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L. A. Williams & Co. 







Prefatory Note, 

The compilers nnd piiblisliers of tliis volume acknowledge with thap.':fulncss the invaluable aid 
and co-operation of many citizens of Louisville and other parts of the cuuiitr',-, who have r,iani- 
tested the liveliest interest in the enlerj'nse and the friendliest feeling for it. We desire ;jarticu- 
larly to name, as objects of this gratitude, Richard H. Collins, I.L. D., the distinguished historian 
of Kentucky; Colonel R. T. Durrott; Colonel Thomas W. Bullitt; Mr. C. K. Caron, publisher 
of an almost unrivaled series of City I )ircrtories; ex-Goveinor Charles Anderson, of Kuttawa, 
Owen county, Kentucky; Miss \'. Pollard, librarian of the Polytechnic .Society, whose 
fine collection of books uas freely pb.ced at the disposal of our writers, and Mrs. Jennie F. 
Atwood, of the Louis\ilie Public Library. Obligations of almost eiiual weight should he 
acknowledged to many more, too numerous to be named here. Some of them, who have most 
kindly contributed sections of the work, are mentioned hereafter, in text or foot-notes. 

The chief authorities for the annals of the city have necessarily been McMurtrie's Sketches of 
Louisville, F.en Casseday's little but very well prepared Plistory, Colonel Durrett's newspaper 
articles, and Dr. Coliins's History of Kentucky; though a multitude of volumes, pamphlets, news- 
paper files, oral traditions, and other sources of information, have been likewise diligently consulted. 
The Biographical Encyclopcedia of Kentucky has furnished large, though by no means exclusive, 
materials for certain of the chapters. It is hoped that the total result of the immense labor of 
investigation, compilation, and arrangement, will at least redeem this work from the scope of 
Horace W'alpole's remark, "Read me anything but history, for history must be false;" or the 
reproach of Napoleon's question, "What is history after all, but a fiction agreed upon?'' 
■ Clevel.\nd, Ohio, May 24, 1SS2. 




IFl:.- FAGl 

The Mound Buiia.-r .... 

■The Red Man .... 

-The White . . . . ; 

Seorge Roger; Clark . . ; 

'le Falls, the Canil .~.:\d tlu: linJgcs . 
ids, Riiilro.idj, nna .'^le.vners . ; 


>graphy and Geology . . . ( 

'>rganiz itior. — fetiersou county . ; 

and Court-Iioitses . . . i 

Record of Jerteraon countv . « 


le Was . 


\T.— The Tourth Uecade 
VII. --The FiUii Decide . 
VIII.- The Sixth iVcde 
I.\. -T!ie Severn;, iJecid.- 
X.-The LighLJi i.'ec.-^de 
XI. --The Ninth Decade 
XII -The Tenth 
XIII. -The IneoiiipU.te Decide 
XIV.-The .Ancient S-al„:rbs 
X\'. — Religion in Kouisvillc 
XV!, —The Charitie,^ of I.ouiiviUe . 
X'-'!I. — Public Education in Loaiivilie 
Win.— Louisville Liijrarie£ 
XIX. -The of Louisville 
XX.— The >,redi^.^! Pr-jfcsMcn 
XXI. — Bench and Bar 
XXII.— General Bu3,ncss 
XXUI. — Societies and Cm l.,s 
-XXIV. — The City Government 
XXV.— The Civil List of Louisville . 










Alexander. General E. P. . 


Avery, Benjamin F. . . . . 


Andersor:. James, Jr 


Bullitt. Family ..... 


buditt. Capuin .... 

• '5S 

Butler, Professor Noble .... 


R.^11 T. S . M. D. 


V'.. 'lire. Professor J aiiie.i Morrison, -M, 1). 


r:'-e:.:u!;le, \V-;liam L.. M. D. 


Boilir-. Dr. VV. H 


B-jilock, William Fontaine . 

• 483 

Barr, John W. . 


Bloom, Natbsn .... 

. 4883 

dLK..-.i-.-. Sc;i;ire ..... 


P.o>ne. Colonel Wilham P. . 

■ ¥A 

Boone, i.Vlci.ei J. Rowan 


BrLce. floi,. i: \V 


Buliu. A'.rva;i'....r Scott .... 


l;i::i;-.t, W':;..rm Chnsstar! 


► ■■ridgeford, James . 
Brown, James . 
Baxter. Ex-mayor |ohn G. 
Campbell, Colonel [ohn 
Clark, George Rogers 
Casseday, S,iinuel 
Cald«e!!, WdPam B.. M. i 
Cheatham. Dr. W. 
Cummins. Dr. Dj.vid 
Coomes. Dr. M. F 
Caldwell. George Alfred . 
Caldwell, Isaac 
Curd, Haidea Trisi; 
Casseday. Samui.i 
Coggeshall. S.iniuel 
D.iuforth. Joseph 
[■"ore^. Lra.'inus D. . .\L ! >. 


43 « 


.Joseph J. 

tiulliriL-. Ja.n 




:tt, R. C, M. O. 


I'help.s James S. . . . 


ison. Major John 


f'rather, Capl.iin Basil 


jison, Alexander . 

■ 5(^ 

■Quarricr, .Archibald .\. 

• 54-1 

fson, Hon. F,. 


Reynolds, Frofessor Dudley Sh.irpe M. D. 


.ob, Charles D; . 


Robinson, R. A. . . . 


p'.'y, ColoTiel R. M. . 


Robinson, Kev. Kmart, I). D. 

__ 4^6w 

lijsicnbme, L. 1)., M. 1>. . 

■ 456 

Shorl, Charles Wilhiiis, M. D. 


Kinkecid, Joseph B., Ksq. 


Scott, Preston l3ro«n, A. M., M. ! ). 


Kiiitaid, Hon. C. E. . 


Speed. Hon. James 


Lilhgow, ]aniesS. 


Stites, Jarige HcnryJ. 


Long, Dennis ..... 


Standiford. Hon. K i.\ 


Long, Charles R. . 


Swagar, Captain Jo.^eph . 


Lon?, \V;l!iar- H., M. D. . . . 

. .,96/ 

Sherley, Captain Z. M. 


ithe-.vs, Joseph McDowell. M. D. ' 


Tarascons. The .... 


orris, Hon. George W. 


Tildf-n. Charles 


.iloore, Georgi; H. ... 


Tyler, Levi .... 


Miller, ]ndge Is.tac .... 


1 r.ibno, James 


Miller, Rol«rt X 


\'e>.ch. P.. 3. _ . 


.Miller, Dr. Warwick .... 

• 49 V 

N'erhoefi", H. jr. . ' . . ' 


Korton, Rev. Dr. J. X. 


Wilson, Hon. W. S. . . . 


Xewcomb, H. \'iCtor 

54 ' 

\V;^rd, Hon. R. |. . 


Trentice. George D. . . . 


Yandei;. Dr. iS. P. Sr. . 


I'irtic, Judge Henry .... 

4-1 Dr. I.. P. Jr. 


Pope, Worden .... 


'••■ --■—•. .:•-.-■ 



Porirait n! Gnicr.d (Iconic Rogers 

Poriniil cl C;.-ier;il Z.icliary Tayl.. 

Portrait of CV>I':>ri'_-l W. R Boone 

I.iihograpli lellt-r of Oaiiiel Boor.e 

IVrirail of William C. Bullitt . 

I'orlrait of Levi '1 ykr 

Portrait of Hvti. jaiiies Harrison 

Portrait of [ I- Audabon 

Portrait of f.ouii Tarascon 

j'ovtrait of James Guthrie . 

Portrait of Sarnut:! C.tsseJay 

Portrait of Jinlge Henry Pirtle 

Portrait of James Anderson, jr. 

Portrait of W. K. liiiUork . 

Portrait of Gc .rge D. Prentice 

Portrait of Rohort ]. Ward 

Portrait of James Btidgeford . 

Portrait of Z. M. Siieriey . 

Portrait of James Trabu? - 

Portrait of H. T. 1','urd 

Portrait of J. S. Lithgow 

Portrait of i\ev Dr. S^aart Robir.s' 

Portrait of Kcv. Dr J. X. Norton 

Por-;.it ..f Vr'S Xoble Butler 

Portrait .if W. S. Ilaldeman . 

Portrait of K. M. Kcily 

p. .1 trait of Hon. W. S. Wilson 

Portrait of Dr. T. S. Bel! . 

Portrait of R. C. Hewitt 

Portrait of W H. P:.l]ing . 

Portrait of Dr. J. M. Bodine . 

Portrait of I>r. L. P. Yandell, Sr. 

Portrait of Willi.iin R. Caldwell 

Portrait of Dr. Erasmus D. Fcree 

Portrait of Dr. Dudley S. Reynolds 

Portrait of Dr. P. B. b'cott . 

Portrait of L. L', Kastenbine. M. D. 

Portrait of Dr. W. I^. Breyfogle 

Portrait of Dr. W. Cheatham . 

Portrait of Jo.-^epli M. M.itliews, M. D. betw 

Portrait ot Dr. .M. F. Coomes 

Portrait of Dr. David Cummins 


facing 36 

Portrait of 


facing 92 

Portrait of 

(icing no 

Portrait of 

facing 153 

Portrait of 

facing 157 

Portrait of 

facing 161 

Portrait of 

facing 210 

Portrait of 

facing 221 

Portrait of 

- facing 2-{S 

Portr.ul of 

facing 249 

Portrait of 

facing 252 

Portrait of 

facing 23O 

Portrait of 

facing 257 

Portrait of 

facing 260 

View of .\I, 

facing 264 

Portrait of 

facing 277 

Portrait of 

facing 2y5 

Portrait of 

facing 304 

I'orir.iit of 


312 and 313 

Portrait of 



312 and 313 

Portrait of 

facing 320 

Portrait of 


facing 3S1 

Portrait of 

facing 353 

Portrait of 

facing 417 

Portr.iit of 

facing 429 

Portrait of 

facing 432 

Portrait of 

facing 435 

Portrait of 

facing 442 

Portrait of 


444 and 445 

Portrait of 



444 and +15 

Portrait of 

facing +17 

Portrait of 

facing 449 

Portrait of 

facing 451 

Portrait if 

facing 452 

Portrait of 

5 . 

facing 453 

Portrait of 

facing 453 

Portrait of 

D. . 

facing 45b 

Portrait of 

facing 457 

Portrait of 



458 and 459 

Portrait of 

. D. between 

453 and 439 

Portrait of 



460 and 461 

Portrait of 



400 and 46t 

P. p. Vandell, Jr. 
Dr. John Goodman 
Dr. \V. H. Long . 
Hon. James Speed 
John W. Barr 

■ Judge Henr>-J. Stiles 
Colonel George Alfr*:d C 
Isaac Caldwcil . 
Colonel J. Rowan Booi 
R. S. Veech 
Hon. H. W. Bruce . 
tiamilton Pope . 
Joseph B. Kinkead . 

Iain Street, Louisville 
' John Barbee 
■J. M. Atherton . 

N. Blooni . 

Hon. K. D. Standiford 

Charles Ti'den 

■ Tliomas L. Jeffeison 
Genera! K. P. Ale.vandor 
H. Victor Newcomb 
Captain Joseph Swagar 

A. A. t^uarrier . 
Hon. George W. Morr 

B. F. Avery 

■ J. T. Gathright 
Thomas L. B.irret 
Dennis Long 

" James b". Phelps 
' James Brown 

R. A. Robinson 
" Joseph Danforth 

H. Verhoeff 

Alexander Harbison 

George H. Moore 

Aimuel Coggeshall . 

W. W. Hulings 

Charles D. Jacob . 
f John G. Ba.\ter . 

Charles R. Long 



facing 41O2 
facing 465 
facing 480 
facing 482 
facing 485 
facing 487 
facing 494 
facing 495 
fatin§{ 496^ 
faring 49'^^'' 
facing 499 
facing 501 
facing 5c6 
facing jiS 
facing 321 
facing 325 
facing 52.3 
f.'.cing 532 
facing 33 \ 
facing 330 
facing 339 
facing 54 1 
facing 342 
facing 544 
facing 543 
facing 547 
54 3 and 540 
348 and 549 
facing 330 
facing 552 
facing 557 
facing 501 
facing 566 
facing 363 
facing 569 
facing 570 
facing 371 
facing 372 
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facing 593 
facing 596 

History of the Ohio Falls Counties, 



The American Aborigint,— The Friniitive Dweller al the I 
Falls— The ToUecs— The Mound BuilJcrs' f:mp!re— Their 
Works — Knclos;irrs for Defense— Sacred Enclosures- Mis- 
. cellaneoiib Enclosures — Mounds of Sacrifice— Temple 
Mounds-Burial Mounds— Sij,'nal Mounds— Effigy or Ani- 
mal Mounds — Garden Beds— Mines — Conlenls of the 
Moimds- Tlie Mound Builders' Civilij.ition- The Build- 
ers ab'jut the Falls — Curiuus Relics Found. I 


The red men whom Columbus found upon 
this continent, and whom he mistakenly calls 
Indians, were not its aborigines. Before them 
were the strange, mysterious peojjle of the 
mounds, who left no literature, no inscriptions 
as yet decipherable, if any indeed, no monu- 
ments except the long-forest-covered earth- and 
stone-works. No traditions of them, by com- 
mon consent of all the tribes, were left to the 
North American Indian. As a race, they have 
vanished utterly in the darkness of the past. 
But the comparatively slight traces they have 
left tend to conclusions of deep interest and im- 
portance, not only highly probable, but rapidly 
approaching certainty. Correspondences in the 
manufacture of pottery and in the rude sculp- 
tures found, the common use of the scrjient- 
symbol, the likelihood that all were sun-worship- 
ers and practiced the horrid rite of human 
sacrifice, and the tokens of commercial inter- 
course manifest by the presence of Me.xican por- 
phyry and obsidian in the Ohio Valley mounds, 
together with certain statements of the Mexican 
aimalists, satisfactorily demonstrate, in the judg 
ment of many antiquaries, the racial alliance, if 
not the identity, of our Mound Builders with the 
ar.c-ent Mexicans, whose descendants, with their 
remarkable civilization, were found in the coun- 

try when Cortes entered it in the second decade 
of the sixteenth century. 

The migrations of the Toltecs, one of the 
Mexican tribes, from parts of the territory now- 
covered by the United States, are believed to 
have reached through about a thousand years. 
.Apart from the exile of the princes and their 
allies, and very likely an exodus now and then 
compelled by their eneiv' and ultimate con- 
querors, the Chichime vho at last followed 
them to Mexico, the .nd Builders were un- 

doubtedly, in the ( .e of the ages, pressed 
upon, and finally the last of them — unless the 
Natchez and .Mandan ttibes, as some suppose, 
are to be considered connecting links between 
the Toltecs and the American Indians — driven 
out by the red men. I'he usual opening of the 
gateways in their works of defense, looking to 
the east and northeastward, indicates the direc- 
tion from which their enemies were expected. 
They were, not improbably, the terrible Iroquois 
and their allies, the first really formidable In- 
dians encountered by the French discoverers 
and explorers in "New France" in the seven- 
teenth century. A silence as of the grave is 
upon the history of their wars, doubtless long 
and bloody, the savages meeting with skilled and 
determined resistance, but* their ferocious and 
repeated attacks, continued, mayhap, through 
several centuries, at last expelling the more civi- 
lized people — 

"And the Mound Builders vanished from the earth," 

unless, indeed, as the works of learned antiqua- 
ries assume and as is assumed above, they after- 
wards appear in the Mexican story. Many of 
the remains of the defensive works at the South 
and across the land toward Mexico are ot an un- 
finished type and pretty plainly indicate that the 
retreat of the .Mound Builders was in that direc- 


lion, and that it was hastened by the renewed 
onslaughts of their fierce pur^iueis oi by the dis- 
covery of a fair and distant land, to which they 
determined to emigrate in the ho[ie of secure 
and untroubled homes. Professor Short, how- 
ever, in his North Americans of Aiiti(|uity, 
arguing from the lesser age of trees found upon 
the Southern works, is "led to think tiie (lulf 
coast may have been occupied by. the Mound 
Builders for a couple of centuries after they were 
driven by their enemies from the country north 
•of the mouths of the Missouri and Ohio rivers." 
He believes two thousand years is time enough 
to allow for their total occupation of the country 
north of the Gulf of Mexico, "though after all 
it is but conjecture.'' He adds : "It seems to 
us, howevei, that the time of abandonment of 
their works may be more closely approximated. 
A thousand or two years may have elapsed since 
they vacated the Ohio valley, and a period em- 
bracmg seven or eight centuries may have [jussed 
since they retired from the Gulf coast.'' The 
date to which the latter period carries us 
back, approximates somewhat closely to that fixed 
by the Mexican annalists as the time, of the last 
emigration of a people of Nahuan stock from the 

THE Mouxn builders' e.mpire. 

Here we base upon firmer ground. The ex- 
tent and something of the character of this are 
known. They are tangible and practical reali- 
ties. We stand upon the mounds, pace ofT the 
long lines of the enclosures, collect and handle 
and muse upon the long-buried relics now in our 
public and private museums. The domain o( 
the Mound Builders was well-nigh coterminous 
with that of the Great Republic. F"ew States of 
the Union are wholly without the ancient monu- 
ments. Singular to say, however, in view of the 
huge heaps and barrows of shells left by the 
aboriginal man along the Atlantic shore, there 
are no earth or stone mounds or enclosures of the 
older construction on that coast. Says Prol'essor 

No authentic rem.iins of the Mound Buildt'rs are found in 
the New England Stales. . . In the former 

we have an isolated mound in tlie vallry of ihe Kennebec, in 
Maine, and dim outlines of enclosures Sanboni and Con- 
cord, in New Hampshire; but there is no certainty of their 
being the work of this pe>ple. . . Mr. tiquier 

pronounces them to be purely the wor^ of Red Indians. 
Colonel Whittlesev would .assisju the^e fort- 

like structures, the enclosures of Western New York, and com- 
mon upon tlie rivers discharging llicniselves into Lakes Eric 
and Ontario from the south, diflisriiig from the mo.'e southern 
enclosures, in that they were surrounded by trendies on their 
outside, while the latter uniformly have the trench on the in- 
side of the enclosure, to a people anterior to the red Indian 
and perhaps contemporaneous with the Mound Builders. 
j tjin distinct from either. The more reasonable view is that 
of Dr. Foster, that they are the frontier works of the Mound 
Iluilders, adapted to the purposes of defense against the sud- 
j den irruptions of hostile tribes. . . . It is 
I prob.ible thai these defenses belong to the last period of the 
.Mound lUiildcr's' residence on tlie lakes, and were erected 
when the more warlike peoples of the North, who drove them 
from their cities, fust made their appearance. 

The Builders quarried flint in various places, 
soapstone m Rhode Island and North Carolina, 
and in the latter State also the translucent mica 
found so widely dispersed in their burial mounds 
in association with the bones of the dead. They 
mined or made salt, and in the L^pper Peninsula 
of Michigan they got out, with infinite labor, the 
copper, which was doubtless their most useful 
and valued metal. The Lower Peninsula of that 
Stale is rich in ancient remains, particularly in 
mounds of sepulture; and there are "garden 
beds" in the valleys of the St. Joseph and the 
Kalamazoo, in Southwestern Michigan; but "ex- 
.cepting ancient copper mines, no known works 
extend as far north as Lake Superior anywhere 
in the central region. Farther to the northwest, 
however, the works of the same people are com- 
paratively numerous. Dr. Foster quotes a Brit- 
ish Columbia newspaper, without giving either 
name or date, as authority for the discovery of a 
large number of mounds, seemingly the works of 
the same people who built further east and south. 
On the Butte prairies of Oregon, Wilkes and his 
exploring expedition discovered thousands of 
simila/ mounds." We condense further from 

.All the way up the Yellowstone region and on the upper 
tributaries of the Missouri, mounds are found in profusion. 
The Missouri valley seems to have been 
one of the most populous branches of the widespread Mound 
Builder country. The valleys of its affluents, the Platte and rivers, also furnish evidence that these st.-eams served 
as the channels into which flowed a part of the tide of popula- 
tion which either descended or ascended the Missouri. The 
Missis.sippi and Ohio river valleys, however, formed the great 
central arteries of the Mound Builder domain. In Wiscon- 
sin we find the northern central limit of their works; occa- 
sionally, on the western shores of Lake Michigan, but in great 
numbers in the -southern counties of the State, and especially 
on the lower \Vis.:on!ii; riier 

The remarkable similarity ot one group of 
works, on a brancli of Rock river in the south of 


that State, to some of the Mexican antiquities led 
to the christening of the adjacent village as 
Aztalan — which (or Aztlan), meaning whiteness, 
was a name of the " most attractive land" some- 
where north of Mexico and the sometime home 
of the Aztec and. the other Nahuan nations. If 
rightly conjectured as the Mississippi valley, or 
some part of it, that country may well have in- 
cluded the site of the modern Aztalan. 

Across ihe Mississippi, in Minnesota and luwa, the pre- 
dominant type of circular tumuli prevails, extending through- 
out the latter State to Missouri. There are evidences that 
the Upper Missouri region was connected with that of the 
Upper Mis.sissippi by settlements occupying tiie intervening 
country. Mounds are often found even in the valley of the 
Red river of the North. . . . Descending to the 
interior, we find the heart of the Mound Builder country in 
Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. It is uncertain whether its vital I 
center was in .Southern Illinois or Ohio — probably the former, 
because of its geographical situation with reference to the 
mouths of the Missouri and Ohio rivers. 
The site of St. Louis was formerly covered with mounds, o/ie 
of which was thuty-five feet high, while in the .Xmerican Bot- 
tom, on tlie Illinois side of the river, their number apjircvi- 
niales two hundred. 

It is pretty well knouii, we believe, that St. 
Louis takes its fanciful title of "Mound City" 
from the former fact. 

The multitude of mound works which are scattered over 
the entire northeastern portion of Missouri indicate that the 
region was once inhabited by a population so numerous that 
in comparison its present occupants are only as the scattered 
pioneers of a new settled country. . . . The same 
sagacity which chose the neighborhood of St. Louis for these 
works, covered the site of Cincinnati with an extensive sys- 
tem of circuinvailations and mounds. Almost the entire 
space now occupied by the city was utilized by the mysterious 
Builders in the construction of emb.mkments and tumuli, 
built upon the most accurate geometrical principles, and 
evincing keen military foresight. . . The vast 

number as well as magnitude of the works found in the State 
of Ohio, have surprised the most careless and indift'erent ob- 
servers. It is estimated by the inost conservative, and 
Messrs. Squier and Davis among them, that the nimiber of 
lumuli in Ohio eciuals ten thousand, and the number of en- 
closures one thousand or one thousand five hundred. In 
Ross countv alone one hundred enclosures and upwards of 
five hundred mounds have t)een exammed. The .-Mleghany 
mountains, the natural hmil of the great Mississippi basin, 
appear to have served as the eastern and southeastern bound- 
ary of the Mound Builder country. In Western New York, 
Western Pennsylvania. West \"irginia, and in all of Ken- 
lucky and Tennessee, their remains are numerous, and in 
some instances imposing. In Tennessee, especially, the 
works of the Mound Hudders are of the most inlerestinij 
character. . Colonies of Mound Builders 

seem to have passed the great natural barrier in North Caro- 
lina and lel't remains in .Marion county, while still others 
penetrated into South Carolina, and built on the Wateree 

Mounds in Mississippi also have been ex- 
amined, with interesting results. 

On the southern Mississippi, in the area embraced between 
the termination of the Cumberland mountains, near I-'lorence 
and Tuscumbia, in .Al.ibama, and the mouth of Big Black 
river, this people left iiuiiierous works, many of which were 
of a remarkable charactei. The whole region liordering on 
the tributaries of the Tombigbee, the country through which 
the Wolf river Rows, and that watered by the Yazoo river 
and its afRuents, was densely populated by the saiiie people 
who built mounds in the Ohio valley. . . . The 
State of Louisian.i and tlie valleys of the .Arkansas and Red 
ri\ers were not only the mo.^t thickly populated wing of the 
Mound Huildei domain, but also furnish us with remains pre- 
senting affinities with the great works of Mexico so striking 
that no doubt can longer evist that the same people were the 
architects of both. . . . It is needless to discuss 
the fact that the works of the Mound Builders ex'st in con- 
siderable numbers in Texas, extending across the Rio Grande 
into Mexico, establishing an unmistakable relationship as 
well as actual union between the truncated p)ramids of the 
Mis.sissippi valley and tlie Tocalli of Me.vico, and the coun- 
tries further south. 

Such, in a general way, was the geographical 
distribution of the Mound Builders within and 
near the teiritory now occupied by the United 


They are — such of them as are left to our day 
— generally of earth, occasionally of stone, and 
more rarely of earth and stone intermixed. Dried 
bricks, in some instances, are found in the walls 
and angles of the best pyramids of the Lower 
Mississippi valley. Often, especially for the 
works devoted to religious purposes, the earth 
has not been taken from the surrounding soil, 
but has been transported from a distance, prob- 
ably from some locality regarded as sacred. 
They are further divided into enclosures and 
mounds or tumuli. The classification of these 
by Squier and Davis, in their great work on "The 
Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," 
published by the Smithsonian Institution, thirty- 
four years ago, has not yet been superseded. If 
is as .''oUows : 

I. Enclosures — For Defense, Sacred, Mis- 

II. Mounds — Of Sacrifice, or Temple-sites, 
of Sepulture, of Observation. 

To these may properly be added the Animal 
or Effigy (emblematic or symbolical) Mounds, 
and some would add Mounds for Residence. 
The Garden-beds, if true remains of the Build- 
ers, may also be considered a separate class ; 
likewise mines and roads, and there is some 
reason to believe that canals may be added. 


I. Enclosures for Defense. A larj^e and 
interesting class of the works is of such a nature 
that the object for which they were thiuwn up is 
unmistakable. The "forts," as they are iiopu- 
larly called, are found throughout the length and 
breadth of the Mississippi valley, from the .Mle- 
ghanies to the Rocky mouniains. The iive;s of 
this vast basin have worn their valleys deep in 
the original plain, leaving broad terraces leading 
like gigantic steps up to the general le\el of the 
•country. The sides of the terra( es are often 
steep and difficult of access, and sometimes 
quite inaccessible. Such locations would natur- 
ally be selected as the site of defensive works, 
and there, as a matter of fact, the stiuny and 
complicated embankments of the Mound liuild- 
ers are found. The points have evidently been 
chosen with great care, and are such as would, in 
most cases, be approved by modern military en- 
gineers. They are usually on the higher giound, 
and are seldom commanded from positions suffi- 
ciently near to make them untenable through the 
use of the short-range weapons of the Builders, 
and, while rugged and steej) on some of their 
sides, have one or more points of easy ap- 
proach, in the protection of which great skill and 
labor seem to have been expended. They are 
never found, nor, in general, any other remains 
of the Builders, upon the lowest or latent-formed 
river terraces or bottoms. They are of irregular 
shape, conforming to the nature of the ground, 
and are often strengthened by extensive ditches. 
The usual defense is a simple embankment 
thrown up along and a little below the biow of 
the hill, varying in height and thickness accord- 
ing to the defensive advantage given by the nat- 
ural declivity. 

''The walls generally wind around the borders 
'of the elevations they occu[iy, and w iicn tlie na- 
ture of the ground renders some j^oints moie ac- 
cessible than others, the heiglit of the wall and the 
depth of the ditch at those weak points are pro- 
portionally increased. The gateways are narrow 
and few in number, and well guarded by em!)3nk- 
ments of earth placed a few yards inside ot tb.e 
openings or gateways and parallel wuh thLin, and 
projecting somewhat beyond them at eac n end, 
thus fully covering the eiitranre-.. wh:. h, in suine 
cases, are still further pri,^ei ted by pt. Meeting 
walls on either side of iheni. i'hese w.irks are 
somewhat numerous, and indicate a clear appre- 

ciation of the elements, at least, of fortification, 
and unmistakably point out the purpose for 
which they were constructed. A large number 
of these defensive works consist of a line of 
ditch and embankment, or several lines carried 
across the neck of peninsulas or bluff headlands, 
formed within the bends of streams — an easy 
and obvious mode of fortification, common to 
all rude peoples."* Upon the side where a pe- 
ninsula or promontory-merges into the mainland 
of the ten ace or plateau, the enclosure is usually 
guarded by double or overlapping walls, or a 
series of them, having sometimes an accompany- 
ing mound, probably designed, like many ot the 
mounds apart from the enclosutes, as a lookout 
station, corresponding in this respect to the bar- 
bican of our British ancestors in the Middle 

As natural strongholds the positions ihey oc- 
cupy could hardly be excelled, and the labor and 
skill expended to strengthen them artificially 
rarely fail to awake the admiration and surprise 
of the student of our antiquities. Some of the 
works arc enclosed by miles of embankment 
still ten to fifteen feet high, as measured from the 
bottom of the ditch. In some cases the num- 
ber of openings in the walls is so large as to lead 
to the conclusion that ceitain of them were not 
used as gateways, but were occupied by bastions 
or block-houses long ago decayed. This is a 
marked peculiarity of the great work known as 
" Fort Ancient," on the Little Miami river and 
railroad, in Warren county, Ohio. Some of the 
forts have very large or smaller " dug-holes " in- 
side, seemingly designed as reservoirs for use 
in a "^tate of siege. Occasionally parallel earth- 
walls, of lower height than the embankments of 
the main work, called "covered ways," are found 
adjacent to enclosures, and at times connecting 
Separate works, and seeming to be intended for 
the protection of those passing to and fro within 
them. These are considered by some antiqua- 
ries, h(;wever, as belonging to the sacred en- 

This class of works abound in Ohio. Squier 
and Davis express the opinion that "there seems 
to have been a system of defenses e.xtending 
Irom the sources of the Susiiuehanna and Alle- 
ghany, in Western New York, diagonally across 
the country through central and northern Ohio 

".Xr.ic.-icaii C ycluprc-dn. .11 tide ■'.American .Aiuiquuies." 



to the \\"ahash. Within this range the works tliat 
are regarded as defensive are largest and most 
nuinerous." The most notable, houever, of the 
works usually assigned to this class in this 
country is in Southern Ohio, forty-two miles 
northeast of Cincinnati. It is the Fort .Xncient 
already mentioned. This is situated upon a terrace 
on the left bank of the river, two hundred and 
thirty feet above the Little Miami, and occupies 
a peninsula defended by two ravines, while tlie 
river itself, with a hii^h, precipitous bank, de- 
fends the western side. 'I'he walls are between 
four and five miles long, and ten to twenty feet 
high, accordmg to the natural strength of the 
line to be protected. A resemblance has been 
traced in the walls of the lower enclosure "to the 
form of two massive serpents, which are a]> 
parently contending with one another. Their 
heads are the mounds, which are separated from 
the bodies by the opening, which resembles a 
ring around the neck. They bend in and out, 
and rise and fall, and appear like two massive 
green serpents rolling along the summit of this 
high hill. Their appearance under the over- 
hanging forest trees is very inrpressive."* Others 
have found a resemblance in the form of the 
whole work to a rude outline of the continent of 
North and South America. 

II. S.\CRED Enclosures. — Regularity of form 
is the characteristic of these. They are not, 
however, of invariable shape, but are found in 
various geometrical figures, as circles, squares, 
hexagons, octagons, ellipses, parallelograms, and 
others, either singly or in combination. How- 
ever large, they were laid out with astounding 
accuracy, and show that the Builders had some 
scientific knowledge, a scale of meastrrement, 
and the means of computing areas and determrn- 
ing angles. They are often in groups, but also 
often isolated. Most of them are of small size, 
two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet in 
dianaeter, with one gateway usually opening to 
the east, as if for the worship of the sun, and the 
ditch invariably on the inside. These are I're- 
quently inside enclosures of a different character, 
particularly military works. A sacrificial mound 
was commonly erected in the center of them. 
The larger circles are oftenest found in connec- 
tion with squares; some of them embrace as 

• Rev. ?;. D. Pt-et, ill the .American -Anticiuarian for .-Vpril, 

1 many as fifty acres. They seldom have a ditch, 
I but when they do, it is inside the wall. 'I'he 
rectangular works with which they are combined 
j are believed never to have a ditch. In several 
States a combined work of a square with two 
circles is often found, usually agreeing in this re- 
^ markable fact, that each side of the rectangle 
j measures exactly one thousand and eighty feet, 
and the circles respectively are seventeen hun- 
dred and eight hundred feet in diameter. The 
frequency and wide prevalence of this uniformity 
demonstrate that it could not have been acci- 
i dental. The scjuare enclosures almost invariably 
; have eight gateways at the angles and midway 
; between, upon each side, all of which are coveted 
i or defended by small mounds. The parallels 
! before menttoned are sometimes found in con- 
1 nection with this class of works. From the 
j Hopetown work, near Chillicothe, Ohio, a 
j "covered way" led to the Scioto river, many 
hundred feet distant. 


j ditticulty of referring many of the smaller circular 

i works, thirty to fifty feet in diameter, foitnd in 

i close proximity to large works, to previous classes, 

I has prompted the suggestion that they were the 

I foundations of lodges or habitations of chiefs, 

priests, or other prominent personages among the 

' Builders. In one case within the writer's obser- 

1 vation, a rough stone foundation about four rods 

1 square was found isolated from any other work, 

near the Scioto river, in the south part of Ross 

' county, Ohio. At the other extreme of size, the 

largest and most complex of the works, as those 

' at Newark, are thought to have served, in part at 

least, other than religious purposes — that they 

may, besides furnishing spaces for sacrifice and 

worship, have included also arenas for games and 

marriage celebrations and other festivals, the 

places of general assembly for the tribe or village, 

the encampment or more permanent residences 

of the priesthood and chiefs. 

IV. Mounds of S.\crii-'ice. — These have sev- 
eral distinct characteristics. In height they sel- 
dom exceed eight feet. They occur only within or 
near the enclosures commonly considered as the 
' sacred places of the Builders, and are usually 
'' stratified in convex layers of clay or loam alter- 
nating above a laver of fine sand. Beneath 
the strata, and u[)on the original surface of the 
earth at the centre of tlie mound, are usually 


symmL-trically fi.irnied altars of stone or burnt 
day, evidently brought from a distance. Upon 
them are found various remains, all of which ex- 
hibit signs of the action of fire, and some which 
have excited the suspicion that the Builders 
practiced the horrid rite of hilman sacrifice. Not 
only calcined bones, but naturally ashes, char- 
coal, and igneous stones are found with them; 
also beads, stone implements, simple sculptures, 
and pottery. The remains are often in such a 
condition as to indicate that the altars had been 
covered before the fires upon them were fully 
extinguished. Skeletons are occasionally found 
in this class of mounds; though these may have 
been "intrusive burials," made after the construc- 
tion of the works and contrary to their original 
intention. Though symmetrical, the altars are 
by no means uniform in shape or size. Some 
are round, some elliptical, others square or jvar- 
allelograms. In size they vary from two to t)l"ty 
feet in length, and are of proportional width and 
height, the commoner dimensions being five to 
eight feet. 

V. Tkmi'Li: Mounds are not numerous. 
They are generally larger than the altar and 
burial mounds, and are more frequently circular 
or oval, though sometimes found ui oth'.r shapes. 
The commonest shape is that of a truncated 
cone; and in whatever form a mound of this 
class may be, it always has a tLattened or level 
top, giving it an unfinished look. Some are 
called platforms, from their large area and slight 
elevation. They are, indeed, almost always of 
large base and comparatively small height. Oft- 
en, as might reasonably be expected, they are 
within a sacred enclosure, and some are terraced 
or have spiral ascents or graded inclines to their 
summits. They take their name from the prob- 
able fact that upon their flat tops were reared 
structures of wood, the temples or 'iiigh places'' 
of this people, which decayed and disappeared 
ages ago. In many cases in the Northern States 
these must have been small, from the smallness 
of their sites upon the mounds; but as they are 
followed southward they are seen, as might be 
expected, to increase gradually and approxniiate 
more closely to perfect construction, until they 
end in the great teocallis ("houses of God"). 
One remarkable platform of this kind in Whit- 
ley county, Kentucky, is three hundred and sixty 
feet long by one hundred and tlt'ty feet wide and 

, twelve high, with graded ascents; and another, 
at Hopkinsville, is so large that the county court- 
I house is built upf)n it. The great mound at Ca- 
hokia, .Missouri, is of this class. Its truncated 
I to|) lucasurcil two hundred by foiu- hundred and 
i fifty-two feet, 

i VT. HuRiAf. Mounds furnish by far the most 
[ numerous class of tumuli. 'I'he largest mounds 
in the countiy are gcneially of this kind. The 
j greatest of all, the famous moimd at Orave 
I creek, Virginia, is seventy-five feet high, and has 
i a circumference at the base of about oi'.e thou- 
! sand. In solid contents it is nearly equal to the 
i third pyramid of Mykerinus, in F-gypt. The 
j huge mound on the banks of the Great Miami, 
twelve miles below Dayton, has a height' of sixty- 
j eight feet. Many of the burial mounds are six 
I feet or less in height, but the average height, as 
deduced from wide observation of them, is 
stated as about twenty feet. They are usually 
of conical form. It is conjectured that the size 
of these mounds has an immediate relation to 
the former in>poriance of the personage or family 
tuiried in them. Only three skeletons have so 
far been found in the mighty Gra\e Crock 
mound. Except in rare cases, they contain but 
one skeleton, unless by "intrusive" or later 
burial, as by Indians, who fieqiietitly used the 
ancient mounds for purposes of sepulture. One 
Ohio mound, however — that opened by Profes 
sur Marsh, of Yale college, in Licking county — 
contained seventeen skeletons; and another, m 
Hardin county, included three hundred. Hut 
these are exceptional instances. Calcined hu- 
man bones in some burial mounds at the North, 
with charcoal and ashes in close proximity, show 
tliat cremation was occasionally practiced, or that 
fire was used in the funeral ceremonies; and 
"urn burial" prevailed considerably in the South- 
ern States. 

At times a rude chamber or cist of stone or 
timber contained the remains. In the latter case 
the more fragile material has generally disap- 
peared, but casts of it in the earth are still ob- 
servable. The stone cists furnish some of the 
most interesting relics found in the mounds. 
They are, in rare cases, very large, and contain 
several bodies, with various relics. They are 
like large stone boxes, made of several flat stones, 
joined without cement or fastening. Similar, but 
much smaller, are the stone colTins found in large 



number in Illinois ami nLar Nashville, Tennes- 
see. They are generally (>ccu]iied by single 
bodies. In other cases, as in recent discoveries 
near Portsmouth and elsewhere in Ohio, the 
slabs are arrani^ed slanting upon ea< h other in 
the shape of a triangle, and having, of course, 
a triangular vault in the interior. In the Cum- 
berland mountains heaps of loose stones are 
found over skeletons, but these stone mounds 
are probably of Indian origin, and so compara- 
tively modern. Implements, weapons, orna- 
ments, and various remains of art, as in the later 
Indian custom, were buried with the dead. Mica 
is often found with the skeletons, with precisely 
what meaning is not yet ascertained ; also pot- 
tery, beads of bone, copper, and even glass — 
indicating, some think, commercial intercourse 
with Europe — and other articles in great variety, 
are present. 

There is, also, probably, a sub-class of mounds 
that may be mentioned in this connection — the 
Memorial or Monumental mounds, thrown up, 
it is conjectured, to perpetuate the celebrity of 
some important event or in honor of some emi- 
nent personage. They are usually of earth, but 
occasionally, in this State at least, of stone. 

VII. Signal Mounds, or Mounds of Ob- 
servation. This is a numerous and very inter- 
esting and important class of the works. 
Colonel Anderson, of Circleville, Ohio, a des- 
cendant of the well-known Louisville family, 
thinks he has demonstrated by actual survey, 
made at his own expense, the existence of a 
regular chain or system ol these lookouts through 
the Scioto valley, from which, by signal fires, in- 
telligence might be rapidly flashed over long dis- 
tances. About twenty such mounds occur be- 
tween Columbus and Chillicothe, on the eastern 
side of the Scioto. In Hamilton county, in the 
same State, a chain of mounds, doubtless de- 
voted to such purpose, can be traced from the 
primitive site of Cincinnati to the "old fort," 
near the mouth of the Great Miami. Along 
both the Miamis numbers of small mounds on 
the projecting headlands and on heights in the 
interior are indubitably signal mounds. 

Like the defensive works already described as 
part of the military system of the Builders, the 
positions of these works were chosen with ex 
cellent judgment. They vary in size, according 
to the height of the natural eminences upon 

which they are placed. Many still bear the 
marks of intense heat upon their summits, re- 
sults of the long-extinct beacon fires. Some- 
tiines they are found in connection with the 
embankments and enclosures, as an enlarged 
and elevated part ot the walls. One of these, 
near Newark, Ohio, though considerably reduced, 
retains a height of twenty-five feet. I'he hnge 
mound at Miamisburg, Ohio, mentioned as a 
burial mound, very likely was used also as a part 
of the chain of signal mounds from above Dayton 
to the Cincinnati plain and the Kentucky bluffs , 

VIII. Efugv ok Ani.mal Mounds appear 
principally in Wisconsin, on the level surface of 
the prairie. They are of very low height — one to 
SIX feet — but are otherwise often very large, exten- 
ded figuies of men, beasts, birds, or reptiles, and 
in a very few cases of inanimate things. In Ohio 
there are three enormous, remarkable earthwork 
eftigies — the "Eagle mound" in the centre of a 
thirty-acre enclosure near Newark, and supposed 
to represent an eagle on the wing; the "Alligator 
mound,'' also in Licking county, two hundred 
and five feet long; and the famous "Great Ser- 
pent," on Brush creek, in Adams county, which 
has a length of seven hundred feet, the tail in a 
triple coil, with a large mound, supposed to rep- 
resent an egg, between the jaws of the figure. 

By soite writers these mounds are held to be 
svmbolical, and connected with the religion of 
the Builders. Mr. Schoolcraft, however, calls 
them "emblematic," and says they represent the 
totems or heraldic symbols of the Builder tribes. 

IX. Garden Beds. — In Wisconsin, in Mis- 
souri, and in parts of Michigan, and to some ex- 
tent elsewhere, is found a class of simple works 
presumed to be ancient. They are merely ridges 
or beds left by the cultivation of the soil, about 
six inches high and four feet wide, regularly ar- 
ranged in parallel rows, at times rectangular, 
otherwise of various but regular and symmetrical 
curves, and in fields of ten to a hundred acres. 
Where they occur near the animal mounds, they 
are in some cases carried across the latter, which 
would seem to indicate, if the same people exe- 
cuted both works, that no sacred character at- 
tached to the effigies. 

X. Mines. — These, as worked by the Build- 
ers, have not yet been found in many different 
regions; but in the Lake Superior copper region 



their works of this kind arc numerous and exten- 
sive. In the Ontonagon country their mining 
traces abound for thirty miles." Colonel Whit- 
tlesey, of Cleveland, estimates that they removed 
metal from this region eciuivalent to a length of 
one hundred and fifty feet in veins of varying 
thickness. Some of their operations approached 
the stupendous. No other remains of theirs are 
found in the Upper Peninsula; and there !■- no 
probability that they occupied the region for 
other than temporary purposes. 


Besides the human remains which have re- 
ceived sufficient treatment for this article under 
the head of burial mounds, and the altars noticed 
under Mounds of Sacrifice, the contents of the 
work of the Mound Builders are mostly small, 
and many of them unimportant. They have 
been classified hy Dr. Rau, the archaiologist of 
the Smithsonian Institution, according to the 
material of which they are wrought, as follous: 

I. Stone. — This is the most numerous class 
of relics. They were fashioned by chipping, 
grinding, or polishing, and include rude pieces, 
flakes, and cores, as well as finished and more 
or less nearly finished articles. In the first list 
are arrow- and spear-heads, perforators, scrai.>ers, 
cutting and sawing tools, dagger-shaped imple- 
ments, large implements supposed to have been 
used in digging the ground, and wedge or celt- 
shaped tools and weapons. The ground and 
polished specimens, more defined in form, 
comprise wedges or celts, chisels, gouges, 
adzes and grooved axes, hammers, drilled cere- 
monial weapons, cutting tools, scraper and 
spade-like implements, pendants, and sinkers, 
discoidal stones and kindred objects, pierced 
tablets and boat-shaped articles, stones used in 
grinding and polishing, vessels, mortars, pestles, 
tubes, pipes, ornaments, sculptures, and engraved 
stones or tablets. Fragmentary plates of mica or 
isinglass may be included under this head. 

2. Copper. — These are either weapons and 
tools or ornaments, produced, it would seem, by 
hammering pieces of native copper into the re- 
quired shape. j 

3. Bone .and Horn. -- Perforators, harjioon 
heads, fishhooks, cups, whistles, drilled teeth, 
etc. I 

4. Shell. — Either utensils and tools, as : 

I celts, drinking-cups, spoons, fish-hooks, etc., or 

ornaments, comprising various kinds of gorgets, 

pendants, and beads. 
I 5. Ckr.vmic F.vhrks. — Pottery, pi[)C5, hu- 
, man and animal figures, and vessels in great 
i variety. 

6. Wood. — The objects of early date formed 

of this m.aterial are now very few, owing 'to its 

perishable character. 
I 'I'o these may be added: 

! 7. Gold and Silver. — In a recent find in a 
I stone cist at Warrensburg, Missouri, a pottery 
: vase or jar was found, which had a silver as well 
I as a copper band about it. Other instances of 

the kind aie on record, and a gold ornament in 

the shape of a woodpecker's head has been taken 

fiom a mound in Florida. 
! 8. Textile F.abrics. — A few fragments of 
i coarse cloth or matting have survived the de- 
' stroying tooth of time, and some specimens, so 

far as te.xture is concerned, have been very well 
i preserved by the salts of copper, when used to 
1 enwrap articles shaped from that metal. 


I This theme has furnished a vast field for spec- 
, ulation, and the theorists have pushed into a 
; wilderness of visionary conjectures. Some in- 
j ferencts, however, may be regarded as tolerably 
; certain. The number and magnitude of their 
j works, and their extensive range and uniformity, 
I says the American Cyclopajdia, prove that the 
I Mound Builders were essentially homogeneous 
! in customs, habits, religion, and government. 
j The general features common to all their re- 
j mains identity them as appertaining to a single 
I grand system, owing its origin to men moving in 
the same direction, acting under common im- 
pulses, and influenced by similar causes. Pro- 
fessor Short, in his invaluable work, thinks that, 
however writers may differ, these conclusions 
may be safely accepted: That they came into 
the country in comparatively small numbers .it 
first (if they were not Autochthones, and there is 
no substantial proof that the Mound Builders 
were such), and, during their residence in the 
territory occuijisd by the United States, they be- 
came extremely populous. Their settlements 
were widespread, as the extent of their remains 
indicates. The magnitude of their works, some 
of which approximate the proportions of Egyptian 



pyramids, testify to the architectural talent of the 
people and the fact that they developed a system 
of government controlling the labor of niuki- 
tudes, whether of subjects or slaves, 'i hey \\\re 
an agricultural pcoiile, as the extensive ancient 
garden-beds found in Wisconsin and .Missouri 
indicate. Their manufactures offer jiroof that 
they had atlained a respectable degree of ad- 
vancement and show that they undetstood the 
advantages of the division o( lalior. Their do- 
mestic utensils, the cloth of which they made 
their clothing, and the artistic vessels met with 
everywhere in the mounds, ])oint to the develoji- 
ment of home culture and domestic industry. 
There is no reason for believing that the people 
who wrought stone and clay into perfect effigies 
of animals have not left us sculptures of their 
own faces in the images e.\hanicd t"rom the 

They mined copper, which they wrought into 
implements of war, into ornaments and ariicks 
for domestic use. They quarried mica for mir- 
rors and other [lurposes. They furthermore 
worked flmt and salt min-'s. They probably pos- 
sessed some astronomical knowledge, though to 
what extent is unknown. Their trade, as Dr. Rau 
has shown, was widespread, extending probably 
from Lake Superior to the Gulf, and possibly to 
Mexico. They constructed canals, by which 
lake systems were united, a fact which Mr. 
Conant has recently shown to be well established 
in Missouri. Their defenses were numerous and 
constructed with reference to strategic principles, 
while their system of signals placed on lofty sum- 
mits, visible from .their settlements, and com- 
municating with the great water-courses at im- 
mense distances, rival the signal systems in use at 
the beginning of the present century. Their re- 
ligion seems to have been attended with the same 
ceremonies in all parts of their domain. That 
its rites were celebrated with great demonstrations 
is certain. The sun and moon were probably 
the all-important deities to which sacrifices (pos- 
sibly human) were offered. We have already al- 
luded to the development in architecture and art 
which marked the possible transition of this peo- 
ple from north to south. Here we see but the 
rude beginnings of a civili/^ation which no doubt 
subsequently unfolded in its t'uUcr glory in the 
valley of Anahuac and, spreading southward, en- 
grafted new life upon the wreck of Xibaltja. 

Though there is no evidence that the Mound 
lUiilders were indigenous, we must admit that 
their civilization was purely such, the natural pro- 
duct of tlimate -and the conditions surrounding 

THK Kill I'F.US ,-\l!OUT THE lAM.S. 

Hut very brief mention is here made of the 
ancient works fc>und in the three counties whose 
history is traversed in this work; but full ac- 
counts of them will be comprised in the chapters 
relating to their respective localities. Professor 
Rafine.sque's list of the Antifjuities of Kentucky, 
published in 18^4, in the introduction to the 
second edition of Marshall's History of Ken- 
tucky, and also in separate form, enumerates but 
four sites of ancient works and one monument 
in Jefferson county, near Louisville. Dr. .Mc- 
Murtrie's Sketches of Louisville,' published in 
1S19, after some reference to antiquities, says: 

1 here is nothing of tlie kind peculiarly inleresiing in the 
iniiiiediate vicinity of l,ouisville. Mounds or tumuli are 
occasionally met witli. some of wliich have been opened. 
Nothing, however, was found to rep.iy tli;; trout)le of the 
searcli but a few human bones, nii.ved with others, apparently 
bel,-.nging to tlie deer. 

Some of them were found to contain but a 
single skeleton, and were evidently the tombs of 
chiefs or other dignitaries of the Mound Build- 
ers; while from otliers of no greater size as many 
as twenty skeletons were taken. 

Hatchets of stone, pestles or grain-beaters of the same ma- 
terial, arrow-heads of flint, together with the remains of 
hearths, indicated by flat stones surrounded by and partly 
covered with broken shells, fragments of bones, charcoal, 
calcined e.irih, etc., are everywhere to be seen, and some of 
them in situations affording an ample fund for speculation to 
thegeo[;no5t. Two of the first-mentioned instruments were 
discovered a few miles below the town, at the depth of forty 
feet, near an Indian hearth, on which, among other vestiges 
of a fire, were found two charred brands, evidently the ex- 
tremities of a stick that had been consumed in the middle of 
this identical spot. The whole of this plain, as we before ol> 
served, is alluvial, and this fact shows to what depth that for- 
mation e.xtends. But at the time the owners of these hatchets 
were seated by this fire, where, I would ask, was the Ohio? 
Ceruinly not in its present bed, for these remains .are below 
its level; and where else it may have been I am at a loss even 
to conjecture, as there are no marks of any obsolete water- 
course whatever, between the river and Silver Creek hills on 
the other side, and hclv -.-en it and the knobi on the other. 

The doctor brings m here the mention of some 
other very interesting antiquities, perhaps of be- 
longing to the period of the Mound Builders: 

Not many years past an iron hatchet was found in a situa- 
* The .Americans of .Antiquity, pp. 95-100. 

■HlSrORV Ol 


lion equally singular. A tr.>c ol' ininiensc sizo, whose roots 
eMt'Mcl'jd thirty or forty feet iMch way, oliln;<-J to be 
felled and the earth on which it grew to be removed, ni order 
to alTord room fur a wall connected with tlie foundations of 
the t'Tsat mill at Shippingport. A lew feet below the sur- 
face, and directly under the center of the iree. which was at 
least six feet in diameter, was found the article in question, 
which, as was evident upon examination, had been formed 
out of -a fat bar of wrought iron, healed in the lire to red- 
ness and bent double, leaving a round hole at the joint for 
the reception of a h.indle. the two ends being nicely welded 
together, terminated by a cvitliiij; edge. . . The 

tree must necessarily have grow n over the ave previously de- 
jiosited there, and no human power could have pi iced it in 
the particular position in which it was found, after thai event 
had taken place. The tiee was upwards of two hundred 
year> old. 

Since tlie learned Scotch doctor's time, during 
the excavations made for the Louisville eS: Port- 
land canal between 1S26 and 1830, other fire- 
places of rude construction were found in the 
alluvial deposit twenty feet below the surface, 
upon which were brands of partly burnt wood, 
bones of small animals, and some human skele- 
tons. Many rude implements of bone and flint 
were also thrown out by the pick and shovel, and 
a number of well-wrought specimens of hematite 
of iron, in the shape of plummets or sinkers. 
In the southern part of Louisville, at a depth 
just twice as great, still another ancient hearth 
was found, across which was still a stick of wood 
burnt in the middle, with a stone hatchet and 
pestle lying close by. Some of these remains, 
it is quite possible, should be referied to the age 
of the Mound Builder. 

On the other side of the river were also found 
some objects of antique interest. Says Dr. Mc- 

A little below ClarksviUe, immediately on the of the 
river, is the site of a wigwam '\ill,ige\ coiered with an alU- 
vial deposition of earth, six feet in depth. Interspersed 
among the hearths, and scattered in the soil beyond them, are 
large quantities of humanbones in a verv advanced stage of 
decomposition. Facts most generally speak for themselves, 
and this one tells a \ery simple and probable tale. The vil- 
lage must have been surprised by .in enemy, many of whose 
bodies, mixed with those of the inhabitants, were left upon 
the spot. Had it been a common burial-place, something 
like regularity would ha\B been exercised in the disposition of 
the skeletons, neither should we have found them in the same 
plane with the fireplaces of an evtensive settlement, or near 
it, but below it. 

The Indiana Gazetteer, or Topographical Dic- 
tionar\, of 1S33, mentions that in the digging of 
■a well at ClarksviUe was found a walnut plank 
several feet long, more than a foot broad, and 
about two inches in thickness, at the derith of 

forty feet below the surface. It was in a state of 
perfect preservation, and even letained maiks of 
the saw as plainly as il it had not been more 
than a week from the mill. 

Further notice of the works of the Mound 
I'.uiklers in the Ohio Falls counties we must 
leave to the several local histories in this work. 

ch.-\ptf:r II. 

.■\ Singular Fact — No Kentucky Indians Proper- .V Tradi- 
tion of l-.^xtcrmination — The \'isitiiig and Roaming 
KenUicky — The Shawnees— The Miamis — The W'yandots 
— The Uelawares- theOttawas — The Pottaw atomies — The 
Kickapoos — The Weas— The Chickasaws — The Indian 
Treaties — The Jackson l^irchase — Fortified Stations — 
Those in Jefferson County — Armstrong's Station — Tragic 
Incidents — Colonel Floyd's .-\dventure and Ue.ith— .\ Tale 
of the .Salt Licks — Bland B,illai-d Captured and Escapes — 
.-Another Story of Ballard — The Row-an Party Attacked— 
Alexander Scott Bullitt's Adventure--Tlie Famous Lancaster 
Story— Two Boys Surprised and Taken— The Battle of 
the Pumpkins — Some .Mure Stories — I'he Ilites and the 


It is not a little remarkable that while the 
Kentucky wilderness was the theatre of some of 
the most desperate battles ever fought with the 
North .American Indians, and is rife with legends 
of Indian massacre and captivity, it was at no 
time, within theit own traditions or the knowl- 
edge of the whites, the residence of any one of 
the red-browed tribes. Most of the savages 
found at any time by the pioneers had crossed 
the Ohio from the North and West, and were 
here for but short periods. It was, in fact, but 
the hunting-ground for the Ohio and Indiana 
tiihes, with their respective territorial jurisdic- 
tions wholly undefined. Between the Shawnee 
or Cumberland river and the Mississippi, how- 
ever, the ownership of the Chickasaws was dis- 
tinctly recognized. I-Llsewhere the tribes seem to 
have held in common, for their several purposes. 
Says Mr. Henry R. Schoolcraft; 

They landed at secret points, as hunters and warriors, and no permanent residence within its boundaries. 
.\t an c.irly dav the heail of the Kentucky river became a 
f.uorite and important pouit of embarkation for Indians mov- 
ing in predatory or hunting bands, from the South to the 
North and West. The Sli.iwnees, after their great defeat by 



the Ciiorokecs, took ilmt roiUe. anil this people always con- 
sidered tliomsclves to liave claims to these nttmclive Imiuing- 
grounds-, whi-re the deer, the elk, hufl;ili), and bear alKninded 
—claims,, indeed, whose only found.uion was blood and 

The history of these events is replete with the 
highest degree of interest, btit cannot hcie be 
entered on. The followini^ letter, frc>in one of 
the early settlers of the country, is given as .show- 
ing the common tradition that, while the area of 
Kentucky was perpetually fought for, as a clier- 
ished part of the Indian hunting-ground, it was 
not, in fact, permanently occupied by any tribe. 
The writer's (Mr. Joseph Ficklm's) attention was 
but incidentally called to the subject. His let- 
ter, which is in answer to a copy of a pamphlet 
of printed inquiries, bears date at Lexington, 
31st of August, 1S47: 

I have opened your circular addressed to IDr. Jarvis, 
agreeably to your request, and beg leave to remark that I 
liave myself an acqnjiintance with the Indian history of this 
State from the year 17S1, and that noihinp is known here 
connected with your inquiries, save the remains of early 
settlements too remote to allow of any evidence of the 
character of the population, except that it must ha\e been 
nearly simihir to that of the greater portion w hich once oc- 
cupied the rest of the States of tiie L'nion. 

There is one fact fa\"orable to this Slate, which belongs to 
few, if any, of the sister States. We have not to answer to 
any tribunal for the crime of driving oft' the Indian tribes 
and possessing their ianas. There were no Indians located 
within our limits on our taking possession of this country. .A 
discontented portion of the Shawnee tril)e, from \'irginia, 
broke off from the nation, which removed to the -Scioto 
country, in Ohio, about the year 1730, and formed a town, 
known by the name of Lulbegrud, in what is now Clark 
county, about thirty miles east of this place. This tribe left 
this country about T750 and went to East Tennessee, to the 
Cherokee Xation. -Soon after they returned to Ohio and 
joined the rest of the nation, after spending a few years on 
the Ohio river, giving name to Sli.iw nee-town in the .Slate of 
Illinois, a place of some note at tliis time. This information 
is founded on tlie account of the Indians at the tirst settle- 
ment of this State, and since confirmed by Blackhoof, a n.a- 
tive of Lulbegrud, who visited this country in 1S16, and 
went on the spot, describing the water-streams and hiils in a 
manner to satisfy everybody that he was auquaiiueil with 
the place. 

1 claim no credit for this State in escaping the odium of 
driving off the savages, because I hold that no peoiile ha\e 
any claim to a whole country for a hunting or robbing resi- 
dence, on the score of living, for a brief period, on a small 
part of it. Our right to Northern Mexico, C.ihfornia, and 
Texas, is preferable to any other nation, for the simple 
eason that we alone subdue the savages and robbers, and 
place u under a position v.hich was intended by the Creator 
of the world, as explained to the father of our race. 

.\ TR.M'iriOX. 

After mentioning a trauiticri of the Delawares, 
in regard to the extermination of the Kentucky 

tribes, Mr. Collins says, in his History of Ken- 

I'.ut this tradition of the Del.iwarcs does not stand alone. 
That the prehistoric inhabiianis of Kentucky were at some 
inlerniediale period ovcrwhelnieil by a tide of savage invasion 
from the -North, is a point upon which Indian tradition, as 
far as it goes, is positive and explicit. It is related, in a 
posthumous fragment on Western antiquities, by Rev. John 
I'. Campbell, M. D., which published in the early part 
of the present century, that Colonel James Moore, of Ken- 
tucky, was told by an old Indian that the primitive inhabit- 
ants of this State had perished in a war of evtermiiuition 
waged against them by the Indians; that the last great battle 
was fought at the Falls of the Ohio; and that the Indians 
succeeded in driving the aborigines into a small island below 
the rapids, "where the whole of them were cut to pieces." 
The Indian further said this was an undoubted fact handed 
down by tradition, and tiiat the Colonel would have proofs of 
it under eyes as soon as the waters of the Ohio became 
low. When the waters of the river had fallen, an examina- 
tion of Sandy island was ni.ide, and "a multitude of human 
bones were discovered." 

There is similar confirmation of this tradition in the state- 
ment of Cieneral George Rogers Clark, that there was a 
great burying-ground on the northern side of the river, but 
a short distance below the Falls. According to a tradition 
imparled to the same gentleman by the Indian chief Tobacco, 
the battle of Sandy island decided finally the fall of Ken- 
tucky, with its ancient inhabitants. When Colonel .\IcKee 
commanded on the Kanawha (says Dr. Campbell), he was 
told by the Indian chief Cornstalk, with whom he had fre- 
quent conversations, that Ohio and Kentucky (and Tennessee 
IS also associated with Kentucky in the pre-historic ethnogr.i- 
phy of Rafinesque) had once been settled by a white people 
who were familiar with arts of which the Indians knew noth- 
ing; these whites, after a series of bloody contests with 
the Indians, had been e.xterminated; that the old burial- 
places were the graves of an unknown people; and that the 
old forts had not been built by Indians, but come down 
from "a very long ago" people, wh.j were of a v. hue com- 
plexion, and skilled in the arts. 

The statement of General Clark, above re- 
ferred to, is doubtless what is mentioned in 
greater detail by Dr. McMurtrie, in his Sketches 
of Louisville, in these terms: 

.\bout the lime when General Clark first visited this coun- 
try, an old Indian is said 10 have assured him that there was 
atr.idition to this effect: that there had formerly existeda race 
of Indians whose copiplexion was much lighter than that of 
the other natives, which caused them to be known by the 
name of the white Indians; that bloody wars always been 
waged between the two, but that at last the black Indians 
got the better of the ethers in a great battle fought at Clarks- 
ville, wherein all the latter were assembled; that the remnant 
of their army took refuge in Sandy i>land, whither their suc- 
cessful and implacable enomies followed and put every indi- 
vidual to death. 

How true this may be I know not, but appearances are 
strongly in its favor. A large field a little below Clarksville 
contains immense qu.tntiiies of human bones, whose dccom- 
pfKcd state and the regular manner in which they are scat- 
tered, as well as the circuiu;iance of their tieing cohered with 
an alluvial deposition of earth si.x or seven feet deep, evidently 


prove that it was not a regular burial-place, but a field of hat- 
tie, in some foimer century. Relics of .i d<^scription 
are slid to have het-n ^ecn in grr.u plrniv on .^:uiil\ island in 
1778, none of which, however, are visible at thi, (li)-tiip'ni 
the which may be owing lo the constant dcpositi-in 
of sand upon the island and the anion of the water in hi;j;h 
floods, whose attrition may have tinslly removed every vestige 
of such, substances. 


then, were really the Indians of Ohio and Indi- 
ana, and i)rohably, to a less degree, of the Sr'uth 
and Southwest. This fact enlarges greatly tiie 
field of our inquiry, and compels us to consider, 
at least briefly, a greater number of tribes than 
usually dwelt within the limits of any tract now 
formed into a State. 

The chief of these tribes was undoubtedly 


The name of this once-powerful tribe is de- 
rived from Shawano or Oshawano, the name, in 
one of the most ancient traditions of the .Al.^on- 
quins, of one of the brothers of Manabozho, 
who had assigned to him the government of ihe 
southern part of the earth. The name, with a 
final ng for the plural, is said to convey to the 
Indian mind the idea of Southerners. In the 
English mouth and writing it has been corrupted 
into Shawanese or Shawnees, although Mr. 
Schoolcraft and other writers upon theabori:',ines 
often use the older form Shawanocs. By the 
Iroquois and English, about 1747, they were 
called Satanas (devils), and are also mentioned 
in the French writings as Chouanons. F'rom these 
the names Suwanee and Sawnee, as applied 
to Southern rivers, where they formerly resided, 
are derived. About the year 1640 the Shawnees 
came into the Ohio valley fn;im the Appalachian 
range by way of the Kentucky river (also said to 
have a Shawnee name, Cuttawa or Kentucke), 
while other bands of the tribe, driven from the 
South by the Catawbas and Cherokees, settled 
among their kinsfolk, the Uelawares of Pennsyl- 

The Shawnees had a tradition of foreign origin, 
or at least of landing from a sea-voyage. Colonel 
John Johnston, who was their agent for many 
years, in a letter dated July 7, 1819, observes: 

The people of this nation have a tradition that their an- 
cestors crossed the sea. They .ire il:e only trbe with which 
I am acqu.unlvd who admit a !orc;:;n ori'^in. I'mil lately 
they kept yearly s;icrilices lor their safe arrival m this coun- 
try. From where ihey c.inie. or at what period they arnved 
m .\merica, they do not know. It is a pre-.ailing opinion 

I among them that Florida had t)cen inhabited by white people, 
who had the use of iron tools. Bbckhoof (a celebrated 
I chief ).afl'irins that he often he.ird it spoken of by old 
\ people, that stumps of trees, covered with i irth, were fre- 
' quenlly found, which h.ul been cut down by edsjeo tools, 
i . . . It is somewhat doubtful whether the 

I deliverance which they celebrate has any othei reference than 
to the crossing of some great luer oi an arm of the sea. 

I In McKenney and Halls splendid History of 
; the Indian Tribes of North America, published 
at Philadelphia in 1844, the following account is 
given of this tribe: 

Much oh,-.curity rests upon the history of the Shawanese. 
Their manners, customs, and language indicated northern 
1 origin, and upwards of two centuries ago they held Ihccoun- 
! try south of Lake Erie. T'hey were tlie first tribe which felt 
the force and yielded to the superiority of the Iroquois. 
Conquered by them, they migrated to the South, ;ind, from 
i fear or favor, they were allowed lo take possession of a region 
j upon Savannah river, but what part of that river, whether in 
Georgia or Florida, is not known —it is presumed the former. 
How long they resided there we have not the means of ascer- 
i taiiiing, nor have we any account of the incidents of their 
history in that country, or of the causes of their leaving it. 
I One, if not more, of their bands removed from thence to 
I'ennbvlvania, but the larger portion took possession of the 
country upon the Miami and Scioto rivers in Ohio, a fertile 
1 region, where their habits, more industrious than those of 
! their race generally, enabled them to live comfortably. 
i This is the only tribe among all our Indians who claim for 
' themselves a foreign origin. Most of the aborigines of the 
1 continent believe their forefathers ascended from holes in the 
i earth, and niinyof them assigns local habitation to these 
' traditionary places of nativity of their race; resembling in 
this respect some of the traditions of antiquity, and derived 
perhaps from that remote period when barbarous tribes were 
, troglodytes, subsisting upon the spontaneoes productions of 
i the earth. The Shawnees believe their ancestors inhabited a 
foreign land, which, from some unknown cause, they deter- 
mined to abandon. They collected their people together, and 
i marched to the seashore. Here various persons were 
selected to lead them, but they declined the duty, until it 
was undertaken by one of the Turtle tribe. He placed him- 
i self at the head of the procession, anrl walked into the sea. 
: The waters immediately divided, and they passed along the 
bottom of the ocean until they reached this "island." 

The Shawnees have one institution peculiar to themselves. 
Their nation was originally divided into twelve tribes or 
bands, bearing different names. Each of these tribes was 
subdivided in the usual manner, into families of the Eagle, 
the Turtle, etc., these animals constituting their totems. 
1 uo of these tribes have become extinct and their names are 
■ forgotten. The names of the other ten are preserved, but 
onlv four of these are now kept distinct. These are the 
Makostrake, the Pickaway, the Kickapoo, and the Chilli- 
cothe tribes. Of the si.\ whose names are preserved, but 
whose sep.irate characters are lost, no descendant of one of 
them, the Wauphautluwonaukee, now survive. The remains 
of the other five have become incorporated with the four 
subsisting tribes. Even to this d.iy each of the four sides of 
their council-houses is assigned to one of these tnhe.s, and is 
invariably occupied by it. .Mihongh, lo us, they appear the 
same people, yet they pretend to possess the power of dis- 
cerning at sight to wl.icii tribe an individual tjelongs. 


Thecelelimicd Tecvmisuh and his lirotlier. Tcn->-kwau-ta- 
ttaw, more t;riKMnlly known liy Ui.- ;ippi.-Ilnlion of the 
Prophet, wuro .Sli.iwnces. and ipr;ing ffMiii the Kicl;ai)00 
trilie. 1 lii:y licl<iiis;<-d to the family orjolcm of Ihc P.mlher. 
.tc the m.ilca of which alon.- w.ii the name Tecumihe. or 
■■Flying .Acros.s," given. Their piilernil grandf.ilher «a.s a 
Creek, and their gnindmolher a Sh.iwnee. Tile n.inie of 
their father was l'iike:,hinsvaii, who born among the 
Creeks, but rrjnoved with his tribe to Chillicothe. upon the 
Scioto. Tecumthc. his fourth son. was born upon the jour- 
rnkeshinwaii was killed at the battle at Point I'leasant 


1774. and ilie Prophet was 
bom at the same liith a 

at the mouth of the Kenhawa, 
one of three posthumous childr 
few months afterwards. 

The Kiekapoos were doubtless united with the Sh.iwanese 
at a period not very distant. The traditions of each tribe 
contain similar aeeounts of their union and scpar.ilion ; and 
the identity of their langu.ige furnished irrefragable evident 
of their consanguinity. We are inclined to believe that when 
the Shawanese were overpowered by the [roquoii, and aban- 
doned their country upon Lake Erie, they sep.irated into two 
great divisions— one of which, preserving their repu- 
tation ^^dcbignation ;, lied into Plorida, and the other, now 
known to us as the Kickapoos, returned to tlio West and es- 
tablished themselves among the Illinois Indians, upon the 
extensive prairies on that river and between it and the Mis- 
sissippi. 'Ihis region, however, the) have relinquished to 
the United ."^l.ttci. 

Judge James Hall, of Cincinn.nti, one of the 
authors of this work, in his Essay on the History 
of the North .\merit-an IiHJi.iiis, comptisctj in 
the third volume, writes cloqucnily of this tribe. 
A part of his account allies it in<,>ie closely 
with the history of Western Kentucky, and seems 
to indicate the region watered b\ the lower Cuni- 
berland as a former habitat of the tribe. 

The Shawanoe nation, wli'-n first known to the whites, 
were a numerous and warlike people of Georgia and >outh 
Carolina. After the lapse of a very few years, they aban- 
doned or were driven from that region, and are found 
in the southwestern part of the Ohio valley, giving their beau- 
tiful name to the river which liy the bad taste of the .-Ameri- 
cans has acquired the hackneyed name of Cumberland. We 
next hear of them in Pennsylvania, parlicip.itors in the tragic 
scenes which have given celebrity to the valley of Wyoming. 
.•\gain diey lecede to the Ohio valley, to a locahty hundreds 
of miles distant from their former hunting-grounds in the 
West, selecting now the rich and be.iutiful pl.ims of the 
Scioto valley and the Miaiuis. Here they att.uned the high- 
est point of their fame. Here was heard the eloquence of 
Logan ; here was spent the boyhood of Tecumseh. It was 
from the romantic scenes of the Little Miami, from the Pick- 
away plains and the beautiful shores of the Scioto— from 
scenes of such transcending fertility and beauty as must have 
won any but a nature inherently savage to the luxurv' of rest 
and contentment, that the Sh.iwanoese went fort'.i to battle 
on Braddocks field, at Point Pleasant, and along the whole 
line of the then Western frontier. Utstly. we find them 
dwelling on the Wabash, at Iippcc.inoe, holding counciU 
with the (iovernor of Indiana at \'inc. nne.-. intriguing wit" 
the Cherokees and Creeks of the South, and fightinj under 
the British banner in Canada. Here we find a people num- 

bering but a few thousand, and who could, even as sav.i^es 
and hunters, occupy but a small tract of country at any one 
time, roaming, in the course of two centuries, over fn de- 
grees of latitude; changing their hunting-grounds, not grad- 
ually, but by migrations of hundreds of miles at a time; 
abandoning entirely a whole region, and appearing upon a 
new and far-distant scene. What land was the country of 
the Shavvanoese ? To what place could that strong local at- 
tachment which has been claimed for the Indians, have af- 
fixed itself? Where must the Shawanoe linger, to indulge 
that veneration lor the bones of his fathers which is said to 
form so strong a feeling in'the savage breast ? Their b<ines 
are mouldenng in even- valley, from the sultry confines of 
tleoigia to the frozen shores of the Canadian frontier. Their 
traditions, if carefullv preserved, in as many separate dis- 
tricts, have consecrated to the affections ot a little rem.- 
nant of people a vast expanse of territory, which now em- 
braces eight or nine sovereign States, and maintains five 
millions of people. 

Mr. Dodge, in his Red Men of the Ohio Val- 
ley, expresses the opinion that, at the period of 
the settlement of Yirfiinia, the Shawnees were 
doubtless the occupants of what is now the State 
of Kentucky, from the Ohio river up to the 
Cumberland basin, the country of the Chetokees, 
and that they were driven from this delightful 
land into the Pennsylvania and Ohio country, 
probably by the Cherokees and Chickasaws. 

Upon Charlevoix's map of New France, the 
Kentucky country is given as the "Pays du 
Chouanons," or Land of the Shawnees, while the 
Kentucky river is noted as "La Riviere dcs An- 
ciens Chouanons," or of the Old Shawnees. It 
is well known tliat the Tennessee river was for- 
merly called the Shawnee— and, indeed, wher- 
ever this tribe dwelt in their earlier history, they 
seem to have left a memorial in the name of a 
river. When first known to the Europeans, they 
were dwelling among the Creeks on the Florida 
rivers. The "Suwanee" of the popular song 
takes its name from them. 

In passing, we may note that this map of 
Charlevoix's marks the Ohio as the "Oyo, or la 
Belle Riviere," and the country west of the 
Wabash as the "Pays des Miamis," indicating 
the reputed hr.bitat of another great tribe. West 
of these was the Pays des Illinois. 

About 1745 the Shawnees retired to the Mi- 
ami and Muskingum valleys to avoid their south- 
ern enemies. They were represented at the 
treaty with the Menguys, and in the alliance 
against the Cherokees, Catawbas, Muscologees, 
j C"hickasaws, and other tribes of the South. Ken- 
I tucky being the usual ground of warfare between 
these Southern and Northern tribes, it so came to 



be called, as is believed, the Dark and Bloody 


Messrs. Kenny niid Hall furni--h the lollowing 
facts concerning this tribe: 

The .Mi.nniis, when first known to llie Trench, «ert.- living 
aroiuid L'liicago, upyn Lake Miciiigan. It was tlie chief <<f 
this lril>e whose si.ite and atlentlance were depleted by the 
Sieiir rvrol in siieh slri->iig colors. Charlevoix, without 
vouching for tlie entire .accuracy of the relation, uhserves that 
in his time there was move deference paid by the Miaiiiis Kj 
their chiefs than by any other Indians. 

This tribe removed from Lake Michigan to the \Val), 
where they yet [1843] retain an extensive tract of countiy up- 
on wliich they resitie. .A kindred tribe, tlie W'cas. more 
properly called the Newcalenons, long lived witli the Mianiis; 
but they have recently seiiaratcd from Ihem and crossed the 
Mississippi. Their whole number does not exceed three 
hundred and fifty. Of the Miarnis about one thousaml yet 

This tribe wa-s formerly known to the Knglish as the Twigh- 
twees. They appear to have been the only Indians in the 
West, with the exception of one other tribe, the l"ci\es, who, 
at an early period, were attached to the English interest. 
The caitse^ which led to this union are unknown, but for 
many years they produced a decisive effect njiiin tiie fortunes 
of the Miamis. 

That stmngest of all institutions in th'- history of hu- 
man waywardness, the in.,n-eating society, exi.-ted am'.iig 
this tribe. It extended also to the Kichapoos. but to 
how many others w-e do not know. It appears to have been 
the duty of the members of this society to .my c.iptives 
who were delivered to them for that purpose. The subject 
itself is so revolting to us at this day. even t^i the Indi.ins, 
tliat it is difticult to collect the traditionary details concerning 
this institution. Its duties and its privileges, for it had 
both, were regulated by long usage, and its whole ceremonial 
was prescriljed by a hoirible ritual. Us rrembers belonged 
to one family, and inherited this odious diatiuctiipn. The so- 
ciety was a religious one,*^nd its great festiv.\ls urre cele- 
brated in the presence of the whole tribe. During th.' exist- 
ence of the present generation, this society flourished and 
performed shocking duties, but they are now wholly discon- 
tinued, and will bo ere long forgotten. 


claim to be "uncle" to all the other tribes. The 
Delawares, they say, are grai.dfather, but still the 
nephew of the Wyandots. Thc-y smmtiuics are 
called Hurons, wctc of Hcrcn .sKh k. with the 
Algonquins as their allies, and were ilriven tVom 
their ancestral seat on the St. Lawrence by their 
hereditary enemies, the terrible Iro.iuf)is. In 
their l.tter homes, however, in Xorthwestern Ohio 
and Northeastern Indiana, they were the leadin;.; 
tribe. For ages they had been at the head of a 
great Indian commonwealth 01 1 oiiSeder.icy, anil, 
though greatly enfeebled by long and bloddv 
wars, their sceiiter had not yet qiute de|.jrted. 
Once thev hehi the great < 0111..1I lire, .nnd had 

the sole right of convening the tribes of the con- 
federacy around it, when some impo:tant event 
or plan required general deliberation. In the 
pwssession of their chiefs an Indian agent at Fort 
Wayne saw a very ancient belt iielieved to have 
been sent to them by the Mexican Emperor 
Monte/unin, svith a warning that the Spaniards 
under Cortez had a[ipeared upon the coast.' 
'I'hey were among the last of the tribes to leave 
Ohio, by which time they had become reduced 
to but .a few hundred. McKenney c*v: Halls 
History of the Indian Tribes of North America 
says : 

This tribe was not unworthy of the preeminence it enjoyed. 
The I'lench historians describe them as superior, in all the 
e.ssoiitial characteristics of savage life, to any other Indians 
upon tlie continent. .And at this d.ay [1844" their intrepid- 
ity, their general dcporimcnt, and their lofty bearing, confirm 
the accounts which have been given to us. In all the wars 
upon our borders, until the conclusion of Wayne's treaty, 
they acted a conspicuous part, and their advice in council 
and conduct in action were worthy of their ancient renown. 


These are the Lenni-Lenaiie, or " original peo- 
ple" — certainly a very ancient peojjle, about 
whom man)- large stories, it not absolute fables, 
have been related. When first known to the 
whites, they resided chielly upon the tidewaters 
of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. 
Tliey early became known to the Moravian mis- 
sionaries, who labored among them with exem- 
plary zeal and care, and accompanied them in 
their migrations to the Sustjuehanna, thence to 
the Ohio, thence to the Muskingum, where the 
first white settlements, except a trading-post or 
two, were made u[)on the present territory of the 
connnoiiwealth of Ohio, shared in their horrible 
calamities, went with them thence to Lake St. 
Clair and the neighborhood of Sandusky, and re- 
mained with them till their pious mission was 
fulfilled. 'I'hc unconverted or heathen [lortion 
of the tribe, after the removal from Ohio, settled 
on White river, in Indiana, which they occupied 
until transported beyond the Mississippi, where 
they Were settled upon a reservation in the south- 
west part of Missouri. 


were faithful adherents and allies of the VN'yan- 
dots, rnd accom[)anied them in all their migra- 
tions. The celebiated I'oruiac, hero of the con- 
spiracy against the liritish garrison at Detroit so 
much exploited in history, was an Ottawa chief. 



born about 1714. Tiiey became much scattered 
in more recent days, but large bands of them re- 
sided u])Oii the Maumce, and theii parties occa- 
sionally roamed the hunting-grounds of Ken- | 


were also occasionally seen by the pioneers in 
these regions. They were not Ohio Indians, but ] 
had their habitat in jiarts of Indiana, .Michigan, ! 
and Illinois. Until they became degraded and j 
degenciate, thev were the most popular tube 
north of the Ohio, remaikable, even with the 
Wyandots so near, for their statute, symmetry, 
and fine personal bearing. Their residence did 
not extend in this direction beyond the 'White 
river of Indi.uia, but they often penetrated south 
of the Beautiful river, and were probably the 
chief instruments in the anno\ance of the early 
settlers about the l-\al!s. 


who were also among the " Wabash Indians," 
were simply a tribe of the powerful Sha«nees. 
This nation was originally separated into twelve 
tribes, each divided into families known by their 
" totems," as the Eagle, the Turtle, etc. When 
the period of white occupancy began here, all the 
tribes had become extinct or interniingled, ex- 
cept four, of which the Kickapoos formed one. 1 
To this day, each of the four sides of their coun- 
cil-house is assigned to one of these tribes. To 
the Kickapoo division and the family of "the 
Panther" belonged the eloquent and brave Te- 
cumseh and his brother, the Prophet. The 
.Shawnee tongue seems closely related to that of 
the Kicka['005 and of some other Northern 


were an insignificant band, sometimes called the 
Newcalenons, whose habitat was upon the small 
river which bears their name in ^\■estern Indiana. 
They were allied to the .Miamis, with whom they 
long lived. When they crossed the Mississippi. 
their number scarcely reached four hundred. 
General Scott's expedition from Kentucky, in 
I 791, was specially directed against this tribe. 


The only great Southern tribe with which this 
history need deal, is the Chickasaws, who held 
the entire tract of the Kentucky country west of 
the Tennessee to the Missiisip[)i. 

The Chickasaws formed one of a number ol 
Indian nations found by the whites in the south- 
ernmost States east of the Mississippi river in 
the early part of the last century. The Uchees, 
with the Lower, Middle, and Upper Creeks, con- 
stituted the formidable Muscogee confederacy; 
the other tribes were the Seminoles, the Chero- 
kees, the Choctaws. the Natchez, the Yemasces, 
and the Chickasaws. The last-named are de- 
scribed by CaiJtain Romans, in his Concise 
Natural History of East and West Florida, pub- 
lished at New ^ ork in 1775, a^ a fierce, cruel, in- 
solent, and haughty race, corrupt in morals, filthy 
in discourse, lazy, powerful, and well made, 
expert swimmers, good warriors, and excellent 
hunters. He contrasts them unfavorablv with 
the Choctaws, whom he praises as a nation of 
farmers, inclined to peace and industry. The 
Chickasaws about this time lived on the left fiank 
of the Savannah river, op[)osite Augusta. 

The (ollowing facts concerning the Chicka- 
saws are derived chiefly from the first volume of 
.Mr. Henry R. Schoolcraft's great report to tlie 
Government of information respecting the History, 
Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of 
the United States. They are full of interest, and 
their sources give them authority and permanent 

The traditional origin and history of this 
branch of the Appalachian family is retained by 
the tribe, in their later homes west of the Mis- 
sissippi. Their old men tell the tale thus: They 
came from the west, and a part of their tribe re- 
mained behind. When about to start Eastward 
they were provided with a large dog as a guard 
and a pole as a guide. The former would give 
them notice whenever an enemy was at hand, 
and thus enable them to make their arrange- 
ments to receive them. The pole they, would 
plant in the ground every night, and the next 
morning they would look at it and go in the di- 
rection it leaned. (Mr. Schoolcraft says this 
allegory of the dog and pole probably reveals the 
faith of this people in an ancient prophet, or 
seer, under whose guidance they migrated.) 
They continued their journey in this way until 
they crossed the great Mississippi river, and, on 
the waters of the Alabama river, arrived in the 
country about where Huntsville, Alabama, now is. 
There the pole was unsettled for several days, 
but finally it settled and pointed in a southwest 


ilircf tioii. They then started on course, 
[iLinting the pole every night, until th< }■ fot to is railed the Cliickasaw Old 1 uliF, where 
the |>i)!e stood perfectly erect. All then canie to 
the conclusion that that wa.^ the iironiised land, 
and there they accordini^ly reinained until they 
eriii:;r:Ued west of the State of in the 
yeair. 1837 and iSj.S. 

While the pole was in an unsettled situntion, a 
]iart of their tribe moved further eastward and yul 
with the Creek. Indians; but so soon asa majority 
of the tril)e settled at the Old Fields, they sent 
for the party that had gone on east, who answered 
that they were very tired and would rest where 
they were a while. This clan was called Cush- 
c tah. They have never joined the present tribe, 
but they always remained as friends until they 
had intercourse with t}ie whites; then they be 
came a separate nation. The great dog was lost 
in the Mississippi, and they always believed that 
the clog hud got into a large sink-hcile an<l 
there remained; the Chickasaws said they could 
hear tlie dog howl just before the evening c,<me. 
\\'henever any of their warriors get scalps; they 
give them to the boys to go and throw them into 
the sink where the dog was. After throwing the 
scalps, the boys would run off in great fright, 
and if one should fall in running off, the Chicka- 
saws were certain he would be killed or taken 
prisoner by their enemies. Some of the half- 
breeds, and nearly all of the full-bloods, now be- 
lieve it. 

In traveling from the West to the F.ast, they 
have no recollection of crossing any large water- 
course except the Mississippi river. During this 
exodus they had enemies on all sides, and had to 
fight their way through, but they cannot give the 
names of the people they fought with while 
traveling. They were informed, when they lelt 
the West, that they might look for whites; that 
they would come from the East; and that they 
were to be on their guard and to avoid tl'.e 
whites, lest they should bring all manner of 
vice among them. 

After their settlement in Mississippi, they had 
several wars, all defensive. They fought with 
the Choctaws, and came off victorious ; with the 
Creeks, and killed several hundred of them and 
drove them off; they fought the Cherokees, 
Kickapoos, Osnges, and several other tribes of 
Indians, all of whom they whipped. The ex- 

pedition of !)e Soto passed through their coun- 
try, had sharp conflicts with them, and occupied 
for a time one of their deserted towns, which the 
Chii kasaws finally burned over their heads in a 
nii;ht attack, destroying all the hogs that were 
being driven along, many horses, and other 
property. A large number of French landed 
once at the Chickasaw Bluff, where Memphis 
now is, and made an att.irk upon this tribe, as 
their traditions relate, hut were beaten ofl" with 
great loss. At one lime a large body of Creeks 
canu- to the Chickasaw country to kill them off 
and take their lands 'I'he Indians knew of their 
coming and built a fort, assisted by Ca[)tain 
David Smith and a party of Tennesseeans. The 
Creeks came on, but iVw of them retuined to 
their own land to tell the tale of disaster. 

F'ntil the nation removed to the west of the 
Mississippi, it had a king, who is recognii:ed by 
name in the treaty made by General Jackson in 
1819. The Indian title was Minko, and there 
was a clan or flimily b)- that name from which 
the king was taken. He was hereditary through 
the female side. Since the migration the tribe 
has elected chiefs from difterent families or 

The highest clan next to Minko is the Sho-wa. 
The next chief to the king was out of their clan. 
The next is Co-ish-to, second chief out of this 
clan. The next is Oush-pe-ne. The next is 
Uin-ne; and the lowest clan is called Hus-co-na. 
Runners and waiters are taken from this family. 
When the chiefs thought it necessary to hold a 
council, they went to the king and requested 
him to call one. He would then send one of 
his runners out to inform the people that a coun- 
cil would be held at such a time and place. 
When they convened, the king would take his 
scat. The runners then placed each chief in his 
proper place. All the talking and business was 
done by the chiefs. If they passed a law they 
infoinied the king of it. If he consented to it, 
it was a law ; if he refused, the chiefs could make 
it a law if every chief was in favor of it. If one 
chief refused to give his consent, the law was 

These Indians have no tradition concerning 
tlte large mounds in Mississippi ; they do not 
know whether they are natural or artificial. They 
found them when they first entered the country, 
and called them " navels," I'rom the notion that 



the Mississippi was the center of the earth and 
the mounds were as the navel of a man in the 
center of his body. 

Beyond die Mississi|ji)i, tlie Cnickasaws made 
an agreement with the Choctaws, by which tliey 
agreed to hve under tlie .Choctaw laws, in a re- 
pnblican form of government. They elect a 
chief every fi.ur year.s, and captains once in two 
years. Judj^c^ are elected by the general coun- 
cil. The chieK and cartains in council make 
all appropriations for any of the purposes of the 
Chickasaws. The Choctaws liave no control of 
their financial nfl'airs, nor they of those of the 
Choctaws. Mr. Schoolcraft, writing in 1850, 
says tliat, under the new gowrnmont, they had 
improved more in the last five years than they 
had in the preceding twenty years. They had 
then in progress a large manual-labor academy, 
and had provided for two more, one for males 
and one for females. The Chickasaw district 
lay north of Red river, was about two bundled 
and twenty-five by one hundred and fifty miles 
in length and breadth, being large enough for 
two such tribes,and was esteemed well adapted 
to all their wants. Mr. Schoolcraft concludes 
his account as follows : 

The fund^ of tlie Chickasaws, in the hands of the Govern- 
ment, for lands ceded to the L'liited States, are ample for the 
purposes of educating every member of the tribe, and of 
making the most liberal provision for their advancement in 
agriculture and the arts. Possessing the fee of a fertile and 
well-watered area of thirty-three thousand sp\en 
hundred and fifty squ.Tre miles, over which Ihev are guaran- 
teed in the sovereignty, with an enlightened chieftaincy, a 
practical representative and elective system, and a people 
recognizing the value of hihor, it would be difficult to im- 
agine a condition of things more favorable to their r.-;pid prOE;- 
ress in all the elements of civilization, sell-government, and 
permanent prosperity. 

The total number of the tribe at this time, in 
the Indian Territory and elsewhere, was about 
five thousand. 

Mr. Bartram, in his book of Travels through 
North and South Carolina, Georgia, etc., pub- 
lished in London in 1792, makes the following 
remarks on the physical characteristics of the 
Southern Indians, including the Chickasaws; 

The males of the Chcrokecs. Muscogulgees, Seminoles, 
Chickasaws. Choctaws, and confederate tribes of the Creeks, 
are tall, erect, and moderately robust; their limbs well 
sh.iped, so ,15 generally to form a perfect human figure; their 
feiiturcs regular an! countenance open, dignified, and pl.uid, 
yet the forehead and brow so formed as to strike you in- 
stantly with heroism and bravery; the eye. though rather 
small, active .and full of fire; the iris al.vavs black, and the 

nose commonly inclining to the aquiline. Their countenance 
and actions e.vhibil an air of ningnanimiiy. superiority, and 
independence. Their complexion of a reddish brown or 
copper color; their hair long, lank, coarse, and black as a 
raven, and reflecting the like lustre at different exposures to 
the light. 

The .Muscogulgee women, though rAnarkibly short of 
stature, are well formed; their vis.ige round, features regular 
and beautiful, the brow high and arched; the eyes large, 
black, and languishing, expressive of modesty, diffidsnce, 
and bashfulncss; these charms are their defensive and offcn- 
siie weapons, and tlie_v know very well how to play them off, 
and under cover of these alluring graces are concealed the 
most subtle artifices. They are, however, loving and alTcc- 
tion.ite; they are, I believe, the smallest race of women yet 
known, seldom above five feet high, and 1 believe the greater 
number never arrive to that stature; their hands and /eet not 
larger than those of Europeans of nine or ten years of age; 
yet the men are of gigantic stature, a full size larger than 
Europeans, many of them above six feet, and few under 
that, or five feet eight or ten inches. Their complexion 
is much darker than any of the tribes to the north of ihem, 
that I have seen. This description will, I believe, compre- 
hend the Muscogulgees, their confederates, the Choctaws, 
and I believe the Chickasaws ilhough 1 have never seen their 
women), excepting some bands of the S>eminoles. Uclies, 
and Savannucas, who are rather taller and slenderer, ,nnd 
their complexion brighter. 

U'ith these citations we conclude the account 
of the Indians who kept Kentucky for genera- 
tions as a hunting-ground and field for war, and 
proceed to give some account of the relinqui.->h- 
ment of their claims to the white man. 


The Iroquois, or Six Nations, although not in 
actual occupation of the Kentucky country dur- 
ing the last century, had some sort of shadowy 
claim upon it, \yhich they assumed to grant by 
treaty, and upon which the English found it con- 
venient to base their claims, as against the 
French claim by right of discovery. In 1684, 
and again in 1701, the Six Nations had formally 
put themselves under the protection of England; 
and in 1726, September 14th, a deed was made 
by the chiefs conveying all their lands' to the 
Crown in trust, "to be protected and defended 
by his Majesty, to be for the use of the grantors 
and their heirs." 

In June, 1744, at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
when the savages had been well plied with liquor, 
they were induced to sign a treaty by virtue of 
which they should recognize the king's right to 
all lands that are, or by his Majesty's appoint- 
ment shall be, within the colony of Virginia" — a 
remarkable grant, truly, and one under which 
tracts of indefinite greatness might have been 



On the 9th of June, 1752, the coniniis-.ioners : 
of Virginia met the Indian^ of some otlicr triljcs, 
.probably the Twightwees, or "Mianiis, at Logs- ; 
town, below Pittsburg, and a few days afterwards 
obtained a ratification of the Lani.ibtei tieatyand 
a guarantee that the Indians would not di:.turb { 
settlements southeast of the Ohio. 1 

In September, 1753, William F^airf.ix, of \'ir- j 
ginia, made another treat) at \\inehe5ter, tlie 
particulars of which have never been dl^^losed. j 
The iniquity of the Lancaster and l.ogstown i 
conventions and of appliances by which they I 
were obtained, is manifest from the fact that j 
Fairfax is known to have endorsed upon the 
treaty that such was the feeling among the In- 
dians that he had not dared to mention to them j 
either of these. A more satisfactory interview 1 
occurred at Carlisle the next month, between | 
the representatives of the leading tribes and j 
commissioners of Pennsylvania, of whom one 
was Benjamin F'ranklin. 

October 24, 176S, an inportant congress of 
white and Indian deputies met at Fort Stanwi.x, 
in Western New York, during which a treaty was 
made whereby the Indians agreed that the south 
line of their territories should begin on the 
Ohio, at the mouth of the Cheiokee (Tennessee) 
river, running thence up the Ohio and Alleghany 
rivers to Kittaning, thence across to the Susque- 
hanna, etc. Thus the whole country south of 
the Ohio and the Alleghany, to which the Six 
Nations had any claim, was transferred to the 
British. The Delawares and the Shawnees were 
also in the congress at F'ort Stanwix, and were 
equally bound by it with the Six Nations, as re- 
gards the Kentucky region and all other lands 
granted by it. The Shawnee and Delaware dep- 
uties, however, did not sign the treaty; but the 
chiefs of the Six Nations undertook to bind them 
also as "their allies and de[)endent?," together 
with the Mingoes of Ohio. It was expressly 
agreed that no claim should ever be made by 
the whites upon the basis of previous treaties, as 
those of Lancaster and I.ogstown. L'pon the 
Fort Stanwix treaty, for the most part, rested the 
Engli:>h title by purchase to Pennsylvania, West- 
ern Virginia, and Kentucky. True, the Chero- 
kees had an interest in the Kentucky lands, which 
was recognized in 1770 by the treatv of Lochaber, 
and the right of the Southern Indians to those 
noith and e;ist of the Kentucky river was bought 

by one Colonel Donaldson about that time. 
The arrangement at Fort Stanwix, however, 
finally prevailed, although the Shawnees and 
other Ohio tribes held it in contempt, and made 
fiercre raids ujjon the settlers south as well as 
north of the Ohio, on account of the invasion 
of their favorite hunting-grounds. 

Another treaty was made with the Six Nations 
at Fort Stanwix October 22, 1784, l)v which the 
western boundary of their lands was fixed, not 
reaching beyond the Pennsylvania line, and all 
claims to the country west of their line were sur- 
rendered to the United States, which had now 
achieved their independence. This treaty was 
confirmed by the Iroquois, in the important con- 
vention with General Harmar at the Muskingum 
settlement, or F'ort Harmar, January 9, 1789. 

Between the two former meetings and treaties, 
January 21, 17S5, a convention was held at Fort 
Mcintosh, between Generals George Rogers 
Clark and Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee, com- 
missioners on behalf of the L^nited States Gov- 
ernment, with Western Indians alone — tiie Wy- 
andots, Dclawaies, Chippewas, and Ottawas. 
By the treaty then concluded, a reservation was 
made to the Wyandots, Delawares, and Ottawas, 
of a large tract in Central and Northern Ohio, 
the Indians acknowledging "the lands east, south 
and west of the lines described in the third arti- 
cle, so far as the said Indians formerly claimed 
the same, to belong to the United States; and 
none of their tribes shall presume to settle upon 
the same, or any part of it." This treaty was 
also confirmed and extended by the Muskingum 
arrangement in January, 1789. The Wabash 
tribes had not, however, been bound by this or 
any other treaty, and continued their attacks up- 
on the Kentucky, settlements and voyagers on 
the Ohio, until pacificated by the victory of 
Wayne in 1794 and the treaty of Greenville the 
next year, in which the Wabash Indians partici- 

j.^ckson's purch.vse. 

The entire western part of the State of Ken- 
tucky, between the Tennessee and Mississippi 
rivers, recognized as belonging to the Chickasaw 
tribe, was ceded to the L'nited States by treaty 
October 19, 18 18, made by Generals .Vndrew 
Jackson and Isaac Shelby, commissioners on be- 
half of the Government, and Chiunnby, king of 
the Chickasaw Nation, Teshnamingo, James 



Brown, and others, chiefs, and Colonel George 
Gilbert, .NLijor William Glover, Coweamarthlar, 
and other military leaders of the tribe. The 
"treaty-t;ro'.ind, east of Old Town," as mentioned 
just before the signatures, is in Monroe county, 
Wississi[)i)i, on the Tombigbce river, about ten 
miles from Aberdeen, on the road to Cotton 
Gin. Tin: commissioners and their staff occu- 
pied a sjiot beneath the spreading branches of a 
magnificent oak, which was standing many years 
later, and was locally quite celebrated. Ry the 
second article of the treaty thj Itidians bound 
their nation to cede to the I'nitcd States, with 
the exception of a small reservation, "all claim 
or title which the said Nation has to the land 
lying north of the south boundary of the State of 
Tennessee, which is bounded south by the thirty- 
fifth degree of north latitude, and which lands, 
hereby ceded, he within the following boundaries, 
viz.: . Beginning on the Tennessee river, about 
thirty five miles, by water, below Colonel George 
Colbert's ferry, where the thirty fifth degree of 
north latitude strikes the same; thence due west 
with said degree of north latitude, to where it 
cuts the .Missis3i[ipi river at or neai the Chick- 
asaw Bluffs; thence up the said .Mis>issipiii river 
to the mouth of the Ohio; thence up the Ohio 
river to the mouth of Tennessee river: iher.ce 
up the Tennessee to the place of beginning." 

This ceded all the Indian lands in Western 
Kentucky. The consideration agreed upon was 
$20,000 per annum, for fifteen successive years, 
with various smaller sums paid to the chiefs and 
the Nation, on sundry accounts. 

At the time this treaty was signed, there re- 
mained of the Chickasaw tribe, according to the 
Report of the Rev. Dr. Jedidiah Morse, the 
celebrated geographer, to the Secretary of War, 
but three thousand six hundred a;id twenty-five 
souls. They were in the singular proportion of 
four males to one female, which inequalitv. savs 
Dr. Morse, "is attributed to the practice of 
polygamy, which is general in this tribe." He re- 
marks further: 

The flii> ka>.i« s h.n\e always been warm friends of the 
UnileU .'<ta;t.-s. and are distinsuished for iheir huspit.ilily. 
.Some of the ihlefs are half-breed, men of sense. po5:=ess nu- 
merou-, negro slaves, and annually sell several hundred cattle 
and h.ijjs. 1 he n.itu.n resides in eijht t .nvns, and, like their 
neli:hl).,r5 .ir- c.,n,uler.,l,ly advanced in civilizatit,n. The 
.Anieric-.m itiarU uf Conimissio-'ers for Foreign -Missious have 
in conlempl.uion tlie speedy establishment of a mission 

among these Indi.ins, preparations for which are already 

made. This is done at the earnest solicitation of the nation. 


Long before the Kentucky country was cleared 
of Indians and Indian titles, however, it was 
necessary for the uhite man to wage long and des- 
perate wars with his red-browed brother. Promi- 
nent among the means of defense adopted by the 
settlers was the fortified station, which took va- 
rious forms, as may be seen by the following e.\- 
tract from- Doddridge's Notes: 

The forts in which the inh.ibiiants took refuge from the 
fury of the savages, consisted of cabins, block-l.ouscs. and 
stockiides. A range of the former commonly fonned at least 
one 5ide of the fort. Divisions or partitions of logs sep.arated 
the cabins froni each other. The walls on the outside ueie 
t»n or twelve feet high, the slope of the loof being invariably 
inward. .-^ few of these cabins had puncheon fio^irs, but the 
greater part were earlhen- 

The block-houses were built at the angles of the fort. They 
projected about two feet beyond the outer walls of the cabins 
and stockades. Their upper stories were about eighteen 
inches every way larger in dimensions than the under one, 
leaving an opening at the commencement of the second 
story to prevent the enemy from making a lodgment under 
th.eir walls. A Urge folding-gate made of thick slabs closed 
the fort on the side nearest the spring. The stockades, 
cabins, and block-house walls were furni.shed with ports at 
proper heights and distances. The entire extent of the outer 
«all was made bullet-proof The whole of this work was 
made without the aid of a single nail or spike of iron, which 
articles were not to be had. 

Mr. Collins, in the invaluable Dictionary of 
the Stations and Early Settlements in Kentuckv, 
prefi.sed to the second volume of his History, 
enuinerates the following stations in Jefferson 

Floyd's station, first located at the mouth of Beargrass. 
creek, in Louisville, near the present foot of Third street; 
built by Colonel John Floyd. 

.■\nother F^loyds station, on the Middle fork of Beargrass 
six miles from the Falls; p mted by Colonel John Floyd in 

A Sturgus's station, on Harrod's Trace, settled in 1783; 
also Sturgus's station, "in or before 17S4" — perhaps the 

The Dutch station, on Beargrass creek. 1780. 

Hogland's station, on Beargrass. 1780. 

Kellar's station, before 1780. 

Moses Kuykend ill's station, on the Beargrass, 1782. 

Linn's station, on the Beargr.iss. .about ten miles from the 

Middle station, before 1787. 

.\e.v Holland, before 1784. 

Popiar Level, before 1784. 

:Spnng station, in 1784. 

.Sullivan's old station, on the Bjrdstown roa.i. live miles 
-southeast of I. ju-.iville, before 17S0 

.^uilivan^ .'I'u station, before 17S4 

Mr. Collins finds six stations on the waters of 



the Beargrass in 17 So, witii a pupulalion, includ- j 
itig I.ouisNille, of six liundred. 

Dr. McMiirtrie s.iys in the fall uf 1779 
and the spring of 17S0 seven stations were set- 
tled oti the Heargrasa. ', 

Some ot these stations will be rnore definitely ■ 

located, and their story more fully told, in snbse- 1 

quent cliapter.s. ' | 

Armstrong station stood at the mouth of iJtiU ] 

creek, on tlje north side of the Ohio, just oppo- ; 

site the Eighteen-mile Island bar and the Grassy j 

Flats, eighteen miles above I.oui'^ville. Here [ 

the block-house was erected, at some time be- | 

tween 1786 and 1790, by Colonel John Arm 1 
strong, where the river was fordable, in order to 

pirevent the Indians from cro^sin^f and making 1 

raids into Kentucky. i 



are related of this part of the Dark and Bloody j 
Ground, during the era of conflict for supremacy. 
We give a number of these below, collected from 
various sources, and others will be related in 
future chapters. Some of thtni, it will be ob- 
served, are intimately associated with the fortified 


One of the most interesting tales of the Indian 
period, concerning one of the most famous of 
the pioneer heroes of this re;:.;ion, who had him- 
self a fortified station on the Middle fork of Bear- 
grass, only six miles from Louisville, is thus 
related in the first edition of Marshall's History 
of Kentucky: 

In .\pril (1781) a st.iuun settled liy Squire Boone, nenr 
where Shelbyville now si.inds, bec.ime alarmed by the appear- 
ance of Indi.ins, and after some consultation among the peo- 
ple they determined to remove to Beargrass. In executing 
this resolution, men, women, and children, encumbered with 
household goods and cattle, were o\ertaken on the road 
near Long Run by a large party of Inaians, attacked, de- 
feated with considerable loss and general dispersion. Intelli- 
gence of this disaster reaching Colonel John Flo\d, he in 
great haste raised a company uf 'wenly-nve men and repaired 
toward the scene of the late encounter, intent upon admin- 
istering relief to the sufferers and chastisement to the enemy; 
and notwithstanding he divided his patty and proceeded with 
consideml'ie cauiion, such w:is the address of the Indians 
and the nature of the coimtty that he fell into an ambuscade 
and was defe.ited with the loss of half his men. who, it was 
said, kilted nine or ten of the Indians. The Indians are be- 
lieved to have been three times the numlx^rof Colonel Floyd's 
partN'. The colonel n.irr.iwiv escapc'-i with the a-:sistance of 
Captain Samuel Wells, who. seeing him on fool pursued by 
the enemy, mounted hini on ["lis own horse and fled b)' his 
side to snppori him. The conduct of Captain Wells was 

the more niagnanimmis, inasmuch as he and Colonel Floyd 
were not friends at the time. This service, however, was of 
a nature to sutidue .all existing animosities, nor was it be- 
stowed on an unworthy object. No man knew l)ettcr than 
F loyd how to regard so gallant and disinterested an action. 
He lived and dud til- friend of Wells. 

A tew years ago a monument was erected and 
dedicated to the memory of the slain in the sad . 
disaster. The end of the brave Colonel came 
no great while after. It is thus told in the en- 
tertaining pages of Mr. Collins: 

On .-\pril 12. 1783. C'olonel Floyd and his biother Charles, 
not suspecting any ambush or danger from the Indians — for 
there had recently been serious trouble with them, and they 
were supposed to have retreated to a safe distance — were 
riding together, some miles from Floyd's station, when they 
were fired upon, and ihc former mortally wounded. He was 
dressed in his wedditig coat, of scarlet cloth, and i\as thus a 
prominent mark. His brother, abandoning his ov\n horse, 
which was wounded, sprang up behind his saddle, and put- 
ting his arms around the colonel, took the reins and rode 
off with the wounded man to his home, where he died in 
a few hours. Colonel Floyd had a remarkable horse that 
he usually rode, which lund the singular instinct of k'Tio\\ing 
when Indians were near, and always gave to his nder the 
sign of their presence. He remarked to his brother, 
"Charles, if I had b-.>en riding I'omp-y to-d,iy this would 
not have happened." 


The following narrative is from the account of 
Mr. 'William Russell, as found in Bog.irt's work 
on Daniel Boone and the Hunters of Kentucky: 

It is more than fifty years since salt was made at Bullitt's 
lick. The Indians resorted there, and combined tlieir hunt- 
ing expeditions with a pursuit which, however useful, was not 
at all to their liking, distinguished as they were for their 
aversion to b>e classed among the producing classes— the 
manufacture of salt. There were guides to these salt-licks, 
which told even the Indian where they were to be found — the 
buffalo and the deer. There was vast difficulty, of course, 
in procuring the salt from the eastward, and the settlers soon 
congregated around the lick ; for all were not so self-denying 
as the bold old hunter Boone, who could pass his months 
without either salt or sugar. 

There were scenes in those salt-works to which Syracuse 
and Cracow are strangers. The hunters divided ; part of 
them worked at the boiling, and part hunted to supply the 
forest table; and — a char.acteristic of the insecurity of their 
position — the remainder served as an advance guard. The 
crystals cost the settlers such price as made salt more pre- 
cious than gold. The Indian hated to see the white man 
thus engaged— not but that he liked well to see the heavy 
hand of labor on the whites ; but it seemed like an invasion 
of the rights of the owner of the soil, and the very industry 
of the settlers was a perpetual reproach. It part of the 
arts wl.ich he used, and before the exercise of which the In- 
dian felt himself fading away. So, when the work was busy, 
when the furn.aces glowed and the tramp of the laboring 
man ww, all annuid, when the in.inr.ficturer. and the hunler, 
and guard were all on the alert, the Indian crept behind the 
trees, and thirsted for the opportunity to send the shots of 
his warriors' rifles among the groups b.-lo.v : and they would 



have been hurled there luit for Ihe fact he knew so well, that 
the vengeance of the hnnter wouM he rapid snd certain. 

There is a knot there wliich bears the name of Cabre's 
knot,- and it is associated with a liinlling incident. 'I hf-rc 
was all the glare and bustle of a busy .working' time. Tlie 
light of the furnaces shone through the forest. The Indian 
saw, and was cnragi'd at tlie spectacle. C'abre was bound in 
a chestnut oak, the Indians intending to burn him in sight of 
the lick itself — it might be so that the sacrifice could in reality 
be seen, and yet r.ot its nature ditected till assistance was 
too late. The Indians had collected their fagots from the 
pitch-pine, and while every preparation I'or the horror was 
making, some oxen, grazing on the hill, moved through the 
thicket. The Indians mistook the sound for that of an ap- 
proach of a rescue-party of the whites. They hastened to 
hide themselves in an opposite thicket, and Cabre, slipping 
oft' the cords that bound him. darted through the darkness 
and escaped. There was new life among those salt-boilers 
when that panting fiigiti-e arrived among them, and the 
ladle was exchanged for the rifle instantly. They who 
had met to destroy became the object of pursuit, and the 
trail was struck and followed until they reached ilio Ohio 


The following incident was rcLitcd of Cajjtain 
Bland Ballard, one of llie most noted oflicers of 
General Clark's expeditions, in the address of 
Colonel Humphrey Marshall, upon the occasion 
of the re-inteiment of the remains of Scott, 
Barry, and Ballard, in the cemetery at Frankfort, 
November S, i8!i4. Said the eloquent orator: 

On one occasion, while scuuting alone some five miles be- 
yond the Ohio, near the Falls, he was taken prisoner by a 
party of savages and marched to their village, some thirtv 
miles in the interior. The ne.xt day after his arrival, while 
the Indians were engaged in racing with horses they had 
stolen from the settlements, Ballard availed himself of a 
favorable moment to spring on the back of a fleet horse in 
the Indian camp and to fly for his life. The Indians gave 
immediate pursuit, but Ball.ird eluded them, and reached 
Louisville in safely. . . The noble 

steed was ridden to death; the skill of the woodsman biffied 
the subtle sons of the forest, and, dashing into the broad 
Ohio, Ballard accomplished his freedom. 

The story is thus told, with some additional 
details, by the venerable Dr. C. C. Graham, of 
Louisville, in a sketch of the life and services of 
Mr. Ballaid, in the Louisville Monthly Magazine 
for January, 1879: 

During the period he was a spy for General Clark, he was 
taken prisoner by five Indians on the other side of the Ohio. 
a few miles above Louisville, and conducted to an encamp- 
ment twenty-five miles from the river. The Indians tre.ited 
him comparatively well, for though thev kept him with a 
guard, they did not tie him. On the next day after his at the enciimpment the Indians were engaged in 
horse-iMcing. In Ihe evening two very old warri.;rs were to 
ha\e a which attr.icted the atienlion of ali the Iiiilians. 
and li'.> i;uaril left him a few step~ to see how tl.e race would 
tenuinaie. Near him stood a fine black horse, which tlie 
Imli.ins h.,d reeenih stolen from LVargrass, ,uid while the 

attention of the Indians was attracted in a different direc- 
tion, Billard mounted this horse and had a race indeed, 
They pursued him nearly to the river, but he escaped, though 
the hoi>e died soon alter he reached the station. This was 
theonU instance, with the exception of that at the river 
Kaisin, thai he was a prisoner. 

Anotlier anecdote, which has somewhat closer 
relation to the Falls citie.s, is given in this enter- 
taining; essay: 

When not engaged in regular campaign as a soldier, he 
served as hunler and spy for General Clark, who \vas sta- 
tioned at Louis\illc, and in this service he continued two 
years and a half. During this time he had several rencoun- 
ters with the Indians. One of these occuncd just below 
Louis\ille. He had been sent in his character as spy to ex- 
plore the Ohio, from the mouth of Salt river, and from 
thence up to is now the town of W'cstporl, On his 
way down the river, when six or eight miles below the Falls, 
he heard a noise on the Indiana shore. He immediately 
concealed himself in the bushes, and when the fog had suffi- 
ciently scattered to permit him to see, he saw a canoe occu- 
pied with three Indians approaching the Kentucky shore. 
When they had approached within ranee, he fired and killed 
one. The other two jumped overboard and endeavored to 
get their c,\noe in deep water; but before they could succeed 
he killed a second, and finally the third. Upon reporting his 
morning's work to General Clark, a detachment was sent 
down, who found the thtee dead Indians and buried them. 
For this service General Clark gave him a linen shirt and 
some other small presents. This shirt was the only shirt he 
h,rd for several years, except those made of batten. Of this 
shir! the pioneer hero was justly proud. 

Another anecdote of Ballard, which properly 
belongs to Jefferson county annals, is narrated 
by Dr. Graham : 

.-\t the time of the defeat on Lung run, he was living at 
Lyon's Station, on Beargrass, and came up to assist some 
families m moving from from '.Squire Boone's station, near 
the present town of .Shelby ville. The people of this station 
had become alarmed at the numerous Indian signs in the 
country, and had determined to remove to the stronger sta- 
tions on the Eeargrass. They proceeded safelv until they 
arrived near Long run, when they were attacked in front 
and rear by the Indians, who fired their rifles and then rushed 
on tl em with their tomahawks. Some few of the men ran at 
the first fire; of the other sone succeeded in saving part of 
their families, or died with them after a brave resistance. The 
subject of this sketch, after assisting several of the women on 
horseback, who h!id been thrown on the first onset, during 
which he had several single-handed combats with the Indians, 
and seeing the party about to be defeated, he succeeded in 
getting outside of ".he Indian lines, when he used his rirlewith 
some effect, untiThe saw they were totally routed. He then 
started for the sLition, pursued by the Indians, and, on slop- 
ping at floydsfork, in the bushes on the bank, he saw an 
Indian on horseback, pursuing the fugitives, ride into the 
creek. .As he ascended ihe bank, ne;ir to where Rtllard 
stood, he shot the Indian, caught the horse, and made good 
his escape to the station. Many were killed, the numljer not 
being recollected; s-jnie were taken [irisoners. and some es- 
caped to tile Sialion. The pioneers afterwards learned from 
the prisoners t.iken that the Indians were marching to attack 
the station Ihewl.ites had deserteil, but, learning from tln-ir 



spies that they were moving, the Indians ti:rn'?i.! from the 
head of P.uUskin and niarchetl in the direction of Long run. 
The news of the ih'feat induced C"o!onei I-'ioyii to raise a 
party of [hirly-sc>.en men. with the nilemionof chasliauig tlie 
Indians. Kloyd conmiandcd one division and CapUin 1 (ol- 
den the other. H.illatd being wiiii the l.tlter. They proceed- 
ed with j^reat caution, but did not discern the Indians luUil 
tliey received tlieir fire, ^vhicli killed or murtally woundeil 
sixteen of their men. Notwithstanding^ their loss, the party 
under Floyd maintained their ground and fought bravely un- 
til they were overpowered by three times llicir number, w ho 
appealed to the tomahawk. The retreat was completed, how- 
ever, without much further loss. This occasion has been 
rendered memorable by the magnanimous gall. i.itry of yoimg 
Wells (afterwards the Colonel Wells of Tippecanoe), wlio 
saved the life of Floyd, his personal enemy, by the timely of- 
fer of his horse, at a moment when the Indians were near 
Floyd, who was relrealing on foot and nearly exhausted. 

This famous Indian fighter, Captain Bland W. 
Ballard, was uncle to the Hon. Bland Ballard, 
late judge of the United States court for the Dis- 
trict of Kentucky, who died in Louisville in 1879. 


The following n.irrative is from Collins: 

In the latter part of .April, 1784, the father of the late Judye 
Rowan, with his famil)' and hve other families, set out from 
LouisNille in flat-bottomed boats, fur tlie Long Falls of 
Greene river. The intention \vas to descend &,e Ohio ri\cr 
to the mouth of Greene river, and ascend that river to the 
place of dr-stin.ilion. .At that lime there were no settlements 
in Kentucky within one hundred miles of the Long Falls of 
Green h\er (afterwards called \*iennai. The families were in 
one boat and their cattle in the other. Wlien the boats had 
descended the Cihio about one hundred miles, and were near 
the middle of it, gliding along very securelv, as it was 
thought, about 10 o'clock of the night, a prodigious yelling 
of Indians was heard, some two or three miles below, on 
the northern shore; and they had floated but a short distance 
further down the river, when a number of fires were seen 
on that shore. The yelling coniinui.d, and it concluded 
that they had c.rptured a boat which had passed these two 
about mid-day. and were massacreing their captives. The two 
boats were laslied together, and the best practicable arrange- 
ments were made for defending them. The men were dis- 
tributed by Mr. Rowan to tlie best advantage, in case of an 
attack — they were seven in number, including hinis<!lf. The 
boats were " neared" to the Kentucky ahore. with as little 
noise as possible; but avoided too close an approach to that 
shore, lest there might be Indians there also. The fires of 
the Indians were extended along the bank ar intervals for 
half a mile or more, and as the boats reached a point about 
opposite the central hre Ihey were discovered, and com- 
manded to "come to.' -All on bo.trd remained silent; .\lr. 
Rowan had given strict orders that no one should utter any 
sound but of his rifle, and not that until the Indians 
should come within pow<ler-burning distance. They uniteti 
in a terrific yell, rushed to their canoes, and gave pursuit. 
The t>3ats floated on in silence — not an oar was pulled. The 
Indians approached within less than a hundred yards, with a 
seemin.g determination to board. |u>t at this moment Mrs. 
Rowan rose from her scat, collected the axes, and placed one 
by the side of each man, where he stood by his gun. touch- 
ing him on the knee with the handle of the axe. as she leaned 

it up by hiin against the side of the bi.iat. to let him know it 
was there, and retired to her seat, ritaiiiing a hatthei for her- 
self. 1'he Indians continued hovering in llie rear, and yelling, 
for nearly three miles, when, awed by the inference which 
they drew from the silence observed on board, ihey relin- 
quished farther pursuit. None but tho-sc who have a prac- 
tical acquaintance with Indian warfare can form a just idea 
of the terror which their hideous yelling is calculated to in- 
spire. Judge Rowan, who was then ten years old. states thai 
he could never forget the sensations of that night, or cease to 
admire the fortitude and composure displayed by his mother 
on. that trying occasion. There were seven men and ihr-.-.^ 
boys in the boat, with nine guns in all. Mrs. Rowan, in 
speaking of the incident afterward, in her calm way said, 
"We made a providential escape, for which we ought to feel 

MR. Bullitt's adventlre. 

The following is from Mr. Collins's biographi- 
cal notice of Alexander Scott Bullitt, from whom 
Bullitt county is named: 

In 1784. six >ears bef.)re the father's death, the subject of 
this sketch emigrated to Kentucky, then a portion of Vir- 
ginia, and settled on or near the called Bullskin, in 
what is now .Shelby county. Here he resided but a few 
months, being compelled, by the annojances to which he was 
subjected by the Indians, to seek a less exposed situation. 
This he found in Jefferson county, in the neighborhood of 
^turgus's station, where he entered and settled upon the tract 
of land on which he continued to reside until his death. In 
the fall of 1785. he married the daughter of Colonel W. 
Christian, who had removed from Virginia the preceding 
spring. In .April, 1786, Colonel Christian with a partv of 
eight or ten men pursued a sm.ill body of Indians, who h;^d 
been committing depredations on the property of the settlers 
in the neighborhood of Sturgus's station. Two of the Indians 
were overtaken about a mile north of Jeffersonvillc, Indiana, 
and finding escape impossible, they turned upon their pur- 
suers, and one ot them fired at Colonel Christian, who was 
foremoat in the pursuit, and mortally wounded him. Next 
to Colonel Christian was the subject of this sketch and Col- 
onel John O'Bnnnoii, who fired simultaneously, bringing both 
Indians to the ground. Under the impression that the 
Indians were both dead, a man by the name of Kelly in- 
cautiously approached them, when one of them who, though 
mortally wounded, still retained some strength and all his 
thirst for blood, raised himself to his knees, and fired with the 
rifle which had not been discharged, killed Kelly, fell back 
and expired. 


In Bishop Sp.ilding's valuable book of Early 
Sketches of Catholic Missions in Kentucky, the 
misfortunes of John Lancaster and his compan- 
ions, at the hands of the savages, are well told. 
The four were bound from Maysville to Louis- 
ville in a flat-boaL On the Sih of May, 17S8, 
near the mouth of one of the .Miami rivers, the 
party was captured. Lancaster alone escaped, 
and after much toil and danger succeeded in 
reaching the Kentucky shore. We e.\tract the 



remainder of the story, which lies directly within 
the field of this history. 

.■\fter resting a short time, he rl»-termined lo float duwn tlie 
river to the station at the Falls, which he estimated was be- 
tween twenty and thirty miles distant. .Accordinijly. he made 
a small raft, by tying two trees together with bark, on which 
he placed himself, with a pule for an oar. When a little 
above Kighteen-mile Island, he heard the sharp report of a 
rifle, when, thinking that his pursuers had overtaken him. he 
crouched down on his little raft, and concealed himself as 
best he could. Hearing no other noise, however, he conclud- 
ed that his alarm was without foundation. But shortly after, 
a dreadful storm broke upon the river; night already 
closed in, and he sank exhausted and almost lifeless on his 
treacherous raft, drenched with the rain, benumbed with cold, 
and with the terrible apprehension ot. his mind that he might 
be precipitated over the Falls during the night. 

.-\t break of day he was aroused from his death-like lethar- 
gy, by one of the most cheering sounds that ever fell on the 
ears of a forlorn and lost wanderer — the crowing of a cock — 
which announced the immediate vicinity of a white settle- 
ment. The sound revived him; he collected all his energies 
for one last effort, and sat upright on his little raft. Soon, 
in the gray light of the morning, he discovered the cabins of 
his countrymen, and wi'S enabled to effect a landing at the 
mouth of Beargrass — the site of the present city of Louis- 
ville. He immediately rejoined his friends, and their warm 
welcome soon made him forget all his past sufferings. He 
lived for many years to recount his adventures, and died 
about 1838, surrounded by his children and his children's 


From Mr. Casseday's History of Louisville we 
have the following. The incident occurred in 

.■\nother incident will show the education, even in boy- 
hood, which the natuie of the times demanded. Four 
young lads, two of them named Linn, accompanied by 
Wells and Brashears, went on a hunting party to a pond 
about six miles southwest of Louisville. They succeeded 
well in their sport, having killed, among other game, a small 
cub bear. While they were assisting the elder Linn to strnp 
the bear on his shoulders, and had laid down their guns. 
they were surprised by a p.irty of Indians, and hurried over to 
the While river towns, where they remained in captivity sev- 
eral months. One of the party had in the meantime been 
carried to another town; and late in the fall the remaining 
three determined to effect their escape. When night had 
come they rose quietly, and having stunned tbe old squaw, 
in whose hut they were living, by repeated blows with a 
small a\e, they stole out of the lodge and started for Louis- 
ville. .After d.iybreak they concealed themselves in a hollow 
log, where they were frequently passed by the Indians, who 
were near them eiervwhere; and at night they resumed their 
march, guided only by the stars and their knowledge of 
woodcraft. .After several days, during which they subsisted 
on the game they could procure, they reached the ri\er at 
Jeffersonville. Arrived here they hallooed for their friends, 
but did not succeed in making them.selves heard. They 
however, no time to lose; the Indians were behind them, and 
if they were taken they knew their doom. .Accordingly, as 
two of them could not swim, they constructed a raft of the 
drift-logs about the shore and tied it together with grape- 

vines, and the two launched upon it, while Brashears plunged 
into the water, pushing the raft w ith one hand and swimming 
with the other. Before tliey had arrived at the other shore, 
and when their raft was in a sinking condition from having 
taken up so much water, they were descried from this side, 
and bo.its went out and returned them safely to their friends. 


