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3 1833 00825 8227 

f . 1778. 



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- ^-"^ 1 

VOL. I. 


L. A. Williams & Co. 


i 1882. 

Reproduction by 

Unigraphic, Inc. 

4400 Jackson Avenue 

EvansviUe, Indiana 47715 

Nineteen Hundred Sixty-eight 


Prefatory Note, 

The compilers and publishers of this volume acknowledge with thankfulness the invaluable aid 
and co-operation of many citizens of Louisville and other parts of the country, who have mani- 
fested the liveliest interest in the enterprise and the friendliest feeling for it. We desire particu- 
larly to name, as objects of this gratitude, Richard H. Collins, LL. D., the distmguished historian 
of Kentucky; Colonel R. T. Durrett; Colonel Thomas W. Bullitt; Mr. C. K. Caron, publisher 
of an almost unrivaled series of City Directories; ex-Governor Charles Anderson, of Kuttawa, 
Owen county, Kentucky; Miss Annie V. Pollard, librarian of the Polytechnic Society, whose 
fine collection of books was freely placed at the disposal of our writers; and Mrs. Jennie F. 
Atwood, of the Louisville Public Library. Obligations of almost equal weight should be 
acknowledged to many more, too numerous to be named here. Some of them, who have most 
kindly contributed sections of the work, are mentioned hereafter, in text or foot-notes. 

The chief authorities for the annals of the city have necessarily been McMurtrie's Sketches of 
Louisville, Ben Casseday's little but very well prepared History, Colonel Durrett's newspaper 
articles, and Dr. Collins's History of Kentucky; though a multitude of volumes, pamphlets, news- 

(^ paper files, oral traditions, and other sources of information, have been likewise diligently consulted. 

^ The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Kentucky has furnished large, though by no means exclusive, 
, materials for certain of the chapters. It is hoped that the total result of the immense labor of 

Q- investigation, compilation, and arrangement, will at least redeem this work from the scope of 

sv Horace Walpole's remark, "Read me anything but history, for history must be false;" or the 


OS reproach of Napoleon's question, "What is history after all, but a fiction agreed upon?" 

. Cleveland, Ohio, May 24, 1882. 






I. — The Mound Builder 

II.— The Red Man 
HI.— The White Man 
I\''. — George Rogers Clark ■ 

V. — The Falls, the Canal and the Bridges 
VI. — Roads, Railroads, and Steamers 






' PAGE. 
• .65' 



I. — Topography and Geology 
II. — Civil Organization — Jeftersoii county 
III. — Courts and Court-houses 

IV. — Military Record of Jefferson county 85 


I. — The Site of Louisville ., . . x 153 

II. — Before Louisville Was .... 157 

III. — Louisville's First Decade . . . 175 

IV. — The Second Decade .... 202 

V. — The Third Decade .... 211 

. XII.- 
, XVI.— 

-The Fourth Decade 


-The Filth Decade . . . 


The Sixth Decade 

. 264 

-The Seventh Decade 


-The Eighth Decade 


-The Ninth Decade 


-The Tenth Decade 


-The Incomplete Decade 


-The Ancient Suburbs 


-Religion in Louisville 


-The Charities of Louisville 


— Public Education in Louisville 


— Louisville Libraries 


. —The Press of Louisville 


. — The Medical Profession 


. — Bench and Bar 


— General Business 


— Societies and Clubs . 


. — The City Government 


— The Civil List of Louisville . 


Appendix .... 





Alexander, General E. P. 


uridgeford, James . 


A/ery, Benjamin F. . . ^ 


Brown, James .... 


Aaderson, James, Jr. . 


Baxter, Ex-mayor John G. 


Bullitt, Family . . , . 


Campbell, Colonel John 


Bullitt, Captain 


Clark, George Rogers 


Butler, Professor Noble 


Casseday, Sr.muel . . . b 

etween 252 and 253 

Bell, T. S.. M. D. 


Caldwell, William B., M. D. 


Bodine, Professor James Morrison, M. D. 


Cheatham, Dr. W. . 

. 458 

Bieyfogle, William L., M. D. 


Cummins, Dr. David 


Boiling, Dr. W. H. 


Coomes, Dr. M. F. . 

. 461 

Bullock, William Fontaine 


Caldwell, George Alfred . 


Barr, John W. . . . . 


Caldwell, Isaac 

■ 496 

Bloom, Nathan 


Curd, Haiden Trigg , 


Boone, Squire .... 


Casseday, Samuel 

• 565 

Boone, Colonel William P. 

. 496c 

Coggeshall, Samuel 


Boone, Colonel J. Rowan 


Danforth, Joseph 

. 566 

Bruce, Hon. H. W. . 


Foree, Erasmus D., M. D. 


Bullitt, Alexander Scott . 


Fischer, Joseph J. 


Bullitt, William Christian 


Guthrie, James 





Hewett, R. C, M. D. 


Phelps, James S. 


Harrison, Major John 


Prather, Captain Basil 


Harbison, Alexander . 

• 569 

Quarrier, Archibald A. 

• 544 

JeJferson, Hon. Thomas L. 


Reynolds, Professor Dudley Sharpe M. D. . 453 

Jacob, Charles D. 

- 496^ 

Robinson, R. A. 


KeUy, Colonel R. M. . 


Robinson, Rev. Stuart, D. D. 


Kastenbine, L. D., M. D. 


Short, Charles Wilkins, M. D. 


Kinkead, Joseph B., Esq. 


Scott, Preston Brown, A. M., M. D. 


Kincaid, Hon. C. E. . 


Speed, Hon. James 

. 432 

Litbgow, James S. ... 


Stites, Judge Henry J. 


Long, Dennis .... 


Standiford, Hon. E. D." 


Long, Charles R. . 


Swagar, Captain Joseph . ' . 


Long, William H., M. D. 


Sherley, Captain Z. M. 


Mathews, Joseph McDowell, M. D. 


Tarascons, The 


Morris, Hon. George W. 


Tilden, Charles 


Moore, George H. ... 


Tyler, Levi 


Miller, Judge Isaac 

. 496^ 

Trabue, James 


Miller. Robert N. . 


Veech, R. S. 


Miller, Dr. Warwick . 

• 496/ 

Verhoeff, H. Jr. 


Norton, Rev. Dr. J. N. . . 


Wilson, Hon. W. S. 


Newcomb, H. Victor 


Ward, Hon. R. J. . 


Prentice, George D. . . . 


Yandell, Dr. L. P. Sr. 


Pirtle, Judge Henry 


Yandell, Dr. L. P. Jr. 

. 462 

Pope, Worden .... 


History of the Ohio Falls Counties, 



The American Aborigine — The Primitive Dweller at the 
Falls — The Toltecs — The Mound Builders' Empire — 'Wieir 
\/orks — Enclosuresfor Defense— Sacred Enclosures — Mis- 
cellaneous Enclosures — Mounds of Sacrifice — Temple 
Mounds — Burial Mounds — Signal Mounds— Effigy or Ani- 
mal Mounds — Garden Beds — Mmes — Contents of the 
Mounds — The Mound Builders' Civilization — The Build- 
ers about the Falls — Curious Relics Found. 


The red men whom Columbus found upon 
this continent, and whom he mistakenly calls 
Indians, were not its aborigines. Before them 
were the strange, mysterious people of the 
mounds, who left no literature, no inscriptions 
as yet decipherable, if any indeed, no monu- 
ments except the long-forest-covered earth- and 
stone-works. No traditions of them, by com- 
mon consent of all the tribes, were left to the 
North American Indian. As a race, they have 
vanished utterly in the darkness of the past. 
But the comparatively slight traces they have 
left tend to conclusions of deep interest and im- 
portance, not only highly probable, but rapidly 
approaching certainty. Correspondences in the 
manufacture of pottery and in the rude sculp- 
tures found, the common use of the serpent- 
symbol, the likelihood that all were sun-worship- 
ers and practiced the horrid rite of human 
sacrifice, and the tokens of commercial inter- 
course manifest by the presence of Mexican por- 
phyry and obsidian in the Ohio Valley mounds, 
together with certain statements of the Mexican 
annalists, satisfactorily demonstrate, in the judg 
ment of many antiquaries, the racial alliance, if 
not the identity, of our Mound Builders with the 
ancient Mexicans, whose descendants, with their 
remarkable civilization, were found in the coun- 

try when Cortes entered it in the second decade 
of the sixteenth century. 
j The migrations of the Toltecs, one of the 
■ Mexican tribes, from parts of the territory now 
j covered by the United States, are believed to 
I have reached through about a thousand years. 
Apart from the exile of the princes and their 
allies, and very likely an exodus now and then 
j compelled by their enemies and ultimate con- 
' querors, the Chichimecs, who at last followed 
them to Mexico, the Mound Builders were un- 
doubtedly, in the course of the ages, pressed 
upon, and finally the last of them — unless the 
Natchez and Mandan tribes, as some suppose, 
are to be considered connecting links between 
the Toltecs and the American Indians — driven 
out by the red men. The usual opening of the 
gateways in their works of defense, looking to 
the east and northeastward, indicates the direc- 
tion from which their enemies were expected. 
They were, not improbably, the terrible Iroquois 
and their allies, the first really formidable In- 
dians encountered by the French discoverers 
and explorers in "New France" in the seven- 
teenth century. A silence as of the grave is 
upon the history of their wars, doubtless long 
and bloody, the savages meeting with skilled and 
determined resistance, but their ferocious and 
repeated attacks, continued,, mayhap, through 
several centuries, at last expelling the more civi- 
lized people — 

"And the Mound Builders vanished from the earth," 

unless, indeed, as the works of learned antiqua- 
ries assume and as is assumed above, they after- 
wards appear in the Mexican story. Many of 
the remains of the defensive works at the South 
and across the land toward Mexico are of an un- 
finished type and pretty plainly indicate that the 
retreat of the Mound Builders was in that direc- 



tion, and that it was hastened by the renewed 
onslaughts of their fierce pursuers or by the dis- 
covery of a fair and distant land, to which they 
determined to emigrate in the hope of secure 
and untroubled homes. Professor Short, how- 
ever, in his North Americans of Antiquity, 
arguing from the lessor age of trees found upon 
the Southern works, is "led to think the Gulf 
coast may have been occupied by the Mound 
Builders for a couple of centuries after they were 
driven by their enemies from the country north 
of the mouths of the Missouri and Ohio rivers." 
He believes two thousand years is time enough 
to allow for their total occupation of the country 
north of the Gulf of Mexico, "though after all 
it is but conjecture." He adds : "It seems to 
us, however, that the time of abandonment of 
their works may be more closely approximated. 
A thousand or two years may have elapsed since 
they vacated the Ohio valley, and a period em- 
bracmg seven or eight centuries may have passed 
since they retired from the Gulf coast." The 
date to which the latter period carries us 
back, approximates somewhat closely to that fixed 
by the Mexican annalists as the time of the last 
emigration of a people of Nahuan stock from the 


Here we base upon firmer ground. The ex- 
tent and something of the character of this are 
known. They are tangible and practical reali- 
ties. We stand upon the mounds, pace off" the 
long lines of the enclosures, collect and handle 
and muse upon the long-buried relics now in our 
public and private museums. The domain of 
the Mound Builders was well-nigh coterminous 
with that of the Great Republic. Few States of 
the Union are wholly without the ancient monu- 
ments. Singular to say, however, in view of the 
huge heaps and barrows of shells left by the 
aboriginal man along the Atlantic shore, there 
are no earth or stone mounds or enclosures of the 
older construction on that coast. Says Professor 
Short : 

No authentic remains of the Mound Ruilders are found in 
the New England States. . . . in the former 
we have an isolated mound in the valley of the Kennebec, in 
Maine, and dim outlines of enclosures neat .Sanborn and Con- 
cord, in New Hampshire; but there is no certainty of their 
being the work of this people. . . . Mr. .Squier 
pronounces them to be purely the work of Red Indians. 
Colonel Whittlesey would assign these fort- 

like structures, the enclosures of Western New York, and com- 
mon upon the rivers discharging themselves into Lakes Erie 
and Ontario from the south, differing from the more southern 
enclosures, in that they were surrounded by trenches on their 
outside, while the latter uniformly have the trench on the in- 
side of the enclosure, to a people anterior to the red Indian 
and perhaps contemporaneous with the Mound Builders, 
but distinct from either. The more reasonable view is that 
of Dr. Foster, that they are the frontier works of the Mound 
Builders, adapted to the purposes of defense against the sud- 
den irruptions of hostile tribes. . . . It is 
probable that these defenses belong to the last period of the 
Mound Builders' residence on the lakes, and were erected 
when the more warlike peoples of the North, who drove them 
from their cities, first made their appearance. 

The Builders quarried flint in various places, 
soapstone m Rhode Island and North Carolina, 
and in the latter State also the translucent mica 
found so widely dispersed in their burial mounds 
in association with the bones of the dead. They 
mined or made salt, and in the Upper Peninsula 
of Michigan they got out, with infinite labor, the 
copper, which was doubtless their most useful 
and valued metal. The Lower Peninsula of that 
State is rich in ancient remains, particularly in 
mounds of sepulture; and there are "garden 
beds" in the valleys of the St. Joseph and the 
Kalamazoo, in Southwestern Michigan; but "ex- 
cepting ancient copper mines, no known works 
extend as far north as Lake Superior anywhere 
in the central region. Farther to the northwest, 
however, the works of the same people are com- 
paratively numerous. Dr. Foster quotes a Brit- 
ish Columbia newspaper, without giving either 
name or date, as authority for the discovery of a 
large number of mounds, seemingly the works of 
the same people who built further east and south. 
On the Butte prairies of Oregon, Wilkes and his 
exploring expedition discovered thousands of 
similar mounds." We condense further from 

All the way up the Yellowstone region and on the upper 
tributaries of the Missouri, mounds are found in profusion. 
The Missouri valley seems to have been 
one of the most populous branches of the widespread Mound 
Builder country. The valleys of its affluents, the Platte and 
Kansas rivers, also furnish evidence that these streams served 
as the channels into which flowed a part of the tide of popula- 
tion which either descended or ascended the Missouri. The 
Mississippi and Ohio river valleys, however, formed the great 
central arteries of the Mound Builder domain. In Wiscon- 
sin we find the northern central limit of their works; occa- 
sionally, on the western shores of Lake Michigan, but in great 
numbers in the southern counties of the State, and especially 
on the lower Wisconsin river. 

The remarkable similarity of one group of 
works, on a branch of Rock river in the south of 


that State, to some of the Mexican antiquities led 
to the christening of the adjacent village as 
Aztalan — which (or Aztlan), meaning whiteness, 
was a name of the " most attractive land" some- 
where north of Mexico and the sometime home 
of the Aztec and the other Nahuan nations. If 
rightly conjectured as the Mississippi valley, or 
some part of it, that country may well have in- 
cluded the site of the modern Aztalan. 

Across the Mississippi, in Minnesota and Iowa, the pre- 
dominant type of circular tumuli prevails, extending through- 
out the latter State to Missouri. There are evidences that 
the Upper Missouri region was connected with that of the 
Upper Mississippi by settlements occupying the intervening 
country. Mounds are often found even in the valley of the 
Red river of the North. . . . Descending to the 
interior, we find the heart of the Mound Builder country in 
Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. It is uncertain whether its vital 
cen Ler was in Southern Illinois or Ohio — probably the former, 
because of its geographical situation with reference to the 
mouths of the Missouri and Ohio rivers. 
The site of St. Louis was formerly covered with mounds, one 
of which was thirty-five feet high, while in the American Bot- 
tom, on the Illinois side of the river, their number approxi- 
mates two hundred. 

It is pretty well known, we believe, that St. 
Louis takes its fanciful title of "Mound City" 
from the former fact. 

The multitude of mound works which are scattered over 
the entire northeastern portion of Missouri indicate that the 
region was once inhabited by a population so numerous that 
in comparison its present occupants are only as the scattered 
pioneers of a new settled country. . . . The same 
sagacity which chose the neighborhood of St. Louis for these 
works, covered the site of Cincinnati with an extensive sys- 
tem of circumvallations and mounds. Almost the entire 
space now occupied by the city was utilized by the mysterious 
Builders in the construction of embankments and tumuli, 
built upon the most accurate geometrical principles, and 
evincing keen military foresight. . . The vast 

number as well as magnitude of the works found in the State 
of Ohio, have surprised the most careless and indifferent ob- 
servers. It is estimated by the most conservative, and 
Messrs. Squier and Davis among them, that the number of 
tumuli in Ohio equals ten thousand, and the number of en- 
closures one thousand or one thousand five hundred. In 
Ross county alone one hundred enclosures and upwards of 
five hundred mounds have been examined. The Alleghany 
mountains, the natural limit of the great Mississippi basin, 
appear to have served as the eastern and southeastern bound- 
ary of the Mound Builder country. In Western New York, 
Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and in all of Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, their remains are numerous, and in 
some instances imposing. In Tennessee, especially, the 
Works of the Mound Builders are of the most interesting 
character. . . . Colonies of Mound Builders 
seem to have passed the great natural barrier in North Caro- 
lina and left remains in Marion county, while still others 
penetrated into South Carolina, and built on the Wateree 

Mounds in Mississippi also have been ex- 
amined, with interesting results. 

On the southern Mississippi, in the area embraced between 
the termination of the Cumberland mountains, near Florence 
and Tuscumbia, in Alabama, and the mouth of Big Black 
river, this people left numerous works, many of which were 
of a remarkable charactei. The whole region bordering on 
the tributaries of the Tombigbee, the country through which 
the Wolf river flows, and that watered by the Yazoo river 
and its affluents, was densely populated by the same people 
who built mounds in the Ohio valley. . . . The 
State of Louisiana and the valleys cf the Arkansas and Red 
rivers were not only the most thickly populated wing of the 
Mound Builder domain, but also furnish us with remains pre- 
senting affinities with the great works of Mexico so striking 
that no doubt can longer exist that the same people were the 
architects of both. . . It is needless to discuss 

the fact that the works of the Mound Builders exist in con- 
siderable numbers in Texas, extending across the Rio Grande 
into Mexico, establishing an unmistakable relationship as 
well as actual union between the truncated pyramids of the 
Mississippi valley and the Tocalli of Mexico, and the coun- 
tries further south. 

Such, in a general way, was the geographical 
distribution of the Mound Builders within and 
near the territory now occupied by the United 


They are — such of them as are left to our day 
— generally of earth, occasionally of stone, and 
more rarely of earth and stone intermixed. Dried 
bricks, in some instances, are found in the walls 
and angles of the best pyramids of the Lower 
Mississippi valley. Often, especially for the 
works devoted to religious purposes, the earth 
has not been taken from the surrounding soil, 
but has been transported from a distance, prob- 
ably from some locality regarded as sacred. 
They are further divided into enclosures and 
mounds or tumuli. The classification of these 
by Squier and Davis, in their great work on "The 
Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," 
published by the Smithsonian Institution thirty- 
four years ago, has not yet been superseded. It 
IS as follows: 

I. Enclosures — For Defense, Sacred, Mis- 

II. Mounds — Of Sacrifice, or Temple-sites, 
of Sepulture, of Observation., 

To these may properly be added the Animal 
or Efifigy (emblematic or symbolical) Mounds, 
and some would add Mounds for Residence. 
The Garden-beds, if true retHains of the Build- 
ers, may also be considered a separate class ; 
likewise mines and roads, and there is some 
reason to believe that canals may be added. 



L Enclosures for Defense. A large and 
interesting class of the works is of such a nature 
that the object for which they were thrown up is 
unmistakable. The "forts," as they are popu- 
larly called, are found throughout the length and 
breadth of the Mississippi valley, from the Alle- 
ghanies to the Rocky mountains. The livers of 
this vast basin have worn their valleys deep in 
the original plain, leaving broad terraces leading 
like gigantic steps up to the general level of the 
country. The sides of the terraces are often 
steep and difficult of access, and sometimes 
quite inaccessible. Such locations would natur- 
ally be selected as the site of defensive works, 
and there, as a matter of fact, the strong and 
complicated embankments of the Mound Build- 
ers are found. The points have evidently been 
chosen with great care, and are such as would, in 
most cases, be approved by modern military en- 
gineers. They are usually on the higher ground, 
ind are seldom commanded from positions suffi- 
ciently near to make them' untenable through the 
use of the short-range weapons of the Builders, 
and, while rugged and steep on some of their 
sides, have one or more points of easy ap- 
proach, in the protection of which great skill and 
labor seem to have been expended. They are 
never found, nor, in general, any other remains 
of the Builders, upon the lowest or latest-formed 
river terraces or bottoms. They are of irregular 
shape, conforming to the nature of the ground, 
and are often strengthened by extensive ditches. 
The usual defense is a simple embankment 
thrown up along and a little below the brow of 
the hill, varying in height and thickness accord- 
ing to the defensive advantage given by the nat- 
ural declivity. 

"The walls generally wind around the borders 
of the elevations they occupy, and when the na- 
ture of the ground renders some points more ac- 
cessible than others, the height of the wall and the 
depth of the ditch at those weak points are pro- 
portionally increased. The gateways are- narrow 
and few in number, and well guarded by embank- 
ments of earth placed a few yards inside of the 
openings or gateways and parallel with them, and 
projecting somewhat beyond them at each end, 
thus fully covering the entrances, which, in some 
cases, are still further protected by projecting 
walls on either side of them. These works are 
somewhat numerous, and indicate a clear appre- 

ciation, of thf: elements, at least, of fortification, ^, 
and unmistakably point out the purpose for 
which they were constructed. A large number 
of these defensive works consist of a line of 
ditch and embankment, or several hnes carried 
across the neck of penmsulas or bluff headlands, 
formed within the bends of streams — an easy 
and obvious mode of fortification, common to 
all rude peoples."* Upon the side where a pe- 
ninsula or promontory merges into the mainland 
of the terrace or plateau, the enclosure is usually 
guarded by double or overlapping walls, or a 
series of them, having sometimes an accompany- 
ing mound, probably designed, like many of the 
mounds apart from the enclosures, as a lookout 
station, corresponding in this respect to the bar- 
bican of our British ancestors in the Middle 

As natural strongholds the positions they oc- 
cupy could hardly be excelled, and the labor and 
skill expended to strengthen them artificially 
rarely fail to awake the admiration and surprise 
of the student of our antiquities. Some of the 
works are enclosed by miles of embankment 
still ten to fifteen feet high, as measured from the 
bottom of the ditch. In some cases the num- 
ber of openings in the walls is so large as to lead 
to the conclusion that certain of them were not 
used as gateways, but were occupied by bastions 
or block-houses long ago decayed. This is a 
• marked peculiarity of the great work known as 
" Fort Ancient," on the Little Miami river and 
railroad, in Warren county, Ohio. Some of the 
forts have very large or smaller " dug-holes " in- 
side, seemingly designed as reservoirs for use 
in a state of siege. Occasionally parallel earth- 
walls, of lower height than the embankments of 
the main work, called "covered ways," are found 
adjacent to enclosures, and at times connecting 
separate works, and seeming to be intended for 
the protection of those passing to and fro within 
them. These are considered by some antiqua- 
ries, however, as belonging to the sacred en- 

This class of works abound in Ohio. Squier 
and Davis express the opinion that "there seems 
to have been a system of defenses extending 
from the sources of the Susquehanna and Alle- 
ghany, in Western New York, diagonally across 
the country through central and northern Ohio 

•American Cyclopiedia, article "American Antiquities." 



to the Wabash. Within this range the works that 
are regarded as defensive are largest and most 
numerous." The most notable, however, of the 
works usually assigned to this class in this 
country is in Southern Ohio, forty-two miles 
northeast of Cincinnati. It is the Fort Ancient 
already mentioned. This is situated upon a terrace 
on the left bank of the river, two hundred and 
thirty feet above the Little Miami, and occupies 
a peninsula defended by two ravines, while the 
river itself, with a high, precipitous bank, de- 
fends the western side. The walls are between 
four and five miles long, and ten to twenty feet 
high, accordmg to the natural strength of the 
line to be protected. A resemblance has been 
traced in the walls of the lower enclosure "to the 
forui of two massive serpents, which are ap- 
parently contending with one another. Their 
heads are the mounds, which are separated from 
the bodies by the opening, which resembles a 
ring around the neck. They bend in and out, 
and rise and fall, and appear like two massive 
green serpents rolling along the summit of this 
high hill. Their appearance under the over- 
hanging forest trees is very impressive."* Others 
have found a resemblance in the form of the 
whole work to a rude outline of the continent of 
North and South America. 

II. Sacred Enclosures. — Regularity of form 
is the characteristic of these. They are not, 
however, of invariable shape, but are found in 
various geometrical figures, as circles, squares, 
hexagons, octagons, ellipses, parallelograms, and 
others, either singly or in combination. How- 
ever large, they were laid out with astounding 
accuracy, and show that the Builders had some 
scientific knowledge, a scale of measurement, 
and the means of computing areas and determm- 
ing angles. They are often in groups, but also 
often isolated. Most of them are of small size, 
two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet in 
diameter, with one gateway usually opening to 
the east, as if for the worship of the sun, and the 
ditch invariably on the inside. These are fre- 
quently inside enclosures of a different character, 
particularly military works. A sacrificial mound 
was commonly erected in the center of them. 
The larger circles are oftenest found in connec- 
tion with squares; some of them embrace as 

* Rev. S. D. Peet, in the American Antiquarian for April, 

many as fifty acres. They seldom have a ditch, 
but when they do,, it is inside the wall. The 
rectangular works with which they are combined 
are believed never to haive a ditch. In several 
States a combined work of a square with two 
circles is often found, usually agreeing in this re- 
markable fact, that each side of thfe rectangle 
measures exactly one thousand and eighty >(£et, 
and the circles respectively are seventeen hun 
dred and eight hundred feet in diameter. The 
frequency and wide prevalence of this uniformity 
demonstrate that it could not have been acci- 
dental. The square enclosures almost invariably 
have eight gateways at the angles and midway 
between, upon each side, all of which are covered, 
or defended by small mounds. The parallels 
before mentioned are sometimes found in con- 
nection with this class of works. From the 
Hopetown work, near Chillicothe, Ohio, a 
"covered way" led to the Scioto river, many 
hundred feet distant. 

III. Miscellaneous Enclosures. — The 
difficulty of referring many of the smaller circular 
works, thirty to fifty feet in diameter, found in 
close proximity to large works, to previous classes, 
has prompted the suggestion that they were the 
foundations of lodges or habitations of chiefs, 
priests, or other prominent personages among the 
Builders. In one case within the writer's obser- 
vation, a rough stone foundation about four rods 
square was found isolated from any other work, 
near the Scioto river, in the south part of Ross 
county, Ohio. At the other extreme of size, the 
largest and most complex of the works, as those 
at Newark, are thought to have served, in part at 
least, other than religious purposes — that they 
may, besides furnishing spaces for sacrifice and 
worship, have included also arenas for games and 
marriage celebrations and other festivals, the 
places of general assembly for the tribe or village, 
the encampment or more permanent residences 
of the priesthood and chiefs. 

IV. Mounds of Sacrifice.— These have sev- 
eral distinct characteristics. In height they sel- 
dom exceed eight feet. They occur only within or 
near the enclosures commonly considered as the 
sacred places of the Builders, and are usually 
stratified in convex layers of clay or loam alter- 
nating above a layer of fine sand. Beneath 
the strata, and upon the original surface of the 
earth at the centre of the mound, are usually 



symmetrically formed altars of stone or burnt 
clay, evidently brought from a distance. Upon 
them are found various remains, all of which ex- 
hibit signs of the action of fire, and some which 
have excited the suspicion that the Builders 
practiced the horrid rite of human sacrifice. Not 
only calcined bones, but naturally ashes, char- 
coal, and igneous stones are found with them; 
also beads, stone implements, simple sculptures, 
and pottery. The remains are often in such a 
condition as to indicate that the altars had been 
covered before the fires upon them were fully 
extinguished. Skeletons are occasionally found 
in this class of mounds; though these may have 
been "intrusive burials," made after the construc- 
tion of the works and contrary to their original 
intention. Though symmetrical, the altars are 
by no means uniform in shape or size. Some 
are round, some elliptical, others square or par- 
allelograms. In size they vary from two to fifty 
feet in length, and are of proportional width and 
height, the commoner dimensions being five to 
eight feet. 

V. Temple Mounds are not numerous. 
They are generally larger than the altar and 
burial mounds, and are more frequently circular 
or oval, though sometimes found m other shapes. 
The commonest shape is that of a truncated 
cone; and in whatever form a mound of this 
class may be, it always has a flattened or level 
top, giving it an unfinished look. Some are 
called platforms, from their large area and slight 
elevation. They are, indeed, almost always of 
large base and comparatively small height. Oft- 
en, as might reasonably be expected, they are 
within a sacred enclosure, and some are terraced 
or have spiral ascents or graded inclines to their 
summits. They take their name from the prob- 
able fact that upon their flat tops were reared 
structures of wood, the temples or "high places" 
of this people, which decayed and disappeared 
ages ago. In many cases in the Northern States 
these must have been small, from the smallness 
of their sites upon the mounds; but as they are 
followed southward they are seen, as might be 
expected, to increase gradually and approximate 
more closely to perfect construction, until they 
end in the great teocallis ("houses of God"). 
One remarkable platform of this kind in Whit- 
ley county, Kentucky, is three hundred and sixty 
feet long by one hundred and fifty feet wide and 

twelve high, with graded ascents;" and another, 
at Hopkinsville, is so large that the county court- 
house is built upon it. The great mound at Ca- 
hokia, Missouri, is of this class. Its truncated 
top measured two hundred by four hundred and 
fifty-two feet. 

VI. Burial Mounds furnish by far the most 
numerous class of tumuli. The largest mounds 
in the country are generally of this kind. The 
greatest of all, the famous mound at Grave 
creek, Virginia, is seventy-five feet high, and has 
a circumference at the base of about one thou- 
sand. In solid contents it is nearly equal to the 
third pyramid of Mykerinus, in Egypt. The 
huge mound on the banks of the Great Miami, 
twelve miles below Dayton, has a height of sixty- 
eight feet. Many of the burial mounds are six 
feet or less in height, but the average height, as 
deduced from wide observation of them, is 
stated as about twenty feet. They are usually 
of conical form. It is conjectured that the size 
of these mounds has an immediate relation to 
the former importance of the personage or family 
buried in them. Only three skeletons have so 
far been found in the mighty Grave Creek 
mound. Except in rare cases, they contain but 
one skeleton, unless by "intrusive" or later 
burial, as by Indians, who frequently used the 
ancient mounds for purposes of sepulture. One 
Ohio mound, however — that opened by Profes- 
sor Marsh, of Yale college, in Licking county — 
contained seventeen skeletons; and another, m 
Hardin county, included three hundred. But 
these are exceptional instances. Calcined hu- 
man bones in some burial mounds at the North, 
with charcoal and ashes in close proximity, show 
that cremation was occasionally practiced, or that 
fire was used in the funeral ceremonies; and 
"urn burial" prevailed considerably in the South- 
ern States. 

At times a rude chamber or cist of stone or 
timber contained the remains. In the latter case 
the more fragile material has generally disap- 
peared, but casts of it in the earth are still ob- 
servable. The stone cists furnish some of the 
most interesting relics found in the mounds. 
They are, in rare cases, very large, and contain 
several bodies, with various relics. They are 
like large stone boxes, made of several flat stones, 
joined without cement or fastening. Similar, but 
much smaller, are the stone coffins found in large 



number in Illinois and near Nashville, Tennes- 
see. They are generally occupied by single 
bodies. In other cases, as in recent discoveries 
near Portsmouth and elsewhere in Ohio, the 
slabs are arranged slanting upon each other in 
the shape of a triangle, and having, of course, 
a triangular vault in the interior. In the Cum- 
berland mountams heaps of loose stones are 
found over skeletons, but these stone mounds 
are probably of Indian origin, and so compara- 
tively modern. Implements, weapons, orna- 
ments, and various remains of art, as in the later 
Indian custom, were buried with the dead. Mica 
is often found with the skeletons, with precisely 
what meaning is not yet ascertained; also pot- 
tery, beads of bone, copper, and even glass- 
indicating, some think, commercial intercourse 
with Europe — and other articles in great variety, 
are present. 

There is, also, probably, a sub-class of mounds 
that may be mentioned in this connection — the 
Memorial or Monumental mounds, thrown up, 
it is conjectured, to perpetuate the celebrity of 
some important event or in honor of some emi- 
nent personage. They are usually of earth, but 
occasionally, in this State at least, of stone. 

VII. Signal Mounds, or Mounds of Ob- 
servation. This is a numerous and very inter- 
esting and important class of the works. 
Colonel Anderson, of Circleville, Ohio, a des- 
cendant of the well-known Louisville family, 
thinks he has demonstrated by actual survey, 
made at his own expense, the existence of a 
regular chain or system of these lookouts through 
the Scioto valley, from which, by signal fires, in- 
telligence might be rapidly flashed over long dis- 
tances. About twenty such mounds occur be- 
tween Columbus and Chillicothe, on the eastern 
side of the Scioto. In Hamilton county, in the 
same State, a chain of mounds, doubtless de- 
voted to such purpose, can be traced from the 
primitive site of Cincinnati to the "old fort," 
near the mouth of the Great Miami. Along 
both the Miamis numbers of small mounds on 
the projecting headlands and on heights in the 
interior are indubitably signal mounds. 

Like the defensive works already described as 
part of the military system of the Builders, the 
positions of these works were chosen with ex 
cellent judgment. They vary in size, according 
to the height of the natural eminences upon 

which they are placed. Many still bear the 
marks of intense heat upon their summits, re- 
sults of the long-extinct beacon fires. Some- 
times they are found in connection with the 
embankments and enclosures, as an enlarged 
and elevated part ot the walls. One of these, 
near Newark, Ohio, though considerably reduced, 
retains a height of twenty-five feet. The huge 
mound at Miamisburg, Ohio, mentioned as a 
burial mound, very likely was used also as a part 
of the chain of signal mounds from above Dayton 
to the Cincinnati plain and the Kentucky bluffs 

VIII. Effigy or Animal Mounds appear 
principally in Wisconsin, on the level surface of 
the prairie. They are of very low height — one to 
six feet — but are otherwise often very large, exten- 
ded figures of men, beasts, birds, or reptiles, and 
in a very few cases of inanimate things. In Ohio 
there are three enormous, remarkable earthwork 
efifigies — the "Eagle mound" in the centre of a 
thirty-acre enclosure near Newark, and supposed 
to represent an eagle on the wing; the ''Alligator 
mound," also in Licking county, two hundred 
and five feet long; and the famous "Great Ser- 
pent," on Brush creek, in Adams county, which 
has a length of seven hundred feet, the tail in a 
triple coil, with a large mound, supposed to rep- 
resent an egg, between the jaws of the figure. 

By some writers these mounds are held to be 
symbolical, and connected with the religion of 
the Builders. Mr. Schoolcraft, however, calls 
them "emblematic," and says they represent the 
totems or heraldic symbols of the Builder tribes. 

IX. Garden Beds. — In Wisconsin, in Mis- 
souri, and in parts of Michigan, and to some ex- 
tent elsewhere, is found a class of simple works 
presumed to be ancient. They are merely ridges 
or beds left by the cultivation of the soil, about 
six inches high and four feet wide, regularly ar- 
ranged in parallel rows, at times rectangular, 
otherwise of various but regular and symmetrical 
curves, and in fields of ten to a hundred acres. 
Where they occur near the animal mounds, they 
are in some cases carried across the latter, which 
would seem to indicate, if the same people exe- 
cuted both works, that no sacred character at 
tached to the efifigies. 

X. Mines. — These, as worked by the Build 
ers, have not yet been found in many difTerenI 
regions; but in the Lake Superior copper region 



their works of this kind are numerous and exten- 
sive. In the Ontonagon country their mining 
traces abound for thirty miles. Colonel Whit- 
tlesey, of Cleveland, estimates that they removed 
meul from this region equivalent to a length of 
one hundred and fifty feet in veins of varying 
thickness. Some of :heir operations approached 
the stupendous. No other remains of theirs are 
found in the Upper Peninsula; and there is no 
probability that they occupied the region for 
other than temporary purposes. 


Besides the human remains which have re- 
ceived sufficient treatment for this article under 
the head of burial mounds, and the altars noticed 
under Mounds of Sacrifice, the contents of the 
work of the Mound Builders are mostly small, 
and many of them unimportant. They have 
been classified hy Dr. Rau, the archaeologist of 
the Smithsonian Institution, according to the 
material of which they are wrought, as follows : 

1. Stone. — This is the most numerous class 
of relics, '^hey were fashioned by chipping, 
grinding, or polishing, and include rude pieces, 
flakes, and cores, as well as finished and more 
or less nearly finished articles. In the first list 
are arrow- and spear-heads, perforators, scrapers, 
cutting and sawing tools, dagger-shaped imple- 
ments, large implements supposed to have been 
used in digging the ground, and wedge or celt- 
shaped tools and weapons. The ground and 
polished specimens, more defined in form, 
comprise wedges or celts, chisels, gouges, 
adzes and grooved axes, hammers, drilled cere- 
monial weapons, cutting tools, scraper and 
spade-like implements, pendants, and sinkers, 
discoidal stones and kindred objects, pierced 
tablets and boat-shaped articles, stones used in 
grinding and polishing, vessels, mortars, pestles, 
tubes, pipes, ornaments, sculptures, and engraved 
stones or tablets. Fragmentary plates of mica or 
isinglass may be included under this head. 

2. Copper. — These are either weapons and 
tools or ornaments, produced, it would seem, by 
hammering pieces of native copper into the re- 
quired shape. 

3. Bone and Horn. — Perforators, harpoon 
heads, fish-hooks, cups, whistles, drilled teeth, 

4. Shell. — Either utensils and tools, as 

celts, drinking-cups, spoons, fish-hooks, etc., or 
ornaments, comprising various kinds of gorgets, 
pendants, and beads. 

5. Ceramic Fabrics. — Pottery, pipes, hu- 
man and animal figures, and vessels in great 

6. Wood. — The objects of early date formed 
of this material are now very few, owing to its 
perishable character. 

To these may be added : 

7. Gold and Silver. — In a recent find in a 
stone cist at Warrensburg, Missouri, a pottery 
vase or jar was found, which had a silver as well 
as a copper band about it. Other instances of 
the kind are on record, and a gold ornament in 
the shape of a woodpecker's head has been taken 
from a mound in Florida. 

8. Textile Fabrics. — A few fragments of 
coarse cloth or matting have survived the de- 
stroying tooth of time, and some specimens, so 
far as texture is concerned, have been very well 
preserved by the salts of copper, when used to 
enwrap articles shaped from that metal. 

the mound builders civilization. 

This theme has furnished a vast field for spec- 
ulation, and the theorists have pushed into a 
wilderness of visionary conjectures. Some in- 
ferences, however, may be regarded as tolerably 
certain. The number and magnitude of their 
works, and their extensive range and uniformity, 
says the American Cyclopaedia, prove that the 
Mound Builders were essentially homogeneous 
in customs, habits, religion, and government. 
The general features common to all their re- 
mains identify them as appertaining to a single 
grand system, owing its origin to men moving in 
the same direction, acting under common im- 
pulses, and influenced by similar causes. Pro- 
fessor Short, in his invaluable work, thinks that, 
however writers may differ, these conclusions 
may be safely accepted : That they came into 
the country in comparatively small numbers at 
first (if they were not Autochthones, and there is 
no substantial proof that the Mound Builders 
were such), and, during their residence in the 
territory occu])i2d by the United States, they be- 
came extremely populous. Their settlements 
were widespread, as the extent of their remains 
indicates. The magnitude of their works, some 
of which approximate the proportions of Egyptian 



pyramids, testify to the architectural talent of the 
people and the fact that they developed a system 
of government controlling the labor of multi- 
tudes, whether of subjects or slaves. They were ' 
an agricultural people, as the extensive ancient 
garden-beds found in Wisconsin and Missouri 
indicate. Their manufactures offer proof that 
they had attained a respectable degree of ad- 
vancement and show that they understood the 
advantages of the division of labor. Their do- 
mestic utensils, the cloth of which they made 
their clothing, and the artistic vessels met with 
everywhere in the mounds, point to the develop- 
ment of home culture and domestic industry. 
There is no reason for believmg that the people 
who wrought stone and clay into perfect effigies 
of animals have not left us sculptures of their 
own faces in the images exhumed from the 

They mined copper, which they wrought into . 
implements of war, into ornaments and articles 
for domestic use. They quarried mica for mir- 
rors and other purposes. They furthermore 
worked flint and salt mines. They probably pos- 
sessed some astronomical knowledge, though to 
what extent is unknown. Their trade, as Dr. Rau 
has shown, was widespread, extending probably 
from Lake Superior to the Gulf, and possibly to 
Mexico. They constructed canals, by which 
lake systems were united, a fact which Mr. 
Conant has recently shown to be well established 
in Missouri. Their defenses were numerous and 
constructed with reference to strategic principles, 
while their system of signals placed on lofty sum- 
mits, visible from their settlements, and com- 
municating with the great water-courses at im- 
mense distances, rival the signal systems in use at 
the beginning of the present century. Their re- 
ligion seems to have been attended with the same 
ceremonies m all parts of their domain. That 
its rites were celebrated with great demonstrations 
is certain. The sun and moon were probably 
the all-important deities to which sacrifices (pos- 
sibly human) were offered. We have already al- 
luded to the development in architecture and art 
which marked the possible transition of this peo- 
ple from north to south. Here we see but the 
rude beginnings of a civilization which no doubt 
subsequently unfolded in its fuller glory in the 
valley of Anahuac and, spreading southward, en- 
grafted new life upon the wreck of Xibalba. 

Though there is no evidence that the Mound 
Builders were indigenous, we must admit that 
their civilization was purely such, the natural pro- 
duct of climate and the conditions surrounding 


But very brief mention is here made of the 
ancient works found in the three counties whose 
history is traversed in this work; but full ac- 
counts of them will be comprised in the chapters 
relating to their respective localities. Professor 
Rafinesque's list of the Antiquities of Kentucky, 
published in 1824, in the introduction to the 
second edition of Marshall's History of Ken- 
tucky, and also in separate form, enumerates but 
four sites of ancient works and one monument 
in Jefferson county, near Louisville. Dr. Mc- 
Murtrie's Sketches of Louisville, published in 
18 19, after some reference to antiquities, says: 

There is nothing of the kind peculiarly interesting in the 
immediate vicinity of Louisville. Mounds or tumuli are 
occasionally met with, some of which have been opened. 
Nothing, however, was found to repay the trouble of the 
search but a few human bones, mixed with others, apparently 
belonging to the deer. 

Some of them were found to contain but a 
single skeleton, and were evidently the tombs of 
chiefs or other dignitaries of the Mound Build- 
ers; while from others of no greater size as many 
as twenty skeletons were taken. 

Hatchets of stone, pestles or grain-beaters of the same nm- 
terial, arrow-heads of flint, together with the remains of 
hearths, indicated by flat stones surrounded by and partly 
covered with broken shells, fragments of bones, charcoal, 
calcined earth, etc., are everywhere to be seen, and some of 
them in situations affording an ample fund for speculation to 
the geognost. Two of the first-mentioned instruments were 
discovered afew miles below the town, at the depth of forty 
feet, near an Indian hearth, on which, among other vestiges 
of a fire, were' found two charred brands, evidently the ex- 
tremities of a stick that had been consumed in the middle of 
this identical spot. The whole of this plain, as we before ob- 
served, is alluvial, and this fact shows to what depth that for- 
mation extends. But at the time the owners of these hatchets 
were seated by this fire, where, I would ask, was the Ohio? 
Certainly not in its present bed, for these remains are below 
its level; and where else it may have been I am at a loss even 
to conjecture, as there are no marks of any obsolete water- 
course whatever, between the river and Silver Creek hills on 
the other side, and between it and the knobs on the other. 

The doctor brings m here the mention of some 
other very interesting antiquities, perhaps of be- 
longing to the period of the Mound Builders ; 

Not many years past an iron hatchet was found in a situar 
*The Americans of Antiquity, pp. 95-100. 



tion equally sing^ular. A tree of immense size, whose roots 
extended thirty or forty feet each way, was obliged to be 
felled and the earth on which it grew to be removed, in order 
to afford room for a wall connected with the foundations of 
the great mill at Shippingport A few feet below tlie sur- 
face, and directly under the center of the tree, which was at 
least six feet in diameter, was fo!ind the article in question, 
which, as was evident upon examination, had been formed 
out of a flat bar of wrou^-'it iron, heated in the fire to red- 
ness and bent double, leaving a round hole at the joint for 
the reception of a handle, the two ends being nicely welded 
together, terminated by a cutting edge. The 

tree must necessarily have grown over the axe previously de- 
posited there, and no human power could have placed it in 
the partictilar position in which it was found, after that event 
had taken place. The tree was upwards of two hundred 
years old. 

Since the learned Scotch doctor's lime, during 
the excavations made for the Louisville & Port- 
land canal between 1826 and 1830, other fire- 
places of rude construction were found in the 
alluvial deposit twenty feet below the surface, 
upon which were brands of partly burnt wood, 
bones pf small animals, and some human skele- 
tons. Many rude implements of bone and flint 
were also thrown out by the pick and shovel, and 
a number of well-wrought specimens of hematite 
of iron, in the shape of plummets or sinkers. 
In the southern part of Louisville, at a depth 
just twice as great, still another ancient hearth 
was found, across which was still a stick of wood 
burnt in the middle, with a stone hatchet and 
pestle lying close by. Some of these remains, 
it is quite possible, should be referred to the age 
of the Mound Builder. 

On the other side of the river were also found 
some objects of antique interest. Says Dr. Mc- 

A little below Clarksville, immediately on the bank of the 
rivef , is the site of a wigwam [village], covered with an allu- 
vial deposition of earth, six feet in depth. Interspersed 
among the hearths, and scattered in the soil beyond them, are 
large quantities of human bones in a very advanced stage of 
decomposition. Facts most generally speak for themselves, 
and this one tells a very simple and probable tale. The vil- 
lage must have been surprised by an enemy, many of whose 
bodies, mixed with those of the inhabitants, were left upon 
the spot. Had it been a common burial-place, something 
like regularity would have been exercised in the disposition of 
the skeletons, neither should we have found them in the same 
plane with the fireplaces of an extensive settlement, or near 
h, but below it. 

The Indiana Gazetteer, or Topographical Dic- 
tionary, of 1833, mentions that in the digging of 
a well at Clarksville was found a walnut plank 
several feet long, more than a foot broad, and 
about two inches in thickness, at the depth of 

forty feet below the surface. It was in a state of 
perfect preservation, and even retained marks of 
the saw as plainly as it it had not been more 
than a week from the mill. 

Further notice of the works of the Mound 
Builders in the Ohio Falls counties we must 
leave to the several local histories in this work. 


A Singular Fact — No Kentucky Indians Proper — A Tradi- 
tion of Extermination — The Indians Visiting and Roaming 
Kentucky — The Shawnees — The Miamis— The Wyandots 
— The Delawares— the Ottawas— The Pottawatomies — The 
Kickapoos — The Weas — The Chickasaws — The Indian 
Treaties — The Jackson Purchase — Fortified Stations — 
Those in Jefferson County — Armstrong's Station — Tragic 
Incidents — Colonel Floyd's Adventure and Death — A Tale 
of the Salt Licks — Bland Ballard Captured and Escapes — 
Another Story of Ballard — The Rowan Party Attacked — 
Alexander Scott Bullitt's Adventure— The Famous Lancaster 
Story — Two Boys Surprised and Taken — The Battle of 
the Pumpkins — Some More Stories — The Hites and the 


It is not a little remarkable that while the 
Kentucky wilderness was the theatre of some of 
the most desperate battles ever fought with the 
North American Indians, and is rife with legends 
of Indian massacre and captivity, it was at no 
time, within their own traditions or the knowl- 
edge of the whites, the residence of any one of 
the red-browed tribes. Most of the savages 
found at any time by the pioneers had crossed 
the Ohio from the North and West, and were 
here for but short periods. It was, in fact, but 
the hunting-ground for the Ohio and Indiana 
tiibes, with their respective territorial jurisdic- 
tions wholly undefined. Between the Shawnee 
or Cumberland river and the Mississippi, how- 
ever, the ownership of the Chickasaws was dis- 
tinctly recognized. Elsewhere the tribes seem to 
have held in common, for their several purposes. 
Says Mr, Henry R. Schoolcraft: 

They landed at secret pomts, as hunters and warriors, and 
had no permanent residence within its boundaries. 
At an early day the head of the Kentucky river became a 
favorite and important point of embarkation for Indians mov- 
ing in predatory or liunting bands, from the South to the 
North and West. The Shawnees, after their great defeat by 



Ihe Cherokees, took that route, and this people always con- 
sidered themselves to have claims to these attractive hunting- 
grounds, where the deer, the elk, buffalo, and bear abounded 
— claims, indeed, whose only foundation was blood and 

The history of these events is replete with the 
highest degree of interest, but cannot here be 
entered on. The following letter, from one of 
the early settlers of the country, is given as show- 
ing the common tradition that, while the area of 
Kentucky was perpetually fought for, as a cher- 
ished part of the Indian hunting-ground, it was 
not, in fact, permanently occupied by any tribe. 
The writer's (Mr. Joseph Ficklin's) attention was 
but incidentally called to the subject. His let- 
ter, which is in answer to a copy of a pamphlet 
of printed inquiries, bears date at Lexington, 
31st of August, 1847: 

I have opened your circular addressed to Dr. Jarvis, 
agreeably to your request, and beg leave to remark that I 
have myself an acquaintance with the Indian history of this 
State from the year 1781, and that nothing is known here 
connected with your inquiries, save the remains of early 
settlements too remote to allow of any evidence of the 
character of the population, except that it must have been 
nearly similar to that of the greater portion which once oc- 
cupied the rest of the States of the Union. 

There is one fact favorable to this State, which belongs to 
few, if any, of the sister .States. We have not to answer to 
any tribunal for the crime of driving off the Indian tribes 
and possessing their lands. There were no Indians located 
within our limits on our taking possession of this countrv. A 
discontented portion of the Shawnee tribe, from Virginia, 
broke off from the nation, which removed to the Scioto 
country, in Ohio, about the year 1730, and formed a town, 
known by the name of Lulbegrud, in what is now Clark 
county, about thirty miles east of this place. This tribe left 
this country about 1750 and went to East Tennessee, to t^ie 
Cherokee Nation. Soon after they returned to Ohio and 
joined the rest of the nation, after spending a few years on 
the Ohio river, giving name to Shawnee-town in the State of 
Illinois, a place of some note at this time. This information 
is founded on the account of the Indians at the first settle- 
ment of this State, and since confirmed by Blackhoof, a na- 
tive of Lulbegrud, who visited this country in 1816, and 
went on the spot, describing the water-streams and hills in a 
manner to satisfy everybody that he was acquainted with 
the place. 

1 claim no credit for this State in escaping the odium of 
driving off the savages, because I hold that no people have 
any claim to a whole country for a hunting or robbing resi- 
dence, on the score of living, for a brief period, on a small 
part of it. Our right to Northern Mexico, California, and 
Texas, is preferable to any other nation, for the simple 
eason that we alone subdue the savages and robbers, and 
place it under a position which was intended by the Creator 
of the world, as explained to the father of our race. 


After mentioning a tradition of the Delawares, 
in regard to the extermination of the Kentucky 

tribes, Mr. Collins says, in his History of Ken- 

But this tradition of the Delawares does not stand alone. 
That the prehistoric inhabitants of Kentucky were at some 
intermediate period overwhelmed by a tide of savage invasion 
from the North, is a point upon which Indian tradition, as 
far as it goes, is positive and expHcit. It is related, in a 
posthumous fragment on Western antiquities, by Rev. John 
P. Campbell, M. D., which was published in the early part 
of the present century, that Colonel James Moore, of Ken- 
tucky, was told by an old Indian that the primitive inhabit- 
ants of this State had perished in a war of extermination 
waged against them by the Indians; that the last great battle 
was fought at the Falls of the Ohio; and that the Indians 
succeeded in driving the aborigines into a small island below 
the rapids, "where the whole of them were cut to pieces." 
The Indian further said this was an undoubted fact handed 
down by tradition, and that the Colonel would have proofs of 
it under his eyes as soon as the waters of the Ohio became 
low. When the waters of the river had fallen, an examina- 
tion of Sandy island was made, and "a multitude of human 
bones were discovered." 

There is similar confirmation of this tradition in the state- 
ment of General George Rogers Clark, that there was a 
great bu ying-ground on the northern side of the river, but 
a short distance below the Falls. According to a tradition 
imparted to the same gentleman by the Indian chief Tobacco, 
the battle of Sandy island decided finally the fall of Ken- 
tucky, with its ancient inhabitants. When Colonel McKee 
commanded on the Kanawha (says Dr. Campbell), he was 
told by the Indian chief Cornstalk, with whom he had fre- 
quent conversations, that Ohio and Kentucky (and Tennessee 
is also associated with Kentucky in the pre-historic ethnogra- 
phy of Rafinesque) had gnce been settled by a white people 
who were familiar with arts of which the Indians knew noth- 
ing; that these whites, after a series of bloody contests with 
the Indians, had been exterminated; that the old burial- 
places were the graves of an unknown people; and that the 
old forts had not been built by Indians, but had come down 
from "a very long ago" people, who were of a white com- 
plexion, and skilled in the arts. 

The statement of General Clark, above re- 
ferred to, is doubtless what is mentioned in 
greater detail by Dr. McMurtrie, in his Sketches 
of Louisville, in these terms: 

About the time when General Clark first visited this coun- 
try, an old Indian is said to have assured him that there was 
a tradition to this effect: that therehad formerly existeda race 
of Indians whose complexion was much lighter than that of 
the other natives, which caused them to be known by the 
name of the white Indians; that bloody wars had always been 
waged between the two, but that at last the black Indians 
got ihe better of the others in a great battle fought at Clarks- 
ville, wherein all the latter were assembled; that the remnant 
of their army took refuge in Sandy island, whither their suc- 
cessful and implacable enemies followed and put every indi- 
vidual to death. 

How true this may be I know not, but appearances are 
strongly in its favor. A large field a little below Clarksville 
contains immense quantities of human bones, whose decom- 
posed state and the regular manner in which they are scat- 
tered, as well as the circumstance of their being covered with 
an alluvial deposition of earth six or seven feet deep, evidently 


prove that it was not a regular burial-place, but a field of bat- 
tle, in some former century. Relics of a smiilar description 
are said to have been seen in great plenty on Sandy island in 
1778, none of which, however, are visible at this day (upon 
the surface), which may be owing to the constant deposition 
of sand upon the island and the action of the water in high 
floods, whose attrition may have finally removed every vestige 
of such substances. 


then, were really the Indians of Ohio and Indi- 
ana, and probably, to a less degree, of the South 
and Southwest. This faci enlarges greatly the 
field of our inquiry, and compels us to consider, 
at least briefly, a greater number of tribes than 
usually dwelt within the limits of any tract now 
formed into a State. 

The chief of these tribes was undoubtedly 


The name of this once-powerful tribe is de- 
rived from Shawano or Oshawano, the name, in 
one of the most ancient traditions of the Algon- 
quins, of one of the brothers of Manabozho, 
who had assigned to him the government of the 
southern part of the earth. The name, with a 
final ng for the plural, is said to convey to the 
Indian mind the idea of Southerners. In the 
English mouth and writing it has been corrupted 
into Shawanese or Shawnees, although Mr. 
Schoolcraft and other writers upon the aborigines 
often use the older form Shawanoes. By the 
Iroquois and English, about 1747, they were 
called Satanas (devils), and are also mentioned 
in the French writings as Chouanons. From these 
the names Suwanee and Sawnee, as applied 
to Southern rivers, where they formerly resided, 
are derived. About the year 1640 the Shawnees 
came into the Ohio valley from the Appalachian 
range by way of the Kentucky river (also said to 
have a Shawnee name, Cuttawa or Kentucke), 
while other bands of the tribe, driven from the 
South by the Catawbas and Cherokees, settled 
among their kinsfolk, the Delawares of Pennsyl- 

The Shawnees had a tradition of foreign origin, 
or at least of landing from a sea-voyage. Colonel 
John Johnston, who was their agent for many 
years, in a letter dated July 7, 1819, observes: 

1 111- pi-ople of this nation have a ir.idition that their an- 
cestors crus-f,l the sea. They are the only tril)e with which 
I am acqtiainiiil Mho admit a foreign origin. Until lately 
they kept yearly sacrihc.-s for their safe arrival in this coun- 
try. From where they c.irn.-. or at what period they arrived 
in .America, thi-y do not kiid.v. It j, a prevailing opinion 

among them that Florida had been inhabited by white f)eople, 
who had the use of iron tools. Blackhoof (a celebrated 
chief) affirms that he has often heard it spoken of by old 
people, that stumps of trees, covered with earth, were fre- 
quently found, which had been cut down by edged tools. 
It is somewhat doubtful whether the 
deliverance which they celebrate has any other reference than 
to the crossing of some great river or an arm of the sea. 

In McKenney and Hall's splendid History of 
the Indian Tribes of North America, published 
at Philadelphia in 1844, the following account is 
given of this tribe: 

Much obscurity rests upon the history of the Shawanese. 
Their manners, customs, and language indicated northern 
origin, and upwards of two centuries ago they held the coun- 
try south of Lake Erie. They were the first tribe which felt 
the force and yielded to the superiority of the Iroquois. 
Conquered by them, they migrated to the South, and, from 
fear or favor, they were allowed to take possession of a region 
upon Savannah river, but what part of that river, whether in 
Georgia or Florida, is not known — it is presumed the former. 
How long they resided there we have not the means of ascer- 
taining, nor have we any account of the incidents of their 
history in that country, or of the causes of their leaving it. 
One, if not more, of their bands removed from- thence to 
Pennsylvania, but the larger portion took p>ossession of the 
country upon the Miami and Scioto rivers in Ohio, a fertile, 
region, where their habits, more industrious than those of 
their race generally, enabled them to live comfortably. 

This is the only tribe among all our Indians who claim for 
themselves a foreign origin. Most of the aborigines of the 
continent believe their forefathers ascended from holes in the 
earth, and many of them assign a local habitation to these 
traditionary places of nativity of their race; resembling in 
this respect some of the traditions of antiquity, and derived 
perhaps from that remote period when barbarous tribes were 
■ troglodytes, subsisting upon the spontaneous productions of 
the earth. The Shawnees believe their ancestors inhabited a 
foreign land, which, from some unknown cause, they deter- 
mined to abandon. They collected their people together, and 
marched to the seashore. Here various persons were 
selected to them, but they declined the duty, until it 
was undertaken by one of the Turtle tribe. He placed him- 
self at the head of the procession, and walked into the sea. 
The waters immediately divided, and they passed along the 
bottom of the ocean until they reached this "island." 

The Shawnees have one institution peculiar to themselves. 
Their nation was originally divided into twelve tribes or 
bands, bearing different names. Each of these tribes was 
subdivided in the usual manner, into families of the E^gle, 
the Turtle, etc., these animals constituting their totems. 
Two of these tribes have become extinct and their names are 
forgotten. The names of the other ten are preserved, but 
only four of these are now kept distinct. These are the 
Makostrake, the Pickaway, the Kickapoo, and the Chilli- 
cothe tribes. Of the six whose names are preserved, but 
whose separate characters are lost, no descendant of one of 
them, the Waiiphauthawonaukee, now survive. The remains 
of the other five have become incorporated with the four 
subsisting tribes. Even to this day each of the four sides of 
their council-houses is assigned to one of these tribes, and is 
invariably occupied by it. Although, to us, they appear the 
same people, yet they pretend to possess the f)ower of dis- 
cerning at sight to which tribe an individual belongs. 




Iho celebrated Teciimseh and his brother, Tens-kwau-ta- 
waw, more generally known by the appellation of the 
Prophet, were Shawnees, and sjirang from the Kickapoo 
tribe. They belonged to the family or totem of the Panther, 
to the males of which alone was the name Tecunithe, or 
"Flying Across, " given. Their paternal grandfather was a 
Creek, and their grandmother a Shawnee. The name of 
their father was Pukeshinwau, who was born among the 
Creeks, but removed with his tribe to Chillicothe, upon the 
Scioto. Tecumthe, his fourth son, was born upon the jour- 
ney. Pukeshinwau was killed at the battle at Point Pleasant 
at the mouth of the Kenhawa, in 1774, and the Prophet was 
one of three posthumous children, born at the same birth a 
few months afterwards. 

The Kickapoos were doubtless united with the Shawanese 
at a period not very distant. The traditions of each tribe 
contain similar accounts of their union and separation ; and 
the identity of their language furnished irrefragable evident 
of their consanguinity. We are inclined to believe that when 
the Shawanese were overpowered by the Iroquois, and aban- 
doned their country upon Lake Erie, they separated into two 
great divisions — one of which, preserving their original repu- 
tation [designation], fled into Florida, and the other, now 
known to us as the Kickapoos, returned to the West and es- 
tablished themselves among the Illinois Indians, upon the 
extensive prairies on that river and between it and the Mis- 
sissippi. This region, however, they have relinquished to 
the United States. 

Judge James Hall, of Cincinnati, one of the 
authors of this work, in his Essay on the History 
of the North American Indians, comprised in 
the third volume, writes eloquently of this tribe. 
A part of his account allies it more closely 
with the history of Western Kentucky, and seems 
to indicate the region watered by the lower Cum- 
berland as a former habitat of the tribe. 

The Shawanoe nation, when first known to the whites, 
were a numerous and warlike people of Georgia and South 
Carohna. After the lapse of a very few years, they aban- 
doned or were driven from that region, and are found 
in the southwestern part of the Ohio valley, giving their beau- 
tiful name to the river which by the bad taste of the Ameri- 
cans has acquired the hackneyed name of Cumberland. We 
next hear of them in Pennsylvania, participators in the tragic 
scenes which have given celebrity to the valley of Wyoming. 
Again they lecede to the Ohio valley, to a locality hundreds 
of miles distant from their former hunting-grounds in the 
West, selecting now the rich and beautiful plains of the 
Scioto valley and the Miamis. Here they attained the high- 
est point of their fame. Here was heard the eloquence of 
Logan; here was spent the boyhood of Tecum seh. It was 
from the romantic scenes of the Little Miami, from the Pick- 
away plains and the beautiful shores of the Scioto— from 
scenes of such transcending fertility and beauty as must have 
won any but a nature inherently savage to the luxury of rest 
and contentment, that the Shawanoese went forth to battle 
oft Braddock's field, at Point Pleasant, and along the whole 
hne «if the then Western frontier. Lastly, we find them 
dwelling on the Wabash, at Tippecanoe, holding councils 
with the Governor of Indiana at Vincennes, intriguing with 
the Cherokees and Creeks of the South, and fighting under 
the British banner in Canada. Here we find a people num- 

bering but a few thousand, and who could, even as savages 
and hunters, occupy but a small tract of country at any one 
time, roaming, in the course of two centuries, over ten de- 
grees of latitude ; changing their hunting-grounds, not grad- 
ually, but by migrations of hundreds of miles at a time; 
abandoning entirely a whole region, and appearing upon a 
new and far-distant scene. What land was the country of 
the Shawanoese ? To what place could that strong local at- 
tachment which has been claimed for the Indians, have af- 
fixed itself? Where must the Shawanoe linger, to indulge 
that veneration lor the bones of his fathers which is said to 
form so strong a feeling in the savage breast ? Their bones 
are mouldering in every, ^valley, from the sultry confines of 
Georgia to the frozen shores of the Canadian frontier. Their 
traditions, if carefully preserved, in as many separate dis- 
tricts, have consecrated to the affections ol a little rem- 
nant of people a vast expanse of territory, which now em- 
braces eight or nine sovereign States, and maintains five 
millions of people. 

Mr. Dodge, in his Red Men of the Ohio Val- 
ley, expresses the opinion that, at the period of 
the settlement of Virginia, the Shawnees were 
doubtless the occupants of what is now the State 
of Kertucky, from the Ohio river up to the 
Cumbei land basin, the country of the Cherokees, 
and that they were driven from this delightful 
land into the Pennsylvania and Ohio country, 
probably by the Cherokees and Chickasaws. 

Upon Charlevoix's map of New France, the 
Kentucky country is given as the "Pays du 
Chouanons," or Land of the Shawnees, while the 
Kentucky river is noted as "La Riviere des An- 
ciens Chouanons," or of the Old Shawnees. It 
is well known that the Tennessee river was for- 
merly called the Shawnee — and, indeed, wher- 
ever this tribe dwelt in their earlier history, they 
seem to have left a memorial in the nam6 of a 
river. When first known to the Europeans, they 
were dwelling among the Creeks on the Florida 
rivers. The "Suwanee" of the popular song 
takes its name from them. 

In passing, we may note that this map of 
Charlevoix's marks the Ohio as the "Oyo, or la 
Belle Riviere," and the country west of the 
Wabash as the "Pays des Miamis," indicating 
the reputed habitat of another great tribe. West 
of these was the Pays des Illinois. 

About 1745 the Shawnees retired to the Mi- 
ami and Muskingum valleys to avoid their south- 
ern enemies. They were represented at the 
treaty with the Menguys, and in the alliance 
against the Cherokees, Catawbas, Muscologees, 
Chickasaws, and other tribes of the South. Ken- 
tucky being the usual ground of warfare between 
these Southern and Northern tribes, it so came to 


be called, as is believed, the Dark and Bloody 


Messrs. Kenny and Hall furnish the following 
facts concerning this tribe: 

The Miamis, when first known to the French, were living 
around Chicago, upon Lake Michigan. It was the chief of 
this tribe whose state and attendance were depicted by the 
Sieur Perot in such strong colors. Charlevoix, without 
vouching for the entire accuracy of the relation, observes that 
in his time there was more deference paid by the Miamis to 
their chiefs than by any other Indians. 

This tribe removed from Lake Michigan to the Wabash, 
where they yet [1843] retain an extensive tract of country up- 
on which they reside. A kindred thbe, the Weas, more 
properly called the Newcalenons, long lived with the Miamis; 
but they have recently separated from them and crossed the 
Mississippi. Their whole number does not exceed three 
hundred and fifty. Of the Miamis about one thousand yet 

This tribe was formerly known to the English as the Twigh- 
twees. They appear to have been the only Indians in the 
West, with the exception of one other tribe, the Foxes, who, 
at an early period, were attached to the English interest. 
The causes which led to this union are unknown, but for 
many years they produced a decisive effect upon the fortunes 
of the Miamis. 

That strangest of all institutions in the history of hu- 
man waywardness, the man-eating society, existed among 
this tribe. It extended also to the Kichapoos, but to 
how many others we do not know. It appears to have been 
the duty of the members of this society to eat any captives 
who were delivered to them for that purpose. The subject 
itself is so revolting to us at this day, even to the Indians, 
that it is difficult to collect the traditionary details concerning 
this institution. Its duties and its privileges, for it had. 
both, were regulated by long usage, and its whole ceremonial 
was prescribed by a horrible ritual. Its members belonged 
to one family, and inherited this odious distinction. The so- 
ciety was a religious one, and its great festivals were cele- 
brated in the presence of the whole tribe. During the exist- 
ence of the present generation, this society has flourished and 
performed shocking duties, but they are now wholly discon- 
tinued, and will be ere long forgotten. 


claim to be "uncle" to all the other tribes. The 
Delawares, they say, are grandfather, but still the 
nephew of the Wyandots. They sometimes are 
called Hurons, were of Huron stock, with the 
Algonquins as their allies, and were driven from 
their ancestral seat on the St. Lawrence by their 
hereditary enemies, the terrible Iroquois. In 
their later homes, however, in Northwestern Ohio 
and Northeastern Indiana, they were the leading 
tribe. For ages they had been at the head of a 
great Indian commonwealth or confederacy, and, 
though greatly enfeebled by long and bloody 
wars, their scepter had not yet quite departed. 
Once they held the great coimcil-fire, and had 

the sole right of convening the tribes of the con- 
federacy around it, when some important event 
or plan required general deliberation. In the 
possession of their chiefs an Indian agent at Fort 
Wayne saw a very ancient belt believed to have 
been sent to them by the Mexican Emperor 
Montezuma, with a warning that the Spaniards 
under Cortez had appeared upon the coast. 
They were among the last of the tribes to leave 
Ohio, by which time they had become reduced 
to but a few hundred. McKenney & Hall's 
History of the Indian Tribes of North America 

This tribe was not unworthy of the preeminence it enjoyed. 
The French historians describe them as superior, in all the 
essential characteristics of savage life, to any other Indians 
upon the continent. And at this day [1844] their intrepid- 
ity, their general deportment, and their lofty bearing, confirm 
the accounts which have been given to us. In all the wars 
upon our borders, until the conclusion of Wayne's treaty, 
they acted a conspicuous part, and their advice in council 
and conduct in action were worthy of their ancient renown. 


These are the Lenni-Lenape, or " original peo- 
ple" — certainly a very ancient people, about 
whom many large stories, if not absolute fables, 
have been related. When first known to the 
whites, they resided chiefly upon the tidewaters 
of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. 
They early became known to the Moravian mis- 
sionaries, who labored among them with exem- 
plary zeal and care, and accompanied them in 
their migrations to the Susquehanna, thence to 
the Ohio, thence to the Muskingum, where the 
first white settlements, except a trading-post or 
two, were made upon the present territory of the 
commonwealth of Ohio, shared in their horrible 
calamities, went with them thence to Lake St. 
Clair and the neighborhood of Sandusky, and re- 
mained with them till their pious mission was 
fulfilled. The unconverted or heathen portion 
of the tribe, after the removal from Ohio, settled 
on White river, in Indiana, which they occupied 
until transported beyond the Mississippi, where 
they were settled upon a reservation in the south- 
west part of Missouri. 


were faithful adherents and allies of the Wyan- 
dots, and accompanied them in all their migra- 
tions. The celebrated Pontiac, hero of the con- 
spiracy agamst the British garrison at 13etroit so 
much exploited in history, was an Ottawa chief, 



born about 17 14. They became much scattered 
in more recent days, but large bands of them re- 
sided upon the Maumee, and their parties occa- 
sionally roamed the hunting-grounds of Ken- 


were also occasionally seen by the pioneers in 
these regions. They were not Ohio Indians, but 
had their habitat in parts of Indiana, Michigan, 
and Illinois. Until they became degraded and 
degenerate, they were the most popular tribe 
north of the Ohio, remarkable, even with the 
Wyandots so near, for their stature, symmetry, 
and fine personal bearing. Their residence did 
not extend in this direction beyond the White 
river of Indiana, but they often penetrated south 
of the Beautiful river, and were probably the 
chief instruments in the annoyance of the early 
settlers about the Falls. 


who were also among the " Wabash Indians," 
were simply a tribe of the powerful Shawnees. 
This nation was originally separated into twelve 
tribes, each divided into families known by their 
" totems," as the Eagle, the Turtle, etc. When 
the period of white occupancy began here, all the 
tribes had become extinct or intermingled, ex- 
cept four, of which the Kickapoos formed one. 
To this day, each of the four sides of their coun- 
cil-house is assigned to one of these tribes. To 
the Kickapoo division and the family of " the 
Panther" belonged the eloquent and brave Te- 
cumseh and his brother, the Prophet. The 
Shawnee tongue seems closely related to that of 
the Kickapoos and of some other Northern 


were an insignificant band, sometimes called the 
Newcalenons, whose habitat was upon the small 
river which bears their name in Western Indiana. 
They were allied to the Miamis, with whom they 
long lived. When they crossed the Mississippi, 
their number scarcely reached four hundred. 
General Scott's expedition from Kentucky, in 
1 791, was specially directed against this tribe. 


The only great Southern tribe with which this 
history need deal, is the Chickasaws, who held 
the entire tract of the Kentucky country west of 
the Tennessee to the Mississippi. 

The Chickasaws formed one of a number of 
Indian nations found by the whites in the south- 
ernmost States east of the Mississippi river in 
the early part of the last century. The Uchees, 
with the Lower, Middle, and Upper Creeks, con- 
stituted the formidable Muscogee confederacy; 
the other tribes were the Seminoles, the Chero- 
kees, the Choctaws. the Natchez, the Yemasees, 
and the Chickasaws. The last-named are de- 
scribed by Captain Romans, in his Concise 
Natural History of East and West Florida, pub- 
lished at New York in 1775, ^s a fierce, cruel, in- 
solent, and haughty race, corrupt in morals, filthy 
in discourse, lazy, powerful, and well made, 
expert swimmers, good warriors, and excellent 
hunters. He contrasts them unfavorably with 
the Choctaws, whom he praises as a nation of 
farmers, inclined to peace and industry. The 
Chickasaws about this time lived on the left bank 
of the Savannah river, opposite Augusta. 

The following facts concerning the Chicka- 
saws are derived chiefly from the first volume of 
Mr. Henry R. Schoolcraft's great report to the 
Government of information respecting the History, 
Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of 
the United States. They are full of interest, and 
their sources give them authority and permanent 

The traditional origin and history of this 
branch of the Appalachian family is retained by 
the tribe, in their later homes west of the Mis- 
sissippi. Their old men tell the tale thus: They 
came from the west, and a part of their tribe re- 
mained behind. When about to start Eastward 
they were provided with a large dog as a guard 
and a pole as a guide. The former would give 
them notice whenever an enemy was at hand, 
and thus enable them to make their arrange- 
ments to receive them. The pole they would 
plant in the ground every night, and the next 
morning they would look at it and go in the di- 
rection it leaned. (Mr. Schoolcraft says this 
allegory of the dog and pole probably reveals the 
faith of this people in an ancient prophet, or 
seer, under whose guidance they migrated.) 
They continued their journey in this way until 
they crossed the great Mississippi river, and, on 
the waters of the Alabama river, arrived in the 
country about where Huntsville, Alabama, now is. 
There the pole was unsettled for several days, 
but finally it settled and pointed in a southwest 



direction. They then started on that course, 
planting the pole every night, until they got to 
what is called the Chickasaw Old Fields, where 
the pole stood perfectly erect. All then came to 
the conclusion that that was the promised land, 
and there they accordingly remained until they 
emigrated west of the State of Arkansas in the 
years 1837 and 1838. 

While the pole was in an unsettled situation, a 
part of their tribe moved further eastward and got 
with the Creek Indians; but so soon asa majority 
of the tribe settled at the Old Fields, they sent 
for the party that had gone on east, who answered 
that they were very tired and would rest where 
they were a while. This clan was called Cush- 
e-tah. They have never joined the present tribe, 
but they always remained as friends until they 
had intercourse with the whites; then they be 
came a separate nation. The great dog was lost 
in the Mississippi, and they always believed that 
the dog had got into a large sink-hole and 
there remained; the Chickasaws said they could 
hear the dog howl just before the evening came. 
Whenever any of their warriors get scalps, they 
give them to the boys to go and throw them into 
the sink where the dog was. After throwing the 
scalps, the boys would run off in great fright, 
and if one should fall in running off, the Chicka- 
saws were certain he would be killed or taken 
prisoner by their enemies. Some of the half- 
breeds, and nearly all of the full-bloods, now be- 
lieve it. 

In traveling from the West to the East, they 
have no recollection of crossing any large water- 
course except the Mississippi river. During this 
exodus they had enemies on all sides, and had to 
fight their way through, but they cannot give the 
names of the people they fought with while 
traveling. They were informed, when they left 
the VVest, that they might look for whites; that 
they would come from the East; and that they 
were to be on their guard and to avoid the 
whites, lest they should bring all manner of 
vice among them. 

After their settlement in Mississippi, they had 
several wars, all defensive. They fought with 
the Choctaws, and came off victorious ; with the 
Creeks, and killed several hundred of them and 
drove them off; they fought the Cherokees, 
Kickapoos, Osages, and several other tribes of 
Indians, all of whom ihcy whipped. The ex- 

pedition of De Soto passed through their coun- 
try, had sharp conflicts with them, and occupied 
for a time one of their deserted towns, which the 
Chickasaws finally burned over their heads in a 
night attack, destroying all the hogs that were 
being driven along, many horses, and other 
property. A large number of French landed 
once at the Chickasaw Bluff, where Memphis 
now is, and made an attack upon this tribe, as 
their traditions relate, but were beaten off with 
great loss. At one time a large body of Creeks 
came to the Chickasaw country to kill them off 
and take their lands. The Indians knew of their 
coming and built a fort, assisted by Captain 
David Smith and a party of Tennesseeans. The 
Creeks came on, but few of them returned to 
their own land to tell the tale of disaster. 

Until the nation removed to the west of the 
Mississippi, it had a king, who is recognized by 
name in the treaty made by General Jackson in 
18 19. The Indian title was Minko, and there 
was a clan or family by that name from which 
the king was taken. He was hereditary through 
the female side. Since the migration the tribe 
has elected chiefs from different families or 

The highest clan next to Minko is the Sho-wa. 
The next chief to the king was out of their clan. 
The next is Co-ish-to, second chief out of this 
clan. The next is Oush-pe-ne. The next is 
Uin-ne; and the lowest clan is called Hus-co-na. 
Runners and waiters are taken from this family. 
When the chiefs thought it necessary to hold a 
council, they went to the king and requested 
him to call one. He would then send one of 
his runners out to inform the people that a coun- 
cil would be held at such a time and place. 
When they convened, the king would take his 
seat. The runners then placed each chief in his 
proper place. All the talking and business was 
done by the chiefs. If they passed a law they 
informed the king of it. If he consented to it, 
it was a law ; if he refused, the chiefs could make 
it a law if every chief was in favor of it. If one 
chief refused to give his consent, the law was 

These Indians have no tradition concerning 
the large mounds in Mississippi ; they do not 
know whether they are natural or artificial. They 
found them when they first entered the country, 
and called them "navels," from the notion that 



the Mississippi was l;he center of the parth j^nd 
the mounds were as the navel of a man in the 
center of his body. 

Beyond the Mississippi, the Chickasaws made 
an agreement with the Choctaws, by which they 
agreed to hve under the Choctaw laws, in a re- 
publican form of government. They elect a 
chief every four years, and captains once in two 
years. Judges are elected by the general coun- 
cil. The chiefs and captains in council make 
all appropriations for any of the purposes of the 
Chickasaws. The Choctaws have no control of 
their financial affairs, nor they of those of the 
Choctaws. Mr. Schoolcraft, writing in 1850, 
says that, under the new government, they had 
improved more in the last five years than they 
had in the preceding twenty years. They had 
then in progress a large manual-labor academy, 
and had provided for two more, one for males 
and one for females. The Chickasaw district 
lay north of Red river, was about two hundred 
and twenty-five by one hundred and fifty miles 
in length and breadth, being large enough for 
two such tribes,and was esteemed well adapted 
to all their wants. Mr. Schoolcraft concludes 
his account as follows : 

The funds of the Chickasaws, in the hands of the Govern- 
ment, for lands ceded to the United States, are ample for the 
purposes of educating every member of the tribe, and of 
making the most liberal provision for their advancement in 
agriculture and the arts. Possessing the fee of a fertile and 
well-watered territorial area of thirty-three thousand seven 
hundred and fifty square miles, over which they are guaran- 
teed in the sovereignty, with an enlightened chieftaincy, a 
practical representative and elective system, and a people 
recognizing the value of labor, it would be difficult to im- 
agine a condition of things more favorable to their rapid prog- 
ress in all the elements of civilization, self-government, and 
permanent prosperity. 

The total number of the tribe at this time, in 
the Indian Territory and elsewhere, was about 
five thousand. 

Mr. Bartram, in his book of Travels through 
North and South Carolina, Georgia, etc., pub- 
lished in London in 1792, makes the following 
remarks on the physical characteristics of the 
Southern Indians, including the Chickasaws: 

The males of the Cherokees, Muscogulgees, Seminoles, 
Chickasaws, Choctaws, and confederate tribes of the Creeks, 
are tall, erect, and moderately robust ; their limbs well 
shaped, so as generally to form a perfect human figure; their 
features regular and countenance open, dignified, and placid, 
yet the forehead and brow so formed as to strike you in- 
stantly with heroism and bravery; the eye, though rather 
small, active and full of fire; the iris always black, and the 

nose commonly inclining to the aquiline. Their countenance 
and actions exhibit an air of magnanimity, superionty, and 
independence. Their complexion of a reddish brown or 
copper color; their hair long, lank, coarse, and black as a 
raven, and reflecting the like lustre at different exposures to 
the light. 

The Muscogulgee women, though remarkably short of 
stature, are well formed; their visage round, features regular 
and beautiful, the brow high and arched; the eyes large, 
black, and languishing, expressive of modesty, diffidence, 
and bashfulness; these charms are their defensive and oflFen- 
sive weapons, and they know very well how to play them off, 
and under cover of these alluring graces are concealed the 
most subtle artifices. They are, however, loving and affec- 
tionate; they are, I believe, the smallest race of women yet 
known, seldom above five feet high, and I believe the greater 
number never arrive to that stature; their hands and feet not 
larger than those of Europeans of nine or ten years of age; 
yet the men are of gigantic stature, a full size larger than 
Europeans, many of them above six feet, and few under 
that, or five feet eight or ten inches. Their complexion 
is much darker than any of the tribes to the north of them, 
that I have seen. This description will, I believe, compre* 
hend the Muscogulgees, their confederates, the Choctaws, 
and I believe the Chickasaws (though I have never seen their 
women), excepting some bands of the Seminoles, Uches, 
and Savai nucas, who are rather taller and slenderer, and 
their complexion brighter. 

With these citations we conclude the account 
of the Indians who kept Kentucky for genera- 
tions as a hunting-ground and field for war, and 
proceed to give some account of the relinquish- 
ment of their claims to the white man. 


The Iroquois, or Six Nations, although not in 
actual occupation of the Kentucky country dur- 
ing the last century, had some sort of shadowy 
claim upon it, which they assumed to grant by 
treaty, and upon which the English found it con- 
venient to base their claims, as against the 
French claim by right of discovery. In 1684; 
and again in 1701, the Six Nations had formally 
put themselves under the protection of England: 
and in 1726, September 14th, a deed was made 
by the chiefs conveying all their lands to the 
Crown in trust, "to be protected and defended 
by his Majesty, to be for the use of the grantors 
and their heirs." 

In June, 1744, at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
when the savages had been well plied with liquor^ 
they were induced to sign a treaty by virtue of 
which they should recognize the king's right to 
all lands that are, or by his Majesty's appoint- 
ment shall be, within the colony of Virginia" — a 
remarkable grant, truly, and one under which 
tracts of indefinite greatness might have been 



On the 9th of Jun«, 1752, the commissioners 
of Virginia met the Indians of some other tribes, 
probably the Twightwees, or Miamis, at Logs- 
town, below Pittsburg, and a few days afterwards 
obtained a ratification of the Lancaster treaty and 
a guarantee that the Indians would not disturb 
settlements southeast of the Ohio. 

In September, 1753, William Fairfax, of Vir- 
ginia, made another treaty at Winchester, the 
pjarticulars of which have never been disclosed. 
The iniquity of the Lancaster and Logstown 
conventions and of appliances by which they 
were obtained, is manifest from the fact that 
Fairfax is known to have endorsed upon the 
treaty that such was the feeling among the In- 
dians that he had not dared to mention to them 
either of these. A more satisfactory interview 
occurred at Carlisle the next month, between 
the representatives of the leading tribes and 
commissioners of Pennsylvania, of whom one 
was Benjamin Franklin. 

October 24, 1768, an inportant congress of 
white and Indian deputies met at Fort Stanwix, 
in Western New York, during which a treaty was 
made whereby the Indians agreed that the south 
line of their territories should begin on the 
Ohio, at the mouth of the Cherokee (Tennessee) 
river, running thence up the Ohio and Alleghany 
rivers to Kittaning, thence across to the Susque- 
hanna, etc. Thus the whole country south of 
the Ohio and the Alleghany, to which the Six 
Nations had any claim, was transferred to the 
British. The Delawares and the Shawnees were 
also in the congress at Fort Stanwix, and were 
equally bound by it with the Six Nations, as re- 
gards the Kentucky region and all other lands 
granted by it. The Shawnee and Delaware dep- 
uties, however, did not sign the treaty; but the 
chiefs of the Six Nations undertook to bind them 
also as "their allies and dependents," together 
with the Mingoes of Ohio. It was expressly 
agreed that no claim should ever be made by 
the whites upon the basis of previous treaties, as 
those of Lancaster and Logstown. Up<yi the 
Fort Stanwix treaty, for the most part, rested the 
English title by purchase to Pennsylvania, West- 
ern Virginia, and Kentucky. True, the Chero- 
kees had an interest in the Kentucky lands, which 
was recognized in 1770 by the treaty of Lochaber, 
and the right of the Southern Indians to those 
north and east of the Kentucky river was bought 

by one Colonel Donaldson about that time. 
The arrangement at Fort Stanwix, however, 
finally prevailed, although the Shawnees and 
other Ohio tribes held it in contempt, and made 
fierce raids upon the settlers south as well as 
north of the Ohio, on account of the invasion 
of their favorite hunting-grounds. 

Another treaty was made with the Six Nations 
at Fort Stanwix October 22, 1784, by which the 
western boundary of their lands was fixed, not 
reaching beyond the Pennsylvania line, and all 
claims to the country west of their line were sur- 
rendered to the United States, which had now 
achieved their independence. This treaty was 
confirmed by the Iroquois, in the important con- 
vention with General Harmar at the Muskingum 
settlement, or Fort Harmar, January 9, 1789. 

Between the two former meetings and treaties, 
January 21, 1785, a convention was held at Fort 
Mcintosh, between Generals George Rogers 
Clark and Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee, com- 
missioners on behalf of the United States Gov- 
ernment, with Western Indians alone — the Wy- 
andots, Delawares, Chippewas, and Ottawas. 
By the treaty then concluded, a reservation was 
made to the Wyandots, Delawares, and Ottawas, 
of a large tract in Central and Northern Ohio, 
the Indians acknowledging "the lands east, south 
and west of the lines described in the third arti- 
cle, so far as the said Indians formerly claimed 
the same, to belong to the United States; and 
none of their tribes shall presume to settle upon 
the same, or any part of it." This treaty was 
also confirmed and extended by the Muskingum 
arrangement in January, 1789. The Wabash 
tribes had not, however, been bound by this or 
any other treaty, and continued their attacks up- 
on the Kentucky settlements and voyagers on 
the Ohio, until pacificated by the victory of 
Wayne in 1794 and the treaty of Greenville the 
next year, in which the Wabash Indians partici- 

Jackson's purchase. 

The entire western part of the State of Ken- 
tucky, between the Tennessee and Mississippi 
rivers, recognized as belonging to the Chickasaw 
tribe, was ceded to the United States by treaty 
October 19, 18 18, made by Generals Andrew 
Jackson and Isaac Shelby, commissioners on be- 
half of the Government, and Chiunnby, king of 
the Chickasaw Nation, Teshnamingo, James 



Brown, and oth3rs, chiefs, and Colonel George 
Gilbert, Major William Glover, Goweamarthlar, 
and other military leaders of the tribe. The 
"treaty-ground, east of Old Town," as mentioned 
just before the signatures, is in Monroe county, 
Mississippi, on the Tombigbee river, about ten 
miles from Aberdeen, on the road to Cotton 
Gin. The commissioners and their staff occu- 
pied a spot beneath the spreading branches of a 
magnificent oak, which was standing many years 
later, and was locally quite celebrated. By the 
second article of the treaty the Indians bound 
their nation to cede to the United States, with 
the exception of a small reservation, "all claim 
or title which the said Nation has to the land 
lying north of the south boundary of the State of 
Tennessee, which is bounded south by the thirty- 
fifth degree of north latitude, and which lands, 
hereby ceded, he within the following boundaries, 
viz.: Beginning on the Tennessee river, about 
thirty five miles, by water, below Colonel George 
Colbert's ferry, where the thirty- fifth degree of 
north latitude strikes the same; thence due west 
with said degree of north latitude, to where it 
cuts the Mississippi river at or near the Chick- 
asaw Bluffs; thence up the said Mississippi river 
to the mouth of the Ohio; thence up the Ohio 
river to the mouth of Tennessee river; thence 
up the Tennessee to the place of beginning." 

This ceded all the Indian lands in Western 
Kentucky. The consideration agreed upon was 
$20,000 per annum, for fifteen successive years, 
with various smaller sums paid to the chiefs and 
the Nation, on sundry accounts. 

At the time this treaty was signed, there re- 
mained of the Chickasaw tribe, according to the 
Report of the Rev. Dr. Jedidiah Morse, the 
celebrated geographer, to the Secretary of War, 
but three thousand six hundred and twenty-five 
souls. They were in the singular proportion of 
four males to one female, which inequality, says 
Dr. Morse, "is attributed to the practice of 
polygamy, which is general in this tribe." He re- 
marks further: 

The Chickasaws have always been warm friends of the 
United States, and are distinguished for their hospitahty. 
Some of the chiefs are half-breed, men of sense, possess nu- 
merous negro slaves, and annually sell several hundred cattle 
and hogs. The nation resides in eight towns, and, like their 
neighbors, are considerably advanced in civilization. The 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions have 
in contemplation the speedy establishment of a mission 

among these Indians, prepaiations for which are already 
made. This is done at the earnest solicitation of the nation. 


Long before the Kentucky country was cleared 
of Indians and Indian titles, however, it was 
necessary for the white man to wage long and des- 
perate wars with his red-browed brother. Promi- 
nent among the means of defense adopted by the 
settlers was the fortified station, which took va- 
rious forms, as may be seen by the following ex- 
tract from Doddridge's Notes: 

The forts in which the inhabitants took refuge from the 
fury of the savages, consisted of cabins, block-houses, and 
stockades. A range of the former commonly formed at least 
one side of the fort. Divisions or partitions of logs separated 
the cabins from each other. The walls on the outside were 
ten or twelve feet high, the slope of the roof being invariably 
inward. A few of these cabins had puncheon floors, but the 
greater part were earthen. 

The block-houses were built at the angles of the fort. They 
projected about two feet beyond the outer walls of the cabins 
and stock; des. Their upper stories were about eighteen 
inches evety way larger in dimensions than the under one, 
leaving an opening at the commencement of the second 
story to pievent the enemy from making a lodgment under 
their walls. A large folding-gate made of thick slabs closed 
the fort on the side nearest the spring. The stockades, 
cabins, and block-house walls were furnished with ports at 
proper heights and distances. The entire extent of the outer 
wall was made bullet-proof. The whole of this work was 
made without the aid of a single nail or spike of iron, >vhich 
articles were not to be had. 

Mr. Collins, in the invaluable Dictionary of 
the Stations and Early Settlements in Kentucky, 
prefixed to the second volume of his History, 
enumerates the following stations in Jefferson 


Flovd's station, first located at the mouth of Beargrass, 
creek, in Louisville, near the present foot of Third street; 
built by Colonel John Floyd. 

Another Floyd's station, on the Middle fork of Beargrass 
six miles from the Falls; planted by Colonel John Floyd in 


A Sturgus's station, on Harrod's Trace, settled in 1783; 
also Sturgus's station, "in or before 1784" — perhaps the 

The Dutch station, on Beargrass creek, 1780. 

Hogland's station, on Beargrass, 1780. 

Kellar's station, before 1780. 

Moses Kuykendall's station, on the Beargrass, 1782. 

Linn's station, on the Beargrass, about ten miles from the 

Middle station, before 1787. 

New Holland, before 1784. 

Poplar Level, before 1784. 

Spring station, in 1784. 

Sullivan's old station, on the Bardstown road, five miles 
southeast of Louisville, before 1780. 

Sullivan's new station, before 1784. 

Mr. Collins finds six stations on the waters of 



the Beargrass in 1780, with a population, includ- 
ing Louisville, of six hundred. 

Dr. McMurtrie says that in the fall of 1779 
and the spring of 1780 seven stations were set- 
tled on the Beargrass. 

Some of these stations will be more definitely 
legated, and their story more fully told, in subse- 
quent chapters. 

Armstrong station stood at the mouth of Bull 
creek, on the north side of the Ohio, just oppo- 
site the Eighteen-mile Island bar and the Grassy 
Flats, eighteen miles above Louisville. Here 
the block-house was erected, at some time be- 
tween 1786 and 1790, by Colonel John Arm 
strong, where the river was fordable, in order to 
prevent the Indians from crossing and making 
raids into Kentucky. 


are related of this part of the Dark and Bloody 
Ground, during the era of conflict for supremacy. 
We give a number of these below, collected from 
various sources, and others will be related in 
future chapters. Some of them, it will be ob- 
served, are intimately associated with the fortified 


One of the most interesting tales of the Indian 
period, concerning one of the most famous of 
the pioneer heroes of this region, who had him- 
self a fortified station on the Middle fork of Bear- 
grass, only six miles from Louisville, is thus 
related in the first edition of Marshall's History 
of Kentucky: 

In April (1781) a station settled by 'Squire Boone, near 
where Shelbyville now stands, became alarmed by the appear- 
ance of Indians, and after some consultation among the peo- 
ple they determined to remove to Beargrass. In executing 
this resolution, men, women, and children, encumbered with 
household goods and cattle, were overtaken on the road 
near Long Run by a large parly of Indians, attacked, de- 
feated with considerable loss and general dispersion. Intelli- 
gence of this disaster reaching Colonel John Floyd, he in 
great haste raised a company of twenty-five men and repaired 
toward the scene of the late encounter, intent upon admin- 
istering relief to the sufferers and chastisement to the enemy; 
and notwithstanding he divided his paity and proceeded with 
considerable caution, such was the address of the Indians 
and the nature of the country that he fell into an ambuscade 
and was defeated with the loss of half his men, who, it was 
said, killed nine or ten of the Indians. The Indians are be- 
lieved to have been three times the number of Colonel Floyd's 
party. The colonel narrowly escaped with the assistance of 
Captain Samuel Wells, who, seeing him on foot pursued by 
the enemy, mounted him on his own horse and fled by his 
side to support him. The conduct of Captain Wells was 

the more magnanimous, inasmuch as he and Colonel Floy 
were not fri(>nds at the time. This service, however, was c 
a nature to subdue all existing animosities, nor was it b( 
stowed on an unworthy object. Xo man knew better tha 
Floyd how to regard so gallant and dismterested an actior 
He lived and died the friend of Wells. 

A tew years ago a monument was erected ani 
dedicated to the memory of the slain in the sa^ 
disaster. The end of the brave Colonel cam 
no great while after. It is thus told in the er 
tertaining pages of Mr. Collins: 

On April 12, 1783, Colonel Floyd and his brother Charle 
not suspecting any ambush or danger from the Indians — f( 
there had recently been serious trouble with them, and the 
were supposed to have retreated to a safe distance — wei 
riding together, some miles from Floyd's station, when the 
were fired upon, and the former mortally wounded. He Wi 
dressed in his wedding coat, of scarlet cloth, and was thus 
prominent mark. His brother, abandoning his own hors 
which was wounded, sprang up behind his saddle, and pu 
ting his arms around the colonel, took the reins and rot 
off with the wounded man to his home, where he died 
a few hours. Colonel Floyd had a remarkable horse th; 
he usually rode, which had the singular instinct of knowir 
when Indians were near, and always gave to his rider tl 
sign of their presence. He remarked to his brothe 
"Charles, if I had been riding Pompey to-day this wou! 
not have happened." 


The following narrative is from the account c 
Mr. William Russell, as found in Bogart's wor 
on Daniel Boone and the Hunters of Kentucky 

It is more than fifty years since salt was made at Bullitt 
lick. The Indians resorted there, and combined their hun 
ing expeditions with a pursuit which, however useful, was n( 
at all to their liking, distinguished as they were for the 
aversion to be classed among the producing classes — tl 
manufacture of salt. There were guides to these salt-lick 
which told even the Indian where they were to be found — tl 
buffalo and the deer. There was vast difficulty, of coursi 
in procuring the salt from the eastward, and the settlers soo 
congregated around the lick ; for all were not so self-denyin 
as the bold old hunter Boone, who could pass his montl 
without either salt or sugar. 

There were scenes in those salt-works to which Syracus 
and Cracow are strangers. The hunters divided ; part ( 
them worked at the boiling, and part hunted to supply tl" 
forest table; and — a characteristic of the insecurity of the 
position — the remainder served as an advance guard. Th 
crystals cost the settlers such price as made salt more pn 
cious than gold. The Indian hated to see the white ma 
thus engaged— not but that he liked well to see the heav 
hand of labor On the whites ; but it seemed like an invasio 
of the rights of the owner of the soil, and the very industi 
of the settlers was a perpetual reproach. It was part of t? 
arts which he used, and before the exercise of which the Ii 
dian felt himself fading away. So, when the work was bus; 
when the furnaces glowed and the tramp of the laborin 
man was all around, when the manufacturer, and the hunte 
and guard were all on the alert, the Indian crept behind tl 
trees, and thirsted for the opportunity to send the shots ( 
his warriors' rifles among the groups below ; and thev woul 



liave been hurled there hut for the fact he knew so well, thnt 
the vengeance of the hunter would he rapid and certain. 

There is a knot there which bears the name of Cabre's 
knot, and it is associated with a thrilling incident. 'I'liero 
was all the glare and bustle of a busy working time. The 
light of the furnaces shone through tlic forest. Tlie Indian 
saw, and was enraged at the spectacle. C'abre was bound in 
a chestnut oak, the Indians intending to bum him in sight of 
the lick itself — it might be so that the saciifice could in reality 
be seen, and yet not its nature detected till assistance was 
too late. Tlie Indians had collected their fagots from the 
pitch-pine, and while every preparation for the horror was 
making, some oxen, grazing on the hill, moved through the 
thicket. The Indians mistook the sound for that of an ap- 
proach of a rescue-party of the whites. They hastened to 
hide themselves in an opposite thicket, and Cabre, slipping 
off the cords that bound him, darted through the darkness 
and escaped. There was new life among those salt-boilers 
when that panting fugitive arrived among them, and the 
ladle was exchanged for the rifie instantly. They who 
had met to destroy became the object of pursuit, and the 
trail was struck and followed until they reached the Ohio 


The following incident was related of Captain 
Bland Ballard, one of the most noted olificers of 
General Clark's expeditions, in the address of 
Colonel Humphrey Marshall, upon the occasion 
of the re-interment of the remains of Scott, 
Barry, and Ballard, in the cemetery at Frankfort, 
November 8, i8e;4. Said the eloquent orator: 

On one occasion, while scouting alone some five miles be- 
yond the Ohio, near the Falls, he was taken prisoner by a 
party of savages and marched to their village, some thirty 
miles in the interior. The next day after his arrival, while 
the Indians were engaged in racing with horses they had 
stolen from the settlements, Ballard availed himself of a 
favorable moment to spring on the back of a fleet horse in 
the Indian camp and to fly for his life. The Indians gave 
immediate pursuit, but Ballard eluded them, and reached 
Louisville in safety. . . . The noble 

steed was ridden to death ; the skill of the woodsman baffled 
the subtle sons of the forest, and, dashing into the broad 
Ohio, Ballard accomplished his freedom. 

The story is thus told, with some additional 
details, by the venerable Dr. C. C. Graham, of 
Louisville, in a sketch of the life and services of 
Mr. Ballard, in the Louisville Monthly Magazine 
for January, 1879: 

During the period he was a spy for General Clark, he was 
taken prisoner by five Indians on the other side of the Ohio, 
a few miles above Louisville, and conducted to an encamp- 
ment twenty-five miles from the river. The Indians treated 
him comparatively well, for though they kept him with a 
guard, they did not tie him. On the next day after his 
arrival at the encampment the Indians were engaged in 
horse-racing. In the evening two very old warriors were to 
have a race, which attracted the attention of all the Indians, 
and his guard left him a few steps to see how the race would 
terminate. Near him stood a fine black horse, which the 
Indians had recently stolen from Beargrass, and while the 

attention of the Indians was attracted in a different direc- 
tion, Ballard mounted this horse and had a race indeed. 
They pursued him nearly to the river, but he escaped, though 
the horse died soon after he reached the station. This was 
the only instance, with the exception of that at the river 
Raisin, that he was a prisoner. 

Another anecdote, which has somewhat closer 
relation to the Falls cities, is given in this enter- 
taining essay: 

When not engaged in regular campaign as a soldier, he 
served as hunter and spy for General Clark, who was sta- 
tioned at Louisville, and in this service he continued two 
years and a half. During this time he had several rencoun- 
ters with the Indians. One of these occurred just below 
Louisville. He had been sent in his character as spy to ex- 
plore the Ohio, from the mouth of Salt river, and from 
thence up to what is now the town of Westport. On his 
way down the river, when six or eight miles below the Falls, 
he heard a noise on the Indiana shore. He immediately 
concealed himself in the bushes, and when the fog had suffi- 
ciently scattered to permit him to see, he saw a canoe occu- 
pied with three Indians approaching the Kentucky shore. 
When they had approached within ranee, he fired and killed 
one. The other two jumped overboard and endeavored to 
get their ranoe in deep water; but before they could succeed 
he killed i second, and finally the third. Upon reporting his 
morning';, work to General Clark, a detachment was sent 
down, who found the three dead Indians and buried them. 
For this service General Clark gave him a linen shirt and 
some other small presents. This shirt was the only shirt he 
had for several years, except those made of batten. Of this 
shirt the pioneer hero was justly proud. 

Another anecdote of Ballard, which properly 
belongs to Jefferson county annals, is narrated 
by Dr. Graham: 

At the time of the defeat on Long run, he was living at 
Lyon's Station, on Beargrass, and came up to assist some 
families in moving from from 'Squire Boone's station, near 
the present town of Shelbyville. The people of this station 
had become alarmed at the numerous Indian signs in the 
country, and had determined to renwve to the stronger sta- 
tions on the Beargrass. They proceeded safely until they 
arrived near Long run, when they were attacked in front 
and rear by the Indians, who fired their rifles and then rushed 
on them with their tomahawks. Some few of the men ran at 
the first fire ; of the other some succeeded in saving part of 
their families, or died with them after a brave resistance. The 
subject of this sketch, after assisting several of the women on 
horseback, who had been thrown on the first onset, during 
which he had several single-handed combats with the Indians, 
and seeing the party about to be defeated, he succeeded in 
getting outside of the Indian lines, when he used his rifle with 
some effect, until he saw they were totally routed. He then 
started for the station, pursued by the Indians, and, on stop- 
ping at Floyd's fork, in the bushes on the bank, he sa« an 
Indian on horseback, pursuing the fugitives, ride into the 
creek. As he ascended the bank, near to where Ballard 
stood, he shot the Indian, caught the horse, and made good 
his escape to the station. Many were killed, the number not 
being recollected ; some were taken prisoners, and some es- 
caped to the station. The pioneers afterwards learned from 
the prisoners taken that the Indians were marching to attack 
the station the whites had deserted, but, learning from their 



spies that they were moving, the Indians turned from the 
head of BuUskin and marched in the direction of Long run. 
The news of the defeat induced Colonel Floyd to raise a 
party of thirty-seven men. with the intention of chastising the 
Indians. Floyd commanded one division and Captain Hol- 
den the other, Ballard being with the latter. They proceed- 
ed with great caution, but did not discei-n the Indians until 
they received their fire, which killed or mortally wounded 
sixteen of their men. Notwithstanding their loss, the party 
under Floyd maintained their ground and fought bravely un- 
til they were overpowered by three times their number, who 
appealed to the tomahawk. The retreat was completed, how- 
ever, without much further loss. This occasion has been 
rendered memorable by the magnanimous galla.itry of young 
Wells (afterwards the Colonel Wells of Tippecanoe), who 
saved the life of Floyd, his personal enemy, by the timely of- 
fer of his horse, at a moment when the Indians were near 
Floyd, who was retreating on foot and nearly exhausted. 

This famous Indian fighter, Captain Bland W. 
Ballard, was uncle to the Hon. Bland Ballard, 
late judge of the United States court for the Dis- 
trict of Kentucky, who died in Louisville in 1879. 


The following narrative is from Collins: 

In the latter part of April , 1784, the father of the late Judge 
Rowan, with his family and five other families, set out from 
Louisville in flat-bottomed boats, for the Long Falls of 
Greene river. The intention was to descend the Ohio river 
to the mouth of Greene river, and ascend that river to the 
place of destination. At that time there were no settlements 
in Kentucky within one hundred miles of the Long Falls of 
Green river (afterwards called Vienna). The families were in 
one boat and their cattle in the other. When the boats had 
descended the Ohio about one hundred miles, and were near 
the middle of it, gliding along very securely, as it was 
thought, about 10 o'clock of the night, a prodigious yelling 
of Indians was heard, some two or three miles below, on 
the northern shore; and they had floated but a short distance 
further down the river, when a number of fires were seen 
on that shore. The yelling continued, and it was concluded 
that they had captured a boat which had passed these two 
about mid-day, and were massacreing their captives. The two 
boats were lashed together, and the best practicable arrange- 
ments were made for defending them. The men were dis- 
tributed by Mr. Rowan to the best advantage, in case of an 
attack — they were seven in number, including himself The 
boats were "neared " to the Kentucky shore, with as little 
noise as possible; but avoided too close an approach to that 
shore, lest there might be Indians there also. The fires of 
the Indians were extended along the bank at intervals fur 
half a mile or more, and as the boats reached a point about 
opF>osite the central fire they were discovered, and com- 
manded to "come to." All on board remained silent; Mr. 
Rowan had given strict orders that no one should utter any 
sound but that of his rifle, and not that until the Indians 
should come within powder-burning distance. They united 
in a terrific yell, rushed to their canoes, and gave pursuit. 
The boats floated on in silence— not an oar pulled. The 
Indians approached within less than a hundred yards, with a 
seeming determination to board. Just at this moment Mrs. 
Rowan rose from her seat, collected the axes, and placed one 
by the side of each man, where he stood by his gun, touch- 
ing him on the knee with the handle of the axe. as she leaned 

it up by him against the side of the boat, to let him know it 
was there, and retired to her seat, retaining a hatchet for her- 
self The Indians continued hovering in the rear, and yelling, 
for nearly three miles, when, awed by the inference which 
they drew from the silence observed on board, they relin- 
quished farther pursuit. None but those who have a prac- 
tical acquaintance with Indian warfare can form a just idea 
of the terror which their hideous yelling is calculated to in- 
spire. Judge Rowan, who was then ten years old, states that 
he could never forget the sensations of that night, or cease to 
admire the fortitude and composure displayed by his mother 
on that trying occasion. There were seven men and three 
boys in the boat, with nine guns in all. Mrs. Rowan, in 
speaking of the incident afterward, in her calm way said, 
"We made a providential escape, for which we ought to feel 


The following is from Mr. CoUins's biographi- 
cal notice of Alexander Scott Bullitt, from whom 
Bullitt county is named: 

In 1784, six years before the father's death, the subject of 
this sketch emigrated to Kentucky, then a portion of Vir- 
ginia, and settled on or near the stream called Bullskin, in 
what is now Shelby county. Here he resided but a few 
months, being compelled, by the annoyances to which he was 
subjected by the Indians, to seek a less exposed situation. 
This he found in Jefferson county, in the neighborhood of 
Sturgus's station, where he entered and settled upon the tract 
of land on which he continued to reside until his death. In 
the fall of 1785, he married the daughter of Colonel W. 
Christian, who had removed from Virginia the preceding 
spring. In April, 1786, Colonel Christian with a party of 
eight or ten men pursued a small body of Indians, who had 
been committing depredations on the property of the settlers 
in the neighborhood of Sturgus's station. Two of the Indians 
were overtaken about a mile north of Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
and finding escape impossible, they turned upon their pur- 
suers, and one of them fired at Colonel Christian, who was 
foremost in the pursuit, and mortally wounded him. Next 
to Colonel Christian was the subject of this sketch and Col- 
onel John O'Bannon, who fired simultaneously, bringing both 
Indians to the ground. Under the impression that the 
Indians were both dead, a man by the name of Kelly in- 
cautiously approached them, when one of them who, though 
mortally wounded, still retained some strength and all his 
thirst for blood, raised himself to his knees, and fired with the 
rifle which had not been discharged, killed Kelly, fell back 
and expired. 


In Bishop Spalding's valuable book of Early 
Sketches of Catholic Missions in Kentucky, the 
misfortunes of John Lancaster and his compan- 
ions, at the hands of the savages, are well told. 
The four were bound from Maysville to Louis- 
ville in a flat-boat. On the 8lh of May, 1788, 
near the mouth of one of the Miami rivers, the 
party was captured. Lancaster alone escaped, 
and after much toil and danger succeeded in 
reaching the Kentucky shore. We extract the 



remainder of the story, which lies directly within 
the field of this history. 

After resting a short time, he determined to float down the 
river to the station at the Falls, which he estimated was be- 
tween twenty and thirty miles distant. Accordingly, he made 
a small raft, by tying two trees together with bark, on which 
he placed himself, with a pole for an oar. When a little 
above Eighteen-mile Island, he heard the sharp report of a 
rifie, when, thinking that his pursuers had overtaken him, he 
crouched down on his little raft, and concealed himself as 
best he could. Hearing no other noise, however, he conclud- 
ed that his alarm was without foundation. But shortly after, 
a dreadful storm broke upon the river; night had already 
closed in, and he sank exhausted and almost lifeless on his 
treacherous raft, drenched with the rain, benumbed with cold, 
and with the terrible apprehension on his mind that he might 
be precipitated over the Falls during the night. 

At break of day he was aroused from his death-like lethar- 
gy, by one of the most cheering sounds that ever fell on the 
ears of a forlorn and lost wanderer — the crowing of a cock — 
which announced the immediate vicinity of a white settle- 
ment. The sound revived him ; he collected all his energies 
for one last eflFort, and sat upright on his little raft. Soon, 
in the gray light of the morning, he discovered the cabins of 
his countrymen, and was enabled to effect a landing at the 
mouth of Beargrass — the site of the present city of Louis- 
ville. He immediately rejoined his friends, and their warm 
welcome soon made him forget all his past sufferings. He 
lived for many years to recount his adventures, and died 
about 1838, surrounded by his children and his children's 


From Mr. Casseday's History of Louisville we 
have the following. The incident occurred in 

Another incident will show the education, even in boy- 
hood, which the nature of the times demanded. Four 
young lads, two of them named Linn, accompanied by 
Wells and Brashears, went on a hunting party to a pond 
about six miles southwest of Louisville. They succeeded 
well in their sport, having killed, among other game, a small 
cub bear. While they were assisting the elder Linn to strap 
the bear on his shoulders, and had laid down their guns, 
they were surprised by a party of Indians, and hurried over to 
the White river towns, where they remained in captivity sev- 
eral months. One of the party had in the meantime been 
carried to another town ; and late in the fall the remaining 
three determined to effect their escape. When night had 
come they rose quietly, and having stunned tbe old squaw, 
in whose hut they were living, by repeated blows with a 
small axe, they stole out of the lodge and started for Louis- 
ville. After daybreak they concealed themselves in a hollow 
log, where they were frequently passed by the Indians, who 
were near them everywhere ; and at night they resumed their 
march, guided only by the stars and their knowledge of 
woodcraft. After several days, during which they subsisted 
on the game they could procure, they reached the river at 
JefFersonville. Arrived here they hallooed for their friends, 
but did not succeed in making themselves heard. They had, 
however, no time to lose ; the Indians were behind them, and 
if they were taken they knew their doom. Accordingly, as 
two of them could not swim, they constructed a raft of the 
drift-logs about the shore and tied it together with grape- 

vines, and the two launched upon it, while Brashears plunged 
into the water, pushing the rafi with one hand and swimming 
with the other. Before they had arrived at the other shore, 
and when their raft was in a sinking condition from having 
taken up so much water, they were descried from this side, 
and boats went out and returned them safely to their friends. 


The following account of the battle of the 
pumpkins, which occurred in Jefferson county, 
was communicated to the American Pioneer 
March 25, 1843, by Mr. John McCaddon, then 
and for many years of Newark, Ohio, but an old 
Indian fighter of Kentucky. The following is 
his narrative: 

After I returned from the expedition of General George 
Rogers Clark (1780), as related in the first volume of the 
Pioneer, we had peace with the Indians for about four weeks, 
when two athletic young men, Jacob and Adam Wickerham, 
went out to a small lot they had cleared and planted. They 
filled a bag wjth pumpkins, and Jacob put it on his shoulder 
and got over the fence. Adam, on looking around, saw an 
Indian start up from a place of concealment and run up 
behind Jacob with his tomahawk in hand. The Indian, 
finding he was discovered, dropped his weapon and grasped 
Jacob round the body, who threw the bag of pumpkins back 
on the Indian, jerked loose and made off at the top of his 
speed. The Indian picked up his gun and fired, but without 
effect. During this time another Indian, from outside the 
fence, ran up toward Adam, who was inside. They coursed 
along the fence, the Indian being between Adam and the 
fort. Adam outstripped him, leaped the fence before him, 
and crossed the Indian's path and ran down a ravine, across 
which a large tree had fallen, which he leaped. Such is the 
agility which an Indian chase gave to the pioneers, scarcely 
believed possible now in this time of peace, wherein there is 
no such cogent reason for exertion almost above belief. The 
tree stopped the Indian, who threw his tomahawk, but which, 
not being well distanced, hit Adam pole foremost on the 
back, and left a ring as red as blood. In the meantime we 
in the fort, hearing the shot, were all out in two or three 
minutes, and the Wickerhams were safe among us. We, with 
our small force, not more than ten or twelve, visited the 
battle-field of the pumpkin-bag, but saw nothing more of the 
Indians that time. 

Colonel R. T. Durrett, of Louisville, in his 
Centennial Address, pronounced May i, 1880, 
after relating several of the stories already given, 
tells the following in addition: 

In March, 1781, a party of Indians came near to Louisville 
and killed Colonel Linn and several other persons. Captain 
Aguila Whitkaker raised a company of fifteen men and went 
in pursuit of them. They were trailed to the Falls, and it be- 
ing supposed that they had crossed the river. Captain Whit- 
kaker and his men took a boat to cross and pursue. They 
were scarcely out from shore when the Indians, until then 
concealed on this side of the river, fired upon the boat and 
killed and wounded nine of the party. The boat put back to 
the shore, and the Indians were attacked and dispersed. 

In the following year [that is, 1785, the year after the 
Linn, Wells, and Brashears incident | a man named Squires 



went out for a hunt in the suburbs of the town. A slight 
snow was upon the ground, and an Indian tracked him to a 
sycamore tree near the mouth of Beargrass creek, where 
Squires had treed a raccoon, and was preparing to secure it. 
The Indian came suddenly upon Squires at the base of the 
tree, and then a race began around the tree— the Indian some- 
times after Squires and Squires sometimes after the Indian. 
Finally both became weary of the chase, and each taking at 
the same time the idea of escape by leaving the tree, the In- 
dian shot off in one direction and Squires in another, much 
to the satisfaction of both. Neither seeming disposed to re- 
new the treadmill chase around the tree, each pursued the 
course taken unmolested by tlie other. The Indian lost his 
prisoner and Squires lost his raccoon, but both, no doubt, 
were satisfied with the loss. 

In 1793 a party of Indians captured a boy at Eastin's mill, 
and, by some strange fancy, gave him a scalping-knife, a 
tomahawk, and a pipe, and turned him loose with this equip- 
ment. What use the boy made of his instruments of war 
and peace in after years is not known. 


