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3 1833 01715 4854 



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410 FALLS 

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51,726. This is specific, and seems to be the 
result of ;in actual eiiuuiciati m, and not of an 
estimate. It shows an increase of •'',^33 u['On 
the census of 1850, or -1,266 a year, against an 
averaL;e growth of hut 2,480 i)er \car, or 16.307 
in all, during the remaining eight years of the 
decade, when tlie fifticial figures, at 68,033, are 
readied. Still, -..e arc inclined to think tlic 
.statement of 1852 apjiroximateiy ccirrect. 
MR. r\SSF|i.\v"s ):OC)K. 

The most notable e\ent thi.i ycai is t!ic publi- 
cation of the valuable and interesting s-olume to 
which the Louis'.ille ]iublic fnr tlie last thirty 
years and the preparation ot tlii^ wuik of ours 
are so largely indebted — the Ilistorv of Louis- 
ville (the first publication in the town wliich 
really rises to the dignity of a history), by the 
well-known journalist, Mr. lien Cas^eday. The 
volume has long been out of print, and copies 
of it are held at a high rate by the collectors of 
Americana. It is a neat i6mo. of 255 pages, 
with an advertising ap].)cndix of 38 pages, pub- 
lished by Hull .\: Ihothei, of Louisville, and 
wlujlly a home [.'roduciiiin. Mr. C'as^eday did 
faithful, well-directed, and labijri.ius work upon 
this, and his dates and narratives are in most 
cases verified by the other authorities. We are 
enabled, by his aid, to pres-nt a full andgrai.hic 
pen-picture of the city as it stood in this year of 
grace 1S52. After a tabular statement and some 
description of the churches m the city, which 
we shall present in another chapter, he says; 

Besiile the cliurches atiove mentioned. I.oiii5\ille hiis also 
nmny beautiful public and private buildings. I he city is 
perliaps more ihorouglily cl.issified and hi'tttr arranged, both 
for business and for comfortable residence, than any other 
Western place. The wholesale business of the city is entirely 
confined to Main street, which is more than four miles long, 
is perfectly straight, and is built up on either side with good, 
substantial brick buildings for more than half its entire 
length. The stores, taken as a whole, are the lar^^'est and 
finest warehouses anywhere to be seen, having fronts of from 
twenty to thirty feet and running b.ick from one hundred and 
ten to tuo hundred feet, and thre- to fim stones in height. 
Ihc houses thus referred to occufiv the nio>l central part of 
the business street and extend from First to Sixth cross 
streets, a distance of 5.0-)o feet in a direct line. On the nortli 
side of M.iin street, throughout this whole e.\tent, there are 
but two retail stores of any kind, and even these only sell 
Iheir goods at retail because they are enabled to do so without 
Interference with their wholes tie trade. On the south side of 
the sa.nie street are about twenty ofthe fishionahle shops side 
by side with many of tlie largest wliolesnle Market 
street is e.-iclusively devoted to \h, ret.iil business. It is on 
this street that the small Innsaclions in country 
produce are made. With the exception of the squares 

bounded by Third and I ifih slieets, 1 
dry. goods business is done, the entire 
given u[)to the retail grocers, provisio 
Ji-rrersnii is recently lieginning to be 
street for the ret.iilcrs. but vet contaii 

•:e most of the lei.ul 
vteni of this street is 
e.ders, and clothiers, 
ed as a fashionable 
nany h.indsome resi- 

dences. The sireels soulli of Jefferson are all occu- 
pied with dwelling-houses. Xo business is done on any of 
them except an occasional family grocer) or drug-stoie The 
ftshionablc shops are fitted up in a style of unexampled mag- 
nificence and contain ihe most beautiful products of human 
ingenuity. No city in the Union is better supplied with 01 
finds more ready sale for the finest class of articles of every 
description I,ouis\ille. 

The city south of |efferson street is very bc.uitiful. The 
streets are lined on either side with large and elegant shade- 
trees, the houses are all provided with little green yards in 
front, and ate cleanly kept, presenting a graceful and home- 
like appearance, An impression of elegant ease everyvvhere 
char,rcterire5 this part of the city. The houses seem to be 
more the pl.iees for reliiement, coiuforl, and tnjoyinen: than, 
as if customary in mo^t cities, either the osient.iliou~ discom- 
forts of display, or the hot, confined residences of those 
whose life of e.ise is sacrificed to the pursuit of gain. There 
is little appearance of poverty and little display of wc.ilih; 
cveiy house seems the abode of modest competence that 
knows how to enjoy a little with content, careless of produc- 
ing a display of wealth to feast the eves of a passing idler. 
Even the mure nmi/icious residences on Chestnut and lircad- 
v.ay streets are constructed raiher for the condorl of the in- 
in.itcs than to produce an impression on the stranger. This 
latter is the most beiuiiful street in the city. It is one hun- 
dred and twenty fet-t in width from front to front and is per- 
I'ectly straight. The sidewalks are twcniy-.hve feet wide 
The view up and down tliis street is e.xtend-d and beautiful. 
It is destined to become the fasiiionable strc-t for residence. 
.Mready many beautilul buildings are being erected upon it, 
and the former less elegant houses arebeing removed to more 
remote situations. 

Much of this description, it will be obseived, 
is still applicable to the city, although iis popula- 
tion has nearly tripled since tiien. 
THi£ srnooLS. 

The subject of public education comes now to cl.tim iia 
share of consideration. l"he free-scliOol sysLem is the s tnie 
in its outline here as in other cities, file city schools are 
under the tliiection of a P.oard of IVustees, who are elected 
by the people, and are open to all those persons who c-re not 
able to pay for the tuition of their wards. Children of all 
ages and of botli Sexes are placed under the care of compe- 
tent instructors, and educated in all the ordinary blanches of 
learning without .-.ny charge to the pupil. The sexes aie 
kept separate, tind male and female te.tcliers are emplov ed. 
The st.indard of study is as high as in other uncl.issical 
schools, and every pupi' has equal advant.iges of impir.we- 
nient. A high school is about to be established, whe.reali tiie 
branches of study usually employed in colleges will be taught 
to those pupils who have successfully pa'^-^ed tiiroagh t'ne 
lower schools. aUo without anv charge. Bv th's nia;;! ihcent 
ediicrtional scheme, the children even of tlie poorest and 
humhl'-st member of society are affon'ed al! the advan:.':,'es 
v^hich the w.-.tithie-,! pei?on could purchis,.- 

The attend,, nee at the public schools of Louisville has no: 
been so large .IS It should have been; hrsily, because there 
are comparatively fcv parents who are not able to pay for 

'oT-e/ vf 

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lie tuition of tht'ir c!>iklren; and sccontlly, bcc.uise of a 
foolish pride which ].rc\onts parcnls from m (.-eptini^ this tdu- 
c.itioii as a yraiuity. Tlic nuinhor of fliildicn taught in 
private schools, as compared with those who embrace the 
free school privileges, show that the^e rea-^ons have immense 
weiyht with the people. It is prob.ible, howevir. that Ihc 
opening of the new hij;li school will bring alioiUa eli.uiL;e in 
.this regard. . . . There are twciUy-fonr free 

schools in the city, having t)iiriv-one female and twenty-fi\e 
male te.ichcrs. whose salaj ies range from $250 to $700 The 
number of pupils entered for the year reaches ahnui three 
thousand six hundred and fifty, while the number in attend- 
ance does not exceed one thousand eight hundred and fifty. 
This affoids an average of only ihirty-thiee pupiH to each 
teacher: so that all the pupils are able to receive every requis- 
ite attention. 

PKOl i.sskjsal schoui.s. 

The city also lias control of a Medical and of a Law 
school, which are recognised as departments of the Louis- 
ville Universitv. The first of these is one of the most dis- 
tinguished schools of its class in the United States. Some- 
thing has been said of its history in a pre\ ious part of this 
volume. Three thousand eight hundred and sixty-one young 
men have been attendants on this school since its commence- 
ment. The names of its Professors are well known in the world and affoid a sure guarantee for its position. 

The Law Department of the L'niversity tieen in active 
operation only since the winter of lo-^y. It, however, 
obnined a wide-spread and deservedly great reputation a> a 
school. The number of pupils educated in this department 
since its commencement is one hundred and ninety-six. 
The prospects of this school for the 
ensuing year are- more flattering thin they have ever been. 
The distinguished gentlen.ien who are at the head of this in- 
stitution have reason to congratulate themselves as well on 
their past success as on their brilliant prospects for the future. 

A notice follows of the Medical Depariment 
of the Masonic University of Kentucky, whose 
beginnings we have recently recorded. 


under the care of the Jesuits, is an academical mstilutlon of 
some celebrity, h six professors and several tutors. 


The Kentucky Institution for the I'.duc.ition of the llhnd 
is also located here. This noble monument of phil.inihropy 
has been the means of much good to the class for whom it 
was intended. It has an average attendance of about twenty 
pupils. The course of instruction is ample, and the results 
have been in the highest degree creditable to the teachers. 
The proficiency of many of the pupils is truly wonderful , and 
their aptitude in learning m.iny of the branches taught them, 
more especially that solace of the blind, music, is every- 
where noted. They are also instructed in various kinds of 
handicraft, by which they are enabled to earn an honorable 
support after leaving the school. The price of board and 
tuition for those who are able to pay is only one hundred 
dollars per annum : while indigent children, resident in the 
State, are educated gr.ituitously. The spacious building 
erected for the use of this school was recently destroyed by 
fire, but will be speedily rebuilt on a more favorable site and 
in a better nianiici than before. 

pmv.\ri: s( iiool.'. 
Beside the schools above-mentioned t!.?re aie a gical num- 
. ber of private schools of various gr.ides of excellence. .-Xniong 
these the Young Ladies' schools of Bishop Smith and of Pio- 
fessor .\"oble Builcr are perhaps the most widely known. 
Tl-.ey offer advanl.i^'es for the ediieatu.n of young l.idies wiiich 
are not surpassed in any city. Indeed, the educational oppor- 
tunities afforded by the many eKcclIeiit jiublic and private 
schools of Louisville are in the highest degree .creditable to 
the city, and have attracted and still continue to attract to it 
many families fiom distant parts of the country. To those 
wl.o know how properly to e=iim,ite the value of educational 
lirivil.'ges, the training of their children is an oli-imporiant 
ci lUsideiation ; and, as nothing can supply the want of p.t- 
reiual care, it is not uncommon for families to seek as a lesi- 
dence those places which at once possess great facilities 
for instruction and are fiec from the dangers of ill-health. 
Loiil.sville has boili these advantages, and hence this city 
owes to these f.iels much of her best populjtion. 

Till; I1T..\L1HINRSS •"•I- 1.0IISV1I.TF. 

is e\ery where a subject of remark. Its past reputation for 
insalubrity is long since forgotten, and its singular e.Memption 
fioiii those epidemic diseases whose ravages have been so 
terrible in other places, have gained for it a very enviable dis- 
tinction among cities. 'I'he following recent report of the 
committee on public health of the Louisville Medical society 
will tend still further to confirm what has just been said: 

"Since the years 1022 and 1823. " says this document, "the 
endemic fevers of the summer and autumn have become 
gradually less fiequent, until within the last the or six years 
they have almost ceased to prevail, and those months are 
now as free from disease as those of any part of the year. 
1 yphoid fever is a rare affection here, and the majority of 
c.ises seen occur in persons recently from the country. Some 
phvsicians residing in the interior of this State see mor.: of 
the disease than conies under the joint observation of .all the 
practitioners of the city, if we exclude those treated in the 

"Tubercular disease, particularly pulmonary consumption, 
is not so much seen as in the interior of Kentucky. Our 
e.'-iemption from pulmonary consumption is remarkable, and 
it would be a matter of much interest if a registration eouUl 
be ni.ide of all the deaths from it, so that we could compare 
them with those of other places. 

"For the truth of the remarks as to the extent and fre- 
quencv of the diseases enumerated we rely solely upon what 
we h.ive observed ourselves, and upon what we have verbally 
gathered from our piofes^ional friends. 

"This exemption of Louisville from disease can be ac- 
counted for in no other way than from its natural situation 
and from has been done in grading, in building, ^nd in 
laying off the streets. 

"Louisville IS situ. ued on all open plain, where the wind 
has access from every direction; upon a sandy soil which 
readily absorbs the water that falls upon it; susceptible of 
adequate drainiiigs; supplied bountifully with pure limestone 
water, which is hitered through a depth of thirty or forty feel 
of sand; its streets are wide and laid off at right angles — 
north and south, east and west — giving the freest ventila- 
tion; and the buildings comp.ict, comfortable, and generally 
so constructed as to be dry and to atlmit freely the f-^e^h air. 
It is situated upon the border of the beautiful Ohio, and 
environed by one of the richest agriculiural districts in the 
world, supplying it with abundance of food and .ill the com- 
forts and luxurici of life. It must, undei the guidance of 



u- oiiP to 50: I'hiladelphia, one 
I'.onjii. 1.1. :u 10 ji, CiT.ciiinail. 
: I aris, oneto 33; Loiulon, one 

science and \vi50 Icgi«!<iiun, ln'conie. if il i-> not a!re,iil>, one 
of Ihe licallhie5l cilics in the world. Its iiro\iniily to the 
rapids of the Oliio niny add to its 5.ihi!irily, and it is 
that the evening wafted over tlicni produce an exhil- 
arating I'lTcct, heyiuul what is derived, from tlio perpetual 
iinisie of the roar of the F.ili.v." 

COMP.\KATIVt; f.ll.l.s 1,1- MOKr.\LITV. 

It may he prrjper to add t!ie following table of the com- 
parative stati'^tics of annual mortality of the resident pO}:u!a- 
tion, as asiertained from ofiicial soi'.rces: 

In Louisville the death, 
10 3'i: X"w Vorl;, one 1.,, 
one to ^5; Naple.s, owe ti 
to 39: Gl..s^o\s', one to .14. 

THE M.\l;KI.T-)inU.sK,S 

of Louisville. Irve in number and all located upoa ^Llrket 
street, are profusely supplied with e\ery production of this 
latitude. Markets are held everv day, and prices are much 
lower than in Eastern cities. The Kentucky beef and pork, 
which is everywhere so celebrated, is here found in its true 
perfection. The vegetables and fruits peculiar to this climate 
are also' offered in excellent order and in great abundance. 
Irish and .sweet p'ltatoes, green peas, corn, cucumbers, 
.lettuce, radishes, asparagus, celery, salsafie, pie-plant, melons, 
peaches, apples, cherries, strawberries, and many other vege- 
tables and fruits are ]ilentifully supplied. The Irish potato 
is sold at from twenty-five to forty cents per bushel, green 
peas connnant.1 ahout twent) cents per peek, sltawberries 
fifty cents per gallon. The choice pieces of beef can be 
had at from .si.x to eight c-nts \tcv jiound. less desirable pieces 
bring three and four cents. I'ork is bought at ab..ait fue 
cents per pound. Turkeys bring fifty to sevent\-hve cents 
each. Spring chickens, from se\enty-hve cents to one dollar 
and fifty cents per dozen. I Hicks, fifteen to t\senty-ti\e cents 
each. Eggs are sold at four to eight cents per dozen. But- 
ter, fifteen to twenty cents per pound. The lariib and mut- 
ton sold in this market cannot be surpassed in point of 
quality in the United .States. The extreme fertility of tlie 
country around Louisville, and its perfect adajnation to the 
wants of th^ gardener and the stock-raiser must always give 
to the city the advantage of an excellent and cheap provision 

NE\VSP.\PER3 .\KTi rERIOldC.AI,^. 

The followitig is a list of all the publicatioiis 
issued from this city: 

Journal, daily and weekly. Whig: Courier, daily and 
weekly, Whig: Tunes, daily and weekly, Democrat; Demo- 
crat, daily and weekly. Democrat; I'.eobachter am Ohio, daily 
and weck'ly. Democrat; Louis\ilie .-\nzeiger, daily and weekly. 
Democrat; L'nion, daily,; Bulletin, daily, neutral; 
Sunday Varieties. v\eekiy. neutral: Herald, 
weekly, Presbytcri in; Western Recorder, sleekly, Daptist; 
Watchman and Evangelist, weekly, Cumberland Pre.-by- 
terian; Christian .■\d\ocate, weekly. .Methodist; Kentucky 
New Era. semi-monthly. Temperance; Chri-,tian Repository, 
monthly, Baptist; Indi.m .\dvuc.ile, monthly. Baptist; Bible 
Ad\ocate, monthly, neutral; Theological Medium, monthly, 
Cumberiand I'resln teiuin; Western of .Medicineand 
Surgery, monlhl) , Transvlvania .Medical Journ.d, montldy. 

lR.\r>F.S A'SD PROl f>SION>. 

This review of the social staiisiics of Loui=ville 
will be concluded with a notice of the number of 

poisons engaged ii". the various avocations of life, 
as shown in tlie followin;;: 

.Xgeiits ;S, agricultural imiilement makers 5, aiiothec.arics 
113, architects 6, artificial liower-makers 2. artists to. nuction- 
eeis 26, barbers tgS, bakers 362, bar-keepers 231, basket- 
makers 15, bellows-makers 5, bliiid-makeis 5. blacking. makers 
4. blacksmiths 251, bird-slufi'ers 2, 15. brokers 
2S. brickla\"er5 205. brick-makers 4^. brewers 37, bristle- 
clemers 4, bookselieis iS. boot and shoe dealers 3R. book- 
tiinditrs 102, batchers 20J, candle and soap-makers 38. cnulk- 
e:s 1^. caipiet-weavers 8, caiAers 13. e.irmcn 452. carpenters 
874. camphine-iii.ikers 4. cabinet-makers 275. ccnient-inaker 
I. clerks 1. 130. clothing dealers 37, cigar-makers 139. com- 
position roofers 2. cotton-packers 22. cotton caulk-makers 3. 
collectors 22, confectioneries cy'), coach-makers 78. coopers 

116. comb-makers 3. dancing teachers 10. dagaerieotypisis 
23. dentists 13. distiller t. doctors 1O2. diTjggists 73. dry 
goods dealers 273. dyeis r i. editors 18. edge tool-makers 1 1. 
egg packers 4. engravers 15. engineers 139. farmers r7, feed 
de.dcfs 15. fishermen 10. file cutters 3. foun^'lrvmen 369, 
fringe-mal'crs 4. gardeners 3T. gentlemen 36. gilders 8. glass- 
setters 3. glass-cutters 2. glass-stainer i. glass-bloweis 21, 
glue-makers 2, grocers 50.}, guagers 3, gunsmiths 17, hatters 

117, hackmen 93, hardv\are dealeis 34, hucksters 45, hose- 
makers 2, ice dealers 6, ink-makers 6. iiisurance agencies 27, 
iron safe-m.aker i, lamp-makers 2, laborers 1,920, lasl-niakers 

3, leatl'.er-finders 16, hv.yers 125, liquor dealers 45, luck- 
smiths 4/, livery-kcepcrs 43. lightning rod-m.iker i, lathe- 
makers 2. watcli-m.ikcrs 12. m.ichinists 33, marble-cutters 21. S3, millers 37, milliners 1S6, milknvn 8. mill- 
wights 17. midwives 23. music-dealers 9. music-teachers 30, 
music publishers 3. oil cloth-makers 13. oyster brokers 5, 
organ-builders 4, oil-stone-makers 10, opticians 2. oil-makers 
27, paper-makers 22, paper box-makers 8, painters 267, ped- 
lars 47, pla<teie:s 94, pilane-m.tkers 26, planing-niiil and 
lumbermen 33, piano-makers 30, printers 201, paper-hangers 
48. jiotters 17, professors 26, pump-makers 16, pickle dealer 
I, plunrbers 9. pork-packers 23. preachers 57, piesidents' eom- 
panv 43, policemen 32. queensware dealers 26, railroad car- 
makers 6, refrigerator-makers 0, river-men 330, rope-makers 
6^. saddlers 193, semptresses 3rT, scale-makers 7, silver- 
plalers 5, silversmiths 63, shoemakers 336, ship-carpenters 
1 13, soda-makers 8, spcculalors 43. starch-makers 10, stereo-* 
lypers 3, stone-cutters 219. stocking-weavers 2, surveyors 13. 
students 63S, 8, stucco-workers 4, stove-makers 

4, sail-ma''.ers 2, surgical instrument-makers 4, tailors 375, 
tanners 42, tavern-keepers 275, teachers 67, telescopic instru- 
111 nt-maker i. tinners 115. turners 22. tobacconists 61, trunk- 
makers 35. upholsterers 29. umbrella-makers 5. variety-deal- 
ers 46. vinegar-makei's 8. wig-makers 3. wire-workers 12. 
wagon-makers 144, whip-makers 3, wood and coal dealers 
30. white 2. wall paper-makers i. 


The Statistics which are hc-e offered to the reader are de- 
rived from the best aiiihority and are believed to be correct, 
but are necessarily less complete than could have been 
wished. This outline will, ho.vever. serve to give some idea 
of the general business character of the eitv. 

.Ml departments of business in Louisville are 
acted upon a very large scale. It is perhaps the gri-at- 
est f.udt in the commercia.l of the city that 
everythiii;^ is conducted upon too larye a sc.ile. There 
is. to u-e a painteis phrase, too much of outiine and too 
llti;.- in ilrtail. The v.callh and im|iMriance of cilics de- 


pench less upon llic than iip:Mi the small (IlmIcis and 
manufacliircrs; llirsc laucr nr.* contL'nt with r!oiii^ encb A 
small and careful husini-,-,, which in. is i;ia>lnaliv rise to he. of 
vast eMent, and s>lach.M :ll llius le.dly improve and prolit the 
city more than the mighty eft'urts of the ]arc;er dealer. In 
Louisville, liowever, jione are content to do a littl'- business. 
l"he feeling seems to e.vist that inereantiie oi matuifaenu ing 
pursuits arc respectable ju-^t in p'-opoition to the capital em- 
ployed in them, and t!ie de-^ire of every one seems to he to 
attain a high point of respectability. Louisville greatly lacks 
that class of inhahitaiit.s, so useful to a city, \\:ioare content 
to attain wealth by careful and laborious means, who can 
commence with a basket of apples and gradually work up to 
the proud pro[)rietors!iip of extensive warehouses i.,r faetoiies. 
There is everywhere pre\alent among those who should seek 
to lise gradually, a desire to place themselves at once in a 
rank with the largest dealers. It is the small dealer and the 
small manufacturer, who. is contecit to rise by his own eflV>ris, 
unaided by factitious means of any sort, who is needed here. 
There is abundant room and abundant work for such, their 
advent is courted; and, if they will avoid the chaiacieristic 
desire for extensive business relations and fje content to seek 
their fortunes by painstaking progress, their success is in- 
fallibly certain. 

It has already been remarked tint the aggregate amount 
of sales in aii>' one department of bL:--inP5S, divided by a 
number of houses engaged in ll^,at business, v.ould shosv a 
very large result. In this statement reference is had ordy to 
those exclusively wholesale houses v.hose sales are made to 
dealers. No exclusive retail houses of any sort are placed in 
the enumer.ilion, though the sales of many *. f the retail 
stores would fully equal, if indeed they did not exceed, some 
of the wholesale houses. The dilTiculiy of reaching any 
proper account of the retail business will, hosvever, prevent 
any notice being taken of it in this volume. 

Louisville contains tttcnty-five exclusively wholesale dry- 
goods houses, whose sales are made only to dealers and 
whose market reaches front Nortliern Louisiana to Northern 
Kentucky, and embraces a large part cf the Stales of Ken- 
tucky, Indi.ina, Tennessee. -Mabama, Illinois, Mississlpi, and 
Arkansas. The aggregate amount of annual sales by these 
houses is $5,853,000, or an average of 5234,000 to each 
house. The sales of three of the largest of these houses 
amount in the aggregate to 51. 709. 000. Xeidier this statement 
nor those which follow include any auction houses. 

In boots and shoes, the sales of the eight houses of the 
above description reach Jr, 184,000, 5148,000 to each house. 
The sales of the three largest houses in this business reach 

The aggregate amount of annua! sales by eight hou'ies in 
drugs, etc.. is $1,123,000. or $140,375 to each house ; and 
the sales of the three l.rrgest houses amount to 57s3.coo. 

The sales of hardware by nine houses amount annually to 
$590.000., being an average of $65,555 to e.tch house. 

l"he sales of saddlery reach $980,000. of which nearly one- 
half are of domestic manufacture. 

The s.des of hats and caps, necessarily including s.iles at 
retail, amount to 5603,000. 

The sale.' of tiueensware. less reii.tbly taken, reach $265.- 

\holesale grocery houses, whose ag- 

■33.400. which gises an average of 

A br:ef statement of some of the 

in the giocery line will perhaps gi\e 

The hgures refer to the year 

15 hogsheads; kerined sugar. 

There are thirt 
gregale salts reac 
$272,400 to each annual i 
a better idea uf lliis busines 
i3;o Louisiau.i r 

10.100 parklges; ninlasses. 17,500 barrels; coffee. 42.50-0 
bigs; li.e. 1.2,-5 tierces; colloll y.irns. 17.025 b.lgs; cheese. 
25.250 boxes; (lour. 80.650 barrels; bagging, 70,160 |)ieces ; 
rope, 65.350 coils; salt, Kanawha, 110,230 b.inels; s.ali, 
Turk's Island, 50,525 b.igs. 

It will be seen that these statistics do not include many of 
the l.irgest depi.irtments of business. Beside the houses 
already mentioned are many commission houses, whose s.des 
in cotton, lob.icco, rope, bagging, hemp, provisions, etc., 
v.ould very gieatly inm-ase the amounts above stated. The 
impossibility of procuring accurate and reliable statis'.ics of 
■the amount of sales by these h<v.ises will present any :ttl*-mpt 
to fix the ex, let r.itio of their business. The Western reader 
who is at all connected with commerce does not, however, 
need to be toM that tlu! trade in these articles in Ix)ui5ville is 
of immense extent. The sufieriority of this city as a 
market for heinp and its products, bagging, and rof^e. i.s so 
obsious, so well known, and so widely acknowledged, that 
any dissertation upon these merits is unnecessary here. 

As a tob.icco market, Louisville possesses advantages 
which arc not afforded by any other Western or Southern 
city. The rapid and healthful increase in the receipts and 
sales of this article during the last few years is of itself suffi- 
cient evidence of this fact. Even as early as tlie year 1800 
the prospects of the city in this regard, though in the distant 
future, were lotiked upon as highly flattering. 
The entire erop did not then exceed five hundred hogsheads. 
There are at jiresent in the city thiee large tobacco w?re- 
liouses. all receiving and selling daily immense quantities of 
this article Speculators are attr.icted to this nn^rket from distances and the receipts are continually upon the in- 
cr-,\sp 1 he follov ing table of receipts since 1837 will show 
how sleaddv and securely this increase has been effected ; 

Vears. Hogsheads. 

'837 2.133 

1838 2,783 

1839* 1 .295 

if'to 3.113 

■84' 4.031 

■843 5.'3' 

'843 5.4-!4 


1845 8.454 

1046 9,700 

1047 7.070 

1848 4,937 

1849 8,906 

1851 11,300 

1852 10,176 

These hgures are of themselves a strong argument in favor 
of this city as a market lor tob.icco. The reasons for the 
steady and rapid increase in the receipts of this article, as 
well as for the opinion that this is the best in.irket for tobacco 
in the L'nited Stales, are very simple, very convincing, and 
very easily staterl. In the first pi, ice, it is .1 fact well known 
to all tobacco dealers, that in the three divisions of Ken- 
tucky— to-wit : the Northern, Southern, and Middle— a 
variety .of le.if, suitable to all the purposes of the manufac- 
turer, is groun. In no other .State is so great and so com- 

* "In this year a line of 46 hhUs brought $3,390.84. aver- 
aging $73.73 per hhd. The crop was short, and speculation high. I)ealers in the article were heavy losers.*" — Dir^c- 



plelc a vari.ny of Icnf produced. Tli.j cigar-maker, ihe 
luin|) m.imifacturcr, and Ihe stcmmerall Inid in iliis .Stale the 
article just suited to tlieir various purpu-es. These tobaccos 
all naturally find their «ay to I.ouiMille as .1 market, and, 
of a neccsb.iry conseijiience, atlr.ict Uiycrs to this place. 
Be.sides this adv.,nl:ise. another iii.portant point is t,.ai„ed 
in the presence of the numerous inaimfacturers of to ..aceo in 
Louisville, ' persons, havins; to comiiete with the es- 
tablished markets of older .Stales, offiT lart;e prices to the 

It i 

nd so attract 


c.f Ih. 


, well known that really .lac ti^lAiceo, for manuficiiirinL;, has hrourht antl uiH -.Iv .lys .-ommind heror,. hl;h 
rales as can be had for 11 at .mv other point m the United 
States. The number of manuf.ieturera is rapidi/ incrcasi.i.'. 
the character of the article wi.ieh they produce is steadiu' 
■ growing into favor, and the market for its sale is enlarfiin!; 
every d.iy, so that planters cannot be so blinded to their in- 
terests as to seek foreign markets lor an article which will 
pay tliem so handsomely at their own doors. .Again, tlie 
f.icilities for the shipment of the article from this poim to the 
various Eastern markets are recently so increased that an en- 
tirely new demand has sprung up for Louisville tobacco. 
Western New York, Western Pemi.sjlvania, .Vorth-rn Illi- 
nois, Ohio, and Michigan, ail of which were formerly oblic'ed 
to look to .\'ew York City for their supplies of this article, 
have recently turned their faces wcstwardly, for the simple 
■ reason that they can now get the same article at less rates cf 
freight and withotit the former numerous and onerous com- 
missions. Nor is this the only benelit procured to these pur- 
chasers in choosing this market. Ii i,well known that, unless 
tobacco is in ui.usiuliy excellent oul. r, it is alw.ays seriouslv 
injured by being confined on shipboard in its pass.ige throurh 
the warm climate of the Gulf of .Mexico and along the co,"st 
of the Southern States. .And as Louisville is the only other 
piominent shipping point for the article, it has, of course. 
this great advantage over rival markets. The ficts ab.Ae 
enumerated indicate only the prominent and leading reasons 
for believing Louisville to be the best tobacco market in the 
Union. Many other .advantages might be enumerated, but, which are all acknowledged and have been dernon- 
. strated over and over again, are considered sufficient to es- 
tablish the proposition. 

The assertion that Louisville is dcsthied verv soon to be- 
come distinguished also as a cotton market may e.xcite s^ine 
surprise among those who have not hail their attention called 
to this matter. But that this is a fact can readily be shown 
to the most skeptical. 

Louisville also deser\-es consideration as a maiket for pork. 
This market, though perhaps less in extent here th;.n in some 
other Western cities, is ste.idily increasing in the amount of its 
operations and rapidly growing into favor with dealers. 
The meat put up here is surpassed in qiiahtv by none in the 
world, and when the facilities of transportation referred to in 
the above remarks upon cotton are est.iblished, the growth of 
this city as a pork market will be yet more rapid than it has 
before been. 1 here are at present eight large pork-houses in 
the city. The importance of Louisville as a pork m.itket i, I 
well enough kno«n to need no further elaboration of its i 
merits in pages. j 

The manufactuiing interests of Louisville come now to I 
claim theirshare of attention. .And it ,s somewh.u lingular ! 
that, with the resources and cip.iciiy of this city as a pi ice 
for ma.iufaclures, there should be so little to boa.,t of in this 
regard. Of her commercial sutisties. .is has already been , 
shown. Louisville hasabundant cause to be proud, but she 
has at the same time re.tson to ugret the little use which has ! 

heretofore been made of herimmen-e adv.mtages as a nnnii- 
faeturing point. It is not to be dri,i,.d that tlure are 
cvecllent maniifaeturing .-tabli^hmvnts in and around the 
ciiy. but the number is greatly below what is necfJed and 
greatly dispioportioned to the advantages offered here. 
There are many reasons why this city should hold i.roiiiinent 
r.ank as a pl.ace for m.anufactnres The facilities in the way 
of water-power, the immense surface of level and highlv pro- 
duetisc coun-ry by which it is surrounded, the cheapness of 
rents and of building loi^, ,uid the advantages forplacingihe 
manufictured article in market, are among the most ijr.niii- 
neiu of these reasons. 

.^L•ly iSih of this year, tlu- largest business in 
tubacco evei u-.insarted in ,iny one day to that 
date wa.s done. 'Ihe s.iles anioinued to two hun- 
dred and fony-lom hogslieads, at $i.So to $7.0^ 
per htnidred weight, the latter price being paid 
for the superior y]n<on county product. 

The same nionih the ste.iuier Eclipse ecHpscd 
all other run.s from New Oileaiisto Louisville by 
j reaching the I'alls in four days and eighucn 
j hours tunning tin)e. .Soon a flei wards the Rein- 
I deer arrived, having made the same trip in four 
; days, twenty hours, and forty-five minutes. M.\y 
j 2-jlh a triahtrip was made by the .Allegheny, of 
I the I'ittshurg and Cincinnati jMcket-line, from 
j Louisville to Cincinnati, in ten hours and tlvc 
niinufes. Ihe run to .NLidison was made in 
I three hours and twenty minutes. 


I of I S5 1-5 2 "as severely cold. On the night of 
January igsh snow fell so heavily as to create a 
blockade on tlie Louisville Ov Lexington railroad. 
The Ohio closed that night for the second time 
during the season- the fiist instance of the kind 
within civilized memory. The thermotiieter \vas 
below zero all day, and at midnight was repotted 
30' below. Colonel Durreit's historical essay on 
the cold seasons of the past century, however, 
does not allow more than iT below for the se- 
vere cold of this winter. 


A beginning was made this year of the Ameri- 
can Printing-house for the Blind, located at the 
Blind Institution. It has since become an im- 
portant establishment, Lup.iiKing books for Eu- 
ropean as well as domestic sales. In 1S7S the 
General Government made it an apijropriation 
of $250,000 in United States securities, the inter- 
est alone to be applied to its support and gradual 
increase in usefulness. 

.-\.V OKPH.W .ASM.L.M. 

The German I'rotestant Orphan Asylum was 


founded ihis year, in a building ujiou tlie suuili ; 
side of Jtfierson .street, between Nineteenth and \ 
Twentieth. . j . 

KO.SSfril':> VI.-UT. I 

During most of this year the Lhingarinn pa- j 
triot and would-be liber.itor, Lmns Kossuth, was ! 
in this country. ILj s; eiit two weeks df I'ebtu : 
ary in and about C'.inrinnati, duiint; which, tune 1 
several .Tl|pni|ils ufre made to pre\ail upon the ' 
Louisville autlKiiitii;.^ to tender him a public re- 
ception heic. On the 26th of that incnith the 
Koard of .Aldermen refused for the fifth time to 
extend him an invitation to visit the city. He ! 
came, nevertheless, and the fohowinj is an ac- ; 
count of the visit, from the book. Sketches of j 
American Society in th.e United States, aftei- ' 
wards published by his traveling companions, 
P'rancis and Theresa Pul/sky : ; 

KroMi Madison v.o v.eru doun ll.-j C'hio to Louisville, llic 
flourishing coninicrcial metropolis of KeiUucky. and arrived i 
amongst it.e sons of tiios-^ niighly iuuiters w lio snuffed a can- ) 
die uilli a ball of their lilla at fifty yard^ distance, and when i 
shooting a squirrel, on the OLik trees, shivered the bark imme- 
diately underneath the animal, so as to kill it by the concus- | 
sion without injuring the skin. Ti^e Kentuekians are known 
as a hearty, bold, and disinterested people, fond of spoit. 
and in love with their State. The .New Englander.': and Xew 1 
Yorkers say that they never met a Kontuckian who did not ' 
think his State a terrestrial paradise; his wife is always the 
prettiest, his horse the best, his hou^e the most comfortable | 
in the L'nion. They certainly are the most amiable compan- I 
ions, and their h'-allhy and athletic appearance le.ives no i 
doubt that on the turf and the battle-field they are ahead of 
either the Westerners or Southerners. 1 he estates are here 
larger than in the neighboring Western States, and the 
"almighty dollar" seems to have fewer worshippers than in j 
the East, but of course the dollar is also scarce. . j 

Kossuth was not in\ited to Louisville by the civic autliori- \ 
ties. The common council had druu n up an in\ ilaiion for ! 
him, but the aldermen and the mayor did not share its opin- j 
ions; they were "Silver Greys," and, though frequently J 
appealed to by the common council, they withheld iheir j 
assent to a step which might imply that thiy approved of j 
revolutions. The "peculiar institution" m.ikes people 
strongly conservative. But Kentuckian cordiality could not 1 
bear that Kossuth should pass through the L'nited States | 
without visiting the " dark and bloody ground." .A ; 
meeting was held; Colonel Preston, a wealthy plainer, took j 
the lead, and the people of Louis\ ille at large invited us to I 
the "Falls City." Though the civic authorities took no part 
in the proceedings, the militia turned out, cannons were fired, 
and the firenien's tx-lls pealed when we arrivetl. We saw 
that the people is .iccustomed here to act for itself. 

