indian force would be vain. 
Against such an enemy, your garrison would 
be safe, however great the number." 

In order to facilitate the assembling of his 
expected army, General Harrison had pro- 
ceeded to Fort Ferree, at what is now known 
as Upper Sandusky, from which place he 
hoped to be able to take the offensive against 
the enemy. His anticipated reinforcements 
were so slow in arriving, however, and the 
Indians were swarming so thickl.y in the 
woods, that he feared there would be an im- 
mediate attack upon either Fort Stephenson 

1 It was about the 1st of July, 1813, a detachment 
of men under the command of General Harrison 
erected a stockade upon the west bank of the Sandusky 
River, about eight miles above Lower Sandusky. To 
this was given the name of Camp Seneca. It was 
situated upon a bank about forty feet above the bed 
of the river and close to the old army road. It was 
built in the form of a square surrounded by pickets 
of oak timber a foot in thickness and twelve feet high, 
and included about an acre and a half of ground. 
Between this stockade and the river were several 
springs of water, one of which was inside of the pickets. 

A blockhouse was erected at the southwest corner, six- 
teen feet high and about twenty-five feet square. It 
consisted of large logs with port-holes for a cannon 
and small arms. There was a projection at the north- 
west corner, which was probably used as a ma|azine, 
and there were two small blockhouses at each of the 
other corners with port-holes. The timber has long 
since disappeared, but traces of the embankments and 
ditches can still be found. A marker, with an appro- 
priate inscription, has been placed on the site of the 
fort, which is within the present limits of the village 
called Fort Seneca. 



or Fort Seneca.^ He therefore called a 
council of war, consisting of his generals, and 
it was the unanimous opinion of these con- 
sellors that Fort Stephenson must inevitably 
fall in an attack by artillery, and as its reten- 
tion did not signify much, the garrison should 
be withdrawal and the place destroyed. This 
order was dispatched by a messenger accom- 
panied by a couple of Indians, but they lost 
their way and did not reach Fort Stephenson 
until 11 o'clock the n'ext day. As an addi- 
tional security, in the event of a disaster, a 
small stockade, known as Fort Ball, was con- 
structed several miles farther up the river, 
the site of which is now within the corporate 
limits of Tiffin. 

The order of General Harrison reads as 
follows: "Immediately on receiving this 
letter you will abandon Fort Stephenson, 
set fire to it, and repair with your command 
this night to headquarters. Cross the river 
and come up on the opposite side. If you 
should deem and ifind it impracticable to 
make good your march to this place, take the 
road to Huron, and pursue it with the utmost 
circumspection and dispatch." When Cro- 
ghan received this curt and peremptory com- 
mand, belated over night, he felt that a retreat 
could not be safely undertaken, for tlie 
Indians were already hovering around the fort 

in considerable numbers. For this reason, he 
sent back the following answer: "Sir, I have 
just received yours of yesterday, ten o'clock 
P. M., ordering me to destroy this place and 
make good my retreat, which was received 
too late to be carried into execution. We 
have determined to maintain this place, and 
By Heavens! we can." 

The tenor of this reply nearly cost Croghan 
his command. General Harrison was ex- 
tremely' angry, and summoned Croghan before 
him at Fort Seneca. At the same time, an- 
other officer was placed temporarily in 
command. But when the gallant Croghan 
appeared at headquarters and made his ex- 
planation, the commanding general's wrath 
was soon appeased. Croghan explained that 
he expected the dispatch would fall into the 
enemy 's hands, and he wished to impress upon 
them the danger of an assault. He again 
received orders to destroy the fort, but the 
swift approach of the enemy prevented their 

When Colonel Ball, with a squadron of 
about 100 horsemen, was escorting Colonel 
Wells, wlio was on his way to relieve Croghan 
of command, he fell in with a body of hostile 
savages, and fought what has since been called 
Ball's Battle, on the 20th of July. None of 
the troops were killed and only one was 

= While General Harrison was at Fort Seneea, he 
narrowly escaped being murdered by an Indian. A 
number of friendly Indians had joined Harrison's 
troops, and among these was one by the name of Blue 
Jacket, a Shawnee. He did this with a treacherous 
purpose. Before joining the troops, he had communi- 
cated his intention of killing the American general, 
said he, "even if I was sure that the guard would cut 
me into pieces not bigger than my thumb-nail. ' ' It 
was the good fortune of General Harrison that this 
confidant of Blue .Jacket was a young Delaware chief 
by the name of Beaver, who was also bound to the 
general by ties of friendship. The Beaver was in a 
quandary, as it was absolutely against the Indian prin- 
ciples to betray a confidant. While in a state of in- 
decision, Blue Jacket came up to the camp somewhat 
intoxicated, and this raised the Beaver to such a state 
of indignation that he seized his tomahawk, and, with 
one blow, stretched the unfortunate Blue Jacket at 
his feet. 

s That Croghan 's ability was fully ajppreciated is 
shown by the following letter from General Har- 
rison to Governor Meigs: 

Headquarters, Seneca Town, 2d August, 1813. 
Dear Sir: The enemy have been, since last even- 
ing, before Lower Sandusky, and are battering it 
with all their might. Come on, my friend, as quickly 
as possible, that we may relieve the brave fellows 
who are defending it. I had ordered it to be aban- 
doned. The order was not obeyed. I know it will 
be defended to the last extremity, for earth does not 
hold a set of finer fellows than Croghan and his 
officers. I shall expect you tomorrow certainly. 
Yours, etc., 




wounded, and that slightly. The scene of this 
engagement was about II/2 miles southwest of 
of Fremont. An old ash tree used to stand 
there upon which were several hacks, sig- 
nifying the number of Indians killed at this 
spot. The squadron were moving toward the 
fort when they were fired upon by the Indians 
in ambush. Ball immediately ordered a 
charge, and himself struck the first blow. 
He darted in between two savages and struck 
one down. Before the other could do him 
harm, another trooper shot him. Nearly all 
the savages, numbering about twenty, were 
killed in the encounter, and the forces then 
moved without further molestation to Fort 
Stephenson, where they arrived late in the 

The first sight of the approaching enemy 
was on the evening of the 31st of July, 1813. 
A reeonnoitering party that had been sent to 
the shore of the lake discovered enemy ves- 
sels approaching. They returned to the fort, 
and it was not many hours before the advance 
guard of the enemy made their appearance. 
There were at least 500 British regulars, vet- 
eran troops of European wars, and 1,000 or 
2,000 Indians, according to the best reports. 
As soon as the Indians appeared on the hill 
across the river, they were saluted by a charge 
from the six-pounder, which soon caused them 
to retire. Shortly after the British gunboats 
hove in sight, Indians showed themselves in 
every direction, demonstrating that the entire 
fort was surrounded, and a retreat was abso- 
lutely impossible. The gun was fired a few 
times at the gunboats and the shots were re- 
turned by the enemy, but without any serious 
damage resulting on either side. The British 
troops landed about a mile below the fort. 

"While looking out from his post of obser- 
vation Croghan noticed two of the enemy 
approaching under a flag of truce. He imme- 
diately despatched Ensign Shipp to meet them 
and receive the message. The purpose was 
correctly divined. "What shall the answer be? 

He gazed around at his intrepid little band of 
160 men. His eye fell upon old Betsy, as yet 
almost untried. He surveyed his surround- 
ings. The British were plainly visible down 
the river, and he had witnessed their guns 
being dragged into strategic positions. The 
befeathered heads of the dusky warriors might 
be seen dodging here and there at the edge of 
the forests. Shall I surrender, or shall I trust 
to fate? The gallant Irishman hesitated not. 
Ensign Shipp was fully informed of the de- 

"I am instructed by General Proctor to 
demand the surrender of the fort," began 
Major Chambers after the usual exchange of 

Shipp replied that the commandant of the 
fort and its garrison were determined to de- 
fend it to the last extremity, and that no force, 
however great, could induce them to surren- 
der. They were resolved to maintain their 
post or bury themselves in the ruins. 

"But," expostulated Dickson, who accom- 
panied Chambers, "General Proctor is anxious 
to avoid the effusion of human blood. It 
would be a pity for so fine a young man to 
fall into the hands of the savages. Our In- 
dians cannot be restrained in the event of 
success for our arms. Sir! for God's sake, 
surrender, and prevent the dreadful massacre 
that will be caused by your resistance." 

"Sir," was the ensign's reply, "the com- 
mander says that when the fort is taken, 
there will be no survivors left to massacre. It 
will not be given up so long as there is a man 
able to resist." 

"With these words the parley ended, and the 
men retired to their respective lines. The 
enemy promptly opened fire with their how- 
itzer and six-pounders, the firing continuing 
throughout the night with little intermission, 
and with little effect as well. The Indians 
were in charge of Dickson, but the entire force 
was under the command of General Proctor in 
person. Tecumseh was stationed on the road 



to Fort Meigs, with a couple of thousand In- 
dians for the purpose of intercepting the 
reinforcements expected by that route. Dur- 
ing the battle Croghan occasionally fired his 
six-poimder, changing its position from time 
to time in order to convey the impression that 
he had several cannon. As it was producing 
very little execution, and in order to preserve 
his ammunition, however, he eventually dis- 
continued firing the gun. From apparent 

sand and flour, and whatever else was avail- 
able. Late in the evening of that day, when 
the fort was almost completely enveloped by 
smoke from the guns, the enemy proceeded to 
make an assault. A couple of feints were at- 
tempted from the southern angle, but at the 
same time a column of several hundred men 
was discovered advancing through the smoke 
toward the northwestern angle, as anticipated 
by Captain Croghan. Tramp, tramp, tramp 












^-T -' 


Attack ox Fort Stephenson 

indications he decided that the enemy would 
attack the fort from the northwest angle. 
Hence it was that he removed his six-pounder 
to a blockhouse, from which he could cover 
this angle. The embrasure thus made was 
masked; the piece was loaded with half a 
charge of powder, and a double charge of slugs 
and grape shot. 

After landing the howitzer and six-pounders 
during the night, the British commander 
planted them in a point of the woods distant 
about 250 yards from the fort. Croghan 
promptly strengthened his little fort in that 
direction as much as possible with bags of 

came the advancing columns of British vet- 
erans through the dense smoke of their artil- 
lery. It was only when the columns were 
quite near that the men could be distinguished 
by the besieged. They were then thrown into 
confusion by a galling fire of musketrj^ di- 
rected towards them from the fort. Colonel 
Short, who was at the head of the advancing 
column, soon rallied his men, however, and led 
them with commendable bravery to the brink 
of the ditch. Pausing for a moment, he leaped 
into the ditch and called upon his men to 
follow him. 

"Cut away the pickets, my brave boys, and 



show the d — d Yankees no quarter," Short 
shouted, and his words were carried across 
the palisades. 

In a few minutes the ditch was filled with 
men. Then it was that the masked porthole 
was opened and the six-pounder, at a distance 
of only thirty feet, poured such destruction 
upon the closely packed body of "red coats" 
that few were fortunate enough to escape. 
This brief assault, which lasted about half an 
hour, cost the British twenty-seven lives, in- 
cluding two officers. Colonel Short, who him- 
self had been telling his men to give the 
Americans no quarter, fell mortally wounded. 
A handkerchief raised on the end of his sword 
was a mute appeal for the mercy which he 
had a few moments before denied to the 

A precipitate retreat of the enemy followed 
this bloody encounter. The column approach- 
ing from the other side was also routed by a 
destructive fire. The whole of the attacking 
troops then fled into an adjoining woods, 
where they were beyond the reach of the guns 
of the fortress. The loss of the British and 
Indians was 150, including about twenty-six 
prisoners, most of them badly wounded. The 
casualties of the garrison were one man killed 
and seven slightly wounded. The one man 
who was killed met his death because of his 
recklessness, by reason of his desire to shoot 
a red coat. For this purpose he had climbed 
on the top of the blockhouse, and, while peer- 
ing over to spot his victim, a cannon ball took 
off his head. 

This long planned and carefully arranged 
assault by a powerful enemy lasted less than 
an hour. With it the storm cloud which had 
been hovering over this section passed north- 
ward and westward. At the same time Napo- 
leon, at the head of 100,000 men, was 
approaching Dresden, where he defeated an 
army of the allied forces half again as large. 
And yet, here on the banks of the peaceful 
Sandusky, not on the famous Elbe, utterly 

devoid of the pomp and circumstances of gi- 
gantic war, was fought a battle for freedom 
and democratic government which meant 
more for the world than the battles of Napo- 
leon at the contemporaneous period. The 
bravery of this American boy and his daunt- 
less band exceeded in results for the better- 
ment of humanity and the advance of 
civilization all the campaigns waged by the 
Corsican and his antagonists. Croghan gath- 
ered together his gallant little band, uttering 
words of praise and grateful thanksgiving. 
As darkness had gathered, he feared to open 
the gates of the fort because of the lurking 

"Water! Water!" came the pitiful appeal 
from the ditch filled with the dead and dying. 
But Captain Croghan hesitated to throw open 
the gates, not knowing what the enemy might 
be planning. At first he contrived to convey 
water over the pickets in buckets for their 
relief. As the darkness became more intense, 
the sounds and confusion of arms died away. 
It was not all silence, however, for the cry 
of "Water!" was still heard in the ditch. As 
the silence deepened, the groans of the 
wounded in the ditch fell upon Croghan 's 
ears and aroused his sympathy. He could not 
rest. A trench was hastily dug, through which 
those of the wounded who were able to crawl 
were encouraged to enter the little fort and 
their necessities were willingly supplied. Be- 
fore daybreak the entire British and Indian 
forces began a disorderly retreat. So great 
was their haste that they abandoned a sailboat 
filled with clothing and military stores, while 
some seventy stands of arms and braces of 
pistols were gathered about the fort. Their 
departure was hastened by apprehension of 
an attack by General Harrison from Fort 
Seneca, of whose whereabouts they were well 
informed. Croghan immediately sent word to 
Harrison of his victory and the departure of 
the enemy, and it was not long, until Harri- 
son himself was on the road to Fort Steph- 



enson. He reached the fort early on the 
following morning, with a considerable force 
of infantry and dragoons. Finding that Te- 
cumseh had retreated to a position near Fort 
Meigs, he sent his infantry back to Fort Se- 
neca lest that wily chief should attack that 
place and intercept the small bodies of rein- 
forcements that were approaching. 

"It will not be among the least of General 

ing that he was a native of Kentucky, and 
~was born near Louisville, in 1791. He had 
entered the service as a private in 1811, and 
had taken an active part in the battle of Tip- 
pecanoe. He again distinguished himself in 
the memorable siege of Fort Meigs, and in 
July, 1813, was placed in command at Fort 
Stephenson. He was made inspector general 
of the army in 1825, and in that capacity 

Medal Presented to George Croghan by Congress 

Proctor's mortifications that he has been 
baffled by a youth who has just passed his 
twenty-first year, ' ' wrote General Harrison in 
his official report. The rank of lieutenant- 
colonel was immediately conferred upon 
Croghan by the President of the United 
States for his courageous defense on this occa- 
sion. His gallantry was further acknowl- 
edged by a joint resolution of Congress, 
approved in February, 1835, and by which he 
was ordered to be presented with a gold medal, 
and a sword was awarded to each of the 
officers under his command. Of the life of 
Colonel Croghan very little is known, except- 

served with General Taylor in Mexico in the 
war with that country. He died in New 
Orleans in 1849. In 1906 his remains were 
reinterred at Fremont, on the site of old Fort 
Stephenson, and his resting-place is marked 
by a large block of granite, bearing an ap- 
propriate inscription. 

The old cannon employed in the defense 
of Fort Stephenson was familiarly called 
"Betsy" by the soldiers. After the war it 
was sent to the Government arsenal at Pitts- 
burg, and remained there until about 1851. 
At this time some citizens of Fremont con- 
ceived the design of procuring the old gun as 



a reUc, and restoring it to the place which it 
had so greatly aided to defend. One of the 
soldiers, who had served with the defending 
army, was sent on a search to identify it be- 
cause of some peculiar markings. After per- 
sistent efforts he succeeded in establishing its 
identity, and the gun was ordered to Lower 
Sandusky. As there were several Sanduskys, 
however, it was sent by mistake to Sandusky 
City. The citizens of that city refused to give 
it up, and, in order to prevent the Fremont 
people from obtaining possession, the gun was 
buried under a barn. It was finally uncov- 

the greatest respect. Little children now play 
around "Old Betsy," the birds frequently lo- 
cate their nests within her mouth, and visitors 
lay curious hands upon her. She is the only 
survivor of that two-days' fight, the only one 
left that faced the oncoming veterans under 
General Braddoek. 

"Old Betsy" 

' ' Hail ! thou old friend, of Fort McGee, 
Little did I expect again to see. 
And hear thy voice of victory, 
Thou defender of Ohio! 


^ -^mm 


I^^^^^HniQ^S^ ^^ 


'Old Betsev," the Famous Cannon Used in Defense of Fort Stephenson 

ered, however, and brought back to its present 
resting place. Gen. William H. Gibson, the 
silvery-tongued orator of Tiffin, accompanied 
the fire department of that city to Fremont, 
and delivered a stirring address while clad in 
the red shirt and white trousers of that 

At a celebration held on the 2d of August, 
1852, Thomas L. Hawkins, a well known Meth- 
odist local preacher and the town poet, read 
a poem addressed to this cannon, in which it 
was referred to as "Old Betsy." This name 
has stood by the old cannon ever since, and it 
is an appellation which is always applied with 

' ' 1 wonder who it was that sought thee. 
To victory 's ground again hath brought thee 
From strangers' hands at length hath caught 
thee ; 
He is a friend to great Ohio. 

"He is surely worthy of applause, 
To undertake so good a cause, 
Although a pleader of her laws, 
And statutes of Ohio. 

"What shame thy blockhouse is not standing. 
Thy pickets as at first commanding, 
Protecting Sandusky's noble landing, 
The frontier of Ohio! 



"Thy pickets, alas! are all iinreared. 
No faithful sentinel on guard, 
Nor band of soldiers well prepared. 
Defending great Ohio. 

"And how Tecumseh lay behind you; 
With vain attempts he tried to blind you. 
And unprepared, he'd tind you, 
And lead you from Ohio. 

"Where have the upthrown ditches gone, 
By British cannon rudely torn? 
Alas! with grass they are o'er grown. 
Neglected by Ohio. 

"Perhaps like Hamlet's ghost, you've come, 
This da.y to celebrate the fame 
Of Croghau's honored, worthy name, 
The hero of Ohio. 

"0 tell me where thy chieftains all — 
Croghan, Dudley, Miller, Ball, 
Some of whom I know did fall 
In defending of Ohio. 

"Canst thou not tell how Proctor swore, 
When up yon matted turf he tore, 
Which shielded us from guns a score. 
He poured upon Ohio? 

"I greet thee! Thou art just in time 
To tell of victory most sublime, 
Though told in unconnected rhyme; 
Thou art welcome in Ohio. 

"But since thou canst thyself speak well, 
Now let thy thundering voice tell 
What bloody carnage then befell 
The foes of great Ohio." 

(And then she thundered loud.) 



"U. S. Brig Niagara, off the Western 
Sister, September 10, 1813, 4 P. M. 

"Dear General: We have met the enemy 
and they are ours — two brigs, one schooner, 
and a sloop. Yours with great respect and 

' ' Oliver Hazard Perry. ' ' 

This message sent to General Harrison by 
Commodore Perry, only an hour after the 
surrender of the British fleet, electrified the 
United States. It was penciled on the back 
of an old letter spread out on his hat by 
that doughty officer. This victory on the 
waters of Lake Erie, near the shores of the 
island known as Put-in-Bay, was the greatest 
naval engagement that has ever taken place 
on the Great Lakes, and in accomplishment it 
ranks among the most important victories 
ever achieved by an American naval com- 

Elsewhere has been related the bold design 
of General Harrison to destroy by explosives 
the British fleet as it lay at Maiden, through 
an expedition conducted by Captain Langham. 
The expedition was abandoned at Middle 
Sister Island, because of the threatened 
breaking up of the ice. Although the defeat 
of General Proctor by Major Croghan de- 
stroyed all prospect of British invasion of 
Ohio, and ended all active land service within 
its boundaries, the waters of Lake Erie were 
still in the possession of the enemy. 

While General Harrison and the officers 
under him were achieving their victories in- 
land along the Maumee and the Sandusky, 
the construction of an American fleet of war 
vessels was in process of building at Erie, 
Pennsylvania, in order to co-operate with the 

land forces in offensive operations. This 
important undertaking was entrusted to our 
hero, Oliver Hazard Perry, then a liavy cap- 
tain at Newport, Rhode Island, and only 
twenty-eight years of age. It is claimed that 
the idea originated with him. He was the son 
of Christopher R. Perry, a distinguished 
naval officer of the Revolution. His training 
from boyhood had been on the sea, and he had 
participated in the Tripolitan war. It was 
his judgment that Lake Erie was the place 
where Great Britain could be struck a severe 
blow. Within twenty-four hours after his 
order to proceed was received, in February, 
1813, he had dispatched a preliminary detach- 
ment of fifty men, and, after a few days, he 
himself followed. We are informed that 
Perry was five weeks on the way, traveling 
mostly in sleighs through the wilderness to 
Erie, Pennsylvania. There was nothing at 
Erie out of which vessels could be constructed, 
excepting an abundance of timber still stand- 
ing in the neighboring forests. Shipbuilders, 
naval stores, sailors, and ammunition must be 
transported over fearful roads from Albany, 
by way of Buffalo, or from Philadelphia, by 
the way of Pittsburgh. It was indeed a dis- 
couraging situation that confronted the youth- 
ful officer. 

Under all these embarrassments, and ham- 
pered as he was in every -way, by the 1st of 
August, 1813, Commodore Perry had provided 
a flotilla consisting of the ships Lawrence and 
Niagara, of twenty guns each, and seven 
smaller vessels, to-wit: the Ariel, of four 
guns; the Caledonia, of three; the Scorpion 
and Somers, with two guns each, and three of 
one gun each, named Tigress, Porcupine, and 




Trip. In all, he had an offensive battery of 
fifty-four guns. While the ships were being 
built the enemy frequently appeared off the 
harbor and threatened their destruction; but 
the shallowness of the waters on the bar — 
there being but five feet — prevented their 
near approach. The same obstacle, which in- 
sured the safety of the ships while building, 
seemed to prevent their becoming of any 
service, for the two largest vessels drew 
several feet more water than there was on the 
bar. The inventive genius of Commodore 
Perry, however, whom no ordinary obstacle 
seemed to daunt, soon surmounted this diffi- 
culty. He placed large scows on each side of 
the two largest ships, filled them so as to sink 
to the water edge, then attached them to the 
ships by strong pieces of timber, and pumped 
out the water. The scows thus buoyed up 
the ships so that they floated over the bar in 
safety. This operation was performed on both 
the large ships in the presence of a superior 

Having gotten his fleet in readiness, Com- 
modore Perry promptly proceeded to the head 
of Lake Erie and anchored at Put-in-Bay, 
opposite to and distant about thirty miles 
from Maiden, where the British fleet rested 
under the protection of the guns of the fort. 
He remained at anchor here several days, 
closely watching the movements of the enemy, 
and determined to give them battle at the 
first favorable opportunity. On August 17th 
he was visited by General Harrison, who came 
aboard the Lawrence, Perry's flagship. On 
the 10th of September, at sunrise, the British 
fleet, consisting of one ship of nineteen guns, 
one of seventeen, one of thirteen, one of ten, 
one of three, and one of one — amounting to 
sixty-three in all, and exceeding the Ameri- 
cans by ten guns, under the command of 
Commodore Barclay, an officer who had seen 
service under the great Lord Nelson, appeared 
off Put-in-Bay and distant about ten miles. 
These vessels in the above order were named 
Detroit, Queen Charlotte, Lady Prevost, 

Hunter, Little Belt, and Chippewa. Commo- 
dore Perry immediately weighed anchor, 
having a light breeze from the southwest. 
At 10 o'clock the wind changed to the south- 
east, which brought the American squadron to 
the windward, and gave them the weather- 
gauge. Commodore Perry, on board the 
Lawrence, then hoisted his ensign, having for 
a motto the dying words of Captain Law- 
rence, "Don't Give Up the Ship," which was 

Perry's Battle Flag 

received with repeated cheers by the crew. 
Before hoisting the ensign, he turned to his 
crew and said: "My brave lads, this flag 
contains the last words of Captain Lawrence. 
Shall I hoist it?" The answer came from 
all parts of the ship, " Ay ! ay ! Sir ! " The act 
of raising it was met with the hearty cheers 
of the men. 

Perry formed his line of battle, and started 
for the enemy. The British commander at 
the same time changed his course and pre- 
pared for action. The day was a beautiful 
one, without a cloud on the horizon. The 
lightness of the wind enabled the hostile 
squadrons to approach each other but slowlj', 
and for two hours the solemn interval of sus- 
pense and anxiety which precedes a battle 



was prolonged. The order and regularity of 
naval discipline heightened the ominous quiet 
of the moment. There was no noise to distract 
the mind, except at intervals when the shrill 
pipings of the boatswain's whistle was heard, 
or a murmuring whisper among the men who 
stood around their guns with lighted matches. 
The sailors were closely watching the move- 
ments of the foe, and occasionally stealing a 
glance at the countenances of their com- 
manders. In this manner the hostile fleets 

of the British in long range guns, their fire 
was found to be the most destructive. It 
was chiefly directed against the flagship 
Lawrence, the foremost ship, and the one in 
which the commander sailed. Because of this 
fact he was induced to make every exertion to 
get in close range of the enemy, directing the 
other vessels to follow his example. In a 
short time every brace and bowline of the 
Lawrence was shot away, and she became un- 
manageable. In this situation she sustained 


Perry's Victory at Put-in-Bay 
From a painting in Ohio State Capitol 

gradually neared each other without a gun 
being fired. 

The American commander, as we have seen, 
was young. He had never heard the thunder 
of a hostile ship, but he was versed in the 
theory of naval war. Endowed with the 
courage and enterprise of an American free- 
man, he was ready and eager for the contest 
with a foe superior in force and experience. 
At 11 :45 the enemy opened his fire, as the 
British band played the martial air, "Rule 
Brittania;" but it was not returned for ten 
minutes by the American fleet, because it was 
inferior in long range guns. Then the battle 
began on both sides. Owing to the superiority 

the conflict upwards of two hours, within the 
range of canister shot, until every gun was 
rendered useless, and the greater part of her 
crew were either killed or wounded. Perry 
himself, assisted "hy his chaplain and the 
purser, discharged the last shot. Then it was 
that Perry conceived the perilous design of 
leaving her and passing in an open boat to 
the Niagara, as the lightness of the wind had 
long prevented her and the lighter vessels 
from coming to close action. Fortunately, 
one might almost say providentially, at 2 :30 
the wind raised and enabled the captain of 
the Niagara to bring her up in gallant style. 
Perry then entrusted the Lawrence to the 



command of Lieutenant Yarnell, and pro- 
ceeded toward the Niagara, standing erect in 
an open boat bearing his flag with the motto, 
"Don't give up the ship." His men, more 
careful of his life, pulled him down by main 
force from the dangers of the incessant fire 
directed at him by the enemy. A number of 
guns were fired at it and several oars were 
splintered, but no one in it was injured. 

Safely landed on board the Niagara, Perry 
could look across at the Lawrence, now a mere 
wreck. Its decks were streaming with blood 
and covered with the mangled bodies and 
limbs of those slain in the sanguinary struggle 
for supremacy. Nearly the whole of the crew 
were either killed or wounded, but the rem- 
nant gave them hearty cheers as they saw the 
suggestive emblem flung to the breeze on the 
Niagara. Perry was greatly agitated, and 
expressed his fears to Captain Elliot that the 
day was lost because the light wind prevented 
the other vessels from approaching nearer to 
the enemy. As the breeze again stiffened, 
Captain Elliot volunteered to bring up the 
other ships. He embarked in a small boat, 
exposed to the gunfire of the enemy, and was 
thoroughly water soaked from the spray 
thrown up by the shots fired at him. He was 
uninjured, however, and succeeded in bring- 
ing up the remotest vessels so that they could 
participate in the final encounter. Protected 
by the stouter vessels, they poured in a de- 
structive fire of grape and canister, wreaking 
the most terrible destruction upon the enemy. 

Commodore Perry now scented victory. 
Promptly he gave the signal to all the boats 
for close action. The small vessels, under the 
command of Captain Elliot, set all their sails. 
Finding that the Niagara had been only 
slightly injured, the commander determined 
upon the bold and desperate expedient of 
breaking the enemy's line. Accordingly he 
bore up and passed the head of three of the 
enemy ves.sels, giving them a raking fire from 
his starboard guns, at the same time firing 
upon two other .ships from his larboard quar- 

ter at close range. He raked with destruc- 
tive broadsides the Queen Charlotte and the 
Detroit. ' ' Having gotten the whole squadron 
into action he lutfed and laid his ship along- 
side of the British commodore. The small 
vessels having now got up within good grape 
and canister distance on the other quarter, 
enclosed the enemy between them and the 
Niagara, and in this position kept up a most 
destructive fire on both quarters of the British 
until every ship struck her colors." The 
enemy stood the punishment just as long as 
he could. 

"Cease firing," came the order from Perry, 
as he saw the white flag. "Call away a boat, 
and put me on board the Lawrence. I will 
receive the surrender there. ' ' 

The entire engagement lasted about three 
hours, and never was a victory more decisive 
and complete. It was ascertained that more 
prisoners had been taken than there were men 
on board the American squadron at the close 
of the action. The greatest loss in killed and 
wounded was on board the Lawrence, before 
the other vessels were brought into action. 
Of her crew, twenty-two had been killed and 
sixty wounded. At the time her flag was 
struck, only a score of men remained on deck 
fit for duty. The killed on board all the 
other vessels numbered only five, and there 
were thirty-six wounded. The British loss 
must have been much more considerable. 
Commodore Barclay was dangerously 
wounded. He had lost one arm in the battle 
of Trafalgar, and the other was now rendered 
useless by the loss of a part of his shoulder- 
blade. He had also received a severe wound 
in the hip. 

To General Harrison, Perry sent the dis- 
patch heretofore given, but to the secretary of 
the navy he forwarded the following : 

"Sir — It has pleased the Almighty to give 
to the arms of the United States a signal vic- 
tory over their enemies on this lake. The 
British squadron, consisting of two ships, two 
brigs, one schooner, and one sloop, have this 



moment surrendered to the force under my 
command, after a sharp conflict. 

"I have the honor to be, sir, 

"Your obedient servant, 

"0. H. Perry." 

In his official dispatch. Commodore Perry 
speaks in the highest terms of respect and 
pity for his wounded antagonist, and requests 
permission to grant him an immediate parole. 
Of Captain Elliot, the second officer in com- 
mand, he says: "That he is already so well- 
known to the government that it would be 

ing in exact time with the notes of the solemn 
dirge — the mournful waving of the flags, the 
sound of the minuteguns from all the ships, 
the wild and solitary aspect of the place, gave 
to these funeral rites a most impressive in- 
fluence and formed an affecting contrast with 
the terrible conflict of the preceding day. 
Then the people of the two squadrons were 
engaged in the deadly strife of arms; now 
they were associated as brothers to pay the 
last tribute of respect to the slain of both 
nations. Two American officers, Lieutenant 

Perry 's Willow — Put-in-Bay 
Marks site where some of his men were buried — Tree planted soon after the famous battle. 

almost superfluous to speak. In this action 
he evinced his characteristic bravery and 
judgment, and since the close of it has given 
me the most able and essential assistance." 

Immediately after the action, the slain of 
the crews of both squadrons were committed 
to the waters of Lake Erie. On the following 
day the funeral obsequies of the American 
and British officers who had fallen during the 
engagement took place at an opening on the 
margin of the bay, in an appropriate and 
affecting manner. The crews of both fleets 
united in the ceremony. ' ' The stillness of the 
weather, the procession of boats, the music — ■ 
the slow and regular motion of the oars strik- 

Brooks and Midshipman Laub, of the Law- 
rence, and three British officere. Captain Fin- 
nis and Lieutenant Stoke, of the Charlotte, 
and Lieutenant Garland, of the Detroit, lie 
interred by the side of each other in this 
lonely place on the margin of the lake, a few 
paces from the beach." 

At the time of the engagement, General 
Harrison was at his headquarters at Fort 
Seneca. A couple of days later, just as he 
was about to set out for Lower Sandusky, 
filled with anxiety for the fleet because he had 
received reports of a terrific cannonading 
on the tenth, the short and laconic message of 
Commodore Perry reached him. The ex- 



hilarating news aroused Lower Sandusky and 
Fort Seneca to an uproar of joy. Harrison 
immediately set out for Lower Sandusky, 
and there he issued orders for the movement 
of his troops to the margin of the lake, pre- 
paratory to their embarkation for Canada. 
Perry's ships conveyed the army to the 
Canadian shore, and enabled them to com- 
pletely rout the British army, with their 
Indian allies, on the 5th of October. 

As time passes the victory of Commodore 
Perry assumes greater and greater propor- 
tions in the eyes of the students of history. 

of the heroism displayed as a struggle between 
man and man, it deserves to be remembered. 
The prowess in the seasoned sailors and the 
courage in the raw and unseasoned men from 
the shore are worthy of a high place in the 
annals of the nation. 

One hundred years later a national cele- 
bration was held at Put-in-Bay, when there 
was dedicated a noble and lofty monument in 
commemoration of the great victory of Com- 
modore Perry. It was attended by President 
Taft and other high officials of the United 
States, as well as by notable Canadian dele- 

Perry's Victory Monument, Put-in-Bay 

This is not because of the numbers of vessels 
or men engaged. In the light of modern war- 
fare, judged by the standard of the super- 
dreadnaught, and its monster guns, it was a 
small affair. Nine small sailing vessels on 
the one side and six on the other, with prob- 
ably 1,000 men all told, the greater part of 
whom were not even seamen — such were the 
forces that met at Put-in-Bay. One gun from 
a modem man-of-war would throw more metal 
in one charge than an entire broadside from 
the 117 guns of the opposing fleets. It is by 
its results that the action must be judged. 
It cleared the waters of Lake Erie of hostile 
vessels, and rendered possible the invasion 
of Canada that followed. Likewise, because 

gates, who came here in a spirit of fraternity. 
Today an imposing shaft, visible for scores 
of miles on every side, stands as a monument 
to the heroism and achievement of Commodore 
Perry and his gallant sailors. It is indeed 
fitting that the simple story of the valor and 
the sacrifice of the brave men, who fell in the 
great battle on Lake Erie, should thus be per- 
petuated in enduring marble and bronze, in 
order that the future generations of Ameri- 
cans may have kindled afresh in their breasts 
the love of our common country and loyalty 
to the republic founded bj' our fathei's and 
sustained by their sons in the dark hours of 
adversity and trial. 



While this section of our great country was 
only an indistinguishable part of the expan- 
sive wilderness beyond the Alleghenies, and 
long prior to the coming of his paler rival, 
Northwest Ohio was a red man 's paradise. Its 
softly swelling prairies, its picturesque 
streams, its blue lake, constituted an ideal 
home for the savage hunters and warriors. 
One vast and almost continuous forest covered 
the greater part of the fertile soil, as the 
grass carpets a well-kept lawn. Yet this pro- 
lific wilderness, teeming with latent fertility, 
was but a hunting ground and a battlefield 
for a few fierce tribes of savages. Here and 
there, in some open ground, the dusky squaws 
turned back the black mould with the crudest 
of implements fashioned out of bone and iron, 
in which they planted small fields of maize 
and beans. Beyond this no other tribute was 
demanded from the almost inexhaustible soil 
by the ignorant children of the forest, and 
nature itself provided their sustenance. It 
would seem as if the words of Gitche Manito 
were written especially to apply to the red 
men residing in Northwest Ohio: 

' ' I have given you lands to hunt in, 
I have given you streams to fish in, 
I have given you bear and bison, 
I have given you roe and reindeers, 
I have given you brant and beaver. 
Filled the marshes full of wild fowl, 
Filled the rivers full of fishes; 
Why then are you not contented? 
Why then will you hunt each other?" 


P'rom the watershed near the center of the 
state, ample streams ran northward toward 
great Lake Erie, and seamed the forest with 
their devious windings. They were navigable 
for canoes during the entire year, except for 
a short winter season, and the portages were 
short between these streams and those flow- 
ing south, so that the savage could easily 
transport his light bark canoe and pack be- 
tween them. They clung to these favorite 
haunts with the love of patriots, and the 
tenacity of savage despair. One can in imag- 
ination see these dusky inhabitants of the 
woods stealing their way beneath the shad- 
ows of the primeval forest, or silently driving 
their canoes under the overarching branches 
of the Sandusky, or the Maumee, or the Au- 
glaize. If it was a marauding party, the war- 
whoop might suddenly break the primeval 
solitude, while the warriors would i-end the 
air with their hideous shouts over the scalps 
which they soon snatched from the bleeding 
heads of their victims. The crash of falling 
forests and the columns of ascending smoke 
proclaimed the sure and steady advance of 
the white settlers. The sight filled the red 
men's untutored nature with rage and cruelty. 
Again and again was the frontier land rav- 
aged by the tomahawk, the knife, and the 
rifle. The air was darkened by the smoke 
of burning homes, where the firebrand had 
been applied. The Indians had no forum in 
which to try their titles to the land, except 
the court of force, which was to them the 
tribunal of last resort. It was a trial by wager 



of battle, wherein the argiiments were made 
by the rifle, the tomahawk, and the scalping 
knife, and not by the mouthings of paid ad- 

Nearly all the tribes residing in Ohio were 
of the Algonquin stock, although the Wyau- 
dots can be traced back to the Iroquois. The 
total number of Indians residing in Ohio at 
the time of the incoming of their successors 
was not great, as we reckon numbers today. 
At the time of Pontiac's Conspiracy, it was 

they were most numerous one might journey 
for days together through the twilight forests 
without encountering a single human form. 
Large tracts were left in absolute solitude 
and inhabited by wild beasts alone. Escaped 
captives have traveled from the Lower San- 
dusky River to Wheeling or Pittsburg in day- 
time without casting eyes upon a single 
liuman being. 

There were many Indian tribes resident in 
Northwest Ohio. In fact, tribal relations 

Indians in Canoes 

estimated that 15,000 Indians lived in OJiio, 
who were capable of putting 3,000 warriors 
on the warpath. ^More than one-half of these 
doubtless resided in Northwest Ohio, for none 
made their homes along the Ohio River. This 
probably coufliets with the prevalent notion 
that the forests literally swarmed with sav- 
ages. There were a few Indian villages, many 
isolated groups of lodges in the forests, which 
were the homes of hunters, and narrow trails 
that wound their way among the trees and 
bushes. So thin and scattered was this native 
population, that even in those parts where 

were constantly changing among the aborig- 
ines. Tribe was giving place to tribe, lan- 
guage was yielding to language all over the 
country. Immutable as were the red men 
in respect to social and individual develop- 
ment, the tribal relations and local haunts 
were as transitional as the winds. The Indian 
population, which the French found at Mont- 
real on their aiTival there, had disappeared at 
the opening of the next century, and had been 
succeeded by an entirely different tribe. The 
Hurons, or AVyandots, were scattered during 
the French occupation of Canada, through the 



animosity of the Iroquois. The Eries along 
the southern shores of Lake Erie had been 
exterminated by the same implacable foes. 
Thus the tribe that implanted its name upon 
our own expansive lake melted away like a 
dream. The tribal blood was constantly being 
diluted by the adoption of prisoners, whether 
white or red. In fact, it was the policy of 
many tribes to replenish their losses in war 
by adopting the young braves captured from 
the enemy. Likewise, the wandering French 

were all the savages, the Shawnees bear oflf 
the palm for restlessness, and they were the 
equal of any in their undying hostility to the 
whites. They had wandered from the waters 
of Lake Erie to the warm shores of the Gulf 
of Mexico. Prior to that they are known to 
have been along the Delaware River. They 
were a party to the famous Penn Treaty, held 
under the great elm in 1632. Marquette 
speaks of meeting them during his missionary 
travels in the Northwest. 

Old Shawnee Council House near Lima, Built in 1831 

traders and coureurs de bois had left an infu- 
sion of the Celtic blood in almost every tribe. 

The Shawnees 

The Shawanees, Shawanos, or Shawnees 
(the latter spelling is adopted in this work), 
were a tribe that command considerable atten- 
tion in a history of Northwest Ohio: The 
French called them Chaouanons. Fearless 
and restless, wary and warlike, they were the 
vagrants of the trackless forests. La Salle 
had been warned of their ferocity by the 
Jesuits. They were ever seeking new fields 
for conquest or opportunity. Nomadic, as 

"From the watei-s of the northern lakes to 
the sandy beach washed by the temperate 
tides of the Mexican Gulf — from the Valley 
of the Susquehanna to the gloomy cottonwood 
forests of the Mississippi — in forests grand 
and gloomy with the stately growth of ages — 
in the prairie, blossoming with beauty, and 
fragrant with the breath of a thousand sweets 
— by mountain torrents, or shaded springs, or 
widespread plains — the Shawnee sought the 
turkey, the deer, and the bison; and, almost 
from the landing of the whites at Jamestown, 
his favorite game w-as the cunning and ava- 
ricious pale- face." 

They were proud and haughty, and consid- 



ered themselves superior to the others. The 
Shawnee traditions said that the Creator made 
them before any other tribe or people, and that 
from them all red men were descended. Their 
arrogant pride and warlike ferocity made 
them the most formidable of all the nations 
with which the white settlers had to contend 
in Ohio. They reveled in their prowess and 
cunning. When driven from the Carolinas 
and Georgia, the Shawnees decided to repos- 
sess their former hunting grounds. Instead 
of resorting to force, however, they betook 
themselves to diplomacy. At a council of 
reconciliation, they were given permission to 
settle on the lands of the Miamis and Wyan- 
dots. They first established them.selves along 
the Scioto, and later along the Auglaize and 
Miami. This matter of ownership was raised 
by both the Miamis and Wyandots at the 
Greenville Treaty, but the Government gave 
the Shawnees equal recognition with the 
other tribes. 

When the Miamis moved to Indiana, after 
the burning of Pickawillany, in 1782, the 
Shawnees assumed possession of their aban- 
doned towais along the Mad River. Tribes 
under Blue Jacket and Blackhoof then estab- 
li.shed themselves at Wapakoneta at the same 
time, and others settled at St. Mary's, Lewis- 
town, and the mouth of the Auglaize. Skulk- 
ing bands were ever harassing the whites along 
the Ohio River, and attacking the flatboats of 
the settlers. Numerous indeed were the cap- 
tives that they brought back. As a famous 
council house was located at Wapakoneta, 
many of them were brought there. Muni- 
tions of war were regularly furnished them 
by the British. At least 150 Shawnee war- 
riors took part in the defeat of St. Clair. Blue 
Jacket lived in his village along the Auglaize 
in the style befitting a great chief. At the 
Treaty of Greenville, the Shawnees withheld 
participation for several weeks through their 
obstinacy. When the chiefs finally decided to 
join with the other tribes, they were reserved 

and haughty. But the warmheartedness of 
General Wayne was irresistible. When they 
left. Blue Jacket, Blackhoof, and Red Pole 
expressed their undying personal regard for 
Wayne, and they never again took up arms 
against the United States. No more were 
scalps offered for sale ; never again were peo- 
ple compelled to run the bloody gauntlet, or 
be burned at the stake. The Shawnees re- 
turned to their former vocations of hunting 
and trapping, with an increased cultivation 
of the soil. This was, of coui-se, done by the 
women, as with the other tribes. The men 
lounged about during the summer, when the 
skins and furs were not fit for market. 

In the fall season nearly all the villagers 
commenced making elaborate preparations for 
their winter's hunt. When everything was 
ready, the whole village, men, women and 
children, together with 'their dogs (of which 
they always had a large supply), cats, and 
all their ponies, of which they kept great num- 
bers, with as much of their furniture as they 
could conveniently carry, generally consist- 
ing of several brass or copper kettles, some 
wooden ladles, bowls, and large spoons, a tom- 
ahawk, and each one a large butcher-knife, set 
off for the lonely woods. "I have seen many 
of these companies moving off in cold 
weather, ' ' says a pioneer, ' ' among whom were 
to be seen the aged, gray-headed grandmother, 
the anxious, care-worn and nearly forlorn 
mother with her half-naked children, and 
often a little infant on her back, fastened to a 
board or wrapped in her blanket and held 
to her back, with its little naked head to the 
cold wind over its mother's shoulder; the 
whole company headed by a nimble-footed 
and stout-hearted warrior, with his blanket 
drawn close around his body, a handkerchief 
curiously twisted to a knot, on his head, with 
his gun on his shoulder and gun-stick in his 
liand, his tomahawk in his belt, which is so 
constructed that the poll is his pipe and tlip 
handle the stem, and he carries his tobacco 



in the skin of some little animal, often a pole- 
cat skin." 

The Ottawas 

The Ottawas were a Canadian tribe which 
formerly dwelt along the river of that name, 
and were also driven from there by the Iro- 
quois. Accompanying the Wyandots, with 
whom they were on friendly terms, they went 
west, only to be again hurled back by the 
Sioux. Scattering bands finally found asylum 
along an affluent of the ilaumee, and there 
gave their name to the river since known as 
the Auglaize. Indians frequently bestowed 
their name upon a river along which they 
lived, and the name changed as the tribes 
shifted their habitations. The Delawares also 
occupied lands with the Wyandots. They 
called themselves Lenape, or Leni-Lenape, 
meaning, "real men." They were in many 
respects a remarkable people. They were gen- 
erally peaceable and well disposed toward the 
whites and religious teachers. When the Iro- 
quois subdued them they "put petticoats on 
the men," to use their expression, and. made 
"women" of them. They were deprived of 
all right to make war, change their habitation, 
or dispose of their land without the consent of 
their overlords. Those found in Northwest 
Ohio had fled there to escape the humiliation 
of such surroundings. 

The Senegas 

One of the smaller tribes was the Senecas, 
who dwelt along the Lower Sandusky. Prior 
to the incoming of the white man, they re- 
mained there by the sufferance of the hospi- 
table Wyandots. They were also Iroquois, or 
Mingoes, and were probably renegades from 
that nation. Among them were also a few 
Oneidas, Mohawks, and Tuscaroras. By the 
treaty of 1817, at the Foot of the ^Maumee 
Rapids, they were granted 30,000 acres on the 

east side of the Sandusky, within what is now 
in Sandusky and Seneca counties. In the fol- 
lowing year they were granted an additional 
10,000 acres. These lands they held until 
they were ceded to the United States in 1831, 
when the tribe removed to Missouri, on the 
Neosho River. 

About the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, these "Senecas of the Sandusky," as 
they were frequently called, numbered about 
400 souls. At this time they were more dis- 
sipated than their neighbors, the Wyandots. 
Virtue was indeed at a low ebb, for the mar- 
riage relation was maintained in name only, 
and their free practices led to many quarrels 
and difficulties of a serious nature. Their 
principal chiefs at that time were Coonstick, 
Small Cloud Spicer, Seneca Steel, Hard Hick- 
ory, Tall Chief, and Good Hunter. During 
the absence of his brothers on a long hunting 
trip, about the year 1825, Chief Comstock 
died. On the return of Coonstick and Seneca 
Steel, richly laden with furs and with many 
horses, their j'ounger brother, by name Seneca 
John, was the principal chief. The brothers 
accused him of witchcraft, and condemned 
him to death. Now witchcraft among the 
Senecas, as among other Indian tribes, was an 
unpardonable sin and punishable only in this 
one way. It was frequently a convenient 
method of getting rid of an undesirable mem- 
ber of the tribe. Now John was a gentle, 
peaceable Indian, who was much respected by 
the whites. His credit was always good, and 
he frequently went security for the more im- 
provident members of his tribe. 

"I loved my brother Comstock more than 
I love the green earth I stand upon," said 
Seneca John with rare eloquence. "I would 
give myself limb by limb, piecemeal by piece- 
meal — I would shed my blood drop by drop, 
to restore him to life." But all his protesta- 
tions of innocence and affection for his brother 
Comfetock were of no avail. His two other 
brothers formally pronounced him guilty, and 



declared their determination to be his execu- 
tioners. John replied that he was willing to 
die, and only wished to live until the next 
morning, "to see the sun rise once more." 
This request being granted, John told them 
that he should sleep that night on Hard Hick- 
ory 's porch, which fronted the east, where 
they would find him at sunrise. This hut was 
a little north of Greeusprings. He chose that 
place because he did not wish to be killed in 
the presence of his wife, and desired that the 

being done, he looked around upon the land- 
scape and at the rising sun, to take a fare- 
well look of a scene that he was never again 
to behold, and then told them he was ready 
to die. Shane and Coonstick each took him 
by the arm, and Steel walked behind. In 
this way they conducted him about ten steps 
from the porch, when Steel struck him with 
a tomahawk on the back of the head, felling 
him to the ground. Supposing this blow 
suiBeient, they dragged him under a peach 

IF Seneca John in 1828 

chief. Hard Hickory, should witness that he 
died like a brave man. 