Eight miles south of Louisville, on what subse- 
quently became the Bardstown road, Captain 
Abraham Hite, of Beikeley county, Virginia, a 
brave soldier of the Revolution, settled in 1782, 
his brother, Joseph Hite, following the next year, 
and settling two miles south of him, and their 
father, Abraham Hite, Sr., joining their colony 
in 1784. Here they had somewhat numerous 
encounters with the marauding and murdering 
savages. The younger Abraham was waylaid by 
them one day, while going from his house to a 
neighbor's, and shot through the body, but got 
away without capture, and, stranger to say, 
eventually recovered of his wounds. His brother 
Joseph, while mounting guard over a party of 
toilers in the field, was fired at by the red men, 
and severely but not dangerously hurt. Both 
the brothers, however, bore marks of their inju- 
ries to their graves, and both survived for nearly 
fifty years afterwards. 



The Discovery of the Ohio— La Salle at the Falls — Biographi- 
cal Sketch of the Great French Explorer — The Spaniard 
— The Frenchman Again — The Welshman at the Falls in 
the Twelfth Century (?)— The Mound Builders White 
Men (?) — The Later Explorers and Voyagers to the Falls — 
John Howard, the Englishman — Christopher Gist, Pros- 
pector for the Ohio Company — Colonel Croghan, the In- 
dian Agent — Captain Harry Gordon, the Surveyor — Then 
Come the Surveyors. 

The first man of European stock, whose face 
the placid waters of La Belle Riviere gave back, 
was undoubtedly the daring explorer, the chival- 
rous Frenchman, Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur 
de la Salle. A tradition exists that one Colonel 
Wood, an Englishman, penetrated from Virginia 
into the Kentucky wilds in 1654, reaching the 
Mississippi and discovering several branches of 
that and the Ohio rivers, with an ultimate view to 
trade with the Indians. The story is at least a 
doubtful one, as is also the tale which avers that 
about 1670 one Captain Bolton (called Bolt or 
Batt in Collins's History of Kentucky) also 
journeyed from Virginia through this country to 
the Mississippi. " Neither statement," says 
Parkman, the best authority on such subjects, 
" is improbable ; but neither is sustained by suf- 
ficent evidence." However these may be, there 
can now be but little debate over the claim made 
by La Salle himself, and of late by the historians 
of his enterprises, that he was the discoverer of 
the Ohio in the winter of 1669-70 or in the fol- 
lowing spring. To this we may add that he was 
probably the first man to look upon the dense 
forests of primeval Kentucky, and that his voy- 
ages down the river, with equally strong proba- 
bility, ended at or near the present site of the 
cities about the Falls of the Ohio. 

Robert Cavelier, commonly called La Salle, was 
born at Rouen, France, in 1643. At an early 
age he became a Jesuit, and taught one of the 
schools of that order, but soon abandoned it 
and went in 1666 to Canada, whither an elder 
brother, a priest of St. Sulpice, had preceded 
him. A corporation of these priests, styled the 
Seminary of St. Sulpice, had become the founders 
and proprietors of Montreal, and were freely 
making grants of lands to immigrants, in order 
to form as soon as possible a bulwark of settle- 
ment against the inroads of the Iroquois. A 
generous offer was made to La Salle by the Su- 



perior of the seminary, in the gift of a large 
tract on the St. Lawrence, at the head of the 
Lachinc rapids, eight or nine miles above Mon- 
treal. He accepted the grant, and straightway 
began its improvement, with such small means 
as he could command. Soon afterwards, while 
at Montreal trading in furs, La Salle heard from 
the Seneca Indians that a great river arose in 
their country and flowed thence to the sea, which 
It reached so far away that eight or nine months 
were required to reach its mouth. It was called 
the "Ohio," but was evidently confused with the 
Mississippi and identified in La Salle's mind 
with the "Great River," which the geographies 
of that day believed to flow westward to the 
"Vermilion Sea," or Gulf of California. De- 
termined to discover and explore it, in the hope 
of finding the much-sought west passage to 
China, or at least of opening profitable trade 
with the natives. La Salle went to Quebec to se- 
cure for his expedition the approval of Courcelles, 
Governor of New France. This was soon ob- 
tained, and ofificial letters patent were granted m 
authorization of the scheme, but without the ad 
dition of ofificial aid. La Salle had spent all his 
scanty means in improving the land given him 
by the Superior of the seminary, and this he 
was obliged to sell to procure an outfit for his 
expedition. The priest who had granted it, tak- 
mg a lively interest in his adventurous plans, 
bought back the greater part of the tract with 
its improvements, and the explorer, with two 
thousand eight hundred livres realized from his 
sales, procured four canoes and the necessary 
equipments and supplies, and hired fourteen 
men for his crew. 

The St. Sulpice brethren at the seminary were 
meanwhile fitting out an expedition for similar 
purposes; and at Quebec, where some of them 
had gone to purchase the needful articles for it, 
they heard of the meditated Ohio exploration 
from the Governor, who urged upon them the 
advantage of a union of the two expeditions. 
La Salle was not wholly pleased with the pro- 
posal, which would deprive him of his rightful 
place as leader, and make him simply an equal 
associate and co-laborer. Furthermore, he feared 
trouble between the Sulpitians and the members 
of the Order of Loyola, or the Jesuits, to which 
he had formerly belonged, and who already oc- 
cupied the missionary field in the Northwest. 

He could notjhowever, easily neglect the official 
suggestion, with its manifest advantages; and the 
two ventures were presently merged into one. 
On the 6th of July, 1669, in seven canoes, with 
twenty-five persons in the party, the expedition 
started up the St. Lawrence. It was accom- 
panied and guided by a number of Seneca In- 
dians, in two other canoes, who had been visit- 
ing La Salle. To their village upon the Genesee, 
in w) ^t is now Western New York, they piloted 
the white voyagers up the mightier stream and 
across the broad bosom of Ontario. Here the 
explorers expected cordial co-operation and aid, 
but were disappointed, the savages even burning 
at the stake, in their presence, a captive who was 
known to be in possession of desired informa- 
tion as to the great river to the southwest. 

It was unfortunate that here they were com- 
pelled, from ignorance of the native language, 
to communicate with the Indians through a 
Jesuit missionary residing at the village. He 
was thu5. practically master of the situation, and 
could color statements from either side at will. 
The new-comers, not unnaturally, suspected him 
of being the author of the obstructions here met, 
since he, in common with his fellows of the or- 
der, would be glad to prevent the Sulpitians from 
establishing themselves in the West. They were 
obliged to remain at the Indian village an entire 
month, when, an Iroquois happening to visit 
them, they learned from" him that near the bend 
of the lake where they lived they could obtain 
guides into the unknown country which they 
sought. Accepting his offer of attendance to 
his lodge, they passed along the south shore of 
Lake Ontario, and were the first of white men 
to hear, at the mouth of the Niagara, the thun- 
der of the mighty cataract. At the Iroquois 
village they were cordially welcomed, and there 
found a Shawnee prisoner from the Ohio coun- 
try, who told them that in a six-weeks' journey 
they could reach the desired river, and that he 
would guide them to it if set at liberty. The 
party then prepared to commence the journey, 
but the Sulpitians, hearing stimulating news of 
the success of the Jesuit missions at the North- 
west, decided to go in that direction, find the 
Beautiful river, if possible, by that route, and 
establish their own mission stations in that quar- 
ter. The traveler Joliet, returning from the 
Lake Superior region, under the orders of M. 



Talon, Intendant of Canada, called upon them 
at the Iroquois town, and further excited them 
by his accounts, the map of the country which 
he presented them, and his assurance that the 
natives thereabout were in great need of more 
missionaries. La Salle warned them of difificul- 
ties with the Jesuits, whom he knew only too 
well; but they nevertheless separated from him 
and went on their bootless way, as it proved, to 
the Northwest. 

La Salle was just recovering from a severe 
attack of fever, and felt the abandonment the 
more keenly in consequence. He was soon able, 
however, to reorganize his expedition, which he 
took to Onondaga, and thence was guided to an 
upper tributary of the Ohio, on whose current he 
was exultantly borne to the noble expanse of the 
CQveted La Belle Reviere. Down this, too, he 
went, on and on, through jnany perils, even to 
the Falls of the Ohio, where now rise the domes 
and towers of the Falls cities. There is a tra- 
dition that he went further, so far as to the 
mouth of the great stream; but this statement is 
not held to be well supported. Some doubt has 
also been thrown upon the daring explorer's ad- 
vent at all in the Ohio valley; but this doubt is 
likewise ill-founded. He himself certainly claims, 
in a memorial of 1677 to Count Frontenac, that 
he was the discoverer of the Ohio, and that he 
passed down it to the Falls. His identical words, 
in a close translation — but writing of himself in 
the third person — are as follows: 

In the year 1667, and the following, he made sundry jour- 
neys at much expense, in which he 4vas the first to discover 
much of the country to the south of the great lakes, and 
among others the great river Ohio. He pursued that as far 
as a very high [tn-s haut\ fall in a vast marsh, at the latitude 
of thirty-seven degrees, after having been swelled by another 
very large river which flows from the north, and all these 
waters discharge themselves, to all appeaiance, into the (nilf 
of Mexico. 

M. Louis Joliet, another of the explorers of 
New France, and who, as in some sense a rival 
of La Salle in the race for fame and fortune in 
the Western wilds, can hardly be accused of too 
much friendliness for him, yet names the other 
upon both of his maps of the Missis5i|)pi and 
Lake region as the explorer of the Ohio.* 

* Upon Joliefs large map the Ohio is called the "Qua 
boustikou." In Franquelins great map of 1684 it is desig- 
nated as "Fleuve St. Louis, ou Chucagoa, ou Casquinam- 
p)ogamou," while the Alleghany is marked as the "Ohio, ou 

Another map, probably of 1673, represents the 
course of the Ohio to a point somewhat below 
the present site of Louisville, as if it were not 
then known further, and above it is the inscrip- 
tion: "River Ohio, so called by the Iroquois on 
account of its beauty, by which the Sieur de 
la Salle descended. " In view of all the evidence, 
Mr. Parkman says: "That he discovered the 
Ohio may then be regarded as established; that 
he descended it to the Mississippi he himself 
does not pretend, nor is there any reason to be- 
lieve that he did so. " 

From the Falls La Salle returned at leisure 
and alone — his men having refused to go further 
and abandoning him for the English and Dutch 
on the Atlantic coast — to the settlements on the 
St. Lawrence, there to prepare for other and more 
renowned explorations in the Northwest and 
South, which were finally and in a very few years, 
while he was yet in the prime of his powers, to 
cost him his life. He perished, as is well known, 
by the hands of assassins upon the plains of 
Texas, March 19, 1687, at the age of forty-three, 
but already one of the most famous men of his 
time. He was but twenty-six years old when he 
stood here, the first of Europeans to behold the 
Falls of the Ohio. 


In 1669, according to a work by Governor 
Dewitt Clinton, quoted in a note to Colonel 
Stone's Life of Joseph Brant, which is copied 
without objection into the second volume of 
The Olden Tiine, a party of twenty-three Span- 
iards, guided by some Iroquois returning from 
captivity among the Southern tribes, came up the 
Mississippi from New Orleans, passed the Falls 
of the Ohio, and proceeded up this and the Al- 
leghany rivers to Olean Point. Thence they trav- 
eled by land to a French colony founded in 
Western New York three years before, at the re- 
quest of the Onondagas, where they, together 
with the villagers, were attacked by the Indians 
before daybreak on All-Saints day, 1669, and not 
one left to tell the tale. The Spaniards had 
been attracted to this region by Indian stories 
that here was a lake whose bottom was covered 
with a substance shining and white. The Eu- 
ropeans guessed this to be silver; it was very 
likely an incrustation of salt in the vicinity of 




In a memorial delivered by the Due de Mire- 
poix to the British ministry, May 14, 1755, dur- 
ing a diplomatic correspondence concerning the 
boundaries of Canada, the noble Duke, in his 
"remarks concerning the course and territory of 
the Ohio," which he claimed as a Canadian river, 
"essentially necessary" to the French for com- 
munication with Louisiana, said: 

They have frequented it at all times, and with forces. It 
was also by that river that the detachment of troops passed, 
who were sent to Louisiana about the year 1739, on account 
of the war with the Chickasaws. 

This force, then, must have passed the Falls 
of the Ohio, but it may be doubted whether any 
other mention of it is made in history. 


Mr. Thomas S. Hinde, an old citizen of Ken- 
tucky, neighbor and companion of Daniel Boone 
and Simon Kenton, wrote a letter in his old age 
from his home in Mount Carmel, Illinois, dated 
May 30, 1842, to the editor of the American 
Pioneer, in which is comprised the following 
startling bit of information: 

It is a fact that the Welsh, under Owen ap Zuinch, in the 
twelfth century, found their way to the Mississippi and as far 
up the Ohio as the falls of that river at Louisville, where they 
were cut off by the Indians ; others ascended the Mississippi, 
were either captured or settled with and sunk into Indian 
habits. Proof: In 179Q six soldiers' skeletons were dug up 
near Jeffersonville; each skeleton had a breast -plate of brass, 
cast, with the Welsh coat of arms, the mermaid and harp, 
with a Latin inscription, in substance, "virtuous deeds meet 
their just reward. " One of these plates was left by Captain 
Jonathan Taylor with the late Mr. Hubbard Taylor, of 
Clark county, Kentucky, and when called for by me, in 
1814, for the late Dr. John P. Campbell, of Chillicothe, Ohio, 
who was preparing notes of the antiquities of the West, by a 
letter from Hubbard Taylor, Jr. (a relation of mine), now 
living, I was informed that the breast-plate had been taken 
to Virginia by a gentleman of that State — I supposed as a 
matter of curiosity. 

Mr. Hinde adduces other "proofs" in support 
of his theory of the advent of his countrymen 
here half a millennium before La Salle came; 
but they are of no local importance, and we do 
not copy them. This may be added, however: 

The Mohawk Ifldians had a tradition among them, respect- 
ing the Welsh and of their having been cut off by the Indi- 
ans, at the Falls of the Ohio. The late Colonel Joseph 
Hamilton Daviess, who had for many years sought for infor- 
mation on this subject, mentions this fact, and of the Welsh- 
men's bones being found buried on Corn Island ; so that 
Southey, the king's laureate, had some foundation for his 
Welsh poem. 

The story of the Jeffersonville skeletons, we 

hardly need add, is purely mythical. It is not 
probable that any pre-Columbian Welshman was 
ever at the Falls of the Ohio. 


The Rev. Benjamin F. Brown, in his little 
work on America Discovered by the Welsh, pub- 
lished at Philadelphia in 1876, making a strong 
argument for the proposition embodied m his 
title, quotes Mr. Culloh's Researches on Amer- 
ica as affirming of the Western earthworks: 

Almost without exception the traditions of the red men as- 
cribe the construction of these works to white men. Some of 
them belonging to different tribes at the present say that they 
had understood from their prophets and old men that it had 
been a tradition among their several nations that the Eastern 
country and Ohio and Kentucky had once been inhabited by 
while people, but that they were mostly exterminated at the 
Falls of Ohio. The red men drove the whites to a small 
island (Sandy Island) below the rapids, where they were cut 
to pieces. 

This tradition has been more fully related in 
the previous chapter. 1456505 


We gladly come back now to more recent 
times and to authentic traditions. 

In 1742 an Englishman named John Howard 
descended the river in a skin canoe, after cross- 
ing the mountains from Virginia. He was un- 
doubtedly at the Falls of the Ohio, went on to 
the Mississippi, and was there captured by the 
French, when we lose sight of him. Upon his 
voyage — which De Hass, author of a History of 
Western Virginia, seems to think "a vague tra- 
dition" — the English based, in part, their claim 
to the Ohio valley, on the ground of priority of 

Next came Christopher Gist, sent out in Sep- 
tember, 1750, by the Ohio company, to "go out 
to the westward of the great mountains, in order 
to search out and discover the lands upon the 
river Ohio down as low as the great falls there- 
of; and to take an exact account of all the large 
bodies of good level land, that the company may 
the better judge where it will be the most con- 
venient to take their grant of five hundred thou- 
sand acres." After making his way across the 
Ohio wilderness to the Great Miami, and down 
that stream to the great river, he, says the West- 
ern Annals, "went as far down the Ohio as the 
Falls, and was gone seven months." No record 
of his observations or adventures here has been 



In 1765 Colonel George Croghan, a deputy or 
sub-commissioner of Sir William Johnson, the 
noted Indian agent in the employ of Great 
Britain, came down the river on a mission to the 
distant Western Indians, to secure the alliance 
of the French at the Illinois settlements, and 
prevent their inciting the savages to war. The 
following is an extract from his Journal : 

June ist — We ai rived within a mile of the Fails of the 
Ohio, where we encamped, after coming about fifty miles this 

2d — Early in the morning we embarked, and passed the 
Falls. The river being very low, we were obliged to lighten 
our boats, and pass on the north side of the little island 
which lays in the middle of the river. In general, what is 
called the Falls here is no more than rapids ; and in the least 
fresh a batteau of any size may come and go on each side 
without any risk. This day we proceed sixty miles, in the 
course of which we pass Pigeon river. The country pretty 
high on each side of the Ohio. 

Colonel Croghan pursued his way to the Wa- 
bash, where he found a breastwork, made by the 
Indians, as he supposed. He remained at the 
mouth of the river the following day, and at day- 
break the next morning was surprised by a party 
of Kickapoos and " Musquattimes," who killed 
five of his party, wounded him and all the 
rest but three, and carried the survivors off as 
prisoners. He was released soon after, and ac- 
complished the objects of his mission. 

Captain Harry Gordon, an official engineer for 
the British Government, who passed the rapids 
July 22, 1766, says in his journal: 

Those Falls do not deserve the name, as the stream on the 
north side has no sudden pitch, but only runs over a ledge of 
rock.s. Several boats passed them in the driest season of the 
year, unloading half of their freight. They passed on the 
north side, where the carrying place is three-cjuarters of a 
mile; on the southeast side it is about half the distance, and 
is reckoned the safest passage for those who are acquainted 
with it, as, during the summer and autumn, the balteau.x-men 
drag their boats over the rock. The fall is about half a mile 
rapid water, which, however, is passable by wading and 
dragging the boat against the stream when lowest, and with 
still greater ease when the water is raised a little. 

Within a very few years after this came the voy- 
ages of the pioneer surveyors to the Falls, with 
which we begin the annals of Louisville in sub- 
sequent chapters. 



Introduction — His Earlier Life — He Saves Kentucky — The 
Illinois Campaign — The Ohio Campaign— Clark Never 
Defeated — C'haracter of His Enemy — Clark never Caught 
Asleep — "A Shakspeare in His Way" — The General's 
Death and Burial. 

This sketch can give but a faint idea of the 
courage, energy, capacity, and indomitable tenac- 
ity of General George Rogers Clark. The stern 
and appalling difficulties he encountered assume 
the wild charm of a startling romance, and had I 
space for the details of time, place, and circum- 
stances, it would transcend fiction itself. In 
short, his life was a life of self-reliant and daring 
deeds that stand pre-eminent above all the 
heroes that ever lived or led an army. For 
brave, humane, and high-toned chivalry he was 
truly preeminent. Though daring and fierce to 
his enemies, his generous and social impulses 
made him the idol of his friends. Quick to re- 
sent an injury, yet prompt to forgive it; fiery in 
pursuit, yet cool and calculating in action, he 
never stooped nor shrunk but in wisdom to gain 
strength for the rebound. Full of generous 
deeds and native nobility of soul, he was a brave 
defender of the " Dark and Bloody Ground," the 
splendid country now called Kentucky. 


George Rogers Clark was born November 19, 
1752, in Albemarle county, Virginia. In early 
life he was, like Washington, a surveyor, and 
then a major in the wars of Lord Dunmore 
against the Canadian, French, and Northern In- 
dians. Hearing much said about the newly dis- 
covered world called Kentucky, and the bloody 
conflict between the white and red men for pos- 
session, he determined to see for himself the 
present condition and future prospect of the 
disputed land. His arrival in the promised land 
was in 1775, where he found a few isolated forts 
in the heart of a vast wilderness claimed by the 
most savage and warlike people in the world, 
against whom unaided individual courage, though 
great, could not prevail. He at once set his 
plans, and went mentally and bodily into the 
work; and marvelous was the result. 

* From a communication to the Louisville Daily Commer- 
cial, February 24, 1878, by the veteran Kentuckian, Dr. 
Christopher ('. Graham, now in his ninety-eighth year. 





Clark, with his bold and penetrating mind, saw 
but one course to settle the many conflicting 
claims to the richest region on earth. All the 
country south of Kentucky river at that time was 
clauned by the noted Colonel Henderson and 
the great Transylvania Land company, in which 
the most influential men of the Union and no- 
bility of England were interested. This claim 
was by a purchase made by the above company 
from the Cherokees South, at the treaty of 
Watauga, while the colony of Virginia claimed 
the whole region from the Ohio river to the 
Cumberland mountains, by her purchase from the 
Delawares and Shawnees, and from other tribes 
of the Northwest, called the Six Nations, at the 
celebrated treaty of Fort Stanwix, by Sir William 
Johnson and his co-English authorities. This 
rumor of a purchase and lasting peace with the 
Indians produced a flood of immigration to 
Kentucky, which caused great alarm among the 
Six Nations, many of whose chiefs had not been 
in the treaty, and knew nothing about it; and the 
Six Nations not being paid according to contract, 
and being egged on by the British, trading-posts, 
where large prices were paid for Kentucky scalps, 
all the tribes were about to unite and exterminate 
the intruders. Clark, seeing the hopeless con- 
dition of the early settlers and the danger they 
were in, determined to put his life at stake in 
their defense. The powder and lead being well- 
nigh exhausted, and the forts being widely sepa- 
rated, there was no concert of action ; so he 
called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodsburg 
station, to send delegates to Virginia to ask for 
a supply of ammunition, at which convention 
Gabriel Jones and Clark were appointed com- 
missioners, signed by Harrod and eighty-seven 

Clark and Jones now set off through a path- 
less wilderness of three hundred miles, over 
rugged mountains, on to the seat of government, 
Williamsburg, and, finding the Legislature ad- 
journed, Jones despaired and gave it up. But 
not so with Clark, who, with undaunted resolve, 
went straightway to Patrick Henry, then Gover- 
nor of Virginia, and implored him to save the 
people of Kentucky from their threatened de- 
struction. The Governor being sick in bed, gave 
Clark a letter to the Executive Council, and they 
declining to take any responsibility, Clark said to 

them, in firm and threatening language, that if 
Virginia did not think Kentucky worth saving, 
he would apply to a power that was ready, willing, 
and waiting to save and protect it. The execu- 
tive council, understanding Clark's stern and in- 
dependent remarks, granted him the ammunition 
asked for. Spain at that time controlled the 
navigation of the Mississippi river, and New Or- 
leans being the only market for Kentucky, many 
of the leading men of Kentucky, aware of the 
great commercial advantages Spain oflfered, pre- 
ferred the protection of Spain to that of Eng- 
land. Clark, from his penetrating knowledge of 
human nature, now obtained, as I have said, the 
ammunition for Kentucky, but found great diffi- 
culiy in getting it to the different forts in the far- 
off wilderness. He at last" getting it to Pitts- 
burgh fore, was joined by Jones, and improvising 
a craft, they descended the Ohio, and though 
fired at frequently by Indians on the shore, they 
landed near Limestone, took the powder and 
lead out, set^their craft afloat, and hid the treas- 
ure in the woods. Jones went to the nearest 
station, and procuring some ten men, started 
back to bring in the powder, but was attacked 
by the Indians and himself and others were 
killed. Clark, however, kept on to Harrodsburg 
station, got Kenton and others, brought the treas- 
ure safely in, and supplied the differept stations 
with the means of defense. 


Clark was always ready to sally out against the 
invaders of Kentucky, but with quick perception 
he saw no end to such petty warfare, and that the 
ax must be laid at the root of the tree; and as 
there was not sufficient force in Kentucky to in- 
vade the savage strongholds and break up the 
British trading-posts, he again went back to both 
Virginia and Pennsylvania, through a wilderness 
of hundreds of miles, and, procuring a hundred 
and fifty men and boats at Pittsburg fort, came 
on to the Falls. Being here joined by a few 
Kentuckians, swelling his army of invasion, he 
floated on down to a point nearest to Kaskaskia, 
the then great trading-post of the Canadians, 
French, and English, and where all the Western 
tribes resorted. His march was rapid, and the 
night before his attack he led his men through a 
tangled forest of thirty miles, and, taking the 
enemy by surprise, captured them all, ten times 



his number. In like manner did he take Kaho- 
kia and St. Louis forts, making prisoners of the 
English officers and sending them to Virginia. 

The French traders and missionaries were the 
first whites to mix and intermarry among the 
Indians and gain their friendship. The Enghsh 
having taken posse sion of Canada, sent their 
officers and traders to those posts where they 
were not welcomed either by the French or In- 
dians, and Clark, by his inherent knowledge of 
mind, soon made friends of both French and 
Indians by pledging exclusive trade for the 
French traders, and protection to all by the 
powers of Virginia and Kentucky. Thus, having 
by his shrewdness accomplished more than many 
officers with an army of ten thousand men could 
have done, he swore his newly made friends to 
their allegiance to Virginia and peace with Ken- 
tucky. He left a single officer, with the aid of 
the inhabitants, to hold the place, and prepared 
foi" F is march to Fort Vincennes. 

Beiore leaving, he kindly took the French 
priests and Indian chiefs by the hand, saying to 
the chiet'b- 'We are brothers, and in you I have 
confid'-n'.£, and if I hear of the English dis- 
turbin,*^ your command I will bring an army to 
your defense ;"and expressing a hope to meet the 
priests in heaven, he asked for prayer and de- 
parted with his little fragment of an army to at- 
tack the British stronghold in the West. He 
sent spies ahead, one being the noted Colonel 
Vigo, a Spaniard of St. Louis, and the other an 
influential chief, to gain the friendship of the 
French and Indians in the British fortress in ad- 
vance of the assault. All things being made 
ready, Clark again plunged into the dark and 
dismal wilderness, and alter marching day and 
night through rain, sleet, and mud, they came 
near the Wabash, which being out of its banks, 
the low flats were for miles inundated and frozen 
over with ice an inch thick. The shivering men, 
already being worn down and half-starved, halted, 
and, gazing in each other's faces with feelings of 
despair, muttered, "Let us go back;" but seeing 
their commander with his tomahawk cut a club 
and black his face with powder, some of which 
he drank, all eyes were upon him as he turned 
his face to his command and, with a voice of de- 
termination, ordered Colonel Bowman to fall in 
the rear, and put to death any that might refuse 
to follow him. In he plunged, waist deep and 

sometimes to the chin, breaking the ice as he 
went, till he came to shallow water, where he 
halted for the moment to see whether he had 
lost any of his men; and seeing some of them 
like to faint, he put the weaker men by the side 
of the stronger for the next two miles, till they 
came to trees and bushes which afforded some 
support. They, at last, getting on higher ground 
within hearing of the guns of the fort, the enjoy- 
ment of fire and rest gave such life and hope to 
the whole company that when Clark addressed 
them, with one voice they exclaimed, "We will 
take the fort or die in the attempt." 

One of Clark's spies came to his camp and 
told him that Colonel Hamilton, the British com- 
mander, had knowledge of his approach, but that 
the French and Indian inhabitants, six hundred 
in number, were in sympathy with the Ameri- 

Stop here and think of the wonderful sagacity 
of Clark. Having already taken three fortresses 
with numbers more than his command, without 
the loss of a man, now we see he has laid the 
foundation for the capture of Fort Vincennes. 
He marched boldly on, and with the eye of 
an eagle scanned the ground, marching and 
countermarching behind high ground where his 
scant numbers could not be seen, and where one 
man by hoisting the flag higher might be thought 
a full company. He, moreover, placed his sharp- 
shooters behind a hillock close to the port-holes 
of the artillery, and as soon as they opened, a 
shower of balls cut down the gunners; after 
which not a man could be got to work the guns. 
Hamilton, seeing this and that the citizens were 
against him, was paralyzed by alarm, of which 
Clark took the advantage, and with pretended 
feelings of humanity addressed him in the 
language both of a conqueror and a friend, 
showing his astonishing insight into human na- 
ture. He said to the commander that he was 
fully able and determined to storm the place, but 
to save bloodshed and the destruction of prop- 
erty, he was willing simply to hold his men 
prisoners instead of killing them, and to let him- 
self march out with his side-arms, and that he 
would send a safeguard with him to Detroit ; but 
if he had to take the place by assault, he would 
not be responsible for the revengeful conse- 
tjuences; that his army was largely composed of 
Kentuckians, who had come with frantic and 



firm resolve to recover the scalps of their friends, 
for which he had paid high prices, and if any of 
them lost their lives in the attempt, he might ex- 
pect the most excruciating torture. And now 
this singular epistle, which Clark knew would 
touch the feeling of self-preservation, soon 
brought an answer, *' Walk in," and thus it is 
seen that Clark's magic power over the minds of 
men accomplished more, with but little over a 
hundred men, without the loss of a single man, 
than others by brute force could have done with 
an army of a thousand and the loss of one-half. 
He now (after sending his British prisoners, 
eighty in number, off to Fort Pittsburg) organ- 
ized a colonial government, and, leaving a sufifi- 
cient force, returned to Louisville and built a 
fort, where he established his headquarters as 
Commander in chief of the Northwest. 


The four British posts that had furnished the 
savages with arms and ammunitions of war and 
paid premiums for scalps bemg broken up by our 
noble defender, Kentucky felt safe, and the flood 
of immigration became great. Kentucky's se- 
curity, however, did not continue; it was not 
long till the foe again lurked in every path from 
fort to fort and house to house, crouched in the 
case, and murdered all who passed, till Clark, 
becoming wearied in his conflicts with them, de- 
termined to invade Ohio and desolate their own 
homes. His voice being as great a charm to his 
friends as a terror to his enemies, he called for 
troops, and soon had an army by his side wait- 
ing his orders, with which force he defeated the 
enemy in every pitched battle, and like a tornado 
swept over their country. Shouts of victory rent 
the air, and seeing their towns in flames, the 
savages for the first time felt the power of the 
white man and begged for peace. 


The conflicts that Clark had with the Indians 
and British from time to time are too numerous 
for detail, but suffice it to say he was never de- 
feated, even by an enemy of double his number, 
while other white commanders contending with 
the same foes, with double their numbers, were 
defeated with great slaughter. In Braddock's 
defeat, of twelve hundred men engaged, there 
were seven hundred and fourteen killed. In 
St. Clair's defeat, out of fourteen hun- 

dred men, eight hundred and ninety were 
killed and wounded. Braddock's officers 
were eighty-six in number, of whom sixty- 
three were slain, himself among them. St. Clair 
had from eighty-six to ninety officers, of whom 
sixteen were killed and wounded — a second 
Braddock's defeat. Harmar's defeats were gen- 
erally calamitous, and that of the Lower Blue 
Lick even more distressing, where, out of one 
hundred and eighty-two who went into the battle, 
near one-half were killed, seven taken prisoners 
and tortured in the flames. 

This latter little army was composed of the 
first men in Kentucky, whose loss was not only 
heart-rending to their families, but fearful to all, 
as all hope for the hves of the few left had de- 
parted with the dead. Isolated and hopeless in 
•the far-off" wilderness, surrounded by fiends that 
sought their lives, what but dread fear could tor- 
ment them by day and startle their slumbers by 
hideous shouts at night? Clark, stationed at 
Louisville, was their only hope left, and he, 
when he heard of the sad defeats, quickly col- 
lected a large force, followed them to their 
homes, defeated them in every battle, and burnt 
their towns, to the great joy of Kentucky. 


I will only mention a few more of the many 
calamitous defeats, both in Ohio and Kentucky, 
to show the kind of men Clark had to contend 
with, and the contrast of his and other com- 
mands. The destruction of Colonel Estill and 
his command where Mr. Sterling now stands, 
and the defeat of Captain Holdtn at the Upper 
Blue licks, are but drops of blood in the hogs- 
head that was spilt on this once "dark and 
bloody ground." 

I will now indulge in but one more incident, 
which may be of interest to the reader, to show 
how the savages tortured their prisoners. When 
Colonel Crawford was defeated by the Indians 
in Northern Ohio, he, the almost only one left 
alive, was, a few days after his capture, put to 
the torture. They blacked his face that he might 
know his fate, bound him tight, and kept him 
long enough to suffer more than death; ther 
they stripped him naked and shot some twent) 
loads of powder into his body, and having 
burned down wood to lively coals they put hiir 
on them, and piling brush around him quicklj 



engulfed him in flames. His hair was first 
burned from his head, his eyes were next burned 
out, all of which he bore with incredible forti- 
tude, uttering only in low and solemn tones, 
"The Lord have mercy upon my soul" — till his 
tongue was parched beyond utterance and his 
feet (on which he had walked round upon the 
coals) were crisped to the bone, when he quietly 
laid himself down with his face upon the fire, 
when an old squaw, with a wooden shovel, 
poured hot embers on his back till life became 
extinct. Dr. Knight, the surgeon of Crawford's 
command, was captured with him, and with his 
own face painted black for execution, witnessed 
the whole horrid scene. They beat him (as they 
did Colonel Crawford before his execution) 
almost to a jelly, and often threw the bloody 
scalps of his friends in his face, and knocking 
down a fellow prisoner a squaw cut off his head, 
which was kicked about and stamped into the 
ground. Dr. Knight, after great suffering, was 
saved. I marched over Crawford's battle-ground 
in our War of 1812, and saw the trees scarred 
by the balls. 


General George Rogers Clark never suffered 
such a fate, nor did one of his command; he 
never was caught asleep, but often took his ene- 
my a-napping, conquering as he went, as he often 
did, through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Mis- 
souri, till his name was a terror to the Western 
tribes. His first arrival in Kentucky was marvel- 
ous. Having made his way down the Ohio river, 
lined on either side with savages that almost 
daily captured boats and murdered whole fami- 
lies, he landed in a wild and trackless forest, 
filled with a lurking foe, and alone, without map 
or guide, traveling over a hundred miles, and 
crossing deep and dangerous streams, he struck 
the isolated fortress of Harrodsburg, after which 
he was seen foremost in the defense of all the 
interior forts, and then beyond the border in the 
Far West in bloody conflicts with fearful odds, 
yet ever victorious. No general ever led an 
army with more celerity and secresy, and his 
battle-cry in the onset was "victory or death, 
honor or disgrace;" and he invariably led the 
way. He had the foresight of Napoleon in strat- 
egy, the heroism of Cresar in execution, and the 
wisdom of Scipio Africanus in leading an army 

into the enemy's country. His addresses to his 
men going into battle had much to do with his 
brilliant victories: "We are now about to engage 
with a savage and cruel enemy who, if they take 
you, will torture you in the flames, and better a ' 
thousand times to die in battle; but victory being ' 
better than either, you can, by a manly and un- 
flinching courage, gain it, when cowardice and 
confusion will be death to all." 


The fame of General George Rogers Clark 
was not confined to Kentucky or the United 
States, but reached the ears of Napoleon, whose , 
Minister to the United States, the noted Genet, 
conferred upon him the office of generalissimo, 
with the title of major-general in the armies of 
France. Clark was expected to lead an army of 
Kentuckians to seize upon New Orleans and hold 
it in the name of France, then at war with Spain; 
but Spain having shortly ceded Louisiana to 
Fiance, and Napoleon, about to engage in a 
war with England, knowing that her fleet would 
quickly sail for New Orleans, offered the whole 
of Louisiana, reaching from the Gulf to the head 
of the Mississippi, and west to the Pacific, for 
$15,000,000. So Clark's expedition, in which 
all Kentucky was ready to embark, was rendered 
unnecessary by Spain's cession to France aud 
France's cession to the United States. 

Monuments have been reared in honor of 
politicians whose lives were frolic and feasting, 
while those who have risked their lives a hundred 
times, and worn themselves out by hardships and 
privations to save their country from ruin, sleep 
in their graves forgotten and unthanked by those 
who now slumber upon their downy beds, un- 
startled by the Indian's war-whoop, the sharp 
crack of the rifle, and the cry of distress. Then 
forget no^ those who saved your fathers from 
death, and enabled them to transmit to you the 
blessings you now enjoy. 

The writer lived in those days of sadness and 
sorrow when our fate seemed certain either by 
the tomahawk or the torturing flames. Isolated 
families and forts far apart, two hundred miles 
from any help; in the midst of a vast wilderness, 
surrounded by cruel savages that lurked upon 
every path and crouched around the little forts, 
total destruction to all without concert and foreign 
aid was certain. True, we had men as willing 



and ready as Clark to meet the foe face to face 
and hand to hand in bloody conflict, a thing of 
daily occurrence; but we had no men of Clark's 
strategic and magic powers of combining and 
controUing masses. When the reader knows 
that our war with Great Britain commenced in 
1776, and that the colonies beyond the moun- 
tains being themselves hard pressed, could afford 
us no aid, he will see us as we were, in a helpless 
condition, struggling against fearful odds. 


The English immediately and wisely seized the 
Western trading-posts in order to set the Indians 
upon the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and Kentucky, and the red men, like 
the whites, preferring the strong side, listened to 
the promises of the English to restore to them 
their homes that Kentuckians had, in violation 
of the treaty of Fort Stanwix, taken possession 
of. The Six Nations now determined to join 
the Southern and Western tribes in the recovery 
of their common hunting-grounds. Clark, from 
his unerring knowledge of human nature, kept 
such spies as Kenton and Ballard on the alert, 
and finding out that Governor Hamilto^, of Fort 
Vincent, had promised the chiefs that if they 
would assemble five thousand warriors by the 
middle of May he would furnish two hundred 
British soldiers and light artillery to quickly rid 
Kentucky of every man, wpman, and child in it, 
and to nip this plot in the bud and take them by 
surprise, Clark (not being able to get sufficient 
force in Kentucky) made a third trip to Virginia 
and Pennsylvania, and begged from these colo- 
nies (themselves hard pressed) one hundred and 
seventy-five men, with which he made his winter 
campaign, wading in mud and ice-water chin 
deep, and taking Governor Hamilton's strong- 
hold without losing a man. Thus were saved 
the lives of the parents and grandparents of 
many now in Louisville, who but for the exer- 
tions of General George Rogers Clark, would 
never have had an existence; and who, in the 
chase of fortune and the luxuries of life, have no 
time to visit the grave of one of the greatest mili- 
tary men of this globe; one who accomplished 
more by his strategy, through a long series of 
brilliant victories, than Washington did with the 
aid of a powerful nation or than Jackson did in 
a single battle behind his breastworks. Clark 


was by nature a Shakespeare in his way, and as 
he was the savior of Kentucky, and aided much 
in keeping the Indians and British from our 
mother, Virginia, I say honor to whom honor is 

General Clark, as is elsewhere related more 
fully, was the founder of Clarksville, on the In- 
diana shore, in which his later years were chiefly 
spent. He died at the residence of his sister 
and brother-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Croghan, at 
Locust Grove, just above Louisville, February 13, 
18 18, and was buried upon the place. He was 
never married, but left somewhat numerous rela- 
tives in and about Louisville. 



' ' La Belle Riviere"— The Falls of the Ohio — Captain Hutch- 
ins's Account of Them — Imlay's Narrative — Espy's Obser- 
vations—Utilization of the Water-power— J ared Brooks's 
Map — Modern Proposals and Movements — Improvement 
ot the Falls — The Ship Canal — Early Plans — The Indiana 
Schemes — The Kentucky Side again — The Company That 
Built the Work — The Federal Government Takes a Hand 
• — Completed — Mr. Casseday's Description — Subsequent 
History of the Canal — Notices of Judge Hall and Others — 
Its Transfer to the United States — Enlargement — The 
Railway Bridges. 

"la belle riviere." 

The superb Ohio was well called by the 
French explorers and geographers the Beautiful 
river. It flows with gentle, majestic current and 
broad stream, for nearly a thousand miles, 
through some of the finest river scenery in the 
world. Its numerous tributaries drain, for hun- 
dreds of miles to the north and to the south, one 
of the grandest, richest, most fertile valleys on 
the globe. Its value in the development of the 
Northwest has been incalculable. Fortunate in- 
deed are the cities and towns that are located by 
its shores ; and doubly fortunate is the county of 
Jefferson, with a frontage of nearly forty miles 
upon its amber waters. Without the Ohio, Louis- 
ville would hardly have been. Never has the 
sagacious, unconsciously humorous remark been 
better illustrated, that Providence always causes 
the large rivers to flow by the large cities. 




Scarcely a break or ripple occurs in the tran- 
quil flow of the great river, until Louisville is 
reached. Here an outcrop of limestone from 
the hidden depths — the same foundation which 
underlies the Falls cities and the surrounding 
country on both sides of the river — throws itself 
boldly across the entire stream, producing, not 
so much a fall as a rapid, descending for about 
three miles in the central line of the river, before 
resuming the usual moderate pace and smooth- 
ness of the current. Careful observations have 
been made of the difference in the stand or 
height of water at the head and that at the foot 
of the Falls, at different stages of the river, with 
the following result : 

Rise in 

feet at head 

Corresponding rise 


te ascent of 

of the Falls. 

at foot of the Falls. 





I to 2 

24 X 

t0 25J< 


2K " 3K 

23 K 

" 24K 


4% " 6 

22 }< 

" 23% 


7% " «K 


" 22 


loji " 13% 


" 20 


13K " i75< 


" 17K 


I9K " 22% 


" 13 


24K " 27X 


" 9 


28K " 29K 


" 6 


2,0% " 31% 


" 4^ 


32K " 33K 


" 3% 


34 " 34K 


" 3J< 


3S% " 36 


" 3 


to 20 


" 3i4 

" 40'A 


" 2 



• Extreme high flood of 1832. 

It is thus seen that the greatest fall, as reck- 
oned between the extreme head and extreme 
foot of the Falls, is twenty-five feet and three 
inches, and that the fall steadily diminishes as 
the river rises, until, long before the unwonted 
height of the flood of 1832 is reached, the as- 
cent, as compared with the ordinary ascent of 
the river in the same distance, has become no 
longer an obstruction to navigation. 

It is estimated that three hundred mills and 
factories might be fully supplied with water-power 
by the Falls. 

Some further account of this remarkable 
physical feature in the stream will be found in 
the subjoined descriptions, 


Captain Thomas Hutchins, of Her Majesty's 
Sixtieth Regiment of Foot, afterwards Geographer 
of the United States, made careful examinations 
of the valley of the Ohio, and much of the in- 
terior country, about the year 1766, and pub- 

lished some years afterward, in London, an in- 
valuable though brief Topographical Description 
of the regions visited. It contains probably the 
first plan of the Rapids of the Ohio ever 
made by a competent hand. From this it may 
be observed that the map shows no vestige 
of white settlement on either side as yet. This 
plan was made, the Captain says, "on the spot in 
the year 1766." In the text of his book he 
says : 

The Rapids, in a dry season, are difficult to descend with 
loaded boats or barges, without a good Pilot ; it would be 
advisable therefore for the Bargemen, in such season, rather 
than run any risk in passing them, to unload part of their 
cargoes, and reship it when the barges have got through the 
Rapids. It may, however, be proper to observe that loaded 
boats in freshes have been easily rowed against the stream 
(up the Rapids), and that others, by means only of a long 
sail, have ascended them. 

In a dry season the descent of the rapids, in the distance of 
a mile, is about twelve or fifteen feet, and the passage down 
would not be difficult except, perhaps, for the following rea- 
sons : Two miles above them the River is deep and three- 
quarters of a mile broad ; but the channel is much contracted 
and does not exceed two hundred and fifty yards in breadth 
(near three-quarters of the bed of the river, on the southeast- 
ern side of it, being filled with a flat Limestone rock, so that 
in a dry season there is seldom more than six or eight inches' 
water), it is upon the northern side of the River, and being 
confined, as above mentioned, the descending waters tumble 
over the Rapids with a considerable degree of celerity and 
orce. The channel is of different depths, but nowhere, I 
think, less than five feet. It is clear, and upon each side of 
it are large broken rocks, a few inches under water. 

The rapids are nearly in Latitude 38^ 8'; and the only In- 
dian village (in 1766) on the banks of the Ohio river, between 
there and Fort Pitt was on the northwest side, seventy-five 
miles below Pittsburgh, called the Mingo town. It contained 
sixty families. 


Captain Imlay's Topographical Description of 
the Western Teriitory of North America, pub- 
lished in various editions about 1793, comprises 
a brief notice of the Falls and their surround- 
ings, which, as it has some unique remarks in it, 
seems well worth copying: 

The Rapids of the Ohio lie almost seven hundred miles 
below Pittsburg and about four hundred above its confluence 
with the Mississippi. They are occasioned by a ledge of 
rocks which stretch across the bed of the river from one side 
to the other, in some places projecting so much that they are 
visible when the water is not high, and in most places when 
the river is extremely low. The fall is not more than between 
four and five feet in the distance of a mile; so that boats of 
any burthen may pass with safety when there is a flood, but 
boats coming up the river must unload, which inconvenience 
may very easily be removed by cutting a canal from the mouth 
of Beargrass, the upper side of the Rapids, to below the 
lower reef of rocks, which is not quite two miles, and the 
country a gentle declivity the whole way. 



The situation of the Rapids is truly delightful. The river 
is full a mile wide, and the fall of water, which is an eternal cas- 
ade, appears as if Nature had designed it to show how inim- 
itable and stupendous are her works. Its breadth contributes 
to its sublimity, and the continual rumbling noise tends to 
exhilarate the spirits and gives a cheerfulness even to slug- 
gards. The view up the river is terminated, at the distance 
of four leagues, by an island in its centre, which is contrasted 
by the plain on the opposite shore, that extends a long way 
into the country; but the eye receding finds new beauties and 
ample subject for admiration in the rising hills of Silver creek, 
which, stretching obliquely to the northwest, proudly rise 
higher and higher as they e.xlend, until their summits are 
lost in air. Clarksville on the opposite shore completes the 
prospect, and from its neighborhood and from the settle- 
ments forming upon the officers' land, a few years must afford 
us a cultivated country to blend appropriate beauty with the 
charms of the imagination. There lies a small island in the 
river, about two hundred yards from the eastern shore, be- 
tween which and the main is a quarry of excellent stone for 
buildmg, and which in great part is dry the latter part of 
sur ner. The banks of the river are never overflowed here, 
they being fifty feet higher than the bed of the river. There 
is no doubt but it will soon become a flourishing town; there 
are already upwards of two hundred good houses built. This 
town is called Lx)uisville. 

JOSIAH ESPY's observations. 

A graphic and highly interesting description of 
the Falls, as seen in 1805 by the intelligent travel- 
er, Josiah Espy, then on his tour through Ohio, 
Kentucky, and the Indiana Territory, is con- 
tained in his book of Memorandums, from which 
we extract as follows: 

2nd October, I took a view of the magnificent Falls of the 
Ohio. The rapids appear to be about a mile long. On the 
Indiana side, where the great body of the river runs at low 
water, 1 could not discover any perpendicular falls. It was 
not so in the middle and southeast channels, in both of which 
the extent of the rapids were in a great degree contracted in- 
to two nearly perpendicular shoots of about seven feet each, 
over rocks on which the water has but little effect. At some 
anterior period the channel on the northwest side, I am in- 
duced to believe, was neatly similar; but the great body of 
water that has been for ages pouring down has gradually 
worn away the rocks above, thereby increasing the length of 
the rapid on that side, and diminishing their perpendicular 
"fall. I have no doubt but that the first break of the water 
here is now much higher up the river than it was originally. 

The beach and whole bed of the river for two or three 
miles here is one continued body of limestone and petrifac- 
tions. The infinite variety of the latter are equally elegant 
and astonishing. All kinds of roots, flowers, shells, bones, 
buffalo horns, buffalo dung, yellow-jacket's nests, etc. , are 
promiscuously seen in every direction on the extensive beach 
at low water, in perfect form.* I discovered and brought to 
my lodgings a completely formed petrified wasp's nest, with 

•Foot-note of editor of Espy 's narrative: " It needs but 
little imagination on the p?rt of one nor versed in palaeon- 
tology to convert the beautiful corals and other fossils found 
so abundantly at the falls into the objects named by Mr. 

the young in it, as natural as when alive. The entire comt 
is preserved. 

Nearly every traveler who subsequently visited 
this region had his observations to make con- 
cerning the Falls; but we have presented the 
main points of interest in the three examples 
given. Some notes of the writers, however, will 
be found in the annals of Louisville hereafter. 
One of them, an English traveler named Asle, 
actually averred that he could hear the roaring of 
the Falls when still fifteen miles distant! 


of the splendid water-power which for ages had 
been expending itself unused at the Falls very 
soon engaged the attention of the settlers, and 
was often in discussion. So early as 1806, Mr. 
Jared Brooks, the same surveyor who made the 
first authentic and recorded survey of the town- 
site, went thoroughly over the ground on both 
sides of the river with his instruments, and over 
the water with his eye and his calculations, and 
embodied the results in his published chart, en- 
titled, "A Map of the Rapids of the Ohio river, 
and of the countries on each side thereof, so far 
as to include the routes contemplated for Canal 
navigation. Respectfully inscribed to His Excel- 
lency Christopher Greenup, Governor of Ken- 
tucky, by his very obedient servant, J. Brooks. 
Engraved and printed by John Goodman, Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, 1806." Copies of this map have 
been preserved to recent times, and are much 
praised by those who have seen them. The Rev. 
Richard H. Deering, author of a pamphlet 
printed in 1859, on Louisville- Her Commercial, 
Manufacturing, and Social Advantages, had a 
copy of it before him, and makes the following 
intelligent remarks upon it and its plan of secur- 
ing water-power and a canal: 

A section of this map gives an enlarged "plan 
of the work below L (upper lock), including all 
the locks and aqueducts for the supply of 'water- 
works,' and situations marked from i to 12 (mill- 
sites), which may be extended to any required 
distance." In the "Notes," the author says: 

The rapids are caused by a vast body of rock which 
crosses the course of the Ohio at this place, and obstructs 
the current until it swells over its top, and thence searches a 
passage down an irregular declivity to the lower end of Rock 
island. The draught of the falls reaches to the line before 
mentioned, crossing obliquely above the rapids, from whence 
the velocity of the current increases to the great break of the 
current at C ; from thence to D, the current rates ten miles 
and 1,066 yards an hour; from D to E, thirteen and a half 



miles an hour; in all, according to the course of the chan- 
nel, 3,366 yards in ten minutes and thirty-five seconds. . . 
It is calculated that the canal will be sufficiently capacious for 
a ship of four hundred tons. [No steamboat had as yet been 
seen on the Ohio]. The water will be carried plane with the 
surface above the rapids to the bank of the river below the 
whole falls, and then disposed of agreeable to the enlarged plan 
of the work below the letter L (upper lock) ; so that any required 
number of water-works may be erected, and each benefited 
by a perpendicular fall of water equal to the whole fall of the 
rapids, viz: twenty-four feet. The water-works will stand 
upon a high and permanent bank, close under which is the 
main and only channel of that part of the Ohio, which seems 
to have been carved out of the rock for that purpose. Boats 
and vessels of any burthen that can descend the river, may 
lie alongside of the mills and store-houses, and lade and un- 
lade with the greatest convenience imaginable. The land in 
the vicinity of the rapids, on both sides of the liver, is gen- 
erally of the first quality, and is so shaped as to afford beauty 
with convenience. That part situated within view of the 
rapids, is beyond description delightful. 

This map of the Falls, by far the most accur- 
ate and complete we have ever seen, exhibiting 
every prominent rock, current, and eddy, and 
the forests on either side of the river as they 
stood at that early day, shows how feasible the 
development of the water-power of the Falls was 
then considered. 

In the absence of the map in this work, we 
will explain to the reader that Mr. Brooks's plan 
for "water-works" consisted of a couple of races 
taken out, one on either side of the main canal, 
just above the upper lock, and running parallel 
with the river bank, upward and downward, from 
which races short side-cuts were to be made at 
convenient distances for mills, and the water dis- 
charged into the river after it left the wheels. 
The race was to be extended down the river to 
any distance that might be required, thus furnish- 
ing room and power for an indefinite number of 

That this was, and is, all perfectly ))racticable, 
no one at all familiar with the subject can doubt; 
and had it been c .■ried into execution, simul- 
taneously with the canal, Louisville would have 
been at this day one of the greatest manufactur- 
ing cities in this country. A portion of the peo- 
ple of Louisville then opposed the construction 
of the canal, because it would destroy the busi- 
ness of transporting passengers and freight 
around the Falls, and a large commission and 
forwarding business, by which a vast number 
gained a livelihood. To meet their objections, 
the friends of the enterprise urged the fact that 
the canal, when completed, would make Louis- 

ville one of the greatest manufacturing cities in 
America; thus, besides giving better employ- 
ment to the persons concerned, it would be the 
means of drawing infinitely more people and 
more business to the place than could ever be 
realized without the canal. It was urged that a 
city, possessing all other advantages in the high- 
est degree known to any in our country, and 
adding this unequaled water-power above every 
other, could not fail to advance to the rank of 
the most populous and important of Western 
cities. Nor does it appear that any one looked 
upon the canal in those days as simply and solely 
to facilitate navigation. Water power was in the 
mouths of all its advocates, whether in the halls 
of legislation, on the stump, or in the street. It 
was to serve the double purpose of navigation 
and manufacturing. How strange, then, that we 
should be told, at this day, that the canal can 
not spare the necessary water for manufacturing ! 
With the whole Ohio river to feed it, men are 
afraid a number of mill-wheels will drain it dry! 
"The canal cannot spare the water without re- 
ducing the depth so as to interrupt navigation.'" 
Yet not a canal can be found in America, if it 
has any fall, that is not used for manufacturing — 
no, not even the least of them, even where the 
"feeders" are miles distant from the point where 
the power is required, while on our canal we 
have an immense volume of water constantly 
pushing with great power, thus preventing any 
material decrease in the depth. This objection 
is simply childish and ridiculous. 

Had our fathers been told that but half the 
original plan would be carried to completion by 
the year 1859, and that their sons would at this 
day not only be neglecting this boundless source 
of wealth and prosperity, but actually arguing 
themselves into the belief that the thing is im. 
practicable, they would have denounced us as un- 
worthy of our origin. 

The thing is and always has been practicable, 
and of such easy development that we are amazed 
when we consider it. That a basin command- 
ing the whole power of the Ohio river should 
stand there within a few yards of the river-bank 
for a period of twenty-nine years, at an elevation 
of twenty-four feet above the current passing be- 
neath it, and not be let into a mill-wheel, is 
strange indeed. 

To show more clearly still the feasibility of the 



water-power here, we will state that the plan as 
drawn by Mr. Brooks, and as the canal is now 
constructed, brings the water on the plane or 
level of the river above the Falls to the upper 
lock, which is only a few rods from the river 
bank below the Falls. The river bank at this 
point is composed of a very adhesive clay, or 
chiefly of this material, down to the black De- 
vonian slate, which at this point forms the floor 
of the canal, and in which the locks are con- 
structed. The land slopes down gradually from 
the upper lock toward the river, the main and 
only channel of which at low water is immediate- 
ly under this bank. The water in the canal basin 
above the upper lock stands at an elevation of 
twenty-four feet above the level of the water in 
the river just alluded to. By taking out the two 
races as drawn by Mr. Brooks, one extending up 
the river for a distance of half a mile or more, 
and the other down the river to any distance 
that may be desirable, water can be drawn from 
them on to mill-wheels, by means of side-cuts 
for a vast number of mills. To do this in the 
cheapest way let the races be extended only as 
demanded by new mills. A few yards of race 
and one mill will develop the principle, and this 
can be done at less cost than would be required 
to start an ordinary country mill, where a dam 
had to be constructed. This arrangement, it 
will be seen, will place the manufacturing estab- 
lishments two miles distant from the business 
part of the city. To obviate this difficulty, and 
also to place the mills entirely beyond the reach 
of high water, we will suggest another plan, which 
we long since determined in our own mind was 
feasible, and in some respects preferable to the 
one just given. 

Just south of the canal, from fifty to one hun- 
dred yards, or perhaps more, there is a beauti- 
ful elevation forming the terminus toward the 
river of the vast plain or table land on which the 
city stands. This elevation or bluff, as it is 
usually called, forms a most beautiful feature of 
this unrivaled landscape, and runs parallel with 
the canal from its head to near its foot, the bluff 
bending to the south with the river when oppo- 
site the locks, and the canal bending a little to 
the north at that point to enter the river. Imme- 
diately on the brow of this bluff runs a fine, wide 
street, two miles in length and well bouldered, 
called High street. The travel on it is immense. 

it being one of the great thoroughfares between 
this city and New Albany, on the opposite side 
of the river, below the Falls. Between the bluf 
and the canal there is a beautiful valley, which L 
generally a little lower between the blufiF and the 
canal than where the canal runs through it. 
Standing on this bluflf near the upper end of the 
canal, and looking down the valley westward, one 
will almost declare that Nature made the valley 
for a race to run just at the foot of the bluff 
parallel with the canal from end to end, to re- 
ceive the water drawn by hundreds of cross-cuts 
from the canal after it shall have turned -as many 
wheels, and convey it off into the river at the 
west end of the valley. This beautiful bluff 
evidently seems to have been formed for hun- 
dreds of manufacturing establishments to stand 
upon, fronting on one of the prettiest streets in 
the world, while the elevated plane south gives 
room for tens of thousands of artisans and labor- 
ers to build their homes. ' 

Such a race, it is believed, can be made at a 
small cost as compared with the present canal. 
First, because it need not be more than half 
or one-third as large; and next, because ijKseems 
very probable it will miss the rock through which 
the canal is excavated. Several wells have been 
sunk on the south side of the canal, which re- 
veal the fact that the rock dips south very sud- 
denly. Du Font's great artesian well is but a few 
rods south of it, and there it is seventy-six feet to 
the rock, which must be many feet below the bot- 
tom of the canal. If the race were commenced 
at the lower end, and a mill constructed there, so 
as to develop the practicability of the plan, the 
expense as in the other plan would be but 
small. Then it could be extended as required 
until the upper end of the line of mills 
would be quite in the business part of the city as 
the business is now located. The whole of the 
mills would then be on a high and beautiful 
plane, entirely out of the way of floods, ice, and 
drift. Thus far Mr. Deering. 

Nevertheless, to this day the great power here 
runnmg to waste, apparently, is but little utilized 
m the movement of machinery, and steam re- 
mains the preferred motor. It is understood 
that the frequent floods in the river, occasionally 
very great and troublesome, constitute an im- 
portant factor in the problem, and that the difl5 
culties they present have not yet been satisfac- 



torily overcome. Four plans for utilization of 
the Falls are still considered, however. They 
are thus given by Mr. Collins, in his History of 
Kentucky: i. Enlarge the present Louisville 
and Portland canal, and increase the height of 
water therein by building. a dam clear across the 
river; 2. Build a new canal, parallel with the 
Portland canal, only for the location of factories 
and mills; 3. Tap the Portland canal east of its 
lower locks, and build a new canal through Port- 
land — gaining an enormous water-power and 
very convenient sites for factories and mills; 
4. Tap the Portland canal east of its lower locks, 
and cut a canal across Shippingport. 

A determined effort was made at a meeting of 
citizens held April 26, 1876, to secure measures 
for utilizing the superb water-power of the Falls. 
A resolution was unanimously adopted request- 
ing the General Council of the city to procure a 
report from hydraulic engineers and competent 
experts on the utilization of the power, and an- 
other for the appointment of a committee to as- 
certain by correspondence with steamboat owners 
and masters, and others interested in the naviga- 
tion of the Ohio, whether navigation would be 
impeded by such use. The services of Mr. John 
Zellmyer, a civil engineer, were secured, and in 
due time he made an elaborate report fixing the 
cost of the necessary machinery, gearing ropes, 
timber work, masonry, and stations for three 
thousand teet of transmission, at $60,000, with- 
out definite estimate for head- and tail-races and 
other improvements. A calculation was made 
oy Mr. Zellmyer upon the basis of the use of 
steam-power during sixty days of high water, 
when it would not be practicable to use the water- 
pwwer, showing that the combined cost of power 
from steam and water for three hundred and 
sixty days would be $46 per horse-power, against 
$72 per horse-power for steam alone. Nothing 
more tangible, however, has yet come of his inves- 
tigations or the Centennial effort of the citizens. 


so as to facilitate their navigation, has also some- 
what engaged public attention. When Mr. Cas- 
seday wrote his little History, about 1852, it was 
proposed to introduce a system of slackwater 
navigation by dams and locks; also, to blast out 
the rocks in and near the channel, so as to turn 
all the water at low stages of the river into one 

chanriel, which it was calculated would be suffi- 
cient for the passage of vessels. Neither project 
was consummated, however; but, about five years 
afterwards, during low-water in the season of 
1857, tlie Falls pilots took the matter of improve- 
ment of the channel into iheir own hands, and 
deepened and widened it in part by their own 
labors and in part at their own pecuniary ex- 
pense. It has since, and very lately, been greatly 
improved, at the expense of the General Gov- 

The famous improvement at the Falls, how- 
ever, now, and perhaps for all time to come, is 
and must be 


We have seen that, at a very early period, the 
attention of dwellers at the Falls was attracted 
to the necessity of an artificial water-way around 
this formidable obstruction, and that, so early as 
1806, a line had been marked out for it. Even 
two years before this, in 1804, a company was 
incorporated to excavate a canal around the 
Falls; but nothing came of this, except, as be- 
fore mentioned, some surveys. In 1809 or 
1810 a bill was passed by Congress authorizing a 
subscription from the National Treasury of 
$150,000 to the capital stock of the Ohio Canal 
company, conditioned that the company should 
previously have a sum funded equal to half the 
total amount required, complete its arrangements 
for cutting the canal, and report the situation, 
with all necessary explanation, to the President 
of the United States. 

On the 20th of December, 1815, a resolution 
passed the Kentucky Legislature, requesting the 
co-operation of the several States interested in 
the proposed improvement. The State was 
authorized to subscribe for one thousand shares 
($50,000) and to reserve a subscription of one 
thousand more for future disposition. To the 
Governor was delegated the right to vote in the 
meetings of the company, on behalf of the State, 
according _to the amount of the public shares. 
No part of this subscription was to be paid until 
three hundred shares were otherwise taken, and 
in any case only $10,000 a year was to be paid 
out on this account, unless by consent of the 
Assembly. The same Legislature duly incor- 
porated the Ohio Canal company to operate on 
the south side of the Falls, and about the same 
time an "Indiana Canal company" was granted 


a charter by its own Legislature on the other 
side. Congress was asked in behalf of one or 
both these companies, to grant "a pre-emption of 
land enabling them to divide their rights into 
several parts, and that before all the best lands 
were sold, with the remittance of part, either 
principal or interest, and on larger than usual 


A ship canal on the north side had been pro- 
posed as early as 1805, and it was thought that 
special advantages in the lie of the land, particu- 
larly in the situation and trend of certain ravines, 
attended this project and promised it certain 
success. General B, Hovey wrote to the com- 
pany about this time: 

When I first viewed the Rapids of the Ohio, it was my ob- 
ject to have opened a canal on the side of Louisville, but on 
examination I discovered such advantages on the opposite 
side that I at once decided in favor of it. 

He rested his judgment decisively upon the 
two deep ravines, " one above the Rapids, and 
the other below the steepest fall." 

The Legislature incorporated his company on 
the most liberal scale, and the subscription books 
filled rapidly. About $ 1 20,000 were actually sub- 
scribed, the names of some of the first men in 
the country appearing on the books. Josiah 
Espy, from whose " Memorandums " we have al- 
ready quoted, writing here in 1805, expressed his 
confidence of the success of the enterprise, and 

If these expectations should be realized, there remains but 
little doubt the Falls of the Ohio will become the centre of the 
wealth of the Western World. 

And yet the scheme came to utter and abso- 
lute failure. 

In 18 19, when the founders of Jefferson ville, 
largely Cine' .lati men, were actively engaged in 
pushing their projects, this particular scheme was 
revived with a great deal of energy, and a begin- 
ning of work made upon it. The maps of the 
town-site, made at this period, have the line of 
the intended canal distinctly marked upon them, 
and traces of the work actually done upon it yet 
remain in certain spots. The canal here was to 
begin a few rods east of the original plat of Jeffer- 
sonville, at the mouth of the ravine, thence run 
by the shortest route through the back lots of the 
town, and terminate at the eddy at the foot of 
the Rapids by Clarksville. It was to be two and 

one-half miles long, with a width at the top ol 
one hundred feet and at the bottom of fifty, and 
an average depth of forty-five feet. Except aboui 
one-fourth of it in the upper end, rock to the 
depth of ten or twelve feet would have to be 
blasted out. The twenty-three feet fall given by 
it, it was expected, would furnish excellent mill- 
seats and power to drive machinery for very ex- 
tensive manufacturing establishments. 

"'For the building of this the Jefferson ville Ohio 
Canal company was incorporated by the Indiana 
Legislature in January, 1818, with a capital of 
$1,000,000, and permission to raise $100,000 by 
a lottery. The charter was to run until 1899, but 
the canal, in order to the continued life of the 
company, must be completed by the end of the 
year 1824. 

By May, 1819, the line had been surveyed and 
located, some contracts had been let, and exca- 
vating commenced. A writer soon after this 
said the work " continues to be prosecuted with 
spirit, and the faint prospect of success." There 
was prospect enough, though, to prompt Dr. Mc- 
Murtrie, writing the same year, to devote a num- 
ber of the most vigorous pages of his Sketches of 
Louisville to writing down the scheme and put- 
ting it in the very worst light. As all the world 
now knows, money in sufficiency could not be 
raised for it, even under the inducements of a 
lottery, and the project presently fell at once and 


Meanwhile the friends of the Louisville plan 
were not idle. In 181 6 Mr. L. Baldwin, a Gov- 
ernment engineer, was sent out by the Federal 
authorities to make surveys and borings along the 
Kentucky shore near the Falls, and report as to 
the practicability of a ship-canal on that line. 
He made his investigations with due care, and 
concluded that, by digging about twenty feet be- 
low the surface (three and one-half through lime- 
stone rock), a sufficient canal for the passage oi 
a four-hundred-ton vessel might be had. January 
30, 1818, another company was chartered to ex- 
cavate the canal; and still nothing of account 
was done. Finally, seven years afterward, the 
coming men appeared, and the unmistakably 
hopeful beginning was made. 


The construction of the canal around the 



Falls of the Ohio, on the Kentucky side, was 
authorized, and a company for that purpose in- 
corporated, by act of the General Assembly of 
the State, approved January 12, 1825. The 
company chartered was composed mainly of 
gentlemen residmg in Philadelphia, and pos- 
sessed of the requisite means, intelligence, and 
energy for the prosecution of such an enterprise. 
The names prominently associated with it in its 
early day were James McGilly Cuddy, president; 
Simeon S. Goodwin, secretary; James Ronald- 
son, John C. Buckland, William Fitch, and Mr. 
Goodwin, directors. Thomas Hulme was also 
a prominent member. The charter fixed the 
amount of the capital stock at $600,000, to be 
held in shares of $100 each, and prescribed the 
time of completion of the canal as not to ex- 
ceed three years — -a time which was subse- 
quently, by a legislative act December 20, 182$, 
extended to three years from that date, and 
further extensions were subsequently granted by 
acts of February 6th and December 11, 1828. 

Contracts were let in December, 1825, or 
January, of the next year, for the construction 
of the canal by October, 1827, for the total sum 
of $370,000. The work was begun in March, 
1826, but dragged along till the last of 1828 
without completion, when the contractors failed, 
and new contracts had to be made at higher 
rates. The work of excavating the canal was 
begun as soon as practicable, but, as a part of it 
had to be cut through solid rock, its progress 
was at times necessarily slow. 


Almost upon the inception of the work, the 
Federal Government became a shareholder in the 
enterprise. By an act of Congress, approved 
May 13, 1826, the Secretary of the Treasury was 
authorized to subscribe one thousand shares to 
the capital stock of the company, and by another 
act, of date March 2, 1829, a further subscrip- 
tion was authorized, not to exceed 1,350 shares. 
Under these acts the ofificers of the United States 
subscribed or bought for tlie Government, 2,335 
shares at the full par value of $100 per share, 
and subsequently, by the conversion of mterest 
and tolls into stock, it became the owner of 567 
addilional shares, making 2,902 in all, or 552 
more than it was authorized to acquire by direct 
subscription. Down to 1842, it may here be re- 

marked, the General Government received, as 
earnings of their stock, in cash dividends, the 
total sum of $257,778 — $24,278 more than its 
entire stock had cost in actual money payments 
— a vastly better return than is usual in the in- 
vestments of public authorities. The company's 
capital stock was increased by the State Legisla- 
ture, by act of December 12, 1829, to $700,000; 
and by an act approved just two years from that 
date, it was raised to whatever amount might be 
necessary for the payment of all costs and ex- 
penses of constructing the canal, and interest to 
the time it was opened for navigation. By tliis 
time (December 12, 1831), and, indeed, before 
the passage of the former act, the work has been 
so far completed that a steamer had passed its 
channel and locks. This vessel was the Vesta, 
(some say the Uncas), said to have been the first 
in the long line of steamboats constructed since 
the year 181 6 at Cincinnati. It made its transit 
through the canal December 21, 1829. 

The great work had been sufficiently com- 
pleted for this purpose within little more than 
three years. Nothing was done upon it in 1825; 
but the next year $66,223.56 were expended up- 
on the requisitions of the contractors, and $10,- 
946.24 for the land required for the canal. In 
1827 the expenditures upon the contract were 
$111,430.51; in 1828, $194,280; 1829, $151,- 
796.03; in 1830, on the order of the engineer 
in charge, for labor and materials, $168,302.05; 
and in 1831, for completion of contracts and ad- 
ditional work, $3,444.90, besides $4,960 for ex- 
penses of repairs and alterations. For some 
time the work was in the hands of but a single 
contractor, without competition; but so small an 
j amount of labor was done during the year (1829) 
that the work was next divided into several con- 
venient sections, each of which was let only to 
contractors who could give it their personal su- 
pervision, and so the construction proceeded 
more rapidly. By the middle of March, 1830, 
as many as seven companies of contractors were 
thus engaged at prices somewhat lower than 
those which prevailed the previous year. On 
the first of December, says the official report for 
the year, "the water, which had been rising for 
several days, had attained to near the top of the 
temporary dam at the head of the canal, and the 
whole line of canal, from the basin to the grand 
lock, being completely excavated and cleared 



out, it was deemed advisable to remove the dam 
and fill the canal, which was done on that day." 
There were then seven feet of water in it, from 
the basin, to the head of the lock, being four 
feet more than there were upon the Falls. 

It was now announced that the canal was com- 
pleted, and opened for navigation. Mr. Casse- 
day, in his History of Louisville, gives the fol- 
lowmg description of it: 

When completed, it cost about $750,000. It is about two 
miles in length and is intended to overcome a fall of twenty- 
four feet, occasioned by an irregular ledge of limestone and 
rock, through which the entire bed of the canal is excavated, 
a part to the depth of 12 feet, overlaid with earth. There is 
one guard and three lift locks combined, all of which have 
their foundation on the rock. One bridge of stone 240 feet 
long, with an elevation of 68 feet to the top of the parapet 
wall, and three arches, the center one of which is semi-ellip- 
tical, with a transverse diameter of 66, and a semi-conjugate 
diameter of 22 feet. The two arches are segments of 40 feet 
span. The guard lock is 190 feet long in the clear, with 
semi-circular heads of 26 feet in diameter, 50 feet wide, and 
42feethigh, and contains 21,775 perches of mason work. 
The solid contents of this lock are equal to 15 common 
locks, such as are built on the Ohio and New York canals. 
The lift locks are of the same width with the guard lock, 20 
feet high and 183 feet long in the clear, and contain 12,300 
perches of mason work. The entire length of the walls from 
the head of the guard lock to the end of the outlet lock is 
921 feet. In addition to the amount of mason work above, 
there are three culverts to drain off the water from the adja- 
cent lands, the mason work of which, when added to the 
locks and bridge, gives the whole amount of mason work 
41,989 perches, equal to about 30 common canal locks. The 
cross section of the canal is 200 feet at top of banks, 50 feet 
at bottom, and 42 feet high, having a capacity equal to that 
of 25 common canals; and if we keep in view the unequal 
quantity of mason work, compared to the length of the 
canal, the great difficulties of excavating earth and rock from 
so great a depth and width, together with the contingencies 
attending its construction from the fluctuations of the Ohio 
river, it may not be considered as extravagant in drawing 
the comparison between the work in this, and in that of 70 or 
75 miles of common canaling. 

In the upper sections of the canal, the alluvial earth to the 
average depth of 20 feet being removed, trunks of trees were 
found, more or less decayed, and so imbedded as to indicate 
a powerful •»>' Tent towards the present shore, some of which 
were cedar, -...m,;! is not now found in this region. Severa] 
fire-places of a rude construction, with partially burnt wood, 
were discovered near the rock, as well as the bones of a 
variety of small animals, and several human skeletons; rude 
implements formed of bone and stone were also frequently 
seen, as also several well- wrought specimens of hematite of 
iron, in the shape of plummets or sinkers, displaying a 
knowledge in the arts far in advance of the present race of 

The first stratum of rock was light, friable slate in close 
contact with the limestone, and difficult to disengage from it ; 
this slate did not, however, extend over the whole surface of 
the rock, and was of various thicknesses from three inches to 
four feet. 

The stratum next to the slate was a close compact lime- 

stone, in which petrified sea shells and an infinite variety of 
coraline formations were embedded, and frequent cavities of 
\ crystaline encrustations were seen, many of which still con- 
I tained petroleum of a highly fetid smell, whic'h gives the name 
to this description of limestone. This description of rock is 
on an average of five feet, covering a substratum of a species 
of cias limestone of a bluish color, embedding nodules of 
hornstone and organic remains. The fracture of this stone 
has in all instances been found to be irregularly conchoidal, 
and on exposure to the atmosphere and subjection to fire it 
crumbled to pieces. When burnt and ground, and mixed 
with a due proportion of silicious sand, it has been found to 
make a most superior kind of hydraulic cement or water-lime. 

The discovery of this valuable limestone has enabled the 
canal company to construct their masonry more solidly than 
any other known in the United States. 

A manufactory of this hydraulic cement or water-lime is 
now established on the bank of the canal, on a scale capable 
of supplying the United States with this much valued mate- 
rial for all works in contact with water or exposed to moist- 
ure ; the nature of this cement being to harden in the water, 
the grout used on the locks of the canal is already harder 
than the stone used in their construction. 

After passing through the stratum which was commonly 
called the water-lime, about ten feet in thickness, the work- 
men came to a more compact mass of primitive grey lime- 
stone, which however was not penetrated to any great depth. 
In many parts of the excavation, masses of bluish white flint 
and hornstone were found enclosed in or encrusting the 
fetid limestone. And from the large quantities of arrow- 
heads and other rude formations of this flint-stone, it is evi- 
dent that it was made much use of by the Indians in forming 
their weapons of war and hunting; in one place a magazine 
of arrow heads was discovered, containing many hundreds of 
those rude implements, carefully packed together, and buried 
below the surface of the grouud. 

The existence of iron ore in considerable quantities was 
exhibited in the progress of excavation of the canal by 
numerous highly charged Chalybeate sjjrings, that gushed out 
and continued to flow during the time that the rock was ex- 
posed, chiefly in the upper strata of limestone.* The canal 
when built was intended for the largest class of boats, but the 
facilities for navigation have so far improved and the size of 
vessels increased so far beyond the expectations of the pro- 
jectors of this enterprise that it is now found much too small 
to answer the demands of navigation. The consequence is 
that the canal is looked upon as, equally with the Falls, a 
barrier to navigation. The larger lower-river boats refuse to 
sign bills of lading compelling them to deliver their goods 
above the Falls, and as this class of boats is increasing, it 
promises soon to be as difficult to pass this point as before 
this immense work was completed. As previous to the under- 
taking of this canal, so there are now numerous plans pro- 
posed for overcoming the impediment ; and these do not 
differ materially from those suggested and noticed in 1804. 
The only ground upon which all parties agree is, that what- 
ever is done should be effected by the General Government, 
and not left to be completed by individual enterprise. 

The Government, as has before been said, owns a very 
large part of the stock in this canal, say three-fifths, and 
it is strongly urged by a part of the community that nothing 
would better serve the interests of Western navigation than a 
movement on the part of the United States, making it free. 

*This is extracted from Mr. Mann Butler's account of the 




The question of internal improvement is not witbin the 
provinceof this history to discuss; but certainly a deaf ear 
should not be turned by the General Government to the united 
voice of so many of its children , all alike demanding to be 
relieved from their embarrassments, and the more particular- 
ly so, as it has already heard and answered the supplications 
of a part of its numerous family. Any semblance of favor- 
itism in a government is a sure means of alienating the trust 
and affection of a part of its dependents. Whatever means 
may be most advisable to effect the removal of the impedi- 
ments to navigation here should at once be adopted. And if 
the opening of the canal freely to all could tend to effect this 
object, the Government has already had from its revenue suf- 
ficent to warrant it in taking off the tax from navigation. 

During the first year of operation, much diffi- 
culty was experienced from the accumulation of 
mud in and in front of the lower lock, brought 
in by repeated freshets; from the falling into the 
canal of some of the piles of stone from the ex- 
cavation which had been allowed temporary 
place upon the berme bank of the canal; and the 
large quantities of drift-wood which at one time 
blocked up the entrance. Relief from all these 
hindrances was eventually had; but large loss 
was suffered by reason of them. During the en- 
tire thirteen months from the opening of the 
canal December i, 1830, to the close of 1831, 
there were but one hundred and four days dur- 
ing which vessels drawing more than four feet of 
water could pass into or out of the lower lock; 
and it was estimated that but for the obstruction 
caused by mud here, three times as many boats 
would have passed the canal. There were but 
one hundred and eighty-three days, indeed, when 
any boats, however light their draft, could pass 
it. The entire transit of the year, however, 
amounted to eight hundred and twenty-seven 
vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of seventy six 
thousand three hundred and twenty-three tons. 
It is interesting to note, by the aid of this report, 
the relative proportions of the several river-craft 
upon this part of the Ohio half a century ago. 
These eight hundred and twenty-seven boats in- 
cluded less than half that number of steamers 
(four hundred and six), with three hundred and 
fifty-seven flat-boats, forty-eight keel-boats, six- 
teen rafts. The broadhorn age on the Western 
waters had yet by no means passed away. 

In the winter of 1831-32, and the spring of 
1832, the river was closed by ice for an unusual 
length of time, and its break-up was followed by 
great floods, which swept over the banks of the 
canal and brought into it immense quantities of 
mud, drift-wood, and even houses carried off by 

the raging waters. After the flood had subsided, 
the water was shut off from the whole length of 
the canal, and it was thoroughly cleared and re- 
paired, and much new machinery added. The 
upper and northern embankment was extended 
in the form of a heavy wall, to facilitate the 
passage of boats and form a barrier to the en- 
trance of drift-wood. The receipts from tolls for 
the year were only $25,756. 12, and it became 
necessary to raise over two-thirds as much more 
to meet the large expenditure. 

In 1833 a draw-bridge was constructed over 
the guard-lock, to connect the villages of Port- 
land and Shippingport. A dredging machine 
was also built, and used effectually in clearing 
the mud collected at both ends of the canal. 
On the 23d of January, of this year, an attempt 
was made by enemies of the improvement to 
disable it by blowing up the locks with gun- 
powder. The blast did not take effect, probably 
on account of a heavy rain then falling; but still 
considerable injury was done, and it was thought 
necessary to institute a nightly watch upon the 
canal, and furnish its line with lamps. Prepara- 
tions were also made by the perpetrators of the 
former outrage to blow up the stone bridge, and 
boats loaded with coal were actually sunk pur- 
posely at the mouth of the canal ; but all to no 
use, so far as any permanent obstruction was 
concerned. The Legislature promptly passed 
an act making such deeds felony. 

In 1836 the great expenses of the canal, in 
making repairs and removing obstructions, made 
necessary the raising of tolls to sixty cents per 
ton for steamers, and three cents per square toot 
of area for keel- and flat-boats. The tolls before 
that had been forty and two cents, respectively. 
The next year the total reached the high figure of 
$145,424.69, which was $57,081.46 more than 
the year before. In 1838 the tolls were $180,- 
364.01, the largest in the history of the canal; and 
dividends amounting to seventeen per cent, were 

The following description of the work is given 
in the Louisville Directory for 1838-39: 

The first public work worthy of regard for its architecture, 
is the Louisville and Portland canal. A beautiful bridge of 
stone is thrown over it, about midway with one principal 
and two smaller arches ; the former semi-elliptical of sixty 
feet space and sixty -eight feet to the top of the principal wall, 
the side-arches and segments of forty feet space. There is 
one guard and three lift-locks, the former one hundred and 
ninety feet long, in the clear, with semi-circular heads of 



twenty-six feet diameter, fifty feet wide, and forty-two feet 
high, containing 21,775 perches of stone-work. The lift- 
locks are of the sanrie width with the guard-locks, twenty feet 
high and one hundred and eighty-three feet long in the clear, 
and contain 12,300 perches of masonry. The entire length 
of the'wall is nine hundred and twenty-one feet. There are 
ako three culverts, making the whole masonry of the canal 
41,689 perches. 

In 1839-40 enough additional shares were sold 
to raise the]capital stock to $1,000,000, to which 
amount it was resolved to limit the stock. In 
February, 1842, an act was passed by the Gener- 
al Assembly authorizing the stockholders to ap- 
propriate the net income of the company to the 
purchase of shares held by individuals, to the in- 
tent that, when the said shares should all be 
bought up, the canal might be made free of 
tolls, under the direction and supervision of the 
United States, which would then be the sole re- 
maining stockholder; or, if the trust were de- 
clined by the General Government, that it might 
be offered the city of Louisville or the State of 
Kentucky. The maximum price to be paid per 
share was fixed by this act at $150, which indi- 
cates a large appreciation of the stock since the 
original subscriptions were made. 

The provisions of the act were formally ac- 
cepted by the stockholders, nearly all of whom 
agreed to sell at the maximum price. Four hun- 
dred and seventy-one shares were bought next 
year, and five hundred and fifiy-four shares in 
1844. A brief enactment was passed by the As- 
sembly this year, to settle a mooted question of 
jurisdiction, in case the Federal Government 
should become sole owner of the canal. It was 
provided that then the jurisdiction of Kentucky 
should be wholly relinquished to the United 
States, and that the annual reports to the General 
Assembly, required by the charter, need not be 
made by the United States. A greater amount 
of tonnage passed the canal this year than dur- 
ing any previous year; but the tolls had been 
reduced to fifty cents a ton, and the total re- 
ceipts were not so greatly increased. During 
1846, the Mexican war then prevailing, the 
steamers exclusively employed by the General 
Government were permitted to pass the canal 
free of tolls, on account of the large interest 
the Government had acquired in the canal. 
Of ten thousand shares in its capital stock, all 
but 3,982 were virtually the property of the Uni- 
ted States. The State of Kentucky, however, 
had begun to tax the property and franchises of 

the canal, and $3,490 had to be paid this year on 
tax account. 

By January 31, 1847, the total number of 
19.875 steamers had passed the canal, and 5,772 
flat- and keel boats, the whole having a tonnage 
of 3,698,266. The tolls collected amounted to 

Judge James Hall, of Cincinnati, who published 
in 1848 an interesting work on The West: 
Its Commerce and Navigation, includes some 
severe remarks concerning this great work. He 
says in his chapter VI.: 

This work, which was intended as a facility to our com- 
merce and a benefit to the whole people of the West, has sig- 
nally failed in accomplishing the purpose for which it was 
constructed; and as the Government of the United States, 
with the beneficent view of patronizing a work of public util- 
ity, became a partner in the canal, it cannot be thought invid- 
ious to call the attention of Congress to its deficiencies. The 
objections to this work are; 

" I. The contracted size of the locks, which do not admit 
the passage of the largest class of boats. 

"2. The iiicfficiency of the construction of the canal, 
which being deficient in width and depth, causes great delay, 
and often serious injury, to passing boats. 

" 3. The enormous and unreasonable ta.x levied in tolls." 

Each of these objections he proceeds to discuss 
at some length, and not without reason and force, 
though with evident prejudices against the canal. 

The last purchases of stock (except a nominal 
amount of one share for each of five stockhold- 
ers, retained at the request of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, that they might continue the man- 
agement of the canal, pending the passage of an 
act of Congress to accept the work) weie made 
in January, 1854, and January, 1855. The price 
of shares had now greatly increased, and the six 
hundred and ten bought in 1854 cost $249 each; 
for those bought the next year (one hundred and 
ninety-five) $257 per share were paid. 

During the year 1854 the Portland dry dock 
and basin were purchased for the uses of the 
canal, at the price of $50,000. It was estimated 
that the use of the dock basin added at least 
$8,000 a year to the tolls, while the dock was 
greatly needed to repair the craft used in the 
regular operations of the canal. February i, 
1855, the tolls were reduced by fully one-half — 
from fifty to twenty-five cents per ton. Extensive 
improvements were made this year, costing $24,- 
203.67, and the next, to the amount of $99,- 
253.42. During the latter year, Congress having 
so far declined to accept the work, under the 
condition of the act, that it should be enlarged 



"so as fully to answer the purpose of its estab- 
lishment," the company, under the advice of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, determined to have 
surveys made for the location of a branch canal, 
with locks capacious enough to pass the largest 
vessels on the river, and to purchase the necessary 
land for its site. Surveys and drawings were 
accordingly made m 1857, which were approved 
at the Treasury Department, and on the 19th of 
December the Assembly authorized the com- 
pany "to construct with the revenues and on the 
credit of the corporation, a branch canal suffi- 
cient to pass the largest class of steam vessels 
navigating the Ohio river." The next year, a 
change having occurred in the Secretaryship of 
the Treasury, the Hon. Howell Cobb, now Sec- 
retary, directed the total stopping of the work, 
until the pleasure of Congress should be further 
known. The company obeyed, although pro- 
testing against the jurisdiction of the Depart- 
ment to this extent, since, under the act of Feb- 
ruary, 1842, the United States had as yet abso- 
lute control over only its original block of 2,902 
shares in the capital stock. 

In 1859 large meetings of persons interested 
in the enlargement of the canal were held in 
Louisville, Cincinnati, Madison, and in other 
cities, and the importance of the measure 
was earnestly pressed upon Congress. That 
body duly authorized the enlargement and 
branch canal by resolution in May, i860, with 
provisos that the United States should not be 
in any way liable for its cost, and that, when the 
enlargement was completed and paid for, no 
more tolls should be collected thafl would pay 
for its repair, superintendence, and management. 
In effect, Congress thus ceded the stock owned 
by the United States to the purposes of the trust 
declared by the Kentucky statute of 1842. Con- 
tracts were promptly let to Messrs. Benton Rob- 
inson & DeWolf — at first for the construction 
of the branch canal, and then for the enlarge- 
ment of the branch canal, and the work rapidly 
proceeded. In 1861 the sum of $357,763.30 
was paid on account of canal improvement, 
about equally in cash and mortgage bonds, and 
$359,067.50 the next year, mostly in bonds. 
Receipts of tolls fell off enormously, in conse- 
quence of the civil war; the rate was raised in 
1862 to thirty-seven and a half cents per ton, and 
in March, 1863, to the old rate of fifty cents. 

The canal improvement this year cost $274,551.- 
02; the next year (1864), $290,297,63; the next, 
$143,284.84; and the next, on final settlement 
with the contractors, who had been compelled 
to surrender their contracts (and the company's 
over-work included), $256,353.54. The means 
applicable to the work, after the expenditure of 
these large sums, were now exhausted, and it was 
estimated that, under the greatly increased cost 
of labor and material induced by the war, $1,- 
000,000 more would be necessary to finish it. 
(The original estimate, before the war, for the 
cost of the work was $1,800,000.) A mortgage 
was made in i860 upon the canal and its reve- 
nues, to Isaac Caldwell, of Louisville, and Dean 
Richmond, of Buffalo, to secure the payment of 
the sixteen thousand bonds issued, of the de- 
nomination of $1,000 each. 

During 1864 the tow-boat Thomas Walker was 
built by the company, at a cost of $15,000, and 
was found exceedingly useful in the operations 
of the canal, as well as giving a handsome reve- 
nue from towing for others. The next year a 
dredge-boat was bought of the United States for 
$1,750. The taxes paid this year were very large 
— $7,676 to the United States, and $4,022 to the 
State, or $11,698 in all. In 1866 $10,430 were 
paid on this account 


Finally, by resolutions of the Kentucky Legis- 
lature passed in the Senate March 27, 1872, in 
the House March 29th, approved by the Gov- 
ernor the same day, the control of the canal was 
definitely surrendered by this Commonwealth to 
the General Government, upon the conditions 
precedent set forth in the resolutions, which were 
accepted by the United States. The text of this 
important measure should be here recorded in 

Whereas, All the stock in the Louisville & Portland canal 
belongs to the United States Government, except five shares 
owned by the Directors of the Louisville & Portland Canal 
Company, and said Directors, under the authority of the 
Legislature of Kentucky and the United States, executed a 
mortgage to Isaac Caldwell and Dean Richmond to secure 
bonds named in said mortgage, some of which are out and 
unpaid, and said Canal Company may owe other debts; and 
whereas, it is right and, proper that the Government of the 
United States should assume the control and management of 
said canal; therefore, be it 

Resolved by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of 
Kentucky, That the President and Directors of the Louisville 
& Portland Canal Company are hereby authorized and direct- 
ed to surrender the said canal, and all the property connect- 



ed therewith to the Government of the United States, upon 
the following terms and conditions: 

1. That the Government of the United States shall not 
levy tolls on said canal, except such as shall be necessaiy to 
keep the same in repair, pay all necessary superintendence, 
custody, and expenses, and make all necessary improve- 

2. That the cijy of Louisville shall have the right to throw 
bridges over the canal at such points as said city may deem 
proper: Provided, always, that said bridges shall be so lo- 
cated as not to interfere with the use of the canal, and so 
constructed as not to interfere with its navigation. 

3. That the title and possession of the United States of 
the said canal shall not interfere with the right of the State 
to serve criminal and civil processes, or with the State's 
general power over the tenitory covered by the canal and its 

4. A lid further. That the city of Louisville shall at all times 
have the right of drainage into said canal, provided that the 
connections between the drains and the canal shall be made 
upon the plan to keep out mud and garbage. 

5. That the use of the water-power of the canal shall be 
guaranteed forever to the actual owners of the property con- 
tiguous to said canal, its branches and dams, subject to such 
restrictions and regulations as may be made by the Secretary 
of the Department of the United States Government which 
may have charge of said canal. 

6. That the Government of the United States, before such 
surrender, discharge all the debts due by said canal company 
and purchase the stock of said directors. 

The total amount of tolls received on the 
canal year by year, since 183 1, when tolls first 
figured in the annual reports of the company, to 
187 1, are as follows: 

1831 $ 12,750.77 

1832 25,756.12 

1833 60,736.92 

1834 61,848.17 

1835 80,165.24 

1836 88,343.23 

1837 145.424-69 

1838 121,107.16 

1839 180,364.01 

1840 134,904.55 

1841 113.944-59 

1842 95,005. 10 

1843 107,274.65 

1844 140,389.97 

1845 138.291-17 

1846 149,401.84 

1847 139,900.72 

1848 158,067.96 

1849 129,953.46 

1850 115,707.88 

852 $153,758.12 

853 178.869.39 

854-S (13 mo.).. 149,640.43 

855 (II months).. 94,356.19 

856 75.791-85 

857 110,015.38 

858 75,479.21 

859 90.905-63 

860 131,917.15 

861 42,650.02 

862 69,936.90 

863 152,937.02 

864 164,476.26 

865 175.515-49 

866 180,925.40 

867 114,961.35 

868 155.495-88 

869 167,171.60 

870 139,175.00 

871 159.838.90 

1851 167,066.49 

Since the enlargement of the canal and its 
transfer to the F'ederal Government, the heavy 
tolls before exacted have been abolished and the 
work is now practically free to the commerce of 
any and every State. 


so long desired was made in 1870-71, and the 

new locks were opened November 20, 1871, for 
the passage of boats. Mr. Collins says: "In 
widenmg it to 90 feet 40,000 cubic yards of earth 
were taken out, and 90,00c of solid limestone — 
the ledge 11 to 12 feet thick; 11,000 cubic yards 
of dry wall masonry were built. Instead of a 
fall of 16 feet in 1 1^ miles, will be a fall of 26 
feet in nearly two miles — a lengthening the dis- 
tance the water will have to flow between the 
head and foot of the fall, in order to lessen the 
force of the current." 

Work upon the improvement contmued dur- 
ing the succeeding years, and by the close of 
1881 the total enlargement was $1,451,439.40, 
and it was estimated that $50,000 more could be 
profitably expended upon it during the next six 
months. By means of the improvement boats 
so large as three hundred and thirty-five feet 
long and eighty-five feet wide can easily pass 
the canal. The total passing of the year 1881 
was 4,196 vessels, with a registered tonnage of 
1,424,838 tons, while 1,723 boats with 517,361 
tons passed down the Falls. The canal was 
open 280 days this year, being closed by high 
water 41 days and by ice 25. Below the canal 
an important improvement was made this year, 
in the extension of Portland dyke 2,300 feet, 
with 700 to be constructed in 1882, which would 
render the bar near it navigable in all stages of 


The project of a bridge across the Falls of the 
Ohio naturally occupied the attention of intelli- 
gent people at the Falls cities for many years. 
To it the late Hon. James Guthrie and other 
leading capitalists and public-spirited men gave 
some of their best energies. Among other 
efforts to awaken public attention to the import- 
ance of the enterprise, an able article in thf 
Daily Courier of March 4, 1854, is especially re- 
membered. On the loth of March, 1856, the 
Legislature of Kentucky granted a charter, to 
Thomas W. Gibsort; L. A. Whiteley, Joshua F. 
Bullitt, Joseph Davis Smith, and David T, Mon- 
sarrat, as corporators of the Louisville Bridge 
company. Nothing to speak of was done under 
it, however, except to keep the project more con- 
spicuously before the public. At length, on the 
19th of February, 1862, another act was passed 
by the General Assembly, "to incorporate the 
Lonisville Bridge company," which revived and 



confirmed the charter of 1856, to James Guth- 
rie, D. Ricketts, G. H. Ellery, and their asso- 
ciates, as successors to the persons named in the 
former charter, and vested with all its powers 
and rights. January 17, 1865, an act of Con- 
gress was approved, supplemental to an act to 
establish post-roads (under which the bridges at 
Steubenviile, Bellaire, and Parkersburg were 
built), and authorizing the Louisville & Nashville 
and Jeffersonville railroad companies, which had 
become stockholders in the company, to con- 
struct a railway bridge across the Ohio at the 
head of the Falls, at a height not less than fifty- 
five feet above low-water mark, and with three 
draws sufficient to pass the largest boats navigat- 
ing the Ohio river — one over the Indiana chute, 
one over the middle chute, and one over the canal; 
with spans not less than two hundred and forty 
feet, except over the said chutes and canal, and 
with draws of one hundred and fifty feet wide on 
each side'of the pivot pier over the Indiana and 
middle chutes, and ninety feet wide over the 
canal; the bridge and draws to be so constructed 
as not to interrupt the navigation of the river. 
Such bridge was declared, when built, to be a 
lawful structure, and to be recognized and known 
as a post-route. 

In a hundred days from the passage of this 
act the war was over, and the way for the great 
work was clearer. Many months more were 
necessarily passed in settling the legal questions 
arising under the act of Congress, and in making 
the indispensable arrangements for money and 
labor; but in the fullness of time all was ready, 
and the contracts were let. The materials for 
the first span were to be delivered by June i, 
1868, and for the others as fast as would be re- 
quired by the completion of the masonry. The 
erection of the superstructure was begun in May, 
1868; and the work went forward with reasona- 
ble rapidity. There were occasional unfortunate 
accidents in its progress, some of them involving 
loss of life; but none seriously delaying the work 
except extraordinary freshets in September and 
October, 1868, and an accident on the 7th of 
December, 1869, when a steamboat with a tow 
of barges, passing the Falls during a heavy 
freshet, knocked out and destroyed the false 
work erected for the last span — that next the In- 
diana chute. But for this disaster the bridge 
would have been completed the same month. 

With tremendous energy and very large expense, 
however, the material was replaced and the span 
put in; the first connection of superstructure be- 
tween the two shores was made February i, 1870; 
the railway track was promptly laid, and the first 
train passed over on the 12th of that month; and 
the bridge was thrown open to the public on the 
24th. The foot walks on the east side of the 
bridge were not ready for use until the 13th of 
the next November. The bridge had cost, to 
the close of 1870, $2,003,696.27, including 
$114,562 interest on the capital stock, and all 
other expenses. The construction account 
alone was $1,641,618.70, reaching not greatly 
beyond the estimate of the chief engineer Janu- 
ary I, 1868, which was $1,500,000. The partial 
year of operation in 1870 yielded the company 
a gross income of $121,267.55 — $84,605.98 tolls 
from railway freights, $35,515-97 from railway 
passengers, and $1,145.60 tolls on the foot walks. 
The operating expenses were $91,023.77. 

Mr. Albert Fink was the chief engineer for the 
construction of this mighty work, his connection 
with it ceasing March i, 1870. His principal 
assistant was Mr. F. W. Vaughn, and Edwin 
Thacher was assistant in charge of the instru- 
mental work. Patrick Flannery and M. J. 
O'Connor had the masonry in charge, and Henry 
BoUa the iron superstructure. The contractors 
for this were the Louisville Bridge and Iron com- 
pany, Mr. E. Benjamin superintendent. 

The bridge is used by the Ohio & Mississippi, 
the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago, and the 
Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis railroads. 
The Pennsylvania company, controlling the last- 
named, which built the embankment at the east 
end of the bridge, thus aontiols the Indiana ap- 

The following description of the bridge is ex- 
tracted from a report made to the chief of en- 
gineers of the United States army in 187 1 by 
Generals G. K. Warren and G. Weitzel and 
Colonel Merrill, a Board detailed to examine 
and report upon the work: 

This bridge, sometimes known as the Ohio Falls bridge, is 
a railroad and foot bridge, and it crosses the Ohio river at 
the head of the Falls, extending from a point just below the 
city of Jeffersonville, in Indiana, to the foot of Fourteenth 
street in the city of Louisville. It belongs to a special 
bridge corporation, and serves to connect the Indiana rail- 
way system with the roads on the south of the Ohio that 
centre at Louisville. 

The bridge, as built, belongs to the class of ' ' high " bridges. 



IS distinguished from bridges with draws and an elevation of 
but seventy feet. 

It has a single railroad track, and two sidewalks, each 6.2 
feet wide, and its total length between abutments is 5,218?^ 
feet. The spans commencing at the abutment on the In- 
diana or north shore are as follows: 99, 149.6, 180, 180, iRo, 
398 K (Indiana Chute). 245^, 245^, 245^, 245}^, 245^, 
2455^. 370 (Middle Chute), 227, 227, 210, 210, 180, 180, 
149.58, 149.58, 149.58, 149.58, 132, 132 (draw over canal), 
50, 50. These dimensions are from center to center of piers, 
and they are greater by the half-widths of two piers than the 
clear waterway. The trusses themselves are of the two styles 
patented by Mr. Albert Fink, the chief engineer of the 
bridge. The two channel-spaces are spanned by Fink trian- 
gular trusses, and all the others except the draw by Fink 
trussed girders. The draw-bridge is what is generally known 
as a Warren girder, differing only from the triangular in that 
the latter has certain additional members that are necessary 
to adapt it to long spans. The former are "through," or 
"over-grade" bridges, and the Litter "deck," or "under- 
grade." The clear waterway at the Indiana chute, meas- 
ured on the low water line, is 380 feet, and at the Middle 
chute 352 Ji feet. The roadway bearers of the channel-spans 
are suspended below the bottom chords, and consequently 
the height under the bridge available for steamboats must 
be measured to these members. The line of the roadway 
bearers of the Indiana channel-span is 96}^ feet above low 
water, and 45}^ feet above highest water, the ma.ximum 
oscillation being 51 feet. At the middle channel-space the 
river is dry at low water, and the available space above the 
river bed is 90 feet. These two channel-spans are on the 
same level, but at the Indiana channel the break in the rocky 

ledge is 1,000 feet above, while in the middle channel it is 
6,000 feet below. The line of the crest of the Falls is e.xceed- 
ingly irregular, crossing the line of the bridge between the 
two channel-spans nearly at right angles. 

The tops of the channel piers and of all piers between 
them are 97 Ji' feet above low water of the Indiana chute. 
The others are lower, conforming to the grades of the 

The foundations of all the piers of this bridge were laid 
on the solid rock, and therefore there is no need of any rip- 
rap protection around them. 

The right pier of the Indiana channel-space is 64 feet 6 
inches by 17 feet io}i inches at bottom; thence it is carried 
up vertically, with 10^4 inches of offsets, to 10 feet above 
low water. Above this the sides have the uniform batter up 
to the coping of 7-16 of an inch per foot. The left pier is 
65 feet 6 inches by 18 feet 8 inches at bottom, and is carried 
up vertically with i foot 6% inches of offsets to 18 feet above 
low water. Above this the sides have the usual batter. The 
up and down-stream ends of the pier? are built alike, with 
starlings formed by the mtersections of arcs of circles with 
radii of 12 J^ feet. They are capped by hoods at high-water 
mark, and above this are finished with semicircular sections. 
These piers on top (without coping), measure 33 by 10. 
The piers of the middle channel are 64 by 17 X feet at bot- 
tom, and 33 by 10 feet on top, with starlings and hoods like 
the other channel piers. The other piers are similarly con- 
structed, excepting that above the lower starlings and hoods 
they have another starling and hood, which makes a shorter 
length of pier on top. The top of pier No. 7 
(without coping) are 21 by 7, the dimensions at bottom being 
45 5-6 feet by 14'^. 

The grades and curvatures on this bridge and its ap- 

proaches are as follows, commencing at the face of the abut- 
ment on the Indiana or northern shore : 








Tangent. . 

Indiana side. 

Channel. spans and spans be- 

Kentucky side. [tween. 


The approach to this bridge on the Indiana shore consists 
of a long and high embankment. This, however, does not 
properly belong to the biidge, and, in accordance with the 
rule adopted for other bridges, we consider that we have 
reached the end of a bridge when we come to earth-work. 
Under this rule this bridge has no approaches, the entire 
space from abutment to abutment being waterway. 

This bridge crosses the Louisville and Portland canal 1,700 
feet below the guard-lock at the head. An unobstructed 
passageway for steamboats is secured by means of a draw, 
giving a clear opening of 114 feet over the canal. The other 
end of the draw projects over a portion of the river, and by 
modifying the canal-bank on this side so that it shall just 
have the width of the pivot of the draw, it will be practicable 
for steamboats in high water to ascend the river without 
lowering the chimneys. This is a very valuable provision for 
boats that habitually run where there are no bridges, which 
yet may occasionally wish to go above Louisville. In low 
water such boats can pass through the canal, and in high 
water, by using the other end of the same draw, they can 
pass up the river even should they be too wide to get through 
the new locks. ... 

The total high-water section of the river on the line of the 
bridge is 216,249 square feet, of which 13,573 square feet, or 
six per cent., is occupied by the piers. This contraction 
would probably cause no perceptible increase of velocity. 
The low-water section is 1,377 square feet, of which 60 square 
feet, or four and one-half per cent. , is obstructed. All the 
water at this stage is running through the Indiana chute; but 
there being no navigation possible, the effect of the piers 
need not be considered. 

The board have no changes to recommend in this bridge, 
which they consider a first-class structure throughout, and 
very much less an obstruction than it might have been had 
its builders limited themselves to giving only what they were 
compelled by law to give. On the contrary, they have 
chosen to build according to the highest of the three author- 
ized plans, and have exceeded the heights and widths that 
even this plan required, spending $150,000 more than was 
necessary to comply with the letter of the law. Instead of a 
300-foot opening at low water, one of their channel-spans 
gives 380 feet, and the other 352 X feet. The total cost of 
the bridge, from abutment to abutment, was $1,615,120. 


This is in course of construction across the 
Ohio, from the foot of Twenty-third street, Louis- 
ville, over Sand Island to the foot of Vincennes 
street. New Albany, a distance of 2,551 feet. It 
is the outgrowth of the project of the Louis- 
ville, Evansville & St. Louis railroad, presently 
to be consummated, and which saw no way 
into Louisville except by a lengthy steam-ferry 



reached by precipitous banks or by the track 
from New Albany to Jeffersonvilie, controlled by 
the Pennsylvania company, and thence by the 
present bridge. This compels the traverse of a 
distance of six miles, which the new bridge re- 
duces one-half 

April I, 1880, the Kentucky Legislature grant- 
ed a very liberal charter to the Kentucky & In- 
diana Bridge company for the erection of this 
bridge. A similar act of incorporation was se- 
cured in Indiana. October 19, 1881, an ordin- 
ance of the Louisville General Council was ap- 
proved, granting the company the right of way in 
the city, for the location and building of piers, 
approaches to and abutments of its bridge. The 
company had meanwhile (in February, 1881) 
been organized, with Colonel Bennett H. Young, 
of Louisville, as president. The stock-books of 
the company were opened in Louisville, and 
within two days twice as many subscriptions were 
offered as could be received. Ample surveys 
and soundings were made, and plans and specifi- 
cations prepared. Mr. John MacLeod was em- 
ployed as chief engineer, and Mr. C. Shaler 
Smith, consulting engineer. Their estimate for 
the entire cost of the work was $1,385,000, but 
contracts were let the same year to the amount 
of $1,400,000. The foundation work was con- 
tracted at $59,000, the iron and steel for the 
main bridge at $577,000. The corner-stone of 
the new bridge was laid in New Albany, October 
29, 1 88 1, with imposing ceremonies, of which a 
sufficient account is comprised in the history of 
that place. The city had endorsed $250,000 of 
the $1,000,000 thirty-year five per cent, bonds 
issued by the company, the city stipulating that 
work should begin before October 11, 1881. It 
was commenced in the first week of that month; 
two of the seven river foundations were soon 
secured, and work upon the third was to begin by 
November loth. It is understood at this writing 
(March, 1882,) that the bridge will go on rai)idly 
to completion. 

The report of the ceremonies at the laying of 
the corner-stone embodies a description of the 
bridge to-be, from which we quote the follow- 

The Kentucky and Indiana bridge will be 2,400 feel in 
Iciigih, but 4,800 feet fram grade to grade, 43 feet wide on 
roadway deck, the only bridge on the Ohio entirely of 
wrought iron and steel of the finest qu.ility, and the only 
structure which impedes navigation so little; also have its 

piers located so as to please the coal men (who, if rumors 
be true, are not the most easily satisfied persons in the 

The two channel spans are 483 and 480 feet in length and 
require 5,400,000 pounds of metal, each demanding propor- 
tionally two and a half times as much steel and iron as the 
400-foot span of the upper bridge ; that while adding 83 feet 
to the length of the span the width is also doubled ; that in 
addition to the weight of the material required in the con- 
struction of the highway and footway the present increased 
weight of railway rolling stock has been provided for. 

The great development both in trade and population of the 
cities to be connected forbids the construction now of a bridge 
that will not accommodate all classes of travel. This struc- 
ture now to rise will carry s:ife!y the single footman who may 
wish to pass from shore to shore, while by his side at the same 
level will move, if required, two 40-ton engines, drawing 
thirty cars laden with stone ; and still alongside a double 
procession of wagons, loaded to their fullest capacity, can 
pass ; and yet with this enormous burden, the stram on any 
part will have reached only one-fifth its ultimate strength. 

The piers on either side will consist of two iron cylinders 
sunk to a solid foundation and filled with concrete and 
capped with stone, while the seven river piers will be built of 
Bedford oolitic limestone, rising one hundred and eleven feet 
in height. The Indiana approach will be fifteen hundred feet 
long, with a nine hundred and ten foot highway approach. 
The piers will contain 19,492 cubic yards of masonry and the 
two approaches 3,330 more; the main bridge will require 4,- 
092,000 pounds of iron and 3,180,000 pounds of steel, with 
1,051,000 feet of lumber, board measurement; while the ap- 
proaches will consume 2,551,000 pounds of iron, and 819,000 
feet of lumber. The railway and wagon-way are entirely sep- 
arate, never crossing each other, and the horses will never 
see the trains. The piers will be carried down to bed rock, 
and for the first time on the Ohio river the channel spans will 
be built without the use of false work to impede navigation. 
The masonry for eighteen feet above low water mark is laid 
in Portland cement, and will to that height have a granite 
facing. The entire wood in the bridge will be of treated 
lumber, having had the preservative forced in under a pres- 
sure of one hundred jjounds to the square inch, while the 
roadways will be made of creosoted gum blocks laid in asphalt 
and gravel. All other highways on Ohio river bridges are 
simply plank. The structure will also have a double draw, 
giving one hundred and eighty-five feet channel room on 
either side of the pier and be operated by steam, improve- 
ments found in no other bridge on the river. 

There has for many years existed the belief that over Sand 
Island is the best place on the river for a bridge, and the one 
which nature had specially designed for that purpose. Here 
there are only nine piers; above there are twenty-si.K. 

There is however one peculiarity at this site. The rise and 
f.iU of the water here exhibit the greatest difference at any 
point on the river. The vast volume of water that pours 
over the Falls with such terrific force can not escape through 
the narrow banks from here to the bend below New Albany 
— it bacKS up and crowds over the banks; and according to 
the test —the great rise of 1832- shows here a difference of 
si.xty-seven and a half feet between high and low water mark, 
thus rec|uiring this bridge to be laid on one hundred and 
eleven foot piers, ten feet higher than the upper bridge piers, 
and making the bottom chord one hundred and ten feet above 
low and forty-five feet above high water, which is now re- 
quired by the act of Congi-ess providing for the construction 
of bridges over this portion of the stream. 





Early Locomotive in Louisville — The Lexington & Ohio 
Railroad — The Louisville, Cincinnati & Lexington (Short 
Line) — A Reniiniscence of 1838-39— The yeffersonville, 
Madison & Indianapolis — The Louisville & Nashville — The 
Louisville, New Albany & Chicago — The Elizabethtown 
& Paducah — The Ohio & Mississippi — The Louisville, 
Evansville & St. Louis — The Chesapeake & Ohio — The 
Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville— The Louisville, 
Harrod's Creek & Westport Narrow Guage — Railway 
Notes — Turnpike Roads — The Louisville & Cincinnati 
United States Mail Line of Steamers. 


It is a fact not generally known, we suspect, 
even to residents of the Falls cities, that some 
of the very first attempts at the building of loco- 
motive engines and of railways were made in 
this region, on the Kentucky side. Not a mile 
had yet been traversed on an iron way in Amer- 
ica, with steam as a motor, before Thomas H. 
Barlow, a Lexington man, in the late '20's built 
a small locomotive in that place, of which he 
made a public show upon a circular track in a hall 
there, and in 1827 brought it to Louisville and 
exhibited its working upon a similar track in the 
old Woodland Garden. A little passenger car, 
with two seats, was drawn by it, and many old 
citizens of the town had a ride in what was prob- 
ably the first vehicle drawn by steam in the New 
World. The model of Barlow's locomotive may 
be seen to this day in the museum of the Asylum 
at Lexington; and one of his remarkable "plane- 
tariums " is in the collection of the Polytechnic 
society, in Louisville. 

It was about tyvo years after the exhibition by 
Barlow in Louisville before the first locomotive 
in this country, an English one, drew a train up- 
on the first steam railroad, that of the Delaware 
& Hudson Canal company, on the track from 
their mines to Honesda^e. Pennsylvania. 


This was the pioneer railway in Kentucky, and 
the first to enter Louisville. Its company was 
chartered in 1830, at the instance of a number 
of the leading men of Lexington, with a capital 
of $1,000,000, and authority to build a road from 
Lexington to some place on the -Ohio river, 
Louisville was the terminal point, however, in 
view from the beginning, and prominent citizens 
of this place were early and eagerly interested in 
the project. 

It has been asserted that this was the second 
steam railway started in the United States, which 
is not quite true; but another assertion, made 
by Colonel Durrett in one of his historical articles 
of 1880, is undoubtedly correct, that when the 
charter for it was granted, but twenty-three miles 
of such railroad were operated in all the land, 
and when work was begun the next year, only 
ninety-five miles had been completed on this 
continent. The first spike of the Lexington & 
Ohio road was driven October 21, 183 1, at the 
intersection of Water and Mill streets, in Lexing- 
ton, by Governor Thomas Metcalf, then Chief 
Executive of the State. Dr. Charles Caldwell, 
of the Medical Department of Transylvania Uni- 
versity, delivered the address of the occasion. 
The city of Louisville, four years after, con- 
tributed $200,000 to the road. Colonel Durrett's 
lucid words, in the newspaper article above re- 
ferred to, will tell the rest of the story: 

The work of construction progressed slowly, and trains did 
not get through to Frankfort, a distance of twenty-nine 
miles, until about the close of the year 1835. The first ma- 
terials for construction, and the first freight and passengers 
were drawn over the road by horse; but when part of the 
road had been formally opened to the public, in 1834, and 
the locomotive went thundering over it, a grand ball cele- 
brated the event, at Brennan's tavern, in Lexington. The 
track was originally laid with fiat rails spiked down to stone 
sills, and much trouble and danger was caused by one end of 
the thin iron bars rising up when the locomotive wheels 
pressed upon the other. . All these difficulties have since 
been overcome by sleepers, cross-ties, and T rails of the mpst 
approved style, rendering the road one of the best. 

Things neither started nor progressed so well at the Louis- 
ville end of the road. Disputes rose early and continued late, 
between the directors and city authorities and citizens, as to 
the location of the road at this end. The railroad directory 
wanted the Louisville end to terminate at Portland, and then 
sprang up the dispute as to the location of the road through 
the city so as to get to Portland. Elisha C. Winter, of Lex- 
ington, was president of the road, and John C. Bucklin, 
mayor of Louisville, and they could come to no agreement 
as to the location through the city. Neither could the Lex- 
ington directory, who were Richard Higgins, John Brand, 
Elisha Warfield, Luther Stephens, Joseph Bnien, Benjamin 
Gratz, and George Boswell, come to any unde-standing with 
George Keats and Benjamin Cawthon, who were the Louis- 
ville directors. The city council, consisting of G. W. Meri- 
weather, B. G. Weir, James Guthrie, James Rudd, J. P. 
Declary, Jacob Miller, Robert Buckner, F. A. Kaye, J. M. 
Talbott, and W. Alsop, could not agree concerning any pro- 
posed route, and as for the citizens who lived along any of 
the suggested lines, they would agree to nothing. Finally an 
appeal was made to the Legislature for settling the difficulty, 
and an extraordinary law passed in 1833, empowering Wil- 
liam O. Butler,, of Gallatin county; John L. Hickman, of 
Bourbon; George C. Thompson, of Mercer, and James 
Crutcher, of Hardin, to determine the streets through which 
the road was to pass through the city. 