The following account of the battle of the 
pumpkins, which occuried in Jefferson county, 
was communicated to the American Pioneer 
March 25, 1843, by Mr. John McCaddon, then 
and for many years of Newark, Ohio, but an old 
Indian fighter of Kentucky. The following is 
his narrative: 

.After I returned from the expedition of General George 
Rogers Clark (t78oi, as related in the first volume of the 
Pioneer, we had peace with the Indians for about four weeks, 
when two athletic young men, Jacob and .Adam Wickerham. 
went out to a small lot they had cleared and planted. They 
filled a bag with pumpkins, and Jacob put it on his shoulder 
and got over the fence. .Adam, on looking around, saw an 
Indian start up from a place of concealment and run up 
behind [acob with his tomahawk in hand. The Indian, 
finding he was discovered, dropped his weapon and grasped 
Jacob round the body, who threw the bag of pumpkins back 
on the Indian, jerked loose and made off at the top of his 
speed. The Indian picked up his gun and fired, but without 
effect. During this time another Indian, from outside the 
fence, ran up toward .Adam, who was inside. They coursed 
along the fence, the Indian being between .Adam and the 
fort. .Adam outstripped him, leaped the fence before him. 
and crossed the Indians path and ran down a ravine, across 
which a large tree fallen, which he leaped. Such is the 
agility which an Indian chase gave to the pioneers, scarcely 
believed possible now in this time of peace, wherein there is 
no such cogent reason for e.xertion almost above belief. The 
tree stopped the Indian, who threw his tomahawk, but which, 
not being well distanced, hit Adam pole foremost on the 
back, and left a ring as red as blood. In the meaniime we 
in the fort, hearing the shot, were all out in two or three 
minutes, and the Wickerhanis were safe among us. We, with 
our small force, not more than ten or twelve, visited the 
battle-field of the pumpkm-bag, but saw nothing more of the 
Indians that lime. 

Colonel R. T. Uurrett, of Louisville, in his 
Centennial .Address, pronounced May i, 1880, 
after relating several of the stones already given, 
tells the following in addition: 

In March, 1781, a party of Indians came near to Louisville 
and killed Colonel Linn and several other persons. Captain 
.Aguila Whitkaker raised a company of fifteen men and went 
in pursuit of them. They were trailed to the Falls, and it be- 
ing supposed that they had crossed the river, Captain Whit- 
kaker and his men took a boat 10 cross and pursue. They 
were scarcely out from shore when the Indians, until then 
concealed on this side of the river, fired upon the boat and 
killed and wounded nine of the party. The boat put back to 
the shore, and the Indians were attacked and dispersed. 

In the following )ear ^that is, 1785, the year after the 
Linn, Wells, and Brashears incident a man nan-ed Squires 


HIS10R^• OK rFIl'. OHIO I'AI.l.S C:OUN'|-IKS. 

wt-iit out for a hunt in the su')url's of the town. A slight 
snow was upon the ground, and an Intruin tr.ickfd him to a 
sycamore tree near the ntouih of liearjjrass creek, where 
inquires had treed a raccoonr and was preparing to secure it. 
The Inrlian came suddenly upon Stpiires at tfic base of the 
tree, and then a race began around the tree--the Indi. in sume- 
tinies after Scjuires and .Squires sometimes after the Indian. 
Fin. illy both became weary of the ch.ise. and each taking at 
the same iMi-.c the idea of escape by le.uing the tree, the In- 
dian shot off in one direction and Squires in another, much 
to the satisfaction of both. Neither seeming disjioted to re- 
new the treadmill chase around the tree, each pursued the 
course taken unmolested by the other. The Indiari lost his 
prisoner and Squires lost his raccoon, but both, no doubt, 
were satislied with the loss. 

In 1793 a parly of Indians captured a boy at Eastin's mill, 
and, by some strange fancv. ga\e him a scalping-knife, a 
tomahawk, and a pipe, and turned him loose with thiscquJi.i- 
nient. What use the boy made of his instnimenls 
and peace in after years is not known. 


Eight miles south of Louisville, on subse- 
quently becap'.e the Bardstown road, Captain 
Abraham Hite, of Bcikeley county, Virginia, a 
brave soldi 21 of the Revolution, settled in 1782, 
his brothc;, Joseph Hite, following the next year, 
and settlin" two miles south of him, and their 
father, Ab' ^nam Hite, Sr., joining their colony 
in 17S4. Here they had somewhat numerof.s 
encounters with the marauding and murdering 
savages. The younger Abraham was wa\hiid by 
them one day, while going from his house to a 
neighbor's, and shot through the body, but got 
away without capture, and, stranger to say, 
eventually recovered of his wounds. His brother 
Joseph, while mounting guard over a party of 
toilers in the field, was fired at by the red men, 
and severely but not dangerously hurt. Both 
the brothers, however, bore marks of iheir inju- 
ries to their graves, and both survived for nearly 
fifty years afterwards. 



The Discovery of the Ohio— I.aS,,!le ,.; il.e Falls— Uiograplii- 
cal Sketch of the Great French Fxploter-The Spaniard 
— The Frenchman .Xgain— The Welshman at the Falls in 
the Twelfth Century (?)— The Mound Builders White 
-Men (?)— Tne Later Explorers and Voyagers to the FaHs — 
John Howard, the Knglishman — Christopher Gist. I^ros- 
pector for the Ohio Comp.uiy—Colonel Croghan. the In- 
dian Agent — Captain Harry Gordon, the Surveyor—Then 
Come the Surveyors. 

The fust man of I'Luropean stock, whose face 
the placid waters of La Belle Riviere gave back, 
was undoubtedly the daring e.xplorer, the chival- 
rous Frenchman, Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur 
de la Salle. A tradition exists that one Colonel 
Wood, an Englishman, penetrated from Virginia 
into the Kentucky wilds in 1654, reaching the 
Mississippi and discovering several branches of 
that and the Ohio rivers, with an ultimate view to 
trade with the Indians. The story is at least a 
doubtful om, as is also the tale which avers that 
about 1670 one Captain Bolton (called Bolt or 
Batt in Colliub's History of Kentucky) also 
journeyed from \'irginia through this country to 
the Mississippi. " Neither • statement," sa\s 
Parkman, the best authority on such subjects, 
"is improbable; but neither is sustained by sut'- 
ficent e\idence.'' However these may be, there 
can now be but little debate over the claim made 
by La Salle himself, and of late by the historians 
of his enterprises, that he was the discoverer of 
the Ohio in the winter of 1669-70 or in the fol- 
lowing spring. To this we may add that he was 
probably the first man to look upon the dense 
forests of primeval Kentucky, and that his voy- 
ages down the river, with equally strong proba- 
bility, ended at or near the present site of the 
cities about the Falls of the Ohio. 

Robert Cavelier, commonly called LaSalie, was 
born at Rouen, France, in 1643. At an early 
age he became a Jesuit, and taught one of the 
schools of that order, but soon abandoned it 
and went in 1666 to Canada, whither an elder 
brother, a priest of St. Sulj)ice, had preceded 
him. A corporation of these priests, styled the 
Seminary of St. Sulpice, ha'd become the founders 
and proprietors of Montreal, and were freely 
inaking grants of lands to imniigiants, in order 
to form as ^oon ab possible a bulwark of settle- 
ment against the inroads of the Iroi.juois. A 
generous offer was made to La Salle by the Su- 



perior of the seminary, in the gift ol a large 
tract on the St. Lawrence, at the head C)f the 
Lachine ra[)ids, eight or nine miles above iNIon- 
trcal. He accepted the grant, and straightway 
began its imijrovcracnt, with such small means 
as he could command- Soon afterwards, while 
at Montreal trading iji furs. La Salle heard from 
the Seneca Indians that a great river arose in 
their country and ilowed thence to the sea, which 
It reached so far away tliat eight or nine months 
were required to reach its mouth. It was called 
the "Ohio," but was evidently confused with the 
Mississip]ii and identified in La Salle's mind 
with tlie "Great River," which the geographies 
of that day believed to ll')W westward to the 
"Vermilion Sea," or Gulf of California. De- 
termined to discover and explore it, in the hope 
of finding the much-sought west passage to 
China, or at least of opening profitable trade 
with the natives, La Salle went to Quebec to se- 
cuie foi his expedition the approval of Courcelles, 
Ci'ivernor of New France. This was soon ob- 
tained, and official letters patent were granted m 
authorization of the scheme, but without the ad 
dition of otificial aid. La Salle had spent all his 
scanty means in improving the land given hmi 
by the Superior of the seminary, and this he 
was obliged to sell to procure an outfit for his 
expedition. The priest who had granted it, tak- 
ing a lively interest in his adventurous plans, 
bought back the greater part of the tract with 
its improvements, and the explori-r, with two 
thousand eight hundred livres realized from his 
sales, procured four canoes and the necessary 
equipments and supplies, and hired fourteen 
men for his crew. 

The St. Sulpice brethren at the seminary were 
meanwhile fitting out an expedition for similai 
purposes; and at Quebec, where some of them 
had gone to purchase the needful articles for it, 
they heard of the meditated Ohio exploration 
from the Clovernur, who urged upon them the 
advantage of a union of the two expeditions. 
La Salle was not wholly pleased with the pro- 
posal, which would deprive him of his rightful 
place as leader, and make him simply an equal 
associate and co laborer. Furthermore, he feared 
''"uhlc between the Sulpitians and the members 
"' the Order of Loyola, or the Jesuits, to which 
'■'-• had fornierly belonged, and who already oc- 
cupied the missionary field in the Northwest. 

He could not,however, easily neglect the official 
suggestion, with its manifest advantages; and the 
two ventures were presently merged into one. 
C)n the 6th of July, 1669, in seven canoes, with 
twentv-five persons in the party, the expedition 
started U[) the St. Lawrence. It was accom- 
panied and guided by a number of Seneca In- 
dians, in two other canoes, who had been visit- 
ing La Salle. To their village upon the Genesee, 
in what is now Western New York, they piloted 
the white voyagers up the mightier stream and 
across the broad bosom of Ontario. Here the 
explorers expected cordial co-operation and aid, 
but were disappointed, the savages even burning 
at the stake, in their presence, a captive who was 
known to be in possession o;' desired informa- 
ti(.)n as to the great river to the southwest. 

It w'as unfortunate that her-; t'ley were com- 
pelled, from ignorance of the intive language, 
to communicate with tlie Inc .ar.s through a 
Jesuit missionary residing at> the ■\;iU.age. Fle 
was thus practically master of the L.^cation, and 
could color statements from either side at will 
The new-comers, not unnaturally, su.pected him 
of being the author of the obstruction., here met, 
since he, in common with his fellows of the or- 
der, w^ould be glad to prevent the Suli)itians from 
establishing themselves in the West. They were 
obliged to remain at the Indian village an entire 
month, when, an Iroquois happening to visit 
tliem, they learned from him that near the bend 
of the lake where they lived they could obtain 
guides into the unknown country which they 
sought. Accepting his offer of attendance to 
his lodge, they passed along the south shore of 
Lake Ontario, and were the first of white men 
to hear, at the mouth of the Niagara, the thun- 
der of the mighty cataract. At the Iroquois 
village they we're cordially welcomed, and there 
found a Shawnee prisoner from the Ohio coun- 
try, who told them that in a six-weeks' journey 
they could reach the desired river, and that he 
would guide them to it if set at liberty. The 
party then prepared to commence the journey, 
but the Sulpitians, hearing stimulating news of 
the success of the Jesuit missions at the North- 
west, decided to go in that direction, find the 
Beautiful river, if possible, by that route, and 
establish their own nii"ion stations in th.U quar- 
ter. The traveler Joliet, returning from the 
Lake Superior region, under the orders of M. 



Talon, Intendant of Canad:i, called upon them 
at the Iroquois town, and further excited them 
by his accounts, the nvop of the country which 
he presented thcni, and his assurance that the 
natives thereabout were in great need of more 
missionaries. La Salle warned ihcm of dilfRiil- 
ties with the Jesuits, whom lie knew only too 
well; but they nevertheless separated from him 
and went on their bootless way, as it proved, to 
the Northwest. 

La Sntie was just recovering from a severe 
attack of fever, and felt the abandonment the 
more keenly in consequence. He was soon able, 
however, to reorganize his e.xpedition, which he 
took to Onondaga, and thence was guiderl to an 
upper tributary of the Ohio, on whose current he 
was exultantly borne to the nnl.ile expanse of the 
coveted La Belle Reviere. Down this, too, he 
went, on and or., through inany perils, even to 
the Falls of the Ohio, where now rise the domes 
and towers of the Falls cities. There is a tra- 
dition that he went furtiier, so far as to the 
mouth of the great stream; but this statement is 
not held to be well suj)ported. Some doubt has 
also been thrown upon the daring explorer's ad- 
vent at all in the Ohio valley; but this doubt is 
likewise ill-founded. He himself certainly claims. 
in a memorial of 1677 to Count Frontenac, that 
he was the discoverer of the Ohio, and that he 
passed down it to the falls. His identical words, 
in a close translation — but writing of himself in 
the third person — are as follows: 

In the year 1667. and 'he following, he made sundry jour- 
neys at much evpense, in which he iv.15 the first to discover 
much of the country to the south of the great l.-ilics, and 
among others the great river Ohio. He pursued th:it ai far 
as a very high Jref kjut fail in a vast marsh, at the latitude 
of thirty-seven degrees, after having been swelled b> anotlier 
very large river which flows from the north, and all these 
waters discharge themselves. t;> all appearance, into the Gulf 
of Mexico. 

M. Louis Joliet, another of the explorers of 
New France, and who, as in some sense a rival 
of La Salle in the race for fame and fortune in 
the Western wilds, can hardly be accused of too 
much friendliness for him, yet names the other 
upon both of his mai.s of the Mibsissinpi and 
Lake region as the explorer of the Ohio.* 

* Upon Jolii-ts larj;e map the Ohio is called the ■■Qua 
boustikou." In Frariquelin's great m„p of 1034 it is dcig- 
nated as "fleuve i>t. Louis, ou Chuc.ii;oa, uu C;iS()uinam- 
pogamou," while the Alleghany is n;arked .-.s the '■Ohio, ou 

Another ma|i, jirdjably of 1673, represents the 
course of the Ohio to a point somewhat below 
the present site of Louissille, as if it were not 
then known further, and above it is the inscrip- 
tion: "River Ohio, so called by the Iroquois on 
account of its beauty, by which the Sieiir de 
la S.tlle descended. " In view of all the evidence, 
Mr. Parkmaii says: "That he discovered the 
Ohio may then be regarded as established; that 
he descended it to the .Mississippi he himself 
does not pretend, nor is there any reason to be- 
lieve that he did so. " 

I'rom the Flails La Salle returned at leisure 

and alone — his men having refused to go ftirther 

and abandoning him for the English and Dutch 

on the Atlantic coast— to the settlements on the 

St. Lawrence, there to prepare for other and more 

renowned explorations in the Northwest and 

j South, which Were finally and in a very few years, 

j while he was yet in the prime of his powers, to 

j cost him his life. He perished, as is well known, 

I by the hands of assassins upon the jiiains of 

j Texas, March 19, 16S7, at the age of forty-three, 

1 but already one of the most famous men of his 

\ time. He was but twenty-six years old when he 

j stood here, the first of Europeans to behold the 

I Falls of the Ohio. 



In 1669, according to a work by Governor 
Lkwitt Clinton, quoted in a note to Colonel 
Stone's Life of Joseph Brant, which is copied 
without objection into the second volume of 
The Olden Time, a party of twenty-three Span- 
iards, guided by some Iroquois returning from 
captivity among the Southern tribes, came up the 
Mi.sissippi from New Orleans, passed the Flails 
of the Ohio, and proceeded up this and the Al- 
leghany rivers to Olean Point. Thence they trav- 
eled by land' to a French colony founded in 
Western New York three years before, at the re- 
quest of the_Onondagas, where they, together 
with the villagers, were attacked by the Indians 
before daybreak on Ail-Saints day, i66g, and not 
one left to tell the tale. The Spaniards had 
been attracted to this region by Indian stories 
that here was a lake whose bottom was covered 
with a substance shining and white. The Eu- 
ropeans g'.ie,-!Sed this to be silver; it was very 
likely an incrustation of salt in the vicinity of 





In a nicmnrial delivered bv the lUu: de Mire- 
poi\ to tlie IJiitish iiiinijtry, May 14, 1755, dur- 
ing a diplLiniatic corresiiondence concerning the 
boundaries' of Canada, the noble Duke, in his 
"rtmarks concerning the course and territory of 
tlie Ohio," which he claimed as a Canadian river, 
"essentially necessary" to the French for com- 
municalion with Louisiana, said: 

They have frequented it at all times, and with forces. It 
was also by that river that the tlctachinent of troups passed, 
who were sent to Ixiuisi.ui.i aboitt the year 1739, on account 
of the wat witli the Chiekas.ius. 

This force, then, must have passed the Falls 
of the Ohio, but it may be doubted whether any 
other mention of it is made in history. 
THE \vI:LSH^r.\^•. 

Mr. Thomas S. Hmde, an old citizen of Ken- 
tucky, neighbor and companion of Daniel Uoone 
and Simon Kenton, wrote a letter in his old age 
from his home in Mount Carmel, Illinois, dated 
May 30, 1842, 10 the editor of the American 
Pioneer, in which is comprised the following 
startling bit of information: 

It IS a fact that the Welsh, under Owen ap Zuinch. in the 
twelfth century, found their way to the Mississippi and as far 
up the Ohio as the falls of that river at LouisMlle, where they 
were cut off by the Indians; others ascended the Mississippi, 
were either captured or settled with and sunk into Indian 
habits. Proof; In 1790 six soldiers' skeletons were dug up 
near Jeffersonville; each skeleton had a breast-plate of brass, 
cast, with the 'Welsh coat of arms, the mermaid and harp, 
with a Latin inscription, in substance, "virtuous deeds meet 
their just reward. " One of these plates was left by Captain 
Jonathan Taylor with the late Mr. Hubbard Taylor, of 
Clark county. Kentucky, and when called for by me, in 
1814, for the late Dr. John P. Camp'ueil. of ChiUicothe. Ohio, 
who was preparing notes of the antnjuities of the, by a 
letter from Hubbard rayloi, ]r. la relation of mine), now 
living, I was informed th.\t the breast-plate had been t.iken 
to V'irginia by a gentleman of that .Sute — I supposed as a 
matter of curiosity. 

Mr. Flinde adduces other "proot's" in su|)port 
of his theory of the advent of his countrymen 
here half a millennium before La Salle came; 
but they are of no local im|jortance, and we do 
not copy them. This may be added, however: 

The Mohawk Indians had a tradition among them, respect- 
ini; ilie Welsh and of tlieir havins; been cut off by the Indi- 
ans. ,it the Falls of th- Oh:-.. Ihe Lite Colonel Joseph 
H.imilton Daviess, who tia<l for many years sought for infor- 
niaiiiin on this subject, mentions tills fact, and of the Welsh- 
iiifn's bones being found buried on t'orn Islind ; so that 
South.-y. Ihe king's l.mreate. some found.uion for his 
Welsh poem. 

The Story of the Jeffersonville skeletons, we 

hardly need add, is purely mythical. It is not 
probable tiuit any pre-Columbian Welshman was 
ever at the Falls of the Ohio. 


The Rev. lienj imin !•'. I!rown, in his little 
work on America Discovered by the Welsh, pub- 
lished at Philadelijhia in 1876, making a strong 
argument for the pro])osition embodied in his 
title, quotes Mr. Culloh's Researches on Amer- 
ica as affirming of the Western 4-arth-»vorks : 

Almost without exception the traditions of the red men as- 
cribe the construction of these works to white men. Some of 
them belonging to diffeiciit Iribes at the present say that they 
had understood from their prophets and old men that it ha_ 
been a tradition among their several nations that the Eastern 
country and Ohio and Kentucky had once been inhabited by 
white people, but that they were mostly exterminated at the 
halls of Ohio. The ted men drove the whites to a small 
island (Sandy Island) below the rapids, where they were cut 
to pieces. 

This traditicin h;is been more fully related in 
the previous chapter. 


We gladly come back now to more recent 
limes and to authentic traditions. 

In 1743 an Englishman named John Howard 
de-^cended the river in a skin canoe, after cross- 
ing the mountains from Viiginia. He was un- 
doubtedly at the Falls of the t)hio, went on to 
the Mississippi, and was there capttired by the 
French, when we lose sight of him. Upon his 
voyage — which De Hass, author of a History of 
Western Virginia, seems to think "a vague fa- 
dition" — the English based, m part, their claim 
to the Ohio valley, on the ground of priority of 

Next came Christopher Gist, sent out in Sep- 
tember, 1750, by the Ohio company, to "go out 
to the westward of the great mountains, in order 
to search out and discuvei the lands upon the 
river Ohio down as low as the great falls there- 
of; and to take an e.\act account of all the large 
bodies of good level land, that the company may 
the better judge where it will be the most con- 
venient to take their grant of live hundred thou- 
sand acres." After making his v\ay across the 
Ohio wilderness t>) t!;.' Mi.t;;,i. am! down 
that stream to the river, he, ^.ivs the West- 
ern .Ann.ils, "went as far d^iwn the (ihio as the 
Falls anil » is gone seven months." No record 
of his observalKjiis f;r adventures here has been 



In 1765 Colonel George Croghan, a deputy or 
sub-commissioner of Sir \^'illial1l ■Johnson, the 
noted Indian ngc!U in the cinplov of Great 
Britain, came down the river on a niis^iun to the 
distant Western Indians, to secure the alliance 
ol the French at the Illinois settlements, and 
prevent their inciting the savages to war. The 
following is an extract from his Journal: 

Juneist — Wcairived within a mile of tlie Falls of tlie 
Ohio, where we eiicimpcd, after coming about fifty miles this 

2d — Early in the morning we cmb.irkod. and passed tlie 
Falls. 1'he river being very low , we were ohligt;d to lighten 
our boats, and pass on the north side of the little island 

hich lays in the middle of the river. In general, what is 
called the Falls here is no more than rapids ; and in the least 
fresh a batteau of any size may come and go on each side 
without any risk. This day we proceed sixty miles, in the 
course of which we pass Pigeon river. The country pretty 
high on each side of the Ohio. 

Colonel Croghan pursued his way to the Wa- 
bash, where he found a breastwork, made by the 
Indians, as he supposed. He remained at the 
mouth of the river the following day, and at day- 
break the next morning was surprised by a party 
of Kickapoos and " Musquattimes," who killed 
five of his party, wounded him and all the 
rest but three, and carried the survivors off as 
prisoners. He was released soon after, and ac- 
coinplished the objects of his mission. 

Captain Harry Gordon, an otiticial engineer for 
the British Government, who passed the rapids 
July 22, 1766, says in his journal: 

Those Falls do not deserve the name, as the stream on the 
north side has no sudden pitch, but only runs over a ledge of 
rocks, Seveial boats passed them in the driest season of the 
year, unloading half of their freight. They passed on the 
noiih side, where the carrying place is three-quarters of a 
mile; on the southeast side it is about half the distance, and 
is reckoned the safest passage for those who are acquainted 
with it, as, during the summer and autumn, lhebatteau.\-meii 
drag their boats over the rock. The fall is about half a mile 
rapid water, which, however, is passable by wading and 
dragging the boat against the stream when lowest, and with 
still greater ease when the water is raised a little. 

Within a very few years after this came the voy- 
ages of the pioneer surveyors to the Falls, with 
which we begin the annals of l-ouisville in sub- 
sequent chapters. 



Introduction— Ills F-arlier'o— He .s.ivcs Kentucky— The 
Illinois Campaign — The Ohio Campaign— Claik Never 
Defeated — Character of His Enemy— Clark never Caught 
Asleep — "A .Shakspeare in His Way "— The Geneial's 
Death and Hurial. 

This sketch can give but a faint idea of the 
couiage, energy, ca[)acity, and indomitable tenac- 
ity of General George Rogers Clark. The stern 
and appalling difficulties he encountered assume 
the wild charm of a startling romance, and had I 
space for the details of time, place, and circum- 
I stances, it would transcend ficticin itself In 
short, his life was a life of sclf-ieliant and daring 
deeds that stand pre-eminent above all the 
; heroes that ever lived or led an army. For 
! brave, humane, and high-toned chivalry he was 
i truly preeminent. Though daiing and fierce to 
I his enemies, his generous and social impulses 
made hirn the idol of his friends. Quick to re- 
sent an injury, yet prompt to forgive it; tiery in 
pursuit, yet cool and calculating in action, he 
never stooped nor shrunk but in wisdom to gain 
strength for the rebound. Full of generous 
deeds and native nobility of soul, he was a brave 
defender of the "Dark and Bloody Ground," the 
splendid country now called Kentucky. 


j George Rogers Clark was burn November 19, 
1752, in Albemarle county, Virginia. In eatly 
life he was, like Washington, a surveyor, and 
then a major in the wars of Lord Dunmore 

' against the Canadian, French, and Northern In- 
dians. Hearing much said about the newly dis- 
covered world called Kentucky, and the bloody 
conflict between the white and red men for pos- 
session, he determined to see for himself the 
present condition and future prospect of the 
disputed land. His arrival in the promised land 
was in 1775, where he found a few isolated forts 
in the heart of a vast wilderness claimed by the 
most savage and warlike people in the world, 

i against whom unaided individual courage, though 
great, could not prevail. He at once set his 
plans, and went mentally and bodily into the 
work; and marvelous was the result. 

! * From a communication to the Louisville Daily Conimer- 
I cial, February 24. 1878, by the veteran Kentuckijn, Dr. 
I Christopher C. Gr,iham, now in his mneiy-eighth year. 





Clark, with his hold and pcntunting mind, saw 
bul one course to settle the many eorinirting 
claims to the richest region on All the 
counti;y south of Kentucky river at that time was 
crainied by the noted Colonel Henderson and 
Ihc great Transylvania Land company, in which 
ihe most influential men of the Union and no- 
bility of Enf;land \vere mleiesttd. This claim 
was by a purchase made by the above company 
from the Cherokees South, at the treaty of 
Watauga, while the colony ot Virginia claimed 
the whole region from the C)hio river to the 
Cumberland mountains, by her purchase from the 
Delawares and Sliavvnees, and from other tribes 
of the Northwest, called the Six Nations, at the 
celebrated treaty of Fort Stanwix, by Sir William 
Johnson and his co-English authorities. This 
ruinor of a purchase and lasting peace w'nb the 
Indians produced a flood of immigration to 
Kentucky, which caused great alarm among the 
Six Nations, many of whose chiefs had not been 
in the treaty, and knew nothing about it; and the 
Six Nations not being paid according to contract, 
and being egged on by the British trading-posts, 
where large prices were paid for Kentucky scalps, 
all the tribes were about to unite and exterminate 
the intruders. Clark, seeing the hopeless con- 
dition of the early settlers and the danger they 
were in, determined to put his life at stake in 
their defense. The powder and lead being well- 
nigh exhausted, and the forts being widely sepa- 
rated, there was no concert of action ; so he 
called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodsburg 
station, to send deleg.rtes to Virginia to ask for 
a supply of ammunition, at which convention 
Gabriel Jones and Clark were a[)pointed com- 
missioners, signed by Harrod and eighty-seven 

Clark and Jones now set off through a path- 
less wilderness of three hundred miles, over 
rugged inountains, on to the seat of governniLnt, 
Williamsburg, and, finding the Legislature ad- 
journed, Jones des[)iircd and gave it up. But 
not so with Clark, who, with undaunted resolve, 
went straightway to Patrick Henry, then Gover- 
nor of Virginia, and implored him to save the 
people of Kentucky from their threatened de- 
struction. The Governor being sick in bed, gave 
Clark a letter to the Executive Council, and they 
declining to take any rcspon^ibiIit) , Clark said to 

them, in firm and threatening language, that if 
Virginia did not think Kentucky worth saving, 
he would apply lo a pouei that was ready, willing, 
and waiting to si\e and jirotcct it. The execu- 
tive council, uiiderstariding Clark's stern and in- 
dependent remaiks, granted him the ammunition 
asked for. Spain at that time controlled the 
navigation of the Mississippi river, and New Or 
leans being the only market for Kentucky, many 
of the leading men of Kentucky, aware of the 
great commercial advantages Spain offered, pre- 
ferred the protection of S[)ain to that of Eng- 
land. Clark, from his penetrating knowledge of 
human nature, now obtained, as 1 liave said, the 
ammunition for Kentucky, but found great diffi- 
culty in getting it to the different forts in the far- 
off wilderness. He at last getting it to Pitts- 
burgh fort, was joined by Jones, and improvising 
a craft, they descended the Ohio, and though 
fired at frequently by Indians on the shore, they 
landed near Limestone, took the powder and 
lead out, set their craft ailoat, and hid the treas- 
ure in the woods. Jones went to the nearest 
station, and proem ing some ten men, started 
back to bring in the powder, but was attacked 
by the Indians and himself and others were 
killed. Clark, however, kept on to Harrodsburg 
station, got Kenton and others, brought the treas- 
ure safely in, and supplied the different stations 
with the means of defense. 

THE l!a.INOIS C.\MI>.AIt;N'. 

Clark was always ready to sally out against the 
invaders of Kentucky, but with quick perception 
he .^aw no end to such petty warfare, and '.hat the 
ax must be laid at the root of the tree; and as 
there was not sutlficient force in Kentucky to in- 
vade the savage strongholds and break u|) the 
British trading-posts, he again went back to both 
Virginia and Pennsylvania, through ,i wilderness 
of hundreds of miles, and, procuring a hundred 
and fifty men and boats at Pittsburg fort, came 
on to the Falls. Being here joined bv a few 
Kentuckians, swelling his army of invasion, he 
floated on down to a point nearest to Kaskaskia, 
the then great trading post of the Canadians, 
French, and Enuli^h, and where all the Western 
tribes resorted. His m.irch uas r-qiid, and the 
night before hi^ attai k he led his men through a 
tanuled forest of thirty miles, and, taking the 
enemy by surpn-.c, captured llum all, ten times 



his number. In like manner did he take Kaho- 
kia and Si. Louis forts, making ijrisont-rs of the 
English ofticers and sendinj^ tlicm to \'ir|.;inia. 

The French traders and niissiun.xries were the 
first whites to mix and intermarry among tlie 
Indiansand gain their friend'-Jiip. The F^^nghsh 
having taken possession ol Camda, sent their 
otlkers and traders to those posts '.\here they 
were not welconied either by the French or In- 
dians, and Clark, by his inherent knowkdge of 
mind, soon made friends of both Frcncli and 
Indians by pledging exclusive trade for the 
French traders, and protection to all by the 
powers of Virginia and Kentuck)'. Thus, having. 
by his shrewdness accomplished more than many 
officers with an army of ten thousand men could 
have done, le swore his newly made t'riends trj 
their allegiance to N'irginia and peace with Ken 
tucky. He left a single officer, with the aid of 
the inhabitants, to hold the pi. ice, and prepaied 
for his march to Fort \'incennes. 

Before leaving, he kindly took the Frencli 
priests and Indian chiefs by the hand, saying to 
the chiefs: "We are brothers, and in you I have 
confidence, and if I hear of the F'nglish dis- 
turbing your command I will bring an armv to 
your defense ;''and expressing a hope to meet tlie 
priests in heaven, he asked for prayer and de- 
[larted'with his little fragment of an army to at- 
tack the P.ritisli stronghold in the West. He 
sent sjjies ahead, one being the noted Colonel 
Vigo, a Spaniard of St. Louis, and tl;e other an 
influential chief, to gain the friendship of the 
French and Indians in the British fortress in ad- 
vance of the assault. All things being made 
ready, Clark again plunged into the dark and 
dismal wilderness, and alter marching day and 
night through rain, sleet, and mud. they came 
near the Wabash, which being out of Ks banks, 
the low flats were for miles inundated and frcjzcn 
over with ice an inch thick. The shivering men, 
already being worn down and half-starved, halted, 
and, gazing in each other's faces with feelings cf 
despair, muttered, "Let us go back;'' but seeing 
their commander with his tomahawk cut a club 
and black his face with powder, some of which 
he drank, all eyes were upon him as he turned 
his fa'/e to his command and, wi'.li a voice of de- 
termination, ordered Colonel li'jwman to fall in 
the rear, and put to death anv that nuglit refuse 
to follow him. In he [jlunged, waist deep and 

I sometimes to tlie chin, breaking the ice as he 
j went, till he came to shallow water, where he 
; hatted for the iir'ment to see whether he had 
j lo^t any of hi^ men; and seeing some of thein 
i like to faint, lie put the weaker men by the side 
of the stronger fir tlie next two miles, till they 
I came to tree-; and bushes which afforded some 
' support. They, at last, getting on higher ground 
within hearing of the guns of the fort, the enjoy- 
ment of fire and rest gave such life and hope to 
the whole company that when Clark addressed 
i them, with one voice they exclaimed, "We will 
take the fort or die in the attt nipt." 

One of Claik's spies came to his ramp and 
j told him that Colonel Hamilton, the British com- 
! inander, had knowledge of his a|)proach, but that 
J the French and Indian inhabitants, six hundred 
in nuniLier, «erc in s\mpathy with the Ameri- 

Stop here and think of the wonderful sagacity 
of Clark. Flaving already taken three fortresses 
with numbers more than his command, without 
the loss of a man, now we see he has laid the 
foundation fir tlnj capture of Fort Vincennes. 
He marched b>)ldly on, and with the eye of 
an eagle scanned the ground, marching and 
countermarching behind high ground where his 
scant numbers could not be seen, and where one 
man by hoisting the flag higher might be thought 
a full com]iany. He, moreover, placed his sharp- 
shooters behind a hillock close to the port-holes 
of the artillery, and as soon as they opened, a 
shower of balls cut down the gunners; after 
which not a man could be got to work the guns. 
Hamilton, seeing this and that the citizens were 
agaitist him, was paralyzed by alarm, of which 
Clark took the advantage, and with pretended 
feelings of humanity addressed him in the 
language both of a conqueror and a friend, 
showing his astonishing insigiit into human na- 
ture. He said to the commander that he was 
full) able and determined to storm the place, but 
to save bloodslied and the destruction of prop- 
erty, he was willing suni-ly to hold his men 
prisoners instead of killmg them, and to let him- 
self march out with his side-arms, and that he 
would send a safeguard with him to r)etroit ; but 
if he had to take the place by a^isault, he would 
not be responsible for the revengeful conse- 
■ [uences; that his army was largely coui|)Osed of 
Kentuckians, who had come with frantic and 



firm resolve to recover the scal[js of their friends, 
for which he had jiaid iiigli prices, and if any of 
them lost their lives in tlie a'ttempt, he might ex- 
jiect the most excruciating toniire. And now 
this singular epistle, whic'i Claik knew would 
touch the feeling of SLlf-prescrvation, soon 
brought an answer, '• Walk in,'' and it is 
seen that Clark's m.igic [luwir over the minds of 
men accomiilished more, with liiii little over a 
hundred men, without the loss of a single man, 
than others by brute I'oire could have done with 
an army of a thousand and the loss of one-half 
He now (after sending his British prisoners, 
eighty in number, off to Fort Pittsburg) organ- 
ized a colonial government, and, leaving a sutti- 
cient force, returned to Louisville and built a 
fort, where he established his headquarters as 
Commander in chief of the Northwest. 


The four British posts tlu.t had futnishcd the 
savages with arms and amuiunitions of war and 
paid premiums for3ca![is hving broken up by our 
noble defender, Keiitueky fi-lt safe, and the flood 
of immigration becarne great. Kentucky's se- 
curity, however, did not continue; it was not 
long till the foe again lurked in every path from 
fort to fort and house to house, crouched in the 
cane, and murdered all who passed, till Clark, 
becoming wearied in his conflicts with them, de- 
termined to invade Ohio and desolate their own 
homes. His voice being as great a charm to his 
friends as a terror to his enemies, he called for 
troops, and soon had an army by his side wait- 
ing his orders, with which force he defeated the 
enemy in every pitched battle, and like a tornado 
swept over their country. Shouts of victory rent 
the air, and seeing their towns in flames, the 
savages for the first time felt the power of the 
white man and begged for peace. 


The conflicts that Clark had with the Lidians 
and British from time to time are too numerous 
for detail, but sutlice it to say he was never de- 
feated, even by an enemy of double his number, 
while other white commanders contending with 
the same foes, with double their numbers, were 
defeated with great slaughter. In Biaddock's 
del'eat, of twelve hundred men engaijed, there 
were seven hundred and fourteen killed. In 
St. Clair's defeat, out of fot;rteen bun- 

dled men, eight luir,drcd and ninety were 
killed and woundeii. Braddoek's oUicers 
were eighty-six m number, of whom sixty- 
three Were blain, him-,elf among them. St. Clair 
had fruin eighty-six to ninety oflieers, of whom 
sixteen were killed and wounded--a second 
Braddoek's del'eat Il.irmar's defeats were gen- 
erally calamitous, and that of the Lovver Blue 
Lick even more distressing, where, out of one 
huiidred and eight)-f,vu v-:Uo went into the battle, 
near une-lialf were killed, seven taken prisciners 
and tortured in the flames. 

Tliii latter little army was composed of the 
first men in Kentucky, whose loss was not only 
heart-rending to their families, but fearful to all, 
I as all hope for the lives of the few left had dc- 
! parted with the dead. Isolated and hoiKless in 
the far-off wilderness, surrounded by fiends that 
sought their lives, what but dread fear could tor- 
ment them by day and startle their slumbers by 
j hideous shouts at night? Clark, stationed at 
{ Louisville, was their only hope let't, and he, 
j when he heard of the sad defeats, quickly col- 
I lectcd a large force, followed them to their 
homes, defeated them in every b.ittle, and burnt 
their towns, to the great joy of Kentucky. 


I will only mention a few more of the many 
I calamitous defeats, both in Ohio and Kentucky, 
; to show the kind of men Claik had to mntend 
with, and the contrast of his and other com- 
i mands. The destruction of Colonel KstiU and 
his command where Mi. Sterling now stands, 
j and the defeat of Captain Holden at the Lqiper 
I Blue licks, are but drops of blood in the hogs- 
I head that was spilt on this once "dark and 

bloody ground." 

; I will now indulge in but one more incident, 

j which may be of interest to the reader, to show 

! how the savages tortured their prisoners. When 

1 Colonel Crawford was defeated by the Indians 

1 in Northern Ohio, he, the almost only one left 

! alive, was, a few days after his capture, put to 

; the torture. They blacked his face that he might 

I know his fate, bound him tight, and kept him 

I long enough to suffer more than death ; then 

; they strii.iped him naked and shot some twenty 

loads of powder into his body, and having 

burned down wood to lively coals they put him 

on them, and piling brush around him quickly 


engulfed liim in H.inies. His hair wah first 
burned from nii he.:d, his eyes \' ere next burned 
out, all of which he bore uuh incredible foni- 
tude, uttering only in low and solemn tones, 
"The Lord ha\e mercy upon my soul" — till his 
tongue svas parched beyond utterance and his 
feet (on which he had walked round upon the 
coals) were crisped to the bone, when he quietly 
laid himself down with his face upon the fire, 
when an old squaw, with a wooden shovel, 
poured hot embers on his back till life became 
extinct. Dr. Knight, the surgeon of Crawford's 
command, was captured with him, and with his 
own face painted black for execution, witnessed 
the whole horrid scene. They beat him (as they 
did Colonel Crawford before his execution) 
almost to a jelly, and often threw the bloodv 
scalps of his friends in his face, and knocking 
down a fellow prisoner a squaw cut off his head, 
which was kicked about and stamped into the 
ground. Dr. Knight, after great suffering, was 
saved. I marched over Crawford's battle-ground 
in our War of 1S12, and saw the trees scarred 
by the balls. 


General George Rogers Clatk never suffered 
such a fate, nor did one of his command ; he 
never was caught asleep, but ol'ten took his ene- 
my a-napping, conquering as he went, a.s he often 
did, through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and .Mis- 
souri, till his name was a terror to the \\'esiern 
tribes. His first arrival in Kentucky was marvel- 
ous. Having made his way down the Ohio river, 
lined on either side with savages that almost 
daily captured boats and murdered whole fami- 
lies, he landed in a wild and trackless forest, 
filled with a lurking foe, and alone, without map 
or guide, traveling over a hundred miles, and 
crossing deep and dangerous streams, he struck 
the isolated fortress of Flarrodsburg, after which 
he was seen foremost in the defense of all the 
interior forts, and then beyond the border in the 
Far West in bloody conflicts with fearful odds, 
yet ever victorious. No general ever led an 
army with more celerity and secresy, and his 
battle-cry in the onset was "victory or death, 
honor or disgrace;" and he invariabiv led the 
way. He had the foresight of Xapoleon in strat- 
ecy, the heroism of Ciesar in execution, and the 
wisdom of Scipio .Africanus in leading an army 

into the enemy's country. His addresses to his 
men going into b.ittle had much to do with his 
brilliant victories: '-We are nov,- about to engage 
with a savage and cruel enemy who, if they take 
you, will torture yen in the Ifimes, and betu-r a 
thousand times to die in |.:iitle; but victory being 
better than eitner, you can, by a manly and ufi- 
flinching courage, gain it, when cowardice and 
confusion will be death to all." 

ins WIDl: KKMlW.X. 

The fame of tieneral George Rogers Clark 
was not confined to Kentucky or the L'nited 
States, but reached the ears of Xapoleon, uhose 
Minister to the United States, the noted Genet, 
conferred upon him the otTice of generalissimo, 
witli the title of major general in the armies of 
France. Clatk was expected to lead an army of 
Keiituckians to seize upon New Orleans and hold 
it in the name of France, then at war with Spain; 
but Spain having shortly ceded Louisiana to 
Fiance, and Napoleon, about to engage in a 
war with F:ngland, knowing that her fleet would 
quickly sail for New Orleans, offered the whole 
of Louisiana, reaching from the Gulf to the head 
of the Mississippi, and west to the Pacific, for 
$15,000,000. So Clark's expedition, in winch 
all Kentucky was ready to embark, was rendered 
unnecessary by Spain's cession to France aud 
France's cession to the United States. 

Monuments have been reared in honor of 
politicians whose lives were frolic and I'eastincf, 
while those who have risked their lives a hundred 
times, and worn themselves out by hardships and 
privations to save their country from ruin, sleep 
in their graves forgotten and unthanked by those 
who now slumber upon their downy beds, un- 
startled by the Indian's warwhoop, the sharp 
crack of t!)e rifle, and the cry of distress. Then 
forget not those who saved jour fathers from 
death, and enabled them to transmit to you the 
blessings you now enjoy. 

The writer lived in those days of sadness and 
sorrow when our fate seemed certain either by 
the tomahawk or the tortuiing flames. Isolated 
families and forts far apart, two hundred miles 
tVom any help; in the midst of a vast wilderness, 
surrounded by ciuel savages that lurked ujjon 
every [)ath and crouched around the little forts, 
total destruction to all without concert and foreign 
aid was certain. True, we had men as willing 



and ready as Clark to meet the foe face to face 
and hand to hand in bloody conflict, a thine; of 
daily occurrence; but we had no men of Clark's 
strategic and magic [jowirs of combining and 
controlling masses. \\'hen the reader knows 
that our war with Great Ikitain commenced in 
1776, and that the colonies beyond the moun- 
tains being themselves hard pressed, could afford 
us no aid, he will, see us as we were, in a helpless 
condition, struggling against fearful odds. 

"a SH.\KK.SPE.A.RE IX HIS \V.\Y." 

The English immediately and wisely seized the 
Western trading-posts in order to set the Indians 
upon the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and Kentucky, and the red men, like 
the whites, preferring the strong side, listened to 
the promises of the English to restore to them 
their homes that Kentuckians had, in violation 
of the treaty of Fort Stanwix, taken possession 
of. The Six Nations now determined to join 
the Southern and Western tribes in the recovery 
of their common hunting-grounds. Clark, from 
his unerring knowledge of human nature, kept 
such spies as Kenton and Ballard on the alert, 
and finding out that Governor Hamilton, of Fort 
Vincent, had promised the chiefs that if they 
would assemble five thousand warriors by the 
middle o( May he would furnish tw.j Iiundred 
British soldiers and light artillery to quickly rid 
Kentucky of every man, woman, and child in it, 
and to nip this plot in the bud and take them by 
surprise, Clark (not being able to get sufficient 
force in Kentucky) made a third trip to Virginia 
and Pennsylvania, and begged from these colo- 
nies (themselves hard pressed) one hundi-ed and 
seventy-five men, with which he made his winter 
campaign, wading in mud and ice-water chin 
deep, and taking Governor Hamilton's strong- 
hold without losing a man. Thus were saved 
the lives of the parents and grandparents of 
many now in Louisville, who but for the exer- 
tions of General George Rogers Clark, would 
never have had an e.xistence; and who, in the 
chase of fortune and the luxuries of life, have no 
time to visit the grave of one of the greatest mili- 
tary men of this globe; one who accomplished 
ni'ire by his strategy, through a long series of 
brilliant victories, than W'nshinglon did with the 
aid of a powerful nation or than Jackson did in 
S. simple battle behind his breastworks. Clark 

was by nature a Shakespeare in his way, and as 
he was the savior of Kentucky, and aided much 
in keepmg the Indians and British from our 
mother, Xirginia, I say honor to whom honor is 

General Clark, as is elsewhere related more 
fully, was the founder of Clarksville, on the In- 
diana shore, in which his later years were chiefly 
spent. He died at the residence of his sister 
and brother in-law, . Mr. and Mrs. Croghan, at 
Locust Grove, just above Louisville, February 13, 
181 S, and was buried upon the place. He was 
never married, but left somewhat numerous rela- 
tives in and about Louisville. 



•■La P,clU2 Ri, iL-r-"- The F.illsof iho Ohio— C.<»pt.iin Hulch- 
ins's Account of Them — Inilay's .N.irranve — Kspy's Obser- 
vations — Utilizaiion of the Water-power— Jareti Brooks's 
Map — Modern Proposals and Movements — Improvement 
of the Falls— Tiie. Ship Canal— F.arly Pians— Tlie Indiana 
Schemes — The Kentucky Side again — The Company Th,-u 
Built the Work— The Federal Government Takes a Hand 
— Completed — Mr. Cassedays Description — Subsequent 
History of the Canal — Notices ofjuilge Hall and Others — 
Its Transfer to the L'nited States— Enlargement — The 
Railway Bridges. 


The sujierb Ohio was well called by the 
French explorers and geographers the Beautiful 
river. It flows with gentle, majestic current and 
broad stream, for nearly a thousand miles, 
through some of the finest river scenery in the 
world. Its ni|merous tributaries drain, for hun- 
dreds of miles to the north and to the south, one 
of the grandest, richest, most fertile valleys on 
the globe. Its value in the development of the 
Northwest has been incaicul.ible. Fortunate in- 
deed are the cities and toiMis that are located by 
its shores: and doublv fortunate is the county of 
Jefferson, with a t'rontage of nearly forty miles 
upon its amber waters. Wirhout the Ohio, Louis- 
ville would hardly have been. Never has the 
saijacious, unron->'"inu^!v humorous remark been 
better illustrated, that Providence always causes 
the large rivers to rlow b) the large cities. 




Scarcely a break or ripple occurs in tlie tian- 
quil flow of the great river, until Louisville is 
reached. Here an outcrop of limestone from 
the hidden depths-~the same foundation which 
underlies the Falls cities and the surrounding 
country on both sides of the river — throws itself 
boldly across the entire stream, producing, not 
so much a lall as a ra[)id, descending for about 
three miles in the central line of the river, before 
resuming the usual moderate pace and smooth- 
ness of the current. Caretul obser\aiions have 
been made of the diffiTence in the stand or 
height of water at the head and that at the foot 
of the Falls, at different stages of the river, with 
the following result : 

Rise in 

fcL-l at lie 

ad Coiresponuinff 



ue ascent of 

of the Falls. 

Dt foot 

>f the Falls. 

the Falls. 



to 2 



to 23,tr 



■' 3.V 


" 24 >; 



■' 6 

22, '{ 

" 23 1; 



■■ 8'; 

20 ;i 

'■ 22 



'.. '-''* 


' ' 20 




" I?!: 



" 22 'i 


■■ 13 


24 !i' 

" 27K 


" 9 



" 29K 


■■ 6 



" 3';'i 


'..' '^'' 


32 « 

" 33 ;r 





•' 34^i 


" 3 '-i 


■■ 36 


" 3 


to 20 

'.'. ^'''- 

■' 40 ,"3 

I ■ ■ 


I !■< 

* Extreme high flood of 1S32. 

It is thus seen that the greatest fall, as reck- 
oned between the extreme head and extreme 
foot of the Falls, is twenty-five feet and three 
inches, and that the fall steadily diminishes as 
the river rises, until, long before the unwonted 
height of the flood of 1S32 is reached, the as- 
cent, as compared with the ordinar\ ascent of 
the river in the same distance, has become no 
longer an obstruction to navigation. 

It is estimated that three hundred mills and 
factories might be fully supplied with water-power 
by the Falls. 

Some further account of this remarkable 
physical feature in the stream will be found in 
the subjoined descri[itions. 

C.AFIAIN HLTcHlN.s'b .V.\KR.\Tl VE. 

Captain Thomas Hutchins, of Her Majesty's 
Sixtieth Regiment of Foot, afterwards ( jeographtr 
of the United States, made careful examinations 
of the valley of the Ohio, and much of the in- 
terior country, about the year 1766, and pub- 

lished some years afterward, in London, an in- 
valuable though brief Topographical Description 
of the regions visited. It contains probably the 
fust plan of the Rapids of the Ohio ever 
made by a cdmjxieiit hand. From this it may 
be observed that the map shows no vestige 
of white settlement on either side as yet. This 
plan was made, the Caijtain says, "on the s[)ot in 
the year 1766." In the text of his book he 
says : 

The Kapids, in a dry season, are diflieiiU to descend with 
loaded boats or barges, without a good Pilot ; it would be 
advisable therefore for the B.irgemen, in such season, rather 
than nm any risk in passing them, to unload part of their 
cargoes, and reship it when the barges have got through the 
Rapids. It may, however, be proper to observe that loaded 
boats in freshes have been easily rowed against the stream 
(up the Rapids), and that others, by means only of a long 
sail, have ascended them 

In a dry season the descent of the rapids, in the distance of 
a mile, is about twehe or fifteen feet, and the passage down 
would not be difficult except, perhaps, for the following rea- 
sons: Two miles above them the Kiver is deep and three- 
quarters of a mile broad ; but liie channel is much contracted 
and does not exceed two hundred and fifty yards in breadth 
(near thiee-quarters of the bed of the river, on the southeast- 
ern side of it, being filled v.ilh a flat Limestone rock, so that 
in a dry season there is seldom more than six or eight inches' 
water), it is upon the northern side of the River, and being 
confined, as above mentioned, the descending waters tumble 
over the Rapids with a considerable degree of celerity and 
orce. The channel is of different depths, but nowhere, I 
think, less llian five feet. It is clear, and upon each side of 
it are large broken rocks, a few inches under water. 

The rapids are nearly in Latitude 38" S'; and the only In- 
dian village (in 1766) on the banks of the Ohio river, between 
there and Fort Pitt was on the northwest side, seventy-five 
miles below Pittsburgh, called the Mingo town. It contained 
sixty families. 


Captain Imlay's Topographical Description of 
the Western Teriitory of North America, pub- 
lished in various editions about 1793, comprises 
a brief notice of the Falls and their surround- 
ings, which, as it has some unique remarks in it, 
seems well worth copying: 

The Rapids of the Ohio lie almost seven hundred miles 
below Pittsburg and about four hundred above its confluence 
with the Mississippi. They are occasioned by a ledge of 
rocks which stretch across the bed of the river from one side 
to the other, in some places projecting so much that they are 
visible when the water is not high, and in most places when 
the river is extremely low. The fall is not more than between 
four and five feet in the distance of a mile: so that boats of 
any burthen may pass with safety when there is a tlood, but 
bOiits coming up the river must unload, which inconvenience 
may very easily be removed by cutting a canal from the mouth 
of Bcargrass, the upper side of thi- Rapids, to below the 
lower reef of rocks, which is not fjuite two miles, and the 
Country a gentle decliMty the whole way. 



ilic silu.uinn of tlie Rapids is truly doli^-hiful. Tlic river 
IS full a mile wide, and the f.ill of water, wliidusan cas- 
i>dc, appoars as if Nature had designed it to show Iioh inim- 
il.dilc and stupendous are her works. Its breadth contributes 
lu its suWiiiiity, and the cQntinual rumbling noise tends to 
rxhilaraio the spirits and gives a cheerfulness even to slug- 
R.irds. The view up the river is terminated, at the distance 
o( four lc.ii;U''S, by an island in' its centre, which is contrasted 
l.y (he pl.iin on the opposite shore, that extends a long way 
into the country; but the eye receding finds new beauties and 
iniple subject for admiration in the rising hills of Silver creek, 
which, stretching oblicpiely to the northwest, picnully rise 
hither and liigher as they extend, until their suirnuils are 
loii in air. Clarksville on the opposite shore completes the 
prospect, and from its neighborhood and from the settle- 
ments lorniing upon the oflicers' land, a few years must afford 
us a cultivated country to blend appropriate beauty with the 
ch.irms of the imagination. There lies a small island in the 
liver, about two hundred yards from the eastern shoie, be- 
tween which and the m.iin is a quarry of cvcellenl stone for 
l.'uMding, and which in great part is dry the latter part of 
summer. The banks of the river are never overflowed here, 
they being fifty feet higher tlian the bed of the river. There 
is no doubt hut it will soon become a flourishing town; there 
are already upwards of two hundred good houses built. This 
town is called Louisville. 


A graphic and highly interesting description of 
the Falls, as seen in 1S05 by the intelligent travel- 
er, Josiah Espy, then on his tour through Ohio, 
Kentucky, and the Indiana Territory, is con- 
tained in his book of Memorandums, from which 
v.-e e.Mract as follows : 1 

2nd October, I took a view of the magniiicent Falls of the 
Ohio. The rapids apt>ear to be about a mile long. On the 
Indiana side, where the great body of the river runs at low- 
water. I could not discover any perpendicular falls. It was 
not so in the middle and southeast channels, in both of which 
the extent of the rapids were in a great degree contracted in- 
to two nearly perpendicular shoots of about seven feet e.ich, 
over rocks on which the water has but little effect, .^t some 
anterior period the channel on the northwest side. I am in- I 
duced to believe, was nearly similar; but the great body of 
water that has been for ages pouring down has gradually , 
worn away the rocks above, thereby increasing the length of 
the rapid on that side, and diminishing their perpendicular 
■fall. I have no doubt but that the first bre.ak of the water 
here is now much higher up the river than it was originally. 

Tlie beach and whole bed of the ri\er for two or three 
miles here is one continued body of limestone and petrifac- 
t'Ons. The it\finite variety of the Litter are equall) elegant 
anil astonishing. .All kinds of roots, flowers, shells, bones, 
l-urfrtlo horns, buffalo dung, vellow-j.ickeis nests, etc. , are 
promiscuously seen in every direction on the extensive beach 
at low water, in perfect form * 1 discovered and brought to 
my lodgings a completely formed petrified wasp's nest, with 

I'ooi-noic of editor of Espy's narrative; "It needs but 
t'le im.tgination on the part of one not versed in 
"I'-gy to convert llio beautiful corals and other fossils fjund 
" .ibundanily at the falls into the objects named by Mr. 

the young in it, as n.itural as when alive. The entire comb 
is preservetl. 

Nearly every '.rnveler who subsequently visited 
this region harl his observations to make con- 
cerning the I'alls; but we have presented the 
main points of inierest in the three exaiii|)les 
given. Some notes of the writers, however, will 
be lound in the annals of Louisville hereafter. 
One of them, an English traveler named Asle, 
actually averred that he could hear the roaring of 
the Falls when still fifteen miles distant! 


of the splendid water-power which for ages had 
been expending itself unused at the Falls very 
soon engaged the attention of the settlers, and 
was often in discussion. So carl)' a^ 1806, Mr. 
Jared Brooks, the same surveyor who made the 
first authentic and recorded survey of the town- 
site, went thorouglily over the ground on both 
sides of the river with his instruments, and over 
the water with his ,eye and his calculations, and 
embodied the results in his published chart, en- 
titled, ".A ]\Iap of the Rapids of the Ohio river, 
and of the countries on each side thereof, so far 
as to include the routes contemplated for Canal 
navigation. Respectfully inscribed to His E.xcel- 
lency Christoplier Greenup, Governor of Ken- 
tucky, by his very obedient servant, J. Brooks. 
Engraved and printed by John Goodman, Frank- 
fort, Kentucky, 1S06." Copies of this map have 
been preserved to recent times, and are much 
[iraised by those who have seen them. The Rev. 
Richard H. Deering, author of a pamphlet 
printed in 1859, on Louisville- Her Commercial, 
Manufacturing, and Social Advantages, had a 
copy of it before him, and makes the following 
intelligent remarks upon it and its plan of secur- 
ing water-power and a canal : 

A section of this map gives an enlarged "plan 
of the work below L (upper lock), including all 
the locks and aqueducts for the supply of 'water- 
works,' and situations marked from i to 12 (mill- 
sites), which may be extended to any required 
distance." In the "Notes," the author says: 

The rapids are caused bv a vast body of rock which 
crosses the course of the Ohio at this place, and obstructs 
the current until it swells over its lop, and thence searches a 
passage down an irregular declivity to the lower end of Rock 
island. The draught of the falls reaches to the line before 
mentioned, crossing obliquely .above the rapids, from whence 
the velocity of the curient increases to the great break of the 
current at C ; truiu thence to U. the current r.ates ten miles 
and 1,066 yards an hour ; from D to E, thirteen and a half 


miles an hour; in all, accurtiing to llir coiirsi- of tin- clu>n- 
r.el, 3.366 yard"; in Icn niiniiics nml i!iiriy-fii.: s.von'ls. . . 
It is culctilaled tlial the canal will lie siitiiciomly c.ipacious fur 
a .sl'.ip of four hundicd Ions. ^.\o steamboat as yet been 
seen on tlie C)liio;. 'nio water will be carried plane with the 
surface above the rapids to ilio bank of the rivir below the 
whole falls, and then disposed of asree;il)le to ihocnlargcd plan 
of the work below the letter L (upper lock); so that any reqinied 
number of water-woiks may be ereclcrl, and each henehtcd 
by a perpendicular fall of water equal to the whole fall of the 
rapids, viz; twenty-four feet. The water-works will stand 
upon a high and permanent bank, close inider >vhicli is the 
main and only channel of that part of the Ohio, which seems 
to have been carved out of the rock for that purpose. P.oats 
and vessels of any burthen that can descend the river, may 
lie alongside of the nulls and store-houses, and lade and un- 
knle with the greatest convenience im.aginable. The land in 
the vicinity of the rapids, on both sides of the liver, is gen- 
erally of the first quality, and is .so shaped .as to afford beamy 
with convenience. That part situated within view of the 
rapids, is beyond description delightful. 

This ni.ip of the Falls, by fnr the most accur- 
ate and comiilete we have ever seen, e.\hibiiiiig 
every prominent rock, current, and eddy, and 
the forests on either side of the river as they 
stood at tliat early day, shows how fea^ihk- tile 
development of the water-power of the Fails was 
then considered. 

In the absence of the ma]j in this work, we 
will explain to the reader that Mr. JSrooks's [ilati 
for "water-works' consisted of a couple of races 
taken out, one on side of the main canal, 
just above the upper lock, and running parallel 
with the river bank, upward and downward, from 
which races short side-cuts were to be made at 
convenient distances for mills, and the w:iter dis- 
charged into the river after it left the wheels. 
The race was to be e.\tended down the river to 
any distance that might be lequired, thus furnish- 
ing ri)om and power for an indefinite number of 

That this, and i-^, all perfectly practicable, 
no one at all with the subject can doubt; 
and had it been carried into execution, simul- 
taneously with the canal, Louisville would have 
been at this day one of the ni.inufactur- 
ing cities in this country. .\ iiortfn of t!ie peo- 
ple of Louisville then opposed the 1 oiHtructinn 
of the canal, because it would deitro> the busi- 
ness of transporting passengers and Irci.O.t 
atotind the Falls, and a large commission and 
f'lrwardin.; business, by wliirh a va^l niiiiihcr 
i;-"i-i ,1 .1 ii.^.lil,,,,,^ y,, ^^^^.^■l ,1'.. it i,l.;e, iio;is, 
«ac !i„:i„ji ..i ilic- cnicrj.tisi; !ir^. d ti,c ..,, [ (|,_,t 
v.- ra,.,!. »..n cn.i.icud, *ut,lu make Loui.s- 

ville one of the greatest manufacturing cities in 
America; tliu.s, besides giving better employ- 
ment to the iKTsons concerned, it would be the 
means of drawing infinitely more people and 
more business to the place llian could ever be 
realized without the canal. It was urged that a 
city, possessing all other advantages in the high- 
est degree known to any in our country, 'and 
adding this muqiiakd water-power above every 
other, could not tail to atlvanre to the rank of 
the most populous and important of Western 
cities. Nor does it aiipear that any one looked 
upon the canal in those days as simply and solely 
to facilitate navigation. Water power was in the 
mouths of all its advocates, wht ther in the halls 
of legislation, on the stump, or in the street. It 
was to serve the double pur|)ose of navigation 
and manufacturing. How strange, then, that we 
should be told, at this day, that the canal can 
not spare the necessary water for manufacturing! 
With the whole Ohio river to feed it, men are 
afraid a number o{ mill-wheels will drain it dry! 
"I'he canal cannot spare the water without re- 
ducing the depth so as to interrn[ii navigation." 
Yet not a canal can be found in .America, if it 
has any fall, that is not used for manufacturing — 
no, not even the least of them, even where the 
"feeders" are miles distant from the point where 
the jiower is required, while on our canal we 
have an immense volume of water constantly 
pushing with great power, thus preventing any 
material decrease in the depth. This objection 
is simply childish and ridiculous. 

Had our fathers been told that but half the 
original plan would be carried to completion by 
the year 1859, and that their sons would at this 
day not only be neglecting this boundless source 
of wealth and pros|jerity, but actually arguing 
themselves into the belief that the thing is im. 
practicable, they would have denounced us as un- 
worthy of our or. gin. 

The thing is and always has been practicable, 
and of such easy development that we are amazed 
when we consider it. That a basin command- 
ing the whole power of the Ohio river should 
stand there withm a few yards of the river-bank 
for a period of twenty-nine years, at an elevation 
ol twenty-fuiir fVtt above the current passing be- 
neath It, and nut be let into a mill-wheel, is 
strange indeed. 

To show more clearlv still the feasibility of the 



watci-|:ortLT here, we v\iM state thai the iil.m as 
drawn liy Mr. Ilrooks, and as the is now 
cotislrucled, brings the water on the plane or 
level ol' the ri\er above the halls ti. [he upper 
luik, which is only a few rods I'roin the river 
bank below the Falls. The liver bank at this 
point is ( ompobcd of a very adhesive rlay, or 
(hielly of tliis material, duwn to the black De- 
vonian sl.ite, which at this point forms ti'.e floor 
of the canal, and in which the locks are con- 
strui ted. The land slopes down giadually from 
the upper lock toward the river, the main and 
only channel of which at low water is immediate- 
ly under this bank, 'i'he water in the canal basin 
above the upper lock stands at an elevation of 
twenty -four feet above the level of the water in 
the river just alluded to. liy takin.Lr out the two 
races as drawn by Mr. I!rooks, one extending up 
the river for a distance of half a n)ile or more, 
and the other down the river to any distance 
that may be desirable, water can be drawn from 
iherji on to mill-wheels, by means of side-cuts 
for a vast number of mills. To do this in the 
cheapest way let the races lie e>;tended only as 
demanded by new mills. .\ few yards of race 
and one mil! will develoi.) the principle, and this 
can be done at less cost than would be required 
to start an ordinary country mill, wheie a dam 
had to be constructed. This ariangement, it 
will be seen, will place the manufacturing estab- 
lishments two miles distant from the business 
part of the city. To obviate this difficulty, and 
also to place the mills entirely beyond the reach 
of high water, we will suggest another plan, which 
we long since determined in our own mind was 
feasible, and in some respects preferable to the 
one just given. 

Just south of the canal, from titty to one hun- 
dred yards, or perhaps more, there is a beauti- 
ful elevation forming the terminus toward the 
river of the vast plain or table land on which the 
ci:y stands. This elevation or bluiT, as it is 
usually called, forms a most beautiful feature of 
this unrivaled landscape, and runs parallel with 
ih.e canal from its head to near its foot, the bluff 
ocnding to the south with the river when oppo- 
•^ite the locks, and the canal bending a little to 
ibc north at that point to enter the river. Imme- 
'•• 'Ulv '.n the brow of this bluff runs a fine, wide 
•■■'■'---!, two miles inhngth and well bouldered, 
in!le<i Fligh street. The travel on it is immense, 

it beiiii; one of the great thoroughfares between 
this city and Xew Albany, on the opposite side 
of the river, below the Falls, lietween the bluff 
and the canal there is a beautiful valley, whii h is 
geneially a little lower between the bluff and the 
[ canal than where the canal runs through it. 
I .Standing on this bluff near the upper end of the 
I canal, and looking down the valley westward, one 
will almost declare that Natuie made the valley 
, for a race to. run just at the foot of the bluff 
parallel with the canal from end to end, to re- 
ceive the water drawn by hundreds of cross-cuts 
from the canal after it shall have turned as many 
wheels, and convey it off into the livcr at the 
west end of the valley. This beautiful bluff 
evidently seems to have been formed tor hun- 
dreds of manulacturing establishments to stand 
u|)on, fronting on one of the prettiest streets in 
the world, while the elevated plane south gives 
loom for tens of thousands of artisans and labor- 
ers to build their homes. 

Such a race, it is believed, can be made at a 
small cost as compared with the present canal. 
First, because it need not be more than half 
or one-third as large; and next, because it seems 
very probable it will miss the rock through which 
the canal is excavated. Several wells have been 
sunk on the south side of the canal, which re- 
veal the fact that the rock dips south very sud- 
denly. Du Font's great artesian well is but a few 
rods south of it, and therfe it is seventy-si.\ feet to 
the rock, which must be many feet below the bot- 
tom of the canal. If the race were commenced 
at the lower end, and a mill constructed there, so 
as to develop the practicability of the plan, the 
expense as in the other plan would be but 
small. Then it could be extended as required 
until the upper end of the line of mills 
would be quite in the business part of the city as 
the business is now located. The whole of the 
mills would then be on a high and beautit'ul 
plane, entirely out of the way of floods, ice, and 
drilt. Thus far Mr. Deering. 

Nevertlielcss, to this day the great power here 
tunning to waste, apparently, is but little utilized 
in the movement of machinery, and steam re- 
mains the preferred motor. It is understood 
that the frequent floods in the river, occasionally 
very great and troublesome, constitute an im- 
portant factor in the problem, and that the dit'fi 
culties they jiresent have not yet been satislac- 



torily overcome. Four plans for utilization of 
the Falls are still considered, however. They 
are thus given by Mr. Collins, in his History of 
Kentucky: i. Flnlarge the ])resent Louisville 
and Portland canal, and increase the hci^lu of 
water therein by building a dim clear across the 
river; 2. Build anew canal, paiallel with the 
Portland canal, only for the location of factories 
and mills; 3. Tap the Portland canal east of its 
lower locks, and build a ne\v canal through Port- 
land — gaining an enormous water-power and 
very convenient sites for factories and mills; 
4. Tap the Portland canal east of its lower locks, 
and cut a canal across Sliippingport. 

A determined effort was made at a meeting of 
citizens held April 26, 1S76, to secure measures 
for utilizing the superb water-power of the Falls. 
A resolution was unanimously adopted request- 
ing the General Council of the city to procure a 
report from hydraulic engineers and ciimpetent 
experts on the utilization of the puwci, and an- 
other for the appointment of a committee to as- 
certain by correspondence with steamboat owners 
and masters, and others interested in the naviga- 
tion of the Ohio, whether navigation would be 
impeded by such use. The services of Mr. John 
Zellmyer, a civil engineer, were secured, and in 
due tiine he m.ade an elaborate report fixing the 
cost of the necessary machinery, gearing ropes, 
timber work, masonry, and stations for three 
thousand teet of transmission, at $60,000, with- 
out definite estimate for head- and tail-races and 
other improvements. A calculation was made 
by Mr. Zellmyer upon the basis of the use of 
steam-power during sixty days of high water, 
when it would not be practicable to use the water- 
power, showing that the combined cost of power 
from steam and water for three hundred and 
sixty days would be $46 per horse-power, against 
$72 per horse-power for steam alone. Nothing 
more tangible, however, has yet come of his inves- 
tigations or the Centennial effort of the citizens. 


SO as to facilitate their navigation, has also some- 
what engaged public attention. U'hen Mr. Cas- 
seday wrote his little History, about 1S52, it was 
proposed to introduce a system of slackwater 
navigation by dams and locks; also, to blast out 
the rocks in and near the channel, so as to turn 
all the water at low stages of the river into one 

channel, which it was calculated would be suffi- 
cient for the passage of vessels. Neither project 
was consummated, however; hut, about five years 
afterwards, during low-water in the season of 
1S57, the Falls pilots took the matter of improve- 
ment of the channel into their own hands, and 
deepened and widened it in part by their own 
labors and in [lart at their own pecuniary ex- 
pense. It has since, and very lately, been greatly 
improved, at the expense of the General Gov- 

The famous improvement at the Falls, how- 
ever, now, and perhaps for all time to come, is 
and must be 


We have seen that, at a very early period, the 
attention of dwellers at the Falls was attracted 
to the necessity of an ariiMci.Al water-way around 
this formidable obstruction, and that, so early as 
1806, a line had been marked out for it. li^ven 
two years before this, in 1S04, a company was 
incorporated to excavate a canal around the 
Falls; but nothing came of this, exceiit, as be- 
fore mentioned, some surveys. In rSog or 
1810 a bill was passed by Congress authorizing a 
subscription from the National Treasury of 
$150,000 to the capital stock of the Ohio Canal 
company, conditioned that the company should 
previously have a sum funded equal to half the 
total amount required, complete its arrangements 
for cutting the canal, and report the situation, 
with all necessary explanation, to the President 
of the United States. 

On the 20th of December, 1815, a resolution 
passed the Kentucky Legislature, requesting the 
co-operation of the several States interested in 
the pro[)osed improvement. The State was 
authorized to subscribe for one thousand shares 
($50,000) and to reserve a subscription of one 
thousand more for future disposition. To the 
Governor was delegated the right to vote in the 
meetings of the company, on behalf of the State, 
according to the amount of the public shares. 
No part of this subscription was to be paid until 
three hundred shares were otherwise taken, and 
in any case only $10,000 a year was to be paid 
out on this account, unless by consent of the 
.-\ssembly. The s.".me Legislature duly incor- 
porated the Ohio company to operate on 
the south side of the Falls, and about the same 
time an "Indiana Canal company" was granted 



a charier by its own I,eL;iBl.iture on the other 
side. Conjj;ress was asked in behall" of one or 
both these rompanies, to grant "a pro-.eniptiim of 
land enabling them to divide their ri^jhts into 
several jiaris, and that before all tiie best lands 
were sold, with tlie remittance of part, either 
princi])al ui interest, and on larger than usual 

THE IN'ni.\N'.\ CANAI,. 

A ship canal on the north side had been pro- 
posed as early as 1S05, and it was thought that 
special advantages in the lie of the land, particu- 
larly in the situation and trend of certain ravines, 
attended this project and promised it certain 
success. Gei:cral 1!. Hovey wrote to the com- 
pany about this time: 

When I first viewed tlie kapids of the Ohio, it wets my ob- 
ject to have opened a canal on the side of I-ouisville, but on 
examination I disco\ered such advantages on the opposite 
fide tliat I at once decided in favor of it. 

He rested his judgment decisively upon tiie 
two deep ravines, " one above the Rapids, and 
the other below the steepest fall.'' 

The Legislature incorporated his company on 
the most liberal scale, and the subscription books 
filled rapidly. About $ 1 20,000 were actually sub- 
scribed, the names of some of the first men in 
the country appearing on the books. Josiah 
Espy, from whose " Memorandums " we have al- 
ready quoted, writing here in 1S05, expressed his 
confidence of the success of the enterprise, and 

If these expectations should be realized, there remains but 
little doubt the Falls of the Ohio will become the centre of the 
wealth of the Western World. 

And yet the scheme came to utter and abso- 
lute failure. 

In 1819, when the founders of Jeffersonville, 
largely Cincinnati men, were actively engaged in 
pushing their projects, this particular scheme was 
revived with a great deal of energy, and a begin- 
ning of work made upon it. The maps of the 
town-site, made at this period, have the line of 
the intended canal distinctly marked upon them, 
and traces of the work actually done upon it yet 
remain in certain spots. The canal here was to 
l>'-t;in a few rods east of the original plat of Jefifer- 
^■>n\!llc, at the mouth of the ravine, thence run 
'■> the sh.>rtcst route through the back lots of the 
'"wn, and terminate at the eddy at the foot of 
!iie k.i;iid- by Cbrksville. It was to be two and 

one-half miles long, with a width at the to[) of 
one hundred feet and at the bottom of fifty, and 
an average depth of forty-five feet. E.\cept about 
one-fourth of it in the upper end, rock to the 
depth of ten or twelve feet would have to be 
blasted out. The twenty-three feet fall given by 
'it, it was expected, would furnish excellent mill- 
seats and power to drive machinery for very ex- 
tensive manufacturing establishments. 

For the building of this the Jeffersonville Ohio 
Canal comi)any was incorporated by the Indiana 
Legislature in January, 18 18, with a capital of 
$1,000,000, and permission to raise $100,000 by 
a lottery. The charter was to run until 1S99, but 
the canal, in order to the continued life of the 
company, must be completed by the end of the 
year 1824. 

By May, 18 19, the line bad been surveyed and 
located, some contracts had been let, and exca- 
vating commenced. A writer soon after this 
said the work "continues to be prosecuted uith 
spirit, and the faint prospect of success." 'J'hcre 
was prospect enough, though, to prompt T)r. Mc- 
Murtrie, writing the same year, to devote a num- 
ber of the most vigorous pages of his Sketches of 
Louisville to writing down the scheme and put- 
ting it in the very worst light. As all the world 
now knows, money in sufficiency could not be 
raised for it, even under the inducements of a 
lottery, and the project presently fell at once and 


Meanwhile the friends of the Louisville plan 
were not idle. In 18 16 Mr. L. Baldwin, a Gov- 
ernment engineer, was sent out by the Federal 
authorities to make surveys and borings along the 
Kentucky shore near the Falls, and report as to 
the practicability of a ship-canal on that line. 
He made his investigations with due care, and 
concluded that, by digging about twenty feet be- 
low the surface (three and one-half through lime- 
stone rock), a sufficient canal tor the passage ot 
a tbur-hundred-ton vessel might be had. January 
30, 181S, another comjiany was chartered to ex- 
cavate the canal; and still nothing of account 
was done. Finally, seven years afterward, the 
coming men appeared, and the unmistakably 
hopeful beginning was made. 


The construction of the canal arotind the 



Falls of the Ohio, on tb.e Kentucky side, was 
authorized, and a company for that pur|jose in- 
corporated, by act of the Cicneral A'iscnibly of 
the State, approved Jamiary 12, \S:^. The 
company chartered was composed mainly of 
gentlemen residnvj; in Philadelphia, and pos- 
sessed of the requisite means, intelligence, and * 
energy for the prosecution of such an enterprise. 
The names prominently associated with it in its 
early day were James McGilly Cuddy, pre^^ident ; 
Simeon S. Goodwin, secretary; James Ronald- 
son, John C. Buckland, William I'itch, and Mr. 
Goodwin, directors. Thomas Hulme \v,isal;o 
a prominent member. The charter I'lxcd the 
amount of the capital stock at $600,000, to be 
held in shares of $100 each, and prescribed the 
time of completion of the canal as not lo ex- 
ceed three years — a time wliich was subse- 
quently, by a legislative act December 20. 1S25, 
extended to three years from tiiat date, and 
further extensions were subsequently granted by 
acts of February 6th and December 1 1, 1S2S. 

Conti'acts were let in December, 1S25, or 
January, of the next year, for the co^^truction 
of the canal by October, 1S27, for the total sum 
of $370,000. The work was begun in March, 
1826, but dragged along till the last of 1S2S 
without completion, when the contractors failed, 
and new contracts had to be made at higher 
rates. The work of excavating the canal was 
begun as soon as practicable, but, as a part of it 
had to be cut through solid rock, its [irogress 
was It times necessarily slow. 


Almost upon the inception of the work, the 
Federal Government became a shareholder in the 
enterprise. By an act of Congress, approved 
May 13, 1826, the Secretary of the Treasury was 
authorized to subscribe one thousand shares to 
the capital stock of the company, and by another 
act, of date March _2, 1829, a I'urther subscri|)- 
tion was authorized, not to exceed 1,350 shares. 
Under these acts the officers of the United States 
subscribed or bought for the Government, 2.335 
shares at the full par value of $100 per share, 
and subsequently, by the conversion of mterest 
and tolls into stock, it became the owner of 567 
additional shares, making 2,902 in all, or 552 
more than it was authorized to ncfpiire by direct 
subscription. Down to 1S42, it n;ay here be re- 

marked, the General Government received, as 
can'itiL^s of their stock, in cash dividends, the 
total sum of $257,778 —$24,278 more tlian its 
entire stork had cost in .irtual money payments 
— a \astlv better return than is usual in the in- 
vestments of public au'.horitie'^. The company's 
capital stork was increased by the State Legisla- 
ture, by act of December 12, 1S29, to $700,000; 
and by an act approved just two years from that 
date, it was raised to whatever amount might be 
necessary tor the payment of all costs and ex- 
jicnses of constructing the canal, and interest to 
the time it was opened for navigation. By this 
time (December 12, 1S31), and, indeed, before 
the passage of the former act, the work has been 
so far completed that a steamer had passed its 
channel and locks. This vessel was the \'esta, 
(some say the Unfas), said to have been ihe first 
in the long line of steamboats constructed since 
the year 1S16 at Cincinnati. It made its transit 
through the canal December 21, 1S29. 

The great work had been suftlcienily com- 
pleted fur thiis purpose within little more than 
three years. Nothing was done uijon it in 1S25; 
but the next year $66,223.56 were expended up- 
on the requisitions of the contractors, and $10,- 
946.24 r(.ir the land required for the canal. In 
1S27 .the expenditures upon the contract were 
$111,430.51; in 1S2S, $194,280; 1S29, $151,- 
796.03: in 1830, on the order of the engineer 
in charge, for labor and materials, $168,302.05; 
and m 1831, for completion of contracts and ad- 
ditional work, $3,444.90, besides $4,960 for ex- 
penses of repairs and alterations. For some 
time the work was in the hands of but a smgle 
contractor, without competition; but so small an 
amount of labor was done during the year (1S29) 
that the work was next divided into several con- 
venient sections, each of which was let only to 
contractois who cuuld give it their personal su- 
pervision, and so the construction proceeded 
more rapidly. By the middle of .March, 1830, 
as many as seven companies of contractors were 
thus engaged at prices somewhat lower than 
tho-^e Mhich prevailed the previous year. On 
the first of December, says the official report I'or 
the year, "the water, which had been rising for 
several days, had attained to near the top of the 
temporary dam at the head of the canal, and the 
whole line of canal, from the basin to the grand 
lock, being completely excavattd and cleared 



out, it was deemed advisable to remove the dam 
and fill the canal, which was done on that day." 
There were then seven feet of water in it, from 
the basin to the head of the lock, beiiii; four 
feet more than there were upon the Falls. 

It was now announced that the canal wascom- 
])leted, and opened for navigation. Mr. Casse- 
day, in his History of Louisville, gives the fol- 
lowmg description of it: 

When completed, it cosl at;out $750,000. It is about two 
miles in length and is intended to oveicomc a fill of Iwenlv- 
four feet, occasioned by an irregular ledge of limestone and 
rock, through which the entire bed of the canal is e.\c.avated. 
a part to the depth of 12 feet, overlaid with earth. There. is 
one giiaid and three lift lock* combined, all of which have 
their foundation on the rook. One bridge of stone 240 feet 
long, with an elevation of 68 feet to the top of the parapet 
wall, and three arches, the center one of which is semi-ellip- 
tical, with a transverse diameter of 66, and a semi-conjugate 
diameter of 22 feet. The two arches are segments of 40 feet 
span. The guard lock is 190 feet long in the clear, with 
semi-circular heads of 26 feet in diameter, 50 feet wide, and 
42feethigh, and contains 21,775 perches of mason work. 
The solid contents of this lock ate equal to 15 common 
locks, such as are built on the Ohio and \e\v York canals. 
The lift locks are of the same width with the guard lock, 20 
feet high and 183 feet long in the clear, and contain 12,300 
perches of mason work. The entire length of thew.iils from 
the of the guard lock to the end of the outlet lock is 
921 feet. In addition to the amount of mason work above, 
there are three culverts to drain off the water from the adja- 
cent lands, the mason work of which, when added to the 
locks and bridge, gives the whole amount of mason work 
41,989 perches, equal to about 30 common canal locks. The 
cross section of the canal is 200 feet at top of banks, 50 I'eet 
at bottom, and 42 feet high, having a capacity ec^ual to that 
of 25 common can.ils: and if we keep in vievv the unequal 
quantity of mason work, compared to the length of the 
canal, the great difficulties of excavating earth and rock from 
so great a depth .and width, together with the contingencies 
attending its construction from the fluctuations of the Ohio 
river, it may not be considered as extravagant in dra\wng 
the comparison between the work in this, and in that of 70 or 
75 miles of common canaling. 

In the upper sections of the canal, the alluvial earth to the 
average depth of 20 feet beiiig removed, trunks of trees were 
found, more or less decayed, and so imbedd^-'l as to indicate 
a powerful current towards the present shore, some of which 
were cedar, which is not now found in this region. Severaj 
fire-places of a rude construction, vvith partially burnt wood, 
were discovered near the rock, as well as the bones of a 
variety of small animals, and several human skeletons: rude 
implements formed of bone and stone were also frequently 
seen, as also several well-wrought specimens of hem.itite of 
iron, in the shape of plummets or sinkers, displ.iying a 
knowledge in the arts far in advance of the present race of 

The first stratum of rock was light, friable slate in close 
contact with the limestone, and ditticult to diacngnge from it ; 
this slate did not. however, e.vtend over the whole surf.icc of 
the rock, and was of various thicknesses from throe inches to 
four feet. 

The stratum next to the slate was a close comp.ict lime- 

stone, in which petrified sea shells and an infinite variety of 
coraline formations were embedded, and frequent cavities of 
crystaline encrustations were seen, many of which still con- 
tained petroleum of a highly fetid smeil, which gives the name 
to this description of limestone. This description of rock is 
on an average of five fi-et, covering a subsii.itum of a species 
of cias limestone of a bluish color, embedding nodules of 
hornstone and organic remains. The fracture of this stone 
has in all instances been found lobe irregularly conchoidal, 
and on exposure to the atmosphere and subjection to nre it 
crumbled to pieces. When burnt and ground, and mixed 
with a due proportion of silicious sand, it has been found to 
make a most suferior kind of hydraulic cement or water-hme. 

The discovery of this valuable limestone has enabled the comp my to construct their masonry more solidly than 
any other kn jwn in the United Slates. 

A manufictor)- of this h\draulic cement or waler-liine is 
now established on the bank of the, on a scale capable 
of supplying the I'nited States with this much valued m.ue- 
rial for all works in contact with water or exposed to moist- 
iiie ; the n.'.ture of this cement being to harden in the water, 
the grout uied on the locks of the is already harder 
than the stone used in tlioir construction. 

After p.isiing through the stratum which was commonly 
called the water-lime, about ten feet in thickness, the work- 
men came to a more cnnipact mass of primitive grey lime- 
stone, whic'", however was not penetrated to any great depth. 
In many parts of tiie excavation, masses of bluish white flint 
and hornstone were found enclosed in or encrusting the 
fetid limesto-,e. And from the large quantities of arrow- 
heads and other rude formations of this flint-stone, it is evi- 
dent that it was made much use of by the Indians in forming 
their weapons of war and hunting; in one place a maga;!ine 
of arrow heads wa; discovered, containing m.iny hundreds of 
those rude implements, carefully paokt-d together, and buried 
Ijclow the surface of the ground. 

The existen-_e of iron ore in considerable quantities was 
exhibited in the progress of excavation of the canal by 
numerous highly charged chalybeate springs, that gushed out 
and continued to flow during the time that the rock was ex- 
posed, chieflv in th.e upper strata of limestone. * The 
when built was mtended for the largest class of boats, but the 
facilities for navigation have so far improved and the size of 
vessels increased so far beyond the expectations of the .pro- 
jectors of this enlei prise that it is now found much too small 
to answe."" the demands of navig.ilion. The consequence is 
that t'.ie cjnai is looked upon as, equally with the Falls, a 
b.irrier to nav E;i:ion. The larger lower-river boats refuse to 
sign bills of lading compelling- them to deliver their goods 
above the F.iiis. and as this class of boats is increasing, it 
promises soon to b'e as difficult to pass this point .as before 
this imme:i;e work was completed. .As previous to the under- 
taking of t':is, so there are now numerous plans pro- 
posed for overcoming the impediment : and these do not 
dirlor mate.-..-, -y fr-jm those suggested and noticed in 1S04. 
riie only giour.d upon which all paities agree is. what- 
ever is dor.e should 1,'e effected by the General Government, 
and not left !o b/e completed by individual enterprise. 

The Government, as has before been said, owns a very- 
large part of the stock in this canal, say three-fifths, and 
it is strongiy -i-;-;! i'y a part of the community that nothing 
would beite- -.-r ■■ tiie interests of Western navigation than a 
movement on ;-e part of the United .States, making it free 


is e\7~.ned from Mr. Mann Butler's account of the 



Tilt question of internal improvL-munt is not within the ' 
pro inceof this history to discuss; but cfrlaiuly a dfaf car ; 
shq lid notl)e turned by the CIcneral CJovernnteiit to llie united 
voide of so many of its cliildren, all alike di'niandinj to be 
reli<*ved from their emb:irrassinents, and the more particular- ' 
ly sb. as it has already heard and answered the supplication?. 
of A part of its nunierous family. .-Vny semblance of favor- 
ilisi^i in a gcvernn'ient is a sure means of aiien.iiinj^' the trusi 
andiafTeelion of a part of its dependents \\hate\er means 
may be most advisable to effect the removal nf the impedi- 
mcrits to navigation here should at once be adopted. .And if ^ 
thelopening of the canal freely to all c.iuld lend to eflect this 
object, the Government has already had from its re\'eni:e suf- 
ficedt to warrant it in takin','off the ta\ from n.ivigalion. 

puling the first year of oi)eratiun, imich diffi- 
culty was experienced from the acci]mulation tif 
mild in and in front of the lower lock, bniuglu 
in uy repeated freshets; from the falling into the 
cafial of some of the piles of stone from the ex- 
cavation' which had been allowed temporary 
place upon the bernie bank of the canal; and the 
large quantities of drift-wood which at one time 
blocked up the entrance. Relief from all these 
hiiidrances was eventually had: hut large loss 
was suffered by reason of them. During the en- 
tire thirteen montb.s from the opening o( the 
canal December i, 1S30, to theil'ise of 1S31, 
there were but one hundred and four da)s dur- 
ing which vessels drawing more than four feet of 
water could pass into or out of the lower lock; 
and it was estimated that but for the obstruction 
caused by mud here, three times as many boats 
would have passed the canal. There were but 
one himdred and eighty-three days, indeed, when 
any boats, however light their draft, could pass 
it. I The entire transit of the year, however, 
amounted to eight himdred and twenty-seven 
vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of seventy si.x 
thousand three hundred and twentv-three tons. 
It jis interesting to note, by the aid of this rejiort, 
the relative proportions of the several river-craft 
Ufion this part of the Ohio half a century ago. 
Teese eight hundred and twenty-seven boats in- 
cluded less than half that number of steamers 
(four hundred and six), with three hundred and 
fifly-seven flat-boats, forty eight keel-boats, six- 
teen rafts. The broadhorn age on the Western 
waters had yet by no means passed away. 

Un the winter of 1831-32, and the spring of 
1832, the river was closed by ice for an unusual 
length of lime, and its break-up was folluucu bv 
great floods, which swept over *he banks of the 
cafial and brought into it immense f|uantities of 
mad, drift-wood, and even houses carried off b\ 

the raging waters. After the flood had subsided, 
the water was shut off from the whole length of 
the canal, and it was thoroughly cleared and re- 
paired, and nuirli new machinery added. The 
upper and nurtliern embankment was extended 
in the form of a heavy wall, to facilitate the 
passage of boats and form a barrier to the en- 
trance of drift-wood. The receipts from tolls for 
the year were only $25,756. 1 2, and it became 
necessary to raise over two thirds as much more 
to meet the large expenditure. 

In 1833 a draw-bridge was constructed over 
the guard-lock, t<i connect the villages of Port- 
land and Shippingport. A dredging machine 
was also built, and used effectually in clearing 
the mud collected at both ends of the canal. 
On the 23d of January, of this year, an attempt 
was made by enemies of the improvement to 
disable it by blowing up the locks " ilh gun- 
powder. The blast did not take effect, probably 
on account of a heavy rain then falling; but still 
considerable injury was done, and it was thought 
necessary to institute a nightly watch upon the 
canal, and f'lirnish its line with lamjis. I'repara- 
tions were also made by the perpetrators of the 
former outrage to blow up the stone bridge, and 
boats loaded with coal were actually sunk pur- 
posely at the mouth of the canal ; but all to no 
use, so tar as any pennanent obstrtiction was 
concerned. The Legislature promptly passed 
an act making such deeds felony. 

In 1S36 the great expenses of the canal, in 
making repairs and removing obstructions, made 
necessary the raising of tolls to sixty cents per 
ton for steamers, and three cents per square toot 
of area for keel- and flat-boats. The tolls before 
that had been forty and two cents, respectively. 
The next year the reached the high figure of 
$145,424.69, which was $57,081.46 more than 
the year before. In 1S3S the tolls were $180,- 
364.01, the largest in the history of the canal; and 
dividends amounting to seventeen jior cent, wcrre 

The following description of the work is given 
in the Louisville Directory for 1838-39; 

The first public work worthy of regard for its architecture, 
is the Louisville and Tortland canal. .\ beautiful bridge of 
V .,ne is thrown over it. about midway with one principal 
and two smaller archer ; the former senii-elliptical of sisty 
feet sjwce and sixty-ei:;ht feet to tlietop of the principal wall, 
the side-arches and segments of forty feet space. There is 
one gu.ird and three lift-lock.-, the former one hundred and 
nmetv feet long, in the clear, with semi-circular heads of 



twenty-bix feet diameter, fifty feet wide, and forty-two feet 
lii:.;li. cont.iiiiiiig 21,775 percheb of stone-work. The lift- 
lucks are of llie s.iine width with tlie guard-locks, twentv feet 
hii;h and one hundred and eighty-three feet long in the cle;ir. 1 
anil contain 12.300 percl'ies of m.isunrv. The entire length \ 
of the «.dl is nine hundred and l«eiily-ono feet. There are 
also three culverts, making the whole masonry of the canal 
^ 1,689 perches. 1 

In 1S39-40 enough additional shares wcrt; sold 
III raise the capital stock 10 $1,000,000, to which , 
amount it was resolved to limit the stock. In 
I'cliriiary, 1S42, an act was passed by the (iener- 
al .Assembly authorizinj^ the stockholders to ap- 
propriate the net incoine of the company to the 
purchase of shares held by indi\iduals, to the in- 
tent that, when the said shares should all be ; 
bought U|i, the canal miLjht bo made tree of j 
tolls, under the direction and supervision of the ' 
United States, which would then be the sole re- 
maining stockholder; or, if the trust wore de- ; 
dined by the General Government, that it might | 
be offered the city of Louisville or the State of j 
Kentucky. Tlie maximum price to be paid per ' 
share was fi.xed by this act at $150, which indi- 
cates a large a[)preciation of the stock since the 
original subscriptions were made. 

Tlie [provisions of the art were f irinally ac- 
ceincd by the stockholders, nearly all of whom . 
agreed to sell at the maximum [irice. Four hun- 
dred and seventy-one shares svere bought next 
year, and five hundred and fit"iy-four sh.nres in 
1844. A brief enactment was passed by the .'Vs- 
sembly this year, to settle a mooted question of , 
jurisdiction, in case the Federal Government 1 
should become sole owner of the canal. It was I 
provided tiiat then the jurisdiction of Kentucky S 
should be wholly relinquished to the United j 
Slates, and that the annual rei)orts to the (ieneral 
Assembly, required by the charter, need not be ! 
made by the United States. .A. greater amount 
of tonnage passed the canal tiiis year than dur- 
ing any previous year: but the tolls had been 
reduced to fifty cents a ton, and the total re- 
ceipts were not so greatly increased. During 
• 846, the Mexican war then prevailing, the 
steamers exclusively employed by the General 
Government were permitted to (lass the canal 
free of tolls, on account of the large interest ' 
<he Government had acquired in the canal. 
"f tL-n thousand shares in its capital stu'k, all 
'"it i,')&3 were virtually the property of the Uni- 
ted States. The State of Kentucky, however, begun to tax the property and franchises of ' 

the cai^ I, and $3,490 had to be paid this year on 
tax acLOunt. 

liy J.muary 31, 1S47, the total number of 
19,875 steamers had passed the canal, and 5,772 
flat- and keel boats, the whole having a tonnage 
of 3,698,266. The tolls collected amounted to 

Judge James Hall, of Cincinnati, who published 
in 1 84 8 an interesting work on The West: 
Its ConinKMce and Navigation, includes some 
severe icmaiks concerning this great work. He 
says in his chapter V],: 

This woik. which ssas intended as a facility to our com- 
merce and a benefit to the whole people of the West, has sig- 
nally failed in acconiphshing the purpose for which it was 
constructed; and as the Government of the United States, 
with the beneficent view of patronizing a work of public util- 
ity, beiamc a partner in the canal, it cannot be thought invid- 
ious to call the attention of Congiess to its deficiencies. The 
objections to this work are: 

" I. The contracted size of the locks, which do not admit 
the pass.age of the largest class of boats. 

"2. The inefficiency of the construction of the canal, 
which being deficient in svidth and depth, causes great delay, 
and often serious injury, to passing boats. 

" 3. The enormous and unreasonable ta.\ levied in tolls." 

Fjach of these objections he proceeds to discuss 
at some length, and not without reason and force, 
though with evident prejudices against the canal. 

The last purchases of stock (except a nominal 
amount of one share for each of five stockhold- 
ers, retained at the request of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, that they might continue the man- 
agement of the canal, pending the passage of an 
act of Congress to accept the work) weie made 
in January, 1854, and January, 1855. The price 
of shares had now greatly increased, and the si.x 
hundred and ten bought in 1854 cost $249 each; 
for those bought the next year (one hundred and 
ninety-five) $257 per share were paid. 

During the year 1854 the Portland dry dock 
and basin vvere purchased for the uses of the 
canal, at the price of $50,000. It was estimated 
that the use of the dock basin added at least 
$S,ooo a year to the toils, while the dock was 
greatly needed to re|jair the craft used in the 
regular operations of the canal. February i, 
1S55, the tolls were reduced by fully one-half — 
from fifty to twenty-five cents per ton. Extensive 
improvements were made this year, costing $24,- 
203.67, and the next, to the amount of $99,- 
253 42. During the latter year. Congress having 
so far declined to acie[it the work, under the 
condition of the act, that it should be enlarged 



"so as fully to answer the purpose of its estab- 
lishment," the company, under the advice of tlie 
Secretary of the 'I'reasury, determined to have 
surveys made for the locatina of a branch canal, 
with locks capacious enough to pass the largest 
vessels on the river, and to [jurchase the necessary 
land for its site. Surveys and drawings were 
accordingly made m 1857, whli:li were aijpioved 
at the Treasury Department, and on the 19th of 
December the Assembly authorized the com- 
pany "to construct with the revenues and on the 
credit of the corporation, a branch canal sutTi- 
cient to pass the largest class of steam vessels 
navigating the Ohio river." The ne.xt year, a 
change having occurred in the Secretaryship of 
the Treasury, the Hon. Howell Cobb, now Sec- 
retary, directed the total stopping of the work, 
until the pleasure of Congress should be further 
known. The company obeyed, although [iro- 
testing against the jurisdiction of the Depart- 
ment to this extent, since, under the act of I'eb- 
ruary, 1S42, the United States had as yet abso- 
lute control over only its oiiginal block of 2,902 
shares in the capital stock. 

In 1S59 large meetings o( persons interested 
in the enlargement of the canal were held in 
Louisville, Cincinnati, Madison, and in other 
cities, and the importance of the measure 
was earnestly pressed upon Congress. That 
body duly authorized the enlargement and 
branch canal by resolution in May, 1S60, with 
provisos that the United States should not be 
in any way liable for its cost, and that, when the 
enlargement was completed and paid for. no 
more tolls should be collected than would pay 
for its repair, superintendence, and management. 
In effect. Congress thus ceded the stock owned 
by the United States to the purposes of the trust 
declared by the Kentucky statute of 1S42. Con- 
tracts were promptly let to Messrs. Benton Rob- 
inson &: DeWoIf — at first for the construction 
of the branch canal, and then for the enlarge- 
ment of the branch canal, and the work rapidly 
proceeded. In 1S61 the sum of $357,763.30 
was paid on account of canal improvement, 
about equally in cash and mortizage bonds, and 
$359,067.50 the ne.xt year, mostly in bonds. 
Receipts of toils fell off enormously, in conse- 
quence of the civil war; the rate was raised in 
1862 to thirty-seven and a half cents per ton, and 
in March, 1863, to the old rate cf hfty cents. 

The canal improvement this year cost $27.1,55 1.- 
02; the next year (1864), $290,297,63; the next, 
$143,284.84; and the next, on final settlement 
with the contractors, who had been comi)elled 
to surrender their contracts (and the Company's 
over-work included), $256,353.54. The means 
applicable to the work, after the expenditure of 
these large sums, were now exhausted, and'it was 
estimated that, under the greatly increased cost 
of labor and material induced by the war, $1,- 
000,000 more would be necessary to finish it. 
(The original estimate, before the war, for the 
cost of the work was $1,800,000.) A mortgage 
was made in i860 upon the canal and its reve- 
nues, to Isaac Caldwell, of Louisville, and Dean 
Richmond, of Bufl'alo, to secure the payment of 
the sixteen thousand bonds issued, of the de- 
nomination of $1,000 each. 

During 1864 the tow-boat Thomas \\'alker was 
built by the company, at a cost of $15,000, and 
was found exceedingly useful in the operations 
of the canal, as well as giving a handsome reve- 
nue from towing for others. The next year a 
dredge-boat was bought of the United States for 
$1,750. The taxes paid this year were very large 
— $7,676 to the United States, and $4,022 to the 
State, or $11,698 in all. In 1866 $10,430 were 
paid on this account. 


Finally, by resolutions of the Kentucky Legis- 
lature parsed in the Senate March 27, 1872, in 
the House March 29th, approved by the Gov- 
ernor the same day, the control of the canal was 
definitely surrendered by this Commonwealth to 
the General Government, upon the conditions 
priJcedent set forth in the resolutions, which were 
accepted by the United States. The text of this 
important measure- should be here recorded in 

Whereas. .\1I the stock in the Louisville i. Portl.ind canal 
belongs to the L'nited States Govemnient. e.\cept live shares 
o« ned by the Directors of the I-ouisville & Portland Canal 
Company, and said Directors, under the authority of the 
Legislature of Kentucky and the L'nited ."^lates, e.xecuted a 
mortg-ige to Isaac Caldwell and Dean Richmond to secure 
bonds named in slid mortgage, some of which are out and 
unpaid, and said Canal Company may owe other debts; and 
whereas, it is right and proper that the Government of the 
L'nited States should assume the control and management of 
said canal; therefore, be it 

RisJicd ty llu AsjaiiHyoj the of 
Kentucky. That the President and Directors of the Louisville 
& Portland Canal are hereby auihonjedand direct- 
ed to surrender the said, and all the pro|jeriy connect- 


td tlierewilli to the Government of tlie L'nilcd t-tates. upon 
the following tenns anil conditions: 

1. That the Government of the United Sl.ites shall not 
levy tolls on said cannl, c\cc]it siicli as shall be nccessaiy to 
keep the same in repair, pay all necessary siiperintendencc, 
custody, and expenses, an<l nuke all necessary iminove- 

2. That the ciiy of Louisville shall have the ri^'ht to throw 
bridges over the canal at such points as said city may deem 
proper; Providt'd, aluuiys, that said bridges shall be so lo- 
cated as not to interfere with the use of the canal, and so 
constructed as not to interfere with its navigation. 

3. That the tide and possession of the United Stales of 
the said canal shall not interfere with the right of the .State 
to serve criminal and civil processes, or vulh the States 
general power over the tenitory covered by the canal and its 

4. Aitd/urlhcr, That the city of Louisville sli.nll at all times 
have the right of drainage into said canal, provided that the 
connections between the drains and the canal .shall be made 
upon the plan to keep out mud and garbage. 

5. That the use of the water-power of the canal shall be 
guaranteed forever to the actual owners of the property con- 
tiguous to said canal, its branches and dams, subject to such 
restrictions and regulations as may be made b\' the Secretary 
of the Department of the United States Govemment which 
may have charge of said canal. 

6. That the Government of the United States, before such 
surrender, discharge all the debts due by said canal company 
and purchase the stock of said diiectors. 

Tlie total amount of tolls received 011 the 
canal year by year, since 1S31, when tolls first 
figured in the annual reports of the company, to 
1S7 I, are as loUows: 

1S31 $ 12.750.77 1852 $i53,758.t2 

1832 25,756.12 1S53 178,869.39 

1833 60,73692 1854-5 (13 nio.l . . 149.640.43 

1834 61,848.17 1855 III months!.. 94.356.19 

1835 80,16524 1856 75.79185 

1836 88.343-23 1857 110.01538 

1837 145,424.69 1858 75,479.21 

1838 121,107.16 1859 90,905.63 

1839 180. 364. or 1S60 131,917.15 

1840 134.904.55 1861 42,650.02 

1841 ; 113.94-1.59 1862 69.936.90 

1842 95,005.10 1863 152,937.02 

1843 107,274.65 1864 164.476.26 

1844. 140,389.97 1865 175.515.49 

1845 138.291.17 1866 180,92540 

1846 149,40184 1867 114,961.35 

'847 139,900.72 1S68 155,495.88 

1848 153.06796 1869 167.17160 

1849 129,953.46 1870 139,175.00 

1850 115,70788 1871 159,833.90 

1851 167.CJ6 49 

Since the enlar^'ement of the canal and its 
transfer to the F'ederal Government, the heavy 
tolls before e.xacted have been abolished and the 
\vork is now praclu ally free to the commerce of 
anv and every State. 


so long desired was made in 1S70-71, and the 

new locks v.ere opened November 20, 187 i, for 
the passage of boats. Mr. Collins says; "In 
widening it to 90 feet 40,000 cubic yards of earth 
were taken out, and 90,000 of solid limestone — 
the ledge 11 to 12 feet thick; 1 1,000 cubic yards 
of diy wall masonry were built. Instead of a 
fall of 16 feet in 1 '4' miles, will he a fall of 26 
feet in nearly two miles — a lengthening' the dis- 
tance the water will have to flow between the 
head and foot of the fall, in order to lessen the 
force of the current."' 

Work upon the im|)ro\'emcnt continued dur- 
ing the succeeding years, and by the close of 
18S1 the total enlargement was $1,451,439.40, 
and it was estimated that $50,000 more could be 
profitably expended ujjon it during the ne.xt six 
months. By means of the improvement boats 
so large as three 'himdred and thirty-five feet 
long and eighty-five feet wide can easily pass 
the canal. The total passing of the year 1881 
was 4,196 vessels, with a registered tonnage of 
1,424,838 tons, while 1,723 boats with 517,361 
tons passed down the I'alls. The canal was 
open 280 days this year, being closed by high 
water 41 days and by ice 25. Below the canal 
an important improvement was made this year, 
in the extension of Portland dyke 2,300 feet, 
with 700 to be constructed in 1SS2, which would 
render the bar near it navigable in all stages of 


The project of a bridge across the Falls of the 
Ohio naturally occupied the attention of intelli- 
gent people at the Falls cities for many years. 
To it the late Hon. James Guthrie and other 
leading capitalists and public-spirited men gave 
. some of their best energies. Among other 
efforts to awaken public attention to the import- 
ance of the enterprise, an able article in the 
Daily Courier of March 4, 1854, is especially re- 
membered. On the loth of March, 1856, the 
Legislature of Kentucky granted a charter to 
Thomas \V. Gibson, L. A. Whiteley, Joshua F. 
Bullitt, Jostrph Davis Smith, and David T. Mon- 
sarrat, as corporators of the Louisville Bridge 
company. Nothing to speak of was done under 
it, however, e.xcept to keep the project more con- 
spicuously before the public. .-Vt length, on the 
19th of, 1S62, another act was passed 
by the General .Vssenibly, "to incorporate the 
Lonisville Bridge con.pany," which revived and 



confirmed tlie charier of 1856, to James Guth- 
rie, D. Ricketts, G. H. Kllcry, aiid their asso- 
ciates, as successors to the persons named in the 
former charter, and vested ivith ail its i>o\vers 
and rights. January 17, 1865, an act of Con- 
gress was ap|jroved, suiiplemental to an act to 
estabhsh post-roads (und>_r uhicli tlie bridges at 
Steubenviile, Beliaire, and Parker.sbur^ were 
built), and authorizing the Louisville i.*c Nashville 
and Jeffersonville railroad companies, which had 
become stockholders in the compan\', to con- 
struct a railway bridge across the Ohio at the 
head of the Falls, at a height not less than fifiy- 
five feet above low-water mark, and v>ith three 
draws sut^icient to pass the largest boats navigat- 
ing the Ohio river — one over the Indiana chute, 
one over the middle chute, and one over the canal; 
with spans not less than two hundred and forty 
feet, except over the said chutes and canal, and 
with draws of one hundred and fifty feet wide on 
each side of the pivot pier over the Indiana and 
middle chutes, and ninety feet wide over tiie 
canal; the bridge and draws to be so consiiucted 
as not to interrupt ihe navigation of the river. 
Such bridge was declared, when built, to be a 
lawful structure, and to be recognized and known 
as a post-route. 

In a hundred days from the passage of this 
act the war was over, and the way for the great 
work was clearer. Many months more were 
necessarily passed in settling the legal questions 
arising under the act of Congress, and in making 
the indispensable arrangements for money and 
labor; but in the fullness of time all was ready, 
and the contracts were let. The materials for 
the first span were to be delivered by June i, 
186S, and for the others as fast as would be re- 
quired by the completion of the masonry. The 
erection of the superstructure was begun in !\[ay, 
1868; and the work went forward with reasona- 
ble rapidity. There were occasional unfortunate 
accidents in its progress, some of them involving 
loss of life; but none seriously delaying the work 
except extraordinary freshets in September and 
Octobet, 1868, and an accident on the ytli of 
December, 1869, when a steamboat with a tow 
of barges, passing the Falls during a heavy 
freshet, knocked out and de^truved the false 
work erected for the 1. 1st span — that iie\t the In- 
diana chute. But for this disaster the bridge 
would have been comiileted the same month. 

With tremendous energy and very large expense, 
j however, the material was replaced and the span 
jHil in; tlie fust cimuection of superslructure be- 
'tueen the two shores was made I'ebruary i, 1S70; 
the railway track was promptly laid, and the fust 
train passed o\eronthe 12th of that niorilh ; and 
the bridge was thrown oiien to the public on ilie 
24ih. The foot walks on the east side of the 
i bridge were not ready for use until the 13th of 
the ne.xt November. The bridge had cost, to 
i the close of iS;o, $2,003,696.27, including 
I $114,562 interest on the capital stock, and all 
j other expenses. The construction account 
I alone was $1,641,618.70, reaching not greatly 
beyond the estimate of the chief engineer Janu- 
ary I, 1S68, which was $1,500,000. ■ The partial 
year of operation in 1S70 yielded the company 
a gross income of $1 2 1,267.55 — $84,605.98 tolls 
from railway freights, $35,515.97 from railway 
passengers, and $1,145.60 tolls on the foot walks. 
The operating expenses were $91,023.77. 

Mr. .-Mbert Fink was the chief engineer for the 
construction of this mighty work, his connection 
with it ceasing March i, 1870. His principal 
assistant was Mr. F. W. Vaughn, and Edwin 
Thacher was assistant in charge of the instru- 
mental work. I'atrick Flanneiy and M. J. 
O'Connor had the masonry in charge, and Henry 
Bolla the iron superstructure. The contractors 
for this were the Louisville Bridge and Iron com- 
pany, Mr. E. Benjamin superintendent. 

The bridge is used by the Ohio &: Mississippi, 
the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago, and the 
leffersonviUe, Madison & Indianapolis railroads. 
The Pennsylvania company, controlling the 'last- 
named, which built the embankment at the east 
end of the bridge, thus aontiols the Indiana ap- 

The following descrii)tion of the bridge is ex- 
tracted from 'a report made to the chief of en- 
gineers ot the United States army in 1S71 by 
Generals G. K. \\"arren and G. W'eitzel and 
Colonel Merrill, a Board detailed to examine 
and report upon the work: 

Tlu5 bridge, :ion)elime5 known as the Oliio Falls bridge, is 
a nilroad and foot bridge, and it crosses tlie Ohio river at 
the head of tlie Kails, e.'itending from a point just below the 
city of Jeffersonville, in Indiana, to the foot of Kourteenth 
street in the cil\ cf Louisville. It belongs to a special 
briclgo corporation, and serves to connect llie Indiana rail- 
way system with tin,- ro.ids on the south of the Ohio that 
centre at Louisville. 

The bridge, as built, belongs to the class of ' ' high ' bridges. 



as distinguished from bridges with draws and an elnation of 
l.ut hcvcnty feel. 

U a single r.iilroad track, and two sidewalks, each 6.2 
ffft wide. 'and us total lenijth between abutments is 5.21873 
f('ft. The spans commencing al the abutment on the In- 
tJiana or north shore are as follows: 99, 149.6, 180, iSo. iBo, 
■^yiiSyi {lnd\'\n:i Chute). 245, '-i, 2455-^, 245'r, 24512. 245M. 
245''j- 37*^ (Middle Chute), 227, 227, 210, 210, 180, 180. 
1,0.58. 149.58. 149.58. 149.58. 132, 132 (draw over canal), 
:,o, 5a These dimensions are from center to center of piers, 
and they are greater by the half-widths of two piers than the 
i-lcar waterway. The trusses themselves are of the two styles 
patented by Mr. Albert Kink, the chief engineer of the 
bridge. The two channel-spaces are spanned by Kink trian- 
gular trusses, and all tht others except the draw by Kink 
trussed girders. The draw-bridge is what is generally known 
as a Warren girder, differing only from the triangular in that 
the'latter has certain i^dditional members that are necessary 
to adapt it to long spans. The former are "through," or 
"over-grade" bridges, and the latter "deck," or "under- 
grade." The clear waterway at the Indiana chule, meas- 
ured on the low water line, is 380 feet, and at the Middle 
chute 3^2 JcC feet. The roadway bearers of the channel-spans 
are suspended below the boitom chords, and consequently 
the height under the bridge available for steamboats must 
be measured to these members. The line of the roadway 
bearers of the Indiana ciiannel-span is 96;'2 feet above low 
water, and 45^^ feet above highest water, the maximum 
oscillation being 51 feet. At the middle channel-space the 
river is dry at low water, and the available space above the 
river bed is 90 feet. These tv\o channel-spans are on the 
same level, but at the Indiana channel the break in the rocky 
ledge is feet above, while in the middle channel it is 
6.000 feet below. The Une of the crest of the Kails i^ e.-ti^eed- 
ingly irregular, crossing the line of tlie bridge t'Clue':'n the 
two channel-spans nearly at right angles. 

The tops of the channel piers and of al' piers betvseen 
them are 97 J^ feet above low water of the Indiana chute. 
The others are lower, conforming to the grades of the 

The foundations of all the piers of this bridge were laid 
on the solid rock, and therefore there is nu need of any rip- 
rap protection around thcm. 

The right pier of the Indiana channel-space is 64 feet 6 
inches by 17 feet 10J2 inches at boitom; thence it is carried 
up vertically, with 10I3 inches of offsets, to^io feet above 
low water. Above this the sides have the uniform batter up 
to the coping of 7-16 of an inch per foot. The left pier is 
65 feet 6 inches by 18 feet 3 inches al bottom, and is c.irried 
up \ertically with rfoot 6}^ inches of offsets to iS feet above 
I'jw water. Above this the sides have the usual baiter. The 
up and down-stream ends of the pier' are built alike, with 
starlings formed by the intersections of arcs of cireles with 
radii of i2',2 feet. They are capped by hoods at high-water 
mark, and above this are finislied with semicircular sections. 
These piers on top (without coping), measure 33 by lo. 
The piers of the middle channel are 64 by 17 J* feet at bot- 
tom, and ;^^ by 10 feet on top, with starlings and hoods like 
the other channel piers. The other piers are similarly con- 
structed, excepting that abo\e the lower starting^ and iioods 
ihr-y another starling and hood, which makes a shorter 
I'-ngih of pier on top. The top dimensions of pier \o. 7 
(without coping) are 21 h\ 7. the dimensions at boiiom being 
45 5-^ fi-'et by i^li. 

The grades and curvatures on this bridge and its ap- 

proarhes are as follows, coniniencing al the face of the abut- 
ment on the Indiana or northern shore : 





79- ■ 4 

T.-inseiit . . 

liidiniia side. 
Cli.-iniie].sp.ins and spai 
Kentucky side. [i 



The approach to this hridt.i; on the Indiana shore consists 
of a lonj; and higil embankment. This, iiowover, does not 
p^o|^crl_v belong to the biidge.'and, in accordance with the 
rule adopted for other bridges, we consider that we iia\e 
reached the end of a bridge when we come to earih-work. 
Under this rule tins bridge has no approaches, the entire 
space from abutment to abutment being waterway. 

This bridge crosses the Louisville and Pordand canal 1,700 
feet hclov\ the guard-lock al the head. An unobstructed 
passageway for steamboats is secured by means of a draw, 
giving a clear opening of 114 feel over the canal. The other 
end of the draw projects over a portion of the river, and by 
modifying the canal-bank on this side su that it shall just 
have the width of the pivot of tlie draw, it will be practicable 
for steamboats in high water to ascend the river without 
lowering the chimneys. This is a very Viluable provision for 
bojts that habitually run where there are no bridges, which 
yet may occasionally wish to go above Louisville. In low 
water such boats can pass through the, and in high 
water, by using the other end of the same draw, they can 
pass up the river even should they be too wide to get through 
the new locks. . 

The total high-water section of tlie river on the line of the 
bridge is 216,249 square feet, of which 13.573 square feet, or 
si.\ p>er cent., is occupied by the piers. This contraction 
would probably cause no perceptible increase of velocity. 
The low-water section is 1.377 square feet, of which 60 square 
feel, or four and one-half per cent., is obstructed. .\ll the 
water at this stage is running through the Indiana chute, but 
there being no navigation possible, the effect of the piers 
need not be considered. 

The Loard have no changes to recommend in this bridge, 
which they consider a tirst-class structure throughout, and 
very much less an obstruction than it might have been had ' 
its builders limited themselves to giving only what they were 
compelled by law to give. On the contrary, they have 
chosen to build according to the highest of the three author- 
ized plans, and have e.\cceded the heights and widths that 
even this plan required, spentling $150,000 more than was 
necessary to comply with the letter of the law. Instead of a 
300-foot opening at low water, one of their channel-spans 
gives 380 feet, and the other 352 J:^ feet. The total cost of 
the bridge, from abutment to abutment, was $1.615, 12a 


This is in course of construct ion across the 
Ohio, I'rom the foot of Twenty-third street, Louis- 
ville, over Sand Island to the foot of V'incennes 
street, New Alban)-, a distance of 2,551 feet. It 
is the outgrouth of the project of the Louis- 
ville, EvansviUe cV .St. L'aiis railroad, presently 
to be consummated, and which saw no way 
into Louis\ille except by a lenijthy steam-ferry 



reached by precipitous b.inks or by the track 
from New Albany to JeftVrsonville, controlled by 
the Pennsylvania company, and thence by the 
present bridge. This compels the traverse of a 
distance of SIX miles, which the new bridge re- 
duces one-half 

April I, iSSo, the Kentucky Ltgislatiire grant- 
ed a very liberal charter to the Kentucky & In- 
diana Bridi^e company for tliC erection of this 
bridge. A similar act of incorporation was se- 
cured in Indiana. October 19, iSSi, an ordin- 
ance of the Louisville General Council was ap- 
proved, granting the company the right of way in 
the city, for the location and building of piers, 
approaches to and abutments of its bridge. The 
company had meanwhile (in February, iSSi) 
been organized, with Colonel Bennett H. Young, 
of Louisville, as president. The stock-books of 
the company were opened in Louisville, and 
within two days twice as many subscriptions were 
offered as could be received. Ample surveys 
and soundings were made, and plans and specifi- 
cations prepared. Mr. John MacLeod was em- 
ployed as cliief engineer, and Mr. C. Shnler 
Smith, consulting engineer. Their estimate for 
the entire cost of the work was $1,385,000, but 
contracts were let the same year to the amount 
of $1,400,000. The foundation work was con- 
tracted at $59,000, the iron and steel tor the 
main bridge at $577,000. The corner-stone of 
the new bridge was laid in Xew Albany, October 
29, 1881, with imposing ceremonies, of which a 
sufficient account is comprised in the history of 
that place. The city had endorsed $250,000 of 
the $1,000,000 thirty-year five per cent, bonds 
issued by the company, the city stipulating that 
work should begin before October 11, iSSi. It 
was commenced in the first week of that month; 
two of the seven river foundations were soon 
secured, and work upon the third was to begin by 
November loth. It is understood at this writing 
(March, 18S2,) that the bridge will go on rapidly 
to completion. 

The report of the ceremonies at the Living of 
the corner-stone embodies a description of the 
bridge to-be, from which we quote the follow- 

The Kentucky and Indian.i briti^'e will be 2..400 fevi m 
length, but 4,800 feel Irani grade to gr.ide, 43 feet «ide on 
roadway deck, the onlv hrid,^e on the Oliio entirely of 

wrought iron and steel of the tincst quility. and the only 
structure which itnpedes navigation so little ; alio have its 

piers located so as to please the co.-il men (who. if rumors 
be true, are not the niost easily satisfied persons in the 

The two channel spans are 483 and 4S0 feet in length and 
require 5.400.000 pounds of metal, e.\ch demanding propor- 
tionally two and a half times as much steel and iron as the 
400-foot span of the upper bridge ; that while adding Bj feel 
to ll-.e length of the span the width is al.^o doubled ; th.'.I in 
addiuon to the weight of ihe material recjuired in" the con- 
struction of the highway and footway the pfcsent increased' 
weight of railway rolling stock has been provided for. 

The great development both in trade and population of the 
cities to beconneclod forbids the construction now of a bridge 
that will not accommodate all classes of travel. This struc- 
ture now to ri>e will carry snfely the single footman who may 
wish to pass from shore to shore, while by his side at the same 
level will move, if lequired. two 40-ton engines, drawing 
thirty cars laden w ith stone ; and still alongside a double 
procession of wagons, loadc-d to their fullest capacity, can 
pass ; and yet with this enormous burden, the strain on any 
part will have reached only one-fifth its ultimate strength. 

The piers on either side will consist of two iron cylinders 
sunk to a solid foundation and filled with concrete and 
capped with stone, while the seven river piers will be built of 
EJedford oolitic limestone, rising one hundred and eleven feet 
in height. The Indi.ina approach will be fifteen hundred feet 
long, with a nine hundred and ton foot highway approach. 
The piers will contain 19.492 cubic yards of masonry and the 
two approaches 3.330 more: the main bridge wilt require 4,- 
092,000 pounds of iron and 3.180,000 pounds of steel, with 
1,051.000 feet of lumber, board measurement: while the ap- 
proaches will consume 2,551,000 pounds of iron, and 819,000 
feet of lumtier. The railway and wagon-w ay are entirely sep- 
arate, never crossing each other, and the horses will never 
see the trains. The piers will be airried dow n to bed rock, 
and for the first time on the Oliio river the channel spans will 
be built without the use of false work to impede navigation. 
The masonry for eighteen I'eet abi>ve low water mark is lai,"! 
in Portland cement, and will to that height have a granite 
facing. The entire wood in the bridge will be of treated 
lumber, having had the prcserv.itive forced in under a pres- 
sure of one hundred pounds to the square inch, while the 
roadways will be made of creosoted gum blocks laid in asphalt 
and gravel. All other highways on Ohio river bridges are 
simply pla;ik. The structure will also have a double draw, 
giving one hundred and eighty-five feet channel room on 
either side of the pier and be operated by steam, improve- 
ments found in no other bridge on the river. 

There has for many years existed the belief that over Sand 
Island is the be^t place on the river for a bridge, and the one 
which nature specially designed for that purpose. Here 
there are only nine piers; above there are twenty-six. 

There is however one peculiarity at this site. The rise and 
fall of the water here exhibit the greatest dirference at any 
point on the river. The vast volume of water pours 
over the Falls with such terrific force can not escape through 
the narrow banks from here to the bend below Xew .-\lbany 
— it bac'xS up and crowds over the ban'.s; and according to 
the test — the great rise of 1-832 — shows here a ditTerence of 
sixty-seven and a half feet between hi^jh and low water mark, 
thus requiring this bridge to be laid on one hundred and 
eleven foot piers, ten feel higher than ihe upper bridge piers, 
and making the bottom chord one hundred and ten feet above 
low and forty-five feet above high water, which is now re- 
quired by the act of Cong''e;<s proviiiing for the construction 
of bridges over this portion of the stream. 




lailv Locomotive in I^ouisville — The Lesinglon & Oliio 
K.iTlro.i(l— The Ixiuisville. Cincinnati & l,c.\inj,Mon (Siiort 
Linr)— A Reminiscence of T83S-39— The Icnersonville. 
.M.ulisori & Indianapolis — Thu Louiiville & Xa.shville — The 
Ix'iiisville. New .Mbany & Chicago — The Kli.Mbethtown 
i r.iHnc.ili— The Ohio & MiisiS5ippi--Tlie Louisville, 
1-Aansville & St. Louis— The Chesapea1<e & Ohio — Tlic 
Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville— The Louisville. 
Harrod's Creek & Weslport Narrow Guage — Railway 
Notes— 'I'mnpike Roads — The Louisville & Cincinnati 
('nUfd .States Mail Line of Steamers. 