Coonstick and Steel retired for the night 
to an old cabin. In the morning, in company 
with Shane, another Indian, they proceeded 
to the house of Hard Hickory, who related 
the incident to General Bush. A little after 
sunrise the chief heard their footsteps upon 
the porch, and opened the door just enough 
to peep out. He saw Jchn asleep upon his 
blanket, while they stood around him. At 
length one of them awoke him. He arose 
upon his feet and took off a large handerchief, 
which was around his head, letting his unusu- 
ally long hair fall upon his shoulders. This 

tree nearby. In a short time, however, John 
revived, the force of the blow having been 
broken by his great mass of hair. Knowing 
that it was Steel who .struck the blow, John, 
as he lay, turned his head toward Coonstick, 
and said : ' ' Now, brother, do you take your 
revenge." This so operated upon the feel- 
ings of Coonstick that he interposed to save 
him. It so enraged Steel, however, that he 
drew his knife and slashed John's throat from 
ear to ear. The next day the victim was 
buried with the usual Indian ceremonies, not 
more tlian twenty feet from where he fell. 
Steel was arrested and tried for the murder 
in Sandusky County, and was acquitted. 



When the Senecas were removed, Coonstick 
and Steel demolished the picket fence which 
had been around the grave and leveled the 
ground, so that not a vestige was left. 

The Miamis 

Along the Maumee River the dominant 
tribes were the Miamis. The British called 
them Twigtwees, meaning "the cry of the 
crane," while Miami was the French desig- 
nation. They were one of the most power- 
ful tribes of the West, numbering many hun- 
dreds of warriors. Members of this tribe were 
reported as far distant as Illinois and Wis- 
consin. Of his people. Little Turtle, their 
famous chief, said: "ily fathers kindled the 
first fire at Detroit ; thence they extended their 
lines to the head waters of the Scioto ; thence 
to its mouth; thence down the Ohio to the 
mouth of the Wabash and thence to Chicago 
over Lake Michigan." The tribe gave its 
name to three rivers. Big Miami, Little Miami, 
and Maumee. They are said to have been 
above the average of the aborigines in intelli- 
gence and character. They were also credited 
with better manners and dispositions than 
most of the savages. Their chiefs, also, had a 
greater degree of authority over their war- 
riors. Their headquarters had formerly been 
near Piqua, but about the time of Pontiac's 
Conspiracy they settled along the Maumee. 
A French traveler, early in the eighteenth 
century, wrote of them as follows: 

"The Miamis are sixty leagues from Lake 
Erie, and number 400, all well formed men, 
and well tattooed ; the women are numerous. 
They are hard working, and raise a species 
of Maize unlike that of our Aborigines at 
Detroit. It is white of the same size as tlie 
other, the skin much finer and the meat much 
whiter. This Nation is clad in deer and when 
a married woman goes with another man, her 
husband cuts off her nose and does not see 
her any more. This is the only nation that 

has such a custom. They love plays and 
dances, wherefore they have more occupation. 
The women are well clothed, but the men use 
scarcely any covering and are tattooed all 
over the body." 

Indian Characteristics 

"Each Indian," wrote the British agent at 
Detroit to the home office, "consumes daily 
more than two ordinary men amongst us, and 
would be extremely dissatisfied if stinted 
when convened for business." Consider the 
agent's distress when almost 1,000 had 
already arrived for a treaty, and they were 
still coming in hungry groups. All those who 
had charge of Indian treaties bear witness to 
the same characteristics of these aborigines. 
They were like grown-up children, and, like 
youngsters, they expected to be fed and fed 
well. Even Little Turtle, one of the wisest 
of the chiefs, and extremely abstemious in 
the use of alcoholic .spirits, was as uncon- 
trolled as his followers in the matter of eat- 
ing. As a result of this, he was a great 
sufferer from gout in his later days. 

The virtues as well as the vices of these 
aborigines were those of primitive man. Our 
Teutonic ancestors, when they wandered 
across the plains of Germany, or our British 
forefathers, who perambulated over the hills 
and dales of Britain, were not angels, or very 
exemplary in their habits. The men spent 
their time in hunting and fighting, while the 
women performed the household work and 
cultivated the fields. In some sections of 
Central Europe they have not got over the 
latter custom even to this day. and the women 
do far more than their full share of toil. 
Even so did the savages of North America. 
The squaws did all the menial work. But they 
had a commendable seni? of justice among 
themselves, and they were far better before 
the white man came in contact with them. 

It is no wonder that the squaws, who were 



frequently comely when young, soon lost all 
their comeliness and degenerated into smoke- 
begrimed, withered, and vicious hags, whose 
ugliness and cruelty frequently showed itself 
toward the white captives. About the only 
actual labor that the warriors would deign to 
perform was in the making of bark canoes 
or the dug-outs, called piroques, in both of 
which they were very proficient. In their 
light canoes, covered with birch, elm, or chest- 
nut bark, they sailed in safety over the heav- 
ing billows of Lake Erie in the stormiest 
weather. Before the white man brought 
horses, the squaw on land and the canoe on 
water were the Indian's beasts of burden. 

In infancy the males were generally placed 
on boards, ajid wrapped with a belt of cloth, 
or skin, in order to make them straight. In 
early life they were stimulated to acts of 
courage and activity. The females were shorter 
in stature and slower in motion. This may 
possibly come from their being brought up 
to hard labor and the carrying of heavy bur- 
dens. That the men possessed a lively imag- 
ination is shown by their speech. One of the 
astonishing things was the of the 
memory. In a speech made to them, every 
point was retained, considered, and answered 
distinctly. Their history and traditions were 
all preserved in this same way. They were 
calm and cool in their deliberations and, when 
their minds were once made up, were almost 
immovable. They never forgot an act of kind- 
ness, and generally sought an opportunity to 
repay it. The word "friend" meant much 
to them, and they would risk life as well as 
property to save a friend. 

Prom the "superior race" the Indians im- 
bibed the vices of civilization rather than the 
virtues. "Every horror is produced," says 
General Harrison, "among these unhappy 
people by their intercourse with the whites. 
This is so certain that I can at once tell, upon 
looking at an Indian whom I chance to meet, 
whether he belongs to a neighboring or more 

distant tribe. The latter is generally well 
clothed, healthy, and vigorous, the former 
half naked, filthy, and enfeebled by intoxica- 
tion ; and many of them without arms, except- 
ing a knife, which they carry for the most 
villainous purposes. ' ' 

Of the vices received from the civilized 
white man, the taste for "firewater" was not 
the least. Por their own selfish purpose, the 
traders cultivated this taste with diabolical 
persistency, and the governments of France 
and England selfishly permitted and encour- 
aged it. But, when the red man's head was 
muddled with liquor, he recognized neither 
friend nor foe. He did not always consider 
the color of the skin, for his befuddled brain 
could not distinguish tints. As a result, there 
were innumerable murders of his own kin, as 
well as of his white friends and enemies. It 
has been estimated that fully 500 deaths from 
murdei's and accidents occurred among the 
Miamis alone in the decade following the close 
of the War of 1812, and most of them were 
traceable to liquor. This is the worst condem- 
nation that can be brought against the mal- 
evolent influence of the whites. A trader at 
Fort Miami reported (1802) that the Indians 
were then growing worse year after year. 
That spring he said that he had known them 
to lay drunk around the trading stations as 
much as ten or fifteen days, during which 
time scarcely a mouthful of victuals would 
be taken. 

Many of the Indians chiefs recognized this 
evil. The renowned chief. Little Turtle, of 
the ^liamis, did all that he could to eradicate 
this unnatural and depraved appetite. But 
the great Wyandot chief, Jlononcue, expressed 
himself in the following telling words : 

"You, my friends, must leave off bringing 
your water of death (meaning whisky), and 
selling to my people, or we never can live in 
peace, for wherever this comes, it brings fire 
and death with it; and if you will still give 
or sell it to Indians, it will take away all their 



senses; and then, like a mad bear, they may 
turn around and kill you, or some of your 
squaws and children ; or if you should escape, 
they will go home, and be very apt to kill a 
wife, a mother, or a child; for whenever this 
mad water gets into a man, it makes murder 
boil in his heart, and he, like the wolf, wants 
blood all the time, and I believe it makes 
you white people as bad as it makes us In- 
dians, and you would murder one another 
as we do, only that you have laws that put 
those people in jail, and sometimes hang them 
by the neck, like a dog, till they are dead ; 
and this makes white people afraid. We have 
no such laws yet; but I hope that by and 
by we shall have. But I think they ought 
first to hang all people that make and send 
this poison abroad, for they do all the mis- 
chief. What good can it do to men to make 
and send out poison to kill their friends? 
Why, this is worse than our Indians, killing 
one another with knife and tomahawk. If the 
white people would hang them all up that 
make it and sell it, they would soon leave it 
off, and then the world would have peace. 
Now, my \\']iite friends, if you love us or your- 
selves — if you love peace, I beg that you will 
not sell these fire-waters to our poor people; 
they are but children, many of them ; and you 
know that a child will just as soon take poison 
as food." 

Little Otter, another famous chief, ex- 
pressed himself as follows: 

"We know that it makes us foolish, and quar- 
relsome, and poor, and that it destroys xis, and 
has greatly diminished our number; that we 
used to be much happier before it came among 
us, and that it would be much better for us 
to be entirely without it. We do not know 
how to make it; Indians don't know how to 
make it, and have nothing to make it of. If 
your people did not make it and bring it to 
us we should not have it. And if we did not 
see it we should not care anything about it. 
But when we get a taste of it we love it so 

well we do not know how to stop drinking. 
Brother, since it is so, why do you not stop 
your people from bringing it among us?" 

There was a contrast in this respect just as 
there is with the whites, and some of the more 
virtuous refused to associate with the others 
who were dissipated. This class also culti- 
vated their little farms with a fair degree of 
taste and judgment. Some of them could 
cook a comfortable meal, while they made 
both butter and a kind of cheese, ilany of 
them were quite ingenious and natural me- 
chanics, with a considerable knowledge of 
and an inclination to use tools. One chief 
had an assortment of carpenter's tools, which 
he kept in neat order, and with which he 
made plows, harrows, wagons, bedsteads, ta- 
bles, bureaus, etc. He was a frank and con- 
scientious man and a good neighbor. When 
asked who instructed him in the use of tools, 
he replied, no one; then, pointing up to the 
sk_y, he said : "The Great Spirit taught me." 

The Indians were just as intemperate in 
their eating as in their drinking. When a 
hunting party returned home after the long 
winter hunt, burdened with large quantities 
of bear oil, sugar, di'ied venison, etc., they 
were improvident both in the eating and the 
giving away of their spoils. Such a thing as 
a regular meal was unknown, but if anyone 
visited a house several times in a day, he 
would be invited each time to partake of the 
best. They were epicureans rather than 
stoics, for they never willingly suffered pri- 
vations. The Indian would neither forego an 
enjoyment nor suffer an inconvenience, if he 
could avoid it. After his etiquette, also, it 
was impolite to decline food when offered, for 
refusal was interpreted as a sign of displeas- 
ure or anger. It is not surprising that pro- 
visions rapidly disappeared under such 
thoughtless improvidences. Through this lack 
of foresight they were often reduced to great 
distress, and sometimes actually perished from 
hunger and exposure, even though they were 



capable of enduring great privation and fa- 
tigue. They seem to have believed literally 
in the injunction to take no thought for the 
morrow. It was not uncommon for the In- 
dians to be without sustenance for days at a 
time, but they never seemed to profit by such 
experiences. At times during the winter, 
when hunting was impossible, because of 
weather conditions, they were driven by hun- 
ger to digging walnuts, hickorynuts, or other 
forage from beneath the snow. They were 
sometimes compelled to boil the bones thrown 
from the feasts of their prosperous days, and 
even to gnaw the skins upon which they slept. 
Firm believers in witchcraft, as they were, 
the Indians generally attributed sickness and 
most misfortunes to this cause. As a result, 
they were in the habit of murdering those 
whom they suspected of practicing it. An 
Indian has been known to travel all the way 
from the IMississippi to Wapakoneta and shoot 
down a person in his cabin, merely on sus- 
picion of his being a wizard, and to return 
home unmolested. Whenever a person be- 
came so sick as to induce his family and 
friends to think he was in danger of dissolu- 
tion, it was not uncommon for them to place 
the victim in the woods alone, with no one 
to minister to his wants except a nurse or 
medicine man, who generally assisted in hur- 
rj'ing on the end. It was most distressing , 
to see a helpless human being in this situation, 
and not be permitted to render assistance. 
Seldom indeed was a white man permitted 
even a sight of the scene, it being contrary to 
the custom for anyone to visit them, except 
such as had the medical care. The whole 
nation were at liberty to attend all the fu- 
nerals, at which there was generally great 
lamentation. A chief who died .just previous 
to their removal from Wapakoneta was buried 
in the following manner : ' ' They bored holes 
in the lid of his coffin — as is their custom — 
over his eyes and mouth, to let the Good Spirit 
pass in and out. Over the grave they laid 

presents, etc., with provisions, which they 
affirmed the Good Spirit would take him in 
the night. These articles had all disappeared 
in the morning, but doubtless by the hand of 
an evil spirit clothed in a human body." 

The American Indian was and is a polytheist 
in his religious belief. The trees, the rocks, 
the rivers, the waterfalls, and the mountains 
were the abiding places of supernatural be- 
ings. The rustling leaves, the marvelous rain- 
bow, the rumbling thunder and the flashing 
lightning were each either a manifestation or 
the embodiment of a power that could be ap- 
peased and had better be obeyed than defied. 
To his mind even the wild animals of the 
forest and the birds of the air were sometimes 
possessed of a spirit or influence that de- 
manded attention. The untutored red man of 
the forest was indeed a child of superstition, 
and hence his ceremonies were many. They 
were always fantastic, sometimes cruel and 
disgusting. His fetishism was one of his most 
prominent traits. He was just as primitive 
and as savage in his religion as in his 
life — a strange mixture in which the brutal, 
the ridiculous, and the sublime were strangely 
mingled. His gods all bore the attributes of 
his own unrestrained nature. But all tribes 
recognized a Great Spirit, a Gitche Manitou, 
the Mighty. 

The conjurers among the Indians exerted 
an abnormal influence. It was this trait of 
mind that enabled The Prophet to ingratiate 
himself as he did, and stir the tribesmen up 
to such a high degree of fanaticism to aid 
Tecumseh in his far-reaching plans. The con- 
jurers were believed to be possessed of great 
skill in medicine, but it was generally a form 
of bewitching, or faith cure. Sickness and 
failure in hunting were alike attributed to a 
supernatural influence. Some of these medi- 
cine men had a wonderful reputation, and 
were summoned from great distances. The 
conjurer would frequently demand a horse, 
saddle, and bridle, as well as an abundance 



of whisky, as his fee. If the incantations were 
a failure, he had only to report that the Great 
Spirit killed the subject of his ministrations. 
The Indian doctors likewise led in most of the 
tribal dances. In many instances these men 
occupied a really higher position in the esteem 
of the Indians, and exercised a more powerful 
influence than the chiefs themselves, for the 
chiefs received no emolument and generally 
had no authority or power to enforce their 
commands. Although the Indians believed 
that there was both a benevolent and malevo- 
lent spirit, their prayers and sacrifices were 
usually offered to the latter. The reason for 
this was that the Good Spirit will not injure 
his children, but the bad spirit will if he can. 
Therefore he must be pacified. 

That the Indian was naturally kind-hearted 
and hospitable is testified to by nearly all the 
early settlers and missionaries. While cruel, 
crafty, and treacherous in dealing with ene- 
mies, he could be generous, kind, and hospi- 
table among friends, and oftentimes magnani- 
mous to a foe. Although a savage by nature, 
he was not a stranger to the nobler and ten- 
derer sentiments common to humanity. He 
was not always the aggressor by any means, 
for history records no darker or bloodier 
crimes than some of those which have been 
committed by our own race against the poor 
Indian.s. However much we are disinclined 
to recognize their ownership in the soil, in 
their own opinion their title was indisputable. 
They claimed it by right of might, the sole 
arbiter, as the numerous sanguinarj^ wars re- 
corded on history's pages bear indisputable 
witness. The Indians fought after their own 
ideals. But with a white race, the British, 
actually offering a bonus for every American 
or French scalp brought into their posts, and 
feasting the returning war parties upon rich 
foods and exciting drinks, the ideas of the 
"palefaces" and their ideals must have been 
sadly confused in the poor, benighted brain 
of the ignorant savage. 

The trial of courage, or ordeal of ' ' running 
the gauntlet," was one of the most savage 
amusements of the Indians. Heckewelder, in 
one of his books, describes this trying cere- 
mony as follows: 

"In the month of April, 1782, when I was 
myself a prisoner at Lower Sandusky, wait- 
ing for an opportunity to proceed with a 
trader to Detroit, — three American prisoners 
were brought in by fourteen warriors from 
the garrison of Fort Mcintosh. As soon as 
they had crossed the Sandusky River, to which 
the village lay adjacent, they were told by the 
captain of the party to run as hard as they 
could to a painted post which was shown to 
them. The youngest of the three without a 
moment's hesitation immediately started for 
it, and reached it fortunately without receiv- 
ing a single blow; the second hesitated for a 
moment, just recollecting himself, he also ran 
as fast as he could and likewise reached post 
unhurt. The third, frightened at seeing so 
many men, women and children with weapons 
in their hands ready to strike him, kept beg- 
ging the captain to spare him, .saying that he 
was a mason and would build him a fine large 
stone house or do any work for him that he 
would please. 

" 'Run for your life,' cried the chief to 
him, 'and don't talk now of building houses.' 
But the poor fellow still insisted, begging and 
praying to the captain, who at last finding 
his exhortations vain and fearing the conse- 
quences turned his back upon him and would 
not hear him any longer. Our mason now 
began to run, but received many a hard blow, 
one of which nearly brought him to the 
ground, which, if he had fallen would have 
decided his fate. He, however, reached the 
goal, and not without being sadly bruised and 
he was besides bitterly reproached and scoffed 
at all around as a vile coward, while the others 
were hailed as brave men and received tokens 
of universal approbation." 

With all their atrocities and foibles, and. 



depravities, there is something fascinating 
about the Indian's character, as well as some- 
thing extremely picturesque. The Indian 
preferred to describe a man, a river, or a 
town by some prominent quality or feature 
rather than a name. Thus all Indian names 
described a characteristic. Thus we had 
"The man with a pipe in his mouth," and 
"That man with a lame leg." A father was 
out hunting early one morning and, emerg- 
ing from the dark forest, saw a herd of deer 
basking in the morning sun. Hence he gave 
his boy, born that day, the name of "Sun shin- 
ing on the deer." Another name was "Star 
Road, ' ' after what we term the ' ' milky way. ' ' 
More prosaic names were "Stand in the Wa- 
ter" and "Lump on the Head." It must be 
remembered, however, that each of these 
names had a real signiticance to the red men. 
One could not associate with them long with- 
out having a perceptibly growing attachment 
for them. 

The Indian did not greatly esteem some 
of tlie American customs, for he believed that 
his own were better. An aged Indian, who 
for many years had spent a great deal of 
time among the white people, observed that 
the Indians had not only a much easier way 

of getting a wife than the paleface, but that 
thej^ were also much more certain of getting 
a satisfactory one. "For," said he, in his 
broken English, "white man court — court — 
maybe one whole year — maybe two year, be- 
fore he marry. Well, maybe, then he get very 
good wife — maybe not, maybe very cross. 
Well, now suppose cross; scold as soon as get 
awake in the morning! Scold all day! Scold 
until sleep — all one, he must keep him ! ( The 
pronoun in the Indian language has no femi- 
nine gender.) White people have law against 
throwing away wife, be he ever so cross — • 
must keep him always (possibly not so true 
today). Well, how does Indian do? Indian 
when he sees good squaw, which he likes, he 
goes to him, puts his forefingers close aside 
each other — make two look like one — look 
squaw in the face see him smile — which is all 
one; he say yes. So he take him home — no 
danger he be cross ! No ! No ! Squaw know 
very well what Indian do, if he cross. Throw 
him away and take another. Squaw love to 
eat meat. No husband, no meat. Live happy ! 
Go to Heaven!" This sentiment probably 
does not appeal very strongly to the ex- 
tremely modem women of the twentieth 



The Indian is emphatically the natural man. 
It was an easy thing to formulate an Indian 
out of a white youth, and sometimes an adult. 
Many captives were formally adopted into the 
Indian families. Almost invariably they 
foruied such attachments for their foster par- 
ents and relatives that they cquld scarcely 
be induced to return to their own people in 
after years. It seemed the most natural thing 
in the world to revert to the primitive ways 
and customs of their foster parents. The 
Indians treated tliem indulgently, and in 
exactly the same way as they did their own 
offspring. There was an old white woman 
living among the Shawnees, who had been 
taken a prisoner when very young. Several 
years afterward her friends tried to induce 
her to return, but in vain. She had then 
become more of a squaw than any other fe- 
male in the tribe. Similar instances will be 
found along every section of our former 

John Brickell was captured by the Indians 
of Northwest Ohio at the immature age of 
nine, and remained with them until he had 
reached manhood. In accordance with a 
treaty, he was taken to the white encampment 
to be delivered over to his own people. Let 
me relate the incident in his own language. 

"On breaking up of spring, we all went to 
Fort Defiance and arriving on the shore oppo- 
site, we saluted the fort with a round of 
rifles, and they shot a cannon thirteen times 
(for the thirteen states). We then encamped 
on the spot. On the same day Whingy Poo- 
shies told me I must go over to the fort. The 

children hung around me, crying, and asked 
me if I was going to leave them. I told them 
I did not know. When we got over to the 
fort and were seated with the officers, Whingj' 
Pooshies told me to stand up, which I did. 
He then arose and addressed me in about 
tliese words: 'My son, these are men the 
same color with yourself, and some of your 
kin may be here, or they may be a great way 
off. You have lived a long time with us. I 
call on you to say if I have not Ijeen a father 
to you ; if I have not used you as a father 
would a son? 

" 'You have used me as well as a father 
could use a son,' was the answer. 

" 'I am glad you say so. You have lived 
long with me; you liave hunted for me; but 
your treaty says you must be free. If you 
choose to go with people of your own color I 
have no right to say a word ; but if you choose 
to stay with me your people have no right to 
speak. Now reflect on it and take your choice 
and tell us as soon as you make up your mind. ' 

"I was silent for a few minutes, in which 
time I seemed to think of most everything. I 
thought of the children I had just left crying ; 
I thought of the Indians I was attached to, 
and I thought of my people whom I remem- 
bered; and this latter thought predominated, 
and I said, 'I will go with my kin.' He then 
sank back in tears to his seat. I heartily 
joined with him in his tears, parted with him, 
and have never seen or heard of him since." 

On his return from his captivity, Brickell 
.settled in Columbus, and became one of her 
esteemed citizens. Not everv father or foster 




father of the Cancasiau race treats his son 
with such marked affeetiou, or regrets parting 
so sincerely as did this simple, unlettered red 
man of the wilderness. 

Another captive of the Indians in North- 
west Ohio was a man named Crow, but whose 
real name proved to be Jacob Knisely. He 
was stolen by the Wyandots on the Loyal 
Hannah, in Pennsylvania, and given to the 
Senecas, who adopted him. The prisoner was 

stated all about the manner of the stealing 
of his son, and said he had now visited all 
the lodges of the other tribes without success. 
]\Iy grandfather had been with the Senecas 
so much that he spoke their language quite 
fluently. He was one of the few who made 
their escape at the massacre of Wyoming. 

"They talked a long time. Crow did not 
want to talk ; denied every recollection of his 
white ancestry, and often refused to give any 

Indian Portage 

about two or tliree years old wlien he was 
thus forcibly abducted. The parents were 
away from home at the time, and the older 
children were gathering berries, some distance 
away. The savages succeeded in escaping 
with the child iinobserved. An old Seneca 
County pioneer speaks of Crow's decision to 
remain with his captives as follows: 

"When Crow's father came to hunt him 
up, he stopped at Crow's, and sent for my 
grandfather to come and interpret the con- 
versation. Crow could not talk English. So 
I went along and heard all that was said. He 

answer. Finally 'Sir. Knisely said to him: 
•If you are my son, then your name is Jacob.' 
With this Crow jumped up and said, ' That is 
my name, and I am your son ; I recollect that, 
but I kept it all to myself for fear that some- 
body would claim me and take me away.' 
Crow then sent up to the Wyandots and had 
liis foster-mother come down, who corrobo- 
rated Mr. Knisely 's version of the stealing of 
his cliild. She was a very old squaw, and 
stayed several days, and as long as Mr. 
Knisely .stayed, to satisfy herself that Crow 
would not go baik with his father. Mr. 



Knisely tried every way to induce his son to 
go back with him to Pennsylvania ; he said 
that his wife had been sick some time; that 
she had mourned for her lost child some fifty 
years, and would be willing to die if she could 
only once more see her dear boy. The scene 
was very affecting; but Crow was immovable. 
He said he had now a family of his own to 
look after and could not go, but promised to 
visit his parents some other time. He laughed 
heartily over the idea as to how he would look 
dressed up like a white man. Mr. Knisely 
left one morning, and Crow accompanied his 
father as far as Bellevue, where they stayed 
together all night. Crow returned next day, 
and when the Indians started for their new 
homes in the West he went with them. He 
never went to see his parents at all. Crow 
got his share in the treaties with the Wyan- 
dots, as well as with the Senecas, and became 
quite well off. Crow's first wife was a full 
blood Indian ; his second wife was a daughter 
of William Spicer. " 

The Indian is an anomalous character, just 
as is his white brother. There are many in- 
consistencies in his make-up ; but has he more 
of these contrarieties than his successor ? The 
Russian has a reputation for cruelty and hard- 
heartedncss almost unsurpassed. And yet, 
there is not a kinder dispositioned and more 
charitable individual in the world than the 
Russian peasant. In that most despotic coun- 
try, with autocracy as its cornerstone, we find 
the most democratic institution in the world 
— the village commune. This is only one of 
the paradoxes that one will find among the 
Caucasians. Neither the Teuton nor the Latin 
nor the Anglo-Saxon is exempt from such 
characteristics. The Great War has again res- 
urrected the supposedly latent cruelties of 
all. Therefore do not expect to find uniform- 
ity or conformity among the ti-ibes or the 
individuals of the aborigines. 

We get a description of the character of 
those aborigines who either roamed or dwelt 

along the IMaumee, and who were very like all 
the others of the period, together with the 
trials and discouragements attending the ef- 
forts of the missionaries among them, from 
the few pages that have been preserved of the 
journal kept by Reverend McCurdy, a mis- 
sionary along the ]\Iaumee : 

"They (the aborigines) have been collect- 
ing for ten days past (1808) from different 
places and tribes, and this is to be the week 
of their Great Council. Hundreds more are 
yet expected. The plains are now swarming 
with them, and they appear to be full of dev- 
ilish festivity, although they can scarcely col- 
lect as much of any kind of vegetables as will 
allay the imperious demands of nature. They 
are here almost every hour begging for bread, 
milk, meat, melons, or cucumbers; and if they 
can get no better, they will eat a ripe cucum- 
ber with as little ceremony as a hungry swine. 
And, notwithstanding this state of outward 
wretchedness and these mortifying circum- 
stances, they are swollen with pride, and will 
strut about and talk with an air as super- 
cilious as the Great Mogul. Their ceremonies, 
also, are conducted with as much pomposity 
as if they were individually Napoleons or 

"Their houses, when they have any, are 
WTetched huts, almost as dirty as they can be, 
and swarming with fleas and lice. Their fur- 
niture, a few barks, a tin or brass kettle, a 
gun, pipe, knife and tomahawk. Their stock 
are principally dogs. Of these they have 
large numbers, but they are mere skeletons, 
the very picture of distress. These unhappy 
people appear to have learned all the vices of 
a number of miserable white men, who have 
fled to these forests to escape the vengeance 
of the law, or to acquire property in a way 
almost infinitely worse than that of highway- 
men. They are so inured to white men of 
this description that it is next to impossible 
to make them believe you design to do them 
good, or that your object is not eventually to 



cheat them. It is vain to reason with them. 
Their minds are too dark to perceive its force, 
or their suspicions bar them against any fa- 
vorable conclusions. Such is their ingrati- 
tude, that whilst you load them with favors 
they will reproach you to your face, and con- 
strue your benevolent intentions and actions 
into intentional fraud or real injury. They 
will lie in the most deliberate manner and to 
answer any selfish purpose. They will not 
bear contradiction, but will take the liberty 
to contradict others in the most impudent and 
illiberal manner.'' 

Until the coming of the white man, rela- 
tions among the various tribes were of the 
most primitive nature. They did not even 
have any money. To them wampum served 
the purpose of a medium of exchange. But 
it was far more than money ; wampum was an 
article much in use among many tribes, not 
only for ornament and as a badge of wealth 
and position, but for the graver purposes of 
councils, treaties, and embassies. It might 
be used as an invitation to war, or as an 
emblem of peace and good will. In ancient 
times, it consisted of the small shells of mol- 
lusks, or fragments of shells, rudely perfo- 
rated and strung together in the form of 
cylinders % of an inch or more in diameter, 
and from i/i to lA an inch in length. This 
was done by rubbing them on stones of vary- 
ing roughness, and the process required con- 
siderable skill as well as a great deal of 
patience and time. The strings were generally 
somewhat uniform in size. Sections of bones 
and the claws and beaks of birds, as well as 
teeth, also were used as wampum. More re- 
cently, however, it was manufactured by the 
white men from the inner portion of certain 
marine and fresh-water shells. In shape the 
grains or beads resembled small pieces of 
broken pipe stem, and were of various sizes 
and colors, black, purple, and white. When 
used for ornament, they were arranged fan- 
cifully in necklaces, collars, and embroidery; 

but when employed for public purposes, they 
were disposed in a great variety of patterns 
and devices, which, to the minds of the In- 
dians, had all the significance of hieroglyphics. 
An Indian orator, at every clause of his 
speech, delivered a belt or string of wampum, 
varying in size, according to the importance 
of what he had said, and with its figures and 
coloring so arranged as to perpetuate the re- 
membrance of his words. These belts were 
carefully stored up like written documents, 
and it was generally the office of some old 
man in the tribe to interpret their meaning. 
When a wampum belt was sent to summon 
the tribes to join in war, its color was always 
red or black, while the prevailing color of a 
peace belt was white. Tobacco was sometimes 
used on such occasions as a substitute for wam- 
pum, since, in their councils, the Indians are 
in the habit of constantly smoking, and to- 
bacco is therefore taken as the emblem of 
deliberation. With the tobacco, or the belt of 
wampum, presents are not infrequently sent 
to conciliate the good will of the tribe whose 
alliance is sought. 

Indian Chiefs 

There were many noted chiefs in Northwest 
Ohio, and some have been given mention else- 
where in this work. One of the most eminent 
was Blue Jacket, who led the Indians at the 
battle of Fallen Timbers. The American cap- 
tive, Oliver M. Spencer, with his captor's 
mother, visited Chief Blue Jacket, on the 21st 
of July, 1792, at his village on the north bank 
of the Maumee, 11^4 miles below the court- 
house of the present City of Defiance. He 
afterward wrote of his visit, and of the noted 
chief and his visitors, as follows : 

"We were kindly received by Waw-paw- 
waw-quaw (his captor) whose wife, a very 
pleasant and rather pretty woman of twenty- 
five, according to custom set before us some 
refreshment consisting of dried green corn 



boiled with beans and dried pumpkins, mak- 
ing, as I thought, a very excellent dish. After 
spending a few hours with his family, we went 
to pay our respects to the village chief, the 
celebrated Blue Jacket. This chief was the 
most noble in appearance of any aborigine I 
ever saw. His person, about six feet high, 
was finely proportioned, and stout and mus- 
cular; his eyes large, bright and piercing; 
his forehead high and broad; his nose aqui- 
line ; his mouth rather wide ; his countenance 
open and intelligent, expressive of firmness 
and decision. He was considered one of the 
most brave and accomplished of the aborigine 
chiefs, second onlj' to Little Turtle and Buck- 
on-ge-ha-la, having signalized himself on 
many occasions, particularly in the defeats 
of Colonel Hardin and General St. Clair. He 
held the commission, and received the half 
pay, of a brigadier-general from the British 

"On this day, while receiving a visit from 
the Snake, chief of a neighboring Shawnee 
village, and from Simon Girty, he was dressed 
in a scarlet frock coat, richly laced with gold 
and confined around his waist with a parti- 
colored sash, and in red leggings and mocca- 
sins ornamented in the highest style of abo- 
rigine fashion. On his shoulders he wore a 
pair of gold epauletts and on his arm silver 
bracelets, while from his neck hung a massive 
silver gorget and a medallion of his majesty 
George III. Around his lodge were hung 
rifles, w^ar clubs, bows and arrows, and other 
implements of war; while the skins of deer, 
bear, panther, and otter, spoils of the chase, 
furnished pouches for tobacco, and mats for 
seats and beds. His wife was a remarkably 
fine looking woman. His daughters, much 
fairer than the generality of aborigine women, 
were quite handsome ; and his two sons, about 
eight<»en and twenty years old, educated by 
the British, were intelligent." 

Blue Jacket's home after the Greenville 
Treaty was at Wapakoneta. He was engaged 

in the liquor traffic for a number of years, 
or until about 1825. He and The Prophet 
and a few other Shawnees then emigrated to 
Missouri and joined the Shawnees there. 
Nothing is known of his history after that 
time. His son, James Blue Jacket, continued 
in the sale of whisky until the removal of the 
tribe to the West. 

The figure which stands out most promi- 
nently on the canvas of Northwest Ohio among 
the Indians is ileshekenoghqua, or the Little 
Turtle, chief of the Miamis. This name was 
not given the chief because of his stature, for 
he was nearly six feet in height. As a war- 
rior, the Little Turtle was bold, sagacious, and 
resourceful, and he was not only respected 
by his people, but their feeling almost ap- 
proached veneration. Wlien fully convinced 
that all resistance to the encroaching whites 
was in vain. Little Turtle brought his nation 
to consent to peace and to adopt agi-icultui-al 
pursuits. Few indeed are the Indian leaders 
who accomplished so much in abolishing the 
rite of human sacrifice among their people. 
He became very popular and highly esteemed 
by the whites, among whom he was known as 
a man whose word could be depended upon. 
Furthermore, he was endowed with unusual 
wit, enjoyed good company, and was still 
fonder of good eating. During the presi- 
dency of Washington he visited that great 
man at the capitol, and during his whole life 
thereafter spoke of the pleasure which that 
visit afforded him. 

Col. John Johnson speaks of the Little Tur- 
tle in the highest terms. He was, says he, "A 
companionable Indian. Little Turtle was a 
man of great wit, humor and vivacity, fond 
of the company of gentlemen, and delighted 
in good eating. When I knew him he had 
two wives living with him under the same 
roof in the greatest hannony; one, an old 
woman about his own age — fifty — the choice 
of his youth, who performed the drudgery 
of the house, the other a young and beautiful 



creature of eighteen, who was his favorite; 
yet it was never discovered by any one that 
the least unkind feeling existed between 
them. The Little Turtle used to entertain us 
with many of his war adventures." Thirty 
years after the Treaty of Greenville he died 
at Fort "Wayne, of gout (!), which would 
seem a marvelous fact did we not remember 
that the Turtle was a high liver, and a gen- 
tleman; eciually remarkable was it that his 
body was borne to the grave with military 
honors by his great enemy, the white man. 
The muffled drum, the funeral salute, an- 
nounced that a great soldier had fallen, and 
even enemies paid their mournful tribute to 
his memory. The sun of Indian glory set 
with him; the clouds and shadows, which for 
200 years had gathered around their destiny, 
now closed in the starless night of death. 

The chief Catahecassa, or Blackhoof, died 
at Wapakoneta, .shortly previous to their re- 
moval, at the alleged age of one hundred and 
ten years. Among the celebrated chiefs of 
the Shawnees, Blackhoof is entitled to the 
highest rank. He was bom in Florida, before 
the emigration of that tribe to Ohio, and was 
old enough to recollect having bathed in the 
salt water. He was present with others of 
his tribe at the disastrous defeat of Brad- 
dock, near Pittsburg, in 1755, and was en- 
gaged in all the wars against the whites in 
Ohio, from that time until the Treaty of 
Greenville in 1795. Far and wide had the 
i-eputation of this great Shawnee warrior 
spread among the red men, for his cunning 
and sagacity were only equaled by the fierce 
and desperate bravery with which he carried 
into operation his military plans. Like the 
other Shawnee chiefs, he was the unyielding 
foe of the white man. He maintained that 
no peace should be made nor any negotiation 
entered into except on the condition that the 
whites should withdraw to the Ohio and re- 
cross the mountains, leaving the expansive 
plains of the "West to the undisputed occu- 

pancy of the native tribes. He was the orator 
of his tribe during the greater part of his 
long life, and was an excellent speaker. The 
venerable Colonel Johnston, so frequently 
mentioned in these papers, described him as 
the most graceful Indian he had ever seen. 

Although a stern and uncompromising op- 
position to the whites had marked Blackhoof 's 
policy through a series of forty years, and 
had nerved his arm in a hundred battles, he 
became at length convinced of the futility of 
an ineffectual strength against a foe so vastly 
superior and whose members were increasing 
daily. The temporary success of the Indians 
in sevei-al engagements, previous to the mem- 
orable campaign of General "Wayne, had kept 
alive the expiring hopes of the savages. Their 
signal defeat by that gallant officer, however, 
convinced the more reflecting of their leaders 
of the desperate and futile character of the 
struggle. Blackhoof was among those who 
decided upon making the best terms possible 
with the victorious Americans. Having signed 
the treaty of 1795, he continued faithful to 
its stipulations during the remainder of his 
life. From that day he ceased to be the enemy 
of his former advei'saries. As he was not one 
who could assume a negative and inactive 
character, he was transformed into the firm 
ally and friend of those against whom his 
tomahawk had been raised for so many years 
with murderous intent. It was not from sym- 
pathy or conviction that he became their 
friend, but in obedience to a recognized neces- 
sity, and under a belief that submission alone 
could save his tribe from destruction. Hav- 
ing adopted this policy, his sagacity and sense 
of honor alike forbade a recurrence either to 
open war or secret hostility. 

At the period when Tecumseh and his 
brother. The Prophet, commenced their hos- 
tile operations against the United States, 
Blackhoof was the principal chief of the 
Shawnee nation, and possessed all the influ- 
ence and axithority which are usuallv attached 



to that oiBce. Nevertheless, he eoutinued 
faithful to the treaty which he had signed at 
Greenville in 1795, and by prudence and judi- 
cious counsel prevented the greater part of 
his tribe from joining the standard of Tecum- 
seh, or engaging on the side of the British in 
the War of 1812. In that contest he became 
the firm ally of the young republic and, al- 
though he took no active part in it, he visited 
General Tupper's camp, at Fort Mc Arthur. 
About 10 o'clock one night, when sitting by 
the fire in company with that general and sev- 
eral other officers, someone discharged a pistol 
through a hole in the wall of the hut and shot 
the Shawnee chieftain in the face. The ball 
entered the cheek, and finally lodged in his 
neck. Blackhoof fell, and for some time was 
supposed to be dead, but finally revived and 
fully recovered from this painful wound. 
Prompt and diligent inquiry was instituted 
to discover the author of this cruel and das- 
tardly act, but all efforts failed to lead to his 
detection. No doubt was entertained that this 
attempt at assassination was made by a white 
man, who was stimulated, perhaps, by no bet- 
ter excuse than the memory of some actual or 
imagined wrong inflicted by the unknown 
hand of some red savage. 

Blackhoof was opposed to polygamy, and 
to the barbarous practice of burning prison- 
ers. He is reported to have lived forty years 
with one wife, and to have reared a numerous 
family of children, who both loved and 
esteemed him. His disposition was cheerful, 
and his conversation sprightly and agreeable. 
In stature he was small, being not more than 
5 feet 8 inches in height. He was favored 
with good health, and unimpaired eyesight to 
the period of his death. This is the testimony 
of a contemporaneous writer. 

Another of the noted chiefs of the Shawnees 
was Pht, which is pronounced Pe-aich-ta. 
While the council house at Shawneetown was 
being built in 1831, but not completed, his 
cabin stood but a few rods northwest of the 

new building. Here the chief, after a long 
sickness, died, and was buried only a short 
time before the removal of the Hog Creek 
Indians to Kansas. He was buried near his 
cabin in his garden. A large concourse of 
Shawnees were present at his funeral, and 
many little trinkets were deposited with his 
body. After the burial, according to the 
ancient custom, the Shawnees slaughtered a 
beef, cooked and prepared the meat, and held 
a sort of feast. 

Peter Cornstalk, a son of the old chief of 
that name, who was at Point Pleasant, is noted 
among the Indians of this Northwest Ohio. 
He fought in the three great battles of the 
Maumee basin, but after that of Fallen Tim- 
ber he decided that further resistance was 
useless. He and his tribe settled on the east 
bank of the Auglaize River, about two miles 
below Wapakoneta, where he resided until his 
tribe was moved to Kansas by the Govern- 
ment. He encouraged the cultivation of the 
soil more than any of the other chiefs, and 
his people became quite prosperous. When 
the Indians removed to the West, he was 
eighty-two years of age. There was a tra- 
dition in circulation for many years that 
Cornstalk died and was buried near Wapa- 
koneta, at his old village. As a matter of fact, 
he lived until about the year 1845, and was 
interred at the Quaker Cemetei-y, near the 
Kansas River. 

Among the chiefs of the Senecas, after their 
contract with the whites. Hard Hickory was 
the leading spirit. He was a leader of no 
ordinary caliber, for he was possessed of pol- 
ished manners, which are seldom seen in an 
Indian. He spoke the French language quite 
fluently, and the English in a fairly intelli- 
gible way. He was an ardent friend of the 
whites, but, by scrupulously adhering to the 
custom of his people, he endeared himself to 
them as well. The white merchants reposed 
implicit trust in him, and whenever Hard 
Hickory assumed responsibility for goods pur- 



chased, uo other security was required. With 
all his good traits, however, Hard Hickory 
finally lost his reputation as an honest man. 
He first became an embezzler and then a liar, 
as many white men have done under the same 
circumstances, some of whom have lived to 
enjoy their ill-gotten gains. An annuity of 
$6,000 was due from the Stat« of New York 
to certain families of Cuyahogas, to which 
tribe Hard Hickory belonged. This annuity 
had been regularly paid, up to the time of 
their removal to the Sandusky region. In 
1834 this annuity arrived in the form of a 
draft, and Hard Hickory was delegated to 
go to Fort Gibson to get the money, together 
with George Herrin, the interpreter. After 
receiving it. Hard Hickory proposed to Her- 
rin a trip to Washington to look after the 
business of the tribe. 

For a month Hard Hickory and the inter- 
preter reveled in all the luxuries and dissipa- 
tion of the capital city. When they finally 
determined to return home, the Indians re- 
quested the Commissioner of Indian Affaii-s 
to reimburse them for the money expended, 
which was promptly refused. On arriving 
home, the annuity was practically exhausted. 
When summoned to make an accounting to 
his people, Hard Hickory at first attempted 
to say that something was wrong with the 
draft which compelled him to go to Washing- 
ton, and that the money, all in silver, would 
arrive soon. Doubting this rather plausible 
statement, they dispatched a messenger to 
Fort Gibson to investigate the truth. Wlien 
it was learned that the money had been paid, 
a solemn council of the tribe was held. Hard 
Hickory appeared and confessed his guilt. 
The penitent chief threw himself upon the 
merey of his people, offering to surrender all 
his horses and other property as an indem- 
nity. In spite of this, he was condemned to 
die. This fate seemed cruel and unmerited, 
even to the stoical chief. For several days 
he confined himself in his house, heavily ai-med 

to resist the execution of the sentence. At 
length an Indian by the name of Shane went 
to the cabin and besought admittance. As he 
was alone, this request was granted. Shane 
wore a blanket, and when Hard Hickoi-y held 
out his right hand in welcome, Shane drew 
a knife and thrust it through the body. He 
was then dragged out of doors, where several 
other Indians stabbed and tomahawked him. 
Thus perished in ignominy a chief who had 
acquired the respect of his white neighbors. 
One of the most distinguished Delaware 
chieftains of Northwest Ohio was Buckonga- 
helas, although this name is spelled in various 
ways by different writers. He was so active 
in the War of 1755 that the government of 
Pennsylvania offered a reward of $700 for his 
head and that of one other chief. He was 
looked upon as "the greatest Delaware war- 
rior of his time," according to Heckewelder. 
Shortly after the Bouquet's expedition to the 
IMuskingum, Buckongahelas moved west and 
settled on the Maumee River. A little later 
he moved up the Auglaize River and located 
at Ottawa Town, near Fort Amanda. He and 
his tribes participated in the battles against 
Harmar, St. Clair, and Wayne. He was a 
really noble adversary, and it is said that 
he took no delight in the shedding of blood. 
He had been so much under the influence of 
the Moravian ministers that he might almost 
be termed a civilized man. In 1792, when 
Colonel Hardin, Major Truman, and several 
others were sent by President Wa.shington 
with a flag of truce to the Indians of the West, 
they were captured and all of them mur- 
dered excepting William Smalley, who was 
conducted to Buckongahelas. This chief 
showed him great consideration. He rebuked 
the Indians for their atrocities, and protected 
Smalley with a guard, so that no harm could 
befall him. It is said that the conduct of the 
British at the battle of Fallen Timbers 
estranged him from the former allies, and 
from that time he remained a friend of the 



Americans. He was one of the chiefs who 
signed the Greenville Treaty, and all treaties 
for a decade thereafter until his death, late 
in the fall of 1804. At this time he is sup- 
posed to have been over one hundred years 

Indian Honor 

In the pioneer annals of Northwest Ohio 
the name of Capt. John Logan, a Shawnee 
warrior, should be written in a conspicuous 
place. His mother is said to have been a 
sister of Teeumseh. When a boy this Shaw- 
nee lad had been taken prisoner by some Ken- 
tuckians, and had lived for several years with 
the family of General Logan. Hence he re- 
ceived the name' of Logan, to which the title 
of "Captain" was eventually attached. For 
a time he was sent to school, and was then 
given his liberty. Although he returned to 
his people, he ever remained a true friend 
of the whites who had treated him so kindly. 
His Indian name was She-ma-ge-la-be, "the 
High Horn." He subsequently rose to the 
rank of a civil chief, in his tribe, on account 
of his many estimable intellectual and moral 
qualities. His personal appearance was com- 
manding, being six feet in height, and weigh- 
ing near 200 pounds. He kept his followers 
loyal to the United States, and fought on their 
side with constancy and fidelity. 

When General Harrison reached Piqua, on 
September 5, 1812, he requested Colonel 
Johnson to furnish him some reliable spies. 
It was then that Captain Logan entered the 
service of the American commander. In No- 
vember of that year, Harrison directed Logan 
to take a small party of his tribe, and recon- 
noitre the country in the direction of the rap- 
ids of the Maumee. When near their destina- 
tion, the three scouts were met by a body of 
the enemy, superior to their own in number, 
and compelled to retreat. Logan, Captain 
Johnny, and Bright Horn effected their es- 
cape to the left wing of the army, then under 

the command of General Winchester, who was 
duly informed of the circumstances of their 
adventure. A thoughtless officer of the Ken- 
tucky troops, without the slightest ground for 
such a charge, accused Logan of infidelity to 
the American cause, and of giving intelli- 
gence to the enemy. Wounded to the quick 
by this foul accusation, the red man at once 
resolved to meet it in a manner that would 
leave no doubt as to his loyalty. He called 
upon a friend among the troops, and told him 
of the imputation that had been cast upon 
his reputation. He declared that he would 
start from the camp next morning, and either 
leave his body bleaching in the woods, or 
return with such trophies from the enemy as 
would relieve his character from the suspicion 
that had been so wantonly cast upon it. 

"Accordingly, on the morning of the 22d," 
so runs the account, "he started down the 
Maumee, attended by his two faithful com- 
panions. Captain Johnny and Bright Horn. 
About noon, having stopped for the purpose 
of taking rest, they were suddenly surprised 
by a party of seven of the enemy, among 
whom were young Elliott, a half-breed, hold- 
ing a commission in the British service, and 
the celebrated Potawatomie chief, Winnemac. 
Logan made no resistance, but, with great 
presence of mind, extending his hand to Win- 
nemac, who was an old acquaintance, pro- 
ceeded to inform him that he and his two 
companions, tired of the American service, 
were just leaving Gen. Winchester's army, for 
the purpose of joining the British. Winne- 
mac, being familiar with Indian strategy, was 
not satisfied with this declaration, but pro- 
ceeded to disarm Logan and his comrades, 
rades, and placing his party around them, so 
as to prevent their escape, started for the 
British camp at the foot of the rapids. In the 
course of the afternoon Logan's address was 
such as to inspire confidence in his sincerity, 
and induce Winnemac to restore to him and 
his companions their arms. Logan now formed 
the plan of attacking his captors on the first 



favorable opportunity, and while marching 
along succeeded in communicating the sub- 
stance of it to Captain Johnny and Bright 
Horn. Their guns being already loaded, they 
had little further preparation to make than 
to put bullets into their mouths, to facilitate 
the reloading of their arms. In carrying on 
this process Captain Johnny, as he afterwards 
related, fearing that the man marching by 
his side had observed the operation, adroitly 
did awaj' the impression by remarking 'Me 
chaw heap tobac.' 