In the hotel we were waited upon by sl.tves of all colors. 
One of them was nearly black, yet his hair was glossy like 
that of an and I s.\w that he was proud of his distinc- 
tion; he braided it like a lady. .Another was almost 
white, but his fiery red hiir was wf.'oUy. To give him pleas- 
ure I asked him if he was .Tn Irishman, but he replied proud- 
ly, "I am an .American." The mistress of the house told me 

Ih.u thoy had seven slaves and four lillle ones, for hei hu.,- 
baiid never sep.irated families. I immcdiatf ly perceived that 
she was luudish, for s!ie refused to sit down in our pre.senc". 
This is striking hciv in America, wlieie the hotel-keepers au- 
nearly all colonels and generally behave as if ihev b.-^towed 
hospit.ihty on their guests, not as if tlicy were paid for their 

On t!ie 5th [March [ we h"ard a very creditable concert in the 
Mozart's Hall, and when we returned to our lodgings, .we had 
again a serenade of the Germans. Tint lo ! bells are ringing, 
the alarm is given, the firemen rusti through the streets, con- 
fusion insues, The screnaders. however, are not disturbed ; 
they merrily sound their trumpets and horns — people aie 
accustomed to seeing their houses burnt; they are insured ! 

On the 6th we took a ride with Colonel and Mrs. rrestoii. 
and Mr. and Mrs. Holt, who, during our stay, were hos]ii!- 
ably kind to us. We were .utonishcd at the expanse of 
Loui.sville. whicli, we were told, twenly-four years ago was 
but an insignificant town, 'the streets are broad, the brick 
houses substanli.d. with neat front and back gardens, car- 
ri.iges ;(re numerous, negro footmen wear liveries ; everylhin:^ 
looks more aristoci.itical than economical. 

We proceeded to the churchyard. It is the promenade of 
Louisville, very prettily laid out. The Aiiieiican cities rarely 
coniain square or public gardens, but the churchyard is gen- 
erally like a park, and used as Such. The Romans also 
buiitd their dead along the roads, but not before having pre- 
viously burnt the coipses The people of Louisville, how- 
ever, seem no* to become aware that a promenade on the 
burial-ground is not conducive to health. Close to the 
churchyard, on a slight elevation, there is a loely lilile wood, 
with a very fine licw of the city, the Ohio, and the hilly coun- 
try aroiuid. Tlie spot is the property of Colonel I'reston, 
who told us that the city authorities are likely to buy it for a 
public resort. 

The house of Mr. Holt, where an el,:gaiil breakficst awaited 
us. is a snug home in the English style, with European pic- 
tures, French china, and New York furniture, much more 
comfortable than any of the abodes we had visited since we 
left Ualtimore. Great many people live here in their houses, 
not in their ofhces. 


A profound sensation was created in Louis- 
ville on two occasions this year, by the death of 
the great Whig leaders, Clay and Webster -the 
former at \Vashington City June 29th, and the 
latter at his Marshfield home October 25111. 
The obsequies of both were suitably observed in 
Louisville. On the jgth of September the Hon. 
John J. Crittenden delivered a thrilling eulogy 
on .Mr. Clay in the Frankfort railroad depot 
here to an immense audience, of whom it is 
computed three thousand were ladies. On the 
26th of October, the day after Mr. Webster's 
death, a large meeti'ig of citizens was held, at 
which suitable resolutions were passed, and 
an invitation was extended to Rufus Choate, 
the ehupjent ihiston orntur and intimate friend 
of the Creat F.\[iounder, to visit Louisville and 
|ironounce a eulogy upon his life and character. 




In August, 1S52, Tyk-i- Lodge, Xo. 241, Free 
and Accepted Masons, wns (ii.irtrred. Mr. S. 
' \V. \'anculin was the hist Master. In August 
of tlie next year Exrclsidr l^odgc, No. 25S, and 
Robinson Lodge, No. 266, were ch.iuered. 
Janies C. Rohinson \va< fir^t NLa-,lcr of the latter, 
and j. A. HutcliL-son of the I'ornicr. 

August 20, 1852, is the date of the foi'.nd.ition 
of the Ancient and Accepted or Scottish ]\ite of 
Freemasonry, which occurred in Loni.viile at 
that date. Its origiriators, who composed the 
I'lrst cotps of officers, weie: Henry W'eedon 
Gray, grand roininander in chief; Heiiiy Hud- 
son, fit jt heutenant commander ; Toht; H. Howe, 
second heutenant commander; Fsa.ic Crcmie, 
grand treasurer : Fred \VebI)er, grand secretary; 
Lcsvis Van \'\'hite, grand cliancellor; C. Boer- 
wanger, grand guard. 

Mr. CoHins adds, m the sketch of Free Mc- 
sonry in his History ; 

Thcii; composed ihf Gr.iiid C'or.iistory uf 32'. or .Sublime 
Princes of tlie Royal Secrot— which body suntrvises ai;d con- 
trols the subordinate bodies of the Rite, viz: Lo.l;j.;= of Per- 
fection, 14°, Councils of Prince.-; of Jerus.ileni, 10°, Chapters 
of Rose Croix, iS'', Councils of Knitjhts K.-idosl;. .i"^; ,;nd 
is itself sulmrdinate only to the Supreme Council of 33 . •. 

The membership in Kentucky is small — not quite two 
hundred iu 1673 — and its pro^reso been slow , but sure. 


The Mechanics' Institute of Kentucky was or 
ganized in Louisville thi^ year, March 2^, with 
its office and library on Fourth street, between 
Matket and Jefferson. It was regularly char- 
terd NLarch 8, 1S54. Mr. William Kaye was 
President, George W. .NIorris \'ice Pre-ident, 
J. B. Davis Recording Secretary, J. O 'Leary Cor- 
responding Secretary, and George Ain=Iie 'Frcas- 
urer. In 1S57 it had accumulated a library of 
about 5,000 volumes, which had 1,200 readers. 
The Institute suppoited a course of lectures 
and a school, gave annual exhibitions, and was 
in its time a useful adjunct to culture and lit- 
erary entertainment in the city. 


One of the saddest and most st.rrtling trage- 
dies that ever occurred upon anv part of the 
Dark and Bloody Ground was enacted in Louis- 

ville tliis year at a private school building upon 
Chestntit street. Professor William II. (J. }',ut- 
ler, PiiiK ipal of tlie school, had disciplined a 
. young brother of Matthew I\ \\'atd, a high- 
' spirittd youth l)c!onging to one of the most 
prominent families w the city. The two broth- 
! crs went together to the school th.e nevt day, 
I November 2, 1853, to discuss the matter with 
Butler, and in the altercation which ensued \Vard 
[ shot the schoolmaster v.itli a [listol in the left 
I breast, causing his death the ensuing day. .\ 
[ prodigious excitement was [iroduccd in the city 
1 by the affair, and such was the current of feeling 
that the attorneys of Ward thouglit a cliange of 
venue advisable, and the case was accordingly 
tried in the Circuit C(nut of Hardin county, at 
; the spring term of 185.}. A large "and notable 
: array of counsel wa- [nesent upon both sides. 
I F"or the Commonwealth appeared the Public 
j Prosecutor, Alfred .-Mien of lireckenridge county, 
[ T. W. (iibson of Louisville, Sylvester Han is of 
' Elizabethtown, and Robert 15. Carpenter of 
Co\ington. I'oi the defendant ap]ieared John 
j L. Helm, James \V. and R. B. Hays of Elizabeth- 
I town, (Jeorge Alfred Caldwell, Nathaniel Wolfe, 
and Thomas W. Reiley, of Louisville, and 
! Thomas I'. Marshall, of X'ersailles. The de- 
; fense derived chief strength, however, and very 
likely success, from the volunteered services of 
the eminent ^N'hig lawyer and statesman, the 
Hon. John J. Crittenden, wlio gave his great 
powers I'reely and devotedly to the procurement 
of a verdict of acquittal. 'I he Commonwealth's 
attorney, Mr. Allen, in his closing address to the 
juiy, remarked that he thought no one man in a 
whole lifetime could make two such speeches as 
that just before heard from Mr. Crittenden's lijis. 
The result, after a trial of more than a week, be- 
ginning Apiil 1 8th, and closing on the 27th, at- 
tended by overwhelming crowds t'roni the begin- 
ning, was a \erdict of "not guilty." The second 
day after this finding an immense indignation 
meeting was held in Louisville. We give its 
proceedings in the words of Mr. Collins: 

April 29th. over erght lhous,uid people, in ,i public meet- 
ing at LouisMlle, in resolutions read by Bland Ballard, 
chairman of the committee on resolutions (lotin H. Harney, 
Dr. Theodore -•s. Bell. William D. Gallagher, T. 
Ha-gin. Ne.-riham, and A. G. Muiin) denounce ■•the 
verdict of the jury in the Hardin Circuit Court, by \shich 
Matt. F. Ward «as declared innocent of any in the 
killing of William H. G. Butler, as in oppo-ition to all the 
evidence in the case, contrary to our ideas of public ju-lice. 










and subversive of tlic fun Jnn'-nl il luinriple-^ of |[:al 
scciirily, guaranlcd liy ilic Coii^iituiion of ihe Sine." Afu-r 
the coniniittrc- hrn[ loft ili-- ron]i\. n!lior ri-ioluiions w..ic ru- 
rii'cl, reqiiestiii.^' M.ut. 1-'. W.vnl ,incl hi; t.rother (iiuli.t.'d 
ttilh him. as acc-isoryi lo Ic.ivr i!-.o ciiy, and two of 
toim'd (Nat. Wolfe, Ii^q.. and Ho'i. John ]. CriUctuU-ii) to 
rc3if;n their seals in Ihe Senate of Kcntnckv and the l"nU(.d 
States Senate, respectively. In the streets, a mob burned the 
effiKies of John J. Crittenden .and Nat. Woire. of C;ei're,e I). 
Prentice, editor of the Journal rwho had testified in conrt ,is 
to the character and manners of Ward I, of Malt. I'. W.nd 
himself, and of the Uardm county jury wliieli ar.|,iiucd 
him. It then siir£;ed to the eiei; ml mansion of F\o'.rl ). 
Ward (father of Matt. F. Ward), which was slor.ed. the 
windows destroyed, llic beautiful conser\alory, full of 
the rarest phants and ilov.ers, demolished, and the house set 
on fire in front; the firemen soon arresLed ilie flames, desj'iite 
the resistance of part of the mob. It tlien surged lo the 
Journal office and to the residence of Xat. Wolfe; but the 
determined efforts of a fe\v le.iding citizens succeeded in 
checking its fury before much damage done. The 
Mayor liad announced to the crowd in the Ccurt-house 
the persons against whom popular feeling was directed, had 
left the city wilh their families, and their houses and property 
were under the protectio't of tl'.e city authorities. Noble 
Butler, brother of llie deceased, had issued a card to the 
people of Louisville, appealing to them in strong leriiis to 
stay the thought and hand of violence, and to act calmly and 

The case was widely discussed in ttie iicv.s- 
papers of tlie country, and for a time evm the 
venerable Mr. Crittenden was treated with 
maiked disrespect wherever lie apjieared away 
from home. lie was nevertheless re elected to I 
the United States Senate the next January. Mr. 
Ward found a temporary refuLje at New OiLans, t 
whence he issued a card May r5th, "totheed- ' 
itors of the United States." asking them not to j 
prejudge his case, but to \\ait until the testimony I 
and the arguments of counsel, officially rejiorted, 
should be laid before the country. They were ' 
printed shortly after, in a thick pamphlet, by tlie 
Appleton publishing-house, of New York, fuly [ 
itth, during another session of the court at 
l^lizabetluoun, t'uur of the jurymen in the Ward ' 
case Were indicted for perj'iry by the grand jury; 
but were never convicted of the crime. 


On the 1 2th of May the City Council passed 
an order submitting to a vote of the [leople a 
proposition to endorse in the name of the city 
the bonds of the I.oiiL-\iilc & Frankfort Railroad ; 
Company to the amount of $500,000, fir the 
construction of a branch line from Franklort to 
Harrodsburg. The Cnuncil voted tu sub^i.nbe 
$300,000 to aid the extensinn of the line beyrmd 
Harrodsburg tnuards Kii'jxville, Tennessee. 

In IL-( ember the lien. James Gulhrie, of 
Lniiisxillc, now Scrictary of the United States 
Treasury, say-, in his .\nniial lvr|iort that the ten 
thousand shaiis Cdiistiliiting the capital stuck of 
the Louisville cV I'nrtland ('anal ('i>mpany have 
been sn far boiudn up that oidy three tlicuisand 
Seven hundred and IwcU'C remain, of which two 
thousand nine hiindii d and t\\o belong' to the 
Ignited States anrl eight hmidrcd and ten to 
pri\ate parties. He ihnughl that in one \ear 
mure tlicse would be absorbed, and th.e Ignited 
States bei ome the sole stockholder. Only 
enough tolls were now to be collected to jiay ex- 
penses and repairs of the canal. 

.April 4th of this year, school bonds of the 
cily, to the amount of $75,000, were bouglit by 
-August Belmont, cjf Xevy Yoik, American agent 
of the Ivoihs'-hiliK, at ninety-eight and one-half 
cents on the dolfir. 

The valuation of the year was $17,936,301 for 
the We=tern Distill t, $1 3, 8.17. cpS for the Kast- 
ern, and $31,783,3.19 for tlie whole cily, an in- 
crease, against the assessmmt of the year befoie, 
of $6,036,565, or nearly tueniy-four per cent. 

The semi-annual dividend ot the bank of 
Louisville, declaieil Januaiy 3, was four and one- 
half jier cent, and two and one-half extra. The 
Ikiirk of Kentucky declared five per cent. The 
stock of this l.iank sold in I'liiladelpKia the next 
week at $1.00 on the dollar, and in I'ebru- 
aiy at $r.ioL', 'he Northern I'iank of Kentucky 
stock at the same time bringing $'j and 


May tSth, the steamer Ivlipse, which made the 
quick run from New Oilenns to Louisville the 
preceding Mav, surpassed her former time by 
reaching the Fails in four days, nine hours, and 
thirty minutes, running, too, against a ri-.e in 
the Mississippi river. Four davs at'terwards the 
A. L. Shotwcll reaches Louisville in four days, 
nine hours, and twenty-nine mitmtes, only one 
minutes less than the time of the l^clipsc. 

Mr. Collins, in his .-\nnals, presents the fol- 
lowing tabular view of voyages Irom New 
Orleans to Louisville, reputed quick, between 
iS I 7 and 186S ; 
VI w.. D. n. M. 

i;"i7 — l^iiteipii.e 25 2 40 

c3t7— Wasiangiun 25 .. .. 

iSig— Shelby 20 4 20 

i323— Paraxon iS 10 .. 

3 '4 


VCAI!. n. 

1E34— 'rcciiiiistli 8 

1S37 -^Tusc.UL.r;. 7 

1837— siiit.ui.i : 6 

1837— Kxprcss -. 6 

1840— General IJrown 6 

1842 — Kd. Shippen 5 

1843-Belle of the West 5 

iS.n— Dukecf Orleans j 

i349-^-SuUnna j 

1851 — Boslona - 

1832— nellc Key , 

1853— Reindeer ' _, 

1853— Eclipse 4 

1853-A. L. Sholttcll 4 

1853-Eclipse 4 

iS63— Dexter 4 

HOT \vr..\TIIER. 
The people of Louisville suffered mu^li 
wartii wenther this year. On the :r)ih of 
the ihermometer ranged froui nineiy-ci^ht i 
hundred and three decrees in the shade 

o one 


There was a slight revisitntion of the cholera 
in October, eiglit persons dying of it in Louis- 
ville on the 28th and zgtli of that month. 

Among the premiums awarded to Kentucky 
exhibitors at the Crystal Palace Exhibition of the 
previous year in New York, was one to Messrs. 
Hayes, Craig & Company, of Louisville, for I 
their display of hats and caps; one to Robert i 
Usher, of the same city, for his exhibit of beef, ! 
hams, and spiced meats; and one to Miss Ellen 
Anderson, also of Louisville, for a remarkable 
patchwork quilt. These were first premiums in 
all cases, no second ones being awarded. 

The valu.ition of the year, tor the tax lew, was: 
In the \Ve3tern District, $18,156,123; Eastern 
District, $14,125,231; total, $32,281,354. 

The pork-packing of the season, 1853-^4 was 
very large, amounting in the aggregate to 407,- 
775 f^ogs and 124,879 barrels, or 15,847,284 
pounds. That of 1854-55 amounted to 283,788 
hogs, or 65,102 barrels, equal to 8,915,546 

A bill was passed by the Legislature in Febru- 
ary, granting a charter to the Planters' and Man- 
ufacturers' Bank at Louisville, with a capital of 
$2,600,000, and privilege of increasing it to $3,- 
600,000, also to establish branches at Eddvville, 
Hawesville, Glasgow, fllizabethtown, Shelbyville, 
Cynthiana, Winchester, Barboursville, and Cat- 

lettsburg. It was vetoed by the Ooveinor, and its 
friends were not strong enough to secure Us 
passage over the veto, though the vote was close. 

The latter part of October there was a great 
bank panic in the West, accompanied by many 
f.'.ilures. On the 27(h the banking house of 
Messrs. G. H. Monsnrrat >\; Co., of Louisville, 
suspended payment, as it alleged, "in' conse- 
quence of the perfidy of a confidential agent." 
N\'iihin four montlis the Lentncky banks with- 
drew more than half thrir notes in circulation. 
A single liroker in Louisville drew from the 
Bowling Green, Russellville, Princeton, and Hop- 
kinsville branches of the Bank of Kentucky, the 
total amount of $140,000 in specie. It was a 
genuine financiil fiurry, duiing which, hcAvever, 
most of the Kentucky banks stood firm, and 
their notes became the standard bank funds 
throtighout the West. 

It was an active year in politics. At the .Au- 
gust election for county officers the Know-Noth- 
ing ticket was successful in Louisville, as well as 
in some other Kentucky tiiies and towns. A 
State convention of the same organization is 
understood to have been held secretly in the city 
in early November. The State Temperance con- 
vention met at Louisville December 14, and 
nominated George ^V. \\'illiams for Governor 
and James G. Hardy for Lieutenant-Governor. 

The steamboat Jacob Strader made a notable 
rim from Louisville to ^L^dison May 6, getting 
over the distance in three hours and nineteen 
minutes, the quickest ever made between the 
two points. A few days before, this steamer and 
the Alvin Adams, eager rivals in the Cincinnati 
trade, left Louisville together at 3 p. m., and 
reached Madison in three hours and thirty-nine 
minutes, with their guards overlapping each 
other. The river was lower in September than 
at any time since October, 1838, when it was 
lower than was ever before known to the white 

A filibustering expedition against Cuba was 
quietly organized in Louisville this year, number- 
ing about fifteen hundred men; but on the 19th 
of October Colonel John Allen, in a published 
card, announced that it had been disbanded for 
want of means. 

April 25, a [)ru|iosition to subscribe $250,000 
to the stock of the Newport & Louisville railroad 
was voted down at the former place. 


■J'lie Hon. Mill.ird Fillmore, of ikitTalo, ex- | 
President of the United Slate>, visited Louisville ' 
March i6th. He \vas esroiled by a great i^roccs- { 
sion from the depot to tjie Lo'jisviHe Hotel,- j 
where the Mayor leiuiered him the freedom of i 
the city, and where he subsequently paitook of , 
a public dii'iiier. 1 

Ocluber 25th, Mr. Cieorgc D. Prentice, of the '; 
Louisville Journal, receives a public dinner at 
Memphis, Tennessee. 

Madam Sonta-, the celebrated prima donna, 
gave her first concert in Louisville January 17th. 
Preston Lodge, No. 2S1, Free and Accepted 
Masons, named in honor of the Hon. William 
C. Preston, was chaitered in August. Smiih 
Gregory was its first Master. 

In May, forty-four freed blacks are shipped 
from Louisville down the river, en route to 


On the'6th of March, 1854, the Louisville 
Water C'ompany uas incorporated by act of the 
General Assembly, "with power and authority to 
consiiuct and establish water-works in llie cuy of 
Louisville or elsewhere, for the pur[)n;.c of sup- 
plying said city and its inhabitants with water." 
June 2.Hh, a popular vote was taken, to determine 
the question of building water-work- at the ex- 
pense of the city, which was decided adversely 
by 1,251 against 1,751. However, on the 30th 
of June, 1S56, an ordinance was passed direct- 
ing the ^Layor to subscribe for five thousand five 
hundred shares of stock in the companv, and 
pay for them in bo-ds of the city. This or- 
dinance, upon submission to the iieople in 
September, was approved by a vote of 1,415 
against 370. The stock finally became almost 
wholly the property of the citv. In 1S73 it was 
•divided into 12,731 shares, of which three only 
were held by private persons, two by the city 
proper, and the whole of the remainder by the 
Sinking Fund of the city, and therelore public 
property. .\ publication of this period says: 

The vaUic of the Works to J.^nuary i. 1S74, estimated .it 
cost, is nearly $2,000,000. and there exists a bonded indebt- 
edness of $200,000, secured by mortg.tge on llie Works. .\ 
sinking fund cre.ite.l Fehra.nry t4, 1870, f.r the evtin- 
guishmeiit of this deln, «hieh f.ills due KelTn.iry, iSSj. 
This fund, up to thi» date, has been invested in the purcii.ise 
of forty-eis'il bonds of tlie company and ciijht bonds of tin- 
city of I.ouisviile maturing n about the same time— i. o. . 
fiCty-si.'s bonds, of $t. 000 e.ich. 

The receipts of the company are yearly increasing, and 

now c\ceeil $130,000 per annum— 410,000 of \Uiic 
p!a.-.-,l 1.) the credit of the sinking fund of the con 
Tlif lemainder, up to the present time, e.vcluding the 
sary expense of oonducung the Works, has been used 
ni.iki-.f; of new pipe; extensions, of which synie cigli 
miles ha\e been laid. The Works havea maximum cj 
to siii'piy liflecn million g.ilions of water per d.iy. 

It is provided by law that the water-rat 
Louisville arc not to exceed those charg 
either Pittsburg, Cincinnati, or St. Louis. 

N0T.\1'.I,U DE.VTll. 

The Rev. Dr: John L. Waller, a pron 
Bapiist clergyman and editor, died heic 0< 
ID, 1854. 









January ist the senii-annual dividends de- 
claied bv Kentucky banl:s included one of four 
and on.:-half per cent., with an extra two and 
one half, by the Bank of Louisville, and five per 
cent, by the Ikink of Kentucky. Five per cent, 
was declaied by the Louisville Gas Company. 

Febiuary 3d the Ohio river was closed by ice, 
aiid for eleven days together. 

Febiuary 6;h a horse of twenty hands, or eight 
feet and four inthes high, from I'errysville, in 
this State, was exiiibited at Louisville. It was 
called the Magnus Apollo, is described as of 
"extraordinary grandeur and majesty of propor- 
tion and appearance," and was believed to be the 
lar,i;est horse in the world. 

February 2 2d, Washington's birthday, the 
Know-Nothmg State convention met in Louis- 
ville, and nominated Judge William V. Loving, 
of Bowling Green, a gentleman of Whig ante- 
! cedents, for Governor, and James G. Hardy, 
i a former Democrat, for Lieutenant-Governor. 
April 7ih the ticket of this party was again suc- 
, cessful in Louisville. There was this time no 
■ o[iposing tandidate for .Mavor, Mr. Speed, the 
incumbent, holding that his term did not expire 
this year. The Mayor-elect, Mr. John Barbee, 
' was recogni;:ed by the several departments of 
I the city government; but Judge Bullock, oi the 
! Jefferson Circuit Court, decided that Mr. Speed 
was still the legal .\Liyor. 

An election was also held this spring to ratify 
I or reject the contrac t or purchase by the city of 
; the Stradcr \- Thomi)son wharf, from the old 
I town line Third street to Brock street, with 
! some small exceptions. An issue of bonds to 



tht: amount of $330,000 had been authorized by 
ordinance of August 18,1853, t'^'t "^'"ly $175,000 
were issued, of date Maicli 15, 1854, and to run 
thirty years. 

Ttie a--se-)snient of i8:;4 \va^ $18,376,609 i'.i 
the Wchttrii di-lin-l, $14.8'^^ 415 f,irt!ie ICastern, 
and $33, 262, 0:14 for the whole- city, i'oik jiijck- 

fiict .11.. 1 HOI I. ■.! (I-flrucUuii \mng Ii'kC a fun. ral p,ill .,v.:r l]..- 
' cily. .\ rar.l f'otii Ki. K<-v. l'.i.,lKi;. M.irlin J. Spikiin.i;. and 
; the Mi'.idv flfxr-ii i.r m^nv good citizens. t;r,^dx:,Tl!y r.'iiored 
. .1 f-.'clin" of <iuict .ir.d sccurilv. 

fur the .-eason of 1; 


554 l.oi^ 

1 85 6. 

S8,ojy barreN, 11,869,760 i;..u::d>. 

'JliC vrilUcr ol tijlj )e-ir ii u.jieu for its seventy, 
the theimorneter yuing down to t\venlv-l\vo de- 
grees below zero. 

ELKCl lO.N KlO'l. 

The sharp |.uhtieal agitations of this year cul- 
minated in Louis\ir!ein a dreadful series of dis 
turbance.s August 6tli, tiie date for the election 
of Stale officers and members of Congress, \^'e 
copy a good account from .Mr. Colhns's History: 

Terrible riol in Louij\ille, on tlci-llon day; liien dv-aig- 
nated, and still most painlully rL-;iR-inb-rcd, as "Blood}" 
Mond.iv.'' Figluing and disturbance between iiidiv iduaU or 
squads, in various parts of the city. The inoit fearful and 
deplorable scenes of \iolence. bloyd?Ued. and hiuse-burning. 
principally in the first and Eii;hth w.nds. between 7 and i 
o'clock at night, IweUc i'.ouses were set fire to and burned, 
on the nortii side of Main, of Ij^ieventh, two adjoining' on 
Klevenlh, and two on s.uth side of .Main opposite. Patrick 
Quinii, the owner of nio>t of tiiem, was =liot, and his body 
partially consumed iu the fiames. Nuiueious shots were 
fired by foreigners from windows in some of buildings, 
whicli killed or wounded .-Xinericans in the siieets; tliii fact, 
with the exag.geratcd report that arms and powder were con- 
cealed there, e.^cited to frenzy a mob of Americans ^Know- 
Kothings) already crazed with e.\citenicnt; shooting 
and bloodshed on both sides, at other point-;; several [jerson.- 
who were concealed in the binldings, or fled to thenr for 
refuge from the mob, were burned to death; several were shot 
as they attempted to eac.ipe fioni the fl.unes; Amiiruster's 
large brick blew ery and hia dwelling, at tht Iicad ofjefler- 
son, were burned; also, tv\o Irish coi-p :r-shops on Main 
above Woodland garden; frame grocer), corner of .Madison 
and Shelby; many liouses were riildled or gutted. 'I he mob 
which ranged through the streets and set tire to the houses 
was composed of .Atnericans, part o( lliein with a cannon at 
theishe.rd; the foreigners i'ought from their houses, ,ind lost 
lile and property together. About twenii.-tv\o were killed or 
died cf wounds, about three-fourtas of them rorr.giiers, one- 
fourth .Americans; manv mure were w.unuied init recovered. 
Mayor Barbee, Kidd, and ,i p,.nion of the police, 
and the personal efforts of Hon. WMliani P. Thomasson, 
C'apt.un L. H. Rousseau. Lieorge I). I'rentice, Colonel Wil- 
liam Preston (the anti-Knvw-.Votimig c.mdidate for Con- 
gress), loseph P-urtL.n, and at dttereiit tunes and 
places, stop|)ed the eflu-.on of blooil. and sa\ ed the new 
Shelby street Catholic church .ind other val.iable property 
from the r.ip.icily and Molence of the mob. li.,d biood on 
both sales, .ig,^rav,,t.'d aal, |.,-r sc end d.iy, pre- 
vious by distorted rei.ire-entatioiis of prepir.ilrm for sen. 'lis 
work, culnimated in .1 most terrible and (hsgiaceliil not. For 
several d.iys .ifier, fears of a renewal of the de-peiate con- 

Feliruary 25111, the closure of the Ohio by ice 
for tlic . &ur| risiiig period of fifty-three days 
ceased, and the river broke up. 

March loth, a lemaikable old 1 ajuisville negro 
died, aged one h.undrcd and ten years, eight 
months, and three days. He was known as "old 
Ijen Duke,' and was reputed to have seen the 
tust tiee I'elled in the valley of the )3eargrass. 
i April 2c th, the Louisville Bridge Com[)any 
was re-oigani/ed, with Tliumas A\'. flibson as 
1 President and I.. .\. Whiteley Secretary. 
j In October, during a season of low \v,ncr and 
• comparative inactivity in navigation, the I'alls 
! pilots ha\e the entcipiise and energy, at their 
I own expense, to secure the deepening and widen- 
j ing ot the channel through the rapids. 
I The same mouth an ingenious firm, Messrs. 
1 Cornwall cV IJrutheis, of the cit\-, made an ex- 
cellent lot of candles, of great illuminating 
p.jwer, from paralYine exlracted fiom the cannel 
coal found neai Clloverport, Kentui ky. 

Deceniber 31st, the Medical Deijartnient of 
the I,ouis\ilie University was burned out, with a 
loss of $100,000. 

The new Male and F'emale High Schools were 

both opened to students April 7th of this year. 

Assessmenls this year: I'.astern District, $14,- 

j 427,988; Western, $17,207,471; total, $31,- 

i 635,^59. I'ork packing : Hogs, 245,830; bar- 

i rels, 62,920; pounds, 7,867,991. 


i It was a great vear tor the issue fif bi.mds bv 
the city in aid of railroads, five hundred thou- 
sand dollars in th:rty-year bonds, bearing date 
.-\|>ril I, 1856, were issued in aid of the Louis- 

. ville & Xa-hvilie toad; October 1, 1856, to the 

' same, $250,000 in thirty-year bonds; .May 2d, 
$90,000, to run the same length of time, to the 

i Leban.jii Ih.ini h ; and November iitli. to the 
same, $135,000. Previous issues hatl been 
made: To the 1 ,i>L:is\ ille cV'nille. .\piil 1st, 
1853, $500,000 m tliiilyyear bondis; and A[iril 

i 20, 1852, $:oo,ooo in the same. .Aiiril 1, 1S57, 



s^till another issue ua'. niiide to this road, of 
1250,000 in ihirty-^ear sccuiities. 


January 19, severely i old weather was cxpeii- 
cn. ed in Louisville and tlirougliout tliC State. 
At Louisville the thcimoineter was 10° below, 
l)ut ?']" at Frankfoit, and 20' or more at many 
otlier ))laces. I'oiu' days afterwards the riser be- 
tween Xew Albany and Portland was t'ro7on o\er 
for the first time in forty years, and teams were 
trossint; on the ice at various points on the Lou- 
isville front. 

Another considerable flood occurred in the 
Ohio this year, sending the river up at the head 
of the canal to 35 feet above low water, and 60 
below the Falls. 

February 9, a block of four warehouse; near 
the Gait 1 louse. \\\\\\ twenty cither buildings on 
Main street, was bu.rncd with a loss of two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars. 

^Llrch J9, the citizens of the p'lace, without 
reference to piariy affiliations, gave a compliment- 
aty pubhc dinner at the Gait Hoi'.se to their fel- 
low-citizen, the Hon. Jamcs Guthrie, in recog- 
nition of liis eminent services, then rectntlv 
closed, as Secretary of the Ignited States Treas- 

i\Liy Titli, the Hon. I^dward Evcrt-tt, of .Mass- 
achusetts, pronounced in Louisville his famous ' 
lecture on the life and character of \\'a=hington, ! 
for the benefit of the fund being raised for the 
purchase of Mt. Vernon. 

August 31st, opened the annual exhibition of 
the United States Agricultural Sodetv, the first i 
of these displays held west of the .Alleghanies. : 
Lord Xapier, British Minister at Washington, 
was present, with other visitors of distinction. | 
'I'he exhibit of blooded stock was particularlv j 
fine. ! 

October ist, there was another flurry in bank- 
ing circle^, and several banking houses in Louis- 
ville suspend Sjiecie payments. .Mr. Collins 
says: "Kentucky hanks refuse to lend their 
niites to [larties who jiay them out in Cincinnati. 
bcc:aiise the brokers there assort and send them 
h'lnie immediately fir rcdenip'ion in specie." 
L.itei, lujwevcr, when banks and bankers every- 
where in the country were suspending s|jecie 

payments, the Iventucky banks refuse to suspend, 
and maintain tlieit credit unimpaired. 

The Musical Finul ^o^ietv was organized this 
year, as an association of resident muiicians, to 
cultivate their art and to jieilorm in jiublic the 
compositions of the great ma-ters. Its orchestra 
numbered over forty pei formers, and its concerts 
were aiiiong the chief Itical attractions fo.r some 
years. It gave five concerts eveiy winter until 
1S62, when they were susjiended on accotmt of 
the war. Tlie society then had about $1,000 
worth of pro[,eriy in niubic and musical instiu- 

'I'he Citizen Guards, another Uiilitary com- 
pany, \\as organi.;cd this year, in May, with J. W. 
Brannor, Captaiti; R. D. Anderson, First 
Lieutenant ; .-Vle.xander Casseday, Second Lieu- 
tenant; J. H. .M. Morris, 'I'hird Lieutenant; 
James H. Iluber, Orderly Sergeant, and James 
A. Beattie, Secretary. The other companies of the 
city at this time were the Falls City Guards, A. 
Y. Johnson, Captain, and the Marion Ritles, W. 
E. \VoodrulT, Cai'iain. 

The population in 1857 was counted at 64,665 
— whites 57,-1.78, slaves 5,432, free blacks 1,755. 
\'aluation (of real estate, probably), $25,061,063; 
total valuation, $33,623,564 — $18,702,182 West- 
ern distriit, $14,921,382 in the Eastern. There 
were in the city 23S wholesale houses, selling this 
year $37,281,861. The imports (jjartly esti- 
mated). Were valued at $:8,566,o75. Foreign 
imports were received at the Louisville custom- 
house to the value of $109,550, and of those 
entered in New York and New Orleans $507,- 
010. Duties were ]>aid at Louisville to the 
amount of $27,267. The tonnage of vessels 
here was 28,015. Manufactories numbered 214, 
with 4.531 hands, $4,096,759 capital, and 
$7'77''-Li'^ 'n |iroducts, by an incomplete esti- 
mate. 'I'here were seven tlouring-milN, with 
twentv-one run of stone, turning out 208,630 
barrels of flour. The pork-packing included 
253. S03 hogs, 82,310 barrels, or 8,759,939 
pounds. The total of this induritry for the last 
five years was 1,523, 5:^0 hogs, and 423,240 bar- 
rels, or 53,260,520 pounds, 


occurred in the city May 14. Mr. Collins thus 
tells the story: 

Four 5l.ivc<. clKir-ed uitli murJeiinj the Joyce f.iniily, 
near ilio niouUi of S.ilt river, some time since, irieil al Louis- 



viUe, Md .ic<iuillccl. A mu'., \vmIi\ l,y n son of ihe Joyce 
fatmly, aUcn.ptca to forre an cniianro inlu iho jail, but was 
kept off l.y tl^c poliro an.l a fficc of twelve armed men 
stationed by Mayor I'iKher. After tea the mob again 
assaults the jail, but the force in,ule, by f'lnng into the 
air to intimidate, liolds the cro-.vd back a little wliile. 
They retire, and soon return with a caimon loaded to the 
muzzle, and pointing it at the jail door, eon, pel the jailors to 
capituUite. One Jie.t-ro cut hi,, hut the other three 
were taken oat and hung to tree-. Hie Mayor v. as stni'-k ,n 
the fa.-e with a biick, and it w.,~ feared the mol. would vent 
theit violence on Mo-sr.. Ro.-.sseau. Wolfe, and Mix, the 
attorneys who defcn.ied the negroes. May 77th. two of the 
rioters indicted by the grand .jury, arretted, „ad c^.inrnitled to 

July 20th, fin affray with id'.tols occuned in 
tlic slivel, bet'.vecii two in-iiiiiincnt editois, in 
whirh seven shots wue fired without harming 
cither, though a citizen by was aciiJentally 
wounded by a ball. The fight grew out of a 
ne\vs]ia[)ci quniiel. 

