(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of Nova Scotia"

HISTORY 



OF 



NOVA SCOTIA 



Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens 

and Genealogical Records of 

the Old Families 



VOLUME III 

ILLUSTRATED 

^ 

3- 



1916 
A. W. BOWEN & CO. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia 



PREFACE 



There is a proverb that "truth is stranger than fiction ;" and truth 
of the nature embraced in this volume has not only the attraction of 
strangeness and novelty, but the main reason for its existence in this 
form and promulgation, lies in the evidence of great pains having 
been taken to go back of ordinary modern expression of judgment 
and opinions, deducted from alleged circumstances, to original sources 
of information, in the way of names, dates, or circumstances; but 
to show on the face of the material, that facts have been substantiated 
to the best degree of accuracy, and nothing accepted on probabilities 
or suppositions. 

Dr. David Allison, author of the first two volumes of this work, 
had no part in the preparation of this volume, the biographical 
sketches having been written by Clyde Edwin Tuck, from data fur- 
nished by the various families represented herein. Every sketch in 
this work was submitted to the party interested, for correction, and 
therefore any error of fact, if there be any, is due to the person for 
whom the sketch was prepared. The publishers desire to extend their 
thanks to the citizens of Nova Scotia for the uniform kindness with 
which they have regarded this undertaking, and for their many 
services rendered in obtaining the necessary information. 

Respectfully, 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



Akins, Charles E 495 

Akins, George S 494 

Akins, Thomas 494 

Akins, Thomas B 495 

Allison, James W 443 

Allison, Joseph 468 

Anderson, the Family 521 

Anderson, William - 521 

Andrew, Rev. George A 688 

Andrew, George J 678 

Andrew, Thomas 678 

Archibald, George P 123 

Archibald, Matthew 123 

Archibald, P. G 545 

Archibald, Samuel G. W - 124 

Armitage, Rev. William J 34 

Armstrong, Christopher 649 

Armstrong, Edward E._, 649 

Armstrong, Ernest H 63 

Armstrong, John N 407 

, Arsenault, Capt. John 

Austen, H. E ^ - 111 

Austen, Joseph - 

Austen, Joseph H 109 

Austen, Sophia A 109 

B 

Bain, James 

Bain, Thomas M 

Baird, Samuel 687 

Baird, Whylie W - 687 

Barnhill, Brunswick B 92 

Barnhill, Dr. Harold B.._. 92 

Bartholomew, Christopher 110 

Bayne, Thomas 447 

Bell, Basil 

Bell, Dr. John 

Bentley, Dr. Robie D 

Benvie, Andrew 177 



Benvie, James 177 

Benvie, Dr. Robert M 177 

Bissett, George E 632 

Blackadar, Charles C 530 

Blackadar, Henry D 529 

Blackadar, Hugh W 529 

Black, Josiah 615 

Black, Dr. Judson B 114 

Black, Rev. William 152 

Black, William W 614 

Blair, William S 674 

Blaikie, John M 558 

Blanchard, Charles P 386 

Blanchard, Jonathan 386 

Blenkhorn, Isaac S 254 

Borden, Rev. Byron C 471 

Borden, Sir Frederick W 168 

Borden, Sir Robert L 150 

Bowes, Edward T 531 

Bowes, F. W 531 

Bowers, Walter D 72 

Bowers, Rev. William 73 

Bradshaw, A. 347 

Bradshaw, C. Patrick 347 

Bremner, James J 527 

Brent, Charles H 102 

Brent, Henry 102 

Brent, Dr. Willoughby 102 

Brookfield, Samuel M 69 

Brown, Dr. George W 503 

Brown, Thomas J 458 

Brown, William L 160 

Bruce, George 256 

Bruce, Henry H 256 

Bruce, Dr. James A. G 256 

Burchell, Charles J 441 

Burchell, James T 294 

Burchell, J. E 

Burke, Rev. Edmund 158 

Burns, Dr. W. F. 

Burnside, James 569 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Calder, Dr. Allister 244 

Calkin, Benamin H 212 

Calkin, Thomas P 212 

Cameron, Alexander 231 

Cameron, Dan 309 

Cameron, Hugh 309 

Cameron, William 231 

Campbell, Alexander 425 

Campbell, Charles A 425 

Campbell, Dr. D. A 119 

Campbell, Rev. John__ 

Campbell, the Family 537 

Campbell, William 537 

Carr, Adam 174 

Carroll, William F 313 

Carter, Rufus S 414 

Carter, William D - 414 

Cavanagh, James H 170 

Cavanagh, John L 170 

Cavanagh, Harry 170 

Chalmers, James 595 

Chalmers, Thomas 

Chambers, Robert 603 

Chambers, S. G 603 

Charman, Dr. Frank D 357 

Chesley, Charles S 653 

Chesley, S. A 58 

Chipman, John P 474 

Chipman, Lewis 588 

Chipman, Rev. William A 475 

Chisholm, Alex. 641 

Chisholm, Christopher P 510 

Chisholm, William - 500 

Chisholm, William C 329 

Christie, John H 418 

Church, Constant 53 

Church, Elisha C 50 

Church, Edward B 52 

Church, Richard 53 

Churchill, Ezra 47 

Chute, Samuel B 627 

Clarke, R. D 445 

Coady, Moses 437 

Coady, Martin 437 

Cochran, Charles 101 

""Cochran, Dr. Wilfrid N 101 

Cock, Dr. James L 381 

Corning, Howard W 147 

Corning, Samuel 147 



Corning, William 147 

Cossmann, Rev. Charles E 72 

Costley, John 277 

Cox, George A 121 

Cox, George A 574 

Cox, James 574 

Creelman, James 539 

Creelman, Robert E 539 

Crowe, Charles E. 400 

Crowe, James 400 

Crowe, Major Walter 285 

Crowell, Frederick A 676 

Crowell, Jonathan 676 

Culton, Dr. Albert 670 

Culton, Anthony 670 

Gumming, Melville 378 

Cunningham, Edward M 697 

Cunningham, J. W 233 

Cunningham, Richard 697 

Currie, Rev. William L 373 

Curry, D. M 

Curry, James J 286 

Cutten, Rev. George B 208 



D 



Daly, Sir Dominick 412 

Daly, Sir Malachy B 412 

Daly, Rev. Monsignor 105 

Daniels, James 666 

Daniels, John 665 

Daniels, John, Jr 667 

Daniels, the Family 665 

Davies, Dr. James W 241 

Davies, Edward 241 

Davis, J. Alder 402 

Davison, Archibald F 146 

Davison, Charles 80 

Davison, Charles H 145 

Davison, Edward 147 

Davison, Francis D 146 

Davison, the Family 144 

DeBlois, Rev. Henry D 478 

DesBrisay, Dr. T. D 607 

DeWitt, Dr. Connell E. A 183 

DeWitt, Dr. George E 215 

DeWolf, Elisha 700 

DeWolf, James E 699 

DeWolf, Joseph A _ 361 

DeWclf, J. E 699 

DeWolf, Rev. Henry T 700 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



DeWolf, Nathan 699 

Dickie, Rufus E 481 

Dickie, Alfred 481 

Dickson, Hugh A 548 

Dimock, Wilbert D 362 

Donahoc, Rev. Alphonsus R 429 

Donahoe, Edward 429 

Donkin, W. Frederick 346 

Douglas, George T 343 

Douglas, John C 306 

.Doull, James F 669 

Doull, John 669 

Drummond, Robert 271 

Drysdale, Arthur 530 

Duchemin, Henry P 289 

Duff, William 644 

Dumaresq, James C. P 452 

Dumaresq, Sydney P 457 

Dunbar, Dr. William R 376 



Eagan, Dr. William J .- 298 

Elliott, Leonard 217 

Elliott. Dr. Malcolm R 217 

Ellis, Dr. James F 696 

Emmerson, Henry R 352 

Etter, Amos B 345 



Fairn, Leslie R 

Falconer, Dr. Robert A.. 

.Parish, Dr. Henry G 

Farrcll, Edward M 



426 

489 

578 

560 

Faulkner, Daniel 663 

Faulkner, Delancey T 662 

Ferguson, Archibald 330 

Ferguson, John A 235 

Ferguson, Malcolm 330 

Fielding, Peter M 85 

Finlayson, Duncan 56 

Finn, Robert E 106 

Fisher, John 584 

Fisher, Ward 584 

Flint, Thomas B 592 

Floyd, D. P 519 

Foley, Rev. William J 473 

Forbes, Capt. A. V. S 566 

Forbes, Francis G 566 

Forbes, Dr. James F 566 



Forbes, John J 243 

Forbes, E. Mackenzie 243 

Ford, Ellis 570 

Ford, Dr. Harley B 570 

Ford, Leander S 403 

Ford, Dr. Theodore R 403 

Forrest, Rev. John 36 

Forrest, Dr. Alexander 36 

Foster, Arthur D 432 

Francklyn, George E 453 

Francklyn, George E. _ 455 

Ffascr, Dr. Benjamin D 469 

Fraser, Sir Charles F 37 

Fraser, Graham 485 

Fraser, John J 417 

Fraser, Thomas 485 

Freeman, D. Wilbur 338 

Freeman, George W 340 

Freeman, Joshua 339 

Freeman, Dr. Nelson P 93 

Freeman, Samuel 339 

Freeman, William <= 339 

Fuller, Dr. Albert J 594 

Fuller, Dr. Edward L 601 

Fuller, Robert C 332 

Fuller, Stephen B 601 

Fullerton, David 247 

Fullerton, Edward A 246 

Fullerton, Varley B 348 

Fulton, Albert D 546 

Fulton, Harlan - 130 

Fulton, James 546 

Fulton, Joseph 546 

Fulton, Dr. Silas A 370 

Fulton, W. H - 130 

Furncss, John E 274 



Gass, Robert 672 

Gayton, Albert 504 

Gayton, Thomas 504 

Geddes, Dr. Thomas O 582 

Gibson, George L 86 

Gibson, Thomas 86 

Gillies, Rev. D. M 209 

Gillies, Joseph A 280 

Gillis, Neil J 230 

Girror, Edward L 326 

Godfrey, William M 522 

Goodwin, Dr. Burton E 611 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Goodwin, Dr. Wendell V. K 356 

Grant, John 248 

Grant, John J 172 

Grant, Joseph 172 

Grant, J. Smith 248 

Grant, Rev. William P 382 

Gray, Dr. Charles 653 

Gray, Daniel 181 

Gray, Frances W 311 

Gray, George 180 

Gray, John A 390 

Grierson, John A 511 

Grierson, William 511 

Griffin, Charles P 554 

Gunn, Alexander D 288 

H 

Haley, George 609 

Haliburton, Thomas C 48 

Hall, Frederick G <5lM 

Hall, George A 115 

Hall, George H 115 

Hall, William 604 

Hamilton, George J 240 

Hamilton, Howard H 240 

Hamilton, John J 240 

Hanna, James 540 

Harlow, Charles 568 

Harlow, John H 568 

Harlow, Robert 568 

Harrington, Augustus 640 

Harrington, Maj. G. S 303 

Harrington, Dr. Meade P 639 

Harris, Dr. David F 396 

Harris, Frederick E 621 

Harris, Frederick W 484 

Harris, Reginald V 461 

Harris, Robert E 269 

Harris, Steven 428 

Harris, Thomas R 622 

Harris, Dr. William C 428 

Harris, William L 428 

Hart, Thomas C 610 

Havey, Bernard 542 

Havey, Dr. Harry B 542 

Hattie, Dr. William H 492 

Hayes, Dr. Joseph 278 

Hearn, David A 253 

Hennessey, John 354 

Hennessey, Vincent 354 

Henry, William A _ 129 



Hewson, Dr. Charles W. U 401 

Higgins, John 462 

Higson, John 419 

Hill, Rev. Allan M 585 

Hill, Daniel 598 

Hill, Harry P 555 

Hill, William D 598 

Hinchey, Patrick 199 

Hinchey, William J 199 

Holmes, Capt. Benjamin 663 

Holmes, William 599 

Hopper, Dr. Anson D 547 

Howe, Hon. Joseph 32 

Hoyt, Charles J 327 

Hubley, George A 96 

Humboldt, Dr. Harvey D 605 

Humboldt, David 605 

Hunt, Rev. Abraham S 698 

I 

Illsley, George H 423 

Inglis, Rev. Charles 169 

Inglis, Sir John E. W 139 

Irving, James A 571 

Irwin, Robert 577 



Jack, Rev. T. Chalmers 320 

Jackson, G. Stonewall 252 

Jackson, James W 252 

Jackson, Robert M 252 

Jeffers, Dr. Edward 349 

Jennison, Christopher , 536 

Jennison, H. V 659 

Jennison, William F 536 

Jones, Alfred G 66 

Jones, Herbert L 507 

Johnson, J. W 368 

Johnston, John 543 

Jphnstone, Dr. Lewis W 287 

Johnstone, James W 117 

Johnstone, Capt. W. M 117 

Johnstone, William M 698 

K 

Kempton, Jacob C 575 

Kempton, Philson 575 

Kennedy, Dr. Evan 667 

Kennedy, Robert H 562 

Kenny, Sir Edward 116 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Kenny, T. E 116 

Kerr, George 142 

Kerr, James O 142 

Kerr, Thomas 143 

Kiely, Rev. William F 318 

King, Edwin D 141 

King, John 141 

Kimbcr, Frederic C 305 

Kinlcy, John J 655 

Kirk, Adam 512 

Kirk, D. Grant 514 

Knight, James A ._ 444 



Lane, Charles W 658 

Langille, William H 499 

Law, Bowman B 113 

Lawrence, Capt. Albert 40 

Lawrence, Frank 41 

Lawrence, Henry, Sr 41 

Lawrence, Henry, Jr 41 

Lee, Capt. Richard 680 

Lessel, William H 528 

Levatte, Henry C. V 198 

Lewis, George E. M 387 

Leydon, Thomas 273 

Ligherstone, Rev. G. P 698 

Llwyd, Rev. John P. D 409 

Logan, Albert F 620 

Logan, Rev. George A 538 

Logan, Hance J 410 

Lockwood, Dr. Terence C 509 

Lucas, Frank E 291 

Lusby, Charles A 342 

Lynch, William T 300 

Lynch, Thomas 300 

Lyon's Brook, History of 218 

M 

Mac Adam, Rev. Donald M 112 

Macadam, Hugh 293 

MacAskill, Murdock D 334 

MacCuish, Dr. Kenneth A 318 

MacDonald, Angus 179 

MacDonald, Dr. Emmanuel O 307 

MacDonald, Joseph 204 

MacDonald, J. Roderick 302 

MacDonald, William 634 

MacDonald, William 227 

MacDougall, Alexander 236 



MacDonald, Rev. Alex. L 520 

Macdonald, Donald D. 266 

Macdonald, John E. 420 

Macdonald, William 421 

Macdonald, Rev. Wm. B 179 

Macdougal, Rev. Donald 613 

MacDougall, Alexander 236 

MacDougall, Roderick 236 

MacEachern, Rev. Angus B 463 

McGillivray, Alex. B 436 

MacGillivray, Angus 523 

MacGrcgor, The Family 392 

MacGregor, George H. 396 

MacGregor, James 654 

MacGrcgor, Rev. James 392 

MacGregor, James C. 395 

MacGrcgor, James D. 393 

MacGregor, Peter A. 395 

MacGregor, Robert 393 

MacGregor, Robert M. 394 

Maclsaac, Allan R. 211 

Maclsaac, Donald 211 

Maclsaac, Roderick 211 

Mackay, Alexander 232 

MacKay, Alexander H. 459 

Mackay, Capt. Daniel 251 

MacKay, Duncan H. 234 

Mackay, George 176 

MacKay, Henry S. 176 

Mackay, John W. 232 

MacKay, Lachlaw 234 

Mackay, Robert H. 1/1 

Mackay, William J. 232 

MacKeen, Hon. David 223 

MacKeen, Edmund T. 249 

Mackenzie, Arthur S. 29 

MacKenzie, Colin 281 

MacKenzie, Donald 442 

MacKenzie, Hector 442 

MacKenzie, James F. 442 

Mackenzie, Dr. K. A. 270 

MacLeod, Dr. William A 388 

MacLennan, Donald 267 

Macmillan, Neil A. 290 

McArthur, Neil R. 308 

McCarthy, Rev. Edward J 272 

McCormick, John 321 

McCulloch, Rev. William 553 

McDonald, Alexander 195 

McDonald, Alexander Y 312 

McDonald, Angus R. 200 

McDonald, John H. .. 675 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



McDonald, Ronald 200 

McDonald, William 312 

McDougall, Horace 380 

McDougall James M. 380 

McEachern, Alexander 192 

McFarlane, Alexandra D. 365 

McGregor, Rev. James 189 

Mclnnis, Angus 301 

Mclnnis, Fred A. 301 

Mclnnis, Michael A. 191 

Mclntosh, John 197 

Mclntosh, Michael 197 

Mclntosh, Rev. D. J 518 

Mclntyre, Archibald A. 284 

McKay, C. Curtis 501 

McKay, David jOl 

McKay, George F. 656 

McKay, Dr. William 642 

McKinnon, James L. 193 

McKinnon, John 194 

McKittrick, Burgess 68 

McLean, Dr. Adam T. 379 

McLean, Dr. Edwin D 374 

McLellan, Samuel D. 359 

McNamara, John 304 

McNamara, William 304 

McXcil, Alexander S. 250 

McNeil, Daniel 328 

McNeil, James R 188 

McNeil, Malcolm 319 

McNeil, Malcolm 188 

McNeil, Neil F. 319 

McPhcrson, Alexander 517 

McPherson, Donald 517 

McVicar, Donald 299 

McVicar, Ronald 299 

Maclellan, Anthony 126 

Maclellan, Dr. Edward K. 136 

Maclean, George W. 389 

Maclellan, James 127 

Maclellan, John 128 

Maclellan, The Family 126 

Maclellan, Robert 186 

Maclellan, Dr. Robert G. 106 

Maclellan, William E. 133 

Mack, Robert T. 98 

Mack, Rev. Robert B. 98 

Mader, Bernard 99 

Mader, Charles U. 99 

Mader, Francis 99 

Manning, Rev. Edward 107 

March, Dr. Henry A. 506 



March, Stephen 506 

Margeson, Maj. Joseph W 399 

Marshall, G. Ross 544 

Marshall, John 683 

Marshall, William E. 683 

Martell, Rev. Anthony 440 

Martell, The Family 438- 

Martell, Rev. G. R. 156 

Martin, Charles S. 228 

Martin, Peter F. 226 

Masters, Charles A. 433 

Masters, Frederick A. 433 

Matheson, Alexander 238 

Matheson, Donald F. 71 

Maxner, Leonard W. 490 

Mcllish, Humphrey 448 

Miller, Dr. Arthur F. 431 

Miller, Dr. A. F. 627 

Miller, Dr. Clarence 257 

Miller, James S. 261 

Miller, Dr. John W. 260 

Millidge, Major Thomas 326 

Milner, Frank L. 344 

Mitchell, Henry 184 

Mitchell, James 184 

Mitchener, Dr. Harry L 103 

Mitchener, Rufus 103 

Moore, Clement P. 292 

More, John S. 561 

Morris, Dr. Clarence H. 122 

Morrison, Capt. A. J. 296 

Morrison, Dr. John C. 196 

Morrison, Dr. Murdock D 187 

Morse, Edward J. 137 

Morse, Samuel E. 137 

Muggah, Goerge D. 297 

Muggah, John 297 

Muggah, Capt. William 297 

Muir, Dr. William S 384 

Murray, Donald 79 

Murray, Daniel W. 79 

Murray, George H. 637 

Murray, Rev. Howard 571 

N 

Neily, Lambert O. 684 

Nelson, Fred 557 

Newcomb, Edward B. 476 

Newcomb, David B. 476 

Newcomb, Capt. John 476 

Nickerson, Smith A. 268 



z'3 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Nicol, Thomas O. G 101 

North, John B. 154 

O 

O'Brien, Edward 65 

O'Brien, Everett A. 84 

O'Brien, George B. 67 

O'Brien, Jacob 84 

O'Brien, Milton 89 

O'Brien, Osmond 85 

O'Brien, Samuel 89 

O'Brien, William 64 

Ogilvie, Warren 493 

Oliv ei John . B. 551 

Olive, William 552 

O'Connor, William F. 450 

O'Mullin, John C. 140 

Ormiston, Frank K. 650 



Payzant, Benjamin D. F 57 

Payzant, Rev. Harry Y. 491 

Payzant, John Y. 30 

Payzant, W. H 261 

Payzant, W. L. 30 

Parsons, Albert 90 

Parsons, Mortimer 87 

Patterson, George G. 55 

Patton, Dr. John W. T 363 

Pelton, Sandford H. 404 

Perrin, Dr. Albert M 591 

Phinney, Norman H. 525 

Pickup, The Family 618 

Pickup, Samuel 618 

Pickup, Samuel W. W 619 

Pineo, H. H. 214 

Pineo, Peter 213 

Pineo, William W. 213 

Policy, Dr. George A. 652 

Powell, Francis C. 43 

Powell, Rev. Thomas W 43 

Power, John J. 222 

Power, Lawrence G. 225 

Priest, John W. 245 

Priest, Noah 245 

Primrose, Clarence 259 

Pirmrose, James 258 

Pullen, Clara C 45 

R 

Ralston, James L. 131 

Randall, Dr. E. Ambrose 372 



Rector, George F. 350 

Reid, Dr. James W. 132 

Renton, Thomas 247 

Rhodes, Edgar N. 331 

Roberts, Arthur 82 

Robertson, Robert 325 

Robertson, Robert B. H. 54 

Rockwell, Charles F. 434 

Rockwell, Dr. Joseph S 430 

Rockwell, Judah B. 434 

Rogers, Benjamin D. 616 

Rogers, James W. 631 

Rogers, T. Sherman 449 

Roper, John S. 138 

Roscoe, Wentworth E. 677 

Ross, Alexander D. 333 

Ross, Alexander P. 229 

Ross, Donald 630 

Ross, John U. 229 

Ross, Rev. Malcolm 630 

Ross, Walter G. 629 

Roy, James 422 

Russell, Benjamin 456 

Russell, Bernard W. _ ._ 451 



Salter, Joseph, Sr. 314 

Sanatorium, The Provincial 625 

Sangster, John 60 

Sangster, James M. 61 

Sangster, William 60 

Sedgwick, Rev. Robert 161 

Sexton, Frederic H. 275 

Shannon, Nathaniel 683 

Slackford, John H. 371 

Simmonds, James 526 

Shaw, George E. B. 51 

Shaw, Judson D. 496 

Shaw, Peter 51 

Shaw, William 51 

Sharp, Thomas 62 

Sharp, William 62 

Smith, Charles R. 336 

Smith, Frank 369 

Smith, Dr. Herbert A. T 556 

Simth, James 671 

Smith, John 369 

Smith, John A. 155 

Smith, Rev. John S. 573 

Smith, Dr. Jordan W 563 

Smith, Dr. Mantague A. B 572 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



351 
120 

120 



Smith, Wiley - ^ 

Soloan, David M. 375 

Spence, James C. - ^ 

Spence, Nathaniel D. 

Spicer, Percy L 

Stairs, William 

Stairs, William J. - 

Steele, Rev. David A 341 

Sterling, William ?8 

Stevens, George 53- 

Stevens, Thomas - ^3 

Stevens, Robert J. - 53Z 

Stewart, Angus - 322 

Stewart, Dr. Dugald . 
Stewart, James H. -. 

Stewart, John D. G. 391 

Stewart, John S. _. 

Stewart, Robert T 383 

Stewart, Hugh 

Stuart, George W. .. 

Struthcrs, Dr. John 97 

Struthers, Robert G. - 
Sullivan, Dr. M. T.-- 
Suthcrland, Colin G. - 
Sutherland, Hector T. _ 
Sutherland, John . 
Sutherland, Dr. Robert H 



Taylor, Sydney H. ... - 623 

Tanner, Charles E. - 265 

Tanner, Richard - 695 

Tanner, William F. - 694 

Thompson, Rev. Alex. M.__ . 
Thompson, Alexander C. -. 

Townshend, Sir Charles J .- 415 

.Townsend, Thomas 202 

Townsend, Zachariah W. 202 

Trask, Elias - 691 

Trask, J. Logan 689 

Trask, Leslie M. 693 

Trask, Capt. William ... .- 689 

Tretheney, John 606 

Tretheney, Dr. William A 606 

Trites, Dr. Charles B 573 

Trotter, Cuthbert S. 175 

Trotter, Wallace C 175 

Tupper, Sir Charles 25 

V 

Vroom, Rev. Fenwick W 44 

Vernon, Gilbert H. 366 



W 

Walker, Dr. Smith L. 
Wallace, John - 

Wallace. Rev. Martin J 

Wallace, William B. 149 

Ward, James P. - 
Watson, Dr. David T. C.__. 
Watson, Henry ,__- 
Watson, Thomas W. -. 
Weeks, Dr. Charles M. _ 
Weeks, Dr. Samuel M. _ 

Weeks, Dr. Samuel 

Webster, Barclay . 
Webster, Beverly L. _ 
Webster, Dr. Charles A. .. 

Webster, Dr. Conrad O. H 238 

Webster, Henry B. ... 206 

Webster, Dr. Isaac 
Webster, Dr. Isaac __- 

Webster, Dr. John L. R 

Whitman, Alfred . 612 

Whitman, Edward C. - 

Whitman, Francis C. 

Whitman, Rev. George W. 

Whitman, William S. 

Wickwire, Harry H. 

Wickwire, J. L. __. 

Wilson, Dr. A. A. C. 

Wilson, James H. 

Wiswell, Enoch 

Wiswell, Henry 

Wiswell, William H. _. 

Worrell, Rev. Clarendon L 

Worrell, Clarendon F. 

Woodbury, Dr. Frank 

Woodworth, John E. - 

Wright, Charles F. ... 565 

Wright, Rupert C. 88 



Young, Charles E. 46 

Yorston, Frederic 263 

Yorston, James 262 

Yorston, John 265 



Zwicker, Arthur H. 646 

Zwicker, E. Fenwick 647 

Zwicker, Peter 647 

Zwicker, W. Norman 647 







SIR CHARLES TUPPER. 






BIOGRAPHICAL 



RT. HON. SIR CHARLES TUPPER. 

Human life is like the waves of the sea; they flash a few brief 
moments in the sunlight, marvels of power and beauty, and then are 
dashed upon the remorseless shores of death and disappear forever. 
As the mighty deep has rolled for ages past and chanted its sublime 
requiem, and will continue to roll during the coming ages, until time 
shall be no more, so will the waves of human life follow each other 
in countless succession until they mingle at last with the billows of 
eternity's boundless sea. The passing of any human life, however 
humble and unknown, is sure to give rise to a pang of anguish to 
some heart, but when the "fell destroyer" knocks at the door of the 
useful, and removes from earthly scenes the man of influence and 
the benefactor of his kind, it not only means bereavement to kindred 
and friends but a public calamity as well. In the largest and best 
sense of the term, the late Sir Charles Tupper was distinctively one 
of the noted men of his day and generation in Nova Scotia, and as 
such his life record is entitled to a conspicuous place in her annals. 
His career goes back to the great days of Howe in this Province; 
his name is written across the whole story of confederated Canada. 

He was born at Amherst, Nova Scotia, July 2, 1821, and his 
death occurred in England, where he had made his home for a num- 
ber of years, on October 30, 1915. His remains were brought to 
Halifax for interment, and his funeral, which was held on Novem- 
ber 1 6th, was one of the most notable ever held in Canada. He was 
a son of Rev. Charles T. Tupper, D. D., a noted Baptist minister 
of the early days. He was born at Aylesford, this Province, and his 
first wife, Miriam Lockhart (Low) Tupper, was a native of Parrs- 
boro, Nova Scotia. This branch of the family is descended from 
Thomas Tupper, who immigrated to America in 1635, landing at 
Saugus, Massachusetts, (the site of the present city of Lynn), and 
two years later removed with others to Sandwich, in the same state, 
of which town they were the incorporators. 

Sir Charles Tupper was educated in Horton Academy and Edin- 



2 6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

burgh University, receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 
1843, from the latter, and the honorary degree of Doctor of Com- 
mon Laws from the former in 1882; he was also a Doctor of Laws 
from Cambridge, Edinburg and Queen's Universities. He was admit- 
ted a member of the Royal College of Surgeons at Edinburgh in 
1843. Returning to Nova Scotia he commenced the practice of his 
profession in his native county and speedily secured an extensive 
business. He entered public life at the general election in 1855, 
being then returned to the Nova Scotia Assembly as a member for 
Cumberland County. The unsuccessful candidate was no less a 
person than Joseph Howe, then leader of the Liberal party in this 
Province and afterwards lieutenant-governor. In entering Parlia- 
ment the new member drew up and was allowed by his seniors to 
adopt a new, a more progressive and liberal policy. It is also 
recorded of him, that, like Disraeli, he educated his party. He 
brought them round to take a more comprehensive view of affairs, 
attracted to himself the more moderate men of the opposite side and 
with so much effect that, in the following year, the reconstructed 
party came into power, and "the young doctor" as he was called, 
became provincial secretary; from that time until the confederation 
of the Provinces, 1867, he was, perhaps the most prominent figure 
in local politics, having succeeded to the Premiership in 1864. In 
the accomplishment of confederation, and the establishment of the 
Dominion of Canada he bore a conspicuous part, attending the Char- 
lottetown and Quebec conferences in 1864, and afterwards going to 
England, where the question was settled at the Westminster Palace 
Hotel conference. For his services in this regard he was created a 
Companion of the Bath, and, on the formation of the first govern- 
ment in and for the Dominion of Canada, he was invited to take 
office therein, but waived his claim in favor of Sir Edward Kenny, 
to meet obstacles arising in other Provinces of the Dominion. He 
was sworn of the Privy Council, June 21, 1870, taking the office 
of the president of the Council. He was transferred to the Depart- 
ment of Internal Revenue, July 2, 1872. He became Minister of Cus- 
toms, February 22, 1873, and was still holding that office when the 
Macdonald administration resigned over the "Pacific scandal" in 
the autumn of that year. During the five years that the Conservative 
party was in opposition, he was Sir John Macdonald's principal 
organizer and adviser, and to no one was the Conservative party 
more indebted than to him for its return to power in 1878. While 



. HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 2"J 

in the opposition he elaborated and brought before Parliament the 
scheme of moderate protection for home industries, known as the 
"National Policy," which was subsequently adopted and put into 
force by the new administration. In that government he became 
Minister of Public Works. Afterwards he created the Department 
of Railways and Canals, and was its first minister. As such he 
carried out the policy of the government in reference to the enlarge- 
ment of the Welland Canal, the deepening of the St. Lawrence chan- 
nl, the improvement of the Intercolonial Railway, securing a surplus 
over the running, from 1880 to 1884, inclusive, and the construc- 
tion by a private company of the Canadian Pacific Railway. He 
retired from the ministry in May, 1884, and was from that period 
up to 1887, and again afterwards the representative of the Dominion 
in London, as High Commissioner for Canada. In the early part of 
the last named year, as the general elections approached, he was invited 
by Sir John Macdonald to return to Canada. He again entered the 
government and was Minister of Finance therein up to May, 1888, 
when he resigned that office and resumed duty in London as High 
Commissioner. 

In January, 1896, he entered the Bowell administration as Sec- 
retary of State and leader of the House of Commons, and on the 
retirement of Sir M. Bowell, four months afterwards, succeeded him 
as Prime Minister of Canada. The policy of his government as 
outlined in an address issued to the electors of Canada included pro- 
tection to Canadian industries, preferential trade with Great Britain, 
the strengthening of the national defenses, the promotion of a fast 
Atlantic steamship service, the admission of Newfoundland, and 
the encouragement of a large and desirable immigration. After the 
defeat of his party at the polls, June 23, 1896, he resigned office, 
and at the meeting of the new Parliament in August was elected 
leader of the opposition, a position he filled until his retirement 
from public life after the general election in 1900, when he was 
defeated at the polls. He was for some years president of the 
Liberal-Conservative Union of Ontario. He was created a Knight 
Commander of St. Michael and St. George in 1879, and Knight 
Guard Cross of St. Michael and St. George in 1886, a Baronet of 
the United Kingdom in 1888, and an Imperial Privy Councillor in 
1908. He was a fellow of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. 
He was for some time Surgeon-General of Nova Scotia, surgeon- 
major of the First Brigade of Halifax Artillery, and became presi- 



28 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

dent, on its organization, of the Canadian Medical Association, a 
position he continued to hold for several years. He was a member 
of the executive council of the Imperial Federal League, under 
Lord Rosebery, later becoming a member of the council of the Brit- 
ish Empire League. He served as Executive Commissioner for 
Canada at the International Exposition at Antwerp in 1885, and at 
the Colonial and Independent Exposition in London in 1886, being 
also a royal Commissioner at the last named exposition. In 1887 
he was appointed one of His Majesty's Plenipotentiaries to the 
Fisheries conference at Washington, which resulted in the signing 
of a treaty for the settlement of the matter in dispute between 
Canada and the United States in connection with the Atlantic fish- 
eries. In 1888 he was appointed a member of the Royal Commission 
for the purpose of carrying out a scheme for the colonization in 
Canada of crofters and cotters from the Highlands of Scotland. 
He was also appointed a Royal Commissioner for the organization 
of the Imperial Institute, and was a governor thereof. He repre- 
sented Canada at the Intercolonial conference at Paris for the pro- 
tection of submarine cables in 1883, at the Intercolonial conference 
in Brussels, relating to customs, at the International Postal Union, 
in Vienna in 1891, and at the International Railway conference in 
London in 1895. In 1893 he was appointed a Plenipotetiary jointly 
with the late Lord Dufferin, and negotiated the Franco-Canadian 
Treaty with M. Hanotaux, the late Foreign Minister Of France. 

Commencing in 1858, Sir Charles Tupper was repeatedly pre- 
sented to Queen Victoria, and was also repeatedly presented to King 
Edward and his Royal Consort, both before and after their accession 
to the throne. He was present by invitation in Westminister 
Abbey, at their coronation. He was also present, by invitation, at 
the coronation of King George and Queen Mary, in June, 1911. 
He was received in private audience by His Holiness the Pope, 
April 13, 1905, "who praised him warmly and gave him his special 
blessing." He was one of the original members of the Halifax 
Club, one of the original board of governors of Dalhousie College 
in 1863; a vice-president of the Canadian Patriotic Fund in 1900; 
a vice-president of the United Empire Club, London, England; an 
honorary life member of the Canadian Club of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, and was the first president of the Crown Life Insurance 
Company of Toronto in 1901. His bust was executed by Bain 
Smith, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1892. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 29 

Among the public measures placed upon the statute books by 
him during his lengthened public career have been the following: 
In Nova Scotia the jury law, the Education Act providing free 
schools, the Equity Judge Act, the Windsor and Annapolis Railway 
Act, -the representation Act, the Executive and Legislative Disabil- 
ity Act, and an Act reducing the number of Parliamentary repre- 
sentatives; in the Dominion, the Weights and Measures Act, the 
Act prohibiting the sale or manufacture of liquors in the Northwest 
Territory, the Consolidated Railway Act in 1879, the Act granting 
a charter to the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881, and a great 
number of others. He was a frequent contributor to periodical 
literature. He also wrote several political pamphlets of note. He 
celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his marriage in Ottawa, Octo- 
ber' 8, 1896. He was opposed to the Taft-Fielding reciprocity com- 
pact in 1911. He was ah adept at golf, was a Forester, and an 
Anglican. He belonged to a number of clubs. All in all he was 
one of the most remarkable, useful and honored men Canada has 
ever produced. 

ARTHUR STANLEY MACKENZIE. 

Arthur Stanley Mackenzie, president of Dalhousie University, was 
born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, September 26, 1865, and is a son of the 
late George A. Mackenzie, for many years a leader of the bar at that 
place. There young Mackenzie grew to manhood and received his 
early education in the public schools, later entered Dalhousie Univer- 
sity, Halifax, from which he was graduated with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, with George Munro bursary and fellowship, Sir 
William Young gold medal and honors in mathematics and physics, 
in 1885. He then entered Johns Hopkins University, from which 
institution he was graduated in 1894 with the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy, with a scholarship in physics and a fellowship in physics. 

In 1895 he married Mary Lewis Taylor, a daughter of Franklin 
Taylor of Indianapolis, Indiana. Her death occurred in 1896. He 
became assistant master of the Yarmouth Seminary in 1885, where 
he remained until 1887, then came to Halifax and became George 
Monro tutor in Dalhousie College until 1879, then went to Pennsyl- 
vania and lectured in physics at Bryn Mawyr College until 1891, and 
was associate in physics there in 1892, and in 1894 was made associate 
professor in physics in that institution, and was professor of physics 
there from 1897 to 1905. He then returned to Halifax and became 



30 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Monro professor of physics in Dalhousie University, which position 
he retained from 1905 to 1910, then for a year was professor of 
physics in the Stevens Institute of Technology. He was elected presi- 
dent of Dalhousie University in 1911, the duties of which responsible 
position he has continued to discharge to the present time, keeping 
the institution up to the high standard it held in the past and introdu- 
cing a number of modern and improved methods in various depart- 
ments. 

He is a member of the American Physical Society, the American 
Philisophical Society, and the Nova Scotia Institute of Science. He 
has been Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada since 1908. He is 
regarded as one of the foremost scientists in the realm of physics in 
North America, and is the author of papers published in the Physical 
Review, Journal of the Franklin Institute, and Proceedings of the 
American Philisophical Society; also a work entitled, "The Laws of 
Gravitation." 

JOHN Y. PAYZANT. 

A succesful and well known member of the Halifax bar is John Y. 
Payzant, a man who has been very largely the architect of his own 
fortunes, and has been loyal in all the relations of life. 

Air. Payzant was born at Falmouth, Nova Scotia, February 9, 
1837. He received his education in the public schools and Acadia 
University, from which he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts 
in 1860, and Master of Arts in 1863. He was admitted to the bar in 
1864, and thus for a period of half a century or more he has been 
engaged successfully in the practice of law and has long stood in the 
front ranks at the Halifax bar. He was made a King's counsellor 
in 1890 (Earl of Derby). He has long been head of the firm of J. Y. 
Payzant & Son, and, having remained a student, has kept well abreast 
of the times in all that pertains to his profession. He is not only well 
grounded in the fundamental principles of the law but is an excellent 
pleader before the court or jury. His son, William L. Payzant, who 
is associated with him, with offices at 95 Hollis street, is one of the 
most successful younger members of the local bar. 

John Y. Payzant was married in August, 1868, to Frances E. 
Silver, a daughter of W. C. Silver, of Halifax. 

Mr. Payzant has long taken an active interest in public affairs, 
and has been mayor and recorder of Dartmouth. He is vice-president 
of the Eastern Trust Company, and president of the Bank of Nova 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 3! 

Scotia. He is one of the trustees of the Halifax Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. Politically, he is a Conservative, and in religious 
matters, an Anglican. 

Although a lawyer of much ability it is as a business man that 
Mr. Payzant is best known and where his talents find best expression. 

WILEY SMITH. 

The late Wiley Smith, of Halifax, was born at Falmouth, Hants 
County, Nova Scotia, January i, 1834. His father was a farmer, 
farming on an extensive scale in Hants County. His mother, before 
her marriage, was Maria H. Irish. 

Mr. Smith received his early education in the common schools in 
Falmouth, and later took a course at Horton Academy, Wolfville, 
Kings County. In 1860, in partnership with his brother, Allison 
Smith, they established a grocery business in Halifax under the firm 
name of A. & W. Smith, which has gradually expanded, and is one 
of the most extensive wholesale houses as well as one of the oldest 
in the eastern Provinces. The business is still being carried on at 
the same spot where it originally started, with many additions in 
warehouse space around the first plant to accommodate the require- 
ments of the increasing mercantile trade. Shortly after the inception 
of the business in Halifax the firm of A. & W. Smith became inter- 
ested in the ship building industry, which was prosperous at that time 
and for some years after. During the years of prosperity of wooden 
sailing ships, the firm of A. & W. Smith was managing owners of a 
dozen or more ships and barques of large size then being built, which 
they kept in foreign trade, and the firm as managing owners was 
well known in all parts of the world where wooden sailing ships were 
employed in the carrying trade, which business was carried on by 
the firm until wooden sailing ships became unprofitable. The firm 
of A. & W. Smith & Company, for many years consisted of Wiley 
Smith, L. M. Smith, and S. O. Hogg. The senior partner, Allison 
Smith, died in 1889. Besides his duties as president of the Acadia 
Sugar Refining Company and as director of the Royal Bank of Can- 
ada, Wiley Smith was also a director of the Eastern Trust Company. 
He was a member of the Halifax Club and studley Quoit Club, of 
Halifax. 

Wiley Smith died in February, 1916, after a brief illness at the 
age of eighty-two years. 



32 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

HON. JOSEPH HOWE. 

Nova Scotia never has, and perhaps, never will, produce a greater 
man than Joseph Howe. He was a born leader of men, and was the 
possessor of all the characteristics that go to make up the symmetric- 
ally well developed and sterling- character that caused him to attain 
eminent heights as a statesman, orator, journalist, author and citizen. 

Mr. Howe was born on Northwest Arm, in what is now the south- 
western outskirts of Halifax, in December, 1804. His father was 
John Howe, a United Empire Loyalist, who was at one time a 
printer in Boston, but who subsequently became a writer for the news- 
papers. Young Howe went to school in an irregular fashion in 
Halifax, and picked up the rudiments of a rough and ready educa- 
tion. He was of a rugged frame, had an exhuberance of animal 
spirits, and was fond of the outdoors. He undoubtedly possessed 
the poetic temperament, however his poetry did not bring him fame. 
In 1817 he began to learn the printing business at the Gazette office, 
Halifax. This paper was owned by his younger brother, John Howe. 
He served out his full apprenticeship, and then engaged himself in 
journeyman printing work. While learning his trade young Howe 
is said to have read voraciously every book that he could lay his 
hands on. He also published in the Gazette a lot of verses, which, 
however, did not win him much of a reputation as a poet. "One 
evening," says a Canadian writer, "while taking a solitary swim in 
the Arm, he was seized with cramps and felt himself sinking. He 
cast an agonized look round, and caught sight of the dearly loved 
cottage on the hillside, where his mother was just placing a lighted 
candle in the window-sill. The thought of the grief which would 
overshadow that woman's heart on the morrow inspired him with the 
strength to give a last despairing kick. The kick dispelled the cramp 
and hastily swimming ashore, he sank down exhausted, but thankful 
for his deliverance. It was long before he could summon courage to 
acquaint his parents with the circumstance." 

Joseph Howe began a newspaper business on his own account in 
1827, becoming part proprietor of the Weekly Chronicle, the name 
of which was later changed to that of the Acadian. However, he 
soon sold out the latter, and purchased the Nova Scotian. In this 
newspaper he wrote with great earnestness, eloquence and force. 
His style was pregnant, trenchant and sometimes overwhelming. 
His celebrated Legislative Review began to appear in 1830, and at- 
tracted wide notice. In 1835 he published an article which the 




HON. JOSEPH HOWE. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 33 

oligarchists could not tolerate, and he was indicted for libel. He 
consulted various lawyers. "There can be no successful defense 
made for you," they all said, and some invited him to make an humble 
apology, and throw himself upon the mercy of his prosecutors. He 
borrowed a lot of law books, read all he could find on libel, and con- 
vinced himself that the learned men of the law were wrong. He 
pleaded his own case, and his heart became comforted as he saw 
among the jurors an old man with tears streaming from his eyes. 
The jury returned in ten minutes with a verdict of "not guilty," and 
the lawyers who had said, "he who pleads his own case has a fool 
for a client," were in a way dumbfounded. From this day forward 
he was a noted man. 

In 1836 Mr. Howe was elected to Parliament for the County of 
Halifax. Two years later he traveled through Europe with Judge 
Thomas C. Haliburton, the author. Mr. Howe returned in 1838, 
and plunged into public work again. Sir Colin Campbell, who was 
then governor, could not understand what "the common people meant 
by talking about their 'rights,' " and with him, it need not be said, 
Mr. Howe was at issue. On petition of the Province. Governor 
Campbell was recalled, and was succeeded by Lord Falkland, a son of 
William IV, by Mrs. Jordan. After a time, it seems, Falkland be- 
came a cat's-paw in the hands of the Tories and provoked fierce 
hostilities from the Liberals, at the head of whom was Joseph Howe. 
In 1848 the day of triumph came for the Liberals. Mr. Mackie was 
called upon to form a new government and Mr. Howe became prov- 
incial secretary. In 1851 he retired from the representation of Hali- 
fax and in 1863 he became premier in the place of Mr. Young, who 
was elevated to the bench. Since the entry into public life of Dr. 
Charles Tupper, in 1855, there had been a steady, often a furious, 
hostility between himself and Mr. Howe. The strife was greater 
between them on the question of union, to which Mr. Howe was 
opposed. But Dr. Tupper prevailed, not that he was a greater man 
than Mr. Howe, but because luck was on his side there being a gen- 
eral movement in the direction of union, and the imperial government 
desired the measure. When confederation was accomplished the now 
almost broken down veteran was made to see, by Sir J. A. Macdonald, 
that he could be loyal to his Province by accepting the inevitable 
and making the best of the order of things. Hence Mr. Howe 
entered the Dominion cabinet in 1869 as president of the Council. 



34 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Ten months later he became secretary of state for the Provinces and 
superintendent-general of Indian affairs. His health was now all 
the while growing feebler, and his mental retrogression seemed to 
keep pace with his physical. In 1873 he was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Nova Scotia, but he died a few weeks afterwards. 

As an orator, Joseph Howe was the greatest man that the Prov- 
inces which compose Canada has ever produced. 

He married in 1828, Catherine Susan Ann McNab, a daughter 
of Capt. John McNab, of the Nova Scotia Fencibles. 

THE VENERABLE WILLIAM JAMES ARMITAGE. 

In every life of honor and usefulness there is no dearth of incident 
and yet in summing up the career of any man the biographer needs 
touch only those salient points which give the keynote to his character. 
Thus in setting forth the life record of The Venerable William James 
Armitage, rector of St. Paul's Church, Halifax, sufficient will be 
said to show what all who know him will freely acquiesce in that he 
is one of the representative men of Nova Scotia, and one of our most 
prominent and useful citizens. Such a life as his is an inspiration to 
others who are less courageous and more prone to give up the fight 
when obstacles thwart their way, or their ideals have been attained 
or definite success achieved in any field of endeavor. 

Rev. Dr. Armitage, who has for a number of years faithfully 
discharged the duties of Archdeacon of Halifax and is universally 
recognized as one of the foremost Anglican churchmen of the present 
day in Canada, is of Anglo-Irish origin, the descendant of an ancient 
Norman family that came to England with William the Conqueror. He 
is a son of the late William Bond Head Armitage and Jane (Adams) 
Armitage, and his birth occurred at Bryanston, Ontario, February 6, 
1860. He was educated in private schools and Toronto University. 
He studied divinity at Wycliffe College, Toronto, from which institu- 
tion he was graduated with honors, and he received the degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts from Dalhousie University, Halifax, in 1901 ; also the de- 
gree of Doctor of Philosophy from the University of New Brunswick 
in 1905. He was ordained deacon in 1884, priest in 1885. He was 
curate of St. James' Church, Orilla, durng 1884 and 1885 ; rector of St. 
Thomas's Church, St. Catharine's, Ontario, from 1886 to 1897, was 
rural dean of Lincoln and Welland, from 1892 to 1895; rector of St. 
Paul's parish, Halifax, in 1897 and here he remains. He was rural 
dean of Halifax from 1900 to 1905, was made Archdeacon of Halifax 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 35 

in 1906, and canon of All Saints Cathedral there in 1907. In addition 
to other important positions he has served as master in divinity 
Bishop Ridley College; special lecturer at Wycliffe College; lecturer 
on pastoral theology in King's University, Windsor; acting chaplain 
of the Queen's Own Rifles, at Niagara Camp on several occasions. 
He is honorary chaplain of the Sixty-sixth Regiment, Princess 
Louise Fusiliers, Halifax, being promoted to the rank of major in 
1909 and to that of lieutenant-colonel in 1913. He was acting chaplain 
to the members of the Church of England in the Canadian contingent 
to South Africa durng the Boer war, while encamped at Halifax. He 
is a councillor of Wycliffe College, one of the founders of Ridley 
College, St. Catharine, and of Havergal Ladies' College, Toronto, a 
member of the Provincial and General Synods of Canada, chairman 
of the Halifax branch of the Lord's Day Alliance, chairman of the 
Colonial and Continental Church Society, and he was elected presi- 
dent of the Nova Scotia Historical Society in 1911. He was a candi- 
date for the vacant bishopric of Niagara in 1896, receiving a majority 
of lay votes in the first three ballots; also for vacant bishopric of 
Nova Scotia in 1904, when he received the majority of lay votes in 
seven ballots. He was nominated for the vacancy in the bishopric of 
the Diocese of Fredericton in 1916, and in the Diocese of Howie 
in 1905. He was an official delegate to the Pan- Anglican Congress 
in 1908 and to the bi-centennial Anglican church celebration in Hali- 
fax, 1910. He is secretary of joint committee of both houses, on 
the Adaptation, Enrichment and Revision of the Book of Common 
Prayer, of the General Synod of the Church of England in Canada,, 
and custodian of the Canadian Book of Common Prayer. 

Our subject is not only known as a pulpit orator of unusual abil- 
ity, force and earnestness, but also as an author of pronounced literary 
skill. He has been a frequent contributor to religious publications and 
is author of "The Fruit of the Spirit," "The Cities of Refuge," "The 
Church Year" (copies of which were graciously accepted by Queen 
Mary), and "The Soldiers of the King," a copy of which was accepted 
by King George the Fifth, and of a number of articles advocating a 
broader church union of Canada, in 1906. 

Archdeacon Armitage was married in June, 1886, to Elinor Maria 
Ramsay, elder daughter of the late Robert Ramsay, M. D., of Orilla, 
Ontario. She is a woman of culture and has long been prominent in 
the circles in which she moves. She is vice-president of the Local 
Council of Women. 



36 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

The Archdeacon is a man of profound education and high intellec- 
tual attainments, intensely patriotic, one whose earnestness, industry 
and ability are known to everyone in Nova Scotia. 

REV. JOHN FORREST, D. D. 

The name of Rev. John Forrest recalls the history of Nova 
Scotia's foremost institution of learning during a period of thirty 
years, during which lie was connected with Dalhousie University, most 
of the time as president. The successful development of the same 
during the past generation was due largely to his untiring efforts and 
capable administration. A man of enlightened views, he has been 
eminently practical while liberal in his consideration of the various 
propositions which have entered into the scheme of modern education. 
His pupils are filling positions of honor and trust in all the walks of 
life in this Province and elsewhere. Some who have been prepared 
in this great school for prosecution of their studies in higher institu- 
tions of learning in a manner which has reflected credit upon all 
concerned, while the great majority whose period of tutelage ended 
with the completion of courses in the common branches have found 
themselves well equipped on entering the University of Life to con- 
tinue their progress in a manner which has given an insight into 
its lessons enabling them to reach attainments in which they are not 
far behind the graduates of many colleges. 

Doctor Forrest was born in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, November 
25, 1842; he is of Scottish descent, and a son of the late Alexander 
Forrest, M. D., for many years a prominent physician of New Glas- 
gow and Halifax. 

Our subject was educated in the Presbyterian College at Truro 
and Halifax, graduating from the latter institution in 1865. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Queen's University 
in 1863, and the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law in 1890 
from King's College and University, New Brunswick. St. Francis 
Xavier College, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, conferred the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws in 1905. 

On December 20, 1871, he was united in marriage with Annie 
Prescott Duff, a daughter of Rev. William Duff, of Lunenburg, this 
Province. Dr. Forrest was ordained in 1866 and for a number of 
years ranked among the foremost divines in the Presbyterian church 
in eastern Canada. He was pastor of St. John's church in Halifax 
from 1866 to 1 88 1, and he was moderator of the General Assembly 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 37 

in 1910. It was in 1881 that he abandoned the pulpit to take up 
educational work, becoming professor of history in Dalhousie College 
and University, which chair he held until 1885, in which year he was 
made president of the institution, the duties of which responsible 
position he continued to discharge until his resignation in 1911, or 
for a period of three decades. His long retention is sufficient evidence 
of his peculiar fitness and satisfactory services. He not only main- 
tained the high standard of this old and important institution but 
placed it on a higher plane and his presidency marked an epoch of 
great prosperity. Being a profound scholar and diligent student he 
kept fully abreast of the times, was progressive in his methods and 
kept the University under superb system. During the period he also 
found time to attend to much other educational work of importance. 

Dr. Forrest is vice-president of the loyal branch of the British 
Empire League, and he was elected president of the North British 
Society of Halifax, and was later elected president of the Nova 
Scotia Historical Society. He was vice-president of the Halifax 
Archaeological Institute, and a member of the Strathconia Trust Fund 
of Nova Scotia. He is a governor and senator of Dalhousie Univer- 
sity. He is chairman of the Board of Directors of the School for the 
Deaf, having served on the Board for forty years; also a fellow of 
the Society of Science of England. He took an active part in promo- 
ting a public monument to Hon. Joseph Howe in Halifax, and the 
same was accordingly erected on the grounds of the Provincial build- 
ings. He was one of the promoters of the Canadian Club of Halifax, 
and in 1908 was appointed a member of the joint committee formed 
on church union, which he greatly favors. He is an out-spoken and 
whole-hearted man loved by every one. 

SIR CHARLES FREDERICK FRASER. 

Examples that impress force of character on all who study them 
are worthy of record, and the mission of a great soul in this world 
is one that is calculated to inspire a multitude of others to better and 
grander things; so its subsequent influence cannot be measured in 
metes and bounds, for it affects the lives of those with whom it comes 
in contact, broadening and enriching them for all time to come. By 
a few general observations may be conveyed some idea of the useful, 
unselfish and unpretentious. career of Sir Charles Frederick Eraser, 
who has been superintendent of the School for the Blind in Halifax 
for a period of over forty years. 



38 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

He was born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, January 4, 1850, one of a 
family of fifteen children. He is a son of the late Dr. Benjamin 
De Wolfe Fraser, and Elizabeth (Allison) Fraser, the latter a daugh- 
ter of the late Hon. Joseph Allison. He is one of the Lovat Erasers. 
Both of his grandfathers, the Hon. James Fraser and the Hon. Joseph 
Allison, merchants of Halifax, were members of the Nova Scotia 
Council of Twelve. His parents were of Scotch and Irish origin, 
respectively. His father. Dr. Benjamin D. Eraser, was the "beloved 
physician" of the countryside; a man of much force of character, kind 
and cheerful, of great skill, adored by the whole community. His 
mother, a woman of great executive ability and a strict disciplinarian, 
was a woman of many commendable attributes. 

At seven years of age an unfortunate accident deprived Dr. C. 
Frederick Eraser of the sight of one eye, and soon thereafter the other 
became affected with sympathetic inflammation. As a boy he attended 
the school of Thomas Curran of Windsor and at sixteen years of age, 
his sight having become much impaired, he entered the Perkins School 
for the Blind, at Boston, Massachusetts, of which Dr. Samuel G. 
Howe, (husband of Julia \Yard Howe) was superintendent and F. G. 
Campbell, afterwards Sir Francis Campbell, was one of the principal 
teachers. After a successful course at the Perkins Institution Mr. 
Fraser became superintendent of the Halifax School for the Blind 
in 1873 and has continued as such to the present time. The Univer- 
sity of King's College conferred on him the honorary degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts in 1884, and Dalhousie University gave him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws 1901. He has been twice married, first, in 
1891, to Ella J. Hunter of St. John, New Brunswick, a daughter of 
the late James Hunter of that city. Her death occurred May 21, 
1909. She was a woman of much literary ability and was a frequent 
contributor to the press and was the author of "Master Sunshine" 
and other stories of an entertaining and instructive character. In 
June, 1910, Dr. Fraser was united in marriage to lanie C. R. Stevens, 
"Burn Brae," of Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. 

For over four decades Dr. Fraser has been the foremost educator 
of the blind in eastern Canada, and the school over which he presides 
is recognized both on this continent and in Europe as one well 
equipped and of a first-class character. For the first nine years during 
which he was superintendent of the school the outlook was far from 
encouraging. Beginning with nine pupils the number was increased 
to fifteen, whereas at this period the legislative support dropped from 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 39 

twelve hundred dollars to eight hundred dollars annually. In 1882 
Dr. Fraser undertook what he terms the campaign for the free educa- 
tion of the blind. Forty-five public meetings were held in different 
parts of the Province and resolutions endorsing the movement were 
adopted. In the following year the Legislature of Nova Scotia 
enacted a law making education free to the blind of this Province. 
The same campaign was afterward conducted in New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland with eminently satisfactory 
results. Having secured free education for the blind Dr. Fraser set 
himself to the task of increasing the accommodation of the school, 
opening up new fields of occupation for its graduates and securing 
the attendance of every blind child of schoolable age in the Maritime 
Provinces and Newfoundland. The buildings ;md equipment are 
fully abreast of any similar school for the blind in the world and the 
attendance of the pupils in proportion to the total population is greater 
than that of any other country. 

Dr. Fraser established a high-class weekly journal at Halifax, 
called The Critic, which enjoyed a wide popularity during its exist- 
ence in 1884. He was for some time president of the Halifax Reform 
League, and the Nova Scotia Telephone Company, and president 
of the Halifax Archaeological Institute. He is a director of the 
Eastern Trust Company, and is a member of the executive committee 
of the Halifax branch of the British Empire League. He promoted 
the Nova Scotia League for the Protection of the Feebleminded in 
1908. He was president of the North British Society of Halifax in 
1884. Religiously, he is an Anglican. 

Among the many laudatory press notices of Dr. Fraser we quote 
only one paragraph which appeared some time ago in one of the lead- 
ing dailies of this Province: ''In him are found a firm will, phe- 
nomenal presence, keen insight, philosophical patience, tenacity of 
purpose, tact and skill in planning and controlling and the ability to 
grasp the general outlines of any subject and also its endless details; 
added to these gifts is a passionate industry, utterly ignorant of 
inactivity." 

Dr. Fraser was knighted by King George on June 3, 1915, in 
recognition of his valuable service to mankind. Referring to the 
event, the Halifax Chronicle had the following to say editorially in 
its issue of June 3, 1915, under the caption "Worthy Honor:" 

"Among the King's birthday honors, none will be received with 
greater favor by the people of Nova Scotia and none has been more 



4O HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

worthily conferred than the Knighthood which His Majesty has 
bestowed upon Dr. C. F. Eraser, superintendent of the School for 
the Blind. This honor, which we understand, was directly recom- 
mended by His Royal Highness, the Governor-General, is indeed 
fitting recognition of Dr. Eraser's long and distinguished service 
in behalf of the education of the blind. 

"The two objects which Dr. Fraser had in view from the outset 
were, first, to secure for the blind of the Maritime Provinces and 
Newfoundland, not as a duty but as a right, the benefit of free educa- 
tion, and, second, to lengthen and broaden the field of occupation in 
which the blind may successfully maintain themselves. That was 
his great ambition, and that has been his great success. 

"Xot only Nova Scotia but all Canada, may well be proud of the 
distinction which our School for the Blind has attained, and Nova 
Scotians, we need not say, will be pleased beyond measure at the 
honor conferred upon Dr. Fraser at this time, an honor which, has 
been honorably earned. Two years ago the House of Assembly, on 
the initiation of Dr. C. P. Bissett, M. P. P., for Richmond, conferred 
upon Dr. Fraser the signal honor of calling him to the bar of the 
House and publicity thanking him for his forty years service, as 
superintendent of the School for the Blind in behalf of the education 
of those who are deprived of sight. In these expressions of honor, 
the people of the Pv- ; nce, through their represntatives, were proud 
to have a voice, and .' honor which is now conferred upon Dr. 
Fraser by His Majesty, the King, is a worthy compliment to the mark 
of recognition at the hands of the people of his native Province. 

"We are sure we are voicing the feeling of all Nova Scotians when 
we beg to tender Sir Frederick Fraser our warmest congratulations 
upon the receipt of an honor which he will wear worthily and well." 

CAPT. ALBERT LAWRENCE. 

A seafaring life appeals to a large number of the people of Nova 
Scotia, and those who "go down to the sea in ships" are many. This 
is necessary for the principal business of the people of the Maritime 
Provinces has to do in one way or another with the sea-fishing or 
exporting lumber or carrying a general commerce to and from the 
ports of the world everywhere. So both necessity and choice have 
made our people sailors, and no better are to be found in any country. 
Capt. Albert Lawrence of Hantsport, Hants County, is one of this 
vast number. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 41 

Captain Lawrence was born in the above named town and county, 
on September 5, 1854. He is a son of Frank and Mary Ann (Bar- 
ren) Lawrence, the father a native of Gaspereaux, Nova Scotia, and 
the mother was born in St. John, New Brunswick. Henry Lawrence, 
grandfather, was a native of Falmouth, Nova Scotia. His wife, 
Elizabeth Earl, also of Falmouth, was a representative of a family 
that came to this country from the United States in an early day. 
Henry Lawrence, Sr., the great grandfather of our subject, born in 
England, learned the bricklayer's trade in his native land, but, becom- 
ing discontented with life there, ran away before he had completed 
his apprenticeship, which was to have been seven years in duration. 
He joined the British navy, and when his ship reached Halifax, he- 
was given his discharge papers. There he decided to remain, and he- 
soon began working at his trade, and there he married Judith Watson, 
of Tracadie. He built Fort Lawrence near Amherst, the fort being 
named in his honor. He spent the latter years of his life at Upper 
Falmouth, near Windsor. His family consisted of the following chil- 
dren : Henry, Frank, James, John, Robert, Margaret, Lydia, Mary, 
and Sarah. 

Henry Lawrence, Jr., the grandfather of our subject, was married 
at Falmouth, from which place he removed to Gaspereaux, where he 
spent a few years, engaging in farming, later removing to Hants- 
port, where he spent the rest of his life, dying at the advanced age 
of eighty-four. Frank Lawrence, his second son, was the father of 
our subject, and he continued to reside at home until his marriage. 
When a young man he learned the trade of millwright, and was long 
employed by Ezra Churchill & Sons at Tennicape near Walton. Nova 
Scotia, in which vicinity a large lumber business was carried on in 
those days. He died at the age of forty-nine years. His family con- 
sisted of nine children, named as follows : Augusta married Alex- 
ander Pierce of Boston, Massachusetts; Alida, widow of the late 
Lorenzo Mitchener, lives in Hantsport; James died at the age of 
fifty-two years; Charlie is a sea captain and lives in Hantsport; Harry, 
who was also a sea captain, is deceased ; Robert, a sea captain, lives 
in Hantsport; Albert, subject of this sketch; Lilly is deceased; and 
Clara, the youngest, is also deceased. 

The following children were born to Henry Lawrence, grand- 
father of the subject of this review : Joseph, who engaged in farming, 
is deceased; Frank, father of our subject; John, who engaged in 
mining,- died in Nevada ; James, a sea captain, was lost from over- 



42 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

board his ship off the Irish coast ; Robert, who was engaged in mining, 
died in Sydney, New South Wales ; Sarah, deceased ; Lydia, deceased ; 
Mary, deceased; Phoebe is the widow of William L. Davison; and 
Rebecca, deceased. 

Capt. Albert Lawrence of this review, went to sea when thirteen 
years of age, after spending his early boyhood in Hantsport. He 
continued sailing the Atlantic during the summer months and spent 
a number of winters at home studying navigation, and he passed 
through the positions of second mate and mate, and received his 
captain's papers in 1877, after which he took command of the 
barquentine Fahitouth, when only twenty-two years of age, and he has 
continued going to sea, with now and then a vacation, until the pres- 
ent time, his latter life being spent in deep water sailing. Practically 
all his trips have been in the interest of foreign trade. In 1882 he 
commanded the barque Bristol, owned by Ezra Churchill & Sons, a 
vessel of thirteen hundred and twenty tons. He commanded this ves- 
sel for over twenty years. For years his wife and family accom- 
panied him, and during that long period he met with no serious acci- 
dents. Later he commanded several other ships. At Christmas, 
1913. he was in command of the schooner Lord of Aron, which vessel 
became waterlogged and was taken off her the day after Christmas 
by an American schooner and taken into Mobile, Alabama. 

Captain Lawrence was married June \2, 1881, to Lottie Strom- 
berg of Cape John, Pictou County, a daughter of Charles and Mary 
( McKenzie ) Stromberg, the father a native of Cape John, Xova Sco- 
tia, and the mother of Cromarty, Inverness, Scotland. J. Stromberg, 
the grandfather, was a native of Stockholm, Sweden, from 
which country he came to Cape John, Nova Scotia. Mrs. Lawrence 
is a cousin of Nathaniel Stromberg of Charlottetown, Prince Edward 
Island, the father of John Stromberg, deceased, who had made a repu- 
tation as a composer of popular music, composing the music for many 
of the comic operas produced by \Vebber & Fields of New York. 

The Captain and wife are the parents of the following children: 
Charles Stromberg died in 1905 ; Gladys, who was graduated from 
Dalhousie University with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, is now 
engaged in teaching at the Academy at Truro ; Charlotte Phylis is the 
wife of Arthur De Witt Foster, member of Parliament, who lives 
at Kentville; LeRoy Litchfield, who was graduated from Dalhousie 
University, is at present (1916) principal of Hantsport school. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 43 

REV. THOMAS WESLEY POWELL, D. D. 

To rescue, preserve and perpetuate was the mission of the ancient 
Chronicles, and this is the province of history; and equally so of 
biographic narrative. ''Man's sociality of nature," says Carlyle, 
"evinces itself, in spite of all that can be said, with abundant evidence 
by this one fact, were there no other ; the unspeakable delight he takes 
in biography." So when a man like Dr. Thomas Wesley Powell, 
formerly a noted divine and educator of Xova Scotia, and now rector 
of Holy Trinity church, Toronto, has reached the high position which 
he has attained, it is meet that something of his individuality be set 
forth. 

Dr. Powell was born at Thornbury, Grey County, Ontario, March 
17, 1868. He is a son of Francis Cox Powell and Elizabeth (Rich- 
mond) Powell. The father \vas a well known Ontario educationist, 
and for many years was head-master of Kincardine Model School, 
and he transmtited to his son, our subject, special gifts of teaching. 
He was a man of brilliant intellectual attainments and the possessor 
of many admirable attributes of character. Doctor Powell is a 
descendant of old United Empire Loyalist stock on his mother's side. 

Dr. Thomas W. Powell received his early education in the Port 
Elgin common schools, Kincardine public school, and Kincardine 
high school, later attending Toronto Church School, and Trinity Col- 
lege, at Toronto. He received the degree of Licentiate in Theology in 
1904, Bachelor of Arts in 1906, and Master of Arts in 1907. He 
received the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity from Trinity 
University, Toronto, in 1912, and in that year the same degree was 
given him by Aberdeen University, and also in 1912 the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Civil Laws was conferred on him by King's Col- 
lege, Windsor, Xova Scotia. 

Dr. Powell was assistant rector at York Mills, Ontario and became 
rector of St. Clement's church, Eglinton. in 1900. He was the 
founder of St. Clement's College for Boys in 1909. He was presi- 
dent of the University of King's College, Windsor, Xova Scotia, in 
1910. He has for years been editor of "The Teachers' Assist- 
ant, and the Sundav School Institute Quarterly. He was prolocutor 
of the General Synod of the Church of England in Canada in 1911 
and again in 1915. He was canon of All Saints Cathedral, Halifax; 
became rector of Holy Trinity Church at Toronto in 1915, and is 
of St. Alban's Cathedral, Toronto at this writing. 



44 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



Dr. Powell has served on many important business and educa- 
tional committees in the Church of England in Canada, and is looked 
upon as an expert in Sunday School matters. He has been a member 
of Trinity Corporation and also of the senate of Trinity University. 
He has discharged his duties in an able, conscientious, faithful and 
praiseworthy manner in all positions of trust and responsibility, and 
he is today regarded as one of the strongest men in the Church of 
England in the Dominion. Politically he is independent, casting 
his ballot for the man rather than the party. Fraternally he belongs 
to the Canadian Order of Foresters, the Independent Order of For- 
esters, and is a life member of St. George's Society. 

Dr. Powell was married on August 15, 1894, to Blanche Weston, 
a lady of high culture, and a daughter of Charles Williams Weston 
and wife. This union has been blessed by the birth of four children, 
namely : Helen Katharine, Francis Clement, Auta Blanche Richmond, 
and Dorothy Gertrude. 

REV. FENWICK WILLIAMS VROOM, D. D. 

It was a maxim of the Egoists, who were uncertain of everything, 
that "each one sumbit to a record of himself, for his self's sake, but 
especially for his friends." Thus is biography important, and it 
affords the historian in the present instance pleasure to set forth appro- 
priately, but succinctly, and, we hope, accurately, the life record of 
Rev. Fenwick Williams Vroom, D. D., who, owing to the high posi- 
tion he has gained as a churchman in Nova Scotia, is entitled to 
specific mention in these pages. 

Dr. Vroom, who is a descendant of a Dutch Loyalist family, which 
came from New Jersey and settled in Clements, Nova Scotia, in 1 783, 
was born in St. Stephen, New Brunswick, July 25, 1856, and is a son 
of William and Frances Eliza (Foster) Vroom. He prepared for 
college in private schools at home, and matriculated at King's Col- 
lege, Windsor, Nova Scotia, in June, 1876. He was Almon-Wels- 
ford prize-man and Stevenson scholar in 1877, McCawley classical 
scholar in 1880, McCawley Hebrew prize-man in 1881. He received 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts with classical honors in 1880, Master 
of Arts in 1883, Bachelor of Divinity in 1890, and subsequently the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1901, being the first to pass the 
examinations required under the canon of the Provincial Synod of 
Canada. He received the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law 
from Bishop's College, Lennoxville, in 1903. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 45 

The subject of this sketch was ordained deacon in 1881, and priest 
in 1882 by Dr. Medley, Bishop of Fredericton. He was appointed 
curate at Peticodiac, New Brunswick, in 1881; rector of Richmond, 
in the same Province, in 1882; rector of Shediac, in 1885, and was 
made professor of Divinity at King's College, in 1888, and canon of 
the Cathedral, by Dr. Courtney, Bishop of Nova Scotia, in 1895. He 
is not only a prominent clergyman but a noted educator, a lucid, earn- 
est and forceful speaker and a versatile writer. For a number of 
years he has filled the office of Librarian of the College, and there 
is no one else who possesses the same knowledge of the unique treas- 
ures of this rare old library, or who takes such delight in showing 
them to appreciative visitors. 

Dr. Vroom was married in 1885 to Agnes Jessie Campbell, a 
daughter of the Hon. Colin Campbell of Weymouth, Nova Scotia. 
To this union one child, a daughter, has been born, Mary Gertrude 
Vroom. 

Dr. Vroom has written a number of reviews and other articles 
from time to time, which have been widely commented on, and he pub- 
lished "Lectures on Prayer Book Revision" in 1915. He has been 
a member of the Provincial Synod of Canada since 1892, and is also 
of the General Synod of the Church of Kn gland in Canada. 

CLARA CHURCHILL PULLEN. 

The town of Falmouth, Nova Scotia, has never known a more 
estimable lady than Clara Churchill Pullen, whose friends were ever 
legion and who from childhood sought to l>e of service to others. 
She was born at Hantsport, Nova Scotia, April 6, 1858, a daughter 
of George Washington Churchill and Susanna (Davison) Churchill, 
a highly respected old family of Hantsport. She grew to womanhood 
in her native community and received her education in the Hants- 
port high school and then attended Ladies College at Sackville, New 
Brunswick, and became highly educated. On November 23, 1876, she 
was united in marriage to Capt. Henry Watson Lawrence, a son of 
Frank and Mary Ann Lawrence of Hantsport. He was a successful 
captain and sailed in ships owned by Ezra Churchill & Sons, the 
famous Hantsport firm, for many years, being one of their most 
trusted employees. He was a member of the Masonic Lodge. His 
death occurred at Dansville, New York, in 1885. His wife joined the 
Baptist church when young in years, continuing an active and faith- 



46 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ful member of the same. To the captain and wife the following chil- 
dren were born: Susie, born February 5, 1879, died June 29, 1881; 
Ethel Joy, born March 15, 1881 ; Norah, born April 30, 1883, married 
Albert Armstrong, inspector of fruit, and a son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Lewis Armstrong of Falmouth, and to their union two children have 
been born Laurence Churchill and Harry Bertram. Harry 
Churchill, born April 14, 1885, married Gladys Constance Chisholm, 
a daughter of G. R. Chisholm and wife of Pictou. Mr. Chisholm 
has since moved to Saskatoon, Canada, where he is manager of the 
branch of the Royal Bank of Canada. 

Our subject was married again, October 6, 1888, to James Henry 
Pullen, son of James C. and Mary Ann Pullen of Barnard, Maine. 
He has interested himself in farming for a number of years, owning 
farms at Falmouth, Mt. Denson and Hantsport, his land being devoted 
principally to apple and hay culture, and has been very successful. 
To this second union two children have teen born, namely: Helen, 
whose birth occurred November 4, 1889, married Dr. G. Mack Geldert 
of the Protestant Hospital, Ottawa, and a son of Mr. and Mrs. G. D. 
Geldert, of Windsor, Nova Scotia, and to this union one child has 
been born Gerald Mackinlay. Clara, youngest of our subject's 
children, was torn June 2*5, 1904. 

CHARLES ESMOND YOUNG. 

One of the best remembered and most highly respected citizens 
of Hants County in a past generation, who, after a successful and 
honorable career as farmer and fruit grower, has taken up his journey 
to that mystic clime, Shakespeare's "undiscovered bourne, from 
whence no traveler e'er returns," leaving behind him a heritage of 
which his descendants may well be proud an untarnished name 
was the late Charles Esmond Young of Falmouth. He was a scion 
of one of the honored old families of Nova Scotia and he endeavored 
to keep unsullied the good reputation of his ancestors. 

Mr. Young was born at Falmouth in 1841. He was a son of 
Elkanah Young and Charlotte Spurr of Annapolis. The father was 
also a native of Falmouth, this Province, and a grandson of William 
Young, Thomas Young, the great grandfather, was a sea captain of 
Cape Cod, Massachusetts. He owned his own ship, and he came 
to Nova Scotia among the first settlers. He built a vessel of seventy 
tons, in the woods, three miles from the water, and he did not ask 
any one to assist him in getting her to the water, but spread the news 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 47 

abroad regarding the time he intended to launch her. Ox teams and 
men came from all directions to help and she was drawn down to the 
shore in one day. The feat was long talked of in that neighborhood. 
The Youngs have been prominent in public affairs in the various 
parts of Nova Scotia, where they have dispersed. Both the grand- 
father and father of our subject were memljers of the Provincial 
Parliament and were influential men in their times. The great grand- 
father was engaged in shipping, ship building and merchandising. 

Charles E. Young grew to manhood on the home farm at Fal- 
mouth and he received his education in the public schools there and 
at Horton. He spent his life in his native vicinity and devoted his 
time to general farming and fruit growing, prospering with advanc- 
ing years as a result of good management and close application until 
he became one of the most prosperous men in his community, owning 
a number of valuable and productive farms, which he kept well 
improved ; also owned a number of good orchards, which he planted, 
and for years engaged in the fruit business. He left quite a large 
estate where his widow still resides. 

Mr. Young was married in 1870, to Elizabeth Harding of St. 
John, New -Brunswick, where her people have long been prominent, 
and where she grew to womanhood and was educated. To this 
union three children were born, all of whom died in early life. 

The death of Mr. Young occurred in 1911. 

Mr. Young's estate is being looked after by the executors and 
Mary H. Calder. Her grandfather was a Scotchman, who came to 
Nova Scotia, in an early day and was engaged in the milling busi- 
ness at Douglas, and he married Honore Smith, daughter of Francis 
Smith, of Dartmouth. 

EZRA CHURCHILL. 

The name of Ezra Churchill has long been one of the best known 
in industrial circles in Nova Scotia. It has stood for progress and 
fair dealing and has been honored as becomes a worthy representative 
of the fine old family from which he sprung. 

Mr. Churchill was born at Hantsport, Nova Scotia, August 31, 
1862. He is a son of George Churchill. He spent his boyhood in 
Hantsport and after his school days he became associated in business 
with his father. 

He was married in 1891 to Mary Woolaver of Walton, Nova 
Scotia, a daughter of Howard and Frances (Malcom) Woolaver, both 



48 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

natives of Nova Scotia, the father born in Newport and the mother 
in Kent. Thomas Woolaver the grandfather, was also a native of 
Newport. Her ancestors came from Pennsylvania and were among 
the very earliest settlers in Newport. The following children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Churchill : Valentyne married Lieutenant 
R. S. Parsons; Alfred is at present a lieutenant with the Nova Scotia 
Fortieth Battalion; George, who is a highly skilled mechanical 
engineer, living in Amherst, is a lieutenant in the Sixty-third Rifles; 
Windston is attending King's College School at Windsor; Frances is 
at Edgehill School, Windsor. 

THOMAS CHANDLER HALIBURTON. 

The father of American humor and one of the foremost literary 
men Canada has ever produced was Thomas Chandler Haliburton, 
who did much to give the Dominion a' distinctive literature of its 
own, and he is being more fully appreciated as the years go by. His 
work shows talent of a very high order. 

Mr. Haliburton was born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, in Decem- 
ber, 1796, and there received the primary portion of his education. 
He there attended the University of King's College, and graduated 
with high honors in 1824. At an early period of his college course 
be showed a decided taste for literary pursuits, and took many prizes, 
among them the English essay prize, which he succeeded in wresting 
from the expectant grasp of several able competitors. On leaving 
college he turned his attention to law. entered the legal profession 
and practiced at Annapolis, where he had a large and lucrative 
clientage. He then, at the earnest solicitation of friends, entered the 
Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia, as a member for the county 
of Annapolis, and here his fine intellect and good debating powers 
soon gave him a leading position. As an orator he is said to have 
been "earnest, impressive and dignified, though he often showed a 
strong propensity for wit and humor." In 1828 he was appointed 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and discharged the 
duties of his position with great ability until 1840, when he was 
transferred to the Supreme Court. In February, 1856, he resigned 
his office, left his native land, and found a home in England, where 
he spent the remainder of his days. 

At the general elections in 1859 he entered the Imperial Parlia- 
ment as a member for Lancaster. Here he joined in some of the de- 
bates, but parliamentary life appears to have become irksome to him, 




THOMAS CHANDLER HALIHritTOX, 

"Sam Slick," 
Author and Jurist. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 49 

his greatest pleasure being derived from advancing the interests of 
the village of Isleworth, where he lived, by aiding the philanthropic 
projects of its inhabitants, and contributing to its charitable institu- 
tions; and it was there he died on August 27, 1865. 

Haliburton first became known as an author in 1829, when he 
published "An Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia.'' 
This work is said to be written with "clearness, spirit, accuracy and 
impartiality," and is at the present day regarded as a standard work. 
So much was thought of it that the House of Assembly in Xova 
Scotia tendered the author a vote of thanks which he received when 
in his place in Parliament. In 1834 he published "Kentucky," a tale. 
In 1837 the first series of "The Clock Maker, or Sayings and Doings 
of Sam Slick of Slickville," came before the public, which was fol- 
io-wed by the second and third series in 1838 and 1840. It was in 
order to preserve some anecdotes and stories, which were too good 
to be lost, and were in danger of passing into oblivion that Hali- 
burton wrote, anonymously, a series of articles for the Xot'a Section, 
speaking through the public through the medium of a Yankee ped- 
lar. These papers were a great success, and appeared as a collection 
under the foregoing title, and as a work on common sense it is 
doubtful if it has its equal. It has been re-published in England and 
the United States and translated into foreign languages. In 1839 
he published "The Letter-Bag of the Great Westerner, or Life in a 
Steamer," after which followed "The Bubbles of Canada." "A Reply 
to the Report of Lord Dufferin," "Traits of American Humor," 
"Sam Slick's Wise Saws and Modern Instances," "The Old Judge, 
or Life in a Colony," "The Attache, or Sam Slick in England," 
"The Americans at Home," "Rule and Misrule of the English in 
America," "Yankee Stories and Yankee Letters," "The Sayings and 
Doings of Sam Slick, Esq., with his Opinion on Matrimony," "Sam 
Slick in Search for a Wife," "Nature and Human Nature." Two of 
his speeches have also been published, one on "Resources and Pros- 
pects of British North America," in 1857, and the other "On the Re- 
peal of the Differential Duties on Foreign and Colonial Wool." Critics 
say, "although a man of mark in other departments of literature, 
Haliburton is best known as a humorist." His "History of Nova 
Scotia" will bear comparison with any works of a similar kind that) 
have appeared in America, but it is to Sam Slick that he owes his 
fame. The revelations and remarks of the Yankee pedlar are val- 
(4) 



5O HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

uable, no less for their shrewdness and sound sense than for their 
raciness and humor, their sarcasm and laughable exaggerations. 
Haliburton is indeed more than a humorist; and his productions will 
be read with profit by others than his countrymen. As a story-teller 
he is inimitable, and the quaint dialect in which his yarns are 
couched increases the comic effect of his utterances. Sam Slick has 
an individuality that insures for him a place among the best known 
characters of fiction. 

KLISHA CALKINS CHURCH. 

Among the men who have been instrumental in advancing the 
agricultural interests of the vicinity of Falmouth, Hants County is 
Elisha Calkins Church. Time and prolific enterprises have wrought 
wondrous changes in that locality since be first saw the light of day 
there three score and ten years ago, and his activities have benefited 
alike himself and the general public. 

Air. Church was born at Falmouth, Nova Scotia, in September, 
1845, an( J there he grew to manhood and has continued to reside. 
His family were among the early settlers in that locality, and he is 
a son of William C". and Mary (Young) Church, the father dying 
in 1888 at the age of seventy- four, and the mother died in 1896, age 
eighty. The Churches were originally Quakers, but coming from the 
States to Nova Scotia they found few people of that denomination 
and their descendants allied themselves with other churches, some 
joining the Congregationalists, others the Episcopalians and Baptists. 
Edward Church, the grandfather, was born at Horton, this Province, 
and he married Fliza Calkins of that place. Constant Church, the 
great-grandfather, was a native of Rhode Island. The great-great- 
grandfather married a Miss Woodworth and had several sons, some 
of whom remained in the state of Rhode Island, but his son, Constant, 
came to Nova Scotia, being accompanied by his father, who was at 
that time advanced in years. This was in 1761. He received a 
grant of land, which had been owned by the Acadians, previous to 
their expulsion/in 1758. The original property which was granted 
to Mr. Church, is now owned by Albert Armstrong. The immigrant 
members of this old family followed farming there, and his son, 
William Church, father of the subject of this sketch, received a por- 
tion of the original grant on which he continued to reside for a num- 
ber of years, then sold out and bought the present property from his 
brother-in-law, George Young. He had a family of one son and 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 5! 

three daughters, namely : Olivia, who is now Mrs. A. H. Johnston of 
Wolfville; Louisa is now Mrs. Shannon Morse of Annapolis; Clara 
is the wife of Arthur Elderkin of Falmouth; and Elisha C. of this 
sketch. 

Our subject grew to manhood on the homestead where he worked 
when a toy, and he received his education in the common schools and 
at Wolfville. He continued to reside on the home place, which he 
has always kept under good improvements, carrying on general farm- 
ing and orcharding, having a ten-acre orchard of standard trees. One 
hundred acres are dyked marsh and very valuable meadow land. He 
is one of the successful farmers of Hants County. 

Elisha C. Church was married in October, 1881, to Emily Fitch, 
a member of one of the old families of Horton. Xova Scotia, where 
she grew to womanhood and received her education. To their union 
two children were born Frances A., now Mrs. Illsley of Falmouth; 
and Karl W., who was born in 1885 on the home place where he 
grew to manhood and continued to reside. He married Marion Corn- 
wall, a daughter of Rev. S. H. Cornwall, and lives on an adjoining 
farm on which he has erected several glass greenhouses. He has 
three children, namely: Charles V., Ina, and Lucile. 

GEORGE EDWARD BURPEE SHAW. 

How to use and not abuse the natural resources of the soil is the 
most important problem which faces the farmer of today one 
worthy of the best efforts of our profound and learned scientists, 
for upon its solution depends the future prosperity of the nation. 
One of the alert and wide-awake agriculturists and orchardists of 
Hants County, Nova Scotia, is George Edward Burpee Shaw, of 
Falmouth, near which place he was born, April 29, 1845. He is a 
son of William and Irene (Fitch) Shaw, the father a native of the 
same vicinity in which our subject was born, and the mother was a 
native of Canaan, Kings County. Peter Shaw, the grandfather, was 
also born at Falmouth, where this family has been well and favor- 
ably known since pioneer days. Peter Shaw, the great grandfather, 
came to Nova Scotia from Rhode Island, having been an original 
grantee in the Falmouth district, where he engaged in farming. The 
grandfather continued there on the original farm, and he died there 
when his son William, father of our subject, was eighteen years of 
age, and he took chrage of the place, which he continued to operate 
the rest of his life, being a good farmer and public-spirited citizen. 



Ij2 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

taking an interest in local affairs. Following were his children: 
Andrew, who spent a few years in New York returned to Falmouth 
where he spent the balance of his life, being now deceased; Mary mar- 
ried John O. Pineo of Kings County, and they are both now deceased; 
Frederick Fitch, who went to Australia in the fifties, during the gold 
rush, later made a trip home ; Henry was a physician in Kentville 
for many years, but is now deceased; Nancy is now the widow of 
Dr. McAllister, a dentist, and she makes her home in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts; Jane Burbridge is the widow of Pierson C. Royce. 

George E. B. Shaw passed his boyhood on the old home place 
where he assisted with the general farm work and he received his edu- 
cation in the district schools. He has continued to reside on the 
home farm, which he has kept well improved and well cultivated. 
His place consists of one hundred and sixty acres, a part of which 
is in orchard, a portion being dyke land and some woodland. 

Mr. Shaw was married in 1868 to Lucy Royce, a native of New 
York and a sister of Pierson C. Royce, who was for many years a 
cotton broker in New York City. The maternal grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch was one of the original grantees of the Fal- 
mouth district. The original Fitch immigrant came to Hants County 
from Stonington, Rhode Island, in 1760. Elizabeth Sheffield, the 
maternal grandmother, was a native of Cornwallis, Kings County. 
A grand uncle named Gideon settled in the state of Maine. 

The following children have been born to our subject and wife: 
Pierson W. lives in Calgary, Manitoba; Amelia Royce is the wife of 
Leverett Fuller, of Avonport. Kings County, Nova Scotia, and they 
have two children Mary Shaw Fuller, and G. E. Burpee Fuller. 

Politically, Mr. Shaw is a Liberal. 

EDWARD BENJAMIN CHURCH. 

One of the better class of farmers of Hants County is Edward 
Benjamin Church, a man who uses more brain than brawn in oper- 
ating his place. He has been successful both as a general farmer and 
stock raiser. The reason that he has been able to succeed in whatever 
he has turned his attention to is because he plans well, is energetic in 
the execution of his plans, "preparedness" being his motto, in other 
words, he first decides that he is right, then goes ahead. 

Mr. Church, who is a descendant of a prominent old English fam- 
ily, was born at Falmouth, Nova Scotia, January 18, 1884. He is a 
son of Constant and Clara (Smith) Church. The father was born 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 53 

at Falmouth, in 1845 ar >d died September 7, 1908. The mother was 
born at Brookfield, Queens County. She is a daughter of Steven 
Smith and wife of that county. He is a grandson of Thomas and 
Mary (Smith) Church. A history of the Smith family will be 
found in the sketch of DeWolf Smith, appearing on another page of 
this work. Constant Church, the grandfather, was a native of Rhode 
Island. His father, Constant Church, Sr., whose will was dated, 
March 29, 1821, bequeathed his property to his sons, Constant and 
Edward. The Church family were long prominent in England, espe- 
cially in Essex, prior to coming to America. In the "Visitation of 
Essex," 1612, appears the description of the Church cunt-of-arms, as 
follows : "Coat-of-arms granted to Bartholomew Church, gentle- 
man servant to John de Vere, first Earl of Oxford, in 31 yere of King 
Henry VIII (1540). Arms Gules a feso or, in chief three doxter 
ganuthts appanmiese proper. Crest An army emlxnved in armour 
proper, holding a staff or." 

Richard Church came from England with Governor Winthrop in 
1630. He married a daughter of Richard Warren, who came over in 
the Mayflower, and was the father of Col. Benjamin Church. Edward 
Church was second lieutenant, of the Eirst Battalion of Hants Militia, 
commanded by Sir John Wentworth, Baronet, L. L. D. Thomas 
Church, our subject's grandfather, was a great friend of the late Hon. 
Joseph G. Howe. He took an active part in public affairs, but could 
not support Howe in his last days. 

Constant Church, father of the subject of this sketch, grew to 
manhood on the home farm at Falmouth, Nova Scotia and received 
his education in the public schools there, and at Mt. Allison Univer- 
sity. He continued to live on the original grant until in the eighties, 
when he sold the property to Dr. J. B. Black, the place now being 
owned by Louis Armstrong, and bought from his uncle Edward, and 
it is still in the possession of his son. It is a large farm and dyke 
land. Constant Church took an active interest in public affairs until 
his health failed. He was one of the successful farmers of his county. 
His family consisted of the following children : Thomas now lives 
in Montreal; Mary is the wife of Harley L. Dodge of Saskatoon; 
Carrie is the wife of Benjamin D. F. Payzant of Falmouth; and 
Edward Benjamin of this sketch. 

The subject of this review spent his boyhood on the home farm and 
received his education in the public schools and at Acacia Villa, at 
Horton. He has devoted his life successfully to general farming and 



54 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



has a well improved farm on which stand a good set of buildings. 
He was married on September 12, 1911, to Jean Miller, of Newport, 
Hants County. She is a daughter of H. H. Miller and wife of that 
place. To our subject and wife one child, Constant Howard, was 
born, who died in infancy. 

Politically, Mr. Church is a Liberal. Fraternally, he is a member 
of the Masonic order. He belongs to the Methodist church. 

ROBERT BURNLEY HUME ROBERTSON. 

Unbiased observation by a fair minded person must necessarily 
lead to the conclusion that barristers stand, as a class of men, as high 
for right living, honestly and fair dealing, as any other engaged in 
active business affairs. This is no doubt, in some measure accounted 
for by their general intelligence, for ignorance is said to be, and is, 
the mother of vice. Robert Burnley Hume Robertson of Bridge- 
water, Lunenburg County, is a young barrister whose personal and 
professional life so far have been above idle cavil, and he lends 
dignity to his profession. 

Mr. Robertson was born December 8, 1884, at Barrington Pass- 
age, Shelburne County. Nova Scotia. He is a son of Thomas and 
Josephine Hume (Allen) Roljertson. The father was born at Bar- 
rington Passage, September 13, 1852, and the mother was born at 
Lockport, this Province, February 5. 1854. William Robertson, the 
paternal great grandfather, was born at Renfrew, Scotland, from 
which country he immigrated to New York, and in 1785 came on to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He was a United Empire Loyalist. Robert 
Robertson, the paternal grandfather, represented Shelburne County 
in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1858 to 1878, and he 
was commissioner of Works and Mines from 1868 to 1878. Thomas 
Robertson was a member of Parliament from Shelburne County in the 
House of Commons from 1878 to 1887, and he was a member of 
the House of Assembly, Nova Scotia, from 1891 to 1902, and was 
Speaker of the House in 1902. He was the original promoter of the 
Halifax & Southwestern Railroad, and was president of the Coast 
Railway Company for several years. James Glen Allan, the maternal 
grandfather, was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, from which city he 
came to New York, but subsequently settled in Shelburne, finally 
locating in Lockport, Nova Scotia, He was a West India merchant 
for many years while living at Lockport. He was a nephew of Joseph 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 55 

Hume, member of Parliament from Montrose, Scotland, and formerly 
was Commissary General for the British Army in India. 

Our subject has two brothers, Wishart McLea Robertson and 
James Glen Allan Robertson. 

Robert B. H. Robertson received his early schooling in the public 
schools at Barrington Passage, later attending Yarmouth Academy, 
then entered Dalhousie University, at Halifax, from which he was 
graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1907, after which 
he continued his studies there in the law department, from which he 
was graduated in 1911 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He 
was admitted to the Nova Scotia bar in October, 1911, and he began 
the practice of his profession at Liverpool, Queens County, in Janu- 
ary, 1912. In March, 1914, he was admitted to the firm of Paton & 
Robertson at Bridgewater, Lunenburg County, where he is still engaged 
in the practice and is making an excellent record at the local bar. 

Mr. Robertson was married April 19, 1914, to Olive M. Stairs 
of Halifax, a daughter of Kdward Stairs and Isabella (Scott) Stairs 
of Halifax, in which city Mrs. Robertson grew to womanhood and 
was educated. 

Politically, Mr. Robertson is a Liberal, lie was secretary of the 
Liberal Association of Shelburne-Oueens Counties from 1911 to 1914, 
r.nd he has held a similar position since 1914 with the Liberal Asso- 
ciation of Lunenburg County. He is a member of the Presbyterian 
church. 

HON. GEORGE G EDDIE PATTERSON. 

ludge George Geddie Patterson, of New Glasgow, was born at 
Green Hill, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, June 16, 1864. He is a son 
of the late Rev. George P. Patterson, D. D., LL. D., F. R. S. C, the 
distinguished historian. The mother of our subject was known in her 
maidenhood as Margaret McDonald. 

Tudge Patterson grew to manhood in his native county, and 
received his early education in the public schools and the high school 
of New Glasgow, later he attended Dalhousie University, in which 
institution he first took the arts course, then the law course, receiving 
the degree of Bachelor or Arts in 1882, Master of Arts in 1887, and 
Bachelor of Laws in 1889. 

In June, 1909, he was united in marriage to Margaret Dow, a 
daughter of the late Stephen Finck of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, 
where Airs. Patterson spent her girlhood and was educated. 



c6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

After being admitted to the bar in 1889, Mr. Patterson began the 
practice of his profession in New Glasgow, and soon took his posi- 
tion in the front ranks of his professional brethren in this Province 
and built up a large and lucrative practice. He is one of the lec- 
turers in the law department at Dalhousie University. He was 
successively councillor, a member of the School Commissioners, rec- 
order and stipendary magistrate, at New Glasgow. He sat for Pic- 
tou County's (Local) Liberal interest, from 1901 to 1906. He was 
a member of the Provincial government for a short period, and was 
appointed judge of the County Court, District No. 5, of Nova Scotia, 
in January, 1907, and is still incumbent of this office. As a public 
servant he has discharged his duties faithfully, conscientiously, fairly 
and honorably and has won and retained the confidence and esteem 
if all concerned. 

Religiously he is a Presbyterian. He belongs to the City Club 
of Halifax, the Scotia Club of New Glasgow, and the Marshland 
Club of Amherst. 

HON. DUNCAN F1NLAYSON. 

In a brief sketch of any living citizen it is difficult to do him exact 
and impartial justice, not so much for lack of space or words to set 
forth the familiar and passing events of his personal history, as for 
want of perfect and rounded conception of his whole life, which 
grows, develops and ripens, like fruit, to disclose its true and best 
flavor only when it is mellowed by time. There are, however, a 
number of elements in the life record of Hon. Duncan Finlayson, well 
known and successful barrister of Arichat, Cape Breton, that even 
now serve as examples well worthy of emulation. 

Mr. Finlayson was born at Grand River, Nova Scotia, September 
12, 1867. He is of Scottish extraction, and a son of Donald and 
Annabella (Murchison) Finlayson. He received his early education 
in the public schools and the Sydney Academy, later entering Dal- 
housie University, Halifax, where he made an excellent record, and 
was graduated in 1893 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and in 
1895 he was granted the degree of Bachelor of Laws, having com- 
pleted both the arts and law courses. Soon after his admission to 
the bar he began the practice of his profession at Arichat, where he 
at once took a position in the front ranks of the bar of Cape Breton, 
and he has enjoyed a large and lucrative practice. He has remained 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 57 

a student and has kept fully abreast of the times in all that pertains 
to his profession. 

Mr. Finlayson was married in December, 1905, to Ethel Maud 
Bullam, a daughter of the late William G. Bullam and wife, a 
highly respected family of Arichat, Richmond County, this Province, 
where Mrs. Finlayson grew to womanhood and received her early 
education. 

Taking an abiding interest in public affairs, Mr. Finlayson has 
been very much in the public eye since beginning the practice of 
law in 1895. He was solicitor of the municipality of Richmond, Xova 
Scotia, from 1896 to 1904. He sat for the Richmond, local, Liberal 
interests from 1897 to 1904, and for the same constituency from 1904 
to 1908. He was appointed judge of the County Court, District 
No. 7, Nova Scotia, on November 13, 1908, also appointed surrogate 
judge in Admiralty for the Island of Cape Breton, on the iith clay 
of April, 1911, which positions he still holds. As a public servant 
he has given eminent satisfaction. His decisions are marked by 
soundness of judgment, a clear comprehension of the principles of 
jurisprudence and with a spirit of fairness. 

He is a member of the Presbyterian church, also belongs to the 
Royal Cape Breton Yacht Club. 

BENJAMIN D. F. PAYZANT. 

There is a recess in every man's brain that answers to the call 
of the wilderness, a heritage of prehistoric origin which will be with 
us always. If given the opportunity, it will respond at once to nature's 
beauty and depth. What is more natural than man's love for the 
conditions and environment that gave him food and shelter, enabling 
him to live during the dawn of his existence^ Thus it is easy to 
understand why many of us prefer the country and life on the farm 
to that of the city. Benjamin D. F. Payzant, of Falmouth, Hants 
County, is one of our citizens who prefers rural scenes to the metropo- 
lis. For generations his family have been tillers of the soil, for the 
most part. The older members knew what it was to fight the wilder- 
ness in order to live, but this they did courageously and successfully, 
and never complained that their lot was hard. 

Mr. Payzant, of this sketch, was born on January 6, 1881, in the 
vicinity of Falmouth, Hants County, and there grew to manhood 
and received his education in the public schools and Acadia. He 






eg HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

has devoted his life to general farming and is living on the old home- 
stead, the original grant which was made to his ancestors in pioneer 
days. The farm is highly improved with good buildings and all mod- 
ern conveniences. 

Mr. Payzant is of Huguenot descent. He is a son of John M. 
and Emma (Scott) Payzant, and a grandson of Elias and Rachael 
(Smith) Payzant, both cousins of John Y. Payzant, a son of Peter 
and Catherine (Smith) Payzant. Our subject's brothers and sisters 
are: Laura Maude, Annie Teressa is the wife of Robert Howard, 
Elias Richard Payzant is a dentist, Godfrey Philip Payzant is also 
a dentist and is a major in the militia. 

Benjamin I). F. Payzant married Carrie Gertrude Church, on 
lune 6. 191 i, and to this union two children have been bom, namely: 
Emma Church Payzant, and John Marshall Payzant. 

Politically, Mr. Payzant is a Liberal. 

S. A. CHESLEY. 

The name of S. A. Chesley, barrister and judge of Probate of 
Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, stands out distinctly as one of the central 
figures in the professional circles of Lunenburg County. Continu- 
ous application through many years has given him a clear and compre- 
hensive insight into the philosophy and basic principles of 
jurisprudence, and the largest wisdom as to the method and means 
of attainment of ends, and he achieved success in the courts when 
most young men are just entering upon the formative period of their 
lives. 

Mr. Chesley was born at Moncton, New Brunswick, August 14, 
1849. He is a son of Rev. Robert Ansley Chesley, a native of Gran- 
ville township, Annapolis County; the mother was Hannah Elizabeth 
Albee, a native of Milltown, New Brunswick. Samuel Chesley, the 
grandfather, was born in the same vicinity in which the father of 
our subject, was l>orn. There this family located in an early day. 
Samuel Chesley, the great grandfather, came to Nova Scotia from 
the New England colonies in 1/58, intending to join General Wolfe 
and participate in the war then on between Great Britain and France 
for the possession of Canada, but when he reached Halifax, he found 
that the work of General Wolfe had already been accomplished. 
Soon thereafter Mr. Chesley was appointed by the government to sur- 
vey the Township Annapolis, and he accepted an allotment, pur- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 59 

suading two of his brothers to join him, and they came up from New 
Hampshire, then a part of the Province of Massachusetts. One of 
the brothers located at Wilmot, but the other returned to New Eng- 
land after a short time here. An ancestor, Capt. Samuel Chesley, 
was in command of a company at Port Royal in 1707, and the 
Massachusetts Historical Society states that he performed an action 
of special bravery. The great grandfather engaged in farming on 
the original homestead, and there the grandfather also remained and 
engaged in farming. He was twice married. Thomas, his eldest 
son, by the second wife, was a barrister, became a King's counsellor, 
practiced law many years in Annapolis Count}-, and he owned a 
portion of the original property; Phineas, another son, was a farmer 
on another portion of the original homestead; Henry, who was 
inclined to mercantile pursuits, died comparatively young. Rev. Rob- 
ert A. Chesley, father of our subject, was received as a candidate for 
the ministry about 1843 and was ordained in 1848. He became one 
of the prominent men of his denomination, and during his career 
had charge of the churches at Moncton, Sussex, Digby and St. John's 
Newfoundland, where his death occurred in 1856 at the age of forty 
years. His family consisted of five children, of whom the subject of 
this sketch is the eldest. The youngest died in 1857 and two died 
in 1859, and only two of the children reached maturity. 

S. A. Chesley received his early education in the various towns 
where he lived during his father's ministry, which took him from place 
to place. In 1861 he entered school at Sackville, New Brunswick. 
and was graduated in 1866, after which he became assistant teacher 
in the Weslyan Academy in St. John's, Newfoundland, remaining 
there two years, then accepted a position as assistant master in the 
boys' department of the Sackville Academy, where he remained one 
year, then entered the office of James & Foster, Barristers. Mr. James 
afterward became Justice James, of the Supreme Court. He read 
law with success and was admitted to the bar in December, 1873, 
after which he began the practice of his profession in Halifax and 
and remained for six years, in partnership with the Hon. Benjamin 
Russell, and in 1879 he located in Lunenburg, where he remained 
until 1882, in which year he was appointed Judge of Probate, which 
position he has held to the present time. He was also appointed 
recorder and stipendiary magistrate of the shire town in November 
1888, being the first to hold the position and he has held the same ever 
since. His long retention of these important offices would indicate 



60 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

that he has been faithful, conscientious and painstaking in his work 
and has given eminent satisfaction in every particular. 

Judge Chesley was married in May, 1874 to Mary Rebecca Russell, 
a daughter of Nathaniel Russell. A sketch of this excellent family 
will be found on another page of this work. The following children 
were born to our subject and wife : Robert Ansley and Agnes Davison 
were both drowned in Lunfnburg Harbor, October 8, 1895; Mary 
Albee is now taking a post-graduate course in economics and political 
science at the University of London, London, England. She was 
previously graduated from Mount Allison University. 

Fraternally Mr. Chesley is a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, having passed through the chairs of the local lodge, and 
he was Grand Master in 1902 and 1903 of the Maritime Provinces; he 
was Grand Representative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 1905, 
and 1906. He was Grand Master again in 1914. From 1873 to 1888, 
inclusive, he was official reporter of the Provincial Parliament. He is 
a member of the Methodist church, and was Sunday school superin- 
tendent for a period of thirty-three years. He has attended every 
annual conference of his church, ever since laymen were admitted to 
the conference in 1884. and has been a memljer of every general 
conference since the last union of the Methodist churches in -the above 
named year. He was nominated in 1882 for the Provincial Parliament 
but retired in favor of the late George A. Ross, who was elected and 
sat until his death in 1888. 

WILLIAM SANGSTER. 

In farming communities it is the rule and not the exception to 
find ordinary educations, but occasionally you meet a family who 
takes more interest in the development of the mind, who remain stu- 
dents and close observers; and as a result they, in time, rise above 
many of their countrymen. Such families are numerous in Nova 
Scotia, and it is a sign that this Province is equal to any in the Domin- 
ion in point of citizenship. One of these is the Sangster family, of 
which William Sangster, a successful fruit grower of Upper Falmouth, 
Hants County, is a creditable representative. 

Mr. Sangster was born in the vicinity where he still resides, on 
November 22, 1846. He is a son of James Murdock Sangster and 
Maria (Wilcox) Sangster, the father a native of Upper Falmouth and 
the mother of Windsor, this Province. John Sangster, the grand- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 6l 

father, was born in Aberdeen, Scotland. He maried Susan Murdock. 
James Wilcox, the maternal grandfather, was a seafaring man. 
Grandmother Songster, ncc Murdock, was a daughter of Rev. James 
Murdock, the first Presbyterian minister in Nova Scotia. Tradition 
says that he .was drowned in the Musquodoboit river. Grandfather 
Sangster bought the property now owned by the subject of this sketch, 
Mary Cannon having been the original owner. The grandfather 
built the present residence about 1806, and the house is still in use 
and is still a substantial and pretentious residence. The boards used 
in its construction were brought form the state of Maine. The house 
has been kept remodeled and is now a fine modern home. 

The father of our subject was engaged in farming for a number 
of years, finally renting his farm and removing to Windsor, where he 
resided a number of years. For some time he managed the quarries 
owned by "Sam Slick," the hero of Haliburton's romantic writings. 
James M. Sangster was active in public affairs and he was elected to 
the Provincial Legislature from Falmouth district. He was a close 
friend and supporter of Hon. Joseph Howe, and was also associated 
with Haliburton, in fact, was an intimate friend of both these great 
men. His death occurred in 1866 at the age of seventy years. His 
family consisted of eight children, the subject of this review having 
been fourth in order of birth. 

William Sangster was reared on the home farm and he has con- 
tinued to reside there, operating the place successfully and keeping it 
in excellent condition. The place consists of rich dyke land. He has 
twenty acres in orchard and makes a specialty of fruit, selling about 
two thousand barrels of apples annually. 

Mr. Sangster married in 18/8 to Mary Armstrong of Falmouth, 
who died in 1879. To this union one child was born. Mary, who 
married Percival Shaw. After the death of his first wife, Mr. Sang- 
ster married Matilda Finney of Annapolis County, a daughter of 
Caleb Finney of that County, where he settled in an early day. To 
this second union the following children have been born : James 
Murdock, who died in Halifax; Guy Carleton, married Lorilla Taylor 
of Falmouth ; William John, is a member of the King's Canadian 
Hussars, is now a lieutenant in the One Hundred and Twelfth Regi- 
ment, enlisting for overseas service, to fight for his country; Earl 
Harold and Arthur Gordon, the two youngest children, are at home. 
Politically Mr. Sangster is a Liberal. 

In the year 1812 Grandfather Sangster gave land for a church 



52 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

and St. George's church was accordingly erected thereon. In 1904 
our subject gave the land for the present new church. Mrs. Sangster 
is a member of the same, and she is active in all good work in the 
community, in fact, was the leading spirit in the building of the new 
Church of England at Upper Falmouth. Our subject is a wide reader 
and is a well-informed man. 

WILLIAM SHARP. 

Farming has been considered a game of chance too long and the 
uncertainties of the elements have been overcome to such an extent 
by intelligent study, rotation, the use of fertilizers, drainage and 
intensive cultivation that day by day agriculture is becoming more and 
more an exact science. William Sharp of Windsor, Hants County, 
is a man who believes in progressive methods of agriculture, and he has 
therefore succeeded in this field of endeavor. 

Mr. Sharp was torn at Windsor Fork, Nova Scotia, in November, 
1852. He is a son of Thomas Sharp, who was torn in Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, England, in 1801, and his death occurred in 1872. He married 
Louisa Cowan of Prince Edward Island in 1847. Andrew Sharp, the 
grandfather, was born in the same vicinity as was the father of our 
subject, and he devoted his life to farming in England, never coming 
to America. Thomas Sharp, the father, grew to manhood in his 
native land and there received his education. He immigrated to Nova 
Scotia in the thirties, and after visiting various parts of the Province, 
located in Hants County. His wife was a daughter of John Cowan 
of Berwick, Scotland. Her mother was Mary Heath, a native of Fal- 
mouth, England, who located in Prince Edward Island. She came 
to Windsor, Nova Scotia when eleven years old. Her married sister 
had located here previously. The father located at Windsor Forks, 
and in the spring of 1868 he moved to the present home of his son, 
our subject, which was known formerly as the Cunningham property. 
It is two miles south of Windsor Station and is a valuable farm, well 
improved and well tilled. Thomas Sharp devoted his life successfully 
to general farming pursuits. His family consisted of the following 
children : Robert, who beacme a sea captain, is now engaged in the 
contracting business; Margaret, is the wife of William Stevens of 
Windsor. He was born in Wolfville, and his father, James Stevens, 
came from Scotland and established the family home in Nova Scotia. 

William Sharp of this review was reared on the home farm and 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 63 

educated in the public schools. He continued to reside with the family, 
and took charge of the home farm upon the death of his father, which 
he has since managed in a successful manner. The place consists of 
one hundred acres, and part of it has been planted to orchard, which 
is bearing well and furnishes no small portion of the annual income. 
To the original place our subject has recently added the Maxner farm 
which adjoins the homestead. He makes a specialty of raising short- 
horn cattle and Clydesdale horses, which he imports from Scotland. 
He feeds fine stock and his fine horses are greatly admired. "Gold 
Nugget," his splendid Clydesdale stallion, received third prize at an 
exhibition in Chicago and second prize at the Toronto exposition. He 
weighs over eighteen hundred pounds. Mr. Sharp keeps an average 
of twelve head of these blooded horses, thirty head of shorthorn 
cattle and a number of Shropshire sheep. His farm is most beauti- 
fully located on high land, from which an inspiring and commanding 
view may be had in every direction, including Windsor, King's College 
and the "Sam Slick" house all on the east, while the beautiful valley 
of the Avon surrounds the farm on all sides. Mr. Sharp has done 
a great deal toward encouraging better farming and a better grade of 
live stock in his community. There is no better judge of live stock 
of all kinds in Hants County than he. 
Politically he is a Liberal. 

ERNEST HOWARD ARMSTRONG. 

One of Nova Scotia's most representative barristers and public 
officials is Ernest Howard Armstrong of Yarmouth, the present 
Minister of Public Works and Mines. He was formerly a journalist 
of recognized ability and influence. But it is in the law that his talents 
have shown with peculiar luster. He is a man of firm and decided 
convictions, whether in law, politics, or in any department of thought 
or action embodying his time and attention. 

Mr. Armstrong was born July 27, 1864, at North Kingston, King's 
County. He is a son of Edward and Sarah A. (Currell) Armstrong. 
The father was a Canadian from Loyalist stock on his mother's side, 
and the mother of our subject was English-Canadian. 

Mr. Armstrong was educated in the public schools, later studying 
at Acadia University and Dalhousie University, graduating from the 
latter institution, from the law department, with the degree of Bachelor 
of Laws. After being admitted to the bar he began the practice of 



64 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

his profession with success from the first and he has kept well abreast 
of the times in his profession. 

On May 3, 1892 he was married to Alva G. Grant, a daughter o,f 
the late Henry Grant, of Weymouth, Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Armstrong practiced law at Weymouth, this Province, from 
1889 to 1892, and during that period he was also editor of the Wey- 
mouth Free Press. He also held office of register of deeds for Digby 
Count}- for a short period. He removed to Weymouth in 1892. From 
1894 to 1906 he held the office of vice and deputy United States 
Consul at Yarmouth. He was town councillor there from 1900 to 
1904. and mayor of Yarmouth in 1905. He was elected a member of 
the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia, June 20, 1906, and he was 
re-elected at the general election of 1911. He was appointed a member 
of the Executive Council and Minister of Public Works and Mines, 
July 1 8, 1911. He was created King's Counsel in 1907. 

Politically, he is a Liberal. He was Grand Worthy Patriarch, 
Grand Division, Sons of Temperance for Nova Scotia in 1900. He 
has done much for the cause of temperance in this country and has 
been a tireless worker in this field. Religiously, he is a Methodist. 
As a public servant he has always performed his duties in a manner 
that reflected much credit upon himself and to the satisfaction of all 
concerned, being conscientious, faithful, industrious and honorable, 
and his widespread popularity is well deserved. 

WILLIAM O'BRIEN. 