' ' The evening being now at hand, the Brit- 
ish Indians determined to encamp on the bank 
of Turkey foot creek, about twenty miles 
from Fort Winchester. Confiding in the idea 
that Logan had really deserted the American 
service, a part of his captors rambled around 
the place of their encampment in search of 
blackhaws. They were no sooner out of sight 
than Logan gave the signal of attack upon 
those who remained behind ; they fired, and 
two of the enemy fell dead — the third, being 
only wounded, required a second shot to dis- 
patch him ; and in the mean time the remain- 
der of the party, who were near by, returned 
the fire, all of them 'treed.' There being 
four of the enemy, and only three of Logan's 
party, the latter could not watch all the move- 
ments of their antagonists. During an active 
fight, the fourth man of the enemy passed 
around until Logan was uncovered by his 
tree, and shot him through the body. By this 
time Logan's party had wounded two of the 
surviving four, which caused them to fall 
back. Taking advantage of this state of 
things, Captain Johnny mounted Logan, now 
suffering the pain of a mortal wound, and 
Bright Horn, also wounded, on two of the 
enemy's horses, and started them for Win- 
chester's camp, which they reached about 
midnight. When the news of this gallant 
affair had spread through the camp, and espe- 
cially after it was known that Logan was mor- 
tally wounded, it created a deep and mourn- 
ful sensation. No one, it is believed, more 

deeply regretted the fatal catastrophe than 
the author of the charge upon Logan's integ- 
rity, which had led to this unhappy result." 

Logan's popularity was very great, and he 
was almost univei-sally esteemed in the army 
for his fidelity to the American cause, his rec- 
ognized bravery, and the nobleness of his 
nature. He lived two or three days after 
reaching camp, but in exti-eme bodily agony. 
His body was borne by the soldiers to Wapa- 
koneta, where his family lived, and there he 
was buried with mixed military honors and 
savage rites. Previous to his death he related 
the particulars of this fatal enterprise to a 
friend, declaring to him that he prized his 
honor more than life. Having now vindicated 
his reputation from the imputation cast upon 
it, he died satisfied. It would be dilBcult, in 
the history of savage warfare, to point out an 
enterprise the execution of which reflects 
higher credit upon its authors than does this 
incident upon Logan and his two companions. 
"Indeed, a spirit even less indomitable, a 
sense of honor less acute, and a patriotic de- 
votion to a good cause less active than were 
manifested by this gallant chieftain of the 
woods, might under other circumstances have 
well conferred immortality upon his name." 

In the treaty of 1817, the gi-ant of land was 
made to Logan's family, in the following 
words: "To the children of the late Shaw- 
nee chief, Captain Logan or Spa-raa-ge-la-be, 
who fell in the service of the United States 
during the late war, one section of land to 
contain six hundred and forty acres on the 
east side of the Great Au Glaise River adjoin- 
ing the lower line of the grant of ten miles at 
Wapakoneta and the said river." Logan made 
the request that the money due him for serv- 
ices should be used for the removal of his 
familj' to Kentuck}', where his cliildren might 
be educated like the whites. The tribe to 
which he belonged, however, refused to give 
them up, and they disappeared behind the 
veil that obscures the fate of the red men of 
the forest. 



When Samuel de Champlain journeyed 
across Canada to Lake Huron, in 1615, he 
found numerous villages of the powerful 
tribe known to the French as the Hurons. 
Along and near Georgian Bay was the ancient 
country of this virile tribe. They were a 
progressive people for savages, for some of 
their towns were fortified in an effective way 
against the offensive weapons of that day. 
They likewise showed their progressiveness 
by cultivating more of the soil than the other 
aborigines. This was probably necessary in 
a measure, because game was scarcer in the 
Huron country than elsewhere. In respect to 
the arts of life, they were in advance over the 
wandering hunters of the North and West. 
Their women made a species of earthen pot 
for cooking, wove rush mats for domestic use, 
and spun twine from hemp. The surplus 
products they bartered with the neighboring 

The Hurons were divided into several 
branches, of which one was known as the 
Tionnoulates, or Tobacco Nation, because 
they cultivated this plant and trafficked it 
among the other tribes. They were not pure 
Hurons, but had become confederated with 
them. The downfall of the Hurons came 
about through the inveterate hostility of the 
Iroquois, of which fierce family the Hurons 
were also members. After the Hurons had 
welcomed the French and adopted many 
things from them, and several Jesuit missions 
had been established among them, the Iro- 
quois tribes, known as the Five Nations, be- 
came even more vindictive. War party after 

war party made hostile expeditions against 
them. Toward their brethren they seemed to 

"In their faces stern defiance, 
In their hearts the feuds of ages, 
The hereditary hatred. 
The ancestral threat of vengeance." 

It was in the year 1649, in the depth of 
winter, that the Iroquois warriors invaded 
the country of the Hurons, and stormed their 
largest villages. Indiscriminate slaughter fol- 
lowed, and the survivors fled in terror. 
Finally there was not a single Huron left 
alive in their ancient domain. The victors 
burned their huts, palisades, and villages. 
Some of the refugees sought refuge among 
other tribes, especially the Senecas and Eries. 
Many were carried off as captives. The To- 
bacco Nation held its ground longer than any 
other, but they also were compelled at length 
to flee. They made their way northward to 
the Island of Michilimackinac (Mackinac), 
where they were joined by the Ottawas and 
some other Algonquins. After several years 
they took possession of some islands in Green 
Bay, on Lake Michigan. Even here in this 
remote place their inveterate enemy followed 
them. They migrated west as far as the 
Mississippi, but were forced northward by 
the hostility of the Sioux, to Lake Superior. 
From there they gradually retreated to De- 
troit and Sandusky, where they lived under 
the name of Wyandots. Thus it appears that 
the Wyandots, whose name is so conspicuous 
in our Ohio historv, are descendants of the 



Ancient Hurons. They were the most pow- 
erful Indian nation resident in Northwestern 
Ohio at the incoming of the white race. 

The French name for the Wyandots is per- 
petuated in Lake Huron, and in various other 
ways. When the French first settled in Can- 
ada, it was by their permission. Their tradi- 
tions alleged that their war with the Illinois 
lasted seventy summers; that it was a severe 
conflict, and was characterized by dreadful 
scenes of blood and carnage. So far as his- 
tory and their traditions inform us, they were 
the proprietors of all the country from Mack- 
inac to Quebec; from Georgian Bay down to 
the Great iliami River ; and to the northwest 
it extended to Lake Michigan. They were 
then a numerous, bold, and warlike people, 
and were considered the strongest and oldest 
tribe of all the northern Indians. For that 
reason they were called the "Grand Fathers." 
All the surrounding tribes looked to them 
for counsel. Their decisions were respected, 
and, in most eases, were final. They bore an 
active part on the side of the French in the 
war which ended in the subjugation of Can- 
ada, and were the most formidable of the 
enemies of the British in the conspiracy under 

According to their traditions, when the 
whites came, it had been about 200 years since 
the nation was divided. Before that time, 
one of their most venerable chiefs used to say, 
that when the warriors of their nation were 
called upon to put each one grain of corn 
into a wooden tray that would hold more than 
half a bushel, the tray was full and running 
over before all had done so. But now, like 
many other mighty nations of the days gone 
by, they have vanished into the shades of for- 
getfulness, and another race, with its teem- 
ing millions, is filling up the whole extent 
of their vast possessions. Their history, like 
themselves, too, is almost extinct. Little is 
left to tell of the deeds of valor, or the mighty 
achievements of these heroes of the forest. 

A few only of their children now remain, pent 
up on a small reservation, and these are, in 
many instances, dwindling away under the 
vices of a Christian and civilized people. 

The great body of the Wyandot nation 
continued for a long time to occupy a portion 
of their old hunting grounds, with their prin- 
cipal headquartei-s in the neighborhood of 
Detroit. About the time of the American 
conquests, however, this was removed to the 
region of the Sandusky River. Here they re- 
mained until their final removal west of the 
Missouri River, where a small fragment yet 
remains. AVhile the Wyandots adhered to- 
gether, they were a terror to all the surround- 
ing tribes. They assisted in driving the Sacs 
and Foxes and the Sioux tribes west of the 
"Father of Waters." They also engaged in 
long and bloody battles with the Cherokees in 
Kentucky. It is well known that the rich lands 
of Kentucky and the valley of the Ohio were 
never the permanent home of Indian tribes, 
but were the common hunting ground of the 
southern and northern tribes, which were con- 
stantly warring on each other. Each party 
hunted there at the greatest hazard. When 
William Wells was asked by General Wayne 
to go to Sandusky and capture an Indian, he 
replied: "I can capture one from any other 
tribe, but a Wyandot will never be taken 

At the time of the settlement of North- 
west Ohio, the Wyandots were admitted to be 
the leading nation among the Indian tribes 
of the Northwest. This was not because of 
numbers, but for the reason that they were 
more intelligent and more civilized in their 
manner of life. To them was entrusted the 
Grand Calumet, which united the Indians in 
that territory into a confederacy for mutual 
protection. They were authorized to assemble 
the tribes in council, and to kindle the coun- 
cil fires. The signature of Tarhe, the Crane, 
is the first signature under that of General 
Wayne in the Treaty of Greenville. The name 



Wyandot is the anglicized form for Owendots, 
or Yendats. They were divided into tribes 
or totemic clans, and their head chief was 
taken from the Deer Tribe until the battle 
of Fallen Timbers. This tribe was so deci- 
mated at that battle that the chief thereafter 
was selected from the Porcupine Tribe. The 
descent always followed in the female line. 
Thus the far famed Tarhe and his successor, 
De-un-quot, were of this tribe, or clan. The 
head chief had the power to appoint a council 
chief for himself, who was thereupon known 
as the "little chief." Each village, as well 
as hunting or war party, also had its chief, 
and some of them had great influence. If 
good and wise men, their advice was usually 

The Wyandots were always a humane and 
hospitable nation. This is clearly manifested 
in pemiitting their former enemies to settle 
on their lands, when driven back before the 
advancing white population. They kindly 
received the homeless or exiled Senecas, Cay- 
ugas, Mohegans, Mohawks, Delawares, and 
Shawnees, and spread a deerskin for them to 
sit do\\'Ti upon. They allotted a certain por- 
tion of their country, the boundary of which 
was designated by certain rivers, or points 
on certain lakes, to these outcasts, which was 
freely given for their use, without money and 
without price. This fact was clearly devel- 
oped when the different tribes came to sell 
their lands to the Government. The Wyan- 
dots pointed out these bounds, and Between- 
the-Logs, a distinguished chief, said that the 
Senecas on the Sandusky River had no right 
to sell their land without the consent of the 
Wyandot chiefs, for they at first borrowed it 
from them. 

Although never behind other tribes in their 
wars against the whites, they were far more 
merciful toward their prisoners. They not 
only saved the lives of most prisoners taken 
by them, but they likewise purchased many 
captives from other tribes. Thus they became 

allied with some of the best families in this 
and other states. The Browns, an old Vir- 
ginia family, the Zanes, another well-known 
family, the Walkers of Tennessee, the Arm- 
strongs and Magees, of Pittsburgh, were all 
represented in the tribe. Robert Armstrong, 
who was one of the best interpreters in Fin- 
ley 's time, had been captured near Pittsburgh 
when only four years old. He was adopted 
into the Turtle Tribe and named O-no-ran- 
do-roh, and married a half-breed squaw. 

Like most Indians, the Wyandot warriors 
spent their time in hunting and trapping. 
Their winter hunting camps were fairly com- 
fortable places. They were constructed of 
poles closely laid together, and the cracks were 
stopped with moss from old logs. The roof 
was covered with bark, a hole being left in 
the center for the smoke to escape. The fire 
was built in the center, while around three 
sides were arranged the beds. These were 
elevated from the floor a few inches by short 
chunks of wood laid on the ground. The 
wood was covered with bark upon which skins 
were spread, and these were overlaid with 
blankets or furs. The beds also served for 
seats. The camps were always pitched in bot- 
toms, where the pasture was fine for horses 
and water convenient. Chickens were taken 
with them to these camps for the sake of the 

Bear hunting was the favorite sport of the 
hunting parties. During the winter the bears 
were generally hibernating, but one would 
occasionally be discovered in a hollow tree. 
When they found such a tree, they would ex- 
amine the bark to see if one had ascended. 
Their keen eyes would soon detect the 
scratches of his claws upon the bark. It might 
be 30 or 40 feet up to the entrance to his 
winter dormitory. A sapling was quickly 
felled against the tree and an agile hunter 
would ascend. He would then cut a branch 
and scrape the tree on the opposite side of the 
hole, crying like a young bear. If a bear 



was inside, he would either make a noise or 
come out. If inside and he failed to appear, 
a piece of rotten wood would be lighted and 
dropped within. This would fire the tree. 
It would not be long until Mr. or Mrs. Bear 
appeared in great wrath, sneezing and wheez- 
ing, and blinded by the smoke. A bullet or 
arrow would quickly soothe their troubles. 

They were also experts at trapping, and 
especially at ensnaring the raccoon. When 
otlier game was difficult to obtain, they sub- 
sisted largely on these little furry animals. 
"One man will have, perhaps, 300 raccoon 
traps, scattered over a country ten miles in 
extent. These traps are 'dead falls,' made 
of saplings, and set over a log which lies 
across some branch or creek, or that is by the 
edge of some pond or marshy place. In the 
months of February and ]\Iarch the raccoons 
travel much, and frecjuent the ponds for the 
purpose of catching frogs. When the raccoon 
has taken a frog, he does not eat it immedi- 
ately, but will carry it to some clean water 
and wash it; then lay it down on the leaves, 
and roll it hither and thither with his fore 
feet, till it is entirely dead, and then he feasts 
on his prey. The hunter generally gets round 
all his traps twice a week, and hunts from one 
to the other. I have known a hunter to take 
from his traps thirty raccoons in two days, 
and sometimes they take more. Prom 300 to 
600 is counted a good hunt for one spring, 
besides the deer, turkeys, and bears." 

The Wyandot territory along the Sandusky 
was a region filled with an abundance of the 
sugar maple. The Wyandots understood the 
art of making sugar from the sap of the 
maples, and devoted themselves to this indus- 
try for several weeks after the sap began to 
run. They fashioned bark troughs, which 
held a couple of gallons, for the trees that 
they tapped, and larger troughs to hold the 
collections. These were shaped like canoes. 
They cut a long perpendicular groove, or 
notch, in the tree, and at the bottom struck 

in a tomahawk. This made a hole into which 
they drove a long chip, down which the sap 
flowed into the bark vessel. It was always 
the duty of the women to make the sugar, as 
well as to stretch the skins. As an instance 
of life in a Wyandot camp, Reverend Finley 

' ' The morning was cold, and our course lay 
through a deep forest. We rode hard, hoping 
to make the camps before night, but such were 
the obstructions we met with, from ice and 
swamps, that it was late when we arrived. 
Weary with a travel of twenty-five miles or 
more through the woods, without a path or a 
blazed tree to guide us — and, withal, the day 
was cloudy — we were glad to find a camp to 
rest in. We were joyfully received by our 
friends, and the women and children came 
running to welcome us to their society and 
fires. It was not long after we were seated 
by the fire, till I heard the well-known voice 
of Between-the-Logs. I went out of the camp, 
and helped down with two fine deer. Soon 
we had placed before us a kettle filled with 
fat raccoons, boiled whole, after the Indian 
style, and a pan of good sugar molasses. 
These we asked our heavenly Pather to bless, 
and then each carved for himself, with a large 
butcherknife. I took the hind-quarter of a 
raccoon, and holding it by the foot, dipped 
the other end in the molasses, and eat it off 
with my teeth. Thus I continued dipping 
and eating till I had pretty well finished the 
fourth part of a large coon. By this time 
my appetite began to fail me, and thought it 
was a good meal, without bread, hominy, or 
salt. ' ' 

The Wyandot was the last Indian tribe to 
be removed from Ohio. It therefore remained 
longest on the borders of the incoming white 
population. Many of this once noble tribe 
therefore sank into degrading vice, becoming 
among the worst as well as most ignoble and 
wortliless of their race. This is not very much 
to the credit of the Caucasian, who should 



have protected the weak aborigine and en- 
deavored to show him a better life, instead of 
trying to exploit him and enrich himself at 
the expense of his weaknesses. The tribe num- 
bered about 2,200 at the time of the Green- 
ville treaty, including the men, women, and 
children. From that time uutil their removal, 
almost a half century later, they lost but few 
men in battle. It is a fact, nevertheless, that 
during these fifty years through drunkenness, 
with its accompanying bloody brawls, and 
other vices, the tribe was reduced to fewer 
than half the original numbers. 

The most noted and successful effort to ele- 
vate the poor "Wyandots to a better life was 
through the missionary efforts of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, which maintained a 
mission at Upper Sandusky for a number of 
years. This mission was begun by John 
Stewart, an ignorant mulatto, with a mixture 
of Indian blood. Having become converted, 
following a long debauch, he resolved to go 
out into the wilderness and preach the gospel. 
In his wanderings he reached Upper San- 
dusky in 1816, and began to preach to the 
Wyandots. In this he was aided by William 
Walker, the Indian sub-agent. A colored 
man, named Jonathan Pointer, living with the 
Indians, became his interpreter, and at first 
an unwilling one. Stewart was an excellent 
singer, and he thus attracted the attention 
of the red men, who dearly loved music. At 
the first formal meeting, called at Pointer's 
house, his audience was one old woman. On 
the following day the same woman and an 
old chief, named Big Tree, came. The follow- 
ing day, which was the Sabbath, the meeting 
was called at the council house, and eight or 
ten Indians gathered. From this time the 
congregation continued to increase, and many 
songs were intermixed with the prayer and 
exhortations. With this feature the Indians 
were delighted. Mrs. William Walker, who 
was half Wyandot, and a bright woman, 
greatly assisted the struggling missionary in 

his efforts at an uplift of a race rapidly be- 
coming decadent. Stewart succeeded in awak- 
ening an interest among many of the poor 
benighted red men. But some of the chiefs 
and many of the braves held back, and took 
every pains to counteract this new religion, 
which was only natural. 

At an earlier period the Wyandots had been 
under the spiritual instruction of Roman 
Catholic priests. Some of the tribe went to 

Rev. James B. Finley, 
Missionary to the Wyandots 

Detroit and reported the work of the new 
missionary. A priest told them that "none 
had the true word of God, or Bible, but the 
Catholics." Stewart was then accused of not 
having the true Bible. It was finally agreed 
to leave the question with William Walker, 
Sr. A time was set when he was to examine 
the two books in public. Deep interest was 
manifest among the Indians. After some time 
spent in the examination, he reported that 
Stewart's Bible was a true one, and differed 
from the Catholic Bible only in this particu- 



lar: One was printed in English and the 
other in Latin. By this decision a serious 
obstacle to Stewart's work was removed. 

When he began work, Stewart was not a 
licensed minister, but he was afterwards duly 
ordained. The mission was taken over by the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in August, 1819, 
the first Indian mission of that denomination. 
Stewart remained with the Wyandots until 
his death from tubercular trouble on Decem- 
ber 17, 1823. Other religious workers were 
sent to assist him, and new converts were con- 
tinually gained. Rev. James Montgomery 
assisted in the work for a time, until he was 
appointed a sub-agent to the Senecas. The 
most noted missionary at this station was the 
Rev. James B. Finle}', who labored there a 
number of years, and has left us his experi- 
ences and observations in several interesting 
books. He was also sub-agent for the Govern- 
ment in its management of the secular affairs 
of the nation. 1 

A number of chiefs became converted and 
developed into exemplary men. Between-the- 
Logs and Mononeue were comparatively early 
converts, and became licensed preachers. 
They greatly endeared themselves to the 
whites with whom the.v came in contact. One 
of the chiefs, Scuteash, gave his testimonj' in 
the following quaint way : 

"I have been a great sinner and drunkard, 
which made me commit many great crimes, 
and the Great Spirit was very angry with me, 
so that in here (pointing to his breast) I 
always sick. No sleep — no eat — not walk — 
drink whisky heap; but I pray the Great 
Spirit to help me quit getting drunk, and for- 
give all my sins, and he did do something 
for me. I do not know whence it comes, or 
whither it goes. (Here he cried out, ' Waugh ! 
Waugh!' as if shocked by electricity.) Now 

1 Mr. Finley in his "Life Among the Indians" 

relates many interesting experiences among the 

Wyandots, and reveals many pleasing traits of their 

me no more sick — no more drink whisky — no 
more get drunk — me sleep — me eat — no more 
bad man — me cry — me meet j'ou all in our 
great Father's house above." 

Another chief, De-un-quot, after whom a 
village in Wyandot County is named, did not 
have so much faith in the new religion. 

"The head chief, De-un-quot, and his 
party, at one time came on Sabbath to the 
council-house, where we held our meetings, 
dressed up and painted in real savage Indian 
style, mth their head bands filled with silver 
bobs, their head-dress consisting of feathers 
■ and painted horse hair. The chief had a half 
moon of silver on his neck before and several 
hangings on his back. He had nose-jewels 
and earrings, and many bauds of silver on his 
arms and legs. Around his ankles hung many 
buck-hoofs, to rattle when he walked. His 
party were dressed in a similar style. The 
likenesses of animals were painted on their 
breasts and backs, and snakes on their arms. 
When he came in, he addressed the congrega- 
tion in Indian style, with a polite compli- 
ment; and then taking his seat, struck fire, 
took out his pipe, lighted it, and commenced 
smoking. Others of his party followed his 
example. I knew this was done by way of 
opposition, and designed as an insult." Most 
of the traders encouraged in every way oppo- 
sition to the missionaries. A Christian In- 
dian meant an abstainer, and that means loss 
of trade. 

The Wyandots were very emotional, and 
were excellent singers. Some of their mem- 
bers were prone to prolixity in speaking, and 
"some times," said Mr. Finley, "they had to 
choke -them off. On one occasion I saw one 
of the sisters get very much excited during 
one of their meetings, when 'Between-the- 
Logs,' an ordained minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, a native Wyandot, struck 
up a tune and put her down. Then several 
speakers spoke and without interruption. 
'Between-thc-Logs' followed them, and had 



uttered but a few words, when the squelched 
sister, who had a loud, ringing voice, began, 
at the top of her register, singing — 

"How happy are they 
"Who their Saviour obey." 

" ' Between-the-Logs ' was fairly drowned 
out, and took his seat, as much overcome by 
the merriment as the music." 

And yet with all their prejudices, the testi- 
mony of the missionaries as to the disposition 
of the Wyandots is most favorable. Says Mr. 
Finley : 

last moutliful, and give almost the last com- 
fort they have, to relieve the suffering. This 
I have often witnessed." 

It was in August, 1821, that several of the 
chiefs signed a petition requesting that a mis- 
sionary school be established among them. For 
that purpose they donated a section of land 
at a place called "Camp Meigs," because 
Governor Meigs had encamped there during 
the late war, with the Ohio Militia. There- 
upon Reverend Finley was appointed by the 
conference a resident missionary and teacher. 
Arduous work was ahead of the missionary 

Re\ Fixify Prevctiing to the Wy\ndots 

"I do not now recollect that I was ever 
insulted by an Indian, drunk or sober, dur- 
ing all the time I was with them, nor did any 
of them ever manifest any toward 
me. The heathen party did not like my re- 
ligion, nor my course in establishing a Church ; 
but still I was respected, for I treated all 
with kindness and hospitality. Indeed, I do 
not believe that there are a people on the 
earth, that are more capable of appreciating a 
friend, or a kind act done toward them or 
theirs, than Indians. Better neighbors, and 
a more honest people, I never lived among. 
They are peculiarly so to the stranger or to 
the sick or distressed. Thev will divide the 

and his helpers before thej' were ready for 
their new duties. A small cabin was built 
by their own labors, and one of the old block- 
houses was repaired. In addition, religious 
services were regularlj^ held. In the summer 
of 1823 the mission school was formally 
opened, and was eondiieted according to the 
manual labor system. Here the girls were 
taught sewing and spinning and in some in- 
stances weaving, where looms were available. 
The boys were instructed in agriculture, in 
addition to the class work. The children were 
all lodged and boarded at the mission house. 
They were exceedingly apt at learning. The 
bovs were at first averse to work, but strate- 



gem was brought into use. They were divided 
into different gi'onps, and each group was 
urged to excel the others. By this method the 
interest of the scholars was enlisted. 

During the year 1823, Col. John Johnston, 
United States Indian agent, visited the Wyan- 
dots on their reservations. He passed several 
da.vs among them, and at the close of his visit 
reported as follows : 

"The buildings and improvements of the 
establishment are substantial and extensive, 
and do this gentleman (Mr. Finley) great 
credit. The farm is under excellent fence, 
and in fine order ; comprising about one hun- 
dred and forty acres, in pasture, corn and 
vegetables. There are about fifty acres in 
corn, which from present appearances, will 
yield 3,000 bushels. It's by much the finest 
crop I have seen this year, has been well 
worked, and is clear of grass and weeds. 
There are twelve acres in potatoes, cabbage, 
turnips and garden. Sixty children belong to 
the school of which number fifty-one are In- 
dians. These children are boarded and lodged 
at the mission house. They are orderly and 
attentive, comprising every class from the 
alphabet to readers in the Bible. I am told 
by the teacher that they are apt in learning, 
and that he is entirely satisfied with the prog- 
ress they have made. They attend with the 
family regularly to the duties of religion. 
The meeting house, on the Sabbath, is numer- 
ously and devoutly attended. A better con- 
gregation in behavior I have not beheld; and 
I believe there can be no doubt, that there are 
very many persons, of both sexes, in the 
Wyandot nation, who have experienced the 
saving effect of the Gospel upon their minds. 
Many of the Indians are now settling on 
farms, and have comfortable houses and large 
fields. A spirit of order, industry and im- 
provement appears to prevail with that part 
of the nation which has embraced Christian- 
ity, and this constitutes a full half of the 

The effect of the mission work was really 
wonderful upon the Wyandot youths, for they 
grew up much better in their habits and man- 
ners than their elders. The parents began to 
build better log houses, with real brick chim- 
neys, and also devoted much more time to 
their agriculture. Some families really raised 
enough from their little farms to support 
them. But lawless whites made a great deal 
of trouble. The Indians lost many horses 
through white thieves. Although the laws of 
the United States forbade any person to pur- 
chase an Indian horse without the consent of 
the agent, it was always difficult to prove 
that the animal was an Indian horse. Finally 
a tribal brand was adopted, consisting of a 
large with a W in the middle of it, and this 
brand was placed on the left hip of every 
horse belonging to the tribe. 

It was not until 1824 that the mission 
church was erected. At times the council 
house was used, and on other occasions the 
meetings were held in the schoolhouse, which 
was much too small. "On my tour to the 
East," says Mr. Finley, "I visited the city 
of Washington, in company with the Rev. 
David Young. Here I had an interview with 
President Monroe, and gave him such infor- 
mation as he wished, as to the state of the 
mission and Indians in general. I had also 
an introduction to John C. Calhoun, Secre- 
tary of War. This gentleman took a deep 
interest in Indian affairs, and gave me much 
satisfactory information respecting the dif- 
ferent missions, in progress among the In- 
dians ; the amount of money expended on each 
establishment, and the probable success. I 
made an estimate of the cost of our buildings, 
and he gave me the Government's proportion 
of the expense, which amounted to $1,333. 
I then asked him if it would be improper to 
take that money, and build a good church for 
the benefit of the nation. His reply was that 
I might use it for building a church ; and he 
wished it made of strong and durable mate- 



rials, so that it might remain a house of wor- 
ship when both of us were no more. This 
work was performed, and the house was built 
out of good limestone 30x40 feet, and plainly 
finished. So these people have had a com- 
fortable house to worship God in ever since. 
It will stand if not torn down for a century 
to come." 

This church had greatly fallen into decay 

Jlononeue, Summundewat, Between-the-Logs, 
De-un-quot, and the other braves who slept 
their last sleep in the ' ' God 's Acre ' ' surround- 
ing the stone church. 

The Delawares, as well as the Wyandots, 
when journeying from their reservations in 
search of game, almost invariably stopped at 
the houses of the white settlers along their 
route. When thev came to a white man's 

^Mission Church at Upper Sandusky Before Restoration 

and was roofless, until the Central Ohio Con- 
ference undertook the work of reintegration. 
The restored mission building was rededicated 
in September, 1889, before a large audience. 
Reminiscences were given by Rev. E. C. 
Gavett, the only surviving missionary of that 
station. A hymn in Wyandot was sung by 
"Mother Solomon," who had attended the 
mission school as a gii-1. The work of vandals 
and souvenir hunters had almost obliterated 
the slabs which marked the resting place of 

cabin, they expected to receive the hospitality 
of its inmates as freely as of their own tribe. 
If such was not the case, the red man was 
much offended. They would say "very bad 
man, verj' bad man, " in a contemptuous way. 
They would never accept a bed to sleep upon. 
All that was necessary was to have a good 
back-log on the fireplace, and a few extra 
pieces of wood near by, if in cold weather, 
for them to put on the fire when needed. 
Thev usuallv carried their blankets, and would 



spread them upon the floor before the fire, 
giving no further trouble. Not infrequently 
they would leave those who had sheltered 
them a saddle of venison, or some other com- 
modity which they had to spare. Says an 
early pioneer: 

' ' We have seen as many as twenty or thirty 
in a caravan pass by here, with their hunting 
material and equipments packed on their 
ponies, all in single file, on their old Sandusky 
and Pipetown trail. If we would meet half 
a dozen or more of them together, it was sel- 
dom that we could induce more than one of 
them to say one word in English. One of 
them would do all the talking or interpret 
for the others. Why they did so, I could not 
say. Tommy Vanhorn once related an amus- 
ing incident. He had been imbibing a little, 
and on his way home met one of those Indians 
who could not utter one word of English, but 
used the pantomimic language instead — that 
of gestures or motions. But it so happened 
that while they were thus conveying their 
thoughts to each other. Tommy stepped 
around to windward of the red man or the 
red man got to leeward of Tommy, and his 
olfactories not being at fault, inhaled the odor 
of Tommy's breath. He straightened up, 
looked Tommy square in the face, and lo! 
Mr. Indian's colloquial powers were now com- 
plete, saying in as good English as Lord Mans- 
field ever could have uttered: 'Where you 
get whisky ? ' " 

In the fall of 1830, a young brave of one of 
the Wyandot tribes killed another of the same 
nation. The murderer was arrested, tried, 
found guilty, and afterwards shot. This af- 
fair is best told by the chief, Mononcue, in a 
letter addressed to Mr. Finley, as follows : 

"Upper Sandusky, October 29, 1830. 
"Dear Sir: — 

"One of our young men was killed by 
another about two or three weeks ago. The 
murdered was John Barnet's half-brother, the 

murderer Soo-de-nooks, or Black Chief's son. 
The sentence of the chiefs was the perpetual 
banishment of the murderer and the confis- 
cation of all his property. When the sen- 
tence was made known to the nation, there 
was a general dissatisfaction; and the sen- 
tence of the chiefs was set aside by the nation. 
On Thursday morning, about daylight, he was 
arrested and brought before the nation as- 
sembled, and his case was tried by all the 
men over the age of twenty-one whether he 
should live or die. The votes were counted, 
and there were 112 in favor of his death, and 
twelve in favor of his living. Sentence of 
death was accordingly passed against him, and 
on the second Friday he was shot by six men 
chosen for that purpose — three from the Chris- 
tian party and three from the heathen party. 
The executioners were Francis Cotter, Lump- 
on-the-head, Silas Armstrong, Joe Enos, Soo- 
cuh-guess, and Saw-yau-wa-hoy. The execu- 
tion was conducted in Indian militaiy style; 
and we hope it will be a great warning to 
others, and be the means of preventing such 
crimes hereafter. I remain, yours afi'ection- 
ately ' ' Mononcue. ' ' 

It was about 1824 that the project of the 
removal of the Wyandots to the West was first 
proposed. The news immediately aroused con- 
siderable disquietude, until positive assurance 
came from the Great Father, at Washington, 
that force would not be employed, but the 
question would be left to the discretion of the 
tribe. Col. John Johnston conducted the final 
negotiations, which were concluded at Upper 
Sandusky, on the 17th of March, 1842. By 
this time the white settlers had completely 
encircled the reservations with towns and cul- 
tivated fields. The tribe had been reduced to 
fewer than 800 persons of all ages and both 
sexes. Grey Eyes, an ordained minister, a 
devoted and exemplary Christian, was at first 
resolutely opposed to the removal. At the 
last vote, however, more than two-thirds of 



the male population voted for the transposi- 
tion. By the terms of the treaty, the tribe 
was given 148,000 acres of land opposite Kan- 
sas City. In addition they were granted a 
permanent annuity of $17,500, together with 
a perpetual fund of $500 per annum for edu- 
cational purposes, and an immediate appro- 
priation of $23,860 to satisfy the debts of 
the tribe. By a later treaty the size of the 
reservation was reduced, and the annuities 
were abolished on the payment of the sum of 
$380,000, when they were removed to the 
Quapaw reservation in the Indian Territory. 
On the 1st day of January, 1879, the number 
still maintaining tribal relations was only 

The preparations for the departure of the 
Wyandots began in the spring of 1843, but 
their actual removal took place in July. The 
arrangements were made by Chief Jacques. 
The final scenes at Upper Sandusky were 
filled with pathos. The love of the Wyandots 
for their ancestral homes was indeed great. 
Frequent councils were held, and religious 
worship in the old Mission Church was con- 
ducted for weeks prior to the removal. Their 
dead were brought from other places and sol- 
emnly reinterred in the mission cemetery. 
All unmarked graves were dignified by either 
a stone or a marker. Squire Grey Eyes, who 
was an intelligent and Christian chief, impor- 
tuned them as follows: 

"He exhorted them to be good Christians, 
and to meet him in Heaven. In a most sub- 
lime and pathetic manner he discoursed upon 
all the familiar objects of a home — no longer 
theirs. He bade adieu to the Sandusky, on 
whose waters they had paddled their light 
bark canoes and in whose pools they had 
fished, laved and sported. He saluted in his 
farewell the forest and the plains of San- 
dusky, where he and his ancestors had hunted, 
roved and dwelt for many generations. He 
bade farewell to their habitations, where they 
had dwelt for many years and where they still 

wished to dwell. With mournful strains and 
plaintive voice he bade farewell to the graves 
of his ancestors, which now they were about to 
leave forever, probably to be encroached upon 
ere the lapse of many years by the avaricious 
tillage of some irreverent white man. Here, 
as a savage, untutored Indian, it is probably 
Grey Eyes would have stopped, but as a 
Christian he closed his valedictory by allud- 
ing to an object yet dearer to him ; it was the 
church where they had worshipped, the tem- 
ple of God, constructed by the good white men 
for their use, and within whose walls they had 
so often bowed down in reverence under the 
ministrations of Finley and his co-laborers." 
One of the chieftains expressed himself in 
verse, of which the following is a translation, 
in part : — • 

"Adieu ye loved scenes, which bind me like 

chains ; 
Where on my grey pony I pranced o'er the 

The deer and the turkey I tracked in the 

But now must I leave all. Alas ! I must go. 

Sandusky, Tymoethee, and Brokenswood 

streams — 
No more shall I see you, except in my dreams. 
Farewell to the marshes where cranberries 

O'er the great Mississippi, alas! I must go. 

Dear scenes of my childhood, in memory blest,. 
I must bid you farewell for the far distant 

Jly heart swells with sorrow, my eyes over- 

O'er the great 

alai? ! I must go. 

The farewells having been said, the long 
cavalcade, with the chiefs on horseback and 
several hundred on foot, and many wagons- 
loaded with their effects, began its journey^ 



Among the chiefs were Jacques, Bull Head, 
Split-the-Log, Stand-in-the-Water, Mud 
Eater, Lump-on-the-head, Squire Grey Eyes, 
and Porcupine. On the first day they had 
traveled to Grassy Point, in Hardin County, 
and on the seventh day they reached Cincin- 
nati. Here they were taken on boats down 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and up_the 
Missouri to their new homes. A few of the 
chiefs, including the head chief, Jacques, vis- 
ited Columbus, where they called upon Gov- 
ernor Shannon to thank him for courtesies, 
and farewell speeches were delivered. It 
was undoubtedly due to the sagacious and 
politic way in which the matter was con- 
ducted that the removal was made of this 
tribe with such an amicable spirit on both 
sides. As this last of all the once numerous 
Ohio tribes ascended the steamships that were 
to convey them from the place of their nativ- 
ity, "they seemed to linger, and to turn to 
the North as if to bid a last farewell to the 
tombs in which they had deposited the re- 
mains of their deceased children, and in which 
the bones of their fathers had been accumu- 
lating and moulding for untold ages." The 
number who migrated at this time was 664, 
and about 50 journeyed West in the following 

Charles Dickens, the English novelist, 
stopped overnight at Upper Sandusky when 
on his way from Cincinnati to Buffalo in 
1842. In his American notes, he writes thus : 
" It is a settlement of the Wyandot Aborig- 
ines who inhabit this place. Among the com- 
pany at breakfast was a mild old gentleman 
(Colonel John Johnston) who had been for 
many years employed by the United States 
Government in conducting negotiations with 
the Aborigines, and who had just concluded 
a treaty with these people by which they 
bound themselves, in consideration of a cer- 
tain annual sum, to remove next year to some 
land provided for them west of the Missis- 
sippi. He gave me a moving acco\int of their 

strong attachment to the familiar scenes of 
their infancy, and in particular to the burial- 
places of their kindred; and of their great 
reluctance to leave them. He had witnessed 
many such removals and always with pain, 
though he knew that they departed for their 
own good. The question whether this tribe 
should go or stay, had been discussed among 
them a day or two before in a hut erected for 
the purpose, the logs of which still lay upon 
the ground before the inn. When the speak- 
ing was done the ayes and noes were ranged 
on opposite sides, and every male adult votes 
in his turn. The moment the result was 
known, the minority (a large one) cheerfully 
yielded to the rest, and withdrew all kind of 
opposition. We met some of these poor 
Aborigines afterwards, riding on shaggy 
ponies. They were so like the meaner sort of 
gypsies, that if I could have seen any of them 
in England I should have concluded as a mat- 
ter of course, that they belonged to that wan- 
dering and restless people." 

One of the greatest chiefs of the Wyandots 
was the one known as Tarhe, or the Crane. 
His wisdom in council, as well as his bravery 
in war, gave him great influence among all 
the neighboring tribes. He seems to have 
reached the position of head chief of this 
nation after the death of Half King, who dis- 
appears from history not long after the 
disastrous Crawford expedition. His human- 
ity was ever marked. In 1790 he recovered 
Peggy Fleming from a band of Cherokee 
Indians, at Lower Sandusky, thus early show- 
ing his humane character. A little earlier 
than that he is credited with saving a white 
boy from burning at the same place. He is 
known to have taken part in the Battle of 
Fallen Timbers, where he was wounded. 
Shortly afterwards General Wayne addresses 
a letter to ' ' Tarhe, and all other Sachems and 
Chiefs of Sandusky," in which he promises 
to erect a fortification "at the foot of the 
rapids at Sandusky" for their protection 



against the Indian allies of the British. This 
shows that he was at that time the head chief 
of the Wyandots, and as such was the keeper 
of the Grand Calumet. It is said that all the 
Wyandot chiefs, with the exception of Tarhe, 
were killed at Fallen Timbers, and it was 
doubtless due to this circum.stance that he 
succeeded to his exalted position. 

"I knew Tarhe well. My acquaintance 
with him commenced at the treaty at Green- 
ville, in 1795. His tribe was under my super- 
intendence in 1810. All the business I trans- 
acted with it was through him. I have often 
said I never knew a better man. * * * 
Tarhe was not only the Grand Sachem of his 
tribe, but the acknowledged head of all the 
tribes who were engaged in the war with the 
United States, which was terminated by the 
treaty of Greenville; and in that character 
the duplicate of the original treaty, engrossed 
on parchment, was committed to his custody, 
as had been the Grand Calumet, which was 
the symbol of peace. 

This is the testimony of General Harrison, 
and Harrison was a good judge of Indian 
character. Tarhe had accompanied him 
throughout his entire Canadian campaign, for 
he was a bitter opponent of Tecumseh's war 
policy. He was far in advance of most of his 
fellows. He was cool, deliberate, and firm. 
He was tall and well proportioned, and made 
a fine appearance. Pie was affable and cour- 
teous, as well as kind and affectionate. It is 
said that all who knew him, whether white or 
red, deeply venerated the character of the old 
chief. His attainments seem to have been as 

a great counselor and wise sachem rather than 
as a warrior. This surrounded him with a 
peculiar dignity. 

Chief Crane died at the Indian village 
of Crane Town, near Upper Sandusky, in 
November, 1818, being at that time seventy- 
six years of age. Of his funeral. Colonel 
Johnston speaks as follows: 

"I was invited to attend a general council 
of all the tribes of Ohio, the Delawares of 
Indiana, and the Senecas of New York, at 
Upper Sandusky. I found on arriving at that 
place a very large attendance. Among the 
chiefs was the noted leader and orator Red 
Jacket, from Buffalo. The first business done 
was the speaker of the nation delivering an 
oration on the character of the deceased chief. 
Then followed what might be called a monody 
or ceremony of mourning and lamentation. 
Thus seats were arranged from end to end of 
the large council house, about six feet apai't. 
The head men and the aged took their seats 
facing each other, stooping down their heads 
almost touching. In this position they re- 
mained several hours. Deep, heavy and long 
continued groans were commenced at one end 
of the row of mourners and were passed 
around until all had responded and these 
repeated at intervals of a few minutes. The 
Indians were all washed and had no paint or 
decorations of any kind upon their person, 
their countenance and general deportment 
denoting the deepest mourning. I had never 
witnessed anything of the kind and was told 
this ceremony was not performed but upon 
the decease of some great man. ' ' 



Prior to the War of 1812, there were com- 
paratively few Americans resident in North- 
west Ohio, and not a great number of French 
or British. On the right bank of the Maumee, 
on a site now within the City of Toledo, there 
was a French settlement consisting of a num- 
ber of families, among which were Peter Na- 
varre and his brothers. There were probably 
three score of white families living at or near 
the foot of the rapids at Maumee. Of these 
Amos Spafford was the most prominent, since 
he was collector of customs at that port. Some 
of these were also French, and Peter Manor, 
or Manard, performed valiant service for the 
American cause. There were a number of 
white traders residing at Defiance, and other 
points along the Maumee and Auglaize. The 
only considerable settlement along the San- 
dusky River was at Fremont, but there were 
a few other Caucasian adventurers in that 
valley. The entire number, however, was very 
inconsiderable. The red man as yet felt no 
crowding in the vast domain over which he 

The American traders and settlers, who had 
established themselves within Northwest Ohio, 
generally continued in their homes in fancied 
security until the surrender of General Hull. 
The first intimation that the settlers received 
of this catastrophe at Detroit manifested itself 
by the appearance of a party of British and 
Indians at the foot of the rapids, a few days 
after it had occurred. The Indians plundered 
the settlers on both sides of the river, and then 
departed for Detroit in canoes. 

A picture of the consternation that pre- 

vailed among the whites is left us by a pioneer 
woman : 

"All was fright and confusion. We and 
most of the others, excepting the soldiers, 
gathered what we could handily and left. We 
stopped at Blalock's a short time, and there 
an Aborigine messenger arrived and told us 
to come back as they would not kill us, but 
only wanted some of our property. Looking 
around until he found Blalock's gun he took 
it, went out and got a horse my mother had 
ridden to this point, and departed. We went 
back and remained three days in which time 
the Aborigines were pretty busy in driving off 
our live stock (we lost sixteen head) and in 
plundering the houses of svich as had not come 
back. Mr. Guilliam was one who fled leaving 
everything behind ; and had not the presence 
of danger filled us with alarm, we would have 
been amused to see the Aborigines plundering 
his house. The feather beds were brought out, 
ripped open and the feathers scattered to the 
winds, the ticks alone being deemed valuable. 
But our stay was short, only three days, when 
the commandant of the fort informed us that 
he would burn the fort and stores and leave, 
inviting us to take such of the provisions as 
we might need. Consternation again seized 
upon us, and we hastily reloaded our wagons 
and left. We stayed the first night at a house 
eight or ten miles south of the (foot of the) 
Rapids. In the Black Swamp the load became 
too heavy, and they rolled out a barrel of 
flour and a barrel of meat which they had ob- 
tained at the fort. Mr. Hopkins, John Car- 
ter, Mr. Seribner, and William Race went back 




the next fall to gather their crops, and they 
were all killed by the savages. John Carter 
was attacked while in a boat on the river, and 
they had quite a hard fight before they got his 

Three Indian warriors made an incursion 
into the interior of the state with hostile 
intent. One of these was a Delaware chief, 
by the name of Sac-a-manc. The day after 
his departure the Frenchman, Peter Manor, 
called upon Major Spafford and warned him 
of the hostile intentions of the Indians, as 
he had received them from Sac-a-manc. The 
major was unrufBed, and quietly expressed a 
determination to remain until the American 
army from the interior should reach the rap- 
ids. It was only a few days after this conver- 
sation that a white man by the name of 
Gordon was seen approaching the residence 
of Major Spafford in great haste. Gordon 
had been reared among the Indians, but had, 
previous to this time, received some favors of 
a trifling character from him. 

Major Spafford met Gordon in his corn field, 
and was informed that a party of about fifty 
Pottawatomies, on their way to Maiden, had 
taken this route, and in less than two hours 
would be at the foot of the rapids. The 
major was urged to make his escape immedi- 
ately. Most of the families at the foot of the 
rapids had already left the valley, after 
receiving the intelligence of Hull 's surrender. 
The major collected together those that re- 
mained in the vicinity. He placed in tolerable 
sailing condition an old barge in which some 
officers had floated down the river from Fort 
Wayne the previous year. Scarcely had they 
placed such of their effects as wej-e portable 
on board, and rowed down to the bend below 
the town, when their ears caught the shouts 
of the Indians a short distance above. Find- 
ing no Americans here, the Indians passed on 
to the Canadian Town of Maiden. The major 
and his companions sailed in their rickety 
vessel across the lake to the Quaker settle- 

ment at Milan, on the Huron River, where 
thej' remained in security until the close of 
the war. 

Sac-a-mane, on his return from the interior 
of the state, a few days after this visit of the 
war party, exhibited to Manor the scalps of 
three persons that he alone had killed during 
bis absence. After peace was declared, most 
of the settlers who had lived along the Lower 
Maumee previous to the war returned to their 
old possessions. They were accompanied by 
friends and former soldiers who sought desir- 
able sites for settlement with their families. 
They were partly indemnified by the Govern- 
ment for their losses a few years afterwards. 
Many of them lived in the blockhouses at Fort 
Meigs for a while. Contentions arose, how- 
ever, regarding the pickets and other timbers 
of the fort, and one of the parties to the con- 
troversy finally set the remaining ones on fire. 

The last settler to be killed by the Indians 
was Levi Hull, in 1815. He left the house to 
bring the cattle from the woods. Several gun 
reports were heard, and a searching party 
found his body, dead and scalped, on a spot 
within the present limits of Perrysburg. The 
settlement of the Maumee Valley was at first 
slow, but the "foot of the rapids" and vicinity 
was settled long before any of the other sec- 
tions. In 1816 the Government sent an agent 
to lay out a town at the point on the Miami 
of the Lake best calculated for commercial 
purposes. After thoroughly sounding the 
river from its mouth, he decided upon the 
site of Perrysburg. The town was laid out 
that year on the United States Reservation, 
and named after Commodore Perry by Josiah 
Meigs, then comptroller of the treasury. The 
lots were offered for sale in the following 
spring at the land office in Wooster. From 
about this time the encroachment upon the 
Indian domain may be said to date, and the 
beginning of the end may be recognized in 
the famous treaty of that year, held within 
gun shot of the newly-established town. 



After the "War of 1812, the aborigines, who 
had been such valued allies of the British, were 
left in a serious condition. This was especially- 
true following their decisive defeat at the 
Battle of the Thames. As at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, they turned at once, with 
little or no apparent regret for their past, 
to the Americans for their support. In this 
they were like naughty and spoiled children. 
Begging to have their physical cravings sup- 
plied, they gathered at Detroit in such great 
inimbers that they could not be sustained from 
the limited supplies on hand. Hence we are 
told that they went about the city devouring 
rinds of pork, crumbs, bones, and anything 
else with nutriment in it that was thrown out 
by either the soldiers or the civil population. 
Although these children of the forests were 
as proud and unbending in their ordinary in- 
tercourse with the white people as it was pos- 
sible to be, they were as obsequioiis as the most 
abject beggar when seeking food. 

Believing that there was a chance to estab- 
lish the relations of the Indians and the Amer- 
icans on a better basis, because of the very 
necessities of the savages. General Harrison 
arranged for a treaty council to be lield at 
Greenville in the year following the close of 
the war. The Indians left hostages as a guar- 
antee of their good intentions, and agreed to 
deliver all the prisoners in their hands at Fort 
Wayne. His pacific efforts were so satisfac- 
tory that he made a very good impression upon 
the red men, so that when he and General 
Cass reached Greenville, on July 22, 1814, 
several thousand representatives of a number 
of different tribes, together with their families, 
were assembled there to greet them. On this 
occasion, a treaty was entered into between the 
Americans, on the one side, and the Wyandots, 
Delawares, Shawnees and Senecas, on the 
other, by which these tribes engaged to give 
their aid to the United States as against Great 
Britain and such of the tribes as still continued 
hostile. They further obligated themselves to 

make no peace with either without the con- 
sent of the United States. A large number 
of the Pottawatomies, Winnebagoes, and Chip- 
pewas, still clung to the tail of the British 

In the year 1816, the number of the aborig- 
ines of all ages and both sexes in Northwest 
Ohio, together with their location, was re- 
ported to the Government as follows : Wyan- 
dots, residing by the Sandusky River and its 
tributaries, numbered 695 ; of the Shawnees 
dwelling by the Auglaize and Jliami rivers, 
with their principal village at Wapakoneta, 
there were 840; the Delawares living by the 
headwaters of the Sandusky and I\Iuskingum 
rivers numbered 161 ; of the Senecas and 
others of the Six Nations having their habita- 
tions between Upper and Lower Sandusky, at 
and near Seneca Town, only 450 were enu- 
merated ; the Ottawas about Maumee Bay and 
Lake Erie, and by the Auglaize River, were 
estimated at about 450. This would make a 
total resident Indian population in Northwest 
Ohio at that time of about 2,600. 