Two other editor;, from Frankfort, reached 
Louisville June loth, on their way to Indiana to 
fight a duel, which is iircxenled and the diffnulty 
amicably settled here, by the mediation of 

February i r,th, the General .\';sembly extended 
for twenty years the charters of the Bank ol 
Louisville, the Bank of Keiitticky, and the 
Northern Bank of Kentucky, with requirements 
that branches should be established by them at 
Burksville, Columbus, and Glasgow, respectively, 
with $150,000 capital each. June 15th, the 
Bank of Louisville opened b.^oks for the sub- 
scription of $S5o,ooo more to its stock, which is 
all taken in two hours, at $102 to the share, 
nearly the whole by citi/cns of Kentucky atid in 
small amounts. July ist, this bank, the I'.ank of 
Kentucky, and the Nurlliein Bank, decLired each 
a five per cent, dividend. '1 he fir^t also declared 
an extra dividend of twelve per cent., and the 
Other two five per cent. each. August 31st 
Northern Batik stock sold in Lexington at $120 
per share, and Bank of Louisville in Bhiladeli.hia 
the same day at $112. 

In .\[iril twenty-three companies, recruited in 
the State, were tendered to (;overnor Morehead 
for th.e regiment of volunteer^ called for to join 
the expeditionary f;irce .i!"d;t to march upon 
Utah, under command 01 the late General Albert 
Sydney Johnston. .Xmong them were three 

companier fiom Louisville, commanded, respect- 
ively, by Captains Wales, Rogeis, and Forsyth. 
Ten comjianies were selected by the Governor 
by lot. 

In .\piil there were great revivals of religion 
in Kentutky and generally throughout the coun- 
try. In Loui->ville the five Methodist cliurches 
receive four hundred and twenty-eight new mem- 
bers, and llie other denominations receive a Luge 

M.ay 19th an extensive display of leaf tobacco, 
grown m Kentucky, was made at the Pickett 
warehouse, in Louisville, under the auspices of 
the Slate Agricultural Society. One hundred 
and twenty-nine entries were made. The tobac- 
cos taking premiums were sold at auction alter 
the exhibit, and brought prices varying from $11 
to $S3 per hundred weight. 

The Fire l>epiartment of the city, which luid 
heretofore been wholly volunteer, was recon- 
structed. The hand-engines were sold and 
the corai.ianies disbanded ; and a system ot 
steam-machines and paid firemen was introduced. 
By 1S64 the Department had five steamers and 
one hook and ladder company, and was costing 
$30,000, but was yet considered more econom- 
ical for the citv, and certainly fai more efficient. 

The Woodlawn Race course was established 
this year, by the Woodlawn Association, upon a 
beautiful site on the Louisville & Frankfort R.tiI- 
road, five miles from the city. 


In .August of this year, the famous artesian 
■' well of Messrs. C. I. and A. V. Dupont, at- their 
; paper-mills on Twelfth street, near the river, be- 
g->n to ilow immense volumes of mineral water 
from the vast depth of 2,oS6 feet. This great 
i work was begun in AjiVil of ihe yeai before, from 
■ the bottom of one of the wells of the mill, winch 
had a depth of only twenty feet. .-\t the depth 
of seventy-six feet the diameter of the bore was 
reduced frtdii five to three inches, and so contin- 
ued to the botiom. The boring was mostly 
through solid rock, more than one thousand two 
hundred feet of the ujiper Silurian foriiatioii 
alone being passed through. It was conducted 
most ably by Mr. Blake, and when finished at 
the end of sixteen mouths, a constant sui'ply of 
about thirteen thousand gallons per hour was 
secured, rising from that mighty depth to one 



!iiin<irc(i nnd seventy feet above the suiface. 
The water is perfectly liuipi^l, v, ith a tempera- 
lure, invarialjle the year round, nf 76'^°, whicli- 
is 7' below that at the hottcun oi the well. Ii 
hns important medical uses. 

CliAIMV.S MACKAY's visit. 

In lanuary ]\issed through I ouiiville, in a 
siiccially ungracious and fretful humor, which 
) 'ind \ent upon the p:it;es of his book, entitled 
Life and Liberty in .America, C'hniles Mackay, 
LL. I)., F. S. A., an En,i;lish writer of some note. 
He was then on his way from Cincinnati to St. 
Louis. Tlie following are some of his remarks: 

Ne\l morning, nt .-in ciily hoi;r, Im Ic.ive Jeffersonv'.llc 
and all tliai belonged to it, we crossed in the sleamer to 
! ouisville, and once more found ourselves in a land of plenty 
and comfort, in a flourisliing city, in an excellent hotel — the 
Gait House, erne of the best conducted establishments m 
.\nierica ; in a State where the Maine liquor law was only 
known by name, and where it was not necessary to go to the 
apothecary's shop to obtain, by a sneaking, hypocritical, false 
pretense, the glass of wine, beer, or spirits tliat cnitom, taste, 
health, or absolute fiee will and ple:tsure denuintled. 

Louisville is the principal commercial city of t)ie .'state of 
Kentucky, well situated on the Ohio, and having direct com- 
munication with the Mississippi, and with all the immense in- 
ternal navigation of these great ri\ers. It contains a popula- 
tion of upwards of sixty thousand, and next to Cinciunati. 
V. liich it aspires to rival, is the greatest emporium of the pork 
trade on the North .American continent. The annua] nuni- 
t)er of hogs slaughtered here is nearly three hundred thou- 
sand, and is yearly increasing. 

On the second night after our arrival, I and my fellow- 
traveler were alarmed several hours after we had retired to 
rest by the loud cry of "Fire! fire!" several times repeated 
in the lobby adjoining our rooms. I rushed out of bed, 
opened tlie door, and saw a negro woman nish frantic.illy 
past. She called "Fire! fire!" and passed out of sight. 
•Vnother door was opened, and a woman's voice exclaimed, 
"It is not in the Ualt House ; there s no danger !" In the 
meantime, as quick as thought, an uproar of tjells and the 
rattle of engines were heard ; and kno\\mg how frequent fires 
were in .America and how much more frequent in hotels than 
in other places, we prepared ourselves to escape. But by the 
blaze that suddenly illununed our bedrooms, we saw that the 
confl.igration was at the opposite "block" or row of bnild- 
ings a: a manufactory of naptha and other distilled spirits. 
The fire raged till long after daylight, and all cft'orts to sub- 
due it being utterly futile, the "boys " with their engines 
directed their energies to save the adjoining buildmgs, in 
which thev happily succeeded. At breakfast in tlie morning 
we learned from the negro waiter who attended us that the 
hre had proved fat.U to his good master. The l.mdlord of 
the hotel had Iain for three days previously at the point of 
death, and the noise and alarm created by the fire, and the lest it should extend to his premises, had acted so pow- 
erfully on his weakened frame, that he had expired in a par- 
o\>Mn caused by the e.vciiement. 

Ihere is nothing to detain a traveler in Louis\ille, unless it 
'•e private friendship and hospitality, of both of which we 
had our share. .After three days we took our departure for 

St. Louis, but found il as dilTicult to quit Louisville as it had 
been to arrive .Tt it. We crossed to Jeffersonvillc to take llie 
train for the Mississijjpi, and were in the cars within ten 
minutes of the appointed lime. We not proceeded five 
hundred y,irds liom tlie "depot," or station, when our loco- 
motive, which h.ij.ipily had not put on all its steam, ran off 
the rails and stuck hard and dry upon the embankment. 
Here we waited two hours in hope of assist.ance; but none 
being forthcoming, we made the best of the calamity, and re- 
turned to our old quarters at Louisville for another day. On 
th^* morrow we again started for the same place; but, this 
time being more successful, \vc arrived, traveling at the rate 
of not more than fourteen miles an hour, at the bank of the 
great river Mississippi. 

1859 — MR. riKERINC'S BOOK. 

Some time during this year Mr. Richard Deer- 
liig, of the firm of Ueeiing &: Welburn, real estate 
and collecting agents, published a thin octavo 
volume, of one hundred pages, upon Louisville: 
Her Commeieial, Manufacturing, and Social 
.Advantages, fiom which we make some notes of 
the local situation. 

Mr. Deering estimated the population of the 
cit) at seventy thousand. The total taxation 
was but 1.45 cents upon eath $100, much less 
than in St. Louis, I'ltisburg, Chicago, Xashville, 
or New Alli.iny. I'ho city oftii ers weie [laid 
total salaries of .$24,350, and the police, foity-one 
in number, $34,980 in aggregate salaries. 

There were si.xty miles of paved streets and 
forty of unpaved alleys — one hundred in all. 
'Lhe largest paved street was five and one-half 
miles in lengtli. Public pumps were still numer- 
ous, but an appropriation, after being several 
times refused, had been voted for waterworks. 
The grounds now occupied by the works had 
been selected, and the buildings and reser\'oir 
were in progress, with a prospect of suppl)ing 
the city early in i860. 

A spacious wharf had been constructed at the 
public expense at Portland. Horse cars were 
running from Twelfth street to this wharf and the 
ferry landing there, connecting at Twelfth street 
with omnibuses on Main for 'W'enzel street, at 
the east end of the city. These were as yet the 
only regular lines of street conveyance in the 

\ . r ■ ' 

I citv. Two of the streets running toward Port- 

I - s 

I land had also been recently paved with boulders 
throughout. The omnibus and car company, 
which was one, carried freight as well as passen- 
gers upon Its lines. 


The upper wharf, above the halls, was bcin;; tahli^hnien'is, one curn hiooni nml \^•isp facioiy, 

greatly esteiided and irniirovtil. I'.eargrass creek ; three mniiiirartories of gold antl silvcr-.vare and been turned into th.e Ohio by a new chan- | jewelry, nne plane factoiy, four engiaving sh<i])s, 

nel two miles above the old iiiOLi'ili. and a laree ! one Venetian l>lind fartory, iimnerous confcrtion- 

seuer was coii^trueting over its month, at the ; eries, four stock- or eow-bell faetorii,?, o;ie v.iic- 

south side of the old channel, the creek filled up ; cloth weaving establishment, tuo wig and orna- 

and the whasf built over it, and extended further , nieiital hair shops, two bellows factories, six gas 

i;p the stream and made so high as to be above | and steam filling and pilumbmg establishments, 

the annual floods. ! two woolen mills, five willow-ware factories, four 

The public buildings ineludeil the ciiiiuhouse, j turning sho];s. one weljbing and stockingweav- 

"now being finished at the expense of the city j ing establi ^hment, two Toek and safe factories, 

and count) jriintly," the present post-office and | two boiler-yartls, twc; plow fai Imiils, many bak- 

custom-house, the Masonic temple, the ]!lind in- ■ eries, seven>terers' shopis, one white lead 

stittition, and many hosjjital, scliool, and chuicli , and linseed oil factory, several cement factories, 

buildings. The public school buildings nuni- { five copper, tin aud sheet-iron factoiies, one 

bered ten. The market-houses were sis, all still \ bedstead factory, twenty furniture factories, four 

on Maiket street, built witli iron columns on , horse-shoe and wrought-nail factories, four iion- 

stone pedestals. | railing, vault, safe, and door factories, two agri- 

Tlie medical schools were going, with the law ! cultural implement factories, eight gun shops, 

department of the uni\ersity, two commeicial ] foui looking-glass and picture-frame factories, 

schools, St. Alo) sius's college, the Cedar Gro\e i one silver and brass-jilating establishment, twen- 

(Catholic) and Presbyterian female acadenii.s. • ty-one saddle, liai ness, and trunk factories, seven 

the Louisville female college, Mr, llutler's pii\ate [ foundries and machine shops, two brass foundries, 

school for girls and misses, McEurnie iV W'n- two agricultural foundries, three stove and hol- 

mack's for boys, and seveial otiiers, besides Ilisl. op , kiw-ware foundries, one rolling-mill, the largest 

Smith's and the Rev. Mr. Beckwiih's girls' scbools | manufacturing establishment in Louisville, "rnak- 

in the vicinity. I ing the best iron in the ITiited States," one 

There were seven saw-mills, one with, a lath- j hydraulic foundry and niachine-sho]), three nia- 
niachine, five planing-inills. sixteen tan-yards, i chine and finishing shops, one wheelbarrow fac- 
twenty-seven blacksmith and wagon-shops, two j tory, one piano-forte factory, three music-pub- 
shops of steamboat smiths, one shop for forging ' lishers, one lope and bagging factory, one terra 
steamboat-shafts, etc., fourteen breweries, three ' cotui woiks, compo-^ition roofing carried on ex- 
ship yards, each building about fifteen steamers ; tensively, one cotton-hook factory, one paper- 
a year, one glass-works and one glass-cutting j mill, two lithogra]jhing establishments, several 
factory, several glass-staining establishments, : gilders and jjlaters, two surgical insttuinent and ' 
twenty-si.x cooper-shops, many of them large, ui- I truss factories, one optical instrument and 
teen lumber-yards, one ivory-black factory, six ! spectacle factory, one gold-pen factory, fifteen 
soap- and candle-factories, two of thern very ' marble-works and stone-yards, several bar.d- and 
large, three brush factories, three comb faciories, fancy box factories, one scale factory, three oil- 
one file factory, eight tobacco and two cotton ' cloth and window-s'hade factories:, one bone mill 
factories, one bell foundry, one alcohol factory, ' I'or manure, four oigan, melodeon, and accordeon 
three chair-factories, one niill and ruill stone t'ac- : factories, two ornamental car\ing and sculpture 
tory, four potteries, two whip factories, one chil- establishments, two tVet and scroll sawing estab- 
dren's car and rarriage factory, sixteen carriage lishments, one varnish factory, one saddle-tree 
sliops, eight fioiir nulls, two corn mills, five larel- factor)-, the Louisville Chemical \\'orks, ten 
oil factories, one mustard and s|)ice mil!, two [ printing ofiices, six book-binderies, two glue- 
spice mills, two steam rope and cordage-mills, , factories, one match factory. The local farihties 
one manufactory of wagon and carriage materi- i fo. manufacturing, in the suyipiv of raw material, 
als, eight or ten sarsa[iarilla and patent-meJi- power, and luel were thought to be of th.e be-t. 
cine factories, six |)ump and bio, k factories, one There were eight pe>rk-houses, emplo\ing twelve 
boot-tree and last f'aetoiy, two carpet-weaving es- ' hundred and sixty hands. 'I'he Ileargrass I'ork- 


house was the most extensive then in the roun- 
try. Besidts the eight slaughtering and |)ncking 
estahlishiiicnis, four \vcre devuled to packing and 
cuiing. 'I'lie "boss hulchers." nunil.iered one 
hundred ani! seventeen, eniiilnung two hundred 
and eighteen, and $202,0^0 capital. Three 
large \varehou'<L-s were gi\en up to the tobacco 
trade. A\'iih the single excep'tion of New 
Orleans, it was the largest tubarco-mart in the 

The whcilesalc mercantile hn;i>es in 1S50 in- 
cluded seven dealing in leather, hides, and find- 
ings, five in seeds and agricultural implements, 
six in hats, caps, and furs, forty in groceries, 
selling annually about $12,000,000 worth, thirtv 
in dry goods, selling $9,000,000 a year, se\en in 
boots and shc'cs, nine in clothing, thirtv in 
liquor, thirteen in hardware, ten in d'ugsand 
medicines, seven in china and queensware. 

The chartered banks numbertd s-.ven, with an 
aggregate capital of $5,310,000, and theie were 
five private banks, with con=iJeiably over $i,- 
000,000 capital. 

The positive indebtedness of the city was 
$r, 467, 000, and the contingent indebtedness 
(bonds for railroads and the gas company) was 
$1,825,000, making a total of $3,292,000. 'I'he 
assets of the city, in real estate, laihvay stocks, 
and the mortgage on the Louisville Oc Frankfort 
Railroad, were $4,030,703.56. Ijonded indebt- 
edness to the amount of $393,726 had been paid 
from the Sinking Fund, and $65,000 in\ested in 
six per cent, bonds forsimilar use. About $200,- 
000 more had been used in building five of the 
market-houses, repairing and making wi-.arves, 
and repairing the old Court-house. Aid had 
been voted the Louisville railroads, the gas and 
water companies, to the total amount of $4,095, - 
ooQ, and the issue of $520,000 more in bonds 
was proposed. 

The newspapers and other periodical piublica- 
tions were the Journal, Democrat, Courier, 
Anzeiger, and Evening Bulletin, all daily ; the 
Journal, Democrat, Courier, Presb\terian Her- 
ald, Western Recorder, Christian Union, Ken- 
tucky Family Journal, The Guardian, Commer- 
cial Advertiser, and Turf Register, weekly ; The 
Medical News, The Voice of Masonry, White's 
Reporter, semi-monthiy ; and The C'liriitian 
Repository and Wiiite's Counterfeit Detector, 

The h'ire Department was "thoroughly or- 
ganized, and as ellicicnt as that of any city in the 
Union." It had five steam engines, with all 
necessary appiurtenances, sixty-five men, and 

: twenty-thiee horses, and had cost the public 

j $21,702.86 for the year. Sa)s Mr. Deering : 

, "The number of fires has decreased more than 

: three-fourths under the new organization, and 
the loss of property is le^s than one-eigluh." 

! There w.eie six orijhan asylums, four Protest- 
ant and two Roman Cathf.lic ; two public hos- 
[litils, one sustained by the city, the other by the 
I'ederal C.nvernment, and several private hos- 

; pitals and infirmaries ; a pest-house ; a city alms- 
house, with pauper school attached; and the 

' Institution for the Blind. 

! Cave Hill Cemetery had by this time been 

l very handsomely improved, aud there were also 
the Easteiii or \^'esleyan arid the \Vestern Ceme- 

; teries. 

' The chnrclies numbered 15 Methodist, 6 
Baptist, 5 I'resljylerian, 5 Lutheran, i Associate 

; Reformed, 1 I'nitarian, i Universalist, 2 Jew- 
ish, and 5 Roman Catholic. They had 43 

' white Sabbath-schools, with 675 teachers and 
4,000 pupils, besides S for colored children, with 
96 teachers and 775 pupils. Total, 51 schools, 
771 teachers, 4,775 pupiL. 

The Masonic order had in the city the Grand 
Consistory of Kentucky, the Louisville En- 
campment, the Luuisville Council, the Louisville 
Royal Arch Chapter, King Solomon's Chapter, 
and the .-Miraham, Clark, Mt. Moriah, Antiquity, 
Compass, Mt. Zion, Willis Stewart, Saint George, 
Tyler, Lewis (at Portland) , Excelsior, Robinson, 
and Preston Lodges. A Masonic semi-monthly 
orga.i, The Voice of Masonry and Tidings of the 
Craft, was started in Louisville this year by 
Brother Robert Morris. 

The Odd Fellows had twelve Subordinate 
Lodges, four degree Lodges, and four luicamp- 
ments, and the Giand Lodge of Kentucky met 
annually in the city. The sum of $5,585.62 
had been expiended during the year for relief and 
other charities. 


I'rom other sources we have the following par- 
agraphs fiir 1S59 : 

March 28, the Hon. James Guthiie etTected 

sales, among Louisville and other Kentucky cap- 

1 italists, of $i,oiS,ooo in bonds of the Louisville 



& Nashville railroad, at par. This .successful 
transaclion caused the catly coniplction of the 

April 25 died, at Shippin-port J.inus Porter, 
the young Kentucky giant, celebrated fiy Dick- 
ens in his .\merican Notes, as related in our an- 
nals of th'^ last decade. 

June 10, .shires of the Northern Tank of Ken- 
tucky were sold in I'liiladelp.hi.n. at $\^z per 

"PreiUicean.i," a collection of the uiuy say- 
ings of Mr. George D. I'.eniiee throujii. his news- 
paper, was among the books of the year. 

The flood of this year reached the height, 
February 20, of 34 feet above the Falls, and 57 
feet below. 


i86o-Populalion—.\!.se5=nienls— Legislative Evcuriion in 
Loui-.ville — House of Refuge— Mr. Gulhrie at the Ch.nrles- 
ton Convention— Tornadoes— K.-irthquake—.-^ Le^al De- 
cision. 1S61 — Fuiion of the Bell-Everett and 
Parties in Kentueky — Mr. Guthrie's Vc\\on Speech— [ 
Bills Vetoed — Union .Meeting— Defense of llie Citv — 
Bank I.oanj to the State— Kentucky Xeutrality— Sliip- 
ments to the South— Recruiting for the Federal .-\rmy- 
The Daily Courier— .-\nderson in Command here 
—Distinguished Army \-i5iturs— Judge Ball.ird .\ppointed 
—Louisville Appointments by the Confederates— Other 
War Xotes- Board of Trade Chartered- Death of Judse 
Wood and Richard Barnes— .Anthony Trollope's \'i5:t. 
1862— amk Items-. \a\igation on the Ohio— Gieat Flood 
—General Boyle--Premium on Gold— Ho-pitals-G.;neral 
Morgan's Raid— Journals Suppressed— .-\rresls— Steamer 
Burned— Colonel Dent's --Appointment— Louisxille Dailies 
Instructed— Kentucky Legislature .Meets in Louis. ille— 
The City Fortified— Buell's .Army .Arnves— General Nelson 
Killed— Battle of Perryville. or Chaphn Hills— John Wilkes 
PK>oth in Louisville— Courier Sold. 1863— .A Revolution- 
ary Veteran— Premiums on Gold— Votes for Emancipation 
—Cotton Sold— State Conventions— The Mayoraltv— To- 
bacco Factories Close- General Buckners Furniture Con- 
fiscated— E.\-Governor Wickhire— .\nother Morgan Raid- 
Bank Stocks— The State Eleciion— A Conviclion for Treas- 
on-Railroad Guage -Altered- Confederate Ollicers Re- 
laken— Slave Sale. 1864— The Cold N"ew Year's — Bank 
Dividends— Saloons Closed— .National Bank Notes- Stale 
Conventions— General Crittenden .Aciuitted— State To- 
bacco Fair— Large Fire— Conl-ederate Prisoners— Geneial 
James P. Taylor Dead— Negro Regiments— Senator Mal- 
lory Killed- .Many .Arrests- .Negroes Seized— Marketing 
— Confiscations- Confederates Executed- Political Prison- 

ers Rele.ised^The Hog Orders— Tcb.tcco Sold-.More Ar- 
rests- Street Kailn.iy-ThcTrue Piesbyterian Again Sup- 
pressed— .Mr. Preniice Goes to Richmond. 1805- Gait 
House Burned— The New G.dt House-Mr. Guthrie 
Elected United States Senator— Guerrilla Executed— Rail- 
road Tarift"— lefferson County Circuit Court— Guerrillla 
K.iid into Louisville— Bounty Fund— Kreshet- Guerrilla 
H.mged — Public -Meeting— Chief Justice Biillitt Re- 
nioveil— Faro Banks Closed— Income— Slaves 
Escaping— l-"all5 City Tobacco Bank. 1866- The M.ayor- 
alty- Murder of Rev. T. J. Fisher— The Grant Bank— 

Giicnilla Com icted -Removal of ll.e Stale Capital 

President Johnson's Policy -Approved— Ihomas Smith 
r.)ics— Dr. Robinson Returns--.\Ir. Henderson Arrested- 
Distilleries Closed— Democratic State Convention— Cap-' 
lain Thomas Joyes Dies— National Tobacco Fair— Judge 
Hnrl.cion's Decision — Death of G. A. C.dduell and E.<- 
Mayoi Kaye— BaiKiufi to Prentice— Cholera Case in 
Couit— Assessments— Fees. 1867— Railroad Subscription 

— Court of Common Pleas— The Flood— Stale Capital — 
New .Apportionment- -New 'I'hsaler— State Convention- 
Deaths of Colonel O'Hara and Dr. R. J. Brcckenridge, Jr. 
—Unveiling of the Cl.iy Statue— Mr. Prentice's Poem- 
Corner-stone of the Bridge Laid— The Journal— .Mr. 
Bunch Elected Speaker— Death of M ijor rhrockmorton— 
Assessments. :86S— General Breckenridge— Deaths of 
lohn H. Harney and Judge Monroe— Resignation of 
Seiiaior Guthiie— Hon. James Speed- Cotloii .Mill Char- 
ters—Income Taxes-Railro.idSubscription— State Fenian 
Society— Federal Dead at Louisville— General Buckner— 
Deaths of Rev. K. J . Spalding, Leonard Jones, General H. 
E. Read, William Garvin, ex-Governor Morehead, and 
Cailicrine Carr— The — Henry Wa'.terson 

— ^^cchanics' Building Association. 1869— The Blind In- 
sliuiiion— Negro Testimony— Gas Company Re-charteied 

— De.uh of Rousseau and James Guthrie— The 
Short Line R.iilroad Finished— Decoration Day— Colored Conveniion- Stale Teachers' Association- 
Colonel Whitely Dead— Railro.d Consolidation- Mrs. 
Poner.Appointed Postmistress- Commercial Convention- 
Relief of the Poor— De.uh of Judge— Slate 
House of Reform— Suicide of Judge Bryant— The Daily 
Commercial — Bapti, is' Orphans' Home— .\ssessments. 

1S60 — rOPULATlON. 

The eighth census exhibited a population of 
68,033 '^r Eouisville, against 43,194 in 1850. 
This was an increase of 24,839, or nearly fil'iy 
per cent. The county had grown by nearly 
30,000 (from 59,831 to 80,404;, but only 4,734 
outside of the city. The State rose in the de- 
cade from 982,405 to i,r55,684, or 17-3 per 
cent, the smallest rate of increase since its set- 
tlement, except in the ten years 1S30-40, when 
the rate was 13/j per cent. Jefferson county 
had 77.093 white residents, 10,304 slaves, and 
2,007 '"'■£'2 colored persons. The slave popula- 
tion of the State inci eased but seven per cent 
during the decade. 


of the year were of real estate, $27,223,128; per- 



sonal ijrti|KTtv, $462,243; merchandise, $5,165,- 
250; rrsiduary, $.4,4S(.),3oo; total, $37,330,921. 
'1 lie taxatimi i)i.r $100 was- -for tlic city, $1.45; 
railroads, 25 cents ;' State, 20 cents. 


January 24, there was a grand fraternization 
in I,ouis\ille of the l.e..;islatuies cif Kentucky 
and Tennessee, on their way to visit the (leneral 
Assembly of Ohio. Tl.ey were very cordially 
received, and most hospiiably entertained by the 
niunici|ial auihorities and citizens geneially. 

March 25 the city council set apart the tract 
of land souih of the limits, knovMi as Oakland 
cemetery, for the purposes of a house of refuge, 
and appropriated $0o,ooo for Laiildmgs and 
equipment, with ab^'ard of trustees in charge, 
chosen from among th.e b^st citizens. The insti- 
tution was opened in 1S66, and is now one of 
the most notable features of public administration 
in or about the city. 

Way ist, at the Demo'Talic Nalional conven- 
tion which assembled in Ch.irleston, South 
Carolina, to nominate a candid. ite lor the Presi- 
dency, the Hon. James Gutlirie, of Louisville, 
received 65 JX votes. He had subsequently a 
small vote at the adjourned convention, which 
met in Iktltimore June 23d. 

On the 2ist of the same month the most de- 
structive tornado ever known in the Valley of 
the Ohio swept through it tor nearly a thousand 
miles. The lo^s of life and property was im- 
mense. Almost one hundred persons were killed 
or drowned, most of them from small vessels on 
the river, and the loss of property was estimated 
at $1,000,000. Mr. Collins says in his .Annals: 
"Along the river counties many barns, outhouses, 
and a few dwellings were blown down, other 
buildings unroofed or a wall forced m, nearly all 
the timber on many farms prostrated, cattle 
killed and people injured by the limbs of trees 
carried through the air, steamboats wrecked, 
coal and other boats sunk. The tornado passed 
from Louisville to Portsmouth, Ohio, two hun- 
dred and forty-five miles, desolating a space some 
forty miles wide in two hours. In sqme neigh- 
borhoods hail destroyed the growing crops. Old 
residents s[ieak of a similar tornado, but less 
severe, in 1S07." 

Si.\ days afterwards, on Sunday, another wind- 
storm swept through the Louisville region, doing 

much damage to binklings, growing crops, etc., 
but killing or injuring nobod)'. 

August 7ih, at 7:30 A. M., a slight shock of 
earthquake, which was severe at Henderson, was 
felt in Louisville. 

The seresiion fever was now (after the Novem- 
ber election) in the air, and the city had its full 
shaie in the agitations of the time. Decemtier 
2.jth Judge Muii, of the Jefferson Circuit Court, 
del. ided the military la.v passed by the Leg- 
islature the previous wintei, was not in conflict 
with the State constitution nor the law of Con- 
giess in regard to the Stale militia. 

! 1S61. 

i The storm was now rajiidly thickening. Jan- 
[ uary Sth, tin; Stale Constitutional Union (or 
Pell and I^verett) Convention, and the I.^emo- 
I cralic L'nion (Douglas) Convention met in the 
ciiv, had a series of resolutions prejiared by a 
joint committee of conl'erenie, and unanimously 
adop/ted by both con\emions, acting separately. 
They will be found in our chapter C'li the Military 
Record of Jefferson county. 'I'he parties repre- 
sented were now united in this State. 
I March 16th, the Hon. James Guthrie, ex Sec- 
; retary of the Treasury, made a pronounced [)lea 
1 for the integrity of the Union, to an audience of 
his fellow-cili/.ens of Louisville. 

March 2 2d, Goveru'ir Periah Magoffin gave 
his of'licial veto to a bill tor the relief of the Bank 
of Louisville and other monetary institutions, 
I also to a bill for the amendment of the charters 
of the State banks. Neiiher bill was abie to pass 
i over the Go\ernor's \eto. The next month, 
however, a bill was approved authorizing the 
' banks to issue notes of denominations under $5, 
; and to susjiend s[iecie payments in certain con- 

On the iSth of April, the fifth day after the 
1 fall of Fort Sumter, a great Union meeting was 
' held in Louisville. It was addressed by Mr. 
] Guthrie, the Hons. J. Young Brown, William F. 
I Bullock, and .\rchibald Di.xon. Their general 
■| sentiment, according to Mn Collins's Annals, 
was "in favor of Kentucky occupying a media- 
torial ])Ositie(n in the present contest, opposing 
the call of the President for volunteers for the 
I pur[)ose of coercion or the raising of troops for 



the CiHifcdLrncy, assLitint; that sccc'-sion was tio 
remedy for the pcndiiv; evils, nnu that Kenluck)' 
should take no part with Lithersitle — at the same [ 
time declaring liei ;.>'il b-icicd against the hostile j 
tread of either. Resolutions were adoined that ! 
the Confederate States having conimeneed the 
war, .Kentucky assumed the right to choose her 
position, and that ^hc would he lo\al utitil the 
Government bLcaine the aLigressor." '1 his un- 
doubtedly was the general sentimer.l in Louis- 
ville at this time, although there weie infiuential 
exceptions on both sides — on that of the Union 
and that of disunion. 

]*'ive days thereafter a measure passed the City 
Council appropriating $50,000 to ]jrocure arms 
for tlie defense of the city. I'his ap].'iopriation 
was subsequently increased to $200,000, condi- 
tioned uj)on the appro\al of the peoi.ile by tlieir 

April ;5th, the Dank of Louisville and the 
Commercial Jjank were called upon by the Gov- 
ernor to make a temporary loan of $io,ooo each 
to tlic State, in oider to aid in puttirig her u|>on 
a war footing. '] he latter acceded, and the 
foriuer also, but up>'n the condition that none of 
the money should be Used except to protect the 
State from invasion. 

By ^L^y 1st evety lailway passenger train com- 
ing from the South crowded with peojjle 
fleeing to the Northern States. 

During the special session of the Legislature j 
in May, numerous jjetitions were signed in Louis- I 
ville, as well as many other places, by the 
"mothers, wives, sisters, daughters of Ken- ] 
tucky," praying the Assembly to guard ihein | 
"from the direful calamity of civil war, by allow- j 
ing Kentucky to maintain inviolate her armed 

June 24th, the Surveyoi of the Port of Louis- 
ville, under instructions from the Government, 
prohibited shijimcnts over the Louisville ^: Nash- 
ville Railroad, except u[jijn jjermits issued from 
his office. This and similar measures were sus- 
tained in the JetTerson Circuit Court July 
icth, by a decision of Judge Muir that the Fed- 
eral Governrnent had the legal |)ower to stop the 
shipment of goods Southward. 

By July 15th the Louisville Legion, under 
Colonel Lovell H. Rous^-eau, and three other 
Kentucky regiments, are recruiting and organi.^- 
ing at Camp Joe Holt, on the Indiana shore. 

within the Innits of Jeffersonville. General 
Simon R. Rm kiier and many other citizens of 
Louisville had gone over to the Soutliern cause, 
and in September the General was commanding 
a brigade of Confederate iroojis at Camp Roonc, 
[ Tennessee, near the Tennessee line, which he 
shortly moved lo R.iwling Green, Kentucky- 

r)n the iSth (if this month (Scptcnibci-) the Post- 
oflice department issued an order that, "as the 
Louisville Couiier is an advocate of treason and 
hostility to the Government and authoiity of the 
United Slates, it should beexcluded from the mails 
until further orders." The publication ol the pa- 
per was temiioraiily stopped by the authorities the 
same day. On the 26th the editor, with e.x-Gov- 
ernor Morehead and iM. ^V. Rarr, a telegraphic 
operator, was arrested and taken to Fort Lafay- 
ette, in New York haibor, charged with "affoiding 
aid and comfort to the enemies of the Goxern- 

September 21st General Robert .Anderson, a 
native of the neighboiliood of the city, was jiut 
in command of the IViiartnient of the Cumber- 
land, with headquarters at Louisville, and issued 
a |jrucl:mia',ion to the people of Kentucky. 
General William T. Sherman succeeded him 
October 14th, and was in command one month. 
October 16th, Louisville was visited by the 
Secretary of War and the Adjutant-General of 
the LInited States army, to con-ult with General 
Sherman and others as to the situation in the 
State. The next day they went on to Lexington, 
accompanied by Hon. James Guthrie. 

October 20th the Hon. Bland Ballard, of 
Louisville, was appointed Judge of the United 
States District Court for Kentucky, zice Judge 
Thomas B. Monroe, Jr., who had joined himself 
to tlie Confederate cause. 

November iSth, at a "sovereignty convention" 
held in Russellville, an "ordinance of secession" 
j was adopted, with a "declaration of indepen 
I dence." Commissioners were sent to Richmond, 
j and on the gth of December Kentucky was ad- 
mitted by the Congress of the seceded States to 
I the Confederacy. Among the new State officers 
I appointed h)' the Russellville Conveiuion was 
j Robert iMcKee, of Louisville, who was made 
"Secretary of Suite." .Mr. Walter N. Haldeman, 
then of Oldham count}-, was chosen "State 
Printer." Judge H. W. P.iuee, then a young 
j Louisville lawyer, was made a member of the 



Executive C'ounril, nnd was suhsrqviently, until 
tlie close of the war, a nienibcr of the Confeder- 
ate Congress. 

By December 'lotli the St.itc Military Hoard 
had obtained war loaris fr^jiii tlie banks of tlie 
State to the amount of $1,-19;, 559, of which 
Louisville had fmiiished a full [iropurtion. 

In two d-i)s of this month, IK-iember 2;d and 
23d, the lait;e amount of two tons of ammunition 
was received at Louisville for the use of the Fed- 
eral troops. 

The Louisville Board of Trade nnd Merchants' 
Exchange was rhartertd and oigani/ed this year, 
despite the alaimns of war. 

On the iiih of I ebruary, of this year, died 
Judge Henry C. \Viiod, in the fortieth year of 
his age. Also, September ii. 1861, died Rich- 
ard Barnes, a native ol Maiyl^nd, for thirty vears 
Senior \\'arden of Christ church and otherwise a 
prominent citiz(,-n. 