It is a fact not generally known, we suspect, 
oven to residents of the Falls cities, that some 
of the very first attempts at the building of loco- 
niotive engines and of railways were made in 
this region, on the Kentucky side. Not a mile 
Iiad yet been traversed on an iron way in Amer- 
ica, with steam as a motor, before Thomas H. 
liarlow, a Lexington man, in the late '20's built 
a small locomotive in that place, of which he 
made a public show upon a circular track in a hall 
tluie, and in 1827 brought it to Louia\ille and 
c.vhihited its working upon a similar track in the 
old \\'oodland Garden. A little passenger car, 
with two seats, was drawn by it, and many old 
citizens of the town had a ride in what was prob- 
ably the first vehicle drawn by steam in the New. 
W'oild. The model of Barlow's locomotive may 
be seen to this day in the museum of the Asylum 
at Lexington; and one of his remarkable "plane- 
tariums" is in the collection of the Pol)technic 
society, in Louisville. 

It was about two years after the exhibition by 
Carlou in Louisville before the first locomotive 
in this country, an English one, drew a train up- 
on the first steam railroad, that of the Delaware 
& Hudson Canal company, on the track from 
their mines to Honesdale, Pennsylvania. 


This was the pioneer railway in Kentucky, and 
the first to enter Louisville. Its company was 
chartered in 1830, at the instance of a number 
'^f the leading men of Lexington, with a capital 
«'f $1,000,000, and authority to build a road from 
Uxington to some place on the Ohio river. 
-•"iisville was the terminal point, however, in 
*■=;•* from the beginning, and prominent citizens 
' ' ihis place were early and eagerly interested in 
the iHoject. 

I It has been asserted that this was the second 
steam railway started in the United States, which 

[ is. not quite true; but another assertion, made 

' by Colonel Durrelt in one of his historical articles 

[ of iSSo, is undoubtedly correct, that when the 

I charter for it was granted, but twenty-three miles 

: of such railroad were oi)erated in all the land, 

j and when work was begun the next year, only 
ninety-five miles had been completed on this 

I continent. The first spike of the Lexington & 

j Ohio road was driven C)ctober 21, 183 1, at the 

I intersection of Water and Mill streets, in I^exing- 

j ton, by Governor Thomas Metcalf, then Chief 

I Executive of the State. Dr. Charles Caldwell, 

j of the Medical Department of Transylvania Uni- 

i versity, delivered the address of the occasion. 

i The city of Louisville, four years after, con- 

I tributed $200,000 to the road. Colonel Durrett's 

: lucid words, in the newspaper article above re- 

j ferred to, will tell the rest of the story: 

[ Tlie work of construction progressed slowly, and trains did 

j not get through to Frankfort, a distance of twenty-nine 

miles, until about the close of the year 1835. The first ma- 

I terials for construction, and the first freiglil and passengers 

1 \verodia«n over ti:e road by horse; but when part of the 

I road had been formally opened to the public, in 1834. and 

I the locomotive went thundering over it, a grand ball cele- 

I bratcd the event, at Brennan's tavern, in Lexington. The 

I track was originally laid with tlat rails spiked down to stone 

i silis, and much trouble and danger was caused by one end of 

the thin iron bars' rising up when the locomotive wheels 

pressed upon the other. All these difficulties have since 

been overcome by sleepers, cross-lies, and T rails of the most 

approved style, rendering the road one of the best. 

Things neither started nor piogiessed so well at the Louis- 
ville end of the road. Disputes rose early and continued late, 
between the directors and city authorities and citizens, as to 
the location of the at this end.- The railroad directory 
wanted the Louisville end to terminate at Portland, and then 
sprang up the dispute as to the location of the road through 
the city so as to get to Portland. Elisha C. Winter, of Lex- 
ington, was president of the road, and John C. Bucklin. 
mayor of Louisville, and they could come to no agreement 
as to the location through the city. Neither could the Le.x- 
ington directory, who were Richard Higgins, John Brand, 
Elisha Warfield, Luther Stephens. Joseph Bruen. Benjamin 
Gratz, and George Boswell, come to any understanding with 
George Keats and Benjamin Casvthon, who were the Louis- 
ville directors. The city council, consisting of G. W. Meri- 
weather, B. G. Weir, James Guthrie, James Rudd, J. P. 
Declary, Jacob Miller, Robert Buckner, F. A. Kaye, J. M. 
Talbott, and W. .AIsop, could not agree concerning any pro- 
posed route, and as for the citizens who lived along any of 
the suggested lines, they would agree to nothing. Finally an 
appeal was made to the Legislature for settling the difficulty, 
and an extraordinary l.iw passed in 1833, empowering Wil- 
liam O. Butler., of Gallatin county; John L. Hickman, of 
Bourbon; George C. Thompson, o( Mercer, and James 
Crutcher, of Hardin, to determine the streets through which 
the was to pass through the city. 



While, lliercforc, our neighbors of I c\iiii;ton at once be- 
gan war upon their end (»f t!ie ro ul. witii tie ("h:.,-f I-accu- 
tive of the i^t.itc ilri Ini; the first spike, and an eniinent pro- 
fessor deliverini; an inaiij;iiral onuioii. \ie ai tlie Ij;uis\ille 
end set out «ith quarreling, and continued for two years. 
about where the work was to begin. It was finally deter- 
mined, however, that the should enter the eity at tlie in- 
tersection of Jefterson and Wenzel streets; thence proceed 
alon? Jefferson to Si\ili. down Sixth to Main, along Main to 
Twelfth, down Twelfth to I'ortlaiid avenue, and tlieii along 
the avenue to Tortland. In 1838, jhree years after the Lex- 
ington end working from that city to trankfort, this end 
was completed from Porllaiid to ."^ixth. street, and l.oiiisville 
could then boastof a league of railroad, with a locomotive dash- 
ng over it, very much to the annoyance inste.xd of the joy of 
.ler citiiens, especially those who resided or carried on busi- 
ness along its line. The first through tr.iin en this our fir^l 
railroad went all the way from Portland to the northwest cor- 
ner of Main and Sixth, streets (where the store of J. M. Knb- 
inson & Co. now stands) on the 29111 of February, 1S3S. The 
citizens, however, did not rejoice and celebrate the e\ ent \\ ith 
a grand ball, as was done by our iieighljors of Lexington at 
the other end when the first train went through from that city 
to Frankfort. On the contrary, they were silent and talked 
of pulling up the rails and throwing the locomotive and the 
cars into the river. They concluded, however, to go to lasv 
about it, after enduring it for about six months. A number 
of citizens owning property and doing bu.^iness on M.tin 
between Si.xth and Thirteenth streets, with Klisha .Applogate 
at their head, filed a bill in Chancery on the 9th of Ocioiier, 
1838, for an injunction against the further use of the locomo- 
tive in that region. It was rieclared to be a nuisance, endnn- 
Kering life, depreciating property, and injuring business. 
Levi Tyler, then president of the road, answered on the 19th, 
and set forth the merits of the road with commendable skill. 
The company had then spent about 5800.000 in making the 
road from Frankfort to Lexington and from Portland to .Sixth 
street, Louisville, and had some of the $150,000 furnished it 
by the State, but not enough to make tlie road from Frank- 
fort to Louisville. 

They were, hosfever, doing a pretty fair business at the 
Louisville end. F'lom the opening of this end of the ro.nd 
for through trains from Portland to Sixth street, on the 29th 
of April, to the 6th of November, when the injunction was 
granted, they had carried 93.2. }0 passengers, at twehe and 
one-half cents each, from Portland to Sixth street, and re- 
ceived for it, in cash, $11,656.17. This was at the rate 
of about $42525 per week, and their expenses were J202-30 
wer week, leaving a profit of 5229.42 per week. Of 
course, it was hard that such a business should be stopped 
by an injunction, even if it did endanger life and depreciate 
property and injure business, as claimed by the citizens who 
brought the suit. Judge Bibb, then chancellor, granted and 
sustained the injunction, but the company took ih.e case to 
the court of appeals and it was reversed, \\ith instructions to 
so shape proceedings in the court below as to let that loco- 
motive continue to convey passengers from Sixth street to 
Portland, and from Portland to .^ixlh street. 

The road, however, in the midst of a hostile people could 
never succeed. The citizens who h. id attempted to enjoin it. 
were prominent. "and had influence enough to make it too un- 
popular for success. It never extended its line to the Louis- 
ville wharf as authorized bv the City Council an-.l intemi-.d. the 
gap between Sixth street and the j)resent depot on Jefferson 
never was filled up. and our first railroad from Portland to 
Si.xth street, mstea'! of being extended through the citv and 

protracted in length one way or the other, was transferred to 

I a corporation entitled the Louisville & Portlaml R.iilroad 

I company, in 18.14. for the benefit of the Kentucky Institution 

I for the Kducation of the Blind. This transfer was made by 

I the .State of Kentucky, which had become the owner of the 

whole line by foreclosing a lien for $150,000 furnished to the 

company in 1833. 'Die Louisville and I'ortland Company 

afterward transferred the road to Isham Henderson, who 

converted it into a street railroad oper.ited by horse power, 

in which capacity it slill exists. 

It may added that, of the miles or 
more of street railway now in the United States, 
the first three miles were operated in Louisville 
by this .Mr. Henderson. 

the loui.sville, cin'cin'nati and lf.xrn'gton 
(short link). 

The Louisville cv: Frankfort Railroad Company 
was incorporated in 1S47, 'I'ld to it was trans- 
ferred by the State so much of the old Lexing- 
ton & Ohio road as lay between the two former 
places. The consideration for this was six per 
cent, of the valuation, to be paid before any 
dividends were paid to tlie stockholders of the 
new company. The division between the State 
capital and I.e.xington was also transferred by 
the State to a new company, the Lexington & 
Frankfort, chartered in 1.S4S, for one thousand 
five hundred shares in this company's stock. 
This part of the old road, although in a wtak 
sort of operaiion since iS.^5, could not yet be 
called completed, nor was it until the next year. 
The Louisville division was also finished by the 
new organization in 1851 ; and then, for the first 
time, traffic by rail passed through from Louis- 
ville to Lexington. The large sum of $275,000 
was voted to this road by the city of Louisville. 
Colonel Durrett continues: 

The working of the two separate ends of the road under 
independent companies not proving satisfactory to either, in 
1856 the Legislature authorized them to consolidate. The 
Short-line was built under acts of the Legislature passed in 
1S66 and 1867. and the whole consolidated under the name 
i of the Louisville, Cincinnati and Lexington R.ailroad Com- 
I pany. .And thus the whole line from Louisville to Lexing- 
I ton got back again under a single company, as it originally 
I was. The company now owns and controls two hundred 
j and thirty.three miles of road, as follows: From Louisville 
to Lexington, ninetv-four miles; from the Lagrange junction 
I to Newport, known as '.he Short-line, eighty-one miles; New- 
port and Cincinnati bridge, one mile: Louisville Railroad 
I Transfer, four miles; Elizabethtown. Lexington, and Big 
I Sandy, thirty-four miles; and the Shelby county road, nine- 
, teen miles. The whole has cost nearly and the 
company's liabiiities about reach th.u sum in the shape of 
common and preferred stocks, and bonded and floating debt. 
j The Short-Line now 0]ierates under lease the 



Xortticrn Division of the Cumberland & Ohio 
Railroad, from ShelLiyvilic to Taylorsville, mak- 
ing 73.09 miles operated in this way by the road, 
besides 1749 owned by it, or 247.99 '" ''>!'• 
May I, iSSi, the new roadway on the Beargrass 
fill, prepared for it at the expense of the city, in 
order to secure the vacation of the right of way 
so lon.L; occupied on Jefferson street, was occu- 
pied, together with the spacious new brick freight 
depot on Water street, between First and Brook. 
Later in the season, a new passenger depot, built 
durmg the year on Water, between First and 
Second streets, was also occupied. Very nearly 
the whole of the main line, and much of the 
Lexington Branch, has recently been relaid with 
steel rails. The engines and cars of the road 
are built in part at its own shops in Louisville. 
The road is now in the great Louisville and 
Nashville combination, with General E. P. Alex- 
ander as president and S. S. Eastwood secretary- 


The following notes of the first of Louisville 
railroads is made in the City Directory for 

The principil ro.ids now completed and Ijjin^ completed, 
pointing to Louisville a3 a center, are the Lexington & Ohio 
railroad, which is destined to open a speedy communication 
with the .Atlantic at Charleston ^'f. 

The railroad intersects Jefferson -Street at its eastern limit 
near VVenzel; it then p.asses down Jefferson and continues 
from Sixth down Main street to Portland. The is now in 
full operation from Lexington to I-'rankfort, and from Sixth 
street to Portland. The baUnce of the road, or a great por- 
tion of it, I understand, is under contract. OiSce corner 
Main and Sixth streets. 

There were at this time in the public thought 
and expectancy railroad enterprises to Nashville, 
from Jeftersonville through Indiana, and to 
Alton, Illinois, through which St. Louis would 
be reached. 



This is a consolidation of two roads, the Jeffer- 
sonville and the older ^L^dison & Indianapolis, 
liking the combined name. The former was 
originally the Ohio and Indianapolis railroad, 
chartered by the Legislature of Indiana, January 
23. 'S46, and changed to the Jeffersonville rail- 
f'.id three years after — -January 15, 1S49. It was 
""'>t !n full operation February i. 1S53. Tlie 
other was chartered in June, 1S42, and set in 
operation in October, 1S47. It was afterwards 

sold under foreclosure, and reorganized Man h 
28, 1862, as the Indianapolis & Madison railroad 
company. ^L^y i, 1866, the companies became 
one, and meii;cd their lines into a single one, 
from Jefferson to Indianapolis. January i, 1873, 
the whole was leased to the powerful Pennsyl- 
vania company, which now oper;ites it. 

The contribution of the city of Louisville to 
this enterprise, in 1S51, was $200,000. It in- 
cludes the following lines: M.iin trunk, Louis- 
ville to Indian.ipolis, 110.28 miles; Madison di- 
vision, 45.9 ; Shelby\ille branch, Shelbyville to 
Columbus, 23. 28; New Albany branch, 6.44; 
total, i8.v9. 1 he Pennsylvania company also 
operate, in connection with it, 1S.42 miles on 
the Shelby & Rush railroad, and 20.8 on the 
Cambridge E.xtension, making a grand total of 
225.72 miles. Its capital stock is $2,000,000, 
principally owned by the Pennsylvania company. 
The total cost of its own lines (1S5.9 miles) was 
$6,508,712.77. 1'he following is a statement of 
its gross earnings for nine recent years: 1S72, 
$1,246,381.23; 1S73, $1,363,120,85: 1S74, $1,- 
345.243-67; 1875. $',2^4.147-25; 1876, $1,171,- 
874.69; 1877, $1,176,174.69; 1878, $1,150,014.- 
92; 1879, $1,246,333.78; iSSo, $1,388,564.91. 


The beginnings of this important highway to 
the southward were made by the charter of its 
company March 2, 1850. First and last, in 
various sums and at various times, the city of 
Louisville contributed a very large amount to 
this corporation, burdening itself severely with 
public debt for its and the city's benefit. In 
1S51 $1,000,000 of the people's money was sub- 
scribed to it, and a like sum four years later. 
The Lebanon branch received $275,000 the 
same year, $300,000 in 1863, and a round mil- 
lion in 1867; the Memphis branch $300,000 in 
185S; the Richmond branch $100,000 in 1S67; 
and the $2,000,000 voted to the Elizabethtown 
& Paducah railroad became also a practical ben- 
efit to the Nashville road, by its absorption of 
the Cecilian branch in 1877; thus completing a 
total of $6,275,000 public indebtedness carried 
for this one line and its belongings. 

The n;ain line, however, was not opened to 
Nashville until November, 1S59. The following 
summary of additional historic facts is from the 
valuable pamphlet on the Industries of Louis- 
ville, published in iSSi: 



The Knoxville branch was opened to Livingston in Sep- 
lombor. 1870. Tlio Ijardilown branch was constructed by 
llie EJ^irdstown & I-ouisviUe Railroad comiMny. and cam-.* 
into possession of tlic Louisville & •Nashville Railroad' cmi- 
pany by lease. February 24, 1S60, and by piircliasc in June, 
1S65. The Richmond braneli was opened in November, 
1868. The Cecihan branch was purch.ased January 19. 1877. 
The Glasgow branch (the Ilarien County r.iilroad) is oper- 
ated under tempor.iry lease. The Memphis branch was 
completed in September, 1S60, and was 0[)cr.itcd in connec- 
tion with the .\Iemi)his, Clarksville & Louisville, and the 
Memphis & Ohio railroads; tlie first leased February 7, 1868, 
and purch.ised October 2. 1071, and the latter leased Septem- 
ber I, 1S67, and purchased June 30, 1872. Tlie lease of the 
Nashville & Decatur railroad is d.ited May 4. 1871. and be- 
came operative July 1, 1S72. The South cS: North .Alabanta 
railroad was built in the interest, and is nndei control, of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad Comjiany, and was opened 
October i, 1872. This company also accjuired the middle 
division of the Cuinliv^rland &• Ohio r.iilroad, from Lebantju 
to Greensburg, 31.4 miles, and completed it in 1S79. The 
company also bought the Tennessee Division of the St. 
Louis & Southeastern railroad, 47 iriiles, April 6, and the 
Kentucky Division of the same, 98.25 miles, M,\v, 1S79. 

At the end of tlie fiscal of the comp.iny, 
June 30, 1879, f'''s Louisville iS: Nashville ctirjio- 
ration owned its original main stem and branches, 
651.73 miles in all; operated under lease the 
Nashville & Decatur, 1 19.09 miles, and the Glas- 
gow Branch, 10.5 miles; and under stock ma- 
jority, the South & North Alabama, iSS.SS miles; 
making a total of owned and le.ised lines of 
970.2 miles, ^'ery large accessions were made 
to the lines in 1S79-S0-S1; and the operations 
of the company June 30, of the last year named, 
were represented by the following statement in its 
annual report: 

Owned in fee or through entire capital stock: 
Main Stem, 1S5.23 miles; Bardstown Branch, 
17.3 miles; Lebanon-Kno.wille Branch, 110.3 
miles; Richmond Branch, 33.8 miles; Cecihan 
Branch, 46 miles; Memphis Division, 259.1 
miles; Henderson Division, 135-3:: miles; Pen- 
sacola Division, 45 miles; Pensacola & Selma 
Division, 40 miles; Pensacola Extension, 32 
miles; Southeast and St. Louis, jo8 miles; Mo- 
bile & Montgomery, iSo miles; New Orleans 
& Mobile, 141 miles; Pontchartrain, 5 miles; 
total, 1,437.95 miles. Operated under lease; 
Nashville & Decatur, 119.09 miles; Southern 
Division Cumberland & Ohio, 30.58 miles; Glas- 
gow Branch, 10.5 miles; Selma Division (NVest- 
ern of Alabama), 50 miles; total 210.17 'ni'es. 
Operated under stock majority: South & North 
Alabama, 18S.SS miles; Owensboro &: Nashville, 
35 miles; total, 223. 88 — making a total directly 

ojierated of 1,872 miles. In addition the com- 
jjany is interested in the control and manage- 
ment of the following lines, operated under sep- 
arate organizations: Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis railway system (in which the Louisville 
& Nashville company owns a majority of the 
capital stock), 521 miles; Georgia railroad and 
dejiendencies (controlled through joiiit lease 
with the Central railroad company of Georgia) as 
follows; Georgia railroad and branches, 305 
miles; -Xtlanta & \\'est Point railroad, 87 miles; 
Rome railroad of Georgia, 20 miles; Port Royal 
railroad, 1 12 miles; Western railroad of Alabama, 
117 miles; fjtal 1,162. Add to this the Louis- 
ville & Nashville system proper, as above, 1,872 
miles. Total of roads owned, ojierated, and 
controlled in the interest of the Louisville & 
Nashville, 3,034 miles. 

J-ater m 1S81 the company acquired control 
of the Short Line road (Louisville, Cincinnati & 
Lexington), by the purchase of its entire stock, 
and thus added 174.9 miles of standard guage 
(also 51.6 miles leased) and 11 miles of narrow 
guage line, to its already gigantic total, making 
an aggregate of 3,271^2 miles of its lines. The 
Louisville, Westport & Harrod's Creek Narrow 
Guage railroad is now operated by this company. 
The Short Line was made an integral part of the 
Louisville & Nashville system, and is operated 
simply as a division thereof 

The earnings of the company from traffic dur- 
ing the year 1S80-S1, were $4,198,518.32 ; real- 
ized from investments, $225,209.17 ; undivided 
earnings from previous year, $228,382.62; — 
total credits to income account, $4,652,1 lo.i i. 
Charges of all kinds against income account, 
$3,079,088.41. Balance to credit of income 
account, $1,573,0.2 r. 70, from which $1,087,800 
had been paid in semi-annual dividends to stock- 
holders of 3 per cent, and a surplus carried to the 
income account of 1S81-82 of $485,221.70. 

The general offices of this great company are 
in Louisville. Mr. C. C. Baldwin is president ; 
General E. P. Alexander, first vice-president : 
George A. Washington, second vice-president ; 
Willis Ranney, secretary ; A. M. Quarrier, as- 
sistant i)resident and secretary ; Fred De Funiak, 
general manager. 


This is the old New Albany & Salem railroad, 



witli its later extension and branches. The ori.i:;- 
inal company was foimed January 25, 1847. 
The Louisville Courier-Jouinal for Noveniljcr 
26, iSSo, contains an excellent sketch ot' the 
history of this road, from which we extract the 

lis e.irly history is connecled \\i[li llic ffforl on the part 
of the Sl.ite of Indinna to foster internal impro\'enients. 
Long before 1850 it was laid out as a macad.imized road 
. from .New .Albany to Crawfordsville. It was one part of 
that system of internal impio\enients \\hich Indiana began 
and which her statesmen deemed the turning-point in he: 
destiny, and whieh they considered wouUl make her the 
greatest of the \Vestern States. When, however, she was 
compelled to give up her scheme of internal improvements, 
compound her debts, and surrender the portion of tile work 
she had accomplished to private corporations, this road, un- 
der a special law, became the New .Albany 5; Salem railroad, 
and was completed between these two pomts. 

Then a more ambitious turn seized its owners and holders. 
and they resolved to cross the State of Indiana from end to 
end — to run from the Ohio river to Lake Michigan — and 
make this hne the great connecting link between the .N'orth- 
west lakes and the Ohio river and its outlets. It was opened 
from New Albany to Michigan City on the 4th day of July, 
.1852, amid great rejoicings and with anticipations of un- 
bounded success. 

It had been opened from New .\Ibany to Sclera in 1S49, 
and had been pushed with great vigor until it readied, as be- 
fore said, from the Ohio river to the lakes. It started with 
the bane of all railway enterprises in the West — too much 
debt. It had a bonded debt at first of $2. 335.000 in eight 
per cents.; $500,000 ten per cents.; $2,070,000 seven per 
cents.; $405,456 income bonds, and $12,840 si.\ per cent, 
bonds, and $2,525,223 of capital stock, linking a grand total 

In 1853 trouble began. With the then state of develop- 
ment of the railroad system, the bonded debt of the road was 
loo large. The road defaulted for one year upon it5 inter- 
est. It was then placed, by the agreement of all parties, 
into the hands of D. D. Williamson, trustee, w ho had been 
one of the most prominent and trusted men of New York. 
and who was comptroller of New York and president of the 
Farmers' Loan and Trust company. The was held by 
Mr. Williamson as such trustee until 1869, when proceedings 
were had for a foreclosure of the mortgage liens, and after 
various changes in courts it finally sold under a decree of 
the United States circuit court for the district of Indiana in 
September. 1872, and purchased by the bondholders, and re- 
organized in December, 1872, with a capital stock of $3,000, - 

George L. Schuyler, of New York, was the rirst President. 
In one year William F. Reynolds, of Lafayette. Indian.r, suc- 
c«ded him, anil rem.ained in office until March, i,'i7-, when 
he in turn was succeeded by George P. Tolman, of New 
Vurk. Mr. Tolman held his position until January. 1880. 
when R. .S. V'eech. of Louisville. Kentucky iits present chief 
'jfficer). assumed control of the destinies of this corporation. 

From 1872 do-vnto 1880 absolutely nothing was done with 
"' 1 great property. Its tracks became worn and out of con- 
'•ilion; lis iron, of old English chain-rail, became loose and 
u:sjoinied ; its ties rotten, and only until 1879 was any great 
»uiii eipendeJ upon the repair and equipment of the road. 

Mr. Veech, assisted by Dr. Standiford, then 
[iresident of the Louisville & Nashville railroad, 
Colonel Bennett H. Young, and Mr. St. Jolin 
.Boyle, had already and very quietly secured a 
controlling interest in the road by arrangement 
with large stockholders and by purchase of its 
stock in New York city — which, when they be- 
gan to buy, could be had at twenty-five cents on 
the dollar. Under the new administration, says 
the Courier-Journal writer, "the equipment was 
immediately and largely increased; new engines, 
new cars, new track, new everything, were want- 
ing, which were supplied. Through trams were 
put upon the load, and iLs earnings increased 
with almost startling rapidity, the first few 
months running up to an increase of from sixty 
to seventy per cent, over the business of the 
previous year. These earnings developed the 
capacity of the road not only to pay the interest 
upon a large debt, but also to provide for a divi- 
dend upon the stock." In addition 98 miles of 
track were relaid during 1880 with the fish-bar 
joint, 15 miles of it with steel; 16 bridges were 
entirely rebuilt, and others repaired or remodeled, 
at a cost of $90,000. Many other improvements 
have been made, and the road is now on a solid 
and apparently permanent foundation. 


The road was chartered under this name in 
1S67. The next year the city of I,ouisville 
voted it a million, and another million in 1S73. 
Its name subsequently became the Paducah, 
Elizabethtown & Southern railroad. It was fin- 
ished from Paducah to Elizabethtown in 1S72, 
and two years later the Cecilian Branch, or 
Louisville end, was opened. April i8, 1876, a 
decree of foreclosure and sale was made against 
it by Judge Ballard, of the United States court, 
and it was sold thereunder August 24th of the 
same year. It was purchased by a new com- 
pany, which presently sold the Cecilian Branch 
(forty-five miles) to the Louisville & Nashville 
corporation, they retaining the rest, or main hne 
of 1S5 miles. The cost of the whole 230 miles 
was about $4,500,000. 


This road was chattered by Indiana February 
12, 1S4S: Ohio, March 15, 1849; and Illinois, 
February 12, 1S51. It was built by two sejiarate 
corporations, and completed in 1S67, wilh a six- 



foot guage, which has since been dnngcd to 
standard. Since November 21, 1867, it has 
been operated under one ijiananenieiit, but in 
two divisions — the r.aslern, from Cincinnati to 
the Illinois State line; and the Western, com- 
prising the line thence to St. Louis. .An act of 
the Indiana Legislature .March 3, 1.^65, provided 
for the branch from Xnrth \'ernon, tiirough 
Clark and other counties m that State, to Louis- 
ville, which was opened in 1S6S; and since 
been successfully oper:'.ted. Its Louisville 
branch is 52.52 miles long. 


The germ of this road lay in a jiroject of 
forty-five years ago. In 1S37 a line was ]iro- 
jected from New Albany to .\lton, Illinois; but it 
never got further than the grading of the section 
between Mt. Carniel and Albion. In 1S69 a 
charter was granted by the Legislature ol Indiana 
to a New Albany & St. Louis Railroad company, 
•and soon after another to the St. Louis, ,Mt. 
Carniel & New Albany Railroad com[ia:iy. 
These corporations were united in July, 1870, 
under the name of the Louisville, New .-Mhany Os: 
St. Louis Railroad company. Its fust otiicers 
were the Hon. Augustus Bradley, "of New .Vl- 
bany, president; Jesse J. Brown, of New .Mhan)-, 
vice-president; George Lyman, secretary and 
treasurer; and Roland J. Dukes, chief engineer. 
A number of routes were surveyed, and location 
final'y made as follows: From Louisville to 
New Albany, by the bridge and the track of the 
Jeffersonville, }tIadison & Indianapolis railroad; 
thence in an "air line" to the Wabash river at 
Mt. Carniel; thence to Mt. \'ernon, Illinois, 
where it would connect with the St. Louis & 
Southeastern railroad. Its own line would thus 
be but one hundred and eighty miles long; and 
its cost was estimated, in that era of high prices, 
at $6,205,000. The city of Louisville subscribed 
$500,000, New Albany $300,000, the Jefferson- 
ville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad, $100,000, 
the Louisville Bridge company $25,000, Floyd 
county $95,000; other counties or municipalities, 
$330,000; and individuals, $1,411,350. Work 
was presently begun on the line, and went on 
briskly till these subscriptions were used up. 
The directors resolved to i>sue hrst nmrcgage 
bonds to the amount of $4,525,003; but the 
time was unfavorable for selling them, and the 

work stopped. Most of the grading, tunneling, 
and treslle-woik, however, for eighty miles west 
of New .-\lbanv, was done; «hile three iniks of 
track had been laid out of New .-Mhany, and 
trains were running on a twenty-eight mile sec- 
tion between Princeton, Indiana, and Albion, 
Illinois. In 1S75 the comiiany was unable to 
meet the inlerest upon even the small aniount of 
bonds which had been paid out or negotiated, 
the mortgage was foreclosed, and the road sold 
out fir $23,000! .-\ new board was formed, 
with Or. Newland, of New Albany, president, 
and Jesse J. Brown, vice-[)resident. The [irojcct 
still lay dormant, however, till February, 1S79, 
when a reorganization of the board was effected, 
with St. John Boyle, of Louisville, as president; 
(). C. Cannon, of New Albany, as vice-president; 
and Ceorge Lyman, of the same, secretary and 
treasurer. The ".-Mr-line" was dropped from 
the name, and it became the Louisville, New 
.Mbany iV St. Louis Railroad company. The 
l)urpose of the company was changed to a build- 
ing of the road from New Albany to Princeton, 
Indiana, whence cars are running to Albion, 
Illinois, where a St. Louis junction is made with 
the road from Cairo to Vincennes. It was 
thought this could not be done for $1,500,000. 
Later, the company has bought the roads from 
Laspei, Indiana, to EvansviUe and Rockport, 
and the name of the line has been changed to 
the Louisville, EvansviUe & St. Louis. At the 
meeting of the Directors in Boston in .March, 
18S2, Mr. John Goldthwaite, of that city, was 
re elected president ; St. John Boyle, of Louis- 
ville, vice-president and general manager; and 
Edward Cummings, of ]5oston, second vice- 
[)resident. All necessary money to complete the 
road had been raised. Until the new Kentucky 
& Indiana bridge is built, a ferry transfer will be 
used between New Albany and Louisxiile, and a 
tiack laid down the Kentucky shore from Port- 
land to the Louisville & Nashville depot. 


The Louisville, EvansviUe & St. Louis road, 
it is announced, will form the western connection 
of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, the com- 
pletion ol whicii from Huntington, West N'lr- 
ginia, to Le.\ington, Kentucky, m the summer 
of 18S1, opened to Louisville very important 
new connections with Richmond, Norfolk, and 



other cities of the Atlantic seaboard. Ily f.nora- 
blc arrangements with tiic Short Line, the 
Chesapeake >S: C)hio is bringijig its tialTic directly 
to Louisville; and as we cluse these pages it is 
announced that the S(|uare fronting on Water 
street, and ruiuiing back to the Cremaker-. Moore 
iiaper-niill, in Louisville, has been purchased by 
this corporation for depot purposes. It is possi- 
ble also that shops of tlie load may be located in 
the city. 


This road does not enter Louisville. It is the 
new name of the Fort Wayne, .Muncie i\: Cin 
cinnati Railroad, running fiom Newcastle, In- 
diana, to Rushville, Indiana, where it connects 
with a road owned by the Cincinnati, IndianaiJ- 
oils, St. Louis, & Chicago Railroad, which runs to 
North Vernon, whence the Ohio &; Mississippi 
Branch brings the connection into Louisville. 
The Fort Wayne, Muncie & Cincinnati was sold 
under foreclosure thelatter part of iSSi, and on 
New Year's day following the Fort Wayne, Cin- 
cinnati & Louisville Company took possession. 
A link of the line from Louisville to Fort \\'ayne 
(two hundred and nine miles) had been ccmipleted 
shortly before from Grcensburg to Rushville, 
Indiana, so that there is now direct railway con- 
nection between the former two cities. 


This, a mere local narrow-guage road, of only 
eleven miles' length, was opened in 1S75. It was 
an unfortunate venture, pecuniarily regarded; and 
it was sold June 23, 1879, for only $30,500, to 
the Short Line, by which, or rather by the late 
owner, the Louisville & Nashville corporation, it 
is now operated. It is the only railway lying 
altogether in Jefferson county. 


The Louisville Transfer railwav, however, of 
4-13 miles' length, and a double guage of 5 t'eet 
and 4 feet 8;< inches, connects the Louisville and 
Nashville tracks, a little south of the city, 
with the Short Line tracks and depots, thus 
obviating the necessity of tracks through more 
crowded parts of the city. It was constructed 
in 1S7;. 

I he Lou'.sville Raihvay bridge has also a mile 
of track. 

.\ recently formed company is about to build 

a belt railway from New Albany to Jefferson and 
\Vatson, five miles out on the Ohio and Missis- 
sipi)i branch, thus bringing that road into more 
intimate connections with the first-named city 
and the new Kentucky and Indiana bridge. 

In 1S77 Louisville subscribed $150,000 to a 
road in the inlerioi called the Richmond, Irwin 
it Three Foiks railroad, conditioned that this 
subsciiption should complete the track from 
Richmond to Reattyville, Lee county, and thus . 
open up connections between Louisville and the 
rich timber and mineral region about the head- 
waters "f the Kentucky river. 

New AUiany had an interest in the llrst rail- 
road company formed in Southern Indiana. It 
was chartered at the legislative session of 1S35- 
36, to build a railway between the two points 
named ; but the project was killed by the great 
financial crisis of 1S37. 

The New Albany Cs: Sandusky railroad was 
chartered at the session of 1 85 2-53. The city 
council of New Albany subscribed $400,000 to 
the project, and work was begun on the road- 
bed; but a public meeting of citizens indignantly 
repudiated the issue of bonds, and the scheme 
did not survive the blow. 


Many historic notes concerning these are em- 
braced in our township histories. We give here 
such of more general interest as have been picked 
up in the course of other investigations. 

In 1S32 the Louisville & Portland Turnpike 
comi-tany had been formed, with a capital of 
$10,000, to construct three miles of wagon-road 
between the two places — then, of course, separ- 
ate. J. T. Gray was president of the company; 
George C. Gwathmey, treasurer; Richard Tun- 
stall, toll-keeper. 

The Louisville & Ship|>ingport company had 
two miles of road and $S,ooo capital. W. W. 
Worsley was president, and S. S. Goodwin treas- 

The same year the Louisville & Shelbyville 
Turnpike company was in e.vistence, with $100,- 
000 capital and twenty miles of road. B. N. 
Hobbs, president ; G. C. Gwathmey, treasurer. 

Also the Louisville i: Bardstown company, 
with ten miles of turnpike; John Speed, presi- 
dent, and J. P. Oldham, treasurer. 



When the second Directory was published in 
Louisville, tiiat for 183S -39, the t'ollowing turn- 
pike coni])anies had their head(ju:irters in. the 
city, and are thus noticed : 

Louisville & Lexington Tunipiko Road company. Levi 
Tyler, piesidi-iit. Tins ini.i-ri-i^ .Main street at tlic 
eastern limits of tlie city, near Wcn/el street. 

Louisville & Bardstown Turnpike Koad company. Le\i 
Tyler, president. Intersecting Jeflerson street at its eastern 
limit, near Wenzel street, 

Louisville & Llizabcilitov.n Ti;rnpike Road company. 
Robert N. Miller, president ; Daniel L. Jones, treasurer. 

Louisville Southern Turnpike Road company. John W. 
Tyler, president. This road intersects the LoiiisMlle & 
Elizabcthtown Turnpike road at or near Eighteenth street, 
until it intersects the Oliio river a short distance above 
Paddy's run, intending to meet a road laid off by the States 
of Indiana and Illinois, commencing immediately opposite on 
the Indiana shore, and running through Indiana and Illinois 
to .Mton. 

In the Historical Sketch of Louisville, ap- 
pended to the same work, is another notice of 
townships and railroads, in which orxurs the fol- 
lowing : 

The principal roads now completed and being completed, 
poinlinii to Louisville as a center, are . turnpikes 

to Frankfort by SheibyviUe, to B.irdstown by Elizabethtown, 
which will be extended as interest may determine hereafter; 
turnpike from New .Albany to the int.-riorof Indiana. Be- 
sides these, many other avenues for trade are contemplated 
and will be opened in a few years, such as a railroad or 
turnpike to Nashville, a railroad from lelTersonvilie through 
Indiana, a railroad to .Alton, Illinois, and many others which 
the great resources of the growing countiy will point out as 

One of the most notable enterprises of the 
kind on the Indiana side was the New Albany 
& Vincennes turnpike, provided for by the Leg- 
islature during the internal improvement mania 
of 1835-36. The State spent Irom its own treas- 
ury $6:6,516 upon it, and then, having no more 
money or credit to expend, transferred it to a 
private company, getting back in all but $27,311 
in tolls. The company com[ileted the road from 
New Albany to Paoli, which is still in excellent 
condition and doing good service to the trade 
and travel of the former place. 


Some half-do?en steamer lines accommodate 
the cities at the Falls; but we have space to 
notice but one, the most famous and venerable 
of all, the staid and staunch 

M.MI, MNi:. 

This is by far the oldest transportation line on 
the Western waters. The company to run steam- 
ers between Cincinnati and Louisville was formed 
in 181S, and is maintained to this day — sixty- 
four years. In that year it built the "General 
Pike," the first steamer built exclusively for pas- 
sengers. Her trip was between Louisville and 
Cincinnati, making the distance in thirty-one 
hours, which was regarded as good time for that 
day. Captain Bliss was her first commander; 
then, in order, came Captains Penewitt and 
John M. Rowan. Jacob Strader, afterwards a 
very wealthy and prominent steamboatman at 
Cincinnati, was then clerk in the conipany's office. 
This boat was very successful, and it soon be- 
came necessary to build laiger and better vessels. 
In 1S47 ten fine steamers were built for an addi- 
tional line from Cincinnati to St. Louis. By these 
the time from the Falls to the latter city was re- 
duced from four or five days to thirty-nine to 
forty-four hours. About 1S55 the company built 
the two floating palaces, the Jacob Strader and 
the Telegraph No. 2, at a cost together of nearly 
$400,000. I'hese boats could run eighteen 
miles per hour. The company has since owned 
the fine steamers Benjamin Franklin, United 
States, General Lyttle, General Anderson, General 
Buell, General Pike, Lewis E. Sherley, and City 
of Frankfort, most of which are well known to 
the traveling public. The general offices of the 
comjiany are in Cincinnati. 



Jefferson County, Kentucky, 



Geographical Description — Area — Acres biiproved — Pre- 
cincts—Towns — Post-oflices —Surface of the County — Re- 
sources — The Knobs— Waters of the County — Beargrass 
Creek — Harrod's Creek — Dr. Drake on the Topography of 
the Louisville Region — Old Buflalo Roads — Wild Animals 
in the E.-xrly Day— The Climate — The .Soil and its Culture 
— Geology of the County in Detail— Analysis of Soils and 


Jefferson county, Kentucky, is situated upon 
the river Ohio, about midway of its tortuous 
course along the noithern and western fronts of 
the State, and not far from equidistant from Cat- 
lettsburg, in the northeastern corner, and Hick- 
man in the southwest, but somewhat nearer to 
Catlcttsburg. It is bounded on the north by 
Oldham county and the river Ohio, beyond which 
it looks across to the counties of Clark, Floyd, 
and Harrison, in Indiana; on the west by the 
same stream; on the south by Bullitt county; and 
on the east by Shelby and Spencer counties. It 
contains about six hundred square miles, and the 
number of acres improved is not far from one hun- 
dred and sixty thousand, or nearly one-half the 
entire area of the county. (In 1S76 the number 
of improved acres was 152,494. This is, we sup- 
pose, exclusive of the space occu[)ied by the city 
and by town-sites.) 

The county is divided into twenty-one pre- 
cincts, corresponding to the "townships'' of most 
of the Northern States. They are .Vnchorage, 
lllankenbaker, Boston, Cane Run, Cross Roads, 
I-iirmount, Fisherville, Gilnian's, Harrod's Creek, 
JtlTcrsontown, Johnstown, Meadow Lawn, Mid- 

dletown, O'Bannon, Seatonville, Shardine, Shive- 
ly's Sprin^dale, Spring Garden, Two-mile House, 
and Wood's. The villages or towns of the county 
are Anchorage, Fisherville, Harrod's Creek, Jef- 
I'ersontown, Newburg, Middletown, and St. Mat- 
thew's. Besides these there are post-offices as 
follow: Crescent Hill, Cross Roads, Eden, Fair- 
mount, Floyd's Fork, Lockland, Long Run, 
Lyndon, O'Bannon, Orel), Pleasure Ridge Park, 
River View, Taylor's Station, Valley Station, and 
Worthington. The county is thus well provided 
J with postal facilities, and has a goodly number of 
post offices at convenient distances within iL 


! of the county is undulating and broken in the 
' southwest part, which has a stiff clay soil, and 
on the lower levels produces well in crops of 
corn, oats, and grapes; on the higher groutids 
j fiuit is grown to advantage. The northern and 
; northwestern part, including most of the Louis- 
\ ville region, is generally a level plateau, well ele- 
' vated above the highest reach of inundations by 
, the river, and forming a beautiful and produc- 
I tive plain. It has a rich, alluvial soil, yielding 
in abundance and great perfection all kinds of 
vegetables, grains, and fruits grown in the temper- 
ate zone. The frontage of the county on the 
i Ohio river is about forty miles, and the alluvial 
bottoms all along are exceedingly productive. 
[ The northeast part of the county, all the way 
I above Louisville, is beautifully undulating, with 
j a fine, fertile soil, producing luxuriantly the 
1 cereal grains and fruits. The whole country, 
* indeed, has peculiar fitness tor the market gar- 




dening and fruit-raising so desirable in the vicinity 
of a large city. The sotilhcast part of the county 
becomes more broken as it nears the knobs along 
the Salt river, but it is also i^roducliveand like- 
wise healthful, with varied and beautiful scenery, 
making it a favorite region for the better sort of 
private residences. 


There is no coal in the county, but the cement 
and limestone turned out at Louisville ate among 
the finest in the world. The water-power at the 
Falls is the best in the country. The tobacco 
market at Louisville is the largest m the land, 
the actual sales aggregating $10,000,000 a year, 
with twenty-five firms engaged in the business. 
Other elements of wealth in tlie city and county 
will appear as we proceed with this narrative. 

We now give some special descrip'tion of the 
most remarkable region in the county, topo- 
graphically regarded. 

"the KNOI;b." 

In the northwest of this county, a belt of 
knobby country, of several miles' width, stretches 
from the foot of the Falls of the Ohio to the 
mouth of Salt river, and thence ujj that river val- 
ley in a nearly southern direction, with a slight 
curve towards the east as far as Muldrough's 
Hill, and so on southeastwardly. These knobs 
are in ranges of conical hills two to three hun- 
dred feet in height, and ate so conspicuous a 
feature in the geology of the State that they have 
given the name of Knob Formation to a division 
of the sub-carbonife'-ous rocks in Jefierson, Bul- 
litt, and Larue counties. These consist mainly 
of a fine-grained sandstone, which runs out into 
the limestone shales of Russell, Cumberland, 
and other counties. When sufficiently weathered, 
it produces a silico-ars^illaceous soil, which 
washes easily, and is therefore thin and shallow. 
It is not, generally, a characteristic soil, or soil by 
itself, but is commonly mi.\ed largely with a white 
soil derived more closely from the underlying 
shales, which are of ashy color, and crop out on 
the slopes and in the narrow valleys between the 
knobs, and is sometimes intermingled with the 
debris from a thin cap of the sub-carboniferous 
limestone. The summits of the knobs, however, 
have a much richer soil, Icrtilized as it has been, 
probably, by the roosting and alighting of birds 
upon the hilltops through many long ages. Not 

much agriculture is yet practicable on tlie sum- 
mits or slopes of the knobs ; but a great deal of 
timber has been taken from them and their vi- 
cinity, particularly in the shape of railway ties, 
mainly cut from the black locust. The other 
forest products of the knobs are the white, red, 
black, and chestnut oaks, a small kind of hickory 
ij^''^^""^' iomcntosa), the black gum-tree; in flat 
and wet positions the sweet gum and the elm, 
and in some specially favorable situations the 
poplar. The argillaceous shales at the base of 
the formation contain a limited percentage of 


It is a very well-watered county, though it 
shares the general characteristic of the State in 
the comparative absence of lakes. Ponds, how- 
ever, abounded upon the Louisville plateau in 
the early day, and induced much malarial sick- 
ness ; but they have now mostly disappeared. 
The historic Salt river no longer intersects the 
county, as in the early day of its greatness of 
territory; but enters the Ohio a little below the 
southwestern corner, receiving one or two small 
affluents from the soil of Jefferson. The Ohio 
river and the Falls, so prominent in making the 
county and its city what they are, receive par- 
ticular notice in another chapter. Harrod's 
creek and the Beargrass are the best known of 
the other streams here and hereabout, and are 
very serviceable waters in the county. We copy 
the following descriptions from Dr. McMurtrie's 
Sketches of Louisville, which, although wtitten 
more than sixty years ago, answers well enough 
for the present day, due allowance being made 
for the removal of the mouth of the Beargrass 
about two miles north of its old site : 


Beargrass, which gives its mme to the fertile and wealthy 
setUement through which it passes, is a considerable mill- 
stream, affording a plentiful supply of water eight or ten 
months in the year. It rises by eight different sprinjjs ten 
miles east of Louisville, that unite and form the main body 
of the creek within two miles of that place. This, like the 
preceding one, sometimes disappears, pursuing a secret 
course for a quarter of a mile together, subsequently emerg- 
ing with a considerable force. On its banks are several grist- 
mills, and one for paper. It enters the Ohio (to which for 
the last half-mile It runs nearly parallel) opposite Louisville, 
le.iving betrteen it and the river an elevated strip of land, 
covered with large trees, that afford a delightful and shady 
promenade to the citizens during the heats of summer. 

.At the mouth of this creek is one of the l^st harbors on 
the Ohio, perfectly s.afe and commodious for all vessels un- 



der five liunclrcd tons' tmrihen. there being twelve feet water 
ccinsl.uuly found here during the greatebt depresion of the 
river. It is from this harbor or b.isin the contemplated 
can.ll will be supplied with its destined element, which may 
perhaps produce a beneficial effect, by quickening its motion 
and of Beargrass, whose sluggishness during the sum- 
mer IS, 1 have no doubt, productive of consequences injur- 
ious to the health of the inhabitants of the town. 

Harrod's creek is a vaUi.ibIc eniptying into the Ohio 
nine or ten miles above Louisville, where it is forty yards 
wide. .About a fourth of a mile from its mouth is a natural 
fall of si.\ or seven feet, occisioned by the oblique direction of 
the rock forming its bed, which dips ,at an angle of seven de- 
grees. It has been reported that, like many others in the 
St.ate, it has found a subterraneous passage, through which a 
great part of the water flows, without crossing the Falls. 


]3r. Daniel LVake, in the last and greatest work 
of his lite, the treatise on the Principal Diseases 
of the Interior Valley of North America, pub- 
lished in 1S50, makes the following note of the 
topography of the country below the Falls, on 
the Kentucky side : 

In ascending the Ohio river from the mouth of Salt river to 
the talis, the course is but a few dei^rees east of north, the 
distance about twenty miles. In traveling from one point to 
the other by land, the journey is over a plain, the elevation of 
which is above high-water mark, and its breadth from three 
to five or six miles. From every part of this plain, which ex- 
tends to the river on the west, the blue range of Silver Creek 
hills may be seen, running parallel with the river on its west- 
ern or right side, while a lower range, called the "knobs," is 
seen to terminate the plain on the opposite or eastern side. 

Thus, between Salt river and the Falls, there is an ample 
terrace, elevated nearly as high as rhe second bottoms of the 
river, already described in section two of this chapter. It 
cannot, however, in strictness be classed with those deposits 
which, generally sloping back toward the hills, and composed 
largely of gravel, pebbles, and bowlders, retain but little 
water on their surface; while this, although it presents many 
beds and ridges of sand or sandy loam, so abounds in clay 
that the rains are but slowly absorbed, and at the same time 
it is so level as to prevent their readily flowing off Thus, in 
times long gone by, they accumulated in the depressions on 
its siirface and overspread it with ponds and limited elm and 
maple swamps, which dry up in summer and autumn, but at 
other seasons send out sm.V.l streams that make their way 
intoS.dt river and into the Ohio, both above and below the 
Falls. The middle and southern portions of this plain, 
where the cisterns were, and still are, of greatest e.\- 
icnt, is called by the ominous name of the " Pond Settle- 
nicnt." The area of the entire plateau cannot be less than 
sixty square miles, the whole of which lies to the summer- 
windward of the city of Louisville, which is built on its north- 
"•rn extremity, opposite to and above the Falls. 


One of the most remarkable physical features 
of Kentucky, as found by the pioneers in the 
early day, were the great roads through the 

forest, traversed by the buffaloes in their journeys 
to and from the salt licks, and the extensive 
"clearings"— for sucli they were — made liy these 
remarkable animals. Ihcir p.ithways, in many 
cases, were sufilicient, in width and comparative 
smoothness, for wagon-ways, and of course fol- 
lowed the most eligible routes, for man as well 
as beast. These roads were much used by the 
early explorers, surveyors, and settlers, and great- 
ly facilitated their movements through the dense 
woods. John FilsoiV, the schoolmaster, one of 
the intending foimders of Cincinnati, in his little 
work on the Discovery, Settlement, and Present 
State of Kentucky, first published in 17S4, after 
some description of the licks — in which he men- 
tions "Bullet's Lick " as "imjjroved, and this af- 
fords salt sufticient for all Kentucky, and exports 
some to the Illinois " — writes the following of 
the roads and other traces of the buffalo herds. 
He \rote, it should be observed, before the bison 
had been driven beyond the Mississippi: 

To these [the licks_ the cattle repair, and reduce high hills 
rather to valleys than plains. The amazing herds of buffalo 
which resort thither, by their size and number, fill the traveler 
witli amazement and terror, especially when he beholds the 
prodigious roads they have made from all quarters, as if lead- 
ing to some populous city ; the vast space of land around 
these springs desolated as if by a ravaging enemy, and hills 
reduced to plains — for the land near those springs are chiefly 
hilly. These are truly curiosities, and the eye can scarcely 
be satisfied with admiring them. 


The early settlers found all varieties of large 
game known to this country and latitude here in 
great abundance, as the buffalo, bear, elk, deer, 
beaver, and otter, as well as the smaller animals 
that remain in diminishing numbers to this day. 
The first-named, it is said, was sometimes seen 
in droves at the salt licks, of seven to eight thou- 
sand. Dr. McMurtrie also notices the great 
buffalo trails. He says: 

The roads opened by these animals, in their progress 
through the woods, may be reckoned among the natural curi- 
osities of the State, being generally wide enough for a car- 
riage or wagon way. in which the trees, shrubs, etc., are all 
trampled down, and destroyed bv the irresistible impetus of 
the mighty phalanx. 

Not one of these animals was left in Kentucky 
when the Doctor wrote in 1819. He says that 
the beaver had abounded within a few miles of 
Louibville, "and were we permitted to judge 
from the remains of their fortifications, we should 
pronounce them to have been the innumerable 



possessors of the soil from time iinmcmoiinl." He 
writes further 

Every pond, creek, and river exhibits some traces of tlieni, 
but tlicir metropolis appears to liave been situated aljuut four 
miles of Louisville, where, among a variety of extensive 
dams, I measured one whose length is 1,500 feet, hei^'ht 8, 
thickness at the base 14, with n t.ilus etiual to .(5° extending 
to the top. At the end of this bank, wliieh runs perfectly 
straight and which is thrown up and sloped in a most work- 
manlike style, is a second one stretching out nc.irly at right 
angles from it, in form of a crescent, li.ick of the latter 
may be seen their dens, which are disposed with great regu- 
larity, about twenty feet from the bank. 'I'heir covered ways, 
by which in times of low water they man.ige to secure a 
sufhciency of it, so as to conceal themselves in the'r pass ige 
to and from ihem, are also very visible. I have been in- 
formed by a respectable old gentleman who was among the 
earlier settlers, that w:hen he first arrived here the beaver 
was somtimes seen in the neighborhood, and that at 
time the great dam spoken of was at least fourteen feet high, 
a prodigious monument of the industry and skill of this 
social little animal. 

The Otter, formerly abundant in the Ohio and 
its tributary waters, had wholly disapjieared from 
this region in 1819, though still caught in the 
Mississippi. Serpents were not numerous or 
dangerous, though sometimes huge r.Ttilesuakes 
were encountered. The snapping-tunle was 
found in the river, sometirnes of nfty to seventy 
pounds weight, also the lesser soft-shelled turtle, 
which was much esteemed by epicures. Deer 
still frequented the barrens, and were seen at 
times but a few miles from the town; while bears 
kept at a greater distance in the woods. "Fo.xes 
occasionally disturb the farmer's hen roosts, and 
wolves now and then pick up a stray sheep; they 
are, however, neither very numerous nor fierce." 


Dr. McMurtrie's observations upon the meteor- 
ology of this region are also valuable. He re- 

It appears from a variety of thermometrical observations 
and comparisons, that the climate of this country is uniform- 
ly milder than that of the .Atlantic States In the same parallel 
of latitude. This has been contested, but, until facts and 
the evidence of our senses are considered as inferior to the- 
ory, the position must be con:>idered as correct, .-^mong the 
most remarkable of the former, noticed by preceding and 
able writers, are the presence of the parakeet, thousands of 
which enlighten our woods winter and summer, the existence 
of many plants that cannot support the cold of the .Atlantic 
States in the same latitude, the short duration of ice and 
snow, and finally by the prevalence of the southwesterly 
winds. The remark applied by Dr. I'-ush to the climate of 
I'ennsylvania is equ.iUy true with respect to that of Ken- 
tucky (which is, in fact, the more disagreeable of the two), 
its most steady tr.iit being its irregularity, t-leat and cold 
succeed each other so rapidly and so often in the twenty-four 

hours, that it is impossible to vary your dress so as to be 
comfortable under their changes. 

A sketch of the weather during the last winter will convey 
as much information upon the subject as a volume. Karly 
in the f.ill the Indian summer, as it is called, .succeeded tt;e 
autumn, and lasted four weeks, with occasional da)s of ex- 
tremely cold weather; this was succeeded by a week of 
changes the most sudden and extraordinary I ever witnessed, 
the ponds in the town being frbzen and thawed alternately 
during the same day, which was closed by a night equally as 
variable. The cold now appeared as tliough it had com- 
menced ill good earnest; during the space of three weeks it 
was very intense, quantities of diifting ice were seen on the 
Ohio, the ponds were incrusted by it three inches deep, when 
the wind, which had hitherto blown from the northwest, sud- 
denly veering to the south and south-southwest, a warm rain 
fell, wliieli dissolved the icy fetters of winter and again re- 
stored the Indian summer. Such was the mildness of the 
weather till the latter end of January, that the buds of the 
peach-tree were swelled, and had not a few frosty nights 
supervened they would have blossomed. On the 7th day of 
February the weeping willows were in leaf. From which time 
to the ist of March the weather continued variable, but 
generally warm, at which period tiie cold of winter again as- 
sailed our ears and rendered welcome a blazing hearth. 

Spring is unknown, the transition from winter to summer 
being almost instantaneous, die former concluding with 
heavy rains that I have known to last for three weeks nearly 
without intermission, at the expiration of which time summer 
is at 

The quantity of rain that falls here is quite considerable, 
which, together with the number of stagnant waters that are 
in the vicinity, occasion a humidity universally complained 
of; books, polished steel instruments, paper, and in fact 
everything that is not in daily use, proclaim its prevalence. 

Thunder storms during the months of July and .August are 
very severe, attended with great discharges of the electric 
fluid, sometimes as violent as any ever witnessed under the 
tropics, the thunder being of that pealing, rattling kind 
which would startle even a Franklin. The winds at such 
periods are all in wild confu.sion, blowing in various directions 
at various elevations from the earth's surface, as indicated by 
the courses of the 'scuds," which I have remarked traveling 
to three difterent points of the compass at one and the same 
moment, with a degree of velocity far super'or to any I have 
ever noticed, with the exception of those of the hurricanes of 
the E,ist and West Indies. Awful is the scene presented in 
the forests at such periods. Naught is to be heard but the 
crackling of f.iUen timber, mixed with the roar of Heaven's 
artillery, and nothing to be seen but great branches wrenched 
and torn from the parent stem, which is the next moment 
leveled with the ground. Sometimes a single tree here or 
there in exposed situations is destroyed, then again whole 
acres are laid waste by its resistless fury. Happily for this 
country those of the first degree of violence are rare, while 
those of the second and third rates are not at all dangerous. 

The quantity of snow and ice is very inconsiderable, the 
cold seldom being sufficiently intense to close the river, and 
the latter not at any time since I have been a resident of 
the place exceeded two inches in depth at any one time. 
Sleighs are consequently strangers. 

I am well assured from very unexception.iMe authority that 
the climate of Kentucky has undergone a considerable 
change for the worse during the last twenty years. The sea- 
sons were formeriy more distinct, the weather milder and 
more uniform, and thunder-storms very uncommon. The 



only traces left of this happy state of things are now to be 
sten in the fall of thi' year, wliich is generally, though not 
always, remarkable fur pleasantness. Combustion is inKch 
more rapid here than in the .Atlantic States, a remark made 
by seveial others beside thyself. Whether this he owing to 
spongy and porous nature of the wood, arising from its rapid 
growth, or a greater tpiantity of oxygen esisting in the atmos- 
phere, I am at a loss to delerniine. ^ The fact, however, may 
be relied on. 


The Doctor'b rcnicirks upon the ngricultiiral 
capabilities of this region, as they existed in his 
day, also h.nve interest. He says: 

Perhaps no city in the Union is supported by a more fertile 
and productive soil than I^ouisville. The lands throughout 
the county generally are well timbered, the first-rate being 
covered with walnut, mulberry, locust, beech, sugar-tree, 
cherry, pawpaw, buckeye, elm, poplar, and graperies, the 
two latter of which attain a most enormous size. I have fre- 
quently met w ilh graperies in the BeargrasS settlement meas- 
uring thirty-si.\ inches in circumference, and as to the poplar 
it is proverbially gigantic. From si.\ to ten feet is the usual 
diameter of these trees, and of the sycamore, one individual 
of which is said to be still standing in the interior, into whose 
hollow- a gentlemen assured me he had stepped with a 
measured rod twenty feet long, which grasping by its middle, 
he could turn in every direction. If in addition to this we 
consider the thickness of sound wood on each side of the 
tree necessary to sustain its tremendous and superincumbent 
weight, we may have some idea of this great mon.irch of the 
Western forest. 

The second-rate lands produce dogwood, oak, hickory, and 
some sugar-trees; the third-rate nothing but blackjack oak 
and fir. Red cedar is found on the banks of the rivers and 
creeks, and white pine only in the mountains. 

The first-rate lands were too strong for wheat, 
but were excellently adapted to corn, and in 
favorable seasons would yield one hundred bush- 
els to the acre. When weakened by a few crops 
of corn, such ground would yield thirty bushels 
of wheat to the acre, or three hundred of pota- 
toes, thirty-five to forty of oats, six to eight hun- 
dred pounds of hemi), or fifteen hundred to 
two thousand pounds of tobacco. The second 
and third rates of land will give vields in propor- 
tion. The Doctor adds ; 

An attempt to cultivate cotton has been made, but although 
on a small scale under the superintendence of a few good 
housewives it ripens e.MremcIy well, yet on a large one it has 
always failed. 

The prices of lands at this time were $10 to 
$:;oo an acre, and in most cases the titles were 
doubtful. But, says the Doctor: 

There are, however, seventy thousand acres of military 
surveys m the Beargrass settlement, which hold out the pros- 
pect o( a golden fleece to the ngricnltnral emigrant, rot only 
l.-um the great fertility of the soil and the undisputed validity 
U' the title, but from the great price he can immediately ob- 
tain for every article he can raise, without any trouble or 


T!ie following extracts are made from the 
repoiioftlie Geological Survey made in 1854 
and subsi quent years by David Dale Oweti, first 
State Geologist, to whuin Professor Robert 
Peter, of Lexington, was Chemical Assistant, and 
Mr. Sidney S. Lyon, of Louisville, Topographical 


The knob formation, very similar in its compo- 
nent members to tliat described at Button 
Mould Knob, extends into the southern part of 
Jefferson county, forming the range of knobs on 
the waters of Pond and Mill creek, their sum- 
mits being capped with soft freestone,. while the 
ash-colored shales, with the intercalations of 
encrinital limestones, form their principal mass, 
resting on black Devonian shale. 

[The " Button Mould Knob," in Bullitt 
county, had been previously described as a cele- 
\ bratcd locality for encrinites, having three or 
more encrinital beds, interstiatified with the ash- 
j colored shale, which form a reniarkalile steep 
! glade on the southern side of tlie knob, the 
I glade commencing one hundred and twenty-five 
I feet below the summit of the knob. The foUow- 
I ing table is given of the composition of this emi- 
I nence, which helps the reader to an understand- 
ing of the knobs in Jefferbon county: 

; Feet. 

'■ 250. Summit of knob. 

! 235. Top of second bench of sandstone, in quarry. 
I 225. Top of ledge of first bench sandstone. 
I 200. Slope with sandstone. 
I 162. Lowest exposure of sandstone. 
no. Top of bare glade. 
10;. Ortliis niichellina bed. 
100. Orthus Miscelhna bed not abundant. 

.\sh-colored shale. 
97. Weathered-out caibonate of iron. 
95. Weathered-out cariionate of iron. ; 

Ash-colored shales. 
80. Br.inching cor.illincs. 
75. Weathered carbonate of iron. 
65. Encrinital limestone. 
60. Weathered carbonate of iron. 

Ash-colored shale. 
49. F-nctinital limestone. 

Ash-colorcd shale. 
35. Encrinital limestone. 

Ash-colored shale at base of bare glade. 
25. Black sheety Devonian shale extending to bed of 

Here, says the Report, we have nearly 100 
feet of ash-colored shales exposed, in a bare 
glade, with repeated alternations of thin bands 



of carbonate of iron, enrrinital, argillaceous, and 
shell limestones, forniint; a remarkable feature 
of the landscape in the northern part of liullitt 
county, adjoining Jeffeison county. 

The iron ore from this knob is described in 
the Chemical Report of the Survey as a fine- 
grained, compact carbonate of iron, interior gray, 
shading into rust-brown on the exterior, powder 
dull cinnamon color. An analysis exhibited 31.3 
per cent, of iion — "an ore sufficiently rich tor 
profitable snieltinc;, which could be worked with- 
out much additional lluxing materials."] 

Jefferson county affords the best exposures of 
the calcareous rocks, under the black slate be- 
longing to the Devonian period, yet seen. The 
projecting ledges on the bank of the Ohio river, 
that appear in connected succession between the 
head and foot of the Falls, afford, probably, the 
best sections of these rocks in the Western 
States. We observe there the following succes- 
sion and superposition : 

1. Black bituminous sl.ile or shale. 

2. Upper, shell, .inJ coraline hmestones above. 

3. Hydraulic Umcstone. 

4. Lower crinoidal, sliell, .-ir.d cor.ilinc Imieslones. 

5. Oliv.inites bed. 

6. Spirifcr Gregaria and shell coraline beds. 

7. Main beds of coral limestones. 

These beds rest upon a limestone containiug 
chain coral, which is seen just above the lowest 
stage of water, at the principal axis of the Falls, 
where the waters are most turbulent. Only a 
portion of the lower part of the black slate is 
seen immediately adjacent to the Falls. Its junc- 
tion with the upper crinoidal bed. No. 2, of the 
above section, can be well seen below the mouth 
of Silver creek, on the Indiana side, where there 
is a thin, hard, pyritiferous band between the 
black slate and limestone, containing a few en- 

Three subdivisions may be observed in the 
upper coralline bed, No. 2, of this Falls section : 

(A). White or yellowish white earthy frac- 
tured layers, containing, beside Crincidca, a 
Favosite, a large LepUcna and Airypa prisca, with 
a fringe. 

(B). Middle layers, containing also a few 

(C). Lower layers containing most Cystijihyl- 
lida;, and on Corn Island remains of fishes. 
This is what has been designated as the Upper 
Fish Bed. 

These crinoidal beds contain a vast multitude 
of th.e remains of different species of encrinites, 
mostly silicious, andmore so than the imbedding 
rock, so that they ofien pioject and appear like 
bl.Tck concretions. Remains of the Actinocrinus 
abiwrmii^ of S. S. Lyon's report, are the most 
abundant. There is also a Syringapora and 
short, truncated Cyathophyllium. 'J'he Cystiphyl- 
lum is long, slender, and vetmiculifoini, some- 
times extending to the length of fifteen inches 
or more; also a coralline, refetrible either to the 
germs Porilcs or Adrai. 

The hydraulic bed is an earthy magnesian 
limestone, in which the lime and silica are in the 
proportions of their chemical equivalents. It is 
variable both in its composition, thickness, and 
dip. In the upper part of the bed, where it con- 
tains many Spiri/er euralims and Atrypa prisca, 
it is more silicious than that quarried for cement. 
At the head of the Falls it is eight feet above 
low water, ^'i the foot of the Falls it is only four 
feet above low water; aud at the quarry on the 
Indiana shore eleven to thirteen feet. Here 
there are twelve feet exposed, but only a foot to 
eighteen inches of, it quarried for cement. At 
the Big Eddy it is twelve to thirteen feet above 
low water, and at the middle of the Falls as 
much as thirty five feet above low water. 

From the head to the foot of the Falls, the ' 
Ohio river falls nineteen to twenty-one feet, de- 
pending on the stage of the water, and the dis- 
tance on the general line of dip, west by south, 
one and one-half miles. Hence there is an an- 
ticlinal axis about the middle of the Falls, not 
uniform, but undulating, amounting on the whole 
to upwards of thirty feet in three-fourths of a 
mile west by south. In the distance of four 
hundred and fifty yards from the quarry on the 
Indiana shore, down stream, the strata decline 
fifteen to sixteen feet. It is at the anticlinal 
above mentioned, where the steamboats so fre- 
quently scrape the rocks in gliding over the most 
turbulent portion of the Falls. It is thickest at 
the foot of the Falls, where it is twenty-one feet; 
it thins rapidly out in a northeast direction. At 
a distance of two and one-half miles nearly east, 
where it is seen in the northwest end of the 
Guthrie quarries, it is eighteen inches, and in a 
distance of three hundred yards to the southeast 
from this, it divides into two beds and thins 
away to a few inches. Where it is divided an 



earthy limestone is interposed, not considered to 
possess hydraulic properties. It would scorn, 
therefore, that the |>rincipal .source of the- hy- 
draulic material was northwest of the main axis. 

The limestone which lies below the hydraulic 
limestone, composed, in a great measure, of com- 
minuted lemains of crinoidea, affords also Spiii- 
fer lultri^uzalus, a very large undescribed species 
of Lfptccna, which has been referred by some of 
our geologists to the I2u^lypha, also Alrypa 
prhca and remains of fishes. This limestone is 
obscure on the middle of the Falls; to the east 
it is better defined. On Fourteen-mile creek it 
is eleven feet thick ; near the mill, on the east 
side of the Ohio, it is only three feet to three 
feet eleven inches. At Big Eddy the place of 
this limestone is six feet above the top of the 
Lower Fish Bed, but it is very obscurely marked 
at this point. To the east, in Jefferson county, 
Indiana, it passes into a well-developed cherty 
mass of four or five feet in thickness, and is 
almost blended with the aforementioned cherty 
interpolations of the overlaying beds. 

Under the cultrigazalus bed succeeds the Oli- 
vanites bed, which is only si.x inches thick, near 
the mill on the south side of tbe Ohio, but attains 
a thickness of six or seven feet on Fourteen-mile 
creek, and runs down to a few inches at some 
places in the Falls. 

The next layer which is recognizable is a 
cherty band charged with Spirifer gngaria of Dr. 
Clapp, and many small hemispherical masses of 
Farosites spongites, as at the foot of Little Island 
— one foot thick. Then comes a la^er contain- 
ing conocarJium sub-trigonati of D'Orbigny, layer 
hemispherical masses of Stromatopora and a 
C(iropore{l) three to five feet. 

Next come the Lower Fish Beds, 19 feet in 
thickness, consisting of limestone containing a 
■ layer and beautiful species of undescribed Turbi\ 
a large Murchisonia, a Cortocardium, Spirifor 
i^regaria, some small Cyathophyllidcz, and a 
I^plitna. The Coiiocardiuin layer is light gray 
and more granular than the upper part, and es- 
teemed the best bed for lime on the Falls. The 
I^pt^im lie mostly about two feet above the Coiw- 

Next come chert layers, underlaid by coral 
••'>ers, containing Favosita maxima of Troost 
and /•jrvsiles basaltica, Goldfuss, which repose 
<jn a \cr-,- hard laver. 

The most of the remains of the fishes are 
found about three feet above the Turbo bed, but 
are more or less disseminated through the differ- 
ent layers, which have been designated as the 
Lower Fish Beds, and may therefore be sub- 
divided thus: 

1. Shell beds. 

A. Conocardium bed, 7 inches. 

B. Lcplccn.T bed (also wilh some conccardiuin) 6 feet. 

2. Paiting chert layers, 3 feet. 

3. Coral layers, 7 feet. 

4. Very hard rock, 2 feet. 

The princi[)al mass of corals on the Falls of 
the Ohio, which miist probably be grouped in the 
Devonian system, underlie these shell and fish 
beds just mentioned and repose upon a bed 
which can just be seen above the water level, at 
the principal axis, at extreme low water, which 
contains the chain coral and which appeals to be 
the highest position of this fossil. 

Amongst the main coralline bed of the De- 
vonian period of the Falls may be recognized — 

1. Dark-gray bed, containing large masses of 
Favositcs maxima of Troost, Zaphrentis gigantea, 
and immense masses oi Favosites basaltica,io\\\t- 
times as white as milk, Faiosiles allied to poiy- 
tiwrpha, but probably a distinct species, general- 
ly silicified and standing out prominently I'rom 
the rock. 

2. Black coralline layers, being almost a com- ' 
plete list of fossilized coials, amongst which a 
Cystiphyllum, Farosites cronigera of D'Orbigny, 
and Zdpiirentis giganha, are the most abundant. 
These black layers contain also large masses of 
Syringapoi-a, a large Tuibo, different from the 
species in the shell beds, also the large Cyatho- 
phylliform Farosite, allied to polymorpha, with 
star-shaped cells opening laterally on the surface 
of the cylinder, in pores visible to the naked eye, 
some Cystiphyllum carved into a semi-circle, large 
Astn-a pintagonusi of Goldfuss, silicified, pro- 
minent, rugged, and black: this is the so-called 
"buffalo dung.'' 

The termination of these coralline beds of the 
the Devonian system probably marks the place 
of the conocardium calcareous grit of the falls of 
Fall Creek, Madison county, Indiana, and which 
is undoubtedly the equivalent of the Schoharie 
shell grit near Cherry Valley, in New York, 
which underlies the Onondaga limestone of the 
New York system. No vestige of this calcareous 
grit has yet been found on the Falls, but 



there is reason to believe that it moy lie found in 
Jefferson county, about six miles above the Falls 
to the northeast, on the farm of the late Dr. John 
Croghan, on the head of the Muddy Pork of 
Beargr.iss; and if so, though the i:)cvonian and 
Silurian are apparently, at (iist view, so blended 
together on the Falls of the Ohio, the horizon 
between the black rornlline beds above and the 
chain coralline bed below, marks most satisfac- 
torily the line of division between these two sys- 
tems of rocks m Kentucky. 

■ Time has not yet permitted a thorough inves- 
tigation into the specitV- charocier of the numer- 
ous beautiful fossil shells, corals and fibh remaiirs 
which occur at this highly interesting locality. 
Hereafter it is proposed, if occasion offers, to uive 
more full and specific details of tliese rocks and 
their imbedded organic remains. 
• As yet we have no good detailed sections of 
the Upper Silurian beds of Jefferson county, 
lying between the ui)i)er chain coral bed and the 
magnesian building-stone. In the eastern [lart 
of Jefferson count), on Harrod's creek, a good 
section was obtained, showing the jiniction of the 
upper and lower beds with some of superior and 
inferior stratification. 

The following is the section presented in the 
cut of Harrod's creek : 


240. Sneider House. 

235. liincsionc. below house. 

220. Red chert, with Spirifx-r grtgaria. 

Poritej ,ind other fossih. 
180. Top of third bench of rnaynesian limestone. 

Slope, with rocks concc.ilod. 
163. B.ise of third bench or ••fiVet of m.n^'nesi.m limestone. 
160. Top of second bench of magnesian limestone. 
154. Base of second Ix-nch of ni.ngnTsi.nn limestone. 

Slope. «ith rocks concealctl. 
115. Base of overhan^-in'; ledges of cellular magnesian lime- 
no. Thin gray and reddish layers weathering and under- 
. mining the overhani;i:';j ni.ii; limestone, per- 
haps hydraulic in its properties. 
107. Base of upper bench under the f.dl. 

Earthy rock «ith some majjnesia. perhaps with hy- 
draulic properties. j 
loo. Earthy rock with less mai;nesia ? 
95. Earthy reddish and green !.i>rrs. »eaihering with round- 
ed surfaces like hyilMiihc hmestones. 
91. Hard grey sihcious limestone. pr..i.-ciins from thetiank. 
90. Soft argill.aceous layer, decomiioung uncltr overhanging 
upper feet most 


letlge .ibove 


85. Hard layer on top of a iiitle f.iM in b.d of cp . k. 
84. Ash-colored, easily decoi!-.|)fsin_L; l.uers, Kjucst laver 

with nearly verlica! fra.ture at riyht angi.js to Ihe 


S-"). Top of ash-colored, earthy hydrauhc lavcrs. 
80. Top of lowest layer, with vertical cross fracture. 

Junction of Upper and Lower Silurian formations. 
79. Limestone, with Ortlih Lynx. 

78. Brown layer of limestone, with branching Ch.x-tetes. 
76. leaver with Cyathopliylum? 
67. More marly. 
65. Hard, thin layers of Lcpt.-cna limestone, with branching 

59. Hard, thin layers of limestone, containing l.tplttna al- 

timala and Atrypa capax. 
53. Hard layer, with irregular surface, four inches thick. 
5:?. ILird layer, six inches thick. 
50. Concretionary marly layer, containing Lcpt.-ena//j«ttm- 

41. Irregular, light-colored layers, with remains of Isote- 
liis, Orthii, etc., five inches thick. 
Dark, marly regular Luer, containing branching Chatctes- 
nine inches thick. 
40. .Ash colored, irregular layeis, containing small, branch 

ing Ciuclc/it. 
25. Fossiiiferous slabs, with Orlhis Lynx and Orthis 

22. Concretionary and marly, ash-colored layeis, with 

Orlhis Lynx, 
o. Slalis, \\\ih .-itrypj c.ipjx and Modest j, at the junc- 
tion of Harrod's cr.rek with its Sneider branch. 

The gregaria chertbed lies on the Falls of the 
Ohio, about thirty feet above the base of the 
rocks of Devonian date. In tliis Harrod's creek 
section they were observed at two hundred and 
twenty feet, where the junction of the Upper 
Siluiian and Lower Silurian occurs at eighty 
feet; hence, if the rocks of Devonian date have 
the same thickness in the eastern part of leffer- 
son county as in its northern confines, the Up- 
per Silurian rocks have a thickness on Harrod's 
creek of one hundred and ten feet. It is prob- 
able, therefore, that the upper chain-coral bed, 
which marks the top of the Upper Silurian 
strata, is concealed ten feet up the slope, above 
the upper bench of protruding magnesian lime- 
stone in the above section. 

Near the boundary between Jefferson and 
Oldham counties, the cellular beds of the mag- 
nesian limestones of the Upper Silurian period 
from the surface stratum, which is reached in 
sinking wells, and found, on account of its spongy 
character, very ditncult to blast. 


A large number of analyses of soils and rocks, 
from different parts of the county, were made by 
rhe chemist in the employ of the State; and we 
copy several of them, for whatever value they 
may have at this day: 

Hydraulic limestone (unburnt), from the Falls 
of the Oliio at Louisville: 



A Ercenish-grey, dull, fine, granular linie'.lone; adheres 
sliglitly to the tongue; powder lii^'ht-giey. 

Composition, dried A.i 212° Fahrenheit. 

Orbqnate of lime 50.43-2S.29 lime. 

Carbonate of magnesia 18.67- 8.89 magnesia. 

Alumina and o.\ides of iron 

and magnesia. 
Phosphorie acid. 
Sulphuric acid. .. 





Silica and insoluble silicates. 

r Silica, 22.58 

Alumina color- 
8 r ed witho.\ide 
I of iron 2.83 

j Lime, migne- 

100.00 C sia, and loss, .32 

The air-dried rock lost 70 per cent, of moisture 
at 212° Fahrenheit. 

The analysis of this well-known water-lime will 
serve for comparison with that of other lime- 
stones supposed to possess hydraulic qualities. 

Soil labeled "Virgin soil, from O'Bannon's 
farm, O'Bannon's Station, overlying cellular 
magnesian limestone of the Upper Silurian forma- 
tion, twelve miles from Louisville." 

Dried soil of a grey-brown color; some small 
rounded particles of iron ore in it. As this and 
the following soils were received just before this 
report was made up, there was not time for di- 
gestion in water containing carbonic acid, to 
ascertain the relative amount of matters soluble 
in that menstruum. They were therefore sub- 
mitted to ordinary analysis, dried at 370' Fahren- 

The composition of this soil is as follows: 

Organic and volatile matters 7-996 

Alumina, and oxides of iron and magnesia 7.480 

Carbonate of lime 


Phosphoric acid 

Sulphuric acid 

Potash, ; 


Sand and insoluble silicates 



The air-dried soil 4.42 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 370°. 

Soil, labeled "Soil from an old field, over cel- 
lul.\r magnesian limestone of the Upper Silurian 
formation, which lies from si.\ to twelve feet be- 
nt-.ith the surface. Has been from twenty-five to 
thirty years in cultivation; E. B. OBannons 

Color of dried soil light greyish-brown, lighter 
than the preceding. 

Cotnposition, dried at 400' Fahrenheit: 

Organic and volatile mailers 4.506 

.Alumina, and o.\ides of iron and manganese 6.240 

Carbonate of lime 316 

Magnesia 200 

Phosphoric acid 191 

Sulphuric acid 067 

Potasli 158 

Soda 070 

Sand and insoluble silicates 88. -318 


The air-dried soil lost 2.8 per cent, of moisture, 
at 300° Fahrenheit. 

By comparison of the two preceding analyses 
it will be seen that the soil, which has been in 
cultivation from twenty-five to thirty years, has 
lost of its original value: First, it has lost or- 
ganic and volatile matters, which is evinced also 
in its lighter color and in the smaller quantity of 
moisture which it is capable of holding at the or- 
dinary temperature, but which was driven off at 
the heat of 400'. These organic matters absorb 
and retain inoisture with great power. Besides 
the nourishment which o'ganic matters in the 
soil give directly to vegetables, by their gradual 
decomposition and change, these substances also 
greatly increase the solubility of the earthy and 
saline ingredients in the soil, which are necessary 
to vegetable growth. Second, it has lost some 
of every mineral ingredient of the soil which en- 
ters into the vegetable composition; as lime, 
magnesia, o.xide of iron, phosphoric acid, sul- 
phur, and the alkalies. The only apparent ex- 
ception to this is in the greate/ proportion of 
soda in the old soil than in the virgin soil. This 
increase may have been occasioned by the ordi- 
nary free use of salt on the farm, and its transfer 
to the cultivated field by the animals feeding 
on it. ' 

It will be seen, in the third place, that the pro- 
portion of alumina and oxide of iron to the sand 
and silicates is smaller in the soil of the old field 
than in the virgin soil, cultivation having, per- 
haps, favored the washing down into the sub-soil 
those ingredients which are the most readily trans- 
ported by water. To renovate this field to its 
original state would require the a[)plication of 
ordinary barn-yard manure, which contains all 
the ingredients which have been removed from 
it except the alumina and oxides of iron and 



manganese. To su[ip!y those, if it be deemed 
desirable, the red subsoil found on the washed 
slopes of the old field, presently, to be described, 
would answer very well, applied as a top-dressin^;; 
but the immediate subsoil, ne.xt to be described, 
does not by its analysis promise to be of any 
service in this or in any other resjject. 

^^■ould this be a good soil for the cultivation 
of the grape? If it has sufficient drainage to 
prevent the habitual lodgment of water in the 
sub-soil, there is nothing in the composition of 
the soil to forbid its use for this purpose. The soil 
which will produce good Indian corn will gener- 
ally produce the grape. The vine requires for its 
growth and the production of its fruit precisely 
the same mineral ingredients which are necessary 
to every other crop which may be produced on 
the soil, differing in this respect from them only 
in the proportion of these several ingredients. 
The juice of the grape contains a considerable 
proportion of potash, much of which is depos- 
ited in the wine-cask, after fermentation, in the 
form of tartar (acid tartrate of potash), and which 
must be supplied to the growing vine from the 
soil to enable it to produce the grape. It has 
hence been generally believed that vineyard cul- 
ture tends speedily to exhaust the soil of its al- 
kalies, unless they are habitually re-applied in 
manures. Ihis is true in regard to every green 
crop which is carried off the ground; as hay, 
turnips, potatoes, and especially tobacco and the 
fruits of the orchard; whilst the Indian corn and 
other grains carry off less of the alkalies, they 
also require and remove them in considerable 

To return to the two comparative soil analyses. 
The difference between the proportions of the 
valuable ingredients of the two above stated may 
seem quite unimportant on a superficial examina- 
tion; but when we apply these differences to the 
more than three million pounds of silver which 
are contained in an acre of ground, calculated 
only to the depth of one foot, we may see their 
significance. Thus the potash in the original 
soil is in proportion of 0.200 per cent., and in 
the soil of the old field in that of 0.158. This 
proportion gives 6,000 pounds of potash to the 
acre of earth one foot deep in the new soil, and 
4,740 pounds only into the old, showing that if 
the old soil was originally like the neighboring 
virgin soil, it has lost, among other ingredients, 

as much as 1,360 i)ounds of potash from the 
acre, within one foot of the surface only. To re- 
store to it this amount of alkali alone would re- 
quire the application of a large amount of ordin- 
ary manure. 

Sub-soil, labeled " Subsoil, seven to twelve 
inches under the surface, old field twenty-five to 
thirty years in cultivation, over cellular niagntsian 
limestone of the Lower Silurian Formation, E. B. 
O'Bannon's farm, Jefferson county." 

Color of the dried soil, light greyish brown. 

Composition, dried at 400° Fahrenheit. 

Organic and volatile matters. 2. 844 

Alumina, and o.\idc5 of iron 

Carbonate of lime 


Phosphoric acid 

Sulphuric acid 



Sand and insoluble silicates. 

and manganese 6, 

The air-dried sub-soil lest 2.98 per cent, of 
moisture at 400^ Fahrenheit. 

By the e.xamination of this upper sub-soil it 
does not appear that any of the valuable ingre- 
dients of the surface-soil have lodged in it. It 
contains, it is true, more potash, and has less 
organic matter, but in other respects does not 
materially difTer from the upper soil. A greater 
difference may be seen in the deeper sub-soil, the 
analysis of which will next be given. 

Sub-soil, labeled "Red sub-soil, on the washed 
slopes of an old field, found almost universally a 
few feet under the surface, E. B. O'Bannon's 
farm, Jefferson county." 

Color ol the dried soil, light brick-red; it con- 
tains some small nodules of iron ore. Compo- 
sition, dried at 400° Fahrenheit; 

Organic and volatile matters 3, 

.-Mumina and oxides of iron and manganese 17. 

Carbonate of lime 


Phosphoric acid 




Sand and insoluble silicates 77 




The air-dried sub-soil lost 3.60 per cent 
moisture at 400' Fahrenheit. 

Soil labeled "Soil from a poor point of an old 



field, where gravel iron ore prevails, E. B. 
O'Bannon's farm, Jefferson county." 

Color of the dried soil rather lighter than that 
■ of the preceding; soft pebbles of ironore, very 
dark in appearance when broken. Composition, 
dried at 380' Fahrenheit: 

Organic and volatile matters 4 

Alumina and oxides of iron and manganese. 

Carbonate of lime 


I'liosphorie acid 

Sulphuric acid 



Sand and insoluble silicates 


The air-dried soil lost 3.94 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 380° F. 

The cause of the unproductiveness of this soil 
lies more in the state of aggregation then the 
composition, as shown by the chemical analysis. 
The valuable ingredients necessary to vegetable 
growth are contained in it in at least as large pro- 
portions as in the earth from the other portions 
of the field; but in this there is doubtless a 
larger quantity of them locked up in the pebbles 
of so-called iron ore, which the fibres of the veg- 
etable roots cannot penetrate. If, by any means, 
these were to be disintegrated or pulverized, the 
soil would doubtless be rendered more fertile. 
Doubtless, if these several soils had been di- 
gested in the carbonated water, this one would 
have given up much less of soluble extract to 
that menstruum than the others. The iron 
gravel diffused through this soil has also been 
submitted to analysis. 

Ferruginous gravel, labeled "Gravel of iron 
ore disseminated in the sub-soil over cellular 
niagnesian limestone, E. B. O'Bannon's farm, 
Jefferson county." 

Irregular tuberculated lumps, from the size of 
a large hickory nut down to that of a mustard 
seed, easily broken, fracture showing a general 
dark appearance like that of peroxide of manga- 
nese; some of the lumps presented some included 
lighter earthy matter like clay; powder of a 
snuff-brown color. It dissolved in hydro-chloric 
acid with the escape of chlorine. It contained 
'■" ]iroto\ide of iron, but much oxide of manga- 

Composition, dried at 212' Fahrenheit: 

0.xide of iron and alumina 33 90 

Brown o.xide of manganese 4.28 

Carbonate of lime 58 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.22 

.Alkalies and acids not estimated. 

Silc.t and insoluble silicates , 58. 18 

Combined water 8.20 

Loss 1.64 

• 100.00 

Dried at 212°, it lost 2. So per cent of moisture. 

Limestone, labeled "Cellular (magnesian?) 
Limestone, found about six to ten feet under 
the surface of the ground, wliere the preceding 
soils were collected, O'Bannon's farm, Jefferson 

A light grey, friable cellular rock, layers and 
cavities covered with minute crystals. Composi- 
tion dried at 212° Fahrenheit : 

Carbonate of lime (28.49 lime) 50.76 

Carbonate of magnesia AB-*^ 

.■\lumina, oxides of iron and manganese, and phos- 
phates 1.7S 

Sulphuric acid 04 

Potash 21 

Soda 35 

Silex and insoluble silicates 2-48 


The air-dried rock lost 0.20 per cent of moist- 
ure at 212°. 

Soil, labeled "Virgin soil, over compact mag- 
nesian building-stone of the Upper Silurian for- 
mation, White Oak Ridge, at Pleasant Grove 
Meeting-house, William Galey's farm, Jefferson 
county. (This soil is considered not more than 
one-half as productive as that over the cellular 
magnesian limestone)." 

Dried soil of a dirty grey-bufi' color. Compo- 
sition, dried at 400' Fahrenheit: 

Organic and volatile matters. 3 7^' 

.Alumina, and oxides of iron and mangauese 6.952 

Carbonate of lime '5^ 

Magnesia 240 

Phosphoric acid 088 

Sulphuric acid 3'° 

Potash 177 

Soda 801 

Silex and insoluble silicates 38-=94 


The air-dried soil lost 3.22 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 400 . Contains less organic matters, 
phosphoric acid, and alkalies, and a large propor- 
tion of sand and silicates, than the soil over the 
cellular magnesian hmestone. 

Limestone, labeled "Magnesian Building 



Stone, found under the precedinf; soil, Upper 
Silurian formation, same locality as the last, 
Jefferson county." 

. A fine-grained, light-grey limestone ; weathered 
surface, having a buff discoloration, with perox- 
ide of iron ; under the lens appears to be made 
up of a mass of pure crystalline grains. 
Composition, dried at 212° Fahrenheit: 

Carbonate of lime (31.62 of lime) 56.36 

Carbonate of magnesia 37-07 

Alumina, oxides of iron and magnesia, and phosphates 1.28 
Sulphuric acid, a trace. 

Potash 33 

Soda 1^^ 

Silex and insoluble silicates :;.63 


The air-dried rock lost o. lo per cent, of mois- 
ture at 212°. 

This is probably a very durable stone; and, in 
consequence of its very slow disintegration, can 
communicate very little soluble material to the 
soil above it. It resembles a good de.^1 in com- 
position the magnesian building-stone from 
Grimes's Quarry, in Fayette county, which is re- 
markable for its great durability amongst the 
rocks of that region. 

Soil, labeled "Soil, ten miles from Louisville, 
on the Salt river road, thirty or forty years in 
cultivation; primitive growth, beech, and some 
poplar and gum. Jefferson county, Kentucky." 

Color of the dried soil, dark yellowish-grey. 
A few small rounded ferruginous pebbles were 
removed from it by the coarse sieve. Washed 
with water, it left 76.33 per cent, of sand, etc., 
of which all but 4.37 per cent, was fine enough 
to go through the finest bolting-cloth. This 
coarser portion is composed of rounded grains 
of hyaline and yellow quartz, with ferruginous 
particles. One thousand grains of the air-dried 
soil, digested for a month in water containing 
carbonic acid, gave up nearly two grains of light- 
brown extract, which had the following compo 


Organic and vol.itiie matters 0.370 

Alumina, o.xides of iron and manganese, and phos- 
phates ti4 

Carlxjnate of lime 83o 

Magnesia 052 

Sulphuric acid 08 1 

Potash 044 

Soda 08 1 

Silica 2CO 


The air-dried soil lost 3.1 per cent, of mois- 
ture at 400' F., dried at which temperature it has 
the following composition: 

Organic and volatile matters 4231 

.Mumina 3-5So 

0.\ide of iron 4-421 

Carbonate of lime .230 

Magnesia .' 359 

Brown oxide of manganese • .445 

Phosphoric acid 262 

."Sulphuric acid 0S4 

Potasli 045 


.Sand and insoluble silicates 86.006 

Loss no 

Sub-soil, labeled " Sub.^oil, ten miles from 
Louisville, on the Salt river road, field thirty to 
forty years in cultivation. Jefferson county, Ken- 

Color of the dried sub-soil a little lighter than 
that of the soil above it. The coarse sieve re- 
moved from it some rounded particles of ferrugin- 
ous mineral and a few milky quartz grains about 
the size of mustard-seed. Washed with water, 
this sub-soil left 70.7 per cent, of sand, etc., of 
which all bui 14.47 P^^ cent, passed through the 
finest bolting-cloth. This coarser portion con- 
sisted principally of clear grains of quartz, more 
or less rounded, with some rounded ferruginous 
particles. One thousand grains of the air-dried 
soil, digested for a month in water containing 
carbonic acid, gave up more than five grains of 
brown e.xtract, dried at 212°, which had the fol- 
lowing composition : 


Organic and VLtlatile matters 2.100 

Alumina, oxides of iron and manganese, and phos- 
phate 863 

Carbonate of lime - i.7'3 

Magnesia 133 

.Sulphuric acid 125 

Potash 048 

Soda 012 

Silica 200 

5. 191 

The air-dried soil lost 3.175 percent, of moist- 
ure at 400° F., dried at which temperature it has 
the following composition: 

Organic and volatile matters 4-983 

Alumina 3-245 

Oxide of iron 4-13° 

Carbonate of lime ^95 

Magnesia 3.35 

Brown oxide of manganese 37° 

Phosphoric acid. 295 


Sulphuric aciri 085 

I'oi.isli 213 

Soila 051 

S.iiid .ind insoluble silicates : 85.805 

I.oss ■ 20^ 

This would be good soil, if it were drained. 
The sub-soil is rather richer than the surface soil. 



"Virginia" — The County of Fnicastle — "Louisiana' — 
"Ohio"— The Indian Claims Relinquished — "Louisa," 
" Cantuckey," " Transylvania" — The County of Kentucky 
— Colonel John Floyd — Jefferson County — Its .Ancient 
Limits — Fayette and Lincoln Counties — Counties Carved 
from Jefferson — The First Officers of Jefferson County. — 
Some other Historic Matters. 


The territory to the south of the Ohio, at least 
within the latitudes of Virginia, was held by the 
English Government, under the discoveries by 
Sir Walter Raleii^h, in the valley of the James 
river. That part of it now lying within the 
boundaries of the State of Kentucky was in- 
cluded in the grants bestowed by the royal patent 
upon Sir Walter in 1584, and in the charter 
granted to the Colony of \'irginia. In this was 
presently formed 


This was an immense tract, large as several of 
the present States of the Union, and stretching 
virtually from the further borders o{ the county 
now existing under the name in Virginia to the 
Mississippi. It included the whole of the Ken- 
tucky country. 


By right of discovery, however, the French 
had long before claimed the entire valleys of the 
Mississippi and the Ohio, with the whole of 
Texas and the region of the great lakes. So I 
lately as 1782, when the preliminaries of peace 1 
between Great Britain and her revolted .\mer- 
iran colonies were being discussed at Paris, both ' 
'ranee and Spain made protests against the Illi- 
"■■'is country, contiucred by George Rogers Clark i 
"1 '7/8, being considered as British territory, to , 
be ceded to the United States as a part of its ! 

conquest; and it was only by virtue of Clark's 
conquest that the ( laim of the new Republic was 
finally allowed. 

Upon one ot the old maps the whole of this 
vast region is designated as "Canada, or New 
France," with "La Louisiane" as an integral 
part. But others, including the great map of 
Franquelin, who was ofificial hydrographer to the 
king, represent the domain in two separate di- 
visions, New France and Louisiana. The bound- 
ary between them was drawn by Franquelin from 
the Penobscot river to the south end of Lake 
Champlain, thence to the Mohawk, crossing it a 
little above the site of Schenectady, thence by the 
sources of the Stii^quehanna and the Alleghany, 
the south shore of Lake Erie, across Southern 
Michigan to the head of Lake Michigan, and 
northwestward to the headwaters of the Missis- 
sippi. All south of that line was "La Louisi- 
ane." The tract occupied by Louisville and 
Jefferson county, then, was originally a part of 
the far-reaching h'leiich province of Louisiana. 

The result of the French and Indian war of 
1755-62 was to transfer to the crown of Great 
Biitain all the possessions and territorial claims 
of France east of the Mississippi, except some 
fishing stations. The Kentucky region, there- 
fore, passed into the undisputed possession of 
the British Crown. 


Upon the second map of Lewis Evans, pub- 
lished in Philadelphia in 1764, the Kentucky 
country is shown for the first time in cartography, 
and is designated, as well as the great tracts to 
the north of the Beautiful river, as "Ohio." 
There was no reason, however, in the govern- 
mental arrangements of that time, tor such desig- 
nation. Ohio was not yet known as the title of 
any political division. Mr. F>.-ans simply fell 
into one of the blunders which abounded among 
the geographers of the period. 


November 5, 176S, by the treaty of Fort Stan- 
wix, the all-conquering Six Nations, and the 
Delavvares, Shawnees, and Mingoes of Ohio, 
granted unto the Crown of Great Britain all their 
territory south of the Ohio and west of the 
Cherokee or Tennessee river, back of the En- 
glish settlements, for the sum of j(^io,46o, or 
about $50,000. 



The Five Nations, or Iroquois, had prt.-viously, 
in 1846, in a treaty at Albany between their 
chiefs and Lord Howard, Governor of the Colony 
of Virginia, associated with Colonel Diingan, 
Governor of the Colony of New ^'ork, [jlaced 
themselves under tlie protection of the British 
Governnicnt and made a deed of sale to it of 
the vast tract south and east of the Illinois river, 
and extending across Lake Huron into Canada. 
The present land of Kentucky was included in 
this immense cession. 


In the autumn of 1774 nine North Carolin- 
ians, of whom the leader was Colonel Richard 
Henderson, made overtures for a treaty with a 
branch of the Cherokee Indians, whirli was com- 
pleted March 17, 1775. By this the Indians 
assumed to cede, for the consideration of p/Jio,- 
000, no less than seventeen millions of acres, 
extending from the Cumberland to the Kentucky 
livers, and bounded on the south by a lixie drawn 
from the headwaters of the most southerly branch 
of the Cumberland to the summit of Powell's 
mountain, and thence to the most northerly 
branch of the Kentucky. Colonel Henderson 
in his journal designates this tract as "Louisa" 
and "Cantuckey" — the first name being derived 
from what was understood to be the F.nglish 
name of the Cuttawa, Chen'ica, or Kentucke 
river. Upon it, however, when Daniel Boone 
and his companions had made the famous 
"trace" into the promised land, from the Long 
Island in the Holston river to the present site 
of Poonesborough — the com|i:iny was to attemjit 
to found the colony of rrans\lvanix In .April 
they laid off the vill.ige at "Foit Boone," and 
soon after appointed the 23d of May for 
a meeting of delegates. Six members of the 
"House of Delegates or Representatives of 
the Colony of Transylvania" attended on that 
day "under the divine elm, " to represent the 
town of Kooncsborough, three for Harrods- 
burg, and four each fur the Boihng Spring 
Settlement and the town of .-^t. As.iph. A min- 
iature legislature was or^atii.'ed — "the first 
Anglo-.\merican government on the west side of 
the .Mleghany range of mountains." The colony 
seems already to luive been fi rmcd and named 
merely by the will "f tlie pri.|irit!ors. Bills were 
duly introduced, read twice, and passed, ad- 
dresses voted to the c(jnipany, at-.d a compact 

between them and the people entered into, 'i'he 
proprietors, as a self-ap[)ointed governing coun- 
cil, passed finally upon all measures, and signed 
or disapproved them. The "House of Dele- 
gates" was in session five days, and then ad- 
journed to meet at Boonesborough in Septem- 
ber. It never re-assembled, but a petition "to- 
the Honorable the Convention of Virginia," was 
sent, probably in December, 1775, from "the in- 
habitants, and some of the intended settlers of 
that part of North America now denominated 
Transylvania," praying for relief against the exac- 
tions of the proprietors. 

In September a meeting of the company had 
been held, at which James Hogg was appointed 
to represent the "colony" in the Continental 
Congress, and present a inemorial asking the ad- 
mission of Transylvania into the Union of Col- 
onies. It is needless to say that neither he nor 
it was admitted. A large number of persons 
were persuaded or hired by the company to go 
into the new country ; but its sort of proprietary 
government proved unpopular, and its title was 
presently altogether invalidated by the Virginia 
Legislature, under a wise and ancient colonial 
policy which Ibrbade transfers of territory by the 
Indians to private persons, as contrary to the 
chartered rights of the colonies. In November, 
1778, that body passed the following: 

Resolved, That all purchases of land, n:ade or to be 
made, ol the Indians wiihin the chartered bounds of this 
Commonwealth, as described by the constitution or form of 
government, by any private persons not authorized by public 
authority, are void. 

Resolved, That the purchases heretofore made by Richard 
Htnderson & Company, of that tract of land called Tran- 
sylvania within this Commonwealth, of the Cherokee Indians, 
is void. .... 

Thus passed away the transient glory of Tran- 
sylvania. .Ample compensation was made to the 
company, however, by the grant of two hundred 
thousand acres of land, in a tract twelve miles 
square on the Ohio, below the mouth of Ken- 
tucky river. The musical name was preserved for 
nearly seventy years, in the designation of Tran- 
sylvania university, at Lexington. 


For a few years the great county of Fincastle 
exercised nominal jurisdiction over the bears and 
wolves, the panthers and buffaloes, the roaming 
Indians, and the handful of whites already on the 
Dark and Bloody Ground. The few civilized 



immigrants that first made their way into the I 
deep wilderness found, however, no protection \ 
or aid in the far-away colonial or county govern- 
•ment, and were altogether a law unto them- 

The first subdivision or county organization 
really known to the great wilderness tract since 
covered by the State of Kentucky was the 
"County of Kentucky," formed from the western 
part of Fmcastle county, by the Virginia Legis- 
lature, on the 31st of December, 1776, soon 
after the independence of the colonies was de- 
clared. George Rogers Clark, then a young ma- 
jor in the Virginia militia, must be regarded as 
the father of the new county. The story of his 
journeyings on foot through the wilderness, his 
securing ammunition for the defense of the in- 
fant settlements, and his procurement, as a dele- 
gate to the Virginia House of Burgesses, of the 
erection of the county of Kentucky, has been 
told in part in our General Introduction, in the 
biographical sketch of General Clark, and need 
not be repeated here. The young major had 
procured the act for the erection of the county, 
while he was on the expedition after the powder 
and lead for the Kentucky settlers. 

This gigantic county comprehended, in the 
definitions of the creative act, "all that part 
thereof [of Fincastle county] which lies to the 
south and westward of a line begin nmg on the 
Ohio river, at the mouth of Great Sandy creek, 
and running up the same and the main or north- 
easterly branch thereof to the Great Lawrel 
ridge or Cumberland mountain, thence south- 
westerly along the said mountain to the line of 
North Carolina." It includes substantially what 
now belongs to the State of Kentucky. 

The chief official of such subdivision in those 
days was a "County Lieutenant," or Governor. 
•In 1778 Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of 
Virginia, appointed as such officer Colonel John 
Bowman, who had been made a colonel of mili- 
tia in the county, by commission of Governor 
Patrick Henry, soon after it was formed. The 
county was also entitled to a court of its own, a 
sheriff, and other customary officers. The first 
court of general quarter sessions of the peace 
for the county sat at Harrodsburg in the spring 
^^ '7 77. composed of Justices John Bowman, 

•There were already, in 1773. it is said, si.xty-nine voters 
upon the present tract of Kentucky. 

John Todd, John Floyd, Benjamin Logan, and 
Richard Callaway, with Levi Todd as clerk. 
April 18, of this year, Colonels Richard Callo- 
way and John Todd were chosen burgesses to 
represent Kentucky county in the General 
Assembly of the Old I)on)inion. General Green 
Clay, Colonel John Miller, 'Squire Boone (brother 
of Daniel Boone), and Colonel William Irvine, 
were afterwards members of the same body from 
Kentucky. Substantially the same tract, but 
now divided into three counties, was subse- 
quently, June I, 1792, admitted into the Union 
:is a sovereign State. 


One of the most notable men of the early 
day was Colonel Floyd, one of the first justices 
of the court of quarter sessions, whose name is 
prominent in the annals of Jefferson county, and 
from whom Floyd county, on the Indiana side 
of the Falls, takes its name. The Flon. James 
T. Morehead, in his Address in Commemora- 
tion of the First Settlement of Kentucky, at 
Booncsborough .NLiy 25, 1S40, pays this tribute 
to Colonel F'loyd: 

Towards the close of the 1773 John Floyd came to 
Kentucky, like Bullitt and Taylor, on a surveying excursion. 
,\ deputy of Colonel William Preston, principal surveyor of 
Kmcastle county, of which the region in Virginia west of the 
mountains was then a part, he made many surveys on the 
Ohio, and belonged to the party that was recalled by Lord 
Dunmore, in consequence of the dan^-ers attending the per- 
formance of their official duties. Colonel Floyd returned in 
1775, and became a conspicuous actor in the stirring scenes 
of the drama. Alternately a surveyor, a legislator, and a 
soldier, his distinguished qualities rendered him at once an 
ornament and a benefactor of the infant settlements. No 
indi\idual among the pioneers was more intellectual or better 
informed; none displayed, on all occasions that called for it, 
a bolder and more undaunted courage. His person was 
singularly attractive. With a complexion unusually dark, 
his eyes and hair were deep black, and his tall, spare figure 
was dignitied by the accomplishments of a well-bred Virginia 


In May, during the session of 17S0, the pop- 
lation of the county of Kentucky having grown 
sufficiently to create demands for and warrant 
the measure, the huge county was divided by the 
Virginia Legislature into three governmental sub- 
divisions, known respectively as Jefferson, Fay- 
ette, and Lincoln counties. The second, named 
from General the ^L^rquis de la Fayette, included 
that part of the larger county "which lies north 
of the line beginning at the mouth of the Ken 



tucky river, and up the same lo its middle I'ork 
to the head; and thence southeast to Washing- 
ton line" — which formed the prcr,eiu boundary 
between the States of Kentucky and Tennessee, 
the hitter of wliich was about that tune known 
as the " District of \\'ashington." 

Jefferson county, named from Thomas Jeffer- 
son, author of the Dtxlaraiion of Independence 
and afterwards President of the United States, 
but just then Governor of Viiginia, took in all 
"thai part of the south side of Kentucky river 
which lies west and north o( a line begin- 
nin<; at the mouth of Benson's b'.'^ creek, and 
running u[) the same and its main fork to the 
head; thence south to the nearest waters of 
Hammond's creek, and down the same to its 
junction with the Town tnrk of Salt river; thence 
south to Green river, and down the same to its 
junction with the Ohio." 

The rest of the older Kentucky county was 
embraced within the limits of Lincoln county, 
which took its name from General Benjamin 
Lincoln, a distinguished soldier of the Revolu- 

Jefferson was originally an immense county, as 
may be inferred from the f.ict that out of it have 
been carved, wholly or pDitl)', twenty-tight other 
counties. Less than lour ye.irs at'ter its forma- 
tion, in October, 1784, Salt river was taken as the 
dividing line for a new county, which was called 
Nelson. Subdivisions of the other counties were 
made in 1785 and 17SS, so that there were nine 
counties — Jefferson, Nelson, Fayette, Bourbon, 
Mason, Woodford, Lincoln, Mercer, and Madison 
— in Kentucky when it was admitted into the 
Union. The counties which have since been 
formed directly from JelTerson are Shelby, in 
1792; Bullitt (partly), in 1796; and Oldham (in 
part), ;823. Washington, "the first-born of the 
State," 1792; Hardin, Henry, Ohio, and twenty 
other counties have been erected upon the terri- 
tory originally assigned to Jefferson. 

The first officers appointed to this county by 
the organic act of the Legislature, after the man- 
ner of the time, were John Floyd colonel, Wil- 
liam Pope lieutenant colonel, and George May 
surveyor. FLach of the new counties had a 
county court or court of general quarter sessions 
of the peace, whi<h met monthly, and a court of 
common law chancery jurisdiction, in session 
once a quarter, with an abundance of magistrates 

and constables. 'J'here was as yet, however, no 
tribunal for the trial of high crimes, as the court 
of quarter sessions could take cognizance only of 
mi'sdeuieanors; but the defect, was remedied 
early in 17S3, when Kentucky was made a judi- 
cial district and a court established which had 
full crimmal and civil jurisdiction. It was 
opened at Harrudsburg the same season. John 
Floyd, of Jefferson county, and Samuel Mc- 
Dowell, weie judges; U'alker Daniel was prose- 
cuting attorney, and John May clerk. 

We subjoin an historic note or two found 
among our memoranda : 

.\ Ql"AKTF.k-C[:NTUR\'s GROWTH. 

Some figures reported by the city civil en- 
gineer, of Louisville, in 1S66, exhibit in brief 
compass the growth of the county in wealth and 
power from 1840 to 1S66. In the former year 
the valuation of the State (e.\cluding vehicles, 
time-pieces, pianos, and plate) was $272,250,027, 
and that of Louisville and Jefferson county was 
$26,162,463, or nearly one-tenth of the entire 
State. In 1S44 the valuation was rei)orted at 
but $18,621,339, the next year $21,270,500, in 
1846 $22,940,533, and 1847 $24,206,443. The 
ne.xt year the city and county regained and 
passed the figures of 1840, having $26,697,663; 
in 1849 it was $27,974,735; in 1S50, $29,187,- 
023. The State valuation this year was $299,- 
381,809, so that the city and county had again 
pretty nearly one-tenth of the whole. The figures 
for the next decade are: 1851, $32,830,347; 
1352, $35,336,899; 1853, $42,106,310; 1854, 
149.755. 832; 1S55, $47,031,150; 1S56, $44,- 
533.5 iS: 1857, $50,034,033; 185S, $50,443,- 
532; 1S59, $52,407,083; i860, $54,680,868. 
The valuation of the city and county had now 
giown to about one-ninth of the whole. The 
average annual increase during the previous 
twenty years had been but about $13,000,000 in 
the State; while it had been nearly $1,400,000 
a year in the city and county, showing a very 
satisfactory rate of gain. The valuation of the 
latter in i860 was more than one-half that of 
the entire State ($108,549,638) thirty years ago. 
In 1S61 the local valuation was $50,492,510; 
1862, $36,711,943; 1863, $41,676,811; 1864, 



$55,141,938; 1S63, $62,211,339; 1S66, $76,- 
028,753. There was much lliiciuaiion in these 
years; but while the State vahiation had fallen 
"off between 1S60 and 1866 about $20,000,000 a 
•year, that of the city and county had increased 
$21,347,685, or about $3,500,000 per annum. 
Ir. the latter year the city and county contributed 
very nearly one-fiUh of the whole revenue of the 
State, and their valuation was three fouiihs of 
that of the .State in 1S30, one-fourth of that in 
1S40 and 1850, one-seventh of that of 1S60, and 
one-fifth of all in 1S66. 


so far as we have been able to learn, was formed 
in I S3 7. The following-named were its officers 
in 1844: Stephen Ormsby, president; Lawrence 
Young and E. D. Hobbs, vice-presidents ; Wil- 
liam Mix, secretary and keeper of the funds; 
George W. ^Yeissinge^, corresponding secretary; 
J. W. Graham, L. Sherley, S. Rrice, H. Arter- 
burn, S. Brengman, executive committee. Meet- 
ings were held twice a year, in the fall and the 
spring, at the former of which premiums were 



The Old County Court— The Circuit Court— The Court of 
Common — The County Court — The County Judgo — 
The City Courts— .-V Reminiscence of 1786 — Mr. Flint's 
Notes— The County Court-house- The OUl "Gaol ' — The 
New Jail. 


This was a monthly court established by the 
former constitution, held in eacli county at the 
places assigned for the purpose and on the days 
fixed by law, and at no other time and place. It 
was composed of the justices of the peace ap- 
pomted for the county, three of whom were suf- 
ficient to constitute a quorum. It had power to 
recommend the appointment of the surveyor, 
coroner, and justices of the peace, and itself to 
^'i'l'omt inspectors, collectors, and their deputies, 
surveyors of highways, constables, jailors, and 
other minor officers. Its further jurisdiction was 
thus defined by the act of 1796 : 

The County Courts shnll nnd may have cogni7.-\ncc. and 
shAll have jurisdiction of all causes respecting wills, letters of 
administration, mills, roads, the appouiinient of guirdians 
and settling of their accoimts, and of admitting deeds and 
other writings to record ; they sliall sujjetinlend the putjlic 
inspections, grant ordinary license, ami ivgulate and restrain 
ordinaries and tippling-houses, and appoint processioners ; 
they shall hear and determine, according to law. the com- 
plaints of apprentices and hired servants, being citizens of 
any one of the L'uilcd States, against their masters or mis- 
tresses, or of the masters and mistresses against the appren- 
tices or hired servants; they shall have power to establish 
ferries and regtilate the same,- and to provide for the poor 
within their counties. 

In 1S44-45 ^^ many as tnent)--five justices 
composed the county court of Jefferson county. 


I'he system of circuit courts was substituted in 
1803, under the act of Legislature passed in 
November, iSoi, after the adoption of the 
second State constitution, for the old system of 
district and quarter-sessions courts. Under this 
the courts had jurisdiction in all causes, matters, 
and things, at common law and chancery, within 
their respective circuits, except in causes where 
the property or claim in controversy was of less 
value than ^5, and also in some few other speci- 
fied cases. 

'December 19, 1S21, authority was given this 
court by the Legislature to purchase sites and 
provide for the erection of poor-houses thereon. 

When the new constitution was adopted in 
1850, it was provided that each county then 
existing, or thereafter to be erected in the Com- 
monwealth, should have a circuit court. The 
first election of circuit judges occurred on the 
second Monday in August, 1S56, and elections 
of said officers have since been held every six 
years, on the first Monday of August. An 
eligible candidate for the oftice must be a citi- 
zen of the United. States, a resident of the dis- 
trict for which he may be a candidate at least 
two years next before his election, must be at 
least thirty years ol age and a practicing lawyer 
at least eight years, which term, iiowever, may 
include any time he has served upon the bench 
of a court of record. After the first term under 
the constitution, the judges hold their offices for 
terras of six years. They receive their commis- 
sions from the Governor and hold until their suc- 
cessors are qualified, but are removable from 
office in the same manner as a judge of the 
Court of Ap[)eals. The removal of a judge from 
his district vacates his oftice. When a vacancy 



occurs the Governor issuer a writ of election to 
fill it for the remainder of the term, unless that 
remaindir be less than one year, \shen the Gov- 
ernor appoints a judc^e. 

Each judge of the circuit court i.s a conserva- 
tor of the peace throughout the State, and may 
prant writs of error dmii/i rein's ct nobis. He may 
exchange circuits with another judge, unless a 
majority of the members of the bar piefer to 
elect a s]iecial judge to act temporarily in his 
stead. When this is done the attorneys retained 
in a case about to be tried are not allowed to 
vote for the special judge. He may hold a special 
term, whenever the business demands it, \w any 
county in the district, to try penal, criminal, and 
chancery cases, or any class of them, and may 
order a grand and [Jttit jury to be impanneled 
for any special term, in term-time or during vaca 
tion. If he fail to attend a term, or, being pres- 
ent, cannot properly preside in a cause or causes 
pending, the attorneys of court who are in at- 
tendance, with the exception above noted, may 
elect one of their number in attendance to hold 
the term, and he shall preside and adjudicate 
accordingly. More recently the provision has 
been extended to include eijuity and criminal 
courts. The judges are paid each $3,000 [)er 
annum, and in criminal or penal prosecutions, if 
a judge is assigned to liold court in another dis- 
trict than his own, he is allowed his traveling ex- 
penses and $10 a day while holding the court. 

The circuit court assumes original jurisdiction 
of all matters at law and equity within this coun- 
ty, except those of which jurisdiction is exclu- 
sively lodged in anotlur tribunal, and is fully em- 
poweied to carry into elTect its jurisdiction. 
When the debt sued for is less than $50, it has 
jurisdiction of an attachment of lands. The 
General Assembly has power to alter the jurisdic- 
tion of the court, but not to change the judicial 
districts exce;)t when a new one is added. Ap- 
peals on writs of error may be made to this court 
from the decisions of county courts in the same 
county, in all controver-.ies relating to the estab- 
lishment, alteration, or di^c ontmuance of ferries, 
roads, and passages, and in . aNcs arising from 
the probate of wilU and fruui ordtrs concerning 
nulls or water-wurks, "r re!using or alk>wing 
dams to be built across water-courses, or from 
judgments in bastardy cases, (jr judgments and 
final orders in penal cases, .\ppeals lie to it 

from decisions of the ciuarterly courts and of 
justices of the peace and other tribunals having 
a similar civil jurisdiction as justices of the peace, 
in all civil cases when the amount in controversy 
is $20 or more, exclusive of interest and costs; 
and in all actions of trespass or trespass upon the 
case, before justices of the peace, the aggrieved 
party has the right of appeal to the circuit court 
of the same county. 

A Commonwealth's or State's attorney is also 
elected in each district ; and a clerk of the cir- 
cuit court is elected for each county. The com- 
monwealth's attorney in the Ninth district is en- 
titled to forty per cent, of the amount of all 
judgments returnable to or for appearance in the 
Jefterson circuit court. In other counties of the 
State the fee is thirty per cent., unless the judg- 
ment is less than $50, when he receives $5 in- 
stead. Once every four years, and oftener in 
case of a vacancy, the judge appoints a master 
commissioner for the court. When a receiver is 
to be appointed in a case, the judge may appoint, 
if the parties fail to do so, and may likewise ap- 
point examiners to take depositions. For Jeffer- 
son county, the office of interpreter of the circuit 
court was specially created by legislative act Feb- 
ruary 4, 1S65. The incunibent thereof is ap- 
pointed by the court, and is removable at the pleas- 
ure of the judge. He may appoint the same 
person who is serving as interpreter in the city 
court of Louisville. Such officer must be thor- 
oughly competent to speak both English and Ger- 
man, is to hold his office, unless removed, for 
one year from date of appointment, and receive 
a salary of $500 a year. 

The Ninth Judicial district consisted for a 
number of years of Jefferson, Shelby, Oldham, 
Spencer, and Bullitt counties, but is now co- 
incident with Jefferson alone. In 1S38 Jefferson 
and Oldham composed the circuit. 


This court was established by law February 8, 
1867. It is virtually in perpetual session, and 
all summons executed in any action in said court 
in Jefferson county for twenty days, or for thirty 
days in any other county of the State, is suffi- 
cient to authorize a plaintiff or defendant to set 
his action on the trial-docket for trial or hearing. 
Actions in the court not contested are tried or 
heard in open court as they are placed for trial 



and called upon the tiial docket, unless the judge 
takes time to consider the law or fact in such ac- 
tion, or time is given for argument of either the 
law or fact of the case, when the court may lay 
over the action to a future day. 

If the judge of the court of common pleas is 
at any time disabled from discharging his duties, 
an election is held by the attorneys participating 
in said court, for a judge /;<> tempore, who must 
be one of their own number. Upon election, he 
possesses the same powers, and draws during his 
period of services the same salary, pro rata, as 
the regular judge. 

The judge of this court may appoint coinmis- 
missioners to take depositions fur the court. This 
court is for Jefferson county alone. 


A county judge is elected in each county, 
whose term of office is four years. He holds 
the quarterly courts, in which his jurisdiction is 
concurrent with justices of the peace, in all civil 
cases, in both law and equity. He has also juris- 
diction throughout the county in proceedings 
against constables for defalcations in office, and 
has concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court 
in all civil cases where the amount in contro- 
versy does not exceed $ioo, exclusive of interest 
and costs, and where the title or boundary of 
real estate is not in question. Land is not levied 
on or sold under execution from the quarterly 
court; but where any such execution has been 
returned as finding no property, in whole or in 
part, a certified copy of the judgment and ex- 
ecution may be filed in the clerk's office of the 
■ county in which the judgment was rendered, 
which shall be copied in a book kept for the 
purpose. The court may appoint a clerk, who 
has power to issue- summons, subpoenas, execu- 
tions, etc. At its quarterly sessions it makes all 
necessary orders relating to bridges, changes or 
erections of precincts, and such matters as in 
other States are usually confided to boards of 
supervisors or county commissioners. 


IS the probate judge or surrogate judge of the 
county. His court is held quarterly, and must 
remain in session until business on the docket is 
disposed of In it wills are proved, administra- 
tors' and executors' business transacted, and the 
customary matters relating to estates of deced- 

ents are heard and determintd. 'I'he judge has 
exclusive jurisdiction to grant administration on 
estates of deceased persons in Kentucky. He 
ina'y appoint or remove guardians; he has con- 
current jurisdiction with justices of the peace in 
all cases of riots and breaches of the peace, 
and of all misdemeanors under the common law 
or statutes of the Commonwealth. He is a con- 
servator of the peace in his county, and has all 
the powers of a justice of the peace in penal and 
" criminal proceedings and in courts of enquiry. 
He has ap[)ellate jurisdiction of the judgements 
of a justice, when the amount in controversy is 
$5 or more, but not of judgments on injunctions 
of forcible entry and detainer. He has concur- 
rent jurisdiction with the circuit court where the 
sum in controversy, exclusive of interest and 
costs, does not exceed $ioo, and where the title 
or boundary of real estate is not in question. 
He is ex-offuio presiding judge ot tlie quarterly 
court ; when the sum in controversy in that court 
is above $i6, without reckoning interest and 
costs, either party to the case may have a change 
of venue to the circuit court of the same county, 
by order of a circuit judge, upon the party de- 
siring the change making affidavit that he does 
not believe he can obtain a fair trial before the 
presiding judge. And when tlie county judge 
has not his office at the county-seat or within one 
mile of it, or is absent from his office, the clerk 
of the county court may issue the summons in 
an action in the quarterly court in the same 
manner and under the same circumstances as 
the judge, and also subpoenas for witnesses, and 
shall be allowed the same fees as the judge. 

In his own court, or in the circuit court of his 
county, the county judge is authorized to grant 
injunctions and attachments at common law or 
in chancery. He has jurisdiction to hold in- 
quests upon idiots and lunatics. He shall be 
his own clerk, with the powers and duties of 
clerks of such courts, and must keep a record of 
his proceedings. For all services rendered in 
the quarterly court, where their jurisdiction is 
concurrent with the circuit court, the county 
judge is entitled to the same fees allowed by law 
to the clerks of circuit courts for similar services, 
and where his jurisdiction is concurrent with jus- 
tices of the peace, he is entitled to justices' fees 
in like causes. He also examines and audits 
the accounts of the commissioners of common 



schools, for services rendered. He holds his 
office for the term of four years. 


The city ot Louisville its own chancery 
court and city court. 

The act of General Assembly approved March 
26, 1872, provides for the election of a sice- 
chancellor for the period of six years, to discharge 
the duties of chancellor in case of h'is absence or 
incapacity for other reason to sit in a cause, and 
also to hear and determine any causes or 
question.s which may be assigned to him by tlie 
chancellor. He may hold the Jefferson court of 
common pleas, if the judge of that court lie ab- 
sent or incapacitated, and may hold the cliancery 
court to aid in clearing the docket of the com- 
mon pleas. Hon. James Harlan was the fust 
vice-chancellor under this act. 


The following account is extracted from that 
part of Mr. Casseday's entertaining History of 
Louisville which deals with the events of 17S6: 

The following extracts from the records of tlie court duiing 
this year will not give a very favorable idct of the liigli 
degree of enlightenment among our ancestors in 17S6. On 
the 21s; of October in this year, it is recorded that "negro 
Tom, a slave, the property of Robert D.iniel," was con- 
demned to death for stealing "two and thiee-fourth yards of 
cambric, and some ribbon and thread, the property of James 
Patten." tiiis theft, small as it now appears, if estimated in 
the currency of the times would produce an astonishing sum, 
as will appear by the following inventory rendccd to the 
court of the property of a deceased person ; 
To a coat and waistcoat /^25o; an old blue do., and 

do. 13° /3«5 

To pocket-book j/^6: part of an old shirt /^^ 9 

To old blanket 6s; 2 bushels salt £^9o 480 6s 

JC7S9 65 
These were the times when the price of whisky was fixecj 
by law at $30 the pint, and hotel-keepers were allowed and 
expected to charge $12- for a breakfast and 3':i for a bed. Pay- 
mery, however, was alw.ays expected in the depreciated Con- 
tinental money, then almost the only currency. 