The condition of the Indians dwelling along 
the Maumee River at this time was extremely 
miserable. We have this upon the authority 
of Benjamin P. Stickney, who was for a num- 
ber of years agent to the Indians of this ter- 
ritory, with headquarters at Fort Wayne. 
They dwelt in what are generally termed vil- 
lages, but, as a rule, thej' had no uniform place 
of residence. During the fall, winter, and 
part of the spring, they were scattered in the 
woods hunting. Some of them had rude cabins 
made of small logs, covered with bark, but 
more commonly some poles were stuck in the 
ground tied together with plants or strips of 
bark, and covered with large sheets of bark or 
some kind of a woven mat. 

The great enemy of the Indians, according 
to Mr. Stickney and almost every keen ob- 
server, was an unsatiable thirst for intoxicat- 
ing liquors. This craving in itself would not 
amount to much, had there not been depraved 



citizens of the United States capable and will- 
ing of eluding the vigilance of the Govern- 
ment and supplying this thirst by continuing 
the sale of liquor among them. When the 
supply of grog at home failed, they would 
travel any distance to obtain it. There was no 
fatigue, no risk, and no expense too great to 
obtain it. With many of them the "fire- 
water" seemed to be valued higher than life 
itself. It was the unalterable policy of the 
Government of the United States to keep spir- 
ituous liquors from the Indians, but in so 
many instances its efforts seemed rendered 
absolutely futile by the unscrupulous trader. 
Many of the murders by Indians of their 
own brethren, as well as of the whites, could 
be attributed to the effect of liquor, just as 
can the tragedies among the whites today. 
But there were white monsters, who were will- 
ing to murder or take advantage of the poor 
Ted man who was trying to live honestly. One 
of these tragedies occurred about 1841, or 
1842, in Henry County. Sum-mun-de-wat, a 
Wyandot chief and a Christian convert, with 
a party of friends left the Wyandot reserva- 
tion for their annual hunt in Williams County 
to secure raccoon skins, which then brought a 
good price. Sum-mun-de-wat with his nephew 
and niece passed through Wood County and 
had with them two excellent coon dogs. Two 
white men, who met the Indians, found that 
they had money and tried to buy the dogs. 
But an Indian will never part with his dogs. 
A day or two afterwards some more of the 
Wyandot part.y coming along discovered the 
murdered bodies of their chief and his two 
relatives. This murdered chief was one of the 
most enlightened and noble chiefs of the Wy- 
andots, and was a licensed preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The whites 
were aroused at the foul deed and arrested 
the suspected parties. One of them, Lyons, 
was lodged in jail at Napoleon, as the murder 
had occurred just within the Henry County 
line. The other, Anderson, confessed to as 

cold and brutal a murder as was ever con- 
ceived. But both men escaped punishment 
through the influence of white friends. 

As soon as the authority of the United 
States was well established in this section 
of our state, it became the recognized policy 
to narrow the limits of the range of the In- 
dians in order to render them less nomadic. 
When this was accomplished, it was hoped to 
be able to incline them to agricultural pur- 
suits. The excluded lands were then opened 
to prospective settlers, and it was believed that 
the example of industrious farmers would in- 
cline the Indians toward the ordinary pursuits 
of a civilized community. The larger the num- 
ber of settlers, the more secure the frontier 
would become. With this purpose in view, a 
council was called to meet at the ' ' Foot of the 
Rapids of the Miami of Lake Erie, ' ' the place 
designated undoubtedly being on the left bank 
of tlie river near tlie site of the present Vil- 
lage of Maumee. The date assigned was the 
29th of September, 1817. At this time Gens. 
Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur met the 
sachems and other chiefs, together with their 
accompanying warriors, of the Wyandot, 
Seneca, Delaware, Shawnee, Pottawatomie, 
Ottawa, and Chippewa tribes. They were 
fully commissioned to negotiate and sign a 
treaty upon all matters that were of interest 
between the United States and the red men. 
They succeeded in negotiating a treaty which, 
in importance, ranks second only to the great 
Treaty of Greenville, concluded in 1795. 

By this treaty, the Wyandots agreed to 
forever cede to the United States an immense 
area of land, including a large part of the 
Maumee and Sandusky basins, which had here- 
tofore been claimed by them as hunting 
ground. This grant is described as follows in 
the treaty: 

' ' The Wyandot tribe of Aborigines, in con- 
sideration of the stipulations herein made on 
the part of the United States, do hereby for- 
ever cede to the United States the lands com- 



prehended within the following lines and 
boundaries : Beginning at a point on the 
southern shore of Lake Ei-ie where the pres- 
ent Aborigine boundary line intersects the 
same, between the mouth of Sandusky Bay 
and the mouth of Portage River ; thence, run- 
ning south with said line to the line estab- 
lished in the year 1795 by the Treaty of Green- 
ville which runs from the crossing place above 
Fort Laurens to Loramie 's store ; thence west- 
erly with the last mentioned line to the eastern 
line of the Reserve at Loramie 's Store ; thence 
with the lines of said Reserve^ north and west 
to the northwestern corner thereof; thence to 
the northwestern corner of the Reserve on the 
River St. Mary, at the head of the navigable 
waters thereof (site of the present City of St. 
Marys) ; thence, east to the western bank of 
the St. Mary River aforesaid ; thence, down on 
the western bank of the said river to the Re- 
serve at Port Wayne; thence, with the lines 
of the last mentioned Reserve, easterly and 
northerly, to the north bank of the said river 
to the western line of the land ceded to the 
United States by the Treaty of Detroit in the 
year 1807 ; thence, with the said line south to 
the middle of said Miami (Maumee) River, 
opposite the mouth of the Great Au Glaise 
River ; thence, down the middle of said Miami 
River and easterly with the lines of the tract 
ceded to the LTnited States by the Treaty of 
Detroit aforesaid : so far that a south line will 
strike the place of beginning. ' ' 

The other tribes gathered at this council 
also released their claim to all the lands within 
this territory, with the exception of certain 
specified reservations. For these concessions, 
the United States agreed to pay to the Wyan- 
dot Tribe annually, forever, the sum of $4,000 
in specie at Upper Sandusky; to the Sen- 
eca Tribe annually, forever, the sum of $500 
in specie at Lower Sandusky ; to the Shawnee 
Tribe, the sum of $2,000 at Wapakoneta; to 
the Pottawatomies. the sum of $1,300 ; to the 
Ottawas $1,000, and to the Chippewas $1,000 

annually for a period of fifteen years, pay- 
ments to be made in specie at Detroit. To 
the Delawares, the sum of $500 in specie was 
to be made at Wapakoneta during the year 
1818, but there was no annuity. All of these 
payments were in addition to any annuities 
granted under the Treaty of Greenville. 

The reservations of land granted to these 
various tribes are described in this treaty as 
follows : 

' ' The United States agrees to grant by patent 
in fee simple to Do-an-quod, How-o-ner, Ron- 
ton-dee, Tau-yau, Rod-ta-yau, Daw-a-tont, Ma- 
no-cue, Tau-yau-dau-tau-son, and Hau-dau-u- 
waugh, chiefs of the Wyandot tribe, and their 
successors in office chiefs of the said tribe for 
the use of the persons and for the purposes 
mentioned in the annexed schedule, a tract of 
land twelve miles square at Upper Sandusky 
the center of which shall be the place where 
Port Ferree stands; and also a tract of one 
mile square to be located where the chiefs 
direct on a cranberry swamp on Broken Sword 
Creek and to be held for the use of the tribe. 

' ' The United States agrees to grant by pat- 
ent in fee simple to Taw-aw-ma-do-yaw, Cap- 
tain Harris, Isa-how-mu-say, Joseph Tawgj-on, 
Captain Smith, Coffee-house, Runuing-about, 
and Wiping-stick, chiefs of the Seneca tribe 
and their successors in office chiefs of the said 
tribe, for the use of the persons mentioned in 
the annexed schedule, a tract of land to con- 
tain thirty thousand acres, beginning on the 
Sandusky River at the lower corner of the 
section granted to William Spicer; thence 
down the said river to the east side, with the 
meanders thereof at high water mark, to a 
point east of the mouth of Wolf Creek ; thence 
and from the beginning, east so far that a 
north line will include the quantity of thirty 
thousand acres aforesaid. 

"The LTnited States also agrees to grant by 
patent in fee simple, to Ca-te-we-ke-sa or Black 
Hoof, Bj'-a-se-ka or Wolf, Pom-the or Walker, 
She-men-etoo or Big Snake, Otha-wa-keseka or 



Yellow Feather, Cha-ka-lo-A\;ah or the Tail's 
End, Pemtliala or John Perry, Wabepee or 
"White Color, chiefs of the Shawnee Tribe re- 
siding at Wapakoneta, and their successors in 
office of the said tribe residing there, for the 
use of the persons mentioned in the annexed 
schedule, a tract of land ten miles square the 
center of which shall be the council-house at 

' ' The United States also agrees to grant by- 
patent in fee simple, to Pe-eth-tha or Falling 
Tree, and to Onowas-kemo or the Resolute 
Man, chiefs of the Shawnee tribe residing on 
Hog Creek (the present Ottawa River in Allen 
county, Ohio) and their successors in office 
chiefs of the said tribe residing there, for the 
use of the persons mentioned in the annexed 
schedule, a tract of land containing twenty- 
five sciuare miles to join the tract granted at 
Wapakoneta (spelled Wapaughkonnetta), and 
to include the Shawnee settlement on Hog 
Creek and to be laid off as nearly as possible 
in square form." 

The United States also agreed to grant by 
patent in fee simple, to Qua-to-we-pee, or Cap- 
tain Lewis, She-kagh-ke-la, or Turtle, Ski- 
lo-\va, or Robin, chiefs of the Shawnee Tribe 
residing at Lewistown; and to Mesomea, or 
Civil John, Wa-kaw-iis-she-no, or the White 
Man, Oquasheno, or Joe, and Willaquasheno, 
or When You are Tired Sit Down, certain 
lands not within this section of the state. 

There was also reserved for the use of the 
Ottawa aborigines, but not granted to them, 
a tract of land on Blanchard's Fork of the 
Great Au Glaize River, to contain five miles 
square, "the center of which tract is to be 
where the old trace crosses the said Fork 
(about the present City of Ottawa) ; and one 
other tract to contain three miles square on 
the Little Au Glaise River, to include Oqua- 
noxa's village." The meaning of the chief's 
name was "the ugly fellow," and he indeed 
was a troublesome Indian. 

The United States likewise agreed. to grant, 

by patent in fee simple, to Zee-shaw-au, or 
James Armstrong, and to Sa-uon-do-you-ray- 
guaw, or Silas Armstrong, chiefs of the Dela- 
ware aborigines living on the Sandusky wa- 
ters, and to their successors in office, chiefs 
of the said tribe, for the use of the persons 
mentioned in the annexed schedule, in the 
same manner and subject to the same condi- 
tions, provisions and limitations as hereinbe- 
fore provided for the lands granted to the 
Wyandot, Seneca, and Shawnee aborigines, a 
tract of land to contain nine square miles, to 
join the tract granted to the Wyandots of 
twelve miles square, to be laid off as nearly 
in a square form as practicable and to include 
Captain Pipe's village. The reservation was 
partly in Wyandot and partly in ]Marion 

Another very interesting section of this 
treaty is the grants made to a number of per- 
sons who were connected with the savages 
either by blood or adoption. Most of these 
were former prisoners captured by them, but 
who had remained with the tribe and finally 
been adopted by them. The United States 
agreed to convey the lands designated by pat- 
ent in fee simple. All of these are interesting, 
and I will quote them bi'iefly : Elizabeth Whit- 
aker, who had been taken prisoner by the 
Wyandots, was granted 1,280 acres of land 
' ' on the west side of the Sandusky River near 
Croghansville, " now Fremont; Robert Arm- 
strong, who had been taken prisoner by the 
aborigines and had married a Wyandot 
woman, was given one section of land on the 
west side of the Sandusky River near Fort 
Ball, now in Seneca County. The children of 
William McCulloch were allowed one section 
of laud on the west side of the Sandusky 
River, adjoining that of Robert Armstrong. 
Upon John Vanmeter, who had been taken 
prisoner by the Wyandots, and had married a 
Seneca woman, and to his wife's three 
brothers, were bestowed 1,000 acres of land 
near Honey Creek, Seneca County, and Cath- 


erine Walker, a Wyandot woman, and her 
son who had been wounded in the service of 
the United States, were allotted a section of 
land adjoining that of Vanmeter. 

Sarah Williams, Joseph Williams, and 
Rachel Nugent, the first named having been 
taken a prisoner by the Indians, and the others 
having a portion of Indian blood in their 
veins, were granted a quarter of a section of 
land below Croghansville, and at Negro Point. 
William Spieer, also a prisoner among the 
Indians, and who had married a Seneca 
woman, was given a section of land along the 
Sandusky River, "at the lower corner of 
Spieer 's Cornfield." The late Shawnee chief, 
Captain Logan, who had fallen in the service 
of the United States, was remembered by the 
grant of a section of laud on the east side of 
the "Great Au Glaise River adjoining the 
lower line of the grant of ten miles at Wapa- 
koneta on the said river." Saw-En-De-Bans, 
or the Yellow Hair, or Peter Minor (Manor), 
who was an adopted sou of Tondaganie (who 
is remembered in the name of the Village of 
Tontogany, Wood County), or the Dog, was 
granted a section of land to be located in a 
square form on the north side of the Miami 
(Maumee) at the Wolf Rapids, above Roche 
de Boeuf. This is near the Village of Provi- 
dence, in Lucas County. 

The United States obligated itself to ap- 
point an agent for the Wyandots to reside at 
Upper Sandusky, and an agent for the Shaw- 
nees at Wapakoneta. This agent was to pro- 
tect the Indians in their persons and property, 
and to manage their intercourse with the 
American Government and its citizens. It also 
agreed to erect a saw-mill and a grist-mill and 
maintain a blacksmith on the Wyandot Reser- 
vation, and a blacksmith at Wapakoneta, for 
the Indians there and at Hog Creek and the 
Blanchard River. It also specially exempted 
all these reservations from taxes of any kind, 
so long as they continued to be the property 
of the aborigines. It likewise reserved to the 

United States the right to construct roads 
through any part of the land granted and 
reserved by this treaty, and the agent was 
authorized to establish taverns and ferries 
wherever such became necessary. 

When it came time to sign the treaty, so 
we are told, all looked toward the mother of 
Otusso, the son of Kan-tuck-e-gan, and a di- 
rect descendant of Pontiac. He was the last 
war chief of the Ottawas remaining along the 
Maumee. His mother was a sort of Indian 
queen and grand-niece to Pontiac. She was 
held in great reverence by the Indians — so 
much so, that at the time of this treaty in 
1817 (she then being very old and wrinkled 
and bent over with age, her hair perfectly 
white), no chief would sign the treaty until 
she had first consented and made her mark by 
touching her fingers to the pen. When the 
treaty was agreed upon, the head chiefs and 
warriors sat around the inner circle, and the 
aged woman had a place among them. The 
remaining Indians, with the women and chil- 
dren, comprised a crowd outside. The chiefs 
sat on seats built under the roof of the council 
house, which was open on all sides. The whole 
assembly maintained absolute silence. The 
chiefs bowed their heads and cast their eyes 
to the ground ; they waited patiently for the 
old woman until she rose, went forward, and 
touched the pen to the treaty, after it had 
been read to them in her presence. Then fol- 
lowed the signatures of all the chiefs. 

Some amusing things are told about the 
occurrences at this treaty. One Indian was 
present who had evidently been bribed by the 
British to oppose any treaty that might be 
proposed. He made a speech in which he said 
that the palefaces had cheated the red men 
from their very first landing on this con- 
tinent. In a very flowery speech, according 
to the Indian standard, he declared that the 
first white men who came said they wanted 
enough land to put a foot on. They gave the 
aborigines an ox for beef, and were to have 



as nmeh land as the hide would cover. They 
then cut the hide into strings, and by that 
means secured enough land for a fort. The 
next time they wanted more land, they 
brought an enormous pile of goods which 
they offered for it. They were to receive as 
much land as a horse could travel around in 
a day. In order to cheat the red men, they 
had a relay of horses so that each one could 
travel at its utmost speed. His speech did 
not affect the course of events in the least, 
for General Cass ridiculed him in his reply. 
It is said that there were 7,000 aborigines 
present at this treaty at the foot of the Rapids 
of the Maumee, including the women and chil- 
dren. It must indeed have been a strange 
and curious assemblage. But it was only one 
of the many unusual and interesting incidents 
that have occurred here. 

"Men may come and men may go. 
But I go on forever." 

These words of Tennyson 's ' ' Brook ' ' might 
well be the sentiment of the ]Maumee. At the 
foot of the rapids was a favorite trysting 
place for Indians, and it later acquired great 
significance with the white men. Treaties 
were held there, armies camped round about, 
battles were fought in the vicinity, and men 
died violent deaths within sound of the sooth- 
ing lull of these waters. Birds have billed 
and cooed there from times beyond the mem- 
ory of man. The Indian snatched his dusky 
bride from the tepee of her father, and the 
white lover has breathed his fervent words 
into willing ears on the gras-sy banks where the 
stillness is broken only by the tumbling flood. 
To the river this has signified nothing. White 
man or red, French or British, civilized or 
savage, lover or warrior, all have been the 
same to the spirit of the river. The Maumee 
simply flows on from day to day, with no 
reckoning of time, but silently reaching out 
toward that eternity that is to be. 

By this treaty of 1817, the title to most of 

the land in the Maumee Basin, and in the San- 
dusky Valley as well, was granted to the 
United States. Of all the great treaties ever 
entered into with the Indians, this one held, 
at the Maumee Rapids was of the greatest 
interest to Northwest Ohio. A line drawn 
from Sandusky Bay to the Greenville Treaty 
Line, near Mount Gilead, thence westerly 
along that line to the Indiana boundary and 
north to ^Michigan, would about embrace the 
Ohio land purchased at this council. It has 
since been divided ixito about eighteen coun- 
ties. Campaigns had been made and battles 
fought, treaty had followed treaty, but each 
and all had consigned this land to the sway 
of the savage. Almost three decades had 
elapsed since the Marietta colony was 
planted on the Ohio. Now for the first time 
could it be truthfully said that Northwest 
Ohio stood on an equality with the rest of 
the state, and was practically free from the 
fetters and dominance of a race whose in- 
terest and habits, ciistoms and mode of life, 
were entirely opposed to those of the rest of 
the country. Heretofore it had been partially 
a blank place on the map, labeled Indian 
country and Black Swamp. Its very name 
brought a shrug of terror to many. Follow- 
ing this treaty the civil jurisdiction of Logan 
County, with court at Bellefontaine, became 
operative until the organization of counties 
in 1820. 

A number of additional treaties were made 
with the Indians at councils held in various 
places, but they are not of great importance 
for the purposes of this history, excepting 
the one convened at St. Marys, in Auglaize 
county, in September, 1818. This was held 
at Fort Barbee, the present site of St. Marys, 
between the same parties, and some changes 
were made by which the Indians were given 
much more extensive allotments, because of a 
gathering dissatisfaction. Although the 
council did not commence until the 20th, the 
chiefs and warriors of seven nations began 



to assemble in the latter part of August. This 
council lasted until the 6th of October. The 
treaty grounds were marked off west from the 
old Fort St. Marys. Tents were erected for 
the accommodation of the Lewis Cass and 
Duncan McArthur, the commissioners repre- 
senting the United States. They were accom- 
panied by tlie governors of Ohio, Indiana, and 
Michigan, and were escorted by a troop of 
Kentucky cavalry. The Indians were en- 
camped around and arranged by tribes, of 
which there were Wyandots, Senecas, Shaw- 
nees, and Ottawas. It was intended to be 
supplementary to the one made the previous 
year at the Foot of the Rapids of the Maumee. 
At St. Marys the Wyandots received a large 
increase in land, consisting of two tracts of 
56,680 and 16,000 acres respectively. The 
latter was for the benefit of those Indians 
residing at Solomon's Town, the center of 
which was at Big Spring. The Shawnees 
received 12,800 additional acres, to be laid off 
adjoining the east line of their reservation at 
"Wapaghkonetta," while for the joint use of 
the Senecas and Shawnees 8,900 acres were 
laid off immediately west of the Lewiston 
grant. The north half was for the Senecas, 
and the south half for the Shawnees. The 
Senecas also received 10,000 more acres along 
the Sandusky. Additional annuities was 
granted as follows : To the Wyandots, $500 ; 
to the Shawnees and Senecas, of Lewiston, 
$1,000 ; to the Senecas, $500 ; to the Ottawas, 
$1,500; all of these were to run "forever." 
During the same period Jonathan Jennings, 
Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parker concluded 
treaties with the Miamis, Weas, and Potta- 
watomies, the great part of which related to 
lands in Indiana. All of the tribes made 
certain concessions in return for what they 
received. The traders did a thriving busi- 
ness, and many thousands of dollars worth 
of furs were exchanged for rifles, powder, 
lead, knives, hatchets, gaudy blankets, to- 
bacco, etc. Pony races and ball games were 

daily diversions among the Indians, who were 
well sustained by the Government. For this 
purpose droves of cattle and hogs had been 
driven in and great stocks of corn meal, salt, 
and sugar laid in; upon these and the game 
brought in by the Indian hunters they fared 
sumptuously every day. Smugglers also 
secretly supplied them with whiskey, which 
caused much trouble. This was the last great 
assemblage of Indian nations in Ohio. 

The most noted Indian agent in dealing 
with the aborigines of Northwest Ohio was 
Col. John Johnson. For several years he was 
stationed at Fort Wayne, and was then trans- 
ferred to old Piqua, a few miles north of the 
present Piqua. Here he retained his head- 
quarters, until the last Indian tribe had dis- 
appeared from the state. He was succeeded 
at Fort Wayne by Major Benjamin F. Stick- 
ney, who served there many years, and was 
afterwards transferred to Fort Miami. The 
salary of an Indian agent at that time was 
$750 per year, and four military rations per 
day. Major Stickney afterwards settled at 
Toledo, and was prominent in the early his- 
tory of that city. Among other agents, or 
sub-agents, were Rev. James ilontgomery, for 
the Senecas along the Sandusky, and John 
Shaw, for the Wyandots at Upper Sandusky. 
Official interpreters were stationed at Upper 
Sandusky and Wapakoneta. 

It was not many years after the treaties 
described above until the removals of the 
Indians to reservations farther west were 
initiated. In 1818 the Miamis ceded a large 
part of their lands in the Maumee Valley to 
the United States. In fact, at the same treaty 
at St. Marys, some of the Delawares agreed 
to their removal to a reservation by the James 
tributary of the White River, in Missouri. 
The Delawares living at Little Sandusky quit- 
claimed to the United States their resei-vation 
of three miles square on the 3d of August, 
1829, and consented to remove west of the 
Mississippi to join those Delawares already 



transferred. * In 1829, by a treaty concluded 
at Saginaw, the Chippewas ceded to the 
United States land claimed by them running 
from Michigan to the "mouth of the Great 
Auglaize River. ' ' Two years later the Senecas 
along the Sandusky River relinquished their 
reservations in exchange for lands west of the 
Mississippi. Upon payment of all expenses 
by the United States, as well as the building 
and keeping up of certain improvements, the 
Indians were removed in accordance with this 
treaty. There were just 510 of them, as mixed 
up a mess of humanity as could be found, so 
we are told by contemporaneous chroniclers. 
A portion of them traveled overland, and the 
others journeyed to Cincinnati, where they 
proceeded by water down the Ohio. 

In 1831 James Gardner, then residing at 
Columbus, sent word to the Shawnees that he 
would soon visit them to make proposals for 
the purchase of their lands. This was the 
first intimation that the Shawnees had of such 
a contemplated move, and it threw the entire 
tribe into a wild state of excitement. A coun- 
cil was held, and word was dispatched to him 
not to come. But outside influences were now 
brought to bear by Gardner. The traders, 
who had extended credit to the Indians, were 
induced to urge payment, and some of the 
weaker chiefs were bribed after first being 
made di-unk. Gardner made a speech that 
lasted two days, in which he absolutely mis- 
represented his instructions, and dwelt upon 
the conditions that might arise in the event 
of their non-compliance. 

After he had thus alarmed them in regard 
to their present and future condition, in case 
they concluded to adhere to their former 
resolution of i*emaining in Ohio, he said he 
would not tell them that, in case thej' would 
now sell their land and go west, that their 
Great Father, General Jackson, would make 
them rich. He told them that there was a 
great and rich country laid off for all the 

Indians to move to, west of the State of 
Missouri, which never would be within any 
state or territory of the United States, and 
where there was plenty of buffalo, elk and 
deer; where they could live well without 
working at all. 

The tribe was greatly divided in its opin- 
ions. But those who had been bribed and 
influenced by the traders outnumbered the 
others. The dissipated Indians realized that 
this would give them a lot of ready money. 
The tribe insisted on the payment of all the 
debts of its members. The treaty was signed 
without being read by Gardner, and he mis- 
represented its terms. Finding that they had 
been deceived, the Shawnees applied to the 
Quakers for help. A committee of the 
Friends was appointed for that purpose. 
They proceeded to Washington in order to 
present the matter to Congress, asking for 
relief. For the first time a true copy of the 
treaty was exhibited to them by the secretary 
of war. They found that the amount the 
Shawnees were to receive was $115,000 less 
than had been promised for their lands at 
Hog Creek and "Wapaghkonnetta." Be- 
cause of the opposition of Congress, only 
$30,000 addition was granted then by that 
body until 1853, when they received an addi- 
tional $66,000. Thus it required twenty 
years for the whites to render justice to their 
wards, whom they had dispossessed of their 

Because Gardner informed the Shawnees 
that they would be removed early in the 
spring, the Indians disposed of their cattle 
and hogs and many other things. As a mat- 
ter of fact it was almost a year, and the 
Indians meanwhile suffered great privation. 
Many came almost to the point of starvation. 
Henry Harvey exerted himself vigorously on 
their behalf. When the money finally came, 
it was transported in ten wooden kegs on 
horseback from Piqua. It was disbursed to 



the Indians from Gardner's headquarters, in 
the Jones' woods, in the northeastern part 
of Wapakoneta. 

After receiving their annuity, the Indians 
entered upon a round of festivities and dis- 
sipation that lasted in most instances until 
their money was spent. After recuperating 
from their dissipations, they 'began making 
preparations for their removal to their west- 
ern home. They destroyed or buried the prop- 
erty they could not sell. David Robb, one of 
the commissioners who assisted in their re- 
moval, has left an interesting account of the 
ceremonies incident to the occasion : 

"After we had rendezvoused, preparatory 
to moving, we were detained several weeks 
waiting until they had got over their tedious 
round of religious ceremonies, some of which 
were public and others kept private from us. 
One of their first acts was to take away the 
fencing from the graves of their fathers, level 
them to the surrounding surface, and cover 
them so neatly with green sod, that not a 
trace of the graves could be seen. Subse- 
quently, a few of the chiefs and others visited 
their friends at a distance, gave and received 
presents from chiefs of other nations at their 

"Among the ceremonies above alluded to 
was a dance, in which none participated but 
the warriors. They threw off all their cloth- 
ing but their breeehclouts, painted their faces 
and naked bodies in a fantastical manner, 
covering them with the pictures of snakes 
and disagreeable insects and animals, and then 
armed with war clubs, commenced dancing, 
yelling and frightfully distorting their coun- 
tenances; the scene was truly terrific. This 
was followed by the dance they usually have 
on returning from a battle, in which both 
sexes participated. It was a pleasing con- 
trast to the other, and was performed in the 
night, in a ring, around a large fire. In this 
they sang and marched, males and females 
promiscuously, in single file around the 

blaze. The leader of the band commenced 
singing, while all the rest were silent until he 
had sung a certain number of words, then the 
next in the row commenced with the same, 
and the leader began with a new set, and so 
on to the end of their chanting. All were 
singing at once, but no two the same words. 
I was told that part of the words they used 
were hallelujah! It was pleasing to witness 
the native modesty and graceful movements 
of those young females in this dance. 

"When their ceremonies were over, they 
informed us they were ready to leave. They 
then mounted their horses, and such as went 
in wagons seated themselves, and set out with 
their 'high priest' in front, bearing on his 
shoulders 'the ark of the covenant,' which 
consisted of a large gourd and the bones of a 
deer's leg, tied to its neck. Just previous to 
starting, the priest gave a blast of his trumpet, 
then moved slowly and solemnly while the 
others followed in like manner, until they 
were ordered to halt in the evening and cook 
supper. The same course was observed 
through the whole of the journey. When they 
arrived near St. Louis, they lost some of their 
number by cholera. The Shawnees who emi- 
gi-ated numbered about 700 souls." 

It was on the 20tli of Xovember, 1832, that 
they commenced their journey of 800 miles, 
and proceeded as far as Piqua the first day, 
where they remained two days to visit the 
graves of their ancestors. On the evening 
of November 23d they encamped at Hamilton. 
After a sojourn of three days at this point, 
they departed on their western journey. 
They traveled until Christmas of that year, 
when they encamped at the junction of the 
Kansas and Missouri rivers. They suffered 
much on the journey from the severity of the 
winter. They immediately commenced the 
construction of cabins, and, by the latter part 
of February, these were so far completed as 
to protect them from the cold western winds. 
The Shawnees and Senecas who made the 



winter journeys numbered about 1,100. They 
were joined tlie next spring by the Hog Creek 
tribe, under the direction of Joseph Parks. 
This second contingent fared much better 
than those who preceded them, as they had 
the advantage of season. 

In 1870, in compliance with the stipulations 
of a treaty made the previous year, the Shaw- 
nees removed from their Kansas reservation 
to Indian Territory, where they settled on 
unoccupied lands in the Cherokee country, 
and thereby became a part of that nation. 
Pure-blooded Indians form only a small per 
cent of the members. It is estimated that 
only about 15, or, at most, 20 per cent of the 
Shawnees and Cherokees are of pure Indian 
descent at the present time. Even among 
those claiming to be Indians are many quarter- 
blood and half-bloods. 

The Ottawas along the lower Maumee, at 
Wolf Rapids and Roche de Boeuf, and also 
those by the Auglaize River and Blanchard 
River, near the present Town of Ottawa, about 
200 in number, gave up their lands and con- 
sented to remove to a reservation of 40,000 
acres in consideration of an annuity and 
presents of blankets, horses, guns, agricul- 
tural implements, etc. It was especially 
stated that this relinquishment did not in- 
clude the square mile of territory previously 
granted to Peter Manor, the Yellow Hair. A 
three years' lease was also granted to Chief 
Wau-be-ga-ka-ke for a section of land adjoin- 
ing Peter Manor, and a section and a half 
of land below Wolfe Rapids was given to 
Muck-qui-ona, or the Bear Skin. A quarter 
section each was set off to Hiram Thebault, a 
half-breed Ottawa, to William Ottawa, and 
to William McNabb, another half-blood. 

The last remnant of the once powerful 
Ottawa tribe of Indians removed from this 
valley to lands beyond the Mississippi in 1838. 
They numbered some interesting men among 
them. There was Nawash, Ockquenoxy, 
Charloo, Ottoke, Petonquct, men of eloquence 

who were long remembered by many of our 
citizens. Their burying grounds and village- 
sites are scattered along both banks of Miami 
of the Lakes, from its mouth to Fort Defiance. 
They left on the steamboat "Commodore 
Perry" for Cleveland, on August 21, 1837, 
to journey from there by canal to Portsmouth, 
and thence by the Ohio and Mississippi to 
their new western home. There were about 
150 in the party, and a few remained behind 
with their white neighbors. A couple of years 
later another 100, who had been eking out a 
precarious existence, consented to follow the 
others, and they were accordingly transported 
west by the same route. 

The Wyandots of the Big Spring Reserva- 
tion, or those of Solomon's Town, ceded their 
lands, amounting to about 16,000 acres, to the 
United States at a council held at McCutchen- 
ville, Wyandot County, on the 19th of Jan- 
uary, 1832. James B. Gardner was the 
specially appointed commissioner on the part 
of the Government. It was stipulated that 
when sold the chiefs should be paid in silver 
the sum of $1.25 per acre for the land, and 
also a fair valuation for all improvements 
that had been made. The Indians went to 
Huron, in Michigan, or any place that they 
might obtain the privilege of settling with 
other Indians. Some did in fact join the other 
Wyandots on their principal reservation. 
Chief Solomon went West with his tribe, but 
returned and passed his last days among the 
whites. In 1836 the Wyandots reduced their 
claims, and, in 1842, they ceded to the United 
States all of the remainder of their reserva- 
tion and were removed by the Government to 
the Indian Territory. With their removal 
Ohio was entirely freed from its aborigine 
population. The commissioner on the part of 
the United States, who had the honor of mak- 
ing the last Indian treaty in Ohio was Col. 
John Johnston, a state, says Henry Howe, 
' ' every foot of whose soil has been fairly pur- 
chased by treaties from its original posses- 



sors. ' ' The Wyandots left for Kansas in July, 

Considering their numbers and resources, 
few races have ever made a better defense, or 
acquitted themselves with greater valor, than 
did the red men. They had neither the ad- 
vantages of the destructive weapons nor the 
numerical strength of their enemies. And yet, 
how long and how bloody was the struggle 
before they succumbed to the increasing num- 
bers of the whites. How reluctantly they 
yielded to their new masters ; but at last they 
were obliged to submit and be dictated to. 
The pleasant hunting grounds, where they 
formerly chased the deer and the bear in 
Northwest Ohio, have fallen into the posses- 
sion of aliens of a different color. The red 
man is no more seen stretched before the 
sparkling fire along the banks of the Sandusky 
or the Maumee. The cheerful notes of his 
flute, and the hoarser sound of the turtle 
shell, or tlie tom-tom of his rude drum, no 
longer make vocal the groves along their 
banks. In his distant home he sits and smokes 
his pipe, and heaves a sigh of despair and 
helplessness. In strains of sorrowful elo- 
quence he relates to his listening children the 
glorious deeds of his ancestors, and the hap- 
piness of the days in the long ago. Gloom 
fills his heart, as he peers into the future, and 
seems to see at no great distance the end of 
his people. Wrapped in his blanket, he pours 
out his pent-up soul in supplications to the 
Great Spirit. In that distant world of the 
future, he expects to find new and happy 
hunting-grounds, apart from the aggressive 
white men, whose numbers are as the sands of 
the sea. 

Some of the Indians, when the removal was 
begun, declared that they never would leave 
their beloved Maumee Valley. If they could 
find no place to stay, they would spend the 
rest of their days in walking up and down the 
Maumee, mourning over the wTetched state 
of their people, — so they were reported say- 

ing. Using this sentiment as a subject, 
Josiah D. Canning communicated to the 
"American Pioneer" the following poem: 

The Banks op the Maumee 

I stood, in a dream, on the banks of Maumee ! 
'Twas autumn, and nature seem'd wrapped 
in decay, 
The wind, moaning, crept thro' the shivering 
tree — 
The leaf from the bough drifted slowly 
The gray-eagle screamed on the marge of the 
The solitudes answered the bird of the free ; 
How lonely and sad was the scene of my 
And mournful the hour, on the banks of 
Maumee ! 

A form passed before me — a vision of one 
Who mourned for his nation, his country 

and kin ; 
He walked on the shores, now deserted and 

Where the homes of his tribe, in their glory, 

had been ; 
And thought after thought o'er his sad spirit 

As wave follows wave o'er the turbulent 

And this lamentation he breathed from his 

O'er the ruins of home, on the banks of 


As the hunter, at morn, in the snows of the 
Recalls to his mind the sweet visions of 
night ; 
When sleep, softly falling, his sorrows be- 
And opened his eyes in the land of delight — 


So, backward I muse on tlie dream of my And I, in the garments of heaviness dress 'd 

youth; The last of my tribe, on the banks of 

Ye peace-giving hours! 0, v?here did ye Maumee? 

When the Christian neglected his pages of Ye trees, on whose branches my cradle was 

truth, hung, 

And the Great Spirit groaned, on the banks Must I yield you a prey to the axe and the 

of Maumee ! fire ? 

Ye shores, wliere the chant of the pow-wow 

Oppression has lifted his iron-like rod, was sung. 

And smitten my people, again and again; Have ye witnessed the light of the council 

The white man has said their is justice with expire? 

God — Pale ghosts of my fathers, who battled of yore, 

Will he hear the poor Aborigine before Is the Great Spirit just in the land where 

Him complain? ye be? 

Sees he not how His children are worn and While living, dejected I'll wander this shore, 

oppress'd? And join you at last from the banks of 

How driven in exile ? — I, can He not see ? Maumee. 



Just when the first religious teacher set foot 
in Northwest Ohio is not well established. 
That it was a priest of the Roman Catholic 
Church is reasonably certain. La Salle was 
always accompanied by priests on his jour- 
neys, and his visit may have been the initial 
occasion. Many of the earliest priests did not 
keep records of their journeys, and for the 
lack of these there is many a blank in the his- 
tory of pioneer missions. 

When Champlain reported that the New 
World traversed by him was peopled with sav- 
ages, who were "living like brute beasts, with- 
out law, without religion, and without God," 
a great religious zeal was awakened among 
the Catholic clergy of France. The Gray 
Friars, as the Recollects were called, first an- 
swered the call. Finding the field too vast 
for themselves, the Jesuits were brought to 
their aid. Jesuit priests and teachers spread 
over all the country of the Great Lakes among 
the copper-colored aborigines, preaching 
whenever and wherever it was possible. The 
Jesuit fathers wrote detailed narratives of 
their wanderings and their efforts to carry 
the cross to the savages of the wilderness. 
These reports are known as the "Jesuit Rela- 
tions," and they describe in detail stories of 
sufferings and hardships, and occasional in- 
stances of martjTdom, which are almost un- 
surpassed in the history of the human race. 
The Jesuits "illumined the career of New 
France with a poetic glamour such as is cast 
over no other part of America north of Mex- 
ico," says a writer. The "Relations" reveal 

much concerning the early history of the abo- 
rigines of the old Northwest Territory. 

The first recorded instance of missionary 
effort within our territory of Northwest Ohio 
was in 1749, when the Jesuit fathers, Piei-re 
Poitier and Joseph de Bonnecamp, undertook 
to evangelize the Indians living along the 
Vermillion and Sandusky rivers. The earliest 
permanent religious chapel within the limits 
of Ohio was erected near Sandusky, in 1751, 
by Father John de la Richardie, who had 
journeyed from Detroit to the southern shore 
of Lake Erie. During the exciting period of 
Pontiac's Conspiracy, these missionaries were 
driven from the Sandusky, and services after- 
wards were very irregular. In fact, from 
that time until 1795, no positive record is 
found of the activities of Catholic missionar- 
ies within this section of Ohio. As the "Jesuit 
Relations" make no mention of the Sandusky 
mission, it is fair to conclude that it was de- 
pendent upon one at Detroit. At the time of 
the Jesuit pilgrimages, the Ohio country was 
so shaken and torn by the Iroquois conflicts 
that the Ohio tribes had no settled habita- 
tions, and this probably accounts for the lack 
of mission efforts among them. In the year 
1796, the Rev. Edmund Burke was sent from 
Detroit to the Indians living near Fort Miami. 
In this neighborhood, and within the limits of 
the present Village of Maumee, he constructed 
and occupied a log house as his chapel. Here 
he resided for a time, ministering to the few 
Catholic soldiers in the fort, and endeavoring 
to Christianize the Indians in the neighbor- 




hood. His efforts met with little success, so 
that he remained only about a year. From 
that time no priest was stationed in this ter- 
ritory for a score of years. 

In a letter written bj^ Father Burke from 
the "Miamis" to Archbishop Troy, the follow- 
ing passage occui-s: "I wrote from Quebec, 
if I rightly remember, the day before depart- 
ure for this eounti-y; am now distant about 
five hundred leagues from it, on the western 
side of Lake Erie, within a few miles of the 
Miami fort, lately built by the British govern- 
ment. * * * I'm here in the midst of 
Indians, all heathens. This day a grand 
council was held in mj- house by the Ottawas, 
Chippewas and Pottowatomies. These people 
receive a certain quantity of Indian corn from 
the government, and I have been appointed 
to distribute it. That gives me a consequence 
among them which I hope will be useful, as 
soon as I can speak their language, which is 
not difScult. 

"This (is) the last and most distant parish 
inhabited by Catholics on this earth; in it is 
neither law, justice nor subjection. You 
never meet a man, either Indian or Canadian, 
without his gun in his hand and his knife at 
his breast. My liouse is on the banks of a 
river which falls into the lake, full of fish and 
fowl of all sorts; the finest climate in the 
world, and the most fertile lands. * * » 
Next summer I go on three hundred leagues 
towards Maekina, or Lake Superior, where 
there are some Christian Indians, to see if I 
can collect them." This letter is dated Feb- 
ruary 2, 1796. From this and other indica- 
tions it is clear that the time of his sojourn 
in this vicinity was from the February of 
1795 to the February of 1796, while the aUu- 
sion to the British fort definitely fixes the 
place. We know, therefore, the exact place 
and time of Father Burke's visit to the In- 
dians of Northwestern Ohio. 

In the famous treaty at the Foot of the 

Maumee Rapids, made in 1817, the following 
reference to the Catholic converts is made : 

"Some of the Ottawa, Chippewa, and Pot- 
tawatomie tribes being attached to the Cath- 
olic religion, and believing they may wish 
some of their children hereafter educated, do 
grant to the rector of the Catholic church of 
St. Anne of Detroit for the use of the said 
church, and to the corporation of the college 
at Detroit for the use of the said college, to 
be retained or sold as the said rector and cor- 
poration may judge expedient, each one-half 
of three sections of land to contain six hun- 
dred and forty acres of land on the River 
Raisin at a place called Macon, and three sec- 
tions of land not yet located, which tracts 
were reserved for the use of the said Abo- 
rigines by the Treaty of Detroit in 1807. And 
the Superintendent of Aborigine Affairs in 
the Territory of Michigan (Governor Lewis 
Cass) is authorized on the part of the said 
Aborigines to select the said tracts of land." 

The Friends, or Quakers, early became in- 
terested in the Indians of Northwest Ohio. 
As early as 1793, a commission from that 
religious bod}^ started to attend an Indian 
council on the lower Maumee River, in com- 
pany with the United States commi.ssioners. 
Thej' reached Detroit, but did not succeed in 
getting any farther. The impressions which 
these men gained of the West could not have 
been very flattering, for a diary has been left 
by them. Nathan Williams, "an intelligent 
man especially in Aborigine affairs" in a 
friendly way expressed fears to the Friends 
while in Detroit, that they would be either 
killed or kept as hostages if they ventured 
to the council. "And truly," wrote Jacob, 
"I am not astonished at his idea, considering 
the spectacles of human misery he is almost 
daily presented with, and the humours he 
hears — where tribes of Aborigine warriors 
have so frequently passed with their discon- 
solate prisoners, and with poles stuck up in 


front of their canoes, some with fifteen, others 
witli thirty scalps suspended on them in tro- 
phy of their courage and victory." During 
their wait of several weeks, the Friends sought 
opportunities to preach both to the whites 
and the Indians. They met Blue Jacket, the 
celebrated Shawnee chief, and he gave them 
a very friendly greeting, for, said he, ' ' he had 
heard that they were harmless people who did 
not fight." Concluding that there was no 
hope at this time for their work, the Friends 
returned to their eastern homes. 

In 1798, a belt of wampum, and ten strings 
of white beads, with a speech attached, was 
sent by a number of Indian chiefs to the 
yearly meeting of the Friends held in Balti- 
more. Appended to this letter were the names 
of Tarhe the Crane, Adam Brown, Mai-i-rai, 
or Walk-on-the-Water, and a number of other 
chiefs. They invited the Friends to visit the 
Wyandots and Delawares at their villages on 
the Sandusky River. When the designated 
representatives of the Friends arrived at 
Upper Sandusky, in the following year, they 
found shocking and terrible scenes of drunk- 
enness, and were subjected to indignities. 
Tarhe himself was not able to meet them for 
a day or two because of his intoxicated con- 
dition. They were then informed that the 
council would not meet for ten days, when 
the matter of instruction in religion and agri- 
culture would be taken up. Pi-esents were 
given and the meeting ended. These men 
then returned at once to the East without any 
satisfactory result for their long and tedious 
journey. Nothing was heard from the Wy- 
andots in response to this visit. 

In the winter of 1803-4, Tarhe and about 
a hundred hunters went to the head waters 
of the Mahoning River to hunt bears. Be- 
cause of the heavy snow and their own 
improvidence, they were reduced to beggary. 
Then it was that they made another appeal 
to some Friends living a score of miles dis- 
tant. This appeal, written by a white man 

in the camp, reads in part as follows: 
"Brothers, will 3'ou please help me to fill my 
kettles and my horses' troughs, for I am 
afraid my horses will not be able to carry me 
home again. Neighbox*s, will you please to 
give if it is but a handful apiece, and fetch 
it out to us, for my horses are not able to 
come after it. (Signed) Tarhie. " After 
their immediate needs were supplied by some 
of the nearest Friends, there came another 
writing, which was in part as follows: 
"Brothers, I want you to know I have got 
help from some of my near neighbors. 
Brothers, I would be glad to know what 
you will do for me, if it is but little. 
Brothers, if you cannot come soon, it will do 
bye and bye, for my belly is now full. * * * 
My Brothers, Quakers, I hope our friendship 
will last as long as the world stands. All I 
have to say to you now is, that I shall stay 
here until two moons are gone. Tarhie." 
More food was then supplied to these red 
children by the generous hearted Friends. 

The good name of the Society of Friends 
had spread by degrees to many western tribes. 
In 1796 Chief Little Turtle visited Philadel- 
phia with Captain William Wells, as inter- 
preter, and endeavored to enlist the assistance 
of the Friends in civilizing the Miamis living 
at Fort Wayne and in its vicinity. No im- 
mediate result followed, but the matter was 
not dropped. Some agricultural implements 
were forwarded,' and a letter was received 
from the Indians several .years afterwards : 

"The Little Turtle's Town, (Eel River, In- 
diana) Sept. 18, 1803. 
"To Evan Thomas, George Ellieott, and 
others. Brothers and Friends of our Hearts: 
We have received your speech from the hand 
of our friend Wm. Wells, with the implements 
of husbandry that you were so kind to send 
to his care — all in good order. 

"Brothers, it is our wish that the Great 
Spirit will enable you to render to your Red 



Brethren that service which you appear to 
be so desirous of doing them, and which their 
women and children are so much in need of. 

"Brothers, we will try to use the articles 
you have sent us, and if we should want more 
we will let you know it. 

"Brothers, we are sorry to say that the 
minds of our people are not so much inclined 
towards the cultivation of the earth as we 
could wish them. 

"Brothers, our Father, the President of 
the United States, has prevented our traders 
from selling liquor to our people, which is the 
best thing he could do for his Red Children. 

"Brothers, our people appear dissatisfied 
because our traders do not, as usual, bring 
them liquor and, we believe, will request our 
Father to let the traders bring them liquor, 
and if he does, your Red Brethren are all lost 

"Brothers, you will see from what we have 
said that our prospects are bad at present, 
though we hope the Great Spirit will change 
the minds of our people and tell them it is 
better for them to cultivate the earth than to 
drink whiskey. 

"Brothers, we hope the Great Spirit will 
permit some of you to come and see us, when 
you will be able to know whether you can do 
anything for us or not. 

"Brothers, we delivered you the sentiments 
of our hearts when we spoke to you at Balti- 
more and shall say nothing more to you at 
present. We now take you by the hand, and 
thank you for the articles you were so kind 
to send us. 

(Signed) "The Little Turtle, Miami Chief. 
"The Five Medals, Pottawotami Chief." 

At a meeting held in 1804, it was decided 
to make a visit to the Miamis, in order to 
decide on the best course to follow. Four 
men were named as a committee for this visit, 
and they made a little more progress than 
had any of the other emissaries dispatched to 

the Maumee Basin. Philip Dennis was leift 
with the tribe as a permanent instructor. 
This was the first serious effort to instruct the 
aborigines of the West in agriculture, and it 
was not very successful. When the novelty 
had worn away, the warriors refused to work. 

In 1802 a deputation of Shawnee chiefs, 
including Blaekhoof, visited the White 
Father at Washington. On their return they 
stopped at Philadelphia and renewed their 
acquaintance with the Quakers. They were 
treated with great kindness, and were given 
many presents. Missionaries were sent to 
teach them agriculture, and instruct them in 
the Christian precepts. But the expenses had 
become so great that the work was necessarily 

At the close of the War of 1812, the work 
of the Friends again commenced among the 
Shawnees at Wapakoneta in a permanent 
form. A dam was constructed across the 
Auglaise River, and a flouring-mill and saw- 
mill were erected for their instruction and 
benefit in 1819. The expense of building and 
operation of the mill was borne by the Society 
of Friends, while the com of the Indians was 
ground free of toll. The women soon learned 
to bake bread, which was much easier than 
pounding hominy. The Indians were fur- 
nished with plow irons and taught how to 
cultivate com, beans, pumpkins, etc. Cows 
were furnished them, and they were taught 
how to use them. As a result of their work, 
the aborigines in that neighborhood began to 
improve and to build better homes. They 
wandered away after game less and less, and 
turned to the rearing of domestic animals. 