In the late fall or v.intei of this year, tlie city 
had a visit from the famous novelist, .\nthon) 
Trolloiie, son of the noted LnglNhwoman v, ho 
was here moru than tliirty ytar^ before, and after- 
wards made hei home for a time in Cincinnati. 
He includes tiie following remarks in his book 
on North America: 

Louisville is llie commercial city of i!ie Stale, and stands on 
the Ohio. It is another great town, like all the others, built 
with high stores, and houses and :>lone-faced blocks. I 
have no doubt that all the building speculations have been 
failures, and the men engaged in them wore all mined !L 
But there, 3S a result of iheir labour, stands a fair, great city 
on the southern banks of the Ohio. Here General Bucll held 
his headquarters, but his army lay at a distance. On n»y re- 
turn from the West, I visited one of the camps of this army, 
and will speak of it as 1 speak of my backward journev. I 
had already at this time begun to conceive an opinion-lhal the 
armies in Kentucky and in .Missouri would do at any rale as 
much for the Xorihern cause as that of the I'otomac, of 
which so much more had been heard in Eng'aiid. 

While I was at Louisville the Ohio wa, tlood.'d. It had 
begun to rise when I was at Cincinn,\ti, and since Ihen had 
gone on increasing hourlv, rising inch by inch up into the 
towns upon its bank. I visited two suburbs of Louisville, 
both of which were submerged, as to the streets and ground- 
floors of the houses, .^t ,-^hippiii.s; Port, one of tliese suburbs, 
I saw the women .uid claldren clustering in the up-stairs 
room, while the men were going about in punts and wherries, 
collecting driftwood from the rtvcr for tiieir winter's firing. 
In some places bedding ana furniture had been brought oier 
to the high ground, and the women were sitting, guarding 
their little property. That viH.ige anudst the waters was a 
sad sight to see; h'll I hoard no compl.unis. There no 
tearing of hair and no gna^-iiing of leeih, no bitter lears or 
moans of sorrow. The men wlio were not alwoik in the 

boats stood lo.ifing about in clusters, looking at the still- 
rising river; but each .seemed to lie personally indifleient to 
the maltei. \\'!ien the house of an .American is carried down 
the river, he build, himself another; as he would get himself 
a new coal wh: n his old coat became unserviceable. Rut he 
never l.inieius or moans for such a loss. Surely there is no 
other people so passive under personal niislorlune! " 

The amount of $24,8S'^,332 was assessed on 
real estate this year; $425, .(ro on personal prop- 
el ty; $.1,620,600 on merchandise; $3,468,650 
lesiduary ; $35,407,002 in the aggregate. Ta.vca 
pel $100 — city, $1.50; railroads, 25c; Slate, 20c. 


This great battle-year is likewise filled for 
Louisville almost exclu.-.ively with the record of 

January 1st the Bank of Kentucky and the 
Bank of l^ouisville are able to declare a semi- 
annual dividend of but two [jer cent. On the 
3d of the same month the branch of the Com- B.uik of KenUieky was chartered. 

January 5th an order is issued by (General 
Buell placing the navigation of the Ohio below 
Louisville entirely under the su|)ei vision of the 
Crovernment. lioats were to be allowed to land 
only at certain points specified; all passcngeis 
must hold papers from Federal authorities, and 
for all freight iierniits must b-j issued. 

The great llood mentioned in the narrative of 
Mr. Trollope reached its culmination January 
23d, when the Ohio was higher than it had been 
at any time for several years. Its height above 
the low-water at the head of the canal was thirty- 
three I'eet; below the canal, fifty-six. 

June I St, General Jerry T. Boyle was ap- 
pointed Military Commandant of Kentucky, with 
headquarter; at Louisville, and inaugurated a 
system of military arrests and imprisonment in 
the military prisons at Louisville and elsewhere. 

January I7ih, gold was commanding seven to 
eight per cent, premium at the banks of Louis- 
ville. Forty days afterwards it has risen to a 
premiuni of nineteen to twenty per cent. 

Extensive military hospitals had by this time 
been established in Louisville. A thousand 
Federal soldiers had died within them in little 
more than nine months after their opening Sep- 
tember i.S, 1 So I. 

In July General John H. Morgan, of the 
Confederate army, made his first raid into Ken- 


tucky with his partisan force. Great sens.nion 
and .some fcr were caused at Louisviile hv hi 

honorable war; and that he who now seeks to 

Ibcir d.,.o,us ,„ |.o„i,v 0„il,c ,-il, C™ -L r ^ " ''' '"'"'"■ 

.l.n,«evc,,-nble.l,„ai„,„,a„„.,,am„,o,idi„ : .l.,",t ,T"Z >"™" "'" 

.he=:„:ti!:j' 1^: ; H?::,:;,,:^: ■ »......„,„„„, ,„ ,, „,„„„„, ^,,;„ 

, I uary folio ivnig. 

June 22 the two kadinu denominational pa- , On the I'vih nf =;■=,.,, i i •■ 

pcrs published tn the cay^-The True ' I „i . , Septe „l,er the ct.zens of 

terian and The Baptist Kecorder_:e,l^u : \ ^::^:: ^T'^nlt:^ T' ''' ^-^'^^- 

pressodby the Federal commanders, and ti' I C vnn a , w^ d " "^ ;— >-f 

Kev. Mr. Duncan, editor of the latter was sent ^ w"r h , ""'^ /^^'^'"^''i on Lou:sv,lle, 

tothemih,a,yp,i.on luly ^6 the 5 Th ' ^'- '^^^ busily en.a.^.d in fortifying the city. The 

A. Ho>t wa^ L;.,ar,^t;:.dt^ci.K-::: ■: I :hrrt:::^,;i;;^'^r ^" ^"-"-"^ 

and sent to the Newport Barracks. Fehruar; : On tl" ':; . ,- Mv^i ^ "Z"^"^: "•^^"- 


:rX ZrlTT Tl''- ^"^""^- ' ^^ ''^^ ^^^ GeneranVilliam N.l,o„ 

26, .S6„ the Lev. Dr. Stuait Robinson «as per Kentuckian now in commmd here d, -,r,l"~: 

.nuted to re.uine the publication ol the ' ,h. and cKil.Z . '""l ' "'.'^ '''^ 

terian. He was once arreste(1, but released, and. 

women and children be sent out of the citv, 

a flae and ,v.„ l,.„„d at I ou^ vdle n ', . '-'"' '"°' "' ' ''""' "'■'■"""»"■ """'■ 

■' X^l Ka 1n/-t t^r-ir^.^ «.. ....^ L* - . ■ 

jnd It. 

u^.^vio cn,ri.ii.iy sciiiueu. -n J 

At^gust lo. Colonel Henry Dent of Loui.vil'e ^ I T""'? /■ ""■' '"'"' 

was appointed county provdt-ma i^ls u^^ m ' a, T" ^'^"•, ^--^^ >^^'-n was shot and 
State, and the provL'marshal ::Ll^Z I W Tc' t r " ^'^ o'^- of the Galt 

structed to report to him """^t' ^^^ ^•-'"^^'"' ■'^^'-^"" ^' l^-''- 0"^ of 

September I, martial law was oroclaim-d in ^'^ '"'^ "'^.'"'^'^^"■""^'•'"de.s, in a ditficulty grow- 

Louisville, by reason of the p e"nc o f ' '"' ""\ "' '" """"- '>' ^'^^' '^^'"^^ ^ ^° ^^^^ 

Kirby Smtth. Confl ^^ r ^ .e^^!:;:' I --^'-^the latter, force. No notice of the 

On the 2d the Louisville daili - v '^' ""''''■ ^^^''' '^ '''^'^^■" ''-V e'th^r '^e cvil or military 

by Genera. BoylHirlr ;:;:;; n ^^^°--.--' ^-b- ^7.... when Genetai 

names of those who were committed i::;:^;^- ; :i::;:;: ^ ^l' ^rt ^^^^^"'^ "^^ "--- 

bn the ne.xtdav the Kentucky I e...hnire met ' ann""' ^^^^ "' ,"^' Confederate pickets 

in Louisville, havin. adjourn dlhh" V ^ 'P^'"^''-^''^ ^° -'h"^ si.x miles of the city, 

Frankfort Auiust 3 ::;nZ, of t^^^ ^ Ti °T'°"'' """^ """ ^und even nearer, 

proach of a Confederate crceTL;."a?d ' f ''".*^.'^"-" "7^ ''^ ^^ ^'-- -'hin hearing of 

records of the State G^vernvm e ^ Xa e ' rT, '"''''''■ '''' ■"^'" ^^^>- "^ 

moved to Louisville The same dav h.' h T' .C'^"*^^'^ -■->"= -"-V, however, lay twenty-five 

resolved '.that the mva!^ t^ l^ . rb': ^ 'vuT' T. ^''^ ^"' °" ''''' '''■ ^^'-"' 

rebels, now in pro-^re.. must be V . : "^ '"^ '""•' °"' ^° ''^'^^"^ °^ ^'"-'^"^ 

-en, by all her mLs, and to^;:;" ;^ : '; 1^ "'f"'^"' '"°^-^^,- ^'^ ^^-^— --"" 
er) e.xtremi.) of .^ pike, the Iclt wmg on the Taylorville road, and 



the center coliunn towards Shepherdsville. (ien- 
eial R(>u^senll's divisiuii, seven thoiis.iiid strong, 
was with the left winp, or .I'"irst Army Corps. 
General iJuckncr was coininan(hng one of the 
divisions composing llrng.;'s army. The Federals 
encountered the Confederates October ylh at 
Chaplin Hills, near Pcrry\alle, where was foiight 
tile next day one of the most hardly contested 
and bloody battles ot the entire war, for the 
numbus engaged, it was tlii cmiy liattle that 
came near to Louisville. 'I'he close of the long 
day's fight let't the is-ue undecided; but. Genera! 
Crittenden reinforcing the Union army with his 
corps during the night, General Bragg deemed it 
prudent to withdraw, leaving his dead iinburicd 
on the field. General CutU followed at an easy 
pace, but did not tliink it expedient to I'orce an- 
other battle. The ConlVderate aruiy made its 
way composedly out of the State, suffering much, 
however, from unusually early and heavy snows 
ill late Oetober. 

November Sth, appeared to crowded houses at 
the Louisville Theatre the actor Jolin Wilkes 
Booth, two and a half years thereafter to achieve 
a terrible celebrity by the murder of Pit.sidcnt 
Lincoln and his own tragic death. 

November 25th, the property of the Louisville 
Courier was sold at auction, while its o\\ntr was 
within the lines of the Confederacy. It was 
bought by the proprietors of the Democrat for 

December 12th the newspapers of the city 
raised their subsciijition prices, on account of the 
increased cost of piinting paper. The Journal 
added $2 to the price of the daily and hi>.y cents 
for the weekly. 

Assessments: Real, $19,798,037; personal, 
$329,537; merchandise, $2,948,675; residuary, 
$1,905,030; total, $24,981,279 — a marked falling 
off from last year. Taxes consequently higher — 
city, 1.53 per cent.; for railroads .2^ per cent.; 
State, .30 per cent. 


The bank of Louisville was rechartered for 
thirty years from January ist. 

In February it is remarked that a veteran of 
the Revolutionary war is still living, Richard 
Springer, one hundred and four years old. He 

had loughl at Brandywine and Germanlown, and 
was wounded in tlij 1,'l'er engagement. 

h'ebruary iSth gold commanded sixty-(.)ne per 
cent, pjrcmiiim in Louisville, and Kentucky bank 
rotes ten per cent. They were at tne per cent. 
premium over United States currency in Cincin- 
nati, and brought a greater or less ad\'ance in 
many other jilaces. 

March 2d, the Hon. James Speed, State Sen- 
ator from Louisville, alone voted in the Senate 
against a resolution in a series of twelve adopted 
by tlie Legislature relating to national aftaiis — 
j tills one refusing "to accef>t the President's prop- 
I osition for emancipation, as contained in his 
I prciclamation of May 19, 1862." Hon. Perry S. 
[ Layton is the only member of the House of 
Representatives who declines to support this 
; resolution. 

March 6th, cotton brought eighty cents jier 
pouiid in Louisville. It was only four bales, 
part of a small crop raised in Simpson county. 
Nine b:iles, grown in Warren county, were sold 
in Louis\ille December 24th, at sixt)-nine cents 
a pound. 

.M.irch iSth and 19th, the L''nion Demociatic 

! State ConveniiiJii met in Louis\ille, with ninety- 
1 . ■' 

\ four, of one bundled and ten, counties repre- 

i sented, and nominated Hon. Joshua F. Bell for 
Governor, and Richard T. Jacob for Lieutenant- 
Governor. A very stcirniy time was had for an 
hour or more over the attempt of James A. 
Cravens, a former member of Congress from In- 
diana, to address the Convention. Mr. Bell 
afterwards declined, and Thomas E. Bramlette 
was [lut on the ticket in his stead. 

At the municipal election this spring, two 
L'nion candidates ran for Mayor, William Kaye 
and Thomas H. Crawford. The former was sup- 
ported by the Democrat, and was elected April 
5th, by 7 10 in.ajority ; the latter was backed by 
the Journal. 

April 17th the tobacco manufactories of the 
city closed their doors, throwing 3,000 employes 
out of work. May 27th, $1,600, oflered for 
premiums on tobacco, were awarded at the Ken- 
tucky State Exhibition of Tobacco in Louisville. 

May 15th, two car-loads of General Buckner's 
furniture are discovered at Elizabethtown, and 
conllscated by the Federal authorities. 

June 20th, a published call is made upon ex- 
Governor Charles A. Wickliffe by Judge William 



F. Bullock, John H. Harney, Naili,.nifi \\"olfe, 
William Kave, W' A. Hudlcy, Joshua I'. 
Bullitt, and othci proniinLMU cili;'!,'!-.^, to become 
a candidate for (lovernoi. He acrciits the call. 

In early July, CJencLil Morgan began his fa- 
mous raid throUL;ti Kenlueky and Southern Indi- 
ana into Ohi.'i, ulnrh i^ fully described in the 
i-ecoiid volume fif this History. His ajiproach 
lo th.e Ohio created alarm in Louisville, 
and the council ordeied the emollinent of all 
male citizens between tiie ages of eighteen and 
forty five years in tnililnry com|')anies for defense, 
under penalty of being sent North in case of re- 
fusal. About 5,000 citizens re]iorted lor duty, and 
were drilled and otherwise prei^ared as rapidly as 
possible for service. Morgan did not touch 
Louisville, however, but crossed the river at 
Brandenburg, many miles below. L)uring the 
raid, July iSth, while still in Indiana, about one 
hundred of Morgan's men made an attempt to 
cioss the river at Tuclve-mile Island, above 
Louisville, on a wood boat, but were prevented 
by the gunbo.U Moose, and many of tln_m were 
taken by a h' force under Oeneral Manson. 

July 1 2th, Northern Bank sluires brought j>ar 
value, and Bank of Louisville and Bank of Ken- 
tucky stock ninety six dollars |)er share, in sales at 

August 3d, at the election tor State otncers, Mr. 
Bramlette received 67,586 votes, against 17,344 
for cx-Governor Charles A. U'ickliffe. Only 
about 85,000 out of 145,000 votes in the State 
were polled. 

August 5th, Judge Ballard, of the United 
States District Court, in session here, sentenced 
Thomas C. Shacklett, who had been convicted 
of treason, to be imprisoned in tlie jail at Louis- 
ville ten years, to pay a fine of $10,000, and to 
suffer the emancipation of his slaves. 

October 16th, the guage of the Louisville & 
Lexington railroad was widened, by order of the 
Federal authorities, from four feet eight and one 
half inches to five feet, in order to unity it with 
the guage of other Southern roads, and thus 
facilitate the movement of troops and supplies 
in case of need. 

December 2d, four days after the escape of 
General Morgan and six of his othcers from the 
Ohio penitentiary, two of them. Captains Taylor 
and Sheldon, were retaken six miles south of 
Louisville, and returned to Columbus. Morgan 

and the rest make their escape good, and rejoin 
the Confederates. 

December 3otli, one of the last sales of slaves 
was held at' Louisville. One man, aged twenty- 
eight, brought $500; two women, aged, respec- 
tively, eighteen .md nineteen, brought $430 and 
$380, and a boy of elesen sold for $350. 

The valuation of the year was $22,725,126 on 
real estate; $281,454 personalty; $3,560,000 
merchandise; and $3,303,790 residuary. Taxes 
per $100: Cit\, $1.50; railroads, thirty-five 
cents; State, thirty cents. 


This eventful year was ushered in with "the 
cold New Year's," which is still bitteily remem- 
bered by the inhabitants of the Ohio \'alley, as 
well as by the people of nearly the whole coun- 
try. Mr. Colliris says of it; 

Tlie !5t day of yanuary. iS6.[, made its appearance under 
conditions identical \'.'itli tlio5e of Cold Friday. The mer- 
cury, on the afternoon of the last day of Uecentber, 1863, 
stood at 45". A drenching shower of rain fell at Louisville, 
lasting only a few minutes, folloued about nightfall by an 
almost blinding snowatorm and deep snow ; the storm grad- 
ually subsided as the cold wind increased, blowing a hiirri- from the west, and, on the mtirning of the 1st of Janu- 
ary, the \olunie of cold wafted in tlie uiudi had sent the 
mercury in the open air from 45° abu\e ^ero to more .ban 
20^ below. 

The Louisville banks, in general, declare a 
semiannual di\ idend of three per cent., tree of 
Government tax. 

January iSth, a number of sal(:)on3 were closed 
by the order of Colonel Bruce, provost marshal, 
for the offense of selling liquor to soldiers. 

February 7th, the new notes issued under the 
act of Congress providing for National banks 
make their appearance in Louisville. They are 
at first received only at a discount of one to two 
per cent., and are not bankable at all. 

Three notable conventions met in Louisville 
this year — the Border State Freedoin convention, 
attended by about one hundred delegates, from 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Missouri, 
presided over by Hon. William P.Thompson; 
May 25, the Union Democratic convention, 
which is addressed by Colonel Frank Wolford, 
Lieutenant Governor Richard T. Jacob, Rich- 
ard H. Hanson, and John B. Huston, and in- 
structs its delegates to the National Democratic 
convention at Chicago to vote for General Mc- 


Clellan as a nominee fcr rresideiit, and Gov- ! L'iftfcntli Kc-iiliirky infantry), \V. K. Thcuiins, 

e-rnor r.ramlctte for the ^■ice-^residencv; and the Alfied Harris, (i. \V. (i. l'a\nc, Joseiili K. Jin- 

same iLiy, an "Unconditional Union" Statecon- clianan, Thomas Jeffrie^, .M. J. Paul, John Hincs, 

vciition, addressed by Rev. Dr. R. L Rrecken- \ John Colgan, Henry Stickrod, Micliael Carroll, 

ridge, Judge Rufiis K. \Villiatrjs, Colonel ]1. H. \\'illiam l'"it.:hcnr\, I'.rwin Rell, A. J. ISrannon, 

Bristow, Curtis F. Rurnam, and I.ucicn Andcr- Thomas Milier, --\. J. .Mitthell, John Rudd, 

son, and unanmiously declaring for the renonii- , Cliarle.s J. Clarke, IS. C. Redford, John H. 'I'al- 

nation of .-Vbi.diam Lincoln to the Piesidency. ^ botl, \V. G. (Iray, 

I'ebruarv :?5th, Ntajor-;',eneral Thomas L. Crit- Aui;u5i i6lh the police of the city seize all 

lenden, son of the late Hon. John J, Crittenden,. I the male negroes attending a colored fair and 

whose conduct in the war has been the object of \ carry them off to the military piison. Some of 

investigation by a court of inquiry, is honorably them, according to Mr. Collins, ate afterwards 

acquitted of all charges and specii'ications alleged compelled to enlist ; others are put at work upon 

against him. 1 the fortifications, and still others are discharged. 

June 2d, another State tobacco fair is held in , August 25th, a telegraphic order from General 

Louisville. The sales of tobacco this day at 1 Rurbridge relieves the restrictions hitherto exisi- 

Spratt's warehouse are $82,474. One i>reminm ' ing in regard to trade, so far as they affect ordi- 

hogshead is sold for $4,630, at the rate of $4.90 I nary marketing, 

per pound, and others at $1.50 to $2 a pound. [ September 12th, the U'nited States 

July 1st, a disastious fire occurs on Main, be- ; for this State seizes for conilscation the property 

tween Eighth and Ninth streets, destroying $80,- ' and credits of J. C. Johnston, Robeit Ford, and 

000 worth of Government stores, and nearly as 1 others, who arc in tlie Confederate set vice, 

much other property. | December nth, the same officer seizes for the 

During the preceding month 2,151 Confeder- ' same purjjo^e the library and household effects 

ate prisoners were transferred I'lom the miHtary of the Re\. Dr. John H. Rice, pastor of a Pres- 

prisons at Louisville to similar jilaces of confine- byterian chinch in Louisville in 1S61, but now a 

ment in the Northern States. 1 chaplain in the Confederate army. 

In July, at Washington City, died another of ; October 19th, a Federal soldier having been 

the famous Louisville family of Taylors — Briga- ! killed by Sue Munday's guerrillas near Jefierson- 

dier-General James P. Taylor, Commissary- | town, in this county, tour Confederate prisoners. 

General of Subsistence, and brother of the late 1 one of them a captain, are taken from Louisville 

President Taylor. . I to the spot, and there executed by shooting. 

July )6th,after considerable trouble concerning ! The next month many of the political prison- 
the enlistment of colored men in Kentucky for ers are released at Louisville, u'lon taking tlie 
the United States army, two regiments of negroes oath of allegiance, giving bonds in sums from 
are organized in Louisville, and several more ' $1,000 to $10,000, that they will go North and 
are organizing at Camp Nelson, in Jessamine ■ remain during the rest of the war. 
county. It is estimated that liv this time twelve , Late in the fall, much excitement and some 
thousand negroes have been induced to leave the , inconvenience are caused by certain orders o: 
State and enlist elsewhere. : the L'nited States authorities in regard to Ken- 
On the 26th of July, the Hon. Gibson Mai- tucky hogs. For a time Mr. Vene P. Armstrong 
lory, State Senator from this county, is killed by ' was the only person in Jefferson and Rulhtt 
a Federal soldier late in the evening, five miles : counties authorized to buy hogs in large lots. 
from Louisville. The slayer was arrested, but , November 7th it was announced that the only 
released without further punishment. i pork-packing of the season about the Falls, ex- 

The latter part of July and eaiiy part of Au- ; cept a little in New Albany, would be on Gov- 

gust, a large number of citizens of Kentucky are ernment account; but so much trouble was made 

arrested by the Federal otticers. Mr. Collins about Federal interference in the business, 

gives the following as of Loviisviile or other parts '■ just twenty d.iys ai'terwards an order from General 

of the county : Joshua F. Rullitt, Chief Justice Rurbridge revoked all previous orders limiting or 

of the State, Dr. Henry F. Kalfus (ex-Major affecting the hog trade in the State. 



November ist, it was ascertained iliat 63,333 
hogstieads of tobacco had i)ccn sukl wiiliin the 
previous yoar-ari iiureascof ?6,6io hogsheads 
abo\c the sales of the year Ijcfore. 

Paul \\. Shipinaii, one of the editors of the 
journal, was arrested this month ; also Colonel 
Richard T. Jacob, LieutcnantGovcrnor of the 
State. The latter was hrouglit to Louisville un- 
der guard, and sent at once to t/ic South. Mr. 
Shii.'rnan was also on his w.\y to the Coiiieuerate 
lines, by military order, when a coiiiUer-order 
from the Secretary of \\"ar returned him to Louis- 

November 22d, Chief Jvistice Bullitt and other 
citizens arrested in August and started for the 
Confederate lines, but detained at Mempliis, re- 
turn to Louisville, by exchange for some citizens 
captured by the Confederate General I'orrest. 

November 24th, the e.\tension on ^L"lin street, 
of the street railroad from Portland, is opened 
by the City Railway Compan\', of which General 
Boyle is President, from Twelfth to Wenzel 

November 38th, the True Presbyteiian, still 
edited by Dr. Stuart Robinson, from his resi- 
dence in Canada, is again supiiressed by militaiy 

On the same day Mr. Prentice, of the Journal, 
left Washington City on his way to Richmond, 
provided with papers from Federal and Confed- 
erate authorities, to intervene in behalf of his 
son, Clarence J. Prentice, of the Confederate 
service, who was under arrest for killing another, 
though in self-defense. He returned January 2, 
having been successful in his mission. 

Assessments of 1864; Real estate, $30,540,- 
737; personal property, $368,575; merchandise, 
$5,381,225; residuary, $4,457,100; aggregating 
$40,747,637. Ta.x— city, 1.45 percent.; State. .3. 

The Old Ladies' Home, at the southeast 
corner of Seventh and Kentucky streets, was 
founded this year. A legacy of $1,000 was left 
it by Mr. John Stirewalt, and contributions were 
made it by the Dickens Club during 1S72, to the 
amount of $1,432. The next year, 1873, there 
were fifteen beneficiaries of the Home. 

The Gait House was burned early on the 

moining of January i ith, with great U'ss of jirop- 

erty and some loss of life, tv;o corpses being 

found aniong the ruins, ^^ost of the guests lost 

their baggage, to the estimated amount of$23r,- 

000. The loss on building and fiuniture was 

I $557,000, of wluch $23t,ooo was insured. The 

I building of the present (ialt House, at the north- 

I cast corner of Main and First, one square ea^t of 

j the old location, was shortly begun; but it was 

i not com;-.!ctccl and oiicned to the public until 

I ■ • 

Apiil 5, 1869. The hotel, ground, and entne 

furnishing cost $i,ioo,oco. 

Later in the month, lanuary 27th, the military 
prison here wjs similarly destroyed, with the loss 
of one prisoner burned and thirty others es- 
! The Hon. Jame"^ Guthrie, one of Louisville's 
favoiitc sons, was elected Ignited States Senator 
January irth. General Rousseau also receiving a- 
very handsome vote. 
I A Confederate soldier from Carter county, 
! condemned by a military commission as a 
I guerrilla, was executed at Louisville January 

' 20th. 

, tcbruary 7th the railroad from Louisville to 
i L.exington was authorized to increase its tariff by 
I ten per cent. Some additional regulations were 
' prescribed for the sale of tobacco in the city. 
I The Jefferson county circuit court was estab- 
I lished by law on the 24th of the same month. 
I March i an act was passed giving justices of the 
j peace in Jefferson county origmal common law 
; jurisdiction to the amount of $100 and equity 
1 jurisdiction to $30. 
i On the day last given, a dash was made into a 

part of I^ouisville by a small party of guerrillas, 
I who carried of^" two valuable horses owned by 
i Captain Julius Fosses, assistant inspector-general 

of cavalry. It was the only time during the war 

that the enemy penetrated the corporate limits 

of the city. 
'• March 6, Jeffersi^n, with other counties, and 

the city of Louisville, were authorized by the 

Legislature to raise a fund for bounties in aid of 
j enlistments and to procure substitutes. 

A great freshet in the Ohio was at its height 

on the 8th, submerging the basements of all the 

stoies along the river, from Third to Ninth 


Marcus Jerome Clarke, otherwise Sue Mun- 

day, a young leader ot a guerrilla band, was cap- 



tured March 12, in Brcckcnridge county, brought 
to Louisville, tried and convicted as a guerrilla, 
and liangcd here on the afternoon of the 15th. 

A great public meeting was held in Louisville 
April 1 8th, four days aftet the nnirdcr of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, to express the sense of the city 
upon his death. Governor Bramlette presided, 
and, with Senatoi Guthrie, addressed the assem- 
bly. Resolutions in honor to the memory of 
the President were passed; the next'day was ob- 
served as one of sorrow, humiliation, and prayer; 
and a funeral procession of three miles" length 
was formed and moved sadly through the prin- 
cipal streets. 

June 2d, liberal appropriations were made by 
the Legislature for the benefit of the American 
Printing House for the Blind, at Louisville. 

June 3d, Governor Bramlette removed Chief 
Justice Josl'iua F. Bullitt from oltice, and de- 
clares his seat vacant, oii account of his long 
absence from the State and residence in Canada. 

The F'irst Presbyterian church was taken June 
15th for a military hos]jital. 

General Palmer, now commanding at Louis- 
ville, oidered the arrest, on the night of July 
8th, of all dealers of faro or keepers of faro- 
banks. Every bank of the kind in the city was 
closed, and its implements seized. They had 
been prolific of loss to the ofticers and soldiers 
stationed at or passing through the city. 

The income-tax levied by the General Govern- 
ment was collected in July from 2,336 citizens of 
Louisville, of whom 1 paid over $75,000, 2 over 
$70,000, 2 over $60,000, 2 over $50,000, 10 
over $40,000, 21 over $30,000, 29 over $20,000, 
33 over $15,000, 76 over $10,000, 82 over 
$5,000, 24S over $3,000, 505 over $1,000, and 
$1,236 under $1,000; making an airgregate of 
$7,29.6,390 of income in a single year. 

In the autumn of this many negroes still 
held as slaves were given passes by the military 
authorities to leave the State. For a short time 
the passes were not honored on the ferry-boats 
to Jeffersonville; but a guard was finally 
stationed to compel their recognition. On the 
1st of November General Palmer was indicted 
by the grand jury of Louisville for violation of 
the law prohibiting the enticement of slaves from 
the State, and held to answer in the sum of $500. 
The indictment was dismissed in the Jefferson 
Circuit Court December Sth, Judge Johnston 

holding that, before the indictment, the requisite 
number of States had adopted the Thirteenth 
Amendment to the United States Constitution, 
abolishing slavery; therefore all criminal and 
penal laws of Kentucky relating to slaveiy are 
of no efieci. 

Statistics of valuation: Realty, $36,012,434; 
personalty, $503,815; merchandise, $9,183,875; 
residuary, $0,007,100 ; total, $51,707,224. Tax- 
ation on each $100 — city, $1.45; Stale, 4oe, 
The increase of valuation, over 1S64, is neaily 
$1 1,000,000. 

The Falls City Tobacco Bank was incorporated 
this year. 


January 2d, Mr. Philij) Tomppert, who had 
been elected Mayor by the Democrats at the 
preceding April election, was removed from oftice 
by vote of the City Council, and James S. Lith- 
grow unanimously promoted to hi^ place. 

A murder wrapped in mystery occurs January 
9th, when the Rev. Thomas J. Fisher, a noted 
Baptist ie\i\a!ist for thirty years or more, is de- 
prived of lite by an unknown assassin. 

A measure was bel'ore the Legislature this 
month to charter a bank in Louisville, to be 
managed altogether by colored men and be called 
the Grant Bank. It passed the Senate by a ma- 
jority of more than three to one, but failed in 
the lower House. The blacks suffer terribly 
during a visitation of small-pox the latter part of 
the month. 

January 27th, Mr. John H. Harney, a well- 
known Louisville journalist, was elected by the 
Legislrture Public Printer for the State. 

In February a notorious guerrilla, bearing the 
sobriquet of "One arm Berry,'' was tried by mili- 
tary commissiiin ■ in this city, and convicted of 
eleven murders. He was sentenced to be hanged 
March 3; but before that time arrived General 
Palmer commuted the penalty to imprisonment 
tor ten years in the penitentiary at Albany. 

February r3th the proposition to remove the 
seat of CiovernmeiU of the State from Frankfort 
again came up, and committees were appointed 
by both branches of the Legislature to rccei\e 
proposals for tlie removal t'rom Louibviile and 
any other [jiaccs that might enter into competi- 
tion for tlie ca[utal. 



On Wasiiint^'Lon'? binluiay a laige popular 
niceling was held, in whiih tncn of all parties 
shared, to discuss the policy of President An- 
dicw Johnson, tlicn much in debate throughout 
the country. Ex-Governor Jiranilette served as 
chairman, and addressed the assemblage at some 
length. It was resolved thnt tlic measures of 
Frcsidcnl Johnson for the pacification of the 
South bhordd be approved. 

A M-tcian c-diioi auu pjuli-.hei died in Louis- 
ville March 25th — Mr. J'homas Smith, uho was 
in charge of a newspaper in Lexington more than 
Haifa century before. His firit joiirnal was the 
old Kentucky Gazette, and he then was con- 
nected witli the Rej'Oiter. 

On the 5th of April Dr. Stuart Robinson le- 
turned from Canada and resumed his p.istorate 
of the Second Presbyterian church. 

On the 23d Mr. Isham Henderson, of the 
Louisville Journal, was arrested Li} tlie niilitaiy 
and taken to Nashville for trial, whtie he is re- 
leased under bor-.ds to apj'Car. C'on>idtrable 
conflict of authority between the ci\il and mili- 
tary tribunals grew out of tlie case. 

On the 26th eleven distilleiies were closed up 
in the Louisville district, for neglect to observe 
the Federal revenue laws. 

The Democratic State Convention again met 
in Louisville May ist. Judge Alvin Duvall was 
nominated for Cleik of the Court of Appeals. 
On the 30th the Union State Convention was 
held here, and Mr. R. R. Stilling nominated for 
the same office. He declined to make the can- 
vass, and General Edward H. Hobson was nomi- 
nated, but defeated at the polls. There was 
much ill-feeling at this election, and not less 
than twenty men were killed at election fights in 
different parts of the State. 

Captain Thomas Joyes, who was widely 
reputed to have been the first white male child 
born in Louisville, died here May 4, aged 
seventy-seven years. Fie was born in 17S9. 

May 31st, a National 'I'obacco Fair was held 
in Louisville, with very liberal premiums, a large 
attendance, and a fine exhibit. The premium 
hogsheads were sold at jirices varying I'rom $5.50 
to $ig per hundred weight. 

A somewhat notable decision was rendered 
July 9th by Judge [ames P. Harbesvn, of tlie 
City Court. According to Mr. Collins, he 
decides the civil rights bill incompatible vvith 

State laws in some of its provisions, and so far 

' inoperative in Kentucky, and refuses to admit 
negro testimony in the case of Ryan, charged 
with a deadly assault upon a negro; his is a 
Kentucky court, and Kentucky statutes must 
rule. Fie regrets that the Kentucky Legislatuie 
did not pass an act giving free negroes the right 
to testify in such cases, and leave the credibility 

i of their statements to the judges and jurors. 

The Hon. (ieoige Alfred Caldwell, a very cm- 

j inent lawyer, and meinber of Congress in 1S43- 
45 and 1 84 9-5 I, died suddenly at Louisville, of 

; rheumatism of the heart, September 17. 

j October 5, in Breckenridge county, died Mr. 

I Fled A. Kaye, Mayor of Louisville for sixteen 
years. He was a native of the place, born in 

; the first brick house ever built here. 

1 November 24, Mr. I^rentice was the recijiient 

1 of an elegant banquet at the hands of hi.-> asso- 
ciates and employes of the office, it being the 
thirty-sixth anniversary of his editorial connec- 
tion witii the JournLd. 

\ December 8, the city is sued by Mr. George 

{ Bnimback, for $25,000 damages on account of 

I the loss of his wife and daughter by cholera dur- 
ing the preceding summer. He alleges that the 
careless grading of Tenth street caused the over- 

1 flow of water into neighboring yards, and induced 

j the disease. 

Assessments of the year: Real estate, $45,- 
194,327; personalty, $612,005; merchandise, 
$9,998,225; residuary, $7,129,097; total, $62,- 
933,654. Taxes, city, 1.59 per cent ; State, 
4-10 of one per cent. 

: There were in the city this year 116 fires in 

all. Total of losses, $408,055; insured, $290,- 
, 23°- 

' 1867. 

January 26th the city made a subscription, by 
the vote of her citizens 1,101 to 69S, of $1,000,- 
000 to complete the extension of the Lebanon 
branch of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad to 
Knoxville, 'Fenne^see. 

Tlie JelTerson County Court of Common 
Pleas was established by the Legislature February 

The tlond of 1S67 did considerable mischief. 
February 2 2d it reached the height of thirty- 
three and one-hilf feet above low water above 



the Falls and fifty-six and onc-li.ilf below. TV.e 
corresponding figures March islh were thirty- 
seven and sixty, the same as those of the freshet 
ten years before. 

On the I jth ot this month votes were taken 
in the Legislature upon the various i,ropo>>:ils to 
remove the State capital. Louisville, among 
other plae.;,, was mo\ed and rejected, and 
the whole matter was finally laid upon the 
table. March i, however, a bill lor submitting 
to an election by the people the question of re- '■ 
moving the capital to Louisville wa-. pas-ed in j 
the House by 4: to 37 votes ; but the next day 
the Speaker decided that the measure had failed , 
for want of a constitutional majority. The next 
year the Legislature formally resolved that it was 
inexpedient to remove the capital ; and yet a few 
weeks afterwards, passed another resolution in- 
viting new proposals from cities and towns of the 
State for the removal. 