While, therefore, our neighbors of Ixxington at once be- 
gan war upon their end of the road, with the Chief Execu- 
tive of the State dri Ing the first spike, and an eminent pro- 
fessor deHvering an inaugural oration, we at the Louisville 
end set out with quarreling, and continued for two years, 
about where the work was to begin. It was finally deter- 
mined, however, that the road should enter the city at tlie in- 
tersection of Jefferson and Wenzcl streets; thence proceed 
along Jefferson to Sixth, down Sixth to Main, along Main to 
Twelfth, down Twelfth to Portland avenue, and then along 
the avenue to Portland. In 1838, three years after the Lex- 
ington end was working from that city to Frankfort, this end 
was completed from Portland to Sixth street, and Louisville 
couldthen boast of a league of railroad, with a locomotive dash- 
ng over it, very much to the annoyance instead of the joy of 
ner citizens, especially those who resided or carried on busi- 
ness along its line. The first through train on this our first 
railroad went all the way from Portland to the northwest cor- 
ner of Main and Sixth streets (where the store of J. M. Rob- 
inson & Co. now stands) on the 29th of February, 1838. The 
citizens, however, did not rejoice and celebrate the event with 
a grand ball, as was done by our neighbors of Lexington at 
the other end when the first train went through from that city 
to Frankfort. On the contrary, they were silent and talked 
of pulling up the rails and throwing the locomotive and the 
cars into the river. They concluded, however, to go to law 
about it, after enduring it for about six months. A number 
of citizens owning property and, doing business on Main 
between Sixth and Thirteenth streets, with Ehsha Applegate 
at their head, filed a bill in Chancery on the 9th of October, 
1838, for an injunction against the further use of the locomo- 
tive in that region. It was declared to be a nuisance, endan- 
gering life, depreciating property, and injuring business. 
Levi Tyler, then president of the road, answered on the 19th, 
and set forth the merits of the road with commendable skill. 
The company had then spent about $800,000 in making the 
road from Frankfort to Lexington and from Portland to Sixth 
street, Louisville, and had some of the $r50,ooo furnished it 
by the State, but not enough to make the road from Frank- 
fort to Louisville. 

They were, however, doing a pretty fair business at the 
Louisville end. Fiom the opening of this end of the road 
for through trains from Portland to Sixth street, on the 29th 
of April, to the 6th of November, when the injunction was 
granted, they had carried 93,240 passengers, at twelve and 
one-half cents each, from Portland to Sixth street, and re- 
ceived for it, in cash, $11,656.17. This was at the rate 
of about $425.25 per week, and their expenses were $202.30 
wer week, leaving a neat profit of $229.42 per week. Of 
course, it was hard that such a business sliould be stojjped 
by an injnnction, even if it did endanger life and de]jrcciate 
property and injure business, as clainied by tlie citizens who 
brought the suit. Judge Bibb, then chancellor, granted and 
sustained the injunction, but the comi)any took the case to 
the court of appeals and it was reversed, with instructions to 
so shape proceedings in the court below as to let that loco- 
motive continue to convey passengers from Sixth street to 
Portland, and from Portland to Sixth street. 

The road, however, ni tlie midst of a ho.stilc pooiilo could 
never succeed. The citizens who had attempted to enjoin it, 
were prominent, and had influence enough to make it too un- 
popular for success. It never extended its line to tlie Louis- 
ville wharf as authorized by the City Council and intended, the 
gap between Sixth street and the present depot on yeffcrson 
never was filled up, and our first railroad from Portland to 
Sixth street, instead of being extended through the city and 

protracted in length one way or the other, was transferred to 
a corporation entitled the Louisville & Portland Railroad 
company, in 1844, for the benefit of the Kentucky Institution 
for the Education of the Blind. This transfer was made by 
the State of Kentucky, which had become the owner of the 
whole hne by foreclosing a lien for $150,000 furnished to the 
company in 1833. The Louisville and Portland Company 
afterward transferred the road to Isham Henderson, who 
converted it into a street railroad operated by horse power, 
in which capacity it still exists. 

It may added that, of the thousand miles or 
more of street railway now in the United States, 
the first three miles were operated in Louisville 
by this Mr. Henderson. 

the louisville, cincinn.\ti and lexington 
(short line). 

The Louisville & Frankfort Railroad Company 
was incorporated in 1847, and to it was trans- 
ferred by the State so much of the old Lexing- 
ton & Ohio road as lay between the two former 
places. The consideration for this was six per 
cent, of the valuation, to be paid before any 
dividends were paid to the stockholders of the 
new company. The division between the State 
capital and Lexington was also transferred by 
the State to a new company, the Lexington & 
Frankfort, chartered in 1848, for one thousand 
five hundred shares in this company's stock. 
This part of the old road, although in a weak 
sort of operation since 1835, could not yet be 
called completed, nor was it until the next year. 
The Louisville division was also finished by the 
new organization in 1851 ; and then, for the first 
time, traffic by rail passed through from Louis- 
ville to Lexington. The large sum of $275,000 
was voted to this road by the city of Louisville. 
Colonel Durrett continues: 

The working of the two separate ends of the road under 
independent companies not proving satisfactory to either, in 
1856 the Legislature authorized them to consolidate. The 
Sliort-line was built under acts of the Legislature passed in 
1866 and 1867, and the whole consolidated under the name 
of the Louisville, Cincinnati and Lexington Railroad Com- 
|)any. .And thus the whole line from Louisville to Lexing- 
ton got back again under a single company, as it oiiginally 
was. The company now owns and controls two hundred 
and thirty-three miles of road, as follows: From Louisville 
to Lexington, ninety-four miles; from the Lagrange Junction 
to Newport, known as the Short-line, eighty-one miles; New- 
])ort and Cincinnati bridge, one mile; Louisville Railroad 
Transfer, four'miles; Elizabethtown, Lexmgton, and Big 
Sandy, thirty-four miles; and the Shelby county road, nine- 
teen miles. The whole has cost nearly $6,ooo,coo, and the 
company's liabilities about reach that sum in the shape of 
common and preferred stocks, and bonded and floating debt. 

The Short-Line now operates under^ lease the 



Northern Division of the Cumberland & Ohio 
Railroad, from Shelbyville to Taylorsville, mak- 
ing 73.09 miles operated in this way by the road, 
besides 174.9 owned by it, or 247.99 i" ^1'- 
May I, 1881, the new roadway on the Beargrass 
fill, prepared for it at the expense of the city, in 
order to secure the vacation of the right of way 
so long occupied on Jefferson street, was occu- 
pied, together with the spacious new brick freight 
depot on Water street, between First and Brook. 
Later in the season, a new passenger depot, built 
dunng the year on Water, between First and 
Second streets, was also occupied. Very nearly 
the whole of the main line, and much of the 
Lexington Branch, has recently been relaid with 
steel rails. The engines and cars of the road 
are built in part at its own shops in Louisville. 
The road is now in the great Louisville and 
Nashville combination, with General E. R Alex- 
ander as president and S. S. Eastwood secretary- 


The following notes of the first of Louisville 
railroads is made in the City Directory for 

The principal roads now completed and being completed, 
pointing to Louisville as a center, are the Lexington & Ohio 
railroad, which is destined to open a speedy communication 
with the Atlantic at Charleston [!]. 

The railroad intersects Jefferson street at its eastern limit 
near Wenzel ; it then passes down Jefferson and continues 
from Sixth down Main street to Portland. The road is now in 
full operation from Lexington to Ftankfort, and from Sixth 
street to Portland. The balance of the road, or a great por- 
tion of it, I understand, is under contract. Office corner 
Main and Sixth streets. 

There were at this time in the public thought 

and expectancy railroad enterprises to Nashville, 

from Jeffersonville through Indiana, and to 

Alton, Illinois, through which St. Louis would 

be reached. 


This is a consolidation of two roads, the Jeffer- 
sonville and the older Madison & Indianapolis, 
taking the combined name. The former was 
originally the Ohio and Indianapolis railroad, 
chartered by the Legislature of Indiana, January 
20, 1846, and changed to the Jeffersonville rail- 
road three years after — January 15, 1849. It was 
first in full operation February i, 1853. The 
other was chartered in June,' 1842, and set in 
operation in October, 1847. ^^ was afterwards 

sold under foreclosure, and reorganized March 
28, 1862, as the Indianapolis & Madison railroad 
company. May i, i866, the companies became 
one, and merged their lines into a single one, 
from Jefferson to Indianapolis. January i, 1873, 
the whole was leased to the powerful Pennsyl- 
vania company, which now operates it. 

The contribution of the city of Louisville to 
this enterprise, in 1851, was $200,000. It in- 
cludes the following lines: Main trunk, Louis- 
ville to Indianapolis, 110.28 miles; Madison di- 
vision, 45.9; Shelbyville branch, Shelbyville to 
Columbus, 23.28; New Albany branch, 6.44; 
total, 185.9. The Pennsylvania company also 
operate, in connection with it, 18.42 miles on 
the Shelby & Rush railroad, and 20.8 on the 
Cambridge Extension, making a grand total of 
225.72 miles. Its capital stock is $2,000,000, 
principally owned by the Pennsylvania company. 
The total cost of its own lines (185.9 miles) was 
$6,508,712.77. The Jollowing is a statement of 
its gross earnings for nine recent years: 1872, 
$1,246,381.23; 1873, $1,363,120,85: 1874, $1,- 
345,243.67; 1875, $1,224,147.25; 1876, $1,171,- 
874.69; 1877, $1,176,174.69; 1878, $1,150,014.- 
92; 1879, $1,246,333.78; 1880, $1,388,564.91. 


The beginnings of this important highway to 
the southward were made by the charter of its 
company March 2, 1850. First and last, in 
various sums and at various times, the city of 
Louisville contributed a very large amount to 
this corporation, burdening itself severely with 
public debt for its and the city's benefit. In 
1851 $1,000,000 of the people's money was sub- 
scribed to it, and a like sum four years later. 
The Lebanon branch received $275,000 the 
same year, $300,000 in ^863, and a round mil- 
lion in 1867; the Memphis branch $300,000 in 
1858; the Richmond branch $100,000 in 1867; 
and the $2,000,000 voted to the Elizabethtown 
& Paducah railroad became also a practical ben- 
efit to the Nashville road, by its absorption of 
the Cecilian branch in 1877; '^hus completing a 
total of $6,275,000 public indebtedness carried 
for this one line and its belongings. 

The main line, however, was not opened to. 
Nashville until November, 1859. The following 
summary of additional historic facts is from the 
valuable pamphlet on the Industries of Louis- 
ville, published in 1 881: 



The Knoxville branch was opened to Livingston in Sep- 
tember, 1870. The Bardstown branch was constructed by 
the Bardstown & Louisville Railroad company, and came 
into possession of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad com- 
pany by lease, February 24, i86o, and by purchase in June, 
1865. The Richmond branch was opened in November, 
1868. The Cecilian branch was purchased January 19, 1877. 
The Glasgow branch (the Barren County railroad) is oper- 
ated under temporary lease. The Memphis branch was 
completed in September, i860, and was operated in connec- 
tion with the Memphis, Clarksville & Louisville, and the 
Memphis & Ohio railroads; the first leased February 7, 1868, 
and purchased October 2, 1871, and the latter leased Septem- 
ber I, 1867, and purchased June 30, 1872. The lease of the 
Nashville & Decatur railroad is dated May 4, 1871, and"be- 
came operative July i, 1872. The South & North Alabama 
railroad was built in the interest, and is under control, of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company, and was opened 
October i, 1872. This company also acquired the middle 
division of the Cumberland & Ohio railroad, from Lebanon 
to Greensburg, 31.4 miles, and completed it in 1879. The 
company also bought the Tennessee Division of the St. 
Louis & Southeastern railroad, 47 miles, April 6, and the 
Kentucky Division of the same, 98.25 miles. May, 1879. 

At the end of the fiscal year of the company, 
June 30, 1879, the Louisville & Nashville corpo- 
ration owned its original main stem and branches, 
651.73 miles m all; operated under lease the 
Nashville & Decatur, 119.09 miles, and the Glas- 
gow Branch, 10.5 miles; and under stock ma- 
jority, the South & North Alabama, 188.88 miles; 
making a total of owned and leased lines of 
970.2 miles. Very large accessions were made 
to the lines in 1879-80-81; and the operations 
of the company June 30, of the last year named, 
were represented by the following statement in its 
annual report : 

Owned in fee or through entire capital stock: 
Main Stem, 185.23 miles; Bardstown Branch, 
17.3 miles; Lebanon-Knoxville Branch, 110.3 
miles; Richmond Branch, 33.8 miles; Cecilian 
Branch, 46 miles; Memphis Division, 259.1 
miles; Henderson Division, 135.22 miles; Pen- 
sacola Division, 45 miles; Pensacola & Selma 
Division, 40 miles; Pensacola Extension, 32 
miles; Southeast and St. Louis, 208 miles; Mo- 
bile & Montgomery, 180 miles; New Orleans 
& Mobile, 141 miles; Pontchartrain, 5 miles; 
total, 1,437.95 miles. Operated under lease; 
Nashville & Decatur, 119.09 miles; Southern 
Division Cumberland & Ohio, 30.58 miles; Glas- 
gow Branch, 10.5 miles; Selma Division (West- 
ern of Alabama), 50 miles; total 210.17 miles. 
Operated under stock majority: South & North 
Alabama, 188.88 miles; Owensboro & Nashville, 
35 miles; total, 223.88 — making a total directly 

operated of 1,872 miles. In addition the com- 
pany is interested in the control and manage- 
ment of the following lines, operated under sep- 
arate organizations: Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis railway system (in which the Louisville 
& Nashville company owns a majority of the 
capital stock), 521 miles; Georgia railroad and 
dependencies (controlled through joint lease 
with the Central railroad company of Georgia) as 
follows: Georgia railroad and branches, 305 
miles; Atlanta & West Point railroad, 87 miles; 
-Rome railroad of Georgia, 20 miles; Port Royal 
railroad, 112 miles; Western railroad of Alabama, 
117 miles; total 1,162. Add to this the" Louis- 
ville & Nashville system proper, as above, 1,872 
miles. Total of roads owned, operated, and 
controlled in the interest of the Louisville & 
Nashville company, 3,034 miles. 

Later in 1881 the company acquired control 
of the Short Line road (Louisville, Cincinnati & 
Lexington), by the purchase of its entire stock, 
and thus added 174.9 miles of standard guage 
(also 51.6 miles leased) and 11 miles of narrow 
guage line, to its already gigantic total, making 
an aggregate of 3,271 j^ miles of its lines. The 
Louisville, Westport & Harrod's Creek Narrow 
Guage railroad is now operated by this company. 
The Short Line was made an integral part of the 
Louisville & Nashville system, and is operated 
simply as a division thereof. 

The earnings of the company from trafific dur- 
ing the year 1880-81, were $4,198,518.32 ; real- 
ized from investments, $225,209.17; undivided 
earnings from previous year, $228,382.62; — 
total credits to income account, $4,652,110. 11. 
Charges of all kinds against income account, 
$3,079,088.41. Balance to credit of income 
account, $1,573,021.70, from which $1,087,800 
had been paid in semi-annual dividends to stock- 
holders of 3 per cent, and a surplus carried to the 
income account of 1881-82 of $485,221.70. 

The general offices of this great company are 
in Louisville. Mr. C. C. Baldwin is president ; 
General E. P. Alexander, first vice-president ; 
George A. Washington, second vice-president ; 
Willis Ranney, secretary ; A. M. Quarrier, as- 
sistant president and secretary ; Fred De Funiak, 
general manager. 


This is the old New Albany & Salem railroad. 



with its later extension and branches. The orig- 
inal company was formed January 25, 1847. 
The Louisville Courier-Journal for November 
26, 1880, contains an excellent sketch of the 
history of this road, from which we extract the 

Its early history is connected with the effort on the part 
of the State of Indiana to foster internal improvements. 
Long before 1850 it was laid out as a macadamized road 
from New Albany to Crawfordsville. It was one part of 
that system of internal improvements which Indiana began 
and which her statesmen deemed the turning-point in her 
destiny, and which they considered would make her the 
greatest of the Western States. When, however, she was 
compelled to give up her scheme of internal improvements, 
compound her debts, and surrender the portion of the work 
she had accomplished to private corporations, this road, un- 
der a special law, became the New Albany & Salem railroad, 
and was completed between these two pomts. 

Then a more ambitiouk turn seized its owners and holders, 
and they resolved to cross -the State of Indiana from end to 
end — to run from the Ohio river to Lake Michigan — and 
make this hne the great connecting link between the North- 
west lakes and the Ohio river and its outlets. It was opened 
from New Albany to Michigan City on the 4th day of July, 
1852, amid great rejoicings and with anticipations of un- 
bounded success. 

It had been opened from New Albany to Salem in 1849, 
and had been pushed with great vigor until it reached, as be- 
fore said, from the Ohio river to the lakes. It started with 
the bane of all railway enterprises in the West — too much 
debt. It had a bonded debt at first of $2,325,000 in eight 
per cents.; $500,000 ten per cents.; $2,070,000 seven per 
cents.; $405,456 income bonds, and $12,840 six per cent. 
bonds, and $2,525,223 of capital stock, making a grand total 
of $7,838,519. 

In 1858 trouble began. With the then state of develop- 
ment of the railroad system, the bonded debt of the road was 
too large. The road defaulted for one year upon its inter- 
est. It was then placed, by the agreement of all parties, 
into the hands of D. D. Williamson, trustee, who had been 
one of the most prominent and trusted men of New York, 
and who was comptroller of New York and president of the 
Farmers' Loan and Trust company. The road was held by 
Mr. Williamson as such trustee until 1869, when proceedings 
were had for a foreclosure of the mortgage liens, and after 
various changes in courts it was finally sold under a decree of 
the United States circuit court for the district of Indiana in 
September, 1872, and purchased by the bondholders, and re- 
organized in December, 1872, with a capital stock of $3,000,- 

George L. Schuyler, of New York, was the first President. 
In one year William F. Reynolds, of Lafayette, Indiana, suc- 
ceeded him, and remained in office until March, 1877, when 
he in turn was succeeded by George P. Tolman, of New 
York. Mr. Tolman held his position until January, 1880, 
when R, S. Veech, of Louisville, Kentucky (its present chief 
officer), assumed control of the destinies of this corporation. 

From 1872 down to 1880 absolutely nothing was done with 
this great property. Its tracks became worn and out of con- 
dition ; its iron, of old English chain-rail, became loose and 
disjointed ; its ties rotten, and only until 1879 was any great 
sum expended upon the repair and equipment of the road. 

Mr. Veech, assisted by Dr. Standiford, then 
president of the Louisville & Nashville railroad, 
Colonel Bennett H. Young, and Mr. St. John 
Boyle, had already and very quietly secured a 
controlling interest in the road by arrangement 
with large stockholders and by purchase of its 
stock in New York city — which, when they be- 
gan to buy. could be had at twenty-five cents on 
the dollar. Under the new administration, says 
the Courier-Journal writer, "the equipment was 
immediately and largely increased; new engines, 
new cars, new track, new everything, were want- 
ing, which were supplied. Through* trams were 
put upon the road, and its earnings increased 
with almost startling rapidity, the first few 
months running up to an increase of from sixty 
to seventy per cent, over the business of the 
previous year. These earnings developed the 
capacity of the road not only to pay the interest 
upon a large debt, but also to provide for a divi- 
dend upon the stock," In addition 98 miles of 
track w(.'re relaid during 1880 with the fish-bar 
joint, 15 miles of it with steel; 16 bridges were 
entirely rebuilt, and others repaired or remodeled, 
at a cost of $90,000. Many other improvements 
have been made, and the road is now on a solid 
and apparently permanent foundation. 


The road was chartered under this name in 
1867. The next year the city of Louisville 
voted it a million, and another million in 1873. 
Its name subsequently became the Paducah, 
Elizabethtown & Southern railroad. It was fin- 
ished from Paducah to Elizabethtown in 1872, 
and two years later the Cecilian Branch, or 
Louisville end, was opened. April 18, 1876, a 
decree of foreclosure and sale was made against 
it by Judge Ballard, of the United States court, 
and it was sold thereunder August 24th of the 
same year. It was purchased by a new com- 
pany, which presently sold the Cecilian Branch 
(forty-five miles) to the Louisville & Nashville 
corporation, they retaining the rest, or mam hne 
of 185 miles. The cost of the whole 230 miles 
was about $4,500,000. 


This road was chartered by Indiana February 
12, 1S48; Ohio, March 15, 1849; and Illinois, 
February 12, 1851. It was built by two separate 
corporations, and completed in 1867, with a six- 




foot guage, which has since been changed to 
standard. Since November 21, 1S67, it has 
been operated under one management, but in 
two divisions — the Eastern, froni Cincinnati to 
the Illinois State hne; and the Western, com- 
prising the line thence to St. Louis. An act of 
the Indiana Legislature March 3, 1865, i)rovided 
for the branch from North Vernon, through 
Clark and other counties in that State, to Louis- 
ville, which was opened in 1868, and has since 
been successfully operated. Its Louisville 
branch is 52.52 miles long. 


The germ of this road lay in a project of 
forty-five years ago. In 1837 a line was pro- 
jected from New Albany to Alton, Illinois; but it 
never got further than the grading of the section 
between Mt. Carmel and Albion. In 1869 a 
charter was granted by the Legislature of Indiana 
to a New Albany & St. Louis Railroad company, 
and soon after another to the St. Louis, Mt. 
Carmel & New Albany Railroad company. 
These corporations were united in July, 1870, 
under the name of the Louisville, New Albany & 
St. Louis Railroad company. Its first officers 
were the Hon. Augustus Bradley, of New Al- 
bany, president; Jesse J. Brown, of New Albany, 
vice-president; George Lyman, secretary and 
treasurer; and Roland J. Dukes, chief engineer. 
A number of routes were surveyed, and location 
final'y made as follows: From Louisville to 
New Albany, by the bridge and the track of the 
Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad; 
thence in an " air line " to the Wabash river at 
Mt. Carmel; thence to Mt. Vernon, Illinois, 
where it would connect with the St. Louis & 
Southeastern railroad. Its own line would thus 
be but one hundred and eighty miles long; and 
its cost was estimated, in that era of high prices, 
at $6,205,000. The city of Louisville subscribed 
$500,000, New Albany $300,000, the Jefferson- 
ville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad, $100,000, 
the Louisville Bridge company $25,000, Floyd 
county $95,000; other counties or municipalities, 
$330,000; and individuals, $1,411,350. Work 
was presently begun on the line, and went on 
briskly till these subscriptions were used up. 
The directors resolved to issue first mortgage 
bonds to the amount of $4,525,000; but the 
time was unfavorable for selling them, and the 

work stopped. Most of the grading, tunneling, 
and trestle-work, however, for eighty miles west 
of New Albany, was done; while three miles of 
track had been laid out of New Albany, and 
trains were running on a twenty-eight mile sec- 
tion between Princeton, Indiana, and Albion, 
Illinois. In 1875 the company was unable to 
meet the interest upon even the small amount of 
bonds which had been paid out or negotiated, 
the mortgage was foreclosed, and the road sold 
out for $23,000 ! A new board was formed, 
with Dr. Newland, of New Albany, president, 
and Jesse J. Brown, vice-president. The project 
still lay dormant, however, till February, 1879, 
when a reorganization of the board was effected, 
with St. John Boyle, of Louisville, as president; 
G. C. Cannon, of New Albany, as vice-president; 
and George Lyman, of the same, secretary and 
treasurer. The " Air-line " was dropped from 
the name, and it became the Louisville, New 
Albany & St. Louis Railroad company. The 
purpose of the company was changed to a build- 
ing of the road from New Albany to Princeton, 
Indiana, whence cars are running to Albion, 
Illinois, where a St. Louis junction is made with 
the road from Cairo to Vincennes. It was 
thought this could not be done for $1,500,000. 
Later, the company has bought the roads from 
Jasper, Indiana, to Evansville and Rockport, 
and the name of the lirte has been changed to 
the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis. At the " 
meeting of the Directors in Boston in March, 
1882, Mr. John Goldthwaite, of that city, was 
re elected president ; St. John Boyle, of Louis- 
ville, vice-president and general manager; and 
Edward Cummings, of Boston, second vice- 
president. All necessary money to complete the 
road had been raised. Until the new Kentucky 
& Indiana bridge is built, a ferry transfer will be 
used between New Albany and Louisville, and a 
track laid down the Kentucky shore from Port- 
land to the Louisville & Nashville depot. 


The Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis road, 
it is announced, will form the western connection 
of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, the com- 
pletion of which from Huntington, West Vir- 
ginia, to Lexington, Kentucky, in the summer 
of 1 88 1, opened to Louisville very important 
new connections with Richmond, Norfolk, and 



other cities of the Atlantic seaboard. By favora- 
ble arrangements with the Short Line, the 
Chesapeake & Ohio is bringing its traffic directly 
to Louisville; and as we close these pages it is 
announced that the square fronting on Water 
street, and running back to the Bremaker-Moore 
paper-mill, in Louisville, has been purchased by 
this corporation for depot purposes. It is possi- 
ble also that shops of the road may be located in 
the city. 


This road does not enter Louisville. It is the 
new name of the Fort Wayne, Muncie & Cin- 
cinnati Railroad, running fiom Newcastle, In- 
diana, to Rushville, Indiana, where it connects 
with a road owned by the Cincinnati, Indianap- 
olis, St. Louis, & Chicago Railroad, which runs to 
North Vernon, whence the Ohio & Mississippi 
Branch brings, the connection into Louisville. 
The Fort Wayne, Muncie & Cincinnati was sold 
under foreclosure the latter part of 1881, and on 
New Year's day following the Fort Wayne, Cin- 
cinnati & Louisville Company took possession. 
A link of the line from Louisville to Fort Wayne 
(two hundred and nine miles) had been completed 
shortly before from Greensburg to Rushville, 
Indiana, so that there is now direct railway con- 
nection between the former two cities. 


This, a mere local narrow-guage road, of only 
eleven miles' length, was opened in 1875. It was 
an unfortunate venture, pecuniarily regarded; and 
it was sold June 23, 1879, ^^^ o'^ly $30'5oo. to 
the Short Line, by which, or rather by the late 
owner, the Louisville & Nashville corporation, it 
is now operated. It is the only railway lying 
altogether in Jefferson county. 


The Louisville Transfer railway, however, of 
4.13 miles' length, and a double guage of 5 feet 
and 4 feet S}4 inches, connects the Louisville and 
Nashville tracks, a little south of the city, 
with the Short Line tracks and depots, thus 
obviating the necessity of tracks through more 
crowded parts of the city. It was constructed 
in 1872. 

The Louisville Railway bridge has also a mile 
of track. 

A recently formed company is about to build 

a belt railway from New Albany to Jefferson and 
Watson, five miles out on the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi branch, thus bringing that road into more 
intimate connections with the first-named city 
and the new Kentucky and Indiana bridge. 

In 1877 Louisville subscribed $150,000 to a 
road in the interior called the Richmond, Irwin 
& Three Forks railroad, conditioned that this 
subscription should complete the* track from 
Richmond to Beattyville, Lee county, and thus 
open up connections between Louisville and the 
rich timber and mineral region about the head- 
waters of the Kentucky river. 

New Albany had an interest in the first rail- 
road company formed in Southern Indiana. It 
was chartered at the legislative session of 1835- 
36, to build a railway between the two points 
named ; but the project was killed by the great 
financial crisis of 1837. 

The New Albany & Sandusky railroad was 
chartered at the session of 1852-53. The city 
council of New Albany subscribed $400,000 to 
the project, and work was begun on the road- 
bed; but a public meeting of citizens indignantly 
repudiated the issue of bonds, and the scheme 
did not survive the blow. 


Many historic notes concerning these are em- 
braced in our township histories. We give here 
such of more general interest as have been picked 
up in the course of other investigations. 

In 1832 the Louisville & Portland Turnpike 
company had been formed, with a capital of 
$jo,ooo, to construct three miles of wagon-road 
between the two places — then, of course, separ- 
ate. J. T. Gray was president of the company; 
George C. Gwathmey, treasurer; Richard Tun- 
stall, toll-keeper. 

The Louisville & Shippingport company had 
two miles of road and $8,000 capital. W. W. 
Worsley was president, and S. S. Goodwin treas- 

The same year the Louisville & Shelbyville 
Turnpike company was in existence, with $100,- 
000 capital and twenty miles of road. B. N. 
Hobbs, president; G. C. Gwathmey, treasurer. 

Also the Louisville & Bardstown company, 
with ten miles of turnpike; John Speed, presi- 
dent, and J. R Oldham, treasurer. 



When the second Directory was published in 
Louisville, that for 1838-39, the following turn- 
pike companies had their headquarters in the 
city, and are thus noticed : 

Louisville & Lexington Turnpike Road company. Levi 
Tyler, president. This road intersects Main street at the 
eastern limits of the city, near Wenzel street. 

Louis\'ille & Bardstown Turnpike Road company. Levi 
Tyler, president. Intersecting Jefferson street at its eastern 
limit, near Wenzel street, 

Louisville & Elizabethtown Turnpike Road company. 
Robert N. Miller, president ; Daniel E. Jones, treasurer. 

Louisville Southern Turnpike Road company. John W. 
Tyler, president. This road intersects the Louisville & 
Elizabethtown Turnpike road at or near Eighteenth street, 
until it intersects the Ohio river a short distance above 
Paddy's run, intending to meet a road laid off by the States 
of Indiana and Illinois, commencing immediately opposite on 
the Indiana shore, and running through Indiana and Illinois 
to Alton. 

In the Historical Sketch of Louisville, ap- 
pended to the same work, is another notice of 
townships and railroads, in which occurs the fol- 

The principal roads now completed and being completed, 
pointing to Louisville as a center, are . turnpikes 

to Frankfort by Shelbyville, to Bardstown by Elizabethtovv'n, 
which will be extended as mterest may determine hereafter; 
turnpike from New Albany to the interior of Indiana. Be- 
sides these, many other avenues for trade are contemplated 
and will be opened in a few years, such as a railroad or 
turnpike to Nashville, a railroad from Jeffersonville through 
Indiana, a railroad to Alton, Illinois, and many others which 
the great resources of the growing country will point out as 

One of the most notable enterprises of the 
kind on the Indiana side was the New Albany 
& Vincennes turnpike, provided for by the Leg- 
islature during the internal improvement mania 
of 1835-36. The State spent from its own treas- 
ury $616,516 upon it, and then, having no more 
money or credit to expend, transferred it to a 
private company, getting back in all but $27,311 
in tolls. The company completed the road from 
New Albany to Paoli, which is still in excellent 
condition and doing good service to the trade 
and travel of the former place. 


Some half-dozen steamer lines accommodate 
the cities at the Falls; but we have space to 
notice but one, the most famous and venerable 
of all, the staid and staunch 


This is by far the oldest transportation line on 
the Western waters. The company to run steam- 
ers between Cincinnati and Louisville was formed 
in 18 1 8, and is maintained to this day — sixty- 
four years. In that year it built the "General 
Pike," the first steamer built exclusively for pas- 
sengers. Her trip was between Louisville and 
Cincinnati, making the distance in thirty-one 
hours, which was regarded as good time for that 
day. Captain Bliss was her first commander; 
then, in order, came Captains Penewitt and 
John M. Rowan. Jacob Strader, afterwards a 
very wealthy and prominent steamboatman at 
Cincinnati, was then clerk in the company's office. 
This boat was very successful, and it soon be- 
came necessary to build larger and better vessels. 
In 1847 ten fine steamers were built for an addi- 
tional line from Cincinnati to St. Louis. By these 
the time from the Falls to the latter city was re- 
duced trom four or five days to thirty-nine to 
forty-four hours. About 1855 the company built 
the two floating palaces, the Jacob Strader and 
the Telegraph No. 2, at a cost together of nearly 
$400,000. These boats could run eighteen 
miles per hour. The company has since owned 
the fine steamers Benjamin Franklin, United 
States, General Lyttle, General Anderson, General 
Buell, General Pike, Lewis E. Sherley, and City 
of Frankfort, most of which are well known to 
the traveling public. The general offices of the 
company are in Cincinnati. 



Jefferson County, Kentucky, 



Geographical Description — Area — Acres Improved — Pre- 
cincts — Towns — Post-offices — Surface of the County — Re- 
sources — The Knobs— Waters of the County — Beargrass 
Creek — Harrod's Creek — Dr. Drake on the Topography of 
the Louisville Region — Old Buffalo Roads — Wild Animals 
in the Early Day — The Climate — The Soil and its Culture 
— Geology of the County in Detail — Analysis of Soils and 


Jefferson county, Kentucky, is situated upon 
the river Ohio, about midway of its tortuous 
course along the northern and western fronts of 
the State, and not far from equidistant from Cat- 
lettsburg, in the northeastern corner, and Hick- 
man in the southwest, but somewhat nearer to 
Catlettsburg. It is bounded on the north by 
Oldham county and the river Ohio, beyond which 
it looks across to the counties of Clark, Floyd, 
and Harrison, in Indiana; on the west by the 
same stream; on the south by Bullitt county; and 
on the east by Shelby and Spencer counties. It 
contains about six hundred square miles, and the 
number of acres improved is not far from one hun- 
dred and sixty thousand, or nearly one-half the 
entire area of the county. (In 1876 the number 
of improved acres was 152,494. This is, we sup- 
pose, exclusive of the space occupied by the city 
and by town-sites.) 

The county is divided into twenty-one pre- 
cincts, corresponding to the "townships" of most 
of the Northern States. They are Anchorage, 
Blankenbaker, Boston, Cane Run, Cross Roads, 
Fairmount, Fisherville, Oilman's, Harrod's Creek, 
Jeffersontown, Johnstown, Meadow Lawn, Mid- 

dletown, O'Bannon, Seatonville, Shardine, Shive- 
ly's Springdale, Spring Garden, Two-mile House, 
and Wood's. The villages or towns of the county 
are Anchorage, Fisherville, Harrod's Creek, Jef- 
fersontown, Newburg, Middletown, and St. Mat- 
thew's. Besides these there are post-offices as 
follow: Crescent Hill, Cross Roads, Eden, Fair- 
mount, Floyd's Fork, Lockland, Long Run, 
Lyndon, O'Bannon, Orell, Pleasure Ridge Park, 
River View, Taylor's Station, Valley Station, and 
Worthington. The county is thus well provided 
with postal facilities, and has a goodly number of 
post offices at convenient distances within it. 


of the county is undulating and broken in the 
southwest part, which has a stiff clay soil, and 
on the lower levels produces well in crops of 
corn, oats, and grapes; on the higher grounds 
fiuit is grown to advantage. The northern and 
northwestern part, including most of the Louis- 
ville region, is generally a level plateau, well ele- 
vated above the highest reach of inundations by 
the river, and forming a beautiful and produc- 
tive plain. It has a rich, alluvial soil, yielding 
in abundance and great perfection all kinds of 
vegetables, grains, and fruits grown in the temper- 
ate zone. The frontage of the county on the 
Ohio river is about forty miles, and the alluvial 
bottoms all along are exceedingly productive. 
The northeast part of the county, all the way 
above Louisville, is beautifully undulating, with 
a fine, fertile soil, producing luxuriantly the 
cereal grains and fruits. The whole country, 
indeed, has peculiar fitness for the market-gar- 




dening and fruit-raising so desirable in the vicinity 
of a large city. The southeast part of the county 
becomes more broken as it nears the knobs ^long 
the Salt river, but it is also productive and like- 
wise healthful, with varied and beautiful scenery, 
making it a favorite region for the better sort of 
private residences. 


There is no coal in the county, but the cement 
and limestone turned out at Louisville are among 
the finest in the world. The water-power at the 
Falls is the best in the country. The tobacco 
market at Louisville is the largest in the land, 
the actual sales aggregating $10,000,000 a year, 
with twenty-five firms engaged in the business. 
Other elements of wealth in the city and county 
will appear as we proceed with this narrative. 

We now give some special description of the 
most remarkable region in the county, topo- 
graphically regarded. 

"the knobs." 

In the northwest of this county, a belt of 
knobby country, of several miles' width, stretches 
from the foot of the Falls of the Ohio to the 
mouth of Salt river, and thence up that river val- 
ley in a nearly southern direction, with a slight 
curve towards the east as far as Muldrough's 
Hill, and so on southeastwardly. These knobs 
are in ranges of conical hills two to three hun- 
dred feet in height, and are so conspicuous a 
feature in the geology of the State that they have 
given the name of Knob Formation to a division 
of the sub-carbonifei-ous rocks in Jefferson, Bul- 
litt, and Larue counties. These consist mainly 
of a fine-grained sandstone, which runs out into 
the limestone shales of Russell, Cumberland, 
and other counties. When sufficiently weathered, 
it produces a silico-argillaceous soil, which 
washes easily, and is therefore thin and shallow. 
It is not, generally, a characteristic soil, or soil by 
itself, but is commonly mixed largely with a white 
soil derived more closely from the underlying 
shales, which are of ashy color, and crop out on 
the slopes and in the narrow valleys between the 
knobs, and is sometimes intermingled with the 
debris from a thin cap of the sub-carboniferous 
limestone. The summits of the knobs, however, 
have a much richer soil, fertilized as it has been, 
probably, by the roosting and alighting of birds 
upon the hill-tops through many long ages. Not 

much agriculture is yet practicable on the sum- 
mits or slopes of the knobs ; but a great deal of 
timber has been taken from them and their vi- 
cinity, particularly in the shape of railway ties, 
mainly cut from the black locust. The other 
forest products of the knobs are the white, red, 
black, and chestnut oaks, a small kind of hickory 
iy^^g^^"^ tomentosd), the black gum-tree, in flat 
and wet positions the sweet gum and the elm, 
and in some specially favorable situations the 
poplar. The argillaceous shales at the base of 
the formation contain a limited percentage of 

THE waters of JEFFERSON. 

It is a very well-watered county, though it 
shares the general characteristic of the State in 
the comparative absence of lakes. Ponds, how- 
ever, abounded upon the Louisville plateau in 
the early day, and induced much malarial sick- 
ness ; but they have now mostly disappeared. 
The historic Salt river no longer intersects the 
county, as in the early day of its greatness of 
territory; but enters the Ohio a little below the 
southwestern corner, receiving one or two small 
affluents from the soil of Jeflferson. The Ohio 
river and the Falls, so prominent in making the 
county and its city what they are, receive par- 
ticular notice in another chapter. Harrod's 
creek and the Beargrass are the best known of 
the other streams" here and hereabout, and are 
very serviceable waters in the county. We copy 
the following descriptions from Dr. McMurtrie's 
Sketches of Louisville, which, although wtitten 
more than sixty years ago, answers well enough 
for the present day, due allowance being made 
for the removal of the mouth of the Beargrass 
about two miles north of its old site : 


Beargrass, which gives its name to the fertile and wealthy 
settlement through- which it passes, is a considerable mill- 
stream, affording a plentiful supply of water eight or ten 
months in the year. It rises by eight different springs ten 
miles east of Louisville, that unite and form the main body 
of the creek within two miles of that place. This, like the 
preceding one, sometimes disappears, pursuing a secret 
course for a quarter of a mile together, subsequently emerg- 
ing with a considerable force. On its banks are several grist- 
mills, and one for paper. It enters the Ohio (to which for 
the last half-mile it runs nearly parallel) opposite Louisville, 
leaving between it and the river an elevated strip of land, 
covered with large trees, that afford a delightful and shady 
promenade to the citizens during the heats of summer. 

At the mouth of -this creek is one of the best harbors on 
the Ohio, perfectly safe and commodious for all vessels un- 



der five hundred tons' burthen, there being twelve feet water 
I constantly found here during the greatest depresion of the 
I river. It is from this harbor or basin that the contemplated 
j canal will be supplied with its destined element, which may 
I perhaps produce a beneficial effect, by quickening its motion 
and that of Beargrass, whose sluggishness during the sum- 
mer is, I have no doubt, productive of consequences injur- 
I ious to the health of the inhabitants of the town. 

harrod's creek. 

I Harrod's creek is a valuable stream emptying into the Ohio 
I nine or ten miles above Louisville, where it is forty yards 
I wide. About a fourth of a mile from its mouth is a natural 
I fall of six or seven feet, occasioned by the oblique direction of 
the rock forming its bed, which dips at an angle of seven de- 
' grees. It has been refjorted that, like many others in the 
j State, it has found a subterraneous passage, through which a 
' great part of the water flows, without crossing the Falls. 


Dr. Daniel Drake, in the last and greatest work 
of his life, the treatise on the Principal Diseases 
of the Interior Valley of North America, pub- 
lished in 1850, makes the following note of the 
topography of the country below the Falls, on 
the'Kentucky side: 

In ascending the Ohio river from the mouth of Salt river to 
the Falls, the course is but a few degrees east of north, the 
distance about twenty miles. In traveling from one point to 
the other by land, the journey is over a plain, the elevation of 
which is above high-water mark, and its breadth from three 
to five or six miles. From every part of this plain, which e.\- 
tends to the river on the west, the blue range of Silver Creek 
hills may be seen, running parallel with the river on its west- 
em or right side, while a lower range, called the "knobs," is 
seen to terminate the plain on the opposite or eastern side. 

Thus, between Salt river and the Falls, there is an ample 
terrace, elevated nearly as high as rhe second bottoms of the 
river, already described in section two of this chapter. It 
cannot, however, in strictness be classed with those deposits 
which, generally sloping back toward the hills, and composed 
largely of gravel, pebbles, and bowlders, retain but little 
water on their surface; while this, although it presents many 
beds and ridges of sand or sandy loam, so abounds in clay 
that the rains are but slowly absorbed, and at the same time 
it is so level as to prevent their readily flowing off. Thus, in 
times long gone by, they accumulated in the depressions on 
its surface and overspread it with ponds and limited elm and 
maple swamps, which dry up in summer and autumn, but at 
other seasons send out small streams that make their way 
into Salt river and into the Ohio, both above and below the 
Falls. The middle and southern portions of this plain, 
where the natural cisterns were, and still are, of greatest ex- 
tent, is called by the ominous name of the " Pond Settle- 
ment." The area of the entire plateau cannot be less than 
sixty square miles, the whole of which lies to the summer- 
windward of the city of Louisville, which is built on its north- 
em extremity, opposite to and above the Falls. 


One of the most remarkable physical features 
of Kentucky, as found by the pioneers in the 
early day, were the great roads through the 

forest, traversed by the buffaloes in their journeys 
to and from the salt licks, and the extensive 
"clearings" — for such they were— made by these 
remarkable animals. Their pathways, in many 
cases, were sufficient, in width and comparative 
smoothness, for wagon-ways, and of course fol- 
lowed the most eligible routes, for man as well 
as beast. These roads were much used by the 
early explorers, surveyors, and settlers, and great- 
ly facilitated their movements through the dense 
woods. John Filson, the schoolmaster, one of 
the intending founders of Cincinnati, in his Httle 
work on the Discovery, Settlement, and Present 
State of Kentucky, first published in 1784, after 
some description of the licks — in which he men- 
tions "Bullet's Lick " as "improved, and this af- 
fords salt sufficient for all Kentucky, and exports 
some to the Illinois " — writes the following of 
the roads and other traces of the buffalo herds. 
He vrote, it should be observed, before the bison 
had been driven beyond the Mississippi: 

To these [the licks] the cattle repair, and reduce high hills 
rather to valleys than plains. The amazing herds of buffalo 
which resort thither, by their size and number, fill the traveler 
with amazement and terror, especially when he beholds the 
prodigious roads they have made from all quarters, as if lead- 
ing to some populous city ; the vast space of land around 
these springs desolated as if by a ravaging enemy, and hills 
reduced to plains— for the land near those springs are chiefly 
hilly. Tiese are truly curiosities, and the eye can scarcely 
be satisfied with admiring them. 


The early settlers found all varieties of large 
game known to this country and latitude here in 
great abundance, as the buffalo, bear, elk, deer, 
beaver, and otter, as well as the smaller animals 
that remain in diminishing numbers to this day. 
The first-named, it is said, was sometimes seen 
in droves at the salt licks, of seven to eight thou- 
sand. Dr. McMurtrie also notices the great 
buffalo trails. He says : 

The roads opened by these animals, in their progress 
through the woods, may be reckoned among the natural curi- 
osities of the State, being generally wide enough for a car- 
riage or wagon way, in which the trees, shrubs, etc., are all 
trampled down, and destroyed by the irresistible impetus of 
the mighty phalanx. 

Not one of these animals was left in Kentucky 
when the Doctor wrote in 1819. He says that 
the beaver had abounded within a few miles of 
Louisville, "and were we permitted to judge 
from the remains of their fortifications, we should 
pronounce them to have been the innumerable 



possessors of the soil from time mimemorial." He 
writes further 

Every pond, creek, and river exhibits some traces of them, 
but their metropoHs appears to have been situated about four 
miles east of Louisville, where, among a variety of extensive 
dams, I measured one whose length is 1,500 feet, height 8, 
thickness at the base 14, with a talus equal to 45° extending 
to the top. At the end of this bank, which runs perfectly 
straight and which is thrown up and sloped in a most work- 
manlike style, is a second one stretching out nearly at right 
angles from it, in form of a crescent. Back of the latter 
may be seen their dens, which are disposed with great regu- 
larity, about twenty feet from the bank. Their covered ways, 
by which in times of low water they manage to secure a 
sufficiency of it, so as to conceal themselves in their passage 
to and from them, are also very visible. I have been in- 
formed by a respectable old gentleman who was among the 
earlier settlers, that when he first arrived here the beaver 
was somtimes seen in the neighborhood, and that at that 
time the great dam spoken of was at least fourteen feet high, 
a prodigious monument of the industry and skill of this 
social little animal. 

The otter,- formerly abundant in the Ohio and 
its tributary waters, had wholly disappeared from 
this region in 18 19, though still caught in the 
Mississippi. Serpents were not numerous or 
dangerous, though sometimes huge rattlesnakes 
were encountered. The snapping-turtle was 
found in the river, sometimes of fifty to seventy 
pounds weight, also the lesser soft-shelled turtle, 
which was much esteemed by epicures. Deer 
still frequented the barrens, and werg seen at 
times but a few miles from the town; while bears 
kept at a greater distance in the woods. "Foxes 
occasionally disturb the farmer's hen-roosts, and 
wolves now and then pick up a stray sheep; they 
are, however, neither very numerous nor fierce." 


Dr. McMurtrie's observations upon the meteor- 
ology of this region are also valuable. He re- 
marks : 

It appears from a variety of thermometrical observations 
and comparisons, that the climate of this country is uniform- 
ly milder than that of the Atlantic States In the same parallel 
of latitude. This has been contested, but, until facts and 
the evidence of our senses are considered as inferior to the- 
ory, the position must be considered as correct. Among the 
most remarkable of the former, noticed by preceding and 
able writers, are the presence of the parakeet, thousands of 
which enlighten our woods winter and summer, the existence 
of many plants that cannot support the cold of the Atlantic 
States in the same latitude, the short duration of ice and 
snow, and finally by the prevalence of the southwesterly 
winds. The remark applied by Dr. Rush to the climate of 
rennsyhania is equally true with respect to that of Ken- 
tucky (which is, in fact, the more disag'reeable of the two), 
its most steady trait being its irregularity. Heat and cold 
succetd each other so rapidly and so often in the twenty-four 

hours, that it is impossible to vary your dress so as to be 
comfortable under their changes. 

A sketch of the weather during the last winter will convey 
as much information upon the subject as a volume. Elarly 
in the fall the Indian summer, as it is called, succeeded the 
autumn, and lasted four weeks, with occasional days of ex- 
tremely cold weather; this was succeeded by a week of 
changes the most sudden and extraordinary I ever Witnessed, 
the ponds in the town being frozen and thawed alternately 
during the same day, which was closed by a night equally as 
variable. The cold now appeared as though it had com- 
menced in good earnest; during the space of three weeks it 
was very intense, quantities of drifting ice were seen on the 
Ohio, the ponds were incrusted by it three inches deep, when 
the wind, which had hitherto blown from the northwest, sud- 
denly veering to the south and south-southwest, a warm rain 
fell, which dissolved the icy fetters of winter and again re- 
stored the Indian summer. Such was the mildness of the 
weather till the latter end of January, that the buds of the 
peach-tree were swelled, and had not a few frosty nights 
supervened they would have blossomed. On the 7th day of 
February the weeping willows were in leaf. From which time 
to the ist of March the weather continued variable, but 
generally warm, at which period the cold of winter again as- 
sailed our ears and rendered welcome a blazing hearth. 

Spring is unknown, the transition from winter to summer 
being almost instantaneous, the former concluding with 
heavy rains that I have known to last for three weeks nearly 
without intermission, at the expiration of which time summer 
is at hand. 

The quantity of rain that falls here is quite considerable, 
which, together with the number of stagnant waters that are 
in the vicinity, occasion a humidity universally complained 
of; books, polished steel instruments, paper, and in fact 
everything that is not in daily use, proclaim its prevalence. 

Thunder storms during the months of July and August are 
very severe, attended with great discharges of the electric 
fluid, sometimes as violent as any ever witnessed under the 
tropics, the thunder being of that pealing, rattling kind 
which would startle even a Franklin. The winds at such 
periods are all in wild confu.sion, blowing in various directions 
at various elevations from the earth's surface, as indicated by 
the courses of the 'scuds," which I have remarked traveling 
to three different points of the compass at one and the same 
moment, with a degree of velocity far superior to any I have 
ever noticed, with the exception of those of the hurricanes of 
the East and West Indies. Awful i^ the scene presented in 
the forests at such periods. Naught is to be heard but the 
crackling of fallen timber, mixed with the roar of Heavens 
artillery, and nothing to be seen but great branches wrenched 
and torn from the parent stem, which is the ne.xt moment 
leveled with the ground. Sometimes a single tree here or 
there in exposed situations is destroyed, then again whole 
acres are laid waste by its resistless fury. Happily for this 
country those of the first degree of vio'ence are rare, while 
those of the second and third rates are not at all dangerous. 

The quantity of snow and ice is very inconsiderable, the 
cold seldom being sufficiently intense to close the river, and 
the latter has not at any time since I have been a resident of 
the place exceeded two inches in depth at any one time. 
Sleighs are consequently strangers. 

I am w ell assured from very unexceptionable authority that 
the climate of Kentucky has undergone a considerable 
change for the worse during the last'twenty years. The sea- 
sons were formerly more distinct, the weather milder and 
more uniform, and thunder-storms very uncommon. The 



only traces left of this happy state of things are now to be 
seen in the fall of the year, which is generally, though not 
always, remarkable for pleasantness. Combustion is much 
more rapid here than in the .Atlantic States, a remark made 
by seveial others beside myself. Whether this be owing to 
spongy and porous nature of the wood, arising from its rapid 
growth, or a greater quantity of oxygen existing in the atmos- 
phere, I am at a loss to determine. The fact, however, may 
be relied on. 


The Doctor's remarks upon the agricultural 
capabilities of this region, as they existed in his 
day, also have interest. He says: 

Perhaps no city in the Union is supported by a more fertile 
and productive soil than Louisville. The lands throughout 
the county generally are well timbered, the first-rate being 
covered with walnut, mulberry, locust, beech, sugar-tree, 
cherry, pawpaw, buckeye, elm, poplar, and graperies, the 
two latter of which attain a most enormous size. I have fre- 
quently met with graperies in the Beargrass settlement meas- 
uring thirty-six inches in circumference, and as to the poplar 
it is proverbially gigantic. From six to ten feet is the usual 
diameter of these trees, and of the sycamore, one individual 
of which is said to be still standing in the interior, into whose 
hollow a gentlemen assured me he had stepped with a ■ 
measured rod twenty feet long, which grasping by its middle, 
he could turn in every direction. If in addition to this we 
consider the thickness of sound wood on each side of the 
tree necessary to sustain its tremendous and superincumbent 
weight, we may have some idea of this great monarch of the 
Western forest. 

The second-rate lands produce dogwood, oak, hickory, and 
some sugar-trees; the third-rate nothing but blackjack oak 
and fir. Red cedar is found on the banks of the rivers and 
creeks, and white pine only in the mountains. 

The first-rate lands were too strong for wheat, 
but were excellently adapted to corn, and in 
favorable seasons would yield one hundred bush- 
els to the acre. When weakened by a few crops 
of corn, such ground would yield thirty bushels 
of wheat to the acre, or three hundred of pota- 
toes, thirty-five to forty of oats, six to eight hun- 
dred pounds of hemp, or fifteen hundred to 
two thousand pounds of tobacco. The second 
and third rates of land will give yields in propor- 
tion. The Doctor adds : 

An attempt to cultivate cotton has been made, but although 
on a small scale under the superintendence of a few good 
housewives it ripens extremely well, yet on a large one it has 
always failed. 

The prices of lands at this time were $10 to 
$200 an acre, and in most cases the titles were 
doubtful. But, says the Doctor: 

There are, however, seventy thousand acres of military 
surveys in the Beargrass settlement, which hold out the pros- 
pect of a golden fleece to the agricultural emigrant, not only 
from the great fertility of the soil and the undisputed validity 
of the title, but from the great price he can immediately ob- 
tain for every article he can raise, without any trouble or 


The following extracts are made . from the 
report of the Geological Survey made in 1854 
and subsequent years by David Dale Owen, first 
State Geologist, to whom Professor Robert 
Peter, of Lexington, was Chemical Assistant, and 
Mr. Sidney S. Lyon, of Louisville, Topographical 


The knob formation, very similar in its compo- 
nent members to that described at Button 
Mould Knob, extends into the southern part of 
Jefferson county, forming the range of knobs on 
the waters of Pond and Mill creek, their sum- 
mits being capped with soft freestone, while the 
ash-colored shales, with the intercalations of 
encrinital limestones, form their principal mass, 
resting on black Devonian shale. 

[The "Button Mould Knob," in Bullitt 
county, had been previously described as a cele- 
brated locality for encrinites, having three or 
more encrinital beds, interstratified with the ash- 
colored shale, which form a remarkable steep 
glade on the southern side of the knob, the 
glade commencing one hundred and twenty-five 
feel below the summit of the knob. The follow- 
ing table is given of the composition of this emi- 
nence, which helps the reader to an understand- 
ing of the knobs in Jefferson county: 

250. Summit of knob. 

235. Top of second bench of sandstone, in quarry. 
225. Top of ledge of first bench sandstone. 
200. Slope with sandstone. 
162. Lowest exposure of sandstone, 
no. Top of bare glade, 
lot^. Orthis michellina bed. 
100. Orthus Miscellina bed not abundant. 

Ash-colored shale. 
97. Weathered-out carbonate of iron. 
95. Weathered-out carbonate of iron. 

Ash-colored shales. 
80. Branching corallines. 
75. Weathered carbonate of iron. 
65. Encrinital limestone. 
60. Weathered carbonate of iron. 

Ash-colored shale. 
49. Encrinital limestone. 

Ash-colored shale. 
35. Encrinital limestone. 

Ash-colored shale at base of bare glade. 
25. Black sheety Devonian shale extending to bed of 

Here, says the Report, we have nearly 100 
feet of ash-colored shales exposed, in a bare 
glade, with repeated alternations of thin bands 



of carbonate of iron, encrinital, argillaceous, and 
shell limestones, forming a remarkable feature 
of the landscape in the northern part of Bullitt 
county, adjoining Jefferson county. 

The iron ore from this knob is described in 
the Chemical Report of the Survey as a fine- 
grained, compact carbonate of iron, interior gray, 
shading into rust-brown on the exterior, powder 
dull cinnamon color. An analysis exhibited 31.3 
per cent, of iron — "an ore sufficiently rich for 
profitable smelting, which could be worked with- 
out much additional fluxing materials."] 

Jefferson county affords the best exposures of 
the calcareous rocks, under the black slate be- 
longing to the Devonian period, yet seen. The 
projecting ledges on the bank of the Ohio river, 
that appear in connected succession between the 
head and foot of the Falls, afford, probably, the 
best sections of these rocks in the Western 
States. We observe there the following succes- 
sion and superposition : 

1. Black bituminous slate or shale. 

2. Upper crinoidal, shell, and coraline limestones above. 

3. Hydraulic limestone. 

4. Lower crinoidal, shell, and coraline limestones. 

5. Olivanites bed. 

6. Spirifer Gregaria and shell coraline beds. 

7. Main beds of coral limestones. 

These beds rest upon a limestone containiug 
chain coral, which is seen just above the lowest 
stage of water, at the principal axis of the Falls, 
where the waters are most turbulent. Only a 
portion of the lower part of the black slate is 
seen immediately adjacent to the Falls. Its junc- 
tion with the upper crinoidal bed. No. 2, of the 
above section, can be well seen below the mouth 
of Silver creek, on the Indiana side, where there 
is a thin, hard, pyritiferous band between the 
black slate and limestone, containing a few en- 

Three subdivisions may be observed in the 
upper coralline bed, No. 2, of this Falls section : 

(A). White or yellowish white earthy frac- 
tured layers, containing, beside Crinoidea, a 
Favosite, a large Leptana and Atrypa prisca, with 
a fringe. 

(B). Middle layers, contaming also a few 

(C). Lower layers containing most Cystiphyl- 
lidae, and on Corn Island remains of fishes. 
This is what has been designated as the Upper 
Fish Bed. 

These crinoidal beds contain a vast multitude 
of the remains of different species of encrinites, 
mostly silicious, andmore so than the imbedding 
rock, so that they offen project and appear like 
black concretions. Remains of the Actinocrinus 
abnormis, of S. S. Lyon's report, are the most 
abundant. There is also a Syringapora and 
short, truncated Cyathophyllium. The Cysliphyl- 
lum is long, slender, and vermiculiform, some- 
times extending to the length of fifteen inches 
or more; also a coralline, referrible either to the 
germs Forties or Astrea. 

The hydraulic bed is an earthy magnesian 
limestone, in which the lime and silica are in the 
proportions of their chemical equivalents. It is 
variable both in its composition, thickness, and 
dip. In the upper part of the bed, where it con- 
tains many Spirifer euratines and Atrypa prisca, 
it is more silicious than that quarried for cement. 
At the head of the Falls it is eight feet above 
low water. At the foot of the Falls it is only four 
feet above low water; aud at the quarry on the 
Indiana shore eleven to thirteen feet. Here 
there are twelve feet exposed, but only a foot to 
eighteen inches of it quarried for cement. At 
the Big Eddy it is twelve to thirteen feet above 
low water, and at the middle of the Falls as 
much as thirty-five feet above low water. 

From the head to the foot of the Falls, the 
Ohio river falls nineteen to twenty-one feet; de- 
pending on the stage of the water, and the dis- 
tance on the general line of dip, west by south, 
one and one-half miles. Hence there is an an- 
ticlinal axis about the middle of the Falls, not 
uniform, but undulating, amounting on the whole 
to upwards of thirty feet in three-fourths of a 
mile west by south. In the distance of four 
hundred and fifty yards from the quarry on the 
Indiana shore, down stream, the strata decline 
fifteen to sixteen feet. It is at the anticlinal 
above mentioned, where the steamboats so fre- 
quently scrape the rocks in gliding over the most 
turbulent portion of the Falls. It is thickest at 
the foot of the Falls, where it is twenty-one feet; 
it thins rapidly out in a northeast direction. At 
a distance of two and one-half miles nearly east, 
where it is seen in the northwest end of the 
Guthrie quarries, it is eighteen inches, and in a 
distance of three hundred yards to the southeast 
from this, it divides into two beds and thins 
away to a few inches. Where it is divided an 



earthy limestone is interposed, not considered to 
j possess hydraulic properties. It would seem, 
therefore, that the principal source of the hy- 
draulic material was northwest of the main axis. 

The limestone which lies below the hydraulic 
hmestone, composed, in a great measure, of com- 
minuted remains of crinoidea, affords also Spiri- 
fer culiriguzalus, a very large undescribed species 
of Leptana, which has been referred by some of 
our geologists to the Euglypha, also Atrypa 
prisca and remains of fishes. This limestone is 
obscure on the middle of the Falls; to the east 
it is better defined. On Fourteen-mile creek it 
is eleven feet thick ; near the mill, on the east 
side of the Ohio, it is only three feet to three 
feet eleven inches. At Big Eddy the place of 
this limestone is six feet above the top of the 
Lower Fish Bed, but it is very ob.scurely marked 
at this point. To the east, in Jefferson county, 
Indiana, it passes into a well-developed cherty 
mass of four or five feet in thickness, and is 
almost blended with the aforementioned cherty 
interpolations of the overlaying beds. 

Under the cultrigazalus bed succeeds the Oli- 
vanites bed, which is only six inches thick, near 
the mill on the south side of tbe Ohio, but attains 
a thickness of six or seven feet on Fourteen-mile 
creek, and runs down to a few inches at some 
places in the Falls. 

The. next layer which is recognizable is a 
cherty band charged with Spirifer gregaria of Dr. 
Clapp, and many small hemispherical masses of 
Favosites spongiies, as at the foot of Little Island 
— one foot thick. Then comes a layer contain- 
ing conocardium sub-trigonate of D'Orbigny, layer 
hemispherical masses of Stromatopora and a 
Ceiropore{?) three to five feet. 

Next come the Lower Fish Beds, 19 feet in 
thickness, consisting of limestone containing a 
layer and beautiful species of undescribed Turbo, 
a large Murchisonia, a Conocardium, Spirifer 
gregaria, some small Cyathophyllida, and a 
Leptana. The Conocardium layer is light gray 
and more granular than the upper part, and es- 
teemed the best bed for lime on the Falls. The 
Leptcznm lie mostly about two feet above the Cono- 

Next come chert layers, underlaid by coral 
layers, containing Favosites maxima of Troost 
and Favosites basaltica, Goldfuss, which repose 
on a very hard layer. 

The most of the remains of the fishes are 
found about three feet above the Turbo bed, but 
are more or less disseminated through the differ- 
ent layers, which have been designated as the 
Lower Fish Beds, and may therefore be sub- 
divided thus: 

1. Shell beds. 

A. Conocardium bed, 7 inches. 

B. Leptasna bed (also with some conocardium) 6 feet. 

2. Parting chert layers, 3 feet. 

3. Coral layers, 7 feet. 

4. Very hard rock, 2 feet. 

The principal mass of corals on the Falls of 
the Ohio, which must probably be grouped in the 
Devonian system, underlie these shell and fish 
beds just mentioned and repose upon a bed 
which can just be seen above the water level, at 
the principal axis, at extreme low water, which 
contains the chain coral and which appears to be 
the highest "position of this fossil. 

Amongst the main coralline bed of the De- 
vonian period of the Falls may be recognized— 

1. Dark-gray bed, containing large masses of 
Favosites maxima of Troost, Zaphrentis gigantea, 
and immense masses oi Favosites basaltica, some- 
times as white as milk, Favosites allied to poly- 
morpha, but probably a distinct species, general- 
ly silicified and standing out prominently from 
the rock. 

2. Black coralline layers, being almost a com- 
plete list of fossilized corals, amongst which a 
Cystiphyllum, Favosites cronigera of D'Orbigny, 
and Zaphrentis gigantea, are the most abundant. 
These black layers contain also large masses of 
Syringapora, a large Turbo, different from the 
species in the shell beds, also the large Cyatho- 
phylliform Favosite, allied to polymorpha, with 
star-shaped cells opening laterally on the surface 
of the cylinder, in pores visible to the naked eye, 
some Cystiphyllum carved into a semi-circle, large 
Astrea pentagonusl of Goldfuss, silicified, pro- 
minent, rugged, and black: this is the so-called 
"buffalo dung." 

The termination of these coralline beds of the 
the Devonian system probably marks the place 
of the conocardium calcareous grit of the falls of 
Fall Creek, Madison county, Indiana, and which 
is undoubtedly the equivalent of the Schoharie 
shell grit near Cherry Valley, in New York, 
which underlies the Onondaga, limestone of the 
New York system. No vestige of this calcareous 
grit has yet been found on the Falls, but 



there is reason to believe that it may be found in 
Jefferson county, about six miles above the Falls 
to the northeast, on the farm of the late Dr. John 
Croghan, on the head of the Muddy Fork of 
Beargrass; and if so, though the Devonian and 
Silurian are apparently, at first view, so blended 
together on the Falls of the Ohio, the horizon 
between the black coralline beds above and the 
chain coralline bed below, marks most satisfac- 
torily the line of division between these two sys- 
tems of rocks m Kentucky. 

Time has not yet permitted a thorough mves- 
tigation into the specific character of the numer- 
ous beautiful fossil shells, corals and fish remains 
which occur at this highly interesting locality. 
Hereafter it is proposed, if occasion offers, to give 
more full and specific details of these rocks and 
their imbedded organic remains. 

As yet we have no good detailed sections of 
the Upper Silurian beds of Jefferson county, 
lying between the upper chain-coral bed and the 
magnesian building-stone. In the eastern part 
of Jefferson county, on Harrod's creek, a good 
section was obtained, showing the junction of the 
upper and lower beds with some of superior and 
mferior stratification. 

The following is the section presented in the 
cut of Harrod's creek: 


240. Sneider House. 

235. Magnesian limestone, below house. 

220. Red chert, with Spirifer gregaria. 

Pontes and other fossils. 
180. Top of third bench of magnesian limestone. 

Slope, with rocks concealed. 
163. Base of third bench or offset of magnesian limestone. 
160. Top of second bench of magnesian limestone. 
154. Base of second bench of magnesian limestone. 

Slope, with rocks concealed. 
115. Base of overhanging ledges of cellular magnesian lime- 
no. Thin gray and reddish layers weathering and under- 
mining the overhanging magnesian limestone, per- 
haps hydraulic in its properties. 
107. Base of upper bench under the fall. 

Earthy rock with some magnesia, perhaps with hy- 
draulic properties. 
100. Elarthy rock with less magnesia ? 

95. Earthy reddish and green layers, weathering with round- 
ed surfaces like hydraulic limestones. 
91. Hard grey silicious limestone, projecting from the bank. 
90. Soft argillaceous layer, decomposing under overhanging 
ledge above, partly hydraulic, upper two feet most 
85. Hard layer on top of a little fall in bed of creek. 
84. Ash-colored, easily decomposing layers; lowest layer 
with nearly vertical fracture at right angles to the 

86. Top of ash-colored, earthy hydraulic layers. 
80. Top of lowest layer, with vertical cross fracture. 

Junction of Upper and Lower Silurian formations. 
79. Limestone, with Orthis Lynx. 

78. Brown layer of limestone, with branching Chaetetes. 
76. Layer with Cyathophylum? 
67. More marly. 
65. Hard, thin layers of Leptaena limestone, with branching 

59. Hard, thin layers of limestone, containing Leptcena al- 

tematce and Atrypa capax. 
58. Hard layer, with irregular surface, four inches thick. 
52. Hard layer, six inches thick. 
50. Concretionary marly layer, containing Leptaena //a««»»- 

41. Irregular, light-colored layers, with remains of Isote- 

lus, Orthis, etc., five inches thick. 
Dark, marly regular layer, containing branching Chatetei- 
nine inches thick. 
40. Ash colored, irregular layers, containing small, branch 

ing ChcBtetes. 
25. Fossiliferous slabs, with Orthis Lynx and Orthis 

22. Concretionary and marly, ash-colored layers, with 

Orthis Lynx. 
o. Slabs, with Atrypa capax and Modesta, at the junc- 
tion of Harrod's creek with its Sneider branch. 

The gregaria chert-bed lies on the Falls of the 
Ohio, about thirty feet above the base of the 
rocks of Devonian date. In this Harrod's creek 
section they were observed at two hundred and 
twenty feet, where the junction of the Upper 
Silurian and Lower Silurian occurs at eighty 
feet; hence, if the rocks of Devonian date have 
the same thickness in the eastern part of Jeffer- 
son county as in its northern confines, the Up- 
per Silurian rocks have a thickness on Harrod's 
creek of one hundred and ten feet. It is prob- 
able, therefore, that the upper chain-coral bed, 
which marks the top of the Upper Silurian 
strata, is concealed ten feet up the slope, above 
the upper bench of protruding magnesian lime- 
stone in the above section. 

Near the boundary between Jefferson and 
Oldham counties, the cellular beds of the mag- 
nesian limestones of the Upper Silurian period 
from the surface stratum, which is reached in 
sinking wells, and found, on account of its spongy 
character, very difficult to blast. 


A large number of analyses of soils and rocks, 
from different parts of the county, were made by 
the chemist in the employ of the State; and we 
copy several of them, for whatever value they 
may have at this day : 

Hydraulic limestone (unburnt), from the Falls 
of the Ohio at Louisville : 



A greenish-grey, dull, fine, granular limestone; adheres 
slightly to the tongue; powder light-grey. 

Composition, dried at 212° Fahrenheit. 

Carbonate of lime 50.43-28.29 lime. 

Carbonate of magnesia 18.67- 8.89 magnesia. 

Alumina and oxides of iron 

and magnesia 

Phosphoric acid 

Sulphuric acid 1.58 


Soda. . 
Loss . . . 


Silica and insoluble silicates. . 25.78 

' Silica, 

Alumina color- 
ed with oxide 
of iron 

Lime, magne- 


100.00 (. sia, and loss, .32 

The air-dried rock lost 70 per cent, of moisture 
at 212° Fahrenheit. 

The analysis of this well-known water-lime will 
serve for comparison with that of other lime- 
stones supposed to possess hydraulic qualities. 

Soil labeled "Virgin soil, from O'Bannon's 
farm, O'Bannon's Station, overlying cellular 
magnesian limestone of the Upper Silurian forma- 
tion, twelve miles from Louisville." 

Dried soil of a grey-brown color; some small 
rounded particles of iron ore in it. As this and 
the following soils were received just before this 
report was made up, there was not time for di- 
gestion in water containing carbonic acid, to 
ascertain the relative amount of matters soluble 
in that menstruum. They were therefore sub- 
mitted to ordinary analysis, dried at 370° Fahren- 

The composition of this soil is as follows: 

Organic and volatile matters 7-996 

Alumina, and oxides of iron and magnesia 7.480 

Carbonate of lime .394 

Magnesia . 240 

Phosphoric acid 205 

Sulphuric acid .082 

Potash . 200 

Soda 042 

Sand and insoluble silicates 83. 134 

Loss . 226 

The air-dried soil lost 4.42 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 370°. 

Soil, labeled " Soil from an old field, over cel- 
lular magnesian limestone of the Upper Silurian 
formation, which lies from six to twelve feet be- 
neath the surface. Has been from twenty-five to 
thirty years in cultivation; E. B. O'Bannon's 

Color of dried soil light greyish-brown, light( 
than the preceding. 

Composition, dried at 400° Fahrenheit : 

Organic and volatile matters a a, 

Alumina, and oxides of iron and manganese 6.2. 

Carbonate of lime 3 

Magnesia 2< 

Phosphoric acid j, 

Sulphuric acid o 

Potash 1 

Soda o 

Sand and insoluble silicates . 88.3 

The air-dried soil lost 2.8 per cent, ofmoistur 
at 300° Fahrenheit. 

By comparison of the two preceding analysi 
it will be seen that the soil, which has been 
cultivation from twenty-five to thirty years, h; 
lost of its original value : First, it has lost c 
ganic and volatile matters, which is evinced al; 
in its lighter color and in the smaller quantity 1 
moisture which it is capable of holding at the c 
dinary temperature, but which was driven off 
the heat of 400°. These organic matters absoi 
and retain moisture with great power. Besid 
the nourishment which organic matters in tl 
soil give directly to vegetables, by their gradu 
decomposition and change, these substances ah 
greatly increase the solubility of the earthy an 
saline ingredients in the soil, which are necessai 
to vegetable growth. Second, it has lost son 
of every mineral ingredient of the soil which e; 
ters into the vegetable composition; as lim 
magnesia, oxide of iron, phosphoric acid, su 
phur, and the alkalies. The only apparent e 
ception to this is in the greater proportion < 
soda in the old soil than in the virgin soil. Th 
increase may have been occasioned by the ore 
nary free use of salt on the farm, and its transf 
to the cultivated field by the animals feedir 
on it. 

It will be seen, in the third place, that the pr 
portion of alumina and oxide of iron to the sar 
and silicates is smaller in the soil of the old fie 
than in the virgin soil, cultiva,tion having, p€ 
haps, favored the washing down into the sub-s( 
those ingredients which are the most readily trar 
ported by water. To renovate this field to i 
original state would require the application ( 
ordinary barn-yard manure, which contains i 
the ingredients which have been removed fro 
it except the alumina and oxides of iron ar 



manganese. To supply these, if it be deemed 
desirable, the red sub-soil found on the washed 
slopes of the old field, presently to be described, 
would answer very well, applied as a top-dressing; 
but the immediate subsoil, next to be described, 
does not by its analysis promise to be of any 
service in this or in any other respect. 

Would this be a good soil for the cultivation 
of the grape? If it has sufificient drainage to 
prevent the habitual lodgment of water in the 
sub-soil, there is nothing in the composition of 
the soil to forbid its use for this purpose. The soil 
which will produce good Indian corn will gener- 
ally produce the grape. The vine requires for its 
growth and the production of its fruit precisely 
the same mineral ingredients which are necessary 
to every other crop which may be produced on 
the soil, differing in this respect from them only 
in the proportion of these several ingredients. 
The juice of the grape contains a considerable 
proportion of potash, much of which is depos- 
ited in the wine-cask, after fermentation, in the 
form of tartar (acid tartrate of potash), and which 
must be supplied to the growing vine from the 
soil to enable it to produce the grape. It has 
hence been generally believed that vineyard cul- 
ture tends speedily to exhaust the soil of its al- 
kalies, unless they are habitually re-applied in 
manures. This is true in regard to every green 
crop which is carried off the ground; as hay, 
turnips, potatoes, and especially tobacco and the 
fruits of the orchard; whilst the Indian corn and 
other grains carry off less of the alkalies, they 
also require and remove them in considerable 

To return to the two comparative soil analyses. 
The difference between the proportions of the 
valuable ingredients of the two above stated may 
seem quite unimportant on a superficial examina- 
tion; but when we apply these differences to the 
more than three million pounds of silver which 
are contained in an acre of ground, calculated 
only to the depth of one foot, we may see their 
significance. Thus the potash in the original 
soil is in proportion of 0.200 per cent., and in 
the soil of the old field in that of 0.158. This 
proportion gives 6,000 pounds of potash to the 
acre of earth one foot deep in the new soil, and 
4,740 pounds only into the old, showing that if 
the old soil was originally like the neighboring 
virgin soil, it has lost, among other ingredients. 

as much as 1,260 pounds of potash from the 
acre, within one foot of the surface only. To re- 
store to it this amount of alkali alone would re- 
quire the application of a large amount of ordin- 
ary manure. 

Sub-soil, labeled " Sub-soil, seven to twelve 
inches under the surface, old field twenty-five to 
thirty years in cultivation, over cellular magnesian 
limestone of the Lower Silurian Formation, E. B. 
O'Bannon's farm, Jefferson county." 

Color of the dried soil, light greyish brown. 

Composition, dried at 400° Fahrenheit. 

Organic and volatile matters 2. 844 

Alumina, and oxides of iron and manganese 6.335 

Carbonate of lime .256 

Magnesia 226 

Phosphoric acid .099 

Sulphuric acid 082 

Potash 181 

Soda .028 

Sand and insoluble silicates 89.900 

Loss 049 


The air-dried sub-soil lost 2.98 per cent, of 
moisture at 400° Fahrenheit. 

By the examination of this upper sub-soil it 
does not appear that any of the valuable ingre- 
dients of the surface-soil have lodged in it. It 
contains, it is true, more potash, and has less 
organic matter, but in other respects does not 
materially differ from the upper soil. A greater 
difference may be Jeen in the deeper sub-soil, the 
analysis of which will next be given. 

Sub-soil, labeled "Red sub-soil, on the washed 
slopes of an old field, found almost universally a 
few feet under the surface, E. B. O'Bannon's 
farm, Jefferson county." 

Color ol the dried soil, light brick-red; it con- 
tains some small nodules of iron ore. Compo- 
sition, dried at 400° Fahrenheit: 

Organic and volatile matters 3. 112 

Alumina and oxides of iron and manganese 17.020 

Carbonate of lime 194 

Magnesia ; .366 

Phosphoric acid .497 

Sulphuric acid. 088 

Potash 297 

Soda Ill 

Sand and insoluble silicates 77-434 

Loss 88r 


The air-dried sub-soil lost 3.60 per cent, of 
moisture at 400° Fahrenheit. 

Soil labeled "Soil from a poor point of an old 



field, where gravel iron ore prevails, E. B. 
O'Bannon's farm, Jefferson county." 

Color of the dried soil rather lighter than that 
of the preceding; soft pebbles of iron ore, very 
dark in appearance when broken. Composition, 
dried at 380° Fahrenheit : 

Organic and volatile matters 4-390 

Alumina and oxides of iron and manganese 11.840 

Carbonate of lime . 236 

Magnesia 216 

Phosphoric acid 126 

Sulphuric acid 109 

Potash 239 

Soda .043 

Sand and insoluble silicates 82.694 

Loss 458 


The air-dried soil lost 3.94 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 380° F. 

The cause of the unproductiveness of thissoil 
lies more in the state of aggregation then the 
composition, as shown by the chemical analysis. 
The valuable ingredients necessary to vegetable 
growth are contained in it in at least as large pro- 
portions as in the earth from the other portions 
of the field; but in this there is doubtless a 
larger quantity of them locked up in the pebbles 
of so-called iron ore, which the fibres of the veg- 
etable roots cannot penetrate. If, by any means, 
these were to be disintegrated or pulverized, the 
soil would doubtless be rendered more fertile. 
Doubtless, if these several soils had been di- 
gested in the carbonated water, this one would 
have given up much less of soluble extract to 
that menstruum than the others. The iron 
gravel diffused through this soil has also been 
submitted to analysis. 

Ferruginous gravel, labeled " Gravel of iron 
ore disseminated in the sub-soil over cellular 
magnesian limestone, E. B. O'Bannon's farm, 
Jefferson county." 

Irregular tuberculated lumps, from the size of 
a large hickory nut down to that of a mustard 
seed, easily broken, fracture showing a general 
dark appearance like that of peroxide of manga- 
nese; some of the lumps presented some included 
lighter earthy matter like clay; powder of a 
snuff-brown color. It dissolved in hydro-chloric 
acid with the escape of chlorine. It contained 
no protoxide of iron, but much oxide of manga- 

Composition, dried at 212° Fahrenheit: 

Oxide of iron and alumina 33-90 

Brown oxide of manganese ^.28 

Carbonate of lime. . . . eg 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.22 

Alkalies and acids not estimated. 

Silex and insoluble silicates 58. 18 

Combined water 8.20 

Loss 1.64 

Dried at 212°, it lost 2.80 per cent of moisture. 
Limestone, labeled "Cellular (magnesian?) 
Limestone, found about six to ten feet under 
the surface of the ground, where the preceding 
soils were collected, O'Bannon's farm, Jefferson 

A light grey, friable cellular rock, layers and 
cavities covered with minute crystals. Composi- 
tion dried at 212° Fahrenheit : 

Carbonate of lime, (28.49 lime) 50.76 

Carbonate of magnesia 45- 00 

Alumina, oxides of iron and manganese, and phos- 
phates 1.78 

Sulphuric acid 04 

Potash 21 

Soda 35 

Silex and insoluble silicates 2.48 


The air-dried rock lost 0.20 per cent of moist- 
ure at 212°. 

Soil, labeled "Virgin soil, over compact mag- 
nesian building-stone of the Upper Silurian for- 
mation, White Oak Ridge, at Pleasant Grove 
Meeting-house, William Galey's farm, Jefferson 
county. (This soil is considered not more than 
one-half as productive as that over the cellular 
magnesian limestone)." 

Dried soil of a dirty grey-buff color. Compo- 
sition, dried at 400° Fahrenheit : 

Organic and volatile matters 3- 761 

Alumina, and oxides of iron and mangauese 6.952 

Carbonate of lime 156 

Magnesia 240 

Phosphoric acid 088 

Sulphuric acid 310 

Potash 177 

Soda 801 

Silex and insoluble silicates 38.294 


The air-dried soil lost 3.22 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 400 . Contains less organic matters, 
phosphoric acid, and alkalies, and a large propor- 
tion of sand and silicates, than the soil over the 
cellular magnesian hmestone. 

Limestone, labeled "Magnesian Building 



Stone, found under the preceding soil, Upper 
Silurian formation, same locality as the last, 
Jefferson county." 

A fine-grained, light-grey limestone ; weathered 
surface, having a buff discoloration, with perox- 
ide of iron ; under the lens appears to be made 
up of a mass of pure crystalline grains. 

Composition, dried at 212° Fahrenheit: 

Carbonate of lime (31.62 of lime) 5636 

Carbonate of magnesia 3707 

Alumina, oxides of iron and magnesia, and phosphates 1.28 
Sulphuric acid, a trace. 

Potash 33 

Soda 35 

Silex and insoluble silicates 5.68 


The air-dried rock lost o. 10 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 212°. 

This is probably a very durable stone; and, in 
consequence of its very slow disintegration, can 
communicate very little soluble material to the 
soil above it. It resembles a good deal in com- 
position the magnesian building-stone from 
Grimes's Quarry, in Fayette county, which is re- 
markable for its great durability amongst the 
rocks of that region. 

Soil, labeled "Soil, ten miles from Louisville, 
on the Salt river road, thirty or forty years in 
cultivation; primitive growth, beech, and some 
poplar and gum. Jefferson county, Kentucky. " 

Color of the dried soil, dark yellowish-grey. 
A few small rounded ferruginous pebbles were 
removed from it by the coarse sieve. Washed 
with water, it left 76.33 per cent, of sand, etc., 
of which all but 4.37 per cent, was fine enough 
to go through the finest bolting-cloth. This 
coarser portion is composed of rounded grains 
of hyaline and yellow quartz, with ferruginous 
particles. One thousand grains of the air-dried 
soil, digested for a month in water containing 
carbonic acid, gave up nearly two grains of light- 
brown extract, which had the following compo 
sition : 


Organic and volatile matters 0.370 

Alumina, oxides of iron and manganese, and phos- 
phates 114 

Carbonate of lime 880 

Magnesia 052 

Sulphuric acid 081 

Potash 044 

Soda 081 

Silica 200 


The air-dried soil lost 3. i per cent, of mois- 
ture at 400' F., dried at which temperature it has 
the following composition: 

Organic and volatile matters 4-231 

Alumina 3. 580 

Oxide of iron 4.421 

Carbonate of lime 230 

Magnesia 359 

Brown oxide of manganese 445 

Phosphoric acid 262 

Sulphuric acid 084 

Potash 04s 


Sand and insoluble silicates 86.006 

Loss '. no 

Sub-soil, labeled "Subsoil, ten miles from 
Louisville, on the Salt river road, field thirty to 
forty years in cultivation. Jefferson county, Ken- 

Color of the dried sub-soil a little Hghter than 
that of the soil above it. The coarse sieve re- 
moved from it some rounded particles of ferrugin- 
ous mineral and a few milky quartz grains about 
the size of mustard-seed. Washed with water, 
this sub-soil left 70.7 per cent, of sand, etc., of 
which all but 14.47 P^*" cent, passed through the 
finest bolting-cloth. This coarser portion con- 
sisted principally of clear grains of quartz, more 
or less rounded, with some rounded ferruginous 
particles. One thousand grains of the air-dried 
soil, digested for a month in water containing 
carbonic acid, gave up more than five grains of 
brown extract, dried at 212°, which had the fol- 
lowing composition : 


Organic and volatile matters 2. 100 

Alumina, oxides of iron and manganese, and phos- 
phate 863 

Carbonate of lime i'7i3 

Magnesia 133 

Sulphuric acid 125 

Potash 048 

Soda . 
Silica . 

. .012 
. .200 


The air-dried soil lost 3.175 percent, of moist- 
ure at 400° F., dried at which temperature it has 
the following composition: 

Organic and volatile matters 4983 

Alumina 3. 

Oxide of iron 4. 

Carbonate of lime 


Brown oxide of manganese 

Phosphoric acid. ... 





Sulphuric acid 085 

Potash 213 

Soda 051 

Sand and insoluble silicates 81;. 895 

Loss 203 

This would be good soil, if it were drained. 
The sub-soil is rather richer than the surface soil. 



"Virginia" — The County of Fincastle — "Louisiana" — 
"Ohio"— The Indian Claims Relinquished — "Louisa," 
" Cantuckey," " Transylvania" — The County of Kentucky 
— Colonel John Floyd — Jefferson County — Its Ancient 
Limits — Fayette and Lincoln Counties — Counties Carved 
from Jefferson— The First Officers of Jefferson County. — 
Some other Historic Matters. 


The territory to the south of the Ohio, at least 
within the lacitudes of Virginia, was held by the 
English Government, under the discoveries by 
Sir Walter Raleigh, in the valley of the James 
river. That part of it now lying within the 
boundaries of the State of Kentucky was in- 
cluded in the grants bestowed by the royal patent 
upon Sir Walter in 1584, and in the charter 
granted to the Colony of Virginia. In this was 
presently formed 


This was an immense tract, large as several of 
the present States of the Union, and stretching 
virtually from the further borders of the county 
now existing under the name in Virginia to the 
Mississippi. It included the whole of the Ken- 
tucky country. 


By right of discovery, however, the French 
had long before claimed the entire valleys of the 
Mississippi and the Ohio, with the whole of 
Texas and the region of the great lakes. So 
lately as 1782, when the preliminaries of peace 
between Great Britain and her revolted Amer- 
ican colonies were being discussed at Paris, both 
France and Spain made protests against the Illi- 
nois country, conquered by George Rogers Clark 
in 1778, being considered as British territory, to 
be ceded to the United States as a part of its 

conquest; and it was only by virtue of Clark's 
conquest that the claim of the new Republic was 
finally allowed. 

Upon one ot the old maps the whole of this 
vast region is designated as "Canada, or New 
France," with "La Louisiane" as an integral 
part. But others, including the great map of 
Franquelin, who was official hydrographer to the 
king, represent the domain in two separate di- 
visions, New France and Louisiana. The bound- 
ary between them was drawn by Franquelin from 
the Penobscot river to the south end of Lake 
Champlain, thence to the Mohawk, crossing it a 
little above the site of Schenectady, thence by th6 
sources of the Susquehanna and the Alleghany, 
the south shore of Lake Erie, across Southern 
Michigan to the head of Lake Michigan, and 
northwestward to the headwaters of the Missis- 
sippi. All south of that line was "La Louisi- 
ane." The tract occupied by Louisville and 
Jefferson county, then, was originally a part of 
the far-reaching French province of Louisiana. 

The result of the French and Indian war of 
1755-62 was to transfer to the crown of Great 
Britain all the possessions and territorial claims 
of France east of the Mississippi, except some 
fishing stations. The Kentucky region, there- 
fore, passed into the undisputed possession of 
the British Crown. 


Upon the second map of Lewis Evans, pub- 
lished in Philadelphia in 1764, the Kentucky 
country is shown for the first time in cartography, 
and is designated, as well as the grea* tracts to 
the north of the Beautiful river, as "Ohio." 
There was no reason, however, in the govern- 
mental arrangements of that time, for such desig- 
nation. Ohio was not yet known as the title of 
any political division. Mr, Evans simply fell 
into one of the blunders which abounded among 
the geographers of the period, 


November 5, 1768, by the treaty of Fort Stan- 
wix, the all-conquering Six Nations, and the 
Delawares, Shawnees, and Mingoes of Ohio, 
granted unto the Crown of Great Britain all their 
territory south of the Ohio and west of the 
Cherokee or Tennessee river, back of the En- 
glish settlements, for the sum of ^10,460, or 
about $50,000. 



The Five Nations, or Iroquois, had previously, 
in 1846, in a treaty at Albany between their 
chiefs and Lord Howard, Governor of the Colony 
of Virginia, associated with Colonel Dungan, 
Governor of the Colony of New York, placed 
themselves under the protection of the British 
Government and made a deed of sale to it of 
the vast tract south and east of the Illinois river, 
and extending across Lake Huron into Canada. 
The present land of Kentucky was included in 
this immense cession. 


In the autumn of 1774 nine North Carolin- 
ians, of whom the leader was Colonel Richard 
Henderson, made overtures for a treaty with a 
branch of the Cherokee Indians, which was com- 
pleted March 17, 1775. By this the Indians 
assumed to cede, for the consideration of ;^io,- 
000, no less than seventeen millions of acres, 
extending from the Cumberland to the Kentucky 
rivers, and bounded on the south by a line drawn 
from the headwaters of the most southerly branch 
of the Cumberland to the summit of Powell's 
mountain, and thence to the most northerly 
branch of the Kentucky. Colonel Henderson 
in his journal designates this tract as "Louisa" 
and "Cantuckey" — the first name being derived 
from what was understood to be the English 
name of the Cuttawa, Chenoca, or Kentucke 
river. Upon it, however, when Daniel Boone 
and his companions had made the famous 
"trace" into the promised land, from the Long 
Island in the Holston river to the present site 
of Boon^borough — the company was to attempt 
to found the colony of Transylvania. In April 
they laid off the village at "Fort Boone," and 
soon after appointed the 23d of May for 
a meeting of delegates. Six members of the 
"House of Delegates or Representatives of 
the Colony of Transylvania" attended on that 
day "under the divine elm," to represent the 
town of Boonesborough, three for Harrods- 
burg, and four each for the Boiling Spring 
Settlement and the town of St. Asaph. A min- 
iature legislature was organized — "the first 
Anglo-American government on the west side of 
the Alleghany range of mountains." The colony 
seems already to have been formed and named 
merely by the will of the proprietors. Bills were 
duly introduced, read twice, and passed, ad- 
dresses voted to the company, and a compact 

between them and the people entered into. The 
proprietors, as a self-appointed governing coun- 
cil, passed finally upon all measures, and signed 
or disapproved them. The "House of Dele- 
gates" was in session five days, and then ad- 
journed to meet at Boonesborough in Septem- 
ber. It never re-assembled, but a petition "to 
the Honorable the Convention of Virginia," was 
sent, probably in December, 1775, from "the in- 
habitants, and some of the intended settlers of 
that part of North America now denominated 
Transylvania," praying for relief against the exac- 
tions of the proprietors. 

In September a meeting of the company had 
been held, at which James Hogg was appointed 
to represent the "colony" in the Continental 
Congress, and present a memorial asking the ad- 
mission of Transylvania into the Union of Col- 
onies. It is needless to say that neither he nor 
it was admitted. A large number of persons 
were persuaded or hired by the company to go 
into the new country ; but its sort of proprietary 
government proved unpopular, and its title was 
presently altogether invalidated by the Virginia 
Legislature, under a wise and ancient colonial 
policy which forbade transfers of territory by the 
Indians to private persons, as contrary to the 
chartered rights of the colonies. In November, 
1778, that body passed the following: 

Resolved, That all purchases of land, made or to be 
made, of the Indians within the chartered bounds of this 
Commonwealth, as described by the constitution or form of 
government, by any private persons not authorized by public 
authority, are void. 

Resolved, That the purchases heretofore made by Richard 
Henderson & Company, of that tract of land called Tran- 
sylvania within this Commonwealth, of the Cherokee Indians, 
is void. .... 

Thus passed away the transient glory of Tran- 
sylvania. Ample compensation was made to the 
company, however, by the grant of two hundred 
thousand acres of land, in a tract twelve miles 
square on the Ohio, below the mouth of Ken- 
tucky river. The musical name was preserved for 
nearly seventy years, in the designation of Tran- 
sylvania university, at Lexington. 


For a few years the great county of Fincastle 
exercised nominal jurisdiction over the bears and 
wolves, the panthers and buffaloes, the roaming 
Indians, and the handful of whites already on the 
Dark and Bloody Ground. The few civilized 



immigrants that first rr.ade their way into the 
deep wilderness found, however, no protection 
or aid in the far-away colonial or county govern- 
ment, and were altogether a law unto them- 

The first subdivision or county organization 
really known to the great wilderness tract since 
covered by the State of Kentucky was the 
"County of Kentucky," formed from the western 
part of Fmcastle county, by the Virginia Legis- 
lature, on the 31st of December, 1776, soon 
after the independence of the colonies was de- 
clared. George Rogers Clark, then a young ma- 
jor in the Virginia militia, must be regarded as 
the father of the new county. The story of his 
journeyings on foot through the wilderness, his 
securing ammunition for the defense of the in- 
fant settlements, and his procurement, as a dele- 
gate to the Virginia House of Burgesses, of the 
erection of the county of Kentucky, has been 
told in part in our General Introduction, in the 
biographical sketch of General Clark, and need 
not be repeated here. The young major had 
procured the act for the erection of the county, 
while he was on the expedition after the powder 
and lead for the Kentucky settlers. 

This gigantic county comprehended, in ;he 
definitions of the creative act, "all that part 
thereof [of Fincastle county] which lies to the 
sou'*', and westward of a line beginnmg on the 
Ohio river, at the mouth of Great Sandy creek, 
and running up the same and the main or north- 
easterly branch thereof to the Great Lawrel 
ridge or Cumberland mountain, thence south- 
westerly along the said mountain to the line of 
North Carolina." It includes substantially what 
now belongs to the State of Kentucky. 

The chief official of such subdivision in those 
days was a "County Lieutenant," or Governor. 
In 1778 Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of 
Virginia, appointed as such officer Colonel John 
Bowman, who had been made a colonel of mili- 
tia in the county, by commission of Governor 
Patrick Henry, soon after it was formed. The 
county was also entitled to a court of its own, a 
sheriff, and other customary officers. The first 
court of general quarter sessions of the peace 
for the county sat at Harrodsburg in the spring 
of 1777, 'composed of Justices John Bowman, 

*There were already, in 1773, it is said, sixty-nine voters 
upon the present tract of Kentucky. 

John Todd, John Floyd, Benjamin Logan, and 
Richard Callaway, with Levi Todd as clerL 
April 18, of this year, Colonels Richard Callo- 
way and John Todd were chosen burgesses to 
represent Kentucky county in the General 
Assembly of the Old Dominion. General Green 
Clay, Colonel John Miller, 'Squire Boone (brother 
of Daniel Boone), and Colonel William Irvine, 
were afterwards members of the same body from 
Kentucky. Substantially the same tract, but 
now divided into three counties, was subse- 
quently, June I, 1792, admitted into the Union 
as a sovereign State. 


One of the most notable men of the early 
day was Colonel Floyd, one of the first justices 
of the court of quarter sessions, whose name is 
prominent in the annals of JefTtrson county, and 
from whom Floyd county, on the Indiana side 
of the Falls, takes its name. The Hon. James 
T. Morehead, in his Address in Commemora- 
tion of the First Settlement of Kentucky, at 
Boonesborough May 25, 1840, pays this tribute 
to Colonel Floyd: 

T.owards the close of the year 1773 John Floyd came to 
Kentucky, like Bullitt and Taylor, on a surveying excursion. 
A deputy of Colonel William Preston, principal surveyor of 
Fincastle county, of which the region in Virginia west of the 
mountains was then a part, he made many surveys on the 
Ohio, and belonged- to the party that was recalled by Lord 
Dunmore, in consequence of the dangers attending the per- 
formance of their official duties. Colonel Floyd returned in 
1775, and became a conspicuous actor in the stirring scenes 
of the drama. Alternately a surveyor, a legislator, and a 
soldier, his distinguished qualities rendered him at once an 
ornament and a benefactor of the infant settlements. No 
individual among the pioneers was more intellectual or better 
informed;, none displayed, on all occasions that called for it, 
a bolder and more undaunted courage. His person was 
singularly attractive. With a complexion unusually dark, 
his eyes and hair were deep black, and his tall, spare figure 
was dignified by the accomplishments of a well-bred Virginia 


in May, durmg the session of 1780, the pop- 
lation of the county of Kentucky having grown 
sufficiently to create demands for and warrant 
the measure, the huge county was divided by the 
Virginia Legislature into three governmental sub- 
divisions, known respectively as Jefferson, Fay- 
ette, and Lincoln counties. The second, named 
from General the Marquis de la Fayette, included 
that part of the larger county "which lies north 
of the line beginning at the mouth of thfe Ken 



tucky river, and up the same to its middle fork 
to the head ; and thence southeast to Washing- 
ton Hne" — which formed the present boundary 
between the States of Kentucky and Tennessee, 
the latter of which was about that time known 
as the "District of Washington." 

Jefferson county, named from Thomas Jeffer- 
son, author of the Declaration of Independence 
and afterwards President of the United States, 
but just then Governor of Virginia, took in all 
"that part of the south side of Kentucky river 
which lies west and north of a line begin- 
ning at the mouth of Benson's big creek, and 
running up the same and its main fork to the 
head; thence south to the nearest waters of 
Hammond's creek, and down the same to its 
junction with the Town fork of Salt river; thence 
south to Green river, and down the same to its 
junction with the Ohio." 

The rest of the older Kentucky county was 
embraced within the limits of Lincoln county, 
which took its name from General Benjamin 
Lincoln, a distmguished soldier of the Revolu- 

Jefferson was originally an immense county, as 
may be inferred from the fact that out of it have 
been carved, wholly or paitly, twenty-eight other 
counties. Less than four years after its forma- 
tion, in October, 1784, Salt river was taken as the 
dividing line for a new county, which was called 
Nelson. Subdivisions of the other counties were 
made in 1785 and 1788, so that there were nine 
counties — Jefferson, Nelson, Fayette, Bourbon, 
Mason, Woodford, Lincoln, Mercer, and Madison 
— in Kentucky when it was admitted into the 
Union. The counties which have since been 
formed directly from Jefferson are Shelby, in 
J 792; Bullitt (partly), in 1796; and Oldham (in 
part), 1823. Washington, "the first-born of the 
State," 1792; Hardin, Henry, Ohio, and twenty 
other counties have been erected upon the terri- 
tory originally assigned to Jefferson. 

The first officers appointed to this county by 
the organic act of the Legislature, after the man- 
ner of the time, were John Floyd colonel, Wil- 
liam Pope lieutenant colonel, and George May 
surveyor. Each of the new counties had a 
county court or court of general quarter sessions 
of the peace, which met monthly, and a court of 
common law chancery jurisdiction, in session 
once a quarter, with an abundance of magistrates 

and constables. There was as yet, however, no 
tribunal for the trial of high crimes, as the court 
of quarter sessions could take cognizance only of 
misdemeanors ; but the defect was remedied 
early in 1783, when Kentucky was made a judi- 
cial district and a court established which had 
full criminal and civil jurisdiction. It was 
opened at Harrodsburg the same season. John 
Floyd, of Jefferson county, and Samuel Mc- 
Dowell, were judges; Walker Daniel was prose- 
cuting attorney, and John May clerk. 

We subjoin an historic note or two found 
among our memoranda : 

A quarter-century's growth. 

Some figures reported by the city civil en- 
gineer, of Louisville, in 1866, exhibit in brief 
compass the growth of the county in wealth and 
power from 1840 to 1866. In the former year 
the valuation of the State (excluding vehicles, 
time-pieces, pianos, and plate) was $272,250,027, 
and that of Louisville and Jefferson county was 
$26,162,463, or nearly one-tenth of the entire 
State. In 1844 the valuation was reported at 
but $18,621,339, the next year $21,270,500, in 
1846 $22,940,533, and 1847 $24,206,443. The 
next year the city and county regained and 
passed the figures of 1840, having $26,697,663; 
in 1849 it was $27,974,735; in 1850, $29,187,- 
023. The State valuation this year was $299,- 
381,809, so that the city and county had again 
pretty nearly one-tenth of the whole. The figures 
for the next decade are: 1851, $32,830,347; 
1852, $35,236,899; 1853, $42,106,310; 1854, 
$49.755>832; 1855, $47,031,150; 1856, $44,- 
533.518; 1857, $50,034,033; 1858, $50,443,- 
532; 1859, $52,407,083; i860, $54,680,868. 
The valuation of the city and county had now 
grown to about one-ninth of the whole. The 
average annual increase during the previous 
twenty years had been but about $13,000,000 in 
the State; while it had been nearly $1,400,000 
a year in the city and county, showing a very 
satisfactory rate of gain. The valuation of the 
latter in i860 was more than one-half that of 
the entire State ($108,549,638) thirty years ago. 
In 1861 the local valuation was $50,492,510; 
1862, $36,711,943; 1863, $41,676,811; 1864, 



$55,141,938; 1865, $62,211,339; 1866, $76,- 
028,753. There was much fluctuation in these 
years; but while the State valuation had fallen 
off between i860 and 1866 about $20,000,000 a 
year, that of the city and county had increased 
$21,347,685, or about $3,500,000 per annum. 
In the latter year the city and county contributed 
very nearly one-fifth of the whole revenue of the 
State, and their valuation was three-fourths of 
that of the State in 1830, one-fourth of that in 
1840 and 1850, one-seventh of that of i860, and 
one-fifth of all in 1866. 


SO far as we have been able to learn, was formed 
in 1837. The following-named were its officers 
in 1844: Stephen Ormsby, president; Lawrence 
Young and E. D. Hobbs, vice-presidents ; Wil- 
liam Mix, secretary and keeper of the funds ; 
George W. Weissinger, corresponding secretary; 
J. W. Graham, L. Sherley, S. Bnce, H. After- 
burn, S. Brengman, executive committee. Meet- 
ings were held twice a year, in the fall and the 
spring, at the former of which premiums were 



The Old County Court — The Circuit Court — The Court of 
Common Pleas — The County Court — The County Judge — 
The City Courts — A Reminiscence of 1786 — Mr. Flint's 
Notes — The County Court-house — The Old "Gaol" — The 
New Jail. 


This was a monthly court established by the 
former constitution, held in each county at the 
places assigned for the purpose and on the days 
fixed by law, and at no other time and place. It 
was composed of the justices of the peace ap- 
pointed for the county, three of whom were suf- 
ficient to constitute a quorum. It had power to 
recommend the appointment of the surveyor, 
coroner, and justices of the peace, and itself to 
appoint inspectors, collectors, and their deputies, 
surveyors of highways, constables, jailors, and 
other minor officers. Its further jurisdiction was 
thus defined by the act of 1796 : 

The County Courts shall and may have cognizance, and 
shall have jurisdiction of all causes respecting wills, letters of 
administration, mills, roads, the appomtment of guardians 
and settling of their accounts, and of admitting deeds and 
other writmgs to record ; they shall superintend the public 
inspections, grant ordinary license, and regulate and restrain 
ordinaries and tippling-houses, and appoint processioners ; 
they shall hear and determine, according to law, the com- 
plaints of apprentices and hired servants, being citizens of 
any one of the United States, against their masters or mis- 
tresses, or of the masters and mistresses against the appren- 
tices or hired servants ; they shall have power to establish 
ferries and regulate the same, and to provide for the poor 
within their counties. 

In 1844-45 as many as twenty-five justices 
composed the county court of JeflTerson county. 


The system of circuit courts was substituted in 
1802, under the act of Legislature passed in 
November, 1801, after the adoption of the 
second State constitution, for the old system of 
district and quarter-sessions courts. Under this 
the courts had jurisdiction in all causes, matters, 
and things, at common law and chancery, within 
their respective circuits, except in causes where 
the property or claim in controversy was of less 
value than ^^, and also in some few other speci- 
fied cases. 

December 19, 1821, authority was given this 
court by the Legislature to purchase sites and 
provide for the erection of poor-houses thereon. 

When the new. constitution was adopted in 
1850, it was provided that each county then 
existing, or thereafter to be erected in the Com- 
monwealth, should have a circuit court. The 
first election of circuit judges occurred on the 
second Monday in August, 1856, and elections 
of said officers have since been held every six 
years, on the first Monday of August, An 
eligible candidate for the ofifice must be a citi- 
zen of the United States, a resident of the dis- 
trict for which he may be a candidate at least 
two years next before his election, must be at 
least thirty years of age and a practicing lawyer 
at least eight years, which term, however, may 
include any time he has served upon the bench 
of a court of record. After the first term under 
the constitution, the judges hold their ofifices for 
terms of six years. They receive their commis- 
sions from the Governor and hold until their suc- 
cessors are qualified, but are removable from 
office in the same manner as a judge of the 
Court of Appeals. The removal of a judge from 
his district vacates his ofifice. When a vacancy 



occurs the Governor issues a writ of election to 
fill it for the remainder of the term, unless that 
remainder be less than one year, when the Gov- 
ernor appoints a judge. 

Each judge of the circuit court is a conserva- 
tor of the peace throughout the State, and may 
grant writs of error C07-am vobis et nobis. He may 
exchange circuits with another judge, unless a 
majority of the members of the bar prefer to 
elect a special judge to act temporarily in his 
stead. When this is done the attorneys retained 
in a case about to be tried are not allowed to 
vote for the special judge. He may hold a special 
term, whenever the business demands it, m any 
county in the district, to try penal, criminal, and 
chancery cases, or any class of them, and may 
order a grand and petit jury to be impanneled 
for any special term, in term-time or during vaca- 
tion. If he fail to attend a term, or, being pres- 
ent, cannot properly preside in a cause or causes 
pending, the attorneys of court who are in at- 
tendance, with the exception above noted, may 
elect one of their number in attendance to hold 
the term, and he shall preside and adjudicate 
accordingly. More -recently the provision has 
been extended to include equity and criminal 
courts. The judges are paid each $3,000 per 
annum, and in criminal or penal prosecutions, if 
a judge is assigned to hold court in another dis- 
trict than his own, he is allowed his traveling ex- 
penses and $10 a day while holding the court. • 

The circuit court assumes original jurisdiction 
of all matters at law and equity within this coun- 
ty, except those of which jurisdiction is exclu- 
sively lodged in another tribunal, and is fully em- 
powered to carry into effect its jurisdiction. 
When the debt sued for is less than $50, it has 
jurisdiction of an attachment of lands. The 
General Assembly has power to alter the jurisdic- 
tion of the court, but not to change the judicial 
districts except when a new one is added. Ap- 
peals on writs of error may be made to this court 
from the decisions of county courts in the same 
county, in all controversies relating to the estab- 
lishment, alteration, or discontinuance of ferries, 
roads, and passages, and in cases arising from 
the probate of wills and from orders concerning 
mills or water-works, or refusing or allowing 
dams to be built across water-courses, or from 
judgments in bastardy cases, or judgments and 
final orders in penal cases. Appeals lie to it 

from decisions of the quarterly courts and of 
justices of the peace and other tribunals having 
a similar civil jurisdiction as justices of the peace, 
in all civil cases when the amount in controversy 
is $20 or more, exclusive of interest and costs; 
and in all actions of trespass or trespass upon the 
case, before justices of the peace, the aggrieved 
party has the right of appeal to the circuit court 
of the same county. 

A Commonwealth's or State's attorney is also 
elected in each district \ and a clerk of the cir- 
cuit court is elected for each county. The com- 
monwealth's attorney in the Ninth district is en- 
titled to forty per cent, of the amount of all 
judgments returnable to or for appearance in the 
Jefferson circuit court. In other counties of the 
State the fee is thirty per cent., unless the judg- 
ment is less than $50, when he receives $5 in- 
stead. Onc2 every four years, and oftener in 
case of a vacancy, the judge appoints a master 
commissioner for the court. When a receiver is 
to be appointed in a case, the judge may appoint, 
if the parties fail to do so, and may likewise ap- 
point examiners to take depositions. For Jeffer- 
son county, the office of interpreter of the circuit 
court was specially created by legislative act Feb- 
ruary 4, 1865. The incumbent thereof is ap- 
pointed by the court, and is removable at the pleas- 
ure of the judge. He may appoint the same 
person who is serving as interpreter in the city 
court of Louisville. Such officer must be thor- 
oughly competent to speak both English and Ger- 
man, is to hold his ofifice, unless removed, for 
one year from date of appointment, and receive 
a salary of $500 a year. 

The Ninth Judicial district consisted for a 
number of years of Jefferson, Shelby, Oldham, 
Spencer, and Bullitt counties, but is now co- 
incident with JeiTerson alone. In 1838 Jefferson 
and Oldham composed the circuit. 


This court was established by law February 8, 
1867. It is virtually in perpetual session, and 
all summons executed in any action in said court 
in Jefferson county for twenty days, or for thirty 
days in any other county of the State, is suffi- 
cient to authorize a plaintiff or defendant to set 
his action on the trial-docket for trial or hearing. 
Actions in the court not contested are tried or 
heard in open court as they are placed for trial 



and called upon the trial docket, unless the judge 
takes time to consider the law or fact in such ac- 
tion, or time is given for argument of either the 
law or fact of the case, when the court may lay 
over the action to a future day. 

If the judge of the court of common pleas is 
at any time disabled from discharging his duties, 
an election is held by the attorneys participating 
in said court, for a judge pro tempore, who must 
be one of their own number. Upon election, he 
possesses the same powers, and draws during his 
period of services the same salary, pro rata, as 
the regular judge. 

The judge of this court may appoint commis- 
missioners to take depositions for the court. This 
court is for Jefferson county alone. 


A county judge is elected in each county, 
whose term of office is four years. He holds 
the quarterly courts, in which his jurisdiction is 
concurrent with justices of the peace, in all civil 
cases, in both law and equity. He has also juris- 
diction throughout the county in proceedings 
against constables for defalcations in office, and 
has concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court 
in all civil cases where the amount in contro- 
versy does not exceed $100, exclusive of interest 
and costs, and where the title or boundary of 
real estate is not in question. Land is not levied 
on or sold under execution from the quarterly 
court; but where any such execution has been 
returned as finding no property, in whole or in 
part, a certified copy of the judgment and ex- 
ecution may be filed in the clerk's office of the 
county in which the judgment was rendered, 
which shall be copied in a book kept for the 
purpose. The court may appoint a clerk, who 
has power to issue summons, subpoenas, execu- 
tions, etc. At its quarterly sessions it makes all 
necessary orders relating to bridges, changes or 
erections of precincts, and such matters as in 
other States are usually confided to boards of 
supervisors or county commissioners. 


is the probate judge or surrogate judge of the 
county. His court is held quarterly, and must 
remain in session until business on the docket is 
disposed of. In it wills are proved, administra- 
tors' and executors' business transacted, and the 
customary matters relating to estates of deced- 

ents are heard and determined. The judge has 
exclusive jurisdiction to grant administration on 
estates of deceased persons in Kentucky. He 
may appoint or remove guardians; he has con- 
current jurisdiction with justices of the peace in 
all cases of riots and breaches of the peace, 
and of all misdemeanors under the common law 
or statutes of the Commonwealth. He is a con- 
servator of the peace in his county, and has all 
the powers of a justice of the peace in penal and 
criminal proceedings and in courts of enquiry. 
He has appellate jurisdiction of the judgements 
of a justice, when the amount in controversy is 
$5 or more, but not of judgments on injunctions 
of forcible entry and detainer. He has concur- 
rent jurisdiction with the circuit court where the 
sum in controversy, exclusive of interest and 
costs, does not exceed $100, and where the title 
or boundary of real estate is not in question. 
He is ex-officio presiding judge ot the quarterly 
court ; when the sum in controversy in that court 
is above $16, without reckoning interest and 
costs, either party to the case may have a change 
of venue to the circuit court of the same county, 
by order of a circuit judge, upon the party de- 
siring the change making affidavit that he does 
not believe he can obtain a fair trial before the 
presiding judge. And when the county judge 
has not his office at the county-seat or within one 
mile of it, or is absent from his office, the clerk 
of the county court may issue the summons in 
an action in the quarterly court in the same 
manner and under the same circumstances as 
the judge, and also subpoenas for witnesses, and 
shall be allowed the same fees as the judge. 

In his own court, or in the circuit court of his 
county, the county judge is authorized to grant 
injunctions and attachments at common law or 
in chancery. He has jurisdiction to hold in- 
quests upon idiots and lunatics. He shall be 
his own clerk, with the powers and duties of 
clerks of such courts, and must keep a record ot 
his proceedings. For all services rendered in 
the quarterly court, where their jurisdiction is 
concurrent with the circuit court, the county 
judge is entitled to the same fees allowed by law 
to the clerks of circuit courts for similar services, 
and where his jurisdiction is concurrent with jus 
tices of the peace, he is entitled to justices' fee; 
in like causes. He also examines and audit; 
the accounts of the commissioners of cornmor 



schools, for services rendered. He holds his 
office for the term of four years. 


The city of Louisville has its own chancery 
court and city court. 

The act of General Assembly approved March 
26, 1872, provides for the election of a vice- 
chancellor for the period of six years, to discharge 
the duties of chancellor in case of his absence or 
incapacity for other reason to sit in a cause, and 
also to hear and determine any other causes or 
questions which may be assigned to him by the 
chancellor. He may hold the Jefferson court of 
common pleas, if the judge of that court be ab- 
sent or incapacitated, and may hold the chancery 
court to aid in clearing the docket of the com- 
mon pleas. Hon. James Harlan was the first 
vice-chancellor under this act. 


The following account is extracted from that 
part of Mr. Casseday's entertaining History of 
Louisville which deals with the events of 1786: 

The following extracts from the records of the court during 
this year will not give a very favorable idea of the high 
degree of enlightenment among our ancestors in 1786. On 
the 2ist of October in this year, it is recorded that "negro 
Tom, a slave, the property of Robert Daniel," was con- 
demned to death for stealing "two and thiee-fourth yards of 
cambric, and some ribbon and thread, the property of James 
Patten." This theft, small as it now appears, if estimated in 
the currency of the times would produce an astonishing sum, 
as will appear by the following inventory rendered to the 
court of the property of a deceased person : 
To a coat and waistcoat £250; an old blue do. , and 

do. ;i^50 ^300 

To pocket-book £6; part of an old shirt jT^ 9 

To old blanket 6s; 2 bushels salt ;^48o 480 6s 

£789 6s 
These were the times when the price of whisky was fixed 
by law at $30 the pint, and hotel-keepers were allowed and 
expected to charge $12 for a breakfast and $6 for a bed. Pay- 
ment, however, was always expected in the depreciated Con- 
tinental money, then almost the only currency. 

MR. flint's notes. 

Mr. James Flint, a Scotchman, spent consider- 
able time about the Falls, during the years 
1819-20, and wrote many interesting observa- 
tions and reflections to his friends abroad, which 
were afterwards published at Edinburgh in a 
book of Letters from America. In an epistle 
dated at Jeffersonville, September 8, 1820, he 

I have made several short excursions into the country. I 
was at Charlestown, the seat of justice in Clark county, 

while the circuit court sat there, and had opportunities of 
hearing the oratory of several barristers, which was delivered 
in language strong, elegant, and polite. A spirit of emula- 
tion prevails at the bar, and a gentleman of good taste in- 
formed me that some young practitioners have made vast 
progress within two or three years past. The United States 
certainly opens an extensive field for eloquence. 

The foregoing remarks, as well as those which 
follow, were no doubt equally applicable on the 
Kentucky side of the river. After some notice 
of the composition of the court and the waggery 
practiced by lawyers, Mr. Flint says : 

Freedoms on the part of lawyers seem to be promoted in 
the back country, in consequence of the bench being occa- 
sionally filled with men who are much inferior to those at the 
bar. The salary of the presiding judge. I have been told, is 
only $700 a year. . . . The present presiding 
judge is a man who has distinguished himself in Indian war- 
fare. Whatever opinion you may form of the bench here, 
you may be assured that it is occupied as a post of honor. 

Amongst the business of the court, the trial of a man who 
had stolen two horses excited much interest. On his being 
sentenced to suffer thirty stripes, he was immediately led from 
the bar to the whipping-post. Every touch of the cowhide 
(a weapon formerly described) drew a red line across his 


was built in 1838-39, substantially in the shape in 
which it now appears. The city directory of those 
years, published before its completion, boldly 
says: "It will undoubtedly be the architectural 
ornament of the place, if not of the whole West. 
Its structure is stone facing, with a brick wall of 
two feet in thickness." 


The jail (or "gaol," as he called it, after 
the orthography then current), was described by 
Dr. McMurtrie in 18 19 as "a most miserable 
edifice, in a most filthy and ruinous condition, 
first cousin to the Black Hole of Calcutta." A 
new and more roomy one had been contracted 
for, which was to be commenced shortly, and 
"to be built, as is the old one, of stone, with 
arched fire-proof apartments and cells secure, but 
so constructed as to afford shelter to the unfor- 
tunate victim of the law, who may there 'address 
himself to sleep' without any fear of losing his 
ears through the voracity of the rats and other 
vermin that swarm in the present one." 