The faithful and devoted Friends worked 
diligently and faithfully without compensa- 
tion. Many times they divided the last morsel 
of food with the needy Indians, whether the 
subjects of their alms were worthy or un- 
worthy. An annual pajTnent of $3,000 did 
not keep starvation and want away from these 
improvident people. This annuity was hon- 



estly paid them, so long as John Johnston re- 
mained as agent, but his sueoessors were not 
always so honest. They taught the Bible and 
religious ethics by example, as well as by 
word, and they insti-ueted in the industrial 
arts to as great an extent as possible. A 
school in manual training was organized, 
which was the tirst school of its kind in Ohio. 
Friend Isaac Harvey moved there in 1819, 
and took charge of the work. He was a man 
of good judgment and good policy, and got 
on very well with his charges. It was not long 
until the holdings of the Indians around Wa- 
pakoneta numbered 1,200 cattle and as many 
hogs, which speaks very well indeed for the 
work done among them. 

Much superstition existed among the Sliaw- 
nees. .Soon after Harvey's arrival, it was 
aroused to an unwonted pitch by The Pro- 
phet, brother of Tecumseh. A half-breed 
woman of the tribe, named Polly Butler, was 
accused of witchery. One night Harvey was 
startled by the hasty visit of Polly, who came 
with her child to his house, asking protection 
from the Shawnees, who were seeking to put 
her to death as a witch. "They kill-ee me! 
they kill-ee me!" she cried in terror. They 
were taken into the house by Harvey, who at 
once strangled a small dog accompanying 
them, that it might not betray their where- 
abouts. The next day Chief We-os-se-cah, or 
Captain Wolf, came and told Harvey about 
the occurrences and the resulting excitement, 
whereupon Harvey showed him of the sinful- 
ness of such proceedings. " We-os-se-eah 
went away much disturbed in mind, but soon 
returned and, intimating that Harvey knew 
the whereabouts of the woman, was told that 
she, was out of their reach ; and if they did 
not abandon her with desire to put her to 
death, he would remove his family and aban- 
don the mission entirely. We-os-se-cah de- 
sired Harvey to go with him to the Council 
House, where twenty or more chiefs and head 

men, painted and armed were in session. Har- 
vey went to the United States Blacksmith, an 
important man with the aborigines, on ac- 
count of his keeping their guns and knives in 
repair, and took him and his son along as 
interpreters. Upon their entering the Coun- 
cil House, where some of the Indians were 
already in their war paint, Chief We-os-se-cah 
commanded the Council "to be still and hear,' 
whereupon he repeated what had transpired 
between Harvey and himself, which caused 
great commotion. 

"Harvey then addressed them in a com- 
posed manner through the interpreter, inter- 
ceding for the life of the woman who had 
been so unjustly sentenced to be put to death. 
But seeing them determined to have blood, 
he felt resigned and offered himself to be put 
to death in her stead ; that he was wholly un- 
armed and at their mercy. We-os-se-cah 
stepped up, took Harvey by the arm, and de- 
clared himself his friend, and called upon the 
chiefs to desist, but if thej^ would not, he 
would offer his life for the Qua-kee-lee (Qua- 
ker) friend. This brave and heroic act of 
Harvey, and the equally unexpected offer of 
this brave chief checked the tide of hostile 
feeling. The chiefs were astonished, but 
slowly, one by one, to the number of six or 
eight, they came forward, took Harvey by the 
hand, and declared friendship. 'Me Qua-ke- 
lee friend,' thej- would say. After a short 
discussion among themselves, the Council to 
a man, excepting Elskwatawa (The Prophet), 
who at this moment sullenly slunk away, came 
forward and cheerfully offered their hands 
and friendship. They promised if the woman 
was restored to her people, that she would be 
protected; and they called on the blacksmith 
to witness their vow — and he became surety 
for its fulfillment. It required considerable 
effort to assure the woman of her safety, but 
eventually she returned to her dwelling and 
was not afterwards molested." This was the 



first successful effort to arrest the custom of 
destroying life for witchcraft of which we 
have any record. 

It was in 1830 that the mission schools came 
under the charge of Henry Harvey, who re- 
moved with the tribe to the West, and 
remained there a number of years. The In- 
dians were greatly attached to him and his 
family. When he decided to return to the 
East, the Indians were greatly affected. Every 
day they were visited by some of them. A 
large council of the tribe was held to consider 
the situation. Finally a delegation of the 
leading chiefs came to his house. Let me give 
j'ou this scene as described by ilr. Harvey 
himself : 

"A few days afterward, all the chiefs, ex- 
cept George Williams, came early in the morn- 
ing to see me. They told us, on their arrival, 
that George Williams (a chief) had been sent 
a few days before to deliver a message and 
bid us farewell, on behalf, and in the name 
of the whole nation; but now they had come 
on their own account, as the chiefs, to pass 
the day with us, and to talk over all their 
old matters with me, as we were going to 
leave them, for which they were very sorry, 
because we had been with them so much ; but 
they supposed we wanted to go to our home, 
and our friends and they must give us up. 
They then proposed to me that we should 
go into the yard to talk, as it was a pleasant 
day, and they would spit so much in the 

' ' I had their horses put up and fed. There 
were about twenty chiefs and counselors pres- 
ent. We spent a happy day together, and I 
gave them a good dinner. In the afternoon 
they saddled their horses, and tied them near 
the bars, and then returned to where we had 
been sitting. When evening di'ew near I ob- 
served them become very solemn and thought- 
ful, and conversing among themselves, about 
returning home. Soon they divided some- 
thing among themselves that looked like fine 

seeds, which John Pei-ry had wrapped in a 

' ' They then loosened their hair and clothes. 
Henry Clay, one of the chiefs, who acted as 
interpreter, informed me that they were now 
ready to return home. They wanted me to 
have everybody but my wife and children, 
to leave the house, and for us to arrange our- 
selves in order, according to our ages, so they 
could take a last look at each of us, and bid 
us farewell. Henry came to the door, looked 
in, saw us all standing in order on the floor, 
and then returned to the others, when they 
came into the house, one after another, ac- 
cording to their stations. John Peri-y came 
first. Each one, as he reached the door, put 
something into his mouth (the seed I sup- 
pose), and chewed it. John Perry first took 
my hand, and said 'Farewell, my brother.' 
Then taking my wife by the hand, said, 'My 
sister, farewell.' Tears streamed down his 
aged cheek, as he bid our children adieu, talk- 
ing all the time in the Shawnee language. 
The others followed in the same way. Some 
of them were crying, and trying to talk to 
our children as they held them by the hand. 
The children cried the whole time, as if they 
were parting with one another. The cere- 
mony lasted for some time. When they were 
through, every one started directly, and 
mounted their horses, John Perry leading, 
and the others following in order, one after 
another, they set off for their homes across 
the prairie. Not one looked back, but they 
observed the same order as if the.v were re- 
turning from a funeral. This was a solemn 
time for us. Here were the celebrated Shaw- 
nee chiefs, great men among the Indians, 
some of them called in time past brave war- 
riors, now here in mourning, in tears, and all 
this in sincerity, and for nothing more than 
parting with us. They surely did love us. ' ' 

The courage and faith of the missionaries 
who stepped out into the wilderness is truly 
wonderful. "With my ^^nfe and seven small 



children," says one, "I went into the wilder- 
ness to seek an opportunity of preaching 
Christ to the Aborigines without a promise 
of patronage from any one, looking to Heaven 
for help and trusting that God would dispose 
the hearts of some, we knew not whom, to 
give my family bread while I should give my- 
self wholly to the service of the heathen." 

The Protestant missionary work was begun 
along the Maumee on or about the year 1802, 
when the Rev. D. Bacon, under the auspices 
of the Connecticut Missionary Society, visited 
this region. With two companions he set out 
from Detroit for the Maumee River in a 
canoe, and was five days in making the trip. 
He found here a good interpreter by the 
name of William Dragoo, who had been with 
the Indians since he was ten years of age. 
Upon arrival at the mouth of the river, he 
found most of the chiefs drunk at a trading 
post above, and then concluded to pass on to 
Fort Miami, where he stored his belongings. 
The next day he returned to the mouth of 
the river, where most of the chiefs were still 
drunk. Little Otter, the head chief, was a 
little more sober than the rest, and he replied 
in friendly terms that Mr. Bacon should have 
a hearing ^vith the tribe. Owing to the death 
of a child, another period of debauch followed, 
and the missionary was delayed still longer. 
Some tribal dances were taking place among 
the Indians on a bluff facing the river. Here 
the turf had been removed from a space about 
20 by 40 feet in size, in the middle of which 
stood a painted pole with a white feather on 
the top. Around this pole the conjurers took 
their stand, and the dancers whirled about 
them. On each side were bark roofs, under 
which the weary Indians rested and smoked 
their pipes. 

After about ten days' delay, Mr. Bacon 
secured a hearing for his cause, which he elo- 
quently presented. -But he found many objec- 
tions. One of the most potent was that they 
would subject themselves to the fate of the 

Moravians, if they should embrace the new re- 
ligion. One objection, says he, "I thought to 
be much the most important, and the most 
difficult to answer. It was this: That they 
could not live together so as to receive any 
instructions on account of their fighting and 
killing one another when intoxicated. Two 
had been killed but a few days before at the 
trader's above; and I found that they seldom 
got together without killing some; that their 
villages there were little more than places of 
residence for Fall and Spring, as they were 
obliged to be absent in the Winter on account 
of hunting, and as they found it necessary 
to live apart in the Summer on account of 
liquor ; and that the most of them were going 
to disperse in a few days for planting, when 
they would be from 10 to 15 miles apart, and 
not more than two or three families in a place. 
To remove this objection, I acknowledged the 
difficulty of their living together while they 
made such free use of spiritous liquor; and 
proposed to them to begin and build a new 
village upon this condition, that no one should 
be allowed to get drunk in it; that if they 
would drink, they should go off and stay till 
they had it over, and that if any would not 
eomplj' with this law, they should be obliged 
to leave the village." Becoming convinced 
that any further attempt he then might make 
would be fruitless, Mr. Bacon abandoned the 
field and journeyed on to ^lackinac. 

The Presbyterian Chureli was the next de- 
nomination, in order of priority, to send mis- 
sionaries into Northwest Ohio. The Synod of 
Virginia made some fragmentary efforts at 
missionary effort along the Sandusky among 
the Wyandots, but they never really obtained 
a foothold in that region or with that ti-ibe. 
At the opening of the nineteenth century, the 
Rev. Thomas E. Hughes made two missionary' 
tours throughout these regions. On one of 
these journeys he was accompanied b^- James 
Sattei-field, and on the other by Rev. Josepli 
Badger. One of these early missionaries, in 


speaking of the Indians on the lower Maumee, 
writes as follows : 

' ' My intei-preter advised me to go with him 
to see them that evening; and I had a desire 
to be present, as I supposed I might acquire 
some information that might be useful. But 
I thought it would not be prudent to be among 
them that night, as I knew some of them were 
intoxicated and that such would be apt to be 
jealous of me at that time, and that nothing 
would be too absurd for their imaginations to 
conceive, or too cruel for their hands to per- 
form. But as a son of the head chief was 
sent early next morning to invite me down, I 
went to see them. I had the greater desire 
to go as this is theil" annual conjuration dance 
which is celebrated every spring on their re- 
turn from hunting, and at no other time in 
the year. 

"Mr. Anderson, a respectable trader at 
Fort Miami, told me that they had been grow- 
ing worse every year since he had been ac- 
quainted with them, which is six .or seven 
years; and that they have gone much greater 
lengths this year than he has ever known them 
before. He assured me that it was a fact that 
they had lain drunk this spring as much as 
fifteen days at several different traders above 
him, and that some of them had gone fifteen 
days without tasting a mouthful of victuals 
while they were in that condition." 

It cannot be said that the Presbyterians 
ever gathered unto themselves a very large 
following among the Indians of this section. 
Their principal station was along the lower 
Maumee, about half way between Fort Meigs 
and Grand Rapids, then called Gilead. There 
the mission owned a farm, a part of which 
was a large island, and ministered unto the 
Ottawa tribes. Upon this was erected a large 
mission house and a commodious school build- 
ing. It was established in the year 1822. The 
aim of the missionaries was to make the mis- 
sion as near self-sustaining as possible, and 
to benefit the Indians in every way. The 

children were given board and clothing, edu- 
cated and trained in farming. The report 
of this mission, published by the United 
States, in 1824, gives the number of membei's 
of the mission family as twentj^-oue. Some 
taught domestic science, others instructed in 
agriculture, while othei-s attempted to instill 
book learning and religious truth into their 
pupils. It was allowed $300 every six months 
from the congressional fund for the civiliza- 
tion of the aborigines. The only ordained mis- 
sionary for this faith was the Rev. Isaac Van 
Tassel, although there were several assistants. 
Among these were Leander Sackett, Hannah 
Riggs, William Culver, Sidney E. Brewster, 
and Sarah Withrow. 

The mission church was organized in 1823 
with twenty-four persons, nine of whom were 
aborigines. All were pledged to abstain from 
the use of spirituous liquors. The mission 
closed in 1834, when the Indians were removed 
to the West. At that time there were thirty- two 
pupils in attendance at this school. Fourteen 
of these were full-blooded aborigines, and six- 
teen of them were recorded as mixed blood. The 
records reveal that the whole number which 
had been under instruction at this station 
during the dozen years of its existence, most 
of them for brief periods of time, was ninety- 
two. While the aborigines did not antagonize 
the missions directly, the general attitude of 
the warriors, and the large number of drunks 
among them, particularly at the time of the 
pa.Anuent of the annuities, kept up an excite- 
ment of blood and evil that greatly detracted 
from the quiet influeuce which the mission- 
aries attempted to throw around their pupils 
and converts. It was such things as these 
that made the work of the Christian mission- 
aries one of such great difficulty. White men 
and half-breeds would continue to sell the 
"firewater" to the Indians, and even bribe 
the Indians to keep their children from the 
schools. It is thus easy to see how difficult 
it was to establish a school among a people 



naturally wild and fi€rce, and with children 
who had never been restrained or had their 
freedom interfered with in the least. To ask 
them to desert the free woods, abandon their 
sports of hunting and fishing, to relinquish 
the joy of paddling their canoes, or riding 
their horses or running races, and sit in a 
close class-room six hours a day for as many 
days of the week, and listen to two long, old- 
fashioned Presbyterian sermons on the sev- 
enth, was asking a good deal. It is not sur- 
prising that the children themselves resented 

about thirty souls, and the triumphant deaths 
of at least nine of these, who were known to 
the missionaries to have died tnisting in the 
Saviour, besides much seed sown, the result 
of which can only be known in the light of 
eternity, was not worth the few thousands 
expended there, then might the mission be 
called a failure. The Indians were at first 
shy and distnistful ; they could not believe 
that white people intended them any good. 
As they became acquainted, however, they 
were very friendly, and never gave us any 

Old 31i.<iiox House, Now Tukx Down 
On the Maumee River in Wood County, two miles above Waterville. 

it, even without discouragement from their 
natural guardians. Jlany would leave be- 
tween two days, after a few days' experience. 
But the missionaries and the teachers per- 
sisted, and the attendance gi-adually in- 
creased. Most of those that remained took 
to education readily enough, but they ab- 
sorbed the religion sparingly and rather 

The widow of Rev. Isaac Van Tassel has 
given an account of the mission, from which 
I quote the following: 

' ' It has been said that the Maumee Mission 
was a failure. If the hopeful conversion of 

trouble by stealing or committing any depre- 
dation. They were always grateful for any 
favors bestowed on them by the missionaries. 
A mother once came to the station to beg 
a water-melon for her sick son ; she gratefully 
received it, and the next time she called 
brought us a quantity of nicely dried whortle- 
berries, for which she refused any compensa- 
tion; other similar incidents are within my 
recollection. In the fall of 1826 a young In- 
dian came to the station, saying that his 
friends had all gone for their winter's hunt, 
and left him behind, because he was sick and 
could not travel; he appeared nearly gone 



with consumption; he begged to be taken in 
and permitted to sleep by the fire in the chil- 
dren 's room, and to eat what they might leave. 
"While his strength lasted, he was anxious to 
make himself useful, and would cheerfully 
offer to do any little chores which he felt able 
to do; but he was soon confined to his bed. 
He gladly received instruction through the in- 
terpreter, and some of the larger boys, who 
had hopefully become pious, often prayed with 
him. We never carried him a dish of food 
or a cup of cold water without receiving his 
emphatic 'wawanee, wawanee' (thank, you, 
thank you)." 

After the close of the mission school. Rev. 
Isaac Van Tassel and his wife continued to 
live in the buildings for several years, and 
conducted a boarding and day school for the 

children of the white settlers, who were then 
beginning to come in increasingly large num- 
bers. The noted Methodist mission to the 
Wyandots has been described in the chapter 
devoted to that tribe. The Baptist Church 
conducted a mission for several years at Fort 
Wayne, with Rev. Isaac McCoy as the mds- 
sionary in charge. This denomination doubt- 
less conducted some religious services within 
Northwest Ohio, but no regular mission under 
its auspices was ever established here. The 
Fort Wayne mission was opened in 1820, with 
a school for both white and Indian youths, 
and was removed about 100 miles northwest 
three years later, at the special request of the 
Pottawatomis, who donated a section of land 
for its use. 



"Who are they but the men of toil, 
Who cleave the forest down, 
And plant, amid the wilderness, 
The hamlet and the town." 

Do you enjoy romance and tragedy? If 
so, you will luxuriate in the early annals of 
Northwest Ohio. There is scarcely a foot of 
soil in this section which could not relate its 
tale of heroic deed or daring adventure. When 
the Americans began their incomings, the 
greater part of it was nothing more than one 
vast wilderness. The "call of the wild" en- 
ticed men of roving dispositions and devotees 
of adventure in large numbers. These men 
delighted in the wild woods and the free 
prairie ; they gloried in all the primeval scenes 
of nature. The deer, the turkey, the bear, 
and the painted savages as well — all possessed 
charms for these restless spirits. Some of 
them were attracted by the very troubles and 
dangers that repelled others. 

The greater part of the Sandusky and 
Maumee basins were covered with ma.jestic 
forests. Unless one has visited similar scenes. 
it is difficult to picture in one's mind the ef- 
fect of such scenes. "The most interesting 
sight to me," says a traveler of the early days 
along the Sandusky, "was the forest. It now 
appeared in all its pristine state and grandeur, 
tall, magnificent, boundless. I had been some- 
what disappointed in not finding vegetation 
develop itself in larger forms in New England 
than with us; but there was no place for dis- 
appointment here. I shall fail, however, to 

give you the impression it makes on one. Did 
it arise from height, or figure, or grouping, 
it might readily be conveyed to you; but it 
arises chiefly from combination. You must 
see it pressing on yoii and overshadowing you 
by its silent forms, and at other times spread- 
ing itself before you like a natural park; you 
must see that all the clearness made by the 
human hand bear no higher relation to it than 
does a mountain to the globe ; you must travel 
in it in solitariness, hour after hour, and day 
after day, frequently gazing on it with solemn 
pause and looking for some end without find- 
ing any, before you can fully understand the 
impression. ^len saj' there is nothing in 
America to give you the sense of antiquity, 
and they mean that, as there are no works of 
art to produce this, there can be nothing else. 
You can not think that I would depreciate 
what they mean to extol ; but I hope you will 
sympathize with me when I say that I have 
met ^vith nothing among the most venerable 
forms of art which impresses you so thoroughly 
with the idea of indefinite distance and end- 
less continuity of antiquity shrouded in all 
its mystery of solitude illimitable and eter- 
nal." Great oaks would arise a hundred feet 
and more above you, with a splendid crown of 
verdant foliage. The trees formed avenues, 
galleries, and recesses in their groupings. At 
times they stood before you like the thousand 
and one pillars of one vast and imperishable 
temple dedicated to the Maker of All Nature. 
All that art has done in our finest gothie 
structures is but a poor and weak imitation. 




" . . . the thick roof 

Of ^-een and stirring branches is alive 

And musical with birds, that sing and sport 

In wantonness of spirit ; while below 

The squirrel, witli raised paws and form erect, 

Chirps merrily. Throngs of insects in the 

Try their thin wings and dance in the warm 

That waked them into life. Even the green 

Partake the deep contentment; as they bend 
To the soft winds, the sun from the blue sky 
Looks in and sheds a blessing on the scene." 

It was amidst such scenes that the immi- 
grants began to appear. Some were men who 
had pioneered in other sections farther east, 
and moved because civilization had begun to 
encroach upon them. They came .in by twos 
and threes. The individual, unable longer to 
endure the discomforts of the civilization 
which had begun to hamper him, moved out 
to enjoy — to him — the comforts and con- 
veniejices of the wilderness. At first he fre- 
quently consisted only of himself, his dog, 
and his gun. A little later he probably con- 
sisted of himself, several dogs, one wife, and 
many children. Still later a neighbor or two 
of precisely the same definition was added to 
the above named concomitants. Many of the 
early pioneers brought Avith them little but 
large families. Some had many chickens, a 
few hogs, or a cow, while others had no more 
stock than the horse or yoke of oxen that had 
brought them on their long and toilsome jour- 
ney in their one wagon. Some even came on 
foot, carrying their little all on their backs 
over the mountains and through the wilder- 

The most prominent and outstanding fea- 
ture of the wilderness was the deep solitude. 
Those who plunged into the bosom of the for- 
est abandoned not only the multisonous hum 
of men, but of domesticated life in general. 

The silence of the night was interrupted only 
by the howl of the wolf, the melancholy moan 
of the ill-boding owl, or the frightful shriek 
of the stealthy panther. Even the faithful 
dog, the only steadfast friend of man among 
the brute creation, partook of the universal 
silence. The discipline of the master forbade 
him to bark or move, but in obedience to his 
command, and by the aid of his native sagac- 
ity, he was soon taught the propriety of obe- 
dience to this severe regulation. By day there 
was little noise. The gobble of the wild tur- 
key or the sound of the woodpecker tapping 
the hollow beech tree did much to enliven the 
dreaiy scene, but there were not so many 
singing birds as there are toda}^ Many of 
them have come in with the clearing of the 
forests and civilization in general. 

Exiled from society and its comforts, the 
situation of the forest adventurers was peril- 
ous in the extreme. The bite of a serpent, a 
broken limb, a wound of any kind, was a 
dreadful calamity. The bed of sickness, with- 
out medical aid, and, above all, to be destitute 
of the kind attention of a mother, sister, wife, 
or other female friend was a situation which 
could not be anticipated by the tenant of the 
forest "natli other sentiments than those of 
deepest horror. There are no narratives of 
more thrilling intei-est than those which de- 
scribe the perils and hairbreadth escapes 
which some of the early adventurers in North- 
western Ohio encountered. But these were 
not the only dangei-s. There were wild crea- 
tures in human form, with dusky skins, who 
added to the dangers of the wilderness. Many, 
indeed, were the tragedies wrought by these 
painted savages of the forests. The farmer 
plowing in his field, the wife singing over her 
household tasks, the red-cheeked, laughing 
children romping through the orchard — these 
were the victims of a war whose ferocity and 
desolation are hardly equaled in the history 
of any land. Armed conflict is the most ter- 
rible of all experiences, but there are varieties 



even of war. The autagonism of armies is in 
itself a spectacle grand to contemplate. The 
carnage of the battle is frightful. But tte 
war which has for its object, not the destruc- 
tion of a military force, but the desolation of 
the isolated fireside, the outrage of pure wom- 
anhood, the embittermeut of helpless child- 
hood, is the incarnation of fiendishness. It is 
harming the harmless and taking advantage 
of the helpless. It is wreaking vengeance 
upon innocence. It is the climax of unre- 
strained brutality; it is the handiwork of 
demons themselves. 

Picture to yourself, if you ean, the frantic, 
maddening, and inconsolable grief of a hus- 
band, returning at sunset from wearisome toil 
in the primeval forest, to discover the little 
cabin home that had represented so much la- 
bor only a heap of embers, and to find his 
precious wife a mutilated corpse, instead of a 
savory supper prepared by her loving hand. 
Conceive, if it be possible, the heartrending 
anguish of a mother, as she witnesses with 
horrified eyes the yelling fiends sink the mur- 
derous tomahawk into the skull of her sleep- 
ing infant, or, worse yet, beholds her chil- 
dren, the joy and pride of all her life, ruth- 
lessly torn from her impotent arms, and 
carried captive to the distant wigwams of the 
savages. Give full play to the imagination 
and conjure up a vision, if you are equal to 
the task, of the tearful sorrow, the blighting 
loneliness of a childish heai-t, as the little fel- 
low, running in innocent glee to summon his 
father to the supper, finds the unresponsive 
form of his sire stretched beside the half- 
chopped log, forever stilled to his .supplica- 
tions. Take such instances as these, measure 
the waves of agony which arise within a single 
human heart, then multiply this result by the 
hundreds who suffered thus at the time of 
which we write. The accumulated sum of 
human sorrow will mount up to the firmament 

Some of the prisoners were rescued from 

the Indians. Then it was that joy and happi- 
ness returned to the desolated homes. Charles 
Johnson, a Virginian of some prominence, was 
made a prisoner by the Indians on the Ohio 
River in 1790, and, with a female prisoner 
named Peggy Fleming, was brought to Lower 
Sandusky (Fremont). In a publication by 
him, issued in 1827, he says: 

"When we reached Lower Sandusky a great 
degree of consternation prevailed there, pro- 
duced by the incidents of the preceding day 
and the morning then recently passed. The 
Cherokees who had possession of Peggy Flem- 
ing had conducted her to a place where they 
encamped, within a quarter of a mile from 
the town. It was immediately rumored that 
they were there with a white female captive. 
The traders residing in the town instantly de- 
termined to visit the camp of the Cherokees 
to see her. Among them was a man whose 
name was Whitaker, and who had been car- 
ried into captivity from the white settlements 
on Fish Creek in Pennsylvania by the Wyan- 
dots in his early life and though naturalized 
by his captors retained some predilections for 
the whites. The influence which he had ac- 
quired with his tribe was such that they had 
promoted him to the rank of a chief and his 
standing with them was high. His business 
had led him frequently to Pittsburg, where 
the father of Peggy Fleming then kept a tav- 
ern in which Whitaker had been accustomed 
to lodge and board. As soon as he appeared 
he was recognized by the daughter of his old 
landlord and she addressed him by name and 
earnestly .supplicated him to save her from 
the grasp of her savage proprietors. Without 
hesitation he acceded. Whitaker had Avon the 
sj^mpath.y and friendlj' cooperation of Tarhe, 
the principal chief, by the ruse that Peggj' 
was his sister. Tarhe went immediately to 
the camp of the Cherokees and informed them 
that their prisoner was the sister of a friend 
of his and desired as a favor that they would 
make a present to him of Peggy Fleming, 



whom he wished to restore to her brother, but 
they rejected his request. He then proposed 
to purchase her; this they also refused with 
bitterness, telHng him that he was no better 
than the white people and that he was as 
mean as dirt. He was greatly exasperated 
and went back to the town and told Whitaker 
what had been his reception and declared his 
intention to take her from the Cherokees by 
force, but fearing such an act might be pro- 
ductive of war between his nation and theirs, 

down the silver brooches, the value of her ran- 
som they bore off the terrified girl to his town 
arid delivered her to Whitaker, who after a 
few days sent her disguised to her home at 
Pittsburg under the care of two trusty Wyan- 
dots. ' ' 

The narrative proceeds to state that the 
Cherokees were so incensed at her i-eseue that 
tliey entered the town, threatened vengeance, 
walking about painted as for war. All the 
whites, except Whitaker, who was considered 

A Relic of the Pioneer Days 

he urged Whitaker to raise the necessary sum 
for her redemption. Whitaker with the as- 
sistance of other traders at the town, imme- 
diately made up the requisite amount in silver 
brooches. Early next morning, attended by 
eight or ten warriors, Tarhe marched out to 
the camp of the Cherokees, where they were 
found asleep, wliile their forlorn captive was 
securely fa.steued in a state of utter naked- 
ness to a stake and her body painted black, 
an indication always decisive that death is 
the doom of the captive. Tarhe, with his 
knife, cut the cords by which she was bound, 
delivered to her her clothing, and after she. 
was dressed awakened them and throwing 

as one of the Wyandots, assembled at night 
in the same house, provided with weapons of 
defense, continuing together until the next 
morning, when the Cherokees disappeared. 

Building a Home 

In the earliest settlements the first thing 
erected was a blockhouse, and around this 
were grouped the rude cabins of the pioneers. 
For this reason, a number of the primitive 
communities were grouped about the military 
posts scattered over this section. It was abso- 
lutely necessary to have some such shelter and 
garrisoned retreat near, since the fierce In- 



dian was ever lurking somewhere iu the for- 
est, ready to sealp and slay the white man 
with whom he was at war. The rifie was ever 
within reach of the early settler, and the 
woman understood how to use it as well as 
the man. In the forest it was a constant com- 
panion, and at night it remained near the 
couch and within easy reach. After the vic- 
tory of General Wayne the dangers from the 
aborigines greatly lessened, and the pioneer 
was able to pui-sue his course with decreased 
external dangers. But the danger had not 
entirely disappeared, for, as late as 1815, two 
men were tomahawked in their cabin near 
Turkey Foot Rock, on the Maumee, and later 
in that summer another man was shot and 
scalped by the savages on the site of Maumee. 
From this time the ax became an even more 
potent weapon than the rifle. With its keen 
edge the pioneer felled the forest, erected his 
domicile, put up his church, and the primitive 
mill. Before its sound, and the open spaces 
that followed its work of destruction, fled the 
fierce wolf and panther, as well as the savage 
children of the forest, — escaping into the 
gloomy precincts of the more distant wilder- 
ness. These pioneers who cleared up the for- 
ests were brave men and women. They were 
patient and industrious, provident and frugal. 
There was no dross, for that had been elimi- 
nated in the process of evolution. The vicious 
had generally drifted on with the receding 
frontier. Those who remained were able to 
put their hand either to the helm of state or 
the handle of the plow. Many of them had 
little education, but they possessed a passion 
for learning in the broader sense. They rev- 
erenced virtue, were quick to resist oppres- 
sion and wrong, and were instilled with a deep 
reverence for religion. 

When a new immigrant arrived in a com- 
munity, the great event of the neighborhood 
was the "house-raising." This was a time 
for co-operation, and it was an occasion for 
making merry. Men gathered from miles 

around with axes and teams. One party would 
formulate themselves into a gang of wood- 
choppers. It was their duty to fell the trees 
and cut them into the required lengths. 
Others "snaked" them by means of teams 
and a chain to the selected spot. Here they 
were assoi'ted and placed iu convenient places 
for the builders. One man would search the 
nearby woods for a tree from which the clap- 
board shingles might be fashioned. It was 
necessary that the wood have a straight grain, 
and the tree must be of goodly size. The 
clapboards were split three or four feet long, 
and used without shaving. Another party 
would prepare the ' ' puncheons ' ' for the floor. 
These were simply logs, with one side hewn 
and split with a broad-ax. This spirit of 
co-operation was one of the most marked 
traits of the pioneers. They were generous 
with the little that they possessed, and were 
always willing to share with a neighbor. A 
man would walk for miles through the woods 
to notify a neighbor that a letter awaited him 
at the postoffice. Frequently the letter might 
have postage unpaid amounting to 25 cents, 
and he would not have that amount of money 
with him, for even quarters were scarce. He 
was ready to go twenty or forty miles for a 
doctor when a neighbor's family demanded 
such services. 

The preliminary work for a new cabin usu- 
ally required a day, and the second day was 
devoted to the ' ' raising. ' ' The logs were duly 
notched and laid one upon the other. One 
opening was left for a door, one for a win- 
dow, and still another for the broad chimney, 
which was built on the outside of the cabin. 
Plaster and pieces of wood were employed 
to fill in the chinks between the logs, which 
not only made it weatherproof, but the white- 
ness added to the appearance ; the clapboards 
were held down by logs securely fastened. 
Not a single nail was used, and wooden pegs 
were employed in their .stead. Some of these 
old cabins may yet he found in use, but most 



of those still standing- have been abandoned 
and remain as relics of a day that has passed. 
A crude table, some three-legged stools, and 
a primitive platform to answer as a bed, com- 
pleted this house in the wilderness. When 
glass was not to be obtained, greased paper 
admitted a dim light through the solitary 
window. Many of the cabins had no win- 

or joint of venison was roasted before this 
fire, by being suspended and turned from time 
to time until thoroughly done. A crane was 
there on which a pot was hung for boiling. 
Potatoes, both Irish and sweet, were baked in 
the ashes. Although the ashes had to be 
brushed off, this manner of cooking was bet- 
ter than the method in use today. The varietv 

1 .'■•^L '^■-^^»*^,™~Ilj^ 

4 f^- ' Tf 


Pioneer FibepiiA.cb 

dow, so that the only light was secured 
through the open door and down the broad 
chimney. As these were extremely wide and 
frequently low, they would admit as much 
light as a small window. A hickory knot or 
the great "dip" afforded light. The days 
were filled with toil, and light was not needed 
long, for the pioneers quickly retired to rest. 
The cooking was done by the pioneer women 
on the open grate. The chicken or turkey 

of food was limited, but it was wholesome. 
Corn was a great staple, and was served in 
many ways. It was made into hominy or 
boiled into mush. It was cooked into corn 
pone, or in round balls as corn dodgers. White 
bread was indeed a luxury in those days, and, 
had it not been for the abundance of game, 
tlie pioneers would have starved for the lack 
of meat. As it was, game was so plentiful 
that they did not have to go far beyond their 



little clearings to secure a supply of meat for 
the hungry mouths at home. Honey was a 
luxury easily obtainable by locating the bee- 
trees. The hollow trunks sometimes contained 
hundreds of pounds of this delicacy. But the 
fireplace was most cheerful in winter, when 
a great blazing fire of logs burned in it. A 
string attached to the latch and threaded 
through a small opening I'll the door enabled 
friends without to raise the latch and enter. 
"You will find the latch string out," was the 
common form of invitation. This string was 
usually kept drawn within, however, in order 
to prevent the sudden and unwelcome intru- 
sion of foes. The loft of these cabins often 
had port-holes for observation and defense, 
and it was also used as a place for sleeping, 
as the familj' increased or guests were quar- 
tered in the house. 

The clearing of the forest was one" of the 
earliest tasks that confronted the pioneer. Un- 
til this was done little could be grown. The 
small brush was grubbed out, and the trees 
less than a foot in diameter cut down. The 
larger trees were "girdled" by an ax, cut- 
ting through the bark and sap-wood. The 
tree would then put forth no more leaves, so 
that it made little shade. To cut down all 
the trees and burn them up would have en- 
tailed upon the settler untold labor. Amid 
such' surroundings the first crops were 
planted. Dead limbs would soon begin to 
drop, but the trees sometimes did not dis- 
appear for fifteen or twenty years, and the 
tiimk would then fall in whichever way the 
wind or its own weight woiild throw it. Great 
fires would sometimes arise in this deadened 
timber, for the half-rotted bark and sap-wood 
were like tinder, and a spark was enough to 
initiate a blaze. 

Another plan frequently adopted was that 
of "slashing." For this work an expert was 
always employed. I quote a description from 
a pioneer writer: 

"The slasher carefully studied his field of 
operations to ascertain which side the prevail- 
ing winds would strike with the greatest force. 
Depending now upon his judgment as to the 
width of the strip which he can surely em- 
brace in his 'windrow,' he commences on the 
leeward side of the tract, chopping the trees 
perhaps half, one-third, or one-fourth off at 
the stump, the amount of chip or 'kerf taken 
out depending upon the inclination of the 
tree. Continuing backward toward the wind- 
ward side of the tract, he thus cuts notches of 
greater or less depth in all the trees over a 
tract of about thirty feet in width, deepening 
the notches as he approaches the windward 
side of the tract. These notches are cut so that 
in falling the trees wiU incline toward the 
middle of the strip. If, upon finishing the 
notching of the entire strip, the wind is fa- 
vorable, the last large tree selected for a 
'starter' is felled against its neighbor, and 
so on until a terrific crashing is inaugurated 
which commands the instant attention of 
every living thing in sight or hearing. The 
indescribable crashing may continue for some 
minutes, if the tract is a long one. The noise 
is appalling, and onlj^ equalled by that im- 
mense forest. When all is still, a marvelous 
change has come over the scene. Where a few 
minutes before stood a wide expanse of virgin 
forest, a mightj^ swath has been cut as though 
some giant reaper had been mowing the forest 
as a farmer does his grain. Rising several 
feet above the earth, there appears a pro- 
digious abatis, which would arrest the onset 
of the mightiest army. In this manner the 
slashing progresses, strip by strip, until the 
entire tract lays in windrows. The brief time 
required to slash a given tract seems incred- 
ible to those who are not familiar with this 
branch of forest pioneer work. Two slashers 
accustomed to working together, will fell more 
than double the area of forest that either one 
can alone. Good workmen ^\^ll average about 



one acre per day, if the timber is heavy — and 
the heavier the better. Two workuieu can in 
company slash twenty acres in nine daj^s." 

Harvesting and threshing in those days 
wei'e laborious tasks. Cradles were used when 
possible, for thej- made a wider swath, but a 
sickle was better adapted to cut in and around 
the stumps. Threshing was performed with 
a flail, and every tenth bushel was the usual 
price for this work. The cleaning of the wheat 
from the chafit" was fully as primitive as the 
other processes. It consisted of passing the 
wheat and chaff through a coarse sieve or 
riddle upon the barn floor, while two persons 
took a sheet between them, and, by a particu- 
lar flapping of the sheet, produced a breeze 
that blew the chaff away. It was very ardu- 
ous, but was the only method in use, except 
by the larger farmers, who trod out the grain 
with horses and cleansed it with a fanniug- 

The pigs of the early days were a sort 
of a wild beast. The breed was very dif- 
ferent from those found on the farms today. 
They were active, enterprising, and self-reli- 
ant; all they demanded was the undisputed 
range of the woods, though they could at all 
times be tamed by food. It was their stom- 
achs that inveigled them into most of their 
tight places, even to the slaughter pen in the 
autumn. It was quite common in favorable 
seasons for the hogs to become fat enough for 
meat in the woods on acorns and nuts, though 
it was generally deemed advisable to pen them 
up and feed them corn for a few weeks be- 
fore butchering. The young ones were always 
marked by notches or crops on the ear, each 
farmer having some special distinguishing 
mark. They were never fattened to weigh 
anything like the hogs now raised for market. 
The meat was thought to be sweeter when not 
fed so highly. They were then nearly like 
the wild boar, whose flesh is so very delicate. 
They rarely weighed over 100 pounds. In 
their habits they were ravenous to an extreme, 

and even ferocious. Their voracity knew no 
bounds ; they would kill and devour the young 
poultry and lambs on a farm without the 
slightest scruples. They were a match for the 
fiercest wolf. The most vicious individuals 
were the old sows. Sometimes another sow's 
brood would make a light meal for her. The 
pigs' redeeming virtue was faithfulness to 
each other, and thej- would congregate for 
the common defense whenever one of them 
was in trouble. Although each farmer had 
a special mark for his hogs, in their wild state 
they wer-i so prolific that many of them were 
practically common property. As to those 
marked and half wild, some pioneers were 
exceedingly short-sighted, and sometimes 
failed to recognize the mark on a neighbor's 
hog that he had shot. 

The women of the pioneer families cer- 
tainly earned their keep. They were the fam- 
il.y doctors. What the pioneer woman did not 
know about wormwood and pennyroyal, sassa- 
fras, sage, and catnip was not worth knowing. 
A plentiful supply of these and many other 
herbs was always kept in the loft of the cabin. 
They turned the flax and the wool into gar- 
ments for wear. One or two grown-up daugh- 
ters could dispose of a large supply of these 
two materials. The best flax was spun into a 
firm thread, of which skirts and like garments 
were made. The wool was spun into an aver- 
age grade for cloth and flannel. A mixed 
cloth, called "linsey, " was manufactured with 
a linen warp and woolen filling. This mate- 
rial was generally worn by the women and 
children. A young woman alwaj^s considered 
her wardrobe well supplied when she had a 
new "linsey" for the winter. When new it 
was worn to meetin', to singin' school and 
the "frolics," as most social occasions were 
termed. There were few homes that did not 
have a loom and weave at least the coarser 
fabrics for clothing. If a woman owned one 
calico dress for special occasions, she was con- 
sidered a finely dressed lady. 

Spinning Wheel for Wool and Flax 



(Couitesy of S. I'. OitU.) 



1. Shaving Horse and Drawing Knife. 3. Sugar Trough. 3. Pack Saddle. 
4. Flail. 5. Lard Lamp. 6. Candle Moulds. T. Tallow Candle and Stick. 
8. Snurters. 9. Flax Hatchel. 10, Hand Wool Cards, 11. Splint Broom. 


Duty and Pleasure 

"They rocked their children," says Mr. 
Fiuley in his autobiography, "in sugar trough 
or pack-saddle. The cooking utensils consisted 
of a pot, Dutch oven, skillet, fiying pan, 
wooden trays, and trenchers, and boards made 
smooth and clean. The table was made of a 
broad slab. And with these fixtures, there 
never was a heartier, happier, more hospitable 
or cheerful people. Their interests were one, 
and their dependence on each other was indis- 
pensable, and all things were common. Thus, 
united, they lived as one family. They gen- 
erally married early in life — the men from 
eighteen to twenty-one, and the girls from 
sixteen to twenty. The difficulties of com- 
mencing the world were not so great; and, as 
both parties were contented to begin with 
nothing, there was no looking out for for- 
tunes, or the expectation of living without 
labor. Their affections were personal and sin- 
cere, which constituted a chief part of their 
domestic happiness, and endeared them to 
home. The sparkling log-fire in the back- 
woods cabin, the gambols of half a dozen 
cheerful, healthy children, and the smiles of 
the happy wife and mother made an earthly 

"Nothing could excite' more hilarity than 
a backwoods wedding. Most generally, all 
the neighborhood for miles around were in- 
vited ; and if it was in the winter, there would 
be a log-heap or two somewhere near the 
cabin. Around these fires the men assembled 
with their rifles ; the women in the cabin ; and 
if there was a fiddler in the neighborhood, he 
must be present at an hour stated. The par- 
son, if one could be had, if not, the Justice of 
the Peace, called the assembly together, then 
the couple to be married. After the ceremony 
was over, and all had wished the happy pair 
much .ioy, then, if it could be had, the bottle 
passed round ; the men then went some to 
shooting at a mark, some to throwing the 

tomahawk, others to hopping and jumping, 
throwing the rail or shoulder-stone, others 
to running foot-races; the women were 
employed in cooking. When dirmer was 
ready, the guests all partook of the very 
best venison, bear-meat, roast turkeys, etc. 
This being over, the dance commences, and 
if there is no room in the cabin the com- 
pany repair to or near one of the log fires; 
there they dance tiU night, and then they 
mostly return home; yet many of the young 
people stay, and perhaps dance all night on 
a rough puncheon floor, till the moccasins are 
worn through. The next day is the infair; 
the same scenes are again enacted, when the 
newly-married pair single off to a cabin built 
for themselves, without twenty dollars' worth 
of property to begin the world with, and live 
more happily than those who roll in wealth 
and fortune." 

The arrival of a family in a neighborhood 
occasioned eager inquiry by the young men 
as to whether there were any marriageable 
daughters of the number. The demand was 
in excess of the supply. .The same maiden 
had sometimes several suitors; and this in- 
volved the delicate matter of rejection as well 
as choice. Sometimes the girls were betrothed 
before leaving home, and a knowledge of this 
fact caused disappointment. The parties dif- 
fered little in fortune, and none in rank. 
First impressions of love resulted in marriage, 
and a family establishment cost only a little 

The shoes worn in pioneer days would not 
grace the parlors of the twentieth century. 
The young ladies of today would not be 
caught on the street with their feet encased 
in such creations. Evei-y farmer would pur- 
chase enough leather, both sole and uppers, to 
supply each member of his family with a pair 
of good, heavy, waterproof shoes, which were 
made for service rather than ornamentation. 
The peripatetic shoemaker was then engaged 
to work up the stock. Like the schoolmaster. 



he frequently boarded around. Joui-neying 
from liouse to house, he would take his seat 
by the huge fireplace; there he would meas- 
ure, cut, and shape shoes for the entire family. 
His annual visits were anticipated with anx- 
ious interest, especially by the little ones, to 
whom his processes were wonderful. 

All was not dreariness in the life of the 
pioneers — far from it. They had their joys 
as well as hardships, and they entered into 
the social spirit far more rapturously than 
much of the surfeited society of today. When 
a new cabin was completed, there was always 
a "house-warming." The neighbors who had 
helped in its construction again gathered, but 
not for toil on this occasion. Now there was 
feasting and dancing that inflamed the blood 
and quickened the spirits. Cupid was busy 
at such scenes and the "husking bees" which 
followed the fall harvesting. At the "husk- 
ing bee"' the ears of corn were pulled from 
the stalks and heaped on a great pile in the 
barnyard. On the evening of the "bee" two 
captains were elected, and these captains 
chose the men until none were left. The pile 
was then divided as evenlj^ as possible by a 
pole, and the work was entered into with 
great and almost feverish earnestness. While 
the men were husking the corn, the women 
were preparing the that was to follow. 
The husking finished, the men appeared with 
ravenous appetites. Each red ear entitled the 
busker to a kiss from the damsel he chose, and 
two more "red ears" generality followed its 
bestowal. "But," says a frank and honest 
pioneer, "I never knew it to be necessary to 
produce a red ear to secure a kiss where there 
was a disposition either to give or take one." 

Singing schools were veiy popular in pio- 
neer days. They would not take exalted rank 
today, for the methods of instruction were of 
the eradest, and the only music taught was 
from the church hymnal. But they gave an 
occasion for young men and women to meet 
and commingle. The girls usually arrived 

with their brothers, or family friends, but it 
was generally understood that they would 
welcome the company of the proper young 
man home. In this way acquaintances which 
developed into matrimonial matches were 
made. Quilting and weaving parties, sewing 
and spinning parties also provided means of 
social intercourse and gossip, for the pioneer 
women were strictly human. Many other op- 
portunities for gatherings occurred, during 
which time all cares and troubles were left 
behind in the locked doors of the one-roomed 
log cabins. 

One thing much in demand in pioneer days 
was whisky, of which there were sure to be 
one or more distilleries in each neighborhood. 
Most of these were small concerns, and their 
capacity would pi'obably not exceed a barrel 
a day. But that was enough for a small set- 
tlement. The usual exchange was a gallon of 
whisky for a bu.shel of corn or rye. When the 
jug was empty, a boy would be dispatched, 
perched on a horse together with a bag of 
grain, to the still-house, and sometimes his 
orders were urgent. The- rugged pioneers 
were not particular as to the age of the liquor, 
and frequently drank it the same day that it 
was made. At "raising.s, " "huskings, " and 
like affairs, the jug was an indispensable ad- 
junct. It was a sign of hospitality, and the 
approved manner of taking it was from the 
mouth of the jug — in that way each man 
imbibed as much as he wanted. The women 
would sometimes take it sweetened and re- 
duced to toddy. Total abstinence was very 
uncommon among these men of the early 
days. It was considered as one of the neces- 
sities of life — a sort of panacea for all its ills, 
good both in sickness and in health. 

It is almost impossible for those of this gen- 
eration to conceive ho^v universal the drink- 
ing habit was among the pioneers. Even in 
the armies, whiskj' was generally a part of 
the daily rations. A chaplain of a regiment 
of the Continental annj- complained that the 



men were not pnnctnal at morning prayers. 
"Oh, I'll fix that," said the colonel. So he 
issued an order that the liquor ration would 
hereafter be given out at the close of morning 
prayers. It worked like a miracle ; not a man 
was thereafter missing. 


The early schoolhouses were generally make- 
shift arrangements. Any old abandoned 
building would sometimes he pressed into serv- 
ice for that purpose. An old pioneer has left 
us the following description of the Ohio school 
of an early day : 

"The building was a low log cabin, with 
a clapboard roof, but indifferently lighted; 
all the light of heaven found in this cabin 
came in through apertures made on each side 
of the logs, and these were covered with oiled 
paper, to keep out the cold air, while they 
admitted the dull rays. The seats or benches 
were of hewTi timber, resting upon upright 
posts placed on the ground to keep them from 
being overturned by the mischievous lads who 
sat upon them. In the center was a large 
stool between which and the back part of the 
building stood a small desk without lock or 
kej^ made of rough plank, over which a plane 
never had passed, and behind the desk sat 
Professor Glass." 

One end of these rude schoolhouses was an 
immense fireplace, and it usually took the time 
of two or three boj's to fill its cavernous maw 
with logs on a cold, blustery day. Just under 
a window two or three strong pieces were 
driven into a log in a slanting direction, and 
on these pins a long puncheon was fastened, 
which served as a writing-desk for the entire 
school. There was no such thing as a black- 
board, and no apparatus of even the rudest 
description to assist the teacher in explaining 
the lesson. Text books were few, and the New 
Testament was one of the favorite readers. 
Webster's arithmetic enlightened these back- 

woods children in the art of "figgers. " The 
term for the year usually lasted about three 
months. Pugilistic encountei-s were not infre- 
quent, for the big boys took pride in their 
muscular strength. Hence it was sometimes 
necessary in employing a teacher to consider 
his phj^sical as well as his intellectual qualifi- 
cations and fitness. 