Upon the new apportionment of the State by 
the Legislature March :d, Louisville given 
eight Representatives and two State Senators. 

^The new tlieatre was opened in Louisville 
March 15th, .\ poetical address, from the pen 
of George H. Prentice, was recited by Miss Lar- 
gon, one of the actresses. 

April nth, the Union Democratic ('-Conser- 
vative Union ") State Convention met in the city, 
and nominated Aaron Harding for Governor and 
Judge William B. Kinkead for Lieutenant-Gov- 

Colonel Theodore O'Hara, the well-known 
journalist of Louisville and Frankfort, and au- 
thor of the Bivouac of the Dead, died June 
loth, in Alabama. lulv 12th, at Houston, 
Te.xas, died Dr. Robert J. Breckenridge, Jr., 
who lived most of his years in Louisville, and 
was during the war Chiet Medical Director of 
the Confederate Army of Virginia, serving on 
General Lee's staff. 

On the 30th of May the Clay statue jn the 
Court-house was unveiTed. The poem b"y Mr. 
Prentice, written for this occasion, and sung by 
a choir of one hundred voices, is as follows : 

H.iil! true and ^lorious semblance, h,^ill 

Of liim. the nobleit of our 
We seem, at lifung of ihy \eil. 

To see ag.iin his living f,"icel — 
Totiear tlie stirring words once more, 

That like the storm-gods' radcnce pe.Ued 
With mightier power from shore to shore 

Than thunders of the b.ut!e-Iield. 

Lo! that calm, high, majestic look, 

That binds our gaze ^% by a spell- 
It is the same that erstwhile shook 

The traitors on whose souls it fell! 
Oh! that he were again in life!— 

To wave, as once, his wand of power, 
.And sr liter tlie storms of strife 

' o'er onr country darkly lower! 

.Again, ai;ain, ami yet again. 

He rolled back Passion's r.-.^ring tide, 
Wlun the fierce souls of hostile men 

Kach other's wildest wrath dri'icd- 
Alas! nl,i^! dark storms at length 

Sweep o'er our half-wrecked ship of stale, 
And there seem none with will and strength 

To save her from her aw ful fate! 
But tliou, majestic image, thou 

Wilt in thy lofty place abide. 
And many a manly heart will bow 

While t'^zing on a nation's pride; 
And, while his hallowed ashes he 

Afar beneath old Ashland's sod. 
Our gaze at thee should sanctify 

Our hearts lo country and to God. 

We h'ok on thee, we look on thee. 

Proud statue, glorious and sublime, 
And years as if by magic flee , 

And leave us in his grand old lime! 
Oh, ho was born to bless our race 

As ages after ages roil! 
We see ihe im.agc of hi- face — 

E.\rlh lias no image of his soal! 

Proud statue! if the nation's life. 

For which he toiled through all his years. 
Must vanish in our wicked strife. 

And leave but groans and blood and tears-- 
If all to anarchy be given. 

And ruin all our land assail. 
He'll turn away his eyes in Heaven, 

And o'er thee we will cast thy veil! 

August I St, one of the most notable events in 
the history of the city occurred in the laying of 
the corner-stone of the great railway bridge 
across the Falls. This time the work was de- 
stined to go steadily forward to completion. 

The Daily Journal closed its thirty-seventh year 
November 2Sth. Says Mr. Collins: "The vet- 
eran editor, George D. Prentice, commemorates 
the anniversary in an article of singular beauty 
and power." 

December 2d, the Hon. John J. Bunch, of 
Louisville, was elected Speaker of the Kentucky 
House of Representatives, upon its organization 
for the session, by a nearly unanimous vote. 

On Christmas Day, near Louisville, died Major 

Aris Throckmorton, a veteran of the War of 1S12, 

j landlord of the Lower lUue Lick Springs hotel 

I many yeats before, and for twenty years in charge 



of the OalL Huusc. He is int-ntioned, it will be 
reniembereil, by at least one ot' the tra\eleis ol' 
that period, in a published book. Mr. Collins 
remarks in his annals: "His social qualities were 
remarkable, and the greatest men of Ketitutky 
and the West prized his company and fiiendslii[)." 
Assessment valuation (or 1S67; Real estate, 
$47,927,068; personal, $65 ',,015;, 
$9,258,749; residuary, $5,5.,<:),ioo; total, $63,- 
369,832. Taxation, $1.61 pel $100 for city pur- 
poses, thirty-five cents for railroads, and forty 
cents for the State. 


On the Sih of January (battle of New Orleans 
day) the city council passed a resolution asking 
the Senators and Representatives m Congress 
from Kentucky to insist upon some assurance 
from the General Government that General John 
C. Breckinridge "will be free to return home at 
any time, unmolested by any agent of tlie Fed- 
eral Government m resuming the pursuits of civil 
life," etc. 

On the 26th of the s.ame month, a; his Innie 
near Louisville, Mr. John II. Harney departed 
this life. He had been editor of the Democrat 
for twenty-four years, and was aged sixty-live 
years — "a cultivated and genial gentleman, and 
a graceful, vigorous, and spirited writer'' [Collins]. 
The next day Judge .Andrew Monroe, of the city, 
strangely disappeared, and nothing more was 
heaid of him until four months afterwards, when 
his body was found floating in the canal. He is 
believed to have been accidentally drowned. 

F'ebruary loih, Hon. James Guthrie resigned 
his seat in the United States Senate, from con- 
tinued illness and physical inability to perform 
his duties. Hon. Thomas C. McCreery was 
elected to the vacant seat. 

July 2 7ih, the Union State Convention, in 
session at Frankfort, declared in favor of the 
Hon. James Speed, of Louisville, as a candidate 
for the Republican nomination to the office of 
Vice-President of the country. 

A charter was granted in March to the Ken- 
tucky Cotton-mill at Louisville; also, about the 
same time, others to the Falls City Cotton-miil 
Comp.iny and the Louisville Cotton-mill Com- 
pany. None of these enterprises were pushed 
to final success. 

.'Vmong the taxes on incomes collected in 
.•\pril b) the Federal authorities, are those from 
eight leading citi<;ens in Louisville, who report 
incomes o\er' $20,000 each. 'I'hey are thus 
mentioned by Mr. Collins: Dr. John Lull, 
$105,625; Renjamin 1". .A.very, .$62,3.^4; l^b- 
enezer Bustard, $46,744; .Thomas T. Shreve, 
$36,121; Richard Bmge, $30,859; .Michael 
Kean, $28,616; William R. Belknap,. $26,1 27 ; 
Samuel S. Nicholas, $20,162. 

May 9th, the people of the city voted in favor 
of a subscriiJtion of $1,000,000 to the capital 
stock of the Elizabethtown & Paducah Railroad. 
On the 18th the State Society of Fenians was 
in session in Louisville, with a large attendance 
and development of much interest. 

About this time the statement is published 
that three thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
one F'ederal soldiers lie buried in the ceme- 
: teries at Louisville. 

j June ist General Simon B. Buckner, late of 
I the Confcdeiate army, goes on duty as editor of 
j the Couiier. On the sixth, Alexander C. Bullitt, 
I a journalist of some note in Neu- Orleans and 
! Washington Cit;', died at Louisville, aged sixty 
! years. 

The Very Rev. Benjamin J. Spalding, ^'icar- 
I General of the Catholic diocese of Louisville for 
j many years, died here August 4th, aged fifty six, 
j from injuries received by fire, which caught his 
' mosquito-bar and then his bed-clothes, while he 
; was sleeping. He had held a number of eminent 
I and res])on5ible positions in the church. 
! A singular but harmless monomaniac known 
I as " Live forever Jones'' died in this city Sep- 
, tember 14th, at the age of seventy. Says Collins: 
I He \%.'is a native of Henderson county, and for fifty ye.irs 
' wandered about, prcactiing ttie doctrine ttiat bv prayer and 
fisting a man wouid live.alwavs. He m.ide frequent jour- 
; neys to Washington City, tieing an aspirant for every liigh 
otVice. State and Federal. 

i A lamentable suicide occurred November 9th, 
by which General Henry E. Read lost his life. 
; He was a prominent lawyer and political parti- 
i san; had been a soldier in the .Mexican and civil 
j wars, and a member of the Provisional Govern- 
ment of Kentucky and of the Confederate Con- 
gress ; and closed his eventful career at the early 
age of forty-four. 

On the night of December 4th, at Rail's I.and- 
in^;, above Madison, Indiana, a terrible collision 
occurred between the mail-steamers United 


States and America, wliiih reiuked in the total 
loss of the former. Among the dead of this 
disaster was the oldest merchant of Louisville 
living to that time —Mr. William ■ Garvin, an 
Irish citi/en uho can:e to tlie place in 1S27, and I 
for forty-one coniinuous was a wholesale 
dry-gonds merchant on Main street. He was | 
first of the firm of Ciianilicrs & Garvin, then of | 
Carson, Gnrvin iv Ciehy, of William Garvin & | 
Company, and finally, (iarvin, Bell & Company, i 
He was a man of great business ability, and his ; 
death was widely lamented. ! 

On the 23d of December, upon his iilanta- ! 
tion near (Jreenville, Mississippi, suddenly de- I 
ceased, of disease of tlie heart, eN-Go\einor 
Charles S. Morehead. He was a native of Nel- 
son county, but remosed to Louisville m 1S59, 
to practice law, and was received with a public ■ 
welcome. He left the city during the s\ar, and 
after it closed resided upon his plantation. He 
had been a Scate legislator and Representative in 
Congress, Attorney-Geneial and Governor of | 
the State, and three times Speaker of the Htiuse j 
in the State Legislature. ; 

The catalogue of notable deaths in l,ouisvil!e , 
this year closed by the demise, December Sth, I 
of " .\unt Katie Caro," a colored woman, at the 
great age of one bundled and eight. ! 

On the Sth of November, the first number of i 
the consolidated Courier, Democrat, and Journal ■ 
newspapers is issued, under the title of The ■ 
Louisville Courier-Journal. Waller N. Halde- ! 
man, of the late Courier, is made president of 
the new company, and becomes Business Man- 
ager. The venerable Prentice is retained on the 
editorial staff; but Mr. Henry \\'at!erbon, who 
has been an attache for a time, is made Mana- ' 
ging F.ditor. This famous journalist was born ; 
in Washington, Disiiict of Columbia. Februarv 
16, 1840. son of Hon. Harvey Watter^on, of 
Tennessee, himself a journalist, and also a mem- 
ber of Congress from that State. He was liber- 
ally educated, saw some journalistic and military 
service inside the Confederate lines during the 
war, went to Europe in 1866, and upon his re- 
turn the next year was invited to a plice upon 
the staff of the Journal, of which he had charge 
after the spring of 1.^68. He is now regarded 
as the ablest and most influential of Southern 
editors. ; 

Assessments in 1S6S : Realty, $49,;i2,579; 

liersonalty, $622,772 ; nierchandisej $8,8^6,125 ; 
residuaiy, .$4,661,600 ; total, $63,323,076. Taxes 
- ciiy, 1,98 per cent.; State, 3-10 of i per cent. 
The Mechanics' Co operative and Building 
Association of Ljuisville was organized this year. 
Its opicrations are s,nid to have been attended 
wilh many benehcial and helpful results. 



At the opening of this year, the Institution for 
th.e I'llind had forty-eight pupils from Kentucky, 
two fioiii Indiana, and one from .Mabania. 

January 30 a number of the most jHoniinent 
citizens of Louisville, anong them ex-Judges 
Samuel S. Nichcilas, Henry J. Stites, Joshua F. 
BuUiit, William S. Bodley, and Thomas E. Bram- 
lette. Judge P. B. Muir, and Isaac Caldwell, of 
Louisville, inemoriali/e the Legislature in favor 
of negro testimony and other liberal laws toward 
the colored people. The next month, however, 
a resolution introduced in the lower house in 
favor of such testimony in the courts goes to 
the table. 

The Louisville Gas company was rechartered 
about this time, the old charter having expired 
on the ist of January. A writer of 1S73 says: 

The new company incorporated wilh a capital of 
$1,500,000. di\ided into 30.000 shares of $50 each. The city 
is tlie ownei of 12.S07 shares, amounting to S640.3W. The 
dividends arising from this stock arc applied to paying for 
the public lights of tlie city, and the excess is invested liy 
the directors of the gas company as trustees, with the con- 
currence and advice of the geneial council, and is to be held 
as a jiermanent trust during the continuance of the charter. 
This I'und now amounts to about $120,000, and is mvesled 
principally in the bonds of the city. 

By the requirements of the charter the company is bound 
to extend its main pipes whenever the public and private 
lights imraediatel>; arising from said extension will pay seven 
per cent profit on the cost thereof; and for this, or other nec- 
essary purposes, new stock may be issued by the company, 
to the extent of the capital stock — the sales of which are to 
be made at public auction, after ten days' notice in the city 

The company is under the control of a board of directors, 
nine m number, four elected on the part of the city by the 
general council, and five by the private stockholders. They 
are required to own stock to the amount of twenty shares 
each, and are elected each year. 

General Rousseau, Louisville's best known 
soldier in the late war, died on the 7rh of Janu- 
ary. We have the following sketch of his life 
from Mr. Collins's History: 

General Lovell H. Rousseau, a lawyer, soldier, and politi- 



caI Ic.ider, w.i^ born ill I.iicoln county. Kfiuucky, Auyust, 
i8iS, (hfii in NV'w CiiU-.ins, I.oiiislan;i. liiiui.iry 7. iS'^y. His 
limited cdiRMtion and the ile.Uli of lii^ fatlier in 1S33, leaving 
a large family in straightened circunistanccs, made nianua' 
labor a necessity, and while empluyed in breaking rock on 
the Lexington and Lancastoi; turnpike, he mastered the 
French Imguage. When of age he removed to the \icinity 
of Louisville and began the .«ludy of law; he was entirely 
without instruction, and liad no conversation on the suLject 
jjieviuus to his e.xamination for license. In rS_;ohe removed 
to Bloumficid, Indiana, was .uliuitted to the in iS4i' 
and soon attained considerable Muie-s: was a of tiie 
Indiana Legislature in 1844-45. 

In 1846, he raised a company for tlie Mexican war, and 
took a prominent part in the I>jale of Huena \'ista. liis com- 
pany losing fourteen out of fifty-one men. He was elected to 
the Indiana Senate, four days after his return froni Mexico; 
removed to Louisville in 1S49, before the expiration of his 
term, but not being permitted by his constituents to resign, 
served them for one year while living out of the State. He 
immediately took a prominent ]tosition at the Louisville 
bar, his forte, like that of nio.^t law) ers who became promi- 
nent as successful commanders during the late war, being 
with the jury and in the nian.igenient of dil'ticult eases during 
the trial. He began recruiting for the United States army 
early in '61, but was obliged to establish his camp in Indiana; 
participated in most of the principal engagements in Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Alal>ania, and Georgia; was early made a 
brigadier-.i;eiK-iaI; for gaU.uit services at Perryville won a's commission. He served with distinction in 
the baltes of Shiloh. Stone River, and Chickamauga, and 
was commandant of the district of Northern .Alabama, and 
afterwards of Tennessee. In r865 he was elected as a L'nion 
man to the L'nited States House of Representatives, where 
he sided with the Democrats. In iS'jy, a brigadier-generai 
in the regular armv, he was sent to take possession, in the 
name of the L'nited States, of .Alaska, and upon his return 
was appointed to the command of the Gulf Department. 
General Rousseau was a man of commanding figure and ex- 
traordinary personal presence, and seems to have been a bet- 
ter soldier than administrati\e officer or legislator. 

The Hon. James Guthrie died here March 13, 
1869, aged seventy-si.x years. A full biographi- 
cal sketch of him will appear hereafter. 

The deaths of both these distii:;guished sons 
of Kentucky were fitly noticed soon aiter in res- 
olutions by the Le<;isLiture of the State. 

On the 1 8th of April the Eouisville Short Line 
railroad, which had been for some years in prog- 
ress, was completed to Covington. Its total cost, 
including equipment, was $3,933,401. The road 
was not fully opened for business, however, un- 
til Tune 28th. 

May 20th was observed as a decoration day 
of Confederate soldiers' graves in Louisville and 
other cities of the State. 

On the 14th ot July a large convention of 
colored men, rcpre.senting nearly everv county in 
Kentucky, was held in l,oui--ville, to take into 
consideration the educational interests of their 

race. The State Teacherr,' Association met in 
the city August 10-1 jlh. 

Colonel I.. A. Whitely, formerly associate ed- 
itor of the Journal, and then connected with a 
number of l-'astern papers, died in War,hington 
City, July 20th. 

The Louisville iv Frankfort railroad was con- 
solidated, September iith, with the Frankfort & 
Lexington road, under the name of the Louis- 
ville, Cincinnati, c^ Lexington railroad. 

Mrs. Lucy Porter, daugliter of ex-Governor 
Morehead, and widow of Judge Bruce Porter, 
of Covington, was appointed Postmistress at 
Louisville, September 25th. 

A great commercial convention was held in 
Louisville October 13th, presided over by ex- 
President Fillmore. Five hundred and twenty 
delegates, from twenty-nine States, were present. 

November 16th, there being already much 
suffering among the poor from the inclemency 
of the weather, the City Council makes an ap- 
propriation sufncient to distribute among them 
twenty thousand bushels of coal. 

November 27th, Judge Samuel S. Nii.holas 
died at Louisville, aged seventy-three. '\\'e are 
again indebted to the indefatigable Collins for a 
brief notice: 

Samuel Smith Nicholas, a son of Colonel George Nicholas, 
after whom Nicholas county was named, was bom in Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, in 1796, and died in Louisville in No- 
vember, 1809. aged seventy-three years. He studied law in 
Lrankfort with Chancellor George .M. liibb; removed to 
Louisville, where he rose rapidly to a high position in his 
profession, and, on December 23, 1831, was commissioned a 
judge of the Court of .Appeals — the highest in the Slate. 
Afterwards he served one term in the Legislature, and was 
for years chancellor of the Louia%ilIe Chancery Court. He 
was one of the commissioners to revise the statute laws of 
Kentucky, in 1850, and w rote a number of articles on con- 
stitutional law and State polity. He was one of the most 
distinguished lawyers of. his day. 

The State House of Reform was located at 
Anchorage, east of Louisville, December 7th. 

December i6th, Judge Edwin pjryant, of 
Louisville, committed suicide, leaving a large 
property. He was a native of Massachusetts, but 
came to Kentucky while still young, founding 
the Lexington Intelligencer, was afterwards an 
editor of the Observer and Reporter, in that 
place, and wa-, editor of the Louisville Daily 
Dime till 1S47. 

The Daily Commercial issued its first number 
December 20th, and has since been steadily 



The Orphans' Home, under the ixilronage of i 
the Baptists, was established here this year. A j 
building was erected to arcojiiinodate ei,L;hiy in- ' 
mates, and handsomely furnished. Ily Xuvem- | 
her, 1S71, seventy-six i>r|)hans had Ixen received, 
and forty-six were then in the asylum. It was 1 
generously supported b)- the denomination, one 
Baptist lady giving il a l.iijie lot and $5,000; two 
other ladies $3,500 each, and oihets $10,000 

Statistics of assessment : Real enate, $53,- 
52 t, 300; personal property, $739,606; merchan- 
dise, $9,023,195; total, $63,284,101. Taxation 
— for municipal purposes, 1.89 per cent.; railroad 
subscriptions, .15; and State tax, .3. 


1870— Population— .Assessments-- Imports— M.-itter3 
--Death of George D. Prentice and other Journ.^!.^ts—Tlie 
Rest of tlie Year— Dr. Christoplier C. Graliain. 1871— 
The Public (Polytechnic) Library of Kentucky I-ounded— 
Fortunatus Cosby, Jr. — His Poem at tlie Dedication of 
Cave Hill Cemetery— Death of John D. Coliuesnil- Of 
Chief Justice Thomas .■\. Marshall— General Jeremiah T. 
Boyle— General Robert Anderson- Other Events of the 
Year — Statistics— Comp.arative View of Business in 1819, 
1844, and 1S71— Bonded Debt of the City— Bills of Mor- 
tality. 1872— Statistics. Etc.— Tlie Boone Bridge Com- 
pany — Death of Generals Humphrey Marshall and John 
C. McFVrran— E.tposition Building Dedicated— .\n Inter- 
esting Incident — The Atwood Forgeries— Death of Virgil 
McKnight and the Rev. Henrv .\danis. and Rev. Amasa 
Converse, D. D.— Church of tlie Merciful Saviour Opened 
—Death of Thomas VV. Kilcy, Esq. 1S73— Buildings 
Built— Manufacturing— .\ssessments—Fire Department — 
The New City Hall— The Female High School Opened— 
Health of the City— Other Events of the Year— Death of 
Colonel Cary H. Fry, Hon. Edgar Needham, Judge New- 
man, Professor George VV. Bayliss, and e.\-Ma>or Tomp- 
pert— Colored High School Dedicated— Macai;leysrhe.\tre 
Opened. 1874— Xames on the Directory— The Masonic 
Widows' and Orphans' Home— Saints Mary and El.z.ibeth 
Ho5pital— The New .Mmsliouse— Minor Events— Death of 
the Rev. Father Abell, Elislia Applegate, and D. S. Bene- 
dict. 1S75— Summary of Events. 1876— Record of the Year. 1877— Its Story in Epitome. 1878— Its 
Local Doings. 1879— H.ips and Mishaps. 
1870 — P0PUI..\T10N, ETC. 

Louisville now contained, by the Federal cen- 
sus, 100,753 inhabitants. It had grown to tiiis 
from 68,033 in ten years — an increase oC 3,272 
per year, or 32,720 in the decade, a growth of 

more than .iS per cent. This growth had been 
somewhat at the expense of the comUy at large, 
whieh now had but iS,2oo inliabitants ouside of 
the city, while in iSOo it had 21,371. The 
county as a wlieile had grown 29,549 iri the de- 
cade, or 2,955 P'-f y^^'^ (a 1'^''' cent.), and now 
had I 18,953 people. The State had grown dur- 
ing the war-years, and tlie depressing years that 
followed, but 165,427, or 14^'i [icr cent. It had 
now 1,321,011, of whom 142,720 were of im- 
mediate f ireign descent. In this county 99,806 
were whiles and 19,146 were free coloied, the 
latter class, by the operation of war and the 
Fifteenth .Xmendment to the Federal Cxmstitu- 
tion, having increased nearly tenfold. The 
colored population of the State had decreased 
13,957, or six per cent. 

The assessment of 1870 v,-as -on real estate, 
$55,269,437; personal, $619,060 ; merchandise, 
$8,883,065 ; residuary, $6,085,150; total, $70,- 
806,712, neatly double that of 1S60, and about 
6^2 millions mure than in 1S67. The tax was — 
for the city, $2.22 per $100; for railroads, 23 
cents ; foi the State, 45 cents. 

The total imports at Louisville, by rail and 
river, for the year ending March, 1S70, were 
$250,176,000; total exports, $1 74,320,730 ; coal 
received, bushels, 25,600,000; lumber received, 
feet, 13,275,876; value manufactured products, 
$82,000,000 ; capital invested in manufactures, 
$31,650,000. The increase in the next three 
years svas iS to 20 percent. 

GENER.JlI, m.\tteks. 

On the 2d of Jaiiuar^ occurred the heaviest 
snowfall ever known in Louisville or elsewhere 
in Kentucky. It reached three to four feet deep 
in sonie parts of the State. 

January 7th, the Legislature votes a rescMution 
calling on Congress to order payment for biidges 
burnt on the Bardstown and Louisville turnpike, 
by order of General XeLon, when the Confeder- 
ate army was moving toward Louisville in the 
tall of 1S62. 

Mr. George H. Prentice, editor of the Courier- 
Journal, died January 2ibt. His remains were 
buried with \Lisonic honors in the Cave Hill 
cemetery, at Louis\i!le. His statue in marble, 
life-si-'.e, adorns the new Courier-Journal build- 
ing at the corner of Green and Fourth streets. 
Hib biogiaphv, with a choice selection of his 
poems, has been published. 



Anollirr journnlibt uf some note died sud- 
denly F'ehruary 1 7th— Mi. Charles D. Kiik, of 
the Daily Sun, who had a wide ie[iutatinii as a 
brilliant correspond-ent under the signature "See 
He Kay." 

Still another fuinier Loiiisville editor departed 
tins life' this year -Mr. William K. Hu;;hes, long 
a |)roprietor of the Heinoerat, who died Septem- 
ber !;>,'], in .\rkansas. 

February iStli, the new city hospital was 
ojiened, and the fir?t ]"jas;enger train was laken 
over the new bridije across the Fall-;. The 
members of the Legislature and most of the State 
officers participated in the celebiations of the 
d.iy, and were entertained in the evening by a 
dinner at the Gait Linuse. 

Match rilh, the Legi-iluure appropriated 
$10,000 for improvements at the Filind Institu- 
tion, and increased the annual grant for its sup- 
port from $6,000 to $10,000. The next day, a 
new law was passed lor the regulation of the 
ins|)ection and selling of tnb.icco in Louisville-. 

The lioard of CoulIni^sioncrs of Public 
Charities for the city was ir.stituted .-Niiril iSth. 

On the 13111 of October a gieat meeting of 
citizens was held in the Court house, to express 
their s)-mi)athies in view of the recent death of 
General R. E. Lee. .\ beautiful book, "In 
Menioriam," was made of the proceedings, and 
published. At a similar meeting, held October 
15th in ^^'eisige^ Hall, the Roard of Trade sus- 
pended Its Session to attend the services in a 

Public schools for colored children were 
opened on the 1st of the same month, in the 
Colored Methodist church on Green street, and j 
the Colored Baptist church on F'lfth street. .-V 
normal school was also instituted by the ISoard I 
on Main street, between Jackson and Hancock. ' 
Fuller notice of these, and the reasons tor them, I 
will be made in our chapter on Education. 

DI^. C. C. GR\H.\M. 1 

Some time this year removed to Louisville one j 
of the most remarkable old men in the State — 
now undoubtedly the oldest surviving native of 
Kentucky — Dr. Christo|iher Columbus Graham. 
He was born at Graham's Station, near Danulle, 
October 10, 17S4, of Irish and \'ir:;inia stock. 
Thii was nine years before tlie Slate was admitt- 
ed into the Union. Young CJraham had his lull 
share in the [irivations and perils of the pioneer 

peiiod, was at least twii e brought to the very 
gates of death, and became a hunter and marks- 
man of such accuracy of aim that he was often 
named in print as the William Tell of Kentucky. 
^\■hile re>iding at Harrodsbuig in later life, he 
wa:i a member of the famous club of marksmen 
formed there and called the liooiie Club of Ken- 
tiuky, of wiiich Goveinor Magoffin wa^ also a 
member. Lie was a captain in the ^\'ar of 
1812-15, raising his compiaii) himself and drill- 
ing it most efficiently. He was in many actions, 
but escaped all sat'ely except the battle of .Mack- 
inaw, m wliieh he was wounded, though not very 
seriously. He was then twice a prisoner in the 
hands of the Britisli and Indians. He bore 
some ])art in the wai fir the mdeijendence of 
^R>xico, taught school for a while in New Or- 
leans, retmned to Kentucky, studied medicine 
at Lexington under Dr. Dudley and was graduat- 
ed at 'LransyKania University, the first alinnnus 
in the profession west of the .-Mleghanies. Dur- 
ing the lilick Hawk war in the Northwest L^r. 
Graham obtained a large mining interest in the 
Galena lead region, and duiing the winter of 
1S32-33 enjoyed ihere the companion-~hip of a 
young lieutenant in the regular army named Jef- 
ferson Davis, of whom hist(jr)- had sometliing to 
record thereafter. R)- 1S52 the Doctor liad ac- 
quired a Very handsome ]jroperty, including 
a beautiful estate at Harrodsburg, which he 
sold that year to the Federal Government for 
$100,000, as the seat of a Western Military .\sy- 
lum. He then made a prospecting and invest- 
ment tour in Te.xas and Mexico, having numer- 
ous perilous adventures with the Indians of the 
wilder regions traversed. Returning to Ken- 
tucky, he founded the watering-place on Rock- 
castle river, known as Sublimity, or Rockcastle 
Springs, putting upon it the labor of ten years 
and a large sum of nione\'. He was also pro- 
prietor of the Harrodsburg Springs (or thirty-two 
years. Since his removal to Louisville he has 
devoted himself largely to historical matters and 
the interests of the Public Librarv, in which, in 
January, 1S72, he deposited his very valuable 
cabinet of curiosities and specimens, estimated 
to have a cash value of at least $25,000. He 
has written much in his long and busy lit'etime, 
among his published works being Man from his 
Cradle to his Grave, The True Science of Medi- 
cine, and The Philosoi)hy of the Mind. Now 



in his ninety-ciglith year, he still nianifesls re- 
markable \i'J,0T of mind and bijdy, and reason- 
ably experts to lounii out his ceiuuiy. 


The gieal event of this year was tiie initiation 
of the movements which culminated in the 
founding of the I'ublic (now the Polvlechnic) 
library. A full sketch of the history of this in- 
stitution will be given in Chapter XVHL 


This gentleman was the son of Foitunatus 
Co-iby the pioneer, whose stoiy is told in one of 
the earliest chapters of these annals. The 
younger Cosby, the poet-editor, was born during 
the residence of the family on Hariods creek, 
^Lrv 2, iSoi. Mis higher education was received 
at Yale college and the 'IVansylvania university. 
He became a teacher and later superintendent 
of public schools in this city. He was a fre- ■ 
quent contributor to the columns of the Journal, j 
from whose editor, Mr. George I). Prentice, he 1 
had frequent and high [iraise, and in 1S47 be- 1 
came himself editor of the FLxaminer, an organ I 
of the gradual emancipation movement. Lie 
became afterwards an employe in one of the 
departments at \Vashingt(.>n, and was aj>pointed 
by President Lincoln Consul to Geneva. He 
died June 14, iSyt. No collection of his 
numerous poems has ever been published. A 
fine specimen of his st) le and powers was given 
at the opening of Cave Hill cemetery in 1S4S. 
One of his sons, Robert Cosby, was also a poet, 
but died in 1S53; another, George, became a 
general in the Confederate army 

At the opening of Cave Hill cemetery the 
following poem was read by its author, Mr. Cosby. 
As he was a native of this county, a descendant 
of one of the oldest and most distinguished set- 
tlers, and long a resident of Louisville, we append 
it in full: 

Not in the crowded marl. 
On sordid lhou.i;hts intent; 

Not \ihere the groveling heart 
On low dcairo 15 bent; 

Not v^here Ambition st.ilks 
And spurns the p.itient earth, 

Nor vet «herc Folly w.ilks 
'Mid scenes of idle nnirth; 

Not whore the bvisy hum 

Of ceaseless toil is h.-.ud; 
Nor where the thouglitless come 

With jest and c.ireless word;— 
Not there, not there should rest. 

Forgotten evermore. 
The we.iry. the opprest, 

Their tedious, hfe-.iche o'er. 

Nc.l there the halloued form p,llo«ed M our woes , 
On her pure bosom w.irm. 

Not there should she repose; 
Not there, not there should sleep 

A parent's honored lie,id; 
Not th-re the living keep 

Remcmbr.ince of the dead. 

But where the foiesl wea\e!i 

lt> ceaseless undersong, 
Where voices 'mid the leaves 

Tne svmpathy prolong. 
Where breeze and brook and bird 

Their witching concert wake, 
Where nature's hymn is heard, 

Their resling-placc we make. 

Here where the crocus springs. 

The earliest of the year, 
And wheie the violet brirgs 

Its first awakening cheer; 
Where summer suns unfold 

Their we.iith of flagrant bloom, 
.■\nd autumn's mdiiy gold 

Illumes the gathering gloom, 

Here where the water's sheen 

Reveals the world above. 
And where the heavens serene 

Look down with watchful love, — 
The loved ones here to eartii 

We render dust to dust, 
To him who gave them birth, 

The Merciful, the Just. 


also died this year, October 26th, at Nice, 
France, wliither he had gone for his health. He 
was a son of Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, 
the frrst Surve\or Cieneralof the Virginia Military 
Lands, and was born near Louisville June 14th, 
1S05. The following sketch of his life was con- 
tributed to the Reunion of the Army of the 
Cumberland, held in Detroit this year, and is 
published in the book of the Reunion: 

His father, Richard Clough Anderson, had rendered good 
service to his country as a lieutenant-colonel in the Revolu- 
tion. iry anuy; his mother was a cousiii of Chief justice Mar- 
shall. He entered the army from West Point in July. iS;;. 
as second lieutenant of the Th.rd artiHery. Hi» first a.tne 
service was in the campaign against the Sac Indians, 
as the 31ack Hawk war; and here he distinguished himscif 
for courage in the face of the enemy, and kindness to those 



wlioni llic fortune of li.itl thrown into hi:, li.inrls as [iris- 
on.'ts. He nci-ivo.l tin- i;r.K!<- of fM-,t in -June, 
1833, nnd for "g.ill.intry nnd successful conduct" in the 
]-'lorida war he was given the brevet r.rnk of captain. Me af- 
terward served as aid-di'-cani]j to General Scoti, while that 
officer was cni^ayed in su|ierintrndin;; the removal of the 
Chcrokces. In 1840 he translated In.liuclions lo: 1 icld Ar- 
lillt-ry, which was adopted for the service of llie L'nited 
States. At the breaking out of the Mexican war he had 
reached the grade of cai)tairi, stiU in the Third Artillery. He 
served at tiie siege ol Vera Cniz. and in the battles of Cerro 
Goulo and Molino del Key. In 'Jic latttr eujiagemcnt he 
was directed to force his way, at the head of his company, 
acting as infintry, into the quadrangle of the fioyol .Mill; and 
this was accomplished, though at great cost, Captain Ander- 
son receiving wounds from the eflects of which he never re- 
covered. This action was recognized by the brevet rank of 
major, and, after thirty-five years' service, he was rewarded 
with the grade of ni.ijor in the First artillery. 

In November, 1S60, he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, in 
charge of the defenses of Charleston Harbor. His situation 
here was a most trying one; he knew that Fort Moultrie would 
be untenable in case of an attack from the mainland, and he 
feared that he might hasten a bloody civil \\ar by removing 
his men into the stronger and better situated Fort Sumter. 
He received neither orders nor support from the Government, 
and finally his sense of duty called upon him to lake the step, 
no matter what the result might be. During the night of 
December 26, 1S60, he removed his command into F'ort Sum- 
ter, destroying, as well as he was able, the battery of Fort 

Months passed before .Major .-\ndersou receded assurances 
that his action in this matter had leceived the approbation of | 
the Government. The distress of mnid consequent upon i 
this state ofaUairs, and the appreciation of the heavy respon- I 
sibihty that rested upon him. produced the nervous disorder ' 
that resulted in his death. Fort Sumter was defended gal- I 
lantly against a foe greatly superior in nuniLors, and was 
surrendered with honor. 

In May, 1861, Major Anderson was promoted to the grade 
of brig.adier-gencrai, and placed in command of the Depart- 
ment of Kentucky. On the i5ih day of August, of the same 
year, he was transferred to tlie Department of the Cumber- 
land, with Generals George H. and W. T. Sher- 
man as his lieutenants, but on the Sih day of the following 
October was compelled by his failing health to relinquish this 
command. He wasretiied from active service on the 27lh of 
October, 1S63, with the rank and pay of brigadier-general, 
and, on the 2d day of Febru.irv, 1863, was bievetted to the 
grade of major-general for his ser\ ices in Charleston Harbor. 

In 1869 he went to Kurope, in the hope of benefiting his 
health by travel, but gradually failed, and died at Xice. 
France, on the sijlh day of October. r87t. 

From an early age General Anderson was a professed fol- 
lower of Christ, and was distinguished throughout his life for 
his consistent piety. He was of modest demeanor, but firm 
in the course pointed out 10 hiin by his sense of dutv. In no 
manner a politician, he was free from all hasty and sectional 
prejudices. He had a pure love for his country, and his 
highest ambition was to do which w.cs right. 


one ol' the noted nicn of Kentucky during the 
war, died in Louisvt'lle July 2S1U, of apoplexy, 
aged fifty-three. According' to Mr. Collins, he 

was "son of CI. lef Justice John Tloyle, and horn 
in what was then .Mercer (nnw in r>o\le) county, 
Kentucky; ^r.uluatcd at Triiiccton College, New', and at the Transylvania Law School, 
Lexington, Kentucky; jirarticed at r'anville 
from 18.(1 to iSOi : entered the F'ederal army, 
and in 1S62 made a Brigadier-Ceneral, and 
assigned to the command of the District 'of Ken- 
tucky. One of hii orders, which will never be 
foigotten — assessing u|jon rebel symiiathizers 
any damages done by lebel marauders — was 
taken advantage of by had men, and used to op 
press. He projected the street railway systeni of 
Louisville ; was President of the Louisville City 
Railway ; and also of the F^vansville, Hender- 
son & Nashville Railroad, v.iiich owes to his 
great energy and abilities its timely completion." 
Chief Justice Thomas A. Marshall was also 
among the dead of this year. We reserve a 
notice of him to the Bench and Rar chapter. 