William O'Brien, one of the successful farmers of Hants County, 
was born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, April 16, 1855. He is a son of 
William O' Brien, Sr., and Louisa (Leonard) O'Brien, both natives 
of the same vicinity in which our subject was born. The death of 
the father occurred in 1890 at the advanced age of eighty-five years. 
The mother was sixty years old when she died. Timothy O'Brien, 
the grandfather, was also torn near Windsor, this Province, but his 
father, Timothy O'Brien, Sr., was a native of Londonderry, Ireland, 
from which country he came to Nova Scotia in an early day, locating 
in Hants County, on a farm near Windsor, he and his family living 
for a time in the Colonel Butler property. He was a man of means 
and an influential man in his day and generation. He was a large 
land owner and his son, Timothy, our subject's grandfather, bought the 
land that now forms a part of the town of Windsor, the same lying 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 65 

between the Methodist church and the Church of England, also that 
section known as the old jail corner and east to the property now 
belonging to the Free Masons and used by them as a home. He also 
owned some land which he sold to the Catholic church at the Plains. 
His brother, James O'Brien, was register of deeds at Windsor for 
many years. He served in various town offices, and was well and 
favorably kown throughout this section of the Province. His brother, 
John O'Brien, went to New Brunswick, and his descendants are still 
living in the St. George district, where they have been successful. 
James, a son of John O'Brien represented Charlotte County in the 
Provincial Parliament for a number of years. Edward O'Brien, who 
made his home in Windsor, was well-known and he was a close 
personal friend of Hon. Joseph Howe. He was collector of customs 
for a number of years. Isaac O'Brien went to California with the 
gold hunters in 1849, but he was never heard from but once thereafter. 

William O'Brien, Jr., was the eldest son of a family of five 
children. He grew up on the home farm and received his education 
in private schools in Windsor, later attending the public schools for 
a time, after they were established in the sixties. He was also a 
student in the private school of Thomas Cunen. Our subject began 
farming on the home place aftt- ii-riving school, and continued there 
for a number of years, then bought the Henry Palmer farm 
at Windsor Forks, Hants County. He still retains the original 
purchase, and is now owner of twenty-five hundred acres, a large 
portion of which is in valuable timber, to which he is giving 
considerable attention. He raises grains of all kinds, also a diversity 
of root crops. One hundred and fifty acres is dyke marsh land, on 
which he raises large quantities of hay. He has about fifteen acres 
of orchard. In connection with general farming he devotes a great 
deal of attention to live stock, breeding heavy draft horses, Clydes- 
dale. On several occasions he has won sweepstakes at the Provincial 
Fair at Halifax, also at the fairs at St. John, Fredericton and Windsor. 
He also raises fine cattle, making a specialty of Here fords pure bred 
with which he has won three sweepstakes at the St. John Provincial 
Exposition, in 1914. His sons carried first and second prizes in the 
Hereford class, at the New Brunswick fair at St. John in 1914 
twenty-three in all. 

Mr. O'Brien was married on December 6, 1876 to Annie Taylor, 
of Windsor Forks. She was born September 2, 1854, and is a daugh- 
(5) 



66 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ter of John and Jane (Redden) Taylor, both parents natives also of 
Windsor Forks, where the family has long been well and favorably 
known and where Mrs. O'Brien grew to womanhood and was educated. 
Her grandfather, William Taylor, was a native of Kilcarden, Scotland. 
To Mr. and Mrs. O'Brien the following children have been born : 
Louisa Jane, George, John T., Fannie Isabel, William Burbee, Cath- 
erine, James, Mary, Annie Jeanette, and Robert Bell. These children 
have received good educational advantages. 

HON. ALFRED GILPIN JONES. 

Biography, more than anything else, commands the most interested 
attention for the reason that it is a record of those who, in times 
gone by, traveled the thorny pathway of life as companions, acquain- 
tances, friends or relatives. To preserve from forget fulness the 
simple story of their experiences and record their acts, however 
uneventful, is a task attended with much pleasure and fraught with 
great good to humanity. Especially is this the case when the subject, 
like that of the late Hon. Alfred Gilpin Jones, for many years one of 
the prominent business and public men of Nova Scotia, has led a 
useful and honorable life. He was the son of the late Guy C. Jones, 
who held the office of register of deeds of Digby County for a number 
of years, was born at Weymouth, Nova Scotia, in September, 1824, 
and there he grew to manhood and was educated in the public schools, 
later attending Yarmouth Academy. He married, first, in 1850, 
Margaret Wiseman Stairs, a daughter of W. Stairs ; her death occurred 
in February, 1875. His second marriage, which took place in 1877, 
was to Emma Albro, a daughter of Edward Albro, of Halifax. 

Mr. Jones was for some time head of the firm of A. G. Jones 
& Company, West Indian merchants, and they built up a large trade. 
He was a governor of the Protestant Orphan's Home, also a gover- 
nor of Dalhousie College. He was president of the Nova Scotia 
Marine Insurance Company, and was a director of the Acadia Insu- 
rance Company. He was very successful in business affairs, being a 
man of industry, sound judgment and wise foresight. He was lieu- 
tenant-colonel, commanding the First Halifax Brigade, garrison 
artillery, for several years. He sat in the House of Commons for 
Halifax from 1867 to 1872, when he was defeated. He was re-elected 
at the general election in 1874, but resigned in January, 1878, in 
consequence of an alleged breach independence of Parliamentary act. 







HON. ALFRED GILPIN JONES, P. C. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 67 

He was sworn to the Privy Council and held the office of Minister 
of Militia in the Mackenzie administration from January, 1878 to 
September, 1878. He was the unsuccessful candidate at the general 
election of 1878 and also in 1882, but was re-elected at the general 
election in 1887, in each case as a Liberal. On July 26, 1900 he was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, and sworn in on 
August 7, 1900. and he held that office until 1906, discharging his 
duties in a manner that reflected much credit upon himself and to the 
eminent satisfaction of all concerned. 

Mr. Jones was father of seven children by his first marriage, 
five of whom are still living, namely: Alfred E., Walter G., Col. 
Guy Carleton; Alice C, and Mrs. Frances Bannerman. His second 
union was without issue. 

The death of Mr. Jones occurred March 15, 1906, in Halifax. 

GEORGE BURNETT O'BRIEN. 

Life is where things are born and live and grow. On the farm 
is real life. It is not to be found in the city. Realizing these facts, 
George Burnett O'Brien of Windsor Forks, Hants County, is con- 
tented with his environment and is one of the most progressive of 
the younger generation of agriculturists in this section of the Province. 

Mr. O'Brien was born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, February 16, 
1880. He spent his early days in Windsor and with his parents, re- 
ceiving his education in the public schools. About 1903 he started 
farming on his own account, on the place which William Taylor, his 
great-great grandfather, first settled when he came to this country 
from Scotland. Young O'Brien leased the land from Judge Monk's 
family, and the place is still known as Monkville. He was successful 
from the first and has a good farming business. 

The subject of this sketch was married January 27, 1908, to Maty 
King Bacon, of Windsor, a daughter of William Bacon, of Falmouth, 
Nova Scotia. Her mother was known as Margaret Sweet in her 
maidenhood. This is an old family in the Falmouth district. Two 
children have been born to our subject and wife, Arthur Edward, and 
Alice Jeanette. 

Mr. O'Brien owns forty acres of good dyke land and over fifty 
acres of upland, most of which is in orchard. Besides carrying on 
general farming and orcharding he devotes considerable attention to 
raising fine live stock, specializing in breeding Clydesdale horses and 



68 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Hereford cattle. He has done much to improve the live stock in his 
locality, having encouraged the farmers to raise better grades. He 
has frequently exhibited his stock at the various fairs with his father 
and brother, under the name of William O'Brien & Sons. His 
brother, John O'Brien, lives with him and transacts business on his 
own account, having done well, especially in Clydesdale stock. Our 
subject has a fine farm on which may be seen large and substantial 
buildings. He put in a driven well, two hundred feet deep, in 1915, 
and from this he obtains a splendid flow of water. He also raises some 
fine Yorkshire hogs, in connection with his horses and cattle. Some 
of his Yorkshires are crossed with Chesters. He raises large numbers 
of hogs, also of Plymouth Rock Poultry and Toulouse geese. All of 
his stock and poultry are of the first grade and he finds a very ready 
market for what he offers for sale. He has been school trustee for 
a number of years and has served as assessor for three years. 

BURGESS McKlTTRICK. 

One of the most efficient and widely known educators of Lunen- 
btirg County is Burgess McKittrick, who has been principal of the 
public schools of the town of Lunenburg for the past quarter of a 
century, his long retention in this responsible position being criterion 
enough of his ability and high standing as a citizen. 

Principal McKittrick was born at Cornwallis, Kings County, Nova 
Scotia, September 6, 1855. He is a son of James and Sabra (New- 
comb) McKittrick, both natives of Kings County, the father born at 
Horton, and the mother at Cornwallis. William McKittrick, the 
paternal grandfather, was a native of Dumfries, Scotland. John 
Newcomb, the maternal grandfather, was born in Kings County, this 
Province, his family having been of old New England stock. The 
late Dr. Simon Newcomb, of Washington, D. C, was of this family. 
The principal's grandfather devoted his active life to farming and 
was successful beyond the average tiller of the soil, and he was a man 
of influence in his community, having long taken an active part in 
public affairs, being known as Squire McKittrick. He was for some 
time a justice of the peace. The wife of John Newcomb, the maternal 
grandmother, was a granddaughter of Rev. George Gilmore of Grand 
Pre, who was the pioneer Congregationalist minister of that place. 
His monument in the old Grand Pre cemetery was so badly defaced 
by tourists chipping off pieces of it for souvenirs that it was removed 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 69 

to within the church and covered with glass. James McKittrick, 
father of our subject, engaged in general farming pursuits, later in 
life removing to Cornwallis where he bought a farm and there engaged 
in orcharding and general farming. He was a member of the Presby- 
terian church. He took a deep interest in educational affairs. His 
death occurred in 1911 at the advanced age of eighty-eight years, 
after a long, successful and useful life. 

Burgess McKittrick is the eldest of a family of four, three of 
whom are still living. He received his elementary education in the 
public schools of his locality, and worked on the farm when growing 
to manhood. He subsequently entered Dalhousie University, from 
which he was graduated with the class of 1877, having received the 
Governor General's silver medal. 

After leaving college, Mr. McKittrick began his profession of 
teaching at Sydney, Nova Scotia, later teaching at Truro and Lunen- 
burg, having had charge of the County Academy in each place, and he 
did much to strengthen the work at all three, introducing new and 
better methods in many instances and advocating modern equipment. 
During his protracted stay at Lunenburg of twenty-five years he has 
built up one of the best public school systems of any town in the 
Province and the populace owes him a debt of gratitude for his excel- 
lent work. 

Principal McKittrick was married July 19, 1893, to Jessie, eldest 
daughter of the late Stephen Finck, of Lunenburg. She is of German 
extraction on the father's side and of Scotch descent on her mother's 
side. She has been well educated. 

Both the principal and his wife are active members of the Presby- 
terian church, in which he is an elder. 

SAMUEL M. BROOKFIELD. 

It is the progressive, wide-awake man of affairs who makes the 
real history of a community, and his influence as a potential factor 
of the body politic is difficult to estimate. The examples such men 
furnish of patient purpose and steadfast integrity strongly illustrate 
what is in the power of each to accomplish. One of the most repre- 
sentative citizens of Nova Scotia is Samuel M. Brookfield, who is also 
one of the progressive business men of the City of Halifax where he 
has long been influential in the general development of the community. 

Mr. Brookfield was born in England, November 29, 1847, and is 



yO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

a son of the late John Brookfield, C. E., who came to this country to 
build the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway in 1852. Some forty 
miles of railway was constructed when the Railway Company failed. 
It is now part of the C. P. R. from St. Andrews to McAdam. He 
then built several sections of the European and North American 
Railway, now called the Intercolonial. He settled in Halifax, com- 
pleted the Provincial Building, built the fortifications on George's 
Island, Fort Clarence or Eastern Battery, McNab's Island or Ives 
Point, the Batteries at Point Pleasant, etc. 

The subject of this review was educated partly in England and 
partly in Canada. In 1877 he was united in marriage to Annie Waites, 
a daughter of George Waites and wife, a highly respected family of 
Manchester, England. The death of Mrs. Brookfield occurred in 
February, 1909. She was a woman of culture and refinement and 
a favorite in the circles in which she moved. To our subject and 
wife were born a daughter, who died in infancy, and a son, John 
Waites Brookfield, who is now manager of The Halifax Graving 
Dock Company. and a director of the S. M. Brookfield, Limited. 

Mr. Brookfield began his business career when young in years and, 
by the exercise of sound judgment, wise foresight and honest and 
courteous dealings with his fellow-men he has advanced with the 
material and industrial development of the times until he has become 
one of the financially strong men of eastern Canada. He followed 
in the footsteps of his father in a business way and has long been one 
of the most widely known contractors and builders of the Maritime 
Provinces. He is president of S. M. Brookfield, Limited, contractors 
and builders, and as such has successfully carried out important con- 
tracts in New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, including 
the building of the Halifax Graving Dock, completed in 1889 for a 
company of which he is the chairman and managing director. To 
bring work to the dry dock he with others formed a salvage associa- 
tion and has been successful in bringing a number of steamers to the 
port for repairs, including the U land a, Mount Temple, etc. He is a 
director of the Halifax Academy of Music, the Mexican Northern 
Power Company, and the Eastern Trust Company. He is president 
of the Eastern Canada Savings and Loan Company and also of the 
Maritime Telegraph and Telephone Company. He was the chief 
promoter of the Canada and Newfoundland Steamship Company, 
1892, which was successfully carried on for a number of years and 
sold out to Messrs, Furness, Withy and Company. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. "J\ 

Mr. Brookfield is a senator and a member of the Board of Regents 
of Mount Allison University. He was founder of the S. M. Brook- 
field prizes in that institution. He is a director in the British Ameri- 
can Book and Tract Society, and also of the Protestant Orphans' 
Home, and a director and trustee of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation of Halifax. He is president of the Seamen's Friend Society 
and of the Halifax Protestant Industrial Scool. Politically, he is a 
Conservative. He is a memljer of the Methodist church, and the 
Halifax Club. One of the leading newspapers of Canada recently 
said of him, "He is a man of faith, energy and perseverance." 

DONALD FRANK MATHESON. 

The present perfection of the law was not accomplished in a day 
or years. It is the combined wisdom of the ages. It is said to be the 
"perfection of human reason," and has been handed down to us by 
lawyers and judges of the long past. One of the successful barristers 
of Lunenburg County is Donald Frank Matheson, King's counselor. 

Mr. Matheson was born in St. Peters, Cape Breton Island, May 
26, 1877. He is a son of John D. and Isabella (McXevin) Matheson, 
the father a native of St. Peters and the mother of Sydney, Nova 
Scotia. Donald Matheson, the grandfather, was a native of Plockton, 
Inverness, Scotland, and when three years of age his father brought 
him to Cape Breton in the eighteenth century, and settled at St. 
Peters. The grandfather McNevin came to this country with a Scotch 
regiment of the British army, and upon being disbanded in Nova 
Scotia, settled in Sydney. He was a native of the Isle of Skye. Later 
in life he removed to Ontario, dying in Barrie. The father followed 
mercantile life, and for a quarter of a century has been lock master 
on the St. Peters Canal, in Cape Breton, which position he still holds. 
His family consists of eight children, of whom Donald F. Matheson 
was second in order of birth. Several of his brothers have located 
in the West. 

After his elementary education in the public schools our subject 
entered the law department of Dalhousie University, at Halifax, from 
which he was graduated in 1899. He first began the practice of his 
profession, after being admitted to the bar, in Halifax, with McNeil, 
O'Connor & Matheson, which firm continued two years, then our 
subject went to Sydney where he practiced a year in partnership with 
A. D. Gunn, then joined A. K. McLean under the firm name of McLean 



72 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

& Matheson. In ign A. K. McLean, the senior partner, was elected 
to the Dominion Parliament, and soon thereafter removed to Halifax, 
and is now head of the firm of McLean, Paton, Burchell & Ralston. 
Since 1911 Mr. Matheson has continued to practice alone and he has 
built up a very satisfactory clientage at Lunenburg. 

Mr. Matheson was married in April, 1907, to Margaret L. Hebb, 
of Lunenburg. She is a daughter of A. A. Hebb, who died when she 
was an infant. This union has resulted in the birth of two children, 
Isabelle M., and Frank R. 

Politically, Mr. Matheson is a Liberal, and although he has been 
president of the Lunenburg Liberal County Association for seven 
years past, he has never sought public office. Fraternally, he is a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

WALTER DAY BOWERS. 

History is made rapidly in these latter days, representing cease- 
less work and the proudest achievements in all lines. It is gratifying 
to mark the records of those whose influence has impressed itself along 
the various channels through which the swelling tide of accomplish- 
ment makes it way. If the present volumes are to contain the names 
of the men who have "done things" in Nova Scotia, that of Walter 
Day Bowers will necessarily have to be included within their pages. 
For many years he has been regarded as one of the 'leading men of 
affairs of Shubenacadie, Hants County. 

Mr. Bowers was born at Bridgewater, Lunenburg County, Nova 
Scotia, September 15, 1861, and is a son of Rev. William and Louisa 
(Cossmann) Bowers, the father a native of Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the mother of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. Grandfather 
Bowers was one of the early settlers of Philadelphia. Rev. Charles E. 
Cossmann, the maternal grandfather, was a native of Germany, where 
he grew up, was educated as a clergyman in the Lutheran church, and 
when a young man he immigrated to Nova Scotia, where he became 
a noted preacher, and he lived to the advanced age of ninety-two 
years, dying in 1895. For many years he preached in the Old Dutch 
church in Halifax once each year up until his death. He always 
preached in the German language. His family consisted of four sons 
and four daughters. The mother of our subject is still living. In 
1837 the father sent her and her eldest brother across the ocean to 
Germany by the way of England. She was at that time thirteen years 




LAX]) OF EVANGELIXE WILLOWS AND WELLS. 




RESIDENCE OF THOMAS CHANDLER HALIBUKTON, 

"Sam Slick House," Windsor. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 73 

old. They attended school in Germany for a number of years. They 
were present at the coronation of Queen Victoria, they having been 
in charge of a doctor and his wife who were going in the same ship, 
and owing to failure on the part of the doctor to give their London 
address the uncle in Germany came to that city and searched in vain 
for his nephew and niece. He returned to Germany, and the doctor 
in his next letter gave the address, so the uncle returned to London 
and was successful in locating his relatives. The children enjoyed 
their sojourn of some six weeks in the English metropolis. 

Rev. William Bowers spent his boyhood in Philadelphia, but 
when a young man came to Nova Scotia. He died at an early age in 
Virginia, whither he had gone on a visit, being ill only two days, and 
he was buried in Philadelphia. He left a family of three sons and 
one daughter, namely : Charles, the eldest, is a master mariner and 
makes his home in Mobile, Alabama; Walter 1). of this review; 
Frederick, who is now pastor of Grace church in Philadelphia; Alary 
is teaching school in Bridgewater. 

Walter D. Bowers spent his boyhood in Bridgewater and Lunen- 
burg, his father having preached mostly in the latter place. He was 
educated in the public schools. He began his career by starting to 
work for Andrew Gow, a ship owner and agent of the Merchants 
Bank of Halifax, and when this concern established a branch bank 
at Lunenburg our subject entered their employ, on January i, 1883, 
remaining two years in the branch at Lunenburg, then was transferred 
to Bathurst, New Brunswick, where he spent three years in similar 
work, then went to Moncton, remaining there one year, after which 
he was transferred to Truro, where he spent eight years, then was 
made manager of the Maitland branch, continuing as such seven 
years, when he was transferred to Shubenacadie, in 1905, and here 
has continued to the present time. He has given his employers 
eminent satisfaction in every respect, being faithful, trustworthy, 
efficient and honest as well as courteous in his dealings with the 
bank's patrons. 

Mr. Bowers was married in June, 1895, to Tena McLeod of 
Truro, a daughter of George McLeod of Bible Hill, Truro. To this 
union the following children have been born : Carl, who was educa- 
ted in Truro. is now with the Canadian troops at the front in Europe; 
Helen is in school ; Walter is also a student. 

Mr. Bowers has always manifested an active interest in agricul- 
ture. While living in Maitland he was secretary of the Agricultural 



74 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Society, and while in Truro he took a more active part in horses, of 
which he is an excellent judge. After coming to Shubenacadie he 
again became active in his efforts to encourage the farmers to adopt 
modern agricultural methods and he has done much to encourage 
better farming in that vicinity. He was instrumental in starting the 
movement in 1910 which resulted in holding an agricultural show, 
and in 1912 the present substantial buildings were erected and the 
grounds at the edge of the town prepared. The fair of that year was 
most successful. In 1914 they took in Colchester County and had a 
still more intersting fair. The judge of roots and vegetables was 
the same man who acted as judge at the Provincial Exhibition in 
St. John, Xew Brunswick Samuel Moore, who is connected with the 
Dominion Department of Seeds and Grazing. It was his opinion 
that the exhibit at Shubenacadie in 1914 was better than that at St. 
John. In 1912 money was raised to pay for the fair grounds, and in 
five weeks from the first meeting the buildings were completed and 
the exhibition started. The grounds are owned by Shubenacadie 
Exhibition Grounds Company, the agricultural society being apart 
from it, although the directorship is much the same. The buildings 
are so arranged that they serve other purposes, the main building in 
winter being used for a skating rink. The dining building is so 
arranged as to be suitable for meetings, and during the winter months 
the Agricultural College uses it for their short-term meetings. The 
grounds occupy about seven acres. Mr. Bowers has been one of the 
chief promoters and secretary of the company. He belongs to the 
Masonic order. He and his family affiliate with the Presbyterian 
church. 

JAMES COCHRAX SPEXCE. 

Among the straightforward business men of the town of St. 
Croix, Hants County, who has helped to make his community a com- 
mercial center and a desirable place in which to live in every way, 
is James Cochran Spence, a dealer in farming implements. Like his 
father before him, he has always borne a reputation for wholesome 
living in all the walks of life. 

Mr. Spence was born in the town and county mentioned above, 
July 10, 1860, and here has been content to spend his life. He is 
a son of Xathaniel David Spence, who was also born in that vicinity, 
in January, 1884, and who died there February 5, 1914, at an advanced 
age. The mother of our subject was Mary Ann Cochran, who was 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 75 

born at Sweets Corner, Hants County, dying in April, 1912. Andrew 
Inglis Spence, the grandfather was also born at St. Croix, this Prov- 
ince, married Margaret Smith of that place, and he died in October, 
1897, at tne advanced age of ninety- four years, his wife dying when 
eighty-four years old. The great grandfather of our subject came 
to Nova Scotia from Scotland and here married a Miss Ray, and they 
were among the original settlers in the St. Croix district, where they 
engaged in farming. The grandfather was also a successful fanner 
all his life. 

James C. Spence grew up on the home place and received his 
education in the public schools at St. Croix, continuing on the farm 
with his father for a number of years after reaching his majority. 
He was married in 1884 to Sarah Sweet, of his home community. 
She is a daughter of Locker Sweet, who represented an old family 
of Hants County. To Mr. and Mrs. Spence, the following children 
have been born: Harold Allison is at home; Roy Lockhart is living 
in San Mateo, California ; Ralph P>skine, a bank accountant at Sydney. 
was with the First Canadian contingent of troops at Yal Cartier for 
some time and is at present somewhere in France; J. Welton, who 
was graduated from the engineering department of the Technical 
school of Nova Scotia, has enlisted for overseas service; Reginald, 
deceased; Cecil M. V. was employed by the Royal Bank of Canada 
at Windsor, but is now a member of the Sixty-fourth Battalion over- 
seas; Nettie is the wife of R. W. Mosher of New York; Ella G. is at 
home ; Howard N. is attending King's College, Windsor. 

Mrs. Spence was the daughter of John Lockhart Sweet, who 
married Sarah L. Glassey. 

Mr. Spence has been engaged in various lines of business, but has 
made farming machinery a specialty. He has a large and well-stocked 
store at St. Croix and has built up a very satisfactory business with 
the surrounding country. 

The grandfather of Mr. Spence spent his life as a farmer, and 
took an active interest in public affairs. He was a man of high stand- 
ing in his community. The father of our subject engaged in the saw- 
mill business for many years, operating four mills at one time, three 
by water power and one by steam. He also carried on farming on an 
extensive scale. He kept about two hundred head of cattle and from 
thirty-five to forty head of horses, and owned many thousands of 
acres of woodlands, at his death leaving some three thousand acres of 
timber land and a number of valuable farms. He took an active 



76 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

part in all public affairs. He was persuaded to become a candidate 
for the local House, his friends maintaining that he was the only man 
on his ticket, the Conservative, that could be elected from Hants 
County, and he was accordingly elected. He was an able man and 
very popular. It was about 1880 that he was elected to the local 
Legislature, and he was twice re-elected, serving eight years in all, 
making an excellent record as a public servant. His family consisted 
of nine children, seven of whom have remained in Hants County; 
they were named as follows : James C. of this sketch; David Nathaniel 
lives at St. Croix ; Andrew Herbert is in the customs department at 
Windsor; Robie Edward lives in St. Croix; William Arthur lives in 
British Columbia; Maurice S. lives in St. Croix; George M. lives in 
Ellershouse, Hants County : Ernest Henry Allison is deceased ; and 
Mabel S. makes her home in St. Croix. 

Politically, James C. Spence is a Conservative. 

WILLIAM SMITH WHITMAN. 

One of the well-known citizens of Hantsport, Hants County, Nova 
Scotia, is William Smith Whitman, who has held positions of public 
trust and has long been influential in this section of the Province, and 
his record shows that he has faithfully performed each trust reposed 
in him. 

Mr. Whitman was born at Aylesford, Kings County, Nova Scotia, 
February 10, 1853. He is a son of Zachariah and Susan (Hutchinson) 
Whitman, natives of Annapolis and Kings counties, respectively. 
Daniel Whitman, the paternal grandfather, was a resident of New 
Albany, Annapolis County, for many years. The Whitmans are of 
New England stock. Both our subject's grandfather and father 
devoted their active lives to general farming. Zachariah Whitman 
lived to be seventy-four years of age. His family consisted of seven 
children, one of whom died in infancy, but the other six still sur- 
vive, the subject of this sketch being the fourth in order of birth. His 
youngest brother died at Aylesford, September 20, 1915. 

After his school days and his work on the homestead as a boy, 
William Whitman, at the age of eighteen years, went to Lincoln, 
Massachusetts, where he engaged in farming six months, then returned 
home, but a few weeks later he went back to Massachusetts, and secured 
employment at West Upton with William Knowlton & Sons, hat 
manufacturers, continuing but a short time, when, owing to the ill 
health of an elder brother, also of that town, he returned home with 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 77 

him. A few weeks later we find him in Providence, Rhode Island, 
where he worked for Bishop Brothers as a salesman, traveling over 
the New England states as far south as Maryland, continuing on the 
road for this firm for about seven years, giving entire satisfaction, 
doing much the meanwhile to increase the prestige and business of 
his house. During a portion of that time he was a partner in the 
business. However, misfortune overtook the firm and Mr. Whitman 
lost all his earnings. He had the consolation of knowing that he 
had valuable experience. He went to New York City and went into 
partnership with D. P. Cheesborough, manufacturing ladders of 
various kinds, scaffolding, etc., for builders and painters, making a 
specialty of scaffolding in churches, theaters, etc., the firm being origi- 
nators in this line. They continued successfully for about eleven years, 
but close application and anxiety finally undermined Mr. Whitman's 
health, and, selling out, came to Nova Scotia, locating at Hantsport, 
where he has since resided. He has taken an abiding interest in public 
affairs, and served his city very ably as mayor for a period of five 
years, having been elected successively. During that period he did 
much for the permanent good of the town. Later he was appointed 
stipendiary magistrate for the town of Hantsport and Commissioner 
of the Supreme and County Courts. These positions he filled in a 
manner that reflected much credit upon himself and to the eminent 
satisfaction of all concerned. 

Mr. Whitman was married September 17, 1880, to Louisa Oakes, 
of New Albany, Annapolis County. She was a daughter of the late 
Jesse Oakes, whose death occurred March 15, 1898. and a sister of 
Prof. I. B. Oakes, of Acadia College, at Wolfville, Nova Scotia. 

To our subject and wife the following children have been born : 
Edna C. is the wife of Victor L. O. Chittick of Seattle, Washington, 
he being a professor in the University of Washington, located in that 
city. Cora, second of Mr. Whitman's children, is at home with her 
parents. Both these children were given good educations, finishing 
at Mt. Allison University. Mr. Whitman was married a second time 
on September 26, 1903 to Mary Burgoyne, of Kentville, Kings County, 
Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Whitman is an active member of the Methodist church of 
Hantsport, and is the recording steward and treasurer, also superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school of that church. In 1906 he was elected 
to the general conference at Montreal, being one of the ten laymen 
attending the conference from this Province. He was again elected 



78 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

to attend the general conference of the Methodist church in 1910, 
which met in Victoria, British Columbia, and in 1914 he was sent a 
third time as a delegate to the general conference which was held in 
Ottawa. 

WILLIAM STERLING. 

Among the enterprising merchants of Hantsport, Nova Scotia, is 
William Sterling, a man who has gained success in the business 
world partly because he was well adapted by nature for such a career 
and partly because he has been, persistent and honest. 

Mr. Sterling was born at Westmoreland, New Brunswick, March 
14, 1867. He is a son of Cyrus Sterling, who died when our subject 
was quite young. Our subject is a descendant of an old New England 
family, some members of which settled in New Brunswick, others in 
Nova Scotia. 

After his school days William Sterling engaged in business with 
N. C. Nordby at Parrsboro as salesman, continuing successfully seven 
or eight years. He then accepted a position with the H. Elkerdin 
Company at Port Greville, working as chief clerk for some time, in 
which capacity he gave eminent satisfaction, and then became manager 
of the firm's general store. Under his direction the business grew 
most encouragingly. Saving his earnings he purchased the business 
of this company in 1906 and continued it successfully until he sold 
out in 1912. He then moved to Hansport, purchased a large lot at 
his present location and erected thereon a substantial, modern store, 
thirty-two by sixty feet, two stories and basement. He carries a large 
and well-selected stock of general merchandise and has enjoyed a good 
trade from the first, which has rapidly grown. His customers come 
from all over the adjacent country, some from remote parts. His 
store would be a credit to towns much larger than Hantsport. He is 
also owner of some excellent farming land in Cumberland County, 
which is not only good soil but is favorably located. 

Mr. Sterling was married August 9, 1908, to Ada J. Hatfield, of 
Port Greville, Nova Scotia, where she grew up and attended school 
and where her family has long been well known. She is the daughter 
of the late George Hatfield, who for many years was one of the suc- 
cessful farmers of the vicinity of Port Greville. 

Fraternally, Mr. Sterling is a member of the Knights of Pythias, 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Canadian Order of 
Foresters. He has passed all the chairs in the Knights of Pythias. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 79 

Mr. Sterling is a very good business man and in addition to his 
mercantile pursuits he has been engaged extensively in shipping for 
a number of years, doing a large business. By dealing courteously 
and honestly with his customers and patrons he has gained the good 
will and confidence of all with whom he has come in contact. He is 
one of the boosters of Hantsport and community. 

DANIEL W. MURRAY. 

Some sections of Nova Scotia being peculiarly adapted to fruit 
growing, a large industry has been built up. In order to properly 
handle and market this fruit baskets, crates, barrels and boxes must 
be provided. To meet this demand a large manufacturing plant has 
been established at the town of Hantsport, known as the Hantsport 
Fruit Basket Company, Limited, of which Daniel W. Murray is the 
efficient manager. 

Mr. Murray was born at West Branch, River John, Pictou County, 
Nova Scotia, December 8, 1879. He is a son of Robert and Annie 
(Maclean) Murray, both natives of Loganville, Pictou County, the 
father having been born in the year 1835, and there they grew up, 
received common school educational advantages and were married. 
Donald Murray, the paternal grandfather, was a native of Scotland, 
from which country he, in company with several brothers, immigrated 
to Nova Scotia, locating at the town of Loganville, where they 
engaged in fanning. There Donald Murray became well established. 
His family consisted of the following children: William Hugh, Don- 
ald George, John, Robert. All but John, who moved to New Bruns- 
wick, located in the vicinity of the original homestead, which has 
remained in the possession of the family to the present time. 

Robert Murray, father of our subject, grew to manhood on the 
home farm and he devoted his active life to general farming pur- 
suits, meeting with good success. He is still living at the advanced 
age of eighty years. His family consisted of five sons and three 
daughters, seven of whom are still living. 

Daniel W. Murray, of this sketch, was the eldest of the family. 
He grew to manhood on the home farm where he assisted with the 
general work, and during the winter months attended the public 
schools. At the age of sixteen years he began learning the black- 
smith's trade and later removed to the United States where he 
remained two years. In partnership with his brother he went into the 
saw-milling business, also dealt in lumber extensively. They con- 



go HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

tinued for a period of ten years, meeting with a large measure of 
success, owing to their industry, foresight and honest dealings. Then 
our subject purchased his brother's interest. He also purchased the 
box factory of C. O. Nichols & Company at Hantsport, being later 
joined in business again by his brother. Their establishment, which 
has become widely known, has steadily grown and its products are 
meeting with a wide and ready market owing to superior quality, good 
workmanship, and general satisfaction. They have a large and well 
located plant, equipped with modern machinery and many skilled 
employees are on the payroll. They manufacture fruit baskets and 
crates of all kinds, apple barrels, boxes and barrel stock, box shocks, 
sheating, flooring, horse shoes and wheel barrows. They also do cus- 
tom sawing and planing, grain smashing, and handle pine, spruce 
and hemlock lumber. Prompt and first-class work are the watch- 
words of Mr. Murray, and since he took charge of the business the 
output has been increased three-fold and is still steadily growing. A 
large trade lias been built up in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island. 

Mr. Murray was married August 31, 1910, to Emma Jane McCon- 
nell, of River John, Nova Scotia. She is a daughter of George 
McConnell, who operated a tannery at River John. 

One child, Jean Murray, has been born to our subject and wife. 

Mr. Murray is a public-spirited man and takes an interest in the 
general affairs of his town and community. He has served in the town 
council, and has long taken a deep interest in the development of 
Hantsport. 

CHARLES DAVISON. 

One of the well known citizens and enterprising business men of 
Hantsport, Nova Scotia, is Charles Davidson, a man who has succeeded 
in life's strenuous battle because he was endowed by nature with 
courage and tact and also because he has been persistent and honest. 

Captain Davison is the descendant of an old family of this Prov- 
ince. He was born in the town where he still resides, in April, 1854, 
and is a son of John and Louisa (Kirkpatrick) Davison, the father 
born in Hantsport in 1827, died in 1897; the mother was born in 
Colebrook, Kings County. Asa Davison, the paternal grandfather, 
was a native of Falmouth, Nova Scotia, to which place his father 
removed in a very early day from Barnstable, Massachusetts. The 
grandfather followed farming, but the father engaged in shipbuilding, 






a 



a 







HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 8 1 

having been a designer and master ship builder for a number of years, 
having been foreman or master builder for the Churchills. Asa Davi- 
son, the progenitor of the family in Hantsport, came from Falmouth. 
His family consisted of seven sons and three daughters, namely : 
William, Edward, Geoden, Joseph, John, Chipman and George (who 
died at an early age) ; Annie, Rebecca and Mary Jane. The father 
died in 1849, after a successful life as a farmer. William Davison 
owned a large tract of land, which he inherited from his father, and 
he engaged in farming on an extensive scale. He served as post- 
master for fifteen years in Hantsport, erecting a building which was 
used as a post office at the corner of Station Lane and William Street, 
the principal business section of Hantsport. The latter street was 
named in his honor. He married Phoebe Lawrence, and to them seven 
children were born. He had been married previously, and five children 
were born of his first marriage. William Davison died forty years 
ago. Mrs. Davison is still living, having reached the advanced age of 
eighty-five years, and retains all her faculties. Edward Davison was 
a mariner, a captain for many years ; he died at home. Geoden Davi- 
son died quite young in a foreign port. He also was a mariner and 
captain of a vessel for a number of years. Joseph Davison, also a sea 
captain, died at home, leaving a large family. John Davison learned 
the ship building business and was master builder for Ezra Churchill 
& Sons at Hantsport for a number of years. He married Louisa Kirk- 
patrick, who is still living. They reared a large family, of whom Capt. 
Charles Davison is the eldest son. Chipman Davison, who was cai>- 
tain of a vessel for many years, died in Italy, his wife and two young 
daughters being with him at the time; his wife had sailed for some 
years and learned the workings of a ship and some knowledge of 
navigation. Annie Davison was married to the late Ezra Churchill, a 
sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. Her sister, Rebecca, 
married Daniel Huntley, who was engaged in ship building in Hants 
and Kings Counties. Mary Jane Davison married Capt. Abe Coal- 
fleet, and they made their home in Hantsport. It is a fact worthy of 
note that five of the six sons mentioned above all married and that the 
widows of each are still living, their ages being eighty- four, eighty- 
five, eighty-six, eighty-seven and ninety-three (1915). 

Capt. Charles Davison, our subject, being the eldest son found 
plenty of hard work to do in assisting his father when a boy. How- 
ever, he received some education in the public schools. Soon after his 
(6) 



82 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

school days he went to sea, and made that his life work, passing 
through the different stages of the service until he became master or 
captain in 1883; he filled the positions of first and second mate at an 
early age. He commanded the following ships : Gloire, which was 
lost in the Atlantic, having been waterlogged during a terrific storm ; 
the crew had been lost for about four days before being rescued by 
a German ship and taken to Bremer. Captain Davison got his crew 
onto the rescuing ship without losing a man. The German com- 
mander decided that it was impossible for him to put off a single boat. 
Our subject commanded the Recovery for six years, which was used 
in the foreign trade. Owing to an accident he retired from the sea 
and engaged in the grocery business in Hantsport. He has been very 
successful in this line of endeavor, enjoying a good trade all the while. 
Captain Davison married Sarah Auld in 1885, she having been 
a resident of Pictou County, Xova Scotia. This union resulted in the 
birth of six children, Bertha, Rhoda, Bicco, Carl, Lawrence, and 
Grant. 

ARTHUR ROBKRTS. K. C. 

Arthur Roberts was born in Wales, March 7, 1868. His father 
was a Presbyterian clergyman, who removed with his family to Nova 
Scotia in 1875, and here our subject grew to manhood and has since 
resided. He received his education in the public schools, Pictou 
Academy, and in the law department of Dalhousie University, from 
which he was graduated in 1890 with the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws, and the same year was admitted to the bar of Nova Scotia, and 
soon thereafter began the practice of his profession at Bridgewater, 
where he has remained to the present time, enjoying a large and lucra- 
tive practice. 

On April 30, 1895 ne was married to Grace E. Hunter, a daughter 
of Capt. David Hunter, late post warden of Halifax. 

Mr. Roberts has always been active in public affairs. He was the 
unsuccessful candidate in Lunenburg County for the Liberal-Con- 
servative party for the Nova Scotia Legislature in 1901. He has been 
town solicitor of Bridgewater since 1907, and secretary-treasurer of 
the Union of Nova Scotia Municipalities since 1909, and has since 
been actively identified with municipal work and progress in this 
Province. He is one of the vice-presidents of the Union of Canadian 
Municipalities; also president of the Liberal-Conservative Association 
of Lunenburg County. He was made a King's Counsel in June 1914. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 83 

CHARLES MORRIS WEEKS, M. D. 

In a comprehensive work of this kind, dealing with industrial pur- 
suits, sciences, arts and professions, it is only fitting and right that 
that profession on which, .in some period or other in our lives (the 
medical profession) we are all more or less dependent, should be 
noticed. One of the successful and well known representatives of 
this profession in Hants County is Dr. Charles Morris Weeks of New- 
port. 

He was born in the above named town and county, February 27, 
1865. He is a son of Samuel Weeks, M. D., a native of Sydney, 
Nova Scotia, whose death occurred in August, 1911, at the age of 
seventy-seven years. His mother was Mankin Hooper, a native of 
Newport, whose death occurred about 1900. Otto S warts Weeks, the 
grandfather, was born in Sydney. He was a graduate of King's Col- 
lege, Windsor, and devoted his active life to the ministry. The 
father of our subject received his early education in Nova Scotia, 
later studied at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 
City, after which he returned to Hants County and began practicing 
medicine at Brooklyn. The maternal grandfather. Dr. Howard 
Hooper, was a graduate of Edinburgh University. He practiced for 
some time 'during the latter part of his life at Brooklyn. Dr. Samuel 
Weeks married his daughter and succeeded to his practice upon his 
death in Brooklyn. On the fiftieth anniversary of his practice he 
was honored by the medical profession of the Province, being pre- 
sented with a handsome silver service in 1903. He was a man who 
stood high in his profession and was popular with the people of his 
locality. 

Dr. Charles M. Weeks spent his boyhood in Newport, where he 
attended the public schools, then entered the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons at Baltimore, Maryland, from which institution he was 
graduated in 1891. He returned to Hants County, where he has since 
continued in the practice, having succeeded his father at Newport 
and he has been very successful. 

Dr. Weeks was married in 1899 to Amy Sanford of Burlington. 
Hants County, a daughter of Frederick Sanford, who died in 1904. 
This is one of the old families of Hants County. Two children were 
born to this union Jean, who is at Edgehill, attending the Church 
school for girls; and Mildred, who is at school also. The Doctor 
was again married in August, 1907 to Florence O'Brien, a native of 



gx HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

New Brunswick, and this union has resulted in the birth of one child 
Maurice Manning. 

Politically, the Doctor is a Liberal. He is a member of the Hants- 
Colchester Counties Medical Society. He served as health officer at 
Newport for a number of years. 

Otto Swartz Weeks, an uncle of the subject of this sketch, was 
at one time Attorney General of Nova Scotia. 

EVERETT ALDEN O'BRIEN. 

Everett Alden O'Brien, one of the well-known business men of 
Noel, Hants County, where he has long been engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, had the usual ambitious dreams when he was a boy, and 
these led him to a useful and successful life in a material way, as well 
as caused him to shape his course as to become a helpful citizen. 

Mr. O'Brien was born in the above named town and county, 
August 19, 1863. He is a son of Osmond O'Brien, who was born 
at Noel, January 29, 1828, whose father, William O'Brien, was born 
at Noel, July 10, 1803. His father, Jacob O'Brien, was born June 
15, 1761. The latter married Mary Spencer August 4, 1781, Rev. 
David Smith of Londonderry, Xova Scotia, performing the ceremony. 
William O'Brien, the grandfather, married Margaret Davison of 
Bass River, Nova Scotia. The mother of our subject was known in 
her maidenhood as Amanda Faulkner, of Burnt Coat, Hants County. 
Timothy O'Brien, our subject's great great grandfather, was born 
near Londonderry, Ireland, January 2, 1725, was married in Shire 
of Ayr, Scotland, on April 17, 1746, to Margaret Gilmore, by Rev. 
Mr. McLellan, and to this union seven children were born. William 
O'Brien, great-great-great grandfather of our subject, was a native of 
Ireland, where, on August 8, 1721, he married Esther Linton, at 
Billy Kelly, in the County of Londonderry. Ireland. He died March 
2, 1793, and her death occurred March 18, 1758; both were interred 
in the churchyard at Anglinlow. They were the parents of eight 
children. Timothy O'Brien, mentioned above, immigrated from 
Ireland to Nova Scotia, settling at Noel, Hants County, in an early 
day, where he engaged in farming, obtaining large tracts of land 
two thousand acres, which he bought from William Reed and Charles 
Morris, the original grantees. A portion of this land now forms the 
townsite of Noel. Timothy O'Brien was drowned in Tennecape Bay, 
Nova Scotia, November 19, 1777. His son, Jacob O'Brien, con- 
tinued farming in the vicinity of Noel, as did also his son, William 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 815 



O'Brien. A large portion of the original estate is still in possession 
of the family. 

Osmond O'Brien, father of our subject, was a man of great thrift 
and energy, ability and foresight. He engaged in ship building, his 
first vessel, a brig, was built in 1856. He built four brigs and eleven 
barques, four schooners. Several of the barques were of a thousand 
tons. He was a shrewd, far-seeing man, and anticipated the down- 
fall of modern shipping, so disposed of his interests. He took an 
actve part in public affairs, but declined political preferment. His 
death occurred in 1906, and his wife died in 1908. Their family 
consisted of six children, four sons and two daughters, the subject 
of this sketch being the oldest. 

Everett A. O'Brien grew to manhood at Noel, where he received 
his education, and there he continued the store and general business 
of his father, giving his attention mostly to the store and office work. 
In fact, his father had gradually turned over his interests to the man- 
agement of his son during the latter part of his life, and upon the 
death of the elder O'Brien our subject became senior member of the 
firm, his brother, Austin E. O'Brien, a sketch of whom appears on 
another page of this work, entered the business also. 

Mr. O'Brien was married on January 20, 1886, to Jennie Baxter,, 
of Milltown, New Brunswick, she being a representative of an old 
family of that Province. To this union the following children were 
born: Harriett is the wife of Dr. A. R. Campbell of Yarmouth; 
Osmond Carlyle is assisting in the store business ; Lena Pearl, Freda 
Eleanor, Glenna Susan, Hilda Maud, and Ina Leola, are all at home. 

The business is run under the firm name of Osmond O'Brien & 
Company. They carry a large stock and do an extensive business, 
both in merchandising and in timber, and also carry on extensive 
farming operations. Our subject is one of the progressive and sub- 
stantial men of affairs of Hants County and an influential citizen. 
Politically, he is a Liberal-Conservative. 

PETER M. FIELDING. 

The business of the immigration office for Nova Scotia is ably 
and faithfully looked after by its present incuml>ent, Peter M. Field- 
ing, of Windsor, who is one of our public servants of whom we 
should be justly proud. He was born at Noel, Hants County, March 
27, 1862, and is a son of Charles and J. (McCulloch) Fielding. The 
father was born at Halifax, in May, 1819, and the mother was born 



86 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



at Noel Road, Nova Scotia, in November, 1835. Our subject is a 
half-brother of Hon. W. S. Fielding and George H. Fielding, sti- 
pendiary magistrate of Halifax. 

Peter M. Fielding received his education in the public schools and 
in the business college of Frazee & Whiston. He was a clerk and 
partner with Evan Thompson, Esq. at Elmsdale, Hants County, for 
some time. He was a member of the County Council, East Hants, 
from 1880 to 1890, inclusive. He contested the County of Hants at 
the general election in June, 1911, for the Local House, but was 
defeated by a small majority. He was married on October 6, 1887, to 
Jean U. Urquhart, a daughter of John and Jean Stuart (McHardie) 
Urquhart of Elmsdale, Hants County. Politically, he is a Conserva- 
tive, and is now holding the office of immigration agent for Nova 
Scotia. He is a Presbyterian, and he belongs to Scotia L. O. L., No. 
48, Century Lodge No. 100, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Haliburton Court No. 950, Independent Order of Foresters. He is 
a member of the Pesiquid Curling Club. He was recruiting officer 
for Hants County in 1915-16, with the rank of lieutenant in the 
Eighty-first Regiment. 

GEORGE L. GIBSON. 

Success as a merchant has crowned the efforts of George L. Gibson 
of Newport, Hants County, because he has been persevering, honest 
and fair in his dealings, thus arousing the confidence and good will 
of his customers. Such a man deserves to succeed. 

Mr. Gibson was born in Windsor, Nova Scotia, in October, 1848. 
He is a son of Thomas and Mary (Glassy) Gibson. The father was 
born in northern Ireland and the mother on the Atlantic Ocean, while 
her parents were enroute to Canada from Ireland. These parents 
were married in Nova Scotia and established the future home of the 
family here, each living to unusual ages, the father passing his ninety- 
eighth birthday and the mother died at the age of ninety-six in 1909. 
The father was in the hotel business, being proprietor of the Windsor 
Hotel at Windsor, Hants County; for many years, his hostelry being 
popular with the traveling public, who found their host an accommo- 
dating and courteous man at all times. His family consisted of twelve- 
children, eight sons and four daughters, George L. Gibson being the 
fourth in order of birth. 

The subject of this sketch spent his boyhood in Windsor and was 
engaged as clerk with Alex. McLeod & Company, wholesale and gen- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 8/ 

eral merchants. He remained with this firm four or five years, during 
which time he gave his employers eminent satisfaction, being faith- 
ful, wide-awake and polite, and the meanwhile he mastered the various 
phases of merchandising sufficiently to open a business of his own, 
which he accordingly did at Windsor. He operated his mercantile 
establishment there until 1881 when he removed to Brooklyn and 
continued the same line of business. He later came to Newport and 
here he has remained. He has enjoyed a good trade at these different 
places, having given his exclusive attention to his business. He 
carries a large and well-selected stock at all seasons. 

Mr. Gibson was married in 1885, to Georgia Smith of Brooklyn, 
Nova Scotia. She is a daughter of Henry Smith, in fact, is his only 
child. Mr. Smith was a well-to-do farmer and tanner of near 
Brooklyn. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Gibson the following children were born: Henry 
Howe is attending the veterinary college at Toronto, Canada ; Stewart 
Hyland, who is now managing his father's store at Newport; Beatrice 
is at home; Marguerite is attending school; Fred Brooks is also 
working in his father's store. 

Plitically, Mr. Gibson is a Conservative. He is a member of the 
Masonic order, also of the Foresters. He belongs to the Presbyterian 
church. 

MORTIMER PARSONS. 

One of the representative and highly respected members of the 
old Parsons family is Moritimer Parsons, who was born at Walton, 
Hants County, March 3, 1865, and there he spent his boyhood and 
attended the public schools, then engaged in mining and lumbering, 
working at the Tennecape, maganese mines, and at West Gore 
antimony mines in Hants County, the Rawdon and also the Uniacke 
mines. He spent four years mining in British Columbia, acting as 
foreman and mining superintendent in some valuable silver and lead 
mines, located at Ainsworth, British Columbia. After leaving that 
Province he went to Mexico and prospected for a company near 
Sonora, where he spent the winter, then returned to Nova Scotia and 
took an interest in a plaster quarry near Windsor which he managed 
about four years, shipping quite a large amount of plaster, and he is 
still interested in that property. He next became manager of the 
Cheverie Plaster Company, which position he now holds. He also 






88 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

does contracting. In 1914 he took the contract for the new govern- 
ment pier at Cheverie, which was successful. 

Mr. Parsons was married September 22, 1896, to Minnie G. 
Smith of Walton, Hants County. She is a daughter of Loran Smith. 
This is an old and respected family of Hants County. To our sub- 
ject and wife the following children have been born: John Loran 
died when two and one-half years of age; Hugh MacDonald is now 
attending the Collegiate Institute at Windsor ; Ida Frances, Ena Fern, 
and Ruby Kellogg are all attending school. 

Our subject's great grandfather served twenty-one years in the 
British Army. When the grandfather of our subject moved to Col- 
chester he signed over his property to his two sisters. He was in 
Halifax when the Shannon towed the Chesapeake in from its fight at 
sea, and he was one of the first to toard the vessel, he having gone 
out in a government boat, having been employed in the ordinance 
department at that time. 

RUPERT CHURCHILL WRIGHT. 

We are glad to note in this series of biographical sketches that so 
many of the progressive citizens of Nova Scotia have been born and 
reared here, for this is an indication of at least two things that they 
are people of keen discernment, being able to see and appreciate pres- 
ent conditions as they are, and that the country is indeed one of 
the favored sections of Canada, else these citizens would have sought 
homes elsewhere. One of this number who has been contented to 
spend his life in his native Province is Rupert Churchill Wright, 
successful and well-known banker of Windsor, Hants County. 

Mr. Wright was born in the City of Halifax, February 9, 1857. 
He is a son of Charles William Wright and Sarah Jane (Hemmeon) 
Wright. Both parents were torn in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where 
their parents settled in an early day, and there they grew to matur- 
ity, were educated, married and established their home. Adam 
Hemmeon, the maternal grandfather, was a prominent man in the 
affairs of Halifax and was mayor there in 1849. The father of our 
subject was long known as an enterprising man of affairs in his 
native community. 

Rupert C. Wright grew to manhood in Halifax and there received 
his educational training and when a young man entered the business 
world. He is now manager of the Royal Bank of Canada at Wind- 
sor, Hants County, to which city he removed a number of years ago. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 89 

He has done much to make the bank a popular and successful insti- 
tution. 

Mr. Wright was married on August 15, 1878 to Amelia Smith 
Wiswell, a daughter of Charles Enoch Wiswell and Sarah Sanford 
(Smith) Wiswell, a highly respected family of the city of Halifax. 

To our subject and wife the following children have been born 
born: Sarah Amelia is the wife of A. H. Longard; Ella Isabel is 
the wife of J. L. W. Allen ; Charles E. W. died in infancy ; Bertha 
Sanford, and Annie Louise are lx>th with their parents. These 
children all received good educational advantages. 

Politically, Mr. Wright is a Liberal, and religiously a Methodist. 

MILTON O'BRIEN. 

Milton O'Brien, one of the venerable, yet active and successful 
farmers of Hants County, has always taken a delight in general agri- 
cultural pursuits, in which he has found not only a good living but 
health and contentment. The commercial world and the busy marts 
of trade have had little attraction for him. 

Mr. O'Brien was born at Noel, Hants County, March 22, 1838. 
He is a son of Samuel O'Brien, also a native of Noel, who died at 
the age of sixty-five years, was a son of Roljert O'Brien, also a native 
of Noel, Nova Scotia, where his father, Timothy O'Brien, a native 
of Londonderry, Ireland, located in a very early day. The date of 
the latter's birth was January 2, 1725, and he was a young man when 
he crossed the Atlantic to our shores. Thus the O'Brien family is 
one of the oldest and best known in Hants County. The grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch located either on the property on which 
Milton now resides or on the adjoining property, where he spent his 
life. Samuel O'Brien, the father, grew to manhood there and con- 
tinued on the homestead. In addition to farming he also engaged in 
lumbering and conducted a tannery for several years. He was one 
of the substantial and influential men of his community. He married 
Eleanor Yuell, of Great Village, Colchester County, and to their 
union ten children were born, three of whom are still living, the sub- 
ject of this sketch being the oldest son. 

Milton O'Brien spent his boyhood on the home farm where he 
assisted with the general work. In 1860 he went to California by way 
of the Isthmus of Panama and he spent thirteen years on the Pacific 
coast, first working for wages, but he saved some money, and later 
bought into a mining property, being connected with some other Nova 






QO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Scotians in this venture, and he was fairly successful. However, his 
next business deal was unfortunate, but he continued making a reason- 
able income and returned to Nova Scotia in 1873 an d purchased the 
old homestead, which he has improved and on which stands a hand- 
some modern residence, surrounded by substantial and convenient 
outbuildings. He has one of the best farms in the country. 

Mr. O'Brien was married in 1874, to Adeline Faulkner, of Burnt 
Coat, Hants County, a daughter of Robert Faulkner, this being one 
of the old families of Hants County. The death of Mrs. O'Brien 
occurred in 1877. To this union two- children were born Clarence 
Wilbert is a practicing physician at Wyandotte, Michigan; and Milton 
Addison is a practicing physician at Noel, Nova Scotia. Our subject 
was again married in 1877, to Adelia Crowe, of Burnt Coat, Hants 
County, a daughter of Andrew Crowe and a granddaughter of Rev. 
Thomas Crowe, a presbyterian clergyman in pioneer days in this 
country. Mr. O'Brien's second wife died, leaving three children 
Elta May is at home ; Wyman Crowe is now engaged in farming at 
Onslow, Colchester County; and Margaret Adelia, who is at home. 
Mr. O'Brien was married a third time, his last wife being Alice 
Crowe, a sister of his second wife, and to this union these children 
were born : Annie Beatrice is engaged in teaching in Noel ; Jennie 
is teaching in British Columbia; Alice is teaching in Kings County; 
Willard, who is attending college : Cassie, who is teaching grade A 
at Noel, lives at home ; Edson is in school. 

Mr. O'Brien is a well preserved man and is still carrying on his 
farming operations on a large scale, and is one of the substantial men 
financially in his locality. 

ALBERT PARSONS. 

One of the well-known and influential citizens of Hants County, 
who is deserving of the success and esteem he can claim is Albert 
Parsons, member of the Provincial Parliament wherein he has made 
a creditable record and been of much service to his district. 

He was born at Walton, Hants County, September 5, 1869. He is 
a son of John and Martha (Ward) Parsons, the father 
a native of Harmony, Colchester County; and the mother of New- 
port, Nova Scotia. William Parsons, the grandfather, was a native 
of Shelburne County; and his wife, Mary Crowell, was born at 
Truro, Nova Scotia. John Ward, the maternal grandfather, and 
his wife, Amy Harvey, were natives of Newport, this Province. Great- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 9 1 

Grandfather Parsons was born on the Isle of Wight. He was a 
soldier in the British Army and fought in the battle of Waterloo. 
After his discharge from the service he was given a grant of land in 
Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, where he made his home the rest of 
his life. The Wards were early settlers of this Province. The grand- 
father moved to Truro and engaged in farming, fishing and the coop- 
erage business, living to be about eighty years of age. He spent his 
declining years at Walton and Harmony. His family consisted of 
sixteen sons and two daughters. 

When a young man the father of our subject learned the cooper- 
age business, also learned ship building. Later he moved to Walton 
where he conducted a cooperage business and spent his life there, dying 
February 14, 1914, at the age of seventy-four years. Two sons were 
torn and both living Mortimer, who is engaged in business at 
Cheverie; and Albert. The latter spent his boyhood in Walton, where 
he attended school. He then worked in the plaster quarries and at 
the age of nineteen began contracting, and in 1900 took over the 
quarry, working it on a royalty basis, and in 1913 he affiliated with 
the Rock Plaster Company of New York. He has in addition to the 
Walton Plaster Quarries the control of the Cheverie Plaster Works. 
He has within a single year shipped as much as eighty thousand tons 
of Plaster to the American market. They are now building large 
factories for the manufacture of plaster from the plaster rock. Mr. 
Parsons has also been interested in the lumber business for many 
years and has shipped large quantities of lumber, having a saw-mill 
at Walton where building material is sawed, also staves for plaster 
and apple barrels. 

Mr. Parsons has been one of the most successful business men in 
Hants County. He has also found time to devote to public affairs, 
and has served in a number of local offices. In 1909 he was elected 
to the Provincial Parliament at a by-election, and was re-elected 
at the general election in 1911. When he was first given the office, 
his was the first instance in which a candidate of the oposition was 
elected in a by-election for the Provincial House for forty years. 
Politically, he is a Conservative. He has given eminent satisfaction 
as a public official. 

Albert Parsons was married June n, 1892, to Ruby L. Smith of 
Walton, Nova Scotia. She is a daughter of Loran Smith. To 
our subject the following children have been born : Ralph Shaw, 
who was formerly connected with his father in business, but is now a 



92 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

lieutenant in the One Hundred and Twelfth Overseas Battalion, C. 
E. F. He married in November, 1914, Valentyne Churchill, a great- 
grandaughter of Senator Ezra Churchill. Gertrude, Arthur O'Brien, 
Binney Albert, and Ezra Churchill are at home with their parents. 

HAROLD B. BARNHILL, M. D. 

A young physician of Hastings, Annapolis County, who is making 
a very propituous start in his chosen life work is Dr. Harold B. 
Barnhill, formerly of Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, who seems to have a 
proper conception of what it takes to succeed as a physician. 

He was born at Two Rivers, Cumberland County, April 4, 1885. 
He is a son of Brunswick B. and Jeanetta (Martin) Barnhill, both 
natives of New Brunswick, the father born in St. John and the mother 
in Moncton. The father of our subject was a mining engineer. He 
spent his entire life in his native Province, finally coming to Nova 
Scotia, where he became manager of the Joggin Mines, holding that 
position about eight years, but recently he has devoted his attention to 
the lumber business at Two Rivers. He had a large family, Harold 
B. Barnhill being fifth in order of birth. 

The Doctor received his early education in the public schools, then 
attending Kings College at Windsor, and matriculated for McGill 
University, Montreal, then took a course in the medical department 
there, later entering Dalhousie University, Halifax, receiving his 
diploma in 1910. After his graudation he spent a year as a member 
of the staff of the Victoria General Hospital in Halifax, then began 
practicing at Petite Riviere, Nova Scotia, where he spent a year, 
then practiced eighteen months at Lahave, Lunenburg County, after 
which he joined Dr. Rehfus at Bridgewater, where they had a large 
practice while together. Dr. Barnhill was transferred to Hastings, 
Annapolis County, early in 1916, as medical superintendent for the 
Davison Lumber Company. 

Dr. Barnhill was married in June, 1912, to Margaret Daisy Hart- 
ling, a daughter of John Hartling, a contractor and builder. Mrs. 
Barnhill was graduated from Victoria General Hospital at Halifax 
as a trained nurse. 

One child has been born to our subject and wife Brunswick 
Edward Wallace Barnhill. 

Dr. Barnhill is a member of the Lunenburg-Queens Counties Medi- 
cal Society, of which he is now secretary. Fraternally, he belongs 
to the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons and Independent Order of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 93 

Odd Fellows, Empire Lodge, No. 108, having passed through the chairs 
of the same. He is medical examiner for the Manchester Unity, 
the Rebekahs, and the Ancient Order of Foresters. 

NELSON PORTER FREEMAN, M. D. 

It takes something more to make a successful practitioner of 
medicine than merely to complete the prescribed course in an institu- 
tion having as its object the training of physicians and surgeons. 
There must be courage, stability, fortitude, perseverance and a high 
sense of honor. These attributes seem to be possessed by Dr. Nelson 
Porter Freeman of Bridgewater, Lunenburg County, and he is there- 
fore succeeding in his chosen vocation. 

Dr. Freeman was born in Greenfield, Queens County, Nova Scotia, 
June 24, 1864. He is a son of Edward Hiram and Anna (Miles) 
Freeman, both parents also natives of the town of Greenfield where 
they grew up, attended school and were married and there estab- 
lished their future home, moving to Mill Village when he was about 
five years old. Allan Freeman, the grandfather, was a farmer and 
music teacher at Liverpool, and Greenfield, Nova Scotia for many 
years. This family is of sterling old Loyalist stock. Elisha Free- 
man, his ancestor, was one of the first settlers of Liverpool, and his 
son, Nathaniel Freeman, was a colonel in the army. 

Dr. Freeman received his elementary education in the public 
schools, later attended Dalhousie University at Halifax, being a 
student in the medical department for some time, but later went to 
the States and entered the medical department of the University of 
Vermont from which he was graduated in 1891. He took a post- 
graduate course in England in 1902, chiefly in the medical colleges 
and hospitals of London, spending one year there. He also visited 
many other cities on the continent, everywhere increasing his medical 
knowledge. He has enjoyed a good practice in New Germany and 
Bridgewater ever since locating there and has met with good success. 

He is a member of the Canadian Medical Society, the Nova 
Scotia Medical Society, being a member of the Nova Scotia Med- 
ical Board. He is a member of the Masonic Order, Loyal Order 
of Moose, the M. U. Odd Fellows, the Bridgewater Curling Club, 
and the Bridgewater town council. Politically, he is a Conservative. 
Religiously, he is a Baptist. 

Dr. Freeman was twice married, first to Jessie S. Robertson, 
daughter of Dr. Robertson, in 1894. She lived two years. He was 



94 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



married again February 23, 1898, to Elizabeth McHeny Crandall, a 
daughter of Rev. D. VV. and Mary K. (McHenry) Crandall of 
Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Mary K. McHenry was the granddaughter 
of the Rev. I. E. Bell, D. D., for many years pastor of the German 
Street Baptist Church, St. John, and one of the leaders of public 
thought of that time. His only daughter, Mary Ann, who became the 
mother of Mary K. McHenry, after attending a school in Massa- 
chusetts, became principal of the first Baptist school for young ladies 
in Nova Scotia. This school was opened at Nictaux in 1845, she 
becoming its principal although only seventeen years of age. Her 
father was pastor of the Nictaux church at that time. She managed 
the school successfully for seven years until her marriage with 
Thomas McHenry, who was a descendant in direct line from Brian 
Baru, the last king to rule over all Ireland. 

To Dr. Freeman and his second wife a daughter has been born, 
Dorothy Grace Dean Freeman, whose birth occurred January i, 1899. 

JAMES BAIN. 

A well known and capable railroad man is James Bain, general 
superintendent of the Halifax ;md Southwestern Railway Company, 
with headquarters at Bridgewater, Lunenburg County. He has spent 
his active life in railroad service, and the fact that he has attained 
to a responsible position in the field in which his talents have been 
employed indicates that he is not only a man of capacity and perse- 
verance but also of reliability and honor. 

Mr. Bain was born in Pictou Island, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, 
May 24, 1860. He is a son of Thomas Middleton Bain and Margaret 
Ann (Campbell) Bain. The father was born at Cromarty, Roth- 
shire, Scotland, and the mother was also a native of that country. 
There they grew to maturity, attended school and were married, and 
two children were born to them there, one of whom died, on the 
voyage to America. The father first located at Pictou Town, where 
he remained a few years, then removed to New Glasgow, and finally 
to Stellarton, where he spent the balance of his life. For many years 
he was overground foreman for the Acadia Coal Company. His 
family consisted of seven sons and two daughters, of whom James 
Bain of this sketch was the fourth in order of birth. 

Mr. Bain of this review spent his boyhood in New Glasgow where 
he attended the public schools, also the schools of Stellarton. And 
when but a boy his railroad career in the last named town as mes- 



HISTORY OF XOVA SCOTIA. 95 

senger for the Western Union Telegraph Company, where he learned 
the telegraph business, becoming an operator, and continued to work 
in Stellarton two years, then returned to school for a short time, 
afterwards accepting a position with the Intercolonial Railroad at 
Truro, where he spent one year, then went to Stellarton to take charge 
of the station there, and he continued in that position until 1879, 
in which year he was promoted to train dispatcher and returned to 
Truro, continuing there until 1885, then accepted a position on the 
Direct Cable staff at Tor Bay, and remained there until offered a 
position as train dispatcher of the Halifax & Cape Breton Company, 
and remained with this company until the road was bought and taken 
over by the federal government and merged into the Intercolonial 
Railroad when he went to the States and accepted a position as train 
dispatcher for the Missouri Pacific Railroad at St. Louis, Missouri. 
Having been requested by Charles A. Scott, general manager for the 
Nova Scotia government to keep in touch with him for future de- 
velopments, Mr. Scott's intention and hope being to amalgamate all 
Nova Scotia railroads and build missing links, then to operate a 
direct line of steamers between New York, Boston, and Nova Scotia 
and Newfoundland points. After remaining in St. Louis a year, Mr. 
Scott's associate, a Mr. Plunkett died, and our subject was informed 
that Mr. Scott's project had fallen through, but that his brother, 
James G. Scott, general manager of the Quebec & Lake St. John 
Railroad, wanted a man and that he had recommended Mr. Bain. 
The latter was advised to accept the position, as the prospects were 
good for this road to grow into an important system. Our subject 
thereupon returned to Canada and began working for the above 
named road, with which he continued for a period of twenty-one 
years, first as train dispatcher, then as assistant general manager, 
later as superintendent of the line, including the Great Northern Rail- 
road of Canada, which extended to Hawksburg, Ontario. All of 
these lines are now a part of the Canadian Northern System. In 
December, 1907, Mr. Bain was requested by the management to re- 
move to Nova Scotia and take charge of the Halifax & Southwestern 
Railroad, which position he still holds, and is giving his usual high 
grade and satisfactory service. He resides at Bridgewater, Lunen- 
burg County. 

During the twenty-one years that Mr. Bain was connected with 
the Quebec & Lake St. John Railroad, not a passenger was injured 
on that road, a phenomenal record in those days of new railroads. 



g6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Mr. Bain was married March 17, 1886, to Louise Ross of New 
Glasgow. She is a daughter of Duncan Ross, a baker of that town. 
To our subject and wife the following children have been born: 
Louise Campbell is now the wife of Harold L. Seifert of Quebec; 
Roderick Ross died at the age of sixteen years; Margaret Winifred 
is now a trained nurse in Jeffry Male's Hospital, in Quebec; Charles 
Grant is a medical student in Dalhousie University; James Raymond 
and Annie Jean are attending high school in Bridgewater. 

GEORGE ALBERT HUBLEY. 

One of the enterprising young merchants of Bridgewater, Lunen- 
burg County is George Albert Hubley, who is rapidly forging ahead 
because he is willing- to hustle and deal honestly with his fellow men. 
These are two of the principal factors in winning success in the 
mercantile field, and unless one has them he might as well take up 
something else for sooner or later he will be compelled to step down 
and out. 

Mr. Hubley was born in the above named county, on September 
6, 1872, and here he has resided most of his life. He is a son of 
Augustus and Selina (Westhaver) Hubley, both natives of Lunen- 
burg County also, where they grew up, attended school and were 
married. The family is of German descent. The father was a 
millwright by trade. Grandfather Hubley devoted his life to farm- 
ing, and grandfather Westhaver was a sea captain. Three Hubley 
brothers immigrated from Germany to Nova Scotia in the early days, 
one of them locating near Halifax. 

George A. Hubley received part of his education in the public 
school of Parkens Cove, whither the family removed in 1873, spend- 
ing ten years there, returning to Bridgewater in 1883. He began 
clerking at an early age, which he continued until 1899, then began 
business for himself in a small way after the big fire in Bridgewater. 
Having been employed by the firm of G. M. Smith & Company of 
Halifax at the time of the fire, he saw a good opportunity and grasped 
it, and he has steadily forged ahead ever since. He purchased one 
of his present stores in the fall of 1910, buying another in 1912, and 
also added a large warehouse. In 1912 he merged his business into 
the Hubley Company, Limited, he having bought the store and prop- 
erty in which he now conducts a large gent's furnishing store, the 
other lines he conducts being dry goods exclusively. He has built 
up a very large trade with his town and surrounding country through 



'6 




Z*7-"-"* 



9; 



K\\\ WM. vorxc. 

Chief Justice of XOVM Scoth 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 97 

his prices are always right, according to many of his customers. 
He carries large stocks of goods at all seasons, carefully selected and 
his prices are always right, according to many of his customers. 
His stores are neat and modernly appointed, up-to-date in every 
respect. 

Mr. Hubley has remained unmarried, having preferred to give 
his attention exclusively to his business. 

Politically, he is a Liberal. He belongs to the Masonic Order 
and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He is a member of the 
Baptist church. 

JOHN STRUTHERS, M. D. 

There are always valuable lessons to be gained in pursuing the 
life histories of such men as the late Dr. John Struthers, one of 
Kings County's most able professional men of a past generation, 
whose life forcibly illustrated what energy, integrity and fixed pur- 
pose can accomplish when animated by noble aims and correct ideals. 
During the years of his residence at Kentville he held the unequivocal 
esteem of those with whom he came in contact, for he was a man 
whom to know was to trust and admire, owing to his many com- 
mendable attributes of head and heart. 

Dr. Struthers was born in Kentville, Nova Scotia, in the year 1841. 
He was a son of Robert George and Eliza (Davidson) Struthers, 
the father born in Ayrshire, Scotland, and the mother in Kings 
County, Nova Scotia. The father was a minister in the Presbyterian 
church. He received his education in the University of Glasgow, 
and was licensed by the Presbytery of Ayr in 1818. He preached 
at New Cumnock for some time. He offered his services to the 
Colonial Society of the Church of Scotland in 1827. and was ac- 
cepted and ordained by the Presbytery of Glasgow, and proceeded 
to Horton, Nova Scotia, where he remained five years then accepted 
a call to Demarara where he spent over three years. He returned 
to Nova Scotia in 1836 and was successor to Forsyth in the Corn- 
wallis congregation during the balance of his life. He was an able 
preacher and a man of culture and helpfulness, deeply interested in 
educational affairs. His death occurred March 19, 1857, at the age 
of fifty-nine years. 

Dr. Struthers was educated in the public school and Dalhousie 
University, later attending Bellevue Medical Hospital in New York 

(7) 



98 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

City, where he was graduated. Returning to Nova Scotia he began 
the practice of his profession at Kentville and there spent the rest 
of his life successfully engaged in the practice of his profession. 
He enjoyed an excellent reputation as a surgeon. 

Dr. Struthers was married in 1866 to Catherine D. Davison, 
representative of one of the well known old families of the Province, 
a record of whom will be found in another part of this work. Two 
children were born to our subject and wife, namely: Austin Flint, 
who is now connected with the New Germany Pulp Mills, and Alena 
Davison, who is at home. 

Dr. Struthers was called away from earthly scenes in 1882, at 
the early age of forty-one years, when in the prime of life and use- 
fulness. 

ROBERT THORNTON MACK. 

There are few more inspiring aphorisms in our tongue than 
Emerson's famous "Hitch your wagon to a star." Posterity is in- 
debted to the Sage of Concord for the crisp and noble counsel so 
universally needed. The privilege belongs to us all of gearing our 
lives up to lofty motives, of glorifying our commonplace and prosaic 
days with ideal sentiments and aspirations. Some such ideal 
has dominated the life of Robert Thornton Alack, principal of the 
Academy at Bridgewater. 

Professor Mack was born in Londonderry, Colchester County, 
Nova Scotia, July 21, 1879, and is a son of Rev. Robert Barry Mack, 
and Ellen S. (Killer) Mack, and a grandson of Doren and Charlotte 
(Barry) Mack, and a great grandson of Samuel and Sophia (Knowles) 
Mack. Samuel Mack, Sr., was the great-great-grandfather. The family 
came to Nova Scotia in the earliest pioneer days and descendants have 
been well known ever since. The father of our subject was ordained 
a Methodist minister in the Nova Scotia conference, and most of his 
pastroate work was in this Province. He is now living retired in 
Truro, where he and his wife have a cosey home. To them two sons 
and two daughter were born, one of the latter being deceased, the 
subject of this sketch being the youngest. 

The elementary education of Robert T. Mack, owing to his 
father's occupation, was secured at different places, since the family 
was compelled to move often. After a high school course at Truro 
he entered the Normal school, then began teaching in Yarmouth 
County at Tusket, continuing there two years, then taught in various 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 99 

places, including two years at Bridgewater, later teaching two years 
jn other schools. When the present commodious modern Academy 
at Bridgewater was completed, he accepted the principalship and is 
still discharging his duties in this connection in an able and satisfac- 
tory manner. He has tweleve teachers under him, doing high school 
work, manuenl (training and domestic science in addition to thq 
academic course. He has introduced many improved methods and is 
known as one of the most enterprising, up-to-date and far-seeing 
educators in this section of the Province. He is a man of executive 
ability and everything about the academy is under a superb system. 

Professor Mack was married in December, 1904, to Ida Caroline 
Hatfield, of Tusket, Yarmouth County, a daughter of Herbert H. 
Hatfield, of an old respected Loyalist family. To this union two 
children have been born Helen Frances, and Adolphus Smith Lent 
Mack. 

CHARLES UNIACKE MADER. 

There is no doubt that success in life depends in making a proper 
selection of the work for which we are best fitted by nature and 
inclination. How many second or third-class ministers, lawyers, phy- 
sicians there are who might have made remarkable success as agricul- 
turists, merchants, or mechanics. Charles Uniacke Mader, a success- 
ful business man of Mahone Bay, Lunenburg County, studied him- 
self and found out what he was capable of doing and what he was 
unfitted for, so he wisely selected a practical calling and has made a 
comfortable living. 

Mr. Mader was born at Maders Cove, Lunenburg County, April 
10, 1856. He is a son of Francis and Mary (Andrews) Mader. 
The father was born in the same vicinity as was our subject, and 
the mother was a native of Indian Point, Lunenburg County, in which 
county was also born Adam Mader, the grandfather. Bernard Mader, 
the great grandfather, was a native of Germany, from which country 
he came to Nova Scotia and was one of the original German colon- 
ists, locating at a point in Lunenburg County, which took the family 
name and has since been known as Mader's Cove. The immigrant 
ancestor had several sons, namely: Adam, Frederick, George and 
John. The last named never married, but the other three reared 
families and continued to reside in that locality. A brother of the 
original immigrant located at Northwest Range and his family moved 
to the vicinity of New Canada, Lunenburg County. They followed 



100 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

farming, fishing and ship building. The grandfather followed the 
same line of endeavor and became a sea captain. All these older 
members of the Mader family lived to advanced ages, one aunt reach- 
ing almost the century mark. 

Francis Mader grew up on the farm and continued in the same line 
of endeavor as his ancestors. He reared a family of six sons and 
one daughter, of whom the subject of this review was the youngest. 

Charles U. Mader received his early education in the public schools 
of his native community, in fact, he had no opportunity to obtain a 
higher text-book training. He started out in life on his own account 
when only fourteen years of age, becoming a clerk in a general store 
where he remained until 1880, during which time he became familiar 
with the various phases of merchantile life. He also spent a year in 
Halifax, when a boy, clerking with E. & C. Stayner. In 1880 he 
began business on his own account in Mahone Bay, in a small way, 
but by good management and honest and courteous dealings he built 
up a large and satisfactory business in later years. He first 
rented a small room, but his quarters had to be enlarged from time 
to time and many years ago purchased his present commodious quar- 
ters, to which he later added to and now has a modern store, which 
he built in 1887. He carries an extensive stock of general merchan- 
dise. He has also gone into the fishing business, maintaining a large 
fleet for some time, but he has now sold most of his vessels, keeping 
two ships of one hundred tons each. He is deserving of a great deal 
of credit for what he has accomplished unaided and along legitimate 
lines. 

Mr. Mader was married in 1880 to Martha Ernest, a daughter of 
Frederick Ernest, one of the early settlers of Mahone Bay. The death 
of Mrs. Mader occurred in 1883. To this union one child was born 
Jennie, now the wife of A. L. Skerry, who is in England with the 
Canadian troops at this writing (1915). Mr. Mader was married a 
second time, on May 13, 1884, his last wife being known in her 
maidenhood as Charlotte A. Keddy, of Mahone Bay, and a daughter 
of Alexander Keddy, of Scotch stock. To this union one son was 
born Frank U. Mader, who is associated with his father in busi- 
ness. 

Politically Mr. Mader has been active in public affairs for some 
time. He was elected a member of the Provincial Parliament in 1904, 
and served two terms in a most creditable manner, so satisfactorily, 
in fact, that he was re-elected in 1906, his first election being a by- 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. IOI 

election. He has also served on the school board and has taken great 
interest in the welfare of his town and community, and stands 
deservedly high among the people. 

WILFRID NORTHUP COCHRAN, M. D. 

There is perhaps no more studious physician in Lunenburg County 
than Dr. Wilfrid Northup Cochran, of Mahone Bay; for he realized at 
the outset of his career that medicine was a science practically 
unlimited in its scope and that a life-time was not even sufficient to 
master it in its various phases. Therefore he has studied assiduously 
to render himself as proficient as possible in his chosen calling. 

Dr. Cochran was born at Newport. Nova Scotia, July i, 1877. 
He is a son of Charles and Annie (Chambers) Cochran, both also 
natives of the town of Newport, each representing pioneer families, 
and there these parents grew to maturity, attending school and were 
married. The father devoted his life to farming and for many years 
was a justice of the peace. His death occurred in 1913 at the age 
of seventy-nine years. His father, John Cochran, was also a native 
of Newport, and was a son of Terence Cochran, who was a native 
of Ireland from which country he came to Nova Scotia, establishing 
the future home of the family at Newport in a very early day, and 
there he carved a farm from the wilderness, devoting the balance of 
his life to farming there. His son, John Cochran, spent his life there 
as a merchant. 

Dr. Cochran was the sixth child in order of birth in a family 
of seven children, four of whom are still living. He grew to man- 
hood on the home farm and received his elementary education in 
the public schools, then went to boarding school at Horton Landing, 
after which he qualified in Halifax Academy, then entered Dalhousie 
University, from which he was graduated from the medical depart- 
ment in 1901 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. For some time 
thereafter he worked as interne in the Victoria General Hospital. He 
then went to Cape Breton where he practiced for about three years, 
after which he came to Mahone Bay, Lunenburg County, where he 
has since remained and has built up a very satisfactory general prac- 
tice, which extends over considerable territory. 

Dr. Cochran was married in July, 1911, to Nora Nicol, of Mahone 
Bay. She is a daughter of Thomas Ogilvie Geddis Nicol, a native 
of Aberdeen, Scotland, who immigrated to Nova Scotia when young 
and established his future home at Mahone Bay, Lunenburg County. 



IO2 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

To the Doctor and wife one child has been born, Edward Breton 
Nicol. 

A brother of our subject, Francis James Albro Cochran, is a prac- 
ticing physician in Glace Bay, Cape Breton. 

Politically, Dr. Cochran is a Conservative, and he has frequently 
been solicited to take public office, but has never cared to do so, 
preferring to stick close to his profession in which he tries to keep 
fully abreast of the times. He is a member of the Lunenburg- 
Queens Counties Medical Society and the Canadian Medical Asso- 
ciation. He attends the annual meetings of the same. Fraternally, 
be belongs to the Masonic Blue Lodge. 

The Doctor's ;grandfather, John Cochran, had three brothers 
who were merchants. Felix was a store-keeper near Brooklyn, Hants 
County; James F. operated a store at Brooklyn under the firm name 
of James F. Cochran & Sons. Hon. Arthur McNutt Cochran ran a 
store at Maitland, Hants County. He was for some time a member 
of the Local Legislature. 

WILLOUGHBY BRENT, M. D. 

To achieve success in any of the learned professions requires 
indefatigable energy and perseverance, no matter how much natural 
talent one may have to begin with. Realizing this fact, Dr. Willoughy 
Brent, a widely-known general physician of Malone Bay, Lunenburg 
County, has remained a close student of all that pertains to his voca- 
tion and has therefore met with encouraging success. 

Dr. Brent was born in Newcastle, Ontario, in September, 1867, 
and is a son of Henry and Frances (Cummeys) Brent, the father a 
native of England and the mother of Cippiewa, Ontario. Henry 
Brent, the grandfather, was a native of England. The latter immi- 
grated to Canada late in life, spending his later years in Kingston, 
Ontario. The Doctor's father was one of four brothers and he 
studied for the ministry. For forty-nine years he was retcor of St. 
George's Church at Newcastle, Ontario. That he was greatly beloved 
by his congregation is indicated by his long retention as pastor. He 
lived to the age of seventy-eight years. His family consisted of four 
daughters and three sons. Charles Henry Brent, his eldest son, 
became a minister, rising to distinction in the Episcopal Church, and 
at this writing is Bishop of the Philippine Islands. He is a noted 
divine and an eloquent and forceful pulpit orator. He was chairman 
of the opium commission which was held at the Hague. Maurice 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 103 

Brent, another brother of our subject, became a successful educator 
and at the time of his death, some years ago, was superintendent 
of the Lincoln School in Boston, Massachusetts. He lived only 
thirty-four years. 

Dr. Willoughby Brent received his early education in the public 
schools, then studied at Trinity School, Port Hope, later entering 
Toronto University, from which institution he was graduated in 
1897. Returning to Nova Scotia he began the practice of medi- 
cine at Mahone Bay, Lunenburg County, where he has since remained 
and has built up a large practice. 

Dr. Brent was married in 1903 to Edith Ellen Scott of New- 
castle, Ontario. She is a daughter of David Scott and wife of that 
place, and there she was educated. Three children have been born 
to our subject and wife, namely: Charles Morris Brent, Willoughby 
Scott Brent and Francis Lee Brent. 

The Doctor is a member of the Lunenburg-Oueens Counties Medi- 
cal Society. He spent a year at work in Royal Infirmary, at Edin- 
burg, Scotland, and later in St. Bartholomew Hospital, London. 

HARRY LEONCE MITCHENER, D. D. S. 

The profession of dentistry has an able exponent in Lunenburg 
County in the person of Dr. Harry Leonce Mitchener of Mahone Bay, 
a man who, judging from his large success, is not only well qualified 
by nature for his chosen life work ln.it who has also spared neither 
pains nor expense in equipping himself for the same. 

Dr. Mitchener was born in Liverpool, Nova Scotia, June i, 1876. 
He is a son of Rufus and Lydia D. (Uhlman) Mitchener. The 
father was born in 1848 at Mt. Denson, Hants County; and the 
mother was born at Caledonia, Queens County. The grandfather 
was a native of England, from which country he emigrated, when a 
young man, to Nova Scotia, locating at Mt. Denson, Hants County. 
He was a master mariner, and continued to follow the sea after com- 
ing to the new world. He died in Vera Cruz, Mexico of yellow 
fever. The father of our subject also followed the sea, becoming a 
master mariner. The Doctor has a pair of binoculars upon which is 
the following inscription : "Presented by Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to Capt. Rufus Mitchener of the barque Recovery, of Windsor, 
Nova Scotia in acknowledgement of his humanity and kindness to 
the ship-wrecked crew of the brigantine Woodlands, which was 



IO4 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

abandoned at sea in a sinking condition on the I5th of April, 1881." 
Thirty-one years later, April 12, 1912, he was buried. 

When twenty-four years of age the father of the subject of 
this sketch received his master certificate, in 1872. Later he made a 
trip around the world in the ship Kambira of nineteen hundred and 
fifty-two tons, ending the voyage in London, England, where the ship 
was sold. In all his years at sea he never lost a ship until after his 
retirement, when he attempted to take a vessel from Sydney to Wind- 
sor. In a hurricane off Shelburne the schooner sprang a leak, but 
he managed to get her into St. Thomas, where she was condemned 
and sold. In Dunkirk the crew of his ship won the medal as a 
ship's crew for rowing, open to all ships crews in that port. Capt. 
Mitchener had some narrow escapes, having had both legs broken 
and other severe injuries at various times, which injuries hastened 
his death, which occurred 'when he was sixty-four years of age. His 
wife died in Kentville in 1914 at an advanced age. 

Great-Grandfather Uhlman was a native of Germany, from which 
country he came to what is now known as River Port, Nova Scotia, 
and there established his future home. After his death (lost at sea 
and all his crew) his widow and family moved to Chelsea, Lunen- 
burg County, where all the sons and daughters were married. 

Doctor Mitchener is the elder of the two children, a sister, Laura 
D., wife of S. L. Cross, Kentville, was graduated from the Ladies 
College at Sackville. Our subject received his elementary education 
in the public schools and the Academy at Kentville, then took a course 
in the Truro Business College, after which he became clerk and 
secretary to the superintendent of the Dominion Atlantic Railroad, 
which position he held for about three years, giving excellent satis- 
faction, but he did not like the idea of spending his life in railroad 
service, and went to Philadelphia, where he entered the Pennsylvania 
College of Dental Surgery, where he made an excellent record and 
from which institution he was graduated in 1900. He returned to 
Nova Scotia and located at Mahone Bay, Lunenburg County, where 
he began the practice of his profession in which he was successful 
from the first, and here he has continued to the present time, having 
built up a large and lucrative practice. 

Dr. Mitchener was married September 15, 1909, to Eva Rudder- 
ham of North Sydney, Nova Scotia, who is a daughter of Capt. David 
Rudderham. 

The Doctor enlisted in the Seventy-fifth Regiment in 1904 at 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. IO5 

Mahone Bay, under Captain Mossman, and served as adjutant for 
two years. On January I, 1912, he was transferred to the Canada 
Army Medical Corps as dental surgeon. In 1914 on the formation 
of the first contingent, located at Valcartier, he volunteered and was 
accepted and was located at No. 2, General Hospital, and for a time 
was the only dentist of the medical corps service there. He gets 
diversion in yatching, hunting and fishing and other outdoor sports. 
He is something of a journalist and is correspondent for some of 
the leading daily papers of Canada. Politically, he is a Liberal. 
Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic Order in which he is a past 
master, also belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in 
which he was district deputy grand master, also recording secre- 
tary for years. 

RIGHT REV. AIONSIGNOR DALY. 

One of the eminent churchmen of Nova Scotia of a past genera- 
tion was the late Right Rev. Monsignor Daly, of Halifax, a great 
scholar and useful citizen. He was at all times a most companion- 
able man, and by those with whom he was closely associated his per- 
sonality was regarded as rare in the strength and firmness of attitude 
and its loyalty to the accepted views of his mind. His characteristics 
of fearlessness and steadfastness in whatever he undertook rendered 
him the warmest of friends or the strongest of opponents in any 
cause. He had the welfare of his city and Province at heart and did 
all in his power to promote the general good. 

Monsignor Daly was born in Halifax on February 20, 1837. 
There he grew to manhood and was educated in the Halifax schools 
and in the Province of Quebec. He was ordained priest in 1861. 
His first parish was at Chezzetcook. Later he was transferred to 
Halifax and for many years was private secretary to the late Arch- 
bishop Connolly. After the death of the latter our subject took up 
pastoral work at Windsor, which he continued there until 1893, 
when he became pastor of St. Joseph's church, Halifax, and vicar- 
general of the archdiocese of Halifax. In 1899 he was made domes- 
tic prelate to his holiness the Pope. 

The death of Monsignor Daly occurred in Halifax, September 
28, 1914, at St. Joseph's Glebe house. For upwards of a year he had 
been seriously ill and his death was not unexpected. He was sev- 
enty-seven years old. His death removed one of the best known 
citizens of Halifax. Kindly, gracious and dignified, he was a type of 



I0 6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

the old-time priest and gentleman. He was really a link between the 
present and the past. He was universally respected, and had many 
warm friends outside of his denomination. Zealous in the discharge 
of his duties as a pastor, keenly interested in all movements for the 
public good, tender and kindly to those who needed sympathy, court- 
eous and tolerant towards all classes, the late Monsignor Daly was a 
model clergyman, and the news of his death caused general sorrow. 
The jubilee of Monsignor Daly's ordination to the priesthood 
was celebrated on July 9, 1911. In anticipation of this a presenta- 
tion was made to him on the evening of July 7th of that year, at the 
School for tire Bliad. Many of the prominent men of the Province 
took part in the exercises. 

ROBERT GORDON MACLELLAN, M. D. 

Dr. Robert Gordon Maclellan, of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, is the 
second son of Robert Maclellan, LL. D., of Pictou. Dr. R. G. 
Maclellan was born at Pictou. He received his preliminary educa- 
tion in the schools of that town and at Pictou Academy. In 1905 he 
entered Dalhousie Medical College, from which, after a most credit- 
able course, he was graduated Doctor of Medicine and Master of 
Surgery, in 1909. Subsequent to graduation he served as house 
surgeon, first in the Nova Scotia Hospital and, later, in the Victoria 
General Hospital. At the end of 1910 he entered upon a general 
medical practice at Mahone Bay, whence he removed shortly after- 
wards to Lunenburg Town, where he now enjoys an extensive and 
rapidly increasing practice. In 1913 he married Hazel Primrose, of 
Pictou, youngest daughter of the late Honorable Clarence Primrose, 
Senator. 

ROBERT EMMETT FINN, K. C. 

In the list of present-day barristers of Nova Scotia, the name of 
Robert Emmett Finn, of Halifax, must not be overlooked. He has 
only attained the half-way house along the thoroughfare of human 
years, and has rapidly risen to an influential and prominent place in 
his profession. He is a well read lawyer, a ready debater, an indus- 
trious, indomitable worker, and a skilful tactician. 

Mr. Finn was born in Dartmouth, Halifax county, Nova Scotia, 
June 10, 1877, and early in life removed to Halifax, where he has 
been content to spend his life. He is a son of John and Mary (Far- 
rell) Finn, both of Irish descent. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. IO7 

Mr. Finn grew to manhood in his native county, and he received 
his early education in the public schools at Dartmouth and the La 
Salle Academy at Halifax, from which institution he was graduated, 
then entered Dalhousie University, where he made an excellent rec- 
ord and was graduated from the law school with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws. After being admitted to the bar he began the 
practice of his profession in Halifax, where he has since been one 
of the busy and successful barristers, enjoying an ever-growing 
clientage. In 1914 he was appointed by the lieutenant-governor-in- 
Council one of His Majesty's Counsel learned in the Law. 

On June 17, 1902, he was united in marriage to Anna Louise 
Russell, a daughter of the Hon. Mr. Justice Russell of the Supreme 
Court of Nova Scotia. To this union one son was 1>orn Benjamin 
Dominick Finn. 

Mr. Finn has long been influential and active in public affairs. 
He was elected president of the Charitable Irish Society, of Halifax, 
in February, 1912, and again in 1913. He is a versatile writer and a 
journalist of ability, and when the Boer war broke out he accompan- 
ied the Canadian contingent to South Africa as a war correspondent, 
leaving Halifax on the steamer Milwaukee, February 21, 1900. Being 
a keen observer and a graphic writer, with a proper instinct of how 
to discover news and how best to shape it when discovered, his trip 
to that far-away land was a success and his articles in the home press 
attracted widespread attention and comment. 

Mr. Finn was first elected to the Legislative Assembly at the gen- 
eral election, June 20, 1906, by a majority of one thousand and ten, 
which shows his great popularity among his home people. He made 
such a highly commendable record that he was re-elected to this office 
in 1911, and he is still discharging his duties in this connection in a 
faithful and able manner. He is a Liberal, and in religion is a Ro- 
man Catholic. 

REV. EDWARD MANNING. 

The Baptists of Nova Scotia had a great man in Rev. Edward 
Manning, who was one of the most useful and influential divines 
in this country in pioneer times, and the good he accomplished can- 
not be measured in metes and bounds, for his influence is still 
potent. 

He was born in Ireland, about the year 1766, of Roman Catholic 
parentage. He came to Falmouth, Nova Scotia, when quite young. 



I0 8 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

In 1776 when about ten years old he heard Henry Alline preach in 
Falmouth, and was strongly impressed and was converted to Christ 
in 1789, under the ministry of Rev. John Payzant. He soon 
decided to enter the ministry and was ordained over the Congrega- 
tional church at Cornwallis, in 1795. However, he embraced Bap- 
tist sentiments soon after his ordination, and was baptised by Rev. 
T. H. Chipman at Annapolis, in 1798, and in due course of time 
became one of the leading preachers of any denomination in the 
Maritime Provinces. He was one of the most powerful, practical 
and wise leaders in the founding and establishing of the Baptist 
denomination in Xov?. Scotia. In the year 1807 the church at 
Cornwallis, over which he presided for more than fifty years, 
adopted the Baptist faith and practice. 

Air. Manning was one of the founders of Horton Academy and 
Acadia College and was one of the stanchest friends of these insti- 
tutions during the rest of his life. He did much in a general way 
to further educational work in the Province. He lived to an advanced 
age, dying January 12, 1851. 

An evidence of the prevailing liberal sentiments in the Newlight 
churches of the early days, that they retained Edward Manning as 
their pastor for nine years after he was immersed. At the meeting 
of the "Baptist and Congregational Association" at Cornwallis, 
June 20, 1 799, he was appointed to prepare a plan for an association 
to be laid before the next session of the tody, which was held at 
Lower Granville June 23, 1800. His plan was adopted at that 
time. The name "Congregational" was dropped, and the Association 
was called "The Baptist Association of Nova Scotia." He founded 
churches and did much in various ways to promote the interests 
of his denomination in New Brunswick, being the first to preach 
the gospel in Charlotte County and other sections. 

In physical stature he was taller than his compeers. He meas- 
ured nearly six feet and five inches and in later life was well pro- 
portioned to his height. His head was large, with high, broad fore- 
head, indicating great brain power; his eyes dark and piercing, and 
his walk majestic. The breadth of his mind was proportioned to 
the size of his body. The Creator endowed him with an intellect of 
marvelous capabilities. He was a torn leader of men. He was a 
rigid disciplinarian. For years he towered above all others in the 
Baptist ministry in the Maritime Provinces. He discerned the signs 
of the times and examined them with a searching analysis. His 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. log 

endowments were of the highest order. He advocated good edu- 
cations for the ministers of his denomination, believing that religion 
and education went hand in hand for the betterment of the world. 

JOSEPH HOWE AUSTEN. 

One of the well known and progressive business men of Halifax 
is Joseph Howe Austen, whose activities in this vicinity cover a 
period of half a century. He labored so consecutively and managed 
so judiciously that he finally became manager of a thriving business. 
Mr. Austen was born at Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, October 3, 1850, 
and is a son of Joseph and Sophia A. (Elliot) Austen, the father a 
native of Halifax and the mother of Dartmouth, her birth having 
occurred on August 28, 1821. She grew to womanhood in her native 
town and her first marriage took place on May 17, 1840, to John 
Graham, whose death occurred April 28, 1843; to tn i s union one 
daughter was born. She and Joseph Austen were married on Sep- 
tember 17, 1848, and to their union eight sons and one daughter were 
born, the subject of this sketch being the second in order of birth. 
Mrs. Austen's mother was Sophia Elizabeth Cornwall, who mar- 
ried John Elliot on July 30, 1808. She was born August 13, 1787, 
and died August 13, 1859; her husband died November 26, 1862. 
Her mother's maiden name was Sophia Elizabeth Houseal, who mar- 
ried Dr. Daniel Cornwall in September, 1 787, who, according to 
Sabine, was a Loyalist, and during the American Revolution was a 
lieutenant in the regiment of South Carolina Royalist Dragoons. She 
died in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The maiden name of her mother was 
Sybilla Margaretha Mayer, a daughter of Christopher Bartholomew 
Mayer. She was born August 4, 1733, at Ulm. In the spring of 
1752 she was married in Rotterdam, Holland, to the Rev. Bernard 
Michael Houseal, a son of Rev. Bernard Houseal, of Heilbrown, 
Wurtemburg, was born in 1727. and died in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
on Saturday. March 9, 1799, after which she lived with her children 
and grandchildren and died at Stonehouse. Devonshire, England. 
Their marriage took place at Amsterdam, just as the bride's parents, 
sister and two brothers were embarking for America, and the newly 
married couple accompanied them. The ship took them to Annapolis, 
Maryland, but the entire party went on to Fredericktown, or Mono- 
cacy Station, as it was called, in western Maryland, which locality 
was then a wilderness, but was attractive to immigrants, especially 
the Germans on account of the richness of the soil and healthful 



110 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

climate. The Houseals and Mayers stopped there and the Rev. Mr. 
Houseal began his work as a clergyman of the Evangelical Lutheran 
church. On donated land he began building the first church in that 
district, but was stopped owing to the outbreak of the French and 
Indian war. 

Christopher Bartholomew Mayer died in 1772, his widow, sons 
and remaining daughter removing to Pennsylvania, but Rev. Mr. 
Houseal continued to reside in Fredericktown until 1759, when he 
moved to Readingtown, where he preached until 1768, then went to 
Easton and possibly to Philadelphia. In 1770 he was transferred 
to Xew York, being senior minister of the ancient Lutheran church, 
one of the governors of New York College and one of the corpora- 
tors of the Xew York Hospital. When the trouble started which 
led to the Revolutionary war he took his stand at once as an adher- 
ent to the Crown. From records in New York he was loud in his 
declarations of loyalty to England. When the British took possession 
of the capital, his church and dwelling were burned and his family 
forced to fly to the fields. He remained in New York until 1783, 
when he and many of his congregation departed for Nova Scotia, 
where the British representatives welcomed him and provided for 
him and his three sons and seven daughters. He received the chap- 
lancy of a regiment from the Duke of Kent. After his death his 
widow and some of his children were returned to England free of 
charge by the Duke of Kent. His numerous children had remark- 
able careers, his sons becoming prominent both in the navy and army. 

Brantz Mayer collected and published a memoir and genealogy 
of this family, especially as relating to those of Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania. It shows that the family originated in the free imperial 
city of Ulm, Wurtembnrg, and it gives the record of the family from 
1495 to 1878. The work was issued in a handsome edition and pri- 
vately printed for family use only by William R. Boyle & Son of 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

Joseph H. Austen, of this sketch, grew to manhood in Dartmouth 
and was educated in the public schools there. When a young man 
he worked in the hardware and ship chainery business with the firm 
of Edward Albro & Company from September 15, 1865, until the 
spring of 1877 and has continued the same to the present time, hav- 
ing through his industry and good management built up a large 
business. 

Mr. Austen was married on October 8, 1872, to Annie J. Keat- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. Ill 

ing, a daughter of William and Elizabeth (Brodie) Keating, of 
Dartmouth. The death of Mrs. Austen occurred November 12, 1891. 
He was married a second time, his last wife being Hettie Collins, of 
Port Headway, Nova Scotia. This union was without issue, but 
eleven children were born of his first marriage, named as follows : 
Robie White died October 18, 1876; Annie May, William Keating 
died November 25, 1876; Inglis, Bessie Luella, Brantz Mayer, Jos- 
eph Howe, Arthur Soden; Nora Hayward, died November 12, 1891; 
Eva died December 10, 1895; and Katie Drury is the youngest. 

Politically, Mr. Austen is a Liberal, and fraternally he is a mem- 
ber of the A. F. Masons and Lodge No. 51, of the Order of Eastern 
Star. 

Harry Ede Austen, who was for a number of years a member 
of the firm of Austen Brothers, of Halifax, but who resided in 
Dartmouth, was born in March, 1854, and entered business in Hali- 
fax in 1877, forming a partnership with his brother, Joseph H. 
Austen, subject of this review, under the firm name of Austen Broth- 
ers. In 1909, owing to ill health, he retired from the firm, which 
has since been conducted as a joint stock company in the name of 
Austen Brothers, Limited. 

He was the third son of the late Joseph and Sophia Almy Austen. 
He married Ethel M. Elliot, daughter of the late Henry and Eliza- 
beth Elliot. To this union four children were born, namely : Harold 
E., of the firm of Austen Brothers, Limited; and Louise, wife of 
Kenneth N. Forbes, of Halifax; Robie Cornwall died in 1905; and 
Nellie M. died in 1907. 

Mr. Austen was a direct descendant of the Reverend Bernard 
Michael Houseal, first rector of the old Dutch Chicken-Cock Church, 
one of the historic landmarks of Halifax. Sofiah Elizabeth, the fifth 
daughter of Mr. Houseal, married Daniel Cornwall. Of this union 
there were six children. Of these Sofiah Elizabeth married John 
Elliot, whose daughter, Sophia Almy, married Joseph Austen, father 
of Harry Ede Austen. In addition to the hitter's business activities, 
he was a naturalist and taxidermist of exceptional ability, and his 
collection of specimens brought together during fifteen years of ac- 
tive work, is one of the finest ever made of our native birds, consist- 
ing of some six hundred mountings of exceptional rarity and beauty. 

The death of Harry Ede Austen occurred January 22, 1915. 
Besides his widow and two children he was survived by two broth- 
ers and one sister Joseph H. and Percy, both of the firm of Austen 



H2 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Brothers, Limited; and Mrs. Isabell Fulmer, of Berwick, Kings 
county. He is remembered as a man of genial disposition, and 
formed many enduring friendships. He was well known as a sports- 
man and lover of nature and wild life animals, birds and insects, 
and his death was greatly deplored by a wide circle of friends and 
acquaintances throughout the Province and elsewhere. 

REV. DONALD M. MACADAM. 

Worry comes from failure to think properly, so we are com- 
manded to consider, be still and know, and to remember that we 
live and move and have our being in the same universal spirit which 
has expressed itself in all -the wonders of the material universe. Even 
a flower is the unfolding of a vast divine plan. So the wise do not 
worry, but go ahead and perform their tasks from day to day as best 
they can. Rev. Donald M. MacAdam, parish priest at Sydney, Xova 
Scotia, is an advocate of such a doctrine, and he scatters sunshine 
instead of weaving a pall of gloom wherever he goes. He was born 
at East Bay, Cape Breton, February 3, 1867. and is a son of John 
and Teresa MacAdam. the former born in August, 1837, and the 
hitter's birth occurred March 17, 1839. 

Hugh MacDonald's history of the MacDonalds tells of a certain 
"Ednmnd More Obrian," who, in the service of Ronald Ban Mac- 
Donald, of Clanranald, distinguished himself at the battle of Bloody 
Bay, fought about 1480. Big Edmond's descendants remained in 
Moidart, where we find them about the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury settled on the banks of the river Ailort. In Gaelic they were 
called Adamsons or MacAdams. It was only after coming to this 
country that the latter form prevailed. Some of them came to Prince 
Edward Island with the Glenaladale immigration about 1780, the 
remainder coming direct to Antigonish and Cape Breton at a later 
date. They are not connected with the MacAdams of MacGregor 
descent. Among the maternal ancestors of our subject may be men- 
tioned a great-great-grandfather, Capt. John MacDonald, of Eraser's 
Highlanders. He was wounded at the taking of Louisburg in 1758, 
and was afterwards with Wolfe at Quebec. When his regiment was 
disbanded he received a large grant of land in Pictou county, where 
many of his descendants are today to be found. 

Father Donald M. MacAdam made his arts course at St. Francis 
Xavier College, Antigonish, took a special course in science at Mc- 
Gill University, Montreal, also at Harvard University, Cambridge, 




Street Scene. 
Harbor Scene. 



SCENES IN YARMOUTH. 



Collins Street. 
View from Grand Hotel. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 113 

Massachusetts, and he studied theology at Grand Seminary, Mont- 
real. He was ordained priest on August 6, 1893. He was one of 
the professors at St. Francis Xavier College from 1893 to 1900. Dur- 
ing the latter year he was appointed parish priest of the Sacred Heart 
Parish, Sydney, and he has remained there to the present time, hav- 
ing built up the work very perceptibly during these fifteen years, and 
he is popular with his congregation. 

BOWMAN BROWN LAW, M. P. 

"Through struggle to triumph" seems to be the maxim which 
holds sway with the majority of people ,that is, those who attain to 
a successful goal at all, must find it after arduous effort. And, 
though it is undoubtedly true that many fall exhausted in the con- 
flict, a few, by their inherent force of character and strong mentality, 
rise above their environment, and all which seems to hinder them, 
until they reach the plane of affluence toward which their face was 
set through the long years of struggle that must necessarily precede 
any accomplishment of great magnitude. Such was the history, 
briefly stated, of the late Bowman Brown Law. who was for some 
time one of the best known public men of Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Law, who, for many years was one of the leading business 
men of Yarmouth, was born at Douglass, Massachusetts, July 29, 
1855. He was a son of Hon. William and Mary Law, the father 
of Irish and the mother of American descent. 

Mr. Law was brought to Yarmouth by his parents when young 
in years and there he grew to manhood and attended school. On 
January 13, 1880, he was united in marriage to Agnes M. Lovitt, a 
daughter of Capt. Joseph B. Lovitt of Yarmouth, where he has been 
a leading merchant for many years. 

Taking an active interest in public affairs, Mr. Law became town 
councillor of Yarmouth, which position he held six and one-half 
years. He was first returned to the House of Commons at a by-elec- 
tion, December 3, 1902, to fill a vacancy caused by the appointment 
of T. B. Flint as clerk of the House of Commons. Mr. Law was 
re-elected at the general elections in 1904, 1908 and 1911, with the 
largest majority ever given a member of that county. This would 
indicate that he had discharged his duties earnestly, faithfully and 
honestly and had the confidence of the people. 

Mr. Law was very successful in a business way, and until his 
(8) 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

death conducted the mercantile business established at Yarmouth by 
his father in 1860. He was a director of the Canadian Wood Work- 
ing Company, Limited, also a director of the Yarmouth Hospital 
Society. He was president of the Yarmouth Mountain Cemetery 
Company. Politically, he was a Liberal, and religiously, a Methodist. 
Mr. Law met a tragic and untimely death in the fire that destroyed 
the Parliament building at Ottawa, in February, 1916. 

DR. JUDSON BURPEE BLACK, M. D. 

In the history of Hants County in connection with the medical 
profession, the name of Dr. Judson Burpee Black, of Windsor, must 
necessarily occupy a prominent place, for through a number of de- 
cades he has been one of the representative and trusted general phy- 
sicians of this locality progressive, enterprising and capable. Such 
qualities as he possesses by nature always win success sooner or later. 

Dr. Black was born at St. Martin's, New Brunswick, August 15, 
1842, and he is a son of Thomas H. Black, who was born in Armagh, 
Ireland, where he spent his earlier years, finally immigrating to Canada 
and for many years resided at St. Martin's, New Brunswick, where 
he became well established through his industry. The mother of the 
Doctor was known in her maidenhood as Mary Fownes. 

Dr. Black received his education in the public schools of St. Mar- 
tin's and the schools of St. John, New Brunswick, later attending 
Mt. Allison University. After leaving Mt. Allison he studied medi- 
cine for two years in the office of his brother Dr. W. T. Black, of 
St. Stephen, New Brunswick. He then entered Berkshire Medical 
College and afterwards the University of Philadelphia, graduating 
in 1867. In 1890 he received the degree of M. D. from Dartmouth 
Medical College. He first began the practice of his profession at 
Hantsport and he located in Windsor, Hants County, in the year 
1871 and here he has remained to the present time, enjoying a large 
and lucrative practice. He has kept well to the front on all matters 
pertaining to his profession, taking frequent clinics at the post-gradu- 
ate colleges of New York, and he was vice-president of the Canadian 
Medical Association during 1904-5. He was president of the Nova 
Scotia Medical Society in 1906-7, and he was president of the Hants 
County Medical Society in 1905-6. 

Politically, Dr. Black is a Liberal and he has long been a leader 
in his party in Hants County. He was a member of the House of 
Commons from Hants County from 1904 till 1911 and has discharged 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 115 

his duties in this important position in a manner that has reflected 
much credit upon himself and to the eminent satisfaction of the 
people. Among the many commendable things which he has done 
was to move for the establishment of a federal bureau of health in 
1908. He also introduced in 1910 the bill' for uniform registration 
of medical practitioners in Canada and carried it to successful issue 
in face of some opposition in the West. A somewhat similar bill 
was introduced in 1902 by Dr. Roddick of Montreal but was defeated. 
He has ever made his influence felt for the general good among his 
colleagues, and he is a speaker of rare power and force. 

In religious matters he is a member of the Methodist church. 

Dr. Black was married in May. 1864, to Bessie Churchill, a 
daughter of the late Senato'r Churchill of Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

GEORGE ARCHIBALD HALL. 

In treating of men and characters, the biographer contemplates 
them, and not according to conceptions of his own. He is not sup- 
posed to entertain any favoritism, to have any likes or dislikes, or 
caprices of any kind to gratify, or to not have any special standard 
of excellence. He will try to set forth the plain facts, to tell of 
the individual as his neighbors know him. George A. Hall, collector 
of customs at Truro, Nova Scotia, measures up well by such a 
standard. 

Mr. Hall was born November 29, 1858, at Truro, and is a son 
of George H. and Elizabeth (Archibald) Hall. His great-great 
grandfather was one of four brothers who settled in Truro in 1762, 
three years after the first settlers arrived from New England, and 
four generations have spent their lives in Truro and were active 
members in promoting the upbuilding of the community in their day 
and generation. The father died in 1861 when the subject of our 
sketch was barely three years old, but his mother survived till 1915, 
having reached the ripe age of eighty-seven years. 

Our subject received his early education in the common and 
high schools of Truro and engaged actively in mercantile pursuits 
in his home town for a period of twenty years, then turned his 
attention to the newspaper field, becoming manager of The Sun, also 
The Citizen, the fortunes of which he directed in an able manner 
for about five years. He organized the first Board of Trade in 
Truro in 1887, and it still continues a strong factor in the business 



Il6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

life of Truro. For twenty years Mr. Hall was prominently identi- 
fied with the political history of Colchester County. 

In 1913, upon the death of George P. Nelson, he was appointed 
collector of customs of the Port of Truro, which position he has 
held to the present time in an eminently satisfactory manner. 

SIR EDWARD KENNY. 

In every life of honor and usefulness there is no dearth of inter- 
esting situations and incidents, and yet in summing up such a career 
as that of the late Sir Edward Kenny, for many years one of the 
leading public men of Nova Scotia, his being a most useful and 
praiseworthy career, the writer must need touch only on the more 
salient facts, giving the keynote of the character and eliminating all 
that is superfluous to the continuity of the narrative. 

He was born in the year 1800 and died in 1891, thus living 
ninety-one years. He was a member of the first government of the 
Dominion of Canada, representing therein the Irish people of the 
Dominion. He afterwards served for a short time as lieutenant- 
governor of Nova Scotia, after the death of Joseph Howe, then re- 
tired to private life. He was a man of considerable business ability, 
clear-headed, moderate and of sound judgment, aided by an unusual 
share of good looks. Fortune smiled upon him and he amassed more 
than a competence, which he expended with a generosity typical of 
his race. It is said of him that he never refused alms to any one 
who sought his aid; and his hospitality in the fifties and sixties was 
proverbial. Another Irish instinct was his love of horses, and riding 
and driving, especially the former, no doubt contributed to the good 
health which he enjoyed through an unusually long life. 

Sir Edward Kenny's eldest son, Thomas Edward Kenny, was born 
1833 and died in 1908. He represented Halifax in the Dominion 
Parliament from 1887 to 1896. He was offered, but refused, the 
portfolio of Finance in the Bowell ministry shortly before it went out 
of office. He was one of the leading financiers of the Dominion, 
and he helped found the Royal Bank of Canada and lived to see it 
develop under his presidency from the small beginnings of the Mer- 
chants' Bank of Halifax to the commanding position it now occupies 
among the financial institutions of the country. With a good voice, 
a keen sense of humor and a very real and kindly geniality of nature, 
Mr. Kenny took high rank among the speakers of his day in the 
House of Commons. Halifax was then fortunate in being able to 



II (, 




HON. J. W. JOHXSTOXE. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 117 

command the parliamentary service of two of its most prominent 
residents, Mr. Kenny and Hon. A. G. Jones, the leading men in their 
respective parties. To Mr. Kenny public life was distasteful and 
meant the sacrifice of personal inclinations, and it was only at the 
request of Sir John Macdonald and with much reluctance that he 
accepted the party nomination. Hs was an ardent imperialist, a 
warm believer in British institutions, and always took pains to show 
that home rule for Ireland was not only compatible with imperialism 
but was the best way to make Ireland imperial. Like his father Mr. 
Kenny was a broad-minded man of the highest integrity and with 
strong religious ideals. Although an active and industrious man 
of business he never became so immersed in material things as to 
forget or overlook the amenities of life, the beauties of nature, the 
Irish instinct of hospitality, the needs of the poor, the love of a jest 
these were all things that made a strong appeal to him. 