MR. flint's NOTLS. 

Mr. James Flint, a Scotchman, spent consider- 
able time about the Falls, during the years 
iSrg-zo, and wrote many interesting observa- 
tions and reflections to his friends abroad, which 
were afterwards published at Edinburgh in a 
book of Letters from America. In an epistle 
dated at Jeftersonville, Se[)tcinber 8, 1S20, he 

I luve made several short excursions into the country. I 
was at Charlestovvn. the seat of justice in Clark county, 

while the circuit court sat there, and had opportunities of 
hearing the or.itory of barristers, which was delivered 
in language strong, elegant, and polite. A spirit of emula- 
tion prevails at the bar, and a gentleman of good taste in- 
formed me that some young practitioners have made vast 
progress within two or three years past. The United Stales 
certainly opens an extensive fieUl for eloquence. 

The foregoing remarks, as well as those which 
follow, were no doubt eijually applicable on the 
Kentucky side of the river. After some notice 
of the composition of the court and the waggery 
practiced by lawyers, Mr. Flint says : 

Freedoms on the part of lawycis seem to be promoted in 
the back country, in consequence of the bench being occa- 
sionally filled with men who are much inferior to those at the 
bar. The salary of the presiding judge, I have been told, is 
only $700 a year. . . . The present presiding 
judge is a man who has distinguished himself in .Indian war- 
fare. Whatever opinion you may form of the bench here, 
you may be assured that it is occupied as a post of honor. 

Amongst the business of the court, the trial of a man who stolen two horses excited much interest. On his being 
sentenced to suffer thirty stripes, he was immediately led from 
the bar to the whipping-post. Every touch of the cowhide 
(a weapon formerly describei.l| drew a red line acrctss his 


was built in 1S3S 39, substantially in the shape in 
which it now appears. The city directory of those 
years, published before its completion, boldly 
says: "It will undoubtedly be the architectural 
ornament of the place, if not of the whole West. 
Its structure is stone facing, with a brick wall of 
two feet in thickness." 


The jail (or "gaol," as he called it, after 
the orthography then current), was described by 
Dr. McMurtrie in 18 19 as "a most miserable 
edifice, in a most filthy and ruinous condition, 
first cousin to the Black Hole of Calcutta." A 
new and more roomy one had been contracted 
tor, which was to be commenced shortly, and 
"to be built, as is the old one, of stone, with 
arched fire-proof apartments and cells secure, but 
so constructed as to afford shelter to the unfor- 
tunate victim of the law, who may there 'address 
himself to sleep' without any fear of losing his 
ears through the voracity of the rats and other 
vermin that swarm in the present one." 


"It would be well," thought the humane Doc- 
tor, "to surround the new building, when finished, 
with a high stone wall and to inclose within its 
limits that horrid-looking engine now standing 
opposite the Court-house. I allude to the pillory 



and whipping-post. Such thin^^s m.iy jjerhaps 
be necessary (and c\cn iluu is very duubtful) for 
the punishment of the guilty ; but 1 am sure- it 
'never came within the intention of the l.iw to 
■ inflict throut;h it pain upon the innocent, its \ery 
appearance, combined with a knowledge of its 
uses, sufficing to blanch the cheek of every man 
who is not, through custom or a heart callous to 
the sufferings of humanity, totally regardless of 
such scenes." 


The city and county jail was completed and 
occupied in 1844. It was 72 feet long by 42 wide, 
and in its construction resembled in manv re- 
spects the celebrated Moyamensing Prison, at 
Philadelphia. It had 48 single cells, each 6 feet 
by 10, and double cells, 10 feet by 13, allot solid 
stone and dry, well warmed and ventilated. They 
opened on interior galleries, constructed of 
wrought iron to the third story. A large cistern 
on the third gallery sup[)lied the prisoners with 
water, and was also used to clean the conduits 
from the cells. Gas was used in all parts of the 
prison. Its architecture was Gothic, with a [lara- 
pet wall three feet high, and turrets .ind watch- 
towers, a cupola for a bell, and a copper covered 
roof. The whole was enclosed with a wall twen- 
ty feet high, of brick, in a stone loundation plast- 
ered and pebble-dashed. The original plan, sub- 
sequently abandoned, contemplated a subter- 
ranean communication between it and the Court- 
house. The city architect, Mr. John Jeffrey, 
drew the plan for this building aud superintended 
its construction. 


Introductory — The Revolutioiury — Cl.irks Gre.-it 
.•\chievement— Bowman's Expedition— C.ipt.nin H.irrods 
Company of 1780— Cl.irk's Later Expeditions— The Ken- 
lucky Board of War— General Scott's E\pediiions— Wil- 
kinbon's Expedition— Hopkins's Expedition— The War of 
iSij-ij—The Jefferson County Contingent— The Mexi- 
can War— The Utah War— The War of the Rebellion— 
Movements in Louisville- .A Delegation to Cincinn.iti— 
Roenj.tmj; Hegun— The .Sanitary Commission— Sl.ue Mili- 
l.iry Offieers from Louisville- General and <.tati' Officers 
from Louisv;iic-The Jefferson Countv Contingent— The 

Infantry Regiments— Tlie Cavalry Regiments— Tlie Bat- 
teries—State Militia in L'liiied States Service— The Louis- 
ville Legion— The Louisville Troops in the Southern 

The soldiership of the region now or anciently 
included within the limits of Jefferson county 
began more than a century ago ; and Kentucky 
military history, recorded in full, would make a 
book in itself, comprising as it does much 'of the 
entire narrative of Indian and border warfare in 
the Northwest during a period of nearly forty 
}ears. It is a brilliant page in the annals of the 
conllict of civilization with savagery that is filled 
by the story ot the men of Kentucky, and by 
none more nobly than by those who clustered in 
the early day about the Falls of the Ohio. When- 
ever, too, in a later time, the call to arms has 
come, the martial blood of Jefferson county, 
flowing uniiiipaiied in the veins of worthy de- 
scendants of noble sires, has stirred again with 
the fierce joy of battle, and sent forth many a 
hcio to do and die for the cause to which he 
gave his allegiance. To the Indian wars of the 
last quarter of the last century and the first of 
this; to the war of the Revolution; the last war 
with Great I!ritain ; the [)rolonged skirmish with 
Mexico; to both the Northern and Southern 
armies in the recent great civil contlict, the con- 
tingents from this county have been large and 
brave and effective in the field, in proportion to 
the numbers then settled here, as those from any 
other part of the land, placed amid similar cir- 
cumstances. It is a proud record which Jefll'er- 
son county contributes to the history of wars in 
the New World. We can but outline it in this 


Until near the close of this eventful struggle, 
Louisville was not, even in name; and Jefferson 
county had not yet been set apart from the vast 
domain so far comprised in the State of Virginia. 
The State of Kentucky to-be was as yet the 
great county of Kentucky. Nevertheless, the 
region around the Falls is associated with one of 
most interesting and important events of the 
entire seven-years' contest, in that here was the 
final point of departure from civilized settlements, 
for the renowned expedition of General George 
Rogers Clark, in the summer of 1778, against 
the Illinois country, which permanently retrieved 
that region from the British possession, for the 
rising young empire of the United States. The 



story is well told, wuii sufficiciu fulliicbs lor our 
purposes, in the Rev. John A. McClun^'s Out- 
line History, included in Collins's History, of 

in Kentucky. 

he Slimmer ol 1776. lie 
f ilie Wi-tcrn counirv 

When Cl.T 
took a more coiii[)rciiensi\e Mir\ey n 
than ihc nulc (lionecrs .iround him; his keen milii.iry eye was 
cast upon the Xorthweslern posts. gnrrisoned by Bnti>h 
troops, and alfording incxh.uistible supplies of aims an<l am- 
munition to the small predatory bands of Indians whieli in- 
fested Kcntueky. He saw plainly that tUey were the irue 
fountains from which the thousand little anniul nils of InJian 
rapine and murder took their rise, and he formed the bold 
project of striking at the root of the evil. 

The Revolutionary war was then raging, and the Western 
posts were too remote from the great current of events to at- 
tract, powerfully, the attention of either Iriend or foe; but to 
Kentucky they were objects of capii.d inteiest. He un- 
folded his plan to the Executive of \'irginia. awakened him 
to a true sense of its importance, and had the add^-css to ob- 
tain from the i.iipovcrished Legisl.iture a few scanty supplies 
of men and munitions for his favorite project. Undism.xyed by 
the scantiness of his means, he eniburked in the expedition 
with all th- ardor of his character. /V few State troops were 
furnished by Virginia, a few scouts and guides by Kentucky. 
and. with a secresy and celerity of movement never surpassed 
by Napoleon in his palmiest days, he embarked in his daring 

Having descended the Ohio in boats to the Falls, he there 
landed thiiiteu families who had accomp.inicd him from Pitts- 
burg, as emigrants to Kentucky, and by whom the founda- 
tion of Louisville was laid. Continuing his course down the 
Ohio, he disembarked his troops about si.xiy miles above the 
mouth of that river, and marching on foot through a pathless 
wilderness, he came upon Kaskaskia ;_on the 4th of [uly] as 
suddenly and unexpectedly as if he had descended from the 
skies. The British officer in command. Colonel Rochdu- 
blare, and his garrison, surrendered to a force which they 
could have repelled v\ith ease, if warned of their approach; 
but never, in the annals of war. was surprise more complete. 
Having secured and sent off" his prisoners to Virginia, Clark 
was employed for some time in conciliating the inhabitants, 
who, being French, readily submitted to the new order of 
things. In the meantime, a storm threatened him from 
Vincennes. Governor Hamilton, who commanded the Brit- 
ish force in the Northwest, had actively employed himself 
during the fall season in organiiing a large army of savages, 
with whom, in conjunction with his British force, he deter- 
mined not only to crush Clark and his handful of adventur- 
ers, bilt to desolate Kentucky, and even sei?e Fort Pitt. The 
season, however, became so far advanced before he had 
completed his preparations, that he determined to defer the 
project until spring, and in the meantime, to keep his Indians 
employed, he l.iunched them against the frontiers of f'ennsvl- 
vania and Virginia, intending to concentrate them early in 
the spring, and carry out his grand project. 

Clark in the meantime lay at Kaskaskia. revolving thedifii- 
culties of his situation, and employing his spies diligently in 
learning intelligence of his enemy. No sooner was he in- 
formed of the tii>persion of Himilton's Indian force, and that 
he lav at Vincennes with his regulars alone, than he deter- 
mined to strike Vincennes as he h.ul struck Kaskaskia. The 
march was long, the season inclement, the road passed 
through an untrodden wilderness and through overtlowed 

bottoms; his stock of provisions was scanty, and was to be 
carried upon the b.icks of his men. He could only muster 
one hundred and thirty men; but. inspiring this handful with 
his own lieroic spirit, he plunged boldly into the wilderness 
which separated Kaskaskia from Vincennes, resolved to 
strike his enemy in the cit.idcl of his strength or peiisli in the 
effort. The difficulties of the m.ireh were great, beyond 
what his daring spirit had anticipated. For days his route 
led through the drowned lands of Illinois; his stock of pro- 
visions became exhausted, his guides lost their way. nnd the 
most intrepid of his followers at times gave way to despair. 
.•\t length they emerged from the drowned lands, and Vin- 
cennes, like Kaskaskia. was completely surprised. The Gov- 
ernor and garrison became prisoners of war, and, like their 
predecessors at Knskaskia. were sent on to Virginia. The 
Canadian inhabitants readily submitted, the neighboring 
tribes were overawed, and some of them became allies, and 
the whole of the adjacent country became subject to Virginia, 
which employed a regiment of State troops in maintaining 
and securing their conquest. A portion of this force was af- 
terwards permanently stationed at Louisville, where a fort 
was erected, and where Clark established his headquarters. 

The story of this fort and its successors will be 
told in connection with the annals of Louisville, 
to which division of our narrative it seems more 
properly to belong. 

The following-named soldiers of the Revolu- 
tion Were found to be still living in Jefferson 
county as late as July, 1S.40: Benjamin Wilke- 
son, aged 95 ; Levin Cooper, Sr., aged 87 ; 
Samuel Conn, aged 7S ; John Murphy, aged 76; 
Jane Wilson (probably a soldier's widow), aged 
7S. Many had by this time died or been killed in 
war who were known to have been Revolution- 
ary soldiers, as Colonel Richard C. Anderson, 
General George Rogers Clark, Colonel John 
Floyd, and other heroes of the war for inde- 

bow.m.xn's expedition. 

The next year after Clark's great achievement 
is made famous, in part, by the expedition of 
Colonel John Bowman, county lieutenant of 
Kentucky — not against white enemies, but 
against the savages of the Miami country, now 
in the State of Ohio. His command, variously 
estimated as numbering one hundred and sixty 
to three hundred men, did not rendezvous here, 
but certainly included a company from the Falls, 
numbering enough to make a large fraction of 
the entire force. It was commanded by the 
celebrated Kentucky pioneer and Indian fighter, 
William "H.-trrod. Long afterwards one of the 
witnesses in a land case involving early titles in 
Kentucky testified that "a certain William Har- 
rod, who, this deponent concludes, comnianded 
then at the Falls of the Ohio, harangued the 



proprietors then there showing the necessity of 
the expedition, and that the settlers from otlier 
pans of Kentucky were desirous of having the 
expedition carried into effect." Another sur- 
vivor testified in 1S04: '• Fhc men from the 
Falls were directed to meet us at the mouth of 
Licking with boats to enable us to cross." They 
took two batteau.x, which were of material assist- 
ance to the little army in the crossing. 

The unfortunate history of this expedition is 
well known. It was directed particularly against 
the Indian town of Old Chillicothe, near the 
present site of Xenia — the same visited by Cap- 
tain Bullitt some years before, and the place 
where Daniel Boone was held a prisoner and 
whence he escaped in June, 1778. The men 
were collected in "May, crossed the Ohio at the 
mouth of the Licking, moved in single file along 
the narrow Indian trail through the dense woods 
of the plain and up the rich valley now occupied 
by the great city of Cincinnati and its suburbs, 
and soon neared the savage stronghold. Says 
Mr. McClung in his Outline History: 

The march \sas well conJucted. the pi. in of altack well 
concerted, and Ihe division led by Logan performed ils part 
well. Yet the whole failed byrea.son ol a want of promptness 
and concert in taking advantage of the surprise, or by misun- 
derstanding orders. Logan's division was compelled to make 
a disorderly retreat to the main column, and the rout 
quickly became general. .Ml would have been lost but for 
the daring br.wery of some of the subordinate officers, who 
charged the enemy on horseback and covered the retreat ; 
but the failure was as complete as it w,is unexpected. 

There were some redeeming features, how- 
ever, to offset the comparative failure. Two 
noted chiefs of the enemy, Blackfeet and Red 
Hawk, were killed, one hundred and si.xty-three 
horses and much other spoil were seized, and the 
Indian town was destroyed. 

C.\PT.AIN H.^RROD's C0.MP.\.\Y. 

It is probable that most of the men from the 
fortified stations at and near the Falls of the 
Ohio, who are known to have been members of 
Captain Harrod's company the ne.xt year, were 
out in Colonel Bowinan's expedition. Lieuten- 
ant James Patten was certainly with it, as he is 
mentioned by name and title in the depositions 
<^l 1S04. The following is the roster of the 
•■"'uiany, numbering nineiv si:; (the Falls com- 
f'->ny with Bown:ian counted about sixty), as it 
ilood in 17S0, and as given in the first volume 
01 CoUins's History. Some of the names are 

doubtless wrongly .^pelt, as the rolls were fre- 
quently made u[. by oiTicers or clerks who, 
though wonderfully • learned in forest-ciaft and 
Indian fighting, were quite independent of for- 
mulas m orthography, and spelt more by sound 
than by the prescriptions of dictionaries' and 


Captain William Hanod. 

Lieutenant James Patlon. 

Knsign Ed. Bulger. 


Peter Balance, Alexander Darr. James Brand. John P.uck- 
ras, A. Cameron, Amos Carpenter. Solomon Carpenter, 
Benjamin Carter, Carter, Kcubcn Case, Tiiomas 
Cociiran, John Conway. John Cortlcy, John Cr.ible, Robert 
Dickey, Daniel Driskill, Isaac Dye, John Eastwood, Samuel 
Forrester, Joseph Frakes, Samuel Frazee, John Galloway, 
William Galloway, James Garrison. Joseph Coins, Isaac 
Goodwin, San.uel Goodwin, James Guthrie. Daniel Hall, 
William Hall, John Hatt, Evan Henton, Thomas Henton, 
William Ilickma.i, A. Hill, Andrew Hill, Samuel Hinck, 
Frederick Honaker, Joseph Hughes, Rowland Hughes, 
Michael Humble, John Hunt, .Abram James, John Kenney, 
Valentine .Kinder, .Moses Ku\kendall, John Lewis, John 
Lincant, Samuel Lynn, Patrick McGee, Samuel M.ajor, 
.Amos Mann, Edward Murdoch, John Murdoch, Richard 
Morris, William Morris, William Oldham, John Paul, 
George Phelps, Joseph Phelps, Samuel Pottinger, F. Potts. 
Reuben Preble, Urban Ranner, tenjamin Rice, Reed Rob- 
bins, Thomas Settle, William Smiley, Jacob Speck, John 
Stapleton, James Stewart, James Stewart, Llaniel Stull, 
Miner Slurgis, Peter Sturgis, James Sullivan. William Swan, 
Joseph Swearingen, ''Samuel Swear:ngen,'-\"an Swearingen, 
Robert Thorn, John Tomton, Beverly Trent, Thomas Trib- 
ble, Robert Tyler, .Xbraham Vanmetre, .Mich.ael Valleto, 
Joseph Warlord, James Welch. .Abram Whitaker. .Aquilla 
Whitaker, Jacob Wickersham, Ed. Wilson. 

Clark's later e.xpeditjons. 
In July of this year (17S0), Colonel Clark 
ordered out his battalion of State troops from 
the fort and stations about Louisville, to which 
were joined the forces from other parts of Ken- 
tucky, altogether numbering one thousand men, 
for another invasion of the Indian country. 
Colonels Benjamin Logan and \Villiam Linn, 
respectively, were at the head ot the regiments 
formed. They rendezvoused at the usual place, 
at the mouth of the Licking, crossed the Ohio 
and pushed into the interior, where Clark de- 
feated the natives in a pitched battle, destroyed 
the Indian towns and devastated the corn fields 
at Piqua and Old Chillicothe, and captured the 
English trading-post at Loramie's store, far uj) 
the .Miami country, near the present western 
boundary of Ohio. This ex|)edition is notable, 
in good part, for having built a blockhouse dur- 


ing the movement northward,, iiiio.i a spot op- 
posite tlie mouth of tlie Licking, tiic first 
house built by civilized hands (unless bv the 
Mound Builders) 'upon the subsecpient site 
of Cincinnati. 'I'he invasion was undertaken to 
retaliate for cajitures made and atrocities com- 
mitted by an exiiedition under the Enghsh 
Colonel Byrd, who came down from Detroit the 
previous June with a mi.xed force of Canadians 
and Indians, went up the Licking and reduced 
Riddell's and Martin's stations, near that river. 

Durinfi the same summer — probably carher 
than the Miami e.xpedition — Colonel Clark was 
instructed to execute a plan which had been con- 
templated more than two years before by Patrick 
Henry, while Governor of Virginia, and had 
been embodied in orders by his successor, 
Thomas Jefferson, "to establish a post near the 
mouth of the Ohio, with canncm to fortify it." 
Clark took about two hundred of his troops from 
the Falls, went down the Ohio to its moutti, and 
thence about five miles down the Mississippi to 
a place at the mouth of Mayfield creek, called 
the Iron Banks, where he erected Fort Jefferson, 
named from the Governor and future President, 
with several blockhouses attached — a strong and 
useful work. One object of establishing the 
post here was to signify the title of the United 
States to all the territory in this direction to the 
Mississippi. The Chickasaw Indians, however, 
claimed this region as their hunting-ground; and, 
as their consent to the erection of the fort had 
not been obtained, they soon began maraud- 
ing and murdering about it, and finally, in 
1781, besieged it for several days. The garrison 
and the settlers crowded within the work were 
reduced to great distress, but were finally relieved 
by the arrival of Clark from Kaskaskia, with p'ro- 
visions and reinforcements. The difficulty of 
supplying the fort led to its abandonment not 
long after. During the late War of the Rebel- 
lion, a singularly long iron cannon, of six-pound 
calibre, buried under the old I'ort, was partly ex- 
posed bv the wash of the river and the 
rest dug out by the owner of the spot, from 
whom It was taken by the Federal soldiers to 
Cairo. The site is now in Ballard county, one 
of the latest formed in the State, and named 
from Captain Bland B.rllard, the famous pioneer 
and border warrior of the Louisville region. 

In November, 17S2, in [junishmcnt for the ter 

1 rible defeat inflicted upon the Kcntucki.ins, in- 
cluding Boone, Kenton, Todd, Tiiyg, and other 
famous pioneers, at the battle of Lower Blue 
Licks, m August, Clark (now brigadier-general) 
I made his final expedition against the Indian 
towns of the upper Miami county. He called 
out the Kentucky militia, of which one divisidn, 
under Colonel John Floyd, assembled at the 
Falls. The other, commanded by Colonel Ben- 
jamin Logan, got together at Bryan's Station ; 
, and then all, to tlie number of 1,050 men, ren- 
dezvoused at the mouth of the Licking. They 
made a rapid march some one hundred and 
thirty miles northward, completely surprising the 
[ enemy, destroying the principal tow.n of the 
I Shawnees, many villages and cornfields, and the 
j tiading-post at Loramie's, which was thoroughly 
j plundered, and the contents distributed among 
the soldiers of the expedition. The Indians 
, thenceforth ceased to invade Kentucky and hai- 
ass the settlements from this quarter. Accord- 
i ing to some statements, two block-houses were 
built up(jn the site of Cincinnati by men of this 
expedition, near one of which was buried Captain 
! McCracken, a brave soldier who was wounded by 
j the Indians in a skirmish, and died as he was 
being borne back in a rude litter over one of the 
neighboring hills. 
I Clark's last expedition against the red men 
j was his only unsuccessful one. It was under- 
: taken in September, 17S6, to check the persistent 
depredations and outrages of the Wabash In- 
; dians. Mr. McClung gives the following excel- 
i lent summary of the unhappy event and its re- 
sults. According to this writer, the expedi- 
tion was undertaken in response to the demands 
j of the people, but in violation of solemn treaties 
made by Congress, and the absence of any legal 
power or instructions from higher authority to 
undertake it. If so, the ventuie met with merited 

A thotis.ind volunteers under General Clark rendezvoused 
.It Louisville, with the determination thoroughly to chastise 
the tribes upon the WaUish. f'rovisions and aniniunitioti 
were furnished by individual contribution, and were placed 
on board of nine keel-boats, which \iere ordered to proceed 
to Vincennes by water, while the volunteers should march to 
the same point by land. 

The flotilla, laden with provisions and munitions of war, 
encountered ol)st.icles in the navitj.ition of the W'.ib.isli 
which had not been foreseen, and was di-la\ed bevond the 
time which had been c.ilculated. Large part of the supplies 
of food was thus spoiled.] The detachment moving by l.ind 
reached the point of rendezvous first, and awaited for fifteen 



days the arrival of the keel-boats. This long interval of In- 
action gave time fur the unhealthy humors of the volunteers 
to ferment, and proved fatal to the success of th>^ expedi- 
tion. The habits of General Clark also become intern- ' 
peralc, and he no longer possessed the undiMded confidence 1 
of Ills men. .A dctacliment of three hundred volunteers 
broke oft from the main body, and took up the line of march 
for their homes. Clark remonstrated, entreated^ even shed < 
tears of grief and mortification ; but all in vain. The result : 
Has a total disorganization of the force, and a return to j 
Kentucky, to the bitter mortification of the commander in 
chief, whose brilliant reputation for the time .suffered a total 

This e.^cDcdilion led to other ill consequences. The con- 
vention which should have assembled in September, was un- 
■ able to muster a quoium. the m.ajority of its members having 
marched under Clark upon the ill-fated expedition. .A num- 
ber of the delegates assembled at Danville at the appointed 
time, and adjourned from day to day until January, when a 
quorum at length was present, and an organization efi'ected. 
In the meantime, houever, the minority of the convention, 
who had adjourned from day to day, had prepared a me- 
morial to the Legislature of Virginia, informing them of the 
circumstances which had prevented the meeting of the con- 
vention, and suggesting an alteration of some of the clauses 
of the act, which gave dissatisfaction to their constituents, 
and recommending an extension of thetliuc within which the 
consent of Congress was required. This produced a Iota! 
revision of the act by the Virginia Legislature, wherebv an- 
other convention was required to be elected in .August of 
1787, to meet at Dajiville in Scpleuibcr of the same year, 
and again take into consideration the great question, alreadv 
decided by four successive conventions, and requiring a ma- 
jority of two-thirds to decide in fasor of separation, before 
the same should be effected. The time when the laws of 
Virginia were to ce.ise w as fi.ved on the ist day of January. 
T7S9, instead of September. 1787. ns was ordered in the first 
act; and the 4th of July. 1788, was tixed upon as the period, 
before Congress should express its consent to the admission 
of Kentucky iuto the L'nion. 

General Clark soon afterwards sent Colonel 
Logan, then in camp on Silver creek, on the In- 
diana side, on a recruiting exxursion into Ken- 
tucky, with instructions to make a raid upon the 
Ohio Shawnees. Logan raised about five hun- 
dred men, with which he crossed the Ohio at 
Limestone (now . Maysville), marched to the 
headwaters of the Mad river, killed the principal 
chief and about twenty warriors of the tribe, cap- 
» tured seventy or eighty Indians, destroyed several 
towns and a great amount of standing corn, and 
marched triumphantly back to Kentucky. 

THE "BO.SiRD OK \V.\K." 

In January, 1791, the continuing border war- 
fare made it advisable, on the part of the Cien- 
cral Government, in response to the petition of 
ihe people that they be allowed to fight the In- 
dians at discretion and in their own way, to cre- 
ate asort of subordinate War Department in Ken- 

tucky, which was accordingly done. A "board 
of war" for the District of Kentucky was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Brigadier-General Charles 
Scott, Isaac Shelby, Colonel Iknjamin Logan, 
John Brown, and Harry Innes. To this board 
was committed discretionary powei to provide for 
the defense of the settlers and the prosecution 
of border wars. They were authorized, whenever 
they thought the measure demanded by the ex- 
igencies of the situation, to call the local militia 
into the servict of the United States, to serve 
with the regular forces. As will be seen by the 
names, Jefferson, county, which had by this time 
been formed, had her honorable share in the 
composition of the board. 


Soon after the appointment of this board, on 
the 9th of March, 1791, President Washington 
issued an order authorizing it "to call into the 
service a corps of volunteers for the District of 
Kentucky, to march on an exjjcdition against 
the Indians northwest of the Ohio, and to be 
commanded by Brigadier-General C. Scott," who 
was himself, it will be remembered, the head of 
the board. Eight hundred mounted men, of 
which Jefiferson county furnished its full con- 
tingent, were collected at the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky, where the Ohio was crossed, and a march 
begun upon the Indian towns on the Wabash, 
not far from the present location of Lafayette, 
Indiana. Here the chief town of the natives, 
Ouiatenon, a village of about seventy huts, was 
destroyed, with other clusters of wretched homes. 
The Indians were encountered several times dur- 
ing the campaign, but were invariably defeated, 
with lois of about fifty killed; and a large num- 
ber of them were taken prisoners. 

The muster-roll of one of the companies 
"mustered in at 'the Rapids of the Ohio, June 
15, 1 791, by Captain B. Smith, First United 
States regiment,", has been preserved and is 
printed by Mr. Collins in his second volume. 
It IS that of the company of mounted Kentucky 
volunteers, recruited by Captain fames Brown 
for the expedition against the Wea Indians, com- 
manded by Brigadier-General Charles Scott. As 
will be seen by the roll, the command consisted 
of one captain, one 'lieutenant, one ensign, four 
sergeants, and seventy-one privates present and 
one absent (James Craig, who was "lost in the 



woods" while traveling fiuiii the interior to 

ROLL 01' C.\n.MX 1;RO\VN's COMIWNV. 

Captain Jamus Brown. 
LieulenanL W'llli.ini McCnnnell. 
, r.nsign Joshua I'.arbee. 

Ni)\-CUMM I ol I ICEKS. 

Kirsi Sergeant josepti Mosljy. 

Second Scrgeani .Adam Hanna. 
Third Sergeant Samuel .Mcllvain 
Fourtti Sergeant \\'illiani Rincaii 

Aaron Adams, William [iaker, Edward Bartlett, Alexander 
Fil.ack. John Brown, Samuel Buckner, Kicliard Burk, John 
Caldwe'u. t'hiliips Caldwell, I'eier Carr, John C.iswcll, Wil- 
liam Clark. Robert Conn, James Craig, Robert Curry, Wil- 
liam Davidson, William Dougherty. Hugh Drennon, N.u. 
Dryden, Alexander Dunlap, Janie.i Dunlap, Robert lillislun. 
Matthew Knglish, ]ohn Ferrell, Benjamin I-'ishcr, 
Forbes, James Forgus, John Fow tcr, .Mexander Gilmore, Job 
Glover, John Madden, Robert Hall, Thomas Hanna. Wil- 
liam Hanna, Randolph Hanis, John Henderson. Andrew 
Hodge, David Humphreys, David Humphries, Robert Irun, 
Samuel Jackson, Gabriel Jones, David Kno.\, James Knox, 
Nicholas Leigh, Richard Lewis. George Loar, Abraham Mc- 
Clellan, Joseph McDowell, John .\kllvaine, Moses Mcll- 
vaine, James Xourse. Robert Patterson. John Peoples, .\rtlnir 
Points, Francis Points, Percy Pope, Samuel Porter, Benjamin 
Price, \\'illiani Reading. William Rogers, George Sia, Wd- 
liam Smith, John Speed, John Stejihenson, Joseph Stephen- 
son, Robert .Stephenson, Samuel Stephenson, John Strick- 
land, Edmund Taylor, Stepl'.en Trigg, Joshua \\hitlingloii. 


More than two years afterwards, in October, 
1793, the same General Scott led a reinforce- 
ment of one thousand Kentucky cavalry across 
the Ohio and up the Miami country, to reinforce 
the artny of General Wayne, then in the vicinity 
of Fort Jefferson, about eighty miles north of 
Cincinnati. On the 24th of that month he re- 
ported his fine command to "Mad .Anthony;" 
but they had to be sent home, as the season was 
late, supplies were too scarce to sub.sist them, 
and no immediate attack u[)on the Indians was 
contemi)lated. .\ larger number of Kentuckians, 
however, under the same general, joined Wayne 
in July of the next year, and shared in the glori- 
ous victory of the IJattle of the Fallen Timbers. 


In Scott's expedition of .May, 1791, the sec- 
ond in command was Colonel James Wilkinson, 
who afterwards, as General Wilkinson, was com- 
mander in chief of the Western forces, with 
his headquarters at Fort Washington, Cincinnati. 
He was also implicated in the Franco-Spanish in- 

trigues of 1793-95, instip;ated in Kentucky by 
the French Minister, Genet, with a view to wiest- 
ing Louisiana by force from the domination of 
the Spanish. August i, 1791, the Kentucky 
Board of \N'ar dispatched Colonel Wilkinson by 
way of Fort Washington, with five hundred and 
twenty-three Kentuckians, to burn the Indian 
towns and destroy the corn-fields near the junc- 
tion of the Wabash and Eel rivers. They make 
their march and effect their destruction, with 
little loss of human life on either side. Louis- 
ville is the point where the march ends and the 
expedition disbands.. August 21st, Wilkinson 
reaches this place, delivers his captives to the 
commanding officer, and dismisses his force. 
The general resided for a time here and in other 
parts of Kentucky. 

Hopkins's expedition. 
A larger force than any that had hitherto col- 
lected at the Falls for operations against the 
Indians, gatliered here in October, 1812, under 
General Samuel Hojikins. The war with Great 
Britain had opened in June; Hull had surrend- 
ered his army at Detroit; the invasion of Canada 
from the Niagara had failed, and the Indians, in 
great nurnber and with relentless atrocity, were 
harassing the border settlements. One thousand 
five hundred volunteers were called for by Isaac 
Shelby, first Governor of the State, now again in 
the executive chair, after the lapse of twenty 
years since he first took the oath of office. More 
than two thousand resj:onded to the call, and 
weie all received into the temporary service. 
They marched gaily away into the Indian coun- 
try; but when their supplies began to give out, 
and marches in deep swamps and across path- 
less prairies wearied the flesh, their martial ardor 
cooled. Suddenly, in the same independent 
spirit which had led to the abandonment of the 
gallant Cla'ik sixteen years before, they rise in 
revolt, refuse [to obev orders or remain longer, 
and start in straggling parties upon the return 
march. The expedition failed without having 
met the enemy or smelt a grain of hostile [)ow- 
der. It was the last of the Kentucky expedi- 
tions against the savages.- 

THE WAR OF 181J-15. 

Little is known at this day, beyond what we 
have related, of the effects in this region of the 
last war with Great Britain. It is matter of his- 



tory that the earliest volunteers from Kentucky, 
under Colonels Allen Lewis and Scott, left their 
lioincs, in general, on the 12th of August, 1S12, 
rendezvoused at Georgetown, marched thence 
along the Dry ridge to the Ohio, opposite Cincin- 
nati, where they remained a few days, and then 
moved northward to Piqua, and on to the relief 
of l'"ort Wayne, meeting as they went the news 
of the disgraceful surrender of Hall at Detroit. 
We have no information as to the share Jefferson 
county had, if any, in this force at the nortb.ward. 
One company at least was recruited, or rather 
drafted, in this region in the fall of 1S14, to join 
the army of General Jackson at New Orleans. 
There does not seem to have been a wild enthu- 
siasm at this time to smell gunpowder; the com- 
pany, as may be seen below, was composed 
largely of substitutes; and a number of its mem- 
bers, both drafted and substitutes, failed to re- 
port for duly. The roll included the names of 
ninety-four officers and men; but this number 
was sadly cut down before they reached the 
Crescent city. Upon the embarkation from 
Louisville, November 21, Captain Joyes drew ra- 
tions for seventy-t'our men, and in middle De- 
cember for but fifty-three, though he added for 
two more the latter pan of that month. 

I'his company was led by Captain Thomas 
Joyes, of the well-known pioneer family of 
Louisville. Though now but a youth of twenty- 
six years, he had already seen severe service in 
the escort of baggage-trains going from Louis- 
ville to Vincennes in the latter part of 1S12, and 
afterwards as a spy and ranger under General 
Hopkins, commanding at Vincennes, and then in 
the quartermaster's department at that place. He 
became a captain in the Thirteenth Regiment of 
Kentucky Detached Militia, and was recalled 
into service by Governor Shelby in November, 
1814, with his company. The diary of his ser- 
i vice in Indiana has been preserved, and it is in 
possession of Patrick Joyes, Esq., of Louisville, 
but contains nothing necessary to this History. 

The camp of the Thirteenth Regiment was 
pitched on Beargrass creek, at no great distance 
from the river,and was officially known as " Camp 
Ik-argrass." Colonel Slaughter's (Fifteenth) 
re^iiment of detaLhed militia, and Lieutenant- 
l i.lonel (iray's (the Thirteenth) formed the camp, 
*iih .\Iajor-Gcneral Thomas personally in com- 
m.inii. Captain Joyes's company, and probably 

the other companies, were mustered into service 
November 10, 1S14. After some delay in col- 
lecting vessels and supplies, the commands were 
embarked in llatboats on the 21st of November, 
and started on the long and tedious voyage down 
the Ohio and Mississippi. The troops had been 
but poorly provided in camp, and they fared 
worse in their crowded and frail barks, many of 
them being without even a plank to shelter 
them, and many becoming sick from tlic e.\- 
posure and hardship. New Orleans was reached 
at last, January 3, 1S15; but the boats floated 
on to a landing some distance below, where the 
troo[)s disembarked and encamped near Camp 
Jackson, making shelter of the planks of their 
boats. Nothing of note occurred till the even- 
ing of the 7th, when, says Captain Joyes in his 
journal of the campaign, which has also been pre- 
served : 

About uvo hundred and forty of Colonel Davis's regiment 
"late Colonel Gray's] were detached to cross the river, to re- 
pulse the enemy, who was expected to land on the opposite 
.'ide, to assail our little estalilishnient there, they having cut 
a canal from the bayou where their launches lay in the 
swamp to the Mississippi, by 'which means they got their 
boats through and finally eflected a l.inding that night below 
General Morgan's camp, whose men lay in apparent tran- 
quillity, without an endeavor to intercept them. Our detach- 
ment reached Morgan's camp a little after daylight, 
having been detained by every sentinel on our way up to the 
city, where we crossed the river in wood-boats, procured by 
me under direction of T. L. Butler, and similarly impeded 
on our way down on the other side. So soon as we reached 
General Morgan's camp, we were ordered to lay down our 
knapsacks, etc., and push on to meet the enemy, who was 
approaching with precipitation. At this moment a test 
rocket was thrown from the enemy s camp, which we sup- 
posed was the signal for an attack, as the cannons were let 
loose like thunder Our situation on the Camp Morgan side 
being an unfortunate one, and the field officers who ought to 
have commanded us not having come, we were disposed at 
random. .Myself and thirty-odd of my company, who were 
on the front flank, next the enemy, were ordered out as a 
flanking party; and, the swamp being so impenetr.ible, we 
were unable to make in. Having got below the firing of the 
retreat and pushed up the levee, we got in this dismal swamp 
and attempted to come, when we discovered we had nin al- 
most up to the British. We then wheeled and ran in a di- 
rection up the river to m.ike for our party, whom we supposed 
to be retreating. .A.t length, after a horrid ramble, we 
reached a picket-guard which our party had plai;ed out. 
They conducted us in to when" our troops lay in the action. 
Joseph Tyler, of my company, was killed, James Stewart 
wounded, and Thomas Koss taken prisoner. 

The Louisville company, then, being on the 
west side of the river, did not share in the glori- 
ous victory won that day on the other shore, in 
which many other Kcntuckians had part. 



The remainder of the service was uneventful. 
On the 13th of March news of ttie jieaee arrived, 
and about the iStii the army disbanded. 
The company returned to Louisville, and was 
there mustered out May 10, 1S15. 


Muster roll of a company of infantry, under 
the command of Captain I'homas Joyes, in the 
Thiitcenth regiment of Kentucky militia, com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Presley Gray, in 
.the service of the United States, commanded by 
Major-General John Thomas, from November 
10, 1814 : 

Captain Thomas Joyes. 
Lieutenant .Andrew Poltor.^f. 
Ensign Samuel Earickson. 


Sergeant John Hadlcy, substitute fur W. Lawes. 
Sergeant James B. Kninell. substitute for Jolm H. Voss. 
Sergeant John Booker. 
Sergeant John B,\iiibndg2. 
-— Corporal John Ray. 

Corporal VS'illiam Sale, substitute for Samuel Eoscourt. 
Corporal Alex. Calhoon, substitute for Jacob Sniiser, Jr. 
Corporal William Diierson. 

Musician -Anson S. }liili.ird, substitute for Courtney .M. 

Musician Peter Marlow, substitute for K. Cinipion. 


Christopher Kelly, substitute for Lewis Pottortl. 

Nathaniel Floyd, substitute for Jacob Hikes. 

Ale.t. Ralston, substitute for Michael Berry. 

W'cstley Martin, substitute for Henry Martm. 

Adam Groshart. 

Jacob Brinley. 

Thomas Dunn. 

John Little, Jr. 

Godfrey Meddis. 

Thomas Talbott, substitute for John Reed. 

Isaac Batman. 

John Sebastian. 

Cornelius Croxton, substitiue for Thomas Long. 

Joseph Tyler, killed 8th of January ^ 1813 in battle. 

Mason Hill, substitute for George B. Didhck. 

Wilham L.ittell. discharged by habeas coipus. 

Hugh Carson, substitute for H. W. .Merrisveilier. 

David Turner, absentee, claimed not leg.illy drafted. 

Samuel \'ance, absentee. 

Price Parish, substitute for William -Anderson. 

J.icob Hubbs, substitute foi .Alex. Pope. 

John Grenawalt. 

Abraham B.ilee, substitute for James Hughes. 

James Stewart, substitute for William Ferguson; wounded 
8th January. 1315, in b.Uile. 

James Risiey 

Gershom Rogers, failed to appear. 

John Booty, substitute for Ebene^er Burkinan. 
- George K. C. Floyd, disch.arged by habeas corpus. 

John MiUer. substitute for Solomon .Veal. 

John .Morryfield, substitute for Thomas S. Baker. 

I-ovi Miller, substitute for Charles Stevens. 

James Chinoweth, discharged by court ot enquiry. 

^Villiam Johnston, substitute for James Johnston. 

James Glasgow. 

John Jones, substitute for Robert McConnell. 

Patrick Stowers, substitute for Samuel Stowers. 

Philip Tr.aceler, substitute for James Fontaine. 

William Myrtle. 

Samuel Lashbrook, substitute for James A. Pearce. 

George Jackson, substitute for Daniel Carter. Cardwcll. 

John Glasgow, substitute-for Thomas Colscott. 

-Moses Williams, [substitute for ?'i |ohn Venawine, Sr. 

Robert B. -Ames, substitute for Charles R.ay. 

John Robbins. 

Stephen Johnston, di.^charged by court of enquiry. 

John Fowler. 

Peter Oiiier. 

Jacob Slaugluer, substitute for William Hodgin. 

James Woodnard. substitute for George Markwell. 

George Miller. 

Moses Guthrie. 

Samuel Holt, substitute for John Sousley. 

Jcs.i U"heeler, substitute for Moses Williamson. • 

William Thickston. 

Muses Welsh. 

Squire Davis, substitute for Thomas ^rcCauley. 

William Xewkirk. 

William Junkins, absentee. 

Isaac Mayfield, substitute for Jeremiah Starr. 

Francis D. Carlton. 

John Bagwell, substitute for Jacob Martin. 

Charles Cosgrove, substitute for George Brown. 

Philip Manville, absent. 

Patrick Dougherty. 

William Elms. 

George R. Pearson, substitute for Thomas Pearson. 

Absalom Brandenburgh, substitute for Joshua Heading- 

Chester Pierce, substitute for James Garrett. 

William Steele, substitute for John Keesacker. 

John -Morrow, substitute for John D. Colmesnil. 

Job.n O tianlon. 

Benjamin K. Beach, failed to appear; substitute for John 
M. Poague. 

John Laville, absent. 

Harvey Ronte, absent. 

Reason Reagan, absent. 

John McCord, abs^^nt. 

Thomas Ross, substitute for Silas C. Condon ; captured 
by the enemy 8th Janu.iry, 1815. 

-Michael Stout, subbiitnte for -Arltun McCauley. 

-Abner C. Young. 

John Minter. 


No military movement calling for aid from 
Kentucky could have occurred since the white 
man fust set the stakes of civihzation at the Falls 
of the Ohio, without calling out as large a pro- 
portion of the tlyliting men of this region as 
went from any other part of Kentucky, or of the 
Northwest. Every war from the beginning of 


^•; • ;■-?■• 



^^-^^-^^'Yy y^-^ 

^'9/ y^-^/- 



warfare in America, after tlie settlement of the 
Ohio valley began, had in it a large contingent 
from Louisville and Jefferson county. This was 
eminently tlie case when the Mexican war broke 
out, in which Kentucky volunteers bore so great 
and distingui.shed a part. May 13, 1S46, the 
Congress of the United States made formal 
declaration that, "by the act of the Reijublic of 
Mexico [the invasion of the soil o.f Texas,] a 
state of war exists between that Government and 
the United States." A requisition was made 
upon Governor Owsley, of this State, by Major- 
General Gaines, of the United States army, for 
four regiments of volunteers. The Go\ernor 
had already, before receiving this call, ap[)ealed 
to the citizens of Kentucky to organize into mil- 
itary companies. On the next day after his 
proclamation (dated Sunday, May 17th), the 
Louisville Legion, then stronger than now by 
half — in number of companies, which counted 
nine, commanded by Colonel Ornisby — oft'ered 
its service for the war, which was accepted by 
the Governor. A subscription of $50,000 for 
extraordinary expenses ot the State was ob- 
tained in the city by Hon. William Preston, and 
placed in the Bank uf Kentucky, ready for ii=e. 
May 2 2d, the Governor issues his proclamation, 
in accordance with the call of the President upon 
the States, asking volunteers enough from Ken- 
tucky to fill two regiments ol infantry and one 
regiment of cavalry. Four days thereafter he 
announces that the quota of the State is I'ull. 
The Louisville Legion, forming bodily the First 
regiment of Kentucky volunteer infantry, is al- 
ready upon transports for the moveinent to Mex- 
ico. The Second regiment contains no entire 
company from Jefferson county, but some gallant 
officers and men, as Lieutenant-Colonel Henry 
Clay,' Jr., who al'terwards went down in the storm 
of battle at Buena \'ista, have been recruited 
here. The cavalry regiment is commanded by 
a Louisville soldier, Colonel Humphrey Marshall, 
the well-known Confederate General of the late 
war, and has two Jefferson county companies, 
the first and second, commanded, respectively, by 
Captains W. J. Heady and A. Pennington. 
Seventy-five companies more than the call de- 
manded, or one hundred and the in all, were 
tendered to the Governor from different parts of 
the State. The martial spirit was rife among the 

August 31, 1S47, another requisition is made 
by the General Government upon Kentucky— 
this time for two regiments of infantry, which 
are' speedily raised and sent to the theater of 
war. The Third regiment of Kentucky volunteer 
infantry contains no Jefferson county company ; 
but there is one in the Fourth — the fifth, num- 
bering sixty-eight men, commanded by Ca[)tain 
T. Keating, and among the field officers of the 
regiment is Lieutenant-Colonel William Preston, 
of Louisville. Three more companies from t!ie 
city are recruited and oflered to the Governor ; 
but too late, and they cannot be accepted. 


In February, 1858, it having been determined 
by the authorities at Washington to send an 
armed force to Utah, to bring the rebellious 
Mormons to terms, the Legislature of Kentucky 
authorized the Governor of the State to raise a 
regiment of volunteers to be offered in aid of the 
expedition. On the 6th of March Governor 
Morthead made [iroclamation accordingly, and 
within about a month twenty-one companies, or 
more than twice the number needed, were ten- 
dered to the State. Among them were three 
I'roni Louisville, commanded by Captains Rogers, 
\\"ales, and Trimble, being one-seventh of the 
entire number reported from the State at large. 
The Governor was reduced to the necessity of 
making a selecticm by lot, which resulted in the 
choice, among others, of the commands of the 
two captains first named, making one-fifth of the 
whole regiment. 


When the recruiting for the Utah regiment 
was going on in Louisville, it was little thought 
by most of those engaged, in the patriotic work 
that soon a storm-cloud of infinitely greater 
depth and width and blackness would lower 
upon the land, whose fell influences should sep- 
arate husband and wife, brother from brother, 
father from son, tViend from friend, and plunge 
the whole great country in grief. But already 
the cloud was gathering; the next year it lowered 
more closely; and when in i860 the election of 
Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency of the 
American Union aroused the South to a move- 
ment looking to separate existence, few were so 
blind as not to see that an imminent, deadly 
struggle between the States was impending. 



On the iSth of Dc-cenibtr of this year, Senator 
John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, who stood by. 
President Buchanan's message denying the right 
of secession to a State, offered his celebrated 
compromise in the Senate. It leading provis- 
sions have been summarized as follow: To 
renew the Missouri line 36' 30' ; prohibit slavery 
north and permit it south of that line ; admit 
new States with or without slavery, as their con 
stitutions may provide ; prohibit Congress from 
abolishin.c; slavery in the Stales and in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, so long as it exists in Virginia 
or Maryland ; permit free transmission of slaves 
by land or water, in any State ; pay for fugitive 
slaves rescued after arrest ; repeal the inequality 
of commissioners' fees in the fugitive slave act ; 
and to ask the repeal of peisonal liberty bills in 
the Northern States. These concessions tG be 
submitted to the people as amendments to the 
United States Constitution, and if adopted never 
to be changed. Mr. Crittenden, the same day, 
made one of the greatest intellectual eflbrts of 
his life in su|iport of his measure. But all was 
of no avail. Four days tlicreafter his proposi- 
tions were negatived by the Senate committee of 

These facts are restated here, in order to ex- 
plain the action of the two State conventions 
which assembled in Louisville on the Sth of 
January (Battle of New Orleans day), 1S61 — the 
Constitutional Union, or Dell and Everett con- 
vention, and the Democratic Union, or Douglas 
convention. Each was presided over by a former 
Governor of the State ^the one by ex Governor 
John L. Helm, the other by ex-Governor Charles 
A. WicklifTe. They appointed a joint conference 
committee, by which a brief series of resolutions 
were agreed upon, submitled to the respective 
conventions, and by each ad(jpted without a dis- i 
senting voice. They read as follows: 

Rcuhfd. That we rccuiim,.-tul ll-.c ..'ioj.iHjn of the propo- 
sitions of ovir distinguished .sifTLitur, J.'lui J. Crittt-nden. as 
a fair and honorable adjiisiment of the diftk'j!i;« which 
divide and distract the people of our l)< i-uunlry. 

Resolved. That we rccomnicml lo the lA-yi^I.itiire of the 
State to put the arntndnients of .-tii.ifir Critlemlcn in form, 
and sufjmit th'-m to the other .St.itcs; un.l that, if the disor- 
ganiz.^tion of the present Inion is not arrested, the Sutes 
at^reeins to thesi' aiiundni-'nts of l\f constitution 
shall form a sepaiate confeder.icy. with power to .idmit new 
ijiates under our glorious constitution thus aineiiilcd. 

R/sohed, That we deplore ilie existence of a L'liion to Lie 
held together by the sword, wuh l.iws to be enforced by 

standing armies; it is not sucli a I'nion as our fathers 
intended, and. not worlii preserving. 

These resolutions probably expressed accurately 
the sentiments of the vast majority of the people 
of Louisville, and indeed of, the entire State, 
who were not already committed to the cause of 
secession. A L^nion State central committee 
was appointed, consisting, it will be observed, 
almost solely of citizens of Louisville, viz: 
Messrs. John H. Harney, \\'illiam F. Bullock, 
George D. Prentice, James S[)eed, Charles Rip- 
ley, William P. Boone, Phil. Tompert, Hamilton 
Pope, Nat. Wolfe, and Lewis E. Harvie. On 
the I Sth of April, following, after the fall of 
Sumter, the call of the Secretary of War upon 
Governor Magoffin for four regiments of Ken- 
tucky troops, his refusal, and the great speech of 
Senator Crittenden at Lexington, urging the 
neutrality of Kentucky in the coming struggle, 
the committee issued an address to the people of 
the Commonwealth reading as follows: 

Kentucky, tbroiig'n her executive, has responded to this 
appeal [of the President for militia, to suppress what he de- 
scribes as "combinations too powerful to be suppressed in 
the ordinary way," etc.]. She has refused to comply with it. 
.■\nd in this refusal she has acted as became her. We ap- 
prove the response of the Executive of the Commonwealth. 
One other appeal now demands a response' from Kentucky. 
The Government of the Union has appealed to her to furnish 
men to suppress the revolutionary combinations in the cotton 
States. She has refused. She has most wisely and justly 
refused. Seditious leaders in the midst of us now appeal to 
her to furnish men to uphold those combinations against the 
Government of the Union. Will she comply with this ap- 
peal? Ought she to comply with it? We answer, with 

emphasis, NO! She ought clearly to comply with neither 

the one appeal or the other. And. if she be not smitten with 
judicial blindness, she will not. The present duty of Ken- 
tucky is to maintain her present independent position — tak- 
ing sides not w ith the Government and not w ith the seceding 
States, but with the Union against them both: declaring her 
soil to be sacred from the hostile tread of either, and, if 
necessary, making the declaration good with her strong right 
arm. .And — to the end that she may be fully preparetl for 
this last contingency and all other possible contingencies — 
we would have her .zr/w herself thoroughly at the earliest prae- 
ttcable moment. 

What the future duty of Kentucky may be, we, of course, 
cannot with certainty foresee; but if the enterprise announced 
in the proclamation of the President should at any time here- 
after assume the aspect of a war for the overrunning and 
subjugation of the seceding States— through the full asser- 
tion therein of the national jurisdiction by a standing military 
force — we do not hesitate to say that Kentucky should 
promptly unsheath her sword in behalf of what will then have 
become the common cause. Such an event, if it should oc. 
cur — of which, we confess, there does not appear to us to be 
a rational probability — could have but one meaning, a mean- 
ing which a people jealous of their hbertv would be keen to 
delect, and which a people wc.^rthy of liberty would be 



prompt and fearless to resist. When Kentucky detects this 
nie.ining in the action of the Government, siie ou,:;ht — with- 
out counting the cost — to take up arms at once against the 
Uovernment. Until she does dttcct this meaning, 'hi on^'/:/ 
to hold lursilf htdcpcndtnt if both sides. ,uid compel b^th sides 
lo respect tin iyiviflability of her soil. 

The same day an important I'nion meeting 
was lield'in Louisville, which was addressed by 
the Hon, Janxes Guthrie, who had similarly 
spoken to a large assembly in the city March 
1 6th, and by Judge William F. Bullock, Archi- 
bald Dixon, and John Young Dixon. It did not 
advocate armed resistance to secession, however, 
but fell in with the prevailing current in behalf 
of neutrality, and opposing coercion by the 
North, as well as secession by the South. It was 
declared by this meeting that Kentucky would 
be loyal until the Federal Government became 
the aggressor upon her rights. The City Coun- 
cil, on the 23d of the same month, appropriated 
$50,000 to arm and defend the city, and pres- 
ently increased the sum to $250,000, provided 
the people should sustain the measure by a ma- 
jority vote. The Bank of Louisville and the 
Commercial Bank agreed to make tem[)orary 
loans of $10,000 each for arming the State, in 
response to the request of the Governor ; but 
the Bank of Kentucky declined to furnish any 
money for the purpose, except under the express 
stipulation that it should be used exclusively 
" for arming the State for selfdefense and protec 
tion, to prevent aggression or invasion from 
either the North or the South, and to protect the 
present status of Kentucky in the L'nion." 

By this time (the last week in April) the situa- 
tion was beginning to excite grave apprehension 
and not a little vivid indignation in Kentucky — 
particularly at Louisville, whose commercial in- 
terests were seriously threatened by certain of 
the demonstrations there. This part of the story 
may best be told in the words of Mr. Whitelaw 
Reid, now editor of the New York Tribune, and 
former compiler of the great work in two vol- 
umes, known as Ohio in the \\'ar. In his de- 
scription of the sentiment and scenes in Cincin- 
nati at the outbreak of the war, Mr. Reid says: 

The first note of war from the East threw Cincinnati into 
a spasm of alarm. Her great warehouses, her foundries 
and machine shops, her rich moneyed institutions, were all a 
tempting prize to the Confederates, to whom Kentucky was 
lH''.ieve(l to be drifting. Should Kentucky go, only the Ohio 
river would remain between the gre;a city an<l the needy 
enemy, and there were absolutely no provisions for defense. 

The first alarm e.xpended itself, as we have already seen, 

in the purchase of huge columbi.ids, with which it was prob- 
al)ly intended that Walnut Hills should be fortified. There 
ne.vt sprang up a feveiish spirit of active patriotism that soon 
led to'complications. For the citizens, not being accustomed 
to draw- nice distinctions or in a temper to pern^it anything 
whereby their danger might l)e increased, could see little dif- 
ference between the neutral treason of Kentucky to the Gov- 
ernment and the more open treason of the seceded States. 
They accordingly insisted that shipments of produce, and' 
especially shipments of arni.s, ammunition, or other articles 
contraband of war, to Kentucky should instantly cease. 

T|ie citizens of Louisville, taking alarm at this threatenetl 
blow at their very existence, sent up a large delegation to 
protest against the stoppage ot shipments from Ohio. They 
were received in the council chainhcr of the city hall, on the 
morning of .\pril 23d. The city Mayor, Mr. Hatch, an- 
nounced the object of their meeting, and called upon Mr. 
Rufus King to state the position of the city and State au- 
thorities. Mr. King dwelt upon the friendship of Ohio to 
Kentucky in the old strain, and closed b}' reading a letter 
which the mayor had procured from Governor Dennison, of 
which the essential part was as follows: 

"My views of the subject suggested in your message are 
these ; So long as any State remains in the Union, with pro- 
fessions of attachment to it, we cannot discriminate between State and our own. In the contest we must be clearly in 
the right in every act, and I think it better that we should 
risk something than that we should, in the slightest degree, 
be chcirge.ible with anvthing tending to create a rupture with 
any State which has not declared itself already out of the 
Union. To seize arms going to a .State which has not actu- 
altv seceded, could give a pretext for the asseitinn that we 
had inaugurated hostile conduct, and might be used to create 
a popular feeling of favor of secessii)n where it would not ex- 
ist, and end in border warfare, which all good citizens must 
deprecate. Until there is such citeumstantial evidence as to 
create a moral certainly of an immediate intention to use 
arms against us, I would not be willing to order their seizure: 
much less would I be willing to interfere with the transporta- 
tion of provisions." 

" Xow," said Mr. King, " this is a text to which every citi- 
zen of Ohio must subscribe, coming as it does from the head 
of the State. I do not feel the least hesitation in saying that 
it expresses the feeling of the people of Ohio. " 

But the people of Ohio did not subscribe to it. Even in 
the meeting pidge Bellamy Slorer, though very guarded in 
his expressions, intimated, in the course of his stirring 
speech, the dissatisfaction with the attitude of Kentucky. 
■■ This is no time," he said, " fur soft words. We feci, as 
you have a right to feel, that you have a Governor vho can- 
not be depended up^n in this crisis. But it is on the men of 
Kentucky that we rely. All we want to know is whether you 
are for the Union, without reservation. Brethren of Ken- 
tucky, the men of the Xorth have been your friends, and 
they still desire to be. But I will speak plainly. There have 
been idle taunts thrown out that they are cowardly and timid. 
The North submits: the North obeys; but bcwaie! There 
is a point which cannot be passed. While we rejoice in your 
friendship, while we glory in your bravery, we would have 
you understand that we are your equ.ils as well as your 

To all this the only response of the Keiituckians, through 
their spokesman. Judge liullock, was "that Kentucky wished 
to take no part in the unhappy struggle : that she wished to 
be a mediator, and meant to retain friendly relations with all 



her sister Stales. But he was .£;re.illy gratified with Governor 
Dennison's letter." 

Tlie citizens of Cincinnati were not 
when their indignation iiad come to tal>e 
large meeting. whereat-c.\citcd speeches \ 
Unions passed deprecating the letter 


Four days later, 
sh.ipe, they held a 
:re made and reso- 
u|ion tlu'Clover- 

nor to retract it, deckrint; that U was too lale to draw nice 
distinctions between open rebellion and armed neutrality 
agninsl the Union, and that armed neutrality was rebellion 
to the Governnient. At the close an additional resolution 
was offered, which passed amid a whirlwind of applause : 

" J\tj^'i:'::t, That any men, or set of men, in Cincinnati or 
elsewhere, who knowingly ship one ounce of (lour or pound 
of provisions, or any arms or articles which arc contraband 
of war, to any person or any State which has not declared its 
firm determination to sustain the Government in its present 
crisis, IS a traitor, and deserves the doom of a traitor." 

So clear and unshrinking was the first voice from the great 
conservative city of the Southern border, wliose prosperity 
was supposed to depend on the Southern tr.ide. They had 
reckoned idlv, it seemed, who counted on hesitation 
here. From the first day that the war was opened, the people 
of Cincinnati were as vehement in their deterii.ination that it 
should be relentlessly prosecuted to \ictory, as the people of 

They immediately began the organization of home guards, 
armed and drilled vigorously, took oaths to serve the Gov- 
ernment when they were called upon, and devoted themselves 
to the suppression of any contraband trade with the South- 
ern States. The steamboats were watched ; the railroad 
depots were searched ; and, wherever a suspicious box or bale 
was discovered, it was ordered back to the warehouses. 

After a time the General Government undertook to prevent 
any shipments into Kentucky, save such as should be re- 
quired by the normal demands of her own population. A 
system of shipment permits was established under the super- 
vision of the Collector of the Port, and passengers on the 
ferry-boats into Covington were even searched to see if they 
were carrying over pistols or other articles contraband of 
war; but, in spite of all efforts. Kentucky long continued to 
be the convenient source and medium for supfilies to the 
Southwestern seceded States. 

The day after the Cincinnati 
course relative to Kentucky, Governor Dennisun, stimulated 
perhaps by this censure, but in accordance with a policy 
already formed, issued orders to the presidents of all rail- 
roads in Ohio to have everything passing over their roads in 
the direction of Virginia, or any other seceded State, whetlier 
as ordinary freight or e.\press matter, e.\-^ 
traband of war, immediately stopped and repoi-ted to 
The order may not have had legal sanctior 
state of the public mind it was accepted b; 
ample authority. The next day similar instructions were sent 
to all express companies. 

The leadins incidents of the war, so far as 
Louisville or this county had part in them, will 
be related in our annals of the city ; we have 
designed to furnibh simply enough by way of in- 
trodurtion to the large roster of the Jefferson 
county contingent in the war. Recruiting for 
either army was not long delayed by Kentucky's 
neutrality. The Louisville Legion now, as when 
the war with Me.xico broke out, was again early 

denouncing his 

ined, and if con- 
reported to him. 
, but in the excited 
1 concerned as 

in the field with its offer of service, and the ma- 
jority of its members formed the nucleus of the 
]\ifth Rcntiicky vokmtcer iiilantry, which, under 
the lead of l.ovcll H. Rousseau, was rendez- 
voused and drilled on Indiana soil, at Camp Joe 
Holt, Jeffersonville, in deference to the sentiment 
at home against encampment on Kentucky -ter- 
ritory. When neutrality was finally and forever 
broken by both sides in the conflict, recruiting 
thenceforth went on vapidly, and Camps Sigel 
and others were in due time formed in Jeffer- 
son county.where many other regiments or parts 
of regiments were assembled and equipped. 

Shortly after the formation of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, in iS6i, the Ken- 
tucky Branch of the Commission was organized, 
with 1)1. Theodore S. Bell, of Louisville, as pres- 
ident, and the Rev. j. H. Heywood, vice-presi- 
dent- Says Mr. Heywood, in his History of the 
Blanch ; 

Di . Bell was chosen'prcsident by the unanimous and hearty 
vote of the members. Fiom beginning to end he labored 
unwearicdiy, bringing to the great work not only fervent 
patriotism and bioad humanity, Ijut a mind alike capacious 
and active, extensive meriic.d e.xperience, a thorough mastery 
of 5anitarv law, and an intense, unrelaxing energy that was 
as vitalizing as it was inherently vital. .And while rendering 
this invaluable service to the general cause— service to which 
Dr. Newberrv, the accomplished Western Secretary of the 
United States Sanitary Commission, repeatedly paid the 
tribute of highest admiration— Dr. Bell had personal charge 
of a large hospital, which he so conducted as to command 
the esteem of and win the love and gratitude of hundreds 
and thousands of sick and wounded soldiers and their re- 
lations and friends. Never in any country or any age 
there been more untiring consecration of rare powers and 
extraordinary attainments to noblest ends than made by 
our honored fellow-citizen during those eventful years of des- 

The brief but excellent memoir of Dr. Bell, 
contained in Louisville Past and Present, adds 
the following concerning his services; 

The part Dr. Bell enacted for the relief of the sick and 
wounded of both .irmies during the war for the maintenance 
of the Union is especially worthy of mention here. In the 
samt.ary report mentioned above [that of Dr. Newberry, 
secretary of the Western department of the commissionj it is 
Slated that on the night of the 9th of October, 1862, a meet- 
ing in Louisville was called to provide for the sufi'erers of the 
battle of I'errvville, fought on the previous day. Dr. Bell, 
whose energies had been so severely taxed that a severe spell 
of sickness ensued and he was supposed to be near death's 
door, was informed by his faithful and sympathetic friend. 
Captain Z. M. Shcrley, of the intended meeting, and Dr. 
Bell announced his intention of attending it. Captain Slicr- 
lev protested against this course in a man who could not 
stand alone; but finding the doctor inexorable, called and 
aided him in getting to the meeting. Dr. Bells knowledge 



of sanitary mcasurt-b guiilcd ibe meeting, and the matter was 
ci>mmittcd to his keeping. A fiiend called and informed him 
that he and another gentleman were going to Perryville in a 
bpiing wagon and a learn of two mules. The gentleinan 
agreed to carry for Dr. Bell seventy pounds' of stores for the 
wounded. This package, consisting of a bale of oakum, a 
number of pounds of pure chloroform, b.nnd igts, and beef 
extract, was put up under his supervision, and reached Perry- 
vilie far in advance of any of the numerous other transpona- 
lion wagons and ambul.inces. The medical director. Dr. 
Murray,' said as soon as he saw the pack.ige opened he knew 
that a doctor had presided over that merciful p.Vck.ige. 

A great number of Confederate sick and wounded were 
left at Perryville and Harrodsburg, and their friends in this 
city contributed funds for their relief. Under an order of Boyle these articles had to pass through the hands 
of Dr. Bell as president of the Kentucky branch of the San- 
itai'y Commission. He was so faithful to the dictates of 
mercy in forwarding everything of this kuid that when Cap- 
tain Harry .Spotts. who, as one of the active friends of the 
Confederates, still had a fund of about $300 in his hands. about' leaving Kentucky to take charge of the St. Xich- 
olas hotel, he called upon Dr. Bell to take charge of this fund 
and purchase needed articles for the Confederate sufferers at 
PerryviUe and Harrodsburg. While Dr. Bell was willing to 
undergo the labor, he felt tl.e delicacy of his position; but 
he made the purchases of Wilson & Peter, who filled the bill 
in the most liberal manner, and he presented their bill of 
items to Captain Spotts, who expressed his entire satisfaction 
with his expenditure of what he very properly deemed a 
sacred treasure. The articles were forwarded to the hospitals 
to the care of those wlio were ministering to those Con- 
federate sufferers. General Boyle gave full permission to 
him, as president of the Kentucky branch of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, to forward to the sick and 
wounded Confederate soldiers at Harrodsburg the liberal 
contributions of their friends in this city, and Dr. Bell per- 
sonally superintended the forwarding of these articles by the 
means of transportation placed at the disposal of the Sanitary 

Dr. Woods, of the Indiana branch of the 
sanitary commission, wrote thus at one time of 
its operations here : 

We render assistance to all that we can. We give prece- 
dence to the most distressing. .A poor soldier is about to 
die at Park barracks. We obtain for him a discharge fur- 
lough, give him transportJtion. and semi him home to die in 
his family. I 'spent a whole diy with hi» case alone. .V 
poor widow cimc here, with but one child in the world, and 
he is a soldier sick in the hospital. She has no dependence 
but him. She is robbed at the depot of every cent she has. 
No possible means to go home except to get her son dis- 
charged, draw his pay, and go home on that. She obtains 
from the surgeon a certilicate of disability. His case is re- 
Jetted by the board of examining surgeons. For herwework. 
I met a soldier who had lost the power of 
speech by sickness. He had been sent here without a pass, 
more what to do or where to go than a sheep. 

' t'jok hmi to the medical director and tiie hospital. 

I he citizens of Louisville, as ni.-iy easily be | 
supposed, were fully represented among the State \ 

iiiilitary authorities during the war-period, as well 
as among the soldiers in the field. Hamilton 
Poiie, !'>([., a prominent lawyer of the city, and 
son of W'orden roi">e, the famous old pioneer, 
was placed in chaige of the State guard at the 
outset of the war, with the rank of brigadier- 
general, and remained in coniniand until the 
troops were received and mustered into the Fed- 
eral service. Samuel Gill, of that city, was a 
conimissiorier on the military board under the 
legislative act of May 24, 1S61, and also under 
that of September 25th, of the same year. Gen- 
eral John Boyle was Adjutant-General of the 
Stale from Sei-iteriiber i, 1S63, to .\ugust 1, 
1S64, when he resigned. Messrs. James \V. 
Gault, \V. DelJ. Moirill, and James F. Flint, 
were State military agents until February 15, 
1866. Dr. Isaac W. Scott was surgeon-general 
from September 3, 1S63, with the grade of col- 
onel. The Hon. James Speed, afterwards At- 
torney general of the United States, was long 
mustering ofificer for the Northern armies at this 


It is a fact well very worth noting that, although 
Louisville is very far from comprising one-fifth 
of the entire population of the State, and did not 
furnish near twenty per cent, of the total number 
of Federal soldiers who enlisted in Kentucky 
during the war, yet one fifth (22) of the whole 
(115) list of general and staff officers in the Union 
arniy, appointed and commissioned by the Pres- 
ident, were selected from her loyal ranks. The 
following is believed to be a full or nearly full, 

Lovell H. Rousseau, brigadier-general, October i, 1861 ; 
major-general, Octobers, 1862; resigned November 30, 1865. 

William T. Ward, brigadier-gene.ral, September 18, 1861; 
breveted major-general February 24. 1865 ; honorably 
mustered out .\ugust 24, 1865. 

Walter C. Whitaker, brigadier-general, June 25, 1S63 ; 
breveted major-general, Marcii 13, 1S65 ; honorably muster- 
ed out .-VugusL 24, iSofu 

Jeremiah T. Boyle, l.'rigadier-general. N'o\'ember 9, 1861 ; 
resigned January 26, 1S64. 

Thomas E. Bramlette, brigadier-general, .\pril 24, 1863; 
declined accepting. 

Eli H. Murray, Colonel Third Kentucky Veteran Caval- 
ry; brevet brigadier-geneial, March 25. 1865. 

.Alexander M. Stout, colonel Seventeenth Kentucky In- 
fantry; brevet brigadicr-gener.\l, March 13, 1S65. 

]. Rowan Boone, lieutenant-colonel Twenty-eighth Ken- 
tucky Veter.m Infantry; brevet colonel .March 13, 1865. 

Philip Speed, major and paymaster September 11, 1861 ; 
resigned December 23, 1862. 



L. T. Thustin. "major and paymaster, Scpleriiber ii. 1861 ; 
breveted lieutenant-colone! ; honorably mustered out April 
30, i8f36. 

John Speed, captain and .assistant adjutant -general. Marcli 
II, 1S63; major and paymaster. Marcli_22. 1863; resigned 
March 19, 1865. 

Alexander C. Semple, captain and assistant adjutant- 
general, Sciitember 29, 1862: resigned .March 18, 1864. 

J. Speed Peay, captain and assistant adjutant-general, 
July 15. 1862; resigned May 2. 1803. 

H. C. McDowell, captain and assistant 
Novcniber'19, i86t; resigned .\ugust 27. 1862. 

William P. McDowell, major and adjutant-general March 
II, 1S63; resigned December 9, t8o3. 

Stephen E. Jones, captain and aid-de-camp July 9, 1862; 
resigned March 13. 1865. 

William L. Neal, captain and assistant' quartermaster. 
May i8, 1864; honorably mustered out July 28, 1865. 

George P. Webster, captain and assistant quartermaster. 
May 12. 1862. • 

R. C. Welster. captain and assistant quartermaster. Sep- 
tember 30, 1861. 

Joshua Tevis. captain and assistant commisacy of subsis- 
tence, November 26, 1S62; canceled. 

]ohn Fry, captain and assistant commissary of subsistence. 
October 31, 1861; breveted ni.ajor March 13, 1S65; honorably 
mustered out February 2. r866. 

]. F. Huber. captain and assistant commissary ofsubsistence 
October 25. 1861; breveted major; honorably mustered out 
October 12, 1865. 


It is probably impossible to ni.ike up from any 
sources accessible to the local historian an exact 
roster of the soldieis contributed to the Federal 
armies by Louisville or Jefferson county. Had 
the massive volumes in which the enterprise and 
liberality of the State have embodied her rolls 
of Union soldiers, the Adjutant General's Report, 
for 1S61-66, contained, as does the Adjutant Gen- 
eral's Report of Indiana for the same period, the 
places of residence as well as the names of the 
soldiers, the work would be comparatively easv. 
Fortunately, the alphabetical list of ottkers, 
near the close of the great work, docs supply the 
places of residence of the commanders ; and 
with these as a' partial guide, it has been possible 
to compile with reasonable certainty the lists 
of Federal commands from this city and county. 
Still many soldiers must have been recruited 
here for regiments and batteries which con- 
tained, perhaps, not a single officer from this 
region, and so, particularly_if the recruit was mus- 
tered into service elsewhere, there is absolutely 
no clue to his residence here. On the other 
hand, it would not answer to accredit Louisville 
with every soldier mustered iuto service here; 
since large numbers of men who had no residence 

in this region came or were brought here for the 
purpose of muster-in. Notwithstanding these 
difticulties, hpwever, it is believed that an ajjprox- 
imately correct list has been prepared. If any 
mistakes in spelling are found, they must be 
charged over to the office of the Adjtitant-Gen- 
eral of the State; since the printed words of the 
Report have been in our compositors' harids, and 
the whole has been carefully read by cojiy. 



Colonel William K. Woodruff. 
Colonel Thomas D. Scdgewick, 
Adjutant Henry Weindell. 
Surgeon David J. Grifliths. 
Assistant Surgeon Frederick Rectanus. 



First Lieutenant .Archibald .McLellan. 
First Lieutenant George R. .McFadden. 
Second Lieutenant Sidmund Huber. 



Colonel Thomas E. Biamlelte. 

Keginiental Quartermaster T hoinas M. Selby, Jr. 

Surgeon Joseph Foreman. 

-Assistant Surgeon James R. Scott. 




First Lieutenant Henry Teney. 

The Fifth was organized in the summer of 
1 86 1, under Lovell H. Rousseau as colonel, and 
was mustered into the L'nited States service on 
the 9th day of September, 1861, at Camp Joe 
Holt, Indiana, by W. H. Sidell, major Fifteenth 
United States infantry, and mustering officer 
Colonel Rousseau was promoted to brigadier 
general October 5, iS6r, and Harvey M. Buck 
ley was then commissioned colonel. He re 
signed January 26, 1S63. William \V. Berry 
was, on the 9th of February, 1863, mustered as 
colonel, and commanded the regiment until its 
muster-out of service at Louisville September 14, 
1S64. A portion of the regiment veteranized, 
and at the muster-out of the regiment the re- 
cruits and veterans were transferred to the Second 
Kentucky Veteran cavalry. 

It is with regret that a report of this regiment 

*Th--- regimentil histories are used, almost verbatim, as 
they are found in the Adjutant-General's Reports. 



is [Hiblished without a full history of its career, it 
having been one of the very first Kentucky regi- 
ments which "rallied around the flag," and 
formed part of Rousseau's gallant command, 
who, by their timely occupation of Muldrough's 
Hill, kept at bay the rebel forces, and saved 
Kentucky from being drawn entirely within the 
enemy's liiics. The difficulties under which the 
regiment was raised, having been organized at 
the time that Kentucky was resting upon her 
neutrality, assure to its officers the greatest credit 
■ for their success. 

At the alarm of an invasion of Kentucky by 
Buckner, this gallant command was thrown out 
in defense of Louisville by General (then Colonel) 
Rousseau, held them in check until reinforce- 
ments arrived from Ohio and Indiana, and for- 
ever refuted the idea of a State standing in a 
neutral position when the integrity or unity of the 
nation was assailed. From the time the Fifth 
crossed the Ohio river from Camp Joe Holt, re- 
cruiting progressed rapidly throughout Kentucky. 
Having been thoroughly disciiilined during the 
time it was encamped at Joe Holt, it took the 
lead of and was the nucleus around which the 
Grand Army of the Cumberland was formed. It 
served with distinction, and gained repeatedly 
praise from the department commanders. Be- 
sides numerous others, it participated in the fol- 
lowing-named battles in which loss was sus- 
tained, viz: Bowling Green, Shiloh, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw, Atlanta, Dallas, 
Orchard Knob, Liberty Gap, and Blain's Cross 


Colonel Lovell H. Rousseau. 
Colonel William W. Berry. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John L. Treaiior. 
.M.tjor Charles I.. Thomasson. 
.Adjutant Edward \V. Johnstone. 
RegimenUil Quartermaster Tliomas C. Pomtoy. 
Regimental Quartermaster Jolin M. Moore. 
.Surgeon John .Matthews. 
Ch.iplain James H. Bristow. 
Scrueant-Major James T. O. Day. 
Sergeant-Major .\. .Sidney Smith. ,.' 
Scrgeant-Major Hervey R. Willett.' 
Quartermaster-.Sergeant Frederick N. Fishe. 
Qu.irtcimaster-Serge-ant William H. Havars. 
< 'omn)iss;iry-Sergeant Henry .A. Day. 
Hospital Steward [ohn Wyatt. 


I'rmiipal .Musician Simon Boesser. 
''rincipal Musician James .Matthews. 

Musician Major C. Barkwell. 
Musician Joseph F.iiiscidler. 
Musician Christian Giinter. 
Musician Bcrnhard Klein. 
"Musician Charles Oswald. 
Musician Samuel Ross. 
Musician John Ruef. 
Musician Richard Schwenzer. 
.Musician Philip Selbert. 
Musician John Spillman. 
Musician Edward S. Sargeant. 
.Musician Philip Schenkle. 
Musician John Schottlin. 
Mu.sician Joseph Von Berg. 
Musician Sebastian Waller. 
Musician .Amos IJppincott. 


Captain William Mangen. 
Captain Thomas Foreman. 
First Lieutenant John NL Smith. 

First Sergeant James Maloney. 
Sergeant Paul Clinton, 
Sergeant Andrew C, O'.Veil. 
Corporal Robert Cosgrave. 
Corporal Benjamin D. Edsell. 
Corporal Francis .M. Gray. 
Corporal Michael Hammond. 
Corporal James J oyce, 
Coiporal B.-irtholomew Buckley. 
Teamster Charles Bowers. 


Thomas CorbitI, James Crow, Thomas Dunn, John F. 
Dietz, John Dutch, Joseph Eisner, James Fisher, Patrick 
Gorman, Robert Johnson, Daniel Keefe, William Keiley, 
Lewis Keele, John Manning, .Mcnanzer .Monroe, Edward 
Murphy, John Mara, Bernard McElroy, Jeremiah McCor- 
inick. Timothy McCormick, Patrick McCormick, John .Mc- 
Keown, Michael O'Malia, Theodore Pohlnieyer, John Pil- 
kington, Jeremiah Rager, John Rimo, Bernard Smith, Jacob 
Suftell, John L. Swabb, Peter S. Kennedy, Thomas Lewis, Loftie, Oliver Newell, Henry Runcli, James Ryan, 
John Toomey, Henry Toby, John Thornton, James Tevlin, 
Larkin .Adams, John Kilroy, .Moses .M. Pounds, William 
Bediker, Daniel Curran, William W. Cassedy, John W. 
David, Alexander Gilbert, George Grimshaw, William H. 
Harrison, Owen Keiley, Benjamin Lowery. Philip F. .Nioore, 
John Myer, .Michael, McCook, John Turnboe, Patrick Vale, 
Thom;is Dwyer, William Herren, Hugh McElroy. 


Captain Lafayette P. Lovett. 
First Lieutenant John P. Hurlev, 
Second Lieutenant Thom.asJ. McManen. 
Second Lieutenant David Jones. 

First Sergeant George Sambrall. 
Sergeant James D. McCorkhill. 

Sergeant Lewis P. Cu.v. . • 

Sergeant John .M. Sutton. 
Sergeant John Ott. 
Sergeant William Batman. 


Sergeant Jolin Vickrey. 
Corporal Frank Tope, 
Corporal Joseph Conen. 
Corporal William 1'. Duelt;y. 
Corporal [anies Noonan. 
Corporal )olm Kroliler. 
Corporal William (iibson. 
Corporal EJwarU O'P.rien. 
C;orporal Sanford T. Thurman. 
Corporal Thomas -Selvage. 
Corpora! Richard Sweeney. 

Musician Joseph Hazlewood. 


Joseph W. Bennett, Benjamin F. Bennett, Robert Ceatt, 
Patrick Clcary.Jolm Caiter, James Coimell. George Cancel- 
man, Thomas Frothingham, Mich.ael Fnink, John Gunn, 
George W. House, Frederick Herns. Louis Hodes, John 
Jordan, John Kenney, Henry Kendall, John F. Koch, Jere- 
miah Knapp, Henry Ma)iore, Joseph .Miller, Edward Mitch- 
ell. Thomas Murray, James Mulcha, Charles Ott, Joseph 
Smith, William Snider, John T. Steele, William T. Thur- 
man, Elijah Thurman, Thomas Hardin, Thomas Rirrctt, 
John Branan, Henry Conner, John Dunn, Augustus Hess, 
William B. Jones. William Movyers, Enos Sutton, .Vlc.xander 
Tinock, Louis B.ase, Joseph Dey, Frederick .\. Frishe, Pat- 
rick Woods, John Met?, Johnson Todd, Beauford Thurman, 
Levin W. Collins, Simon Echart, Thomas Gunn, Conrad 
Granco, Charles Shupp, Christopher Becker, McKille F. 
Howard, Richard Henaii, .Alexander Mullen, John Xorris, 
John W. Sutton, Peire Sutton, William Stewart, James H. 
Sirles, Richard Toole, Thomas \'o5s. 



Captain .\saph H. Speed. 
Captain Christopher Leonard. 
First Lieutenant Richard Jones. 


First Sergeant Albert Webb. 
Sergeant Lewis Hagerman. 
Sergeant William Foster. 
Sergeant William Shaw. 
Sergeant John Rhodes. 
Sergeant Mason L. Speed. 
Sergeant Frank Liglitner. 
Sergeant Le Grand Dunn. 
Sergeant Stephen Jewell. 
Corporal George W. Byers. 
Corporal Henry B. McKinney. 
Corporal Charles Stiglili. 
Corporal Peter Holb.ick. 
Corporal John Ernwiiie. 
Corporal Richard Goodman. 
Corporal Charles Osterman. 
Corporal John Pcevler. 
Corporal Henry Hoos. 
Musician Geoige FuiT. 


Jacob Barber. John Backhoff, Martin Buder, Sidney, James Carroll, Benjamin F. Davis. Robert Dotson, 
.\nthony Dunbar, James fragerniin, Jesv Hill, i^ienrv Hess, 
Thomas Kelly, James Kennedy, I'homas Kennedy, Joseph 
McGuire, Thomas .Molumby. James .Medlock, Thomas 
Maher, Michael O Brien, Zachariah Owens. Peter OConnell, 

John J. O.ikley. Willaby Riclinrd.son, John Rilcy, Christo- 
pher Schiffman, Joseph Wright. Henry Wright, Alonro Bu- 
chanan, William Burns, John Don.ihoo, Michael Dublin. 
_ Henry HopSineyci, William H. McCoy, John Myrick, Frank 
Pariridge, Tiiomas J. Peters, Charles Rumsey, Jesse D. Sea- 
ton. Martin Scibert, Conrad Weii/cl, Henry Wilkins,- Dennis 
Burk, George Weimhoff, John Brown, Dennis Conroy, Pat- 
rick Flinn, George Hughes. George Letzinger, John MeCor- 
niick, William S. Riley, Sly, Bernard Arthur, John 
Casper, John Cronnn. William Dotson, William D. Lafly, 
Michael Collins, Michael Conley, Elijah Davis, John Mc- 
La-uf;i..i.., iicii., ;vl,„.ji, Joseph N. P.irri,h, Richard Kulil- 
man, Gothart Schnell, Henry Valentine, George Ward. 


Captain William W. Rowland. 

First Lieutenant Theodore F. Cummings. 


First Sergeant Adam Kraher. 
Sergeant Conrad Sliiie. 
Sergeant John P. Richardson. 
Sergeant Daniel R. Grady. 
Sergeant Edwin R. Waldon. 
Sergeant Elijah Tansill. 
Corporal James Kennedy. 
Corpora! .Alexander .McKeon. 
Corporal John .Apcl. 
Corporal .Alfred W. Harris. 
Corporal James C Giil. 
Corporal Louis Glass. 
Corporal David Ward. 
Corporal Patrick Burks. 
Corporal Bryan Drew. 
Musician WiUi.un Edwards. 
Teamster John S. Kounts. 


James K. Cooper, James Dinnelsv, Josiah Edwards, Pat- 
rick Giliigan, John P. Gunnels. Martin Harback. Charles 
Haas, Robert Hodgkins. Ferdinand KerchendofTer, John 
Maloy, Sebastian Mill. Louis Neas, fVanci's Powell, J.imes 
Ryan, John Stab, Deaderick W. E. Stark. John C. William- 
son, Edward Parks, Benjamin Patrick, Louis M. Ronime, 
Austin D. Sweeney. Martin Weitz, Keran- Egan. John Fo.x, 
William Hacket, John .McCormick, Hugh McMannus, Rob- 
ert omith, Theodore Steinbronk, Clemance Schroeder. John 
Higgins, Thomas Larue, .Alexander Moore, John M. Young, 
Daniel Canning, Patrick Dannelly, Henry Geotz. Dents 
Henderson, James Hartigan. John Mann. Michael .McMan- 
nus, James H. Richardson, George W. V'andergrafi, Conrad 
Brawner, Riley .\. DeVenney, Edward Fleming, Arthur 
Graham, .Stephen B. Homback, George rnffer. Jacob Sauer, 
Louis C. Smith, Francis ^L Tucker. 



Captain August .'Schweitzer. 
Captain Stephen Lindenfelser. 
Second Lieutenant Frank Dessell. 


Sergeant Frederick Knoener. 
Sergeant Joseph 
Sergeant Mathias Schontess. 
Sergeant John B. Schiebel. 


Sergeant John Schmidt. 
Corporal Rudniph Egg. 
Corporal Bfrhard Seeiner. 
Corporal Koch. 
Musician George Schweitzer. 
Teamster .Andrcv Meissner. 


I.oscph Dumpcl, Cli.irles Fntz. Pi:ilip Falter, John P. Fe!- 
ber, Frank Gehring. George Gerlach, John Huber, Valentine 
Harper, Christian J utzi, Jacob Karciicr, F'hilip R. Klein. 
BernhardKcihl. Koehler. Jacob Lan.\, Louis Lorey. 
Charles Murb. I'eter Mueiier, KoOeri .Ncre, i riomas KaSLci- 
ter, William Roif, [oseph .Stoltz, Philip Schneider, Julius 
Winstel, Jacob Arenat, Christian Baker, Michael Boheim, 
Henry Boheim. Frederick Bernds, Charles Evers, John 
Eisele, Johu Fust, John Hufn.igel, Theodore Jagar, Anton 
Kuntz, William Martin, Henry Menze. Joseph Meyer, 
George Kuckert, Anter . Scherer, John Stokinger, Louis 
Schernbachler, Christian Welker, Joseph Weingartner, 
Benedick Walzcr, Casper Weiner, Peter Klotz, George Bam- 
miester, Fredeiick Dlair, Philip Goebel, John Mohr, Francis 
Brohm, Christian Erisinan, Ernst Hofsap, .Andrew Kolb, 
Simon Rehm, William Stranch. Philip .Amann, Ludwig Bm- 
ger, Bartholomew Drcbler, Joseph Faust, Joseph Overmoljie, 
Frederick Rodeloff, John Traber, John L', William 
Vopel, John Gollichalk. Gothard Kling, .Adam Ncukirk, 
Henry Niehaus, Henry S.^ner, Benedict Wcmpe, Jacob 



Captain John E. Vansant 

First Lieutenant William H. Posveil. 

Second Lieutenant John Martz. 


First Sergeant John O'Herrin. 
First Sergeant Jacob Peterson. 
Sergeant Uavid Doup. 
Sergeant William Knox. 
Sergeant Frankl.n Braichcr. 
Sergeant William Burgess. 
Sergeant John Keer. 
Sergeant Chailcs Kahlert. 
Sergeant James T. O Day. 
Sergeant William ^napp. 
Sergeant P'elix Wolf. 
Corporal John F. Beal. 
Corporal Robert Bryant. 
Corporal Albert Laycock. 

Corporal Henry .Agee. 

Corporal Thomas Martz. 

Corporal John Brodock. 

Corporal .Nathaniel E. Osboni. 

Corporal John Wilkins. 

Musician William D. Mewheny. 

James .Atwood, Samuel C. Kline, John Cusick, John Dew- 
berry, Patrick Darmady, John Eagan. Joseph Foster, James 
Finernn. William Fletcher, John Garrick. William Hamilton, 
John Hoffman. Patrick Kenvin, Frederick Kick, James P. 
Lawler. John Lcmmer. William .\Iewheney. John Peterson, 
Charles Ratsfeldt. .Andrew j. Smith. John Siratton, James 
Savage, Harrison Stage, Edward S. Sexon, David Wood- 
f.ill. John Erb. William R. Greaihouse, William W. Hill, 

Lee Hand, Henry Henston, Martin Surmons, George 
Wright, Mathcw Higgins, Jeremiah Locherv, John Scott, 
Henry R. Willett, Joseph Kraig. Jacob Mungee, Jonas 
Smith, John W. Thorp, Michael P,r.Kly, Andrew Conncry, 
Edward Dowling, Irwm Deweese, Charles Dolan, James 
Kno.x, Nicholas Miller, John Pierce, Henry C. Smith, John 
Schmidt, Jacob Stencil, D.ivid Whitiaker, Edward Brown, 
James H. Hughes, Oliver H. Johnson, Matliew Murtehier, 
William Pulslort. 



Captain John NL Huston. 

Captain Willian H. Powell. 

First Lieutenant David Q. Rousseau. 

First Lieutenant John W. Huston. 

Second Lieutenant Theodore E. Elliott. 


First Sergeant Elanzey C. Keene. 
Sergeant Robert W. Grayburn. 
Sergeant John C. Cahill. 
Sergeant Jerry McCarty. 
Corporal William L. Shoemaker. 
Corporal John Lacey. 
Corporal Joseph Whillock. 
Teamster Francis N. Lord. 


William Botts, Thomas Burns, Lanson V. Brown, William 
Black, Patrick Crane, Michael Colgan, James W. Coburn, 
Patrick Dougherty. .August Depoire, Patrick Franey, 
Thom.isFerrlcr, Charles Hanley, Benjamin P. Henmann, 
John W. Hendricks, John Kelker, Patrick Morgan, Thomas 
McGuire, Lawrence McGiven, John McCullough, Patrick 
Riley, Charles Smith, John Vannorman, Patrick Welch, 
John Bowman, John Barker, James Conklin, Thomas Cody, 
Henry Gormely, Dennis Jordan, Robert Kyle, Francis S. 
McGuire. Thomas McGrath, John N'olin, Charles W. Toler- 
in, John Bodkins, Levi Byron, John W. Coburn, John Gregg, 
Henry Ha\^kin5, Thomas McLane, John F. Hampton, Wil- 
liam H. Hambaugh, .Allen Smith, Richard Beaty, Harvey 
Bell, Thomas C. D.ukin, .Martin Donohue, .Andrew .\l. Estes, 
Patrick Flannagan, Charles Flann.igan, George B. Lamb, 
Michael Murphy, Luke -Moran, James .A. ODonneld, John 
Shoemaker, .Michael Sullivan, James Wall. Martin Brophy, 
Benj.imin H. Conklin, Daniel Dunn, Michael Fellon, Michael 
Hart, Daniel S. Kelly, Patrick Rowan, Francis S. Shafer, 
Thomas White. 

Captain Charles L. Tomasson. 
Captain Norman B. Moninger. 


First Sergeant John Neel. 
Sergeant Minor MeClain. 
Sergeant Peter Lynn. 
Sergeant George Borgel. 
Sergeant George Willi.ams. 
Sergeant John .M. .Adams. 
Sergeant Rudolph Schimpff. 
Corporal George H. Ingham. 
Corporal James .McDonald. 
Corporal William Summers. 
.Musician William Mager. 



William Altx-Tt. George Bcssingcr. Lewis Brown. John G. 
Burklin, Joseph Bergman. Krcdi'iick Brooncr, Squire Cible, 
John Uaughenhaush. I ).nighenli.mgh. (juy Fr>-, 
John Gesford, Joseph H.nkni.m. Isaac [ackson, John T. 
Hays, Frederii-k Jones. .Andrew J.ickson. George Knelling. 
James \V. MaUiiigly. Thilip .Ncel, C'hailes Rohiiison. Homer 
Stephens. William Shearer, William Sonnicc, P.-ter Schmidt, 
John I). Stinson, William Stevenson, .Andrew H. Ward. 
John W. Williams, Richard .A. Wiliou, Charles Wenze. Wil- 
liam Bumgardner. Antone Bcssmger, Charles Fleckhamer, 
Si.. C'l.u/ ■ T'' .-'.'■.M-u.-r. Jr., IMlt Cll^a, \Vi:',:..i., Ilcpe- 
well, John B. Martin, [ohn S. Martin. Jo)in Manion, Henry 
Muth, Joseph Ogden, Vincent rellegrinni. Frederick Renye, 
Cb.arles, Chany C. Seymour, Edward VVhitlield, George 
Haltenb.uim, Edward F. Jenks, Frank Klcspir, Edward 
Kaufman, )ames P. Williams, Henry B- Clay, JaniL-s M. 
Davidson. William Factor, John Hoft"m..n, John Kriskie, 
John Matheney. Thomas McXickell, .Augustine Wihiian. 
Simon Bryant, William Gravalte, James O. Gales. Luke Gal- 
lagher. Mathias Drouiniller, .Andrew Fisher, JohnG. .\Iobins, 
William Mackjuson, Joseph Roo3, Harrison Si'mmcrs. 
Thomas L. -Martin, Simpson C Summers, John F. -Sugar. 



Captain .Alexander B. Ferguson. 
Captain L'pton Wilson. 
First Lieutenant -A. Sidney Smith. 
Second Lieutenant Wilson J. Green. 


First Sergeant William Andei son. 

Sergeant Christopher Bender. 

Sergeant Ciiarles Price. 

Sergeant Lemuel Younger. 

Sergeant Thomas J. Manning. 

Sergeant Henry A. Day. 

Sergeant Robert P. Ball. 

Sergeant Jacob Turner. 

Sergeant Loyd il. Vititoe. 

Sergeant Ignatius Dawson. 

Corporal John Moore. 

Corporal William Murphy. 


Charles Brothers, Jerry Butler. John Berge. Jacob Conrad, 
John E. Eney, Dennis Farnev. Henry Glass, Charles Ice, Wil- 
liam Lipflint, James Leslie, William Moore, John .McNeal, 
Edgar C. Parker, William Riley, John Ruder, Joseph Smith, 
Joseph TolU.-rt. Frederick Wall, Theodore Walters. Gerhard 
Wagner, -Marshall H. .Anderson. Lewis Filmore, Jacob Good- 
incountz. Matthew Haupt, James .M. Hughes. Thom.-is 
Johnson. Alonzo B. Kills, Henry C. Miller, William P. Rob- 
inson. Patrick Ryan. Christopher Shon. Herman Shroeder. 
Dennis Younger. Howard .A. .Anderson, Henrv 
James M. Hogan, .Mexander Hughes, John Brown. James 
V. C. Cus.Ach, Martin Dorsey, Joseph -Mantinus, Henry 
Ranbergher, J.ames Corrigan. John H. Elliott. Lewis Felker. 
Michael Green. John H. Manning. Lewis Mawes, Henry R. 
Morgan. Meredith H. Prewitt, Herman Slasinger, Thomas 
H. Winsant, Muses Briscoe, Richard Felker, Conrad Gr.arle. 
John H.uigs, John J.ickaon. Klangs, George King- 
dom. John .Marshall, Henry .Murback. Franklin Price, EU H. 
Prewitt. Christian Slammer. Michael Sweeney. Henry Wall. 

Captain John D. Brent. 
Captain John "P. Hurley. 
First Lieutenant George \\*. P.ichardson. 
First Lieutenant Morgan Piper. 
Second Liculcnant (jeorge W. V\'y,ili. 

Sergeant Charles Freeman. 
Sergeant Louis Edsell. 
Serjeant .Alexander G. Renfro. 
Corpoial John Brandrick. 
Corpora! Thomas Mullen. 
Corporal John Freeman. 
Teamster Prcjly T. Richardson. 


Thomas .Agan, Edward Boidin, Robert Buckner, Henry 
C. Buckner, James .A. Coleman, Archie Cawhcrd, James -A. 
Conner, Jflmes D. Carter, John D.iwson. William Dawson. 
Robert Drummond, Harvey Gray, James Gum. Robert L. 
Hatcher. Thomas J. Ingraham. George W. Jones, John 
Neal, Louis Nest. Henry C. Richardson, William H. Routh. 
Peter Stone, Edward Welch, William F. Wallace, Orlando 
Wairner, Frederick Bussy, Shadrach T. Butler. Edward 
Brund.tge, Michael Higgins. John Knapp, James Lacy, 
Louis Langolf, William McBee. Lafayette Mudd. David T. 
-Moneypeny. Michael SranesdofTer, Sylvester Wick. Edgar 
Wairner, James Yates, William W. Hill. William Hamilton. 
James Long. Edward -S. Sexton, Simpson Stout. Thomas J. 
Craddock, John O. Donohugh. Allen Higginbotham, John 
H. Hawkins, Thomas .McDcrmotl, Thomas -Nunn, John W. 
Runyan, Samuel L. Richardson, Caleb C. Tharp, John 
White, John C. Cobble. John J. Devanr, Thomas J. Eving- 
ton, John J. Gaily, Surg. W. Gaddie. Terah T. Hagan, 
James Hodges. William P. Jacknan. Louis J. Richardson. 
Robert Peoples, William, Joseph Smiih, Elisha O. 
Chandler, Thomae H. Cook, James Herold. William W. 
Jones. Thomas J. McGill, Whitfield .\". Pedago, Wiiliam 
Reynolds, Garland E. Rabum, Jacob Rush, Williim H. 
Ross. Patrick H. Wyatt, John Etherton. Edward .McCarty. 


The Si-xth was organized at Camp Sigel, Jeffer- 
son county, in December, iS6i, under Colonel 
Walter C. Whitaker, and was mustered into the 
United States service on the 24th December, 
1861, by Major W. H. Sidell, United States 
mustering officer. Immediately after organiza- 
tion it was assigned to the Department of the 
Cumberland, and entered upon active duty. It 
was commanded by Colonel U'hitaker until June 
30, 1 863, when he was promoted brigadier-general, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel George T. Shackelford 
was commissioned colonel. In all the early en- 
gagements in Tennessee and on the Atlanta 
campaign, this regiment took an active part, .'.nd 
in the battles of Shiloh, Stone River, and Chick- 
amauga suffered severely in killed and wounded. 
The number actually killed m battle exceeded 



ten jjer cent of the number originally'enlisted. 
It was the recipient of frequent orders of praise 
for undaunted gallantry, soldierly] conduct, and 
discipline. Throughout its whole enlistment its 
achieveinenls were brilliant and without reproach, 
and equal to the best volunteer regiment in the 
army. It participated in the following-named 
battles, in which loss was sustained, viz: Shiloh, 
Stone River, Readyville, Tennessee, Chicka- 
mauga, Mission Ridge, Allatoona Mountain, Re- 
saca, Kcriesaw Mountain, Dallas, Rocky Face 
Ridge, Peachtree Creek, Adairsville,"and Atlanta. 
It was mustered out at Nashville, on the 2d 
day of November, 1864, the recruits and vcter 
ans being transferred to the Kentucky Mounted 



Major William N. Hailman. 

Qu.iriermasier Mich.ael Billings. 

Captain Henry C. Schmidt. 

First Lieutenant GernKin Dettweiler. 

Second Lieutenant Gustavus Bohn. 

Second Lieutenant Frederick V. Locknian. 

First Sergeant George Murk. 

First Sergeant Jacob Brooker. 

First'Scrgeant ficnry HochL 

Sergeant Nicholas Rentz. 

Sergeant Frank Schnatz. 

Sergeant Charles Gussrnann. 

Sergi-.ant Frederick Schnellcr. 

Sergeant Charles Thomas. 

Corporal John Gross. 

Corporal Jacob Jecko. 

Corporal Charles Metz. 

Corporal George Tuckmuller. 

Musician Philip Kramer. 


John Beck, Peter Fie. Frederick Galidorf. Adolph Huze, 
Conrad Hennis, Frank Hellinger. P.ermhardt Holdiagh, 
Jacob Hill, John Jacob, Conrad Koehler, Jacob Kuhler, 
B'.anis Klump, George Kinch, John Kraup, .\nton Mack, 
Ernst G. MuUer. Jacob -Mailer, Henry Pope, Mich,iel Stab- 
ler. Thomas Schreller, .Adam Schork. Jacob Schinizler, 
Joseph Umhofer, Jacob .Areni, Frederick Borghold, Jacob 
Hrennerson, Nicholas Couch, Jacob Doll, Sebastian Feeker, 
Clement Frunkle. William Frah, William. Geiscl, Frederick 
Haum, Juhn Kennervey, Mathew Knuf, Joseph Meir, Freder- 
ick Muller, Loreng Nussbaum, Joseph OUniann, Peter 
Pirum. Lhas Ress, Augnst Warthorn, Staver Egle, Valen- 
tine Huffman, Frederick Berdandig. John Bohain, John 
Brown, Frederick Funk, William Knop. Joseph Loover, 
August Nool. Gottleib Oppenkussky. George Riilher>-. 
Cl,r-,>tian Wilke, Lorenz Vogel. Conrad Witiich, I.Frederick 
llu'ler. John Tusselman, Mich.ael Heriick,; Cimstian Kas, 
j'-hn Kleimer. Bernhard Koope, John P. Kramer, Michael 
Kramer, John Lintz, Henry Linhey, Edward Smith, Heier- 
ich Wenderiin, Ludwig Wirth. 



Captain Bernhard Hund. 

Captain William Frank. 

First Lieutenant Lorenzo .\ninion. 

Second Lieutenant .Anton Hurd. 

Second Lieutenant Valentine .Melcher. 

First Sergeant Lewis H. Branser. 
First Sergeant John Uaublc. 
? Fra:u .Maas. 
Sergeant Joseph Grunc'.vald. 
Sergeant Joseph Bouchard. 
Sergeant Jacob Kimmel. 
CorpoiarEnglebcrt Eniig. 
Corporal Herman Traverl. 
Corporal Lorenz Cltseli. 
Corporal Mike Wucrinle. 
Corporal George Billing. 
Corporal Nicholas Voly. 


Jacol> Burlein, George Burlein, John Crecclins, George 
Frederick Dittrich, Clemens Erhhardt, John Foeistet, Charles 
Franke, John;Fi.\,;.'\delbt-rt'Grieshaber. George Goetz. Lewis 
Kammerer, Fdivard Kluinp, J(ihii'"Henry Kalthoefer, Wil- 
liam Kreider, August I.aniprecht, Christoph Lehmann, Jacob 
Martin, Franz Mueller, Au.gust /iPrinz, Mathews Rudloff, 
Louis Staute. .George^Stier, Lewis Strauss, Franz Schwerer, 
Henry Wcbert, Ignatz JWittenauer, Jacob Wunsch, Frede- 
rich 'Zeilz, ConradJ Amon,', Coniad Buschman, Frederich 
Froehlieh, John George Fox. \'incent Flaig, Coniad Gut- 
knecht, Adam, Hafermaas, "Henry Kassling. John I.ause, 
Peter Lause, John Melcher, Joseph Mathes. John Noerlinger, 
John Nichier, Jolm Roth,,G,ittfried Rentschler, Jacob Scharf, 
John Schmidt, Charles Schill,'Marku5 Schmidt, Franz Schna- 
bel, Joseph Spanninger, William Stanze, John Funk, Charles ' 
Grunewald, Mathew Herth, August jEversberg, John Long. 
Franz Basssel, William Braumuller. John Ueisinger, William 
Kirchhuebcl, Henry Kolb, Ignatz Lorenz, Philip Slandacher, 
Franz Schuster, Franz Zaner, Louis .Miller. 

Captain Peter Ernge. 
Captain Peter Marker. 
Captam Gottfried Rentschler. 
First Lieutenant George Marker. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Canning. 
Second Lieutenant Nicholas Sehr. 

First Sergeant Peter Kyrisch. 
First Sergeant Henry Poeiter. 
Sergeant Peter Kerkliof. 
Sergeant Henry Wulf. 
Sergeant Philip Oeswein. 
Sergeant Jacob Inningcr. 
Sergeant George Klaus. 
Sergeant David Muengenhagii. 
Sergeant Charles Nodler. 
Sergeant William Welker. 
SergL>ant John Kremer. 
Sergeant Theodore Wescndorf 
Corporal Julius Hoist. 
Corporal David Plaggenburg. 


Coiporal Joseph Amman. 
Musician Richard Engeibcrt. 
Wagoner Henry Kicser. 

Gottfried Cannon, Geori;e Uickhnit, Henry Doppler, 
Frank Dienst, Wenilel Held, Joliii Held, Philip Heiland, 
Herman Olgesgers, .Mhert Pfrffer, Joseph Rilzlcr, Christian 
Reiss. }Ierman Rneter, William .Stra-.sel, John Schuder, 
Jacob Schcnckel, Theobald .Slark, P.ernhard Teders, Nicolaiis 
Weber, Frank Wittman. William .Mircns.John .Mlsayer, John 
^T. ''-:r, ]-<-. Pi;-.h-', N';-!,~hor nmgc-.rll, Conrad Hnrd- 
■mann, Jacob Hesslcr, John Hallmann, John Laiier, Gust,\ve 
I^aun, Herman Riiss, John Rcuther, Cornelius Schwab. John 
Atris. Lorenz [John. .-Mphoiuo Carrington, Joseph McCoriibs, 
Willis H. Morton, James T. Terluine, .Anton Wurmser, Ed- 
ward S. Kelly, Michael Bach. Christian P,auer, John Doe- 
tenbier. Charles Fischbach, Joseph Kram, John Malley, 
Joseph Maas, Adam .Mans, Jacob Nfar.K, August Xolt, 
Henry Oberriller, ^Tarlin Ring, Christian Schuliniacher. Jclin 
Schipper, Rernhard Schneller, Gregor Schneider, John 
Stuempcl, John Vellon, .Andrew Wagner, Ferdimnd E. 



Captain Isaac X. Johnston. 



Captain August Stein. 
Captain Friedrich Xierhoff. 
Captain Dietrich Hesselbein. 
First Lieutenant William Frank. 


First Sergeant Felix Krumriech. 
Sergeant Christian Lambert. 
Sergeant Philip Xocker. 
Sergeant Anthony Scholl. 
Sergeant Julius Horst. 
Sergeant Rienhart Reglin. 
Corporal Bilthasar Hassinger. 
Corporal Joseph Waltz. 
Corporal Joseph Valte. 

Henry Altfultis. Leo Baumann. Henry Becker, William 
Denhardt, John Dahl, John Fger. Joseph Fcis, Herman 
Flottman. Christian Fritz, Louis Gaupp. Michael Hoch, 
William Hetzel, John Kuster, .Anthonv Klos, John .\Io=er, 
Simon Nege'e, Joseph Saner, Francis Schilling, Henry 
Schlatter, Joseph Schuster. Philip Speigcr, Valentine Stciner. 
Charles Stosser. Frank Wyle, Christian Bender, John Bisler. 
Henry P-nickmann, Philip Diehl, George Eitel, Michael 
Hausmann, Christian Hansecker. Henry Reichart. Christian 
Sanner, Louis Steinbach, Joseph Schumann. Henry Schibly, 
John Schweitzer, Jacob Spairohr, Frederick Utz, Michael 
Vester, Pefer Wagner, John Hubing, Thomas Muiler, Vital 
Bourkart. Casper Backmann, Clinstian Conrnd, Casper 
Kehlin, Clemens Klos. Casper Krebs, Christian Mirkel. 
John Christ .Moench, Hcnp,' Munsterkoller, Joseph Muiler, 
John J.acob Oberer. ?'rederick Orth, James Ranipendahl. 
Mike Reuicr. John Schwein, Jacob Schmidt. John Spanier, 
Conrad Seibcl. 


Assistant Surgeon Henry Tamniage. 


Captain William K. Gray. 

First Lieutenant Charles G. .Slianks. 


Regimental Quartermaster Franris M. Cummings. 

First Lieutenant Rufiis Somerby. 
Captain John M. Vetter (a). 


The Teiuli was organized at Lebanon, under 
Colonel John M. Harlan, and mustered into 
service on the 21st day of November, 1861. 

It wa.s assigned to what was then the Second 
brigade, First division of the Army of the Oliio. 
On the 31st of December the regiment com- 
menced its march from Lebanon to Mill Springs. 
It did not participate in the battle of Mill 
Sprinp;s, being on detached duty, but joined the 
division in time to be the first to enter the rebel 
fortifications. From Mill Springs it marched to 
Louisville, from which place it went by steam- 
boat to Nashville, thence to F'ittsburg Landing, 
and took part in the siege of Corinth. x\ few 
days after, the brigade of which the Tenth formed 
a part was sent by General Grant up the Ten- 
nessee river on transports, guarded by a gunboat, 
all under the immediate command of \V. T. 
Sherman. The forces landed at Chickasaw. 
The object of the expedition was to penetrate 
the country from Chickasaw and destroy the large 
railroad bridge east of Corinth and near luka, 
which was most successfully done. In June, 
1S62, the regiment marched to Tuscumbia, Ala- 
bama, and garrisoned Eastport, Mississippi, dur- 
ing July, 1862. It then marched through Ten- 
nessee and joined the division at Winchester, 
and garrisoned that place for some time. In 
July, 1S62, two companies of the regiment, A 
and H, then on duty at Courtland, Alabama, 
were surrounded by an overwhelming force of 
the enemy and captured. The Tenth composed 
a part of Buell's army in his pursuit of Bragg 
into Kentucky; after which it returned to Galla- 
tin, Tennessee. 

On the 25th of December, 1S62, the brigade 



started from Gallatin in pursuit of the rebel Ccn- 
eial John H. Morgan, and to protect the Louis- 
ville & Nashville railroad. Morgan was over- 
taken on the 2911 1 Decenihei, at Rolling Fork, 
and driven from the line of the railroad. In 
that affair (General Duke, of Morgan's com- 
mand, was dangerously wounded. The regi- 
ment returned to Nashville., and was imniedia'.el)' 
sent bv General Rosecrans, with other troops, in 
pursuit of Forrest and \Mieeler, on the Harpeth 
river, where it suffered terribly from cold and 
Tain. It was then stationed at La\ergne, Ten- 
nessee; at which, place, on the ylh of March, 
■1863, Colonel Harlan resigned the colonelcy of 
the regiment, duties having devolved on the 
colonel by the death of his father, the late IIlhi. 
James Harlan, which recjuired his personal at- 
tention. Aftei the resignation of General Harlan, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hays was promoted colonel, 
and remained in command until it was mustered 
out of service. 

The regimcn.t was with Rosecrans in his sum- 
mer campaign from Murfreesboro to Chieka- 
mauga, participating in actions at Hoover's Gap, 
Fairfield, Tullahoma, Compton's Creek, and 
Chickarnauga, returning with the army to Chat- 
tanoga. It was under General 'I'homas at Chick- 
arnauga, took part in the battle of Mission Ridge, 
and pursued the enemy beyond Ringgold, Geor- 
gia. It marched from Chattanooga and partici- 
pated in the action at Rocky Face Ridge Febru- 
ary 25, 1864, and, returning to Ringgold, which 
was then the outpost of the army, it remained 
there until May 10, 1S64, when it started with 
General Sherman on the Atlanta campaign, taking 
part in nearly every action or movement in that 
long and eventful campaign. The flag of the 
Tenth was the first to be placed on the enemy's 
works at Jonesboro, Georgia, September i, iS(J4. 
It was the first regiment to break the rebel lines 
at that place, and entered their works, capturing 
the Sixth and Seventh .Arkansas rebel regiments 
and their colors. 

On the 9th July, 1S64, the Tenth had a severe 
engagement on the north bank of the Chatta- 
hoochie river, engaging, single handed and alone, 
a brigade of the enemy and holding them in 
check until reinforcements arrived. It would be 
impossible to give a full histoiy of this regiment 
in the short space allotted for the purpose; the 
last campaign alone would nil a volume. Suffice 

it to say that, in the three years of its military ex- 
istence, the Tenth performed its whole duty, and 
at all times maintained the jiroud reputation of 
its 'State. It was mustered out of service at 
Louisville, l)ecember 6, 1S64. 

Besides numerous other engagements, it ])ar- 
ticipaled in the following, in which loss was 
sustained, viz: Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, 
Jonesboro, Corinth, Rolling F'ork, Hoover's 
Gap, Fairfield, Tullahoma, Compton's Creek, 
Rocky Face Ridge,' Resaca, Chattahoochie 
River, Atlanta, \'ining's Station, Pickett's Mills, 
and Couitl.itid, Alabama. 


Colonel John M. Ilailan. 
Mijor Henry G. Davidson. 
Quartermaster P.miuel Matlock. 



Second Lieutenant William F. Beglow. 

On alpli.ibetic cl list of officers, but not on published rolls: 

First Lionten.-int Henry W. B.irry. 

First Lieutenant J.nnies Reynolds. 

Second Licuten.xnt John Estes. 



Captain Israel B. Webster. 

coM.Miss:oNi;n officers. 
Captain William Twcddle. 
First Lieutenant James R. Watts. 


First Sergeant Charles G.iriey. 
Sergeant Richanl R. Bellam. 
Sergeant Robert Kea, Sr. 

Sergeant John L. Lee.'^^ 

Sergeant Da\id Richard. 
Sergcint Leioy S. Johnston. 
Serg?ant Peter A. Cox. 
Sergeant Edwnrd \S'ilkins. 
Corporal Tlionias A. Jones. . 
Corporal .-\ndrew Burger. 
Corporal John C Carroll. 
Corporal John F. Lee.-^^_ 
Corporal Joseph Montrose. 
Corporal William. B.iker. ' 

Corporal Dufiald Campbell. 
Corporal Tobias Burk. 
Musician Rabert Rea. Jr. 
Musician Peter McLaine. 


William Batman, John Buckley, Thomas Brown, Michael 
Cady, John Casey, Patrick Conway, Peter Dailey, Morris 
D.^rsey, Hu-li Eady, P.itrick Ilin^s. Jolin Hines, David Lcn- 
ihan, Levi M. Lee; .Adam Mulim. Jahn B. Mattingley, Wil- 
liam H.,Mattingley. Patrick Munday, Jasper O'Doeald. 
Richard Rotieits, William Rase, Joseph Siaffan, Richard 



Welsh, John Anu-tt, t^r., L'liick Backer, J..hTi A. Campbell, 
James Fox, F'atrick Gegan, James HundlcX. Dennis Kaii- 
Icahy, Daniel M.iloy, John Meekin; John Miirphey, I'atrick 
Miillobn. I'atiick Pliibban, Thomas H. Sherman. A, C;. 
W'inlhrop, Michael Wester. John ArniHt. Jr., !:h r,aii,^h, 
John T. lilair, .'\ilam Cine, Janiesl iilsingev, Simon Dearion. 
^Vlllianl M. KumbreU, Jacob H. Kncibf.'rt, Jostrph I.cnnon, 
John S. Mattini;ley, Thoma., Miles, Nicholas Maitingley 
\\'illiam Montgomery, James MoCami, Jonathan I'hilips, 
Alexander Slntler, Kdw.irJ Sntieri'icM. Jol,r. Stanton. James 
Thomas. Thomas Williams, Simon Carmoile. Dennis Cushin, 
John J. iaoa.\, liurtley .Muiphy. Jerry Mmpliy, .Mc- 
Vey, Patrick .Maylanth Th.imas .Mill,if;an, Daniel .Malnnev, 
Stonemason Mule. 




First Lieutenant Robert il. Mullins. 


Second Lieutenant Milton .\. Sivey. 
C0.MPAN1' H. 

Captain Elisha Snnpson. 
Captain James L. ilurch. 
Captain John L. Warden. 




Captain Patrick O. Hawes. 


Captain John F. Babbitt. 


Adjutant William W. Woodn.ff. 
Adjutant John S. Butler. 


The Fifteenth was org.iiii;-td in the fall of 
1861, at Camp Pope, nenr New Haven, under 
Colonel Curran Pope, and was mustered into the 
Unitfcd States service on the 14th day of De- 
cember, 1861, at Camjj Pope, liy C.T[)tain C. C. 
Gilbert, United States mustering officer, and 
marched to Bacon Creek ; (hence via Bowling 
Green, Kentucky, Nashville, .Murfreesboro, Shel- 
byville, and Fayette. Tcnne -sie, to Huntsville, 
Alabama; thence to Winchester, Tennessee; 
thence to C.unier's landing and Elk River. On 
the 3i5t day "f .Xi'.L'ust, 1.S62, it started on the 
camjiaign after Br.i^g, passing via Murfreesboro 
and Nashville, Teiuie-sce, and P'jwiing (jreen, 
Elizabethtown, and West Point, to Louisville, 
where it arrived on the ;6th day of Scjitember, 

1862. It left Louisville, and marching via Tay- 
lorsville, Bloomfield, Chaplin, and Maxville, ar- 
rived at the battle-field of Chaplin Hills on the 
Stii of October, 1862, and engaged in that severe 
conflict. It then moved via Danville and Stan- 
ford to Crab Orchard, where it turned back, and 
moving via Stanford, Lebanon, Bowling Green, 
and Nashville, arrived at the battle-field of Stone 
River on the 30th day of December, 1862, and 
took part in the five-days' fight at that place. 
On the morning of the 4th day of January, 

1863, it marclied through Murfreesboro, and en- 
camped until June 24, 1863, near that j^lace. It 
then marched via Hoover's Gajj, Manchester, 
and Hillsboro, to Decherd, Tennessee, where it 
remained about a month, and then marched via 
Stevenson, Raccoon, and Lookout Mountains, 
to the battle-field of Chickaniauga, arriving on 
the 19th of September, 1S63. 

Partici[>ating in the battles of the 19th, 20th, 
and 2ist of September, it covered the army as 
skirmishers, and moved to Chattanooga on the 
2 2d of September, 1863, where it remained on 
post duty until the 2d of May, 1S64, when it 
started on the Geoigia campaign, which was one 
of continual fighting, skirmishing, and marching 
for four months, resulting in the capture of At- 
lanta, which was occupied by the United States 
troops on the 2d day of Sejitember, 1S64. 

The regiment was chiefly engaged in garrison 
duty and guarding railroads until it was ordered to 
Louisville, where it was mustered out on the 14th 
day of January, 1S65 ; the recruits and veterans 
being transferred to the Second Kentucky Vete- 
ran cavalry. 

A reference to the casualty list will show that 
this regiment bore an honorable part in the war, 
the number of killed exceeding fourteen per cent, 
of the entire fortje, and the number of wounded 
being in greater proportion. 

It particij)ated in the following, among other 
numerous battles in which loss was sustained, 
viz : Chaplin Hills, Kentucky ; Stone River, 
Tennessee; Chickamauga, Georgia; Mission 
Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, .^Uatoona 
Mountain, and all the skirmishes of the .Xtlanta 


Colonel Curran P'ope. 
(Colonel James B. Forman. 
Lieutenant-Colonel George P. Jouelt. 
Major James S. '.Allen. 



Adjutant William P. McDowell, Quartermnstcr John \V. Clarke. 
Surgeon Ricliard F. Ixigan. 
• Surgeon ICdward H. Dunn. 

Assistant Surgeon Ezra Woodruff'. 
Ch.iplain William C. Atmore. 
Chaplain S.'xmuel T. Poinier. 


Captain William T. .MtCluie. 



Captain Henry F. Kalfus. 
Captain lohu B. McDowell. 



First Lieutenant John B. Wood. 
First Lienlcnant Richard F. Shafer. 
Second Lieutenant Harrison Hikes. 


First Sergeant .Andrew Kidd. 
Sergeant Lawrence Kelly. 
Sergeant Cyrus P. Beatly. 
Sergeant .Alfred Davis. 
Sergeant John Kiser. 
Sergeant Gerge H. P'ishback. 
Sergeant Joseph Rush. 
Sergeant William J. Shake. 
Coiporal James Mathews. 
Corporal William H. Miller. 
Corporal Edward Earl. 
Corporal James Wise. 
Corpor.d Burr Leslie. 
Corporal Lee M. Alvis. 
Corporal James H. Fields. 
Corporal Thomas J. Omer. 
Corporal Benjamin Pennington. 
Musician William French. 
Musician George Wilkerson. 
Wagoner William L. Cunningham. 


John George Beck, Conrad Bullock, John Burke, William 
Burke, Christopher Billing, James Black, John W. Cum- 
mins. Constantine Crugler, John Cunningham, John Cauf- 
man, J.acob Denton, Charles Engle, Reuben Furguson. John 
Ferguson, George I. Fields, .AleNander Grigsby. Robert 
Hicks, James King, James Lawson, Walton McNally, John 
O'Brien, Fred Plumb, William R.iy, John E. Stockton, John 
Snitemiller, Man Snyder, John Stanton, Joseph Vaughn, 
Jerry Willi.im5, Mathew J. Cockerel, Samuel .\I. Dorsev, 
Joseph Fogle, John Lawsman, James McGarvey, Charles 
L. Maddo.t, William D. Malott, George .\Ietem, Mike 
OUey, Hiram Potts. .Allen J. Parson. Louis Roth, Frank 
'<ouke, John Roush, Thomas Roonev, Edwin Sweeney, 
\MIIiam Wing, Philip Zubrod, Rufus .Ammons, Thomas J. 
Chilton, Robert Bishop, Robert Kyle, Philomon Olds. William 
^. I'o«,-ll, John Patterson, Joseph Snyder, Robert W. Tay- 
j'-r, Charles Barnett. Reuben Frederick, Thomas Lyden, 
Thomas J. Metis, James W. Engle, Jacob F. Winstead, 
Kred-rick Koberg, James Rady. 



Captain .Aaron S. Bayne. 

First Lieutenant William V. Wolfe. 

First Lieutenant Judson Baync*. 


First .Sergeant William A. PlielpS. 

Sergeant J.-'-mes J. Turner. 

Sergeant .\ndrew W'alters. 

Sergeant John K. .Abney. 

CorporalHenry H. Snmli. 

Corporal .Albert G. Bonnar. 

Corporal John Middloton. 

Corporal lUijah T. Jackson, 

Corporal John W. Bale. 

Corporal John Whitman. ' 

Corporal -Martin H. Wathen. 

Corporal Thomas J. Redman. 

Corporal .Aaron F. .Abney. 

Corporal Joseph Te.ahan. 

Musician Thomas Warren. 