"It would be well," thought the humane Doc- 
tor, "to surround the new building, when finished, 
with a high stone wall and to inclose within its 
limits that horrid-looking engine now standing 
opposite the Court-house. I allude to the pillory 



and whippingpost. Such things may perhaps 
be necessary (and even that is very doubtful) for 
the punishment of the guilty; but I am sure it 
never came within the intention of the law to 
inflict through it pain upon the innocent, its very 
appearance, combined with a knowledge of its 
uses, sufficing to blanch the cheek of every man 
who is not, through custom or a heart callous to 
the sufferings of humanity, totally regardless of 
such scenes." 


The city and county jail was completed and 
occupied in 1844. It was 72 feet long by 42 wide, 
and in its construction resembled in many re- 
spects the celebrated Moyamensing Prison, at 
Philadelphia. It had 48 single cells, each 6 feet 
by 10, and double cells, 10 feet by 13, all of solid 
stone and dry, well warmed and ventilated. They 
opened on interior galleries, constructed of 
wrought iron to the third story. A large cistern 
on the third gallery supplied the prisoners with 
water, and was also used to clean the conduits 
from the cells. Gas was used in all parts of the 
prison. Its architecture was Gothic, with a para- 
pet wall three feet high, and turrets and watch- 
towers, a cupola for a bell, and a copper covered 
roof. The whole was enclosed with a wall twen- 
ty feet high, of brick, in a stone foundation plast- 
ered and pebble-dashed.' The original plan, sub- 
sequently abandoned, contemplated a subter- 
ranean communication between it and the Court- 
house. The city architect, Mr. John Jeffrey, 
drew the plan for this building aud superintended 
its construction. 



Introductory — The Revolutionary War — Clark's Great 
Achievement — Bowman's Expedition — Captain Harrod's 
Company of 1780 — Clark's Later Expeditions — The Ken- 
tucky Board of War — General Scott's Expeditions — Wil- 
kinson's Expedition — Hopkins's Expedition — The War of 
1812-15 — The Jefferson County Contingent — The Mexi- 
can War — The Utah War — The War of the Rebellion — 
Movements in Louisville — A Delegation to Cincinnati — 
Recruiting Begun — The Sanitary Commission — State Mili- 
tary Officers from Louisville — General and Staff Officers 
from Louisville— The Jefferson County Contingent— The 

Infantry Regiments— The Cavalry Regiments— The Bat- 
teries—State Militia in United States Service — The Louis- 
ville Legion — The Louisville Troops in the Southerr 

The soldiership of the region now or ancientl) 
included within the limits of Jefferson count} 
began more than a century ago ; and Kentucky 
military history, recorded in full, would make a 
book in itself, comprising as it does much of the 
entire narrative of Indian and border warfare in 
the Northwest during a period of nearly forty 
years. It is a brilliant page in the annals of the 
conflict of civilization with savagery that is filled 
by the story ot the men of Kentucky, and by 
none more nobly than by those who clustered in 
the early day about the Falls of the Ohio. When- 
ever, too, in a later time, the call to arms has 
come, the martial blood of Jefferson county, 
flowing unimpaired in the veins of worthy de- 
scendants of noble sires, has stirred again with 
the fierce joy of battle, a^jti sent forth many a 
heio to do and die for the cause to which he 
gave his allegiance. To the Indian wars of the 
last quarter of the last century and the first of 
this; to the war of the Revolution; the last war 
with Great Britain ; the prolonged skirmish with 
Mexico; to both the Northern and Southern 
armies in the recent great civil conflict, the con- 
tingents from this county have been large and 
brave and effective in the field, in proportion to 
the numbers then settled here, as those from any 
other part of the land, placed amid similar cir- 
cumstances. It is a proud record which Jeffer- 
son county contributes to the history of wars in 
the New World. We can but outline it in this 


Until near the close of this eventful struggle, 
Louisville was not, even in name; and Jefferson 
county had not yet been set apart from the vast 
domain so far comprised in the State of Virginia. 
The State of Kentucky to-be was as yet the 
great county of Kentucky. Nevertheless, the 
region around the Falls is associated with one of 
most interesting and important events of the 
entire seven-years' contest, in that here was the 
final point of departure from civilized settlements, 
for the renowned expedition of General George 
Rogers Clark, in the summer of 1778, against 
the Illinois country, which permanently retrieved 
that region from the British possession, for the 
rising young empire of the United States. The 



story is well told, with sufficient fullness for 8tir 
purposes, in the Rev. John A. McClung's Out- 
line History, included in CoUins's History of 
Kentucky : 

When Clark was in Kentucky, in the summer ot 1776, he 
tfeok a more comprehensive survey of the Western country 
tl«an the rude pioneers around him; his keen military eye was 
cast upon the Northwestern posts, garrisoned by British 
troops, and affording inexhaustible supplies of arms and am- 
munition to the small predatory bands of Indians which in- 
fested Kentucky. He saw plainly that they were the true 
fountains from which the thousand little annual rills of Indian 
rapme and murder took their rise, and he formed the bold 
project of striking at the root of the evil. 

The Revolutionary war was then raging, and the Western 
posts were too remote from the great current of events to at- 
tract, powerfully, the attention of either friend or foe; but to 
Kentucky they were objects of capital interest. He un- 
folded his plan to the Executive of Virginia, awakened him 
to a true sense of its importance, and had the address to ob- 
tain from the impoverished Legislature a few scanty supplies 
of men and munitions for his favorite project. Undismayed by 
the scaniincis of his means, he embarked in the expedition 
with all ihi ardor of his character. A few State troops were 
fuinished by Virginia, a few scouts and guides by Kentucky, 
and. with a secresy and celerity of movement never surpassed 
by Napoleon in his palmiest days, he embarked in his daring 

Having descended the Ohio in boats to the Falls, he there 
landed thii teen families who had accompanied him from Pitts- 
burg, as emigrants to Kentucky, and by whom the founda- 
tion of Louisville was laid. Continuing his course down the 
Ohio, he disembarked his troops about sixty miles above the 
mouth of that river, and marching on foot through a pathless 
wilderness, he came upon Kaskaskia [on the 4th of luly] as 
suddenly and unexpectedly as if he had descended from the 
skies. The British officer in command, Colonel Rochdu- 
blare, and his garrison, surrendered to a force which they 
could have repelled with ease, if warned of their approach; 
but never, in the annals of war, was surprise more complete. 
Having secured and sent off his prisoners to Virginia, Clark 
was employed for some time in conciliating the inhabitants, 
who, being French, readily submitted to the new order of 
things. In the meantime, a storm threatened him from 
Vincennes. Governor Hamilton, who commanded the Brit- 
ish force in the Northwest, had actively employed himself 
during the fall season in organizing a large army of savages, 
with whom, in conjunction with his British force, he deter- 
mined not only to crush Clark and his handful of adventur- 
ers, but to desolate Kentucky, and even seize Fort Pitt. The 
season, however, became so far advanced before he had 
completed his preparations, that he determined to defer the 
project until spring, and in the meantime, to keep his Indians 
employed, he launched them against the frontiers of Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia, intending to concentrate them early in 
the spring, and carry out his grand project. 

Clark in the meantime lay at Kaskaskia, revolving the diffi- 
culties of his situation, and employing his spies diligently in 
learning intelligence of his enemy. No sooner was he in- 
formed of the dispersion of Hamilton's Indian force, and that 
he lay at Vincennes with his regulars alone, than he deter- 
mined to strike Vincennes as he had struck Kaskaskia. The 
march' was long, the season inclement, the road passed 
through an untrodden wilderness and through overflowed 

bottoms; his stock of provisions was scanty, and was to be 
carried upon the backs of his men. He could only muster 
one hundred and thirty men; but, inspiring this handful with 
his own heroic spirit, he plunged boldly into the wilderness 
which separated Kaskaskia from Vincennes, resolved to 
strike his enemy in the citadel of his strength or perish in the 
effort. The difficulties of the march were great, beyond 
what his daring spirit had anticipated. For days his route 
led through the drowned lands of Illinois; his stock of pro- 
visions became exhausted, his guides lost their way, and the 
most intrepid of his followers at times gave way to despair. 
At length they emerged from the drowned lands, and Vin- 
cennes, like Kaskaskia, was completely surprised. The Gov- 
ernor and garrison became prisoners of war, and, like their 
predecessors at Kaskaskia, were sent on to Virginia. The 
Canadian inhabitants readily submitted, the neighboring 
tribes were overawed, and some of them became allies, and 
the whole of the adjacent country became subject to Virginia, 
which employed a regiment of State troops in maintaining 
and securing their conquest. A portion of this force was af- 
terwards permanently stationed at Louisville, where a fort 
was erected, and where Clark established his headquarters. 

The story of this fort and its successors will be 
told in connection with the annals of Louisville, 
to which division of our narrative it seems more 
properly to belong. 

The following-named soldiers of the Revolu- 
tion were found to be still living in Jefferson 
county as late as July, 1840: Benjamin Wilke- 
son, aged 95 ; Levin Cooper, Sr., aged 87 ; 
Samuel Conn, aged 78; John Murphy, aged 76; 
Jane Wilson (probably a soldier's widow), aged 
78. Many had by this time died or been killed in 
war who were known to have been Revolution- 
ary soldiers, as Colonel Richard C. Anderson, 
General George Rogers Clark, Colonel John 
Floyd, and other heroes of the war for inde- 

bowman's expedition. 

The next year after Clark's great achievement 
is made famous, in part, by the expedition of 
Colonel John Bowman, county lieutenant of 
Kentucky — not against white enemies, but 
against the savages of the Miami country, now 
in the State of Ohio. His coinmand, variously 
estmiated as numbering one hundred and sixty 
to three hundred men, did not rendezvous here, 
but certainly included a company from the Falls, 
numbering enough to make a large fraction of 
the entire force. It was commanded by the 
celebrated Kentucky pioneer and Indian fighter, 
William Harrod. Long afterwards one of the 
witnesses in a land case involving early titles in 
Kentucky testified that "a certain William Har- 
rod, who, this deponent concludes, commanded 
then at the Falls of the Ohio, harangued the 



proprietors then there showing the necessity of 
the expedition, and that the settlers from other 
parts of Kentucky were desirous of having the 
expedition carried into effect." Another sur- 
vivor testified in 1804: "The men from the 
Falls were directed to meet us at the mouth of 
Licking with boats to enable us to cross." They 
took two batteaux, which were of material assist- 
ance to the little army in the crossing. 

The unfortunate history of this expedition is 
well known. It was directed particularly against 
the Indian town of Old Chillicothe, near the 
present site ot Xenia — the same visited by Cap- 
tain Bullitt some years before, and the place 
where Daniel Boone was held a prisoner and 
whence he escaped in June, 1778. The men 
were collected in May, crossed the Ohio at the 
mouth of the Licking, moved in single file along 
the narrow Indian trail through the dense woods 
of the plain and up the rich valley now occupied 
by the great city of Cincinnati and its suburbs, 
and soon neared the savage stronghold. Says 
Mr, McClung in his Outline History: 

The march was well conducted, the plan of attack well 
concerted, and the division led by Logan performed its part 
well. Yet the whole failed by feason ol a want of promptness 
and concert in taking advantage of the surprise, or by misun- 
derstandmg orders. Logan's division was compelled to make 
a disorderly retreat to the main column, and the rout 
quickly became general. All would have been lost but for 
the daring bravery of some of the subordinate officers, who 
charged the enemy on horseback and covered the retreat ; 
but the failure was as complete as it was unexpected. 

There were some redeeming features, how- 
ever, to offset the comparative failure. Two 
noted chiefs of the enemy, Blackfeet and Red 
Hawk, were killed, one hundred and sixty-three 
horses and much other spoil were seized, and the 
Indian town was destroyed. 


It is probable that most of the men from the 
fortified stations at and near the Falls of the 
Ohio, who are known to have been members of 
Captain Harrod's company the next year, were 
out m Colonel Bowman's expedition. Lieuten- 
ant James Patten was certainly with it, as he is 
mentioned by name and title in the depositions 
of 1804. The following is the roster of the 
company, numbering ninety-six (the Falls com- 
pany with Bowman counted about sixty), as it 
stood in 1780, and as given in the first volume 
of Collins's History. Some of the names are 

doubtless wrongly spelt, as the rolls were fre 
quently made up by officers or clerks who, 
though wonderfully learned in forest-craft and 
Indian fighting, were quite independent of for 
mulas m orthography, and spelt more by sound 
than by the prescriptions of dictionaries and 


Captain William Harrod. 
Lieutenant James Patton. 
Ensign Ed. Bulger. 


Peter Balance, Alexander Barr, James Brand. John Buck- 
ras, A. Cameron, Amos Carpenter, Solomon Carp>enter, 
Benjamin Carter, Thomas Carter, Reuben Case, Thomas 
Cochran, John Conway, John Corbley, John Crable, Robert 
Dickey, Daniel Driskill, Isaac Dye, John Eastwood, Samuel 
Forrester, Joseph Frakes, Samuel Frazee, John Galloway, 
William Galloway, James Garrison, Joseph Goins, Isaac 
Goodwin, Samuel Goodwin, James Guthrie, Daniel Hall, 
William Hall, John Hatt, Evan Henton, Thomas Henton, 
William Hickman, A. Hill, Andrew Hill, Samuel Hinck, 
Frederick Honaker, Joseph Hughes, Rowland Hughes, 
Michael Humble, John Hunt, Abram James, John Kenney, 
Valentine Kinder, Moses Kuykendall, John Lewis, John 
Lincant, Samuel Lyon, Patrick McGee, Samuel Major, 
Amos Mann, Edward Murdoch, John Murdoch, Richard 
Morris, William Morris, William Oldham, John Paul, 
George Phelps, Joseph Phelps, Samuel Pottinger, F. Potts, 
Reuben Preble, Urban Ranner, Benjamin Rice, Reed Rob- 
bins, Thomas Settle, William Smiley, Jacob Speck, John 
Stapleton, James Stewart, James Stewart, Daniel Stull, 
Miner Sturgis, Peter Sturgis, James Sullivan, William Swan, 
Joseph Swearingen, Samuel Swearingen, Van Swearingen, 
Robert Thorn, John Tomton, Beverly Trent, Thomas Trib- 
ble. Robert Tyler, Abraham Vanmetre, Miohael Valleto, 
Joseph Warlord, James Welch, Abram Whitaker, Aquilla 
Whitaker, Jacob Wickersham, Ed. Wilson. 

Clark's later expeditions. 
In July of this year (1780), Colonel Clark 
ordered out his battalion of State troops from 
the fort and stations about Louisville, to which 
were joined the forces from other parts of Ken- 
tucky, altogether numbering one thousand men, 
for another invasion of the Indian country. 
Colonels Benjamin Logan and William Linn, 
respectively, were at the head of the regiments 
formed. They rendezvoused at the usual place, 
at the mouth of the Licking, crossed the Ohio 
and pushed into the interior, where Clark de- 
feated the natives in a pitched battle, destroyed 
the Indian towns and devastated the corn-fields 
at Piqua and Old Chillicothe, and captured the 
English trading-post at Loramie's store, far up 
the Miami country, near the present western 
boundary of Ohio. This expedition is notable, 
in good part, for having built a blockhouse dur- 



ing the movement northward,, upon a spot t^p- 
posite the mouth of the Licking, the first 
house built by civiHzed hands (unless by the 
Mound Builders) upon the subsequent site 
of Cincinnati. The invasion was undertaken to 
retaliate for captures made and atrocities com- 
mitted by an expedition under the English 
Colonel Byrd, who came down from Detroit the 
previous June with a mixed force of Canadians 
and Indians, went up the Licking and reduced 
Riddell's and Martin's stations, near that river. 

During the same summer — probably earlier 
than the Miami expedition — Colonel Clark was 
instructed to execute a plan which had been con- 
templated more than two years before by Patrick 
Henry, while Governor of Virginia, and had 
been embodied in orders by his successor, 
Thomas Jefferson, "to establish a post near the 
mouth of the Ohio, with cannon to fortify it." 
Clark took about two hundred of his troops from 
the Falls, went down the Ohio to its mouth, and 
thence about five miles down the Mississippi to 
a place at the mouth of Mayfield creek, called 
the Iron Banks, where he erected Fort Jefferson, 
named from the Governor and future President, 
with several blockhouses attached — a strong and 
useful work. One object of establishing the 
post here was to signify the title of the United 
States'to all the territory in this direction to the 
Mississippi. The Chickasaw Indians, however, 
claimed this region as their hunting-ground; and, 
as their consent to the erection of the fort had 
not been obtained, they soon began maraud- 
ing and murdering about it, and finally, in 
1 78 1, besieged it for several days. The garrison 
and the settlers crowded within the work were 
reduced to great distress, but were finally relieved 
by the arrival of Clark from Kaskaskia, with pro- 
visions and reinforcements. The difficulty of 
supplying the fort led to its abandonment not 
long after. During the late War of the Rebel- 
lion, a singularly long iron cannon, of six-pound 
calibre, buried under the old fort, was partly ex- 
posed by the wash of the river and the 
rest dug out by the owner of the spot, from 
whom It was taken by the Federal soldiers to 
Cairo. The site is now in Ballard county, one 
of the latest formed in the State, and named 
from Captain Bland Ballard, the famous pioneer 
and border warrior of the Louisville region. 

In November, 1782, in punishment for the ter 

rible defeat inflicted upon the Kentuckians, in- 
cluding Boone, Kenton, Todd, Trigg, and other 
famous pioneers, at the battle of Lower Blue 
Licks, m August, Clark (now brigadier-general) 
made his final expedition against the Indian 
towns of the upper Miami county. He called 
out the Kentucky militia, of which one division, 
under Colonel John Floyd, assembled at the 
Falls. The other, commanded by Colonel Ben- 
jamin Logan, got together at Bryan's Station; 
and then all, to the number of 1,050 men, ren- 
dezvoused at the mouth of the Licking. They 
made a rapid march some one hundred and 
thirty miles northward, completely surprising the 
enemy, destroying the principal town of the 
Shawnees, many villages and cornfields, and the 
trading-post at Loramie's, which was thoroughly 
plundered, and the contents distributed among 
the soldiers of the expedition. The Indians 
thenceforth ceased to invade Kentucky and har- 
ass the settlements from this quarter. Accord- 
ing to some statements, two block-houses were 
built upon the site of Cincinnati by men of this 
expedition, near one of which was buried Captain 
McCracken, a brave soldier who was wounded by 
the Indians in a skirmish, and died as he was 
being borne back in a rude litter over one of the 
neighboring hills. 

Clark's last expedition against the red men 
was his only unsuccessful one. It was under- 
taken in September, 1786, to check the persistent 
depredation? and outrages of the Wabash In- 
dians. Mr. McClung gives the following excel- 
lent summary of the unhappy event and its re- 
sults. According to this writer, the expedi- 
tion was undertaken in response to the demands 
of the people, but in violation of solemn treaties 
made by Congress, and the absence of any legal 
power or instructions from higher authority to 
undertake it. If so, the ventuie met with merited 

A thousand volunteers under General Clark rendezvoused 

at Louisville, with the determination thoroughly to chastise 

the tribes upon the Wabash. Provisions and ammunition 

were furnished by individual contribution, and were placed 

on board of nine keel-boats, which were ordered to proceed 

to Vincennes by water, while the volunteers should march to 

the same point by land. 

I The flotilla, laden with provisions and munitions of war, 

I encountered obstacles in the navigation of the Wabash 

I which had not been foreseen, and was delayed beyond the 

time which had been calculated. [Large part of the supplies 

of food was thus spoiled.] The detachment moving by land 

reached the point of rendezvous first, and awaited for fifteen 




days the arrival of the keel-boat's. This long interval of in- 
action gAve time for the unhealthy humors of the volunteers 
to ferment, and proved fatal to the success of the expedi- 
tion. The habits of General Clark had also become intem- 
perate, and he no longer possessed tlie undivided confidence 
of his men. A detachment of three hundred volunteers 
broke ofi from the main body, and took up the line of march 
for their homes. Clark remonstrated, entreated, even shed 
tears of grief and mortification ; but all in vain. The result 
was a total disorganization of the force, and a return to 
Kentucky, to the bitter mortification of the commander in 
chief, whose brilliant reputation for the time suffered a total 

This expedition led to other ill consequences. The con- 
vention which should have assembled in September, was un- 
able to muster a quorum, the majority of its members having 
marched under Clark upon the ill-fated expedition. A num- 
ber of the delegates assembled at Danville at the appointed 
time, and adjourned from day to day until January, when a 
quorum, at length was present, and an organization effected. 
In the meantime, however, the minority of the convention, 
who had adjourned from day to day, had prepared a me- 
morial to the Legislature of Virginia, informing them of the 
circumstances which had prevented the meeting of the con- 
vention, and suggesting an alteration of some of the clauses 
of the act , which gave dissatisfaction to their constituents, 
and recommending an extension of the time within which the 
consent of Congress was required. This produced a total 
revision of the act by the Virginia Legislature, whereby an- 
other convention was required to be elected in August of 
1787, to meet at Danville in September of the same year, 
and again take into consideration the great question, already 
decided by four successive conventions, and requiring a ma- 
jority of two-thirds to decide in favor of separation, before 
the same should be effected. The time when the laws of 
Virginia were to cease was fixed on the ist day of January, 
1789, instead of September, 1787, as was ordered in the first 
act; and the 4th of July, 1788, was fixed upon as the period, 
before Congress should express its consent to the admission 
of Kentucky iuto the Union. 

General Clark soon afterwards sent Colonel 
Logan, then in camp on Silver creek, on the In- 
diana side, on a recruiting excursion into Ken- 
tucky, with instructions to make a raid upon the 
Ohio Shawnees. Logan raised about five hun- 
dred men, with which he crossed the Ohio at 
Limestone (now Maysville), marched to the 
headwaters of the Mad river, killed the principal 
chief and about twenty warriors of the tribe, cap- 
tured seventy or eighty Indians, destroyed several 
towns and a great amount of standing corn, and 
marched triumphantly back to Kentucky. 

THE "board of war." 

In January, 1791, the continuing border war- 
fare made it advisable, on the part of the Gen- 
eral Government, in response to the petition of 
the people that they be allowed to fight the In- 
dians at discretion and in their own way, to cre- 
ate a sort of subordinate War Department in Ken- 

tucky, which was accordingly done. A "board 
of war" for the District of Kentucky was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Brigadier-General Charles 
Scott, Isaac Shelby, Colonel Benjamin Logan, 
John Brown, and Harry Innes. To this board 
was committed discretionary power to provide for 
the defense of the settlers and the prosecution 
of border wars. They were authorized, whenever 
they thought the rtieasure demanded by the ex- 
igencies of the situation, to call the local militia 
into the service of the United States, to serve 
with the regular forces. As will be seen by the 
names, Jefferson county, which had by this time 
been formed, had her honorable share in the 
composition of the board. 


Soon after the appointment of this board, on 
the 9th of March, 1791, President Washington 
issued an order authorizing it "to call into the 
service a corps of volunteers for the District of 
Kentucky, to march on an expedition against 
the Indians northwest of the Ohio, and to be 
commanded by Brigadier-General C. Scott," who 
was himself, it will be remembered, the head of 
the board. Eight hundred mounted men, of 
which Jefferson county furnished its full con- 
tingent, were collected at the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky, where the Ohio was crossed, and a march 
begun upon thfe Indian towns on the Wabash, 
not far from the present location of Lafayette, 
Indiana. Here the chief town of the natives, 
Ouiatenon, a village of about seventy huts, was 
destroyed, with other clusters of wretched homes. 
The Indians were encountered several times dur- 
ing the campaign, but were invariably defeated, 
with loss of about fifty killed; and a large num- 
ber of them were taken prisoners. 

The muster-roll of one of the companies 
"mustered in at the Rapids of the Ohio, June 
15, 1 791, by Captain B. Smith, First United 
States regiment," has been preserved and is 
printed by Mr. Collins in his second volume. 
It IS that of the company of mounted Kentucky 
volunteers, recruited by Captain James Brown 
for the expedition against the Wea Indians, com- 
manded by Brigadier-General Charles Scott. As 
will be seen by the roll, the command consisted 
of one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, four 
sergeants, and seventy-one privates present and 
one absent (James Craig, who was "lost in the 



woods" while traveling from the interior to 


Captain James Brown. 
Lieutenant William McConnell. 
Ensign Joshua Barbae. 


First Sergeant Joseph Mosby. 
Second Sergeant Adam Hanna. 
Third Sergeant Samuel Mcllvain. 
Fourth Sergeant William Kincaid. 


Aaron Adams. William Baker, Edward Bartlett, Alexander 
Black, John Brown, .Samuel Buckner, Richard Burk, John 
Caldwell, Phillips Caldwell, Peter Carr, John Caswell, Wil- 
liam Clark, Robert Conn, James Craig, Robert Curry, Wil- 
liam Davidson, AVilliam Dougherty, Hugh Drennon, Nat. 
Dryden, Alexander Dunlap, James Dunlap, Robert EUiston, 
Matthew English, John Ferrell, Benjamin Fisher, Morgan 
Forbes, James Forgus, John Fowler, Alexander Gilmore, Job 
Glover, John Hadden, Robert Hall, Thomas Hanna, Wil- 
liam Hanna, Randolph Han is, John Henderson, Andrew 
Hodge, David Humphreys, David Humphries, Robert Irvin, 
Samuel Jackson, Gabriel Jones, David Knox, James Knox, 
Nicholas Leigh, Richard Lewis, George Loar, Abraham Mc- 
Clellan, Joseph McDowell, John Mcllvaine, Moses Mcll- 
vaine, James Nourse, Robert Patterson, John Peoples, Arthur 
Points, Francis Points, Percy Pope, Samuel Porter, Benjamin 
Price, William Reading, William Rogers, George Sia, Wil- 
liam Smith, John Speed, John Stephenson, Joseph Stephen- 
son, Robert Stephenson, Samuel Stephenson, John Strick- 
land, Edmund Taylor, Stephen Trigg, Joshua vVhittington. 


More than two years afterwards, in October, 
i793» ^he same General Scott led a reinforce- 
ment of one thousand Kentucky cavalry across 
the Ohio and up the Miami country, to reinforce 
the army of General Wayne, then in the vicinity 
of Fort Jefferson, about eighty miles north of 
Cincinnati. On the 24th of that month he re- 
ported his fine command to "Mad Anthony;" 
but they had to be sent home, as the season was 
late, supplies were too scarce to subsist them, 
and no immediate attack upon the Indians was 
contemplated. A larger number of Kentuckians, 
however, under the same general, joined Wayne 
in July of the next year, and shared in the glori- 
ous victory of the Battle of the Fallen Timbers. 
Wilkinson's expedition. 

In Scott's expedition of May, 1791, the sec- 
ond in command was Colonel James Wilkinson, 
who afterwards, as General Wilkinson, was com- 
mander in chief of the Western forces, with 
his headquarters at Fort Washington, Cincinnati. 
He was also implicated in the Franco-Spanish in- 

trigues of 1793-95, instigated in Kentucky by 
the French Minister, Genet, with a view to wrest- 
ing Louisiana by force from the domination of 
the Spanish. August i, 1791, the Kentucky 
Board of War dispatched Colonel Wilkinson by 
way of Fort Washington, with five hundred and 
twenty-three Kentuckians, to burn the Indian 
towns and destroy the corn-fields near the junc- 
tion of the Wabash and Eel rivers. They make 
their march and effect their destruction, with 
little loss of human life on either side. Louis- 
ville is the point where the march ends and the 
expedition disbands. August 21st, Wilkinson 
reaches this place, delivers his captives to the 
commanding ofificery. and dismisses his force. 
The general resided for a time here and in other 
parts of Kentucky. 

Hopkins's expedition. 
A larger force than any that had hitherto col- 
lected at the Falls for operations against the 
Indians, gathered here in October, 1812, under 
General Samuel Hopkins. The war with Great 
Britain had opened in June; Hull had surrend- 
ered his army at Detroit; the invasion of Canada 
from the Niagara had failed, and the Indians, in 
great number and with relentless atrocity, were 
harassing the border settlements. One thousand 
five hundred volunteers were called for by Isaac 
Shelby, first Governor of the State, now again in 
the executive chair, after the lapse of twenty 
years since he first took the oath of office. More 
than two thousand responded to the call, and 
were all received into the temporary service. 
They marched gaily away into the Indian coun- 
try; but when their supplies began to give out, 
and marches in deep swamps and across path- 
less prairies wearied the flesh, their martial ardor 
cooled. Suddenly, in the same independent 
spirit which had led to the abandonment of the 
gallant Clark sixteen years before, they rise in 
revolt, refuse [to obey orders or remain longer, 
and start in straggling parties upon the return 
march. The expedition failed without having 
met the enemy or smelt a grain of hostile pow- 
der. It was the last of the Kentucky expedi 
tions against the savages. 

THE WAR OF 1812-15. 

Little is known at this day, beyond what we 
have related, of the effects in this region of the 
last war with Great Britain. It is mattiai'»ol.his- 



tory that the earliest volunteers from Kentucky, 
under Colonels Allen Lewis and Scott, left their 
homes, in general, on the 12th of August, 181 2, 
rendezvoused at Georgetown, marched thence 
along the Dry ridge to the Ohio, opposite Cincin- 
nati, where they remained a few days, and then 
moved northward to Piqua, and on to the relief 
of Fort Wayne, meeting as they went the news 
of the disgraceful surrender of Hall at Detroit. 
We have no information as to the share Jefferson 
county had, if any, in this force at the northward. 

One company at least was recruited, or rather 
drafted, in this region in the fall of 1814, to join 
the army of General Jackson at New Orleans. 
There does not seem to have been a wild enthu- 
siasm at this time to smell gunpowder; the com- 
pany, as may be seen below, was composed 
largely of substitutes; and a number of its mem- 
bers, both drafted and substitutes, failed to .re- 
port for duty. The roll included the names of 
ninety-four officers and men; but this number 
was sadly cut down before they reached the 
Crescent city. Upon the embarkation from 
Louisville, November 21, Captain Joyes drew ra- 
tions for seventy-four men, and in middle De- 
cember for but fifty-three, though he added for 
two more the latter part of that month. 

This company was led by Captain Thomas 
Joyes, of the well-known pioneer family of 
Louisville. Though now but a youth of twenty- 
six years, he had already seen severe service in 
the escort of baggage-trains going from Louis- 
ville to Vincennes in the latter part of 18 12, and 
afterwards as a spy and ranger under General 
Hopkins, commanding at Vincennes, and then in 
the quartermaster's department at that place. He 
became a captain in the Thirteenth Regiment of 
Kentucky Detached Militia, and was recalled 
into service by Governor Shelby in November, 
1814, with his company. The diary of his ser- 
vice in Indiana has been preserved, and it is in 
possession of Patrick Joyes, Esq., of Louisville, 
but contains nothing necessary to this History. 

The camp of the Thirteenth Regiment was 
pitched on Beargrass creek, at no great distance 
from the river,and was officially known as " Camp 
Beargrass." Colonel Slaughter's (Fifteenth) 
regiment of detached militia, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Gray's (the Thirteenth) formed the camp, 
with Major-General Thomas personally in com- 
mand. Captain Joyes's company, and probably 

the other companies, wer^ mustered into service 
November 10, 18 14. After some delay in col- 
lecting vessels and supplies, the commands were 
embarked in flatboats on the 21st of November, 
and started on the long and tedious voyage down 
the Ohio and Mississippi. The troops had been 
but poorly provided in camp, and they fared 
worse in their crowded and frail barks, many of 
them being without even a plank to shelter 
them, and many becoming sick from the ex- 
posure and hardship. New Orleans was reached 
at last, J^juary 3, 1815; but the boats floated 
on to a landing some distance below, where the 
troops disembarked and encamped near Camp 
Jackson, making shelter of the planks of their 
boats. Nothing of note occurred till the even- 
ing of the 7th, when, says Captain Joyes in his 
journal of the campaign, which has also been pre- 
served : 

About two hundred and forty of Colonel Davis's regiment 
[late Colonel Gray's] were detached to cross the river, to re- 
pulse the enemy, who was expected to land on the opposite 
side, to assail our little establishment there, they having cut 
a canal from the bayou where their launches lay in the 
swamp to the Mississippi, by which means they got their 
boats through and finally effected a landing that night below 
General Morgan's camp, whose men lay in apparent tran- 
quillity, without an endeavor to intercept them. Our detach- 
ment reached General Morgan's camp a little after daylight, 
having been detained by every sentinel on our way up to the 
city, where we crossed fhe river in wood-boats, procured by 
me under direction of T. L. Butler, and similarly impeded 
on our way down on the other side. So soon as we reached 
General Morgan's camp, we were ordered to lay down our 
knapsacks, etc., and push on to meet the enemy, who was 
approaching with precipitation. At this moment a test 
rocket was thrown from the enemy's camp, which we suf)- 
posed was the signal for an attack, as the cannons were let 
loose like thunder. Our situation on the Camp Morgan side 
being an unfortunate one, and the field officers who ought to 
have commanded us not having come, we were disposed at 
random. Myself and thirty-odd of my company, who were 
on the front flank, next the enemy, were ordered out as a 
flanking party; and, the swamp being so impenetrable, we 
were unable to make in. Having got below the firing of the 
retreat and pushed up the levee, we got in this dismal swamp 
and attempted to come, when we discovered we had run al- 
most up to the British. We then wheeled and ran in a di- 
rection up the river to make for our party, whom we supposed 
to be retreating. At length, after a horrid ramble, we 
reached a picket-guard which our party had placed out. 
They conducted us in to where our troops lay in the action. 
Joseph Tyler, of my company, was killed, James Stewart 
wounded, and Thomas Ross taken prisoner. 

The Louisville company, then, being on the 
west side of the river, did not share in the glori- 
ous victory won that day on the other shore, in 
which many other Kentuckians had part. 



The remainder of the service was uneventful. 
On the 13th of March news of the peace arrived, 
and about the i8th the army was disbanded. 
The company returned to Louisville^ and was 
there mustered out May 10, 181 5. 


Muster roll of a company of mfantry, under 
the command of Captain Thomas Joyes, in the 
Thirteenth regiment of Kentucky militia, com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Presley Gray, in 
the service of the United States, commanded by 
Major-General John Thomas, from November 
10, 1814: 


Captain Thomas Joyes. 
Lieutenant Andrew Pottorff. 
Ensign Samuel Earickson. 


Sergeant John Hadley, substitute for William W. Lawes. 
Sergeant James B. Finnell, substitute for John H. Voss. 
Sergeant John Booker. 
Sergeant John Bainbridge. 
Corporal John Ray. 

Corporal William Sale, substitute for Samuel Boscourt. 
Corporal Alex. Calhoon, substitute for Jacob Smiser, Jr. 
Corporal William Duerson. 

Musician Anson S. Milliard, substitute for Courtney M. 
Musician Peter Marlow, substitute for K. Campion. 


Christopher Kelly, substitute for Lewis Pottorff. 
Nathaniel Floyd, substitute for Jacob Hikes. 
Alex. Ralston, substitute for Michael Berry. 
Westley Martin, substitute for Henry Martin. 
Adam Groshart. 
Jacob Brinley. 
Thomas Dunn. 
John Little, Jr. 
Godfrey Meddis. 

Thomas Talbott, substitute for John Reed. 
Isaac Batman. 
John Sebastian. 

Cornelius Croxton, substitute for Thomas Long. 
Joseph Tyler, killed 8th of January [ 1815 ] in battle. 
Mason Hill, substitute for George B. Didlick. 
William Littell, discharged by habeas corpus. 
Hugh Carson, substitute for H. W. Merriwether. 
David Turner, absentee, claimed not legally drafted. 
Samuel Vance, absentee. 

Price Parish, substitute for William Anderson. 
Jacob Hubbs, substitute for Alex. Pope. 
John Grenawalt. 

Abraham Balee, substitute for James Hughes. 
James Stewart, substitute for William Ferguson ; wounded 
8th January, 1815, in battle. 
James Risley. 

Gershom Rogers, failed to appear. 
John Booty, substitute for Ebenezer Buckman. 
George R. C. Floyd, discharged by habeas corpus. 
John Miller, substitute.for Solomon Neal. 

John Merryfield, substitute for Thomas S. Baker. 

Levi Miller, substitute for Charles Stevens. 

James Chinoweth, discharged by court of enquiry. 

William Johnston, substitute for James Johnston. 

James Glasgow. 

John Jones, substitute for Robert McConnell. 

Patrick Stowers, substitute for Samuel Stowers. 

Philip Traceler, substitute for James Fontaine. 

William Myrtle. 

Samuel Lashbrook, substitute for James A. Pearce. 

George Jackson, substitute for Daniel Carter. 

William Cardwell. 

John Glasgow, substitute for Thomas Colscott. 

Moses Williams, [substitute for ?] John Yenawine, Sr. 

Robert B. Ames, substitute for Charles Ray. 

John Robbins. 

Stephen J ohnston, discharged by court of enquiry. 

John Fowler. 

Peter Omer. 

Jacob Slaughter, substitute for William Hodgin. 

James Woodward, substitute for George Markwell. 

George Miller. 

Moses Guthrie. 

Samuel Holt, substitute for John .Sousley. 

Jesse Wheeler, substitute for Moses Williamson. 

William Thickston. 

Moses Welsh. 

Squire Davis, substitute for Thomas McCauley. 

William Newkirk. 

William Junkins, absentee. 

Isaac Mayfield, substitute for Jeremiah Starr. 

Francis D. Carlton. 

John Bagwell, substitute for Jacob Martin. 

Charles Cosgrove, substitute for George Brown. 

Philip Manville, absent. 

Patrick Dougherty. 

William Elms. 

George R. Pearson, substitute for Thomas Pearson. 

Absalom Brandenburgh, substitute for Joshua Heading- 

Chester Pierce, substitute for James Garrett. 

William Steele, substitute for J ohn Keesacker. 

John Morrow, substitute for John D. Colmesnil. 

John O'Hanlon. 

Benjamin K. Beach, failed to appear; substitute for John 
M. Poague. 

John Laville, absent. 

Harvey Ronte, absent. 

Reason Reagan, absent. 

John McCord, absent. 

Thomas Ross, substitute for Silas C. Condon ; captured 
by the enemy 8th January, 1815. 

Michael Stout, substitute for Arltun McCauley. 

Abner C. Voung. 

John Minter. 


No military movement calling for aid from 
Kentucky could have occurred since the white 
man first set the stakes of civilization at the Falls 
of the Ohio, without calling out as large a pro- 
portion of the fighting men of this region as 
went from any other part of Kentucky, or of the 
Northwest. Every war from the beginning of 




warfare in America, after the settlement of the 
Ohio valley began, had in it a large contingent 
from Louisville and Jefiferson county. This was 
eminently the case when the Mexican war broke 
out, in which Kentucky volunteers bore so great 
and distinguished a part. May 13, 1846, the 
Congress of the United States made formal 
declaration that, "by the act of the Republic of 
Mexico [the invasion of the soil of Texas,] a 
state of war exists between that Government and 
the United States." A requisition was made 
upon Governor Owsley, of this State, by Major- 
General Gaines, of the United States army, for 
four regiments of volunteers. The Governor 
had already, before receiving this call, appealed 
to the citizens of Kentucky to organize into mil- 
itary companies. On the next day after his 
proclamation (dated Sunday, May 17th), the 
Louisville Legion, then stronger than now by 
half — in number of companies, which counted 
nine, commanded by Colonel Ormsby — offered 
its service for the war, which was accepted by 
the Governor. A subscription of $50,000 for 
extraordinary expenses ot the State was ob- 
tained in the city by Hon. William Preston, and 
placed in the Bank of Kentucky, ready for use. 
May 22d, the Governor issues his proclamation, 
in accordance with the call of the President upon 
the States, asking volunteers enough from Ken- 
tucky to fill two regiments of infantry and one 
regiment of cavalry. Four days thereafter he 
announces that the quota of the State is full. 
The Louisville Legion, forming bodily the First 
regiment of Kentucky volunteer infantry, is al- 
ready upon transports for the movement lo Mex- 
ico. The Second regiment contains no entire 
company from Jefferson county, but some gallant 
officers and men, as Lieutenant-Colonel Henry 
Clay, Jr., who afterwards went down in the storm 
of battle at Buena Vista, have been recruited 
here. The cavalry regiment is commanded by 
a Louisville soldier. Colonel Humphrey Marshall, 
the well-known Confederate General of the late 
war, and has two Jefferson county companies, 
the first and second, commanded, respectively, by 
Captains W. J. Heady and A. Pennington. 
Seventy-five companies more than the call de- 
manded, or one hundred and five in all, were 
tendered to the Governor from different parts of 
the State. The martial spirit was rife among the 

August 31, 1847, another requisition is made 
by the General Government upon Kentucky — 
this time for two regiments of infantry, which 
are speedily raised and sent to the theater of 
war. The Third regiment of Kentucky volunteer 
infantry contains no Jefferson county company ; 
but there is one in the Fourth — the fifth, num- 
bering sixty-eight men, commanded by Captain 
T. Keating, and among the field oflficers of the 
regiment is Lieutenant-Colonel William Preston, 
of Louisville. Three more companies from the 
city are recruited and offered to the Governor ; 
but too \ate, and they cannot be accepted. 


In February, 1858, it having been determined 
by the authorities at Washington to send an 
armed force to Utah, to bring the rebellious 
Mormons to terms, the Legislature of Kentucky 
authorized the Governor of the State to raise a 
regiment of volunteers to be offered in aid of the 
expedition. On the 6th of March Governor 
Morehead made proclamation accordingly, and 
within about a month twenty-one companies, or 
more than twice the number needed, were ten- 
dered to the State. Among them were three 
from Louisville, commanded by Captains Rogers, 
W^les, and Trimble, being one-seventh of th<! 
entire number reported from the State at lai^e. 
The Governor was reduced to the necessity of 
making a selection by lot, which resulted 'in the 
choice, among others, of the commands of the 
two captains first named, making one-fifth of the 
whole regiment. 


When the recruiting for the Utah raiment 
was going on in Louisville, it was little thought 
by most ot those engaged in the patriotic work 
that soon a storm-cloud of infinitely greater 
depth and width and blackness would lower 
upon the land, whose fell influences should sep- 
arate husband and wife, brother from brottier, 
father from son, friend from friend, and plunge 
the whole great country in grief. But already 
the cloud was gathering; the next year it lowered 
more closely; and when in i860 the election of 
Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency <pf the 
American Union aroused the South to a move- 
ment looking to separate existence, few were so 
blind as not to see that an imminent, deadly 
struggle between the States was impending. 



On the 1 8th of December of this year, Senator 
John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, who stood by 
President Buchanan's message denying the right 
of secession to a State, offered his celebrated 
compromise in the Senate. It leading provis- 
sions have been summarized as follow: To 
renew the Missouri line 36° 30' ; prohibit slavery 
north and permit it south of that line ; admit 
new States with or without slavery, as their con 
stitutions may provide ; prohibit Congress from 
abolishing slavery in the States and in tWe Dis- 
trict of Colombia, so long as it exists in Virginia 
or Maryland ; permit free transmission of slaves 
by land or water, in any State ; pay for fugitive 
slaves rescued after arrest ; repeal the inequality 
of commissioners' fees in the fugitive slave act ; 
and to ask the repeal of peisonal liberty bills in 
the Northern States. These concessions to be 
submitted to the people as amendments to the 
United States Constitution, and if adopted never 
to be changed. Mr. Crittenden, the same day, 
made one of the greatest intellectual efforts of 
his life in support of his measure. But all was 
of no avail. Four days thereafter his proposi- 
tions were negatived by the Senate committee of 

These facts are restated here, in order to ex- 
plain the action of the two State conventions 
which assembled in Louisville on the 8th of 
January (Battle of New Orleans day), 1861 — the 
Constitutional Union, or Bell and Everett con- 
vention, and the Democratic Union, or Douglas 
convention. Each was presided over by a former 
Governor of the State-^the one by ex-Governor 
John L. Helm, the other by ex-Governor Charles 
A. Wickliffe. They appointed a joint conference 
committee, by which a brief series of resolutions 
were agreed upon, submitted to the respective 
conventions, and by each adopted without a dis- 
senting voice. They read as follows: 

Rtiolved, That we recommend the adoption of the propo- 
sitions of our distinguished Senator, John J. Crittenden, as 
a fair and honorabie adjustment of the difficulties which 
divide and distract the people of our beloved country. 

Resolved, That we recommend to the Legislature of the 
State to put the amendments of Senator Crittenden in form, 
and submit them to the other States; and that, if the disor- 
ganization of the present Union is not arrested, the States 
agreeing to these amendments of the Federal constitution 
shall form a separate confederacy, with power to admit new 
States under our glorious constitution thus amended. 

Resolved, That we deplore the existence of a Union to be 
held together by the sword, with laws to be enforced by 

standing armies: it is not such a Union as our fathers 
mtended, and not worth preserving. 

These resolutions probably expressed accurately 
the sentiments of the vast majority of the people 
of Louisville, and indeed of the entire State, 
who were not already committed to the cause of 
secession. A Union State central committee 
was appointed, consisting, it will be observed, 1 
almost solely of citizens of Louisville, viz: 
Messrs. John H. Harney, William F. Bullock, 
George D. Prentice, James Speed, Charles Rip- 
ley, William P. Boone, Phil. Tompert, Hamilton 
Pope, Nat. Wolfe, and Lewis E. Harvie. On 
the 1 8th of April, following, after the fall of 
Sumter, the call of the Secretary of War upon 
Governor Magoffin for four regiments of Ken- 
tucky troops, his refusal, and the great speech of 
Senator Crittenden at Lexington, urging the 
neutrality of Kentucky in the coming struggle, 
the committee issued an address to the people of 
the CorHmonwealth reading as follows: 

Kentucky, through her executive, has responded to this 
appeal [of the President for militia, to suppress what he de- 
scribes as "combinations too powerful to be suppressed in 
the ordinary way," etc.]. She has refused to comply with it. 
And in this refusal she has acted as became her. We ap- 
prove the response of the Executive of the Commonwealth. 
One other appeal now demands a response from Kentucky. 
The Government of the Union has appealed to her to furnish 
men to suppress the revolutionary combinations in the cotton 
States. She has refused. She has most wisely and justly 
refused. Seditious leaders in the midst of us now appeal to 
her to furnish men to uphold those combinations against the 
Government of the Union. Will she comply with this ap- 
peal? Ought she to comply with it? We answer, with 

emphasis, NO ! She ought clearly to comply with neither 

the one appeal or the other. And, if she be not smitten with 
judicial blindness, she will not. The present duty of Ken- 
tucky is to maintain her present independent position — tak- 
ing sides not with the Government and not with the seceding 
States, but with the Union against them both; declaring her 
soil to be sacred from the hostile tread of either, and, if 
necessary, making the declaration good with her strong right 
arm. And — to the end that she may be fully prepared for 
this last contingency and all other possible contingencies — 
we would have her arm herself thoroughly at the earliest prac- 
ticable moment. 

What the future duty of Kentucky may be, we, of course, 
cannot with certainty foresee; but if the enterprise announced 
in the proclamation of the President should at any time here- 
after assume the aspect of a war for the overrunning and 
subjugation of the seceding States — through the full asser- 
tion therein of the national jurisdiction by a standing military 
force — we do not hesitate to say that Kentucky should 
promptly unsheath her sword in behalf of what will then have 
become the common cause. Such an event, if it should oc. 
cur — of which, we confess, there does not appear to us to be 
a rational probability — could have but one meaning, a mean- 
ing which a people jealous of their liberty would be keen to 
detect, and which a people worthy of liberty would be 



prompt and fearless to resist. When Kentucky detects this 
meaning in the action of the Government, she ought — with- 
out counting the cost — to take up arms at once against the 
Government. Until she does detect this meaning, she ought 
to hold herself independent of both sides, andcompel both sides 
to respect the inviolability of her soil. 

The same day an important Union meetmg 
was held in Louisville, which was addressed by 
the Hon. James Guthrie, who had similarly 
spoken to a large assembly in the city March 
1 6th, and by Judge William F. Bullock, Archi- 
bald Dixon, and John Young Dixon. It did not 
advocate armed resistance to secession, however, 
but fell in with the prevailing current in behalf 
of neutrality, and opposing coercion by the 
North, as well as secession by the South. It was 
declared by this meeting that Kentucky would 
be loyal until the Federal Government became 
the aggressor upon her rights. The City Coun- 
cil, on the 23d of the same month, appropriated 
$50,000 to arm and defend the city, and pres- 
ently increased the sum to $250,000, provided 
the people should sustain the measure by a ma- 
jority vote. The Bank of Louisville and the 
Commercial Bank agreed to make temporary 
loans of $10,000 each for arming the State, in 
response to the request of the Governor; but 
the Bank of Kentucky declined to furnish any 
money for the purpose, except under the express 
stipulation that it should be used exclusively 
" for arming the State for self-defense and protec 
tion, to prevent aggression or invasion from 
either the North or the South, and to protect the 
present status of Kentucky in the Union." 

By this time (the last week in April) the situa- 
tion was beginning to excite grave apprehension 
and not a little vivid indignation in Kentucky — 
particularly at Louisville, whose commercial in- 
terests were seriously threatened by certain of 
the demonstrations there. This part of the story 
may best be told in the words of Mr. Whitelaw 
Reid, no editor of the New York Tribune, and 
former compiler of the great work in two vol- 
umes, known as Ohio in the War. In his de- 
scription of the sentiment and scenes in Cincin- 
nati at the outbreak of the war, Mr. Reid says : 

The first note of war from the East threw Cincinnati into 
a spasm of alarm. Her great warehouses, her foundries 
and machine shops, her rich moneyed institutions, were all a 
tempting prize to the Confederates, to whom Kentucky was 
believed to be drifting. Should Kentucky go, only the Ohio 
river would remain between the great city and the needy 
enemy, and there were absolutely no provisions for defense. 

The first alarm expended itself, as we have already seen. 

in the purchase of huge columbiads, with which it was prob- 
ably intended that Walnut Hills should be fortified. There 
next sprang up a feverish spirit of active patriotism that soon 
led to complications. For the citizens, not being accustomed 
to draw nice distinctions or in a tempyer to permit anything 
whereby their danger might be increased, could see little dif- 
ference between the neutral treason of Kentucky to the Gov- 
ernment and the more open treason of the seceded States. 
They accordingly insisted that shipments of produce, and 
especially shipments of anns, ammunition, or other articles 
contraband of war, to Kentucky should instantly cease. 

The citizens of Louisville, taking alarm at this threatened 
blow at their very existence, sent up a large delegation to 
protest gainst the stoppage ol shipments from Ohio. They 
were received in the council chamber of the city hall, on the 
morning of April 23d. The city Mayor, Mr. Hatch, an- 
nounced the object of their meeting, and called upon Mr. 
Rufus King to state the position of the city and State au- 
thorities. Mr. King dwelt upon the friendship of Ohio to 
Kentucky in the old strain, and closed by reading a letter 
which the mayor had procured from Governor Dennison, of 
which the essential part was as follows : 

' ' My views of tbe subject suggested in your message are 
these : So long as any State remains in the Union, with pro- 
fessions of attachment to it, we cannot discriminate between 
that State and our own. In the contest we must be clearly in 
the right in every act, and I think it better that we should 
risk something than that we should, in the slightest degree, 
be chargeable with anything tending to create a rupture with 
any State which has not declared itself already out of the 
Union. To seize arms going to a State which has not actu- 
ally seceded, could give a pretext for the assertion that we 
had inaugurated hostile conduct, and might be used to create 
a popular feeling of favor of secession where it would not ex- 
ist, and end in border warfare, which all good citizens must 
deprecate. Until fliere is such circumstantial evidence as to 
create a moral certainty of an immediate intention to use 
arms against us, I would not be willing to order their seizure; 
much less would I be willing to interfere with the transporta- 
tion of provisions. " 

"Now," said Mr. King, " this is a text to which eveiy citi- 
zen of Ohio must subscribe, coming as it does from the head 
of the State. 1 do not feel the least hesitation in saying that 
it expresses the feeling of the people of Ohio. " 

But the people of Ohio did not subscribe to it. Even in 
the meeting Judge Bellamy Storer, though very guarded in 
his expressions, intimated, in the course of his stirring 
speech, the dissatisfaction with the attitude of Kentucky. 
"This is no time," he said, "for soft words. We feel, as 
you have a right to feel, that you have a Governor who can- 
not be depended upon in this crisis. But it is on the men of 
Kentucky that we rely. All we want to know is whether you 
are for the Union, without reservation. Brethren of Ken- 
tucky, the men of the North have been your friends, and 
they still desire to be. But I will speak plainly. There have 
been idle taunts thrown out that they are cowardly and timid. 
The North submits; the North obeys; but beware! There 
is a point which cannot be passed. While we rejoice in your 
friendship, while we glory in your bravery, we would have 
you understand that we are your equals as well as your 
friends. " 

To all this the only response of the Kentuckians, through 
their spokesman. Judge Bullock, was "that Kentucky wished 
to take no part in the unhappy struggle ; that she wished to 
be a mediator, and meant to retain friendly relations with all 



her sister States. But he was greatly gratified with Governor 
Dennison's letter." 

The citizens of Cincinnati were not. Four days later, 
when their indignation had come to take shape, they held a 
large meeting, whereat excited speeches were mnde and reso- 
lutions passed deprecating the letter, calling upon the Gover- 
nor to retract it, declaring that it was too late to draw nice 
distinctions between open rebellion and armed neutrality 
against the Union, and that armed neutrality was rebellion 
to the Government. At the close an additional resolution 
was offered, which passed amid a whirlwind of applause : 

"Resolved, That any men, or set of men, in Cincinnati or 
elsewhere, who knowingly ship one ounce of flour or pound 
of provisions, or any arms or articles which are contraband 
of war, to any person or any State which has not declared its 
firm determination to sustain the Government in its present 
crisis, is a traitor, and deseives the doom of a traitor." 

So clear and unshrinking was the first voice from the great 
conservative city of the Southern border, whose prosjjerity 
was supposed to depend on the Southern trade. They had 
reckoned idly, it seemed, who had counted on hesitation 
here. From the first day that the war was opened, the people 
of Cincinnati were as vehement in their deteriT'ination that it 
should be relentlessly prosecuted to victory, as the people of 

They immediately began the organization of home guards, 
armed and drilled vigorously, took oaths to serve the Gov- 
ernment when they were called upon, and devoted themselves 
to the suppression of any contraband trade with the South- 
ern States. The steamboats were watched ; the railroad 
depots were searched ; and, wherever a suspicious bo.\ or bale 
was discovered, it was ordered back to the warehouses. 

After a time the General Government undertook to prevent 
any shipments into Kentucky, save such as should be re- 
quired by the normal demands of her own population. A 
system of shipment permits was established under the super- 
vision of the Collector of the Port, and passengers on the 
ferry-boats into Covington were even searched to see if they 
were carrying over pistols or other articles contraband of 
war; but, in spite of all efforts, Kentucky long continued to 
be the convenient source and medium for supplies to the 
Southwestern seceded States. 

The day after the Cincinnati meeting denouncing his 
course relative to Kentucky, Governor Dennison, stimulated 
perhaps by this censure, but in accordance with a policy 
already formed, issued orders to the presidents of all rail- 
roads in Ohio to have everything passing over their roads in 
the direction of Virginia, or any other seceded State, whether 
as ordinary freight or express matter, examined, and if con- 
traband of war, immediately stopped and reported to him. 
The order may not have had legal sanction, but in the excited 
state of the public mind it was accepted by all concerned as 
ample authority. The next day similar instructions were sent 
to all express companies. 

The leading incidents of the war, so far as 
Louisville or this county had part in them, will 
be related in our annals of the city; we have 
designed to furnish simply enough by way of in- 
troduction to the large roster of the Jefferson 
county contingent in the war. Recruiting for 
either army was not long delayed by Kentucky's 
neutrality. The Louisville Legion now, as when 
the war with Mexico broke out, was again early 

in the field with its offer of service, and the ma- 
jority of its members formed the nucleus of the 
Fifth Kentucky volunteer infantry, which, under 
the lead of Lovcll H. Rousseau, was rendez- 
voused and drilled on Indiana soil, at Camp Joe 
Holt, Jeffersonville, in deference to the sentiment 
at home against encampment on Kentucky ter- 
ritory. When neutrality was finally and forever 
broken by both sides in the conflict, recruiting 
thenceforth went on rapidly, and Camps Sigel 
and others were in due time formed in Jeffer- 
son county, where many other regiments or parts 
of regiments were assembled and equipped. 

Shortly after the formation of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, in i86r, the Ken- 
tucky Branch of the Commission was organized, 
with Dr. Theodore S. Bell, of Louisville, as pres- 
ident, and the Rev. J. H. Heywood, vice-presi- 
dent. Says Mr. Heywood, in his History of the 

Dr. Bell was chosen'president by the unanimous and hearty 
vote of the members. From beginning to end he labored 
unweariedly, bringing to the great work not only fervent 
patriotism and broad humanity, but a mind alike capacious 
and active, extensive medical experience, a thorough mastery 
of sanitary law, and an intense, unrelaxing energy that was 
as vitalizing as it was inherently vital. And while rendering 
this invaluable service to the general cause — service to which 
Dr. Newberry, the accomplished Western Secretary of the 
United States Sanitary Commission, repeatedly paid the 
tribute of highest admiration — Dr. Bell had personal charge 
of a large hospital, which he so conducted as to command 
the esteem of and win the love and gratitude of hundreds 
and thousands of sick and wounded soldiers and their re- 
lations and friends. Never in any country or any age has 
there been more untiring consecration of rare powers and 
extraordinary attainments to noblest ends than was made by 
our honored fellow-citizen during those eventful years of des- 

The brief but excellent memoir of Dr. Bell, 
contained in Louisville Past and Present, adds 
the following concerning his services: 

The part Dr. Bell enacted for the relief of the sick and 
wounded of both armies during the war for the maintenance 
of the Union is especially worthy of mention here. In the 
sanitary report mentioned above [that of Dr. Newberry, 
secretary of the Western department of the commission] it is 
stated that on the night of the gth of October, 1862, a meet- 
ing in Louisville was called to provide for the sufferers of the 
battle of Perryville, fought on the previous day. Dr. Bell, 
whose energies had been so severely taxed that a severe spell 
of sickness ensued and he was supposed to be near death's 
door, was iiiformed by his faithful and sympathetic friend. 
Captain Z. M. Sherley, of the intended meeting, andt Dr. 
Bell announced his intention of attending it. Captain Sher- 
lev protested against this course in a man who could not 
stand alone; but finding the doctor inexorable, called and 
aided him in gelling 10 the meeting. Dr. Bells knowledge 



of sanitary measures guided the meeting, and the matter was 
committed to his keeping. A friend called and informed him 
that he and another gentleman were going to Perryville in a 
spring wagon and a team of two mules. The gentleman 
agreed to carry for Dr. Bell seventy pounds of stores for the 
wounded. This package, consisting of a bale of oakum, a 
number of pounds of pure chloroform, bandages, and beef 
extract, was put up under his supervision, and reached Perry- 
ville far in advance of any of the numerous other transporta- 
tion wagons and ambulances. The medical director, Dr. 
Murray, said as soon as he saw the package opened he knew 
that a doctor had presided over that merciful package. 

A great number of Confederate sick and wounded were 
left at Perryville and Harrodsburg, and their friends in this 
city contributed funds for their relief Under an order of 
General Boyle these articles had to pass through the hands 
of Dr. Bell as president of the Kentucky branch of the San- 
itary Commission. He was so faithful to the dictates of 
mercy in forwarding everything of this kmd that when Cap- 
tain Harry Spotts, who, as one of the active friends of the 
Confederates, still had a fund of about $300 in his hands, 
was about leaving Kentucky to take charge of the St. Nich- 
olas hotel, he called upon Dr. Bell to take charge of this fund 
and purchase needed articles for the Confederate sufferers at 
Perryville and Harrodsburg. While Dr. Bell was willing to 
undergo the labor, he felt the delicacy of his position; but 
he made the purchases of Wilson & Peter, who filled the bill 
in the most liberal manner, and he presented their bill of 
items to Captain Spotts, who expressed his entire satisfaction 
with his expenditure of what he very properly deemed a 
sacred treasure. The articles were forwarded to the hospitals 
to the care of those who were ministering to those Con- 
federate sufferers. General Boyle gave full permission to 
him, as president of the Kentucky branch of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, to forward to the sick and 
wounded Confederate soldiers at Harrodsburg the liberal 
contributions of their friends in this city, and Dr. Bell per- 
sonally superintended the forwarding of these articles by the 
means of transportation placed at the disposal of the Sanitary 

Dr. Woods, of the Indiana branch of the 
sanitary commission, wrote thus at one time of 
its operations here: 

We render assistance to all that we can. We give prece- 
dence to the most distressing. A poor soldier is about to 
die at Park barracks. We obtain for him a discharge fur- 
lough, give him transportation, and send him home to die in 
his family. I spent a whole day with his ca^e alone. A 
poor widow came here, with but one child in the world, and 
he is a soldier sick in the hospital. . She has no dependence 
but him. She is robbed at the depot of every cent she has. 
No possible means to go home except to get her son dis- 
charged, draw his pay, and go home on that. She obtains 
from the surgeon a certificate of disability. His case is re- 
jected by the board of examining surgeons. For her we work. 
I met a soldier who had lost the power of 
speech by sickness. He had been sent here without a pass. 
He knew no more what to do or where to go than a sheep. 
I took him to the medical director and the hospital. 


The citizens of Louisville, as may easily be 
supposed, were fully represented among the State 

military authorities during the war-period, as well 
as among the soldiers in the field. Hamilton 
Pope, Esq., a prominent lawyer of the city, and 
son of Worden Pope, the famous old pioneer, 
was placed in charge of the State guard at the 
outset of the war, with the rank of brigadier- 
general, and remained in command until the 
troops were received and mustered into the Fed- 
eral service. Samuel Gill, of that city, was a 
commissioner on the military board under the 
legislative act of May 24, 1861, and also under 
that of September 25th, of the same year. Gen- 
eral John Boyle was Adjutant-General of the 
State from September i, 1863, to August i, 
1864, when he resigned. Messrs. James W. 
Gault, W. DeB. Morrill, and James F. Flint, 
were State military agents until February 15, 
1866. Dr. Isaac W. Scott was surgeon-general 
from September 3, 1863, with the grade of col- 
onel. The Hon. James Speed, afterwards At- 
torney-general of the United States, was long 
mustering officer for the Northern armies at this 


It is a fact well very worth noting that, although 
Louisville is very far from comprising one-fifth 
of the entire population of the State, and did not 
furnish near twenty per cent, of the total number 
of Federal soldiers who enlisted in Kentucky 
during the war, yet one fifth (22) of the whole 
(115) list of general and staif officers in the Union 
army, appointed and commissioned by the Pres- 
ident, were selected from her loyal ranks. The 
following is believed to be a full or nearly full 
list : 

Lovell H. Rousseau, brigadier-general, October i, 1861 ; 
major-general, October 8, 1862; resigned November 30, 1865. 

William T. Ward, brigadier-general, September 18, 1861; 
breveted major-general February 24, 1865 ; honorably 
mustered out August 24, 1865. 

Walter C. Whitaker, brigadier-general, June 25, 1863; 
breveted major-general, March 13, 1865 ; honorably muster- 
ed out August 24, 1865. 

Jeremiah T. Boyle, brigadier-general, November 9, 1861 ; 
resigned January 26, 1864. 

Thomas E. Bramlette, brigadier-general, April 24, 1863; 
declined accepting. 

Eli H. Murray, Colonel Third Kentucky Veteran Caval- 
ry; brevet brigadier-general, March 25. 1865. 

Alexander M. Stout, colonel Seventeenth Kentucky In- 
fantry; brevet brigadier-general, March 13, 1865. 

J. Rowan Boone, lieutenant-colonel Ken- 
tucky Veteran Infantry; brevet colonel March 13, 1865. 

Philip Speed, major and paymaster September 11, 1861 ; 
resigned December 23, 1862. 



L. T. Thustin, 'major and paymaster, September ii, 1861 ; 
breveted lieutenant-colonel ; honorably mustered out April 
30, 1866. 

John Speed, captain and assistant adjutant -ge;neral, March 
II, 1863; major and paymaster, March 22, 1865 ; resigned 
March 19, 1865. 

Alexander C. Semple, captain and assistant adjutant- 
general, September 29, 1862; resigned March 18, 1864. 

J. Speed Peay, captain and assistant adjutant-general, 
July 15, 1862; resigned May 2, 1863. 

H. C. McDowell, captain and assistant adjutant-general, 
November'19, 1861; resigned August 27, 1862. 

William P. McDowell, major and adjutant-general March 
II, 1863; resigned December 9, 1863. 

Stephen E. Jones, captain and aid-de-camp July 9, 1862; 
resigned March 13, 1865. 

William L. Neal, captain and assistant'. quartermaster. 
May 18, 1864; honorably mustered out July 28, 1865. 

George P. Webster, captain and assistant quartermaster, 
May 12, 1862. 

R. C. Welster, captain and assistant quartermaster, Sep- 
tember 30, 1861. 

Joshua Tevis, captain and assistant commisary of subsis- 
tence, November 26, 1862; canceled. 

John Fry, captain and assistant commissary of subsistence, 
October 31, 1861; breveted major March 13, 1865; honorably 
mustered^out February 2, 1866. 

J. F. Huber, captain and assistant [commissary of subsistence 
October 25, 1861; breveted major; honorably mustered out 
October la, 1865. 


It is probably impossible to make up from any 
sources accessible to the local historian an exact 
roster of the soldiers contributed to the Federal 
armies by Louisville or Jefferson county. Had 
the massive volumes in which the enterprise and 
liberality of the State have embodied her rolls 
of Union soldiers, the Adjutant General's Report, 
for 1861-66, contained, as does the Adjutant Gen- 
eral's Report of Indiana for the same period, the 
places of residence as well as the names of the 
soldiers, the work would be comparatively easy. 
Fortunately, the alphabetical list of officers, 
near the close of the great work, does supply the 
places of residence of the commanders; and 
with these as a partial guide, it has been possible 
to compile with reasonable certainty the lists 
of Federal commands from this city and county. 
Still many soldiers must have been recruited 
here for regiments and Jbatteries which con- 
tained, perhaps, not a single officer from this 
region, and so, particularly if the recruitwas mus- 
tered into service elsewhere, there is absolutely 
no clue to his residence here. On the other 
hand, it would not answer to accredit Louisville 
with every soldier mustered iuto service here; 
since large numbers of r'len who had no residence 

in this region came or were brought here for the 
purpose of muster-in. Notwithstanding these 
difficulties, however, it is believed that an approx- 
inpately correct list has been prepared. If any 
mistakes in spelling are found, they must be 
charged over to the office of the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the State; since the printed words of the 
Report have been in our compositors' hands, and 
the whole has been carefully read by copy. 


Colonel William E. Woodruff. 
Colonel Thomas D. Sedgewick. 
Adjutant Henry Weindell. 
Surgeon David J. Griffiths. 
Assistant Surgeon Frederick Rectanus. 

First Lieutenant Archibald McLellan. 
First Lieutenant George R. McFadden. 
Second Lieutenant Sidmund Huber. 


Colonel Thomas E. Bramlette. 

Regimental Quartermaster Thomas M. Selby, Jr. 

Surgeon Joseph Foreman. 

Assistant Surgeon James R. Scott. 




First Lieutenant Henry Teney. 


The Fifth was organized in the summer of 
1 86 1, under Lovell H. Rousseau as colonel, and 
was mustered into the United States service on 
the 9th day of September, 1861, at Camp Joe 
Holt, Indiana, by W. H. Sidell, major Fifteenth 
United States infantry, and mustering officer. 
Colonel Rousseau was promoted to brigadier- 
general October 5, 1861, and Harvey M. Buck- 
ley was then commissioned colonel. He re- 
signed January 26, 1863. William W. Berry 
was, on the 9th of February, 1863, mustered as 
colonel, and commanded the regiment until its 
muster-out of service at Louisville September 14, 
1864. A portion of the regiment veteranized, 
and at the muster-out of the regiment the re- 
cruits and veterans were transferred to the Second 
Kentucky Veteran cavalry. 

It is with regret that a report of this regiment 

*The regimental histories are used, almost verbatim, as 
they are found in the Adjutant-General's Reports. 



is published without a full history of its career, it 
having been one of the very first Kentucky regi- 
ments which "rallied around the flag," and 
formed part of Rousseau's gallant command, 
who, by their timely occupation of Muldrough's 
Hill, kept at bay the rebel forces, and saved 
Kentucky from being drawn entirely within the 
enemy's lines. The difficulties under which the 
regiment was raised, having been organized at 
the time that Kentucky was resting upon her 
neutrality, assure to its officers the greatest credit 
for their success. 

At, the alarm of an invasion of Kentucky by 
Buckner, this gallant command was thrown out 
in defense of Louisville by General (then Colonel) 
Rousseau, held them in check until reinforce- 
ments arrived from Ohio and Indiana, and for- 
ever refuted the idea of a State standing in a 
neutral position when the integrity or unity of the 
nation was assailed. From the time the Fifth 
crossed the Ohio river from Camp Joe Holt, re- 
cruiting progressed rapidly throughout Kentucky. 
Having been thoroughly disciplined during the 
time it was encamped at Joe Holt, it took the 
lead of and was the nucleus around which the 
Grand Army of the Cumberland was formed. It 
served with distinction, and gained repeatedly 
praise from the department commanders. Be- 
sides numerous others, it participated in the fol- 
lowing-named battles in which loss was sus- 
tained, viz: Bowling Green, Shiloh, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw, Atlanta, Dallas, 
Orchard Knob, Liberty Gap, and Blain's Cross 


Colonel Lovell H. Rousseau. 
Colonel William W. Berry. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John L. Treanor. 
Major Charles L. Thomasson. 
Adjutant Edward W. Johnstone. 
Regimental Quartermaster Thomas C. Pomroy. 
Regimental Quartermaster John M. Moore. 
Surgeon John Matthews. 
Chaplain James H. Bristow. 
Sergeant-Major James T. O. Day. 
Sergeant-Major A. Sidney Smith. 
Sergeant-Major Hervey R. Willett. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant Frederick N. Fishe. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant William H. Hayars. 
Commissary-Sergeant Henry A. Day. 
Hospital Steward John Wyatt. 


Principal Musician Simon Boesser. 
Principal Kftisician James Matthews. 

Musician Major C. Barkwell. 
Musician Joseph Einseidler. 
Musician Christian Gunter. 
Musician Bernhard Klein. 
Musician Charles Oswald. 
Musician Samuel Ross. 
Musician John Ruef. 
Musician Richard Schwenzer. 
Musician Philip Selbert. 
Musician John Spillman. 
Musician Edward S. Sargeant. 
Musician Philip Schenkle. 
Musician John Schottlin. 
Musician Joseph Von Berg. 
Musician Sebastian Walter. 
Musician Amos ^ippincott. 

Captain William Mangen. 
Captain Thomas Foreman. 
First Lieutenant John M. Smith. 


First Sergeant James Maloney. 
Sergeant Paul Clinton, 
Sergeant Andrew C. O'Neil. 
Corporal Robert Cosgrave. 
Corporal Benjamin D. Edsell. 
Corporal Francis M. Gray. 
Corporal Michael Hammond. 
Corporal James Joyce. 
Coiporal Bartholomew Buckley. 
Teamster Charles Bowers. 


Thomas Corbitt, James Crow, Thomas Dunn, John F. 
Dietz, John Dutch, Joseph Eisner, James Fisher, Patrick 
Gorman, Robert Johnson, Daniel Keefe, William Keiley, 
Lewis Keele, John Mannii^g, Alenanzer Monroe, Edward 
Murphy, John Mara, Bernard McElroy, Jeremiah McCot- 
mick, Timothy McCormick, Patrick McCormick, J ohn Mc- 
Keown, Michael O'Malia, Theodore Pohlmeyer, John Pil- 
kington, Jeremiah Rager, John Rimo, Bernard Smith, Jacob 
Suffell, John L. Swabb, Peter S. Kennedy, Thomas Lewis, 
Thomas Loftie, Oliver Newell, Henry Runch, James Ryan, 
John Toomey, Henry Toby, John Thornton, James Tevlin, 
Larkin Adams, John Kilroy,. Moses M. Pounds, William 
Bediker, Daniel Curran, William W. Cassedy, John W. 
David, Alexander Gilbert, George Grimshaw, William H. 
Harrison, Owen Keiley, Benjamin Lowery, Philip F. Moore, 
John Myer, Michael McCook, John Turnboe, Patrick Vale, 
Thomas Dwyer, William Herren, Hugh McElroy. 

Captain Lafayette P. Lovett. 
First Lieutenant John P. Hurley, 
Second Lieutenant Thomas J. McManen. 
Second Lieutenant David Jones. 


First Sergeant George Sambrall. 
Sergeant James D. McCorkhill. 
Sergeant Lewis P. Cox. 
Sergeant John M. Sutton. 
Sergeant John Ott. 
Sergeant William Batman. 



Serjeant John Vickrey. 
Corporal Frank Pope. 
Corporal Joseph Conen. 
Corporal William P. Dueley. 
Corporal James Noonan. 
Corporal John Keohler. 
Corporal William Gibson. 
Corporal Edward O'Brien. 
Corporal Sanford T. Thurman. 
Corporal Thomas Selvage. 
Corporal Richard Sweeney. 
Wagoner Nicholas Larence. 
Musician Joseph Hazlewood. 


Joseph W. Bennett, Benjamin F. Bennett, Robert Beatt, 
Patrick Cleary, John Carter, James Connell, George Cancel- 
man, Thomas Frothingham, Michael Frank, Jolin Gunn, 
George W. House, Frederick Herns, Louis Hode^, John 
Jordan, John Kenney, Henry Kendall, John F. Koeh, Jere- 
miah Knapp, Henry Manore, Joseph Miller, Edward Mitch- 
ell, Thomas Murray, James Mulcha, Charles Ott, Joseph 
Smith, William Snider, John T. Steele, William T. Thur- 
man, Elijah Thurman, Thomas Hardin, Thomas Barrett, 
John Branan, Henry Conner, John Dunn, Augustus Hess, 
William B. Jones, William Movyers, Enos Sutton, Ale.xander 
Tinock, Louis Base, Joseph Dey, Frederick N. Frishe, Pat- 
rick Woods, John Metz, Johnson Todd, Beauford Thurman, 
Levin W. Collins, Simon Echart, Thomas Gunn, Conrad 
Granco, Charles Shupp, Christopher Beeker, Melville F. 
Howard, Richard Henan, Alexander Mullen, John Norris, 
John W. Sutton, Petre Sutton, William Stewart, James H. 
Sirles, Richard Toole, Thomas Voss. 



Captain Asaph H. Speed. 
Captain Christopher Leonard. 
First Lieutenant Richard Jones. 


First Sergeant Albert Webb. 
Sergeant Lewis Hagerman. 
Sergeant William Foster. 
Sergeant William Shaw. 
Sergeant John Rhodes. 
Sergeant Mason L. Speed. 
Sergeant Frank Lightner. 
Sergeant Le Grand Dunn. 
Sergeant Stephen Jewell. 
Corporal George W. Byers. 
Corporal Henry B. McKinney. 
Corporal Charles Sliglitz, 
Corporal Peter Holback. 
Corporal John Ernwine. 
Corporal Richard Goodman. 
Corporal Charles Osterman. 
Corporal John Peevler. 
Corporal Henry Hoos. 
Musician George Puff. 


Jacob Barber, John Backhoff, Martin Butler, Sidney 
Broadas, James Carroll, Benjamin F. Davis, Robert Dotson, 
Anthony Dunbar, James Hagerman, Jesse Hill, Henry Hess, 
Thomas Kelly, James Kennedy, Thomas Kennedy, Joseph 
McGuire, Thomas Molumby, James Medlock, Thomas 
Maher, Michael O'Brien, Zachariah Owens, Peter O'Connell, 

John J. Oakley, Willaby Richardson, John Riley, Christo- 
pher Schiffman, Joseph Wright, Henry Wright, Alonzo Bu- 
chanan, William Burns, John Donahoo, Michael Dublin, 
Henry Hopsmeyei, William H. McCoy, John Myrick, Frank 
Partridge, Thomas J. Peters, Charles Rumsey, Jesse D. Sea- 
ton, Martin Seibert, Conrad Wenzel, Henry Wilkins, Dennis 
Burk, George Weimhoff, John Brown, Dennis Conroy, Pat- 
rick Flinn, George Hughes, George Letzinger, John McCor- 
mick, Wiliiam S. Riley, Thomas Sly, Bernard Arthur, John 
Casper, John Cronan, William Dotson, William D. Laffy, 
Michael Collins, Michael Conley, Elijah Davis, John Mc- 
Laughlin, Henry Miller, Joseph N. Parrish, Richard Kuhl- 
man, Gothart Schnell, Henry Valentine, George Ward. 



Captain William W. Rowland. 

First Lieutenant Theodore F. Cummings. 


First Sergeant Adam Kraher. 
Sergeant Conrad Shire. 
Sergeant John P. Richardson. 
Sergeant Dauiel R. Grady. 
Sergeant Edwin R. Waldon. 
Sergeant Elijah Tansill. 
Corporal James Kennedy. 
Corporal Alexander McKeon. 
Corporal John Apel. 
Corporal Alfred W. Harris. 
Corporal James C. Gilh 
Corporal Louis Glass. 
Corporal David Ward. 
Corporal Patrick Burks. 
Corporal Bryan Drew. 
Musician William Edwards. 
Teamster John S. Kounts. 


James K. Cooper, James Dannelsy, Josiah Edwards, Pat- 
rick Gilligan, John P. Gunnels, Martin Harback, Charles 
Haas, Robert Hodgkins, Ferdinand Kerchendoffer, John 
Maloy, Sebastian Mill, Louis Neas, Francis Powell, James 
Ryan, John Stab, Deaderick W. E. Stark, John C. William- 
son, Edward Parks, Benjamin Patrick, Louis M. Ronime, 
Austin p. Sweeney, Martin Weitz, Keran Egan, John Fox, 
William Hacket, John McCormick, Hugh McMannus, Rob- 
ert Smith, Theodore Steinbronk, Clemance Schroeder, John 
Higgins, Thomas Larue, Alexander Moore, JohnM. Young, 
Daniel Canning, Patrick Dannelly, Henry Geotz, Dents 
Henderson, James Hartigan, John Mann, Michael McMan- 
nus, James H. Richardson, George W. Vandergraff, Ginrad 
Brawner, Riley A. DeVenney, Edward Fleming, Arthur 
Graham, Stephen B. Hornback, George Pfiffer, Jacob Sauer, 
Louis C. Smith, Francis M. Tucker. 



Captain August Schweitzer. 
Captain Stephen Lindenfelser. 
Second Lieutenant Frank Dessell. 


Sergeant Frederick Knoener. 
Sergeant Joseph Schmitt. 
Sergeant Mathias Schontess. 
Sergeant John B. Schiebel. 



Sergeant John Schmidt. 
Corporal Rudolph Egg. 
Corporal Berhard Sceiner. 
Corporal William Koch. 
Musician George Schweitzer. 
Teamster Andrew Meissner. 


Joseph Dumpel, Charles Fritz, Philip Falter, John B. Fel- 
ber, Frank Gehring, George Gerlach, John Huber, Valentine 
Harper, Christian J utzi, Jacob Karcher, Philip R. Klein, 
Bernhard Keihl, August Koehler, Jacob Lanx, Louis Lorey. 
Charles Murb, Peter Mueller, Robert Nere, Thomas Rastet- 
ter, William Reif, Joseph Stoltz, Philip Schneider, Julius 
Winstel, Jacob Arenat, Christian Baker, Michael Boheim, 
Henry Boheim, Frederick Bernds, Charles Evers, John 
Eisele, Johu Fust, John Hufnagel, Theodore Jagar, Anton 
Kuntz, William Martin, Henry Menze, Joseph Meyer, 
George Ruckert, Anter Scherer, lohn Stokinger, Louis 
Schernbachler, Christian Welker, Joseph Weingartner, 
Benedick Walzer, Casper Weiner, Peter Klotz, George Bam- 
miester, Frederick Blair, Philip Goebel, John Mohr, Francis 
Brohm, Christian Erisman, Ernst Hofsap, Andrew Kolb, 
Simon Rehm, William Stranch, Philip Amann, Ludwig Bin- 
ger, Bartholomew Drebler, Joseph Faust, Joseph Overmoble, 
Frederick Rodeloff, John Traber, John Urban, William 
Vopel, John Gottschalk, Gothard Kling, Adam Newkirk, 
Henry Niehaus, Henry Saner, Benedict Wempe, Jacob 



Captain John E. Vansant. 

First Lieutenant William H. Powell. 

Second Lieutenant John Martz. 


First Sergeant John O'Herrin. 
First Sergeant Jacob Peterson. 
Sergeant David Doup. 
Sergeant William Knox. 
Sergeant Franklin Bratcher. 
Sergeant William Burgess. 
Sergeant John Keer. 
Sergeant Charles Kahlert. 
Sergeant James T. O'Day. 
Sergeant Williarrt Snapp. 
Sergeant Felix Wolf. 
Corporal John F. Beal, 
Corporal Robert Bryant. 
Corporal Albert Laycock. 
Corporal Henry Agee. 
Corporal Thomas Martz. 
Corporal John Brodock. 
Corporal Nathaniel E. Osborn. 
Corporal John Wilkins. 
Musician William D. Mewheny. 


James Atwood, Samuel C. Kline, John Cusick, John Dew- 
berry, Patrick Darmady, John Eagan, Joseph Foster, James 
Fineran, William Fletcher, JohnGarrick, William Hamilton, 
John Hoffman, Patrick Kerwin, Frederick Kick, James P. 
Lawler, John Lemmer, William Mewheney, John Peterson, 
Charles Ratsfeldt, Andrew J. Smith, John Stratton, James 
Savage, Harrison Stage, Edward S. Sexon, David Wood- 
fall, John Erb, William R. Greathouse, William W. Hill, 

Lee Hand, Henry Henston, Martin Sunnons, George 
Wright, Mathew Higgins, Jeremiah Lochery, John Scott, 
Henry R. Willett, Joseph Kraig, Jacob Mungee, Jonas 
Smith, John W. Thorp, Michael Brady, Andrew Connery, 
Edward Dowling, Irwm Deweese, Charles Dolan, James 
Knox, Nicholas Miller, John Pierce, Henry C. Smith, John 
Schmidt, Jacob Stencil, David Whittaker, Edward Brown, 
James H. Hughes, Oliver H. Johnson, Mathew Murtchier, 
William Pulsfort. 



Captain John M. Huston. 

Captain Willian H. Powell. 

First Lieutenant Davi4 Q. Rousseau. 

First Liautenant John W. Huston. 

Second l^ieutenant Theodore E. Elliott. 


First Sergeant Elanzey C. Keene. 

Sergeant Robert W. Grayburn. 

Sergeant John C. Cahill. 

Sergeant Jerry McCarty. 

Corporal William L. Shoemaker. 

Corporal John Lacey. 

Corporal Joseph Whitlock. 

Teamster Francis N. Lord. 


William Botts, Thomas Bums, Lanson V. Brown, William 
Black, Patrick Crane, Michael Colgan, James W. Cobum, 
Patrick Dougherty, August Depoire, Patrick Franey, 
Thomas Ferrier, Charles Hanley, Benjamin P. Henmann, 
John W. Hendricks, John Kelker, Patrick Morgan, Thomas 
McGuire, Lawrence McGiven, John McCuUough, Patrick 
RiJ^ey, Charlps Smith, John Vannorman, Patrick Welch, 
John Bowman, John Barker, James Conklin, Thomas Cody, 
Henry »Gormely, Dennis Jordan, Robert Kyle, Francis S. 
McGuire. Thomas McGrath, John Nolin, Charles W. Toler- 
in, John Bodkins, Levi Byron, John W. Coburn, John Gregg, 
Henry Hawkins, Thomas McLane, John F. Hampton, Wil- 
liam H. Hambaugh, AUeii Smith, Richard Beaty, Harvey 
Bell, Thomas C. Darkin, Martin Donohue, Andrew M. Estes, 
Patrick Flannagan, Charles FIannaga%(<7eorge B. Lamb, 
Michael Murphy, Luke Moran, James A. O'Donneld, John 
Shoemaker, Michael Sullivan, James Wall, Martin Brophy, 
Benjamin H. ConkUn, Daniel Dunn, Michael Fellon, Michael 
Hart, Daniel S. Kelly, Patrick Rowan, Francis S. Shafer, 
Thomas While. 

Captain Charles L. Tomasson. 
Captain Norman B. Moninger. 


First Sergeant John Neel. 
Sergeant Minor McClain. 
Sergeant Peter Lynn. 
Sergeant George Borgel. 
Sergeant George Williams. 
Sergeant John M. Adams. 
Sergeant Rudolph SchimpfT. 
Corporal George H. Ingham. 
Corporal James McDonald. 
Corporal William Summers. 
Musician William Mager. 




William Albert, George Bessinger, Lewis Brown, John G. 
Burklin, Joseph Bergman, Frederick Brooner, Squire Cable, 
John Daughenbaugh, William Daughenbaugh, Guy Fry, 
John Gesford, Joseph Hackman, Isaac fackson, John T. 
Hays, Frederick Jones, Andrew Jackson, George Knelling, 
James W. Mattingly, Philip Neel, Charles Robinson, Homer 
Stephens, William Shearer, William Sonnice, Peter Schmidt, 
John D. Stinson, William Stevenson, Andrew H. Ward, 
John W. Williams, Richard A. Wilson, Charles Wenze, Wil- 
liam Bumgardner, Antone Bessinger, Charles Fleckhamer, 
Sr., Charles Fleckhamer, J r. , Peter Gillett, William Hope- 
well, John B. Martin, John S. Martin, John Manion, Henry 
Muth, Joseph Ogden, Vincent Pellegrinni, Frederick Renye, 
Charles Ross, Chany C, Seymour, Edward Whitfield, George 
Haltenbaum, Edward F. Jenks, Frank Klespir, Edward 
Kaufman, James P. Williams, Henry B. Clay, James M. 
Davidson, William Factor, John Hoffman, John Kriskie, 
John Matheney, Thomas McNickell, Augustine Wilman, 
Simon Bryant, William Gravatte, James O. Gales, Luke Gal- 
lagher, Mathias Droumiller, Andrew Fisher, JohnG. Mobins, 
William Mackjuson, Joseph Roos, Harrison Summers, 
Thomas L. Martin, Simpson C. Summers, John F. Sugar. 



Captain Alexander B. Ferguson. 
Captain Upton Wilson. 
First Lieutenant A. Sidney Smith. 
Second Lieutenant Wilson J. Green. 


First Sergeant William Anderson. 
Sergeant Christopher Bender. 
Sergeant Charles Price. 
Sergeant Lemuel Younger. 
Sergeant Thomas J. Manning. 
Sergeant Henry A. Day. 
Sergeant Robert P. Ball. 
Sergeant Jacob Turner. 
Sergeant Loyd H. Vititoe. 
Sergeant Ignatius Dawson. 
Corporal John Moore. 
Corporal William Murphy. 


Charles Brothers, Jerry Butler, John Berge, Jacob Conrad, 
John E. Eney, Dennis Farney, Henry Glass, Charles Ice, Wil- 
liam Lipflint, James Leslie, William Moore, John McNeal, 
Edgar C. Parker, William Riley, John Ruder, Joseph Smith, 
Joseph Tolbert, Frederick Wall, Theodore Walters, Gerhard 
Wagner, Marshall H. Anderson, Lewis Filmore, Jacob Good- 
incountz, Matthew Haupt, James M. Hughes, Thomas 
Johnson, Alonzo B. Kitts, Henry C. Miller, William P. Rob- 
inson, Patrick Ryan, Christopher Short, Herman Shroeder, 
Dennis Younger, Howard A. Anderson, Henry Hailman, 
James M. Hogan, Alexander Hughes, John Brown, James 
V. C. Cusach, Martin Dorsey, Joseph Mantinus, Henry 
Ranbergher, James Corrigan, John H. Elliott, Lewis Felker, 
Michael Green, John H. Manning, Lewis Mawes, Henry R. 
Morgan, Meredith H. Prewitt, Herman Slasinger, Thomas 
H. Winsant, Moses Briscoe, Richard Felker, Conrad Graffe, 
John Hangs, John Jackson, Frank Klangs, George King- 
dom, John Marshall, Henry Murback, Franklin Price, Eli H. 
Prewitt, Christian Stammer, Michael Sweeney, Henry Wall. 



Captain John D. Brent. 

Captain John P. Hurley. 

First Lieutenant George W. Richardson. 

First Lieutenant Morgan Piper. 

Second "Lieutenant George W. Wyatt. 


Sergeant Charles Freeman. 
Sergeant Louis Edsell. 
Sergeant Alexander G. Renfro. 
Corporal John Brandrick. 
Corporal Thomas Mullen. 
Corporal John Freeman. 
Teamster Presly T. Richardson. 


Thomas Agan, Edward Bordin, Robert Buckner, Henry 
C. Buckner, James A. Coleman, Archie Cawherd, James A. 
Conner, James D. Carter, John Dawson, William Dawson, 
Robert Drummond, Harvey Gray, James Gum, Robert L. 
Hatcher, Thomas J. Ingraham, George W. Jones, John 
Neal, Louis Nest, Henry C. Richardson, William H. Routh, 
Peter Stone, Edward Welch, William F. Wallace, Orlando 
Waimer, Frederick Bussy, Shadrach T. Butler, Edward 
Brundage, Michael Higgins, John Knapp, James Lacy, 
Louis Langolf, William McBee, Lafayette Mudd, David T. 
Moneypeny, Michael Sranesdoffer, Sylvester Wick, Edgar 
Waimer, James Yates, William W. Hill, William Hamilton, 
James Long, Edward S. Sexton, Simpson Stout, Thomas J. 
Craddock, John O. Donohugh, Allen Higginbotham, John 
H. Hawkins, Thomas McDermott, Thomas Nunn, John W. 
Runyan, Samuel L. Richardson, Caleb C. Tharp, John 
White, John C. Cobble, John J. Devaur, Thomas J. Eving- 
ton, John J. Gatly, Surg. W. Gaddie, Terah T. Hagan. 
James Hodges, William P. Jacknan, Louis J. Richardson, 
Robert Peoples, William Neal, Joseph Smith, Elisha O. 
Chandler, Thomae H. Cook, James Herold, William W. 
Jones, Thomas J. McGill, Whitfield N. Pedago, William 
Reynolds, Garland E. Rabum, Jacob Rush, William H. 
Ross, Patrick H. Wyatt, John Etherton, Edward McCarty. 


The Sixth was organized at Camp Sigel, Jeffer- 
son county, in December, 1861, under Colonel 
Walter C. Whitaker, and was mustered into the 
United States service on the 24th December, 
1861, by Major W. H. Sidell, United States 
mustering officer. Immediately after organiza- 
tion it was assigned to the Department of the 
Cumberland, and entered upon active duty. It 
was commanded by Colonel Whitaker until June 
30, 1863, when he was promoted brigadier-general, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel George T. Shackelford 
was commissioned colonel. In all the early en- 
gagements in Tennessee and on the Atlanta 
campaign, this regiment took an active part, and 
in the battles of Shiloh, Stone River, and Chick- 
amauga suffered severely in killed and wounded. 
The number actually killed in battle exceeded 



ten per cent of the number originally enlisted. 
It was the recipient of frequent orders of praise 
for undaunted gallantry, soldierly]]conduct, and 
discipline. Throughout its whole enlistment its 
achievements were brilliant and without reproach, 
and equal to the best volunteer regiment in the 
army. It participated in the following-named 
battles, in which loss was sustained, viz: Shiloh, 
Stone River, Readyville, Tennessee, Chicka- 
mauga. Mission Ridge, AUatoona Mountain, Re- 
saca, Kenesaw Mountain, Dallas, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Peachtree Creek, Adairsville,]and Atlanta. 
It was mustered out at Nashville, on the 2d 
day of November, 1864, the recruits and veter- 
ans being transferr'^^' to the Kentucky Mounted 



Major William N. Hailman. 
Quartermaster MichaeJ Billings. 
Captain Henry C. Schmidt. 
First Lieutenant German Dettweiler. 
Second Lieutenant Gustavus Bohn. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick V. Lockman. 


First Sergeant George Murk. 
First Sergeant Jacob Brooker. 
First^Sergeant Henry Hochl. 
Sergeant Nicholas Rentz. 
Sergeant Frank Schnatz. 
Sergeant Charles Gussmann. 
Sergeant Frederick Schneller. 
Sergeant Charles Thomas. 
Corporal John Gross. 
Corporal Jacob Jecko. 
Corporal Charles Metz. 
Corporal George Tuckmuller. 
Musician Philip Kramer. 


John Beck, Peter Fie, Frederick Galidorf, Adolph Huze, 
Conrad Hennis, Frank Hellinger, Bermhardt Holdragh, 
Jacob Hill, John Jacob, Conrad Koehler, Jacob Kuhler, 
Blanis Klump, George Kinch, John Kraup, Anton Mack, 
Ernst G. Muller, Jacob Mailer, Henry Pope, Michael Stab- 
ler, Thomas Schreller, Adam Schork, Jacob Schintzler, 
Joseph Umhofer, Jacob Areni, Frederick Borghold, Jacob 
Brennerson, Nicholas Couch, Jacob Doll, Sebastian Feeker, 
Clement Frunkle, William Frah, William Geisel, Frederick 
Haum, John Kennervey, Mathew Knuf , Joseph Meir, Freder- 
ick Muller, Loreng Nussbaum, Joseph Ollmann, Peter 
Pirom, Elias Ress, August Warthorn, Staver Egle, Valen- 
tine Hoffman, Frederick Berdandig, John Bohain, John 
Brown, Frederick Funk, William Knop, Joseph Loover, 
August Nool, Gottleib Oppenkussky, George Rillhery, 
Christian Wilke, Lorenz Vogel, Conrad Wittich," Frederick 
Buder, John Tusselman, Michael Herlick,^ Christian Kas, 
John Kleimer. Bernhard Koope, John P. Kramer, Michael 
Kramer, John Lintz, Henry Linhey, Edward Smith, Heler- 
ich Wenderlin, Ludwig Wirth. 



Captain Bernhard Hund. 

Captain William Frank. 

First Lieutenant Lorenzo Ammon. 

Second Lieutenant Anton Hurd. 

Second Lieutenant Valentine Melcher. 


First Sergeant Lewis H. Branser. 
First Sergeant John Dauble. 
Sergeant Franz Maas. 
Sergeant Joseph Grunewald. 
Sergeant Joseph Bouchard. 
Sergeant Jacob Kimmel. 
CorporalJEnglebert Emig. 
Corporal Herman Travert. 
Corporal Lorenz Ultsch. 
Corporal Mike Wuermle. 
Corporal George Billing. 
Corporal Nicholas Voly. 


Jacob Burlein, George Burlein, John Crecelins, '.George 
Frederick Dittrich, Clemens Erhhardt, John Foeister, Charles 
Franke, JohnjFix,''Adelbert'Grieshaber, George Goetz, Lewis 
Kammerer, Edward Klump, John'^'Henry Kalthoefer, Wil- 
liam Kreider, 'August Lamprecht, Christoph Lehmann, Jacob 
Martin, Franz Mueller, ^August ,^Prinz, Mathews Rudloff, 
Louis Staute, George'JStier, Lewis Strauss, Franz Schwerer, 
Henry Webert, Ignatz jWittenauer, Jacob Wunsch, Frede- 
rich^Zeitz, Conrad^ Amon,', Conrad Buschman, Frederich 
Froehlich, John George Fox, Vincent Flaig, Conrad Gut- 
knecht, Adam^Hafermaas, JHenry Kassling, John l^use, 
Peter Lause, John Melcher, Joseph Mathes, Joha^oerlinger, 
John Nichter, John Roth,,Gattfried RentSchler, Jacob Scharf, 
John Schmidt, Chatles Schill,'Markus Schmidt, Franz Schna- 
bel, Joseph Spanninger, William Stanze, John Funk, Charles 
Grunewald, Math6w Herth, August jEversberg, John Long, 
Franz Basssel, William Braumuller, John Deisingbr, William 
Kirchhuebel, Henry Kolb, Ignatz Lorenz, Philip Standacher, 
Franz Schuster, Franz Zaner, Louis Miller. 

Captain Peter Emge. 
Captain Peter Marker. 
Captain Gottfried Rentschler. 
First Lieutenant George Marker. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Canning. 
Second LieutenaiT*^ Nicholas Sehr. 


First Sergeant Peter Kyrisch. 
First Sergeant Henry Poetter. 
Sergeant Peter Kerkhof. 
Sergeant Henry Wulf. 
Sergeant Philip Oeswein. 
Sergeant Jacob Inninger. 
Sergeant George Klaus. 
Sergeant David Muengenhagn. 
Sergeant Charles Nodler. 
Sergeant William Welker. 
Sergeant John Kremer. 
Sergeant Theodote Wesendorf. 
Corporal Julius Hoist. 
Corporal David Plaggenburg. 



Corporal Joseph Amman. 
Musician Richard Engelbert. 
Wagoner Henry Kieser. 


Gottfried Cannon, George Dickhurt, Henry Doppler, 
Frank Dienst. Wendel Held, John Held, Philip Heiland, 
Herman Olgesgers, Albert Pfiffer, Joseph Ritzier, Christian 
Reiss. Herman Rueter, William Strassel, John Schueler, 
Jacob Schenckel, Theobald Stark, Bernhard Teders, Nicolaus 
Weber. Frank Wittman, William Ahrens, John Allgayer, John 
M. Baur, John Buechel, Melchor Gutgesell, Conrad Hard- 
mann, Jacob Hessler, John Haltmann, John Lauer, Gustave 
Laun, Herman Russ, John Reuther, Cornelius Schwab, John 
Atris, Lorenz Bohn, Alphonzo Carrington, Joseph McCombs, 
Willis H. Morton, James T. Terhune, Anton Wormser, Ed- 
ward S. Kelly, Michael Bach, Christian Bauer, John Doe- 
tenbier, Charles Fischbach, Joseph Kram, John Matley, 
Joseph Maas, Adam Mans, Jacob Marx, August Nolt, 
Henry Oberriller, Martin Ring, Christian Schuhmacher, John 
Schipper, Bernhard Schneller, Gregor Schneider, John 
Stuempel, John Velton, Andrew Wagner, Ferdinand E. 



Captain Isaac N. Johnston. 



Captain August Stein. 
Captain Friedrich Nierhoff. 
Captain Dietrich Hesselbein. 
First Lieutenant William Frank. 


First Sergeant Felix Krumriech. 
Sergeant Christian Lambert. 
Sergeant Philip Nocker. 
Sergeant Anthony SchoU. 
Sergeant Julius Horst. 
Sergeant Rienhart Reglin. 
Corporal Balthasar Hassinger. 
Corporal J oseph Waltz. 
Corporal Joseph Valte. 


Henry Altfultis, Leo Baumann, Henry Becker, William 
Denhardt, John Dahl, John Eger, Joseph Feis, Herman 
Flottman, Christian Fritz, Louis Gaupp, Michael Hoch, 
William Hetzel, John Kuster, Anthony Klos, John Moser, 
Simon Negele, Joseph Sauer, Francis Schilling, Henry 
Schlatter, Joseph Schuster, Philip Speiger, Valentine Steiner, 
Charles Stosser, Frank Wyle, Christian Bender, John Basler, 
Henry Bruckmann, Philip Diehl, George Eitel, Michael 
Hausmann, Christian Hausecker, Henry Reichart, Christian 
Sanner, Louis Steinbach, Joseph Schumann, Henry Schibly, 
John Schweitzer, Jacob Spatrohr, Frederick Utz, Michael 
yester, Pefer Wagner, John Hubing, Thomas Muller, Vital 
Bourkatt, Casper Backmann, Christian Conrad, Casper 
Kehlin, Clemens Klos, Casper Krebs, Christian Mirkel, 
John Christ Moench, Henry Munsterkotter, Joseph Muller, 
John Jacob Oberer, Frederick Orth, James Rampendahl, 
Mike Reuter, John Schwein, Jacob Schmidt, John Spanier, 
Conrad Seibel. 



Assistant Surgeon Henry Tammage. 


Captain William K. Gray. 

First Lieutenant Charles G. Shanks. 



Regimental Quartermaster Francis M. Cummings. 

First Lieutenant Rufus Somerby. 
Captain John M. Vetter (a). 


The Tenth was organized at Lebanon, under 
Colonel John M. Harlan, and mustered into 
service on the 21st day of November, 1861. 

It was assigned to what was then the Second 
brigade. First division of the Army of the Ohio. 
On the 31st of December the regiment com- 
menced its march from Lebanon to Mill Springs. 
It did not participate in the battle of Mill 
Springs, being on detached duty, but joined the 
division in time to be the first to enter the rebel 
fortifications. From Mill Springs it marched to 
Louisville, from which place it went by steam- 
boat to Nashville, thence to Pittsburg Landing, 
and took part in the siege of Corinth. A few 
days after, the brigade of which the Tenth formed 
a part was sent by General Grant up the Ten- 
nessee river on transports, guarded by a gunboat, 
all under the immediate command of W. T. 
Sherman. The forces landed at Chickasaw. 
The object of the expedition was to penetrate 
the country from Chickasaw and destroy the large 
railroad bridge east of Corinth and near luka, 
which was most successfully done. In June, 
1862, the regiment marched to Tuscumbia, Ala- 
bama, and garrisoned Eastport, Mississippi, dur- 
ing July, 1862. It then marched through Ten- 
nessee and joined the division at Winchester, 
and garrisoned that place for some time. In 
July, 1862, two companies of the regiment, A 
and H, then on duty at Courtland, Alabama, 
were surrounded by an overwhelming force of 
the enemy and captured. The Tenth composed 
a part of Buell's army in his pursuit of Bragg 
into Kentucky; after which it returned to Galla- 
tin, Tennessee. 

On the 25th of December, 1862, the brigade 



started from Gallatin in pursuit of the rebel Gen- 
eral John H. Morgan, and to protect the Louis- 
ville & Nashville railroad. Morgan was over- 
taken on the 29th December, at Rolling Fork, 
and driven from the line of the railroad. In 
that affair General Duke, of Morgan's com- 
mand, was dangerously wounded. The regi- 
ment returned to Nashville, and was immediately 
sent by General Rosecrans, with other troops, in 
pursuit of Forrest and Wheeler, on the Harpeth 
river, where it suffered terribly from cold and 
rain. It was then stationed at Lavergne, Ten- 
nessee; at which place, on the 7th of March, 
1863, Colonel Harlan resigned the colonelcy of 
the regiment, duties having devolved on the 
colonel by the death of his father, the late Hon. 
James Harlan, which required his personal at- 
tention. After the resignation of General Harlan, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hays was promoted colonel, 
and remained in command until it was mustered 
out of service. 

The regiment was with Rosecrans in his sum- 
mer campaign from Murfreesboro to Chicka- 
mauga, participating in actions at Hoover's Gap, 
Fairfield, Tullahoma, Compton's Creek, and 
Chickamauga, returning with the army to Chat- 
tanoga. It was under General Thomas at Chick- 
amauga, took part in the battle of Mission Ridge, 
and pursued the enemy beyond Ringgold, Geor- 
gia. It marched from Chattanooga and partici- 
pated in the action at Rocky Face Ridge Febru- 
ary 25, 1864, and, returning to Ringgold, which 
was then the outpost of the army, it remained 
there until May 10, 1864, when it started with 
General Sherman on the Atlanta campaign, taking 
part in nearly every action or movement in that 
long and eventful campaign. The flag of the 
Tenth was the first to be placed on the enemy's 
works at Jonesboro, Georgia, September i, 1864. 
It was the first regiment to break the rebel lines 
at that place, and entered their works, capturing 
the Sixth and Seventh Arkansas rebel regiments 
and their colors. 

On the 9th July, 1864, the Tenth had a severe 
engagement en the north bank of the Chatta- 
hoochie river, engaging, single-handed and alone, 
a brigade of the enemy and holding them in 
check until reinforcements arrived. It would be 
impossible to give a full history of this regiment 
in the short space allotted for the purpose; the 
last campaign alone would fill a volume. Suffice 


it to say that, in the three years of its military ex- 
istence, the Tenth performed its whole duty, and 
at all times maintained the proud reputation of 
its State. It was mustered out of service at 
Louisville, December 6, 1864. 

Besides numerous other engagements, it par- 
ticipated in the following, in which loss was 
sustained, viz : Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, 
Jonesboro, Corinth, Rolling Fork, Hoover's 
Gap, Fairfield, Tullahoma, Compton's Creek, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Chattahoochie 
River, Atlanta, Vining's Station, Pickett's Mills, 
and Courtland, Alabama. 


Colonel John M. Harlan. 
Major Henry G. Davidson. 
Quartermaster Samuel Matlock. 


Second Lieutenant William F. Beglow. 

On alphabetical list of officers, but not on published rolls: 

First Lieutenant Henry W. Barry. 

First Lieutenant James Reynolds. 

Second Lieutenant John Estes. 


Captain Israel B. Webster. 


Captain William Tweddle. 

First Lieutenafit. fames R. Watts. 


First Sergeant Charles Garvey. 
Sergeant Richard R. Bellam. 
Sergeant Robert Rea, Sr. 
Sergeant John L. Lee. 
Sergeant David Richard. 
Sergeant Leroy S. Johnston. 
Sergeant Peter A. Cox. 
Sergeant Edwnrd Wilkins. 
Corporal Thomas A. Jones. 
Corporal Andrew Burger. 
Corpoial John C. Carroll. 
Corporal John F. Lee. 
Corporal Joseph Montrose. 
Corporal William Baker. 
Corporal Dufiald Campbell. 
Corporal Tobias Burk. 
Musician Rabert Rea, Jr. 
Musician Peter McLame. 


William Batman, John Buckley, Thomas Brown, Michael 
Cady, John Casey, Patrick Conway, Peter Dailey, Morris 
Dorsey, Hugh Eady, Patrick Hines, John Hines, David Len- 
ihan, Levi M. Lee; Adam Molim, Jahn B. Mattingley, Wil- 
liam H. Mattingley, Patrick Munday, Jasper O'Doeald, 
Richard Robeits, William Rase, Joseph Staffan, Richard 



Wdsh. John Amett, Sr., Ulrick Becker, John A. Campbell, 
James Fox, Patrick Gegan, James HundleA, Dennis Kan- 
leahy, Daniel Maloy, John Meekin; John Murphey, Patrick 
MuUoon, Patrick Phibban, Thomas B. Sherman, A. G. 
Winthrop, Michael Wester, John Arnett, Jr., Eli Baugh, 
John T. Blair, Adam Cane, James Cutsinger, Simon Dearion, 
William M. Fumbred, Jacob H. Kneibert, Joseph Lennon, 
John S. Mattingley, Thomas Miles, Nicholas Mattingley 
William Montgomery, James McCann, Jonathan Philips, 
Alexander Sluder, Edward Sutterfield, John Stanton, James 
Thomas, Thomas Williams, Simon Carmode, Dennis Cushin, 
John J. Idoax, Burtley Murphy, Jerry Murphy, William Mc- 
Vey, Patrick Mayland. Thomas Millagan, Daniel Maloney, 
Stonemason Mule. 



First Lieutenant Robert H. Mullins. 


Second Lieutenant Milton A. Sivey. 
Captain Elisha Simpson. 
Captain James L. Burch. 
Captain John L. Warden. 



Captain Patrick O. Hawes. 


Captain John F. Babbitt. 


Adjutant William W. Woodruff. 
Adjutant John S. Butler. 


The Fifteenth was organized in the fall of 
1 86 1, at Camp Pope, near New Haven, under 
Colonel Curran Pope, and was mustered into the 
United States service on the 14th day of De- 
cember, 1 86 1, at Camp Pope, by Captain C. C. 
Gilbert, United States mustering officer, and 
marched to Bacon Creek; thence via Bowling 
Green, Kentucky, Nashville, Murfreesboro, Shel- 
byville, and Fayette, Tennessee, to Huntsville, 
Alabama; thence to Winchester, Tennessee; 
thence to Gunter's landing and Elk River. On 
the 31st day of August, 1862, it started on the 
campaign after Bragg, passing via Murfreesboro 
and Nashville, Tennessee, and Bofvhng Green, 
Elizabethtown, and West Point, to Louisville, 
where it arrived on the 26th day of September, 

1862. It left Louisville, and marching via Tay- 
lorsville, Bloomfield, Chaplin, and Maxville, ar- 
rived at the battle-field of Chaplin Hills on the 
8th of October, 1862, and engaged in that severe 
conflict. It then moved via Danville and Stan- 
ford to Crab Orchard, where it turned back, and 
moving, via Stanford, Lebanon, Bowling Green, 
and Nashville, arrived at the battle-field of Stone 
River on the 30th day of December, 1862, and 
took part in the five-days' fight at that place. 
On the morning of the 4th day of January, 

1863, it marched through Murfreesboro, and en- 
camped until June 24, 1863, near that place. It 
then marched via Hoover's Gap, Manchester, 
and Hillsboro, to Decherd, Tennessee, where it 
remained about a month, and then marched via 
Stevenson, Raccoon, and Lookout Mountains, 
to the battle-field of Chickamauga, arriving on 
the 19th of September, 1863. 

Participating in the battles of the 19th, 20th, 
and 2 1 St of September, it covered the army as 
skirmishers, and moved to Chattanooga on the 
2 2d of September, 1863, where it remained on 
post duty until the 2d of May, 1864, when it 
started on the Georgia campaign, which was one 
of continual fighting, skirmishing, and marching 
for four months, resulting in the capture of At- 
lanta, which was occupied by the United States 
troops on the 2d day of September, 1864. 

The regiment was chiefly engaged in garrison 
duty and guarding railroads until it was ordered to 
Louisville, where it was mustered out on the 14th 
day of January, 1865 ; the recruits and veterans 
being transferred to the Second Kentucky Vete- 
ran cavalry. 

A reference to the casualty list will show that 
this regiment bore an honorable part in the war, 
the number of killed exceeding fourteen per cent, 
of the entire force, and the number of wounded 
being in greater proportion. 

It participated m the following, among other 
numerous battles in which loss was sustained, 
viz: Chaplin Hills, Kentucky; Stone River, 
Tennessee; Chickamauga, Georgia; Mission 
Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Allatoona 
Mountain, and all the skirmishes of the Atlanta 


Colonel Curran Pope, 
Colonel James B. Forman. 
Lieutenant-Colonel George P. Jouett. 
Major James S.'Allen. 



Adjutant William P. McDowell. 
Regimental Quartermaster John W. Clarke. 
Surgeon Richard F. Logan. 
Surgeon Edward H. Dunn. 
Assistant Surgeon Ezra Woodruff. 
Chaplain William C. Atmore. 
Chaplain Samuel T. Poinier. 



Captain William T. McClure. 


Captain Henry F. Kalfus. 
Captain John B. McDowell. 



First Lieutenant John B. Wood. 
First Lieutenant Richard F. Shafer. 
Second Lieutenant Harrison Hikes. 


First Sergeant Andrew Kidd. 
Sergeant Lawrence Kelly. 
Sergeant Cyrus P. Beatty. 
Sergeant Alfred Davis. 
Sergeant John Kiser. 
Sergeant Gerge H. Fishback. 
Sergeant Joseph Rush. 
Sergeant WilliamJ. Shake. 
Corporal James Mathews. 
Corporal William H. Miller. 
Corporal Edward Earl. 
Corporal James Wise. 
Corporal Burr Leslie. 
Corporal Lee M. Alvis. 
Corporal James H. Fields. 
Corporal Thomas J. Omer. 
Corporal Benjamin Pennington. 
Musician William French. 
Musician George Wilkerson. 
Wagoner William L. Cunningham. 

John George Beck, Conrad Bullock, John Burke, William 
Burke, Christopher Billing, James Black, John W. Cum- 
mins, Constantine Crugler, John Cunningham, John Cauf- 
man, Jacob Denton, Charles Engle, Reuben Furguson, John 
Ferguson, George i. Fields, Alexander Grigsby, Robert 
Hicks, James King, James Lawson, Walton McNally, John 
O'Brien, Fred Plumb, William Ray, John E. Stockton, John 
Snitemiller, Matt Snyder, John Stanton, Joseph Vaughn, 
Jerry Williams, Mathew J. Cockerel, Samuel M. Dorsey, 
Joseph Fogle, John Lawsman, James McGarvey, Charles 
L. Maddox, William D. Malott, George Metem, Mike 
O'Dey, Hiram Potts, Allen J. Parson, Louis Roth, Frank 
Rouke, John Roush, Thomas Rooney, Edwin Sweeney, 
William Wing, Philip Zubrod, Rufus Ammons, Thomas J. 
Chilton, Robert Bishop, Robert Kyle, Philomon Olds, William 
S. Powell, John Patterson, Joseph Snyder, Robert W. Tay- 
lor, Charles Barnett, Reuben Frederick, Thomas Lyden, 
Thomas J. Metts, fames W. Engle, Jacob F. Winstead, 
Frederick Koberg, James Rady. 


Captain Aaron S. Bayne. 

First Lieutenant William V. Wolfe. 

First Lieutenant Judson Bayne. 


First Sergeant William A. Phelps. 

Sergeant James J. Turner. 

Sergeant Andrew Walters. 

Sergeant John K. Abney. 

Corporal Henry H. Smith. 

Corporal Albert G. Bonnar. 

Corporal John Middleton. 

Corporal Elijah T. Jackson. 

Corporiil John W. Bale. 

Corporal John Whitman. 

Corporal Martm H. Wathen. 

Corporal Thomas J. Redman. 

Corporal Aaron F. Abney. 

Corporal Joseph Teahan. 

Musician Thomas Warren. 


Joshua Bayne, Byron Bomar, Alfred Brown, James N: 
Conner, Milton Davis, George W. Dobson, William W. 
Evans, John P. Gore, James M. Hall, Willis Liggens, Joseph 
Pepper, Robert Pattinger, Cyril D. Pierman, James C. 
Strouse, Frank Wright, John B. Walters, Isaac F. Brewar, 
Oscar Brown, Daniel Bell, Francis Daugherty, Jacob Ewen, 
David Jones, William McGill, Shelby Pepper, William^ 
Prewitt, John B. Shandoin, John W. Smith, George Trumbo, 
John W. Waide, Frank Appleton, John H. Cheatham, Gill- 
deroy G. Guthrie, John Heath, Ephrans S. Hill, Napoleon 
B., Ireland, Samuel Loyeton, John C. Marr, Porterfield Mc- 
Dowell, Napoleon McDowell, William B. Beauchamp, Rob- 
ert Bayne, John Davis, John Daily, Abel Elkin, James W. 
Gollaher, William H. Heath, Matthew Hunt, James B. John- 
son, Elijah Rodg^s, Jenken Skaggs, William S. Thompson, 
Elbert P. Al^ney, John Bayne, Reuben V. Bale, Jphn Canuu 
han, George Ewing, John W. Hoback, Thomas Hoages, 
George Hill, James Hite, Harrison Lemmons, Thomas 
Prewitt, Isaac Shipp, George Stilts, John C. Skumer. 



Captain John B. Wood. 

First Lieutentint John D. Lenahan. 

First Lieutenant Frank D. Gerrety. 


First Sergeant Patrick Larkin. 
Sergeant James Gallaher. 
Sergeant Patrick Shealby. 
Sergeant Patrick Rooneg. 
Sergeant J.oseph Moran. 
Sergeant Martin Delaney. 
Corporal Thomas Conway. 
Corporal Oscar Hoen. 
Corporal Michael Joyce. 
Corporal John Scally. 
Corporal Thomas Scanlan. 
Musician John Crawley. 