HON. JAMES WILLIAM JOHNSTONE. 

One of the greatest names one encounters in perusing the chron- 
icles relating to the past and present of Nova Scotia is that of the 
Hon. James William Johnstone. 

He was by descent a Scotchman and by birth a West Indian. 
His grandfather, Dr. Lewis Johnstone, was born in Scotland and 
claimed to be entitled to the now long dormant title of Marquis of 
Annandale, but never pressed his claim in the courts. He married 
Laleah Peyton, a lady of Huguenot descent, and settled in Savannah, 
Georgia, then a British colony, where he owned an estate called 
Annandale. Previous to the Revolutionary War, Dr. Johnstone 
filled the office of president of the council and treasurer of the colony 
of Georgia. When the war broke out his sons all entered the British 
army. His eldest son, William Martin Johnstone, father of the 
subject of this sketch, held the rank of captain of the New York 
Volunteers in 1775. He was engaged in the defense of Savannah, 
was at the capture of Fort Montgomery on the Hudson, and took 
part in various other engagements during the war. At its close Dr. 
Johnstone returned to Scotland and Captain Johnstone, who had 
lost all his property in consequence of espousing the cause of Britain, 
studied medicine, and was graduated from the University of Edin- 
burgh. He married Elizabeth Lichtenstein, the only daughter of 
Capt. John Lichtenstein, of the noble and ancient Austrian family 
of that name. Captain Johnstone subsequently moved to Kingston, 



U8 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Jamaica, where his son, James William Johnstone, was born on 
August 29, 1792. 

Our subject was early sent to Scotland for his education. The 
family afterwards settled permanently in Nova Scotia, and our sub- 
ject studied law in Annapolis and was admitted to the bar in 1815. 
He commenced the practice of his profession in Kentville, but soon 
removed to Halifax and entered into partnership with Simon B. 
Robie, at that time the leading lawyer in this Province. Mr. John- 
stone rose rapidly in his profession and soon attained the highest 
rank, which he continued to hold unchallenged until his elevation to 
the bench of the Supreme Court. He was especially strong in cross- 
examination ; also good at repartee, had an excellent memory and 
was a forceful and convincing pleader; rising to the occasion his 
bursts of impassioned eloquence swept with the force of a tornado 
carrying all before it. In the year 1835 he was appointed solicitor- 
general of the Province, which office was then non-political, but in 
1838 he entered the Legislative Council and commenced his political 
life, and at once became the acknowledged leader of the Conservative 
party. On the elevation of Hon. S. G. W. Archibald to the Court 
of Chancery as master of the rolls in 1843, Mr. Johnstone was ap- 
pointed attorney-general, and at the general election held in that year, 
resigned his seat in the Legislative Council, and stood for the im- 
portant county of Annapolis for which he was returned by a large 
majority, and which constituency he continued uninterruptedly to 
represent in the House of Assembly until 1863, when he took his seat 
on the bench. One of the first acts he placed on the statute book 
was the simultaneous polling Act, which provided for the holding 
of elections throughout the Province on one and the same day, in- 
stead of being held at different times, as previously. He also suc- 
cessfully advocated the introduction of denominational colleges, and 
their partial endowment by the state. He was one of the delegates 
selected to meet Lord Durham, the high commissioner for settling 
the difficulties in Canada, and to confer with him on contemplated 
changes in colonial government. He was the first statesman who, 
in the halls of legislature, advocated the union or confederation of 
the North American colonies. In 1854, on the floor of the Nova 
Scotia House of Assembly he made a notable speech in favor of con- 
federation. However, he had retired from public life before the 
details of the scheme was worked out and put into effect. In 1857, 
while attorney-general, he went to England to adjust the differences 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 1 19 

that for years existed between the Province and the General Mining 
Association. A compromise was finally effected. In 1863 he ac- 
cepted a seat on the bench as judge in Equity and judge of the 
Supreme Court. His duties were faithfully performed and his de- 
cisions were clear, logical and exhaustive expositions of the law. 
In 1872 he made a trip to France for the benefit of his health but 
continued to decline, and he was compelled to refuse the offer of 
the lieutenant-governorship the following year. 

Early in life he joined the Baptist church and was a faithful 
member to the end. The Baptist Academy at Wolfville and Acadia 
College owe their existence very largely to his efforts. He was one 
of the first governors of the latter. He was several times elected 
president of the Baptist Convention of the Maritime Provinces. 

He was twice married, first to Amelia E. Almon, a daughter of 
Dr. William J. Almon, by whom he had three sons and three daugh- 
ters. His second wife was Mrs. Louise Wentworth, widow of Cap- 
tain Wentworth of the Royal Artillery, by whom he had one daugh- 
ter and three sons. 

Mr. Johnstone's death occurred at Cheltenham, England, Novem- 
ber 21, 1873, at the age of eighty-one years. 

HON. LT.-COL. DONALD ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, M. D. 

It is a pleasure to write the biography of a man who has forced 
his way from the common ranks up the ladder of professional suc- 
cess, having overcome obstacles that would have downed, and does 
down, myriads of men of less sterling fiber. But this is just the 
thing that Dr. Donald Alexander Campbell, well known physician of 
Halifax, has done, and he is therefore entitled to his success and to 
the respect that is accorded him by a wide acquaintance in Nova 
Scotia, where he is also widely known for his commendable services 
in offices of high public trust. 

Dr. Campbell was born at Eastern Passage, Halifax County. 
Nova Scotia, October 26, 1852, and is a son of the late Duncan and 
Catherine Campbell. The family removed to Truro in 1860, where 
he received his early education. He later entered Dalhousie College, 
graduating from the medical department in 1874 with the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery. He has been one of 
the leading general practitioners and surgeons in Halifax during the 
past forty years. He has long been professor of medicine in Dal- 
housie College. He is a governor of Dalhousie University. He is 



I2O HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

also an examiner of the local branch of the Royal Sanitary Institute. 
He was an active member of the Sixty-Third Regiment for many 
years. He possesses the long service decoration. He was elected 
president of the Mayflower Curling Club in 1906. He was gazetted 
Honorable Lieutenant-Colonel, February 6, 1906. 

Dr. Campbell married Catherine Fanning, of Newfoundland. 

WILLIAM JAMES STAIRS. 

In studying a clean-cut, sane, distinct character like that of the 
late William James Stairs of Halifax, interpretation follows fact in 
a straight line of derivation. There is small use for indirection or 
puzzling. His character was the positive expression of a strong 
nature. As has been said of him, ''He was distinctively one of the 
notable business men of his day and generation, and as such is entitled 
to a conspicuous place in the annals of his city and Province." He 
was a member of one of the old and influential families of Nova Scotia, 
and in his lifetime engaged widely in various business pursuits and 
as the head of a number of concerns which bore his name. 

Mr. Stairs was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 24, 1819, 
and his death occurred February 27, 1906. He was a son of William 
Stairs. He grew to manhood in his native city, and here became a 
successful merchant, his father, William, being the founder of the 
hardware firm of William Stairs. Son & Morrow, Ltd. He was 
very successful in the same, building up one of the largest firms of 
its kind in the Province. He also founded the Dartmouth Rope 
Works, which he built up to large proportions, but it finally passed 
into the hands of the Consumers Cordage Company. He was a 
director in the Starr Manufacturing Company, and was president of 
the Union Bank of Halifax for fifteen years. He took an active part 
in the deliberations of the Halifax Chamber of Commerce. He was 
always ready to assist, with either time or means, in the furtherance 
of any movement having for its object the betterment or upbuilding 
of his home city. He affiliated with the Presbyterian church. In 
1871 he became identified with the Conservative party, and -was an 
admirer of Joseph Howe. He sat in the Legislative Council for 
three years, beginning in 1868. 

Mr. Stairs was married on June 16, 1845, to Susan Morrow, the 
eldest daughter of John Morrow and wife. To this marriage the 
following children were born: John F. Stairs, born January 19, 
1848, married Charlotte Jane Fogo, April 27, 1870, she being the 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 121 

only child of James and Jane Fogo; she was born at Pictou, Nova 
Scotia, October 21, 1847, and died in Halifax, May 28, 1886; John 
F. Stairs died at Toronto, September 26, 1904; his family consisted 
of eight children. James Wiseman Stairs, third child of the subject 
of this sketch, was born May 15, 1851, married Jane Macdonald, 
November 12, 1873, she having been born March 18, 1851, and to 
their union three children were born. Edward Stairs, the fifth child, 
was born July 10, 1854, married on Octo1>er 23, 1878, Isabella Boyd 
Scott, who was born April 14, 1856, and to their union ten children 
were born. George Stairs, the sixth child, was born February 29, 
1856, married Helen MacKenzie, October i, 1884; her death oc- 
curred April 13, 1894; to their marriage five children were born. 
Herbert Stairs, the seventh child, was born March 21, 1859. married 
Bessie Eaton, September 21, 1881 ; she was born October n, 1860; 
four children were born of this union. Gavin Long Stairs, the 
eighth child, was born September 21, 1861, married Ellie Cox in 
December, 1885, and to their union five children were born, namely: 
Katherine, whose birth occurred December 18, 1886, died March 14, 
1890; Gordon S., born August 31, 1889; Herbert M., born June 15, 
1891; Graham, born April 14, 1894; Gavin, born June 22, 1896. 
Mary Ann Stairs, second child of our subject, was born September 
20, 1849, married, May 18, 1882, Charles Macdonald, and died July 
24, 1883, his death occurring March IT, 1901; to their union one 
child was born. Margaret W. Stairs, fourth child of our subject, 
was born March 26, 1853, married, June 16. 1880, Alfred John 
Townend, who was born July 5, 1839, and to their union nine chil- 
dren were born. 

GEORGE A. COX. 

It requires peculiar natural characteristics to succeed as a real 
estate man, at least it would seem so, for not all who enter this field 
succeed, as has George A. Cox of Halifax. It requires courage, 
initiative, a knowledge of values of various kinds of properties, an 
earnest and convincing manner and if continued and pronouced suc- 
cess is aimed at, honesty and integrity must be among ones attributes. 

Mr. Cox was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, November 5, 1879. 
He is a son of Abram J. and Rose M. (Marsh) Cox. The father 
was born in Kings County, this Province, and is now living in Hali- 
fax. The mother was a native of the State of Maine, and is now 
deceased. 



122 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

George A. Cox was brought to Halifax by his parents when 
young and here he grew to manhood and received his education. 
He was a commercial traveler for several years during his earlier 
career. In 1912 he engaged in the real estate and insurance business 
here under the firm name of George A. Cox, the Real Estate Man, 
and he has been fairly successful from the first, his business con- 
stantly growing. 

Mr. Cox was married August 13, 1900, to Ethel M. Blakney, a 
daughter of M. and Elizabeth Blakney, of Halifax, and to this union 
five children have been born, namely : Evelyn, born October 30, 
1901, died when twelve days old; Muriel M., born June 13, 1903; 
Roy L., born December 24, 1905; Irene W., born December 25, 1908; 
Rita R., born February 26, 1913. 

Politically, Mr. Cox is a Conservative. He was a member of 
the city council for two years, during 1913 and 1914. He is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. Fraternally, he is a member of the 
Masonic Order, and the Loyal Order of Moose. 

CLARENCE H. MORRIS, M. D. 

Among the able and conscientious physicians of Hants County, 
the name of Dr. Clarence H. Morris stands high in the list, as those 
who know him well will readily acquiesce. He was born in the 
above mentioned county, in November. 1872, and is a son of Capt. 
David and Jessie (Yuile) Morris, the father a native of Hants 
County, Nova Scotia, and the mother was born in Scotland, from 
which country she came to Canada when young in years. 

Dr. Morris received his education in the common schools of his 
native locality and in Halifax, later attending Mount Allison Uni- 
versity, Dalhousie University and McGill University, making an ex- 
cellent record in each, receiving his degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the last named. He began the practice of his profession in 
Windsor, Hants County, in 1899, and here he continued with grati- 
fying success until in August, 1914, when he enlisted in No. i, 
Stationary Hospital, at the outbreak of the European war, for over- 
seas service. The following October he was sent to England, and 
in February, 1915, went to the front in Flanders and has there been 
engaged in active service ever since. 

Dr. Morris was married October 3, 1900, to Jean Smith, a daugh- 
ter of John M. and Ida E. (Scott) Smith, of Windsor, and to this 
union four children have been bom, namely : Geoffrey, born October 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 123 

22, 1902; Clare, born June 12, 1904; Gilbert, born March 4, 1907; 
and David, born January 28, 1912. 

Dr. Morris is a member of the Canadian Medical Association and 
the local medical societies. He belongs to the Presbyterian church. 

GEORGE PARKER ARCHIBALD. 

Ruskin says that \ve are always given strength enough and sense 
enough for what nature intended us to do, and that, whatever we 
are doing, we cannot be properly fulfilling our earthly mission if we 
are not happy ourselves. A part of our service to the world is un- 
questionably cheerfulness, and unless we are happy in our work and 
in the life we lead among men we are withholding something that 
is essential to true serviceableness. George Parker Archibald, the 
present well-known municipal clerk and municipal treasurer of Hali- 
fax County, is a man who is cheerful in his daily tasks, thus making 
them much lighter to perform. 

Mr. Archibald was born at Elder Bank, Musquodoboit, Halifax 
County, December 28, 1865. He is a son of Donald and Grizell 
(McLaughlin) Archibald, the latter a native of Middle Stewiacke, 
Colchester County; the father was born at Musquodoboit, Halifax 
County, in 1840 and his death occurred in 1908. Matthew Archi- 
bald, the grandfather, followed farming, and the father of our sub- 
ject also devoted his life to farming and buying cattle, and about 1860 
he began in the mining business at Tangier, this Province, also at 
Moose River. In 1883 he was appointed high sheriff of Halifax 
County, which office he held until his death in 1908. During this 
period he also continued his mining operations in which he met with 
fair success. His widow is still living at the age of seventy-five 
years and enjoys good health. She makes her home with her son, 
George Parker Archibald. 

George P. Archibald received his education in the public schools 
at Elder Bank, from which place he removed with the family in 1883 
to Halifax where he attended the city schools, later taking a course in 
the Frazee-Whiston Commercial College. He then entered the office 
with his father and continued in the same until 1899 when he was 
appointed municipal treasurer, which office he held until 1909 when 
he was also appointed municipal clerk, since which time he has been 
discharging the duties of both clerk and treasurer, in a manner that 
has reflected much credit upon himself and to the eminent satisfac- 
tion of all concerned. 



124 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Mr. Archibald has remained unmarried. Fraternally, he is a 
member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, being a master 
Mason of St. Andrews Lodge No. I. He is also a member of the 
North British Society; he also belongs to the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows (the American order) and he has passed the chairs 
of the local lodge. Politically, he is a Liberal. 

SAMUEL GEORGE WILLIAM ARCHIBALD. 

Nova Scotia has had her fair share of able, useful and eloquent 
men. Many of them have done and said things which ought not to 
be forgotten, and it would seem there is no one of them, taking him 
for all in all, of whom the Province has greater reason to be proud 
than the gentleman whose name forms the caption of this sketch. 

The birth of Samuel G. W. Archibald occurred at Truro, Nova 
Scotia, February 5, 17/7. His family came from Ireland in 1762 
and located at Truro. The race had originally come from Scotland. 
He was a grandson of Daniel Archibald, leader of the new colony at 
Truro, whose eldest son, Samuel Archibald, was born in Londonderry, 
Ireland, became, like his father, active in public affairs, and died at 
Truro in 1780. He was engaged in the lumber business. In 1783 
the widow married John McKeen and the family removed to St. 
Mary's, and our subject lived with his grandfather until he was 
fifteen years old and received his education in the local schools and 
in the academy at Haverhill, Massachusetts, also at Andover Acad- 
emy, that state, returning home in 1796. At that time he intended 
entering the Presbyterian ministry and remained an active worker in 
the church all his life. But he went to work as prothonotary of the 
Supreme Court and clerk of the peace for the district of Colchester. 
About 1800 he began studying law in the office of Mr. Robie, and two 
years later, while still a law student he married Elizabeth Dickson. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1805 and the following year was 
elected one of the members of the county of Halifax from 1806 when 
he entered the Assembly until 1841, when he left it, he took a leading 
part iu all the public questions which arose during that long period. 
A history of his life for that time is very much the history of the 
Province. Perhaps no other man contributed so much to mould the 
institutions and shape the destinies of Nova Scotia. His name ap- 
pears more and more prominent as time goes by. In his earlier 
career in the Assembly he did much to give the Province good roads 
and bridges. He also did much for a better system of education, 







HON. SAMUEL GEORGE WILLIAM ARCHIBALD, LL.D. 
Born Truro, X. S., 177C Died at Halifax, 1842. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 125 

remaining a staunch friend of the academies and colleges to the last. 
His position in the Assembly does not seem to have interfered with 
his practice at the bar and he rose to the front rank of the same in 
this Province, and after twelve years of successful practice he was 
appointed King's counsel in 1817. The following year he acted as 
surrogate general in the admiralty, giving judgment in several cases. 
He was retained in many notable and important cases and was very 
successful in the courts. As a forensic orator he had no superiors 
and few peers. In 1822 he l>egan taking a deep interest in improv- 
ing agricultural conditions throughout the Province. He became a 
member of the Halifax Agricultural Society and worked to promote 
the cultivation of cereal crops, and thus prevent the drain on our 
resources, arising from the importation of breadstuff's, and he erected 
a stand of mills at Truro at his own expense. 

In 1822, the University of Glasgow conferred on Air. Archibald 
the degree of Doctor of Laws. In 1824 be visited Kngland and 
continental Europe. He became speaker of the House in 1825 and 
again in 1827. He was chief justice of Cape Breton Island for 
four years, during which time he effected much improvement in the 
courts there. In 1825 he was appointed solicitor-general. He de- 
clined the puisne judgeship in 1830. He was appointed acting at- 
torney-general not long thereafter. During this period he was re- 
peatedly returned to the House for Colchester, and took a lively 
interest in the important questions which came up from time to time, 
making great speeches on various occasions and his influence was 
most potent for the general good. 

He became Master of the Rolls and Judge of Admiralty Court, 
April 29, 1841. He came to the bench well qualified for its impor- 
tant duties and his record as judge was a most commendable one. 
There were some cases coming before him which involved nice and 
difficult questions, but he disposed of them rapidly, showing an 
amount of legal lore and of sound judgment for which many mem- 
bers of the bar were unprepared. The series of decrees pronounced 
by him during the five years he sat on the bench, form a record of 
which no judge would need to be ashamed. 

The death of Judge Archibald occurred very suddenly on Janu- 
ary 28, 1846. 

His first wife died May 13, 1830. She was the mother of a large 
family ; five of their sons grew to manhood. His second wife was 
Mrs. Brinley, the widow of a British officer. To this union three 
daughters were born, one of whom died in infancy. 



I2 6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

THE MACLELLAN FAMILY. 

In the year 1773, a party, promoted by the Earl of Selkirk, was 
organized at Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, for emigration to 
Prince Edward Island, then called St. John's Island, where the Earl 
had extensive land concessions. The party was made up of several 
younger sons of land-owners of the Scottish Border Counties, of ten- 
ant-fanners and of farm laborers. They chartered their own vessel, 
and sailed from the port of Annan, Dumfriesshire. At Georgetown, 
where they first landed, they encountered serious misfortunes. In 
1775, a band of them removed to Pictou, Nova Scotia, where they 
settled permanently. 

Of that band, was Anthony Maclellan, born in 1720, second son 
of Thomas Maclellan, Laird of Craigneil, Ayrshire, by his marriage, 
on May 21, 1716. with Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh Alexander, 
Laird of Drumnochrain, Ayrshire. Thomas Maclellan of Craigneil 
was the great-great-grandson of that Sir Thomas Maclellan of Bom- 
bay who, in 1582, completed the building of Kirkcudbright Castle, of 
which a writer in Chamber's Encyclopaedia says : ''The ivy-mantled 
ruins of the castle built by Maclellan of Bombay still dominate the 
town. 1 ' The Maclellans of Bombay were for generations, hereditary 
sheriffs of the ancient Principality of Galloway, in the southwest of 
Scotland. 

As the direct descendant of a long line of leading Scottish men 
and women Anthony Maclellan naturally proved a valuable acquisition 
to the young Nova Scotia colony. He brought with him very con- 
siderable means, according to the standards of the period. He 
brought with him something much better worth noting a well- 
chosen and well-bound library. In spite of the fact that his dwelling, 
and afterwards that of his son Anthony, who succeeded him, were 
destroyed by fire, with most of their contents, a few of those books 
are still in existence. One of them then newly published bears 
interesting evidence in connection with homely repairs to its binding, 
made in 1828. The year is fixed by parts of the London Times and 
a local journal of that date used in the mending, strengthened with 
Nova Scotia birch bark to replace the original card-board filling of 
the leather covering. 

Anthony Maclellan purchased from the Philadelphia Company, 
the original grantee, and from various of its grantees, large tracts of 
land at West River. His dwelling stood on the west side of the 
river, a little south of the present Durham Church, and about opposite 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 12J 

the northwest corner of the Durham Cemetery. It was he who gave 
to the public the site of that cemetery and of the "Old Church" 
adjoining. He was the first man, and, with the exception of a Mrs. 
Gerrard, and her new-born child, the first person buried there. With 
the exception of Mrs. Gerrard's, his is the oldest marked grave in 
Pictou County. 

Anthony Maclellan's lands extended from the elbow of the West 
River where it crosses to the east bank, just below Durham, to the 
northern boundary of the Clark lands, a mile and a half farther up 
the river. It stretched west, the same distance, to the front of 
Roger's Hill, the block being a mile and a half square. In addition, 
he owned a block of land on the east side of the river, out of which 
the cemetery and church lots came, extending from the river to the 
top of Green Hill. He also owned the large farm on the Half-Mile 
Brook which descended to his youngest grandson, the late John 
Maclellan, and is now owned by his great grandson, James D. 
Maclellan, together with other lands, on both sides of the Half-Mile 
Brook, down to the West River at Lochbroom Bridge. 

Anthony Maclellan and his eldest son James were enrolled for 
service during the American Revolutionary War; but, as the people 
of Nova Scotia, with few exceptions, remained loyal, they were not 
called upon for active military duties. 

James Maclellan, Anthony Maclellan's eldest son, was accidentally 
killed in 1793, by a fall and his only surviving brother, Anthony, suc- 
ceeded to his father's lands, which apparently had been entailed, as 
was quite customary in Xova Scotia at that time and later. During 
the life of Anthony, junior, the lands were partitioned among the 
members of his numerous family, each son and daughter receiving a 
large farm. Considerable portions of them were also sold. On the 
homestead sprang up, about 1820, the once flourishing village of 
Durham. Small lots in the village were sold by him at from twenty- 
five to fifty pounds, and larger lots at from one hundred to one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds. Only one farm out of the many into which 
his original property has since been divided and subdivided now re- 
mains in the possession of one of his name that owned and occupied 
by James D. Maclellan, J. P., who inherited from his father, the late 
John Maclellan who, as had been his father and grandfather before 
him, was of the Commission of the Peace for Nova Scotia and a 
member of the old Court of. Sessions for the County of Pictou. 
Anthony Maclellan, junior, died in 1839. 



I2 8 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

The late John Maclellan, of Durham, born 1813, like his fore- 
fathers, was a leader in social and religious movements. He was an 
elder in the Presbyterian church. He was a member of the original 
Temperance society organized at Durham, in October, 1827, which 
was the first of its kind in Nova Scotia, and the second in British 
North America. He was, for a number of years, general assessor 
for the County of I'ictou. He served as referee on the Board of 
Arbitration appointed to adjust the claims for land damages which 
arose in connection with the extension of the railway from Truro 
to New Glasgow, the other two members of the Board being the late 
Roderick McGregor. Esq., father of ex-Governor James D. McGregor. 
and the late Lawrence Millar, Esq. John Maclellan died in 1890. 

The full family name, as signed by Anthony, senior, and his son 
Anthony, is Maclellan. "Maclellan" is merely a convenient abbrevia- 
tion. "McLellan" i.s a kindred but different name. "McLennan," 
sometimes confused with "McLellan,'' is a Highland clan-name, and 
bears no relationship whatever to Maclellan which is distinctively a 
Lowland family name. 

Of the male descendants of Anthony Maclellan, senior, bearing 
his name, there remain in Nova Scotia only one aged great-grandson, 
Nathan, at Windsor, and one great, great grandson Elwood at Brook- 
field, Colchester County, in addition to Dr. Robert Maclellan of 
Pictou. W. E. Maclellan, of Halifax, and James D. Maclellan of 
Durham, the three surviving sons of the late John Maclellan. James 
D. Maclellan has an only surviving son, Albert, in Edmonton. Alberta. 
\V. E. Maclellan has an only surviving son, Edward Kirkpatrick, 
now "at the front," who has an infant son, Roljert William, the 
great-great-great-grandson of Anthony Maclellan, senior. Robert 
Maclellan has two surviving sons, Edward Arnold of the head- 
quarters staff of the Bank of Nova Scotia, Toronto, and Robert Gor- 
don, M. D., in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. There are also two sur- 
viving sons of the late Anthony Thomas Maclellan, eldest son of the 
late John Maclellan, George and John, at Indian Head, Saskatchewan, 
whither their father removed in 1882, where he was an extensive 
real estate owner, and where he held the appointments of justice of 
the peace and notary public. In his younger days he served as cap- 
tain of Company No. i and adjutant of the Eighth Nova Scotia 
Regiment Pictou County; and was "called out" during the Fenian 
raids. Apart from those named there are probably now only two, 
or possibly three, other surviving descendants of Anthony Maclellan, 




The Ljite Reverend Cr.-int. (i. M. <;.. I'nnci|>:il. Queens ruivcrsity. A Xative of 

Pk'tim, X. S. 




PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AXL> I'OST OFFICE, NORTH SYDNEY 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 1 29 

senior, bearing his name; and they are far distant from Nova Scotia 
and Canada. 

Writing of Anthony Maclellan, senior, the author of "Pictonians 
at Home and Abroad," in his chapters on "the Pioneers of Pictou," 
says: ''In the list of his descendants are to be found the names of 
thirteen clergymen, six barristers, seven physicians, one member of 
the Dominion Parliament and many successful business men." 

Three of his descendants, ranking as captains, are now "at the 
front" in the present European War one bearing his name. Two 
of them are with the Canadian forces and one with the regular 
British army. 

WILLIAM ALEXANDER HENRY. 

There was a time in the world's history when lawyers were not 
known, but the day finally came when civilization routed the forces 
of barbarism and law and order arose among the tribes of men. It 
was necessary for some men to make and enforce laws, to try to replace 
discord with harmony. Now the legal profession is regarded through- 
out the world as indispensable. Lawyers have become so intimately 
associated with every department of business, in every part of our 
civil and social polity, that society cannot well get along without 
them. One of the successful lawyers of Halifax is William Alex- 
ander Henry. 

Mr. Henry was born at Antigonish, Nova Scotia, March 19, 
1863. He is a son of the late Hon. W. A. Henry, judge of the 
Supreme court of Canada, and younger brother of the late Hon. 
Hugh McD. Henry, Judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia. 
Our subject was educated in Halifax, Lycee de Tours, France, 
Merchiston Castle School, Scotland, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, and Dalhousie University, Halifax, receiving the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Laws from the last named institution in 1886, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1887. He was made a King's coun- 
sel in 1907. He is a member of the well known legal firm of Henry, 
Rogers, Harris & Stewart, Halifax, and here he has long been re- 
garded as one of the leading lawyers of the local bar, being retained 
in many important cases and enjoying a lucrative and satisfactory 
connection. He is one of the best all-round athletes in Canada 
equally well known at football, hockey, lacrosse, golf and cricket, and 
as a runner and jumper. He was for years captain of the Wander- 
(9) 






130 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ers' football and cricket teams. He played cricket for Canada against 
the United States in 1886, 1888, 1896, and 1897. As a school boy 
he made a record at Edinburgh in 1880, of 5.03 2/5 for mile run. 
He led the batting of the Canadian cricket team in England, in 1887, 
making eighty-eight in forty-six minutes against Dr. Grace's twelve. 
He is a member of the Halifax Golf Club, and of the Halifax Club. 
The publication known as Turf, Field and Farm said of him that he 
was the finest half-back ever seen in Xew York. 

In May, 1892, he was united in marriage with Minna H. Troop, 
a daughter of George J. Troop, a well known merchant of Halifax. 
They have three children, two boys and a girl. 

WILLARD HILL FULTON. 

One of the well known members of the bar in Halifax who has 
met with a flattering support from the public and those seeking pro- 
fessional counsel and aid is Willard Hill Fulton. He is a good 
lawyer, and possesses the main-springs to prosperity and success 
integrity, fidelity and honesty, without which few succeed. He has 
never taken a very active interest in public affairs, for it is within 
the realm of the law where he finds the more profitable and congenial 
field of action. 

Mr. Fulton was born in Economy, Xova Scotia, and is a son of 
Harlan and Ellen C. (Hill) Fulton, both natives also of Economy, 
where they grew to maturity, attended school, were married and 
established their home. They each represented old families of that 
vicinity. Thomas Fulton, the grandfather, was born and reared 
there and made his home in that vicinity. His father was the pro- 
genitor of the family in Xova Scotia, whither he came in an early 
day from the Xorth of Ireland, where he was born. He developed 
a home from the wilderness here and devoted his subsequent life to 
farming. The original property is now owned by Adam Lewis, a 
relative of our subject. Thomas Fulton, the grandfather, was a man 
of unusual vigor and industry, and he was a devout member of the 
Baptist church. He lived to an advanced age. The father of our 
subject engaged in farming in his earlier years, and removed to 
Halifax where he engaged in mercantile pursuits in which he was 
fairly successful. He was a good citizen and was active in the affairs 
of the Baptist church. His death occurred in 1901 at the age of 
sixty-five years. His widow is still living. Of their two children 
our subject was the eldest. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 13! 

Willard H. Fulton grew up at Economy and there he attended 
the public schools and graduated from the high school at Halifax, 
and later was a student at Dalhousie University, where he took the 
Arts course, and was graduated in 1889 with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts, then entered the law department of that institution, from 
which he was graduated in 1892 and soon thereafter was admitted 
to the bar. He was a law student with Meagher, Drysdal, New- 
combe and Mclnnes, and he continued with that firm, and about 1896 
became a member of the firm of Drysdale & Mclnnes and in 1907 of 
the present firm of Mclnnes, Mellish, Fulton & Kenny, one of the 
best known legal firms in Nova Scotia, and he has remained in this 
firm to the present time. 

He is a Baptist in his religious affiliations, but politically he is 
independent. 

Mr. Fulton was married in October, 1899, to Therza B. Schaffner, 
a daughter of Samuel C. Schaffner, of Granville Ferry, Annapolis 
County. This union has been without issue. 

JAMES LAYTON RALSTON. 

James Layton Ralston, formerly of Amherst, Nova Scotia, but 
for the past five years of Halifax has gained a position at the front 
rank of the bar while yet a young man, his career being noted for 
strength, fidelity and honor in his character. The relations between 
him and his clients have ever been loyal and genuine. Among his 
professional brethren he is noted for his thorough knowledge of the 
law, not only of its great underlying principles, but also for its nice- 
ties and its exacting details, and for his faculty of clearly presenting 
to court and jury the law and facts of the case. 

He was born at Amherst, this Province, September 27, 1881. 
He is a son of Burnett S. and Bessie (Layton) Ralston, both natives 
of Canada, and each representatives of sterling old families of United 
Empire Loyalist stock. 

Mr. Ralston grew to manhood in his native town and received 
his early education in the public schools and the Amherst Academy, 
after which he entered Dalhousie University at Halifax, where he 
studied for some time. He studied law and was admitted to the Bar 
in due course of time and he began the practice of his profession at 
Amherst after completing his college course. He has built up a very 
satisfactory business and has been uniformly successful. 

He is now a member of the legal firm of Maclean, Paton, Bur- 



132 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

chell & Ralston, of Halifax, and of the firm of Ralston Hanway and 
Ralston, of Amherst. 

On July 3, 1907, Mr. Ralston was united in marriage to Nettie 
Winifred Macleod, a daughter of John Macleod, a highly respected 
citizen of Amherst, in which place Mrs. Ralston grew to womanhood 
and was educated. To our subject and wife one son has been born, 
Stewart Bowman Ralston. 

In 1908 Mr. Ralston was a candidate for the Dominion House 
of Commons but was defeated in the general election of that year. 
He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia at the 
general election of 1911 and has since discharged his duties in this 
connection in an able and highly satisfactory manner. He is a Lib- 
eral and is active in the affairs of his party. In religious matters 
he is a Baptist. 

In the summer of 1915, Mr. Ralston enlisted in the Canadian 
overseas expeditionary forces as a lieutenant and is now serving as 
captain and adjutant in the Eighty-fifth Battalion, Nova Scotia High- 
landers. 

JAMES WILLIAM REID, M. D. 

One of the successful physicians of Nova Scotia is Dr. James 
William Reid, M. L. A. of Hants County. He is not only a good 
doctor but is enterprising and progressive, and by word and example 
would infuse that spirit into the people of his town and county. He 
is a friend of all good movements, educational and moral, and has 
done much for the general good of his locality. 

Dr. Reid was born at Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia, May 30, 1859. 
He is a son of Robert and Mary A. (Archibald) Reid, and is des- 
cended of New England Loyalist stock, members of the Reid family 
having emigrated from the States to Nova Scotia in an early day and 
here became well established through their industry. 

Dr. Reid grew to manhood in his native county and he received 
his primary education in the public schools, later entering Dalhousie 
University, at Halifax, making a very creditable record in the med- 
ical department, from which he was graduated with the degree of 
M. D., C. M. (Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery). He 
has been practicing his profession successfully in Hants County ever 
since his graduation and has been enjoying a large and constantly 
growing practice. 

Dr. Reid was married on July 3, 1891 to Mary Falconer, a 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 133 

daughter of Dr. Alexander F. Falconer of Sherbrooke, Nova Scotia. 
She died on December i, 1915. 

To the Doctor and wife the following children were born : Violet 
F., Mary G., Robert Edward, James William, Dorothy, and Sylvia. 

Politically, Dr. Reid is a Liberal. He was a member of the 
town council for a period of six years, from 1901 to 1907. He was 
a candidate for the Canadian Legislative Assembly, at the general 
election in 1911, for the first time, and was duly elected. As a pub- 
lic servant he has discharged his duties in a manner that has reflected 
much credit upon himself and to the eminent satisfaction of all con- 
cerned. He is a Presbyterian in his religious affiliations. He was 
formerly president of the Colchester-Hants Counties Medical Society, 
also has been president of the Hants County Temperance Alliance 
and has been a potent factor in temperance work for many years. 

WILLIAM EDWARD MACLELLAN, LL. B. 

Canadian "Who's Who and Why" gives the following summary 
of facts concerning William Edward Maclellan : 

"Post-office Inspector for the Nova Scotia Division. Born, Dur- 
ham, County Pictou, August i, 1855. Son of John Maclellan, J. P. 
Educated at Pictou Academy, Dalhousie College, University of Hali- 
fax (LL. B. ) Dalhousie University, ad citndcm, 1904. Called to 
the Nova Scotia Bar, 1880. Married Margaret Jane, daughter of 
the late William Mackenzie of Pictou. Editorial writer, Manitoba 
Free Press, 1882. Chief editorial writer and managing editor of 
that paper for a number of years. Editor-in-chief of the Morning 
Chronicle and Halifax Daily Echo, 1900-1905. Accepted present 
appointment in 1905. Has written many short stories and literary 
articles, particularly for Youth's Companion, Boston. Won prize 
offered by A. C. Flumerfelt of Victoria, B. C, 1909, for essay on 
Immigration. Chairman, Nova Scotia Government Commission on 
use of French language in common schools, 1902. Appointed chair- 
man of Commission on University Education in Nova Scotia, 1912. 
Member Nova Scotia Legislative Library Commission. Member 
General Committee Canadian Peace Centenary Commission. A 
Presbyterian. Clubs: "Halifax," "Waegwoltic," "Studley." Ad- 
dress, Halifax, N. S." 

G. F. Pearson, proprietor and Director of The Morning Chronicle 
publications, writes : 

"For nearly six years, 19001905, Wm. E. Maclellan was editor- 



134 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

in-chief of The Morning Chronicle, Halifax, N. S. His predecessors, 
Howe, Annand, Thompson and Fielding not only achieved distinction 
as far-sighted and patriotic public men, but conferred distinction on 
the paper they edited. Under Mr. Maclellan's editorship The Morn- 
ing Chronicle fully lived up to the traditions which these men had 
set. A vigorous and trenchant writer, a clear and original thinker, 
and a keen controversialist, he kept The Morning Chronicle in the 
foremost place as a leader of clean and decent public opinion. Mr. 
Maclellan valued highly the' privilege of editorship, and appreciated 
the responsibilities which .that position entailed. He never spared 
himself in the public service and all the resources of a keen intellect 
and a well-stored mind were freely placed at the service of the public 
in every cause which engaged his editorial attention. A hater of 
shams, a true and fearless Nova Scotian, Mr. Maclellan was ever 
ready to break a lance in defense of the right as it was given to him 
to see it. He was never deterred by odds, and many a cause at first 
unpopular was turned into a popular one as a result of his unflinching, 
aggressive and persuasive advocacy, or the skilful use of that dead- 
liest of all controversial weapons ridicule. In all respects Mr. 
Maclellan was a worthy successor to the great men who preceded him 
in the editorial chair of The Morning Chronicle. During his regime 
that paper greatly increased in circulation and influence. 

"In addition to his editorial work, Mr. Maclellan has written 
many short stories and articles for current literary publications. His 
style is a model of clear and concise English. His vocabulary is rich 
and varied, and he has the happy faculty of putting the longest state- 
ment in the fewest possible words consistent with clearness." 

Hon. William Dennis, Senator, editor and proprietor of the Hali- 
fax Herald publications, writes of Mr. Maclellan as follows: 

"William Edward Maclellan, after a brilliant career as education- 
ist and journalist, is now chief executive of the Post Office Depart- 
ment in Nova Scotia, where his administration of that important 
office is characterized by enterprise and efficiency, with an apprecia- 
tion alike of the needs of the public, and of carefully conserving the 
business ends of the department. 

"After practicing law in Pictou for a short period, Mr. Maclellan 
went to Winnipeg in 1882. In the autumn of that year he accepted 
an invitation to become editor of the Winnipeg Free Press then as 
now the foremost journal in Canada west of Toronto and soon 
established himself as one of the most brilliant and versatile of Can- 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 135 

adian journalists. When the Halifax Morning Chronicle passed into 
the control of W. B. Ross, K. C. (now Senator) and the late Hon. 
B. F. Pearson, those gentlemen induced Mr. Maclellan to assume the 
editorship-in-chief of that journal. His predecessors in the editorial 
chair included Howe, McCully, Garvie, Annand, Griffith and Field- 
ing. In versatility, conciseness, lucidity, mastery of English, and 
breadth of vision, Mr. Maclellan was foremost in this galaxy of dis- 
tinguished writers. It was always a delight to read his articles 
for their elegance of diction as well as the exhaustive manner in 
which the subject was treated. The editor of a party organ, he was 
no narrow partisan ; and his notable tributes to Sir Charles Tupper 
on his retirement from public life in 1900, and to Robert Laird 
Borden upon his selection as leader of the Conservative party, were 
illuminating evidence of his fair treatment of political opponents. 
Notwithstanding his onerous duties in the Government service, Mr. 
Maclellan occasionally finds leisure to enrich the columns of the 
daily press and magazines with contributions on questions of the day 
fully sustaining his reputation as one of the foremost of Canadian 
writers/' 

In the autumn of 1910 Mr. and Mrs. Maclellan lost the elder 
of their two sons, Robert William, B. A., LL. B., born at Winnipeg, 
April 19, 1887, who on October 29, 1910, was so injured at foot- 
ball, that he died on November loth, following. He had been called 
to the Nova Scotia Bar in the spring of 1909, when he was scarcely 
twenty-two years of age. Of him, at the time of his death, Professor 
Macmechan of Dalhousie University wrote : 

"His record at college is unmarked by a single failure in examin- 
ation, while in his special subjects, English and English History, 
his standing was of the very best. He received his Bachelor's degree 
in 1907 with high honors in those subjects. At the same time, he 
had done so much work in his law course that he obtained his LL. B. 
degree in 1909, only a year ago, with exceptionally high standing in 
all subjects. Such facts speak for themselves. They tell of unusual 
mental power, but they tell little of the character and personality. 

"Macellan won the deep affection of all who knew him well, by 
the quiet strength of his nature, his innate courtesy, his sunny tem- 
per, his complete unselfishness. His character was essentially fine, 
and at the same time thoroughly manly. 

"In athletics, especially in the sport in which he met his death, he 
displayed the courage and dash of a true sportsman. Everyone liked 



136 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

and respected Maclellan. He was exactly the type of student Rhodes 
had in mind when he founded his scholarships. He stood for all 
that is best in the young manhood of Canada. As a representative 
of his country at Oxford we should all have been proud of him." 

CAPTAIN EDWARD KIRKPATRICK MACLELLAN, M. D. 

Dr. E. K. Maclellan, the second son, and only surviving child, 
of Wm. E. Maclellan, was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, on July 30, 
1888. He and his elder brother were privately taught by their mother 
in their younger years, and owed little to the common schools. E. 
K. Maclellan received his subsequent education in the Halifax County 
Academy and at Dalhousie College. In 1905, he entered Dalhousie 
Medical College. He was graduated Doctor of Medicine and Master 
of Surgery in 1909 some months before he attained his twenty-first 
birthday. He subsequently served as house surgeon in the Victoria 
General Hospital and the Nova Scotia Hospital, in succession. He 
began the independent practice of his profession at Mahone Bay; 
but returned to Halifax, upon the death of his elder brother, to be 
with his parents. He has practised with constantly increasing success 
in Halifax, since then. 

In 1912, he took a post-graduate course in New York, in attend- 
ance at Sloane Maternity Hospital. Upon returning, he established 
at 36 Victoria Road, the "Halifax Hospital for Women," of which 
he continued in sole proprietorship, and successful management until, 
at the call of duty, he offered his services in connection with the 
European war. He had then, at considerable sacrifice, to dispose of 
his hospital, to which he could no longer give personal attention. 

In 1912, Dr. Maclelan married Helen Stewart, daughter of the 
late David Mackey, of Bridgewater, during his life one of the lead- 
ing business men of western Nova Scotia. Dr. Maclellan's wife is 
a niece of the late J. J. Stewart, Esq., for many years editor and 
proprietor of the Halifax Herald. Of this union, one son, Robert 
William, has been born. 

Dr. Maclellan is a member of the Halifax Dispensary Staff; as- 
sistant surgeon at the Children's Hospital ; demonstrator in Anatomy 
at the Dalhousie Medical College. He was for some years lecturer 
in Toxicology to the Nova Scotia School of Pharmacy. He had the 
distinction of being the first Canadian medical practitioner to make 
practical experiments for juridical purposes, with the modern bio- 
logical test for human blood stains. He was engaged as an expert 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 137 

by the state of New Hampshire in the celebrated Wren murder case, 
in which the fugitive criminal was arrested in Halifax. He gave 
similar expert testimony in the Cooke and Haines murder trials in 
Nova Scotia. In 1914 he read, by request, a paper on the biological 
blood test before the Dominion Medical Association. 

In 1910 Dr. Maclellan received from the Canadian Department 
of Militia the offer of a commission in the Permanent Army Medical 
Corps. This offer he declined. But he accepted and held a com- 
mission as a medical officer in the militia. When the Dalhousie Hos- 
pital Unit was authorized, he, as a member of the University teach- 
ing staff, at once offered his services. His offer was accepted, and. 
he was commissioned as a captain in ''No. 7 Stationary Hospital, 
Canadian Overseas Expeditionary force." At the date of this writ- 
ing, 1915, he is with this Hospital Unit in England, awaiting orders 
to proceed to whatever part of the fighting line may be selected by 
the Imperial authorities. 

EDWARD JAMES MORSE. 

Edward James Morse, one of the leading attorneys of Windsor, 
Nova Scotia, was born in Annapolis county, this Province, February 
5, 1854, son of Samuel Edward and Sarah Ann (Elliott) Morse. 
He is a grandson of Jonathan Morse, who was also born in Anna- 
polis county, and who married a Miss Longley. Jonathan Morse was 
a farmer by occupation, and all his life remained a resident of his 
native county. He died at the age of seventy years, and was buried 
in the same grave as his wife, whose death occurred within three 
days of his own. They were Methodists in religion, and honest, 
conscientious people, who strove each day to do their full duty to 
God and mankind, and inculcated in the minds of their children the 
principles of morality and religion. 

Samuel Edward Morse spent his life in Annapolis county, where 
he was born in 1801. For many years he was engaged in school 
teaching, but he passed his last days on a farm. He was a man of 
considerable attainments in mathematics, especially algebra and geo- 
metry, upon which subjects he prepared a treatise, which after his 
death was found in manuscript form, apparently intended for pub- 
lication, but which was destroyed by fire in 1897. He died in 1854. 
He was a Conservative in politics, and, like his wife, Sarah, a Bap- 
tist in religion. Mrs. .Morse is still living and makes her home in 



138 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Paradise, Nova Scotia. They were the parents of three children, of 
whom the subject of this sketch is the only survivor. 

Edward J. Morse, after attending school in Paradise, became a 
student at Acadia College, Wolfville, where he was graduated in 
1880. He then studied law with J. G. H. Parker, of Bridgetown, 
and was admitted to the bar in January, 1891. Since then he has 
been engaged in the practice of his profession in Windsor, and has 
shown himself to be a thorough and resourceful lawyer. 

He was married in 1881 to Miss Jessie A. Parsons, daughter of 
Henry Parsons, of Annapolis county, Nova Scotia, and has three 
children : Graham Parsons, civil engineer, resides at Prince Albert, 
Canada, married and has one child; Lucille Forest; and Emerson 
Hibbert, civil engineer, resides in Winnipeg, Canada, is married and 
has one child. 

The family attend the Baptist church. In politics Mr. Morse is 
a Conservative. 

JOHN SHENSTONE ROPER. 

John Shenstone Roper, barrister of Halifax, was born at St. 
John's, Newfoundland, July 5, 1888, and is a son of Henry and 
Sarah B. Roper, both parents also natives of St. John's, Newfound- 
land, the father's birth having occurred in 1861 and the mother's in 
1863. The death of the latter occurred in Halifax, September 12, 
1912. 

After attending the public schools, John S. Roper entered Dal- 
housie University, taking the arts course, in which he was graduated 
in 1910 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and the following year 
he was given the degree of Master of Arts by that institution. Hav- 
ing completed the course in the law department, he was given the 
degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1913. Soon thereafter he was ad- 
mitted to the bar and began immediately the practice of his pro- 
fession in Halifax, where he has since remained and is building up 
a very satisfactory practice. 

Mr. Roper was married on June 9, 1915, to Gladys U. Smith, a 
young lady of high educational attainments and a Master of Arts of 
Dalhousie University; she is a daughter of Mrs. Emma Smith of 
Halifax. 

Religiously our subject is a Methodist. He is a member of the 
Commercial Club, the Halifax Curling Club,' the Dalhousie Alumni 
Society, the Wanderers, and the Northwest Arm Rowing Club. 



13$ 




I = 
K a . 




2 I 

3 5 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 139 

SIR JOHN EARDLEY WILMOT INGLIS. 

Nova Scotia produced a great military genius in the person of 
Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis, who became a major-general in the 
British army, and won undying fame as the hero of Lucknow. 

He was born in Halifax, this Province, November 15, 1814, and 
was a son of Rev. John Inglis, D. D., the third Bishop of Xova 
Scotia, and his wife the daughter of Thomas Cochrane, member of 
the Council of Nova Scotia. Rev. Charles Inglis, D. D., first bishop 
of that colony, was his grandfather. On August 2, 1833, he was 
appointed ensign by purchase in the Thirty-second foot (now First 
Cornwall light infantry), in which all his regiment service was 
passed. He became lieutenant in 1839, captain in 1843, major in 
1848, brevet lieutenant-colenel in 1849, regimental lieutenant-colonel, 
February 20, 1855. He served with the Thirty-second during the 
insurrection in Canada in 1837, including the actions of St. Denis 
and St. Eustache. In the Punjab war of 1848-9, including the first 
and second sieges of Mooltan, and in the attack on the enemy's posi- 
tion in front of the advanced trenches September 12, 1848, succeed- 
ing to the command of the right column of attack on the death of 
Lieutenant-Colonel D. Pattoun. He commanded the Thirty-second 
at Soorjkhoond, and was present at the storming" and capture of 
Mooltan, the action at Cheniote, and the battle of Goojerat (brevert 
of lieutenant-colonel and medal and clasps"). 

He was in command of the Thirty-second, lately arrived from 
the hills, at Lucknow, on the outbreak of the mutiny in India, in 
1857. He was second in command under Sir Henry Lawrence in the 
affair at Chinhut, June 30, 1857, afterwards in the residency at 
Lucknow, whither the garrison, numbering nine hundred and twenty- 
seven European officers and soldiers and seven hundred and sixty- 
five loyal native soldiers, withdrew July ist of that year. When 
General Lawrence was mortally wounded on July 2d, Inglis succeeded 
to the command, at Lawrence's wish, and defended the place until 
the arrival of Sir Henry Haverlock, September 26, 1857, and re- 
mained there until the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell, November i8th. 
For his successful and masterly defence of Lucknow, he was given a 
medal by the British government. Inglis was wounded during the 
siege, but was not included in the casualty returns. He was pro- 
moted to major-general from September 26, 1857, and made K. C. 
B. "for his enduring fortitude and persevering gallantry in the de- 
fence of the residency of Lucknow for eighty-seven days against an 



I4O HISTORY OF NOVA S f COTIA. 

overwhelming force of the enemy," and the legislature of his native 
colony presented him with a sword of honor, the blade formed of 
steel from Nova Scotia iron. He commanded a brigade in the attack 
on Tantia Topee. December 6, 1857. He was appointed colonel of 
the Thirty-second Light Infantry, May 5, 1860, and soon thereafter 
was given command of the troops in the Ionian Islands. His death 
occurred at Homberg, September 27, 1862, at the age of forty- 
seven years. 

General Inglis married in 1851 the Hon. Julia Selina Thesiger, 
daughter of the late first Lord Chelmsford, who, with her three 
children, was present in the Lucknow residency throughout the de- 
fence. 

Personally, he was entitled to admiration for his unassuming 
demeanor, friendly warmth of heart, and sincere desire to help by all 
means in his power every one with whom he came in contact. 

JOHN COLL O'MULLIN. 

One of the leaders of the bar in Halifax is John Coll O'Mullin. 
Being an alert, logical and indefatigable inquisitor after underlying 
principles, he thoroughly digests and prepares every case, and then, 
thrice-armed, he becomes a formidable antagonist. One of Nova 
Scotia's leading newspapers truthfully said of him that he was a 
man of wonderful energy and vigor. With an unusual capacity for 
work he accomplishes more than the average man. 

Mr. O'Mullin was born in London, England, December 12, 1857, 
and is a son of John and Sarah (Hone) O'Mullin. He came to 
Nova Scotia when a boy and he received his education in St. Mary's 
College, Halifax, then took the law course in Dalhousie University, 
from which he was graduated in 1899, with the degree of Bachelor 
of Laws, and soon thereafter was admitted to the bar and he has 
successfully practiced his profession in Halifax during the past six- 
teen years, being retained in many important cases. He was made 
a King's Counsel in 1915. 

Politically, he is a Conservative. He unsuccessfully contested 
Halifax for the federal and local Parliament at the general election 
in 1901 and 1911. 

He is councillor of the Bar Society. He belongs to the local 
branch of the Canadian Industrial League, is a director in the Vic- 
toria School of Art and Design. He was president of the Young 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 14! 

Men's Literary Association, and was president of the Charitable Irish 
Society for many years. Religiously, he is a Roman Catholic. 

Mr. O'Mullin was married in the year 1882 to Mary Ellen Mor- 
risey, who was a native of St. John, New Brunswick, and a daughter 
of Patrick and Catharine Morrisey. 

EDWIN DAVID KING. 

It is sometimes thought that the great field of the lawyer is 
in the court room, before judges and juries, with an admiring crowd 
around him, where he contends for the rights of his client. This, 
no doubt, appeals to his ambition and love of applause. But his 
greatest work is in the silence of his office. There he works out the 
arguments, and hunts up the authorities, that win his client's cause. 
Edwin David King, of the firm of King & Barss, of Halifax, has 
been rated as one of the leading barristers of Nova Scotia during the 
past forty years. 

Mr. King was born in Onslow, County of Colchester, this Prov- 
ince, December 26, 1841. He is the son of John and Sarah Ann 
King. The former was a native of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, from 
which country he immigrated to Nova Scotia when a boy, with his 
parents, and here he spent the rest of his life. He was a justice of the 
peace and stipendary magistrate for many years, and was one of the 
influential men in Colchester county. The mother of our subject, 
who was a native of Nova Scotia, was a descendant of United Em- 
pire Loyalist stock, her father having come to Nova Scotia at the 
time of the Revolutionary War in America. 

Edwin D. King received his education at the Provincial Model 
School, Truro, and at Acadia University, Wolfville. He was grad- 
uated from the latter institution in 1863, an( l three years later re- 
ceived his degree of Master of Arts there. Subsequently he studied 
law in Halifax, where he was admitted to the bar in 1867. He was 
created a Queen's counsel in 1884, and on the death of Queen Vic- 
toria became a King's counsel by royal proclamation. He is a mem- 
ber of the Nova Scotia Barristers' Society; of the Alumni Society 
of Acadia University; of the Provincial Sunday School Association 
of Nova Scotia; of the Nova Scotia Historical Society; of the Cana- 
dian Club, Halifax; and an associate member of the Victoria Insti- 
tute, of London, England. He has twice filled the office of president 
of the Alumni Society of Acadia University, and was for seven years 
its secretary. He has also twice been president of the Sunday School 



142 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Association, and after its organization, in 1885, he was for many 
years chairman of its executive committee, of which committee he 
is now "honorary life member." In politics he is a Liberal-Con- 
servative, and has long taken an active part in election contests. In 
religion he is a Baptist, and for many years has been a deacon of the 
First Baptist church, Halifax, where he has also filled the office of 
treasurer and superintendent of the Sunday school. He is now 
teacher of the Senior Bible class. He is one of the governors of 
Acadia University, and in 1885 became chairman of its committee 
on investments, which office he held many years. In 1911 he re- 
ceived from his Alma Mater the honorary degree of S. C. L. He 
has always been a very busy man since beginning his professional 
career, not only as a lawyer and business man, but also in political 
and educational matters, in which he is deeply interested, and has 
for some four decades taken a leading part. He also finds time to 
do much work in the church and denomination to which he belongs, 
and in 1889 was President of the Baptist convention of the Mari- 
time Provinces of Canada. 

Mr. King- was married on February 3, 1869, to Minnie S. Barss, 
daughter of John \Y. and Lydia K. Barss, of Wolfville, where Mr. 
Barss was for some time warden of the Municipal Council of Kings 
county and for many years a justice of the peace. 

JAMES OLIVER KERR. 

The men who accomplished the task of conquering the wilder- 
ness of Nova Scotia and developing a magnificent country of fertile 
farms and thriving towns were the sturdy pioneers and their imme- 
diate descendants. The task they had set before them was an 
heroic one, stretching through years, and marked by trials and priva- 
tions, far from their home lands and early friends. But they were 
people of courage, bravery and industry, whom adversity could not 
appall, nor obstacles thwart. It was amid such scenes and in the 
face of such exposures that the ancestors of James Oliver Kerr, a 
native of this Province, but now living in St. John's, Newfoundland, 
cast their lots and played well their parts in the great drama of civi- 
lization in the New World. 

Mr. Kerr was born at Burnside, Middle River, Pictou county, 
Nova Scotia, July 3, 1855. He is a son of George and Mary (Oli- 
ver) Kerr, the father a native of the same vicinity in which the 
subject of this sketch was born, and the mother was a native of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 143 

Elderslee, Pictou county. These parents grew to maturity in their 
native county, attended school and were married there, and through 
their industry established a good home there. 

Thomas Kerr, the paternal grandfather of our subject, immi- 
grated to Nova Scotia from the lowlands of Scotland in an early 
day. He was of sterling old Scotch stock, and upon his arrival in 
this country he took up a land grant of one thousand acres on the 
east side of Middle River, about five miles from the mouth. He had 
followed the trade of millwright in Scotland, and as soon as he had 
received his grant he built a grist mill and a saw mill, in one, which 
was one of the first mills in Pictou county and it was operated suc- 
cessfully during his lifetime, and after his death by his two sons 
Francis and George. (His three other sons were Frank, Hardy and 
William.) This saw mill was well patronized, customers coming 
often from long distances, and the lumber from it went into most of 
the early-day houses in that locality. After many years George Kerr 
took over the mills, and with his sons, Thomas, Robert and James, 
started a woolen factory, the second of its kind in the Province. At 
first custom carding was done chiefly. The farmers for miles around 
brought in their wool and had it carded into rolls. The rolls were 
taken home, spun and woven into cloth and brought back to be dyed 
and finished at the mill. It was not long until spinning machinery 
was installed in the new mill, and the wool was carded and spun 
for so much a pound. A few years later weaving machinery was 
added, and the farmers received for their wool so many yards of 
cloth, manufactured at so much a yard. This system was followed 
for a few years, then the wool was bought and the cloth was sold. 
Blankets, homespuns, tweeds, flannels and stocking yarns were chiefly 
manufactured. These mills were completely destroyed by fire twice, 
but each time rebuilt, the last time in 1881, and located where the 
pumping station of the town of Westville now stands. After being 
operated only two years this splendid mill was also burned. This 
succession of losses so crippled the finances of the family that the 
milling business was dropped, the brothers separating. However, 
James Kerr continued in the milling business in various parts of the 
Province. In 1907 he and McGillimay Grant, of Springville, Pictou 
county, were instrumental in reorganizing the Eureka Woolen Mills 
at Eureka, Pictou county, which had been closed for some time. 
They formed a new company known as the Nova Scotia Underwear 
Company, which proved to be a very successful venture, a large busi- 



144 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



ness being built up. James Kerr severed his connection with the 
company in 1913, and took over the management of the Newfound- 
land Knitting Mills at St. John's, the first knitting mills in the 
ancient colony, and this position he still holds to the entire satisfac- 
tion of all concerned. He thoroughly understands every phase of 
this line of business and keeps fully abreast of the times in the same. 

Mr. Kerr, of this review, was married on November n, 1880, 
to Catherine A. Sutherland, a daughter of Donald and Jane Gordon 
Sutherland, of Rocklin, Middle River, Pictou county, Nova Scotia. 
To their union three children have been born, namely : M. Estella 
Kerr, who was graduated from Dalhousie University, Halifax, in 
1907, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts; D. Gordon Kerr, who 
holds the responsible position of chief chemist of the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Company; and George Francis Kerr, the youngest. 

Mr. Kerr is a Liberal and a Presbyterian. 

THE DAVISON FAMILY. 

The progenitor of the Davison family in Nova Scotia was An- 
drew Davison, born June 17, 1827. He came from Preston, Con- 
necticut, to Horton, this Province, in 1760. He married a Miss 
Dennison of New London, Connecticut. (Tradition says that Sir 
William Davison was secretary to Queen Elizabeth, who imprisoned 
him for two years and fined him five thousand pounds, which re- 
duced him to poverty. He espoused republican principles in the time 
of the Commonwealth. After the ascension of Charles II, about 
1690, he came to America and settled in Connecticut, where he mar- 
ried Eunice Kimball.) Andrew Davison died in Horton, Nova Sco- 
tia, February 15, 1784. [His family consisted of ten children. Asa, 
his fourth child, who was born in 1756, married, April 30, 1782, 
Prudence Dennison, a daughter of David Sherman and Sarah (Fox) 
Dennison. She was born January 8, 1757, and bore her husband 
five children, all born at Horton.] Samuel, the third son, married 
Eleanor Doran, daughter of Patrick Doran, of Waterford, Ireland, 
who received a grant of two hundred and thirty acres of land at Mill 
Village. Patrick Doran married Desiah Mack, widow of Samuel 
Mack, who had started the lumber business on the Midway river, 
but he died at an early age and Patrick Doran continued the busi- 
ness, which was continued after his death by his daughter, Catherine, 
who was a woman of remarkable ability and successfully handled 
many large transactions in a legal as well as a business way. She 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 145 

finally turned the management of her affairs over to Edward Doran 
Davison, her nephew, when he became of age. He was born at Mill 
Village in 1819. He was a small boy when his father, Samuel 
Davison, died, and he was reared by his aunt, Catherine Doran. His 
first saw-mill was the most modernly equipped and best managed of 
any in the district or even the entire Province. In 1840 he was very 
anxious to introduce steam and get away from a joint water-power 
company, but it was not for about eight years that he obtained a 
small steam outfit. Later he changed and enlarged his mill, and his 
business rapidly increased thereafter. He was elected to the Nova 
Scotia Legislature in 1854, in which he served until 1858. He took 
his sons into partnership with him in the milling business in 1865 and 
started lumbering on the LaHave river, Lunenburg county, where he 
had strong rivalry and wealthy competitors ; however, he soon secured 
a leading position, and by buying out some and others failing, he 
came into possession of the entire river and timber lands. During 
a suspension of the LaHave business, in 1890-91, the firm secured 
and remodeled the business on the Midway and Nictaux rivers, 
which comprised one hundred thousand acres of timber land and 
three saw mills. He was progressive and a man of great energy 
and a careful student. His death occurred February 21, 1894. 

Charles Henry Davison, oldest son of E. D. Davison, was born at 
Mill Village, Nova Scotia, July 25, 1840, and died August 26, 1896. 
After his school days he joined his father in the lumber business, 
which he conducted until his death, being joined by his two brothers 
'as they became of age. Upon the death of his father he became the 
senior member of the firm, his own death occurring two and one- 
half years later. He took an interest in public affairs and served 
as a member of the Provincial Parliament in the seventies. He mar- 
ried Annie Foster, of Bridgetown, Nova Scotia, and a daughter of 
Masden Foster. To them the following children were born: A. F., 
who is mentioned elsewhere in this sketch; May is the wife of George 
S. McClearn, of Liverpool; Fred H., of Bridgewater. Catherine 
Doran Davison was born November 14, 1841, and she married Dr. 
Struthers. Eliza Eleanor Davison was born November 2, 1843, 
and married Bernard E. Rogers, of Yarmouth; Edward Doran Davi- 
son was born at Mill Village; Mary Desiah Davison was born De- 
cember 23, 1847, married Caleb Parker on September 2, 1875; 
Francis Doran Davison, born December 24, 1849, married Ella M. 
(10) 



146 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Fraser, November 22, 1879, and died Novmeber 10, 1913; William, 
born March 2, 1857, and died October 19, 1868; Elizabeth Wolf 
Davison, born October 23, 1853, died February 2, 1883; Annie, 
born December 16, 1856, died April 30, 1875; Amelia Freeman 
Davison, born January 17, 1862, married, first, William Brown- 
rigg, January 13, 1887; after his death she married, on November 
14, 1901, Albert E. Browning and died October 23, 1912. 

Francis Doran Davison, sixth child of E. D. Davison, was born 
December 24, 1849, and died November 10, 1913. After receiving 
his education in private schools and Horton Academy he attended 
the Commercial College at Halifax, then joined his father in the 
lumber business at Bridgewater, later becoming a partner in the 
same, the firm continuing as E. D. Davison & Sons. He was a suc- 
cessful business man and was public-spirited. He traveled exten- 
sively. He donated ten thousand dollars to Alt. Allison University. 
Although interested in public affairs he never sought political pre- 
ferment, although his friends often urged him to do so. He was 
the first mayor of Bridgewater. He was appointed trustee for 
Edward Doran Davison's children, and he invested in the Canadian 
Northwest for them, which investments were very successful. On 
October 10, 1879. he was united in marriage to Ella M. Fraser, of 
Yarmouth, a daughter of Peter G. Fraser, of Pictou county, who 
later removed to Bridgewater. To this union three children were 
born, namely: Reginald F., the youngest child, was educated at St. 
Andrews School in Annapolis and St. Andrews College and Uni- 
versity of Toronto; on January 6, 1915, he married Marion L. Mar- 
shall, a daughter of Dr. M. G. Marshall, of Bridgewater. Louise 
S., the eldest child of Francis D. Davison and wife, is a graduate of 
Mt. Allison Ladies' College, Sackville, New Brunswick; Alma M. 
is the second child; both these daughters are single and living at 
home. 

Archibald F. Davison was born at Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, and 
is a son of Henry Davison, Sr., and wife. He received his education 
in the public schools and in Mt. Allison University, after which he 
joined his father in the lumber business, and later became a partner 
in the same, continuing thus until they sold out in 1903 to the present 
company. He then formed a partnership with his uncle, Frank 
Davison, and conducted a pulp manufacturing business under the 
firm name of F. and A. F. Davison, which he is still conducting, his 
uncle having died some time ago. In 1902 he married Lena Benja- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 147 

min, of Bridgewater, and to this union three children were born 
Henry F., Charles Donald, and Catherine Doran. He has been very 
successful in the pulp manufacturing business and has built up an 
extensive trade. He operates modern and well equipped mills at 
Mill Village and LaHave. 

Edward Davison was born at Mill Village. His death occurred 
in 1902. He was the fourth child of E. D. Davison. After his 
school days he engaged in the lumber business with his father and 
brothers, continuing in this line of endeavor the rest of his life. In 
1901 he was a member of the Provincial Parliament, holding the 
office at the time of his death. He had also been mayor of Bridge- 
water two and one-half years prior to his death. He filled both 
these offices in an able, faithful and highly acceptable manner. 

E. D. Davison & Sons has long been one of the best known 
firms of lumber dealers in the Maritime Provinces. This firm at 
one time owned two hundred thousand acres of timber land on the 
LaHave, Nictaux and Medway rivers and did an immense business. 
This has been universally regarded as one of the most representative 
and influential families in Nova Scotia. 

HOWARD WILLIAM CORNING. 

A farmer may take good care of all his crops and animals and 
conduct his business at a profit, but he will find an added enjoyment 
and an increased profit by giving especial attention to some one crop 
or breed of animals. The necessity of raising only the best live 
stock is yearly becoming more appreciated. It is well known that 
the specialty of Howard William Corning, of Chegoggin, Yarmouth 
county, is Guernsey cattle, and not only success from a financial 
standpoint, but an envied and widespread reputation are his rewards 
for building up a specialty. 

Mr. Corning was born in the above named town and county, on 
April 17, 1879, and is a son of William and Hannah (Hibbard) 
Corning, both natives of Yarmouth county, the father of Chegoggin 
and the mother of Carleton. The father was born on the farm on 
which he spent his life and reared his family and here our subject 
still resides. The old dwelling was built of timber hewn from trees 
cut on the ground about the homestead, probably one hundred and 
twenty-five years ago. The house has been remodeled several times 
and is now a modern home. Samuel Corning, the great-grandfather, 
was one of the Loyalists who came to Nova Scotia from Cambridge, 



148 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Massachusetts, at the time of the Revolutionary war. His son, Nel- 
son Corning, grandfather of our subject, engaged in farming here, 
as did the immigrant member of the family; in fact, the Comings 
have been tillers of the soil for many generations and all have been 
successful and had comfortable homes. To the parents of our sub- 
ject seven children were born, two sons and five daughters, namely: 
Clara is the wife of Frank Strickland, and they live at Lynn, Massa- 
chusetts; Edna is now a missionary in India for the Canadian Bap- 
tist Foreign Missionary Board; Kate is the wife of Murray G. 
Wyman, of Yarmouth; William H. lives in Lynn, Massachusetts; 
Ethel is the wife of William B. Gowdy, of Cleveland, Ohio; How- 
ard W.. of this sketch; and Lillian H., who is the wife of Claude 
Saunderson. 

Howard W. Corning was reared on the home farm, where he 
worked when a boy during the crop seasons, and attended the neigh- 
boring schools in the winter time. He has devoted his life to gen- 
eral farming on the old homestead and has met with gratifying suc- 
cess. He has for some time made a specialty of well-bred Guernsey 
cattle, and carries on an extensive dairy business. He sells large 
numbers of his fine stock every year, finding a very ready market 
for them at excellent prices, owing to their superior quality. He 
keeps a splendid herd all the time, and is regarded as probably the 
foremost breeder of Guernsey cattle in Nova Scotia. He has given 
the subject careful thought and has read widely on the same. He 
has been secretary of the Guernsey Breeders' Association since its 
organization in 1905 and has done much for the success of the same. 
He is a member of the Nova Scotia Farmers' Association, of which 
he was president in 1913 and 1914. He is an advocate of progres- 
sive, scientific, intensive methods of farming and is doing a very 
commendable work to bring about better farming conditions in this 
Province. 

Mr. Corning was married October i, 1901, to Eleanor Gertrude 
Churchill, a daughter of George W. and Martha (Huntington) 
Churchill, of Chegoggin, where she grew to womanhood and was 
educated and where the Churchills have long been well and favorably 
known. To our subject and wife two children have been born, 
namely: Frances G., whose birth occurred July 7, 1902, and Carl 
W., who was born February 7, 1904, died when ten months old. 

Politically, Mr. Corning is a Conservative, as were his ancestors, 
and, like them, has been more or less active in party affairs. In 1911 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 1 49 

he was elected a member from Yarmouth county to the Provincial 
Parliament and is still incumbent of this important office, the duties 
of which he has discharged in an able and praiseworthy manner. 
Religiously, he is a Baptist. He is a member of the Canadian Order 
of Foresters and is financial secretary of the local lodge. He is also 
a member of the Order of Good Templars. 

HON. WILLIAM BERNARD WALLACE. 

One of the scholarly and public-spirited citizens of the city of 
Halifax is Hon. William Bernard Wallace, for many years a leader 
of the bar of Nova Scotia and since 1901 judge of the county court 
of Halifax county, is essentially a man who does things, and this 
accomplishment is altogether worthy in all the lines in which he 
directs his energies. 

Judge Wallace was born at Port Mulgrave, Nova Scotia, Febru- 
ary 25, 1861, and is a son of James and Catherine (Power) \Valiace. 
He received his early education in St. Mary's School and St. Mary's 
College, Halifax, to which city his family removed when he was a 
child. He won the Governor-General's medal in 1880. After leav- 
ing St. Mary's he entered Dalhousie University, completing the law 
course, graduating in 1885 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 

William B. Wallace was admitted to the bar in 1884, and he suc- 
cessfully practiced his profession in Halifax many years, taking a 
position in the front rank of his professional brethren, being known 
as a painstaking, energetic and conscientious lawyer, profoundly 
versed in all phases of jurisprudence. For some time he was a law 
partner of the present Justice Longley, and he was subsequently 
partner in the firm of Ross, Melish, Wallace & Mathers, one of the 
strongest law firms in eastern Canada. 

Taking an active interest in public affairs from the beginning of 
his career, he served as an official reporter to the Nova Scotia As- 
sembly for twelve years. He was an alderman in Halifax for three 
years and a member of the local Legislature from 1896 to 1900. He 
declined a seat in the local Government without portfolio in 1900. 
He unsuccessfully contested Halifax, House of Commons, Liberal 
interest, at the general election in 1900. Since 1902 he has been a 
lecturer on crimes in the law department of Dalhousie University, 
and for the past six years also lecturer on torts. He is also a gov- 
ernor of Dalhousie University, having been elected by the Alumni to 
represent them on the Board of Governors. He was president of the 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Charitable Irish Society for several years, was vice-president of the 
Canadian Club in 1907, and president of the same in 1909. He was 
vice-president of the Children's Aid Society in 1910. He was chair- 
man of the Board of Conciliation re Dominion Coal Company's em- 
ployes, in March, 1909, and has been chairman of several similar 
boards since. He was for ten years one of the editorial writers for 
the Halifax Chronicle, and an occasional contributor to the editorial 
columns of the Acadian Recorder and other journals. He has pro- 
nounced literary ability, is familiar with the world's best literature, 
being educated along general lines. His writings for the press have 
always been characterized by clearness of vision, versatility, a com- 
prehensive grasp of the situations and questions that occupied the 
current thought of the people, and what he said carried weight and 
conviction. He is author of "Mechanics' Lien Laws in Canada," 
which was issued in 1906, and which has been well received, a second 
edition being published in 1913. Since January, 1901, he has been 
incumbent of the office of judge of the county court of Halifax 
county, discharging his duties in a faithful, conscientious, able and 
commendable manner, his decisions being marked by uniform fair- 
ness, justice and a profound knowledge of the law. During the past 
five years he has also been judge of the Juvenile Court, serving with- 
out remuneration. He is a member of the Halifax Club, the City 
Club and the Golf Club. 

SIR ROBERT LAIRD BORDEN. 

To offer in the present work an adequate resume of the strenu- 
ous and useful career of Sir Robert Laird Borden, the present able 
and popular Prime Minister of Canada, formerly a leader of the bar 
at Halifax, would be impossible, but, with others of those who have 
conserved the civic and commercial progress of Nova Scotia, he may 
well find consideration in the noting of the more salient points that 
have marked his life and labors. 

He is a descendant of Samuel Borden, a surveyor, who came to 
Falmouth, Nova Scotia, from the American Colonies in 1760, before 
the Loyalists. He is a son of the late Andrew and Eunice (Laird) 
Borden, and he was born at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, June 26, 1854. 
He was educated at Acacia Villa Academy, at Horton. He received 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law from Queen's Univer- 
sity in 1903, and the degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 151 

him by St. Francis Xavier University, at Antigonish, in 1905, and 
by McGill University in 1913. 

In September, 1889, he was united in marriage to Laura Bond, 
a daughter of T. H. Bond, a highly-esteemed citizen of Halifax. 
She was formerly a leading member of the Orpheus Musical Society, 
Halifax, was president of the Aberdeen Society and of the Local 
Council of Women, and vice-president of the Woman's Work Ex- 
change, Halifax. She gave a medal to be competed for at the Hali- 
fax Industrial School. She was on the reception committee on the 
return of the Canadian troops from South Africa in 1900. She is a 
Councillor Victorian Order of Nurses, and vice-president of the 
National Council of Women. She was elected president of the 
Ladies' Golf Club, Ottawa, 1910. She is Regent of the Laurentian 
Chapter, Daughters of the Empire, Ottawa, 1911. She accompanied 
her husband on his tour of Ontario in 1901, and on his trip through 
British Columbia and the Northwest Territory and Manitoba in 1902 
and subsequent social journeys. 

Sir Robert L. Borden began his long, varied and useful career as 
a professor in Glen wood Institute, New Jersey, in 1873, but returned 
to Nova Scotia in 1874 and began the study of law with the late Sir 
R. L. Weatherbe, and the Hon. Wallace Graham, now Chief Justice 
of Nova Sqotia. He was called to the bar in 1878. He successfully 
practiced his profession, first, at Kentville, in partnership with the 
present Judge J. P. Chipman, and subsequently at Halifax, where he 
succeeded the late Sir J. S. D. Thompson in the firm of Thompson, 
Graham & Tupper, becoming one of the leaders of the bar in East- 
ern Canada, and was retained in many important cases. He was 
successively vice-president and president of Nova Scotia Barristers' 
Society, occupying the last named office from 1893 to 1904. He was 
appointed King's Counsel (Earl of Derby) 1890; and in Ontario, 
1908. He sat in the House of Commons for the city and county of 
Halifax from 1896 to 1904; for the county of Carleton from 1905 
to 1908; was returned for both Halifax and Carleton at the general 
election in 1908 and elected to sit for the former seat. He was 
again returned for the city and county of Halifax in 1911. He was 
leader of the Conservative Opposition, House of Commons, from 
February 6, 1901, until September, 1911, when he was called upon 
to form the present government. 

He has made several extended tours throughout Canada, and he 
visited the United Kingdom and a portion of the European continent 



152 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

in 1912. He has lectured on "Canadian Problems" and other sub- 
jects, and he is regarded as a forceful, well-informed and impressive 
speaker and a lucid and versatile writer. He led the opposition 
against the Taft-Fiekling_ reciprocity compact. On the defeat at the 
polls of the Laurier administration at the general election in 1911, 
he was called to form a new administration; was sworn as a mem- 
ber of the Privy Council, October 10, 1911, and took office as Presi- 
dent of the King's Privy Council for Canada and Secretary of State 
for External Affairs in the new cabinet. Thus he led the govern- 
ment during the period of Canada's splendid participation in the 
European War, the first great war in which the Dominion has been 
engaged. In the summer of 1915 he went to England for the pur- 
pose of consulting with His Majesty's government regarding the 
conduct of the war, and visited the Canadian troops and the Cana- 
dian wounded both in England and in France at the front. As Prime 
Minister his record is too well known to be given in detail here. 
Suffice it to say that it has been characterized by duty, ably and con- 
scientiously performed, and has more than justified the wisdom of 
his selection to this high office. He has ever been loyal to the trusts 
reposed in him. and has done much for the general welfare of the 
Dominion, and merits in every respect the high esteem in which he 
is universally held. 

REV. WILLIAM BLACK. 

To Rev. William Black came the honor and the opportunity of 
being the pioneer Methodist missionary in the Maritime Provinces. 
He, like other evangelists of that day, seemed oblivious to danger 
and opposition. Not ease nor worldly possessions seemed dear to 
him, if they interfered with his purpose to carry the Gospel to sin- 
ners. He traveled through Cumberland, Sackville, the settlements 
on the Peticodiac river, Parrsboro, Cornwallis, Horton, Windsor, 
Halifax, Shelburne, Liverpool, Annapolis, Prince Edward Islaind 
and other parts of Nova Scotia and neighboring provinces. He 
visited these places repeatedly during his ministry. He opened coi;- 
respondence with John Wesley, founder of Methodism, who en- 
couraged him to continued in his work, and who assisted him in 
many ways. This kept alive his purpose of establishing and nour- 
ishing Methodist societies in the Maritime Provinces. 

He was born at Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, England, in the 
year 1760. He attended school at Otley, and when very young 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 153 

decided to devote his life to the ministry. His father came to Nova 
Scotia in 1775 and purchased land at Amherst, Cumberland county, 
and when about fifteen years old our subject came with the rest of 
the family to the new home. He was not very pious as a boy, but 
was converted when about twenty years of age and not long there- 
after began preaching, and in due course of time became one of the 
most influential and powerful preachers in Canada. By home study 
he overcame the lack of proper literary preparation, and he had re- 
markable success in spreading the Gospel. As years passed converts 
multiplied and his talents became better known to the denomination. 
He visited the United States, attended conferences in that country 
and found himself urged to the front to take the responsibilities of 
leadership in the Maritime Provinces, Newfoundland and Bermuda. 
This made it necessary for him to move to Halifax. It was in the 
summer of 1780 that he made a tour of the Maritime Provinces, 
proclaiming the way of life to all classes. Baptist and Newlight 
meeting-houses were opened to him. The people always received 
him cordially and heard him gladly. Hardships and self-sacrifice 
seemed to have been to him the very luxuries of his laborious and 
devoted life. His gifts were not extraordinary, but he had great 
force of character, and the talents and tact of a leader and successful 
organizer. Although ever overwhelmed with his work he found 
time to acquire a knowledge of Greek and Latin. Perhaps no one 
of the early ministers was more entirely consecrated to his work 
than William Black. 

In 1784 he attended the Methodist conference in Baltimore, 
Maryland, which was perhaps the most notable gathering of its kind 
ever held in America up to that time. There he made his influence 
felt and obtained great assistance for the work in Nova Scotia. At 
Digby in 1786 he formed a large class, mostly colored people, and 
in October, of that year, he took a prominent part in the first Meth- 
odist conference of this Province, which was held in Halifax. There 
were at that time over five hundred Methodists in Nova Scotia. Our 
subject reported eighty members in Cumberland county and adjoin- 
ing places. He had also formed a class at Windsor. He again 
attended a general conference in Baltimore in 1792. The following 
year he went to the West Indies, where he did a commendable work. 
He also assisted in establishing on a firm footing Methodism in New 
Brunswick. He repeatedly attended general conferences of his church 
in the States, including the one in May, 1816, at Baltimore. Although 



154 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



his health became enfeebled during the latter years of his life, he 
continued in the work which he loved. His wife, nee Mary Gray, a 
native of Boston, died August n, 1827. She lived to rear several 
children. In 1828 our subject married Mrs. Martha Calkins, of 
Liverpool, Nova Scotia. 

The death of Rev. William Black occurred September 6, 1834. 

JOHN BURTON NORTH. 

One of the well remembered citizens of Hantsport, Nova Scotia, 
of a past generation, whose name is deserving of perpetuation on the 
pages of local history was the late John Burton North, because he 
was a man who led a useful and unselfish life, and not only suc- 
ceeded in individual affairs but aided others along the way to the 
goal of better things. 

Mr. North was born in Sheffield Mills, November 10, 1825. His 
father came to America from England and settled at Sheffield Mills, 
Kings county, Nova Scotia, where he engaged in farming. 

John B. North received his education in the public schools and 
when a young man learned the ship building trade. When twenty- 
one years of age he went to New Brunswick, where he worked in the 
ship yards, later going to the United States, where he continued in 
the same line of endeavor, returning to Nova Scotia in the early 
fifties, locating at Bay Shore, below Scotch Bay, where he built two 
small vessels brigs named the Herald and the Free Trade. He 
was a highly skilled workman and knew all the ins and outs of his 
trade. After completing the above named vessels he removed to 
Hantsport, in which town he continued in business until 1891, dur- 
ing which period he built many vessels of various kinds, the largest 
being the Loodiana of eighteen hundred and seventy-four tons, being 
a full-rigged ship and considered a very large vessel in those days. 

Mr. North was married to Esther E. Ells, of Sheffield Mills, 
Nova Scotia. She was a daughter of Squire David Ells, of that 
town. There she grew up and received a common school education. 
The union of Mr. and Mrs. North resulted in the birth of seven 
children, of which are living David, John T. and three daughters. 

Mr. North's sons engaged in the ship building business with him, 
each becoming quite proficient under his tutorship, the firm name 
being J. B. North & Sons. They were always busy on some im- 
portant job and continued successfully until wooden vessels were 
generally replaced by iron ships. They were not slow to cast their 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 155 

fortunes with the new order of things, and became interested in a 
company owning steel steam ships. David North has remained un- 
married. John T. North married Marion Rachael Davidson, a 
daughter of Capt. Albert Davidson, a well-known citizen of Hants- 
port, where Mrs. North grew to womanhood and received her edu- 
cation. The union of John T. North and wife has resulted in the 
birth of four children, namely: Cyril B., Eva. Kate and John T., 
Jr. The three eldest finished their education at Mt. Allison Uni- 
versity, at Sackville, New Brunswick. The youngest is now attend- 
ing the public schools. 

The death of John B. North occurred in March. 1907. at the age 
of eighty-two years, and his wife died in February, 1911, at the age 
of eighty-one years. 

JOHN ARNOLD SMITH. 

In the humbler walks of life there remains much good to be ac- 
complished and many opportunities for one to exercise one's talents 
and influence which in some way will touch the lives of those with 
whom we come in contact, making them better and brighter. Real- 
izing this, John Arnold Smith, the present able principal of Windsor 
Academy and one of the successful educationists of Nova Scotia, 
has tried to make his influence felt for the general good while per- 
forming the duties of his chosen vocation. 

Mr. Smith was born at Newport, Nova Scotia, March 7, 1854. 
He is of Scotch-Irish parentage, and is the son of T. A. and Anne 
Smith, natives of Newport. He received his education in the com- 
mon schools of Newport and at Mt. Allison University, from which 
he was graduated in 1880 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and 
he received the Master of Arts degree from that institution in 1900. 
He prepared himself for a career as an educator and he has spent 
his after years in this work. He took grade A license as a teacher. 
He became a professor in 1873. He was head master at the Truro 
Model School for a period of six years, and was English teacher at 
Mt. Allison Academy three years. Since then he has been principal 
of Windsor Academy. He has been very successful in all the posi- 
tions which have been entrusted to him and, being a close observer 
and a student, he has kept well abreast of the times and has intro- 
duced many methods, until he now has the popular school at Wind- 
sor of which he is in charge under a superb system. He is a mem- 
ber of the executive committee of the Provincial Teachers' Associa- 



156 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

tion, and has been active in encouraging better schools for Nova 
Scotia. Politically, he is a Liberal, and in religious matters he be- 
longs to the Presbyterian church, of which he is an elder. 

Mr. Smith was married in June, 1882, to Clara E. Kent, of Great 
Village, Nova Scotia. 

REV. G. R. MARTELL, D. C. L. 

The record of Rev. G. R. Martell, D. C. L., rector of Christ 
church. Windsor, and archdeacon of Nova Scotia, is that of a man 
who has labored for the good of others without thought of personal 
favor or reward, content to be an humble follower of the lowly 
Xazarene, and he is eminently deserving of the universal esteem 
that is his and of the position he occupies as one of the leading 
churchmen that this Province has ever produced. Withal he is a 
plain and unassuming gentleman who never courts the plaudits of his 
fellow men. 

Dr. Martell was born at Main-a-dieu, Cape Breton county, Nova 
Scotia, November 19, 1860. He is a son of William and Elizabeth 
( Rigby ) Martell, both natives of Cape Breton county, the father's 
birth having occurred at Main-a-dieu in 1829, and the mother was 
born at Sydney in 1833; he died in 1865, and she passed away at 
an advanced age. in 1915, having survived her husband fifty years. 

Dr. Martell received his education in the public schools and 
King's College, Windsor. He was ordained in 1883. King's Uni- 
versity conferred upon him the degrees of Master of Arts and Doc- 
tor of Divinity. He was very successful in the ministry from the 
first, being a diligent student and an earnest, logical and forceful 
pulpit orator. He was rector of Holy Trinity at Maitland for 
twenty-five years, and has been rector of Christ church at Windsor 
for the past seven years. His long retention in these congregations 
would indicate that his services as pastor have been most praise- 
worthy and acceptable. He was made archdeacon of Nova Scotia 
and canon of All Saints' Cathedral after the lamented death of 
Archdeacon Kaulbach. He is regarded as one of the leading figures 
in the Church of England in the Provinces of eastern Canada. 

Dr. Martell was married on September 17, 1885, to Frances 
Stuart, of Maitland, Hants county. She is a daughter of Capt. C. S. 
and Frances (Ambrose) Stuart, of Truro. To this union the fol- 
lowing children have been born: William Bigby Martell, who was 
born in August, 1886, is now rector of St. John's parish at New 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 157 

Germany, Nova Scotia, and George Stuart Martell, who was born in 
May, 1888, died suddenly at Ottawa, November 31, 1914. He was 
in the customs department of the Canadian civil service. 

WILLIAM HENRY WISWELL. 

The long and honorable life of William H. Wiswell, now living 
in retirement in Halifax in the fullness of his eighty-sixth year, has 
been lived to good purpose. He was torn at Newcastle, New Bruns- 
wick, May 10, 1830, his parents being Henry and Elizabeth H. 
(Smith) Wiswell. His paternal grandfather, Enoch Wiswell, of 
English ancestry, left his native state of New York and came to 
Nova Scotia with the Royalists about the period of the American 
Revolution. He spent his life in Halifax, where he died at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-three years. His eldest son, Henry, the father 
of the subject of this sketch, was born in Halifax, January 22, 1801, 
where he passed his earlier years. Removing later to Miramichi, 
New Brunswick, he conducted business there as a general merchant 
for some years and then removed to Truro, Nova Scotia. At a 
later period he returned to Halifax, and died in Dartmouth in 
December, 1877, aged seventy-seven. He possessed great natural 
ability, and was always well informed on current topics. In politics 
he was a Liberal and a strong- supporter of Hon. Joseph Hoxve. 
Previous to his death, while living in Dartmouth, he was secretary 
of the Provincial Building Society. 

William H. Wiswell, eldest son of the above, received his edu- 
cation in the schools of Chatham, New Brunswick. He then re- 
moved to Truro, and was employed in his father's business for some 
years. In 1853 he went to Moncton, where he acted as accountant 
of the Westmoreland Bank for two years. In 1855 he removed to 
Halifax, where he became secretary, cashier and director of the 
Nova Scotia Telegraph Company, now a part of the Western Union 
Telegraph system. He held this position for a period of twenty-five 
years, when he was elected clerk of Halifax county, and later treas- 
urer also. He discharged the duties of these offices in a very able 
and satisfactory manner until 1909, when he tendered his resigna- 
tion to enjoy a well earned rest. In politics, Mr. Wiswell is a Con- 
servative. For thirty years he has been secretary of the Halifax 
Dispensary, and he is the oldest living member of the local Young 
Men's Christian Association. A devoted member of the Anglican 
church, he served the parish of St. Luke in various offices for over 



158 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

forty years. He is chairman of the endowment committee of the 
Synod of Nova Scotia. In all these relations of life he has proved 
his usefulness as a man of energy, capacity and sound judgment, 
and is highly esteemed by all who know him. 

Mr. Wiswell has been thrice married. His first wife, Annie, 
daughter of Charles E. Wiswell, died shortly after their marriage in 
1860. In September, 1862, he married Agnes S. Blanchard, daugh- 
ter of the late Hon. Hiram Blanchard, of Halifax, who died in June, 
1886. There were six children born of this union. In January, 
1889, Air. Wiswell married Emily S. Gossip, daughter of the late 
William Gossip, of Halifax. 

Arthur B.. eldest and only surviving child of Mr. Wiswell, was 
born in Halifax. June 25, 1863. He received a common and high 
school education in his native city, and entered the office of A. M. 
Bell, hardware merchant, in 1879. He is now president of the firm 
of A. M. Bell & Company, Ltd., Mr. Bell retiring in 1914. Like his 
father, he has prominently identified himself with the Church of 
England, being a past president of the Church of England Institute, 
a member of the council of the Laymen's Missionary Movement in 
the Dominion, and vice-president of the Brotherhood of St. Andrew 
in Canada. He is also prominent in the various activities of All 
Saints' Cathedral, and is a governor of King's College, Windsor, 
Nova Scotia. He married in September, 1886, Florence E. Kinnear, 
daughter of the late C. R. and Agnes Kinnear, of Halifax, who died 
in March, 1910, leaving four children, namely: Arthur Clifford, 
Gordon Blanchard, Douglas Morgan and Gertrude Agnes Margaret. 
The latter died Decmeber 29, 1913. In October, 1912, Mr. Wiswell 
married Mary H. Wainwright, daughter of the late James W. and 
Agnes T. King, of Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

RT. REV. EDMUND BURKE. 

Although Rt. Rev. Edmund Burke was not a native of Nova 
Scotia, this Province was the scene of much of his commendable 
work for the public good. He was a man of brilliant intellect and 
was very influential among the early settlers and Indians of this 
country. 

He was born in the parish of Maryborough, County Kildare, Ire- 
land, in the year 1753, and he evinced in early life those qualities 
which mark a soul set apart as sacred to the Lord. His parents were 
in comfortable circumstances and he was sent to Paris to be edu- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 159 

cated, and there made a brilliant record as a scholar, winning high 
honors at its university, especially in mathematics and philosophy. 
He returned in due time to Ireland and began his work in the min- 
istry. Before many years had elapsed he was made parish priest in 
the town of Kildare. Owing to disturbing civic and ecclesiastical 
elements at home, Father Burke came to Quebec in the summer of 
1886, as a missionary to the Indians, but he took a position as pro- 
fessor of philosophy in the seminary of Quebec in September of that 
year and was a successful educator, and he remained in that city 
several years. In 1794 he went into the forests beyond the lakes in 
his long-contemplated missionary work, in which he met with great 
success, although encountering many obstacles and hardships. He 
went into the Ohio country the following year, where he was the first 
English speaking priest, as later on he was the first in western 
New York. He wrote many interesting accounts of the Indians and 
general conditions of the then wild country and tells of frequent 
clashes between the savages and the whites. For nearly two years 
he labored as the superior of these western missions, his usual place 
of residence being on what is now the United States side of the 
Detroit River. He returned to civilization in the summer of 1796, 
and he continued in the work of the church, which took him over a 
wide territory, retaining his headquarters at Quebec, until in Sep- 
tember, 1801, when he left that city for Halifax, and at once took 
up his work here, beginning on the day of his arrival a register of 
baptisms, marriages and instruments for the Church of St. Peter's. 
Attention was likewise given to perfecting the choir in the music of 
the church. He also labored for the cause of education, beginning 
the erection of a college in 1802. The building was later known as 
the Glebe House, and stood for eighty-nine years at Harrington 
Street and Spring Garden Road. After considerable difficulty he 
got the school in running order, under an excellent system, thus lay- 
ing the foundations of St. Mary's which has so long played an im- 
portant part among the educational institutions of Nova Scotia. He 
continued to work assiduously in the interest of this school ,in the 
face of all opposition. In the summer of 1815 he visited Europe. 
While in London he wrote and forwarded to Rome a lengthy docu- 
ment, in which he gives a graphic account of British North America, 
from an ecclesiastical standpoint. Later he visited Rome and spent 
a short time in France, returning to Halifax after an absence of 
one year. 



l6o HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

On July 26, 1817, the Prefect of Propaganda wrote to Father 
Burke, notifying him of the action of the Pope in erecting the 
Vicarate of Nova Scotia, immediately subject to the Holy See, and 
appointing him Bishop of Zion, and Vicar Apostate of Nova Scotia. 
On July 5, 1818 he received Episcopal consecration at the hands of 
Bishop Plessis, in Quebec. From the moment that he had been 
officially notified of his appointment, he began to make provision for 
the spiritual needs of his Vicarate, with a view to founding a Trap- 
pist Monastery, as well as to provide for the Acadians and Indians 
in eastern Nova Scotia. In a short time he supplied the Vicarate 
with well trained missionaries. To give a detailed account of his 
splendid work as Bishop would be to give a history of the church 
here during that period. Suffice to say that he advanced the 
cause of religion and education in a remarkable way. He was re- 
sponsible for the erection of St. Mary's Cathedral in Halifax, begun 
in 1820, one of the first church edifices in Canada. No one man has 
ever done more for the Catholic church in Nova Scotia than this 
splendid man. 

The death of Bishop Burke occurred November 29, 1820 at the 
age of sixty-eight years. 

WILLIAM L. BROWN. 

The late William L. Brown, treasurer of the City of Halifax 
for a very great number of years, was a man that was always true 
to the trusts reposed in him, of exemplary character and broad in- 
telligence, hence he merited in every respect the high esteem in which 
he was universally held. 

Mr. Brown was born in Halifax about the year 1858, and was 
a son of William M. and Mary Brown. His father was a member 
of the firm of Bessonett and Brown who conducted a hardware 
business on Lower Water street, Halifax for many years. Our 
subject received his education at the old Halifax Grammar School 
on Barrington street, which was conducted by Dr. Gilpin. After 
graduating from this school he entered an office in Montreal, Quebec. 
He remained there but a few years when he returned to Halifax and 
took a position in city treasurer's office. He was an assistant to 
Treasurer Edward Greenwood and after him, Philip Thompson. 
Subsequently Mr. Brown himself was appointed city treasurer and 
he held the position until his death, giving eminent satisfaction in 



' 




MEMORIAL TOWER IX SUMMER. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. l6l 

every respect, as might be surmised from his long retention in this 
important office. As a city official he was ever most obliging and 
he paid strict attention to his duties. His counsel was considered 
invaluable in all financial matters relating to the city. Socially he 
was one of the best known men of Halifax, and he had a great 
many warm personal friends. He was the oldest member of the 
Red Cap Snowshoe Club as well as being a member of both the 
Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron and the City Club. He 
thoroughly appreciated good literature and was a keen student of 
history. Being such an omnivrous reader he had a wide knowledge 
of men and affairs and was an interesting conversationalist and a 
good companion. 

Mr. Brown was married June 17, 1882 to Sarah Macdonald, a 
daughter of Jabush Snow Macdonald and Mariah (Campbell) Mac- 
donald, both natives of Liverpool, Xova Scotia. To this union two 
daughters and three sons were born, namely: Joanna, who lives at 
home; Mrs. Hellen C. Whitney lives in Toronto; William N. 
lives at home; Geoffrey is residing in Toronto; and Michael is now 
(1915) with one of the battalions in St. John, New Brunswick for 
service overseas. The death of William L. Brown occurred after 
a brief illness, January 14, 1916, when sixty-two years old. 

REV. ROBERT SEDGWICK, D. D. 

Great men and great events everywhere should be held in ever- 
lasting remembrance, and any celebration that will rejuvinate the 
memory of them and transmit it to posterity is highly commendable. 
It has been well and truly said that as we can measure the altar but 
not the sacrifice, the house but not the home, the rose but not its 
fragrance, so we can measure a man but not his influence. We can 
easily reckon a man's age, height, weight, wealth, rank, learning and 
business ability, but we can never calculate his influence, for that is 
subtle and abiding. It survives even death itself. The mightiest 
steamer leaves no lasting mark behind her on the ocean's waves, but 
"the smallest barque on life's tempestuous ocean will leave a track 
behind forevermore; the slightest wave of influence set in motion 
extends and widens to the eternal shore." The influence of Laidlaw, 
Sprott, Grant, Sedgwick and other leaders of the church in Musquo- 
doboit, men and women who have gone to glory still survives, and 
will survive till time shall be no more. "Although the soldier's sun 
(ii) 



1 62 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

is set, its light still lingers round us yet." In that light we gladly 
bask. With the greatest delight we obey the apostolic command, 
"Remember them that had the rule over you, men that spake unto you 
the Word of God; and considering the issue of their life, imitate 
their faith. Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and today and for- 
ever." There are two things in general about Dr. Sedgwick we 
should recall the conspicuous events of his life, and the command- 
ing excellence of his work and character. 

Robert Sedgwick was born in Paisley, Scotland, May 10, 1804, 
and was the son of a tanner, who had moved to Paisley from Dent, 
Yorkshire. And when our subject was very young the family re- 
moved to Greenock, where he received his early education. The 
regular prescribed course in arts and theology were taken by him at 
Glasgow University, and these courses he completed most success- 
fully. He was licensed to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery of 
Glasgow in March, 1836, and thereafter he labored as a city mis- 
sionary in Perth for about a year and a half. In September 1838 
he was ordained and inducted to the charge of a congregation in 
Aberdeen in connection with the Secession church. There he labored 
with much success for about eleven years, which is considered quite 
a long period nowadays for a first pastorate. Then from Nova 
Scotia he heard the old Macedonian cry "Come over and help us." 
That call he cheerfully obeyed, and early in May, 1849 he set sail 
from old Scotland for new Scotland. After preaching for about 
three months in different parts of this land, he was called to the 
Musquodoboit congregation, and on September 12, 1849 ne was 
formerly inducted there, in succession to the renowned John Sprott, 
who for about twenty-four years, from September 13, 1825 was its 
pastor. 

Very soon after his arrival in Xova Scotia Mr. Sedgwick won 
the confidence and esteem of all the members of the Synod, for in 
1852 he was chosen to be its moderator, the duties of which office 
he splendidly performed. On October 4, 1860 the Presbyterian 
church in Nova Scotia to whish he belonged, and the Free church 
were united at Pictou, under the name of the Presbyterian church 
of the Lower Provinces of British North America. Nine Presby- 
teries and seventy-seven ministers composed the Synod. In June, 
1870, Mr. Sedgwick was appointed moderator of that Synod an- 
other evidence of his commanding influence, and of the esteem in 
which he was held. For twenty-five years after settlement he min- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 163 

istered to both Middle and Upper Musquodoboit congregations. 
After 1874 he ministered to Middle Musquodoboit people alone. In 
June, 1875 the great union of all the Presbyterian churches in Canada 
took place at Montreal, and on the i6th of that month the Synod 
of the Maritime Provinces met in that city by direction of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Mr. Sedgwick was chosen as its moderator the 
first moderator of the present Synod a very great and richly mer- 
ited distinction. Comparatively little business, however, was done 
at that meeting, consequently, it was agreed to meet again on the 
5th of October in St. John, New Brunswick. Mr. Sedgwick opened 
that meeting by a fine sermon from Romans 13: 12, "The night is 
far spent, etc." But he did not then retire from the moderator's 
chair. He was enthusiastically re-appointed for another year, being 
the only Synod moderator who ever remained in office for two suc- 
cessive meetings. The next Synod meeting was at Halifax on Oc- 
tober 3, 1876, and Mr. Sedgwick preached a powerful opening sermon 
from John 4:38, "Other men labored, etc." In 1877 the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by Queen's University, 
another well-merited honor. In 1882 he demitted his charge, after 
thirty-three years faithful and earnest service for Christ in this 
country, and forty-six years after his licensure. The Presbytery met 
in Halifax on August I5th when his resignition was regretfully 
accepted. At that meeting a very fine address was presented to him 
by the congregation which spoke of him in the highest terms and 
manifested for him the greatest affection and admiration. He was 
also presented with a substantial token of their esteem. 

Dr. Sedgwick entered into his eternal rest on April 2, 1885 at 
a time of great excitement in Canada, for the Reil rebellion in the 
Northwest had broken out, and a Halifax contingent under Col. 
Brenner was getting ready to leave on April nth. The funeral of 
this loved and honored minister took place on April 6, 1885 and was 
very largely attended. The services, which were most impressive, 
were conducted by his successor, Rev. E. S. Bayne, assisted by sev- 
eral other clergymen of whom there were a dozen present. 

Dr. Sedgwick was married to Jessie Middleton, a native of Perth, 
Scotland, who preceded him to the grave nearly seven years, in 1878. 
She was a daughter of William Middleton and wife, natives of Scot- 
land, in which country they spent their lives. Mrs. Sedgwick was 
much esteemed and loved by all who knew her. When she died the 
congregation presented to their pastor a most affectionate address 



164 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

and spoke of her in the highest terms. In his reply the Doctor 
said : "For forty-one years she adorned all the family relationships 
in her own household in a manner and to an extent which are worthy 
of imitation. She earned the eulogy of a 'good wife' passed by the 
spirit of God in the last chapter of the Book of Proverbs. To all 
of you she is still to memory dear. That you loved and honored 
her has been conclusively proven by the name you gave your church 
'The Middleton church.' ' She was a splendid partner and help- 
mate to the Doctor, and was the devoted mother of eleven children, 
all of whom rose up often and called her "blessed," and on whom 
her mantle fell, making them honored and respected both in church 
and state. What a glorious family reunion there will be by and by! 
The eleven children of Dr. Sedgwick and wife were named as 
follows: Rev. Thomas Sedgwick, D.D., of Tatamagouche, married 
Christina P. MacGregor, a daughter of Roderick MacGregor and a 
granddaughter of Dr. James MacGregor. (A record of this old 
family will be found on other pages of this history.) The follow- 
ing children were born to the above marriage : William Middleton 
is now traffic manager of the Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company at 
New Glasgow : Sarah is the widow of Dr. James M. Clark, and she 
lives at Tatamagouche. Dr. Thomas Sedgwick was ordained in 
1860, and was pastor of the Presbyterian church at Tatamagouche 
for a period of fifty years. He served as moderator of the General 
Assembly, also of the Synod, and is now clerk of the Synod. He 
was made a Doctor of Divinity in 1893 ' } 7 tne Presbyterian College 
at Halifax. Jane Sedgwick was the second child of the subject of 
this sketch; Agnes, next in order, who is now deceased, was the 
wife of John Henderson, of Dundee, Scotland. John Sedgwick, 
the fourth child, who is in the railroad business, lives in Leith, Scot- 
land. Jessie Sedgwick, the fifth child, married Archibald Camp- 
bell, ship builder and merchant of Tatamagouche, and are both now 
deceased ; their son William was for some time connected with the 
Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company at North Sydney, Cape Breton. 
George Sedgwick, the sixth child, died when five years old. Robert 
Sedgwick, seventh child, married Mary McKay, of Halifax, where 
he practiced law successfully for many years; he was appointed 
deputy Minister of Justice at Ottawa, and later elected to the bench 
of the Supreme Court ; he died some time ago. William Sedgwick, 
the eighth child of our subject, married Annie Leedham ; he con- 
tinued as a farmer on the old homestead, became a justice of the 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 165 

peace and was a man of influence in his community; his eldest child, 
Rev. W. H., is a Bachelor of Arts and lives in Hamilton, Ontario; 
George H. lives in Toronto; John lives in St. George, Ontario; 
Robert lives in Toronto; Fannie is the wife of W. Gladwin, of 
British Columbia; Jessie, who was a trained nurse in Toronto for 
some time, is now with the Canadian troops at the front in Europe. 
Henry Sedgwick was the ninth child of our subject, Ann Sedgwick, 
the tenth child, married T. P. Deane, deceased, and she is living in 
Upper Musquodoboit. James A. Sedgwick, the eleventh and young- 
est child of Dr. Robert Sedgwick and wife, was born September 29, 
1860, and was educated in the common schools and Dalhousie Uni- 
versity, from which institution he was graduated in 1881 with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, and in 1883 the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws was conferred upon him, after he had completed the course in 
the law department; on September 21, 1892, he married Norma 
Sprott, a daughter of Charles X. Sprott and a granddaughter of 
Rev. John Sprott, predecessor of Rev. Robert Sedgwick in the 
ministry at Musquodoboit. To James A. Sedgwick and wife four 
children have been born John, whose birth occurred March 29, 
1899; and Charles Hill Wallace, born August 21, 1902; Robert, 
born January 8, 1906; Jenneth Middleton, born March 7. 1911. 
James A. Sedgwick was admitted to the bar on Decemljer 9, 1884, 
and began the practice of law as a member of the firm of Sedgwick, 
Ross & Sedgwick, later forming a new firm Sedgwick, Ross & 
McKay, which continued until 1895, when the firm was dissolved. 
From 1907 to the present time Mr. Sedgwick has been successfully 
engaged in the practice of his profession at Middle Musquodoboit. 
He is a member of the Xorth British Society, of which he was vice- 
president for many years. Politically he is a Conservative, and 
religiously, a Presbyterian. 

Dr. Robert Sedgwick's salary was never more than six hundred 
dollars per year, but he never complained. On the contrary, on one 
occasion, he offered to reduce his stipend. If he had been a lawyer, 
a doctor or a merchant, he might have died a millionaire. But he 
was richer far than that passing rich in the affections of his people, 
in the prayers of a host of friends, in the memory of a splendid 
work done on the approval of his conscience, and in the smile of 
his Lord. 

We must try to estimate Dr. Sedgwick's worth and work. When 
he passed to the great beyond he unquestionably heard from the 



l66 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

lips of pur Lord the sweet welcome "Well done, good and faithful 
servant." The same testimony we can all cheerfully give: First, 
he was a good man. The first and greatest requirement of a Chris- 
tian minister is goodness, genuine, deep and manifest piety noth- 
ing can take the place of that not learning or eloquence or socia- 
bility or hospitality. A holy life alone can be a continual bene- 
diction, pouring out like light from a lamp, like heat from a fire, 
like fragrance from a rose. It is light alone that can enlighten. 
It is fire alone that can kindle a flame, and it is piety alone that can 
bless others, enriching and enthusing them. Of a saintly women 
a poet beautifully said: 

"A gospel of a life like hers 

Is more than books or scrolls; 

Our dear Lord's ,best interpreters 

Are humble human souls." 

"However it be it seems to me 

'Tis only noble to be good; 

Kind hearts are more than coronets, 

And simple faith than Norman blood." 

Dr. Sedgwick was guileless and humble, courteous and gentle- 
manly, cheerful and hopeful, sympathetic and benevolent a living 
epistle of Christ a true picture of Christ. His name is still pregnant 
with all that is excellent and honorable. But he was faithful as 
well as good; he was faithful in every relation in life faithful in 
the home, in the church, and in the world. In particular he was 
faithful and excellent, first, in his preaching. In matter his sermons 
were searching and helpful. He never offered what cost him noth- 
ing. The Sessions Minute after his death says: "He was always 
careful in preparation for the pulpit. His preaching was of a high 
order." Sometimes he was a Braneys, thundering loudly against 
ungodliness in every form. As the physician not only guards his 
own health, but attacks diseases which prevail around him; as fire- 
men not only guard their homes against fire, but try to quench the 
fire that is devouring homes around them, so Dr. Sedgwick not only 
eschewed evil himself but sought to destroy it in every form around 
him. He ever strove to smash the traps by which foolish creatures 
are caught. But he was also a Barnabas. He delighted to preach 
the gospel of hope and comfort. He pointed sinners to the cross, 
pleading with them to look to the crucified one, and assuring them 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 1 67 

that none need perish. He spoke to the suffering, sorrowing and 
mourning with great sympathy and poured the balm of consolation 
into their bleeding hearts. He did not strive to be an amusing, 
entertaining or sensational preacher. He gave medicine, not sweet- 
meats, to the sick. He gave bread, not flowers, to the hungry. He 
gave a guide-book, not a book of anecdotes, to the lost. He fed his 
people with good food, with sincere milk and meat of the Word. 
As to the manner of his preaching, it was always eloquent and 
earnest. "The old man eloquent," he was generally called during 
the latter part of his life. When he retired, Dr. Murray of the 
Witness pronounced him "by far our greatest orator." His preach- 
ing always had fire in it. He wrote an excellent little book on 
"Fellowship With Christ," and his last sermon, which has been 
preserved, was on the striking text, "Father, the hour is come." 

Second, the Doctor was faithful and excellent in praying. His 
prayers were always remarkable, full of Scripture quotations, ex- 
pressive and suited to circumstances, wonderfully unctuous and 
powerful. When he prayed in church courts all were carried away 
up to the very gates of Heaven. Many great men are sadly deficient 
in prayer. Some mumble, and others roll forth beautiful sentences 
which mean nothing. Dr. Sedgwick had a mighty voice which could 
always be heard in large buildings, but his prayers were always 
characterized by propriety and devotional feeling. 

Third, Dr. Sedgwick was faithful as a pastor. He was not by 
any means like the minister of whom it was said that he was invisible 
on six days of the week, and incomprehensible on the seventh. His 
field was at first very extensive, twenty-eight miles from end to end, 
but he neglected no one, and as the Session Minute says, "His pas- 
toral visits were always welcome." He was especially mindful of 
the suffering, worrying and dying, and many have thanked God and 
thanked him for his visits to their homes. 

Fourth, He was faithful as a Presbyter. He regularly attended 
church courts, and took part in all their proceedings with wisdom 
and zeal. The Session in its minutes, says, "He ruled wisely and 
well in the session and congregation. That was true also when he 
occupied the moderator's chair in Presbytery and Synod. He was 
not by any means narrow and bigoted a stickler for petty things 
but he always adhered faithfully to the laws and usages of the 
church. 

Fifth, He was faithful as a public servant. Some affirm that 



l68 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

he was more forceful on the platform than in the pulpit. At any 
rate he was much sought after for week night lectures. With his 
marvelous pathos and power he often swayed great audiences in 
old Temperance Hall, Starr street, Halifax. No man ever drew 
greater crowds than he. So, too, he was in great demand at church 
openings and on common occasion. His name soon became 
familiar as a household word throughout the Maritime Provinces 
generally. 

In 1882 he gave a remarkable address to the students of Dal- 
housie College. His theme was two-fold, "Give thyself to reading, 
and give thyself to prayer." Learning and praying must ever be 
conjoined. The prayerless are always powerless. 

Dr. Sedgwick ran a good race, fought a good fight, and did a 
good work for his church on earth, and now he wears a bright 
crown full of stars, and sits on a glorious throne in the glory land, 
and we all, I trust, shall meet him by and by. 

"Still shines the light of holy lives 
Like starbeams over doubt ; 
Each sainted memory, Christ-like drives 
Some dark possession out." 

Let us all hold the great and good men and women of the past 
in everlasting remembrance. 

HON. SIR FREDERICK WILLIAM BORDEN. 

Hon. Sir Frederick William Borden, K. C, M. G., 1902. Knight 
of Grace, Order of St. John of Jerusalem 1902 : B. A., M. D., 
D. C. L., LL. D: P. C. (Canada) 1896; Minister of Militia defence, 
1896-1911. He was born May 14, 1847, an d is a son of Dr. J. and 
Maria F. Borden. He was first married in 1873, to Julia M. Clarke, 
who died in 1880. In 1884 he married Bessie B. Clarke. He has 
two daughters. He was educated in the University of King's Col- 
lege, Windsor, Nova Scotia, where he received the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts; later was graduated from Harvard University Medical 
School with the degree of Doctor of Medicine, at Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts. He began practicing medicine in 1868. He was ap- 
pointed assistant surgeon of the Sixty-eighth Battalion, Kings 
County Militia in 1869, now surgeon lieutenant-colonel and hon- 
orary colonel of the Canadian Army Medical Corps ; he was honorary 
Surgeon-General in the Imperial Army in 1911. He was first elec- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 169 

ted to the House of Commons in 1874; since then has represented 
same (Kings County, Nova Scotia) continuously to 1911, except 
during the years 1883 to 1886, having been elected ten times and 
defeated once. Recreations: Walking, fishing, music. Clubs: Rideau, 
Ottawa; Halifax, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Address: Canning, Nova 
Scotia. 