Joshua Bayne, Byron Bomar, .Alfred Brown, James .\. 
Conner, Milton Davis, George W. Dobson, William W. 
Evans, John P. Gore, James .\L Hall, Willis Liggcns, Joseph 
Pepper, Robert Pattinger, Cyril D. Pierman, James C. 
Strouse, Frank Wright, John B. \\'alters, Isaac F. Firewar, 
Oscar Brown, Daniel Bell, F'rancis Daugherly, Jacob Ewen, 
David Jones, William McGill, Shelby Pepper, William 
Prewitt, John B. Shandoin. John W. Smith, George Trumbo, 
John W. Waide, F'rank .\ppleton, John H. Cheatham, Gill- 
rleroy G. Guthrie, John Heath, Ephrans S. Hill, Xapoleon 
B. Ireland, Samuel Loyeton, John C. Marr, Porterlield Mc- 
Dowell, Napoleon McDowell, William B. Bcauchaiiip, Rob- 
ert Baync, John Davis, John Dally, .Abel Elkin, James W. 
GoUaher, William H. Heath, Matthew Hunt. James B. John- 
son, Elijah Rodgers. Jenken Skaggs, William S. Thompson, 
Elbert P. .Abney, John Bayne, Reuben V. Bale, John Carna- 
han, George Ewing, John W. Hoback, Thomas Hoages, 
George Hill, James Hite, Harrison Lemmons, Thomas 
F^ewitt, ls,aac Shipp, George Stilts, John C. Skinner. 



Captain John B. Wood. 

First Lieutenant John D. Lenahan. 

First Lieutenant Frank D. Gerrety. 


F'lrst Sergeant Patrick Larkin. 
Sergeant James Gallaher. 
Sergeant Patrick .Shealby. 
Sergeant Patnck Rooneg. 
Sergeant Joseph Moran. 
Sergeant Martin Delaney. 
Corporal Thomas Conway. 
Corporal Oscar Hoen. 
Corporal Michael Joyce. 
Corporal John Scally. 
Corporal Thomas Scanlan. 
Musician John Crawley. 


Fhigh Boyle, Patrick Byrne, Daniel Buckley, Patrick Burk, 
Michael Conway, John Collins, Patnck Crawlie, Dennis Cuft, 



John Clark, James Dillon, John Daui;hcr, Thomas Fity-er- 
ald, Patrick Gannon, James (Jilh>pic, Timolhy Ilobin, 
Thomas Kain, Thomas Leonard, join: Murphy, IluKh 
McGrearly. Thomas McLaughlin, P.urirk McUade, (k-orye 
Mclntyre, James McCarly, Patrick Moore. Michael Nolin, 
Hugh O Roink, John O'Bryne, Joseph Stanton, Menry .Shea, 
James Sorgeson, James Shealby, Daniel Taughy, Owen Cas- 
tello, John Ooulen. Martin Grimes, ^L^nin Horan. Silas 
Johnson, Daniel Mcllvaiii, Michael Maloney, Henry ScotI, 
Conrad Smith, Thomas Coleman, Michael Collins, Patrick 
Degnan, Michael Hanlv, P.itrick Hannon, I'alrirk Keltey. 
James Lamb, Daniel McKenley, Martm Ross, Patrick 
Swift, James Park, Michael Hurk, Caffee, William 
Campton, Pauley Donahue, Jan\cs Dotioluie, Bernard Mc- 
Ginnis, Dennis Mulhevn, Thomas MouUlry, Samuel Rogers, 
William Stanton, David Seery. Edward Bo>le, John Mon.ity 
Patrick McHale, Patrick OBryne, James Cnrric, Patiiik 
Donohue, Charles Sweeney. 


Colonel Alexander M. Stout. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin II. Bristow. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Vaughan. 
Regimental Quartermaster Richard C. Gill. 



Captain Thomas R. P.row ii. 



Second Lieutenant William U. Meglemery. 




Captain Edmund B. Davidson. 
Captain John B. Buckner. 


This regiment was organized at Camp Swi^ert, 
Greenup county, on the 12th day of December, 
1861, under D. \V. Lindsey as colonel, Ceorge 
\V. Monroe, lieutenant-colonel, and \\'esley 
Cook, major, by which officers the regiment was 
principally recruited. Com(ian\ .\ was recruited 
from the city of Louisville and I'ranklin county ; 
companies B and C from Greenup county ; com- 
pany D frdm Carter county ; i'oiii]viny E from 
Lewis county ; company F from Franklin and 
Greenuj) counties ; company G from Carter and 
Boyd counties ; company H and I from C.irter 
county ; and company K from the city of Louis- 
ville. Previous to the organization of the regi- 
ment, comjianies A, K, and the larger portion 
of F were stationed at Frankfoit, and did eflicient 
service under the diiectioii of the .State authotily. 
The remaining comjjanies of the regiment were 
in Eastern Kentucky, and operated effectively in 

that section of thi.-; State and also in West Vir- 

ImnKdlately after the crganizalion of the 
regiment, it was ordered uji the Sandy Valley, 
and rendered most important service in the ex- 
pedition against the rebel Genetal Htiinphrey 
Marshall. A detachment of the Twenty second 
and of the Fourteenth Kentucky infinity, under 
commanel of Lieutenant-Colonel Monroe, during 
the bailie of Middle Creek, cliaiged and dis- 
lodged from a strong position the command of 
General Williams, Confedeiate, which movement, 
as the commanding officer, General Garlield, 
reports, was "determinate of the day." 

The mission up the Sandy having been ac- 
complished, the Twenty-second was ordered, by 
way of Louisville, to Cumberland Gap; and 
l)roved to be one of the regiments chiefly relied 
U[)on by Geneial G. W. Morgan for the caiiture 
of that point. During the stay of General .Mor- 
gan at the Gap, the discipline and efficiency of 
this regiment was frequently mentioned in gen- 
eral orders; and, after the battle of Tazewell, to 
the Twenty-second was assigned the duty of cov- 
ering the retreat of DeCourc) 's brigade from the 

During the retreat of General Morgan's divis- 
ion from Cumberland Gap to the Ohio river, this 
regiment was assigned to responsible duty, and 
discharged the same in such manner as to receive 
the [iraisc of the commanding general. 

Immediately after reaching the Ohio river, 
Morgan's division, with the exception of General 
Baird's brigade, was ordered up the Kanawha 
valley to the relief of General Cox. After driving 
the enemy beyond Gauley Bridge, the same com- 
mand was ordered South, and reached Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, about the ijtii day of Novem- 
ber, 1S62. .\t this jilace the division received 
some additions by recruits, and the 2 2d was 
augmented by some thirty men from Captain R. 
B. Taylor's company, who were assigned to com- 
pany I; and Captain Estep, successor to Captain 
Taylor, was assigned to the command of that 

The regiment, then comjjosing a part of Mor- 
gan's division, of Sherman's command, proceeded 
down the Mi3sissip[)i river, and on the 2Sth and 
29th of December, 1S62, attacked the works of 
the enemy upon the Yazoo river, at Haynes's 
Bluff, or Chieka^asv Bayou. In the charge on 



the 291I1, the Twenty-second lost a number of 
killed and wounded, among whom were those 
.gallant ofiicers, Captains Ciar'rard ajid Hei;an, 
and Lieutenant Truett, killed; and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Monroe, Captains lliuce and Gatliti.',ht, 
and Lieutenants Bacon and (.ir.iy, wounded. 

Shortly after the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, 
the army of the Mississippi, under Major-CJen- 
cra! McC!.-;-:-':!, r?y^_v'rA pnd d^-^^'royed .Ar- 
kansas Post, a strong position upon the Aikan- 
sas river, from which the fort took its name; in 
which affair the Twenty-second bore an honora- 
ble part. 

After remaining at 'i'ouny's Point and .Milli- 
ken's Bend two or three months, this regiment, 
with McClernand's corns, the Thirteenth, of 
which It formed a part, took the lead in the 
movemeni, by way of Bruensburg, to invest 
Vicksburg from the rear; the Twenty-Second 
performing an important part in all the engage- 
ments incident thereto, as well as in the capture 
of Vicksburg. After the surrender of that im- 
portant poml, the regiment marched wiili the 
brigade to which it was attached, and ab5i^tcd in 
the capture of Jackson, Mississippi. The Twen- 
ty-second then, following the fortunes of the 
Thirteenth army corps, was sent to the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf, where it rendered good service. 

The regiment veteranized at Baton Rouge in 
March, 1S64, and was consolidated with the 
Seventh Kentucky veteran infantry; the non- 
veterans being mustered out at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, January 20, 1S65. 

The regiment was engaged in the following 
named general engagements, besides numerous 
skirmishes, viz: Midole Creek, Kentucky; Cum- 
berland Gap, Tazewell, Tennessee; Haynes's Bluff 
or Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi; Arkansas Post, 
Port Gibson or Thompson's Hdl, Champion Hill, 
or Baker's Creek, Big Black Bridge, siege of 
Vicksburg, Jackson, Mississippi, and Red River; 
in almost all of which the regiment was com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Monroe; Colonel 
Lindsey being in command of the bridge or 


•Major John Hughes. 
Quartermaster James W. Bjrbee, 



Captain John Hughes. 

First I.ieiitciiani .\rihur J Harrington. 
Seconil Lieutenant J. iiiR's W. P.arbee. 


1-irst Sergeant Thomas Collins. 

First Sergeant William H. Milam. 

Sergeant Henry Simmons. ' . 

Sergeant John Rohner. 

.Sergeant Jacob Edinger. 

Sergeant John T. Harrmgton. 

Sergeant Oliver J. Howard. 

Corporal Enoch Kapier. 

Corporal George Tanner. 

Corporal Jacob Fisher. 

Corpor.'! Jeremiah Wells. 

Corporal John Welsh. 

Corporal Philip Sneider. 

Corporal John C. Seibert. 

Corporal George Rammers. 


Ale.vander Armstrong, Michael Bower, Patrick Coakley, 
Godfrey Geisler, William Gainey. Timothy Harrigan, Mich- 
ael Leary, James Leary, John T. McCoy, Benjamin Miller, 
John T. Milam, John Paiker, William Seibert, Michael H. 
Shay, James Scanlan, William Tagg. William Clark, James 
Dailey, Thomas Kelley, George Perry Xerns, Thomas S. 
Tevis, Albert L. Cook, John T. Gathright, Charles I-. Gal- 
loway, Hardy |. Galloway, Patrick Garrety, William Hess, 
Patrick McCandty, Franklin McN'eal, William Wilson, 
fames .A. Wells, John Welsh, second, Edward Berry, John 
Burns, James W. Collins, I.ouis Comrnersour, WiUiam Dris- 
coll, John Hulel, J.irncs Hutet, Thomas Manihan, Solomon 
Parker, William H. Smith, William T. Walls, John Co.x. 



Captain James G. Milligan. 

First Lieutenant James W. Barbee. 



Captain William B. Hcgan. 



Captain John T. Gathright. 


First Lieutenant Charles G. Shanks. 

Captain Louis Schweizer. 

Captain Charles Gutig. 

First Lieuteuant Gustav Wehrle. 


First Sergeant Jacob Klotter. 
Sergeant Nicholas Ember. 
Sergeant Adam Warner. 
Sergeant Henry Stachelshad. 
Sergeant Valentine Loesh. 
Sergeant Louis Fisher. 
Corporal Benjamin Lochner. 
Corporal Lucas Rhine. 
Corporal George Klotter. 

Cor|)oral John EpficUe. 
C' Paul Resch. 
Coiponil John Duc'kweiler. 
Corporal Loren-; SchaHnrr. • 


. John llarilicl, Casper B'achl, L>ori;e Brcnimfr, .Mvis Dres- 
sel, Theodore Ekpii, Fautiicr, Louis Kinster, 
Joseph Gutz, (Joiirad Hythi, Connul Hoob. Rudolph Hess, 
Andrew Jacoby. Conrad Kueiss, Frederick Konij;, 
tain K\ilir, Josepli Lochner. Leopold I^nzingcr, Michael 
Meyer. John Marlin, Georije l'fe;lTer, .Michael Rilliny. -'^»- 
thony Sauer, Henry Scherr, Miiiip ^ch!imer, John Sclmtz. 
John Vo^'t, Joseph Waehler, John Znunier, John Brimmer, 
Paul Oressel, Conrad Uoll, John fiaptist Lmig, Henry En- 
glehardt, William Hemerich, John Hess, I'eter Koll, Martin 
Leopold, Cassimer Micicoley, John Oehlcr. Georije faulus, 
Casper Rappensberger, George Schlottler. Frank V'ogt, John 
Baker, Charles C. Miller, Jolin Philip Rns5, Jacob Trump- 
ler, Henry Zickel, John Baier, Henry Bclgei, Wenderlien 
Frilz, John Huber, George Kuppel, George Seitz, Michael 
Staublin, Robert Staib, Loren^ Wittcnauer, John Kochler, 
Philip Mobsman, Steplien Wilicuaner. 

FIKi.n oi 1 ICFR. 
Colonel MaiccUus Mund)'. 

COMMIS-ilO.N'Kn Cil FICLK. Benjamin H. Bristow. 


Adjutant A. J. WVlls. 


First Liv^utenanl John F. ILtrvey. 
Second Lieutenant Charles H. lijrt. 

CO.MI'.VNi D. 


Second Lieutenant 'Fhc'rn.ia J Mcrshon. 


Colonel Charles D. I'._-nr,t!..ik,T. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John U. Ward. 
M.ajor Alexander .Magruder. 
Adjutant James B. Spied. 
Assistant burgeon Robert U.iinKldie, 
Chaplain Robert G. G.ird.iir 

coMMibSiu;.rn OKHt ta. 

Captain Fred. Guy. 


First Lieutenant Kiley \Vi!>,;n, 

CO.MI'.^.NY 1. 
Captain William H. H^i.ey. 


. The Twfnty-ciglnh Kentucky Infantry was 
organized in the fall of iS6i at New Haven, 
under Colonel William J'. Boone, and was nuis- 
teied into service October 8, i86i, at the same 
place, by Captain C. C. Gilbert, First I'tiited 
States infantry, niusiering ofilcer. The regiment 
was raised under the call of the State for forty 
thousand volunteers for United States service. 
Colonel Boone, at the time the law was passed 
and authority granted for raising the trooj^, was 
a member of the Kentucky Legislature from the 
city of Louisville, and asked leave of absence for 
the jjurpose of recruiting a regiment. In four 
weeks Irom the time he commenced rrrruiting 
he had nine companies in camp, of more than fifty 
men each. On the 6th of November, iS6i, he 
received orders from General Sherman, com- 
manding department of the Ohio, ordering his 
regiment on duty. In the early stages of the 
war the Twenty-eighth was on duty at Shepherds- 
ville, New Haven, Lebanon, Colesburg, Eliza- 
bethtown, and Munfordsville, Kentucky, and 
Nashville, Franklin, Gallatin, Lebanon, Carthage, 
Sparta, and Columbia, Tennessee ; and ever 
commanded the respect and attention of the 
cominanding generals, whether in battle or in 
camp. It also performed duty at Huntsville and 
Stevenson, Alabama, and Rossville, Rome, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Ringgold, Lafayette, White 
Oak Mountain, Taylor's Ridge, Chickamauga 
Creek, Pea Vine Church, Tunnel Hill, and Dal- 
ton, Georgia. 

The Twenty-eighth, by order of Geneial 
Rosecrans, was armed with the Spencer repeat- 
ing rifle and mounted, and performed gallant 
and arduous service until it returned to Kentucky 
on veteran furlough. 

Colonel Boone was much exposed during the 
winter of 1864, whilst in command of cavalry 
and mounted infantry, in front of the army at 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, and was reluctantly 
compelled to resign on account of disability, in- 
curred by said exposure, on the 2Sth of June, 
1864. On the first of March, 1864, the regi- 
ment veteranized, and received thirty days' vete- 
ran furlough, and on the 7th of May, under com- 
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel J. Ron an Boone, 
rejoined the army of the Cumberland in Georgia. 


Colonel William P. Boone, 


~fW^ ^. 




Licutennnl-Colonc! J. Rowan Hoone. 
Major Absalom Y. Johnson. 
M:.i.>r ]ohn G.iuU, Jr. 
M.ijor George W. li.irih. 
Svirt;con James A. Post. 
Assistant Snrgeon Joseph Habermeal. 
C:h.ipiain Hiram .\. Hunter. 
Setge,int- Major Nathaniel Wolfe, Jr. 
Sergcanl-M.ijor Henry S. ."^enteiiy. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant William K. Co.x. 
Commissary-Sergeanl josiah AUis. 
Hospital biertalJ ilLpli.;ii .\. i^aiim. 
First Musician William O'Hara. 
Second Musician Thomas P. Myrick. 



CajJtain William E. Benson. 

Captain Paul Byerly. 

First Lieutenant John W. Hogue. 

First Lieutenant Martin Enright. 

Second Lieutenant [ohn A. Weatherford. 

Sergeant W. P. Galhiight. 
Sergeant J. W. Taylor. 
Sergeant J. D. Holt. 
Corpoial William Ollnra. 
Corporal Samuel Clark. 
Corporal Jacob Hes;. 
Corporal W.J. Held. 
Corporal William P.. Hcagland. 
Corporal James Thomas. 
Coi pora! J . A. U.iiley. 
Corporal John W. Smith. 

, PRIV.^TF.S. 

William .^sh, Josiah .AUis, Joseph Bensing, Joseph Ben- 
nett. William Burke. Joseph Brobst, John Brewster, .N'ichokis 
Brannin, James Cayton. Ferdinand Conser, Ransom Chase, 
Hannon Cashing, Almanzo Connell. James Corrigan, Edward 
Corcelus, Michael Carney, C. F. Combs, Peter Coons, 
Henry Calcanip, Thomas Dillon, .Abrain Drisfus, Joseph 
Uay, Michael Dillon. George Fleck, William F'arroday. 
Frederick Forcht, Silas Fuell, Eienjamin Fueil, Patrick Fla- 
herty, Patrick Gaffusy, Gerhait Geny. Joseph Gnow, George 
W. Graible, Cyrus Graible, William M. Gard, Hartinan Hel- 
bert, John Horp, John Hettinger, James Howell, Michael 
Hays, George Hanley, Johnson Hardin, John Holler, Ber- 
nard Hochstatler, John Kinkead, Joseph Kinkead, Henry 
Keyscr, \\*illiam Kline. John K.ine. George Kelpers, Joseph 
Kremer, Peter Lotze, John LukenbiU, Patrick Leary. Ed- 
ward Leyer, Nicholas Miller, John McCarty, John Mc- 
Mahon, John .Meyer. Coonrod Oper, Charles Owen, John 
A. Osborn, Benjamin Powel), Jr., Guslav Roadsloff, Nicho- 
las Rinehart, John kenwick. Charles Reap, G. W. Rodgers, 
Henry Schafer, Nicholas Show, John H. Strausburg, Wil- 
liam Shirley. James Sullivan. George G. F. Shafer, H. C. 
.Senteny, Lewis Suycr, Herman Stimpel, George W. Tiller, 
Samuel Tague, Henry F. Trantman, Philip Trunk. George 
Wahlwind, John Wagner, .August Weger, Herman Wahnies, 
.Anselm Wcsbacher. George Wesel. 


Captain James H. White. 
Captain Thomas J. Randolph. 


Sergeant George 1 1. Alexander. 

Sorgeiint Charles H. Harris. 

Coqjoral Usher F. Kelly. 

Corporal John W. LeBlanc. 

Corporal Hermogcne LeBlanc. 

Corporal William M. Harris. 

Corporal William R. I'arish. 

Corporal Henry Null. 

Corporal James E. Mullen. 

Corporal Lewis Hawkins. 

Musician Charles G. Clarke. 

Musician Julius G. Johnson. 

Wagoner Robert Murry. 


Henry Bull, Lewis H. Bealer, John C. Black, Nehemiah 
Bohnan, Frederick Bodka, Lawrence Corcoran, James D. 
Coultei, Richard Coulter, Milton C. Clark, Andrew L. 
Domire, William Doolcy, John \V. Floore,. Francis 
Faber, Patrick Flynn, I'atrick W. Fooley, Alfred J. Gooch, 
.August Gardner, William ^L Hargin, I'hilip Hargin, James 
M. Hilton, George W. Hand, John Henry, William Hamcn, 
John G. Hearn, Michael Hogan, Henry Honrotli, Loudcy 
Howard, Samuel Hopewell, Frederick He/fcrman, William T. 
F.Johnson, Gcorge;Kountz, James Kleisendorf, Onen Lane, 
I John Means, David Mercer, William IL Myers. Benjamin 
B. Medcalfe, John Mahner, Dominick Morley, John Meister, 
Samuel L. Nichols, John Osborn, Raniey O Brien, Turling- 
ton Ragsdale. Marion Rowland, James Raw lings, Lorenzo 
D. Rardon, Charles N. Resenbaugh, Reuben Shively, Jacob 
H. Sapp, John F. Sweeney, Christopher Stilby, Daniel Suli- 
van, Joseph D. Schage, John H. Sisson, James L. Sisson, 
Robert Shanks, Martin L. Stephens, Morris H. Sheiffer, 
John Sheetinger, Benjamin F. Smith, William H. Sherrod, 
Frank Troulman, William T. Teeter, Michael Whalen. 

Captain George W, Barth. 
Captain Theodore B. Hays. 
First Lieutenant Robert W. Catlin. 


First Sergeant William Shane. 

Sergeant Henry Dorman. 

Sergeant William H. Sanders. 

Sergeant Silas F. Barrall. 

Sergeant Stephen Norman. 

Corporal John T. Monroe. 

Corporal \\"illiani H. Horine. " * r 

Corporal Ely Williams. 

Corporal V\'illiani F. Miles. 

Corporal Joseph .A. Barrall. 

Corporal Charles Lebberle. 

Corporal James .Marshall. 

Corporal John Seibert. 

Musician Thomas [*. Myrick. 

Musician Albert Younker. 

Wagoner Waller Senger. 


Samuel R. .Armes, .Abraham .\nderson, Henry Ahlborn, 
Henry Beghtol. Frederick Bealer, Littlebeiry Batchelor, 
John C. Barth, Silas M. Eurk, Stephen C.itlin, Horace Cahoe, 
George W. Compton, James Corcoran, Wellington Crutch- 
low, Stephen Coch, Louis C. Dennis, William L)avis, Henry 


C. Dottier, Thomas B. Di;iican, Henry Deal, Henry i:!>brr- 
hartli, I.miis ICirickson, Alex.infler Klliolt, Edward Egan, 
S.aniiiel KleeUnei, William Erench, ("hri'^tiaii Friendenlierj:er, 
Anthony Eoiitli, James Foster, John Ueist. I'iitrick Gibbons, 
Conrad Cilcb. John (Uinnir, Marcus L. floldsniitli. Au.ijust 
Henncrbergei, Christian Harslihuld, Jacob II.ui, i.'hristoplier 
Haj)r. (jeorge Haller. Thomas lioi;an, John Horine. JJeniy 
C. Johnson, 1 homas Johnson, Frederick Rol.ler, Benjamin 
King, Thomas Reyan, C"hri>tian Katzel, .Sr. , Chrioti.m 
Katzel,Jr., Joseph Long. Casper Eouentha, JolnJ. Myer, 
John Myer. Jacob M. Miller, James W. Martin. John Mann, 
Ch.aie^ 1-. Miller. Anl,ui M.i) , Tiio.ii..; McNult, jau.cs Mc- 
Donald, James M. Melson, .John Xajjel, Martin Xagel, 
I'eter Nailor, James J., W.irden J. Quick. FiLirney 
Ruf, John J. SamuH, Anthony Schmidt, George Seibert, 
James Stewart, .Sidney S. Smith, Madison B. Stinson, Jacob 
Seipcrt, Martin Schmidt, Richard M. Thompson, John 
Thompson, Henry Thompson, Jacob \\'.ilter, John Webler, 
Frctleiick Webber, William Wuiter. 



Captain Henry J. O'Neill. 

Captain John Martin. 

First L.irutcnaut Henry Moiichan. 

First Eieuteiiant Calrick OM ilia. 

Second Lieutenant .\nthony Hariman. 


First Sergeant Joscjih F'lan.igan. John Jardine. 
Sergeant Vincent Eusada. 
Corporal .Viithony Funn. 
Corporal James G.innon. 
Corporal George Kuisley. 
Corporal Richard Langdon. 
Corporal Morg.m O'Brien. 
Cor]ioral John Earrell. 
Corporal Daniel O'Hcra. 
Corporal William Xangliton. 
Musician Henry (iallaher. John McGovern. 
Wagoner I'eter Martin. 
Cook Edward Cl.ark. 

John Atchison. I'homas Birmingham, Michael Burke First, 
Mich.iel Burkc.Sccond.John B.ilton.John Bogle, Richard Bar- 
rett. John [iuokly. Jamei Buckly, lUy.xn Connor, Philip Carr, 
Peter ('anipl.. II. B.urick Cun«.iy.John Cody, Mich.ael Casey, 
Patrick Junes Dooley. Francis Finn, D.vrby'Flaher- 
ty. Patrick Fadden. Wilham Gallagher. Nathaniel Gallagher. 
Patrick Gorman. Martin lilynn. Patrick limes. John Holla- 
han. John Hayes. John Hennesev, John Hatch, John 
Hogan, I'.itrick Hogan, oohn Flanlon, George Hart, Joseph 
Kimmel. George King. John Laihitf. Lawrence Earner, 
Michael Lynch, P.itrick Lee. Boliver .Moody, Michael May- 
har. John McGregor. John Myers. Miclnel McClear, Wil- 
liam Met Icllan, P.itrick McBride, Michael Nicholas. Mich- 
a-1 O'Donnell, John O'Brien. Michael Pimrick, Edw.arH 
Pofie. James Prew.-it. Thomas Ryan. Walter Ross, 
I.-iwrriue .>-uli\an. I'.nriek Spr.itch, .-Xustin Stanton, 
Solan. Mich.!--! M; inali.m. lUitL .lonuw Thornt.m. B.irthol- 
omew Tierney. J.inies Terrell, John Uhalen, Patrick Welsh, 
Hugh Willis. 

COMMISSION r:ii nri iceks. 
Captain Franklin ^^ Hughes. 
Captain George W. Conaway. 
Capt.ain William C. Irvine. 
Captain .'\ndrc\v B. Norwood. 
First I.ieiilenant Granville J. Siiikliorn. 
Second Lieulen.ant Joseph H. Davis. 


Sergeant Charles H. Lillrell. 
Sergeant Gcoige Mattern. 
Corporal William Li (J. Mcfherson. 
Corporal Cornelius Maher. 
Corporal Henry H. Hancock. 
Corporal Thomas T. Baldwin. 
Corporal Silas \V. Young. 
Corporal John W. Baldwin. 
Corporal James L. Porter. William Fagar. 
Musician Ollicllo Delano. 
Wagoner l:lij,ih Thurnian. 


Eugene .Anthony, George .Albeit, Jncob .Arnold, Janie: 
Black, Frederick Boyer, Richard Bre, William Burke, Rob 
ert Barr, John Barr, George J. Beningcr, Jabzen N. Baldwin 
Marion Bailey, Earnest Bitncr, Daniel S. Brabson, JcsS! 
Ba.xter, James Combs. Jacob H. Carbaugh, Willi.ini L. Con 
nell, James Coons, Cornelius Crowley, James Cleary 
Charles E, Figg. George B. Figg, \\'illiam W. Figg, 
Zachariah Fngelman, Thomas C. Forsyth, Henrv Green 
William Gregory, Thomas F. (iraham, George E. Holmes 
Theodore F. ILimbaugh, Uriah G. Hawkins, William A 
Hall, Michael Hynes, William E. Keene, Peler Rliuk 
Henry KalkholT, Jesse K. Long, Michael Lynch. P Uriel 
Mooney, Hugh McGrath, George .Morri.son.Greathell Max 
well, John F. Mullen, William G. Meyers, George Panell 
Thomas Pryar, Patrick Pryar, Josiah D. Ripley, Jacob L 
Spaiiglear, Michael Sehr, William G. Saner. John W. Fi. 
Shirley, Thomas B. Sweeney, James W. Thomas, John II 
Tliurman, Charles Thomas, Andrew Todd, Samuel C 
Vance, James W. Wilsop, Joseph S. West, Joseph Wil 
burne, Joseph W. Walker, Charles T. Whalen, John W, 
Walton, George Zimmeiman. 



Captain James R. .Noble. ' 
Captain William C. McDowell. 
Second Lieutenant Henry Hooker. 


Sergeant Charles Shane. 
Sergeant Samuel S. Hornbeck. 
Sergeant Stephen M. Gupton. 
Sergeant William H. Manning. 
Corporal William Owen. 
Corporal George Ganman. 
Corporal William Woodlall. 
Corporal Isaac Hornbeck. William Morrow. 
Corporal J:ime>, Brunton. 
Corporal Willi. im L. Gupton. 
Corporal George Brown. 
Musician David Waits. 



Musician William R. Cox. 

Wagoner Benjamin H. Murry. 


John .-\f.l:Am,s, Honhart narE^off. James Rcll.. \'alcnnne 
licrgc. Franklin Uliink, John S. Cheshire, Kilchel Clark. 
Zcdiek Clark. Louis Colbukcr, James Corkcran, John R. CruU, 
John E. Davis. William H. H.- Davis, Joseph EIse\-, James 
Elsey, Frcderie Knilin. John Ernst, Jacob Enrivine, James 
O. Evans, William Ferguson. John Fields, Michael G.illiger, 
rious Hardy, Willi. im L. Harris, John Higgins. Daniel 
Highland. Com. P. Ilild^ibrand, Noell Jackson, William 
Lcish, John Lee, Jol-.n Munch, Julia P. ."Ueans, 'I nomas 
Moore, John Miller, James Middleloii, F'ielding .Middlelon, 
William .Middlcton, Charies i:. Manning, .'iidney Noe, 
George Xoe, John H. C. Overeamp, Nathan Pharris, Joseph 
Perry, Asbury Parsley. Henry Puff, Samuel Quick, George 
W. Rogers, Philip Shull, .-\bram Sago, Malhcw Shay. John. 
Spencer, William Stcdman, Frederick Thompson, Joseph 
Terry, George Tolson, Raphael Vinecore, Louis \'ariile, 
Thomas B. Wallace. Isaac Williams, William Webb, Renja- 
min Webb, Taylor Windsor, John Windsor. John Whitledge, 
Robert Wright. John Zinsniastcr. 


Captain Frederick Brooks. 
Captain James E. Loyal. 
First Lieutenant Albert ^L Healy. 

Sergeant Edward O'Malley. 
Sergeant John G. Fravilie. 
Sergeant Charles Taylor. 
Sergeant Frederick Honroth, 
Corporal Frederick Troxell. 
Corporal Samuel Randalls. 
Corporal Charles B. Fetters. 
Corporal John H. Graham. 
Corponil Frank Read. 
Musician Zefra Blum. 
Musician Joseph Fox, Jr. 
Musician B. Gary Edward. 
Wagoner John Mullin. 


David F. Blair, Ferdinand Beiter, Hugh R. Boyd, Thomas 
Bott, John Boggs. Charles F. Bates, .\nthony Berger, Cor- 
nelius Boyd, Eli Burchard, .Milton Burnham, George W. 
Baily, Neil Conway, Tiniothv Conwav, Thomas Casey, 
Fretlerick Cording. James Drummon, .Andrew Dirk, .^amuel 
Djsinger. James Davenport. Da\id Danser, James Eairly. 
George R. S. Floyd, Jerome B. Francis. Joseph Fox. St., 
J.imes Farrell. William E. Gary, Jacob Goodfred, George 
Goodfred, Abraham Graham, Peter H.aggeriy, Waslncigton 
T. Hudson, Higgins, Henry H.mnaslh, Philip 
Hinkle, Frederick Joyce, Henry K. Jerome, Patrick King. 
William Kimball, John Krebsb.ick, William Lewis, Joseph 
Mels, John Murphy, Thomas More, John Maher, Derire 
Mongey, John McDonel, John .McGreal. Frank ONeil, 
Patrick OBoyle, Reubei. Ratcliffe, Jerry Riley, Samuel 
Ralchfend, William S. Roach, Jonathan Shull. John Shan- 
non. Owen Sullivan, Patrick Toole, Seraphine Wohlap. Wardrip. John Welsh, James W.itson, Joseph 
Stevenson. John Stevenson. Charles W. Farnum, Henry C. 
Gary, Edward 3. Hall, David Isgtig. J.\sper A- Jones. William 
Keepers, Thomas Murphy, .Michael Morris, John Masters, 

William Miller, Robert Rogers, William Rosenbush, Clark 
Slackhouse, Josiah Sc;irlcs, .-ViuUew Taylor, Charles T. Todd. 



Capt.ain Robert Cairs. 
Captain Daniel C. Collins. 
I First Lieutenant Nathaniel Wolf, Jr. 
First Lieutenant William R. Cox. 

First Sergeant Robert W. Reid. 
. Sergeant Henry W. Neve. 
Sergeant Jacob C. Burris. 
Sergeant John V. Sanders. 
Sergeant Koderick McLcod. 
Corporal Jeremiah Warner. 
Corporal Anthony Morley. 
Corporal Austin Stetler. 
Corporal John W. Brincger. 
Cor|")Oial Preston Nelson. 
Corporal William G. Bostwick. 
Corporal Whitman S. Green. 
Corporal Charles Carroll. 
Wagoner Peter McCormick. 
Musician B.arney Wilkins. 
Musician .August Amborn. 


Philip S. .Atkins, Frederick Booker, Philip Brennon, Henry 
Beckliait, John Cook. Patrick Collopy. Jeremiah Crowley. 
Thomas J. Crayeroft, John Curran, Lawrence Carroll, 
Michael Cary. William Dyer, Michael Dermidy. James 
Dunovan, James W. Deering. Joseph Doherty, Thomas El- 
lis. Beverly Eisenbice, James Fitz.patrick, John Foos, James 
W. Floore, Patrick Gallagher, Henry Heinnian, John Heen- 
an, John Johnson, Stephen Kellesher, Thomas Kelly, James 
Kearney, Jacob Henry Long, Robert Miller, Lawrence 
Morgan, Michael Mullen, Thomas Mann. Thomas Murphy, 
Henry Medley, Wesley .McMurry, Francis McDonald, Pat- 
rick .MeGuire, James .Montgomery. .Michael Mahan. John 
Nevill. George Parin, John Porter, John W. Roberts, 
Michael Swinney, John Steelen, James Smith, John Sterits, 
John Whalen, John Welch, John W. Clarke, Charici Crack- 
nell, John P. Deitrick. John Dwyer, Thomas Dorsey, John 
Doyle, Cyrus Jeffreys. James Menaugh, Anthony Mullen, 
Charles Shoem.iker, John >L Smith, Henry Weam. 


Captain George W. Conway. 
First Lieutenant Charles Obst. - 

First Lieutenant Frederick Buckner. 
First Lieutenant .Anthony P. Hefner. 
First Lieutenant William T. Morrow. 
Second Lieutenant William Troxler. 
Second Lieutenant Isaac Everett, Jr. 


Sergeant Einile Wilde. 
Corporal William Hartman. 
Corporal Henry Lentacker. 
Corporal Charles Henning. 
Corporal Joseph Pfalzer. 
Corporal Chriitian 
Corporal S.imuei Schwartz. 


Frederick Ainold. John .Aigier, Jacob -Attweiler, Joseph 


Amos, Charles Bcrj;or. rSe.-ifjor, A7idrc\v Biiicr. 
George Bnyha. George Bryning, ' Ali)ert Baker, William F. 
Bolkemeyer, John Bouls, Thomas Bowls, Lewis Cook, Ar- 
milage Carr, John T., ]ames H. Cowley, 
Thomas G. Conoway. George Coniolock. Jacob Dries. James 
Davenport. Uichard Davenport. Daniel \V. Evans, B. Krt- 
ward, Casper Foil, James Farrel. Louis B. Fuller. Thomas 
Gregory, Frank GolquiU, Sliclton T. Green. Philip Hans, 
Thaodore Heidhring, {acob H.tgar, Ch.ulcs A Harvey, 
William R. Hud-pcth, Joseph Heaky. Henry Jerome, John 
Kongka, Sr.. John Kongka. Jr., Arnold Kiiss. Jatnes Kay, 
n,-.:ry N''-.d, TI:,-.-i.-.-, >,I-:;5, ChJ!^•^ N'lth.v.-s, John H. 
Michael, Bonjamin Mareh, George M''ier, Joseph!. Meier, 
Thomas D. McLaughlin, J.imes McCtiiire. William Magowen. 
John T. Mark, Henry Miller, Wiiiiain Meier, Albert Naiige- 
ster, John O'Haren, Radford .\1. Oiborn, Joseph Obermeyer, 
Robert B. Pennington. William Rhein, IVier ReiUbmger, 
John Reinald, Micliae! R.adenheim, Charles Schrimpr, Bein- 
hard Speaker, Vincennes Selirimpf. Joseph Sclimidt, Kdwaid 
Sulivau. Alvis Stanger, Patrick Stanton, .Albert Thorninycr, 
William Thompson, James llioinas, Benson Vaiisandt. 
Michael Vain, Thomas WaiJ, D.ivid F. Wright, Jacob 
Wirlh, Henry Wallring, Frank Wcton, Willi.mi Wardlaw, 
George W. Wright. John Warden, George Wichler, John 

On alphabelical list of otiiccrs, but not on 
company rolls: 
Captain Stephen M. Gupton. 
First Lieutenant William L. Gupton. 
First Lieutenant James Gannon. 
First Lieutenant Thomas T. Baldwin. 
First Lieutenant James E. Mullin. 
First Lieutenant Charles Harris. 
First Lieutenant Thomas B. Wallace. 


First Lieutenant J. W. S. Smith. 


Captain Milton P. Hodges. 

First Lieutenant William B. Craddock. 

Surgeon John J. Matthews. 


The Thirty-fourth Kentucky Infantry was or- 
ganized at Louisville, on September 26th, 1S61, 
under Lieutenant Colonel Henry Dent, and was 
then designated as the I'"irst Battalion Louisville 
Provost Guards. The authority for its organiza- 
tion was received from General Anderson, then 
commanding the department of Kentucky, and a 
promise was made to the privates that they should 
receive twenty dollars per month during enlist- 
ment, and perform duty only in the city of Louis- 
ville and its immediate vicinity. This understand- 
ing remained intact until General Buell assumed 
command, when an order was issued that the 

Guards should not receive an excess of jiay over 
other soldiers then in the service ($13 per month). 
The order created much dissension in the bat- 
talion, as they had already received two months' 
p.iyat the rate of $20 per month, and an apj)cal 
was made to the Honorable Secretary of War by 
Colonel Dent, who decided that General BticH 
was correct in issuing the order, but, inasmuch 
as the men had enlisted under promise of the 
extra jiay, allowed all those who were unwilling 
to remain in the service at regulation pay to be 
mustered out. One entire company (B), and the 
larger jjortion of three others, were discharged 
at Louisville, in October, 1S62. On the 2d 
of October, 1862, the Provo.t Guard ceased, 
j and the organization of the Thirty-fourth Ken- 
j lucky Infantry commenced. In justice to the 
] Guard, it has been conceded by all that they pcr- 
i formed their duty well, and rendered efficient 
I service during its term of enlistment, and at a 
time wlien the. status of the State was in a criti- 
I cal condition, owing to the rebellious condition 
of a large part of iier people, growing out of the 
I indecision in promptly taking her stand for an 
I undivided L^nion. The Provost Guard, during 
the years 1S61-62, had stood guard over one 
, hundred and fifty thousand prisoners of v,ar and 
j political prisoners. 

I The Thirty-font th infantr> was relieved of 
provost duty at Louisville, on the Sth day of 
May, 1863, and ordered to report to General 

I Judah, at Bowling Green, Kentucky, where it 
I . 

remained until July 4th, when it marched to 

! Glasgow to assist in checking John Morgan in 
his raid into Kentucky. It did garrison duty at 
Glasgow until the 28th of September, when 
ordered to march, via Marrowbone and Burks- 
ville, to Knoxviile, Tennessee, under comiiiand 
of General Manson, skirmishing with guerrillas 
nearly every day. From Knoxviile it marched 
to Morristown, where it remained until the battle 
of Blue Springs, in which it distinguished itself 
by capturing nearly all of Mudwall Jackson's 
staff and four hundred and seventy-one of his 
command. U'hen I.ongstreet laid siege to Knox- 
viile, General Burnside ordered the Thirty-fourth 
to Cumberland Gap from Morristown. After the 
siege of Knoxviile was raised by General Sher- 
man, the Thirty-fourth was ordered to Tazewell, 
Tennessee, its colonel being i)laced in command 
of a brigade composed of the Thirty-fourth Ken- 



tucky, One Hundred and Sixteentli and One 
Hundred and Eighteenth Indiana infantry, the 
Eleventh Tennessee cavalry, and the Eleventh 
Michigan battery. 

. On the 24th of January, 1864, the rebel 
Colonel Carter attacked Tazewell with about 
eighteen hundred men ; in which fight the 
Thirty-fourth again distinguished itself for un- 
daunted bravery under severe fire. In this en- 
gagement, which lasted about three cjuartcrs of 
an hour, the enemy was repulsed wiili a loss of 
thirty-one killed and equally as many more 
wounded. On the 26th of January the regi- 
ment was again ordered to the Gap, under com- 
mand of CSeneral '1 . T. Garrard, wliere it re- 
mained on one-thiid rations for near three 
months, News having been received by the 
general commanding thai an attack would be 
made on the Gap by Generals Jone? and Vaughn, 
simultaneously, approaching in different direc- 
tions, he ordered fifty-five men of the Thirty- 
fonrth Kentucky infantry to proceed to Powell 
river bridge to prevent Vaughn's forces from 
crossing and formitig a junction with Jones. The 
detachment of the Thirty-fourth arrived at the 
bridge just as Vaughn's advance guard were en- 
tering it, and repulsed them after a short fight; 
but they were unable to tear up the floor before 
the whole force came up. The detachment of 
the Thirty-fourth at once took position in a tem- 
porary block-house, and successfully repelled 
five charges of the enemy. Being armed with 
Colt's five-shooters, their small numbers were en- 
abled, by undaunted bravery and their efficient 
arms, to contend with this large force, and com- 
pelled them to retire. In this fight all did their 
duty as true soldiers, and it would be invidious 
to make special uiention of any where all fought 
so well. 

On the 17th of April, 1S64, General Garrard 
was relieved of the command of the Ciap, and 
Colonel W. Y. Dillard, of the Thirty-fourth 
Kentucky infantry, remained in command until 
the 8th of November, 1864, when the Thirty- 
fourth was ordered to Knoxville, which place was 
threatened by General Breckinridge, from the di- 
rection of Straw berry Plains. The regiment was 
ordered to proceed to Knoxville, via Tazewell 
and Walker's Ford, a road much infested with 
guerrillas. It was reduced to only three hundred 
and four men, bv the constant and arduous duty 

it had performed, .\fier arriving at Walker's 
F'ord, on Clinch river, it was unable to cross, 
owing to the high water and the want of a ferry- 
boat; consequently was compelled to return 
to the Gap and take the Jacksboro road. 
The regiment arrived at Knoxville on the 18th 
of November. It lem.iined in that place, on 
provost duty, until l'\-buiary 2, 1865, when it 
was ordered back to the Gap. On the. 20th of 
April the Thirty-fourth proceeded up the ^'ir- 
ginia valley, in the diiection of Gibson's mills, 
where a force of the enemy was reported. On 
the 2 2d it was met by a flag of truce, and a 
proposition from Colonels Pridemoie, Slemp, 
Richmond and Wichcr, to sunender their forces, 
which was at once done, their commands num- 
bering two thousand seven hundred and thirteen 
men. On the 24th of .■\pril the Thirty-fourth 
was again ordered to Jvnoxville, and from thence 
to Loudon, Tennessee, where it remnined on 
garrison duty until the 20th of June, when it 
returned to Knoxville for muster-out. It was 
mustered out at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 24, 


Colonel Henry Dent. 
Colonel .Selby Harney. 
Colonel William V. Dillard. 
Licutenant-coluncl Lewis H. Ferrell. 
M.ijor Milton T. Callahan. 
Major Joseph B. W.itkins. 
Adjutant Charles A. Gruber. ^ 

Adjutant Edward G. Parnicle. 
Regimental Quartermaster Uavitl A. Haivey. 
Surgeon George W. Ronald. 
Surgeon Henry Taminadge. 
Assistant Surgeon Hu,£;h Ryan. 
■ Sergeant-major Henry Sutton. 
Sergeant-major Francis M. Looney. 
Sergeant-major .Andrew Zimmerman, 
Seigeanl-major Joseph \V. .Adams. 
Quarterniaster-sergearil Charles Bardin. 
Commissary-sergeant William J. Shaw. Steward William Meek. 
Hospital Steward Joseph H. Todd. 



Captain William Y. Uillard. 
Captain Charles .A. Gruber. 
First Lieutenant John C, Slater. 


First Sergeant Peter Frickhofen. 
Sergeant William S. Kdwards. 
Serg'Sint William Himbcrgcr. 
Sergeant George A. Boweis. 
Sergeant Charles Bardm. 
Corpor.d Janies McElroy . 



Corporal John Furter. 

Corporal Merman Teitze. 

Corporal diaries Teitze. 


Ldward 1,. liiining, Frederick W. Broeliell, Charles Clav, 
Andrew Lawson, Fidell Negell, Adolpli Oppenlieimer, Simon 
Oberdorfer, Nicholas Powers, John Shoemaker. George \\\ 
St. CUir. Thomas Atkinson, Jackson Blunk, William Jami- 
son, Alexander .McFarren. Francis T. RolH?rls, James Smilli. 
William Tlioni|)5on, Geoige Crawley, .-Xmbrose J. Ilofman, 
Cornelius Sullivan, F"rank L;incr. 

Captain Rodolph H. Whitnier. 
First Lieutenant Thomas M. Alc.vanJcr. 
First Lieutenant Joseph W, Adams. 

First Sergeant John W. S) kcs. 
Sergeant Henry Tate. 
Serge-,int Francis M. Ntartin. 
Sergeant Joseph L. Dobson. 
Sergeant Thomas J. Craycraft. 
Sergeant .Andrew Baits. 
Sergeant Joseph Hughes. 
Corporal William C. Golden. 
Corporal Henry Benton. 
Corporal Francis M. Sanders. 
Corporal George W. Smith. 
Musician James L. Ereckson. 
Musician Michael J. Flannagan. 


Stephen Barker, Robert Burns, John Carroll, Henr>- J. 
Chappell, William J. Deguire. Washington D. Drane. Wil- 
liam A. Uunn, Emanuel Emrick, William Hall, Gregory 
Ham. Samuel ]. Howard, John E. Howard, Thomas Jones, 
Patrick Knowland, Martin Knox. Benjamin F. Lamb. Helcr 
Marselle?, Huston Martin, Florence McCarlv. Charles W. 
McKenzie, P. E. C. J. Maxville, John M. Price, James M. 
Pritchard, William Smith, German A. Shivers, Daiid Stin- 
son, George Staker, John H. Sandefur, Thomas S. Tevis, 
Jacob B. Tr.rllon. Henr>' C. UrLan, Willi.ira VanRebber, 
Cornelius C. Weems, Adam Wehl, Ulrich Becker, Burl M. 
Dunn, John Knapp, Lawrence Hannan, Henrj- H. Simpson. 
John W. D.irrington, Charles Hughes. Adam J. Tarlton, 
John Baker, Eli Decker, Frank Hobbell. Patrick Shea. 



Captain William H. Fagan. 


First Sergeant William B. Dearing. 
Sergeant Frank J. Brocar. 
Sergeant Calender King. 
Sergeant Rufus F. Goose. 
Sergeant Edward Bullock. 
Sergeant J. W. Adams. 
Corporal Wesley Erentlinger. 
Corporal John B. Henke. 
Corporal William D. Hemp 
Corporal Hugh Gavigan. 
Corporal Rolen South. 
Corp I 1 ni es Jeffiies. 

Hcmy C. Alfo'd, William J. Allen, Patrick F. Brown, 
Louis P.uMU, Wiiiiam Cook, Edward D.mgerfield. Eduard 
Dotl, James 'Uix, Patrick Glcndon, Henry W. Harris. 
Richaid W. Heaton, lulwaid Hogan, John H.iwkiiii, Louis 
Lewalleii, John F. Lee. Frederick Munsch, Henry Medley, 
MnninMa'han, John Oats, John Odun.dd, Thomas Oliver, 
James L. Russell. Jacob .Seibcrt, Martin Stanhcld, James R. 
Stout, William Smilli, Lawrence Wick, Thomas Wolford, 
diaries Hawkins, William M. Harris, Philip Kocher, Wil- 
liam H. Russell, Jacob Shaeftir, James Tyler, Frederick 
Tucker, .Mcyander Voung, G.iljriel Bower, Martin 1 ury, 
Charles T. Reid, Benjamin Seiglc, Samuel Tyler. 

Captain Jamco P. Tapp. 
Captain Joel M. Coward. 
Captain Ali'red V. D. .Abbett. 
First Lieutenant George W. Coward. 


First Sergeant William ^^ Smith. 
Sergeant Michael J. Boyle. 
Sergeant Alford .A. Mason. 
Sergeant Franklin Renner. 
Sergeant Jesse T. Battle. 
Sergeant Lewis Hays. 
Sergeant Joseph R. Rain. 
Sargeant James >L King. 
Sergeant John C. Martin. 
Sergeant John T. Shadburn. 
Seigcant John .Shcle. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Tyler. 
Sergi'ant James M. Lcatherman. 
Corporal Albert H. McQuiddy. 
Corporal Joseph Reading. 
Corporal John Risinger. 
Corporal Robert Fulford. 
Corporal .Alphus B. Miller. 
Corporal Gibson Withers. 
Corporal Francis NL Looney. 


James R. Bennet. James, D. Connell, Charles J. F. Elli- 
colt. Waller 1. Ford, James W. Ford, James W. Gallon, 
Harman Hallatag, Ralston P. High, Jack .Mack, John 
Marks, Patrick McCann, William B. McKinley, Mc- 
Cauley, Samuel Parahley, Samuel Rosenthal, .Alberl Ran- 
dolph, Thomas Riffel, Henry S'troker. James R. Tyre, James 
Clark, Thomas Conley, James Harnier, .Miles Houston, Charles 
Litchcock, John Sliele, Joseph F. S.iclis, B. Thaver, 
Chri:,tian G. Weller. Amos H. Byrain, Joseph H. Todd, 
John S. Wiliiams. Francis M. Brishy, C. M. ChappeU, 
Thomas McCormick, John B. Wright. 

Captain John O. Daly. 
Captain Thomas H. Tindell. 
Captain Eugene O. Daly. 
First Lieutenant John B. Smith. 

First Sergeant John Jeffers. 
Sergeant Thomas Raymond. 
Sergeant Pittrick Corrigan. 



Sergeant Hhilip Lrncsl. 

Sergeant Julius Lunenburgcr. 

Corporal John P. Jones. 


James Cody, John X. relies, Samuel Harmon, Edward 
13. Miles, John Nicks, Garrett PrendiMe, Daniel Rcardon. 
Thomas Riley, John Toiphy, Peter V/olf, Jacob I'ini-»ier, 
Abr.iham Hurl, Patrick O'Donncll, Richard Pugh, Joseph 
Re-iry, Robert Raijan, Clarence Sc.itcs, David H. Tate, 
George Webber, James Hoviltinghouse, James Butler, 
Michael McCarlhy, Michael Murphy, William .\Iillei. 

COMl'.^NV F. 


Captain William F. Stars. 

First Lieutenant John Wood. 

First Lieutenant James W. Fowler. 


First Sergeant Henry Watson. 

Sergeant August Shelby. 

Sergeant Henry Burnett. 

Sergeant Joseph Seigul. 
• Corporal Isaac J. Jones. 

Corporal James Donahue. 

Corporal Jacob Twenty. 

Corporal Jacob Wormer. 

Corporal George Doctorinan. 

Corporal Michael Given. 

Corporal W. H. Worth. 

Corporal William Fgelston. 

Musician James .Armitage, 

Musician Darby Scully. 


Jacob .Aimer, William Bollinger, Sibburne W. Bo^g, Henr>' 
Bussman, Peter Borten, Patrick Brown, Martin Blumel. John 
Brunnon, Lionhart Baumbache, George A. Bowers, Edward 
A. Cutsall, Patrick Carroll, George Clator, John Clifford, 
Stephen Conelly, John Deth, William Daily. Michael Farthy, 
Herman Foss. Michael Francis, Joseph Gassnian. .Abraham 
Graft, John Gurnon, Henry Galliger. Paul Hemmer, Chris- 
tian Hartman, John Hofel, Henry Herman, 1 heodore Hab- 
bie, Jasper C. Hunt, Eniks Habbie, Elias S. Irvin, Charles 
Jones, Thomas John.-on, John Kunz, .August Kummcr, John 
Linn, Daniel Lapp. Jacob Lance. Jo-:eph L'iinhardi, Jacob 
LaufTer, Frederick Madden, Thomas J. Miichel. John Meiz, 
John Ming, Pierce .A. J. Malone, John Maloney, Froley Mil- 
ler, John McCann, James McElroy, Patrick Xi'and, .Michael 
Ott. Edward Owen. David OConner, Dennis O'Brien, Pat- 
rick Redinton, Lewis Snider, August Schioncr, Frederick 
Slonmcir, Eugene Sullivan, John J. Swope, l.a»rence Smith, 
Andrew G. P. Shields, John Summer, Zachariah Taylor, 
Herman Tettel, Frederick Welch. Wormley E. Wroe. Wil- 
liam Wilson, Oliver Wood, William Weinbeck, John 
Wacker, Christian J. Wolf, Francis Vader, Ernst Mettle, 
Joseph Stradle, John .M. .Maddux, Dietrich Mathfield, John 
Burger, Joseph Kaughfman. John Kiiiinger, Thomas J. 
Wright, .Martin B. \\ light, Benjamin Leich. 



Captain Christopher C. Hare. 
First Lieutenant Henry Watson. 
Second Lieutenant John R. Farmer. 


Sergeant John Shoiwell. 
Sergeant Hiram Kinman. 
Corporal George H. Galewood. 
Corporal I>ed. Swarts. 
Corporal William B. I'oster. 
Corporal James Curry. 


Frank Andy. William Bryant, John Born, Thomas Bramel, 
William Chadic, Thomas Cain, John Casey, John Conley, 
Jonathan Chcssry, Stafford Conley, Michael Coughlin, 
Michael Concannon, Robert Doyle, Thomas Adis Emilh, 
Frederick Eisenneger, Silas -EUy, Jo.,eph P. Eshenbaugh, 
Henry Fclker, Walter F. Farris. Rufus K. Foster, Thomas 
Higgins. William J. Humble, Richard F. Hamilton, Philip 
Htirsh, .Andy Hamlit, (5eorge W. Jackson, Philip Jordon, 
Jacob Kizer, John Lendreth. Ancil B. Mclntire, William 
McGuire, William Marefield, John Murphy, George .Mark- 
well, Noah B. Moore, Henry Michall, Isaac Moore, George 
Neice, Frederick Niesly, .Augustus Odell. James Platl, Ab- 
salom Rose, Jr.. William Rickards, S. Smith, John 
Snider, Joseph Sleetmatty, William Strojis, John H. Schamps, 
Michael Sullivan, James F. Travis, Charles J. Travis, Lycur- 
gus Willi.amson, John W. Yearn, Jacob .A. Bell, William .A. 
Boman, John Crawford, Henry Eckeri, John Fisher, John 
Goss, John G. Gray, William Hasling, John Johnston, 
Marshall Merritt, James Murphy, William M. Robinson, 
John W. Ratlifi", F.niil C. L. Shercr, John Troutman, Gar- 
rett Vore. William H. H. Vailes, John Watson, janies 
Welsh, John J. Young. 


Captain Francis .A, McHarry. 
Captain Henry Sutton. 
.Second Lieutenant John M. Williams. 
Second Lieutenant John O. Beard. 


First Sergeant Robert W. O'.iver. 
Sergeant Bollnian M. Stevens. 
Sergeant .Alonzo G. Moore. 
Sergeant Charles D. Ashby. 
Sergeant Edward P. Speed. 
Sergeant .Andrew Zimmerman. 
Corporal Lawrence Hagarman. 
Corpo"al William Errick. 
Corporal William Gover. 
Corporal Sidney Monroe. 
Corporal William Blunk. 

' PRIV..\TES. 

Louis P., .Alexander Bruner, .Alonzo Butcher, James 
Birdwell, George Google, Edward Cotter, John Cre.ady, Wil- 
liam Coslillo, John Franzman, Thomas J. Fon, John .A. God- 
dard. Charles Gasser, Clat Johnson, Emil Krucker, George 
Kron. George W. Kron, John Leahey, James R. Lamb, 
Hiram B. I^mb, .Allen Long, Jesse Lafallett. Thomas Led- 
wick, Peters Meyers, Philip G. Monroe. George Morrison, 
John W. McDaniel, James H. Moore, John Maloney, James 
B. Prewilt. James Pauley, Joseph Raubold, Beno Sehlesinger, 
Isaac Stewart, Wenthrop Simms. Sidney Smith, James M. 
1 Speed. William H. Terry, .Andrew J. Webb, Peter Crowe, 
I William W. Duflield, Jerry Hunt, Henry .Menny, Oliver 
Newell, Benjamin F. S. Osborn, Samuel Skiles, Jacob Sow- 
der, Charles Wills, Rudolph Armbruster, James Buriiell. 



Elbyrt Bruncr, Joseph H. Urano, lanas A. Cobuni, John 
FaUow, Jesse Fiiquc, Xavicr Hirscliley, William Seller. 



Captain Millon T. Callahan. 
Captain oscph Pickering 
Captain anies M. Callahan. 


First Sergeant John H. Rceior. 
First Sergeant Thomas M. .Mcxander. 

Sergeant Charles II. Peterson, 
Sergeant William G. Baird. 
Sergeant William W. Moss. 
Sergeant James R. Honiback. 
Sergeant Jacob H. Keller. 
Sergeant ChristopKcr B. Tharp. 
Sergeant William Meek. 
Corporal James Gallegar. 
Corporal Wadsworth Kindle, 
Corporal Theodore Watson. 
Corporal William II. Goss. 
Corporal John E. Enlow. 
Corpora! Blackley \\^ Jenkins. 
Corporal .Alonzo Lytle. 
Corporal George W. Parris. 
Cori)oral Henry C. Tr.innum. 
Musician .'\rnold 1 harp. 


John S. Arnold, Peter A. IJuiba. Samuel T. Burba, Na- 
than Bennett, Conrad P.rand^.bery, John W. Cooper. Samuel 
F. Driiry, Thomas T. Ferrell. Bailey S. Green, William Gip- 
son, John Hoke, Charles F. Hornb.ick. Andrew M. Horn- 
back, Alfred Hornback, James W, Hunt, RichardJ. Hollo- 
way, Peter Heiniborn, Barnett Hopkins, Norban G. Jackson, 
William enkins, Michael Keainey. John l.anm, James W. 
Lamb, John Link. George W. Miller, I^evi H. Melton, Ben- 
jamin L. Moss. Henry C. Morgan, Thomas J. G. W. 
Phelps, John Reynolds, Thomas Reynolds, Henry C. Rod- 
effer, Benjamin O. Synipson, Andrew D. Stfc!, oseph H. 
Steel, Adam State, Eli Shively, George R. Tharp, John W. 
Waters, William Wood, Henry G. Yates, Anthony Acker- 
man, Patrick S. Caher, Solomon Irwin, .'^([uirc Lane, Daniel 
J. McClure. Samuel D. McCreadv, Mariano Olivera, David 
W. Roach, William G. Stonecvpher, Archibald M. Symp- 
son, Robert Tuel, Da%id P. Willis, Daniel Kincaid, William 
J. Shaw, Philip Glasniaii. Charles King, James G. Sympson, 
Andrew Wolpert. 



Captain Eli P. Farmer. 
Captain James Boultiiighouse. 
First Lieutenant John .Armstrong. 

Second lieutenant Fred Wym.m (on alphabetical list, but 
not on company roils). 


First Sergeant Christopher C. Dean. 
First Sergeant Rodolph H. Whitner. 
Sergeant Charles S. Baker. 
Sergeant D.ivid Crull. 
Sergeant .Abrani T. Chappell. 
Sergeant George S, Minor. 
Sergeani Ji;mes F. Mc.MaheL 

Corporal ^■ede^ick D. Connor. 
Corporal Thomas Woods. 
Corporal Jacob Beck. 
Corporal J, uncs W. Wheeler. 
Corporal William F. Smithcr. 
Corporal M. McKini. 
Corporal Davis Bumgardnei.' 
Corporal James li. Groves, 
Corporal Robert II. Morris. 
Corporal George L. McKim. 


John J. Ainol.t, Richard Baker, Jos.-i.h Bnsath, B. F. 
Boullingliouse, Frankhn Christoff, George W. Cooper, 
Henry Doring, Franklin Drake, John Fcnnell, John Fey, .An- 
drew Gump, Samuel G. Hensley, George B. Herbert. Daniel 
Hardin, Hugh Hagnn, John Johnson, .Miles James, Peter 
Krensh, William Kcrshbaum, John Moss, Henry C. Reed, 
James .S. .Siinler, .Alfred Slinson, Franklin Woodward. David 
Welsh, Mathcw Woods, Thomas J. Wilson, David Wilson, 
James Williamson, John Waggle, Patrick Srannon, Xelson 
Crull, Marion Eaton, Thomas Fitzgerald, Charles Flood, 
Lawrence Hannon, John J. Lang, James W. Lamar, Michael 
Morris John R. McCoimell, William Powell, Calvin Samp- 
ley, Franklin Snawdcr, Malhew Smith, John Smith, Stephen 
Terry, .Addison Terry, Washington Connor, Thomas Dillon, 
Isaac Hensley. Samuel G. Hutchison, Curtis Lindscy, Jerry 
A. Robison, Daniel Shelley, Peter Snawder, William F. 

fiilLU and staff. 

Lieutenant-colonel Henry DenL 

Major Selby Harney. 

.Adjutant Charles .A. Gruber. 

Surgeon George W. Ronald. 

Sergeant-major Henry Sutton. 


Captain William T. Dillard. 
P'irst Lieutenant Charles .A. Gruber. 
Second Lieutenant Francis -A. McHarry. 


First Sergeanljohn C. Slater. 
Seigeant William Ernst. 
Sergeant John M. Snyder. 
Sergeant William Harper. 
Sergeant William H. Miller. 
Corporal F. G. Whick. 
Corporal WillLam S. Edwards. 
Corpor.d Henry Patterson. 
Corporal Joseph Pickering. 
Corpora! Charles Bardin. 
Corporal William Cummins. 
Corpora! Peter Frickhofer. 
Corpora! Thomas H. Atkinson. 
Corporal Jacob S. Pierce. 
Musician Levi B. Bi.\by. 
Musician John Watson. 


Frederick Ashman, Oliver Allison, Thomas .Argin, John 
W. Barker. Jackson Blunk, Jacob Crester, William Casey, 
Anthony Clarke. James Corcoran, U'ilham Cusac, George 
Crawley, Charles G. Cushman, John Cook, George Clark, 
John Dysinger, Michael Doyle, John Dalton, Jacob Dress, 



Conmtl Dr.-.ul, Joscpli P. Eslcs. Kraiik Esricli, Hcnr)- Ebcr- 
liart, I'atrick Klinn, Jolin Fusion, Bernard I'lack. Frederick 
Fristicr, William Gnflin, Lew is Gross, .MfredJ. Gruch, Con- 
rad Grolh. Franklin Graw, John Hagarnian, Laurence It.ig- 
■ arman, A. Hodapp, Andrew Height, Thomas Honnessy. 
[ohi: W. j.aeobs, William Jcmmison, Aniliony Kern, Lewis 
Krcnier. William Kaglc, John Kiscr, Joseph La'atorback, 
Frank Miller, Henry R. Miller, Michael Murray, William 
McMunay, Franklin Mflvin. Ht!s;li Mofl'itt, Daniel Mealier, 
Patrick McGoff, Thomas .\Lalone, Henry Marccly, Michael 
McGicrncy. Anton .Mollain, Philip Mollain, Anihonv Mc- 
Gi'iiy, J:im»s \t ,h"r Jnhn 1. AfiHor. Henry Osterman, 
Leonard Pairne, Lewis Pickering, Mordecai Pillow, William 
Patterson, Alfred G. Putnam, Charles Pickering, Georj-e B. 
Randolph, Joseph W. Roberts, Francis S. Roberts, Andrew 
Riley, Henry Sutton, William .Scibcl, Sanmcl Schwer. Joseph 
Snell, Frederick Slutzcll, George Shower, Joseph Schwartz, 
Lewis S. Skiles, Anthony Slomicl, Leonaid Stelley, Casper 
Sutler, John Shoemaker, Charles Seitz. G. H. Timmer, 
Charles Tietz, Waiter Townsend, Peter Uhl, Jacob \'anan, 
George \V. White, Thomas Young. 



Captain William Blood. 

First Lieutenant Christopher C. Hare. 

First Lieutenant David A. Harvev. 

Second Lieutenant Frederick Wynian. 


Sergeant Eli Farmer. 

Sergeant James W. Fisher. 

Sergeant Benjamin Myers. 

Sergeant J. R. Farmer. 

Corporal J. E. Goldsmith. 

Corporal Morris Davis. 

Corporal Harrison Bridge. 

Corporal P. H. Yenawine. 

Corporal Levi Cole. 

Corporal R. M. McClelland. 

Corporal Thomas H. Stephens. 

Corporal George W. Vreland. 


John Brady, John C. Boyd, Alexander T. Barker, Neal 
Bcglot, Daniel Bennett, John Connell, A. J. Craig, Henry 
Chappell, James Ch,appell, Thomas R. Crandell, J. C. Con- 
nell, Joseph Carpenter, Thomas S. Chesser. Frank Dittmar, 
John Daker, C. F. Dantic, James Easton, William Fclker, 
John Farris, John Freeman, J. T. Froman, \Yalton Gold- 
smith, William Gable, Weston Graham, Price Graham, John 
Green, William Gallaher, John Hazer. Henry Hiser, Henry 
J. Holdman, Frank Howell. Henr)- Hartledge, Joseph Hart- 
ledge, Eli Harling, Isaac Holt. William Hobbs, P. .\L Hom- 
iMck, George W. Hays. Lewis Hays. Philip Hacker, Adam 
Jost, Mathew Lynch, Michael McGraft', John McDonald. 
Warren Morain. Dennis Mitchell, Andrew H. .\Iiichell, Wil- 
liam Mathis, Jonathan .V. .Marion, William Newman. Frede- 
nck Rice. James Raverty. J. L. Kyley, William Scandler, 
George Snell, Philip Seller, J. C. Slammell, Peter Snider, 
G. L. E. Scherer, Boone Summers, F. \'. Stevens, Perry 
Snellen, Henry J. Smith, William'Thurman, Joseph K. Tid- 
'"KS. Thomas H. Tehan, J. E. T.dbere, Robert Villcrs, Philip 
\'ullnun, William H. Walker, John Young. 

Compatiy C was Company F of the Thirty- 
fourth Kentucky infantry. 



Captain Lewis H. Farrell. 

First Lieutonahl James I>. Tapp. 

Second Lieutenant Jucl M. Cow.irri. 


First Sergeant A. W. D, .Vbbctt. 
Sergeant James NL Lealhermaii. 
Sergeant James Winn. 
Sergeant John Scheie. 
Sergeant George W. Coward. 
Corporal Alfred NL Hoghlaiid. 
Corporal Alpheus B. Miller. 
Corporal Joseph K. Cain. 
Corporal John T. Sh.adburn. 
Corporal Benjamin S. Tyler. 
Corporal John Risinger. 
Corporal B. Weatherford. 
Corporal Richard L. Heplar. 


Richard H. Alpine. Joseph Beger, Timothy Brown, Joseph 
Cutkhart, William Brown. John U. Bates, Francis M. Bris- 
by, James Clarke, Jacob D. Campbell, Thomas Conley, 
Isaac Covent, H. C. Conley, George L, Cook, James T. 
Carpenter. Duncan Daker, John Daker, Thomas T. Dunk- 
ester, Edward Dowler, John Dumpsey, .Mathew Daughan, 
Peter Feeney, William Filzhenny. James Farmer, Robert 
Fuiford, George Gans. M. Gnsel, George Gulgahcr, Patrick 
M. Gannon, George Gebhart, William .^. Green, C. Heckel- 
niiller, Peter L. Helper, Henry A. Hueper, Robert Hagerty, 
Mills Houston, Theodore Holtsclaw, Henry Heart, John 
Buddy, Stephen L. Jones, William Y. Jones, Richard Jentzis, 
George I. Jones, Hiram Jones, George W. Jones, Francis 
Kennedy", Leonaril Kopp, James M. King, Thomas Linch, 
F.ancis M. Looney, William W. Martin, William D. Martin, 
Albert H. .McQuiddy, John C. Martin, Jacob Xoss, John' 
Negson, Bejamin Xett, Arthur W. O'Connor, Thomas 
O.Malay, Joseph Parsons, William Ray, John D. Reagh, 
William Robinson, Joseph Right, Joseph P. Keadin". 
Ephraim Rusk, Henry Rimback, Thomas Sanford, Henry 
Schafer, rin'c S-._-;ni r, W. L. Smith, .Mich.ael Swaney, 
Joseph F. Sachs. James Scott, Frederick W. Schneider, 
John -Scheie, Theodore Swinney, Charles Sinat, Charles 
Schwardtner, Patrick Scully, John Tomlinson, Thomas B. 
Thayer, Edward Vincore, John Vollniar, William Wilson, 
Phihp Whalin, Christian G. Weller. Frederick Wolf, Gibson 
Withers, John B. Wright, Perry Weatherford, D. R. Way- 


Captain John O. Daly. 

First Lieutenant Thomas H. Tindcll. 

Second Lieutenant Eugene O. Daly. 


First Sergeant William Dougherty. 

Seigeant Thomas H. Wenstanley. 

Sergeant Charles Miller. 

Sergeant Michael Gosney. 

Sergeant John B. Smith. 

Corporal Johnjeffers. 

Corporal Jacob .A.ic. 

Corporal Timothy Hogan. 

Corporal Patrick Flood. 


Corporal Patrick IIaI[)eniiy. 
Corporal olin X. Fclti'is. 

Corporal Petci Gias. 


J.imcs Putl'-r. [. 1'. Ronilli.igcr. Jam?s noiillingliouse, 
Edward lioiiliiiiL'IioUM-. Kr.-uKis M. noiiUinghoiise, John 
•Rums, Isaac Ucnnt;a,Jo!>f()!i T. liriglit. Conrad Burgliard. 
Edward Burns, Oscar C'lino, John Crawford, Williatn Cos- 
tcllo, Anthony Cliden. John M. Chisenhall, Cliarles Connell, 
John Donahugh, farob Dunel, L. H. Dani*:!, James Evans, 
Pliihp Ernst, lacob Ernst, James Eniighi, Andrew Fritz, 
'I hcodore Earien, Mcnry .Fremnicn, Jolin Fri'mnion, Frank 
Frcmnien, William Fiemen, Francis Fark. Jacob Finsten, 
J.Kob Groby, Tliomas G. Gallagher, ATUliony Giiftm, Lewis 
Gideon, George W. Glenbarker, Patrick Canning, olin 
Guy, J. G. llall, Richard Henry, Anthony Hob.m, John 
Houser, Uavid F. Henry, .\ndre\v Hearn, A. Hurl, Thomas 
Kent, Andrew Kregel, Lewis Kiiner, John Lever, Charles 
Lenimcr, William Lear, Nicholas la-ar, Julius Luenberger, 
Goblitz Lemier, George W. Messenger, Mich.ael Mc- 
Donough, Michael .McCarthy, John Mills, Edward B. .Miles, 
David Mercer, John Nix, James Ryan, Robert Ragan, 
Patrick Riley, Thomas Riley, John Sciiigart, Franklin Schi- 
gart, William Schork, John Shiilh, James Smith, Henry 
Schikell, Thomas .Stanton, Thomas O. Shay, William Shil- 
ling, John Shartell, Mich.icl Siitzell, .Andrew Seherk, Fred- 
erick Sigcl, Frcdeiick L'ngernian, Fr,>ncis L'lrich, Stephen 
V'ick, William R. \'anovcr, Charles Webbi-r. Jacob Wisen- 
berger, K. Wheeler John \". Wheeler, Patrick 
Walsh, Christopher Zeigler. 


This was organized uiuicr Colonel Charles S, 
Hanson, in the suinmer of 1S63, and Conijianies 
A, B, and C were mustered into the United 
States service at (ll.asgow, Kentucky, September 
17, 1863. Conipanies D, K, F, and G were mus- 
tered-ir. October 24, 1S63, at Glasgow, Ken- 
tucky. Captain Stroube's conijjany, originally 
raised for the 1 ifty-fiist Kentucky infantry, was 
mustcred-in Sejjtember 4, 1S63, at Covington, 
Kentucky, and conbolidated with the Thirty- 
seventh, forming Comjiany H. Conip.inies I 
and K were nuistcreil-in at Clla.-^gow, Kentucky, 
December 21 and 2:, 1S63. Charles S. Hanson 
was mustered-in as colonel, Dei ember 29, 1S63, 
and commanded the regiment until the battle of 
Saltville, Virgini.i, was fought, on the 2d day of 
October, 1S64, when he was severely wounded, 
and fell into the hands of ilic enemy a prisoner 
of war. He "as afterw.irds exchanged and 
honorably discliarged .March 6, 1S65, 

This regiment was com[)osed of the best 
material, and thovgh a one year regiment, bore 
as honorable a part m liie war as many three- 
years regiments, and was engaged in all the battles 

occurring in the locality in which it served, 
though the recoids of the regiment only show it 
■ to have been engaged in the battles at Glasgow, 
Kentucky; Jackson county, Tennessee; Saltville, 
Virginia, and iMt. Sterling, Kentucky. It was 
musteied-out December 29, 1S64, at Louisville, 
there-enlisted men being tiansferred to the F'ifty- 
fifth Kentucky infantry and the F'oiirth Ken- 
tucky Mounted infantry. 


Adjutant Caswell B. Watts- 


Captain \\'illiam O. Watts. 
Second Lieutenant ohn R. Watts. 


First Sergeant George W. Alvin. 
Sergeant ohn Dixon. 
Sergeant \\'illiam Knapp. 
Sergeant Nathan L. R. Melvin. 
Sergeant Charles Walters. 
Corporal Levi Gravetrc. 
Corporal ohn D. Warren. 
Corporal Henry E. .Sanders. 
Corporal Manuel Evans. 
Corporal Robert F-dmonson. 
Corporal Militus . Wilson. 
Corporal Mitchell Wright. 
Corpt>ral ereniiali F. e i kins 


Jacob Bales, Nathan B. Edwards, Green B. Graham, 
Thomas Helton, John C. Jenkins, Joseph I'. Mattingly. 
William N. Miles, William McDaniel, Henry Milligan, 
James Nelson, Preston Napper, Thomas J. Pepper, William 
Perkins, John Perkins, James Peters. John T. Price, Green 
B. Robertson, Reuben Ratcliff, James Read, Jefferson 
Rhodes, Robert B. Sanders, Tillman H. Sheckles, John 
Slaughter, John C. Skaggs, James F. Sk.aggs, Sidney H. 
Slcnnett, Walter Vessels, John R. Wilson, William Wil- 
liams, John Young, Thomas Burrows, John Burrows, Julius 
N. Crowley, George NL Emery, George M. French, Oliver 
P. Grace, John W. Gill, John Hall, William Jones, Jesse 
Jones, Richard Lyons. William Mitcham, James .\T. Mundy. 
Jefferson Morris, Benjamin M. .Morris, Jasper C. Roberts, 
P.iscal Siltsman, John T. Wade, William K. Wade, Wil- 
liam B. Whitehouse, Rufus .Ackridge, David Brewer. Joseph 
Books. Benjamin Brown, John .M. Despain, William R. 
Faulkner, William W. Hunt, Thomas S. Pease, Charles S. 
Rouse, H. P. Sympson, Henry Wells. 



Captain James H. White. 

Captain Joseph J. Eorrell. 

On alphabetical list, but not on company rolls: 

Second Lieutenant George W. White. 


riKi.ii AMI sT^rr. 
Colonel Harlwell T. Eiirge. 
• Qviartorniasler Jnnies M. Courlney. 

First LifUtciKint Jolm 1". Lay. 

On alphabetical list, but not on company rolls: 

First I.ieutciinnt John V. I,ny. 


Colonel Clinton ]. True. 
Lieutenant-colonel \\*. C. Johnson. 
Major James G.- Francis. 
Adjutant Frank D. Tunis. 
Quartermaster S. J. Housh. 
Surgeon William B. Bl.nnd. 
Assistant Surgeon Henry C. Miller. 

On nljiliabctical list, but not on company rolls: 


Second Lieutenant Malhew Kcnnedv. 



Surgeon F'rcderick C. Leber. 

First Lieutenant Benjamin C. Lockwood. 


The Fifty-fit'th Kentucky Infantry was raised un- 
der special authority of the War Department, aud 
was organized at Covington, Kentucky, in Nov- 
ember, 1864. It was mounted, and performed 
duty in the counties bordering on the Kentucky 
Central Railroad, until ordered on the Saltville ex- 
pedition under General Burbridge. On this ex- 
pedition It performed good and efficient service, 
and was favorably mentioned by the command- 
ing general, among other troops of his division, 
for gallant bearing in face of the enemy. After 
the return from Virginia the regiment was by de- 
tail posted in various counties to protect the citi- 
zens from depredations of guerrillas, upon which 
duty it reaiained until mustered out at Louis- 
ville, on the 19th day of September, 1865. 


Assistant Surgeon E. R. Palmer. 



First Lieutenant James H. White. 
Second Lieutenant George W. White. 


Sergeant Charles W.ilters. 
Sergeant Syburn Lain. 

Ser,!;eant Wiall li. Goad. 

Corporal Thomas Ford. 

Corporal Anilrcw W. Hester. 

Corporal Byron A. Gardner. 

Corporal Henry Deaver. ^ 

Corporal Joseph B. Tennclly. 

Corporal Thomas Fiirge. 

Cor[Joral William W. Tyree. 

Musician Leroy D. Li\ ingston. . 

Musician James B. Waldon. 

^\agonet" Richaid Moore. 


Thomas Burros, Wesley Blnnkenship, Thomas H. Blank- 
enship, Thomas C. Buley, Charles E. Clark. Francis M. 
Cable. Julius M. Crawlev, Lauson Daniels, Abner D. Dud- 
ley, George W. Durbin, Thomas Deaver, Amos Englan, 
Irvin Frogg, G. W. French, J. W. Gill, G. W, Golley. John 
H. Gibson. William H. Wornbacl:, John Ilarman, Robeit 
Howell, John H. Johnston, Thomas W. Johnston, William 
Jones, Robert Killian, Richard Lyons. McCoy. James 
A. Merryfield. William A. Milchum, Haywood M. Moore, 
James M. Mundy. Benjamin M. Morris, John Malone, John 
Maylitrld. .Alfred Xewton, James J. Xewton, Benjamin D. 
Orr, Cadd Orms, John A. Richards, Jasper E. Robarts, 
.-\chison E. Robertson, Nalhan L. Shnker, Joseph Slinker, 
James T. Shoemaker, Pashall Saltsnian, Benjajuin W. 
Spaulding, William .Steadman, William Vance, John G. 
Wise, James \\'alls. William R. Wade, RoVwrt Whitlock, 
William R. Whiteles.see, William F~. Wright, John Barnes. 
Peter Green, John Hall, John Burris, Lelbond H. Dikker- 
son, Jesse Jones, John T. Waid. 



Cai'^tain Peter S. Jones- 
First Lieutenant George M. Harper. 
Second Lieutenant John N'. Buchanan. 


F'irst Sergeant Edward D. Scott. 
Sergeant William .Austin. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Schole. 
Sergeant Charles Koph. 
Sergeant Albert Ceaser. 
Sergeant Clayton L. Harris. 
Coiporal Jacob .-^xe. 
Corporal William Buckley. 
Corporal Ellas Brown. 
Corporal Charles Stickler. 
Corporal Daniel Hatha\\*ay. 
Corporal Conrad Dintleman. 
Corporal Daniel Bardwell. 
Corporal Frederick Cubbins. 


Jesse Abbott, Harmon Ashberry, Wilham Brown, William 
H. Brown, John Cleary, Patrick Durrill, James L. Davis, 
Frederick Ehrempford. Milton H. Gore, Charles Gardner, 
John Hegan, Casemer Hillerick. Louis Fluber. Adolph 
Haze. James W. Jackson. Leman C. Kellani, Jackson Led- 
ford, Thomas Ledford, Major E. Lee, Henry C. Lucas, 
Peter Moreback, Joiin Messinger, George W, Messinger, 
{larrison Miller, Francis Manahan. Frederick Miller, James 
A. .Matthes, Noah Piercet'ield. John Shaw, Jacob Smith, 
Gabriel Smaltr, Frank Spindler, Frank Snyder, Andrew 
Severs, John Stephens, James Bethuran, Wiley R. Daugh- 


erly, Miclmd Hdl/. Hunry I.ty, Joliii M.issc-y, U. 
Siiead, Wamncr. W)!lni» II. Hood, Ir.iiicis M. Mc- 
DonnUJohn Miller. 


"(jOM MISSION!. n oKnri;KS. 
Sc-cond Liemcp„-im Jacob P. Pliipjjs. 
Qn alphabetical llsi; but ikjI on comiiaiiy rolls: 

' Captain Gcorsc Welker. 

Robert F. Burton, William Ci.Mko, Waiter Large, ]olm 
Peryins, \'\'iUiam J. Vanliook. 

William Staplelon, Thorn is '1 homiis jn, John Tombs, 


The Second Kentucky cavalry wa.s organized 
at Camp Joe Holt, undtr Colonel lluckner j 
Board, mustered into service on the 9th day of , 
September, 1S61, by Major W. H. Sidcli, and ; 
was a part of that gallant band raised by (kn- , 
eral Rousseau, fron.i whicli the grand aiiuy of \ 
the Cumberland sprung. It matched from Camp , 
Joe Holt to Muldrough's Hill with General Rous- \ 
seau in defense of Louisville against the advance j 
of Buckner, and was immediately assigned to 1 
duty with the Army of the Cumberland; it v.-as ' 
in the advance of General Buell's army at Shiloh, | 
and participated in that battle. The regiment | 
retnained in Tennessee until Scptetriber, 1863, 
when it again returned to Kentucky with Rnell's | 
army, in pursuit of Bragg, and with the cavalry 
engaged with the enemy at Chaplin Hills, Ken- 1 
tucky, October 8, 1S62. The regiment marched { 
from Perryviile, in pursuit of Bragg, as far as j 
Mount Vernon, in Rockcastle county, Kentucky, [ 
when the pursuit was abandoned, and both \ 
armies made efforts to reach Nashville first. 
From Nashville the regiment marched to Mur- 
freesboro, and in the fight of Stone river received 
special mention from General Rousseau, com- 
manding the division, lor gallant and daring 

The regiment particii.>aled in the following 
noted battles in which loss was sustained, besides 
numerous skirmishes and minor battles incident 
to the vigorous campaigns of the Army of the 
Cumberland, to which it was attached, viz : 
Shiloh, Perryviile, Stone River, Ciiickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain, and all the battles of the 
Atlanta campaign. The regiment veteranized at 

Bridgeport, Alabama, March 7, i86.j, and the 
recruits and veterans were transferred to the 
Second Kentucky veteran cavalry. 
1 ij.i.i) .\M) sT.yn-. 

Colonel Buckner Boaid. 

Colonel Thomas P. Nicholas. ■ 

Lieutenant-colonel Owen Starr. 

Regimental Quartermaster Klias Tliomasson. 

Kegimenlal Quarteii-.iiistei William G. Rogers. 

Regimental Commissary LdwanJ P. .\yres. 

COMI'-ANY .\. 
Cl->MMISSIO.Nt;il oniCEK. 
Captain George W. Griflithb. 

Blanharl Rees. 




William Brantley. 

CO.Ml'.VNV C. 


Captain Chailes D. Armstrong. 

PKIVA1 I'.s. 
George A. Kidd, Samuel J. Pearee, Samuel Strader. 
Captain Edward ]. Mitchell. 



Captain [ohn Baker. 

First Lieutenant Sanfoid H. 'I Imrman. 


Henry F. White, White. William A. Wallace, John 
Slack, James F. Tuiner, John V.uice. 
coM.Missio.NED officf;rs. 
Captain Thomas C. Wiley. 
First Lieutenant Augustine T. Gulit:^. 
First Lieutenant George S. Coyle. 

William Spears. 


Captain I.ovell H. Thi.\ton. 


.Andrew J. Smith, Levi S. Slate, Reason M. Slate, Joseph 
M. Hunter, William T. MeCormiek. 


[ohn .Alien Jones, John O'Brien. |ames L. Thackston. 
Captain Robert M. Gilmore. 

Larkin Arnold, Wuham Brown, Is.iac Burnett, J.nmes 



liiokc. Jrinics lirock, Ciejrye Bobbin, I'leasatii (J. liarrt-n 
(■>irniiis W. Carrier, Crabtrue, James Cox, George 
W. Da\is, William Edwards, Andrew J. Frog^', Thornton 
V. (i. lines, George \V. Giil, W'iliiam L. Griftis, 'I'tiomas Gar-, Ncely W. Ilart, Anderson Hmner, Joseph Hatmalver, I.awson. William McKenzie, Carroll ('. Mercer. 
William Mastengill. James Mothers John 11. Meeks, James 
.Merrill, (icorge Nich.>li, iknryrrice, Samuel I'riee, William 
Price, 'John A. Kair,'. y, Henry S^milh, James .Suett, .Allen 
Socage, William Toiid. Robert Warren, James Waddall, 
ICmerson \\'allace, Isaiah Wright, Jonathan Welsh, Burdine 
V iir^, M.-rtin Pnt'-n.g?. M.nrtin Hieks. I';:pl;iel H. Hall. 
Curtis M. Shelton, Thomas M. Tloyd, William Reynolds, 
James Young, John H. Preck. [oseph II. Gridiey. William 
M. Nichols. William H. Woodall, James Ad.ims. James 
Gordon, John B. Miller. 

The following names are found in the aljiha- 
bctical list of ofticers, but they do not appear 
among the ofiicers in tlie regimental roster: 

Bievct First Lieutenant t^pencer C. Evans. 
Second Eieutenant George .s. Coyle. 


'J'he Third regiment Kentucky \'olunteer cav- 
alry was organized at Calhoon, Kentucky, under 
Colonel James S. Jackson, and mustered into the 
United States service on the 13th day of Decem- 
ber, 1S61, by Major \V. H. Sidell. Immediately 
after organization the legiment was engaged as 
scouts in Southwestern Kentucky,, a section of 
the State over which the Confederates then held 
control. They were assigned to General T. L. 
Crittenden's division, and marched from Cal- 
hoon to Nashville, Tennessee, in the month of 
March, 1S62. From there, in advance of the 
Army of the Cuinberland, it marched through 
Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing, and particijxited 
in the battle of Shiloh; from there to Corinth 
and luka, Mississippi; thence to Florence, Ala- 
bama; from there to Athens, Alabama, where 
the regiment remained during the summer of 
1S62. From Athens the regiment marched to 
Dechcrd, Tennessee, and from there commenced 
the pursuit of Bragg, who had advanced to Ken- 
tucky. At New Havcn, Kentucky, they jjartici- 
Jjated in the engagement in which the Third 
Georgia cavalry was captured. In advance of 
Major-General Crittenden's division they marched 
from Louisville to Perryville, and in pursuit of 
Jiragg out of Kentucky, returning to Nashville 
and Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The regiment 
veteranized at Nashville in March, 1S64, having 
l'artici|)ated in the following battles in which loss 
was sustained, viz: Sacramento, Kentucky; Pea 
Kidge, Mississippi; Corinth, luka, Mississippi; 

j New Market, Alabama; Kinderhook, 'J'ennes.see; 
Chaplin Hills, Shiloh, Stone River, and Chicka- 
maiiga, Georgia. .\MJ STAFF. 
Major W. .S. D. Megowan, 
.\dimant /achary I,. T.iUor. 
Chaplain Hariwell T. Rurgc. 

CO.Ml'AN'V A. 
Wiliiam Cash. John Hays. Jesse Jennings, Abraham Job, 
Jamc» Liles, John W. Sterling. John 'W. Vatcs, Joseph Hale. 
.Samuel D, Ingles, Nicholas J. Mereer, Charles L. Robert- 
son, John W. Smith, John J. Smith, Jerome B. Smith, 
-Newton Champion, James L. Driver, Miles Duniiii^g, Wil- 
liam Ely, An.hony Gardner, John W. Hodge, David Hall, 
John Knalls, Young Long, Benjamin O. Mitchell, T. Zaeha- 
riah Pryor, John II. Rushing. Rums .M. Stokes, Wiley O. 
Thurman, Alfred Wilson. 


Captain Mathew H. Jouett. 


George W. Short, Henry Cncel, John W. Herrell, Wil- 
liam D. Dial, James M. Dcanier, William C. Jarvis, Wil- 
liam McCormick, Edward R. Roll, James McCorinick, 
James W. Hammers, John Wesley, Brewer, Peter Carter, 
William Cyreans, George B. Hicks. Samuel Krane, Paris 



James \V. Lucas. Hiram Shannon. Willis Roach, Henry 
C. Staten, Benjamin F. I.'avidson, W. J. G. Hughes, Lean- 
der Duncan, Solon Houghton. 


James Steaward, James T. Bucl:.anan, George Benet, La- 
layette Jimmerson. 

First Lieutenant Percival P. Oldershaw. 

Michael .s. Lile. 



First Lieutenant W. H. Burghardt. 


Captain J. Speed Peay. 
Captain Thomas C. Foreman. 
Captain L. L. Drown. 
Captain Edward W. W.ird. 
First Lieuten.ant William Surling. 
First Lieutenant Thomas Coyle. 
First Lieutenant John Weist. 
Second Lieutenant .-\. J. Gillett. 
Second Lieutenant Girnett Duncan. 




Comiany Quartermaster Scrgcint ChailcbJ. Mull. 

Sergeant Joseph McC'roiy. 

Scrgeam Charles Lcntz. 

Scrgc.iiil John W. I-'orrester. 

Corporal Irvine Siiiflclt. 

Corporal Willis H. Kasor: 

Corporal Thomas E. ISickiiell. 

Coi"poral Peter CofTman. 

Corporal William E. 

Corporal Brutus Z. Tullilovc. 

Corporal lienjaniin R. Myers. 

Bugler Philip Brenner.. 

Bugler D.ivid B. Fry. 

Farrier Thomas R. Hagan. 

Farrier Thomas M. Fooie. 

Saddler John King. 

Wagoner Thomas ]. I.ear. • 

Thomas ]. .Adams, Frederick Reck. Benjamin Be\ in, James 
Black, Reuben Blake, James B. Bockin, William 11. Bockin, 
Aaron B. Carfield, Charles R. Cable, Wiliiani II. S. Cable, 
William Curry, David W. Crutcher, Thomas Coyle, William 
H. Cubine, Alonzo Davidson, John W. KUis, Hastings 
Foote, Pleasant K. Gentry, kiehard M. Gentry, Zachariah 
Green, John Hardy, Mieh.;el Haley, John Haley, Robert 
H. Haskinson, John R. liurly. John Hatter, William B. 
Hunter, Gustavus Hyde. William Hall, Jackson Isaacs, 
Charles W.Jones, Tarlton Jones. William C. Jones, David 
B. Kindred, Conrad Kraft, James Lone, Wiili.uii N. Lake, 
Jesse E. Lear, Joseph F. Mallot, William Moller, Richard 
P. Nuckols, Henry Pern. Henry C. Price, George W. 
Powell, Freeman F. Kunyon, John Ridge, Richard Scott, 
Curtis A. Stout, Thomas S.dyors, David Snovvdin. James 
Sherwood, Henry Tice. Manlius Taylor, ]ohn P.. Vansv inkle, 
Josephus Wyley, Michael Welsh, Thomas H. Watkins, 
George B. Currin, James Lile. Thomas Lafleily. James 
Leech, Jr. , William McFellen, George Mouzer, Caleb Rey- 
nolds, William H. Renfro, William I'aylor, Lainc Wether- 
spoon, Perry C. Brooks, John W. Bu^h, W. Boston. Thomas 
Crump, Daniel Dobson, Francis Grinstead, James Grinstead, 
William Harness, Lorenzo Hurt, Isaac Hull', Nathan Mur- 
ray, George Waggoner, John W.-de. Peter O. l/ceeh. 

COMr.\NV H. 

Private James L. Davis. 



Zachariah Betts, .Vewton B.Ul/.-il. Robert J. Cooley. John 
Crawford. Reason Cravens, Philip D.mron. Francis Dtiflfron, 
Ahigal Dewccse. William N. Fvans. L. CJaines. George H. 
Gosnell. Joel Gray, Jimes Graham. Ahner Hill. Wilhani N. 
Harding, Samuel Hazel. J unes R. Johns. Kmis Jewel, 
Leander I.ane, William C. L.ine. Horiiio G. Lane, William 
MeCauley. William H. N.iU, George H. .Nelson. James Pat- 
ten. William H. Reed. Ge.iige W. Sweeney. .School- 
field, Ellis Stephens, Amos Smith, William I'.. Spr.idling, 
John Travis, William T. Thorns. William II. Tagg.irt, 
Thomas W. Wun.l. John Wh.-eler. Miles M. Watkins, 
Richard E. Ve.d:ey, P.te. i;. iJ.iiu.-l. K. (hove. 
Squire N. L.unplon, [uhn L. Oldham. James W. Skipwoith. 
Harvey Voun;;. .\i;gu-.tin I'l-ii.n, James M. Devu-ese. Waltion 
Harris, James G. Douney. 

Private William Beard. 



Thomas Shearn, George I). Blake, Sylvester Lay, George 
Oliver, Peter Gregory, Asa Williams. 

Charles Cox, James Lond, Jerome Myers, Hcr.ry Bernard, 
John Longel, James H. Dans, Nelson H. Norton, Thomas 
B. Thompson, John Wright, M. W. Davidson, JrHin Hill- 
ingsley, Louis Goodlue, Daniel W. Garden. Samuel J. Ew- 
ing, Matthew Jenkin.s, Charles E. Silwell, Jesse Sayie, Hiram 
A. Poguc, Bradford P. Thornberry, Wallace W. Thornberry, 
Samuel D. 'I'hornberry, John W. Atkinson, Andrew J. 
Green, Meredith A. Davis, Plenry Fox, Alfred Lockhart, 
William Parsons, Samuel G. Revel, Calvilf York, Jefferson 
Gentry, William D. Gentry, William A. Huff, John Riper- 
dan, Thomas T. Hicks, William Kelley, Thomas C. Phipps, 
William R. Keef, Robert H. Meredith, .\ndrewj. .Kherson, 
John D. Bell, Wesley Parsons. 


The following stalcmcnt of the condition, 
strength, and ojiciations of the Fouith regiment 
Kentucky volunteer cav.'ilry, from its organisa- 
tion to the 6th day of January, 186.1, when the 
regiment veteranized, is taken from the regi- 
mental records, and from other authentic sources, 
and is strictly accurate. The Fourth was or- 
ganized at Louisville, under Colonel Jesse Bayles, 
mustered into service on the 24th day of Dec- 
ember, 1861, by Captain Bankhead, and served 
as follows: On the 6tii day of January, 1862, 
the regiment marched from Louisville to }!ards- 
town, and went into a camp of instruction, es- 
tablished at the place by the late CJeneral Lytle; 
on the 26th day of March, 1862, left Bardstown 
for Nashville, Tennessee; on the Sth of April, 
1862, marched from Nashville to Wartrace, Ten- 
nessee; on the 13th day of July, 1S62, marched 
to Tullahoma, Tennessee, and remained there 
until August, 1S62; from Tullahoma marched to 
Manchester, Tennessee, and from there to Mur- 
frecsboro, and thence to Bowling Green, Ken- 
tucky, covering the retreat of General Buell; from 
the 3d day of September, 1862, until the 9th of 
February, 1863, the regiment was engaged in 
scouting over the southern portion of Kentucky; 
on the 9th day of February, 1863, the regiment 
marched for Nashville, where it arrived on the 
14th; marched from Nashville for Murfreesboro 
on the i6th of February; arrived at Murfrees- 
boro on the iSth of February; on the 27th of 



I'cbruary marched to Franklin, Tcnnt-ssee, where 
it remained observing Van Dorn and Forrest's 
commands, and skirniishmg with them everyday, 
until the 2d of June, when the regiment marched 
to Triune; on the 4th of June returned to Frank- 
hn, having several severe engagements with the 
enemy on that day and the t'olluwiiig; inarched 
to Triune on the 7th of June, wlicre it remained 
until the 23d, l)einf; engaged with the enemy on 
the 9th and 10th; innrclied with the cavalry 
corps in advance of the Arm)- of the Cumber- 
lat\d until the 2gth of Jul\-, when it went into 
camp at Gum Springs, Tennessee, where it re- 
mained until the 9th of August, marcliing thence 
by way of Fayetteville, Tennessee, and Hunts- 
ville, Ahibama, to Maysville, Alabama; on the 
27th of August marched to Caperton's Ferry, 
Akabama; crossed the Tennessee river on the 
ist of September, and proceeded to\'alley Head; 
on September 3d crossed Lookout Mountain, 
and marched through Al])ine to Summerville, 
Georgia, and returned to ^"alley Head on the 13th 
of September; on the 19th September the regi- 
ment marched for Crawtlsh Spirings, Georgia, 
where, on the 2'ist of SeiUembei, it was engaged 
with Wheeler's command of 7,000 men and 12 
pieces of artillery. In thi:, engagement, being 
overpowered and surrounded, the Fourth covered 
the retreat of the brigade, losing in the engage- 
ment 97 men killed and prisoners of war. 

The regiment arrived at Chattanooga on the 
22nd of September, and on the 25th marched for 
Bellefonte, Alabama, arriving on the 30th Sep- 
tember; left Bellefonte on the 2nd October for 
Caperton's Ferry, where it remained until De- 
cember 2d, and from thence marched via Chat- 
tanooga to Rossville, Georgia, arriving on the 5th 
December, being on the extreme outpost of the 
Army of the Cumberland. It remained at Ross- 
ville uutil the 6th of January, 1S64, when it vet- 
eranized, being among the first Kentucky regi- 
nients to renew their enlistment for three years. 

The regiment engaged in over fifty battles and 
skirmishes in which loss was sustained, among 
the principal of which are the following: Leba- 
non, Tennessee; Manchester Pike, Tennessee, 
Keadyville, near Chattanooga; Jasper, Rankin's 
I'erry, Anderson Cross Roads, Mott Creek, Bat- 
tle Creek, Tennessee; Stevenson, Bellefonte, Ala- 
bama; Sparta, Manchester, McMinnville, Gallatin, 
Iwnnessce; Trenton, Morgantown, Hopkinsville, 

Kentucky; Red Springs, Liberty, Murfreesboro, 
Franklin, Spring Hill, Brentwood, Lewisburg 
Pike, Carter's Cieek, Little Harpeth, Columbia 
Thompson's Station, Triune, Middleton, Eagle 
ville, Hoover's G^\ Guy's Gaji, Shelby ville 
Decheid, Tennessee; Whitesburg, \'alley Head, 
Alabama; Alpine, Summerville, and Chick:iniau 
ga, Georgia. 


Colonel D.iyles.' 
Lit^ Jacob Ruckjtiihl. 
Lioutcn.'xnt-Colonel Llewellyn Gwynne. 
Major John K. Gunkel. 
.AdjuUint Moses C. Bayles. 
.\djiitint George K. Sipeeii. 
Kei;itiiental Quailcmiaster Charles Kurfiss. 
-•Vs^isiant Suigeon David I'. Middlelon. 
Chaplain Matthew X. Lasley. 
Sergeant Major Henry Tanner. 
Quartcrinasle .Sergeant Theodore Wergo. 
Commissary Sergeant Wiliiam Butler. 
Hospital Steward William Eduards. 



Captain Levi Chilson. 

Captain William D. Hooker. 

Captain Joseph -X. Cowell. 

First Lieutenant William J. Hunter. 

Second Lieutenant James Barnes. 

Second Lieutenant Basil N. Hobbs. 

N0N-C0M.\nS.S10.\r.D OFFICFRS. 

Sergeant John J. Collins. 

Sergeant Frank Leiffenh. 

Sergeant Ryland K. Shuck. 

Sergeant John W. Burress. 

Sergeant James .-Mbertson. 

Sergeant Nathan K. Gross. 

Sergeant Joseph Daw kins. 

Sergeant William Se.xton. 

Corporal Jordan Brooks. 

Corporal J oseph H. .^rlebutn. 

Corporal Dominick Gross. 

Corporal Elzy Kennedy. 

Corporal Marion King. 

Corporal Jacob Welkins. 

Corporal William Stephenson. 

Corporal John P. .-\siiby. 

Saddler William E. Fleece. 

Bugler Christian Essig. s 

Bugler Frank Brinkni-an. 

Farrier Logan Jeffries. 


Andrew Beamela, Peter Edwards, Xo. 2, Eli D. Gardner, 
George Graves, William Kerr. George Morris, William Pren- 
tis. Joseph Phillips, John J. Snuth, William Sands, William 
S. Thompson, John Wooley, Martin Young, Cummins Cliild- 
ers, Frar.cis Dononahu, r..irlholomesv DuftV, P-eler Edwards. 
.Vo. I. John Heller, James L. Kelley, Jefferson Lowery, 
.Augustus Mathews, George .Myers, James V. Reed, John 
Skell, James Smallwood. .McGillam H. Waikins. Isaac Wat- 
kini, Cornelius M. Woodruff, John Wheeler, Samuel Young, 



John Arierburn, Frank Bonner, John Bonner, L).ivid Conner, 
Jordan Brooks, John Boes, Ruhcrl J. ColUns, Cun-, 
ningham, Jackson Ueclermin, John A. \V. Davis, James Ed- 
wards, William E. Fleece, I.awson H. Kelly, John H. I'rice, 
George Rhoe, John C. Schaefer, James J, II. Scon. Simon 
Trester, Thomas Young, Samuel .Vnderson, Christian Fully, 
John Sands, John Butts, Ale.vander F. Bolin. William H. 
Brown, David Collins, LafaycHe Collins, James Corden 
Thomas F.. Crumbaugh, Joshua Devers, William Eduards, 
Joseph Fehr, Thomas Figg, [oscph C. D. (iill, William M. 
Goldsmith, Joseph Ham, Richard Hall, William Jones, 
Joseph King, Michael Kin„', Benjamin Kelly, Thomas Mc- 
Manus, William Oglesby, Thomas OUrin, John Kik(;r, Rob- 
ert W. Reed. 



Captain John Kurfiss. 
Captain Adam Rogers. 
First Lieutenant Henry Tanner. 
Second Lieutenant John Feitsch. 


First Sergeant Barney Castncr. 

Sergeant B. B. Sloan. 

Sergeant David Patton. 

Sergeant George Snider. 

Sergeant Charles Clinton. 

Sergeant Jacob Wreterstein. 

Sergeant Henry Smith. 

Sergeant John H. Brecket. 

Commissary-sergeant Ja.nies C. F'hillips. 

Corporal William Fri.\. 

Corporal John S. Rukley. 

Corporal .Andrew Louden. 

Corporal Ludsvick Black. 

Corporal Jacob Fix. 

Corporal Claries Lauthard. 

Corporal John Weakley. 

Corporal Charles .A.ckers. 

Corporal Bender. 

Bugler William F.irrell. 

Bugler Peter Phyer. 

Farrier George B. Shi'rridan. 

Farrier Peter Smith. 

Saddler John Zoll. 

Wagoner Joseph Eckert. 


Jacob Akes, Martin Belii.-r. Christian llrinknian, Da\d 
Dirrick, I.ouis Furclit. Juhii Hn,-ns. V. .-laible. Andrew Small, 
John Bibbig, Daniel Flood. Charles 1-orcht, i;d«ard Hem, 
John Hoog, Jacob H. Lesstcrofl'i, Conrad Mcning, William 
•Meyers. Henry Sheard. C.i>iKT Schw.irts. John Shower, .'^r., 
Henry Shofiuastcr, J.acoli I liornlon. .\ndrew li.ich, Frederick 
Brown, Matthew .Miller. John I'l.clan, Smith, David 
H. Taylor, (ieorge We.\llierslein, Jacob Walter. Joseph Hen- 
eman. Henry .Meyeser, .Ml, miller. Badcr, 
August lUker, Uotileib F. ILiuer, Freiicrick Basser, Joseph 
Barrel!, Henry Doert, D.ivid K. i'cnton, i harles c;aillerunc, 
Al[>ert Halwax, John Hixrty, Frederick Ludwick. John Lud- 
wick, Jamei I.iwson. Joseph Marshal. Freling Namick. Ma- 
son Parson, I homas I'lailips, John Riiili, llLanas Ridge, 
Kavielt Shindler. John Shower, 1 Steward, .-\lbert 
Sanlergilt, Mac. Seiisolh. Irank Shier, Gibs./n late, Lewis 



Captain Charles L. L'nthank. 
Captain Sylvester W. Raplee. 
Captain John M. Bacon. 
First Lieutenant James O'DonnclI. 
First Lieutenant William J. Killmore. 
Second Lieutenant William ^L Nichols. 
Second Lieutenant A. G. Roscngarten. 
Second Lieutenant James Hines. 


First Sergeant Squire S. Roberts, 

Comp.any Quartermaster-Sergeant George Kipp. 

Sergeant Joseph Rickett. 

Sergeant Julius C. Sherer. 

Sergeant William J. Loder 

Sergeant William Stitgee. 

Seigeant George A. St. John. 

Corporal T homas Couch. 

Corporal John Ford. 

Corporal David Gordon. 

Corporal Franklin E. Roberts. 

Saddler James S. Dikes. 

John K. .-^dams. 

Farrier John .Metz. 


Frederick Butcher, Henry Delaney, .Anthony Ham, John 
Meyer, Lewis Roberts, Patrick Shudy, Francis J. St. Joh 
John Zink, Henry A. Crider, James Cassack. Henry Con 
John B. Dunlap, FIdward Demprey, .Alex. Goodman, Patrick 
Hart, Nicholas Kirin, Daniel Munty, Benjamin J. Nicholson 
Morris Powers, John Stair, Shriver, Michael Farrel 
Samuel Graham, John M. Gray, James Hislip, Patrick 
FLaney, John Sullivan, George Chastain, James Chapman 
Charles Gorman, .Andy Gross, David Heaver, James How 
ard, Daniel Ham, F'atrick Kennedy, Joseph Kipp. Johnson 
•McConkey, Julian L, Moraldo, Henry Meyer, George Orr 
J:, John Sheer, Benjamin F. Sewards, Cornelius Sullivan 
Thomas Sullivan, William Torrell, John Westfall. Lewi: 
W. Woodal. 



Captain George Welling. 
Captain William J. Earnett. 
First Lieutenant Frank N. Sheets. 
First Lieutenant John B. Lee. 
Second Lieutenant James .A. Kemp. 
Second Lieutenant John P. Brown. 


Sergeant Joseph R. Bradley. 
Sergeant William W. Chalfin. 
Sergeant William Snelling. 
Sergeant James W. Rooney. 
Sergeant Washington Reynolds. 
Sergeant Philip T. Chappie. 
Sergeant Francis V. Stephens. 
•Corporal Rufus Congrove. 
Corporal John F. Doncuster. 
Corporal William .Ateher. 
Corporal Edward .\tcher. 
Corporal James S. Goldsmith. 
Corporal John C. Sherwood. 
Corporal Hercules Roney. 



Corporal William Srnilli. 

Corporal Jesse Brimerr 


Michael Conner, Sibs W. (..'oilier, Georjje T. Goodaie, 
I'etcr Classman, Julm W. Hagan, I'liiiip Kressel. John Lit- 
tle, John Marger, Alfrea Shanks, Robert Fleming, John 
W'estfall, ^\■m. T. Atcher, Isaae Bureh, William L. Hranch, 
Alfred 'Cordon, Aiisburn Flowers, Ne'son Goldsmith, 
Tlionias Gilbert, [ames O. Hagan, William J. Hunter, 
Absolon Harrison, Thomas Henolt, Jnine^ jump, I.mlelon 
Lincoln, Adolphus Meyers, Thomas ]. Martin, Augustus G. 
Mycis. Hiigii A. Paltas^n, .\J...., ri.u'..i, IlL-i:.fy F.^.l-, 
Daniel Sinipkins, William C. Smith, ]ohn T. Tanner, John 
Travis, Han ison Tanner, William Wulden, Samuel Wallace, 
James Crillcn, John M. Briscoe, William Greenuell, George 
Haddox, Joel Harrison, Christopher C. Martin, Kirlifur 
Shively, Charles Swiney, Greenup ]. Wi-stfall, Wiili.^tii 
Fierericld, William G. Arthur, Philip I;iiman, Le.i Brent- 
linger, William K. Bruimel, George Cuddlemeyer, Franklin 
Collings, Isaac Douglas, Torrencc Davidson. William M. 
Edwards, William Foster, Samuel Foster, William Gralram, 
Harrison Joyce, John James, .Andrew Lawrence, William 
Mcdcalf, Christopher C. .Martin, Jacob Mcintosh, Alexander 
Oliver, John Ranidon, John, Jeremiah Steward, 
Michael Sago, David Shoptan, I'erry Siielling. William 
Todd, Edward Welling, John Yeager. 



Captain Henry A. Schaeffer. 
Captain Leopold I'reuss. 
Captain James O'Donnell. 
First Lieutenant Max Cohn. 
Second Lieutenant Henry G. Waller. 


Sergeant Lewis Hnanker. 
Sergeant Gustav E. Hueter. 
Sergeant John Weber. 
Sergeant John Vogle. 
Sergeant David Wehing. 
Sergeant .Ambrose Kuni. 
Sergeant John Keller. 
Sergeant Henry Stoly. 
Sergeant John Schnab. 
Corporal Henry Deersman. 
Corporal John I-'rank. 
Corporal Lewis Gross. 
Corporal Henry Fischer. 
Corporal John Frank . 
Corporal .\ndy Frank. 


John Ash. Moses Burig, John Ha-S=ing, Francis Hillinch. 
Julius Hudle, .Adam IjDosman. Philip M. Panty. .August 
\\'all, Andrew Weiller, Henry Leeback, Lewis Baty, Ignatus 
Bemhard, John Braum, Bartholomew Brander. Henry Doeh- 
mann, Peter Funk. Ferdinan Meitt, Frank Littler, Conrad 
Routhams, Jacob Rodd, Gotleib Scharott. Lajaius Schaub, 
(. arl Sivann, John Lissert, Lewis .Ampfer. David I>gel, 
Peter Hensler, .Anion Killer, John Long. David Peter, Eber- 
han Fraut, George Quillenan, Chrinian Ehlsheit. John 
Kruhm, Henry Foeth. Jacob Graff. John .A. Knapp, George 
Koch, Jacob Kung. Conrad -Miller. Peter Rechenan, Adam 
Schneider, John Sipple. John Strcit, Henry Trout, John 
*V .asnicr, Conrad Weber. 

rOMr.\N'\' F. 


. Captain Xclson B. Church. 
Captain Sidney Lvdii?, 
Captain Basil N. Hobbs. 
Captain .Spencer Cooper. 
First Lieutenant John D. Bird. 
First Lieutenant Thomas P. Harnot. 
First Lientcnant William Cj. Miltim. 
Second Lieutenant .Abel R. Church. 


Sergeant James Wilmoth. 
.Sergeant James G. White. 
Sergeant James B. Johnson. 
Sergeant Phillip Reed. 
Sergeant William G. -Milton. 
Sergeant Charles H. Soule. 
Sergeant Daniel S. Williams. 
Sergeant Thomas Merideth. 
Sergeant Martin Wilhelm. 
Corporal \\'illiam I'. Sensbnugli. James McMahon. 
Corporal James Carter. 
Corporal James W. Duckworth. 
Coiporal Robert D. -Stevens. 
Corporal S. W. Parrish. 
Farrier Walthen Bonner. 
Farrier John J. Burke. 
Saddler John M. Hutchinson. 
Wagoner Robert Folis. 


.Arnold .Amos, John S. Baker, Henry Blair, Alexander 
Dobbins, John Howsley, James S. Lewis, John C. Langly M.-redilh, \'\'illiam Meredith, Gabriel Reynolds, 
Edmonds Reeves, Thomas W. Slaughter. Bradley .Sanders, 
Thomas Shane, William Wilhelm, Mortimer Gaither, Wil- 
liam G. Butler, James K. P. Byland, Martin Dilhnghani, 
Samuel Fife, Malone Hatfield, Lawrence Kelly, Pliinis Reed, 
Rubcrt Ramsey, Warren Watkins, 'I'homas Brook, James H. 
Brooks, John J. Brooks, William Dorms, William Murphy, 
John McQueen, Dabney Nance, James W. Raymond, 
Thomas Williams, James W. Watkins, James Monehan, 
Robert B. Beswick.John Cain, Henry Casey, Edward Com- 
mingore. George W. Ginnis. Hugh Grey, John Heflerman. 
Henry Lewis, James Parrish, William Moore, Bryan H. 
Sharp, John Wilhelm, John Woniack, Thomas G. York, 
Lewis Carroll, David O'Connell. 


Captain Casper Blume. 

Captain John .Sailer. 

Captain George K. Speed. 

First Lieutenant William Shnver. 

Fiist Lieutenant William H. McKinney. 

Second Lieutenant Thomas Hoft'man. 

Second Lieutenant Rodolph Curtis. 


First Lieutenant George Rothchild. 
Sergeant Jacob J. Septig. Philip .Allicurg.-r. 
Sergeant Constantine John. 
Sergeant Charles Gossville. 
Sergeant Leonhard Reider. 


Scrpeant }Ienry Dcidtrich. 

Sergc;iiit Henry ruchloman. 

Serqeant Philip Gulii,'. 

Sergeant John M. Kirck. 

Cotpural Otto Sd.h.'Kler. 

Corpor.ii Henry Schnler. 

Corporal Herman Mirers. . 

Corporal Joseph' K mil. 

Corporal J o>ei)h Slierer. 

Corporal Vhilip Hill. 

Bugler Philip Waller. 

Farrier ]uhn Mil-:;-. 

Farrier ]esse ^ 

Saddler Michael BucharJ. 

^^'agoner Joseph Hergog. 


Peter Uellner. .\huliias P.ellner, |o1hi Dreinig. Henry Blunic, 
Frederiek lirde, John Greenliek, John Roll, Henry Maii- 
seliler, i^ouis Oppenheiiner, Bcrnhar<l .^leehiia. Ca>per .Seil.>el, 
Carl Sester, Peter Hook, 'limolhy Koller. Martin Luty, 
Jacob Morelli, Charles Meyer, Vincincis Seliafl'ner. Jacob 
Schmidt, Augustus Steel, Christopher Paucr, Robert Breck- 
heimer, Peter .Austgen, Philip Lum, Charles Luther, John 
Fritch, Carl ReJer, George .Auger, Peier .Andy, .Andrew 
Banks, Peter Octroy, Benihord I'.ok, .\dam Lany, Paul, Henry Shiv.r, John ;?niith, Ign.ity Reiter. 

COMl'.WV H. 
Captain Patrick W. McGowan. 
Captain John F. Weston. 
First Lieutenant Is.iai. Burch. 
First Lieutenant Lewis Ryan. 
Second Lieutenant John Burke. 


Sergeant Charles Pupre. 
Sergeant James OCoiuiell. 
Sergeant John Murry. 
Sergeant Wiiliam MrKinney. 
Sergeant Isaac .Miller. 
Sergeant I'elix Dupree. 
Sergeant Dennis .McCarty. 
Sergeant John Hagerty. 
Corporal Peter McKn.ib. 
Corporal John Ranan. 
Corporal Ludlow Wilson. 
Coiporal John Shchee. 
Corporal William Burke. 
Corporal John Burke. 
Corporal William Xeish. 
Corporal .Alfred .Norton. 
Bugler John Duehcinne- 
Farrier Rji^th. 
Farrier Jolin Kane. 


Edward Booth, Tliom.iS i;arb.)ur, Patrick Collins. John 
Fogart, Daniel, Thomas Hyens, Thomas Haffer, 
James Kenally, Thom.iS l.ovall, Frank .McQuinn, Dennis 
Means, John O ■^•.llllv.ln. Cliarlea (Junin, Patrick Russell, 
John Sheridan. Simate. James Whaler. Arthur 
Whaler, Frederiek /iiameimin. Palri. k Kelly, I'.iirick Mo- 
rearty, James Me' aim, John Carr, Manin iJiiierly. John 
Dunnivan, Patrick Fcei-y, James Keefe. .Adam Kimple. 
Patrick McDonoiigh, James Oumn, Pre'lerick Sloane, Mike 

Callahan. Jolm Downey, John Dunion, Samuel Day. 
Thomas Fehan, John Gannon, Patrick Gagerty, Edwaid 
Hogan, Hugh Keys, Joseph Millott, John McMakin, Daniel 
MaillifT, James Mur, John Mannion, Lawrence McGidcrn, 
William Ollern, James O'C'onner, Ji'hu Powers, Patrick 
Qu inn, ames Reese, John Riley, Martin Shell, Patrick Tur- 
ney, John Wynian. 


This regiment veteranized at Rossville, Gcorj^ia, 
in January, 1864. and was then ftirlouylied for 
thirty days, at the e.\|)iration of which time it 
rendezvoused at Le.\inf.;lon, KenlucJ;y, and was 
immediately ordered to NasliviUe, and thence on 
foot to Chattanoo,£;a, where it was mounted and 
encamped in A\'auhatchie Valley. Here it re- 
mained for some weeks, scouting through that 
country for hundreds of miles around. In June, 
rS6.i, under command of ^Lajor Bacon, it formed 
part of the expedition under General Watkins to 
Lafayette, Georgia. Whilst there the regiment 
was attacked by a .greatly supeiior force, and 
was, with a part of the Sixth Kentucky cavalry, 
cut off from th.e balance of the command. Being 
hard pressed by the enemy, it fell back, and oc- 
cupying the court-liouse, held it against repeated 
and furious attacks ot the enemy from 4 o'clock 
.A. M. to 3 P. -M., when the attacking force with- 
drew, leaving over one hundred killed and 
wounded on the field, besides a much larger 
number of prisoners captured from them while 
on their retreat. From Lafayette the regiment 
marched to Calhoun, Georgia, scouting througli 
the country, and constantly skirmishing with 
Wheeler's rebel cavalry, and thence to Resaca, 
Georgia, constituting part of the small garrison 
which held that place against Hood's army for 
three days after he had flanked Sherman at 
Atlanta. Here the regiment, under Colonel 
Cooper, was repeatedly complimented by the 
commanding general. .A part of the regiment, 
under Major Weston, made a successful charge 
on a rebel fort, causing tiie enemy to retire. 

It marched in advance of Sherman's army to 
Gadsden, Alabama, driving the enemy's rear- 
guard the entire distance. It then came via 
Chattanooga and Nashville to Louisville; was 
there remounted, and proceeded to Hopkinsville, 
driving Lyon's command out of the State, when 
it went to Nashville. After tlie battle of Nash- 
ville It marched to Waterloo, Alabama; thence 
to Eastport, Missi3sipi)i; thence to Chickasaw, 
Alabama, .'\fter recruiting both men and horses 



at this place for some weeks, the regiment joined 
General Wilson's command, and was with him 
during his famous march througli Alahama and 
Georgia. It dio\c the enemy out of Mont- 
gomery, and held that city for two hours before 
any other troops arrived ; ihcnce inarching via 
Macon and Albany, (Georgia, to Tallaliassee, 
Florida, it was tm.i.llv mustered out at this last- 
named place August 21, 1S65. 

It participated 111 the fo'.louing eiigagcmtiils, 
in which loss was sustained, viz: Lafayette and 
Calhoun, Geoigia; Laveigne, Franklin, and 
Canipbellsville, Tennessee; Russellville, Ran- 
dolph, Scottsville, CentreviUe, Selma, Tuskogee, ' 
and Montgomery, Alabama, and at Columbus, 


Lieutenant Colonel Llewellyn Gwynne. 
Major Jolin F. Weston. 
Sergeant Major Philip Giieiig. 
Sergeant Major William H. .McKinney. 
Sergeant Major Willi.ini Foster. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Ryiand K. Shuck. 
Commissary Sergeant James E. Phillips. 
Commissary Sergeant lames W. Looney. 
Veterinary Surgeon ]ohn K. .-\dams. 
Hospital Steward William M. ICdwards. 
Quartermaster Sergeant .Alexander McCall. 
Commissary Sergeant Gibson Tate. 
Saddler James S. Dykes. 
Bugler Fran'K Brinkman. 



Captain Ryiand K. Shuck. 
First Lieutenant W. J. Munler. 
First Lieutenant James W. Looney. 


First Sergeant William .Se.xton. 
Sergeant John W. Eurrous. 
Sergeant Elzey Kennedy. 
Sergeant Nathan K. Gross. 
Sergeant Joseph Dawkins. 
Sergeant James .\lbertson. 
Corporal Dominick Gross. 
Corporal Marion King. 
Corporal Jacob Wilkins. 
Corporaljohn P. Ashby. 
Corporal William Stephenson. 
Farrier Logan ] cffries. 
Bugler Frank Brinkman. 


Thomas Bassil, Alexander T. Bolin, John Butts, David 
Collins. James Cooden. Tliomas E. Crumbaugh, Joshua 
Dcvore, Joseph Fehr, Figg, Joseph C. D. Gill, Eli 
D. Gardner. George Groves, William N". Goldsmith, Joseph 
Hann, Richard U,dl, William Jones, Joseph King. Mich.iel 
King. Benjamin Kelly, Thomas McManus, William Oglesby, 
Thomas O'Brien, Joseph Philips. Robert W. Reed, Lafayette 
Collins. William Edwards, John Riker, John Arleburn, Wil- 


liam H. Drown. 


Captain Adam Rcdgcrs. 

P'irst I.ieutenan< .-\1. IJ. Hynes. 

Firat Lieutenant James E. Phillips. 


First Sergeant D.ivid T. Patton. 

Sergeant George Schneiiler. 

Sergeants Charles Lantharl. 

.Si-rgeant John H. liickel. 

Sergeant Barney Kosler. 

Sergeant Henry Smith. 

Sergeant Charles P. Clinton. 

Sergeant Gibson Tate. 

Corporal Joseph -Marshall. 

Corporal John Schauer. 

Corporal Frederick Black. 

Corporal Jacob Fix. 

Corporaljohn Weakley. 

Cor|joral Charles .■\cker5. David R. Fenton. 

Corporal Xicliolas Bender. 

Bugler Gotlieb F. Bauer. 

Bugler Marcus Seinsoth. 

Saddler Conrad P.ader. 