Hugh Boyle, Patrick Byrne, Daniel Buckley, Patrick Btafc, 
Michael Conway, John Collins, Patrick CrawUe, Dennis Cuft 



John Clark, James Dillon, John Daugher, Thomas Fitzger- 
ald, Patrick Gannon, James Gillispie, Timothy Hobin, 
Thomas Kain, Thomas Leonard, John Murphy, Hugh 
McGready, Thomas McLaughlin, Patrick McDade, George 
Mclntyre, James McCarty, Patrick Moore, Michael Nolin, 
Hugh ORourk, John O'Bryne, Joseph Stanton, Henry Shea, 
James Sergeson, James Shealby, Daniel Taughy, Owen Cas- 
tello, John Doulen, Martin Grimes, Martin Horan. Silas 
Johnson, Daniel Mcllvain, Michael Maloney, Henry Scott, 
Conrad Smith, Thomas Coleman, Michael Collins, Patrick 
Degnan, Michael Hanly, Patrick Hannon, Patrick Keltey, 
James Lamb, Daniel McKenley, Martin Ross, Patrick 
Swift, James Burk, Michael Burk, Malakie Caffee, William 
Campton, Bartley Donahue, James Donohue, Bernard Mc- 
Ginnis, Dennis Mulhern, Thomas Mouldry, Samuel Rogers, 
■William Stanton, David Seery, Edward Boyle, John Monaty 
Patrick McHale, Patrick O'Bryne, James Currie, Patrick 
Donohue, Charles Sweeney. 



Colonel Alexander M. Stout. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin H. Bristow. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Vaughan. 
Regimental Quartermaster Richard C. Gill. 



Captain Thomas R. Brown. 



Second Lieutenant William H. Meglemery. 




Captain Edmund B. Davidson. 
Captain John B. Buckner. 


This regiment was organized at Camp Swigert, 
Greenup county,, on the 12th day of December, 
1 86 1, under D. W, Lindsey as colonel, George 
W. Monroe, lieutenant-colonel, and Wesley 
Cook, major, by which officers the regiment was 
principally recruited. Company A was recruited 
from the city of Louisville and Franklin county ; 
companies B and C frpm Greenup county ; com- 
pany D from Carter county ; company E from 
Lewis county ; company F from Franklin and 
Greenup counties ; company G from Carter and 
Boyd counties ; company H and I from Carter 
county ; and company K from the city of Louis- 
ville. Previous to the organization of the regi- 
ment, companies A, K, and the larger portion 
of F were stationed at Frankfort, and did efficient 
service under the direction of the State authority. 
The remaining companies of the regiment were 
in Eastern Kentucky, and operated effectively in 

that section of this State and also in West Vir- 

Immediately after the organization of the 
regiment, it was ordered up the Sandy Valley, 
and rendered most important service in the ex- 
pedition against the rebel General Humphrey 
Marshall. A detachment of the Twenty-second 
and of the Fourteenth Kentucky infantry, under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Monroe, during 
the battle of Middle Creek, charged and dis- 
lodged from a strong position the command of 
General Williams, Confederate, which movement, 
as the commanding officer, General Garfield, 
reports, was "determinate of the day." 

The mission up the Sandy having been ac- 
complished, the Twenty-second was ordered, by 
way of Louisville, to Cum.berland Gap; and 
proved to be one of the regiments chiefly relied 
upon by General G. W. Morgan for the capture 
of that point. During the stay of General Mor- 
gan at the Gap, the discipline and efficiency of 
this regiment was frequently mentioned in gen- 
eral orders; and, after the battle of Tazewell, to 
the Twenty-second was assigned the duty of cov- 
ering the retreat of DeCourcy's brigade from the 

During the retreat of General Morgan's divis- 
ion from Cumberland Gap to the Ohio river, this 
regiment was assigned to responsible duty, and 
discharged the same in such manner as to receive 
the praise of the commanding general. 

Immediately after reaching the Ohio river, 
Morgan's division, with the exception of General 
Baird's brigade, was ordered up the Kanawha 
valley to the relief of General Cox. After driving 
the enemy beyond Gauley Bridge, the same com- 
mand was ordered South, and reached Mem, 
phis, Tennessee, about the 15th day of Novem- 
ber, 1862. At this place the division received 
some additions by recruits, and the 22d was 
augmented by some thirty men from Captain R. 
B. Taylor's company, who were assigned to com- 
pany I; and Captain Estep, successor to Captain 
Taylor, was assigned to the command of that 

The regiment, then composing a part of Mor- 
gan's division, of Sherman's command, proceeded 
down the Mississippi river, and on the 28th and 
29th of December, 1862, attacked the works of 
the enemy upon the Yazoo river, at Haynes's 
Bluff, or Chickasaw Bayou. In the charge on 



the 29th, the Twenty-second lost a number of 
killed and wounded, among whom were those 
gallant officers, Captains Garrard and Hegan, 
and Lieutenant Truett, killed; and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Monroe, Captains Bruce and Gathright, 
and Lieutenants Bacon and Gray, wounded. 

Shortly after the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, 
the army of the Mississippi, under Major-Gen- 
eral McClernand, captured and destroyed Ar- 
kansas Post, a strong position upon the Arkan-* 
sas river, from which the fort took its name; in 
which affair the Twenty-second bore an honora- 
ble part. 

After remaining at Young's Point and Milli- 
ken's Bend two or three months, this regiment, 
with McClernand's corps, the Thirteenth, of 
which It formed a part, took the lead in the 
movement, by way of Bruensburg, to invest 
Vicksburg from the rear; the Twenty-second 
performing an important part in all the engage- 
ments incident thereto, as well as in the capture 
of Vicksburg. After the surrender of that im- 
portant pomt, the regiment marched with the 
brigade to which it was attached, and assisted in 
the capture of Jackson, Mississippi. The Twen- 
ty-second then, following the fortunes of the 
Thirteenth army corps, was sent to the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf, where it rendered good service. 

The regiment veteranized at Baton Rouge in 
March, 1864, and was consolidated with the 
Seventh Kentucky veteran infantry; the non- 
veterans being mustered out at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, January 20, 1865. 

The regiment was engaged in the following 
named general engagements, besides numerous 
skirmishes, viz: Middle Creek, Kentucky; Cum- 
berland Gap, Tazewell, Tennessee; Haynes's Bluff 
or Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi; Arkansas Post, 
Port Gibson or Thompson's Hill, Champion Hill, 
or Baker's Creek, Big Black Bridge, siege of 
Vicksburg, Jackson, Mississippi, and Red River; 
in almost all of which the regiment was com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Monroe; Colonel 
Lindsey being in command of the bridge or 


Major John Hughes. 
Quartermaster James W. Barbee. 



Captain John Hughes. 

First Lieutenant Arthur J. Harrington. 
Second Lieutenant James W. Barbee. 


First Sergeant Thomas Collins. 
First Sergeant William H. Milam. 
Sergeant Henry Simmons. 
Sergeant John Rohner. 
Sergeant Jacob Edinger. 
Sergeant John T. Harrington. 
Sergeant Oliver J. Howard. 
Corporal Enoch Napier. 
Corporal George Tanner. 
Corporal Jacob Fisher. 
Corpora 1 J erem iah Wells. 
Corporal John Welsh. 
Corporal Philip Sneider. 
Corporal John C. Seibert. 
Corporal George Rammers. 

Alexander Armstrong, Michael Bower, Patrick Coakley, 
Godfrey Geisler, William Gainey, Timothy Harrigan, Mich- 
ael Leary, James Leary, John T. McCoy, Benjamin Miller, 
John T. Milam, John Paiker, William Seibert, Michael H. 
Shay, James Scanlan, William Tagg, William Clark, James 
Dailey, Thomas Kelley, George Perry Nerns, Thomas S. 
Tevis, Albert L. Cook, John T. Gathright, Charles L. Gal- 
loway, Hardy J. Galloway, Patrick Garrety, William Hess, 
Patrick McCandry, Franklin McNeal, William Wilson, 
James A. Wells, John Welsh, second, Edward Berry, John 
Burns, James W. Collins, Louis Commersour, William Dris- 
coll, John Hulet, James Hulet, Thomas Manihan, Solomon 
Parker, William H. Smith, William T. Walls, John Cox. 

Captain James G. Milligan. 
First Lieutenant James W. Barbee. 



Captain William B. Hegan. 

Captain John T. Gathright. 



First Lieutenant Charles G. Shanks. 


Captain Louis Schweizer. 

Captain Charles Gutig. 

First Lieuteuant Gustav Wehrle. 


First Sergeant Jacob Klotter. 
Sergeant Nicholas Ember. 
Sergeant Adam Warner. 
Sergeant Henry Stachelsha'' , 
Sergeant Valentine Loesh. 
Sergeant Louis Fisher. 
Corporal Benjamin Lochner. 
Corporal Lucas Rhine. 
Corporal George Klotter. 


Corporal Felix Gross. 
Corporal John Eppelle. 
Corporal Paul Resch. 
Corporal John Duckweiler. 
Corporal Lorenz Schaffner. 


John Barthel, Casper Buchl, George Bremmer, Alvis Dres- 
sel, Theodore Eken, Sebastian Fautner, Louis P'insler, 
Joseph Gutz, Gonrad Hecht, Conrad Hoeb, Rudolph Hess, 
Andrew Jacoby, Conrad Kneiss, Frederick Konig, Sebas- 
tain Kuhr, Joseph Lochner, Leopold Lenzinger, Michael 
Meyer, John Martin, George Pfeiffer, Michael Rilling, An- 
thony Sauer, Henry Scherr, Philip Schlimer, John Schutz, 
John Vogt, Joseph Wachter, John Zimmer, John Brimmer, 
Paul Dressel, Conrad Doll, John Baptist Emig. Heiiry En- 
glehardt, William Hemerich, John Hess, Peter Koil, Martin 
Leopold, Cassimer Mickoley, John Oehler, George Paulus, 
Casper Rappensberger, George Schlottler, Frank Vogt, John 
Baker, Charles C. Miller, John Philip Russ, Jacob Trump- 
ler, Henry Zickel, John Baier, Henry Belger, Wenderlien 
Fritz, John Huber, George Kuppel, George Seitz, Michael 
Staublin, Robert Staib, Lorenz Wittenauer, John Kochler, 
Philip Mossman, Stephen Wittenauer. 



Colonel Marcellus Mundy. 



IJeutenant Benjamin H. Bristow. 


Adjutant A. J . Wells. 


First Lieutenant John F. Harvey. 
Second Lieutenant Charles H. Hart. 



Second Lieutenant Thomas J. Mershon. 


Colonel Charles D. Pennebaker. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John H. Ward. 
Major Alexander Magruder. 
Adjutant James B. Speed. 
Assistant Surgeon Robert Dinwiddle. 
Chaplain Robert G. Gardner. 


Captain Fred. Guy. 


First Lieutenant Riley Wilson. 


Captain William H. Heivey. 


The Twenty-eighth Kentucky Infantry was 
organized in the fall of 1861 at New Haven, 
under Colonel William P. Boone, and was mus- 
tered into service October 8, 1861, at the same 
place, by Captain C. C. Gilbert, First United 
States infantry, mustering officer. The regiment 
was raised under the call of the State for forty 
thousand volunteers for United States service. 
Colonel Boone, at the time the law was passed 
and authority granted for raising the troops, was 
a member of the Kentucky Legislature from the 
city of Louisville, and asked leave of absence for 
the |3iurpose of recruiting a regiment. In four 
weeks from the time he commenced recruiting 
he had nine companies in camp, of more than fifty 
men each. On the 6th of November, 1861, he 
received orders from General Sherman, com- 
manding department of the Ohio, ordering his 
regiment on duty. In the early stages of the 
war the Twenty-eighth was on duty at Shepherds- 
ville. New Haven, Lebanon, Colesburg, Eliza- 
bethtown, and Munfordsville, Kentucky, and 
Nashville, Franklin, Gallatin, Lebanon, Carthage, 
Sparta, and Columbia, Tennessee ; and ever 
commanded the respect and attention of the 
commanding generals, whether in battle or in 
camp. It also performed duty at Huntsville and 
Stevenson, Alabama, and Rossville, Rome, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Ringgold, Lafayette, White 
Oak Mountain, Taylor's Ridge, Chickamauga 
Creek, Pea Vine Church, Tunnel Hill, and Dal- 
ton, Georgia. 

The Twenty-eighth, by order of General 
Rosecrans, was armed with the Spencer repeat- 
ing rifle and mounted, and performed gallant 
and arduous service until it returned to Kentucky 
on veteran furlough. 

Colonel Boone was much exposed during the 
winter of 1864, whilst in command of cavalry 
and mounted infantry, in front of the army at 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, and was reluctantly 
compelled to resign on account of disability, in- 
curred by said exposure, on the 28th of June, 
1864. On the first of March, 1864, the regi- 
ment veteranized, and received thirty days' vete- 
ran furlough, and on the 7th of May, under com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel J. Rowan Boone, 
rejoined the army of the Cumberland in Georgia. 


Colonel William P. Boone. 



Lieutenant-Colonel J. Rowan Boone. 
Major Absalom Y. Johnson. 
Major John Gault, Jr. 
Major George W. Barth. 
Surgeon James A. Post. 
Assistant Surgeon Joseph Habermeal. 
Chaplain Hiram A. Hunter. 
Sergeant-Major Nathaniel Wolfe, Jr. 
Sergeant- Major Henry S. Senteny. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant William R. Cox. 
Commissary-Sergeant Josiah Allis. 
Hospital Steward Stephen A. Catlin. 
First Musician William O'Hara. 
Second Musician Thomas P. Myrick. 



Captain William E. Benson. 

Captain Paul Byerly. 

First Lieutenant John W. Hogue. 

First Lieutenant Martin Enright. 

Second Lieutenant John A. Weatherford. 


Sergeant W. P. Gathright. 
Sergeant J. W. Taylor. 
Sergeant J. D. Holt. 
Corporal William O'Hara. 
Corporal Samuel Clark. 
Corporal Jacob Hesi. 
Corporal W.J. Head. 
Corporal William R. Hoagland. 
Corporal James Thomas. 
Corporal J. A. Dai ley. 
Corporal John W. Smith. 


William Ash, Josiah Allis, Joseph Bensing, Joseph Ben- 
nett, William Burke, Joseph Brobst, John Brewster, Nicholas 
Brannin, James Cayton, Ferdinand Conser, Ransom Chase, 
Hannon Cashing, Almanzo Connell, James Corrigan, Edward 
Corcelus, Michael Carney, C. F. Combs, Peter Coons, 
Henry Calcamp, Thomas Dillon, Abram Drisfus, Joseph 
Day, Michael Dillon, George Fleck, William Farroday, 
Frederick Forcht. Silas Fuell, Benjamin Fuell, Patrick Fla- 
herty, Patrick Gaffusy, Gerhart Geny, Joseph Gnow, George 
W. Graible, Cyrus Graible, William M. Gard,Hartman Hel- 
bert, John Horp, John Hettinger, James Howell, Michael 
Hays, George Hanley, Johnson Hardin, John Holler, Ber- 
nard Hochstatter, John Kinkead, Joseph Kinkead, Henry 
Keyser, William Kline, John Kane, George Kelpers, Joseph 
Kremer, Peter Lotze, John Lukenbill, Patrick Leary, Ed- 
ward Leyer, Nicholas Miller, John McCarty, John Mc- 
Mahon, John Meyer, Coonrod Oper, Charles Owen, John 
A. Osborn, Benjamin Powell, Jr., Gustav Roadsloff, Nicho- 
las Rinehart, John Renwick, Charles Reap, G. W. Rodgers, 
Henry Schafer, Nicholas .Show, John H. .Strausburg, Wil- 
liam Shirley, James Sullivan, George G. F. Shafer, H. C. 
Senteny, Lewis Suyer, Herman Stimpel, George W. Tiller, 
Samuel Taguc, Henry F. Trantman, Philip Trunk, George 
Wahlwind, John Wagner, .August Weger, Herman Wahmes, 
•Anselm Wesbacher, George Wesel. 



Captain James H. White. 
Taptam Thomas J. Randolph. 


Sergeant George H. Alexander. 
Sergeant Charles H. Harris. 
Corporal Usher F. Kelly. 
Corporal John W. LeBlanc. 
Corporal Hermogene LeBlanc. 
Corporal William M. Harris. 
Corporal William R. Parish. 
Corporal Henry Null. 
Corporal James E. -Mullen. 
Corporal Lewis Hawkins. 
Musician Charles G. Clarke. 
Musician Julius G. Johnson. 
Wagoner Robert Murry. 

Henry Bull, Lewis H. Bealer, JoHn C. Black, Nehemiah 
Bohnan, Frederick Bodka, Lawrence Corcoran, James D. 
Coulter, Richard Coulter, Milton C. Clark, Andrew L. 
Domire, William Dooley, John W. Floore, Francis 
Faber, Patrick Flynn, Patrick W. Fooley. Alfred J. Gooch, 
August Gardner, William M. Hargin, Philip Margin, James 
M. Hilton, George W. Hand, John Henry, William Hamon, 
John G. Hearn, Michael Hogan, Henry Honroth. Loudey 
Howard, Samuel Hopewell, Frederick Heflferman, William T. 
F.Johnson, George ;Kountz, James Kleisendorf, Orren Lane, 
John Means, David Mercer, William H. Myers, Benjamin 
B. Medcalfe, John Mahner, Dominick Morley, John Meister, 
Samuel L. Nichols, John Osborn, Barney O'Brien, Turling- 
ton Ragsdale, Marion Rowland, James Rawlings, Lorenzo 
D. Rardon, Charles N. Resenbaugh, Reuben Shively, Jacob 
H. Sapp, John F. Sweeney. Christopher Stilby, Daniel Suli- 
van, Joseph D. Selvage, John H. Sisson, James L. Sisson, 
Robert Shanks, Klartin L. Stephens, Morris H. Sheiffer, 
John Sheetinger, Benjamin F. Smith, William H. Sherrod, 
Frank Troutman, William T. Teeter, Michael Whalen. 


Captain George W. Barth. 

Captain Theodore B. Hays. 

First Lieutenant Robert W. Catlin. 


First Sergeant William Shane. 

Sergeant Henry Dorman. 

Sergeant William H. Sanders. 

Sergeant Silas F. Barrall. 

Sergeant Stephen Norman. 

Corporal John T. Monroe. 

Corporal William H. Horine. 

Corporal Ely Williams. 

Corporal William F. Miles. 
1 Corporal Joseph A. Barrall. 
, Corporal Charles Lebberle. 
i Corporal James Marshall. 
I Corporal John Seibert. 
I Musician Thomas P. Myrick. 

Musician Albert Younker. 

Wagoner Walter Senger. 


Samuel R. Armes, Abraham Anderson, Henry Ahlbom, 
Henry Beghtol, Frederick Bealer, Littleberry Batchelor, 
John C. Barth, Silas M. Burk, Stephen Catlin, Horace Cahoe, 
George W. Compton, James Corcoran, Wellington Crutch- 
low, Stephen Coch, Louis C. Dennis, William Davis, Henry 


C. Dother, Thomas B. Duncan, Henry Deal, Henry Ebber- 
harth, Louis Earickson, Alexander Elliott, Edward Egan, 
Samuel Fleckner, William French, Christian Friendenberger, 
Anthony Fouth, James Foster, John Geist, Patrick Gibbons, 
Conrad Gleb, John Gunner, Marcus L. Goldsmith, August 
Hennerberger, Christian Harshfield, Jacob Hart, Christopher 
Hapf, George Haller, Thomas Hogan, John Horine, Henry 
C. Johnson, Thomas Johnson, Frederick Kohler, Benjamin 
King, Thomas Kegan, Christian Katzel, Sr., Christian 
Katzel.Jr., Joseph Long. Casper Lowentha, John J. Myer, 
John Myer, Jacob M. Miller, James W. Martin, John Mann, 
Charles F. Miller. Arthur May, Thomas McNutt, James Mc- 
Donald, James M. Melson, John Nagel, Martin Nagel, 
Peter Nailor, James J. Norman, Warden J. Quick, Barney 
Ruf, John J. Samuel, Anthony Schmidt, George Seibert, 
James Stewart, Sidney S. Smith, Madison B. Stinson, Jacob 
Seipert, Martin Schmidt, Richard M. Thompson, John 
Thompson, Henry Thompson, Jacob Walter, John Webler, 
Frederick Webber, William Winter. 



Captain Henry J. O'Neill. 

Captain John Martin. 

First Lieutenant Henry Monohan. 

First Lieutenant Patrick O'Malia. 

Second Lieutenant Anthony Hartman. 


First Sergeant Joseph Flanagan. 
Sergeant John Jardine. 
Sergeant Vincent Eusada. 
Corporal Anthony Funn. 
Corporal James G^ntion. 
Corporal George Kinsley. 
Corporal Richard Langdon. 
Corporal Morgan O'Btien. 
Corporal John Farrell. 
Corporal Daniel O'Hera. 
Corporal William Naughton. 
Musician Henry Gallaher. 
Musician John McGovern. 
Wagoner Peter Martin. 
Cook Edward Clark. 

John Atchison, Thomas Birmingham, Michael Burke First, 
Michael Burke Second, John Bolton, John Bogle, Richard Bar- 
rett, John Buckly, James Buckly, Bryan Connor, Philip Carr, 
Peter Campbell, Patrick Conway, John Cody, Michael Casey, 
Patrick Curran, James Dooley, Francis Finn, Darby Flaher- 
ty, Patrick Fadden, William Gallagher, Nathaniel Gallagher, 
Patrick Gorman, Martin Glynn, Patrick Hines, John HoUa- 
han, John Hayes, John Hennesey, John Hatch, John 
Hogan, Patrick Hogan, oohn Hanlon, George Hart, Joseph 
Kimmel, George King, John Laihiff. Lawrence Lamer, 
Michael Lynch, Patrick Lee, Boliver Moody, Michael May- 
bar, John McGregor, John Myers, Michael McClear, Wil- 
liam McClellan, Patrick McBride, Michael Nicholas, Mich- 
ael O'Donnell, John O'Brien, Michael Pimrick, Edward 
Pope, James Prewett, Thomas Ryan, Walter Ross, 
I.awrence Sulivan, Patrick Spratch, Austin Stanton, Brian 
Solan, Michael Shanahan, Bartholomew Thornton, Barthol- 
omew Ticmey, James Terrell, John Whalen, Patrick Welsh, 
Hugh Willis. 



Captain Franklin M. Hughes. 

Captain George W. Conaway. 

Captain William C. Irvine. 

Captain Andrew B. Norwood. 

First Lieutenant Granville J. Sinkhorn. 

Second Lieutenant Joseph H. Davis. 


Sergeant Charles H. Littrell. 
Sergeant George Mattern. 
Corporal William L. G. McPherson. 
Corporal Cornelius Maher. 
Corporal Henry H. Hancock. 
Corporal Thomas T. Baldwin. 
Corporal Silas W. Young. 
Corporal John W. Baldwin. 
Corporal James L. Porter. 
Corporal William Fagar. 
Musician Othello Delano. 
Wagoner Elijah Thurman. 


Eugene Anthony, George Albert, Jacob Arnold, James 
Black, Frederick Boyer, Richard Bee, William Burke, Rob- 
ert Barr, John Barr, George J. Beninger, Jabzen N. Baldwin, 
Marion Bailey, Earnest Bitner, Daniel S. Brabson, Jesse 
Baxter, James Combs, Jacob H. Carbaugh, William L. Cou- 
ncil, James Coons, Cornelius Crowley, James Cleary, 
Charles E. Figg, George B. Figg, William W. Figg, 
Zachariah Fogelman, Thomas C. Forsyth, Henry Green, 
William Gregory, Thomas F. Graham, George E. Holmes. 
Theodore F. Hambaugh, Uriah G. Hawkins, William A. 
Hall, Michael Hynes, William E. Keene, Peter Klink, 
Henry Kalkhoff, Jesse K. Long, Michael Lynch, Patrick 
Mooney, Hugh McGrath, George Morrison, Greathell Ma.x- 
well, John F. Mullen, William G. Meyers, George Panell, 
Thomas Pryar, Patrick Pryar, Josiah D. Ripley, Jacob L. 
Spanglear, Michael Sehr, William G. Saner, John W. B. 
Shirley, Thomas B. Sweeney, James W. Thomas, John H. 
Thurman, Charles Thomas, Andrew Todd, Samuel C. 
Vance, James W. Wilson, Joseph S. West, Joseph Wil- 
burne, Joseph W. Walker, Charles T. Whalen, John W. 
Walton, George Zimmerman. 



Captain James R. Noble. 
Captain William C. McDowell. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Hooker. 


Sergeant Charles Shane. 
Sergeant Samuel S. Hornbeck. 
Sergeant Stephen M. Gupton. 
Sergeant William H. Manning. 
Corporal William Owen. 
Corporal George Ganman. 
Corporal William Woodfall. 
Corporal Isaac Hornbeck. 
Corporal William Morrow. 
Corporal James Brunton. 
Corporal William L. Gupton. 
Corporal George Brown. 
Musician David Waits. 



Musician William R. Cox. 
Wagoner Benjamin H. Murry. 


-John Adams, Benhart Bargoff, James Bell, Valentine 
Berge, Franklin Blunk. John S. Cheshire, Kitchel Clark, 
Zedick Clark, Louis Colboker, James Corkeran, John R. CruU, 
John E. Davis, William H. H. Davis, Joseph Elsey, James 
Elsey, Frederic Emiin, John Ernst, Jacob Earwine, James 
O. Evans, William Ferguson, John Fields, Michael Galliger, 
Pious Hardy, William L. Harris, John Higgins, Daniel 
Highland, Com. P. Hild^rbrand, Noell Jackson, William 
Leish, John Lee, John Munch, John P. Means, Thomas 
Moore, John Miller, James Middleton, Fielding Middieton, 
William Middleton, Charles E. Manning, Sidney Noe, 
George Noe, John H. C. Overcamp, Nathan Pharris, Joseph 
Perry, Asbury Parsley, Henry Puff, Samuel Quick, George 
W. Rogers, Philip Shull, Abram Sago, Mathew Shay, John 
Spencer, William Stedman, Frederick Thompson, Joseph 
Terry, George Tolson, Raphael Vinecore, Louis Varille, 
Thomas B. Wallace, Isaac Williams, William Webb, Benja- 
min Webb, Taylor Windsor, John Windsor, John Whitledge, 
Robert Wright, John Zinsmaster. 

Captain Frederick Brooks. 
Captain James E. Loyal. 
First Lieutenant Albert M. Healy. 


Sergeant Edward O'Malley. 
Sergeant John G. Fraville. 
Sergeant Charles Taylor. 
Sergeant Frederick Honroth. 
Corporal Frederick Troxell. 
Corporal Samuel Randalls. 
Corporal Charles B. Fetters. 
Corporal John H. Graham. 
Corporal Frank Read. 
Musician Zefra Blum. 
Musician Joseph Fox, Jr. 
Musician B. Gary Edward. 
Wagoner John Mullin. 


David F. Blair, Ferdinand Belter, Hugh R. Boyd, Thomas 
Bott, John Boggs, Charles F. Bates, Anthony Berger, Cor- 
nelius Boyd, Eli Burchard, Milton Burnham, George W. 
Baily, Neil Conway, Timothy Conway, Thomas Casey, 
Frederick Cording, James Drummon, Andrew Dirk, Samuel 
Dysinger, James Davenport, David Danser, James Eairly, 
George R. S. Floyd, Jerome B. Francis, Joseph Fox, Sr., 
James Farrell, William E. Gary, Jacob Goodfred, George 
Goodfred, Abraham Graham, Peter Haggerty, Washington 
T. Hudson, Thomas Higgins, Henry Hannasth, Philip 
Hinkle, Frederick Joyce, Henry K. Jerome, Patrick King, 
William Kimball, John Krebsback, William Lewis, Joseph 
Mets, John Murphy, Thomas More, John Maher, Derire 
Mongey, John McDonel, John McGreal, Frank O'Neil, 
Patrick O' Boyle, Reuben Ratcliffe, Jerry Riley, Samuel 
Ratchfend, William S. Roach, Jonathan Shull, John Shan- 
non, Owen Sullivan, Patrick Toole, Seraphine Wohlap, 
William Wardrip, John Welsh, James Watson, Joseph 
Stevenson, John Stevenson, Charles W. Farnum, Henry C. 
Gary, Edward S. Hall, David Isgrig, Jasper A. Jones, William 
Keepers, Thomas Murphy, Michael Morris, John Masters, 

William Miller, Robert Rogers, William Rosenbush, Clark 
Stackhouse. Josiah Searles, Andrew Taylor. Charles T. Todd. 



Captain Robert Cairs. 

Captain Daniel C. Collins. 

First Lieutenant Nathaniel Wolf, Jr. 

First Lieutenant William R. Cox. 


First Sergeant Robert W. Reid. 
Sergeant Henry W. Neve. 
Sergeant Jacob C. Burris. 
Sergeant John V. Sanders. 
Sergeant Roderick McLeod. 
Corporal Jeremiah Warner. 
Corpor>al Anthony Morley. 
Corporal Austin Stetler^ 
Corporal John W. Brineger. 
Corpoial Preston Nelson. 
Corporal William G. Bostwick. 
Corporal Whitman S. Green. 
Corporal Charles Carroll. 
Wagoner Peter McCormick. 
Musician Barney Wilkins. 
Musician August Amborn. 


Philip S. Atkins, Frederick Booker, Philip Brennon, Henry 
Beckhait, John Cook, Patrick Collopy, Jeremiah Crowley, 
Thomas J. Craycroft, John Curran, Lawrence Carroll, 
Michael Cary. William Dyer, Michael Dermidy, James 
Duno van, James W. Deering, Joseph Doherty, Thomas El- 
lis, Beverly Eisenbice, James Fitzpatrick, John Foos, James 
W. Floore, Patrick Gallagher, Henry Heinman, John Heen- 
an, John Johnson, Stephen Kellesher, Thomas Kelly, James 
Kearney, Jacob Lear, Henry Long, Robert Miller, Lawrence 
Morgan, Michael Mullen, Thomas Mann, Thomas Murphy, 
Henry Medley, Wesley McMurry, Francis McDonald, Pat- 
rick McGuife, James Montgomery, Michael Mahan, John 
Nevill, George Parin, John Porter, John W. Roberts, 
Michael Swinney, John Steelen, James Smith, John Stents, 
John Whalen, John Welch, John W. Clarke, Charles Crack- 
nel!, John P. Deitrick, John Dwyer, Thomas Dorsey, John 
Doyle, Cyrus Jeffreys, James Menaugh, Anthony Mullen, 
Charles Shoemaker, John M. Smith, Henry Weam. 

Captain George W. Conway. 
First Lieutenant Charles Obst. 
First Lieutenant Frederick Buckner. 
First Lieutenant Anthony P. Hefner. 
First Lieutenant William T. Morrow. 
Second Lieutenant William Troxler. 
Second Lieutenant Isaac Everett, Jr. 


Sergeant Emile Wilde. 
Corporal William Hartman. 
Corporal Henry Lentacker. 
Corporal Charles Henning. 
Corporal Joseph Pfatzer. 
Corporal Christian Haag. 
Corporal Samuel Schwartz. 

Frederick Arnold, John Algier, Jacob Attwejlcr, JoWpi 



Amos, Charles Berger, Conrad Beager, Andrew Bauer, 
George Bayha, George Bryning, Albert Baker, William F. 
Bolkemeyer, John Bowls, Thon:>as Bowls, Lewis Cook, Ar- 
mitage Carr, John T. Cunningham, ]ames H. Cowley, 
Thomas G. Conoway. George Comstock, Jacob Dries, James 
Davenport, Richard Davenport, Daniel W. Evans, B. Ed- 
ward, Casper Foil, James Farrel, Louis B. Fuller, Thomas 
Gregory, Frank Golquilt, Shelton T. Green, Philip Hans, 
Thaodore Heidbring, Jacob Hagar, Charles A. Harvey, 
William R. Hudspeth, Joseph Heaky, Henry Jerome, John 
Kongka, Sr.. John Kongka. Jr., Arnold Kuss, James Kay, 
Henry Mead, Thomas Moris, Charles Mathaes, John H. 
Michael, Banjamin March, George Meier, Joseph 1 . Meier, 
Thomas D. McLaughlin, James McGuire, William Magowen, 
John T. Mark, Henry Miller, William Meier, Albert Nauge- 
ster, John O'Haren, Radford M. Osborn, Joseph Obermeyer, 
Robert B. Pennington, William Rhein, Peter Reilsburger, 
John Reinald, Michael Radenheim, Charles Schrimpf, Bern- 
hard Speaker, Vincennes Schrimpf, Joseph Schmidt, Edward 
Sulivau, Alvis Stanger, Patrick Stanton, Albert Thorninyer, 
William Thompson, James Thomas, Benson Vansandt, 
Michael Vain, Thomas Ward, David F. Wright, Jacob 
Wirth, Henry Waltring, Frank Weston, William Wardlaw, 
George W. Wright, John Warden, George Wichter, John 

On alphabetical list of officers, but not on 
company rolls: 

Captain Stephen M. Gupton. 
First Lieutenant William L. Gupton. 
First Lieutenant James Gannon. 
First Lieutenant Thomas T. Baldwin. 
First Lieutenant James E. MuUin. 
First Lieutenant Charles Harris. 
First Lieutenant Thomas B. Wallace. 


First Lieutenant J. W. S. Smith. 



Captain Milton P. Hodges. 

First Lieutenant William B. Craddock. 



Surgeon John J. Matthews. 


The Thirty-fourth Kentucky Infantry was or- 
ganized at Louisville, on September 26th, 1861, 
under Lieutenant Colonel Henry Dent, and was 
then designated as the First Battalion Louisville 
Provost Guards. The authority for its organiza- 
tion was received from General Anderson, then 
commanding the Department of Kentucky, and a 
promise was made to the privates fhat they should 
receive twenty dollars per month during enlist- 
ment, and perform duty only in the city of Louis- 
ville and its immediate vicinity. This understand- 
ing remained intact until General Buell assumed 
command, when an order was issued that the 

Guards should not receive an excess of pay over 
other soldiers then in the service ($ 1 3 per month). 
The order created much dissension in the bat- 
talion, as they had already received two months' 
pay at the rate of $20 per month, and an appeal 
was made to the Honorable Secretary of War by 
Colonel Dent, who decided that General Buell 
was correct in issuing the order, but, inasmuch 
as the men had enlisted under promise of the 
extra pay, allowed all those who were unwilling 
to remain in the service at regulation pay to be 
mustered out. One entire company (B), and the 
larger portion of three others, were discharged 
at Louisville, in October, 1862. On the 2d 
of October, 1862, the Provost Guard ceased, 
and the organization of the Thirty-fourth Ken- 
tucky Infantry commenced. In justice to the 
Guard, it has been conceded by all that they per- 
formed their duty well, and rendered efficient 
service during its term of enlistment, and at a 
time when the status of the State was in a criti- 
cal condition, owing to the rebellious condition 
of a large part of her people, growing out of the 
indecision in promptly taking her stand for an 
undivided Union. The Provost Guard, during 
the years 1861-62, had stood guard over one 
hundred and fifty thousand prisoners of war and 
political prisoners. 

The Thirty-fourth infantry was relieved of 
provost duty at Louisville, on the 8th day of 
May, 1863, and ordered to report to General 
Judah, at Bowling Green, Kentucky, where it 
remained until July 4th, when it marched to 
Glasgow to assist in checking John Morgan in 
his raid into Kentucky. It did garrison duty at 
Glasgow until the 28th of September, when 
ordered to march, via Marrowbone and Burks- 
ville, to Knoxville, Tennessee, under command 
of General Manson, skirmishing with guerrillas 
nearly every day. From Knoxville it marched 
to Morristown, where it remained until the battle 
of Blue Springs, in which it distinguished itself 
by capturing nearly all of Mudwall Jackson's 
staff and four hundred and seventy-one of his 
command. When Longstreet laid siege to Knox- 
ville, General Burnside ordered the Thirty-fourth 
to Cumberland Gap from Morristown. After the 
siege of Knoxville was raised by General Sher- 
man, the Thirty-fourth was ordered to Tazewell, 
Tennessee, its colonel being [)laced in command 
of a brigade composed of the Thirty-fourth Ken- 



tucky, One Hundred and Sixteenth and One 
Hundred and Eighteenth Indiana infantry, the 
Eleventh Tennessee cavalry, and the Eleventh 
Michigan battery. 

On the 24th of January, 1864, the rebel 
Colonel Carter attacked Tazewell with about 
eighteen hundred men ; in which fight the 
Thirty-fourth again distinguished itself for un- 
daunted bravery under severe fire. In this en- 
gagement, which lasted about three-quart^Vs of 
an hpur, the enemy was repulsed with a loss of 
thirty-one killed and equally as many more 
wounded. On the 26th of January the regi- 
ment was again ordered to the Gap, under com- 
mand of General T. T. Garrard, where it re- 
mained on one-third rations for near three 
months, News having been received by the 
general commanding that an attack would be 
made on the Gap by Generals Jones and Vaughn, 
simultaneously, approaching in different direc- 
tions, he ordered fifty-five men of the Thirty- 
fonrth Kentucky infantry to proceed to Powell 
river bridge to prevent Vaughn's forces from 
crossing and forming a junction with Jones. The 
detachment of the Thirty-fourth arrived at the 
bridge just as Vaughn's advance guard were en- 
tering it, and repulsed them after a short fight ; 
but they were unable to tear up the floor before 
the whole force came up. The detachment of 
the Thirty-fourth at once took position in a tem- 
porary blockhouse, and successfully repelled 
five charges of the enemy. Being armed with 
Colt's five-shooters, their small numbers were en- 
abled, by undaunted bravery and their efficient 
arms, to contend with this large force, and com- 
pelled them to retire. In this fight all did their 
duty as true soldiers, and it would be invidious 
to make special mention of any where all fought 
so well. 

On the 17th of April, 1864, General Garrard 
was relieved of the command of the Gap, and 
Colonel W. Y. Dillard, of the Thirty-fourth 
Kentucky mfantry, remained in command until 
the 8th of November, 1864, when the Thirty- 
fourth was ordered to Knoxville, which place was 
threatened by General Breckinridge, from the di- 
rection of Strawberry Plains. The regiment was 
ordered to proceed to Knoxville, via Tazewell 
and Walker's Ford, a road much infested with 
guerrillas. It was reduced to only three hundred 
and four men, by the constant and arduous duty 

it had performed. After arriving at Walker's 
Ford, on Clinch river, it was unable to cross, 
owing to the high water and the want of a ferry- 
boat; consequently was compelled to return 
to the Gap and take the Jacksboro road. 
The regiment arrived at Knoxville on the i8th 
of November. It remained in that place, on 
provost duty, until February 2, 1865, when it 
was ordered back to the Gap. On the 20th of 
April the Thirty-fourth proceeded up the Vir- 
ginia valley, in the direction of Gibson's mills, 
where a force of the enemy was reported. On 
the 2 2d it was met by a flag of truce, and a 
proposition from Colonels Pridemore, Slemp, 
Richmond and Wicher, to surrender their forces, 
which was at once done, their commands num- 
bering two thousand seven hundred and thirteen 
men. On the 24th of April the Thirty-fourth 
was again ordered to Knoxville, and from thence 
to Loudon, Tennessee, where it remained on 
garrison duty until the 20th of June, when it 
returned to Knoxville for muster-out. It was 
mustered out at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 24, 


Colonel Henry Dent. 
Colonel .Selby Harney. 
Colonel William Y. Dillard. 
Lieutenant-colonel Lewis H. Ferrell. 
Major Milton T. Callahan. 
Major Joseph B. Watkins. 
Adjutant Charles A. Gruber. 
Adjutant Edward G. Parmele. 
Regimental Quartermaster David A. Haivey. 
Surgeon George W. Ronald. 
Surgeon Henry Tammadge. 
Assistant Surgeon Hugh Ryan. 
.Sergeant-major Henry Sutton. 
Sergeant-major Francis M. Looney. 
Sergeant-major Andrew Zimmerman. 
Sergeant-major Joseph W. Adams. 
Quartermaster-sergeant Charles Bardin. 
Commissary-sergeant William J. Shaw. 
Hospital Steward William Meek. 
Hospital Steward Joseph H. Todd. 


Captain William Y. Dillard. 
Captain Charles A. Gruber. 
First Lieutenant John C. Slater. 


First Sergeant Peter Frickhofen. 
Sergeant William S. Edwards. 
Sergeant William Himberger. 
Sergeant George A. Bowers. 
Sergeant Charles Bardin. 
Corporal James McElroy. 



Corporal John Furter. 
Corporal Herman Teitze. 
Corporal Charles Teitze. 


Edward L. Brining, Frederick W. Brochelt, Charles Clay, 
Andrew Lawson, Fideil Negell, Adolph Oppenheimer, Simon 
Oberdorfer, Nicholas Powers, John Shoemaker, George W. 
St. Clair, Thomas Atkinson, Jackson Blunk, William Jami- 
son, Alexander McFarren, Francis T. Roberts, James Smith, 
William Thompson, George Crawley, Ambrose J. Hofman, 
Cornelius Sullivan, Frank Laner. 


Captain Rodolph H. Whitmer. 

First Lieutenant Thomas M. Alexander. 

First Lieutenant Joseph W. Adams. 


First Sergeant John W. Sykes. 
Sergeant Henry Tate. 
Sergeant Francis M. Martin. 
Sergeant Joseph L. Dobson. 
Sergeant Thomas J. Craycraft. 
Sergeant Andrew Batts. 
Sergeant Joseph Hughes. 
Corporal William C. Golden. 
Corporal Henry Benton. 
Corporal Francis M. Sanders. 
Corporal George W. Smith. 
Musician James L. Ereckson. 
Musician Michael J. Flannagan. 


Stephen Barker, Robert Burns, John Carroll, Henry J. 
Chappell, William J. Deguire, Washington D. Drane, Wil- 
liam A. Dunn, Emanuel Emrick, William Hall, Gregory 
Ham, Samuel J. Howard, John E. Howard, Thomas Jones, 
Patrick Knowland, Martin Knox, Benjamin F. Lamb, Peter 
Marselles, Huston Martin, Florence McCarty, Charles W. 
McKenzie, P. E. C. J. Maxville, John M. Price, James M. 
Pritchard, William Smith, German A. Shivers, David Siin- 
son, George Staker, John H. Sandefur, Thomas S. Tevis, 
Jacob B. Tarlton, Henry C. Urban, William VanRebber, 
Cornelius C. Weems, Adam Wehl, Ulrich Becker, Burl M. 
Dunn, John Knapp, Lawrence Hannan, Henry H. Simpson, 
John W. Darrington, Charles Hughes, Adam J. Tarlton, 
John Baker, Eli Decker, Frank Hobbell, Patrick Shea. 


Captain William H. Fagan. 


First Sergeant William B. Dearing. 
Sergeant Frank J. Brocar. 
Sergeant Calender King. 
Sergeant Rufus F. Goose. 
Sergeant Edward Bullock. 
Sergeant J. W. Adams. 
Corporal Wesley Brentlinger. 
Corporal John B. Henke. 
Corporal William D. Hemp. 
Corporal Hugh Gavigan. 
Corporal Rolen South. 
Ccipcr mesjeffiies. 


Henry C. Alford, William J. Allen, Patrick F. Brown, 
Louis Buzan, William Cook, Edward Dangerfield, Edward 
Dott, James Dix, Patrick Glendon, Henry W. Harris, 
Richard W. Heaton, Edward Hogan, John Hawkins, Louis 
Lewallen, John F. Lee, Frederick Munsch, Henry Medley, 
Martin Mahan, John Oats, John Odonald, Thomas Oliver, 
James L. Russell, Jacob Seibert, Martin Stanfield, James R. 
Stout, William Smith, Lawrence Wick, Thomas Wolford, 
Charles Hawkins, William M. Harris, Philip Kocher, Wil- 
liam H. Russell, Jacob Shaeffer, James Tyler, Frederick 
Tucker, Alexander Young, Gabriel Bower, Martin Fury, 
Charles T. Reid, Benjamin Seigle, Samuel Tyler. 



Captain James P. Tapp. 

Captain Joel M. Coward. 

Captain Alfred V. D. Abbett. 

First Lieutenant George W. Coward. 


First Sergeant William M. Smith. 
Sergeant Michael J. Boyle. 
Sergeant Alford A. Mason. 
Sergeant Franklin Renner. 
Sergeant Jesse T. Battle. 
Sergeant Lewis Hays. 
Sergeant Joseph R. Rain. 
Sargeant James M. King. 
Sergeant John C. Martin. 
Sergeant John T. Shadbum. 
Sergeant John .Shele. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Tyler. 
Sergeant James M. Leatherman. 
Corporal Albert H. McQuiddy. 
Corporal Joseph Reading. 
Corporal John Risinger. 
Corporal Robert Fulford. 
Corporal Alphus B. Miller. 
Corporal Gibson Withers. 
Corporal Francis M. Looney. 


James R. Bennet, James, D. Connell, Charles J. F. EUi- 
cott, Walter T. Ford, James W. Ford, James W. Gatton, 
Harman Hallatag, Ralston P. High, Jack Mack, John 
Marks, Patrick McCann, William B. McKinley, James Mc- 
Cauley, Samuel Parshley, Samuel Rosenthal, Albert Ran- 
dolph, Thomas Riffet, Henry Stroker, James R. Tyre, James 
Clark, Thomas Conley, James Harmer, Miles Houston, Charles 
Litchcock, John Shele, Joseph F. Sachs, Thomas B. Thayer, 
Christian G. Weller, Amos H. Byram, Joseph H. Todd, 
John S. Williams, Francis M. Brisby, C. M. Chappell, 
Thomas McCormick, John B. Wnght. 


Captain John O. Daly. 
Captain Thomas H. Tindell. 
Captain Eugene O. Daly. 
First Lieutenant John B. Smith. 


First Sergeant John Jeffers. 
Sergeant Thomas Raymond. 
Sergeant Patrick Corrigan. 



Sergeant Philip Ernest. 

Sergeant Julius Lunenburger. 

Corporal John P. Jones. 


James Cody, John N. Feltes, Samuel Harmon, Edward 
B. Miles, John Nicks, Garrett Prendible, Daniel Reardon, 
Thomas Riley, John Torphy, Peter Wolf, Jacob Finister, 
Abraham Hurl, Patrick O'Donnell, Richard Pugh, Joseph 
Reary, Robert Ragan, Clarence Scates, David H. Tate, 
George Webber, James Boultinghouse, James Butler, 
Michael McCarthy, Michael Murphy, William Miller. 



Captain William F. Stars. 
First Lieutenant John Wood. 
First Lieutenant James W. Fowler. 


First Sergeant Henry Watson. 
Sergeant August Shelby. 
Sergeant Henry Burnett. 
Sergeant Joseph Seigul. 
Corporal Isaac J. Jones. 
Corporal James Donahue. 
Corporal Jacob Twenty. 
Corporal Jacob Wormer. 
Corporal George Doctorman. 
Corporal Michael Given. 
Corporal W. H. Worth. 
Corporal William Egelston. 
Musician James Armitage. 
Musician Darby Scully. 


Jacob Aimer, William Bollinger, Sibburne W. Bogg, Henry 
Bussman, Peter Borten, Patrick Brown, Martin Blumel, John 
Brunnon, Lionhart Baumbache, George A. Bowers, Edward 
A. Cutsall, Patrick Carroll, George Clator, John Clifford, 
Stephen Conelly, John Deth, William Daily, Michael Farthy, 
Herman Foss, Michael Francis, Joseph Gassman, Abraham 
Graft, John Gurnon, Henry Galliger, Paul Hemmer, Chris- 
tian Hartman, John Hofel, Henry Herman, Theodore Hab- 
bie, Jasper C. Hunt, Eniks Habbie, Elias S. Irvin, Charles 
Jones, Thomas Johnson, John Kunz, August Kummer, John 
Linn, Daniel Lapp, Jacob Lance, Joseph Leinhardt, Jacob 
Lauffer, Frederick Madden, Thomas J. Mitchel, John Metz, 
John Ming, Pierce A. J. Malone, John Maloney, Freley Mil- 
ler, John McCann, James McElroy, Patrick Niland, Michael 
Ott, Edward Owen, David O'Conner, Dennis O'Brien, Pat- 
rick xiedinton, Lewis Snider, August Schioner, Frederick 
Stonmeir, Eugene Sullivan, John J. Swope, I^wrence Smith, 
Andre .V G. P. Shields, John Summer, Zachariah Taylor, 
Herman Tettel, Frederick Welch, Wormley E. Wroe, Wil- 
liam Wilson, Oliver Wood, William Weinbeck, John 
Wacker, Christian J. Wolf, Francis Vader, Ernst Mettle, 
Joseph Stradle, John M. Maddux, Dietrich Mathfield, John 
Burger, Joseph Kaughfman, John Kittinger, Thomas J. 
Wright, Martin B. Wright, Benjamin Leich. 



Captain Christopher C. Hare. 
First Lieutenant Henry Watson. 
Second Lieutenant John R. Farmer. 


Sergeant John Shotwell. 

Sergeant Hiram Kinman. 

Corporal George H. Gate wood. 

Corporal Fred. Swarts. 

Corporal William B. Foster. 

Corporal James Curry. 


Frank Andy, William Bryant, John Born, Thomas Bramel, 
William Chadic, Thomas Cain, John Casey, John Conley, 
Jonathan Chessey, Stafford Conley, Michael Coughlin, 
Michael Concannon, Robert Doyle, Thomas Adis Emith, 
Frederick Eisenneger, Silas Elzy, Joseph P. Eshenbaugh, 
Henry Felker, Walter F. Farris, Rufus K. Foster, Thomas 
Higgins, WilhamJ. Humble, Richard F. Hamilton, Philip 
Hursh, Andy Hamlit, George W. Jackson, Philip Jordon, 
Jacob Kizer, John Lendreth, Ancil B. Mclntire, William 
McGuire, William Marefield, John Murphy, George Mark- 
well, Noah B. Moore, Henry Michall, Isaac Moore, George 
Neice, Frederick Niesly, Augustus Odell, James Piatt, Ab- 
salom Rose, Jr., William Rickards, Thomas S. Smith, John 
Snider, Joseph Sleetmatty, William Strops, John H. Schamps, 
Michael Sullivan, James F. Travis, Charles J. Travis, Lycur- 
gus Williamson, John W. Yearn, Jacob A. Bell, William A. 
Boman, John Crawford, Henry Eckert, John Fisher, John 
Goss, John G. Gray, William Hasting, John Johnston, 
Marshall Merritt, James Murphy, William M. Robinson, 
John W. RatlifT, Emil C. L. Sherer, John Troutman, Gar- 
rett Vore, William H. H. Vailes, John Watson, James 
Welsh, John J. Young. 

Captain Francis A. McHarry. 
Captaip Henry Sutton. 
Second Lieutenant John M. Williams. 
Second Lieutenant John O. Beard. 

First Sergeant Robert' W. Oliver. 
Sergeant Bollman M. Stevens. 
Sergeant Alonzo G. Moore. 
Sergeant Charles D. Ashby. 
Sergeant Edward P. Speed. 
Sergeant Andrew Zimmerman. 
Corporal Lawrence Hagarman. 
Corporal William Errick. 
Corporal William Gover. 
Corporal Sidney Monroe. 
Corporal William Blunk. 


Louis P. Beale, Alexander Bruner, Alonzo Butcher, James 
Birdwell, George Coogle, Edward Cotter, John Cready, Wil- 
liam Costillo, John Franzman, Thomas J. Fon,John A. God- 
dard, Charles Gasser, Clat Johnson, Emil Krucker, George 
Kron, George W. Kron, John Leahey, James R. Lamb, 
Hiram B. Lamb, Allen Long, Jesse Lafallett, Thomas Led- 
wick, Peters Meyers, Philip G. Monroe, George Morrison, 
John W. McDaniel, James H. Moore, John Maloney, James 
B. Prewitt, James Pauley, Joseph Raubold, Beno Schlesinger, 
Isaac Stewart, Wenthrop Simms, Sidney Smith, James M 
Speed, William H. Terry, Andrew J. Webb, Peter Crowe, 
William W. Duffield, Jerry Hunt, Henry Menny, Olivei 
Newell, Benjamin F. S. Osborrf, Samuel Skiles. Jacob Sow 
der, Charles Wills, Rudolph Armbruster, James Burnell 



Elbert Bruner, Joseph H. Drane, |ames A. Coburn, John 
Fallow, Jesse Fuque, Xavier Hirschley, William Seller. 


Captain Milton T. Callahan. 
Captain oseph Pickering 
Captain anies M. Callahan. 


First Sergeant John H. Reesor. 
First Sergeant Thomas M. Alexander. 
Sergeant Theodore F. Goss. 
Sergeant Charles H. Peterson, 
Sergeant William G. Baird. 
Sergeant William W. Moss. 
Sergeant James R. Homback. 
Sergeant: Jacob H. Keller. 
Sergeant Christopher B. Tharp. 
Sergeant William Meek. 
Corporal James Gallegar. 
Corporal Wadsworth Kindle, 
Corporal Theodore Watson. 
Corporal William H. Goss. 
Corpoial John E. Enlow. 
Corporal Blackley W. Jenkins. 
Corporal Alonzo Lytle. 
Corporal George W. Parris. 
Corporal Henry C. Trannum. 
Musician Arnold Tharp. 


John S. Arnold, Peter A. Burba, Samuel T. Burba, Na- 
than Bennett, Conrad Brandabery, John W. Cooper. Samuel 
F. Drury, Thomas T. Ferrell. Bailey S. Green, William Gip- 
son, John Hoke, Charles F. Homback, Andrew M. Hom- 
back, Alfred Hornback, James W. Hunt, RichardJ. Hollo- 
way, Peter Heinibom, Barnett Hopkins, Norban G. Jackson, 
William enkins, Michael Kearney, John Lanin, James W. 
Lamb, John Link. George W. Miller, I^vi H. Melton, Ben- 
jamin L. Moss. Henry C. Morgan, Thomas J. G. W. 
Phelps, John Reynolds, Thomas Reynolds, Henry C. Rod- 
effer, Benjamin O. Sympson, Andrew D. Steel, oseph H. 
Steel, Adam State, Eli Shively, George R. Tharp, John W. 
Waters, William Wood, Henry G. Yates, Anthony Acker- 
man, Patrick S. Caher, Solomon Irwin, Squire Lane, Daniel 
J. McClure, Samuel D. McCready, Mariano Olivera, David 
W. Roach, William G. Stonecypher, Archibald M. Symp- 
son, Robert Tuel, David P. Willis, Daniel Kincaid, William 
J. Shaw, Philip Glasman, Charles King, James G. Sympson, 
Andrew Wolpert. 



Captain Eli P. Farmer. 
Captain James Boultinghouse. 
First Lieutenant John Armstrong. 

Second lieutenant Fred Wyman (on alphabetical list, but 
not on company rolls). 


First Sergeant Christopher C. Dean. 
First Sergeant Rodolph H. Whi'ner. 
Sergeant Charles S. Baker. 
Sergeant David Crull. 
Sergeant Abram T. Chappell. 
Sergeant George S. Minor. 
Sergeant JBmes F. McMahr 1. 

Corporal Federick D. Connor. 
Corporal Thomas Woods. 
Corporal Jacob Beck. 
Corporal James W. Wheeler. 
Corporal William F. Smither. 
Corporal William M. McKim. 
Corporal Davis Bumgardner. 
Corporal James B. Groves. 
Corporal Robert H. Morris. 
Corporal George L. McKim. 


John' J. Arnold, Richard Baker, Joseph Busath, B. F. 
Boultinghouse, Franklin ChristofF, George W. Cooper, 
Henry Doring, Franklin Drake, John Fennell, John Fey, An- 
drew Gump, Samuel G. Hensley, George B. Herbert, Daniel 
Hardin, Hugh Hagan, John Johnson, Miles James, Peter 
Krensh, William Kershbaum, John Moss, Henry C Reed, 
James S. Simler, Alfred Stinson, Franklin Woodward, David 
Welsh, Mathew Woods, Thomas J. Wilson, David Wilson, 
James Williamson, John Waggle, Patrick Brannon, Nelson 
Crull, Marion Eaton, Thomas Fitzgerald, Charles Flood, 
Lawrence Hannon, John J. Lang, James W. Lamar, Michael 
Morris. John R. McConnell, William Powell, Calvin Samp- 
ley, Franklin Snawder, Mathew Smith, John Smith, Stephen 
Terry, Addison Terry, Washington Connor, Thomas Dillon, 
Isaac Hensley, Samuel G. Hutchison, Curtis Lindsey, Jerry 
A. Robison, Daniel Shelley, Peter Snawder, William F. 


Lieutenant-colonel Henry Dent 
Major Selby Harney. 
Adjutant Charles A. Gruber. 
Surgeon George W. Ronald. 
Sergeant-major Henry Sutton. 



Captain William T. Dillard. 

First Lieutenant Charles A. Gruber. 

Second Lieutenant Francis A. McHarry. 


First Sergeant John C. Slater. 
Sergeant William Ernst. 
Sergeant John M. Snyder. 
Sergeant William Harper. 
Sergeant William H. Miller. 
Corporal F. G. Whick. 
Corporal William S. Edwards. 
Corporal Henry Patterson. 
Corporal Joseph Pickering. 
Corporal Charles Bardin. 
Corporal William Cummins. 
Corporal Peter Frickhofer. 
Corporal Thomas H. Atkinson. 
Corporal Jacob S. Pierce. 
Musician Levi B. Bixby. 
Musician John Watson. 


Frederick Ashman, Oliver Allison, Thomas Argin, John 
W. Barker, Jackson Blunk, Jacob Crester, William Casey. 
Anthony Clarke, James Corcoran, William Cusac, George 
Crawley, Charles G. Cushman, John Cook, George Clark, 
John Dysinger, Michael Doyle, John Dalton, Jacob Dress, 



Conrad Draul. Joseph P. Estes, Frank Esrich, Henry Eber- 
hart, Patrick Flinn, John Fusion, Bernard Flack, Frederick 
Frisher, William Griffin, Lewis Gross, Alfred J. Groch, Con- 
rad Groth, Franklin Graw, John Hagarman, Laurence Hag- 
arman, A. Hodapp, Andrew Height, Thomas Hennessy, 
John W. Jacobs, William Jemmison, Anthony Kern, Lewis 
Kremer, William Kagle, John Kiser, Joseph Lauterback, 
Frank Miller, Henry B. Miller, Michael Murray, William 
McMurray, Franklin Melvin, Hugh Moffitt, Daniel Meaher, 
Patrick McGoflf, Thomas Malone, Henry Marcely, Michael 
McGiemey, Anton MoUain, Philip MoUain, Anthony Mc- 
Ginty, James Maher, John J. Miller, Henry Osterman, 
Leonard Pairne, Lewis Pickering, Mordecai Pillow, William 
Patterson, Alfred G. Putnam, Charles Pickering, George B. 
Randolph, Joseph W. Roberts, Francis S. Roberts, Andrew 
Riley, Henry Sutton, William Seibel. Samuel Schwer, Joseph 
Snell, Frederick Stutzell, George Shower, Joseph Schwartz, 
Lewis S. Skiles, Anthony Stormel, Leonard Stelley, Casper 
Suiter, John Shoemaker, Charles Seitz, G. H. Timmer, 
Charles Tietz, Walter Townsend, Peter Uhl, Jacob Vanan, 
George W. White, Thomas Young. 



Captain William Blood. 
First Lieutenant Christopher C. Hare. 
First Lieultthant David A. Harvey. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick Wyman. 

nOn-commissioned officers. 
Sergeant Eli Fattner. 
Sergeant James W. Fisher. 
Sergeant Benjamin Myers. 
Sergeant J. R. Farmer. 
Corporal J. E. Goldsmith. 
Corporal Morris Davis. 
Corporal Harrison Bridgft. 
Corporal P. H. Yenawine. 
Corporal Levi Cole. 
Corporal R. M. McClelland. 
Corporal Thomas H. Stephens. 
Corporal George W. Vreland. 


John Brady, John C. Boyd, Alexander T. Barker, Neal 
Beglot, Daniel Bennett, John Connell, A. J. Craig, Henry 
Chappell, James Chappell, Thomas R. Crandell, J. C. Con- 
nell, Joseph Carpenter, Thomas S. Chesser, Frank Dittmar, 
John Daker, C. F. Dantic, James Easton, William Felker, 
John Farris, John Freeman, J. T. Froman, Walton Gold- 
smith, William Gable, Weston Graham, Price Graham, John 
Green, William Gallaher, John Hazer, Henry Hiser, Henry 
J. Holdman, Frank Howell, Henry Hartledge, Joseph Hart- 
ledge, Eli Hading, Isaac Holt, William Hobbs, P. M. Horn- 
back, George W. Hays, Lewis Hays, Philip Hacker, Adam 
Jost, Mathew Lynch, Michael McGrafi", John McDonald, 
Warren Morain, Dennis Mitchell, Andrew H. Mitchell, Wil- 
liam Mathis, Jonathan N. Marion, William Newman, Frede- 
rick Rice, James Raverty, J. L. Ryley, William Scandler, 
George Snell, Philip Seller, J. C. Stammell, Peter Snider, 
G. L. E. Scherer, Boone Summers, F. V. Stevens, Perry 
Snellen, Henry J. Smith, William Thurman, Joseph R. Tid- 
ings, Thomas H. Tehan, J. E. Talbert, Robert Villers, Philip 
Vollman, William H. Walker, John Young. 

Company C was Company F of the Thirty- 
fourth Kentucky infantry. 

commissioned officers. 
Captain Lewis H. Farrell. 
First Lieutenant James P. Tapp. 
Second Lieutenant Joel M. Coward. 

non-commissioned officers. 
First Sergeant A. W. D. Abbett. 
Sergeant James M. Leatherman. 
Sergeant James Winn. 
Sergeant John Scheie. 
Sergeant George W. Coward. 
Corporal Alfred M. Hoghland. 
Corporal Alpheus B. Miller. 
Corporal Joseph R. Cain. 
Corporal John T. Shadburn. 
Corporal Benjamin S. Tyler. 
Corporal John Risinger. 
Corporal Thomas B. Weatherford. 
Corporal Richard L. Heplar. 


Richard H. Alpine, Joseph Beger, Timothy Brown, Joseph 
Burkhart, William Brown, John H. Bates, Francis M. Bris- 
by, James Clarke, Jacob D. Campbell, Thomas Conley, 
Isaac Covent, H. C. Conley, George L. Cook, James T. 
Carpenter. Duncan Daker, John Daker, Thomas T. Dunk- 
ester, Edward Dowler, John Dumpsey, Mathew Daughan, 
Peter Feeney, William Fitzhenny, James Farmer, Robert 
Fuiford, George Gans, M. Grisel, George Gutgaher, Patrick 
M. Gannon, George Gebhart, William A. Green, C. Heckel- 
miller, Peter L. Helper, Henry A. Hueper, Robert Hagerty, 
Mills Houston, Theodore Holtsclaw, Henry Heart, John 
Huddy, Stephen L. Jones, William Y. Jones, Richard Jentzis, 
George L. Jones, Hiram Jones, George W. Jones, Francis 
Kennedy, Leonard Kopp, James M. King, Thomas Linch, 
Francis M. Looney, William W. Martin, William D. Martin, 
Albert H. McQuiddy, John C. Martin, Jacob Noss, John 
Negson, Bejamin Nett, Arthur W. O'Connor, Thomas 
O'Malay, Joseph Parsons, William Ray, John D. Reagh, 
William Robinson, Joseph Right, Joseph P. Reading, 
Ephraim Rusk, Henry Rimback, Thomao Sanford, Henry 
Schafer, rank Steins r, W. L. Smith, Michael Swaney, 
Joseph F. Sachs, James Scott, Frederick W. Schneider, 
John Scheie, Theodore Swinney, Charles Sinat, Charles 
Schwardtner, Patrick Scully, John Tomlinson, Thomas B. 
Thayer, Edward Vincore, John Vollmar, William Wilson, 
Philip Whalin, Christian G. Weller, Frederick Wolf. Gibson 
Withers, John B. Wright, Perry Weatherford, D. R. Way- 


commissioned officers. 
Captain John O. Daly. 
First Lieutenant Thomas H. Tindell. 
Second Lieutenant Eugene O. Daly. 

non-commissioned officers. 
First Sergeant William Dougherty. 
Sergeant Thomas H. Wenstanley. 
Sergeant Charles Miller. 
Sergeant Michael Gosney. 
Sergeant John B. Smith. 
Corporal John Jeffers. 
Corporal Jacob Ax. 
Corporal Timothy Hogan. 
Corporal Patrick Flood. 



Corporal Fdward Robinson. 
Corporal Patrick Halpenny. 
Corporal ohn N. Felters. 
Corporal Peter Gias. 


James Butler, J. P. Bornthager, James Boultinghouse, 
Edward Boultinghouse, Francis M. Boultinghouse, John 
Bums, Isaac Bennett, Joseph T. Bright, Conrad Burghard, 
Edward Burns, Oscar Cline, John Crawford, William Cos- 
tello. Anthony Cliden, John M. Chisenhall, Charles Connell, 
John Donahugh, facob Dunel, L. H. Daniel, James Evans, 
Philip Ernst. Jacob Ernst, James Enright, .'Andrew Fritz, 
Theodore Farren, Henry Fremmen, John Fremmen, Frank 
Fremmen, William Fremen, Francis Fark, Jacob Finsten, 
Jacob Groby. Thomas G. Gallagher, Anthony Giiffin, Lewis 
Gideon, George W. Glenbarker, Patrick Canning, ohn 
Guy, J. G. Hall, Richard Henry, Anthony Hoban, John 
Houser, David F. Henry, Andrew Hearn, A. Hurl, Thomas 
Kent, Andrew Kregel, Lewis Kimer, John Lever, Charles 
Lemmer, William Lear, Nicholas Lear, Julius Luenberger, 
Gobhtz Lemier, George W. Messenger, Michael Mc- 
Donough, Michael McCarthy, John Mills, Edward B. Miles, 
David Mercer, John Nix, James Ryan, Robert Ragan, 
Patrick Riley, Thomas Riley, John Schigart, Franklin Schi- 
gart, William Schork, John Smith, James Smith, Henry 
Schikell, Thomas Stanton, Thomas O. Shay, William ShiU 
ling, John Shartell, Michael Stitzell, Andrew Scherk, Fred- 
erick Sigel, Frederick Ungerman, "Francis Ulrich, Stephen 
Vick, William R. Vanover, Charles Webber, Jacob Wisen- 
berger, William R. Wheeler, John V. Wheeler, Patrick 
Walsh, Christopher Zeigler. 


This was organized under Colonel Charles S. 
Hanson, in the summer of 1863, and Companies 
A, B, and C were mustered into the United 
States service at Glasgow, Kentucky, September 
17, 1863. Companies D, E, F, and G were mus- 
tered-in October 24, 1863, at Glasgow, Ken- 
tucky. Captain Stroube's company, originally 
raised for the Fifty-first Kentucky infantry, was 
mustered-in September 4, 1863, at Covington, 
Kentucky, and consolidated with the Thirty- 
seventh, forming Company H. Companies I 
and K were mustered-in at Glasgow, Kentucky, 
December 21 and 22, 1863. Charles S. Hanson 
was mustered-in as colonel, December 29, 1863, 
and commanded the regiment until the battle of 
Saltville, Virginia, was fought, on the 2d day of 
October, 1864, when he was severely wounded, 
and fell into the hands of the enemy a prisoner 
of war. He was afterwards exchanged and 
honorably discharged March 6, 1865. 

This regiment was composed of the best 
material, and though a one-year regiment, bore 
as honorable a part in the war as many three- 
years regiments, and was engaged in all the battles 

occurring in the locality in which it served, 
though the records of the regiment only show it 
to have been engaged in the battles at Glasgow, 
Kentucky; Jackson county, Tennessee; Saltville, 
Virginia, and Mt. Sterling, Kentucky. It was 
musteied-out December 29, 1864, at Louisville, 
the re-enlisted men being transferred to the Fifty- 
fifth Kentucky infantry and the Fourth Ken- 
tucky Mounted infantry. 


Adjutant Caswell B. Watts. 


Captain William O. Watts. 
Second Lieutenant ohn R. Watts. 


First Sergeant George W. Alvin. 
Sergeant ohn Dixon. 
Sergeant William Knapp. 
Sergeant Nathan L. R. Melvin. 
Sergeant Charles Walters. 
Corporal Levi Gravetre. 
Corporal o hn D. Warren. 
Corporal Henry E. Sanders. 
Corporal Manuel Evans. 
Corporal Robert Edmonson. 
Corporal Militus . Wilson. 
Corporal Mitchell Wright. 
Corporal ereniiah F. ei kins. 


Jacob Bales, Nathan B. Edwards, Green E. Graham, 
Thomas Helton, John C. Jenkins, Joseph P. Mattingly, 
William N. Miles, William McDaniel, Henry Milligan, 
)ames Nelson, Preston Napper, Thomas J. Pepper, William 
Perkins, John Perkins, James Peters, John T. Price, Green 
B. Robertson, Reuben Ratcliff, James Read, Jefferson 
Rhodes, Robert B. Sanders, Tillman H. Sheckles, John 
Slaughter, John C. Skaggs, James F. Skaggs, Sidney H. 
Stennett, Walter Vessels, John R. Wilson, William Wil- 
liams, John Young, Thomas Burrows, John Burrows, Julius 
N. Crowley, George M. Emery, George M. French, Oliver 
P. Grace, John W. Gill, John Hall, William Jones, Jesse 
Jones, Richard Lyons, William Mitcham, James M. Mundy, 
Jefferson Morris, Benjamin M. Morris, Jasper C. Roberts, 
Pascal Saltsman, John T. Wade, William K. Wade, Wil- 
liam B. Whitehouse, Rufus Ackridge, David Brewer, Joseph 
Books, Benjamin Brown, John M. Despain, William R. 
Faulkner, Wi4fem W. Hunt, Thomas S. Pease, Charles S. 
Roiise, H. P. Sympson, Henry Wells. 


Captain James H. White. 

Captain Joseph J. Borrell. 

On alphabetical list, but not on company rolls: 

Second Lieutenant George W. White. 





Colonel Hartwell T. Burge. M. Courtney. 


First Lieutenant John F. Lay. 

On alphabetical list, but not on company rolls: 

First Lieutenant John F. Lay. 


Colonel Clinton f. True, 
Lieutenant-colonel W. C. Johnson. 
Major James G. Francis. 
Adjutant Frank D. Tunis. 
Quartermaster S. J. Housh. 
Surgeon William B. Bland. 
Assistant Surgeon Henry C. Miller. 

On alphabetical list, but not on company rolls: 


Second Lieutenant Mathew Kennedy. 



Surgeon Frederick C. Leber. 



First Lieutenant Benjamin C. Lockwood. 


The Fifty-fifth Kentucky Infantry was raised un- 
der special authority of the War Department, aud 
was organized at Covington, Kentucky, in Nov- 
ember, 1864. It was mounted, and performed 
duty in the counties bordering on the Kentucky 
Central Railroad, until ordered on the Saltville ex- 
pedition under General Burbridge. On this ex- 
pedition It performed good and efficient service* 
and was favorably mentioned by the command- 
ing general, among other troops of his division, 
for gallant bearing in face of the enemy. After 
the return from Virginia the regiment was by de- 
tail posted in various counties to protect the citi- 
zens from depredations of guerrillas, upon which 
duty it remained until mustered out at Louis- 
ville, on the 19th day of September, 1865. 


Assistant Surgeon E. R. Palmer. 



First Lieutenant James H. White. 
Second Lieutenant George W. White. 


Sergeant Charles Walters. 
Sergeant Syburn Lain. 

Sergeant Wiatt B. Goad. 
Corporal Thomas Ford. 
Corporal Andrew W. Hester. 
Corporal Byron A. Gardner. 
Corporal Henry Deaver. 
Corporal Joseph B. Tennelly. 
Corporal Thomas Birge. 
Corporal William W. Tyree. 
Musician Leroy D. Livingston. 
Musician James B. Waldon. 
;V\agoner Richard Moore. 


Thomas Burros, Wesley Blankenship, Thomas H. Blank- 
enship, Thomas C. Buley, Charles E. Clark, Francis M. 
Cable, Julius M. Crawley, Lawson Daniels, Abner D. Dud- 
ley, George W. Durbin, Thomas Deaver, Amos Englan, 
Irvin Frogg, G. W. French, J. W. Gill, G. W, Golley, John 
H. Gibson, William H. Wornback, John Harman, Robert 
Howell, John H. Johnston, Thomas W. Johnston, WiUianj 
Jones, Robert Killian, Richard Lyons, James McCoy, James 
A. Merryfield, William A. Mitchum, Haywood M. Moore, 
James M. Mundy, Benjamin M. Morris, John Malone, John 
Mayfield, Alfred Newton, James J. Newton, Benjamin D. 
Orr, Cadd Orms, John A. Richards, Jasper E. Robarts, 
Achison E. Robertson, Nathan L. Slinker, Joseph Slinker, 
James T. Shoemaker, Pashall Saltsman, Benjamin W. 
Spaulding, William Steadman, William Vance, John G. 
Wise, James Walls, William R. Wade, Robert Whitlock, 
William R. Whitelessee, William F. Wright, John Barnes. 
Peter Green, John Hall, John Burris, Lelbond H. Dikker- 
son, Jesse Jones, John T. Waid. 



Captain Peter S. Jones. 

First Lieutenant George M. Harper. 

Second Lieutenant John N. Buchanan. 


First Sergeant Edward D." Scott. 
Sergeant William Austin. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Schole. 
Sergeant Charles Koph. 
Sergeant Albert Ceaser. 
Sergeant Clayton L. Harris. 
Coiporal Jacob Axe. 
Corporal William Buckley. 
Corporal Elias Brown. 
Corporal Charles Stickler. 
Corporal Daniel Hathaway. 
Corporal Conrad Dintleman. 
Corporal Daniel Bardwell. 
Corporal Frederick Cubbins. 


Jesse Abbott, Harmon Ashberry, William Brown, William 
H. Brown, John Cleary, Patrick Durrill, James L. Davis, 
Frederick Ehrempford, Milton H. Gore, Charles Gardner, 
John Hegan, Casemer Hillerick, Louis Huber, Adolph 
Haze, James W. Jackson, Leman C. Kellam, Jackson Led- 
ford, Thomas Ledford, Major E. Lee, Henry C. Lucas, 
Peter Moreback, John Messinger, George W. Messinger, 
Harrison Miller, Francis Manahan, Frederick Miller, James 
A. Matthes, Noah Piercefield, John Shaw, Jacob Smith, 
Gabriel Smaltz, Frank Spindler, Frank Snyder, Andrew 
Severs, • John Stephens, James Bethuran, Wiley R. Daugh- 



erty, Michael Heltz, Henry Ley, John Massey, William H. 
Snead, Edgar Warriner, William H. Hood, Francis M. Mc- 
Donald, John Miller. 


Second Lieutenant Jacob P. Phipps. 

On alphabetical list, but not on company rolls : 
Captain George Welker. 



Robert F. Burton, William Clarke, Walter Large, John 
Peryins, William J. Vanhook. 



William Stapleton, Thomas Thompson, John Tombs. 

The Second Kentucky cavalry was organized 
at Camp Joe Holt, under Colonel Buckner 
Board, mustered into service on the 9th day of 
Septeibber, 1861, by Major W. H. Sidell, and 
was a part of that gallant band raised by Gen- 
eral Rousseau, from which the grand army of 
the Cumberland sprung. It marched from Camp 
Joe Holt to Muldrough's Hill with General Rous- 
seau in defense of Louisville against the advance 
of Buckner, and was immediately assigned to 
duty with the Army of the Cumberland; it was 
in the advance of General Buell's army at Shiloh, 
and participated in that battle. The regiment 
remained in Tennessee until September, 1863, 
when it again returned to Kentucky with Buell's 
army, in pursuit of Bragg, and with the cavalry 
engaged with the enemy at Chaplin Hills, Ken- 
tucky, October 8, 1862. The regiment marched 
from Perryville, in pursuit of Bragg, as far as 
Mount Vernon, in Rockcastle county, Kentucky, 
when the pursuit was abandoned, and both 
armies made efforts to reach Nashville first. 
From Nashville the regiment marched to Mur- 
freesboro, and in the fight of Stone river received 
special mention from General Rousseau, com- 
manding the division, for gallant and daring 

The regiment participated in the following 
noted battles in which loss was sustained, besides 
numerous skirmishes and minor battles incident 
to the vigorous campaigns of the Army of the 
Cumberland, to which it was attached, viz : 
Shiloh, Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain, and all the battles of the 
Atlanta campaign. The regiment veteranized at 

Bridgeport, Alabama, March 7, 1864, and the 
recruits and veterans were transferred to the 
Second Kentucky veteran cavalry. 


Colonel Buckner Board. 

Colonel Thomas P. Nicholas. 

Lieutenant-colonel Owen Starr. 

Regimental Quartermaster Elias Thomasson. 

Regimental Quartermaster William G. Rogers. 

Regimental Commissary Edward B. Ayres. 



Captain George W. Griffiths. 


Blanhart Rees. 



William Brantley. 



Captain Charles D. Armstrong. 


George A. Kidd, Samuel J. Pearce, Samuel Strader. 

Captain Edward J. Mitchell. 



Captain John Baker. 

First Lieutenant Sanford H. Thurman. 


Henry F. White, Ewing White, William A. Wallace, John 
Slack, James E. Turner, John Vance. 



Captain Thomas C. Wiley. 

First Lieutenant .'\ugustine T. Gulitz. 

First Lieutenant George S. Coyle. 


William Spears. 



Captain Lovell H. Thi.xton. 


Andrew J. Smith, Levi S. Slate, Reason M. Slate, Joseph 
M. Hunter, William T. McCormick. 



John Allen Jones, John OBricii, James L. Thackston. 


Captain Robert M. Gilmore. 


Larkin Arnold, William Brown, Isaac Burnett, James 



Broke, James Brock, George Bobbitt, Pleasant Q. Barren 
Cyrenius W. Carrier, William Crabtree, James Cox, George 
W. Davis, William Edwards, Andrew J. Frogg, Thornton 
F. Gaines, George W. Gill, William L. Griffis, Thomas Gar- 
rett, Neely W. Hart, Anderson Hunter, Joseph Hatmaker, 
William Lawson, William McKenzie, Carroll C. Mercer, 
William Mastengill, James Mothers, John H. Meeks, James 
Merritt, George Nichols, Henry Price, Samuel Price, William 
Price, John A. Rainey, Henry Smith, James Suett, Allen 
Sosage, William Todd, Robert Warren, James Waddall, 
Emerson Wallace, Isaiah Wright, Jonathan Welsh, Burdine 
Young, Martin Dutherage, Martin Hicks, Ezekiel H. Hall, 
Curtis M. Shelton, Thomas M. Floyd, William Reynolds, 
James Young, John H. Breck, [oseph H. Gridley, William 
M. Nichols, William H. Woodall, James Adams, James 
Gordon, John B. Miller. 

The following names are found in the alpha- 
betical list of officers, but they do not appear 
among the officers in the regimental roster: 

Brevet First Lieutenant Spencer C. Evans. 
Second Lieutenant George S. Coyle.. 


The Third regiment Kentucky Volunteer cav- 
alry was organized at Calhoon, Kentucky, under 
Colonel James S. Jackson, and mustered into the 
United States service on the 13th day of Decem- 
ber, 1 86 1, by Major W. H. Sidell. Immediately 
after organization the regiment was engaged as 
scouts in Southwestern Kentucky, a section of 
the State over which the Confederates then held 
control. They were assigned to General T. L. 
Crittenden's division, and marched from Cal- 
hoon to Nashville, Tennessee, in the month of 
March, 1862. From there, in advance of , the 
Army of the Cumberland, it marched through 
Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh; from there to Corinth 
and luka, Mississippi; thence to Florence, Ala- 
bama; from there to Athens, Alabama, where 
the regiment remained during the summer of 
1862. From Athens the regiment marched to 
Decherd, Tennessee, arnl from there commenced 
the pursuit of Bragg, who had advanced to Ken- 
tucky. At New Haven, Kentucky, they partici- 
pated in the engagement m which the I'hird 
Georgia cavalry was captured. In advance of 
Major-General Crittenden's division they marched 
from Louisville to Perryville, and in pursuit of 
Bragg out of Kentucky, returning to Nashville 
and Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The regiment 
veteranized at Nashville m March, 1864, having 
participated in the following battles in which loss 
was sustained, viz: Sacramento, Kentucky; Pea 
Ridge, Mississippi; Cormth, luka, Mississippi; 

New Market, Alabama; Kinderhook, Tennessee; 
Chaplin Hills, Shiloh, Stone River, and Chicka- 
mauga, Georgia. 


Major W. S. D. Megowan, 
Adjutant Zachary L. Taylor. 
Chaplain Hartwell T. Burge. 



William Cash, John Hays, Jesse Jennings, Abraham Job, 
James Liles, John W. Sterling, John W. Yates, Joseph Hale, 
Samuel D, Ingles, Nicholas J. Mercer, Charles L. Robert- 
son, John W. Smith, John J. Smith, Jerome B. Smith, 
Newton Champion, James L. Driver, Miles Dunning, Wil- 
liam Ely, An.hony Gardner, John W. Hodge, Davjd Hall, 
John Knalls, Young Long, Benjamin O. Mitchell, T. Zacha- 
riah Pryor, John H. Rushing, Rufus M. Stokes, Wiley O. 
Thurman, Allred Wilson. 



Captain Mathew H. Jouett. 


George W. Short, Henry Uncel, John W. Herrell, Wil- 
liam D. Dial, James M. Deamer, William C. Jarvis, Wil- 
liam McCormick, Edward R. Rtrtf, James McCormick, 
James W. Hammers, John Wesley, Brewer, Peter Carter, 
William Cyreans, George B. Hicks, Samuel Krane, Paris 


James W. Lucas, Hiram Shannon, Willis Roach, Henry 
C. Staten, Benjamin F. Davidson, W. J. G. Hughes, Lean- 
der Duncan, Solon Houghton. 



James Steaward, James T. Buchanan, George Benet, La- 
fayette Jimmerson. 



First Lieutenant Percival P. Oldershaw. 


Michael S. Lile. 



First Lieutenant W. H. Burghardt. 

Captain J. Speed Peay. 
Captain Thomas C. Foreman. 
Captain L. L. Drown. 
Captain Edward W. Ward. 
First Lieutenant William Starling. 
First Lieutenant Thomas Coyle. 
First Lieutenant John Weist. 
Second Lieutenant A. J. Gillett. 
Second Lieutenant Garnett Duncan. 




Company Quartermaster Sergeant Charles J. Mull. 

Sergeant Joseph McCrory. 

Sergeant Charles Lentz. 

Sergeant John W. Forrester. 

Corporal Irvine Shiflett. 

Corporal Willis H. Rasor. 

Corporal Thomas E. Bicknell. 

Corporal Peter Coffman. 

Corporal William E. Surman. 

Corporal Brutus Z. Tullilove. 

Corporal Benjamin R. Myers. 

Bugler Philip Brenner. 

Bugler David B. Fry. 

Farrier Thomas R. Hagan. 

Farrier Thomas M. Foote. 

Saddler John King. 

Wagoner Thomas J. Lear. 

Thomas ]. Adams, Frederick Beck, Benjamin Bevin, James 
Black, Reuben Blake, James B. Bockin, William H. Bockin, 
Aaron B. Carfield, Charles R. Cable, William H. S. Cable, 
William Curry, David W. Crutcher, Thomas Coyle, William 
H. Cubine, Alonzo Davidson, John W. Ellis, Hastings 
Foote, Pleasant K. Gentry, Richard M. Gentry, Zachariah 
Green, John Hardy, Michael Haley, John Haley, Robert 
H. Haskinson, John R. Hurly. John Hatter, William B. 
Hunter, Gustavus Hyde, William Hall, Jackson Isaacs, 
Charles W. Jones, Tarlton Jones, William C. Jones, David 
B. Kindred, Conrad Kraft, James Lowe, William N. Lake, 
Jesse E. Lear, Joseph- F. Mallot, William Moller, Richard 
P. Nuckols, Henry Pern, Henry C. Price, George W. 
Powell, Freeman F. Runyon, John Ridge, Richard Scott, 
Curtis A. Stout, Thomas Salyers, David Snowden, James 
Sherwood, Henry Tice, Manlius Taylor, John B. Vanwinkle, 
Josephus Wyley, Michael Welsh, Thomas H. Watkins, 
George B. Currin, James Lile, Thomas Lafferty, James 
Leech, Jr. , William McFellen, George Mouzer, Caleb Rey- 
nolds, William H. Renfro, William Taylor, Laine Wether- 
spoon, Perry C. Brooks, John W. Bush, W. Boston, Thomas 
Crump, Daniel Dobson, Francis Grinstead, James Grinstead, 
William Harness, Lorenzo Huff, Isaac Huff, Nathan Mur- 
ray, George Waggoner, John Wade, Peter O. I^ech. 

Private James L. Davis. 



Zachariah Betts, Newton Baltzell, Robert J. Cooley, John 
Crawford, Reason Cravens, Philip Daffron, Francis Daffron, 
Ahigal Deweese, William N. Evans, L. Gaines, George H. 
Gosnell, Joel Gray, James Graham, Abner Hill, William N. 
Harding, Samuel Hazel, James R. Johns, Emis Jewel, 
Leander Lane, William C. Lane, Horatio G. Lane, William 
McCauley, William H, Nail, George H. Nelson, James Pat- 
ten, William H. Reed, George W, Sweeney, Isaac School- 
field, Ellis Stephens, Amos Smith, William E. Spradling, 
John Travis, William T. Thorns, William B. Taggart, 
Thomas W. Wood, John Wheeler, Miles H, Watkins, 
Richard E. Yeakey, Peter R. Daniel, Stephen F. Grove, 
Squire N. Lampton, John L. Oldham, James W. Skipwouh, 
Harvey Young, Augustin Gunn, James M. Deweese, Waltion 
Harris, James G. Downey. 

Private William Beard. 



Thomas Shearn, George D. Blake, Sylvester Lay, George 
Oliver, Peter Gregory, Asa Williams. 



Charles Cox, James Lond, Jerome Myers, Henry Bernard, 
John Longel, James H. Dans, Nelson H. Norton, Thomas 
B. Thompson, John Wright, M. W. Davidson, John Bill- 
ingsley, Louis Goodlue, Daniel W. Garden, Samuel J. Ew- 
ing, Matthew Jenkins, Charles E. Silwell, Jesse Say re, Hiram 
A. Pogue, Bradford P. Thornberry, Wallace W. Thornberry, 
Samuel D. Thornberry, John W. Atkinson, Andrew J. 
Green, Meredith A. Davis, Henry Fox, Alfred Lockhart, 
William Parsons, Samuel G. Revel, Calvin York, Jefferson 
Gentry, William D. Gentry, William A. Huff, John Riper- 
dan, Thomas T. Hicks, William Kelley, Thomas C. Phipps, 
William R. Keef, Robert H. Meredith, Andrew J. Alverson, 
John D. Bell, Wesley Parsons. 


The following statement of the condition, 
strength, and operations of the Fourth regiment 
Kentucky volunteer cavalry, from its organiza- 
tion to the 6th day of January, 1864, when the 
regiment veteranized, is taken from the regi- 
mental records, and from other authentic sources, 
and is strictly accurate. The Fourth was or- 
ganized at Louisville, under Colonel Jesse Bayles, 
mustered into service on the 24th day of Dec- 
ember, 1 86 1, by Captain Bankhead, and served 
as follows: On the 6th day of January, 1862, 
the regiment marched from Louisville to Bards- 
town, and went into a camp of instruction, es- 
tablished at the place by the late General Lytle; 
on the 26th day of March, 1862, left Barcistown 
for Nashville, Tennessee; on the 8th of April, 
1862, marched from Nashville to Wartrace, Ten- 
nessee; on the 13th day of July, 1862, marched 
to TuUahoma, Tennessee, and remained there 
until August, 1862; from Tullahoma marched to 
Manchester, Tennessee, and from there to Mur- 
freesboro, and thence to Bowling Green, Ken- 
tucky, covering the retreat of General Buell; from 
the 3d day of September, 1862, until the 9th of 
February, 1863, the regiment was engaged in 
scouting over the southern portion of Kentucky; 
on the 9th day of February, 1863, the regiment 
marched for Nashville, where it arrived on the 
14th; marched from Nashville for Murfreesboro 
on the 1 6th of February; arrived at Murfrees- 
boro on the 1 8th of February; on the 27th of 



February marched to Franklin, Tennessee, where 
it remained observing Van Dorn and Forrest's 
commands, and skirmishmg with them every day, 
until the 2d of June, when the regiment marched 
to Triune; on the 4th of June returned to Frank- 
lin, having several severe engagements with the 
enemy on that day and the following; marched 
to Triune on the 7th of June, where it remained 
until the 23d, being engaged with the enemy on 
the 9th and loth; marched with the cavalry 
corps in advance of the Army of the Cumber- 
land until the 29th of July, when it went mto 
camp at Gum Springs, Tennessee, where it re- 
mained until the 9th of August, marching thence 
by way of Fayetteville, Tennessee, and Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, to Maysville, Alabama; on the 
27th of August marched to Caperton's Ferry, 
Alabama; crossed the Tennessee river on the 
ist of September, and proceeded to Valley Head; 
on September 3d crossed Lookout Mountain, 
and marched through Alpine to Summerville, 
Georgia, and returned to Valley Head on the 15th 
of September; on the i9tK September the regi- 
ment marched for Crawfish Springs, Georgia, 
where, on the 21st of September, it was engaged 
with Wheeler's command of 7,000 men and 12 
pieces of artillery. In this engagement, being 
overpowered and surrounded, the Fourth covered 
the retreat of the brigade, losing in the engage- • 
ment 97 men killed and prisoners of war. 

The regiment arrived at Chattanooga on the 
22nd of September, and on the 25 th marched for 
Bellefonte, Alabama, arriving on the 30th Sep- 
tember; left Bellefonte on the 2nd October for 
Caperton's Ferry, where it remained until De- 
cember 2d, and from thence marched via Chat- 
tanooga to Rossville, Georgia, arriving on the 5th 
December, being on the extreme outpost of the 
Army of the Cumberland. It remained at Ross- 
ville uutil the 6th of January, 1864, when it vet- 
eranized, being among the first Kentucky regi- 
ments to renew their enlistment for three years. 

The regiment engaged in over fifty battles and 
skirmishes in which loss was sustained, among 
the principal of which are the following : Leba- 
non, Tennessee; Manchester Pike, Tennessee, 
Readyville, near Chattanooga; Jasper, Rankin's 
Ferry, Anderson Cross Roads, Mott Creek, Bat- 
tle Creek, Tennessee; Stevenson, Bellefonte, Ala- 
bama; Sparta, Manchester, McMinnville, Gallatin, 
Tennessee; Trenton, Morgantown, Hopkinsville, 

Kentucky; Red Springs, Liberty, Murfreesboro, 
Franklin, Spring Hill, Brentwood, Lewisburg 
Pike, Carter's Creek, Little Harpeth, Columbia, 
Thompson's Station, Triune, Middleton, Eagle- 
ville, Hoover's Gap, Guy's Gap, Shelbyville, 
Decherd, Tennessee; Whitesburg, Valley Head, 
Alabama; Alpine, Summerville, and Chickamau- 
ga, Georgia. 


Colonel Jesse Bayles. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Jacob Ruckstuhl. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Llewellyn Gwynne. 
Major John F. Gunkel. 
Adjutant Moses C. Bayles. 
Adjutant George K. Speed. 
Regimental Quartermaster Charles Kurfiss. 
Assistant Surgeon David P. Middleton. 
Chaplain Matthew N. Lasley. 
Sergeant Major Henry Tanner. 
Quartermaste Sergeant Theodore Wergo. 
Commissary Sergeant William Butler. 
Hospital Steward William Edwards. 



Captain Levi Chilson. 

Captain William D. Hooker. 

Captain Joseph A. Cowell. 

First Lieutenant William J. Hunter. 

Second Lieutenant James Barnes. 

Second Lieutenant Basil N. Hobbs. 


Sergeant John J. Collins. 
Sergeant Frank Leifferth. 
Sergeant Ryland K. Shuck. 
Sergeant John W. Burress. 
Sergeant James Albertson. 
Sergeant Nathan K. Gross. 
Sergeant Joseph Dawkins. 
Sergeant William Sexton. 
Corporal Jordan Brooks. 
Corporal Joseph H. Arteburn. 
Corporal Dominick Gross. 
Corporal Elzy Kennedy. 
Corporal Marion King. 
Corporal Jacob Welkins. 
Corporal William Stephenson. 
Corporal John P. Ashby. 
Saddler William E. Fleece. 
Bugler Christian Essig. 
Bugler Frank Brinkman. 
Farrier Logan Jeffries. 


Andrew Beamela, Peter Edwards, No. 2, Eli D. Gardner, 
George Graves, William Kerr, George Morris, William Pren- 
tis, Joseph Phillips, John J. Smith, William Sands, William 
S. Thompson, John Wooley, Martin Young, Cummins Child- 
ers, Francis Dononahu, Bartholomew Duffy, Peter Edwards, 
No. I, John Heller, James L. Kelley, Jefferson Lowery, 
Augustus Mathews, George Myers, James V. Reed, John 
Skell, James Smallwood, McGillam H. Watkins. Isaac Wat- 
kins, Cornelius M. Woodruff, John Wheeler, Samuel Young, 



John Arterburn, Frank Bonner, John Bonner, David Bonner, 
Jordan Brooks, John Boes, Robert J. Collins, Nicholas Cun- 
ningham, Jackson Declermin, John A. W. Davis, James Ed- 
wards, William E. Fleece, Lawson H. Kelly, John H. Price, 
George Rhoe, John C. Schaefer, James J. H. Scon, Simon 
Trester, Thomas Young, Samuel Anderson, Christian Fulty, 
John Sands, John Butts, Alexander F. Bolin, William H. 
Brown, David Collins, Lafayette Collins, James Corden 
Thomas E. Crumbaugh, Joshua Devers, William Edwards, 
Joseph Fehr, Thomas Figg, Joseph C. D. Gill, William M. 
Goldsmith, Joseph Ham, Richard Hall, William Jones, 
Joseph King, Michael King, Benjamin Kelly, Thomas Mc- 
Manus, William Oglesby, Thomas O'Brin, John Riker, Rob- 
ert W. Reed. 



Captain John Kurfiss. 
Captain Adam Rogers. 
First Lieutenant Henry Tanner. 
Second Lieutenant John Feitsch. 


First Sergeant Barney Castner. 

Sergeant B. B. Sloan. 

Sergeant David Patton. 

Sergeant George Snider. 

Sergeant Charles Clinton. 

Sergeant Jacob Wreterstein. 

Sergeant Herry Smith. 

Sergeant John H. Brecket. 

Commissary-sergeant James C. Phillips. 

Corporal William Frix. 

Corporal John S. Barkley. 

Corporal Andrew Louden. 

Corporal Ludwick Black. 

Corporal Jacob Fix. 

Corporal Claries Lauthard. 

Corporal John Weakley. 

Corporal Charles Ackers. 

Corporal Nicholas Bender. 

Bugler William Farrell. 

Bugler Peter Phyer. 

Farrier George B. Sherridan. 

Farrier Peter Smith. 

Saddler John Zoll. . 

Wagoner Joseph Eckert. 


Jacob Akes, Martin Belner, Christian Brinkman, Davd 
Dirrick, Louis Forcht, John Owens, P. Shuble, Andrew Small, 
John Bibbig, Daniel Flood, Charles Forcht, Edward Hem, 
John Hoog, Jacob H. Lesstcrofft, Conrad Mening, William 
Meyers, Henry Sheard, Casper Schwarts, John Shower, Sr. , 
Henry Shofmaster, Jacob Thornton, Andrew Bach, Frederick 
Brown, Matthew Miller, John Phelan, Nicholas .Smith, David 
H. Taylor, George Weatherstein, Jacob Walter, Joseph Hen- 
eman, Henry Aleyeser, William AUsmiller, Conrad Bader, 
August Baker, Gottleib F. Bauer, Frederick Basser, Joseph 
Barrel!, Henry Doert, David R. Fenton, Charles Gaillerune, 
Alpert Halwax, John Hoerty, Frederick Ludwick, John Lud- 
wick, James Lawson, Joseph Marshal, Freling Namick, Ma- 
son Parson, Thomas Phillips, John Ruth, Thomas Ridge, 
Kaviett Shindler, John Shower, Thomas Steward, Albert 
Sanlergilt, Mac. Sensoth, Frank Shier, Gibson Tate, Lewis 


Captain Charles L. Unthark. 
Captain Sylvester W. Raplee. 
Captain John M. Bacon. 
First Lieutenant James O'Donnell. 
First Lieutenant William J. Killmore. 
Second Lieutenant William M. Nichols. 
Second Lieutenant A. G. Rosengarten. 
Second Lieutenant James Hines. 


First Sergeant Squire S. Roberts, 

Company Quartermaster-Sergeant George Kipp. 

Sergeant Joseph Rickett. 

Sergeant Julius C. Sherer. 

Sergeant William J. Loder 

Sergeant William Stitgee. 

Sergeant George A. St. John. 

Corporal Thomas Couch. 

Corporal John Ford. 

Corporal David Gordon. 

Corporal Franklin E. Roberts. 

Saddler James S. Dikes. 

John K. Adams. 

Farrier John Metz. 



Frederick Butcher, Henry Delaney, Anthony Ham, John 
Meyer, Lewis" Roberts, Patrick Shudy, Francis J. St. John, 
John Zink, Henry A. Crider, James Cassack, Henry Conn, 
John B. Dunlap, Edward Demprey, Alex. Goodman, Patrick 
Hart, Nicholas Kirin, Daniel Munty, Benjamin J. Nicholson, 
Morris Powers, John Stair, William Shriver, Michael Parrel, 
Samuel Graham, John M. Gray, James Hislip, Patrick 
Haney, John Sullivan, George Chastain, James Chapman, 
Charles Gorman, Andy Gross, David Heaver, James How- 
ard, Daniel Ham, Patrick Kennedy, Joseph Kipp, Johnson 
McConkey, Julian L. Moraldo, Henry Meyer, George Orr, 
J., John Sheer, Benjamin F. Sewards, Cornelius Sullivan, 
Thomas Sullivan, William Torrell, John Westfall, f.,ewis 
W. Woodal. 


Captain George Welling. 
Captain William J. Barnett. 
First Lieutenant Frank N. Sheets. 
First Lieutenant John B. Lee. 
Second Lieutenant James A. Kemp. 
Second Lieutenant John P. Brown. 


Sergeant Joseph B. Brailley. 
Sergeant William W. Chalfin. 
Sergeant' William isnelling. 
Sergeant J ameSl1^'■. Rooney. 
Sergeant WaJiJitigtori Reynolds. 
Sergeant PhilipT. Chappie. 
Sergeant Fratrcis VJ Stephens. 
Corporal RttRis Cohgrove. 
Corporal Jo^^i F. Donciuster. 
Corporal Wfliiam Atcher. 
Corporal jSflWard Atcher. 
Cprporill faiilflft^S. Goldsmith. 
Corporal John C'^^herwood. 
Corporal Hercules Km)^3|| , 



Corporal William Smith. 
Corporal Jesse Brimerr 


Michael Conner, Silas W. Collier, George T. Goodale, 
Peter Glassman, John W. Hagan, Philip Kressel, John Lit- 
tle, John Marger, Alfred Shanks, Robert Fleming, John 
Westfall, Wm. T. Atcher, Isaac Burch, William L. Branch, 
Alfred Cordon, Ausbum Flowers, Nelson Goldsmith, 
Thomas Gilbert, James O. Hagan, William J. Hunter, 
Absolon Harrison, Thomas Henott, James Jump, Littleton 
Lincoln, Adolphus Meyers, Thomas J. Martin, Augustus G. 
Myers, Hugh A. Patterson, Adam Phister, Henry Rase, 
Daniel Simpkins, William C. Smith, John T. Tanner, John 
Travis, Harrison Tanner, William Walden, Samuel Wallace, 
James Crillen, John M. Briscoe, William Greenwell, George 
Haddox, Joel Harrison, Christopher C. Martin, Kirhfur 
Shively, Charles Swiney, Greenup J. Westfall, William 
Pierefield, William G. Arthur, Philip Bitman, Levi Brent- 
linger, William E. Brunnel, George Cuddlemeyer, Franklin 
CoUings, Isaac Douglas, Torrence Davidson, William M. 
Edwards, William Foster, Samuel Foster, William Graham, 
Harrison Joyce, John James, Andrew Lawrence, William 
Medcalf, Christopher C. Martin, Jacob Mcintosh, Alexander 
Oliver, John Ranidon, John Read, Jeremiah Steward, 
Michael Sago, David Shoplan, Perry Snelling, William 
Todd, Edward Welling, John Yeager. 



Captain Henry A. Schaeffer. 
Captain Leopold Preuss. 
Captain James O'Donnell. 
First Lieutenant Max Cohn. 
Second Lieutenant Henry G. Waller. 


Sergeant Lewis Hunker. 
Sergeant Gustav E. Hueter. 
Sergeant John Weber. 
Sergeant John Vogle. 
Sergeant David Wehing. 
Sergeant Ambrose Kuni. 
Sergeant John Keller. 
Sergeant Henry Stoly. 
Sergeant John Schnab. 
Corporal Henry Deersman. 
Corporal John Frank. 
Corporal Lewis Gross. 
Corporal Henry Fischer. 
Corporal John Frank. 
Corporal Andy Frank. 


John Ash, Moses Burig, John Hassing, Francis Hillinch, 
Julius Hudle, Adam Loosman, Philip M. Panty, August 
Wall, Andrew Weiller, Henry Leeback, Lewis Baty, Ignatus 
Bemhard, John Braum, Bartholomew Brander, Henry Doeh- 
mann, Peter Funk, Ferdinan Meitt, Frank Littler, Conrad 
Routhams, Jacob Rodd, Gotleib Scharott, Lajarus Schaub, 
Carl Sivann, John Lissert, Lewis Ampfer, David Engel, 
Peter Hensler, Anion Killer, John Long, David Peter, Eber- 
han Fraut, George Quillenan, Christian Ehlsheit, John 
Krohm/Henry Foeth, Jacob Graff, John A. Knapp, George 
Koch, Jacob Kung, Conrad Miller, Peter Rechenan, Adam 
Schneider, John Sipple, John Streit, Henry Trout, John 
Wasmer, Conrad Weber. 



Captain Nelson B. Church. 
Captain Sidney Lyons. 
Captain Basil N. Hobbs. 
Captain Spencer Cooper. 
First Lieutenant John D. Bird. 
First Lieutenant Thomas P. Hamot. 
First Lieutenant William G. Milton. 
Second Lieutenant Abel R. Church. 


Sergeant James Wilmoth. 
Sergeant James G. White. 
Sergeant James B. Johnson. 
Sergeant Phillip Reed. 
Sergeant William G. Milton, 
Sergeant Charles H. Soule. 
Sergeant Daniel S. Williams. 
Sergeant Thomas Merideth. 
Sergeant Martin Wilhelm. 
Corporal William B. Sensbaugh. 
Corporal James McMahon. 
Corporal James Carter. 
Corporal James W. Duckworth. 
Corporal Robert D. Stevens. 
Corporal S. W. Parrish. 
Farrier Walthen Bonner. 
Farrier John J. Burke. 
Saddler John M. Hutchmson. 
Wagoner Robert Folis. 


Arnold Amos, John S. Baker, Henry Blair, Alexander 
Dobbins, John Howsley, James S. Lewis, John C. Langly 
Abraham Meredith, WiUiam Meredith, Gabriel Reynolds, 
Edmonds Reeves, Thomas W. Slaughter, Bradley Sanders, 
Thomas Shane, William Wilhelm, Mortimer Gaither, Wil- 
liam G. Butler, James K. P. Byland, Martin Dillingham, 
Samuel Fife, Malone Hatfield, Lawrence Kelly, Phinis Reed, 
Robert Ramsey, Warren Watkins, Thomas Brook, James H. 
Brooks, John J. Brooks, William Dorms, WiUiam Murphy, 
John McQueen, Dabney Nance, James W. Raymond, 
Thomas Williams, James W. Watkins, James Monehan, 
Robert B. Beswick, John Cain, Henry Casey, Edward Com- 
mingore, George W. Ginnis, Hugh Grey, John Heflerman, 
Henry Lewis, James Parrish, William Moore, Bryan H. 
Sharp, John Wilhelm, John Womack, Thomas G. York, 
Lewis Carroll, David O'Connell. 



Captain Casper Blume. 

Captain John Sailer. , 

Captain George K. Speed. 

First Lieutenant William Shriver. 

First Lieutenant William H. McKinney. 

Second Lieutenant Thomas Hoffman. 

Second Lieutenant Rodolph Curtis. 


First Lieutenant George Rothchild. 
Sergeant Jacob J. Septig. 
Sergeant Philip .Allicurger. 
Sergeant Constantine John. 
Sergeant Charles Gossville. 
Sergeant Leonhard Reider. 



Sergeant Henry Deidtrich. 
Sergeant Henry Fitch teman. 
Sergeant Philip Gutig. 
Sergeant John M. Kirck. 
Corporal Otto Schneider. 
Corporal Henry Schuler. 
Corporal Herman Mirers. 
Corporal Joseph Koch. 
Corporal Joseph Sherer. 
Corporal Philip Dill. 
Bugler Philip Walter. 
Farrier John Muss. 
Farrier Jesse Suckland. 
Saddler Michael Buchard. 
Wagoner Joseph Hergog. 


Peter Bellner, Mathias Bellner, John Breinig, Henry Blume, 
Frederick Erde, John Greenlick, John Koll, Henry Man- 
schler, Louis Oppenheimer, Bernhard Slechtin, Casper Seibel, 
Carl Sester, Peter Hook, Timothy KoUer, Martin Luty, 
Jacob Morelli, Charles Meyer, Vincincis Schaffner, Jacob 
Schmidt, Augustus Steel, Christopher Pauer, Robert Breck- 
heimer, Peter Austgen, Philip Lum, Charles Luther, John 
Fritch, Carl Reder, George Auger, Peter Andy, Andrew 
Banks, Peter Detroy, Bernhord Eok, Adam Lany, Paul 
Dobyan, Henry Shiver, John Smith, Ignaty Reiter. 



Captain Patrick W. McGowan. 
Captain John F. Weston. 
First Lieutenant Isaac Burch. 
First Lieutenant Lewis Ryan. 
Second Lieutenant John Burke. 


Sergeant Charles Dupre. 
.Sergeant James O'Connell. 
Sergeant John Murry. 
Sergeant William McKinney. 
Sergeant Isaac Miller. 
Sergeant Felix Dupree. 
Sergeant Dennis McCarty. 
Sergeant John Hagerty. 
Corporal Peter McKnab. 
Corporal John Ranan. 
Corporal Ludlow Wilson. 
Corporal John Shehee. 
Corporal William Burke. 
Corporal John Burke. 
Corporal William Neish. 
Corporal Alfred Norton. 
Bugler John Duchernne. 
Farrier William Routh. 
Farrier John Kane. 


Edward Booth, Thomas Barbour, Patrick Collins, John 
Fogart, Daniel Fisher, Thomas Hyens, Thomas Haffer, 
James Kenally, Thomas Lovall, Frank McQuinn, Dennis 
Means, John O'Sullivan, Charles Quinn, Patrick Russell, 
John .Sheridan, James Sumate, James Whaler, Arthur 
Whaler, Frederick Zimmerman, Patrick Kelly, Patrick Mo- 
rearty, James McCann, John Carr, Martin Ditterly, John 
Dunnivan, Patrick Feeley, James Reefe, Adam Kimple, 
Patrick McDonough, James Quinn, Frederick Sloane, Mike 

Callahan, John Downey, John Dumon, Samuel Day, 
Thomas Fehan, John Gannon, Patrick Gagerty, Edward 
Hogan, Hugh Keys, Joseph Millott, John McMakin, Daniel 
Mailliff, James Mur, John Mannion, Lawrence McGidem, 
William O'Hem, James O'Conner, John Powers, Patrick 
Qu inn, ames Reese, John Riley, Martin Shell, Patrick Tur- 
ney, John Wyman. 


This regiment veteranized at Rossville, Georgia, 
in January, 1864, and was then furloughed for 
thirty days, at the expiration of which time it 
rendezvoused at Lexington, Kentucky, and was 
immediately ordered to Nashville, and thence on 
foot to Chattanooga, where it was mounted and 
encamped in Wauhatchie Valley. Here it re- 
mained for some weeks, scouting through that 
country for hundreds of miles around. In June, 
1864, under command of Major Bacon, it formed 
part of the expedition under General Watkins to 
Lafayette, Georgia. Whilst there the regiment 
was attacked by a greatly superior force, and 
was, with a part of the Sixth Kentucky cavalry, 
cut off from the balance of the command. Being 
hard pressed by the enemy, it fell back, and oc- 
cupying the court-house, held it against repeated 
and furious attacks of the enemy from 4 o'clock 
A. M. to 3 p. M., when the attacking force with- 
drew, leaving over one hundred killed and 
wounded on the -field, besides a much larger 
number of prisoners captured from them while 
on their retreat. From Lafayette the regiment 
marched to Calhoun, Georgia, scouting through 
the country, and constantly skirmishing with 
Wheeler's rebel cavalry, and thence to Resaca, 
Georgia, constituting part of the small garrison 
which held that place against Hood's army for 
three days after he had flanked Sherman at 
Atlanta. ' Here the regiment, under Colonel 
Cooper, was repeatedly complimented by the 
commanding general. A part of the regiment, 
under Major Weston, made a successful charge 
on a rebel fort, causing the enemy to retire. 

It marched in advance of Sherman's army to 
Gadsden, Alabama, driving the enemy's rear- 
guard the entire distance. It then came via 
Chattanooga and Nashville to Louisville; • was 
there remounted, and^proceeded to Hopkinsville, 
driving Lyon's command out of the State, when 
it went to Nashville. After the battle of Nash- 
ville It marched to Waterloo, Alabama; thence 
to Eastport, Mississippi; thence to Chickasaw, 
Alabama. After recruiting both men and horses 



at this place for some weeks, the regiment joined 
General Wilson's command, and was with him 
I during his famous march through Alabama and 
I Georgia. It drove the enemy out of Mont- 
gomery, and held that city for two hours before 
any other troops arrived ; thence marching via 
I Macon and Albany, Georgia, to Tallahassee, 
I Florida, it was finally mustered out at this last- 
named place August 21, 1865. 

It participated in the following engagements, 
in which loss was sustained, viz: Lafayette and 
Calhoun, Georgia; Lavergne, Franklin, and 
Campbellsville, Tennessee; Russellville, 'Ran- 
dolph, Scottsville, CentreviUe, Selma, Tuskogee, 
and Montgomery, Alabama, and at Columbus, 


Lieutenant Colonel Llewellyn Gwynne- 
Major John F. Weston. 
Sergeant Major Philip Guetig. 
Sergeant Major William H. McKinney. 
Sergeant Major William Foster. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Ryland K. Shuck. 
Commissary Sergeant James E. Phillips. 
Commissary Sergeant James W. Looney. 
Veterinary Surgeon John K. Adams. 
Hospital Steward William M. Edwards. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Alexander McCall. 
Commissary Sergeant Gibson Tate. 
Saddler James S. Dykes. 
Bugler Frank Brinkman. 



Captain Ryland K. Shuck. 
First Lieutenant W. J. Hunter. 
First Lieutenant James W. Looney. 


First Sergeant William Sexton. 
Sergeant John W. Burrows. 
Sergeant Elzey Kennedy. 
Sergeant Nathan K. Gross. 
Sergeant Joseph Dawkins. 
Sergeant James Albertson. 
Corporal Dominick Gross. 
Corporal Marion King. 
Corporal Jacob Wilkins. 
Corporal John P. Ashby. 
Corporal William Stephenson. 
Farrier Logan ] effries. 
Bugler Frank Brinkman. 


Thomas Bassil, Alexander T. Bolin, John Butts, David 
Collins, James Cooden, Thomas E. Crumbaugh, Joshua 
Devore, Joseph Fehr, Thomas Figg, Joseph C. D. Gill, Eli 
D. Gardner, George Groves, William N. Goldsmith, Joseph 
Hann, Richard Hall, William Jones, Joseph King, Michael 
King, Benjamin Kelly, Thomas McManus, William Oglesby, 
Thomas O'Brien, Joseph Philips, Robert W. Reed, Lafayette 
Collins, William Edwards, John Riker, John Ar{eburn, Wil- 
liam H. Brown. 


Captain Adam Rodgers. 

First Lieutenant Al. D. Hynes. 

First Lieutenant James E. Phillips. 


First Sergeant David T. Patton. 

Sergeant George Schneider. 

Sergeants Charles Lanthart. 

Sergeant John H. Bickel. 

Sergeant Barney Koster. 

Sergeant Henry Smith. 

Sergeant Charles P. Clinton. 

Sergeant Gibson Tate. 

Corporal Joseph Marshall. 

Corporal John Schauer. 

Corporal Frederick Black. 

Corporal Jacob Fix. 

Corporal John Weakley. 

Corporal Charles Ackers. 

Corporal David R. Fenton. 

Corporal Nicholas Bender. 

Bugler Gotlieb F. Bauer. 

Bugler Marcus Seinsoth. 

Saddler Conrad Bader. 


Henry Algier, William AUsmiller, Henry Doerr, Jowph 
Eckbert, John B. Hoertz, William Just, Frederick Ludwick, 
John Ludwick, Mason Parson, John Ruth, Xavier Schindler, 
Frank Stier, Albert Sonderselt, Andrew Small, Lotiis Upper, 
John Zolt, Joseph Borrell, August Baker, Frederick Bassa, 
Albert Halwax, James Lanson, Freeling Namick, Thomas 
Phillips, Thomas Stewart, Theodore Acken, Sebastian Fant- 
ner, Philip Ross, JohnShultz, John Zimmer, Henry Lehman, 
Mathew Miller, David H. Taylor, George Weatherstein, 
Jacob Walter. 



Captain John M. Bacon. 

Captain William J. Hunter. 

First Lieutenant Squire S. Robards. 


First Sergeant Franklin E, Robards. 

First Sergeant George A. St. John. 

Quartermaster Sergeant George Kipp, 

Sergeant John Ford. 

Sergeant William Stitzel. 

Sergeant John K. Adams. 

Corporal James Howard. 

Corporal John Schur. 

Corporal Thomas Couch. 

Farrier George Chastain. 

Farrier John Metz. 

Saddler James S. Dikes. 


Frederick Butcher, James Chapman, Francis M. Casteel, 
Henry Delany, Charles (Jorman, Andy Gross, Daniel 
Heaver, Daniel Ham, Anthony Ham, Patrick Kennedy, 
Joseph Kipp, John Meyer, Henry Meyer, Johnson Mc- 
Conkey, Julian L. Moraldo, Larrence Morgan, George W. 
Orr, Benjamin F. Sewards, Frank J. St. John, Cornelius Sulli- 
van, Josiah Tron, Levns W. Woodall, David Gorden, Nich- 
olas Kirsch, William Sourl. 




Captain William J. Barnett, 
Captain John B. Lee. 
First Lieutenant William Foster. 
Second Lieutenant John P. Brown. 