BISHOP CHARLES INGLIS. 

One of the great churchmen of Nova Scotia during a past gen- 
eration was Bishop Charles Inglis, a man who did much for the 
cause of religion here in the early days. His birth probably occurred 
in New York, in 1734. From 1755 to 1758 he conducted a free 
school at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and gained the good will of the 
neighbors who recommended him to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel. He came to England was ordained by the Bishop 
of London, and, returning to America, began work on the Dawn 
mission station, which then included the county of Kent, Delaware, 
July I, 1759. In 1765 he became assistant to Dr. Auchnutz, at 
Holy Trinity church, New York City, and catechist to the negroes. 
While there he took part in the controversy on the subject of the 
American episcopacy, advocating its foundation in a pamphlet, and 
being a member of the voluntary convocation which met May 21, 
1766. In conjunction with Sir William Johnson he actively assisted 
in evangelical work among the Mohawk Indians. The University 
of Oxford created him, by diploma, a Master of Arts, April 6, 1770, 
and a Doctor of Divinity, February 25, 1778. 

In 1776 when Washington obtained possession of New York, 
Dr. Inglis, as a Loyalist, retired to Long Island for a time, but 
Dr. Auchnutz died March 4,, 1777, and Dr. Inglis was chosen to 
succeed him in the benefice of Holy Trinity. The church had just 
been burnt down, and Dr. Inglis was inducted by Governor Tryon 
among the ruins. His loyalty to the English crown rendered him 
obnoxious to the new American government. His property was 
taken from him, and he appeared in the Act of Attainder in 1779. 
He resigned his living November I, 1783, and visited England. On 
August 12, 1787 he was consecrated first Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
thus becoming the first British colonial bishop. He proceeded to 
his diocese, and in 1809 was made a member of the Council of Nova 
Scotia. His record in this Province was a most useful and com- 
mendable one. His death occurred at Halifax, in 1816. 



170 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

He married Margaret Crooke, daughter of John Crooke, of 
Ulster County, New York, and to this union two daughters and one 
son were born. The son, John Inglis, also became a great church- 
man and was the third Bishop of Nova Scotia. He died in London 
in 1850. He was the father of Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis. 

JAMES HOWARD CAVANAGH. 

James Howard Cavanagh, the present postmaster of New Glas- 
gow, Nova Scotia, is a son of the late Thomas Cavanagh, merchant, 
of New Glasgow. His grandfather, James Cavanagh, was born in 
Sligo, Ireland, and came to Nova Scotia in 1820. He settled at 
Barneys River in the County of Pictou. Thomas Cavanagh married 
Isabel Culton of Riverton. Their family consisted of eight children, 
of whom James Howard was the third. He was born in New Glas- 
gow in December, 1857. He received hig education in the public 
schools, and in 1873 entered the employ of J. W. Jackson, druggist, 
of New Glasgow, with whom he served an apprenticeship for four 
years. He was employed for some time in the wholesale drug busi- 
ness in Halifax and then returned home to become a partner in Mr. 
Jackson's business, which was continued under the firm name of J. 
W. Jackson & Co. until 1895, when it was transferred to R. M. 
Jackson, the eldest son of the former proprietor who had died in 
1881. In 1896 J. H. Cavanagh was appointed to a place in the Cus- 
tom House, and on the death of William Eraser, postmaster at 
New Glasgow, in 1900, Mr. Cavanagh was appointed his successor. 
He has now held the position for sixteen years and has given satis- 
faction to the people and the postoffice department. 

Mr. Cavanagh was married in 1885 to Margaret Jean Mackay, 
a daughter of the late John Mackay, a well-known and respected 
citizen of New Glasgow and Pictou. The following are their chil- 
dren : Harry Cavanagh, civil engineer, educated at Dalhousie Uni- 
versity and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, had engineering 
experience with the Virginia Bridge and Iron Company, the Nova 
Scotia Steel and Coal Company, and was assistant to H. H. Lane, 
consulting engineer, in the erection of the Eastern Car Company's 
plant at Trenton, Nova Scotia. He enlisted in the Canadian Engi- 
neers and is now overseas as lieutenant in the first Canadian contin- 
gent. John Lorraine, the second son, is a mining engineer, edu- 
cated at Dalhousie University and the Nova Scotia Technical Col- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 1 71 

lege. He was employed at the Wabana Iron Mines for some years. 
When the European war broke out he returned to Halifax and 
enlisted in the Canadian Engineers. At present he has the rank of 
lieutenant and is employed as superintending engineer. In 1915 he 
married Lillian MacLean, daughter of Edward MacLean, Esq., of 
St. Johns, Newfoundland. Margaret Isabel, the eldest daughter of 
our subject, is a schol teacher in New Glasgow. She is a graduate 
of the Normal College. Christine M., the younger daughter, is 
attending school. 

Politically, Mr. Cavanagh is a Liberal. He served on the school 
board of his town for some years. He is a member of the Presby- 
terian church. 

ROBERT HUGH MACKAY. 

One of the enterprising men of Pictou county who has been an 
advocate of progress in all phases of life is Robert Hugh Mackay. 
Since progress at any legitimate sacrifice has been his watchword, he 
has achieved a somewhat unusual degree of success, but he began 
early to advance himself in his chosen arena of endeavor and has 
left no stone unturned whereby he might do so. 

Mr. Mackay was born at Riverton, Nova Scotia, June 30, 1868. 
He is a son of Daniel and Christy Ann (Robertson) Mackay, both 
of sterling New England stock, their ancestors having come to Amer- 
ica in Colonial days and subsequently established homes in Xova 
Scotia where they became well known and influential. The father 
of our subject died in 1871. 

Robert H. Mackay received his education in the public schools 
of Stellarton, Pictou County, and he has devoted his active life to 
business mercantile pursuits for the most part. He became presi- 
dent of the R. B. Mackay & Co., Ltd. of Westville, being the princi- 
pal factor in the growth and success of the business. He is a man 
of keen business foresight, sound judgment and persistency, and 
prompt and honest dealings have ever been his aim. 

Mr. Mackay was married on June 3, 1897, to Margaret Eraser, 
and to this union two children were born Donald Atherton Mackay 
and Helen Isabel Mackay. 

Politically, Mr. Mackay is a Liberal. He was mayor of West- 
ville in 1907. He was a candidate for the Nova Scotia Legislature 
in 1906 and was defeated by only seventy-two votes, but he was 



1 7 2 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



elected to this office on February 6, 1909, and was re-elected at the 
general election in 1911. He has discharged the duties of this im- 
portant office in a manner that has reflected much credit upon him- 
self and to the eminent satisfaction of all concerned, doing much for 
the general welfare of his district. 

In religious affairs he is a Presbyterian. 

JOHX JAMES GRANT. 

Xo matter what line of work one is engaged in he should strive 
to become an expert in it, which will not only result in better remune- 
ration, but a greater degree of satisfaction and pleasure all around. 
John James Grant, well known contractor and builder of New Glas- 
gow, Pictou County, realized these facts when starting out in life. 

Mr. Grant was torn at Little Harbour, Pictou County, in April, 
1852. He is a son of Joseph and Amelia (McNeill) Grant, the latter 
a sister of Robert McNeill, who was warden of Pictou County for 
a number of years. The father was born at Little Harbour, Nova 
Scotia, and was a son of Peter Grant, a native of Scotland, who was 
a soldier in the Britsh army, who located in Little Harbour, this 
Province, after he was honorably discharged from his regiment. He 
spent the balance of his life on the farm, living to a ripe old age. He 
finally divided the farm l>etween his two sons, John and Joseph 
Grant, and they continued to reside on these farms, both raising 
families and living to be over eighty years of age. There were 
thirteen children in Joseph Grant's family, of which the subject of 
this sketch was the eldest. 

John J. Grant, of this sketch, grew up on the home farm and 
he received his education in the public schools of his native com- 
munity. When twenty-one years of age he went to Boston and 
learned the carpenter's trade, remaining there several years, then 
returned to Nova Scotia, locating at New Glasgow where he has 
since resided and has been actively and successfully engaged as a 
contractor and builder. 

Mr. Grant was married in 1878 to Elmira Forbes of New Glas- 
gow, a daughter of James Forbes, a carpenter and builder there. To 
this union the following children have been born: Herbert, born 
in New Glasgow, June 8, 1879, attended the public schools of his 
native city, being graduated from the high school here, then took a 
course in the Commercial College at Belleville, Ontario, after which 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 173 

he joined his father in the contracting and building business in which 
he has since been engaged. He married in October, 1907, Clara 
Smith, a native of New Glasgow, and a daughter of John R. Smith, 
a merchant of that place for many years, and to their union two chil- 
dren have been born Herbert Forbes Grant, and Charles John 
Grant. Emily Grant, our subject's second child, is now the widow 
of Orien Shaw; William Grant is making his home in Winnipeg, 
Manitoba; 'George Grant married Mable Blue, a daughter of the 
manager of the Spring Hill miles, and young Grant is now in busi- 
ness with his father and brother. Herbert Grant, Sr. , was elected 
to the city council in 1915, and he served as president of the board 
of trade for two years. 

John J. Grant was elected to the town council in the early eighties 
and served six years in that capacity, doing much the meanwhile 
for the general welfare of New Glasgow. Later he was elected and 
reelected mayor, serving two terms with much satisfaction to all 
concerned and credit to himself. He has erected many of the best 
public, business and private) residences in New Glasgow, including 
the Bank of Nova Scotia, the Chamber's brick and stone block, the 
woolen mills in Oxford, the stations on the Midland Railroad, the 
plant for the Standard Clay Works, and the plant for the Canada 
Tool & Specialty Company, the dormitory for the St. Francis Xavier 
College at Antigonish, and a great number of less important build- 
ings and residences. His work has always given satisfaction because 
it has been well and honestly done. 

JOHN BELL, M. D. 

When Dr. John Bell, of New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, decided to 
enter the medical profession, he determined to reach the highest rank 
possible, and thus he has labored diligently and conscientiously to this 
end, with the result that he now stands in the front rank of his pro- 
fessional brethren. He was born in the above named town on Jan- 
uary 5, 1876, and is a son of the Hon. Adam Carr Bell, merchant and 
legislator of that place, who was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, No- 
vember ii, 1847, and is the son of Basil H. and Mary (Carr) Bell, 
the former a native of Haddingtonshire, Scotland, and the latter 
was the oldest daughter of Adam Carr, of Albion Mines, Nova Sco- 
tia. The Doctor's father was educated at New Glasgow, the Sack- 
ville Academy, and Glasgow University. In September, 1873, he 



174 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

married Anna Henderson, a daughter of John Henderson of Albion 
Mines. For many years Adam C. Bell engaged in the mercantile 
business in New Glasgow, but retired from active life in 1912. He 
served as school commissioner, warden and mayor of New Glasgow. 
He is a Conservative, and sat in that interest for Pictou County 
(Local), from 1878 to 1886. He was Provincial secretary during 
the Thompson administration, in 1882, and local leader of the oppo- 
sition from 1882 to 1887. He unsuccessfully contested Pictou 
County for the House of Commons, at the general election in 1891, 
and the same county (Local) in 1904. He sat for that county in 
the House of Commons from 1896 to 1904, when he was defeated. 
He is an honorary member of the North British Society of Halifax, 
and president of the New Glasgow Literary and Historical Society. 
He is a writer of much ability and force, and is author of "A Specu- 
lative View of Canadian Free Trade," a lecture delivered in 1892, 
and of "Canada and the Chamberlain Movement," in 1903. He 
favors imperial federation. He became a senator (Duke of Con- 
naught), in October. 1911. Religiously, he is a Presbyterian. It 
has been well said of him that he is a man who studies public ques- 
tions as he studies his business problems, and who has been steadily 
coming forward into the front rank of parliamentarians. 

Basil Bell, the Doctor's grandfather, was a native of Hadding- 
tonshire, Scotland, in which country he grew to manhood and re- 
ceived a classical education, and finally came to Nova Scotia. He 
was one of the eminent scholars here in his day and generation, hav- 
ing become familiar with such subjects as chemistry, Greek, etc. 
He was regarded as one of the greatest Greek scholars of his time 
and during his later life his favorite reading was the Greek classics. 
He spent a short time in Prince Edward Island teaching, and then 
became the teacher of classics in Pictou Academy during Dr. Mc- 
Cullock's time. His wife's father, Adam Carr, was one of the 
earliest mining men in Nova Scotia. In 1827 he built a railroad to 
the river. This was the earliest railroad in Canada and was run 
by horse power. Adam Carr, the maternal great-grandfather, en- 
gaged in ship building for a number of years. His death occurred 
in the city of Halifax when about fifty years old. He built the 
substantial stone house at New Glasgow in which his descendants 
still reside. The grandfather of our subject removed to Albion 
Mines, where he opened a book store and another in New Glasgow, 
later, in 1847, added a drug business, which he continued to conduct 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

the rest of his life. Grandmother Bell, ncc Carr, was also a drug- 
gist, and she conducted the drug store in New Glasgow, her hus- 
band then giving his attention, to the book store, continuing both 
stores at Albion Mines and New Glasgow. They were the parents 
of three children, namely : Mary, who married Dr. William Eraser ; 
Adam Carr, and John. Shortly after the birth of the Doctor's 
father the family removed from Pictou to New Glasgow. The 
father, Adam Carr Bell, studied chemistry at Apothecary's Hall, 
Glasgow, Scotland, and after his return to Nova Scotia he gave his 
attention to the drug business, later taking over the business which 
his parents had established in New Glasgow. 

CUTHBERT S. TROTTER. 

One of the younger business men of New Glasgow, Pictou 
County, who is evidently a man of individual ideas is Cuthbert S. 
Trotter. He is manager of Standard Clay Products, Limited, at 
New Glasgow and seems to possess those qualities which make for 
success, such attributes as zeal, candor, honesty of purpose, coupled 
with a naturally optimistic temperament, which has been stimulated 
by actual observation. 

He was born at Montreal, Canada, May 4, 1880, and is a son 
of Wallace C. and Kate M. (Evans) Trotter, both natives of Eng- 
land, the father born in Gloucestershire and the mother in Liver- 
pool. H. Sugden Evans, the maternal grandfather, was for mam- 
years analytical chemist for the Dominion Government, and was so 
employed at the time of his death. He had been educated in science 
in London, England and was a partner in the firm of Evans Sons 
& Company, Chemical Manufacturers, etc., prior to his coming to 
North America. The father of our subject was a young man when 
he came to Canada, and was in the warehousing business, in Mon- 
treal prior to starting the Clay Products Company, in 1884 and 
which he has since conducted successfully, being president of the 
company and general manager. The Standard Clay Products Com- 
pany, Limited, has works also in St. John's, Quebec, No. i plant 
being located there and No. 2 and No. 3 plants at New Glasgow. 

They manufacture sewer pipe from four inches to thirty inches 
diameter, building blocks, chimney tops and flue linings, etc. The 
works are conveniently located in the south end of New Glasgow, 
within the city limits. When working at full capacity about three 
hundred men are employed. The company has railroad connections 



176 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

with the Intercolonial road. The products of this great plant are 
sold over the Maritime Provinces and Quebec, finding a very ready 
market owing to their superior quality and workmanship. 

Cuthbert S. Trotter was married on October 19, 1904, to Jean 
Creelman, of Maitland, Hants County, a daughter of F. S. Creel- 
man, M.D., a respected citizen of that place. To this union two 
children have been born Wallace S., and Catherine. 

Politically Mr. Trotter is a Conservative. He takes an active 
interest in outdoor sports, especially curling. 

HENRY S. MACKAY. 

By the judicious exercise of the talents with which nature en- 
dowed him Henry S. MacKay, well known barrister of Westville, 
Pictou County, has surmounted unfavorable environment and rose 
to the position he now occupies as one of the leading lawyers and 
influential men of the locality honored by his citizenship, having 
been true and loyal in all the relations of life, standing as a type of 
that sterling manhood which ever commands respect and honor. 

Mr. MacKay was born at River John, Pictou County, March 
13, 1871. He is a son of George and Jennie (McLean) MacKay, 
the father a native of Earltown, Colchester County, and the mother 
was born at Scotsburn, Pictou County. Donald MacKay, the grand- 
father, was a native of Scotland. He and his wife, Christina Mac- 
Kay, grew up in Scotland, where they were married, and finally came 
to Xova Scotia, locating at Earltown, where they spent the rest of 
their lives, the grandfather dying there at an advanced age, after 
engaging in farming in the vicinity of Earltown. When a young 
man the father of our subject, who spent his boyhood on the home 
farm in Colchester County, went West and followed gold mining 
in Colorado for some time, meeting with some success. Returning 
to Xova Scotia he located at River John, where he engaged in farm- 
ing and storekeeping, but finally moved to Westville. His family 
consisted of three children. 

Henry S. MacKay was the oldest of the family. He was four 
years old when he removed with his parents to Westville, where he 
attended the public schools. When a boy he began working for 
the Intercolonial Coal Mining Company, Ltd., and was employed in 
the office of the Black Diamond Company. After passing through 
the public schools and Pictou Academy he entered Dalhousie Uni- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 177 

versity, graduating from the law department, with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws in 1899, and was admitted to the bar in April of 
that year. During his term at Dalhousie he was articled with Sir 
Robert L. Borden, now Prime Minister of Canada. Returning to 
Westville our subject began the practice of his profession, which he 
has continued here for a period of sixteen years with increasing 
success, enjoying a large and important clientage all the while. 

Politically, he is a Liberal Conservative. He takes an active 
part in public affairs. He has been "town solicitor" for the town 
of Westville, and the town of Stellarton for several years, and is 
also solicitor for the Bank of Nova Scotia at Westville. He is a 
prominent member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and 
member, also of the North British Society, Halifax. 

ROBERT MCLEAN BENVIE, M. D. 

Knowing at the outset that the medical profession was vast in 
its scope and that success in the same required years of careful 
preparation, Dr. Robert McLean Benvie of Stellarton, Pictou County, 
has been a diligent student, in fact, has left no stone unturned 
whereby he might advance himself in his chosen vocation. As a 
result success is attending his efforts. 

Dr. Benvie was born at Salt Springs, Pictou County, March n, 
1879. He is a son of Eben and Margaret (McLean) Benvie, the 
father a native of Musquodoboit, Halifax County, and the mother 
of Salt Springs, this Province. Andrew Benvie, the grandfather, 
was born at Musquodoboit, Nova Soctia. His father, James Ben- 
vie, was a native of Scotland, where he spent his earlier years. He 
was a soldier in the British army and he came to Nova Scotia with 
his regiment. At the expiration of his term of service in the same 
he located in Musquodoboit Valley where he served as captain of 
militia and also as a justice of the peace. He was a man of con- 
siderable education. Some of his writings are still in existence, 
having the appearance of copper plate engraving. He operated a 
good farm in the section mentioned above for many years. Robert 
McLean, the maternal grandfather, was one of the early settlers at 
Salt Springs, Pictou County. Andrew Benvie, the paternal grand- 
father, bought a farm at Salt Springs where he passed the balance 
of his life, living to be about seventy years of age. He married 
Hannah Laws, a native of England. The father of our subject got 

(12) 



178 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

a portion of the homestead and by purchase added to it and he still 
lives there, engaged in farming and stock raising. He is also a 
carpenter by trade, which he still follows to some extent, working 
in various parts of the county. His family consists of four sons, 
Robert M. of this sketch being the third in order of birth. 

Dr. Benvie grew to manhood on the home farm where he assisted 
with the general work when a boy and he received his primary edu- 
cation in the public schools at Salt Springs, then entered Pictou 
Academy, where he was the winner of the gold medal at the expira- 
tion of his four years' course, for the highest percentage 1446; 
that year his was the highest average made in any academy in the 
Province, in the sciences. 

After leaving the academy he began teaching, which he followed 
five years with much success. For some time he was principal of 
the schools of Thorburn, also at Pughwash. But deciding that the 
medical profession held greater inducements, he abandoned the 
school room and went to Montreal where he entered McGill Uni- 
versity, and, as in his academic course, he won honors in that insti- 
tution, securing the Holmes gold medal in 1907 for the highest 
average during his four years' course. He also won the Wood gold 
medal for the best clinical examination, and he tied for the Wood- 
ruff gold medal for eye, ear, nose and throat examination. These 
facts speak for themselves, for such a record is rare and indicates 
that our subject is not only a man of rare natural gifts but that he 
is diligent and painstaking. Owing to the fact that he made the 
highest average grades he was entitled to a two years' course in the 
Royal Victoria Hospital. This proved to be an excellent experience 
for him. Thus exceptionally \\tell equipped for his professional 
duties, lie went to northern Ontario and spent three months as sur- 
geon for the Canadian Pacific Railroad Company. He then came 
to Westville, Nova Scotia, where he also spent three months, then 
opened an office in Stellarton, taking over the practice of Dr. H. R. 
Munro, decased. He has been very successful from the first and 
has built up a large and lucrative practice. 

Dr. Benvie was married September 10, 1912, to Mary Murray 
of Stellarton, Pictou County. She is a daughter of James R. Mur- 
ray, deceased. Mrs. Benvie received excellent educational advan- 
tages. After passing through the public schools she entered the 
Ladies College at Halifax, from which institution she was graduated 
in music, having specialized on the violin. She was also a student 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 179 

at the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, Massachusetts. 
She comes of a musical family and has decided natural talent. Both 
her father and uncle were violinists of note. 

One son, Robert Murray Benvie, has been born to our subject 
and wife. 

Politically Dr. Benvie is a Liberal. 

REV. WILLIAM BERNARD MAcDONALD. 

We find in our imperfect and brief contemplation of William 
Bernard MacDonald, parish priest of Stellarton, Pictou County 
who, while perhaps he does not possess what is called the "enthus- 
iasm of humanity" has a keen sense of the humaness of human 
beings; enjoys an undisplayed pleasure, at times, in observing and 
meditating upon, and taking a curious and peculiar interest in his 
fellow creatures, noting, peradventure more fully points of difference, 
than of unity of sameness, but arriving at the tender conclusion that 
they are our fellow creatures after all. 

Father MacDonald was born at West Merigomish, Pictou County, 
Nova Scotia, April 15, 1849. He is a son of Angus and Eunice 
(MacLeod) MacDonald, the father born at the town of West Meri- 
gomish, and the mother at Knoydart, Antigonish County. Donald 
MacDonald, the grandfather, was also born at West Merigomish, in 
which place his wife, Jeannette Grant, first saw the light of day, 
and there they grew up amid a pioneer environment and were mar- 
ried, establishing the future home of the family there; their parents 
were among the earliest settlers in that part of the Province. Angus 
MacDonald, the great grandfather, was a native of Lochaber, Scot- 
land. He was a soldier in the British army, under Capt. John Mac- 
Donald and took part in the siege of Quebec, after which his regi- 
ment was disbanded. He received two grants of land. He was a 
cousin of Capt. John MacDonald. His grant at Merigomish con- 
tained over one thousand acres, his other grant was at Arisaig, Anti- 
gonish County, being known as the Wentworth grant. He devoted 
the rest of his life developing and farming his lands here, dying at 
an advanced age. His four sons became fathers of thirty-two sons 
and eighteen daughters. Twenty-eight of these sons would average 
between seventy-two and seventy-three inches in height. The family 
was known as the "big MacDonalds." They were active and in- 
fluential in their communities. They engaged principally in lum- 
bering. 



l8o HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Angus MacDonald, father of the subject of this sketch, grew 
to manhood in his native community, where he attended school and 
was married and he engaged in lumbering and ship building, also 
farming and he was successful in each line of endeavor. He lived 
to be eighty-nine years of age. He was a man of excellent char- 
acter. His family consisted of four sons and three daughters, of 
whom William Bernard of this review was fifth in order of birth. 

Father MacDonald received his early education in the district 
schools of the Pictou Academy, after which he studied at St. Francis 
Xavier College at Antigonish, then entered Lavel University, from 
which he was graduated in 1876, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Divinity. He had m?de an excellent record in the theological de- 
partment of that institution. 

After leaving college he came to Pictou County, near Stellarton 
and built the Village Lourdes, where he has since remained. From a 
small shed-like structure in which he began holding services, he has 
built up the congregation and the work until they are now worship- 
ing in a handsome and substantial church. He has also built a fine 
Glebe house, convent, school and hall for the use of the parish, also 
a sanitarium for consumptives, which was built in 1911, and is 
modern in every detail, and here an excellent work is being done. 
This parish extends to Pictou Harbour and includes Stellarton. Our 
subject was the first parish priest in this parish. After having been 
in the parish about eight years he bought the land now contained 
in the Village of Lourdes, which he laid out in building lots, and 
has erected over forty houses there, selling lots and houses on easy 
payments, enabling families of moderate means to own their homes. 
Others have emulated his example, adopting the same system. Many 
now enjoy their own homes, who always before paid rent. 

GEORGE GRAY. 

There is something essentially Canadian in the life and character 
of George Gray of the Acadia Coal Company, Limited, of Stellar- 
ton, Nova Scotia. In Nova Scotia rare opportunities have existed 
from the first to men of courage, honesty of purpose, integrity and 
industry, to achieve success. The majority of our public men and 
those who have legitimately achieved fortune have been men of the 
above characteristics, and Mr. Gray is essentially one of that stamp, 
however he has never risen to the ranks of the wealthy or to high 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. l8l 

public positions; but he has sought to do his duty as a citizen in 
every respect. 

Mr. Gray was born in Stellarton, Pictou County, this Province, 
on September 30, 1860. He is a son of Donald and Margaret 
(Purvis) Gray, both natives of Nova Scotia, the father was born 
at Hopewell, December 27, 1823, and the mother's birth occurred 
at Plymouth, October 13, 1825. The paternal grandfather, Daniel 
Gray, emigrated from Bulie, Inverness, Scotland, in June, 1801, 
settling for a short time in Colchester County, but finally moved to 
Pictou County, locating in Milltown (now known as Hopewell). 
There he engaged in farming. He was a millwright by trade and 
he erected a mill at that place, and in connection with farming op- 
erated one of the first flouring mills in Pictou County. Several 
years later he added a woolen-mill and a saw-mill. These mills were 
all operated by water power from falls on his own farm. He was 
a success and became one of the substantial and influential men of 
his community. He and a number of his neighbors were drafted 
for garrison duty at Halifax during the War of 1812, and remained 
there from October until April the following year. Donald Gray, 
father of the subject of this sketch, engaged in school teaching for 
a number of years in his native village, after which he removed to 
Stellarton in the year 1841, where he was employed as chief clerk 
in the company's store, which position he occupied for nine years. 
Later he went into business for himself, in which he continued until 
1891, when the town, being incorporated, selected him as town clerk 
and stipendiary magistrate, which position he occupied until 1908, 
when, owing to the infirmities of old age, he retired, although he 
continued to take an active interest in public affairs until his death, 
which occurred on December 26, 1912. He was an excellent Gaelic 
scholar and for many years contributed interesting articles to a 
Gaelic newspaper published in Sydney, Cape Breton, and his articles 
were much enjoyed by its readers. His wife preceded him to the 
grave many years, dying on January 9, 1889. They were the parents 
of the following children: Mrs. John M. Dunbar of Hopewell; 
Mary and George, the subject of this sketch. 

George Gray was educated in the high school at Stellarton, and 
was temporaily employed at accounting work until 1883, when he 
entered the employ of the Halifax Company, on November 2gth of 
that year, and continued in their service until the amalgamation of 
that company with the Acadia and Vale, which was consummated in 



l82 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

1886, at which time he was promoted to a position in the amalgamated 
company, in whose employ he continued, occupying various positions, 
until today he is the assistant manager and general sales agent of 
the Acadia Coal Company, Limited, and is giving high-grade, faith- 
ful and satisfactory service. 

Mr. Gray makes his home in Stellarton, Pictou County, and has 
long been active in the development of the town, whose interests he 
has ever had at heart. He was elected town councillor in 1903, and 
he served as mayor from 1904 until 1906, inclusive, during which 
period he did much for the general welfare of the community. 

On November 21, 1900 Mr. Gray was united in marriage to 
Minnie MacKay, daughter of the late George MacKay of Pictou. 

He is a Liberal in politics and a Presbyterian in faith. 

JAMES H. WILSON. 

James H. Wilson, an insurance agent at New Glasgow, Pictou 
County, is a man who, no doubt, would have won his way in any 
locality where fate might have placed him, for he has sound judg- 
ment, coupled with energy and business tact, together with upright 
principles, all of which have ever made for success wherever they 
have been rightly and persistently applied. 

Mr. Wilson was born at St. John, New Brunswick, October 19, 
1875. He is a son of James and Isabel (Roland) Wilson, both 
natives of Scotland, in which country the grandfather, John Wilson, 
was also born, and there he spent his entire life. The parents of our 
subject spent their childhood in their native land and there received 
their educations. When a young man the father came to Canada, 
locating in St. John, New Brusnwick, where he engaged in the stove 
and tinware business, removed to St. Stephen in 1880, where he 
continued in the same line of business until his death in 1914. He 
was always regarded as an excellent citizen. 

James H. Wilson, oldest of James Wilson's sons, spent his boy- 
hood in St. Stephen, and was educated in the public schools, then 
served his time as a printer in the office of the Courier at St. Stephen, 
after which he came to Cape Breton, spending a year in Hawkes- 
bury, then went to Amherst, spending several months as foreman 
on the Nezvs, in 1895, after which he came to New Glasgow and 
engaged in the printing business on his own account, conducting 
with success a job printing plant until 1905, when he sold out and 
managed the Pictou Standard for one year. He then went to 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 183 

Winnipeg, Manitoba and traveled for the famous house of Miller 
& Richard of Edinburgh, Scotland, type-founders. Mr. Wilson 
covered the territory from Winnipeg to the Pacific coast, giving his 
firm entire satisfaction. Returning to New Glasgow in the autumn 
of 1905 he became manager of the Standard, which had been removed 
to New Glasgow. He reorganized the plant and placed it on an 
excellent business basis. In February, 1910, he gave up the news- 
paper business and turned his attention to insurance, in which he has 
since been engaged with ever-increasing success. He represents the 
National Assurance Company of Canada and is supervisor of 
agencies of the Maritime Provinces. He was sent by his company 
to Vancouver in the spring of 1911 as provincial manager, remain- 
ing there one year. In addition he has a large guarantee, accident, 
liability and fire insurance business. 

Mr. Wilson was married December 21, 1896 to Nellie Wolfe of 
New Glasgow. She is a daughter of the late Harry Wolfe, an old 
resident of Pictou and New Glasgow and who for many years suc- 
cessfully engaged in the insurance business. 

One child has been born to our subject and wife, Marjorie Roland 
Wilson. 

Politically, he is a Conservative. He belongs to the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and to the Presbyterian church. 

CONNELL EDWARD A VERY DE WITT, B. A., M. D., C. M. 

The medical profession of Kings County has no abler exponent 
among its members than Dr. Council Edward Avery de Witt of 
Wolfville, universally liked by all with whom he comes in contact. 
His friends feel deservedly proud of his success in his profession, for 
he has studied hard, worked diligently and been self-sacrificing when 
there was need, and, judging from his past experience and success, 
the future holds much of promise for him. 

Dr. de Witt was born at Chester, Lunenburg County, Nova 
Scotia, February 20, 1882. 

Dr. de Witt received his early education in the public schools 
of Halifax and Wolfville, then entered the Acadia Collegiate 
Academy, subsequently studying at Acadia University, from which 
institution he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts 
in 1904. He then entered McGill University, at Montreal, and was 
graduated from the medical department in 1909. In order to fur- 
ther equip himself for the successful practice of his profession he 



184 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

went to Switzerland and studied surgery at the University of Berne, 
later studying in the Medical University of Munich, also spent some 
time in Heidelberg, Leipsic and Berlin, in all of which he added to 
his professional knowledge. Thus exceptionally well equipped for 
his chosen life work he returned to Nova Scotia in the fall of 1910 
and began the practice of his profession at Wolfville, where he has 
since remained, enjoying a large practice and taking a position in 
the front rank of the medical men of Kings County. He has been 
very successful Ixith as a surgeon and general practitioner. 

Dr. de Witt was married June 29, 1909, to Florence U. Hard- 
ing, a daughter of Chprles Harding, formerly of St. John, now of 
Montreal. Mrs. de Witt was given excellent educational advantages. 
To our subject and wife three children have been born: Frances 
Maie, Elizabeth Connell, and Ruth Harding (deceased). 

Dr. de Witt is a member of the Canadian Medical Association, 
also of the Valley Medical Society. He is a member of the Alpha 
Kappa Kappa fraternity. Politically, he is a Conservative; and 
religiously, a Baptist. While in college he took much interest in 
athletics, playing in nearly all the clubs. 

HENRY MITCHELL. 

Although never a man of great wealth or a holder of high and 
important public trusts Henry Mitchell, a venerable and honored 
citizen of Dominion, Nova Scotia, is a man whose record shows that 
he is the possessor of the traits of character that men must have if 
they achieve much success in any field of human endeavor. He has 
been one of the best known figures in the mining world of this 
Province for many decades, and although now in his ninetieth year 
he is the possessor of strong mental and physical endowments, as a 
result of honest, careful and abstemious living. 

Mr. Mitchell was born at Kieghley, Yorkshire, England, Feb- 
ruary 1 6, 1826, and is a son of James Mitchell who was born at 
Kilmarnock, Scotland, who was a soldier in the service as a recruit- 
ing sergeant for the Scots Greys Regiment. The mother of our 
subject was known in her maidenhood as Martha Driver, and was 
born at Kieghley, Yorkshire, England. James Mitchell with his 
wife and family of nine sons and one daughter, sailed from Liver- 
pool, England in the small brig Henrietta, which was loaded with 
rails and blasting powder, consigned to the General Mining Asso- 
ciation, which was then operating the Sydney mines and the Bridge- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 185 

port coal fields. The vessel landed at North Sydney, Cape Breton. 
From there the Mitchell's went to Lingan where they crossed the bar 
and settled in Bridgeport, James Mitchell managing the mines there 
for a number of years. 

Henry Mitchell commenced work in the pit at the early age of 
twelve years, later working in the Sydney mines pits. He left Cape 
Breton when about sixteen years old and worked in a number of the 
soft and hard coal mines of Pennsylvania. He returned to Cape 
Breton where he married Mary Ann Boutilier, a daughter of John 
Peter and Elizabeth Boutilier, who had migrated from Margaret's 
Bay in Halifax County in 1820, settling in what is still known as 
Old Bridgeport. Our subject was married in old St. George's 
church at Sydney, by the Rev. Charles Inglis. This marriage re- 
sulted in the birth of twelve children, all now living but three, namely : 
James, Elizabeth and Maryann. James was the eldest ; John 
Charles, Elizabeth and Grace were all torn in Pennsylvania ; Martha, 
Thomas, Maryann, Henry, James the second, Frederick, Ellen and 
Newton B. were born in Cape Breton. 

Henry Mitchell returned with his family to Cape Breton in 1854. 
During his residence in Pennsylvania in 1850 and 1852 he made 
two trips to California, accompanied by his brothers William and 
James, making both journeys across the isthmus of Panama on foot. 
They engaged in prospecting and gold digging in the West, and al- 
though they made no rich strike they nevertheless accumulated a 
goodly store of nuggets and gold dust. He tells many interesting 
incidents of his trips to the far West and experiences in the famous 
gold fields. In 1858 he became associated with the late Edward P. 
Archbold in opening and developing the Glace Bay coal areas and 
the harbor adjacent thereto, commencing operations at what was 
known as the Burnt mines and which is now the location of the 
Dominion Coal Company's largest producer, the No. 2 Colliery. 
Owing to lack of shipping facilities operations were soon transferred 
to what is known as the Hub Seam and later the Harbor Seam was 
opened and worked to considerable extent. This was followed by 
the opening of what is known as the Sterling pit on the latter seam. 
After twenty-six years of continuous work in Glace Bay Mr. Mitchell 
removed to Old Bridgeport where, with the late Newton L. McKay 
of Sydney, he leased from the General Mining Association, Limited, 
the old Bridgeport areas, the site of his first efforts in coal mining. 
He reopened the old shaft and workings, and after the death of his 



1 86 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

partner, who was with him but one year, he continued to develop this 
property successfully for ten years, selling his interests there in 1895 
to the International Coal Company of Montreal, which was at that 
time operating the International Mines of Bridgeport, and that con- 
cern almost immediately transferred its whole property to the Domin- 
ion Coal Company, then being organized, and which now operates 
its No. i Colliery there. 

After retiring from active business, in which he had been very 
successful from a financial standpoint, Mr. Mitchell, in 1896, ac- 
cepted a position as examiner on the Provincial Board of Mining 
Examiners, which he held for several years, or until the reorganiza- 
tion of the same. He was also a member of the Provincial Com- 
mission, appointed to examine into the cause of the explosion and 
fires in the Ford pits in Pictou County. He also held the office of 
commissioner of pilots for Glace Bay. He was a member of the 
Board of Sessions for Cape Breton County and later served as muni- 
cipal councillor for District No. n. He is a Liberal in politics and 
is a firm advocate of reciprocity in trade or tariffs. He is a mem- 
ber of the Church of England. He is a true and loyal British 
Canadian. 

ROBERT MACLELLAN, LL. D. 

Of Dr. Maclellan, principal of Pictou Academy, the following 
brief biography is extracted from "Pictonians at Home and Abroad" : 

"He is the second son of the late John Maclellan, Esq., of Dur- 
ham. His early education was secured at the Grammar School, Dur- 
ham, and at Pictou Academy. He entered Dalhousie University in 
1870; and led his classes in Mathematics and English, and divided 
honors in Classics. He married Martha M. Eraser. He took charge 
of the Preparatory Department of Pictou Academy in 1873; was 
appointed English and Classical Master in 1877; Government In- 
spector of Schools for Pictou and South Colchester in 1883. He 
was called to the Principalship of Pictou Academy in 1889, on the 
retirement of Dr. A. H. Mackay to become Superintendent of Edu- 
cation for Nova Scotia. He has now completed his twenty-fifth 
year of service as Principal one-fourth of the whole lifetime of the 
Academy. In addition, he taught Classics as a colleague of Dr. 
Mackay for six years. 

"In 1908, the Senate of Dalhousie University conferred on him 
the honorary degree of LL. D. In presenting him, Professor Mur- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 187 

ray, Dean of the Senate, said: Tictou Academy has been singu- 
larly fortunate in having at its head a long line of men who have 
earned distinction both as teachers and leaders in the educational 
world; and, among these, our distinguished alumnus, Robert Mac- 
lellan, holds high and honorable place. In recognition of the high 
character of his work as a teacher, and of the eminent success of 
his Principalship, I ask you, Mr. President, in the name of the 
Senate of the University, to confer the degree of Doctor of Laws. 
honoris causa, on Robert Maclellan.' ' 

The richly deserved honoring of Principal Maclellan by the sen- 
ate of Dalhousie University was the occasion of a spontaneous out- 
burst of gratitude and affection from his former students and asso- 
ciates, in all parts of the world. Letters and telegrams of congratu- 
lation and appreciation, accompanied by handsome and substantial 
tetsimonials were showered upon him. To say that Dr. Maclellan 
has won the abiding respect of all students of Pictou Academy dur- 
ing his term of principalship. and the sincere affection of most, 
would be well within the mark. His influence for good has been of 
incalcuable value to his native county and Province. Courtesy, truth 
and sterling manliness have been the guiding principles of his personal 
life as well as of his teaching. He has respected, trusted and in- 
spired his students. They have duly responded, as young people 
always do, to such leadership. Generations yet unborn will have 
profound cause for thankfulness that such an accomplished, able, 
honorable, and genuinely sympathetic gentleman as Robert Maclellan 
so long occupied such a vitally important post as that of head of so 
far-reaching a source of inspiration as the splendid old Pictou 
Academy, of which he has now been Principal for more than a fourth 
of its existence. 

MURDOCK DANIEL MORRISON. M. D. 

From the life record of Dr. Murdock Daniel Morrison, physician 
at Dominion, Cape Breton, many useful lessons may be gleaned by 
the youth starting out on the road to success in professional life, 
for he has been a man who believed in the wise saying of an old 
philosopher, "Lose no time in getting off the wrong road as soon as 
you discover that you are traveling it." He has not only made a 
success in his chosen line of endeavor, but has also been a good 
citizen. 

Dr. Morrison was born at Englishtown, Victoria County, Nova 



1 88 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Scotia, April 8, 1868. He is a son of Neil and Margaret Morrison. 
The father was born at Harris, Scotland in 1828, and the mother 
was born at Bras d'Or in 1838. 

Dr. Morrison grew up in his native community and received his 
education in the public schools at Englishtown and at the Sydney 
Academy ; then attended Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New 
York City, also took a course at Edinburgh University, in Scotland. 
In his earlier days he taught school for five years. He practiced 
medicine for two years at Reserve Mines with Dr. McKay, later a 
Senator. Since 1897 he has been located at Dominion, where No. i 
Colliery of the Dominion Coal Company is located, and he has built 
up a large and successful practice. He is a member of the medical 
and surgical staff of St. Joseph's Hospital and of the Glace Bay 
General Hospital. 

Dr. Morrison was married on Decemljer 20, 1899 to Katie Mac- 
donald. a daughter of Xorman MacDonald, Esq., and Margaret (Mar- 
tin) MacDonald of Sydney, Nova Scotia. 

To the Doctor and wife three children have been born, namely: 
Mabel Margaret. Clarence Norman, and Frances Willard. 

Politically, Dr. Morrison is a Liberal. He has been school com- 
missioner at Dominion for the past eight years during which he has 
done much to encourage better schools there. He is now town 
health officer. Religiously, he is /a P'resbyterian. Fraternally, "he 
belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and he is a mem- 
ber of the Canadian Medical Society. His hobby is literature, and 
he can discuss the classical authors with the same avidity as medicine. 

JAMES RONALD McNEIL. 

That James Ronald McNeil of Glace Bay, Cape Breton County, 
has tried to do his work honestly and well is indicated by the fact 
that he is now a collier manager of the No. 1 1 Mine. Such positions 
are not entrusted to careless, disloyal or inefficient employees. 

Mr. McNeil was born in Benacadie, Nova Scotia, November 4, 
1878. He is a son of Ronald and Sarah McNeil of Benacadie, Cape 
Breton County. Malcolm McNeil, the grandfather, lived at Barney's 
Rivfr, Pictou County; and James McNeil, the maternal grandfather, 
livei in Cape Breton County. Malcolm McNeil married Catherine 
McDonald, a daughter of Major General McDonald, who came to 
Halifax at an early date and later retired and removed to Bartibogue 
River, near Chatham, New Brunswick, where he received a grant of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 189 

land, and there he erected a commodious residence in which he spent 
the rest of his life. Grandfather McNeil followed lumbering. He 
was at Miramichi at the time of the big fire in 1825. He was in 
control of the lumbering business conducted by the Cunards at that 
point. He lived to the unusual age of one hundred and two years. 
He spent the latter years of his life at Benacadie, Cape Breton 
County, where the father of our subject is still residing, now en- 
gaged in farming. 

James R. McNeil was the oldest of three children. After his 
school days he started driving a horse at the Caledonia Mine at 
Glace Bay, later became a miner, and in 1906 he was made under- 
ground foreman Dominion at No. i Mine, and in 1909 was promoted 
to underground manager, and in 1913 he was made manager of No. 
ii Colliery, which position he still holds. He is regarded as one of 
the most efficient and trustworthy employees of the company and 
has always done his work in a conscientious manner. 

Mr. McNeil was married in 1907 to Mary Ann Farrell of Bena- 
cadie, Nova Scotia. She is a daughter of Hugh Farrell and wife. 
To this union three children have been born, namely: Sadie, Mary 
and Catherine. 

Fraternally, Mr. McNeil is a member of the Knights of Colum- 
bus. He was reared in the Catholic church from which faith he 
has not departed. 

REV. JAMES MCGREGOR. 

Perhaps no one man did more to establish the Presbyterian 
church in Nova Scotia than Rev. James McGregor of Pictou, who 
was also a great friend of education. He was a man of decided 
scholarship and marked ability, who was firmly convinced that edu- 
cation necessarily went hand in hand with morality and civilization. 
He was known to all as a man of rare natural ability, and he had 
enjoyed the benefits of a thorough college training, and was an excel- 
lent scholar. He was the first minister in Pictou County, and from 
the beginning of his work he made the establishment of schools and 
the education of the people second only to the preaching of the 
Gospel. 

Dr. McGregor was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1759, and there 
he spent his earlier years. He arrived in Nova Scotia July n, 1786, 
when he was twenty-seven years of age. He received a college edu- 
cation in his native land and had some experience in ministerial work 



IQO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

in Scotland. He was not only a good scholar but a thorough theo- 
logian. His knowledge of Gaelic was accurate and his mastery of 
the language complete, as may be seen from his "Gaelic Poems and 
Hymns," which are still in demand among Highlanders. He landed 
in Halifax after a voyage of thirty-seven days and at once proceeded 
to Pictou, where he arrived July 21, 1786. His first sermon was 
preached in Squire Patterson's barn about a mile west of the pres- 
ent town. He preached in the forenoon from the text, "This is a 
faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus 
came into the world to save sinners," and in Gaelic in the afternoon 
on "The Son of Man is come to seek and to save them which was 
lost." The second Sabbath after his arrival, July 3Oth, he preached 
at the East River, a little below what was afterward Albion Mines. 
The third Sabbath preaching took place at the lower end of Middle 
River, at what was then Alexander Eraser's homestead. Early in 
October he visited the upper settlement of the East River. During 
the summer he preached in the open air and in the winter in private 
dwellings. For nine years he was the sole minister in Pictou Coun- 
ty, preaching, visiting, traveling on snowshoes in winter and in 
summer often by canoe. His congregation was widely scattered, 
and his mission quite extensive. 

Dr. McGregor, as moderator, with two assistants, formed the 
first session in Pictou, September 17, 1786, thus completing the 
organization of the congregation which at that time composed the 
whole county. He built a brick residence, the first in the eastern 
part of the Province, at what is now Plymouth, and here he lived 
until near the close of his life. The fact that he received no salary 
until he had been over a year at work did not prevent him from doing 
his whole duty as a minister. On July 7, 1795, with two assistants, 
Revs. Duncan Ross and John Brown, who arrived from Scotland 
in that year, our subject organized a Presbytery, known as "The 
Associate Presbytery of Nova Scotia." He and Mr. Ross were 
associate ministers for the county until July 14, 1801, when a divi- 
sion was made, Dr. McGregor taking charge of the East River con- 
gregation. For forty-four years he labored faithfully in Pictou 
County. He lived to see the congregation of which he was original- 
ly the sole pastor, grow and develop into six congregations with set- 
tled pastors, a Presbytery and a Synod organized to conduct the busi- 
ness of the church, an academy and seminary founded to educate and 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. I 191 

train ministers, and the cause of Presbyterianism firmly established 
in the Maritime Provinces. 

Dr. McGregor was twice married, first to Ann McKay, a daugh- 
ter of Roderick McKay, and to this union the following children 
were born: James, Christina who became the wife of Abrain Pat- 
terson, Roderick, Jessie who married Charles Fraser, Sarah who 
became Mrs. George McKenzie, and Robert. In 1812 he married as 
his second wife Mrs. Gordon, widow of Rev. Peter Gordon, by whom 
the following children were born : Mary who married Rev. John 
Cameron, Annabel who became the wife of Rev. John Campbell, and 
Peter Gordon. 

The death of Dr. McGregor occurred on March 3, 1830. 

MICHAEL ALEXANDER McIXXIS. 

When a man becomes a manager in any great industrial concern 
we at once know that he has been a faithful, honest and efficient em- 
ployee, for corporations arid big concerns do not risk their capital or 
property in the hands of crooks or incompetents. Therefore when we 
learn that Michael Alexander Mclnnis of Dominion is a district 
superintendent in the employ of the great Dominion Coal Company 
we conclude that he is worthy of our respect and consideration. 

Mr. Mclnnis was born November 3, 1873 at Glace Bay, Nova 
Scotia, and he is a son of Alec and Mary (McDonald) Mclnnis, the 
father a native of Grand X T arrows, Nova Scotia, and the mother 
was born at Boisdale, Cape Breton County. John Mclnnis, the 
grandfather, was a native of Scotland, from which country he came 
to Cape Breton County in early life and settled at Grand Narrows. 
He hewed out a farm from the virgin forest there and became well 
established through his industry, and lived to an advanced age. The 
father of our subject has devoted his life to mining and is still em- 
ployed by the Dominion Coal Company. 

Michael A. Mclnnis is the eldest of a family of nine children. 
He spent his boyhod in Port Morien, then Cow Bay, going to school 
in his early boyhood, but left the school room when twelve years of 
age and went to work in the Gowery Mine, where he remained eight 
years underground. In 1893 ne became an employee of the Domin- 
ion Coa_l Company which advanced him to the position of general 
store keeper at Glace Bay, which position he held until 1901 when 
he went to the mines' office of this company, in which he worked as 
a clerk until in August, 1904 when he was appointed manager of 



, HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

No. 3 Mine. In March, 1911 he was promoted to the position of 
superintendent of District No. i, with headquarters at Dominion. 
Regretting his limited schooling, he sought to make up for this loss 
by as much home study as possible and in later years he attended 
night school, conducted by the government, and was graduated in 
mining and mining engineering from the International Correspond- 
ence School. He is still pursuing his studies. He has given his 
firm entire satisfaction in all the positions he has been intrusted with, 
and he is an example of what a young man can do toward advancing 
himself in the world if he has the perserverance and right idea of 
life and its responsibilities. 

Mr. Mclnnis was married in September, 1895, to Sarah Pender- 
gast of Port Morien, Cape Breton County. She is a daughter of 
Thomas Pendergast. 

To our subject and wife eight children have been born, named 
as follows: Susan is a graduate of St. Vincent's at Rockingham; 
Mary is also a graduate of that institution; Joseph, Katherine, 
Dorothy, Sarah, Anastacia and Blanche are all in school. 

Politically, Mr. Mclnnis is a Liberal. He belongs to the Knights 
of Columbus and a number of local clubs. 

ALEXANDER McEACHERN. 

As district manager of the Dominion Coal Company at New 
'Waterford, Cape Breton County, Alexander McEachern is perform- 
ing his duties in an able and highly acceptable manner, for at the 
outset of his career he wisely decided that it were always best to do 
well whatever was worth doing at all, and this has been his aim 
ever since. 

Mr. McEachern was born at Boulardarie Island, Cape Breton, 
in 1869. He is a son of John McEachern, also a native of that 
place, and a grandson of Alexander McEachern, a native of Mull, 
Scotland, who came to Nova Scotia when a boy with his elder broth- 
er, locating in Boulardarie Island and there began farming which he 
continued until 1874, when he removed to Sydney Mines, later locat- 
ed at Reserve Mines, where he worked at mining in various mines 
until his death at the age of sixty-two years. His family consisted 
of eight children, of whom Alexander of this review was the second 
in order of birth. 

Our subject is an excellent example of a self-made man. He had 
little opportunity to secure an education, for at the early age of eight 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 193 

years he began earning money as a "trapper" in a coal mine, and a 
few years later began working in the mines, but being ambitious to 
get a start he made rapid progress in the short shifts he got in school. 
At the age of twenty-three he was promoted to the position of over- 
man at the International Mine, and later he engaged as manager at 
Bridgeport for a year, then returned to the International Mine as 
underground manager, which position he held until 1899, when he 
was appointed manager of No. 3, also No. 4, while in course of con- 
struction. There he remained for alxmt two years, then was made 
manager of No. 2 and No. 9, which position he held four years. He 
then became manager of the International Mine. He was next made 
manager of No. 5 and No. 10, then was promoted to district super- 
intendent, for the territory comprising the New Waterford District. 
having five mines under his managerement. This responsible posi- 
tion he still holds, the duties of which he is discharging in a satisfac- 
tory manner. . He is well versed in all phases of the work under His 
direction and, being trustworthy and faithful has won and retained 
the confidence of his employers and is well liked by the men under 
him. 

Mr. McEachern was married September 4, 1884, to Margaret Jane 
White of Morien, Cape Breton. To this union the following chil- 
dren have been born: Mary Margaret is the wife of James L. McKin- 
non, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work; Dora Eliza- 
beth is the wife of William D. Haley; Charles is attending school; 
three died in infancy. 

Fraternally, Mr. McEachern is a member of the Knights of 
Columbus and the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association. 

Our subject has educated himself, finding time to study at home, 
taking also the International Correspondence course, completing both 
the English and mining courses. During a period of seven years he 
served as instructor for the Provincial Government Mining Night 
Schools at Bridgeport and Reserve. He has become a well informed 
man through his own efforts. 

JAMES LEO McKINNON. 

Although yet a young man James Leo McKinnon of New Water- 
ford, Cape Breton County, has risen to the position of stipendiary 
magistrate. He did not attain it without effort, without prepara- 
tion, for such places are not as a rule turned over to men who are 

(13) 



194 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

incompetent, and to become competent, one must not only labor long 
and earnestly in the right direction, but one must be honest and con- 
scientious. 

Air. McKinnon was born in Schenacadie, Cape Breton, January 
15, 1882. He is a son of John and Mary (McMillan) McKin- 
non, the father a native of the same vicinity in which our subject 
was born, and the mother was a native of Red Islands, Richmond 
County. Michael McKennon, the paternal grandfather, was born at 
Barra, Scotland, from which country he came to Nova Scotia when 
a young man, locating at Shenacadie, and there he underwent all the 
trying experiences incident to pioneer life. He died at the age of 
seventy-five years. The father of our subject took up a seafaring 
life and became a master mariner. For years he sailed his own ves- 
sel and was in comamnd of a ship at the time of his death at the age 
of sixty years, November 28, 1896. In his earlier years he was 
engaged in deep water saliing. At the time of his .marriage he 
bought a coasting vessel and traded between Halifax and Cape Bre- 
ton, Newfoundland and other places. His family consisted of elev- 
en children, four of whom are living at this writing, the subject of 
this sketch having been the eighth in order of birth. 

James L. McKinnon spent his boyhood and school days in his 
native village. In 1898 he started to work for the Intercolonial 
Railroad Company on construction work, being but a boy at that 
time. A year later he took a man's place which he retained two 
years. After being on construction work for two years he took 
charge of the feeding of two hundred men on the D. C. R. and con- 
tinued at that two years. In 1907 he engaged with McNeil Brothers 
at Grand Narrows, Cape Breton, with whom he remained two years, 
then removed to Glace Bay and started a store which he conducted 
eighteen months with fair success, then sold out and opened a gro- 
cery store and provision business, which he conducted two years with 
satisfactory results. At the time of the strike he sold out and ac- 
cepted a position with the Dominion Coal Company as clerk. A year 
later he came to New Waterford and became foreman at No. 14 
Colliery, which position he held until 1914, when he opened a real 
estate and insurance business, in which he was successful from the 
start. On October 13, 1915, he was appointed stipendiary magis- 
trate and town clerk for the town of New Waterford and these posi- 
tions he is holding at the present time, giving his usual faithful and 
high-grade service. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 1 95 

He is a member of the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, and 
is president of the same at New Waterford. Politically, he is a 
Liberal. 

Mr. McKinnon was married June 26, 1912, to Mary McEachern, 
a daughter of Alexander McEachern, superintendent of mines for 
the district of New Waterford. Two children have been born to 
our subject and wife, John Joseph Cornelius McKinnon and Alex- 
ander McEachern McKinnon. 

ALEXANDER McDONALD. 

The architect of his own fortunes is Alexander McDonald, dis- 
trict superintendent of Mine Caledonia in Cape Breton County, who 
has been true and loyal in all the relations of life and who stands 
as a type of that sterling manhood which ever commands respect 
and honor. 

Mr. McDonald was born at Sydney Mines, Cape Breton, in July, 
1861. He is a son of Ewen and Annie McDonald, the former a 
native of Scotland and the mother of Cape Breton. She was a 
daughter of Allan McDonald, for many years the postmaster at 
Catalone, and she was the first white child of Scotch stock born out- 
side of Sydney on the Mira Road. He with his family moved from 
North Yist, Scotland in 1828. John McDonald, the grandfather, 
removed with his family from Scotland about 1828 and settled at 
French Road outside of Louisburg, remaining there a short time, 
then located in Sydney Mines, where he spent his declining years, 
dying at an advanced age. The father of our subject learned the 
blacksmith's trade when a young man and later engaged in mining, 
and in 1876 he removed to Victoria Mines, near Waterford, where 
he continued mining two years, then moved to Morien, then to Cow 
Bay, where he worked until he was injured in the mines after which 
he took up gardening. His death occurred in 1895 at the advanced 
age of eighty-two years. He made his home during the latter part 
of his life at Caldonia, Glace Bay. His family consisted of four 
sons and two daughters, of which number the subject of this sketch 
was the third in order of birth. 

Alexander McDonald continued to reside under his parental roof- 
tree through his boyhood years. He had little opportunity to obtain 
an education, for he began his career as miner at the tender age of 
ten years, working on the surface, doing various kinds of work 
around the mines. In 1890 he became overman with Archibald & 



196 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Company at Gowrie Mine, where he continued until January, 1894, 
then became underground manager for the Dominion Coal Company, 
which was organized in 1893, an< i which took over the mine. He 
continued there until the mine was closed in the fall of 1897. He 
was transferred in the spring of 1898, to Resen No. 5 as coal inspec- 
tor when he was appointed overman at the Cledonia Mine, January, 
1899, continuing in this position until June 16, 1899, when a fire 
broke out in the mine, eleven men losing their lives, among which 
number was the underground manager (Mr. T. Johnson). Mr. 
McDonald was appointed his successor. He at once began reopen- 
ing the mine and continued as underground manager until the fall 
of 1901, when he wa.> appointed manager of Xo. 8 mine. A few 
months later, in February, 1902, he became manager of the Caledonia 
Mine, continuing as such until 1910 when he was appointed district 
superintendent, his district including Nos. 4, 6, 21, and 22 Colleries. 
In all these responsible positions he has given high-grade service, and 
has managed the affairs of his employers in an eminently satisfac- 
tory manner. He understands every phase of the mining business, 
and is deserving of a great deal of credit for what he has accom- 
plished unaided and in the face of obstacles. 

Fraternally, he is a member of the Masonic Blue Lodge, and he 
has been a past master ; he also belongs to the L. of .L. 

JOHN CHARLES MORRISON, M. D. 

The name of Dr. John Charles Morrison, of New Waterford, 
Nova Scotia, will be held in lasting honor as one of the able physi- 
cians who has given loyal service in behalf of suffering humanity in 
South Cape Breton. Those who know him best are unstinted in 
their praise of his genial disposition and his ability as a physician. 
The large success which has crowned his life work, coupled with his 
ripe experience and kind heart, has enabled him to bring comfort, 
hope and confidence to the sick room, and he has brought sunshine 
into many a home. 

Dr. Morrison was born in Englishtown, Victoria County, Nova 
Scotia, August 15, 1875. He ls a son f Neal and Margaret Morri- 
son. The father was born in Scotland, in 1828, and the mother was 
born in New Harris, Nova Scotia, in 1838. The father came to 
Canada when young and established his home in Nova Scotia. 

Dr. Morrison received his education in the Halifax high school, 
and Dalhousie University, from which he was graduated in 1903, 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 197 

from the medical department, receiving the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine. In 1906 he took a post-graduate course in London and 
Edinburgh. He became colliery physician for the Dominion Coal 
Company at New Waterford in 1908, and has been on the staff of 
the New Waterford General Hospital since it was opened in 1913. 
He has long been well established in the practice of his profession in 
New Waterford. 

Dr. Morrison was married on August 19, 1909, to Maisie Thomp- 
son Duff, a daughter of William and Mary (Thompson) Duff, of 
Carbonear, Newfoundland. To this union two children have been 
born, namely : Frederic Charles, now six years old ; and Neal Alistair, 
one year old. 

Politically, our subject is a Liberal, and he is president of the 
New Waterford Liberal Club. Religiously, be is a member of the 
Presbyterian church, in which he is an elder and is active in church 
affairs. Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic Order, the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias ; also belongs 
to the Canadian Medical Association and the British Medical Asso- 
ciation. 

MICHAEL McINTOSH. 

One of the efficient and trustworthy managers for the Dominion 
Coal Company's interests in Cape Breton County is Michael Mcln- 
tosh of New Waterford, a man who has risen to the position he now 
holds through merit alone and not by the influence of friends or 
through any accident. 

Mr. Mclntosh is a descendant of a pioneer family, and was born 
at Margaree, Inverness County, Nova Scotia, June 26, 1868. He is 
a son of John and Ellen (Coady) Mclntosh, the father was born in 
Manchester, England. A history of the Coady family will be found 
on another page of this work. Grandfather Mclntosh was a soldier 
in the British army, in which he had a commission. One of his 
brothers was a colonel. After his retirement from the army he came 
to Nova Scotia, locating at Halifax, and there he spent the rest of 
his life, dying in that city. His son, John Mclntosh, father of our 
subject, went to Margaree, Cape Breton County, after leaving Hali- 
fax. There he engaged in business, also farming and for a number 
of -years was a magistrate, and was noted for his soundness of judg- 
ment. He was a man of influence in his community. He lived to 
be eighty-four years of age. His family consisted of eleven chil- 



198 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

dren, of which Michael Mclntosh of this sketch was the ninth in 
order of birth. 

Our subject removed to the mines in 1873, beginning to work in 
the mines at the age of thirteen, continuing digging coal about thir- 
teen years. He then went to work for the Dominion Coal Company 
at Caledonia, and worked as clerk for the firm for three years, then 
went back to the mines and spent four years more digging coal, 
then took charge of No. 3 store, which he managed three years. He 
then returned to mining, which he continued two years, after which 
he went to work as an overman at the Reserve Mine, under Manager 
Alex. McEachern, continuing three years, when he was appointed 
underground manager in the same mine, and six months later he was 
promoted to manager at Bridgeport under Mr. McEachern as super- 
intendent, and he held this position until 1912. In May of that 
year he was transferred to No. 15 Colliery, and in October, 1914, 
was again transferred to No. 16 Colliery, which position he still 
holds. He has always done his work faithfully and well and stands 
high in the estimation of the company. 

Mr. Mclntosh was married in September, 1894, to Margaret Far- 
rell, a daughter of Capt. James Farrell, who was a master mariner. 
To this union the following children have been born : Nellie is now 
employed in the office of the Dominion Coal Company's store; Julia 
is attending school ; Alice is also in school ; Mary and Margaret are 
twins ; John J., Carmella and Katheline. 

HENRY CHARLES VERNER LEVATTE. 

A man who has won success in life through persistent, straight- 
forward methods is Henry Charles Verner Levatte, notary public and 
insurance agent of Louisburg, Nova Scotia. He was born at Main- 
a-dieu, Cape Breton, August 4, 1858, and is a son of Martin and 
Barbara (Dillon) Levatte, a highly respected family of that place. 
Our subject received his education in the public schools of his native 
county, and when a boy he began learning the blacksmith's trade, in 
1870, but not finding the work congenial abandoned the same and 
in 1872 began clerking in a general store with W. H. McAlpine, of 
Louisburg. He was appointed the American consular agent at Louis- 
burg, in October, 1898. Elected county councillor of the Louisburg 
district in 1886.. He held the same position in the Main-a-Dieu 
district from 1892 to 1895, and for the Louisburg district from 1896 
to date, re-elected at each succeeding election. He was elected war- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 199 

den of the municipality of Cape Breton territory in 1899, 1902, 1905, 
1908, 1911 and 1914. In all these positions of public trust he dis- 
charged his duties in an able, faithful and highly satisfactory man- 
ner. He was appointed to the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia 
in March, 1912. 

Mr. Levatte was married in 1893 to Sarah Mercy Mann, a 
daughter of Enos Mann, of Louisburg. 

Politically, our subject is a Liberal; religiously, an Anglican; and 
fraternally, he belongs to the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. 

WILLIAM J. HINCHEY. 

While transmitting to future generations the chronicle of such 
a life as that of William J. Hinchey, well known and successful mer- 
chant of New Waterford, Cape Breton County, it is with the hope 
of instilling into the minds of those who come after the important 
lesson that honor and station are sure rewards of individual exertion. 

Mr. Hinchey was born at Northern Bay, Newfoundland, Sep- 
tember 10, 1882. He is a son of Patrick Hinchey, also born at that 
place. Morgan Hinchey, the grandfather, was born in Ireland, from 
which country he came to Newfoundland in an early day and located 
at Northern Bay where he followed fishing and farming. The fath- 
er of our subject grew to manhood in that vicinity and he followed 
the sea for a livelihood, becoming a master mariner, and he is still 
living at Northern Bay, Newfoundland. His family consists of 
seven children of whom the subject of this sketch is the eldest. The 
father made it a point to give his children proper educational advan- 
tages. 

William J. Hinchey grew up in his native community and there 
attended the public schools, after which he engaged in fishing for 
one year, then came to Nova Scotia, landing in North Sydney, but 
only spent a week there, going to Sydney. A week later we find 
him in Reserve Mines and there he became a clerk in the warehouse 
of the Dominion Coal Company, but later went to work in the mines. 
During these years he gave all his spare time to study, going to night 
school, and in this manner he completed a course in mining in the 
International Correspondence schools. After five years at Reserve 
Mines he went to Dominion and took charge of a machine which he 
operated for five years, during which period he took interests in vari- 
ous business ventures in which he was successful, and while in 
Dominion he was a director in the Workmans Store Company, Ltd., 



200 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

managed by Alexander McMullen. In 1908 when the present town 
of New Waterford was started, he engaged in the real estate busi- 
ness, also opened a small grocery store, with a partner, who died in 
1911, just as they had completed the present store, seventy by thirty 
feet, three stories high. Our subject purchased the interest in the 
store which his partner had held, and has since conducted the store 
alone. He has been very successful and has built up a large and 
rapidly-growing trade through his industry and honesty. In 1914 
he opened a branch store at No. 17, New Victoria, which was a suc- 
cessful venture. His annual business now amounts to one hundred 
and twenty-five thousand dollars. This is a most commmendable 
record for so young a man, who started in life on his own resources 
and continued without assistance from any one. He has valuable 
real estate holdings in New Waterford and other places. 

Mr. Hinchey was married June 4, 1907, to Clara Petrie, of New 
Victoria. She is a daughter of M. J. Petrie, of New Victoria. Four 
children have been born to our subject and wife, namely: Patrick, 
Michael Joseph, Theresa, and John. 

Politically, Mr. Hinchey is a Liberal. Fraternally, he belongs to 
the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association. 

ANGUS RONALD McDONALD. 

As manager of No. 12 Colliery of the Dominion Coal Company 
at Glace Bay, Angus Ronald McDonald is doing his work in a faith- 
ful and able manner. He has always been an advocate of right liv- 
ing not only in private but in business and public life as well, and he 
is recognized as an upright citizen, square in his dealings with his 
fellow men. 

Mr. McDonald was born in Mira, Cape Breton County, in Decem- 
ber, 1866. He is a son of Ronald and Sarah (McPherson) McDon- 
ald, the father a native of Scotland and the mother of Cape Breton 
County, Nova Scotia. Archibald McDonald, the grandfather, was a 
native of northwestern Scotland, from which country he immigrated 
to Nova Scotia with his family, locating at Mira, where he started a 
farm in the wilderness, undergoing the hardships of the usual pioneer 
life. The father of our subject grew up on the original homestead 
on which he continued to reside, he being the only son. There were 
three daughters. He engaged in farming there until late in life when 
he removed to Glace Bay, where he still resides, being now in his 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 2OI 

ninetieth year and is enjoying good health and is very active. His 
family consists of eight sons and one daughter, Angus R. of this 
sketch, being the third in order of birth. 

Our subject spent his boyhood on the home farm and attended 
the district schools. When seventeen years old he secured employ- 
ment with Dr. Hugh McLeod, working for him one year, when he 
went to work in the Reserve Mines, in which he remained two years, 
then went to Old Victoria and worked in the mines there until they 
were closed down by the Dominion Coal Company. He then worked 
in the Sydney Mines for about seven months, then went to Fernice, 
British Columbia, remaining in that province two years. Then re- 
turned to Nova Scotia and went to work at No. 3, Glace Bay, where 
Alex McEachern was in charge, remaining there alxnit three years, 
then moved with the manager to Xo. 2 where he acted as under- 
ground manager, and was employed in Nos. 2 and 9, these mines 
practically adjoining each other. He continued his work there alxnit 
four years, then took the contract to sink the slopes at Xo. 6, when 
that mine was started, working there two years, then the company 
sent him back to No. 3 as underground manager. After spending 
one year there he was transferred to No. 6 in the same position. 
Owing to an accident by which he had his leg broken, and about the 
time he was pronounced well his son was killed in the same mine, 
the company transferred him to No. 12, just then being opened. He 
took charge of the same as underground manager and remained there 
in this capacity several years. In 1910 he was made manager of 
this mine, which position he still holds, discharging his duties with 
his accustomed ability and fidelity. 

Mr. McDonald was married in 1887 to Sarah McDonald of Syd- 
ney Mines. She is a daughter of John McDonald, a miner of that 
place. 

The following children have been born to our subject and wife: 
Charles, who was killed in Mine No. 6 by a runaway box in the 
slope, was twenty years of age; Mary Margaret is the wife of Peter 
Stubbart, chief clerk at Mine No. 14; Ronald, who resides in New 
Waterford, married Christina White, is now machine repairer at 
Mine No. 14; Christina is a private nurse; John died when eighteen 
years of age; Lena May is at home; Neil died in January, 1915, 
when eleven years of age ; Charlotte is at home. 

Fraternally, Mr. McDonald belongs to the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, and the Masonic Blue Lodge. 



2O2 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ZACHARIAH W. TOWNSEND. 

One of the pioneer families of Louisburg, Cape Breton County, 
is the Townsends, one of the best known members of which is Zach- 
ariah W. Townsend, who, although past his three score and ten, is 
still actively engaged in mercantile pursuits and is a man who takes 
an interest in the general development of his locality, as did his 
father and grandfather before him. He was born in the above 
named town and county on May i, 1839, and is a son of Thomas and 
Patience (Martell) Townsend, the father also a native of Louisburg, 
and the mother was born at Mira, Cape Breton. Thomas W. Town- 
send, the granfather, was also born at Louisburg, Nova Scotia, his 
parents having been among the earliest settlers there. His father 
was a British officer and fought under General Wolfe, assisting him 
in the capture of Louisburg and was in high command with him at 
the taking of Oueljec. For his services he received a large grant of 
land in the vicinity of the town of Louisburg. Portions of the orig- 
inal grant have been sold from time to time, yet a large amount of the 
original grant is still in the possesion of his descendants. The 
Townsends have engaged, for the most part, in seafaring and fishing. 
The father of the subject of this sketch was a master mariner and he 
also devoted many years to the fishing business. 

Zachariah \Y. Townsend grew to manhood in his home town and 
he received his education in private schools, then entered Mount 
Allison College at Sackville, New Brunswick, and for some time 
was under the tutilage of the author of this history. He was a 
student at that institution two years when the college burned, in 
1866. Immediately thereafter he returned home and engaged in 
teaching, one year at Gabarouse, another at Louisburg and the follow- 
ing year at Sydney. He then returned to Louisburg and started the 
present business,' and he has been successfully engaged as a merchant 
here ever since, or for a period of over forty years. He has built 
up a large trade by his good management and honest dealings. He 
is now assisted by his sons. In connection with a general mercantile 
business they engage in buying, curing and exporting fish. 

Mr. Townsend was married December 25, 1865, to Susannah 
Bagnall, of Gabarouse, Cape Breton, and to this union the following 
children have been born : Howard is now a Methodist clergyman at 
Hampton, Nova Scotia ; Fletcher and Wesley are in business with 
their father; Emeline is at home; three children died in early life. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 203 

Our subjct and his family have been devoted Methodists and lib- 
eral supporters of the church. Mr. and Mrs. Townsend have been 
communicants from early childhood. The new church, which was 
completed in the autumn of 1915, would be a credit to any town. 
The land on which it was built was donated by our subject and wife, 
and each member of the family gave liberally to its erection. The 
cornerstone bears the inscription, "Laid by Z. W. Townsend, October 
14, 1914," the same being a block of red sandstone and brought from 
France to be used expressly for this purpose. 

REV. MARTIN JOSEPH WALLACE. 

When a young man in this material age decides to devote his life 
to unselfish service to his fellow men, with no hope of either fame 
or wealth only the satisfaction of knowing that he is following in 
the footsteps of the Man of Galilee, he should be given much credit 
by us of other walks of life. Martin Joseph Wallace is such a man, 
and he is doing a commendable work in his parish at Louisburg, Cape 
Breton County. 

He was born at Chatham, New Brunswick, September 6, 1881, 
and is a son of John and Catherine (McDonagh) Wallace. The 
father was born at Northumberland, New Brunswick, and the moth- 
er was a native of Cork, Ireland. John Wallace, the paternal 
grandfather was born in Tipperary, Ireland, and there he grew up, 
married and had a family of six children before he immigrated tu 
Canada. After locating in New Brunswick two other children were 
born. He cleared raw land, which he developed into a farm at Bar- 
tebog, Northumberland County, and there spent the rest of his life, 
dying at the age of eighty-three years. There the father of our 
subject grew up, assisted with the work on the homestead, and at- 
tended the public schools. Later he located in Chatham and was 
employed in the lumber mills. His death occurred in 1901 at the 
age of sixty-five years. His family consisted of sixteen children, 
nine of whom are still living. Edward P. Wallace, an elder brother 
of our subject, entered the church and was ordained at Montreal, 
and he has been located at Campbellton, New Brunswick, for the 
past twenty years. Simon S. Wallace, a younger brother, also 
entered the ministry, was ordained at Watertown, New York, and 
is still located in that city. He studied in Rome, Italy. 

Martin Joseph Wallace received his education in the schools of 
Chatham, New Brunswick, then taught school for four years, after 



2O4 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

which he entered St. Francis Xavier College at Antigonish, Nova 
Scotia, where he received his degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1906, 
and in 1907 the same institution conferred upon him the degree of 
Master of Arts. He became proficient in Greek, completing a two 
years' course in one year, and during this time he taught twenty-two 
hours each week, seven of which were devoted to Greek. In 1907 
he went to Montreal where he entered the Grand Seminary. He was 
ordained in 1910. and soon thereafter became assistant to Father D. 
M. McAdam, at Sydney, Nova Scotia, continuing there until Janu- 
ary 12, 1913, when he was made pastor of St. Richard's Church at 
Louisburg, Cape Breton County. He is still in charge of the parish 
there and is doing a very commendable work. He has improved the 
church property besides paying off a debt. Since August 16, 1914, 
lie has been saying mass at the Barracks at West Louisburg for the 
soldiers stationed there. This is the first time mass has been said 
at that place, since the garrison was removed in 1759. 

The Wallace family seems to have taken naturally to education. 
Besides the brothers mentioned in a preceding paragraph, Peter J. 
Wallace, another of our subject's brothers, who was graduated from 
Dalhousie University, Halifax, is now practicing medicine at Tabu- 
cintac. New Brunswick. John Wallace, the eldest brother, is pro- 
prietor of the Wallace College at Quebec, Canada. Two other broth- 
ers are engaged in manufacturing in the mechanical department of 
the Canadian Government Railways. The two sisters are both 
married. 

JOSEPH MACDONALD. 

One of the well-established barristers of North Sydney, Nova 
Scaia, is Joseph MacDonald. He was born at Sydney Mines, Cape 
Breton County, in January, 1863. He is a son of Michael and Cath- 
erine MacDonald, both born in Southwest Scotland. The father's 
death occurred in 1910 at the advanced age of ninety- four years. 
John MacDonald, the grandfather, and Alexander MacDonald, ma- 
ternal grandfather, were also both natives of Southwest Scotland. 
The paternal grandfather immigrated to Nova Scotia in 1823, and a 
few years later the maternal grandfather came to this Province. The 
former located at Long Island, Boisdale, and the latter settled at East 
Bay. Both were pioneers and established their homes in the virgin 
forest and reared large families there. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



205 



Joseph MacDonald was third in a family of six children. After 
finishing public school, he went to Ottawa College where he took an 
arts course, then entered the law department of Dalhousie Univer- 
sity at Halifax, from which institution he was graduated in 1891, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1892. He immediately began the 
practice of his profession at North Sydney, where he has remained 
to the present time. 

Mr. MacDonald was married in 1893 to Teresa M. MacDonald, 
a daughter of Ronald MacDonald, for many years collector of cus- 
toms at Sydney. This union has resulted in the birth of eight chil- 
dren, named as follows: Alice H. is a graduate of St. Vincent's at 
Rockingham, Nova Scotia; Catherine C. is attending school; Tere- 
sa M., Ronald J., Charles F. H., John M., Alexander Robert, and 
Flora M. 

Mr. MacDonald is a Liberal-Conservative in politics. He was 
appointed censor at North Sydney when the European war began. 
and on September 28, 1914, was transferred as chief censor at Mar- 
coni Tower, Louisburg. 

BARCLAY WEBSTER. 

There always will be controversies among the people. Men will 
not understand or view things alike. Disputes will grow up as to 
the rights of persons and of property, and whose settlement is of 
great consequence in every community. These must be settled by 
the lawyers, or as a last resort, the courts. This is most frequently 
accomplished by lawyers, without law-suits. Consequently there 
were lawyers since the early ages of civilization and there always 
will be until the millenium. One of the workers in this field of 
endeavor in Nova Scotia is Barclay Webster, of Kentville. 

He is a scion of an old famliy, and was born in the above named 
town and Province, September 16, 1849. He is a son of Henry 
Bentley Webster, whose death occurred on January 3. 1879, at the 
age of sixty-seven years. His mother was Mary Ina Barclay of 
Shelburne County, Nova Scotia. The father was a native of Kings 
County, where his father, Dr. Isaac Webster, settled in an early day, 
having come from Mansfield, Connecticut, when a young man, being 
a United Empire Loyalist. He settled at Kentville, married Pru- 
dence Bentley, of Cornwallis, and practiced his profession in Kings 
County until his death in 1853, at the advanced age of eighty-six 
years. One of his sons, William B. Webster, was graduated from 



2O6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Edinburgh University, took up his father's practice here and lived 
to be about sixty years old. Another son, Frederick Webster, was 
also a graduate of Edinburg University and became a successful 
physician in Yarmouth, Xova Scotia. Conrad Ogilvie Hall Web- 
ster, a dentist of Yarmouth, is the son of John L. R. Webster, a 
physician, who married Helen O. Geddes, December i, 1859, a 
daughter of Thomas O. Geddes, M. D., and a grandson of Dr. Fred- 
erick A. Webster, who married Margaret Me Naught of Edinburgh, 
April 26. 1834. Dr. Isaac Webster, the great grandfather, married 
on October 30, 1794, Prudence Bentley. His father, Moses Web- 
ster, died at Hillsdale, Xe\v York, January 28, 1815, when seventy- 
one years old. Xoah Webster, the great-great-great-grandfather 
married Catherine Xewcomb, and his father, George Webster, mar- 
ried Sarah Bliss. Thomas Webster, father of George Webster, 
married Abigail Alexander, June 16, 1633. She was a daughter of 
George Alexander of Xorthampton, Massachusetts. Thomas Web- 
ster, who died in 1686. was the son of John Webster, the fifth gov- 
ernor of Connecticut and the progenitor of the Websters of Corn- 
wallis and Yarmouth, Xova Scotia. He settled in Connecticut in 
1636, and was one of the most prominent men in that region during 
the first years of its settlement. He was a magistrate from 1639 to 
1655, was deputy governor in 1655 and governor in 1656. His 
death occurred April 5, 1661. He married Agnes (surname not 
known now ) probably in England, and to their union six children 
were born, Thomas Webster being the second in order of birth. 
Abraham Webster, a son of X'oah Webster, was one of the original 
grantees of the township of Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, July 21, 1761, 
and he sent back to Connecticut for bis wife and son Abraham Web- 
ster. Xoah Webster, founder of the famous Webster's Dictionary; 
also Daniel Webster, the great orator and statesmen, were of the 
same stock as the family of the subject of this review. 

Henry Bentley Webster, father of the immediate subject of this 
sketch, studied law and practiced with success at Kentville, where 
he was regarded as a good and useful citizen. He was active in the 
work of the Presbyterian church. His family consisted of ten chil- 
dren, namely: Ina K. is the wife of A. A. DeWolf of Kentville; 
Alice E., who lives in California, is a deconess in Mission work; Bar- 
clay of this sketch; Minnie who married Rev. Joseph Hogg, D.D., 
of Winnipeg, is deceased as is also her husband; Henry B. Webster, 
M. D., lives in Kentville; Edith who married J. W. Pitfield, who was 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 2O7 

for some time connected with the government railroad, is deceased 
as is also her husband; Annie M. is the widow of Dr. James Colman 
at Granville Ferry; Lillian, deceased, was the wife of James Thomp- 
son of Halifax; Fannie C. is the wife of W. H. Chase of Wolfville; 
Arthur Douglas Webster, M. D., who was graduated from Edin- 
burgh University, took up the practice of medicine in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, after finishing school and there he has since remained. 

Barclay Webster received his elementary education in private 
schools, then attended Acadia College at Wolfville, after which he 
entered Dalhousie University, then began studying law in his fath- 
er's office in Kentville, attended Harvard University, then was admit- 
ted to the bar in 18/2, after which he took up his father's practice in 
his home city and has since been successfully engaged in the same, 
long occupying a position in the front rank of his professional breth- 
ren in this part of the Province. He was made a King's counsel in 
the year 1890. He has served a term in the Provincial Legislature. 
In June, 1877, ne was ""'ted in marriage with Ethel Chipman of 
Kentville. a daughter of the late L. 1). B. Chipman, a lieutenant- 
colonel in the Nova Scotia Militia. 

Beverley Leverett Webster, son of our subject, was born Septem- 
ber 15, 1879. and was educated at Horton Bay school, and Brad- 
ford's School in Annapolis, then attended the military school at Fred- 
ericton, New Brunwick, from which he was graduated. At the out- 
break of the Boer war he applied for a commission and was made 
a first lieutenant of the Fourth King's Own Regiment, Royal Lan- 
icasters, the same as General Laurie served in the Crimea; he served 
eighteen months in Africa in the Vrybed district most of the time, 
and was in a number of engagements. He was invalidated home 
and died of fever at one of Lady Dudley's Nursery Homes in Lon- 
don. His fellow officers were much grieved at his death, which 
occurred in 1902, at the age of twenty-two years. He was a Mason. 
a member of the Blue Lodge. 

Dr. Henry Bently Webster, M. D., was born in Kentville, April 
7, 1852, and he received his elementary education in private schools 
and in Horton Academy, then attended Dalhousie University, then 
McGill University, Montreal, later the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Columbia University, New York City, in 1872. Later he 
took a post-graduate course in Edinburgh University. He has been 
practicing his profession in Kentville ever since leaving school and 



208 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

enjoys a large and lucrative practice, ranking among the leading phy- 
sicians and surgeons of Kings County. 

Dr. Webster was married in September, 1878, to Emma DeWolf, 
a representative of the famous DeWolf family. Her death occurred 
in February, 1910. To the Doctor and wife the following children 
were born : Lilly is the wife of A. E. Chesley of the Dominion At- 
lantic Railroad; Nora is the wife of Allan McDonald, C. E., of 
Scotland. 

Dr. Webster is a member of the Dominion Medical Association 
of which he is vice-president; also a member of the Nova Scotia 
Medical Association of which he was formerly vice-president ; also 
belongs to the Annapolis Valley Medical Society. He has taken an 
active interest in public affairs, and he served as mayor of Kentville 
several terms, during which he did much for the upbuilding of the 
town. He is a Mason, a member of the Blue Lodge, and a Scottish 
Rite, in which he is a past master. He entered the Militia depart- 
ment in 1883, in which he remained until 1911, when he retired as 
lieutenant-colonel. He received the long service medal. 

REV. GEORGE BARTON CUTTEN, D. D., PH. D., LL. D. 

The biographies of successful and useful men are instructive as 
guides and incentives to those whose careers are yet to be achieved. 
The examples they furnish of patient purpose and consecutive 
endeavor strongly illustrate what is in the power of each to accom- 
plish, if he is willing to press forward in the face of all opposition, 
refusing to be downed by untoward circumstances, thus making 
stepping-stones of what some would find to be insurmountable 
stumbling-blocks. The gentleman whose life history is here set 
forth is a conspicuous example of one who has lived to good purpose 
and achieved a definite degree of success in the special spheres to 
which his energies and talents have been devoted. 

Rev. George Barton Cutten, educator, author, preacher and lec- 
turer of renown, was born at Amherst, Nova Scotia, April 11, 1874, 
and is the son of William Freeman and Abbie Ann (Trefry) Cut- 
ten, one of the old and highly respected families of Amherst. He 
received his education in the public schools and Acadia University, 
Wolfville, from which institution he was graduated in 1896 with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, and the following year the degree of 
Master of Arts was conferred upon him, and also in 1897 Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Connecticut, gave him the degree of Bachelor 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 2OO, 

of Arts, and in 1902, the same institution made him a Doctor of 
Philosophy, and a Bachelor of Divinity in 1903. He received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity from Colgate University, in 
1911, and the degree of Doctor of Laws from Acadia University in 
1915. He was ordained in 1897. He was pastor of the Union Bap- 
tist church at Montowese in 1897 and 1898, then became pastor of 
the Howard Avenue Baptist church, New Haven, from 1898 to 
1904, then was pastor of the First Baptist Church at Corning, New 
York, from 1904 to 1907, and from 1907 to 1910 was pastor of the 
First Baptist church at Columbus, Ohio. Since then he has been 
president and professor of psychology at Acadia University, Wolf- 
ville, Nova Scotia. As a minister he did a most commendable work 
in the various congregations which he served, winning a great repu- 
tation as an earnest, learned and eloquent pulpit orator, but his work 
as an educator has been equally as brilliant, and he has maintained 
the high standard of the work at Acadia, keeping fully abreast of 
the times in every respect. 

He is versatile and entertaining as well as a convincing writer. 
Among the more notable products of his pen may be mentioned the 
following: "The Case of John Kinsel," (which appeared in the 
Psychology Rcviezv, in 1903), "The Christian Life" (pamphlet), 
"The Psychology of Alcoholism" (1907), "Psychological Phenom- 
ena of Christianity" (1908), "Three Thousand Years of Mental 
Healing" (1910), and various magazine and review articles. He 
was a noted football player when in college. He has traveled exten- 
sively. 

Dr. Cutten was married in July, 1898, to Minnie Warren Brown, 
of Westfield, Massachusetts. She is a lady of culture and educa- 
tion, having been graduated from Acadia University in 1896 with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

REV. D. M. GILLIES, D. D. 

There are people in all walks of life who become so deeply en- 
grossed with their chosen life work as to neglect many of the things 
that make living worth while. They are never known to commune 
with nature, books lie about them unopened and the word recreation 
seems to have dropped from their category. Rev. D. M. Gillies, well 
known Presbyterian minister of Glace Bay, Cape Breton, is one of 
the citizens of Nova Scotia who has taken the pains to make himself 
(14) 



2IO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

a symmetrically well developed man, neglecting none of the higher 
ideals. His example is worthy of emulation. 

Dr. Gillies was born at Whycocomagh, Inverness County, Nova 
Scotia, June 12, 1863. He is a son of Neil and Catherine (McMil- 
lan) Gillies. The father was born in South Side Whycocomagh, in 
1835, and the mother was born at Lake Ainslie, Cape Breton, in 
1840. The paternal grandfather was a native of Tiree, Scotland, 
whose parents had migrated from Mull to that Island. He married 
Mary Gillies, a native of Glasgow, and they immigrated to America 
in 1825. The maternal grandparents immigrated from the Island of 
Muck, Scotland, to America, and settled at Lake Ainslie, Cape Bre- 
ton. Rev. D. McMillan, a maternal uncle, was for many years pas- 
tor of the Presbyterian church at Sydney Mines. 

Dr. Gillies received his education in the public schools at Why- 
cocomagh, the Normal School at Truro, the Pictou Academy, the 
Manitoba College, and the San Francisco Theological Seminary, in 
California. He was for some time pastor of the First Presbyterian 
church at Ukiah, Mendocino county, California. Returning to Nova 

J ' o 

Scotia he became pastor of St. Phillips church at Westville, where 
lie remained until in November. 1903, when he was called to St. 
Paul's Presbyterian church, Glace Bay, and he has remained here to 
the present time. He is not only regarded as a pulpit orator of abil- 
ity, but is also a good pastor and popular with his congregation. He 
is profoundly versed in the Scriptures and lucid and forceful in their 
interpretation. 

In September. 1892, he was united in marriage with Belle Urqu- 
hart, a native of St. Peter's, Richmond County, Nova Scotia, and a 
daughter of William and Barbara (McKenzie) Urquhart, of Sea- 
view, Richmond County. To this union the following children were 
born: Emma C. is the eldest; Christine Barbara is the wife of A. G. 
Johnson, of Quincy, Masaschusetts ; Francis Edward Clarke is 
deceased. The wife and mother was called to her eternal rest, Sep- 
tember 5, 1909, and on September 6, 1911, Dr. Gillies married Mary 
Lee Manson, of North Lochaber, Antigonish County, a daughter 
of Alexander Manson, postmaster at that place. The mother of 
Mrs. Gillies was known in her maidenhood at Catherine Cameron, 
and was a native of Barney's River, Pictou County. 

Mr. Gillies is an independent voter. Fraternally, he belongs to 
the Masonic Order, the Royal Arch Chapter; also the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. He was twice chaplain of Pyrian Youth 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 211 

Lodge Masonic, Glace Bay, 1915, 1916. He visited six years ago 
the Presbyterian Grand Assembly of the Church of Scotland, the 
United Free church and the Free Church of Scotland, all in Edin- 
burgh, and the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church in Ire- 
land, in Belfort. Also the Annual Conference in Temple London, 
of the Congregationalists of England and Wales. Visited Paris, 
Ostencl, Dusseldorf, Berlin, Munich and other European cities. 
He witnessed the famous Passion Play at Oberammergau, in 1905, 
and gave many lectures on it. 

The present Mrs. Gillies was superintendent of Harbour View 
Hospital, Sydney Mines, just before her marriage. 

ALLAN R. MAcISAAC. 

To make a success in the field of insurance nowadays requires 
tact, perseverance, close application and a good personal address. 
Then, too, one must be honest so that the public will rely on him 
and trust him. That Allan R. Maclsaac of Sydney, Nova Scotia, is 
the possessor of these commendable attributes is attested to by those 
who have had dealings with him. 

He was born at East Bay, Cape Breton County, August i, 1856. 
He is a son of Roderick and Alary (McDougall) Maclsaac, both 
natives of the same town and county in which our subject was born. 
There they grew up, attended school, were married and established 
the future home of the family. The death of the father occurred in 
1880 at the age of sixty-three years, and the mother passed away 
in 1906 at the advanced age of eighty-nine years. Donald Maclsaac, 
the paternal grandfather, was a native of Scotland, from which 
country he came to Prince Edward Island when a young man and 
after 'remaining there a short time located at East Bay, Cape Breton 
County, taking a grant of land comprising four hundred acres. He 
subsequently divided this land among his four sons, which they 
cleared of the virgin forest and put out to cultivation, all becoming 
successful farmers, the soil being rich and productive. Several of 
the farms are now owned by descendants of the original settler. 

To Roderick Maclsaac and wife nine children were born, six sons 
and three daughters, of whom Allan R. of this sketch was the fifth 
in order of birth. Six of the children survive at this writing. Our 
subject grew to manhood on the home farm where he assisted with 
the general work during crop seasons, and in the winter time he 
attended the public schools in his neighborhood, later studied at St. 



212 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Francis Xavier College. After three years in that institution he 
engaged in teaching, which vocation he continued successfully for a 
period of ten years, then took up railroad work, securing a position 
as station agent at Sydney, where he remained two years, when he 
resigned to take up the insurance business, which he has continued 
to the present time, with gratifying results all the while. He joined 
the Confederation Life Association, and has been district manager 
for this company since 1910, performing his duties in a manner that 
has been eminently satisfactory to his employers and remunerative 
to himself. Perhaps none of his compeers in the insurance business 
in the Province gets more business than he in a territory of equal 
extent and importance. 

Mr. Maclsaac has taken a deep interest in temperance work for a 
number of years. Politically, he is a Conservative. He belongs to 
the Catholic church. He is ever a student and is a man of education. 

THOMAS PENNINGTON CALKIN. 

While splendid success has come to Thomas Pennington Calkin, 
one of the enterprising merchants of Kentville, Kings County, he 
has ever been actuated by the spirit of Lincoln in his sentiment: 
"There is something better than making a living making a life." 
So while he has worked to advance his individual interests and that 
of his family, he has never neglected his duties as a citizen. 

Mr. Calkin was born in Kentville, Nova Scotia, July 14, 1860. 
He is a son of Benjamin Howes Calkin, a native of Wellsford, Kings 
County, and Mary Pennington, who was born in Whitehaven, Eng- 
land. The grandfather was Elias Calkin, who was one of the pion- 
eer farmers in the vicinity of Wellsford, this Province, where he 
lived to a ripe old age. He was the father of Dr. John B. Calkin. 
When a young man Banjamin H. Calkin, the father, came to Kent- 
ville and began clerking in the general store of Daniel Moore, but 
remained with him only a short time, when he began business for 
himself, which he conducted successfully until his retirement from 
active life in 1883, spending the rest of his days quietly, dying at 
the age of seventy-four years. He was a man of influence in his 
town and vicinity, and served as justice of the peace, took an active 
part in the Court of Sessions, and after the county incorporation act 
became a law he was elected a councillor and served in that capa- 
city two years. His family consisted of seven children, of whom 
the subject of this sketch was the eldest. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 213 

Thomas P. Calkin grew to manhood in his native town and there 
attended the public schools, also the grammar school at Truro, then 
Pictou Academy for two years, after which he engaged in the busi- 
ness with his father, and when the elder Calkin retired in 1883 he 
took over the business, in the present location, and here he has re- 
mained to the present time, erecting the present substantial building 
in 1914, a concrete and brick structure, fifty by seventy-five feet, at 
the corner of Webster and Cornwallis streets. The front which is 
over one hundred feet is plate glass. When Mr. Calkin took over 
his father's business he confined himself to the hardware line, and 
now has the largest and best stocked hardware store in Kings Coun- 
ty, and has built up a large and growing trade which extends all over 
the county, and western portion of the Province. 

Mr. Calkin was married November 26, 1890 to Agnes Dogherty, 
of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. She is a daughter of Ma- 
been born : Roy, who is now assisting his father in the store ; Dar- 
rell and Garth are both in school. 

Politically, Mr. Calkin is a Conservative. He has served in the 
town council, and took a leading part in getting the town incorpo- 
rated. He is president of the Board of Trade. 

WILLIAM WELSFORD PINEO. 

To the honest, pushing, hard-working and enterprising farmers is 
due the propserity, wealth and advancement of any community, and 
to their zeal, energy and integrity will the future prosperity of our 
country be indebted in a very large 'degree, as it has been in the past. 
Among the progressive farmers and fruit growers of Nova Scotia is 
William W. Pineo, of Waterville, Kings County. 

Mr. Pineo was born in Pineo Village (now Waterville), Nova 
Scotia, in September, 1858. He is a son of Henry and Hannah 
Elizabeth (Kinsman) Pineo, the latter a daughter of Deacon Theo- 
doric Kinsman, who was long a prominent worker in the Baptist 
church. The father was a native of the vicinity of Waterville as was 
also the grandfather, William Pineo, married Harriet Shaw, who 
was born at Granville, Nova Scotia, and was of United Empire Loy- 
alist stock. Peter Pineo, the great grandfather, was one of the first 
settlers of Kings county, in which his son William, mentioned above, 
was born. The family is of French descent, several brothers of this 
name having left France at the time of the religious persecutions 
and political troubles, one of whom settled in New England and the 



214 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

other in Nova Scotia. They had been men of prominence in the old 
country. Our subject's grandfather was keeper of a public house 
and stage station for several years, and he also engaged in farming, 
owning two thousand acres of farm land. He was commissioned 
as first lieutenant in the First Regiment of Kings county, his com- 
mission dating June 10, 1793, and was signed by Governor Went- 
worth. He was also a justice of the peace and was prominent in 
his community. He finally divided his property between his sons, 
and the father of our subject got the portion on which our subject 
was reared. The father also became an influential man in his com- 
munity, and was a justice of the peace for some time, and took an 
active interest in public affairs. He was a Conservative until the 
confederation when he joined the Liberals. His death occurred at 
the age of sixty-five years. He engaged extensively in fruit grow- 
ing, and was the first man in the vicinity of West Cornwallis to 
ship apples to the London market. He was a successful business 
man in addition to his farming. His family consisted of four chil- 
dren, our subject being the eldest. 

William W. Pineo continued on his father's farm until the lat- 
ter's death in 1883, when he became owner of the original home- 
stead, which he has ably managed and kept well improved. In 
addition he owns some land which formerly belonged to his uncles, 
his total acreage being twelve hundred, one hundred and seventy- 
five of which is in orchard, which receives his close attention and 
furnishes no small portion of his annual income, in fact, he is re- 
garded as one of the best informed and successful horticulturists in 
Kings County. He usually keeps from seventy-five to one hundred 
head of horned cattle, and from fifty to one hundred hogs, and owns 
thoroughbred sires. He has his own cooperage, and turns out as 
high as fifty thousand barrels in a season. 

Mr. Pineo was married in October, 1884, to Laura Hoyt, of St. 
John, New Brunswick, a daughter of Neil Hoyt. To this union the 
following children have been born : Maud, Kathleen and Muriel and 
all at home; and Lieut. H. H. Pineo. 

Lieutenant Pineo was born in 1891 at Waterville and there he 
was reared and received his early education, later taking an Arts 
course in Acadia College, then entered Dalhousie University, Hali- 
fax, and was graduated from the law department of that institu- 
tion in 1912. Soon thereafter he began the practice of his profes- 
sion at Amherst, this Province, where he was succeeding admirably. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 215 

Upon the outbreak of the great European war in 1914, he offered 
his services the day Great Britain declared war. He had entered 
the militia in 1905, when only fourteen years of age, as sergeant, 
and when sixteen took a course at Ouel>ec and received a commis- 
sion at the time of the coronation of King George, and he was pres- 
ent at that event, as a lieutenant of cavalry, being the youngest 
officer from Canada to attend that function. This was previous to 
his graduation at Wolfville, and he was one of the twelve selected as 
a guard of honor to the King. He received his commission as lieu- 
tenant in the Kings County Hussars, and drilled at Yal Carder and 
was sent across with the Sixth Mounted Rifles, under Col. Ryan, 
and he is now in the trenches, (January, 1916). He is a fine ath- 
lete, and while in school was captain of the Acadia football team, 
also of the football team at Dalhousie University. 

During the summer of 1915 one man from each regiment at 
Napier Barracks, England, was selected for a staff course to qualify 
for the rank of major, and Lieutenant Pineo was the only officer 
from the Maritime Provinces selected, and he was graduated with 
the highest mark of the forty-seven men who took the examination. 
He is a young man of brilliant intellect and also of splendid physique 
six feet and one inch in height, and weighs nearly two hundred 
pounds. The Pineos have been noted for their large stature. Our 
subject is exceptionally tall and his father, Henry Pineo weighed 
over three hundred pounds. 

GEORGE ERASTUS DE WITT, M. D. 

One of the conscientious and widely known general physicians 
of Nova Scotia who has in every way deserved his success is Dr. 
George Erastus De Witt, formerly of Halifax, but now of Wolf- 
ville. He was born at Bridgetown, Annapolis County, this Pro- 
vince, October 15, 1842. He is a son of Jacob and Caroline Eliza 
(Pineo) DeWitt, the father a native of Bridgetown and the mother 
of Canning, Nova Scotia. The ancestors on the father's side were 
Dutch and settled in New York. The great grandfather was a 
Loyalist, and he came to Annapolis Royal, Nova Sciotia, after the 
American Revolution, between 1876 and 1884, receiving a grant of 
land at Bridgetown, Annapolis County, which extended from the 
Annapolis River to the Bay of Fundy. There he carved out a good 
farm from the wilds and established the future home of the family, 
members of which have been well and favorably known there for 



2l6 HISTORY OF NOVA_ SCOTIA. 

several generations. George Erastus Pineo, the Doctor's maternal 
grandfather, was of French descent, and he made his home at Can- 
ning, Kings County. 

Dr. De Witt received his early education at Bridgetown, then 
Dalhousie Medical College, 1869 and 1870 entered Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Massachusetts, from which he was graduated (the 
medical department) in 1872. Returning to Nova Scotia he began 
practicing his profession in Chester, where he remained until 1886, 
when, seeking a larger field for his work, he located in Halifax and 
enjoyed a good practice there, where he took an active part in public 
health, was a member of the Board of Health and for a time assist- 
ant city medical officer until 1892, when he came to Wolfville, where 
he has remained in the practice to the present time, his name becom- 
ing a household word to this locality, and he has had good success 
all along the line. 

Dr. De Witt was married July 7, 1873, to Henrietta M. Chip- 
man, a daughter of William and Lurana (Woodbury) Chipman of 
Middleton, Nova Scotia. To this union three children were born 
Stanley Chipman, Carrie Irene, and Harold E. The Doctor was 
married a second time, in Halifax, on October 20, 1880, to Annie 
Maria Brown, a daughter of Charles Edward Brown of that city, 
whose wife was Maria Connell, of Woodstock, New Brunswick. To 
the Doctor and his last wife the following children were born: Ed- 
ward Connell Avery, George Erastus Herman, Nellie Anderson, 
Arthur Welsford, Mary Marguerite and Kathleen Louise. 

Politically, Dr. De Witt is a Liberal-Conservative. He served as 
registrar of deeds for the District of Chester from 1878 to 1886. 
He was mayor of Wolfville three years, and also served as medical 
health officer for the town of Wolfville for ten years. Religiously, 
he is a Baptist and has belonged to the churches of these denomina- 
tions at Bridgetown, Chester, Halifax and Wolfville. Fraternally, he 
belongs to St. George's Lodge No. 22, Free and Accepted Masons. 
He is a member of the Canadian Medical Association, the Canadian 
Public Health Association, the Canadian Forestry Association, the 
Canadian Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis, the Nova 
Scotia Medical Society of which he was at one time president; the 
Valley Medical Society, of which he was the first president. Dr. 
De Witt is one of the pioneers in the campaign against tuberculosis 
in the maritime provinces and has always kept in close touch with 
the modern conquests, of medicine, and has been a constant attendant 
of and contributor to the chief medical societies of the Dominion. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 21 J 

MALCOLM R. ELLIOTT, M. D. 

One of the younger generation of physicians of Kings County 
who has made an auspicious start in his career is Dr. Malcolm R. 
Elliott of Wolfville. He was born at Clarence, Annapolis County, 
Nova Scotia, February 14, 1884. He is a son of Leonard and 
Clara M. (Freeman) Elliott, the former a native of Clarence, Xova 
Scotia, and the latter a native of Milton. Queens County, this Prov- 
ince. Joseph Elliott, the grandfather, \vas also born in the town of 
Clarence, where his parents settled in pioneer days. His wife, Sarah 
Leonard, was born at Paradise, this Province. Samuel Elliott, the 
great grandfather, was born at Clarence, and his wife. Priscilla 
Fellows, was a native of Granville, Xova Scotia. John Elliott, our 
subject's great-great-great grandfather was of border Scotch stock. 
He came to Xova Scotia, and here received a grant of land in \Yil- 
mot Township, which was virgin soil. This he cleared and devel- 
oped into a good farm, which his descendants continued to operate. 
Our subject's father and uncle now occupy quite a large portion of 
this orignial place. The family has been prominent and influential in 
the locality of Clarence. Whitman Freeman, the Doctor's maternal 
grandfather, who was a land surveyor, surveyed a large portion of 
Queens and Shelburne Counties. He was a son of a United Empire 
Loyalist. 

Leonard Elliott, the Doctor's father, is still actively engaged in 
general farming. He has long been deeply interested in public mat- 
ters and has taken an active and influential part in temperance work. 
He is a staunch Liberal-Conservative. His family consists of five 
children, of whom our subject was the third in order of birth. 
Joseph, the eldest son is now on the home farm ; Cora is a mission- 
ary in India; Evangeline is engaged in teaching; and Priscilla, the 
youngest, is at home with her parents. 

Dr. Malcolm R. Elliott grew to manhood on the farm and he 
received his early education in the public schools of his native vicin- 
ity. He engaged in teaching for three years ; later entered Acadia 
University at Wolfville, where he took his Arts degree; then en- 
tered the medical department of Harvard University, where he made 
a good record and from which institution he was graduated with 
the class of 1912, receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He 
then spent fourteen months in hospital practice at Xewton, Massa- 
chusetts. Thus well prepared for his life work he came to W r olf- 



2l8 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ville, Nova Scotia, where he began the practice, which has now 
grown to very satisfactory proportions. 

Dr. Elliott was married September 23, 1914, to Jean Steadman 
Haley of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. She is a daughter of Henry 
Haley, now a resident of St. Stephen, New Brunswick. Mrs. El- 
liott received excellent educational advantages. After passing through 
the public schools she entered Acadia University at Wolf ville, from 
which institution she was graduated in due course of time, later 
graduating from Simmons College at Boston, Massachusetts. 

Fraternally, Dr. Elliott belongs to the Masonic Blue Lodge, and 
he and his wife are members of the Baptist church. 

BRIEF HISTORY OF LYON'S BROOK. 

Lyon's Brook is located three miles from Pictou. It was named 
for Rev. James Lyon and from a brook which flows through the 
village, the waters of which have long been used to supply local 
tanneries. Its valley was densely wooded and inhabited by Indians 
and wild animals when the first white settlers came to its banks. 
They were from Philadelphia, and came in the ship Hope, landing 
at Pictou Harbour, June 10, 1767. Other settlers came from Scot- 
land in 1773 in the ship Hector. These pioneers cleared away the 
forests and made new homes, cultivating the rich land, and in due 
course of time this became one of the thriving farming communi- 
ties of the Province. 

The first religious services were held in the barn of a Mr. Pat- 
terson, which stood on the property now owned by Robert Fullerton. 
For many years Edward Fretrie conducted the Three Mile Inn here. 
The first shop owned by a Mr. Henderson, was built on the site of 
the Douglas Logan warehouse. Mr. Fretrie also owned a shop at 
the end of the Scotch Hill road. Charles Logan operated a can- 
nery, later conducted a store; both were burned in 1875. The first 
saw mill in Pictou County was located at Lyon's Brook, in 1769. 
It was built by William Kennedy of Truro. The McKenzie stone 
quarry was started about 1818, and was bought by the American 
Company about 1852. It continued to be worked until 1870. In 
following years stone was obtained here for the Local House in 
Halifax, also the Local House at Charlottetown, Prince Edward 
Island. John Patterson built the first town gut bridge in 1800 and 
in the same year the first saw mill bridge was built, and about the 
same time the West River road was constructed, being the first road 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 2Ip 

in Pictou County. Dr. Anderson was the first practicing physician 
in Lyon's Brook. James Hislop now lives in the house he resided in 
while here. The first house was built by a Mr. Fullerton and is now 
owned by James Dunlop. The first Sunday school held in Pictou 
County, if not in the Province, was held in Lyon's P>rook about the 
year 1775, by James Davidson, of Edinburgh, Scotland. He was 
also the first day school teacher here, holding school in a building 
where the McKean carriage and blacksmith shop now stands. The 
Rev. James Lyon was the second Sunday school teacher in this vi- 
cinity. A Mr. DeWolf built the first tannery in Lyon's Brook on 
the site of the present tannery owned by Robert Macdonald. A Mr. 
Wright established a tannery here in 1834 and John and Jean Fuller- 
ton succeeded DeWolf in this business, upon the latter's death in 
1833. In 1843 four ships were begun on what was known as Pat- 
terson's Point, and one vessel a year was turned out until 1847. The 
remains of this old ship-yard may still be seen. The builder was 
Alexander Brown. In 1843 a dancing school was taught here by 
Charles Arbuckle. John Logan started a tannery in 1848. It grew 
to be one of the most important tanneries in the Province and did 
a large business, and is still operated, about eighty thousand hides 
being shipped annually to all parts of the Dominion. It is operated 
by the Logan Tannery Company. A. C. McDonald was manager 
for many years. 

In 1864 the Society of the Sons of Temperance was started in 
Lyon's Brook. It is still in operation. Various small vessels have 
been built here from time to time and carriages have long been 
manufactured here. The first post office was started in 1888. Dougal 
Logan being the post master and he continued as such for many 
years. About 1888 the Short Line Railroad was built through this 
vicinity. Various stores were started about this period, in fact, the 
village has been an important trading center for this section of Pic- 
tou County for over a century. Various lodges were started here 
from fifteen to forty years or more ago and have been well attended. 
John Macdonald built the present station house in 1888. Various 
parties have operated blacksmith shops and shoe shops during the 
major portion of the life of the village. One of the earliest business 
houses was a tailor shop, built in 1813 by William Fraser. It was 
located where the Henderson house stood, opposite the Logan Tan- 
nery. Rev. James Lyon occupied a house situated where stands the 
present school building. Among others who built homes here in 



22O HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

pioneer days may be mentioned Jack Davis, a Mr. Kitchen, a Mr. 
Wade, a Mr. Jollomer and John Chisholm, who operated a black- 
smith shop back in the sixties. The town has always been a good 
place in which to live. 

THE MOST REV. CLARENDON LAMB WORRELL. 

The name of The Most Rev. Clarendon Lamb Worrell, the learned 
Archbishop of the Anglican church, needs no introduction to the 
people of Nova Scotia, where he has resided for many years and 
labored for the ameloriation of all classes, upholding the right as 
he has seen and understood the right in all the relations of life. He 
is a scion of one of the sterling old families of eastern Canada, and 
man}- uf the strong characteristics of his progenitors seem to have 
outcropped in him, and he has been most vigilant in keeping untar- 
nished the bright escutcheon of the family name, the Worrells hav- 
ing always been noted for their honesty, industry and readiness to 
assist in the general upbuilding of the communities in which they 
have selected as their homes. He is one of the noted churchmen 
of Canada. 

Archbishop Worrell was born at Smith's Falls, Ontario, July 20, 
1853. and is the second son of Rev. Canon J. B. Worrell, M. A., 
for many years rector at Oakville. Ontario. The mother of our 
subject was Elizabeth Lamb before her marriage. At the date of this 
sketch Cannon Worrell is still living and at the age of ninety-five, 
is hale and hearty. Archbishop Worrell was educated in Trinity 
College School at Port Hope, where he won the Chancellor's prize 
'as head boy, and Trinity University, Toronto, being the first Foun- 
dation scholar as head of his year, also the first Wellington scholar 
in 1871 and 1872. He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from 
that institution, and was a Prince of Wales prize man in 1873; he 
received the degree of Master of Arts in 1884, Doctor of Common 
Law in 1902; and Kings College University, gave him the hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1905. Bishops College, Len- 
noxville, conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1913. 

In the year 1877 he was united in marriage to Charlotte Ward, 
a daughter of the late Surg. -Major General T. W. Ward, F. R. C. 
S., Inspector-General of Hospitals at Bombay, India. She was a 
life member of the General Board of Missions of the Anglican 
church, president of the Woman's Auxiliary of the Anglican Dio- 
cese of Nova Scotia, and filled the same position in a similar organi- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 221 

zation for the Church of England Institute of Nova Scotia. Mrs. 
Worrell died August 23, 1915. 

Archbishop Worrell was ordained deacon in 1881, and priest in 
1884. He was curate of Christ church at Gananoque, Ontario, in 
1881, then was assistant of Holy Trinity at Brockville and principal 
of the Brockville Collegiate Institute from 1882 to 1884. He was 
rector at Williamsburg, Ontario from 1882 to 1886, and rector of 
St. James' at Morrisburg, Ontario, from 1886, to 1891, rector of 
St. Mark's, Barriefield, Ontario, from 1891 to 1903; then became 
rector of St. Luke's at Kingston, Ontario, in 1903 and 1904. He 
was professor of English literature in the Royal Military College at 
Kingston from 1891 to 1904. He was examining chaplain to the 
Bishop of Ontario from 1896 to 1904. He was archdeacon of On- 
tario in 1901. He was a member of the Corporation of Trinity 
University, Toronto, 1897 to T 94- He is visitor of King's College 
and chairman of the Board of Governors. He is chairman of Lec- 
tionary Committee for Prayer Book Review, general squad. He 
was consecrated Bishop of Nova Scotia, October 18, 1904, and was 
nominated to the Bishopric of Algoma by the House of Bishops, in 
1897. He was the layman's candidate for the Bishopric of Ontario 
in 190x3. But as the clergy were evenly divided between him and 
Professor Roper (now Bishop of Ottawa) a compromise was neces- 
sary and Bishop Walls was elected. 