Henry .Algier, William .Mlsmiller, Henry Doerr, Joseph 
Eckberl, John B. Hocrtz. William Just, Frederick Ludwick, 
John Lud'.vick. Mason Parson, John Ruth, Xa\ier Schindler, 
Frank Stier, .Mbert Sonderselt, Andrew Sm.ill. Louis Upper, 
John Zolt, Joseph Borrell, .-\ugust Baker, Frederick B.rssa, 
Albert Hahvax', James Lanson, Freeling Namick, Thomas 
Phillips, Thomas Stev. art, Theodore .Acken, Sebastian Fant- 
ner, Philip Ross, John Shultz, John Zimmcr, Henry Lehman, 
Mathew Miller, David H. Taylor. George Weatherstein, 
Jacob Walter. 



Captain John M. liacon. 

Captain William J. Hunter. 

First Lieutenant Squire S. Robards. 


First Sergeant Franklin E, Robards. 

First Sergeant George A. St. John. 

Quartermaster Sergeant George Kipp, 

Sergeant John Ford. 

Sergeant William Stitzel. 

Sergeant John K. .\danis. 

Corporal James tjoward. 

Corporal John Schur. 

Corporal Thomas Couch. 

Farrier George Chastain. 

Farrierjohn Melz. 

Saddler James S. Dikes. 


Frederick Butcher, James Chapman, Francis -M. Casteel. 
Henry Delany, Ch.irles CJorman, .Andy Gross, Daniel 
Heaver, Daniel Ham. .Anthony Ham, Patrick Kennedy, 
Joseph Kipp, John .Meyer, Henry Meyer, Johnson Mc- 
Conkey, Julian L. .\loraldo, L.itrence Morgan, George W. 
Orr, Benjamin F. >e\vards, I-'rank J. St. Jol-.ii, Cornelius Sulli- 
van, Josiah Tron. Lewis W. Woodall, David Gorden, Nich- 
olas Kirsch. William Sourl. 




Captain W'iUiain J. IlarneU. 
Captain John B. Lee. 
First Lieutenant William Foster. 
Second Lieutenant John P. I'.rown. 


First Sergeant Fr.tncis V. Stevens. 

First Sergeant Wilhani W. Cli.ilfin. 

Sergeant W'asiiingtou Reynolds. 

Sci'seant i::h.v.Lr>l w.:::;,-;;. 

Sergeant William G.. .Anther. 

Sergeant Philip T. Chappell. 

Sergeant William Snellen. 

Sergeant William Smith. 

Sergeant James W. Looney. 

Corporal Hereules Hone\'. 

Corporal William Atelier. 

Corporal Edward Atchor. 

Corporal Jesse Brimer. 

Corporal James S. Goldsmiih. 

Bugler Taurence Uavison. 

Saddler Franklin Colling. 

Farrier John T. Yeager. 


Philip Cirman. William K. Hnnnell. Levi Urenthnger, 
Samuel Foster, William Graham, Harrison Joyce, .Andrew 
Lawrence, )ohn Morger, William Mclcalf, Christopher C. 
Martin, Jacob Mclnlosh, .Alexander Oliver. John Hardon, 
Jerry Stewart, David Shoptaw, Michael Sago. Perry Snellen, 
William Todd, [ohn Westf.xll, Cjeorge Zelhnaier, Isaac Doug- 
las, John James, John Keed, John C. Sherwood, William 
^L Edwards, William Fooler, Kulieri Fkinuu;. I'eter Glass- 
man, George Haddo.x, I'iiihp Kressell, Grenup [. Wcstfall. 



Captain James O'Donnell. 
First Lieutenant Max Oihen. 
Second Lieutenant Henry G. W'.Uter. 


First Sergeant -Ambrose Curry. 

Sergeant Henry Stoltj. 

Corporal John .\dam D. Knapp. 

Corporal Heniy Divrsman. 

Corporal John Fr .iik, . . 

Farrier Conrad \\'eli'r. 

Bugler Jacob Gross. 

Saddler Frank Kbcrhard. 

John H. Ash, David Ln<.l, \U 


Conrad Mueller, Adam 
Sanner, Henry Traut. Jol 
Birig. Peter Regcn.incr, |( 
Loosmann, Julius Huetlel 


COMMl^iMSEI) OKlli. 

Captain P.asi! N. H"l,! s. 
Captain Spencer Cooper. 
First Lieutenant Thomas P. Ht-rnol 
First U'llliain G. Miiton 

■• Fo.ih, Jacob Kuntz. 

M.irlin Senn, Christian 
W.f^nuT. Andy, Moses 
n >hr.,.ib. j.,t,n Sippel, .Vlam, 
Henrv ?m1j.u-1i. 

Nn\ roM.MissioNEn orricr.RS. 
First Sergeant Daniel L. Williams. 
Sergeant Thomas Meridetlt. 
Sergeant Martin V. Willhelm. 
Sergeant Charles H. .Soule. 
Sergeant Elwood Ree\es. 
Corporal Joseph W. Thomas. 
Corporal Bradley Sander. 
Farrier Ed. H. Cummingore. 
Bugler George W. Grimes. 


Robert K- Beswick, John M. Pu-tcr, .Mathew Boncur, 
Henry Casey, Hugh GreV, John He;fl"ron. John C. Langly, 
James C. Parris, Thomas Slieehan, Brynn H. Tharp, John 
Womack, John Willhelm, John Cain, Henry Lewis, Peter 
Meridith, David O'Connell, Thomas G. Voik, Amos Arnold, 
Lewis Carroll, Mark Gaither. 


CO.MMIsSIU.NEn 01 1 ILI'.Ks. 

Captain George K. Spt-ed. 

First Lieutenant II. McKinney. 

First Lieutenant John X. Kirch. 

Second Lieutenaiu Rudolph Curtis. 

^■o^■-^.•o.\t^!IsslO-\El■> officeks. 

First Sergeant Henry Fichteman. 

Sergeant George Rothchild. 

Sergeant Philip Guctig. 

Corporal Peter Andy. 

W^igoner Joseph Heizag. 

Bugler Jacob Graf. 


Andrew Banks, John Byer, Peter Detroit; Bernard Eck, 
Adam Lang, Ignartz keiter, Willi.un Schrciljer, John Smith, 
George Auger, Henry Scherer, John Biniing, Henry Blume, 
Mathias Bellner, Frederick Erde, John Frilch, John Koll, 
Carl Sester. 



Captain John F. Weston. 
Captain Charles H. Soule. 
First Lieutenant Lewis Ryan. 
First Lieutenant Dennis McCarty". 
Second Lieutenant John Burke. 

First Sergeant Laurence McGivern. 
Sergeant John Hagerty. 
Sergeant John Burke. 
Sergeant Felix Dupree. 
Corporal Daniel Mailiff. 
Corporal William Xiesh. 
Corporal John Kennan. 
Corporal .Albert Xewton. 
Farrier Adam Kembal. 

William Buike. Michael Callahan, John Cline, John Dou- 
ncy, John Deiinin, Daniel Fi.^her, Patrick Gagerty, Edward 
Hogan, John Kane, Hugh Keyns, Joseph Milot. John Mc- 
Makin, John Powers, Patrick Quinn, J.imes Reese, Martin 
Shell, Patrick Tierney, Samuel Wray, Thomas Feehan, 
James O'Connors. William O'Herran, John Reily, John 
Wienman, John CVNeil, Thomas Barbour, Thomas Lavell. 




Capt.iin John \V. Lewis. 
Capnin I'urnel H.!u.|). 
Kirst l.icutcii.inl I\ivid Wolff. 
Kirsi W'llli.uu Harper. 
Second Lieulcnant FtodiTick G. L'Irich. 

liist Sergeant Timolhy Kelly. 
Sergeant John iUlen. 
S -rjieant Geor;;e White 
Sergeant Thomas Lynn. 
Sergeant .Alexander McCall. 
Sergeant James McDon.ild. 
Corporal Robert Good. 


Rolvrt .Allin, Eden R. Boyles, Charles Cites, Micliael Curry, 
Milci|Cronin, Edward Donohoo. John Frederick, .Xndre.v Far- 
rell, Hatriek Feagan, J. Holerin, Joseph Holt, M.irlin Lavel, 
Philip Molin, Emmiel Miller, David Macon, James Murry, 
George W.' Neil, George W. Rieler, William Richie, .Michael 
Rigney, Patrick Riley, F'eter Ricce, Patrick Shay, John Sparks, 
David Shields. Daniel Stanford. Chailes Sile, Chailes Ulrieh, 
.Michael Wilett, William Watson, Jacob Yoimg, W. H. Car- 
son, Samuel Davidson, P.atrick Ileden, William Harris. Jacob 
Jettcr, Menry Krieder, James Molbry, Michael Shay, Ran- 
dolph Walters, Patrick Welch, John Dunn, Peter McCor- 
mick, John Pigott. James Renolds. James Wilson, Thomas 
Ford, lulward D. Uines, P.aUer Hiiglin. Rich.ird H. Hoh- 
way, John W. Jacobs, James Pevcn. Frederick Steven, Ste- 
ven Wick, Henry Wagner. 



First I-.ieutenant George Koch. 
First Lieutenant Purnell H. Bishop. 
First Lieutenant William W. Chalfin. 
Second Li-utenant J. W. Fau=.t. 


Sergeant John Blake. 

Scrgeantjacob Gerloek. 

Sergeant Jacob Stiener. 


David Blake, Horace Donahue, John E. Gosnel. Peter 
Gcrhart, Amos Gulie, John Geriting. Lewis Knuckles. John 
Longficld, Michael O'.Marron, Morris O.Nley. William A. 
Smith, Charles Sleir, John Tharp. Jacob Dearshuck. Thomas 
J. Head,"Ernot Krotrusky. 



Capuiin William E. Brown. 

First Lieutenant James Albertson. 

Second Lieutenant Robert A. Edwards. 


First Sergeant James .\. Henstes. 
Sergeant Robert A. Coffey. 
Sergeant John T. .Adair. 
Sergeant John Hurt. 
Sergeant James S. Woods. 
Sergeant Harrison L. Howell. 
Sergeant Evander M. Davis. 
Sergeant William Odenn. 

Sergeant Frank T. Self. 

Sergeant John B. Rodgerman. 

Corporal James .Ammernian. 

Corporal.Melvin P. Self. 

Corporal Elisha Anderson. 

Corporal Bo.\ter S. Russell. 

Corporal John Thomas. 

Corpora! Henry Shoemaker. 

Corporal Theodore Slionefildt. 


lames W. .Adair, .Andrew Briggs. James Baker, George 
W. Bullock. Francis ^L Bullock, William Boggs, Hezekiah 
Binsoii, Benjamin Cupscy, Jackson Craig. Eppi ^L Cannp, 
William R. Coffey, James M'. Coffey, James .M. Cash, 
James .M. Carhs, David D. Duncan, (ohn Duncan, D.ivid 
Draper, Josepli Gallener, William Harris, Bui nil Harris, 
George J. Henlings, Robert G. Hodge, Nobly H. Harris, 
.Vicholas Hoy, George Henson, James B. Hamlin, John W. 
Jones, Theodore Kelii. n, William Kallahar, George V. 
Louder, John Long, John P. Lyng, Thomas J. Langly, 
James S. -Maohn, .McGuire, Squire Mardis, Chris- 
topher Phaender, Evander .\r. Paine, John W. R.addiffe, 
William Smith, Benjanun Siublierfield, Caleb Serber, F'rank 
Trapp, Henry Utters, William Underwood, Burton W. 
Williams, George Yager, Francis M. Canup, John Byer, 
l^pposon .A. Dye, Conrad Deitz, Edward Hays, .Amos 
Landman, Michael McCann, .Andrew J. Hammone, John H. 
Ralston, Washington M. Stewart, Rolla H. \'au!er. 

In nlph.nbetical lift of olTiceis, but not in com- 
[lany rolls: 
Captain Xelson B. Church. 
Second Lieutenant J. W. Faust. 
.Assistant Surgeon David P. Middleton. 


The Fifth was organized at Camp Sandidge, 
Gallatin, Tennessee, under Colonel David R. 
Haggard, and mustered into the service March 
31, 1862, by Major W. H. Sidell, United States 
mustering officer. It was raised in the southern 
portion of Kentucky, and was composed of those 
sturdy yeomanry who have always been distin-. 
guished for their patriotism and the love of jus- 
tice and liberty. During the organization they 
labored under many disadvantages, owing to the 
frequent mvasions of the enemy into the district 
where it was recruited. It was mustered into 
service with seven hundred and eighty-nine 
men, and was placed upon duty during the active 
camjMigns of General Buell, and participated in 
all the early engagements in Tennessee, and by 
their soldierly conduct won the esteem of the 
commanding general. The regiment participated 
in the following battles and skirmishes in which 
losses are reported, viz: Burksville, Kentucky; 
Gallatin, Tennessee ; Monroe's Cross Roads, 
North Carolina ; Louisville, Georgia; Adairville, 
Georgia ; Milieu's Grove, Cleorgia ; Sweeden's 



Cove, Tennessee, and Sweetwater, Oecrf^ia. It 
was mustered out at Louisville, May 3, 1S65. 
The veterans and recruits were ordered to be 
transferred to the Third Kentucky Veteran Cav- 

Colonel Oliver L. Balrtwin. Colonel Is.i.\c Scoll. 
Major J.inies L. Wharton. 
Surgeon Hugh Mulhollmd. 
burgeon Willum torrestcr. 
Commissary Patrick .M. Conly. 
Hospital Steward William A. Derrington. 



First Lieutenant James V. Conrad. 



William T. Vigle, James \V. llarman. 



Second Lieutenant Ednard Davi-;, 

Corporal Bethel A. Buck. 


John Ramin, James T. Buek. John J. Chilson, Philip 
Daily, William R. 'lull. 

Private John J. Burger. 



David Willan. William L, ."Vvery. William Burk, John P. 

Private Henry W. Smiih. 

Pj^ivatejohn Irvine. 

Private James R. Himcs. 



Captain Christopher C. Hare. 
First Lieutenant Amos .M. GrilTen. 
Second Lieutenant James K. Farmer. 


First .Sergeant Ki.Tinan. 
Sergeant John Shot«'.-II. 
Sergeant John Young, 
Sergeant Simon P. .Xtkuison. 
Sergeant Frederick .Sw.irt?, 
Sergeant Frederltk Phieffcr. 
Sergeant Nathan Morrow. 
Sergeant Samud T. Sills. 
Corporal Thomas Erarnel. 
Corporal John Murphy. 

Corporal Frederick Eisenminger. 

Corporal John W. Raililf. 

Cor)<oral Cornelius O'Neal. 

Corporal Jesse Beene. 

Corporal Rufus R. I'oster. 

Corporal William Bryant. 

Corporal Thomas Swift. 

Musician John Watson. 

Farrier G. L. Enii! Shercr. 

Fanierjohn Borne. 

Wagoner John Casey. 


James K. Bryant, %\'illiam Bonum, Nathan Carlisle, Jon- 
athan Chesser, William Chaddic, Thomas Caine, Robert 
Doyle, Silas Elgy, William B. Foster, Henry Felker, George 
Fisher, John G. Gray, John Gass, William J. Humble. Andy 
Hamlet, Philip Hurt, \\'il!iam Hastings, George W. John- 
son, John Johnson, Philip Jordan, George W. Jackson, 
Jacob Kizer, John Landra, James Murphy. Henry Michael, 
Isaac Moore, James .McKeig, William Mcrifield. George 
Niece, Frederick Nicely, .Augustus Odcell, William Pui7cll, 
James Piatt, Absalom Rose, .Mike Sulivan, William 
Stioss, Joseph Strectniatter, George W. Turner, Charles J. 
Travis, James T. Travis, John Troutman, W. H. H. \'ails, 
Garrett Vores, James Welch. 

On aljjhabflical liit, but not on company roll: 


Major and Brevet-Lirutcnant-Coloncl Charles .A. Gill. 

Captain Samuel G. Gill. 
Assistant Surgeon Charles H. Stocking. 


The First battalion of the Sixth Kentucky 
cavalry was organized at Camp Irvine, Jefferson 
county, under M.ajor Reuben Munday, and was 
mustered into the United States service December 
23, 1S61, by Major W. H. Sidell. Thib battalion 
comprised five companies, and was commanded 
by Major Munday until .\ugust, 1S62, when 
companies F, G, H, I, K, L, and M were re- 
cruited and the consolidation effected. Previous 
to the consolidation the F'irst battalion was as- 
signed to General George W. Morgan's division, 
and did important service with that command in 
obtaining and occupying Cumberland Ga[). Be- 
ing the only organized cavalry in the division, 
the duties a'^signed it were arduous and of great 
importance. When the Gap was evacuated in 
1S62 by General Morgan, this battalion formed 
the advance or covered the rear, as occasion 
demanded, through Eastern Kentucky to the 
Ohio river, contending with the enemy every 
day. When tht_- consolidation was effected, 
Colonel D. J. Hallisy was commissioned colonel, 
and the regiment assigned to the cavalry divis- 
ion of the Army of the CumbeiLuid, and by i^s 



elfkiency and discipline and gallantry won dis- 
tinction in every engagement. It is to be regret- 
ted that tlie ofticers of this coaimand failed to 
furnish a full history of all its operations, as it is 
justly entitled to a reuutation among the first lor 
bravery, discipline, and dash in the ^\"estern 
army. The legiment was engaged in the follow- 
ing battles in which loss was sustained, vi/ : 
Tazewell, Tennessee; Cumberland Gap, Powell 
Kiver, Tennessee ; Perry ville, Kentucky ; Cowan's 
Station, Tennessee; Lipsey Swamp, Alabama, 
and the early battles fought by Generals Puell 
and Rosecrans in 'Pennessee. 

HELD .\ND ST.\Fr. 

Assistant Surgeon Charles B. Chapm;in. 
Chaplain Millon C. Clark. 
Regimental Qnartfrn-.aster George S.i.mbroek. 
Adjutant William A. Stunipe. 

Second Lieutenant Henry Tachna. 


Second Lieutenant Dani--1 Cheatham. 
First Lieutenant William Murphy. 


First Lieutenant Samuel W. Crandell. 
Second Lieutenant James G. Mc.\danis. 


First Sergeant Jefferson Smith. 
Sergeant William L. Crandell. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Mann. 
Sergeant James Lander. 
Sergeant Hiram Cure. 
Sergeant Henry Johnson. 
Sergeant William T. Druin. 
Sergeant Joseph Rice. 
Sergeant [ames T. Hall. 
Sergeant David M. Williamson. 
Corporal George W. Tucker. 
Corporal Joel C. Lusk. 
Corporal Thomas T. Cook. 
Corporal David G. Buster. 
Corporal Charles W. Poor. 
Corporal John tl. Meanelly. 
Corporal James W. Houk, 
Corporal John C. Hendrickson. 
Corporal Charles R. Moary. 
Corporal Williamson Spiers. 
Corporal Isham Landers. 
W.ij'oner Burwell l--drington. 
Wagoner Chalen Underwood. 
^^'agoner Alfred Burrus. 
Farrier William H. Johnson, 

Farriei Nathan Warren. 

-Saddler William Cox. 


Berry Cox, Xat-lian Cox, Was'iiiiglon M. Heron, Heniy 
T. l■Iuddle.^tun, Chariier Johnson, John H. Kiiapp, John 
Mann, lolm .\ Mann, Richard F. .N'unn, Joel Noel. Abra- 
ham Ko.les, Juhn Sliipp, Ricliard T. ^\■oolridge, James E. 
Williamson, James W. McDanicl, John Adams, William J. 
Bright, Weklon Huddlcston, Robert Herron, Pierce Kencda, 
John R. Lawrence, jeise Morris, F. Williams, Zach- 
ariah Williamson, Richard Williams, Johnson Watson, 
.Alfred J. White, J.icob Cox, Michael Conner, .■\lbert 
Feather, Henrlcrson Gar.icr, James L. Giinslcad, .Abraliani 
Jones, Stephen Jones, James Parker, Joseph Slinker. John 
Tucker, Franklin Baldwin, Scjuire M. Co.x, John Dabny, 
George Dabiiy, fClijah B. Herron, John Hanralian, Joseph 
W. McDaniel, John T. Minor, Francis M. McDanitI, 
Thomas Shipp, William Wooley, tJaniel B. Woolridge, 
James H. Williams, Samuel Brown, James Carlile, John Cox, 
.Andy fi. Cox, Benjamin Dabny, Charles Dawson, Henr> H. 
Gcddis, James Monroe. 



Captain Otto F>nst. 

First Lieutenant Charles A. .Archer. 

First Sergeant Henry G. Klink. 
Sergeant John G. Tucker. 
Sergeant John R. Fields. 
Sergeant Louis Meier. 
Sergeant Stephen S. Uooley. 
Sergeant Stephen Risse. 
Sergeant Joseph Simms. 
Sergeant Lsham D. Scott. 
Sergeant William Hill. 
Sergeant Wiiliani Wheat. 
Corporal Willi im B. Crump. 
Corporal John NL Roe. 
Corporal Jacob I^ogsdon. 
Corporal Joshua B. McCobbins. 
Corporal David .A. Chapman. 
Corporal William E. By bee. 
Corporal Frederick Reusse. 
Corporal Robert .A. Miller. 
Corporal Preston B. Roe. 
Corporal William T. Coomer. 
Corporal William C. Fo.x. 
Corporal E?ekiel Witty. 
Farrier John S. .MpFarling. 
Farrier John W. Woods. 
Saddler Thomas .McDonald. 
Wagoner David Singleton. 


John Beek, Charles Bender, William H. Burge, John 
Clopton, Benjamin P. Dawson, Christopher C. Freslie, 
Robert A. Gibson, William D. Graves, Charles Hohman, 
Burrel T. Hurt, Magnes lestaedt, Jacob M. Long, Isaac A. 
Oliver, James C. Page, William FL Puikins, Berry Reed. 
E^ekiel Roe, George .A. Roe, Lorenze .Sohutzinger, Joseph 
R. Shipp, Fr.incis Walt, Even Shaw, William Tolbtit, 
William H. Collins, Gustavus Hurst, John D. .\Iosby. John 
Meninger, Alexander l"albert, \\'i!liam K. Wilhrow, John 
C. Hanimontree, Chester .Murphy. .Anton Blatiler, Frederick 



Baic, George C. Coomcr. George W. Uefevers, I'liaraoli C. 
Kverett, janies, Joliii Johnson, Jajnes B. I^oyall, 
IsiainT."\Vitlirow, J:imes P. Wjrd, iienry C. Allen. Eli 
BabbiU. Thomas J. Brown, John M. Brown, Joseph N". 
Byrani, John Burke, George Blell, Nelson Bacon, William 
H. Brown, Janios Coomer, John C. Dnff. [ohn Gibson, 
John M. Gibson. Bushrod B. Kittcr, Is.iac \V. Roe, John T. 
Russell, Philip F.. Hamnioniree, Janies E., Welsh, John T. 
Wheal, Ilcmy M. Wheat, Richard H. Kessler. 


coMMr.ssioNi.D orricKKS. 
Captain Robert H. Brcntiinger. 
First Lieutenant George Williams. 
Second Lieutenant George W. kicharclsou. 
Second Lieutenant John Fowler. 

First Sergeant Jonathan McKelvey. 
Sergeant Fiank Gnau. 
Sergeant John J. llulT. 
Sergeant George M. Kepplc. 
.Sergeant Charles A: Fishbaek. 
Sergeant William T. I'ayne. 
Sergeant William A. Taylor. 
Sergeant John Cook. 
Sergeant Pharaoh C. Everett. 
Sergeant WiUi,»m R. Campbell. 
Sergeant Martin A. Jcgiie. 
Corporal James Broun. Owen MeGee. 
Corporal John Pickett. 
Corporal Preston Noland. 
Corporal Samuel E. Fox. 
Corporal William Bettis. 
Corporal Adolph I{ine5. 
Corpoial James W. Reed. 
Corporal William A. Russell. 
Wagoner Richard L. Dillingham. 
Wagoner Lawrence McTaggart. 
Farrier Michael Melvin. 
Farrier Benjamin Few. 
Farrier George Walden. 
Bugler Samuel M. Woolscy. 
Bugler Richard Bancr. 
Saddler Martin V. Shuman. 
Saddler Iienry A. Loyd. 
Saddler Charles Simmersback. 


WiUiam .MIshite, Chailes E. Abbey, Elim H. Binion, N.a- 
than Culp, Charles R. Crouch, Patrick Cirstillo, Is.aacW. 
Carpe, Daniel Huntsinger, George W. Hardin, Jacob Ilentz- 
Iciiian, James W. Hendricks, Joseph K. Holloway, Smith 
Hitchcock, Jonathan James. Solomon Kl'.it, William Lush, 
Peter Meng. William Maher, Daniel McCauley, Gabriel 
Randolph. Joseph Rhinehart, William Swall, Isaac Smith, 
Charles Sawney, NeLon Taylor, George Walker, .\ngels 
Easum, Richard Miller, John Meek, John S. Perkins, .Albert 
Vicken, William R. Wilson, William C. Rogers, Charles 
Ackerman, Wesley .\ndei son, Jacob lUick, Edward Beck. 
William DcTringer, Benjamin Bevin, James Farnham, Frank 
Findiell, Joseph .M. Hester, John Hulsey, John Haag. 
Joseph llogi;, Willis W. Hale, George Jefferson. James Ktss- 
ler, James .Meeks, Janies J. .\Iordick, Janies Malone, D.ivid 
McCann, Aaron W. Pickett, Peter Reeves. George R. Ridge- 
way, Washington D. Slater, Wallace Se\unse, Burton R. 

Tucker, John Llsworth, Jacob Garrett. Lewis Harlnuin, Ed- 
ward Hall, Thomas Knapp, John Sperceful, Andrew J. 
Stuart. Samuel Turner, John .-\. Scidman, James Downey, 
Malliew Lindsay, IVter McBiide, William B. Schardine. 


The Si.xtli Kentucky cavalry veteranized in 
January, 1S64, at Rossviile, Georgia, r,nd re- 
turned to Kentucky on the fur!on,[;h of thirty 
days allowed by the ^^'ar department, at the ex- 
piration of which it icturned to Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, and was assigned to the 'J'hird brig- 
age, First division, commanded b)- General L. 
D. W'atkins. From Chattanooga it 'marched to 
Wauhatchie, Tennessee, and lemained near two 
months, and then marched to Lafayette, Geor- 
gia ; thence to Calhoun, Georgia, and Resaca. 
From Resaca marched with the advance of Gen- 
eral Sherman, by way of Dalton and Snake 
Creek Gaj), to Gadsden, .Alabama, where, the 
horses giving out, ths regiment returned to 
Louisville, Kentucky, to be remounted. F'rom 
Louisville, after being remounted and ecjuipped, 
it was ordered to Nashville, Tennessee, and par- 
ticipated in the jjur^uit of General Lyon through 
Kentucky ; after wliich it marched to Waterloo, 
Alabam.^, at which jioint, the cavalry being reor- 
ganized, this regirnent was assigned to General 
Croxton's First division of General Wilson's 
corps, and marched to Chickasaw, Alabama ; 
from there marched with General Wilson through 
Alabama. Leaving the main command at 
Montevallo, the Sixth proceeded to Tuscaloosa, 
where it met the enemy in force, and was en- 
gaged in a severe battle. From Tuscaloosa it 
marched by way of Newnan to Macon, Georgia, 
rejoining the main command of General Wilson. 
From Macon it marched to Louisville, Ken- 
tuckj-, where it was mustered out on the 6th day 
of September, 1S65, havhig particijxated in the 
following batjles, viz: Lafayette, Resaca, Snake 
Creek Gap, Georgia; King's Hill, Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama ; Nashville, Tennessee ; Summerville, 
Georgia, and HopkinsviUe, Kentucky. 

In alphabetical list, but not on rolls: Commissary Joseph Hogg. 


Captain Charles L. Schweizer ("declined accepting"). 
riELD .AND Sr.\FF. 

Colonel Benjamin H. Biistow. 




Willi. 1111 W. l.o). 


'I"hc- fcillnwing Statement of tlio coiiditiun, 
strenjjth, and operations of the Ninth Kentucky 
Volunteer cavalry, since its organization, to the 
nth of September, 1S63, is taken fiom the 
regimental records, and from other authentic 

'1 his regiment was organized at Eniineme, 
under Colonel Richard T. Jacob, and niustered 
into service on the 2 2d day of .Vuyust, 1SC2, by 
Major L. Sitgraves., After it \ mustered-in it 
marched to Crab Orchard, Kentucky, two com- 
panies being detached as a body-guard to Gen- 
eral Kelson. These two companies participated 
in the battle of Richmond, Kentikl;), and after 
that the regiment marched from Lexington to 
Louisville, covering the retreat of the Federal 
forces before Kiiby Smith. .-Vfter two weeks' 
stay at Louisville the regiment marclied in ad- 
vance of Buell's army towaid I'eriyvil'e. At 
Taylorsville Colonel Jacob was oidered to take 
one-half of the regmient and march to .^helby- 
viile, with instructions to report to General Sill; 
Lieutenant-colonel Boyle, with the remainder of 
the regiment, still remained with General Buell's 
army and partici[)ated in the battle of Perryville. 
The portion of the regiment under command of 
Colonel Jacob was assigned to General Kirk's 
brigade, and marched from Shelbyville to Frank- 
fort. At Clay village the regiment came up with 
Scott's rebel brigade, and after a severe engage- 
ment defeated them, with the loss of a few killed 
and many prisoners. On the following Monday 
this portion of the regiment, m advance of Gen- 
eral Sill's division, drove Scott's cavalry out of 
- P'rankfort and took possession of the city, and 
were skirmishing with the enemy all the fullow- 
ing day. 

From Frankfort it marched towards Harrods- 
burg, and met the enemy in force at Lawrence- 
burg, where, in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, 
the enemy was forced from the field. In this 
engagement Colonel Jacob was severely wounded, 
and was compelled to relincjuish his command 
to Captain Harney. Four days after this fight the 
regmient was again united, and, under command 
ot Lieutenant-Colonel Boyle, engaged in the pur- 
suit of Bragg, and after his retreat beyond the 
Kentucky line the legiment was stationed on 

the Tennessee border lo protect the State against 
the frequent incur.sion of the rebels, and was 
daily engaged with the cnein)-, capturing many 
])iisoiiers. Culoncl Jacob lejoined the regiment 
in December, 1S62, and they remained on the 
border until July, 18(13, when they were in the 
piuhuit of Morgan through Kentucky, Indiana, 
and Ohio, and participated in tlie fights at Buff 
ington Island and St. Geoige's Creek, Ohio, 
where .Major Rue, with a portion of the Ninth, 
Elc\omh, and Twelfth Kentucky Cavalry cap- 
tured Muigan the 26th day of July, 1863. The 
regiment then ictumcd to J'.niinence, Ken- 
tucky. It participated in the following battles 
and skirmishes, viz: Richmond, Clay village, 
Frankfort, Lawrenceburg, Perryville, Harrods- 
burg. Horse Shoe Bend, I\Iarrowbone, Kentucky, 
Buffington Island, and St. George's Creek, Ohio. 
It was mustered-out at F.minence, Kentucky, 
September 11, 1863. 

FIEIJj .\ND ST.MF.'Ulonant-Co'.onel ]o!in Rovlc. 

.-\djul,ini l-'rank H. I'oi)e. 

Reginitimal Qiiiirterinastcr Ch.irles .-\. Clarke. 

Regimental (Juartermaster W. Rector Giit. 

Regimental Commissary KduinJ. Clail;. 

COMl'ANV .■\. 


First Lieutenant Thomas P. Shanks. 
First Lieutenant Frank H. Pope. 
Seccnd Lieutenant .Alfred <_'. Morris. 


Second Lieutenant Edward S. Stewart. 

Second Lieutenant John C. Jackson. 

Bre\et Second Lieutenant C. Harrison .Soiner\ilIe. 

First Sergeant Phineas FL Barrett. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant Michael Minton. 
Commissary-Sergeant Thomas C!ase. 
Sergeant Henry E. Darling. 
Sergeant George t-rart^eson. 
Sergeant Jcliiel H. Hart. 
Sergeant Thomas B. Duncan. 
Sergeant James .A. Harbeson. 
Corporal Justin M. Nicholson. 
Corporal Foater O'Neill. Cyrus Thompson. 
Corporal Lee W'ithrow. 
Corporal John M. Bean. 
Corporal James Carrico. 
Corporal Joseph .\. Walter. 
Corfioral J.imes McCarthy. 
Faiiicr George G. Shafer. 
l-'.irrier Isaac Graham. 
Wagoner John G. Wendeihcld. 
Saddler John W. Bradhum. 



J.inics Ad.ims, James \V. Ariii-trotii^.W'illi-'im P.. Artrrhuin, 
Brown Anderson, Eli liolnnnon. Kotx-rt K. liradburn, I);fii- 
iet IVilin, Harvev. X. Ciitiliaw, William Culshaw, Andrew 
Carrieo, Hiram Elkins, James F. Kppihimor, Martin V, Gote, 
John \V. Gresliai.n. James Gaylord. Jolin K. (ircen, Richard 
E. Green, Barney Ilamilion, Geori;e \V. }Iam, Eli Hilton, 
John Humphries. William HilU-l.i.nuI, Mar>hall Jameson, 
John Jones, Benjamin (J. Kend.dl. 

r'OM>'!s<:r:i"— " 'orirrr. 
Captain John I>. Gore. 

Henry Crntehell, Henry II. Cliilders, Anderson Doss. 
Coon Hilt, t>amuel Hutehison,. James Hibbcrt. Christian 
Herzeick, John Johnson, Christian Kremij;, James Lynnett, 
Richard '1. l^aurence, Daniel' Livingston, Stanton Mitchell, 
Edward Phillips, Jame C. Pierce, George W. Shepler, Chris- 
tian Schniitt, John Starr, Janu-s Williams, John Welles. 

KlKl.Il .\XD ST.\IF. 

Colonel Jo.^hiia Tevis. 
Quartermaster George G. Kettei. 
Assistant Surgeon Alfred T. Bennett. 


This regiment was recrtiiied in the fall of 1862. 
Captain Milton Graham ci])ened a camp at Har- 
rodsburg, and comjjanies A, C, ]i, and V were 
recruited from the coiintii.'S of Mercer, Washing- 
ton, and Madison, and rcjiorted at rendezvous 
about the iith of July. ()n the 22d of July his 
camp was removed to I'rankfort, Kentucky, in 
consequence of the invasion of the Stateand the 
difficulties attending the mustering, armmg, and 
equipping recruits at the former place. On ar- 
riving at Frankfort the recruits were ordered to 
report to Major A. W. Holeman, and during 
their stay company I! wa.s recruited, and from 
Frankfort marched to Louisville, Kentucky, and 
encamped at the fair grounds, and were engaged 
in drilling, recruiting, and picket duty until the 
22d of September. While at the fair grounds 
comi^anieb E, G, H, and I were recruited, and 
the whole command was mustered into the 
United States service on the 22d day of Septem- 
ber, by Captain V. X. Smith. The regiment re- 
mained in Louisville during the invasion of 
Bragg, and, after the reorganization of Buell's 
army, was assigned to Duniont's division, and 
marched to I"rnnktort, where it remained for sev- 
eral weeks scouting. At this [joint Lieutenant- 
colonel W. K. Ri'.ev commissioned and 
assumed command of the regiment, and marched 
to Bowling (Jreen, and thence to Scottsville, 

Kentucky, and Gallntin, Tennessee. At Clalla- 
tin the regiment remained several weeks on gar- 
rison duty. 

On the 25th of December, 1S62, reported to 
General Reynolds and received orders to march 
to Glasgow, where it remained several weeks, 
and then returned to Gallatin, l-'rom C^allalin 
the regiment returned to Kentucky, and was 
constantly engaged in scouting until July, 1863, 
when it was in the pursuit of Morgan in his r.iid 
through Kentucky, Indiana, and C>hio, and was 
present at the capture of the whole force at 
Btiffington Island, Ohio. Colonel Riley having 
resigned, Major Grahau) assumed command of 
the regiment, r'rom Cincinnati the regiment 
marched to Nicholasville, and engaged in the 
pursuit of Scott's rebel cavalry to Somerset, and 
from there marched with General Hurnsideupon 
his East Tennesee cam]iaign, and was in all the 
engagements incident to that campaign. The 
regiment was engaged actively with the enemy 
for several months in the fall oi i J65, and sus- 
tained heavy losses in killed and prisoners. In 
an cng.igement on the 2Sth of January, 1S64, 
near Sevierville, Tennessee, Major Graham was 
severely wounded, and Captain Slater assumed 
command of the regiment, and returned to 
KnoxviUe. On the 4th of February the regiment 
received orders to rendezvous at Mount Sterling, 
Kentucky. At this point the Third Battalion, 
which was recruited in the fall of 1863, under 
command of Major W. O. Boyle, joined the 
regiment. The regiment, having been remounted 
and equipped, rejiorted to General Stoneman, 
and marched for Nashville, Tennessee, and 
thence to Chattanooga and Atlanta, participat- 
ing in all the engagements of that campaign. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander having 'resigned 
in August, 1864, Major Graham was promoted 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and the regiment, having 
again returned to Kentucky, was engaged in 
scouting, and succeeded in cajituring about one 
hundred prisoners of Jesse's command near New 
Liberty, and from there was ordered to Lexing- 
ton, to prepare for General Rurbridge's raid on 

At Lexington Colonel Holeman resigned. 
Lieutenant-colonel Graham was commissioned 
colonel, and Major Bojle Lieutenant-colonel. 
The regiment was in the first engagement at 
Saltville, Virginia, and acquitted itself with great 



credit. After this r.iid the regiment icturncd to 
Lexington, and, after two or tliicc weeks' rest, 
was ordered to join General Stoneman in his 
campaign through East Tennessee and Western 
Virginia. On this cam])aign, wliirh was in De- 
cember,. 1S6.1, the regiment suflered terribly, 
having many oftircrs and men frost-bilton and 
rendered unfit for seivicc. 

The regiment, after the battle at Saltville, re- 
turned to ],e.\ington, and was again ordered to 
join General Stoneman in his camiiaign through 
Tennessee, North Carolina, arid South Carolina 
to Atlanta, Georgia, where it was at the time of 
the surrender of the Confederate army. From ' 
there it returned to Louisville, and was mustered 
out on the 14th of July, 1S65, the recruits and 
veterans being transfeired to the Twelfth Ken- 
tucky ca\ah y. 

It was engaged in the following-named battles 
in which loss was sustained, \\/.: Cassville, 
Georgia; Dandridge, Tennessee ; Dalton, Geor- 
gia; Macon, Georgia; iLarion, Mrginia; Marys- 
ville, Tennessee; Philadelphia, Tennessee; Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, and Hillsboro, Georgia. 

FIELD .\Nn STArr. 
Colonel .'■Mexander W. Holenian. 
Lieutenant-Colonel .Archibald J. .Alexander. 
Major William O. Boyle. 



First Lieutenant Charles H. Edwards. 

Captain Frederick .Slater. 
Captain F.dward Fi. Green. 
First Lieutenant Robert Q. Tcrrill. 

Second Lieutenant John H. Stone [on alphabetical list, 
but not on rolls]. 


First Sergeant J.imes M. Steele. 
Firbt Sergeant Lewis Bienkamp. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant John .Anderson, 
Commissary Sergeant Washington Stark. 
Commissary Sergeant Caswell Huffman. 
Sergeant Lawrence Han. 
Sergeant William H. Connell. 
Sergeant Dunn R. Stage. 
Sergeant Solomon Huffman. 
Sergeant James W. .Armstrong 
Sergeant James H. Bailey. 
Sergeant Isaac X. Thompson. 
.Sergeant Barlletl Veglet. 
Corporal Wiili,..m H. Her.sloy. 
Corporal Surge J. Walker. 
Corporal Samuel H. Webber. 
Corporal Hugh McHugh. 

Corporal William .'^chwagmicr. 
Corporal David Wnler. 
Coiporal Christi,^n Seidel. 
Corporal Thomas I.amkin. 
L'orporal .Andrew M. Swift. 
Corporal Leander Ruble. 
Saddler Christopher Ryncr. 
Farrier Edward Cheswoith. 
Bugler Henry D. MalUiry. 


Thomas ]. Bailey. William Carbaugh, John Cooper, 
Thornas Carmichi.iel, K'uberl Dickey, Andrew |. Dalson, John 
Fiupatrick, Rudolph Fisher, Elias C. Graves, .A.aron B. 
Henry, Henry Lineomp, John Love, Josiah C. Powell, 
Daniel Slewart, Levi P. Tresier, George Tresler, Frederick 
Thalke. John Tracey, Henry Ullman, Watstein Writer. 
Robert J. Bennett, Rjbert T. Day, George X. A. Gathman, 
}'<]\n M. Griffin, Michael Mundary, Hemy McDonald. 
Frederick Sieinbaek, Jaiah Teaney, James Vahe, John 
Whiteford, William McMurray, David I'owcll, William 
Peek, George White, Jacob Bailey, James Cailin, William 
('aldwell, Henry Clenn, Henry Dulveber, Robert H. Griffin, 
Hugh Grieley, Henry Harker, Martin H. Henderson, 
I lioinas Hcnsley, Franklin Johnson, James Kennedy, 
-Malaka Lafttas. Xalhan M.anning, David Milbourn, Fred- 
erick Xutmier, Frederick Xatte, John Quade, ]oel Roberts, 
William F. Smith, William Teaney, I-'rank TourviUe, John 
C. West, Henry Winter. 

Captain Joseph Lawson. 
First Lieutenant Allen Putdy. 
First Lieutenant Joseph M. Wilierman. 
Brevet Second Lieutenant John H. Skinner. 


Quartermaster Sergeant Tennis W. Wade. 

Commissary Sergeant .August Wadrecht. 

First Sergeant Earnest C. Laurence. 

Sergeant Joseph S. Boggs. 

Sergeant Robert Taliaferro. 

Sergeant Joseph Hannan. 

Sergeant .Amen H. Motley. 

Sergeant George R. Evans. 

Sergeant Charles Moriier. 

Sergeant William E. Thomas. 

Corporal John Morgan. 

Corporal William Florah. 

Corporal Hugh Ross. ' : 

Corporal Patrick Mooney. 

Corporal Joel W. Rice. 

Farrier George Crocket. 

S.iddler James R. Jleff. 

Bugler Thomas H. Lawson. 


John .Ames, Thomas E. Livezey, .Alexander Mulbery, 
Oran Xutting. Lewis Phelps, Joseph Smith,- John Waldro. 
Edward L. Bradley, Bennett Corte, Joseph Downard. David 
L. F.dward, Sr., Georo-e Hacksleadt, .Adam Kiger, William 
J. Laffling, Cornelius McKinney, Jesse .Angleton, George 
W. Cudrill, Henry Culrnan. William Dufiy, Joseph Edwards, 
John Edv.-.irds. William Fuller, Thomas Fuller, George S. 
Gilmore. Samuel Hollensworth, Henry C. Hill, Stephen 
Hurt, Alexander James, James W. Lunsford, William J. 



U-iffling, Williiun Mcl.iuqhlin, K 
Nelson, Willi. im I'iicl])s. Joseph 
Charles J. Stalker, lieory.- \V. Se, 
]aincs Weallicrloii, Roberl Walter 

•ird Mci.inn, Shower 

r.irns Conrail I'.irr, 

,5, Willi.uii K. Spades, 

in, .Mexander Wallace, 



George F 
Sdggs, JolmTy 

r. Oliver Gilison, (Jeorge liiiclson, J.i 

John l.c«i?, Chailes Mcrarey, John 


•c(i.MMissiONKi> uirKi;i:s. 
Captain George II. Wheeler. 
rhti I.!^:ule:.,ii:t P. ii-.J T. \V Sin:.h. 
Second ) -iputenant George W. Taylor. 
.Second Li>aitenant B. H. Xienieyer. 

First Sergeant Ayleit K. Smith. 
Sergeant James W. Staples. 
Seigeant .-Mberl T. Sniith. 
Sergeant James Hellin. 
Sergeant Willi im A. liryaiit. 
Sergeant .Sanford R. Bryant. 
Sergeant William V. Hare. 
Sergeant Ayletl R. Owenb. 
Corporal Charles L. Harding. 
Corporal John Willis. 
Corporal Parkison Bradford. 
Corporal Ben;amin F. Rslep. 
Corporal James Smith. 
Corporal Albert S. Tayluir. 
Bugler Alexander Ha) . 
Saddler Rirhard Glover. 
Farrier John Henry. 
Farrier Robert (". Wilson. 
Wagoner Daniel H. Wi!-.,n. 


William J. Allen, Nettie \. Brumfjeld, Jul.n W. Brunitield, 
Frederick J. Bryant, George HoleJiian, J.iiiies W. Manslieid, 
Patrick Xolin, Joseph ]. Ross, George A. Keeses, Andrew J. 
Webb. William Brown. I'rank Clark, Cieorgo Houaefield, 
George W. Knizley, W. M. Morris, Robert H. ^^ulle^, Noble 
Mitchell, Frank Mulholan, I'.itritk Rines. Robert T. Smith, 
George Armstrong, Jesse 1'. Bnimiield, .\rehibald W. Burriss, 
Vincent T. Biggerstatl', Robert llaldum, J.rhn H. Bode, Wil- 
liam H. Brown, .Mmon C. CI. irk. ivi.t Conner. Dai id L, 
Dennis, Charles Dawson, Jos-pli .s. I). "Id. Kirhard W. Dale, 
Ablisom F.lkins, Mieh.ael Gleason, Geor:,'f (Jlove. Richard V. 
Holenian. William K. Howard. Jes~e Hail. Francis H. Hol- 
liday, William H. Heflin, Charles C. Hewitt, Harrison H.iy- 
den, John Joice, James A. Kivk, Willi. ,m I). Ku|,|. James 
Long. Simeon B. I.eceli. .Marcns .M. I..ittrenee. II'Mirv .Mil- 
ler. John R. .Mitchell. D.uid .McC.jr.ol. D.nid M.iines, 
James Molbon, Joseph i'owiT, GvrL;e W. Rudy: lirasmus 
Rodman, Rodger Rynes. J. Smith, Joseph Stiltz, 
William Smithers, William C. Spencer, James Sturgeon, 
John W. Sell. George W. 'lavlor. Ransom S. Wilshire, 
George W. Whitchures, .\lford .M. Weston. Geor!:e Wcilzel, 
Williams. Burd. Elijah lUirnett, John l!in-ham, John I'„dd- 
win, John Chj^iinan, Hcnr\ (ourcer, Wesley O. Carter, 
Harby DavLson. I'atnek Fau'en, William J. Gill, Thomas G. 
Lawrence. Christopher (.'. .Mi^les. lireS. Reeves, James .A. 
Self, John J. Sw. e.:ee, Ftnesi s;.i.!e, 1 1. :,n,as >haUy, John 

In alphabetic .il list, but nut un rolls: 
First l\ W. Hall. 

Second Lieutenant l.ouis Bergman (transferred to com- 
pany C. Twelfth Kentucky c.ivairy). 

Captain Robert Karnes (captain com|jany C, also of D, 
Twcllih Kentucky cavalry). 

Major Mang.ui (captain Company K, Twelfth 
Kentucky c.ivalryl. 

C'aplain A. C. Morris. 

Captain Thomas 13. Strong. 

Sceonti Lieutenant Rufus .Sonicrly. 

Captain Charles L. L'lilh.iuk. 


Ill l.I) .\NI1 LINT. 

Major William R. Kinnev. 
Second Lieutenant John H. Stone. 

commi.ssioni:d officeu. 
Captain Thoims J. Cherry. 

First Lieutenant Willi:ini K. Wallace. 


This battery was organized in the month of 
July, i86i, at Cainjj Joe Holt, Indiana, by Caji- 
tain 13avid C. Stone, and was mustered into the 
United States ser\i(e on the 27th day of Sep- 
tember, 1S61, at Canip Muldrough Hill, by 
Major W. H. Sidell. This battery accompanied 
General Rousseau from Louisville to Mul 
drough's Hill early in the fall of 1.S61, and con- 
stituted a part of that gallant band who interposed 
between Buckner and Louisville. It was as- 
signed to the Dejiartment of the Cumberland, 
and was distinguished fur gallantry. disci[)line, 
and soldierly bearing, and in the early engage- 
ments in Tennessee won the praise of the De- 
partment commander. It veterani^ed at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, in February, 1864. After the 
defeat of the Confederate forces under General 
Hood, in December, 1864, the battery was 
ordered to Texas, where it remained until Oc- 
tober, 1865, when, being ordered to Louisville, 
it was mustered out November 15, 1865. 


Captain David C. Stone. 
First Lieutenant John H. Mellen. 
F'irst Lieutenant Robert .\. Moflet. 
First Lieutenant William H. Sinelare. 
First Lieutenant John H. Landweher. 
.Second Lieutenant George W. Cl.irk. 
Second Lieutenant Willi un K. lr\\in. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick R. .Sanger. 


First Sergeant John .\L Beard. 
First Sergeant Upton B. Reaugh. 
Quartermaster Seigeant Richard Catter, 



l^iiartcrmaster Sergeant .Aibcn St. Clair, 
tjiiartermaster Sergeant Cliarlcs .McCarty. 
(Juanermaster Scrycant John Mendoll. 
(Jiiar-tcrmastev Sergeant Ctnington O. West. 
Sergeant John W. Hall. 
Sergeant Deroy Love. 
.Sergeant I'rancis Grnnee. 
Sergeant )olin II. Lcacli. 
Seigeanl Joseph M. Ilrowing. 
Sergeant Martin Gnilcr. 
Sergeant Jacob Kcnnett. 
Corprii-al Tnme> Hnnmhreys. 
Corporal .Sebastian .Ainling. 
(,'oiporal Boler k.uiey. 
t.'orporal William i-iai\"ey. 
(,'orporal Eli Loy. 
Corporal Charles Rogers. 
. Coiporal John Rice. 
Corporal Henry B. N'oel. 
Corporal Williani M. Gray. 
Corporal Charles A. Collins. 
Corporal Richard Jtniicc. 
Corporal Charles H. Scott. 
Corporal Henry F: \\". N'askuhl. 
Corporal Leander B. Lawrence. 
Corporal William Lewis. 
Bngler Samuel A. Anld. 
Artificer John E. H.all. 
Artificer Andrew Thompson. 


Williani Allen, hall, John D. Barne.s, Thomas 
Barnes, David Biirdine, Isaac Bell, William Brister, Ficd- 
erick Buckholt, Green Breden, Andrew Crohan, George W. 
Carroll, James M. Curry, I'hilip Catron, William H. Dooly, 
John Debouid, Paul L. Denning, John Ebbs, Joseph .A. 
Evans, John.J. Estes. Joseph Endurlin, Francis M. Fu.v, 
Sebastian Gruniisen, Lewis Green, Bernard G.irr\ . Cornelius 
S. Hislop, Lawrence E. Hands, Stephen A. llarpcr, I^ifay- 
ette Hurt, Thomas Hampton, Henry H. Haggard, Jacob 
F. Hoover, Frederick Hiltser, Columbus Hays, Michael 
Isler, William H. Jones, Henry G. Jiles, William Jones. 
Johnjohnes, Levi King, JohnKne.asa, Otto Kleins-.^chmit, 
|ohn S. Light, Samuel L. Long, Ernest Lambert, Jesse D. 
Little, David Lanigan, Theodore Morrison, John Miller, 
Nathan J. Moore. John T. Murray, William Masters, An- 
loine Muler, William H. Meece, James McCabe. Charles |. 
.Mathews, William Martin, Reuben Payne, Elias Pea, Daniel 
S. F'urdy, Martin Ranch, Warner Richards, John Roberts, 
John C. .\I. Redman. Eusiachius Reis, John- Richardson, 
I'aniel C. Scully, Robert Stewart, James H. Street. Greenup 
Sparks, Thomas B. Sevill, Charles Stephens. John C. Smith. 
Peter Slathter, Charles Smith, Francis M. Smith, Levi .M. 
laylor, Samuel M. Tiiompson. Hugh L. Thom.pson, Asberrv 
H. Ihompson, Patrick Ward, William J. Wren, Benjamin 
1-. Withers, George W. Wiiite, Reuben Wooddon. George 
Woods, William F. W.iUace, John W. Warner, Tliomas 
■ 1 Ikins, George Bancroft, John Beatty, William Bingham, 
I r;ink Eainlee, Joseph Brisvvalder, Josi.ah H. B.tgby, John 
^L Burton, Christian Bothman, Peter Boohn, William 
Boohn, Joseph Packman, Daniel Co.^ckly, Edward M. Clark, 
Patrick Curran, William H. Chaddock, Pearson Crouch, 
' VI. Tiuis I. hilders, David Collins, John Doringlon, George 
I '.lugherty. William Driscoll, William Dye, Thomas Dick, 
^Vilhain Everett, Robert Elmore, George Fells, Patrick Faha, 
John R. Ford, Philip Flood, Daniel C. Friels. Jefferson L. 

Fields, Richard Ghilcs, Henry H. Gwin, 'I liomas Harper, 
Daniel Hild, Moses R. Hancock, Charles Hite, Henry 
Haysc, Benjamin Holt, John W. Johnson, Lord W. Joyce, 
Herman Kellehals, William J. Kerr, Jeremiah Lochery, 
James Lindsey, Flotiis V. Logan, George W. McQuigg. 
John McKenzie, John Moylan, Perry Moore, Patrick Mc- 
Cnll, William Matthews, Williani Manning, Lloyd Monison, 
Waller W. Miller, Willi uii Mullins, George W. McDonald, 
John Martin, James B. .N'enellv, Marcus D. L. Osburn, 
Charles R. Oliver, Henry T. Powell, James L. Pairish, 
John McKinney, William IJuinne, William S. Roberts, 
Maurice E. Reece, Francis B. Reeco, Anthonv Razor, Wil- 
liam R. Razor,. John Hubee. Benedict Stubla, Patrick 
Shaaha, Richard .'\. Spurreer, Thomas Smith, Allen M. 
Smith. James M. Smith, Howell M. Smith, William C. 
Smith, George H. Smith, Joseph Sewell, Ilillery Sells, Wil- 
liam Story, Andrew .Sells, William .Sterling, George Sparrow, 
Jesse Seward, Richard Thomas, James \'ertrces. Pleasant 
Walker, Jeremiah Walker, Nathaniel Walker, John A. Wal- 
lace, Alfred W. Wright, Moses H. Wilson, William H. 
Wren, John S. Williams, Alonzo C. Vales, James H. Wal- 
lace, Warren Benge, John CofI'man, David Dally, David 
Ford, Samuel Kephart, James Marshall, Frank Milier. Wil- 
liam Malcolm, John Norton, Eugene K. Raymon. John 
Spires, Samuel .Schuff, Leroy Whitus, William S. Wilhite, 
Williani B. Yates, William Cummins, Thomas Cummins, 
John Durbin, Charles Faller, Frerierick GolT, Joseph Jack- 
son, Andrew Landwehr, David W. Murray. Joseph Ottman, 
John W. Reynolds. David Rcckter, William Stewart, Nicho- 
las Stonefelt, John W. Sparks, William .McK. Thompson, 
Walton A. Tillett, Edwin Dnndon, John W. Gans, IXaniel 
W. Burton, John Cochran, 


luittery C was organized at Louisville in Seji- 
tuinlier, 1863, by Captain John W. Neville, and 
was mustered into the United States service, for 
one year, on the loth day of Sej^tember, 1S63, 
by Captain W. U. Royall, United States muster- 
ing ofticer. ISeing raised for the one-year service, 
this battery was assigned to the L)epartment of 
Kentucky, performed much valuable service, 
and participated in many skirmishes and en- 
gagements; and, as there were but few batteries 
in the department, the marches jierformed were 
long and arduous. It re-enlisted for three years 
at Lebanon, Kentucky, in February, 1864, and 
was ordered to .Arkansas, where it participated in 
several engagements. It returned to Louisville, 
where it was mustered out July 26, 1S65. 


Captain John W. .\eville. 

First Lieutenant Hugh S. Ravvle. 


Quartermaster -Sergeant S. Russell. 

Sergeant George 1-. Brown. E.Iwin W. Gould. 

Sergeant Spencer H. Segroves. 

Sergeant Lovvdy f toward. 

Sergeant William B. Eryson. 



Sergeant James K. Henslcy. 
Corporal John Wilson. 
Corporal fames E. Dollon. 
Corporal \\ illiarn H. 'I'ravis. 
Corporal Joroiiic Newton. 
Corporal John M. Pcarmnn. 
Corporal Charles Troll. 
Corporal John A. Irvin. 
Corporal J esse Morris. 
Corporal Finis E. Winilcrs. 
Corporal Joscphus Bellows. 
rr.rp'^rr-I .Mo5nc;Mr,nii,'n:, 
Corporal ThomasJ. Simmons. 
Artificer Henry C. Simpson. 
Artificer John C. Mann. 
Blacksmith John \V. Gorrily. 
Wagoner ] antes Duke. 
Cookjamcs Doriity. 


Charles Bradas, Albert Ilrown, Thorn. is Blair, Jan.cs M. 
Beech, James Clarke, James R. t'i.itke,' s B. C'lianibers, 
Martin S. Davis, Johnson Dcfrii.n<l, William Goodrich, 
Larkin L. Henslcy, D.aniel D. Howard, Franklin Harrod. 
William H. }!ewlett, William Jones, I'aul Landem, Patrick 
Moore, Thomas Morgan, William Miller, Daniel Bruce, 
Michaclberry .'itepheiis, John W. Smith, John A. Stowers. 
John Travis. D.wid E. Talnm, Josc[)h I.. Tombison, Samuel 
M. Wittiton, Charles Wilson, Geoigi; W. Allen, ■\\illiani G. 
Alfrey, John W. Black, Riloy A. r.aikcr, John Bick,-ll, Wil- 
liam Brassclle, William I'. Brasher. Harrison Bernett, 
George W. Brown, Samuel Cooper, '1 honias J. Gate, .Ster- 
ling M. Chambers, John Cox. Hiram Dulaney, Henry P. 
Edwards, Thomas Galloway, Jesse A. Ghormty, William P. 
Garr, Daniel T. Henderson, George T. Hern, W'illum Hart, 
Samuel Hardy, John C. Hughes, George W. Hughes, Caleb 
Ingrain, Nicholas Lesser, Johnson Leibctter. Richard N. 
Lyons, Henry N. Lanes, Joremi.iii I.outch, Joseph Lo\ing. 
Joseph .McMillan, John .Moore. JohnS. McDonakl, Samuel 
McGee, Jolin Nouse, I'homas Olirien, Henry Priiett, Joel 
S. Poore, Robert BuUam, John Bullam, Richard P. Redding, 
Edward Riley, John Henry Richie, Jolin .Summers. .Moses 
A. Sweaton, John Spillman. James Spam, t liarles Shclifield, 
James L. Taylor, John A. CnckLluck, John Wnrable, 
ThomasJ. Wright, Charles W. VVijo.l, James M. Winston, 
Franklin'B.Adams, John 11. Ikiiniiigfield, James M. Bow- 
len, JohnC. Corner, Daniel Iloui, Joseph M. Hough, Lewis 
W. King. 

COlI.Mls^lUMl) ori-i(,t,K. 

First Lieutenant Hughs. R.r.u-. 


First Sergeant James K. lleii>ley. 
Quartermastcr-Scrgcant'Charlei Trull. 
Sergeant Thomas J. Wright. 
Sergeant Spencer H. Se^ro\«rs. 
Sergeant William B. Brvs'.n. 
Sergeant Lowdy Howard. 
Corporal John N. Pearman. 
Corporal Thomas J. Simmons. 
Corporal Jesse C Morris. 
Corporal Finis K. Wiiiden. 
Corporal .Moses Mathews. 
Corporal O Brien. 
Corporal Jeremiah Lomch. 

Corpor.aljohn W. Black. 
Artilicer Henry C. Simpson. 
Artificer John C. .Mann. 
Artificer Caswell H. B.irnhill. 
Wagoner Johnson Lclljctter. 
Cookjames Dorrily. 


William Alfrey, George W. Allen, John Bickcll, William 
P. Brashear, Harrison Barrett, George W. Brown, James 
Burton, Hiram Bras.salle, .Samuel Cooper, ThomasJ. Cate, 
John Co.N, William H. Coon, James Duke, Robert Edwards, 
Robert W. Field. Thorn. is Galloway, Jesse A. Ghormlcy, 
Edwin W. Gonld, Darnel T. Henderson, George T. Hern, 
John A. Irvin, Caleb Ingram, Nicholas Losson, Richard N. 
Lyons, Joseph .McMillan, John Moore, John S. .McDonald, 
Samuel McGee, John Nouse. Jerome Newton, Henry Pruiti, 
Joel L. Poore, Edward Riley, John Richie, Thomas S. Rus- 
sell, Richard, P. Redding, John Summers, Moses A. 
Sweaton, John Spillman, James Spain, Charles Sheffield, 
James L. Taylor, John A. Unkelb.ack. John Varalle, Charles 
W. Wood, William P. Garr, Riley A. Barker, Henry P. Ed- 
wards, John C. Hughes, William Hart, Samuel Hardy, 
Frankliu .Adams, John II. Benningfield. Sterling M. Cham- 
bers, Henry N. Laws, Robert Puliam, Joseph II. Leaptrul, 
Wash E. M.iytor. 

r..\lTFRY E. 

This b.iUery was oigaiiized al Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, in September, in 1S63, under Cajjtain 
Johii J. Hawes, and was mustered into the 
United States service, for one year, at Cainj) Nel- 
son, Kentucky, on the 6th. day of October, 1S63, 
by Cajjiain R. 13. Hull, United States Mustering 
Officer. It jierformed garrison duty at Ca!^i|) Nel- 
son and Camp Burnside for several months ; and, ■ 
in February, 1S64, re-enlisted for three years. It 
was at Lexington, Kentucky, in June, 1S64, 
when the city was attacked by John Morgan's 
forces, and by a lew well-directed shots succeed- 
ed in driving them from the city. It remained 
at Lexington, Kentucky, until November, 1S64, 
when it received orders to march to East Ten- 
nessee,and join General Stoneman in his exjiedi- 
tion against Saltyille, Virginia. This Battery 
participated in the battle of Marion, Virginia, on 
the iSih of December, 1S64, and on the 21st of 
December, in the capture of Saltville. .-Vfter the 
capture of Saltville, all the guns of the Battery 
were destroyed and the men mounted and re- 
turned to Le.xington, Kentucky, by way of Pound 
Gap and Mount Sterling. This expedition was 
one of great severity, many of the men being 
being badly frost-bitten, but enduring the cold 
and fatigues with marked courage and jxitience. 
Frmn Le.xington it marched to Camj) Nelson, 
where it remained until ordered to Louisville 
for muster-out, August i, 1S65. 




Qii.irtcrraaslcr Sergeant Frank King. 
I'irsl Scrgcanl Murray. 
Scrgeanl Robert I.ay. 
Sergeant Adisoii L. Xorris. 
Sergeant Blanton I'raiit-r. 
Sergeant Chailcs W, Tonlniin. 
Corporal Henry Scliwink. 
Corijoral Milion S. Morjaii. 
Corpoial Robert S. llairison. 
Corporal David E. Crist. 
Corpo.-.r. rkasaiit :.!. Ciiin. 
Coi^oral Pascal Ragal. 
Corporal George P. Bolin. 
Corporal John Tompkins. 
Corporal Thomas W'allace. 
Bugcr Edgar W.igner. 
Bugler William Sawier. 
Artificer Malcoin McCoig. 
Artificer Ferdinand Holhouse. 
Artil'icer John Feeway. 
Wagoner John O. Siniih. 

Newton Andeison, Michael Br.idon, John S. Brooks, 
James T. Brock, William M. Baker. Peter F. Baker. Jesse 
Baker, Hiram W. Butcher, Samuel M. Butcher, George 
Brewer, .Andrew Cordell, Hiram Carlory, Elij.ah Clark, John 
B. Correll, John Corruth, Clinton Cooaibs, -Vlc.xaiidor Coombs, 
George Clouse, Lafayette Douglass, William Deavin, John R. 
Elder, William H. Fr.mklin, Lafayette Gibson, Larkin Gib- 
son, William C. Gibson, D.aniel lleapley, Edward Hyde, 
James Hood, .Augustus Herring, James Hall, Runiniors S. 
Jones, William M. Jones, Samuel T.James, George Kirkland, 
Robert L. Kilpairick, Jeremiah Landres, George Mclvan, 
James Mc.AUen, David McKusir, Granvill .A. McCoy, Henry 
Messer, John Manyrum, Henry C. Musgroie, Edward 
Miller, James B. Nelson, William Patton, James W. Rey- 
nolds, Frank Reliberger, James M. Russell, Farris Roberts, 
Michael Sullivan, Benjamin Sw.adener, Jeremiah Spencer, 
Isaac P. Smith, John -M. Stewart, Elij.ih W. Shay, Ed- 
mund Tyler, Drury Talbot, Richard Thomas, \\'il!iam C. 
Vanover, George W. Williamson, Thomas Withers, Jasper 
Vaibrough, [ames Anderson, Thomas .Anderson. Jesse L. 
K.iker, David Baker, Charles .A. Carpenter, Thomas Doolan, 
Gabriel D.augherty, Robert E. Depew, Olho T. Davis, Jolm 
Feeway, John W. Graves. .Alfred A. Gambrel, Thomas 
Hayes, VV'illiam .A. Hunt, Robert Hamner, James How-ell, 
James W. Jones, Robert Johnson John F. Knobic, Eli N. 
I.angley, Wilson M. May, Jacob .Myers, William .Morgan, 
Ple.isant Morgan, Charles McGuire, Robert Nult, John 
Rnprecht, Patrick Short. John Vaughan. James Woods, 
William Wallace, Robert C. Burritt, Daniel Clark, Thomas 
Garrett, Jeremiah Herbert, John Toohev, George Barri.v, 
Samuel P. Depen, Geor^'e Frazer, Otto Gire, James Munroe. 
Joshua Vaughan, John K. Walker, William A. Whilnev. 

On alphabetical list, but not on roll: 

Second Lieutenant Wiliiam Lanigon. 


On alphabetical list, but battery never orvan- 
ued : 

t'apiain Daniel W. Gla^ie. 

r..\rrt:RY ix 

Second Lieutenant Thomas Garrett. 


Jeffrey Rogers, second lieutenant. Twenty-first infantry. 

.Andrew Carle, second lieutenant, comjiany A, Twenty- 
third infantry. 

John F. Leonard, first and second lieutenant, company .A, 
and captain, company D, Fiftieth infantry. 

Ch.arles M. Bingham, second lieutenant, company M, 
Thirteenth cavalry. 


Joseph Smith, Theodore Nelson, William H. Howard, 
company B. Thirteenth infantry. 

Gottlieb E, Fiber, corporal, com|i.iny E, Thirteenth in- 

Thomas J. Muir, company C, .Se\entecnlli infanliy. 

John Bottem, Charles Richter, company D, Seventeenth 

Corporals Henry Pa ilson, Charles Andean, and Henry 
Hohman; Michael Calahan, Mieliael Cavanaugh, Michael 
Ciinan, Obin Cushell, John Da\is, .Anthony Eagin, John 
F'arihan, Patrick Gleason, George Jericho, Joseph and 
Charles Kane, Patrick Keeran, Owen King, Dennis Larvln. 
Christian Mangold, James McDonald, Jolm .McFadden, 
Daniei O'Brian, John Martin, Thomas Ryan, and Edward 
Keyes, company F, Seventeentli infantry. 

Ernest Franks, company K, Seventeenth infantry. 

Benjamin Moore (veter.ui), company E, Twentieth infantry. 

Corpor.d Henry F. Shafer (veteran), company H, Tuen- 
tieth infantry. 

Santuel MoCarty (veteran), companv K, Twenty-first in- 

Coiporals Jacob Boss and FMward Dun'.eith; Cliarles 
.Ackerman, Martin .Adams, Benjamin .Albert, William 
-Am ther, Michael Bowler, John C. Cline, Michael Connell, 
Jacob Hass, John Hartwitz, John Hanky, George Henry, 
.Andrew Hedley, George Kantlinger, George Keck, Bernard 
Kelley, Nicholas Lefller, Lewis .Maybold, William H. H. 
MePheison, Patrick McHugh, .August Mikel, Lewis .Mikel, 
John R. .Muir, Edward Reffolt, Cornelius Riley, George 
Rich, William Rinbolt, John Rowen, Jolm Rusch, George 
-A. Rucker, Jacob Scherrer, Peter Schuler, Joseph Seleick, 
George Thormyer, Joseph Werdie, .August Williamking, 
company G, Twenty-second infantry, 

.Andrew Carroll, company F, Twenty-sixth infantry. 

Charles Granger, company K, Twenty-sivth infantry. 

Frederick Daner, Frederick Beck, company I, Thirty-third 

John Coleman, company B, Thirty-fifth infantry, 

Nicholas Mangin, company D, Thirty-fifth infantry. 

Charles Young, company E, Thirty-fifth infantry. 

George Metier (veteran), company H, Thirtv-eighth in- 

George .A. P.,irth, company I. Fortieth infantry. 

Charles Wilmore, company C, Second cavalry. 

William Brown, company K, Second ca^'alry. 

Henry Hart, company I, Forty-seventh infantry. 

George H. Tope, company C, Forty-ninth infantry. 

William .\letls, companv .A, Fifty-second infantry. C. \'aughn. company B, Fifty-second infantry. 

James .\L Pake (veteran) company F, Fifty-third infantry. 

Hugh Higgins. company C, Seventieth infantry. 



John lipiinic, eoiiipany 1'. Kiijilj-thircl inhiitiy. 

WillUm M. Klack, company H, Kijjlily-fiflli infantry. 

Jami.-s Higgins, company A. Anlliony Tli'-venin, comiianv 
E, Nincliotli regiment (cavalry). 

Liifayctle Conk, company V, Xin.ny-lirsl iiir.uniy. 

Harvey K. furrier, companv I. ijiic I lirulrcil ,in,l I'wenly- 
eiglith infantry. 

. Company Commissary .Vrgiant Mrrier, coTnii.iiiy 
L, Thirteeutli c.ivalry. 

William \V. n.nis. Tat OCXinr.or, coiup.iry .\I, Thirtccnlh 

Jusidh D. Ripk,-, Lv.nip,i;.y C, Un^, d ant! Korliflli 

George Mailers, company .\, One llunihe.l and Forty- 
third infantry. 

John Gross, company ):>, Ow: Hundred and Fony-tliiid 

William Arcns, William KU, Charles King, Leopold 
Lenzinger, Benjamin F. 'Fanner, company A, One Hundred 
• and Forty-fourth infanlry. 

)oeIM. and Newton J. Conn a;id Richard B. Hawkins 
(Westpoit), comviany 11 , One Hundred and I'orty-fourih in- 

Corporals Sanford M. Jewel and Henry Gilcsp> ; James F. 
Key, William B. Lewis, B.arney Oiiley, Joe H. Fope, com- 
pany G. One Hundred and Forty-fouith inf.mlry 
"On " ■ 

Hundred and Forty- 
pany K, One Hundred and 
company R, One Hundied 

stopher Thomas, John Wil- 
ntv ei'-hlh United i^tates 

liled States 

Frank McConley, company B, 
fifth infantry. 

Corporal Charles G, Fills, eon 
Forty-fifth infantry. 

Sergeant William H. H. Cole, 
and Fifty-first infantry. 

Daniel Biiller, eoinpany G, Chi 
kenson, Thomas Wills. T v.< 
colored troops. 

James Goren, company H, dwenly-eighth 
colored troops. 

David Rasine, Second Lattery (also second lieutenant 
Second Missouri light artillery). 

Conrad Kndlecoffer. Tenth battery. 

Corporals Joseph H. Snyder, .\Uiert Clow . Jainc, McCuire, 
Christopher ijwnb, Emslev Jaeksnn. Thomas .\I. Johnson, 
Henry Ruth, George Smitor, Twelfth battery, 
THK STAIL Mll.irl.X. 

Besides tlie large coiitiiigciit whicli Jeflerson 
county put reguLirly in the field and which was 
mustered into the service of the United Stales. 
was a Lirgc ntimlK-r who '.verc (inly enrolled in 
the State .Militia, hut WL-ie temiiorarily suhjected 
to the tall of the Federal (.(jnunanders, and who 
served for short jieriotls in sudden emergencies, 
as when Louisville or its railw.iy communications 
were threatened by the enemy. Ainong them 
were many who also seiveJ in the Kentucky 
forces in the Federal slivk e, as will be observed 
by the corresjsondence of names in a large num- 
ber of c.ises ; but some Lfi their homes and bu- 
siness only fir thc^e lincf icrnis of service, upon 
the call oi the United S' ites ofiicers, and without 
leaving the State in whose i.iilitia alone they 

were enrolled. The cominlcf of this work hesi- 
tated to give these rosters a jilare in the military 
•history of the county, on acfouiU of the very 
short servii e of the officers and men whose 
names they jncsent — in many cases not exceeding 
a week or ten days; but, being assured by those 
who personally knew of their experience in the 
field, that it was often exceedingly useful to the 
Union cause, and well deserves commemoration, 
he decides to include the lists in the roll of honor. 
The following are believed to comprise all the 
comjjanies from Louisville or Jefferson county 
that are noiired in the Adjutant General's rejjort 
for the war peiitid : 


Called into United States service by Brigadier 
General Anderson, from Sejitember 1 7 to Seji- 
tember 27, 1861. 

coM.Missm.sKn ofi-ic-ek.s. 

Captain Theodore Harris. 

First Lieutenant William F. Woad. 

Second A. N. Keigwin. 


Sergeant J. S. Hill. 
Sergeant William T. Duncan. 
Sergeant A. T. Spurrier. 
Sergeant William H. Manning. 
Corpoial George T. Kage. 
Coqroral C. L. Blondin. 


William .Xustm, F. Brooks, Milton Burnham, 
Brendinger, H. Belleamp, W. C. Clark, W. L. Chambers. 
William Cotter, Charles Cooper, J. F. Cook, J. L. Dallotl, 
James Donally, |. H. Davis. James Flannagen, Charles H. 
Hart. R. C. Hill". I. F. Harvey, F'. Hogen, B. W. Huidie, 
John Martin, William Maeguire, James K. Mullen, T. T. 
Mershon, Frank Maeguire, C. S. Miller, John B. Martin, 
William M. Nicholls, Andrew Nickols, James Raery, K. 
Rhinelander, George B. Roach, P. W. Richards, John Reihl, 
R. Ramsey, Albert St. Clair, George Webster, J. B. Wood. 


Called into United Slates service by Brigadier 
General .-\riderson, trom Sei)tember lS to Sep- 
tember 28, 1S61 : 

Captain Edward St. John. 
First Lieuten.ant John F. Uitsler. 
Second Lieutenant J. C. Russell. 
First Sergeant W. H. Bartholomew. 
Sergeant Joseph Smith. 
Sergeant W. L. Stratton. 
Sergeant John Vetter. 
Corporal J. B. \'ice. William Roach. 
Corporal T. G. O' Riley. 
Corporal John Cookley. 



I'KIVATl '".. 

R. B.ibeit, John P.lni/, AnioKl Dierson, GoUep 

Uriclicr, Henry Kink, Thilip F 

ctl. Jacob Holms, John 

Hinkle; I'Link Henlove, Thilip Hotup, F. J. Jagle, John 
Keller, Robert Kritsor. H. McCool, Kictiard McGiare, I'.it 
O'Kiloy, K. Slinglc, Charles Stci/er, trank Scv<;t. J. J. 
Swope. A. Smith. Michael \V2t3on. 


Called inlo United Statc:^ service by Rri^adier- 
General Anderson, September i 7 to Sci)tember 
28, 1S61: . 


Capt.tin John Metcalf. 

.Second Lientenant Jacob He55. 


Sergeant E. Ralitein. 
Sergeant Frank Guan. 
Corporal P. Wise. 
Corporal G. Sanger. 

J. Eentz, Michael Conner, U. Clark, M. Daly, C. Graff, 1'. 
■Geiss. B. Hessingcr, G. Howland, Peter Kuhn. John Kin- 
caid, Joseph Kincaid, Joseph Probst, M. Reutcr, R. Regan 
M. Sengal, F. S(anlan, J. Sncll. James Whalcn. J. Walton. 


Called inlo United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 21 to October i, 


Captain Fred IJnckner. 

First Lieutenanl.-V. Bmgswald. 


First Sergeant John Ruhuly. 
Sergeant John Haur. 
Sergeant R. Schikenger. 
Sergeant L. Kaunnese. 
Corporal Albert Pfeffer. 
Corporal John Zimmor. 


John Aeppele, John P.audle, C. Clark, O. Doussoner, W. 
Eminger, O. Fishback, Martin Haag. S. Kapp, 
Koechle, Joseph Kamp. John Lutz. John Oehler, Charles 
Rohus, John S.lgaret, John Zollcr. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17th to September 
29, 1S61. 


Captain Robert Mills. 

First Lieutenant Charles -V. Grubcr. 

Second Eieutcnant C. H. Summerville. 


First Sergeant Joseph .\IcClory. 
S.,Tgeant \V. A. Kclker. 
■^<Tt;eant John Weist. 
S-.rgeant Garnelt Duncan. 
Corporal J. \V. P. Russell. 
Corporal C. Wintersteme. 

lohn Austin, T. ]. Adams, T. Anderson, G. Hrnwn, T. 
Brannin, F. Hlumensteihl, J. Briswalder, T. J. Carson, Wil- 
liam Curry, William Driscolls, F. Dye, E. O. Daily, Otto 
Dolhnger, C. M. Dcrniott, .Vilam Eichert, F. Escherioh, H. 
Fuller, F. Gildier, \S'. Graftnoy, William Hare, William 
Kollum, John Kerr. J. Low, |. Malonc, Barney McMahon, 
William McKinney.'c. J. .Mull, Martin Middleton, R. Xut- 
t.all. C. Ponell, George Powell, H. Ratterman. G. A. 
Schimplf, J. Scl.cblo, J. Schullen, William Surmons, C. A. 
Strout, Gibson Tate, John 'Faber, John Wiiitei, John 



Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General .Anderson, October 3d to Oclober 19, 

commissioned officeks. 

Captain Rolierl Mills. 

Fiist Lieutenant C. PL SumerviUe. 


First Sergeant John W. Winter. 

Sergeant K. O. Daily. 

Sergeant J. W. T. Russell. 

Sergeant Wilham Koliuni. 

Corporal R. Xuti.ill. 

PRn ATi;s. 

John .Austin, T'. J. .Adams, George Broun, Joseph 
Brishaver, F. Bloomenstul, Daniel Clark, .Michael D.iiley. 
Jacob Emwein, H. F'liller, George Gossman, Thomas Hol- 
loran, W. .A. Kelker, William l,inch, George Middleton, 
Martin Middleton, Barney .McMahon, George Powell, G. A. 
Schimpfl", Kduin Scaulan, William Woodfali, Robert Wiight. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
Genera! Anderson, Sej^tember 21 to October i, 
1861 : 


First Lieutenant Samuel L. .Adair. 
Second Lieutenant Peter Leaf. 


Sergeant Frank Ress. 
Sergeant Henry Routtinbush. 
Sergeant John I^af. 
Corporal William Roth. 
Corporal ^K^^tin Deidley, 
Corporal John Fliderrer. 


W. J. .\dains, Peter Bontr.rger, F'rank Bronger, Charles 
Cleveland, Chorren. James Cottei, Frederick Elbert, 
John Geist, Nicholas Glomen, Joseph Gnowl, Jacob Heirth, 
Henry T. Martin. James J. Xurman, James H. Norman, 
Henry Oterman. Worden J. (Juick, C. Stone, John .A. 
Stone, Henry Shane, Peter Shuck, Jacob Vauan. .Albert 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17th to September 
22, iS6r. 



commissiom:d ornc 
Captain J. I". Hulicr. 
First Licmon;int D. \V. ll.-nderson. 
Second Lieiilcn.iiit I'.duard Mi-cklov. 

N0N-C0MM1SS[0NE1> OlUCf.KS. 
Sergfant W. E. Benson. 
Sergeant J. I.. Byers. 
Scvgranl l.euis Miliei. 
Sergeant W. P. Hampton. 
Corporal 1;'.. f!. Stout. 
Coipoial Ciiarle.s I'ring. 
Corporal Robert Hcbee. 
Corporal Simon Berg. 


Aaron Ilicon, William Bergman, Owen Conley, ],une^ 
Clarice, Duncan Daker, Jol.n Daper. Jol.n llav.kms, John 
Hogan, Vincent Kriens, ]olm 1 .oui;, A. Lederman, John 
Maurer, John Meser, G. Munsuih.-im, Henry T. Manin, 
Peter Phiesler, Sanuicl Retwit?er, Stephen Schniitt, Charles 
Schusler, Henr\ Snender, .\nton S'jhack, Lewis Streng, John 
M. Vatigaan, John WeiniiotT, Fred Webhe, G. Werner. 


Called into United States .^eivirc by lirigadicr- 
Goneral Anderson, September 3oth to Sejitember 
29, 1S61. 

eoMMissio.sii) o;ncKK.s. 
Captain A. C. Semple. 
First Lieutenant E. G- Wigginton. 
Second Lieutenant J. M. Semple. 


Sergeant W. A. Bullitt. 

Sergeant W. W. Gardner. 

Sergeant J. Barbaroux. 

Corporal H. Thompson. 

Corporal Robert Vaughan. ^ 

Corporal jafnes Miilikcn. 


James Ainslie, C. Auhbrook. V, R. Bartlett. J. B, Banys. 
C. Clark, R. M. Cunninijham. S F. D.iues, A. L, Du yler, 
William L'Jnimmond, H. Uiipcnt. .\ I),iv, G. H. Detchen. 
Joseph.Gleason, U. B. Gantt, 11. B Grant, S. K. Gramger, 
Edward Gary, James Gary, Henry Gary. G. A. Hull. .-\. G. 
Hodges, J. Hornrice, H. T. JefTerson, C. K. Jones, lavei 
Kirker.L H. Martm, G. S. Moore, G. McCormick, J. C. 
Nauts, R. L. Bast, J. H. tV.aier. William Padden, M. T. 
Ritchey, Eu;;ene Reiily, James Ruddle, George .A. Sweeney, 
Ch.^rles Semple, T. Schirek. J. S^mmerville, T. W. Spill- 
man. G. J. Vail, G. F. Wood, J. I. T. Wa;ers, Z. W. 


Called into United Stat' s serviee by Rri-adier- 
General Anderson, from Se|iteriiber 2:rd, to 
October 6, 1861, 

coMMissiosKn ornctH. 
Captain Edward S- Shepp.mi. 

ri<iv.\ rn. 
George W. Bartli. kotK.-rt Cailm,-, Robert Latimer, Charles 
Leterlcc, James Marsliall, J. L. Richardson, Wilham Snuth, 
Sidney Smith. Daniel Stevens. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General .Aiideison, Sejitembcr 17 to September 
27, 1S61 : 

coMMissioNi;i:i brricERS. 

Captain B. I land. 
First Lieutenant L. 
Second Lieutenant . 



First Sergeant Jului Semh.uigh, 

Sergeant Pi (or Linden. 

Sergeant Charles Weidnian. 

Corporal Gottfried Miller. 

Corporal Charles Giletig. 

Corporal 0:>kcr Fluhr. 

Corporal Branmiller. 


H. Bremer, William Babsky, John Dockweiler, E. Fung. 
J. T. B. Kmig. Charles Elt, Fz. Flaig, Charles Hil/il. A. 
lleimcrdniger, J. Holycr, G. Krant, T. Klotter, William 
Knoller, George Klotter, A. Kueny, V. Losi-h, B. Morit?, 
John Xichter, ]'. Mevan, C. Oehiian, T. Reichett, P. Rosch, 
L. Rhein, Philip Sensbach, J. Sihale, A. Sehanlin, N. 
Uhrig, Fz. Uhiig. 

liOONE GU.\RliS. 

Called into United States service by I5rigadier- 
General Anderson September 17th to Seidemher 
30, 1861 : 


Captain Paul Eyerly. 

First Lieutenant James Forgaity. 

Second Lieutenant J. R. Boone. 


First Sergeant John Hughes. 

Sergeant Charles Wolf. 

Sergeant William Woodfall. 

Corporal W. }L Evans. 

Corporal John .Akin. 


Mirhael Cilloghan, Henry Doorman, Martin Enright, 
Patrick Flaharty, Henry Fisher, J.icob Hart, James Hart- 
nell, Edward H.irlnell, John Insto, Thomas JetTrey, An- 
thony Kirn, Edward Legoc, John .\IcMahon, Peter .Moore, 
William O'Harra, P.iul Reis, Gusloft' R.adeloff, J. W. Snntli, 
Hamilton Sago, Michael Sago, William Seibel, J. W. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17th to September 
28, i86l 

com.missionld officers. 

Captain F. M. Hughes. 

First Lieutenant G. W. Conaway. 

Second Lieuten.ant D. .Mibott. 


Sergeant Ranson Delano. 
Sergeant T. B. Flays. 
Sergeant Peter Klink. 


145 Thomas Rowlang. 

Corporal George Mallern. 

Corporal Andrew Ilunil, 

Corporal William layaii. 


B. Britt.jn. K. Byor. M. I'lu!,, C. fioudhauu, Gcr-e lie.irl/, 
George nciiry.,C. Hceb, \V. C. Irvini!, 11, Mariiii, J. Myers, 
D,\niel PoVell, George Powell, J. Riley, Frederick Riipp. S. 
RcisKi-, Charles Sauei-, Grainille Sinkhorn, Theodore Stalk, 
Frank Smith, William Sauer, Cli.irlei Waijncr, I. Wiliiami, 
Silas W. Vounsr. 


Cnlled into United Stales service by lii igadiei- 
Gcncral Anderson, Oetuber 17 to October 28, 

Captain Jesse Rubel. 
First lacutcnant J. R. White. 
Second Lieutenant W. H. Fagan. 
Third Lieutenant Sim. Lrailierman. 


Sergeant Brad. Dearing. 

Sergeant Charles Winkler. 

Sergeant William H.inimon. 

Sergeant John Bodkins. 

Corporal E. Winkler. 

Corporal C. A. 

Corporal J. Leathcrm.Tn. 


Henry Bull, Charles Cook, Jai:ob Campbell, Frank Elex- 
man, Williain Floor, John Floor, George Figg, Jacob Fritz, 
J. II. Frautz, William Floether. Jol-.n Gaus, Alford Hoffeldt, 
Ernest Hausman, Henry Hippi:r, Albert Hollenb ich, Dallis 
King, George Kuntz, William F. Kelly, Toney McGentry, 
Robert Murray, Michael McM.ihan, Robert Marshall, 
Michael O'Connor, George Rost, J. T. Randolph, John 
Rodeke. Lewis Smith, John Smith, Adam Siiear. Joseph 
Shad, Henry Shaffer, E. Sweeny, William Shane, Constant 
Tro-vler. R. A. Wright, Riley Willsor.. 

sempi.e's EAITERV. 
Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 1 6th to September 
27, 1S61. 


Captain Joseph B. Waikins. 

First Sergeant George Bernard. 
Corporal Charles Willis. 

William .Arthur, Lewis Bouwin, Henry Burnett, Fcli.x 
Dupre, Charles Deal, John Felt, James Kendall, Andrew 
Kendall, .Andrew Lawrence. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, October 3d to October 30, 

M.ajor Joseph B, Watkins. 


First Lieutenant George Bernard. 

Second Lieutenant Charles Willis. 


First Sergeant William .Arthur. 

Sergeant James I^oyal. 

Sergeant Henry Burnett. 

Sergeant George Morgan. 

Corporal John Rotkin. . • 

Corporal B. F. King. 


Michael Connell, Philip Chapel, Jau'cs Cook, James .-\. 
Chappeil, Charles Deighl. Henry Deal, Thomas Dupre, .\. 
C. I'Aving, Alexander F.liot, James Foster, John Travel, 
Jame^ llorine, Peter Jacob, P. Kelly, (Jeoige Kouutz, Green 
L, Key, Andy. Lawrence, J. H. H. F. Metcalfe, 
James McKnight, P. G, Monroe, M. J. MiHer, S. L. 
Xichols, J. J. PoUey, C. B. I'olley, Alonzo Rawling, J. W. 
Ridgcway, T. S. Roy.dty, J. D. Skinner, A. J. Wells. 


Called into Uniicd States service by Briga- 
dier-CIeneral Anderson, September 17 to Sep- 
tember 28, 1 86 1. 


M.ijor A. Y. Johnson. 


Captain J. D. Orrill. 

First Lieutenant Edward Vming. 

Second Lieutenant J. A. Weatherford. 


Sergeant J. C. CassiUy. 

Sergeant J. E. Hyburger. 

Sergeant William N. Sinkhorn. 

Sergeant A. Brown. 

C0rp0r.1l J. H. Davis. 

Corporal B. E. Cassilly. 

Corporal J. Murdivilder. 

Corporal P. M. Dougherty. 

Musician Bullitt Clark. 

Musician Julius Carpenter. 

Musician Matthew S. Steward. 


J. B. Alford, George H. .Alexander, John Burkhardt, Wil- 
liam Boldt, J. W. Bryan, John Bradburn, Charles Boldt. 
Otto Brohm, L. H. Beeicr, Samuel Conley, W. N. Crooks, 
M. Eaglehooff, L. Fisher, Lawrence Giles, Joseph Gross, H. 
H. Hancock, Jerry Hollensead, ]. D. Hodgkins, John Hite, 
Patrick Hasvs, George H. Kise. Jr., F. Kocksburger, L. 
kirchler, J. D. Kircher, Charles Kirfus, J. L. Lee, John 
Lloyd, Christ Murton, James Maxey, C. C. Owen, W. B. 
Ranmtus, W. U. Ryan, J. Richards, M. Rapp, F. Ran, 
John Sass, J. D. Strawsburg, F. F. Smith, William Shirley, 
Joseph Stokes. J. L. Spangler, Joseph Trainor, .A. Webber, 
William Wilson. 



Captain John Daly. 

First Lieutenant ri'.onlas Tindell. 

First .Sergeant .A. Hodapp. 


HISTORY or Tin: ohio I'Ai.i.s couxit]':s. 

Jclrn I'i.ia. O.-orKC 

Sergeant T. H. \Vi:i5tonly. 
Corporal Jacob Ack. 
Corporal Gcor^ce i^hclllei. 
Corporal Granville Cook. 


A. Achcr^. W. S, l':ch',l,. A. 
(Jassmari, Jolm Gould. 'I unotliy ilogai 
James Jeffrey, Andy Kreiyle, X. W. Milkr. WiIHam Xieli- 
wisli, Sleplien Noriiun. lanie^ V.!,!!.-, John AeiiMnasler. 

fAri'MN ^'II I rK't. < omp.wn'. 

Called into United Sili'.cs stivicc !)y IJi iL;,idier- 
Gentral Sherman, as guard to bridges on Leba- 
non Branch railroad, September 17 to October 
16, 1S61: 


Captain Irvine Miller. 


Thomas Allen, J. W. Allen, James I'.omey. H ]. IVan, 
W. Banies, Samuel l!,irnes, U. T. Barnes, Kiehard Kurnes, 
J. \V. Burnes, Vincent Bolls, J. \V. Clark>oii, Jeremiah 
Cape. Martin Delancy. William I'. Dou.^herty. Martin I'hnn. 
T. A. Hiil, r. M. Hare. David Hamilton. Jam^.'S Hall. An- 
thony Hughes, William Hill. Patrick Kirlly, Louis l.astie, 
H. A. Lloyd, James Leslie, L. G. Moberly, Thomas .Madow, 
Robert Montgomery, Thomas I". Ne\\ton, George .K Pra- 
ther, Patrick Ryan, Lee Rosenham, Charles W. Smith, 
William Sputtsman, .\. J. Trisler. J. K. W.ilers, Xeal 
Waters, Perry Watson, Hcuy Watson, James Alton. 


Called into United States seiviceb)- r.ri;:;adier- 
General Sherman, to guard bridges on I^ebanon 
Branch railroad, October 17 to November 21, 

Captain Irvine Miller. 

SlONKll orFiCF;K. 

Thomas Allen, James Allen, La.v rente .\nderson. S.anford 
Burns, Richard Burus, Samuel Barnes, B. T. Barnes, Wick- 
liflTe Barnes, John Carlisle, Jerry Cape, William Dougherty, 
Martin Delaney, P. Doyle, Sieplien L-ise.f, John P. Fox, 
Henry A. I'loyd, .\r.thony Hu;;l'.es, David Hamilton, James 
H.all, Prank M. Hari, Mich.iei Hughes, John Hughes, 
Patrick Keitty, Lewis Le-lie. James Leslie, Thomas Marlow, 
Roljcrt Montgomery, T. K. Xewlon. William Prutsman, Lee 
Rosenham, A. J. Tnsl-r, H-nv W.,iers. James R. Waters, 
Perry Watson, Henry Watson. Xoel Waiers. 


Guarding bridge over Beech fork, Lebanon 
branch railroad, Xovetiiber 221! to N'ovember 
30, 1 86 1. 

C0.MMti-.10.StlJ OFUCLK. 

Captain trvme Miller. 

rKlVATt s. 

Daniel Burns, R. Bums, J. Carii-le. P. Doyle, Henry De- 
fearn. Stephen Essex. .Anthony IIii:;lic5. Mich.ael Hughes, 
Daniel Keif, Le-Ue. Pruisman, James 
Ready, No^l Waters 


Called into United States service by lirigadier- 
Cietieral Anderson, September 17th to various 
dates in September and October, generally Sep- 
tember 27, 1S61, 

OO.MMISSI' iNI I> OI- 1 iei.k. 

Second Lieutenaiil IC, M. 1 eny. 

.SON-CO.\t.MtSslO.M-.U OKKtCliKS. . 

Kir^t Sergeant W. T. Stokes. 
Sergeant William S. 
Sergeant John Steele. 
Sergeant L. A, Curran. 
Corpoial R. H, Spaulding. 
Corporal Edward H. Dunn. 
Corporal D. G. Spaulding. 


H. C. Anderson, W. R. Bi-.itiy. Alonzo BroUn, J.J. Balm- 
forth, Charles L. Cassady, W. H. Cornell, John Fisher, 
James Ferguson, E. P. Fountain, J. IJ. Grinistead, James P. 
Hull, F. H. Hegan, C. M. Johnson, F. Kulkuji, Alexander 
K.n,<pp, W. G. L. I.ampton, John H. Lanipton, W. Maimer, 
J. T. Miles, Ewin Martin, B. M. Manuivillc, Jacob F. Mef- 
fert, William G. Xeedham, D. W. Xewton, G. W. Newton, 
Thomas D, Parmcle, Alfred Pirtle, C. Robbins, W. D. Spald- 
ing. Thomas P. Shanks. Frank Smith. George K. Speed. J. 
G. Spalding. E. D. Tavlcr, J. M. Terry, J. W. Tciry, W. B, 
Whitney, Xat. Wolfe, Jr., Joseph G. Wilson. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September iS to September 
28, iS6i: 

C0MMIS510Nt;D omciiks. 
Captain Joseph Haveman. 
First Lieutenant Keal Weaver. 

Sergeant William Miller. 
Sergeant George Hackmier. 
Sergeant Jacob Becker. 
Corporal Frank Underiner. 
Corporal Charles Hostatter. 
Corporal John Weaver. 


.Ambrose .Arnold, Jacob Baken, Henry Dutt, William F.p- 
pert, Anderson Frank, Jacob fishback, Ainele Hostutter, 
Stc[)hon Hosellack, Michael Ishminger, Michael Leonard, 
Paul Lewis, Marshall Merit, John Xeist. Frederick Xicely. 
Rhenard Phlentz. Conrad Stilvy, Leon Sims, Peter Smuh- 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September 17 to September 
30, 1861 : 

Captain James R. Xoble. 
First Lieutenant William CruU. 

Sergeant John Donnelly. 
Sergeant P. Foulk. 



Sergeam !). Cruli. 

Sorycaiil S. M. Gupton. 

Corjiornl F. I'rocar. 

Corjior.Tl L. Knoblock. 

Cor|irinil T. Conklin. 


I,. BreiUliiigcr, William Ilrown, Thomas [ircnllinser, 
John dull, S. Curmn. S.'Uurning, \V. DaviS, I-'. iJeiiz, I',, J. Fowler, 1'. Moo J, J. H.asson, H. Kl)s, Wil- 
li. in; l.thr, J. LaiU-rh, C. Manning, S. .Mnnnini;. j. McCnl- 
vc>, J. Malraw, U. Mercer, T. Riley, M. Shely, W. 
.stnnkci,J. Worth, T. H, Wahacc, '1. B. While. 


Called into United States service by I'.iigadief- 
Cieneral Anderson, Scpteniber iStli to Ortober 
I, 1S61. 


Captain David Hooke 


First IJculcnant William MeNeal. 
Second Lieutenant John Collins. 


First Sergeant F.lias Chiiucrs. 
Corporal Charles Smith. 
Corporal Henry 'I'homas. 
Corporal Minton Michael. 


John Chiklors, Davis ChiiclLrs, Peter Edsvards, James Ed- 
wards, Louis Gody, Joseph King. George Moms, John Mc- 
Carthy. Nathan Prentice. Andrew Parrall, Zeb. Shy, William 
SeMon, 'Stephen Skinner, N.ithaniel Stenson, JohnTherman, 
Samuel Tigue, James Thomas. Charles Thomas, Joseph 
West, Mac Whatkins, Joseph Watson, Hugh Watson. Wil- 
liam Wood. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, October 9th to October 20, 


Captain William H. Maglerney. 
First Lieutenant Henry J. Smith. 


First Sergeant Charles G. I'.auer. 

Serge, inl Nicholas Shunian. 

Sergeant Frederick .Sch\veit.!er. 

(.V-rporL'l John Ruck. 


William Bolt, George J. Riuer. John Estell, 
Fretman, William Farrell. John Feddell, William Gregory, 
Henry Hue, John .M. Latterlo, Joseph Rastatter. Algy 
I'-usli, Joseph Schweitzer. Henry Schoeffell. George St.irk. 'late. Jacob Walter. Henry Williams. 

C!alled into United States service by Brigadier- 
Ceneral Anderson, Seiiteniber 17 to Sejjteniber 
2S, 1862. 


Captain Jesse T. Hammon. 

First Lieutenant Jc'lm l-'.wald. 

Second I- red. \'on Seggcrn. 


hiist Sergeant Fred. Miller. 
Sergeant John Beck. 
.SeigeantKobeit Lechlider. 
Corporal .\dam Rush. 
Corporal George Hilett. 
Corporal I'hilip Ramer. 
Corjjoral Henry Shear. 


Jolin Base. Conrad B.isc. Conrad Bender. Conrad J, Ben- 
der, Joseph Busatb, John Uoetcnbier, Mike Dohl, Jacob 
Delman. Dan. ]ibcr!)ack, Thomas Enright, Charles Ertc. 
John I'.berback, Frank Fisher, George Fisher. Jacob Gehart. 
Jacob Greenvald. Tony Hafner. John Hardsman, Martin 
■ Hansemiller. Jacob Iniger. Mike Jacob, Henry Krusc, Mike 
Kruse, Baldwin Kraincr, .-\ndv Krcbs. Henry Kimpel, Frank 
Kerns. George Kossell. John I,effett, Charles Maun, .August 
Nold, Henry Ncwmire, Mike Pracht. Henry Polenian, 
George Steepler, lohn Shealer, John Struss. Charles Smith. 
Pnino Swender. Henry Werti, Andy Zimmerm.m. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September iSth to Septem- 
ber 2S, iS6i: 


Ca|)tain William Elwang. 
First Lieutenant P. Fmge. 
Second Lieutenant IL Canning. 


First Sergeant i'. Marker. 

Sergeant Pelter Peter. 

Sergeant C. Stege. 

Corporaljohn Hemple. ' 

Corporal G. Marker. 

Corporal Joseph Taufkireh. 


D. Benter, T. Bornschein, B. Bienser. !>. Eluchler. 

Dotneck. William Dummeyer, Derbacher. 

John Filer. ■ Eirch, Flcntchbach. Peter Fueks. 

E'eter (jrison. C. Gerringer. Henry Holtze. Carl Hubscher. 

Huber, Henry Heilman. P. Juts, J. F. Kosiol, L. 

Lapp, W. Landwehr, F. Lottig. J. Miller. J. Meier, A. 
Muckcbauer, J. Pance. M. Ries, John Sackstetter. Jacob 

Sackstetter. V. Stein. Frank Sch.iffer, J. Schaffer, 

Sclimitl, J. Schreck. Frederick Schopflin. Fred Scluvenk, 
John Trebing, W. Weber. 


Called into United States service by Brigadier- 
General Anderson, September i8 to September 
28, 1S61. 


First Lieutenant Charles Summers. 
Second Lieutenant E. D. Prewitt. 


Sergeant .Andy Krcut,'.er. 
Sergeant Charles -Speaker. 
Corporal Henry Kane. 



Corporal William R. Grable. 
Corporal William Shanks. 


Theodore Akin. Cii-orj.'fl Hreniei, S.mnul Clark. Jaines !, Ferdiiiaiil Compton, James CoiinL'll. William Cas- ! 
sell, Ck-mancc Emhoft', IV-n l-inocr, I'n-d I'roiiier, D.xniel 
Gr.ablo, Ocort;o Cr.d.jk-, ll.-nrV Slicb!o>, Williaur Stargs, I 
Beii]amiii Stuniblo, C«.i-c Tilicr, Cynis Grable, John | 
ilordting, John llcddinijer, Jami-s Hoi.kcismitli, James } 
Howell, -V Huyhcs.Jolm T. Heiisley. Marlin Jcylio, D.uid 
Johnson, rbili|i John I.ivinijood, Thomas McDanicI, 
George Milh^.m, M. I.. G. .McPhcr-on, 'I honms .McDer- 
mitt, William Murrell, IJuyd Rodrinn, Ih^nias Swaiiey, 
Philip .Suprodd, James K. Wans, John \\\i~, Henry Wolf, 
E. Wetterham. 


The best cffoils of the ronipi!i?r of this work 
have failed to supply its le.idcrs wirh a roster or 
detailed history of any of the Confederate com- 
mands raised in this city; bm by the kirdncss of 
Colonel John 1). Pope, of the .Vttoiiiey's bureau 
in the I,ouis\ille and Nashville lailway offices, 
we are favored wth the follnwiiig statement : 

Two companies, aveiaging one hundred and 
fourteen men each, wt-re reciuited in Louisville, 
at the corner of Fil'th and Jeflerson streets, at once 
upon the outbreak of the war, under command 
of Captains ISenjamin M. .Anderson and k'red 
Van Ostcn. On the 20th of Apiil, 1S61, they 
left by steamer from the foot of I'ourth stieet, 
with a Secession (lag llyin.i;, for New Orleans. At 
Owensboro a third company, commanded by 
Captain Jack Thompson, was embarked on the 
same vessel. From New Orleans the companies 
were ordered to Richmond, and were there organ- 
ized as the Third Kentucky Ikutalion, with An- 
derson as major. 

Only three days after the deiiarture of the tirst 
Louisville companies, Iwd more, aveiaging one 
hundred apiece, raised in the cit_\, under the au- 
spices of ]!lanton I luncan, andi one of whose com- 
manders were Cajit.'-in L.Tpaille, dcjiarted on the 
Louisville and Nasliville railroad, under orders 
for Lyncliburg, \'irginia. .At Nashville it was 
joined by a company from the southwest p.irt of 
Kentucky, headed b> Captain, afterward Colonel 
Edward Crossiand, and from Callaway 
county, led by Ca[jtain iirownson. I'rom Lynch- 
burg these companies were ordLred to Harper's 
Ferry, where they formed anuihct Kentiuky bat- 
talion, with i;ianton Hum an M.ijor. 

On the same day, April J3, I'iiji, and on the 

same train, went another Louisville company, 
commanded by Captain John D. Pope, and num- 
bering 1 14 men, and one from Scott county, mus- 
tering 122, and under Captain Desha, son of ex- 
Governor Deslia, of this State. They reached 
Harper's FVrry in due lime, and were organized 
as rifle companies, forming the Second battalion 
of Kentucky shaipshooters, uiider Pope, now 
promoted to major, and were assigned to the 
brigade of General Bartow, who was killed in the 
first battle of .Manassas. . 

An inde[ict;dent Confederate company was 
also raised in Louisville by Captain Fitzhugh- 
and upon its arrival in Virginia, and after the 
battle just named, the several majors of the 
Kentucky battalions petitioned the \\'ar Depart- 
ment at Richmond lor consolidation of their 
commands into a regiment. The request was 
granted, and the regiment formed accordingly, 
with all the Louisville companies aforesaid in it, 
and Richard H. Taylor, now chief of police in 
that city, as colonel, William Preston Johnson, 
lieutenant-colonel, and Edward Crossland, major, 
all the majors of battalions having mutually 
agreed to retiie from the contest for position as 
field-officers. The First Kentucky infantry regi- 
ment, in tlie Confederate army, was thus formed. 
The formei majors returned to the line as cap- 
tains. Colonel Taylor was presently breveted 
brigadier, and subsequently made full brigadier- 
general. The original enlistment of the men 
was for one year; and at the e.xpiration of that 
period they declined to re-enlist as a regiment. 
All, however, both officers and men, it is believed, 
entered other connnands in the Southern army, 
and served until released by sickness, wounds, 
or death, or by the close of the war. Colonel 
Pope's last service, before the end came, was in 
the Trans-Mississi[)pi department, under General 

THE M1LITI.\ OF lS8o. 

This record may appropriately be closed 
with some notice of the militia of Louisville and 
of the county at large, in which old soldiers of 
both armies in the late "unpleasantness" — men 
who wore llie blue, and those who wore the gray 
— cordially unite. It may reasonably be sup- 
posed, in view of the large number of ex-soldiers 



resident in Louisville, that the city would have a 
numerous and efficient militia; and this sujiposi- 
lion is found to answer to the farts. The time- 
honored and battle-scarred Louisville Legion is 
maintained, in name at least, to the number of 
six companies, and forms the First Iiattalion of 
infantry of the Kentucky State Guard. There is 
also a good compntiy of light artillery, with a fnli 
equipment of Runs and other materials of war. 

At the cncamiimcnt of the State Guad at 
Camp Blackburn, Crab Orchard, July 19 to 16, 
1880, C^ompany A, of the Legion, and also Com- 
pany F, v.erc each awarded the first prize of 
$100, offered by the State to the best drilled in- 
fantry company in the Guard. The second 
prize, .$50, was awarded to Company D. Com- 
pany E, of the Legion, received the prize of $50 
as the best-drilled cavalry company in the Guard. 
The Louisville battery received a $50 prize as 
the best-drilled section of artillery in the State. 
Company F, of the Legion, was also one of two 
companies receiving the State Guard flag, valued 
at $150, as the company best in discipline, sol- 
dierly conduct, and attendance, when compared 
with the total aggregate present. 

Adjutant and Inspector-General J. 1'. Nackols, 
in his Report for 1S80, includes the following 
account of an inspection of the Legion on the 
23d of February, of that year: 

The inspection was held on Broadway, between Tliird and 
Fourth streets, and was preceded by a review. . . The 
field and staff consisted of the major commanding, first 
heutcnant, acting adjutant; one assistant surgeon, one assist- 
ant quartermaster, rank first lieutenant; one sergeant-m.ajor. 
The tiattalion is composed of four companies — "A, B, C, 
and D" — and is armed with the breech-loading Springfield 
musket, calibre 50, model of 1S73. I found the pieces gen- 
erally in good condition; two ejector springs did not work 
well, and would not probably e.vtract the shell. The gun is 
an excellent model, but, like all other breech-loaders, has 
some delicate parts, and needs to be handled and treated 
with care. The pieces were presented with steadiness and 
accuracy. The accoutrements are of bl.ick patent leather, 
wiih white webbing cross-belts. Several cartridge-bo.^es 
were minus the wooden blocks. I regretted to sec this, as a 
cartridge-Lwj.v is not fit for use without this perforated block. 
The uniform of this battalion is of dark blue cloth, and con- 
trasts handsomely with the white belts and patent leather.- 
The first sergeants of all the companies are conspicuous for 
steadiness and accuracy in marching. The four companies 
of this battalion make a soldierly appearance, are well organ- 
ized and equipped, furnished with overcoats, knapsacks, 
h.iversacks, and canteens. Perhaps not ((uite enough atten- 
tion is paid to the arms by the men indiv idiially. .An armorer 
may be very well, but every s.'ldier sliould kiio.v the ex,act 
condition of his gun. and be held responsible for its perfect 
cleanliness. This battalion should bv all means h.ive an en- 

listed baud. A drum and fife corps, composed of two musi- 
cians fiom each company, instructed in its duties, would lie 
far preferable to hiiing an immense brass band for speriil 
occasions, at a hea\v cust, uninstructcd, and awkw.uil at 

Company of cadets, commanded by M.ajor J. M. Wiight, 
is composed of boys, apparently from thirteen to eighteen 
years old. It is an independent body, and is the outgrowth 
of that passion which boys and young men have for the pos- 
session of arms. It is well drilled, and under admirable 
discii)hne. They are furnished by the State with what is 
called the cadet needle-gun, which is of the model of 1866, 
is of delicate structure, and not valuable, excejrt for purposes 
of instiuction. The .accoutrements are of the old United 
States patterns, clumsy and unsightly. Notwithstanding, 
this company is fast coming to the front, and will at no dis- 
tant day picss the best companies of the Legion to the wall. 

Louisville Light Artillery. — Present one platoon, com- 
manded by Kirst Lieutenant Owen Stewart. The pieces are 
3-inch sti-el rifie, and showed on this occasion to good ad- 
vantage — the guns, carriages and caissons h.aving been 
recently painted. 'I'hc equipments are complete and well 
preserved. It is not to be e.vpected that with horses picked 
up for the occasion the platoon cguld well execute move- 
ments in the mounted drill ; but in all that pertains to the 
school of the battery or platoon dismounted it showed to ex- 
cellent advantage. The men are vvcU-uniformed, soldierlv in 
apjjcarance, and proficient in sabre exercise. 

During the year iSSo one nifantiy company, 
made up of boys under eighteen years of age, 
was organized and mustered into the Kentucky 
State Guard as comixtny F of the Louisville 
Legion, and the company of cavalry was organ- 
ized in the county at large, and mustered as 
company E, of the same battalion. The Legion 
then consisted of five companies of infantry and 
one company of cavalry, the former holding arms 
and equipments, the property of the State, as fol- 
low: Three hundred and twenty Springfield 
breech loading muskets, 320 sets of accoutre- 
ments, 200 overcoats, 200 blankets, 200 haver- 
sacks, 200 knapsacks, and 200 canteens, besides 
camp etjuipage. The cavalry had 26 sabres. 
The roster of the Legion, by the report of the 
adjutant-general of Kentucky for iSSo was as 
follow : 


Major John B. Castleman. 

Adjutant and First Lieutenant Kenneth McDonald. 

Quartermaster and First Lieutenant A. M. Cunningham. 

Assistant Surgeon B.J. Baldwin. 

("Chaplain, Bishop T. U. Dudley. 

Sergeant-Major Thomas J. Wood. 

tluarterm.ister Sergeant K. Weissinger. 



Captain George K. Speed. 



First Li'niH.n:int ). D. Wilson. 
Second I.iouicnant \'crnon Wolfe. 


SergraiU (.'. 1'. Grainier. 

Sergeant II. li.. Scntcjiej-. 

Sergeant ]. 1". Harljour. 

Sergeant lidward Ornisbv. 

Corporal D. J. Davis. 

Corporal W. W. Beeler. 

Corporal R. C. Judjje. 

rniv ATF';. 

R. T. Allen, C. S. Bilib, 1!. [, Baldwin, 
i;. I'. Batsfurd, W. C-. Chni'chill 
Uemhitz, F. S. Fir.nie, E. .-\. Knsc 
Halloway, J. B. Hutchn-.g. F. M. Hart«ell, II. McK.Jonos, 
A. H. Kent, J. I.eliman, D. B. Leight, W. 1,. I.ovnig, |. 1'. 
Monroe, C. R. Mengel, J. K. McGralh, W. G. Munii, ]. E, 
O'Xeil, II. II. I'mccll. K. G. Prir,-, W. M. Rul.mson, W. G, 
Read, W. V Ruy, J. B. .Smilli. S. W. Mirphcrd, Jr., C. W, 
Sisson, C. E. Swope, T. B. Sallerv.hite, Jr.. J. .A. Sni;e, G. 
A. Sykes, R. M. Slieppard. A. I.. Teriy, O. W. Thomas, Jr., 
W. F. Usiick. W Von Boriies, O. G.W elde, B. E. Woolblk, 
J. A. Warren, W. M. W.adcr. 


in, ). A. li.iisfcrd, 
E. Golston, 11. C. 
II. Fo^da.k. J. B. 

C0M.\nS.S10NEl> 01 I'lCEKS. 

Captain W. O. Harris. 

Fiist IJculenant B. A. Adams. 

Second Eieutenanl W. L. lackson. 


Sergeant W.J. Hunt. 

Sergeant E. \V. G. Humphrey. 

Sergeant James I'. Helm. 

Sergeant John Barrett. 

Corporal H. C. Snnth. 

Corporal J. S. Beeler. 

Corporal CJeorge Caspari. 

Corporal Grant Green. 

rKi\ .\TFS. 

C. W. Adam.s, W. ]. Allen, E. R. A;«ood. [, .S. P.,unett, 
W. McD. Burt, G. R. Barnes, ]. W. B.-ilstem. M. Belknap. 
Paul Booker, E. S. Brewster, J. P. I'.nrtcm. U. H. Cheney, 
H. F. Cassin, E. S. Coghill, U. .M. [>, H. 1). D.ivison, 
J. A. n.ivis, A. Ellison, Jr., James Eli^yd, J. A. Gray, 1). W. 
Gray. W. I'. Griffith, J. E. Harleti. .\ 1'. Hmnphrey, J. B. 
Hundley, E, W. Ilemnin.-, K, ( '. Isaacs, W. 1'. Jubson, S. 
R. Rnott.W. T. Knott, Wilh.inr Juhn .Marshall, S. 
McDowell, E. H. 0«mgs,S. B.irdan. G. K. I'e.iy, J. S. 
Peay, J. C. Russell, W. 1'. Seinple. A. E. Shoiwell, J. F. 
Speed, Jr., F. E. Tracey, !.. Von Borrio:,, J. N. Wallwork, 
J. H. Ward, II. W. Whrcler, M. 1'.. Wiv.-. D. .M Wood, 
H. M. Young. G. H. Zook. 



Captain J. H. Leathers. 

First Lii'Utenant I; I'. G. Weller. 

Second Lientenrnt .\. H. Jaikson. 

NOS-COM\IlsS|.).Nr.ll nUlTFRS. 

Sergeant E. A. God.l.ird. 
Sergeant W. J. G.irieti. 
Serjeant E. Marshall. 
Serjeant E. Miller. 
Corporal .\. V. Muoie 

Corporal J. F. Dobbin. 
Coiporal G. E. BIy. 
Corporal .\. W. I'.lsiang. 


■ J. M. Adams, Frank Baker, V.. Biyan, T. E Burnett, Jr., 
J. ii. Borntraeger. C. G. Ibinmann, W. R. Benedict, ]. C. 
Clemens. T. Carroll, W. Chambers. D. J. Crowley, R. M. 
Cunningham, E. I!. Doerr, A. J. Elwang, W. M lowlcr, 
William Francke, H. B. Fitch, J. T. Gaines. C. H. Hewitt. 
J. A. Ilolnian. C. W. Johnson, C. H. Perkins, K E. Jon.-,, 
E. B. Kirby, T. E. Kohlhass, C. H. King. A. G. Link, G. 
M. Eem.jn. B. K. Marshall. H. W. Middlclon, E. J. Moor- 
head. W. n.Ming, J. W. McDonald. Roy McDonald, J. G. 

I McGomb, E, H. Paine, H. R. Piiillips, C. E. Powell, C. E. 

j Riley. W. M. Raiblc. A. E. Semple, W. B. Sale, J. F. 

I Slults, Jacob .Smith, H. Scliinipcler. John Storls, Jr., A. 
Van\'leet, II. T. Warden. .\.J, Windstandley. 



I C.iptain Eugene Brown. 

I First Lieutenant Guy G. Sibley. 

.Second Lieutenant W. A. Hughes. 


.Sergeant J. M. Sohen. 

Sergeant L. F. Kaye. 

Sergeant J. T. Gamble. 

Corporal J. C. Hughes. 

Corporal Ci. L. Travis. 

Corporal H. C. Clement. 

Corporal T. Il, Mooie. 


]. M. Armstrong, .M. ¥. Barker. .A. Brandies, J. C. Burnett, 
Ben Clark, L. R. Courtenay, J. W. Davidson, F. C. Dickson, 
J. L. Gamble, R. C. Gr.iy. J. A. Ferguson. George Feller. 
J. P. Hunt, Green Hollow.ay, L. W. Homirc. T. C. Hobbs. 
W. II. Hyde, S. M. Huston, W. B. Kniskeen, W. E. Kaye. 
A. Kaye, W. B. Keslin, Jr., J. P. Kelley, E. S. Kornliorst. 
J. D. Langhorne. Robert Lewis. W. L. Lyons, T. W. Mul- ■ 
hkin, J. H. Murphy, J. M. Murphy, G. G. McCarthy, A. 
Mead, T. C. Stokes, T. P. Shepherd, Frank Semple, H. M. 
Samuel, L. D. Tucker, Burton Vance. J. R. Williamson. 
John Rothgurbcr, M. Rvan. W. B. Rowland, Alexander 
J.ackson, W. D. .MeCamiibell. 

co.Mi'AXV E (cavalry). 
Comi)any organization and muster-rolls not 


Commissioned officers, 3; non-conimissioned 
officers, 7; privates, 46; total, 56. 


Captain J. M. Wright. 

First Lieutenant J. Speed Smith. 

Second Lieutenant H. C. 


Sergeant W. O. Bailey. 

Sergeant J. M. Wintersnuth. 

Sergeant George W. Wcks. 

Sergeant Victor .\lcPherson. 

Sergeant M. V. Joyce. 

Corporal .\le\ander X. Griswold. 

Corporal E. S. Wright. 



T. r. Allen, J. G. Cookr, J V. Cottling, \V. IXivis, J. 
D.ividson, J. S. De.\n, S. ]. De.iii, V.. Kacher. W. F.clmiinds, 
K. ]■:. CiilbVit, Fulton Gordon, Charles C. Grant, H'jnry W. 
Gray. W. E. Glc;ison. Goozgc Griswold. C: 1.. H.imiUon, 

I. Hamilton, K. N. Harrison. O. Hoopc. K. (J, Knott. W. 
.M.ind.'villc, \\'. M.iycrs. .A. S., I). .McConih. 

II. McDon.ilU. E. T. Mengd. E. T. Nk-riwether; ]. \V. 
Mihkin, W. Miller, W. \V. Morris, H. Murnan. C. Nelson, 
C. .\. I'arsons. J. F. Rees. T. .M. Sel-.on, T. i^li-.-ik-y. G. \V. 
.Sniitli. D. Stuart, J. \V. Warder, Henry West. M. West, 
Wliliuni W'j.iver,,T. Wiriteisnnth, W. W. '^n\c mn-.m, II. 
.McGoodwin, W. W. Grinste^id. 

There was also in existence the Louisville 
Li<;ht Artillery, holding for the State four 3-iiich 
rifled cannon, and 50 each of sets cif accouter- 
ments, overcoats, blankets, knapsacks, haver- 
sacks, and canteens. Its roster was as follows: 



Captain E. II. Moi>e. 

First Lieutenant Stewart 0".\"ens. 

First Lieutenant T. S. Evans. 

no.n'-ccimmi.-,su)Ni;d oitickks. 
Sergeant \V. K. Evans. 
Ser.^eant G. S. Uotvnian. 
Serseanl C. B. Illy. 
Serjeant Oscar Davis. 
Sergeant J. H. Mansir. 
Sergeant J. M. Fiilts. 
Corporal V. S. Wright. 
Corporal T. R Helm. 
Corporal A. K. Mayers. 
Corporal W. A. Ehvell. 
Coii-'oial E. li. Codaker. 

FKTV.Vll S- 

N. \: .-Vvery, juliu-, Blatz. G. W. Clarke, W. 1'. Claike. 
.A. W. Caldweil, W. P. Dobson, D. Y. Fowler, .A. F. 
German. G. W. GnlTuh, C. F. Huhlein, J. Hollingswortli, 
J. Heffernan. J. O. Hadlo\, E. H. Hopkhis, J. D. Kirby, 
Viaden Miller, M. G. Munn, J. W. McCleery', .A. V. Old- 
ham, G. G. Kilmer, R. D. Skillman, D. F. Stephen', J. W. 
Stewart. ). ). Sweeney, Henry J. Sluby. L. B. Sniyser, H. 
C. Thornton, George V.. Tuck, ). H. Vaiiarsdale, J. B. Wat- 
kins, M. J. Weisen, W. F. Watson. 

<^^/ /At/' <y /L^-^/Zt /tc/vf /?^*.^*_^ 

r^Ai/ ^Z^^*- //u^^^^:^'i' 


The History of Louisville, 


The l.oiiisvillL' Pl;un--'rh.' Lnuisvillo Silo Doscribfd- Us 
I'riinitivc State— The SpiJid Trees— The Anrieiit Course 
of the Beargr.iss— Corn Island— lis Rem.irkable Hiitory— 
Sand, Rock, and Goose Islands— Willow Bar— The Old- 
time I'onds— Ueminiseences of Them — Their Exlinction— 
The Sand Hills— Dr. Drake's Remarks L'pon the Site of 


occupying hy the finest i.ilaiii in the north- 
ern and western parts of JefferL^on, county, is 
about twenty miles in length and si.x miles in 
breadth, lying immediately along the south shore 
of the Ohio river, witliout the intervention of 
hills and bluffs. The capability of the plain, by 
indefinite expansion of the city's site, to contain, 
if need bo, ten nrillions.ofpc<>i)le, is thus evident. 
Mr. James Parton, in liis article ''n the city of 
Cincinnati, published in tlie Atlantic .Monthly fur 
June, 1S67, asserts that the so-called Queen City 
occupies the only site on the C)hio river where 
one hundred thousand p^eople could live together 
witliout being compelled to climb very high and 
steep hills. ISut Mr. Parton, it is clear, had 
never visited Louisville, or chose to ignore his 
visit or the existence of the city. In no direr- 
tion, indeed, except to the northward, has. either 
Nature or political gerjgraphy interposed a prac- 
tical limit to the territorial growth of the chief 
city by the Falls ol" the Ohio. 