The parents themselves were frequently ex- 
tremely illiterate. The mother, who read with 
the greatest difficulty herself, would labor- 
iouslj' instill the rudiments of spelling in her 
little flock as they grew up, using any old 
book that happened to be available. The 
backwoods teachers of this day were of a class 
by themselves. The directors usually hired 
the first man who came along and claimed to 
be competent. Usually little above a tramp, 
oftentimes addicted to drink, they were more 
often well informed for the times, earnest and 
capable. They would "get up" a school by 
passing around from house to house an article 
of agreement, proposing to teach certain 
branches upon certain terms, payable partly 
in money and party in produce. During the 
school term, which lasted from ten to fifteen 
weeks, the teacher "boarded round" in the 
neighborhood homes. He was regarded as a 
sort of pensioner on the bounty of the people, 
whose presence was tolerated because it could 
not be helped. Nevertheless, he was usually 
fed on the choicest viands. The teacher might 
have been a lank and lean specimen of that 
genus homo, and ma.y have gazed gravely over 
his spectacles with an assumed look of wis- 
dom, yet he nevertheless enforced discipline 
with a real serviceable rod, and implanted 
into his pupils a knowledge of the three 
"R's" with an iron hand. Grammar and 
geography were not taught in the common 
schools for many years afterwards. The paper 
vised was unruled foolscap. Hence every boy 
was armed with a wooden ruler, and a pencil 
made of crude lead. With these the paper 
was ruled to any desii-ed width. Pens were 



fashioned out of quills, and the cutting of 
a good pen was an essential part of the art 
of writing. Ink was frequently made from 
oak and maple bark, with a little copperas 
added. One of the efficient and frequently 
enforced means of discipline was the thrash- 
ing, and every schoolmaster was well prac- 
ticed in the accomplishment. Amid such sur- 
roundings, and under such a head, began the 
comprehensive school system that we now en- 
joy in the great commonwealth of Ohio. 
"Readin' and Writin' and 'Rithmetic were 
taught to the tune of the Hickory Stick." 


There was a very decided element of rev- 
erence and religion in the pioneer. He may 
have been a little crude in his religious views 
and practices, as in other things, but he usu- 
ally attended church on a Sunday morning. 
Many thought nothing of walking five miles 
to meeting, and then returning a mile or two 
out of the way for the sake of company. In- 
side the church was a great fii-eplace, in which 
a rousing fire blazed most cheerfully on a 
frosty morning. The sermon was usually 
lengthy, and of a stern and puritanical na- 
ture. If it was night and the sky dark, the 
people lighted themselves to and fro from the 
meetin' house with long strips of hickory bark. 
These improvised torches were held aloft and 
brightened occasionally by striking against a 
tree to remove the ashes. Presbyterianism 
was quite strong in most neighborhoods, espe- 
cially among the Scotch and Scotch-Irish, but 
they had separated into several branches on 
minor matters of Biblical interpretation. 
Some were "General Assembly" Presbyte- 
rians, and others were Covenanters. Some 
iised the longer, and others adapted the 
shorter catechism. But all were Calvinists, 
and the principal point of difference was over 
the singing of hymns or the Psalms of David. 
The ]\Iethodists waxed strong and gained many 

Presbyterian converts. Many and contentious 
were the fiery discussions concerning the free- 
dom of the will and the doctrine of predes- 
tination. These controversies were as unend- 
ing as they were fruitless, and they frequently 
resulted in anything rather than a feeling of 
genuine charity and good will. 

The climax of religious excitement was 
reached at the camp meetings and the revival 
services. The camp meeting brought together 
everybody in the neighborhood — believers and 
unbelievei-s alike. It was as picturesque an 
occasion as it was serious. The people threw 
their whole souls into it. It was a real camp 
meeting in those days, for the people actually 
lived in tents or improvised huts on the 
grounds for a week or two. The exhorter 
would address his congregation, who were sit- 
ting on log benches all around him, in a clam- 
orous voice. The hymns were vigorously sung, 
and it would not be long until there was 
shouting, jerking, screaming, and leaping, as 
someone in the audience ' ' got religion. ' ' The 
various emotions manifested were an interest- 
ing psychological study. The camp meeting 
doubtless served to elevate the moral standard 
of the pioneer communities, and did much to 
repress and hold in check the lawless element 
in the neighborhoods. The father of W. D. 
Howells says: "I shall never forget the ter- 
ror with which the 'exercises' inspired me. 
At the first prayer I knelt down with the 
others; while the tone of supplication of the 
man who prayed waxed louder and louder. 
I knew that amen was said at the end of a 
prayer; and as I was shaking till my knees 
rattled on the floor with fear, I thought those 
around me were likewise affected, and were 
crying amen as an inducement for the brother 
to stop, when in fact they were only encourag- 
ing him. I regarded it as an awful time, and 
was very thankful when he said amen. " Rev. 
James B. Finley, himself a pioneer preacher 
of great force, describes some of the camp 
meeting scenes as follows : 


"Immediately before they became totally 
powerless, they were sometimes seized with 
a general tremor, and often uttered several 
piercing shrieks iu the moment of falling. Men 
and women never fell when under this jerking 
exercise till they became exhausted. Some 
were unable to stand, and yet had the use of 
their hands and could converse with com- 
panions. Others were unable to speak. The 
pulse became weak and they drew a difficult 
breath about once a minute. In many in- 
stances they became cold. Breathing, pulsa- 
tion, and all signs of life forsook them for 
hours; yet I never heard of one who died 
in this condition, and I have conversed with 
persons who have laid in this situation for 
many hours, and they have uniformly testified 
that they had no pain, and that they had the 
entire use of their reason and powers of mind. 
Prom this it appears that their falling was 
neither common fainting nor a nervous affec- 
tion. Indeed, this strange work appears to 
have taken every possible turn to baffle the 
conjectures and philosophizing of those who 
were unwilling to acknowledge it was the work 
of God. Persons have fallen on their way 
home from meeting, some after they had ar- 
rived at home, others while pursuing their 
common business on their farms, and others 
when they were attending to family or secret 
devotions. Number of thoughtless, careless 
sinners have fallen as suddenly as if struck by 

Times have greatly changed since the daj's 
of which we now write. The long string of 
covered wagons, frequently fifty in one line, 
loaded with grain for Lake Erie, each with 
bed and lunch box, which slowly and patiently 
toiled over the long distance, with its night 
encampment, its camp fires, and pleasant 
group of storytellers, has disappeared. They 
are now known only by tradition and through 
historic narrative. The old-fashioned store 
with its scant stock of staples, with its handy 
whisky bottle and inviting tin cup, with its 

quaint salesman who had few words and wore 
a plain dress, who asked fearful prices for 
auticjuated fashions, has disappeared and 
is seen no more. Great business establish- 
ments with plate glass windows, filled with 
expensive and fashionable goods, with fault- 
lessly dressed clerks, sometimes ornamented 
with diamonds, have taken their place. Tow- 
ering churches have replaced the primitive 
houses of worship. Fashionable balls have 
been substituted for the simple "huskings. " 
In everything there has been change, and the 
expenses have more than kept pace with the 
innovations. The cost of the modern machine 
would have shocked the old-timer and driven 
him to suicide. 

A Queer Industry 

The famous Black Swamp, which covered 
most of Northwest Ohio, was a source of much 
discomfort to the earlj' immigrants. Those 
already on the ground, however, were not 
altogether without the business instinct. 
Among the cultivated industries of that tiiiif 
in certain localities was the furnishing of 
relief to travelers, chiefly emigrants, whose 
teams were frequently stalled in the succes- 
sive "mud-holes." So common had this be- 
come that some landlords sometimes provided 
themselves with extra yokes of oxen, with 
which to extend the needed assistance. This 
business came to be so far .systematized that 
the rights of settlers to the "mud-hole" near- 
est them were mutually recognized. It was 
told that on a time a certain tavern-keeper, 
who had long held undisputed possession of a 
particularly fine "mud-hole." which he had 
cultivated with special care for the profit it 
brought him, sold his stand when preparing 
to leave the country. Regarding his interest 
in the "hole" as a franchise too valuable to 
be abandoned, he finally disposed of it, and 
claimed his right thereto, to a neighbor for 
tlie sum of .$5, being probably the only case 



on record of the sale of a "mud-hole" for 
as such. This instinct has not entirely 
away, for the writer has known of mud-holes 
that have been diligently cultivated for the 
unwary automobile driver within this twen- 
tieth century of the Christian era. 

The Maumee Pioneers 

Written by Mrs. Kate B. Shei-wood, for 
the reunion of the ilaumee Valley Pioneers, 
held in Toledo, February 22, 1880. 

Come friends, around this festal board, 

Where peace and plenty smile 
And memories in each bosom stored 

Are quickening the while; 
Come, let your hearts go back again. 

With more of joy than tears, 
Unto that sturdy race of men, 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

Let others tell the tales of Dee, 

The Danube and the Don, 
The Rhine that ripples to the sea, 

The Iser rolling on ; — 
New England's glades and palisades, 

Virginia's vaunted years, — 
We'll tell of sturdier men and maids. 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

How stripped Perrot the faggot sees 
Flash through Miami's jeers, 

'Till save the swift Outagamis, 
The Maumee Pioneers. 

I mind me in those bloody days 

Of Foxes, Sacs and Sioux, 
Of Miamis and Ottawas, 

And Iroquois and Pous, 
An Indian woman 'tis we see 

Before her Priest in tears; 
Her prayers have saved from massacre 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

Our feet are on historic ground. 

The very streets we tread 
Re-echo to a solemn sound 

Above the shroudless dead. 
Now French, now British we define. 

Now red ally appears, — 
They form a vast and shadowy line. 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

Here sleeps the braves of Pontiac, 

There Harmar's hosts go down, 
And bold "Mad Azithony" brings back 

The knights of old renown; 
Three Harrison's battalions glance 

Along the burnt frontiers. 
And in the trail of arms advance 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

We'll tell how came the brave La Salle, 

Two hundred years ago. 
To list St. Mary's madrigal, 

Responsive to St. Joe; 
To speak the vows that woke the trance 

Of long unfruitful years. 
And give to Frontenac and France 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

Fort Meigs and Fort Miami show 

A sweet and solemn truce. 
And old Fort Industry I trow 

Has met a nobler use; 
So we above our leveled graves. 

Across the flood of years. 
May name with once dishonored braves 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

Of Couthemanche whose lonely fort 

A century before. 
Stood guard where Fort Miami's port 

Heard British cannon roar; 

For valor's not of any race. 
And right of grace has none, 

If Wayne is given a hero's place, 
Tecumseh 's fame is won ; 



If Wells be praised for warlike deeds 
That wring the heart with tears, 

Then Simon Girty 's fealty leads 
The Maumee Pioneers. 

The days of bow and spear are fled, 

Of tent and bark tepee. 
The ax is ringing in their stead, 

The woodman zones his tree; 
And where the Indian village stood 

The cabin chinked appears. 
And white-haired children scour the wood,- 

The JIanmee Pioneers. 

They fight no barbed and painted foe. 

They run no gauntlet where 
The Indian tomahawk is slow 

A captured foe to spare; 
They fly no cruel massacre 

Of plundering buccaneers; 
But deadlier foes they stricken see. 

The llaumee Pioneers. 

They fought the famine and the cold, 
They conquered field and flood. 

They drove the murrain from the fold. 
The fever from the blood; 

Their triumphs blossom in the vales, 
And blush along the piers. 

And fleck the lake with snowy sails, 
The Maumee Pioneers. 

The wind is up, the sails are spread. 

The gales of traffic blow ; 
The Yankee comes with level head, 

The Teuton sure and slow; 
The thrifty Scot, the Irish true, — 

And Quaker grace appears 
A wholesome leaven running through 

The Maumee Pioneers. 

free born sires ! from whom thei-e runs 

A tide of valor through 
The hearts of sons ' remotest sons ! 

wives, and daughters true ! — 
Who toil and spin, and spin and pray, 

And hiding homesick tears 
Keep heart and hope that crown to-day 

The IMaumee Pioneers! 

Blow soft above their lowly grave, 

North wind swift and keen ! 
And South wind that the lily waves 

Keep aye their grasses green! 
Spirit of the Centuries! 

Blow on his heart who heai-s, 
And wake to fragrant memories 

The Maumee Pioneers! 



There is nothing that will so arouse the 
combativeness of an individual as the belief 
that some one is infringing on the boundai-ies 
of his individual and exclusive domain. This 
has been proved many times by the bloody 
scrimmages which have taken place between 
adjoining OA\aiers, over the location of a seem- 
ingly unimportant line fence. In the litiga- 
tion that has followed in the courts, both par- 
ties have exhausted themselves and all their 
available resources in an attempt to decide 
the ownership of a few square rods of ground. 
In the end even the victor has been the loser. 
The same bellicose spirit was aroused in the 
State of Ohio and the Territory^ of iliehigan 
by an imbroglio over the sovereignty of a strip 
of ground extending from the Maumee River 
to the western boundary of Ohio. This dis- 
puted land was eight miles in width at Toledo, 
and five miles broad at the western boundary. 
The problem was recognized as early as 1802, 
M-hen the first constitution of Ohio was 
formed. Congress should have settled the 
question at that time, as it was well within 
the power of that body, but like many others 
it was neglected. As Ohio and ilichigan 
increased in wealth and political importance, 
however, the factious boundary question be- 
gan to protrude itself upon the horizon in a 
threatening manner. Toledo was the chief 
cause and Lucas County was the chief result 
of this dissension. 

Many are today inclined to smile at what 
is known as the Toledo War. They are not 
aware that it was for a time a matter of such 
moment that bloody encounters between 

armed forces of the state on one hand, and the 
territory on the other, were barely avoided. 
Since the Federal Government was bound to 
protect every just claim of Michigan, it might 
have developed into a situation where Ohio 
and the United' States would have been the 
opposing belligerents. In its final analysis, 
such was really the status. It was the most 
serious boundary question that has occurred 
in the Northwest. The question arose through 
a previous grant in which one of the lines of 
demarkation began at "a line drawn East and 
West, through the southerly extreme of Lake 
Michigan." The old maps were not very 
accurate, for the latitude and longitude had 
not been well established, and the uncertainty 
was caused by inaccurate knowledge as to 
where the exact southern boundary of Lake 
Michigan lay. The original intention was that 
the boundary should be a line due east from 
the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, but 
it was already becoming known that Lake 
Michigan extended farther south than was 
formerly believed. 

In the act of Congress, granting to Ohio the 
right to form a constitution, the northern 
boundary was described as follows : "On the 
north by an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, run- 
ning east after intersecting the due north line 
from the mouth of the Great Miami, until it 
shall intersect Lake Erie, or the territorial 
line, and thence with the same through Lake 
Erie to the Pennsylvania line." 

The State Constitution, formed under said 
authority, declared the northern boundary of 




the state to be "an East and West line, drawn River), then, and in that case, with the assent 

through the Southerly extreme of Lake Michi- of Congress, the Northern boundary of this 

gan, running East, until it shall intersect State shall be established by, and extending 

Lake Erie, or the Territorial line ; to, a direct line running from the Southern 

Cuurl ,> f UUrt It Dakln 

Map Made in 1834 

Only known map in existence showing Toledo in Michigan. Lucas, Defiance and Wyandot 

counties were not yet erected. Many other changes have occurred since then. 

"Provided, That if the Southerly bend or extremity of Lake Michigan to the most North- 
extreme of Lake Michigan should extend so erly Cape of the Miami (Maumee) Bay, after 
far South, that a line drawn due East from intersecting the due North line from the 
it would not intersect Lake Erie, or if it mouth of the Great Miami River. " 
should intersect Lake Erie East of the mouth The Ohio Constitution was approved by 
of the Miami of the Lake (the Maumee Congress as prepared by the convention. It 



was not many years after the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1802 that official notice is 
recorded of the disputed claims which gave 
all of the site of the present City of Toledo, 
with its wonderful harbor, to Michigan. This 
is shown by the following letter to Governor 
Meigs :— 

"j\IiAMi Rapids, January 23, 1812. 
"SiE: It appears to be the general wish 
of the people in this settlement (which con- 
sists of about 50 families), to have the laws 
of the State of Ohio extended over them, as 
we consider ourselves clearly within the lim- 
its of said State. The few who object, are 
those who hold offices under the Governor of 
Michigan, and are determined to enforce their 
laws. This is considered by a great majority 
of the inhabitants as usurpation of power 
which they are under no obligation to adhere 
to. If no adjustment should take place, I 
fear the contention will ere long become 
serious. Sir, will you have the goodness to 
inform the people here, whether there has 
been any understanding between the State of 
Ohio and the Governor of Michigan on the 
subject of jurisdiction, together with your 
advice. I am sir, with high esteem, 
"Your obedient servant, 

"Amos Spafford, 
"Collector of Port Miami." 

The question undoubtedly became dormant 
for a while because of the war which followed 
between England and the United States, in 
which many important actions and events 
occurred in this vicinity. In 1821 the matter 
arose when the assessor of Waynesfield Town- 
ship, "Wood County, undertook to list for taxa- 
tion the property in this disputed region. 
But the few settlers were then so busy felling 
the forests and making a living that they 
paid little attention to it. Two years later 
the matter was officially called to the atten- 
tion of the Federal Government, and the sub- 

ject was agitated from time to time for a 
number of years. It was seen that the line, as 
designated by Congress, was an impossible 
one, for it would have divided several of the 
lake counties east of Cleveland, and have left 
part of that lake front outside of Ohio. This 
eventuality certainly was not intended. Two 
lines had been surveyed. One of these, which 
laid off the northern boundary of the state 
practically as it is today, was known as the 
Harris Line; the other, which more nearly 
conformed to the claims of Michigan, was 
called the Fulton Line. "William Harris had 
made his survey in 1817, under appointment 
of Governor Cass, of Michigan. As he had 
been provided with a copy of the Ohio Con- 
stitution, and had followed its provision, his 
report caused much ill feeling in that terri- 
tory. In 1819 President Monroe commis- 
sioned John Fulton to make the siirvey, and 
his line, following the Ordinance of 1787, was 
just as displeasing to Ohio. 

The mooted problem was brought to a head 
by the prospect of securing the location of 
the terminus of the Miami and Erie Canal. 
Toledo naturally offered the most desirable 
terminus for the canal, but the thought of Ohio 
constructing so expensive an undertaking, 
and turning its traffic into a Michigan port, 
was not to be entertained. Maumee City and 
Perrysburg were not worried. They both de- 
clared that the proper finality was there. 
But the year-old-city of Toledo was vfide 
awake. The advantage of a canal in those 
days was of inestimable advantage in build- 
ing up a town. This in a measure explains 
the excessive zeal manifested by these early 
Toledoans. Unless under the jurisdiction of 
Ohio, they felt there was no canal for them. 
A public meeting was held in Toledo, in 1834, 
and the majority of those present expressed 
themselves in favor of the jurisdiction of 
Ohio. A petition to that effect was signed and 
forwarded to the executive of the state. 



Sentiment was not unanimous, for tlie fol- 
lowing letter was sent to Governor Mason : 

"Monroe, March 12, 1835. 
"To Hon. Stevens T. Mason, 

"Acting Governor of Michigan Territory: 
"We, the citizens of the Township of Port 
Lawrence, County of Monroe, Territory of 
Michigan, conceive ourselves (by force of cir- 
cumstances) in duty bound to apply for a 
special act of the place appointed for holding 
our Township meetings (elections). By a 
vote of the last Town meeting (1834) our 
meeting of this year must be held at Toledo, 
on the Maumee River. We apprehend trou- 
ble, and perhaps a riot may be the conse- 
quence of thus holding the meeting in the 
heart of the very hot-bed of disaffection. 

"We therefore pray your Excellency and 
the Legislative Council to aid us in our en- 
deavors to keep the peace and sustain our 
claims to the soil as part of the Territory of 
Michigan, by an act removing the place for 
the Town meeting from Toledo to the School- 
house on Ten-Mile Creek Prairie, to be held 
on the — day of April, in preference to the 
usual day and place appointed. 

"J. V. D. Sutphen, 
"Coleman I. Keeler, 
"Cyrus Fisher, 
"Samuel Hemmenway. 
' ' Delegates from Port Lawrence to the County 
Convention at Monroe." 

Because of the urgent demands from the 
citizens of Toledo, Governor Lucas made the 
boundai-y question the subject of a special 
message to the Legislature. That body passed 
an act extending the northern boundaries of 
the counties of Wood, Henry, and Williams 
to the Harris Line. That part west of the 
Maumee River was created into Sylvania 
Township, and that part east into Port Law- 
rence Township. The authorities of Michigan 

had previously exercised jurisdiction over the 
territory lying between the two lines, although 
Wood County had attempted to collect taxes 
within those limits. Under this act three 
commissioners were designated to resurvey 
and mark the Harris Line. 

The legislative council of Michigan rashly 
passed an act called "The Pains and Penal- 
ties Act," which provided severe penalties for 
anyone within the limits of the territory who 
should acknowledge any other sovereignty. A 
challenge followed when an election was 
ordered in the disputed strip by the Ohio 
authorities. Benjamin F. Stickney, Piatt 
Card, and John T. Baldwin acted as judges 
of this election, which caused excitement to 
run very high. Michigan at once retaliated 
by appointing officials who were instructed to 
enforce "The Pains and Penalties Act." 

These acts of the Legislature of Ohio and 
of Governor Lucas evidently aroused the gov- 
ernor of Michigan, as is cleai'ly indicated by 
the following letter to his military officer: 

Executive Office, Detroit, March 9, 1835. 
Sir: — ■ You will herewith receive the copy 
of a letter just received from Columbus. You 
now perceive that a collision between Ohio and 
Michigan is inevitable, and will therefore 
be prepared to meet the crisis. The Governor 
of Ohio has issued a proclamation, but I have 
neither received it nor have I been able to 
learn its tendency. You will use every exer- 
tion to obtain the earliest information of the 
military movements of our adversary, as I 
shall assume the responsibility of sending 
you such arms, etc., as may be necessary for 
your successful operation, without waiting for 
an order from the Secretary of War, so soon 
as Ohio is properly in the field. Till then I 
am compelled to await the direction of the 
War Department. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 
Stevens T. Mason. 
General Jos. W. Brown. 




Goveruor Lucas came to Toledo, accom- 
panied by his staff and his boundary commis- 
sioners. Gen. John Bell, of Lower Sanduskj-, 
who was in command of the seventeenth divi- 
sion of the Ohio militia, had under him a vol- 
untary force of about 600 men, fully armed 
and equipped. This force went in camp at 
old Fort Miami, and there awaited the orders 
of the governor. 

In order to enlist recruits, General Bell sent 
a drummer, named Odle, to Perrysburg, be- 
lieving that the best way to stir up the requi- 
site enthusiasm. Accompanied by a man 
carrying a flag, Odle marched up and down 
the streets of that village, beating his drum 
with the greatest vigor. The courthouse was 
on his route, and court was in session. The 
judge ordered the sheriff to stop the noise. 
The drummer said he was under orders to 
' ' drum for recruits for the war, ' ' and that he 
should not stop until assured that the court 
had more authority than had his office. Even 
while replying he did not stop his beating. 
Odle was arrested and Captain Scott sum- 
moned. Scott replied that Governor Lucas 
was at Spafford's Exchange Hotel, and had 
sanctioned the course. Judge Higgins ordered 
the captain and drummer to jail. Captain 
Scott said that when the state was invaded 
the military authority was paramount, and 
that he would declare martial law if the im- 
prisonment was made, and arrest the court. 
The outcome was that the judge simply con- 
tinued the case at hand, and Odle resumed his 
drumming more vigorously than ever. As a 
result, the number of recruits was greatly 

General Brown, in command of the ilichi- 
gan forces, issued orders to the militia of 
Michigan stating that if there is an officer 
"who hesitates to stake life, fortune and 
honor in the struggle now before us, he is 
required promptly to tender his resignation. 
* * * We are determined to repel with force 
whatever strength the State of Ohio may 

attempt to bring into our Territory to sustain 
her usurpation." He had under his com- 
mand a body estimated from 800 to 1,200 men, 
ready to resist any advance of the Ohio au- 
thorities to run the boundary line or do any- 
thing upon the disputed territory. With him 
was Governor Mason. The two executives 
eyed each other -(at a safe distance) like pugi- 
lists preparing for battle. The "Pains and 
Penalties Act" of the Legislative Council of 
Michigan provided a fine of $1,000 and five 
j'ears' imprisonment for any person other 
than United States or Michigan officials to 
exercise or attempt to exercise any official 
authority in the disputed territory. Both par- 
ties were in a belligerent attitude, and the 
excitement was most intense. A couple of 
commissioners from the President of the 
United States, Richard Bush, of Pennsylva- 
nia, and Colonel Howard, of ]\Iichigan, 
arrived, and used their personal influence to 
stop all warlike demonstration. This confer- 
ence was held on the 7th of April, 1835. The 
commissioners submitted the two following 
propositions for the assent of both parties: 

"1st. That the Harris Line should be run 
and re-marked, pursuant to the act of the last 
session of the Legislature of Ohio without 

"2nd. The civil elections under the laws 
of Ohio having taken place throughout the 
disputed territory, that the people residing 
upon it should be left to their own judgment, 
obeying the one jurisdiction or the other, as 
they may prefer, without molestation from the 
authorities of Ohio or Michigan until the close 
of the next session of Congress. 

To this armistice Governor Lucas assented, 
but Governor Mason refused to acquiesce, 
insisting that he could not honorably compro- 
mise the rights of his people. Believing that 
no obstruction would be placed in the way of 
making the survey, Governor Lucas permitted 
his commissioners to proceed upon their woi-k 
and disbanded his military. Things did not 



run smoothly, as is shown by report dated 
May 1, 1835, of which the following is a copy 
in part: 

"During our progress we have been con- 
stantly threatened by the authorities of Mich- 
igan, and spies from the territory, for the 
purpose of watching our movements and ascer- 
taining our actual strength were almost daily 
among us. On Saturday evening, the 25th 
ult., after having performed a laborious day 's 
service, your commissioners, together with 
their party, retired to the distance of about 
one mile south of the line, in Henry County, 
within the State of Ohio, where we thought 
to have rested quietly and peaceably enjoy 
the blessings of the Sabbath — and especially 
not being engaged on the line, we thought our- 
selves secure for the day. But contrary to 
our expectations, at about twelve o'clock in 
the day, an armed force of about fifty or sixty 
men hove in sight, within musket shot of us, 
all mounted upon horses, well armed with 
muskets and under the command of General 
Brown of Michigan. Your commissioners 
observing the great superiority of force, hav- 
ing but five armed men among us. who had 
been employed to keep a lookout and as hunt- 
ers for the party, thought it prudent to retire, 
and so advised our men. Your commissioners 
with several of their part}', made good their 
retreat to this place. But, sir, we are under 
the painful necessity of relating that nine of 
our men, who did not leave the ground in time 
after being fired upon by the enemy, from 
thirty to fifty shots, were taken prisoners and 
carried away into the interior of the country. 
Those who were taken were as follows, 
to-wit : — Colonels Hawkins, Scott and Gould, 
Major Rice. Captain Biggerstaff and Messrs. 
Ellsworth, Fletcher, Moale and Rickets. We 
are happy to learn that our party did not 
fire a gun in tiirn and that no one was 
wounded, although a ball from the enemy 
through the clothing of one of our 

Major Stickney sent the following letter to 
the editor of the Toledo Gazette, dated April 
13, 1835 : 

* * * " On the morning of the 9th, then 
on my return home, I was met by some gen- 
tlemen some 14 miles from Toledo, with the 
intelligence that a band of ruffians of 30 or 
more, had at dead of night come to my house 
from Monroe, and in a ferocious manner 
demolished the door leading to the principal 
avenue of my house and seized a gentleman 
(Mr. Naaman Goodsell), bore him off and 
treated his lady and daughter (the only 
females in the house), with brutish violence, 
notwithstanding I had exhorted all to exer- 
cise moderation. * * * When my daughter 
gave out the cry of 'murder,' she was seized 
by the throat and shaken with monstrous vio- 
lence, and the prints of a man's hand in pur- 
ple were strongly marked, with many other 
contusions. Mrs. Goodsell exhibited marks of 
violence also. This Michigan banditti pro- 
ceeded likewise to the sleeping apartment of 
another gentleman (Mr. George McKay), 
burst in the door, seizing him in bed ; and as 
the first salutation, one of the villains at- 
tempted to gouge out one of his eyes with a 
thumb * * * After two days of Court-mock- 
ery at Monroe, these gentlemen were admitted 
to bail. 

"On the 10th, it was reported that an 
armed force was assembling under General 
Brown, to march to Toledo, and take as pris- 
oners such as accepted office under Ohio 
(about a dozen). On the 11th, they arrived 
in force, about 200 strong, armed with mus- 
kets and bayonets. The officers of Ohio having 
been lulled into security by assurances of the 
Commissioners of the United States (Messrs. 
Rush and Howard), were not prepared for 
defense, and retired, giving them full space 
for the display of their gasconading, which 
was exhibited in pulling down the flag of 
Ohio, and dragging it through the streets at 
the tail of a horse, with other similar acts. 



"Cyrus Holloway, of Sylvania Township 
(one of the first Commissioners of Lucas 
County), a very good man, was elected Jus- 
tice of the Peace, under the laws of Ohio, and 
with others was spotted for vengeance. Ap- 
prehending that Michigan officers were after 
him, he took to the woods, hiding for several 
days in a sugar-camp shanty. He being a 
pious man, some of his partisan friends, fond 
of the marvelous, reported that Providence 
had wrought a miracle in his behalf; that lit- 
tle robins daily went to his house, there got 
food and took it to him during his seclusion 
in the forest. Many believed this, and ac- 
cepted it as strong proof of the justness of 
the claim of Ohio to the disputed territory. 
The miraculous part of the story had a very 
slight foundation in the fact, that Mr. Hollo- 
way's children, who daily carried food to their 
father, had a pet robin, and usuall.y took it 
with them on such visits ; hence, the robin- 
story. ' ' 

In addition to the outrages upon the sur- 
veying party, there were numerous assaults 
upon individuals. Throughout the entire 
spring and summer, Toledo was the center of 
incessant excitement. Each incursion of 
Michigan officials for the purpose of making 
new arrests was the occasion for renewed ex- 
citement. Attempts were made by "Wood 
County to arrest Michigan partisans, but the 
proposed victims somehow would get advance 
information and remain out of sight. Major 
Stickney went to Monroe on the Detroit 
steamer to pay some social calls. He was 
there arrested and imprisoned for acting as 
a judge in an Ohio election. He was consid- 
ered an important prisoner, and many gibes 
were made concerning him. The military 
spirit was rife, and one of the popular say- 
ings at Monroe during his imprisonment was 
the one stated at Toledo, which referred to 
their despoiling his garden. It was in the 
form of the following toast: "Here's to 
Major Stickney 's potatoes and onions^we 

drafted their tops and their bottoms volun- 
teered." He wrote to Governor Lucas: 

"Here I am, peeping through the grates 
of a loathsome prison, for the monstrous crime 
of having acted as the Judge of an election 
within the State of Ohio. Prom what took 
place the other day at Port Miami, at a con- 
ference between yourself and the Commission- 
ers of the United States wherein we had the 
honor of being present, we were led to believe 
that a truce at least would be the result. In 
this we were again deceived. I left my resi- 
dence in Toledo in company with a lady and 
gentleman, from the interior of Ohio, to visit 
my friend A. E. Wing, of ilonroe, and others, 
conceiving that respect for the ordinary visits 
of hospitality would have been sufficient for 
my protection under such circumstances. But 
vindictiveness is carried to such extremes, that 
all the better feelings of man are buried in 
the common rubbish. The officer who first 
took me, treated me in a very uncivil manner ; 
dragging me about as a criminal through the 
streets of Monroe, notwithstanding there are 
a number of exceptions to this virulent mass." 

Mr. N. Goodsell was also aroused from 
peaceful sleep in the middle of the night by 
a body of men, who demanded admittance. If 
not admitted, they informed Mr. Goodsell 
that the door would be broken down. He 

"My journey was rendered unpleasant by 
the insolence of some of the party, and my 
life jeopardized by being obliged to ride upon 
a horse without a bridle, which horse being 
urged from behind became frightened and ran 
with me until I jumped from him. I arrived 
at Monroe, and was detained there until next 
da.v, as they refused me any bail from day to 
day. I was taken before the Grand Jury, 
then in session, and questioned concerning our 
meeting the officers, etc., etc. During the sec- 
ond day a large military force, or posse, was 
raised, armed and started for Toledo. After 
they had gone nearly long enough to have 



reached Toledo, I was admitted to bail, aud 
returned — passed the force on the road — in- 
quired of the Sheriff whether that was to be 
considered an armed force or a Sheriff's posse. 
He answered that he considered it a posse at 
that time, but it was so arranged that it might 
be either — as circumstances should require; 
that General Brown and aide were along, who 
would act in case they assumed a military 
force. ' ' 

The Legislature of Oliio was convened in 
extra session by Governor Lucas "to prevent 
the forcible abduction of citizens of Ohio." 
The members were greatly aroused by the 
illegal arrests, and passed an act providing 
heavy penalties for any attempted forcible 
abduction of a citizen of Ohio. The offense 
was made punishable by imprisonment in the 
penitentiary for not less than three, nor more 
than seven years. In spite of all this, a posse 
of about 250 armed men again visited Toledo, 
on July 18th, and made seven or eight 
arrests, chiefly for individual grievances. 
This posse also committed several overt acts, 
among which was damage to a newspaper 
office. The office of the Toledo Gazette was 
visited by a posse bearing muskets. The door 
was demolished and a "pi" made of the type 
already set for the next issue. "We have 
barely enough type and materials saved from 
the outrages, we are about to relate, to lay 
the particulars before the public," said the 
Gazette in its next issue. Public sentiment in 
Michigan was kept in as belligerent a state 
as possible. 

An act was also passed by the Ohio Legis- 
lature to create the new County of Lucas out 
of the northern part of Wood County, to 
embrace the disputed territory, together with 
a portion of the northwestern corner of San- 
dusky County. Of this county, Toledo was 
made the temporary seat of justice. Three 
hundred thousand dollars was appropriated 
out of the public treasury, and the governor 
was authorized to borrow on the credit of the 

state $300,000 more to carry out the laws in 
regard to the northern boundary. Governor 
Lucas called upon the division commander of 
this state to report as soon as possible the 
number of men in each division who would 
volunteer to sustain him in enforcing the laws 
over the disputed territory. Fifteen of these 
divisions reported over 100,000 men ready to 
volunteer. These proceedings on the part of 
Ohio greatly exasperated the authorities of 
Michigan. They dared the Ohio "million" 
to enter the disputed ground, and "welcomed 
them to hospitable graves." Prosecution of 
citizens within this territory for holding 
offices under the laws of Ohio were prosecuted 
with greater vigor than ever. For a time the 
Monroe officials were kept busy. IMost of the 
inhabitants of that village were employed in 
the sheriff's posse making arrests in Toledo. 
The commencement of one suit would lay the 
foundation for many others. There are few 
towns in the United States in which the citi- 
zens have suffered as much for their alle- 
giance to a state as did those of Toledo. 

The Detroit Free Press of August 26, 1835, 
has the following items : 

The Ohio Controversy — The Legislative 
Council .yesterday had this subject under 
consideration. They have made an appro- 
priation of $315,000, to meet any emergency 
which may arise, and we learn that eveiy 
arrangement will be made to afford a warm 
reception to any partisan of the "million" 
of Ohio, that may visit our borders. Mich- 
igan defends her soil and her rights, and 
we would wish our fellow-citizens of Ohio to 
recollect that "thrice armed is he who hath 
his quarrel just." 

W.\R ! War ! ! — Orders have been 
for volunteers to rendezvous at Mulholland's 
in the County of Monroe, on the 1st of Sep- 
tember next, for the purpose of resisting the 
military encroachments of Ohio. The Terri- 



tory, it is expected, will be on the alert, and 
we understand services will be accepted from 
all quarters. 

The latter movement evidently had refer- 
ence to preventing the holding of the court at 
Toledo, September 7th. On the 8th of June, 
Governor Lucas called an extra session of the 
Legislature and delivered a message, of which 
the following is a part : 

"It appears to me the honor and faith of 
the State is pledged, in the most solemn man- 
ner, to protect these people in their rights, 
and to defend them against all outrages. 
They claim to be citizens of Ohio. The Legis- 
lature by a solemn act has declared them to 
be such, and has required them to obey the 
laws of Ohio, which, as good citizens, they 
have done, and for which they have been per- 
secuted, prosecuted, assaulted, arrested, ab- 
ducted and imprisoned. Some of them have 
been driven from their homes in dread and 
terror, while others are menaced by the au- 
thorities of Michigan. These things have 
been all done within the constitutional bound- 
aries of the State of Ohio, where our laws 
have been directed to be enforced. Are we 
not under as great an obligation to command 
respect and obedience to our laws adjoining 
our northern boundary as in any other part 
of the State ? Are not the inhabitants of Port 
Lawrence, on the Maumee Bay, as much 
entitled to our protection as the citizens of 
Cincinnati, on the Ohio river? I feel con- 
vinced they are equally as much. Our com- 
missioner appointed in obedience to the act 
of the 23d of February, while in discharge of 
the duty assigned them, were assaulted while 
resting on the Sabbath day, by an armed force 
from Michigan. Some of the hands were fired 
on, others arrested, and one Colonel Fletcher 
is now incarcerated in Tecumseh, and for 
what? Is it for crime? No; but for faith- 
fully discharging his duty, as a good citizen 
of Ohio, in obedience to our laws. ' ' 

The loyal citizens of Toledo were "getting 
discouraged having no arms, nor succor sent 
them, which they construed to neglect. It 
was difficult to comfort them." The mix-up 
is shown by an old copy of the Toledo Gazette, 
published in "Toledo, Wood County, Ohio." 
in which there is an administrator's notice of 
"the estate of John Babcock, late of Toledo, 
in the County of Monroe, and the Territory 
of Michigan," as well as other official notices 
of the same purport. 

There was no cessation in the arrests, and 
imprisonments in the Monroe jail continued. 
The most noted of these is the attempt to 
arrest Two Stickney, and a man by the name 
of McKay. 

Territory of Michigan 
Monroe County, 

"Personally came before Albert Bennett, a 
Justice of the Peace within and for the county 
aforesaid, Lyman Hurd, who being duly 
sworn, said that on the 15th day of July, 
1835, this deponent who is a constable within 
the county aforesaid, went to Toledo in said 
county, for the purpose of executing a war- 
rant against Geo. McKay in behalf of the 
United States. 

"This deponent was accompanied by Joseph 
Wood, deputy sheriff of said county. Said 
Wood had in his hands a warrant against Two 
Stickney. This deponent and said Wood went 
into the tavern of J. B. Davis, in the village 
of Toledo, where they found said Stickney 
and McKay. This deponent informed Mc- 
Kay that he had a warrant for him. and there 
attempted to arrest McKay. The latter then 
sprang and caught a chair, and told this 
deponent that unless he desisted, he would 
split him down. This deponent saw McKay 
have a dirk in his hand. At the time this 
deponent was attempting to arrest McKay. 
Mr. Wood attempted to arrest Stickney. 
Wood laid his hand on Stickney 's shoulder, 



and took him by his collar, and after "Wood 
and Stickney had scufHed for a short time, this 
deponent saw Stickney draw a dirk out of 
the left side of Wood, and exclaim, "There, 
damn you, you have got it now." This depo- 
nent then saw Wood let go from Stickney and 
put his hand upon his side, apparently in 
distress, and went to the door. This deponent 
asked Wood if he was stabbed. Wood said, 
very faintly, that he was. This deponent then 
went with Wood to Ii'a Smith's tavern. A 
physician thought it doubtful whether Wood 
i-ecovered. This deponent thinks there were 
from six to eight persons present at the time 
this deponent and Wood were attempting to 
arrest McKay and Stickney. None of them 
interfered. At the time Wood informed Stick- 
ney that he had a precept against him. 
Stickney asked Wood whether his precept 
was issued under the authority of Ohio or 
Michigan. When Wood showed him the war- 
rant, Stickney said he should not be taken; 
but if it was under Ohio, he would go. 

"This deponent thinks that at the time 
Wood was stabbed it was between three and 
four o'clock in the afternoon, and this depo- 
nent remained there about three hours. Be- 
fore this deponent left the inhabitants of 
Toledo, to the number of forty or fifty, col- 
lected at Davis' tavern. This deponent was 
advised, for his own safety to leave the place, 
and also by the advice of Wood, he returned 
to Monroe, without having executed his pre- 
cept. And further deponent saith not. 

"Lyman Hurd. 

"Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 
sixteenth day of July, one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-five. 

"Albert Bennett, J. P." 

The proceedings of this case were reported 
by Governor Mason to President Jackson, who 
realized that it was necessary to take some 
action in order to prevent serious trouble. 
Governor Lucas himself soon conferred with 

the President on the subject of the boundary 
difficulties. The result of this mission was 
the urgent plea of the President for the mu- 
tual suspension of all action by both parties, 
until the matter could finally be settled by 
Congress, and that no prosecutions be com- 
menced for any violations of the acts. 

Court had been ordered to be held in 
Toledo, the county seat of the new County of 
Lucas, and the Michigan authorities were 
determined to prevent it. For this purpose 
the Detroit militia arrived in Monroe on the 
evening of September 5th. Together with 
volunteers, these forces rendezvoused near 
Toledo, and marched into that city on the 6th. 
Their numbers was variously estimated at 
from 800 to 1,200, and they were led in per- 
son by Governor Mason and General Brown. 
The associate judge had assembled at the Vil- 
' lage of Maumee, ten miles distant, with 
Colonel Van Fleet and 100 soldiers sent by 
Governor Lucas for their protection ; but wise 
peace counsels prevailed, and Ohio won the 
victory without shedding a drop of valiant 
Michigan blood. Strategy was adopted instead. 
As September 7th was the day set for holding 
the court, it was decided that the day began 
at midnight, and, as no hour was specified, 
one hour was as good as another. 

At 1 o'clock in the night, the officers accom- 
panied by the colonel and twenty soldiers, 
each carrying two cavalry pistols, started on 
horseback do^vn the Maumee. They arrived 
about three and went quietly to the school- 
house by Washington street, which was then 
"well out of town." About 3 o'clock, the 
judges opened the court. The three associated 
judges were Jonathan H. Jerome, Baxter 
Bowman, and William Wilson. They ap- 
pointed a clerk and three commissioners for 
the new County of Lucas. They transacted 
a little other necessary business and, no fur- 
ther business appearing before said court, it 
adjourned in due form. The clerk's minutes, 
hastily written on loose sheets of paper, were 



deposited in his hat according to the custom 
of men in those days. All present then hastily 
started through the woods up the Maumee 
River to the town of the same name. In their 
haste the clerk's hat was knocked from his 
head as a result of coming in contact with the 
limb of a tree. Not a little apprehension was 
experienced until the scattered papers, con- 
taining the invaluable minutes of the court, 
were found. The entire session had been held 
between two days. All arrived safely at Mau- 
mee City, clearly outside the disputed terri- 
tory, but yet within Lucas County, where 
Michigan civil officers or troops dare not pur- 
sue. Here the first victory was quietly en- 
joyed, and plans matured for complete dis- 
comfiture of the enemy. Colonel Van Fleet 
signalized their success by firing two salutes. 
This is the account that appeared in the 
Michigan Sentinel, published at Monroe, un- 
der date of September 12, 1835 : 

"Wolverines of Michigan! — In anticipa- 
tion of the proposed organization of the 
Court of Ohio at Toledo, and the approach 
of Lucas's 'Million,' Acting Goveimor Mason 
made a large requisition on the brave Wolver- 
ines of Michigan ; and on Saturday last ( Sep- 
tember 5th) they approached our Town under 
arms by hundreds, from the Counties of 
Monroe, Wayne, Washtenaw, Lenawee, Oak- 
land, Macomb and St. Joseph. The whole 
body entered the disputed territory on Mon- 
day, accompanied by Governor Mason, Gen- 
erals Brown and Haskall and Colonels Davis, 
Wing and others, to the number of 1,200 to 
1,500, and encamped on the plains of Toledo. 
Governor Lucas did not make his appearance. 
The Court is said to have been held at the 
dead of night, by learned Judges dressed in 
disguise; and the insurgents of Toledo pre- 
cipitately fled from the scene of action." 

The Michigan authorities continued to make 
trouble, but the success of the above strategy 

practically closed the contest. An order came 
from Washington removing Governor Mason 
from the office of chief executive of the Terri- 
tory of Michigan, because of his excessive zeal 
for its rights. His secretary, John S. Horner, 
immediately became the acting governor. On 
the 15th of June, 1836, ilichigan was admit- 
ted into the Union, with her southern bound- 
ary next to Ohio limited to the Harris Line. 
The disputed territory was given to Ohio. As 
compensation for her loss, Michigan was 
awarded the northern peninsula, with its rich 
beds of mineral ore, which has proven to be 
a most valuable possession. Ten days later 
a notable celebration was held in the old Man- 
sion House, in Toledo, at which many dis- 
tinguished guests were present. Guns were 
fired, bells were rung, and a procession was 
formed which marched around the old school- 
house in which the memorable session of court 
was held. The position of Governor Lucas 
made him a national figure, and when he 
retired from office, it was with the good will 
of both friend and adversary. He was recog- 
nized as a faithful public servant. He after- 
wards became territorial governor of Iowa, 
and spent the later years of his life in that 

Thus it was that the angry strife, which 
for a time threatened a sanguinary war, was 
happily settled, and fraternal relations have 
ever since existed between the authorities of 
Ohio and Michigan. The Ohio Legislature in 
1846 passed an act appropriating $300 to 
compensate Major Stickney for damage to 
property and for the time he passed in prison 
at Monroe. Michigan afterwards bestowed 
$50 upon Lewis E. Bailey, for the loss of a 
horse while in the service of the territorial 
militia. The people of both states immedi- 
ately took the matter good naturedly, and 
treated the whole affair as a joke. Songs wei'e 
sung, of which a couple of verses of the Mich- 
igan "War Song" are as follows: 



Old Lucas gave his order all for to hold a 

Aud Stevens Thomas Mason, he thought he'd 
have some sport. 

He called upon the Wolverines, and asked 
them for to go 

To meet this rebel Lucas, his Court to over- 

appeared, and the exact location was unknown. 
By act of the Legislature of Ohio a new sur- 
• vey was made, and this new pillar set up with 
appropriate inscription. On this occasion 
there were present Governor Frank B. Willis, 
of Ohio, and Governor Woodbridge N. Ferris, 
of ^Michigan. Each governor made a felicitous 
speech in harmony with the occasion. 

Governor Willis of Ohio (Right) and Governor Ferris of Michigan 
Shaking hands at dedication of the new Ohio-I\Iichigan boundary terminus, Nov. 24, 1915. 

Our independent companies were ordered for 

the march. 
Our officers were ready, all stiffened up with 

starch : 
On nimble-footed coursers our officers did 

With each a pair of pistols and sword hung 

by his side. 

The last chapter in this controversy was 
written when, on the 24th of November, 1915, 
a new boundary post was placed on the east- 
ern end of this line, which was disputed for 
so many years. The old demarcation had dis- 

It is befitting to close this chapter with 
the words of another muse, written in 1835 : 

Young Toledo! Rise to Fame! 
Mart of the Western World should claim 
Homage of all the ports around — 
Her wealth and power know no bound ; 
More mighty far than ancient Rome, 
Stand by inherent power alone. 
But oh ! methinks I see them dashing ; 
Hear pistols pop! and swords a-elashing! 
While first to last many oppose. 
With eyes plucked out or bloody nose; 
Whose horrid threatening or grimace 
Convince they'll die or keep their place. 



It is not possible witliiu the limits of this 
work to treat of the geology of Northwest 
Ohio in detail, nor can it be discussed tech- 
nically by one who is not a trained geologist. 
All that can be related in this chapter is just 
enough to briefly outline the subject and to 
stimulate, if possible, an impetus for further 
reading upon the subject. In this section 
occurs the largest area of level country in the 
State of Ohio, the region of the old lake bed. 
In a broad area, reaching from Ottawa and 
Lucas counties southwest to Paulding, Van 
Wert, and Defiance counties, the change in 
elevation frequently does not exceed a foot to 
the mile. In no part of Northwest Ohio are 
there hills of any magnitude, but certain sec- 
tions are slightly rolling, and there are points 
where the elevation is several hundred feet 
above the level of Lake Erie. 

The historic period of this region is very 
short in the chronology of the earth, in com- 
parison with the great length of time covered 
by the geological ages. Whether these periods 
occupied 50,000,000 or 60,000,000 years is of 
very little interest to us, for whichever state- 
ment is accepted, the length of years is suffi- 
ciently impressive for our minds. In very 
early geological ages, the Gulf of Mexico 
extended to this region. The greatest influence 
in the conformation of the topography of this 
vast level area of land occurred during the 
glacial periods. It is quite probable that prior 
to this time Northwest Ohio may not have 
differed greatly from the hilly region of the 
southeastern section of our state. Immense 
glaciers formed somewhere in the upper re- 

gions of Canada, and moved down slowly 
toward the South. Neither trees, rocks, nor 
any natural obstruction permanently impeded 
their movement. The glaciers scooped out the 
basin of Lake Erie and, when they reached 
what is now Northwest Ohio, the general 
movement was in a southwesterly direction. 
The fact of these glacial movements is estab- 
lished in a number of ways. On Kelley's 
Island there are the most remarkable glacier 
grooves that are found in Ohio. In some 
places the boulders which were imbedded in 
tlie glaciers cut grooves in the limestone rocks 
that abounded there to a depth of as much as 
two feet. The same groovings, although not 
so deep, are found on many of the rocks along 
the lake shore at Marblehead and Lakeside, 
in Ottawa County. To a geologist these 
grooves speak as audibly as do the tracks of 
an elephant to the hunter. 