Another heavy inundation visited Louisville 
this year, reaching its culmination January 24th, 
in a height of thirty-four feet at tlie head of the 
canal, and fifty-eighl feet below the Falls. 

A grand concert was given in Louisville Janu- 
aiy 25th, by the celebiated Swedish prima donna, 
Mile. Christine Nils>on. It was the great 
musical event of the winter. 

The first number of the Louisville Daily 
Ledger was issued February 15th. 

An act was p.t-,sed March 3d, amending the 
new charter of the city. One of its [jrovisions is 
that in all city elections the polls shall be kept 
open the entire from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. 

The question of admitting the testimony of 
colored [jersons in the courts had been much 
agitated in this State for two or three years. On 
the Sth and the nth of March, in this year, such 
testimony was admitted in two cases tried in 
Louisville, by mutual consent of parties. 

.April 26th, the Louisville, Cincinnati & Lex- 
ington Railroai] agreed to a change of guage 
from five feet to four t'eet eight and a half 
inches, the same as that of the l",astetn roads 
into Cincinnati, so as to cause a break of guage 
and compel transfers of freight at Louisville 
rather than Cincinnati. The change was effected 



(,;i the 6th and 7lh uf AiiL;U5t, within twenty-four 
hiHiis, by a force of eight hundred men, scat- 
tered in gang-, o\er the entire distance of one 
hundred and seventy four miles. 

At the annual meeting of the Kentucky Press 
association this year, at Owenshoro, the address 
and presentation were both by editors of the 
Louisville Daily Commercial- -by Colonel Rob- 
ert M. Kelly and Ijcnjamin Casseday, Esq, re- 

luly ist, retuin=^ were made of the practicing 
lawyers in the different counties of the State, 
showing two hundred and twenty-one in Jeffer- 
son county — all, or nearly all, of course, having 
their oflices in Louisville. 

On the loth of July there was a great sale of 
real estate in the vicinity of Louisville, for pur- 
poses of surburb:in residence — the Parkland sub- 
division, which sold at rates of $4 to $12 per 
front foot. At least two thousand peoi)le at- 
tended the sale. 

October sSth the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad 
obtained a controlling interest in the Louisville, 
Cincinnati & Lexington railroad by tlie purchase 
of $1,000,000 of its new stock, at fifty cents on 
t!-.e dollar, and as much of the old stock, $1,- 
600,000, as would be surrendered within sixty 
days, at sixty cents. The Chesapeake & Ohio 
Company at the same time put under contract 
the line of the new road surveyed from Lexing- 
ton to Mount Sterling. 

The same month the citizens of Louisville 
contributed more than $110,000, and the Board 
of Trade $50,000, in relief of the sufferers by 
the Chicago fire. Liberal donations are made 
from many other parts of the State. 

November ist it was ascertained that the sales 
of tobacco at the seven warehoust-s in Louisville 
during the year ending that day, were forty-eight 
thousand six hundred and six hogsheads, lor the 
sum of $4,681,046. During the preceding year, 
from November i, 1S69, to 1S70, were sold 
forty thousand and forty-seven hogsheads — eight 
thousand five hundred and fifty-nine less — but 
for higher figures, $4,823,330. 

On the 5th of that month, at a meeting in the 
colored Baptist church, a pillar underneath the 
floor suddenly gave wav, causing a great panic 
ar.d rUih to the doors, in which eight or nine 
pt-rscins, p)rinci|ially women and children, were 
Iranipled to death. 

November :^oth, the enlargement of the I.oui.-,- 
ville and Poul.ind canal was finished, and opened . 
to the passage of steamcis and other river-craft. 
Two colored nicn, Nathaniel Harper and 
George A. Criffiths, lisqs., were admitted to 
practice in Louisville and Jefferson county 

The Rev. Ch.ulcs Booth Parsons, formerly an 
actor, died in Louisville Decembei 1 ^ih. He 

I has been nutited at some length in a previous 

I chapter. 

i There were 34,446 names in the Directory of 
this year — a little more than one-third tlie jjopu- 
lation, of course. The assessments of 187 i were: 

i Real estate, $61,042,130; personal, $739,850 ; 

: merchandise, $8,898,475; residuary, $5,724,500; 

; total, $74,364,955. Taxation— city, $2.08 per 

! $100: for railroads, 17c; State, 45c. The city 

j tax for the year amounted to $774,089. 

An interesting comimrative view of tlie busi- 
ness of the city this year, in 1844, and in 1819, 
is presented in the following table, which we 
have from Ccjllins's History: 














I, ,3 










Wholesale r.nd ntail stores 36 

Commission stores , 14 

Book stores 3 

l^rintiiig offices 3 

Drug stores 3 

Hotels and l.iverns 6 

Groceries 23 

Mech.inics' shops, all kinds 64 


Phvsici.ins f.tctories or mills 

Other f.ictories 


Churches 3 "(> 80 

Schools and colleges i 59 

During 1S71 an increase was made in the 
bonded debt of Louisville to the amount of 
$1,243,000 — from $4, 910,500 to $6,153,500. 
Of this increase $500,000 had been voted for 
stock in the St. Louis .-Vir Line Railroad, $300,- 
000 for sewers and other local improvements, 
$250,000 for the new City Hall, and $107,000 
for the change of guage on the Louisville, Cin- 
cinnati & Lexington Railroad. 'I'he city now 
owned $6o-i,r5o stock in the Louisville Gas 

I'he agi^regate of deaths in Louisville during 
the year was 2,672, or i to every 40 inhabitants. 



1872- -SrAllsTICS, ETC. 

There \it.ic ;i6.4S6 n.Tiius on tlie list-^ of the 
Dirertoiy this yeai- -ati increase of 2,040. ■ 

The city now had tvvenly-eiyht incorporotcd 
nnd five ]i'ivale hanks, uiili a total (apltal of 
$10,630,529, and de|u.sits to the aiiKHint of $S,- 
.154,748. The capital employed in nianufart- 
ures wa.s ab'Uit $18,000,000, with an annual prod- 
uct of ,$20,000,000. 

The assesbiiieiils on estate' were $61,526,- 
5S0; on iiersonal pio|)crty, $680,035 ; nuiclnn- 
dise, $8,834,055; residuary, $6,335,954; total, 
$7 7..^7f'/j--l- Ta.xes: cily, 2.04 |)er cent.; rail- 
road, 17 per cent.; State, 45 per cetu. 

The entries at ihe Louisville customhouse 
this year amounted to $288,940, on uhich the 
tariff or duty paid was $109,062. Emhraced 
among these articles of iinportntion were steel 
railroad bais, marble in Lilocks, manufactured 
marble, ,£;ranite, jiit; iron, trace chams, manufact- 
ured iron and steel, hardware, books and sta- 
tionery, mac hinery, candle moulds, fancv soaps, 
perfinncry and extracts, earthenware, ci.tjars, hu- 
man hair, brandy, cordial, wine, and gin, caustic 
soda, coffee, and many oiheis. 

January 30th and 31st the (Jrand Duke .Mexis, 
of the royal family of Russia, was a guest at 
Louisville, where he was most hospitablv received 
and enteitained with a ball and banquet. On 
the ist of February he visited the Mammoth 

F^'bruary 13th the Cily Council took an ex- 
cursion to the coal-fields of Ohio and Muhlen- 
burg county, in this State, along the Elizabeth- 
town & Paducah railroad. 

^Larch 13th, the Republican State Conven- 
tion met in Louis\ille. It was notable, partly, 
as having a colored man for cme of the officers — 
Mr. J. B. Stansberry for temi)oiary secretary ; 
also some umbrage being taken at certain action 
of the assembly, for the withdrawal of four- 
teen out of seventeen dekg.Ues from Kenton 
county. One of the seceders was a Colored 
man. The Convention declared in favor of 
General Grant's renomination. 

On the 14th, the publication of the Daily Sun 
was suspended. 

On the 20th, a law was approved incorporat- 
ing the Boone Bridge Company, with a capital 
of $2,000,000 and exclusive right for ninety-nine 
years to build and operate a railroad and foot 

j ]iassenger bridge across the Ohio Ri\er, "from 

! some convenient point within the coip^oiale 

! limits o( the city of Louisville to some conve- 

j nicni point on the Indiana side;" and the city of 

i Louisville (on behalf of its Eastern District, 

which alone shall be taxed to pay the interest 

and principal) is authori/Ad to subsciihe, if the 

people so direct by vote, not less than $500,000 

nor more than $1,000,000 of the capital stock. 

On the 281I1 died General Humplirey M.nshali, 
one of the most fiiinous members of the Marshall 
j lamily, cif Kentucky, and a prcimincnt soldier of 
1 the -Mexican war and of the Cont'edeiacy in the 
i late Reb'.llion. He was a graduate of the West 
j Pcjint Military academy, but alter short service 
1 in the armv became a lawyer and began practice 
j in Louiaville in November, 1834. In June, 
I 1S46, he led out, as colonel, the Kentucky cav- 
i airy regiment, for service in Mexico. Upcjn the 
I close of the war he became a farmer in Henry 
I county, but went to Congress as a member of 
the House in 1S49, and again in 1851. He 
was recommended in 1S52 I'or a seat on the 
supreme bench of the United States, and the 
same year was made .Minister to China. In 
1S55 -TiJ 1S57 he was again returned to Con- 
gress, and was a fifth time nominated, but de- 
clined the canvass. In September, 1851, lie 
joined the Confederate service, and was shortly 
made a brigadier-general, with a command in 
Eastern Kentucky. He resigned in June, 1S63, 
became a member of tlie Confederate Congress, 
and after the war settled again as a lawyer in 
Louisville. He was renominated to Congress in 
1S70, but declined to run. He was sixty years 
old at the time of his death. Mr. Collins savs: 
"While General Mar--,hall was by no means 
great as a military man, he was a statesman of 
considerable abilit}-, and one of the strongest 
and most profound lawyers of Kentucky or the 

--Vpril ist, the Louisville, Cincinnati and Cov- 
ington (or Short Line) railroad trams changed 
their eastern terminus from Ccjvington to New- 
port, and began to run over th.e new railroad 
bridge into Cincinnati. It was held by some 
Louisvillenewspa|jers and people that the western 
teiminus ot the Pennsylvania railroad svsiem 
had thus been virtually changed from Cincinnati 
to Louisville. 

On the 24th, the Louisville, Cincinnati and 



IxNiiigton Railroad company bought the hi;inch 
road from Anchorage to Shelbyville, eighteen 
niile^, for $23,000 a mile. 

On the same day, at Louisville. General C. 
McFerran died, aged nftytwo. According to 
Mr. Collins, he was hrmi in Cdasgow, Bairen 
county, son of Judge W. R. McFeiian; gradu- 
ated al \\'cst Point in iS;3, and jirnmoted 10 
brevet second lieutenant. Third infanlr\'; was at 
the battles of I'alo Alto and Resaca de la 
Raima, in the Mexican v,ar; assistant quarter- 
master in 1S55 : Xo\ ember, 1S63, chief of staff 
to Brigadier-general Carleton; 1S65, in the ac- 
tion of Peralta, New Me.xko; March 13, 1S65, 
for faithful and meritorious services during the 
rebellion was made brevet lieutenant colonel, 
brevet colonel, and brevet brigadier-general 
United States army; at the time of his death, 
was dc[)uty qu.arterniaster-general United States 
army, and chief quartermaster of the iJepanment 
of the South. He v. as a nolile and laitliful otficer, 
and an estimable gentleman. 

'J"he first coroner's jmy in Kentucky made u\> 
altogether of negroes, was impaneled Rme lotii, 
to decide the cause of death of another negro, 
who had fallen by the liand of vRilence. 

Jtily 3d, $1,000 damages were recovered in 
the Jefferson Common Pleas Court, against a 
druggist, for his clerk's mistake in using one drug 
instead of another, when compoimding a [>re- 

A very advantageous sale was made by the 
mayor in New York abiut this time, of one hun- 
dred and fifty thirty-year bonds, issued in aid of 
railroads, and two hundred twenry-year seven per 
cent, bonds, issued to build and equip citv insti- 
tutions. They brought, as net price, ninety and 
one-si.xth per cent, and accrued interest — total 
amount $326,883.45 — the best sale, it is said, 
ever made of the city bonds. 

July 20th, the Industrial Exposition building, 
at the corner of Fourth and Chestnut streets, 
was finished and dedicated, with addresses by 
Governor Bramlette, General William Preston, 
the Rev. Dr. E. P. Humphrey, Finnell, 
and others. A very large audience was [iresent, 
and the occasion was deemed to mark an im- 
portant era ill the grouth ot the city. Tire struc- 
ture is of brick, of attractive design, two stories 
high, three hundred and thirty tlet on Fourth 
street, by two hundred and thirty on Chestnut. 

.\t the opening of the building a noteworthy in- 
cident ociuried in 'he [iresence of tlnee of the 
most \encrable citi/'ens of Louisville, wlio had 
lieliied to make it the splendid metropolis it had 
become, with its flower and fruitage represented 
b)- this exposition. 1 hey were Elisha .-Njiplegate, 
aged ninety > ears and four months; \\'ilham S. 
Wtnon, eight\- nine years and eight montlis, and 
Colonel David S. Chambers, eighty six years and 
three months old. These gentlemen were 
brought together in the carriage of Mr. John T. 
Moore, and occupied it near the speakei's stand, 
in tlie building, during the exercises. Their 
piesence was thus fitly recognized in the opening 
remarks of the Re\'. Dr. Hum|)hrey, one of the 
orators of the occasion : 

We are hont^red tViis arcernooii bv thn presence of the 
three oldest citizens of Loiiii\ille. They are sittin:^ in tiieir 
carri.iye in the midst of this .£;rc,it company — the venerable 
I'.lisha .Applegate (applause], William S. Vernon [applause], 
and the lenerable David .'i. Chambers .\-ipplanse\ One of 
them B nioie than nmetv. and the others are upon the verge 
of it. One was horn in this neighborhood more ninety 
ye.irs ago, imothcr in Rhode Island, and the other in \'ir- 
ginia. They are among ii.s this evening to witness this glad 
festival and Old Louisville siunds face to face 
«!ti) Dew Louisville— young, vigorous Louisville. It is a 
pleasure on this happy occasion to welcome among us these 
venerable old men— vener.'.ble in tlieir years, venerable in 
th>'ir efforts. I propose a sentiment to you this evening: 
The three olden citizens of Ix)uis\i!le — their sun shone 
brit;lit m the eig'.leenth cenUuy; may it sliine far down the 
nineteenth century. 

Cviloncl Chambers, the youngest of this inter- 
esting trio, was the first to die, passing away 
.March 13, 1873. Mr. Vernon followed soon 
after ; and the oldest of all, Mr. Applegate, who 
was born at a fortified station on the I^ardstown 
road, in this county, March 25, 17S2, lingered 
until May 25, 1S74, when he too departed this 
life. He became a resident of Louisville, as be- 
fore noted, in iSoS. 

The first Ivxriosition was held in this building 
September 3d to October 12th, and was a great 

.■Vugust 8th, the authorities of the Southern 
Baptist Theological Seminary decided to remove 
it to Louis\i!le, if the sum of $300,000 should 
be raised in Kentucky for its buildings and en- 

.Vugust 14, a great sensation was made in 
Loui^vi]!e, by the development of I'rauds and 
forgeries perpetrated b}' Robert .\tvvood, head of 
an insurance firm in the city. They amounted 



to near $500,000, and iiivohcd rnans' persons in j 
heavy losses cruller ruin. Thi:ty-L'i_;ht indict- \ 
incnls were retiiriK-d against Atwo(?il by the t;rand 1 
jury, and his hail was fixed at $5 7,i'oo. The 
next year Atwood I'loadud L;uilty tu several of the \ 
indictments, the others were wiihdiawn, and I 
he was sentenced to tlie |ienitcniiary for twenty ' 
)ears. I 

On the 3d, 4th, and 5th of September, a } 
nali'.ii.d ('onven!i(Jij was heUl of the ■'Straight- 
out Deniorrats," or the be Iters from the noniina- ' 
tion of CJreeley and Brown, at the late National i 
1 democratic convention in Cincinnati. Charles j 
O'Conor was nominated for President, and John j 
Qnincy Adams, of Massachusetts, for A'ice-Pres- 
ident, by the Louisville convention. | 

A remarkable n-.cteor was seen in Louisville j 
and at many other points, on the evening of j 
September 5. I 

A "Peace Reunion" was held in the city Sep- ' 
teniber 1 1 and i 2. 

On the 20th Colonel Blanttm Duncan's Daily j 
True Democrat, organ of the "Stiaiyiit-outs," is 
forced to sus])end, after a life of about six weeks. 

The ne.\t day Horace Greeley, noiulnee C'f the : 
Democrats and Liberal Repubhcans for the Pres- 
idency, was received at Louisville «ith great en- 
thusiasm. ! 

On the 25th and 26th a National convention : 
of the colored Liberal Republicans met in Louis- \ 
ville, with delegates from twenty-three States, ! 
and declared in favor of Mr. Greeley for Presi- I 

October lothan immense excursion from Mo ! 
bile, Montgomery, and other points on the line ' 
of the South and Nortii .Mabama Railroad — the 
southern extension of the Louisville &: Nashville , 
road, completed September 21st — visited Louis- 
ville, and had a most cordial reception. 

The next day a terrible disaster occurred, in 
the fall of an unfinished brick store, lour stories • 
high, on Market street. Four persons were ' 
killed, and three others badly hurt. The walls 
of this building were only nine inches thick, and 
the architect, contractor, and chief bricklayer 
were arrested and held to bail, to answer a 
charge of manslauglitcr. 

Much interest was awakened in the city this 
mofith, by the project of another railroad be- 
tween Louisville and the Soutf. .-\ lar:;e meet- 
ing of citizens was held, and the Council called 1 

upon to submit to the people a proposal for the 
issue of $1,000,000 in city bonds, to aid the 
building of a road connecting v, ith the ILIiza- 
• btthtown ..t I'adiicah Railroad, and using it for 
access to the city. A special election for the 
purpose was aftei wards ordered. 

October 2.1th, the Railroad Conductors' Life 
Insurance .Association had a meeting in Louis- 
ville. The same day met here the twenty-fourth 
anr.i\etsary assembly of the General .Missionary 
Convention of the Christian (Reformed) Church. 
Richard M. Ijisho]), of Cincinnati, afterwards 
Governor of Ohio, presided over the convention. 

On the 25th some interesting lelics of an ex- 
tinct animal, sup|iosed to have been about fifteen 
feet long, were exhumed by the workmen on the 
Broadway sewei, twenty-two feet below the sur- 

November 1st, the statistics of tobacco sales 
fur the preceding thiee years were made up, as 
follows: 1S69-70, .]o,o67 hogsheads, $4,823,- 
330; 1S70-1, 48,006 hogsheads, $4,601,046; 
1S71-2, 38,342 hogsheads, $4,616,459. Mr. 
Collins adds the Ibllowing : "In 1872, 14 
jilug-tobacco factories, with $462,000 capital, em- 
ployed 1,180 hands, paying $320,900 for labor, 
and with $3,925,000 annual product ; and 123 
cigar factories, with 200 hands, paying $120,000 
for labor, produced 11,835,500 cigars, valued at 
$355,065. Of 66,000 hogsheads, the Kentucky 
leaf tobacco crop of 1S71, 48,071 were marketed 
in Louisville." 

The same day the Fiist and Second National 
Banks declared semi-annual dividends of five 
per cent, each, and the Kentucky National six 
per cent. 

No\ ember 3d, Mr. Virgil McKnight, Presi" 
dent of the Bank of Kentucky for thirty-five 
years, an esteemed and very able business man 
and financier, died; a'io, the same day, the Rev. 
Henry .\dams, preacher to the colored Baptist 
church in the city for just the same period. 

Music and musicians in Louisville had a little 
glory on the 12th, by the [)erformance, at a grand 
concert in Liverpool, England, of the new piece, 
"Victorious Land of Wales,'' written by George 
F. Fuller, and set to music by J. \V. Parsons 
Price, both residents of this city. 

Small-pox was greatly afilicting the people 
here about this time, at least one hundred cases 
being reported. 



No\'. iSth, Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
lectured in I.ouissiUe on "The Crnning Giil" — 
a pJea for woman suffrage. Dr. Stuart Robinson, 
a few da)'s before, ir-sued a protect against her 
employment by the Library Asso, iation. 

An unusu:\lly exciting city election was held 
December 3d, resulting in the choice of Mr. 
Charles D. Jacob for Mayor. 

On the 9th the Rev. Aniasa Converse, 1). D., 
died. He was a Presbyteiian clergyman, for 
nearly foi ty-si\ years editor of The Christian Ob- 
server, or its predecessor, published here and 

On the 1 2th a remarkably large and brilliant 
detonating meteor was seen at Louisville 
and throughout a wide extent of neighboring 
country. It was estimated in appearance to be 
about one-quarter as large as the moon. 

The same day the new Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the Merciful Saviour, for the colored 
congregation of that faith, was opened. The 
church, chapel, school-room, and lot, accounted 
worth $15,000, were entirely a gift of tlie Rev. 
John N. Norton. 

Thomas ^\'. Riley, formerly a prominent lawyer 
in Louisville, and one of the counsel in the Matt 
^Vard case, died in Bullitt county, December 


The City Directory issued this year contains 
38,793 names — 2,307 more than that ot 1S72. 

During this year nine hundred and thirty-three 
new buildings were erected in l,ouisville at a cost 


The total number of houses in the city Febru- 
ary, 1873, was estimated at twciitv-five thousand. 
There were seventy churches, with more than 
fifty thousand sittings — a very unusual number, as 
compared with the total population : likewise five 
distilleries, with a product of 6,^30 gallons of 
w'hisky per day. 

The Fire Department, acc(3rdln.g to another 
publication of this year consisted of ten steam 
fire engines, two hooks and ladders, and two coal 
carts, operated by one chief, at a salary of $:,- 
000 per annmn; one chief telegraph optrat^r, at 
a salary of $1,500 per annum; two assistant 
operators, at a salary each of $3 per day; one 
line repairer, at a salary of $2.75 per day, and 

one at $2.50 per day; one hose and harness- 
maker, at a salars' of $1,200 jier annum, with two 
assistants, at a sal.try each of $2.50 per day; ten 
engineers, at a salary each of $ico per month; 
twelve captains, at a salary each of $2.75 per 
day; foitysix firemen, at a salary each of $2.50 
per day --who are permanently emijlojed, with 
thirty four runners and laddermen, at a salary 
each of $135 iicr annum. 

'I'he pamphlet issued in May of this year, en- 
tiiied, Kentucky and Louisville, the Material in- 
teiests of the State and City, designed to stim- 
ulate immigration, contains the following valu- 
able statistics in the article on the citv, by Mr. J. 
]j. Maynard : 

No. of AmC'unl ■ 
Kactorios. imt^ted. 61 35,824.400 

Wood 105 3,922,8co 

Miiieralogical and clicmical . . 73 2. 822,0-00 

Texiile fabrics 41 1,182.000 

I-eather 40 1,274,000 

Paper. 12 750,000 

Anicles of consumption 226 3,72:^.000 

557 jig.-iQ^.^o^ S55'9"9.4^5 
Hands employed '5.957 Tdta! «agC3 £8,168,200 

'i"he assessments of 1873 were: I'pon real 
estate, $61,364,731; jiersonal, $685,465; mer- 
'chandise, $9,410,340; residuary, $6,219,078; 
total, $77,679,614 — very nearly the same as the 
previous year. Taxes: City, $2.40 per $100; 
railroads, eleven cents ; State, forty-five cents — 
a trifle more than in 1S72. 

The new City Hall was completed and occu- 
pied this year. A history and description of it 
will be included in a future chapter on the City 

The new High School fur Girls was also com- 
pleted. It will be fully noticed hereafter. 


The compiler of a little volume relating to 
city affairs, to wliicli we are elsewhere indebted, 
has the following to say of the citv this year: 

Louisville was for a long time, during its early history, 
noted for its unhealthiness. Medical science and the energy 
of tile inliabitants. though, at a period dating as far back as 
fifty years, succeeded in era<Iicating tlic causes which produced 
the diseases almost constantly prevalent, malarial fevers, and 
since then Louisville lias become oneof the most healthy local- 
ities in the countiy, attr.icting the attention of the fra- 
tcrniiy uf other cities, both neat and distant, by its repeated es- 
capes fioni epidemic visitations when ne:ghbormg and other 
localities were scourged. A autable instance of such escape 
was witnessed last year during the prevalence of cholera in the 
States of Uluo. Inuuuia. Tennessee, and Kentuckv. Nash- 



villc and Memphis, .ind other cities nn-l towp.s in tli-'se four 
States, «ore fearfully depopulated b; ihi-. dread scourge. 
Cincinnati was also visited only less severely, while the mor- 
tuary records of I.ouiiviUe at that time showed no increase 
• over the average mortality of former years. Medical writers 
both here and elsewhere have explained the causes why this 
city enjoys such immunity from epidemic disease, and have 
accorded to her the leputation of bring the healthiest city in 
the I'nion. 


The railruad'i, binks, and otlu-r stock institu- 
tions gcneialiy declaicd liandsouie dividends at 
the opening of this year. The Louisville, Cin- 
cinnati & Lexington raih'oad declar(.d four and a 
half per cent, the Louisville & Nashville, three- 
the Bank of Louisville, three per cent; the 1-alls 
City Tobacco Bank, four; the Bank of Kentucky, 
and five others, with the gas company, fi\e: the 
German Secuiity Bank aiid the I'ranklin In.sur- 
ance conipan_\', six; the German Insurance Bank 
and the ^Vestcrn liank, seven; the Louisville 
Banking company, ten per cent, with an extra 
dividend of ten from its profit and luss account. 

During the first week of January, more than 
half the deaths in the city (66 out of 124) were 
from small-pox. 

January :i, Judge Thomas P. Cochran de. 
ceased. He had been for fi\e years chancellor 
o( the Louisville chancery court, and was a Stale 
Senator 1S65-67. Judge Horatio \V. Bruce was 
appointed his successor. 

The State grand lodge of Knights of Pythias 
was in session here January 21 and 22. 

The last day of January an act of the Legis- 
lature was approved, authorizing the school board 
to build three school-houses for colored children 
with certain revenues under their control. 

The latter part of January the matter of the 
removal of the State capital came up again in the 
Legislature. Louisville had made an offer of 
$500,000 and the temporary use of the couit- 
hoQse or city hall, for the removal thither of the 
seat of government. The cont'ident belief of 
many citizens was also expressed that, if neces- 
sary to obtain the removal, the court-house and 
lot would be deeded in fee simple to the State, 
or else leased, rent free, for five years. Three 
out of a committee of seven reported favurably 
to the House on thia [)ro[)osition ; but nothing 
decisive was done. 

Mr. N. \V. Clusky died durin:; this rnontli at 
Louisville. He had some repute as a writer, a 
journalist, and a soldier. 

F'ebruary iSth the city v. a-- authorized to sub- 
scribe the additional million desired for the 
extension of th.e l'"lizabethtown & I'aducah rail- 

The bankrupt statistics made up about the 
middle of this montli showed, according to Col- 
lins, that a mimber of bankrn|)t estates were 
small, fiom $400 to $1,000 in gross, and 111 these 
i the expenses were disportionaiely lieavy. The 
! dividends ranged from one and one-quarter to 
; one hundred per cent. ---the whole averaging 
i thirtv-one cents on the dollar. The average per- 

centage of costs was ten and four-rtflhs. 
j On the iSih the Remington street-car, pro- 
pelled by steam, had a successful trial here. 
February 18th and 19th another State educa- 
j tifinal convention of colored men was in session 
j at the court-house. 

I The small-pox continued to afflict the city. 
j February 26th seventy-four cases of small-pox 
and varioloid weie reported. 

Ten students were graduated from the Univer- 
sity Law School February 27th. The next day 
I fift_\-one weie graduated from the Louisville 
I Medical College. 

! The project for a new bridge over the Ohio at 
^ this point received a check I'ebruary 2Sth, in 
1 the refusal of Governor Ilendricks, of Indiana, 
I to sign a bill granting a charter to an Indiana 

company formed to aid its construction. 
! Lieutenant-Colunel Cary H. I'ry, of this cit\, 
I died in San Francisco .March 5th, aged fil'ty-nine. 
I Mr. Collins says: 

i Hewas a native of Danville, Kentucky; graduated at the 
! United Stales Military .\cadeniy 1834; was brevet second 
I lieutenant of Third infantry, resigning in 1S36; major of ;Sec- 
j ond Kentucky volunteers in Mexican war, 1847, and riistin- 
* guished for services at Ruena \'ista, where hi:> Colonel, Wit- 
ham R. McKee, and Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Clay. Jr., 
were killed; paymaster United States .\rmy, 1853; deputy 
p.ivmaster-general during and since the late civil war, and 
since October 15, 1867, brevet brigadier-general. The Ken- 
tucky Uegisl.iture ortiered his reni.iins to be brought to ?"rank- 
fort for re-intennent in the State Cemeterv. 

On the gth, at Louisville, died the Hon. Edgar 
Needham, Assessor of Internal Revenue for this 
district, aged sixty. .Mr. Collins furnishes the 
following notice of him: 

He was born in England, March 19. iStj: emigrated when 
young to the United States, and in 183; to I..'uis\ ille. 
one of the fo-jr in Kentucky who, in ii!52, voted for John I'. 
Hale for United .Stales ['resident; one of three hundred and 
fourteen who voted for Colonel John C. Fremont in 1S56; 
and one of i,3'J4 who voted for .\braham Lincoln m 1S60. 



He started lifea slnnc m.ison, bcc.'iir!''a builder of fine stone- 
fronts, and then of inonunienls; was icif-inadc, a man of 
great energy and of marked inte'ilii^'enee. and a bnnilsonie 
and effective speaker; no ni in. more liiyhlv appreciaicd the 
advantages of finished education and ele.i,Mni culture. He 
was ai\ earnest Cliristian and a remarkable n'lan. It is said 
said tliat he lias been regarded by the law officers of tlie Gov- 
ernment at \\'asliiin;ton City and in Louisville as the ablest 
internal revenue lawyer in the whole United Slates— so thor- 
oughly did ho master every thing he ut.denook. 

Oil the )oth i\\c vault of tl.e Falls Ciiy To- 
harco hank v,\o fur- ilj!) cnt^i.-d aiu! mbhrd of 
$2,000 iti gold, $5 000 in jewelry, and $300,000 
in governnu'iit bonds and other sccuiities, includ- 
ing about $60,000 belonging; to Centre college, 
at Danville. 

The same da) the tent of the Great Easterti 
circus, exhibiting in Louisville, was blown dtnvn 
upon an audience of seven tliou^aiid, killing one 
person, mortally wounding another, and injuring 
several otheis. 'i"he proceeds of the iierforinance 
on the 1 2th were gi\en to the laniilies of the 

March. 23d, the Kentucky Society for the 
Prevention of Ciuelty to Animals, with liead- 
quarters at Loiiis\-illc, was incor[.orated. 

A negro named Thomas Smidi was hanged on 
the common between Fourteerith and Fifteenth 
streets, south of the shops of the Nashville rail- 
road, for inuider. About seven thousand people 
viewed the execution. 

Judge John E. Xewman died at l..ouisville, 
April 2, aged fifty-three. We are again indebted 
to the industry of Mr. Collins for a notice: 

Born m Spencer county. November 19, rSiy. practiced law 
at Smilhland until 1850. and was Commonwealth's attorney 
and county judge; then at Bardstovin; was electi-d circuit 
judge for six ye.irs, 1S62-63, and during this lime was ten- 
dered a seat on the court of appeals bench, to till a vacancy, 
but declined ; removed to Louisville in i363, and continued 
the practice: was author of a valuable work on pleading and 
practice, published in iSyi, and coir.piled a digest which is 
yet unpublished. 

April loth, the statistics of the season's iiork- 
packing were made up. Three hundred and five 
thousand hogs were packed during the last 
winter season, over 400,000 pieces ol green 
meat bought in other markets, for "t'ancy ham " 
curing; thirteen firms cured 9QS.S14 hams, of 
which about 15,000 were dry cured, and the rest 
sweet pickle. 

At the Exposition Hall, .-\[iril 21st, the colored 
people celebrated the tlr-t anniversary of the 
adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment. An im- 
mense audience of blacks and whites was ad- 

dressed, afternoon and evening, by Frederick 
Douglass and others. 

.\pril 2.itli, tlie construction of the new aliir:- 
house was awaided to coiil):u tors, for the total 
sum of $ 1. 10,068. 

May 6th, tlie Kentucky State Hoiiiceopathic 
Medical Society was otganiz.d at I.oui>ville. 

On the Ujth, the fir^t installment of the new 
Goveinment pv)stal cards (5.000) was received, 
and all soul wilhin an liuur. 

On the 2 1st the hifth .Annual Convention of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers v.a.s 
held here. 

May 23d, Mr. J. P.. Milder, of Louisville, be- 
comes Pre-,ident of the Louisville, Cincinnati vV 
Lexiiigton Railroad, r/Vt' Geneial John Echols, 
of Virginia, resigned. 

The graves of the Confederate dead at Louis- 
ville were decorated May 24th. The Federal 
graves were similarly decorated on the 30th. 
Tfiere were then over four thousand soldiers' 
graves in Ca\e Hill Cemeteiy. 

A tornado, with tetrific lightning, passed 
o\er the city on the 27th, doing much mischief 

A tein]3orary organization of the Central Uni- 
versity, the seat whereof had been fixed at An- 
chorage, in this county, was had here on the 
29th. 'Phe order locating tiie University was 
soon after revoked. 

The State Dental Society met in Louisvilk 
June 3d, 4th, and 5th. 

July 2d, some premium tobacco, from Owen 
county, sold here for $31.50 to $33 per hundred- 

On the 1 2th a notable concert was given in 
the Exposition Ruilding, by the band of the 
King of Saxony. An ofler of $35,000, to play 
during the next Exposition, was accepted con- 
ditionally by the Band; but the requisite consent 
of the King could not be secured. 

On the night of the 12th occurred three fues, 
one of which, adjoining the Public Library 
Building, was serious, and came near destr.iying 
the latter. Total loss by the llres, $84,000 ; in- 
sured, $67,000. There were also two fire-alarms; 
and so great fear was excited by an apparently 
cot:certed effort to burn tlie city that the Mayor 
telegraphed to Cincinnati for more ^team tire- 
engines, which were sent piomptly by special 

On the 26th the Trustees of the Public Li- 



brary a gift lo the i'lintiiig House fur the 
Blind of a suf(kifut stim to jirint Roljinson 
Crusoe ii[)on its [)res-,L'S in laisjd letters. 

Several deaths from cholera occinred in the 
city this month. Twenty one in all died Ijjlwecn 
June i2ili and .Vugiist i6ih, and se\eral in the 
next I'our weeks. 

'I'he second Exposition was held Sejiteuiher 
2d to Octobei iitli, and was even a greater suc- 
cess than the other. 

Septemhtr 15th, an outrageous swindle was 
perpetrated upon two of the Louisville banks 
by a pair of scamps, with forged letters of intro- 
duction. They sticceeded in getting $6,500 
from one and $4,500 fioni another. 'J he fellow 
who perpetrated the latter swindle was captiiied, 
and the money recovered ; but the otlier e^cai")ed 
with his plunder. 

On the 23d a convention of the Kentucky 
veterans of the war with Mexico was held in 
the city. 

An iiiii.iottant meeting of five commissioners 
from each State bordering upon the Ohio \<.us 
held in Louisville October ist and 2d. 'I'he re- 
sults were the adoption of a memori.d to Con- 
gress for the improvement of tlie reniu-s>ee 
River, also a resolution uiging upon the United 
States Engineer Department the iniiiortance of 
widening to one hundred feet the cut-pass down 
the Falls of the Ohio, and otlier resolutions of a 
liberal and commercial character. 