First Sergeant Francis V. Stevens. 
First Sergeant William W. Chalfin. 
Sergeant Washington Reynolds. 
Sergeant Edward Welling. 
Sergeant William G. Auther. 
Sergeant Philip T. Chappell. 
Sergeant William Snellen. 
Sergeant William Smith. 
Sergeant James W. Looney. 
Corporal Hercules Roney. 
Corporal William Atcher. 
Corporal Edward Atcher. 
Corporal Jesse Brimer. 
Corporal James S. Goldsmith. 
Bugler Taurence Davison. 
Saddler Franklin Colling. 
Farrier JohnT. Yeager. 


Philip Birman, William E. Bunnell, Levi Brentlinger, 
Samuel Foster, William Graham, Harrison Joyce, Andrew 
Lawrence, John Morger, William Metcalf, Christopher C. 
Martin, Jacob Mcintosh, Alexander Oliver, John Rardon, 
Jerry Stewart, David Shoptaw, Michael Sago, Perry Snellen, 
William Todd, John Westfall, George Zetlmaier, Isaac Doug- 
las, John James, John Reed, John C. Sherwood, William 
M. Edwards, William Foster, Robert Fleming, Peter Glass- 
man, George Haddox, Philip Kressell, Grenup J. Westfall. 



Captain James O'Donnell. 
First Lieutenant Max Cohen. 
Second Lieutenant Henry G. Walter. 


First Sergeant Ambrose Curry. 
Sergeant Henry Stoltz. 
Corporal John Adam D. Knapp. 
Corporal Henry Diersman. 
Corporal John Frank, 
Farrier Conrad Weber. 
Bugler Jacob Gross. 
Saddler Frank Eberhard. 


John H. Ash, David Engel, Henry Foeth, Jacob Kuntz, 
Conrad Mueller, Adam Shneyder, Martin Senn, Christian 
Sanner, Henry Traut, John Wassmer, Frank Andy, Moses 
Birig, Peter Regenaner, John Shroab, John Sippel, Adam, 
Loosmann, Julius Huetlell, Henry Sebach. 

Captain Basil N. Hobbs. 
Captain Spencer Cooper. 
First Lieutenant Thomas P. Herriott. 
First Lieutenant William G. Milton. 


First Sergeant Daniel L. Williams. 
Sergeant Thomas Merideth. 
Sergeant Martin V. Willhelm. 
Sergeant Charles H. Soule. 
Sergeant Elwood Reeves. 
Corporal Joseph W. Thomas. 
Corporal Bradley Sander. 
Farrier Ed. H. Cummingore. 
Bugler George W. Grimes. 


Robert B. Beswick, John M. Buster, Mathew Boneur, 
Henry Casey, Hugh Grey, John Heffron, John C. Langly, 
James C. Parris, Thomas Sheehan, Bryan H. Tharp, John 
Womack, John Willhelm, John Cain, Henry Lewis, Peter 
Meridith, David O'Connell, Thomas G. York, Amos Arnold, 
Lewis Carroll, Mark Gaither. 



Captain George K. Speed. 
First Lieutenant William H. McKinney. 
First Lieutenant John N. Kirch. 
Second Lieutenant Rudolph Curtis. 


First Sergeant Henry Fichteman. 
Sergeant George Rothchild. 
Sergeant Philip Guetig. 
Corporal Peter Andy. 
Wagoner Joseph Herzag. 
Bugler Jacob Graf. 

Andrew Banks, John Byer, Peter Detroit; Bernard Eck, 
Adam Lang, Ignartz Reiter, William Schreiber, John Smith, 
George Auger, Henry Scherer, John Biming, Henry Blume, 
Mathias Bellner, Frederick Erde, John Fritch, John Koll, 
Carl Sester. 



Captain John F. Weston. 
Captain Charles H. Soule. 
First Lieutenant Lewis Ryan. 
First Lieutenant Dennis McCarty. 
Second Lieutenant John Burke. 


First Sergeant Laurence McGivem. 
Sergeant John Hagerty. 
Sergeant John Burke. 
Sergeant Felix Dupree. 
Corporal Daniel Mailiff. 
Corporal William Niesh. 
Corporal John Kennan. 
Corporal Albert Newton. 
Farrier Adam Kembal. 


William Burke, Michael Callahan, John Cline, John Dou- 
ney, John Dennin, Daniel Fisher, Patrick Gagerty, Edward 
Hogan, John Kane, Hugh Keyns, Joseph Milot, John Mc- 
Makin, John Powers, Patrick Quinn, James Reese, Martin 
Shell, Patrick Tierney, Samuel Wray, Thomas Feehan, 
James O'Connors, William O'Herran, John Reily, John 
Wienman, John O'Neil, Thomas Barbour, Thomas La veil. 





Captain John W. Lewis. 
Captain Purnel H. Bishop. 
First Lieutenant David Wolff. 
First Lieutenant William Harper. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick G. Ulrich. 


First Sergeant Timothy Kelly. 
Sergeant John Allen. 
Sergeant George White. 
Sergeant Thomas Lynn. 
Sergeant Alexander McCall. 
Sergeant James McDonald. 
Corporal Robert Good. 


Robert Allin, Eden R. Boyles, Charles Cites, Michael Curry, 
MilesjCronin, Edward Donohoo, John Frederick, Andrew Far- 
rell, Patrick Feagan, J. Holerin, Joseph Holt, Martin Lavel, 
Philip Molin, Emmiel Miller, David Macon,' James Murry, 
George W. Neil, George W. Rieter, William Richie, Michael 
Rigney, Patrick Riley, Peter Riece, Patrick Shay, yohn Sparks, 
David Shields, Daniel Stanford, Chailes Sile, Charles UWch, 
Michael Wilett, William Watson, Jacob Young, W. H. Car- 
son, Samuel Davidson, Patrick Heden, William Harris, Jacob 
letter, Henry Krieder, James Molbry, Michael Shay, Ran- 
dolph Walters, Patrick Welch, John Dunn, Peter McCor- 
mick, John Pigott, James Renolds, James Wilson, Thomas 
Ford, Edward D. Hines, Balzer Huglin, Richard H. Holi- 
way, John W. Jacobs, James Peven, Frederick Steven , Ste- 
ven Wick, Henry Wagner. 



First Lieutenant George Koch. 
First Lieutenant Purnell H. Bishop. 
First Lieutenant William W. Chalfin. 
Second Lieutenant J. W. Faust. 


Sergeant John Blake. 
Sergeant Jacob Gerlock. 
Sergeant Jacob Stiener. 


David Blake, Horace Donahue, John E. Gosnel, Peter 
Gerhart, Amos Gulie, John Geriting, Lewis Knuckles, John 
Longfield, Michael O'Marron, Morris Oxley, William A. 
Smith, Charles Steir, John Tharp, Jacob Dearshuck, Thomas 
J. Head, Ernot Krotrusky. 



Captain William E. Brown. 
First Lieutenant James Albertson. 
Second Lieutenant Robert A. Edwards. 


First Sergeant James A. Henstes. 
Sergeant Robert A. Coffey. 
Sergeant John T. Adair. 
Sergeant John Hurt. 
Sergeant James S. Woods. 
Sergeant Harrison L. Howell. 
Sergeant Evander M. Davis. 
Sergeant William Odenu. 


Frank T. Self. 
John B. Rodgerman. 
James Ammerman. 
Melvin P. Self. 
Elisha Anderson. 
Boxter S. Russell. 
John Thomas. 
Henry Shoemaker. 
Theodore Shonefildt. 


fames W. Adair, Andrew Briggs, James Baker, George 
W. Bullock, Francis M. Bullock, William Boggs, Hezekiah 
Binson, Benjamin Cupsey, Jackson Craig, Eppi M. Canup, 
William R. Coffey, James M. Coffey, James M. Cash, 
James M. Carhs, David D. Duncan, John Duncan, David 
Draper, Joseph Gallener, William Harris, Burrill Harris, 
George J. Henlings, Robert G. Hodge, Nobly H. Harris, 
Nicholas Hoy, George Henson, James B. Hamlin, John W. 
Jones, Theodore Kehren, William Kallahar, George F. 
Louder, John Long, John P. Lyng, Thomas J. Langly, 
James S. Maohn, William McGuire, Squire Mardis, Chris- 
topher Phaender, Evander M. Paine, John W. Radcliffe, 
William Smith, Benjamin Stubberfield, Caleb Serber, Frank 
Trapp, Henry Uttei;?, William Underwood, Burton W. 
Williams, George Yager, Francis M. Canup, John Byer, 
Lepposon A. Dye, Conrad Deitz, Edward Hays, Amos 
Landman, Michael McCann, Andrew J. Hammone, John H. 
Ralston, Washington M. Stewart, Rolla H. Vauter. 

In alphabetical list of ofificers, but not in com- 
pany rolls: 
Captain Nelson B. Church. 
Second Lieutenant J. W. Faust. 
Assistant Surgeon David P. Middletcn. 


The Fifth was organized at Camp Sandidge, 
Gallatin, Tennessee, under Colonel* David R. 
Haggard, and .mustered into the service ]Vtarcb 
31, 1862, by Major W. H. Sidell, United States 
mustering officer. It was raised in the southern 
portion of Kentucky, and was composed of those 
sturdy yeomanry who have always been distin- 
guished for their patriotism and the love of jus- 
tice and liberty. During the organization they 
labored under many disadvantages, owing to the 
frequent mvasions of the enemy into the district 
where it was recruited. It was mustered into 
service with seven hundred and eighty-nine 
men, and was placed upon duty during the active 
campaigns of General Buell, and participated in 
all the early engagements in Tennessee, and by 
their soldierly conduct won the esteem of the 
commanding general. The regiment participated 
in the following battles and skirmishes in which 
losses are reported, viz: Burksville, Kentucky; 
Gallatin, Tennessee ; Monroe's Cross Roads, 
North Carolina ; Louisville, Georgia; Adairville, 
Georgia ; Millen's Grove, Georgia ; Sweeden's 



Cove, Tennessee, and Sweetwater, Georgia. It 
was mustered out at Louisville, May 3, 1865. 
The veterans and recruits were ordered to be 
transferred to the Third Kentucky Veteran Cav- 


Colonel Oliver L. Baldwin. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac Scott. 
Major James L. Wharton. 
Surgeon Hugh Mulholland. 
Surgeon William Forrester. 
Commissary Patrick M. Conly. 
Hospital Steward William A. Derrington. 



First Lieutenant James V. Conrad. 


William T. Vigle, James W. Harman. 

Second Lieutenant Edward Davis. 


Corporal Bethel A. Buck. 


John Ramin, James T. Buck, John J. Chilson, Philip 
Daily, William R. TuU. 


Private John J. Burger. 



David Willan, William L. Avery, William Burk, John P. 

Private Henry W. Smith. 

Private John Irvine. 

Private James R. Himes. 


Captain Christopher C. Hare. 
First Lieutenant Amos M. Griffen. 
Second Lieutenant James R. Farmer. 


First Sergeant Hiram Kinman. 
Sergeant John Shotwell. 
Sergeant John Young. 
Sergeant Simon P. Atkinson. 
Sergeant Frederick .Swartz. 
Sergeant Frederick Phieffer. 
Sergeant Nathan Morrow. 
Sergeant Samuel T. Sills. 
Corporal Thomas Bramel. 
Corporal John Murphy. 

Corporal Frederick Eisenminger. 
Corporal John W. Ratliff. 
Corporal Cornelius O'Neal. 
Corporal Jesse Beene. 
Corporal Rufus R. Foster. 
Corporal William Bryant. 
Corporal Thomas Swift. 
Musician John Watson. 
Farrier G. L. Emil Shercr. 
Farrier John Borne. 
Wagoner John Casey. 


James K. Bryant, William Bonum, Nathan Carlisle, Jon- 
athan Chesser, William Chaddic, Thomas Caine, Robert 
Doyle, Silas Elgy, William B. Foster, Henry Felker, George 
Fisher, John G. Gray, John Gass, William J. Humble, Andy 
Hamlet, Philip Hurt, William Hastings, George W. John- 
son, John Johnson, Philip Jordan, George W. Jackson, 
Jacob Kizer, John Landra, James Murphy, Henry Michael, 
Isaac Moore, James McKeig, William Merifield, George 
Niece, Frederick Nicely, Augustus Odcell, William Purzell, 
James Piatt, Absalom Rose, Mike Sulivan, William 
Stross, Joseph Streetmatter, George W. Turner, Charles J. 
Travis, James T. Travis, John Troutman, W. H. H. Vails, 
Garrett Vores, James Welch. 

On alphabetical list, but not on company roll: 


Major and Brevet-Lieutenant-Colonel Charles A. Gill. 


Captain Samuel G. Gill. 

Assistant Surgeon Charles H. Stocking. 


The First battalion of the Sixth Kentucky 
cavalry was organized at Camp Irvine, Jefferson 
county, under Major Reuben Munday, and was 
mustered into the United States service December 
23, 1 86 1, by Major W. H. Sidell. This battalion 
comprised five companies, and was commanded 
by Major Munday until August, 1862, when 
companies F, G, H, I, K, L, and M were re- 
cruited and the consolidation effected. Previous 
to the consolidation the First battalion was as- 
signed to General George W. Morgan's division, 
and did important service with that command in 
obtaining and occupying Cumberland Gap. Be- 
ing the only organized cavalry in the division, 
the duties assigned it were arduous and of great 
importance. When the Gap was evacuated in 
1862 by General Morgan, this battalion formed 
the advance or covered the rear, as occasion 
demanded, through Eastern Kentucky to the 
Ohio river, contending with the enemy every 
day. When the consolidation was effected, 
Colonel D. J. Hallisy was commissioned colonel, 
and the regiment assigned to the cavalry divis- 
ion of the Army of the Cumberland, and by its 



efficiency and discipline and gallantry won dis- 
tinction in every engagement. It is to be regret- 
ted that the officers of this command failed to 
furnish a full history of all its operations, as it is 
justly entitled to a reputation among the first for 
bravery, discipline, and dash in the Western 
army. The regiment was engaged in the follow- 
ing battles in which loss was sustained, viz: 
Tazewell, Tennessee; Cumberland Gap, Powell 
River, Tennessee; Perry ville, Kentucky; Cowan's 
Station, Tennessee; Lipsey Swamp, Alabama, 
and the early battles fought by Generals Buell 
and Rosecrans in Tennessee. 


Assistant Surgeon Charles B. Chapman. 
Chaplain Milton C. Clark. 
Regimental Quartermaster George Sambrock. 
Adjutant William A. Stumpe. 



Second Lieutenant Henry Tachna. 

Second Lieutenant Daniel Cheatham. 

First Lieutenant William Murphy. 

First Lieutenant Samuel W. Crandell. 
Second Lieutenant James G. McAdams. 


First Sergeant Jefferson Smith. 
Sergeant William L. Crandell. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Mann. 
Sergeant James Lander. 
Sergeant Hiram Cure. 
Sergeant Henry Johnson. 
Sergeant William T. Druin. 
Sergeant J oseph Rice. 
Sergeant James T. Hall. 
Sergeant David M. Williamson. 
Corporal George W. Tucker. 
Corporal Joel C. Lusk. 
Corporal Thomas T. Cook. 
Corporal David G. Buster. 
Corporal Charles W. Poor. 
Corporal John H. Meanelly. 
Corporal James W. Houk. 
Corporal John C. Hendrickson. 
Corporal Charles R. Moary. 
Corporal Williamson Spiers. 
Corporal Isham Landers. 
Wagoner Burvvell Edrington. 
Wagoner Chalen Underwood. 
Wagoner Alfred Burrus. 
Farrier William H. Johnson. 

Farrier Natiian Warren. 
Saddler William Cox. 


Berry Co.>c, Nathan Cox, Washington M. Heron, Henr> 
T. Huddleston, Charner Johnson, John H. Knapp, John 
Mann, John A. Mann, Richard F. Nunn, Joel Noel, Abra- 
ham Rodes, John Shipp, Richard T. Woolridge, James E. 
Williamson, James W. McDaniel, John Adams, William J. 
Bright, Weldon Huddleston, Robert Herron, Pierce Keneda, 
John R. Lawrence, Jesse Morris, John F. Williams, Zach- 
ariah Williamson, Richard Williams, Johnson Watson, 
Alfred J. White, Jacob Cox, Michael Conner, Albert 
Feather, Henderson Gar.ier, James L. Grinstead, Abraham 
Jones, Stephen Jones, James Parker, Joseph Slinker. John 
Tucker, Franklin Baldwin, Squire M. Cox, John Dabny, 
George Dabny, Elijah B. Herron, John Hanrahan, Joseph 
W. McDaniel, John T. Minor, Francis M. McDaniel, 
Thomas Shipp, William Wooley, Daniel B. Woolridge, 
James H. Williams, Samuel Brown, James Carlile, John Cox, 
Andy B. Cox, Benjamin Dabny, Charles Dawson, Henry H. 
Geddis, James Monroe. 



Captain Otto Ernst. 

First Lieutenant Charles A. Archer. 


First Sergeant Henry G. Klink. 
Sergeant John G. Tucker. 
Sergeant John R. Fields. 
Sergeant Louis Meier. 
Sergeant Stephen S. Dooley. 
Sergeant Stephen Risse. 
Sergeant Joseph Simms. 
Sergeant Isham D. Scott. 
Sergeant William Hill. 
Sergeant William Wheat. 
Corporal William B. Crump. 
Corporal John M..Roe. 
Corporal Jacob Logsdon. 
Corporal Joshua B. McCobbins. 
Corporal David A. Chapman. 
Corporal William E. Bybee. 
Corporal Frederick Reusse. 
Corporal Robert A. Miller. 
Corporal Preston B. Roe. 
Corporal William T. Coomer. 
Corporal William C. Fox. 
Corporal Ezekiel Witty. 
Farrier John S. McFarling. 
Farrier John W. Woods. 
Saddler Thomas McDonald. 
Wagoner David Singleton. 


John Beek, C!harles Bender, William H. Burge, Johc 
Clopton, Benjamin P. Dawson, Christopher C. Freshe, 
Robert A. Gibson, William D. Graves, Charles Hohman, 
Burrel T. Hurt, Magnes lestaedt, Jacob M. Long, Isaac A. 
Oliver, James C. Page, William H. Purkins, Berry Reed, 
Ezekiel Roe, George A. Roe, Lorenze Sohutzinger, Joseph 
R. Shipp, Francis Watt, Even Shaw, WiUiam Tolbert. 
William H. Collins, Gustavus Hurst, John D. Mosby, ]ohr 
Meninger, Alexander Talbert, William K. Withrow, Joht 
C. Hammontree, Chester Murphy, Anton Blattler, Fredericl 



Base, George C. Coomer, George W. Defevers, Pharaoh C. 
Everett, James Highland, John Johnson, James B. Loyall, 
IshamT. Withrow, James D. Ward, Henry C. Allen, Eli 
Babbitt, Thomas J. Brown, John M. Brown, Joseph N. 
Byram, John Burke, George Blell, Nelson Bacon, William 
H. Brown, James Coomer, John C. Duff, John Gibson, 
John M. Gibson, Bushrod B. Ritter, Isaac W. Roe, John T. 
Russell, Philip E. Hammontree, James E. Welsh, John T. 
Wheat, Henry M. Wheat, Richard H. Kessler. 



Captain Robert H. Brentlinger. 
First Lieutenant George Williams. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Richardsou. 
Second Lieutenant John Fowler. 


First Sergeant Jonathan McKelvey. 
Sergeant Frank Gnau. 
Sergeant John J. Huff. 
Sergeant George M. Kepple. 
Sergeant Charles A. Fishback. 
Sergeant William T. Payne. 
Sergeant William A. Taylor. 
Sergeant John Cook. 
Sergeant Pharaoh C. Everett. 
Sergeant William R. Campbell. 
Sergeant Martin A. Jeglie. 
Corporal James Brown. 
Corporal Owen McGee. 
Corporal John Pickett. 
Corporal Preston Noland. 
Corporal Samuel E. Fox. 
Corporal William Bettis. 
Corporal Adolph Hines. 
Corporal James W. Reed. 
Corporal William A. Russell. 
Wagoner Richard L. Dillingham. 
Wagoner Lawrence Mc Taggart. 
Farrier Michael Melvin. 
Farrier Benjamin Few. 
Farrier George Walden. 
Bugler Samuel M. Woolsey. 
Bugler Richard Baner. 
Saddler Martin V. Shuman. 
Saddler Henry A. Loyd. 
Saddler Charles Simmersback. 


William AUshite, Charles E. Abbey, Elim H. Button, Na- 
than Culp, Charles R. Crouch, Patrick Carstillo, Isaac W. 
Carpe, Daniel Huntsinger, George W. Hardin, Jacob Hentz- 
leman, James W. Hendricks, Joseph K. Holloway, Smith 
Hitchcock, Jonathan James, Solomon Klut, William Lush, 
Peter Meng, William Maher, Daniel McCauley, Gabriel 
Randolph, Joseph Rhinehart, William Swall, Isaac Smith, 
Charles Sawney, Nelson Taylor, George Walker, Angels 
Easum, Richard Miller, John Meek, John S. Perkins, Albert 
Vicken, William R. Wilson, William C. Rogers, Charles 
Ackerman, Wesley Anderson, Jacob Buck, Edward Beck, 
William Derringer, Benjamin Bevin, James Farnham, Frank 
Findzell, Joseph M. Hester, John Hulsey, John Haag, 
Joseph Hogg, Willis W. Hale, George Jefferson, James Kess- 
ler, James Meeks, James J. Mordock, James Maloiie, David 
McCann, Aaron W. Pickett, Peter Reeves, George R. Ridge- 
way, Washington D. Slater, Wallace Sevunse, Burton R. 

Tucker, John Elsworlh, Jacob Garrett, Lewis Hartman, Ed- 
ward Hall, Thomas Knapp, John Sperceful, Andrew J. 
Stuart, Samuel Turner, John A. Seidman, James Downey, 
Mathew Lmdsay, Peter .McBride, William B. Schardine. 


The Sixth Kentucky cavalry veteranized in 
January, 1864, at Rossville, Georgia, and re- 
turned to Kentucky on the furlough of thirty 
days allowed by the War department, at the ex- 
piration of which it returned to Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, and was assigned to the Third brig- 
age. First division, commanded by General L. 
D. Watkins. From Chattanooga it marched to 
Wauhatchie, Tennessee, and remained near two 
months, and then marched to Lafayette, Geor- 
gia ; thence to Calhoun, Georgia, and Resaca. 
From Resaca marched with the advance of Gen- 
eral Sherman, by way of Dalton and Snake 
Creek Gap, to Gadsden, Alabama, where, the 
horses giving out, ihz regiment returned to 
Louisville, Kentucky, to be remounted. From 
Louisville, after being remounted and equipped, 
it was ordered to Nashville, Tennessee, and par- 
ticipated in the pursuit of General Lyon through 
Kentucky ; after which it marched to Waterloo, 
Alabama, at which point, the cavalry being reor- 
ganized, this regiment was assigned to General 
Croxton's First division of General Wilson's 
corps, and marched to Chickasaw, Alabama ; 
from there marched with General Wilson through 
Alabama. Leavmg the main command at 
Montevallo, the Sixth proceeded to Tuscaloosa, 
where it met the enemy in force, and was en- 
gaged in a severe battle. From Tuscaloosa it 
marched by way of Newnan to Macon, Georgia, 
rejoining the main command of General Wilson. 
From Macon it marched to Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, where it was mustered out on the 6th day 
of September, 1865, having participated in the 
following battles, viz: Lafayette, Resaca, Snake 
Creek Gap, Georgia; King's Hill, Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama ; Nashville, Tennessee ; Summerville, 
Georgia, and Hopkinsville, Kentucky. 

In alphabetical list, but not on rolls: 

Regimental Commissary Joseph Hogg. 


Captain Charles L. Schweizer ("declined accepting"). 


Colonel Benjamin H. Bristow. 




William W. Loy. 


The following statement of the condition, 
strength, and operations of the Ninth Kentucky 
Volunteer cavalry, since its organization, to the 
nth of September, 1863, is taken fiom the 
regimental records, and from other authentic 

This regiment was organized at Eminence, 
under Colonel Richard T. Jacob, and mustered 
into service on the 2 2d day of August, 1862, by 
Major L. Sitgraves. After it was mustered-in it 
inarched to Crab Orchard, Kentucky, two com- 
panies being detached as a body-guard to Gen- 
eral Nelson. These two companies participated 
in the battle of Richmond, Kentucky, and after 
that the regiment marched from Lexington to 
Louisville, covering the retreat of the Federal 
forces before Kirby Smith. After two weeks' 
stay at Louisville the regiment marched in ad- 
vance of Buell's army toward Perryville. At 
Taylorsville Colonel Jacob was ordered to take 
one-half of the regiment and march to Shelb/ 
viile, with instructions to report to General Sill; 
Lieutenant-colonel Boyle, with the remainder of 
the. regiment, still remained with General Buell's 
army and participated in the battle of Perryville. 
The portion of the regiment under command of 
Colonel Jacob was assigned to General Kirk's 
brigade, and marched from Shelbyville to Frank- 
fort. At Clay village the regiment came up with 
Scott's rebel brigade, and after a severe engage- 
ment defeated them, with the loss of a few killed 
and many prisoners. On the following Monday 
this portion of the regiment, m advance of Gen- 
eral Sill's division, drove Scott's cavalry out of 
Frankfort and took possession of the city, and 
were skirmishing with the enemy all the follow- 
ing day. 

From Frankfort it marched towards Harrods- 
burg, and met the enemy in force at Lawrence- 
burg, where, in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, 
the enemy was forced from the field. In this 
engagement Colonel Jacob was severely wounded, 
and was compelled to relinquish his command 
to Captain Harney. Four days after this fight the 
regiment was again united, and, under command 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Boyle, engaged in the pur- 
suit of Bragg, and after his retreat beyond the 
Kentucky line the regiment was stationed on 

the Tennessee border to protect the State against 
the frequent incursion of the rebels, and was 
daily engaged with the enemy, capturing many 
prisoners. Colonel Jacob rejoined the regiment 
in December, 1862, and they remained on the 
border until July, 1863, when they were in the 
pursuit of Morgan through Kentucky, Indiana, 
and Ohio, and participated in the fights at Buff- 
ington Island and St. George's Creek, Ohio, 
where Major Rue, with a portion of the Ninth, 
Eleventh, and Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry cap- 
tured Morgan the 26th day of July, 1863. The 
regiment then returned to Eminence, Ken- 
tucky. It participated in the following battles 
and skirmishes, viz: Richmond, Clay village, 
Frankfort, Lawrenceburg, Perryville, Harrods- 
burg. Horse Shoe Bend, Marrowbone, Kentucky, 
Buffington Island, and St. George's Creek, Ohio. 
It was mustered-out at Eminence, Kentucky, 
September 11, 1863. 


Lieutenant-Colonel John Boyle. 

Adjutant Frank H. Pope. 

Regimental Quartermaster Charles A. Clarke. 

Regimental Quartermaster W. Rector Gist. 

Regimental Commissary Edwin ]. Clark. 



First Lieutenant Thomas P. Shanks. 
First Lieutenant Frank H. Pope. 
Second Lieutenant Alfred C. Morris. 


Second Lieutenant Edward S. Stewart. 

Second Lieutenant John C. Jackson. 

Brevet Second Lieutenant C. Harrison Somerville. 


First Sergeant Phineas H. Barrett. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant Michael Minton. 

Com.missary-Sergeant Thomas Case. 

Sergeant Henry E. Darling. 

Sergeant George Harbeson. 

Sergeant Jehiel H. Hart. 

Sergeant Thomas B. Duncan. 

Sergeant James A. Harbeson. 

Corporal Justin M. Nicholson. 

Corporal Foster O'Neill. 

Corporal Cyrus Thompson. 

Corporal Lee Withrow. 

Corporal John M. Bean. 

Corporal James Carrico. 

C'orporal Joseph A. Walter. 

Corporal James McCarthy. 

Farrier George G. Shafer. 

Farrier Isaac Graham. 

Wagoner John G. Wenderheld. 

Saddler John W. Bradburn. 




James Adams, James W. Armstrong, William B. Arterbrun, 
Brown Anderson, Eli Bohannon, Robert E. Bradburn, Dan- 
iel Bolin, Harvev -N'. Cutshaw, William Cutshaw, Andrew 
Carrico, Hiram Elkins, James F". Eppihimer, Martin V. Gore, 
John W. Gresham, James Gaylord, John R. Green, Richard 
E. Green, Barney Hamilton, George W. Ham, Eli Hilton, 
John Humphries, William Hildebrand, Marshall Jameson, 
John Jones, Benjamin G. Kendall. 



Captain John D. Gore. 


Henry Crutchett, Henry H. Childers, Anderson Doss, 
Coon Hih, Samuel Hutchison, James Hibbert, Christian 
Herzeick, John Johnson, Christian Kremig, James Lynnett, 
Richard T. Laurence, Daniel Livingston, Stanton Mitchell, 
Edward Phillips, Jame C. Pierce, George W. Shepler, Chris- 
tian Schmitt, John Starr, James Williams, John Welles. 



Colonel Joshua Tevis. 
Quartermaster George G. Fetter. 
Assistant Surgeon Alfred T. Bennett. 


This regiment was recruited in the fall of 1862. 
Captain Milton Graham opened a camp at Har- 
rodsburg, and companies A, C, D, and F were 
recruited from the counties of Mercer, Washing- 
ton, and Madison, and reported at rendezvous 
about the nth of July. On the 22d of July his 
camp was removed to Frankfort, Kentucky, in 
consequence of the invasion of the Stateand the 
difficulties attending the mustering, armmg, and 
equipping recruits at the former place. On ar- 
riving at Frankfort the recruits were ordered to 
report to Major A. W. Holeman, and during 
their stay company B was recruited, and from 
Frankfort marched to Louisville, Kentucky, and 
encamped at the fair grounds, and were engaged 
in drilling, recruiting, and picket duty until the 
2 2d of September. While at the fair grounds 
companies E, G, H, and I were recruited, and 
the whole command was mustered into the 
United States service on the 2 2d day of Septem- 
ber, by Captain V. N. Smith. The regiment re- 
mained in Louisville during the invasion of 
Bragg, and, after the reorganization of Buell's 
army, was assigned to Dumont's division, and 
marched to Frankfort, where it remained for sev- 
eral weeks scouting. At this point Lieutenant- 
colonel W. E. Riley was commissioned and 
assumed command of the regiment, and marched 
to Bowling Green, and thence to Scottsville, 

Kentucky, and Gallatin, Tennessee. At Galla- 
tin the regiment remained several weeks on gar- 
rison duty. 

On the 25th of December, 1862, reported to 
General Reynolds and received orders to march 
to Glasgow, where it remained several weeks, 
and then returned to Gallatin. From Gallatin 
the regiment returned to Kentucky, and was 
constantly engaged in scouting until July, 1863, 
when it was in the pursuit of Morgan in his raid 
through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, and was 
present at the capture of the whole force at 
Buffington Island, Ohio. Colonel Riley having 
resigned, Major Graham assumed command of 
the regiment. From Cincinnati the regiment 
marched to Ni.cholasville, and engaged in the 
pursuit of Scott's rebel cavalry to Somerset, and 
from there marched with General Burnside upon 
his East Tennesee campaign, and was in all the 
engagements incident to that campaign. The 
regiment was engaged actively with the enemy 
for several months in the fall of 1 365, and sus- 
tained heavy losses in killed and prisoners. In 
an engagement on the 28th of January, 1864, 
near Sevierville, Tennessee, Major Graham was 
severely wounded, and Captain Slater assumed 
command of the regiment, and returned, to 
Knoxville. On the 4th of February the regiment 
received orders to rendezvous at Mount Sterling, 
Kentucky. At this point the Third Battalion, 
which was recruited in the fall of 1863, under 
command of Major W. O. Boyle, joined the 
regiment. The regiment, having been remounted 
and equipped, reported to General Stoneman, 
and marched for Nashville, Tennessee, and 
thence to Chattanooga and Atlanta, participat- 
ing in all the engagements of that campaign. 
Lieutenant Colonel Alexander having resigned 
in August, 1864, Major Graham was promoted 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and the regiment, having 
again returned to Kentucky, was engaged in 
scouting, and succeeded in capturing about one 
hundred prisoners of Jesse's command near New 
Liberty, and from there was ordered to Lexing- 
ton, to prepare for General Burbridge's raid on 

At Lexington Colonel Holeman resigned, 
Lieutenant-colonel Graham was commissioned 
colonel, and Major Boyle Lieutenant-colonel. 
The regiment was in the first engagement at 
Saltville, Virginia, and acquitted itself with great 



credit. After this raid the regiment returned to 
Lexington, and, after two or three weeks' rest, 
was ordered to join General Stoneman in his 
campaign through East Tennessee and Western 
Virginia. On this campaign, which was in De- 
cember, 1864, the regiment suffered terribly, 
having many officers and men frost-bitten and 
rendered unfit for service. 

The regiment, after the battle at Saltvilie, re- 
turned to Lexington, and was again ordered to 
join General Stoneman in his campaign through 
Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina 
to Atlanta, Georgia, where it was at the time of 
the surrender of the Confederate army. From 
there it returned to Louisville, and was mustered 
out on the 14th of July, 1865, the recruits and 
veterans being transferred to the Twelfth Ken- 
tucky cavalry. 

It was engaged in the following-named battles 
in which loss was sustained, viz: Cassville, 
Georgia; Dandridge, Tennessee ; Dalton, Geor- 
gia; Macon, Georgia; Marion, Virginia; Marys- 
ville, Tennessee; Philadelphia, Tennessee; Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, and Hillsboro, Georgia. 


Colonel Alexander W. Holeman. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald J. Alexander. 
Major William O. Boyle. 



First Lieutenant Charles H. Edwards. 


Captain Frederick Slater. 
Captain Edward H. Green. 
First Lieutenant Robert Q. Terrill. 

Second Lieutenant John H. Stone [on alphabetical list, 
but not on rolls]. 


First Sergeant James M. Steele. 
First Sergeant Lewis Bienkamp. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant John .Anderson, 
Commissary Sergeant Washington Stark. 
Commissary Sergeant Caswell Huffman. 
Sergeant Lawrence Han. 
Sergeant William H. Connell. 
Sergeant Dunn R. Stage. 
Sergeant Solomon Huffman. 
Sergeant James W. Armstrong. 
Sergeant James H. Bailey. 
Sergeant Isaac N. Thompson. 
Sergeant Bartlett Veglet. 
Corporal William H. Hensley. 
Corporal Surge J. Walker. 
Corporal Samuel H. Webber. 
Corpora] Hugh McHugh. 

Corporal William Schwagmier. 
Corporal David Writer. 
Corporal Christian Seidel. 
Corporal Thomas Lamkin. 
Corporal Andrew M. Swift. 
Corporal Leander Ruble. 
Saddler Christopher Ryner. 
Farrier Edward Chesworth. 
Bugler Henry D. Mallory. 


Thomas }. Bailey, William Carbaugh, John Cooper, 
Thomas Carmichael, Robert Dickey, Andrew J. Dalson, John 
Fitzpatrick, Rudolph Fisher, Elias C. Graves, Aaron B. 
Henry, Henry Lincomp, John Love, Josiah C. Powell, 
Daniel Stewart, Levi P. Trester, George Trester, Frederick 
Thalke, John Tracey, Henry UUman, Watstein Writer, 
Robert J. Bennett, Robert T. Day, George N. A. Gathman, 
John M. Griffin, Michael Mundary, Henry McDonald, 
Frederick Steinback, Jarah Teaney, James Vahe, John 
Whiteford, William McMurray, David Powell, William 
Peek, George White, Jacob Bailey, James Carlin, William 
Caldwell, Henry Clenn, Henry Dulveber, Robert H. Griifin, 
Hugh Grieley, Henry Harker, Martin H. Henderson, 
Thomas Hensley, Franklin Johnson, James Kennedy, 
Malaka Lafttas, Nathan Manning, David Milboum, Fred- 
erick Nutmier, Frederick Natte, John Quade, Joel Roberts, 
William F. Smith, William Teaney, Frank Tourville, John 
C. West, Henry Winter. 



Captain Joseph Lawson. 

First Lieutenant Allen Purdy. 

First Lieutenant Joseph M. Willerman. 

Brevet Second Lieutenant John H. Skinner. 


Quartermaster Sergeant Tennis W. Wade. 

Commissary Sergeant August Wadrecht. 

First Sergeant Earnest C. Laurence. 

Sergeant Joseph S. Boggs. 

Sergeant Robert Taliaferro. 

Sergeant Joseph Hannan. 

Sergeant Amen H. Motley. 

Sergeant George R. Evans. 

Sergeant Charles Mortier. 

.Sergeant William E. Thomas. 

Corporal John Morgan. 

Corporal William Florah. 

Corporal Hugh Ross. 

Corporal Patrick Mooney. 

Corporal Joel W. Rice. 

Farrier George Crocket. 

Saddler James R. Jleff. 

Bugler Thomas H. Lawson. 


John Ames, Thomas E. Livezey, Alexander Mulbery, 
Gran Nutting, Lewis Phelps, Joseph Smith, John Waldro, 
Edward L. Bradley, Bennett Corte, Joseph Downard, David 
L. Edward, Sr., George Hacksteadt, Adam Kiger, William 
J. Laffling, Cornelius McKinney, Jesse Angleton George 
W. Codrin, Henry Cotman, William Duffy, Joseph Edwards, 
John Edwards, William Fuller, Thomas Fuller, George S. 
Gilmore, Samuel Hollensworth, Henry C. Hill, Stephen 
Hurt, Ale.\ander James, James W. Lunsford, William J. 



Laffling, William McLaughlin, Edward McCann, Shower 
Nelson, William Phelps, Joseph C. Parris, Conrad Parr, 
Charles J. Stalker, George W. Scaggs, William F. Spades, 
James Weathertoii, Robert Watterman, Alexander Wallace, 
John Baker, Oliver Gibson, George Hudson, James Hicks, 
George F. Jennings, John Lewis, Charles McCarey, John 
Scaggs, John Tyrus. 



Captain George H. Wheeler. 
First Lieutenant Daniel E. W. Smith. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Taylor. 
Second Lieutenant B. H. Niemeyer. 


First Sergeant Aylett R. Smith. 
Sergeant James W. Staples. 
Sergeant Albert T. Smith. 
Sergeant James Heflin. 
Sergeant William A. Bryant. 
Sergeant Sanford R. Bryant. 
Sergeant William V. Hare. 
Sergeant Aylett R. Owens. 
Corporal Charles L. Harding. 
Corporal John Willis. 
Corporal Parkison Bradford. 
Corporal Benjamin F. Estep. 
Corporal James Smith. 
Corporal Albert S. Taylor. 
Bugler Alexander Hay. 
Saddler Richard Glover. 
Farrier John Henry. 
Farrier Robert C. Wilson. 
Wagoner Daniel H. Wilson. 


William J. Allen, Nettie J. Brumfield, John W. Brumfield, 
Frederick J. Bryant, George Holeman, James W. Mansfield, 
Patrick Nolin, Joseph J. Ross, George A. Reeves, Andrew J. 
Webb, William Brown, Frank Clark, George Housefield, 
George W. Knizley, W. M. Morris, Robert H. Mullen, Noble 
Mitchell, Frank Mulholan, Patrick Rynes, Robert T. Smith, 
George Armstrong, Jesse P. Brumfield, Archibald W. Burriss, 
Vincent T. Biggerstaff, Robert Baldwin, John H. Bode, Wil- 
liam H. Brown, Almon C. Clark, Peter Conner, David L. 
Dennis, Charles Dawson, Joseph S. Dodd, Richard W. Dale, 
Ablisom Elkins, Michael Glea.son, George Glove, Richard P. 
Holeman, William E. Howard, Jesse Hail, Francis H. Hol- 
liday, William H. Heflin, Charles C. Hewitt, Harrison Hay- 
den, John Joice, James A. Kirk, William D. Kidd, James 
Long, Simeon B. Leech, Marcus M. Lawrence, Henry Mil- 
ler, John R. Mitchell, David McConol, David Maines, 
James Molbon, Joseph Power, George W. Rudy, Erasmus 
Rodman, Rodger Rynes, Thomas J. Smith, Joseph Stiltz, 
William Smithers, William C. Spencer, James Sturgeon, 
John W. Seli, George W. Taylor, Ransom S. Wilshire, 
George W. Whitehures, Alford M. Weston, George Weitzel, 
William S. Burd, Elijah Burnett, John Bingham, John Bald- 
win, John Chapman, Henry Courcer, Wesley O. Carter, 
Harby Davison, Patrick Fagen, William J. Gill, Thomas G. 
Lawrence, Christopher C. Moles, Tyre S. Reeves, James A. 
Self, John J. Sweezee, Ernest Slade, Thomas Shaley, John 

In alphabetical list, but not on rolls: 

First Lieutenant P. W. Hall. 

Second Lieutenant Louis Bergman (transferred to com- 
pany C, Twelfth Kentucky cavalry). 

Captain Robert Karnes (captain company C, also of D, 
Twelfth Kentucky cavalry). 

Major William Mangan (captain Company K, Twelfth 
Kentucky cavalry). 

Captain A. C. Morris. 

Captain Thomas B. Strong. 

Second Lieutenant Rufus .Somerly. 

Captain Charles L. Unthank. 


Major William R. Kinney. 
Second Lieutenant John H. Stone. 



Captain Thomas J. Cherry. 


First Lieutenant William K. Wallace. 


This battery was organized in the month of 
July, 1861, at Camp Joe Holt, Indiana, by Cap- 
tain David C. Stone, and was mustered into the 
United States service on the 27th day of Sep- 
tember, 1861, at Camp Muldrough Hill, by 
Major W. H. Sidell. This battery accompanied 
General Rousseau from Louisville to Mul- 
drough's Hill early in the fall of 1861, and con- 
stituted a part of that gallant band who interposed 
between Buckner and Louisville. It was as- 
signed to the Department of the Cumberland, 
and was distinguished for gallantry, discipline, 
and soldierly bearing, and in the early engage- 
ments in Tennessee won the praise of the De- 
partment commander. It veteranized at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, in February, 1864. After the 
defeat of the Confederate forces under General 
Hood, in December, 1864, the battery was 
ordered to Texas, where it remained until Oc- 
tober, 1865, when, being ordered to Louisville, 
it was mustered out November 15, 1865. 


Captain David C. Stone. 
First Lieutenant John H. Mellen. 
First Lieutenant Robert A. Moffet. 
First Lieutenant William H. Sinclare. 
First Lieutenant John H. Landweher. 
Second 1-ieutenant George W. Clark. 
Second Lieutenant William K. Irwin. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick R. Sanger. 


First Sergeant John M. Beard. 
First Sergeant Upton B. Reaugh. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Richard Catter, 



Quartermaster Sergeant Albert St. Clair. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Charles McCarty. 
Quartermaster Sergeant John Mendell. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Covington O. West. 
Sergeant John W. Hall. 
Sergeant Deroy Love. 
Sergeant Francis Grunee. 
Sergeant John H. Leach. 
Sergeant Joseph H. Browing. 
Sergeant Martin Guiler. 
Sergeant Jacob Kennett. 
Corporal James Humphreys. 
■ Corporal Sebastian Amling. 
Corporal Boler Raney. 
Corporal William Harvey. 
Corporal Eli LcJy. 
Corporal Charles Rogers. 
Corporal John Rice. 
Corporal Henry B. Noel. 
Corporal \Villiam M. Gray. 
Corpc*lri Charles A. Collins. 
Corporal Richard Janice. 
Corporal Charles H. Scott. 
Corporal Henry F. W. Vaskuhl. 
Corporal Leander B. Lawrence. 
Corporal William Lewis. 
Bugler Samuel A. Auld. 
Artificer J ohn E. Hall. 
Artificer Andrew Thompson. 


William Allen, William Ball, John D. Barnes, Thomas 
Barnes, David Burdine, Isaac Bell, William Brister, Fred- 
erick Buckholt, Green Breden, Andrew Crohan, George W. 
Carroll, James M. Curry, Philip Catron, William H. Dooly, 
John Debouid, Paul L. Denning, John Ebbs, Joseph A. 
Evans, John J. Estes, Joseph Endurlin, Francis M. Fox, 
Sebastian Gruniisen, Lewis Green, Bernard Garry, Cornelius 
S. Hislop, Lawrence E. Hands, Stephen A. Harper, Lafay- 
ette Hurt, Thomas Hampton, Henry H. Haggard, Jacob 
F. Hoover, Frederick Hiltser, Columbus Hays, Michael 
Isler, William H. Jones, Henry G. Jiles, William Jones, 
John Johnes, Levi King, John Kneasa, Otto Kleins-Schmit, 
John S. Light, Samuel L. Long, Ernest Lambert, Jesse D. 
Little, David Lanigan, Theodore Morrison, John Miller, 
Nathan J. Moore, John T. Murray, William Masters, An- 
toine Muler, William H. Meece, James McCabe, Charles J. 
Mathews, William Martin, Reuben Payne, Elias Pea, Daniel 
S. Purdy, Martin Ranch, Warner Richards, John Roberts, 
John C. M. Redman, Eustachius Reis, John Richardson, 
Daniel C. Scully, Robert Stewart, James H. Street, Greenup 
Sparks, Thomas B. Sevill, Charles Stephens, John C. Smith, 
Peter Slathter, Charles Smith, Francis M. Smith, Levi M. 
Taylor, Samuel M. Thompson, Hugh L. Thompson, Asberrv 
H. Thompson, Patrick Ward, William J. Wren, Benjamin 
F. Withers, George W. White, Reuben Wooddon, George 
Woods, William F. Wallace, John W. Warner, Thomas 
Adkins, George Bancroft, John Beatty, William Bingham, 
Frank Bainlee, Joseph Briswalder, Josiah H. Bagby, John 
M. Burton, Christian Bothman, Peter Boohn, William 
Boohn, Joseph Backman, Daniel Coackly, Edward M. Clark, 
Patrick Curran, William H. Chaddock, Pearson Crouch, 
Cyrenius Childers, David Collins, John Dorington, George 
Daugherty, William Driscoll, William Dye, Thomas Dick, 
William Everett, Robert Elmore, George Fells, Patrick Faha, 
John R. Ford, Philip Flood, Daniel C. Friels, Jefferson L. 

Fields, Richard Ghiles, Henry H. Gwin, Thomas Harper, 
Daniel Hild, Moses R. Hancock, Charles Hite, Henry 
Hayse, Benjamin Holt, John W. Johnson, Lord W. Joyce, 
Herman Kellehals, William J. Kerr, Jeremiah Lochery, 
James Lindseyc Flotus V. Logan, George W. McQuigg, 
John McKenzie, John Moylan, Perry Moore, Patrick Mc- 
Call, William Matthews, William Manning, Lloyd Morrison, 
Waller W. Miller, William MuUins, George W. McDonald, 
John M^tin, James B. Nenelly, Marcus D. L. Osburn, 
Charles R. Oliver, Henry T. Powell, James L. Parrish, 
John McKinney, William Quinne, William S. Roberts, 
Maurice E. Reece, Francis B. Reece, Anthony Razor, Wil- 
liam R. Razor, John Hubee, Benedict Stubla, Patrick 
Shaaha, Richard A. Spurreer, Thomas Smith, Allen M. 
Smith, James M. Smith, Howell M. Smith, William C. 
Smith, George H. Smith, Joseph Sewell, Hillery Sells, Wil- 
liam Story, Andrew Sells, William Sterling, George Sparrow, 
Jesse Seward, Richard Thomas, James Vertrees, Pleasant 
Walker, Jeremiah Walker, Nathaniel Walker, John A. Wal- 
lace, .Mfred W. Wright, Moses H. Wilson, William H. 
Wren, John S. Williams, Alonzo C. Yates, James H. Wal- 
lace, Warren Benge, John Coffman, David Dally, David 
Ford, Samuel Kephart, James Marshall, Frank Miller, Wil- 
liam Malcolm, John Norton, Eugene K. Raymon, John 
Spires, Samuel Schuff, Leroy Whitus, William S. Wilhite, 
William B. Yates, William Cummins, Thomas Cummins, 
John Durbin, Charles Faller, Frederick Goff, Joseph Jack- 
son, Andrew Landwehr, David W. Murray, Joseph Ottman, 
John W. Reynolds, David Reckter, William Stewart, Nicho- 
las Stonefelt, John W. Sparks, William McK. Thompson, 
Walton A. Tillett, Edwin Dundon, John W. Gans, Daniel 
W. Burton, John Cochran. 


Battery C was organized at Louisville in Sep- 
tember, 1863, by Captain John W. Neville, and 
was mustered into the United States service, for 
one year, on the loth day of September, 1863, 
by Captain W. B. Royall, United States muster- 
ing ofificer. Being raised for the one-year service, 
this battery was assigned to the Department of 
Kentucky, performed much valuable service, 
and participated in many skirmishes and en- 
gagements; and, as there were but few batteries 
in the department, the marches performed were 
long and arduous. It re-enlisted for three years 
at Lebanon, Kentucky, in February, 1864, and 
was ordered to Arkansas, where it participated in 
several engagements. It returned to Louisville, 
where it was mustered out July 26, 1865. 


Captain John W. Neville. 

First Lieutenant Hugh S. Rawle. 


Quartermaster Sergeant Thomas S. Russell. 

Sergeant George b. Brown. 

Sergeant Edwin W. Gould. 

Sergeant Spencer H. Segroves. 

Sergeant Lowdy Howard. 

Sergeant William B. Bryson. 



Sergeant James E. Hensley. 
Corporal John Wilson. 
Corporal James E. Dolton. 
Corporal William H, Travis. 
Corporal Jerome Newton. 
Corporal John M. Pearman. 
Corporal Charles Troll. 
Corporal John A. Irvin. 
Corporal Jesse Morris. 
Corporal Finis E. Winders. 
Corporal Josephus Bellows. 
Corporal Moses Matthews. 
Corporal Thomas J. Simmons. 
Artificer Henry C. Simpson. 
Artificer John C. Mann. 
Blacksmith John W. Gorrity. 
Wagoner James Duke. 
Cook James Dorrity. 


Charles Bradas, Albert Brown, Thomas Blair, James M. 
Beech, James Clarke, James R. Clarke, James B. Chambers, 
Martin S. Davis, Johnson Defriend, William Goodrich, 
Larkin L. Hensley, Daniel D. Howard, Franklin Harrod. 
William H. Hewlett, William Jones, Paul Landem, Patrick 
Moore, Thomas Morgan, William Miller, Daniel Pruce, 
Michaelberry Stephens, John W. Smith, John A. Stowers. 
John Travis. David E. Tatnm, Joseph L. Tombison, Samuel 
M. Wittiion, Charles Wilson, George W. Allen, William G. 
Alfrey, John W. Black, Riley A. Barker, John Bickell, Wil- 
liam Brasselle, William P. Brasher, Harrison Bernett, 
George W. Brown, Samuel Cooper, Thomas J. Cate, Ster- 
ling M. Chambers, John Co.x, Hiram Dulaney, Henry P. 
Edwards, Thomas Galloway, Jesse A. Ghormly, William P. 
Garr, Daniel T. Henderson, George T. Hern, William Hart, 
Samuel Hardy, John C. Hughes, George W. Hughes, Caleb 
Ingram, Nicholas Losser, Johnson Lelbetter, Richard N. 
Lyons, Henry N. Lanes, Jeremiah Loutch, Joseph Loving, 
Joseph McMillan, John Moore, John S. McDonald, Samuel 
McGee, John Nouse, Thomas O'Brien, Henry Pruett, Joel 
S. Poore, Robert PuUam, John Pullam, Richard P. Redding, 
Edward Riley, John Henry Richie, John Summers, Moses 
A. Sweaton, John Spillman, James Spain, Charles Sheffield, 
James L. Taylor, John A. Unckleback, John Varable, 
Thomas J. Wright, Charles W. Wood, James M. Winston, 
Franklin B.Adams, John H. Benningfield, James M. Bow- 
len, John C. Comer, Daniel Floui, Joseph M. Hough, Lewis 
W. King. 



First Lieutenant Hugh S. Rawls. 


First Sergeant James E. Hensley. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant'Charles Troll. 
Sergeant Thomas J. Wright. 
Sergeant Spencer H. Segroves. 
Sergeant William B. Bryson. 
Sergeant Lowdy Howard. 
Corporal John N. Pearman. 
Corporal Thomas J. Simmons. 
Corporal J esse C. Morris. 
Corporal Finis E. Winden. 
Corporal Moses Mathews. 
Corporal Thomas O'Brien. 
Corporal Jeremiah Loutch. 

Corporal John W. Black. 
Artificer Henry C. Simpson. 
Artificer John C. Mann. 
Artificer Caswell H. Barnhill. 
Wagoner Johnson Letbetter. 
Cook James Dorrity. 


William Alfrey, George W. Allen, John Bickell, William 
P. Brashear, Harrison Barrett, George W. Brown, James 
Burton, Hiram Brassalle, Samuel Cooper, Thomas J. Cate, 
John Cox, William H. Coon, James Duke, Robert Edwards, 
Robert W. Field, Thomas Galloway, Jesse A. Ghormley, 
Edwin W. Gonld, Daniel T. Henderson, George T. Hern, 
John A. Irvin, Caleb Ingram, Nicholas Losson, Richard N. 
Lyons, Joseph McMillan, John Moore, John S. McDonald, 
Samuel McGee, John Nouse, Jerome Newton, Henry Pruitt, 
Joel L. Poore, Edward Riley, John Richie, Thomas S. Rus- 
sell, Richard, P. Redding, John Summers, Moses A. 
Sweaton, John Spillman, James Spain, Charles Sheffield, 
James L. Taylor, John A. Unkelback, John 'Varalle, Charles 
W. Wood, William P. Garr, Riley A. Barker, Henry P. Ed- 
wards, John C. Hughes, William Hart, Samuel Hardy, 
Frankliu Adams, John H. Benningfield, Sterling M. Cham- 
bers, Henry N. Laws, Robert Pullam, Joseph H. Leaptrol, 
Wash E. Maytor. 


This battery was organized at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, in September, in 1863, under Captain 
John J. Hawes, and was mustered into the 
United States service, for one year, at Camp Nel- 
son, Kentucky, on the 6th day o( October, 1863, 
by Captain R. B. Hull, United States Mustering 
Officer. It performed garrison duty at Camp Nel- 
son and Camp Burnside for several months; and, 
in February, 1864, re-enlisted for three years. It 
was at Le.xington, • Kentucky, in June, 1864, 
when the city was attacked by John Morgan's 
forces, and by a few well-directed shots succeed- 
ed in driving them from the city. It remained 
at Lexington, Kentucky, until November, 1864, 
when it received orders to march to East Ten- 
nessee, and join General Stoneman in his expedi- 
tion against Saltville, Virginia. This Battery 
participated in the battle of Marion, Virginia, on 
the i8th of December, 1864, and on the 21st of 
December, in the capture of Saltville. After the 
capture of Saltville, all the guns of the Battery 
were destroyed and the men mounted and re- 
turned to Lexington, Kentucky, by way of Pound 
Gap and Mount Sterling. This expedition was 
one of great severity, many of the men being 
being badly frost-bitten, but enduring the cold 
and fatigues with marked courage and patience. 
From Lexington it marched to Camp Nelson, 
where it remained until ordered to Louisville 
for muster-out, August i, 1865. 




Quartermaster Sergeant Frank King. 
First Sergeant Thomas Murray. 
Sergeant Robert Lay. 
Sergeant Adison L. Norris. 
Sergeant Blanton Frazier. 
Sergeant Charles W, Toulmin. 
Corporal Henry Schwink. 
Corporal Milton S. Morgan. 
Corporal Robert S. Harrison. 
Corporal David E. Crist. 
Corporal Pleasant M. Gwin. 
Corporal Pascal Ragal. 
Corporal George P. Bolin. 
Corporal John Tompkins. 
Corporal Thomas Wallace. 
Buger Edgar Wagner. 
Bugler William Sawter. 
Artificer Malcom McCoig. 
Artificer Ferdinand Holhouse. 
Artificer John Feeway. 
Wagoner John O. Smith. 


Newton Anderson, Michael Bradon, John S. Brooks, 
James T. Brock, William M. Baker. Peter F. Baker. Jesse 
Baker, Hiram W. Butcher, Samuel M. Butcher, George 
Brewer, Andrew Cordell, Hiram Carlory, Elijah Clark, John 
B. Correll, John Corruth, Clinton Coombs, Alexander Coombs, 
George Clouse, Lafayette Douglass, William Deavin, JohnR. 
Elder, William H. Franklin, Lafayette Gibson, Larkin Gib- 
son, William C. Gibson, Daniel Heapley, Edward Hyde, 
James Hood, Augustus Herring, James Hall, Runinions S.. 
Jones, William M. Jones, Samuel T. James, George Kirkland, 
Robert L. Kilpatrick, Jeremiah Landres, George Mclvan, 
James McAllen, David McKusir, Granvill A. McCoy, Henry 
Messer, John Manyrum, Henry C. Musgrove, Edward 
Miller, James B. Nelson, William Patton, James W. Rey- 
nolds, Frank Rehberger, James M. Russell, Farris Roberts, 
Michael Sullivan, Benjamin Swadener, Jeremiah Spencer, 
Isaac P. Smith, John M. Stewart, Elijah W. Shay, Ed- 
mund Tyler, Drury Talbot, Richard Thomas, William C. 
Vanover, George W. Williamson, Thomas Withers, Jasper 
Yarbrough, [ames Anderson, Thomas Anderson, Jesse L. 
Baker, David Baker, Charles A. Carpenter, Thomas Doolan, 
Gabriel Daugherty, Robert E. Depew, Otho T. Davis, John 
Feeway, John W. Graves. Alfred A. Gambrel, Thomas 
Hayes, William A. Hunt, Robert Hamner, James Howell, 
James W. Jones, Robert Johnson John F. Knoble, Eli N. 
Langley, Wilson M. May, Jacob Myers, William Morgan, 
Pleasant Morgan, Charles McGuire, Robert Nutt, John 
Ruprecht, Patrick Short, John Vaughan, James Woods, 
William Wallace, Robert C. Burritt, Daniel Clark, Thomas 
Garrett, Jeremiah Herbert, John Toohey, George Barrix, 
Samuel P. Depen, George Frazer, Otto Gire, James Munroe, 
Joshua Vaughan, John R. Walker, William A. Whitney. 

On alphabetical list, but not on roll : 


Second Lieutenant William Lanigon. 


On alphabetical list, but battery never organ- 
ized : 

Captain Daniel W. Classic. 


Second Lieutenant Thomas Garrett. 

Jeffrey Rogers, second lieutenant, Twenty-first infantry. 

Andrew Carle, second lieutenant, company A, Twenty- 
third infantry. 

John F. Leonard, first and second lieutenant, company A, 
and captain, company D, Fiftieth infantry. 

Charles M. Bingham, second heutenant, company M, 
Thirteenth cavalry. 


Joseph Smith, Theodore Nelson, William H. Howard, 
company B. Thirteenth infantry. 

Gottlieb E, Fiber, corporal, company E, Thirteenth in- 

Thomas J. Muir, company C, Seventeenth infantry. 
John Bottem, Charles Richter, company D, Seventeenth 

Corporals Henry Paulson, Charles Andean, and Henry 
Hohman; Michael Calahan, Michael Cavanaugh, Michael 
Curran, Obin Cushell, John Davis, Anthony E^gin, John 
Farihan, Patrick Gleason, George Jericho, Joseph and 
Charles Kane, Patrick Keeran, Owen King, Dennis Larvln, 
Christian Mangold, James McDonald, John McFadden, 
Daniel O'Brian, John Martin, Thomas Ryan, and Edward 
Keyes, company F, Seventeenth infantry. 

Ernest Franks, company K, Seventeenth infantry. 

Benjamin Moore (veteran), company E, Twentieth infantry. 

Corporal Henry F. Shafer (veteran), company H, Twen- 
tieth infantry. 

Samuel McCarty (veteran), company K, Twenty-first in- 

Corporals Jacob Boss and Edward Dunleith; Charles 
Ackerman. Martin Adams, Benjamin Albert, William 
Amther, Michael Bowler, John C. Cline, Michael Connell, 
Jacob Hass, John Hartwitz, John Hanky, George Henry, 
Andrew Hedley, Kantlinger, George Keck, Bernard 
Kelley, Nicholas Leffler, Lewis Maybold, William H. H. 
McPheison, Patrick McHugh, August Mikel, Lewis Mikel, 
John R. Muir, Edward Reffolt, Cornelius Riley, George 
Rich, William Rinbolt, John Rowen, John Rusch, George 
A. Rucker, Jacob Scherrer, Peter Schuler, Joseph Seleick, 
George Thormyer, Joseph Werdic, August Williamking, 
company G, Twenty-second infantry. 

Andrew Carroll, company F, Twenty-sixth infantry. 

Charles Granger, company K, Twenty-sixth infantry. 

Frederick Daner, Frederick Beck, company I, Thirty-third 

John Coleman, company B, Thirty-fifth infantry. 

Nicholas Mangin, company D, Thirty-fifth infantry. 

Charles Young, company E, Thirty-fifth infantry. 

George Metter (veteran), company H, Thirty-eighth in- 

George A. Barth, company I, Fortieth infantry. 

Charles Witmore, company C, Second cavalry. 

William Brown, company K, Second cavalry. 

Henry Hart, company I, Forty-seventh infantry. 

George H. Tope, company C, Forty-ninth infantry. 

William Metts, company A, Fifty-second infantry. 

Thomas C. Vaughn, company B, Fifty-second infantry. 

James M. Pake (veteran) company F, Fifty-third infantry. 

Hugh Higgins, company C, Seventieth infantry. 



John Bennie, company B, Eighty-third infantry. 

William M. Black, company H, Eighty-fifth infantry. 

James Higgins, company A, Anthony Thevenm, company 
E, Ninetieth regimerft (cavalry). 

Lafayette Cook, company F, Ninety-first infantry. 

Harvey R. Currier, company I, One Hundred and Twenty- 
eighth infantry. 

Company Commissary Sergeant David Mercer, company 
L, Thirteenth cavalry. 

William W. Davis, Pat O'Conner, company M, Thirteenth 

Josiah D. Ripley, company C, One Hundred and Fortieth 

George Matters, company A, One Hundred and Forty- 
third infantry. 

John Gross, company D, One Hundred and Forty-third 

William Arens, William Ely, Charles King, Leopold 
Lenzinger, Benjamin F. Tanner, company A, One Hundred 
and Forty-fourth infantry. 

yoel M. and Newton J. Conn and Richard B. Hawkins 
(Westport), company B, One Hundred and Forty-fourth in- 

Corporals Sanford M. Jewel and Henry Gilespy; James F. 
Key, William B. Lewis, Barney Ouley, Joe H. Pope, com- 
pany G, One Hundred and Forty-fourth infantry. 

Frank McConley, company B, One Hundred and Forty- 
fifth infantry. 

Corporal Charles G. EUis, company K, One Hundred and 
Forty-fifth infantry. 

Sergeant William H. H. Cole, company B, One Hundred 
and Fifty-first infantry. 

Daniel Butler, company G, Christopher Thomas, John Wil- 
kenson, Thomas Wills, Twenty-eighth United States 
colored troops. 

James Goren, company H, Twenty-eighth United .States 
colored troops. 

David Rasine, Second battery (also second lieutenant 
Second Missouri light artillery). 

Conrad Endlecoffer, Tenth battery. 

Corporals Joseph H. Snyder, Albert Clow, James McGuire, 
Christopher Staub, Emsley Jackson, Thomas M. Johnson, 
Henry Ruth, George Smiter, Twelfth battery. 


Besides the large contingent which Jeflerson 
county put regularly in the field and which was 
mustered into the service of the United States. 
was a large number who were only enrolled in 
the State Militia, but were temporarily subjected 
to the call of the Federal commanders, and who 
served for short periods in sudden emergencies, 
as when Louisville or its railway communications 
were threatened by the enemy. Among them 
were many who also served in the Kentucky 
forces in the Federal service, as will be observed 
by the correspondence of names in a large num- 
ber of cases; butsome left their homes and bu- 
siness only for these brief terms of service, upon 
the call of the United States officers, and without 
leaving the State in whose militia alone they 

were enrolled. The compiler of this work hesi- 
tated to give these rosters a place in the military 
history of the county, on account of the very 
short service of the officers and men whose 
names they present — in many cases not exceeding 
a week or ten days; but, being assured by those 
who personally knew of their experience in the 
field, that it was often exceedingly useful to the 
Union cause, and well deserves commemoration, 
he decides to include the lists in the roll of honor. 
The following are believed to comprise all the 
companies from Louisville or Jefferson county 
that are noticed in the Adjutant General's report 
for the war period: 


Called into United States service by Brigadier 
General Anderson, from September 17 to Sep- 
tember 27, 1 86 1. 


Captain Theodore Harris. 

First Lieutenant William F. Wood. 

Second Lieutenant A. N. Keigwin. 


Sergeant J. S. Hill. 
Sergeant William T. Duncan. 
Sergeant A. T. Spurrier. 
Sergeant William H. Manning. 
Corporal George T. Kage. 
Corporal C. L. Blondin. 


William Austin, F. Brooks, Milton Burnham, William 
Brentlinger, H. Bellcamp, M. C. Clark, W. L. Chambers. 
William Cotter, Charles Cooper, J. F. Cook, J. L. Dallott, 
James Donally, J. H. Davis, James Flannagen, Charles H. 
Hart, R. C. Hill, ]. F. Harvey, P. Hogen, B. W. Hurdic, 
John Martin, William Macguire, James E. Mullen, T. T. 
Mershon, Frank Macguire, C. S. Miller, John B. Martin, 
William M. "Nicholls, Andrew Nickols, James Raery, K. 
Rhinelander, George B. Roach, P. W. Richards, John Reihl, 
R. Ramsey, Albert St. Clair, George Webster, J. B. Wood, 


Called into United Slates service by Brigadier 
General Anderson, from September 18 to Sep- 
tember 28, 1861 : 


Captain Edward St. John. 

First Lieutenant John F. Ditsler. 

Second Lieutenant J. C. Russell. 

First Sergeant W. H. Bartholomew. 

Sergeant Joseph Smith. 

Sergeant W. L. Stratton. 

Sergeant John Vetter. 

Corporal J. B. Vice. 

Corporal William Roach. 

Corporal T. G. O'Riley. 

Corporal John Cookley. 




F. Besser, R. Babett, jobn Blotz, ArnioM Dierson, Gotlep 
Drieher, Henry Fink, Philip Fried. Jacob Holing, John 
Hinkle, Frank Henlove, Philip Hotop, F. J. Jagle, John 
Keller. Robert Kritser, H. McCool, Richard McGuire, Pat 
O'Riley, F. Stingle, Charles Stetzer, Frank Severt, J. J. 
Swope, A. Smith, Michael \A/"atson. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17 to September 

28, 1861: 

coMMrssiONED offici:bi&. 

Captain John Metcalf. 

iiecond Lieatenant Jacob Hess. 


Sergeant E. Balstein. 
Sergeant Frank Guan. 
Corporal P. Wise. 
Corporal G. Sanger. 


J. Bentz, Michael Conner, D. Clark, M. Daly, C. Graiff, P. 
Geiss, B. Hessinger, G. Howland, Peter Kuhn, John Kin- 
caid, Joseph Kincaid, Joseph Probst, M. Reuter, R. Regan 
M. Sengal, E. Scanlan, J. SneO, James Whalen, J. Walton. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 21 to October i,, 


Captain Fred Buckner. 

First Lieutenant A. BingswaH. 


First Sergeant John Rtdtaly. 
Sergeant John Haur. 
Sergeant B. Schikenger, 
Sergeant L. Kaunnese, 
Corporal Albert Pfeffer. 
Corporal John Zimmer. 


John Aeppele, John Handle, C. Clark, O. Doussoner, W. 
Eminger, O. Fishback, Martin Haag, S. Kapp,, Mathias 
Koechle, Joseph Kamp,, John Luiz,, John OefalJeir, Charles 
Rohus, John Selgaret, John ZoHeir. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17th to September 

29, 1861. 


Capiaict Rohen Mills. 

First Lieutenant Charles A. Gruber. 

Second Lieutenant C. H. Summervile. 


First Sergeant Joseph McClory.. 
Sergeant W. A. KeUcer. 
Sergeant John Weist. 
Sergeant Garnet t Duncan. 
Corporal J. W. P. Russell. 
Cocpcual C, 'WnateEsteine. 


John Austin, T. J. Adams, T. .Anderson, G. Brown, T. 
Brannin, F. Blumensteihl, J. Briswalder, T.J. Carson, Wil- 
ham f'urry, William Driscolls, F. Dye. E. O. Dailv, Otto 
Dolfinger, C. M. Dermott. Adam Eichert. F. Escherich, H. 
Fuller, F. Gilcher, W. Graffney, William Hare, William 
Kellum, John Kerr, J. Low, J. Malone, Barney McMahon, 
William McKinney, C. J. Mull, Martin Middleton, R. Nut- 
tall, C. Powell, George Powell, H. Ratterman, G. A. 

I Schimpff, J. Scheble, J. Schulten, William Surmons, C. A. 
Strout, Gibson Tate, John Taber, John Winter, John 

! Westan. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, October 3d to October 19, 
1 861: 


Captain Robert Mills. 

First Lieutenant C. H. Sumerville. 


First Sergeant John W. Winter. 
Sergeant E. O. Daily. 
Sergeant J. W. T. Russell. 
Sergeant William Kellum. 
CoirpoiraL R. NmttalL 


John Austin,, T. J. Adams, George Brown, Joseph 

"Brishaver, F. Bloomenstul, Daniel Clark, Michael Dailey, 
facob Em wain, H. Fuller, George Gossman, Thomas Hol- 
Ibran, W. A. Kelker, William Linch, George Middleton, 
Martin Middleton, Barney McMahon, George Powell, G. A. 
Schimpff, Edwin Scanlan, William Woodfall, Robert Wright. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 21 to October i, 


First Lieutenant Samuel L. Adair, 
Second Lieutenant Peter Leaf. 


S«rg:eanitl Frank Ress. 
Sergeant Henry Routtinibraslb. 
Sergeant John Leaf. 
Corporal William Roth. 
Corporal Martin Deidley, 
Corporall Jofiuiii FlMfeirer. 


W. J. Adama, Pfeter Bontrager, Frank Bronger, Charles 
Cleveland, Thomas Cherren, James Cotter, Frederick Elbert, 
John Geist, Nicholas Glomen, Joseph Gnowl, Jacob Heirth, 
Henry T. Martin, James J. Norman, James H. Norman, 
Henry Oterman, Worden J. Quick, C. Stone, John A. 
Stone, Henry Shane, Peter Shuck, Jacob Vauan, Albert 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17th to September 
22, i86r. 




Captain J. F. Huber. 

First Lieutenant D. W. Henderson. 

Second Lieutenant Edward Merkley. 


Sergeant W. E. Benson. 
Sergeant J. L. Byers. 
Sergeant Lewis Miller. 
Sergeant W. P. Hampton. 
Corporal E. G. Stout. 
Corporal Charles Pring. 
Corporal Robert Bebee. 
Corporal Simon Berg. 


Aaron Bacon, William Bergman, Owen Conley, James 
Clarke, Duncan Daker, John Daper, John Hawkins, John 
Hogan, Vincent Kriess, John Long, A. Lederman, John 
Maurer, John Meyer, G. Munsenheim, Henry T. Martin, 
Peter Phiester, Samuel Retwitzer, Stephen Schmitt, Charles 
Schusler, Henry Snender, Anton Schack, Lewis Streng, John 
M. Vaugaan, John Weinhoff, Fred Webbe, G. Werner. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 20th to September 

29, 1861. 


Captain A. C. Semple. 

First Lieutenant E. G. Wigginton. 

Second Lieutenant J. M. Semple. 


Sergeant W. A. Bullitt. 
Sergeant W. W. Gardner. 
Sergeant J. Barbaroux. 
Corporal H. Thompson. 
Corporal Robert Vaughan. 
Corporal James Milliken. 


James Ainslie, C. Aulsbrook, V. R. Bartlett, J. B. Banys, 
C. Clark, R. M. Cunningham, S. F. Dawes, A. L. Dwyler, 
William Drummond, H. Dupont, A. Day, G. H. Detchen, 
Joseph Gleason, U. B. Gantt, H. B. Grant, S. K. Grainger, 
Edward Gary, James Gary, Henry Gary, G. A. Hull, A. G. 
Hodges, J. Hornrice, H. T. Jefferson, C. K. Jones, lavez 
Kirker, I. H. Martin, G. S. Moore, G. McCormick, J. C. 
Nauts, R. L. Past, J. H. Ponier, William Padden, M. T. 
Ritchey, Eugene Reilly, James Ruddle, George A. Sweeney, 
Charles Semple, 1. Schirck, J. Sommerville, T. W. Spill- 
man, G. J. Vail, G. F. Wood, J. T. T. Waters, Z. W. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, from September 2 2d, to 
October 6, 1861. 


Captain Edward S. Sheppard. 


George W. Barth, Robert Catlmg, Robert Latimer, Charles 
Leterlee, James Marshall, J. L. Richardson, William Smith, 
Sidney Smith. Daniel Stevens. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17 to September 

27, 1861 : 


Captain B. Hund. 

First Lieutenant L. Schweizer. 

Second Lieutenant A. Mehrle. 


First Sergeant John Sembaugh. 
Sergeant Peter Linden. 
Sergeant Charles Weidman. 
Corporal Gottfried Miller. 
Corporal Charles Guetig. 
Corporal Osker Fluhr. 
Corporal William Branmiller. 


H. Bremer, William Babsky, John Dockweiler, E. Emig, 
J. T. B. Emig, Charles Elt, Fz. Flaig, Charles Hilzil. A. 
Heimerdniger, J. Holyer, G. Kraut, T. Klotter, William 
Knoller, George Klotter, A. Kueny, V. Losch, B. Moritz, 
John Nichter, T. Mevan, C. Oelman, T. Reichett, P. Rosch, 
L. Rhein, Phihp Sensbach, J. Sihale, A. Schanlin, N. 
Uhrig, Fz. Uhiig. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson September 17th to September 
30, 186 1 : 


Captain Paul Byerly. 

First Lieutenant James Forgarty. 

Second Lieutenant J. R. Boone. 


First Sergeant John Hughes. 
Sergeant Charles Wolf. 
Sergeant William Woodfall. 
Corporal W. H. Evans. 
Corporal John Akin. 


Michael Calloghan, Henry Doorman, Martin Enright, 
Patrick Flaharty, Henry Fisher, Jacob Hart, James Hart- 
nell, Edward HartnelS, John Insto, Thomas Jeffrey, An- 
thony Kirn, Edward Legoe, John McMahon, Peter Moore, 
William O'Harra, Paul Reis, Gustoff Radeloff.J. W. Smith, 
Hamilton Sago, Michael Sago, William Seibel, J. W. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 1 7th to September 

28, 1861. 


Captain F. M. Hughes. 

First Lieutenant G. W. Conaway. 

Second Lieutenant D. Abbott. 


Sergeant Ranson Delano. 
Sergeant T. B. Hays. 
Sergeant Peter Klink. 



Sergeant Thomas Rowlang. 
Corporal George Mattern. 
Corporal Andrew Hund. 
Corporal William Fagan. 


B. Britton, F. Byer, M. Bush, C. Goodhautz, George Heartz, 
George Henry, C. Heeb, W. C. Irvine, H. Martin, J. Myers, 
Daniel Powell, George Powell, J. Riley, Frederick Rupp, S. 
Reister, Charles Sauer, Granville Sinkhorn, Theodore Stalk, 
Frank Smith, William Sauer, Charles Wagner, I. Williams, 
Silas W. Young. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, October 17 to October 28, 


Captain Jesse Rubel. 
First Lieutenant J. R. White. 
Second Lieutenant W. H. Fagan. 
Third Lieutenant Sim. Leatherman. 


Sergeant Brad. Dearing. 
Sergeant Charles Winkler. 
Sergeant William Hammon. 
Sergeant John Bodkins. 
Corporal E. Winkler. 
Corporal C. A. Olmstead. 
Corporal J. Leatherman. 


Henry Bull, Charles Cook, Jacob Campbell, Frank Elex- 
man, William Floor, John Floor, George Figg, Jacob Fritz, 
J. H. Frautz, William Floether, John Gaus, Alford Hoffeldt, 
Ernest Hausman, Henry Hipper, Albert Hollenbach, Dallis 
King, George Kuntz, William F. Kelly, Toney McGentry, 
Robert Murray, Michael McMahan, Robert Marshall, 
Michael O'Connor, George Rost, J. T. Randolph, John 
Rodeke, Lewis Smith, John Smith, Adam Shear, Joseph 
Shad, Henry Shaffer, E. Sweeny, William Shane, Constant 
Tro.xler, R. A. Wright, Riley Willson. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September i6th to September 
27, 1861. 


Captain Joseph B. Watkins. 


First Sergeant George Bernard. 
Corporal Charles Willis. 


William Arthur, Lewis Bouwin, Henry Burnett, Felix 
Dupre, Charles Deal, John Felt, James Kendall, Andrew 
Kendall, Andrew Lawrence. 

semple's battery. 
Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, October 3d to October 30, 


Major Joseph B. Watkins. 


First Lieutenant George Bernard. 
Second Lieutenant Charles Willis. 


First Sergeant William Arthur. 
Sergeant' James Loyal. 
Sergeant Henry Burnett. 
Sergeant George Morgan. 
Corporal John Botkin. 
Corporal B. F. King. 


Michael Connell, Philip Chapel, James Cook, James A. 
Chappell, Charles Deighl, Henry Deal, Thomas Dupre, A. 
C. Ewing, Alexander Eliot, James Foster, John Fravel, 
James Horine, Peter Jacob, P. Kelly, George Kountz, Green 
L. Key, Andy Lawrence, J. H. Lapp, B. F. Metcalfe, 
James McKnight, P. G, Monroe, M. J. Miller, S. L. 
Nichols, J. J. Policy, C. B. PoUey, Alonzo Rawling, J. W. 
Ridgeway, T. S. Royalty, J. D. Skinner, A. J. Wells. 


Called into United States service by Briga- 
dier-General Anderson, September 17 to ' Sep- 
tember 28, 1 86 1. 


Major A. Y. Johnson. 


Captain J. D. Orrill. 

First Lieutenant Edward Young. 

Second Lieutenant J. A. Weatherford. 


Sergeant J. C. Cassilly. 
Sergeant J. E. Hyburger. 
Sergeant William N. Sinkhorn. 
Sergeant A. Brown. 
Corporal J. H. Davis. 
Corporal B. E. Cassilly. 
Corporal J. Murdivilder. 
Corporal P. M. Dougherty. 
Musician Bullitt Clark. 
Musician Julius Carpenter. 
Musician Matthew S. Steward. 


J. B. Alford, George H. Alexander, John Burkhardt, Wil- 
liam Boldt, J. W. Bryan, John Bradbum, Charles Boldt, 
Otto Brohm, L. H. Beeler, Samuel Conley, W. N. Crooks, 
M. Eaglehooff, L. Fisher,. Lawrence Giles, Joseph Gross, H. 
H. Hancock, Jerry Hollensead, J. D. Hodgkins, John Hite, 
Patrick Haws, George H. Kise, Jr., F. Kocksburger, L. 
Kirchler, J. D. Kircher, Charles Kirfus, J. L. Lee, John 
Lloyd, Christ Murton, James Maxey, C. C. Owen, W. B. 
Rammus, W. H. Ryan, J. Richards, M. Rapp, F. Ran, 
John Sass, J. D. Strawsburg, F. F. Smith, WilUam Shirley, 
Joseph Stokes, J. L. Spangler, Joseph Trainor, A. Webber, 
William Wilson. 


Captain John Daly. 

First Lieutenant Thomas TindelL 

First Sergeant A. Hodapp. 



Sergeant T. H. Winstonly. 
Corporal Jacob Ack. 
Corporal George Sheffler. 
Corporal Granville Cock. 


A. Achers, W. S. Edwards, A. Fritz, John Field, George 
Gassman, John Gould, Timothy Hogan, G. W. Hancock, 
James Jeffrey, Andy Kreigle, N. W. Miller, William Nich- 
wish, Stephen Norman, James White, John Zeusmaster. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Sherman, as guard to bridges on Leba- 
non Branch railroad, September 17 to October 
16, 1861: 


Captain Irvine Miller. 


Thomas Allen, J. W. Allen, James Borney, B. ). Bean, 
W. Barnes, Samuel Barnes, B. T. Barnes, Richard Burnes, 
J. W. Bumes, Vincent Botts, J. W. Clarkson, Jeremiah 
Cape, Martin Delaney, William P. Dougherty, Martin Flinn, 
T. A. Hill, F. M. Hare, David Hamilton, James Hall, An- 
thbny Hughes, William Hill, Patrick Kirlty, Louis Lastie, 
H. A. Lloyd, James Leslie, L. G.'Moberly, Thomas Madow, 
Robert Montgomery, Thomas F. Newton, George A. Pra- 
ther, Patrick Ryan, I^e Rosenham, Charles W. Smith, 
William Sputtsman, A. J. Trisler, J. R. Waters, Neal 
Waters, Perry Watson, Henry Watson, James Allen. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Sherman, to guard bridges on Lebanon 
Branch railroad, October 17 to November 21, 

Captain Irvine Miller. 


Thomas Allen, James Allen, Lawrence Anderson, Sanford 
Bums, Richard Bums, Samuel Barnes, B. T. Barnes, Wick- 
liffe Barnes, John Carlisle, Jerry Cape, William Dougherty, 
Martin Delaney, P. Doyle, Stephen Essex, John P. Fox, 
Henry A. Floyd, Anthony Hughes, David Hamilton, James 
Hall, Frank M. Hare, Michael Hughes, John Hughes, 
Patrick Keitty, Lewis Leslie, James Leslie, Thomas Marlow. 
Robert Montgomery, T. F. Newton, William Prutsman, Lee 
Rosenham, A. J. Trisler, Henry Waters, James R. Waters, 
Perry Watson, Henry Watson, Noel Waters. 


Guarding bridge over Beech fork, Lebanon 
branch railroad, November 2 2d to November 
30, 1861. 


Captain Irvirie Miller. 


Daniel Burns, R. Bums, J. Carlisle, P. Doyle, Henry De- 
feam, Stephen Essex, Anthony Hughes, Michael Hughes, 
Daniel Keif, Thomas Leslie, William Pmtsman, James 
Ready, Noel Waters. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17th to various 
dates in September and October, generally Sep- 
tember 27, 1861. 


Second Lieutenant E. M. Terry. 


First Sergeant W. T. Stokes. 
Sergeant William S. Parker. 
Sergeant John Steele. 
Sergeant L. A. Curran. 
Corporal R. H. Spaulding. 
Corporal Edward H. Dunn. 
Corporal D. G. Spaulding. 


H. C. Anderson, W. R. Beatty, Alonzo Brown, J. J. Balm- 
forth, Charles L. Cassady, W. H. Cornell, John Fisher, 
James Ferguson, E. P. Fountain, J. D. Grimstead, James P. 
Hull, F. H. Hegan, C. M. Johnson, F. Kulkup, Alexander 
Knapp, W. G. L. Lampton, John H. Lampton, W. Maimer, 
J. T. Miles, Ewin Martin, B. M. Mandiville, Jacob F. Mef- 
fert, William G. Needham, D. W. Newton, G. W. Newton, 
Thomas D. Parmele, Alfred Pirtle, C. Robbins, W. D. Spald- 
ing, Thomas P. Shanks, Frank Smith, George K. Speed, J. 
G. Spalding, E. D. Taylor, J. M. Terry, J. W.Terry, W. B. 
Whitney, Nat. Wolfe, Jr., Joseph G. Wilson. 

villier guards. 
Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 18 to September 
28, 1861: 


Captain Joseph Haveman. 
First Lieutenant Keal Weaver. 


Sergeant William Miller. 
Sergeant George Hackmier. 
Sergeant Jacob Becker. 
Corporal Frank Underiner. 
Corporal Charles Hostatter. 
Corporal John Weaver. 


Ambrose Arnold, Jacob Baken, Henry Dutt, William Ep- 
pert, Anderson Frank, Jacob Fishback, Amele Hostutter, 
Stephen Hoselback, Michael Ishminger, Michael Leonard, 
Paul Lewis, Marshall Merit, John Neist, Frederick Nicely, 
Rhenard Phlentz, Conrad Stilvy, Leon Sims, Peter Smuh- 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 1 7 to September 
30, 1861 : 


Captain James R. Noble. 
First Lieutenant William Crull. 


Sergeant John Donnelly. 
Sergeant P. Foulk. 



Sergeant D. CruU. 
Sergeant S. M. Gupton. 
Corporal F. Brocar. 
Corporal L. Knoblock. 
Corporal T. Conklin. 


L Brentlinger, William Brown, Thomas Brentlinger, 
John CruU. S. Curran. S. Burning. W. Davis. F. DeUz R 
Earnest.]. Fowler. P. Flood, J. Hasson, H. Keys- ^, . 
liam Lehr. J. Latterly, C. Manning. S. Manning, ] McCa^- 
vey J McGraw. D. Mercer. T. Riley, M. bhely, W. 
Stiniker. J. Worth. T. B. Wallace. T. B. White. 

Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September iSth to October 
I, 1861. 


Captain David Hooker. 

First Lieutenant William McNeal. 

Second Lieutenant John Collins. 


First Sergeant Elias Childers. 
Corporal Charles Smith. 
Corporal Henry Thomas. 
Corporal Minton Michael. 


John Childers. Davis Childers. Peter Edwards. James Ed- 
wards Louis Gody. Joseph King. George Morns, l^hn Mc- 
ZZ. Nathan Prentice, Andrew Parrall, Zeb. Shy^W.lham 
Sexton. Stephen Skinner, Nathaniel Stenson, JohnTherman 
Samue Tigue, James Thomas, Charles Thomas, Joseph 
wTst Mac Whatkins. Joseph Watson. Hugh Watson. W.l- 
liam Wood. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, October 9th to October 20, 


Captain William H. Maglerney. 
First Lieutenant Henry J. Smith. 


First Sergeant Charles G. Bauer. 
Sergeant Nicholas Shuman. 
Sergeant Frederick Schweitzer. 
Corporal John Buck. 


William Bolt, George J. Bauer, John Estell, William 
Fretman. William Farrell, John Feddell, WUham Gregory, 
Helry Hite, John M. Latterlo, Joseph Rastatter, Algy 
Pusl7josephichweitzer, Henry Schoeffell, George Stark. 
William Tate. Jacob Walter. Henry Williams. 

Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17 to September 

28, 1862. 


Captain J esse T. Hammon. 

First Lieutenant John Ewald. | 

Second Lieutenant Fred. Von Seggern. 


First Sergeant Fred. Miller. 
Sergeant John Beck. 
Sergeant Robert Lechlider. 
Corporal Adam Rush. 
Corporal George Hilett. 
Corporal Philip Ramer. 
Corporal Henry Shear. 


John Base, Conrad Base, Conrad Bender. Conrad ]. Ben- 
der. Joseph Busatb, John Doetenbier, Mike Dohl. Jacob 
Delman. Dan. Eberback. Thomas Enright, Charles Erte 
John Eberback, Frank Fisher, George Fisher, Jacob Gehart. 
Jacob Greenvald, Tony Hafner, John Hardsman, Martin 
Hansemiller, Jacob Iniger, Mike Jacob, Henry Kruse. Mike 
Kruse, Baldwin Kramer, Andy Krebs, Henry Kimpel. Frank 
Kerns George Kossell, John Leffert, Charles Mann, August 
Nold, Henry Newmire, Mike Pracht. Henry Poleman. 
George Stoepler, lohn Shealer, John Struss, Charles Smith, 
Pruno Swender, Henry Wertz. Andy Zimmerman. 

Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September i8th to Septem- 
ber 28, 1861: 


Captain William Elwang. 
First Lieutenant P. Emge. 
Second Lieutenant H. Canning. 


First Sergeant P. Marker. 
Sergeant Pelter Peter. 
Sergeant C. Stege. 
Corporal John Hem pie. 
Corporal G. Marker. 
Corporal Joseph Taufkirch. 


D. Benter. T. Bornschein. B. Bienser. L^ Buehler 

. Dorneck, William Dummeyer, Derbacner. 

lohnEller Eirch, Flentchbach. Peter Fueks. 

';etrrG-s;n, C. Gerringer, Henry Holtze. Carl Hub.her. 

Huber. Henry Heilman. P. Juts. J. F Kosiol. L. 

Lapp W. Landwehr, F. Lottig. J. Miller. J. Meier. A^ 
Mu'ckebauer.J. Pance. M. Ries. John Sackstetter. Jacob 
Sackstetter V. Stein, Frank Schaffer. J. Schaffer, - 

IchmUt J. Schreck, Frederick Schopflin, Fred Schwenk. 
John Trebing, W. Weber. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, ^tember 18 to September 
28, 1861. 


First Lieutenant Charles Summers. 
Second Lieutenant E. D. Prewitt. 


Sergeant Andy Kreutzer. 
Sergeant Charles Speaker. 
Corporal Henry Kane. 



Corporal William B. Grable. 
Corporal William Shanks. 


Theodore Akin, George Bremer, Samuel Clark, James 
Corrigan, Ferdinard Compton, James Connell, William Cas- 
sell, Clemance Emhoff, Ben Fincer, Fred Fromer, Daniel 
Grable, George Grable, Henry Shebley, William Stargs, 
Benjamin Stumble, George Tiller, Cyrus Grable, John 
Hordting, John Heddinger, James Hockersmith, James 
Howell, A. Hughes, John T. Hensley, Martin Jeglie, David 
Johnson, Philip Kener, John Livingood, Thomas McDaniel, 
George Milligan, M. L. G. McPher^on, Thomas McDer- 
mitt, William Murrell, Lloyd Redman, Thomas Swaney, 
Philip Suprodd, James R. Watts, John Weis, Henry Wolf, 
E. Wetterham. 


The best efiforts of the compiler of this work 
have failed to supply its readers wirh a roster or 
detailed history of any of the Confederate com- 
mands raised in this city; but by the kindness of 
Colonel John D. Pope, of the Attorney's bureau 
in the Louisville and Nashville railway offices, 
we are favored wth the following statement : 

Two companies, averaging one hundred and 
fourteen men each, were recruited in Louisville, 
at the corner of Fifth and Jefferson streets, at once 
upon the outbreak of the war, under command 
of Captains Benjamin M. Anderson and Fred 
Van Osten. On the 20th of April, 1861, they 
left by steamer from the foot of Fourth street, 
with a Secession flag flying, for New Orleans. At 
Owensboro a third company, commanded by 
Captain Jack Thompson, was embarked on the 
same vessel. From New Orleans the companies 
were ordered to Richmond, and were there organ- 
ized as the Third Kentucky Battalion, with An- 
derson as major. 

Only three days after the departure of the first 
Louisville companies, two more, averaging one 
hundred apiece, raised in the city, under the au- 
spices of Blanton Duncan, and one of whose com- 
manders were Captain Lapaille, departed on the 
Louisville and Nashville railroad, under orders 
for Lynchburg, Virginia. At Nashville it was 
joined by a company from the southwest part of 
Kentucky, headed by Captain, afterward Colonel 
Edward Crossland, and another from Callaway 
county, led by Captain Brownson. From Lynch- 
burg these companies were ordered to Harper's 
Ferry, where they formed another Kentucky Bat- 
talion, with Blanton Duncan Major. 

On the same day, April 23, 1861, and on the 

same train, went another Louisville company, 
commanded by Captain John D. Pope, and num- 
bering 114 men, and one from Scott county, mus- 
tering 122, and under Captain Desha, son of ex- 
Governor Desha, of this State. They reached 
Harper's Ferry in due time, and were organized 
as rifle companies, forming the Second battalion 
of Kentucky sharpshooters, under Pope, now 
promoted to major, and were assigned to the 
brigade of General Bartow, who was killed in the 
first battle of Manassas. 

An independent Confederate company was 
also raised in Louisville by Captain Fitzhugh; 
and upon its arrival in Virginia, and after the 
battle just named, the several majors of the 
Kentucky battalions petitioned the War Depart- 
ment at Richmond for consolidation of their 
commands into a regiment. The request was 
granted, and the regiment formed accordingly, 
with all the Louisville companies aforesaid in it, 
and Richard H. Taylor, now chief of police in 
that city, as colonel, William Preston Johnson, 
lieutenant-colonel, and Edward Crossland, major, 
all the majors of battalions having mutually 
agreed to retire from the contest for position as 
field-officers. The First Kentucky infantry regi- 
ment, in the Confederate army, was thus formed. 
The former majors returned to the line as cap- 
tains. Colonel Taylor was presently breveted 
brigadier, and subsequently made full brigadier- 
general. The original enlistment of the men 
was for one year; and at the expiration of that 
period they declined to re-enlist as a regiment. 
All, however, both officers and men, it is believed, 
entered other commands in the Southern army, 
and served until released by sickness, wounds, 
or death, or by the close of the war. Colonel 
Pope's last service, before the end came, was in 
the Trans-Mississippi department, under General 


This record may appropriately be closed 
with some notice of the mihtia of Louisville and 
of the county at large, in which old soldiers of 
both armies in the late "unpleasantness" — men 
who wore the blue, and those who wore the gray 
— cordially unite. It may reasonably be sup- 
posed, in view of the large number of ex-soldiers 



resident in Louisville, that the city would have a 
numerous and efficient militia; and this supposi- 
tion is found to answer to the facts. The time- 
honored and battle-scarred Louisville Legion is 
maintained, in name at least, to the number of 
six companies, and forms the First Battalion of 
infantry of the Kentucky State Guard. There is 
also a good company of light artillery, with a full 
equipment of guns and other materials of war. 

At the encampment of the State Guard at 
Camp Blackburn, Crab Orchard, July 19 to 26, 
i88o, Company A, of the Legion, and also Com- 
pany F, were each awarded the first prize of 
$100, offered by the State to the best drilled in- 
fantry company in the Guard. The second 
prize, $50, was awarded to Company D. Com- 
pany E, of the Legion, received the prize of $50 
as the best drilled cavalry company in the Guard. 
The Louisville battery received a $50 prize as 
the best-drilled section of artillery in the State. 
Company F, of the Legion, was also one of two 
companies receiving the State Guard flag, valued 
at $150, as the company best in discipline, sol- 
dierly conduct, and attendance, when compared 
with the total aggregate present. 

Adjutant and Inspector-General J. P. Nuckols, 
in his Report for 1880, includes the following 
account of an inspection of the Legion on the 
23d of February, of that year: 

The inspection was held on Broadway, between Third and 
Fourth streets, and was preceded by a review. . . The 
field and staff consisted of the major commanding, first 
lieutenant, acting adjutant; one assistant surgeon, one assist- 
ant quartermaster, rank first lieutenant; one sergeant-major. 
The battalion is composed of four companies — "A, B, C, 
and D" — and is armed with the breech-loading Springfield 
musket, caUbre 50, model of ^873. I found the pieces gen- 
erally in good condition ; two ejector springs did not work 
well, and would not probably extract the shell. The gun is 
an excellent model, but, like all other breech-loaders, has 
some dehcate parts, and needs to be handled and treated 
with care. The pieces were presented with steadiness and 
accuracy. The accoutrements are of black patent leather, 
wiih white webbing cross-belts. Several cartridge-boxes 
were minus the wooden blocks. I regretted to see this, as a 
cartridge-box is not fit for use without this perforated block. 
The uniform of this battaUon is of dark blue cloth, and con- 
trasts handsomely with the white belts and patent leather. 
The first sergeants of all the companies are conspicuous for 
steadiness and accuracy in marching. The four companies 
of this battalion make a soldierly appearance, are well organ- 
ized and equipped, furnished with overcoats, knapsacks, 
haversacks, and canteens. Perhaps not quite enough atten- 
tion is paid to the arms by the men individually. An armorer 
may be very well, but every soldier should know the exact 
condition of his gun, and be held responsible for its perfect 
cleanliness. This battalion should by all means have an en- 

listed band. A drum and fife corps, composed of two musi- 
cians from each company, instructed in its duties, would be 
far preferable to hiring an immense brass band for special 
occasions, at a heavy cost, uninstructed, and awkward at 

Company of cadets, commanded by Major J. M. Wright, 
is composed of boys, apparently from thirteen to eighteen 
years old. It is an independent body, and is the outgrowth 
of that passion which boyS and young men have for the pos- 
session of arms. It is well drilled, and under admirable 
discipline. They are furnished by the State with what is 
called the cadet needle-gun, which is of the model of 1866, 
is of delicate structure, and not valuable, except for purposes 
of instruction. The accoutrements are of the old United 
States patterns, clumsy and unsightly. Notwithstanding, 
this company Is fast coming to the front, and will at no dis- 
tant day press the best companies of the Legion to the wall. 

Louisville Light Artillery.— Present one platoon, com- 
manded by First Lieutenant Owen Stewart. The pieces are 
3-inch steel rifle, and showed on this occasion to good ad- 
vantage — the guns, carriages and caissons having been 
recently painted. The equipments are complete and well 
preserved.. It is not to be expected that with horses picked 
up for the occasion the platoon cQuld well execute move- 
ments in the mounted drill ; but in all that pertains to the 
school of the battery or platoon dismounted it showed to ex- 
cellent advantage. The men are well-uniformed, soldierly in 
appearance, and proficient in sabre exercbe. 

During the year 1880 one mfantry company, 
made up of boys under eighteen years of age, 
was organized and mustered into the Kentucky 
State Guard as company F of the Louisville 
Legion, and the company of cavalry was organ- 
ized in the county at large, and mustered as 
company E, of the same battalion. The Legion 
then consisted of five cohipanies of infantry and 
one company of cavalry, the former holding arms 
and equipments, the property of the State, as fol- 
low: Three hundred and twenty Springfield 
breech-loading muskets, 320 sets of accoutre- 
ments, 200 overcoats, 200 blankets, 200 haver- 
sacks, 200 knapsacks, and 200 canteens, besides 
camp equipage. The cavalry ha^ 26 sabres. 
The roster of the Legion, by the report of the 
adjutant-general of Kentucky for 1880 was as 
follow : 



Major John B. Castleman. 

Adjutant and First Lieutenant Kenneth McDonald. 

Quartermaster and First Lieutenant A. M. Cunningham. 

Assistant Surgeon B. J. Baldwin. 

Chaplain, Bishop T. U. Dudley. 

Sergeant-Major Thomas J. Wood. 

Quartermaster Sergeant R. Weissinger. 



Captain George K. Speed. 



First Lieutenant ]. D. Wilson. 
Second Lieutenant Vernon Wolfe. 


Sergeant C. F. Grainger. 

Sergeant H. E. Senteney. 

Sergeant J. P. Barbour. 

Sergeant Edward Ornisby. 

Corporal D. J. Davis. 

Corporal W. W. Beeler. 

Corporal R. C. Judge. 


R. T. Allen, C. S. Bibb. B. J. Baldwin, J. A. Batsford, 
E. P. BaUford, W. C. Churchill, E. E. Colston, H. C. 
Dembitz, F. S. Finnie, E. A. Fusch. W. H. Fosdick, J. B. 
Halloway, J. B. Hutching. F. M. Hartwell, H. McK. Jones, 
A. H. Kent, J. Lehman, D. B. Leight. W. L. Loving, ]. P. 
Monroe, C. R. Mengel, J. E. McGrath, W. G. Munn, J. E. 
O'Neil, H. H. Purcell, R. C. Price, W. M. Robinson, W. C. 
Read, W. D. Roy, J. B. Smith. S. W. Shepherd, Jr., C. W. 
Sisson, C E. Swope, T. P. Satterwhite, Jr., J. A. Sage, G. 
A. Sykes, R. M. Sheppard, A. L. Terry, O. W. Thomas, Jr., 
W. F. Uslick, W Von Borries, O. C.Wehle, B. L. Woolfolk. 
J. A. Warren, W. M. Warder. 



Captain W. O. Harris. 

First Lieutenant B. A. Adams. 

Second Lieutenant W. L. Jackson. 


Sergeant W.J. Hunt. 

Sergeant E. W. C. Humphrey. 

Sergeant James P. Helm. 

Sergeant John Barrett. 

Corporal H. C. Smith. 

Corporal J. S. Beeler. 

Corporal George Caspari. 

Corporal Grant Green. 


C. W. Adams, W. J. Allen, L. R. Atwood. J. S. Bamett, 
W. McD. Burt, C. R. Barnes, J. W. Beilstein, M. Belknap. 
Paul Booker, E. S. Brewster, J. P. Burton, D. H. Cheney. 
H. F. Cassin, E. S. Coghill, D. M. Davie. H. B. Davison, 
J. A. Davis, A. Ellison. Jr., James Floyd. J. A. Gray. D. W. 
Gray. W. P. Griffith. J. U Hazlett. A. P. Humphrey. J. B. 
Hundley, E. W. Hemming, R. C. Isaacs, W. P. Jobson, S. 
R. Knott, W. T. Knott, William Lee, John Marshall, S. 
McDowell. E. H. Owings. S. Pardon. G. K. Peay, J. S. 
Peay. J. C. Russell, W. P. Semple. A. L. Shotwell. J. F. 
Speed. Jr., F. E. Tracey, L. Von Borries. J. N. Wallwork. 
J. H. Ward. H. W. Wheeler, M. B. Wise, D. M. Wood, 
H. M. Young. C. H. Zook. 



Captain J. H. Leathers. 

First Lieutenant D. F. C. Weller. 

Second Lieutenant A. H. Jackson. 


Sergeant E. A. Goddard. 
Sergeant W. J. Garrett. 
Sergeant E. Marshall. 
Sergeant L. Miller. 
Corporal A. F. Moore. 

Corporal J . F. Dobbin. 
Corporal G. E. Bly. 
Corporal A. W. Elwang. 


J. M. Adams. Frank Baker, E. Bryan, T. L. Burnett, Jr., 
J. M. Bomtraeger, C. G. Baurmann, W. R. Benedict, J. C. 
Clemens, T. Carroll, W. Chambers. I^ J. Crowley, R. M. 
Cunningham. L. B. Doerr, A. J. Mwang, W. E. Fowler, 
\\'illiam Francke, H. B. Fitch. J. T. Gaines, C. H. Hewitt, 
J. A. Holman, C. W. Johnson, C. H. Perkins, S. E. Jones, 
L. B. Kirby, T. E. Kohlhass, C. H. King. A. G. Link, G. 
M. Lemon, B. K. Marshall. H. W. Middleton. L. J. Moor- 
head. W. B. Ming. J. W, McDonald. Roy McDonald. J. C. 
McComb, E. H. Paine. H. R. Phillips. C. E. Powell. C. E. 
Riley. W. M. Raiblc, A. L. Semple. W. B. Sale, J. F. 
Stults, Jacob Smith, H. Schimpeler, John Storts, Jr., A. 
Van Vleet. H. T. Warden. N. J. Windstandley. 



Captain Eugene Brown. 

First Lieutenant Guy C. Sibley. 

Second Lieutenant W. A. Hughes. 

Sergeant J. M. Sohen. 
Sergeant ]L. F. Kaye. 
Sergeant J. T. Gamble. 
Corporal J. C. Hughes. 
Corporal G. L. Travis. 
Corporal H. C. Qement 
Corporal T. B. Moore 


J. M. Armstrong. M. 3. Barker, A. Brandies, J. C. Burnett, 
Ben Clark, L..R. Courteuay, J. W. Davidson, F. C. Dickson, 
J. L. Gamble, R. C. Gray, J. A. Ferguson, George Felter, 
J. P. Hunt. Green HoUoway, L. W. Homire. T. C. Hobbs. 
W. H. Hyde. S. M. Huston, W. B. Kniskeen. W. E. Kaye. 
A. Kaye. W. B. Keslin, Jr.. J. P. KeUey. L. S. Kornhorst. 
j. D. Langhorne. Robert Lewis, W. L. Lyons, T. W. Mul- 
likin, J. H. Murphy, J. M. Murphy, C. C. McCarthy, A. 
Mead, T. C. Stokes, T. P. Shepherd, Frank Semple, H. M. 
Samuel, L. D. Tucker, Burton Vance, J. R. Williamson, 
John Rothgurber, M. Ryan. W. B. Rowland, Alexander 
Jackson, W. D. McCampbell. 

COMPANY E* (cavalry). 

Company organization and muster-rolls not 


company f. 

Commissioned officers, 3; non-commissioned 
officers, 7; privates, 46; total, 56. 


Captain J. M. Wright. 

First Lieutenant J. Speed Smith. 

Second Lieutenant H. C. Grinstead. 


Sergeant W. O. Bailey. 
Sergeant J. M. Wintersmith. 
Sergeant George W. Wicks. 
Sergeant Victor McPherson. 
Sergeant M. V. Joyce. 
Corporal Alexander N. Griswold. 
Corporal E. S. Wright. 




T. C. Allen, J. G. Cooke, J. V. Cowling, W. Davis, J. 
Davidson, J. S. Dean, S. J. Dean, E. Eacher, W. Edmunds, 
R. E. Gilbert, Fulton Gordon, Charles C. Grant, Henry W. 
Gray, W. E. Gleason, George Griswold, C. L. Hamilton 
J. Hamilton, E. N. Harrison, O. Hooge, E. Q. Knott, w! 
Mandeville, W. Mayers, A. S. McClanahan, D. McComb, 
H. McDonald,- E. T. Mengel, F. T. Meriwether, J. W. 
Milikin, W. Miller, W. W. Morris, H. Murnan, C. Nelson, 
C. A. Parsons. J. F. Rees. T. M. Sehon, T. Sherley, G. W. 
Smith, D. Stuart, J. W. Warder, Henry West, M. West, 
William Weaver, T. Wintersmith, W. W. Swearingan, H. 
McGoodwin, W. W. Grinstead. 

There was also in existence the Louisville 
Light Artillery, holding for the State four 3-inch 
rifled cannon, and 50 each of sets of accouter- 
ments, overcoats, blankets, knapsacks, haver- 
sacks, and canteens. Its roster was as follows : 



Captain E. H. Moise. 

First Lieutenant Stewart Owens. 

First Lieutenant T. S. Evans. 


Sergeant W. K. Evans. 
Sergeant G. S. Bowman. 
Sergeant C. B. Bly. 
Sergeant Oscar Davis. 
Sergeant J. H. Mansir. 
Sergeant J. M. Fults. 
Corporal V. S. Wright. 
Corporal T. P. Helm. 
Corporal A. E. Mayers. . 
Corporal W. A. Elwell. 
Corporal E. B. Bodaker. 


N. P. Avery, Julius Blatz. G. W. Clarke, W. P. Clarke, 
A. W. Caldwell, W. P. Dobson, D. Y. Fowler, A. F. 
German, G. W. Griffith, C. F. Huhlein, J. Hollingsworth, 
J. Heffernan, J. O. Haddox, E. H. Hopkins, J. D. Kirby. 
Haden Miller, M. G. Munn, J. W. McCleery, A. V. Old- 
ham, G. G. Palmer, R. D. Skillman, D. F. Stephen, J. W, 
Stewart, ]. J. Sweeney, Henry J. Stuby, L. B. Smyser, H. 
C. Thornton, George E. Tuck, J. H. Vanarsdale, J. B. Wat- 
kins, M. J. Weisen, W. P. Watson. 


The History of Louisville. 



The Louisville Plain— The Louisville Site Described— Its 
Primitive State— The Spldid Trees— The Ancient Course 
of the Beargrass— Corn Island— Its Remarkable History- 
Sand, Rock, and Goose Islands— Willow Bar— The Old- 
time Ponds— Reminiscences of Them— Their Extinction- 
The Sand Hills— Dr. Drake's Remarks Upon the Site of 


occupying by far the finest plain in the north- 
ern and western parts of Jefferson county, is 
about twenty miles in length and six miles in 
breadth, lying immediately along the south shore 
of the Ohio river, without the intervention of 
hills and bluffs. The capability of the plain, by 
indefinite expansion of the city's site, to contain, 
if need be, ten millions of people, is thus evident. 
Mr. James Parton, in his article on the city of 
Cincinnati, published in the Atlantic Monthly for 
June, 1867, asserts that the so-called Queen City 
occupies the only site on the Ohio river where 
one hundred thousand people could live together 
without being compelled to climb very high and 
steep hills. But Mr. Parton, it is clear, had 
never visited Louisville, or chose to ignore his 
visit or the existence of the city. In no direc- 
tion, indeed, except to the northward, has either 
Nature or political geography interposed a prac- 
tical limit to the territorial growth of the chief 
city by the Falls of the Ohio. 

Much of the surface of the Louisville plain 
consists of a clayey soil, of no great thickness. 
Underneath this is a substratum of sand, of 
thirty to forty feet depth. The hydraulic lime- 
stone and other rocks, with their characteristic 
fossils, within this plain and in the bed of the riv- 
er, have been sufficiently considered in our chap- 
ter upon the Topography and Geology of Jeffer- 

son county. Attention may just now be fitly 
called, however, as it has been called in other 
publications hitherto, to the superb facilities 
which the concurrence here of sand, clay, and 
hydraulic limestone offers for the ready, cheap, 
and abundant manufacture of brick and ce- 
ment; while the magnesian limestone, which also 
abounds in this region, is justly well reputed as a 
workable and durable building stone. The char- 
acteristic element of these rocks, too, adds im- 
measurably to the fertility of the arable lands up- 
on the plain. 


The part of this noble plateau occupied by the 
city of Louisville, in this year of grace 1882, 
is about five and three-fourths miles in length, 
from that part of the modern bed of the 
Beargrass which lies close upon the east cor- 
poration lines, to the river bend at West Louisville; 
and three miles in greatest breadth, from the river- 
bank to the south side of the House of Refuge 
grounds. (It is just 2.73 miles, according to City 
Engineer Scowden, from the river to the House 
of refuge.) The city occupies, in round numbers, 
fourteen square miles. Its elevations and depres- 
sions are now very slight— much more so than 
in the early day, as we shall presently explain. 
The general level of the site is only from forty- 
I five to fifty-five teet above low water at the head 
i of the Falls, and seventy to seventy-five feet 
' above low water at Portland ; but this is quite 
1 enough, as the recent flood (of February, 1882) 
has demonstrated, to assure the whole city, ex- 
cept a narrow breadth of buildings along the 
i river, from damage by the highest floods in the 
I Ohio known to recorded history. The site may 
i be said to be, on an average, five hundred feet 
I above the level of the sea, with the hills or knobs 



in the vicinity averaging a height of two hundred 
feet more. 

The geological character of the I>ouisville site 
does not differ greatly from that of the larger 
plain upon which it is situated. It is a diluvial 
formation of surface clay, sand, and gravel, rest- 
ing upon the limestone of the Silurian basin and 
the Devonian formation above. This easily sug- 
gests to the scientist that here is the bed of a 
very ancient and somewhat extensive river-lake 
or estuary. The beds of clay and gravel here 
vary from twenty-five to seventy five feet in 


When the gallant Captain Thomas Hutchins, 
erstwhile of His Britannic Majesty's Sixtieth regi- 
ment of Royal Foot, and by and by to be first 
and only "Geographer of the United States," 
made the earliest chart of the Falls and vicinity in 
1766, and likewise when Clark came with his 
band of colonists a dozen years later, the view 
which met their eyes on the Kentucky shore was 
one which the rise of a great city, and even the 
change of nature's arrangement of land and 
water here, make difficult indeed to realize. The 
map of Hutchins's shows no human habitation or 
clearing about the Falls; for such there were 
none. All except the space occupied by greater 
or smaller sheets of water was dense woods, as 
his map indicates. Here grew the oak in sev- 
eral interesting varieties, the walnut and the 
hickory, the mighty poplar and the sycamore or 
buttonwood, the maple, wild cherry, hackberry, 
locust, buckeye, gum, and, in brief, almost if not 
quite every forest tree known to the deep woods 
of Kentucky. Colonel Durrett, in the Centen- 
nial Address already cited, enumerates the fol- 
lowing veterans of the forest primeval that have 
survived the destroyer Time and the greater 
destroyer Man: "An oak in the backyard of Mr. 
Bottsford, on Chestnut street, another in that of 
Mr. Lindenberger, on Fourth, and a honey 
locust in front of the residence of Mr. Brannin, 
on Broadway, have come down to us from the 
olden times. In the yard of Mr. Caperton, the 
old Guthrie residence on Walnut street, there is 
the branchless trunk of a noble beech which died 
a few years ago, which stood there when Louis- 
ville was first settled; and in Central Park are a 
few hoary sentinels which have watched over us 
for a century." 


Some of the noblest of the forest monarchs 
stood upon the long tongue of land or peninsula 
between the former course of the Beargrass and 
the Ohio. There is some reason, which the ex- 
cavations made for the ship-canal have tended 
to confirm, to believe that a still more ancient 
bed of this creek carried its waters yet further 
down, perhaps to disembogue them into the 
river at some point below the Falls. But it is 
within the memory cf many now living that the 
stream, after joining its several headwaters near 
the present city limit, flowed thence in a westerly 
course, in a channel still to be recognized in 
places, one to two miles further, gradually ap- 
proaching the river until it entered the Ohio 
about half a block below the present foot of 
Third street* So lately as 1844 it was necessary 
to reach the river from any of the streets east of 
that by bridges across the Beargrass, which were 
thrown over at Clay, Preston, Brook, Second, 
and Third streets. The point made by the 
creek and the river formed one of the best 
landings on the city front. The Cincinnati 
mail-boats then, and for many years before, as 
now indeed, made that their point of arrival and 
departure; but they had to be reached by the 
Third-street or other bridge. Finally, the incon- 
venience and loss caused by this large occupation 
of valuable territory by the Beargrass became so 
pronounced that the diversion of its current was 
virtually compelled. This was easily accom- 
plished by means of an embankment of less than 
half a mile, sending its waters by a short and 
straight channel into the river almost exactly at 
the northeastern corner of the city. 

In the earlier days the mouth of Beargrass, so 
near the head of the Falls, offered a spacious, 
safe, and convenient harbor for the primitive 
craft that came down the river. It figures fre- 
quently in the narratives of the olden time, and 
this locality seems at first to have been known 
indifferently as " the Falls of the Ohio " and 
•'the mouth of Beargrass." It is not improbable 
that the situation of the former mouth of this 
otherwise insignificant stream was an important 
element in determining the original settlement 
and the rise of a town at this point. 

• See Hobbs's fine Map of Louisville, appended to the 
City Directory of 1832. 




A little below the old mouth of Beargrass, not 
far from the foot of Fourth street, began an- 
other of the famous physical features of this lo- 
cality, which has now disappeared, except at low 
water, when the stumps of the fine trees that 
once covered it can still be seen. This was the 
historic Corn Island, of which somethmg will be 
said hereafter. It lay in a long and narrow 
tract, pretty close to the shore, from a little be- 
low Fourth street to a point about opposite to 
the foot of Thirteenth. According to the scale 
of Hutchins's map, which shows the island, it 
was about four-fifths of a mile long by five 
hundred yards in its greatest breadth. Besides 
heavy timber, tt had a dense undergrowth of 
cane, which the Clark colonists were obliged to 
clear away for their cabins and their first corn- 
crop. This done, however, they had access to 
a rich, productive soil, which soon yielded 
abundant returns for their labor. 