He was Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Canada, Anck-nt 
Free and Accepted Masons in 1886-7. He was a delegate to the 
Pan-Anglican Congress in London, England, in 1908. He was pre- 
sented to the late King Edward and Queen Alexandra at Bucking- 
ham Palace, in 1908. He was president of the Anglican Church 
Congress in Halifax, in 1910. He completed and opened a new 
cathedral in Halifax in 1910. He has been president of the Lord's 
Day Alliance of Nova Scotia, and of the Moral and Social Reform 
Council of Nova Scotia. He was prolocutor of the Provincial Synod 
of Canada, in 1904. He was elected vice-president of the University 
fo Toronto Alumni Association in 1911. He was also vice-presir- 
dent of the local branch of the British Empire League in 1911. He 
is a fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. He is an ardent advo- 
cate of religious instruction in public schools as a part of the regu- 
lar curriculum. He is a staunch imperalist. He was elected presi- 
dent of the Canadian Club of Halifax in the autumn of 1915. The 
Montreal Standard has well said of him, "He is a pious and learned 



222 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

churchman, a capable organizer and a man of culture and experi- 
ence." 

In 1915 he was elected Metropolitan of the Ecclesiastical Prov- 
ince of Canada and so became Archbishop of Nova Scotia. His 
jurisdiction covers the civil Provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick and Prince Edward Island and includes the Dioceses of 
Nova Scotia, Fredericton, Quebec and Montreal. 

JOHN JOSEPH POWER. 

As a lawyer John Joseph Power, M. A., LL. M., D. C. L., Dr. 
Jur., K. C., of Halifax, is able, reliable, honest and safe. He 
always carefully studies his cases, and is therefore prepared to try 
them. He is a cultivated debater, clear and forcible in his logic, 
convincing in his argument, and ranks as one of the best of advo- 
cates. Courteous to his associates and opponents, he at all times 
preserves and maintains the character of a gentleman in his practice. 
He is a man of even temper, always dignified in his deportment to the 
court, as well as a witness, avoiding as far as possible wounding the 
feelings of any one. At the same time he is absolutely fearless in the 
discharge of his professional duties and sticks by his case and client 
till the "last gun is fired." 

Dr. Power was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, May 2, 1869. He is 
of Irish parentage, and is a son of Maurice Power and Catherine 
McNamara, his wife, both natives of Ireland, the father of County 
Waterford, and the mother of County Tipperary. They spent their 
earlier years in the Emerald Isle, from which they immigrated to 
Nova Scotia at an early day and established the family home at 
Pictou. 

John J. spent his boyhood in his native vicinity and received his 
education in Pictou Academy and holds degrees from Queen's Uni- 
versity, Kingston, Ontario, as Bachelor of Arts with honors in His- 
tory and Political Science in 1890 and that of Master of Arts at 
the University of Toronto in 1904. He taught as County Academy 
headmaster under Grade "A" Academic teachers' license for a 
number of years in high school in Nova Scotia in his early man- 
hood. He was also graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Laws 
in 1891 from the University of Toronto, and took the degree of Mas- 
ter of Laws from the same institution in 1913 with first class honors 
and the American Law Book Company prize. The degree of Bach- 
elor of Civil Law was conferred on him by Kings College Law 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



223 



School, St. John, New Brunswick, on examinations in Ancient and 
Roman Law in 1897, and Trinity University, Toronto, gave him the 
degree of Doctor of Civil Law in 1898 for a thesis and examination 
thereon, prescribed by the University and entitled "Actio pcrsonalis 
cum persona moritur" and published in the 1899 Canadian Law 
Times. For it he was specially recommended for the degree by the 
examiners of the late Britton Bath Osier, K. C. and Sir John Bouri- 
not who spoke in high terms of the essay. In 1915 he took 
the degree of Doctor of Law after studying at Columbia University 
Law School, New York. He was admitted to the bar of Nova Scotia 
in 1893, ar >d was created a King's Counsel by the government of 
Nova Scotia in 1907. He has built up a large practice in Halifax 
where he has ranked as one of the leaders of the bar for a number 
of years having practiced in the lowest and highest courts in the 
Empire from the justices' courts to the Supreme Court of Canada 
and Judicial Committee of the Imperial Privy Council. He was for 
two successive years vice-president of the Nova Scotia Barristers' 
Society, and five years a counsellor of the Nova Scotia Barristers' 
Society. Politically, he is a thorogoing Liberal, but independent of 
the expedients and discipline of party, a firm upholder of British 
connection and an ardent Home Ruler in Irish politics and believes 
in complete local autonomy for the British colonies. Religiously, he 
is a Roman Catholic. He married in 1895, Charlotte Hennigar of 
Hants County. 

HON. DAVID MAcKEEX. 

One of Nova Scotia's representative and honored citizens is the 
Hon. David MacKeen, the present efficient and popular Governor 
of this Province, whose activities during a long and successful ca- 
reer have been such as seemed to exercise to the full his somewhat 
varied and unusual abilities; a life that has carried with it the lesson 
that one whose capacity, while not the very greatest, may yet do 
great work by close devotion to the specific tasks. He has always 
been a busy man, an industrious man, and he has attained a place 
of high degree and importance in the Province in which he is a 
constant quantity. He is one of the kind that makes up the front 
rank, the kind that can be relied on, a good workman in the world's 
affairs, a splendid specimen of the many that do the real, useful work 
of the world in places of passing importance, and do it well. To 
offer in a work of this province an adequate resume of the career 



224 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of this important citizen would be impossible, but, with others of 
those who have conserved the civic and commercial progress of Nova 
Scotia, we may well note the more salient points that have marked 
his life and labors. Governor MacKeen has long been a dominating 
power in public utilities as well as extensive private operations of a 
varied nature. He has achieved a position not only as one of our 
leading legislators but also as one of the substantial men of the Mari- 
time Provinces, gaining his success through legitimate and worthy 
means, and he stands as a singularly admirable type of the success- 
ful self-made man. 

Governor MacKeen was born at Mabou, Inverness County, Nova 
Scotia, September 20, 1839. He is of Celtic extraction, and a son 
of Hon. ^Yilliam MacKeen, who was for some time a member of the 
Legislative Council of Xova Scotia and a prominent man in his day 
and generation. David MacKeen grew to manhood in his native- 
community, and received his early education in the schools of Mabou, 
but he has continued a student and has greatly increased his general 
learning in later years by wide miscellaneous home reading and study, 
until he is today an exceptionally well informed man on a great 
variety of topics. When but a boy he entered business life and he 
has been long and intimately connected with commercial, banking 
and manufacturing life. In his early years he was agent and treas- 
urer of the Caledonia Coal & Railroad Company, and later was 
general manager of the Dominion Coal & Steel Company, which po- 
sition he resigned in 1896. He was also a United States consular 
agent, a sub-collector of customs and warden of the County of Cape 
Breton, performing his duties in these positions in a faithful and 
acceptable manner. He is a director of the Royal Bank of Canada, 
the Eastern Trust Company, the Dominion Iron & Steel Company 
and director of the Dominion Coal & Steel Company. He is also a 
governor of Dalhousie University. 

Politically, he is a Conservative and has long been one of the 
leaders of his party. He sat for Cape Breton County in the House 
of Commons from 1887 to 1896. He was called to the Senate by 
Lord Aberdeen, on February 21, 1896, and retained that office for 
a period of nearly twenty years, making his influence felt for the 
general good. He was appointed Governor of Nova Scotia in Octo- 
ber, 1915, and hi is fully meeting the expectations of his friends as 
chief executive. He was strongly opposed to the Taft-Fielding reci- 
procity agreement, which was voted on in 1911. He is a member of 



- =-* H 



a 



2 2 a 

5 X 

x' O 




=5 (-3 



C V? La 

*" C ~ 

5 O 



II 




HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 225 

the Halifax Rideau, Mount Royal and other clubs. The late Rt. 
Hon. Sir Charles Tupper said of him : "A man of high intelligence, 
probity and honor." 

Governor MacKeen has been three times married, first, in 1867, 
to Isabel Poole, a daughter of H. Poole, of Derby, England; sec- 
ondly, in 1877, to Frances M. Lawson, a daughter of William Law- 
son, of Halifax; thirdly, in 1888, to Jane K. Crerar, eldest daughter 
of John Crerar, for many years a ship owner of Halifax. 

HON. LAWRENCE GEOFFREY POWER. 

One of the men who have stamped their strong individuality 
upon the minds of the people of Nova Scotia in such a manner as to 
render them conspicuous characters of the locality with which this 
history deals, is the Hon. Lawrence Geoffrey Power, lawyer and 
prominent statesman of Halifax. Faithfulness to duty and a strict 
adherence to a fixed purpose, which always do more to advance a 
man's interest than wealth or advantageous circumstances, have been 
dominating factors in his life, which has been replete with honor 
and success worthily attained. 

Mr. Power was born in Halifax, August 9, 1841. He is of Irish 
descent and a son of the late Patrick Power, for many years a well 
known merchant at Halifax, who sat for Halifax County in the 
House of Commons, in the Liberal interests, in the early days of 
Confederation. The mother of our subject was Ellen Gaul before 
her marriage. 

Lawrence G. Power grew to manhood in his native city where he 
received his early education in St. Mary's College. He later studied 
at Carlow College, the Catholic University of Ireland, and Harvard 
University, from which last institution he received the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws in 1866. Ottawa University conferred on him 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1901. 

In Tune, 1880, he was united in marriage to Susan O'Leary, a 
daughter of M. O'Leary, of West Quoddy, Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Power was admitted to the bar in 1866, and was successful 
in the practice of his profession, and he has been regarded as one of 
the leading legal lights of the Province for forty years. He was 
clerk assistant and clerk of bills in the House of Assembly from 
1867 to 1876. He served as an alderman in Halifax for four years 
and was for thirteen years a member of the city school board. He 

(IS) 



226 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

was called to the senate by the Earl of Dufferin, February 2, 1877. 
He was appointed speaker of the senate, January 29, 1901 ; sworn 
of the Privy Council, January n. 1905. He is a senator of the 
University of Halifax, a director of the School for the Blind, and 
of the School for the Deaf and also of the Halifax Visiting Dispen- 
sary. He is a vice-president of the Dominion Rifle Association. 
He has been a vice-president of the Victoria School of Art and De- 
sign. He is president of the Nova Scotia Game Society. He is 
author of various contributions to literature, including "Richard 
John Uniacke: a Sketch," which was published in 1891, "The Irish 
Discover America," read in 1895, and "The Honorable John W. 
Ritchie" read in December, 1915: also of a brochure on the Manitoba 
school question, published in 1896, and was chairman of the com- 
mittee which prepared and reported the existing Manual of Rules and 
Regulations of the Senate, published in 1907. 

Many years ago he wrote considerably for the newspapers. He 
takes a deep interest in the Defence of Canada and has published two 
articles on the subject in the Canadian Magazine, the latter as late as 
December, 1915. 

lie was one of the five members of the senate selected to repre- 
sent that body at King George and Queen Mary's coronation, June, 
1911. Fie was presented to their majesties at Buckingham Palace, 
June 27, 191 1. 

PETER F. MARTIN. 

The present mayor of the City of Halifax, Peter F. Martin, is 
a man who has risen to his commanding nitche in the structure of the 
body politic through his individual efforts by laboring faithfully 
and persistently along legitimate and time-honored lines for his own 
welfare and that of his fellow men ever alert to further in any 
way the general public good, and he is therefore eminently deserving 
of the success and popularity he has attained. 

Mr. Martin was torn in Halifax County January 13, 1855, and is 
the son of Francis and Elizabeth (Connors) Martin, both natives 
of Halifax County. The father's death occurred in early life, some 
fifty years ago, while the mother survived to the advanced age of 
eighty-five years, dying in 1915. The paternal grandfather was a 
native of Ireland, where his wife, Mary, was also born, and there 
they grew up and were married, but soon thereafter immigrated to 
Nova Scotia where they established the future home of the family. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 227 

The father of our subject engaged in commercial fishing for a 
livelihood. 

Peter F. Martin received his education in Christian Brothers 
School. He began life as a painter and decorator in Halifax and 
built up a large business with advancing years, and is still conduct- 
ing a large establishment under the firm name of Martin & Moore. 

Mr. Martin was married July 4, 1881, to Elizabeth Sullivan, a 
daughter of Matthew Sullivan, a native of Ireland, and now de- 
ceased. Eight children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Martin, 
namely: Balfor Francis, Vivian J., Mary, Melnott P., Rev. Cyril 
J., Rev. Ferdinand P., Gerlidean, and John. 

Politically, Mr. Martin is a Conservative. He has been an alder- 
man of Halifax for the past fifteen years, lie was made mayor 
of the city in 1915, the duties of which office he has discharged in 
an able and eminently satisfactory manner. He has done much for 
the general development and welfare of his home city, whose inter- 
ests he has very much at heart. Religiously, he is a Roman Catholic. 
He belongs to the Charitable Irish Society, the Knights of Columbus, 
the City Club and the Commercial Club. 

WILLIAM MACDONALD. 

The law is one of the oldest of human institutions and its perfec- 
tion has been reached by centuries of study and effort. Our legisla- 
tion, national and provincial, is but the embodiment of the experience 
and the result of the work of the legal profession for thousands of 
years. One of the well-equipped and successful barristers of Pictou 
County is William Macdonald of the town of Pictou. 

He was born at Ponds, Pictou County, March 9, 1865. He is a 
son of Angus and Margaret (McLellan) Macdonald, both parents 
natives of that county, the father born at Little Harbour and the 
mother at West River. The mother is a cousin of Dr. Robert 
McLellan, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. The 
Macdonalds were of the early Scotch stock. The father of our sub- 
ject removed to the town of Pictou in 1865 and engaged in the 
grocery business which he continued for a number of years, and later 
accepted a position in the customs department, in which he continued 
until his death, in 1908, at the age of seventy-seven years. His 
family consisted of nine children, five of whom are still living, Will- 
iam of this sketch, being-,the second in order of birth. 

Our subject was reared in Pictou and there received his early 



228 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

education in the public schools and the Pictou Academy from which 
he was graduated, then entered Dalhousie University at Halifax. On 
the entrance examination he was successful in securing a Monroe 
Exhibition, valued at four hundred dollars. This was in the fall of 
1884. In 1886 he took a Monroe Bursary of three hundred dollars, 
and was graduated from the arts department, with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in 1888. In the autumn of that year he entered 
the law department of that institution and was given the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws in 1890. As a law student he was articled to Sir 
Robert L. Borden, the present Prime Minister of Canada. After 
his graduation he began the practice of his profession at Truro, this 
Province, where he remained until 1900 enjoying a good practice. 
In that year he removed to Pictou where he has since remained. 
Here, too, he has built up a large and lucrative clientage. 

Mr. Macdonald was married in November, 1895, to Maggie 
Babbin, of Pictou, a daughter of the late Capt. Jeffrey Babbin. To 
this union three children have been born, namely : Margaret, May, 
and Cecilia, all at home. 

Politically, he is a Conservative, and he has long taken an active 
part in party affairs, being interested in whatever makes for the 
good of the public and the upbuilding of his town and county par- 
ticularly. 

CHARLES STANLEY MARTIN. 

One of the enterprising business men of Sydney, Nova Scotia, 
is Charles Stanley' Martin, who was born March 13, 1872, in South 
Wales, England. He is a son of Henry William and Anna E. 
(Forster) Martin. The father was born in Great Britain in 1845. 

Charles S. Martin grew up in England where he received his edu- 
cation in the public schools, later attending Athenaeum University, 
in Brussels, Belgium. After leaving school he returned to England 
and worked in the Hawaatite Steel Company's plant at Barrow-in- 
Furness, where he served his apprenticeship. He was superintendent 
of the Beswaatte Steel Works from 1890 to 1894, then for over 
a year was manager of the Cyfarthfa Steel Works in South Wales. 
He went to Hughesoffka, in southern Russia, for the purpose of 
erecting and managing the Bessemer Steel Department for the New 
Russia Company. He came to Sydney, Nova Scotia, a number of 
years ago where he has since made his home, and has an important 
position with the Dominion Coal & Steel Company. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 22Q 

JOHN URQUHART ROSS. 

Observation by a fair minded person invariably leads to the con- 
clusion that lawyers, as a class of men, stand as high for right living, 
honesty and fair dealing as any other engaged in active business life. 
One of the barristers of Pictou County, who has ever enjoyed an 
excellent reputation for probity of character, is John Urquhart Ross, 
of the town of Pictou, in which place his birth occurred on March 
25, 1856. He is a son of Alexander Peter Ross, a native of Halifax, 
and Sarah (McKay) Ross, a native of Pictou. John Ross, the grand- 
father, was torn in England, from which country he came to Xova 
Scotia as paymaster in the British navy, which position he filled until 
his retirement. At an early age the father of our subject came to 
Pictou Academy as a student of the celebrated Dr. McCulloch, his 
classmates being Sir William Young, George R. Young, Sir Hugh 
Hoyles and others who became prominent in the affairs of the 
Province. The elder Ross studied law in the office of Robie & John- 
son and was admitted to the bar, October 22, 1824, his original cer- 
tificate being in the possession of his son, our subject. It was signed 
by Chief Justice J. J. Blower. Mr. Ross l>egan the practice of law 
at Pictou, but remained there only a short time when he retired from 
the bar and entered into partnership with the late James Primrose, 
under the firm name of Ross & Primrose, doing a general mercantile 
and shipping business, continuing a few years when they dissolved 
partnership and Mr. Ross conducted the business alone until his death 
in 1872. He was not only a successful man of affairs but was a 
highly esteemed citizen, and he was offered a seat in the Provincial 
Senate by Hon. Joseph Howe, with whom he was on intimate terms, 
but he declined the honor. He was a well informed man. He was 
one of the founders of the first reading room in Pictou and was one of 
the loyal supporters of the Pictou Academy. He was a man of 
optimism, and he anticipated the coal and iron industries of that 
locality. His wife, mother of our subject, was the daughter of 
Roderick McKay, for many years customs officer of Pictou County. 
He was a son of Roderick McKay, Sr., an early settler in Pictou 
County. 

John U. Ross received his elementary education in private schools, 
and in 1867 entered the old Pictou Academy, then entered the law 
office of John David McLeod, present judge of Probate, and he was 
admitted to the bar in 1883. He began the practice of his profes- 



230 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

sion in Pictou in 1885. He associated with him as a partner W. E. 
Maclellan, now post office inspector of Nova Scotia. The partner- 
ship under the style of Ross & Maclellan continued successfully for 
about six years when Mr. Maclellan was appointed school inspector 
of Pictou County. 

Mr. Ross has been very successful as a barrister, enjoying a 
large clientage. In 1909 he was appointed a member of the Board 
of Public Utilities, of which he was made chairman in 1912, which 
position he still holds. He has discharged his duties in this connec- 
tion in an able and commendable manner. 

Politically, he is a Liberal. He was made King's Counsel on June 
21, 1907. 

Mr. Ross was twice married ; first, to Anabel McKenzie who died 
without issue, and afterwards to Annie Moss, a daughter of William 
Moss, of Portage La Prairie, Manitoba. To this union the following 
children have been born : Thomas E., Dorothy, John U., Alexander 
E., and Phyllis L. 

NEIL J. GILLIS. 

Neil J. Gillis, of Glace Bay, Cape Breton County, was born at 
Jamesville, Victoria County, Capt Breton, in December, 1867. He 
is a scion of an old family of the northern part of Nova Scotia, men- 
tion of whom will be found on another page of this work. 

After his school days Mr. Gillis engaged in clerking in Glace 
Bay, and in 1900 he was elected at a bye-election to the Provincial 
House, and re-elected at the general election in 1901, and in 1906 
was again elected at the general election. He has long been success- 
fully engaged in the insurance business at Glace Bay. He has also 
held the office of justice of the peace for some time. 

Mr. Gillis was married in October, 1891, to Jennie McKinnon, of 
Glace Bay, a daughter of Donald McKinnon, representative of an 
old Scotch family. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Gillis the following children have been born : 
John is a mechanical engineer; Mary is the wife of Walter Boudreare, 
of Glace Bay ; Annie, Jennie, Hugh and Donald are all attending 
school. 

Politically, Mr. Gillis is a Liberal. He is secretary of St. Joseph's 
Hospital Board. He belongs to the Knights of Columbus, and to 
the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 23.! 

WILLIAM CAMERON. 

It is .men of broad and comprehensive views who give life to 
communities men who have foresight and energy, pluck and cour- 
age to forward whatever enterprise they are interested in and who 
still retain an untarnished reputation through it all. Such a man 
is William Cameron, the present county clerk of Pictou County, and 
who has long been a resident of the town of Pictou. 

Mr. Cameron was born at Sutherlands River, Pictou County, 
September 25, 1847, anc l is a son of Alexander and Margaret 
(McKay) Cameron, the former a native of Fraser's Mountain, and 
the latter of New Glasgow, both of Pictou County. The mother 
was a grand daughter of the original Squire McKay. Grandfather 
Donald Cameron was a native of Inverness, Scotland, who came to 
Nova Scotia in 1801, his eldest son having been born in Scotland. 
The family located on a farm at Fraser's Mountain, three miles from 
New Glasgow and there became comfortably established through 
their industry. There Alexander Cameron, father of our subject, 
grew to manhood and received such education as the early-day 
schools afforded, and upon reaching his majority bought a farm in 
that neighborhood on which he spent the rest of his life. lie was 
a deacon in the Kirk at New Glasgow for many years. His death 
occurred at the age of eighty. His family consisted of three sons and 
five daughters, only one of whom, our subject, now survives. 

William Cameron grew up on the home farm where he worked 
when a boy and he received his education in the public schools in his 
district, then attended the Pictou Academy from which he was gradu- 
ated, later entering Dalhousie University, at Halifax, and was 
graduated from that institution in 1873. He began his life work 
by teaching school at New Glasgow and Bridgewater, Lunenburg 
County, and other places, and met with pronounced success as an 
educator. In 1887 he was elected by acclamation to the Local House 
and was re-elected in 1890, and again in 1894. serving eleven years, 
making an excellent record as a public servant, doing much for the 
general upbuilding of his town and locality. 

During this time he was engaged in farming, and in 1907 he 
was elected by the county council as county clerk which position he 
has since held, giving entire satisfaction. 

Mr. Cameron was married in January, 1882, to Mary Catherine 
Dawson, a grand daughter of John Dawson, one of the earliest 
merchants in Pictou. John Dawson was a prominent merchant and 



232 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

met with a large degree of success. He left a number of daughters 
who married in England, the present Baron Law being a descendant. 
Another daughter married one of the Kidsons, a member of a promi- 
nent family of ship builders and owners. 

Two children have been born to William Cameron and wife', 
namely : Donald Alexander is engaged in business with headquarters 
in New Glasgow; Christiana, deceased, was the wife of Rev. Fred- 
erick Paton, missionary to the New Hebrides, where his wife died 
in 1914. 

Politically, Mr. Cameron is a Conservative. Fraternally, he is 
a Free Mason, and a member of the Presbyterian church. 

JOHN W. MACKAY. 

In the practice of law, John W. Mackay of Pictou, Nova Scotia, 
has attained to a laudable position in his profession, and his reputa- 
tion for honesty, integrity and fidelity to his clients, and all confi- 
dence and trusts committed to him, whether professional or other- 
wise, is firmly established. 

Mr. Mackay was lx>rn at Earltown, Colchester County, April 13, 
1872. He is a son of William J. and Jeanette (Murray) Mackay, 
the father a native of Dalhousie, Pictou County, and the mother 
was born at Earltown, Colchester County. Alexander Mackay, the 
grandfather, was born at Gaulspie, Scotland, from which country 
he came to Nova Scotia as a young man and settled at Dalhousie, 
Pictou County, where he spent the rest of his life, living to an 
advanced age. His family consisted of four daughters and three 
sons. The father of our subject received a good education for those 
early days and he engaged in teaching for a number of years. He 
established his home at Earltown, Colchester County, where he was 
finally made justice of the peace, and also had the mail contract 
between Pictou and Earltown. He was a faithful public official and 
a highly respected citizen. His death occurred in 1877, and his 
widow survived until 1914, dying at the advanced age of eighty- 
seven years. Their family consisted of five daughters and two sons 
of whom the subject of this sketch was fourth in order of birth. 

John W. Mackay received his elementary education in the public 
schools at Earltown. He then went to West Branch, River John, 
where he went into business with his brother, Robert A. Mackay, 
and conducted a general store for three years, then entered Pictou 
Academy, where he took a course after which he matriculated at 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 233 

Dalhousie University, completing the law course, in which he was 
graduated in 1897. He was admitted to the bar in due time and 
was articled with the late James McG. Stewart. After his license 
to practice in 1898 he formed a partnership with C. E. Tanner 
and they have since conducted very successfully a general law 
practice at Pictou, and they are enjoying a growing business. 

Mr. Mackay was married in July, 1903, to Frances Ferguson of 
Pictou. She is a daughter of A. A. Ferguson, a sketch of whom will 
be found on another page of this work. Two children have been 
born to our subject and wife, Dorothy Willmina, and Fergus Stewart 
Mackay. 

Taking an interest in political affairs, Mr. Mackay has been 
entrusted with public positions. He was elected county councillor 
in 1898, which position he has held continuously to the present time, 
giving entire satisfaction. He represents West Branch, River John. 
He has had but one election, the poll then standing fifteen to one 
hundred and thirty in his favor. He was warden of the Council of 
Pictou County for two years and has done much for the general 
welfare of his county. He is now serving as deputy warden. Fra- 
ternally, he is a member of the Masonic Order the Blue Lodge. He 
is president of the Union of the Nova Scotia Municipalities, which 
meets yearly at different places. All incorporated towns and munici- 
palities take an active part in the work of this union. Politically, 
he is a Conservative. 

J. W. CUNNINGHAM. 

One of the enterprising business men of New Glasgow of a past 
generation was the late J. W. Cunningham, of the firm of J. W. 
Cunningham & Son, Limited, manufacturers of coal drills, machines, 
tools and mine cars. The business was established in 1902 and it 
grew rapidly, finally employing fifty-seven men, and manufactured 
a large portion of the mining machinery used in the coal mines of 
the Maritime Provinces. The plant is well located, and is equipped 
with the latest and most approved machinery. 

Upon the death of Mr. Cunningham of this review, his son 
James Thomas Cunningham, became manager of the business which 
he has since carried forward successfully. An extensive market 
has been secured in western Canada, the firm having well-established 
connections at Vancouver and other western points, also has a ware- 
house and office at Lethbridge. The business was incorporated in 



234 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

1913. The son is a member of the town council of New Glasgow, 
also commissioner, and a member of the school board. He is a 
Liberal-Conservative, and belongs to the Presbyterian church. 

DUNCAN H. MAcKAY. 

During his residence of a half century, or all his life, in Cape 
Breton, Duncan H. MacKay of Glace Bay has figured as one of our 
most enterprising dealers in live stock and farmers' products. He has 
been by no means an idle spectator to the growth of the county in 
various industries until it today ranks among the best in the Province 
in wealth and importance. He is a man of progressive ideas and 
has done much to encourage better methods of agriculture and a 
better grade of cattle in Cape Breton. 

He was born at Lake Ainslie, Cape Breton County, in October, 
1865. He is a son of Lachlaw and Mary (McMillan) MacKay, both 
natives of the same place in which our subject was born, and there 
they grew to maturity, attended school and were married. James 
MacKay, the grandfather, was born on the Isle of Mug, Scotland, 
from which county he came to Nova Scotia, settling at Lake Ainslie 
about the year 1826. He got a grant of land from the Crown, which 
land he helped redeem from the forest. He died as the result of an 
accident when about fifty years of age. His family consisted of 
five children, of whom Lachlaw MacKay, father of our subject, was 
the youngest. He grew up on the home farm and received one-half 
of the same. The second brother, Hector, went to New Zeland 
during the gold excitement of the fifties, and there he remained, 
but kept up a correspondence with the family in Nova Scotia until 
his death in 1914 at an advanced age. He reared a large family, 
and was very successful in a business way. Lachlaw MacKay built 
a saw mill and grist mill, which he conducted during his lifetime, 
dying in 1903. His wife preceded him to the grave in 1901. To 
these parents seven children were born, of whom Duncan H. Mac- 
Kay of this sketch was the fifth in order of birth. 

Our subject spent his boyhood on the home farm and received 
his education in the district schools. When seventeen years of age 
he started into the live stock business, buying and trading in cattle, 
bringing them to Sydney to market, continuing in this line of 
endeavor for a number of years and meeting with gratifying suc- 
cess. During this period he established a country store which he 
operated eight years, enjoying a good trade. He then moved to Glace 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 235 

Bay, and has here continued his business successfully. He now has 
a large cold storage plant there, also one at Sydney, both doing an 
excellent business. He has handled as high as two thousand western 
cattle and a large number of local stock a year. 

Mr. MacKay was married in 1898 to Catherine Mclnnes of 
Beachmont, Cape Breton County. She is a daughter of John R. 
Mclnnes, and a granddaughter of Captain Mclnnes, a man of promi- 
nence in his day. 

To our subject and wife eleven children, seven boys and four 
girls, have been born. 

Politically, he is a Liberal. Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic- 
Blue Lodge. He is a member of the Presbyterian church. 

JOHN A. FFRdUSOX. 

It is not the kind of work, but the kind of spirit with which it 
is done that dignifies and exalts human service. This is a thought 
that should put heart into every worker, put glow and cheer into his 
service and fill him with a large degree of satisfaction in doing the 
work that nature seems to have, in a way, appointed to him. fohn 
A. Ferguson, chief engineer for the Dominion Coal Company at 
New Aberdeen, Cape Breton, is a man who gets satisfaction out of 
his daily tasks and therefore his work is not only well done, but life 
is worth living to him. 

Mr. Ferguson was born at Morien, Cape Breton County, Xova 
Scotia, October 15, 1866, and is a son of Angus R. and Margaret T- 
(McAskill) Ferguson, natives of Scotland and Antigonish. Xova 
Scotia, respectively. The father came to Canada when young and 
married in Cape Breton and established his home there. 

Our subject grew to manhood in his native county, and received 
his education at Morien, and in early life began working for the 
Dominion Coal Company, first as a mechanic in Morien, later at the 
Caledonia Mines as chief engineer for nine years. He has remained 
with the company continuously to the present time, and, being con- 
scientious, wide-awake and honest his rise has been gradual until 
he is now chief engineer of the company's Xo. 2 mine at Xew Aber- 
deen. No 2 mine is a big collier and is now working two seams 
and has an output of 5,000 tons daily; also has the continual electric 
power house for all the colliers of the Dominion Coal Company. 

Mr. Ferguson was married September 27, 1888, to Bessie Car- 
michael, a daughter of Charles and Elizabeth (Bonar) Carmichael, 



236 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

both of whom were born in Scotland from which country they came 
to Cape Breton many years ago and are now living in Glace Bay. 
Our subject and wife have eight children, namely: Cassie H., Cora 
M., Elizabeth C, Angus E., Jessie M., Charles G., Archibald M., 
and McAskill. 

Mr. Ferguson is a member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, is also an Orangeman, and he belongs to the Presbyterian 
church at New Aberdeen. 

ALEXANDER MAcDOUGALL. 

Every human being either submits to the controlling influence of 
others or wields an influence which touches, controls, guides or 
misdirects others. If he be honest and successful in his chosen field 
of endeavor, investigation will brighten his fame and point the way 
along which others may follow with like success. Viewed in this 
light a study of the record of Alexander MacDougall, the present 
county treasurer of Pictou County, will doubtless be beneficial to 
the reader. 

Mr. MacDougall was bom at Blue Mountain, Pictou County, 
June 6, 1864. He is a son of Roderick and Mary (Meikle) Mac- 
Dougall, the father born at Blue Mountain and the mother at Went- 
worth's Grant, Pictou County. They were reared, educated ind 
married in their native county where they established their future 
home. John MacDougall, the paternal grandfather, was a native of 
Inverness, Scotland. He married Jessie MacDougall, who was born 
and reared in his native vicinity, but was of no relation. She was an 
aunt of the present deputy minister of customs, John MacDougall, 
C. M. G. of Ottawa. Grandfather MacDougall was one of the pio- 
neer settlers at Blue Mountain. There he engaged in farming, also 
conducted a store one of the first in that district in fact, was 
the first store between New Glasgow and Sherbrooke. This store 
is still conducted by a brother of the subject of this sketch, William 
MacDougall. The grandfather also took an active part in church 
work and was an elder in the Free Church for many years. He died 
at the age of sixty-eight years. 

Roderick MacDougall, father of our subject, was reared on the 
home farm where he continued to reside, engaged in general farming, 
also conducted the store which his father established, and he took an 
active part in public affairs, and was elected annually to the municipal 
conventions, serving his community for a period of fourteen years, 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 237 

he having been a justice of the peace, the duties of which office he 
discharged in an able and satisfactory manner. He always took an 
active interest in the old court of sessions. The last year he was 
in office he served as warden of the council, having succeeded the 
late Robert McNeill. He was also an elder in the church and he 
took an active part in educational matters, in fact, was a leader in 
all movements that had for their object the general good of his 
community and county. He was highly esteemed by all who knew 
him. His death occurred in 1910 at the age of seventy-four years. 
His widow is still living, being now seventy-six years old. To 
these parents five sons and two daughters were born, of whom the 
subject of this sketch is the oldest. All the children are still living. 
Two brothers make their home in Arizona. John, the second son, is 
superintendent of the power plant for the Phelps-Dodge Company's 
copper mine and railroad in Morenci, Arizona ; Roderick is mechani- 
cal superintendent at the same plant ; Fred, the youngest of the fam- 
ily, is part owner and general manager of a hardware store in El 
Paso, Texas; Mary married L. J. Owen, who is superintendent of the 
Phelps-Dodge Company's store at Morenci, Arizona ; Jessie is the 
wife of Alexander Chisholm, and they live on a farm adjoining the 
original homestead ; William conducts the original store started by 
the grandfather. 

Alexander MacDougall of this sketch grew up on the home farm 
where he assisted with the work when a boy, and he received his 
education in the public schools. He continued farming until 1896 
with successful results, in which year he was appointed county treas- 
urer, which position he has since filled to the eminent satisfaction 
of all concerned, discharging his duties in a faithful and able manner, 
as might be surmised from the fact that he has been retained in 
this important office for a period of nearly twenty years. He was 
appointed a stipendiary magistrate for the County of Pictou in 1898 
and discharged the duties of that office in addition to that of County 
Treasurer. 

Mr. MacDougall was married in September, 1883, to Christy J. 
Chisholm of Blue Mountain, Pictou County. She is a daughter of 
Robert Chisholm, a representative of one of the old Scotch families 
of that locality. 

The union of our subject and wife has been without issue. 
Politically, Mr. MacDougall is a Liberal. Fraternally, he is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Blue Lodge, the Chapter and the Temple. He is 



238 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

a past master, as are also his three brothers, although each have 
belonged to separate lodges. Our subject and wife are members of 
the Knox Presbyterian church. 

ALEXANDER MATHESON. 

Alex. Matheson was born at St. Esprit, Richmond County, Nova 
Scotia, March 27, 1846. He is a son of Duncan and Jessie (Mac- 
Lennan) Matheson. The father was born at Plockton, Ross-shire, 
Scotland, and came with his parents to this country in 1820, the 
mother was born at Malagawatch, Cape Breton. 

Our subject was educated in the schools of Sydney, and there 
engaged in business until 1880 when he was appointed postmaster 
at that place, which position he has held ever since. He is a Presby- 
terian, a member of St. Andrews church, Sydney. He is unmarried. 

CONRAD O. H. WEBSTER, D. D. S. 

Few professions have l^een characterized by greater strides during 
the past two decades than dentistry. In order to meet the require- 
ments, thinking men have devoted their attention to this subject, great 
institutions have been established and the race has been greatly 
blessed along these lines. One of the exponents of this science in 
Pictou County is Dr. Conrad O. H. Webster of the city of Pictou. 
He is a descendant of the prominent old Webster family of Nova 
Scotia, and he was born at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, July 12, 1873. 
He is a son of Dr. J. L. R. Webster, a native of Yarmouth and 
for many years a leading physician of that place. The mother of 
our subject was Helen O. Geddes, eldest daughter of Dr. T. O. 
Geddes of Barrington, this Province. 

Dr. Webster grew to manhood' in his native town and there 
received his early education in the public schools. Deciding to take 
up the dental profession he went to Boston, Massachusetts, where 
he took the course at the Boston Dental College, from which institu- 
ion he was graduated in 1895, and took a post-graduate course at 
the Harvard Dental School, a department of Harvard University, 
in 1912. After graduating he returned to Nova Scotia and began 
the practice of his profession at Pictou, where he has remained to the 
present time. He has enjoyed a large and growing practice all the 
while and occupies a prominent position in the ranks of his profes- 
sional brethren in that part of the Province. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



239 



Dr. Webster was married on November 15, 1889, to Ella L. 
Langille, a daughter of Amos W. Langille and Mary Ann (Mac- 
Bain) Langille of East Earltown, Nova Scotia. To the Doctor and 
wife three children have been torn, namely: Helen Geddes, Donald 
Robertson, and Margaret Dorothy. 

Politically, he is a Liberal ; religiously, a Presbyterian. 

M. T. SULLIVAN, M. D. 

It was Thoreau who said that men would be better if they had 
sufficient vision to look below the surface of things. This vision 
is not vouchsafed to many, but one of the favored in this respect is 
evidently Dr. M. T. Sullivan, a well known physician of New Aber- 
deen, Cape Breton County, whose career has been an interesting and 
varied one and of benefit to humanity, and withal a true gentleman 
who deserves the high respect in which he is universally held. 

Dr. Sullivan was torn at Glace Bay, Cape Breton, March 13, 
1874. He is a son of Michael and Susan (Lott) Sullivan, both 
natives of Sydney, Cape Breton, where they grew to maturity, 
attended school and were married and established their future home. 
They each represented pioneer families of that community. 

Dr. Sullivan grew to manhood in his native town and received 
his early education in the public schools and at St. Francis Navier 
College, at Antigonish. He then entered McGill University at Mon- 
treal, from which he was graduated in 1901 with the degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine. Returning to Nova Scotia he began the practice 
of his profession at Glace Bay and was successful from the start. 
He took post-graduate work abroad, studying in London, Chelsea, 
Middlesex, St. Thomas, Notre Dame in Paris, and Hotel Dieu. Thus 
exceptionally well equipped for his life work he returned to Cape 
Breton and established his office at New Aberdeen, where he has 
remained to the present time and has built up a large and lucrative 
practice. 

Politcally, he is a Liberal. He was health officer of Glace Bay 
from 1901 to 1908, and was marine doctor from 1901 to 1912. Fra- 
ternally, he belongs to the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Mutual 
Benefit Association, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, the Benevo- 
lent and Protective Order of Elks and the Owls. He is a Roman 
Catholic. 

Dr. Sullivan was married June 11, 1902, to Miss C. McLean, a 
daughter of James McLean and Annie (McDougall) McLean, of 



240 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Antigonish. To this union the following children have been born: 
Michael Thomas Gregory, James D'Arcy, Mary Carmel Florentia, 
are attending school ; Cornelius Edmund, Victor Eustace, and Gerald 
Redmond. 

HOWARD H. HAMILTON. 

Any good work should be noticed and any conscientious, faith- 
ful and honest laborer in the world's necessary affairs should be 
honored to the extent that his services are useful. Howard H. 
Hamilton, successful manufacturer, of Pictou, Nova Scotia, is doing 
a commendable work and justly deserves the respect that his acquaint- 
ances accord him. He was born in the town and Province named 
above, June 9, 1855, and is a son of George Johnston Hamilton and 
Margaret (Arthur) Hamilton, the former a native of Pictou, where 
his birth occurred in 1819, and the latter was born in the Orkney 
Islands. John James Hamilton, the grandfather, was born at Glas- 
gow, Scotland, and he came to Nova Scotia when comparatively 
young, conducted a business in Pictou for a number of years. The 
father of our subject engaged in the baking business and founded, in 
1840, the present well known firm of G. J. Hamilton & Sons, and 
he became a progressive man of affairs. He was one of the first 
in the Province of Nova Scotia to introduce machinery in the bak- 
ing business. By the exercise of sound judgment and industry he 
built up a large and lucrative business. He was one of the influ- 
ential and highly esteemed men of his town and county. His 
death occurred in 1886 at the age of sixty-seven years, leaving two 
sons Clarence, who learned the baking business under his father, 
is now successfully engaged in the same line of endeavor at Red 
Deer, Alberta; and Howard H. of this sketch. 

Our subject grew up in his native town and there received his 
education in private schools and the Pictou Academy, then entered 
Dalhousie University, Halifax, from which institution he was gradu- 
ated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, in 1877, then attended 
Boston University. Returning home, exceptionally well equipped 
from an educational standpoint for the duties of life, he joined 
his father in the baking business in Pictou, which he assisted in 
building up to extensive proportions and he has continued in this 
line of endeavor with ever-increasing success. The present large 
factory is fitted up with the best of modern equipments for the 
manufacture of all classes of biscuits and confectionery. 









s 



o 

H 




HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 241 

The large output of high-grade products find a very ready mar- 
ket over a wide territory. This trade now covers all the Maritime 
Provinces, Quebec and the West Indies, and he keeps an average 
of two hundred people busily employed. 

Mr. Hamilton was married on December 25, 1878, to Georgina 
H. Stalker, of Pictou, a daughter of the late James Stalker, one of 
the old and respected merchants of that town. To this union two 
children were born H. Seymour Hamilton, who is now assisting 
his father in the business, and Miss Winnie Hamilton. The wife 
and mother died in 1898, and in 1900 Mr. Hamilton was united in 
marriage with Harriet P. Wisner, of Brantford, Ontario, a daugh- 
ter of J. O. Wisner, a manufacturer of agricultural implements, 
which business was finally amalgamated with the Massey-Harris 
Company, one of the largest manufacturers of farming machinery in 
North America. 

Mr. Hamilton has taken an active part in public matters, and 
has served three terms as mayor of Pictou and one term as councillor, 
also as school commissioner for Pictou Academy. He has done 
much in promoting the general welfare of his home town. 

JAMES WILLIAM DAVIES, D. D. S. 

It is the prerogative of the doctor of dental surgery to assist in 
alleviating the physical sufferings to which humanity seems to be 
heir, and as such he deserves the most grateful consideration of the 
ailing. One of the most promising of the younger dentists of Pic- 
tou County, who, by his own ability, has attained a good foothold 
in his profession, is Dr. James William Davies of the town of 
Pictou. 

Dr. Davies was born at Mount Thorn, Pictou County, in Febru- 
ary, 1890. He is a son of Duncan and Mary Margaret (McLeod.) 
Davies, the father a native of the same vicinity in which the Doctor 
was born, and the mother was a native of Colchester County. She 
was a daughter of Deacon McLeod. Angus Davies, the grandfather, 
was also a native of Mount Thorn, Nova Scotia, where the family 
has been well and favorably known since the pioneer days. Edward 
Davies, the great-grandfather, was a native of Wales, from which 
country he emigrated to this Province in a very early day. He was 
a blacksmith by trade and when a company was formed in Wales 
to work the salt mines and manufacture salt at Salt Springs, Pictou 
(16) 



242 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

County, he joined the party and came over as blacksmith for the 
company. He located some two miles from the springs, and later 
he engaged in farming in that locality. There the grandfather of our 
subject continued farming, and he raised a large family. Edward, 
one of his sons has a farm adjoining the homestead; Isabella mar- 
ried Alexander Campbell and now resides in Saskatchewan; John 
James, who for many years conducted some of the leading hotels in 
Prince Edward Island, is now operating the Cliff House, a summer 
hotel and also the Plaza in Charlottetown ; William A. is a foreman 
WH the Intercolonial railroad, having charge of the waterworks at 
Moncton ; Hugh died in Boston ; Angus is a successful merchant in 
Boston ; David R., who was for some time superintendent of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company's lines, died in San Francisco 
in 1914; Duncan C., father of the subject of this review; D. F., 
who died in Centralia, Washington, January 23, 1915, was one of 
the leading men of that section of the country, one of the most 
successful lumbermen in the State of Washington, his death being 
a serious blow to his community where he was regarded as a lead- 
ing man of affairs and progressive citizen ; P. C. is living on the 
homestead in Pictou County. 

The Davies family were all large men physically and possessed 
great ability and force and succeeded at whatever they attempted. 
Duncan Davies, father of our subject, continued on the home farm 
and in fact, still resides there, being one of the successful agricul- 
turists of his locality. He has kept the place well improved. His 
family consists of three children, the Doctor being the second in order 
of birth. 

Dr. Davies grew to manhood on the farm where he worked when 
a boy, and he received his education in the public schools of Pic- 
tou, then took a course in the Pictou Academy, after which he 
entered Tufts College in Boston, Massachusetts, where he studied 
dentistry, spending two years there, then entered the University of 
Maryland, from which he was graduated in 1913, taking an honorary 
degree by virtue of the fact that he had become one of the members 
of the honor roll. He took a post-graduate course in Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, in 1913. Thus exceptionally well equipped for 
his chosen life work he returned to Nova Scotia and began the prac- 
tice of his profession at Canso, but after remaining there a few 
months came to Pictou, where he has built up a very satisfactory 
and growing practice. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 243 

He was married in January, 1915, to Eva Williams of Balti- 
more, Maryland. 

Politically, he is a Conservative. He is a member of the follow- 
ing associations: Eureka Lodge No. 101, I. O. O. F. ; Delta Sigma 
Delta Fraternity, U. of Mel. Alumini Dental Society, Baltimore City 
Club, all of Baltimore, Maryland. 

E. MACKENZIE FORBES. 

One of the most promising of the younger members of the bar 
in Cape Breton County is E. Mackenzie Forbes, of Glace Bay. He 
is a student of all that pertains to his profession and seems to have 
beeu fitted for the same by nature. Although a busy man in an exact- 
ing life, when he steps out of his professional path, the true inward- 
ness of him in his private friendships is discovered in the private 
citizen. 

Mr. Forbes was born in North Sydney, Nova Scotia, March 25, 
1889. He is a son of John J. and Jessie (Proctor) Forbes, the 
father born in North Sydney in 1854 and the mother in Windsor, 
this Province. John Forbes, the grandfather, was born in Aber- 
deenshire, Scotland, in 1802 and died in 1886 at the advanced age 
of eighty-four years. He married Jennet Yeoman, who was a native 
of the same community in which he was born. Upon coming to 
Canada they landed in Quebec, but remained there only a few months, 
when they removed to Sydney. He was a man of strong characteris- 
tics and was well educated, having been graduated from Kings Col- 
lege, Glasgow. He was a Presbyterian, and owing to his disbelief in 
a literal hell he was not ordained to the ministry by the Scotch 
Presbytery. After locating in Sydney he followed teaching for a 
number of years, then removed to North Sydney where he became 
prominent in public affairs, holding the positions of postmaster and 
magistrate, and he taught school until his death. 

John J. Forbes, father of our subject, received a common school 
education, and he was employed by the firm of Archibald & Company, 
ship owners, ship chandlers and fish merchants, doing a large export 
business to Great Britain and South America. Upon the death 
of the elder members of the company, John J. Forbes succeeded 
to the management of the same which he still continues with suc- 
cess. He also takes a deep interest in educational matters. His 
family consisted of nine children, six of whom are still living, the 
subject of this sketch being the second in order of birth. 



244 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

E. Makenzie Forbes received his elementary education in the pub- 
lic schools and was graduated from high school, then took an arts 
course in Dalhousie University at Halifax, after which he took the 
law course in that institution, being graduated with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws in 1913, and was admitted to the bar in February, 
1914. He made an excellent record in school, usually leading his 
classes. Immediately after being admitted to practice he came to 
Glace Bay, where he has remained to the present time and has suc- 
ceeded in building up a very satisfactory clientage, meeting with 
success especially in criminal practice. 

Mr. Forbes was married in February, 1915, to Annie Kennedy 
of Glace Bay. She is a daughter of Daniel Kennedy and wife, one 
of the respected old Scotch families of Cape Breton County. 

Politically, Mr. Forbes is a Conservative. Fraternally, he belongs 
to the Masonic Blue odge, tire Royal Arch Masons and the Scottish 
Rite ; also the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

CAPT. ALLISTER CALDER, M. D. 

To the person who closely applies himself to any occupation 
which he has chosen as his calling in life, there can only come one 
result, that of success and a high place in the esteem of those among 
whom his lot has been cast. Dr. Allister Calder of Glace Bay is 
no exception to this rule, and while he has been successfully practicing 
medicine he has also taken an active interest in the general welfare 
of his community. 

Dr. Calder was born at Springville, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, 
January i, 1880, and is a son of Frank and Christy S. (McLean) 
Calder. The father was born at Springville, Nova Scotia, January 
6, 1850; the mother was born at Island East River, Pictou County, 
in March, 1849. They grew up in their native county, attended 
school, were married and established their home there and are still 
living at Springville. 

" Dr. Calder received his early education in the public schools of 
New Glasgow, graduating from the high school there, after which 
he attended the medical department of Dalhousie University, from 
which he was graduated with the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 
1909. after which he took a post-graduate course in New York, then 
did work for some time in the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax. 
He began the practice of his profession in Glace Bay, Cape Breton, 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 245 

in 1909 and has remained here ever since, enjoying a very satis- 
factory general practice. He was first an assistant to Dr. R. A. 
H. McKeen, and in 1912 formed a partnership with Dr. K. A. 
McCuish which still exists. 

Dr. Calder was married October 2, 1913, to Mabel Burchell of 
Glace Bay, and to their union one child has been born, a daughter, 
Kathleen Margaret Calder. 

Dr. Calder is attached to the Ninety- fourth Regiment, belonging 
to the medical corps which is stationed at Glace Bay. He is a 
member of the Canadian Medical Association and the Nova Scotia 
Medical Society. He is a member of the Masonic Order, and St. 
Paul's Church. 

JOHN W. PRIEST. 

The record of John W. Priest, an enterprising merchant of Pic- 
tou, Nova Scotia, is one that shows the possibilities here in the Mari- 
time Provinces of a young man of ambition and perseverance, 
although springing from an early environment none too auspicious. 
He has fought his way onward and upward by his innate ability 
and honest methods and is deserving of the success he has achieved. 

Mr. Priest was born at Caribou, Pictou County, May 12. 1866. 
He is a son of Caleb and Elizabeth (Eraser) Priest, the father a na- 
tive of Albion Mines, Pictou County, and the mother was born in 
Scotland, from which country she came to Nova Scotia when young 
in years. Noah Priest, the grandfather, was a native of England, 
from which country he was sent to Nova Scotia by the old Albion 
Mines Company to open up the mines here. After the shaft was sunk 
the coal was raised by means of a gin and horse-power. After re- 
maining at the mines a few years, Mr. Priest bought property in Cari- 
bou, and joined John Russell, who was conducting a blacksmithing 
business, Mr. Priest being a practical chain maker and they added 
chain making to their other work, he being the first chain maker to 
come to Nova Scotia and probably to America. 

John W. Priest received his early education in the public schools, 
and in 1886 he entered the employ of R. Tanner & Son, shoe dealers, 
continuing in their employ for eight years, giving them eminent satis- 
faction. He then bought out the business of E. C. Henderson, which 
he conducted with success, later buying the McLaren property on 
Water street, Pictou, and there built his present substantial and mod- 
ernly equipped store, and here he conducts an up-to-date shoe store, 



246 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

carrying a large and well-selected stock. In 1912 he bought the prop- 
erty and business of the R. Tanner Company on Water street, which 
he also conducts. He has built up a large trade with the town and 
surrounding country, which is constantly increasing as a result of 
his able management, sound judgment and honest and courteous 
treatment of his customers. In 1912 he sent out a traveling salesman 
which he has since retained and has increased his business very 
materially in this way, now keeping several salesmen on the road. 
His salesmen now cover the Maritime Provinces, and a splendid job- 
bing trade is being built up. This, in connection with his retail trade, 
promises to reach vast proportions. 

Mr. Priest was married in June, 1893, to Anna Murdock of Pic- 
tou, Xova Scotia. She is a daughter of the late James Murdock, who 
was married to Sarah Gass, a niece of the Hon. Jotham Blanchard, 
who conducted a ship and blacksmithing plant on Ives Wharf for 
many years. Three children have been born to our subject and wife, 
namely : Sarah Blanchard is assisting her father in the store ; Lois is 
at home ; John Ernest is at home. 

Politically, Mr. Priest is a Liberal. He has long been active in 
public affairs, and he served two years as a member of the town 
council. 

EDWARD A. FULLARTON. 

No matter what line of business one may be engaged in, if a 
man is doing something useful and well and if he enjoys the respect 
and good will of those with whom he associates or comes in con- 
tact, his record is worthy of consideration in a history of the nature 
of the one in hand; for all should receive much benefit by the deline- 
ation of those traits of character which find scope and exercise in the 
common walks of life. One of the citizens of Pictou County of *his 
class is Edward A. Fullarton, well known and successful manufac- 
turer of the town of Pictou. 

He was born in the above named town and county, in March, 
1871, and is a son of David and Elizabeth J. (Adamson) Fullarton. 
The father was born at Lyons Brook, Pictou County, in 1823, and 
the mother was born at Mount Dalhousie, Pictou County. Fergus 
Fullarton, the grandfather, was torn at Dumfries, Scotland, was 
a cousin of the Rev. Archibald Fullarton, who was a minister of the 
Parish Church of Greenock, Scotland, for many years and a man of 
distinction at that time. His descendants are still engaged in busi- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 247 

ness in Scotland, including the old firm of John Fullarton & Sons, 
which was established by a grand uncle of our subject. The grand- 
father was engaged in the shoe and leather business and became 
possessed of considerable means, as wealth went in those days. He 
was a man of ability and strong traits. He was in failing health 
when he came to Nova Scotia. His family consisted of thirteen 
sons and one daughter. The latter married Thomas Renton in 
Dumfries, Scotland, and they came to Nova Scotia about the time 
her father came, and he was the founder of the present business 
in which our subject is engaged. The death of Mr. Renton occurred 
while the father of our subject was a bound apprentice with him, 
in 1839, after which the father of our subject took up and continued 
the business successfully. He was a man of progressive ideas. His 
original business was mostly in blocks, pumps and similar ship sup- 
plies. He installed the first carding mill in the eastern part of Xova 
Scotia, having sent to Scotland for the mill. After receiving it 
he improved on the mill by uniting the breaker and finisher whereby 
one man did the work which previously required the work of two. 
During the winter months when there was no carding he constructed 
and set up a number of these mills for others engaged in a similar 
business. He imported an engine and boiler from Glasgow, which 
\va.s the first steam plant to come to the town of Pictou. Later, as 
the carding business was abandoned by the erection of woolen mills, 
the father of our subject added to his business the manufacture of 
furniture and finally converted the plant into a general wood working 
establishment, conducting a large plant at the foot of Coleraine street, 
Pictou. Fire visited his plant twice, first in 1876, and again in 
1905. The death of David Fullerton occurred in 1909, since which 
time the business has become continued by his son. our subject. 
George Fullarton. the latter's brother, was associated with his father 
in the business until 1898, when his interests were purchased by our 
subject, the former going west, and has since been successfully 
engaged in the lumber business at Edmonton. After the fire in 
1905 Edward A. Fullerton continued the business at the west end 
of Pictou where he now has a modern and well equipped plant, in 
which he manufactures sashes and doors, together with all kinds of 
building material, the business now extending all over Nova Scotia 
and the Magdalen Islands. 

Mr. Fullerton was married in June, 1905, to Letitia M. MacKay, 
of Hardwood Hill. She is a daughter of Daniel MacKay, who spent 



248 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

years in California, Colorado and Montana, and he was familiarly 
known as "California Dan" to distinguish him from the numerous 
other MacKays in Pictou County. The MacKays is one of the 
oldest families at Hardwood Hill. 

Politically, Mr. Fullarton is a Liberal. He is president of the 
Board of Trade of Pictou, and he has done much toward the gen- 
eral development of his home town. 

J. SMITH GRANT. 

The record of J. Smith Grant, an enterprising merchant of Pic- 
tou, Nova Scotia, proves that blood counts in this country, but in a 
different way in which the "blood" of the European nations count, 
for here we count as worthiest, the good sterling blood of our honest, 
hard-working ancestors, while across the ocean it is merely a differ- 
ence of aristocracy so-called and peasantry, the latter counting, in 
many instances, for more than the former, in the true scale of being. 
Mr. Grant is a descendant of good old Scotch stock. 

Mr. Grant was torn at Scotch Hill, Pictou County, April 5, 1858. 
He is a son of John and Annie (McConnell) Grant, the father a na- 
tive of Scotch Hill and the mother of Meadowville, Pictou County. 
Peter Grant, the grandfather, was born in Scotland, from which 
country he came as a young man to Nova Scotia, locating in the city 
of Halifax, later coming to Pictou where he taught school, having 
received a good education in his native land. He was subsequently 
bookkeeper with John Russell, who conducted an extensive ship and 
ship building blacksmithing plant. He took up a homestead on Scotch 
Hill and developed a good farm. He lived to the age of eighty-five 
years. His family consisted of five sons and six daughters. All 
the sons and four of the daughters located on farms within ten miles 
of the old homestead. John Grant, father of our subject, bought a 
farm adjoining the homestead, and in addition to general farming 
he was a framer and builder and did considerable contracting. He 
died at the age of eighty-seven years. He was a man of fine char- 
acter, always living in the fear of his Maker, and taught his family, 
by precept and example, to follow the right path. He and his wife 
became parents of thirteen children, of which number J. Smith Grant 
of this sketch was next to the youngest. 

Our subject grew up on the home place and received his educa- 
tion in the public schools. In 1872 he came to Pictou and entered the 
employ of A. Henderson & Son, shoe dealers, with whom he remained 
one year, then entered the employ of Isaac A. Grant, the leading dry 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 249 

goods merchant of Pictou for many years, and he continued with this 
firm for a period of eleven years, when he opened business on his 
own account, having mastered the various phases of merchandising. 
Since that time he has devoted his closest attention to his business, 
which has steadily increased until it is one of the most popular stores 
in Pictou. He has confined himself to dry goods and carries a large 
and well-selected stock at all seasons, and by dealing honestly and 
courteously with his customers has gained and retained the con- 
fidence of the people. He maintains a well-equipped tailoring estab- 
lishment in connection with his store. 

Mr. Grant was married on July 6, 1882 to Margaret Esdale John- 
ston, of Pictou. She is a daughter of John Johnston and wife, an 
old Pictou family. To our subject and wife four children have been 
born, namely: Eunice May died in infancy; Percy Arnold has been 
in the banking business for a number of years, having been employed 
by the Royal Bank of Canada; Edna Esdale was graduated from the 
Ladies' College, Halifax, and is a teacher of music; she is organist 
at the Prince Street Presbyterian Church. Myrtle Vivian is the 
youngest child and is at home. She is attending the far-famed Pictou 
Academy from which she was graduated in 1916. 

Mr. Grant has been very successful as a business man and is 
deserving of a great deal of credit for what he has accomplished, 
having forged his way to the front unaided. Politically, he is a 
Liberal. He has taken an abiding interest in public affairs and has 
served as town counsellor, and for two years was mayor of Pictou. 
He has been a member of temperance societies since boyhood and has 
been a worker for the cause. He and his family are members of 
the Prince Street Presbyterian Church of which he is a liberal con- 
tributor and has been elder for a number of years. 

EDMUND T. MAcKEEN. 

One of the well known citizens of Sydney, Nova Scotia is Edmund 
T. MacKeen, who was born at Baddeck, Victoria County, this 
Province, January 19, 1858. He is a son of Samuel W. and Eliza- 
beth J. MacKeen, both natives of Guysborough County, the father 
born at Stillwater, September 9, 1824, and the mother's birth occurred 
at Melrose, December 14, 1821. They each represented pioneer 
families of that county, and there they grew to maturity, were mar- 
ried and established their first home. They moved to Baddeck, C. B., 
in 1857 and afterwards to Sydney, C. B., in 1867. The name Mac- 
Keen is derived from MacEoin, meaning son of John (Macdonald) 



250 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of Glencoe, Argyleshire, Scotland. Subsequent to the massacre at 
Glencoe, the family removed to the north of Ireland, thence to New 
Hampshire, America, and from that state to Nova Scotia in 1/55. 

The subject of this sketch received his education in the Sydney 
Academy, the Waterville (Maine) Classical Institute and McGill 
University, Montreal. He was principal of Sydney Academy from 
1889 to 1898, then entered the field of journalism and was suc- 
cessively editor of the Cape Breton Adi'ocatc from 1899 to 1900, 
inclusively; the Sydney Morning Post during 1900-1901, the Sydney 
Daily Post from 1903 to 1914. In January, 1914, he was appointed 
collector of inland revenue at Sydney, which office he still holds. 

Mr. MacKeen was married on December 23, 1884, to Katie 
MacKinnon, a daughter of Daniel and Catherine (McDonald) Mac- 
Kinnon of Port Morien, Cape Breton. This union has resulted in 
the birth of the following children: Roy Ward, Archie, Flora, 
Donald, Rankin and Alan. 

Politically, Mr. MacKeen is a Liberal-Conservative, and he was 
president of the Liberal-Conservative Association of Cape Breton 
County from 1898 to 1901. Religiously, he is a Presbyterian. 

ALEXANDER S. McNEIL. 

When we are told that such and such a man is a manager of 
no matter what we know at once that he is a man who has not at- 
tained his position at a single bound, but that he has spent years in 
close application and careful preparation. Without any attempt to 
unduly praise Alexander S. McNeil, manager of one of the collieries 
of the Dominion Coal Company at New Aberdeen, we can truthfully 
say that he is such a man as we have here indicated. 

Mr. McNeil was born at Ingonish, Victoria County, Nova Scotia, 
September 5, 1875. He is a son of Michael A. and Margaret (Cam- 
eron ) McNeil, both natives of Inverness County, this Province, the 
father's birth having occurred in 1832. They grew up in their native 
county and there married and established their home. 

Alexander S. McNeil received his education in the common 
schools. He is practically a self-educated man. He took a complete 
coal mining course and mining engineer's course in the International 
Correspondence School of Scranton, Pennsylvania, however, he did 
not complete the course in mining engineering. 

He began his career in the mines as driver boy and worked 
through the different grades of work, being promoted from position 
to position until he became manager, having been faithful and trust- 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 251 

worthy at all times. He is at present manager of No. 2 Mine, Domin- 
ion Coal Company at New Aberdeen, near Glace Bay, which is the 
largest single colliery in the world. He is giving the company entire 
satisfaction in his present responsible position. 

Mr. McNeil was married September 19, 1899, to Catherine Mc- 
Neil, a daughter of Charles McNeil and Maggie (Cameron) McNeil, 
of Bridgeport, Cape Breton. 

To our subject and wife the following children have been torn : 
Margaret, born, October 13, 1902; Michael Charles, January 3, 1904; 
Annie May, July 25, 1905; Donald, July 3, 1906; Duncan Paul, 
March 2, 1910; John Osmond, April 22, 1911. 

Politically, Mr. McNeil is a Lil>eral. He belongs to the Knights 
of Columbus, the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, and the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians. He is a Roman Catholic. 

CAPT. DAINEL MACKAY. 

"A life on the ocean wave, a home on the stormy deep,'' appealed 
to the late .Capt. Daniel Mackay from his early boyhood and the 
major portion of his interesting and adventurous life was spent as a 
seafaring man, and although Nova Scotia has sent out a vast number 
of excellent seamen, many of whom gained reputations in distant 
parts of the globe, it is safe to say that none were abler than our 
subject. He was not only skilled in seamanship but was a man who 
bore a good reputation throughout his career, the latter part of which 
was spent in railway service. 

Captain Mackay was born at Lockbroom, Pictou County, Nova 
Scotia, in the year 1830, and was a son of George and Elizabeth 
Mackay, an old family of Pictou County. There he grew to man- 
hood and attended school, and when young in years went to sea. 
Being quick to learn, industrious and reliable, his promotion was 
rapid and he became a master mariner at an early age and com- 
manded ships in the foreign trade, but he finally retired from the sea 
and became manager of the Marine Railway at North Sydney, in 
which road he was financially interested, and he continued in that 
capacity for a number of years. He was a man of large stature and 
commanding appearance, which description is typical of Nova Scotia 
sea captains of a half a century ago, and he was a man of many 
excellent traits. He married Elizabeth McDonald of East River, 
Pictou County. She was a daughter of Findlay McDonald, who was 
born in Scotland. To their union the following children were born : 



252 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

George F. is a practicing physician in Dalton, Berkshire Hills, Massa- 
chusetts; Eldridge P. is manager of the bank of Montreal at Bath- 
hurst, New Brunswick; Welsford D. and William J. R. were both 
born in North Sydney, Nova Scotia. There they grew up, attended 
school, and each advanced to responsible positions, from which they 
withdrew in 1909, and became partners in a commission and insur- 
ance business, conducted under the firm name of Mackay Bros., with 
headquarters in Sydney, Nova Scotia, and they are still conducting 
the same with success. William J. R., the youngest, married Eliza- 
beth Ferguson, in October, 1906. She is a daughter of the late Allan 

A. Ferguson, Esq., of Pictou. This family is mentioned on another 
page of this work. 

Two children have been born to William J. R. Mackay and wife 
Welsford F. and Mildred E. 

Both William J. R. and Welsford D. Mackay are Master Masons, 
the latter being Past Senior Grand Warden and Past High Priest. 

GEORGE STONEWALL JACKSON. 

While George Stonewall Jackson has been devoting his attention 
primarily to the mercantile business in New Glasgow, Pictou County, 
and making a success of it, he has not negelected his duties as a 
public-spirited citizen; but, having the interests of his town and 
county at heart he has ever been ready to support any movement that 
had for its object the general welfare of his locality, where his family 
has long been well and favorably known. 

Mr. Jackson was born in the above named town and county on 
July 21, 1875. He is a son of James William and Minnie (McGreg- 
or) Jackson, the mother dying in 1876, when our subject was an in- 
fant. The father was a native of Pictou County, where his father, 
George Jackson, who was a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, located in 
an early day, and here engaged in business the rest of his life. The 
father of our subject learned to be a chemist and druggist under J. D. 

B. Fraser in the towq of Pictou, and he opened a drug store in New 
Glasgow and became one of the succesful and highly respected busi- 
ness men there. His death occurred at the early age of forty years. 
He had two sons, Robert McGregor Jackson, and George S. of this 
sketch. The former, after his graduation from high school in New 
Glasgow, went to Pennsylvania and entered the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, from which he was graduated in 1893. He then 
returned to Nova Scotia and took charge of the Jackson drug busi- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 253 

ness. He married Gertrude Fraser, of McLellan's Brook, this Prov- 
ince, and to their union one child was lx>rn, Minnie Earla. The 
death of Robert M. Jackson occurred in 1911, while still a young 
man of much promise. 

G. Stonewall Jackson qntered the mercantile business and is 
proprietor of Jackson's drug and tobacco store and Jackson's cloth- 
ing store. He has represented Ward 3 in the town council for a 
number of years. 

Mr. Jackson is probably better known throughout the Province 
for his interest in all kinds of sport. Along with his partner, Dr. J. 
Garf. Macdonald, they have held the championship of the Maritime 
Provinces two consecutive years for men's doubles at tennis. 

Mr. Jackson married Kathryn Ruth, youngest daughter of the 
late Capt. Richard Meikle. 

DAVID A. HEARN. 

Barristers are constantly under the argus eye of popular critic- 
ism and inspection, and if their conduct or character are occasionally 
delineated in distorted outlines, and if there be a sporadic instance of 
some one unworthy the name, it is a fact, nevertheless, that, in no 
other pursuit are there more proportioned to their number who merit 
the title of conscientious men, than that unsceptered army of Can- 
adian barristers. 

One of the best known members of the bar of Cape Breton is 
David A. Hearn, of Sydney, who is a King's Counsellor. He was 
born at Arichat, Richmond County, February 14, 1853, and is a son 
of James and Isabella (Campbell) Hearn, the former a native of St. 
John, Newfoundland, and the mother of Glasgow, Scotland. The 
paternal grandfather came from Water ford, Ireland. The mother 
was a descendant of the Campbells of the Island of Call, Scotland. 

David A. Hearn received his education in the Arichat public 
schools and Academy, and he grew to manhood in his native com- 
munity. He began studying law when a boy at Arichat and was 
admitted to the bar in 1877 and was made a King's Counsellor in 
1907. He has been very successful in the practice of his profession 
and has built up a large clientage at Sydney, where he located in the 
year 1891. He has occupied many prominent positions of public 
trust in his native county, representing the same in the local Legis- 
lature from 1886 to 1890. He has resided in Sydney continuously 
for a period of twenty-five years, during which time he has taken an 



254 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



active part in the affairs of the town, aiding in its general develop- 
ment. He acted as prosecuting officer for the county from 1891, and 
has been continued in office ever since. 

Mr. Hearn was married August 18, 1879, to Elizabeth Quinan, 
who died in 1903, leaving two children, Joseph Cleveland and James 
Wilfred; the former now lives in Wadena, Saskatchewan; the latter 
is now in France, having volunteered for service as a private in the 
Sixth Battery, Second Brigade of the Canadian contingent at the 
outbreak of the European war. Wilfred, as he is familiarly known, 
was in his nineteenth year when he joined the army, and is the author 
of those interesting letters from the front which have been, appear- 
ing in the Sydney Post for some time. He was born November 20, 
1894. His elder brother was torn November 9, 1884. George, who 
was a younger brother, torn in 1897, died in 1900. Joseph Cleveland 
enlisted on December 24, 1915, in the Wadena Independent Company 
of which his cousin, J. Henry Ham, is captain. 

Our subject married a second time, his last wife being known in 
her maidenhood as Bridget Mary Ormond. Their marriage was 
celebrated on July 19, 1905. 

Politically, our subject is a Liberal. He is a Catholic in religious 
affairs. He belongs to the Knights of Columbus, to the Sydney Club, 
and he was at one time president of the Cape Breton Barristers 
Association. 

ISAAC SIDNEY BLENKHORN. 

He whose productive abilities are directed along legitimate and 
normal lines is by virtue of that fact exerting a force which con- 
serves human progress and prosperity, and the man of capacity and 
business finds himself an involuntary steward upon whom devolves 
large responsibilities. Isaac Sidney Blenkhorn, a successful manufac- 
turer of Canning, Kings County, Nova Scotia, is a man who evident- 
ly realizes to the full his responsibilities as one of the representative 
citizens of his locality. 

Mr. Blenkhorn was torn at Kingsport, Kings County, September 
17, 1848. He is a son of James and Mary Ann (Spicer) Blenkhorn, 
the father a native of Advocate Harbor, Cumberland County, and the 
mother was torn at Spencer's Island, Nova Scotia, and her death 
occurred in 1889. Grandfather Blenkhorn was a native of Cumber- 
land County, where his father settled about the year 1750, having 
come to Nova Scotia from Yorkshire, England, but was originally of 



HISTORY OF .NOVA SCOTIA. 255 

Germany. The grandfather was a farmer and his death occurred 
at an early age, however, he left a large family. One of his sons, 
John Blenkhorn, was a shipbuilder at Advance Harbor, and was a 
prominent man in his town and county. James Blenkhorn, father of 
our subject, grew up in Cumberland County, where he was educated 
in the district schools and when a young man learned the blacksmith's 
trade, which he made his chief life work, which trade he learned 
under his elder brother. 

Isaac S. Blenkhorn grew to manhood in Kings County and re- 
ceived his education in the public schools, and he learned the black- 
smith's trade under his father, with whom he was associated in the 
blacksmithing business during his earlier career, taking up the manu- 
facture of axes to which line they gave special attention. The father 
lived to the advanced age of ninety years, having retired from active 
life a number of years prior to his death. His plant was located at 
Canning. Our subject has continued the business with growing suc- 
cess since the death of the elder Blenkhorn. During the thirty-five 
years that he has operated the same he has had the misfortune to be 
burned out four times ; but, nothing daunted, he rebuilt each time and 
now has a modernly equipped and substantial plant and is doing an 
extensive business, his products, owing to their superior quality, find- 
ing a very ready market over a wide territory. His son and his 
brother, Loran T., are both assisting him in the business, both re- 
cently taking an interest in the same. About a dozen skilled 
mechanics are constantly employed, steam power is used and the 
plant has a capacity of over three thousand dozens per year. Their 
principal market is found in the eastern Provinces of Canada. 

Mr. Blenkhorn was married in April, 1878, to Helen Miller, of 
Canning, Nova Scotia, a sister of Dr. John W. Miller, a sketch of 
whom appears on another page of this work. To our subject and 
wife the following children have been born: Cora is the wife of 
Frank Wheelock, a professor of physics of Sackville University, 
where Mrs. Wheelock was educated, and later she spent two years 
at Drexel University, Philadelphia, from which institution she was 
graduated in domestic science ; Scott Miller, who spent two years in 
Sackville University and two years in Kingston, in Queen's Univer- 
sity, was graduated as a mining engineer, and after spending two 
years in Ontario, returned to Canning, Nova Scotia, and is now con- 
nected with his father in the manufacturing business; he married 
Georgia Pelton, of Kings County, and they have three children, 



256 HISTORY OF KOVA SCOTIA. 

namely: Ivan, Dorris and Barbara. Hulda, who was graduated 
from Sackville University, is now taking a post-graduate course in 
a New York University. 

Mr. Blenkhorn is a member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. Politically, he is a Liberal. He has always taken an active 
interest in temperance work and has done much for the good of the 
cause. 

JAMES A. GARFIELD BRUCE, M. D. 

Although Dr. James A. Garfield Bruce, of Westville, Pictou 
County, has not tried to emulate the career of the great American 
for whom he was named, not having ambitions to become a leader in 
public affairs, yet he has tried to do well whatever he has turned his 
attention to, and, having chosen the medical profession for his life 
work, is making rapid strides in the same. 

Dr. Bruce was born at Barney's River, Pictou County, Nova 

Scotia, June 16, 1882. He is a son of Henry Hector Bruce, also 

born at Barney's River; and Sarah (McVikar) Bruce, a native of 

West Merigomish, Pictou County. These parents grew up in their 

native county where they were educated in the public schools and 

were married. The father has devoted his life to general farming 

and is living on the homestead at the age of sixty-nine years. He is 

a member of the Presbyterian Church. His family consists of seven 

children of whom the subject of this sketch was the third in order of 

birth. George Bruce, the grandfather, was born in Sutherlandshire, 

Scotland, from which country he came to Nova Scotia at the age of 

twelve years, in 1822, accompanied by his father, Donald Bruce, the 

voyage being made in the Harmony. The family located at Barney's 

River, Pictou County, and from that early day to the present time 

the family has been well and favorably known in that locality. The 

grandfather reached the advanced age of ninety-one years, dying in 

1901. The great-grandfather settled in Upper Barney's River, the 

grandfather locating in Lower Barney's River, where he followed 

farming. They were of excellent old Scotch stock and lived in the 

fear of God and the Free Church, in which the grandfather was an 

elder and was active in church work. Dr. Blair was his pastor for 

many years. 

Dr. Bruce grew to manhood on the home farm where he worked 
during the summer months, and in the winter time he attended the 
public schools, spending one year in the high school at New Glasgow, 

c 




THE HIGHT HON. SIR JOHN 8. D. THOMPSON". K. C. M. G. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 257 

then entered Pictou Academy, where he took a degree, here obtaining 
a gold medal in 1903, then took the arts course in Dalhousie Univer- 
sity, Halifax, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1906 from 
that institution, and while here was a member of the university foot- 
ball team, then in its palmiest days, after which he entered the medical 
department there and was graduated with the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine in April, 1908, doing seven years in five. He first began 
to practice in Walton, Hants County, where he got a good start, but 
at the end of two years came to Westville, Pictou County, where 
he has since remained and has built up a very satisfactory practice 
which is constantly growing. 

Dr. Bruce was married in 1906 to Emily English, of Pictou, 
Nova Scotia. She is a daughter of J. P. English and a grand- 
daughter of the late Captain English. 

To the Doctor and wife one child has been born Garfield Wilson 
Bruce. 

Dr. Bruce is a iberal in politics and a member of the Knights of 
Pythias Lodge. He is a member of the County and Provincial Medi- 
cal Associations. 

CLARENCE MILLER, M. D. 

When Dr. Clarence Miller of Stellarton, Pictou County, decided 
upon a medical career, he knew quite well that he would be com- 
pelled to "labor and to wait." in the language of "The Psalm of 
Life;" that he was entering a road which leads to success only for 
those who are willing to face and overcome obstacles. That he has 
done so is indicated by the success he has achieved while yet a young 
man. 

Dr. Miller was born m the above named town and county, in 
January, 1880. He is a son of W. G. Miller, a prominent citizen of 
that locality, and who occupied the office of mayor of Stellarton 
from 1895 to 1898, inclusive, and was for a period of ten years a 
member of the town council. He has done much for the permanent 
good of Stellarton, whose interests he has ever had at heart. He has 
been engaged in business there as a merchant tailor for many years 
with success. He is a star cricketer and curler. 

Dr. Clarence Miller grew to manhood at Stellarton where he 
attended the public schools, then entered Pictou Academy, from 
which he was graduated in 1897. He then taught school two years, 

(17) 



258 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

after which he entered McGill University at Montreal, from which 
institution he was graduated with the degree of M. D. C. M. in 1894, 
standing high in his class, and taking well merited honors. Return- 
ing to Pictou County he at once took up the practice of his profession 
at Stellarton, where he has built up a good patronage and has been 
very successful as a general practitioner, gaining the good will and 
confidence of the people. He has won quite a reputation in surgical 
work. He is well situated, being in a coal mining district where 
accidents are frequent, consequently his experience has been varied. 

Dr. Miller was married on November 18, 1908, to Lena Blanche 
Fraser. of Spring Hill, Nova Scotia. She is a daughter of the late 
A. K. Fraser, of Spring Hill, this Province. Mr. Fraser was a 
prominent man in his community, having l)een engaged in a large 
general mercantile business for years and represented the Liberal 
party of the County of Cuml>erland in the Provincial Parliament for 
many years. 

To the Doctor and wife two children have been born, namely: 
John Alexander Fraser Miller and Elizabeth Ross Miller. 

Politically, Dr. Miller is a Conservative. He belongs to the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows and the Sons of Temperance, and 
takes a very active interest in the welfare of historic Christ Church. 
He is one of the staff of physicians and surgeons of Aberdeen Hos- 
pital. He has always taken an active interest in athletics, and was 
captain of the Stellarton cricket team which first won the champion- 
ship of Nova Scotia. He has also taken an active interest in curling. 
There are few better cricketers in the Province than he. From early 
years he had an ambition to Income a doctor and began bending 
every effort in that direction, and he has continued a student. 

JAMES PRIMROSE. 

The town of Pictou, pleasantly situated in the county of that 
name, owes a debt of gratitude to James Primrose, who has done as 
much, if not more, than any other man in recent years, at least, 
for her general development and welfare. He has the interests of 
his home town very much at heart and, while laboring for his indi- 
vidual advancement, takes a delight in boosting the community. 

Mr. Primrose was born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, May 16, 1859, 
and there he has been content to spend his life. He is a son of Hon. 
Clarence Primrose and Rachael (Carre) Primrose, both natives of 
this Province, the father born in the town of Pictou. They each 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 259 

represent excellent old families. James Primrose, the paternal grand- 
father, was born in Rothiemay, Scotland, where he spent his child- 
hood years, immigrating to Nova Scotia as a young man and here 
he established the future home of the family, iirst settling at Halifax, 
where a brother, Alexander Primrose, a barrister, had preceded him. 
However, after a short residence in that city, James Primrose re- 
moved to Pictou, where it was not long until he engaged in business 
in partnership with the late Alexander 1 '. Ross. The partnership con- 
tinued a few years when it was dissolved, each then engaging in 
business on his own account, continuing a general mercantile and 
shipping business. Mr. Primrose built up a large trade and pros- 
pered. In 1850 he erected the large Clarence mills which were in 
continual operation for many years. His family consisted of three 
children, namely: Clarence, father of the subject of this sketch; 
Howard, who was associated with his father in the mercantile busi- 
ness, and who was the father of Dr. Alexander Primrose, of Toron- 
to, Canada, who stands high in the medical profession, and Gordon, 
who died in childhood. The firm name was formerly J. Primrose 
& Son, then Primrose & Rudolph, and finally Primrose Bros. 

Hon. Clarence Primrose, who was a man of more than ordinary 
ability and influence, died at the age of seventy-two years, in 1902. 
He had been actively engaged in business since young manhood. 
Taking an intelligent interest in public affairs, he was appointed to 
a high position of trust that of Canadian Senator, which office he 
held during the latter years of his life, discharging his duties in a 
manner that was highly commendable, and indicative of his true 
worth and ability. 

James Primrose, subject of this biography, grew to manhood in 
Pictou, his native town. He attended the public schools there, and 
later was a student at the Pictou Academy. After finishing his 
schooling he entered the office of Primrose Bros, as a clerk and later 
became one of the active members of the firm and has continued the 
business inaugurated by his grandfather to the present time with 
ever-increasing success. At the death of his father he became man- 
ager of the firm, which now engages principally in the lumber busi- 
ness, owning a large tract of timber land at Riverdale, Colchester 
County, this Province, where a number of men are employed. The 
firm also has large holdings in Queens County. 

On August n, 1896, occurred the marriage of James Primrose 
and Annie McDonald. She was born, reared and educated in Pictou, 



2(5(3 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

and is a daughter of the late A. C. McDonald, M. P., speaker of the 
House of Assembly before Confederation, whose family is mentioned 
in the sketch of E. M. McDonald in this work. 

Mr. Primrose has been mayor of the town of Pictou for a period 
of five years, having been elected by acclamation to succeed himself 
each time, and he had been a member of the city council for nearly 
ten years previously. During all this period he has been alert to the 
best interests of the town and one of its chief boosters. 

JOHN WILLIAM MILLER, M. D. 

The medical profession of Kings County has an able representa- 
tive in the person of Dr. John William Miller of Canning. He is not 
only well qualified by both nature and training to carry succor to the 
suffering, but he possesses excellent judgment of men and things, 
well balanced by knowledge and experience. 

Dr. Miller was born in the above named town and county, in July, 
1861. He is a son of James Samuel and Maria (Belcher) Miller, 
the father a native of Ireland and the mother of Cunard, Kings 
County. Grandfather Miller was a native of Ireland in which coun- 
try his parents located, having emigrated from Ayr, Scotland, where 
they were born. Grandfather Miller was educated for the Presby- 
terian ministry. He was married in Ireland. The church at that 
time required its pastors to accomplish a certain stipend before 
marrying. Mr. Miller married before he was able to comply with 
the rules of the church, so he gave up the idea of becoming a minister 
and, with his young wife, set sail for Canada, locating in St. John, 
New Brunswick, where he engaged in teaching and there spent many 
years. His methods were considered advanced for that time. Many 
of the older residents of that city, who were pupils of his, still revere 
his memory. He lived to an advanced age. James S. Miller, father 
of the Doctor, was the eldest of a large family. A brother, John 
Miller, was superintendent of education for the Province of New 
Brunswick for a number of years, and was also for several years 
principal of the Normal school at Truro, Nova Scotia. David Miller, 
another brother, went to California in the early years of the state's 
history, where he died, after a successful career. Another brother, 
a Baptist clergyman, died in 1912; still another brother was for many 
years principal of schools at Dartmouth, but he now resides in Mon- 
treal, and his daughter, Mrs. Slade, wrote the patriotic poem, "The 
Man of the Hour," during the present European war, in 1914. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 26l 

James Samuel Miller, father of Dr. Miller, was educated in St. 
John, New Brunswick, later attended Berkshire Medical College in 
New Hampshire, from which he was graduated in 1855, after which 
he came to Canard, Kings County, Nova Scotia, where he married 
and practiced his profession a few years, then removed to Canning, 
where he continued practicing medicine until his death, which oc- 
curred in 1901. He was a prominent man in his community, but 
he always avoided public offices. His family consisted of six chil- 
dren, John W. being the second in order of birth and the eldest son. 

Dr. John W. Miller received his early education in the public 
schools of Canning, then attended Sackville University, later went to 
the States and completed the course in the medical department of the 
University of New York, from which he was graduated in 1885. 
Desiring to further equip himself for his chosen profession he went 
to Edinburgh, Scotland, and took a post-graduate course in the Royal 
Infirmary. Returning to Nova Scotia he began the practice of medi- 
cine in Canning where he has remained to the present time, enjoying 
all the while a large and lucrative practice, his name becoming a 
household word in Kings County. During this period he has taken 
a year's post-graduate work in New York Medical College, and since 
then has attended other leading institutions, taking post-graduate 
work in various lines. 

Dr. Miller was married on December _>/, 1887, to Florence Pay- 
zant, of Canning, Xova Scotia, and a daughter of W. H. Payzant, 
who was born in Falmouth, this Province, in 1827. and died Novem- 
ber 16, 1885. His wife. Eliza Ann Harris, was a native of Horton, 
Kings County. The grandfather, W. H. Payzant, Sr., was a well 
known minister in the early days of this Province. A history of the 
Payzant family is found on another page of this work. 

To the Doctor and wife the following children have been torn: 
Ethel and Minnie, both of whom are graduates of Acadia Seminary 
at at Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Ethel graduating in voice, and Minnie 
in violin. 

Fraternally, Dr. Miller is a member of the Masonic Order, in 
which he is Past Deputy Grand Master; he also belongs to the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity; also the Can- 
adian Order of Foresters and Independent Order of Foresters, of 
which Order he is Past High Physician. He is a member of the 
Dominion Medical Association, and Kings County Medical Society. 
Politically, he is a Conservative, and he and his family belong to the 
Methodist Church. 



262 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

JAMES YORSTON. 

The Yorston family has for upwards of one hundred years been 
one of the best known and influential families in Nova Scotia. Resi- 
dents of Pictou, they have been successful in business and at the 
same time faithful in their support of all measures making for the 
general public good. 

The present James Yorston was born at the family homestead, 
"Orqucll", in the parish of Erie, Orkney, Scotland, on November 
20, 1847. He is the son of the late John Yorston, Laird of "Orquell", 
the family being originally of Scandinavian stock. The original 
form of the name is Thorstein, a name found running through the 
old Scandinavian Sagas. 

The family took its origin from three brothers who long ago 
crossed from Norway and settled in the Orkneys in both Evie and 
Rendall. The Evie branch has had for its home "Orquell" lying 
opposite the Island of Rousay, for over two hundred years, up to the 
present time. 

James Yorston spent his boyhood in his native land and there 
received the early portion of his education. He sailed for Nova 
Scotia in the year 1860, at the age of thirteen years. Erom that time 
on he became one of Pictou's best known citizens. He joined the 
establishment of his uncle, the late John Yorston, who at that time 
was successfully engaged in business, and who was becoming one of 
the merchant princes of Nova Scotia in his day and generation. 

James Yorston, after his arrival at Pictou, attended the Old 
Academy under John Costley and William Jack, and later studied 
at the Model School at Truro, Novia Scotia. In 1862, he entered 
the Commercial House, the establishment of his uncle, and remained 
with him until the latter's death in 1865. 

John Yorston was a man of most liberal characteristics and our 
subject recalls many kind deeds of his. When he died he was greatly 
missed and mourned by the boys about town, whom he always re- 
membered at the holiday season. 

An idea of his big-heartedness may be gained by the following 
incident : A boy came into his store with a one-pound note with 
which he intended making a purchase for the family. The note had 
gotten wet and as the lad was holding it by the open fire-place for 
the purpose of drying it, the strong draught sucked the paper up the 
chimney and it was destroyed. The lad was heart-broken, but the 
generous merchant sent him home with the goods he had been 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 263 

ordered by his father to purchase, and also the change, and admon- 
ished the boy to say nothing of the incident. 

James Yorston and the late T. M. Porteous engaged in business 
for a short time, then the firm was dissolved by Mr. Porteous' with- 
drawal, whereupon our subject was joined by his brother John, and 
they continued to conduct the business under the firm name of J. and 
J. Yorston, at that time having the finest dry goods store in the 
Province. 

In 1871 they leased the Marine Railway, having the late Jeffrey 
McColl, M. P. P., of Xew Glasgow, as a partner. Previous to that 
time the road had not been a paying proposition, but it was success- 
ful under the new management. Later, the Yorstons bought out the 
interests of Mr. McColl and in 180,1 bought the entire property of. 
this company and have since operated the business with success. 
They have practically rebuilt the plant, tracks, cradles, etc. They 
built the "Orquell", which was named after the old family home in 
the Orkneys. She was a full-rigged barque, and made some of the 
fastest voyages every made across the Atlantic. 

James Yorston was married June 23, 1870, to Mary J. McDonald, 
of St. John, New Brunswick, and to their union the following chil- 
dren were born: Frederic Yorston, B. A. ( Dalhousie and Harvard), 
president of the Montreal Standard Publishing Company, Ltd., Mon- 
treal. Mr. Frederic Yorston was educated at the Pictou Academy. 
After matriculating in Dalhousie College, Mr. Yorston in his sopho- 
more year, took the new Shakespeare Society prize in a contest among 
sixty of the best students of the University. He took his arts degree, 
graduating with honors in English literature and history. Mr. Yors- 
ton was also elected valedictorian for his year. Proceeding to Har- 
vard he took his post-graduate degree under Von Jageman in Eng- 
lish and Germanic philology. He also had the advantage of taking 
lectures at Edinburgh University under the great Milton authority, 
Prof. Masson, during a two years' trip abroad. Returning to Can- 
ada, he entered Canadian journalism, taking a position on the Mon- 
treal Daily Star. In 1901 he accompanied the royal tour through 
Canada of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, now the 
King and Queen of England, representing on that journey the Mon- 
treal Star, the London Daily Mail and the Associated Press. Mr. 
Yorston was subsequently appointed city editor of the Montreal Star 
until the Montreal Standard was started, when he took the position 
of managing editor and vice-president of the company which he 



264 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

filled till his appointment as president. Under his editorship die 
Montreal Standard, Canada's national illustrated publication, with 
which he is still connected, has built up a circulation of over sixty 
thousand (1915). He is an able and versatile writer, and does a 
large portion of the editorial work himself for his excellent periodical, 
which is rapidly gaining in prestige and influence. 

The Canadian Minister of Militia recently stated that no agency 
in the Dorainion had done so much to aid the recruiting movement 
as the Montreal Standard with its magnificent panoramic illustrations 
and its patriotic articles. Mr. Yorston has written a large number 
of articles of literary and historical value, among them "The Bells 
of Notre Dame", "Mother's Day", "Through Canada for Sport and 
Pleasure", etc. 

Mr. Yorston is a member of the American University Club, of 
London, England ; St. Andrews Society, Montreal ; Thistle Curling 
Club, Montreal; Xova Scotia Historical Society; La Societe d'His- 
toire Xaturelle Canadienne de Montreal; Citizens Reform Associa- 
tion, and other clubs and societies. He is entitled to rank among 
Canada's brilliant journalists of the present day. 

John Yorston, the second son of James Yorston of this sketch, 
died in 1914 at the age of forty-one years; Louis, who attended the 
Pictou Academy and later took a course in Mechanical Engineering 
at McGill University, Montreal, has been engaged in the electric 
engineering business since his graduation from McGill University, 
1899, with degree B. S.c. 1899-1900 with I. Matheson & Company, 
Ltd., New Glasgow, Novia Scotia. 190x3 in charge of Engineering 
Department, designing stationary and marine engines and boilers and 
coal handling and gold mining machinery. 1901-1909, with Montreal 
Light, Heat & Power Company, drafting; charge of engineering De- 
partment; design and personal supervision of all buildings for sub- 
stations and power houses, and installation of all apparatus ready to 
be handed over to operating department. The installation of boilers, 
steam engines, steam turbines, steam piping, condensers, feed heat- 
ers, pumps and all auxilliary apparatus. The operation of steam and 
hydro electric plants including handling of ice condition. The super- 
vision of district steam heating plant and the operation of same for 
three years. The supervision of erection of Power Building, includ- 
ing heating, electric wiring, elevators, etc. 1909 to date, chief assist- 
ant to J. M. Robertson, Ltd., consulting engineers. 

Harry is now employed at the Nova Scotia Car Works at New 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 265 

Glasgow; William Donald died in 1905; Ada Mildred is at home. 
The wife and mother was called to her eternal rest in 1905. 

James Yorston has been one of the prominent men of Pictou in a 
public way and has done much for the general upbuilding of the 
town. He served twelve years in the town council and was mayor for 
two terms. He was offered the Liberal nomination for Parliament 
on several occasions. For a period of forty-three years he has served 
as treasurer of Prince Street Church. In 1866 he was elected a 
trustee of the church, which he has served in this capacity for forty- 
eight years. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, in which he is past grand master and grand chevalier. He has 
been an Odd Fellow for fifty years. He was past grand representa- 
tive of the Grand Lodge which met in Baltimore, Maryland. 

John Yorston, brother of James, was born at "Orquell", Evie, 
Orkney Island, Scotland, September 23, 1843, an( l there he spent his 
boyhood and attended school. He came to Nova Scotia in the side 
wheel steamer Asia, in 1863, and later associated himself with his 
brother James in business at Pictou, where he has since remained. 
He was the Liberal candidate for the Provincial and Federal Parlia- 
ments. He was appointed registrar of deeds, which position he still 
holds, discharging his duties most satisfactorily, having been incum- 
bent of this office over twenty years. He was married in 1870 to 
Annie Campbell, of Pictou, a daughter of George J. Campbell, repre- 
sentative of an old family of Pictou. This wife died without issue. 
In 1911 John Yorston's second marriage was celebrated when he was 
united to Mrs. Jane Dawson, nee Kirkpatrick, widow of the late R. 
Smith Dawson, Esquire. 

CHARLES ELLIOTT TANNER, K. C, M. P. P. 

Charles Elliott Tanner was born at Pictou, this Province, October 
7, 1^57. He is a son of Richard Tanner, Esq., and Janet (Brown) 
Tanner. This has long been a highly respected family in Pictou 
County. He grew to manhood in his native vicinity and he received 
his early education in the public schools of Pictou and Pictou Acad- 
emy, and he read law in the office of the late George H. Elliott, of 
Pictou, and was admitted to the bar in due time, and he has since 
successfully practiced his profession in Pictou, enjoying a large and 
growing practice. He was made King's Counsel in 1889. Since 
1888 he has been town solicitor and stipendiary magistrate for the 
town of Pictou. 



266 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Mr. Tanner was married on September 15, 1886, to Alicia May 
McDonald, a daughter of Robert McDonald, and to this union the fol- 
lowing children have been born : Janet Mary Tanner, who died in 
1905, Frederick Inglis Tanner who was on the staff of the 
Canadian Bank of Commerce in Saskatchewan, and resigned in the 
autumn of 1914 to join the Twenty-fifth Overseas Battalion at Hali- 
fax. Lieut. Tanner was wounded in the trenches October 6, 1915.. 

Politically, Mr. Tanner is a Conservative. He was first elected to 
the legislative Assembly in 1894, was defeated in 1897, and re-elected 
at a bye-election in 1900, re-elected in 1901, 1906 and 1911 ; resigned 
in 1908 at the request of the party convention to contest the federal 
election in 1908 and was defeated. He was elected provincial Con- 
servative leader in 1911. His record as a legislator is one of which 
his family and friends may well be proud. 

Religiously, he is a member of the Church of England. For some 
time he served faithfully in the Canadian artillery, retiring with 
the rank of captain. 

DONALD D. MACDONALD. 

Donald D. Macdonald was the eldest son of the late Donald Mac- 
donald and .Margaret MacLean. Both his parents were born at Bailey's 
Brock, Xova Scotia, where his grandfather, Angus Macdonald, R. N., 
was one of the earliest settlers. Angus was a native of Moidart, Scot- 
land, who served under Admiral Rodney throughout the American 
Revolutionary War, and the French War which terminated with the 
great English naval victory of Rodney over the Compte de Grasse off 
Dominica in 1782, and which led to the peace of Versailles. 

D. D. Macdonald was born at Bailey's Brook, August 29, 1826, 
and was educated at the public schools there. He began business at 
Bailey's Brook as a general merchant in 1851. The business was 
begun in a small way, but soon grew to large proportions. He was 
largely interested in fishing and lumbering, and was also associated 
throughout his latter years with the late Senator Carmichael, of New 
Glasgow, in shipping and shipbuilding. 

In politics he, like all the Macdonalds of his family, was a Liberal. 
He often referred to himself as "a Liberal of the Joe Howe school, 
and an uncompromising free trader". For over half a century he was 
the leader of the Liberal party in East Pictou, but though often 
pressed to accept a nomination for election to the House of Assembly, 
he always refused. 



1 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 267 

As a young man he served in the Nova Scotia militia, subsequently 
rising to the rank of major of the Eighth Pictou County Regiment. 
He was a strong supporter of an efficient Canadian militia, and was 
always enthusiastic as to the physical benefits of military drill and 
training. 

In religion, he was a Roman Catholic. He married November 9, 
1868, Mary Chisholm, eldest daughter of William Chisholm, Esq., of 
St. Andrews, Nova Scotia. He died in February, 1906, his death 
being occasioned by an accident through which he sustained a frac- 
tured hip and other injuries. He left a large and well-known family, 
consisting of six daughters and three sons. Two of his daughters are 
religieuses in the Notre Dame Order. Another is Miss Margaret, the 
well-known South African nurse, now matron-in-chief of the nurses 
sent overseas by the Canadian government. Two of his sons, Captain 
Ronald St. John, assistant professor of hygiene, McGill University, 
and Captain Donald Duncan, LL. B., are at present serving with the 
British expeditionary force in France. The third, Lieut. William C. 
barrister, is attached to a battery of siege artillery in Halifax for 
overseas service. 

DONALD MAcLENNAN. 

It was the great philosopher Bacon who admonished us thus : 
"Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for 
granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider''. 
Whether Donald MacLennan. well-known barrister and member of 
Provincial Parliament from Port Hood, Inverness County, was made 
acquainted with the above advice when a boy or not, he has always 
followed the proper course in his wide miscellaneous reading, believing 
with Benjamin Franklin that "reading makes a wise man," although 
our subject does not claim to be such. However, those who know him 
well have observed that he is well informed and is a close observer 
of everything that is going on about him. His honored father was 
also such a man and evidently transmitted to his son many of his 
commendable Caledonian characteristics. 

Mr. MacLennan was born March 22. 1875, at Margaree, Nova 
Scotia, and is a son of Donald and Flora (MacDonald) MacLennan, 
both Scotch. He was educated in the common schools and at St. 
Frances Xavier College, Antigonish. He studied law and received the 
degree of Bachelor of Laws in the year 1905 from Dalhousie Univer- 
sity. On April 24, 1905, he married Mathilda McDaniel, a daughter 



268 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of William McDaniel, of Newton, Massachusetts, and to this union 
four children have been born, namely: Mary E., Florence, Agnes and 
Frances. 

Mr. MacLennan was admitted to the bar in the year 1906, and has 
been practicing his profession at Port Hood ever since with success, 
occupying a position in the front ranks of the bar of Inverness county. 
He is also president of the Eastern Journal Publishing Company, 
Limited, of Hawksbury, Inverness County, which business under his 
able management has brought very satisfactory results. He became 
treasurer of the County of Inverness in 1910 and still holds this posi- 
tion. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly at the general 
election in 1911 and is still incumbent of this office, the duties of 
which he has discharged in a highly acceptable and commendable man- 
ner. Politically, he is a Liberal and is active in his party. He is a 
Roman Catholic. 

SMITH ASA NICKERSON. 

By doing his work conscientiously and well and at the same time 
being alert for an opportunity to support and encourage every move- 
ment that would be of benefit to his community in a material, moral 
and civic way, Smith Asa Xickerson, of Clark's Harbor, Shelburne 
County, has won a high position as a citizen in his town and county 
and is deserving of the success and the esteem that now are his. 

Mr. Xickerson was born at Clark's Harbor, Nova Scotia, July 16, 
1860. He is a son of Asa McGray Nickerson and Melissa (Newell) 
Nickerson. He received his education in the public schools, and he 
has for a number of years followed the work of a lobster packer, in 
which he is an expert. He has been making his home at Clark's Har- 
bor, Shelburne County, for a number of years. 

Mr. Nickerson was married on December 22, 1882, to Hannah B. 
Nickerson, a daughter of Ephraim Nickerson and wife, of Clark's 
Harbor, this Province. To our subject and wife thirteen children have 
been born, named as follows : Selina E. is the wife of Charles Nicker- 
son; Seretha N. is the wife of John J. While; Julia D. is the wife of 
Bryant Newell ; Eugene A., M. Gladstone, Matilda A., Harold S., 
Evangeline M., Helen F., Arthur S., Charibel M., Stella A. and John 
T. R. 

Politically, Mr. Nickerson is a Liberal and he has been active in 
the affairs of his party for some time. He sat in the Municipal Coun- 
cil at Barrington from 1893 to 1900, both years, inclusive, and at the 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 269 

general election in 1911 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly 
and is still serving in that capacity, discharging his duties in this im- 
portant office in a manner that has won the favorable comment of all 
concerned. He has ever been on the lookout for opportunities to be 
of service to his district in any way. While not a man of high' educa- 
tion, he has read extensively during spare hours at home, and is well 
informed on current topics. 

ROBERT EDWARD HARRIS. 

The Honorable Mr. Justice Harris was for many years one of the 
leading members of the Halifax bar. He infused his personality, 
courage and conscience into his work and was active at his books 
during every spare moment. A man of tireless energy and indomit- 
able zeal, he has won and held the unqualified esteem of his fellow men 
by his uniform integrity and fairness, impressing all with whom he 
comes in contact. With the law as his profession from early man- 
hood, he has won a brilliant reputation and the future gives promise 
of much greater things for him. 

Mr. Justice Harris was born at Annapolis Royal, Annapolis County, 
Nova Scotia, August 18, 1860. He is a son of Robert J. and Rebecca 
(Ditmars) Harris. He grew to manhood in his native community 
and received his early education under private tutors and in Anna- 
polis Academy. King's College (conferred the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Civil Law on him in 1905. He studied law with Hon. J. M. 
Owen at Annapolis and with the late Rt. Hon. Sir John S. D. Thomp- 
son and Hon. Mr. Justice Graham. He was admitted to the bar in 
1881, having passed his final examinations at the head of his class. 
He enjoyed a large and lucrative practice up to the time of his ap- 
pointment to the bench, being retained in many important cases. In 
1890 he was appointed King's Counsel (Earl of Derby), being then 
under thirty years of age and one of the youngest barristers ever ap- 
pointed to that distinguished office in Canada. He became a member 
of the Council of the Nova Scotia Barristers' Society in 1896, was 
made vice-president of the same in 1905, and president in 1907. He 
was engaged in the practice of his profession at Yarmouth until 1892, 
when he removed to Halifax and became a member of the firm of 
Henry, Harris & Henry, one of the leading legal firms of the Province. 
By the election of Hon. H. McD. Henry to the Supreme Court shortly 
after Mr. Harris became head of the firm a position which he occu- 
pied until he was elevated to the Bench. He was appointed a judge 



270 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia in 1915, and he is discharging 
his duties in this high and important position in a manner that reflects 
much credit upon himself and to the eminent satisfaction of all con- 
cerned. He came to the bench well qualified for his duties, having 
ever been a close student of all that pertains to his profession in all 
its phases. 

Air. Justice Harris was also very successful in a business way, and 
was for many years a director in the following concerns : Eastern 
Trust Company, Trinadad Electric Company, Demarara Electric Com- 
pany, Camaguey Electric Company, Porto Rico Railways, Brandram- 
Henderson, Ltd., Acadia Sugar Refinery Company, Bank of Nova 
Scotia and other companies. He was also for ten years president of 
the Xova Scotia Steel & Coal Company, and of the Eastern Trust 
Company and was regarded as one of the leading business men of 
Canada. He resigned all offices held by him upon his appointment as 
a judge of the Supreme Court of Xova Scotia. 

Mr. Justice Harris was married in June, 1883, to Minnie L. Hors- 
fall, a daughter of James Horsfall, a prominent old family of Anna- 
polis Royal. 

Politically, he is a Liberal-Conservative, but he never took a very 
active part in political matters and always declined to accept a nom- 
ination for a seat in the House of Commons although frequently 
pressed to do so. 

In religion, he is an Episcopalian and has been a member of the 
Diocesan Synod of Nova Scotia for more than twenty-five years. He 
is chancellor of the Diocese of Nova Scotia. He is a director of the 
School for the Blind and was recently appointed a member of the 
commission for securing employment for soldiers returning from the 
war. 

CAPT. K. A. MACKENZIE, M. D. 

Of the many professional men produced by Pictou County, who 
have made their influence felt in the numerous localities to which they 
have dispersed, none, especially in the medical profession, is more 
worthy of specific mention in a work of the nature of the one in hand 
than Capt. K. A. Mackenzie, one of the well known of the younger 
physicians of Halifax. 

Dr. Mackenzie was born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, on August 3, 
1880, and he is a son of Edward and Annie Mackenzie, natives of 
Carriboo, Pictou County. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 271 

Dr. Mackenzie grew to manhood in his native community, and 
received his early education in the public schools and the far-famed 
Pictou Academy. He then entered the medical department of Dal- 
housie University, Halifax, and was graduated therefrom in 1903, 
with the degree of Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery, having 
made an excellent record for scholarship. He at once began the prac- 
tice of his profession, in which he was successful from the first, and 
as the years went by built up a large and lucrative connection. In 1915 
he was appointed a member of the Dalhousie Unit, No. 7, Overseas 
Stationary Hospital, for service with the Canadian troops in the Euro- 
pean war. He had for some time been a successful lecturer on medi- 
cine at his Alma Mater, and he was obliged to give up his extensive 
practice in Halifax at the call of his country, but did so without regret, 
being a man of true patriotism. 

Politically, he is a Conservative, and he belongs to the Forresters. 
He is president of Halifax Medical Society 1915. 

Dr. Macknezie was married in 1906 to Christine Morrison, only 
duaghter of the late Dr. D. X. Morrison, of Sydney, Xova Scotia. 

ROBERT DRUMMOXD. 

One of the popular journalists and legislators of Xova Scotia who 
is making his influence felt for the common good is Robert Drum- 
mond, of Stellarton, Pictou County. He belongs to that class of citi- 
zens whose lives do not show any meteoric effects, but who by their 
support of the moral, political and social status for the general amel- 
ioration of his fellow men, promote the real welfare of their respect- 
ive communities. He takes an abiding interest in the progress and 
improvement of trade schools, workmen's dwellings, safety appliances; 
in fact, in all matters pertaining to the material, moral and social 
advancement of Nova Scotia's large mining population. 

Mr. Drummond was born on October 29, 1840. He is of Scottish 
origin, and is a son of Robert and Elizabeth Drummond, natives of 
Greenock, Scotland. He received his education in Greenock, Scot- 
land, and remained in his native land until the year 1864, when he 
immigrated to Canada, locating first in Cape Breton, for a short time 
in Pictou County, subsequently in Springhill, and since 1882 in Stellar- 
ton. 

In 1880 he started in Springhill The Trades Journal, continued 
its publication on his removal to Stellarton until 1898, when he began 
publication of the Maritime Mining Record, of which he is editor and 



272 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



proprietor. He has made this one of the most reliable newspapers of 
its type in the Maritime Provinces. He is not only a versatile and 
forceful writer, but is a man of sound judgment and good business 
principles. For about nineteen years he was secretary of the Provin- 
cial Workmen's Association, which he founded, and which has accom- 
plished much in the way of advanced legislation for the workingmen 
of the Province. He is a councillor of the Nova Scotia Mining Society. 
He was royal commissioner of the Nova Scotia Stationary Engineers 
in 1906, and also royal commissioner in the interest of Old Age Pen- 
sions in 1907. He was called to the Legislative Council of Nova 
Scotia in 1891. Politically, he was until 1911, a Liberal and 
through his paper and his individual work was long one of the most 
influential workers in that party in Pictou County. As a public ser- 
vant lie has discharged his duties ably, honorably and commendably. 
Mr. Drummond was married in 1871 to Mary Alexander, a daugh- 
ter of Captain Alexander and wife, of Greenock, Scotland. 

THE MOST REVEREND EDWARD JOSEPH McCARTHY. 

It is indeed hard to find among our cosmopolitan civilization people 
of better habits of life, taking it all in all, than those who originally 
came from the fair Emerald Isle or their immediate descendants. They 
are distinguished for their thrift, wit, consecutive industry, patriotism, 
loyalty; and these qualities in the inhabitants of any country will in the 
end alone make that country great. One of the best known men in 
the Roman Catholic church in Nova Scotia, Archbishop Edward Jos- 
eph McCarthy, of Halifax, is a man of Celtic blood, and is of fine 
literary and scholastic tastes; a scholarly man and an eloquent and 
forcible preacher ; likewise a clever business man, and a man of toler- 
ance and diplomacy. 

He was born in Halifax, January 25, 1850, and is a son of Patrick 
and Margaret McCarthy, each of Irish origin. He grew to manhood 
in his native city and was educated here in St. Mary's College, later 
attending the Grand Seminary, Montreal. He was given the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws in 1905 by St. Francis Xavier College, 
Antingonish. He was ordained in 1874, and was at Kentville three 
years with the late Father Holden and from there went to Yarmouth. 
He was called to Halifax to succeed the late Monsignor Chermode as 
pastor of St. Patrick's parish and after spending some years at St. 
Partick's he was appointed rector of St. Mary's Cathedral, Halifax, 
after the death of the late Right Rev. Monsignor Murphy. He has 



o 

5 50 



a 



13 



50 |> 

? H 

5 = 



' 



B H 

W 

, 

.- o 




HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 273 

been Archbishop of Halifax since September 9, 1906, and has per- 
formed his duties in an able and praiseworthy manner. He is presi- 
dent of the Nova Scotia League for the Protection of the Feeble 
Minded. He is vice-president of the local branch of the British Em- 
pire League. He was state chaplain of the Knights of Columbus in 
the Maritime Provinces in 1907. He cordially supported and took 
part in the movement for the presentation of a testimonial to the late 
King Edward from the people of Nova Scotia in 1908. He attended 
the Plenary Council at Quebec in 1909, and the Eucharistic Congress 
at Montreal in 1910. It has been truthfully said of him that he is a 
man of remarkable talents and of great tact and good judgment; well 
liked by everybody. 

THOMAS LEYDON. 

Why the human heart was not made to look with more tolerance 
upon the ravages of the so-called King of Terorrs \ve cannot say, for 
"seeing that death, a necessary end, will come when it will come." as 
wrote the greatest of poets, it would seem that we should regard it 
rather as the friend of storm-tossed humanity than as an enemy. The 
late Thomas Leydon, for many years a well-known business man of 
Halifax, and later Registrar of Deeds for the City and County of 
Halifax, was greatly missed and truly mourned when he was called 
away from earthly scenes. 

Mr. Leydon was born at Bay-field, Antigonish Count)*, Nova Sco- 
tia, February 17, 1840, and was a son of Patrick and Sarah (Con- 
nors) Leydon. The father was a native of Boyle, Roscommon County, 
Province of Connaught, Ireland, from which country he came to Nova 
Scotia when young and here married and established his future home. 
The mother of our subject was a native of Little River, County of 
Sydney, now Bayfield, County of Antigonish, this Province. These 
parents have both been long deceased. She was a descendant of a 
United Empire Loyalist family who came to Nova Scotia from Con- 
necticut, United States of America, and it is said left valuable prop- 
erty in their native place, rather than live under the Stars and Stripes. 

Thomas Leydon was educated in St. Francis Xavier College, An-- 
tigonish, then came to Halifax, where he entered the employ of the 
William Ellis Company, later becoming associated with the Walter 
Barren Company, whom he succeeded (when Walter Barron was lost 
with other Halifax merchants in the ill-fated S. S. City of Boston, 
(18) 



274 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

en route to England), and organized the firm of Leydon & Mclntosh, 
merchant tailors, who carried on business in Granville street for a 
number of years. In September, 1912, he was appointed Registrar of 
Deeds, which office he held until his death, which occurred suddenly 
on July 10, 1915, at the age of seventy-five years. He had discharged 
the duties of the same faithfully and acceptably, and as a business 
man he was reasonably successful. 

Politically, Mr. Leydon was a Liberal. He was a memljer of the 
Board of Commissioners for the City of Halifax school from 1896 
to 1899. He was appointed a justice of the peace for the City and 
County of Halifax on the 8th of January, 1890. Religiously, he was 
a Roman Catholic. 