The glacial age is also further proved by 
great boulders which are scattered over this 
region, and which are entirely dissimilar to 
the natural rocks produced here. One of these 
is known as the Harrison Boulder, lying a few 
miles southwest of Fremont. This is a species 
of granite known to come from the highlands 
of Canada, north of Lake Erie, said to be the 
oldest land in the world. The age of this 
particular rock is estimated by geologists to 
be from 25,000,000 to 150,000,000 years. It 
was transported here, however, not more than 
10,000 or 12,000 years ago. In size it is 
13 feet long, 10 feet wide, and about 7 feet 
thick, of which one-half is out of the ground. 
It would weigh probably eighty tons, and has 




withstood the influence of climate all these 
years. The place of its origin is several hun- 
dred miles distant, in the Labrador or Hudson 
Bay region, and it could have been transported 
in no other way than by a glacier. There are 
many other smaller boulders scattered over 
Maumee and Sandusky region. The rocks of 
this region are much younger, and were depos- 
ited when this was the bottom of the sea, so 
that they became filled with sea shells and 
shell fish and a vast accumulation of marine 
deposits. The superficial deposits all belong 
to the glacial age. 

Another evidence of the movements of gla- 
ciers across Northwest Ohio is in the terminal 
moraines, which are found in several places. 
It has been estimated that the thickness of 
the glacier over Lake Erie was about 11,000 
feet. It is known from watching the move- 
ments of the glaciers of today in the Alps, as 
well as in Alaska and other places, that these 
great masses of ice and snow move almost as 
a semi-fluid substance. Their progress is ex- 
ceedingly slow, but they are just as sure as 
they are slow. They freeze onto rocks and 
never let go, but carry them along. The an- 
nual movements of glaciers which have been 
observed range from 130 to 330 feet in a 
single year. These glacial movements cut off 
the top of mountains, filled up the valleys, 
and made the surface of Northwest Ohio what 
it is today. They were like huge planes in 
their effect, leveling the high points, pushing 
everything breakable and movable before 
them, crushing and grinding the softer rocks. 
In many places the depth of the deposit ex- 
ceeds 100 feet. The rocks, which were thus 
exposed to the air, frost, and water, were de- 
composed and formed the very rich soil of 
this section, one of the richest in existence. 
As the surface was in places a little uneven, 
and in some places even depressed, it left the 
swamps which used to be so numerous, but 
most of which have been drained at this time. 

The term moraine is given to a ridge of 

ground up or transported material which is 
left by a glacier. The moraine marks where 
the front of the glacier rested, for it was the 
front that had gathered up most of the detri- 
tus. The glaciers in their movements gathered 
up rocks and soil, which were gradually 
ground up, so that a fair proportion of the 
mass of the glacier was sometimes made up 
of this material. At times the glaciers were 
halted in their movements for periods which 
might have covered centuries, and the surface 
being exposed to a warmer climate gradually 
melted, and the detritus which had been gath- 
ered up was deposited in ridges which can be 
still plainly distinguished. There are three or 
four of these moraines, either wholly or partly 
in Northwest Ohio, which are in a cup shape, 
with the bottom of the cup projecting toward 
the southwest. All of them are nearly par- 
allel. The approach is generally so gradual 
that it is scarcely perceptible to the traveler. 
The first of these is known as the Defiance 
Moraine, which extends northward and east- 
ward from Defiance. The next one is known 
as the St. Joseph-St. Marys Moraine, because 
it follows these two rivers, with the apex near 
Fort "Wayne, Indiana. The third one is only 
a few miles distant from this, and extends in 
the same general direction. A fourth, known 
as Salamouie Moraine, is still a little farther 
distant, and crosses the southern boundary of 
Northwest Ohio near Fort Recovery and Ken- 
ton. The many little lakes in Northern Indi- 
ana were caused by the irregular deposition 
of the glacial detritus, leaving ridges and de- 
pressions which became filled with water. 

The glaciers have exercised the greatest 
influence in determining the flow of the water, 
and the direction of the streams. Although 
the entire basin at one time may have drained 
into Lake Erie, with the onward movement 
of the glaciers the outlet in this direction was 
obstructed. It then became necessary for the 
water to seek an outlet in another direction, 
and so the streams which flow to the southwest 



were formed. At one time a great lake cov- 
ered the central portion of this region. It is 
known to geologists as ilaumee Glacial Lake, 
which was crescent in shape, and lay between 
the Defiance Moraine and the St. Joseph-St. 
Marys Moraine. It drained through the 
Tymochtee gap into the Scioto River, and 
through the Wabash. Another of these glacial 
lakes, known as Whittlesey, was found between 
the Defiance Moraine and Lake Erie, and was 
really a later stage of the water. The numer- 
ous sand ridges, which are found running 
across Northwest Ohio in different directions, 
were the successive shores of Lake Erie as it 
gradually receded to its present dimensions. 
Near Fort Wayne there is a broad channel, 
easily distinguished, which formerly connected 
the Wabash River and the Maumee, through 
which the pent-up water found its outlet to 
the Gulf of Mexico. As the lake level de- 
clined, the waters of the rivers St. Joseph and 
St. Marys followed the receding lake, thus 
originating and forming the Maumee River. 

Prehistoric Man 

There have been many speculations and 
theories advanced regarding the length of time 
that man has existed. Many evidences of pre- 
historic man are found in Ohio. The oldest 
of these have been discovered in Southern 
Ohio, for during a long period it was impos- 
sible for the human race to live north of the 
upper lake ridge, which passes through Belle- 
vue, Tiffin, Fostoria, and Van Wert, where 
the former shore is marked by a sand ridge. 
At that time the whole region between that 
ridge and the lake was covered with a body of 
water estimated to be from 50 to 100 feet in 
depth. At a later period, as the water level 
fell, it is quite likely that the races then exist- 
ing followed up the retreating waters, and 
established their temporary habitations. 

There are remains of a prehistoric popula- 
tion, which are evidence by enclosures and 

mounds found along both the Sandusky and 
the Maumee rivers. Two of these enclosures 
were located where Fremont now stands, their 
sites being well authenticated. Others were 
at a somewhat greater distance. IMost of the 
outlines have now been obliterated, and there 
is nothing whatever to establish their an- 
tiquity. One of these was in a circular form, 
enclosing several acres of ground, witli gate- 
like openings. Some rudely shaped knives 
and other crude tools, together with stone 
axes, flint arrow heads and rude pottery, have 
been found, which have evidence of great 
age, because they have been discovered near 
the fossil remains of animals known to exist 
shortly following the glacial period. Al- 
though the Maumee River Basin was prob- 
ably never the headquarters of so great a 
number of early peoples as Southern Ohio, yet 
it was no doubt a thoroughfare of travel for 
pre-historic people, and they erected low 
conical mounds above the bodies of certain of 
their dead. 

Dr. Charles E. Sloeum states in his "His- 
tory of the Maumee River Basin" that there 
are more than fifty mounds and earthworks in 
this basin that can probably be classed as the 
work of prehistoric men. Their situation is 
on high ground in small groups and widely 
scattered. Some twenty of these mounds have 
been located in De Kalb and Steuben counties, 
Indiana. The remains of the mastodon have 
lieen found there, one of them at a depth of 
four feet in blue clay. The bones of the 
mastodon have also been found in Northwest 
Ohio, near Bucyrus. In Auglaize County 
parts of eight of these prehistoric monsters 
have been discovered, and the most perfect 
one of all was unearthed a few miles south- 
east of Wauseon. Several of the mounds have 
been identified on the south bank of the Mau- 
mee, near Antwerp, and one not far from De- 
fiance. This last mentioned mound was about 
four feet above the surrounding land, and 
about thirty feet in diameter. It was covered 



with oak trees about twenty inches in diam- 
eter. Upon opening the mound, a small quan- 
tity of bony fragments were found, which 
readily crumpled between the fingers on being 
handled. Human teeth of large size were also 
unearthed. There are two mounds along the 
Maumee River, just above the City of Toledo. 
In one of these a pick-shaped amulet was un- 
earthed, which was eighteen inches in length. 
Several also have been identified along the 
Auglaize River, near Dupont, in Putnam 
County, and also near Defiance. In one of 
these the decaying bones of eight or ten per- 
sons in sitting posture were discovered. Not 
far from Wauseon as many as eleven mounds 
of small size are reported, arranged in some- 
what of an elliptical form. A few human 
bones, some charcoal, and a few indifferent 
articles of slate were the result of the work 
of investigators. 

Doctor Slocum further states that there are 
three prehistoric circles and four semi-circles 
in the Maumee River Basin. One of these, 
with a diameter of about 200 feet is in De 
Kalb County, Indiana, and another near 
Hamilton, Indiana. This latter is known as 
the mystic circle, with a diameter of sixty- 
eight yards, and averages between three and 
four feet in height. A third is in a bend of 
the River St. Joseph, in Allen County, Indi- 
ana. Three semi-circles were found along the 
lower Maumee River. The first of these was 
observed between the years 1837 and 1846, 
and is mentioned in a book published in 1848, 
which was the first volume of the Smithsonian 
contributions. This account reads as follows: 
"This work is situated on the right bank of 
the Maumee River, two miles above Toledo, in 
Wood County, Ohio. The water of the river 
is here deep and still, and of the lake level; 
the bluff is about 35 feet high. Since the work 
was built, the current has undermined a por- 
tion, and parts of the embankment are to be 
seen on the slips. The country for miles in all 
directions is flat and wet, and is heavily tim- 

bered, as is the space in and around this 
inclosure. The walls, measuring from the 
bottoms of the ditches, are from three to four 
feet high. They are not of uniform dimen- 
sions throughout their extent ; and as there is 
no ditch elsewhere, it is presumable that the 
work was abandoned before it was finished. 
Nothing can be more plain than that most of 
the remains in Northern Ohio are military 
works. There have not yet been found any 
remnants of the timber in the walls ; yet it is 
very safe to presume that palisades \yere 
planted on them, and that wood posts and 
gates were erected at the passages left in the 
embankments and ditches. All the positions 
are contiguous to water; and there is no 
higher land in their vicinity from which they 
might in any degree be commanded. Of the 
works bordering on the shore of Lake Erie, 
through the State of Ohio, there are none but 
may have been intended for defense ; although 
in some of them the design is not perfectly 
manifest. They form a line from Conneaut 
to Toledo, at a distance of from three to five 
miles from the lake, and all stand upon or 
near the principal rivers. * * * The most 
natural inference with respect to the north- 
ern cordon of work is, that they formed a 
well-occupied line, constructed either to pro- 
tect the advance of a nation landing from 
the lake and moving southward for conquest; 
or a line of resistance for people inhabiting 
these shores and pressed upon by their south- 
ern neighbors." 

A little below the one just mentioned is 
another semi-circle. It is just a little above 
the Fassett Street Bridge, in Toledo. When 
originally surveyed, it was a little less than 
two feet above the surface, and had a diam- 
eter of 387 feet, with an irregular curve. 
Both of them have been obliterated in the 
onward march of improvements. A third was 
situated on the south bank of Swan Creek, a 
short distance above its entrance into the Mau- 



mee River. It has been practically obliterated 
by the grading of streets, but its diameter was 
about 400 feet. A few pieces of pottery and 
stone implements have been found in and 

about these enclosures. They do not give us 
any definite knowledge of those who con- 
structed the earth works nor of their early 



Lake and River 

It was but natural that the pioneer settlers 
of Northwest Ohio, where the roads were 
almost impassable for a good part of the year, 
should turn to the water facilities afforded by 
the two great rivers, Sandusky and Maumee, 
and expansive Lake Erie for their earliest 
transportation. We are unable to compile a 
complete history of the first navigation on the 
lake, because of the absence of records, but 
enough data has been furnished us from the 
recollections of the pioneers to give a fairly 
accurate account of it. 

The first craft regularly plying on the Mau- 
mee River, so far as is known, was the schooner 
Black Snake, with Jacob Wilkinson as its cap- 
tain. Its initial trip was made in May, 1815, 
and on board of it was also the captain's 
nephew, David Wilkinson, who afterwards 
became so prominent in river and lake navi- 
gation. This boat was of about twenty tons 
burden, and David Wilkinson sailed the lakes 
continuously from 1815 to 1850. In a state- 
ment made many years afterwards, he says: 
"She sailed from Cleveland, her load being 
chiefly immigrant families and their effects. 
Part of these were landed at the River Raisin, 
and part at Port Meigs. Among those stop- 
ping at the Raisin, were Mr. Mulholland and 
family — the same gentleman who afterwards 
became noted as a hotel-keeper at Vienna 
(Erie) on the road to Monroe from Toledo. 
On the vessel's return, she took for cargo ord- 
nance and military stores from Fort Meigs 
to Detroit. Captain Jacob Wilkinson con- 

tinued to run this Vessel, occasionally making 
trips to the Maumee, until September, 1816, 
when he moved his family and made his resi- 
dence at Orleans, a village laid out between 
Fort Meigs and the River." Another of the 
early vessels trading on the Maumee River 
was the schooner Leopard, slightly larger than 
the Black Snake, and commanded by Capt. 
John T. Baldwin. Captain Baldwin came 
here with the Leopard in 1816, bringing with 
him his family. He stopped at Orleans, or 
Fort Meigs, and remained there for about a 
year, when he removed to Put-in-Bay. 

The custom house at Maumee City (district 
of Miami) was not opened until 1818. Ac- 
cording to the record of the boats taken out 
prior to this, the Black Snake is given first 
place, and the second was the schooner Sally, 
of seven tons, with Capt. William Pratt. 
Others of the very early vessels were the 
Saucy Jane, with Jacob Wilkinson as her cap- 
tain; the Walter, under Capt. Amos Reed; 
the Happy Return, and the Wapoghkonnetta, 
in command of Capt. Isaac Richardson. The 
first vessel completed on the Maumee River is 
believed to have been the sloop Miami, which 
was launched at Perrysburg in 1810 by Capt. 
Anderson Martin. This vessel was captured 
by the British during the War of 1812, but 
was subsequently recaptured at the time of 
Perry's victory, and helped to carry the 
American soldiers on their expedition into 
Canada. Both Perrysburg and Maumee be- 
came important as shipbuilding centers. In 
1843 the first boat run by a screw propellor 
was constructed at Perrysburg. It was called 




the Sampson, and was a vessel of 250 tons 
capacity. Six years later the first steam 
barge, called the Peti-el, was built in Toledo. 
It must be remembered that in the early 
days the Sandusky River was also important 
for navigation. Fremont was at the head 
of navigation on this river, and regular lines 
of boats went up and down between that port 
and Sandusky, as well as more remote points. 
Many vessels were constructed from the fine 
oak trees growing in the forests along the 
river's banks. As early as 1816 the sloop 
Nautilus was built there. In 1830 we read 
that "The new steamboat, Ohio, intended for 
river and lake trade was launched at Lower 
Sandusky on the 29th of May. ' ' The industry 
grew so rapidly that shipbuilding may be said 
to have been one of the earlier and thriving 
industries of Lower Sandusky. A dozen or 
more lake boats have laid in port there load- 
ing and discharging freight. By far the most 
interesting vessel that ever sailed out of Fre- 
mont harbor was the Pegasus. In 1819 
Thomas L. Hawkins and Elisha W. Howland 
constructed this horseboat, for so it literally 
was. It consisted of two large canoes, side 
by side, separated by a platform large enough 
to carry a superstructure of machinery, a 
large amount of freight and several passen- 
gers. The machinery was run by four horses, 
which in turn worked paddles on each side of 
the boat. The Pegasus aimed to make three 
trips a week from Lower Sandusky to Port- 
land, as Sandusky was then called. The pas- 
sage of forty miles constitiited a good day's 
work under the most favorable circumstances. 
She continued to run until June 29, 1824, 
when a severe storm damaged her beyond re- 
pair. The first trip was made on May 6, 1822, 
and she carried a cargo of "tobacco, fish and 
passengers." The same inventive genius of 
Mr. Hawkins also devised and constructed a 
ferry boat, propelled by paddle wheels which 
were driven by dog power, after the style of 
an old churn. This queer craft carried pas- 

sengers across the river at Fremont before a 
bridge had been provided for. 

It was not long after the establishment of 
the custom house at Maumee until regular 
communication began on Lake Erie with the 
first steamboat. This was built at Black Rock, 
below Buffalo, and was lost on the 4th of July, 
in the year 1818. It was a vessel of about 
300 tons burden, and was named Walk- 
in-the-Water, after an Indian chief of the 
Wyandot tribe, residing along the Detroit 
River. It moved in the water at the rate of 
from eight to ten miles per hour, which was 
a wonderful speed for that period. The exact 
date of its first trip is not certainly known, 
but it is supposed to have been in September. 
In the Cleveland Register of November 3, 
1818, the following notice appears: 

"The Steamboat Walk-in-the-Water left 
Buffalo for Detroit on the 10th of October, 
having on board 100 passengers. The facility 
with which she moves over our Lake, warrants 
us in saying that she will be of utility not only 
to the proprietors, but also to the public. She 
offers us a safe, sure and speedy conveyance for 
all our surplus produce to distant markets. 
She works as well in a storm as any vessel on 
the Lakes, and answers the most sanguine 
expectations of the proprietors." 

The history of the Walk-in-the-Water has 
a peculiar interest to those living along the 
Maumee River. It was built primarily, so we 
are informed upon good authority, to run 
between Buffalo and the foot of the ilaumee 
Rapids. Its builders, Mclntyre and Stewart, 
of Albany, New York, purchased a tract of 
land below Perrysburg, which included the 
site of Fort Meigs, and laid out there a town 
which was designed for a gi'eat commercial 
metropolis, and which was given the signifi- 
cant name of Orleans of the North, to dis- 
lingui-sh it from New Orleans, at the mouth 
of the Mississippi. As the site of what was 
then considered the head of navigation on 
the I\Iaumee, and the western extremity of 



Lake Erie, the situation was promising. The 
promoters planned to establish a line of steam- 
ers on the lakes, with Orleans as the western 
terminus. It was soon found that they had 
overestimated the commercial advantages of 
the site, since it was found upon trial that the 
Walk-in-the-Water could not reach it. She 
drew so much water that the vessel was 
obliged to stop at the mouth of Swan Creek, 
the site of the present City of Tbledo. 

The Walk-in-the-Water was in service for 
three years, and during that time visited To- 
ledo and Fremont. On June 10, 1820, she 
carried the first excursion party to the upper 
lakes. On her last trip she left Black Rock 
on November 6, 1821, with seventy-five pas- 
sengers and a large quantity of merchandise. 
The weather was at that time calm. When 
about six miles out, however, the wind in- 
creased and Captain Rogers returned to Buf- 
falo Bay. The violence of the storm continu- 
ally increased, and the night was intensely 
dark, so that the vessel began dragging her 
anchors. The water deepened in the hold in 
spite of the gi'eatest exertion with the pumps. 
She went ashore on a sandy beach, but the 
passengers were safely landed after many 
thrilling experiences. They were compelled 
to stay on the island where they had landed 
for two days before they were transferred to 
the mainland and returned to Bufi:'alo. The 
keel was broken in two or three pieces, and 
the entire huU so shattered that its further 
use was impossible and the vessel was aban- 
doned. Mr. Williams, the last surviving pas- 
senger, gave the following account of the dis- 
aster : 

"The Walk-in-ihe-Water on that last voy- 
age left Black Rock in the afternoon of a dull, 
cloudy day. As she cast off her tow-line and 
moved unaided into the broad waters of Lake 
Erie, there was no anticipation of the terrible 
gale we were soon to encounter. The boat had 
a full complement of passengers, and a full 
cargo of goods, mostly for Western merchants, 

one of whom, Mr. Palmer, of Detroit, was on 
board with his bride. There was also a com- 
pany of Missionaries, several of whom were 
ladies, on their way to some Western Indian 
tribe. As the winds rose, friends grouped them- 
selves together, and as the storm gi-ew more 
and more furious, there was great terror among 
them. The Missionaries sang hymus and de- 
voted themselves to soothing the terrified. We 
lay tossed of the tempest, the big seas sweep- 
ing over us all the long night. Just as the 
first gleam of daylight appeared our anchor 
began to drag. Captain Miller seeing the 
impossibility of saving the Steamer, ordered 
her beached. With skilled seamanship she 
was sent broadside on. A rope stretched from 
boat to beach, and the passengers were fer- 
ried to shore in the small boat. They reached 
it drenched and exhausted, but all saved." 

The first serious lake disaster in this region 
was the loss of the schooner Sylph, Capt. 
Harry Haskin, in May, 1824. She sailed from 
Sandusky about noon of May 12th for De- 
troit, with two barrels of whisky, a few 
wooden dishes, and three passengers, beside 
the captain's brother, Charles Haskin. A 
severe storm from the northwest arose in the 
afternoon. Nothing was heard of the vessel 
until the 14th, when two men reached San- 
dusky in a skiff, -with the intelligence that the 
Sylph had been wrecked on North Bass Island, 
and all on board lost. 

The second steamer to reach Maumee was 
probably the Enterprise, in the year 1823. 
Before the opening of the Wabash and Erie 
Canal communication between Fort Wayne 
and the lower Maumee was by means of water 
and stage. A canal boat that had been changed 
to steam power was brought to the ilaumee 
in 1833, bearing the appropriate name of Phe- 
nomenon. She passed up the Maumee to Fort 
Wayne, and tlie people there called her ' ' quite 
a large, elegant boat." A generous welcome 
was accorded, and a general public dance held 
on board. In June, 1837, there appeared the 



announcement that the steamboat General 
Wayne, under command of Capt. H. C. Wil- 
liams, "would leave the head of the Rapids 
every day at one p. m. for the Flat Rock, 
where there would be coaches and teams to 
convey passengers and freight to Defiance." 
Passengers leaving ilaumee City and Perrys- 
burg in the morning were able to reach 
Defiance the same day. There was also, accord- 
ing to announcement, a boat for passengers 
or freight which left Defiance every Friday 
for Fort Wayne, making the journey in three 
daj's. During high water a steamboat ran 
between the head of the rapids and Foi-t 
Wayne, but this was impossible in midsum- 
mer. Rapid travel was not expected in those 
days, for the quickest passage made by any 
sail vessel between Sandusky and Buffalo up 
to 1822 was thirty-four hours. By that time 
the schooner Erie began to make the trip and 
reduced the time by six hours. 

■ "The Ste.\mboat Sun 
"C. K. Bennett, Master. 
' ' Will make her trips this season as follows : 
Will leave Manhattan every morning at 7 
o'clock; Toledo at 8; Maumee City and Per- 
rysburg at half-past 10; Toledo at 2 P. M. 
and Maumee and Perrj-sburg at 5 o'clock 
and arrive at ]\Ianhattan at 7 P. M. 
"April 25, 1838." 

This was the published announcement of 
the first steamboat plying exclusively between 
the towns on the Maumee River. As may be 
noticed, the boat made only about five miles 
an hour. The business of ninning a steamer 
on the Maumee River, three-quarters of a cen- 
tury ago, was a rather hazardous task; at 
least the managers of this line found it so. 
Because of the general business collapse of 
1837, there was a state of financial di.stress all 
over this section of the country. Cash was a 
very scarce article, and as a result the manag- 
ers of this line, as well as many another busi- 

ness concern, found themselves compelled to 
resort to scrip for the payment of their bills. 
This scrip circulated as cash, and was a great 
help to the business transactions. The unfor- 
tunate part of it was that many of those who 
issued the scrip never took the trouble, or else 
found it impossible, to redeem it. The owners 
of this line, however, redeemed all of their obli- 
gations. In the same year the steamboat An- 
drew Jackson, with Shibnah Spink as its man- 
ager, commenced running between Peri-j'sburg 
and Manhattan, making stops at Maumee, Or- 
leans, and Upper and Lower Toledo, and 
completing two trips each day. In 1839 there 
was advertised a full line of steamboats from 
Detroit to Perrysburg and Maumee City, with 
the vessels Oliver, Newbury, and Erie, and 
making stops at Toledo, Manhattan, Monroe, 
Brest, Maiden, and Gibraltar. They left Per- 
rysburg at 7:30 in the morning, and arrived 
at Detroit at 4 in the afternoon. Steamers 
continued in the local run between Mauriee 
and Perrysburg and Toledo for almost half 
a centurj'. With the completion of several 
railroads and electric lines, the competition 
became too strong, and they were compelled 
to succumb. On several occasions since then 
an attempt has been made to revive the river 
traffic, because of the marvelous beauty of 
the scenery, but in each instance the pro- 
moters have been compelled to abandon it 
because of lack of patronage. 

A curious incident in our history in the 
development of steam navigation on the water 
is an act by the Legislature of Ohio prohibit- 
ing any boat or water craft from receiving or 
landing any passengers from steamboats 
within the limits of Ohio. The reason for this 
was that since Robert L. Livingston and Rob- 
ert Fulton had been granted by the State of 
New York the exclusive right of navigation 
in the waters of Lake Erie by steam power, a 
great deal of trouble immediately arose. Since 
there were no improved harbors on Lake Erie, 
the steamboats were compelled to employ 



small boats to land their passengers and 
freight. As the state could not prevent the 
navigation of the steamboats of New York on 
Lake Erie, it could prevent the smaller boats 
from plying between Ohio ports and these ves- 
sels at anchor. It was not many years after 
the application of steam to lake transporta- 
tion that the movement of vessels began to 
reach large proportions. The Lake Erie 
Steamboat Line was organized in 1827, and 
had four vessels. They made tri-weekly trips 
between Buffalo and Detroit, stopping at in- 
termediate ports. The Blade of January 31, 
1838, said : 

"A comparison of the number of arrivals 
on our wharves in 1836 and 1837, will show 
an increased measure of prosperity during the 
past year. In 1836 the number of arrivals, 
exclusive of small Steamboats that ply daily 
between this place and Detroit was 601, as 
follows : Steamboats, 330, and 271 schooners. 
In 1837, excluding the small boats again from 
the computation, the number was 959 ; of 
which 756 were Steamboats and 203 schoon- 
ers. Of the Steamboat arrivals, 270 were from 
Buffalo direct, 401 from Buffalo via Detroit, 
and 85 direct from Cleveland. When it was 
recollected that Toledo dates her existence 
from June, 1834, we think we may safely state, 
without arrogance or boasting, that no point 
in the West can show a like rapid increase in 
her commerce." 

The combination of boat and vessel own- 
ers began to appear early in Lake Erie. 
Hence in 1839 we find the Consolidation 
Steamboat Company in existence, and its ex- 
press purpose was to protect the owners of 
steamboats on the lakes from the effects of 
competition by fixing prices at this time. A 
daily line of steamboats was established be- 
tween Buffalo and Toledo in 1839. Passen- 
gers traveled ' ' the entire distance from Toledo 
to New York in three days and fifteen hours," 
which was really astonishing at that period. 
The editor of the Blade, in expressing his 

approval of this speed, said: "One could 
hardly wish to travel 770 miles in a less pe- 
riod." He certainly would open his eyes in 
astonishment if he knew that express trains 
have made the trip in fifteen hours, and even 
less. When coal came into use as fuel on the 
steamers, it was found that their speed was 
greatly increased, for it supplied the neces- 
sary power much better than wood, which had 
formerly been employed. In the spring of 
1841 there were already fifty steamboats ply- 
ing on the lakes. Of these, six were in use 
on the line running between Buffalo and 

It is neither necessary nor advisable to con- 
tinue the history of lake navigation down to 
the present time, with all its many and rad- 
ical changes. Instead of the small craft that 
were used in the early days, we find monster 
leviathans which rival the ocean steamers in 
size and speed, and which ply the waters of 
Lake Erie as well as its connecting lakes in 
all directions. The steamer Walk-in-the- 
Water would look very small if placed by the 
side of the monster freight or passenger ves- 
sels of today. The development and enlarge- 
ment of the steamers closely followed th& 
improvement of the harbors. The entrance tO' 
the Maumee was impeded by sandbars, which 
made it impossible for deep drafted vessels 
to enter for many years. 

From a survey of 1824, we copy the follow- 

"Soundings were taken of the Maumee 
River and Bay, from the foot of the Rapids to 
Turtle Island, off the North Cape of the Bay. 
At the point where it is proposed to erect the 
dam suggested, there is a rock bottom with 
6-iA feet of water. Below this rock the water 
increases in a short time to eight and nine 
feet. At a point between that of Swan Creek, 
a mile above Grassy Point, about eight feet of 
water is found, and on the bar in the Bay, 
81/, to 9 feet." 

Although appropriation had been made for- 



the improvement of lake harbors at San- 
dusky, Huron, Milan, and other points along 
Lake Erie earlier, it was not until 1835 that 
any appropriation was made for the Mau- 
mee. At this time a small sum of $700 was 
granted by Congress for placing buoys in the 
bay. No steps were actually taken to deepen 
or improve the entrance to the Maumee River 
until 1866, although measures had been 
adopted to develop the Monroe Harbor thirty- 
one years before, and at Huron forty years 
earlier. One reason probably was that until 
that year the natural depth of the water per- 
mitted the vessels, or most of them at least, 
to enter the river. With the increasing draft 
of ships, however, additional water was found 
necessary. It was then deemed necessary to 
deepen the channel to 1-1 feet, and broaden 
it to 120 feet. From that depth it has been 
greatly deepened and improved, as well as 
straightened, until it now has a uniform depth 
of 23 feet up to the Toledo docks and a width 
of 400 feet. Toledo now affords the very best 
harbor and the most extensive dockage facili- 
ties of any port on Lake Erie. A new light- 
house, officially called Toledo Harbor Light, 
was completed in 1904, and is one of the most 
modern lights on the Great Lakes. Ships of 
the greatest capacity are now built in the 
extensive shipyards at Toledo, by the side of 
which the early vessels were mere dwarfs. 

The first lighthouses provided for Lake 
Erie were those at Fairport, and on the penin- 
sula in Sandusky Bay, in the year 1826. This 
latter was the predecessor of the lighthouse 
now at Marblehead. The first lighthouse au- 
thorized for the Maumee Channel was the one 
at Turtle Island. This island was purchased 
of the Government in 1827 at public sale at 
]\Ionroe, Michigan, and was again sold to the 
United States a few years later by Edward 
Bissell for the sum of $300. It then contained 
a little over six acres, and the original light- 
house was erected there in 1831. By this 
time, however, the size had been greatly re- 

duced, and it was estimated at about two 
acres. Since then it has been greatly washed 
away. Although attempts have been made 
to protect the little oasis from the washing 
of the storms, it probably is a scant acre in 
extent at this time. The lighthouse was aban- 
doned several years ago. 

The Canals 

We scarcely appreciate in this day of rapid 
transit the condition that confronted the pio- 
neer. It must be remembered that nearly all 
exchange was by barter. Except in a few 
simple household articles, there was prac- 
tically no manufacturing. The population 
for many years was almost wholly rui-al. In 
1822 M'heat was selling at 25 cents a bushel, 
and corn at half that price. Eggs were 4 
cents a dozen, and chickens sold at 5 cents 
each. Everything purchased brought a high 
price, because the cost of carriage was so great. 
It was only as cheaper transportation devel- 
oped that conditions improved. It was the 
construction of canals that first bettered con- 
ditions. The men who originally espoused 
this cause met with very little encouragement 
in the beginning, but they were far-seeing and 
continued their efforts in the face of every 
discouragement and obstacle. It was neces- 
sary for them first to convince a scattered pop- 
ulation of poor landowners that in order to 
make valuable their undeveloped treasure in 
land, it was first necessary to burden them- 
selves with heavy taxes, but that eventually 
the markets would be brought to their very 
doors. It seemed almost a hopeless task, but 
the men back of it were endowed with cour- 
age and ability as well as foresight. 

The father of the canal system of this coun- 
try was undoubtedly DeWitt Clinton, of New 
York, who began to a^tate the subject in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century. The 
completion of the New York and Erie Canal 
in 1825 aroused great interest in the subject. 



and stimulated Ohio in her efforts to secure 
better transportation ui^on Lake Erie and the 
Ohio River. Prior to this day Governor 
Thomas Worthington had recommended to the 
Legislature the building of a canal across 
the state. Two years later Governor Ethan 
Allen Brown also advised such action, and a 
resolution was passed providing for three 
canal commissioners, who should employ an 
engineer and assistants to make a survey — 
provided that the United States would donate 
lands along the line of the canal to aid in its 

The first prnjf.-t tbnt nttivT-f.-.l iittciitioii 

Stickney, then Indian agent at Fort Wayne, 
had published a letter in the Western Spy, of 
Cincinnati, in which he used the following 
language : 

"Of course it would be a small expense of 
labor to connect the waters of these two 
Rivers by a Canal that would be passable at 
the lowest water. Those Rivers will be the 
great thoroughfare between the Lakes and the 
Mississippi ; and, of course, will constitute an 
uninterrupted navigation from the Bay of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, except the 
short portage at the Falls of Niagara." 

A sorii"^ nf dnms w;is then projected along 

Old Canal Boat 

was for a short canal to connect Fort Wayne, 
to which place tlie Maumee was considered 
navigable, with the Little River, a tributary 
of the Wabash, the entire distance being a 
little less than seven miles. As early as 1818, 
Capt. James Riley, a government surveyor 
of Van Wert County, said : 

"In high stages of water a portage of only 
6 miles carries merchandise from the head of 
the Maumee into navigable waters of the Wa- 
bash (and vice versa) from whence, floating 
with the current, it may go either to supply 
the wants of the interior country or proceed 
South to New Orleans or North to Lake Erie. 
The Little AVabash rises in a swamp, which 
might supply water sufficient for purpose of 
Canal navigation." 

A year previous to this Maj. Benjamin F. 

the Maumee to raise the level during times of 
low water. When surveys were made across 
the state, the lines followed the rivers. Thus 
one line was surveyed up the Maumee and 
Auglaize, and down the Loramie and Greater 
Miami. Another was up the Scioto and down 
the Sandusky, and also up the Cuyahoga and 
down the Tuscarawas and Muskingum. When 
the board reported in favor of the Cuyahoga 
River, from Cleveland, probably because the 
population was more numerous there, a serious 
protest arose from the fi'iends of the Maumee 
and Sandusky route, and more particularly 
the latter. In 1824 both routes were sur- 
veyed for a second canal, and a favorable 
report made of that via the Maumee. The 
commissioners reported the distance from the 
foot of the ]\Iauuiee Rapids to the Ohio River 



as 2651/2 miles, with 251/4 miles additional as 
necessary feeders. The altitude of the sum- 
mit was given as 378 feet above Lake Erie 
and 511 4/10 feet above the Ohio River, and 
the estimated cost was less than that of the 
Cuyahoga route. 

Work was authorized on the canal route 
between Dayton and Cincinnati on the 4th of 
February, 1825, and a few months later the 
contracts were let for the first twenty miles. 
Work had already begun on the Cleveland 
and Portsmouth route. The section of the 
Miami and Erie Canal from Cincinnati to 
Dayton was completed in 1829, but the locks 
connecting it with the Ohio River were not 
yet finished. Congress granted to the State 
of Ohio to aid this canal "a quantity of land 
equal to one-half of five Sections in width on 
each side of said canal between Daj'ton and 
the I\Iaumee River at the mowth of the Au- 
glaize (Defiance), so far as the same shall be 
located through the public land, and reserv- 
ing each alternate Section of land unsold to 
the United States to be selected by the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office under 
the direction of the President of the United 
States; and which land so reserved to the 
United States shall not be sold for less than 
.$2.50 per acre." This act, like all others for 
canals, required that the canal should always 
remain a public highway, free to the United 
States from tolls or other charges. Work was 
to begin within five years, and the canal was 
to be completed within twenty years from the 
date of the act. At this same date Congress 
further granted to Ohio 500,000 acres of land 
to pay the debts of and to complete the 
canals — those commenced to be completed 
within seven years. 

Owing to the difficulties arising from the 
Toledo War, and the conflicting claims of the 
various villages at the mouth of the Maumee, 
contracts were not let for the northern end 
until May, 1837. All sorts of arguments were 
brought to bear upon the commissioners by 

all the villages from Manhattan to ilaumee 
City. Many of them seem ludicrous in the 
light of modern development. For instance, 
the Maumee advocates dwell upon the inabil- 
ity to bridge the Maumee with safety and 
without danger to navigation at her lower 
rivals. The canal commissioners had met at 
Perrysburg in the previous year, and agreed 
to grant canal connection to each of the claim- 
ants. This decision was confirmed by Gov- 
ernor Lucas. As early as 1823, Indiana offi- 
cials had begun a movement to connect the 
navigation of the Wabash and the ilaumee 


AND Erie C^nal 

with Lake Erie. The Ohio portion of this 
canal is only eighteen miles in length. Con- 
gress authorized Indiana to mark a route 
through the public lands, and a right-of-way 
wa.s secured from the Miami Indians through 
their lands. Congress granted each alternate 
section of land to Indiana to aid in the work. 
It became evident that the proposed work was 
greater than had been anticipated. The short 
canal to connect the Maumee with the Little 
River was seen to be inefficient, for it became 
evident that the Maumee River could not be 
depended upon for navigation above Defiance. 
It was then determined to connect the Wabash 
and Erie Canal with the Miami and Erie 
Canal at a point named Junction, in Pauld- 



ing County. To harmonize the work of the 
joint section, W. Talmadge was appointed 
commissioner for Ohio, and Jeremiah Sulli- 
van was named for Indiana. Ground on this 
project was formally broken at Port Wayne, 
on February 22, 1832. A great dam was con- 
structed across tlie River St. Joseph, six miles 
above Fort Wayne, which is the highest dam 
in the Maumee River basin. Six Mile Reser- 
voir was built in Paulding County as a feeder, 
being so named from Six Mile Ci'eek. In 1835 
the canal was completed to Huntington, and 
in 1841 it had reached Lafayette. 

Because of the sparse settlements in North- 
ern Ohio, and the scarcity of money as well, 
Ohio did not urge the completion of the 
northern part of the Miami and Erie Canal 
fast enough to suit Indiana, and the people 
of that state became greatly dissatisfied. It 
was not until the spring of 1837 that a con- 
tract was let for the canal from Manhattan 
to the head of the rapids of the Maumee (now 
Grand Rapids), and in the fall of the same 
year contracts were placed for the canal from 
the Grand Rapids to the Indiana state line 
in eighty-nine sections. Contractors gathered 
together about 2,000 laborers and began to 
pay them in Michigan "wild cat" bills, which 
they had borrowed. The financial panic of 
that year crippled the contractors in their 
financial plans, so that they were not able to 
pay the laborers their wages for months. The 
excessive prices of provisions, which had to 
be transported for long distances, the high 
price of labor, and considerable sickness 
among the men rendered the work very slow. 
The different policy followed by the con- 
tractors upon the question of intoxicating 
liquors is shown in the following: 

"In tliis connection it may be proper to 
state, that the matter of 'prohibition' as to 
the use of intoxicating liquors, became a prac- 
tical question with contractors on the Canal. 
This was specially so with those on the sec- 
tions 'in rear of the Town,' (now between 

the Court House and the High School build- 
ing) who issued the order that no man in 
the use of liquors should have employment at 
their hands. The result was, that while the 
men on other jobs where liquors were used, 
suffered much from sickness, those above 
named were almost wholly without such ex- 

"During the construction of the Reservoir 
in Paulding County, about 1842, a different 
policy was adopted. What were termed 'jig- 
gers,' were dealt out to laborers before each 
meal. The men passed under a rope, one' at 
a time, and received 12 ounces of whiskey 
each. At about 9 :30 A. M., and 4 :30 P. M., 
like supplies were taken to the men at their 
work. Such were deemed necessary from the 
character of the water there used. ' ' 

From Defiance to the state line it was found 
necessary to construct the locks of wood, be- 
cause of the want of stone. Of these there are 
many, six being within Defiance alone. For 
fifteen months the contractors on the canal ' 
did not receive a single dollar from the state, 
and there was due them half a million dollars. 
In Indiana a white paper scrip was issued 
by the state, and based upon canal lands, 
which was generally called "white dog," and 
another colored scrip issued upon another sec- 
tion west of Lafayette was called "blue dog," 
while fractional currency was known as "blue 
pup." Much of this paper was about worn 
out from usage before it was finally redeemed. 

The canals were opened to traffic from To- 
ledo to Fort Wayne on the Sth of May, 1843. 
The first boat to pass to Lafayette was the 
Albert S. White, with Capt. Sirus Belden as 
the master. She was greeted all along the 
way with great joy. In Toledo a dinner was 
given at the Ohio House in honor of the cap- 
tain and his crew. A lighter packet fitted 
for passengers soon followed under Capt. Wil- 
liam Dale. At a canal opening celebration on 
the 4th of July, representatives were present 
at Fort Wayne from Toledo, Detroit, Cleve- 



land, and many other places. Gen. Lewis 
Cass delivered the pi'incipal address. There 
was still further delay in the construction of 
the Miami and Erie Canal south of the Junc- 
tion, and the first boat from Cincinnati did 
not reach Toledo until June 27, 1845. Abner 
L. Backus was appointed canal collector at 
Maumee City in 1844. The canals now were 
recognized as the cheapest, easiest, and safest 
mode of communication and transportation. 
They soon developed into great thoroughfares, 
not only for freight but also for passengers. 
By 1847 the boats in use numbered several 
hundred, and the canal tolls exceeded $60,000. 
In the following year' almost 4,000 canal boats 
cleared from Toledo. Millions of dollars 
worth of produce were transported each year 
by them. Many of the laborers who had 
worked upon the canals remained and bought 
lands upon which they settled. Numerous 
sawiug, flouring, and other mills located along 
them, and the work of clearing the forests 
began in earnest. Logs and firewood were 
alike transported to the markets. A number 
of great charcoal burners were established in 
Paulding County, with iron furnaces in con- 
nection. These industries, and the wood chop- 
ping incidental thereto, gave employment to 
several hundred laborers. Passenger boats 
became quite numerous, and some of them 
were well fitted for the convenience of trav- 
elers. The sleeping berths for first-class pas- 
sengers were arranged on each side of the 
upper cabin, generally in two rows, one above 
the other, but occasionally in three rows. 
Hammocks and cots were provided for the 
surplus passengers, and many would sleep on 
the deck. They were drawn by from two to 
six horses, according to the size of the boat 
and the load. They were generally kept on 
a trot by the driver, who rode the saddle of 
the left rear horse. In this way a speed of 
from six to eight miles an hour was attained. 
Relays of horses were sometimes carried on 
the boat, but generally they were stationed at 

convenient points. The journe.y from Toledo 
to Lafayette was about 242 miles, and was 
advertised to be made in fifty-six hours. The 
rate of fare was generally 3 cents a mile on the 
packets, and one-half cent less on the freight 
boats, which also carried passengers. Meals 
and lodging were included in these rates for 
the longer distances. Thirty-five to forty pas- 
sengers was considered a good load, but double 
this number would not be turned away. The 
time required between Toledo and Cincinnati 
was four days and five nights, which was con- 
sidered very good time. Much of the time was 
taken up in passing through the numerous 
locks, wliich averaged more than one hour. 
The trip is now made in a few hours by train. 
The largest boat on the canal for a long 
time was the Harry of the West, which was 
brought from the New York and Erie Canal in 
1844 by Capt. Edwin Avery. The first cana' 
steamboat, the Niagara, was built in 1845 for 
Samuel Doyle, but was not a success. It 
arrived in Toledo September 24, 1849. The 
Scarecrow was more successful. It had as 
the propelling power a small portable engine, 
from the flywheel of wliich a belt extended 
down to a pulley in the stei'u, to which a 
3-foot propeller-wheel was attached. Objec- 
tions were raised to the use of steamboats on 
account of the commotion of the water caused 
by the propeller to the detriment of the canal 
banks, and to other boats. It was not unusual 
at this time for fifty or sixty boats to accumu- 
late in Toledo, unloading and reloading at 
the wharves and grain elevators. The locks 
connecting the canal with the Maumee River 
at Manhattan were abandoned in 1864, and 
nearly four miles were dropped a few years 
later. The side cut with its six locks leading 
to the Maumee River at Maumee were also 
relinquished, so that the only connection now 
existing with the Maumee River is through 
Swan Creek. A long and bitter fight for trade 
ensued between the canals and railroads, with 
tlie latter as final victors. Rates for freight 



were cut whenever there was direct competi- 
tion. The canal commission undertook to pre- 
vent railroads from crossing the canals. The 
Indiana portion of the Wabash and Erie 
Canal was abandoned long ago. The section 
from the state line to Junction has not been 
used since 1886. The Miami and Erie Canal 
is still kept open, and new locks were con- 
structed at a great expense only a few years 
ago. But a boat is now a rarity, and its only 
use is in furnishing water power to a few 
establishments. Its days of real usefulness 
are seemingly ended, and its entire abandon- 
ment cannot be far distant in the future. 

To supply the water for the canal, the Lor- 
amie Reservoir, produced by a dam across 
Loramie Creek, near Minster, was constructed. 
This supplies water for what is termed the 
Summit level. This reservoir is seven miles 
long and much narrower, but covers 1,800 
acres of land. The Lewistown Reservoir was 
constriicted to supply the canal southward. 
j\Iost of the water for the northern end of 
the canal was dei'ived from the Grand Reser- 
voir, produced by a dam about four miles 
long and from 10 to 25 feet high, across the 
valley of Big Beaver Creek, a tributary of 
the Wabash, south of Celina. This reservoir 
is about nine miles long and from two to four 
miles wide, the east end having a retaining 
wall about two miles long. It covers about 
twenty-seven square miles, or 17,000 acres, 
and has been called the largest of artificial 
lakes. A number of settlers had already 
located on this land, and many serious con- 
troversies arose before their claims were ad- 
judicated. So great was the indignation at 
what was considered the injustice shown them, 
that the dam was cut and a serious overflow 
resulted. Then an adjustment followed. This 
reservoir still remains, and many of the limbs 
of the trees still protrude above its surface. 
Many oil wells have also been sunk beneath 
its surface. The Grand Reservoir is greatly 
resorted to each year by fishermen, who come 

from long distances to angle for the finny 
tribe sporting themselves in its waters. 

The Pioneer Railroads 

Transportation by land in Northwestern 
Ohio, where swampy conditions prevailed over 
the greater portion, was a serious matter. In 
the muddy season, it was next to impossible. 
Benoni Adams, who carried the mail from 
Lower Sandusky to Monroe in 1809, usually 
required two weeks for the round trip. Much 
of the journey was made on foot, and it was 
frequently necessary to construct small rafts 
to cross the swollen streams. To alleviate this 
condition, an era of plank roads swept over 
the country in the '40s and '50s. The canals 
had been of great service, but their immediate 
territory was limited. The financial returns 
looked promising, based upon the experience 
of similar roads in the East. Timber was 
abundant in every section, so that the cost of 
construction would be low. The newspapers 
everywhere encouraged their constructiou. 
As a result many projects were soon begun 
and pushed to completion. Townships and 
towns everywhere voted generous subsidies. 
Liberal tolls were charged, of which the fol- 
lowing is a fair example : A loaded two-horse 
wagon, 2 cents per mile, and half that if 
empty; single carriage, 1 cent per mile and 
double carriages 2 cents; a horse and rider 
wei'e taxed a cent for each mile. But settlers 
were scarce and through travel was not heavy, 
and even these refused to pay any toll except 
when the roads were bad. 

It is said that profanity reached its highest 
range in the days of plank roads. There were 
cases where an angry driver managed to get a 
hitch on the toll-gate and drag it a mile or 
two down the road. The court records reveal 
many cases for the "malicious destruction of 
property," the property in question being 
the toll-gate. The jurors could not refuse a 
verdict for the company, but, being of sym- 



pathetic mind, usually fixed the damages at 
1 cent. As a result the financial returns were 
unsatisfactory. Furthermore, the planks de- 
cayed faster than was expected. Hence some 
of the plank roads never were renewed, others 
were kept in a poor condition of repair, and 
all of them disappeared in a couple of dec- 
ades. By this time the railroads had prac- 
tically monopolized the inland transportation 

The pioneer railway west of the Alleghenies 
was built and operated by Toledo enterprise. 

tion of them." An amendment to this act, 
passed the 26th of March, 1835, provided that 
when "the road shall have paid the cost of 
building the same, and expenses of keeping 
the same in repair, and seven per cent on all 
moneys expended as aforesaid, the said road 
shall become the property of the Territory, 
or State, and shall become a free road except 
sufficient toll to keep the same in repair." A 
subseiiuent act terminated the road at Adrian, 
ilany members of the Legislative Council 
viewed the proposition as "a mere financial Stage Ioacii 

Its inception was about the time of the unit- 
ing of the two embryo towns on the Maumee 
River. At this time there was no railroad 
west of the Alleghenies. It was projected in 
the winter of 1832-33 by Dr. Samuel 0. Com- 
stock, of Toledo. It was incorporated with 
the name Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad by an 
act of the Legislative Council of the Territory 
of Michigan, passed the 22nd of April, 1835, 
and endowed with perpetual succession "to 
build a railroad from Port Lawrence (now 
Toledo) through Adrian to some point on the 
Kalamazoo River ; to transport, take and carry 
property and persons upon the same, by the 
power and force of steam, animals, or of any 
mechanical or other power, or any combina- 

objeet out of which could come no harm (to 
Michigan Territory) and it would greatly 
please the Comstocks of Toledo, one of whom 
was a member of that Council." Stephen B. 
Comstock and Benjamin F. Stiekney were 
among the charter members. 