The Colored Central or High School was 
dedicated October 5th, at the corner of Ken- 
tucky and Sixth streets. 

The same day the oldest hemp-bagging factory 
in the country — that of Richardson, Henry (5c 
Company— -was burned. Loss, $70,000; insur- 
ance, $42,750. 

On the iith a ball was given by the Italian 
Brotherhood of Louisville, to celebrate the dis- 
covery of .-\merica by their countryman Christo- 
pher Colunibus. 

About the last of September most of the 
Louisville banks had suspended cash payments, 
in consequence of the panic caused by the fall 
of the great banking-house of Jay Cooke & 
Company, at Philadeli'hia; but they resumed 
payment by October 13th. 

On that day the new Macaiiley's Theatre was 
opened to the public. 

On the 15th two deaths from yellow lever oc- 

curred in the city. The cases had come from 

On the 16th, at 7:15 p. m., a terrillc explosion 
occurreil at the nortliwest corner of the city hall, 
throwing up the llag'tones, some of them of great 
size and height, for sixty feet on Sixth street and 
one htmdreiJ and fifty on Congress alley. 

Tlie Masonic Crand Lodge of the- State met 
in the city October 2TSt. 

C)ctober 25th $30,000 had been collected in 
Kentucky, mostly in Louisville, for the lelief of 
1 the yellow fever sutTeiers in Memphis, and Dr. 
Luke P. ]!!lackburn, a Louisville ]ihysician, now 
Ciovernor of the State, went personally to render 
ser\ice to the al'llicted city. 

The committee of the United States Senate, 
appointed to inquire as to the canal around the 
Falls, was at Louisville Ctctober 2Sth. Their 
obser\ation5 are reported in our chapter on the 

October 2()lh died Philip Tomppert, Sr., a 

native of ^\'urtemberg and Ma\or of I.otiisville 

I 1865-69. He was aged sixty-five years. 

] The aggregate inspection of tobacco here from 

I November i, 1S72, to October 31, 1S73, inclu- 

j sivc, was 53,607 hogsheads. Saks, $5,775-983. 

i No\"ember 3d the city was \'isited by the young 

Augustin Itutbide, lieir-a[i[)arent to the .Mexican 

I thione under Maximilian. His mother, Madame 

Iturbide, ex-Minister Thomas H. Nelson, and 

other persons of distinction were with him. 

November rith, the .Miiiett Orphan .\3)!um, 
incorporated by the last Legi-jlature, was organ- 
ized under the will of Julius Cxsar .Minett, de- 
ceased, its founder. It was expected to be 
mainlv a colored asylum, though open to all or- 
phaned children. 

Colonel Clarence Preiitice, only surviving son 
of George D. Prentice, aged tliirty-three, was 
killed November 15th, by being hurled violently 
from his buggy a few nules south of Louis\ille. 

The North .American Beekeepers' Society met 
in convention in LouismIIc December 3d and 4th. 
December 20th, the Legislature pro\ided that 
a diploma t'rom the Lau DeiKirtment of the 
L'niversity shall have full force and efiect as a 
license to practice law in the State. 

On the 30th the Ohio River Bridge Company 
declared a di\idend of six [ler cent. 



l874--I'RI\i Il'AI, MATTI.RS. 

The Directnry of this yen contains 41,496 
names- -an im rcase of 2.703, as against 1873.' 

March 14th, a contiact was awarded for i 0111- 
■pleting the main building and south wing of thi- 
Ma.sonic \A'idows' and Orphans' Home, at $48,- 
720. Tlie north wing was already finiihed and 
occupied, and it was hoped to conijjlete the 
whole the next year, at a toi.d co-t of $105,000, 
when it woidd accommodate fi\e hundred in- 
niates^ On tlie j^th of Januaiy, 1S73, there were 
sixty-seven orphans hi the building ; one luindred 
and seventeen at the date above given. The 
Home was then reputed to be the cnly success- 
ful institution of the kind in the country. 

The Saints Mary atid Elizabeth Hospital was 
opened tli;s year, June ist, on Magnolia avenue 
at the corner of Twelfth street. It was the gift 
of Mr. Shakespeare Caldwell, and is in charge of 
the Sisters of Charity. 

The new Alms house was ojiened in the fall, 
upon the site previously selecled, about five miles 
south of the Court-house, on the Louisville, 
Paducah & Southwestern K.iilroad and the 
Seventh street Turnpike. It cost $2 10,000. 
This building was burned in 1S79, and subse- 
quently rebuilt. 


January loth the Western IVnai Berith lodges 
met in convention at the Liedcrkratiz Hall. 

February 9th, Dr. Henry Miller, President of 
the Louisville Medical College, dfed; ;3d, the 
temperance crusade was opened in the city.; J5th, 
the steamer Belfast became unmanageable while 
running the falls, struck a rock near the cement 
mill, and sank — loss, $47,000. 

March Sth, Calvary Episcopal church was con- 
secrated; 19th, an .-^rehltect^' .-Vssociatior] was or- 
ganized; 29th, the Vaudeville Theatre burned. 

April 20th, a negro riot occuried. 

May ist, the General Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church opened in Library 
Hall; 5th, Schiiff, Wagner & Rick's tannery 
burned; 6th, the Kentucky Prison Reform Asso- 
ciation organized, with lieadiiuar'.ers in Louis- 
ville; 2 2d, the steamer Allegheny Belle sank at 
Portland, from striking a loaded barge; 27th, the 
Kentucky Christian Church Convention and the 
Convention of the EpibCOi/al Hiocese of Ken- 
tucky met. 

June iQtli, died the widov,- of John Jaincs 
Audubon, naturalist, and a former resident of 
July 3otli, the Texas cditois vi^it the city. 
-August I si, occurred the most exciting elec- 
tion ever known here; 5lh, Ceneral Confer- 

■ ence of African Methodist l^piscopal Church; 

: i6tli, i;isho|j Miles, coloud, preaches iti the 
Walnut Street .Methodist Episcopal Church, the 
lirst case of a colored preacher in a white church 
known here; 29tli, the .Mei chants' and Manu- 

i factuiers' Ivxchange was organized. 

September 1st, the Third Annual E.xposition 
was opened; Sth, the .American Pharmaceutical 

j Association met; 9th, meeting of the poik-packers 
of the United States; 13th, the new Second 

i Presbyterian chinch was dedicated. 

i October i3tli, annual meeting of the Grand 

! Lodge Independent C)rder of Ciood Templais; 

i 19th, of the Grand Lodge of Royal .-Vrch 

I Masons; 20th, convention of agitators for the re- 

! mo\al of the ix'ational Capital. 

i November 4th, meeting of the State Grange of 
Patrons of Husbandry; 12th, election of the 

' Rev. L)r. Thomas Dudley Bibhrip of the Slate 

I Episcopal Diocese; 13th, meeting of the Presby- 

I terian Synod; i6th, the western outfall sewer 
was formally opened; 23d, the Merchants' and 

j Manufacturers' Exchange was opened; 29th, the 
Reformed Episcopal church was dedicated. 


Elisha .Appligate, the venerable citizen named 
in our record for 1872, died about May 25th of 
this year, aged ninety-two years and two months. 
A brief biographical sketch of him is elsewhere 
given. The growth of the trade to which he had 
devoted most of his life, is thus giaphically 
set I'orth in the preamble to the resolutions 
adopted concerning his death by the Louisville 
Tobacco Board of Trade, from which we extract 
the following : • 

He the satisr.ietion of seeing Loui5\i!Ie e\p.TntI to it5 
present m.igriificent dimensions, and t!ie tobacco ir.ide to in- 
crease from a few liundreds of hogslieads a year to sixty 
ihoiisand. and uarehouse facilities from a small shed on 
Main slreel, in which he did all the business of tlie citv, to 
eight I.irge and capacious wareliouses, required to accom- 
niudate this large and growing trade. 

Mr. .-\pplegate was designated in this pret 
amble as "the oldest member of the tobacco 
lade in our city, if not in the State.'' 

On the 15th of July died D. S. Benedict, a 



resident of the city since 1819, and one of the 
most active and successful steaniboatmen the 
city has ever had. His fust sei vices on- the 
Western waters were ii. 1S22 -23, as clerk of the 
riowboy, and afterwards of ttie Huntress. He 
was then made master of the Dove, but shortly 
after became clerk and then captain of the Diana 
No. I. He had soon a shaie in the ownership 
of the Diana Nos. : and 3 and of the General 
Browne, and subsequently, while head oi the 
mercantile house of liencdict, Carter iS: Co., 
which he founded in 1830, at the corner of 
Main and Bullitt streets, or nt other tnnes, be- 
came entire or part owner of the Talma, the 
Alice Grey, Alice Scott, Ringgold, General Lane, 
Falcon, Lexington, Fanny Smith, Georgetown, 
W. B. Clifton, Fanny Bullitt, Mary Hunt. Ni- 
agara, Empress, Eclipse, E. H. Fairchild, H. D, 
Newcomb, jMngcnta No. i, Peytonia, Autocrat, 
and other well-known steamers. In 1S53 he was 
made president of the branch of the Commercial 
Bank of Kentucky, wlien it was established 
here. His later years were spent mainly in the 
duties of President of several of the local in- 
surance conijianies. 

The Rev. Father Abell, of the Roman Cath- 
olic church, died in Louisville this vear. .A.n 
adequate notice of him will be given in another 


The number of names upon the city directory 
of this year was 40,965. 

Sl-,\IM.\RV OF K\ I-,XTS. 

January 3, death of the Hon. M. R. Hardin, 
ex-chief justice of the court of appeals ; Sth 
death of General George ^V. Chambers ; nth' 
meeting oi the Bricklayers' National union; 
1 2th, death of ex-Governor Thomas E. Bram- 
lette; i6th, of Rev. Charles L. Daubert ; :oth, 
of Dr. T. L. Caldwell; 23d, of Colonel W. P. 

February 7, the Sunday Globe is started; glh, 
first celebration of .\Lirdi Gras in the citv ; loth, 
beginning of the Whittle and Bliss revival. 

March 5, death of J. M. S. .McCorkle, P. G. 
M. and G. S. of the grand lodge of Free .\Li- 
sons; Sth, death of Flora Dupee, aged one hun- 
dred and four; 2 1st, dedication of the College 
Street Presbyterian church. 

April 3, Dr. W. E. Gilpin killed by an overdose 
of chloroform: 18th, hea\y snow storm, cold so 
severe as to produce ice of an inch in thickness; 
30th, visit oi Vice-1'resident Wilson. 

May 4, meeting of the American Medical 
Association; loth. State Keiiublican convention 
and nomination of John .\r. Harlan for Clovernor; 
i7ih, first races under direction of Ix)ui-,\ille 
Jockey Club; 21st, death of Colonel W . F. 
Bullock, Jr. 

June 2, heavy wind storm, blowing down part 
of Masonic ]\on.c and Baptist Orphans' Plome, 
and doing much other d.iuiage; 13th, death of 
Dr. Lewis Rogers; i6th, City Auditor John ^L 
O'Neil drowned at the Falls. 

Inly 4, the steamer James D. Parker sinks on 
the Falls, but is soon raised; 12th, death of Col- 
onel Philip Lee, prosecuting attorney; 15th, death 
of Mrs. Helen Siansberiy, aged one hundred 
years and seven months; i6ih, another great 
storm, unroohng several houses. 

August 7. the river reached the highest point 
ever known in this month, inundating houses 
from Thiid to Seveiith stiect (height at head oi 
canal, 32',; feet; at foot oi Falls 56); 17th, the 
Avery Institute was organized. 

September t, opening of the Fourth Industrial 
Exposition ; 14th, boiler e.xplosion at Nadal & 
Sons' kindling wood factory, killing the engineer 
and one other; 25th, death of M. Kean, pro- 
prietor of the Louisville Hotel. 

October i, burning ot the Fourth street coffin 
works, one man killed and live injured by an ex- 
plosion ; ioth, death of Captain J. F. Huber ; 
i2th, meeting of grand lodge Independent Order 
Good Templars; 19th, of grand lodge Free and 
Accepted Masons. 

November 17, City Hall tower nearly con- 
sumed by fire, loss about $i 0,000, and meeting 
of National Grange Patrons of Husbandry; 
14th, organization of the Clearing House Asso- 
ciation ; 27th, Miss Mary Anderson, tragic 
actress, makes her debut at Macauley's as "Ju- 

LJecember 2, partial burning of the Broadway 
Baptist church; 7th, total vote for Mavor, 20,- 
834, the largest polled in the city to that date ; 
13th, .Monks iV Monks' tan.nery partially burned 
— loss $1 2,000. 


1S76. [ 

Janu.nry .^d, the IJclhcI Methodist Epis- 
copal chuich was dcdiejietl; 3d, the Cleai- 
•ing House commenced operations; 3olh, very 1 
high water in tlie Ohio, and dainatie to property 
on river front; reaching thirtv-hve and a half feet t 
above the canal, and tit'ty-nine and a half be- j 
low it. 

l''ebruary 1st, great storm, and heavy loss of 
coal on the lix'er; 6th, ueuiraiion of Wesley 
Methodist Episcopal Mission building; 8th, dis- 
astrous tire on Fourth street, Miss Schultz's store; 
29th, Mardi Gras celebration. 

March ist, Messrs. Hall and Cree, evangelists, 
begin their work; 20th, the Louisville .Abstract 
and Loan association is incorporated. 

May lolli, C'lark's tobacco fai-tory, at Rowan 
and Thirteenth, burned; iith, the \\'e^tern 
Unitarian conference begins its session; i3tli, 
Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, makes a short 
stay; i6th, the sijlendid new Courier-] ouinal 
building is formally opened; 17th, the Wt. stein i 
Farmers' association meets; iSth, session of the 1 
Republican State convention, whicli recommends I 
General B. H. Bristow for the- President y; 2 2d, ' 
dedication of the Kentucky Infirmary tor ^\■omen 
and Childien; 23d, twenty-second annual con- 
vention of the Right Woithy Grand Lodge of the 
Independent Order of (Jood Templars opens, 
and the corner-stone of the Broadway Taber- 
nacle is laid; 24th, the State Baptist association 
meets; 25th, the Democratic State convention; 
26th, second burning of the Vaudeville theater. 

June 6th, sixth annual convention of the Ken- 
tucky Dentists' association; 2 7tli, State Conven- 
tion of Prohibitionists. 

July 8th, death of the brilliant young lawyer 
and member of Congress, Edward Young Par- 
sons, aged thirty-three; i7tli, incorporation un- 
der general laws of the Louisville Eye and Ear 

September 24th, slight shocks of earthquake. 

October 10th, thirteenth annual meeting of 
the Grand Lodge Independent Order of Good 
Templars; 17th, Grand Lodge of Masons, and 
great fire at the corner of Eighth and Main — 
loss above $200,000; 24th, Grand Lodge of 
Odd Fellows ; 25th, meeting of Southern and 
Northwestern general railwav ticket agents. 

November 2d, contract to build Crescent Hill 
reservoir; 7th, greatest excitement ever known 

here over I'lesidential election; 1 2th, rededica- 
tion of the Broadway Bainist church. 

December 9th, oi^ani.:ation of the Polytechnic 
society; lith,' meeiiiig of the State Grange in 

The city Directory for 1S76 bore fort)-four 
thousand live hundred and si\ty-two names, and 
for 1 87 7 forty five thousand five hundred and 


Remarkably cold weather in January, the 
thermometer reaching fourteen degrees L)elow 
zero. An enormous ice gorge formed in the 
liver, which broke on the 14th. A flood came 
directly after, reacliing on the 21st the height of 
thirty and a half feet above and tlUy-four and a 
half feet below the Falls. On the iSth the Dem- 
ocratic State Convention re-assembled to discuss 
the Presidential situation; 24th, partial desiiuc- 
tion by fire of the Louisville Mantel and Casket 

F'ebruary 13th, burning of the Ninth street 
African Methodist Episcopal church ; 25th, dedi- 
cation of the Knights Templars' Hall, m the 
Courier- Journal building. 

March iSth, dedication of the Campbell street 
Christian church. 

April 3d, State Medical Convention; 10th, 
session of the State Grand Lodge Knights of 

May I St, the withdrawal of Federal troo[)s, by 
the President's order, from Louisiana and South 
Carolina, was celebrated; 31st, death of Judge 
John Joyes. 

June 6th, meeting of the International ^"oung 
Men's Christian .-\ssociation; nth, $12,000 sub- 
scribed toward the erection of a building for the 
local association. 

July loth, opening of the National Samgerfest 
at the F^xposition Building. July 23d, beginning 
of labor troubles in the city; riots on the 24th 
and 25th. 

AugList 14th, the National Education Society 

September 4th, the fifth Industrial Exposition 
opiens: ijth, the City Brewery burns; September 
15th, Governor "\\'ade Ham[)ton, of South Caro- 
lina, arrives to visit the FLxposition, and is 

3 52 


welcomed; also Prtsidcnt Ilnycs and (,'aliinet on 
the :!7tli. 

October 9th, Orand Lodj'c Indciiendent Order 
of Good Templars; 16th, (,'irand I.odpje Free and 
Accepted >Lasons, and Most \\'orlIiy I li.L;h Court 
of the \V'orld of Foresters; 23d, Ciand Lodge of 
Odd Fellows. 

November 3d, Taylor & Herr's tc>bacco factory 
and Mcllvain's whisky eslablishiiient consumed : 
10th, death of the Rev. Dr. ■ Lo\\ry: 15th, 
visit of a delegation of civilized Chickasaw In" 
dians; 8lh, Cochran & lukon's whisky house 

The Southern Baptist Theological Seniinaiy 
was removed to the ciiy this year from Creen- 
ville, South Carolina. Two new public school- 
houses were erected, being that on Grayson 
street, between Twenty-second and TwciUy-thirdi 
and that on Overhili, between Broadway and 
Undtrhill. The Second Ward house was doubled 
in capacity. 


January gth, telephone communication was 
had with Naslnille; 13th, reorganization of 
the Merchants' and Manufacturers' F^xchange; 
2 2d, the lirst Handel and Haydn concert in 

February 5th, death of Dr. L. P. Yandell, Sr., 
aged seventy-three; 13th., commemoration ser- 
vices at the Cathedral, in honor of Pius IX.; 
14th, meeting of the Western Wholesale Drug- 
gists' Association. 

March 12th, death of the venerable Scotch 
poet, Hugh Ainslie; 17th, burning of the Chess, 
Carley & Co. oil factory; 24th, e.xplosion of the 
same firm's gieat oil-tank. 

April ist, laying of the corner-stone of St. 
Vincent's (Catholic) Church ; lorh, session of the 
Grand Lodge of Knights of Honor; 2Sth, the 
Citizens' Rct'orm .\3sociat10n organizes. 

May i6th, burning (jf John Fleck's oil factory. 

June loth, the Tabcrnade, at Fourth and 
Broadway, is dedicated. 

July iSih, formation of the American Ladies' Guild; 19th, death of five i)ersons in 
the city from ex(;es3ive heat. 

August 7th. completion o.' the J. .M. Wiiite, 
considered the most elegant steamer on the 

\Vestern waters; 21st, visit of the Pennsjlvania, 
Ohio, arid West Viri;inia Press .Association, and 
brilliant rccepticjn at the Gait House on the 22d. 
. September 4th, o; ening of the Exposition. 

October Sih, o|)emngof the Louisville College 
of Pharmacy; oth, the Kentucky editors visit 
the F^xposition ; 22d, meeting of the Cirand 
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; 24th, dedica- 
tion of ihe Masonic Widows' and Orphans' 
Home; 25,t!i, opening of the ^Lasonic Grand 

November 12th, death of George P. Doern, 
of the Anzeiger and Evening News; 15th, or- 
ganization of the Louisville Association for the 
Suppression of \'ice; 26th, death of R. M. 
Cunningham, Cashier of the F'irst National 

December 2d, introduction of the electric light 
into Kelly's ax factory; 5th, death in Cincinnati 
of Ben Casseday, an old resident of Louisville, 
and author of a history of the city; Sth, Davis's 
new theater com|ileted (opened on the 19th); 
loih, the new ^\■()rkhouse accejited by the city; 
i6th, the new hall at Phcenix Hill I'ark opened; 
17th, ovation to O'.Meagher Condon by the Irish 

There were 46,570 names on the City Direc- 


January i6th, the ferryboat Wathen was car- 
ried by the current against the bridge, and the 
steamer Hobson was sunk. 

February ist, a tire broke out at the Alms- 
house, with fatal results; 3d, three sons of M'rs. 
Elizabeth Heinrich were drowned near the 
\Vater-works ; Sth, the Louisvillle Confederate 
Historical Association was organized; 21st, 
death of Robert J. Ormsby. 

.^tay 1 6th, tht^ General Assembly of the South- 
ern Presb>terian Church began its annual con- 
vocation in the Second Presbyterian meeting- 
house, and remained in session until the 24th ; 
17th, the first annual meeting of the \\'oman's 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South was opened ; 23d, a large fire oc- 
curred at Second and I'.reckinridge streets. 

July 29'.h, death of judge Bland Ballard, and 
another fire at .Ad.rms a: Fulton; loss, $24,000. 

August 2Slh, the State Consenlion of Colored 
Teachers met in Louissille. 



Se])tcnihiT 2cl, Si:v>ntl! Annu;il Exposition 
was o])cncrl ; 9tli, the American Mechanical, 
Ar;ricuUural, ami liotanical Association opened 
its session. 

Octuber istli, annual meeting of the flrand 
Lodge of the Independent Order or' Good Tem- 
plars ; 1 6th, the I!.iri:ist State Sunday-school 

Novernhcr 5tli, Kentucky Hi;:;h Court of For- 
esters meets. 

December lotli, General Grant visits the 
city, and is puMicl)- received ; i4lh, the new res- 
ervoir, of 10,000,000 gallons capacity, was com- 
pleted, and water was let in fur the lirst ; 17th, 
the ne*v .Almshouse was finished and tianedover 
to the city; :2d, the cotton compress and ware- 
house was opened. 

The City Director)' of this yeai bore 49,450 



1S80— Tl)cvTentli Ceiiius— IVpul.-iiion of Louiivii'o— Steamer 
Inspection licre— E\enls of the Year. iS3i— SMtistics— 
List of Surviviiio; Old Residents— Events of tiie Year. 
18S2— Populatian, etc.— Events to .-\pril io:h— Close of tlie 
Record of One I-Iundred .ind Nine Yeari. 

1880 — THI-; TENTH CE.VSUS. 

A revision of the Federal census of iSSo, 
adopted by the Board of Trade in its annual re- 
ports, e.\hil)its the population of the city in this 
year at 126,566. The official returns, however, 
as published in February, iSSi, make a footing 
of but 123,762. They were thus tabulated in a 
comparative statement piiblisiied in the Ciiv 
Directory and then in the Courier-Journal : 

Total Population. Foreii'n. 

East End. i83o. iS,-o. i8.5o. 

First ward 10,307 7.439 2.2S2 

Second ward 9.409 8,375 2.44:) 

Third ward 11,486 ' Q.S-- -.747 

Fourth ward lo.Jj- 9- 3-^7 2, io6 


Fifth ward ' 1.353 10,010 1.659 

Sixth ward 7, to3 6,042 36i;, 

Seventh w.\rd 3830 5,3.11 c_)i 

Highih «,ird 7,732 <J.734 1.094 

West End. 

Ninih ward 8,972 7.S30 1.348 

I T* 




TV.lal incr 


123,762 i':o,7; 


Reasoning fron; these data, the editor of th 
Coinier-Journ.ll deduced the following : 


above Lit.: 

in ilie city directory for iSSo show 
tliese facts: Fir.^t, that the population of Louisville in 1870 
was 100.753, ii> 'SSo 123,762; f:ain in ten years, 23,009. 
Second, that.tlie dividing' line of population, which was at 
First street, ha. I in 1870 moved westwardly to Third street, 
an<I that in iS^'o it Im'I rearlied Fourth street. Third, thai 
in iS-o the f.nir west wards had a population of 37,503, 
v.hicli had increased in 1880 to 50,210; a gain of 12.307. 
The four center wards in the s;irne time increased from 
2R,i27 to 32,018; a net gain of 3,891, and the four east 
wards, during the sinie period, increased from 34.723 to 
4i..=;34. -I gain of 6,Sri. This develops the fact that in the 
past d.-ca le the pojuilation of the four west wards has in- 
cre;itcil nearly 10.3 per cent, more than has the four east 
wards, and largely more than doubled the increase in the 
other eight wards, or the east and center combined. Also 
that in i83o the four west w.irds had a population of 50,210, 
against 73,552 in the other eight wards, 

111 regard to tlie foreign population of Louisville we have 
no d.ita save the tabF-s of 18S0. In that year it numbered 
23,156, distributed as follows: Four east wards, 9.578; 
four tenter wards, 4,603; four west wards, 8,975, '''^ four 
east wards h.rving 603 more foreigner^ than ihe four west 
wards, and the dividing line of the foreign population being 
at Second sti-eet. 

'Lhere were inNjiected at Louisville this year 
215 steamers, with a tonnage of 82,764.37 tons, 
and licensed oflicers numbering 1,043. L'pori 
all the Western waters were insp.ected 1,255 
steamers, with 279,704 tonnage and 5,548 licensed 


New Year's Day occurs the deatli of Captain 
H. M. Fogg, superintendent of the National 
Cemetery at Cave Hill; January 9th, that of 
Colonel Thomas Latman, aged eiglity-seven 
years; 14th, tlie cashier of the LouisuiUe Sav- 
ings ]!ank |iro\es a defaulter for $150,000; 19th, 
Cleneral FJ.i H. Murray, of Louisville, was ap- 
pointed Governor of Utah, and Colonel Kelly 
re ap.pointed Pension .Agent for this district; 23d, 
Chancellor Biuce 'enders a decision against the 
Louisville i'liidge Company, awarding the city 
$60,000 back taxes, with interest : 26th, Earnum's 
jewelry store on hotirth street is destroyed, with 
loss $50,000. 

Febtuar) 51I1, grand opening of the new Hoard 
of 'Lrade rooms; iSth, public reception to 
Charles I'arnell, member of Parliament and Irish 



agitator; 251!), llic steamer l'"l Dorailo is wrerkcd 
on the I'alls by slrikin- a!_;:iiiist a briJi^e-pier. 

March 7th, Judge Wilham H. ILi^s, of the 
United Slates Cum*, dies saddtnly at liis resi- 
dence on Cliestnut street ; 13th, iinsiicressfnl at- 
tempt to assassinate Ma\or Baxter by Samuel 
Redd, a disehar,i;ed street boss: 28th, death of 
Judge Henry Pirtle. 

April 3d, double execution in the jail-yard of 
Robert, while, lur the Uiiiider of his 
wife, and Charles Webster, negro, foi rajje; 9th, 
John \X. Ilarr, Ij^si)., is appointed Jt'.dj;e of the 
United States L')i^t^ict Court; iSth, the steamer 
Alice 15 wrecked on the J'alls. 

May 1st, Louisville celebrates hei cerjtcnnial 
anniversary, with an elaborate addre.-.s by Ci-)!onel 
R. T. 1 turrett and other exercises. 

June 6tli, six prisoners escape from the jail by 
climhing through the roof, but are soon retaken; 
9th, burning of Arthur Peter & Conipiany's drug- 
store, loss $150,000 — the largest fne for two 
years; 27111, the steamer Virgie Lee sinks on the 

July 25th, the II. T. Dexter, a new steamer, 
burns near the city wharf. 

August gth, meeting of the Turners' Associa- 
tion of tlie United States at Woodland Garden 
and rhtftiiix Hill; 25th, Cornwall's candle fac- 
tory destroyed by fne, also meeting of the 
Colored Press Association. 

September 6th, negro grand jurois iniijanneled 
for the first time in Louisville; 7th, opening of 
the Eighth Annual Exhibition; lotli, total de- 
struction of the I'mzer Brothers' tobacco factory, 
the largest in the world. 

October 9th, Dr. C. C. Graham and eight 
Other veterans, whose united ages were seven 
hundred and twelve years, or an average of 
nearly eighty, dine tog-.ther at Rufei's; 12th, 
meeting of the State Board of Health; 21st, 
death of Thomas I.. Butler, a veteran oi 1S12, 
aged ninety-one; 25th, the Falls Ciiy Pickling 
Works burned. 

November 9th, meeting of the Tri-Siate 
Medical Society at the Masonic Teni|.!e ; iith, 
formal opening of the library of the Po!\technic 
Society (formerly Public Library of Kentuck\ ). 

December 3d, smiden death of John W. Arm- 
strong, a leading Loui--Mile grocer; 6ih, deaths 
of R. R. Bolhng and S. -\ .Atclu^on; 13th, ex- 
plosion of boiler at a soap lactury in Buiclier- 

town, killing the engineer and cai]ienter, and in- 
jming others; 2.Slh. extreme cold weather, clos- 
ing the river to navigation. 



The names upon the City Directory this year 
counted 54,901. 

There weie received at Louisville in 1S81 40,- 
:;oo,ooo bushels of I'ittsburgh coal and 3,000,000 
of the Kentucky product. 

Colonel Durrett sent to the Courier-Jnurnal in 
June of this \ear, the loll(j\\iiig list of the oldest 
men in Loni-,\ille, which has peiiiianeiit interct 
and value. Most of them are still li\ing [April, 


Dr. C. C. Grah.Tin c/j, H. W. Wilkes 9.1, Asa Emerson 94. 
Sleptien E. D.ivis Idiei! llie s.iiiie monili)94. T liomas L. Ltul- 
1.-. 92, William GivLil, 92. Jolui P. Voun- 91. 
citi/:hns o\r.K kiohtv. 

Josepli Daiifortli S9, Talljjl 89, Wi!li.\m J.irvis Sg, 
Joseph Swagar 88, E. E. Williams So, William W. Williams 
S6. Kev. Joseph A. Lloyd 84. Joseph A. BarncU S4. James 
Anderson 84, Joseph J. 85. Hon. William P, 
'I'homassun 83, Josepli Irwin 82, \\"i]liani thirst 82, James 

C. Ford 82. ^^amuel Cunpbell 82. Hon. D. L. Beattv 82. 
Jarne^ .\ndcrion. Jr 82, James Harrison St. Samuel K. Rieh- 
aidsun 80, Dr. .\I. L. Lewis So, J. R. Green So. Rev. Wil- 
li\m C. .\tmure So. 


B. F. Avery 79, Samuel Hiilman 79, J. Mcllvaiii 79, Ed- 
ward Stokes 78. Abratiam Myers 7S, William Musselnian 
78. John Lamborne 78. A. G. Hodges 78. John Fielder 78. Eustis 77, A. W. R. Hams 77, James iiamilton 77. 
Thomas Jefferson 77, J, M. .Monohan 70, S. S. English 76, 
W. H. Evans 76. Dr. T. S. Bell 75. ilun. John D. Del-pli 75. 
Dr. R. W. Ferguson 75, T. J. Haekney 7-5, R. R. Jones 75, 
Wilham Kriel 75, Christian Hatzel 75. R. P. Lightburri 75, 
Lut'' er Wilson 75. R. K. White 74. Henry Wolford 74. 
D.iud Marshall 74. C. C. Green 75, John Christopher 74, 
Rev. James Craik 74. John Adam 73, Hun. William F. Bul- 
loek 73. James Bridgeford 73, James ^L Campbell 73, H. 
W. Haues 73, S.'G. Hei.rv 7j. John P. Morton 73, Zenos D. 
P.trker 73. [!. F. Rudy 73. Fi.uieis Reidhar 73. Christopher 
Steele 73, James Trabue 73, G. A. Zeuma 72, L. L. Warren 
72. L. .A. 'Pripp 7^, George Slioemaker 72. R. F. Orr 72. 
Warren .Miteliell 72. Fount I^ochry 72. Dr. William H. God- 
d,;rd 72. Thom.i, \. Gorin 72. George L. Douglass 72. M. 
Lewis Clark, Sr. 72. Charles X. Corri 72, Henri Christopher 
72. W. J. Cornell 72, \V. P. Benedict 72, R. M. Ale.sander 
72, Archibald Chappell 71, Benjamin B. Hinkle 71, Rev. E. 
P. Humphrey 71, M. W. SherriU 71, B. H. Thurman -i. 
J..s.-lih Wolfe 70. ( h.irles Wollord 70, G. '1 . Wrii.jn 70, L. 

D. Peir^-jii 70. d". ( . Pomcro) 70, 1 ).inu-l Liviclle-o, Henry 
Knea=.ter 70. F. Keener 70. T, M. K:uin ;o. Rev. .\. Hunter 70. John L. Biunham 70, I'arleton Arter- 
burn 70, Prof Noble Ltuller 70. 




January 2d, explosion of the boiler of Du Poni's 
paix;r-niill, fa'ally injuring Henr\' Tay'Mv; Sih. 
twenty-six pulicemen di^nii^scvl ; 9th, Holiclns 
\V. Cood, a director ol the Bank of Kentucky, 
fell on the ire and was killed: 19th, death of 
Rev. John N. Norton, I). I)., a'-sociate Rector of 
Chriit cluircli ; 2(3ili, tuenty-one new policemen 

February .jth, an ordinance jjasses the Coun- 
cil for renuu'bcriuL; all buildmgi in llie city: 
14th, sudden death of \^'lllianl I'ennington, an 
old river pilot. 

March 4th, Professor G. A. Chase, Principal 
of the Girls' High School, is stricken with paraly- 
sis; 9th, meeting of National Association of 
Wooden Coffin Manufacturers; 12th, death of 
Colonel Thomas Ale.xander, a Mexican vet- 
eran ; l6ih, dettli of Colonel .\. G. Hodye--, 
formerly a [jromlnent editor in the city and Stale; 
20th, death of Mrs Eli/abelh Gwin, the fust 
white girl b.jii"; in Louis\ille, aged ninety-four. 

April i2ih, meeting of Kentucky Grand Lodge 
Knights of Honor: i6th, Rev. Hr. Stuart Robin- 
son tenders his rtsigiiatiuii as Pastor of tlie Sec- 
ond Preslivterian cliurch; 26ih, the steamer 
Rainb, nv is left helpless on t!ie Falls, by explo- 
sion of h^r boiler. 

May 2d, the public opening of Phcenix Hill 
and Riverside Parks; 5th, death of John P. 
Young, an old resident; 9th, op'cning ol the new 
Sliort Line p.issenger depot; extremely warm 
weather the middle of the month; 23d, dea:h of 
Hon. M. H. Colcr, Chief Justice of the Court of 
Appeals; 3o;h, dedication of the Tabernacle 
(Warren Memorial church), at the corner of 
Fourth street and Proadway. 

June ijth, burn ng of Robert I.)un!np &: Com- 
pany's tobacco factory ; 22d to 24th, midsum- 
mer encanniiment "f the Knii;lus Templars of 
the State, in Central Park, with a grand street 
parade on the 23d, and [jri^e militarv and Tem- 
plars' drill on the last day ; 30th, a number of 
residents prostrated by excessive heat. 

July I ith, "burning of David Sternberg's store ; 
I2th, more deaths from heat; 14th, muih dam- 
age to boats on tiie river from wind-storm ; 26th, 
opening of slmuting tournament of Louisville 
Gun Club; 30th, burning of Gathright ^: Look's 
wholesale saddlery and harness store. 

August 9th, death of .S. K. Richardson, one 

of the old lesidents : 10th, destruction by fire of 
Trinity l^piscopal Church and of thirteen cars in 
the LouisviHe & Nashville yaid ; 20th, meeting 
at 'Willard Hotel to organize a pioneer associa- 

September 7th, opening of the Annual Ex- 
]i03itlon ; iSth. .Mayor IJaxtcr contracts for a 
new fire-ahirm telegraph : 24th, Garfield nie- 
inoriil sei\ices in 'Pwelllh-street .Methodist Ejiis- 
copal Churc h ; 2Sth, burning of Stafford's 
cooper-shops, on Southall street. 

October 6th, death of Rev, Stuait Robinson, 

D. I).; 19th, session of Masonic CIrand Lodge; 

23d, closing of the FIxposition ; 26th, opening of 

[ the W'oman'.s Suffrage Convention at the Opera- 

I house ; 29th, the superb W'arreiT Memorial 

Churcli totally destroyed by the. 

November 17th, celebra'.ion by the Swiss of 
i the 574th anniversary of their national inde- 
I pendence ; 26th, sudden death of two old citi- 
i zens, lacob Punk and William Henny. 