Air. Leydon was twice married, first, to a Miss Parker, who died 
many years ago, leaving two children Walter, who died in his twen- 
ties; and Mary F., who is living in Halifax, is the wife of J. A. Doyle. 
His second marriage occurred November 22, 1881, to Mary Elizabeth 
Holden, a daughter of Patrick and Mary (Fox) Holden, the father a 
native of Ireland and the mother of Halifax. Mr. Holden came to 
Nova Scotia from his native land when young and spent his later life 
in Nova Scotia. Three children were born of our subject's second 
marriage, namely: Helena, whose birth occurred in 1882, is deceased; 
Thomas F., born June 2, 1884, lives in Halifax, and is connected with 
the road commissioner's office : and John J., who was born February 
22, 1886, is city passenger agent of the Intercolonial Railway at 
Halifax. 

Mr. Leydon was one of the test-known and most highly respected 
officials in Halifax. He was a man of strictest integrity, ever kindly 
and courteous to all, and had a host of friends. 

JOHN ERNEST FURNESS. 

One of the progressive twentieth century business men and enter- 
prising citizens of Halifax is John Ernest Furness, manager and 
director of Furness, Withy & Company, Limited, steamship owners 
and brokers. He was born in Sweden, March 2, 1878, and is a son 
of Stephen and Mary Furness, of West Hartlepool, England.' He 
grew to manhood in Sweden and there received his education in the 
public schools of Carlsharnn, and Lund University. He began his 
business career by accepting a position with the firm of Furness, Withy 
& Company, West Hartlepool, where he remained two years, then spent 
six years in the London office of this firm, obtaining excellent exper- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 275 

ience in various departments, his rise being rapid owing to his close 
application, innate ability and trustworthiness, and he was at the head 
of the freight department when he left London for Halifax 
in 1904, to take a position as assistant manager. He was appointed 
to his present position in 1905. He is a trustee of the Furness Sea- 
mens' Fund, and a director of the Sailors' Home. He was married 
September 30, 1909, to Emma Louise Pearce, a daughter of William 
Pearce, of Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. To this union two sons have 
been born, namely : Harry and Ernest. He is a member of the 
Halifax Club, City Club, the Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron, 
the Wanderers and the Waegwoltic, of Halifax; also the National 
Liberal Club of London, England, and the Society of St. George's. 
For recreation he is enthusiastic about yachting, fishing, and shoot- 
ing. Politically, he is an Independent-Liberal. He is a member of 
the Episcopal church. 

FREDERIC HENRY SEXTOX. 

One d'f X T ova Scotia's efficient and successful educationists and 
mining engineers is Frederic Henry Sexton, of Halifax, a man who 
takes high rank as an instructor and an expert in scientific research. 
His influence has always been on the side of progress, improvement 
and advancement. He is a dependable man under any condition and 
in every emergency. His quietude of deportment, his easy dignity, 
his frankness and cordiality of address, with the total absence of any 
self-seeking designs, foretoken a man who is ready to meet any obli- 
gation of life with the confidence and courage that come of conscious 
personal ability, right thinking, and clean living. No man has done 
more for the cause of technical education in this Province. 

Mr. Sexton was born at New Boston, New Hampshire, June 9, 
1879, and is a son of William H. and Clara E. Sexton, natives of 
Massachusets, U. S. A. When young his parents removed with him 
to Billerica, Massachusetts, and he received his education in the Howe 
high school and at the Cambridge English high school. He entered the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Boston, where he studied for 
some time, specializing in mining engineering and graduating with the 
degree of S. B. in 1901. 

Mr. Sexton was married in June, 1904, to Miss E. M. W. Best, 
of Dorchester, New Brunswick, a graduate in Chemistry of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology in 1902. Two children have been 
born of the union, Whitney G. in 1906, and Helen R. in 1908. 






276 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

He became assistant to the professor in Metallurgy in the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology in 1902, then accepted a position as 
research metallurgist with the General Electric Company, of Schenec- 
tady, New York. Later he came to Nova Scotia and accepted a posi- 
tion as assistant professor of Metallurgy and Mining Engineering at 
Dalhotisie College, Halifax, which position he held from 1904-1907. 
Since then he has been principal of the Nova Scotia Technical College 
at Halifax, and director of Technical Education of Nova Scotia. He 
has performed his duties in his present responsible position in a most; 
commendable manner, developing an adequate system of technical edu- 
cation from its very beginning and placing the Technical College on a 
splendid basis of thoroughness and efficiency, until it now ranks with 
the best of its kind in Canada. 

Mr. Sexton has had a varied industrial experience in mining engi- 
neering, metallurgy, and education. In his youth and while in college 
be gained an intimate knowledge of a number of vocations by practical 
experience. He has actually worked in the following trades for ex- 
tended periods : farming, blacksmithing, wheel-wrighting, electrical 
wiring, carpentry, plumbing and chemical analyst. This broad exper- 
ience has enabled Mr. Sexton to personally plan, inspect, and equip 
the buildings and laboratories of the Technical College in such an ade- 
quate practical manner for the modest sum which has been expended 
for this purpose. The same breadth of activity has given Mr. Sexton 
the ability to know the actual needs of the industrial workers of Nova 
Scotia and to personally plan the educational courses so that they would 
secure the interest of the workmen and also give them the technical 
knowledge they were seeking. He has had a number of tempting 
invitations into industrial life, but refused because he has a great 
underlying impulse of helping other people and believed he could 
gratify this best in educational life. He has also been offered more 
lucrative positions in education outside of Nova Scotia, but also re- 
fused them because he had become so attached to the Province and 
was so keenly interested in placing the system of technical education 
on a sound basis of efficiency for its future development. 

Mr. Sexton has been identified with many good movements and 
organizations in the Province. He is a member of the executive of the 
following societies : Nova Scotia Institute of Science, Nova Scotia 
Society of Engineers, Greater Halifax Conference, Civic Improvement 
League, Khaki Club. He is a member of the Nova Scotia Water 
Powers Commission, Returned Soldiers Employment Committee, Hali- 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 277 

fax Board of Trade, Canadian Alining Institute, Halifax Rotary 
Club, and many educational societies. He is a past president of the 
Nova Scotia Mining Society. He was closely interested in and par- 
tially responsible for the plan adopted by the Military Hospitals 
Commission for the employment and re-education of returned dis- 
abled soldiers. 

Mr. Sexton is a writer of no mean ability and has produced many 
articles for newspapers, magazines, and the journals of technical so- 
cieties. Under the pressing need existing for texts in practical subjects 
for technical instruction, he prepared three books for use in Xova 
Scotia, viz: "Practical English Com]xxsition," "Elements of Xova 
Scotian Geology for Coal Miners," "Mathematics for Coal Miners." 
He has written many long and short articles for various publications 
and has also given many public addresses on the following subjects : 
"Garden Suburbs," "Town-planning" "Economic Value of Technical 
Education," "Modern Apprenticeship Systems," "Annealing of Steel 
Castings," "The Business of Mining," "Modern Systems of Education 
for Business and Commerce," "Eoreign Methods of Education for 
Textile Workers," "Industrial Education for Miners," "Employment 
and Educaion of Returned Soldiers," etc., etc. 

JOHN COSTLEY. 

For many years the late John Costley was a prominent and inrluen- 
tial citizen of Halifax, and his memory will long be cherished by the 
people of Nova Scotia. He was born in Rutherglan, Scotland, in 
1819. There he spent his boyhood, and in 1848 he came to Halifax 
to take a position as head master of an academy under the auspices of 
the Old Kirk of Scotland. A few years later he taught in Dalhousie 
College. In the fall of 1854 he went to Charlottetown, Prince Ed- 
ward Island, where he spent a year teaching. He became principal of 
Pictou Academy in the fall of 1855. In 1865 Mr. Costley was 
solicited by Sir Charles Tupper, who was then Provincial secretary, to 
take upon himself the office of registrar of births, deaths and mar- 
riages, which he accepted, and removed to Halifax at once. Owing to 
his pre-eminent qualifications as a statistician, he brought the office to 
the highest state of perfection. The attention of the Dominion gov- 
ernment was called to his superior ability in this line, and in 1870 he 
was invited to Ottawa by the minister of agriculture to assist his 
deputy, Dr. Tache, in the preparation of the schedules for taking the 
census of that year. After it was taken, Mr. Costley went again to 



2/8 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Ottawa to aid in tabulating the returns. So well and intelligently did 
he perform his work that he was subsequently offered the position of 
secretary to the agricultural department, but he declined. At the for- 
mation of the Holmes-Thompson government he was solicited to 
accept the position of deputy secretary, which he did, holding the office 
four years to the eminent satisfaction of all concerned. 

Mr. Costley was of a decided literary bent, and before he came to 
Nova Scotia he published a work in Scotland under the title of "Tales 
of the Highlands," which was well received by the reading public. 
For ten years he contributed to the Evening Express, and during the 
time that he occupied the editorial chair he raised the standard of that 
paper very appreciably. He was a clear, forceful and logical writer, 
his articles being more like essays than editorials. When the Halifax 
Herald was founded he became editor, but later resigned owing to ill 
health. He also was editor for a number of years of the Record, a 
monthly periodical of the Church of Scotland. 

Mr. Costley was a prominent church worker. He was held in the 
highest esteem by members of denominations other than his own, and 
possessed the friendship of the late Archbishop Connoly and the late 
Archbishop Hannan. Modest and retiring he did not mingle a great 
deal in society. As a teacher he was conscientious and painstaking; 
as a public servant be was faithful and efficient, and in private life he 
was greatly beloved. He was called to his eternal rest. July 2, 1890. 
At his death he left a wife, whose maiden name was Charlotte Miner, 
and one son, Alfred Costley. 

LIEUT.-COL. JOSEPH HAYES, M. D. 

In the list of Nova Scotia's honored professional men and repre- 
sentative citizens is Lieut. -Col. Joseph Hayes, formerly of Spring- 
hill, Cumberland County. For the past six years he has resided in 
Halifax, where he has filled a prominent place in the public life of 
the Province and city. In his career there is much that is commend- 
able, and his life forcibly illustrates what one can accomplish even in 
the face of obstacles, if one's plans are wisely laid and one's actions 
governed by right principles, noble aims and high ideals. 

Colonel Hayes was born at Wingate, Durham County, England, 
March 23, 1864. His parents were James and Mary Jane (Patter- 
son) Hayes, who removed to the United States when our subject 
was a child, remaining there eight years. 

Our subject received his early eudcation in the public schools of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 279 

Durham, England, and again returned to Canada in 1877, continu- 
ing his education at Sackville University, where he took special 
courses in the years 1884-5. I" tne fall of 1885 he entered the 
University of Pennsylvania to study medicine, and was graduated 
from that institution May i, 1888, with honors and the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine. Returning to Nova Scotia he began the prac- 
tice of his profession at Springhill, Cumterland County, where he 
remained until the year 1898, when he removed to Parrsboro, where 
he enjoyed an extensive practice for ten years. A serious illness at 
this time compelled him to abandon the active pursuits of a trying 
profession for a time. 

The reputation which he had already gained as an able and 
energetic man of affairs led to his being called upon to organize the 
Liberal-Conservative party of Xova Scotia both federal and local. 
Here many opportunities were afforded for the display of his great 
tact and splendid executive capacity. He has the reputation of being 
one of the most methodical of men, which probably accounts for the 
prodigious amount of work he is able to accomplish in a very short 
time. His axiom in life is "It is the sum total of little things that 
counts for success." 

Colonel Hayes was married December n. 1888, to Maria Pippy, 
a daughter of George Pippy, of St. John's, Newfoundland. To this 
union the following children have been born : William Errol. Tames 
Bertram, Winnie A., George Percival (deceased), Frederick Ronald. 

On February 6, 1893, Doctor Hayes was appointed medical 
officer of the Ninety-third Regiment, Cumberland Infantry, with a 
commission of major. He was gazetted a lieutenant-colonel on Sep- 
tember 17, 1905. Thus at the outbreak of ''the great war" he had 
twenty-two years of service in the active militia of Canada. He 
immediately telegraphed Ottawa for an appointment but owing to the 
imminence of an election he was persuaded to postpone his enlist- 
ment, which he reluctantly did. On the announcement in July, 1915, 
that Lieut. -Col. A. H. Borden was authorized to raise a regiment for 
the front he threw all other considerations to the winds and imme- 
diately applied to Colonel Borden for the appointment of surgeon to 
his battalion, antl was gladly accepted. At the time of writing Colonel 
Hayes is doing service with the Eighty-fifth Overseas Battalion, 
"Nova Scotia Highlanders," in training for the front. 

The Colonel is a past master of the Masonic Order and a past 
Grand of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows; he also belongs 



280 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

to the Cumberland County Medical Society, the Halifax County 
Medical Society and the Maritime Provinces Medical Association. 
He was for four years medical superintendent of All Saints Hospi- 
tal, Springhill. In religion he is an active member of the Methodist 
church. 

JOSEPH ALEXANDER GILLIES, K. C. 

One of the best known barristers and public men of Cape Breton 
is Joseph Alexander Gillies, K. C., who began practicing law forty 
years ago, and he met with continued success, keeping well abreast of 
the times in his profession. Concerning the sincerity of purpose, the 
unquestioned probity and uprightness of conduct and character, the 
ability and honesty of Mr. Gillies, it may be said, they are as well 
known and recognized as his name. 

Mr. Gillies was born at Irish Cove, Cape Breton, September 17, 
1849, and is a son of John and Mary Isabella (MacLean) Gillies. 
The father was born in Inverness-shire. Scotland, in 1805; and the 
mother was born in Coll, Argylshire, Scotland, in 1812. 

Mr. Gillies was reared to manhood in Cape Breton, where his 
parents settled after coming to Nova Scotia from their native land in 
an early day. He received his education in St. Francis Xavier Col- 
lege, Antigonish, from which institution he was graduated with the 
degree of Master of Arts in 1871. 

He was registrar of probate for the County of Cape Breton from 
July, 1872, to February, 1887, when he resigned to contest the fed- 
eral election in that year. He studied law and was admitted to the 
bar of Nova Scotia in August, 1875, and altered upon the practice 
of his profession as co-partner of the late Murray Dodd, afterwards 
Judge Dodd, under the firm name of Dodd & Gillies. He soon took 
his position in the front ranks of the bar in his locality and enjoyed 
a large clientele. He was appointed King's Counsel by Lord Aber- 
deen in Septemljer, 1895. He was solicitor of the Municipality of 
Cape Breton County for many years. He was returned to Parlia- 
ment for the County of Richmond at the general election of 1891. 
He was unseated upon petition, and returned at a bye-election in 
January, 1892. He was again returned at the general election in 
1896. He was defeated at the general election in 1900, and in 1904. 
He was an unsuccessful candidate at the last general election in 1911 
for the same county. He was registrar of probate for Cape Breton 
County from 1872 to 1887, when he resigned. He was solicitor for 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 28l 

the Municipality for a number of years, also clerk of the peace and 
clerk of the Municipality. 

Mr. Gillies was married July 16, 1883, to Josephine Eulalie Ber- 
trand, a daughter of Seraphim and Maria (Constantine) Bertrand, 
of Prescott, Ontario. To this union two children were born, namely: 
John J. Gillies and Francis Edwin Gillies; the latter is deceased. 

Politically, Mr. Gillies is a strong protectionist and therefore 
supports the Conservative ticket. He is a Catholic in his church 
affiliations. Fraternally, he is a member of the Catholic Mutual 
Benefit Association and the Knights of Columbus. He belongs to 
the Cape Breton Barristers' Association, of which he was president 
for several years, the Xova Scotia Barristers' Society, the Knights 
of Columbus Club of Sydney, and the Royal Cape Breton Yacht Club. 

COLIN MACKENZIE. 

The good lawyer is the conservator of order in every community. 
He obeys the law and is the instrument to compel obedience on the 
part of others. The relation between himself and his client makes 
him the confidential advisor and the repository of the secrets of his 
client. It is his duty to be true to his clients, and no class of men 
stand higher and truer to their integrity in this respect than lawyers. 
One of the honorable and successful lawyers of the Nova Scotia liar 
is Colin MacKenzie, of Sydney, Cape Breton. He was born at Red 
Islands, Richmond County, this Province, February 2, 1882, and is 
a son of Michael J. and Ann (Macdonald) MacKenzie, both natives 
of Richmond County, the father born at Red Islands, and the mother 
at Soldiers Cove. 

Mr. MacKenzie grew to manhood in his native locality, and was 
educated at St. Francis Xavier College, Antigonish. from which he 
was graduated from the arts course. He then studied law and was 
graduated from the law department of Dalhousie University, Hali- 
fax, after a very creditable career as a student. He was admitted 
to the Nova Scotia bar in 1910, and soon thereafter began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Sydney, where he has remained to the pres- 
ent time and is building up a very extensive and lucrative clientage. 
He was a member of the firm of Crowe & MacKenzie during 1910 
and 1911, then practiced alone until 1915. when he formed a part- 
nership with two other leading lawyers of Cape Breton, under the 
firm name of Burchell, Maclntyre & MacKenzie. He has taken an 
active interest in public affairs, and was elected alderman of the city 



282 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of Sydney in 1913. Politically, he is a Liberal. He is secretary and 
treasurer for the County of Cape Breton. Socially, he is a member 
of the Royal Cape Breton Yacht Club, the Sydney Curling Club, and 
the Knights of Columbus. Religiously, he is a Catholic. He is 
unmarried. 

D. M. CURRY. 

Though no land is richer in opportunities or offers greater ad- 
vantages to its citizens than Nova Scotia, success is not to be attained 
through desire alone, but must be persistently sought. In this coun- 
try "labor is king," and the man who resolutely sets to work to ac- 
complish a given purpose is certain of success if he has but the 
qualities of perseverance, untiring energy and practical common 
sense. D. M. Curry, the present county clerk of Sydney, Cape Bret- 
on, and formerly justice of the peace there, has attained definite suc- 
cess through his diligence and perseverance. 

.Mr. Curry was born at Shunacadie, Cape Breton, April 22, 1848. 
His parents were James and Mary (McPhee) Curry. He received 
his education in the public schools and at Sydney Academy, after 
which he was employed as salesman, and afterwards accountant in 
Sydney and Reserve Mines, for a number of years. He was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace for Cape Breton County in December, 
1891, and he discharged the duties of this office in a very acceptable 
manner. He lias long taken an active interest in temperance work 
and more than twenty years ago became president of the Sydney 
League of the Cross, Total Abstinence Society, and was first presi- 
dent of the Grand Council of the League of the Cross in Cape Breton 
County, and was also financial secretary of Branch 189, Catholic 
Mutual Benefit Association, and became president, representative to 
the Grand Council of the C. M. B. and Grand Deputy. In religion 
he is a Roman Catholic, and a member of Sacred Heart Church of 
which he is Senior Warden at Sydney. He was elected county clerk 
of Cape Breton County in May, 1899, and this position he still holds, 
discharging his duties in an able, faithful and acceptable manner. 

Mr. Curry was married, November 28, 1872, to Cassie Downing, 
of Sydney, Cape Breton, where she grew to womanhood and was 
educated. She is a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. D. Downing. To the 
union of Mr. Curry and wife the following children have been born: 
James J., now city clerk and treasurer, Sydney and Mary A., at home. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 283 

HARRY HAM WICKWIRE, B. A., LL. B., K. C. 

In every age of the world's hitsory, the lawyers have been the 
defenders of civil liberty against tyranny and oppression. All the 
reforms for freedom and equality have been carried forward by them 
as leaders. It has ever been their mission to promote and maintain 
right and justice among men. No higher object in human life than 
this can animate the patriot and philanthropist. One of the successful 
and well known members of this class of the world's workers in 
Kings County is Harry Ham Wickwire. of Kentville. 

He was born in Canning, Kings County. June 21, 1868. and is. a 
son of J. L. and Annie (Lawton) Wickwire. He is descended from 
United Empire Loyalist stock. His father was born in Canning, 
Nova Scotia, and his mother in St. John, Xew Brunswick. Peter 
Wickwire, the grandfather, was also a native of Canning, and his 
wife, Eliza Rockwell, was born in Cornwallis. Silas Wickwire, the 
great grandfather, was born in Canning. His father, Peter Wick- 
wire, was a native of New London, Connecticut; he was a son of 
Peter Wickwire, Sr., who was a son of John Wickwire, a native of 
England, from which country he came to America in the old Colonial 
days. The great-great grandfather of the subject of this sketch came 
to Nova Scotia in pioneer times, received a grant of land at Corn- 
wallis and there followed farming, his descendants continuing agri- 
cultural pursuits there. The father of our subject remained on the 
home farm until he was thirty years old, then turned his attention 
to ship building at Scots Bay. in partnership with Steven Sheffield, 
under the firm name of Sheffield & Wickwire, which continued for 
a number of years, during which they built several ships for the 
foreign trade. The father also took an active part in local military 
affairs and was a colonel in the Nova Scotia Militia. He was a can- 
didate for the House of Commons in 1873. His death occurred at 
Canning in 1891 at the age of fifty-eight years. 

Harry H. Wickwire grew to manhood in his native locality and 
he received his education in the public schools and at Acadia College, 
from which he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 
then entered the law department of Dalhousie University, from 
which he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 
1896. He was admitted to the bar soon thereafter and began the 
practice of his profession in Kentville where he has since remained, 
enjoying a large and satisfactory practice, ranking among the leaders 



284 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of the bar in Kings County. He is a director of the Kentville Elec- 
tric Light & Power Company. 

Mr. Wickvvire was married on June 27, 1894, to Sarah J. Lovitt, 
a daughter of James J. Lovitt, of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, and to 
this union the following children have been born : Emily L. was 
graduated from Westminister College, Toronto; Alice L. took the 
arts course at Dalhousie University; Eleanor B. attended Mt. Allison 
Ladies' College; Harry P., and William N. A. are both attending 
school at this writing. 

Politically, Mr. Wickwire is a Lil>eral and he has long been one 
of the leaders of his party in Kings County. He was mayor of 
Kentville from 1910 to 1912, inclusive, during which period he did 
much for the advancement of the town. He was elected to the Xova 
Scotia Legislative Assembly in 1894, 1897 anc ' again in 1911, but 
was defeated for this office in 190/1. He was elected at a bye-election, 
by acclamation in 1911, and re-elected at the general election of that 
year. He has served the people in an able and satisfactory manner. 
He is a member of the Church of England. He is a commanding 
officer (major). No. 8, Company C, A. S. C. 

ARCHIBALD A. McINTYRE. 

One of the leaders of the bar at Sydney is Archibald A. Mcln- 
tyre, who was born at Eraser's Grant, Antigonish County, Nova 
Scotia, August 15, 1873. He is a son of Archibald and Mary 
(Cameron) Mclntyre. The father was born at Heatherton, Anti- 
gonish County, in 1838, and is still living at Eraser's Grant; the 
mother was born at Marydale, Antigonish County, in 1840, and her 
death occurred in 1911. 

Mr. Mclntyre, of this review, received his education in the public 
schools and St. Francis Xavier College at Antigonish, from which 
institution he was graduated in 1890, after which he taught school 
for a few years, then entered the law department of Dalhousie Uni- 
versity, from which he was graduated in 1899, with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws. Soon thereafter he was admitted to the bar, 
and he began the practice of his profession at Antigonish with Sena- 
tor Girrior, for two years, then came to Sydney and joined the firm 
of Crowe & Burchell in 1901. The following year the firm of 
Burchell & Mclntyre was formed and this partnership has continued 
to the present time, with the addition of a third member, the style 
of the firm now being Burchell, Mclntyre & MacKenzie. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 285 

Mr. Mclntyre was married October 30, 1906, to Isabel Chisholm, 
a daughter of Roderick and Catherine (Campbell) Chisholm, of 
Antigonish. To this union two children have been born, namely: 
Frank Archibald, whose birth occurred April 14, 1908; and Roder- 
ick Roland, born January 26, 1913. 

Politically, Mr. Mclntyre is a Conservative. He has been an 
alderman in Sydney for the past six years. He is a Roman Catho- 
lic and is a member of the Knights of Columbus and also the Royal 
Cape Breton Yacht Club. 

MAJOR \YALTER CRO\YE. 

The name of Major Walter Crowe needs no introduction to the 
people of Sydney, for he has long ranked among the leaders of the 
professional circles of that section of the Province, and he is in every 
way deserving of the large success that he has attained in profes- 
sional and business circles. 

Mr. Crowe was born in Truro, Xova Scotia, December 2, 1861, 
and is a son of Charles F. and Margaret Crowe. He grew to man- 
hood in his native community and received his early education in the 
Truro High School, later he entered the law department of Dal- 
housie University, from which he was graduated with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws in 1886, and soon thereafter he was admitted to 
the bar. He was made a King's counsel in 1907. He has since been 
practicing his profession with success in Sydney. He is solicitor for 
the Dominion Coal Company and the Dominion Iron and Steel Com- 
pany. He was appointed, in 1907, one of the royal commission for 
the Province to investigate and report on the question of old age 
pensions. He has taken an active part in public affairs, and was 
mayor of Sydney from 1891 to 1907, during which period he did 
much toward the general development of the place. In recognition 
of his valuable services to the town and vicinity he was presented by 
the citizens with a valuable gold watcM and a cabinet of silver service. 
He was chairman of the town committee which conducted negotia- 
tions with the promoters of the Dominion Iron & Steel Company, 
leading to the location of the works of that company at Sydney. 
He commanded the Seventeenth F. B., C. A., from 1896 to 1906, 
and the Third Artillery Brigade of the same from 1906 to 1907, 
retiring with the rank of major. He was regarded by his superiors 
as an efficient and faithful army officer and was popular among his 
soldiers. He has been a director of the Cape Breton Electric Com- 



286 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

pany since its inception. Politically, he is a Liberal. He belongs to 
the Presbyterian church, and is a member of the Royal Cape Breton 
Yacht Club. 

JAMES J. CURRY. 

It matters little what vocation a man may select as his life occu- 
pation as long as it is an honorable one. If he is an honest, upright 
man, courteous in his intercourse with his fellow men, and possessed 
of the average amount of energy and sagacity, he is bound to suc- 
ceed. James J. Curry seems to possess the above mentioned qualities 
and for a number of years he was in railroad service, later engaged 
in carpentering, and now he is incumbent of the office of city clerk 
and treasurer of Sydney. 

Mr. Curry is a descendant of the old and honored Curry family, 
and he was born June 19, 1873. in Sydney, Nova Scotia. He is a 
son of Donald M. and Catherine (Downing) Curry. The father 
was born in Cape Breton County and the mother in Sydney, and 
here they grew up, were married and established their future home 
and are still living in Sydney. Grandfather Curry came to this 
country from Scotland, locating at Bras d'Or Lake, about the year 
1819, and here he carved a home from the wilderness. 

James J. Curry received his education in the public schools and 
Sydney Academy. He began working for the Sydney & Louisburg 
railroad when a boy, remaining with that company for a number of 
years, and afterwards engaged in carpentering until 1901, when he 
took a position as deputy town clerk, and when Sydney was made a 
city, in 1904, he was elected city clerk, which position he still holds, 
the duties of which he has discharged in an able and satisfactory 
manner. In 1912 the city discontinued the treasurer's office, and now 
our subject performs the work formerly done by the city treasurer, 
also. 

Air. Curry was married on November 27, 1900, to Mary Morley, 
a daughter of John Morley, a contractor living in Sydney. To our 
subject and wife four children have been born, namely: Leo, born 
February 24, 1906; Theresa, born August 24, 1907; Donald, born 
September 17, 1910; Catherine, born March 16, 1914. 

Mr. Curry is a member of the Sacred Heart Roman Catholic 
church ; and he belongs to the Knights of Columbus and the Catholic 
Mutual Benefit Association. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 287 

LEWIS WILKIESON JOHNSTONE, M. D. 

The office of biography is not to give voice to a man's modest 
estimate of himself and his accomplishments, but rather to leave 
upon tke record the verdict establishing his character by the consen- 
sus of opinion on the part of his neighbors and fellow citizens. The 
life of Dr. Lewis Wilkieson Johnstone, of Sydney Mines, Nova 
Scotia, for many years a leading physician of that section of the 
Province, has been such as to elicit just praise from those who know 
him best. No man is better known in Sydney Mines and vicinity, 
and yet he is an unassuming gentleman, content to lead a quiet life 
and be regarded only as a good citizen. 

Dr. Johnstone was born at Sydney, Cape Breton, April 10, 1862. 
He is a son of Louis and Emily Mary (Dodd) Johnstone. The 
father was born in Halifax, November 18, 18.27, and the mother was 
born on September 3, 1833. The father was the second son of Hon. 
J. W. Johnstone, judge in equity of the Supreme Court of Nova 
Scotia. He was a member of the first council of the town of Sydney 
Mines and was always a prominent citizen of that place. He was a 
physician and practiced medicine in Sydney for a number of years 
before removing to Sydney Mines. The mother of our subject was 
a daughter of the Hon. Edmund M. Dodd of the Supreme Court of 
Nova Scotia. He represented the County of Cape Breton in the 
House of Assembly for several years. 

Dr. Johnstone, of this sketch, received his early education in the 
public schools and in King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia ; also 
attended Acadia College at Wolfville, then went to New York City 
and studied at Bellevue Hospital, from which medical institution 
he was graduated in 1886. Returning to Nova Scotia he began the 
practice of his profession in Sydney Mines, where he has remained to 
the present time, enjoying a large and lucrative practice and ranking 
among the leading physicians of Cape Breton County. He has taken 
a deep interest in public affairs and has been counsellor and also 
mayor of Sydney Mines, doing much for the general development of 
the place. 

Dr. Johnstone was married on June 16, 1892, to Annie E. Brown, 
of Sydney Mines. She is a daughter of R. H. and Barbara (Davi- 
son) Brown, of Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia. To the Doctor and 
wife two children have been born, namely: Ethel Agnes Barbara 
and Lewis Almon. 

Politically, Dr. Johnstone is a Liberal-Conservative, and he has 



288 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

long been one of the active public men in his vicinity, and holds now 
the nomination for the party at the next general election for the 
office of Federal Parliament. Religiously, he is a member of the 
Church of England. Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic Order 
and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

W. FLETCHER BURNS, D. D. S., L. D. S. 

A well-known and successful dentist of Sydney, Nova Scotia, is 
Dr. \V. Fletcher Burns, who has bent every effort to make himself 
proficient in his chosen vocation and to keep fully abreast of the 
times in the same. His work will attest how well he has succeeded. 

Doctor Burns was born in River John, this Province, in June, 
1848, and there he received his primary deucation. He went to 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1869, and entered the office of Dr. James 
Humphrey, who was a native of Halifax, Nova Scotia. After 
studying under him for two or three years he entered the Phila- 
delphia Dental College, from which institution he was graduated in 
1875. Soon thereafter he located in Sydney, Cape Breton, where 
his father and family had movd in the meantime. In October, 
1876, he married Henrietta Jost, a daughter of James Jost, a mer- 
chant of that place, and immediately went to St. John's, Newfound- 
land, where he soon obtained a lucrative practice, having all the lead- 
ing citizens there among his clientele. He continued to reside in 
that city for a period of twenty-three years, then desiring a change of 
scene he returned to Sydney in the boom days of 1900, where he has 
continued to practice with his usual success to the present time. 

The family of Dr. Burns consists of two sons and two daughters, 
namely: Stuart I. is practicing dentistry in Regina; Ida is the wife 
of F. C. Clarke, of Toronto; Ethel is at home; and Norman F. is 
attending college. 

ALEXANDER DONALD GUNN. 

Alexander Donald Gunn was born April 18, 1872, at St. Mary's, 
Pictou County. His father, Alexander Gunn, of Scottish descent, 
his mother, Mary Gunn, a native of Pictou, Nova Scotia. He 
received his education at the Pictou Academy and at Dalhousie Uni- 
versity, graduating from the latter institution with degrees of Bache- 
lor of Letters and Bachelor of Laws. His earning capacities began 
by going into journalism on the Morning Chronicle, Halifax, as a 



' 




St. Andrew's Presbyterian Climvh. 



Convent of Holy Angels. 



SCEXKS IX SYDNEY. 



Dominion Iron and Steel Co. 
Sydney Academy. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 289 

special writer, which his collegiate education had well equipped him 
for. He continued at this for two and one-half years. He next took 
charge of the Bras d'Or Gazette at St. Peters, Richmond County. 
During his career as a journalist, Mr. Gunn had read law and was 
admitted to the bar on September 22, 1898. He studied with Alfred 
Whitman and Judge Wallace, of Halifax. He next moved to Syd- 
ney, Nova Scotia, and started The Sydney Daily Post, and then he 
began the practice of his profession, and has so continued ever since at 
Sydney under style of A. D. Gunn, Barrister. He has been very 
successful, and in 1914 was appointed King's counsel. 

Mr. Gunn has taken an active interest in public affairs, and he 
was an alderman of Sydney for three years and was elected mayor 
of that city in 1911, and was re-elected by acclamation in 1912, and 
again in 1913 and 1914. He has done much for the general up- 
building of the city and has managed its affairs in an able and praise- 
worthy manner. He is a member of the Royal Cape Breton Yacht 
Club, and of the Sydney Club. He was elected president of the 
Nova Scotia Union of Municipalities in 1912. Among the fraterni- 
ties he is affiliated with the Masons, Knights Templar, the Ancient 
Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, the Knights of 
Pythias, the Sons of Scotland, the Clan McNeil, the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, the Ancient Order of United Workmen and 
the Loyal Order of Moose. Politically, he is a Conservative. 

Mr. Gunn was married in June, 1899, to Jane McLellan Spencer, 
of Great Village, Colchester County, the union bringing six children, 
namely : Mary Elvira Jane, Alexander William Douglass, Annie 
Louise Frances, Florence Alexis, Vivian Isabel and Alfred Osborne 
Gunn. 

HENRY POPE DUCHEMIN. 

Henry Pope Duchemin, of Sdyney, Cape Breton, who has tried 
his hand with equal success at teaching, the law and journalism, has 
forged ahead through his individual efforts and despite obstacles. 
He was born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, February 25, 
1869, and is a son of Albert D. and Jemima (Compton) Duchemin. 
He received his education in the public schools and Prince of Wales 
College in his native city, later studying at Dalhousie University, 
Halifax, graduating from the latter institution in 1895; he was a 
University medalist in the classics He began his life work as an 

(19) 



290 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

educator, becoming principal of the schools at Canso, where he 
remained during 1895 and 1896, then became English master at 
Pictou Academy, Pictou, Nova Scotia, where he remained until 1901. 
Although as a teacher he was popular and successful, he turned his 
attention from the school room to the law, studying during his years 
of teaching, and was admitted to the bar in 1901. Soon thereafter 
he began the practice of his profession at Sydney, which he has con- 
tinued to the present time, enjoying a good business and ranking 
among the leaders of the bar in Cape Breton. He is also editor of 
The Sydney Daily Post, and is a writer of force and versatility, and 
possesses modern ideas regarding the management of a twentieth 
century daily newspaper, having greatly increased the prestige and 
value of the Post, both as a news disseminator and advertising 
medium. 

Mr. Duchemin was married on August 24, 1898, to Caroline 
Parker Dingwall, a daughter of William R. and Mary (Parker) 
Dingwall, of Souris, Prince Edward Island, and has a family of 
four sons and three daughters. 

Mr. Duchemin is a Liberal-Conservative in politics and a Meth- 
odist in religion. 

NEIL A. MACMILLAN. 

As a barrister Neil A. Macmillan, of North Sydney, ranks high 
among his professional brethren in eastern Nova Scotia, for he has 
been a diligent student and conscientious in his labors. He was born 
at Johnstown, Richmond County, this Province, April 28, 1872, and 
is a son of Anthony and Mary (McKenzie) Macmillan, now de- 
ceased, who were both natives of the Parish of Red Islands, Rich- 
mond County. 

Mr. Macmillan was educated in the public schools and the Univer- 
sity of Saint Erancis Xavier, Antigonish, where he graduated with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1895. He was graduated with the 
decree of Bachelor of Laws from Dalhousie University Law School, 
Halifax, in 1899, an d was admitted to the bar in September of that 
year. He began the practice of his profession at North Sydney im- 
mediately afterwards as a partner of Hon. G. H. Murray, D. D. 
McKenzie, K. C, and R. F. Phalen, LL. B., and has remained in 
the practice of law in that town continuously ever since his admis- 
sion to the bar. The firm of Murray, McKenzie, Phalen & Macmil- 
lan was dissolved in 1905 upon Mr. McKenzie being appointed 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 29! 

county court judge. Less than two years afterwards, Mr. McKenzie 
resigned the judgeship to contest the County of Victoria for the 
federal, which he carried and which county he has represented ever 
since. In the same year Mr. Macmillan entered into partnership with 
Mr. McKenzie and this association has continued since, with the re- 
sult that the firm of McKenzie & Macmillan has a very extensive 
clientage. 

Mr. Macmillan was married on February n, 1904, to Ida Estell 
Elliott, a daughter of Martin and Eliza (Cunningham) Elliott, of 
Montreal, Quebec. 

Politically, Mr. Macmillan is a Liberal. He is Crown prosecutor 
for Victoria County; a member of the Roman Catholic Church, and 
the Knights of Columbus. 

FRANK E. LUCAS. 

When we learn that a man has l>ecome a superintendent of the 
establishment with which he is connected, no matter what it is, we 
know that he has been faithful, trustworthy and industrious else he 
would not have attained such a position. It was by such methods 
that Frank E. Lucas became superintendent of coke ovens at Sydney, 
Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Lucas was born at Havelock, Xew Brunswick, November 
26, 1878. He is a son of Rev. Aquila and Harriet (Bridges) Lucas. 
The father was born at Old Weston, Huntingtonshire, England, 
October 25, 1847; the mother was torn in Charlottetown, Prince Ed- 
ward Island, May 6, 1859. The father came over from England 
when young and took up his residence in Canada, where he was 
married and he and his wife are now living in London, Ontario. 

Frank E. Lucas received his education in the public schools and 
Mt. Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick. When sixteen 
years old he entered the employ of the Dominion Iron & Steel Com- 
pany at Sydney and has remained with the firm ever since. Being 
energetic and faithful he rose from position to position until he is 
now superintendent of coke ovens at t'he company's mammoth plant 
at Sydney, the duties of which position he is filling most satisfac- 
torily. He has a large number of men under his direction. He un- 
derstands thoroughly every phase of the business with which he has 
been so long connected. 

Mr. Lucas was married in July, 1905, to Mary Henry, a daugh- 
ter of James W. and Mary Henry, of Toronto, and to this union the 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

following children have been born: Frank A., born in June, 1906; 
Lucy, born in March, 1908; Margaret, born in April, 1909; Mary, 
born in July, 1914. 

Mr. Lucas is a member of the Masonic Order ; also belongs to the 
Royal Cape Breton Yacht Club, the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, and the Xova Scotia Mining Society. 

CLEMENT PETER MOORE. 

One of Sydney's representative business men is Clement Peter 
Moore, hardware merchant. He is known as a busy and enterprising 
man, one of the kind that can be relied upon as a helpful citizen. 
His is a kind of life that does not attract especial attention for any 
picturesque quality or daring deeds, for it has been led along prosaic 
lines of useful endeavor, but is of the kind that goes to make up the 
continuous achievements of humanity. 

Mr. Moore was torn at North Sydney, Nova Scotia, December 
3, 1854, and is a representative of an old family of Cape Breton 
County. He is a son of John Belcher Moore and Harriet M. (Me- 
loney) Moore, both parents also natives of North Sydney, the father 
born on December 29, 1822, and the mother was born December 
2 7" J 833- J onn Meloney, Sr., the maternal great-grandfather, and 
John Meloney, Jr., the grandfather, were both United Empire Loyal- 
ists, who came to Sydney in 1785 from the States, and were among 
the first settlers in the vicinity where the blast furnaces of the 
Dominion Iron & Steel Company are now located. Adam Moore, 
the paternal great-grandfather, came to Nova Scotia from Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and settled at Upper North Sydney about 1780. Grand- 
father Peter Moore followed the sea. and was a member of the firm 
of Gammell & Moore from 1835 to 1852. He traded in Newfound- 
land and also made several trips to Great Britain, bringing out goods 
and passengers. 

Clement P. Moore received his education in the public schools and 
North Sydney Academy. He began life for himself by teaching 
school, which he followed from 1873 to 1883, but a decade in the 
school room convinced him that there was not sufficient future to 
the work to warrant spending the rest of his life in it, and in 1883 
he turned his attention to the hardware business in North Sydney 
in partnership with G. K. McKeen, under the firm name of McKeen, 
Moore & Company. In 1893, ten years later, this firm was dissolved, 
whereupon Mr. Moore removed to Sydney where he has since con- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 293 

ducted a large hardware store, doing an extensive business, and is 
now rated as one of the leading business men of this section of the 
Province. 

Mr. Moore was married on December 18. 1883, to Emma E. Johns- 
ton, a daughter of William G. and Emily (Moffatt) Johnston, of 
Little Bras d' Or, Cape Breton. To our subject and wife three chil- 
dren have been born, namely : Louise Eaerie, Jean Hazel, and William 
McLean. 

Politically, Mr. Moore is a Liberal. He was a member of the 
Sydney town council from 1899 to 1900, inclusive. He was appointed 
government representative on the Sydney school board in 1904, which 
office he still holds. Religiously, he is a Presbyterian. He is a mem- 
ber of the Sydney Curling Club and the Automobile Association, and 
Sydney Board of Trade. 

HUGH MACADAM. 

As an advocate of the "art preservative," Hugh Macadam, of 
Sydney, Nova Scotia, is doing some excellent work, taking great pride 
in the jobs he turns out, his aim being always to please his customers 
not only by giving them as good or better service in the printing 
line as they can get anywhere in Nova Scotia, but also to be prompt 
and fair in his dealings. 

Mr. Macadam was born in East Bay, Cape Breton County, De- 
cember 29, 1878, and is a son of Allan and Margaret ( McGillivary ) 
Macadam, both natives of East Bay, Cape Breton, where they grew 
up, attended school, were married and established their future home. 
They each represented pioneer families in that locality. 

Hugh Macadam grew to manhood in his native locality and re- 
ceived his education in the common schools and St. Francis Xavier 
College, Antigonish, Nova Scotia. He began his life work as a 
teacher, which he followed in this Province for some time, later sold 
books and stationery, and in 1907 entered the printing business at 
Sydney, which he has since continued, under the firm name of The 
Macadam Printing Company, Limited. He has a well equipped 
modern shop and is prepared to do all kinds of high-grade printing. 

Mr. Macadam was married June 14, 1905, to Mina Nora Lynch, 
a daughter of James and Eliza (Robinson) Lynch, of St. Jacques, 
New Brunswick. To this union the following children have been 
born : Elizabeth Emily, Allan Joseph, Hugh James, Donald Michael, 
Teresa Catherine, and Margaret Patricia. 



294 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Politically, Mr. Macadam is a Conservative, and he belongs to 
the Roman Catholic Church. He is a member of the Knights of 
Columbus, the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, League of the 
Cross Temperance Society, and the Sydney Club. 

JAMES T. BURCHELL. 

While such men as James T. Burchell are not lauded in the public 
press as the leaders of the world's workers, yet they perform their 
roles in life's drama quite successfully and are just as necessary in 
the general scheme of things as their more famous compeers. 

Mr. Burchell, who has long been known as an able civil and mining 
engineer and successful business man of Sydney, Xova Scotia, is a 
man of strong natural characteristics, and he has always tried to 
do his best in whatever capacity he has been placed. He was born 
in the above named city and Province, November 18, 1850, and is 
a son of George E. and Louisa (Lorway) Burchell, the father a 
native of Sydney Mines and the mother of Sydney, Cape Breton, 
and in that locality they grew up, attended school, were married 
and established the family home. John Lorway, the maternal grand- 
father, married Rachael Muggali; she was born December 25, 1801. 
Mr. BurchelFs wife's father was James Putnam Ward, a pioneer in 
Cape Breton, who married Martha Haire. Mr. Ward was the able 
editor and proprietor of the Cape Breton News, one of the first 
newspapers established in Cape Breton, and he continued its pub- 
lication until his death. He was in charge of the first telegraph 
office in Sydney. He was registrar of deeds, and was agent of the 
Bank of Nova Scotia, being the first branch bank in Sydney. He 
was a man of remarkable energy and took a leading part in all public 
affairs. Mr. Burchell spent a year as manager of the Coxheath 
Copper Mine. While in business with his brother, owing to the 
failure of a Quebec bank which guaranteed the accounts of parties 
to whom they were shipping coal, they suspended, 'with quite heavy 
liabilities. Later, having met with success, they redeemed their 
outlawed bills, which amounted to forty thousand dollars, repaying 
the entire liabilities. 

James T. Burchell received his education in the private schools, 
later taking a commercial course in Halifax. He took up civil engi- 
neering and was on the survey of the International Coal & Railroad 
Company's line from Sydney to Bridgeport, Cape Breton. After 
two years he again attended school, then took up construction work 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 295 

on the same road, subsequently turning his attention to mining engi- 
neering, continuing four years, then engaged in mercantile pursuits 
and coal mining at Ontario Mines, Glace Bay. He and his brother 
owned the Gardiner Coal Mine, which they conducted two years, 
then sold out and purchased the Ne\v Campbellton Mines, which 
they operated several years, then sold to the Harmsworth, Limited, 
of Newfoundland, after which our subject returned to Sydney, where 
he has since resided. In connection with his son-in-law, he owns 
and conducts the Sydney Foundry & Machine Works. He has been 
very successful in a business way and owns valuable real estate 
interests in Sydney. 

Mr. Burchell was married January 6, 1872, to Susannah \Yarne 
Ward. To this union the following children have been born: Edith 
May died in infancy; Howard Warne is practicing dentistry in Xorth 
Sydney; James Sydney is a meml)er of the J. K. Burchell & Com- 
pany; Ida Louise and Henrietta, twins the former died in infancy, 
and the latter is the wife of Wilfred K. Clarke, of Sydney, Cape 
Breton; George Bartlett was graduated from McGill University, 
Montreal, with the degree of Bachelor of Science, and is a mining 
engineer, now general manager of the Colonial Coal Company; be 
is a thoroughly practical and successful mining man, and is in 
demand as a consulting engineer. 

Politically, Mr. Burchell is a Liberal, and denominationally, a 
Methodist. 

J. E. BURCHELL. 

One of Xova Scotia's most progressive business men and repre- 
sentative citizens is J. E. Burchell, of Sydney, president of the suc- 
cessful concern that bears his name and a director of the Cape 
Breton Coal, Iron & Railroad Company. He was born at Bridge- 
port, Nova Scotia, in December, 1839, and is a son of George Ed- 
ward and Louise (Lorway) Burchell. He received his education in 
the public schools. He began life for himself in the mercantile busi- 
ness, also interested in various collieries, from 1864 to 1884. He 
opened the branch of the Merchants Bank of Halifax (now the 
Royal Bank of Canada) at Sydney in 1871, and continued in charge 
of the same until his retirement from its active management in 1910; 
however, he still continues in an advisory position. He was very 
successful in the management of the same, as he was in all his otter 
business ventures. He was president of the board of trade in Sydney 



296 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

for a period of twenty years and has done much to boost the town. 
He was vice-counsel for the United States from 1886 to 1910; was 
vice-counsel for Norway and Sweden from 1883 to 1906, continuing 
counsel for Norway until 1910, when he resigned. He gave eminent 
satisfaction to these countries, and received the knighthood of St. 
Olaf (Norway) when he terminated his services with that country. 
This high honor was to show the appreciation of that country for his 
conscientious and able services in its behalf in Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Burchell was married in 1869, in Halifax, to Henrietta 
Mary Jost, a daughter of Thomas Jost, of Halifax. To this union 
two sons and three daughters have been born, namely : Arthur P. 
Burchell, Mrs. H. W. Black, Mrs. H. W. Jubison, Charles J. Burch- 
ell and Mrs. L. C. Crowe. 

Religiously, Mr. Burchell is a Methodist; politically, a Liberal. 

CAPT. A. J. MORRISON. 

Those who belong to the respectable middle classes of society, 
being early taught the necessity of relying upon their own exertions, 
will be most apt to acquire that information and those business habits 
which alone can fit them for the discharge of life's duties, and indeed 
it has long been a noticeable fact that our great men in nearly all 
walks of life in Canada spring from this class. Capt. A. J. Morrison, 
one of the leading business men of Sydney, Nova Scotia, is a worthy 
representative of this class, from which the true noblemen of the 
Dominion spring. 

Captain Morrison was born December 16, 1854, in Richmond 
County, Nova Scotia, and there he spent his boyhood and received 
his early education in the public schools. He learned telegraphy with 
the Western Union Telegraph Company, after which he went to sea, 
passing the several examinations for second mate, mate and master, 
final examination having been passed at Liverpool, G. B., October 13, 
1879. He sailed as master of sailing ships in the Atlantic, East India 
and South American trades eventually sailing in steam ships for sev- 
eral years. He became familiar with a large portion of the leading 
ports of the civilized world and was a successful mariner in every 
sense of the word. Finally retiring from the seafaring business he 
located in Sydney where, for the past six years he has been connected 
with the Ingraham Supply Company as vice-president and manager, 
also as agent for the Mercantile Marine Service Association and hon- 
orary agent for the Imperial Merchant Service Guild. He has been 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 297 

very successful in a business way and has taken a deep intreest in the 
development of the city of Sydney. 

Captain Morrison was married in February, 1888, to Mabel Mor- 
rison, eldest daughter of Kenneth Morrison, Esq., of Point Tupper, 
Nova Scotia, and to this union one child has been born Ruth 
Irene. 

Capt. Morrison is a member of the Presbyterian church, a Thirty- 
second Degree Mason, member of the Sydney Club, the Royal Cape 
Breton Yacht Club and the local Curling Club. He is an enthusiast 
of wholesome outdoor sports. 

GEORGE DOUGLAS MUGGAH. 

One of the best known citizens of Sydney, Cape Breton County, 
is George D. Muggah, prothonotary, a man who is deserving of the 
success he has achieved in life because he has tried to be efficient in 
all he undertook and at the same time so live that his daily life 
would be above all idle cavil. 

Mr. Muggah was born in the above named city and county, June 
23, 1863. He is a son of Capt. William and Mary (Peters) Muggah, 
both 'parents also natives of Sydney where they grew up, were mar- 
ried and established their home. The grandfather, John Muggah, 
was a native of Banffshire, Scotland. The maternal grandfather, 
Dr. Samuel Peters, was of New England Loyalist stock. His father, 
who was also a physician, received a grant of land in Victoria 
County, and there engaged in the lumljer business. The grand- 
father came to Cape Breton Island in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, and was associated with the engineers, being for some time 
in charge of construction works on the barracks and the military 
station at Sydney. He married a Miss Meloney, who was of Loyalist 
stock, and to their union thirteen children were torn. Through mar- 
riage our subject is connected with many of the old families of this 
Province. Capt. William Muggah, mentioned above, was a mariner 
and a captain for many years, continuing to sail the seas until past 
seventy years of age. Four of his brothers were also captains. The 
original Muggah property embraced a large portion of the land now 
occupied by the Dominion Iron & Steel Company, Limited. The 
death of Capt. William Muggah occurred in 1882, at the age of 
seventy-eight years. His wife died in 1885 at the age of sixty- 
three years. 

Of a family of five children, George D. Muggah was the fourth 






298 . HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

in order of birth. He received his education in the public schools 
and the Sydney Academy. After leaving school he secured employ- 
ment with the Western Union Telegraph Company, with which he 
continued for about four years, then went With the International 
Coal Company, with which he remained two years, then went West 
and worked in Duluth, Minnesota, and a number of other places, 
sometime on the Pacific coast. He returned to Sydney about 1900, 
and accepted a position under W. E. Peters, prothonotary, remain- 
ing with him until 1905, when he took a similar position with Capt. 
Charles Lowray, Mr. Peters' successor, continuing with him until 
1915, when he was appointed to succeed Capt. Lowray. His appoint- 
ment was a most popular one and was highly commended by the press, 
even though some of the papers were in opposition to him politically. 
His courtesy, efficiency, honesty and loyalty render him worthy of 
the trust reposed in him. 

Mr. Muggah was married in 1909 to Catherine McDonald of 
Baddeck, Xova Scotia. She is a daughter of Daniel M. McDonald, 
a representative of an old Scotch family. To our subject and wife 
four children have been born, namely : Henry Foreman, Alexander 
Douglas, William David, and Ralph. 

Fraternally, Mr. Muggah is a Mason, belonging to the Blue Lodge 
at Sydney, the Chapter at Duluth, Preceptory at Sydney, the Scottish 
Rites of Duluth, and Luscon Temple, Mystic Shrine, St. John, N. B. 
Politically, he is a Liberal. 

WILLIAM J. EAGAN, M. D. 

One of the younger generation of physicians of Cape Breton 
County, who has made an auspicious start in his life work, is Dr. 
William J. Eagan, of Sydney. He was born at Sydney Mines, Nova 
Scotia, September 3, 1874. He is a son of John and Charlotte 
(Stevens) Eagan, the father also a native of Sydney Mines. Sylves- 
ter Eagan, the grandfather, was a native of Ireland. 

Dr. Eagan grew to manhood in his native town atffl there received 
his elementary education in the public schools, then took a course at 
St. Francis Xavier College at Antigonish, matriculating in 1892; after 
leaving that institution he taught school three years with success, and 
then entered the medical department of McGill University, where 
he made an excellent record and from which institution he was gradu- 
ated in 1901. Soon thereafter he took up the practice of his profes- 
sion in Sydney and built up a good practice as a general physician 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 299 

and surgeon, remaining there until 1911, when he took a special 
course in ophthalmology in London, England, in the Mooresfield 
school, studying there two years, after which he returned to Nova 
Scotia and took up his special work at Sydney. 

Dr. Eagan was married in Novemljer, 1902, to Minnie Living- 
ston, of Loco Point, Cape Breton. She is a daughter of D. D. Liv- 
ingston. . She is a representative of an old Scotch family which is 
well and favorably known in Cape Breton. Three children have been 
born to the Doctor and wife, namely: Charlotte, Mary and John 
Redmond Eagan. 

Politically, the Doctor is a Conservative. He is president of the 
Liberal-Conservative Association of Cape Breton County and is in- 
fluential in the work of the same. In religion Dr. Eagan is a Catholic. 

ROXALD McVICAk. 

Ronald McVicar was torn at Cow Bay, Cape Breton County, Xova 
Scotia, October 28, 1870. He is a son of Allan and Christy (McDon- 
ald) McVicar, the father born near Louisburg and the mother at 
'Cow Bay. The grandfather was Donald McVicar and the great 
grandfather, Neil McVicar, was a native of Scotland, from which 
country he immigrated to Cape Breton among the first settlers, where 
he engaged in farming. The grandfather was drowned in 1859. 
The father of our subject engaged in mining at Cow Bay, which was 
his vocation until his death, which was by accident, being killed in a 
mine disaster in 1906. His family consisted of ten children, of which 
the subject of this sketch was second in order of birth. 

Our subject received his early education in the district schools, 
later attended the Sydney Academy, graduating from the Law Depart- 
ment of Dalhousie University in 1896, being admitted to the bar the 
same year. He practiced some time in Halifax, then came home 
for a few months, after which he went to the Kootenay country. He 
was among the first to invade the Klondyke country when gold was 
discovered in Alaska, in the spring of 1898, going by the White Pass, 
arriving in Dawson in June of that year. He prospected in the 
Klondyke, the American country, on the Tannah, White and other 
rivers, remaining in the far north until 1908, having met with varying 
success. He talks most interestingly of his experiences in Alaska, 
some of which were thrilling and his hardships were not a few. 
Returning to Sydney, Nova Scotia, he engaged in the practice of his 
profession with Hugh Ross, under the firm name of Ross & Me- 






3OO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Vicar, and later joined Walter Crowe, continuing under the firm 
name of Crowe & Ross. 

Mr. Me Vicar was married in 1911 to Edith J. McAulay, a daugh- 
ter of John McAulay, one of the early pioneers of Port Marien, Nova 
Scotia. To our subject and wife two children have been born, name- 
ly : Kristine and Archibald. Mr. and Mrs. McVicar are members 
of the Presbyterian church. 

WILLIAM T. LYNCH. 

As a manufacturer of bread, William T. Lynch, of Sydney, Cape 
Breton County, is widely known in all counties of Nova Scotia, 
where his products find a very ready market owing to their superior 
quality. He has always tried to do his best at whatever he has been 
engaged and that is the main secret of his success. 

Mr. Lynch was born in Madawaska County, New Brunswick, in 
1877. He is a son of James and Elizabeth Lynch. The father was 
also a native of the same community in which our subject was born. 
Thomas Lynch, the grandfather, was a native of Ireland, from which 
country he immigrated to Canada in early life, establishing his future 
home in Xew Brunswick, w'here he engaged in the lumber business 
as did also his son, James Lynch. 

William T. Lynch spent his boyhood in his native locality and 
there received his education in the public schools. In his earlier 
career he was associated with his father in the lumber business and 
farming. In the fall of 1901 he formed a partnership with his 
brother, James F. Lynch, in the bakery business at Sydney, this 
Province, and by pushing the enterprise and dealing promptly, cour- 
teously and honestly with their customers they have built up a very 
large business. They send their bread and have their teams to deliver 
it in nearly every town of importance in the Province. They have a 
substantial, sanitary and well equipped plant in Halifax, three stories, 
and about one hundred feet square, also a bakery at Stellarton, Pictou 
County, two stories, sixty by one hundred feet, the original plant 
being in Sydney. Their popular brand, "Lynch's Pure Bread," has 
become a household word throughout Nova Scotia. 

William T. Lynch was married in June, 1913, to Sadie McMillan 
of Sydney. She is a daughter of Roderick D. McMillan, a repre- 
sentative of one of the old families of Cape Breton County. To this 
union one child has been born James R. Lynch. 

Mr. Lynch and his brother make bread baking their exclusive 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 30! 

business. Their home plant is three stories, seventy-five by one hun- 
dred feet. They have recently equipped a plant in St. John's, New- 
foundland. They are steady, energetic, wide-awake young men, pub- 
lic-spirited, and have been among the promoters of the Sydney 
Exhibition, William T. having served as vice-president of the asso- 
ciation. 

George Kennan, the noted writer, says in his correspondence, 
under date of July 16, 1915, from Baddeck, Nova Scotia. 

"I must compliment you again on the quality of your bread. It 
is much better than any we could get in New York City last winter, 
and is more than satisfactory in every way." 

FRED A. McINNIS. 

One of the successful young business men of Whitney Pier, of 
Cape Breton County, is Fred A. Mclnnis, who is engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits. He was born at Baddeck. Nova Scotia, March 17, 
1878. He is a son of Angus and Catherine (McRae) Mclnnis, both 
natives of the town of Baddeck, where their parents located in an 
early day, and where they grew up, attended school, were married 
and established their home. Donald Mclnnis, the grandfather, was 
a native of Skye, Scotland, from which country, in company with 
two brothers, emigrated to Nova. Scotia, the two brothers locating in 
Prince Edward Island and were subsequently lost track of. The 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch located at Baddeck, where 
he engaged in farming and became one of the substantial citizens of 
that district. Angus Mclnnis, the father of our subject, spent his 
boyhood on the home farm near Baddeck, but went to the United 
States when a young man and was employed by the firm of George 
Munroe & Company, publishers of New York City. When returning 
to Nova Scotia on a visit he met Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, in- 
venter of the telephone, who was making his first visit to Cape 
Breton, and an agreement was made whereby Mr. Mclnnis took 
charge of Dr. BelFs extensive estate at Baddeck, which he continued 
to manage with satisfaction for a period of twenty-five years, when 
he purchased the farm where he now resides. His family consists of 
four children, the subject of this sketch being the second in order of 
birth. 

Fred A. Mclnnis spent his boyhood at Baddeck and there received 
his education in the public schools and the county Academy, later 
spent two years learning the plumber's trade, then took up a commer- 



302 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

cial career in partnership with Maj. M. H. Morrison, opening a store 
in Whitney Pier under the firm name of Morrison & Mclnnis, which 
still continues. They have built up a large and satisfactory trade 
with the town and surrounding country. Theirs is one of the best 
known general stores in this part of the Province. 

Mr. Mclnnis was married in November, 1906, to Martha Young, 
of Pictou County. She is a daughter of William Young. To this 
union three children have been born, namely : Jean Young Mclnnis, 
Roy Young Mclnnis, and Helen Young Mclnnis. 

Fraternally, he is a member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. Politically, he is a Liberal, a member of the Presbyterian 
Church and the Sydney Curling Club. 

JOHN RODERICK MAcDOXALD. 

It is a matter of doubt which is the greater heritage, a distin- 
guished name or a goodly estate. The average citizen of Xova Scotia 
can hand down no greater heritage to his children than an unblem- 
ished reputation, as was done in the case of John Roderick Mac- 
Donald, who is one of the successful merchants of Whitney Pier, a 
suburb of Sydney, this Province. He was born at East Bay, Cape 
Breton, October i, 1885. and is a son of Ronald and Mary (Mac- 
Isaac) MacDonald, both parents also natives of East Bay, where they 
grew to maturity, attended school and were married. The grand- 
father was Allan MacDonald, Jr., whose father, Allan MacDonald, 
Sr., was born in northwestern Scotland. 

To Ronald MacDonald and wife eleven children were born, eight 
of whom are living, the subject of this sketch being the fifth in order 
of birth. 

J. Roderick MacDonald grew to manhood at East Bay, where 
he attended the common schools, after which he took a course in 
the Sydney Academy, then engaged in clerking there until 1905, when 
he launched out in business for himself, opening a grocery store at 
Whitney Pier, which he has continued to conduct with ever-increas- 
ing success to the present time, carrying a large and carefully selected 
stock at all seasons. 

In May, 1912, he was appointed a preventive officer at Whitney 
Pier in the customs department, and at the outbreak of the European 
war in the summer of 1914, he was appointed detaining officer 
with headquarters at International Pier, his duties being to watch 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 303 

contraband shipping and alien and enemy sailors, he being in charge 
of the office. He has performed these duties most vigilantly and 
acceptably. 

Mr. MacDonald was married in September, 1910, to Lena Steele, 
of Beach Mount, Cape Breton. She is a daughter of John Steele, 
an old settler of Cape Breton, where Mrs. MacDonald was reared and 
educated. Two children have been born to our subject and wife, 
namely : Ronald Arthur, and John Roderick. 

Politically, he is a Conservative, and fraternally he l>elongs to the 
Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, and 
the order of Scottish Clans. He is a Catholic in religion. 

MAJOR G. S. HARRINGTON. 

While yet a young man Major G. S. Harrington, well known in 
military circles of Nova Scotia, has made his influence felt and proven 
himself to be a man of courage, enterprise and good ideals, and 
eminently worthy of the confidence that has been reposed in him by 
his superior officers. He is also a barrister of high standing. 

Major Harrington was born in Halifax, August 7, 1883. Here 
he grew to manhood, attended the public schools and Dalhousie Uni- 
versity, graduating therefrom in April, 1904, having completed the 
prescribed course in the law department, but being under age, he had 
to wait until October 2ist of that year to be admitted to the bar of 
Nova Scotia. He practiced his profession with success in Glace Bay 
from 1905 to 1915, enjoying a large clientage. He was mayor of 
Glace Bay from 1913 to 1915, during which period he did much for 
the general upbuilding of the place and judiciously administered its 
affairs in every way. He was made a King's Counsel in 1915. 
When the war with Germany came on in the summer of 1914, he 
turned his attention to military affairs and was appointed major of 
the Eighty-fifth Battalion, overseas expeditionary force. He was 
well qualified for this position as he had seen eleven years' service in 
the Canadian Militia. 

Major Harrington is a son of C. S. and Mary S. R. (DeWolf) 
Harrington. The father was a barrister and King's Counselor at 
Halifax, and the mother is a daughter of the late Dr. James R. 
DeWolf, who was connected with the Nova Scotia Hospital. 

Our subject is a Protestant and a Mason, belonging to the Ancient 
Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. 



34 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



JOHN McNAMARA. 

One of the trusted and efficient employees of the Dominion Coal 
Company is John McNamara, who has charge of the firm's busi- 
ness at International Pier, Sydney, Cape Breton County. He rose 
to his present responsible post by faithful, conscientious, honest and 
hard work. He is a courteous, pleasant, unobtrusive gentleman, 
steady and uniform in his contact with men and the world. 

Mr. McNamara was born at Lingan, Cape Breton, April 27, 1869. 
He is a son of William and Bridget (Handrigan) McNamara, the 
father a native of Limerick, Ireland, and the mother of Lingan, Cape 
Breton. William McNamara, the grandfather, was also born in 
Limerick, Ireland, where he grew up, attended school and was mar- 
ried, but eventually he sailed with his family for the New World, 
locating at Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia, later moved to Bridgeport, 
buying a farm in the vicinity, on which he spent the rest of his life. 
He was a man of fine character, and kept until the last the true dig- 
nity of the Irish gentleman of the old school, and lived to an advanced 
age. 

William McNamara, father of our subject, when a young man 
took up mining with the General Mining Association of London, 
England, at Sydney Mines, later removing to Lingan, where he be- 
came underground manager until the strike of 1883, when he was 
sent out to prospect and trace the coal seams, in which work he was 
successful. He located all the seams now being worked in the Lingan 
(or New Waterford) district, which are operated by the Dominion 
Coal Company. Later he was transferred to the district of the Vic- 
toria Mines, and there continued prospecting and tracing the coal 
seams, and the coal fields of the above named company which now 
embrace the Victoria Mines district, afterwards being assigned the 
duty of opening up the New Victoria Mines, for the Low Point, 
Barrachois & Lingan Mining Company, Ltd., which work he carried 
to a successful completion, sinking three slopes on this seam, after 
which he remained for several years as underground manager. This 
mine, now under the Dominion Coal Company, Ltd., is known as 
Dominion Number 17. His death occurred in 1889 at the age of 
sixty-five years. His family consisted of eight children, the subject 
of this sketch being the sixth in order of birth. 

John McNamara grew to manhood in his native locality and he 
received his education in the public schools of Lingan. When but a 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 305 

boy he began his mining career by joining the prospecting party above 
referred to, then became weigher at the mines at Lingan. later ac- 
cepted a position in the office of the Low Point, Barrachois & Lingan 
Mining Company at Victoria Mines, and he continued with this firm 
until its business was merged with that of the Dominion Coal Com- 
pany, and he is now cashier and shipping agent of the latter company 
at International Pier, Sydney, Cape Breton County. He has always 
performed his work well and faithfully. 

Mr. McNamara was married in October, 1892, to Philomena 
Burke, a native of St. Jacques, Newfoundland, whose death occurred 
m 1905. To our subject and wife the following children were born: 
Mary Genevieve, deceased, William Ralph Haliburton, Eva Clare, 
Margaret Evangeline, Philomena B. (deceased), Pauline, and 
Francis Cecil. In June, 1908, our subject was married a second time, 
his last wife being Loretta Walker, a native of Sydney Mines, Xova 
Scotia. She is a daughter of the late Alexander Walker and Eliza- 
beth Oram. This last union has been without issue. 

Politically, Mr. McXamara is a Liberal-Conservative. He belongs 
to the Knights of Columbus and to the Catholic Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation, the Sydney and Royal Cape Breton Yacht Clubs, the Can- 
adian Club of Cape Breton, the Sydney Curling and Lingan Country 
Golf Club. 

FREDERIC CLIFFORD KIMBER. 

Frederic C. Kimber has for some years been engaged in the 
insurance business in Sydney, Cape Breton, but for many years in 
his earlier career he was connected with the coal industry of that 
island. He \y_as born in Oxfordshire, England. September 3, 1857, 
and is a son of Thomas and Louisa (Clifford) Kimber. He was 
educated at Maryborough College, Wiltshire. 

Mr. Kimber came to Nova Scotia early in life in the year 1882, 
locating in Sydney, in which town he has since resided. After com- 
ing to Sydney he acted as agent for the Sydney & Louisburg Coal 
& Railway Company, and remained in the coal business until 1902, 
in which year he severed his connection with the Dominion Coal 
Company and started in business on his own account. 

Politcally, Mr. Kimber is a Conservative. He has served on the 
city council and was mayor of Sydney for one term. At the present 
time he is secretary of the Pilotage Authority for the Port of Sydney, 

(20) 






306 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

and is acting as a censor at the cable station at North Sydney. In 
religion he is a member of the Church of England and has been closely 
identified with the Parish of Christ Church, Sydney. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order, being a companion in Prince of Wales 
Chapter. He belongs to the Royal Cape Breton Yacht Club, Sydney, 
and the Old Marlburian Club, London. He has remained unmarried. 

JOHN CAREY DOUGLAS, M. A., LL. B., M. P. 

As a member of the Provincial Parliament from Glace Bay, Cape 
Breton County, John Carey Douglas is proving to be the right man 
in the right place. As a lawyer he has lc*ig held an envied position at 
the bar before the court. He is a calm, deliberate and unimpassioned 
speaker. On the stump he presents his facts and arguments by 
orderly employment of plain, appropriate and well-chosen words. He 
is a man of strong personality and popularity and merits the con- 
fidence of the public. He is generally considered an authority on 
labor matters and has already proven his worth to the laboring classes. 

Mr. Douglas was torn at Albion Mines, Stellarton, Pictou Coun- 
ty, June 14, 1874. He is a son of John and Ann (Carey) Douglas, 
the father a native of Cumberland County, England, and the mother 
born in Albion Mines, Pictou County. The father immigrated to 
Nova Scotia when young and here was married. For many years he 
was underground manager for the coal companies operating at Albion 
Mines, Pictou County. 

John C. Douglas was educated in the public schools, at Stellarton, 
Pictou Academy and Mount Allison University, from which institu- 
tion he graduated in 1897 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In 
1909 he received the further degree of Master of Arts from that 
famous seat of learning. Deciding upon a legal career he began 
studying for same by attending the law department of Dalhousie 
University, Halifax, from where he graduated in 1899 with the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Laws. After being admitted to the bar he began 
the practice of his profession at Stellarton, Pictou County, in the 
year 1900. In 1901 he moved to Glace Bay, Cape Breton, where he 
has since remained and built up a very satisfactory and rapidly grow- 
ing practice. 

Mr. Douglas has remained unmarried. Politically, he is a Con- 
servative, and was vice-president of the Provincial Conservative As- 
sociation from 1911 to 1914. The following year he was made presi- 



HISTQRY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 307 

dent, and in 1915 was appointed honorary president. He was elected 
a member of the Provincial Legislature in 191 1 from Cape Breton 
County. He was nominated to contest Cape Breton and Richmond 
Counties for the next federal election. He has proven to be a very 
able and popular public servant and has done much for the general 
good of his community. Denominationally, he is a Methodist. 
Fraternally he belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and 
the Masonic Order. 

EMMANUEL O. AL\cDONALD, M. D. 

Since it is true that individual success is determined, in true 
measure, by what one has accomplished, the name of Dr. Emmanuel 
O. MacDonald of Glace Bay, Xova Scotia, is deserving of a high 
rank in the list of Cape Breton County's citizens of the present gen- 
eration, who have risen, of their own efforts, from an humble be- 
ginning to the top rungs of the ladder of material and professional 
success. 

Dr. MacDonald was born at St. George, Prince Edward Island, in 
1873. He is a son of James MacDonald and Elizabeth Walker, 
whose grandparents emigrated to Prince Edward Island in early 
pioneer days, locating at Leunchrif Place in Kings County, where 
many of their descendants continue to reside. 

After his district schooling, the Doctor attended Prince of Wales 
College, after which he taught school at an early age in his native 
Province and in the Canadian West. He began studying medicine 
the meantime, later entering Trinity Medical College and University, 
graduating from the medical department of that institution in 1900, 
with the degree of Doctor of Medicine, standing at the head of his 
class. He then went to Port Williams and acted as assistant to Dr. 
Hamilton, C. P. R. physician at that point, continuing nearly one 
year. In 1900 he came to Glace Bay and was assistant to the late 
Dr. R. A. H. McKeen, a prominent physician here during his time, 
continuing with him three years, then began practicing independently 
and remained alone until 1907, when he went to London and took up 
post-graduate work in the Middlesex Medical School and Hospital 
and the University of London. Returning to Nova Scotia he again 
resumed practice at Glace Bay. In 1913 he went to New York and 
took a special course in the eye, ear, nose and throat, at the Manhat- 
tan Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, after his graduation there 
and also after taking a post-graduate course in that city he came back 



308 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

to Glace Bay, and the major portion of his time has since been spent 
as a specialist. In addition to his public practice he is one of the 
doctors of the Dominion Coal Company there, treating hundreds of 
the firm's employees. Previous to this he had made a specialty of 
surgery in which he achieved pronounced success, and which he still 
practices to a large extent. 

Dr. MacDonald was married in January, 1904, to Colina Frances 
Cameron, a daughter of Dr. Hugh Cameron, of Mabou, who was a 
meml>er of Parliament for a number of years, and a prominent man 
in his county. To the Doctor and wife six children have been born, 
namely : Eunice, Frances, Flizabeth, Mary Theresa, Emmanuel 
Cameron and Margaret Tephyrim. 

Fraternally, Dr. MacDonald is a member of the Knights of Co- 
lumbus. Politically, he is a Conservative. He belongs to the British, 
Canadian, and American Medical Associations. 

NEIL R. McARTHUR. 

Take the Canadian bar as a whole, and it is doubtful if a more 
intelligent, representative, straightforward and honest body of men 
can be found in the world, than the members of it. One of the most 
promising of Nova Scotia's young members of the bar is Neil R. 
McArthur, of Glace Bay, Cape Breton, who is not only well equipped 
by nature and education for his chosen vocation, but who has a high 
sense of honor. 

Mr. McArthur was born at Pine Tree, Pictou County, this Prov- 
ince, February 7, 1885. He is a son of James and Sarah (Maclsaac) 
McArthur, both natives of Pictou County, the father born in 1835, 
died in 1890; and the mother was torn in 1855. These parents grew 
up in their native county, where they attended school and were 
married and established their home. James McArthur, the grand- 
father, was a native of Scotland, where he spent his boyhood, coming 
to Nova Scotia when a young man, and settled in Pictou County. 

NeJl R. McArthur grew to manhood in his native vicinity, and 
received his early education in the public schools, later attending St. 
Francis Xavier College at Antigonish, from which institution he was 
graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1905. He then 
entered the law department of Dalhousie University, at Halifax, and 
was graduated therefrom with the degree of Bachelor of Law in 
1910. He had begun reading law in 1906 with W. F. Carroll, mem- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 309 

her of Parliament. In 1913 he was appointed solicitor for the town 
of Glace Bay, having been deputy solicitor in 1910. He is still in- 
cumbent of this office, the duties of which he is discharging with 
credit and satisfaction. He is building up an excellent law practice. 

Mr. McArthur was married September 10, 1912, to Annie E. Mc- 
Donald, a daughter of John and Hannah (Henrahon) McDonald. 

Two children ha.ve been born to our subject and wife, namely: 
Mary Jovita and James Earle McArthur. Politically, our subject is 
a Conservative, and he is a member of the Catholic Church. He l>e- 
longs to the Knights of Columbus. 

DAX CAMKROX. 

To become mayor of a thriving modern town at the early age of 
thirty years indicates that such a man not only has rare natural 
ability but is also trustworthy, faithful to the trusts reposed in him 
and public-spirited. The future of such a man is necessarily promis- 
ing, provided he keeps on in the commendable manner in which he 
has started. In this word setting the biographer has in mind one 
enterprising young man of Glace Bay, Cape Breton, Dan Cameron, 
who is mayor of that town and a succesful business man, dealing 
extensively in lumber. 

Mr. Cameron was born at Xew Glasgow, Xova Scotia, February 
9, 1885. He is a son of Hugh and Annie (Eraser) Cameron, the 
father a native of Centredale, near Xew Glasgow, and the mtoher of 
Lome, Pictou County. The paternal grandfather was a native of 
Scotland, from which country he came to Xova Scotia when young 
and located on the East River, Pictou County, where he engaged in 
farming and lumbering, and from that early day to the present time 
the Camerons have been well known as lumljer dealers in this section 
of the Province. Hugh Cameron, the father, grew up on the home 
farm in Pictou County and received his education in the district 
schools. When a boy he began working at the carpenter's trade at 
which he became expert and finally formed a partnership with Angus 
McQueen, under the firm name of McQueen & Cameron, and they 
conducted a large business in carpentering and contracting, later 
transferring their business to Glace Bay, Cape Breton, where the 
partnership continued two or three years, when the business was 
taken over by Hugh Cameron, and took as a partner Henry Mc- 
Queen, son of his former partner. This continued a few years, then 
the elder Cameron bought his partner out, continuing the business 



3IO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

alone until he took as a partner his son Dan, of this sketch, and they 
have since continued the business with ever-increasing success, deal- 
ing in lumber and doing some contracting. They take a great deal 
of lumber from the home woods, but a greater amount from New 
Brunswick. They do a very extensive business. 

Dan Cameron spent his school days in New Glasgow, and on 
coming to Glace Bay he entered high school and after finishing he 
went into business in which he has continued to the present time. 

Mr. Cameron was married in March, 1912, to Minnie Burchell, 
of Glace Bay, Cape Breton. She is a daughter of Peter Burchell, a 
representative of an old family which has long been prominent in 
this section of Nova Scotia. One child has been born to our subject 
and wife, Russell Cameron. 

Fraternally, Mr. Cameron is a member of the Masonic Blue 
Lodge and the Knights of Pythias. Politically, he is a Conservative, 
and he has been active in party affairs for several years. He was 
elected mayor of Glace Bay in March, 1915, and has discharged the 
duties of this office in a highly acceptable manner. 

ALEXANDER M,\cDONALD THOMPSON, D. D. 

The Rev. Alexander MacDonald Thompson, D. D., is a most 
kindly and generous man. A man of open hand, naturally, he knows 
and makes no distinction. All alike feel the sympathy and genuine 
goodness of heart which is never absent. No appeal ever comes to 
him in vain. Many are the instances recalled of his deep and abiding 
faith in his fellows and the sincere desire at all times to befriend 
men of every class and creed, and to afford aid and support to every 
worthy cause. The good such lives do will never be known until 
"the stars are old, the sun is cold and the leaves of the judgment 
book unfold." 

Our subject was born at Antigonish, Nova Scotia, April 19, 1865, 
and is a son of William and Margaret (MacDonald) Thompson; the 
father was born in 1825, and died in 1913 at the advanced age of 
eighty-seven years. John Thompson, the grandfather, was born in 
the south of Ireland. Alexander MacDonald, the maternal grand- 
father, was a native of Ft. William, Scotland, from which country 
he came to Nova Scotia when a young man and settled on a farm 
near Antigonish. The paternal grandfather came to this country 
among the early settlers and located at Antigonish, where he engaged 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 31 1 

in farming, also followed his trade of shoemaker. The father of 
our subject spent the major portion of his life at Cloverville. 

Rev. Dr. Alexander M. Thompson received his education in the 
district schools and St. Francis Xavier College, Antigonish, then went 
to Rome, Italy, and entered Urban College. He was ordained in 
1890, and received his degree of Doctor of Divinity that year. Re- 
turning to Xova Scotia he took up teaching in St. Francis Xavier 
College, where he continued teaching for about fifteen years. In 
1898 he became rector and discharged his duties as such until 1900, 
when he came to Glace Bay and has since had charge of St. Anne's 
Church in that town. He is regarded as a man of high intellectual 
attainments by all who know him. 

FRAXCIS WILLIAM GRAY. 

Francis William Gray, chief clerk for the Dominion Coal Com- 
pany at Glace Bay, came to Xova Scotia in 1904, and at that time 
engaged with the Dominion Coal Company as chief clerk, which 
position he has since held. He is a mining engineer by profession, 
having received his theoretical training at the Sheffield University, 
England, taking the mining course there from 1907 to 1909, and 
being also on the teaching staff for four years prior to coming to 
Canada. He received practical training at Wharncliffe Silkstone Col- 
lier}', South Yorkshire, where he served in various capacities above 
and below ground for fourteen years. He is a member of the Mid- 
land Institute of Mining Engineers, England, also a member of 
the Canadian Mining Institute and the Mining Society of Xova 
Scotia. He is a frequent contributor to various technical journals on 
subjects connected with coal mining, having first begun writing in 
1903. Among other contributions have been papers on Ankylostom- 
iasis, the Miners' Worm Disease, to the Transactions of the British 
Institution of Mining Engineers, in 1903, and on the same subject 
to the Journal of the Mining Society of Nova Scotia in 1907. Papers 
relating to the use of breathing appliances in mines, Trans. Inst. Min. 
Eng. (Eng.) and to the Canadian Mining Institute from 1909 to 
1911, on the Coal Fields and Coal Industry of Eastern Canada, 
Trans. Inst. Ming. Eng. (England) 1912, etc. He is a Royal Arch 
Mason, and a Methodist. He was born April 15, 1877. He married 
in 1907, Helen M. Polden, of \Vath-on-Dearne, Yorkshire, England. 



312 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ALEXANDER YOUNG McDONALD. 

One of the most enterprising and successful of the younger 
generation of men of affairs of Glace Bay, Cape Breton, is Alexander 
Young McDonald, who is stipendiary magistrate, a broker, an insur- 
ance and real estate dealer, and interested in fur farming and many 
other lines of endeavor. He is deserving of a great deal of credit 
for what he has accomplished, for he has mounted the ladder of suc- 
cess without the aid of anyone and by honest efforts, having from 
the beginning of his career sought to do well whatever he undertook. 

Mr. McDonald was born at Big Bras d'Or, Cape Breton, in Sep- 
tember, 1879. He is a son of William and Rebecca (McLeman) 
McDonald, the father a native of Big Bras d'Or and the mother of 
Grand River, Richmond County. William McDonald, the grand- 
father, was born in Inverness, Scotland, where his father, John 
McDonald, was also born. The latter came to Nova Scotia in a very 
early day, landing first at Pictou, then went to Sheubenacadie, where 
he remained a short time, then removed to the Northwest Arm, 
Sydney, where he engaged in farming a short time, then moved to 
Big Bras d'Or and began improving a grant of land, clearing the 
forest and putting it in cultivation, and there he experienced all the 
hardships of pioneer life. He lived to an advanced age. The grand- 
father of our subject continued to reside on this farm, and he reared 
a family of eleven sons and one daughter. With the aid of his sons 
he built two vessels, one of which was of over two hundred tons and 
engaged in the West Indies trade. The vessels were commanded and 
sailed by the sons, five of whom became captains. Their father lived 
to be seventy-one years old. 

William McDonald, the father of our subject, was reared on the 
farm, but took up a seafaring life and became a captain, engaging 
mostly in the trade between Nova Scotia and American ports. His 
death occurred at the early age of forty-eight years. He received a 
gold medal from the French Government for his bravery in rescuing 
a crew of shipwrecked Frenchmen, on the Newfoundland coast, in a 
raging sea, the French vessel having been given up for lost, his own 
vessel being eighteen days overdue at Sydney, having been blown off 
the coast. He held the speed record for sailing from Sydney to 
Halifax at that time. His family consisted of six children, four 
sons and two daughters, of whom the subject of this sketch was the 
third in order of birth. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 313 

Alexander Y. McDonald received a public school education and 
followed various occupations when a boy; he went to sea for a time, 
also followed mining and railroad construction work. In 1906 he 
started in the real estate and insurance business at Glace Bay in 
which he has been particularly successful. He is now vice-president 
of Mac's-, Ltd., incorporated 1913, doing a large general brokerage, 
insurance and transportation business throughout the entire island of 
Cape Breton; also vice-president of Lococomagh Black Fox Com- 
pany, and is interested in a number of other enterprises and business 
ventures of a varied nature. 

He is a Liberal in politics and takes an active part in public 
affairs, but he has so far avoided political preferment. Fraternally, 
he is a member of the Masonic Order, including the Knights Templar 
and the Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. He 
also belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

WILLIAM F. CARROLL. 

One of the leading citizens of Cape Breton is William F. Carroll, 
lawyer and legislator of Glace Bay, who seems to be adapted by both 
nature and disposition to the legal profession; his daily life is accen- 
tuated by industry and activity. He never hesitates to work, is self- 
reliant and confident in temperament. He is always cool, calm and 
prepared, and, judging from his past record both in professional 
and public arenas, we predict for him many years of usefulness and 
honor in the future. 

Mr. Carroll was born June 11, 1877, at Margaree Works. Xova 
Scotia, and is a son of John and Ellen (Tumkins) Carroll, l>oth of 
Irish origin. He was educated at St. Francis Xavier College, Anti- 
gonish, and Dalhousie University, Halifax, where he received the 
degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws. He is a bar- 
rister and solicitor, having practiced his profession with much suc- 
cess at Glace Bay for a number of years, in fact, is regarded as one 
of the leaders of the bar in Cape Breton. 

Mr. Carroll was married, September 14, 1906, to Helen Curry, a 
daughter of William Curry, a well known citizen of Glace Bay, Cape 
Breton, where Mrs. Carroll grew to womanhood and was educated. 
To our subject and wife three children were born, namely: Frances 
Adriout, Mary Helen and Charles Wilfred. 

Mr. Carroll has long taken an active interest in public affairs. 



314 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

He is a Liberal in politics and is regarded as one of the leaders of 
his party in Cape Breton. He was a candidate for the House of 
Assembly, Nova Scotia, in South Cape Breton on June 14, 1911, but 
was defeated. He was first returned to the House of Commons at 
the general election in 1911, and is filling his position in a faithful 
and commendable manner. Religiously, he is a Roman Catholic. 

JOSEPH SALTER, SR. 

One of the leading ship builders of the early days in the Mari- 
time Provinces, whose record is worthy of perpetuation on the pages 
of history, was Joseph Salter, Sr., a man who was also highly 
esteemed as a citizen. 

Mr. Salter was born at Kennetcook, Hants County, Nova Scotia, 
June 7, 1816. He left home at twelve years of age to attend the 
National School at St. John, New Brunswick. After leaving school 
he clerked for a firm in that city until he \vas eighteen years of age. 
He then went to Halifax where he entered the office of Leander 
Starr, and \vas soon promoted to the position of head clerk. While 
in Mr. Starr's employ he made many trading voyages, as supercargo, 
to the \Yest Indies and Africa (earning the soubriquet of "Africana" 
from his friends). On one of these voyages circumstances com- 
pelled him to lock the captain of the vessel in his cabin, which he 
did at the point of a pistol, and take charge of the ship himself and 
sail her to its destination. He earned thereby the praise and grati- 
tude of the owners and others concerned, and an envied reputation 
for a "youngster." On his third and last trip to Sierra Leone "the 
white man's grave" made in the fall of 1839, in the twenty-third 
year of his age, he had seven attacks of malaria before he could 
leave the coast. At that time the slave traffic was at its height, and 
many "slavers" were captured and brought into Sierra Leone, many 
of them fine, fast vessels. Most of them were sawn into two parts 
in order to prevent them being used again in the same trade. But 
through the influence of proper authorities, Mr. Salter was enabled 
to purchase one of them, the Brazilian brig Conceicao, which he 
renamed the Clockmaker, and was also fortunate enough to secure 
the freighting of about one hundred black recruits from Sierra 
Leone to Barbadoes, for the Queen's Black Regiment there; but as 
Dr. Ross, the officer who was to have taken charge of the recruits 
for the voyage, was detained ae witness in a court-maritial and no 
other officer available, his Excellency, Col. Doherty, sent for Mr. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 315 

Salter and asked him to take charge, gave him his instructions, and 
presented him with a sword. Mr. Salter at the time was second 
lieutenant of the Third Halifax Regiment. On the voyage the only 
white persons were Mrs. Montgomery and child, passengers, wife 
and little son of Lieut. Montgomery, the mate of the vessel, and Mr. 
Salter. They made a quick passage. On the way they were chased 
by a supposed slaver, and armed themselves for a fight, but the 
Clockmaker out-sailed her pursuer, and they escaped without a right. 
After arriving at Barbadoes they proceeded to Demarara. where the 
Black Regiment was at that time stationed. Alter safely landing his 
cargo he sold his vessel, clearing one thousand pounds on the trans- 
action in about forty days, from the purchase of the vessel. Later 
he bought two vessels for the West India trade, but shortly there- 
after he gave up seagoing and went into business with a brother 
in St. John, New Brunswick. About that period he was married to 
Margaret Sneden Shaw, of Granville Ferry, Nova Scotia. 

It was not long after this until Mr. Salter began building ships 
in Moncton, New Brunswick, where, between 1847 and 1857 he built 
nineteen ships, one brig, one ketch, averaging over one thousand 
tons each, the largest being the Maggie lliller of fifteen hundred and 
eleven tons, and the War Spirit of fourteen hundred and forty-three 
tons, and purchased forty-one other vessels, making in all sixty-two 
vessels. Owing, principally, to the failure of a large English firm 
to whom he had sold five thousand sterling worth of tonnage, Mr. 
Salter was compelled to give up ship building, and began making oil 
from shale, being the first to produce oil in that manner in New 
Brunswick, and he was very successful in this venture, which he con- 
tinued until oil wells in the United States were discovered, which 
killed his business. Up to the time he discontinued ship building he 
had crossed the Atlantic thirty-six times. In later life he removed 
to Waverly, Nova Scotia, and became interested in gold mining, and 
from there removed to Victoria Mines, first as agent and afterwards 
became manager of the colliery there. Ten years later he located in 
North Sydney, where he engaged in ship brokerage, wholesale coal 
and lumber business, retiring in 1899, and was succeeded by his sons, 
Sydney, Vibert and Joseph, Jr. Mr. Salter lived but one year after 
retiring from active life, and passed to a well earned rest in 1900 at 
the advanced age of eighty-four years. He had the respect of all 
ho knew him, as he richly deserved. He was a man of public-spirit 
and while a resident of Moncton, New Brunswick, served as the 



3l6 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

town's first mayor, holding office two terms, during which he did 
much for the general upbuilding of the place. He was always inter- 
ested in the welfare of others and in his time was of much help to 
young men starting out in life, and he subsequently received gratify- 
ing letters from some of them, acknowledging their success, in a 
great measure, to his assistance, instruction and good advice. 

The following is self-explanatory and is worthy of reproduction 
here: "Requisition, to Joseph Salter, Esq. The act for incorporat- 
ing our town having passed the Legislature, the duty of selecting a 
person to fill the responsible office of its first magistrate will soon de- 
volve, we, whose names are appended hereto, citizens of Moncton, 
request that you will allow yourself to be put in nomination as 
mayor; and we pledge you our united and cheerful support. To 
your enterprise is due, in great measure, the rapid growth of our 
town, and therefore a continued manifestation of the same spirit, 
we look forward to increased results. You have constantly mani- 
fested a desire to aid all movements amongst us, of a philanthropic 
nature and every institution which would tend to elevate and im- 
prove our social condition. For these reasons, and from the respect 
which we entertain for your character as a man of business, a citizen, 
and a Christian, we are induced to form our test exertions to elevate 
you to that position in our new town, which we are certain could not 
be more worthily occupied by any other citizen. We have the honor 
to remain, Your Obedient Servants, Peter McSweeny, J. P., Amasa 
Weldon, J. P., and fifty-six others. Moncton, 24th April, 1855." 

The following facts arq extracts from a lengthy article which 
appeared in the Times Majority Number of Moncton in its issue of 
December 11, 1889: 

A central figure in Moncton of thirty-five years ago was Joseph 
Salter. Mr. Salter removed to Bend in 1849, and commenced build- 
ing on his then firm's account in the old ship-yard, foot of what is 
now Mechanic street, which had been previously owned and occupied 
by the late Stephen Binney. He continued building until the latter 
fifties, during which period he launched twenty vessels averaging 
one thousand tons each. These \essels were all built of hecmatic 
and took the then highest classification for British North American 
build. Some of these vessels are still afloat and doing good service. 
Besides vessels built in their own yard, Mr. Salter's firm had built 
for them several vessels of large tonnage. John L. Harris, now a 
leading citizen of the town, at the head of several of the principal 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



317 



business enterprises of the place, was at one time clerk for Mr. 
Salter and it is very probable that much of his success is due to the 
correct business training then received. 

An incident occurred during Mr. Salter's business career in Monc- 
ton which may be worth recalling. The hours of labor for a day's 
work at that time were from sunrise to sunset in the summer season 
and as long as one could see to work in winter. Finally the men 1_>e- 
gan to talk up the ten hour system. On April n, 1853, the men 
decided to ask for a ten hour day and if it was not granted to 
strike. The concession was at once given, Mr. Salter thus being the 
first to grant the ten-hour system, and for many years thereafter the 
event was celebrated on the iith of April. At that time he also told 
the men that if they would stay away from the grog shops he would 
fit up for their use a reading room, equipped with chairs, tables, 
books, etc. To this proposition the men readily agreed and Mr. 
Salter, as the result of the friendly interest evidenced by him in the 
welfare of his men, ever after retained a warm (place in their 
affections. 

We also quote the following extract from an article which ap- 
peared in a Halifax newspaper under a Moncton date line. 

In a paper read by Edward McCarty before the Moncton board of 
trade on the early history of the place, he said: "1 wish to bring 
again to notice the late Joseph Salter. After closing his ship build- 
ing business he having full confidence in the natural resources of the 
country, turned his attention to the mountains of oil shale situated 
at Baltimore in Albert County, on the opposite side of Petitcodiac 
from Moncton. He formed a company, erected a plant, and began 
extracting crude oil by the retort process and carried on a fairly good 
business. At that time there were no railroads in this locality and 
all supplies had to be carried by teams. Coal for the retorts had to be 
drawn seven or eight miles, up the mountain part of the way, which 
was very expensive. At this time companies were boring for oil in 
Petrolia and Pennsylvania, and when oil was struck in great abund- 
ance, it was so cheap that the distilling of oil in this form was put 
out of business. The plant was closed and dismantled and the 
material sold. The promoter left New Brunswick, went to Sydney, 
Cape Breton, and carried on a ship broker's business for many years. 
He passed away but a few years ago, honored and respected by all 
who knew him." 






318 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

REV. WILLIAM F. KIELY. 

Good work is being done in the Parish of St. Joseph's at North 
Sydney, Nova Scotia, by Rev. William F. Kiely, who is a man who 
finds his chiefest pleasure in humbly following the lowly Nazarene. 
He was born at Lower South River, Antigonish County, Nova Sco- 
tia, December 2. 1857. He is a son of John and Isabel (McKeough) 
Kiely, the father a native of the same place in which our subject 
was born, and the mother being born in Linwood, Antigonish County. 
There his parents grew up, were educated, married and located their 
future home. They each represented substantial pioneer families and 
lived quiet, industrious and helpful lives. 

Father Kiely grew to manhood in his native county and received 
his early education in the parochial schools, later entering St. Francis 
Xavier College at Antigonish, Nova Scotia, and completing his Theo- 
logical course in the Grand Seminary at Montreal. He taught in the 
public schools also in St. Francis Xavier College. Although a suc- 
cessful teacher, his preference was for the active ministry of the 
priesthood; and in 1889 was appointed pastor of the Parish at Main- 
a-dieu, Cape Breton, to which at that time were annexed the missions 
of Louisburg and Mira Ferry. In 1901, Louisburg becoming a sep- 
arate parish, he was appointed its first resident pastor, where he re- 
mained until 1908, when he became pastor of St. Joseph's Parish, 
North Sydney, where he has since remained. In all these charges he 
has done much work in erecting and enlarging parochial buildings, in 
providing for growing needs along religious, charitable, benevolent, 
and educational lines ; and has been popular with his people in these 
communities. 

KENNETH A. MAcCUISH, M. D. 

An able and conscientious general physician of Glace Bay, Nova 
Scotia, is Dr. Kenneth A. MacCuish, a man who has spared neither 
time nor expense in properly equipping himself for his life work, and 
he deems it a privilege not to be lightly regarded to bring succor to 
the sick and afflicted. 

He was born in St. Peters, Cape Breton, and is a son of Alexan- 
der and Jessie (McPhie) MacCuish, the father a native of Richmond 
County, and the mother of Inverness County, Cape Breton. They 
are both still living. 

Dr. MacCuish received his early education in the common schools, 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 319 

the Halifax Academy and later attended Dalhousie University, grad- 
uating therefrom in 1903, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 
In order to further equip himself for his chosen profession he took 
a post-graduate course in London and Edinburgh. He began the 
practice of medicine in Glace Bay in 1903, assistant to Dr. R. A. H. 
McKeen, later forming a partnership with Dr. Calder, after the death 
of Dr. McKeen in 1912, and he and Dr. Calder are still associated 
in the practice and are enjoying an extensive and satisfactory 
patronage. 

Dr. MacCuish was married on September 15, 1911, to Harriet 
McKinnon, a daughter of Hon. John McKinnon, who represented 
Inverness County several years in the Legislature. The union of the 
Doctor and wife has toen without issue. 

Dr. MacCuish is a member of the Canadian Medical Association 
and the Nova Scotia Medical Society. He belongs to the Presbyter- 
ian Church. 

NEIL F. McNEIL. 

That Neil F. McNeil, of Glace Bay, Cape Breton County, has 
been selected to discharge the duties of town clerk, is an indication 
that he is not only a man of ability and public-spirit but also of 
integrity and reliability; for it is not often the case in Nova Scotia 
that incompetent and irresponsible men become public officials. 

Mr. McNeil was born in the above named town and county, 
February 7, 1866. He is a son of Malcolm and Ann McNeil, the 
father a native of lona, Cape Breton County, and the mother was 
torn at Grand Narrows, that county. Neil McNeil, the grandfather, 
was a native of lona, Cape Breton County, and the mother was born 
at Grand Narrows, that county. Neil McNeil, the grandfather, was 
a native of Barra, Scotland, where he spent his earlier days, but was 
young when he left there and came to Nova Scotia. 

Malcolm McNeil, father of our subject, removed to Glace Bay 
about 1864, where he married and engaged in mining. His death 
occurred at the age of sixty-three years. His widow is still living. 
To these parents only one child was torn, Neil F. McNeil of this 
sketch. After attending the public schools a few years he engaged 
in mining, later becoming check weighman for the miners, making 
his home in Glace Bay the meanwhile. In 1901 he was appointed 
city clerk, which position he has since filled to the satisfaction of all 



320 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

concerned, doing his work well and treating the people with courtesy 
and consideration. 

Mr. McNeil was married July 26, 1892, to Alice Guthro, of 
French Vale, Cape Breton County, where the family has long been 
well established. She is a daughter of James Guthro. 

Ten children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. McNeil, named as 
follows : Steven J. was recently graduated from a school of pharm- 
acy: Lucy is the wife of Albin Bates, a jeweler of Sydney; Katie 
was graduated from Mt. St. Vincent College and is now at home ; 
Anna is attending school; Matilda is also a student; James is attend- 
ing school ; Malcolm is deceased ; Mary Josephine, Clara Agnes, and 
Alice Marguerite are all attending school. 

Politically, Mr. McNeil is a Literal. He is a Catholic, and be- 
longs to the Knights of Columbus, also the Catholic Mutual Benefit 
Association. 

REV. T. CHALMERS JACK, D. D. 

That "man liveth not to himself alone" is an assurance that is 
amply verified in all the affairs of life, but its pertinence is the more 
patent in those instances where persons have so employed their 
talents, so improved their opportunities and so marshaled their forces 
as to gain prestige which finds its angle of influence ever broadening 
in practical beneficence and human helpfulness. One of the well- 
known divines of Nova Scotia who has labored to good purpose and 
is eminently deserving of the high esteem in which he is universally 
held is Rev. T. Chalmers Jack. D. D., Presbyterian minister of North 
Sydney. 

He was born at St. James' Manse, near St. Stephen, New Bruns- 
wick, in the year 1850, and is a son of the late Rev. Lewis Jack, often 
referred to in the later years of his life as "the father of the Presby- 
terian church in New Brunswick.'' His mother was a McKenzie. 

Rev. T. Chalmers Jack was educated at the St. John Grammar 
School and the New Brunswick University, from which institution 
he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1876, and at 
the same time received the Douglas gold medal. He then followed 
the theological course in the Presbyterian College at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, where he was graduated in 1879. This institution conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1906. He was ad- 
mitted licentiate at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, April i8th, and was 
ordained by the Presbytery of Halifax on October i4th, 1899. He 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 32! 

was pastor of St. David's church at Maitland, this Province, from 
1879 to 1896. Since then he has been pastor of St. Matthew's church 
at North Sydney, where he has done an excellent work. His long 
retention here would indicate that the people are highly pleased with 
his services and that he is popular with his congregation. He is not 
only a good pastor but an unusually logical, earnest and ofttimes 
eloquent pulpit orator, and is profoundly versed in the Scriptures. 

Rev. Dr. Jack is a member of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, 
and he is the author of various historical and biographical sketches. 
In theology he belongs to the Liberal school. Politically, he was a 
Conservative up to 1896, when he became a supporter of Sir \Yilfrecl 
Laurier on the Manitoba school question. The Montreal Star said 
of him that he was able, energetic and forceful, and the late Dr. 
Robert Murray had this to say of him : "An accomplished scholar, a 
profound theologian, and, as regards a practical theology, an adept." 

JOHN McCORMICK. 

The pioneer immigrants to Nova Scotia, of which number the late 
John McCormick was one, were heroic, sincere and, in the main, 
upright people, such as constitute the strength of the Province. It is 
scarcely probable that in the future of the world another such period 
can occur as that during which they flocked from the Old \Yorld to 
the newer Canadian country, or, indeed, any period when such a 
solid phalanx of strong-minded men, and noble self-sacrificing women 
will take possession of a new country. It is entirely proper that their 
names should be preserved on the pages of history and their deeds 
held up before the rising generations, fit for emulation. 

John McCormick was- born in Inverness-shire, Scotland, in the 
year 1818, and there he spent his boyhood, \xrng nearly ten years old 
when, in 1827, his parents brought him to Cape Breton. He was a 
son of Donald McCormick and wife, whose family consisted of seven 
children. 

Our subject received only a limited education. He devoted his 
life principally to coal mining. Upon reaching manhood he married 
Catherine McDonald, who was born in Nun Town, Inverness-shire, 
Scotland, from which country she came to Nova Scotia when young. 
To our subject and wife thirteen children were born, seven of whom 
survive at this writing, namely: Catherine S.. deceased; Donald is 
married and living in Sydney Mines; Flora Ann, Isabelle, and Charles 
(21) 






322 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

R. are all three deceased; Mary J. is married and living in Boston; 
John, who is unmarried, is a merchant in Sydney Mines; Isabelle, 
the second, is deceased; Joseph is deceased; Elizabeth lives at home; 
Agnes is married and living in North Sydney, Cape Breton; Matilda, 
the youngest daughter, is unmarried; Alex C. is the present mayor of 
Sydney Mines, is single, and is engaged in the mercantile business 
with his brother John. 

The McCormicks are Roman Catholics. 

The death of John McCormick occurred at Sdyney Mines in 
1887. He was a man of many fine traits of character, and was 
highly respected. 

ANGUS STEWART. 

The late Angus Stewart enjoyed distinctive prestige among the 
enterprising men and public officials of Sydney Mines, Xova Scotia, 
of a past generation. He was always interested in every enterprise 
for the welfare of the community and liberally supported every 
movement calculated to benefit his fellow men. Although the last 
chapter in his life drama has been brought to a close, his influence 
for good is still felt in the locality long honored by his residence, for 
he was a man in whom the utmost confidence could be reposed, al- 
ways making good his promises, was kind to the unfortunate, and a 
man whom all respected and admired. 

Mr. Stewart, who was chief magistrate of Sydney Mines at the 
time of his death, was born in that town on June 2, 1868. He was a 
son of Hugh and Christina (Ferguson) Stewart, both natives of 
Cape Breton, where they grew up and received their education, and 
they were married in Sydney Mines. The father was an engineer. 
His family consisted of eight children, six of whom are still living. 
The death of Hugh Stewart, the father, occurred February 3, 1914, 
and his wife died June 27, 1903. 

Angus Stewart grew to manhood in his native vicinity. He was 
a self-made man, having had little opportunity to attend school, and 
he educated himself for the most part, attending night school for a 
time. When eleven years old he worked at the mines near his home, 
and, being faithful and wide-awake, his rise was rapid. For a period 
of twenty-three years he occupied the responsible position of colliery 
accountant with the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company, rising 
from the ranks of a tally boy to chief clerk in the general office of the 
General Mining Association. During the last seven years of his life 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 323 

he was also secretary-treasurer of the Sydney Mines Friendly So- 
ciety, which position he filled acceptably to the satisfaction of the 
workmen. He was also identified and a valued member of the 
Masonic Order and took much interest in the executive work of St. 
Andrew's Presbyterian church, being the treasurer for a period of 
twenty years before he resigned a few years prior to his death. He 
was also a member of Archangel Division, Sons of Temperance, and 
the Victoria L. O. L. All these organizations had cause to regret 
the death of an enthusiastic worker and benefactor. 

Mr. Stewart was a Liberal in politics. In the year 1900 he was 
elected to the Town Council, which office he filled until ex-Mayor 
McCormick retired in 1906. when he was elected by acclamation to 
the important position of chief magistrate, retaining the office until 
1911, when he was defeated for the first time by ex-Mayor D. G. 
Macdonald. The following year he declined a nomination, but was 
returned in 1913 and 1914. His ministerial career was a labor of 
love and self-denial in behalf of the town. Always sincere, the 
lamented mayor tried to do his best to promote the people's interests, 
and if he failed in any cause it must be said he did his duty until the 
last fearlessly and without discrimination. In private life he was an 
ideal citizen, and always prepared to assist his fellow man. 

Mr. Stewart was married December 25, 1906, in Glace Bay to 
Mary Fletcher, a native of Gardner Mines, the date of her birth being 
July 1 8, 1879. She is a daughter of Thompson and Sarah (Fergu- 
son) Fletcher, natives of England and Mira. Cape Breton County, 
respectively. Mr. Fletcher came to Nova Scotia when a young man 
and married in Sydney. He worked many years in the mines as an 
underground manager. His death occurred May 30, 1913, but his 
widow is still living, making her home in Glace Bay. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Stewart three children were born, two sons and 
one daughter, namely: Robert Sydney Bridge, born October i, 
1907; Russell Fletcher, born September 30, 1911; and Jean Augusta, 
born March 13, 1913. Mrs. Stewart has a pleasant home in Sydney- 
Mines. 

Mrs. Stewart and children belong to the Presbyterian church. 

Four brothers survive our subject, namely: Walter, of the Gen- 
eral Office clerical staff; Neil, train dispatcher; Wilson, head clerk of 
the general warehouse; and John Duncan, town councillor; also two 
sisters, Mrs. Arnold Ernest and Mrs. Edward Brown. 

The death of Angus Stewart occurred after six months of ill 



324 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

health on December 8, 1914. His remarkable vitality manifested 
itself shortly before his death, when, for the first time, during his 
serious illness, he realized that the end was near, and, summoning his 
family together, admonished them to be of good courage, and bear 
the burden of his death calmly. "My work is done on earth; I go 
to meet my Father in Heaven, and all will be well." His farewell 
words, consoling and pathetic, have done much to soothe the grief of 
his family and friends. He passed away confident of a glorious and 
triumphant resurrection. The many expressions of sorrow by the 
citizens of Sydney Alines regarding the death of the late mayor, 
testified to the universal esteem in which he was held by all. Such a 
young man forty-six years of age his future service to the town 
would no doubt have been in the best interests of the public. All 
regretted the death of the worthy mayor a man who devoted his 
years for the uplift and betterment of the town. 

ALEXANDER C. THOMPSON. 

It is not too much to say that it is possible for every able-bodied 
young man to prepare against those periods of misfortune and ill 
luck which await all mankind somewhere down the path of life; but 
some, instead of doing so, trust to luck, which is an elusive and cap- 
ricious thing, and so, believing in the optimism of the future, they 
spend all on the present. It seems that Alexander C. Thompson, suc- 
cessful business man of Xorth Sydney, Nova Scotia, has been wiser, 
his prudence having urged him to pursue a different course, and so 
by hard, persistent work and able management he finds himself very 
comfortably fixed in his old age. 

Mr. Thompson was born at East Village, Colchester County, 
September 21, 1843. He is a son of Joshua and Mary (Spencer) 
Thompson. The father was born at Great Village in 1799, and there 
also occurred the mother's birth in 1805. There they grew up and 
were married and established their future home in the county in 
which their parents were pioneer settlers. 

Alexander C. Thompson grew to manhood in his native village 
and there attended the public schools. He has devoted his life to 
business lines and for many years has followed mercantile pursuits 
and manufacturing successfully at North Sydney. He was married 
on November 27, 1866, to Eliza Jane Sutherland, of Pictou, a daugh- 
ter of Hector and Margaret Sutherland. Eleven children have been 
born to our subject and wife, namely: Anna I., Hector Willard 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 325 

Sutherland, Mary Isabel, Margaret Spencer, George Hockins, Alex- 
ander Charles, John Raymond, Jennie Mary, Joshua Howard, Mur- 
dock Lewis, Florence Patterson. 

Politically, Mr. Thompson is a Liberal, but he has never been 
active in public affairs, nor held office. He is a member of the 



Masonic lodge. 



ROBERT ROBERTSON. 






Holding the position of mine manager at the Sydney Mines, Cape 
Breton, Robert Robertson is a man who has made a record that is 
worthy of perpetuation within these pages, as we will readily ascer- 
tain by a study of the same in the following paragraphs, for it is only 
a few of the workers in his line who rise to the work of a manager. 
It shows that he has done his work well and has been trustworthy. 

Mr. Robertson was born in Rutherglen (Royal Borough) Scot- 
land, February 25, 1855. He is a son of Robert and Margaret 
(Wilson) Robertson. The father was born in 1835 and died in 
1907; the mother was born in 1837 and died in 1906. Robert Rob- 
ertson, Sr., devoted his life to mining. His family consisted of 
fifteen children, ten of whom are still living. 

Our subject left school when ten years of age, starting to work 
in the coal mines in Scotland, and he continued studying at home and 
in night school. He has became a very well-informed man, and last 
year he finished his fiftieth year as miner. He came to Halifax, 
January i, 1889, and he moved to Sydney Mines, Cape Breton, in 
1890, and went to work for the old General Mining Association, now 
the Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company, the concern assuming owner- 
ship in 1901. When our subject came to Sydney Mines in 1890 he 
was made underground manager of Mine No. i. He and his family 
returned to Scotland at the end of 1894 and remained there eight 
years, coming back to Sydney Mines in 1902. In 1908 he was made 
manager of No. 5 Colliery, which position he now holds. He has 
given entire satisfaction in all the positions he has held, for he under- 
stands every phase of mining and is faithful and honest in his work. 

Mr. Robertson was married July 12, 1878, in Glasgow, Scotland, 
to Agnes Fender, who was born in Scotland in the little village of 
Old Carnbroe. She is a daughter of William and Mary (Paterson) 
Fender. 

Six children have been born to our subject and wife, namely: 
Mary lives in Sydney, Cape Breton; Margaret lives in Scotland; 



326 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Agnes lives in Sydney Mines; Elizabeth lives in Saskatchewan; 
Robert, who is in France with the Twenty-fifth Battalion, is fight- 
ing for his country in the present great war; William Fender is at 
home. 

Politically, Mr. Robertson is an independent voter. He belongs 
to the Masonic Order, and he and his family are members of the 
Methodist Church. 

MAJOR THOMAS MILLIDGE. 

Major Thomas Millidge, of Xew Jersey. Previous to the Revolu- 
tion, he was Surveyor General of that colony. He entered the mili- 
tary service, and was major of the First Battalion of New Jersey 
Volunteers raised by Skinner. At the close of the war he went to 
New Brunswick, and made a survey of the River St. Croix, and the 
waters adjacent. He settled in Nova Scotia and was a colonel in 
the militia. He died at Granville, Annapolis County, in 1816, aged 
eighty-one. Mercy, his widow, survived him four years, and died 
at Annapolis at the age of eighty-one. His son Thomas was an 
eminent merchant, a magistrate, and a member of the House of 
Assembly and resided at St. John, New Brunswick, until his decease, 
at the age of sixty-two. 

EDWARD LAVIN GIRROR. 

A high purpose and a strong will, together with virile mental 
powers, close application to books and devotion to duty have made 
Edward Lavin Girror, successful barrister of Antigonish, Nova 
Scotia, eminently useful. His individuality is impressed upon any 
work with which he is connected and he has ever been ready to 
assume any amount of responsibility and labor incurred in accom- 
plishing his ends, when he once has decided that he is right. 

Mr. Girror was born August 26, 1871, at Tracadie, Nova Scotia, 
and is a son of William and Annie (Lavin) Girror, the former a 
French-Canadian and the latter of Irish extraction. 

Our subject grew up in his native town and there attended the 
public schools, then entered St. Francis Xavier College there, where 
he was graudated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He then 
took the law course at Dalhousie University, where he made an 
excellent record, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 

He was married May 14, 1902, to Loretta Maude Corhim, a 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 327 

daughter of William Corhim, of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Mrs. Gir- 
ror's death occurred October 2, 1907, leaving the following children: 
Frances Cecilia, Marguerite and Edward Lavin, Jr. 