The original plan of the Erie and Kala- 
mazoo railroad promoters was to use oak rails, 
4 inches squai-e, and the cars to be drawn by 
horses. The financing of this enterprise 
proved a work of great difficulty. The con- 
struction was begun with this idea, but had 
not proceeded far until it M-as decided to use 
an iron track and employ steam power. It 
was found that the wear on the green oak 
rails in transporting material for construe- 



tiou was so great that an iron covering was 
necessary. The iron was procured. It was 
what is known as the "strap rail," 21/0 inches 
wide and % of an inch thick, and was spiked 
to the wooden rail. The road was ready for 
business during the fall of 1836, just a decade 
after the first American railroad was opened 
at Boston. The cars were at first drawn by 
horses. The initial locomotive reached Toledo 
in June, 1837. It had been brought by water 
all the way from Philadelphia, via New York, 
then by the Hudson River, through the Erie 
Canal, and across the lake. It was number 
eighty of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
which will now turn out many more than that 
in a single day. Compared with the gigantic 
locomotives of today, it was a pigmy, and 
there was absolutely no protection on it for 
the engineer. Soon after the first engine was 
received, a new "Pleasure Car" was added 
to the road's equipment, which was of a 
rather fanciful character. It was divided into 
four compartments, three to accommodate 
eight passengei-s each on seats facing each 
other, while the fourth compartment was a 
small space between the wheels for baggage. 
It was about the size of a street car of a quar- 
ter of a century ago. In October, 1837, the 
railroad was awarded the contract for carry- 
ing the United States mails, the first mail 
contract awarded by the Government west of 
the Alleghenies, and little by little it came 
into favor with the general public. The first 
woman passenger on the road was Mrs. Cla- 
rissa Harroun, of Sylvania. The two locomo- 
tives of the road owned by the Erie & Kala- 
mazoo were named the "Toledo" and the 

Since the charter of the Erie & Kalamazoo 
Railway provided for a line extending from 
Toledo to the head waters of the Kalamazoo 
River, it was therefore called the Erie & Kala- 
mazoo Railroad, although it never reached its 
northerly terminus. The difficulty in finan- 
cing this operation is shown by the fact that 

only about 5 per cent of the authorized shares 
of stock a few years afterwards remained in 
the names of the original stockholders. The 
greater part of them had been hypothecated 
with creditors. Since it had been built with- 
out the use of much real money, from the out- 
set it was largely in debt. A bank had been 
organized to finance the railroad, under the 
name of the Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad Bank, 
but, as this institution was likewise without 
capital, it eventually became a burden rather 
than a support. It was only a few years until 
the irnpaid bills accumulated and the cred- 
itors forced the surrender of the property; 
then it was that the enterprise began "to be- 
come valuable. The most active man in the 
prosecution of this project was Edward Bis- 
sell, one of Toledo's earliest and ablest busi- 
ness pioneers. In May, 1849, the road was 
leased in perpetuity to the Michigan Southern 
Railroad Company, and in 1869 it became part 
of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- 
road, which is now merged with the New 
York Central lines. 

Considering the absolute want of experience 
in financing and constructing a railroad, it 
must be conceded that the construction and 
equipment of thirty-three miles of railway at 
this time, by managers who were themselves 
almost moneyless, was a very creditable un- 
dertaking. For the first year the track of the 
Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad terminated at 
Monroe and Water streets, in Toledo. The 
original railroad office was a small building 
14 by 20 feet in size, which had been built 
for a barber shop in that neighborhood. In 
1837 the track was extended along Water 
Street to the foot of La Grange, by building 
on piles throughout this entire distance, and 
in some places it was as much as 200 feet from 
what was then the shore of the river. The 
depot was at a later time located at the foot 
of Cherry Street, as a sort of compromise site 
between the two rival sections of the town. 

The first announcement of the running time 




of the Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad appeared 
in the Toledo Blade of May 16, 1837, and was 
as follows: 

To Emigrants and Teaveleks 

The Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad is now in 

full operation between 

Toledo and Adrian 

During the ensuing season trains of ears 

will run daily to Adrian, there connecting 

with a line of stages for the West, Michigan 

City, Chicago and Wisconsin Ten-itory. 

Emigrants and others destined for Indiana, 
Illinois and Western Michigan 

Wnjj Save Two Days 
and the corresponding expense, by taking this 
route in preference to the more lengthened, 
tedious and expensive route heretofore trav- 
eled. All baggage at the risk of the owners. 
Edward Bissell, 
W. P. Daniels, 
George Crane, 
Commissioners Erie & Kalamazoo R. R. Co. 
A. Hughes, 
Superintendent Western Stage Co. 

Buffalo, Detroit, and other papers ou tlie 

Lakes will please publish this notice to the 

amount of $5.00, and send their bills to the 

It will be seen that no time is named for the 
departure and arrival of trains. The reason 
for this was the very essential one that the 
running time was most uncertain. Accidents 
frequently occurred because there was no bal- 
last. The soil on which the ties were laid was 
unstable and slippery after rains. With the 
springing of the wooden rails there would 
come a breaking or loosening of the nails, and 
the ends of the strap iron would curl up so 
high as to pierce the ear, and even to endanger 
the safety of the passengers. The rate of fare 
by "the Pleasure Car" was 5 shillings (50 

cents) from Toledo to Whiteford (Sylvania), 
and between Toledo and Adrian it was $1.50, 
with a right to carry fifty pounds of baggage 
free for each seat. In the second year of its 
operation these rates were increased by 50 
per cent. Freight was 50 cents per hundred 
pounds for certain articles and less for others. 
The newspapers of the day rejoiced greatly 
over the completion of this railroad, for it 
saved passengers the trouble of wallowing 
through the mud for a couple of days during 
the rainy season on their way either to Detroit 
or Chicago. The Toledo Blade, in speaking 
of the first locomotive, which replaced the 
horses, says as follows: "Its celerity has not 
j^et been fully tested, but it is ascertained 
that it can move at a rate exceeding twenty 
miles per hour. At present it makes a trip 
and a half (between Toledo and Adrian) in 
twenty-four hours." A little later it was 
deemed worthy to state that "the Locomotive 
came in from Adrian with six cars attached, 
in the short space of one hour and forty min- 
utes, including stops." When the directors 
of the road authorized the sale in 1842, the 
rolling stock consisted of the two locomotives 
above mentioned, together with their tenders, 
two passenger cars, nine freight cars, and one 
stake ear. 

The Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad was 
the first railroad project to be incorporated in 
Ohio. This was in 1832, and the purpose was 
to construct an iron highway from Dayton to 
Sandusky, by way of Springfield, the motive 
power to be horses. Work was begun at the 
north end in 1835, and a portion of the road 
was in operation in 1838. It was completed 
in 1844. When the Little Miami Railway was 
built from Cincinnati to Springfield in 1846, 
the two lines constituted the first through rail 
connection between Lake Erie and the Ohio 
River, a distance of 211 miles. This road was 
purchased by the Big Four Railroad, and is 
now a part of the New York Central Lines. 
A curious reminder of this early railroad is 


the following notice which appeai-ed in a 
Tiffin newspaper: 

■ Railroad Notice 

The undersigned, Commissioners of Seneca 
County, for the Mad River & Erie R. R., will 
open books for subscription of stock for said 
road in Tiffin, Seneca County, on the fourth 
day of October, 1832, at the residence of Eli 

Henry Cronise, 
Josiah Hedges. 

many towns along its route, and a greater 
prosperity began almost iramediatel.y. 

One of the curious incidents in the railway 
history of this section was the formation of 
the Ohio Railroad project. It was chartered 
in 1836, and was authorized to build a road 
on piles driven into the ground from a suita- 
ble point in Ashtabula County westward to 
Manhattan (Toledo). The road was to be 
constructed of piles driven into the ground 
by a pile-driving machine. On these piles 
were to be placed cross-ties and timbers for 

First Railroad in Northwest Ohio 
Erie & Kalamazoo Railway opened for business between Adrian and Toledo in fall of 1836. 

Three years later the first sod was cut for 
this road in Sandusky by Gen. William Henry 
Harrison, assisted by Governor Vance. It 
was an occasion of great rejoicing. The first 
locomotive, named the "Sandusky," arrived 
at Sandusky in 1838 by water, and was used 
in the construction of the road. By the fall 
of that year the road had reached Bellevue, 
and the first train was run to that village. 
It consisted of a small passenger car, and a 
still smaller freight car. The first locomotive 
entered Tiffin in 1841. The completion of this 
road to Dayton in 1851 brought a new era to 

tlie strap rails of iron. The building of the 
road was begun in 1839, and the first pile was 
driven at Fremont on June 19th of that year. 
The contractors and laborers were paid in 
paper scrip, which was largely issued in frac- 
tions of a dollar, and this scrip soon became 
tlie circulating medium of the countrj' along 
the line of the proposed railway. The Lower 
Sandusky Whig, of July 11, 1840, has the 
following news item : 

"From Lower Sandusty- the pile driver has 
advanced into the very heart of the famed 
Black Swamps, to the distance of nine miles, 



and is driving from 500 to 600 feet daily. 
The company is receiving proposals for the 
timber and mason work of the immense bridge 
across the Sandnsky River and Valley; im- 
mense it is — being near a half mile in length 
from bank to bank, and about forty feet in 

The main work of the pile driving was be- 
gun at Brooklyn, near Cleveland, and also at 
Manhattan. When the financial crash of 1840 
came on, the whole project utterly collapsed 
and was never revived. Nearly eveiy man in 
this section of the country had become the 
possessor of some of the scrip issued by the 
company, which was never redeemed. 

In the late '40s and early '50s the era of 
railroad construction really began in Ohio. 
By 1851 the Cleveland & Columbus Railroad 
was running through Ci-estliue and Gallon in 
Northwestern Ohio. In 1850 the Ohio & Indi- 
ana Railroad was incorporated to build from 
"near Seltzer's Tavern in Richland County, 
thence to Bucyrus, to Upper Sandusky," and 
to Fort Wayne, connecting with the Ohio & 
Pennsylvania at the first-named place. The 
counties along the route voted large sums to 
purchase stock. Bucyrus was for a number 
of years the location of the general oiiices, and 
several of the officers resided there. In 1852 
the contract was let for the grading of the 
road from Crestline to Upper Sandusky. In 
the following spring the work was pushed rap- 
idly, and the first train reached Bucyrus on 
August 31, 1853. It was quickly finished 
across the state, and became known as the 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, 
now an important part of the Pennsylvania 

The Northern Indiana Railroad was origi- 
nally projected as early as 1835. With spas- 
modic efforts it was kept alive until 1849, 
when it passed into other hands, then pro- 
moting a road called the Michigan Southern 
West. As a result the first train passed over 
these two roads from Toledo to Chicago on 

May 22, 1852. Three years later the two 
roads were consolidated. The initial train 
from Cleveland arrived in Toledo, December 
20, 1852, over the Toledo, Noi-walk & Cleve- 
land Railroad. Like other roads of this 
period it was built largely by the subscrip- 
tions of towns along its route. Toledo gave 
$50,000; Fremont, $40,000; Bellevue, $20,- 
000 ; Norwalk, $54,000 ; and Oberlin, $15,000. 
It was afterwards consolidated with a rival 
project known as the Cleveland & Toledo Rail- 
road. These roads are now all consolidated 
with the New York Central Lines. 

The project of a direct railway from 
Toledo through the Wabash Valley was first 
given definite form in 1852. In that year a 
convention of delegates along the proposed 
route was held in Toledo. The Toledo & Illi- 
nois Railroad Company was organized to 
build the line to the Ohio boundary in Paul- 
ding County, and other companies to construct 
the rest of the line in the various states. They 
were finally consolidated as the Toledo, Wa- 
bash & Western Railway. The road was com- 
pleted from Toledo to Fort Wayne in July, 
1855, and it became a strong competitor of the 
canal. It has since been known as the Wabash 
Railroad. The Dayton & Michigan Railroad 
was built in 1859 from Dayton to Toledo, and 
eventually became known as the Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton Railroad. The original 
charter authorized a railroad from at or near 
Dayton, via Sidney and Lima and Toledo to 
a point on the Jlichigan state line in the direc- 
tion of Detroit. The Baltimore & Ohio was 
not built through this section of our state 
until 1873. Columbus and Toledo did not 
have direct connection until the completion 
of the Columbus, Hocking Valley & Toledo 
Railway in 1876. 

The Fremont & Indiana Railroad was incor- 
porated in 1853. It was planned to build a 
road from Fremont through Fostoria (then 
called Rome), Findlay and other towns to the 
Indiana line. The track reached Fostoria in 



1859, and train service was begun. In the 
following j^ear it was extended to Findlay, 
and insolvency overtook it. After many vicis- 
situdes and several changes of name, it became 
the Lake Brie & Western Railway. By 1863 
the Atlantic & Great Western Railway (now 
the Erie) had reached Galion, and in the fol- 
lowing year was finished to Dayton. It was 
popularly known as the "Broad Gauge," be- 
cause its rails were six feet apart. The rails 
were standardized in 1880. 

Since the days of the early railroads the 
laying of the parallel iron rails through this 
section of our state has continued at a rapid 
pace. They stretch out in every direction over 
its comparatively level surface. There were 
no mountains to make dilBcult the engineering 

problem. Today it is a distance of only a 
few miles from any point to a railroad station 
where both passengers and freight will be re- 
ceived. Toledo has become the third largest 
railroad center in the United States. About 
a quarter of a century ago, an era of inter- 
urban electric lines began. In many instances 
they have paralleled the older earners and 
have rendered the matter of transportation 
still more convenient, because they have made 
practically every cross road a stopping place. 
In other instances they have opened up new 
territory, so that today no section of our vast 
republic, of equal area, is better provided in 
the matter of transportation lines than is 
Northwest Ohio. 



The part taken by Northwest Ohio in the 
various wars in which our country has been 
engaged has been most creditable. Although 
there were no residents of this section, so far 
as we know, who enlisted in the Revolutionary 
AVar, hundreds of former revolutionary sol- 
diers afterwards settled in Northwest Ohio and 
developed into the most exemplary citizens. 
Thus it is that one will find the graves of 
these veterans of that almost unprecedented 
struggle for independence scattered all over 
this part of our great state in the various 
burial grounds. There is probably not one of 
the twenty counties that does not harbor the 
sacred remains of one or more of those who 
took part in that sanguinary contest. 

In the War of 1812 there were a number of 
enlistments from among the few settlers who 
had already established themselves here on 
the outpost of civilization. It was this war 
to a great extent that opened up the eyes of 
the rest of the Union to the great opportuni- 
ties of the Northwestern Territory, and espe- 
cially of the Ohio country. The soldiers who 
served under Harrison and his subordinate 
commanders were so impressed with the great 
possibilities that awaited the lands bordering 
the Maumee and Sandusky rivers that they 
decided to establish their homes here. Hence 
it is that the first real migration of settlers 
toward Northwest Ohio began in the j'ears 
immediately succeeding the close of the second 
conflict with Great Britain. The records of 
the enlistments are so vague and uncertain 
that it is impossible to give any correct esti- 
mate of the number who enlisted in this war 

from this section, and even of those who 
settled here after that conflict was over. The 
number, however, would probably run into 
the thousands. 

The next sanguinary conflict in which the 
United States became engaged with a foreign 
country was the Mexican War, which lasted 
from 1846-48. The various county histories 
do not give much more light upon this event 
of more recent date than of the previous 
wars. The reason doubtless is that the great 
Civil War, which followed so closely, over- 
shadows it so much in importance. There is 
probably not a county of the twenty subdi- 
visions included in our territory which did not 
furnish recruits for service in Mexico. No 
complete regiments were raised, but the enlist- 
ments were generally scattered throughout the 
various United States regiments in the regular 
services. A body of volunteers was gathered 
together at Upper Sandusky, who called them- 
selves the "Soiith Rangers," and was com- 
manded by Capt. John Caldwell. They 
marched from Upper Sandusky to Cincinnati, 
and were stationed at Camp Washington for 
a time. The company was disbanded, but a 
few of the men joined other companies and 
saw service in our neighboring republic. 

Capt. Edwin B. Bradley, of Sandusky 
County, recruited Company F, First Regi- 
ment, Ohio Infantry. Of the eighty-three 
men enlisted by him. about one-third came 
from his home county and the others from 
adjoining counties. Mr. Bradley was chosen 
captain, John D. Beaiigrand first lieutenant, 
Charles P. Cook second lieutenant, and 




Benjamin F. Keyes, Enos S. Q. Osboru, and 
Henry S. Crumerine sergeants. This com- 
pany was mustered into service at Cincinnati 
in June, 1846, and served under General 
Taylor. It was mustered out of service a year 
later. In the spring of 1847 Samuel Thomp- 
son, of Lower Sandusky, and a veteran of the 
War of 1812, recruited a full company from 
Sandusky County. The men were mustered 
into service as Company C, Fourth Regiment, 
Ohio Infantry. The officers of this company 
were: Samuel Thompson, captain; George 
M. Tillotson, first lieutenant; Isaac Swank, 
orderly sergeant ; Thomas Pinkerton, Michael 
Wegsteiu, James R. Francisco, sergeants; 
John Williams, John M. Crowell, Benjamin 
Myers, and Edward Leppelman, corporals; 
Grant Forgerson and Charles Everett, musi- 
cians. This company proceeded to Mexico and 
saw service under General Scott. It was 
mustered out in July, 1848. Casper Metz, of 
Auglaize County, was a first lieutenant iu 
Company E, Fourth Regiment, Ohio Infantry. 
Company F, of the Third Regiment, was re- 
cruited at Tiffin, and James F. Chapman was 
elected its captain. 

One company was raised in the Maumee 
Valley, which was known as the "new regu- 
lars." It was designated as Company B, 
Fifteenth Regiment, United States Infantry. 
The captain of this company was Daniel 
Chase, of Manhattan. The first lieutenant was 
Mr. Goodloe, and the second lieutenant was 
J. W. Wiley, of Defiance. This company left 
Toledo for the field on the ISth of May, 1847, 
and was escorted to the steamboat by the 
Toledo Guards. Captain Chase was presented 
with a sword by Judge Myron H. Tilden. 
Little is known of the service of this com- 
pany, but what is known is creditable to both 
men and officers. Lieutenant Wiley was 
court martialed and dismissed from the 
service for fighting a duel with a brother 
officer. Lieutenant Goodloe was killed in 
battle, and Captain Wiley returned home 

after the war. The company participated in 
all the battles around the City of Mexico, and 
suffered severe losses. 

The Civil War 

The part taken by Northwest Ohio in the 
Civil War is a most creditable one. Every 
one of the twenty counties was aflame with 
patriotic sentiment. Men in the flower of 
their youth, the full strength of manhood, 
or the ripeness of age, left family, home and 
friends in answer to their country's call. 

Many there were who never returned. 
Their bones rest at Fredericksburg and An- 
tietam, at Gettysburg and Stone River, at 
Vicksburg and the Wilderness, or fill some 
unknown grave that marks the site of a deadly 
prison pen that was more fatal than the field 
of battle. Many a one who said goodbye to 
the departed soldier little dreamed that the 
parting was forever. Although time has 
softened and soothed the first pangs, the grief 
and emptiness is always there and will be until 
they meet in the world beyond where there 
shall be no parting. 

Fort Sumter was fired upon the 12th of 
April, 1861, and two days afterwards Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued his call for 75,000 volun- 
teers. Within a few days political meetings 
were held in practically every section of 
Northwest Ohio, at which patriotic speeches 
were made where the sentiment was expressed 
by both speakers and audience that they would 
stand by the Union, no matter how great 
might be the cost in blood. On the 16th of 
April, 1861, only four days after Fort Sumter 
was fired upon, a large and enthusiastic body 
of men convened at the court house in Marion. 
After the delivery of a number of speeches, 
enthusiasm reached a high pitch. On the fol- 
lowing day a hand bill, stating that an attempt 
would be made to raise a company of volun- 
teers from this county, was. issued. In the 
evening twenty-six men enrolled their names 



for the war. On the following day a rousing 
meeting was held in Bueyrus. Stirring reso- 
lutions were adopted that "The Union Must 
and Shall be Preserved." Volunteers were 
called for and seventeen men signed the mus- 
ter roll. On the 2-l:th, a company, which 
became Company C, 8tli Ohio, departed for 
Cleveland. On the 15th, an assemblage and 

the survivors again re-enlisted, and the regi- 
ment was filled up with new recruits. 

On the 15th of April, only three days after 
the assault upon Fort Sumter, a call was issued 
at Toledo for patriots to gather that evening 
at the Union Depot. This call was signed by 
several score of the prominent citizens of 
Toledo. Speeches were delivered by J. B. 


CoMP.\NY K, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry 
First Company to go to Civil War from Marion County (Taken on public 
square in Clarion ) . 

citizens convened at the court house in Findlay 
and seventy-two men enlisted for service. The 
Fifteenth Ohio Infantry was one of the first 
to respond to the call for three-months service, 
and several of its companies were recruited 
from this section. Its organization was com- 
pleted on the fourth of ilay. At the end of 
its brief service, the men almost unanimously 
resolved to re-enlist. In 186-1 the majority of 

Steedman and H. S. Cummager, both of whom 
later became generals, and by Morrison R. 
Waite, who was afterwards Supreme Jus- 
tice of the United States. Burning resolutions 
were adopted, and the patriotism of those pres- 
ent was thoroughly aroused. Three days 
later the Toledo Blade said: "The work of 
enlistment is progressing here actively, and 
the enthusiasm is more general and deeper 



than at any former time. ' ' The recruited men 
were already being drilled at the Armory, 
then known as Philharmonic Hall. John B. 
Steedman was one of the very first to volun- 
teer his personal services, offering to raise a 
full regiment in ten days ; and he was success- 
ful in his efforts. By April 24th "The North- 
west Ohio Regiment," as it was at first 
designated, was ordered by him to proceed 
on the following morning for rendezvous at 
Cleveland. D. H. Nye was detailed as quarter- 
master. At 7 A. M., the companies were to 
form on Magnolia and Superior streets, as 
follows: 1. Toledo Guards, Captain Kings- 
bury, ninety-seven men; 2. Toledo Company, 
Captain Este, 124 men; 3. Bryan Company, 
Captain Fisher, 115 men; 4. Defiance Com- 
pany, Captain Sprague, 103 men; 5. Stryker 
Company, Captain E. D. Bradley, 123 men; 
6. Napoleon Company, Captain Crawford, 125 
men; 7. Antwerp Company, Captain Snock, 
ninety-seven men ; 8. Wauseon Company, Cap- 
tain Barber, 116 men ; 9. Waterville Company, 
Captain Dodd, 102 men ; 10. Toledo Company, 
Captain Kirk, 114 men; Total, 1,116 men. 
Gen. Chas. "W. Hill acted as adjutant, assis- 
ted by Gen. C. B. Phillips and Lieut. J. W. 
Fuller. The foregoing order was carried out. 
The Blade said of the occasion : ' ' Never has 
our city experienced such a day as the present. 
At early dawn, the people from the country 
began to arrive in immense crowds, and the 
firing of cannon aroused our own citizens 
from their slumbers, and by 9 o'clock there 
must have been 10,000 people on the streets. 
At the railroad depot the scene was truly 
grand. The crowd filled the entire space 
devoted to passenger trains, but after ener- 
getic effort by the police, a passage was made 
and the troops, in sections, marched to the 
ears. The regiment numbered 1,058 men, all 
told, composed mainly of young men. At 8 
a. m. religious services had been conducted 
on the parade ground by Rev. H. B. Wal- 
bridge, of Trinity Episcopal Church. Much 

intment was felt by the "Waynesfield 
Guards, Lieutenant R. B. Mitchell, com- 
manding, that the offer of that Company has 
not been accepted by the President." At 
Cleveland, regimental officers were chosen, 
as follows: colonel, J. B. Steedman; lieuten- 
ant-colonel, Geo. P. Este; major, Paul Ed- 
wards. Geo. W. Kirk succeeded Captain 
Edwards, in command of his company, as did 
Lieutenant van Blessing supersede Captain 
Este. Upon organization at Camp Taylor, 
Cleveland, the Northwestern Regiment became 
the Fourteenth Ohio. It left camp for ilar- 
ietta, via Columbus, on May 22nd, where it 
arrived on the 24th. 

It was not long until the active work of 
recruiting was progressing throughout all of 
this section of the state. Companies were 
being formed in almost every town of any 
size, and several regiments were recruited 
almost wholly from the counties within this 
district. The enlistments at first were for the 
three months service, under the call of Presi- 
dent Lincoln for 75,000 men, but the later 
enlistments M'ere all for the full term of three 
years. At the end of the first year, the number 
of enlistments from the counties of Northwest 
Ohio were as follows : Allen, 776 ; Auglaize, 
565; Crawford, 448; Defiance, 410; Fulton, 
654 ; Hancock, 747 ; Hardin, 694 ; Henry, 526 ! 
Lucas, 1,108; Marion, 579; Mercer, 5-56; Ot- 
tawa, 325 ; Paulding, 254 ; Putnam, 337 ; San- 
dusky, 789; Seneca, 938; Van Wert, 361; 
Williams, 682; Wood, 740; and Wyandot, 

Under Governor Tod the work of raising 
the army regiments was assigned to districts 
in order to popularize it so that neighbors and 
acquaintances would be associated together 
in the same companies. According to the 
arrangements of districts, Mercer County con- 
tributed to the Ninety-fifth Regiment. The 
Ninety-ninth was composed in part of com- 
panies from Mercer, Auglaize, Hardin, Allen, 
Van Wert, Putnam, and Hancock, the only 



outside county being Shelby. This regiment 
had its rendez\'ous at Camp Lima. Seventeen 
hundred men were recruited for it, of whom 
700 were transferred to the One Hundred 
Eighteenth. The One Hundredth Regiment 
was raised entirely within this section, from 
the counties of Paulding, Defiance, Henry, 
Wood, Sandusky, Williams, Fulton, Lucas and 
Ottawa. Its rendezvous was at Camp Toledo. 
The One Hundred First Regiment was formed 
from the counties of Wyandot, Crawford, 
Seneca, Huron, and Erie, and rendezvoused 
at Monroeville. Recruits for the One Hun- 
dred Tenth were raised in Paulding, Defiance, 
Henry, Wood, Sandusky, Williams, Pulton, 
Lucas, and Ottawa, with their assembling 
point at Toledo. A company from Marion 
was added to the One Hundred Twenty- 
first, while Wyandot, Crawford, and Seneca 
each made large contributions to the One 
Hundred Twenty-third. The famous Forty- 
ninth Regiment, of which General Gibson 
was commander, was raised in Seneca and 
adjoining counties. The rendezvous was es- 
tablished at Camp Noble, near Tiffin. Eight 
of its officers were killed in battle, and twenty 
wounded. The same may be said of the 
Seventy-second, raised by General Buekland. 
The Eighty-second Regiment was mustered in- 
to service at Kenton. The Sixty-eighth was 
composed largely of volunteers from Fulton, 
W^illiams, Paulding, and Defiance counties. 
This command rendezvoused at Napoleon, in 
the latter part of 1861. The Fifty-seventh 
Regiment was organized at Findlay, in Sep- 
tember, 1861. In the following year the One 
Hundred and Eleventh Infantry was organ- 
ized at Toledo, and was entirely a Northwest 
Ohio command. It was made up of men from 
Wood, Lucas, Sandusky, Fulton, Williams, 
and Defiance counties. This record is not 
intended to be complete. It is rather given 
herewith to show that our own part of the 
great commonwealth of Ohio did its full share 

in contributing of its best blood for the preser- 
vation of the Union. To give a complete 
record of its service would require far more 
space than can be alloted to the subject, and 
it can not well be disintegrated from the rest 
of the state in the war, because the i-egiments 
were generally composed of companies from 
other sections as well. 

For four long years this drain upon the 
manhood of the country continued. There 
were probably no battles or skirmishes of the 
war in which soldiei's from Northwest Ohio 
had no part, for some of its citizens were en- 
listed in practically all of the more than 200 
Ohio regiments, as well as in some of other 
states or in the regular army. In Sandusky 
County it is said that the total enlistments 
during the entire period of the war numbered 
almost seventy per cent of the eligible male 
population. These men served in more than 
120 difilerent regiments or independent organi- 
zations. The proportion in many of the 
other counties probably was equal to that 
of Sandusky. The whole number enlisted 
from the outbreak of the war to the 1st of 
September, 1862, is as follows : Allen, 1,411 ; 
Auglaize, 1,102; Crawford, 1,161; Fulton, 
931 ; Defiance, 813 ; Hancock, 1,260 ; Hardin, 
1,197 ; Henry, 704 ; Lucas, 2,143 ; Marion, 929 ; 
Mercer, 814; Ottawa, 575; Paulding, 458; 
Putnam, 869 ; Sandusky, 1,403 ; Seneca, 2,001 ; 
Van Wert, 685 ; Williams, 975 ; Wood, 1,487 ; 
and Wyandot, 1,304. 

Northwest Ohio contributed a number of 
notable names to the list of eminent com- 
manders with which Ohio is credited. Of the 
major-generals, our section claims James B. 
MePherson and James B. Steedman. Of 
those brevetted with that rank at the close of 
the war, there are Rutherford B. Hayes, 
Charles W. Hill, and John ^Y. Fuller. Among 
the brigadier-generals, we find Ralph B. Buck- 
land. In addition, the following officers were 
brevetted with that high rank : Henry S. Com- 



inager, William H. Gibson, Isaac M. Kirby, 
John C. Lee, Americus V. Rice, Patrick Slevin, 
and Isaac R. Sherwood. 

James Birdseye McPheeson 

The soldier of highest military rank in the 
Civil War, who emanated from Northwest 
Ohio, was Gen. James Birdseye McPherson, of 
Clyde. Little did the citizens of that village 
who saw a sunny-faced, cheerful, and studious 
boy running about the streets, imagine that 
he was eventually to be one of the real heroes 
of the conflict brought about by slavery. He 
was greatly attached to his family and neigh- 
bors, all of whom admired him. It was in 
battle, however, when every muscle and every 
tissue was in action, that the real heroic quali- 
ties of McPherson shown out at the best. He 
entered West Point at the age of nineteen, and 
graduated in the class which contained Sco- 
field. Still, Tyler, Hood, and afterwards Sheri- 
dan. He has been a-doj^ted as one of our 
national heroes, while his deeds and fame are 
sung not only in this section of the country, 
but throughout every state of the union. No 
name is held in more affectionate remem- 
brance by the people of Ohio than that of 
General McPherson. He died before his full 
capabilities had been realized, and he was the 
only Ohio officer of equal rank who fell dur- 
ing the four years of the Civil War. 

The future general was born at Clyde, on 
the 14th of November, 1828. His youth was 
comparatively uneventful, but he was every- 
where looked upon as upright and trust- 
worthy, and his friends were almost as nu- 
merous as his acquaintances. An appointment 
to West Ppint, at the age of nineteen, opened 
up the door of opportunity. At that institu- 
tion he soon took high rank. "We looked 
upon him," Professor Mahan wrote, "as one 
among the ablest men sent forth from the 
institution, being remarkable for the clearness 

and prompt working of his mental powers. 
His conduct was of an exceptionable char- 
acter. These endowments he carried with him 
in the performance of his duties as an engineer 
oiScer, winning the confidence of his supe- 
riors, as a most reliable man. His brilliant 
after-career in the field surprised no one who 
had known him intimately. ' ' He taught there 
for a year and then became engaged in 
engineering work. At the outbreak of the war 
he never hesitated over his own allegiance, but 
decided to stand by the Union. He was then 
just thirty-two years of age. His first promo- 
tion was to a lieutenant-colonelcy of volunteers 
with General Halleck. He was a member of 
the unfortunate expedition which ended at 
Pittsburg Landing, but no criticism fell upon 
him for that blunder. When Halleck was sum- 
moned to Washington, McPherson was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general of 
volunteers. He was sent by Grant to the aid 
of Rosecrans at Corinth. Because of a success- 
ful attack at Hatchie, he was advanced to the 
rank of major-general. Soon afterwards he 
was assigned to the command of the right wing 
of the Army of the Tennessee, and showed 
real ability in the management of his troops. 
He joined Grant in the advance upon Vieks- 
burg. His services here raised him highly in 
the estimate of his superiors. In the spring 
of 1864 he removed his headquartei"s to Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, and shortly afterwards em- 
barked on his last campaign. He had an 
active part in the Atlantic campaign. While 
riding with an orderly towards a battle that 
had been begun with the enemy, he was 
mortally wounded in an ambuscade, on the 
22d of July. The full account of the death 
of General McPherson was written by General 
Sherman on the day after his death, when the 
sounds of battle still thundered in his ear, and 
when his heart was torn by the loss of a com- 
rade and friend whom he loved. It reads in 
part as follows: 



"Headquarters Military Division of tlie Mis- 
"In the field near Atlanta, Ga., July 23rd, 

"General L. Thomas, 

"Adjutant-general, United States Army. 

"Washington, D. C. 
' ' General : — It is my painful duty to report 
that Brigadier General James B. MePherson, 
United States Army, Major-General of Volun- 
teers and Commander of the Army of the 
Tennessee, was killed about noon yesterday. 
At the time of the fatal shot, he was on horse- 
back, placing his troops in position, near the 
city of Atlanta, and was pa.ssing a cross-road 
from a moving column toward the flank of 
troops that had already been established on 
the line. He had quitted me but a few 
moments before, and was on his way to see in 
person to the execution of my orders. About 
the time of the sad event, the enemy had ral- 
lied from his entrenchments of Atlanta, and 
by a circuit, got to the left and rear of this 
very battle, so that General MePherson fell 
in battle, booted and spurred as the gallant 
and heroic gentleman should wish; not his 
loss alone, but the coimtry's and the army 
will mourn his death and cherish his mem- 
ory as that of one who, though comparatively 
young, had risen by his merit and ability to 
the command of one of the best armies which 
the nation had called into existence, to vin- 
dicate her honor. 

"History tells of but few who so blended 
the grace and gentleness of the friend with 
the dignity, courage, faith and manliness of 
the soldier. * * * 

"I am with respect, 
"W. T. Sherm.^% 
"Major General Commanding." 

On the 22d of July, 1881, in the presence 
of a concourse of 15,000 people, there was 
unveiled in the cemetery at Clyde a monu- 
ment to the most distinguished soldier fur- 

nished by Xortliwest Ohio. This was the 
monument dedicated to Gen. James Birdseye 
MePherson, who was a major-general of 
volunteers and commander of the Army of 
the Tennessee. This monument is an excep- 
tional piece of art, with a pedestal of granite, 
and a figure of bronze nine feet in height, 
which represents the commander in full mili- 
tary uniform with sword, belt, and hat. The 
left hand holds a field glass, while the right 
hand and arm are extended as though pointing 
to where the battle rages fiercest. It occupies 
a knoll in MePherson Cemetery, where the 
hero with his father and mother and two 
brothers lie, and which once formed a portion 
of the homestead of the MePherson family, 
where the general was born. The dedicatory 
oration was delivered by Gen. M. F. Force, 
and formal addresses were delivered by Gen. 
W. E. Strong and Gen. W. T. Sherman. These 
speakers were followed by addresses by 
Generals Gibson, Hazen, Leggett, Belknap, 
and Keifer. General Sherman delivered a 
splendid eulogy upon the deceased hero. 

"You knew," said General Sherman, "his 
genial, hearty nature, his attachment to his 
familj' and neighbors, but you could not see 
the man as I have seen him, in danger, in 
battle, when ever3^ muscle and every tissue 
was in full action, when the heroic qualities 
shown out as a star in the darkest night. ' ' 

James Blair Steedman 

One of the noted commanders of the Civil 
War, in whom we are greatly interested, was 
James Blair Steedman. General Steedman 
was a Pennsylvanian by birth, having been 
born July 29, 1817. At the age of fifteen, he 
became an apprentice in the office of a news- 
paper, and followed that occupation for a 
considerable time. It was such duties that 
brought him first to Northwest Ohio in 1838, 
where he became the publisher of the North- 
western Democrat, at Napoleon. From that 



he drifted into contracting and finally into 
politics. His first public office was as a mem- 
ber of the Ohio Legislature, in 1841. He 
joined the forty-niners in an overland trip 
to California, and was elected a member of 
the board of public works, upon his return. 
It is his military service that keeps his mem- 
ory ever green. He held the office of major- 
general of the Fifth Division, Ohio Militia, 
at the breaking out of the Civil War. Im- 
mediately after the firing upon Fort Sumter, 
he co-operated in raising and organizing the 
Fourteenth Ohio Regiment, of which he was 
the chosen colonel. Within three days after 
his appointment as colonel, he had the regi- 
ment ready for the field, and nine days after 
the firing on Sumter, he took it from Toledo 
to Camp Taylor, near Cleveland, where it was 
drilled and fully organized. He remained 
with that regiment until promoted and made 
a brigadier-general in 1862. He received 
special recognition from General Buell for 
his services in the battle at Perryville, Ken- 
tucky. During the Tullahoma campaign, he 
commanded a division, and was complimented 
by General Thomas. At Winchester he com- 
manded a division. He relieved the officers 
by a timely and successful march on the 
second day of the battle of Chickamauga. In 
this battle General Steedman's conduct was 
the subject of general admiration — the officers 
and soldiers of the army being his warmest 
eulogists. He was shortly after, "for dis- 
tinguished and gallant services on the field," 
made major-general of volunteers. He also 
took an active part in the Atlanta campaign, 
and was assigned as a commander of the 
"District of the Etowah," when General Sher- 
man began his march to the sea. It was his 
duty to protect Sherman's communications. 
When General Sherman started on his 
"March to the Sea," he left General Steed- 
man in command of the "District of the Eto- 
wah," to tear up the railroad, burn the bridges 
south of Dayton, and support General Thomas, 
if Hood attacked Nashville. In the battle of 

Nashville General Steedman commanded the 
left wing of the army, and brought on the 
engagement, attacking the enemy's right and 
carrying his first line of works early in the 
first day's fight. In all his actions he was 
noted for his energy and gallantrj'. and at 
times for signally valuable services. He was 
a bold, energetic fighter, and his voice was 
always for fight. He never belonged to the 
school of delaying generals. His troops had 
unbounded confidence in and admiration for 
him. Personally he was warm-hearted and 
generous, careless as to appearances, and often 
neglectful of his own interests; hearty in his 
ways, with the free-and-easy manners of the 
people among whom he grew up. 

After the close of the Civil War, General 
Steedman was assigned as military commander 
of the State of Georgia, a position which he 
resigned in about a year to accept that of 
internal revenue collector for the New Orleans 
district. Among other offices held by him was 
that of member of the state constitutional con- 
vention, member of the Ohio Senate, and, 
lastly, chief of the Toledo police. He died on 
the 8th of October, 1883. At his death Wil- 
liam J. Finlay, of Toledo, for many years an 
intimate friend of General Steedman, proposed 
to erect a monument to his memory in Toledo, 
at the corner of Summit and St. Clair streets. 
The city council set apart the ground for this 
purpose, and changed its name to Finlay 
Place. The monument is made of Vermont 
marble, and contains appropriate inscriptions 
on the several sides. Surmounting the shaft 
is a bronze statue of the general, somewhat 
larger than life size, and represents him as 
dismounted, with field glass in hand. The 
public ceremonies of unveiling the monument 
took place on the 26th of May, 1887. 

John W. Fuller 

John W. Fuller, a resident of Toledo, be- 
came a brigadier-general of volunteers in the 
Union army. He was born in Cambridge, 


England, in 1826, the son of a Baptist minis- 
ter. He was brought to the United States by 
his father at the age of seven years. Just 
prior to the Civil War, he removed to Toledo 
and engaged in the book trade. He had pre- 
viously taken a lively interest in military mat- 
ters. At the breaking out of the war, he 
promptly enlisted and was appointed a briga- 
dier-general by Governor Dennison, and was 
made chief of staff. His previous experience 
proved invaluable. He served at first in West 
Virginia, where he received high praise from 
his superior officers. Upon their recommenda- 
tion, he was appointed colonel of the Twentj'- 
seventh Ohio Infantry on its organization. 
From a disorganized mass of 2,000 men, he 
quickly worked out an effective regiment, 
which served for the full period of three years. 
He took part in the campaign against the 
Confederate General Price, and also served 
under Gen. John Poke, during which service 
he displayed great bravery. He was assigned 
to the command of the "Ohio Brigade," com- 
posed of the Twenty-seventh, Thirty-seventh, 
Forty-third, and Sixty-third Ohio regiments, 
which he led in the hotly contested battle of 
luka, Mississippi, in 1862. 

General Fuller distinguished himself in the 
battle of Corinth, where he broke through the 
Confederate lines, and was personally thanked 
by General Rosecrans. In the spring of 1864, 
his brigade was assigned to the Army of the 
Tennessee, and Colonel Fuller was promoted 
to the command of a division. He had already 
taken part in the battles of Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Snake Creek Gap, and other en- 
gagements. He captured Decatur, Alabama. 
In an engagement with General Hardy's 
troops. Fuller's division began the historic 
battle of Atlanta. At one time his column 
gave way, when Fuller himself seized the flag 
of the Twenty-seventh and advanced toward 
the enemy, making motions with his saber 
that he wished his lines formed. His example 
was contagious. For his valor and skill on 

this occasion, he received promotion to the 
rank of brigadier-general. His brigade after- 
ward took part in the famous march to the 
sea. Upon being mustered out in 1865, he 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers 
' ' for gallant and meritorious service. ' ' He re- 
turned to Toledo and engaged in business, and 
also served as collector of the port. He died 
on March 12, 1891. 

Charles W. Hill 

General Hill was a Yankee by birth, and 
hailed from Vermont. At an early age he 
came to the Western Reserve. He was born 
on the 7th of July, 1812. Early in 1836 he 
came to Toledo and took a position as clerk 
in a store. Not finding this occupation con- 
genial, he turned his attention to law, and 
began its practice as a member of the firm of 
Tilden and Hill. As a lawyer his position 
was an enviable one, for he was recognized as 
one of the foremost members of the Maumee 
Valley bar. He early showed a tendency for 
military affairs, and became captain of the 
Toledo Guards in 1840. A couple of years 
later, he was appointed brigadier-general of 
the Ohio Militia. At the outbreak of the war 
he was named as a brigadier-general by Gover- 
nor Dennison, and served in West Virginia 
under General McClellan. Here he was as- 
signed a long line to defend with an inade- 
quate force. Because of this fact, and the 
lack of co-operation from the commanding of- 
ficer, some things happened which interfered 
with the advancement of General Hill. Blame 
was placed upon him by General McClellan. 

On the expiration of the term of service of 
the Ohio troops in West Virginia, in 1861, 
General Hill was assigned as commandant at 
Camp Chase, Columbus. Here he assisted in 
the instruction of volunteer officers in matters 
of tactics and general discipline. He also filled 
the ofiBce of adjutant-general of Ohio, under 
Governor Tod. During his service there, no 



less than 310 regiments and battalions of state 
militia were organized. He worked so hard 
that his health was undermined. His services 
continued at Columbus until 1863, when his 
command was sent to Johnson's Island for 
garrison service. He was also given full 
authority over the lake frontier region in that 
neighborhood. He filled this position with 
great credit. His West Virginia record was 
finally cleared up and, in 1865, he received 
the commission of brigadier-general, and was 
brevetted as major general. At the close of 
the war he returned to Toledo, where he re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. His 
most important work in later years was in 
connection with the public schools of Toledo. 

"Impelled by the events of the past week, 
and assured from Washington that a regiment 
will be accepted, if enrolled and tendered, I 
have resolved, to organize The Buckeye 
Guards in northern Ohio. 

"Let us, as patriotic citizens of adjoining 
counties, form a regiment that shall be an 
honor to the state, the exploits of which, in 
defense of constitutional liberty, shall be re- 
counted with pride by ourselves and our chil- 
dren. The command of the heroic Steedman 
was organized in this way, and now at the 
close of three months' service, they return 
crowned with glory, to receive the homage of 
a grateful country. * * * 
"July 25, 1861. W. H. Gibson." 

William Haevey Gibson 

William Harvey Gibson is the best known 
commander whose home was in Northwest 
Ohio. He was born on the 16th of May, 1821, 
in Jefferson County, Ohio. During the same 
year his parents removed to Seneca County, 
where he made his home during his entire life. 
He studied law and was very successful, espe- 
cially as a trial lawyer, for which his wit 
and ready tongue especially fitted him. His 
greatest opportunity in life came when the 
call was issued for volunteers to serve in 
putting down the rebellion. After he had 
received a commission from Governor Denni- 
son to raise a regiment, Mr. Gibson at once 
set to work in securing the enlistment of men. 
On the 25th of July, 1861, he caused to be 
published the following poster: 

"To Arms, To Arms. 
"Rally to Our Flag. Rush to the Field. 

"Are we cowards that we must yield to 
traitors ? Are we worthy sons of heroic sires 1 
Come one, come all. Let us march as our 
forefathers marched, to defend the only 
Democratic Republic on earth. 

This regiment was accepted by the war de- 
partment a few days afterwards, and Mr. 
Gibson was named as colonel. The regiment 
became known as the famous Forty-ninth. At 
the battle of Shiloh, he handled his regiment 
so successfully as to win special praise from 
General Sherman, who complimented him for 
"performing the most difficult but finest 
movement he ever witnessed on a field of bat- 
tle." During the years of the war he com- 
manded his brigade and division the greater 
part of the time, and was repeatedly recog- 
nized by his superiors for promotion, and, at 
his retirement, was filling the position of 
brigadier-general. It is said that it was the 
opposition of one man only at Washington 
that kept him from receiving the stars of 
a major-general. At the close of the war, he 
returned to Tiffin and continued the practice 
of the law. In 1879 he was appointed adju- 
tant-general of the state, which office he filled 
very satisfactorily. 

Immediately after General Gibson's death, 
on November 22, 1894, a movement was begun 
at Tiffin to secure the erection of a monument 
to the memory of the old hero. His reputation 
had become nation wide, for his oratory made 
his services upon the stump in great demand 



from one ocean to the other. At soldiers' 
gatherings he was always welcome, and on 
every other occasion. He was also in his lat- 
ter years a minister of the Methodist Church, 
and frequently preached. The project of a 
monument was fathered principally by the 
William H. Gibson Post, of TifSn. It was not 
an easy matter to collect the amount of money 
necessary to erect a monument that would 
fittingly commemorate such a hero as General 
Gibson, but the post kept at the work energet- 

of President McKinley over the casket of 
Gibson, when the martyred Pi-esident said: 
"General Gibson once said to me, 'I would 
place the flag of my country just beneath the 
cross. That,' he saidj 'is high enough for 
it!' " 

Ralph P. Buckland 

Gen. Ralph P. Buckland was born in 1812, 
and had his home at Fremont. When the call 

ically until success crowned its efforts. The 
admirers of General Gibson all over the coun- 
try were solicited, and the Ohio Legislature 
voted the sum of .$10,000 to be used in the 
erection of this monument. Contributions 
came from almost every section of our coun- 
try, and many G. A. R. posts made liberal 
subscriptions. The monument is a massive 
pile of granite upon graceful lines, stately 
and beautiful in contour. The base is twenty 
feet square, and the entire structure is a little 
over twenty-seven feet in height. There are 
four large bronze tablets, one on each side, 
each of which bears an appropriate inscrip- 
tion. On the pedestal in raised characters 
there appears a quotation from the speech 

for troops was issued in 1861, he was author- 
ized by the governor to raise a regiment to be 
known as the Seventy-second Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. The call was cheerfully responded 
to, and a few months later the regiment was 
sufficiently strong for organization. In Feb- 
ruary, 1862, it left Camp Chase and reported 
to General Sherman, then in Kentucky. 
Several companies were recruited almost 
wholly from Sandusky County, and the others 
from nearby counties. Mr. Buckland was 
named as colonel, and a year later was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general. His 
regiment took part in the battle at Pittsburg 
Landing, and distinguished itself in hand 
fighting. He took part in the Tallahatchee 



expedition, and iu the series of battles before 
Vieksburg. When the rebels were driven into 
their fortification General Buckland walked 
at the head of his command, and led each regi- 
ment to its proper position, while shot and 
shell fell thick about him. One of the color 
bearers having faltered in moving forward 
to his designated position, General Buckland 
took the colors in his own hand and planted 
them on the line which he wished the regiment 
to maintain. During the siege he was always 
active and vigilant, and was at times much ex- 
posed. One day, while he was standing within 
twelve inches of an artillery officer, a ball 
passed between their faces; at another time, 
while he was examining the works in front of 
his command, a minie ball struck the body of 
a tree just above his head, and fell at his feet. 
He picked it up and remarked that he would 
keep that, as it seemed to be intended for him. 
He was in command of the post of Memphis 
for almost a year. At this time he was elected 
to Congress, and resigned from the army. 

Isaac R. Sherwood 

Isaac R. Sherwood was born on the 13th of 
August, 1835. He was educated at Antioch 
College, and at the Ohio Law School in Cleve- 
land. He has had a most distinguished career, 
both in civil and military life. He entered 
the army on the 18th of April, 1861, and 
served as a private for four months in West 
Virginia. He received his earliest commission 
as first lieutenant, in the Eleventh Ohio Vol- 
unteer Infantry, and was then appointed ad- 
jutant, which position he filled during the 
Buell campaign in Kentucky. Early in 1863 
he was promoted from adjutant to major, and 
participated in Morgan's campaign, as well 
as that of East Tennessee. About a year later 
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and fro