Mr. Hugh Hays, in an interesting letter to the 
Courier-Journal a few months ago concerning 
Corn Island, gives the following as from the 
mouth of Sandy Stewart, the well-known "island 
ferryman" of three-quarters of a century ago: 

Without any interruption from Indians we landed on 
this island June 8, 1775. The scenery at this time was beau- 
tiful, and such as the eye of civilized man scarcely ever gazed 
upon. Here was the broad and beautiful Ohio, sweeping on 
down her peaceful shores in silent grandeur and flowing on 
for hundreds of miles to mingle her waters with old ocean. 
The odors of the wild flowers — the hawthorn, the honey- 
suckle, the jessamine, the rose, and lily; the green forest, 
where the axe was a stranger, in all its native beauty, filled 
up the background. The feathered tribe, from the eagle to 
the linnet, the sea-gull and the crane, sweeping over the 
Falls, turning up their snowy wings glittering in the sunlight; 
the buffalo, the bear, the deer lying under- the trees in warm 
weather, perfectly serene, as they were strangers to the sound 
of the rifle and so unacquainted with man that their tameness 
astonished me. This spot in the wilderness seemed a very 
Eden; and as I had no Eve to be tempted by the serpent, I 
resolved to take up my rest here, and never from this isle de- 
part. Here will I be buried. 

According to Mr. Hays, who visited the island 
in 1832 to attend a camp-meeting, it then com- 
prised but about seventy acres, which were still 
heavily timbered. Of the small stream of water 
(yet apparently larger than the Beargrass), which 
Hutchins exhibits as coursing through the middle 
of the island, he says nothing; nor are we aware 
that anybody has ever recorded recollections of 
what appears upon the Captain's map to be a 
knoll or hill at the extreme southwestern end. 

Mr. Hays writes that in 1824 a powder-mill was 
put up on the island and blown up six years later, 
killing several employees ; that about this time it 
became celebrated for " its barbecues, picnics, 
bran-dances, camp-meetings, fish-parties, etc.," in 
which many of the first people in the town partic- 
ipated; and that about 1840 the heavy timber 
was cut, and then the island began to lose its 
surface soil and gradually disappeared. Corn 
island is now but a famous name in history. It 
was owned by the Hon. John Rowan, whose 
heirs, grimly remarks the venerable Hays, still 
own its rocky bottom. 

The following notice is given to Corn Island 
in the Louisville Directory for 1844-45: 

This small island, at the Falls, is rendered interesting only 
from the fact of its having served as a dernier resort for the 
early settlers, when too hotly pursued by the Indians. At 
the present day it is the general resort of old and young who 
are fond of angling. The first rudiments of the very intri- 
cate science of worming a hook or pulling up at a nibble are 
here learned. The island is covered with trees and sur- 
rounded by quarries of limestone, which are not now used. 


Sand, Rock, and Goose islands were in the 
stream then and for untold ages before, substan- 
tially no doubt the same as now. But there is 
at present one remarkable feature on the river 
front that was not then, and is indeed the growth 
of quite recent years — the now familiar Willow 
Bar, sometimes called Towhead Island, at the 
upper end of the city. It is a long, narrow 
tract, completely covered at high water, but at 
other times to be observed as stretching from 
just below the mouth of Beargrass to just below 
Campbell street. It has pretty nearly the dimen- 
sions of the older Corn Island, being three- 
fourths of a mile long by five hundred feet in 
largest width. Although one of its characteristic 
growths gives the island its name, it is chiefly 
covered with cottonwood trees, some of them 
nearly three feet through. Colonel Durrett gives 
the following account of its genesis: 

The growth on this island clearly indicates how it rose 
from the water, and which are its oldest and newest parts. 
On its edges where there is always water nothing but willows 
appear ; and this was the growth observed by our oldest in- 
habitants when the island first began to appear above the 
water. Willows first appeared on a sand-bar, and when once 
established they caught the sediment suspended in the waters 
made muddy by floods, and rapidly built up the island. So 
soon as the soil rose high enough to be part of the year 
above water the cottonwood began to grow. And now that 
the soil is almost above overflow other trees are beginning to 
grow; such as sycamore, hackberry, and ash. The sedi- 



ment now being caught from the floods hy the dense growth 
on this island must soon raise it entirely above overflow, 
and then a still greater variety of trees will no doubt soon 
spring up. 


No fact of the early time, probably, is more 
familiar than the abundance of small lakes or 
ponds upon the primitive site of Louisville, and 
indeed upon the entire Louisville plain, from 
Beargrass to the Salt river, of which the "Pond 
Settlement " is still a reminiscence. A few of the 
old ponds are also still to be seen beyond Broad- 
way, in the south part of the city. But in the 
old days they were found, larger and more nir- 
merously, much nearer the river, and all along 
the town-site. The upper or " second bank " of 
the river had a slight slope to the southward ; 
and the soil being sufficiently tenacious to pre- 
vent the water from escaping, it made much of 
the ground swampy, and in some places col- 
lected more largely in ponds. One of them was 
very well called the " Long Pond," since it 
stretched from the point where now are the cor- 
ners of Sixth and Market streets to the Hope 
Distillery site, about Sixteenth street — a. distance 
of nearly a mile. For many years after it was 
drained, traces of it were still to be seen, as in 
an alley running from Seventh street, between 
Market and Jefferson. Mr. Casseday's History 
has spme pleasant reminiscences of it: 

In the winter, when it was frozen over, this little lake was 
the scene of many a merry party. On the moonlight even- 
ings, numbers of ladies and gentlemen were to be seen skim- 
ming over its surface, the gentlemen on skates and the ladies 
in chairs, the backs of which were laid upon the ice and the 
chairs fastened by ropes to the waists of the skaters. And 
thus they dashed along at furious speed over the glassy sur- 
face ; beaux and belles, with loud voices and ringing laugh — 
and the merriment of the occasion was only increased when 
some dashing fellow, in his endeavors to surpass in agility 
and daring all his compeers, fell prostrate to the ice, or broke 
through into the water beneath. 

Gwathmey's or Grayson's pond was the one 
upon which the old Grayson mansion, still stand- 
ing near St. Paul's church, looked down from its 
eminence on the bank. It reached in a rather 
long ellipse from Center street, just back of the 
First Presbyterian church, along Green and 
Grayson to a point near Eighth street. The 
water of this pond w'as supplied by springs, and, 
being always clear and pure, it was much used 
for baptisms by immersion, for whose spectators 
the turf-covered, slopmg banks offered superior 
facilities. It ,was also excellently stocked with 

fish, which were carefully guarded by its owners. 
It was surrounded by some of the loftiest, finest 
trees upon the Louisville site. 

The writer of a brief history of Louisville, in 
the City Directory for 1844-45, has the follow- 
ing entertaining paragraphs concerning this and 
another pond : 

There are some amusing reminiscenes of Grayson's Pond. 
We have it from a citizen who well remembers the outlines of 
this pond. Great numbers of tortoises or small turtles were 
found about this pond. Thither also came to enjoy its 
luxuries large flocks of geese and ducks. The battles between, 
these different tribes are described as being very amusing. 
The turtle would take to the water and scull along very 
silently, and settling beneath the surface, await the approach 
of the duck; at a sudden he would seize the duck by his feet 
and draw him under water. The struggle generally resulted 
in favor of the feathered combatant, who, on regaining the 
surface, wotild set up such shouts as to collect the whole 
flock around him in a grand congratulatory quacking con- 

This pond, well shaded by the native forest-trees, became 
a favorite resort of many, to while away the hours of a sultry 
day on its banks. It was always clear, and had a sufficient 
depth of water, the dryest season, to swim a horse in. 

Another pond at this period (1800), and a very disagree- 
able one, was to be met with at the intersection of Third and 
Market streets, extending along Third street to nearly op- 
posite the site of the present post-office [Green street]. A 
tannery on Third street, which discharged its waste water 
into this pond, rendered it at times nearly impassable, except 
by mounting a fail-fence, which enclosed the lot where the 
White mansion now stands. The wagons from the country 
often stalled at this point. 

Still another was on Market street, from Third 
to Fifth ; another on Jefferson, near Fourth ; and 
many others were scattered far and near over the 
watery tract. Indeed, Mr. Casseday, writing in 
1852, says: "A map of the city as it was sixty 
or even thirty years ago, would present somewhat 
the appearance of an archipelago, a sea full of 
little islands." 

Some of the ponds, as part of those last named, 
had only water in them after rain, perhaps only 
after heavy rain; and the consequence was that 
they were usually in various stages of stagnation-, 
or dryness. They abounded in ironweed and 
other characteristic vegetation. A vast amount 
of malaria and miasm was engendered by them ; 
fever and ague, with more deadly ills, and finally 
a more terrible pestilence in 1822-23, made life 
a burden in Louisville a large part of the year; 
and it early came to bear the name of "the 
Graveyard of the Ohio." So great was the 
affliction resulting from them that in 1805 the 
General Assembly gave formal authority to the 
trustees of the town to remove "those nuisances 

// 1 I ' 

I ')i^'^./i 



lin such manner as the majority of them should 
prescribe." The legal authority was ample and 
'the spirit of the citizens was willing; but the 
public purse was weak, and it was long before 
Ithe '^nuisances" were abated. After the strange 
jepidemic of later years the Legislature, at the 
jurgency of the local Board of Health, sanctioned 
[the raising of the sum of $40,000 by lotteries for 
draining the Louisville ponds and those between 
I them and the Salt river. The work was mostly 
[done on the town site, but those below town had 
to wait for more recent appropriations, which 
' finally shut up most of their holes of death. 

In the filling of the ponds certain moderate 
I eminences, here and there about town, came 
I excellently well into play. They were of clean, 
I wh: - sand, than which no better material, prob- 
I ably, could be found for making fills in the 
basins of stagnant or other ponds. By their use 
I a double purpose was subserved, in the reducing 
of useless knolls and the filling of harmful hol- 


The famous Dr. Daniel Drake, for a time a 
resident of this city, in his great treatise on the 
Principal Diseases of the Interior Valley of 
North America, published in 1850, thus deals 
with the 'location of Louisville : 

The site of the city itself was swampy, with shallow ponds, 
and although more than seventy years have elapsed since the 
commencement of settlement, specimens of both may be 
seen within two miles to the south and west of the city quay, 
for the draining of which a trench has keen dug. Even the 
streets of the southern suburbs show a soil retentive of moist- 
ure and disposed to swampiness, while the surface is so level 
as to lender all draining difficult. To the southeast of the 
city the creek called Beargrass descends from the highest 
lands, and being joined by streams svhich originate on the 
plain, flows to the north along the base of the low hills, until 
it reaches the new bottom, when it turns to the west and, 
like a narrow canal, makes its way for a mile nearly parallel 
to the river, which it finally joins at the middle of a northern 
margin of the city. The water in the eastuary of this creek 
is generally foul and stagnant ; and the slip of bottom be- 
tween it and the river is sometimes overflowed. A quarter 
of a mile from the mouth of Beargrass, opposite the lower 
part of the city, is the head of the Louisville & Portland 
Canal, which, after running two miles, enters the Ohio be- 
low the Falls* The bed of the canal is in solid rocks, the 
removal of which has given it high and strong banks ; but 
on each side, and especially between it and the river, after 
the first mile from its head, the bottom is so low as to be 
subject to anuual inundation. On this bottom, immediately 
above the junction of the canal with the river, stands the old, 
declining village of Shippingport. Below the junction, on a 
bank so high that even its most depressed portions are in- 
undated by the gieatest floods, is the newer and more grow- 

ing town of Portland, in the rear of which, to the south, 
there are many small ponds and swamps, situated on the 
upper terrace. 

The city has since, under the guidance of in- 
telligent and efficient Boards of Health, bravely 
reformed nearly every element of bad sanitation 
provided by the physical geography of the site ; 
and it now, as we shall fully show in a subse- 
(^uent chapter, enjoys perhaps the lowest death- 
rate of any city of more than one hundred thou- 
sand inhabitants in the world. 



i773_The Beginnings— Genealogy of the Bullitt Family 
—Captain Thomas Bullitt— The Surveying Party— Han- 
cock Taylor— Bullitt at Old Chillicothe— The Voyage— 
The Survey— Did Captain Bullitt Laif off a Town?— So- 
dowsky,.or Sandusky— Connolly's Grant— Connolly— The 
Warrenstaff (Warrendorff) Patent— Colonel John Camp- 
bell. 1774— Boone and Stoner at the Falls. 1775— More 
Surveys and Locations— The Hites and Others in this Re- 
gion. 1776-77— Gibson and Linn's Voyage to New Or- 
leans—The First Cargo from New Orleans to Pittsburg. 
i778-!-The Beginnings of Settlement— Sketch of George 
Rogers Clark— His Campaign in the Illinois— The Fam- 
ilies with Clark— The Roll of the Pioneers— The Hites and 
Johnston— MiUtary Preparations— Departure of Clark's 
Expedition. The Settlers in 1779— The New Immigration 
—The Old Survey and Map— The Popes— Colonel Bow- 
man's Expedition— The First Birth in Louisville — The 
Boones at the Falls— An Amusing Story- The Cold 

The history of Louisville, not as a name, but 
as a place for the residence of civilized and 
white man, begins nearly eleven decades ago, or 
with the year of our Lord 1773. We find no 
evidence that a village, or a village site, to be 
known by the royal name of the "City of Louis," 
was laid off or recognized at the Falls of the 
Ohio prior to the act of the Virginia Legislature, 
passed in May, 1780, which, as we shall pres- 
ently see more fully, expressly and in terms "es- 
tablished a town by the name of Louisville." 
But the fact of a previous survey at the Falls, 
and of a subdivision of some kind into village 
lots, may be regarded as equally well ascer- 


The family of Bullitt is associated with the 
earliest settlement of Louisville and Jefferson 



county, and has been continuously represented 
there from that time to the present. 

This circumstance, taken in connection with 
the fact that Captain Thomas Bullitt led the first 
party who made an attempt at exploration around 
the Falls of the Ohio, will excuse a sketch of the 
family rather more extended than the scope of 
this work ge^rraily permits. 

The facts -elating to the origin and ancestry 
of the family are obtained from a sketch pre- 
pared by Colonel Alexander Scott Bullitt, which 
is without date, but was found among his papers 
at his death in the year 1816. 

The first known ancestor of the family of Bul- 
litt was Benjamin Bullett (so spelled at that 
time), a French Huguenot, who resided in the 
province of Languedoc, and who, at the age of 
twenty-five, left France to escape the persecu- 
tions which followed the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes. He landed in Maryland in the latter 
part of the year 1685, and purchased lands near 
Port Tobacco, Charles county. He died in the 
year 1702, leaving one child, a son, Benjamin 
Bullitt, then but two years of age. He resided 
in Maryland with his mother until he became of 
age, when, having sold his patrimony, he pur- 
chased lands and settled in Fauquier county, 
Virginia, where, in 1727, he married Elizabeth 
Harrison, of that county. By her he had five 
children — Joseph, Elizabeth, Thomas, Benja- 
min, and Cuthbert. Joseph died a bachelor. 
Benjamin was killed in an engagement with the 
Indians shortly after Braddock's defeat. Eliza- 
beth married a Mr. Combs, and left a numerous 

Thomas Bullitt, the survivor who visited the 
Falls of the Ohio in 1773, was born in 1730, and 
died at his home in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
in February, 1778, at the age of forty-eight years. 
He was never married, and left his estate to his 
brother Cuthbert. 

Cuthbert BuUitt (second in descent from the 
original ancestor) was born in 1740, and was 
bred to the law. In the year 1760 he married 
Helen Scott, of a wealthy family, in Prince Wil- 
liam county, to which he removed, and in which 
he resided until his death. He pursued the 
practice of law with considerable success until he 
was appointed a judge of the supreme court of 
Virginia, in which office he died in the year 
1790. He left six children. The only son, who 

settled in Kentucky, was Alexander Scott Bullitt. 
He (third m descent from the original ances- 
tor) was born in the year 1761 or 1762. He 
came to Kentucky in 1783 and settled first 
on Bull Skin, in Shelby county, but believ- 
ing that he was too far removed from the Falls 
of the Ohio, he purchased the farm "Oxmoor," 
in Jefferson county, about eight and one-half 
miles from Louisville, on the Shelbyville turn- 
pike, where he lived until his death, on April 13, 
1 8 16. He married Priscilla Christian in the fall 
of 1785. She was the daughter of Colonel Wil- 
liam Christian, who settled in Kentucky in the 
spring of 1785 and was killed in an engagement 
with the Indians April 9, 1786, at the age of 
forty-three years. Her mother was Annie Henry, 
a sister of Patrick Henry. They left two sons, 
Cuthbert and William Christian Bullitt, and two 
daughters, Helen and Annie. These are now 
all deceased, and with the exception of Helen 
(who was Mrs. Key at the time of her death) 
have left descendants, a. number of whom still 
live in Louisville and Jefferson county. 

The distinguished merchants, Cuthbert and 
Thomas Bullitt, who settled at an early day in 
Louisville, and who owned a large survey of 
about a thousand acres, running back from 
Broadway and embracing what is now the most 
fashionable residence part of the city, were de- 
scendants of Benjamin Bullitt and nephews by 
the half-blood of Cuthbert Bullitt. 


The principal name associated with the first 
movements in this locality looking to the perma- 
nent settlement of the whites is that of Captain 
Thomas Bullitt, of this family, as is recited 
above. He was a gallant soldier of the French 
and Indian wars, who had particularly distin- 
guished himself in the expedition against Fort 
Du Quesne. He was a company commander in 
Colonel George Washington's own regiment, 
and fought with it on the fateful field of Brad- 
dock's defeat, and in several other engagements. 
He was, says Collins, a man of great energy' 
and enterprise, as he showed on several import- 
ant occasions. He was an uncle of Colonel 
Alexander Scott Bullitt, a delegate to the con- 
vention which framed the constitution of Ken- 
tucky, President of the Senate and of the second 
Constitutional convention, and first Lieutenant- 



Ijovernor of the State, and long a resident of 
Ifefferson county, and from whom the adjacent 
county of Bullitt is named. Colonel Bullitt's 
liescendants are still among the most prominent 
[residents of the city whose distinguished fore- 
Irunner he was. The Captain is mentioned in 
ithe writings of General Washington, who knew 
Ihim well, as a skilled and judicious surveyor, en- 
tirely to be trusted for his fitness for the task now 
before him. 

The following extract from the paper of Col- 
onel Alexander S. Bullitt above mentioned (and 
now for the first time published), gives a general 
view of the life and character of Captain Bullitt : 

Thomas Bullitt was bom in 1730. He entered early into 
the army, and was appointed a captain in the first Virginia 
regiment that was raised at the commencement of the French 
war and commanded by General Washington, at that time a 
colonel. He commanded in person a skirmish at the Laurel 
Hill, but was defeated after an obstinate contest. He was 
present at the head of his company at the battles of the 
Meadows, Braddock's defeat, and Grant's defeat, and at all 
times supported the reputation of a brave officer; but a dif- 
ference, which took place between him and General Wash- 
ington, at that time Colonel Washington, not only retarded 
his promotion in that war, but was of infinite disadvantage to 
him all the remaining part of his life. 

' The accident which gave rise to the difference was as fol- 
lows : Two detachments from Colonel Washington's regi- 
ment, one commanded by himself, were out upon the 
frontiers endeavoring to surprise a detachment of French 
troops from Fort Du Quesne, now Fort Pitt. But instead of 
falling in with the French, they met themselves, and the day 
being remarkably dark and foggy, each party mistook the 
other for the enemy, and a very warm fire was immediately 
commenced on both sides. Bullitt was one of the first who 
discovered the mistake, and, running in between the two 
parties waving his hat and calling to them, put a stop to the 
firing. It was thought and said by several of the officers, 
and among others by Captain Bullitt, that Colonel Washing- 
ton did not discover his usual activity and presence of mind 
upon this occasion. This censure thrown by Captain Bul- 
litt upon his superior officer, gave rise to a resentment in the 
mind of General Washington which never subsided. 

At the close of the French war the Virginia troops were 
all disbanded, but Captain Bullitt was still retained in service 
upon half-pay, and appointed adjutant-general to the militia 
of the State of Virginia, in which office he continued until 
the commencement of the Revolution, when, the United 
States being divided by Congress into districts. Captain 
Bullitt was appointed adjutant-general of the southern dis- 
trict with the rank and pay of a colonel. His first services 
after this appointment were in the lower parts of Virginia. 
Lord Dunmore had taken possession of a post called the 
Great Bridge, which lay at some miles distance from Norfolk 
and was a pass of great consequence, being the only way by 
which the town could be approached from that part of the 
country occupied by the American troops. About two 
thousand men under the command of Colonel Woodford (as- 
sisted by Colonel Bullitt) were detached to dispossess them. 
Marching down, therefore, to the opposite side of the bridge, 

Woodford's detachment began to fortify themselves also, with 
nothing but the bridge and causeway over the Dismal Swamp 
between them and the enemy. Dunmore determined to dis- 
lodge them from this post, and accordingly, on the morning 
of the 9th of December, 1775, dispatched Captain Fordice 
upon that service, at the head of about eight hundred men, 
consisting chiefly of refugees, tories, and negroes, and Cap- 
tain Fordice's company of grenadiers. Colonel Woodford, 
who thought it impossible that Dunmore would attempt to 
force his lines with such inferior force, and who expected 
nothing less than an attack, was absent from the lines and 
did not get up until the action was over. 

Colonel Bullitt took command of the intrenchment. The 
refugees, tories, and negroes fell into confusion .and retreated 
at the first fire. The gallant Fordice at the head of his 
grenadiers, amounting to about sixty, though deserted by 
the rest of the detachment, still continued to advance boldly 
across the causeway with fi.xed bayonets to within fifteen feet 
of the breastworks, where he fell pierced with seventeen balls. 
The rest of his men were either all killed or taken. Dunmore 
found it necessary to leave the State of Virginia shortly after 
this action, and Colonel Bullitt was detached to South 
Carolma, where he served the campaign of 1776 as adjutant-' 
general to the army commanded by General Lee. This was 
his last campaign. 

For, returning northward to join General Washington's 
army, but not meeting with the reception or promotion from 
his Excellency to which he thought himself entitled from his 
long service, he resigned his commission and retired to his 
house in Fauquier, where he died February, 1778, at th^ age 
of forty-eight years, leaving his estate, which he had rather 
impaired than bettered, to Cuthbert Bullitt, the only one of 
his brothers that married. 


In the spring of 1773 Captain Bullitt was 
commissioned by Lord Dunmore, Governor of 
Virginia, to proceed to the Ohio and make in its 
vicinity surveys for the location of several land 
warrants granted by the Government, in pursu- 
ance of the law assigning bounty lands, to be lo- • 
cated on the Western waters, to the soldiers of 
Virginia in the French and Indian war. Another 
authority in the shape of a special warrant or 
commission had been given him by the venera- 
ble college of William and Mary, at Williams- 
burg. A copy of this remarkable document is 
here appended, for the first time in print, by the 
courtesy of Colonel Thomas W. Bullitt, of Louis- 
ville, possessor of the original: 

Whereas, Thomas Bullitt hath produced unto us, the 
President and Masters of the College of William and Mary 
in Virginia, two bonds, one bearing date the nth day of 
March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-nine, and the 
other the 13th day of May, one thousand seven hundred and 
sixty-nine, and certain other papers by which it appears that 
the said Thomas Bullitt was appointed surveyor of a certain 
part of or a certain district in the colony of Virginia afore- 
said; and 

Whereas, The commission for the said surveyorship, 
granted by the said President and Masters to the said 



Thomas Bullitt, was, as we are informed, unfortunately burned, 
we do hereby certify that it appears to us as well from the 
college book of the transactions of the said President and 
Masters as from the testimony of Emanuel Jones, Bachelor 
of Arts, and one of the said Masters, that the said part or 
district of the Colony of Virginia aforesaid is situated lying 
and being on the river Ohio. In witness whereof we have 
caused the seal of said college to be affixed this 28th day of 
October, in the year of our Lord 1772. 

,-«A«^* John Carnan, Pt. 

f ^ I ^Emmanuel Jones. 


T. Gwatken. 
Samuel Newby. 

[I certify that' the foregoing is a true copy of a paper found 
by me among the papers of my grandfather, Alexander Scott 
Bullitt, transmitted to me by my father, William C. Bullitt. 
The signature of the President is indistinct, but I think it is 
Carnan. Thomas W. Bullitt.] 

Bullitt's party was composed of himself and 
Abraham Haptonstall, who settled in this county 
and was residing here until 181 4, at least; James 
Sodowsky (or Sandusky), from whom, or whose 
family, Sandusky in Ohio takes its name, and 
whose sons were residing in Bourbon county as 
late as 1843; James Douglass, deputy surveyor, 
and another pioneer in Bourbon county; John 
Smith, who was residing half a century afterward 
in Woodford county; with John Fitzpatrick, 
Ebenezer Severns, and others, of whom very 
little is now known. With this little company he 
made his way across Virginia to the mouth of 
the Kanawha, where he fell in with the company 
of James, George, and Robert McAfee, sons of 
James McAfee, Sr., of Botetourt county, who 
had resolved, a year or two before, to prospect 
the fertile wilderness south of the Ohio for a 
new home. In this company were also a broth- 
er-in-law, James McConn, Jr., and his cousin, 
Samuel Adams. With them were also a third 
party, whom they had overtaken by concerted 
arrangement as they descended the Kanawha in 
two canoes on the 28th of May. 

The head of this company was the distin- 
guished pioneer surveyor in Kentucky, Hancock 
Taylor, of Orange county, Virginia, brother of 
Colonel Richard Taylor, who was father of Gen- 
eral Zachary Taylor, a resident of Louisville in 
his early life, and afterward the hero of the 
Mexican war and President of the United States. 
Hancock Taylor was an assistant or deputy sur- 
veyor under Colonel William Preston, who was 
the official surveyor of the great county of Fin- 

* The seal attached is surmounted by the words, "Sig. 
Collegii R. et R. Gulielmi et Mariae, in Virginia." The seal 
itself represents a view of a handsome building. 

castle, Virginia, of which the Kentucky country 
was still a part. After making extensive sur- 
veys in the interior, he was attacked by the In- 
dians the next year while surveying a tract for 
Colonel William Christian, near the mouth of 
the Kentucky river, and mortally wounded by a 
rifle-shot. Two of the party, one of whom was 
Gibson Taylor, probably a relative, and the other 
Abraham Haptonstall, formerly of Bullitt's com- 
pany, tried to extract the ball with a pocket- 
knife, but could not, and soon afterwards, as the 
party was returning from the country under a 
warning sent from Dunmore by the hands of 
Boone and Stoner, who piloted them out of the 
wilderness, he died of the wound near the pres- 
ent site of Richmond, Madison county, and was 
buried in a well-marked spot, about one and 
three-fourths miles south of the Richmond court- 
house. Four years previous to the expedition 
of 1773, Taylor had gone down the Ohio and 
Mississippi with his brother Richard, our old 
friend Haptonstall, and a Mr. Barbour, on a 
visit to New Orleans, whence they returned 
home by the Gulf and Atlantic. 

Other members of the Taylor party were 
Matthew Bracken, from whom Bracken creek 
and county get their names, Jacob Drennon, 
afterwards of Drennon Springs, Henry county, 
and Peter Shoemaker. Several of the party, in- 
cluding Taylor, Bracken, and Drennon, about 
two months afterwards (on the 3d of August) 
joined the Bullitt party at or near the Falls of the 

The three companies, meeting at the mouth 
of the Kanawha on the ist of June, and about to 
embark upon the waters of the great river, whose 
banks might be lined on both sides with blood- 
thirsty savages, very naturally joined their forces 
and their equipment of boats. Their prepara- 
tions completed in a few days, they floated out 
on the broad bosom of La Belle Riviere, and en- 
tered upon the final stage of the jr>urney to the 
Promised Land. 


The leader was not with them, however. 
Farther-sighted than the rest, very likely, he real- 
ized the significance of the steps now being taken, 
as precedent to the overrunning j)f the Indian 
hunting-grounds by the settlements of civiliza- 
tion, and the importance of conciliating at the 
outset, if possible, the red tribes whose rights 



seemed to be thus invaded. At the mouth of the 
Kanawha he left the party for a few days, and, 
unattended and alone, pushed his way across the 
rugged hills and deep valleys, and through the 
howling wilderness of Southern Ohio, until he 
reached the principal village of the Shawnees, at 
Old Chillicothe, one or two miles north of the 
present site of Xenia. The story is told in an 
interesting and graphic way by Marshall, the first 
historian of Kentucky. He says: 

On his way to Kentucky Bullitt made a visit to Chillicothe, 
a Shawnee town, to hold a friendly talk with those Indians 
on the subject of his intended settlement, and for the particu- 
lar purpose of obtaining their assent to the measure. He 
knew they claimed the right of hunting in the country — a 
right to them of the utmost importance, and which they had 
not relinquished. He also knew they were brave and indefati- 
gable, and that, if they were so disposed, they could 
greatly annoy the inhabitants of the intended settlement. It 
"was, therefore, a primary object in his estimation to obtain 
their consent to his projected residence and cultivation of the 
lands.' To accomplish this he left his party on the Ohio and 
traveled out to the town unattended, 'and without announc- 
ing his approach by a runner. He was not discovered until 
he got into the midst of Chillicothe, when he wavedhis white 
flag [handkerchief j as a token of peace. The Indians saw 
with astonishment a stranger among them in the character of 
an embassador, for such he assumed by the flag, and without 
any intimation of his intended visit. Some of them collected 
about him, and asked him. What news? Was he from the 
Long Knife? and why, if he was an embassador, had he not 
sent a runner? 

Bullitt, not in the least intimidated, replied that he had no 
bad news — he was from the Long Knife — and, as the red 
men and white men were at peace, he had come among his 
brothers to have a friendly talk with them about living on 
the other side of the Ohio ; that he had no runner swifter 
than himself, and that he was in haste, and could not wait 
the return of a runner. "Would you," said he, "if you 
were very hungry, and had killed a deer, send your squaw to 
town to tell the news, and await her return before you eat? " 
This put the bystanders in high good humor, and gave them 
a favorable opinion of their niterlocutor. And, upon his de- 
siring that the waiTiors should be called together, they were 
forthwith convened, and he promptly addressed them in the 
following speech, extracted from his journal: 

" Brothers — I am sent by my people, whom 1 left on the 
Ohio, to settle the country on the other side of that river, as 
low down as the Falls. We rome from Virginia. The king 
of my people has bought from the nations of red men both 
north and south all the land ; and I am instructed to inform 
you and all the warriors of this great country, tliat the \'ii- 
ginians and the English are in friendship with you. This 
friendship is dear to them, and they intend to keep it sacred. 
The same friendship they e.xpect from you, and from all the 
nations to the lakes. We know that the Shawnees and the 
Delawares are to be our nearest neighbors, and we wish 
them to be our best friends as we will be theirs. 

" Bfothers, you did not get any of the money or blankets 
given for the land which I and my people are going to settle. 
This was hard for you. But it is agreed by the great men 
who own the land that they will make a present both to the 

Delawares and the Shawnees the next year and the year fol- 
lowing that shall be as good. 

"Brothers, I am appointed to settle the country, to live in 
it, to raise corn, and to make proper rules and regulations 
among my people. There will be some principal men frorc 
my country very soon, and then much more will be said to 
you. The Governor desires to see you, and will come out 
this year or the next. When I come again I will have a belt 
of wampum. This time I came in haste and had not one 

" My people only want the country to settle and cultivate. 
They will have no objection to your hunting and trapping 
there. I hope you will live by us as brothers and friends. 
You now know my heart, and as it is single toward you, I 
expect you will give me a kind talk ; for I shall write to my 
Governor what you say to me, and he will believe all I write." 

This speech was received with attention, and BulUtt was 
told that the next day he should be answered. 

The Indians are in the habit of proceeding with great de- 
liberation in matters of importance, and all are such to them 
which concern their hunting. 

On the morrow, agreeably to promise, they were assembled 
at the same place, and Bullitt being present, they returned an 
answer to his speech as follows : 

"Oldest Brother, The Long Knife — We heard 
you would be glad to see your brothers, the Shawnees and 
Delawares, and talk with them. But we are surprised that 
you sent no runner before you, and that you came quite near 
us through the trees and grass a hard journey without letting 
us know until you appeared among us. 

"Brothers, we have considered your talk carefully, and we 
are glad to find nothing bad in it, nor any ill meaning. On 
the contrary, you speak what seems kind and friendly, and it 
pleased us well. You mentioned to us your intention of set- 
tling the country on the other side of the Ohio with your 
people. And we are particularly pleased that they are not to 
disturb us in our hunting, for we must hunt to kill meat for 
our women and children, and to have something to buy our 
powder and lead with, and to get us blankets and clothing. 

" All our young brothers are pleased with what you said. 
We desire that you will be strong in fulfilling your promises 
toward us, as we are determined to be straight in advising our 
young men to be kind and peaceable to you. 

" This spring we saw something wrong on the part of our 
young men. They took some horses from the white people. 
But we have advised them not to do so again, and have 
cleared their hearts of all bad intentions. We expect they will 
observe our advice, as they like what you said." 

This speech, delivered by Girty, was interpreted by 
Richard Butler, who, during the stay of Captain Bullitt, had 
made him his guest and otherwise treated him in the most 
friendly manner. But, having e.xecuted his mission very 
much to his own satisfaction, Bullitt took his leave and re- 
joined his party, who were much rejoiced to see him re- 

He made repoit of his progress and success, and his com- 
rades, with light hearts and high expectations, launched 
their keelson the stream which conveyed them to the shore 
of Kentucky and the landing before spoken of. 


Captain Bullitt found his people at the mouth 
of the Scioto, and went on with them. On the 
22dof June they reached Limestone Point, now 



Maysville, upon whose site there was not yet 
block-house or cabin, nor was there for eleven 
years to come. Here they rested for two days, 
and hence Robert McAfee, encouraged thereto 
by the safe though solitary journey which Cap- 
tain Bullitt had just made through the Indian 
country, pushed alone up Limestone creek into 
the interior, across the country to the North fork 
of Licking, down that stream twenty to twenty- 
five miles, thence across the hills of the present 
Bracken county to the Ohio, where he hastily 
constructed a bark canoe, and the next day 
(January 27th) overtook his companions at the 
mouth of the Licking, opposite the site of Cin- 
cinnati. The party must also have been delayed 
here for a time, probably inspecting the superb 
sites for towns and cities upon the plain on 
either side of the Ohio at this point. At all 
events they made easy-going progress down the 
river, since on the 4th of July (not yet the 
"Glorious Fourth," or Independence Day) they 
had not gone beyond the Big Bone lick on the 
Kentucky shore, a few miles below the mouth of 
the Great Miami. They spent this day and the 
next at the lick, where the hiige bones of the 
mastodon and other gigantic beasts of the geo- 
logic ages lay about in great numbers, and of 
such size as to serve the adventurers for tent- 
poles and seats. The second day thereafter they 
reach the mouth of the Kentucky, where the 
parties separate. The Hancock and McAfee 
companies, now substantially one, since their 
aims and purposes were similar, and in their 
union there would be needed strength in a hos- 
tile land, go up the Kentucky to the Frankfort 
region, beyond which this narrative need not 
pursue them. Bullitt and his following kept 
on down the Ohio, and on the next day (July 
8th, let it be remembered) pitched their camp 
just above the old mouth of Beargrass creek, 
perchance exactly at the foot of the present 
Third street, in the busy and beantiful city of 
Louisville. It was then, it is needless to say, a 
swamp, thicket, and forest, witji nothing but 
furred or feathered, winged or scaly inhabitants ; 
and the new-comers were the avant-couriers 
of the thronging thousands of the pale-face who 
have since populated the fertile valley. 


Little is known of the details of Captain BuK 
litt's encampment and labors here and hereabout 

in the summer of 1773. There is a tradition, ac- 
cording to Casseday's History of Louisville, that 
three years before this time parties who were 
probably sent by Lord Dunmore came to the 
Falls of the Ohio and made surveys of the 
adjacent country, wiih a view to its occupation as 
bounty lands. We are unable to find the story 
corrobated by any other historians of the city or 
the State, and incline quite positively to think 
that it can not be supported. At all events, the 
adventurous surveyor found no claims conflicting 
with the enterprise with which he was charged, 
and he went fearlessly and emergetically about 
his duty. For six weeks in the sultry midsum- 
mer he and his men carried the chain and 
planted the theodolite upon the beautiful plateau 
adjoining and below the Falls and up the fertile 
valley of the Salt river, which they penetrated at 
least as far as to the famous Lick, three miles 
from Shepherdsville, which takes its name from 
the gallant captain, and is in a county which also 
bears the Bullitt name. Here the first salt- 
works were erected in Kentucky, and from the 
mineral characteristic of the Lick Captain Bul- 
litt gave the title to this river, far more renowned 
in politics and local history than in navigation. 
The historical sketch appended to the Directory 
of Louisville for 1838-39 says: "He made a 
treaty of relinquishment of the land with the 
Indians on his route, and laid out the town on 
its present site, but made no settlement on the 
land, and died before that was effected." We" 
have been unable to find any confirmation of the 
former part of this statement. 

Bullitt continued to make his headquarters 
about the mouth of the Beargrass, where he 
could conveniently communicate with any par- 
ties that might be passing on the river, or that 
might come out of the wilderness to the Falls 
of the Ohio. By night, says Collins, he retired 
for safety "to a shoal above Corn island." In 
the fourth week after his arrival, about the 3d of 
August, he and his party were gladdened by the 
reunion with them of Mr. Hancock and two 
others of his company, who had parted from the 
McAfee expedition, far up the Kentucky river, 
on the last day of July. His work finally done, 
he then returned to his home in Virginia. 


The general statement is that during its stay 
the surveying party staked off lots for a village 



plat somewhere upon a tract now included within 
the limits of Louisville; and some writers go so 
far as to say that Captain Bullitt, in this year of 
grace 1773, laid out "the town of Louisville." 
Mr. Collins says the like in no less than five 
places in his history, and in two of them (pages 
371, 666, vol. ii., History of Kentucky), but 
without undertaking to name the town, he fixes 
the date ot the survey definitely as August i. 
A few pages previously, however, when dealing 
with the beginnings at Louisville, this author 
acknowledges that the reference in the creative 
act of 1780 to "the owners of lots already 
drawn," and to "those persons whose lots have 
been laid off on his [John Campbell's] lands," 
may refer no further back than to a then recent 
laying-off of "a considerable part thereof [viz: 
John Connolly's tract] into half-acre lots for a 
town," which are also words from the act. He 
says, truly enough, that "the only proof that any 
lots were sold thereunder [the reputed Bullitt 
survey] is entirely inferential and uncertain." 

We are satisfied, indeed, that the vague testi- 
timony of Jacob Sodowsky, contributed in a let- 
ter to the second volume of the American Pio- 
neer, published in 1843 ^^id repeated in the 
eleventh volume of the Western Journal, is not 
sufficient to support the theory of a Louisville 
or other town plat about the Falls in 1773. 
Nothing of the kind, so far as ascertained, was 
contemplated in the instructions of Lord Dun- 
more to Bullitt; no record of it has come to light 
in the diaries or letters of the time, or in sub- 
sequent official records of the survey; no men- 
tion is made of it by the immigrants of 1778 or 
the surveyors of 1779, who certainly would have 
come upon the stakes or other evidences of the 
survey, if it had been made; and tradition, as 
well as the land registers, is utterly silent as to 
the precise location of any such town. The 
language of the act of 1780 does not require 
survey of a village plat here in 1773, or at any 
time, indeed, except, at the latest, a period just 
before the passage of the act. On the contrary 
the language of the law is expressly that, not a 
surveying party or transient party of speculators, 
but "sundry inhabitants of the county of Ken- 
tucky have, at great expense and hazard, settled 
themselves upon certain lands at the Falls of the 
Ohio, and have laid off a considerable part 
thereof into half-acre lots for a town." The 

further mention of "the owners of lots alread) 
drawn," and of "those persons whose lots have 
been laid off on Colonel Campbell's land," maj 
as well refer to operations of 1778-79 as to the 
disposition of lots in any suppositious town ot 

1773. On the whole, we entertain no doubt that 
any half-acre or smaller subdivisions of the soil 
here date from some time contemporaneous with 
or posterior to the removal of Colonel Clark's 
settlers of 1778 from Corn Island to the main- 
land, and that there is no trustworthy foundation 
for belief in a Louisville of five or more years 
before. The survey stated in the act was in all 
probability Bard's in 1779, of which a rude map, 
dated April 20, ot that year, has been preserved. 


A word further about Sodowsky, or Sandusky. 
It is a name somewhat noted in the history of 
Kentucky, and probably gave origin to the name 
Sandusky in Ohio. It was originally Sodowsky, 
but became corrupted into "Sandusky." In 
the American Pioneer, volume II., page 326, 
the autographs of two of the brothers appear, 
one of whom signed " Isaac Sodowsky," and the 
other "Jacob Sandusky." Their father, James 
Sandusky, as their letter to the Pioneer says, 
"came down the river in 1773, and again in 

1774, with Hight [Hite] and Harrod. In the 
first trip they went down as far as the Falls, and 
returned. In the last they went down to the 
mouth of the Kentucky river, and up that stream 
to Harrod's station, where they cleared land and 
planted corn. This was the first improvement 
in Kentucky; but that settlement was broken up 
by the Indians. It may be worth mentioning 
that these trips were both made in pirogues or 
large canoes." He afterwards settled in Bourbon 
county, where James Sandusky, one of the broth- 
ers, was still living in 1843. 

Connolly's grant. 

On the 1 6th of December, 1773, according to 
Dr. McMurtrie and the writers generally (Colonel 
Durrett, however, says September in his Centen- 
nial Address), a patent of two thousand acres ol 
the present site of Louisville, beginning about on 
the line of First street, and thence southward, 
including the sites of Shippingport and Portland, 
was issued by the British Crown to Dr. John 
Connolly (often spelt Connally), a "surgeon's 
mate," or assistant surgeon, in modern military 



parlance, in the general hospital of the Royal 
forces in America. It is believed that the lines 
of this tract were run by Captain Bullitt in the 
summer of the same year; and certain of the 
writers aver that his prime object m coming to 
the Falls was to survey for Connolly — who had 
the tract in view, although it was not yet pat- 
ented to him — as well as for others. Connolly 
took the land, as one statement goes, under a 
proclamation of George III. in 1763, granting 
land-warrants as bounties to soldiers in the 
French and Indian war, which had shortly before 
been concluded. Another theory is that while 
the latent forces of the Revolution were gather- 
ing and developing, and the colonies were mut- 
tering their discontent, he agreed with Governor 
Dunmore to secure a strong British interest 
among the whites and Indians of the border, in 
consideration of two thousand acres of land, to 
be obtained by the Governor for him at the Falls 
of the Ohio. 

This original private owner, so far as is known, 
of the most important part of the site of Louis- 
ville, was born and brought up near Wright's 
Ferry, in Pennsylvania. His sire was a farmer 
on the Susquehanna; his mother, before her 
marriage to the elder Connolly, was a Quaker 
widow named Ewing. He traveled consider- 
ably in his youth through the wild Western 
country, and at Pittsburg, a few years before the 
Revolution opened, he fell in with Lord Dun- 
more, then Governor of Virginia. It was then, 
it is said, that he made the contract with the 
Governor before related. November 5, 1775, 
Dunmore commissioned him lieutenant-colonel 
commandant of the Queen's Royal Rangers. 
He was then provided with the secret instructions 
hereafter mentioned, authorizing him to raise a 
complete Tory regiment at Pittsburg or Detroit, 
and with it organize an expedition. 

Connolly was a nephew of Colonel George 
Croghan, the British Indian agent who passed 
the Falls in 1765, on a mission to the Western 
tribes. He resided at Fort Pitt, or Pittsburg, and 
is mentioned in General Washington's journal 
for 1770 as well acquainted with the lands south 
of the Ohio, where he no doubt held large tracts, 
including this interest in the site of Louisville. 
Early in 1774, with a captain's commission, he 
had been sent by Governor Dunmore to assert 
the claims of that colony over the Pittsburg 

region, and take possession of the country 
bordering upon the Monongahela, in the name 
of the King. He was an artful, ambitious, and 
intriguing fellow, well fitted for such a ser- 
vice, and at once issued a proclamation call- 
ing upon the people in and about Redstone Old 
Fort and Pittsburg to assemble about the 25th 
of January, to be enrolled in the Virginia militia. 
Arthur St. Clair, afterwards General and Gov- 
ernor of the Northwest Territory, was, however, 
upon the ground as representative of the pro- 
prietors of Pennsylvania, which had a prior 
claim upon that region, and he arrested Connolly 
before the meeting occurred, and shut him up 
in prison. .He was presently released, upon his 
promise to deliver himself up again. This he 
failed to do ; but on the contrary reappeared at 
Pittsburg on the 28th of March, with a party of 
followers, and re-asserted the dominion of Vir- 
ginia there. He succeeded after much strife in 
getting possession of Fort Pitt, which he rebuilt 
and christened Fort Dunmore. He played the 
petty tyrant here for some time, arresting and 
imprisoning citizens and even magistrates, whom 
Dunmore for very shame was compelled to re- 
lease. It is said to have been a letter of his, 
written on the 21st of April, to the settlers along 
the Ohio, intended to stir them up against the 
Shawnees, that led to the murders by Cresap and 
Greathouse, and the Indian war which involved 
the friendly Logan, the whole of whose family 
had been wantonly massacred. When, during 
the troubles, three ot the Shawnees had con- 
ducted a party of traders to Pittsburg, Connolly 
seized them and would doubtless have dealt, 
hardly by them. He was defeated in his attempt 
by Croghan, his uncle, and then actually dis- 
patched men to waylay and kill them on their re- 
turn, one of these kindly disposed savages, it is 
reported, thus losing his life. " The character 
developed by this man," says the Annals of the 
West, " while commandant of Fort Dunmore, 
was such as to excite universal detestation, and 
at last to draw down upon his patron the reproof 
of Lord Dartmouth," who was the British Secre- 
tary for the Colonies. " He seized property and 
imprisoned white men without warrant or pro- 
priety ; and we may be assured, in many cases 
besides that just mentioned, treated the natives 
with an utter disregard of justice." The follow- 
ing is related of Connolly in the same work: 



It was towards the close of this last year of our colonial 
existence, 1775, that a plot was discovered which involved 
some whose names have already appeared upon our pages, 
and which, if successful, would have influenced the fortunes 
of the West deeply. Dr. John Connolly, of Pittsburgh (he 
whom Washington had met and talked witii in 1770, and 
with whom he afterwards corresponded in relation to West- 
ern lands, and who played so prominent a part as commandant 
of Pittsburgh, where he continued at least through 1774), 
was, from the outset of the revolutionary movements, a 
Tory, and being a man extensively acquainted with the 
West, a man of talent, and fearless withal, he naturally be- 
came a leader. This man, in 1775. planned a union of the 
Northwestern Indians with British troops, which combined 
forces were to be led, under his command, from Detroit, and, 
after ravaging the few frontier settlements, were to join Lord 
Dunmore in Eastern Virginia. To forward his plans, Con- 
nolly visited Boston to see General Gage; then, having re- 
turned to the South in the fall of 1775, '^^ ^^^^ Lord Dun- 
more for the West, bearing one set of instructions upon his 
person, and another set, the true ones, most artfully con- 
cealed, under the direction of Lord Dunmore himself, in his 
saddle secured by tin and waxed cloth. He and his com- 
rades, among whom was Dr. Smyth, author of the doubtful 
work already quoted, had gone as as far as Hagerstown, 
where they were arrested upon suspicion and sent back to 
Frederick. There they were searched, and the papers upon 
Connolly's person were found, seized, and sent to Congress. 
Washington, having been informed by one who was piesent 
when the genuine instructions were concealed as above stated, 
wrote twice on the subject to the proper authorities, in order 
to lead to their discovery, but we do not know that they 
were ever found. Connolly himself was confined, and re- 
mained a close prisoner till 1781, complaining much of his 
hard lot, but finding few to pity him. 

Connolly was exchanged and released in April, 
1 781. Washington wrote promptly to General 
Clark a warning that he was expected to go from 
Canada to Venango, at the mouth of French 
creek, with a force of refugees, and thence to 
Fort Pitt, with blank commissions for a large 
number of dissatisfied men supposed to be in 
that region, with whom the exposed frontiers 
would be attacked; but nothing seems to have 
come of this. The compiler of the Annals says 
that alter the Revolution had ended he became 
a mischief-maker in Kentucky, though in just 
what manner is not stated. He had long before, 
in 1770, before a white man had settled upon 
the soil of this State, proposed an independent 
province that would have included all of its ter- 
ritory between the Cumberland or Shawnee 
river, a line drawn from above its fork to the 
Falls, and the Ohio river — which would, of 
course, have included the present site of Louis- 
ville. His title to one thousand of his acres 
here was forfeited on account of his treason to 
the patriot cause. Virginia assumed the owner- 

ship of it, but delayed disposal of it until Colonel 
Campbell, the apparent joint owner, had re- 
turned from Canada, where he had been taken 
in captivity by the Indians in 1780. When the 
return occurred, by acts of the Virginia Legisla- 
ture of May and October, 1783, and October, 
1784 his interests were guarded and secured, 
while those of his recreant and now refugee 
partner were sacrificed. In November, 1788, the 
latter reappeared in Kentucky, coming from Can- 
ada, ostensibly to recover, if possible, his former 
possessions in Louisville, but really, as was be- 
lieved, to aid the movement then in agitation for 
the separation of Kentucky from Virginia and its 
alliance or union with Spain, then holding 
Louisiana and cultivating disaffection in Ken- 
tucky. He was foiled in this, and now finally 
disappears from the page of American history. 

Mr. Collins gives the following account of the 
legal proceedings which justified the confiscation 
of Connolly's property : 

On July I, 1780, an inquest of escheat was held at Lexing- 
ton, by the sheriff of Kentucky county — George May, 
escheator. John Bowman, Daniel Boone, Nathaniel Ran- 
dolph, Waller Overton, Robert McAfee, Edward Cather, 
Henry Wilson, Joseph Willis, Paul Froman, Jeremiah Til- 
ford, James Wood, and Thomas Gam, " gentlemen," jury- 
men, were empanelled, sworn, and charged to try whether 
John Connolly and Alexander McKee be British subjects or 
not. \'erdict— that they were British subjects, and after 
April 19, 1775, of their own free will departed from the said 
States, and joined the subjects of his Britannic Majesty; and 
that on said 4th of July, 1776, said Connolly was " possessed 
of 2,000 acres on the Ohio opposite to the Falls," "and 
said McKee of 2,000 acres on the headwaters of the south 
branch of Elkhorn and no more. 

In pursuance of this finding, the estate of 
Connolly at the Falls was confiscated. It had 
already been described, in the act of May, of the 
same year, establishing Louisville, as "the for- 
feited property of said John Connolly," and upon 
it, being "1,000 acres of land," was laid out the 
new town. The Tory Doctor had owned as 
much as 3,000 acres here; but only 1,000 seem 
to have been available for confiscation. De 
Warrenstaff, or Warrendorfif, mentioned below, 
had conveyed his 2,000 acres to Connolly and 
Colonel Campbell, which must have been in 
equal portions, since in 1775 the latter bought 
up the former's interest in this tract, which was 
an undivided half of the 2,000 acres. The 
4,000 held by the two was then so partitioned 
that Connolly became owner of the uppermost 
1,000 and the lowest 1,000, Campbell's tract of 



2,000 lying between. In 1778 Connolly trans- 
ferred the lower 1,000 also to Campbell, thus 
leaving but the upper 1,000 to be escheated. 


Very few facts concerning this are now acces- 
sible. About all that is known ot it or him is 
that, on the same day the patent was granted to 
Connolly, December 16, 1773, and under the 
same authority in the Kmg's proclamation, two 
thousand acres at the Falls of the Ohio, next 
adjacent below Connolly's, were patented to one 
Charles de Warrenstaff or Warrendorff, who was 
an ensign in the Pennsylvania Royal Regiment 
of Foot. He never, we believe, became a resi- 
dent of Louisville, and we do not learn that he 
was ever even a visitor here. The very next 
year he parted with his interest in the soil of 
Kentucky to Dr. Connolly and Colonel John 
Campbell, of whom the world knows something 


This gentleman was of .Irish birth, possessed 
of some property, and came in the vigor of his 
young manhood to identify his fortunes with the 
infant hamlet of Louisville, where he was among 
the earliest settlers when the town was formed. 
According to Collins, he received a grant of four 
thousand acres from the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, which was located immediately below and 
adjoining the grant on which Louisville stands. 
He was also a property-holder at Frankfort, 
where his name appears in a list of landed pro- 
prietors in 1797. Colonel Campbell soon be- 
came prominent in the affairs of the village and 
the State. He was a member of the convention 
of 1792, held in Danville, which formed the first 
constitution of Kentucky ; was an elector of the 
State Senate, under the peculiar provision of 
that constitution, in the same year, and was by 
the electors chosen to that body from Jefferson 
county, and was at one time its Speaker /w tetn- 
pore ; previously to the formation of the State 
was a member of the Virginia Legislature, from 
Jefferson county, in 1786, 1787, and 1790; and 
was a Representative in the Congress of the 
United States from 1837 to 1843. I" n^5 he 
established two of the earliest ferries allowed by 
law in Kentucky — one from his lands at the 
Falls across the Ohio to the mouth of Silver 
creek, and the other across the same stream. 

from the Jefferson county bank to the mouth of 
Mill run. He was a Presbyterian in his religious 
faith, and his name appears upon the records of 
the first meeting of the Synod of Kentucky, at 
Lexington, October 14, 1802, as an elder from 
the " Presbytery of Washington." Campbell 
county, east of the lower Licking river, opposite 
Cincmnati, is named in his honor ; and an old 
paper published in that city, of date March 12, 
1796, says that Colonel Campbell lived at 
Taylor's Creek Station, probably in that county. 
There can be no doubt, however, that most of 
his mature life was spent in Louisville. Mr. 
Collins says : " He was a large man, of fine 
personal appearance and strong mind, but rough 
fn his manners. He never married, and, having 
died childless, his large estate passed into the 
hands of many heirs." 

Colonel Campbell must be regarded as an origi- 
nal proprietor at Louisville. As already noticed, 
he acquired in 1774 a half-interest in the two 
thousand-acre grant to Warrenstaff, and the next 
year purchased an undivided half of the adjoin- 
ing tract of his partner in the Warrenstaff prop- 
erty. Dr. John Connolly; and when the partition 
of the two undivided tracts was made, his 
half of the whole, or two thousand acres, fell be- 
tween the two tracts thus cut off for Connolly. 
He became otherwise a large owner in this region, 
and finally devised all his real estate within five 
miles of the Beargrass creek to Allen Campbell. 
Colonel Campbell will come again mto this his- 


The events of this year have been already 
anticipated, to some small extent. There is no 
story of colonization yet to tell, nor for several 
years to come. The birds and beasts and creep- 
ing thmgs held their own upon the site of the 
great city to-be, and no sign of civilization 
was presented throughout the broad plateau, ex- 
cept here and there the simple stake or "blaze" 
and inscription of the surveyor. Indeed there 
is little to narrate of 1774 except of the surveyor. 

In June, while Captain Harrod and his com- 
panions were setting the stakes of civilization at 
the first permanently inhabited town in Kentucky, 
Harrodsburg, two remarkable men came through 
the deep wilderness from their homes on the 
Clinch river, in North Carolina, to the Falls. 
They were Daniel Boone and Michael Stoner, 



who were charged with an important mission. 
Governor Dunmore had received timely warning 
of the Indian hostihties now threatening, and 
which very soon broke out, particularly in the 
severe conflict between the savages and Colonel 
Bouquet's expedition, at the mouth of the Kan- 
awha, in which the former were signally defeated. 
The Governor had a party or parties out survey- 
ing under his orders in the Kentucky wilderness, 
among whom were the celebrated Jefferson 
county pioneer. Colonel John Floyd, also Han- 
cock Taylor, Abraham Haptonstall, and Willis 
Lee (these three are known to have been survey- 
ing on the present soil of Jefferson county, May 
2d of this year), with James Sandusky, John 
Smith, Gibson Taylor, and very likely others. It 
is probable that most of Captain Bullitt's party, 
who came to the Falls in 1773, had remained to 
this time in Kentucky. Dunmore became ex- 
ceedingly apprehensive for their safety, and em- 
ployed Boone and Stoner to make the long and 
perilous journey of about four hundred miles to 
the Falls to find the surveyors, and conduct 
them out of their dangers to the settlements. 
Boone received the summons on the 6th of June, 
and lost no time in setting out with his com- 
panion on the hazardous trip. Their commis- 
sion was faithfully and courageously executed, 
and probably the lives of the surveyors were -thus 
saved, although Hancock Taylor, as we have 
seen, was mortally wounded while making his 
last survey, and died on the retreat, Boone and 
Stoner reached Harrodsburg June i6th, and 
found Harrod's and Hite's companies engaged 
in laying off the town. Boone rendered aid in 
this, and was assigned one of the half-acre lots, 
upon which a double log cabin was buiU soon 
after. The entire round of Boone and Stoner 
on this duty of warning and safe conduct to the 
settlements, covered about eight hundred miles^ 
and occupied sixty-two days. Mr. Collins calls 
them the "first express messengers" m Kentucky. 


This historic year, so rife with important 
events at the East, preluding the War for Am- 
erican Independence, was comparatively quiet in 
the Valley of the Ohio. In this region the 
dauntless surveyors were still pushing their way 
through the tangled wildwood, leading the van 
of empire. Many of their movements, and per- 

haps of their surveys, remain unknown to this 
day; but, from depositions taken long afterwards, 
one may learn of a party at work in the middle 
of December, on Harrod's creek, consisting o^ 
Abraham and Isaac Hite, Moses Thompson, 
Joseph Bowman, Nathaniel Randolph, Petei 
Casey, and Ebenezer Severns, who were survey- 
ing. Early in the season Captain James Knox 
— famous as the leader of the "Long Hunters" 
into Kentucky four or five years before— must 
have been somewhere on the banks of the Bear- 
grass, since he was held entitled, October 30, 
1779, to four hundred acres of land on its 
waters, " on account of marking out the said 
land, and of having raised a crop of corn in the 
country in 1775." So simple and brief is the 
history of the white man in this region for this 

One interesting character, however, foi many 
years afterwards one of the most notable resi- 
dents of Louisville, came to the Falls this year — 
Sandy Stewart, the "island ferryman" named in 
the previous chapter, who long after noted the 
precise date of his arrival as June 5, 1775. He 
was a Scotchman, born in Glasgow twenty years 
before ; a young immigrant to this country so 
poor that his personal service was sold in Balti- 
more to pay his passage across the ocean; a trav- 
eler westward with two companions as soon as 
he had served out his time; making a canoe at 
Pittsburg, and in it voyaging down the Ohio .to 
the Falls; afterwards a settler here and for more 
than a quarter of a century the ferryman from 
the mainland to Corn island, until 1827, when 
he retired and died at the old Talmage hotel, on 
Fourth street, in 1833, aged 78, leaving a small 
fortune to his relatives abroad. 


Even more simple and short are the annals of 
these elsewhere great years, as regards events at 
the Falls of the Ohio. We have but one to re- 
cord. Mr. Casseday, in his History of Louis- 
ville, assigns these as the years of the journey of 
George Gibson and Captain William Linn, who 
passed the Falls in boats going from Pittsburg to 
New Orleans, in order to procure supplies for 
the troops stationed at Fort Pitt. They obtained 
one hundred and thirty-six kegs of powder, which 
did not reach the Falls on the return until the 
next year, when the kegs were laboriously carried 



around the troubled waters by hand, reshipped, 
and finally delivered safely at Wheeling, whence 
they were transferred to the fort. Each man, in 
making the portage around the Falls, carried 
three kegs at a time on his back. Gibson and 
Linn were aided in this toilsome work by John 
Smith, V.' T will be remembered as one of Bul- 
litt's surveyors here nearly four years previously, 
and who happened to meet the voyagers here. 
This is noted as the first cargo ever brought by 
whites up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, from 
New Orleans to Pittsburg. 

We come now to the beginnings of permanent 
white settlement at the Falls of the Ohio — in- 
deed, in the Falls of the Ohio, for the first stakes 
were set just amid the waters at the head of the 
rapids, upon a little tract which has now wholly 
disappeared, except at low water, when, from the 
rail\yay bridge and the shore, the underlying 
strata of old Corn Islan(^ with the rotting re. 
mains of stumps here and there, may yet be 

The first settlement here was the result of a 
military movement during the war of the Revo- 
lution, and brings into our narrative again the 
renowned name ot 


A sketch of the early life of this famous 
hero of Western warfare, whose name will be 
forever associated with one of the most impor- 
tant and skillful movements of the Revolutionary 
War, as well as with some of the most successful 
expeditions of the border warfare, has already 
been given in our General Introduction. He 
was but twenty-six years of age this year, when 
his greatest feat of arms was achieved. Like 
Washington and many other notable men of that 
time, he was a land-surveyor in his youth, but 
soon got into military life in the troubles with 
the Indians, and in the affair known as Dun- 
more's War rose to the command of a company. 
At its close he was offered a commission in the 
British army, but declined it. He visited the 
infant settlements in Kentucky in the spring of 
1775, remaining until fall, and, now bearing the 
rank of major, being placed temporarily in com- 
mand of the volunteer militia of the settlements. 
He came again to this country in the spring of 
the next year, with the intention of permanently 

remaining ; but staid only a few months, when, 
seeing the dangers to which the frontiers were 
exposed, and being appointed at the Harrods- 
burg meeting of the settlers June 6, 1776, a 
member of the General Assembly of Virginia, 
he set out on foot through the wilderness to 
WiUjamsburg, then the colonial capital, but found 
the Legislature adjourned. He at once extend- 
ed his long pedestrian excursion to Hanover 
county, where Governor Patrick Henry lay sick, 
and represented to him the pressing necessity of 
munitions of war for the Kentucky settlements. 
Henry concurred in his views and gave him a 
favorable letter to the Executive Council. From 
this body, after much delay and difficulty, Clark 
obtained an order, on the 23d of August, 1776, 
for five hundred pounds of gunpowder, for the 
use of the people of Kentucky. He obtained 
the powder at Pittsburgh, and, after hot pursuit 
down the Ohio by the Indians, during which he 
was compelled to conceal the precious cargo at" 
the Three Islands, near the present site of Mays- 
ville, he succeeded, in getting it through to Har- 
rodsburg, where the pioneers were promptly sup- 
plied with the indispensable means of defense. 
Meanwhile the young major had been instru- 
mental in securing from the Virginia Legislature, 
which had re-assembled in the fall, an act erect- 
ing the county of Kentucky. He is thus to be 
regarded as in some sense the founder of this 
great Commonwealth. . Thenceforth he was 
closely identified with the early history of the 
Scate and bore his full share in the perils, inci- 
dents, and adventures of border life. He was 
presently advanced to the grade of lieutenant- 
colonel. As the struggle for independence 
progressed, the great opportunity of his life pre- 
sented itself. His sagacious mind perceived 
the importance of the Western country to the 
cause of the American patriots, and he resolved 
upon its conquest. 

The story of his expedition, in the reduction 
of Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes, has al- 
ready been related in our military record of Jef- 
ferson county, as also the story of his subsequent 
expeditions against the Indians, and for the 
building of Fort Jefferson, a few miles below the 
junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi. His 
headquarters all this time were at Louisville, and 
here his expeditions were organized. January 
22, 1781, he was made, a brigadier-general, by 



commission from Governor Thomas Jefferson, of 
Virginia. He bore a part in the negotiation of 
a treaty with the Indians at Fort Finney, near 
the mouth of the Great Miami, in the winter of 
1785-86, and, altliougii he was unquestionably 
not the hero of the thriUing incident attributed 
to him in judge Hall's Romance of Western 
History, there is no doubt that it was an mipor- 
tant and even distinguished part he bore. In 
1793, during the intrigues in this State of the 
French minister. Genet, to organize forces for 
the overthrow of the S|)anish power in the South- 
west, General Clark, then in private life, was en- 
dowed by Genet with the sounding title of 
Major-General in the armies of I'Vance, and 
Commander in chief of the French Revolution- 
ary Legion on the Mississippi. He made some 
efforts looking to the recruitment of troops; but 
the action of the Federal Government, resulting 
in the recall of Genet and the ruin of his 
schemes, soon remanded Clark to private life. 
In 1783 the grant of an extensive tract of land 
on the Indiana side of the Falls being made by 
the State of Virgmia to the General and his sol- 
diers of the Illinois expedition, the opportunity 
was given him to lay off a town at the Falls, be- 
tween the present sites of Jeffersonville and New 
Albany, which from him took the name Clarks- 
ville. Here his own cabm was built, and here 
most of the later years of his life were spent, with 
his servants, an old drummer, and an occasional 
visitor, for his sole company. His settlement 
proved unhealthy, and the village grew slowly 
and poorly. He fell finally into i)0verty, and to 
some extent into the miseries induced by intem- 
perance, rheumatic and paralytic affections. 
In 18 1 4, in an unlucky hour when he was un- 
able to help himself, he fell into the fire in his 
cabm, and before he was rescued one of his legs 
was so burned that it had to be amputated. The 
operation was performed by Dr. Richard Fergu- 
son, of Louisville; and it is said that he had a 
fifer and drummer play his favorite march to 
mitigate his pains during the trying ordeal. He 
was taken to Locust Grove, a few miles above 
Louisville, the home of Major Croghan, whose 
wife was the General's sister. There he spent 
his last years, and there he died, as before noted, 
February 13, 18 18. He was buried on the place, 
but on the loth of March, 1869, the Kentucky 
Legislature made provision for the removal of 

his remains to the cemetery at Frankfort and the 
erection of a monument over them. They were 
not taken to the capital, however; but on the 
29th of October, of the same year, were re- 
moved to Cave Hill Cemetery, in Louisville, 
where they now repose. A few years ago his 
Journal of the Campaign to the Illinois Country 
was published at Cincinnati in a handsome 
octavo volume, with a valuable biographical in- 
troduction by Junge Henry Pirtle, of Louis- 


It is frequently said, on the authority of Dr. 
McMurtrie, that six families came down the 
river with General Clark's expedition, and 
stopped at Corn Island, at the head of the Falls. 
This statement probably rests upon the fact that 
five heads of families are known by name, and 
that one other is known to have been of the 
party, though his name has not survived. Mr. 
Casseday, following Marshall's History of Ken- 
tucky, more than doubles the number, in his 
History of Louisville. He says: 

It is estimated that Colonel Clark left in his new fort on 
this island about thirteen families, when he proceeded on his 
journey to Kaskaskia. And so brave, hardy, and resolute 
were these pioneers that, notwithstanding they were sepa- 
rated from the nearest of their countrymen by four hundred 
miles of hostile country, filled with savages whose dearest 
hunting-grounds they were about to occupy ; notwithstand- 
ing they knew that these relentless savages were not only 
inimical on account of the invasion of their choicest terri- 
tory, but were aided by all the arts, the presents, and the 
favors of the British m seeking to destroy their settlements ; 
notwithstanding all these terrifying circumstances, those 
dauntless pioneers went quietly to work, and with the rifle 
in one hand and the implements of agriculture in the other, 
deliberately set about planting, and actually succeeded in 
raising a crop of corn on their little island. It is thus that 
Corn Island derived its name. 

The publication of General Clark's letters 
and Journal of the expedition in more recent 
years enables us to fix with closer approach to 
certainty the number of families in this firsthand 
of settlers. In the book on the Campaign in 
the Illinois in 1778-9, published at Cincinnati as 
a number of the Ohio Valley Historical Series, 
one of Clark's letters concerning the expedition 
contains the following: "About twenty families 
that had followed me, much against my inclina- 
tion, I found now to be of service to me in 
guarding a block-house that I erected on the isl- 
and to secure my provisions." To this inci- 
dental, perhaps merely accidental mention, is 



the world indebted for the data wherewith to 
make an approximately exact estimate of the 
number in the first Louisville colony. It was 
probably not far from one hundred souls — rather 
more than less, since this allows but three chil- 
dren to a family — and, with the soldiers, even 
the small detachment of them necessary to erect 
or guard the block-house, must have crowded 
exceedingly the few acres cleared of the old Corn 
Island. ' 

It is gratifying to know that the earliest whites 
to plant their homes upon the site of Louisville 
were in families. The first colony to land upon 
the site of Cincinnati on Sunday morning, 
December 28, 1788, was composed wholly of 
men. But it was true of the pioneers at the 
Falls, as of those at Plymouth Rock more than a 
century and a half before, that — 

"There was woman's fearless eye, 
Lit by her deep loves truth ; 
There was manhood's brow, serenely high, 
And the fiery heart of youth." 

Unhappily, the names of but one-fourth of the 
heads of these families — if there were twenty — 
have been traditionally preserved. It would be 
a genuine pleasure to set forth the names of all, 
men, women, and children, in letters of gold. 
We have only the names of the following : 






These were certainly of the party. In addi- 
tion we have the names of Isaac Kinibly, upon 
the authority of his son, residing in Orleans, 
Indiana, so late as 1852; and of James Graham, 
on the authority of the veteran Kentuckian, his 
son. Dr. C. C. Graham, of Louisville. Dr. 
Craik, in his Historical Sketches of Christ 
Church, says that John and Ann Rogers Clark, 
parents of General Clark, "with their numerous 
family, came to Louisville with the first emigra- 
tion. They settled at Mulberry Hill, the present 
[1862] residence of their grandson, Isaac 
Clark, and are buried there, along with many of 
their descendants " 

These and their associates, then, as we have 
often |)ut the fact in various ways, were the first 
of civilized stock to rear their homes about the 
Falls of the Ohif). Not a single white man had 

preceded them, to set up his household gods 
amid these lovely surroundings. The beautiful 
plateau, the picturesque slopes, were as yet un- 
broken, save by the stake or the tent-peg of the 
surveyor. The silence of the primeval wilderness 
was around them. They were alone with Nature 
and with God. The lurking savage, however, 
looked with angered eyes from the shore, and 
planned the solitary murder or the ferocious mas- 
sacre. Only a few days before their landing, on 
the 25th of May, a boat ascending Salt river 
had been attacked by the Indians, with disastrous 
results to its occupants. Mr. Casseday has well 
written : 

Truly so bold and heroic an act as this of that feeble band 
deserves a perpetuity beyond wh;it the mere name of the 
island will give it. Columns have been reared and statues 
erected, festivals have been instituted and commemorations 
held, of deeds far less worthy of lenown than was this little 
settlement's crop of corn. Rut, like many other deeds of 
true heroism, it is forgotten, for there was wanted the pen 
and the lyre to make it live forever. The founders of the 
parent colony themselves did never greater deeds of heroism 
than did these pioneers of Louisville. And yet the very his- 
torians of the fact speak of it without a word of wonder or 
of admiration. Even in Louisville herself, now in her palm- 
iest days, the Pilgrim's landing is commemorated each return- 
ing year, while the equal daring, danger, and victory of the 
Western pioneer has sunk into oblivion. But it is ever so. 
Men may live for a hundred years within the very roar of 
Niagara, and yet live unmspired until the same sound fails 
upon the ear or the same sight greets the eye on the far-off 
shores of the Evelino or the .Arno. Erin's bard has ever told 
the praises of the Oriental clime ; the lord of English verse 
has tuned his lyre under a foreign sky ; the Mantuan bard 
has sung " arma virum(/iic Trojac," and the poet of Italy 
has soared even beyond the bounds of space in search of 
novelty ; so we must wait for a stranger hand to weave the 
magic charm around the pioneers of our forest land. 

As has previously been noted, the first-comers 
found Corn island covered with a growth of tim- 
ber, beneath which were dense cane-brakes, 
which the troops with Clark, in the otherwise 
idle days pending the departure of the expedi- 
tion, helped the colonists to clear for their cabins 
and first crop of corn. 

Another famous family, said to have settled in 
this vicinity this year, was that of the Hites. Mr. 
Isaac Hite was among the first to explore the 
Kentucky wilderness, being one of the renowned 
" ten hunters of Kentucky," of whom Daniel 
Boone was another. He settled east of Louis- 
ville in 1778, and there died seven years after- 
wards. Captain .'\[)raham Hite, his brother, who 
held his commission in the army of the Revolu- 
tion from the hand of Washington himself, in 



1782 removed from Berkeley county, Virginia, 
the ancestral home of the family, and settled 
eight miles south of Louisville, on the trail which 
has since become the Bardstown road. The 
next year his brother Joseph became a neighbor 
two miles further to the southward; and still an- 
other year brought the father of all of them, the 
senior Abraham Hite, to live the rest of his years 
and die among his children. He passed peace- 
fully away in 1786. The younger Abraham sur- 
vived till 1832, leaving a son of the same name, 
who became a prominent merchant in Louisville. 
Joseph Hite died the year before. Their inju- 
ries at the hands of the savages are related in 
our chapter upon the Indians. Theirs is one of 
the most notable families among the pioneers of 
Jefferson county. 

Likewise accompanying the expedition into 
the Illinois country, as a voluntary aid to General 
Clark, was a youth of eighteen, afterwards father 
of one of Louisville's most useful physicians, 
the renowned Dr. James Chew Johnston. He 
was a native of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, 
born in 1760, and a graduate of William and 
Mary college the same year in which he came to 
the Falls with Clark. After the conquest of the 
Northwest, through the General's influence he 
was appointed clerk of Kentucky county, and 
upon the formation of Jefferson county he was 
appointed its first clerk. He was also land 
agent in this State, during many years, for people 
desiring locations here. During one of his land 
excursions his party was attacked by Indians, 
and he was wounded, taken, and kept eight 
months in captivity. In 1785 he married Eliza, 
the daughter of Captain James Winn, three days 
after the arrival of the family. Dr. Johnson was 
the first-born of this vnarriage, in 1787. The 
father died in 1797, at his residence on the cor- 
ner of Main and Sixth streets. 


Mr. Butler, in his History of Kentucky, gives 
the following account of the proceedings at Corn 
Island, when the forces had all rendezvoused 
there : 

On the arrival of Colonel Bowman's party, the forces of 
the country were found too weak to justify taking many from 
Kentucky. Clark, therefoie, engaged hut one company and 
part of another from this quarter, expecting them to he 
replaced hy the trooi)S of Major Smith. Here Clark dis- 
closed to the troojis his real destination to Kaskaskia, and, 
honorably to the gallant feelings of the times, the plan was 

ardently concurred in hy all tiie detachment, e.vcept the com- 
pany of Ca]nain Dillard. The boats were, therefore, ordered 
to he well securetl, and sentinels were placed where it was 
su]iposod the men might wade across the river [from Corn 
Island to the Kentucky shore. This was the day before 
I 'lark intended to start ; hut a little before night the greater 
part of Captain Dillard's company, with a lieutenant, whose 
name is generously spared by Colonel Clark, passed the sea- 
tinels un])erceived, and got to the oi)posite hank. The dis- 
ajipointment was cruel, its consetjuences alarming. Clark 
immediately moimted a party on the horses of the Harrods- 
hurg gentlemen, and sent after the deserters, with orders to 
kill all who resisted. The ])ursuers (overtook the fugitives 
about twenty miles in advance ; these soon scattered through 
the woods, and, except seven or eight who were brought 
back, suffered most severely every species of distress. The 
people of Harrodstown felt the baseness of the lieutenant's 
conduct so keenly, and resented it with such indignation, 
that they would not for sonve time let him or his companions 
into the fort. On -the return of this detachment from the 
pursuit, a day of lojoicirig was spent between the troops 
about to descend the river, and those who were to return on 
a service little inferior in danger and privation, the defense of 
the interior stations. 


In a previous extract from the Annals of the 
West, the number of companies forming Gen- 
eral Clark's expedition is given as three. It is 
quite certain, however, that there was one more, 
which joined him at the Falls, and that the four 
companies were commanded severally by Cap- 
tains John Montgomery, Leonard Helm, Joseph 
Bowman, and the redoubtable William Harrod. 
The famous pioneer and Indian fighter, Simon 
Kenton, from his station near Maysville, also 
John Haggin, were of the party. Dr. McMur- 
trie, in his Sketches of Louisville, says that 
Clark's force numbered three hundred, and that 
he landed his troops and the accompanying 
families at Corn Island "in order to deceive the 
enemy." Mr. Collins is nearer right, however, 
and may have have the exact figures, in setting 
the number, at least of those who left the Falls, 
at one hundred and fifty-three men. We have 
seen the difticulties with which Clark struggled 
in the raising of his force, and his companies 
were doubtless small. They were probably 
larger than the figures last given would indicate, 
since some of the soldiers would be left on the 
island to hold the block-house and protect the 
settlers. On the 24th of June, all preparations 
being completed, the expedition ran down the 
Falls— during a total eclipse of the sun, it is 
said — and departed on their hazardous but suc- 
cessful and renowned expedition, with which it 
is an enduring glory to have the foundations of 



Louisville associated. We need not follow it 
further. The story has been told elsewhere. 
Return we to 


They were now upon the mainland, on the 
Kentucky shore. Corn Island was obviously 
but a temporary home. It was too strait for 
even the beginnings of permanent settlement, 
though it had served an excellent transient pur- 
pose, while the colonists were strengthenmg in 
numbers and energies, and awaiting the return 
of the soldiers from the Illinois expedition. In 
the spring of 1779 a few more families, immi- 
grating from Virginia, had joined the band. In 
October of the previous autumn, the soldiers 
discharged by General Clark at Kaskaskia, as no 
longer needed for his military operations, 
returned to the Falls. They were, however, 
under the charge of Captain William Linn (one 
of the voyagers of 1776-77, .from Fort Pitt to 
New Orleans, for supplies of gunpowder), di- 
rected by General Clark to build a stockade or 
rude fort on the mainland, near the island. The 
site selected is believed to have been near and 
on the east side of the broad and deep ravine 
which, so late as 1838, marked the intersection 
of Twelfth street with the river. About this — 
whether erected in the fall of 1778, or, as some 
say, early in 1779 — the movers from Corn Island 
began to cluster. Some doubtless came to the 
shore in the autumn and erected their cabins 
upon a spot which was said by Dr. McMurtrie, 
in 1819, to have borne the name of the White 
Home. The next year, undoubtedly, the corn 
product and all valuables being removed from 
the island, all the immigrants planted themselves 
in the new domiciles upon the actual present 
site of Louisville. The new-comers from Vir- 
ginia settled upon lots or tracts adjoining, but a 
little below, those occupied by the pioneers of 


In the spring of this year there seems to have 
been a survey of lots at the Falls, possibly exe- 
cuted by the draughtsman of a map which is still 
extant, dated April 20, 1779, and the work of 
one William Bard or Beard. It is just possible, 
also, that this rude, primitive map records the 
much-doubted work of Captain Bullitt, in laying 
ofT a town at the Falls nearly six years before. 

It is certain that the stakes of a formal survey 
of lots were already here in 1779, and that Bard 
was a surveyor, for one of the early settlers, Asa 
Emerson, in a petition to the town trustees Oc- 
tober 27, 1785, expressly declared that in this 
year he drew a lot here, and that it had been sur- 
veyed by Bard. ^ Colonel Durrett, who is per- 
fectly familiar with the Bard map, gives the fol- 
lowing interesting description of it : 

This map shows that the city was first laid out along the 
river bank, from First to Eighteenth street. Ranges of half- 
atre lots appear on both sides of Main street, from First to 
Twelfth, and there they turn toward the river and run along 
its bank from one to three blocks deep, as low down as 
Eighteenth street. The triangle formed by Main street on 
the south, Twelfth street on the west, and the river bank on 
the north and east, on which stood the old fort, was not laid 
off into lots. The numbering of these lots was the strangest 
conceit that ever entered into the head of an engineer. It 
began with number one, on the northeast corner of Main and 
Fifth street, and proceeded eastwardly up the norti) side of 
Main to First street, where number sixteen was reached; then 
crossed over Main street, and went back along the south side 
westwardly again to Fifth street, where thirty-two was 
reached. It then crossed to the north side of Main street 
again, and proceeded westwardly from thirty-three to forty- 
eight, where Ninth street was reached; then again crossed to 
the south side of Main, and went back easterly again to sixty, 
four, at Fifth street. It then went back again to the north 
side of Main, at Nmth street, and proceeded westerly from 
sixty-five to seventy-two, where Eleventh street was reached; 
then crossed to the south side of Main, and went back again 
easterly from seventy-three to eighty, where Ninth street was 
reached. Then it began again on the north side of Main , at 
Eleventh street, with number eighty-one, and went westerly 
down Main street to Twelfth, then turned down Twelfth to 
the river bank, then went off westerly again to Fourteenth 
street, then along both sides of Fourteenth to the river bank, 
and then, wound round and about in the triangle formed by 
these streets and the river in such confusion as no engineer 
ever probably before caused in the numbering of town lots. 
And then, to make the confusion of this mode of numbering 
yet worse confounded, this unprecedented map-maker began 
again with number one at Fifteenth street, and wound round 
backwards and forwards up and down Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth streets until number thirty-eight was reached, when he 
suddenly closed his arithmetic and left the lots on Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth streets unnumbered. These lots were all to 
be drawn possibly from numbers put into a hat and shaken 
together; and it may have entered into the head of the 
sur%'eyor to prevent any juggling by so numbering the lots 
that nobody holding the hat or manipulating the drawing 
could understand by the numbers where the lots were located. 

It will be observed that this plat stretched 
from First to Eighteenth streets. About one- 
th\rd of it, then, reached beyond the Connolly 
tract, and by so much lay upon the lands of 
Colonel Campbell — located there, it seems, with- 
out his leave or license. He objected, in a style 
so vigorous and effective that that part of the 



town-site was abandoned and the plat instead 
pushed out southward between First and Twelfth 
streets. Eighty-six of the numbers drawn in 
the lottery, however, which Colonel Durrett says 
occurred on the day of the date of Bard's map, 
remained in the hands of those who drew them. 
They were half-acre lots, lying on both sides of 
Main street, from First to Twelfth. They cost 
the owners but three shillings each, except a 
dozen or so, which came higher. 


According to the biographical work entitled 
Louisville Past and Present, among the colon- 
ists this year, of the settlement that was presently 
to become Louisville, were Benjamin and Hettie 
Pope, from Pope's Creek, Virginia, where their 
little son was born seven years before. He, 
Worden Pope, was destined to become one of 
the most prominent citizens of the place. He 
was one of the earliest lawyers in Louisville, and 
grew to be one of the very first public men in all 
other respects. He was appointed clerk of the 
supreme court of Jefferson county about 1796, 
and in that year, when but twenty-four years old, 
was also made clerk of the county court. . He 
held the latter post forty-two years, or until 
his death April 20, 1838, and the former office 
until shortly before that sad event. As clerk 
of the county court he had superior opportuni- 
ties of acquiring wealth through the knowledge 
of town property thus obtained; but he refused 
to use his office in any such way for personal 
aggrandizement. He was a great friend and 
admirer of General Jackson, and was the gener- 
ous entertainer of the old hero when, as Presi- 
dent of the United States, he visited Louisville. 


Some events of interest marked the year in 
the infant settlement. Before it was fairly set- 
tled upon the mainland— namely, in the latter 
part of April — it was called upon to contribute 
as many able-bodied men as would go volunta- 
rily, to the expedition organized by Colonel John 
Bowman, County Lieutenant of the county of 
Kentucky, against the Indian towns on the Lit- 
tle Miami river, in Ohio, for the purpose of in- 
timidating the Indians, and discouraging their 
incursions into Kentucky. We know not the 
exact roll of volunteers from the Falls — "we 

were all volunteers," deposed one long afterwards, 
"and found ourselves" — but it is probable 
that a large part of Captain William Harrod's 
company of 1780, whose roll is published in our 
military record of Jefferson county, were already 
on the ground, and were out in this expedition. 
It is known to have arrived at the mouth of the 
Licking about sixty strong. From depositions 
taken in 1804, it is learned that such well-known 
pioneers, in this region and the interior, as Colo- 
nels Robert Patterson (one of the founders of 
Cincinnati), William Whitley, and Levi Todd, 
James Guthrie, James Sodowsky, Benjamin 
Berry, and others, were among the volunteers. 
No pecuniary inducement had they to the expe- 
dition, and little other than the instinct of self- 
preservation or of revenge upon the murdering 
and torturing redskin. For provisions they re- 
ceived but a peck of parched corn apiece, and 
some "public beef" upon arriving at Lexington, 
their trusty rifles and the teeming forest being re- 
lied upon for the rest of their subsistence. The 
requisition upon the men at the Falls included 
boats for crossing the Ohio at the mouth of the 
Licking. Two batteaux were obtained and 
manned, and sent up the river. The rest of the 
company took their way by the buffalo roads and 
Indian trails through the wilderness to the ren- 
dezvous on the present site of Covington. 

Stirring times the little settlement by the Falls 
of the Ohio must have witnessed while this di- 
vision of the e.xpedition was preparing. Time 
was given in the orders of Bowman for corn- 
planting, which the men were instructed to look 
to before the appointed day of assembly at the 
mouth of the Licking. This over, Captain Har- 
rod, as a deponent testified a quarter of a cen- 
tury afterwards, "harangued the people then 
there [at the Fallsj, showing the necessity of the 
expedition, and that the settlements from the 
the other parts of Kentucky were desirous of 
having the expedition carried into effect." The 
volunteers were already equipped with the simple 
weapons and accouterments of the pioneer; the 
few necessary preparations were rapidly com- 
pleted; and the brave company disappeared in 
the dense woods and up the broad and rippling 
river. It was a silent and solemn time then for 
the feeble colony, left almost denuded of its de- 
fenders in a hostile land. For many days it was 
without news of the living or the dead of the 



campaign ; but by and by the noble warriors of 
the Falls, flushed with success, and each, prob- 
ably, bearing a share of the Indian plunder "dis- 
posed of among themselves by way of vendue" 
— after crossing the Ohio from the mouth of the 
Little Miami, pretty nearly at the spot now occu- 
pied by the Newport water works — came gaily 
marching home again. 


It is very probable, reasoning from analogy and 
the number of families now on the spot, that the 
first white native of the pre-Louisville village was 
ushered into existence this year. The Louisville 
Journal, in June, 1852, published the claim of 
Mr. Isaac Kimbly, then of Orleans, Orange 
county, Indiana, to be regarded as the first-born 
of the colony. He had called personally upon 
the editor, Mr. Prentice, affirming that he first saw 
the light upon Corn Island in 1779, and that he 
was the first child born in what is now Jefferson 
county. This claim, however, as regards the 
county at large, is made more reasonably for the 
late Elisha Applegate, who was born in 1781, 
five miles from Louisville, on the Bardstown 
road, at Sullivan's Station. Captain Thomas 
Joyes, a lifetime resident of this city and brother 
of John Joyes, Mayor in 1834-35, is often re- 
puted to have been the first white child born 
here. But his natal day was December 9, 1787; 
and it is incredible that no other infant was pre- 
viously born in the colony, then nearly ten years 
old, unless the laws of nature were quite miraca- 
lously suspended. 

Mr. Collins (vol. ii, page 358, History ot Ken- 
tucky) presents still another claimant for prece- 
dency in nativity at Louisville, in the person of 
Captain John Donne; but dates and details are 
left altogether out of the account. 

The first marriage in the place, according to 
Collins, was that of Mrs. Lucy Brashears, a na- 
tive of Virginia, who was in the fort at Boones- 
borough during the savage attack of 1778, and 
died in Madison county, November, 1854, at 
at the great age of ninety-three. We are left in 
the dark as to the exact date of this marriage, or 
who was the hapjjy groom in the case. 


The founder of Boonesborough was again here 
this year, probably on a friendly visit to the new- 
comers, and perhaps also on a surveying expedi- 

tion. The fact of his visit at this time was not 
ascertained until about thirty years ago, when 
some gentlemen happened to observe, inscribed 
upon an aged tree near the southeastern limits of 
the city, the name "D. Boone," with the date 
"1779." The annual rings of growth in the 
tree, apparently formed since the carving was 
done, confirmed the authenticity of the inscrip- 
tion, and a block containing it was cut out and 
deposited with the Kentucky Historical society. 
No incidents ot Boone's visit are recorded. 

The other famous Boone of Kentucky was 
also here, possibly at the same time. An inter- 
esting narrative, immediately related to the visit, 
is thus recited by Mr. Casseday: 

111 the spring of 1779 'Squire Hoone, the brother of Daniel, 
in company with two others, went from the Falls to Bullitt's 
lick to shoot buffalo. After finishing their sport, they were 
returning home, when night overtook them at Stewart's 
spring. The young men proposed to. remain here for the 
night, but Boone objected, fearing an attack from the In- 
dians. They accordingly turned off some three hundred 
yards to the west, where they encamped for the night. There, 
while Boone and another of the party were arranging for the 
encampment, the third, being idle, amused himself by cutting 
a name and a few words on the bark of the tree. Afterwards, 
in 1811, during some legal investigation about lands, Boone 
testified to the existence of these marks near Stewart's spring, 
and upon examination they were found just as he had stated, 
although thirty-two years had elapsed since the cut was 
made. This fact is placed upon record in the court of ap- 
peals, and does not admit of a doubt. The instance before 
referred to | that concerning Uaniel Boone] is of a precisely 
similar character, and the marks are probably equally au- 
thentic as those of the last. 


The single reminiscence of social life in 
Louisville this year which has come down, is 
that of a general banquet of the settlers upon a 
simple flour-cake, made from the earliest wheat 
product of the season. The old story runs thus: 

It is related that, when tlie first patch of wheat was raised 
about this place, after being ground in a rude and laborious 
hand-mill, it was sifted through a gauze neckerchief, belong- 
ing to the mother of the gallant man who gave us the infor- 
mation, as the Ijest bolting-cloth to be had. It was then 
shortened, as the housewife phrases it, with raccoon fat, and 
the whok' station invited to partake of a sumptuous feast 
u|)on a flour-cake. 


Not so amusing, however, were the terrible 
ex|)eriences of the coming winter. The immi- 
grants of 1779 had an inhospitable and unex- 
expected welcome to the supposed genial climate 
of Kentucky. The winter of that year and 
early 1780 set in cold and hard, though pre- 



ceded, like that of 1880-81, by mild fall weather. 
It is believed to have been the severest ever 
known in this region in modern times, and has 
been handed down in local tradition and history 
as "the Cold Winter." Its effects, like those of 
the late memorable season (1880-81), extended 
far to the southward. The Cumberland river, in 
the vicinity of Nashville, was frozen so hard that 
cattle crossed upon it. At the East the cold was 
yet more intense. The ice in the Delaware at 
Philadelphia was three feet thick, and the river 
was frozen fast for more than one hundred days. 
Long Island sound was covered with a continu- 
ous sheet of ice, and Chesapeake bay was crossed 
to and from Annapolis with loaded sleds. Of 
the long and terrible winter in this quarter it is 
said that around Harrodsburg, in the interior of 
Kentucky, three months from the middle of No- 
vember there was not once a thaw of ice and 
snow; driving snow-storms and dismal, cutting 
winds were almost daily in their occurrence. 
The smaller rivers and even brooks were so solid- 
ly frozen that water could only be had by melting 
ice and snow. The suffering thus brought upon 
human beings was exceedingly great; but what 
the poor dumb brutes had to endure is told in 
part only by their actions. All night long, the 
bellovvings and roarings of herds of wild buf- 
faloes and other animals, as they struggled for 
shelter and warmth, sounded in the ears of the 
pioneer, and daylight not unfrequently showed 
the dead bodies of the poor creatures frozen and 
starved to death. 

For themselves, in their close, warm cabins 
and with unlimited supplies of fuel at the very 
door, the settlers were comparatively heedless of 
the season, which served them a very good pur- 
pose in one particular, to keep the marauding 
Indian away. Their cattle were almost univer- 
sally destroyed by its inclemency, however, and 
corn became so scarce as to rise to a price vary- 
ing from fifty to one hundred and seventy-five 
dollars per bushel in Continental money, the chief 
currency of that time. It is somewhat sadly inter- 
esting to note that, such was the persistence and 
perseverance of the large immigration now set- 
ting into Kentucky, that many hapless persons 
undertook the movement in the very face of the 
awful rigors of this season. A number of fami- 
lies were caught by it between Cumberland Gap 
and their intended places of selttement, and some 

were compelled to stop and dwell in tents 
or huts until the spring brought relaxation of the 
blockade of ice and snow. 



1780 -The CJreiit I miiii£;ration— Louisville at Last— 'J he Act 
listablishing the Town -Named from Louis XVL, King 
of France — i5ioyraphical Sketch of Louis — Surveys of 
the Town I'lat -]ared Hrookss Survey — The Prices of 
Lots-Original Owners — Accessions to the Settlement — 
Thomas Helm — Military Movements. 1781 — Transactions 
of tlie Town Trustees — Account of 'Their Stewardship — 
Ancient Rules of the Board — Immigration of Young 
Woman — Military Matters — Residents of Louisville in 
1781 — 'The First Fight — .Another Hard Winter. 1782 — 
'Tlie "Old Forts" — Fort Nelson — Named from Governor 
Nelson — .A. 'Terriijle Year — The Beginning of Commerce — 
More Cold Winters. 1783 -The First Store— Peace and 
I 'rosperity— William Rowan Comes to Louisville — Reduc- 
tion of liie Military-A 'Troublesome Uisciple of Paine — 
Some Important Legislation — Prices — Colonel R. C. An- 
derson — Major Harrison. 178.^— Another Act — The First 
Land Office — 'The Surveyor's Office Opened — The 
County Surveyors — Crevecoeur's Wonderful Stories. 1785 
— Beginning of Shipjjingport — -The Taylors — Visit of 
Lewis Brantz to the Falls — Visit of Generals Butler and 
Parsons — E.xtracts from Butler's Journal. 1786 — Clark's 
Last E.xpedition — Logan's Expedition — Major Denny's 
Journal — Immigration Down the Ohio — 'The Spanish Com- 
plications — Green's Letters from Louisville — Free Naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi Secured — Extension of Time for 
Building on Lots — New "Commissioners and Trustees. 
1787 — Dr. James C. Johnston Born in Loiysville — First 
Kentucky Newspaper. 1788 — 'The First Census — Cold, 
Floods, and .Sickness — Adventure with the Indians. 1789 
— The First Brick House — Additional Trustees of the 

When the Ohio river had re-opened and 
balmier airs returned, an emigration hitherto un- 
precedented in Western annals was observable 
upon the river. During this spring no less than 
three hundred " large family boats" are recorded 
as arriving at the Falls. Not all stop here, but 
some do. Many of the new-comers have brought 
their heavy wagons and horses upon the boats, 
and as many as ten or fifteen wagons per day are 
counted at times passing into the interior. 

Among the more transient visitors is a pioneer 
of some note, who has left a permanent mem- 
orandum of his trip — Mr. Thomas Vickroy, 
who was one of the war-party under General 
Clark that built the block-houses the same year 



upon the site of Cincinnati, and who afterwards 
aided in laying off the plat of Pittsburg. He 
gives valuable testimony to the difficulties of the 
situation at this point and in the vicinity. In a 
narrative contributed to the press long after, he 

In April, 1780, I went to Kentucky, in company with 
eleven flat-boats with movers. We landed, on the 4th of 
May, at the mouth of Beargrass creek, above the Fails of 
Ohio. I took my compass and chain along to make a for- 
tune by surveying, but when we got there the Indians would 
not let us survey. . General Clark raised an 

army of about a thousand men, and marched with one party 
of them against the Indian towns. When we came to the 
mouth of the Licking we fell in with Colonel Todd and his 
party. On the ist day of August, 1780, we crossed the Ohio 
river and built the two block-houses where Cincinnati now 


It is estimated that the village upon the Ken- 
tucky shore at the Falls, with the adjacent stations 
upon the Beargrass, now contained a population 
of not less than six hundred souls. The fullness 
of time was come for the settlement to have a 
name and authorized town site, as it had already 
a "local habitation." In May, 1780, the follow- 
ing memorable enactment passes the Assembly 
of Virginia — for there is no State of Kentucky 
as yet : 

Act for establishing the Town of Louisville, at the Falls 
of Ohio. 

Whereas, sundry inhabitants of the county of Kentucky 
have, at great expense and hazard, settled themselves upon 
certain lands at the Falls of Ohio, said to be the property of 
John Connolly, and have laid off a considerable part thereof 
into half-acre lots for a town, and, having settled thereon, 
have preferred petitions to this General Assembly to establish 
the said town. Be it therefore enacted. That one thousand 
acres of land, being the forfeited property of said John Con- 
nolly, adjoining the lands of John Campbell and 

Taylor, be, and the same is hereby vested in John Todd, Jr., 
Stephen Trigg, George Slaughter, John Floyd, William 
Pope, George Merriweather, Andrew Hines, James Sullivan, 
and Marshal Brashiers, gentlemen, trustees, to be by them 
or any four of them laid off into lots of an half-acre each, 
with convenient streets and public lots, which shall be, and 
the same is hereby established a town by the name of Louis- 

And be it further enacted. That after the said lands shall 
be laid off into lots and streets, the said trustees, or any four 
of them, shall proceed to sell the said lots, or so many of 
them as they shall judge expedient, at public auction, for the 
best price that can be had, the time and place of sale being 
advertised two months, at the court-houses of adjacent coun- 
ties; the purchasers respectively to hold their said lots sub- 
ject to the condition of building on each a dwelling-house, 
sixteen feet by twenty at least, with a brick or stone chim- 
ney, to be finished within two years from the day of sale. 
And the said trustees, or any four of them, shall and they 
are hereby empowered to convey the said lots to the pur- 

chasers thereof in fee simple, subject to the condition afore- 
said, on payment of the money arising from such sale to the 
said trustees for the use hereafter mentioned, that is to say : 
If the money arising from such sale shall amount to $30 j)er 
acre, the whole shall be paid by the said trustees into the 
treasury of this commonwealth, and the overplus, if any, 
shall be lodged with the court of the county of Jefferson to 
enable them to defray the expenses of erecting the publick 
buildings of the said county. Prmuded, That the owners of 
lots already drawn shall be entitled to the preference therein, 
upon paying to the trustees the sum of $30 for such half-acre 
lot, and shall thereafter be subject to the same obligations of 
settling as other lot-holders within the said town. 

And be it further en acted, That the said trustees, or the 
major part of them, shall have power, from time to time, to 
settle and determine all disputes concerningjthe bounds of the 
said lots, to settle such rules and orders for the regular build- 
ing thereon as to them shall seem best and most convenient. . 
And in case of death or removal from the county of any of 
the said trustees, the remaining trustees shall supply such 
vacancies by electing of others from time to time, who shall 
be vested with the same powers as those already mentioned. 

And be it further enacted, That the purchasers of the 
lots in the said town, so soon as they shall have saved the 
same according to their respective deeds of conveyance, shall 
have and enjoy all the rights, privileges, and immunities 
which the freeholders and inhabitants of other towns in this 
State, not incorporated by charter, have, hold, and enjoy. 

And be it further enacted. That if the purchaser of any 
lot shall fail to build thereon within the time before limited, 
the said trustees, or a major part of them, may thereupon 
enter into such lot, and may either sell the same again and 
apply the money towards repairing the streets, or in any 
other way for the benefit of the said town, or appropriate 
such lot to publick uses for the benefit of said town. Provided, 
That nothing herein contained shall extend to affect or injure 
the title of lands claimed by John Campbell, gentleman, or 
those persons whose lots have been laid off on his lands, but 
their titles be and remain suspended until the said Joha 
Campbell shall be released from his captivity. 

The same act made provision for the creation 
of another town, somewhere in Rockingham 
county, Virginia. It has hardly made the name 
in the world that the Falls City has. 

This act was not signed by the Speaker of the 
House of Delegates until the ist of July; but by 
the rule of the Legislature it was of full force and 
effect from May i, 1780, which is the true birth- 
day of Louisville. Its passage did not become 
known at the Falls until some months afterwards, 
and, as we shall see, there was no meeting of the 
town "trustees until the next year. 

The new town took its renowned and royal 
name in honor of 


who had a little more than two years before, 
February 6, 1778, concluded a treaty of alliance 
with the American colonies, and then sent his 
armies, with the young Marquis de la Fayette 



and other military and naval heroes, to aid the 
struggHng cause of independence. The Sixteenth 
Louis, of the house of Bourbon, grandson and 
immediate successor of Louis XV, was born in 
the pahce of Versailles August 23, 1754, and 
perished by the guillotine in Paris January 21, 
1793, At the age of eleven he became heir pre- 
sumptive to the crown, on the death of his 
father; in his sixteenth year was married to the 
celebrated Marie Antoinette, Archduchess of 
Austr'a, whose head also went to the basket in 
the bloody '93. May 10, 1774, still not twenty 
years of age, Louis became king by the demise 
-of his grandfather. He had received a good 
education, had already done some literary work, 
was an accomplished locksmith, and had given 
much attention to the mechanics of printing. 
He now cut down the expenses of the royal 
household and the number of the guards, and 
otherwise attempted reforms, one of which was 
attended by serious riots. He was averse to en- 
gaging in war on America's account, but was 
overborne by his ministers and the queen, and 
became involved in a costly war with England 
which nearly ruined the nation. Much of the 
rest of his reign was spent in grappling with 
financial difficulties and the disaffection of his 
subjects. In 1789 the Revolution broke out, 
and the Bastile was stormed July 14. Just a year 
from that time he took oath to be faithful to the 
constitution which the National Assembly had 
then in preparation. One year more and he was 
a prisoner in the hands of the Assembly in his 
own capital, provisionally suspended from his 
functions as king. He became king again in 
September, but a year thereafter France was de- 
clared a republic, and the end for him soon 
came. Tried and condemned on absurd charges, 
he was sentenced to death, and the next Jan- 
uary counted one more among the victims of 
"La Guillotine." He was godfather and the 
queen stood as godmother of the infant Duke of 
Orleans, afterwards Louis Philippe, King of 
France, who visited Louisville in his tour of the 
United States in 1796-97. 


There had obviously been some subdivision 
of the larger tracts into lots at a period or at 
periods anterior to the passage of the act, as pro- 
bably in the early part of 1779, though we think 

none of them date back so far as 1773. Un- 
doubtedly the movement from Corn Island to 
the mainland was preceded by a survey of the 
ground proposed to be occupied, its division into 
lots (of half an acre each, and quite probably 
with out-lots also), and their apportionment by 
lottery to the settlers thereon. The last indi- 
cated operation was altogether common in the 
establishment of new towns in that day, and 
seems to be implied distinctly in the mention in 
the act of 1780 of "lots already drawn." But, 
whatever the surveys before or immediately after 
the passage of the act, the record of them has 
perished, except for the Bard map of 1779, as 
utterly as the annals of the Mound Builders. 
Singular as it may appear, no other register, no 
copy, no authentic description, no intelligible 
reference in detail, exists at this day of the 
surveys by which the settlers of the ante-Louisville 
village, established their boundaries and reared 
their homes. It is only known that Colonel 
William Pope made the survey contemplated by 
the act, in the same year of its passage, and that 
at no distant time thereafter a re-survey, or ad- 
ditional survey, .was made by William Peyton 
and Daniel Sullivan, the latter of whom is 
credited with the staking of the out-lots, and 
with the running, July 20, 1784, of the division 
line between the halves of the two thousand acre 
tract originally granted to Connolly, and distin- 
guishing the one thousand acres belonging to 
Campbell from the tract of equal size, which had 
been confiscated as the property of the Tory 

Much confusion, annoyance, and loss were 
naturally caused by the failure to preserve in au- 
thoritative shape the records of their surveys; but 
it was not until 181 2 that an attempt was made 
to ascertain the true boundaries established by 
them, and make an official record which would 
stand in the stead of their lost documents. This 
work was accomplished by Mr. Jared Brooks, 
whom we shall hear of again in 181 2; and his 
survey, officially adopted the same year, has since 
been the standard for early locations and bound- 
aries. According to Dr. McMurtrie, the out- 

*The compass and chain used in some of these early sur- 
veys is reported to have been in possession of Colonel Quin- 
tus C. Shanks, of Hartford, Ohio county, Kentucky, as late 
as 1871. it was once the property of William Peyton, who 
surveyed much in company with the father of Colonel 
Shanks. Collins, vol. ii, 666. 


courses of this survey were "from thirty-five 
poles above the mouth of Beargrass creek, on the 
bank of the Ohio river, south eighty-three, west 
thirty-five poles to the mouth of the creek, thence 
north eighty-seven, west one hundred and twenty 
poles, north fifty, west one hundred and ten poles 
to a heap of stones and a square hole cut in the 
flat rock, thence (the division line) south eighty- 
eight, east seven hundred and sixty-nine to a 
white oak, poplar, and beech, north thirty-seven, 
west three hundred and ninety to the beginning; 
no variation." Bearing in mind that the mouth 
of Beargrass was then nearly at the foot of Third 
street, it is not difficult to get the limits of the 
town-plat as indicated by the present map of the 
city. Six streets — ■ Main, Market, Jefferson, 
Green, Walnut, and Chestnut — intersected the 
plat in the east and west direction, and the pres- 
ent streets numbered from First to Twelfth inter- 
sected these at right angles. The general lines 
of these are probably unchanged to this day. 
The most remarkable and lamentable departure 
from the original plat was in the subdivision and 
sale to private parties of a beautiful slip of one 
hundred and eighty feet breadth, from the north 
side of Green to the south side of Grayson 
streets, and running entirely across the plat, from 
First (Colonel Durret says from Floyd) to Twelfth 
streets. At Twelfth it ran into a triangular piece 
of land between Grayson street on the north, the 
lots laid out on Twelfth street, and the old town 
line, which was devoted also to public purposes. 
This was reserved for a public common or park, 
and as such is constantly referred to in the early 
legislative acts relating to the site of Louisville ; 
and its abandonment and sale must ever be re- 
garded as a public calamity. Such a beaut^spot 
and breathing-place in the heart of the business 
quarter of the great city to come, with the im- 
mense trees of the primeval forest still upon it, 
would now be worth even more than the golden 
eagles that would cover every square inch of its 
surface. But the foresight of the "city fathers '' 
of 1786 was not sufficient to tell them this. 
May 4th of that year, they sold so much of it as 
lay between Floyd and East streets to William 
Johnson; on the 5th, the strip between East and 
Seventh to Major William Croghan; on the 3d 
of August the triangular tract to James Sullivan; 
but the destruction was not completed until fif- 
teen years later, when, March 7, i8oi, Colonel 

R. C. Anderson bought the gap remaining from 
Seventh to Twelfth streets. The last opportunity 
of an adequate park in the heart of the city thus 
passed away. 


in Louisville, under the early surveys, may be 
easily ascertained by a reduction to Federal 
money of the Virginia pounds (at $3-33/^ per 
pound, mentioned in the list of sales presently 
to be given. Some were sold, Mr. Collins tells 
us, at merely nominal prices — as a lot on Main 
street, near Fourth, which was knocked off by 
the crier on the bid of a horse in exchange for 
It, worth but $20.00. The prices commonly, 
however, as will be seen below, must be regarded 
as very respectable for the times. They were 
half-acre lots, 105x210 feet each, and some 
brought $7.00 to $14.00 apiece. 


We have now the pleasure of presenting a list 
of the highest interest and value, in connection 
with the beginnings here — one which we are 
assured has never before been in print. It 
represents the sales for several years, by the 
trustees at public vendue, of in- and out-lots m 
the town of Louisville, and is copied from the 
original books of record, now considerably 
dilapidated by time. We have omitted nothing, 
except the columns headed "Received by" 
(filled by names of the several trustees to whom 
payments were made) and "Remarks," which 
very seldom include anything of importance. 
The orthography of names has been followed as 
found in the record. 

List of sales of lots and land in and adjoining 
the town of Louisville, at the Falls of Ohio: 

Number. Acres. I'urchasers. Consideration. 

1 18 Jacob Reagar ;^ '5 10 

2 20 James Sullivan 15 6 

3 20 same 20 

4 20 same 20 5 

5 20 same 20 

6 20 Eliza Moore 22 6 

7 20 Adam Hoops 20 6 

8 20 James Sullivan 22 

9 20 same 20 i 

10 20 same 17 3 

11 20 same 16 i 

12 20 same 13 5 

13 8 same . . . .' 7 i 

1 10 James Patton 6 12 

2 10 same 7 2 

3 10 Will Johnston 6 i 

4 10 James Sullivan 10 

5 10 same 14 r 



I Number. 







16 6 

Acres. Purchasers. 

10 David Meriwether 

10 Edm'd Taylor. . . 

10 same 17 

9 Adam Hoops 16 

10 James Sullivan 12 

10 same 

10 same 

10 same 

10 same 

lo same 

10 same 

11 same 

5 same 

5 Richard Eastin 

5 James Sullivan 

5 same 

5 Will Johnston 

5 James Sullivan 

5 Adam Hoops 

5 Edm'd Taylor 

5 same 

5 Samuel Kerby 

5 Jacob Reagar 

5 Benja Earickson 

5 James Sullivan 

5 same 

5 same 

5 J ohn Dorrett 

5 James Sullivan 

5 same 

5 same 8 

2 same 2 

outlot Will Johnston ,. 8 

ditto Will Croghan 17 

ditto George Rice 17 

ditto James Sullivan 12 

2 of squares Andrew Heth . 


8 ditto 

9 ditto 

10 ditto 

11 ditto 

12 ditto 
The point over ) 

Beargrass j 

James Sullivan 10 

same 4 

same 5 

John Sinkler 76 

Mark Thomas 20 

James Morrison i 

same 4 

James Sullivan i 

same 2 


Dan Brodhead, 

New Old 
No. No. 



Levin Powell.. . , 
Jacob Myers. . . . 
Simon Triplott . . 
Levin Powell.. . . 
Lewis Myers. . . , 

John Todd 

William Pope. . . 
Will. Johnston. 


8 14 

9 lO 


Isaac Bowman 

John Clark 

Daniel Brodhead, Jr. 

John Conway 

Meredith Price 





S. D. 



June, 1783 




















New Old II . /- o i-N rN 

No. No. Purchaser. £. S. D. Date. 

15 15 Simon Triplett 3 June. 

16 16 James Patton 3 May, 1786 

g I Buckner Pittman four 

> lots and Square Num- 

^M ber I 25 September, 1783 

21 33 Michael Troutman ... 3 November, 1785 

22 34 Samuel Bell 3 June, 1783 

23 35 William Christy 3 ditto 

24 36 Jacob Pyeatt 3 ditto 

25 37 Edward Tyler 3 June, 1783 

26 38 (Greenup claims) 3 

27 39 Nico Meriwether 3 ditto 

28 40 same 3 ditto 

29 41 George Wilson 3 ditto 

30 42 same 3 ditto 

31 43 John Todd 3 ditto 

32 44 James Patten 3 ditto 

33 45 William Oldham 3 ditto 

34 46 Heirs of Thos. McGee. 3 September, 1783 

35 47 Joseph Sanders 3 June 

36 48 Will. Johnston i 16 6 May, 1786 

37 65 (Squire Boone) 3 

38 66 James Patten 3 June, 1783 

39 67 George Wilson 3 ditto 

40 68 Will, fohnston 186 December, 1785 

41 69 (Troutman claims).... 3 

42 70 Geo. Meriwether 3 June, 1785 

43 71 Michl Troutman 3 November, 1785 

44 72 same 3 ditto 

45 81 ) (Is. Sullivan claims, 3 

46 82 j ass'n Pope) 3 

47 83 Edwd Holdman 3 June, 1783 

48 84 Kerby & Earickson 3 May, 1785 

49 85 Jacob Myers 3 September, 1783 

50 86 Will. Johnston 8 May, 1786 

51 Parnvenus Bullitt. 13 6 ditto 

52 James SuUivafi 6 ditto 

53 same 8 ditto 

54 Danl. Nead 10 6 ditto 

55 same 6 6 ditto 

56 Walter Ed, Strong 4 6 ditto 

57 73 3 . 

58 74 Henry Floyd 3 June, 1783 

59 75 William Stafford 3 September, 1783 

60 76 Henry Floyd 3 ditto 

61 77 Geo. Meriwether 3 June 

62 78 William Swann 3 September 

63 79 Will. Johnston 10 May, 1786 

64 80 George Wilson 3 June, 1783 

65 49 Andrew Hynes 3 ditto 

66 50 Will. Johnston 16 6 December, 1785 

67 51 same 14 6 May, 1786 

68 52 Patrick Shone 3 September, 1783 

69 53 John Baker 3 June 

70 54 Danl. Sullivan 3 ditto 

71 55 Will Johnston i 10 6 May, 1786 

72 56 John O. Frim 3 June, 1783 

73 57 James McCauley 3 ditto 

74 58 George Wilson 3 ditto 

75 59 same 3 ditto 

76 60 (Bull claims) 3 

77 61 Kerby & Earickson. . . 3 August, 1785 

78 62 Jacob Pyeatt 3 June, 1783 

79 63 Jacob Myers 3 September 



NaNo!" Purchaser, ^. S. D. Date. 

80 64 Henry French 3 June 

81 32 Simon Triplett.. 3 ditto 

82 31 same 5 ditto 

83 30 Willm Heth. 15 May, 1786 

84 28 Levin Powell 3 June, 1783 

85 28 Will. Johnston i 3 December [?] 

86 27 Will. Harrod 3 

87 26 John R. Jones 3 August | ?J 

88 25 Will Johnston. 3 April, 1785 

89 24 Jacob Myers 3 September, 1783 

90 23 Dan Brodhead, Jr 5 May, 1786 

91 22 Levi Todd 3 June, 1783 

92 21 (McMullin claims).... 3 

93 20 Will Johnston 15 May, 1786 

94 19 Levi Todd 3 June, 1783 

95 18 Will Johnston i 6 May, 1786 

96 17 George Meriwether. .. . 3 June, 1783 

97 Richard Taylor 2 2 May, 1786 

98 same i 5 ditto 

99 John Donne 3 ditto 

100 Will Johnston 6 i ditto 

loi John Donne i 7 ditto 

102 same i 10 ditto 

103 John Belli .13 ditto 

104 George Rice i 5 ditto 

105 Andrew J-iare 16 ditto 

106 James Cunningham. . . i 6 ditto 

107 same i ditto 

108 Richard Taylor i ditto 

109 same 19 ditto 

no Jane Grant 3 February, 1786 

111 Will Johnston 10 May, 1786 

112 John Donne 3 February, 1786 

113 same 3 ditto 

114 James Beard 3 ditto 

115 Will Johnston 15 May, 1786 

116 Will Johnston 3 December, 1785 

117 same 10 May, 1786 

118 Elisha L. Hall 3 Febriiary, 1786 

119 (John Sanders claims) . . 3 

120 John Reybum 3 

121 Will Johnston 3 September, 1783 

122 same 16 May, 1786 

133 Richard C. Anderson . . 5 ditto 

124 Will Johnston 3 September, 1783 

125* Phil Wateis assn 3 

126 Andrew Hale i 11 May, 1786 

127 Daniel Henry i 6 ditto 

138 Joseph Brooks 3 September, 1783 

129 William Croghan i 16 May, 1786 

130 Margaret Wilson 3 December, 1785 

131 James Morrison 3 ditto 

132 same 3 ditto 

133 James Ration 3 .September, 1783 

134 James Reaty 3 December, 1785 

13s Samuel Kearby 14 May, 1786 

136 Jane Grant 3 September, 1783 

137 John Reyburn 5 ditto 

138 same 3 ditto 

139 Irwin's Heirs 3 ditto 

140 Jean Hambleton 3 February, 1786 

•Remark: "Deed issd to Gab Johnston, assn |as- 

New No. 
































j 175 
I 176 
I 177 
: X78 

I 179 
I 180 

! 181 












20 r 

Purchasers. £. S. D. 