After being admitted to the bar, Mr. Girror began the practice 
of his profession in his home town where he has remained to the 
present time, enjoying a large and growing practice all the while. 
He has kept well abreast of the times in all that pertains to his 
profession and is regarded as a safe, faithful and honorable lawyer. 

Politically, he is a Conservative, and he was the candidate of his 
party for the House of Commons in 1900, 1905 and 1908. He was 
defeated in 1900 by two hundred and sixty-seven votes, in 1905 by 
two hundred and thirty-six votes, and in 1908 by twenty votes. He 
was first elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1911 at the general 
election. He represented the County of Antigonish in the Legisla- 
ture for about one year, when he was appointed to the Senate. He 
has filled this office very ably and very acceptably. Religiously, he is 
a Roman Catholc. 

CHARLES JOHN HOYT. 

Faithfulness to duty, persistence in the pursuit of a worthy object 
and a desire to be of service to those about him while laboring for 
his own advancement have been some of the principles which have 
been dominating factors in the career of Charles John Hoyt, super- 
intendent of the Western Union Telegraph and Cable station at North 
Sydney, Cape Breton, in which city he has made his home for some 
time and where he has made many friends. 

Mr. Hoyt was born in Bridgetown, Annapolis County. Nova Sco- 
tia, May 9, 1854. He is a son of Charles and Sarah Jane (Quick) 
Hoyt, the former born May 9, 1822, and the latter on February 14. 
1822. Our subject is a descendant of Col. Jesse Hoyt, who came to 
Nova Scotia from Oyster Bay, New York, in 1775. about the com- 
mencement of the Revolutionary War. He was a descendant of 
Simon Hoyt, who was a native of Somerset, England, from which 
country he immigrated to the United States about 1620, a few years 
after the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers in the Mayflower. Thus 
the Hoyts are among the oldest American families, and many of them 
have been prominent in various walks of life. 

Charles J. Hoyt grew up in his native county and received a 
practical public school elucation. Learning telegraphy when a young 
man, he became proficient in the same and has been one of the trusted 



328 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

employes of the Western Union Telegraph Company for many years 
and as superintendent of the telegraph and cable station at North 
Sydney he is doing his work faithfully and acceptably. 

Mr. Hoyt was married on October n, 1880, to Elizabeth Mary 
Vooght, the eldest daughter of John and Elizabeth (Pugsley) 
Vooght, of North Sydney, where Mrs. Hoyt spent her girlhood and 
was educated. One child has been torn to our subject and wife 
Wilbert Vooght Hoyt. 

Mr. Hoyt is a member of the Church of England. 

DANIEL MCNEIL. 

A barrister of intense energy and application, Daniel McNeil, of 
Inverness, Cape Breton, lias won a position in the front ranks of 
his profession, in which he is what might be denominated a student 
lawyer. He knows enough to know it by intuition and experience. 
that to be a good lawyer, a successful one, means hard study and 
devotion to the profession and he has accordingly remained a close 
student of all that pertains to legal matters. 

Mr. McNeil was born at Hillsborough, Inverness County, Nova 
Scotia. January 31, 1853. He is a SON of Malcolm and Ellen 
(Meagher) McNeil. The father was born at Mabou, Inverness 
County, February 2, 1823, and his death occurred September 19, 
1877; the mother was born at Brook Village, this Province, 1830, 
and she died June 16, 1887. Roderick McNeil, the grandfather, 
was a native of Scotland; his wife, Catherine Campbell, was a na- 
tive of Cape George, Antigonish County, Nova Scotia. They were 
married at Judique, this Province, the grandfather having been a 
young man when he emigrated from his native land. He devoted his 
active life to the fishing business and farming. Daniel Meagher, the 
maternal grandfather, was born in County Kilkenny, Ireland, and his 
wife, Mary O'Brien, was a native of Mabou, Inverness County, she 
having been the first female white child born in that district. Grand- 
father Meagher devoted his life to farming. 

Daniel McNeil spent his boyhood days at Hillsborough and there 
he attended the common schools, later entered St. Francis Xavier 
College at Antingonish. He read law in law offices in Halifax, and, 
upon being admitted to the bar he formed a partnership with Samuel 
MacDonnell, King's Counsel, at Port Hood, Inverness County, which 
partnership continued successfully until 1883. Our subject remained 
in practice in Port Hood until 1892, when he removed to the city of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 320 

Halifax and continued the practice of his profession there during a 
period of thirteen years, during which he enjoyed a large and lucra- 
tive practice and figured prominently in the leading cases in various 
courts. In 1905 he returned to his native county and was made 
postmaster at Inverness in 1914, the duties of which office he is still 
discharging in a highly satisfactory manner. He has continued the 
practice of law here with much success. Politically, he is a Con- 
servative. He filled the responsible position of executive of Xova 
Scotia from 1886 until 1893, and he was made King's Counsel in 
1907. Religiously, he is a Roman Catholic. 

Air. McNeil was married on August 4, 1881, to Margaret E. 
MacDonnell, a daughter of James MacDonnell, of Port Hood. Her 
mother, who was known in her maidenhood as Charlotte Fuller, was 
a native of Arichat. Richmond County. 

To our subject and wife the following children were born: 
Mary E., born April 24, 1882, is single; Ada E., born June 27, 1883, 
is married and lives in Halifax; James M., born July if>, i88s, died 
June 15, 1905; Honora T., born October 29, 1886, died November 
8, 1886; Xeil A., born August 25, 1888, is single; John Alexander 
and Honora Josephine, the latter a nun. are twins, and were l>orn 
September 30, 1889; John B., who was third in order of birth, was 
born June 25, 1884, and died June 26, 1884. 

WILLIAM COLEN CHISHOLM. 

One of the best known citizens of Antigonish, both town and 
county, is William Colen Chisholm, formerly a successful merchant, 
but for many years now he has been collector of customs, but 
whether in private, business or public life, his record has been above 
all idle cavil. 

Mr. Chisholm was born at Guysborough Intervale, Guysborough 
County, Nova Scotia, December 2, 1856. He is a son of Colen 
Chisholm, Esq., and Chirshenn Chisholm, the former a native of 
Strathglass, Scotland, and the latter of that place also. There they 
grew up and spent their earlier years, but eventually came to Nova 
Scotia and established the future home of the family. 

William C. Chisholm received his education in the common 
schools at Guysborough Intervale and Guysborough Academy. He 
operated a general store at Heatherton, Nova Scotia, for thirty years 
and enjoyed a good business as a result of his enterprise and good 
management. Taking an active interest in public affairs, he became 



330 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

county councillor which position he held nine years, and was warden 
o-f Antigonish County for six years. He is now collector of customs 
for Antigonish. As a public servant he has always given eminent 
satisfaction. 

Mr. Chisholm was married, first, in 1895, to Isabell McDonald, 
a daughter of Murdock McDonald, of Coffer Lake, Antigonish 
County. His second wife was known in her madienhood as Ann 
Chisholm. 

Our subject is a Roman Catholic. He has been a member of the 
Catholic Mutual Benefit Association for twenty-three years. 

ARCHIBALD FERGUSON. 

Each man who strives to fulfill his part in connection with human 
life and human activities is deserving of recognition, whatever may 
be his field of endeavor, and it is the function of works of this nature 
to prepare for future generations an authentic record concerning 
those represented in its pages. Thus \ve give herewith a brief sketch 
of Archibald Ferguson, district mine manager at Florence, Cape 
Breton. He was born May 24, 1863, at Port Morien, Cape Breton, 
and is a son of Malcolm and Mary (McLean) Ferguson, both natives 
of Scotland. The father came to Canada when seventeen years of 
age, locating in Cape Breton, and the mother was a young girl when 
her parents brought her to this country. The parents of our subject 
were married in Sydney Mines. They later estbalished their home in 
Port Morien where their deaths occurred, the father's in 1901 and 
the mother's in 1900. They weve the parents of nine children, eight 
of whom are still living, namely: John, Daniel (deceased), Kate, 
Archibald (subject), Christie, Don Hughie, Angus, John and Alex- 
ander. 

Archibald Ferguson received a limited education and he began 
working in the mines when fourteen years of age at Port Morien, 
then went to Low Point in 1884, where he followed mining, [n 
1889 he was made overman in the mine there. In February, 1901, 
he went, to the Gardner Mine with J. T. Burchell as underground 
manager. In 1893 he moved to New Campbellton, Victoria County, 
Cape Breton, taking the position of underground manager at Bur- 
chell Mine, remaining there until 1907, then went to work for the 
Dominion Iron & Steel Company, prospecting for about six months. 
In the fall of 1907 he came to Sydney Mines and went to work for 
the Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company as underground manager of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 331 

mine colliery No. 2. In the fall of 1908 he was made manager of 
No. 2 Colliery, and was transferred to Colliery No. 4 as manager in 
May, 1912. In February, 1914, he was made district superintendent 
of Nos. 3 and 4 collieries, which position he -still holds, giving his 
usual faithful and high-grade service. 

Mr. Ferguson was married August 24, 1896, in New Campbell- 
ton, Cape Breton, to Catherine A. Campbell, who was torn, reared 
and educated in that town, the date of her birth being January 8, 
1874. She is a daughter of Capt. Angus and Lexcina (Carr ) Camp- 
bell, natives of the British Isles, from which country they came to 
Cape Breton when young and married in New Campbellton. 

To our subject and wife four children have been born, namely: 
Angus C, born June 15, 1897; Malcolm D.. born April 25. 1899; 
Alexandra Mary, and James A., born August 26, 1909. They are 
all at home with their parents. 

Politically, Mr. Ferguson is a Liberal, and his family are members 
of the Presbyterian Church. He belongs to the Independent Order 
of Odd fellows. 

EDGAR NELSON RHODES. 

By wise and judicious legislation, a barrier has been interposed 
against an easy, and miscellaneous invasion of the legal profession, 
and those who propose to enter it must submit to the rigid require- 
ments of the law. The prescribed years of study must l>e observed, 
the ordeal of examination must be borne, and fixed grades and stand- 
ards must be touched before the applicant can cross the statutory line 
that separates him from the bar. The result is the profession draws 
its nutriment from a more intellectual class men fitted for the pro- 
fession. One such gentleman is Edgar Nelson Rhodes, lawyer and 
legislator of Amherst, Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Rhodes, who is of Scotch-Irish ancestry, is the only son of 
the late Nelson A. Rhodes, a native of Amherst, this Province, where 
his family settled in an early day. and there he grew to manhood, 
established his home and became a prominent man of affairs, being 
the founder of R. Curry & Company, Limited. The mother of our 
subject was known in her maidenhood as Sarah Davidson Curry, a 
daughter of Charles Curry, of Falmouth, Nova Scotia. 

Edgar N. Rhodes was born at Amherst, January 5, 1877, and 
here he grew to manhood and received his. education in the public 
schools, later was a student at Horton College and Acadia Univer- 



332 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

sity, being graduated from the latter institution in 1900, with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. He then entered the law department of 
Dalhousie University, from which he was graduated with the degree 
of Bachelor of Laws in 1902, and in that year was admitted to the 
bar. He began the practice of his profession at Amherst, where he 
has since remained and has built up a large and growing practice, 
being retained in many important cases. He is also active in busi- 
ness affairs and is a director in the Canadian Rolling Stock Com- 
pany, Limited, Amherst Boot and Shoe Company, Limited; Amherst 
I 'ianos, Limited ; president Brooklyn Lumber Company, Limited ; 
member of Board of Governors of Acadia University. 

Politically, he is a Conservative and is active in the affairs of his 
party. He has sat for Cumberland County in the House of Com- 
mons since 1908, and his record is a praiseworthy one. 

Mr. Rhodes is a member of the Halifax Club of Halifax, and 
the Rideau Club of Ottawa. The Toronto Ncu'S has referred to him 
as "A man of forceful personality," and other newspapers have 
spoken most favorably of him. He was married in July, 1905, to 
M. Grace Pipes, the second daughter of the late Hon. M. T. Pipes, 
King's Counsel, and .Attorney-General of Xova Scotia. 

ROBERT CHARLES' FULLER. 

The subject of this biographical review was born at Wendover, 
Buckinghamshire, England, March 5, 1851. He is a son of diaries 
H. and Charlotte S. (Rose) Euller. The father was born at Adding- 
ton, Surry, England, June 19, 1821, and his death occurred March 
10, 1880. The mother was born at Wendover, England, April 15, 
1821, and died November 2, 1874. These parents grew to maturity 
in their native land and were married there. The family came to 
Nova Scotia in 1865, locating in Halifax, but later removed to 
Hants County, where the parents spent the rest of their lives and 
died. Eleven children were born to them in England and one after 
coming to Nova Scotia ; nine are still living. 

Robert C. Fuller grew to manhood in England and there re- 
ceived a practical education along general lines. After coming to 
Nova Scotia he learned the drug business in Halifax under the late 
M. F. Eagar, removing to Amherst in 1874 and began clerking for 
Dr. Nathan Tupper, his father-in-law, later buying out his employer, 
and in 1881 engaged in .the drug business for himself under the firm 
name of R. C. Fuller & Company, wholesale and retail druggists. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 333 

This business was founded by the late Sir Charles Tupper in 1843, 
being the first drug store in Cumberland County. By his enterprise, 
sound judgment and honest dealings, Mr. Fuller has built up a large 
and important business at Amherst, which is constantly growing with 
advancing years. In 1892 he took in John W. Morrison as a partner. 

Mr. Fuller was married September 5, 1877, to Sophia R. Tupper, 
a daughter of Dr. Nathan and Ellen ( Bent ) Tupper, of Amherst. 
To this union three children have been born, namely : C. Beatrice, 
who married Prof. W. M. Steele, a son of Rev. Dr. Steele, of Am- 
herst; Professor Steele died in 1905, leaving a wife and one daughter; 
Roy T., born in 1881. died July 11, 1905; R. Laurie, born May 24, 
1886, died September 16. 1887. Mr. Fuller's wife is a niece of the 
late Sir Charles Tupper, Bart. 

Politically, Mr. Fuller is a Conservative, and he is a member of 
the Church of England. 

ALEXANDER DAVID ROSS. 

The field of journalism in Nova Scotia has an able exponent in 
the person of A. David Ross, of the Amherst Daily News, a man 
who is progressive in his ideas and methods and a booster for his 
town and country. He was born in Piedmont Valley, Pictou County, 
November 24, 1868, and is a son of David and Margaret ( Robert- 
son) Ross. He received his education in the New Glasgow schools 
and the Amherst Academy, and began life for himself by teaching 
school, which he continued from 1887 to 1904 with much success, 
his services being in good demand. In 1898 he turned his attention 
to journalism, becoming editor of the above-named excellent news- 
paper where he has continued his work to the present time. During 
this period of seventeen years he has greatly increased the value, in- 
fluence and popularity of the News, which is now regarded as one of 
the best newspapers in the Province. He has made it influential from 
an editorial standpoint and a valuable advertising medium. He 
served for eight years as secretary of the Amherst Board of Trade, 
and as a member of the executive board of the Technical School. 
Politically, he is an Independent; religiously, a Presbyterian; and 
fraternally, a member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. 
He was married to Florence Goldsmith, a daughter of Charles H. 
Goldsmith, of Annapolis Royal, September 4, 1894. To this union 
two sons have been born, namely : Ronald M. and Wilfred A. G. 



334 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

MURDOCK D. MAcASKILL. 

Few men are better known in Nova Scotia than Murdock D. 
MacAskill, of Eaddeck, few occupy a more conspicuous place in 
public affairs, and it is a compliment worthily bestowed to class him 
with the representative men of Cape Breton Island, where the Mac- 
Askills have been influential for several generations back. He was 
born at Big Baddeck, and is of Scotch parentage. He is the type 
of citizen on which the hope of Canada is based and which has made 
Xova Scotia a name that is borne with pride and looked upon with 
confidence wherever it is known. 

His parents, Bannington and Elizabeth (MacPhee) MacAskill, 
were natives of Scotland, the father of the Isle of Harris and the 
mother of the Isle of Skye. They spent their earlier years in their 
native land, immigrating to Nova Scotia in 1841 and here they were 
married and settled on a farm on the Baddeck River, where they 
spent the rest of their lives, having' established a comfortable home 
through their industry and won the respect and esteem of their 
neighbors. 

Murdock D. MacAskill had the advantage of. the best schools in 
his country during his youth, and in early manhood took up the pro- 
fession of teaching. Later he assumed charge of his father's farm 
and was counted one of the best agriculturists in his district. Always 
alive to the advantages of improved methods he became a pioneer in 
the introduction of many improvements in soil cultivation. In 1890, 
at the age of twenty-eight, he became associated with the firm of 
Mackay, MacAskill & Company, of Baddeck. To the new field of 
business Mr. MacAskill brought the same qualities of enthusiasm, 
energy and painstaking effort that characterized his other endeavors, 
and the rapid rise of the firm from one small building to the present 
beautiful department store on Chebucto Street, the head of a chain 
of four stores in Victoria County, is due in large measure to his 
commanding personality and the confidence his probity inspires in 
the buying public. 

In religion, Mr. MacAskill is a Presbyterian, an elder in that 
communion since his twenty-fifth year. He is nevertheless, a firm 
believer in union and strong in the hope of some day seeing the dif- 
ferent Protestant denominations united into one strong working 
unit. He has always been a public-spirited citizen, taking an active 
interest in all that pertains to the advancement of the community, 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 33 c 

Province and Nation. In politics, an ardent Liberal, he held without 
a break from 1895 to 1910 a seat at the Municipal Board as repre- 
sentative of the District of Baddeck. For several years he was 
warden of the County of Victoria, which position he resigned 
when, in 1905, he was appointed sergeant-at-arms in the Legislature 
of Nova Scotia, which position he still holds to the satisfaction oi 
all concerned. No better evidence of how he stands in the estimation 
of both sides of the House as its chief official than what was con- 
tained in the Halifax Herald at the close of the session of 1914, 
which was without doubt the most strenuous that the Legislature 
ever held. The article in question appeared under the caption, "A 
Popular Official," and was as follows: "Sergeant-at-Arms MacAs- 
kill of the House of Assembly, leaves today for home. Although 
he carries the sword and the emblem of authority, and can exercise 
it, too, when need arises, there is no more popular man in either 
branch of the Legislature." 

We also quote herewith another newspaper article of interest : 
"On Wednesday afternoon, March 15^1 inst., a pleasant event took 
place at the House of Assembly. Immediately before the orders of 
the day were called, Mr. J. C. Douglas, the- member for Cape Breton, 
arose in his place in the House and said: 'Before the orders of the 
day are called, I desire to call the attention of the Hous"e to an event 
which must give great gratification to the meml>ers of both sides of 
this house.' He referred to the return of his duties of Sergeant-at- 
Arms MacAskill. Mr. Douglas said that this gentleman performed 
the duties of his office during the past five years, with which he was 
personally acquainted, in a manner which was a credit to himself as 
well as a credit to the House. He said that he regretted personally, 
as every honorable member did regret, that the genial sergeant-at- 
arms was laid aside from his duties during the whole of the present 
session up to the present time, on account of serious illness. He 
ventured to remark that there wasi not one single member in the 
House but who desired to congratulate both the House, on the return 
of the genial sergeant-at-arms, as well as the sergeant-at-arms him- 
self, on his return to health. He further said that duty, in the mind 
of the gentleman referred to, spelt large, and it could be said that in 
competence no officer attached to this House had so far justified 
his office than this gentleman. His unfailing courtesy, kindness of 
disposition and genial personality, were well known to all, and he 
merely wished to say these few words at this time, as an evidence of 






336 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

the appreciation for his qualities of head and heart, and to congratu- 
late the gentleman and the House on his return to resume his im- 
portant duties." 

Mr. MacAskill was married on August 4, 1892, to Margaret 
MacPhee, a daughter of Charles and Elizabeth (Buchanan) Mac- 
Phee, both natives of the Isle of Skye, Scotland. John Buchanan, 
Mrs. MacAskill's grandfather, was the first settler on Baddeck River, 
Cape Breton. 

To Mr. and Mrs. MacAskill the following children have been 
born: Peter Daniel, born January 16, 1894, died April 3Oth of that 
year; Elizabeth Victoria, born March 30, 1897; Charles Bannington, 
born April 26, 1899; Duncan Cuyler, torn April 16, 1903, died No- 
vember 1 2th of that year. 

CHARLES REYNOLDS SMITH. 

Whenever an attempt is made to write the history of a successful 
enterprise or the worthy career of any man, it has been found that 
ability, backed by energy and push, has been the basis of it all, and 
this fact cannot fail to impress itself upon the writer of history 
proper, or of the biographies of those who have achieved sufficient 
distinction to make the record of their lives of interest to the public. 
Charles Reynolds Smith, one of the influential citizens of Amherst, 
Nova Scotia, owes his success in life to his own fighting qualities 
the fighting ability that overcomes obstacles. 

Mr. Smith was born in Amherst, Cumberland County, this Prov- 
ince, November 18, 1854, and is a son of Robert Knowlton Smith, 
who was born in Falmouth, Hants County, Nova Scotia, and Mary 
Ann Gardner (Mitchell) Smith, who was a native of Ireland, where 
her ancestors had long resided. The Smith family is of English ex- 
traction. The father of our subject resided for many years during 
the latter part of his life in Amherst and was one of the first mer- 
chants there. He also held the office of justice of the peace for the 
County of Cumberland, at that time considered a position of distinc- 
tion, and was long regarded as one of the leading citizens of 
Amherst. 

Charles R. Smith was the youngest of a family of ten children, 
seven sons and three daughters. He grew up in his native town and 
received his education in Amherst Academy, and studied law with 
his brother, J. T. Smith, still a practicing barrister at Amherst, and 
subsequently entered the office of the late Hon. Hiram Blanchard, 




Rhodes. Curry Co., Ltd. Christ Church-Anglican. 

SC'KXKS IX AMIIERST. 
Highland View Hosi)it;il. Victoria Street. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 337 

King's Counsel, and the present Hon. Mr. Justice Meagher, in Hali- 
fax. He was admitted to the bar January 10, 1876, and returned to 
Amherst soon thereafter and has since been successfully engaged in 
the practice of his profession at that place, ranking among the leaders 
of the bar in Cumberland County. On a number of occasions he has 
acted as Crown prosecutor, and on February 2, 1891, by Lord Stan- 
ley of Preston, then Governor-General of Canada, was created a 
King's Counsel, (or Queen's Counsel as it was then, the commission 
having been issued during the reign of the late Queen Victoria). 
Until 1909 Mr. Smith practiced alone when he took his eldest son, 
Robert Knowlton Smith, LL. 13., into partnership, the business being 
now carried on under the name of Charles R. & Robert K. Smith. 

For one term the subject of this sketch was a member of the Am- 
herst Town Council, and for eight years was a member of the Board 
of School Commissioners for the town, being for seven years chair- 
man of the board. At an earlier date in his life Mr. Smith took an 
active interest- in military matters. He was graduated from the 
Military School at Halifax, and for several years held the commis- 
sion of captain of No. i Company in the then Cumberland Provis- 
ional Battalion, now the Ninety-seventh; but business interfering he 
retired from the active list. 

He is also interested in many of the manufacturing and business 
interests of Amherst, including the Canada Car & Foundry Com- 
pany, Limited; the Amherst Boot & Shoe Company. Limited; Black- 
ing & Mercantile Cmpany, Limited ; The Nova Scotia Carriage Com- 
pany, Limited, and the Hewson Woollen Mills, Limited, having been 
a director in the last three for a number of years. He is an active 
member of the Canadian Club, also of the Marshlands Club and the 
Amherst Golf Club; religiously, he is an adherent of the Church of 
England. 

In politics, Mr. Smith is a stanch Liberal-Conservative. He has 
held the office of president of the party for his county, and on two 
occasions contested the county for the local Legislature, but unsuc- 
cessfully. Until recently he was a member of the Chief Executive 
Committee for the Province. 

In addition to his other activities the subject of this review has 
for many years taken a great interest in Freemasonry, and for five 
years held the position of Grand Master for his native Province, a 
longer period than any other Grand Master here, except one of his 

(22) 






338 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

predecessors, the late General Laurie, recently deceased. Under Mr. 
Smith's regime as Grand Master, and very largely through his efforts, 
the Masonic Home at Windsor, Nova Scotia, for the care of poor, 
old and deserving Masons and the widows of Masons, was estab- 
lished and is doing splendid work along charitable lines for the 
Fraternity. 

Air. Smith was married on April 27, 1885, to Mary Gavin, of 
Parrsboro, Cumberland County. She is a daughter of the late Alar- 
tin Gavin, who, in his life time, was one of the leading citizens of 
Parrsboro. 

To our subject and wife the following children have been born: 
Robert Knowlton. Rose, Vincent Reynolds, and Harry Arnold Smith. 
all of whom arc living and residing in Amherst, except the second 
son, Vincent R. Smith, B. A., LL. B.. who is practicing his profession 
as a barrister with Messrs. Cross, Jonah, Hugg & Forbes, one of the 
leading legal firms in Regina, Saskatchewan. In the fall of 1915 
the oldest son, Robert K., enlisted for active service in connection 
with the great European war, while Harry A., the youngest, is one 
of the shell inspectors for Xova Scotia. 

DAVID WILBUR FREEMAX. 

A creditable representative of one of the oldest and best-known 
families of Xova Scotia is David Wilbur Freeman, an enterprising 
resident of Amherst, Xova Scotia, where he has been successfully 
engaged in mercantile pursuits for some time, and he seems to have 
inherited many of the commendable characteristics of his ancestors 
which have made him not only a successful man of affairs but also a 
good citizen. 

Among the early English settlers who came to Cumberland 
County, X T ova Scotia, was a young man of the name of William 
Freeman, who was born in England in 1741. He arrived at the 
Isthmus of Chignecto in 1765 and evidently came to the conclusion 
that it was a goodly land for home makers, for we find that very 
shortly after his arrival here he was united in marriage to Jerusha 
Yeornans. Ministers were scarce and so one Denoni Danks, a justice 
of the peace, and a man who played a prominent part in the early 
history of this isthmus, performed the wedding ceremony. To this 
union fourteen children were born, named as follows : Samuel, born 
October 28, 1766; Sarah, Xovember i, 1767; William and Jerusha 
(twins), March 27, 1770; Samuel (the second), born March 10, 






HISTOKY OK NOVA SCOTIA. 339 

1772; Joshua, March 28, 1774; Elizabeth, May 26, 1776; Dorothy, 
November 5, 1778; Martha, December 12, 1780; Philip, January 29, 
1783; Hannah, November 28, 1785; Ann, June 27, 1788; Charlotte, 
May 29, 1789; and Rebecca, September n, 1790. Samuel, the old- 
est child, died in infancy, but the thirteen remaining children reached 
manhood and womanhood and have a large posterity today, many of 
whom are residents of Amherst and Cumberland. 

The founder of this large and important family died in 1801. 
Two of his sons, Joshua and i'hilip, left Amherst to take up farms in 
Upper Canada. The first named owned and lived on a farm in what 
is now the very center of incorporated Amherst. He was an active 
member of the Baptist denomination, then in its infancy. He sold 
his farm here in 1816 and with his wife and ten children embarked 
from Bay Yerte for Quebec, from which city they made their way 
by many different conveyances to Hamilton, where many of their 
descendants are now living. I'hilip Freeman fell heir to a portion of 
his father's property, which is now a portion of Amherst, and William 
Freeman also owned land now a part of the town also. One of the 
sons of William, the second son of William the emigrant, was George 
William Freeman, who had a large family, the oldest surviving mem- 
ber of this branch of the family being J. \\'. Freeman, of Moncton, 
New Brunswick. Samuel Freeman, another of the pioneers, ac- 
quired a farm at West Amherst, which passed to his son. Samuel, 
and is now occupied by his grandson of the same name. The various 
members of the Freeman family took a conspicuous part in the gen- 
eral development of Amherst and were known as excellent citizens in 
every respect. It was to this early pioneer. William Freeman, that 
the town of Amherst owes Victoria street. While other men were 
making narrow streets, he was making his street wide. He was a 
man of vision and could foresee the future of this splendid country. 
The beautiful central park called Victoria Square in Amherst is a 
monument to the large heart and generous spirit of the founder of 
the Cumberland branch of the Freeman family. Victoria Square, 
however, is not the only monument that perpetuates the memory of 
William Freeman in Amherst. A review of "One Hundred Years 
with the Baptists in Amherst" will show what a large part the Free- 
mans played in the organization and early history of this congrega- 
tion. William Freeman was the first clerk of the church. It was at 
the home of Samuel Freeman, first, where the first meetings of the 
congregation were held. Joshua, Philip, Rufus and Desiah Free- 



34O HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

man were among the fruitful members that met at those fireside 
gatherings. In 1818 the congregation had a membership of eigh- 
teen and of this number one-third bore the name of Freeman, and 
from that day to the present the Freemans have been among the most 
active Baptists in Amherst. 

George William Freeman was born at Amherst, April 21, 1825, 
and here grew to manhood and received his education. He married 
Frances Harrison, also of Amherst, who was born January 6, 1833, 
and they established their home here and reared a large family, viz., 
John \Y., born January 8, 1849, now a resident of Moncton, Xew 
Brunswick. He married Julia Freeman, October 18, 1876. They 
have four sons and on edaughter. Charles Edward, born January 
19, 1851, married October 1 1, 1881, Matilda Lusby, daughter of 
Thomas Lusby, Esq. By this marriage two daughters, viz., Sophia, 
born January 14, 1882, and Clearlena, born July 13, 1884, and died 
January 9, 1897. David Wilbur, subject of this sketch. Samuel 
Hebert, born August 7, 1859, and was married October 25, 1887, to 
Margaret Chapman, ami to them were born three sons and three 
daughters. The mother died December i, 1900, and within ten years 
the whole family had passed out by the same dread disease tuber- 
culosis. Clarence Amos was born April 24, 1863, married Eloise 
Hullett, and to this union three children were born. Frank Byard, 
born December 27, 1867, married Mary Dolson, to whom was born 
three sons and two daughters. George Edgar, born May 17, 1871, 
was married June 23, 1897, to Clara Tingly, who bore him one son, 
Walter, and one daughter. Myra. 

D. Wilbur Freeman, of this sketch, who is a great-grandson of 
William Freeman, the pioneer, and a son of George William and 
Frances (Harrison) Freeman, was born at Amherst., August 6, 1855. 
He*was educated in the local public school and Amherst Academy 
and early in life turned his attention to business here, and for many 
years he has conducted a large and well-stocked grocery store, and 
enjoys a good business. He has been three times married, first, to 
Alice Maud Lusby, on October i, 1883; she was a daughter of 
William and Mary (Oxley) Lusby, and to this marriage one child 
was born Ralph William Freeman, whose birth occurred March 
21, 1886. On December 20, 1887, our subject's second marriage took 
place, when he espoused Alice Sharp, a daughter of Samuel and 
Fanny (Trueman) Sharp; to this union one child was born Rey- 
nolds Parker Freeman, whose birth occurred February 18, 1891. Our 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 34! 

subject's third marriage was solemnized on September 12, 1905, with 
Miss Oresa McKinley, a daughter of Samuel and Elenor (Fletcher) 
McKinley; this marriage resulted in the birth of one child, a daugh- 
ter Frances Elenor, born February 4, 1907. 

Politically, Mr. Freeman is a Conservative. He is an active mem- 
ber of the Baptist church, in which he is a deacon. He is a member 
of the Masonic Order, Canadian Home Circle. 

REV 7 . DAVID ALLAN STFELF. 

The life of the average man of affairs today is spent amidst so 
much bustle and hurry and worry that he often imagines he can find 
but little time to devote to art, nature, books, recreation and retro- 
spection. Perhaps one of the most busy men who lived in the past 
century was William E. Gladstone ; yet he was one of the best in- 
formed and most widely read men in Europe. The same may be 
said in America of Theodore Roosevelt. Such men do their work 
better because they come to it with minds refreshed and strengthened, 
and they move under the heavy load of the world's affairs with ease 
and dignity, because they hear things that other ears are deaf to and 
see upon all things a light to which untaught eyes are blind. Rev. 
David Allan Steele, of Amherst, although a busy man, keeps in touch 
with nature and the finer things of life. 

He was born at Erdisland (parish of) Herefordshire, England,, 
September 17, 1838, and is a son of John and Mary (Hebb) Steele, 
the father bom near Dumfries, Scotland, in September, 1811; and 
the mother, a native of England; her birth occurred May 9, 1812, at 
Kington, Herefordshire. The ancestors on the paternal side were 
farmers at Annandale, Scotland. George Steele was the great-great- 
grandfather who married a Miss McGeorge. David Steele was the 
great-grandfather, and John Steele was the grandfather. Once in 
his childhood, John Steele, the father of our subject, conversed with 
a man who remembered the defeated Highlanders fleeing southward 
from Culloden, in 1745, saying that their shoes were so worn that 
they asked those they met to "nipper brogues," that is, change shoes. 
John Steele, the father, came to Canada in 1845, in the brig 
Cynthia Ann, landing at Sackville, New Brunswick, September iQth, 
after a voyage lasting six weeks. The mother of our subject was a 
representative of an old Herefordshire family, and her mother's 
name was Parker, before her marriage. 

Rev. David A. Steele was educated at Acadia University, receiv- 



34 2 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ing from that institution, in due course of time, the. degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Divinity. He was 
ordained at Wolfville, June 20, 1865, and was pastor of the Baptist 
Church at Canso, Nova Scotia, from 1865 to 1867. He came to 
Amherst, Deceml>er i, 1867, where he remained as pastor of the 
church of his denomination there until 1896, thereafter pastor emeri- 
tus. He wrote a history of the Amherst Baptist Church, and he has 
been a constant contributor to denominational and secular papers on 
theological, historical and general subjects. He is known to a wide 
audience as a writer of great versatility, force and earnestness and 
his articles are both instructive and entertaining. As a pulpit orator 
he lias no superiors in his denomination in this Province. 

Dr. Steele was married July 6, 1865, to Sarah Hart Whitman, 
daughter of Spinney Whitman, Esq,, of Canso. Her mother's maiden 
name was Martha Hart, and she was a native of Guysborough, Nova 
Scotia. To our subject and wife the following children have been 
born : Sidney Whitman was the eldest ; \oel Bentley. Caroline 
Whitman, Allan Davy, Mary Martha, Warren Merril, Sarah Blanche, 
Grace, Lavinia, Walter Everett, and Oliver Crichton. These children 
are all deceased, except the last three named. 

Dr. Steele was a member of the senate of Acadia University for 
several years, and also of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Bap- 
tist convention of the Maritime Provinces for twenty-one years. 

CHARLES AZEL LUSBY. 

Self assertion is believed by many people to be absolutely neces- 
sary in life, and there are good reasons for the entertainment of such 
belief. Charles Azel Lusby, a well known business man, who seems 
to possess just a sufficient amount of modesty to be a gentleman at all 
times and yet sufficient persistency to win in life's battles, and at the 
same time not appear over bold; and as a result of these well and hap- 
pily blended qualities, he has won not only material success but a 
host of friends throughout Cumberland County, where his life has 
been spent. 

Mr. Lusby was born in Amherst, Nova Scotia, November 15, 
1859. He is a son of Thomas and Mary Elizabeth (Donkin) Lusby. 
The father was born at Amherst, August 14, 1820, and the mother 
was born at River Philip, this Province, March 18, 1822. Our sub- 
ject's ancestors came from Lincolnshire, England, settling in Am- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



343 



herst in 1770, and from that remote period to the present day the 
Lusbys have been influential citizens here. 

Charles A. Lusby was reared to manhood in his native town and 
there received his education in the public schools, the high school 
and the Halifax Business College, in Halifax. He began his busi- 
ness career in his home town when but a boy and his rise has been 
rapid until today he occupies the responsible position of secretary- 
treasurer of the Amherst Foundry Company, Limited. He has also 
occupied the position of president of the Board of Trade and also 
president of the Canadian Club of Amherst. lie has been mayor of 
Amherst one year and councillor four years. 

Mr. Lusby was married on '\Yednesday, June 10, 1902, to Char- 
lotte Putnam, a daughter of Robert and Klizabeth Hunter ( Sprott ) 
Putnam, of Onslow, Cumberland County. To our subject and wife 
three children have been born, namely: Thomas Putnam, Azel Ran- 
dolph, and Bruce Sprott Lusby. 

Politically, Mr. Lusby is a Liberal. He is an adherent of the 
Baptist church, and fraternally belongs to Alexandra Lodge. Ancient 
Free and Accepted Masons, and he is also a member of the Amherst 
Curling Club and the Amherst Gun Club. 

GI-:OUGI<; T. DOUGLAS. 

As chairman of the Xova Scotia branch of the Canadian Manu- 
facturers' Association, George T. Douglas, of Amherst, has shown 
that he is the possessor of those traits that win in the battle of life. 
He has been actively identified with the industrial world here for 
many years. His well directed efforts in the practical affairs of life, 
his capable management of his own business interests have brought 
him prosperity, and his life demonstrates what may be accomplished 
by the man of energy who is not afraid to continue his labors, even 
in the face of seemingly discouraging obstacles. 

Mr. Douglas was born in Amherst, Cumberland County, Nova 
Scotia, and is the son of David Douglas, a prominent merchant at 
Amherst for many years. In later life he went West, where he died. 

George T. Douglas grew up in his native town and received his 
education in the public schools, and when still a mere boy began his 
business career. He is the manager at Amherst of the Canada Car 
& Foundry Company, Limited, a position of great trust and respon- 
sibility. He has a large number of men under his control. His rise 
to this important position was not by any means meteoric but by 



344 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

slowly mounting the ladder of success. As a boy he started business 
life as a messenger in the Western Union Telegraph office. At the 
age of fourteen he entered the employ of Rhodes, Curry & Company. 
This was just about the time the firm began car building, and he 
gradually climbed from one position to another, until finally with the 
amalgamation of the three Canadian Car Companies and Senator 
Curry's removal to Montreal he was appointed to the position of 
manager at Amherst. 

Mr. Douglas was appointed chairman of the Nova Scotia branch 
of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association at the annual meeting 
of the same which was held in Halifax, and he has discharged his 
duties in this connection in a manner that has won the hearty com- 
mendation of all concerned. He is a prodigious worker and a great 
enthusiast. He is a firm believer in the future of Amherst as a city 
of industries, and he loses no opportunity to push toward that end. 
Besides being manager of the Car Works, he is secretary-treasurer 
of the Brooklyn Lumber Company, and is vice-president of Amherst 
Pianos, Limited, and a director of the Nova Scotia Carriage & Motor 
Car Company; also a director of the Nova Scotia Trust Company of 
Halifax, the Colonial Brick & Stone Company at Wallace, director 
of Sterling Securities of Halifax, director Eastern Linen Mills of 
Dorchester, New Brunswick, and a director of Atlantic Underwear 
Company, Limited, of Moncton, New Brunswick. A few years ago 
when a pessimistic feeling was extant in Amherst it was Mr. Doug- 
las who created an organization known as "The Pilgrims," who by 
various means turned the tide and established a general feeling of 
optimism and public spirit by binding the citizens together in a suc- 
cessful effort of promoting and encouraging their local interests and 
incidentally the gathering up of a $25,000 endowment fund for the 
hospital and other funds for Amherst institutions. 

Mr. Douglas married Edwarcla Bradley, a daughter of Doctor 
Bradley, of Newton, Massachusetts, and to this union one child has 
been born Jean Douglas. 

FRANK LEOPOLD MILNER. 

Frank Leopold Milner, K. C, was born August 14, 1870. He 
was admitted to the bar October 22, 1895, and practiced at Bridge- 
town until April 10, 1910, when he removed to Amherst and joined 
the firm of Rogers, Milner & Purdy, of which he is the head. Took 
silk 1913. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 345 

AMOS B. ETTER. 

It is a fortunate thing that a man be permitted to spend his old 
age in retirement from the exactions of a business life with the many 
worries it entails. It is well that a man should labor, keep busy 
both physically and mentally during his youth and middle age, but 
when the autumn of his years gathers upon him he is entitled to a 
respite, should have leisure to develop the mind and the soul. Amos 
B. Etter, for many years a successful merchant of Amherst, Cum- 
berland County, is taking life easy after a long and strenuous career. 

Mr. Etter was born at Mt. Watley, Westmoreland County. Xew 
Brunswick, December 7, 1849. He is a son of Peter and Jane (Atkin- 
son) Etter, the father born January 15, 1813, at Westmoreland 
Point, and the mother was born at Xappan, Xova Scotia. Peter 
Etter devoted his active life to farming. He took an interest in 
political affairs and held a number of county offices. His death oc- 
curred January 15, 1898; his wife died in October, 1885. 

Amos B. Etter was educated in the public schools and Amherst 
Academy. When eighteen years of age he began clerking in a store. 
In 1871, when twenty-one years of age, he engaged in the dry goods 
business with David T. Chapman in Amherst, under the firm name of 
Chapman & Etter, continuing successfully for eight years. In 1882 
Mr. Etter formed a partnership with Robert Pugsley, as Etter & 
Pugsley, carrying on the same dry goods business at the old stand 
as occupied by Chapman & Etter. This partnership continued with 
ever-increasing success until 1910, when our subject retired from 
the firm. During many years he also engaged extensively in farm- 
ing and raising standard bred horses. 

Mr. Etter was married April 24, 1878, to Clarissa Pugsley, a 
daughter of John and Sarah (Moffatt) Pugsley of River Hebert. 
This union has been without issue. 

Politically, Mr. Etter is a Liberal and has long l>een influential 
in party affairs. He was a member of the town council for four 
years. He was chief deputy sheriff for twenty years, or until the 
death of Sheriff M. A. Logan, in October, 1895, when Mr. Etter 
became sheriff of Cumberland County, by promotion. He dis- 
charged the duties of high sheriff with the same fidelity and abliity 
that he had performed the duties of assistant until in February, 1908, 
when he was appointed to the Legislative Council and he has since 
served as a member of this body in a highly creditable manner. He 



346 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

was president of the Liberal Association for Cumberland County, 
having been appointed in 1886, and has served continuously ever 
since. Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic Order, and has passed 
through all the chairs of his lodge. He has always been concerned 
in whatever made for the betterment of Amherst in any way, and 
he is held in high repute by all who know him. 

CAPT. A. A. C. WILSON, M. D. 

Arthur A. C. Wilson was born at Springhill, Cumberland 
County, Xova Scotia, February 25, 1887. He is a son of Rev. 
Canon Wilson and Susan (Cochran) Wilson. He has one brother, 
Rev. J. M. C. Wilson. He was educated at St. Andrews School, 
Annapolis, and received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from Kings 
College in 1908, and Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery 
from Dalhousie University in 1913. He received a commission as 
captain in C. A. M. C. in December, 1915. Dr. Wilson married 
Hildegarde G. Geklert, only daughter of Jas. C. Geldert. of Windsor. 
To this union one child, Arthur James Cochran Wilson, has been 
born. The Doctor is a member of the Xova Scotia Medical Society 
and the Canadian Medical Association. 

W. FREDERICK DOXKIX. 

.A widely known and successful lawyer of Amherst is W. Fred- 
erick Donkin, whose earlier years were devoted to mercantile pur- 
suits. Being energetic, a man of progressive ideas and honorable 
impulses he has succeeded in both business and professional lines 
and is one of the influential citizens of northern Xova Scotia. 

Mr. Donkin was born at Amherst, June 25, 1854, and is a son of 
Charles G. and Susan M. (Fuller) Donkin. The father was also 
a native of Amherst, born in 1812, was one of the oldest residents of 
this place at the time of his death in 1894. The mother of our sub- 
ject was born at Horton, Kings County, this Province, in 1827 and 
died in 1909. William Donkin, our subject's grandfather, was also 
a native of Amherst, his parents being among the early pioneers of 
this section of Xova Scotia, in fact, there were but four houses in 
Amherst at the time of William Donkin's birth, in 1785. He died 
in 1875. The progenitors of the Donkin family came from York- 
shire, England. 

W. Frederick Donkin received his education in the schools of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 347 

Amherst and in Mount Allison University at Sackville. Returning 
home after his college days he began his active life as a merchant, 
but later began reading law under Charles R. Smith, K. C., also the 
late Judge Rigby, then a meml^er of the firm of McDonald, Rigby 
& Tupper, the latter being Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper. Our sub- 
ject was admitted to the bar Deceml>er 19, 1881. Soon thereafter he 
began the practice of his profession in Amherst and has remained 
here to the present time, enjoying a large clientage and ranking very 
high among his professional brethren in the Maritime Provinces. 

Mr. Donkin was married September \~, 1801, to Lizzie T. Avard, 
a daughter of John and Xancy ( Dobson) Avard, of Great Shemogue, 
Xew Brunswick. To this union one child has been born Charles 
A. Donkin, whose birth occurred in September, 1892; he has l>een 
given excellent educational advantages, and was graduated from 
Mount Allison University with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He 
is at home with his parents. 

Politically, M*. Donkin is a Liberal. He was appointed town 
clerk and treasurer of Amherst on January 12, 1890. and has served 
in these offices continuously ever since. He is also deputy stipendiary 
magistrate of the town. He lias discharged the duties of these posi- 
tions in a faithful and acceptable manner. Religiously, he is a Metho- 
dist. Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic Order, including the 
Ancient Arabic Order of Xobles of the Mystic Shrine, and has held 
the office of deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Xova Sco- 
tia. 

A. BRADSHAW. 

In writing a personal history, the biographer does not always 
attempt to prove himself right. Where a long contact with the per- 
sonage exists, the labor of arrangement, synopsis and production 
becomes more simple, and this is/ quite equally true as applied to 
those who have been performers, whether in front of the curtain or 
otherwise, through the shorter or longer years. Those who know A. 
Bradshaw, merchant of Amherst, say that he has led a careful, indus- 
trious and honorable life. He was born December 7, 1874, at Am- 
herst, and is a son of C. Patrick Bradshaw, who was a native of 
Ireland, born in the City of Cork in 1837. He came to New York 
City when twelve years old, later removing to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, where he remained until his removal to Amherst, Nova Scotia, 
in 1871, and here his death occurred in 1900. He ran a pegging 






348 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

factory in connection with the manufacture of shoes. Ann Ryan, 
mother of our subject, was torn in Tipperary, Ireland, in 1842. 
She came to America when young and married Mr. Bradshaw in 
St. John, New Brunswick. She is still living in Amherst. To 
these parents nine children were born. 

A. Bradshaw received his education in the public schools of Am- 
herst. When a young man he began life as a merchant and has since 
been successfully engaged in wholesale and retail provisions, meats, 
etc. ; under the firm name of Bradshaw & Vallance. He had the 
first cold storage plant in Nova Scotia, aside from the government 
plants. He also owns a large farm and raises cattle extensively. 

On September 4, 1900, Mr. Bradshaw married Margaret Stack 
of Melrose, New Brunswick. She is a daughter of Daniel and Mar- 
garet (Hannan) Stack, both natives of Ireland. The following chil- 
dren have been torn to our subject and wife: Mary Margaret, 
Ann Eileen, Dorothy Catherine, Joseph Sarto, Clement Patrick, 
George Edward, and Alice Pauline. 

Politically, Mr. Bradshaw is a Liberal. He belongs to the Roman 
Catholic church, the Knights of Columbus and the Catholic Mutual 
Benefit Association. 

VARLEY BENT FULLERTON. 

Belonging to Nova Scotia's enterprising class of professional 
men, Varley Bent Eullerton, a barrister of Parrsboro, Cumberland 
County, is deserving of specific mention in these pages. To the active 
practice of law he has given, not only the gravity of his thought 
and the truest exercise of his abilities, but the strength of his per- 
sonality and the momentum of his character. 

Air. Fullerton was torn in the town where he still resides, May 
30, 1875. He is a son of Vose Bent Fullerton and Ella Fullerton, 
both natives of Halfway River, Cumberland County, where they grew 
up, attended school and were married. 

Varley Bent Fullerton grew to manhood in his native town and 
there attended the public schools and the high school, later studying 
at Mount Allison College, where he received the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts in 1906, then entered Harvard Law School, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1909. 
He then spent a year in Dalhousie University, Halifax, receiving the 
same degree from the law department in 1910. He was admitted 
to the bar March 10, 1910. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 349 

When fourteen years of age Mr. Fullerton began clerking in a 
general store at Port Greville, for Clarence Fullerton, with whom he 
formed a partnership in 1896, engaging in business in Parrsboro 
under the firm name of C. & V. B. Fullerton. He sold out his 
interest in the firm in 1903, after a very successful career as merch- 
ant for six years, and went away to college, believing that the legal 
profession held greater inducements for him. He has been very 
successful in his profession, building up a very satisfactory general 
law practice at Parrsboro. 

Politically, Mr. Fullerton is a Liberal. Fraternally, he belongs 
to the Masonic Order and the Knights of Pythias. He is a member 
of the Methodist church. 

Mr. Fullerton was married July 9, 1913. to Xita M. Trahey, a 
daughter of John and Rita ( Blenkhorn ) Trahey of Brooklyn, X. Y. 
To this union a daughter and son have been born Aleenc Jessie 
Fullerton, whose birth occurred July 31, 1914, and William Bruce 
Fullerton, whose birth occurred Xovember 13, 1915. 

EDWARD JFFFHRS, M. 1). 

One of Cumberland County's well known professional men is 
Dr. Edward Jeffers of Parrsboro. He is a good doctor, a safe and 
competent advisor in consultation and has a constantly growing 
practice, to which he applies himself with faithful and conscientious 
zeal. 

Dr. Jeffers was born in the above named town and county, 
July /, 1860. He is a son of John Joseph Jesse Jeffers and Mary 
Fitzgibbons (Rector) Jeffers, both also born at Parrsboro, Xova Sco- 
tia, the father on May 10, 1831, and the mother on July 6, 1838. 
John Jeffers, the Doctor's great-great-grandfather, was a Loyalist 
from Massachusetts. Traveling on foot through Maine with six 
companions he finally arrived in Parrsboro, where he was given 
grants of land. His son, John Jesse Jeffers, built and operated the 
first saw-mill at the foot of Jeffers Lake. With the lumber he 
sawed he built the first frame house in the eastern part of Cumber- 
land County. It was sheathed with pine boards, three feet wide, 
which he sawed from the giant trees of the primeval forests. In 
this house, many years later, was torn. May 10, 1831, his grandson, 
John Joseph Jesse Jeffers, the father of the subject of this sketch; 
also six grand-daughters, three of whom were the first female school 
teachers in this part of the country. In 1860 Dr. Edward Jeffers 






350 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

was born in this same old house, which is still in good repair, 
although minus its old-time chimney eight feet square, with four 
great fire-places opening into as many different rooms. The Doctor's 
father was a captain in the militia during the Fenian Raids in 1866 
and 1867. Mary Fitzgibbons Rector, mother of our subject, was the 
grand-daughter of George Francis Rector, a German soldier of the 
British army, who was wounded in the battle of Bunker Hill, 1775. 
In i/"6 he was invalided to Parrsboro, Nova Scotia, where he was 
given grants of land. He married Elizabeth Sparks, a Quakeress of 
River Hebert. Their son, George Francis Rector, was born in 1800. 
He married Mary Fitzgibbons, daughter of Colonel Fitzgibbons, in 
1830. In 1813 Colonel (at that time Lieutenant) Fitzgibbons, was 
sent by Colonel Vincent with thirty British regulars and thirty Mo- 
hawk Indians to re-occupy the dangerous post of Beaver Dam, under 
Colonel Boescher, with five hundred men made secret preparations to 
surprise and capture this small force. Laura Secord, after a walk 
of twenty miles, during which she underwent frightful experiences, 
arrived ahead of the American force, and warned Lieutenant Fitz- 
gibbons and his men, who were ready for the invaders, and, after 
a short battle the whole American force surrendered. Later Colonel 
Fitzgibbons was stationed in Halifax. Fort Laurence was included 
in his military supervision after his transfer, and he frequently 
traveled from this port by way of the old French road, on horseback, 
to Parrsboro, then known as Mill Village, and took the packet for 
Windsor en route to Halifax. The Doctor's mother was born in 
1838. Her father died in 1898, when nealry one hundred years old, 
having lived during the reign of four British sovereigns. 

Dr. Edward Jeffers grew to manhood in his native community 
and received his early education in the public schools of Parrsboro 
and later was a student in Mt. Allison College at Sackville, after 
which he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Balti- 
more, Maryland, from which he was graduated, subsequently taking 
a post-graduate course in Harvard Medical College, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. Returning to Parrsboro he has since been actively engaged 
in the practice of his profession and his name has become a house- 
hold word in Cumberland County. He was health officer for a num- 
ber of years, and he served a term as mayor of Parrsboro in 1912. 
He has extensive lumber interests and is an active half owner of the 
Jeffers Manufacturing Company. 

Dr. Jeffers was married in May, 1896, to Laura Adelaide Bigney, 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



351 



a daughter of Rev. John G. and Catherine Elizabeth (Seaboyer) 
Bigiiey. of Hantsport, Xova Scotia. One son lias been Ixsrn to our 
subject and wife Joseph d'Aubigne Jeffers, whose birth occurred 
in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1898. He is the sixth generation to be 
in possession of lands granted the Loyalist. John Jeffers. Although 
only seventeen years old, he has for several years been captain of 
the Parrsboro Cadet Corps, which is composed of sixty members. 

Politically, the Doctor is a Conservative. He holds the office of 
port physician. He belongs to the Methodist church. Fraternally, 
he is a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, and he belongs to the Canadian Club, the Cumberland 
County Medical Society, the Xova Scotia Medical Society, the Cana- 
dian Medical Association, and the Canadian Protective Association. 

PERCY L. SPICFR. 

A widely known lumber dealer of Cumberland County is Percy 
L. Spicer of Parrsboro. a man who doubtless knows the value of 
Xova Scotia's timber as well as anyone. He has been interested in 
the forests from boyhood and his work has therefore always been a 
pleasure to him. 

Mr. Spicer was born at Advocate Harbour, Cumberland County, 
this Province, May 6, 1873. He is a son of Capt. George D. and 
Emliy (Morris) Spicer, both natives of Xova Scotia, the father was 
born at Spencer's Island, and the mother at Advocate Harbour. The 
mother is now deceased. Capt. George D. Spicer, who is now living 
in retirement, spent his active life as a seafaring man, being a 
master mariner, and he has visited most of the ports of the commer- 
cial world. 

Percy L. Spicer received his education in the public schools, 
finishing with two years in Mt. Allison College. In 1895 he engaged 
in ship building and lumbering in Spencer's Island, coming to Parrs- 
boro, Cumberland County, in 1903, where he became associated with 
his uncle, Capt. John Spicer, since which time he has been engaged 
extensively in the lumber business, shipping from three million feet 
to five million feet annually, this output being shipped principally to 
English and American markets. 

Mr. Spicer was married August 21, 1902. to Ethel Baird. a 
daughter of Samuel and Augusta (Black) Baird of Leicester, Cum- 
berland County, Nova Scotia. Two children have been born to our 
subject and wife, namely: Percy Borden and Alice Spicer. 



352 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Politically, Mr. Spicer is a Liberal-Conservative. He has been 
a member of the town council of Parrsboro for three years, and was 
mayor from 1911 to 1913. He was a member of the local school 
board, of which he was chairman in 1911. He has been chairman 
of the Liberal-Conservative Association of his locality since 1910. 
He has done much for the general development of Parrsboro, whose 
interests he has very much at heart and seeks to promote in every 
legitimate way. Religiously, he belongs to the Methodist church. 
Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic Order, and is secretary of 
Lodge No. 67. 

HON. HENRY ROBERT EMMERSON. 

Few men during the generation that is passed occupied a more 
conspicuous place in the public eye than the late Hon. Henry Robert 
Emmerson, lawyer and statesman, whose earthly career has been 
ended by the fate that awaits all mankind, but whose influence still 
pervades the lives of men, the good which he did having been too 
far-reaching to be measured in metes and bounds. Success is me- 
thodical and consecutive, and though the rise of Mr. Emmerson may 
have seemed so rapid as to be spectacular, it will lie found that his suc- 
cess was attained by the same normal methods and means de- 
termined application of mental and physical resources along a rightly 
denned line. 

Mr. Emmerson, who was descended from United Empire Loyal- 
ist stock, was the son of Rev. R. H. E. and Augusta (Read) Emmer- 
son, the father a prominent minister in the Baptist church for many 
years. Our subject was born at Maugerville, New Brunswick, Sep- 
tember 25, 1853, and his death occurred July 9, 1914. He was 
educated in Amherst Academy, Mt. Allison Academy, St. Joseph's 
College, Memramcook, New Brunswick, and Acadia College. He 
received the degree of Master of Arts in 1897, and the honorary- 
degree of Doctor of Common Laws in 1904. He attended Boston 
University, where he was prize essayist, and received the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws in 1877, and the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws from the University of New Brunswick in 1900. 

In June, 1878, he was united in marriage with Emily C. Record, 
a daughter of C. B. Record, iron founder of Moncton, New Bruns- 
wick. He was admtited to the bar in 1878, and w.as made King's 
counsel in 1899. He successfully practiced his profession at Dor- 
chester, where he was long one of the leaders of the bar. He was 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 353 

solicitor and manager for the branch at Dorchester of the Merchants 
Bank of Halifax, from 1882 to 1887. He was for some time presi- 
dent of the New Brunswick Petroleum Company, also president of 
the Acadia Coal & Coke Company, and a director in the Record 
Foundry and Machine Company. He was a governor of Acadia 
University. 

Politically, Mr. Emmerson was a Liberal. He was for some 
time vice-president for New Brunswick of the Maritime Liberal 
Association. He unsuccessfully contested Westmoreland County for 
the House of Commons in 1887. He sat for Albert County (Local) 
from 1888 to 1890, and was legislative councillor for Xew Bruns- 
wick from 1891 to 1892, inclusive; and again represented Albert 
County (Local) from 1892 to 1900. He was minister of Public 
Works for Xew Brunswick from 1892 to 1900, and he was Premier 
and Attorney-General of that Province from 1897 to 1900. From 
that date until his death he sat for \Yestmoreland County in the 
House of Commons. He was minister of Railways and Canals 
during the Laurier administration, from 1904 to 1907. He favored 
the utmost possible freedom of trade on the lines of British free 
trade. He was generally interested in the growth of wheat and in 
promoting the prospecting and development of oil properties in New 
Brunswick. He belonged to the Baptist church, was president of 
the Maritime Baptist convention in 1899. and president of the Bap- 
tist Congress of Canada in 1900. He is author of the work entitled, 
"The Legal Condition of Married \Yomen," and other pamphlets 
and lectures. He was a memljer of the Rideau Club of Ottawa. He 
was an able speaker and powerful in debate. As a public servant 
he performed his duties ably and conscientiously and won the admi- 
ration of all, irrespective of party alignment. He was a born leader 
of men, and was great as a business man, a statesman and church- 
man. 

His only son, Henry R. Emmerson, Jr., resides in Amherst, Nova 

Scotia. 

ROBERT HIRAM SUTHERLAND, M. D. 

Among the workers of the world who are accomplishing good are 

the physicians, if they be efficient and honorable. To this class 

belongs Dr. Robert Hiram Sutherland of Springhill, Cumberland 

County. He was born at River John, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, 

(23) 



354 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

September 26, 1882, and is a son of Robert and Margaret (Fitz- 
patrick) Sutherland, both natives of this Province, the father born 
at Gaircloth in 1840, and the mother was a native of Rogers Hill, 
Pictou County. 

Dr. Sutherland received his primary education in the public 
.schools, later entered Dalhousie University at Halifax, from which 
be received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1904. He then entered 
the medical department of McGill University at Montreal, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1907 with the degree of M. 
D. C. M. He began the practice of his profession at Chipman, 
Xew Brunswick, where he remained two years. In 1911 he came to 
Springhill, Xova Scotia, where he has since remained engaged in the 
general practice, in which he has been successful, until his enlistment 
in over sea's service. 

Politically, Dr. Sutherland is a Conservative, and in religious mat- 
ters he belongs to the Presbyterian church. Fraternally, he is a 
member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. Laurie Lodge 
Xo. Jo; also the Royal Arch Chapter Xo. 13, Cumberland. He is 
a Knights Templar and a member of the Ancient Arabic Order of 
Xobles of the Mystic Shrine. He also Ijelongs to the Knights of 
Pythias of Springhill. He is a captain in the Army Medical Corps. 

JOHX HFXXESSFY. 

The government fuel inspector at Joggin Mines, Cumberland 
County, Xova Scotia is John Hennessey, whose chief life work has 
been merchandising, which he followed for a quarter of a century. 
He was born in the above named town and county on February 27, 
1855, and is a son of Vincent and Jane (O'Roark) Hennessey. The 
father was born in Ireland and the mother at River' Hebert, Xova 
Scotia. Vincent Hennessey spent his earlier years in his native land, 
immigrating to Canada when a young man, and locating in Nova 
Scotia where he spent the rest of his life. He worked as a mine 
foreman for many years. His death occurred on February 14, 1879, 
and his wife died April 24, 1912 at an advanced age, having survived 
him thirty-three years. 

John Hennessey was reared in the atmosphere of a mining town. 
He received his education in the public schools of Joggin Mines. He 
did not have an opportunity to go to school a great deal and is prin- 
cipally self-educated. He went into the mines when a mere lad, 
and has always been connected, in a way, with the mines. How- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 335 

ever, as stated above he conducted a store for a period of twenty- 
five years in the town of Joggin Alines, during which time he had a 
satisfactory trade, carrying a general line of merchandise. 

In 1912 Mr. Hennessey was appointed government fuel inspector 
in his native town, the duties of which position he has continued 
to discharge to the present time. For about five years he was mine 
prospecting in the States, spending that period in Pennsylvania, 
Missouri, Colorado and Arizona. 

Politically, he is a Conservative, and has been more or less active 
in local public affairs. He was a member of the county council for 
two terms, or four years, and lias also been school trustee. He is 
a member of the Catholic church, having been reared in that faith. 

Mr. Hennessey was married September 29, 1891 to Alice Burke, 
a daughter of Philip and Catherine ( Logue ) Burke of Joggin Mines, 
where Mrs. Hennessey was reared and attended school. Her death 
occurred August 30, 1904. To our subject and wife the following 
children were born: Harold and Mary, twins: Gracie. Herbert, 
Hubert, Cornelius, and Vincent. 

REV. GEORGE \V. WHITMAN. 

The man who devotes his energies to aid his fellow men in any 
laudable way to the amelioration of the human race, is doing- a 
work which is loo far-reaching in its results to be estimated. Such 
a man is the Rev. George W. \\ hitman, a plain, unassuming gen- 
tleman, who desires to please the Master rather than win the admir- 
ing plaudits of the crowd. He at present has charge of a congrega- 
tion at Pugwash, Cumberland County. 

Rev. Mr. Whitman was born at Guysborough, on Chedabucto 
Bay, Guysborough County, this Province, March 24, 1856. He is a 
son of George and Elizabeth ( Horton ) Whitman, a highly respected 
family of the above named town and county. The father devoted 
his life to agricultural pursuits, and his death occurred in 1902. 
his wife having preceded him to the grave in 1900. 

George W. Whitman grew to manhood on the home farm where 
he assisted with the general work during the summer months, at- 
tending the public schools in his neighborhood in the winter time, 
later entered Mount Allison College, taking the theological course. 
He was ordained to the ministry of the Methodist church in 1885 
at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, having preached four years prior to his 
ordination. His first charge was at Ingonish, Cape Breton Island, 



356 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

and he has been in the Nova Scotia conference ever since. He came 
to Pugwash in July, 1912, where he has since remained, having 
here a large congregation. He has built up the various churches to 
which he has been called and has done much to encourage Sunday 
school attendance also. He is an earnest, logical and convincing 
speaker and is popular with his congregations. 

Rev. Mr. Whitman was married July i, 1885, to Anna E. 
Stevens, a daughter of Levi and Jane (Leper) Stevens of Wallace, 
Nova Scotia. To this union the following children were born : 
Karl E., Jean E., Carrie, and Anna. The wife and mother, who 
was a woman of many commendable characteristics, was called to 
her eternal rest on June 25, 1898. 

The second marriage of our subject occurred on October 24, 
1899, when he espoused Annie Mitchell, a daughter of James and 
Margaret Mitchell. 

WENDELL V. K. GOODWIN, M. D. 

As a general physician and surgeon, Dr. Wendell V. K. Good- 
win, of Pugwash, Cumberland County merits the success he has 
achieved in his chosen calling, for he has spared no pains in pre- 
paring himself for his work. He was born at Baie Verte, New 
Brunswick, October 23, 1871. He is a son of Eben F. and Eliza- 
beth (Brennen) Goodwin, both natives of Baie Verte, the birth of 
the father occurring March 27, 1833, and the mother was born 
December 7, 1837. After a successful life as farmer Eben F. Good- 
win died March 30, 1910. His widow is still living at Baie Verte, 
New Brunswick at the old home place. 

Dr. Goodwin received his early education in the public schools 
of his native locality in New Brunswick where he grew to manhood, 
and during vacation periods assisted his father with the general 
work on the farm. Later he attended the New Brunswick Normal 
School, from which he was graduated in 1890. He then taught 
school for five years in the schools of his native Province ; and al- 
though he was a successful educator he decided that his true bent 
lay along other lines, and he gave up the school room to enter the 
medical department of Dalhousie University at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, in 1895, where he remained until his graduation in 1899, 
receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine, and Master of Surgery. 
He first began the practice of his profession at Bass River, Nova 
Scotia, where he remained eight years, removing to the town of 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 357 

Pugwash in 1907 where he has since remained. He has met with 
success, both as a general practitioner and surgeon at each of the 
above named places and now enjoys a large practice in Cumberland 
County. 

The Goodwins originally came from Xewburyport, Massa- 
chusetts. Daniel Goodwin, great grandfather of our subject, was 
the first of the name to immigrate to Xova Scotia. On August 12, 
1762, he married Sarah Hunt. To them twelve children were born, 
the youngest son being James Goodwin, grandfather of the subject 
of this review. He was the seventh son in order of birth. Daniel 
Goodwin was an officer in the British army, and was located at Fort 
Cumberland. His two oldest sons. David and Daniel Goodwin. 
were also officers in the army, in the One Hundred and Fourth New 
Brunswick regiment. They marched from Fredericton to Quebec 
in the war of 1812, and later went to France, taking part with the 
British Army in the battle of Waterloo. 

Dr. Goodwin was married January 8, 1902, to Victoria Fvans, 
a daughter of Benjamin and Jane (Bird) Evans of Fredericton. 
New Brunswick, and to this union three children have been born, 
namely: Evans, born May 14, 1903; Arthur, born April 25, 1906; 
and Jean, born May 29, 1912. 

Politically, Mr. Goodwin is a Conservative . He is a member 
of the Methodist church. Fraternally, he belongs to the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows. He is a member of the Cumberland 
County Medical Society, the Maritime Medical Society and the 
Provincial Medical Society. 

FRANK D. CHARMAX, M. D. 

One of the well known general physicians and surgeons of east- 
ern Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, is Dr. Frank D. Charman, 
who has been very careful in preparing himself for his chosen voca- 
tion, and in fact, intends to remain a student of mate-rid medico, all 
his life, realizing the vastness of the subject. 

Dr. Charman was born at Wallace, Nova Scotia, November i, 
1878, and here he has spent his life with the exception of the time 
he was absent in medical college. He is a 'son of Henry and 
Abrosine (Betts) Charman, both natives of Nova Scotia, the father 
of Minudie and the mother of Wallace. They grew to maturity in 
their native Province, received common school educations and after 
their marriage, established the family home here. They are still 



35$ HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

living in Wallace, where Henry Charman has long been engaged in 
the monumental business. 

Dr. Charman grew to manhood in his native town of Wallace, 
and until he went to college was bookkeeper in the general store 
of T. B. Norris. He received his primary education in the public 
schools of his native town, subsequently entering McGill University, 
taking the medical course, graduating with the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine with the class of 1904. In orde 1 - to further equip himself 
for his life work he spent one year as interne at the Royal Victoria 
Hospital in Montreal. Returning to Wallace, Nova Scotia, in 1906 
he opened an office for the practice of his profession, and has re- 
mained here to the present time, building up a large and ever-grow- 
ing practice as a general physician and surgeon, having met with 
encouraging success from the first. 

Dr. Charman was married on August 4, 1915, to Hattie G. Flinn 
of Wallace, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Flinn. Mr. Flinn is 
the local manager of the Wallace Sandstone Quarries. Politically, 
the Doctor is a Conservative, but is not especially active in public 
affairs. He is a member of the Methodist church. Fraternally, he 
belongs to the Masonic Order, and is a member of the Cumberland 
County Medical Society, the Maritime Medical Society and the 
Provincial Medical Society. Dr. Charman is also at present a mem- 
ber of the Trustee board of the Wallace School Section. In addi- 
tion to his profession he owns and operates a drug store in Wallace, 
carrying a large line of drugs and drug sundries, also has various 
business and farming interests. 

ROBIE D. BENTLEY, M. D. 

A general physician and surgeon of recognized ability and one 
of the progressive and substantial citizens of Wallace, Cumberland 
County is Dr. Robie D. Bentley, a man of diversified interests. He 
was born at Upper Stewiacke, Colchester County, Nova Scotija, 
January 15, 1869. He is a son of Eliakim and Mary (Dugwell) 
Bentley. the father a native of Upper Stewiacke and the mother of 
Halifax. The Bentleys were Loyalists from the Colonies and came 
to Nova Scotia in pioneer days. The parents of our subject are 
living in Wallace, the father having devoted his active life to farming. 

Robie D. Bentley grew to manhood on the home farm where he 
assisted with the general work when a boy and he received his edu- 
cation in the public schools of his neighborhood, later attending 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 359 

Acadia College, from which he was graduated in 1893 with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. He then entered the medical depart- 
ment of Dalhousie University at Halifax, from which institution 
he was graduated in 1897 with the degree of M. D. C. M. He 
began the practice of his profession in Caledonia, Queens Count}-, 
where he remained two and one-half years. In August, 1900, he 
came to Wallace where he has since remained, enjoying an excel- 
lent practice in this section of Cumberland count}'. He is not only 
a general practitioner but devotes considerable attention to surgery. 
He has been very successful in both. He also lias various business 
interests and some valuable real estate holdings, and is one of the 
substantial citizens of his community. 

Dr. Bentley is a member of the Cumberland Count}- Medical 
Society, the Provincial Medical Society, the Maritime Medical Asso- 
ciation, and the Canadian Medical Association. Politically, he is a 
Liberal. For a number of years he was trustee of the 'Wallace pub- 
lic schools. He is the present coroner of Cumberland Count}-. 
which position he has held in a very acceptable manner since 1900, 
a period of fifteen years. Religiously, be is a Baptist. 

Dr. Bentley was married February 16, 1898. to Susan B. West, 
a daughter of David West and wife of Folly Village, Xova Scotia. 
This union resulted in the birth of one child Percy Jardine Bent- 
ley. The wife and mother died in November, 1900. On July 27, 
1904, the Doctor was united in marriage with Jennie S. Morris, 
a daughter of John W. and Kate (Steele) Morris of Wallace, this 
Province. To this second union two children have been born. 
namely: Marion Jean Bentley, and Helen Morris Bentley. 

SAMUEL DAVID McLELLAX. 

Few barristers of Colchester County, Nova Scotia, are busier 
than Samuel David McLellan of Truro, whose name has been famil- 
iar in the courts of that part of the Province for a number of years, 
in connection with important cases, and he is also very active in 
public affairs. 

Mr. McLellan was born at Great Village, Colchester County, 
March 20, 1852. He is a son of Robert N. B. and Jane (Faulkner) 
McLellan, both natives of Nova Scotia, the father of Great Village, 
and the mother of DeBert. The death of the former occurred 
June 19, 1885, and the latter on June 15, 1889. Robert N. B. 
McLellan was a farmer and merchant, became influential in the 



360 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

public affairs of his locality and was justice of the peace for many 
years, also a member of the court of sessions. He was an active 
worker for temperance, and took an active part in prosecuting the 
violators of the temperance laws. In a spirit of revenge and vindic- 
tiveness, some miscreants, who had suffered justly as a result of his 
stern prosecutions, visited his farm by night and cut off the ears 
and tails of his horses and cattle. This act only made Mr. McLel- 
lan more determined and earnest in his prosecution of the violators 
of the liquor laws. Religiously, he was a Methodist, and his wife 
a Presbyterian. Peter McLellan, great-grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, was born in Londonderry, Ireland, from which country 
he immigrated to Xova Scotia, first settling in that part of London- 
derry, Xova Scotia, now known as Great Village, after the expul- 
sion of the French, and he was one of the original grantees of the 
township of Londonderry from the Crown. He was a man of force 
and influence, and many of his admirable qualities have been strongly 
marked in his descendants, many of them becoming more or less 
prominent in the localities where they settled both in New Brunswick 
and Xova Scotia. Hon. A. R. McLellan, Ex-Governor of New 
Brunswick and Hon. A. \V. McLellan, late Governor of Nova Sco- 
tia, are descendants of the said Peter McLellan. 

Samuel D. McLellan, subject of this sketch, received his early 
education in the public schools at Great Village. Later he attended 
Sackville Academy and Mount Allison College. He early decided 
to take up the legal profession, and with that end in view went to 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, and entered the law department of Har- 
vard University. Returning to Nova Scotia he was admitted to the 
bar in 1876, and from that time to the present he has been active 
in the legal circles of Colchester County and very successful as a 
lawyer and jurist, enjoying a large and lucrative practice and occu- 
pying a position in the front rank of the bar of Nova Scotia. He 
was appointed judge of the Probate Court of Colchester County in 
1889, an( i he has served continuously ever since. He was appointed 
King's Counsel in 1910. He practices his profession in all the courts, 
except in matters in the Probate Court. In 1882 he was a candi- 
date for the Provincial Legislature, and in 1887 was a candidate for 
the Dominion Parliament, and again in 1911. He has always been 
active in political affairs. He is a speaker of ability and equally 
strong before a jury or on the political platform. He has con- 
tinued a close student of legal and public questions and is a well- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 361 

informed man. He is a member of the Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals and has been very active in the work of the 
same. He is now one of the vice-presidents of the organization for 
the prevention of cruelty to animals for Nova Scotia and has accom- 
plished a great deal of good in this field. He is a member of the 
Canadian Club and of the Provincial Barristers Society. He is one 
of the organizers of the Truro Golf Club and prominent in its affairs. 
He is a lover of fishing and hunting, and lias many trophies to show 
for his skill as a nimrod. Politically, he is a supporter of the Liberal 
party. 

Mr. McLellan was married September 26, 1876, to Jean Tomkins, 
a daughter of Rev. Fred J. and Catherine ( Hall ) Tomkins of Lon- 
don, England. The union of Mr. and Mrs. McLellan was without 
issue. Her death occurred on September 10. 1905. Our subject 
was united in marriage with Beatrice Blanchard, March 12, 1912. 
She is a daughter of C. P. and Joanna (Farnham) Blanchard of 
Truro, a prominent family of Colchester County. 

Mr. and Mrs. McLellan have two children, namely : Jean Walker 
and Robert Faulkner. 

JOSEPH ALLISON DEWOLF. 

One of the bus}' men of Oxford, Cumberland County is Joseph 
Allison DeWolf, who is interested in varied enterprises of import- 
ance. He was born at the town of Pugwash, Nova Scotia, and has 
spent his life in Cumberland County. The date of his birth is June 
8, 1862. He is a son of William and Margaret (Read) DeWolf, 
the father born at Horton and the mother at Pugwash, this Province. 
The latter survives but the father, who was a farmer, died when our 
subject was very young. 

Joseph A. DeWolf was reared on the home farm at Pugwash 
and there worked hard when a boy. He received his education in 
the Public schools of Pugwash, later attending a commercial college 
in Halifax. He remained on the home farm until about 1891, when 
he began his business career. He came to the town of Oxford in 
1894, and secured a position in the office of the Oxford Furniture 
Company, which finally went out of business and \vas succeeded by 
another company of the same name. He became the largest stock- 
holder in the new concern. He became president of the same, and 
is at this writing manager of the firm, which position he has held 
for some time, and it has been due to his foresight and enterprise 



362 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

that the company lias forged ahead, building up a large business. 
He is also president of the Oxford Woolen Mills Company which 
was organized in 1867. It was in 1905 that Mr. DeWolf became 
connected with the same. He is also owner of the DeWolf Up- 
holstering Company of Oxford, being in fact, the sole owner. He 
is a large holder of traction stock and business properties, and has 
very extensive holdings of valuable real estate. His residence in 
Oxford is one of the most attractive and modern in this section of 
the Province. He is deserving of a great deal of credit for the large 
success he has achieved in the world of business, for he has built 
himself up from the bottom rung of the ladder unaided and by 
honorable means. He enjoys excellent standing in business circles, 
and is one of the substantial and influential men of Cumberland 
County, in the development of which he has long been deeply inter- 
ested and has had faith in its future from the first. 

Air. DeWolf was married July 15. 1899 to Elizabeth Davidson, 
a daughter of Isaac and Abigail (McElmon) Davidson of Great 
Village, Colchester County, Xova Scotia. To this union the follow- 
ing children have been bom: Arthur Wells, born May 22, 1900; 
Joseph Allison, Jr., born February 15. 1907; Harold A., born August 
13. 1909: and Guy Carlton, born February 9, 1912. 

Politically. Mr. DeWolf is a Liberal, and was a member of the 
county council for three years. He and his family affiliates with the 
Presbyterian church. 

WILBERT DAVID DIMOCK. 

It requires peculiar natural ability to succeed in journalism, and 
unless one has the innate attributes necessary, one would be wise in 
not entering this field of endeavor. Among the successful news- 
paper men of Nova Scotia is Wilbert David Dimock, of Truro, who 
has succeeded partly because of his natural gifts and partly because 
he has been willing to work hard. He has left no stone unturned 
whereby he might advance himself legitimately, and his influence 
has been most potent for the general welfare of his community. 

Mr. Dimock was born at Onslow, Nova Scotia, November 27, 
1846. He is of mixed English and Irish origin, and is a son of the 
late Rev. D. W. C. Dimock, M. A., and for many years a prominent 
Baptist minister in this Province, maintaining his home for many 
years at Truro. 

Our subject grew to manhood in his native town and received 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 363 

his education in the local schools, the Model Schools of Truro, and 
Acadia University, \Volfville; from the last named institution he was 
graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, in 1867. He began 
his life work as a teacher, and was successively principal of the 
North Sydney Academy, and the Model Schools at Truro. He then 
became secretary and treasurer of the Canadian Department Internal 
Fisheries Exhibition, which was held in London, England, in 1883, 
and for his faithful services in this matter received a special diploma 
and other acknowledgments. He was agent for the Xova Scotia 
Industrial and Colonial Exhibition, which was held in London in 
1886. He was manager of the .Maritime Provinces Exhibition, 
which was held at Moncton, Xe\v I'.runswick, in 1889. He was 
superintendent of the Canadian section of the Jamaica Exhibition, 
held in 1891. He was secretary of the Canadian section at the 
Columbian Exposition (World's Fair), which was held in Chicago, 
in 1893. Turning his attention to journalism, he has been editor 
of the Truro News since 1894. and he has been responsible for the 
steady growth of this popular newspaper, and has taken a position 
in the front rank of his professional brethren in the Maritime 
Provinces. Politically, he is a Conservative, and he sat for Col- 
chester County (Local), from 1894 to 1896, resigning his seat to 
contest the same constituency for a seat in the House of Commons, 
and was returned. He was unseated in 1897. He advocates the 
closest possible ties between England and her over-seas possessions ; 
also is an advocate of an intercolonial trade against the world, so 
far as may be consistent with protection of Canadian interests and 
industries. Religiously, he is an Anglican. 

JOHN WILLIAM THOMPSON PATTON, M. D. 

The final causes which shape the fortunes of individual men and 
the destinies of nations are often the same. When they inspire 
men to the exercise of courage, enterprise, self-denial, and call 
into play the higher moral attributes such causes lead to the plant- 
ing of great states and great peoples. Dr. John William Thompson 
Patton of Truro, Colchester County, is descended from one of the 
sturdy families that helped establish a great nation in the Canadian 
wilderness. 

He was torn at Ponds, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, October 24, 
1868. He is a son of James William Patton and Elizabeth Murray 
(Thompson) Patton, both also natives of the district of Ponds, each 






364 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

representing pioneer families. There they grew to maturity, attended 
the public schools, were married and established their future home. 
The Doctor's father devoted his active life to farming, becoming 
a large land owner, and he and his wife are still living on the home 
farm near Ponds. 

Dr. Patton grew up on the farm and assisted his father with 
the general work there during the crop seasons, and in the winter 
time he attended the public schools, later attending the Pictou 
Academy, also the high school at Xew Glasgow, after which he 
taught for several years in various places, including the River John 
high school and the Antigonish Protestant schools. But deciding 
that the work of an educator was not entirely to his liking, he l>egan 
the study of medicine during spare hours, finally quit teaching and 
entered the medical department of McGill University at Montreal, 
from which institution he was graduated in 1900 with the degree of 
M. D. C. M., then served on the interne staff of the Montreal Gen- 
eral Hospital for a year. In the fall of 1901 he came to Truro, 
Xova Scotia, where he has been successfully engaged in the practice 
of his profession ever since, specializing in surgery, and he has built 
up a large general practice. 

Dr. Patton is a member of the Colchester-Hants Counties Medi- 
cal Society, the Xova Scotia Medical Society, and the Canadian Medi- 
cal Association. He has been president of the Colchester-Hants 
Medical Society. He is special medical examiner for a number of 
life insurance companies. He is medical officer for the Home for 
the Poor and Homeless Insane of Colchester County. He is a 
trustee for the Colchester County Hospital Trust, as a representa- 
tive of the Provincial government.. 

Dr. Patton was married Septeml>er 19, 1906, to Bertha Grace 
Turner, a daughter of Richard J. and Jessie (Blaikie) Turner of 
Truro. To this union two children have been born, namely: Mar- 
garet Josephine Frederika, born May 28, 1909, died Septeml>er 15, 
1909; and Huntley Macdonald, who was born April i, 1911. 

Politically, Dr. Patton is a Liberal. He has been coroner of Col- 
chester County since 1902. He is secretary of the Canadian Club 
of Truro. He is a member of the First Presbyterian church, in 
which he is a trustee. In all positions of trust he has discharged his 
duties in an able and faithful manner, eminently satisfactory to all 
concerned. He belongs to the Independent Order of Foresters, the 
Ancient Order of Foresters, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
and the Masonic order. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 365 

ALEXANDER DANIEL McFARLANE. 

One of the farmers of eastern Cumberland County who has 
progressive ideas in the matter of tilling the soil, knowing well the 
value of crop rotation, fertilization of his fields, the necessity of 
putting something back into the soil, after taking his annual crops 
from it, is Alexander Daniel McFarlane of the vicinity of Wallace. 

Mr. McFarlane was born in the community where he still resides, 
October 3, 1867. He is a son of John and Alary (Torry ) McFar- 
lane, the father a native of Wallace, Nova Scotia, and the mother 
of Pictou County, this Province. John McFarlane grew up in his 
native community, attended the public schools, and he devoted his 
active life to farming, becoming an extensive land owner. His 
father, Donald McFarlane. was a native of Scotland, from which 
country he immigrated to Canada in an early day, locating in Wal- 
lace, Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, where he became a large land 
owner and successful farmer. He was also a barrister and was for 
some years a magistrate and one of the influential men of his county. 
The death of John McFarlane occurred April 21, 1896, and his 
wife's death occurred the previous autumn. September 15, 1895. 

Alexander D. McFarlane grew to manhood on his father's farm 
where he assisted with the general work when a boy, and the train- 
ing he received under his father has stood him well in hand in later 
life. He received his education in the public schools of Wallace and 
Sackville Academy ; he also attended the Agricultural College at 
Guelph, Ontario, for three years, the last year having had charge of 
the experimental work and the Government Creamery at that place. 
He was thus exceptionally well equipped for his subsequent life 
work as a general farmer, and he has tried to put into operation, 
so far as practicable, the lessons he learned in college in regard to 
up-to-date farming and stock raising. For several years he was 
with his uncle, Senator McFarlane, and he has always been engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. He has met with extraordinary success, 
and has become a very large land owner in the vicinity of Wallace. 

Mr. McFarlane was married September 28, 1904, to Agnes Tur- 
ner, a daughter of Samuel C. and Christina (Sutherland) Turner, 
natives of Pictou County, the father born at Pictou. The union of 
our subject and wife has been without issue. 

Politically, Mr. McFarlane is a Conservative. In 1898 he was 
elected a member of the county council in which he served for a 
period of twelve years, during which he did much for the general 






366 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

development of Cumberland County. In December, 1912, he was 
appointed customs officer of the port of Wallace, which office he 
still holds. He has been a member of the Wallace board of educa*- 
tion for a number of years. He is a member of the Presbyterian 
church. Fraternally, he belongs to the Masonic Order in which he 
is a past master; also the Canadian Order of Foresters, of which 
he is chief ranger of his court. 

GILBERT H. VERNOX. 

Success has attended the efforts of Gilbert H. Vernon of Truro 
as a barrister because he was not only peculiarly fitted for this pro- 
fession by nature but also because he carefully prepared himself 
for the same. He ranks among the leaders of his field of endeavor 
in Colchester. County. 

Mr. Yernon was born in Hastings, England, January n, 1876. 
He is a son of Charles W. and Alary (Veness) Vernon, both natives 
of England, the father of London and the mother of Berwick. They 
grew up in their native land, were educated and married there. 
Charles W. Yernon spent his life in England. His widow finally 
immigrated with her family to Xova Scotia, when the subject of 
this sketch was twelve years of age, and he has been here ever since. 

Air. Yernon received his primary education in the grammar school 
of Hastings, England, and in the public schools of Truro, Xova Sco- 
tia. He then entered the law department of Dalhousie University, 
at Halifax, from which institution he was graduated with the degree 
of Bachelor of Laws. Before entering the university he worked on 
a farm for two years. He was admitted to the bar in October, 
1897, and began the practice of his profession at Truro, Colchester 
County immediately thereafter, and here he has since remained. He 
enjoys a large clientage and has been very successful in the courts. 
He was appointed King's Counsel in July, 1914. He has teen admit- 
ted to practice in all the courts of the Province and of the Domin- 
ion, and does a general practice. 

Mr. Vernon was married November 15, 1899, to Katie L. Craig, 
a daughter of William C. Craig and wife of Montreal, Canada. To 
this union two children have teen born, namely : Irene M. V ernon, 
and Reginald G. Vernon. 

Politically, Mr. Vernon supports the Literal party, and he has 
long been active in the affairs of the same, and he is widely known 
as a campaigner of considerable force and is well informed on ques- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 367 

tions of public import. In religious matters he is an Episcopalian. 
Fraternally, he belongs to the Canadian Order of Foresters, the 
Royal Arcanium and the Loyal Order of Moose. He is a lover of 
good horses and the rod and gun, and often takes excursions into 
the wilds. He has various business interests. 

SMITH LAYTON WALKER, AI. D. 

There is an habitual tendency in human nature to live in and for 
that which is perishing, hence the necessity for something that shall 
remind us of what is abiding, something that shall enable us to realize 
our larger duties and higher destiny. The medical profession has a 
tendency to bring about a true realization of what life means. One 
of the able exponents of this science is Dr. Smith Layton Walker of 
Truro, Colchester County, one of the best-known medical men in this 
portion of the Province, and the incumbent of a number of positions 
of trust and responsibility. 

Dr. Walker was born at Truro, Xova Scotia, September 29, 1864. 
He is a son of Adoniram Judson Walker and Rosie (Layton) 
Walker, an excellent old family of Truro. 

Dr. Walker received his education in the public schools of his 
native town, later attending Horton Academy, Acadia University, 
McGill University, Dalhousie University, and Bellevue University, 
New York City. He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1885 
and of Doctor of Medicine in 1890. lie has been engaged in the 
active and successful practice of his profession at Truro since finish- 
ing his education and enjoys a large practice which extends over a 
wide territory, many of his patients coming from remote parts of 
Colchester County. 

He is one of the pioneers in the campaign of education of the 
people as to the prevention of tuberculosis, and he has done a very 
commendable work in this field. He has been a valuable contributor 
to medical journals, especially on tuberculosis themes. He is the 
author of "Economics or Prevention" ; "Tuberculosis, the Greatest 
Problem," and numerous other pamphlets, papers and circulars on 
tuberculosis, etc. He was medical officer of health for Truro from 
1898 to 1902. He belongs to numerous societies and organizations 
including the following: The Los Angeles (California) County 
Medical Association, Colchester County Medical Society, Canadian 
Medical Association; the Executive Council, Canadian Public Health 
Association, Canadian Medical Association, the Canadian Associa- 



368 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

tion for the Prevention of Tuberculosis ; was president of the Junior 
Conservative Association, Colchester County, for two years; he was 
also secretary of the Colchester Liberal-Conservative Association for 
four years, and is now president of the same. He is a member of 
the Canadian Political Science Association, belonged to the Fourth 
International Congress School of Hygiene, also belonged to the Fif- 
teenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography. 

Dr. \Yalker was married on November 21, 1894, at Wallace, 
Nova Scotia, to Alary Angela Mackay. a daughter of Capt. Zebud 
A. Mackay. To this union one child, a son, has been torn Arthur 
Judson Walker, whose birth occurred September n, 1895. 

The Doctor is a member of the Canadian Club, of which he was 
secretary for three years, vice-president for one year, and president 
in 1912. Fraternally, he is a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, and was grand master of the Maritime Provinces in 
1907. and was representative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge (1910- 
1 1 ) Nova Scotia Historical. Politically, be is a Conservative, and 
religiously belongs to the Baptist church. 

J. W. JOHNSON. 

There is nothing more beautiful in the world than the spectacle 
of a life that has reached its late autumn with a harvest of good and 
useful deeds. It is like the forest in October days when the leaves 
have borrowed the richest color in the Indian summer, reflecting in 
their closing days all the radiance of their earthly existence. The 
man who has lived a clean, useful and self-denying life and has 
brought into potential exercise the best energies of his mind that he 
might make the world brighter and better for his being a part of it, 
while laboring for his individual advancement, cannot fail to enjoy 
a serenity of soul that reveals itself in his manner and conversation. 
Such a man is J. W. Johnson, the venerable justice of the peace at 
Truro. 

He was born May 3, 1835, at Greenfield, Colchester County, and 
is a son of George and Lavenia Johnson. The father was a native 
of. England and the mother of Colchester County, to which the 
father immigrated when a young man and where he was married and 
established his home. 

J. W. Johnson received a common school education in Colchester 
County and when a young man learned the blacksmith's trade which 
he followed for thirteen years, then engaged in mercantile pursuits 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 369 

at Truro for about twenty years, enjoying a good trade, then he 
was a magistrate until about twenty years ago. He was subse- 
quently appointed justice of the peace which office he still holds and 
is discharging his duties in an able, faithful and acceptable manner, 
being well grounded in the basic principles of jurisprudence, and 
his decisions are always fair and unbiased. Politically, he is a Con- 
servative. He is a member of the Methodist church. 

Mr. Johnson was married in 1858 to Annie Nelson, a daughter 
of S. S. Xelson of Truro, and to this uinon nine children were born, 
only two of whom survive; they were named as follows: Clara E. 
and Florence are both living; Sedley, Addie, Roland, Annie, Jennie. 
Mamie and Nellie are all deceased. 

Although being' well past his four score years' mile-post, Mr. 
Johnson's clearness of mind, normal faculties in general and his 
elastic step would indicate that he has yet many useful years ahead 
of him. 

[RANK SMITH. 

The present postmaster at Truro, Frank Smith, has long been 
well known in Colchester County. In early life a school teacher, and 
later for more than three decades a merchant in Truro. 

Mr. Smith was born in the above named town and county. Decem- 
ber 18, 1856. He is a son of Daniel C. and Elizabeth ( Dunlop ) 
Smith, both also natives of Truro, Nova Scotia, where the Smiths 
and Dunlops were pioneers and where their names have been familiar 
for several generations. Daniel C. Smith was a large land owner 
and a successful farmer, a man of fine character. His death occurred 
in February, 1893, an< i hi s wife died in December, 1872. John 
Smith, great-grandfather of our subject, came to Canada from Dum- 
fries, Scotland, locating in Prince Edward Island, bringing with 
him mill-stones, intending to build a grist mill, but conditions were 
not favorable to this project and the mill was never erected, and 
the stones may still be seen lying on the shore near Summerside, 
where they were landed from the ship that brought them over. John 
Smith subsequently came to Truro, Nova Scotia, and engaged in 
farming. The ancestors of our subject on thei paternal side were 
all Presbyterians, and were among the first of this denomination to 
settle in the Province. 

Frank Smith grew to manhood on his father's farm where he 

(24) 



3/O HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

worked during the summer months, and he received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools, later taking a normal course. He began 
life for himself as a teacher which he followed three years. Not 
finding this vocation entirely to his liking he abandoned the school 
room and opened a book and stationary business in Truro, which 
lie conducted with gratifying results for a period of thirty-five years, 
his place becoming well known to the people pretty well over the 
Province. In June, 1912, he was appointed postmaster at Truro, 
which position he still holds, giving entire satisfaction to the people 
and the government, being faithful, honest and courteous. 

Mr. Smith was married October 2, 1883, to Mary Stanfield, a 
daughter of Charles Edward and Lydia (Dawson) Stanfield of 
Truro, where Mrs. Smith was reared to womanhood and educated. 
To our subject and wife six children have l>een born. 

Politically, Mr. Smith is a Conservative, and he has long been 
active in the support of his party. He l>elongs to the Presbyterian 
church, being a ruling elder in the Truro congregation. 

SILAS ARTHUR FULTON, M. D. 

Success in the medical profession is not attained without an earn- 
est effort. Dr. Silas Arthur Fulton of Truro, Colchester County, 
understood this when he began preparing for his life work, and 
therefore he has spared no pains in his efforts to become a general 
practitioner of genuine worth. 

iJr. Fulton was born in the above named town and county, No- 
vember 28, 1876. He is a son of William and Martha (Corbett) 
Fulton, both natives of Colchester County, the father of Bass River 
and the mother of Great Village. These parents grew to matur- 
ity in their native county, were educated and married there. The 
father was a successful furniture manufacturer of Truro until his 
death, which occurred in 1882. The mother of the Doctor survived 
until 1910, outliving her husband by twenty-eight years. 

Dr. Fulton grew to manhood in his native town and he received 
his early education in the public schools of Truro, the Truro Academy 
and Normal College, then taught school in the town of Stewiacke, 
Nova Scotia for three years, after which he entered the medical 
department of Dalhousie University, at Halifax, from which insti- 
tution he was graduated in 1902 with the degree of M. D. C. M. 
Soon thereafter he began the practice of his profession in Truro and 
has remained here to the present time, enjoying a good practice all 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 37! 

the while, both as a general practitioner and surgeon. He has taken 
a post-graduate course in Montreal, also in Xew York. 

Dr. Fulton is a member of the Colchester-Hants Counties Medical 
Society, the Nova Scotia Medical Society, and the Canadian Medical 
Association. 

Dr. Fulton was married September 10, 1913, to Xancy M. Poole, 
a daughter of Lemuel and Fliza (Brundage) Poole of Charlotte- 
town, Prince Edward Island. 

Politically, the Doctor is a Liberal. He has filled the position 
of county medical health officer for several years. He is a member 
of the Baptist church. 

JOHX H. SLACK FORD. 

John H. Slackford was born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward 
Island, October 8, 1868. He is a son of Rev. Elias and Elizabeth 
(Hobbs) Slackford, both natives of England, from which country 
they came to Canada when very young. The Hobbs family were 
among the early settlers in Prince Edward Island. Rev. Slackford 
was educated at Sackville Academy and Mt. Allison University. He 
was a minister in the Methodist church and a noted divine in that 
denomination for many years. His death occurred in September, 
1912, his wife having preceded him to the grave in January, 1901. 

John H. Slackford received his early education in public schools 
in various localities, having removed wtih his parents to different 
towns in Xew Brunswick when he was a boy. He studied three 
years in Sheffield Academy. However, he left school when' only six- 
teen years of age and began his life work, learning the carriage 
maker's trade, serving his apprenticeship at Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward Island. He came to Truro, Xova Scotia in 1891, where 
he followed his trade until 1904, when he engaged in carriage build- 
ing for himself, continuing successfully until 1911, when he asso- 
ciated himself with the Truro Foundry & Machine Company, as 
secretary. A year later he was promoted to the presidency of 
the company, which position he retained until in September, 1913, 
during which period he increased the efficiency and business of the 
plant very materially. He also has other important business inter- 
ests in Truro and elsewhere in the Province and the Dominion. 

Mr. Slackford was married Alarch 24, 1891, to Annie Saunders, 
a daughter of John and Isabelle (McLean) Saunders. a prominent 






372 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

family of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, where Mrs. Slack- 
ford was reared and educated. 

Politically, Mr. Slackford is a Conservative and he has been 
active in the affairs of his party for a number of years. He served 
as town counselor from Ward No. 3 in Truro from 1909 until 
1911, when he resigned. In February, 1914, he was elected mayor 
of Truro by acclamation and he is discharging the duties of this 
office in a manner that reflects much credit upon himself and to all 
concerned. He is an advocate of all kinds of public improvements 
and whatever is for the public good. He is a member of the Metho- 
dist church. Fraternally, he belongs to the Knights of Pythias and 
the Canadian Order of Foresters. 

E. AMBROSE RANDALL, D. D. S. 

The dental profession has an able exponent in Colchester County 
in the person of Dr. E. Ambrose Randall of Truro. \Yhile engaged 
in the cares and exactions of his profession he has not forgotten to 
fulfill the demands of good citizenship, and no enterprise of a worthy 
public nature has appealed in vain to him for support. 

Dr. Randall was born in Bayfield, Antigonish County, Xova Sco- 
tia. December 18, 1863. He is a son of Edward G. and Elizabeth 
(Ambrose) Randall, both natives of this Province, the father born 
in Bayfield, and the mother in Truro. Edward G. Randall devoted 
his life principally to farming, and public service. He was collector 
of customs at Bayfield, performing his duties for a period of thirty- 
seven years in this connection, his record being above criticism dur- 
ing that long period. He was active in public affairs and highly 
esteemed in his locality. His death occurred in 1908, and the death 
of his wife in 1907. 

Dr. Randall received his early education in the public schools of 
Bayfield, then took a commercial course, after which he began life 
as a book-keeper which work he followed for a number of years 
with different firms. In 1891 he began the study of dentistry in 
the Boston Dental College, Boston, Massachusetts, but completed 
his course in the American College of Dental Surgery in Chicago, 
Illinois, graduating from that institution in 1894, with the degree of 
Doctor of Dental Surgery. Returning to Nova Scotia he practiced 
for two years in towns in the eastern counties, and in January. 1896, 
came to Truro, where he has remained to the present time. He 
enjoyed a large practice and has been very successful. He has a well- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 373 

equipped office, prepared to do all modern dental work, in a prompt 
and high-class manner. In order to keep fully abreast of the times 
in his profession he has taken four post-graduate courses, three in 
Chicago and one in New York. 

He is a member of the Nova Scotia Dental Association, of which 
he was at one time president, and he has long been one of the most 
influential members in the same. He is special lecturer and examiner 
'in the dental department of Dalhousie University, having held this 
position since this department was first established, discharging his 
duties as such in a manner that has reflected much credit upon his 
ability and to the eminent satisfaction of all concerned. He has 
various business interests in different places in the Province. 

In June, 1894, Dr. Randall was married to Alary Benigna 
Webster, who was born in Leeds. England, from which country she 
came to the United States when young. She is a daughter of John 
Webster and wife of Austin, Texas, formerly of England. 

Politically, Dr. Randall is a Conservative. He is a member of 
the Truro town council, also a member of the Truro board of educa- 
tion, and is one of the trustees of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation. He is a member of the Episcopal church, of which he is 
warden. 

REV. WILLIAM L. CURRIE. 

Despite the paltriness of many lives, there is nothing paltry in 
life itself. It is a great and splendid thing, marvelous in opportunity. 
It has been well said that the most absorbing business and the finest 
art under the sun is just living an art often grossly misused by 
people who have not cared to become skillful in it, but in which every 
human being can be an expert if he will. The gospel of Christ was 
given to men to meet their needs in all the changing conditions and 
in every situation in their lives. It is for every moment of every 
hour, for rich and poor, for the young, the old, for wretched and 
for blessed. These are some of the things that the late Rev. William 
L. Currie taught, and he accomplished a great deal of good during his 
career in Nova Scotia as a minister in the Church of England. 

He was born at Tatamagouche, this Province, in 1845, ar >d was 
a son of Alexander Currie and wife, a highly honored old family 
of that place. He received a common school education, later studying 
for the ministry and became prominent in the Church of England 
although his life was comparatively brief. His first charge was at 



374 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Cole Harbour, Halifax County, later he accepted a charge in New 
Brunswick, after which he returned to Colchester County, Nova Sco- 
tia, where his death occurred in 1887. 

Rev. Mr. Currie was married to Margaret Ann Silver, a daugh- 
ter of the late W. C. and Margaret (Etter) Silver of the city of 
Halifax, and to their union five children were born, namely: Harold 
T. lives in Colchester County; William S., born September 2, 1879, 
lives in Truro; he married Muriel G. Anderson of Halifax: Eva E. 
is the wife of A. S. Woolaver, and they live at Newport, near 
Windsor ; Thomas A. G. married Margaret Logan of Milford ; Mary 
is the wife of D. J. Matheson, a teacher in the Halifax public schools. 

EDWIN DAVID McLEAN, M. D. 

Success in any enterprise demands that some person shall learn 
to do some one thing better than it has been done before, or at least 
as well as any of one's compeers. It is especially true of the medi- 
cal profession. As a successful physician Dr. Edwin David McLean 
of Truro, Colchester County, has clone much for the cause of suffer- 
ing humanity, and has won honor and the evidence of deserved suc- 
cess for himself. 

Dr. McLean was born in Shubenacadie, Hants County, Nova 
Scotia, June 18, 1864. He is a son of Duncan and Margaret (Mc- 
Heffey) McLean, both natives of this Province, the father having 
been born at Springville, Pictou County, August i, 1833; the mother 
was born in Shubencadie, March 9, 1846. Duncan McLean was a 
physician, having graduated from Harvard University in 1860, aftef 
which he began practicing in Shul>enacadie, where he continued suc- 
cessfully until his death, which occurred in February, 1899, serving 
the people of that community faithfully and well for a period of 
nearly forty years. He was active in local affairs and frequently 
refused nominations for public offices. His widow is still living, 
making her home in Bridgetown, Annapolis County, being now at a 
ripe old age. Like her husband before her she is a member of the 
Presbyterian church and a devout Christian, both having been 
charitably inclined and manifesting helpful spirits in all good causes 
from their youth up. 

Edwin D. McLean received his early education in the public 
schools of his native town, later attending the Pictou Academy, then 
Dalhousie University, finally spending two years in the medical de- 
partment of that institution, finishing his course at Bellevue Hos- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



375 



pital College, New York City, in 1887. Returning home, he began 
the practice of his profession with his father at Shubenacadie, re- 
maining there a year and a half, then went to Musquodoboit Harbour 
where he practiced until his father's death in 1899, whereupon he 
returned to Shubenacadie, continuing there until 1912, in which year 
he located in Truro, in which town he has remained to the present 
time. He has enjoyed a good practice wherever he has located and 
has been very successful as a general physician. He has also various 
business interests. 

Dr. McLean is a member of the Hants-Colchester Counties Medi- 
cal Societies, the Provincial Medical Society and the Canadian .Medi- 
cal Association. He was at one time president of the first named 
society. 

Dr. McLean was married June 18, 1891 to I'lesch Rowlings, a 
daughter of George and Emily (Anderson) Rawlings of Musquodo- 
boit Harbor. Nova Scotia. This union has resulted in the birth of 
four children, namely : Margaret Kmily, George Duncan, Creighton 
Hill, and Jean Rowlings. 

Politically, the Doctor supports the Liberal party. He served 
as coroner for a numljer of years in both Hants and Halifax Coun- 
ties, and was medical attendant for the Indian reservation i.n Hants 
County. Religiously, he is a Presbyterian. 

DAVID MATTHEW SOLOAX. 

Success is only achieved by the exercise of certain distinguishing 
qualities, and it cannot be retained without effort. Those bv whom 
great epoch changes have been made along various lines began early 
in life to prepare themselves for their peculiar duties and responsi- 
biliites, and it was only by the most persevering and continuous en- 
deavor that they succeeded in rising superior to the obstacles in 
their way and reaching the goal of their ambition. The life of 
any successful man, whether he be prominent in the world's affairs 
or not is an inspiration to others who are less courageous and more 
prone to give up the fight before their ideals are reached or definite 
success in any chosen field has been attained. David Matthew Soloan, 
principal of the Provincial Normal School at Truro, is one of the 
successful educationalists of Nova Scotia. 

Dr. Soloan was born at Windsor, this Province, in 1867. He 
received his early education in the public schools, then entered Dal- 
housie University, Halifax, from which he was graduated with the 



376 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

degree of Bachelor of Arts, with honors in English and English 
History, in 1888. 

In that year he was appointed English master at Pictou Academy, 
where he remained three years until appointed to the principalship 
of the General Protestant Academy, St. Johns, Newfoundland. 
Thereafter he held the principalship of the New Glasgow schools in 
succession to Dr. E. Mackay, now of Dalhousie University. During 
the years 1898-1900, he studied abroad at the universities of Berlin, 
Heidelberg and Paris. On his return he received the appointment 
to the principalship of the Nova Scotia Normal School, now the 
Normal College, and in 1905 St. Francis Xavier University con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. 

During the years of 1908 and 1909 our subject was vice-presi- 
dent of the Provincial Educational Association of Nova Scotia. 
Since 1900 he has been principal of the Provincial Normal College 
at Truro, and has done much to increase the prestige and high stand- 
ing of this popular institution, which he has managed under a superb 
system, introducing a number of modern improvements and keeping 
the college abreast of the times in education matters. 

Dr. Soloan was married in 1897 to Elizabeth Moody, daugh- 
ter of the late W. H. Moody, of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. He is an 
Anglican, and it has been very properly said of him that "he is a 
man of sane pedagogic ideals and great gifts in teaching." 

WILLIAM RODERICK DUNBAR, M. D. 

The name of Dr. William Roderick Dunbar occupies a de- 
servedly high rank among the present day general physicians of Col- 
chester County, he being located at Truro. 

Dr. Dunbar was born in Abercrombie, Pictou County, Nova 
Scotia, July 17, 1870. He is a son of Robert and Annie (Beaton) 
Dunbar. William Dunbar, grandfather of the Doctor, was a pio- 
neer settler at Miramichi, New Brunswick, and he engaged in lum- 
bering on the Metapedia River. For some time he carried the mail 
from Miramichi to Quebec, blazing his trail through the great for- 
ests. A race between him and a party of Indians was instigated by 
the government; his competitors were on snowshoes and more used 
to the wilderness, but Mr. Dunbar won the race and was given the 
contract for carrying the mail as a result of the race. Later he 
engaged in the lumber business, being associated with his son, Rob- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 377 

ert Dunbar, father of our subject. Annie Beaton, the Doctor's 
mother, was a native of Prince Edward Island. At the time of his 
marriage, Robert Dunbar lived at Ambercrombie. He spent his 
later life engaged in farming. His death occurred in March, 1908, 
his widow surviving until in May, 1914. Politically, Robert Dun- 
bar was a Liberal, and, keeping posted on current events, was well 
able to defend himself in argument. He and his wife belonged to 
the Presbyterian church, and were devout Christians. 

Dr. Dunbar was reared on his father's farm where he worked 
when a boy. He received his early education in the public schools 
of Abercrombie, until he was thirteen years old. when he entered 
the high school at New Glasgow. He was given a teacher's cer- 
tificate, and he began life for himself as a teacher in the public 
schools of Pictou County, continuing successfully for three years, 
having begun in 1889. In the fall of 1892 he entered the medical 
department of McGill University at Montreal, making an excellent 
record, and was graduated from that institution in April, 1897, with 
the degree of M. D. C. M. Immediately he began practicing, and 
met with success in various parts of Xova Scotia, coming to Truro 
in May, 1904, where he has since remained. He has built up a very 
extensive and lucrative practice over this section of Colchester 
County. He took a post-graduate course in McGill University in 
1913. He is both a general practitioner and a surgeon. He also 
has various business interests. 

Dr. Dunbar is a member of the Colchester County Medical 
Society, the Hants County Medical Society, the Provincial Medical 
Society and the Dominion Medical Association. Politically, he is 
independent. He was a member of the town council of Truro from 
the Third Ward for some time, and he served as a member of Truro 
school board for three years, served as chairman of the police com- 
mittee and the poor committee. He has served as coroner of Col- 
chester County for a period of eleven years, and is still incumbent 
of that office. He was president of Truro Board of Trade in 1911 
and 1912, also president of the Maritime Board of Trade in 1912. 
As a public servant he has discharged his duties in an able, faithful 
and honorable manner, winning the approval of all concerned. 

Dr. Dunbar was married April 8, 1903, to Lillian Renshaw, of 
Montreal, a daughter of William and Elizabeth (Hickman) Ren- 
shaw. 

Fraternally, Dr. Dunbar belongs to the Masonic Order, and the 



378 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Orangemen, having been grand master for the Province for one year 
for the latter. He also belongs to the Canadian Order of Foresters. 
He and his wife affiliate with the Presbyterian church. 

MELVILLE GUMMING. 

Only as the individual is lifted into something of the dignity of 
true, responsible, personal life, can his duties and work assume new 
and important meanings. This is true just because it is not the 
simple performing of the duties which impart to them their mean- 
ing, but the purpose, spirit, and way of doing them. In the instance 
of this word-setting to Melville Gumming, one of Nova Scotia's 
successful educationists, it may be recorded of him that during his 
career he has given dignity to his profession, although he is an unas- 
suming gentleman. 

Mr. Gumming was born at Stellarton, this Province, January 5, 
1876. and is a son of Rev. Thomas C. Gumming, D. D., one of the 
prominent ministers of Nova Scotia, of the Presbyterian denomina- 
tion. The mother was Matilda McXair before her marriage. 

Our subject received his education in Truro Academy, where he 
won a gold medal for scholarship, and later studied at Dalhousie 
University. Halifax, from which institution he was graduated with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1897. 

For the next two years he was engaged in farming and from 
1899 to 1901 was a student both at the Iowa State College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanical Arts, and at the Ontario Agricultural Col- 
lege. He graduated from the Iowa State College receiving the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Scientific Agriculture in 1900 and received the 
same degree from Toronto University in 1901. He was assistant 
in Bacteriology and Animal Husbandry at the Ontario Agricultural 
College in 1901 and associate professor of agriculture at that institu- 
tion from 1902-04. He was first principal of the College of Agri- 
culture at Truro, Nova Scotia, in November, 1904, and was made 
Secretary of Agriculture of Nova Scotia in May, 1907. He has 
been sent to Great Britain on several occasions for the purpose of 
purchasing improved breeds of live stock. He is a director of the 
National Live Stock Breeders' Association and has acted as judge of 
live stock at the leading exhibitions of Canada, including Ottawa, 
Toronto and Calgary on different occasions. He is an authority on 
live stock of all kinds and is a lecturer and platform speaker of 
recognized power. He declined an appointment to the deputy com- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 379 

missionership of agriculture of Saskatchewan in 1908, as well as 
equally important positions in other provinces of Canada and the 
United States. He was elected president of the Alumni Society of 
Dalhousie University in 1910. Religiously, he is a Presbyterian. 
He has never identified himself with any political party. He is an 
ex-president of the Canadian Club of Truro, in which town he main- 
tains his residence. 

The Toronto Globe truthfully said of him: "Both as a student 
and a professor he has displayed great ability." He is one of the 
principal factors in building up the Agricultural school at Truro to 
which he gives his best efforts. 

DR. ADAM T. McLEAN. 

The science of veterinary medicine and surgery in Colchester 
County has an able representative in the person of Dr. Adam T. 
McLean of Truro, a man who is achieving marked success in his 
profession because he has been carefully trained and also because he 
is well suited by nature for his chosen life work. 

Dr. McLean was born in McLean, Kent County, New Bruns- 
wick, January 17, 1883. He is a son of Angus and Jane (Coats) 
McLean, the father a native of Cape Breton and the mother of 
Coatsville, New Brunswick. The father was a farmer and also 
engaged extensively in lumbering. His death occurred in May, 
1897. His widow is making her home at Moncton. The family 
moved to Moncton soon after the birth of the subject of this sketch 
and there the parents established the permanent home of the family. 