Much of the surface of the Louisville plain 
consists of a clayey scjil, of r.o great thickness. 
Underneath this is a substratimi of sand, of 
thirty to forty feet de|itli. The hydraulic lime- 
iti>ne and other rocks, with their characteristic 
lossils, within this plain and in the bed of the riv- 
er, have beep, sut'ticiently considered in our chap- 
ter upon the Topography and Geology of Jeffer- 

son county, .\ttention may just now be fitly 
called, however, as it has been called in other 
publications hitherto, to the suijerb' facilities 
which the concuri-ence here of sand, clay, and 
h)dr.iiilic limestone offers for the ready, chcai), 
and abundant manufacture of brick and ce- 
ment; while tlie magncsian limestone, which also 
abounds in this region, is justly well reputed as a 
workable and durable building stone. The char- 
acteristic element of these rocks, too, adds im- 
measurably to the fertility of the arable lands up- 
on the plain. 

thi; i.ciiTS\ii,LE ;-ite. 
The [lart of this noble plateau ciccnpied by the 
cit\' of Louisville, in this year of grace iSS,?, 
is about five and three fourths miles in length, 
from that part of the modern bed of the 
pL-argiass which lies close upon the east cor- 
poral ion lines, to the river bend at West l,ouisville; 
and three miles in greatest breadth, from the river- 
bank to the south side of the House of Refuge 
grounds. (It is just -.73 miles, according to City 
Engineer Scowden, from the river to the House 
of refuge.) The citv occupies, in round numbci's, 
fourteen sijuare miles. Its elevations and depres- 
sions are now very slight — much rnore so than 
in the early day, as we shall presently explain. 
The genei-al level of the site is only from forty- 
five to fifty-five feet above low water at the head 
of the Palis, and seventy to seventy-five feet 
above low water at Portland; but this is quite 
enough, as the recent flood (of Febnrary. 1SS2) 
has demonstrateil, to assure the whole city, ex- 
cept a narrow breadth of buildings along the 
river, from damage by the highest floods in the 
Ohio kncjwn to recorded histciry. The site may 
be said to be. on an average, five hundred feet 
above the level of the sea, with the hills or knobs 



'HE t)IIR> lAl.l.S COUXIIK.S. 

in the vicinity avciaging.i licight of two hundred j 
feet more. j 

The geoloi;ical character of ihc Louisville site 
does not differ greatly from that of the hyj^cv 
plain upon which it is situated. It is a dilu\ial 
formation of surface clay, sand, and gravel, rest- 
ing upon the limestone of the Silurian basi?i and 
the Devonian formation also\c. 'ITiis ca-iily siu;- 
gesls to the scientist that here is the bed of a 
very ancient and somcviiai cxtcn.-ive river lake : 
or estuary. 'I'lie beds of cl.iy and ;.;ra\el heie j 
vary from twenty-fjve to sevtnly five feet in 
depth. ' [ 

n.s PRlMinVF, ST.MK. ■ I 

When the g.dlanl Captain 'riicmias Ilutchins, 
erstwhile of His Britannic Majesty's Sixtieth reL,'i- 
nicnt of Royal Foot, and by and by to be first 
and only "Geographer of the United Stales," | 
made the earliest chart of the I'alls and vicinity in | 
1766, and likewise when Claik came with his | 
band of colonists a do/tn years latei. the view 
which met their eyes on the Kentucky shore was ' 
one which the rise of a l;i eat city, and e\en the I 
change of nature's arrangement oi laud and 
water here, make difficult indeed to realize. The ' 
map of Hutchins's shows no human habitation or 1 
clearing about the Falls; for such there were 
none. All except the space occujiied by greater 
or smaller sheets of water was dense woods, as 
his map indicates. Here grew the oak in sev- 
eral interesting varieties, the walnut and the 
hickory, the mighty poplar and the s_\camore or 
buttonwood, the maple, wild cherry, hackberry, j 
locust, buckeye, gum, and, in brief, alniust if not . 
quite every forest tree known to the deep woods 
of Kentucky. Colonel Durreti, ni the Centen- 
nial Address already cited, enumerates the tol- 
lowing veterans of the fiirest iiiiaie\al that have 
survived the destroyer Time and the greater 
destroyer Man: "An oak in the backvard of Mr. 
liottsford, on Chestnut street, an.jther in that of 
Mr. Lindenberger, on h'oiirlh, and a honey 
locust in front of the residence of Mr. P.rannin, 
on Broadway, have come down to us from the 
olden times. In the yard of .Mr. L'aperton, the 
old Guthrie residence on Walnut >trcet, there is 
the branchless trunk of a noble beech which died 
a few years ago, which stood there when Louis- 
ville was first settled; and in Ctiural I'ark arc a 
few hoary sentinels which have watched over us 
for a century." 1 

1!EARCR.\SS CRl'.KK.. 

. Some of the noblest of tlie forest monarrhs 
stood U|ii)n the Icmg ton.:;ue of land or [leninsula 
between the former course of the Reargrass and 
the Ohio. 'I'here is some reason, which' the ex- 
cavations made for the ship canii.l ha\e tended 
to confuin, lo believe tluU a slill ni.jre ancieril 
bed of this creek carried its waters yet further 
down, ]>erh;)ps to disembogue them into the 
river at some point below the h'alls. But it is 
within the memory r.f many now living that the 
stream, after joining its several headwaters near 
the present city limit, llowed thence in a w'esterly 
course, in a channel still to be recognized in 
places, one to two miles farther, gradually ap- 
jiroaching the river until it entered the Ohio 
about half a block below tlie piesent foot of 
Third street.^' So lately as 1S.J4 it was necessaiy 
to reach the river from any of the streets east v( 
that by bridges across the Beargrass, which were 
thrown over at Clay, I'reston, Brook, Second, 
and Third streets. The point made by the 
creek and the river formed orie of the best 
landmgs on the city front. The Cincinnati 
mail-boats then, and for man\- years before, as 
now indeed, made that their point of arrival and 
departure; but they had to be reached by the 
Third-street or other bridge. Finally, the incon- 
venience and loss caused by this large occupation 
of valuable territory by the Beargrass became so 
pronounced that the diversion of its current was 
virtually compelled. This was easily accom- 
lilished by means of an embankment of less than 
half a mile, sending its waters by a short and 
straight channel into the river almost exactly at 
the northeastern corner of the city. 

In the earlier days the mouth of Beargrass, so 
near the head of the Falls, offered a spacious, 
safe, and convenient harbor for the |irimiti\e 
craft that came down the river. It figures fre- 
quently in the narratives of the olden time, and 
this locality seems at tirst to have been known 
indifferently as " the l''alls ot the Ohio " and 
■'the mouth of Beargrass." It is not improbable 
that the situation of the former mouth of this 
otherwise insignificant stream was an inqxjrtant 
element in determining the original settlement 
and the rise of a town at this point. 

•.s^cc':, line M ,p of Loul^^ 

Citv tJia-clory of lay:. 

nppcndicl to tfn.' 




A little below the old mouth of Heargiass, not 
i.u from the tool of I*"ourth street, hc^an ;iii- 
,)tlKT of the f;iinou5 physical features of this lo 
calitv, whii:h has now disapiiearetl, except at low 
water, when the slumps of the line tiees that 
once covered it can still be seen. This was the 
historic Corn Island, vf whirh soinethinc; will be 
said hereafter. It by in a long and narrow 
tract, pretty close to the short, iVluii a liiilc be- 
low. Fourth street to a p :)int about op'posite to 
the foot of Thirteenth. Accordin;^ to the scale 
of Hutchins's map, which shows the island, it 
was about four-fifths of a mile long by five 
hundred yards in its greatest breadth. Besides 
heavy timber, it had a dense undergrowth of 
cane, which the Clark colonists were obliged to 
clear away for their cabins and their first coin- 
crop. This done, however, they had access to 
a rich, productive soil, which soon yielded 
abundant returns I'or their labor. 

Mr. Hugh Hays, m an interesting letter to the 
C!ouricr-Journal a few months ago concerning 
Corn Island, gives the following a^ from the 
mouth of Sandy Stewart, the well known '-island 
ferryman" of three-quarters of a century ago: 

Without .iny iiuerruption from Iivdi.ins we landed on 
this island June 8. 1775. The scenery at this time "ueau- 
lifiil, and sucli as the eve of civili/ed man scarcely ever gazed 
upon. Here the broad and beautiful Ohio, sweepinLj on 
down her peaceful shores in silent ^ar.deur and flowing on 
for hundreds of .miles to mingle her waters \\ ith old ocean. 
The odors of the wild flowers— the hawthorn, the honey- 
suckle, the jessamine, the rose, and lily; the green forest, 
where the axe was a str.tngcr, in all its native beauty, filled 
up the background. The feathered trilje, from the eagle to 
the linnet, the se.i-gull and the crane, sweeijing over the 
Kails, turnini; up their snowy wmgs glittering in the sunlight; 
the buffalo, the bear, the deer lying under tlie trees m warm 
weather, perfectly serene, as they were strangers to the sound 
of the rifle and so imacnuamted with man that their tanieness 
astonished me. 't'his spot in the wilderness seemed a very 
Kden; and as I had no E\e to be tempted by the serpent, I 
re.solved to take up my rest here, and never from this isle de- 
part. Here will I be buried. 

According to Mr. Hays, who visited the island 
in 1832 to attend a camp-meeting, it then com- 
prised but about seventy acres, which were still 
heavily timbered. Of the sin.ill stream of water 
(yet apparently larger than the Beargrass), which 
Hutchins exhibits as coursing through the middle 
of the island, he says nothing; nor are we aware 
that anybody has ever recorded recollections of 
what appears upon the Captain's map to be a 
knoll or hill at the extreme southwestern end. 

Mr. Hays writes that in 1824 a powder-mill was 
pmt up on the and blown up six years later, 
killing several empiloyees; that about this time it 
became celebrated for " its barbecues, picnics, 
bran-dances, camp-meetings, fishparties, etc.," in 
which many of the first peo[)le in the town iiattic- 
iliated; and that about 1^40 the heavy timber 
v>as cut, and then the island began to lose its 
surface soil and gradually disapiieared. Corn 
island is now but a fnnous name in history. It 
was owned by the Hon. John, whose 
heirs, grimly remarks the venerable Hays, still 
own its rocky bottom. 

. The following notice is given to Corn Island 
in the Louisville Directory for 1S44-45: 

This small, at the falls, is rendered interesting only 
from the fact of its havmg served as a dcriiicr icsorl for the 
early settlers, when too holly pursued by the Indians. At 
the present day it is the general resort of old and young who 
are fond of angling. The first rudiments of the very intri- 
cate science of worming a hook or pulling up at a nibble arc 
here learned. The island is covered with trees and sur- 
rc>unded by (juarries of limestone, which are not now used. 


Sand, Rock, and Goose islands were in the 
stieam then and fur untold ages before, substan- 
tially no doubt the same as now. But theie is 
at present one remarkable feature on the river 
front that. was not then, and is indeed the growth 
of quite recent years — the now familiar Willow- 
Bar, sometimes called Towhead Island, at the 
upper end of the city. It is a long, narrow- 
tract, completely covered at high w-ater, but at 
other times to be observed as stretciiing from 
just below the mouth of Beargrass to just below 
Campbell street. It has pretty nearly the dimen- 
sions of the older Corn Island, being three- 
fourths of a mile long by five hundred feet in 
largest width. Although one of its characteristic 
growths gives the island its name, it is chiefly 
covered with cottonwood trees, some of them 
nearly three feet through. Colonel Durrett gives 
the following account of its genesis: 

The growth on this island clearly indic.ites how it rose 
from tiie water, and which are its oldest and newest parts. 
On its edges wliere there is aUvays water nothing biu willows : and this was the growth observed by our oldest in- 
habitants u hen the i=l.ind first began to appear above the 
water. Willows first appeared on a sand-bar, and when once 
established they caught the sediment suspended in the waters 
made mud<ly by floods, and rapidly built up the island. .So 
soon as the soil ro^e high enough to be part of the year 
above water the cottonwood began to grow. Anrl now that 
the soil is almost above overflow other trees are bcgmning to 
grow : such as sycamore, hackberry, and ash. I'he sedi- 



ment now luing caiiglil fruiii tlic UooJb hy the dense giowth 
oa this island must soon rai.^o it cniiiely altove overrtow, 
and tlicn a still grentcr variety of trees will no donbt soon 
spring up. 

THK fil.n-lIMK I'l'VnS. 
No fact of the early time, ])rob.ibly, is more 
familiar th.ia tlic ahimdame of small lakes or 
ponds upon the primitive site of I,oitis\ille, and 
indeed u['Oii tlie entire lA>iiis\ille plain, from 
Beargrass to the Salt river, of which the "Pond 
Settlement" is still a reminiscence. A lenv of the 
old ponds are also still to be seen beyond IJroad- 
. way, in the south part of the city. Ikit in the 
old days they were found, larger and more nu- 
merously, much nearer the river, and all alons; 
the town-site. The upper or " second bank '' of 
the river had a slight slope to the southward ; 
and the soil being sufficiently tenacious to pre- 
vent the water from escaping, it made much of 
the ground swampy, and in some places col- 
lected more largely in ponds. One of them was 
very well called the "Long Pond," since it 
stretched from the point where now are the cor- 
ners of Si.xth and Market stieets to the Hope 
Distillery site, about Sixteenth street- a distance 
of nearly a mile. For many \ears after it was 
drained, traces of it were still to be seen, as in 
an alley running from Se\enth street, between 
Market and Jefferson. Mr. Casseday's History 
has some pleasant reminiscences of it: 

In the winter, when it was fru/tn over, this little l.ike was 
the scene of many a merry party. On the moonlight even- 
ings, numbers of ladies and gentlemen were to be seen skim- 
ming over its surface, the gentlemen on skates and the ladies 
in chairs, the backs of wliich were laid upon the ice and the 
chairs fastened by ropes to the waists of the skaters. .And 
thus they dashed aiong at fuiious speed over the glassy sur- 
face : beaux and belles, with loud voices and ringing laugh — 
and the merriment of the occasion was only increased vvhen 
some dashing fellow, in his endeavors to surpass m agility 
and daring all his compeers, fell prostrate to the ice, or V)r«.tke 
through into the water beneath. 

Gwathmey's or Grayson's [lond was the one 
upon which the old Grayson mansion, still stand- 
ing near St. Paul's church, looked down frorn its 
eminence on the bank. It reached in a rather 
long ellipse from Center street, just back of the 
First Presbyterian church, along Green and 
Grayson to a point near F^ighth street. The 
water of this pond was supplied by springs, and, 
being always clear and pure, it was much used 
for baptisms by immersion, for whose sjjcctators 
the turf-covered, sloping banks offered sui)erior 
facilities. It was also excellentlv stocked with 

fish, which were carefully guarded by its owners. 
It was surrounded by some of the lofliesi, linest 
trees u[ion the Louisville site. 

. The writer of a brief history of l.onisville, in 
the City Directory for 18.^4-45, has the follow- 
ing entertaining paragraiihs concerning this and 
another pond: 

There arc some amusing reminisccnes of Grayson's Pond. 
We have it from a citizen who well remembers the outlines of 
this pond. Great numbers of tortoises or small tmtles were 
found about this pond. Thither also came to enjoy its 
luxuries large flocks of geese and ducks. The battles between, 
ll ese difien-nt tribes are described as lieing very amusing. 
1 he tmtle would take to the water and scull along very 
silently, and settling beneath the surface, await the apprcich 
of the duck; at a sudden he would seize the duck by his feet 
and draw him under water. The struggle generally resulted 
in favor of the feathered combat.ant, who, on i;cgaining the 
surface, would set up such shouts as to collect the whole 
flock nroutid him in a grand congratulatory quacking con- 

This jiond, well sindcti by the native forest-trees, became 
a favorite resort of many, to w!i!lea«ay [he hours of a sultry 
day on its banks. It \^as alwav s clear, and had a sufficient 
depth of water, the dryest season, to swim a horse in. 

Another pond at this period (1800), and a very disagree- 
able one, was to be met with at the intersection of Third and 
M.arket streets, extending along Third street to nearly op- 
I'Osile the site of the present post-office [Green street]. A 
tannerv on Third street, vvkiich discharged its waste water 
into this pond, rendered it at times nearly, except 
by mounting a rail-fence, which enclosed the lot where the 
White mansion now stands. The wagons from the country 
often st.alled at this point. 

Still another was on Market street, from Third 
to I'ifth; another on Jefferson, near Fourth; and 
many others were scattered far and near over the 
watery tract. Indeed, Mr. Casseday, writing in 
1S52, says: "A map of the city as it was sixty 
or even thirty years ago, would present somewhat 
the appearance of an archipelago, a sea full of 
little islands.'' 

Son.e of the ponds, as part of those last named, 
had only water in them after rain, perhaps only 
after heavy rain; and the consequence was that 
they were usually in various stages of stagnation 
or dryness. They abounded in ironweed and 
other characteris.tic vegetation. A \ast amount 
of malaria and miasm was engendered by them ; 
fever and ague, with more deadly ills, and finally 
a more terrible pestilence in iSj;;-23, made life 
a burden in Louisville a large part of the year; 
and it eaily came to bear the name of "the 
Clraveyard of the Ohio.'' So great was the 
afiliction resulting from them that in 1S05 the 
General Assembly gave formal authority to the 
trustees of the town to remove "those nuisances 



in such iiKinncr as the uiajonty ol tln-'in should 
prescribe." The legal authority was ample and 
the si)irit of the citizens was williiii;; but the 
public purse was weak, and it was long before 
the "nuisances" weie abated. After the stran,2;e 
epidemic of later )ears the Legislature, .at the 
urgency of the local lioard of Health, sanctioned 
the raising of the sum of $40,000 by lotteries for 
draining the Louisville ponds and those between 
iheni and the Salt river. i he work was mostly 
done on the town site, but those below town had 
to wait for more recent appropriations, which 
finally shut up most of their holes of death. 

In the filling of tlie [jonds certain modeiate- 
eminences, here and tliere about town, came 
excellently well into play. They weie of clean, 
white sand, than which no better material, prob- 
ably, could be foimd for making tills in the 
basins of stagnant or other ponds. IJy their use 
a double purpose was subserved, in the reducing 
of useless knolls and the tilling of harmful hol- 


The famous Dr. Daniel Drake, for a time a 
resident of this city, in his prt-at treatise on. the 
Piincipal Diseases of the Interior \'al!ty of 
North America, pu!)li^hed in 1S50, thus deals 
with the location of Louisville : 

The site of the city itself was swampy, with slullow i>oiids. 
and although more than seventy years have elapsed since the 
commencement of settlement, specimens of both may be 
seen within two miles to the south and west of the city qua\'. 
for tlie draining of which a trench, has keen dug. Even the 
streets of the southern suburbs show a soil retentive of moist- 
ure and disposed to swampiness, while the is so level 
as to lender all draining diftcuU. To the southeast of the 
city the creek called Beargrass descends fiom the highest 
lands, and being joined by st.reams which originate tin the 
plain, flows to the north along the base of the low hills, until 
it reaches the new bottom, when it turns to the west and, 
like a narrow canal, makes its .\ay for a mile nearly parallel 
to the river, which it finally joins at the middle of a northern 
margin of the city. The water in the eastnary of this creek 
is generally foul and stagnant ; and the slip of bottom be- 
tween It and the river is sometimes overflowed. A (.juarter 
of a mile from the mouth of Beargrass, opposite the lower 
part of the city, is the head of the LouisMlle ,i: Portland 
Canal, which, after running two miles, enters the Ohio be- 
low the Falls. The bed of the canal is in solid rocks, the 
removal of which has given it high and strong banks ; but 
on each side, and especially between it and the river, after 
the first mile froni its head, the bottom is so low as to be 
subject to anuual inundation. On this bottom, immediately 
alio\e the junction of the w ith the river, strmds the old, 
dvclining village of Shippiiigport. lielow the junction, on a 
h.uik so high that even its most depressed portioni are in- 
undaterl by the gieatest floods, is the newer and more grow- 

ing town of I'oilland, in the irar of which, to the .south, 
thrre are many sni.iU ponds and swanijis, situated on the 
upper tcirace. 

The city has since, under the guidance of in- 
telligent and efficient lioards of Health, liravcly 
reformed nearly every clement of bad j.anitation 
prtjvided by the |iliy.-.ieal geography of tlie site ; 
and it now, as we shall fully show in a subse- 
quent chapter, enjoys pel haps the lowest' death- 
rate of any city of more than one hundred thou- 
sand inhabitants in the woild. 


1773 — The P.eginniiigs -Gene.Jogy of llu- Ilulliit Family 
--Captain Thomas Bullitt — The Surveying I'aily— Han- 
cock Taylor— Bullitt at Old Chillicothe — The A'oyage— 
The Survey— Did Captain Bullitt Lay ofi' a Town?— So- 
dowsky, or Sandusky — Connolly's Grant — Connolly — The 
W'arrenstaff (Warrcndorff ) l'atent--Coloncl John Camp- 
bell. 1774 — Boone and Stoner at the Falls. 177,5 — More 
Surveys and Locations — The Hitcs and Others in this Re- 
gion. 1776-77 — Gibson and Linn's \'oy,age to Xi'w Or- 
leans — The First Cargo from New Orleans to Pittsburg. 
1778 — The Beginnings of Settlement — Sketch of George 
Rogers Clark — His Campaign in the lllinois--Thc Fam- 
ilies with Clark — The Roll of the Pioneers— The Hites and 
Johnston — Military P.reparations — I>eparture of Clark's 
Expedition. The Settlers in 1779 — The Xew Immigration 
— The Old Survey and Map — The Popes — Colonel Bow- 
man's E.xpedition — The First Birth in Louisville- The 
Boones at the Falls— -\n -Amusing Story— 1~he Cold 

'I'he history of Louisville, not as a I'lamc, but 
as a place for the residence of civilized and 
white man, begins nearly eleven decades ago, or 
with the year of our Lord 1773. We find no 
evidence that a village, or a village site, to be 
known by the royal name of the "City of Louis," 
was laid off or recognized at the Falls of the 
Ohio prior to the act of the Virginia Legislature, 
passed in May, 1780, which, as we shall pres- 
ently see more fully, expressly and in terms "es- 
tablished a town by the name of Louisville." 
But the fact of a previous survey at the Falls, 
and of a subdivision of some kind into village 
lots, may be regarded as equally well ascer- 

THK HULI.HT I-.\.\in,V. 

The family of liuilitt is associated with the 
earliest settlement of Louisville and Jefferson 



coiintj', and has hccii continuously represented 
there from that time to the jiresent. 

'I'his rircuuistance, taken in connection with 
the fact that (Ja|)taiii '{'hunias Uulhlt led the first 
party who made an altcm|)t at exploration around 
the Falls of the Ohio, will excuse .i sketch of the 
faiiiily rathei more extended than tlie scope of 
tliis work generally permits. 

The facts relating to the oiigin and ancestry 
of the family are obtained from a sketch pre- 
pared by Colonel Alexander Scott liullitt, which 
is without date, but was found among his papers 
at his death in the year iSi6. 

The first known ancestor of the family of T.ul-- 
litt was Benjamin lluUett (so spelled at that 
time), a French Huguenot, who resided in the 
province of I,anguedoc, and who, at the age of 
twenty-five, left France to escape the persecu- 
tions which followed the revocation of the I'^dict 
of Nantes. He landed in Maryland in the latter 
part of the year 16S5, and purchased lands near 
Port Tobacco, Charles county. He died in the 
year 1702, leaving one child, a son, Ileiijamin 
Bullitt, then but two years of age. He resided 
in ^L^ryland with his mother until he became of 
age, when, having sold his patrimony, he pur- 
chased lands and settled in Fauquier county, 
Virginia, where, in 17.' 7, he maiiied Elizabeth 
Harrison, of that county. By her he had five 
children — Joseph, Elizabeth, Thomas, Benja- 
min, and Cuthbert. Joseph died a bachelor. 
Benjamin was killed in an engagement with the 
Indians shortly at'ter Braddock's defeat. Eliza- 
beth mariied a Mr. Combs, and left a numerous 

Thomas Bullitt, the survivor wlio visited the 
Falls of the Ohio in 1773, was born in 1730, and 
died at his home in Fauquier county, Virginia, 
in February, i 77S, at the a^e of forty-eight years. 
He was never married, and left his estate to his 
brother Cuthbert. 

Cuthbert Bullitt (second in descent from the 
original ancestor) uas born in 17. to, and was 
bred to the law. In the year 1760 he married 
Helen Scott, of a wealthy fannly, in I'rince Wil- 
liam county, to which he removed, and in which 
he resided until his death. He pursued the 
practice of law with considerable success until he 
was appointed a judge ot the supreme court of 
Virginia, in which olhce he died in the year 
1790. He left si.v children. I'he only son, who 

I settled in Kentucky, was .Mexander Scott Bullitt. 
I He (third in descent from the original ances- 
tor) was born in the year 1761 or 1762. J-lc 
came to Kentucky in 17S3 and settled first 
i on Bull Skin, in Shelby county, Diit behev- 
! ing that he was too far remo\ed from the l''alls 
[ of the Ohio, he purchased the farm "Oxmoor," 
j in Jefferson county, rbout eight and one-half 
j miles fioin Louisville, on the Shelbyville turn- 
pike, where he lived until death, on April 13, 
1S16. He mariied Briscilla Christian in the fall 
of 17S5. She was the daughter of Colonel ^Vil- 
liam Christian, who settled in Kentucky in the 
spring of 1785 and was killed in an engagement 
with the Indians April 9, 17S6, at Ihe age of 
forty-three years. Her mother was .-\hnie Henry, 
a sister of Patrick Henry. 'I'hey left two sons, 
Cuthbert and William Christian Bullitt, and two 
daughters, Helen and Annie. These are now 
all deceased, and with the exception of Helen 
(who was Mrs. Key at the time of her death) 
have left desc eiidants, a number of whom still 
live in Louisville and Jefferson coi'.nt)-. 

The distinguished merchants, Cuthbert and 
'J'homas Bullitt, who settled at an early day in 
Louisville, and who owned a large survey of 
about a thousand acres, runinng hack from 
Broadway and embracing what is now the most 
fashionable residence part of tlie city, were de- 
scendants of Benjamin Bullitt and nepihews by 
the half-blood of Cuthbert Bullitt. 


The principal name associated with the first 
movements in this locality looking to the perma- 
nent settlement of the whites is that of Captain 
Thomas Bullitt, of this family, as is recited 
above. He was a gallant soldier of the French 
and Indian wats, who had particularly distin- 
guished himself in the expedition against Fort 
Du Quesne. He was a company commander in 
Colonel George Washington's own regiment, 
and fought with it on the fateful field of Brad- 
dock's defeat, and in several other engagements. 
He was, says Collins, a man of great energy 
and enterprise, as he showed on several import- 
ant occasions. He was an uncle of Colonel 
Alexander Scott Bullitt, a delegate to the con- 
vention which framed the constitution of Ken- 
tucky, President of the Senate and of the second 
Constitutional convention, and first Lieutenant- 



Governor of the Stale, mid long a resident of 
Jcffersoii county, and fioin whom the adjacent 
county of Bullitt is named. Colonel ]iullitt"s 
descendants are still among the most prominent 
resident; of the- city wliose distinguished fore- 
runner he was. . The Ca|)tain is mentioned in 
the writings of General Washington, who knew 
him well, as a skilled and judicious suive^or, en- 
tirely to he tiusted for his fitness foi the ta.-,k now 
before him. 

The following extract from the paper of Col- 
onel Alexander S. Bullitt above mentioned (and 
now for the first time published), gives a general 
view of the life and character of Captain Bullitt : 

Thomas Bullitt was bom in 1730. He cnlered early into 
the atmy. and was appoinled a captain in the first \'irt;ini.i 
regiment that was niised at the commencement of the Frcncli 
war and commanded by General Washington, at that time a 
colonel. He commanded in person a skirniiih at the Laurel 
Hill, but was defeated after an obstinate contest. He was 
present at the head of his coiuj^any at the battles of the 
Meadows, Rraddock's defeat, and Grant's defeat, and at all 
times supported the reputation of a brave officer; t'Ut a dif- 
ference, which took place between him and General Wash- 
ington, at that time Colonel Washington, not only retarded 
his promotion in that war, but was of infinite disadvantage to 
him all the remaining part of his life. 

The accident which gave to tlie difference was as fol- 
lows: Two detachments from Colonel \\'ashington's regi- 
ment, one commanded by himself, were out upon the 
frontiers cndetivoring to surprise a detachment of French 
troops from Fort Du Quesne, now Fort Pitt. Hut instead of 
falling in with the French, they met themselves, and the dav 
being remarkably dark and foggy, each party mistook the 
other for the enemy, and a very warm fire was immediately 
commenced on Ijoth sides. Bullitt was one of the \'it>1 who 
discovered the mistake, and. running in between the two 
parties waving his hat and calling to them, put a stop to the 
tiring. It was thought and said by several of the ofilccrs, 
and among others by Captain I'.ullitt, that Colonel \S'ashing- 
ton did not discover his usual .activity and presence of mind 
upon this occasion. This censure thrown by Captain Bul- 
litt upon his superior officer, gave rise to a resentment in the 
mind of General Washington which never subsided. 

At the close of the French the Virginia troops were 
all disbanded, but Captain Bullitt was still retained in serxice 
upon half-pay, and appointed adjutant-general to the militia 
of the State of Virginia, in which office he continued until 
the commencement of the Revolution, when, the L'nited 
States being divided by Congress into districts. Captain 
Bullitt was appointed adjutant-general of the southern dis- 
trict with the rank and p.ay of a colonel. His first son-ices 
after this appointment were in the lower parts of Virginia. 
Lord Dunmore taken possession of a post called the 
Great Bridge, which lay at some miles distance from Norfolk 
and was a pass of great consetiuence, being the only wav by 
which the town could be approached from that port of the 
country occupied by the American troops. .Miout two 
thou--and men under the command of Colonel Woodford (.as- 
sisted by Colonel BuUittl were detached to dispossess them. 
Manlnng down, therefore, to the opposite side of the bridge. 

Woodford's detachment began to fortify themselves also, with 
nothing but tlie bridge and causeway over the Liismal .Swanip 
between them and the enemy. Dunmore det'.rmined to dis- 
lodfje them from this post, and accordingly, on the morning 
of tlic 9lh of December, 1775, dispatched Captain Fordice 
upon that service, at the head of about eight hundred men, 
consisting chiefly of refugees, tories, and negroes, and Cap- 
lain I-'ordice's company of gren.adiers. Colonel Woodford, 
who thought it impossible that Dunmore would attemp't to 
foice his lines with such infeiior force, and who expected 
nolhing less than an attack, was absent from the hnes and 
-did not get up until the action was over. 

Colonel Bullitt took command of the intrenchment. The 
refugees, tories, and negroes fell into confusion and retreated 
at the first fire. Tlie gallant Fordice at the head of his 
grenadiers, amounting to about sixty, though deserted by 
the rest of the detachment, still continued to advance boldly 
across the causeway with fixed bayonets to within fifteen feet 
of tiic breastworks, where he fell pierced w-iih seventeen balls. 
The rest of his men were either all killed or taken. Dunmore 
found it necessary to leave the Slate of Virginia shortlv after 
this action, and Colonel Bullitt was det.ached to South 
Carolina, where he served the campaign of 1776 as adjutant- 
general to the army commanded by General Lee. This was 
his last campaign. 

F'or, returning northward to join General Wasliington's 
army, but not meeting w ith the reception or promotion from 
his Excellency to which he thought himself entitled fioni his 
long service, he resigned his commission and retired to his 
house in F'auquier, wlicre lie died February, 1778, at the age 
of forty-eight years, leaving his estate, which he had rather 
impaired than bettered, to Cuthbert Bullitt, the only one of 
his brothers that married. 


In the sining of 1773 Ca[)tain liullitt was 
commissioned by Lord Dumriore, Governor of 
Virginia, to proceed to the Ohio and make in its 
vicinity surveys for the location of several land 
warrants granted by the Government, in pursu- 
ance of the law assigning bounty lands, to be lo- 
cated or; the Western waters, to the soldiers of 
Virginia in the French and Indian war. Another 
authority in the shape of a special warrant or 
cominission had been given him by the venera- 
ble college of William and Mary, at Williams- 
burg. A copy of this remarkable document is 
here api)ended, for the first time in print, by the 
courtesy of Colonel Thomas W. Bullitt, of Louis- 
ville, possessor of the original: 

Whkrt.AS, Thomas Bullitt hath produced unto us. the 
President and Masters of the College of William and Mary 
in Virginia, two bonds, one bearing date the nth day of 
March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-nine, and the 
other the 13th day of May. one thousand seven hundred and 
sixty-nine, and certain other papers by which it appears that 
the 5.iid Thomas Bullitt was appointed surveyor of a certain 
part of or a cert.un district in the colony of Virginia afore- 
said; and 

Where.^s, The commission for the said surveyorship, 
granted bv the s.iid President and Masters to the said 


HIS')"ORY OF ']'HE OHIO FALLS COI^XIIFS. Bullilt. was, as v:c are informed, imfortiirately Ijuined, 
we do horeljy ctTtify that it appears to us as well from tlie 
college book of the transactions of the said I'resident and 
M.asteVs as from the testimony of I-!nianuel Jones, Hat;helor 
of Arts, and one of the s.aid Masters, that the said part or 
(lislriel of the Colony of Virginia aforesaitl is situated lying 
and being on the river Ohio. In witness whereof we have 
cansed tlie seal of said college to he nflixed tins' 28th day of 
OolotKrr, icrthf year of our Lord 1772. 

, — ' — .* lulls' (',\!:S'AN, I'T. 

L. S, 

Emmantki. Jones. 

• V ' S.\MUK.I, Nr.WMV. 

[1 certify that' the foregoing is a true copy of a puper found 
by me among the papers of mygiandfathor, .Alexander Scott 
'Hullitt, transmitted to me by niv father, William C. Bullitt. 
The signature of the rresidcnt is indistinct, but 1 think it is 
Carnan. Thumas W. Hi'llitt.'; 

BuUilt's pnity was composed of liinisclf and 
Abraham Ilapton.stall, who settled in tliis count)- 
and was residing here until 1S14, at least; Jaines 
Sodowsky (or Sandusky), ftom wliom, or v.-hose 
family, Sandusky in Ohio takes its name, and 
whose sons were residing in ]!ourbon county as 
late as 1S43; James Dnijilass, deputy surveyor^ 
and another pioneer in I'.ourbon county; John 
Smith, who was residing half a century al'terward 
ill Woodford county; witli John l-'it^iiatrick, 
Ebenezer Severns, and others, of whom very 
little is now known. \\'\[U this little company he 
made his way across Virginia to th.e mouth of 
the Kanawha, where he fell in with the company 
of James, George, and Robert McAfee, sons of 
James McAfee, Sr., of Botetourt county, who 
had resolved, a year or two before, to prospect 
the fertile wilderness south of the Ohio tor a 
new home, lii this company were also a broth- 
er-in law, James McConn, Jr., and his cousin, 
Samuel Adams. With them were also a third 
party, whom they had overtaken by concf rted 
arrangei«ent as they descended the Kanawha in 
two canoes onthe 2Sth of May. 

The head of this company was the distin- 
guished pioneer surveyor in Kentucky, Hancock 
Taylor, of Orange county, Virginia, brother of 
Colonel Richard Taylor, who was father of Oen- 
eral Zachary Taylor, a resident of l^ouisville in 
his early life, and afterward the hero of the 
Mexican war and I'resident ot the United States. 
Hancock Taylor was an assistant or deputy sur- 
veyor under Colonel William Preston, who was 
the official surveyor of the great county of Fin- 

•These.xl attached is siinn.iuntcd by the words, "Sig. 
Collegii R. et R. Gulielnii et M.iriae, in \"irginia. " The seal 
itself represents a view of a h.mdjonie building. 

castle, Virginia, of which the Kentucky country 
was still a pan. After making extensive sur- 
veys in the interior, he was attacked by the In- 
dians the next year while .surveying a tract lor 
C'olonel \\'illiam C'hristian, near the mouth of 
the Kentucky river, and moi tally wounded b> a 
ritle-shot. 'J"wo of the [larty, one of whom was 
Oibson Taylor, prolnbly a relative, and the other 
Abraham Haptonstall, formerly ol Bullitt's com- 
pany, tried to extract the inll wuh a [locket- 
knife, but could not, and sc>on afterwards, as the 
party was returning from the country under a 
warning sent from Dunmore by the hands of 
]loone and Stoner, wlio piloted them out of the 
wilderness, he died of the wound near the pres- 
ent site of Richmond, Madison county, and was 
buried in a well-marked spot, about one and 
three-fourths miles south of the Richmond court- 
house. Four years jirevious to the expedition 
of 1773, Ta} lor had gone down the Ohio and 
Mississippi with his lirother Richard, our old 
tViend Haptonst.'ili, and a Mr. Barbour, on a 
visit to New Orleans, whence they returned 
home by the Culf and Atlantic. 

Other members of the Ta)'lor piarty were 
Matthew Bracken, from whom Jiracken creek 
and county get their names, ]acob Drennon, 
at'terwards of Drennon Springs, Henry county, 
and Peter Shoemaker. Several of the party, in- 
cluding Taylor, Bracken, and I)rennon, about 
two months afterwards (on the 31! of August) 
joined the Bullitt party at or near the Falls of the 

The three companies, meeting at the mouth 
of the Kanawha on the ist of June, and about to 
embark upon the waters of the great river, whose 
l/anks might be lined on both sides with blood- 
thirsty savages, very naturally joined their forces 
and their equipijienl of boats. Their prepara- 
tions completed in a few days, they lloated out 
on the broad bosom of La Belle Riviere, and en- 
tered upon the final stage of the journey to the 
Promised I^and. 

.\N rrisof)!'. 

The leader was not with them, however. 
Farther-sighted than the rest, very likely, he real- 
ized the significance of the steps now being taken, 
as precedent to the overrunning of the Indian 
hunting-grounds by the settlements of civiliza- 
tion, and the importance of conciliating at the 
outset, if possible, the red tribes whose rights 



/ ■ - Jl 

ti " 







seemed to lie llius inwidcd. At tliC mouth of the 
Kannwha he left the ijarty for a few days, and, 
unattended and alone, puslied Ills way across the 
rugged hills and deep vallcjs, and through tlie 
hoHliiig wilderness of Souiheiii C)hio, tiniil he 
reached the |irinci|)al village of the Shawnecs, at 
Old Chillicothe, one or two miles noith of the 
present site of Xenia. The siory is told in an 
interestmg and giaphic way hy Marshall, the first 
historian of Kciitiuky. He says; 

On bis way lo Kenlucky Ilulliit nmlc a \isit lu C'liillicollie, 
a Shawnee town, to hold a frioiully talk wiih those Inilians 
on the stibject of his intended seitlcnu^nt, and for the p.irticu- 
lar purpose of obtaining llieir aiscnt to tlie measure. He 
knew they claimed the right of bunting in the country — a 
right to them of the utmost importance, and wliich they 
not relinquished. He al=o knew they were br,Tve and indefati- 
gable, and that, if they were so. disposed, they could 
greatly annoy the inhabitants of the intended settlement. It 
was, therefore, a primary object in his estimation to obi.iin 
their consent to his projected residence and cultivation of the 
lands. To accomplish this he left his party on the Ohio and 
traveled out- to the town unattended, and without announc- 
ing his Hpproaeh by a runner. He was not di;coveir.l until 
he got into the midst of Chillicotlif, when he waved l-.i* white 
flag ^handkerchief ' as a token of peace. The Indians saw 
wirh astonishment a stranger among them intlie character of 
an embassador, for such he assumed b\ the flag, and without 
any intimation of his intended visit. .Some of them collected 
aljout him. and asked him. What news? Was he from the 
Long Knife? and whv, il he svas an embassador, had he not 
sent a runner? 

Rullilt, not in the least i.itimid.Ued. replied that he had no 
bad news— he was from the I.or.g Knife— antl. as the red 
men and «hite men were at peace, he had come among his 
brothers to have a friendly talk with them aliont living on 
the other side of the Ohio: that he had no runner swifter 
than himself, and that he was in histe, and could not wait 
the return of a runner. "Would you," said he, "if you 
were very hungry, and had killed a deer, send your squaw to 
town to tell the news, and await her return before you eat?" 
This put the bystanders ni high good humor, and gave them 
a opinion of their mterlocutor. .And, upon his de- 
siring that the warriors should be called together, thev were 
forthwith converged, and he promptly addressed them m the 
following speech, e.vtracted f.'om his journal : 

" hkOTJIF.K-s — I am sent by my people, whom I left on the 
Ohio, to settle the eountrv on the other side of that river, as 
low down as the Falls. We come from \'irginia. The king 
of my people lias bought from the nati.u.s of red men both 
north and south all the land: and I am instructed to inform 
you and all the warriors of this great country, that the \'ir- 
ginians and the English are in fiiendship with you. This 
friendship is dear to them, and they intend to keep it sacred. 
I he same fiiendship they e.vpect from you. and from all the 
ii.itions to the lakes. We know that the Shawnccs and the 
nelawares are to be our nearest neighbors, and we wish 
th.'in to be our best friends as we will be theirs. 

" I', vou did not gel any of the money or 
given for the land wl.i.h [ and my people are going to settle. 
1 his was hard for you. Gut it is agreed by tlie great men 
Who own the land that they will make a present both to the 

Delawares antl the Shawnccs the ne.\t year and the year fol- 
lowing that shall be as good. 

"Urothers, I am appointed to settle the country, to live in 
it; to raise corn, and to make projier rules and regulations 
among my peo|)lc. There will be soriie principal men from 
my country very soon, and then much more will be said to 
you. Ih'- Governor desires to see you, and will come out 
this year or the next. When I come again I will have a belt 
of w.impum. This lime I came in hasle and had not -one 

" .\Iy pcuple only want the counlryto settle and cultivate. 
■ They will have no objection to your hunting and trapping 
there. I hope you will live by us as brothers and friends. 
You now know niy heart, and as it is single toward you, [ 
e.vpect you will give me a kind talk; for 1 shall wiite to my 
Governor what you say to me, and he will believe all 1 write." 

This speech was received with attention, and liullitt was 
told that the ne.vt day he should be answered. 

The Indiims are in the habit of proceeding with great de- 
liberation in matters of importance, and all are such to them 
which concern their hunting. 

On the morrow, agreeably to promise, they were assembled 
at the same place, and bullilt being present, they returned an 
answer to hi.,s|>eech as follows : 

"Oi.UKsT liianuKK, Tmk Long Ks-irK — We he.ird 
you would be glad to see your biolhers, the Shawnees and 
Delawares, and talk with them. But we are surprised that 
you sent no runner before you, and that yon cime quite near 
Us lhrc;ugli the tiees and grass a hard journey without letting 
us know until you appeared among us. 

'■ Brothers, we have considered your talk carefully, nnd we 
are glad to find nothing bad in it, nor any ill meaning. On 
theeontiary, you speak what seems kind and friendly, and it 
pleased us well. Vou mentioned to us your intention of set- 
tling the country on the other side of the Ohio with your 
people. And we are particularly pliiased that they are not to 
disturb us in our hunting, for we must hunt to kill meat for 
our women and children, and to have something to buy our 
powder and lead with, and to get us blankets and clothing. 

" .Ml our young brothers are pleased with what you said. 
We desire that )ou will be strong in fulhihng your promi.scs 
toward us, as we are determined to be straight in advising our 
young men to be kind and peaceable to you. 

" This spring we saw something wrong on the part of our 
young men. They took some horses from the wh'le people. 
But we have advised them not to do so again, and have 
cleared their hearts of all bad irilentions. We e\pecl they will 
observe our advice, as they like what you said." 

This speech, delivered hy Girly, was interpreti-d by 
Richard Butler, who, during the stay of Captain Bullitt, had 
made him his guest and otherwise treated him in the most 
friendly manner. But, having executed his mission very 
much tn his ovn satisfaction. Bullilt took hrs leave and re- 
joined his parly, who were mrreli rejoiced to see him re- 

He made report of his progress and success, and his com- 
rades, wjih light he.irts and high evpeclalions, launched 
their keelson the slieim which conveyed them to the shore 
of Kentucky and the finding before spoken of. 

THK %OVAi-;i-;. 

C.i[)taiii liullitt fcumd his [leoijle at the mouth 
of the Scioto, and went on with them. On the 
2jdof June they reached Limestone Point, now 



Mnysville, uprm whosu site there wps not yet 
block-house ot cahiii, nor was there for eleven 
years to come. Here iliey rt-^ted for two days, 
and hence Robert McAfee, encouraged {hereto 
by the safe thougli solitaiy j'mrncy which Cap- 
tain Ilullill had just niafle ihiongh the Indian 
country, pushed alone up Limestone creek into 
the interior, across the country to the Nnuli luik 
of Licking, down that stream twenty to twen'y- 
fivc miles, thence across the hills of ilie [uescM 
Bracken county to the Ohio, where he iia-.lily 
constructed a bark canoe, and the next day 
(January 27th) overtook his comjianions at the 
mouth of the Licking, opposite the site of Cni- 
cinnati. 'Jlie party must also have been delued 
here for a time, jirobably inspix'tini; the superb 
sites for towns and cities upon the pl.iin on 
either side of the C)hio at this point. .At all 
events they made easy-.t;oiiig progress down the 
river, since on the 4th of July (not yet the 
"Glorious I'ourlh," or Independence Day) they 
had not gone beyond the llig Rone lick on ih.e 
Kentucky shore, a few miles below the mouth of 
the Great .Miami. They s|jenl this day and the 
next at the lick, where the huge bones of tiie 
mastodon and other gigantic beasts of the geo- 
logic ages lay about m great numbers, and of 
such size as to serfe the adventurers tor ttnt- 
poles and seats. The second day thereafter they 
reach the mouth of the Kentucky, where tiie 
parties separate. I'he Hancock and Mc.Alee 
companies, now substantially one, since their 
aims and purposes were similar, and in their 
union tliere would be needed strength in a hos- 
tile land, go up the Kentucky to the I'rankfort 
region, beyond which tliis narrative need not 
pursue them. Bullitt and his f>)llowing kept 
on down the Ohio, and on the ne.xt d.iy (July 
8th, let it be remembered) pitched their camp 
just above the old mouth of Beai grass creek, 
perchance exactly at the loot of the present 
Third street, in the busy and beauiitul city of 
Louisville. It was then, it is needless to say, a 
swamp, thicket, and I'orest, with nothing but 
furred or feathered, winged or scaly inhabitants ; 
and the new-comers were the aiwntcoiirurs 
of the thronging thousands of the pale-face who 
have since po[iulated the feitile valley. 


Little is known of the details of Captain Bul- 
litt's encamiiment and labors here and hereabout 

in the summer of 1773. There is a tradition, ac- 
cording to Casseday's History of Louisville, that 
three years before tliis time parties who were 
probably sent by Lord Hunmore came to the 
I'alls of the Ohio and made surveys of the 
adjacent countr)', wiih a \iew to its occui'ation as 
bounty l.uids. W'e aie unable to find the story 
coiiobated by any other liiaK.rians of tlie'city or 
tile State, and incline ([ui'.e positively to think 
thiat it can not be su'ipi'iled. .\t ail events, the 
adventurous surveyor found no claims conilicting 
with the enterprise with which he was cliaiged, 
and he went fearlessly and cmergetically about 
his duty. Lor six weeks in the sultry midsum 
mer he and his men carried the chain and 
planted the theodolite U|]on the beautiful plateau 
adioiniiig and below the Falls and up the feitile 
valley of the Salt riser, v,hi( h tliey penetrated at 
least as far as to the famous Lick, three miles 
from Shepherdsville. which takes its name from 
the gallant ca|'tain, and is in a county which also 
bears tlie BuUitt name. Here the fn^t salt- 
woiks were erected in Keritucky, and from the 
mineral characterisli( of the Li'.k Captain Bul- 
litt gave the title to this river, far more renowned 
in politics and local history than in navigation. 
The historical sketch appended to the Directory 
of Louisville lor 1838-39 says: ''He made a 
treaty of relinquishment of the land with the 
Indians on his route, and laid out the town on 
its present site, but made no settlement on the 
land, and died bel'ore that was effected." W'e 
have been unable to find any contlrmation of the 
former part of this statement. 

Bullitt continued to make his headquarters 
about the mouth of the Beargrass, where he 
could conveniently communicate with any par- 
ties that might be passing on the river, or that 
might come out of the wilderntss to the Falls 
of the Ohio. By night, says Ceillins, he retired 
for safety "to a shoal above Corn island." In 
the fourth week after his arrival, about the 3d ot 
August, he and his party were gladdened by the 
reunion with them \i\ Mr. Hancock and two 
others of his company, who had [larted from the 
McAlee expedition, far up the Kentucky river, 
on the last day of July. His work finally done, 
he then returned to his home in \"irginia. 


The general statement is that during its stav 
the surveying party staked olT lots for a vill.ige 



plat soiiiewheie upon a tiact now included within j 
the limits of Louisville; and some writers go so | 
fnr as to say that Captain Dulliit, in this year of 
grace 1773, laid out "tlio town of 1 .rjuisvilie." ; 
Mr, Collins says the like in no less than five 
])lares in. his histur\', and in two of them (pai^es : 
371, 666, vol. ii., History of Kentucky), but 
without undertakni:; 10 nanje the toun, he fixes 
the dale 0/ the survey dehnitely as Au,:;ust 1. , 
A few pages previously, liouevcr, when denling 
with the beginnings at Louisville, this author t 
acknowledges that the reference in the creative , 
act of 17S0 to '"the owners of lots already 
drawn," and to ''tho^e peisons whose lots ha\e 
been laid off on his [John Cam|)beirs] lands," 
may refer no finther Ijack than to a then recent 
laying-off of "a considerable part thereof [\iz: 
John Connolly's tract] into haifacre lots for a j 
tosvn," which are also wcnxK tVom the act. He ] 
says, truly enough, tliat "the only proof that any - 
lots weie sold thereundei [the rei)Uted IhiUilt : 
survey] is entirely inferential and uncertain." | 

We are satisfied, indeed, that the vague testi- 1 
timony of Jacob Sodowsky, contributed in a let- ] 
ter to the second volume of the American Pio- 
neer, jjublishcd in 1843 ^'i^ repeated in the 
eleventh volume of the Western Journal, is not 
sutlicient to supjjort the theory of a Louisville 
or other town plat about the Falls in 1773. 
Nothing of the kind, so far as ascertained, was 
contemplated in the instructions of Lord l)un- 
niore to Bullitt; no record of it has come to light 
in the diaries or letters of the time, or in sub- 
sequent ofticial records of the survey; no men- 
lion is made of it by the immigrants of 17 78 or 
the surveyors of 1779, who certainly would have 
come upon the stakes or other evidences ot the 
survey, if it had been made; and tiadition, as 
well as the land registers, is utterly silent as to 
ihe precise location of any such town, 'ilie 
language of the act of 17 So does not require 
survey of a village [)lat here in 1773, or at any 
lime, indeed, except, at the latest, a period just 
before the passage of the act. On the contrary 
the language of the law is expressly that, not a 
surveying parly or transient party of speculators, 
hut "sundry inhabitants of the countv of Ken- 
'ui ky have, at great expense and ha/.rud, settled 
tlicm>clvt.-s upon certain lands at the h'alls of the 
< 'hio, and have laid off a considerable part 
thereof into haifacre lots for a town.'' The 

further mention of "the owners of lots already 
dr.uvn," and of "those persons whose lots have 
been laid off on Colonel Campbell's land," may 
as well leler to operations of 1778-79 as to the 
disposition of lots in any suppositious town of 
1773. On the whole, we entertain no duubt that 
any iialf-acre 01 smaller subdivisions of the soil 
here date fiom some time contemporancoiis with 
or posterior to the reuunal of ('olonel C!lark's 
settleis of 177S from Corn Island to the main- 
land, and that there is no liuslworlhy foundation 
for belie) in a Louisville of five or nioie years 
before. The survey stated in the act was in all 
lirobability I'atd's in 1779, of which a rude map, 
dated April 20, of that year, has been preserved. 


A word further about Sodowsky, or Sandusky. 
It is a name somewhat noted in the history of 
Kentucky, and [irobably gave origin to the name 
Sandusky in Ohio. It was originally Sodowsky, 
btit became corru]iled into "Sandusky." In 
the American Pioneer, volume II., page 3;'6, 
the autogra]jhs of two of the brothers appear, 
one of whorn signed " Isaac Sodowsky," and the 
other "Jacob Sandusky." 'I'heir father, James 
Sandusky, as their letter to the Pioneer says, 
"came down the river in 1773, and again in 
1774, with Hight [Hue] 2nd ILarrod. In the 
first trip they went down as far as the Falls, and 
returned. In the last they wenl down to the 
mouth of the Kentucky river, and up that stream 
to Harrod's station, where they cleared land and 
planted corn. 'Phis was the first improvement 
in Kentucky; but that settlement was broken up 
by tlie Indians. It may be worth mentioning 
that these trips were both made in pirogues or 
large canoes." He afterwards settled in Bourbon 
county, where James Sandusky, one of the broth- 
ers, was still living in 1843. 

coNNui.i.v's (:;r.vnt. 

On the i6th of December, 1773, according to 
Dr. McMurtrie and the writers generally (Colonel 
l)urrett, however, says September in his Centen- 
nial Address), a patent of two thousand acres of 
the present site of Louisville, beginning about on 
the line of First street, and thence southward, 
iiK luding the sites of Sliippingport and Portland, 
was issued by the British Crown to Dr. John 
Connolly (often siselt Connally), a " surgeon's 
mate,' or assistant surgeon, in modern military 



parlance, in tlie general hospital of ihc Royal 
forces in America. It is believed that the lines 
of this tract were run by ("aptain lUiliiit in the 
summer of the same year; amJ ceitain uf the 
writers aver that liis prime obji-et ni r.iniin- to 
the Falls was to survey for Connolly -who liad 
the tract in view, allhouyh it was not yet ])at- 
ented 10 him-- as well as for others. Connolly 
took the land, as on.- statement goes, under a 
proclamation of Gcor^t: III. in i y 63, -ranting 
land-warrants as bounties to soldiei-; in the 
French and Indian war, v.hirh had shoillv before 
been concluded. Another tlicory is that while 
the latent forces of the Revolution were gather- 
ing and develoijing, and the colonies were mut- 
tering their discontent, he agreed with Governor 
Dunniore to secure a strong British interest 
among the whites and Indians of the border, in 
consideration of two thousand acres of land, to 
be obtained by the tJovernor for him at the Falls 
of the Ohio. 

This original private owner, so far as is known, 
of the most important of the site of Louis- 
ville, was born and brought up near W'light's 
Ferry, in Pennsylvania. I lis sire was a fuiner 
on the Susquehanna; his mother, before her 
marriage to the elder Connolly, was a Quaker 
widow named Ewing. He traveled consider- 
ably in his youth through the wild Western 
country, and at Pittsburg, a few years before the 
Revolution opened, he fell in with Lord Dun- 
more, then Governor of Viiginia. It was then, 
it is said, that he made the contract with the 
Governor before related. November ^, 1775, 
Dunmore commissioned him lieutenant-colonel 
comrriandant of the Queen's Royal Rangers. 
He was then provided with the secret instructions 
hereafter mentioned, auihc.rizing him to raise a 
complete Tory regiment at Pittsburg or Detroit, 
and with it organize an expedition. 

Connolly was a neplicw of Colonel (ieorge 
Croghan, the liiiiish Indian agtnt who passed 
the F\alls in 1765, on a mi-^ion to the Western 
tribes. He resided at 1-ort Pitt, or Pittsbur^', and 
is mentioned in General Uashington's journal 
for 1770 as well acquainted with the lands south 
of the Ohio, where he- no douljt held lari^e tracts 
including this interest in the site of Louisville. 
Early in 1774, '.Mih a captain's commission, he 
had been sent by Governor Dunmore to assert 
the claims of that colony ovur the Pittsburt' 

region, and take possession of the country 
bordering upon the Monongahela, in lln: name 
of the King. He was an artful, ambitious, and 
intrigunig fellow, well titled for surh a ser- 
vice, and at once issued a proclamation call- 
ing upon the peo].ile in and about Redstone Old 
F\)it and Pittsburg to assemble about the 25th 
of January, to be enrolled in the Virginia militia. 
Arthur St. Clair, afterwards Geneial and CIov- 
ernor of the Northwest Territory, was, however, 
upon the ground as representative of the pro- . 
prietors of Pennsylvania, which had a prior 
claim upon that region, and he arrested Coiuiolly 
before the meeting occurred, and shut him up 
in prison. He was presently released, u|ion his 
promise to deliver himself up again. This he 
failed to do ; but on the contrary reappeared at 
Pittsburg on the 2Sth of March, with a party of 
followers, and rc-asserted the dominion of \"n- 
ginia there. He succeeded after much strife in 
getting possession of Fort Pitt, which he rebuilt 
and christened Fort Dunmore. He played the 
petty tyrant here for some time, arresting and citizens and even magistrates, whom 
Dunmore for very sliame was compelled to re- 
lease. It is said to have been a letter of his, 
written on the 21st of April, to the settlers along 
the Ohio, iiitendt'd to stir them up against the 
Shawnees, that led to the murders by Cresapand 
Greathouse, and the Indian war which involved 
tlie friendly Logan, the whole of whose family 
had been wantonly massacred. When, during 
the troubles, three of the Shawnees had con- 
ducted a party of traders to Pittsburg, Connolly 
seized them and would doubtless have dealt 
hardly by them. He was defeated in his attempt 
by Croghan, his uncle, and then actually dis- 
patched men to waylay and kill them on their re- 
turn, one of these kindly disposed savages, it is 
re[iorted, thus losing his life. " The character 
developed by this man," says the Annals of the 
W'esf, " while commandant of Fort Dunmore, 
was such as to e.xcite universal detestation, and 
at last to draw down upon his patron the reproof 
of Lord Dartmouth," who was the Pritish Secre- 
tary for the Colonies. " He seized property and 
imprisoned white men without warrant or pro- 
priety ; and we may be assured, in many cases 
besides that just mentioned, treated the natives 
with an utter disregard of justice." The follow- 
ing is related of Connollv in the same work: 



li was towards ilie clobc uf this Ijsl >L-ai uf our coI0111.1l 
existence. i;'75. I'l.^l ^ p'ot was disco^■e^ecl wliicii involved 
some v\!iose names b.ive already appeared upon our pages. 
and wliicli, if sucec-sful. would have intluenccd tlie fortune-, 
of tlie West deeply. Or. [ohn Connolly, of rittvlAirj;!, (lie 
wliom Wasliiiigton liad met and talked with in 1770, and 
with whom lie afterwards corresponded in relation to West- 
ern lands, and who played so prominent a part ascoinm.iiidanL 
of Pittsburgh, where he continued at least through 177.1). 
was, from the out.set of the revolutionary movements, a 
Toiy, and being a man extensively acquainted with the 
West, a man of t.alent. and fearless withal, he ii.iturally be- 
came a leader. This,- in 1775. planned a union of the 
Northwestern Indians with British troops, which combined 
forces were to be led. under his command, from Detroit, and. 
after ravaging the few frontier settlements, were to join Lord 
nnnmore in E.astern N'irgmia. To forward his plans, Con- 
nolly visited Boston to see General Gage; then, having re- 
turned to ihe-Snnth in the fill of 1775. he left 1 ,ord Dun- 
more for the Wcit, bearing one set of instniclions upon his 
person, and another set, the true ones, most artfully con- 
cealed, under the direction of l.oid Dunmore himself, in his 
saddle secured by tin. and waxed cloth. He and his com- 
rades, among whom was Dr. Smyth, author of the doubtful 
work already quoted, had gone as as far as Hagerstowii, 
where they were arrested ujion suspicion and sent back to 
Frederick. There they were searched, and the papers upon 
Connolly's person were found. Seized, and sent to Congress. 
Washington, having been informed by one who was piesent 
when the genuine in.vtructions were concealed as above stated, 
wrote twice on the subject to the proper authorities, in ordei 
to leid to their discovery, but we dn not know that they 
were ever found. Connolly himself was confined, and re- 
mained a close prisoner ti!i 1781, complaining much of his 
hard lot, but finding few to pitv him. 

Connolly was e.xclianged and released in April, 
1 781. \Vashington wrote promptly to General 
Clark a warning tliat he was expected to go from 
Canada to Venango, at the mouth of French 
creek, with a force of refugees, and thence to 
Fort Pitt, with blank commissions for a large 
number of dissatisfied men su|)posed to be in 
that region, with whom the exposed frontiers 
would be attacked; but nothing seems to have 
come of this. The compiler of the Annals says 
tliat alter the Revolution had ended he became 
a mischief-maker in Kentucky, though in just 
what manner is not st.ited. He had long before, 
in 1770, before a wiiite man had settled upon 
the soil of this State, proposed an independent 
province that would have included all of its ter- 
ritory between the Cumberland or Shawnee 
river, a line drawn from above its furk to the 
Falls, and the Ohio river — which would, of 
course, have included tlie present site of Louis- 
ville. His title to one thou'^and u( his acres 
here was forfeited on account of his treason to 
tlie p:\triot cause. \'irginia a'^sumed the owner- 

shij) uf it, but dcl.iyecl disposal of it until Culuiicl 
Canijibcll, the apparent joint owner, had re- 
turned from Canada, where he had liecn taken 
in captivity by the Indians in 1780. \\'hen the 
return occurred, by acts uf the Virginia Legisla- 
ture of May and OLtober, 1783, and October, 
178.5. his interests v.ere guarded and secured, 
while those of his recreant and now reftigce 
partner were sacrificed. In November, 17S8, the 
latter reappeared in Kentucky, coming t'roin Can- 
ada, ostensibly to recover, if possible, his former 
possessions in Louisville, but really, as was be- 
lieved, to aid the movement then in agitation for 
the sepaiation of Kentucky' from Virginia and its 
alliance or union with Spain, then holding 
Louisiana and culiivaiing disaffection 'in Ken- 
tucky. He was foiled in this, and now finally 
disappears from the jiage of Amcrican'hislor)'. 

Mr. Collins gives the following account of the 
legal proceedings^^which justified the confiscation 
of Connolly's property: 

On July 1, 1780. an inquest of escheat was held at Lexing- 
ton, by the sheiiff of Kentucky county — George May, 
escheator. John Bowman, Daniel P.oone, Nathaniel Ran- 
dolph, Waller Overton, Robert Mc.-\fee, Edward Gather, 
Henry Wilson, Joseph Willis, Paul Fromau, Jeremiali Til- 
ford, James Wood, and Thomas Gant, " gentlemen," jury- 
men, were empanelled, sworn, and charged to try whether 
John Connolly and Alexander McKce be British subjects or 
not. \'erdict — that they were British subjects, and after 
-^pril ig, 1775, of their own free will departed from the said 
States, and joined the subjects of his Britannic Majesty; and 
that on s.aid 4tli of July, 1776, .said Connolly was " pos.sessed 
of 2,000 acres on the Ohio opposite to the Falls," "and 
said McKee of 2,000 acres on the headwaters of the south 
branch of Elkhorn and no more. 

In pursuance of this finding, the estate of 
Connolly at the Falls was confiscated. It had 
already been described, in the act of May, of the 
same year, establishing Louisville, as "the for- 
feited property of said John Connolly," and upon 
it, being " acres of land," was laid out the 
new town. The Tory Doctor had owned as 
much as 3,000 acies here; but only r,ooo seem 
to have been available for confiscation. I)e 
AVarrenstaff, or W'arrendorff, mentioned below, 
had conveyed his 2,000 acres to Connolly and 
Colonel Campbell, which must have been in 
equal portions, since in 1775 the latter bought 
up the former's interest in this tract, which was 
an undivided half of the 2,000 acres. The 
4,000 held by the two was then so partitioned 
that Connolly became owner of the uppermost 
1,000 and the lowest 1,000, Campbell's tract of 

1 66 


2,000 lying behvocii. In I'jj'i^ Connrjlly trans- | 
ferrcd the Itiwcr 1,000 abo to ('.uiipbt;!', thus 
Icavin;; but the upiicr 1,000 to be escheated. 


Very few facts concerning this arc now acces- | 
siblc. About all that is known ot it or liim is !, on tile saine day tlio [.■.itent I'l.inted lo j 
Connolly, December 16, 1773, and luider the ; 
same authority in the King's iirocljMi.i.ition. two . 
thousand acres at the h'a'.ls of the Ohio, next | 
adjacent below Connolh's, were patented to one 1 
Charles de \Varienstaff or Warreiidorfl", who was | 
an ensign in the Pennsylvania Royal Kcginient 
of Foot. He ne\er, we believe, became a resi- j 
dent of Louisville, and we do not learn that he j 
was ever even a visitor here. 'I'he very ne.xt 1 
year he parted with his interest in the soil of ! 
Kentucky to Dr. Connolly and Colonel John I 
Cain];bell, of whom the world knows something j 

COI.ONKl, CAMl'l;! I,I_ 

This gentleman was of Irish birth, possessed 
of some property, and came in the vigor of his 
young manhood to identify his fortimes with the 
infant hamlet of Louisville, wheie he wa^ among 
the earliest sel tiers when the town was formed. 
According to Collins, he received a grant of four 
thousand acres from the Commonwealtli of Vir- 
ginia, which was located immediately below and 
adjoining the grant on whicli Louisville stands. 
He was also a [iropcrty-hokler at Frankfort, 
where his name a[)pears in a li.->t of I.mded pro- 
prietors in 1797. Colonel Campbell soon be- 
came promineni in the affairs of the village and 
the State. He was a meml'cr of the convention 
of 1792, held in Danville, which formed the first 
constitution of Kentucky ; was an elector of the 
State Senate, urder the peculiar provision of 
that constitution, in the '■ame year, and was bv 
the electors chosen to that body from JelTerson 
county, and was at one time its Speaker /rc» /,m- 
pore : previously to the formation of the State 
was a member of the \'irginia Legislature, from 
JefTerson count), in 17S6, 17S7, and 1790 ; and 
was a Representati\e in the ('ongress of the 
United States from 1837 to 1843. In i 785 he 
established two i.A V.\c earnest feiri-.-s allowed by 
law in Kentucky —one from hi.^ lands at tlie 
Falls across the Ohio to the mouth of Silver 
creek, and the other across the same stream. 

from the jcf^er^oll county bank to the moiilh (jf 
Mill run. He was a rresbyterian in his lehgious 
(ailh, and his name app.ais uijon the records of 
tile first meeting of the S)-nod of Kcnliuky, at 
Lexington, October 14, 1S0.2, as an elder from 
the " l'resb\teiy of Washington." (!ampbell 
county, east of the lower Licking ri\er, opposite 
Cincinnati, is named in tiis honor ; and an old 
|:ia|.er ].ablished in tliat city, of date March 12, 
179(3, says that C'olonel Campbell lived at 
Taylor's Creek Station, probably in that county. 
There can be no doubt, howevei, that most i^{ 
his mature life s[)ent in Louisville. Mr. 
Collins says : " He was a large man, of fine 
personal appearance and strong mind, but rough 
in his manners. lie never married, and, having 
died, childless, his large estate passed into the 
hands of many heirs.'' 

Colonel Campbell must be regarded as an origi- 
nal proprietor at Louisville. .As already noticed, 
he acquired in 1774 a half-interest in the two 
thousand-acre grant to Warrenstaff, and the next 
year purchased an uiidi\ ided half of the adjoin- 
ing tract of his partner in the Warrenstaff prop- 
erty. Dr. John Connolly; and v.heii the partition 
of the two undivided tracts was made, his 
half of the whole, or two thousand acres, fell be- 
tween the two tracts thus cut off for Connolly. 
He became otherwise a large owner in this legion, 
and finally devised all his leal estate within five 
miles of the Beargrass creek to .Allen Campbell. 
Colonel Campbell will come again into this his- 


The events of this year have been already 
anticipated, to some small extent. There is no 
story of colonization yet to tell, nor for several 
years to come. The birds and beasts and creep- 
ing things held their own upon the site of the 
great city to-be, and no sign of civilization 
was presented throughout the broad plateau, ex- 
cejit here and tiiere the simple stake or "blaze" 
and inscription of the surveyor. Indeed there 
is little to narrate of 1774 except of the surveyor. 

In June, while Captain Harrod and his com- 
panions were setting the stakes of civilization at 
the first permanently inhabited town in Kentucky, 
Hanodsburg, two remarkable men came through 
the deep wilderness from their homes on the 
Clinch river, in North Carolina, to the Falls. 
Thev were Daniel I'.oone and Michael Stoner, 



u!i.) were char.n'-'d witti an important mi-^sion. ' 
Covernor IHinuKue had rcdivcd tiinelv uarning 
(,f ilie Indian hostilitits now ihrtatening, and 
vlmli very soon broke out, i-articubrly in ihc ; 
■severe conflict between the siv.i^es and Colonel 
I'Kniquct's expedition, al the mouth of the Kan- 
awha, in which the former were signally defeated. 
Tlie Oovernor had a party or parlies out sur\ey- 
ins; under his orders in the Kentncky wilderness, were the celebrated Jefferson 
county pioneer, Colonel John Floyd, also Han- 
cock Taylor, Abiahan. Haptonsta^ll, and \\'ilh3 
I^ce (these three are known to ha\e been suivey- 
int; on the present soil of Jefferson county, .May 
2d of this year), with James Sandusky, John 
Smith, Gibson Taylor, and very likclv others. It 
IS probable that most of Captain liuHitt's i^aity, 
who came to the Falls in 1773, had remained to 
this time in Kentucky. Dunmore became ex- 
ceedingly apprehensive for their safety, arid em- 
ployed Hoone and Stoner to make the long and 
perilous journey of about four hundred miles to 
the I'alls to find the sur\eyors, and conduct 
them out of their danger^ to the settlements. 
Boone received the summons on tlie 6ih of June, 
and lost no time in setting out with his com- 
panion on the hazardous trij). Their commis- 
sion was faithfully and courageously executed, 
and probably the lives of the surveyors were thus 
saved, although Hancock Taylor, as we have 
seen, was mortally wounded while making his 
last survey, and died on the retreat. Boone and 
Stoner reached Harrodsburg June 16th, and 
found Harrod's and Hite's companies engaged 
in laying off the town. Boone rendered aid in 
this, and was assigned one of the half-acre lots, 
upon which a double log cabin was bui't soon 
after. The entire round of I'.oone and Stoner 
on this duty of warning and safe conduct to the 
settlements, covered about eight hundred miles^ 
and occupied sixty-two days. Mr. Collins calls 
them the "first express messengers'' m Kentucky. 


This historic year, so rife with important 
events at the East, preluding the War lor Am- 
erican Independence, was comparatively quitt in 
the \'alley of the Ohio. In this region the 
dauntless surveyors were still pushing their way 
through the tangled wildwood, leading the van 
of empire. Many of their movements, and per- 

haps of their sunevs, remain unknown to tins 
day; but, fiom dcpuL.itiuns taken lung afiei wards, 
one may Icavn of a paity at woik in the middle 
of Decemljci, on Harrod's iieck, consisting of 
Abraham and Isaac Hite, Moses Thomp^on, 
lo'-epli iJuxMuan, Xathaniel Randolph, I'eter 
Casey, and Ebene/.er Scvems, «ho were survey- 
ing. Ivarly in ihc season ('aptain James Knox 
— famous as the leader of the ' Hunters" 
inio Kentucky four or five years before- -must 
have been somewhere on the banks of the Bear- 
g^a^s, since he was held entitled, October 30, 
1779, to four hundred acres of land on its 
waters, " on account of marking out the said 
land, and of having raised a crop of corn in the 
country in 1775." So simple and brief is the 
history of the while man in this region for this 

One interesting character, however, for many 
yeais afterwards one of the most notable resi- 
dents of LouisMlle, came to the h'alls this year — 
Sandy Stewart, ihe ''island feriyinan" named in 
■ the pievious chapter, who long alter noted the 
precise date of his arrival as June 5, 1775. He 
, was a Scotchman, b.jrn in Glasgow twenty years 
i before; a young immigrant to tliis country so 
poor that his personal service was sold in Balti- 
\ more to pay his i)assage across the ocean; a trav- 
I eler westward with two companions as soon as . 

he had served out his time; making a canoe at 
! I'ittsburg, and in it voyaging down the Ohio to 
j the Falls; afterwards a settler here and for more 
I than a quarter of a century the ferryman from 
I the mainland to Corn island, until 1827, when 
he retired and died at the old Talmage hotel, on 
I Fourth street, in 1S33, aged 78, leaving a small 
I fortune to his relatives abroad. 

I ■ I776--77- 


i Even more sinqile and short aie the annals of 

I these elsewhere great years, as regards events at 
the Falls of the Ohio, ^^'e have but one to re- 
cord. Mr. Casseday, in his History of Louis- 
ville, assigns these as the years of the journey of 
George Gibson and Captain ^^'illiam Linn, who 
passed the Falls in boats going fiom Pittsburg to 
New Orleans, in order to procure supplies for 
the troops stationed at Fort Pitt. They obtained 
one hundred and thirty-six kegs of powder, which 
did not reach the F"alls on the return until the 
next year, when the kegs were laboriously carried 

1 68 


around the troubled waters by hand, reshipped, ! 
and finally delivered safely at Wheeling, whence I 
they were transferred to the fort. ICnch man, in \ 
making the portage around the halls, carried 
tluee kegs al a time on his batk. (iilison and 
Linn Were aided in this toilsiime work by [ohn 
Smith, who will be remembered as one of Bui- j 
litt's surveyors here neaily four years previously, ' 
and who happened to meet the voyagers here. I 
This is noted as tiie first cari;o e\-ei brought by [ 
whites up the Mississipiii and Ohio river?, from 
New Orleans to Pittsburg. 

We come now to the beginnings of permanent 
white settlement at the Falls of the Oliio — in- 
deed, in the Falls of the Ohio, for th.e ni^t stakes 
were set amid the waters at the head of the 
rapids, ujjon a little tract which has now wholly 
disappeared, except at low water, when, from the 
railway bridge and the shoie, the underlying 
strata of old Cotn Island, with' the rotting re. 
mains of stumps here and there, may yet be 

The first settlement here was tlic result of a 
military movement during the war of the Revo- 
lution, and brings into our narrative again the 
renowned name ol 


A sketch of the early lil'e of this famous 
hero of Western w.irlare, whose name will be 
forever associated witli one of the most impor- 
tant and skillful movements of the Revolutionary 
War, as well as with some of the most successful 
expeditions of the border warfare, has already 
been given in oui deneral Introduction. He 
was but twenty-six years of age this year, when 
his greatest feat of arms was achieved. Like 
Washington and niany other notable men of that 
time, he was a land-surveyor in his youth, but 
soon got into military life in the troubles with 
the Indians, and in the aiTair known as Dun- 
more's War rose to tlie command of a comjiany. 
At its close he was offered a commission in the 
British army, but declined it. He visited the 
infant settlements in Kentucky in the spring of 
1775, remaining until fall, and, now bearing the 
rank of major, being placed temporarily in com- 
mand of the volunteer militia of the settlements. 
He came again to this country in the Sjiring of 
the next year, with ihc intention of i)erinanently 

remaining; but staid only a few months, when, 
seeing the dangers to which the fiontiers were 
exposed, and being ap[)ointcd at the liarrods- 
burg meeting of tlie settlers June 0, 1776, a 
member of the Ciencral Asseml)!y of Mrginia, 
he set out on foot through the wilderness to 
Williamsburg, then the colonial caiJital, but found 
the Legislature adjourned. He at oiice extend 
ed liis long pedestrian excursion to Hanover 
county, where Governor Patrick Henry lay sick, 
and represented to him the pressing necessity of 
munitions of war for the Kentucky settlements. 
Henry concurred in his views and gave him a 
favorable letter to the l-^xecutive Council. From 
this bodv, after much delay and dilficulty, Clark 
olitained an order, on the 23d of August, 1776, 
for fi\e liundrcd pounds of gunpowder, for the 
use of the people of Kentucky. He obtained 
the powder at Pittsburgh, and, after hot pursuit 
down the Ohio by the Indians, during which he 
was compelled to conceal the ])recioiis cargo at 
the Three Islands, near tlic present site of Mays- 
ville, he succeeded in getting it through to Har- 
rodsburg, where the pioneers were pionij.itly sup- 
lilied with the indispensable means of defense. 
Meanwhile the young major had been instru- 
mental in securing from the Virginia Legislature, 
which had re-assembled in the fall, an act erect- 
ing the county of Kentucky. He is thus to be 
regarded as in some sense the founder of this 
great Commonwealth. Thenceforth he v. as 
closely identified with the early history of the 
State and bore his full share in the perils, inci 
dents, and adventures of border life. He was 
presently advanced to the grade of lieutenant- 
colonel. As the struggle for independence 
progressed, the great opportunity of his life pre- 
sented itself His sagacious mind perceived 
the importance of the Western country to the 
cause of the .-Vmerican patriots, and he resolved 
upon its conquest. 

The story of his ex[)edition, in the reduction 
of Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vmcennes, has al- 
ready been related in our military record of Jef 
ferson county, as also the story of his subsequent 
expeditions against the Indians, and for the 
building of Fort Jefferson, a few miles below the 
junction of the Ohio with the iS[ississip[)i. His 
headquarters all tliis time were at Louisville, and 
here his expeditions were organized. January 
22, 17S1, he was made a biigadier-general, by 



cdinmissioii fiom ("io\tinoi I'lioiiias Jcffersun, of 
\'iif;iiiia. lie bore a yijn in ihc lu-gotiation of 
a treaty with the Indians at I'ort Finney, near 
the niouLh of tiie Ortai Miann, in ilic winter of 
1785-S6, and, aithoLigh he was unquestionably 
not the hero of the. tliiilhiiL; ineident attributed 
to him in Jud^e Halls Konianee of Western 
llistoiy, there is no doubt llial it was an nn|inr- 
tant and c\en distinguished jiart he bore. In 
1/93, during the intrigues in this State of the 
French minister, denet, to organize forces for 
the overthrow of tiie Spanish power in the South- 
west, General Clark, tlien in private lil'e, was en- 
dowed by (Senet with the sounding title of 
Major-General in the armies of France, and 
Commander in chief of the French Kevolulion- 
ary Legion on the Mi'-sissippi. He made some 
efforts lo< to the recruitment of troops; but 
the action of the Federal (■iO\ernment, resulting 
in the recall of Genet and the ruin of his 
schemes, soon remanded C'lark to private life. 
In 17S3 the grant of an e.\ten>ise tract of land 
on the Indiana side of the Falls being made by 
the State of \'irgmia to the General and his sol- 
diers of the Illinois expedition, the opportunity 
was given liun to lav off a town at the Falls, be- 
tween the piesent'siles of JeffersonviUe and Xew 
-Mban}-, V. hi( h from him took the name Clarks- 
ville. Here his own cabin was built, and here 
nKjst of the later years of his life were sjient, with 
his servants, an old drummer, and an occasional 
visitor, for his sole company. His settlement 
proved unhealthy, and the vijl.ige grew .slowly 
and poorl). lie fell finally into poverty, and to 
Some extent into the niiseii-.s induced by intem- 
perance, rheumatic and paralytic affections. 
In 1S14, in an unlucky hour when he was tin- 
al)le to help himselt', he tell into the fire in his 
cabin, and before he was resf lied one of his leg; 
was so burned tliat it had to be amputated. The 
operation was fierl'ormed by 1 ir. Richard Fergu- 
son, of Louisville; and it is said that he had a 
fifer and drunmier play his favorite march to 
niitigate his [lains during tlic trving ordeal. He 
was taken to Locust Grove, a few miles above 
Louisville, the home of .M.ijur Croghan, whose 
wife was the General's sister. There he sjient 
his last years, and there he died, as before not- d, 
I'ebruary 13, iSiS. He was buried on th.e jilace, 
but on the loth of March, i.S6f), the Kentucky 
Legislatuie in.rde provision for the removal of 

his icmains to the cemetery at h'lankfort and the 
erertion of a monument over them. They were 
not taken to the capit.d, howi:-ver; but on the 
29th of October, of the same year, were re- 
moved to ('a\e Hill Ck-uieter)-, in Louisville, 
where they now rei)Ose. A few' years ago his 
Journal of the Campaign to the Illinois Country 
was [jiiblished at Ciminnati in a handsome 
octavo \okinie, with a valuable biographical in- 
troduiticin by Junge Henry Pirtle, of Louis- 

■JHl" r.AMlLII-.S Wllil ( 1 .\RK. 

It is fre.p-iently said, on the authority of l)r. 
-McMurlrie, that six families came down the 
; river with Genet al Clark's expedition, and 
^ stopjK'd at Corn Island, at the head of the Falls. 
; This statement probably tests upon the fact tliat 
, five heads of families are known by name, and 
that one other is known to has'c been of the 
' party, though his name has not survived. .Mr. 
; Casseday, fcillowing Marshall's History of Ken- 
tucky, more than doubles the number, in his 
History of Louisville. He says: 

; It is Culontl Cl.'.rii left in his new- foil on 
1 Ihis i>l.\nd ;,iioiil tliirlecn f.iinilies. when lie proceeded on liis 
! journey to KaskasUin. .\iir\ so br.ive, h.irdy, and resolute 
i were these pioneers thill, notwilhstandin;^ they were sepa- 
rated from the nearest of their countrymen by four liundred 
miles of hostile countiy. tilletl with savages wliose dearest 
1 hunting-grounds they were atjonl to occupy ; notwithstand- 
i ini; ihey kne\v thai these relenlless .savages were not only 
inimical on account of the insasion of their choicest Icrri- 
lorv, but u ere aided tjy all the art.s, the presents, and the 
fa\()is of the I'.ritish m seeking to destroy their scUlemonls ; 
noumhslanding all these terrifying circumstances, those 
d.luntle^s pioneers went ciuietly to work, and with tlie rifte 
in one hand and the iniplenienls of agriculture in the other, 
deliljoralely set about planting, and actually succeeded in 
1 raising a crop of corn on their little island. It is thus that 
Corn tsl.iud derived its name. 

'i'he publication of General Clark's letters 
and Journal of the expedition in more recent 
years enables us to fix with closer approach to 
certainty the number of families in this firsthand 
of settlers. In the book on the Campaign in 
the Illinois in 177S-9, published at Cincinnati as 
a number of the Ohio \'alley Historical Series, 
one of Clark's letters concerning the expedition 
contains the following: " About twenty families had followed me, much against my inclina- 
tiuii, I found now to be of service to me in 
guarding a block-house that I erected on the isl- 
■ and to secure my provisions." To this inci- 
dental, [lerhaps merely accidental mention, is 



the world indebted for the data wherewith to 
make an approximately exact estimate of the 
number in the lirst Louisville colony. It was 
probably not far from one h\nnhecl souls- railier 
more than le.-^s, sim e this allows Inil three chil- 
dren to a family- and, with the >oldieis, even 
the small detachment of them necessary to erect 
or guard the blork-liouse, must have crowded 
exceedingly the few acres cleared of the old Corn 

It is gratifying to know that the earliest whites 
to plant their homes upon the site of Louisville 
were in families. The first colony lo land upon 
the site of Cincinnati on Suntlay moining, 
December 2S, 17SS, was comiioscd wlioily of 
men. But it was true of the pioneers at the 
Falls, as of those al I'lymouth Rock more than a 
century and a half before, that — 

"There was uuiii.m's fe.irless eye, by her deep Io\e"s trutli; 
There was manhood's brow, serenely high. 
.■\nd the fiery hear! of vouih." 

Unhappily, the names of but one-fourth of the 
heads of these families— if there were twenly — 
have been traditionally preserved. It would be 
a genuine pleasure to set forth the names of all, 
men, women, and children, in letters of gold. 
We have only the names of the following: 






These were certainly of the party. In addi- 
tion we have the names of Isaac Kiinblv, upon 
the authority of his son, lesiding in Orleans, 
Indiana, so late as 1852: and of James (Iraham, 
on the authority of the veteran Keiituckian, his 
son,. Dr. C. C Graham, of Louisville. Dr. 
Craik, in his Hi.^torical Sketches of Chribt 
Church, says that John and .\nn Rogers Clark, 
parents of General Clark, "with their numerous 
family, came to Louisville with the lust emigra- 
tion. They settled at Mulberry Hill, the present 
[1862] residence of their giandr^oii, L-.aac 
Clark, and are buried there, along with many of 
their descendants '' 

These and their associates, then, as we have 
often put the fact in various ways, were tlie lir^t 
of civilized stock to rear their homes about the 
Falls of the Ohio. Not a single white man had 

preceded them, to set up his household god; 
amid these lovely surroundings. The beautiful 
jjlateau, the picturesque slopes, were as yet un 
broken, save by the stake or the tent-peg of the 
surveyor. The silence of the primeval wilderness 
was aiound them. They were alone with Nature 
and with (iod. The lurking savage, howe\-er, 
looked with angered eyes from the shore, and 
planned the solitary murder or the ferocious mas- 
sacie. Only a fev,- (iays before llieii landing, on 
the 25th of May, a boat ascending Salt river 
had been att.icked by the Indians, with disastrous 
results to its occupants. Mr. Casseday has well 
written : 

Truly so bold and heioie on ael as ihis of thai feeble land 
deseives a perpemily beyond the mere name of the 
isT.ind will piee it. Columns have been reared .and statues 
creeled, festivals have l)een instituted and commemorations 
held, of deeds far less wonhy of lenown than was tliis httle 
settlement's crop of corn, liut, lil<e many other deeds of 
true heroism, it is forgolti^n, for there was wanted the pen 
and the lyre to make it live forever. The founders of the 
patent colony themselves did never greater deeds of heroism 
than did these pioneers of Louisville. And yet the vciy his- 
torians of tlie fact speak of it without a word of wonder or 
of admiration. Even in I.onisville herself, now in her palm- 
iest days, the Pilgrim's l.inding is commemorated e.acli return- 
ing year, while the equal daring, danger, and victory of the 
Western pioneer has sunk into oblivion. But it is ever so. 
Men m.ay li\e for a hundred years within the very roar of 
Niagara, and yet lire uninspired until the same sound falls 
upon the car or the same sight greets the eye on the far-off 
sliores of the Evelino or the .Arno. t-lrin's bard has ever told 
the praises of the Orienl.i! clime ; the lord of I^nglish venie 
has tuned his lyre under a foreign sky ; the .Mautuan bard 
has sung "arm.t viriiiii/iic Tn'jae," and the poet of Italy 
has soared even beyond the tjoimds of space in search of 
noselly: so we must wait for a stranger hand to weave the 
magic charm around the pioneers of our forest land. 

.\s has [jreviously been noted, the first-comers 
fouiid Corn island covered with a growth of tim- 
ber, beneath which were dense cane-brakes, 
which the troops with Clark, in the otherwise 
idle days pending the de|)arture of the expedi- 
tion, helped the colonists to clear for their cabins 
and trrst crop of corn. 

Another famous family, said to have settled in 
this vicinity this year, was that of the Hites. Mr. 
Isaac Hite was among the tiist to explore the 
Kentucky wilderness, being one of the renowned 
'■ ten hunters of Kentucky," of whom Daniel 
lioone was an<jther. He settled east of Louis- 
ville in 177S. and there died seven years after- 
wauls. Caiitain Aliinham Hite, his brother, who 
held his commission in the army of the Revolu- 
tion I'rorn the of Washington himself, in 



17S2 removed I'lom JVikelcy county, \')u iiiia, 
tl)e ancestral home of the f.imily, and settled 
eight miles south of Louisville, ;in the trail \vlii(h 
'luis since become the Uardstoun reiad. , 'i'he 
• next year liis brother Joseijh became a neighbor 
two miles further to the southward ; and still an- 
other year brought the father of all of them, the 
senior Abraham liite, to li\e the rest of his years 
and die among his children. He passed peace- 
fully away in 17S6. '1 lie younger'.-\hraham sur- 
vived till I S3 2, leaving a son of the same name, 
who became a prominent merchant in Louisville. 
Joseph Hite died the year before. Their inju- 
ries at the hands of the savages are related in 
our chapter upon the Indians. Theiis is one of 
tlie most notable families among the pioneers of 
Jefferson county. 

Likewise acconi[ianying the exjiedition into 
th^ Illinois country, as a voluntary aid to General 
Clark, was a youth of eighteen, afterwards father 
of one of Louisville's most useful physicians, 
the renowned Dr. James Chew Johnston. He 
was a native of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, 
born in 1760, and a graduate of William and 
Mary college the same year in which he came to 
the Falls with Clark. After the conquest of the 
Northwest, through the General's inlluence he 
was appointed clerk of Kentucky county, and 
upon the formation of Jefferson county he was 
appointed its first clerk. He was also land 
agent in this State, dming many years, for people 
desiring locations here. During one of his land 
excursions his party was attacked by Indians, 
and he was wounded, taken, and kept eight 
months in captivity. In 1785 he married F^liza, 
the daughter of Captain James Winn, three days 
after the arrival of the family. Dr. Johnson was 
the first-born of this marriage, in 17S7. The 
father died in 1797, at his residence on the cor- 
ner of Main and Sixth streets. 


Mr. Butler, in his History of Kentucky, gives 
the following account of the proceedings at Corn 
Island, when the t'orces had all rendezvoused 
there : 

On the airival of Colonel Gonnian's party, the forces of 
the country were found too we.ik to justify I.ikiiij man)- from 
Kentucky. Clark, therefoie. engaged Ljut one company and 
part of another from this quaiter, expeciini; them to be 
repl.aced by the troops of .M.ijor .'Smith. Here Clark dis- 
closed to the troops his real dcstmaiion to Kaakaskia. and. 
honorably to the gallant feelini;s of the times, the plan \\a.s 

a:iiently concnrred in by all the detachment, except the com- 
pany of Captain Uillard. '1 he boats wure, therefore, ordered 
lo be well sccined, and seiilincls were pl.iced where it was 
supposed the men miglu wade across tlie river (from Corn 
Island] lo the Kentucky shove. This was the day before 
Clark inlemUd to start; but a lilllc l)efore night the greater 
pail of I'apt.iia Dill.ird's company, with a lieutenant, whose 
name is generously s[3arcd by Colonel Cl.iik. passed the sen- 
tinels uniierceived, and got lo the opposite bank. The dis- 
appointment was cruel, its consequences alarming. Clark 
immediately mounted a party on the horses of the Hariods- 
burg gentlemen, and sent after the deserters, with orders to 
kill all who' resisted. The pursuers overlook the fugitives 
about t\venty miles in advance ; these soon scattered through 
the woods, and, exce|it seven or eight who were brought 
back, su'fl'ered most severely every species of distress. The 
people of Harrodsiown felt the baseness of the lieutenant's 
conduct so keenly, and resented it with such indignation, 
that they would not for some time let him or his companions 
into the fort. On the return of this detachment from the 
pur.suit, a day of lejoicing was spent between the troops 
about to descend the river, and those who were to return on 
a sen'ice liltle inferior in danger and privation, the defense of 
tlie interior stations. 


In a previous extract from the -Annals of the 
\\'est, the number of companies forming Gen- 
eral Clark's expedition is given as three. It is 
quite Certain, however, that there was one more, 
which joined him at the Falls, and that the four 
companies were commanded severally by Cap- 
tains John Montgomery, Leonaj;d Helm, Joseph 
Kowinan, and the redoubtable William Harrod. 
'Che famous pioneer and Indian fighter, Simon. 
Kenton, from his station near Maysville, also 
John Haggin, were of the party. Dr. McMur- 
trie, in his Sketches of Louisville, says that 
Clark's force numbered three hundred, and that 
he landed his troops and the accompanying 
families at Corn Island "in order to deceive the 
enemy." Mr. Collins is nearer right, however, 
and may have have the exact figures, in setting 
the number, at least of those who left the Falls, 
at one hundred and fifty-three men. We have 
seen the dititiculties with which Clark struggled 
in the raising of his force, and his companies 
were doubtless small. They were probably 
larger than the figures last given would indicate, 
since some of the soldiers would be let't on the 
island to hold the block-house and protect the 
settlers. On the 24th of June, all preparations 
being completed, the ex|)edition ran down the 
Falls — during a total ecli[)se of the sun, it is 
said — and dejjarted on their ha.'^ardous but suc- 
cessful and renowned expedition, with which it 
is an enduring glory to have the foundations of 



Louisville associated. \\'e need not I'olhjw it 
further. The story has been inld elsewhere. 
Return \vc to 


They were now upon ihe inninland, on the 
Kentucky shore. Corn Island was obviously 
but a teui]ioiary hotne. It was too strait for 
even the beginnings of permanent setdenient, 
though it had 'served an e\r-<-11.>rjt i'nii=ient pur- 
pose, while the colonists were strengthenniL; in 
numbers and energies, and awaiiing the return 
of the soldiers from the Illinois expedition. In 
the spring of 1779 a few nioic families, immi- 
grating from \'irginia, had joined the band. In 
October of the previous autumn, the soldiers 
discharged by General Clark at Kaskaskia, as no 
longer needed for his military operations, 
returned to the J'alls. They were, however, 
under the charge of Captain William Linn (one 
of the voyagers of 1776-77, from Foit Pitt to 
New Orleans, for supplies of gunpowder), di- 
rected by General Clark to build a stockade or 
lude fort on the mainland, near the island. The 
site selected is believed to have been near and 
on the east side C)f the broad and deep ravine 
which, so late as 1S3S, maiked the intersection 
of Twelfth street with the river. About this — 
whether erected in the fall of 17 78, or, as some 
say, early in 1779 — the movers from Corn Island 
began to cluster. Some doubtless came to the 
shore m the autumn and elected their cabins 
upon a spot which was said by Ur. Mc.Murtrie, 
in 1819, to have borne the name of the White 
Home. The next year, undoubtedly, the corn 
product and all valuables being removed from 
the island, all the immigrants planted themselves 
in the new domiciles upon the actual present 
site of Louisville. The new-comers from Vir- 
ginia settled upon lots or tracts adjoining, but a 
little below, those occupied by the pioneers of 


In the spring of this year there seems to have 
been a survey of lots at the Falls, possibly exe- 
cuted by the draughtsman of a map which is still 
extant, dated April 20, 1779, and the work of 
one AVilliam Bard or Beard. It is just possible, 
also, that this rude, primitive map records the 
much-doubted work of Captain Bullitt, in laying 
off a town at the Falls nearly six years before. 

It is certain that the stakes ol a formal survey 
of lots were already here in 1779, andtliat Bard 
was a surveyor, for one of the early settlers, Asa 
•Emerson, in a petilicui to the town trustees Oc- 
tober 27, 17S5, expressly declared that in this 
year he drew a lot here, and that it had been sur- 
veyed by Bald. Colonel lUiiiett, who is per- 
fectly familiar with the liaid map, gives the fol- 
lowing interesting description of it: 

Tliis map'ibows ihal ihe cily H.i:; first I.iid out along llie 
river bank, from First to liigliteeiith struct. Ranges of lialf- 
acre lots appear on both sides of Main street, from I'irst to 
Twelflli, and there tliey turn toward the river and run along 
its bank froru one to three bloeks deep, as low down as 
Eighteenth street. The triangle formed by Main street on 
the south. Twelfth street on the west, and the river bank on 
llic north and cast, on which stood the old fori, was not laid 
off into lots. The numbering of these lots was the strangest 
conceit that ever entered into the head of an engineer. It 
began with number or.c, on the corner of Main and 
Fifth street, and jnoceeded eastwardly up the north side of 
Main to First street, where number sixteen was reached; then 
crossed over .\l.iin street, and went back.ilong the south side 
westwardly again to Fifth street, where thirty-two was 
readied. It tlien crossed to the north side of Main street 
again, and proceeded westwardly from thirty-three to forty- 
eight, where Nmth street was reached; then again crossed to 
the south side of .Main, and went back easterly again to si.xty. 
four, at Fifth street. It then went back again to the north 
side of Main, at Nmth street, and proceeded westerly from 
sixty-five to seventy-two, where Ele\enth street was reached; 
then crossed to the south side of Main, and went back again 
easterly from seventy-three to eighty, where Ninth street was 
reached. Then it began ag.iin on the north side of Main, at 
Eleventh street, with number eighty-one, and went westerly 
down Main street to Twelfth, then turned down Twelfth to ^ 
the river bank, then went off westerly again to Fourteenth 
street, then along both sides of Fourteenth to the river bank, 
and then, wound round and about in the triangle formed by 
these streets and the river in such confusion as no engineer 
ever prub.ably before caused in the numbering of town lots. 
And tlien, to make the confusion of this mode of numbering 
yet worse confounded, this unprecedented map-maker began 
again with number one at Fifteenth street, and wound round 
backwards and forwards up and down Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth streets until number thirjy-eight was reached, when he 
suddenly closed his arithmetic and left the lots on Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth sti'eets unnumbered. These lots were all to 
be drawn possibly from numbers put into a hal and shaken 
together; and it may h.we entered into the head of the 
surveyor to prevent- any juggling by so numbering the lots 
that nobody holding the hat or nianipuladng the drawing 
cuuld understand by the nuinberswhere the lots were located. 

It will be observed that this plat stretched 
from First to Eighteenth streets. About one- 
third of it, then, reached beyond the Connolly 
tract, and by so much lay upon the lands of 
Colonel Campbell --located there, it seems, with- 
out his leave or license. He objected, in a style 
so vigorous and effective that that part of the 



town-site was abandoncJ and the ['Int instead 
pushed out southward between 1 ir=t and Twelfth 
streets. Eighty-six of the nn.inliers drawn in 
llie lottery, however, which Colonel niirrett says 
occurred on the day of the date of Bard's map, 
remained in tlie hands of those who drew tlieni. 
'J'hey were half-acre lots, lying on both sides of 
Main street, from First to Twelfth. They cost 
the owners but tliree shillings, cxccnt a 
dozen or so, which came hii;her. 

According to the biographical work entitled 
■ Eouisville Past and Present, among the colon- 
ists this year, of the settlement thai wa.s presently 
to become Louisville, were Benjamin and Hettie 
Pope, from Pope's Creek, Virginia, where their 
little son was born seven years before. He, 
Worden Pope, was destined to become one of 
the most prominent citizens of the place. He 
was one of the earliest lawyers in Louisville, and 
grew to be one of the very first public men in all 
other respects. He was a[)pointed clerk of the 
supreme court of Jefferson county about 1796, 
and in that year, when but twenty-four years old, 
was also made clerk of the county court. He 
held the latter [lost tbrty-two years, or until 
his death April 20, 1S38, and the former office 
until shortly before that sad event. As clerk 
of the county court he had superior opportuni- 
ties of acqiliring wealth through the knowledge 
of town property thus obtained; but he refused 
to use his office in any such way for personal 
aggrandizement. He was a great I'riend and 
admirer of General Jackson, and was the gener- 
ous entertainer of the old hero when, as Presi- 
dent of the United States, he visited Louisville. 


Some events of interest marked the year in 
the infant settlement. Before it was t'airly set- 
tled upon the mainland — namely, in the latter 
part of April — it was called upon to contribute 
as many able-bodied men as would go volunta- 
rily, to the expedition organized by Colonel Ji>hn 
Bowman, County Lieutenant of the county of 
Kentucky, against the Indian towns on the Lit 
tie .Miami river, in Ohio, for the purpose of in- 
tnmd.uing the Indians, and discouraging their 
incur>ions into Kentucky. We know not the 
(.vact roll of volunteers from the Falls — "we 

were all volunteers, " deposed one long al'terwards, 
"and found outselves" — but it is iirobable 
that a large] art of C!aplain William Harrod's 
conipan\- of 1780, whose roll is published in our 
military record of Jefferson county, were already 
on the ground, and were out in this expedition. 
It is known to have arrived at the mouth of the 
Licking about sixty strong. From depositions 
taken in iSo.|, it is learned that such well-known 
jMoneers, in this region and the interior, as Colo 
nels Robert Patterson (one of the founders of 
Cincinnati), William Whitley, and Levi Todd, 
James Guthrie, James Sodowsky, Benjamin 
Berry, and others, were among the volunteeis. 
No pecuniary inducement had they to the expe- 
j dilion, and little other than the instinct of self- 
I preservation or of revenge u[)on the murdering 
and torturing redskin. For piovi.sions they re- 
j cei\ed but a peek of parched corn apiece, and 
: some "public beef" upon arriving at Lexington, 
I their trusty rilles and the teeming forest being re- 
; lied upon for the rest of their subsistence. The 
requisition ujjon the men at the Falls included 
I boats for crossing the C)hio at the nujuth of the 
; Licking. Two batteaux were obtained and 
j manned, and sent up the river. The rest o{ the 
1 com[)any took their way by the buffalo roads and 
Indian trails through the wilderness to the ren- 
1 dezvous on the present site of Covington. 
I Stirling times the little settlement by the Falls 
of the Ohio must have witnessed while this di- 
j vision of the expedition was preparing. Time 
was given in the orders of Bowman for com- 
planting, which the men were instructed to look 
to before the appointed day of assembly at the 
j mouth of the Licking. This over, Captain Har- 
! rod, as a deponent testified a quarter of a cen- 
j tury afterwards, "harangued the people then 
j there [at the FallsJ, showing the necessity of th.e 
expedition, and that the settlements from the 
; the other parts of Kentucky were desirous of 
having the expedition carried into effect." The 
volunteers were already equipped with the simple 
weapons and accouterments of the pioneer; the 
few necessary preparations were ra[)idly com- 
pleted; and the biave company disa|ipeared in 
•he dense woods and up the broad and rippiling 
river. It wa-, a silent .md solemn time then for 
the feeble colony, left .ilnuj>t denuded of its de 
fenders in a hostile land. For many days it was 
without news of the living or the dead of the 



campaign ; hul l.y and by ihc- imljlc warriors of 
the Falls, lluihcU with succes.-;, and each, prob- 
ably, l>caiinj4 a sli:uc of ihf Indian iilundci "di-s-. 
])Oscd cif ainoni; llu inselvL'S by way of vendue" 
— after crossing the Ohio from the month of llie 
Little Miami, preity-iuarly at the spot now occu- 
pied by the iSewport water works — came gaily 
marching home again. 

TtlK 1I1-;ST lUKIil. 

It is very probable, reasoning fioin analogy and 
the number of families now on the spot, that the 
first white native of the pie-Louisville village was 
ushered into existence tins year. The Louisville 
Journal, in June, 1S52, published the claim of 
Mr. Isaac Kimbly, then of Orleans, Orange 
county, Indiana, to be regarded as the lirst-born 
of the colony. Me had called personally upon 
the editor, Mr. Prentice, atTirming that he first saw 
the light upon Corn Island in 1779, and that he 
was the first child bom m what is now Jefferson 
county. This claim, however, as regards the 
county at large, is made more reasonably fur the 
late Elisha Applegate, who was born in i7yi, 
'five miles from Louisville, on the IJardstown 
road, at Sullivan's Station. Captain Thomas 
Joycs, a lifetime resident of this city and brother 
of John Joyes, Mayor in 1S34- 35, is often re- 
puted to have been the first white child born 
here. But his natal day was December 9, 17S7; 
and it is incredible that no other infant was pie- 
viously born in the colony, then nearly ten years 
old, unless the laws of nature were quite miraca- 
lously suspended. . 

Mr. Collins (vol. ii, page 35S, History of Ken- 
tucky) presents still another claimant for prece- 
dency in nativity at Louisville, in the person of 
Captain John Donne; but dates and details are 
left altogether out of the account. 

The first marriage in the place, according to 
Collins, was that of Mrs. Lucy Rrashears, a na- 
tive of Virginia, who was in the f(5tt at Boones- 
borough during the savage attack of 177S, and 
died in Madison county, November, 1S54, at 
at the great age of ninety-three. W'e are left in 
the dark as to the exact date of this marriage, or 
who was the happy groom in the case. 


The founder of Boonesborough was again here 
this year, probably on a friendly visit to the new- 
comers, and perhaps also on a surveying expedi- 

tion. 'I'iie fact of his visit at this time was nut 

ascertained until about tliirt\- years ago, when 

j some gentlemen liajipened to observe, inscribed 

I upon an aged tree near the southeastern limits of 

I the city, the n.ime "D. BouNi:,'' with the ilale 

I "1779." '^'^'^ annual rings of growth in the 

tree, ap])areiUly iVjrmed since the carving was 

done, confiimed the authenticity of the inscri[) ■ 

tiun, and a block containing it was cut out and 

deposited with the Kentucky Historical society. 

No incidents o! Boone's visit are recorded. 

The other famous Boone of Kentucky was 
also here, possibly at the same time. An inter- 
esting narrative, immediately related to the \'isii, 
is thus recited by Mr. Casseday: 

111 the spring; of 1779 'Squire lioone, tlic Ijrothijr of D.-inifl, 
in tompany wiili two otlicrs, wunt from lIic F:ills to Bullitt's 
lic;l< to shoot biilT;ilo. After finishing tlicir sport, they were 
irmrning home, wlien night overtook thorn at Stewart's 
spring. The young men proposed to remain here for tlie 
night, but Boone ohj-.'cted, fearing an attack from the In- 
dians. They aceordingly turned off some three hundred 
y.ird.s to the west, v.hcre they encamped for the night. There, 
wliile Boone and anotl,er of tlic parly were arranging for the 
cncajnpmcnt, tlic third, being idle, amused liimsecf by cutting 
a name and a few words on the bark of the tree. Afterwards, 
in 1811, during some legal investigation about lands, Boone 
testified to the e.f i-.tence of these marks near Stewart's spring, 
and upon e.xaminalion they were found just as he had stated, 
although tliirty-two years had elapsed since the cut was 
made. This fact ii placed upon record in the court of ap- 
peals, and does not admit of a doubt. The instance before 
referred to [that concerning Daniel Boone"" is of a precisely 
similar character, and the marks are probably equally au- 
thentic as those of the last. 


The single reminiscence of social life in 
Louisville this year which has come down, is 
that of a general banquet of the settlers u]Kin a 
simple flour-cake, made from the earliest wheat 
product of the season. The old story runs thus: 

It is related that, when the first patch of wheat was laiie 1 
about this place, after being ground in a nide and laborious 
hand-mill, it was sifted through a gauze neckerchief, belong- 
ing to the mother of the gallant man who gave us the infor- 
m.uion, as the best bolting-cloth to be had. It was then 
shortened, as the housewife phrases it, with raccoon fat, aiui 
the whole station invited to p.irt.ike of a sumptuous feast 
upon a fluur-cake. 


Not so amusing, however, were the terrible 
experiences of the coming winter. The immi- 
grants of 1779 had an' inhospitafile and unex- 
cxjiected welcome to thesup[)osed genial climate 
of Kentucky. The winter of that year and 
early 1780 set in cold and hard, though pre- 



ccdfd, like that of iSSo-Si, by mild fall weathoi. 
It is believed to have been the severest ever 
knowa in this res^ioii in niodeni times, and has 
be^ii handed down in local tiadition and history 
as "the Cold Winter." Its effects, like those of 
the late memorable season (iSSo-Si), eNttnded 
fir to the southward. The Cumberland river, in 
the vicinity of Nabh\ille, was frozen so hard that 
rattle crossed upon il. At the Last the cold 
yet more intense. 'I'he ire in tlie l)elav,are at 
Philadelphia was three feet thick, and the river 
was frozen fast for more than one luindred days. 
Long Island sound was covered with a continu- 
ous sheet of ice, and Chesapeake bay was crossed 
to and from AnnajioHs with loaded sleds. Of 
the long and terrible winter in this qiiarter it is 
said that. around Harrodsburg, in the interior of 
Kentucky, three months frfini the rjiiddle of No- 
vember there was noi once a thaw of ice and 
snow; driving snow-storms and dibinal, cutting 
winds were almost daily in their occurrence. 
The smallei rivers a:id even brooks were so solid- 
ly frozen that water could oiily be had by mcltmg 
ice and snow. The suffering thus brouglit upor, 
human beings was exceedingly great: but what 
the poor dumb brutes had to enduie is told in j 
part only by their actions. All niglit long, the 
bellowings and roarings of herds of wild buf- i 
falocs and other animals, as tluy struggled for . 
shelter and warmth,, sounded in the ears of the 
pioneer, and daylight not unfrequently showed I 
the dead bodies of the poor creatures fro/en and j 
starved to death. j 

For themselves, in their close, warm cabins i 
and with unlimited supplies of fuel at the very ' 
door, the settlers were comparatively heedless of ' 
the season, which served them a very good pur- ; 
pose in one particular, to keep the marauding ! 
Indian away. Th-jir cattle were almost univer- 
sally destroyed by its inclemency, however, and 
corn became so scarce as to rise to a price vary- 
ing from fifty to one hundred and seventy-five ' 
dollars per bushel in Continental money, the chief 
currency of that time. It is somewhat sadly inter- 
esting to note that, such was the persistence and ' 
perseverance of the large immigration now set- ] 
ting into Kentucky, that many hapless persons ! 
undertook the movement in the very face of the | 
awful rigors of this season. A number of fami- 
lies were cauglu by it between Cumberland Gap j 
and their intended places of selttement, and some 

were compelled l''i sto|i and dwell in tents 
or huts until the spring brouglit relaxaiioii of the 
blockade of ice and snow. 



17S0— The Great liiiniiijtalion— Louisville ;\t Last— '1 lie .Xct 
Lsi.iblishing the '1 own — Named from Louis X\T., Km:; 
of France — .sketch of Ivjiiis — Suiveys of 
the lowu l'l,u--|nrcd Lio.-kss Stn vey- The Prices of 
Lots— Original Ouiieis — Acce5.-;ions to the Settlcmcnt--- 
Thomas Holm —Military Movements. 1781 — Transactions 
of the ToHii 'I'ruslees— .\ccount of Their Stewardship — 
.\ncienl 1-iules of the Roard — Immigration of Young 
Woman —Military Matters-Residents of Louisville in 
1781— The First Figlit— -Another Hard Winter. 1782 — 
The "Old I'orts" — Fort Nelson — Named from Governor 
.Nelson— .\ Terrible Vcar — The Roginning of Commerce — 
More Cold Winters. r7S3— The First Store — Peace and 
P.' u5;ieiity— William Comes to Louisville — Reduc- 
t!..nt/f the .Militi'.ry— .V Troublesome Disciple of Paine— 
Some Important Legislation — Prices — Colonel K. C. .\n- 
derson— Major Harrison. 1784— .-\nother Act -Tiie First 
Land Oliice — The Surveyor's Office Opened — The 
County Surveyors — Crevecojur's Wonderful Stories. 1785 
— Beginning of Shippingport — The Taylors — Visit of 
I^wis Urantz to the Falls — Visit of Generals liutler and 
Parsons — F.xtracts from Butler's Journal. 1786 — Clark's 
Last E.vpedition — Logan's fiv;pedition — Major Denny's 
Journal— Immigration Down the Oliio-The Spanish Com- 
plications — Green's Letters from Louisville — I'ree Naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi Secured — F^xtension of Time for 
Building on Lots — New Commissioners and Trustees. 
1787 — Dr. James C. Johnston Born in Louisville — First 
Kentucky Newspaper. 1788 — The First Census — Cold, 
Floods, and Sickness — .-Xdventure with the Indians. t789 
— The First Brick House — .-\dditional Trustees of the • 

When the Ohio river had re-opened and 
balmier airs returned, an emigration hitherto un- 
precedented in Western annals was observable 
upon the river. During this spring no less than 
three hundred "large family boats" are recorded 
as arriving at the Falls. Not all stop here, but 
some do. Many of the new-comers have brought 
their heavy wagons and horses upon the boats, 
and as many as ten or fifteen wagons per day are 
counted at times passing into the interior. 

Among the more transient visitors is a pioneer 
of some note, who has left a permanent mem- 
orandum of his trii) — .^Ir. Thomas Vickroy, 
who was one of the war-party under General 
Clark that built the block-houses the same year 



upon the r.ite o!" Cinciniuui, anil who afterwards 
aided in l.iyin- off the pl.U of I'itisNurg. He 
gives valuable testimony to the-difrtcnlties of the 
situation at this jioiiit and in the vicinity. • In a 
•narrative contributed to the press long after, lie 
says : 

In April, 1780, 1 went to KeiUULky, in company witli 
eleven flat-l)oats « Uli niovcij. W'c Innded, on the ^th of 
May. at the mouth of Heaigr.iss creek , iibove the I'alls of 
Ohio. I look my roriip.iss and chriin niont; to nial;e a for- 
tune by surveying, but wlien we got there tlie Indians would 
not let us survey. . Uen-rai Clark raised an 

army of about a tliou,and men, and marched with one party 
of them against tlie Indian towns. When we came to the 
mouth of the Licking we fell in w ith Colonel Todd and his 
pany. On the ist day of .August, 1780, we crossed the Ohio 
ri^er and built the two block-house^ where Cincinnati now 

i.ouisviM.K .\r i.Asr. 
It is estimated that the villa.m; upon the Ken- 
tucky shore at the I'alls, with the adjacent stations 
ujion the I?eargrass, now contained a population 
of not less than si.K hundred souls. The fullness 
of time was come for the settlement to have a 
name and authorized town site, as it had already 
a "local habitation." In .NLiy, 17S0, the follow- 
ing memorable enacinienc passes the .Assembly 
of X'irginia — for there is no Stale of Kentucky 
as yet : 

Acf f.r eit.:bUih:ii; the T'-..-: 0/ I.,'iu>v,IU. .it t/u- Falls 
of Ohi!>. 

Wnr.KK.As. sundrv inh.ibitants of tlie eountv of Reniuckv 
have, at great expense and haz.ird, settled llienise!\e5 upon 
certain lands at the Falls of Ohio, said to be the ptopcrtv of 
John Connolly, and have laid off a considerable part thereof 
into half-acre lots for a town, and. h.ning settled thereon, 
have preferred petitions to this General .\sscmbly to establish 
the said town, Be it there/ore enart,;/. That one thousand 
acres of land, being the forfeited property of said John Con- 
nolly, adjoining the lands of |uhn Campbell and 

Taylor, be. and the same is hereby vested in John Todd. Jr., 
Stephen Trigg, George Slaughter, John Floyd, William 
Pope, George Merriweathet, .\ndrew Hiues, James Sullivan, 
and Marshal Rrashiers. gentlemen, tnistees. to be by them 
or any four of them laid off into lots of an half-acre each. 
with convenient streets and public lots, wiiich sh.ill be. and 
the same is hereby established a town b; the name of Louis- 

And be it fiirthLr enacted. That after the said lands shall 
be laid oft' into lots and streets, the 5 li.l trustees, or any four 
of them, sh.dl proceed to sell the s.iid lots, or so many of 
them as they shall judge e\ix:dient, at public auction, for the 
best price that can be had, the time and of sale being 
advertised two months, at the court-houses of adjacent coun- 
ties; the purchasers respectively to hold their s.iid lots sub- 
ject to the condition of building on each a dwelling-house, 
sixteen feet by twenty at ieist, wiih a brick or stone chim- 
ney, to be finished within two years from the dav of sale. 
And the said trustees, or any four of them, shall and they 
are hereby empowered to convey the said lots to the pur- 

i chasers thereof in tee simple, subject to the condition afon- 

said, on payment of the money arising from such s.ile to ih.; 

said trustees for the use hereafter mentioned, that is to say : 

I If the money arising from such sale shall amount to $30 per 

j acre, the whole shall lie paid by the said trustees into the 

• treasury of this commonwealth, and the overpUis, if any, 

j shall be lodged with the court of the county of Jefferson to 

i enable them to defr iv the expenses of erecting the publick 

i buildings of the s.iii' county. P)\':';idcJ. That the owners of 

j lots already drawn shall be entitled to the preference therein, 

j upon paying to the trustees the sum of $30 for such half-acre 

lot, .and shall thereafter be subject to the same oUigations of 

j settling a.s other lot-holders within the said town. 

And he i> /i<rt/:cy en.uted. That' the said trustee';, or the 
m.ajor part of them, shall have power, from time to time, to 
settle and determine all disputes concerningjthe bounds of the 
said lots, to settle such rules and orders for the regular build- 
ing thereon as to them shall seem best and most convenient. 
.And in case of de.ilh or removal from the county of any of 
the said trustees, the remaining trustees shall supply such 
vacancies by electing of others from time io time, who shall 
be vested with the s.ime powers as those already mentioned. 

And h- it further enacted. That the purcl.asers of the 
lots in the said town, so soon as they shall have saved the 
same according to their respective deeds of conveyance-, shall 
have and enjoy all the rights, privileges, and immunities 
wliich the freeholders and inhabitants of oiiier towns in this 
State, not incorporated by charter, h.ave, hold, and enjoy. 

And be it fiirtJier enacted, That if the purch.aser of any 
lot shall fail to build thereon within the time before limited, 
the said trustees, or a major part of th.em, may thereupon 
enter into such lot, and ni.ay either sell the same again and 
apply the money towards repairing the streets, or in any 
other way for the benefit of the said town, or appropriate 
such lot to publick uses for the benefit of said town. Provided, 
That nothing herein contained shall extend to affect or injure 
the title of lands claimed by John Campbell, gentleman, or 
those persons whose lots have been laid olY on his lands, but 
their titles be and rem;tm suspended until the said John 
Campbell shall be released from his capti\iiy. 

The same act made provision for the creation 
of another town, somewhere in Rockingham 
county, Virginia, it has hardly made the name 
in the world that the Falls City has. 

This act was not signed by the Speaker of the 
House of Delegates until the ist of July; but by 
the rule of the Legislature it was of full force and 
effect from May i, 1780, which is the true birth- 
day of Louisville. Its passage did not become 
known at the Falls until some months at"tervvards, 
and, as we shall see, there was no meeting of the 
town trustees until the ne.xt year. 

The new town took its renowned and royal 
name in honor of 


who had a little more 'than two years before, 
February 6, 1778, concluded a treaty of alliance 
with the American colonies, and then sent his 
armies, with tlic young Marquis de la Fayette 



nnd other military and naval heroes, to aid the 
struggling cause of independence. The Sixiecnth 
Loiii.s, of the house of Koiirbon, grandson and 
immediate successor of Louis X\", was bom in 
the palace of Versailles August 23, 1754, and 
perished by the guillotine in Paris January 2r, 
i79:>. .-Xt the age of eleven he became hcii pre- 
sumptive to the crov, ii, on the de.ith of his 
father; in his sixteenth year was married to the 
celebrated Marie Antoinette, Archduchess of 
Austria, whose head also went to the basket in 
the bloody '9;,. >Lay 10, 17-4, still not twenty 
years of age, Louis became king liy the demise 
of his grandfather. He- had received a good 
education, had already done some literary work, 
was an accomplished locksmith, and had given 
much attention to the mechanics of printing. 
He now cut down the expenses of the royal 
household and the number of the guards, and 
otherwise attempted reforms, one of which was 
attended by serious riots. He was averse to en- 
gaging in war on .-\meiica's account, but was 
overborne by his ministers and the queen, and 
became involved in a costly war with l-^nuland 
which nearly ruined the nation. Much of the 
rest of his reign was spent in grappling v.ith 
financial difficulties and the disaffection of his 
subjects. In 17S9 the Revolution broke out, 
and the Bastile was stormed July 14. Just a year 
from that time he took oath to be faithful to the 
constitution which the National .Assembly had 
then in preparation. One year more and he was 
a prisoner in the hands of the Assembly in his 
own capital, provisionally suspended from his 
functions as king. He became king again in 
September, but a year thereafter France was de- 
clared a republic, and the end for him soon 
came. Tried and condemned on absurd charges, 
he was sentenced to death, and the next Jan- 
uary counted one more among the victims of 
"La Guillotine." He was godfather and the 
queen stood as godmother of the infant Duke of 
Orleans, afterwards Louis Philippe, King of 
France, who visited Louisville in his tour of the 
L'nited States in 1796-97. 


There had obviously been some subdivision 
of the larger tracts into lots a: a period or at 
periods anterior to the passage of the act, as pro- 
bably in the early pan of 1779, though we think 

none of them date back so far as i7;3. Lln- 
doubtedly the movement from Corn Island to 
the mainland was [irecedcd by a survey of the 
ground proposed to be occupied, its di\-ision into 
lots (ui half an acre each, and quite probably 
with outlots also), and their apportionment by 
lottery to the settlers thereon. The last indi- 
cated operation was altogether common in the 
establishment of new towns in that day, and 
' seems to be implied dl-tincily in the meniion in 
the act of 1780 of "lots already drawn." Put, 
whatever the surveys before or immediately after 
the passage of the act, the record of them has 
pel ished, except for the Bard map of 1779, as 
utterly as the annals of the Mound Builders. 
Singular as it may appear, no other register, no 
copy, no authentic description, no intelligible 
reference in detail, exists at this day of the 
surveys by which the settlers of the antc-Louisville 
village, established their boundaries and reared 
their homes. It is only known that Colonel 
William Pojie made the survey contemplated by 
the act, in the same year of its passage, and that 
at no distant time thereafter a re-survey, or ad- 
ditional survey, was made liy \^'illiam Peyton 
and Daniel Sullivan, the latter of vhom is 
credited with the staking of the out-lots, and 
with the running, July 20, 17S4, of the division 
line between the halves of the two thousand acre 
tract originally granted to Connolly, and distin- 
gui.^hing the one thousand acres belonging to 
Campbell from the tract of equal size, which had 
been conllscated as the property of the Tory 

Much confusion, annoyance, and loss were 
naturally caused by the failure to preserve in au- 
thoritative shape the records of their surveys; but 
it was not until 18 12 that an attempt was made 
to ascertain the true boundaries established by 
them, and make an official record which would 
stand in the stead of their lost documents. This 
work was accomplished by Mr. Jared Brooks, 
whom we shall hear of again in 181 2; and his 
survey, officially adopted the same year, has since 
been the standard for early locations and bound- 
aries. According to Dr. McMurtrie, the out- 

*Ttie compass and chain used in some of iticsc early sur- 
veys is rep'>rtcd to h.uc been in possession of Colonel Quin- 
tus f. Shanks, of H.irifurd, Ohio county, Kentucky, as late 
as 1871. It was once the properly of William I'eyton, who 
surveyed much in company with the father of Colonel 
Shanks. Collins, vol. ii, (/jii. 



courses of ihis sviiwy were "fiom thirty-tne 
poles above llic moiitli of l!enri;r,iss i ictk, op. tl-.e 
bank of the Ohio river, south eiL^hty-thrce, we..t 
thirty-five poles to the irioiuh of ihe < leelc, thence 
north eighty-seven, west one iiundred and twenty 
poles, north fifty, v.-est om: hundred, and ten poles 
to a hcaj) of stones and a square hole cut in tlie 
flat rock, thence (the division line) south eighty- 
eight, cast seven hundred and sixty-nine to a 
vhite oak, poplar, and beech, north thirty-se\xii, 
west three hundred and ninety to the beginning: 
no variation." Hearing in mind that the mouth 
of Reargrass \vas then ncaily at the foot of Thiid 
street, it is not difticult to get the limits of the 
town-plat as indicated by the present map of the 
city. Six streets — -ALain, ^L^rket, Jefietson, 
Green, ^Valnut, and Chestnut- -intersected tl:e 
plat in the east and west diiection, and tlie pres- 
ent streets numbered from I'irst to Tuelfih inter- 
sected these at right angles, Th? general lines 
of these are jirobably unchanged to this day. 
The most temarkablc and lamentable departuie 
from the original plat was in the subdivision and 
sale to [Jiivate parties of a beautiful slip of one 
hundred and eighty i\.::i breadth, fi'om the north 
side of Green to the south side of Graysc^n 
streets, and running entirely across the plat, from 
First (Colonel Durret says from Floyd) to Twell'th 
streets. At Twelfth it ran into a tiiangular piece 
of land between Grayson street on the north, the 
lots laid out on Twell'tli street, and the old town 
line, which was devoted also to public purposts. 
This was reserved for a public common or park, 
. and as such is constantly referred to in the early 
^ legislative acts relating to the site of Louisville; 
and its abandonment and sale muat ever be re- 
garded as a public calamity. Such a beauty -sjioi 
and breathing-place in the lieait of the business 
quarter of the great city to come, with the ini 
mense trees of the primeval fore-t still uiion it, 
would now be worth even more than the golden 
eagles that would cover every square inch of its 
surface. 13ut the foresight of the "city fathers " 
of 1786 was not sulTicient to tell them this. 
May 4th of that year, tliey sold so much of it as 
lay between Floyd and East streets to William 
Johnson; on the 5th, the strip between F^ast and 
Seventh to ^L^jor William Croghan; on the 3d 
of .August the triangular tract to James Sullivan; 
but the destruction was not completed until llf- 
teen years later, when, March 7, iSoi, Colonel 

R. C. .Anderson bought the gai) remaining from 
Seventh to 'J'wcll'th streets. ']"hc last ojiportimity 
of an adequate paik in the hiiut of the city thu'; 
passed away. 

iiiK i'Kici:s OF Lor.s 
in Louisville, under tlic early surveys, may be 
easily ascertained by a reduction to I'edoral 
money of the \'iiginia l,l0und^. (at $3.33,!] per 
pound, mentioned in the list of sales [iieseiitly 
to be given. Some were sold. Mi. Collins tells 
us, at merely nominal prices - as a lot on Main 
street, near Fourth, which was knocked off b)' 
the ( rier on the bid of a horse in exchange for 
It, worth IniV .$jo.oo. The prices commonly, 
howe\er, as v.ill be seen below, must be regarded 
as very respectable for the times. 'I'hey were 
half-acre lots. 105x210 feet each, and some 
brought $7.00 to $14.00 apiece. 