Samuel Kerby ig 

same 14 6 

same 7 6 

same 13 

James Sullivan 8 

same 13 

George Dement 7 

same 4 

John Donne 4 6 

same 4 

Will Johnston 3 

William Johnston 3 

George Dement 8 

same 4 

William Johnston. ... 3 10 

James F. Moore 5 

James Sullivan 6 

same 8 

same 6 

Elijah Phillips 6 

George Dement 7 

James Sullivan 3 

William Johnston.... 3 6 

William Beard 3 

Burk Reagar i 8 

Rice Bullock i 6 

Benjamin Price i i 

same i 5 

Edmd Taylor i 12 

same i 12 

same 2 10 

James Sullivan 3 

James .Sullivan 3 

same 7 

Jinkin Phillips 7 i 

Richard Torrill 10 5 

William Pope 10 

Jinkin Phillips 7 i 

William Payne 5 1 

Philip Barbour 7 i 

Robert Neilson 6 12 

same 4 13 

same 4 4 

same 5 5 

William Payne 5 2 

same 4 

same 4 5 

same 4 

Daniel Brodhead, Jr. . 3 

same .1 6 

same . . i 4 

same . . i i8 

Robert Neilson 2 17 

same 2 14 

same 2 12 

Jenkin Phillips 3 5 

Stephen Ormsby 2 18 

John Davis 2 15 

same 2 18 

Stephen Ormsby 3 

Archibald Lockart 2 15 

George Close 2 14^ 

.Samuel Watkins 2 10 




May, 1786 


















February, 1786 
December sale 







May, 1785 




















'Remark : "Deed issued to K. Phillips, per order." 



No. Purchasers. £. S. D. 

Thomas Brumfield 2 ii 

Jacob Reagar i 2 

Robert Neilson 2 

same 2 18 

same 3 9 

Jenkin Phillips 5 2 

Adam Hoops i 11 

same i 1 1 

Richard J. Waters 6 6 

Jenkin Phillips 5 17 

Paul Blundell 2 2 

Edward Tyler 3 5 6 

James Morrison 3 i 

Edward Tyler 3 15 

Lawrence Muse 3 i 

Jacob Reagar 2 19 

Edmd. Taylor 3 12 

Will Johnston 3 10 

Adam Hoops 4 n 

Public Square. 

Adam Hoops 4 2 

James Sullivan 4 

Edmd. Taylor 3 i 

Will Johnston 


Richard Taylor 

Rice Bullock , 

Benjamin Price 

Walter Davies 


Robert Daniel 

Enoch Parsons 

George Slaughter. . .. 19 

Charles Bratton i 13 

James Sullivan 2 6 

same 3 

same 9 6 

same 5 

James Fr. Moore 12 

George Rice 7 

same 7 6 

same 15 

Will Johnston 12 6 

same 13 i 

same 4 6 

same 5 6 




Bury ing-ground. * 

Henry Protzman 7 

Will Johnston 6 

James Fr. Moore 12 

same 15 

Thomas Dalton 18 



May. 1785. 
December, 1785 













May, 1786 
May, 1786 



* Reserved in pursuance of an order for "a publick Burying 
Place," passed by the trustees of the village May 4, 1786. 
The lots formed the well-known cemetery on Jefferson street, 
between Twelfth and Thirteenth, lately converted by the city 
authorities into a beautiful little park. It was, of course, the 
first cemetery the place had. 

New No. Purchasers. £. S. D. Date. 

263 Mark Thomas 1 December, 1785. 

264 Rice Bullock 19 ditto 

265 Benjamin Price i i 6 ditto 

266 same i 2 6 ditto 

267 same i ditto 

268 same i i ditto 

269 Burk Reagar i 3 ditto 

270 same i 6 ditto 

271 Josiah Bell i 4 ditto 

272 same r 11 ditto 

273 Richard Taylor 2 12 ditto 

274 John R. Jones 3 ditto 

275 ^ 

277 i ^^''"^ Squares. 

278 ) 

279 John R. Jones 4 5 ditto 

280* James Sullivan 3 2 ditto 

281+ Richard Taylor i 2 ditto 

282t Richard Taylor i 4 ditto 

283 Will Johnston i i ditto 

284 same i ditto 

285 Lawrc Muse i 2 ditto 

286 same i i ditto 

287 same i 2 6 ditto 

288 same i i 6 ditto 

289 Charles Bratton i 5 ditto 

290 same i ditto 

291 Will Johnston 18 6 ditto 

292 Richard Eastin i ditto 

293 John Davis i 2 ditto 

294 same 18 ditto 

295 Daniel Henry i 6 ditto 

296 same i 2 6 ditto 

297 David Morgan 18 ditto 

298 same 19 .ditto 

299 John Daniel i i ditto 

300 James Morrison 15 ditto 

The Connolly forfeitures occurred this year, not 
only by the definition in the foregoing act of the 
Virginia Legislature, but by the verdict of an 
escheating jury, assembled at Lexington, in this 
State, July ist, under George May, escheator, 
whose proceedings and finding have been previ- 
ously recited. 


were numerous and important in this year of 
real municipal beginnings. Among these were 
people of wealth or talent who left the States 
along the Atlantic coast for homes in the "wild 
countries of the West." But the mass of the 
emigrants weie simply hardy, earnest men and 
women, possessed of few talents and little wealth, 
but were ready to work in any and every place 
for the necessary means of existence. 

In the former class was Mr. Thomas Helm, a 
relative of Captain Leonard Helm, one of the 

* Remark : " Deed to John Mcpherson (Lasley)." 
+ Remark in each case : " Deed issued to John FeUy." 


captains in Colonel Clark's expedition of two 
years before, into the Illinois country, and father 
of John L. Helm, who died in office as Governor 
of the State September 8, 1867. Mr. Helm was 
from Prince William county, Virginia, and came 
with William and Benjamin Pope, and Henry 
Floyd. He remained here but one year, during 
which he lost four children by the deadly diseases 
of the time and place, when he removed to Eliz- 
abethtown, Kentucky, and spent the remainder 
of his days there. His son, Governor Helm, was 
born in Elizabethtown. 


During the year Colonel George Slaughter, 
who is named in the act establishing the town 
of Louisville as one of its trustees, came down 
the Ohio with one hundred and fifty soldiers of 
the State militia, to be stationed at the Falls. 
Mr. Collins says of the effects of this arrival: 
"The inhabitants were inspired with a feeling of 
security which led them frequently to expose 
themselves with too little caution. Their foes 
were ever on the watch, and were continually de- 
stroying valuable lives." There can be no doubt, 
however, that the reputation for security gained 
by the successes of Colonel Clark in the North- 
west and the strengthening of the garrison at the 
Falls, was a powerful element in the attractive- 
ness of the place to the vast immigration that 
was setting into the new country. 

Early in the summer of this year Clark took 
about two hundred men "of his Virginia regi- 
ment " from the fort at the Falls down the river 
to a point on the Mississippi a little below the 
mouth of the Ohio, where the parallel of 36° 30' 
intersects the left bank of the former stream, 
and there built Fort Jefferson, named, like the 
county in which Louisville is situated, from the 
Governor of Virginia, afterwards President of 
the United States. 


During the winter of 1780-81 the county of 
Jefferson was one of three great counties into 
which the immense county of Kentucky was 
subdivided, with Louisville as its county seat. 
The trustees of the town had possibly held 
meetings for consultation and business before 
this year set in; but the first meeting whose pro- 
ceedings have survived through the century is 

that noted below, of date February 7, 1781. There 
are some indications, indeed, in the record itself, 
that this was the very earliest formal meeting held. 
We shall find it convenient to continue just here 
the transcript of the record for several years 
thereafter. It will be observed that the record 
of attendance at the first meeting noticed cor- 
responds precisely, so far as it goes, with the 
names, in the act establishing the town, with 
some slight differences in spelling. We have 
retained throughout the orthography of the 
record, except as to punctuation. : 

At a Meeting of the Gentlemen appointed Trastees for the 
Town of Louisville, at the said Town, on Wednesday the 7th 
of February, 1781. 

John Todd, Jr. , Stephen Trigg, b 

George .Slaughter, John Floyd, ■ 

William Pope, and Marsham Brashear. 

Resolved, That the Surveyor of Jefferson County be re- 
quested to run off one thousand acres of Land on the East 
side of the4,ooo-acre survey made for Conelly & Warranstaff, 
beginning at the mouth of the Gut between the two old forts, 
thence on a straight line to the back Line of said Survey, to 
include one thousand acres Eastward. 

That the old Lot holders on the south side of the main 
street give up Thirty feet on the front of their Lots, as form- 
erly laid off, so as to make the main Street 120 feet, inclu- 
sive of the Walks on each Side the next Streets to the main 
Street parrallel thereto, to be each Ninety feet. 

That the Surveyor lay off the Balance of the 1000 acres not 
yet laid off, into Lots and Streets as aforesaid, and cause the 
same to be staked at the Corners. 

That Cap. Meridith Price be appointed Clerk to the Trus- 
tees of the Town of Louisville, to enter and preserve the 
proceedings of the Trustees. 

That the Clerk send Advertisements to the adjacent 
Counties, notifying all concerned that the Lots will be sold 
to the highest Bidder at next April Jefferson Court, as directed 
by Law, and in the mean Time prepare Deeds as well for 
the Holders of Lots already laid off as for further purchasers 
of Lots. 

That George Slaughter, William Pope, John Floyd, and 
Marshall Brashears, or any three of them, be authorized to 
confer with Jycob Myers, relative to opening a Canal and 
erecting a Grist Mill, as set forth in his petition to General 
-Assembly, and contract with said Myers to carry on said 


At the next meeting whose transactions are 
preserved, January 4, 1783, at least half of the 
Board had changed, and we find the names of 
only Pope and Brashears of the original Board, 
with Andrew Hynes, James Sullivan, and "Ben- 
jamin Pope, Gent," as new Trustees. It was at 
this meeting resolved " that Isaac Cox, William 
Oldham, George Wilson, and James Patton, 
Gent, be appointed as Trustees, and that the 
said Trustees meet at Captain James Sullivan's 



to-morrow morning at lo o'clock." At the 
meeting thus provided for a number of deeds 
were executed to purchasers of lots, as noted 
in the foregoing account of lots sold under 
date of June, 1 783. The clerk was given custody 
of the deeds, he to have six shillings for each, 
when delivered to the several proprietors. The 
clerk was afterwards directed to deliver no deeds 
" until the purchase money, three shillings, is paid 
to the trustees and six shillings to the clerk for 
each deed." Title-deeds, apparently, cost more 
in those days than the property they conveyed. 
William Pope and James Sullivan were made 
bursars to the Trustees. Thursday afternoon 
the next September court was appointed for an- 
other day of sale. 

At the meeting of June 27, 1783, it was re- 
solved "that thirty feet be left on the bank of the 
Ohio as a common street in said town, at laying 
off the same, as per order of a meeting at Cap- 
tain Sullivan's per adj't the 4th instant;" also 
"that the land between the lots already laid off 
and the river be laid off in squares of four lots 
lying square to the river line, as mentioned in 
the aforesaid resol'n;" and "that these persons 
who have built on the lots contrary to the lots 
already laid off, shall have untill the ist of No- 
vember to remove their buildings ; otherwise they 
will be considered as the property of the Free- 

August 18, 1783, it was ordered "that no 
standing timber shall be cut, unless by the lot- 
holders, and that on their own lots, on the 
premises of one thousand acres of land, the 
forfeited property of John Conelly, and Marsham 
Brashear, James Patton, and George Wilson, 
Gent, dispose of the timber and agree on the 
price." At this meeting Water street was 

The currency of the time seems a little mixed 
in the minutes of August 22, of the same year. 
By one vote twenty-four pounds were ordered paid 
to Mark Thomas out of the sale of lots for board- 
ing the trustees and their attendants, and by an- 
other thirty dollars were granted from the same 
fund to William Pope, for his chain carriers and 

September 3, Benjamin Pope was voted one 
per cent on the sales, "for crying the lots and 
squares of said Town." 

April 14, 1785, a further sale was ordered for 

the ensuing 12th of May, "for ready cash, in 
order to defray the Expence of laying off the 
same and lo satisfy the Mortgage of John Camp- 
bell, agreeable to Act of Assembly." Lots one 
hundred seventy-three to two hundred and four- 
teen, inclusive, were accordingly sold, as hereto- 
fore noted. Mr. "James Morrison, Gent," at the 
next meeetmg of the Board, "objects to the pro- 
ceedings of the Meeting of the 12th, and to the 
sales in general, since the act of October last, re- 
lating to the Town of Louisville, and doth resign 
his seat." At the next meeting recorded, August 
3, William Johnston was appointed in his stead. 
The act referred to by Mr. Morrison will be 
found under its appropriate year. 

The path of "city fathers" in the good old days 
was not strewn with roses any more than it is now, 
A bit of charming frankness in the report one of 
the committees of this body has left us a hint of 
the opinion held of it by at least one prominent 
member of the community. Two of the Board 
had been nominated to wait on Colonel Camp- 
bell, one of the original proprietors, and request 
of him the deed of partition between him and 
Connolly, in order to have the line run properly, 
as required by the act of Assembly. The com- 
mittee promptly waited on the Colonel and re- 
ported that he had not the deed, but only a copy 
thereof, " and also that the line had been run 
agreeable to the Deed of partition, as directed by 
the Act of October last, which Information he 
supposed the Trustees would pay no attention 

October 6, 1785, James Sullivan and James 
Patton were appointed to superintend the sales 
of lots. Captain Daniel Brodhead was subse- 
quently' appointed in place of Patton. The 
superintendents of sales were authorized to bid 
on lots "as far as they may think necessary, or 
nearly their value, which purchases are to be 
considered as subject to the further direction of 
the trustees." 

December 9, 1785, it was resolved "that all 
the land from Preston's line to the mouth of 
Beargrass and up said creek to said line be sold 
to the highest bidder, and also all the land that 
remains on this side of said creek at the mouth 
thereof, exclusive of the thirty feet allowed for a 
road between the Bottom squares and the Ohio." 
All the remaining land of the one thousand acre 
tract, formerly Connolly's, was ordered sold the 



next February "to the highest bidder for ready 


In August, 1787, an account was rendered of 
the trust regarding the Louisville property, as 

The Town of Louisville, 

To the Trustees thereof. 


To paid for exps. surveying and laying off 

the town in 1783 £ 47 10 o 

To paid James Sullivan, atto. for John 

Campbell, per acct. No. i* 767 15 2 

To I blank Book 30s, minute Book 7s 6d. 3 

qu. paper at 3s 2 6 6 

To paid an atto. in 3 suits com'd, 15s 2 50 

To Wm. Johnston for services per acct. No. 

2, no other allowance being made 39 00 

To pd. a Crier Nov. 85, do. Decemr 

85 9 120 

To pd. an e.xpress sent for the pursar [bur- 
sar] etc : 60 

To paid cham men, etc., out-lots 11 00 

To paid Wm. Shannon in part for surveying 

out Lots (he was allowed ^^20 i6s 8100 

To paid a Crier in May 1786 3120 

To pd. a Crier for selling in 1783 in part .... 3 16 2 

To the Clerk of Jefferson for fee acct 8 00 

To a Commission of 2 per Cent, allowed the 

pursar per order amt. on ;,^995 13s 18 17 2 

To paid Surveyor and Chain men, etc., for 
laying off Town, etc., 2d time. 48 10 o 

To sundry debts due pr. memo 136 13 6 

To balance in Wm. Johnston's, one of the 

pursar's hands 22 16 2^ 

To do. in Daniel Brdhead, jr. 's 2 21 o 

To the amt. of square no. 6, sold Jno. 
Sinkler, suit now depending 76 00 

To pd. Mark Thomas for Boarding the Trus- 
tees first time of laying off the Town regu- 
larly, he was allowed ^{^24 20 10 o 

^1,229 2 4J^ 

To a balance due Mark Thomas 3100 

To a balance due William Shannon 12 60 

By square no. 7, sold in 1783 to Mark 

Thomas and reed, in Lxps 20 10 o 

By square no. 6 sold in 1785 to Jno. Sinkler 

he is now sued for 76 00 

By sundries reed from the sale of Lots and 
Lands, and balance due pr. Genl. and par- 
ticular list 1, 132 12 2 

Z'l.229 2 2 

Balances due the Town etc. : 

Sundries per acct /136 13 6 

Wm. Johnston 22 16 2'.<C 

Danl. Brodhead, }r 2 2 10 

John Smkler is sued for 76 00 

..^237 12 6% 

•This was to extmguish Campbell's mortgage on the Con- 
nolly tract. 

The balance in the hands of the trustees, and 
not otherwise accounted for, naturally awaked 
inquiry and created dissatisfaction, which finally 
culminated in a resort to law to compel them to 
disgorge. A loose leaf in an old file of papers, 
contemporaneous with the records from which 
we have given extracts, is evidently part of a 
committee report, and we subjoin it. The words 
enclosed in brackets are struck out in the orig- 
inal, but are also worth preserving: 

[We do hereby Certify that] It appears to us from the 
minutes of the former Trustees that they are in arears .,^61.- 
6.4 [received and misappropriated by them exclusive of the 
Credits given above] for which a suit has been ordered, 
^173, the amount of sale for Square No. 6, for which a suit 
is depending and undetermined, also 9J4 acre Lotts sold for 
j^ii.i2.6 for which no deeds have Isued nor money paid the 
whole or so much thereof as may be recovered Can be ap- 
plied to the acct. of Simons & Campbell which wou'd If the 
whole was reed reduce the above ballance of 595.17.8 to 


The following is also among the old docu- 
ments, endorsed "Constitution to regulate the 
proceedings of the Board of Trustees when con- 
vened for business." No date is appended, but 
they apparently go back for their origin nearly or 
quite to the earliest days of the board. Some of 
them, particularly the seventh, are altogether 
unique : 

Rules to be observed by the Trustees of Louisville, when 

1. The Board shall appoint a Chairman at every stated 
meeting, who shall (as far as it may be in his power) see that 
decorum and good order be preserved during the sitting of 
the Board. 

2. When any member shall be about to address the Chair- 
man, such member shall rise in his place and in a decent 
manner state the .subject of such address. 

3. Xo member shall pass between another addressing him- 
self to the C: M: [Chairman | and the Ch. M., nor shall any 
member speak more than twice upon the same question 
(unless leave be granted by the Board for that purpose). 

4. No member shall (during the sitting of the Board) read 
any printed or written papers except such as may be neces- 
sary or relative [to] the matter in debate then before the 

5. .Any member, when in Louisville, absenting himself 
from a stated or called meeting of the Board, and not having 
a reasonable excuse therefor (which shall be judged of by the 
Board) shall forfeit and pay the sum of three shillings, to be 
collected by the Collector and applied as the Board may 
thereafter direct. 

6. No species of ardent or spirituous liquors shall upon 
any pretence be introduced during the sitting of the Board. 
If it should be, It shall be the duty of the Ch: man to have 
the same instantly removed, and the person so introducing it 
it shall be subject to the Censure of the Chrnian for so 



7. Upon the commission of the same act a second time 
by the same person, he shall, besides the censure af'd 
[aforesaid], be liable to pay the sum of Six Shillings, to be 
Collected and applied as af 'd, and shall moreover forfeit the 
liquor so brought in for the use of the Board after adjourn- 

8. No member shall when in debate call another by Name. 
If he should do so, the Ch: man may call him to order. 

9. If two or more members should rise to speak at the 
same time, the Ch: M. shall determine the priority. 

10. All personal reflections and allusions shall be avoided. 
Any member guilty of a breach hereof shall be forthwith 
Called to Order, either by the Ch: man or by any other 

11. No person shall be at liberty to address the Chairman 
but at a place chosen and allotted for that purpose by the 
Chairman or a majority of the Board then sitting. 

12. No person belonging to the Board, or immediately 
concerned for them or under their notice, shall make use of 
indecent language or shall profanely swear. Any person who 
shall presume to act in any manner contrary thereto shall be 
subject to the censure of the Chairman and all members of 
good Order who may at such time be one of the members of 
the Board, and that no person shall absent himself from 
[word illegible] without permission first (for that purpose) 
obtained froni the Chairman. 

A new map of the village is said to have been 
ordered by the Trustees this year from the 
County Surveyor, George May; but it has totally 
disappeared, if indeed, it was ever made. 


An extraordinary immigration of young girls 
during 1781 is noted by several historians. 
This region abounded in unmarried young men, 
as all new countries do, and the pouring in of a 
tide of the opposite sex was a matter of great 
interest to all inhabitants, whether personally 
affected or otherwise. One chronicler of the 
time writes, with all the seriousness and pro- 
priety due a matter of greatest solemnity, that 
"the necessary consequence of this large infiux 
of girls was the rapid and wonderful increase 
of population." Doubtless he meant that the 
greater morality of a country peopled by families 
served as an inducement for further mimigration. 
Many of the. present families in Louisville trace 
back to the marriages of this and the early fol- 
lowing years. 


Near the beginning of this year, January 2 2d, 
Colonel Clark received deserved promotion to 
the rank of brigadier-general. This was not, how- 
ever, a commission in the Continental army, but 
rather in the State militia, under appointment of 
Thomas Jefferson, Governor of Virginia. His 
commission read: "Brigadier-general of the 

forces to be embodied in an expedition west- 
ward of the Ohio." He was to take command of 
several volunteer corps intended to march north- 
ward through the wilderness and reduce Detroit. 
They were to rendezvous at the Falls March 15th, 
for organization under the personal direction of 
General Clark ; but it was found impossible to 
recruit the troops, and the expedition had to be 
abandoned. The General confined himself to 
simple defensive operations, among which was 
building of a large galley or barge, to be pro- 
pelled by oars, and carrying several four-pound 
cannon. With this he kept up a considerable 
show of activity, frequently sending it to patrol 
the river between the Falls and the mouth of the 
Licking. Traditions vary greatly as to the real 
service done by this vessel. Some thought it of 
inestimable value in warning off or directly beat- 
ing off Indian attacks; others deemed it useless. 
Very likely the latter view is correct, since the 
General is known to have abandoned it after a 
few months' service. According to Casseday, 
"the Indians are said never to have attacked it, 
and but seldom to have crossed that part of the 
river in which it moved." 


A list of possible spectators of the first re- 
markable fight that occurred in the hamlet, of 
which Colonel Durrett gives a comical descpip- 
tion, comprising this list, enables one to get a 
pretty fair view of the men of Louisville m 1782. 
It is as follows: 

Thomas Applegate, Peter Austergess, William Aldridge, 
Squire Boone, Marsham Brashears, James Brown, Joseph 
Brown, Proctor Ballard, General George Rogers Clark, 
Richard Chenoweth, Isaac Co.\, Moses Cherry. Hugh Coch- 
ran, John Caghey, James Crooks, Jonathan Cunningham, 
John Camp, George Dickens, John Durrett, John Doyle, 
Colonel John Floyd, Joseph Greenwall, Willis Green, George 
Grundy, Sr., George Grundy, Jr., Samuel Harrod, John 
Hinkston, Michael Humble, John Hinch, Samuel Hinch, 
Benjamm Hansberry, John Handley, Doris Hawkins, John 
Hawkins, Andrew Hines, Samuel Jack, John James, 
Mathew Jeffries, Isaac Keller, Ernest Miller, John McCar- 
land, Thomas McCarty, John May, George May, John Mc- 
Manus, Sr., John McManus, Jr., George Meriwether, 
William Oldham, James Pursely, Thomas Purcell, Meredith 
Price, Benjamin Pope, William Tope, James Patten, Thomas 
Spencer, Henry Spillman, John Sellars, James Stevenson, 
William Smiley, William Shannon, James Stewart, James 
Sullivan, George Slaughter, Edward Tyler, Benjamin Taylor, 
Moses Templin, John Tuel, John Todd, Jr., Stephen Trigg, 
Jacob Vanmeter, Henry Wade, Leyton White, John Whit- 
acre, Abram Whitacre, Aquilla Whitacre, John Wray, 
Thomas Whitledge, Christopher Windsor, George Wilson, 
and John Young. 

1 86 



as described by Colonel Dunett, was between 
the well-known citizens, Daniel Sullivan and John 
Carr, at an election held April 3, 1781. The 
principal issue of it was the loss of a part of 
Sullivan's right ear, which he finally took so 
much to heart, as likely to cause suspicion that 
he had been cropped for crime, that the next 
year he took Carr into the office of Meredith 
Price, Clerk of the county courts, and caused 
the following unique entry to appear of record, 
under date of March 5, 1 782 : 

Satisfactory proof made to the Court that the lower part of 
Daniel Sullivan's right ear was bit off in a fight with John 
Carr. Ordered: That the same be admitted to record. 


The season of 1781-82 was also a severe one. 
It is described as "remarkable for the appear- 
ance of the original forest which then covered 
the country. Rains fell, and the water congealed 
upon the limbs of the trees until the whole 
forest appeared like trees of glass. The rays of 
the sun. when the days were not cloudy, were 
reflected from tree to tree, as if a forest of di- 
amonds were lighting up the landscape with its 
refractions. The weather was too cold for the 
ice to melt from the trees, and as other rains fell 
upon them, the ice grew so thick that many 
limbs fell with the weight, and the forest in many 
places appeared as if a tornado had swept 
over it." 

1782 THE "OLD FORTS." 

A much more important military measure was 
undertaken this year, in the erecting of Fort 
Nelson, as a more efficient means of protection 
to the growing colony at the Falls of the Ohio. 
Whether two forts, or but one, preceded this 
upon the mainland, must probably be forever a 
matter of doubt. "Two old forts " are distinct- 
ly mentioned in the transactions of the Trustees 
above quoted, February 7, 1 781— and these 
must leave out of the question a work mentioned 
by Mr. Casseday as built the same year ; since, 
if already erected in January and the first week 
of February, it would hardly be referred to an 
"old fort." The historians variously give the 
date of the erection of a simple, rude fortifica- 
tion on the mamland as the fall of 1778, the 
spring of 1779, some time in 1780 (when Col- 
lins says " the first fort that deserved the name 

of fort was built"), and 1781. It is altogether 
probable that, as the settlement extended west- 
ward, an additional temporary work was erected 
on the opposite side of the " Gut," or ravine, 
that put up on the east side by the movers from 
Corn Island in 1778-79 being the other old fort 
mentioned in the resolution of the Trustees. 
This hypothesis is not absolutely necessary, how- 
ever, since the old work on the island and the later 
one on the shore may easily have been so situat- 
ed that the description by the Trustees of the 
mouth of the ravine at the foot of Twelfth street 
as " between the two old forts " would be justi- 
fied. We incline to think that this was the ac- 
tual state of the case. 



However this may be, and whether three or 
four, or only two petty fortifications were previ- 
ously erected by the troops and settlers upon the 
island and the shore, it is certain that the time 
had now come for the erection of a military work 
more suitable for the defense of the rapidly in- 
creasing settlement, the quartering of the troops 
stationed here, and the dignity of headquarters 
for the new brigadier-general. A site was ac- 
cordingly selected ui)on the river-front, pretty 
nearly at the middle of this side of the Connolly 
tract, between First and Twelfth streets, upon 
which the original town of Louisville was laid 
out. It is not known how many acres were 
taken for this purpose; but from the indications 
of the line of the stockade and foundations of 
the block-house, observed during the excavations 
made in the summer of 1832, in a cellar prepar- 
ing for stores on Main street, below 6th, and also 
in 1844, for an improvement on Main, opposite 
the Louisville Hotel, it is pretty well ascertained 
that the south front of the fort came quite out to 
this street, and that it extended from Sixth street 
to and a little beyond Seventh, at least to the 
northeast corner of the old tobacco warehouse 
The lower part of the present line of Seventh 
street is commonly reported to have run directly 
through the site of the principal gate of the fort, 
just opposite the headquarters building. The 
old Burge residence. No. 24 Seventh street, is 
understood to stand, so far the extent of it goes, 
uj^on the tract occupied by the fort; and it is 
quite possible that precisely upon this slight em- 
inence — the old "second bank" of the river — 



stood the residence and office of (xeneral Clark. 
It is an interesting fact that in the Burge man- 
sion died P^lisha Applegate, the first white child 
born in Jefferson county, outside of Louisville, 
and himself born in the simple fortification at 
Sullivan's, on the Bardstown road. 

The fort proper is supposed to have covered 
but about an acre of ground. It consisted mainly 
of a breastwork, formed by a series of small log- 
pens, filled with earth thrown up from the ditch. 
Along the top of this work ran a line of tolerably 
strong pickets, or a stockade, ten feet high. 
This on three sides. On the fourth, or river 
side, less strength was necessary, owing to the 
natural protection afforded by the long slope of 
the bank. Here the log-pens were consequently 
dispensed with, and a row of pickets furnished 
the sole artificial defense. On this side, how- 
ever, as commanding the river approaches, it is 
probable that most of the small cannon brought 
down the river with the State troops by Colonel 
Slaughter in 1781 were mounted, and it is known 
that among the artillery was the " double-forti- 
fied" brass six-pounder which Clark had cap- 
tured at Vincennes, and which became a famous 
field-gun in his several expeditions. But for this 
piece, it is believed, the Indian fort at Piqua, 
Ohio, could not have been taken. All these are 
known to have been in the fort, but it is not re- 
corded where they were mounted. Haldeman's 
City Directory for 1845, published after the dis- 
coveries in the former year were made, says that 
the protection of pickets was extended eastward, 
so as to enclose a perennial spring of water, about 
sixty yards from Mam street and a little west of 
Fifth, which was still running when Mr. Halde- 
man wrote. If so, the entire space enclosed, 
reaching from near Fifth to a line beyond Seventh 
(and some, as Casseday, say to Eighth) street, 
must have been far more than a single acre. The 
fort was surrounded by a strongly defensive 
ditch, eight feet wide and ten deep, with a line 
of sharpened pickets on its middle line further 
increasing the difficulties of carrying it and 
reaching the breastwork and stockade. The 
whole must be regarded as a very formidable 
work to a besieging enemy, and one eminently 
creditable to the genius of General Clark and 
his counselors or engineers, and to the unspar- 
ing labors of the garrison. 

The fort is supposed by some to have taken 

its name from one Captain Nelson, who was thei 
a prominent citizen in the village. It is far mon 
probable, however — indeed, it may be considerec 
as demonstrably certain — that the work wa 
enlitled in honor of Colonel Thomas Nelson 
now Governor of Virginia — ^just as Fort Jeflfer 
son, on the Mississippi, had been named by Clarl 
the year before, in honor of the then Governor. 
Nelson was a native Virginian, but educated ir 
England ; was a member of the House of Bur 
gesses in 1774, and of the Continental Congress 
in 1775-76, and was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. He was made a regimerital 
commander in the Virginia militia when it was 
re organized, in preparation for the Revolution- 
ary War, and afterwards commander-in-chief, 
with the rank of brigadier. He continued his 
services in this capacity, after he became Gov- 
ernor, and until the surrender of Cornwallis. In 
1 78 1 he succeeded Jefferson as Governor of 
Virginia, being the third in the State since inde- 
pendence was declared. Eight years afterwards 
he died, aged but fifty. Nelson county, formed in 
1784, the fourth in Kentucky in order of erec- 
tion, and the first carved from Jefferson county, 
is also named from him. 

In one of these " old forts " the first shingle- 
roofed house in Louisville was built by Colonel 
Campbell, at a very early date, but in just what 
year is not known. 


This was a dreadful year for the settlers else- 
where in Kentucky, 2nd for voyagers on the 
Ohio, though Louisville happily escaped the 
horrors of Indian massacre or conflict, very likely 
in consequence of the erection of this strong de- 
fensive work. It was in this one year that oc- 
curred Estill's defeat and death, near Mt Ster- 
ling, the disasters at the Upper and a week later 
at the Lower Blue Licks, the siege of Bryan's 
Station by six hundred Indians and some British 
troops, the total destruction of Colonel Lochry's 
expedition on the Indiana shore, a few miles be- 
low the Great Miami, and many minor affairs 
with the savages here and there. Lochry was 
on his way in boats to the Falls, with aboat one 
hundred recruits for General Clark and some 
civilians, when he was attacked in an unguarded 
moment in his camp upon the river-bank, and 
every man of one hundred and eight was killed 


or carried off into captivity. In November, the 
Falls City again saw something of the pomp and 
circumstance of glorious war, in the assembly 
under Colonel John Floyd, of a portion of the 
force collected by General Clark at the mouth of 
the Licking, and marched north into the Miami 
country, in retaliation for the outrages of the 
year. The punishment he inflicts is so severe 
that no organized band of savages thenceforth 
invades the Dark and Bloody Ground. 


One of the the great victories of peace — the 
magnificent commerce of Louisville — must be 
considered also as somewhat associated with this 
year. It is held that the beginnings of the New 
Orleans trade, from the Ohio, properly date from 
1782. Some time in the winter— doubtless the 
early part of the season, since it was a very cold 
one — two French traders, named Tardiveau and 
Honore, made the first trading voyage from Red- 
stone Old Fort (Brownsville) on the Mononga- 
hela, to New Orleans. They subsequently trans- 
ferred iheir operations to Louisville, where Mr. 
Honore continued to reside until near the mid- 
dle of this century. 

According to an inscription over the grave of 
Captain Yoder, who is buried in Spencer county, 
he must have passed the Falls in the early spring 
of this year, in the first flat-boat, so-called, that 
ever passed down the Mississippi. He embarked 
at Redstone Old Fort, reached New Orleans in 
May, sold his cargo of produce, probably pro- 
visions for the most part, to the Spanish com- 
mandant, invested the proceeds in furs and hides, 
and sold them in Baltimore, making a great 
profit out of his entire trip. He repeated the 
trip and his purchases, but this time at a loss, 
and seems to have then retired from the river 


Thomas and Mary Api)legate were among 
the first settlers on what is now the Bardstown 
road, six miles south of Louisville, at Sullivan's 
Station. Here their son, Elisha .Api^legate, was 
born March 25, 1782, the first white child born 
anywhere in Jefferson county. He removed to 
Louisville in 1808, and became a brewer, then a 
dealer in tobacco — the pioneer, indeed, of that 
branch of trade in the city. He remained in 
that business more than forty years, holding also 
the office of Tobacco Inspector, until 1S60, 

when he retired from business. In 1831-32 he 
built the hotel on the south side of Main, be- 
tween Seventh and Eighth streets, called at first 
the United States, and then the Western Hotel. 
The original Louisville Hotel was built the same 
year. He was one of the th-ee old citizens of 
Louisville whose presence at the opening of the 
Industrial Exposition in 1872 was a marked feat- 
ure of the occasion. He died May 25, 1874. 


This year came Major William Croghan, from 
Virginia, and settled at Locust Grove, a few 
miles above the town, near the river. One of 
his sons. Colonel George Croghan, was the re- 
doubtable hero of the famous defense at Lower 
Sandusky, in the war of 1812; another was Wil- 
liam Croghan, Jr., long a resident here and in 
Pittsburgh. Major Croghan was early appointed 
Register of the Land Ofifice, and the queer little 
building in which he had his ofifice was still 
standing in the garden at Locust Grove a few 
years ago. This place was the scene of the mosi 
generous hospitality, and almost every stranger 
of social position visiting Louisville was enter- 
tained there. It was here General George Rog- 
ers Clark, brother of Mrs. Croghan, died in 1818. 


• Every winter, in these years, the settlers suffered 
from an intense cold rarely known in this region. 
The season of 1781-82 was remarkable, not only 
for severe cold, but for a singular sleet, which at 
times completely encrusted the trees and bushes, 
and greatly excited the wonder of the Virginians 
and other white settlers, who had never seen the 
like in their old homes. The second, third, and 
fourth winters from this were also sharply cold, 
and during the winter of 1788-89 the Ohio was 
frozen up and closed against navigation from 
Christmas till the i8thof March. 

The inhabitants found it a most serious un- 
dertaking to obtain provisions of any kind. 
There was no meat excepting bear or deer, and 
tliese in limited quantities, for, during the pre- 
vious summer and autumn, while the Indians 
had been waiting to attend a treaty at Marietta, 
they had subsisted on the game of the country 
around. Weeks passed in the homes ot many 
of the settlers without even bread - coarse meal 
from a rude liand-mill, and not unfrequcntly 
whole corn boiled, taking its" -|)lace. 




Another notable commercial event occurred 
after navigation opened this year — the opening 
of the first general store in Louisville, and the 
second in what is now the State of Kentucky^ 
the first having been started at Boonesborough 
in April, 1775, by Messrs. Henderson & Co., the 
would-be founders of "the Province of Transyl- 
vania." Mr. Daniel Brodhead was the happy 
man to expose, first amid the wildness of the 
Louisville plateau, the beautiful fabrics of the East 
to the linsey-clad dames and belles of the Falls 
city. Mr. Butler, in his History of Kentucky, says 
"it is believed that Mr. Broadhead's was the first 
store in the State for the sale of foreign merchan- 
dise." He transported his moderate stock in 
wagons from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and 
thence on flat-boats they were floated down to 
Louisville. Mr. Collins says : " The belles of 
our * forest land ' then began to shine in all the 
magnificence of calico, and the beaux in the 
luxury of wool hats." We add the following 
from Casseday's History: 

The young ladies could now throw aside all the homely 
products of their own looms, take the wooden skewers from 
their ill-bound tresses, and on festive occasions shine in all 
the glories of flowered calico and real horn-combs. 

It is not known whether it was this worthy Mr. Brod- 
head who was the first to introduce the luxury of glass 
wmdow-lights, but it is certain that previous to this time 
such an extravagance was unknown, and there is an incident 
connected with the first window-pane which deserves a place 
here, and which is recorded in the words of an author who is 
not more celebrated for his many public virtues, than for his 
unceasing and incurable exercise of the private vice of pun- 
ning. After referring to the introduction of this innovation, 
this gentleman says : "A young urchin who had seen glass 
spectacles on the noses of his elders, saw this spectacle with 
astonishment, and running home to his mother exclaimed, 
'O, Ma! there's a house down here with specs on!'" 
" This," he adds, "may be considered a very precocious 
manifestation of the power of generalization in the young 


News of peace with Great Britain and the ac- 
complished independence of the colonies, which 
had been recognized by the Treaty of Paris on 
the last day of the previous November, did not 
reach Louisville until some time this spring. It 
naturally caused great rejoicing. Peace with the 
mother country was an element in the confi- 
dence which the inhabitants' now felt against In- 
dian attack, and the recent successful expedition 
of Clark against the native .towns on the Miami 
was a yet greater one. As Mr. Casseday says: 

Something like security and confidence was now estab- 
lished, and consequently the immigration here was constant 
and large. Factories for supplying the necessities of the 
household were established, schools were opened, the prod- 
ucts of the soil were carefully attended to, and abundant 
crops were collected ; several fields of wheat were gathered 
near Louisville, and the whole country changed its character 
from that of a series of military outposts to the more peace- 
ful and more attractive one of a newly settled but rich and 
fruitful territory, where industry met its reward and where 
every one could live who was not too proud or too indolent 
to work. 

Among the immigrants of this year was Wil- 
liam Rowan, a Pennsylvanian formerly possessed 
of wealth, but who had been nearly ruined by 
the war of the Revolution. He came to Louis- 
ville in March, but remained only a year, when, 
with five other heads of families, he made a settle- 
ment at the Long Falls of Green river, then about 
one hundred miles from this or any other white 
settlement. He was father of the distinguished 
John Rowan, formerly Judge of the Court of 
Appeals and Senator of the United States, from 
whom Rowan county, in this State, is named. 
A thrilling incident of their removal, in late 
April, 1784, is told in our chapter on the Indians, 
in the first part of this volume. 


Another consequence of the peace was prob- 
ably not so well relished by General Clark and 
other gentlemen of military proclivities, who had 
their subsistence in army life. The State of 
Virginia, like the other colonies, found herself 
very much impoverished at the close of the war, 
and immediately took steps to reduce the mili- 
tary establishment, on the borders, as elsewhere. 
Her forces were disbanded, and General Clark, 
with others, was honorably retired from service 
with the grateful thanks of the Governor and 
Council "for his very great and singular services." 
The same year the splendid land grant was made 
by the Virginia Legislature, to him and his sol- 
diers, upon his share of which he presently 
founded Clarksville. A sword had been voted 
by the State to him in 1779, but he afterwards, 
in a fit of petulance and anger at fancied ingrat- 
itude for his services, broke and threw it away. 
A new one, costing $400, was purchased for him 
by. order of the Virginia Legislature in 1812, 
and transmitted with a very handsome letter from 
the Governor. 

It does not appear, however, that Fort Nelson 
was now abandoned. It became instead head- 



quarters for United States troops in this part of 
the valley, and will hereafter come again into 


Mr. Casseday has still another interesting inci- 
dent to relate of this year, nearly as follows: 

The notorious Tom Paine had written a book in which he 
spoke with some ridicule about Virginia's right to this State, 
and urged Congress to claim and hold the territory entire. 
Two Pennsylvanians, Galloway and Pomeroy by name, were 
great admi'-ers of the writer, and devoted disciples of all his 
doctrines. Pomeroy coming to the Falls just at this time, 
gave not a little annoyance to some of the landholders, for 
those whom he influenced had little regard for the titles of 
their neighbors. Such a state of things could not easily be 
met by law, for just what crime the man should be punished 
for it seemed difficult to decide. An old law of Virginia was 
finally found which enforced a penalty in tobacco upon "Ihe 
propagation of false news, to the disturbance of the good 
people of the colony." In May of the following year, under 
this law, the man Pomeroy was tried and had to pay two 
thousand pounds of tobacco, besides paying costs and giving 
security for future good behavior in the sum of three thou- 
sand pounds. 

Galloway, who had advocated the same doctrines in and 
around Lexington, met the same fate. Neither could pro- 
cure the required amount of tobacco, so acted upon a hint 
given them that they would not be pursued if they should 
attempt to leave the country. 


By this time Colonel Campbell had escaped 
from his durance vile as a prisoner of war in 
Canada, and had represented the danger to his 
vested interests at the Falls incurred under the 
act of 1780. In May of this year, therefore, the 
following act was passed by the Legislature: 

An Act to suspend the sale of certain escheated lands, late the 
property of John Connolly. 

Whereas, it hath been represented to this Assembly 
by John Campbell, lately returned from captivity, that in his 
absence an Act of Assembly passed in the year 1780, "for 
establishing the town of Louisville, in the county of Jeffer- 
son," whereby one thousand acres of land, then supposed to 
be the property of John Connolly, was directed to be laid 
out into lots and streets, and the money arising from the 
sale thereof to be paid into the treasury ; and whereas, the 
said one thousand acres was, at the time of passing the said 
act, under a mortgage to the said John Campbell and one 
Joseph Simon, as a security for the payment of ^450, Penn- 
sylvania currency, due to them from the said C'onnolly ; and 
whereas, other one thousand acres contiguous thereto, said 
to be the property of the said John Campbell, but then sup- 
posed to belong to the said John Connolly, together with the 
said one thousand acres on which the said town was estab- 
lished, were escheated while the said Campiiell was in cap- 
tivity, and are now liable to be sold under the act concerning 
escheats and forfeitures from Biitish subjects, whereby great 
injury may accrue to the said John Campbell. 

Section 2. Be it therefore enacted, that all further pro- 
ceedings respecting the sale of the said lots and lands shall 

be, and the same is hereby suspended until the end of the 

ne.xt session of the General Assembly. 

The following is the act of Assembly so often 
referred to in the subsequent proceedings of the 
Board of Trustees of the town: 

An Act repealing in part the act for establishing the Town 

of Louisville. 

Sec. I. Whereas, J no. Campbell and J no. Connolly, being 
siezed as tenants in common of and in 4,000 acres of land 
lying at the Falls of the Ohio river, did, on the 6th of Feb., 
1776, execute each to the other a deed of partition of the 
same land, whereby the said J no Connolly was to take 1000 
acres at the upper end, and one other 1000 acres at the lower 
end of said tract as his proportion ; and whereas, the said 
Jno Connolly, being considerably indebted to the said Jno 
Campbell and Jos Simon, and as a security for the payment 
thereof did, by deed bearing date the 7th day of Feby, 1776, 
mortgage to them the said 2000 acres of land ; and whereas, 
in May session, 1780, an act passed for laying off 1000 acres 
of land, then supposed to be the forfeited property of the 
said John Connolly, into lots and streets, and which was 
established a town by the name of Louisville ; and whereas, 
it is represented to this present General Assembly by the said 
[ohn Campbell, that partition lines have not been run for 
ascertaining the bounds between his and the said Connolly's 
lands, and that the sum for which the said Connolly mort- 
gaged his moiety of the lands, together with the interest 
thereon, is still due to the said Jno Campbell and Jos Simon, 
and it being unjust to take from them that security of the 
land so mortgaged by the said Connolly for the payment of 
the debt and interest. 

Sec 2. Be it therefore enacted. That the act of Assembly 
for establishing the town of Louisville, at the Falls of Ohio, 
so far as it effects the property of the said Jno Campbell 
and Jos Simon, shall be and the same is hereby repealed, 
and that no act, matter, or thing had or done in virtue of 
said acts shall be construed, deemed, or taken to effect or 
prejudice the title of the said Jno Campbell and Jos Simon 
to the land aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted. That the Surveyor of 
the county of Jefferson shall run the partition lines between 
the said Jno Campbell and Jno Connolly according to the 
division lines described in the said deed of partition. 


of some of the then-considered necessaries of 
life, as fixed by the County Court about this 
time, were as follow: Whiskey was $15 per half- 
pint, corn $10 per gallon, a diet $18, lodging on 
a feather bed $6, and stabling for a horse one 
night $4. Colonel Durrett thinks it likely, how- 
ever, that the traveler took care to pay his land- 
lord in Continental money, then depreciated at 
a thousand to one of coin. 


The most notable arrival of the year was Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, a gal- 
lant officer of the Revolution, and now Surveyor- 
(ieneral of the Western lands reserved as boun- 
ties to the soldiers of Virginia in that war. He 



was grandson of Robert Anderson, supposed to 
have come from Scotland in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century, and settled in Hanover 
county, Virginia. From the union of his son 
Robert (born January i, 17 12), and Elizabeth 
Clough, daughter, it is somewhat doubtfully said, 
of a Welsh colonist, Richard C. Anderson 
sprang. He was born January 12, 1750; in 
early youth became supercargo for a wealthy 
Virginia merchant; January 26, 1776, was ap- 
pointed Captain of the Hanover county com- 
pany of regulars, and March 7th following, to 
the same grade in the Fifth regiment of Virginia 
Continentals; and took a conspicuous part with 
his company in the battle of Trenton, where he 
was wounded, and in the Philadelphia hospital 
to which he was taken he also suffered from 
small-pox, whose marks he carried the rest of his 

He afterwards participated m the battles of 
Brandy wine and Germantown; February 10, 
1778, was made major in the First Virginia regi- 
ment, and with it took part in the battle of Mon- 
mouth ; accompanied the expedition of Count 
D' Estaing to Savannah in the fall of 1779, and 
was permanently injured in the charge upon the 
enemy's works; was captured by the British at 
Charleston, and remained a prisoner nine 
months; was then detached to service upon the 
staff of General Lafayette; assisted Governor 
Nelson, of Virginia, in organizing the militia dur- 
ing the siege of Yorktown; upon the disband- 
ment of the army was appointed surveyor-general 
of bounty lands; came to Louisville in the spring 
of 1783 and established his office; in 1787 mar- 
ried a sister of General George Rogers Clark, 
and the next year transferred his home to his 
"Soldiers' Retreat," in the comparative wilder- 
ness ten miles in the interior, where the rest of 
his life was spent. In 1797, his first wife having 
died, he married Sarah Marshall. He revisited 
Virginia in 1824 or 1825, and not long after- 
wards had the great pleasure of meeting his 
old companion-in-arms, General Lafayette, dur 
ing the latter's visit to Louisville. Colonel An- 
derson died October 16, 1826, aged seventy-six 
years, nine months, and four days. He left six 
sons, all of whom attained greater or less distinc- 
tion — Richard Clough, Jr., a Congressman and 
Minister of the United States to Colombia; 
Larz, long a Cincinnatian of much wealth and 

prominence; Robert, of Fort Sumter fame; Wil- 
liam Marshall, a pioneer in crossing the Rocky 
mountains, and a scientist of some note; John 
Anderson, of Chillicothe, Ohio; and Charles, 
late Lieutenant-Governor of Ohio, and now an 
honored resident at Kuttawa, Lyon county, Ken- 
tucky. To the kindness of the last-named we 
are indebted for authentic materials for this brief 
biography of one of the most remarkable men 
of Louisville's early day. 


With Colonel Anderson, in a "broadhorn" 
down the Ohio, came to the Falls Major John 
Harrison, who had also served gallantly in the 
Revolutionary war. In 1787 he married Mary 
Ann, daughter of Dr. Benjamin Johnston, and 
the same year, when the inhabitants sought tem- 
porary refuge in the fort at Ciarksville, during 
fear of Indian attack, his oldest child, who be- 
came Mrs. New, was born. He continued to re- 
side in Louisville, and died in 1821. Among 
his five children was James, born May i, 1799, 
now the Nestor of the Louisville bar, and the 
sole living link of native residents connecting the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 


In October, 1784, still another act was passed 
by the Virginia Legislature, reciting the doubts 
which had arisen "in the minds of the purchas- 
ers of lots in the town -of Louisville with regard 
to their titles," upon the construction of the act 
of October, 1783, that "the Trustees of the said 
town of Louisville know not how to proceed in 
executing the law passed in May, 1780, for es- 
tablishing the town of Louisville." It was there- 
fore enacted — 

That the Trustees of the said town of Louisville shall, as 
soon as may be, give notice to the said John Campbell, and 
proceed to running the partition lines between the lands o 
the said John Campbell and John Connolly, according to 
their respective deeds of partition ; and, as soon as the said 
partition lines shall be run, the said Trustees shall lay off in- 
to convenient lots or parcels, not exceeding one hundred 
acres, and seil such of the escheated lands of the said John 
Connolly as remain unsold, and shall, in the first instance, 
after paying the necessary charges of surveying and laying 
off the said land, apply the money arising from such sales to 
redeeming the said land from the mortgage to the said John 
Campbell and Joseph Simon, and shall pay the overplus into 
the Treasurv of this Commonwealth. And in case the said 
lines of partition shall have been run, according to an act en- 
titled " An act for repealing in part an act for establishing 
the town of Louisville," previous to the passing of this act, 
then the said Trustees shall proceed immediately to sell, in 



manner before directed, the said escheated lands of the said 
John Connolly, and to apply the money arising from such 
sale to the purposes aforesaid. 

It was further provided they should receive and 
apply all moneys due for lots sold under the origi- 
nal act and that the titles of purchasers under 
that act should be deemed valid against the 
claim of Campbell and Simon, and their heirs or 
assigns, but that this should not be construed to 
affect the title of Campbell to such part of the 
town as had been laid off upon his share of the 

Sundry other acts, passed from time to time 
by the Legislature of Virginia or Kentucky, as 
the dates approached when they were demanded, 
afforded relief to those purchasers of lots who 
had been unable to comply with the provision of 
the statute of 1780, prescribing the "condition of 
building on each a dwelling-house, 60 feet by 20 
feel at least, with a brick or stone chimney, to be 
finished within two years from the day of sale." 
These acts extended the time from year to year, 
as much as was deemed necessary to secure all 
in their possessory rights. The Trustees were 
also changed by the Legislature at least once, as 
will be found hereafter, in the Civil List of the 


Another important measure, in regard to 
landed property in this region and the Virginia 
Military District in Ohio, was undertaken July 
20th of this year, in the opening of a land office 
in the little town of Louisville. All the terri- 
tory between the Cumberland and Green rivers, 
except the grant to Henderson & Company, but 
including, of course, the site of Louisville and the 
present Jefferson county, had been appropriated 
as bounty lands to the soldiers of the Virginia 
line, on the Continental establishment, in the 
Revolutionary war. If they should be exhausted, 
locations were then to be made for the same 
purpose upon the present soil of Ohio, between 
the Scioto and Little Miami rivers, in what is 
now known as the Vuginia Military District. 
In 1783 Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, a 
Virginia officer of high reputation in the late 
war and a brother-in-law of General Clark, 
whose sister he married, was appointed principal 
surveyor of these military districts by the officers 
of the Virginia line, and his appointment was 
confirmed by the Virginia Legislature. His con- 

tract with them, dated December 17, 1783, is 
still extant, and has been printed in McDonald's 
Sketches. He removed to Louisville, bought a 
fine farm in the neighborhood, which he named 
the "Soldiers' Retreat," from the character of 
his business, and opened his office, at which 
it seems that formal location or entries could be 
made, as later at the Government land-offices. 
The first entry was made in the name of William 
Brown, of land at the mouth of the Cumber- 
land. No location of the kind was made upon 
the Ohio lands until August i, 1787, when Wace 
Clements entered 1,000 acres at the mouth of 
Eagle creek, above Cincinnati. The office was 
subsequently removed to Chillicothe, Ohio, 
upon the Military District in that State, when the 
increasing number of entries there demanded the 
change, for convenience' sake. 


The surveyor of Jefferson county, George 
May, also a Virginian, and appointed by the 
Governor, formerly surveyor of the county of 
Kentucky, had already opened an office, in 
November of 1782, at Cox's Station, now in 
Nelson county. The notorious Captain Gilbert 
Imlay, self-styled "commissioner for laying out 
lands in the back settlements," and author of A 
Topographical Description of the Western Terri- 
tory, belonging mainly to Kentucky, published 
first in 1792, is said to have been appointed a 
deputy surveyor in this county in 1784, and to 
have laid off many thousands of acres here. Mr. 
Collins, from whose history we have this fact, 
thinks that "probably he was agent for English 
land speculators." He was the same Imlay with 
whom the celebrated English woman, Mary 
Woolstonecraft, afterwards became involved, and 
to whom she wrote the remarkable letters that 
have recently been collected and embodied in a 
printed volume. 

William Pope was employed in 1783 to make 
a fresh draft of the plat of Louisville ; but it also 
has gone the way of all the earth. The map of 
Imlay, deputy surveyor aforesaid, may have been 
made about this time. It appears in his Topo- 
graphical Descrijjtion, published some years 
afterwards. Colonel Durrett adds: 

It presents the same islnnds as shown by tlie map of Cap- 
tain Hutchins already alluded to. But the shores of the 
Ohio are altogether different from what they appeared in the 
chart of Hutchins. On the Indiana side the village of Clarks- 



ville appears with a dozen houses, opp'osite the rapids, and 
a little higher up inclosed farms are seen in cultivation, with 
Fort Fenny at their eastern extremity, about wheie Jefferson- 
ville now stands. On the Kentucky side of the river not only 
farms and gardens are seen inclosed and in cultivation, but 
quite a town appears in front of Corn Island. The town lies 
entirely in front of this island, and the point where the pres- 
ent High street originally branched off from Twelfth seems 
to be its center. There are but three streets shown on this 
map, and these correspond to the present Main, Monroe 
and High streets. On Mam street, beginning about where 
Fourth street now is and e.xtending to about Twelfth, can be 
counted forty houses ; on Monroe street fourteen, and on 
High street twenty-eight. The between the houses on 
the north side of Main street and the river seems to be laid 
out in gardens, and farms appear on the east side of Bear- 
grass creek and west of the houses on Main, Monroe, and 
High streets. South of Main street there were no doubt 
some houses on the streets now known as Market and Jeffer- 
son, but they are not exhibited on the map. To show that 
even at this early period ihe enterprising citizens of Louis- 
ville weie thinking seriously of some way to get around the 
Falls with their loaded barges, the line of a canal is marked 
on this map from the mouth of Beargrass creek to the foot 
of Rock Island. 


Patrick Joyes came this year, and settled about 
the same time on the lot on the northeast corner 
of Main and Sixth streets, which continued in his 
family until the summer of 1882. An Irishman 
by birth, he was brought up in France and Spain 
and came to Louisville as an agent of a mercan- 
tile house in Philadelphia. In those early days 
his knowledge of French and Spanish brought 
him m contact with all the prominent men of the 
valley of the Ohio who were involved in either 
commercial or political negotiations with Louisi- 
ana. His oldest son, Thomas Joyes, was born 
December 9, 1787, on the above-mentioned cor- 
ner, and inherited his father's talents for the ac- 
quisition of languages, having mastered by the 
time he attained his majority, or soon afterwards, 
French, German, and Spanish, and one or two 
Indian dialects, by picking them up from the few 
books that were accessible to him, and by receiv- 
ing oral instruction from any foreigner who could 
spare him a moment's time. Thomas Joyes's 
training was miscellaneous — in the clerk's office 
as a copyist, and in the field as a surveyor. 
He served in the Wabash campaign of 1812, and 
was a captain in the Thirteenth regiment of Ken- 
tucky militia at the battle of New Orleans. He 
was a deputy surveyor under General Rector in 
the West about the year 1816, and surveyed for 
the Government that part of Illinois of which 
Peoria is the center. In the well-known struggle 

between the two parties that distracted Kentucky 
after the financial crisis that followed soon after 
the War of 181 2, he was a zealous "new court" 
man, and represented Jefferson and Oldham 
counties in the Kentucky Legislature. As his 
native place grew from villagehood into cityhood 
he was frequently a member of the board of 
trustees and of the council, and represented it 
on two or three occasions in the Legislature, the 
last time having been in the winter of 1834-35. 
He died May 4, 1866, the oldest native of Louis- 

The second son of Patrick Joyes was John 
Joyes, born January 8, 1799, who, after com- 
pleting his academic education, studied law and 
was admitted to the Bar of Louisville. He was 
one of the early mayors of the city when it was 
raised to that dignity, and by executive appoint- 
ment was made the first judge of the city court 
when that court was created in 1835, which 
office he filled with success and ability until the 
year 1854. He also represented his native 
county in the Legislature when quite young. 
He died in Louisville May 31, 1877. The other 
children of Patrick Joyes were Mrs. Johnson, 
Mrs. McGonigal (afterwards Smith), and Mrs. 
William Sale. The greater part of his posterity 
are still residents of Louisville. 

In 1783 also came to Kentucky, by emigra- 
tion from Virginia, the well-remembered Alex- 
ander Scott Bullitt, who for almost a quarter of 
a century was a resident of Jefferson county. A 
full sketch of his life and public services will be 
given in a future chapter. 

Colonel Armistead Churchill, of Middlesex 
county, Virginia, removed to the Falls this year, 
and settled on the estate ever since held by the 
family, three miles from the river. Here he died 
in 1795, aged sixty-four; but Mrs. Churchill sur- 
vived until 1831, when she died at the age of 
ninety-one. They were parents of Colonel Sam- 
uel Churchill. 

creveccicur's wonderful story. 

The most surprising account of the infant 
Louisville that has been preserved, is included 
in an elaborate letter written here August 26 of 
this year, by M. St. John de Crevecoeur, a native 
of Normandy, who emigrated to this country at 
the age of sixteen, was a cultivator of the soil in 
Western New York at the outbreak of the Rev- 



olution, and subsequently French consul in New 
York city. This, with other letters of Creve- 
coeur, was published in three volumes in Paris 
in 1787, and elegantly translated in 1879 by 
Professor P. A. Towne, for the early numbers of 
his Louisville Monthly Magazine. We give but 
brief extracts from this most interesting old doc- 

After having remained twenty-two days at Pittsburg, I took 
advantage of the first boat which started for Louisville. It 
was 55 feet long, 12 wide, and 6 deep, drawing 3 feet of 
water. On its deck had been built a low cabin, but very 
neat, divided into several apartments, and on the forecastle 
the cattle and horses were kept as in a stable. It was loaded 
with bricks, boards, planks, bars of iron, coal, instruments 
of husbandry, dismounted wagons, anvils, bellows, dry- 
goods, brandy, flour, biscuits, hams, lard, and salt rneat, etc. 
These articles came in part from the country in the vicinity 
of Pittsburg and from Indiana [the old district of that name 
in Western Virginia]. I observed the larger part of the pas- 
sengers were young men who came from nearly all tlie Mid- 
dle States; pleasant, contented, full of buoyant hopes ; hav- 
ing with them the money coming from the sale of their old 
farms, or from the share received from their parents, they 
were going to Kentucky to engage in business, to work at 
their trades, to acquire and estabhsh new homes. What a 
singular but happy restlessness that which is constantly 
urging us all to become better off than we now are, and 
which drives us from one end of a continent to the other. In 
the meantime we were kept busy catching fish, which are 
very abundant.* You can hardly imagme the singular 
charm this pleasure adds to this new mode of navigation. 
In the evening, after laying up, the more skillful hunters 
would go to the land to shoot wild turkeys, which, you are 
aware, wait for the last rays of the sun to fade away before 
going to roost on the tops of the highest trees. 

Crevecoeur's mention of green turtle in this 
part of the Ohio suggests that quite probably, 
like Ashe and other early travelers in America, 
he was capable of drawing a long bow when it 
would lend interest to his narrative. That im- 
pression, we suspect, will be confirmed upon 
perusal of some of the passages below: 

At last, on the tenth day since our departure from Pitts- 
burg, we anchored in front of Louisville, having made 
seven hundred and five miles in two hundred and twelve 
hours and one-half of navigation. What was my surprise 
when, in place of the liuts, the tents, and primitive 
cabins, constructed and placed by mere chance and sur- 
rounded with palisades, of which I had heard so much dur- 
ing the last five years, I saw numerous houses of two stories, 
elegant and well painted, and (as far as the stumps of trees 
would permit) that all the streets were spacious and well laid 

Shortly after landing 1 learned that this plateau belonged 
to Colonel Campbell, wlio had himself drawn the plan of the 

*Crevecoeurs foot-note: "The perch, the jack, the cat-fish, 
weighing eighty pounds; the buffalo, weighing twenty 
pounds, is the best of all. Below the Falls at Louisville, the 
Sturgeon and green turtle are taken." 

new city, and had divided it into lots of a half-acre each.* 
The houses nearest the river were not only painted, but even 
had piazzas extending the whole length. Those more dis- 
tant appeared to me to be only enclosures without glass for 
the windows; the frame of others seemed to be awaiting a 
roof and planks; and those most distant were simple bark 
cabins covered with leaves, arranged in lines on the limits of 
the concession. Those citizens most easy in their circum- 
stances had already enclosed their half-acre, in which I saw 
the commencement of gardens, if that name can be given to 
cabbages, beans, potatoes, salad, etc.. planted in the midst 
of stumps that they had not yet time to take up by the roots. 
Any one who could find a way to transport here a large 
nursery of fruit-trees would render an important service to 
this young colony. 

I counted si.xty-three finished houses, thirty-seven in 
progress, twenty-two elevated without being enclosed, and 
more than a hundred cabins. All the streets have, and 
ought to have, sixty feet in width. 

I hardly know how to describe the peculiar and new im- 
pression made on my mind by the sight of these streets, not 
long since laid out across the woods, and still full of stumps, 
among which men in vehicles pass with difficulty — streets 
which, perhaps, in the space of ten years, will be paved, or- 
namented with tiees, with sidewalks and other conveniences. 
The sight of this suggestive gradation of houses finished, 
imperfect, just commenced, of cabins built against the trees; 
the aspect of the cradle of this young city, destined by its 
situation to become the metropolis of the surrounding coun- 
try — all these objects impress me with a reverence and re- 
spect that I cannot well define. I congratulate myself on 
having finally arrived on this new theater, to which my fellow- 
countryrnen come long distances to exhibit their courage, 
their might, and their inventive genus. Never before have I 
experienced that feeling which ought, it seems to me, to at- 
tend those who are actively engaged in founding a great 
settlement or a new city, and which should compensate them 
for theii troubles and privations. 

Such is a sketch of the commencement of Louisville. I 
have all the more pleasure in witnessins^ it, since it is industry 
and not accident which has guidedit, since it is geometry 
and the compass which daily map out the foundations of the 
city, and not feudal servitude and barbarian ignorance. 
Under what obligations is not posterity placed to the noble 
founders of this beautiful country ! 

What movement, what activity, on this little theater of 
Louisville ! I do not believe there is a single State in the 
Union not represented in its inhabitants. The country is so far 
from the old settlements that silver is the only nioney carried 
by the emigrants. You can hardly beheve to what extent 
this metal animates, energizes, and accelerates the progress of 
all their enterprises. In spite of the incursions of the Indians, 
who, regretting the sale of this splendid country, continue to 
wage upon the settlers a midnight war and lay in wait for the 
emigrants in the mountain passes, they extend and carry to 
perfection their settlL-ments all the more energetically. They 
have constructed staked forts at points most exposed, and 
placed in them a suitable number of armed men. In spite of 
distance, fatigues, and dangers, men come here from all direc- 
tions, as to a promised land ; and if this incentive lasts a few 
years longer, Kentucky will soon become rich, populous, and 
powerful. .Mrcady more than forty thousand inhabitants are 

*Creveccx;ur's foot-note': " He sells them at thirty pounds, 
Pennsylvania money, four hundred and twenty turnois 



counted in the three counties of Fayette, Jefferson, and Lin- 
coln ; already the foundation of several cities is laid, which, 
by their situation promise to become of considerable impor- 

This large settlement is not only a phenomenon of boldness^ 
of courage, and of perseverance, but also of genius and m- 
dustry. Filled with men whose minds have been enlightened 
by a good American education, as well as by a civil war of 
eight years, it will have only a brief moment of infancy; their 
vehicles, their plows, the machines of which they make use, 
appear to me to be as well made as our own; the workshops, 
in front of which I passed in going to Danville, were as well 
built, though smaller, than those of Pennsylvania. Already, 
also, they have built and endowed churches, the pastors of 
which have been brought from Virginia. I hear them speak 
also of an establishment for the instruction of youth, that 
they will hasten to place in the form of a university. I can 
assure you that there are few ameliorations useful to a dawn- 
ing civilization that have not already been made available. 

Already this little city, the metropolis of the country, con- 
tains articles of merchandise which contribute, on the one 
hand, to support the trade in skins from Venango and the 
peninsula of Lake Erie, by the rivers Miami, Muskingum, 
Scioto, etc., andon the other hand to descend the Ohio to sup- 
ply the wants of the farmers of Indiana [the Virginia district 
before mentioned], of Kentucky, of the Wabash, and even 
of Illinois. Cattle, provisions, iron, lime, brick, made \n 
Pittsburg, are shipped daily for Louisville; and had not the 
fact actually come under my observation, I could hardly be- 
lieve that the houses of this settlement were made in part 
with materials coming from a distance of 235 leagues. 
Without all these resources, and a thousand others that I 
could mention, the Territory of Kentucky could not have 
made the progress it has in the space of twelve years, from 
the feebleness of an infant to the powers of a vigorous man. 

The gross exaggerations in which this writer 
occasionally indulged, are easily detected by any 
one who reads attentively the remaining portions 
of our annals of the first decade of Louisville. 
The following is particularly ludicrous: 

It was Sunday that we arrived in front of Louisville. We 
had hardly come to anchor when a boat, which carried sev- 
enteen persons, came alongside. I noticed that all the men 
had on silk stockings, and all the women had parasols." 


The beginnings of the village of Shippingport, 
now a part of Louisville, were made this year, 
under the name of Campbellton, from its owner, 
Colonel Campbell. More of its history will ap- 
pear hereafter. 


Among the immigrants of 1785 was Colonel 
Richard Taylor, brother of our pioneer surveyor, 
Hancock Taylor, and a distinguished officer of 
the Virginia troops in the Revolution from the 
beginning to the end of the struggle. Distin- 
guished for his courage and coolness in battle, 

he was said to possess that faculty, so invaluable 
in a military leader, of imparting to those around 
him the same dauntless spirit. After removing 
to the State of Kentucky, his frequent contesti 
with the Indians, and his successes in these 
fights, caused his name to become a word of ter- 
ror to every dweller in a wigwam from the Ohio 
river to the great lakes on the north. 

In the family of Colonel Taylor was a babe in 
arms, of but nine months old, who had been 
named Zachary. His boyhood and youth were 
spent in and near Louisville. In 1808 he was 
made a first lieutenant in the regular army, and, 
after a long and adventurous career, became 
"Old Rough and Ready," Major-General 
Zachary Taylor, who in the Mexican war became 
one of the most renowned captains of history, 
and a few years afterwards died in office, the 
President of the United States. He is the only 
Federal President that was ever a citizen of 
Louisville or of Kentucky. 


During this year Mr. Lewis Brantz, a young 
German who had been employed by persons at 
the East to examine the commercial resources of 
the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and lead pro- 
jected German colonies to their future homes in 
the wilderness, came to the Falls in fourteen 
days from Fort Pitt, and entered these notes 
among his Memoranda of a Journey in the West- 
ern Parts of the United States of America, in 

We met fifteen canoes, with passengers, bound to Fo^t 
Pitt from the Falls. Louisville is located quite near the 
Falls. Some houses are already erected ; yet this lonely set- 
tlement resembles a desert more than a town. . . The 
Falls of the Ohio is the only landing-place [for Kentucky] at 
present ; and it abounds in merchandise. 

Mr. Brantz staid a fortnight in and about the 
Falls, and then pursued his way to the Cumber- 
land. His description, brief as it is, seems to 
fix the falsity of much of that of Crevecoeur, 
which, at least as to the number of houses then 
here, has misled historians ever since. 


In December of this year, Gsneral Richard 
Butler, and the other Commissioners of the 
United States associated with General Clark for 
the negotiation of a treaty with the Indians at 
Fort Finney, near the mouth of the Great 
Miami, took advantage of a lull in the negotia- 



tions or the collection of the Indians for that 
purpose, in order to visit the Falls of the Ohio. 
They started on Monday, the 2d, and reached 
here two days thereafter. We extract the follow- 
ing account of the visit from General Butler's 
journal : 

We pushed on to Six-mile Island, which is also very fine ; 
just below this island the town of Louisville opens to view, 
and the appearance of the country and river beautiful beyond 
description. The current of the river very gentle. You 
come soon in view and hearing of the Falls, which has all 
the majesty and grandeur of one of the most delightful 
rivers in the world ; you are not only pleased by the appear- 
ance, but struck with an agreeable awe from the noise of the 
water rolling over the rocks, which, though somewhat terri- 
ble to pass, has nothing terrible in its appearance. 

Pushed on to the mouth of Beargniss creek, which is the 
beginning of the town land, and which affords a safe and 
useful harbor for boats ; it is about forty yards wide, and 
very useful. Passed by this to what is called the lower land- 
ing, nearly opposite to an island which in high water divides 
the river and forms an easy passage for boats. Here we put 
in and landed. Just as we were going on shore, .we were 
alarmed by the cries of people in great distress, wlio in a 
large boat had attempted to run the Falls, but being ignorant 
of the proper channel, had just struck on a rock. We went 
up to the town, which stands on a very grand bank and 
overlooks the Falls, and has in view the new town called 
Clarksville. We told the people of the distressed situation of 
the unhappy men mentioned, in hopes some persons ac- 
quainted with the Falls would have been sent to their 
assistance; and I am sorry I cannot say more of their 
humanity than of the carelessness shown on this distressing 
occasion, for, notwithstanding all our anxiety for the poor 
sufferers, the good people of the town diverted themselves at 
cards (a very favorite amusement here), while their ears were 
assailed with the cries of the unhappy sufferers, which seemed 
to create no other emotions than some ill-natured reflection 
on their folly ; and thus were these wretched men left to all 
the dangers and terrors of their distressed state, without one 
effort to release them, or even an expression of pity escaping 
tTie humane lips of any one in the ])lace, as I could hear. 

TnuKSi:)AV, December 8th. 

The first thing heard by General Parsons and myself this 
morning (for we slept together), was the cries of the poor 
wretches mentioned above, on which we called on Captain 
Bullitt, an inhabitant of this place, and spoke in terms re- 
flecting on their want of compassion. He went out and 
with some little pains got a fellow who was drunk to go with 
another man to their relief. This brute missed them, and 
had like to have suffered on the Falls. Then one Mr. Davis 
and some others got two others to go. These succeeded and 
struck the logs of drift-stuff to which the pour men had 
waded in the night from the boat, in attempting which they 
lost one of their unhafipy companions, who was swept down 
by the current. The men being discouraged from any at- 
tempt to make shore, was obliged to take up their dismal' and 
solitary lodging for the Jiight, which was very cold, and their 
clothes all wet. General Parsons and myself, seeing them 
come to shore, went to meet them and heard their story, 
which was really very piteous as to themselves, but wh.Jn 
they spoke of the loss of their companion it seemed to give 
them no matter of concern, but excited a laugh when they 
related this part of it. We passed them and wont over on a 

very fine rocky bottom, whic is now quite dry, to an island 
in the Falls of about five acres. From this we passed over 
from the lower end to the main, to Campbell's land, thence 
to where he has laid out a new town called Hebron, opposite 
the lower part of the Falls and Clarksville. Here we crossed 
over to the latter place, and was very kindly received and 
treated by Mr. Dallon and Mrs. and Captain George, who 
* pressed us much to stay for dinner. 

I walked about and examined the ground, which I am of 
opinion overflows at very high floods ; therefore I think the 
most useful and advantageous places for trade, etc., is above 
the mouth of a small creek, on which General Clark is build- 
ing a mill, and at a point above the draught of the Falls,* 
the one to receive below and the other above the Falls those 
persons and goods coming up and going down, as a good 
road may be made between the two places and the boats 
taken down empty with ease and safety. 

We returned in the afternoon to Louisville, where we 
found the people engaged in selling and buying lots in the 
back streets, but, not liking the situation, bought none. 
There are several good log-houses building here, but the ex- 
travagance in wages and laziness of the tradesmen keep back 
the improvement of the place exceedingly. In truth I see 
very little doing but card-playing, drinking, and other vices 
among the common people, and am sorry too many of the 
better sort are too much engaged in the same manner, a 
few storekeepers excepted, who seem busy in land and other 
speculations, in which the veracity or generosity of some are 
not very conspicuous, being ever on the watch to take the ad- 
vantage of the Ignorance or innocence of the stranger. 

This afternoon the commissioners for drawing the lottery 
for the lands of General Clark's regiment met, and talk of 
drawing the lottery for the respective lots of land on the 
north side of the Falls, where they have very wisely chosen 
to locate it, being authorized so to do by an act of the Legis. 
lature of the State of Virginia, and which I think preferable 
in every respect as to situation to Louisville; and if the 
owners do not improve the advantages thrown by the gener- 
osity of the State in their power, I shall conclude them 
regardless of their true interest and void of good sense, as it 
is a most beautiful and advantageous place. 

I find on the lower part of the Falls the greatest abundance 
of swans, geese, ducks, and pigeons very plenty flying over; 
here are also fine fish, but the people generally too indolent 
to catch them, though in great need. 

Frid.'VY, December 8th. 
. . We have found many curious petrifactions, such as 
roots of trees, calamus, the excrescence of the locust tree, 
etc. We find that a good and short road may be made from 
Clarksville to the place described above the Falls, where I 
think should be another village, for the purpose of easing the 
navigation of the rapid. There is one beautiful spot in the 
middle of the river, which is a hollow in the midst of a kind 
of rocky island, into which the water tumbles over a beauti- 
ful cascade of about eight feet, and forms a pretty basin. 
This spot appears to best advantage from a point above a 
large basin between the great rapid and a small one, above 
the mouth of Clark's creek, and forms a grand and capacious 
harbor, where boats may lay below or put in from above at 
]5leasuie. This and below this to Clark's creek I think is the 
most proper spot for a town, which will not only rival, but 
deprive Louisville of ail the advantages it now enjoys from 

I am much disai^pointed in the expectation I had of the 

* Tills subscciueiuly became the site of Jeftersoiiville. 



politeness of this town, as I have Lcen told there are a num- 
ber of decent people in and about it,' but am sorry to say 
that the commissioners, instead of meeting politeness or the 
least degree of attention, were avoided by everybody, and 
even their magistrates, aftei asking a few impertinent ques- 
tions, withdrew and joined the card and speculating clubs of 
the lowest classes and most vulgar people I have seen, and 
even those who we have been of use and attentive to have 
forgot it and neglected us. 

Saturday, December 10. 
The morning being very foggy and dark, it hid the heads 
of those people who could so easily forget good treatment 
and served as a veil to their meanness of soul, by giving 
them an excuse for not seeing us come away, whilst it saved 
us the trouble of speaking to people whom we have reason 
so heartily to despise for their impolite conduct. We left 
the bank at half-past eight o'clock, and pushed on to the Six- 
mile Island, opposite to the middle of which is a cabin on the 
southern shore, just below George creek. 

It was a democratic period, evidently, and 
Louisville had not yet become accustomed to 
receiving, dining, and wining visitors of distinc- 


In this year William Shannon was engaged as 
surveyor, and directed to lay off the back part of 
the Connolly thousand-acre tract mto out-lots of 
five, ten, and twenty acres. He seems to have 
made a partial map of the town-site, perhaps of 
his survey alone; but it cannot now be recov- 
ered, and his survey does not appear upon the 
subsequent map of Abram Hite, made in 1790. 


This year, upon the place where he finally 
settled on Goose creek, in this county, died 
Isaac Hite, companion of Boone in his earliest 
explorations, and one of the famous Ten Hunt- 
ers of Kentucky. He came from Berkeley coun- 
ty, Virginia, as a permanent settler in 1778. His 
brother, Captain Abraham Hite, came four years 
after, and another brother, Joseph, in 1783. 
Their father also came the next year, with an 
Episcopal clergyman named Kavanaugh. The 
elder Hite died in 1786, Abraham in August, 
1832, and Joseph in 1831.* 

Captain James Winn removed from Fauquier 
county, Virginia, to the Falls this year. Three 
days afterwards, before the family had removed 
from the covered flatboat m which they came 
down the Ohio, William Johnston married his 
daughter Eliza. They were parents, as before 
noted,, of Dr. James Chew Johnston. 

* Craig's Historical Sketches of Christ Church, 37, 38. 

1786 — Clark's last expedition. 

A small Western army had now been organized, 
as a part of the regular forces of the United 
States. It was stationed, almost or quite wholly, 
in the valley of the Ohio, where the names of 
Harmar, St. Clair, Wayne, and Wilkinson, its 
commanders successively, and of Finney, Ziegler, 
Harrison (afterwards General and President), 
Wyllys, Strong, Denny, and other subordinate 
ofificers, became familiar as household words in 
the pioneer history of Louisville, Marietta, Cin- 
cinnati, and other points. In consequence of re- 
newed troubles by some of the tribes, notwith- 
standing the treaty at Fort Finney, two compa- 
nies of regulars were sent to Fort Nelson, and 
Clark was again called into service to add a body 
of volunteer militia and invade the hostile In- 
dian country. By some time in September one 
thousand men were collected at the Falls, and a 
inarch to Vincennes was begun. His commissary 
and ordnance stores were started in keelboats 
down the Ohio and up the Wabash rivers; and 
this fact, together with the growing intemperance 
of the General, proved the ruin of the expedi- 
tion. The supplies were delayed by low water in 
the streams; the season was warm, and much of 
the food was spoiled; so that the slow march 
through the wilderness to Vincennes was accom- 
plished, nine expectant days were passed there, 
and when the boats finally arrived, the condition 
of their cargoes gave little cheer to the army. 
The troops became mutinous; three hundred 
Kentuckians deserted in a body, while on a 
march to the enemy's camps; the rest of the Vol- 
unteers soon went straggling after, unmindful of 
the solemn and even tearful appeals of the war- 
worn commander, whom they had now ceased to 
respect or obey; and the success of the expedi- 
tion became hopeless. Nothing remained to 
Clark but to retrace his steps to the Falls, with 
the remnant of the regular force — if indeed that 
was with him at all. He never recovered from 
this disaster. It was almost his last appearance 
in military history. 

Logan's expedition. 

Upon his return to the Falls, Clark dispatched 
Colonel Benjamin Logan, who had encamped 
with him on the Indiana shore, near Silver creek, 
to raise more troops in Kentucky and operate 
against the Ohio Indians. Logan obtained four 



to five hundred men, crossed the Ohio at I,ime- 
stone, now Maysville, and made a very success- 
ful raid through the Mad River country. 
Denny's journal. 
The following extracts from the Military Jour- 
nal of Major Ebenezer Denny, then a young 
lieutenant on duty at Fort Finney, near the 
mouth of the Great Miami, supply some inter- 
estmg details of the military occupation here: 

22d [May, 1786]. — I received orders to prepare to go on 
command to the Falls of Ohio. 

2^d. — Set out with sergeant, corporal, and twelve men, in 
a barge for Louisville. River very full. Landed ne.xt morn- 
ing at the place — distance said to be one hundred and fifty 
miles— run it in twenty-four hours. Four Kentucky boats, 
which passed Fort Finney the day before I left it, were 
attacked at the mouth of Kentucky river by the Indians on 
both sides of the Ohio, supposed to be in number two hun- 
dred—fortunately no other damage than a few horses killed. 
Four days I remained at the Falls, and every 
day there were accounts of men being scalped between that 
and the upper counties 

After many altercations between General Clark, myself, 
and the two gentlemen who had the artillery in charge, they 
agreed that I should have a piece, with a few shot, which I 
immediately put on board. 

28th. — Having procured a brass three-pounder with a few 
boxes of suitable shot, left the Falls; embarked again for 
our Fort. River very high , and obliged to work up close along 
shore, giving the savages every possible advantage. 

Mr. Denny was not very favorably impressed 
with the behavior of some of the civilians here, 
as he wrote shortly afterwards to General Har- 
mar : 

If it had not been for General Clark, who has always been 
our friend here, I should have returned as I went, owing to a 
contentious set of men in civil office there, all of whom are 
candidates for something, and were afraid would be censured 
by the public for giving any of the military stores away, at a 
time when their country is suffering by savage depreda- 

From certain other entries in Denny's journal, 
it is ascertained that General Harmar, with Lieu- 
tenants Beatty and Pratt, were here the latter 
part of April, 1787; that Captain Strong, with | 
his company from Fort Harmar, reinforced the i 
garrison at the Falls about June ist, ol the same 
year; and that he, with Captain Smith and com- 
pany, Ensign Sedam (founder of Sedamsville, | 
below Cincinnati, now a part of the city), with 
part of Mercer's company, Lieutenant Peters, 
and Dr. Elliot, also came on the loth of that 
month. The diary proceeds: 

nth.— Our commandant, with Major liamtramck and 
Mr. Pratt, the quartermaster, etc., arrived in the barge. 

i8th.— Water favorable. We began to send our boats and | 
stores over the Rapids, for fear of low water. Subalterns | 

command at landing below the Rapids as guard. Troops 
wait for a supply of provisions. . . . When 
Bradshaw, the agent, is at a loss, commanding officer directs 
the purchase of provisions. 

July 2d.— Strongs, Mercer's, and Smith's companies cross 
the Ohio from their encampment opposite Louisville, march 
down and encamp at the landing below the Falls. 

3d.— Finney's and Ziegler's companies crossed and en- 
camped with the others. This evening Ferguson, with his 
company of artillery from [Fort] M'Intosh, and Daniel Britt, 
with a cargo of provisions on account of late contractors, 

6th.— Captain Ziegler, with a command of a lieutenant, 
one sergeant, one corporal, and si.\ty-two privates, em- 
barked with all the cattle and horses, and a quantity of 
flour, on board eight Kentucky boats and two keel-b(<ats, 
with orders to proceed down to Pigeon creek, eight miles 
above Green river, and there wait for the arrival of the 

8th.— Troops embarked for Pigeon creek, one hundred 
and eighty miles below the Rapids. 

This was a peaceful expedition to Vincennes, 
under command of General Harmar and Major 
Hamtramck, which made its march through the 
wilderness without serious disaster or loss, al- 
though hostile Indians were occasionally met. 
After the return, October 28th, Harmar, till 
then colonel, received at Fort Finney, on the 
opposite shore, his brevet commission as brig- 
adier-general and set out for Fort Harmar, with 
Denny, Quartermaster Pratt, and fifteen men. 
The companies of Captains Ziegler and Strong 
were to follow the next day. Major VVyllys, 
with Finney's and Mercer's companies, was to 
continue at Fort Finney, a work which had been 
recently erected upon the present site of JefTer- 
sonville, taking its name from the same Major 
Finney who entitled the fort at the mouth of the 
Miami. It was from the former that a small gar- 
rison was sent fifteen months afterwards to Judge 
Symmes's settlement at North Bend, below Cin- 
cinnati. We hear no more of Denny or his 
companions at the Falls of the Ohio. Major 
Wyllys was afterwards removed to Fort Wash- 
ington, and was with the troops that marched 
from that post to defeat under General Harmar 
in October, 1790. 


down the Ohio this year and the next was very 
great, (ieneral Harmar caused Lieutenant Den- 
ny to take an account of the boats and their 
contents which passed Fort Harmar between the 
loth of October, 1786, and the 12th of May, 
1787, "bound for Limestone and the Rapids." 
Their number was 177 boats, 2,689 persons, 



1,333 horses, 766 cattle, and 102 wagons. From 
the ist of June to December 9, 1787, there were 
146 boats, 3,196 souls, 1,371 horses, 165 wagons, 
191 cattle, 245 sheep, and 24 hogs. This 
promised very hopefully for the settlements 
down the great rivers. 


Louisville, now becoming much the most 
prominent point in Kentucky, had its full share 
in the agitations of this period, in reference to 
Spanish domination in the Southwest. In May, 
1786, the Hon. John Jay, United States Minister 
to Spain, who had been negotiating with that 
Government with reference to the navigation of 
the Mississippi below the Federal boundaries, 
brought the matter to the attention of Congress, 
with the recommendation that the United States 
should surrender the right of navigation through 
the Spanish domains, for twenty-five or thirty 
years. The Southern Congressmen naturally 
opposed this with great vigor; and rumors of the 
situation, reaching the Ohio valley in very dis- 
torted forms, aroused great indignation among 
the people of Kentucky and other Western 
settlements. It began to be proposed that Ken- 
tucky should set up an independent government, 
and effect the conquest of Louisiana from the 
Spanish. A hot-headed individual at Louisville, 
named Thomas Green, according to the Annals 
of the West, wrote to the Governor and Legisla- 
ture of Georgia, which State was involved in the 
boundary quarrel with Spain, that Spanish prop- 
erty had been seized in the Northwest as a 
hostile measure, and not merely to procure 
necessaries for the troops, which Clark after- 
ward declared was the case, and added that the 
General was ready to go down the river with 
"troops sufficient" to take possession of the 
lands in dispute, if Georgia would countenance 

The following extract from another letter- 
written from Louisville, professedly to some one 
in New England, and probably also written by 
Green, will serve as additional evidence to prove 
that the people were seriously deliberating upon 
their position. It reads thus: 

Our situation is as bad as it possibly can be, therefore 
every exertion to retrieve our circumstances must be manly, 
eligible, and just. 

We can raise twenty thousand troops this side of the Alle- 
ghany and Appalachian mountains, and the annual increase 

of them by emigration from other parts is from two to four 

We have taken all the goods belonging to the Spanish 
merchants at Post Vincennes and the Illinois, and are deter- 
mined they shall not trade up the river, provided they will 
not let us trade down it. Preparations are now making here 
(if necessary) to drive the Spaniards from their settlements 
at the mouth of the Mississippi. In case we are not counte- 
nanced or succored by the United States (if we need it), our 
allegiance will be thrown off and some other power applied 
to. Great Britain stands ready with open arms to receive 
and support us. They have already offered to open their re- 
sources for our supplies. When once reunited to them, 
"farewell, a long farewell to all your boasted greatness." 
The province of Canada and the inhabitants of these waters 
of themselves, in time, will be able to conquer you. You are 
as ignorant of this country as Great Britain was of America. 
These are hints which if rightly improved may be of some 
service ; if not, blame yourselves for the neglect. 

This letter produced considerable sensation at 
Danville, where it was shown by Mr. Green's 
messenger, and copies of it were made and sent 
to the Governor of Virginia. Under Clark's direc- 
tion Vincennes had been occupied, some Spanish 
property seized, as stated in the letter, a few sol- 
diers enrolled, and preparations made to hold a 
peace-council with the Indians — all in the inter- 
est of the anti-Spanish movement. The Green 
letter opened the eyes of the Virginia Govern- 
ment to the character of the movement; Clark's 
conduct was condemned by the Council of the 
State early the next year, his powers were dis- 
claimed, and prosecution of the persons engaged 
in the seizure of property was ordered. The 
whole matter was then laid before Congress; and 
on the 26th of April an effectual wet blanket was 
put upon the revolutionary move-nent by th'^ 
order of that body that the Federal troops should 
dispossess the unauthorized force which had 
seized the post at Vincennes. Clark, the re- 
doubtable warrior, had experienced his third se- 
vere reverse. 

Little practical difficulty was found in the nav- 
igation of the Mississippi that was desired thus 
early by the people of Kentucky ; and the question 
was definitely settled a few years after, in 1795, 
by the concession to the United States, not only 
of the right to navigate the whole length of the 
United States, but also to deposit at New Or- 
leans or some other point near the mouth of the 
river. In 1788 General James Wilkinson, who, 
as well as our old Tory friend. Dr. John Connolly, 
had been concerned in the agitations of the pre- 
vious year, being then a resident of Kentucky^ 
himself took a cargo of tobacco and other pro- 


duce to New Orleans, which he sold to excellent 
advantage, and had the assurance to obtain from 
Miro the Spanish Governor — whom he would 
have overthrown by this time, had the plans suc- 
ceeded — a permit "to import, on his own ac- 
count, to New Orleans, free of duty, all the pro- 
ductions of Kentucky," including tobacco for the 
use of the King of Spain, at $io per one hun- 
dred weight, which he could buy in Kentucky 
for $2! Considerable suspicion long rested upon 
Wilkinson on account of his transactions with 
Miro, but we believe he was ultimately vindi- 


There are one or two points of interest in the 
following brief enactment, passed this year by 
the Virginia Legislature: 

An act giving further time to purchasers of lots in the town 

of Louisville, to build thereon. 

Spc. I. Wherkas, The purchasers of lots in the town 
of Louisville, in the county of Jefferson, from frequent incur- 
sions and depredations of the Indians and the difficulty of 
procuring materials, have not been able to build on their said 
lots within the time prescribed by law ; 

Sec:. 2. Be it therefore enacted. That the further time of 
three years from the passing of this act shall be allowed the 
purchasers of lots in the said town to build upon and save 
the same. 

A similar extension, for similar reasons, was 
made by the Assembly in 1789, applicable to 
Louisville, Harrodsburg, and two other towns in 
the State of Virginia, as then constituted. The 
same places had still another extension, this time 
for four years, in 1793. 

The General Assembly of Virginia this year 
passed an act constituting Colonel Richard 
Clough Anderson, Mr. Taylor, Robert Brecken- 
ridge, David Merriwether, John Clark, Alexan- 
der Scott Bullitt, and James Francis Moore, 
commissioners and trustees, in place of the 
original trustees, to receive from the trustees of 
the town of Louisville the amount of sales of 
lots made by them, and to bring suit for it, if 
payment were neglected or refused. The money 
received, as well as moneys arising from subse- 
quent sales, which the commissioners were au- 
thorized to make, should be applied, after deduct- 
ing oDst of surveying and laying off the lands, to 
the payment, first, of the Connolly mortgage to 
Campbell and Simon, and then to Campbell & 
Simon, "for and on account of ^608, 3s., and 
2^d., together with legal interest on ^577, 3s, 
part thereof, from the 4th day of June, 1776, due 

to the said Campbell & Simon from Alexander 
McKee." Any balance left due to Campbell & 
Simon on either debt was to be paid upon the 
sale of lots in Harrodsburg, which the trustees 
of that town were directed to make for the pur- 

Subsequently, by the act of 1790, the powers 
vested in the Louisville commissioners were con- 
fided solely to James F. Moore, Abraham Hite, 
Abner Martin Donne, Basil Prather, and David 
Standiford, or a majority of them. 


John Thompson was of the immigration of 
1786. He was the son of a Scotch clergyman, 
who was a graduate of the University of Edin- 
burgh, and in 1739 or '40 came to America and 
was made rector of St. Mark's parish, Culpeper 
county, Virginia. Among the numerous children 
of John Thompson was Mr. William L. Thomp- 
son, of the fine farm four miles from Louisville. 

About the same time as the pioneer Thomp- 
son, came his brother-in-law. Captain George 
Gray, a Revolutionary soldier. He settled on a 
farm two miles south of the town, and also 
reared a large family. Three of his sons became 
officers in the Federal army. 


On the last day of July was born, near the ham- 
let of Louisville, Dr. James Chew Johnston, 
descendant of the Johnstons and Chews of Vir- 
ginia, and son of William and Elizabeth (Winn) 
Johnston, who were among the earliest comers 
to the place, and were here married in 1784. 
The elder Johnston was a prisoner among the 
Indians of the Northwest for two years, and was 
subsequently clerk of the county court. His 
summer home was at the Cave Hill farm, the 
present site of Cave Hill Cemetery, where James 
was born. Young Johnston was educated in the 
local schools and in Princeton college, New 
Jersey, and in medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in iSio. 
He practiced with great success in Louisville 
and vicinity for some years, but increasing wealth 
and the cares of liis estate ultimately drew him 
altogether away from the business. He contin- 
ued to exercise a generous hospitality, and to 
take a fair degree of interest in public affairs. He 


was one of the first board of trustees of the first 
Episcopal church formed in Louisville. He lived 
all his life in this city, reaching his seventy-eighth 
year, and dying here December 4, 1864. His 
second wife was Sophia H. Zane, of the famous 
pioneer family of Wheeling, Virginia. 

The first Kentucky newspaper began to be 
seen at rare intervals during the summer and 
autumn of this year. It was a small sheet called 
The Kentucky Gazette, published at Lexington 
by John Bradford. It was in the issue of this sheet 
for September 6, 1788, that the first publication 
foreshadowing a settlement upon the site of Cin- 
cinnati was made. 


Somebody has handed down an estimate of 
the population of Louisville this year as thirty, 
which is obviously and ridiculously too low, al- 
though it is said to be officially reported in the 
United States Census Report of 1790. 

It was a year, not only of exceeding cold in 
the winter, but of great floods. The settlement 
made at Columbia, near Cmcinnati, in Novem- 
ber, was permanently ruined in reputation by be- 
ing drowned out soon after its cabins were built, 
and there were also tremendous freshets in the, 
Ohio before and after this year, during the dec- 
ade. Louisville, however, on its beautiful, high 
plateau, passed safely and with unimpaired re- 
putation through all the seasons of raging waters. 
But the health of the place did not improve, and 
the troops at the garrison suffered much from 
sickness this year. General Harmar, writing to 
Major Wyllys December 9th, says: "I am sorry 
to observe your ill health, and that of your garri- 
son. The Falls is certainly a very unhealthy 

It was in May of this year that the flat-boat 
laden with kettles, for the manufacture of salt at 
Bullitt's Lick, and manned by twelve persons, 
with one woman also on board, left Louisville for 
Salt river, and met with the startling adventure 
recited in our chapter on the Indians. 

The first brick house in this region is said by 
Dr. Craik to have been built this year, on the 
property now occupied by Cave Hill cemetery, 
by William Johnston, father of Dr. James C. 
Johnston. It was occupied for many years as 

the city pest-house. Mr. Johnston, it will be re- 
membered, was the first Clerk of Jefferson 
county, and he built his ofifice here also, a small 
frame building directly over the Cave spring. 

R. C. Anderson, Jr., son of Colonel Richard 
Clough Anderson, and one of the most famous 
in the long roll of Louisville's famous men, was 
born here August 4th of this year. 


Louisville was not to finish its first decade 
without seeing the red walls of at least one brick 
house. The pioneer in the splendid line of 
structures of this class within the old town-site 
was erected, probably as a dwelling, on the south 
side of Market street, between Fifth and Sixth, 
upon the square where the county court-house 
now stands. It was put up by a citizen named 
Frederick Augustus Kaye, from whom was de- 
scended the well-known Frederick A. Kaye, 
mayor of the city 1838-45. The brick of which 
it was built were brought from Pittsburg. It 
stood until 1835, and when it was pulled down, 
some of the material was preserved, and is now, 
says Colonel Durrett, in the pavement in front of 
Mr. B. F. Rudy's dwelling, on First street. 

Mr. Casseday says the second brick building 
in Louisville was erected by Mr. Eastin, on the 
north side of Main, below the corner of Fifth 
street; and the third by Mr. Reed at the north- 
west corner of Main and Sixth streets. 

In the first brick house was born, in 1791, 
Mrs. Schwing, mother of Mrs. John M. Delph, 
of Louisville. She was still living in 1875, i" 
the full possession of her faculties. 

This year the Virginia General Assembly ap- 
pointed Bruckner Thurston, James Wilkinson 
(the General), Michael Lacassagne, Alexander 
Scott Bullitt, Benjamin Sebastian, John Felty, 
Jacob Reager, James Patton, Samuel Kirby, 
Benjamin Erickson, and Benjamin Johnston, 
"gentlemen," additional trustees of the town. 

This year a bold Welsh pioneer, the father of 
Captain William C. Williams, came in a flatboat 
down the river, an immigrant from Philadelphia. 
Some aver that it was he who built the first brick 
house here the same season. It is pretty certain 
that he afterwards set up the first brewery. His 
son, the captain aforesaid, was born here April 4, 


William Chambers, a young man from his na- 
tive State of Maryland, is believed to have been 
here as early as this. His family had come even 
earlier, to the settlements in Mason county, 
above Cincinnati. He married Mrs. Dorsey, a 
widowed sister of Elias and Benjamin Lawrence, 
who came from Maryland about the same time, 
and settled near Middietown, in this county. 
Mr. Chambers settled eight miles from Louis- 
ville, and became a farmer and extensive land- 
owner, dying very wealthy May 8, 1848, aged 
eighty-seven. One of his early purchases, at $10 
per acre, then near St. Louis, is now apart of the 
city, and immensely valuable. His only child, 
Mary Laurence, was wife of the late Robert Tyler, 
Esq., a prominent Louisville lawyer in his day, 
who died April 28, 1832, in the prime of his 



1790 — The First Census : Population of Louisville — Too 
many Trustees : A New Law — The Oldest Map of Louis- 
ville Existing — Major Quirey — Toulmin's Notice. 1791 — 
Expeditions Against the Indians — Dr. Benjamin Johnston. 
1792 — Bishop Flaget's First Visit — Beginnings of Political 
Distinction. 1793 — Charles M. Thruston. 1794 — The 
French Intrigues — Incidents. 1795 — Tobacco Inspection 
— Winterbotham's Notice — The Spanish Troubles : Judge 
Sebastian^The Pioneer Speed. 1796— Andrew Ellicott's 
Visit — Lacassagne the Frenchman — Another Cold Wm- 
ter. 1797 — Local Ta.xation — The Falls Pilots — Louis 
Philippe here — Visit of Francis Baily, a King of Science — 
Peter B. Ormsby. 1798— Jeffarson Seminary— The First 
Fire Company— Thomas Prather — The New State Con- 
stitution. 1799 — Louisville a Port of Entry — Birth of 
John Joyes— Of James Harrison— Of Abraham Hite, Jr. 
— Notice in Scott's Gazetteer — A Retrospect. 


The last decade of the eighteenth century 
opened with a population in the entire tract now 
covered by the State of Kentucky, of 73,677 — 
61,133 whites, 12,430 slaves, and 114 free 
colored persons. This great accumulation — 
great for that period of American history — had 
been made in little more than fifteen years, and 
represented an immigration truly wonderful. 
The eighth State Convention, meeting at Dan- 
ville in July of this year, formally accepted the 
act of separation of Kentucky from Virginia, as 

prescribed by the Legislature of the Old Domin- 
ion, and the way was thus cleared for the ad- 
mission of the former as a sovereign State into 
the Union. In December of this year, President 
Washington strongly recommended to Congress 
the admission of Kentucky, and an act looking 
to that end passed the National Legislature 
February 4, 1791. In December of that year 
the members of the ninth and last State Con- 
vention were elected. It met at Danville the 
next April, and formed the first Constitution of 
the State. It was adopted by the people in May, 
when State officers were also elected, and on the 
ist of June, 1792, all requisite conditions hav- 
ing been fulfilled, the State was admitted into 
the Federal Union. 

According to the census of 1790, Jefferson 
county, then of great size, had a total of 4,565 
inhabitants, of whom 1,008 were free white 
males of sixteen years and upwards, 997 free 
white males under sixteen years; 1,680 free 
white females; 4 of all other free persons; and 
876 slaves. 

Louisville had in this year a population, as has 
been estimated in later years, of 200 people. 


The act of 1789, giving the town of Louisville 
an additional number of "city fathers," had 
created a rather burdensome municipal govern- 
ment — at least the good people of the town 
thought so, and petitioned the Assembly for re- 
lief. A new act was accordingly passed this 
year. Its preamble reads : 

Whereas, It is represented to this present General As- 
sembly that inconveniences have arisen on account of the 
powers given to the Trustees and Commissioners of the Town 
of Louisville, in the County of Jefferson, not being suffi- 
ciently defined, for remedy whereof, etc. 

This act deposed from office all the former 
trustees of the town, and substituted for them 
the following-named persons: "J. F. Moore, 
Abraham Hite, Abner M. Donne, Basil Prather, 
and David ?tandiford, gentlemen," as sole trust- 
ees, with power to sell and convey lots, levy 
taxes, improve the town by means of taxes so 
levied, and fill vacancies in their own body by 
election. There was a manifest improvement in 
the local government under this change of ad- 

July 5th of this year, the new commissioners 
having ordered a sale of squares and half-acre 



lots, make a deed of the entire Square No. 6 to 
Colonel John Campbell, for the sum of ^53, 
bid at the sale that day, 


In this year was made the oldest plat of 
Louisville which is still in existence— that of 
Abram Hite, then a commissioner of the town 
under appointment of the Virginia Legislature. 
The ofificial records of the place coming into his 
hands, he made a copy of the map — it is not 
known which of the four older maps — then held 
of authority ; and this is now owned by the Louis- 
ville Abstract association. It does not show the 
lots of five, ten, and twenty acres laid off by 
William Shannon in 1785, nor the old grave- 
yard now Baxter Square, between Jefferson and 
Green, Eleventh and Twelfth streets; and there- 
fore it is pretty certain that Mr. Hite used 
the map of May ordered in 1781, or Pope's of 
1783. Colonel Durrett gives the following de- 
scription of this ancient plat: 

This map of Hite lays down the city from the river on the 
north to the present Green street on the south, and from 
about Twelfth street on the west to Brook street on the east. 
This boundary shows three streets running from east to west 
not named, but known to correspond to Main, Market, and 
Jefferson, and twenty streets running north and south, also 
without names or numbers, but likewise known to be the 
present streets numbered from one to twelve. The whole 
space, besides what is taken up by the streets and the river 
front between the northern tier of Main street and the river, 
is divided into 300 half-acre lots, numbered from one to 300. 
The old numbering of the first eighty-six lots, as shown on 
the map of Bard, is preserved by horizontal figures, while the 
new numbering of the same lots appears in parallel figures. 
The new numbering begins with one at the northeast corner 
of Main and Fifth streets, and proceeds easterly up the north 
side of Main to Brook, where number twenty is reached. It 
then goes back to the northwest corner of Main and Fifth, 
where, beginning with number twenty-one, it proceeds west- 
erly to two lots below Twelfth street, where number fifty is 
reached. It then crosses to the south side of Main street, 
where it begins with fifty-one, and proceeds easterly to Brook 
street, where number 100 is reached. The north side of 
Market, within the same eastern and western e.vtremes, takes 
the numbers from loi to 150, and the south side from 151 to 
200. The north side of Jefferson takes the numbers from 201 
to 250, and the south side from 251 to 300. No public 
grounds are marked on this map except lots Nos. 223, 224, 
225, and 226 on the north side of Jefferson, and 275, 276, 
277, and 278 on the south side, at the intersection of Sixth 
street. The space between the northern tier of Main street 
lots and the river is divided into sections numbered from two 
to eleven, number two being the most easterly and eleven the 
most westerly division. The space bounded by the northern 
tier of Main street lots on the south. Eleventh street on the 
east and the river on the north, where the old fort stood, is 
neither laid off nor numbered on the map. 


One of the new-comers to Louisville in the 
early part of April, of this year, has come down 
in local history with a peculiar celebrity. This 
notable immigrant rejoiced in the euphonious 
cognomen of Major Quirey. He was a native 
of Pennsylvania, married at nineteen years of 
age, and soon afterward removed to Kentucky. 
Six feet two inches in height and weighing two 
hundred and fifty pounds, he speedily received 
the reverence due to strength; for in those days 
when muscular energy was so often in requisi- 
tion, a man with a large and robust body and a 
will to use it stood higher in his fellows' estima- 
tion than one endowed with the greatest mental 
capacity. The palm of his hand was said to 
have been large enough for a lady's writing-desk, 
and his active daring made his name scarcely less 
celebrated than that of Peter Francisco, of Virgin- 
ia. The story is it told — and we may confidently 
say believed — that in place of ribs, his chest was 
enclosed by a solid case of bone. Quirey's strong 
hatred for cowards and Indians is illustrated by 
an occurrence during his descent to Louisville 
on the Ohio. Recent successes had made the 
Indians bold in their attacks on all boats of emi- 
grants, and this man's boat, containing only one 
single individual in addition to his family and 
himself, met the same hostile treatment. Just 
above the piesent site of MaysviUe, the attack 
was made by a large party of these savagfes. 
Quirey fought with remarkable bravery, but his 
coward companion only made sure of his own 
safety by getting out of sight among the goods 
forming the cargo. The wife helped as best she 
could by loading the guns, and her husband's un- 
flinching aggression finally brought them the vic- 
tory. When all the danger was over, their 
sneaking and trembling companion came again 
into view, this time to receive, not the vengeance 
of the wild Inf^ian, but the merited chastisement 
of the gainer of the batde. With one hand the 
miserable wretch was seized by Quirey and held 
high over the waves, and only the tears and en- 
treaties of the woman saved him the sudden 
death that might have met him then and there. 
Instead of summarily putting an end to him, 
he was set ashore near Limestone with the privi- 
lege of making his way to the fort or defending 
himself in a hand to hand fight with the same 
enemy he had so valiantly met before. His 



fate is not recorded in history. Quirey after- 
ward established his reputation for strength, 
however, in a way that could not be questioned. 
He had reached Louisville, and one Peter 
Smith, who had long held the reputation of being 
the strongest man and most successful fighter in 
the place, determined thoroughly to whip the 
new-comer or "leave e c ountry " altogether. 
For this purpose he sought out the Pennsylvanian 
and'proposedVtrial of fisticuff. Quirey thought 
it a better show of skill that they bind all their 
efforts against the common enemy, and even of- 
fered to acknowledge Smith as his superior in 
such laudable feats of skill and power. This not 
meeting his antagonist's approval, he named 
various trials in lifting or some athletic game. 
All plans were refused, and the challenger 
finally began to make ready for an immediate 
fight. Having stripped the upper part of his 
body to the skin and tightened his belt, he ad- 
vanced upon Quirey, who, with one blow of the 
open hand upon his ear, hurled his antagonist to 
the floor several paces away. The blood gushed 
from ears, nose, and eyes, but he was not yet 
satisfied. He declared the blow to be accident- 
al, and nothing would satisfy but a new trial. 
Quirey warned him of what he would doubtless 
receive if he began a second attack, but he could 
not be satisfied, and the second time Smith 
sought to know whose strength was the gi eater, 
he received, at the same time, two terrible blows, 
one with the hand and the other with the foot. 
He fell as if dead, and was carried to Patton's 
tavern, where he lay for six weeks. Upon his 
recovery, he acted upon his experience and left 
the country. 

As we might naturally expect. Major Quirey 
made a most efficient soldier and officer. He 
enlisted, during the war, not less than six thou- 
sand men. Soon after he became a captain in the | 
Seventeenth regiment, United States Army, a 
rather unusual incident occurred which might 
have terminated seriously. He had a pair of 
pet bears, and once passing near them he was 
seized by the male and quickly drawn under 
him. The situation was critical, but the man 
was not to be conquered by a bear. With one 
hand he seized the animal's tongue and, drawing 
it over his teeth, caused him to bite off his own 
tongue. The other hand tore out one of the 
creature's eyes. Thus the pain given aided him 

in extricating himself, but not without wounds 
in his body from the long sharp claws and the 
loss from his hip of a mass of flesh weighing not 
less than twelve pounds. Such is the statement 
given by the Major's own son. He continued in 
office after recovery from this affray, till his regi- 
ment was disbanded in 1815. In 1817 he died. 
The life of his widow is also full of romantic 
incident. She survived him many years, her 
death occurring about the year 1850. Her recol- 
lections of the early days in Louisville were 
always of interest, and her death to many are the 
cause of much regret. 


Toulmin's description of Kentucky, in North 
America, printed in England in November of 
this year, says merely: 

Louisville stands on the Kentucky side of the Ohio, oppo- 
site Clarksville, at the Falls, in a fertile country, and prom- 
ises to be a place of great trade. Its unhealthiness, owing to 
stagnated waters behind the town, has considerably retarded 
its growth. 


The Kentucky board of war was formed in 
January, under authority of Congress, and con- 
sisted of Generals Scott and Shelby, Colonel 
Benjamin Logan, Henry Innes, and John Brown. 
Under its direction General Scott, the chief offi- 
cer, undertook a successful expedition in May 
against the Indian towns on the Wabash, cross- 
ing his force at the mouth of the Kentucky. 

On the 2ist of August the expedition of Gen- 
eral James Wilkinson, which had also been or- 
ganized under authority of the board, and had 
operated fortunately against the native villages 
near the junction of the Eel and Wabash rivers, 
reaches Louisville on its return with prisoners 
and plunder, and the force is here disbanded. 

Some of the men of Louisville were undoubt- 
edly in both these expeditions. Many Kentuck- 
ians were also in the terrible defeat sustained 
near the Maumee November 4th of this year, by 
General Arthur St. Clair— the worst disaster, it is 
believed, in proportion to the numbers engaged, 
that ever befell the American arms. General 
Butler, whose observations at Louisville are re- 
corded in the last chapter, was among the killed 
of this action. 

An act of the Virginia Assembly this year 



vested all the right and title of the Common- 
wealth in the escheated tract of Connolly, so far 
as it affected Campbell's moiety of the two thou- 
sand acres, in Colonel Campbell and his heirs, in 
fee simple. 

Dr. Benjamin Johnston, father of William 
Johnston, the immigrant with General Clark in 
1778 and first Clerk of Jefferson county, and 
grandfather of Dr. James Chew Johnston, re- 
moved to Louisville with all his family this year. 
A daughter of his married Major John Harrison, 
and the veteran of more than eighty years, Hon. 
James Harrison, the well-known Louisville law- 
yer, was born of that marriage. His grand- 
father, Benjamin Johnston, lived on the corner of 
Main and Sixth streets, where he died about six 
years after his arrival, in 1797. Most of his de- 
scendants live in Indiana and Illinois. 

1792 — FLAGET. 

Towards the end of November, a young 
Frenchman, a priest of the Order of St. Sulpice, 
or the Sulpitians, landed here from the fiat-boat 
upon which he had floated from Pittsburg, on 
his way as a missionary to the French Catholics 
of Vincennes, who had been long without a 
spiritual guide. His biographer. Bishop Spal- 
ding, makes an interesting, though partly mis- 
taken, note of the visit: 

There were but three or four cabins in Louisville. Here 
he had the happiness to meet with his old friends, Rev. MM. 
Levadoux and Richard, on their way to Kaskaskias and 
Prairie du Rocher. At the foot of a tree with wide-spreading 
branches, he made his confession to M. Levadoux; his heart 
was filled with lively emotion, for he knew not how long it 
might be before he would have another opportunity to receive 
the grace of the holy sacrament of penance. 

In Louisville he stopped at the cabin of a French settler, 
who owned one hundred acres of land at the mouth of Bear- 
grass creek, embracing the central portion of the present 
city. His host, who had no heirs, pressed him to take up his 
abode permanently at his house, promising to convey to him 
all his property, in caseof compliance. But the disinterested 
missionary told him at once that he was a child of obedience 
and that he must repair promptly to the station to which he 
had been sent by his superiors. This property is now [18152] 
worth, probably, more than a million of dollars. 

This young priest was subsequently the Right 
Reverend Benedict Joseph Flaget, first Catholic 
Bishop of Kentucky, and the first of Louisville. 
His devoted and generous host was a well-known 
pioneer hither from the Old World. 


It is a fact of considerable interest, and re- 
dounded not a little to the glory of Louisville 
and Jefferson county, that they furnished the very 
earliest presiding officers of the Kentucky Senate 
and House of Representatives. In the first 
year of the State Government it was the fortune 
of Alexander Scott Bullitt, nephew of the sur- 
veyor of 1773, Colonel Thomas Bullitt, tx> be 
chosen an elector of the Senators, under the 
peculiar provision of the first Constitution, then 
a Senator, then Speaker of the Senate, as there 
was no Lieutenant-Governor under the first Con- 
stitution, which he had also helped to form, as a 
member of the Convention. He presided over 
the Senate until the Constitution of 1799 (which 
he again aided to construct, being now presiding 
officer of the Convention) went into operation, 
when he became the first Lieutenant-Governor 
elected in the State, and as such re-occupied the 
chair in the Senate from 1800 to 1804, making 
in all twelve years of presidency in this body. 
He remained four years longer in the Legislature 
as Representative or Senator, until 1808, when he 
retired from public life. 

The first Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives was also a Jefferson county man — Robert, 
of the famous family of Breckenridges, He had 
been one of the Kentucky members of the Vir- 
ginia Convention which ratified for that State the 
Constitution of the United States, and a mem- 
ber of the Convention of 1792, which formed 
the Kentucky State Constitution. Under that he 
was chosen one of the earliest Representatives 
from Jefferson county, and was elected by the 
House Speaker of that body. He was three 
times re-elected by his constituents and by his 
fellow-legislators, and for four years served as 
Speaker; and it is a fact worth noting that, dur- 
ing the first twenty-seven years of the State 
government, for eight years, or through nearly 
one-third of the whole time, the chair of the 
House of Representatives was held by a Breck- 
enridge — by Robert Breckenridge four years, 
1792-95; by John Breckenridge two years, 
1 799-1800; and by Joseph Cabell Breckenridge 
two years, 181 7-18. 

The first Kentucky Legislature met June 4th 
of this year, just after the admission of the State, 
in a two-story log house in Lexington. The first 
session lasted but twelve days; the next, begin- 



ning November 5, 1792, was somewhat longer. 
In this year was published in London the first 
edition^of Mr. Gilbert Imlay's Topographical 
Description of the Western Territory, belonging 
mainly to Kentucky. It was an octavo of two 
hundred and forty-seven pages, and contained, as 
previously noted, one of the first maps of Louis- 
ville ever published. 


One of the notable natives of Jefferson county 
was born this year — Charles Myron Thruston, 
son of a famous pioneer family residmg on Bear- 
grass creek. He was educated in the classical 
schools at Bardstown, read law with his brother- 
in-law, Worden Pope, of Louisville, and began 
practice here with great success. Originally a 
Jeffersonian Democrat, he became a Whig, and 
in 1832 was a candidate for Congress against the 
Hon. C. A. Wickliffe. He failed of election but 
largely reduced the Democratic majoiity in the 
district, and was the first candidate for any office 
to secure a Whig majority in this city. He was 
an eloquent speaker, and lent his voice and 
energies to all schemes for the advancement of 
the place or the amelioration of the race. He 
married Eliza, daughter of the elder Fortunatus 
Cosby. January 7, 1854, after long illness he 
died here, at the residence of his son-in-law. Dr. 
Lewis Rogers. 


This was the year when all Kentucky was 
stirred to the core by the intrigues instigated by 
"Citizen Genet," the pestilent minister of the 
French Republic to the United States. Disre- 
garding the Government's proclamation of neu- 
trality in the wars then pending, he sent four 
French agents to Kentucky, instructed to enlist