Dr. Adam T. McLean received his education in the district 
schools and at the Moncton high school. He then entered a mili- 
tary school at Toronto, Canada, later studied at St. John's Military 
School at Quebec. He holds the commission of captain in the 
Eighth Hussars, and represented the Hussars at the coronation of 
King Edward in 1902. He has filled various military positions and 
has long been active in military affairs. In 1907 he entered the 
Ontario Veterinary College and University of Toronto, at Toronto, 
from which institutions he was graduated in 1910 with the degrees 
of V. S., from Ontario Veterinary College and D. V. S., from Uni- 
versity of Toronto, taking both degrees the same year. He made 
an excellent record in college. He began the practice of his pro- 
fession at Moncton, and in November. 1910, came to Truro at the 
request of the Agricultural College officials and here he has remained 



380 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

as the veterinarian of that institution. He has a substantial, well 
equipped three-story concrete veterinary hospital, thirty-two by fifty 
feet, in which is to be found all modern appliances, electric light 
and steam heat. This is perhaps the most thoroughly equipped 
veterinary hospital in the Maritime Provinces. In connection with 
it there is a laboratory for the inspection of milk and meats for the 
town of Truro, for which town Dr. McLean is the food inspector. 
Truro is the first town in the Province to establish such scientific 
inspection. He has been very successful in the practice of his pro- 
fession, and, being a close student, has kept fully abreast of the 
times in all that pertains to the science of veterinary medicine and 
surgery. 

Dr. McLean was married February 14, 1907 to Maude Brown, 
a daughter of Howard Brown and wife of Moncton, Xew Bruns- 
wick. To this union two children were born. The first, a daugh- 
ter, died in infancy. The second child, a son, was born November 
23, 1915, Donald Fraser McLean. 

Politically, Dr. McLean is a Liberal. He is a member of the 
Nova Scotia Veterinary Association, being registrar of the same. 
He was largely instrumental in the organization of this association, 
and was active in securing proper legislation for the Province as 
affecting veterinary surgery and its practice. He is a member of 
the Baptist church. He belongs to the American Veterinary Med- 
ical Association, an international organization. Fraternally, he be- 
longs to the Knights of Pythias. 

HORACE McDOUGALL. 

A public official of Truro, Colchester County, whose record as a 
public servant will bear the closest scrutiny is Horace McDougall, at 
present town treasurer. 

Mr. McDougall was born at South Maitland, Hants County, 
Nova Scotia, January 15, 1872. He is a son of James M. and 
Margaret (O'Brien) McDougall, both natives of Hants County, the 
father born in South Maitland, and the mother in Noel. They 
grew up in their native county, attended the public schools and were 
married there, establishing the family home at South Maitland. 
James M. McDougall became a master mariner and sailed all the 
known seas of his time. He died of yellow fever in the West 
Indies in 1876. His widow survived thirty-two years, dying in 
1908. Her family, the O'Briens, were also a seafaring people. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 381 

Horace McDougall was young in years when his mother removed 
to Truro, and there he received his early education in the public 
schools. He was six 'years old when, in 1878, the family located 
there. He was graduated from the Truro high school in 1887. 

Mr. McDougall began his career by clerking in a general store 
in Truro for two years, then became assistant postmaster, the duties 
of which position he continued to discharge for a period of ten 
years, ending in 1900. His work in the post office was very satis- 
factory. After leaving the same he went to Sydney, Xova Scotia 
as paymaster of the Dominion Steel & Iron Company, remaining 
there in this position until 1905, giving the firm entire satisfaction. 
Returning to Truro he was elected town clerk and town treasurer, 
the duties of which positions he continues to discharge with fidelity 
and ability. 

Mr. McDougall was married June 18, 1902, to Bertha T. Lock. 
a daughter of Jacob Lock and wife of Lockport, Shelburne County, 
Nova Scotia. This union has been without issue. 

Mr. McDougall belongs to the Presbyterian church. Fraternally, 
he is a member of the Masonic Order and the Royal Arcanum. 

JAMES LYALL COCK, M. D. 

A young physician and surgeon of Truro, Colchester Count}', 
Nova Scotia who takes an earnest and abiding interest in his pro- 
fession and is therefore succeeding is Dr. James Lyall Cock. He 
was born in the above named city and county on October 31, 1879. 
He is a son of Herbert and Agnes (Lyall) Cock. The father was 
also born in Truro, the Cock family having long been well known 
there. The mother of our subject was born in Scotland from which 
country she came to the United States when young, with her people. 
The Doctor is a direct lineal descendant of Rev. Daniel Cock, the 
first Presbyterian minister in Canada. He located in Xova Scotia, 
and eventually formed the first Presbyterian church in Truro, which 
was the first of this denomination in the Dominion of Canada. The 
father of our subject is an employee of the Intercolonial Railway. 
He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church. 

Dr. James L. Cock was reared in Truro and there received his 
primary education in the public schools, graduating in 1895 from 
the high school. He then entered the medical department of (arts, 
afterward) Dalhousie University, Halifax, from which institution 
he was graduated in 1902 with the degree of M. D. C. M. After 



382 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

leaving school he became physician for the Dominion Steel Com- 
pany at Wabana, Newfoundland, where he remained a year and a 
half. He then went to London, England in order to further equip 
himself for his work, and received his degree from the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons M. R. C. S., England; and L. R. 
C. P. of London, in 1907. Thus exceptionally well prepared for 
his life work he returned to Xova Scotia and began the practice of 
his profession at Truro, his old home town, and here he has re- 
mained to the present time. He was successful from the first and 
has enjoyed a large and lucrative practice all the while, both as a 
general practitioner and surgeon. 

Dr. Cock is a member of the Colchester County Medical Society, 
the Provincial Medical Society, and the Canadian Medical Associa- 
tion. Politically, the Doctor is independent. He is a member of 
the Truro Golf Club, and is fond of athletics and outdoor sports, 
spending a day now and then in the wilds with rod and gun for 
recreation. He is a member of the Presbyterian church. Dr. Cock 
enlisted in the medical corps of the Twenty-seventh Battalion, fall 
of 1914 and during 1915 was very active at the front. 

REV. WILLIAM P. GRANT. 

The life of a man like Rev. William P. Grant, Presbyterian min- 
ister of Truro, is worthy of emulation by other young men of Nova 
Scotia whose destinies are yet to be determined, for it is being led 
along high planes of endeavor, inculcating right thinking and there- 
fore right living, for the world is rapidly coming to understand the 
Bible phrase, "As a man thinketh in his heart so is he." 

He was born May 17, 1884. at Sunny Bay, Pictou County, and 
is a son of John and Annie Grant, both natives of Pictou County 
where they grew up, were educated, married and established their 
home. The birth of the father occurred in 1831, and the mother 
was born in 1843. They are still living and are highly respected 
by all who know them. Finlay Grant, the grandfather, was born in 
Scotland from which country he came to Nova Scotia about the 
year 1800, locating in Pictou County, and here reared a family of 
about eight children. He married Ann Eraser. 

William P. Grant of this sketch grew to manhood in his native 
community, and he received his early education in the public schools 
and Pictou Academy, later studying at Dalhousie University, from 
which he was graduated in 1907 with the degree of Bachelor of 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 383 

Arts and in 1909 with the degree of Master of Arts, then took the 
full course in Pine Hill Presbyterian College at Halifax, graduating 
in 1910. He made an excellent record in all these schools, took a 
scholarship and studied in the University of Edinburgh, in Scotland 
one term, also studied for some time in Germany. Returning to his 
native Province he soon accepted a call to Winnipeg, Canada, as as- 
sistant to Dr. Gordon, the famous author known to the literary world 
as Ralph Connor, and for some time remained at St. Stephen's 
church. He was called by that congregation in 1912 and was there 
a year and a half, then, in December, 1913, came to Truro and has 
since been pastor of the Presbyterian church here. He is doing a 
good work and is popular with his congregation. He is profoundly 
versed in the Scriptures and is an earnest, logical and eloquent pul- 
pit orator. 

ROBERT T. STEWART. 

Robert T. Stewart, manager of the creamery at Scotsburn, Pictou 
County, was born in that town and county, February 22, 1858. He 
is a son of Donald and Christian (Gordon) Stewart, the father a 
native of that vicinity also, and the mother was a native of Mt. 
Dalhousie, Pictou County. John Stewart, the grandfather, was a 
native of Scotland, from which country he came to Nova Scotia 
with his two brothers. Peter, who located in Prince Edward Island, 
and David, who settled in Antigonish. The grandfather took up 
wild land at Scotsburn, which he cleared and developed. He married 
Dorothy McLeod, and they spent their lives on this farm. To their 
union ten sons and two daughters were born. Fie was a devoted 
churchman. His death occurred when he was about eighty years old. 
The father of our subject learned the shoemaker's trade, later spent 
a number of years in Prince Edward Island, finally returning to 
Nova Scotia and buying a portion of the old homestead, which was 
still in woods and this he started to clear, still working at his trade at 
intervals, and with the assistance of his sons he developed a good 
farm. He lived to be eighty-seven years old. His family consisted 
of six sons and two daughters, Robert T. l>eing the fifth in order of 
birth. 

Our subject attended the public schools in his native locality, then 
went to Boston, Massachusetts, where he learned the harnessmaker's 
trade, remaining in that city four years, then went to California 
where he spent eighteen years, the time being spent in that portion 



384 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of the state lying between Oakland and Nappa Valley, where he had 
a good business of his own. He joined his brother, Alexander, who 
was a tanner by trade, and they established a tannery in Oakland, 
continuing a number of years with fair success, then sold out, Robert 
T. Stewart returning home in 1900 where he bought a farm, his 
brother joining him. They purchased the place jointly, but built 
separate homes. Our subject was one of the promoters of the Scots- 
burn Creamery, the pioneer enterprise of its kind in eastern Nova 
Scotia. In 1903 he was elected secretary of the board of directors, 
he having been a director from the start. In 1912 he became general 
manager which position he still retains. The business has been suc- 
cessful. This is one of the largest creameries in the Dominion, and 
an annual business of nearly one hundred thousand dollars is carried 
on over a wide territory. The plant is modernly equipped and sani- 
tary throughout. The Xova Scotia Dairymen's Association presented 
them with a large silver punch bowl in June, 1915. 

.Mr. Stewart was married on August 21, 1888, to Stella Stewart, 
of Benicia. California, a daughter of Robert Stewart, of Scotch 
stock. They have no children of their own, but have adopted a 
daughter. Margaret Stewart. 

WILLIAM SCOTT MUIR, M. D. 

Any conflict waged on our planet between harmony and discord 
belongs to the basic work of divine Mind before it belongs to us. 
The "Power not ourselves that makes for harmony" is more inter- 
ested in the success of the good cause than we can be. The late Dr. 
William Scott Muir, for a number of years a successful physician of 
Truro, Colchester County, understood this principle of discord and 
harmony, and he tried to bring about a better state of affairs, in the 
physical realm, among those with whom he came in contact. His 
labors were not in vain. 

Dr. Muir was born in the above named town and county, Octo- 
ber 2, 1854. He was a son of Samuel Allan Muir, a native of 
Cookstown, Ireland; and Esther Hunter (Crowe) Muir, who was 
born in Onslow, Nova Scotia. The father was a physician of much 
ability, and he located in Truro when a young man, having been 
educated in Scotlano", coming direct from his native land to Truro 
where he spent the rest of his life engaged in the practice of his 
profession. * 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 385 

William Scott Muir grew to manhood in Truro and received 
his primary education in the public schools of that town, then entered 
the medical department of Dalhousie University at Halifax, from 
which he was graduated with the class of 1874, with an excellent 
record. Not yet satisfied with the preparations he had made for 
his chosen life work, he then went to Scotland and entered the med- 
ical department of Edinburgh University, for a post-graduate course, 
taking the degree of M. D. C. M. from Halifax, and a licenciate 
degree of L. R. C. S. and P. from Edinburgh. Thus exceptionally 
well equipped he returned to Xova Scotia and practiced for a short 
time at Shelburne, then located in Truro, where he remained until 
his death, which occurred March 10. 1902. He enjoyed a large and 
lucrative practice in Truro and Colchester County and was unusually 
successful. He was a worthy son of a worthy sire in every respect. 
He was a man of great force of character and wielded a potent 
influence for good in his locality, and all regretted exceedingly that 
this skilled physician and man of affairs should be cut off in the 
prime of life. He was a man of broad and liberal views and char- 
itably inclined, and the people among whom he had spent his entire 
life mourned his loss deeply. 

Politically, Dr. Muir was a Liberal-Conservative. He was a 
member of the Episcopal church. He belonged to the Colchester- 
Hants Counties Medical Society, the Provincial Medical Societies 
and the Canadian Medical Association, and was active and influen- 
tial in all of them. 

Dr. Muir was married July 30, 1879 to Catherine Jane Lawson, 
a daughter of Walter and Jane Mary ( Bremmer) Lawson of Aber- 
deen, Scotland. 

To the union of our subject and wife one son was born. Dr. 
Walter Lawson Muir, whose birth occurred August 8, 1880. He 
was educated in the public schools of Truro and the Collegiate School 
and Kings College of Windsor, Nova Scotia. Later he entered the 
medical department of McGill University, from which institution he 
was graduated in 1907 with the degree of M. D. C. M. He began 
the practice of his profession in Truro in IQII.' He has followed 
in the footsteps of his father and grandfather in a professional way 
with marked success. Politically, he is a Conservative, and belongs 
to the Episcopal church. He is a captain of the Army Medical 
Corps, attached to No. i, Field Ambulance. While in college he 
(25) 






386 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

was an athlete and has long been much interested in athletic sports, 
being especially a cricket enthusiast. He is a young man to whom 
the future promises much, strong mentally and physically, educated, 
well equipped for his professional duties, and possessing a com- 
panionable and likable personality. He is a member of the Col- 
chester County Medical Society, the Nova Scotia Medical Society 
and the Canadian Medical Association. 

CHARLES PRESCOTT BLANCHARD. 

Today farming in its several more or less specialized branches 
is regarded as a worthy calling for the brightest and best minds in 
the land. One of the most progressive farmers and stock raisers of 
Colchester County is Charles Prescott Blanchard, who owns a large 
acreage of valuable land near Truro and who applies twentieth cen- 
tury methods to his business. 

Mr. Blanchard was born in Halifax, Xova Scotia, December 27, 
1851. He is a son of Jonathan and Sarah (Story) Blanchard, the 
former a native of Truro and the latter of Halifax. In early life 
Jonathan Blanchard was a teacher, and from 1852 to 1854, inclusive, 
he served in the office of the Provincial secretary at Halifax. He 
was a highly educated man, an excellent mathematician of more than 
a local reputation. After leaving Halifax, he located in Truro and 
engaged in farming on Bible Hill, where the subject of this sketch 
now resides. He l>ecame owner of a large tract of valuable land 
and was one of the leading farmers of his section of the county and 
although always an infirm man he has made a decided success of 
general farming. He was the first man to introduce Ayershire cat- 
tle into Colchester county, and he did a great deal towards improv- 
ing the character of the dairy stock in his native county. He was 
not only a progressive agriculturist but also had advanced ideas 
of public improvement, and took a lively interest in political matters. 
Politically, he was a Liberal, and while he was well fitted by edu- 
cation and natural ability for high positions of public trust he de- 
clined all such honors. He and his family were Presbyterians and 
devoted church people. His death occurred August 22, 1886. His 
wife having preceded him in the summer of 1855. 

Charles P. Blanchard received his education in the public schools 
of Truro, however he left school when only fifteen years of age and 
engaged in merchandising in Truro for six years, then followed in 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 387 

the footsteps of his father by taking up farming on the old home 
farm on Bible Hill and has continued to reside here to the present 
time. He has been very successful in all his farming operations, 
especially as a stock raiser, and his is one of the most desirable 
farms in Colchester County, well improved and productive; it joins 
the town of Truro. He has some line Clydesdale horses and Ayer- 
shire cattle, many of which were imported. He is a recognized 
leader in live stock development and up-to-date farming. 

Air. Blanchard was married October 22, 1872, to Joanna Farn- 
ham, a daughter of James and Anna (Cock) Farnham, of Brook- 
side, Colchester County. 

Politically, Air. Blanchard is a Liberal. He was president of 
the Colchester County Liberal Association for many years, and he 
has rilled various civic offices. He was appointed postmaster of 
Truro in 1900 and served in that capacity in a very acceptable man- 
ner until 1911. He is a member of the Presbyterian church. He 
was one of the first commissioners of the Colchester Provincial 
Exhibition, and was a leading factor in the first one held in the 
Province outside of Halifax. He has been a wide reader of the 
best journals dealing with fanning and stock raising, and he has 
frequently lectured 011 these topics at meetings of farmers held in 
different places in Nova Scotia, also has made frequent talks before 
the agricultural College students at Truro on various topics pertain- 
ing to farming and stock raising. 

To Air. and Airs. Blanchard the following children have been 
born: Beatrice S. is the wife of Samuel D. McLellan : Alary is the 
wife of A. Owen Price: Aubry B. is a civil engineer of considerable 
note; John A. is assisting his father on the home farm; Charles P., 
Jr., is an attorney and farmer of Truro: Dorothy lives at home; and 
Jean, who was the fourth child in order of birth, is deceased. 

GEORGE E. M. LEWIS. 

Life is pleasant to live when we know how to make the most of 
it. Some people start on their careers as if they had weights on their 
souls, or were afraid to make the necessary effort to live up to a 
high standard ; others, by not making a proper study of the conditions 
of existence, or by not having the best trainers good parents are 
side-tracked at the outset and never seem thereafter to be able to get 
back again on the main track. George E. M. Lewis, well known 
manufacturer of Truro, Nova Scotia, seems to have been fortunate 



388 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

in being reared under the superb influence of a good home and, hav- 
ing gotten a proper start on the highway of life, has succeeded. 

Mr. Lewis was lx>rn in Colchester County, this Province, in De- 
cember, 1862. He is a son of John and Margaret (Stevens) Lewis. 
The father was born in Scotland, from which country he immigrated 
to Nova Scotia when a young man, married here and established his 
future home in Colchester County, of which his wife was a native. 
These parents are both now deceased. 

George K. M. Lewis grew to manhood in Colchester County, and 
there received his education in the common schools, but being a great 
student and having traveled extensively he has educated himself for 
the must part, and is a well informed man on a diversity of subjects. 
He has been very successful in a business way and under the firm 
name of J. Lewis & Sons is carrying on a large and thriving manu- 
facturing business in Truro and Stewiacke. Is also president of the 
following companies: Eastern Hat & Cap Manufacturing Company, 
Ltd., the largest manufacturers of caps and hats in Canada; Lewis 
Hardwood Company, Ltd., the leading clothes-pin exporters in Can- 
ada; Lewiston Shipping Company, Ltd., Glendovey Ship Company, 
Ltd.. and vice-president of Eastern Shirts Company, Ltd. 

Mr. Lewis is a member of the Masonic Order and the Baptist 
Church. 

WILLIAM ARTHUR MAcLEOD, M. D. 

Among tlie younger physicians of Pictou County, \Yilliam Arthur 
MacLeod, of Hopewell, is forging rapidly to the front ranks in a 
community long noted for the high order of its medical talent. He 
was born in New Larig, Xova Scotia, October 31. 1883, an d ' s a son 
of Robert G. and Catherine (Ross) MacLeod, both natives of Pictou 
County, the father of New Larig and the mother of Lillbrook. 
Robert MacLeod, the grandfather, was born on the sea coming from 
Scotland to New Larig, where his parents settled in early pioneer 
days. Kenneth Ross was the Doctor's maternal grandfather. The 
subject's paternal great-grandfather came from Scotland and took 
up a farm at New Larig. The maternal grandfather, who was also 
born in Scotland, came to Nova Scotia very early and also took up 
a farm in this Province, in the vicinity of Millbrook, Pictou County. 
He lived to be eighty years of age, and Grandfather MacLeod reached 
the age of sixty-nine. They were both good farmers and respected 
citizens. The father of our subject continued on the home place 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 389 

and spent his life as a farmer. He and his wife are still living. 
Their family consisted of seven children, five of whom are now liv- 
ing, of whom the Doctor is the youngest. .After attending the dis- 
trict schools he entered Pictou Academy, and after his graduation 
entered Dalhousie University, taking the arts course, then, after a 
year's vacation, he entered the medical department of that institution 
from which he was graduated in 1908, after which he began practice 
at River Hebert, Cumberland County, where be remained until 1912, 
when he removed to Hopewell, and he is building up a very satisfac- 
tory practice with the people of Pictou County. 

Dr. MacLeod was married Xovemb-cr 6, 1912, to Maud McClary, 
of River Hebert, Cumberland County, a daughter of Samuel Ale- 
Clary. To the Doctor and wife one child has been born, Arnold 
Gordon MacLeod. 

GEORGE W. MACLEAN. 

Among the business men of Pictou Count}', who believe in modern 
methods of doing things and in breaking away from many of the 
old-time customs, which is necessary owing to changed conditions 
since the days of our grandfathers, is George W. Maclean, of Hope- 
well. He was born February 12, 1865, at Tanner Hill, Pictou Coun- 
ty, and is a son of John James and Nancy A. (Macdonald) Maclean, 
of West River, Pictou County, where also occurred the birth of 
James Maclean, the grandfather, whose parents were very early -e:- 
tlers in this county, his father having come from Scotland. Both iie 
and his son engaged in farming in the \Yest River country, but tiie 
father of our subject took up the tanning business, operating a small 
tannery on the West River for years, the place l>eing known as Tan- 
nery Hill. He continued at his trade there until 1882 when he re- 
moved to Hopewell, and built a tannery which still stands. This he 
operated until 1902, when bis son, George \V. Maclean joined him, 
Jardine, the eldest brother having been with his father in the busi- 
ness until his death in October, 1901 ; and Edward Alaxwell Maclean, 
who was younger than our subject, also assisted in the business. The 
father continued in this line of endeavor with much success until his 
death, in October, 1912, at an advanced age, he having been born in 
1834. In the summer of 1898 the firm started a branch finishing 
plant at St. John's, Newfoundland, where they finished nearly all the 
leather which is tanned at Hopewell. Our subject has taken the active 
management of the Hopewell plant while his brother looks after the 



39 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

one in St. John's, both being conducted under the firm name of J. J. 
Maclean & Sons. 

George W. Maclean was married on January 23, 1890, to Annie 
Macdonald, a daughter of John Macdonald, one of the early settlers 
of Pictou County, his progenitors having been Scotch. The follow- 
ing children have been born to our subject and wife: John Preston 
is now engaged at the Eastern Car Works at Trenton, Xova Scotia; 
James Ross, who was graduated from the Maritime Business College 
is now teaching in the business department of Acadia College at 
\Yolfville ; Helena is at home. 

The father of our subject was a Liberal and took an active part 
in public affairs. He was a man of great energy and unusual business 
ability, and led an upright life. He was an elder in the Presbyterian 
Church for many years. His wife died in June. 1902. Our subject 
also takes an active interest in public affairs. He was a member of 
the Municipal Council for six years, representing District 17 of Pic- 
tou County, being his home district. He and bis wife belong to the 
Union Presbyterian Church, in which he is an elder. He is a member 
of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

JOHN AXDRIiW GRAY. 

'I he efforts of John Andrew Gray, of Hopewell, Pictou County, 
have resulted in a large measure of success, which has enabled him 
to spend his declining years in retirement. He was born in the above 
named town and county, in May, 1853, an( l is a son of John and 
Isabella (Fraser) Gray, the former born in Inverness, Scotland, and 
the latter in Lome, Xova Scotia. The paternal grandparents, Donald 
and Annie ( Macdonald ) Gray, were both natives of Inverness, Scot- 
land, also, and there they grew up and were married, and there their 
first child, John, father of our subject, was born. He was an infant 
when his parents brought him to X T ova Scotia in 1801. The grand- 
father was a wheelright and all round mechanic, but after coming 
to this Province he engaged in farming on land now the site of 
Hopewell, Pictou County. A portion of the original farm is still 
owned by his descendants. He lived to be eighty-two years old, his 
wife surviving him a few years, reaching alxmt the same age. He 
saw the chance for a water power on his place and bought the right 
to the site and built a mill on it which he conducted until it was 
taken up by our subject's father, who added to it and operated a saw- 
mill, grist-mill and carding-mill, continuing to run them until he 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 391 

turned them over to his son, Daniel Gray, who operated them until 
his death, in 1877, when the mills and site were sold. The father 
died at the age of seventy-seven years and the mother at the age of 
ninety-four years. Eight children were horn to these parents, five 
of whom are now living; there were three sons and five daughters. 
John A. Gray of this sketch was the youngest of the family. He 
received his education in the puhlic schools and Pictou -Academy, then 
taught school for six months, then went to Truro on the construction 
of the Intercolonial Railway, as paymaster and time-keeper, between 
Truro and Amherst. He then went with the Acadia Coal Company 
with which he remained six years, then spent a year in the depart- 
ment of customs at Xew Glasgow, when he was appointed account- 
ant at the Dorchester penitentiary, Xew Brunswick, where he re- 
mained from September, 1880. until April. 11)03. when he retired and 
returned to Hopewell, where he has since resided. He filled all these 
positions most acceptably, fie has remained unmarried. He is a 
Conservative and a Presbyterian. 

JOHN D. G. STEWART. 

The subject of this sketch, who is the general superintendent of 
the Logan Tanneries, Limited, at Lyons Brook, Pictou County, was 
born at Little Harbour, in September, 1855. He is a son of Adam 
and Mary (McGregor) Stewart, the father a native of Ayr, Scotland. 
and his death occurred in 1860; the mother was born in Chance 
Harbour, Nova Scotia. The paternal grandparents, William and 
Agnes (Brown) Stewart, were both natives of Scotland. The ma- 
ternal grandfather was Alexander McGregor. Grandfather Stewart 
came to Nova Scotia about 1830, first locating at Merigomish. He 
had nine sons, eight of whom became millers by trade, the other was 
a blacksmith. The first of the family to come to this country was 
Thomas Stewart, who was accompanied by William Stewart, the 
eldest son, and also an uncle of our subject. He went to Upper 
Canada and engaged in the milling business at Gait, Ontario, where 
he built up a large business. The father and rest of the sons followed 
soon afterwards, locating in Nova Scotia, the son taking up milling in 
various places. The father bought a grist-mill, also erected a saw- 
mill at Little Harbour, where he died in 1860. Of a family of four 
our subject, John D. G. Stewart, was the eldest of two sons and two 
daughters. The brother, Adam, died at Trenton, Pictou County, in 
1909. When our subject was five years old he went to Barney's 



39 2 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

River and lived with his uncle, Andrew Stewart, where he was en- 
gaged in milling, and remained there nine years, then removed to 
Scotch Hill where he attended school. Three years later, in 1873, 
he began learning the tanning business at New Glasgow, continuing 
in the same until 1892, when he entered the employ of the late John 
Logan, working in his plant as foreman until in June, 1912, when 
be was promoted to superintendent which position he still holds. He 
is thoroughly familiar with every phase of the tanning business and 
is faithful in the discharge of his duties. 

He was married in December, 1878, to Mary Ann McDonald, 
whose death occurred in November, 1915. She was a daughter of 
Alexander McDonald, of Scotch descent. To Mr. and Mrs. Stewart 
these children were born : Jennie died in infancy; Adam is now chief 
clerk at Sydney for the Intercolonial Railroad Company; Alexander 
Eraser, who is assisting his father in the tannery ; Winfield Scott is 
also engaged in the Logan Tanneries; Belinda is the wife of Albert 
Logan. 

THE MAcGREGOR FAMILY. 

Xo family in Xova Scotia has been more prominent or influential 
from pioneer days to the present time than the MacGregors, and no 
history of the Province would be complete without a frequent refer- 
ence to the various members of the same and the nature of their 
work in various walks of life, industrially and publically, and the 
biographer proposes in this article to give personal facts of a number 
of the different members of this old and honored family. 

The progenitor of the family in Fictou County was Rev. James 
MacGregor, D. D., one of the greatest divines this Province has ever 
known, and a man who did an incalculable amount of good in his 
day and generation. He was born at Portmore at the foot of Loch 
Erne, Farish of Comrie, Perthshire, Scotland, in December, 17^9, 
and was a son of James MacGregor (Drummond). Owing to the 
part the MacGregors took in the revolution of 1715, they were out- 
lawed and forbidden to use their own name. He grew up in his 
native land where he was educated and ordained to the ministry of 
the Anti-Burgher branch of the Secession Church. He emigrated to 
Nova Scotia in 1786, and located in Pictou County. He became a 
power in the Presbyterian Church here and organized many churches 
throughout the Province. He was one of the most forceful, learned 
and eloquent preachers of his day and generation. He was twice 




DR. MACGREGOR'S ITLI'IT. 

Tree Still Standing Near Brirtgerille. Plctou Co., X. S.. fiuler Which Dr. Mnc(Jregor 
I'l-isiched His First Sermon on tho K:\st River, Tie-ton County. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 393 

married, first to Ann McKay, of Halifax, and after her death to the 
widow of Rev. Peter Gordan, of Prince Edward Island. 

James MacGregor, the eldest son of Rev. James MacGregor, was 
born in 1799, at Stellarton. Nova Scotia, was educated at the seminary 
conducted by Dr. McCulloch, where he became proficient in Latin 
and Greek. After leaving school he engaged in business in a general 
way, finally admitting his sons to partnership. He was a candidate 
for the Provincial Parliament on the Liberal ticket at one time, but 
was not elected. He married Elizabeth Carmichael, a sister of the 
late Senator James \Y. Carmichael. 

Roderick AlacGregor, who was associated with his brother James 
in business for a short time, later founded the business of R. Mac- 
Gregor & Sons in 1843, which firm has been continued to the present 
time. He was deeply interested in temperance work. 

Robert MacGregor was engaged in the tanning business, 
conducting the Xew Glasgow Tanneries with much success for many 
years, and reared a large family. Sarah MacGregor was married to 
Capt. George McKenzie, who was a famous ship builder in his day, 
and represented Pictou County in the Provincial Parliament. Chris- 
tian MacGregor married Abraham Patterson, of Pictou, was the 
mother of the late Rev. George Patterson, D. D., LL. D., author, 
historian, etc. Jessie MacGregor married Charles Eraser, of Green 
Hill. Pictou County. To the second marriage of Dr. MacGregor the 
following children were born: Rev. Peter Gordon MacGregor, D. 
D., for many years secretary of the Presbyterian Church at Halifax. 
His son, James Gordon MacGregor, E. R. S., D. S. C, etc., was pro- 
fessor of physics in Edinburgh University, Scotland, at the time of 
his death, in 1913. at the age of sixty years. John E. Read, a grand- 
son of Rev. Peter Gordon MacGregor, was a Rhodes scholar from 
Nova Scotia; he had a brilliant career in Oxford and is now practic- 
ing law in Halifax. A daughter of the original Dr. James MacGreg- 
or married Rev. John Cameron, of Nine Mile River, Hants County. 
and another daughter married Rev. John Campbell, of Sherbrooke, 
Nova Scotia. 

Hon. James Drummond MacGregor, ex-lieutenant governor of 
Nova Scotia, was born in New Glasgow, September i, 1838, and is 
a son of Roderick and Janet (Chisholm) MacGregor. He received 
his education in the schools of his native town, and when a young 
man entered the employ of his father. As the years passed he became 
interested in a number of other industries of importance. He is now 



394 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

a director of the Eastern Trust Company, also vice-president of the 
Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company, and has long been one of the 
principal factors in the management of the same. He is a member of 
the board of management of the Presbyterian College of Halifax, 
is vice-president of the local branch of the Lord's Day Alliance, the 
Canadian Bible Society, and the Society for the Prevention of Cruel- 
ty to Animals. He is president of the local branch of the Canadian 
auxiliary, of the B. and F. Bible Society. He is an honorary mem- 
ber of the British Society. He has long been active an influential in 
the above named societies. He has been twice married, first, on 
December i, 1867, to Elizabeth McColl, of Guysborough, Nova 
Scotia; her death occurred in April, 1891, and in Octoljer, 1894, lie 
married Roberta Ridley, of Peterl>orough. Ontario. Mr. MacGregor 
served as mayor of Xe\v Glasgow for some time. He was also a 
member of the Local House. He was called to the senate by Lord 
Mmto. April ^4, 1903, and was appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Xova Scotia by Karl Grey, October 18, 1910. As a public servant 
he ever discharged his duties ably, faithfully and in a manner that 
met the approval of all concerned. 

Hon. Robert Malcolm MacGregor, son of Hon. James D. and 
Elizabeth (McColl) MacGregor, was l>orn in Xew Glasgow, January 
9, 1876. He received his education in the public schools, graduating 
from the Xcw Glasgow high school after which he entered Dalhousie 
University, from which he was graduated in 1896 with the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts. He entered the employ of his father when a 
young man, becoming a partner in the firm of R. MacGregor & Sons, 
Limited, wholesale grocers, and also in the firm of J. D. & P. A. 
MacGregor, Limited, lumber merchants. He is a director in each 
and takes an active part in the business of both concerns. He was 
married on September 20, 1905, to Laura MacNeil, a daughter of 
Robert MacNeil, Warden of Pictou County. To their union the fol- 
lowing children have been born : Elizabeth Adelaide, Robert died in 
1910, James Drummond, and Janet Lyle. Politically, he is a Literal. 
He was elected to the local Legislature on December 15, 1904, to fill 
a vacancy caused by the resignation of E. M. Macdonald, and he was 
re-elected at the general election in 1906 and again in 1911. Re- 
ligiously, he is a Presbyterian as is his father also. He was ap- 
pointed a member of the executive council of Nova Scotia without 
portfolio, June 28, 1911. He was chairman of the committee on 
railroads and municipalities for several years. In 1910 he was 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 395 

chairman of the select committee that drafted the Xova Scotia work- 
men's compensation act. He was one of the governors of Dalhousie 
College from 1908 to 1914. He is a director of the Logan Tanneries, 
Limited. 

Peter Archibald MacGregor was born in New Glasgow, March 
7, 1841. He was educated in private schools, and when but a \yoy 
entered his father's business and eventually became a partner in the 
firm of R. MacGregor & Sons, Limited, continuing in the same until 
the death of his father, in 1871, at the age of seventy-years. Then 
he and his brother, Hon. J. 1). MacGregor, continued the business. 
changing from general merchandise to a wholesale grocery, but re- 
taining the old firm name. Later they admitted as a partner Robert 
Murray, who is now general manager of the firm. The brother;-, 
J. D. and P. A., then formed a separate business under the fhu; 
name of J. D. & P. A. MacGregor, taking over the shipping, lumber- 
ing and mining interests of the firm. Peter A. MacGregor married 
in 1892, Minnie McKeen. of Gay's River, Hants County, and a 
daughter of William McKeen. To this union the following children 
were born: Jean Margaret, Sarah Band, Roderick Archibald, Will- 
iam Gordon, and James Drummond. Mr. MacGregor has been 
treasurer of the United Presbyterian Church of Xew Glasgow for 
forty years, also a member of the board of managers. He was one 
of the original promoters of the Aberdeen Hospital, of which he has 
been treasurer from the start. He has long taken an active interest 
in temperance work, and was secretary of the County Alliance when 
the Scott act was adopted in 1883. 

James Carmichael MacGregor was born February 12, 1849. M1 
New Glasgow, a son of James MacGregor and wife. He was edu- 
cated in private schools, and when but a boy entered the employ of 
his father, and about 1866 he was given an interest in the business, 
which he retained until June 22, 1869, when he entered the branch of 
the Bank of Xova Scotia in Xew Glasgow as teller, James W. Car- 
michael being agent. He continued in that bank until 1883. After 
the first few years he devoted his time between managing the branch 
bank and the business of J. W. Carmichael & Company, severing his 
connection with the bank in 1883, and gave his attention exclusively 
to the last named company. On October 24, 1885, he married Mar- 
garet C. MacGregor, of New Glasgow, and to this union one child 
has been born, a son, Ian MacGregor, who is now attending Toronto 
University. Mr. MacGregor is president and managing director of 



396 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

J. W. Carmichael & Company, in which he became a partner on 
December 31, 1871. On the death of J. W. Carmichael, in 1903, he 
became president of the firm which position he has since retained. 
He is a member of the National Liberal Club, London, England. He 
is a Liberal in politics. He is a director of the Nova Scotia Steel & 
Coal Company, Limited, and is vice-president of the Aberdeen Hos- 
pital at New Glasgow. He and his wife belong to the Presbyterian 
Church. He has long been one of the leaders in all movements look- 
ing toward the betterment of his community. 

George H. MacGregor was born in February, 1880, at New 
Glasgow, and is a son of J. Haywood MacGregor. After attending 
the public schools he entered the Academy from which he was gradu- 
ated, then accepted a position in the counting room of the Nova 
Scotia Steel & Coal Company, where he remained alxnit six years, 
then engaged in various things at different places for two years. Re- 
turning home, he formed a partnership with Andrew Rudland, open- 
ing up the present business, the Steel Furnishing Company, Limited, 
manufacturers of all kinds of steel structural work, etc. They have 
built up a large business and ship their products all over the Domin- 
ion. They have a large and modernly equipped plant and give em- 
ployment to a large force of men. 

Air. MacGregor was married in June, 1913, to Isabel Fraser, of 
New Glasgow, a daughter of Thomas Fraser, a master mechanic in 
the employ of the Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company. To this union 
one child has been born, John Haywood MacGregor. 

PROFESSOR DAVID FRASER HARRIS, M. D. 

It is not always easy to discover and define the hidden forces that 
move a life of ceaseless activity and of large professional success. 
Little more can l^e done than to note their manifestations in the 
career of the individual under consideration. In view of this fact, 
the life of Dr. David Fraser Harris, of Dalhousie University, one of 
the scholarly men of Nova Scotia, affords a striking example of well 
defined purpose with the ability to make that purpose subserve not 
only his own ends but the good of his fellow-men as well. 

Professor Harris was born at Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, 
February 24, 1867, and is the oldest son of the late David Harris, 
F. R. S. E., F. S. S., who was born at Dunster, Somerset, England, 
in 1842, and of Elizabeth Sutherland Fraser, who was born at Fort 
William, Inverness-shire, Scotland, in 1842. Our subject's maternal 



HISTORV OF NOVA SCOTIA 397 

grandmother's uncle, Dr. Brown, of Mtisselburgh, corresponded with 
the famous Dr. Jenner about smallpox and inoculation. Dr. Brown's 
medical apprentice was the celebrated David MacBeth Moir, the 
"Delta" of Blacku-ood's Magazine. Our subject's grand-uncle, Will- 
iam Sutherland Fraser, who was born in 1801 and died in 1889, was 
in 1828 one of the junior counsel employed on the trial of the notori- 
ous murderers and body-snatchers. Burke and Hare. Mr. Fraser 
witnessed the execution of Burke in January. 1829, which proved to 
be the last public execution in Scotland. His memory, even in 1880, 
of these early days, was particularly vivid. Through his paternal 
grandmother, Professor Harris has as a collateral ancestor the Eng- 
lish poet, John Gay. Gay was buried in \Yestminster Abbey. 

Dr. David F. Harris received his education at the Edinburgh 
Collegiate School, Edinburgh University, University College, Eon- 
don ; Glasgow University, and subsequently did post-graduate study 
and research at the Universities of Bern, Zurich and Jena. He has 
received the following degrees: Bachelor of Medicine and Master 
in Surgery from Glasgow University, in 1903; Doctor of Medicine 
from Glasgow University, in 1905; Bachelor of Science, London, in 
1899; and Doctor of Science, Birmingham, in 1911. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1896; also elected a 
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in the same year. 
He was appointed private assistant to the professor of Physiology 
in Glasgow University in 1890, later he was "Muirliead" demon- 
strator of physiology and senior assistant. Ele was "Armitstead 
lecturer at Dundee in 1895, and Edinburgh health lecturer in 1900. 
Professor Harris was Thompson lecturer on natural science in the 
Free Church College at Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1911. He was 
examiner in Physiology and Hygiene to the L. L. A. scheme of the 
University of St. Andrews; lecturer on Physiology and Histology, 
University of St. Andrews from 1898 to 1908; lecturer on Physi- 
ology. University of Birmingham, England, from 1909 to 1911; 
lecturer on Hygiene and School Hygiene in the Midland Institute, 
Birmingham, from 1909 to 1911, and he has been Professor of 
Physiology and Histology in Dalhousie University, Halifax, since 
1911. He has given eminent satisfaction in all these positions. 

Dr. Harris was formerly captain and O. C. 7th (University) 
Company, First Fife Royal Garrison Artillery (Volunteers) St. 
Andrews. He is independent in politics, and has never held any 
political offices either public or otherwise. 



39^ HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

He has done a good deal of research work, some of which might 
be mentioned as follows : Modification of the freezing microtome of 
Professor Rutherford; researches on Xeuro-muscular periodicities 
(Proc. Royal Society of London) ; introduced to Biologists the con- 
ception of functional inertia as a fundamental property of proto- 
plasm ; research on "Reductase," the reducing ferment of animal 
tissues (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London). Professor 
Harris at the present time holds a grant from the Royal Society of 
London for research work. 

Dr. Harris is a member of the Authors' Club, London, S. W. ; a 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; a member of the Physi- 
ological Society of Great Britain; member of the Biochemical Society 
of Great Britain (original member). He was formerly president of 
the Scottish Microscopical Society for 1908-9; was a member of the 
Neurological Society, of the Edinburgh Botanical Society; he is 
president of the Xova Scotia Institute of Science, and is a member 
of the Historical Society of Xova Scotia. Dr. Harris, as represent- 
ing Dalhousie University, is an original member of the Medical 
Council- of Canada founded in 1912. Professor Eraser Harris has a 
private practice as consultant in Nervous Diseases. At the present 
time he is Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Dalhousie University. 

Dr. Harris has been a prolific writer; among his many publica- 
tions might be mentioned the following: Caroline Park and Roys- 
toun Castle, 1896; St. Cecilia's Hall in Edinburgh, the History of 
the Rise of Concert in Old Edinburgh, Oliphant. Anderson and 
Ferrier, Edinburgh, 1898; the Functional Inertia of Living Matter, 
1908; Churchill, London; Nerves: Home University Library, Will- 
iams & Xorgate, London, 1912; Consciousness as a Cause of Neural 
Activity: Hibbcrt Journal, 1913; Colored Thinking and Allied 
Conditions: Science Progress. July, 1914; Poetry and Science: The 
Westminister, November, 1915; The Essentials of Physiological His- 
tory: Birmingham Medical Review, April, June, and August, 1909; 
Sleep, a health lecture, Cornish, Birmingham. 1909; Latent Life: 
Knowledge, June, 1910; Influence of Italy on British Life and 
Thought; Canadian Magazine, June, 1915; The Methphor in Science, 
Science, August 30, 1912. 

Dr. Harris was married December 23, 1902, at St. Andrews, 
Scotland, to Eleanor Leslie Hunter, the youngest daughter of the 
late Lieut-Col. Frederick Mercer Hunter, C. B., C. S. L, and of 
Agnes Maria Moyle, now of St. Andrews, Scotland. 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 399 

MAJOR JOSEPH WILLIS MARGESON, M. P. P. 

In the ages of the world in which might be constituted the meas- 
ure of right; when controversies were determined by wager of bat- 
tle, lawyers were not much needed. But when the arts, science and 
commerce were encouraged and practiced among the people, the legal 
professions soon became a necessity, and are now indispensable. 
Nova Scotia has long been noted for the high order of her legal 
talent. One of the most creditable representatives of this profession 
in Lunenburg county is Major Joseph Willis Margeson, who has 
also won an envied reputation as an educationist, and has been very 
active in military affairs. 

Major Margeson was born at Harborville, Kings County, Xova 
Scotia, April 2, 1880, and is a son of Otis A. and Jennie (Cahill) 
Margeson, natives of Nova Scotia. His maternal great-grandfather 
came from Tipperary, Ireland, and his father is of United Empire 
Loyalist stock. 

Major Margeson received his education in the public schools, the 
Berwick high school, the Provincial Normal College at Truro, 
Acadia University at Wolfville, and the Dalhousie Law School, Hali- 
fax, graduating from the latter with the degree of Bachelor of Laws 
in 1908. He was admitted to the bar in the year 1908, and has been 
very successful in the practice of his profession. He devoted a 
number of years of his early life to teaching with equal success, 
having taught in the public schools at Waterville, South Berwick 
and Lakeville in the County of Kings, and was principal of the Ber- 
wick high school in 1903-1904. 

Politically, he is a Conservative and has long been active in party 
affairs. At the general election June 14, 1911, he was elected a 
member of the Legislative Assembly for Lunenburg County by a big 
majority, and is still incuml>ent of this office, the duties of which he 
is discharging in a faithful, able and satisfactory manner. He con- 
tested Lunenburg County in November, 1909, against Hon. A. K. 
McLean, attorney-general, at a by-election, but was defeated. 

Religiously, Mr. Margeson is a Baptist and fraternally is a mem- 
ber of many societies. He is high counsellor of the Independent 
Order of Forresters. He was for some time lieutenant of the 
Seventy-fifth Regiment in Lunenburg County, and was appointed 
paymaster and assistant adjutant of the Twenty-fifth Battalion C. E 
F. in December, 1914, with the rank of captain. He went over- 
seas with this battalion in June, 1915, and has seen much of the fight- 



4OO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

ing in France and Belgium. In December, 1915, he was appointed 
inspector pay and record services, Canadian contingent with 
the rank of major. He was the first member of the Assembly to sit 
in parliament in military uniform. He is a member of the legal 
firm of McLean & Margeson, barristers, of Lunenburg. 

Mr. Margeson was married September 16, 1908, to Mary Ger- 
trude Mclntosh, of Truro, Xova Scotia, and to this union two chil- 
dren have been born, namely : Doris Gwendolyn, and Olive Ger- 
trude. 

CHARLES E. CROWE. 

One of the lumber men of Colchester County, Nova Scotia, who 
has long been familiar with this industry in Colchester and Hants 
Counties, is Charles E. Crowe, who maintains his residence at the 
town of Old Barns, in which place he was born June 19, 1861. He 
is a son of James and Harriet (Archibald) Crowe, both of whom 
were burn on farms in the vicinity of Old Barns, and each represen- 
tatives of the earliest and among the most influential families of that 
section of the county. Different branches of the two families have 
since continued to reside here and are well known throughout the 
country and in various parts of the Province. James Crowe, the 
father, was a successful ship builder, operating yards on the south 
side of Cobequid Bay, not far from Old Barns. He built many of 
the best vessels of his time and was widely recognized as a master 
ship builder. His death occurred when the subject of this sketch 
was quite young. 

Charles E. Crowe was reared on the home farm where he worked 
when a boy, and he received his education in the common schools of 
that vicinity. He also helped his father in the ship yards. As a 
young man he became engaged in lumbering, much of the lumber 
and timber he handled being used in the ship building industry. His 
operations grew and extended largely into Hants County until he 
became one of the largest operators in this line in that section of the 
Province. In recent years he disposed of his holdings in Hants 
County, and is now operating upon his own valuable timber lands in 
Colchester County, within a few miles of Old Barns. His extensive 
holdings embrace about fifteen hundred acres, including timber and 
farming lands a large area of the very finest timber lands in that 
county. His farm operations also are extensive. He has a com- 
modious, modernly appointed dwelling and large, convenient barns, 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 4OI 

his outbuildings being among the very best in that vicinity. Some 
good live stock may be seen in his fields at all times. He is and has 
been for some time engaged in mercantile pursuits at Old Barns, 
where he has a good general store and enjoys a large trade. 

Mr. Crowe has been postmaster at Old Barns for some years. He 
is a Conservative in politics, and has long been an active worker in 
his party. 

On December 22, 1899, occurred the marriage of .Mr. Crowe to 
Margaret Yuill, a daughter of Charles and Alary Yuill. of Colchester 
County, where she was reared to womanhood and educated. T\vo 
children have been born to this union, namely: Tames Roland Crowe 
and Margaret Crowe. Our subject and family are members of the 
Presbyterian Church, and he belongs to the board of trustees of the 
same. Fraternally, he is a member of the .Masonic Order and the 
Canadian Order of Foresters. 

CHARLES WFXTWORTH Ul'HA.M IIFAVSOX, M. 1). 

Those by whom great progress has been made in the political, 
industrial or professional world began early in their career to pre- 
pare themselves for their special duties and responsibilities, and it was 
only by the most courageous and persistent endeavor that they suc- 
ceeded in rising superior to the obstacles in their way. Judging from 
the record Dr. Charles Wentworth Uphara Hewson, well-known 
physician and capitalist of Amherst, Xova Scotia, carefully laid the 
foundation for large future success, which he has achieved in later 
years. 

Dr. Hewson was born in Jolicure, Xew Brunswick. February 28, 
1844. His parents were William A. and Flizabeth (Chandler) Hew- 
son. He received his early education at Sackville, later studied at 
Mount Allison and St. Joseph Colleges, Xew Brunswick. He gradu- 
ated in medicine from the University of Renna, and began the prac- 
tice of his profession in River Hebert, where he continued for 
eleven years, doing a successful practice. In 1883, he went to Scot- 
land, and for some time attended the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. 
where he took the degrees of Licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians and Master of Laws. Returning to Canada, he settled 
in Amherst, Nova Scotia, in May, 1884, where he has since enjoyed 
a large and lucrative connection. He has also been very successful 
(26} 






4O2 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

in a business way and is one of the strong men financially in his part 
of the Province. 

The Doctor has been prominent in public matters for many years 
and for some time filled the office of coroner of Cumberland County. 
He is a member of the Masonic Order, in which he has long taken 
an active interest. He is widely known for his medical skill, and 
highly respected for the many good qualities which make him a de- 
sirable public man and a good citizen. In religion he is an Episco- 
palian. He was twice marreid, his first wife being Mary E. Hap- 
good, a native of Calais, Maine. To this union a daughter, Mrs. 
S. K. Chapman, of Amhurst, was born. His second wife was Odia 
Treedie, a daughter of the late Rev. James Treedie. a prominent 
clergyman of the Methodist Church of Maritime Provinces. 

J. ALDER DAVIS. 

For a number of decades the name of J. Alder Davis has been 
prominent not only in the legal profession at Amherst, Nova Scotia, 
but as manager of electrical and other business enterprises. He is a 
man of many-sided attainments, and he has not drunk exclusively 
from the legal fountains. He is a close student of authorship, out- 
side of his profession, and enjoys his own choice and methods of 
mental and physical recreation. But if he imbibes of the purities of 
classic literature, electrical science or other equally interesting fields, 
he easily finds his way back to his books, his library or legal lore and 
his old professional associates. 

Mr. Davis was born at Leicester, . Cumberland County, Nova 
Scotia, February 5, 1849. He is a son of John and Tryphena (Boss) 
Davis. The father was born in Prince Edward Island in 1812, and 
the mother was born in Athol, Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, 
in 1815. Through their industry and perseverance these parents 
established a comfortable home in Cumberland County where they 
are well and favorably known in the vicinity of Leicester. 

J. Alder Davis grew to manhood in his native county and there 
received his early education in the common schools, later attending 
Mount Allison University, where he excelled in mathematics. He 
studied law and in due course of time was admitted to the bar, and 
has long been one of the successful and well known lawyers in the 
northern part of the Province. He has for a number of years held 
the position of stipendiary magistrate for the County of Cumberland. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 403 

He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from the above named 
university. 

Mr. Davis was married on October 24, 1885, to Rebecca J. 
Logan, a daughter of John and Antoinette (Fillmore) Logan, of 
Amherst. This union has been without issue. 

Politically, Mr. Davis is a Conservative. Religiously, he is a 
Methodist; and fraternally, belongs to the Masonic Order. He is 
also a member of the Canadian Club and the Board of Trade at 
Amherst. He has long been one of the boosters of his home town. 

THEODORE R. FORD, M. I). 

Success in the medical profession is not attained without patient 
and painstaking effort, and he who is not willing to apply himself 
assiduously and honestly had better not enter the ranks. Dr. Theo- 
dore R. Ford, of Liverpool, Queens County, understood this when 
he started out in life's serious work, and so he has put forth the 
proper energy to win success. 

Dr. Ford was born in Milton, Queens County, Nova Scotia, 
August 21, 1874. He is a son of Leander S. and Mary Ellen (Free- 
man) Ford, both parents also natives of the town of Milton where 
they grew to maturity, attended school and were married. Their 
parents were pioneers of that vicinity. The death of Leander S. Ford 
occurred in 1906, and his widow is still living. In his earlier life 
he was a carriage manufacturer, and in later years was fishery in- 
spector for the government. Politically, he was a Liberal-Conserva- 
tive. During the years of the Holmes-Thompson- government in 
Nova Scotia he represented Queens County in the Provincial Parlia- 
ment, and he was always active in public affairs. While inspector of 
fisheries he had seven counties under his supervision. He was a 
self-educated man, a great reader, ready at repartee and an able con- 
versationalist. Fie was a man of wide influence and sterling qualities. 
His family consisted of four children, namely : Lillas M. was the 
wife of William Soloman, she being now deceased; Belle W. is the 
wife of Rufus P. Morton, of Princeton, Minnesota; Andrew Stan, 
a physician, lives 'in Cincinnati, Ohio; and Theodore R., of this 
sketch. Three uncles on the mother's side were physicians. Leander 
S. Ford and wife were members of the Disciples Church and were 
devout Christians. 

Dr. Theodore R. Ford was reared in Milton and attended the 
public schools there and in Liverpool. Later he was a student in 






404 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Acaclia College for two years, then entered the medical department 
of Dalhousie University, Halifax, from which institution he was 
graduated with the class of 1903. In the fall of that year he located 
at Digby for the practice of his profession, where he remained six 
years, and in 1909 came to Liverpool to practice among his boyhood 
friends and has remained here ever since, having enjoyed a good 
practice from the first, both here and at Digby. 

He is a member of the Oueens-Lunenburg Counties Medical 
Societies, the Provincial Medical Society, and the Dominion Medical 
Association. Politically, he is a Liberal-Conservative, keeps well in- 
formed Dii public questions and is active in political affairs. 

i)r. ! ; ord was married December 24, 1907, to Margaret Leary, a 
daughter of ('apt. \Yilliam and Eugenia ( Eldridge) Leary, of Sandy 
Cove. Digbv County. To this union one son has been born, William 
Eugene Ford. 

The Doctor has a modern and well-furnished home and he and 
his wife are prominent in social life. They are members of the 
Disciples Church. 

S A. \DFORD HARRINGTON PELTON. 

There has not been an}- recession from the high standards of 
integrity, judicial intelligence and purity, eminent moral character 
and distinguishing fealty to the laws and liberal institutions of our 
country by the legal lights of the present day in Nova Scotia, of 
whom Judge Sandford Harrington Pelton, of Yarmouth, is one. 
All have sought to be loyal to the pioneers who framed the laws, the 
courts who administered them, and the lawyers that expounded them. 
in the generations that have passed. Progress has been made toward 
more elevating professional ideals, the enactment of better laws to 
suit changed conditions, and the most rigid administration of them. 

Judge Pelton was born in New York City, September 28, 1845, 
and is a son of Milo Sandford Pelton, who was born at Middlefield, 
Massachusetts, February 14, 1815; the mother, Louisa Maria (Har- 
rington) Pelton, was born at Antigonish, Nova Scotia, June 10, 1814. 
Our subject is a descendant of John Pelton, of Essex, England, 
whose birth occurred there about the year 1616, and who about 1632 
emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts, where he located and from him 
has descended the numerous family of this name in the New World. 
The mother of our subject was a daughter of Daniel Harrington, of 
Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, who, in later life lived at Antigonish. His 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 405 

wife was Anna Eliza De Wolfe. The Judge's father died in Ware, 
Massachusetts, May 12, 1849, at the early age of thirty- four years, 
his widow surviving until she was eighty-three years old, dying 
in Halifax, April 3, 1897. Of the three children of these parents, 
George died in infancy; and Mary Louisa died in Halifax, June 9. 
1891, at the age of forty-three years; Sandford H., of this sketch, 
is the only survivor of the family. 

Upon the death of his father young Pelton removed with his 
mother to Nova Scotia, he being four years of age at that time, and 
here he has resided ever since. The mother returned to her old home 
in Nova Scotia, where Mr. Pelton grew to manhod and attended 
the common schools. After passing through the high school he had 
private tuition in the languages. He studied law and was admitted 
to the bar of Xova Scotia in 1867, having been under the preceptor- 
ship of his uncle. Charles V. Harrington, Queens Counsel of Arichat, 
Cape Breton, who represented Richmond Count}- in the Provincial 
Legislature and was one of the commissioners for the revision of the 
statutes of X T ova Scotia (third series). On the death of Mr. Har- 
rington in 1864, our subject continued his legal studies in Antigonish 
in the office of his cousin, the late lion. Daniel Macdonald, member 
of Provincial Parliament from Antigonish Count}', and for a time 
Attorney General of the Province. At the time of his admission 
to the bar, in October, 1867, our subject was made a notary public, 
and at once commenced the practice of his profession in Yarmouth, 
where he remained until 1907, enjoying a large and varied practice 
and becoming a leader of the bar, and in that year he was appointed 
judge of the County Court for District No. 3. Nova Scotia, and 
since that time he has been discharging the duties of his responsible 
position on the 1>ench in an able, faithful and eminently satisfactory 
manner. His decisions are noted for their fairness and deep insight 
into the principles of jurisprudence. He was made a Queen's Counsel 
in May, 1876. He was stipendiary magistrate for the town of Yar- 
mouth from 1895 to T 97 anc ^ f r tne County of Yarmouth from 
1900 to 1907. He was appointed a justice of the peace for Yar- 
mouth County in 1898, and he was Crown prosecutor of that county 
for a period of twenty years. From the incorporation of Yarmouth 
in 1890 to the present time he has been one of the government com- 
missioners on the school board of the town, and has been chairman 
of this board continuously since 1903. He was a commissioner from 
the government of Canada to the Republic of Uruguay in 1905 and 



406 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

he spent some time in Montevideo, and successfully accomplished 
the purpose of his mission. 

Politically, the Judge was a Liberal, and has long been one of the 
leaders of his party in the southern portion of the Province, but 
since his appointment to the bench he has been independent. He was 
a member of the Liberal Executive Committee in his county for a 
number of years, and in 1902 was selected by a large vote at a Liberal 
convention to contest Yarmouth County in the Liberal interests as a 
candidate for the House of Commons of Canada at the general 
election held that year, but he declined the nomination. He is an 
adherent of the Presbyterian Church, and for many years has been 
a trustee of St. John's Church of Yarmouth. He has been con- 
nected with the Sons of Temperance, Good Templars and Temple of 
Honor and Temperance. He has always been a total abstainer. He 
has been an active Freemason, and is a past district deputy grand 
master, a past grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Xova Scotia, a 
Royal Arch Mason, a past high priest, and past grand scribe of the 
Grand Chapter of Xova Scotia. 

Judge Pelton was married November if>, 1869, to Mary Georgina 
Darby, a daughter of Capt. Joseph W. Edward Darby, of Halifax, 
who in the early days was commander of the cruiser Daring for 
some years. Capt. Darby's wife was Caroline Amelia Kelley before 
her marriage. She was a native of Kelley's Cove, Yarmouth County, 
and a daughter of Capt. Robert Kelley, who was a large ship owner 
and West India merchant. 

To Judge Pelton and wife the following children have been 'born: 
Charles Sandford, born April 30, 1871, stipendiary magistrate of 
the town of Yarmouth for the past eight years and Prothonotary of 
the Supreme Court; Eva St. Clair, born December 2, 1872; Sydney 
De Wolfe, Court Reporter, born June n, 1874, died at Riverside, 
California. May 5, 1912; Arthur Waldemar. born April 16, 1876, 
died in Yarmouth, January 10, 1885; William Edward, born Janu- 
ary 12, 1879. died February 9, 1879; Aleck Roy. born June 3, 1880, 
died January 3, 1885; Reginald Victor, an accountant, born October 
24, 1881 ; Clive Milo, a bookkeeper, born August 24, 1883, died 
November 15, 1903; Lionel Keith, born April i, 1886, died August 
16, 1899; Guy Cathcart, a journalist and writer, was born April 26, 
1887; Gerald Vincent, a barrister, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws, practising at Edmonton, Alberta, was born May n, 1888; 
Grace MacNab, born March 2, 1892. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 407 

JOHN NEVILLE ARMSTRONG. 

John Neville Armstrong, for many years one of the leading 
citizens of North Sydney, was one of the brilliant educators, barris- 
ters and one of the most useful of Nova Scotia's public servants. 
He was of Scottish-Irish extraction, and was born at Sydney Mines, 
Cape Breton, June 28, 1854. He was a son of James and Cather- 
ine (Neville) Armstrong. The father was born in 1817 at St. 
John's, Newfoundland, and the mother was born in Bridgetown, 
Nova, Scotia, September 12, 1822. The father came with his par- 
ents to Sydney Mines in 1827. To James Armstrong and wife 
eight children were born, three of whom are still living. These par- 
ents were married in Sydney Mines. The father was a shoemaker 
by trade and died in North Sydney, where his aged companion is 
yet living. 

John N. Armstrong grew to manhood in his native community 
and there received a common school education. After leaving the 
Sydney high school he went to Cambridge, Massachusetts, and 
studied law in Harvard University, and he was a D. C. L. of Aca- 
dia University. When fifteen years old he taught school and later 
by hard work saved enough money to defray the expenses of a law 
course. He was admitted to the bar in 1892, previous to which he 
had become principal of the North Sydney high school, and a most 
efficient one. Soon after beginning the practice of his profession 
he became a King's Counsellor. He was the first president of the 
Cape Breton Historical Society. He was a Literal in politics and 
was president of the Liberal Association of Cape Breton County. 
From time to time he served with distinction on arbitration boards 
when important matters were in dispute. During his career he filled 
many offices of different kinds and was one of the most prominent 
figures in the Province. He was appointed to the Legislative Coun- 
cil of Nova Scotia, representing Cape Breton County, February 20. 
1899, and moved in that chamber in 1908 for the fitting commem- 
oration of the establishment of the first General Assembly and rep- 
resentative government of Nova Scotia. And speaking of him in 
his capacity as chairman of private and local bills, the Hon. H. M. 
Goudge said: "He was a man of knowledge and also of vision- 
he will be greatly missed." 

In 1910 Mr. Armstrong was appointed vice chairman of the 
Royal Commission on Technical Education, the report of which 
was delivered to the Dominion government in 1913, and he accom- 






408 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

paniecl the commission to Europe in 1911 on its tour of inquiry 
into educational conditions. He was active in the public life of 
North Sydney for many years, and besides the office of treasurer 
he was for some time city solicitor and town clerk. In religion he 
was a Baptist, and his brother, Rev. W. F. Armstrong, D. D., has 
labored in Burmah, India, as a missionary from the American Bap- 
tist Missionary Union for many years, and his brother, T. J. Arm- 
strong, is president of Noonbag Company, of Portland, Oregon. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Armstrong long occupied a position in the 
front ranks of his professional brethren. In his earlier career he was 
in partnership with Blowers Archibald, and this became one of the 
best known law firms of the northeastern part of Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Armstrong was married January 28, 1890, to Jennie E. Rice, 
a daughter of Abner A. and Elizabeth (Foyle) Rice, both natives 
of Cape IJreton, where they grew up, were educated and married, 
and there became well established and well known. She is still 
living in the family home in North Sdyney. Six children were born 
to our subject and wife, live of whom are living at this writing, 
namely: Minnie Kathleen is teaching school and music; Robert 
Neville, on clerical staff of Dominion Coal Company; Jean Frances; 
Helen R.. born May 30, 1899, died in August, of that year; Evelyn 
Rice and John Murray. 

The death of John N. Armstrong occurred on December 23, 
1913, when nearly sixty years of age, after a brief illness. The 
Halifax Herald jaid of him in its lengthy article on his death and 
career: "11 is death early on \\~ednesday morning came as a shock 
to a great many people in Halifax, for Mr. Armstrong was very 
well known in this city. It was more than a shock, it was a blow 
that brought sadness. Hon. Mr. Armstrong was a friendly man 
one who made friends. He was an able man and the public life of 
this Province will be the poorer because of his death. He was a 
prominent member of the Liberal party. As a member of the Tech- 
nical Education Commission, appointed by the late government, he 
did excellent work, displaying qualities of shrewd common sense, 
and thorough mastery of details which also manifested themselves 
in his every line of activity. Mr. Armstrong had been a life-long, 
intimate and dear friend of Premier Murray, to whom the news of 
his death was a particular shock. Knowing his condition to be 
serious, Mr. Murray communicated very early with his brother 1 , 
Dr. Rindress, of North Sydney, making inquiry when, to his great 





K 



w , 

H ' 
X, 

^ 
03 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 4OQ 

grief, as all who have experienced a friendship which meant much 
to them will realize, he was informed that Mr. Armstrong had 
passed away. When asked for a tribute to his friend of years, 
Premier Murray said, with deep feeling: "D.o not ask me for that 
it is impossible for me to put into words what I feel. Mr. Arm- 
strong and I have been friends since boyhood. We lived in the 
same town and the friendship has grown more intimate and dearer 
with the passing of years." Mr. Armstrong was referred to at the 
Provincial building as almost indispensable to the Legislative Coun- 
cil; well informed, well educated, splendidly equipped, and in the 
language of the Premier, "one of the most companionable of men." 
He was a man of most kind and courteous demeanor and was thor- 
oughly well informed. The St. John's Telegraph, in a refernce to 
him, characterized him as "one of the most widely informed public 
men in Eastern Canada.'' 

THE VERY REV. JOHN P. DKRWEXT LLWYD. 

The Very Rev. John P. Derwent Llwyd became Dean of Nova 
Scotia in 1913 on the death of the revered Dean Crawford. Pre- 
viously he was Vice-Provost of Trinity College, Toronto, where lie 
undertook the special work of raising a large addition to the en- 
dowment fund, which resulted in the addition of $170,000 to the 
resources of the college. Prior to that he had spent some years in 
the United States; for a long period he was rector of an important 
parish at Seattle, Washington, where he took an active part in civic 
affairs and was a member of the governing board of the Carnegie 
Library, thus gaining a wide practical education with men and affairs. 
Dr. Llwyd brings to his platform and pastoral work a fuller and 
richer experience than most clergymen possess, as well as the fruits 
of culture and wide scholarship. His addresses show him to be a 
close student of the various phases of modern religious thought. His 
diction is copious and elegant. Strong and graceful in his utterances 
and graceful in his personal appearance, he is a winning and effective 
orator, while his week day expositions on social and literary sub- 
jects are marked by learning, good taste, and felicity in expression. 
It is a common belief that ministers who apply themselves closely to 
study in their closets, lack activity in pastoral work. With Dr. Llwyd 
it is different. All the activities of church work claim his close atten- 
tion and the result is, he has built up one of the largest Protestant 
Congregations in Canada in All Saints' Cathedral. 



4IO HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

He was married in 1886 to Mary Emilie Thomas, daughter of 
Mr. W. H. Thomas, formerly of Chippawa, Ontario, by whom he 
has five children, three daughters and two sons. One son, Charle- 
wood, is a lieutenant in Halifax 63rd Rifles and has gone into active 
service at the front. 

Dr. Llwyd has taken the degrees of B. D. and D. D. in course 
from Trinity College, Toronto. He has also taken special courses 
of lectures at the Universities of Oxford and Berlin, and has received 
from Kings College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, the honorary Doctorate 
of Civil Law. 

HAXCE JAMES LOGAX, K. C. 

It is sometimes said that lawyers are promoters of strife, dis- 
sention and litigation. As a general thing, this is not true of the 
profession. They are in fact, in most cases, in the best and truest 
sense the peace makers of every community. Compromise and set- 
tlement stand out in the advice of a good lawyer. One such is 
1 lance James Logan, who is one of the leaders of the bar at Am- 
herst, Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Logan, who was born at Amherst Point, April 26, 1869, is 
a member of an old Cumberland family and the son of James Archi- 
bald Logan and wife. He received his education in the Truro 
Model School. Pictou Academy, and Dalhousie University, grad- 
uating from the last named institution in 1891. He was soon after 
admitted to the bar and began the practice of his profession at 
Amherst. where he has enjoyed a large clientage and is now the 
head of the law firm of Logan, Mackenzie & Smiley. He was made 
a King's Counsel in 1910. He has been intimately connected, as a 
director and otherwise, with a large number of industrial concerns 
and has been very successful in the organization of companies. 
Among the latter is the Maritime Coal. Railway & Power Company, 
Limited, which is one of the large coal producing companies of this 
Province and which also owns the electric light system at Amherst 
and supplies power to the different industries of that young city. 
Some years ago, after Mr. Logan had consulted in Orange, New 
Jersey, with Thomas A. Edison, the great electrician, he was able to 
persuade his co-directors of the Maritime Company to build a power 
plant at one of its colleries situated about nine miles from Amherst 
and use the refuse coal for developing electrical power. When 
"Power-from-Colliery" was turned on, at a public function, by the 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 411 

Governor of the Province, to supply the industries of Amherst with 
electrical energy, Air. Logan received a telegram of congratulation 
from Mr. Edison "on the inauguration of the first power plant on 
the American continent for the generation of electricity at the mouth 
of a coal mine and the distribution of the same to distant commer- 
cial centres. It is a bold attempt and I never thought it would be 
first accomplished in Nova Scotia where my father was born over 
one hundred years ago." Since that time "Power-from-Colliery" 
has been the watch-word which has attracted many industries to 
Amherst and vicinity and has very materially helped to develop a 
town into a city. This, plant today, not only turns the wheels of 
industrial concerns, but also supplies light to Amherst and other 
places and the coal in the big colliery of the Maritime Company at 
the Joggins mines is being cut three thousand feet under ground by 
coal cutters operated by this electric power developed from mine 
refuse at another colliery fifteen miles distant. 

Mr. Logan has traveled extensively and was present, by invita- 
tion, at the coronation in Westminister Abbey of King Edward and 
Queen Alexandra in 1902 and has been presented to King George 
the Fifth. 

Politically, Mr. Logan is a Liberal. He was elected in 1896, 
being the first Liberal elected to the House of Commons from Cum- 
berland County, so long represented by the late Sir Charles Tupper, 
Bart. He was re-elected in 1900 and 1904. his majority in the lat- 
ter year being over seven hundred. Owing to complicated ear trou- 
bles ( from which he has now recovered ) he was forced to retire 
from Parliament in 1908. His record as a legislator is one of which 
his constituents and friends may well be proud. After being in 
Parliament for a few years he was made assistant to the "Chief 
Government Whip." and from 1904 to 1908 was chairman of the 
Standing Committee on Privileges and Elections. He was offered 
a senatorship in 1911. Mr. Logan was married in 1891 to Eleanor 
Louise Kinder, who died very suddenly during one of his political 
speaking tours in Western Canada. He has been spoken of by the 
Montreal Gazette and Toronto News as "a man of courtesy and 
tact, who in the House always exhibited a good grasp on his sub- 
ject" and as "popular on all sides." His services as a public plat- 
form speaker have been in demand all over Canada and during the 
first year of the European war he was called upon to deliver over 
fortv addresses, to large audiences, on behalf of recruiting. 






412 HrSTOKY OK NOVA SCOTIA. 

SIR MALACHY BOWES DALY. 

That country is the greatest which produces the greatest and 
most manly men, and her intrinsic safety depends not so much upon 
methods and measures as upon that true manhood from whose 
deep sources all that is precious and permanent in life must at last 
proceed. Such a result may not be conscientiously contemplated by 
the individuals instrumental in the production of a country; pursu- 
ing each his personal good by exalted means, they work out this as 
a logical result ; they have wrought on the lines of the greatest 
good. Sir Maiachy Bowes Daly, the venerable administrator and 
popular public servant, who has long ranked among the leading men 
of Xova Scotia, is such an individual as referred to in the preceding 
lines, for his career has been of inestimable benefit to his country. 

Our subject was born February 6, 1836, at Marchmont, Province 
of Quebec, and is a son of the late Sir Dominick Daly, a native of 
County Gal\\ay, Ireland, and Caroline Maria, a daughter of Col. 
Ralph Gore, of Barrow Mount, County Kilkenny, Ireland. These 
parents grew up in their native land and in an early day immigrated 
to the Xew World, the father becoming prominent in the public affairs 
of Canada in the early days; afterwards a distinguished governor 
and administrator of the Imperial service. 

Maiachy B. Daly received his education in St. Mary's College, 
Oscott, England. In July. 1859. he married Joanna Kenny, a daugh- 
ter of the late Sir E. Kenny, of Halifax, Xova Scotia. Her death 
occurred in May, 1908. 

Hon. Sir Dominick Daly, mentioned above, was the third son of 
Dominick Daly, Esquire, and his mother was a sister of the first 
Lord Wallscourt and brother of Maiachy Daly. Esquire, a banker 
of Paris, France. He was born in Gal way, Ireland, 1798, married 
in 1826, the second daughter of Col. Ralph Gore, of Barrow Mount, 
County Kilkenny, Ireland. He studied law, passed the usual exam- 
ination and was called to the bar, but did not practice for any length 
of time. He first came to Canada as secretary to one of the gov- 
ernors and resided in Quebec. He subsequently became provincial 
for Lower Canada and at the Union was appointed provincial 
secretary of Canada, and also a member of the Board of Works, 
with a seat in the Council. The latter he held until 1846, but the 
former he continued to hold, taking an active and prominent part 
in all the most important affairs of the day until 1848, when he 
vacated that post, still continuing a member of Parliament for the 



11ISTOKV OF NOVA SCOTIA 41,3 

County of Megantic, for which constituency he sat during the first 
three Parliaments; he then went to England, after having been in 
the public service of Canada for a period of twenty-rive years. 
Afterwards he held some important commissions from the home 
government, and was appointed lieutenant-governor of Prince Ed- 
ward Island, a post he held for live years. Pie was knighted during 
this incumbency and was later appointed to the governorship of 
South Australia, where he died in 1863. 

Kaye, in his life of Lord Metcall, gives the following: "Dom- 
inick Daly was the secreary of state or provincitl secretary of Lower 
Canada. He was also an Irishman, and a Roman Catholic, but al- 
though for the latter reason his supporters were strongly with the 
French people, or had been, so long as they were opposed by the 
dominant race, his feelings, the growth of education and early asso- 
ciation, were of a conservative and aristocratic cast. All Metcalf's 
informants represented him to be a man of high honor and integrity, 
of polished manners and courteous address a good specimen of an 
Irish gentleman. It was added that lie was possessed of judgment 
and prudence, tact and discretion; in short, a man to be trusted." 
He was one of the leading public men of his day and generation in 
Canada. 

Malachy B. Daly studied law and was admitted to practice in 
1864, and soon became one of the successful barristers of Halifax. 
He was successively private secretary to his father, Sir R. G. Mac- 
donnell. Lt.-Gen. Sir Hastings Doyle, and Gen. Sir 'VV. F. Williams, 
of Kars. He represented Halifax in the House of Commons from 
1878 to 1887. and the first deputy speaker of the House from 1882 
to 1886. He was lieutenant-governor of Xova Scotia from 1890 
to 1900, getting a second term. He was presented with a hand- 
some testimonial, and his wife a diamond star, by citizens of Hali- 
fax, on vacating office. The honorable distinction of Knight-Com- 
mander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George was conferred 
upon him in 1900. He is a director of the School for the Blind, 
and of the School for the Deaf, vice-president of the Canadian Pat- 
riotic Fund, and Halifax Branch of the American Archaeological 
Institute; vice-chairman of the local branch of the British Navy 
League, and president of St. Vincent de Paul Society. He is hon- 
orary president of the Halifax branch of the British Empire League. 
Religiously, he is a Roman Catholic. He moved a resolution, at a 
meeting of his co-religionists, held in Halifax, in January, 1902, 






414 H1STOKY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

/ 

"protesting emphatically against the insult offered to their dearest 
religious convictions in the declaration in the oath of accession." 
He has been a noted cricketer, and was first to make a century in 
Canada, in 1858. He is a member of the Halifax Club. 

RUFUS SEAMAN CARTER. 

Wise farmers of Xova Scotia are now planning their crops with 
safety first in mind. In years past they have had impressed upon 
them the fact that the certain and regular production of feed, every 
year must be the foundation of a safe system of farming. Very 
few are now staking their all on one feed crop, and still fewer are 
placing their entire dependence on some cash crop, expecting to buy 
their feed. Some have depended solely upon their orchards, but 
late frosts, freezes, insect pests and other things makes some years 
parital or total failures of the apple crop. This handicaps the far- 
mer unless he has other crops on which to depend. One of the 
agriculturists of Cumberland County who has been thoughtful 
enough to provide against the exigency of a one crop failure is 
Rufus Seaman Carter, of Maccan, who is engaged in diversified 
farming. 

Air. Carter was born in the vicinity where he still resides, March 
31, 1866. He is a son of William Dobson Carter and Elizabeth 
Ann (Reed) Carter. The father was born at Westmoreland Point, 
Xew Brunswick, where he spent his life on a farm, and died in May, 
1885; the mother was born at Nappan, Cumberland County, and 
died in June, 1900. They grew up in their native locality, attended 
school there and were married. 

Rufus S. Carter grew to manhood on the home farm where he 
worked when a boy, and he received his education in the public 
schools of his community. He followed the sea for a time, his two 
brothers, Amos and Blair Carter, being sea captains. After the 
death of his father he returned to the farm and has continued as a 
general farmer ever since in Cumberland County near Maccan. 
Besides farming he has carried on extensive lumbering operations 
for years, shipping to United States and Great Britain. 

Mr. Carter is a military man. He was graduated from the 
Military College at Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1893. He holds 
a first-class Infantry certificate. He enlisted in the Ninety-third 
Regiment in 1887 as a private, and retired with the rank of captain 
in 1911. For fifteen years he was a representative of the Nova 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 415 

Scotia Rifle Team to the Dominion contests at Ottawa. He was a 
member of the Canadian Bisly Rifle Team in 1897 and attended the 
diamond jubilee of the late Queen Victoria. He is an expert shot, 
and is a capable army officer. He is a member of the Maccan 
Curling Club, and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Politi- 
cally, he is a Liberal. He was elected to the Municipal Council in 
1907, and was re-elected in 1910. He served as commissioner to 
the Maritime Winter Fair for three years from 1907 to 1910. He 
was elected from Cumberland County to the Nova Scotia Legisla- 
ture June 14, 1911. He is an able debater and as a platform speaker 
has few superiors. He has discharged his duties in all positions of 
public trust in an able and efficient manner. He belongs to the 
Anglican Church. 

Mr. Carter was married October 31, 1894, to Ella Mabel Morris, 
a daughter of Capt. George A. Morris and wife, of Advocate Har- 
bour, Cumberland County, Nova Scotia. To this union eight chil- 
dren have been born, namely: George Irving, Benjamin Purdy, 
Rufus Whitney, Harry Morris, Oscar Courtney Harris, Clara Jean, 
Ella Marjorie and Minnie Aulclah. 

SIR CHARLES JAMES TOWNSHEND. 

By a few general remarks the biographer hopes to convey in the 
following paragraphs, succinctly and yet without fulsome encomium, 
some idea of the high standing, useful career and genuine worth of 
Sir Charles James Townshend, ex-Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, 
who is now making his home at W r olfville. He is universally re- 
garded as one of the most representative citizens of the Province 
and one of the greatest public benefactors of the same. Those who 
know him best will readily acquiesce in the statement that many 
elements of a solid and practical nature are united in his composi- 
tion and which, during a series of years, have brought him into 
prominent notice at least throughout the eastern portion of the 
Dominion, his life and achievements earning for him a conspicuous 
place among his compeers. 

The gentleman whose name forms the caption of this review 
was born at Amherst, Nova Scotia, March 22, 1844. He is a son 
of the late Rev. Canon T. and Elizabeth (Stewart) Townshend. 
The father was for many years rector of Christ Church, Anglican, 
at Amherst, and was a pulpit orator of ability and a man of sterling 
characteristics. Young Townshend was educated at the Collegiate 






416 HISTOKY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

School, Windom, from whence he matriculated into King's College, 
and graduated from that institution in 1863, with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. In 1872 he took the degree of B. C. L. in one 
course and the degree of D. C. L. in 1908, was an honorary distinc- 
tion conferred on him by the university of which he has been chan- 
cellor for many years. , 

On April 18, 1867, he was married to Laura Kinnear, fourth 
daughter of the late J. D. Kinnear. Her death occurred March 17, 
1884, and in 1887 he was united in marriage with Margaret Mac- 
Farlane, a daughter of John MacFarlane, and granddaughter of 
Hon. Daniel MacFarlane, for some time a member of the Legisla- 
tive Council of this Province. 

After serving four years in the office of the Hon. Senator Dickey 
of Amherst and afterwards in the office of Hon. S. L. Sherman of 
Halifax, he was admitted to the bar in March, 1866, and he forged 
to the front ranks in his profession in a comparatively short time, 
enjoying an extensive and lucrative practice; in fact, has ranked as 
one of the brilliant legal lights of the Province for more than two 
score years. Always a profound student, especially of all phases of 
jurisprudence, he has kept fully abreast of the times and is known 
to his friends and acquaintances as a scholar and deep and original 
investigator. As a lawyer his course has been marked by painstak- 
ing, careful and conscientious effort, and he is a forceful, logical 
and. not infrequently, an eloquent speaker before juries, the bench 
or on the stump. He was made King's Counsel (M. Lome, 1881) ; 
and for some time he was a member of the law faculty in King's 
College. During his earlier years of practice he maintained an office 
at Amherst. He was appointed a puisne judge, S. C., N. S., March 
4, 1887. On Novemeber 2, 1907, he was elevated to the Chief 
Justiceship of Nova Scotia, the duties of which responsible office 
he continued to ably and satisfactorily discharge until his retirement 
in April, 1915. He was made administrator of the government of 
Nova Scotia in January, 1909. He was knighted by His Majesty 
King George in 1911. He unsuccessfully contested Cumberland 
(Local) Conservative interest at the general election in 1874. He 
sat for Cumberland (Local), from 1878 to 1884, and held the same 
seat (H. C.) from 1884 to 1887. He was a member of the Provin- 
cial Government from 1878 to 1882. He, with Lady Townshend, 
was invited and present at the opening of the Colonial Conference, 
Guild Hall, London, England, in April, 1907. He was the principal 




Golf Links. 

St. John's Church. 



Government College and Barns. 
SCENES IX TRURO. 

Privincial Normal School 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 417 

speaker at the celebration of 'the one hundred and fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the establishment of responsible government in Nova Scotia 
in 1908. His gifts as a writer are sound and good and he is the 
author of several literary papers, including the life of the Hon. 
Alexander Stewart, Master of the Rolls, Nova Scotia, a biographi- 
cal sketch of Chief Justice Belcher, and Judge Bishop, and a "His- 
tory of the Courts of Judicature in the Province of Nova Scotia.'.' 
He was elected president of the local branch of the British Empire 
League in 1911. Religiously, he is an Anglican, and was a delegate 
to the Synods for many years. He is a member of the Halifax 
Club. His well-known residence, "Rayn Lawn," in \Volfville, with 
its shrubbery and orchard, occupies his leisure time. 

The late Chief Justice, Sir Hy. Strong, said of him: "His de- 
cisions are characterized by lucidity and sound reasoning." And 
one of the leading newspapers of Nova Scotia has this just com- 
ment to make: "A just judge: no higher tribute could be paid to 
the holder of the judicial office." 

JOHN JAMES ERASER. 

One of the successful business men of New Glasgow, 1'ictou 
County, is John James Eraser, who, by his industry, tact and square 
dealings has built up an excellent drug business. He is a man given 
to right thinking and who believes in helping those with whom he 
comes in contact on the highway of life. He is known as a good 
citizen in every respect. 

Mr. Eraser was born at Sutherland's River, 1'ictoti Countv, in 
May, 1878, and is a son of James Hector Eraser, who was born at 
Brookville or McLellan's Brook, Pictou County, and now resides 
in Thorburn, at the advanced age of eighty-seven years, and is 
enjoying good health. His wife, Anna Belle Eraser, was born at 
Wentworth Grant. Pictou County ; she, too, is still living and is in 
good health. The grandfather of our subject, Hector Eraser, was 
a native of Scotland. The latter's father, Alexander Eraser, was 
born at Inverness, Scotland, from which country he immigrated to 
Nova Scotia about the year 1800, with his family, and located at 
McLellan's Brook, Pictou County. He had a large family of sons. 
He resided there until his death, in 1830. His youngest son, Hec- 
tor, was the grandfather of our subject. Other sons drifted to 
various parts of the Province, where they settled, some going to 
(27) 



4l8 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

1'ort Philip, Cumberland County. Grandfather Fraser bought a 
farm at Sutherland's River in 1838 and continued farming there 
the rest of his life, his death occurring in 1880, at the age of eighty- 
two years. The father of our subject continued to reside on the 
Sutherland's River farm until 1911, in which year he removed to 
Thorburn, Pictou County. 

John J. Fraser is the youngest living child of a family of twelve 
children. After his school days he entered the employ of A. C. 
Bell & Company, druggists of New Glasgow, continuing in their 
employ three years, when he removed to Maiden, Massachusetts, 
in which place he spent three years, following his profession as 
druggist, then returned to Xova Scotia and opened a drug business 
at Thorhurn, 1'ictou County, where he spent two years, then formed 
a partnership with Arthur Carew in New Glasgow, continuing the 
business under the firm name of Carew & Fraser. In 1912 Mr. 
Carew died and our subject took over his interest, since which time 
he has conducted the business alone, but retains the firm name. 

Mr. Fraser was married in June, 1906, to Frances Weir, of 
I'ine Tree, Pictou County, a daughter of John Weir and wife. To 
this union the following 'children have been born : Hector, Mitchell 
and Adelaide. 

Fraternally, Mr. Fraser is a member of the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, and he is a master Mason. 

JOHN H. CHRISTIE. 

The late John H. Christie, of North Sydney, Nova Scotia, was 
barn in Glasgow, Scotland, November 20, 1835, and died October 4, 
1902. He came to Little Bras d'Or, Nova Scotia, with his parents, 
when four years old. His father, John Christie, was associated in 
business with the late William Gammell, also a native of Glasgow, 
Scotland. The firm carried on a large mercantile business for a 
period of twenty-five years. They were pioneer merchants of their 
time. Their extensive trade covered Cape Breton Island and New- 
foundland. Having accumulated much wealth, they retired, leaving 
the business to John H. Christie in 1861, who successfully carried 
on the business until his death. During his long career as merchant 
and man of affairs he built numerous ships, and for a period of over 
forty years was postmaster of the district. 

John H. Christie married Eliza Bauld, a daughter of the late 
William Bauld, of Halifax, and to this union six sons were born, 



HISTORY OF NOVA bCO'ilA 419 

namely: William, Edwin, Henry, Lowrey, John and Robert; also 
two daughters. Airs. C. N. S. Strickland, of Halifax, and Mrs. D. R. 
Street, of Ottawa. Mrs. Christie and family are all living. 

Religiously, John H. Christie \vas a Presbyterian. He was a 
life-long Liberal. He was a prominent Royal Arch Mason. He was 
for some time a major in Cape Breton Militia, and was county 
councillor for a number of years. 

JOHN UK, SOX. 

"I didn't begin by asking, I took the job and stuck; 

And I took the chance they wouldn't and now they call it Iuck.' r 

Thus wrote Rudyard Kipling of a man who won success by 
refusing to permit discouraging circumstances to down him. The 
poet might just as well have had in mind John Higson, mine super- 
intendent of the Acadia Coal Company at Stellarton, Pictou County, 
for he came up from the ranks of miners, pushing his way up by 
his own unaided efforts until now he holds a responsible position. 

Mr. Higson was born at Bolton, Lancashire, England, and is a 
son of James and Alice (Crompton) Higson, both natives of that 
place also, where they grew up, were married and established their 
home. They were of old English stock. The father of our sub- 
ject was engaged in mining in the Lancashire district. His family 
consisted of six children, John being the fifth in order of birth. 

Our subject was reared in his native land and he had little op- 
portunity to obtain an education. He went to work in the coal 
mines at an early age, working a half day in the mines, spending 
the other half in school, as was the custom in that district at that 
time. He remained there until 1879, when he came to the United 
States, engaging in coal mining in the Monongahela district, Penn- 
sylvania, continuing as a practical miner there for seven years, then 
was made mine foreman, which position he held three years, then 
returned to England and took up mining again in his native com- 
munity, but, not finding conditions to his liking, he quit work after 
three days and went to Fifeshire, Scotland, where he found it more 
congenial and remained there two and one-half years, when he again 
went to the United States, resuming work in the Youghiogheny dis- 
trict of Pennsylvania, where he remained until he received an offer 
from the Acadia Coal Company of Stellarton, Nova Scotia, to take 
the position of mine superintendent there. He arrived at the mines 



42O HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

April 28, 1901, and has continued to discharge the duties of this 
responsible position ever since, his long retention being evidence of 
his faithful, honest and able work. He has charge of the Albion 
and MacGregor shafts, having a large number of men under his 
management. Two new seams were located here the latter part of 
1915, one of twenty-one feet depth, the other of seven feet depth, 
which insures an additional fifty years' life to those mines. Mr. 
Higson is a most capable and experienced miner and has the con- 
fidence and respect of those working with him as well as_ the man- 
agement. During the time he was in Scotland he first commenced 
the study of mining and before leaving there he obtained a sertificate 
for "Under Ground Manager" for the District of West Scotland. 

He was married in February, 1884, in Pennsylvania, to Jessie 
R. Henderson, a native of Fifeshire, Scotland, and a daughter of 
Philip Henderson, of that place, who was a practical miner. He 
had removed from his native laud with his family to Pennsylvania. 

To Mr. Higson and wife thirteen children have been born, two 
sons dying in infancy, the others being named as follows: James, 
a machinist, is employed by the Albion Shell Company at Stellar- 
ton; Alice is the wife of George McLauchlin, of Stellarton; Philip, 
a machinist, is employed at Monessen. Pennsylvania, U. S. A. ; 
Mary Ann died shortly after completing her education; Robina is 
at home; Chrystle is at home: Jessie is now a student in Dalhousie 
University, Halifax: Tohn. Louie. Ruth and Reginald are all at- 
tending school in Stellarton. 

JOHN EDWTX MACDONALD. 

It is not everyone who can make a success of the real-estate 
and insurance business. Those who enter this line of endeavor 
should study themselves carefully, and be influenced rather by sound 
reason than by impulse. If he has a mind capable of grasping sit- . 
uations quickly and accurately, if he likes the work better than nay- 
thing else, and if he is willing to be uniformly congenial and honest, 
then he may enter the real estate and insurance field as his serious 
occupation. John Edwin Macdonald, of New Glasgow, Nova Sco- 
tia, has shown himself to be a capable real estate and insurance 
man in every respect, well suited by nature for the work which he 
has chosen. 

Mr. Macdonald was born at Hopewell, Pictou County, June 4. 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 421 

1869, and is a son of Alexander and Annie (Fraser) Macdonald. 
The father was born at Hopewell and the mother at Lome, Pictou 
County, and here they grew up, were married and established their 
home. William Fraser, the maternal grandfather, was known as 
Deacon Fraser. William Alacdonald, the paternal grandfather, was 
probably born in Scotland, and his father came to Nova Scotia 
about one hundred years ago, bringing his family, it is believed, 
from Scotland. Here he took up land and followed farming; his 
son, grandfather of our subject, continued to live on the homestead 
until his death, at the age of eighty- four years. The father of our 
subject finally located at Westville, where he became boss black- 
smith for the Acadia Coal Company for a number of years, then 
removed to Annapolis County, where he contracted on the Xictau 
& Atlantic railroad during its construction, later went to British 
Columbia, where his death occurred by accident at the age of sixty- 
five years. 

John E. Macdonald was the youngest of a family of two sons. 
He spent his boyhood in Westville, where he remained after his 
father removed to British Columbia, making his home with his 
grandparents. After attending the public schools he engaged in 
clerking with John AlcDougall (now Commissioner of Ci:stor...; at 
Ottawa ) at Westville, where he remained until he came to X'ew 
Glasgow and became bookkeeper for Thompson-Sutherland, Lim- 
ited, with which firm lie continued for three years, then opened up 
a bicycle business on his own account. This was in the days of the 
bicycle vogue, and he had a good trade. Then he turned his atten- 
tion to fire insurance, which he still carries on in connection with 
the read estate business, representing many of the leading fire insur- 
ance companies of Canada, which has a combined capital of fifty 
million dollars. He employs a number of sub-agents and his prin- 
cipal business is through his own individual work. ?Phe insurance 
placed by him now amounts to several millions of dollars. As a 
real estate dealer he was one of the promoters of the Egerton Build- 
ing Company, Limited. During the past five years this company 
has built some fifty houses in New Glasgow and Trenton and still 
own over one hundred lots. He also represents the Reid-Newfound- 
land Company, Limited, of St. John's, Newfoundland, which firm 
owns valuable real estate in New Glasgow. Mr. MacdonaJd has 
done a large loan business for the Canada Mortgage Company, 
which he has represented in New Glasgow for the past twenty years. 



422 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

In addition to this he has placed many private loans, and he has 
been successful in his private real estate investments. 

Mr. Macdonald was married September n, 1901, to Jessie Mabel 
Douglas, of Xe\v Glasgow, a daughter of George Douglas, a dry- 
goods dealer of Xew Glasgow. To our subject and wife three chil- 
dren have been born, named as follows : Douglas Fraser, Edwin 
Stewart and Hazel Marshall. 

Fraternally, Mr. Macdonald is a member of the Masonic Order, 
a Knights Templar, rind a member of the Ancient Arabic Order of 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. He is now junior warden of Albion 
Lodge, Xo. 5, at Xew Glasgow, Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, also belongs to the Encampment, and to the Knights of 
Pythias. 

JAMES ROY. 

James Roy, town clerk of Xew Glasgow, Pictou County, hails 
from Scotland. This fact may not have much significance to some 
who peruse this biography, but maybe if he had not had in his 
veins the blood of the sterling people of "ancient Caledon" and had 
not been reared in accordance with their commendable rules he 
would not have succeeded in overcoming the obstacles that have 
beset his pathway. True it is that the Scotch who have settled in 
Xova Scotia (another name for Xew Scotland), have all been good 
citizens, so there must be something after all in the place where we 
happen to be born. 

Mr. Roy was born near Glasgow, Scotland, and is a son of John 
and Fannie (Brown) Roy, both natives of the same locality, and 
who immigrated to Xova Scotia and located at Albion Mines, now 
Stellarton, Pictou County, and engaged in mining. The death of 
the father occurred at the age of seventy-five years at Westville. 

The subject of our sketch passed his Ixwhood in Stellarton. where 
he attended public schools, then went to high school at Xew Glas- 
gow. When a Iwy he began learning the machinist's trade at West- 
ville, at which he worked for several years, then went to Boston, 
Massachusetts, and entered the employ of The Hinckley & Williams 
Locomotive Works. Later he took up civil and marine negineering, 
in which he made considerable progress, then worked awhile as a 
marine engineer, finally returning to Westville. Pictou County, Xova 
Scotia. Here he took up civil negineering. and was appointed a 
justice of the peace, thus combining engineering and magesterial 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 423 

work. In 1887 he was appointed stipendiary magistrate; town of 
New Glasgow, which he combined with his other duties, and in 
March, 1898, was made town clerk, and is still incumbent of this 
office. For a few years he continued his work as civil engineer. 

Mr. Roy was married to Mary Powell, of Little Harbor, Pictou 
County, a daughter of Nathaniel Powell, one of the early settlers of 
that locality. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Roy the following children have been born : 
Blanche, now Mrs. Berclay Fraser, of Xew Glasgow; J. J. is a prac- 
ticing physician of Sydney, Cape Breton; Harriet is the wife of 
Professor W. H. Hepburn, of Purdue University, at Lafayette, In- 
diana; Fannie B. is the ,wife of Hugh Macdonald, a barrister of 
Broadview, Saskatchewan; Elizabeth died in 1910; Jessie is the wife 
of H. H. Marshall, of Halifax: Mary is teaching music in Xew 
Glasgow; Lycle is also teaching in New Glasgow; Amie is assisting 
her father in the clerk's office; Louise is at home. 

During earlier years as town clerk. Mr. Roy also performed the 
duties of town engineer. He is a member of the Xova Scotia So- 
ciety of Engineers. He is a member of the Masonic Order, in which 
he is a past master. He is an elder in the United Presbyterian 
Church, in which he and his wife and family hold membership. He 
is a capable official and has the confidence and respect of the citi- 
zens of his home town. 

GEORGE HEXRY ILLSLEY. 

When the Illsley family cast their lot in Kings County, Nova 
Scotia, they found a wild, sparsely settled community, and they 
endured the usual privations of pioneers, but being possessed of 
those qualities which turn adversity into success, they bore with 
brave hearts the vicissitudes of the early days and in due course of 
time became well established. A creditable representative of this 
old family is George H. Illsley, who, for many years has been 
engaged in business in Port William. 

Mr. Illsley was born at Welsford. Kings County, November 4, 
1854, and is a son of James and Eunice (Pearson) Illsley, both 
natives of Kings County also, the father having been born at North 
Mountain, and the mother at Brooklyn Street. Our subject is a 
descendant of United Empire Loyalist stock, the progenitor of the 
family in this Province having immigrated here about the time of 
the American Revolutionary War , and received a grant of land in 



424 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Kings County, which he developed and on which the future home 
of the family was established. The Illsleys have always engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, for the most part. The father of our sub- 
ject lived to be eighty-six years old, dying in 1875. ^' s family 
consisted of four children, George H., of this sketch having been 
third in order of birth. 

He spent his boyhood days on the old home farm, where he 
worked during the summer months, and in the winter time attended 
the public schools in his neighborhood. When twenty-one years of 
age he engaged in clerking for J. B. Chute at Berwick, the firm 
being Chipman & Chute. He had natural ability in this field of 
endeavor and his rise was rapid; he finally became a partner in the 
firm, the name being changed to Chipman, Chute & Illsley. After 
continuing a few years, when, owing to the failing health of one of 
the members of the firm, the business was discontinued, after which 
our subject went to Port Williams and entered the employ of W. H. 
Chase & Company, for which he clerked until 1887, when he be- 
came a partner and another clerk, J. W. Harvey, joining him in pur- 
chasing the business of the W. H. Chase & Company, taking over 
the grocery department, also the hardware, crockery, etc., the old 
firm retaining the dry goods business, which was continued under 
the firm name of Chase, Campbell & Company. These concerns 
were amalgamated under a joint company in March, 1908, and Mi, 
Harvey became active manager of the new firm; Chase, Campbell 
& Company retired from active connection with the same. The 
business has been very successful under the able management of our 
subject and a large and well-selected stock is carried at all seasons. 
Their location is particularly advantageous, being at the head of 
deep water navigation and in a prosperous settlement. The firm is 
now the Illsley, Harvey Company, Limited. Our subject has re- 
cently retired from this firm, and he has been associated in the buy- 
ing and shipping produce to Europe, New England and the West, 
doing an extensive and successful business, in connection with W. 
H. Chase & Company. 

Mr. Illsley was married on October i, 1879, to Alma Masters, a 
daughter of the late Dr. H. C. Masters, one of the popular physi- 
cians of the "old school.' 1 To this union the following children have 
been born : Kisboro is now the wife of J. S. Hales, of Penticton, 
British Columbia, where he is chief collector of customs; James 
Kenneth, who is now a commercial traveler for A. M. Bell & Com- 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 



425 



pany, of Halifax; Dorothy is now a student in the Ladies Seminary 
at Wolfville. 

Politically, Air. Illsley is a Liberal, but he has never been very 
active in public affairs. Fie affiliates with the Baptist church. 

CHARLES ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. 

One of our great writers has said that the human race is divided 
ino two classes those that go ahead and do something and those 
who sit and inquire, "Why wasn't it done the other way.'' A re- 
view of the history of the Campbell family of Kings County shows 
that they have ever been of the former class, and therefore have not 
only attained a large measure of material success, but have con- 
ributed to the general development of the localities where they have 
made their homes. One of the creditable representatives of this 
family of the present generation is Charles Alexander Campbell, a 
retired merchant of Port Williams. 

Mr. Campbell was born at New Glasgow, Pictou County, in 
October, 1857, and is a son of Alexander and Ann (Dexter) Camp- 
bell, the former a native of Mil ford, Xew Hampshire, and the lat- 
ter of Antigonish, this Province. Grandfather Dexter was one 
of the early settlers in Xova Scotia. After the expulsion of the 
Acadians, he rode on horseback from Lunenburg to Antigonish, 
taking his wife with him, who also made the long journey on horse- 
back, and they established their future home at Antigonish. Grand- 
father Campbell was a captain in the British army. The complete 
records were owned by his daughter, Mrs. Putnam Smith, and were 
unfortunately destroyed by fire. He was a Loyalist and he received 
a large grant of land in Antigonish County, which is still known as 
the "Yankee grant." He lived to an advanced age. He was a 
gentleman of the old school and of sterling worth. The father of 
our subject engaged in business, and with the exception of two 
years which he spent in Xew Glasgow, he lived in Antigonish all his 
life, where he conducted a general store. He was a member of the 
Presbyterian church, and was married by Rev. Thomas Trelter, one 
of the noted pioneer Presbyterian preachers. The death of Alexan- 
der Campbell occurred in 1883. at the age of eighty-seven years, 
and his widow died in 1895, at the age of eighty-nine years. 

Charles A. Campbell spent his boyhood in Antigonish and first 
attended private schools, then the public schools. In 1878 he left 
home with the intention of going to the Northwest, but stopped at 



426 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

Port Williams, Kings County, where he secured a position as clerk 
in the general store of W. H. Chase & Company. His rise was 
rapid, for he had decided natural ability in this line, and he event- 
ually became a partner in the firm, the name being changed to Chase, 
Campbell & Company, which continued until 1887, when they dis- 
posed of the grocery, hardware and crockery departments to Illsley 
& Harvey, two men who had been in the company's employ for a 
number of years. The old company retained the dry goods branch 
of the business, which was conducted by the original owners until 
1908, when the two above named firms were amalgamated as the 
Illsley, Harvey Company, Limited, at which time Mr. Campbell 
withdrew from the active management of the business, but he has 
continued to reside in Port Williams. He confined himself exclu- 
sively, during his active career, to the mercantile business in which 
he was very successful. 

Mr. Campbell was married on September 29, 1886, to Emma M. 
Welton. of Kings County, a (laughter of Allan Welton and wife. 
To this union one child was born, Mildred, now the wife of D. E. 
Hoag. 

Politically, our subject is a Literal. Religiously, he telongs to 
the Presbyterian church. He has served as school trustee. For a 
number of years he served as a member of the municipal council, 
and was elected to the Provincial Parliament in 1905, serving four 
years in that capacity. As a public official he discharged his duty 
very ably and acceptably. Flis wife is a member of the Baptist 
church. He has been actively interested in all temperance reforms, 
being a member of the Kings County Temperance Alliance and also 
the Provincial Alliance. 

LESLIE RAYMOND FAIRN. 

It is interesting to note the development of taste in the matter 
of methods of building dwelling places for the human race. At 
first caves were found quite sufficient for our needs ; they protected 
us from the elements, wild beasts and our enemies ; then followed 
crude huts of sod, bamboo and grasses, later log cabins and primi- 
tive stone structures, and finally houses of various designs of boards, 
brick, stone and cement. As the wants and tastes of people differed 
widely the profession of architecture took its place in the list of 
vocations, and it has grown to be one of the most important of the 
so-called "fine arts." 






HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 427 

One of the most promising of Nova Scotia's younger architects 
is Leslie Raymond Fairn, of Aylesford, Kings County. He was 
born June 26, 1875, and is a son of W. H. and Laura (Lyons) 
Fairn, the father a native of Annapolis County and the mother of 
Kings County, being a daughter of Robert Lyons, of Waterville. 
The grandfather was Fdward Fairn and the great-grandfather was 
William Fairn. Calnek's "History of Annapolis County" gives a 
record of this old family, which was originally of Scotch stock. In 
1783 Benjamin Fairn, the great-great-grandfather, came to Xova 
Scotia and took up fanning. Fach lived to an advanced age. \Y. 
H. Fairn, father of our subject, was a school teacher and died at 
the early age of thirty-eight years, leaving a family of three chil- 
dren, Leslie R. being the eldest. 

In the early years of Air. Fairn's practice as architect he held 
the position of principal of the drawing and manual training de- 
partments in connection with Acadia University at Wolfville, spend- 
ing five years there. In 1904 he located in Aylesford, where he has 
since maintained his headquarters, lie is most practical in his pro- 
fession and has taken a position in the front rank of architects of 
this Province. His business extends from St. Stephen, Xew Bruns- 
wick, to Sydney, Cape Breton. Many of the better residences in 
Wolfville, Truro, Kentville, Middleton, Annapolis and Digbv were 
designed by him. Among some of the more important buildings he 
has designed might be mentioned the Academy at Campbellton, Xew 
Brunswick, Sussex high school, residence of G. W. Ganong at St. 
Stephen, the Xewcastle court house, and the Richibucto high school 
in Xew Brunswick, and man}- others of less importance in that 
Province; and in Xova Scotia the General Hospital at Glace Bay, 
Civic Flospital at Sydney, high school at Xew Glasgow, Truro city 
hall. Digby and Kings Counties court houses and jails, Amherst 
West high school, and he was the architect of the MacDonald Con- 
solidated schools in Prince Edward Island and Xova Scotia. 

Mr. Fairn was married September 28, 1897, to Bessie Maude 
Tupper, of Bridgetown, Nova Scotia, a daughter of William and 
Alice (Mills) Tupper, and a grand-daughter of Miner Tupper and 
John Mills, two of Annapolis County's oldest families. To our 
subject and wife two children have been born, namely: Alice Pau- 
line, who is now attending the Seminary for Young Ladies at 
Wolfville, and Evelyn Ardath Patricia. 

Fraternally, Mr. Fairn is a Master Mason. He is a great lover 



428 HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

of nature and likes outdoor recreation and is especially interested in 
forestry. He has a large tract of wild land near Albany, Annapolis 
County, on which he has erected a lodge, where he usually spends 
the months of October and November. He has a fine collection of 
birds, heads of animals, etc., his trophies of the chase. 

WILLIAM CECIL HARRIS, M. D. 

When Dr. William Cecil Harris, of Berwick, Kings County, 
decided to take up the medical profession he did so well knowing 
that if he attained success he would have to work hard, and so he 
has been a close student ever since. When not attending to his pro- 
fessional duties he will always be found reading medicine, scientific 
works embracing the latest discoveries of the world's specialists on 
all that relates not only to his profession but to the problem of life 
in its various aspects. 

Dr. Harris was born at Sheffield's Mills, Kings County, May 
24, 1875, and is a son of William Leander and Tabitha Jane 
(Weaver) Harris, the latter a daughter of Philip and Tabitha 
(Borden) Weaver. Both the father and grandfather Steven Har- 
ris were natives of the vicinity in which our subject was born, the 
great-grandfather, who was a United Empire Loyalist, came to 
Kings County from the United States about the period of the Revo- 
lutionary War, received a large grant of land where Sheffield's 
Mills now stand and there established the future home of the fam- 
ily. Steven Harris was a carpenter and contractor and built many 
of the earliest houses in that district, some still standing, which can 
be picked out by the double front room, a favorite style in those 
days. One of his brothers was a farmer, in fact, all the older 
members of the Harris family owned farms. William L. Harris, 
the Doctor's father, learned the carpenter's trade under his father 
and continued carpentering and contracting, finally starting a sash 
and door factory at Sheffield's Mills, the only plant of its kind in 
Kings County. He is still living and enjoys good health, although 
in his eightieth year. His wife is also living, and they have been mar- 
ried fifty-six years. He has always taken a deep interest in the 
general welfare of the community. His family consists of four sons 
and one daughter. 

Dr. Harris grew up in his native community and received his 
early education in the public schools there, then entered Dalhousie 
University, graduating from the medical department in 1902. He 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA 429 

soon began the practice of his profession in Canning, Kings County, 
in partnership with Dr. John Miller, but later went to Digby County, 
where he practiced with success for a period of twelve years. He 
had planned to go to the Canadian Northwest when the present 
European war came on, which caused him to change his plans and 
he located in Berwick, his native county, instead, and here he has 
built up a large and rapidly-growing practice, having relieved Dr. 
W. F. M. McKinnon, who is now serving as surgeon-major 
with the Canadian contingent at the front, under Colonel Sir F. S. 
L. Ford. 

Dr. Harris was married December 16, 1903. to Anna Margaret 
Perry, a daughter of Capt. Thomas Perry, who was a master mar- 
iner in early life, but later began ship building, in which he was 
very successful. The following children have been born to the 
Doctor and wife: Karl Belfour Bentley Harris is attending school; 
Herman Leander Harris is the youngest. 

Fraternally, Dr. Harris belongs to the Masonic Order, being 
past district deputy grand master; he is a member of the Royal 
Arch Masons ; also the Independent Order of Foresters, and the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He belongs to the Valley 
Medical Association and the Maritime Medical Society. 

REV. ALPHOXSUS RICHARD DOXAHOE, PH. D., D. C. L. 

One of the most promising of the younger ministers of the gos- 
pel in Xova Scotia is Rev. Alphonsus Donahoe, of Kentville. As 
a result of his training, his application, his industry and the liber 
of his mind, he is necessarily a pulpit orator of no mean ability, is 
logical, never aiming at brilliancy, or aspiring to be ornate; but 
always lucid in his style of expression. 

Dr. Donahoe was born in Halifax, Xova Scotia, in June, 1884, 
and is a son of Edward and Margaret (Balcom) Donahoe, the 
father a native of County Wicklow, Ireland, and the mother of 
Port Dufferin, Xova Scotia. The former came to Xova Scotia 
when a young man, locating in Halifax, where he married and 
spent the rest of his life, successfully engaged in mercantile pursuits. 
his death occurring October 26, 1914, at the age of eighty years. 
He was a man of retiring nature and took no part in public affairs. 
His family consisted of six children, the subject of this sketch 
being the fifth in order of birth. 

Dr. Donahoe grew to manhood in his native city, where he re- 



43 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



ceived his primary education, then entered the Christian Brothers 
School, and from there attended St. Francis Xavier College, Anti- 
gonish, from which institution he was graduated in 1904; he next 
studied at the Jesuit University at Georgetown, a suburb of Wash- 
ington City. He received the degree of Master of Arts in this 
institution "in 1905, then went to Montreal, spending three years in 
the Grand Seminary. From 1909-1912 he was a student of the 
Canadian College at Rome, taking the degree of Doctor of Philo- 
sophy at the I "ropaganda, and the degree of Doctor of Canon Law 
at the Apollinaris. Returning to Halifax he became a professor in 
St. Mary's College, where he remained one year, then went to 
Bermuda as assistant to Rev. Daly Comeau, and remained there 
eighteen months. In March, 1915. he \vas appointed parish priest 
of the Kentville parish, which covers Kentville, Wolfville, Canning 
and other towns in this part of the Province. He is genial, popular 
and is highly appreciated by his parishioners. 

JOSEPH STAXTOX ROCKWELL. D. D. S. 

Among the able and widely-known professional men of Kings 
County is Dr. Joseph Stanton Rockwell, of Kentville, a man who 
has spared neither means nor time in properly equipping himself for 
his chosen vocation and therefore he has succeeded. 

Dr. Rockwell was born at Wolfville, Nova Scotia, July i, 1868, 
and is a son of William A. and Elizabeth C. (Kinsman) Rockwell, 
both natives of Kings County, where they grew up, were educated 
and married. The father is deceased, but the mother is still living 
in Kings County. A sketch of the Rockwell family, one of the old- 
est of this section of the Province, appears on another page of this 
work. 

Dr. Rockwell grew to manhood in his native community and he 
received his primary education in the public schools, then went to 
the States and took the course in the dental department of the 
Baltimore University, Baltimore, Maryland, from which institution 
he was graduated in 1901. Soon thereafter he returned north and 
began the practice of his profession at St. John, New Brunswick, 
remaining in that city a little over one year, then came to Kentville, 
where he has remained to the present time and has enjoyed an ex- 
cellent patronage all the while. 

Dr. Rockwell was married October 9, 1907, to Belle M. Sheffield, 
a daughter of DeLancy and Mary (McNab) Sheffield, who are 



HISTORY OF NOVA SCOTIA. 



43' 



making their home in Upper Cunard, this Province. To the Doctor 
and wife one child has been born Mary Winnifred, whose birth 
occurred October 13, 1912. 

Religiously, Dr. Rockwell is a Presbyterian. He belongs to the 
Provincial Dental Association and the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. 

ARTHUR FREDERICK MILLER, M. D. 

Everyone, in addition to his ordinary workday life, whether it 
be profesoisnal, political, commercial, or one of manual labor, needs 
to have something aside from his material existence to which he can 
turn for relaxation. If he is to escape the limitations of a common- 
place existence, he must build for himself a home in the realm of the 
ideal. Dr. Arthur Frederick Miller, of Kentville, Kings County, is 
one who knows the value of good ideals, an intellectual abode, and 
thus he is not only a successful man in his chosen field of endeavor 
but is a good citizen. 

Dr. Miller was born in Alberton, Prince County. Prince Edward 
Island, October 31, 1876. Pie is a son of Lemuel and Margaret 
Hannah Miller, both natives of Covehead, Prince Edward Island, the 
father's birth having occurred in 1834 and that of the mother in 1839. 
The immigrant ancestor of this family came from Perthshire, Scot- 
land, in 1770, and settled in Covehead. Prince Edward Island, where 
he engaged in