We have now the pleasure of presenting a lii.t 
ol the highest interest and value, in connection 
with the beginnings here — one which we are 
assured has ne\er before been in print. It 
lepresents the sales for several years, by the 
trustees at public vendue, of in- and out-lots in 
the town of Louisville, and is copied from the 
original bofiks of record, now considerably 
dilapidated by time. We have omitted nothing, 
except the columns headed '"Received by" 
(filled by names of the several trustees to whom 
payments were made) and "Remarks," which 
very seldom include anything of importance. 
The orthography of names has been followed as 
found in the record. 

List of sales ot lots and kind in and adjoining 
the town of Louisville, at the Falls of Ohio: 

Ntnntter. Acrcb. I'urcliasers. Considcr.Llion. 

1 18 J:iculi Ke.ig^ir / 15 10 

2 20 J.^iiics Svillivnn 15 6 

3 po s.^me 20 

4 20 same ■ 20 5 

5 20 same 20 

6 20 Kliza Moore 22 6 

7 20 Ad^m Moops! 20 6 

8 2u James .Sullivan 22 

9 20 same 20 i 

10 2'j same 17 3 

11 20 same 16 i 

12 20 same 13 5 

13 8 same 7 ■ 

1 10 fames Patlon 6 12 

2 10 sainf 7 - 

3 10 Will lohnston 6 » 

4 10 fames Sullivan 10 

5 10 same 14 i 











1 outlot 

2 diUo 

3 ditto 
^ ditto 

2 of squares 

3 d;lto 
.4 ditto 

5 ditto 

6 ditto 

7 ditto 

8 ditto 

9 d.tlo 
10 ditto 
u ditto 
12 ditto 

: point over ^ 
.B.Mryrai5 ) 

V Old p 

rurcliascTS. Con- 

n.ivid Meriwether 

Edni'd Taylor 


Ad.'.ni Hoops ■ 

Jaines Siilliian 


same ■ 



Riehard Eastii: . 
James Sullivan. 

Will Johnston., 
lames Siillivaii . 
Adam Hoops. . 
Edm'd 'I'avlor. . 

7 16 

Samuel Kcrby. . . 
Jacob Keagar. . . . 
Beiija Kaiickson. 
jaines Su!h\an. . , 

John Dorrelt. . 
James Sulli\an 



Will Johnston. 
Will Cro;;ban . . 
George Rice. . . 
James SuIUvan. 
Andre\N Heih . . 
lames SuU!\an. 


John Sinkler 76 

Mark Thomas 20 

James Morrison 1 

same 4 

James Sullivan i 


Uan l'.ioai.e.,d, Jr.. 

1 Levin rowe'l.. . 

2 Jacob Myers. . . 

3 Simon Tnplott. 
I.evin I'OHell... 
3 Lc«is Myeri... 

6 John Todd.... 

7 William I'ope. . 

8 V\ill. Johnston. 

10 (s 

l-i.mi.-l Crodluj 
John C'onvsay. . 
Mer.-dah Price. 

d. U 


























^* "'d Purchaser. /. S. 

No. No. •^' 

15 15 Simon Triplett 3 

16 16 |. lines Pattou 3 

c I P'Uckiier I'itlman four 

V lots and Square Xuin- 

:^j i'".....'. 2, 

21 33 Michael Troiilraan ... 3 

22 34 .s,(imi,:l Bell..,-' 3 

23 35 William Christy 3 

24 36 Jacob Pye.itt 3 

2.^ 37 I'-dvvard Tyler 3 

20 38 (Ureennp claims) 3 

-7 39 Nico Meriv.ethcr ..'... 3 

25 40 same 3 

2y 41 Cieorgc Wilson 3 

30 42 same 3 

3r 43 ]ohn Todd 3 

32 4.J lames P.itten 3 

33 45 William Oldham 3 

34 4fi Heirs of Tbos. McGec. 3 

35 47 Joseph Sanders 3 

36 4$ Will. Johnston 1 16 

37 ^5 (Squire Boone) 3 

3fi 66 James Patten 3 

39 67 deorge Wilson 3 

40 63 Will, lohnston iS 6 

41 69 I'l'rotilnian claiir.sf.... 3 

42 70 Geo. Meriwether 3 

43 71 .Michl Tioiilman 3 

44 7.- same 3 

43 81 )^ (Is. Sullivan claims, 3 

46 82) ass'n Pope) 3 

47 83 r.dwd Holdman. ... 3 

48 84 Kerby & }--arickson. . . . 3 

49 85 I^TOh M.vers 3 

50 86 Will, Johnston 8 

51 Parnveiius Bullitt 13 

52 James Sullivan 6 

53 same 8 

54 Danl. Xead 10 

53 same 6 

j6 Walter Ed. Strong 4 

57 73 3 

58 74 Henry Floyd 3 

59 75 William Stafford 3 

60 76 Henry Floyd 3 

6i 77 Geo. Meriwether 3 

62 78 William Sw.ann 3 

03 79 Will, [ohnston 10 

64 80 George Wilson 3 

65 49 .-\ndrew Hynes 3 

Ob 50 Will. Johnston 16 

67 51 same 14 

63 52 Patrick Shone 3 

69 53 John Baker 3 

70 54 D.inl. Sullivan 3 

71 55 Will Johnston i 10 

72 56 John O. Frim 3 

73 57 James McCauley 3 

74 58 George Wilson 3 

-5 59 same ... 3 

76 Chj itiull claim.,) 3 

77 01 Kerby iK; Earickson. , 3 

78 62 Jacob Pyeatt 3 

79 63 Jacob Myers 3 



M.ay, ,7f<'. 

.Scinetntjei , 




June, .7B3 



June, 17S3 












May, 1786 

June, 1733 




June, 17F5 




June. 178, 

Mav, 1785 



May, 17S6 








June, .783 






Mav, 1786 

June, 1783 






May. 1786 






Mav, 1786 

June, 1783 




August, 178 


June, 1783 





yO 17 

rurclinsei. f^. S. U 

80 6.1 Henry IVencl, 3 

81 32 Simon Trip'eu 3 

82 31 sanif 5 

83 30 Willni Hclh ij 

8.1 ?3 Levin Poncll " 3 

85 28 \Vill.Jo!in£ic.:i i 3 

£6 27 Will. Hairod 3 

87 25 John R. Joncj 3 

88 25 Will Johnsloii 3 

8:3 2.; Jacob Mjvr. 3 • 

90 23 Dan Riodii'Md, Jr 5 

9> 22 Levi Todd 3 

92 21 (.MuMuliin cl,,iiiis).... 3 

53 20 Will lohnston 15 

i).\ 19 Levi Todil 3 

Will Johnjluii I 6 

George .Meiittcthcr 3 

kicliard Tuylor 2 2 

same i 5 

John Donne. 3 

Will Johnston 6 i 

John Donne 1 7 

same i 10 

John Belli 13 

George Rice 1 5 

Andrew Hare 16 

James Cunningham. . . i 6 

same 1 

Richard Taylor i 

same 19 

Jane Grant 3 

Will Johiiito;i 10 

John Donne 3 

same 3 

James Beaid 3 

Will Johnston tj 

Will Johnston 3 

same 10 

Eliiha L. Hal! 3 

(John S.inders claims). . 3 

John Reyburn 3 

Will Johnston 3 

same ifi 

Richard C. .Anderson.. 5 

Will Johnston 3 

Phil Wateis oss'n 3 

Andrew Hale . i 11 

Daniel Henry.. i 6 

Joseph Brooks 3 

William Croghan i 16 

Margaret Wilson 3 

James Morrison 3 

same 3 

James Patton 3 

James Peaty 3 

Samuel Rcarbj i.\ 

Jane Grant 3 

John Keyburn 5 

■ same 3 

loin's Heirs 3 

Jean Hanibleton 3 

rk: "Deed'd to G.ab Johnston, ass'n " |as 



May. 1786 
June. 1783 
December [?] 

August i .'j 
April, 1735 
September, 17S3 

NLiy, 1780 
Jim-. 1783 

June. 17S3 
May, 17S6 
June, 1783 
.May. 1781) 












Fcbiuary, 1786 
.May, 17S6 
February, 1786 








September, r7S3 
-May, 17S6 
September. 1783 

.M.iy, 1786 

September, 1783 
NLiy, 1786 
December. 1785 


.September, 1783 
December, 1785 
May, 1786 
September. 1783 



Kebru;irv, 1786 

No. Purclr,,er 

Samuel Rerby. 

L- s. D. 





1 6., 






James Su!!iv-in. 

same . 13 

George Dt-inciu 7 

snine ^ 

JolmDoiim- , 

same 4 

Win Johniion 3 

William Jolin^lon 3 

George Dement 8 

same 4 

William Johnston.. . , 3 

James F. Moore 5 

James Sullivan 

same 8 

same G 

Elijah Phillips 6 

George Dement 7 

James Sulliv.ui 3 

William Johnston .... 3 

William Beard.' 3 


Rice Rullock 

Benjamin Price 

same .... 

Edmd Taylor 

same .... 

same 2 10 

James Sullivan 3 

James .Sullivan 3 

same 7 

Jinkiii Phillips 7 1 

Richard Totrill 10 5 

William Pope 10 

Jinkin Plullips 7 i 

William Payne 5 i 

Philip Barbour 7 i 

Robert .Neilson 6 12 

same 4 13 

same ...... 4 4 

same 5 5 

William Payne 5 2 

same 4 

same ...... 4 5 

same ....... 4 

Daniel Brodhead, Jr. . 3 

same . . i 6 

same . . i 4 

same . . i 18 

Robert "Neilsun 2 17 

same 2 14 

same 2 12 

Jenkin Phillips '. . 3 5 

Stephen Ormsby 2 18 

John Davis 2 15 

same 2 18 

Stephen Ormsby 3 

.•\rchib.dd Lnckart.. .. 2 15 

George (.'lose 2 14 

Samuel Watkins 2 10 


May, i7f.6 
. diito 
F'ebruary, 1786 
December sale 
.May, t785 

'Remark : "Deed issued to E. Phillips, per order." 




= 17 
= 19 







I'lirLha^crs. /.. ^. 

Thomns Hrucnndd 2 11 

lacob Ue.igar i 2 

Kobcrt Neihon 2 

same 2 18 

same 3 9 

Jenkin Phillips 5 2 

Ai.lam Hoops i n 

same 1 11 

RicliardJ. Waters^.... f^ 6 

JcnUin Phillips 5 '7 

Paul BlundcU 2 2 

Edward Tyler 3 5 

JaniPS Morrison 3 i 

Edward '1 yler 3 15 

Lawrence Muse 3 i 

] acob Rcaga'' 2 1 9 

Edmd. Taylor 3 12 

Will Johnston 3 10 

Adam Hoops 4 n 

Public Square. 

Adam Hoops 4 2 

James Sullivan 4 

Edmd. Taylor 3 i 

Will Johnston i 

same 1 

Richard Taylor t 

Rice P.ullock i t 

Renjainin Price 1 1 

Waller Davie? i 

same i 

Robert Daniel • 1 : 

Enoch Parsons i : 

George Slaughter. . .. 11 

Charles Brat ton 1 i; 

[ames Sullivan : 

same ; 

same ' 


James Fr. Moore i 

George Rice ', 

same ; 


May, t785. 
December, 1733 













May, I7S'5 
May, 17S6 

Will Johnston 12 
















=53 ] 

= 54 
-5 j 

> Burying-ground.* 


Henry Prot/:man 




Will Johnston 





James Kr. Moore 









Thomas Dalton 






•Reserved in pursuance of an order for "a publick Burying 
P; ue." pi.s'^ed by the trustees of the village May 4, 1786. 
I he lots formed the well-known ccnieierv on Jeliersoii street, 
l--l«(cn Twelfth and Thirteenth, latc'y converted by the ciiy 
.laihoiiiies into a beautiful little park. It was, of curse, the 
frs! (.riv,,.ury the place had. 

New No. Purchasers. /'. S. U. Date. 

263 Mark 1 December. 17S3. 

264 Rice Bullock 19 ditto 

265 Benjamin Price i 16 ditto 

266 • same i 2 6 ditto 

2C.7 same i <'il'o 

2(,8 same i i di'lo 

269 Burk Rcagjr i 3 ditto 

270 same i <> rti"" 

271 Josiah Bell i 4 d'"" 

272 same i it ditto 

273 Richard Taylor 2 12 ditto 

274 John R,- Jones 3 ditto 

^75 ) 

"''■' V PuW": Squares. 
273 ) 

279 JohnK.Jcmes 4 5 ditto 

2S0' James Sullivan 3 2 ditto 

281+ Richard Taylor i 2 ditto 

2S2t Richard laylor i 4 ditto 

283 Will Johnston i 1 ditto 

284 same 1 ditto 

283 Lawrc Muse i 2 ditto 

286 same i i ditto 

2J7 same i 2 6 ditto 

2SS same i i f' ditto 

2S9 Charles Bralton i 3 ditto 

290 same ' ditto 

291 Will Johnston 18 C ditto 

292 Richard Easlin.- i ditto 

293 John I^avis 1 2 ditto 

2g^ same 18 ditto 

293 Dan^e! Henry i 6 ditto 

296 same i 2 6 ditto 

297 David Morgan 18 ditto 

298 same 19 <i'"° 

299 John Daniel i 1 ditto 

300 James Morrison 13 ditto 

The Connolly forfeitures occurred this year, not 
only by the definition in the foregoing act of the 
Virginia Legislature, but by the verdict of an 
escheating jury, assembled at Lexington, in this 
State, July ist, under George May, escheatof, 
whose proceedings and finding have been previ- 
ously recited. 


were numerous and important in this year of 
real municipal beginnings. Among these were 
people of wealth or talent who left the States 
along the Atlantic coast for homes in the "wild 
countries of the West." But the mass of the 
emigrants weie simply hardy, earnest men and 
women, jiossessed of few talents and little wealth, 
but were ready to work in any and every place 
for the necessary means of existence. 

In the former class was Mr. Thomas Helm, a 
relative of Captain Leonard Helm, one of the 

* Remark: " Deed to John Mcpherson (Lasley)." 
t Remark in each case : "Deed issued to John Kelly." 



captains in Coiontl Claik's expedition of tsvo 
years jjcfore, into tlie Illinois country, and father 
of John I ,. Hebii, wlio cliixl in office a^, (governor 
of the Slate September S, 1S67. Mr.- Helm was 
from I'rince William county, \'irL;inia, and came 
with and ]'>e)ijamin Tope, and Henry 
Floyd. He remained here but one year, during 
whieh he lost four children by tlie deadly diseases 
of the time and place, v.Ikmi he removed to Eliz- 
alieiiilov.ii, KentiKky, a.iii spent the remainder 
of his da)'3 there, llisson, (Sovernor Helm, was 
born in Elizabethluw n. 

MII.rr-\RV M0\ E.MF.NTS. 

During the year Colonel Geor£;e Sl;iut;hter, 
who is named in the act establishing the town 
cif Louisville as one of its trustees, came down 
the Ohio with one hundied anij fifty soldiers of 
the State militia, to be stationed at tlie Falls. 
Mr. Collins says of the effects of thisarri\al: 
"The inhabitants v.ere insjjircd with a feeling of 
security wliich led thern frequently lo expose 
themselves with t',.o little caution. Tiicii foes 
were ever on the v.atcli, and were continually de- 
stroying valuable lives." Tliere can !)e no doubt, 
however, that the reputation for security trained 
by the successes cf Colonel Clark in the North- 
west and the strengthening of the garrison at the 
I'alls, was a powerful element in the attractive- 
ness of the place to the vast immigration that 
was settirig mto the new country. 

Early in the sunnncr of this year Clark took 
about two hundrefl nun "of his \'irgiiiia regi- 
ment" from the fort at the Falls down the river 
to a point on the .Missi.^sippi a little below the 
mouth of the Ohio, where the parallel of 36' 30' 
intersects the left bank of the former stream, 
and there built Fort Jefferson, named, like the 
county in which Louisville is situated, fiom the 
Governor of Virginia, afterwards President of 
the United States. 


IJuring the winter of lySo-Sr the county of 
Jefferson was one of three great counties into 
which the immense county of Kentucky was 
subdivided, with LouisNille as its county seat. 
The trustees of the town had possibly held 
meetings for cou'^f.llation and business before 
this year set in; but the first meeting whose pro- 
ceedings have survived through the century is 

that noted below, of date J-'ebruary 7, 1781. 'I'liere 
are some indications, indeed, in the record itself, 
.that this was the very earliest formal meeting held. 
We shall find it convenient to continue just here 
the tran^icrip't of the leioid for several years 
thereafter. It will be obseived that the record 
of attendance at the first meeting noticed cor- 
responds precisely, so far as it goes,' with the 
names, in the act establishing the town, with 
sonie slight differences in spelling, ^^'e ha\e 
retained throughout the oithography of tlie 
record, except as to pimclualion, : 

.^t ci Mefiing of the GL-iulenicMi appoinled Trustees for the 
Town of Louisville, at the said Town, on llu- 71I1 
of I'ebrunry. 17S1. 

John Torld, Jr., Stephen Trigg, 

Georsje Slaughter, John Floyd, 

Wilhani Tope, and Marsham Bra.sliear. 

f'icsolved, T'liat tlio Surveyor cf Jeft'er.son County be re- 
quested to run off one tliousraid acres of Land on the Last 
side of tbe4,ooo-acre survey made for Conelly & Wairanstaff, 
beginning at the nioutli of the Gut between the two old forts, 
thence on a straight line to the \xick Line of said Survey, to 
include one tliousand acres [-astward. 

That tlie old Lut liolders on the south side of the main 
street give up Thirty feet on the front of tlicir Lots, as form- 
erly laid off, so as to make llic main Street 120 feel, inchi- 
sivc of the Walks on each Side the ne>.t Streets to the main 
.Street parrallel thereto, to be each Ninety feet. 

That the Surveyor lay off the IJ.alance of the louj acres not 
yet laid off, into Lots and Streets as aforesaid, and c.-\use the 
same lo be staked at the Corners. 

That Cap. Meridith Price be appointed Clerk lo the Trus- 
tees of the Town of Louisville, to enter and preserve the 
proceedings of the 'I'rustecs. 

That the Clerk send Advertisements to the adjacent 
Counties, notifying all concerned that the Lots will tie sold 
to the highest Bidder at ne.^t .-^pril Jefferson Court, as directed 
by Law, and in the mean Time prepare Deeds as well for 
the Holders of Lots already laid off as for further puichasers 
of Lots. 

That CJcorge Slaughter, William Pope, John I-'loyd, and 
Marsh. ill Urashears, or any three of them, be authorized to 
confer with Jacob .Myers, relative to opening a Canal and 
erecting a Grist Mill, as set forth in his i>etition to Geneial 
.Assembly, and contr.ict with said Myers to carrv on said 

J. so. Ttini), JK. 
At the next meeting whose transactions are 
preserved, January 4, 1783, at least half of the 
Hoard had changed, and we find the names of 
only Pope and PJrashears of the original Poard, 
with .Vndrew Hynes, James Sullivan, and "Ben- 
jannn Pojie, Gent," as new Trustees. It was at 
this meeting resolved ''that Isaac Cox, William 
Oldham, George \Vil.-,on, and James Patton, 
Cient, be apjiointed as Trustees, and that the 
said Trustees meet at Cajitain James Sullivan's 



to-morro\v morning at 10 o'clock." At the | 
mectinp; thus provided for a numher of dcods 'I 
were executed to purch.iscrs of lots, as noted j 
in the foregoing account of lots ^old under | 
dale of June, 1 783. The clerk was given custody 
of the deeds, he to have six shillings for each, 
nlven delivered to the several jiroprietors. The 
tleik was afterwards directed to deliver no deeds j 
" until the purchase money, three shillings, is paid 
to the trustees and six shillings to the clerk for | 
each deed." Title-deeds, aiiiiarcntly, cost more 
in those days than the iiroiseity tiiey con\-eyed. 1 
William Pope and James Sullivan were made j 
bursars to the Tiustees. Thursday afternoon , 
the next September court whs appointed for an- 
other day of sale. 

Al the n-.eetir.g of June 37, 17S3, it \\as re- I 
solved "that thirty feel be left on the bank of tlie ! 
Ohio as a common street in said town, at l.'iying | 
off the same, as per order of a meeting at Cap- 
tain Sul'ivan's per adj't the .]th instant;" also ■ 
"that the land between the lots already laid off 
and the ri\er be hid off in squares of four lots 
lying square to the river line, as mentioned in 
the aforesaid resol'n;" and "that these persons j 
who have liuilt on tlie lots contrary to the lots ! 
already laid oft", shall have untill the 1st of No- ! 
vcmber to remove their buildings ; otherwise the)- 
will be considered as the prciperty of the Free- I 

August iS, 1783, it was ordered "that no ] 
standing timber shall be cut, unless by the lot- 1 
holders, and that on their own lots, on the 
premises of one thoLisand acres of land, the 
forfeited property of John Conelly, and ^h1r.^ham | 
Brashear, James Patton, and CJeorge Wilson, 
Gent, disijose of the timber and agree on the ; 
price." At this mcetmg Water street was 

The currency of the time seems a little mixed 
in the minutes of .August 22, of the same year. 
I5y one vote twenty-four pounds were ordered paid 
to Mark Thomas out of the sale of lots for board- 
ing the tiustees and their attendants, and by an- 
other thirty dollars were granted from the same 
fund to William Pope, for his chain carriers and 

September 3, Benjamin Pope was voted one 
per cent on tlse sales, -'fr.r crying the lots and 
S(iu.Tres of said '!own." 

.\[irii 14, 17S5, a further sale was ordered for 

the ensuing 1 2tli of NLiy, "for ready cash, in 
order to dcfr.ay the I'-xpence of laying off the 
sajiie and to satisfy the Mort;j,:ige of John Camp- 
bell, agreeable lo Art of .\ssembly." Lots one 
Inmdred seventy-three to two hundred and four- 
teen, inclusive, were accordingly sold, as -hereto- 
(oie noted. Mr. "James Morrison, Cent," at the 
ni.-xt mecelmg of the Hoard, "objects to the i>io 
ceedings of the Meeting of the 12th, and to the 
sales in general, since the art oi October last, re- 
lating to the Town of Loui-Aille, and doth resign 
his seat." At the next meeting recorded, August 
3, William Jolmsion was appiMUted in his stead. 
The act refened to by Mr. .Moirison will be 
found under its appropriate year. 

'J'he path of "city fathers" in the good old days 
was not sirt-wn with roses an', more than it is dow. 
A bit of charming frankness in the lepoit one of 
the commillees of this body has lel't us a hint of 
the opinion held of it by at least one prominent 
member of the community. Two of the lioard 
had been nominated to wait on Colonel Camp- 
bell, one of the original proprieljrs, and request 
of him the deed of partitif>n lielueeii him and 
Connolly, in oider to have tlie lii:e run properly, 
as requited by the act of .-\s5embly. The com- 
mittee I'tompily wailed on the Colonel and le- 
]. oiled that he had not the deed, but only a copy 
thereof, " and also that the line liad been run 
agreeable to the Deed of paitilion, as directed by 
the .-\ct of October last, whieh Information he 
supposed the Trustees would pay no attention 

October 6, 1785, James Sullivan and James 
Patton were appointed to superintend the sales 
of lots. Captain Daniel 15rodhead was subse- 
quently appointed in place of Patton. The 
superintendents of sales were authorized to bid 
on lots "as far as they may think necessary, or 
nearly their value, which [purchases are to be 
considered as subject to the further direction of 
the trustees." 

December 9, 1785, it was resolved "that all 
the land from Pieston's line to the mouth of 
Beargrass and u[) said creek to said line be sold 
to the highest bidder, and also all the land that 
remains on this side of said creek at the mouth 
thereof, exclusive of the thirty feet allowed for a 
road between the Bottom squares and the Ohio." 
All the remaining land of tlie one thousand acre 
tract, formerly Connolly's, was ordered sold the 

1 84 


next Fcbruaiy "to the lii;;bcst liidd'^r for ready 


In Auf;iist, \'^8^;, an account was rendered of 
the tuibt rei,'artling the Louisville iiroperty, as 

'i he Town uf l.ouiiville. 

■fo tlif Tru^lfP^ tlieicof. 


To paiil for cxp;. snr\'e%in(; ■nut l.ijin;; •■!<' 

llie low n in 1783 ■ ■{, -17 'oo 

To ]Mid James S;, atl.i. for Jolm 

Campbell, per ;icct. No. i* 767 15 2 

To 1 Book 30s, minute Book 7s od. 3 

([U. paper at 3s 2 6 6 

To paid an atto. in 3 suits com'd, 15s. .... 250 

To \Vni. Johnston for services per acel. No. 

2. no other iillo\saitce being made. ....... 39 00 

To pd. a Crier Nov. 85. do. Decenir 

S3 9120 

To pd. an e.xpresa sent for tlie i:)nrsar [bur- 
sar] etc 60 

To paid men, etc., out-lots 11 00 

To paid \Vm. Shannon in part for surveying' 
out Lots (he was allowed /20 16s 8100 

To paid a Crier in May T786 3120 

To pd. a Crier for selling in 1783 in p.irt. ... 3162 

To the Clerk of Jefferson for fee acet . . , 8 00 

To a Commission of 2 per Cent, allowed the 

piirsar per order anit on £<)0S 13s iS 17 2 

To paid Surveyor and Chain men, etc.. for 

laying off Town. etc. , 2d time 4S 10 o 

To sundry debts due pr. memo 136 13 6 

To b.alance in \Vm. Johnstons, one of (he 
pursar's hands •. . 22 16 2}; 

To do. in Daniel Brdhead. jr. s 2 21 o 

To the amt. of square no. 6, sold Jno. 

Sinkler. suit now dependinij ... jt^ 00 

To pd. Mark Thomas for Boarding the Trus- 
tees first time of lay ing off the Town regu- 
larly, he was allow ed /. 24 20 10 o 

;fl,229 2 4li 

To a balance due Mark Thomas 3 10 o 

To a balance due William Shannon 12 60 

By square no. 7, sold in 1783 to Mark 

Thomas and reed, in K.\ps 20 10 o 

By square no. 6 sold in 17S5 to [no. Sinkler 

he is now sued for 76 00 

By sundries reed from the sale of Lots and 

Lands, and balance due pr. Genl. and 

licular list i, 132 12 2 

j(^i,22g 2 2 
Balances due the Tow n etc. : 

Sundries per acct iC^i^ '3 ^ 

Wm. Johnston - 22 16 2 J3 

DanI, Brodhead, |r 2 2 10 

John Smkler is sued for 76 00 

/237 12 6K 

•This was to e.\tmguisii Campbell's mortgage on the Con- 
nolly tract. 

The balance in the bands of the trustees, and 
not otherwise accounted for, naturally awaked 
inquiry and created dissatisfaction, which finally 
ciilniinated in a le.sort to law to coiiijiel them to 
di.sgorge. A loose leaf in an old file of jtapers, 
contemporaneous with the records from which 
we have given extracts, is evidently jxart of a 
committee reporl, and we subjoin it. 'The words 
enclosed in brackets aie struck out in the orii; 
inal, but ate also worth pieseiving: 

[We do here'py Coiiify that' It ap|.e,irs to us from the 
minutes of the former Trustees that they are in arcars /C6i- 
6.4 [received and misappropriated by them exclusive of the 
Credits given above] for which a suit has been ordered, 
;f 173. the amount of sale for Square No. 0, for which a suit 
is depending asid undetermined, also g'A acre Lotts sold for 
^ir.i2. 6 for which no deeds have Isued nor money paid the 
whole or so much thereof as may be recovered Can be ap- 
plied to the acct. of Simons & Campbell which wou'd If the 
wlicile was reed reduce tlie above ballaiice of 595. 17. S to 


Tlie following is also amon;:! the old docu- 
ments, endorsed "Constitution to regulate the 
proceedings of the Hoard of Trustees when con- 
vened for business." No date is appended, but 
they apparently go back for their origin nearly or 
quite to the eailiest days of the board. Some of 
them, particularly the seventh, are altogether 

/!uh:t /,. 6,- odsmeJ ty the Tiinlcrs 0/ L.'uirjith-, -.fiien 

1. The Board shall appoint a Ch.iirman at every slated 
meeting, who shall (as as it may be in his power) see thai 
decorum and good orrler be preserved during the sitting of 
the Board. 

2. H'hen any member shall be about to addiess the Chair- 
man, such member sliall rise in his place and in a decent 
manner stale the subject of such address. 

3. No member shall pass between another addressing him- 
self to the C: M: [Chairman | and the Ch. .\1., nor shall any 
member speak more than twice upon the same "question 
(unless leave be granted by tiie Board for that purpose). 

4. No member shall (during the sitting of the Board) read 
any printed or written papers except such as may be neces- 
sary or relative [to] the matter in debate then t>efore the 

5. .\ny member, when in IxjuisviUe, absenting himself 
from a staled or called nieetmg of the Bo.Trd. and not having 
a reasonable e.\cuse therefor (w hich shall be judged of by the 
Board) shall forfeit and pay the sum of three shillings, to be 
collected by the Collector and applied as the Board may 
thereafter direct. 

6. No species of ardent or spirituous liquors shall upon 
any pretence I>e introduced during the sitting of the Board. 
If il should be, It shall be the duly of the Ch: man to have 
the same instantly removed, and the person so introducing it 
it sh.dl be subject to the Censure of the Ch:man for so 



7. Upon [lie commission of the same act a second liinc 
by tlie same peisou, lie sliall, besides llie censure af d 
faforesaidj, bi: liable lo pay the sum of Six Shillings, to be 
lullecled and applied as af d. and shall moreover foifeit the 
ll(|Uor so brought in for the use of the Board after adjourn- 

8. No member sliall'when in debate c.ill anuilier U) Name. 
If he shonld do so. tiie Lh: .1. m'ni.^v call liim to otdei. 

9. If two or more members slioiikl rise to speak at the 
same time, ilic Ch: M. shall determine the priority. 

10. All personal reflcctioiis and allusions shall be avoided. 
.\iiy member guilty of a breach hereof sliall b'^ forthwith 
tolled 10 Order, cither by the Ch: man or by any other 

11. No person ihnll be at lilx-ily m addre'vs the fhairman 
but at a place chosen and aliotted for that jjurpose by the 
(.'hairman or a majoritv' of the lioard then sitting. 

12. No person belonging to the Board, or immedi.tiely ' 
concerned for them or under their notice, shall make use of 
indecent language or shall prof.iiiely swear. Any person who 
shall presume to act in any manner contrary thereto shall be 
subject lo the censure of the Chairman and all members of 
Kood Order who may at such time be one of the members of 
the Board, and that no person sh.all .absent himself from 
[word iilegiblel without permission first (for that purjiose) 
obtained fioni the 

.\ new innp uf the village is said to h,T\e been 
oidcrcci by the Trustees this year fiom the 
County Surveyor, ("reoige May; but it has tcilaliy 
disappeared, if indeed, it was ever made. 


An extraordinary iinniii^ration of young girls 
during 17S1 is noted by several historians. 
'I'his region abounded in unmarried yom-ig men, 
as all new countries do, and the pouring in of a 
tide of the opposite sex was a matter of gieat 
interest to all inhabitants, whether personally 
affected or otherwise. One chronicler of the 
time writes, with all the seriousness and pro- 
priet) due a matter of greatest solemnitv. that 
"the necessary consequence of this large influx 
of girls was the ra|)id and wonderful increase 
of population." Doubtless he meant that the 
greater morality of a eounlry peopled by families 
served as an inducement for furtheriminigration. 
Many of the present families in Louisville trace 
back to the marriages of this and the earlv fol- 
lowing years. 


Near the beginning of this year, January 2 2d, 
Colonel Clark received deserved ])romotion to 
the rank of brigadier-general. This was not, how- 
ever, a commission in the Cotuinental army, Iiut 
rather in the State militia, under a[ii)oint'.nent of 
Thomas Jefferson, Cjovernor of N'irginia. His 
commission read: '■ ilrigadier-general of the 

forces to be embodied in an expedition west- 
ward of the Ohio.'' He was to take commantl of 
several volunteer corps intended to mar':h iiortli- 
ward through the wilderness and reduce Detroit. 
They were lo rendezvous at the Falls ALirch i5lh, 
for organization muk r the personal direction of 
Geiieial Clark ; but it was found iiiiiiossiblc Jo 
recruit the tioops, and the expedition had lo be 
abandoned. 'l"he (Jeneral confined himself to 
simple defensive operations, among which was 
building of a large galley or barge, to be pro- 
|)elled by oars, and cairjing several foiir-i.iotmd 
cannon. \\"ith this he kept u]) a considerable 
show of a< tivlty, frei|uently sending it to patiol 
the rivet between the l-'alls and the mouth of the 
Lie king. Traditions vary greatly as to the real 
i service done by thi^ vessel. Some thought it of 
! inestimable value m warning off or directly beat- 
I ing off Indian attacks; others deemed it useless. 
i Very likely the latter view is correct, since the 
General is known to have abandoned it after a 
few months' ser\ice. According to Casseday, 
I '"the Indians are said never to have attacked it, 
and but seldom to have < rossed that part of the 
river in whiidi it moved. " 

RKsnir,Ni> 01 LOi;is\-ii.i E. 
.\ list of |)0ssible siiectators of the first re- 
markable light that occurred in the hamlet, of 
wliii h Colonel Durrett gives a comical descpip- 
tion, coiiiprising this list, enables one to get a 
pretty fair \iew of the men of Louisville m 17S2. 
It is as follows: 

ThiMuas .^pplegate. I'eter Austergess, William Aldridge, 
S(|uir'-' Boone. Marsham Brashears. James Eirown, Joseph 
lirown, I'roetor I'.dlard, General George Rogers Clark, 
Richard Chenoweth, Isaac Cox. Moses Cherry. Hugh Coch- 
ran, John Caghey, James Crooks, Jonathan Cunningham, 
}ohn Camp, George Dickens, John Durrett, John Doyle, 
Colonel John Floyd. Joseph Cireenwall, Willis Green, George 
Grundy, Sr., Cleorge Grund\, ]r,, Sanuiel Harrod, ]ohn ' 
Hinkston, Michael Humble, John Hindi, Sainnel ilinch, 
rieiijamm Hansberry, John Handley, Doris Hawkins, John 
Hawkins, Andrew Hiiies, Samuel Jack, John James, 
Mathcw Jeffries, Isaac Keller, Krnesl Miller, John McCar- 
land. Thomas MeCany, John May, George May, John Mc- 
Manus, Sr. , John McManus, Jr., George Meriwether, 
William Oldham, James I'ursely, Thomas Purcell, Meredith 
Price, Benjamin I'ope, Willi. ini lope, James Patten, Thomas 
Spencer, Henry SpiUman, John Sellars, James Stevenson, 
William Smiley, V\illiam Sliaiinon, James Stewart, James 
Sullivan, George Slaughter. Edward Tyler. Bcnj.imin Taylor. 
Mo^esTemplin. John Tucl. John Todd, Jr., Stephen Trigg, 
Jacob Vanmeter," Henry Wade. Levton White, John Whit- 
acre. Abr.iin Whitacre, Aquilla Whit.iere, John Wray, 
Thonias U'hitledge, Christopher Windsor, Geoige Wilson, 
and John Voung. 

1 86 



as dcsciibctt by Coloiu'l PuntU, wr.s between 
the well-known citizens, 1 ).inicl Sullivan and John 
Carr, al an election lieM Ajiiil 3, 17S1. 'i"he' 
principal issue of it was tin- loss of a pan ol' 
Sullivan's right ear, wliich he finally took so 
mucli to heart, as likely to caii-e sus|)icion thai 
he had been cropped foi crime, that the iu->l 
year ho took Carr into the ollice of Meredith 
Price, Cleik of the county touiis, and caused 
the following unique enlrj' to a])pcar of record, 
under date of .Match 5, 17S2: 

Satisf.ictory prooT made to the Court that tin.' lower pan of 
Daniel i>ulUvaii's right enr was bit off in a fight with Jolin 
Carr. Ordered: 1 hnt the same he adiniiled lu record. 


The season of 17S1- S2 was also a severe one. 
It is dcscrilied as "remarkable for the appear- 
ance of the original foiest which then covered 
the country. Kains fell, and the water congealed 
upon the limbs of the trees until the whole 
forest appealed like trees of glass. The rays of 
the sun. when the da\s were not cloudv, were 
reflected from tree to tree, as if a forest of di- 
amonds were lighting up the landbcape with its 
lefractions. The weather was too cold for the 
ice to melt frou) the trees, and as other rains fell 
upon them, the ice grew so thick that many 
limbs fell with the weight, and the lurcst in many 
places appeared as if a tornado had swept 
over it." 

I782--THK "old FOltTS." 

A much more impoitant mihlaiy measure was 
undertaken this year, in the erecting of Fort 
Nelson, as a more efficient means of protection 
to the growing colony at the falls of the Ohio. 
\\'hether two forts, or but one, preceded this 
upon the mainland, must probably be foreier a 
matter of doubt. "Two old foits '' are distinct- 
ly mentioned in the tr.-uisactions of the Trustees 
above quoted, February 7, 17S1 and these 
must leave out of the i]ULStion a work mentioned 
by Mr. Casseday as built the same year ; since, 
if already erected in January and the first week 
of February, it would hardly be referred to an 
"old fort." The historians variously give the 
date of the erection of a siinplc, rude fortifica 
tion on the niamland as the fall of 177S, the 
spring of 1779, some lime in 17S0 (when Col- 
lins says "the Inst fort that deserved the name 

of fort was built"), and 1781. It is altogether 
probable that, as the settlement extended west- 
ward, an additional tempoiaiy wcirk everted 
on the opposite side of the "tuit," or ravine, 
that |)ut up on the east side by the movers from 
Corn Island in 177S- 79 being the other old ftnt 
mentioned in the resolution of the Trustee.--. 
This hypothesis is nol absolutel) necessaiy, how- 
ever, since the old work on the island and the later 
one onthe shore may easily have been so situ, it 
ed that the description by the Trustees of the 
mouth of the lavineat the fo(;t of Tuelfth strett 
as "between the two old \un-, " would be justi- 
fied. \\'e incline to think that this was the ac- 
tual stale of the case. 


However this may be, and whether three or 
four, or only two petty fortifications were prcvt- 
ously erected by the troops and settlers upon the 
island and the shore, it is ce-rtain that the time 
had now come for the erection of a niilitarv work 
mcire suitable I'or the defense of the rapidly in- 
creasing scttleiiient, the quartering of the tioops 
stationed here, and the dignity of headquarters 
for the new brigadier-general. .-\ site was ac- 
cordingly selected upon the liver-front, pretty 
nearly at the middle of this side of the Connolly 
tract, between First and Twelfth streets, upon 
which the original tnwn of Loui'!ville was laid 
out. It is nol known how many acres were 
taken for this pmqiose; but fixnn the indications 
of the line of the stockade and foundations of 
the blockhouse, observed during the excavations 
made in the summer of 1S32, in. a cellar prepar- 
ing t'or stores on Main street, below 6th, and also 
ill iS.\j\, for an impiovement on Main, opposite 
the Louisville Hotel, it is pretty well ascertained 
that the south front of the fort came quite out to 
this street, and that it extended from Sixth street 
to and a little beyond Seventh, at least to the 
northeast corner of the old tobacco warehouse 
The lower part of the present line of Seventh 
street is commonly reported to have run directly 
through the site of the prinii|)al gate of the foit, 
just opposite the headquarters building. The 
old Burge residence. No. 24 Seventh street, is 
understood to stand, so far the extent of it goes, 
upon the tract occupied by the fort; and it is 
ciuite possible that precisely upon this slight em- 
inencc--the old "second bank" of the river — 



stood the rusidoiicc and oltico of (k'ncral Claik. 
It is an interesting fact that in tlu: lluii,i- man- 
siiin died I'-hsha Ajiplcj^ate, .the first white child 
horn in Jefferson county, outside of • Louisville, 
and himself horn in the sini|ilc fortification at 
Sullivan's, on the JJard^town road. 

The fort iirojier is supposed to have covered 
hul about an acre of ground. It t on^isted mainly 
of a breastwork, formed by a scries of small log- 
. pens, filled with earth thrown up- from the ditch. 
Along the top of this \ioik ran a line of tolerably 
strong pickets, or a stockade, ten feet liij.h. 
'I'his on three sides. On the fourth, or river 
side, less strength was necessary, owing to the 
natural protection affurdcd by the lung slo]ie of 
the bank. Here the log-pens were coi-i^cquently 
dispensed with, and a low of pickets furnislied 
the sole artificial defense. On tliis side, how- 
ever, as commanding the river approaches, it is 
probable that most of the sn-iall cannon brought 
down the river with the State troops by Colonel 
Slaughter in 1781 were mounted, and it is known 
that among the artillery was the " double-forli 
fied " brass six-pounder which Cl.iik had cap- 
tured at Vinccnnes, and which liccame a famous 
field-gun in his several ex[)editions. But for this 
piece, it is believed, the Indian foit at I'i-iua, 
Ohio, could not have been taken. .-Ml these aie 
known to have been in the fort, but it is not re- 
corded where they were mnunted. Haldeman's 
City Directory for 1S45, published after the dis- 
coveries in the former year were made, sa\s that 
the protection of pickets was exlended eastward, 
so as to en(-lose a ])erennial spiiug of water, about 
sixty yards from Mam stieet and a tittle we^t of 
Fifth, which was still running when Mr. Halde- 
man wrote. If so, the entire space enclosed, 
reaching from near Fifth to a line beyond Seventh 
(and sonic, as Casseday, say to Eighth) street, 
must have been far more than a ^ingle■ acre. The 
fort was surrounded by a stron.:ly defensive 
ditch, eight feet wide and ten deep, wiih a line 
of sharpened i)ickets on its middle line further 
increasing the difficulties of carrying it and 
reaching the breastwork and stockade. The 
whole must be regarded as a very formidable 
work to a besieging enemy, and one eminently 
creditable to the genius of Ceneral Clark and 
his counselors or engineers, and to the unspar- 
ing labors of the garrison. 

The fort is supposed by some to have taken 

its name from one ("aptaiii Nelson, who was then 
a prominent citi/en in the v iUage. It is f.u mote 
probable, hciwcvei -indeed, it may be considered 
as dei-i-ion-ilrably certain- -that the work was 
enlitled in hotioi of Colonel Thomas Nelson, 
now Ciovernor of V'iigini.i - jiist as i'ort Jetler 
son, on the Mis,-.i.-,>ippi, had been named by Clark 
the )ear before, in lionor of the then Coveinor. 
Nelson was a native \'irginian, but educated in 
England; was a member of the House of liur- 
gesses in 1 7 7.1. tmd of the Contineiital Congress 
in 1775-/6, and was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. He was made a regimental 
commander in the Virginia militia when it was 
re oigatii/.ed, in preparatiofi for the Revolution- 
ary War, and atierwatds commaiider-in-chiet, 
with the rank of biigadier. He continued his 
services in this capacity, after he became Gov- 
ernor, and until the surrender of Cornwalli'^. In 
17S1 he succeeded Jefferson as Ciovernor of 
Virginia, being the third in the State since inde- 
pendence was declared. Eight years afterwards 
he died, aged but fifty. Nelson county, formed in 
17S4, the fourth in Kentuck) in order of erec- 
tion, and the firbt carved fioni Jefferson county, 
is aKo named from him. 

In one of tliese ''old torts" the first shingle 
roofed house in Louisville was built by Colonel 
Campbell, at a very early date, but in just what 
year is not known. 

.\ TKRRir.i.i; VF\R, 

'I'his was a dreadful _\ear for the settlers else- 
where in Keiilui ky, and for voyagers on the 
Ohio, though l.ouisMlle hap|iily escaped the 
honors of Indian massacie or conflict, very likely 
in consequence of tlie erection of this strong de- 
fensive work. It was in this one year that oc- 
curred I'^stiU's defeat ai-id death, near Mt. Ster- 
ling, the disasters at the Upper and a week later 
at the Lower I Hue Licks, the siege of Bryan's 
'Station by six hundred Indians and some British 
tioops, the total destruction of Colonel Lochry's 
expedition on the Indiana shore, a few miles be- 
low the (/ircat Miami, and many minor affairs 
with the savages here and there. Lochry was 
on his way in boats to the Falls, with about one 
hundred recruits for Ceneral Clark and some 
civilians, when he was attacked in an unguarded 
moment in his camp up<in the river-bank, and 
every man of one hundred and eight was killed 


or carried oft" into captivity. In November, the 
F'alls City again saw something; of tlie pomp and 
circumstance of glorious wai, in the assembly 
under Colonel John Moyd, of a- portion of the 
force collected by C.encral Claik at the mouth of 
the licking, and marched noith itito the Miami 
country, in reialiation for the outrages of the 
>ear. 'llie punishment he inllicis is so severe 
that no organised band cf savai;es thenceforth 
invades the Daik and l^loody Ground. 

TIIK 1:1 r.iwixr, OF COMMKRCK. 

■ One of the tlie great viciorici of jieace — the 
magnificent (ommerce of Louis', ille — nui-t be 
considered also as somewhat associated with tliis 
year. It is held that the beginnings of the New 
Orleans trade, from the Ohio, [iroiierly date from 
17S2., Some time in the winter — doubtless the 
early part of the season, since it was a very cold 
one— two French tr.iders, named Tardiveau and 
Honore, made the fust trading voyage from Red- 
stone Old Fort (lirownsville) on the Mononga- 
hela, to New Orleans. They subsequently trans- 
ferred their operations to Louisville, v.liere Mr. 
Honore continued to reside imtil neai the mid- 
dle of this century. 

According to an inscrijition ovei the grave of 
Captain Yoder, who is buried in Spencer county, 
he must have passed the I'alls iti the early spring 
of this year, in the first tlat-hoat, so-called, that 
ever passed down the .Missi^sipl■i. He embaiked 
at Redstone C)ld Fort, reached New Orleans in 
May, sold his cargo of produce, |)robably pro- 
visions for the most part, to the Spanish com- 
mandant, invested the proceed-, in furs and hides, 
and sold them in IJakimore, making a great 
profit out of his entire trip. He repeated the 
trip and his purchases, hut this time at a loss, 
and seems to ha\e then retired from the river 

THK .AIi'I,t,i;An.S. 

Thomas and .NLiry .Api/L^^ate were among 
the first settlers on u hat is now the liardstown 
road, six miles south of Liiuis\ ille, at Sullivan's 
Station. Here their son, l-^lisha Applegate, was 
born March 25, 17S2, the lir-t white diild born 
anywhere in Jefferson county. He removed to 
Louisville in 180.H, and became a brewer, then a 
dealer in tobacco — the [ii'iiieer, indeed, of that 
branch of trade in the ( ity. He remained in 
that business more than foU\ je.irs, holding also 
the office of Tobacco Inspvitor, until 1.S60, 

when he retiied from business. In 1S31-3? lie 
built the hotel on the soulii side of Main, bc- 
Iweeri Seventh and I'-ighth Sreets, called at lirsl 
thl- United Slates, and then the Western Hoiel. 
The original Louisville Hotel was built the same 
year. He was one of the tlree old citizens of 
Loiiis\ille whose presence at the opening of the 
Industrial Exposition in 1S72 was a marked feat- 
ure of the occasion. He died ALiy 25, 187,1. 
.\1.\J0R CROGHAX. 

This year came .Major \\'illiam Croghan, from 
Yirginia, and settled at Locust Grove, a tew 
miles above tlie town, near the river. One of 
his sons, Colr.nd Geoige Croghan, was the re- 
doubtable hero of the famous defense at Lower 
Sandusky, in tlie war of 1S12; another was Wil- 
liam Croghan, Jr., long a resident here and in 
Pittsburgh. Major Croghan v as early appointed 
Rei^ister of the Land Office, and the queer little 
building in which he had his office was slill 
standing in the garden at Locust Grove a few 
years ago. This jilace was the scene of the mos) 
generous hospitality, and almost every stiaiiger 
of social position visiting Louisville was enter- 
tained there, h was here Gencial George Rog- 
ers Clark, brother of Mrs. Croghan, died in i8i8. 


Every winter, in these years, the settlers suffered 
from an intense cold rarely known in this region. 
The season of 1781-S2 was remarkable, not only 
for severe cold, but for a singular sleet, which at 
times completely encrusted the trees and bushes, 
and greatly excited the wonder of the Virginians 
and other white settlers, who had never seen tlie 
like in their old homes. The second, third, and 
t'ourth winters from this were also sharply cold, 
and during the winter of 1788-89 the Ohio was 
frozen up and closed against navigation trom 
Christmas till the iSthof March. 

The inhabitants found it a most serious un- 
dertaking to obtain provisions of any kind. 
There was no meat excepting bear or deer, and 
these in limited quantities, for, during the pre- 
vious summer and autumn, while the Indians 
had been waiting to attend a treatv at Marietta, 
they had subsisted on the game of the country 
around. Weeks [)assed in the homes of many 
of the settlers without e\en bread — coarse meal 
from a rude hand-mill, and not unfrequently 
whole corn boiled, taking its place. 




Another notable cominercial event occurred 
after. navigation ojjencd this year — the opening 
of the first general store in Louisville, and the 
second in wliat is now the State of Kentucky^ 
the first having been started at Booncsborough 
m April, r775, by Messrs. Henderson ..S; Co., the 
would be l'ound;.-rs of "the I'lovinceof Tinii^yl- 
vania." Mr. Daniel I'.rodhead the happy 
man to expose, first ainid the wildness of the 
],onisville plateau, the beautiful fabrics of the I^ast 
• to the linscy clad dames and belles of the h'all.'-. 
city. Mr. lUitler, in I'is History of Kentucky, says 
"it is belie\ed that Mr. Broadhead's was tlie first 
stoie in the State for the sale of foreign inerehan- 
dise." He transported his moderate stock in 
wagons from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and 
thence on flat boats they were floated down to 
Louisville. Mr. Collins says : " Lhe belles of 
our ' forest land ' then began to shine 111 all the 
magnificence of calico, and the beaux in the 
luxury of wool hats." V>c add the following 
from Casseday's History: 

The young ladies could now tlnow aside al'. il.'- homelv 
products of llieir own looms, lake tlie wooden ske«-r.s from 
llicir ill-bound tresses, and on fesnve occasions shine in all 
the glories of flowered c.ilico and real horn-combs. 

It is not known whether it was this worthy Mr. Brod- 
head who was the first to introduce the lu.xury of glass 
window-lights, but it is certain that previous to this time 
such an extravagance was unknown, and there is an incident 
connected with the lirst window-jiane which deserves a place 
here, and which is recorded in the words of an author who is 
not more celebrated for his many public virtues, than for his 
unceasing and incurable exercise of the private vice of pun- 
ning. After referring to the iiuroduction of this innovation, 
this gentleman says ; ".\ young urchm who had seen glass 
spectacles on the noses of his elders, saw this spect.u le with 
astonishment, and running home to his motlicr exclaimed. 
'O, Ma! there's a house down here with specs on!'" 
"This," he adds, " m.iy be considered a very pr.vocious 
manifestation of tlie power of generalization in the yi'U'j; 


News of peace with Great Britain and the ac- 
complished independence of the colonies, which 
had been recognized by the Treaty of Paris on 
the last day of the presious November, did not 
reach Louisville until some time this spring. It 
naturally caused great rejoicing. Peace with the 
mother country was an element in the contl- 
dence which the inhabitants now felt against In- 
dian allai.k, and the lecent succLSsful expeditioi: 
of Clark against the native towns on the Miami 
was a yet greater one. As Mr. ("asseday says: 

Something hkc .security ami confidence was now estab- 
lished, and cou.seciuently the imniigiation here was constant 
ar.d large. Factories for supplying tlie necessities of the 
household were established, siiiools were opened, the prod- 
uvts of the soil were carefully attended to, and abundant 
crops were collected ; sever.U fields of wheat were gatliercd 
near Louisville, and the whole country changed its eliaracter 
from tliatof a scries of military outposts to the more peace- 
ful and more attractive one of a newly settled but rich and 
fiuilfnl territory, svhere industry met its reward and where 
e>eiy one could live who not too proud or too indolent 
to «oik. 

.Among tlie immigr.ints of this year was Wil- 
liam Rowan, a PennsUv.mian formerly possessed 
of wealth, but who had bcun nearly ruined by 
the war of the Revohition. He came to Louis- 
Mile in .Match, but remained onl)' a yeai, when, 
wiili live other heads of families, he made a settle- 
ment at the Long Falls of Green river, then about 
one bundled miles from this or any other white 
settlement. He was father of the distinguished 
John, formerly Judge of the Court of 
.Appeals and Senator of the United States, from 
whom Rowan county, in this State, is named. 
.•\ ihiiliing incident of their removal, in late 
.'\l)ril, 17S4, is told in our chapter on the Indians, 
in the first yiut of this \iilume. 


.Another consecpience of the peace was prob- 
ably not so well relished by General Clark and 
other gentlemen of military proclivities, who had 
their subsistence in arniy life. The State of 
Virginia, like the other colonies, found heiself 
very much impoverished at the close of the war, 
and immediately took steps to reduce the mili- 
taty establishment, on the borders, as elsewhere. 
Her forces were disbanded, and General Clark, 
with others, was honorably retired from service 
with Jie grateful thanks of the Governor and 
Council "for his very great and singular services." 
The same year the splendid land grant was made 
by the Virginia' Legislature, to him and his sol- 
diers, upon his share of which he jiresenlly 
founded Clarksyille. .A sword had been voted 
by the Stale to him in 1779, but he afterwards, 
in a fit of petulance and anger at fancied ingrat- 
itude for his ser\ices, broke and threw it away. 
A nev,- one, costing $.;oo, was purchased for him 
by order of the N'irginia Legislature in 1S12, 
and transmitted with a very handsome letter I'rom 
the (Jovernor. 

It does not appear, however, tlutt Fort Nelson 
was now abandoned. It became instead liead- 

J 9° 


qu.-ulcrs for United Slates troops in tl>i> part of 
the valley, and will liere.ifter ronie ai^ain into 

.■\ TROt'iua SLiMi: I'lSLiri;!; of i-aini. 
Mt. Uasseday lias still another inleiesling inci- 
dent to relate of this year, nearly as follow,: 

The uotorioiii 'roin I'ainr li.ul wrllu-ii ci hook in uhich lie 
spoke «itli soii.^.- ridiuil.' at.^ut lii,!,! to llii. Suae, 
and urged Consrc'bs lo cl.iim and Imld tl.e urrilory entire. 
Two rennsylvani.rn.-. C.ilK™;-y ;ii'-d I'oniV-roy In n.rnio. were 
great admirer.s of tl\e-\vriler, and devoted discipU-s of all liis 
doctrines. Tomeroy coniin;; In the Falls just al iliis lime, 
gave not a little annoyance to some of the landlioklers, for 
those whom he influenced had little regard for the lilies of 
their neighbors. Such a stale of ihnigs could nol easily he 
inct by law, for jusl whal crime the man should he punislied 
for il seemed difficult to decide. An old law of Vnginia was 
finally found which enforced a penally in tobacco Uijon "ihe 
propagation of false news, to the disunbancc of ihe good 
people of the colony." In .May of the following year, under 
this law, the man ToiLcroy «as tried and had to pay two 
thousand pounds of tob.icco. b.-sides paying costs anrl giving 
security for future good lich.ivior in the sum of llnee thou- 
sand pounds. 

Galloway, who advocitfd the same doelriivs in and 
around Lexington, met the same- late. Xeilii-i c, r.IJ pro- 
cure the requned amount of tobacco, so acted upon a hint 
given them that Ihcy wou,ld nol be pursued if tliey should 
aliempt to leave the country. 


By this time Colonel Campbell had escaped 
from his durance vile as a jaisoner of war in 
Canada, and had lepieseiiled the danger to his 
vested interests at the falls incurred under the 
act of 1780. In .May of this year, therefore, the 
following act was passed hy the l.eyi-latute; 
An Act to suspend the s.ilc 0/ icil.un eu-luattd ljnd>. Ute llu- 
properly of John Connolly. 

\VHKRI-;\S, il hath ben r.-|jri .~rnled to this .-\5?einbly 
by John Campbell, lately return. ^d from capiivity. that in his 
absence an .Act of Assembly I'.i->ed in the 1780. "for 
establishing the lovMi of Louisville, in ihe county of Jefler- 
son," whereby one thousand acres of l.ind, then supposed to 
be the property of |ohn ( unnolly. was directed to be laid 
ou'l into lots and strcis, an. I (lie money arising from the 
sale ihereuf 10 be p.iid into the trcisury ; and, the 
said one thoiis.uid acres was. at the lime of passing the said 
act, undei a mortgage to the said John Campbell and one 
Joseph Simon, as a security for ihe payment of ^450, Penn- 
sylvania currency, due to them from the said Connolly ; and 
whereas, other one ihous.ind acres contiguous thereto, said 
to be the property of the >.ud John Cam|)bell, but then sup- 
posed to belong to the .'.lid Jolm Connolly, together with the 
said one thouiiiid acres on which the said town was estab- 
lished, were escheated while the s^iid C.unpbell was in eap- 
tivitv, and are now ha.ile to be .-old under the act concerning 
escheats and f.)rfeiti-.rcs fr<'m llnlisli sal.j.rts. wheieby great 
injury may accrue lo the s.nd John Campbell. 

Sf.CTIOS 2. tie it therefore enacted, that all lunher pro- 
ceedings resix-ctmg the s.ile of the s.iid lots and lands shall 

he, and the same is hcleby suspended until the end of lli" 
ne.vl session of the General Assembly. 

The following is the act of .Vssemhl)- so often 
.rrfeued to in tlie subsequent luoceedings of the 
lioard of 'Irustees of the town: 

A,i A.I r,,,!i; ui /orl Ike .ut for estohlnhing the Town 
of Loiu'svill,: 

.Sue. I. Whereas. Jno. Campbell and J no. Connolly, being 
sic/ed as tenants in common of and in 4,000 acres of land 
lying at the Falls of the Ohio river, did, on the Olh of Feb., 
1776, execute each to the other a deed of partition of the 
same land, whereby the said J no Connolly was to lake rooo 
acres at the upper end, and one other looo acres at the lower 
end of said tract as his proportion ; and whereas, the said 
Ino Connollv, being considerably indebted lo the said Jno 
Campbell and Jos Simon, and as a security for the payment 
thereof did, by deed bearing date the ylh day of Feby, 1776, 
niortgage to Iheni the said 2000 acres of land ; and whereas, 
in May session, 1780, an act passed for laying oft" 1000 acres 
of land, then supposed lo be the forfeited properly of Ihe 
said John t.:onnolly, into lots and streets, and which was 
established a town by the name of Louisville; and whereas, 
il is represented to this present General Assembly by the said 
John Campbell, that partition lines have not been run for 
ascertaining the bounds between his and the said Connollys 
lands, and that the sum for which the said Connolly mort- 
gaged his moiety of the lands, together with the interest 
thereon, is still due to the said Jno Campbell and Jos .^imon. 
and it being unjust lo take from them that secnnly of the 
land so mortgaged by the s.iid Connolly for the payment of 
the debt and interest. 

Sl'.c. 2. Be it therefore en.acted, That the act of Assembly 
f.>r dal.ilishing the town of Louisville, at the Fall-, of Ohio, 
so far as il effects the properly of the said Jno Campbell 
and Jos Simon, shall be and the same is hereby repealed, 
and that no act, m.ilter, or thing had or done in virtue of 
said acts shall be construed, deemed, or taken to eftecl or 
prejudice the title of the said Jno Campbell and Jos Simon 
to the land aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. .And be it further en.icted, That the Survevur of 
the county of Jefferson shall run the partition lines between 
the said jno Campbell and J no Connolly according to the 
division lines describ-d in tlie .said deed of partition. 

of some of the iheii-i onsidered necessaries of 
life, as fi.xed by the County Court about this 
time, were as follow: Whiskey was $15 per half- 
pint, corn $1,0 jier gallon, a diet $t8, lodging on 
a feather bed $6, and stabling for a horse one 
night $4. Colonel Uurrett thinks it likely, how- 
ever, that the^tiaveler took care to pay his land- 
lord in Continental money, then depreciated at 
a thousand to one of coin. 


The most notable arrival of the year was Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, a gal- 
lant ofticer of the Revolution, and now Sutveyoi- 
(ieneral of the Western lands reserved as boun- 
ties to the soldiers of Virginia in that war. He 



was grandson of Robcrl Anderson, supposed to 
have come from Scotland in the Inttcr jinit of 
the seventeenth rentnry, and "^ettlcd in Hanover 
county, A irginia. Fiom the union of his son 
l\ol)crt (born Januaiy i, 1712), and FHzabcth 
dough, daughter, it is snmc.vliat doubtfully said, 
of a Welsh colonist, Rif hard C". Anderson 
sinang. He was born lanuary T2, 1750: in 
eaily youth became supercargo for a wcaltliy 
Virginia merchant; January 26, 1776, was ap- 
pointed Captain of the Hanover comity com- 
•pany of regidars, and March 7th follo\\ing, to 
the same .qrade in. the I'~iftli regiment of \'irginia 
Continentals; and took a conspicuous part with 
his company in the battle of 'I'renton, where he 
was wounded, and in the I'hiladeliiliia tnispital 
to which he was taken he also suffeied from 
small-pox, whose marks he carried the rest of his 
. Hfe. 

He afteiwards jjarticipated m the battles of 
Brandywine and Germantown; February 10, 
1778, was made major in the F'irst Virginia regi- 
ment, and with it took part in the battle of Mon- 
mouth; accompanied the expedition of Count 
D' Estaing to Savannah in the fall of 1779, and 
was permanently injured iri the charge uj)on the 
enemy's works; was captured by the liritish at 
Charleston, and lemained a prisonei nine 
months; was then detached to service upon the 
staff of General Lafayette; assisted Governor 
Nelson, of Virginia, in organizing the militia dur- 
ing the siege of Vorktown; upon the disband- 
itient of the army was appointed surveyor-general 
of bounty lands; came to Louisville in the spring 
of 1783 and established his office; in 17S7 mar- 
ried a sister of Ciencral George Rogers Clark, 
and the next year transferred his home to his 
"Soldiers' Retreat," in the comparative wilder- 
ness-ten miles in the interior, where the re->t ot 
his life was spent. In 1797, his first wife having 
died, he married Sarah Marshall. He revisited 
Virginia in 1824 or 162^, and not long atier- 
wards had the great pleasure of meeting his 
old companion-in-arms, General Lafayette, dur- 
ing the latter's visit to Louisville. Colonel An- 
derson died October 16, 1826, aged seventy-six 
years, nine months, and four days. He left six 
sons, all of whom attained greater or less distinc- 
tion— Richard Clough, Jr., a Congressman and 
Minister of the United States to Colombia; 
Lar/, long a Cincinnatian of much wealth and 

prominence; Robert, of Fort Sumter fame; W'il 
liam Marshall, a pinneei in crossing the Rocky 
mountains, and a siienlist of some note; John 
.•\iidcrson, of Cliilhcothe, Ohio; and ("harles, 
late Lieutenant (iovcinor of Oliio, and now an 
honored resident at Kuttawa, Lyon county, Ken- 
tucky. To the kindness ot the last-named we 
are indebted for auiheniic materials for this brief 
biography of one of ilie most remarkable men 
of Louisville's early tiay. 

.\i.\.l(>K II \i;risox. 
With Colonel .-\ndtrson, in a "broadhorn'' 
down the Oliio, came to tlie l^'alls Major John 
Harrison, who liad also ser\ed gallantly in the 
Revolutionary war. In 17S7 he married Mary 
Ami, daughter of l!r. Benjamin Johnston, and 
the same year, when the inhabitants sought tem- 
porary refuge in tiiC lort at Clarksville, during 
fear of Indian attack, his oldest child, who be- 
1 came Mrs. New, wasl)orn. He continued to rc- 
I side in Louisville, and died in 1821. .■\mong 
' his five children was James, born May 1, 1799, 
j now the Nestoi I'f the Louisville bar, and the 
I sole li\ing link of nati\e residents connecting the 
I eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

i 1784 — .MORF. LEGISL.VTION. 

In Octobei, 178.1. still anotiier act was passed 
by the \'irginia Legi.-,lature, reciting the doubts 
which had arisen "in the minds of the purchas- 
ers of lots in the tov.n of Louisville with regard 
to their titles,'' upon the construction of the act 
of October, 17S3, that ''the Trustees of the said 
town of Louisville know not how to proceed in 
executing the law passed in May, 1780, tor es- 
tablishing the town o( Louisville." It was there- 
fore enacted — 

That the Tru.stecs of ihe said Umn of Louisville sh.ill, as 
soon a,^ may be, give notice to tlie said Jotin Caiiipbell. and 
proceed to running \he partition lines between the lands o 
the s.iid John Campbell and John Connolly, according to 
their respective deeds of partition ; and, as soon as the said 
p.irtilion lines sh.dl be run. the said Trustees shall lay off in- 
to convenient lots or parcels, not e.\cecding one hundred 
acres, and sell such of the eicheated lands of the said John 
t'onnollv ;is remain unsold, and shall, in the tirst instance, 
after p.iying the necessary charges of surveying and laying 
oft' the said land, apply the mone) arising from such sales to 
redeeming the said land from the mortgage to the said John 
Campbell and Jo.seph Simon, and sh.ill pay the overplus into 
[he Treasury of this Commonwealth. .And in case the said 
lines of partition shall have been run. according to an act en- 
titled ".\n act for repe.aliiig in part an act for establishing 
the town of Louisville," previous to the p.issing of this act, 
then the said Trustees sli.ail proceed immediately to sell, iti 


HISTORY or inr, omo falls counties. 

manner before direclpil, tlie SAicI osche.iti-d I.inh, of Ilio s '.irl 
John (-'onnolly, :ind lo ap|i'.y the niom-v nri/in;; from ?ueh 
s;Oe to the pnrpo'ies nforeiiiid. 

It was furlher in'oviticd lluy sliouki iccxivt and 
api)ly ail monrvs diiofor lois sold inuK-r iheDris:;!- 
nal act and thai the titles of ptircliascis under 
that act should he deemed valid aj^ainst the 
claim of Campbell and Simon, and their heirs or 
assigns, but that tlii-- should riot lie construed to 
affect the title uf r,iui|)l)ell to sm li p.ut of the 
town as had been laid off tipuii his --hare of the 

Sundry other acts, passed from time to time 
by the Legislature of \"irginia or Kentucky, as 
the dates approaclied when they were demanded, 
afforded relief to those puichasers of lots who 
had been unable to comply with the provision of 
the statute of 17S0, prescribing the "condition of 
building on each a dwelling-house, 60 feet by 20 
feet at least, with a bri( k or stone chimney, to be 
finished within two years fiom the day of sale." 
These acts extended the time from year to year, 
as much as was deemed necessary to secure all 
in their possessory rights. The Trustees were 
also changed by the Legislature at lea;t once, as 
will be found hereafter, in the Civil List of the 

THE lIRil i.AXli OI-KltK. 

Another important measure, in regard to 
landed property in this region and the \"irginia 
Military District in f)liio, was undertaken Jidy 
20th of this year, in the opening of a land office 
in the little town of Louisville. All the terri- 
tory between tlie Curnbeiland and Gieen rivers, 
except the grant to Henderson iV Company, but 
including, of course, the site of Louisville and the 
present Jefferson county, had been a])])ropriated 
as bounty lands to the soldiers of the \'irginia 
line, on the Continental eslablibhmcnt, in the 
Revolutioiniy war. If they should be exh.iusted, 
locations were then to be made for the same 
purpose upon the jireserit soil of Oliio, between 
the Scioto and Little Miami river>, in what is 
now known a:, tl'.e \'iigiriia .Milit.iry I )istrict. 
In 17S3 Colonel Ri( h.ird (,_"li.aigh .-Xnderson, a 
X'irginia officer of high reputation in the late 
war and a brother-in law of (Jeneral Clark, 
whose sister he married, was apiiointerl principal 
surveyor of tliese ml!il,n\ distruts by tlie oflicers 
of the Virginia line, and his appuintmeiu was 
confirmed by the \'iiginia Legi->laliue Hi^ con- 

tract with them, dated December 17, 17S3, is 
still extant, and ha., been printed in McDonald's 
Sketches. He removed to Louis\i]le, bought a 
fine farm in the nt ighboihciod, which he named 
the: "Soldiers' Retreat," from the character of 
his business, and opened his office, at whiili 
it seems that formal location or entries could be 
made, as later at the Cioveinmeiit land-offices. 
The firs! entry was made in the name of William 
Rroun, of land at the mouth of the Curnbei- 
land. No location of the kind "was made upon 
the Ohio lands until -August i, 17S7, when \Vace 

; Clements enteicd j,ooo acres at the mouth of 

' Ivigle creek, above Cincinnati. The oflice was 
subsequently removed to Chillicothe, Ohio, 
upon the Military District in that State, when the 

1 increasing number of entries there demanded the 

• change, for convenience' sake. 


i ClTlil'-R SUKVtVOKS. 


j I he surveyor of Jefferson county, George 
i Mav, also a X'irginian, and ajipointed by the 
I (Joveriior, formerly surveyor of the county of 
Kentucky, had already opened an office, in 
November of 17S2, at Cox's Station, now in 
Nelson county. The notorious Captain Cilljert 
Imlay, self-styled "commissioner for laying out 
lands in the back settlements," and author of A 
Topographical Description of the \\'eslern Terri- 
tory, belonging mainly to Kentucky, published 
first in 1792, is said to have been appointed a 
deiiuty surveyor in this county in 1784, and to 
have laid off many thousands of acres here. Mr. 
Collins, from whose history we have this fact, 
thinks that "probably lie was agent for English 
land speculators." He was the same Imlay with 
whom the celebrated English woman, Mary 
W'oolstonecraft, afterwards became involved, and 
to whom she wrote the remarkable letters that 
have recently been collected and embodied in a 
printed volume. 

William Lope was employed in 1783 to make 
a fresh draft of the [)lat of Louisville ; but it also 
has gone the way of all the earth. The mai> of 
Imlay, deputy surveyor aforesaid, may have been 
made about this time. It appears in his Topo- 
grajihical Description, published some years 
afterwards. Colonel Durrett adds : 

It presents t'.ic b.mie islnnds .is jhowii l>y tlie ni.ip of C.ip- 
t.iiii Hutchins alre.tdy alluded to. l!ul tlie shores of the 
Ohio are altogether different from they appe.ircd in the 
^h.irt of iUitehins. On the side the vill.ige of Cl.irks- 



villi" nppcarh witli a tlozen houac^, opposite tKe r.ipiils, and 
ft little higluT up inclosed farms are scon in cnllivntion, with 
I'ort Kenny at tlicir eastern extremity, .iboul wl.eie Jefl'etson- 
villi- nuw stands. On the Kentucky side of lljc river not only 
f.iniis and gardens are seen incloied and in eiiUivali!.>n, but 
([uile a town appears in from orT'ijrn Island. The I'nui lies 
entirely in front of this inland, and the poinl where the pres- 
ent Hish sirev'l originallyhranchcd off from Twelfth seems 
to lie its center. Theie are but three streets shown on this 
ni.ip. and these correspond !•) the present Miin, .Monroe 
and High streets. On Main street, ljej;inning ahoiit wliere 
I'linrth street now is and extending to aho'it Twelfth, can be 
eountcd forty houses; on Monroe street fourteen, and on 
llii;h street Iwenly-eight. The sp-iee between the houses o:: 
the north side of Mam street and the river seems to be l-aid 
out in gardens, and farms appeal on the east side of lienr- 
grass creek and west of the houses on M.iin, Monroe, and 
I{ii;li streets. South of Main street there were no do'Jbl 
some houses on the streets now known as Market and Jeffer- 
son, but they are not exhibited on the map. To. show that 
even at this early period the enterpiising cituens of Louis- 
ville wete thinking seriously of .some way lb get around tiie 
Tails with their loaded barges, the line of a canal is marked 
on this map from the mouth of I'eargrass creek to the fool 
of Rock Island. 


r.itiick Joycs came this year, and .settled nliout 
the same time on the lot on the northeast corner 
of Main and Sixth streets, which continued in his 
family until the summer of 1S82. An Irishman 
by birth, he was brought up in France and Spain 
and came to Louisville as an agent of a mercan- 
tile house in Philadel[)hia. In those early days 
his knowledge of French and Spanish brout^ht 
him in contact with all the prominent men of the 
valley of the Ohio who were involved in either 
commercial or political negotiations with Louisi- 
ana. Flis oldest son, Thomas J eyes, was born 
December 9. 17S7, on the above-mentioned cor- 
ner, and inherited his father's talents for the ac- 
i|U'sitioii of languages, having mastered by the 
time he attained his majority, or soon afterwards, 
French, German, and Spanish, and one or two 
Indian dialects, by picking them up from the few 
books that were accessible to him, and by receiv- 
ing oral instruction from any foreigner who could 
spare him a moment's time. Thomas Joyes's 
training was miscellaneous — in the clerk's office 
as a copyist, and in the field as a surveyor. 
He served in the Wabash campaign of iSi:;, and 
was a captain in the Thirteenth regiment of Ken- 
tucky militia at the battle of New Orleans. He 
«as a deputy surveyor under General Rector in 
ihe West about the year 1S16, and surveyed fur 
the (iovernment that part of Illinois of which 
I'eoii.i is the tenter. In the well-known struggle 

between the two jiarties that distracted Kentucky 

I after the financial crisis that followed soon after 

! the War of i.St?, he was a zealous "new court" 

man, and reiirc^.ented Jefferson and Oldham 

i counties in the Kentucky Legislature. As his 

I native place grew fiom villagehood into cityhbod 

I he was freciueiitly a member of the board of- 

trustees and of the council, and represented it 

on two or three occasions in the Legislature, the 

I lime having been in the winter of 1834-35. 

I He (lied .M.iy .|, 1866, the oldest native of Louis- 

I ville. 

I The second son of Patrick Joyes was John 
Joyes, born January 8, i79<), who, after com- 
pleting his academic education, studied law and 
was admittsd to the liar of Louisville. He was 
one of the early mayors of the city when it was 
raised to that dignity, and by executive appoint- 
ment was made tlie first judge of the city court 
when that court was created in 1835, which 
office he filled with success and ability until the 
year 1854. He also represented his native 
county in the Legislature when quite young. 
He died in Louisville May 31, 1S-7. The other 
children of Patrick Joyes were Mrs. Johnson, 
Mrs. McGonigal (afterwards Smith), and Mrs. 
William Sale. The greater part of his posterity 
are still residents of Louisville. 

In 17S3 also came to Kentucky, by emigra-^ 
tion from Virginia, the well-remembered Alex- 
ander Scott RuUitt, who for almost a ciuarter of 
a century was a resident of Jefferson county. A 
full sketch of his life and public services will be 
given in a future chapter. 

Colonel .-Vrmistead Churchill, of Middlesex 
county, Virginia, removed to the Falls this year, 
and settled on the estate ever since held by the 
family, three miles from the river. Here he died 
in 1795, aged sixty-four; but Mrs. Churchill sur- 
vived until 1S31, when she died at the age of 
ninety-one. They were parents of Colonel Sam- 
uel Churchill. 

CREVKC'KUk's woxdkkful stokv. 

The most surprising account of the infant 
Louisville that has been [ireserved, is included 
in an elaborate letter written here August 26 of 
this year, by M. St. John de Crevecceur, a native 
of Normandy, who emigrated to this country at 
the age of sixteen, was a cultivator of the soil in 
Western New York at the outbreak of the Rev- 



olution, and subsequently French consul in New 
York city. This, with other letters of Creve- 
cceur, was published in three volumes in Paris 
in 1787, and elegantly translated in 1879 by 
Professor P. A. Towne, for the early numbers of 
his Louisville Monthly Magazine. We give but 
brief e.\tracts from tliis most interesting old doc- 

After having remained twenty-two days at Pittsburg, I took 
advantage of the first which started for Louisville. It 
was 55 feet long, 12 wide, and 6 deep, drawing 3 feet of 
water. On its deck had been built a low cibin, but very 
neat, divided into several apartments, and on the forecastle 
the cattle and horses were kept as in a stable. It was loaded 
with bricks, boards, planks, bars of iron, coal, instruments 
of husbandry, dismounted wagons, .invils, bellows, dry- 
goods, brandy, flour, biscuits, hams, lard, and salt meat, etc. 
These articles came in part from the country in the vicinity 
of Pittsburg and from Indiana 'the old district of that name 
in Western Virginia]. I observed the larger part of the pas- 
sengers were young men who came from nearly all the Mid- 
dle States: ple.isant, contented, full of buoyant hopes ; hav- 
ing with them the money coming from the sale of their old 
farms, or from the share received from their parents, they 
were going to Kentucky to engage in business, to work at 
their trades, to acquire and establish new homes. \\"hat a 
singular but happy restlessness that which is constantly 
urging us all to become better off than we now are, and 
which drives us from one end of a continent to the other. In 
the meantime we were kept busy catching fish, which are 
very abundant.* Vou can hardly imagine the singular 
charm this pleasure adds to this new mode of navigation. 
In the evening, after laying up, the more skillful hunters 
would go to the land to shoot wild turkeys, which, you are 
aware, wait for the last rays of the sun to fade away before 
going to roost on the tops of the highest trees. 

Crevecusur's mention of green turtle in this 
part of the Ohio suggests that quite probably, 
like Ashe and other early travelers in America, 
he was capable of drawing a long bow when it 
would lend interest to his narrative. That im- 
pression, we suspect, will be confirmed upon 
perusal of some of the passages below : 

At last, on the tenth day since our departure irom Pitts- 
burg, we anchored in front of Louisville, ha\ing made 
seven hundred and five miles in two hundred and twelve 
hours and one-half of navigation. What was my surprise 
when, in place of the huts, the tents, and primitive 
cabins, constructed and placed by mere chance and sur- 
rounded with palisades, of which I had heard so much dur- 
ing the last five years, I saw numerous houses of two stories, 
elegant and well painted, and ias far .is the stumps of trees 
would permit! that all the streets were spacious and well laid 
out ! 

Shortly after landing I learned that this plateau belonged 
to Colonel Campbell, who had himself drawn the plan of the 

•Crevecceur's foot-note: "The perch, the jack, the cat-fish, 
weighing eighty pounds , the buffalo, weighing twenty 
pounds, is the Ije^t of all. Below the F.tlls at Louisville, the 
sturgeon and green turtle are taken." 

new city, and had divided it into lots of a half-acre each.* 
The houses nearest the river were not only painted, but eien 
had piazzas extending the whole length. Those mote dis- 
tant appeared to me to be only enclosures without glass fur 
the windows; the frame of others seemed to be awaiting a 
roof and planks; and those most distant were simple bark 
cabins covered with leaves, arranged in lines on the limits of 
the concession. Those citizens most easy in their circum- 
stances had already enclosed their half-acre, in which I saw 
the commencement of gardens, if that name can be given to 
cabbages, beans, potatoes, salad, etc., planted in the midst 
of stumps that they had not yet time to take up by the roots. 
Any one who could find a way to transport here a large 
nursery of fruit-trees would render an important service to 
this young colony. 

I counted sixty-three finished houses, thirty-seven in 
progress, twentv-two elevated without being enclosed, and 
more than a hundred cabins. .-Ml the streets have, and 
ought to have, sixty feet in width. 

I hardly know how to describe the peculiar and new im- 
pression made on my mind by the sight of these streets, not 
long since laid out across the woods, and still full of stumps, 
among which men in vehicles pass with difficulty — streets 
which, perhaps, in the space often years, will be paved, or- 
namented with tiees, with sidewalks and other conveniences. 
The sight of this suggestive gradation of houses finished, 
imperfect, just commenced, of cabins built against the trees; 
the aspect of the cradle of this young city, destined by its 
situation to become the metropolis of the surrounding coun- 
try — all these objects impress me with a reverence and re- 
spect that I cannot well define. I congratulate mvself on 
having finally arrived on this new theater, to which my fellow- 
countrymen come long distances to exhibit their courage, 
their might, and their inventi\e genus. Never before have I 
experienced that feeling which ought, it seems to me, to at- 
tend those wlio are actively engaged in founding a great 
settlement or a new city, and which should compensate them 
for theii troubles and privations. 

Such is a sketch of the commencement of Louisville. I 
have all the more pleasure in witnessing it. since it is industry 
and not accident which has guidedit. since it is geometry 
and the compass which daily map out the loundations of the 
city, and not feudal servitude and barbarian ignorance. 
Under what obligations is not posterity placed to the noble 
founders of this beautiful country ! 

What movement, what activity, on this little theater of 
Louisville ! I do not believe there is a single State in the 
Union not represented in its inhabitants. The country is so far 
from the old settlements that silver is the only money carried 
by the emigr.ints. You can hardly believe to what extent 
this metal animates, energizes, and accelerates the progress of 
all their enterprises. In spite of the incursions of the Indians, 
who. regretting the sale of this splendid country, continue to 
wage upon the settlers a midnight war and lav in w ait for the 
emigrants in the mountain p;\sses, they extend and carry to 
perfection their settlements all the more energetically. They 
have constructed staked forts at points most exposed, and 
placed in them a suitable number of armed men. In spite of 
distance, fatigues, and dangers, men come here from all direc- 
tions, as to a promised land ; and if this incentive lasts a few 
years longer. Kentucky will soon become rich, populous, and 
powerful. Already more than forty thousand inhabitants are 

•Crevecceur's foot-note : " He sells them at thirty pounds, 
Pennsylvania money, four hundred and twenty turnois 



counted in the three counties of Fayette. Jefferson, and Lni- 
coln ; already the foundation of several cities is laid, which. 
by their situation promise to become of considerable impor- 

This large settlement is not only a phenomenon of boldness, 
of courage, and of perseverance, but also of genius and m- 
dustry. P"illed with men whose minds have been enlightened 
by a good American education, as well as by a civil war of 
eight years, it will have only a brief moment of infancy; their 
vehicles, their plows, the machines of which they make use, 
appear to me to be as well made as our own; the workshops, 
in front of which I passed in going to Danville, were as well 
built, though smaller, than those of Pennsylvania. Already, 
also, they have built and endowed churches, the pastors of 
which have been brought from Virginia. I hear them speak 
also of an establishment for the instruction of youth, that 
they will hasten to place in the form of a uni\ersity. I can 
assure you that there are few ameliorations useful to a dawn- 
ing civiliz^ition that have not already been made available. 

Already this little city, the metropolis of the country, con- 
tains articles of nierchan^lise which contribute, on the one 
hand, to support the trade in skins from Venango and the 
peninsula of Lake Erie, by the rivers Miami, Muskingum. 
Scioto, etc., and on the other hand to descend the Ohio to sup- 
ply the wants of the farmers of Indiana the \'irginia district 
before mentioned', of Kentucky, of the W'ab.vsh. and even 
of Illinois. Cattle, provisions, iron, lime, brick, made in 
Pittsburg, are shipped daily for Louisville; and had not the 
fact actually come under my observation, I could hardly be- 
lieve that the houses of this settlement were made in part 
with materials coming from a distance of 235 leagues. 
Without all these resources, and a thousand others that I 
could mention, the Territory of Kentucky could not have 
made the progress it has in the space of twelve years, from 
the feebleness of an infant to the powers of a vigorous man. 

The gross exaggerations in which this writer 
occasionally indulged, are easily detected by any 
one who reads attentively the remaining portions 
of our annals of the first decade of Louisville. 
The following is particularly ludicrous: 

It was Sunday that we arrived in front of Louisville. We 
had hardly come to anchor when a boat, which carried sev- 
enteen persons, came alongside. I noticed all the men 
had on silk stockings, and all the women had p.irasols. " 


The beginnings of the village of Shi[)pingport, 
now a part of Louisville, were made this year, 
under the name of Campbellton, from its owner. 
Colonel Campbell. More of its history will ap- 
pear hereafter. 


Among the immigrants of 1785 was Colonel 
Richard Taylor, brother of our pioneer surveyor, 
Hancock Taylor, and a distinguished officer of 
the Virginia troops in the Revolution from the 
beginning to the end ot the struggle. Distin- 
guished for his courage and coolness in battle. 

he was said to possess that faculty, so invaluable 
in a military leader, of imparting to those around 
him the same dauntless spirit. After removing 
to the State of Kentucky, his frequent contests 
with the Indians, and his successes in these 
fights, caused his name to become a word of ter- 
ror to every dweller in a wigwam from the Ohio 
river to the great lakes on the north. 

In the family of Colonel Taylor was a babe in 
arms, of but nine months old, who had been 
named Zachary. His boyhood and youth were 
spent in and near Louisville. In 1808 he was 
made a first lieutenant in the regular army, and, 
after a long and adventurous career, became 
"Old Rough and Ready," Major-General 
Zachary Taylor, w ho in the Mexican war became 
one of the most renowned captains of history, 
and a few years afterwards died in office, the 
President of the United States. He is the only 
Federal President that was ever a citizen of 
Louisville or of Kentucky. 


During this year Mr. Lewis Brantz, a young 
German who had been employed by persons at 
the East to examine the commercial resources of 
the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and lead pro- 
jected German colonies to their future homes in 
the wilderness, came to the Falls in fourteen 
days from Fort Pitt, and entered these notes 
among his Memoranda of a Journey in the West- 
ern Parts of the United States of America, in 

We met tifteen canoes, with passengers, bound to Fort 
Pitt from the Falls. Louisville is located quite near the 
Falls. Some houses are already erected ; yet this lonely set- 
tlement resembles a desert more than a town. . The 
Falls of the Ohio is the only landing-place [for Kentucky] at 
present ; and it abounds in merchandise. 

Mr. Brantz staid a fortnight in and about the 
Falls, and then pursued his way to the Cumber- 
land. His description, brief as it is, seems to 
fix the falbity of much of that of Crevecceur, 
which, at least as to the number of houses then 
here, has misled historians ever since. 


In December of this year. General Richard 
Butler, and the other Commissioners of the 
United States associated with General Clark for 
the negotiation of a treaty with the Indians at 
Fort Finney, near the mouth of the Great 
Miami, took advantage of a lull in the negotia- 



tions or the collection of tlic Indians for tiut 
liurposi-, in order to visit llu- I'.tlls of the Ohio. 
They started on Monday, tlie 2d, and le.iclied 
here two days tliere.Tl'ter. W'e extract the follow- 
ing account of the visit friuii (k'ncral UiUlc-i's 
journal : . ' 

We puslicd on lo Six mile Isl.ind. wliitli is also \i-ry fine; 
jusl below tliis isbiid tin.- lossii of I.diiiaviiie opens lo view, 
and the appearance of iliceouniry ruici riicr beautiful beyon.-i 
description. The cuni-iu cf i!ie ri- er verv !;eiule. Vou 
come soon in view and liearin;,' of trie I'all.v. v.liieli all 
tl\e majesty and grandeur of one of the most delij;lilful 
rivers in the woilil ; you arc not only jilcaiied by ttie appear- 
ance, but struck with an agreeable awe from the noise of tlic 
water rolling over tho rocl;s. wliicli. tliough somewhat terri- 
ble to pass, has nothing terrible in its appearance. 

Pushed on to the mouth of P.e.iVyrass creek, which is ih.e 
beginning of the town land, and which aflord.s a. safe and 
useful harbor for boats; it is about forty yards wide, and 
very useful. Passed by this to what is called the lower land- 
ing, nearly opposite to an island which in high water divides 
the river and forms an easy passage for boats. Mere « e |)ut 
in and landed. J lut as Nvcwere going on shore, we \vere 
alarmed by ilie eiies of people ii] distress, who in a 
large boat had attempted to nui tlie Falls, but being ignorant 
of the projier cliannel, had just struck on a rock. We went 
up to tlie town, which staiuls on a very grand bank and 
overlooks the Falls, and has in view the new town called 
Clarksville. We told tiie people of the distressed situation of 
the unhappy men mentioned, in hopes some persons ac- 
quainted with the Falls would h.ive been sent to their 
assistance; and I am soiry 1 c.mnot say more ol tlieir 
humanity than of the carelessness sh'.nvn on this distressing 
occasion, for, notwithstanding all ovu' an.\ielv for the poor 
sufferers, the good people of the town diverted themselves at 
cards (a very favorite amusement here), while their ear> wcic 
assailed with tlie cries of the unh.-.ppv suflerers, which seemed 
to create no other emotions than some ill-natured reflection 
on their folly; and thus were these wretched men left to all 
the dangers and terrors of their distressed state, w ithout one 
effort to release them, or even .an e.vpression of pity escaping 
the humane lips of any one in the'e, as I could hear. 

Till-Ksii.w, December Sili. 

The first thing heard by (icneral Parsons and myself tliis 
moniing (for we slept togetheil, was the cries of the poor 
on which we called on Captain 
. place, and spoke in terms re- 

WTetchcs mentioned aliove, 
Bullitt, an iidiabitant of th.i 
fiecting on tlieir want of con-.p.. 
with some little pains got a fellow 
another man to their relief. Tl; 
had like to sulTered on the I 
and some others got two i,tiier, ti 
struck the logs of drifi-stntV to 
waded in the night from the boat, u 
lost one of their unhappy comp.ini.i 
by the current. The men lem^ i! 
tempt to make sho'C. oM',- d te 
solitary lodging for tlie night. ,>ha.!, 
clothes all wet. Gcner.d l'arsi,r,s ; 
come to fhore, went to nit-t tivni 
which was really verv p-.tcus as t 
they spoke of the loss of tiieir eom] 
Ihein no matter of concern, l.u; e\i 


-s;on. He went oat and 
wlu, was drunk to go with 
, brute missed them, and 
.'.lis. Then one .Mr. Davis 
' go. succeeded and 
which the poor men had 
m attempting whii-h they 
ions. Mho was swept down 
disi.oi;ragcd from any al- 
ike U[) theirdismal and 
as very cold, and their 
1 myself, seeing them 
ind heard their story, 
ilieniselves. but when 
a>n It seemed to give 
laugh when thev 

related this part of it. We pa -ed them and went over on a 

\i-ry line rocky Imlloni, which is nu\s tiuite dry, to an island 
in the halls of al)onl five acres. From this we passed over 
from the lowet end to the main, to Campbell's land, thence 
to'wliero he has laid out a new town called Hebron, ojiiiositc 
the lower p.iit of the Falls and Clarksville. Here vvc crossed 
ovcT to the latter place, and was very kindly received and 
treated by Mr. Dallon and Mr.s. and Captain George, who 
pressed us much to stay for dinner. 

1 walked about and examined the ground, which 1 am of 
opinion overflows at very high floods ; therefore I •think the 
most useful and advant.igeous places for trade, etc.. is above 
till' mouth of a small creek, on which Ucncral C'laik is build- 
ing a mill, and .at a point abos-e the draught of the Palls," 
the one to receive below and the other above the Falls those 
persons and goods coming up and going down, as a good 
road may be made between the two places and the boats 
taken down cmpt)' w iih ease and safety. 

We returned in the afternoon to Louisville, where we 
found the people engaged in selling and buying lots in the 
back streets, but, not liking the situation, 'bought none. 
There are several good log-houses building here, but the ex- 
travagance in wages and lazineas of the tradesmen kecji liark 
the improvement of the place exceedingly. In truth I see 
very little doing but card-playing, drinking, and other vices 
among the common people, and am sorry too many of the 
better sort arc too mu<!h engaged in the same manner, a 
fen storekeepers excepted, who seem busv in land and other 
speculations, in which the veracity oi generosity of some are 
not very conspicuous, being ever on the watch to lake the ad- 
vantage of the Ignorance or innocence of the stranger. 

This afternoon ihe commissioners for drawing the lottery 
for the lands of General Clark's regiment met, and tail: of 
drawing tlie lottery for the respcclive lots of land on the 
north side of the Falls, where they have very wisely chosen 
to locate it, being authorized so lo do by an act of the I.egis. 
lalure of the State of \arginia, and which I think pieferable 
in every respect as to situation to I..ouisville; and if the 
owners do not im|)ro\e the advantages thrown by the gener- 
osity of the State in their power, I shall conclude them 
regardless of their true interest atid void of good sense, as it 
is a most beautiful and advantageous place. 

I find on the lower part of the Falls the greatest abundance 
of swans, geese, ducks, and pigeons very plenty flying ovei; 
h'.'re are also fine fish, but the people generally too indolent 
to catch them, tiiough in great need. 

Frid.w, December 8th. 

. . We have found many curious petrifactions, such as 
roots of trees, calamus, the excrescence of the locust tree, 
etc. We find that a good and .short road may be maile from 
Clarksville to the place described above the Falls, where I 
think should be another village, for the purpose of easing the 
navigation of the rapid. There is one beautiful spot in the 
middle of the river, which is o hollow in the midst of a kind 
of rocky island, into which the water tumbles over a beauti- 
ful cascade of about eight feet, and forms a pretty basin. 
This spot appears to best advantage from a point above a 
large l.'asin bi'tvveen the great rapid and a small one. above 
the mouih of Clark's creek, and forms a grand and capacious 
harbor, where boats may lay below or put in from above at 
ple.isure. This and below this to Clark's creek I think is the 
most proper spot for a town, which will not only rival, but 
deprive Louisville of all liie adv.intagcs it now enjoys from 

1 am much dis.ipp.jinted in the expectation I had of the 

•This subsequeiuly became the site ol Jefi'crsonville. 



pulitcness of lliia loun. as I li.ivc Leon lokl Ur.'ie luc ;i mmi- 
licr of decent people ill nnd about it, l>iil am sorry 10 siy 
tliat tlie coninii.^sioiiers, instead of meeting polilenc;?; or llie 
loast degree of nttention, were avoided by cvcryiiody, and 
even llieir ni.igiitralcs.'aftoi asl;ing a few imperiincnt (|upi,- 
lions, willidrew and joinod^tla- card and speculating cluhs of 
tlie lonest classes and most vulgar people I have seen, and 
even lliO'S'' who we have been of use and attenlivc to have 
forgot it and neglected us. 

S.\-ni!nAV, Di-ceniber 10. 
The morning being very foggy and dark, it hid the heads 
of those people who eoukl so easily forget good treatment 
and served as a veil to their meanness of soul, by giving 
them an excuse foi not seeing u.s come away, whilst it s.t\ed 
us the trouble of speaking to [Ttople whom v.-e have re.ison- 
so heartily to despise for their impolite eoiKliiet. W'c left 
the bank at half-past eight o'clock, and pushed on to the Six- 
mile Island, opposite to the middle of which is a cabin en the 
soiillK-rn shore, just below George creek. 

It was a democratic period, evidently, and 
Louisville had not yet become arciislomed to 
receiving, dining, and wining visitors of distinc- 

.i^KOTlil R SURVliV. 

In this year \Mlliain Sliap.non was engaged as 
surveyor, and directed to lay off the hack pait of 
the Connolly thousand-acre tract into out-l'Us of 
five, ten, and twenty acres. He seems to have 
made a partial niaj) of the town-site, pfih:i|;s of 
his survey alone ; but it cannot now be recov- 
ered, and his survey does not appear upon the 
subsequent mai)of Abram Hite, made in 1790. 


This year, upon the place wliere he finally 
settled on Goose creek, in this county, died 
Isaac Hite, com[)anioii of Boone in his earliest 
explorations, and one of the famous 'I'en Hunt- 
ers of Kentucky. He came from Berkeley coun- 
ty, Virginia, as a permanent settler in I7;S. His 
brother. Captain Abraham Hite, came four years 
after, and another brother, Josepii, in 17 S3. 
Their fatlier also cnme the next year, with an 
Episcopal clergyman named Kawanau^h. The 
elder Hite died in 17S6, Abraham in August, 
1S32, and Joseph in 1S31."*" 

Captain JamcM Winn removed from Fauquier 
county, Virginia, to the Falls tliis year. Three 
days afterwards, before the family removed 
(torn the covered fiatboat in which they came 
down the Ohio, William Johnston married his 
daughter F'liza. They were parents, as before 
noted, of Dr. Ian;es Chew Johnston. 

* Craig's Historical Sketches of Ciirist Church, 37, 38. 

1 786- cl.nkk'.s l.'\,si' i.xi'i'.m I uj.n'. 

A small \\'er,tern army had now been organized, 
as a part of the regular forces of the United 
Slates. It was stationed, almost or quite wholly, 
in the valley of the Ohio, wliere the names of 
Jlarmar, St. Clair, Wayne, and \\'ilkinson, its 
commanders successively, and of Inmey, Zieglcr, 
Hariison (afterwards (General and I'residenl), 
Wyllys, Strong, nemi)-, and other subordinate 
officers, became fimiliar as household words in 
the [lioneer hisioiy of l,oui5\ille, iMarietta, Cin- 
cinnati, and other jjoints. In conseqtience of re- 
newed troubles by some of the tiibcs, notwith- 
standing the treaty at Fort Finney, two compa- 
nies of re.^ulars were sent to Fort .Xelson, and 
Clark was again tailed into service to add a body 
of volunteer niilitia and invade the hostile In- 
dian country. 1!) some time in September one 
tliousand men weie collected at the I-'alls, and a 
march to \'incennes \\as begun. His commissary 
and ordnance stores were started in keelboals 
down the Ohio and uii the Wabash rivers; and 
this fact, together with the growing intemperance 
of the Geneiiil, proved ih.e ruin of the expedi- 
tion. '1 he suiiplie- were delayed by low water in 
the streams; th.e season was warm, and much of 
the food was spoiled; so that the slow march 
tlirough the wildeiness to \'incenncs was accom- 
plished, nine expectant days were i>assed there, 
and when the boats finally ariived, the condition 
of their cargoes ga\e little cheer to the army. 
The troops became mutinous; three hundred 
K-cntuckians deserted in a body, while on a 
march to the enemy's camps; the rest of the vol- 
unteers soon went straggling after, unmindful of 
the solemn and even tearful appeals of the war- 
worn commander, whom they had now ceased to 
res|ject or obey; and the success of the expedi- 
tion became hopeless. Nothing remained to 
Cl.irk but to retrace his steps to the Falls, with 
the remnant of tlie regular force — if indeed that 
was with him at all. He never recovered from 
this disaster. It was almost his last appearance 
in military history.'s kxpldition. 

Upon his return to the Falls, Clark dispatched 
Colonel IJenjainin Logan, who had encamped 
with him on the Indiana sliore, near Silver creek, 
to raise more troops in Kentucky and operate 
against the Ohio Lidians. Logan obtained four 



to live hundred men, crossed iht.' Ohio at Lime- 
stone, now .\Lnysville, and made a very success- 
ful raid thriuigh the .\Iad-Ri\er c(uinlr\'.' 

liK.NNV's lOUKNAI.. 

T!ie following extracts frnm tlic Military Jour- 
nal of .Major ]",t)cnc7cr Denny, tlien a young 
lieutenant oi duty ;'t I'ort Finney, near the 
mouth of the (-Ireai Miami, sujiply some inler- 
estmg details of tiie military occupation here: 

22d [May, 1786]. — I rcci-ivcd on'.'jrs [■,> pri-paro to go on 
com.mand 10 tlit- I*"al!s of Ohio. 

I'^d. — Set out wiih sergeant,, ar.a twelve men. in 
a b.irge for Louisville. Kivervciy full. l,;iu;led iie.vt morn- 
ing ,it Ihe phicc — disiinee said to lie one Imndred and fifty 
miles— run it in l«enly-four lioiirs. Four Kentucky bo.its, 
whieh passed Fort I'iiiney the day belorc I left it, weie ' 
attacked at the mouth of Kentucky riu-r by the Indians on j 
lioth sides of the Ohio, supposed to be in number two hun- 
dred — foituiiately no other d.iinaye a f> av horses killed, j 
Foiu' d.iys [ renuined at the Falls, and every t 
day there were account-; of men being sc.iipcd between tliat I 
and the upper counties 

After many altercations botwcen General Chark, myself, I 
and the two gentlemen who had the artill'-ry in charge, they 
agreed that t should h.ivc a piece, v. ith a few sliot, which I j 
immediately put on lioard. 

aSth. — Having procirred a brass three-]iounder with a few j 
bo.tes of suitable shot, left die F.dls; embarked again for j 
our F6rt. River very hii;h , and obliged to work up close along [ 
shore, giving the sa\ages ever) possible advant.Age. 

Mr. Denny was not very favorably impressed ' 

^\ith the behavior cf some of the civilians here, ' 
as he wrote shortly afterwards to General ?Iar- 

mar : j 

If it had not been for General (_71ark, who lias always been 
our friend here, I should h.we returned as I went, owing to a | 
contentious set of men m civil ofhce there, all of whom are 
candidates for something, and were afraid would be censured I 
by the public for giving any of the military stores away, at a j 
time when their couiitrv- is suffering by siv.ige depred.a- 
lions. I 

From certain other entries in Denny's journal, j 
it is ascertained that Cieneral Harniar, with Lieu- 
tenants lieatty and Pratt, were here the latter 
part of April, 178;; that Captain Strong, with j 
his company tV'jm I'ort Harmar, reinforced the 
garrison at the Falls about June, of the same 
year; and that he, with Captain Smith and com- 
pany, Ensign Sedam (founder of Scdamsville, 
below Cincinnati, now a jiart of the city), with : 
part of Mercer'i com|)any, Lieutenant Peters, , 
and Dr. Elliot, aUo came on the loth of that 
Oionth. The diaiy proceeds: j 

nth. -Our with Hanitr.imck and 
Mr. Pratt, the (luatteiMiaster. etc.. ari:v..-d in the barge. , . 

i8lh.— Water favorable. We began to send our boats and , 
jiores over the Kapids, for fear of low water. Subalterns 

riiiiimand at landing below tlie Rapiil.-. as guard. Troot-t 
wait for a supply of provision.s. . . . \Vhi;i{ 
Br.tdshaw, the agent, is at a, commanding ofl'icer directs 
the purchase of provisions. 

July 2d.— Strong's, Mercer's, and Smith's companies cross 
the Ohio from their encampment opposite Louis\illc. mar. li 
down and encamp at the landing below the Falls. 

3d. — I'inney's and Ziegler'.s companies crossed and en- 
camped with the others. This evening Ferguson, with his 
company of .arliller> from [Fort] .Mlntosh, and Daniel Rritl, 
with a cargo of provisions on account of late contractors, 

(Jth. — Captain Ziegler, with a command of a lieuten.'ui, 
one sergeant, one and sixty-two privates, em- 
barked with all the cattle and horses, and a quantity of 
flour, on board eight Kentucky boats and two keel-beat'., 
with orders to proceed down to Pigeon creek, eight mile-, 
above Green river, and there wait for the arrival of th.- 

8th. — Troops emb.arked for Pigeon creek, one hundred 
and eighty miles below the Rapids. 

This wa.s a peaceful expedition to Vincennes, 
under command of Ceneral Ilarmar and Major 
Hamtramck, which m:tde its march through the 
wilderness without serious disaster or loss, al- 
though hostile Indians were occasionally met. 
After the return, October 2Sth, Harmar, till 
then colonel, received at Fort Finney, on the 
op|)Osite shore, his brevet commission as brig 
adier-general and set out for Fo:t Harmar, with 
Denny, Quartermaster Pratl, and fifteen men. 
The companies of Captains Ziegler and Strong 
were to follow the next day. Major \\'yllys, 
with Finney's and Mercer's companies, was to 
continue at Foit I'inney, a work wliich had been 
recently erected upon the present site of Jeffer- 
sonville, taking its name from the same !NLajor 
Finney who entitled the fort at the mouth of the 
Miami. It was from the former that a small gar- 
rison was sent fifteen months afterwards to Judge 
Symmes's settletnent at North Bend, below Cin- 
cinnati. A\'e hear no more of Denny or his 
companions at the Falls of the Ohio. Nfajor 
Wyllys was afterwards removed to Fort Wash- 
ington, and was with the troops that marched 
from that post to defeat under General Harmar 
in October, 1790. 

Tlir. IMMIGR.\T10X 

down the Ohio this )ear and the ne.xt was very 
great. General Harmar caused Lieutenant Den- 
ny to take an account of the boats and their 
contents which passed Port Harrnar between the 
loth of October, 17S6, and the uth of May, 
1787, "bound lor Limestone and the Rapids." 
Their number was 177 boats, 2,689 persons. 



1,333 horses, 766 cattle, and 102 wngons. From 
the ist of June to December 9, 17S7, there were 
146 boats, 3, 196 souls, 1,371 horses, 165 wagons, 
191 cattle, 245 sheep, and 24 hoi;.-*. This 
■IHomised very hopefully for the sclllcnu'nts 
down the preat rivers. 


Louisville, now becoming murh the mo^t 
).ri)niiiienl jjoiiit in Kentucky, had its full share 
in the agitations of this period, in reference to 
Sjianish domination in the Southwest. In May, 
1786, the Hon. John Jay, L'niled States Minister 
to Spain, who had been negotiating v.ith that 
Governmeut with reference to the navigation of 
the Mississippi below the Federal boundaries, 
brought the matter to the attention of Congress, 
with the recommendation that tlic United Slates 
should surrender the right of navigation through 
the Spanish domains, for twenty-five or thirty 
years. The Southern Congressmen naturally 
opposed this with great vigor; and rumors of the 
situation, reaching the Ohio valley in very dis- 
torted forms, aroused great indignation among 
the people of Kentucky and other Western 
settlements. It bc,u;nn to be proposed that Ken- 
tucky should set up an independent government, 
and effect the conquest of l^ouisiana from the 
Spanish. A hot-headed individual at Louisville, 
named Thomas Green, according to the Annals 
of the West, wrote to the Governor and Legisla- 
ture of Georgia, which State was involved in the 
boundary quarrel with Spain, that Spanish prop- 
erty had been seized in the Northwe-^t as a 
hostile measure, and not merely to ]iioeure 
necessaries for the troops, which Clark after- 
ward declared was the case, and added that the 
General was ready to go down the river with 
"troops sufficient" to take possession of the 
lands in dispute, if Georgia would countenance 

The foUo.ving extract from another letter 
written from Louisville, professedly to some one 
in New England, and probably also written by 
Green, will serve as additional evidence to prove 
that the people were seriously deliberating upon 
their position. It reads thus: 

Our situation 15 as as it possibly c;in be, therefore 
ever) exL'riion to relrie\e our circumstances must be manly, 
eliijiblc, and just. 

We cnn twenty thous.ind troops this side of the .Alle- 
ghany and .Appalacliian mountains, and the annual 

j of thcni >)y emigration fioin (jtlicr p.irls is from two to' 

\\V liave taken all the j^'oods b.!on„'ini: to the Spanisli 
inerch.ints at I'osl Vincenncs and tice Illinois, and are deter- 
mincd they sliall not tr.vde up the river, provided they will 
not let lis trade down il. I'rc|wrations are now m.iKing here 

I (if necessary) to drive tlic Spaniards from their seitlemcnts 
at the month of tlic Mis.'^issippi. liv case we are not counte- 
nanced or succored by ilie I'nited Slates (if we need it), our 
allegiance will be thrown off and some other power applied 
to. Gieat liriiain stands ready wilii open arms to recei\e 
and support us. Thev have already offered to oppn their re- 
souu'cs for- our supplies. When once reunited to them, 
"farewell, a long farewell lo all your boasted Rreamess." 

j The province of Canada and the inhabilants of these waters 
of tliemselves, in tiiiu:, will be able to conquer you. You arc 

j as ignorant of this country as Great Itritain was of .\nierica. 

I These are hints which if rightly improved may be of some 

j service; if not, blame yourselves for the neglect. 

I This letter produced considerable sensation at 
i Danville, where it was shown by Mr. Green's 
I messenger, and copies of it were made and sent 
to the Governor of N'lrginia. Under Clark's direc- 
I tion Vincennes had been occupied, some Spanish 
property seiz.ed, as stated in the letter, a few sol- 
tliers enrolled, and preparations made to hold a 
peace-council with the Indians — all in the inter- 
est of the anii-Sjjauish movement. The Green 
letter ojiened the eyes of the ^'irginia Govern- 
ment to the character of the movement; Cl.rrk's 
I conduct was condemned by the C'ouncil of the 
I State early the next year, his jxiweis were dis- 
I claimed, and prosecution of the persons engaged 
1 in the seizure of property was ordered. The 
I whole matter was then laid before Congress; and 
I on the 26th of .-Vpril an effectual wet blanket was 
I piut upon the revolutionary movement by the 
I order of that body that the Federal troops should 
i dispossess the unauthorized force which had 
i seized the post at Vincennes. Clark, the re- 
: doubtable warrior, had experienced his third se- 
I vere reverse. 

Liitle practicaldifliculty was found in the nav- 
igation of the Mississippi that was desired thus 
early by the people of Kentucky ; and the question 
was definitely settled a few years after, in 1795, 
by the concession to the United States, not only 
of the right to navigate the whole length of the 
United States, but also to deposit at New Or- 
leans or some other point near the mouth of the 
river. In 178S General James Wilkinson, who, 
as well as our old Tory friend, Dr. John Connolly, 
had been concerned in the agitations of the pre- 
vious year, being then a resident of Kentucky^ 
himself took a cargo of tobacco and other pro- 


dure to New Oilcans, wliich lie srild to oxelleiU 
advantage, and bad the assurance to obtain Irum 
Miro the Spani,-.!! Ciuvcniof wlumi he would 
li'avc overthrown li) this unie, had the plans suc- 
ceeded -a iieiniil "to inijuirl, on his oun ac- 
count, to Nev, Oilcans, flee of duly, all the pio- 
ductions of Kenlucky," including tobacco for the 
use of the Kiuj; of Sjiain, at $10 per one hun- 
dred weiglit, which he could buy in Kentucky 
for $2! Considerable .-.uspich.'u long rested upon 
\\'ilkinson on account of his Iransattions widi 
Miro, but we believe he was ultimately vindi- 


There are one or two points of interest in the 
following brief enactment, passed this year by 
the Virginia Legislature: 

/li! act giving furtlur lime A' />iiir/iui,'>.< of lots in the Lncn 

of Louisville, to hitilJ llunun. 

Sf.c. I. \VnEKK.\s, Tlie puixli.iscrs (if lots in the town 
of Louisville, in the comity of JefiVrson. from frequent incur- 
sions and depreilntions of t!ie Inclinns and tlic difficulty of 
procuring materials, liave not been able to build on their said 
lots within the time prescribed by law : 

S[;c. 2. Be it thenf.>re einu-lcil, That th.> lurllier lini.j of 
three years from the passing of this an sliall be allowed the 
purchasers of lots in the said town to luiiKl unun and sa'.e 
the same. 

A similar extension, for similar reasons, was 
made by the .X-.sembly in 17S9, applicable to 
Louisville, Harrodsbuig, and two other towns in 
the State of \'irginia, as then constituted, 'i'he 
same places had still another extension, this time 
for four years, in 1793. 

The General Assembly of X'irginia this year 
passed an act constittiting Colonel Richard 
Clough Anderson, Mr. Tavlor, Kobett lirecken- 
ridge, David, John Clark, .Mexan- 
der Scott Bulliil, and James Francis Moore, 
commissioners and trustees, in place of the 
original trustees, to rec eive from the trustees of 
the town of Louis\ille the a.iiount of sales of 
lots made by them, and to bring suit tor it, if 
pavment were neglected or refu-jeti. 'I'he money 
received, as well as moneys arising from subse- 
quent sales, which the commissioners were au- 
thorized to make, should be applied, after deduct- 
ing cost of surveying and laying off the lands, to 
the payment, first, of the Connolly mortgage to 
Camiibell and Simon, and then to Campbell & 
Simon, "for and on .icedunt ot ,{6oS, 3s., and 
2jid., together with legal interc-i on ,^'577, 3s, 
part thereof, from the ^thd.iy of June, 1776, due 

to the said Camjibell & Simon from Alexander 
McKee." Any balance left duo to Campbell & 
Simon on cillicr debt was to be paid iipon the 
sale of lots in I larrodsburg, which the trustees 
of thai town uere direcled to make for llie pur- 

Subsecjuently, by the act of 1 790, the powers 
vested in the Louisville couimissioners were-con 
fided solely to J.imes !■'. Moore, Abrahaui Hite, 
.Abner .Maiiin I'^nue, IJ.i^il I'laiher, and l)a\id 
Standiford, or a inajotiiy of them. 


John Thompson was of the immigration of 
1781'). He the son of a Scotch clergyman, 
who was a giadtiate of tlie L'niversity of ]''.din- 
burgh, and ui 1739 or '40 came to .•\merica and 
was made rector of St. Mark's jiarish, Culpcper 
county, ^'irglnia. Among the numerous children 
of John Thnmp-on was .Mr. William L. 'I'homp- 
son, of the fine farm four miles fiom Louis\ille. 

Aljout the same time as the pioneer Thomp- 
son, came his brother-in-law, Captam George 
Gray, a Re\-olutionary soldier. He settled on a 
farm two miles south of the town, and also 
reared a large family. Thiee of his sons became 
ofticers in the Federal army. 


On the last clay of July was born, near the ham- 
let of Louisville, Dr. James Chew Johnston, 
descendant of the Johnstons and Chews of \\\- 
ginia, and son of William and Elizabedi (Winn) 
Johnston, who were among the earliest comers 
to the [ilace, and were here married in 17^4. 
The elder Johnston was a prisoner among the 
Indians of the Northwest for two years, and was 
subscc|uently clerk of the county court. His 
summer home was at the Ca\e Hill farm, the 
present site of Cuve Hill Cemetery, wheie James 
was born, '^'oung Johnston was educated in the 
local schools and in Princeton college. New 
Jersey, and in medicine at the L'niversity of 
Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in i.Sio. 
He practiced with great success in Louisville 
and vicinity for some years, but increasing wealth 
and the cares of his estate ultimately drew him 
altogether away from the business. He contin- 
ued to exercise a generous hospitality, and to 
take a fair degree of interest in public jffairs. He 


\vas one of the first bo.ird of triisloes of ;hc first 
Episcopal church formed in Louisville. He lived 
all his life in thiscit), reaching his seventy eighth 
year, and dying here December 4, lS6.\. His 
second wile was Sophia H. Zane, of the famous 
pioneer family of NMieeling, Virginia. 
■ I'he first Kentucky newspaper began to be 
seen at rare intervals during the suinmev and 
autumn of this year. It was a small sheet called 
The Kentucky Gazette, i)ublished at Lexington 
by John Bradford. It was in the issue of this sheet 
for September 6, 178S, that the first publication 
foreshadowing a settleineni upon the sm; of Cin- 
cinnati was made. 

1 7 88. 

Somebody has handed down an estimate of 
the population of Louisville this year as thirty, 
which is obviously and ridiculously too low, al- 
though it is said to be officially reported in the 
United States Census Report of 1790. 

It was a year, tjot only of exceeding cold in 
the winter, but of great floods. The selilement 
made at Columbia, near Cincinnati, in Novem- 
ber, was permanently ruined in reputation by be- 
ing drowned out soon after its cabins were built, 
and there were also tremendous freshets in the 
Ohio before and after this year, during tlie dec- 
ade. Louisville, however, on its beautil'ul, high 
plateau, passed safely and with unimpaired re- 
putation through all the seasons of raging waters. 
But the health of the place did not improve, and 
the troops at the garrison suffered much from 
sickness this yeai. General Harmar, writing to 
Major Wyllys December 9th, says: "lam sorry 
to observe your ill health, and that of your garri- 
son. The Falls is certainly a very unhealthy 

It was in ^L^y of this year that the flat-boat 
laden with kettles, for the manufacture of salt at 
Bullitt's Lick, and manned by tweUe persons, 
with one woman also on board, left Louisville for 
Salt river, and met with the startling ad\enture 
recited in our chapter on the Indians. 

The first brick house in this region is said by 
Dr. Craik to have been built this year, on the 
property now occupied by Cave Hill cemetery, 
by William Johnston, lather of Dr. James C. 
Johnston. . It was occupied tor many years as 

the city |.cst-house. Mr. lohnston, it v>-ill he re- 
membered, was llie first Clerk of Jefferson 
.county, and he built his office here also, a small 
fi me building directly over the Cave spring. 
■ R. C. Anderson, Jr., son of Colonel Richard 
Clough Anderson, and one of the most famous 
in the long roll of Louis\ille's famous men, was 
born here August .ph of this year. 

17S9 — Tin: FiK.vr i;rick.. 

Louisville was not to Imish its first decade 
without seeing the led walls of at least one brick 
house. The ]>ioncer in the splendid line of 
structures of this class within the old town-site 
was erected, p'robably as a dwelling, on the south 
side of Market street, between Fifth and Si.xth, 
upon the square where the county court-house 
now stands. It was put up by a citizen named 
Frederick Augustus Kaye, from whom was de- 
scended the well-known Frederick A. Kaye, 
mayor of the ( ily iS,-58-45. The brick of which 
it was built were brought from I'iiisburg. It 
stood until 1835, and when it was jiulled down, 
some of the material was preserved, and is now, 
says Colonel Durretl, in the pavement in front of 
Mr. B. F. Rudy's dwelling, on First street. 

Mr. Casseday says the second brick building 
in Loui.sville was erected by Mr. Eastm, on the 
north side of Main, below the corner of Fifth 
street; and the third by Mr. Reed at the north- 
west corner of Main and Sixth streets. 

In the first brick house was born, in 1791, 
Mrs. Schwing, mother of Mrs. John M. Delph, 
of Loui-sville. She was still living in 1S75, '" 
the full possession of her faculties. 

This year the Virginia General Assetribly ap- 
pointed Bruckner Thurston, James Wilkinson 
(the General), AFichael Lacas.sagne, Alexander 
Scott Bullitt, Benjamin Sebastian, John Felty, 
Jacob Reager, James Patton, Samuel Kirby, 
Beniamin Erickson, and Benjamin Johnston, 
"gentlemen," additional trustees of the town. 

This year a bold Welsh pioneer, the father of 
Captain William C. Williams, came in a flatboat 
down the river, an immigrant from Philadelphia. 
Some aver that it was he who built the first brick 
house here the same season. It is pretty certain 
that he aftcrvvards set up the fir-,t brewery. His 
son, the ca|. tain aforesaid, born here Aiiril 4, 


\\'illi:im (.'hnmbcis, a youiip, m:>n (mni hir na- 
tive Slate of Mainland, is heliewiJ to have been 
hero as early as tliis. His family li.ul come e\en 
earlier, to the sittlenients i:i Ma-dn eoilnty, 
above (jnrinnali. Me niinied Mr-., I)i)r-,ey, a 
widow.ed sister of I'.lias ;ind liinjainin Lawrence, 
who came (lom Maryland about the same time, 
nni.i settled' near Muldictow n, in this county. 
Mr. Chambers settled ei:dit miles iVom Louis- 
ville, and became a larmer and eNicnsive land- 
owner, dying; \ery wtalthy May S, 184.S, aged 
eighty-seven. Oiie of his early purchases, at $10 
per acre, then near St. Louis, is now a )i:nt of the 
city, and immensely valuable. His only (hild, 
Mary Laurence, w,\s wife o( the lale Robcii Tyler, 
Esq., a prominent Loui.sville law yer in hi- day, 
wlio died April 2.S, 183:?, in the ]irinie (>( his 



i790~Tlie First CcnbU, : l\)jiul:\;iun i>' I.ouisvilU; — Too 
many Trustees : A N'..'v.- Law 'llic (.iU'.e-,l Map of I.oui.v 
ville Kxistiiig -Major (,Hiircv--Toiiliiiiirs N'otice. i/gi — 
K.vpiJition.s .Against llie Inrii.iiis- I^r. Kuiijamin Joliuslon. 
1792 — Bisliop I'Maget's First Visit~H..-i;iMninf;s of Political 
UiGtinction. 1753 — (Tiarlcs M. TljrM'ton. 1794 — The 
Frencli Intrigues — Inciflents. 17(15— 'Tobacco Inspection 
— Winterljotliani'i Notice -Tlie Sp.mi^h Troubles: Judge 
Scbastiun—Tlie I'loneer Sliced. iy0 ..XrHlrew ICllicott's 
Visit — Lacassagnc tlic l*"renctinian. -.-\noIher t.'old Win- 
ter. 1797 — Local Tavntion- 'file I'.ills Pilots -- Louis 
Philippe here— Visit of Iniici, H.iily, .1 King of Science — 
Peter H. Orni^liy. 17^8 — |enr.>ison — The First 
Fire Company— ThoMias lYitlier- -Tlie Ne« Stale Con- 
stitution. 179')- I.oni-vil!.- a Port of I'ntry — P.rth of 
John Joyes— Of J.'.me- Ilirri-oa of Ilite, Jr. 
— Notice in .ScoU's ci... .-tleer-- .\ Ketro.sp.xt. 

1790 — piuaT..\Tio.\, i:tc. 
The last decade of the eit;hteenth century 
oijened ^vith a population in the entire tract now 
covered by the State of KentU( ky, of 73.677 — 
61,133 whites, 1J,.I3>5 5I.IVCS, and 114 free 
colored persons. Thi-, ^ accun.ulation — 
great for that period of .Vunrii .in hist'jry-had 
been made in little more than iifteeii years, and 
represented an immijiUion truly wonderful. 
The eighth State l'..;iveii'i o-i, nu-eting at l)an- 
villc in July of this year, lormally accepted the 
act of separation of Kintmky from N'irgini.i, as 

presciibed by the Legislature of the (Jld Domin- 
ion, and the v.'ay was thus chared for the ad- 
mission of the former as a sovereign State into 
the Union. In December of this year. President 
Washington strongly recommended to Congress 
the admission of Kentucky, and an act 'looking 
to that end passed the NalicMial Legislature 
I'ebiuary 4, 1791. In Deicmbei of that year 
the incmhcas of the ninth and last State C'ln- 
vcntion were elected. It met at Datuille the 
next .\pril, an