December loth, visit of Jefferson Davis to the 
' city ; 24th, starting of the^er 
] circuit by the lirush Electric I.'ght Company. 

1SS2 — POr'UL.\lION", EIC 

An increase of 2,299 names, against iSSi, 
a[)[iears in the City Directory of this vear, the 
whole number being 57,200. Multiiilying the 
increase b\- 3, a L;rowih 111 popul.ition o{ 6.S97 
uithin a year is indicated. It was thoutjht that 
Louisville and its immediate environs now com- 
prised a population of not less than 170,000. 

On the 2d of January was begun one of the 
most remaikable revival works of modern times 
in Kentucky, under the. preaching of the Rev. 
(leorgf- O. H.unes, the "healing" or "mountain 
evaiiL^elist." uho had been successfully at work 
fir several vears in the rougher districts of the 
interior. He was assisted by his daughter Marie, 
in singing and Pible-readmg ; and the largest 
audience-rooms in the city ultimately became too 
strait for his congregations. .Xdopting the for- 
mula of healing in James \'. 14, he anointed tor 
bodily disease, durim; his seven weeks' work 
here, two thous.iml three hundred and fiftv-five 
persons, and rei eiveJ the conlession of Christian 
belief and conversion from two thousand four 
hundred and seventv-three. On the last evening 



of his ser\ice^, I'Vbruary i9tli, lie anointed one 
hundred and ninety iiuahds, and one hundred 
and seventy-bix niaile their cunfe^sion. 

Mr. lohn li. -RNan, an iniini^rant to Louis\ illc 
from riiil.idel|ihia in 1837, and a successful 
leather merchant here for many years, died 
Janiiary 35th. 

On the.Tiext day Joseph Clements, Esq., was 
stricken with heart disease in the recess of the 
St. Nicholas Hotel, while waiting for a street 
car, and died in a t'ew minutes. He came to the 
city about 1S42, was one of the editors of the 
Louisville Daily I)niie, then a lauyer and hnally 
a justice of the peace for nearly thirty years, be- 
ing at tlie time of Ins death the oldest magistrate 
m the city. 

Professor Noble Cutler, a teaclicr of high re- 
pute in Louisville since 1S39, and author of 
several successful text-books, died at his "Home 
School " on Walnut street, February uth. 

A great Hood came in h'ebruaiy, woi king more 
mischief on the ti\er front than anv other that 
ever visited Louisville. It reached its higliest 
on the 22d, when it was thirty two and one-h:df 
feel above low water at the iiead of the canal, 
and fifty-six and one half feet in the cliannel 
depth at the foot of the Falls. Though not the 
highest, it was accounted the m j^t disastrous in 
undation that ever visited the Ohio ^'alley. 

F\'bruary 25th, died Dr. E. D. Foree, one of 
the most eminent physicians of Louisville. He 
is the subject of a biographical notice elsewhere. 

February ;Sth, the Grand Lodge of the An- 
cient Order of L'nued Workmen for Kentucky 
met at the Liederkraiu Hall. 

NLarch 5th, the steamer James Fi. Parker is 
wrecked upon the Falls, in the Indiana cliute, 
just below the railway bridge. March S[h, death 
ot Henry Clay Pindell, a pronunent lawyer of 
the city. The same day a boat's crew I'lum the 
Government life-saving station go ovtr the dam, 
but without loss of lite. March i::ih, the corner 
stone of the new Culored ilaiaist church, on 
Centre street, between Chestnut and I'.roadway, 
was laid in the presence of an immense throng 
and Several colored Masonic lodges. March 
15, Philip Pfau, Esq, an old and well-known 
citizen and magistrate, died from the ciTects of 
injuries receivLd Ft.liriiary 2i);li, by tailing 
through a cellar way. During this month an act 
passed the Legislature chartering the Louis\ille 

Canal ^: \\'.iter power;-, fnr the huildir.g 
of a canal from deep watc abo\e the city to deep 
water below, tluis forming a water-route around 
Louisxille of about six miles' length, and (utting 
otT the h'alls, if deemed best, and partially the 
old canal, as a means of transit for steamers, be- 
sides lurnisliing an mimense anu^unt of water- 
power, and draining the southern part of the 
city, some of the old ponds still are. It is 
thought the canal v.ill lie made I'rom a point near 
the water-works to tlie mouth of Paddy's Run. 

April 3d, the hill for a new Government build- 
ing in Louisville, to cost $800,000, passed the 
Federal House of Representatives. April 5th, 
the State Medical Society met ifi the Young 
Men's Christian .\ssociation Hall, with I)r. J. 
W. Holland, of Louisville, presiding. April 6th, 
the pupils of the CJiils' High School had an inter- 
esting series of memorial exercises, in honor to 
the genius and Mrtues of the poet Longtellow, 
then recently deceased. 

In the early days of .\pril there «,is renewed 
agitation of the question of removal of the State 
capital from FVankfort to Lnuisvillc. A pvro[)o- 
sition to issue $1,000,000 in the city's bonds, to 
meet the exjienses of removal, was submitted to 
\ote on the Sth and appioved bv 3,053 to 1,133. 
Only one precinct of the city, th : tlrst of the 
First Ward, ca^t a majority against it. 

Our record closes on the loth of .April. 



C.impbelllon —Its I'ound.ilions — Bt'comes Shippingport ^ 
Survey and PLiainj by Berlhuud— Sale to the Tar.iscons— 
Population in iSio iinJ T830~It-S Decadence — The ■'Ken- 
tucky Giant " — Xoiiccs tiy McMurlrie, Faux the Tra\e!er, 
and Ogdcn, Portland— Its Beginnings. Rise, Progress, 
and .\bsorption into L(iuis\ille — Notices by Casseday and 
Dana— 1 he Flood of iSi2. 

Before passing to the S|iecial chapters in which 
certain great inietests of the city of Louisville 
are to receive sep^arate attention, some notice ot 
the two towns turiiierlv independent, but now 
embraced wiihin the city limits, seems to be de- 


was the first of these, in the order of time, as it 



once was also in irniKirtanre. The site of this 
lies upon the i)riiniti\c two-thousand acre tract 
of Colonel Campbell, fioni whicii tact is apparent 
the fitness of its orii^'inal name of "Carnjibellton," 
taken when it was founded in 17S5, only seven 
years after General (leor.ue Rogers Clark landed 
his troops and colomsts amid the canebrakes of 
Corn Island. It lies, as all residents of Louis- 
ville know, between the rapids and canal, and de- 
rived its second name of Shippingport, tthicli was 
given it in or before 1S06, from its situation fa- 
voring; the transhipment of freight from that point 
around the Falls on the Kentucky shoie, before 
the canal was made. The title has altogether lost 
its significance, since the construction of that 
great work. Much of the site is subject to over- 
flow in time of high v.ater, and many liouses and 
the mills on the lower ground were thoroughly 
flooded during the recent inundation of 1SS2. 

A few cabins were erected in Carn|jbellton 
during 1 785 and subsequently; but the place 
made small progress for ten years. It was regu- 
larly surveyed and jilatted by Woodrough in 
1804, upon a plan dr,iv;n up by Walccmi ; aiul llie 
lots were ad\erti--ed for sale. I'he streets run- 
ning with general ])arallehbm to the river were 
F'ront (si.xty feet wide), Second and Third (lihy 
feet each), Market (ninety, evidently with the 
Louisville view of placing markets in the middle 
of it), Tobacco (si.\ty), Dengal and [ackson 
(thirty each), and Hemp (si\t_\). The streets 
running at right angles to these were Mill and 
Tarascon and thirteen others, numbered t'rom 
First to Thirteenth, ail si.xty feet wide. It was a 
town site comparing in size very t'avorably with 
that originaiK' platted for Louis\ille, being I'orty- 
five acres in all. 

In 1S04 the unsold part of the tract was sold 
to the enteriirising Frenchman, Mon<. Berihond, 
for whom the SLir\cy and [ilat just mentioned 
were made. It did not yet get forward rapidly, 
however; and anotlier conveyance was made in 
1S06, by which the greater [jart of the lots 
passed to other Frenchmen, the celebrated 
Tarascons. Their business energy and influence, 
and their own identification with its interests, 
gave It a decided impetus, and in tSio it ac- 
tually contained a [)()|Hilatiiin of ninety-eight. It 
probably reached its nia.simum of inhabitants 
in 1S30, just before the opening of the 
canal, when it contained six hundred and six 

people. One of its chief industries, that con- 
! ccrned with the postage of goods around the 
j l''alls, being thus destroyed, it naturally fell rap- 
\ idly into decadem e. 

Tiie town was regularly incor|)orated in 1S29, 
lint ultimately l<jst its separate existence, and 
was merged in the grasping growth of the neigh- 
boring city, v.ith wliich its beginnings were almost 

One of the most famous men of Ship|)ingport 
was Porter, th.e "Kentucky Giant," who was ex- 
hibited for years, and then became a saloon- 
keeper and hai kman at the Falls. A notice 
was given him by Chailes Dickens, in the 
American Note-, which will be found in our 
annals of Louisville's Seventli Decade. 


'I'he earliest of these, which has come to our 
knowledge, is given by Dr. Murtrie, in his Sketches 
of Louisville, published in 181^9. He says : 

Thi.-. hHpc<rt.-iitt pi i- .sitiint'd two niili s t-dow Louisville, 
immediately ai tlie foot of tlie r.ipids. and is built upon tlie 
beLiutiful plain or bottom whieh commences at the foldl 
m.juth of Beargr.iss creek, through which, under the brow 
of theseond the contempl.ited will in all proba- 
abihty be cut a prediction verified to the letlet". The town 
ori^^mally consisted of forty-fi\e acres, but it has since re- 
ceived consideraljie additions. The lots are 75 ."c 144 feet, the 
a\('rjge price of which at present is from forty to hfty dollars 
per foot, according to liie advantages of its situation. The 
streets are all laid out at right angles; those that run parallel 
to the river, or ne.irlv so, are eight in number and vary fruin 
tlnrly to ninety feet in v.idih. Thcs^are all intersected by 
tuelve-feet alleys, running parallel to thcin, and by fiftet-n 
cross streets at right angles, each sixty feet wide. 

The population of ij cippmgport may be estimated at si.^c 
hundred souls, including strangers. Some taste is already 
perceptible in the construction of their houses, many of 
which are neatly built and ornamented with galleries, in 
whiLh, ot a Sund.iy. are displayed all the be,iuty of the place. 
It 1.-. a f.ict, the Bois de Boulogne of Louisville, it being the 
r-. ^ort of all classes on high days and holidays. At these 
linu'> It exiubits a'spect.icle .It once no\el and interesting. 
Tile number of steamboats in the port, each bearing one or 
\.\\o d !g->, the llirong of horses, c.irriages, and g'gs. and the 
contented appearance of a crowd of pedestrians, all arrajed 
in llieir " Sunday's best,' produce an eftect it would be im- 
pu.,sible to describe. 

Shippingport is the natural harbor and landing-place t'or 
all vessels trading on the Western waters with New Orleans, 
tlie Missouri, and upper .\ii«is:,ippi, the lower and upper 
Oluo, and, in tine, in eotjjunction with Louisulle .ind I'ort-, which in some future d ly will be all one great city, is 
the center port of the Wcalern country. Nature has placed 
it ,it the head of the navig.ition of ti.e lower Ohio, as it has 
Lou sMlle at the fo it of the upper one, where all ascending 
btjats must, during thrce-tourths of tiie vear. of necessitv be 
compeiled to stop, whieli they can do with perfect safety, as 
immedi.itely in front of it is a basin called kock Harbor that 



presents a good moorinL;-!,ioimd. c.ip.iljle of conl.nnir.g nny 
numljcr of lessels, of any Iniiihcii, an;! conipleiely sheltered 
from every waul. Rock Isl.uid. which forms tlie northern 
boundary of this ba-in, is a sife lanriint;-place, where tioals 
frequently reeoi\e tiietr carL;oes, whieii are carried over the 
Kentncky chute Thi, is only, howev.-r, when t!ie water is 
low. The channel !j> Sandy Maud, which oilers a pleasant 
and coniniodious sjtuaiir.n for lepainng vessels, was ob- 
structed by a nest of snails, wiiieh probably had existed there 
for centuries, .a.nd had been the cause of considerable loss of 
propel ty bj' sinhing boal=, which, from the swiftness of the 
current, it was hardly pii-iih^- to steer clcai of them. Last 
summer, )iowe\er. Mr. l« .\. Tarascon. at his own expense 
and with consideralile difficulty, succeeded in i.iising and 
removinr; them. The whole fiont of the town will be im- 
proved this summer by the addition of wharves, which will 
facilitate the loading and unloading of steamboats that are 
constantly arri\ing fiom lielow. 

I.)i. McMiirtrie gives the following view of the 
leading industries of the pl.tce in and before 

There were formerly here, as at Louisville, a numl;ier of 
rope-walks, which are at present nearly all abandoned, there 
not being a sufficiency of hemp r.iised in the county to sup- 
ply the nianuf.icturers. 1 las has arisen from the great losses 
sustained in the sales of oj.-d.ige, w hich has discouraged the 
rope-maker, and conse. juetiii) ofi'ered no inducement to the 
farmer to plant an article for which there was but little de- 

N.\i'OLEO.N' DiSTiLi.ERV.— This is conducted by a gentle- 
man from Europe, whose long experience and perfect Knowl- 
"edge of the business enables him to fabricate the different 
kinds of distilled waters, cordials, hqueurs, etc., which have 
been pronounced by connoisseurs from Martinique and the 
Gallieres de Bois to want notiung but age to render them 
equal to anything of the kind presented in either of those 

Merch.\nt .M.VNUF.^cruRi-.G ^^ILI. — His valuable 
mill is remarkable, not only fur its si^e and the quantity of 
flour it is calcul ited to manufacture when completed, but for 
the beauty of its machinery , which is said to be the most 
perfect specimen of the m.Ilwnght's abilities to be Ibund in 
this or any other eountr}-. 'ihe foundations were commenced 
in June, 1815, and were reatly tn receive the enormous super- 
structure only in the spring of 1817. The building is divided 
into six stories, considerably higher is there being 
one hundred and two feet from the first to the sixth. Wag- 
gons containing the wheat or other grain foi the mill are 
driven under au arch, which commands the hopper of a scale. 
into which it is discharged and weighed at therate ofseventv- 
flve bushels in ten minutes. From this it is conveyed by ele- 
vators to the sixth story, where, after passing through a 
screen, it is deposited in the garners; if manufacturing, from 
thence into a "rubber" of a new construction, whence it is 
conveyed into a large screen, and thence to the stones. 
When ground, it is re-con\eved by elevat-jrs to the hc-pper- 
boy. in the sixth story, \v hence, after being cooled, it de- 
scends to the bolting cloths, the bian being de[)osiicd in a 
gallery on the left and tlie siiorts in another to the right. 
The fl'.iur being divided into fine, superfine, and middlings, 
is precipiLited into the p.icking cleats, wlieuce it is deli\ered 
to the barrels, which are hlied with great r.tpiditv by a pack- 
ing press. 

Thia noble and useful establishment is not yet finished, and 

I has alre.idy cost us owner, Mr. Tarasron, $150,000, and when 
! eonipl,-ted It will ir.anuf.iclure five hundred b.irrels of flour 
per day. Immediately above is a line of mill-seats, e.xtend- 
I ing two thousand six hundred aud sixtv-two feet, afl'ording 
I sites for works of that description which, if erecled, would 
j be .djic jointly to produce two thousand barrels in the twenty- 
four hours. Some ex|)eiiments are now making tiy the 
owner, in order to deiei mine the possibility ol having a series 
of undershot wheels placed in the race above, to be prjpMled 
by the force of the current only. Should he succeed, he in- 
tends extending his works and to employ this power for cot- 
ton spinning, fulling, weaving, etc. 

Ml. Fau.\, the " F.iiglish Faitnev'' before men- 
tioned as here in 1S19, says m his Memorable' 
Da)b in America ; 

1 rode in a hackney cuacli to Shi|jpingport, .i sort of ham- 
let of Louisville, standing on the margin of the river, oppo- 
site to a flourishing new town on the oihpr side, called 
.Albion i^Xew Albany], in Indiana. Counted from twelve to 
sixteen elegant steamlioats aground, waiting for water. 

The passage down from hence to Orleans is $75, a 
price which competition and the unnecessary number of boats 
built will gieatly reduce. Lnteied a low (but the best) tavern 
in Shippingport. intending, if I liked it, to board and wait 
hcie for the troubling of the waters ; but. owing to the mean- 
ness of the company and provisions, 1 soon left and returned 
to headquarters at Louisville. The traveler, who must 
necessarily often mix with the very dregs of society in this 
country, should be prepired with jilain clothes or the dress 
of a mechanic, a geiiilenianly appearance only exciting un- 
friendly or curious feelings, which defeat its object and make 
his superiority painful. 

.Mr. George W. Ogden, whcise volume of Let- 
ters from tile West already been eitcd, gave 
the vilLige this notice in the sunniier of 1S21, 
when here: 

.-\ htlle below, on the Kentucky side, is a sm ill place cal'ed 
Shippingport. Here lioat^ bound down the river generallv 
land for the purpose of leaving the pilot and of obtaining in- 
form. ition relative to the m.irkets below. It is but a few 
years since Shippingport was a wilderness, but since its com- 
mencement its increase his been unparalleled, and it bids fair 
to rival even Louisville in commerce and m.inufactures. Be- 
low Ihis town, fur fifty iiiilej, the river is truly beautiful. . 
Near the rapids i.^ situ.Tted Fort Steuben. 


The site of this [ilace was the property of Gen- 
eral U'illiam l.ytle when, in 1S14, it vvas surveyed 
and platted under his direction by Alexander 
Ralston. An addition was laid init in 1S17, for 
the same proprietor, by Joel Wright. A peculiar 
division [irevailed in the town-plat, the two parts 
being known as "I'ortl.ind iimiier,' and "the en- 
largement of I'nrtl.ind." Fhe lots in the "proiier'' 
plat were of halfacre size, and sold readily for 
$200 each, increasing in price by 1819 to $500 



to $i,ooo. The cnlaR'cnicnt com|iiiscd lots 
fifty per cent. Liri;rr, or tlircefourths of .m acre 
ill si/e, rind the price ;it first corresponded, lieino 
$300 apiece. Thv'y did not appreciate, however, 
in the same ratio as those of the older Portland, 
as they were selling at. $500 to .$600 in 1819. 
Inuring this year Mc.Murtrie's Sketches said of 

But a sni.ill poition of this pvlcnsisc pLu-e is ,ts vjI occu- 
pied by housci. Some \ery h.T,'l.-ome ones, iK^wcvcr. .ire 
now erecting; in PurtLind pro[.'-r. and among llieiii n v. iv ex- 
tensive biicl< warehouse. beIonj;in.5 to Captain II. M. 
Shreve. Tlic property in lliis place has lately attracted the 
attention of a number of wealthy men, who seem determined 
to improve to the utmost every advantage it possesies. and 
as it is not so subject to inundation as some of the ailjoinin" 
places, it? future destinies m.ay be considered as ihoiicf a 
highly flourishing and important town. 

In 1830 ]\-)rthnd had a |:iopulation of 398, 
not quite three-fourths that of Shippingport. 
Thirty years later, however, it had feii;ed far 
ahead of that ancient burg, and numbered 1,706 
inhabitant.s. Long before tiiis, however, in 1837, 
the encroachments of growing Louisville de- 
manded the extinction of Poitland as a se|iarate 
municipality, and it has since shared the fortunes, 
for good or ill, of its larger and older sister. It 
had been incorporated only tliiee years, or since 

Mr. Casseday, writing his History of Louis- 
ville about 1S51, said of this place: 

It has fulfilled the ofTice of a suburb to Louisville, but has 
never at any time held prominent importance aniont; towns, 
and is chiefly worthy of notice now as a point of lai.iling for 
the largest class of New Orleans boats at seasons when the 
stage of the river will not allow them to pass over the rapids. 
Althoush it was at one tmie predicted that "its future desti_ 
nies might be regarded as tiiose of a highly tlonrishing and 
important town, ' it never ecjualled the least sin'niine 
hopes of its friends. It has no history of its oun worthy of 

Dana's Geographical Sketches of the Western 
Country, in 1819, had said of this village: 

It is a n.jiirishing pi ice. .\ street nineiy-nno feet wiile. 
having a communication with Louisville, extends along the 
highest bank above the whole length of the town. It con- i 
tains three warehouses, several stores, and one gooil mem. 

It may be added that the lower part of Port- 
land, that lying along the river, suffered with un- 
usual severity during the liood of February, 1SS2. 
INIany buildings on the street next the river 
were severely injured and ^onie totally wrecked, .' 
while the street itself wa, filled with tloatage and 
debrise and much damage was done in other 
ways. The great distilleries just below were 

thoroughly flooded, and many cattle di owned, 
while more suffered untold agonies, while stand- 
ing tor many lunirs in water up to their heads. 



I ln,rnduc,„ry---Method,sm Earliest to Org,,nize herc^The. 

I list .Meihodisl Church-Methodist Reformed 

j Church— Trinity Chapel -First German Methodist Epis- 

j copal Church -Division of the Churches North and South 

—West Broadway Methodist Episcopal Church- St. James 

African Melhodi.-t Episcopal Church— Biographical .Notices 

i of Bascom, Holman, Crouch, Stevenson. Kavanaugh, 

I'arsons. and Sehon. Roman Citholicism— The Diocese 

of Louisville— Its Bishoi— Removal from Bardstoun to 

Uniisville-Thc Sisters of Cnarity— The [esuits-Kitst 

Catholic Church in Louisville— Local Development o( 

C.itl-.olicism — Its Congregations, Convents, Schools. Etc.— 

; Church and Convent of St. Louis Bertrand-St. Xivier's 

Instuuie— Xolices of Bishops Spalding and McCloskey, 

; and Father Abell. The Baptists- The First (Walniit- 

stiect) Cliurch—East Church -JelTerson-streol Church- 

Hope Church Broadway Church— .Southern Baptist Tlie- 

I ologic.d Seminary— Notices of Manly, W.irdor, Arnold, 

I J. L. and J. C. \V,tlIei, Bui rows, and Pratt. Prcsby- 

teriani'm-The First Church— The Second-The Portland 

.-\vrnue--.\ssociate Reformed Presbyterian Church— The 

.Mutual Assurance Fund— Notices of Smith, Brecken- 

ridge, Humphrey, [ones, and Lowry. The Christian 

Church— The First— The Second — Notice of Tyler. The 

Episcopal, ans— Christ Church— St. Pauls -St. Stephens 

Mission-Biography of Rev. Dr. Norton, and Notices of 

I'rs. Crouch. Peers, and Perkins. Cnitari,inism -The 

Church of the Messiah— Notice of the Rev. Dr. Hey- 

wood. Judaism -Notice of Rabbi Kleeberg. Notes of 

1847-Religion in Louisville in 1852— The Women's Chris- Association. 

The topic of this chapter must needs deal 
mainly with religion as organized in Louisville. 
But it is obviously impossible to treat adequately, 
within the limits of a single chapter, the history 
of each of the many religious societies now in the 
city; and we are necessarily confined to a t'cw 
representative churches, and almost exclusively 
to those whose pastors or officers have shown a 
practical spirit of co-operation with the compilers 
of this work. 

The annals of organized religion in Louisville 
began with 


The first society of the Methodist Ejiiscopal 
church in Loui.sville is reputed to have been or- 
ganized in 1S05, and to have been embraced in 



thf Salt Riser atnl Sliclbv circuit. ]',.Trlicr than 1 
that, the few .Melhuli^ts )n the xiliaye hatl their , 
nieuihcr.-,hip in tlit' thiirch at 01 near Ulica, (111 ' 
the Indiana shore, wliere Metiiodim t'oiuid a [ 
lodi^nient vcr\' early. The Louisville society 
worbhip]>cd at Inst iii a small lo:< s'-liool house, 
near where the court-house now sl.mds, while 
the [jrayer and cLiss-nicetiiigs were commonly 1 
held at Thomas Biicotirt's dvvellin^. Tint by \ 
I X^t) th'' d'r-'ioniinatir-n had .so s!rer.i,'hencd 
locally as to be able to purchase a sm.dl lot on 
the north side of Market street, between Seventh 
and lughth, upon which a cliuich of moderate j 
size was built. It, with the town, is thus noticed 
in Bishoji Asbury's Journal, under d.ite of Oc- 
tober 21, iSi 2 : 

I prc.ictiod in Louis\ i!!'j :U 11 o'clock, in otir neat brick 
^ I 

house 34-^:30 feet. I hati a sickly, seriou> congie^.ation. This 1 

is a growing town and a handionie place. \ini ilie lioods or j 

ponds make it unhealthy. We lodge at Farquar's. 1 

This church was sold in 1S16, but the building | 
remained for nearly three-quarteis of a century i 
an interesting relic of religious and mateiial his- : 
tory in this place. .-V lot was then purchased on ; 
Fourth street, between Market and Jeflcrson, 1 
where the New York store now stands, and oc- j 
cupied by a church. In. the same year the Ohio : 
Conference, which then included most of the 
Kentucky churches, met in Louisville; and the 
Rev. Andrew Monroe, appointed bv it tcj the 
Jefferson circuit, wrote; "The society in Louis- 
ville was small — good class-meetings and a good j 
class of people." Two years al'terwards the : 
church was made a station, and the clo | 
quent Henry li. Bascom given liis first pastorate | 
in charge of it. He wrought a successful work I 
in connection with it. At the close of his first \ 
year he reported a membership of eighty-seven j 
whites and thirtv colored persons, which at the j 
close of his Second and last \car had increased 
to one hundred whites and forty-five blacks, 
comprising then (1S20) about one twenty-eighth ' 
of the entire population of the place. i 

The Louisville churth was first, as before ■ 

noted, in the Salt Ruer and Shelby Circuit. It ' 

was transt'erred to the Shelby Circuit in due i 

time, and then to the Jefferson Circuit upon its ] 

formation in iSii, when Louisville was fust ■■ 

made a regular mcetingtilace. 1 


The Methodist Episcoiial Church in Louisville , 
had by 1S20 so largely increased in numbers as i 

to be nearly or quite ready to cohsni/c another 
society. 'I'he secessi'>n occurred this year, and 
numbered about I'lUy members. I'or some rea- 
son, they did not choose to form anotlicr society 
of the same faith and order, but instead organ- 
ized ;i " Methoilist Reformed'' Churcli. A 
modest building was elected for it at the nortii- 
west corner of I''oiui!i and Green streets, which, 
when abandoned by the Retbrmers, was used for 
a time by the First Presbvterian peojile, and 
finally by a congregation of negroes. The site 
has been occupied for the last thirty years by the 
huge ^Lasonic Building. 

'I'he Trinity Chapel, at the corner of Third 
and Guthrie streets, was originally built for the 
Methodists, and took tiie name of Sehon 
Chapel. 'Lhc Episcopalians afterwards bought, 
and changed its name to Calvary Church. A 
number of the members of Trinity did not re- 
mo\e from th.eir place of worship, but removed 
their membership to the incoming society. 
^^"hen the Calvary congregation went to their 
piesent location on Fourth .-\vetiue, the chapel 
building was again sold to the Methodists, and 
took its present name of Trinity Chapel. 

In the fall of 1S40 the Kentucky Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal church sent to this 
city the Rev. Peter Schmucker as a missionary 
among the Germans. He began his w ork under 
rather embarrassing circumstances, preacliing 
and organizing Sabbath-schools in school-houses, 
private dwellings, and the market places, until in 
the spring of 1S41 the Presbyterian church on 
Hancock street, between Main and Market, then 
a small frame building, was kindly tendered him 
in which to hold services. In January of this 
year the society had been formally organized, 
and by the ist of October reached a membership 
of ninety-three. In the spring of the following 
year, 1S42, a small one-story brick church was 
erected on Clay street, between Market and Jef- 
ferson. To this a [larsonage was added in 1S45; 
and in 1S49, under the pastorate of Rev. P. B. 
Becker, both church and parsonage were made 
two-story. In 1S71 the society organized a branch 
mission, procured a lot on the corner of Clay 
and Breckenridge streets, and erected thereon a 
frame chapel and ]iarson.ige at a cost of $3,500. 
Notwithstandirig the fact that the church on 
Clay street had been very malerially enlarged by 



tlie additional story and that a branrh society 
had been formed, the cnrjstant growth of the 
parent soc-iety made it r^ecessary to proeiire a 
place of •. orbhip. more ndeiuate to its luimbcr.s; 
accordinL,'ly, in the sprint; of 1S79, under the 
pastorate of Re\-. C. Tref/., a lot on the corner 
of Market and Hancock sireels was secured and 
the erection of the present very excellent build- 
ings--a magnificent two story brick clunch and 
a two arid-a half-story par-onage-- at a cost of 
$28,000. were begun, and by the fall of iSSo 
comjileted free of debt. The societv at present, 
with a membership of three hundud, two 
churclics, two parsonages, and two Sabbath- 
schools, wilh an attendance of three hundred 
and twentv-five, is in a prosperous condition. 
The Rev. H. G. Lick is pastor in charge, with 
the Rev. C. E. I'loch as assistant. The lat- 
ter furnishes us the above sketch. 

A notable ecclesiastical convention was held 
herein Ma\-, 1S45, composed of delegates from 
the Methodist E[ji5copal churches of the South 
and Southwest. Alfer a deliberation of nineteen 
days, lasting from the ibt to the 19th of the 
month, during which many aniniated di-^'ussions 
and much difference of sentiment were evoked, 
It was resolved that the annual conferences 
represented in the convention should be or- 
ganized into a separate body, to be known as 
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and that 
it would hold its first General Conference in 
Peteishurg, Virginia, the next ^Lay. This divis- 
ion of the Methodist church of the country was 
caused, as is pretty geneialiy known, by the in- 
creasing agitation of the slavery question, and 
has been thus far maintained, not\vith.-\anding 
the downfall of the institution upon which it was 

The West Broadway Methodist Erii-copal 
church. South, in its present organized form, 
with something over oiii hundred uieintiers on 
its register, and located on Thirteenth and broad- 
way streets, is the outgrowth of a missi<.m Sun- 
day-scliool established by a faitht'ul committee, 
which was appointed by the Walnut street Meth- 
odist church, A. H. 1S67. This committe was 
composed of J. .V Hinkle, f. S. D\ars, J. D. 
Brown, C. E. Harvev. Sr., John L. \\ heat, and 
H. B. Bridenthal. The Sunday-school was tlrst 
organized and taught in the residence ot Mrs. 

Mary Cochran on Delaware street, near Thir- 
teenth. F'aithl'ul woik in the Stmday-school and 
cottage jirayer meetings which were held in that 
section of the city resulted in the conversion of 
I some bouls. In 1S6S a church was organized by 
Rev. l- S. W'o.'ls, city missionary, and Rev. 
CJeorge ^V. -Brush, prc-iding elder of tl-.e Louis- 
ville District, with about fifteen members' as a 
nucleus. It was known as Thirteenth Street 
Mission, and met for we>i,!iip in a cottage on 
Thiiteenth street, between lielaware and Ken- 
tucky. In iS/ J it moved to Twelfth street, be- 
tween Lexington and Delaware, and was known 
as McKendree Ciiurch. In 1S75 it moved to 
Broatlway, between Thirteenth and Fourteenth, 
I in a cottage, and was kciown as West Broadway 
Methodist I-^piscopal church. South. In 1S78 
i a new church was built on Thirteenth near Broad- 
; way. on leased ground, and still known as West 
' Broadway Methodist Episcopal church. South. 
This church is more thrifty at [jresent than at any 
! preceding time. It is i/ro[ier to state that during 
[ its serious struggle for existence in its infancy, 
when many thought it could not be sustained, 
I the fidelity and untiring energies of J. A. Hinkle 
! kept it alive. For the p'ast two years, under the 
judicious management of an official Board, 
chosen from its own members, and supplimented 
by J. S. Byars, of the Walnut street, Professor 
S. T. Scott, of the Chestnut street, and T. FI. 
j Lyon, of the Broadway churches, it has been 
progressing well, and now gives promise of be- 
coming self-subtaining in a very few years. The 
Board has recently raised something over $3,000 
1 with which to purchase more desirable property. 
I The ijresent society, therefore, will soon be pos- 
; sessed of a neat and comfortable church. 

'I'his church has been served by the following 

1 named ministers, the term of their pastoiate be- 

! ginning with the date annexed: J. S. Wools, 

Oete.ber, 1S69.: J. W Mitchell, October, 1S71: 

Silas Xe:wton. October, 1S7; ; J. S. McDaniel, 

I October, 1S73 ; John R. Strange, October, 1S74; 

, J. F. Rediord, October, 1S75 ; G. W. Crum- 

baugh, Oct. ber, 1S76 ; J. M. Crow, October^ 

1S77 ; I. S. Scobee, October, 1S7S ; S. L. Lee, 

October, 1879 ; V. R. Harrison, October, iSSo; 

! R. W. Browder, October, iSSi. The presiding 

eiders have been ('.. W. Brush., E. W. Sehon, 

X. H. Lee, and David Morton.^ 

' ConuiljutLCl b; 

R. W. BroMde 



']"he society l;no\vn as St. J;inies Afiican 
Methodist l'-|)i-(:o|)al C'huuli, ii'jw worshiping on 
Green sticit, near Xinth, is the result of a 
scce.ssioii from .-\shhiny Ciiajiel, Xinth st[eet, 
near W'ahuit. 'i'he split occurred in Septcmlier, 
1 8/ 8. .Ashury Cliapel was destroyed by Cue in 
1S77; part of the congre^ati^jn wanted 10 build 
on the .same s'lte, and ]Airt Sianewheie iLe; so 
the latter withdrew, and took to themselves the 
naipe of St. Jani-s Church. J'he Cnn [jastor 
was Rev. John Coleman, of fJlnn; SLCond, Rev. 
A. A. Whitman, of Kentucky; third, l\ev. I). S, 
Beiuley, of Kentucky; present pastor, J. C. 
Fields, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

. In 1 Si 5 the Methodist church of Louisville 
received as its pastor the eluiuent young 
preacher, now but twenty two jears old, but 
already five years a licensed preacher — Henry 
Bidleman Bascom. He remained here two 
years, the first piastor ap|;iointed exclusively to 
the Louis\'iIle churcdi. His iiopulanty was \ery 
great, and a large number of citi/Liis not in tlie 
Methcdist connection and unfamiliar with the 
rigid law of the discipline then prohibiting the 
retu.rn of a minister for three consecutive \ears, 
sent a i)etition io the next Ccmference, asking 
his return t'or a third year. Three years after- 
wards, through the intluence ot Heniy Clay, he 
became Chaplain of the Federal House of Rep- 
resentatives, and then a noted revivalist in East- 
ern cities and at camp meetings, enj'iying for 
some time a reputation as the t'lrst jiulpit orator 
in the world. In 1S27-2S he was President of 
Madison College, in PennsUv.inia, and after- 
wards occu[)ied other ]jroniinent [jositions in ed- 
ucational work. A volume of his sernions was 
printed in Louisville in 1S50, and had a rapid 
and large sale. ^ The same )ear he was elected 
Bishop, at the General Conference in St. Louis. 
He died September S, 1S50, aged only I'li'ty-tour 

William Holman, [lopularly known as "Father 
Holman," was one of the most effective and 
.memorable preachers that the M. E. Cliurch ever 
had in Louisville. He was a native Kentuckian, 
born .April 20, 1790, near Slulbwille. -\t the 
age of eighteen he held a commission as captain 
in a militia coni['any raised for the del'ense of the 
border against the Lidians. His marriage in his 
twentieth year to .\hss Ruah .Meek led to his 

I conversion to Methodism, and he joined the 
j chuich in 1812. He fell railed to the ministry 
I at once, soon begati to exercise his gifts ;is helper, 
|. in the lall of 1816, at the session of the Ohio Con- 
ference in Louisville, was admitted on tiial 
as an itinerant, and assigned to the Limestone 
, (Maysville) ciicuit. Hisservites thereafter were 
! continuous duiinga long ministerial career. His 
j first aiiiiointineiit to Louisville was to the P'ouith 
j street charge, where now is the New \'ork Store. 
I He afterwaid organized heie the "L'pper Sta- 
I tion," l)uilt up the l:!rook street, now the Broad- 
j way .Methodist cluneli, and established a Bethel 
chuich fur the river men. From 1S33 to the 
I end of his ministry, e.xeept in 1S37-3S, he served 
in Louisville, eidicr as [laslor or Presiding I'.lder; 
I and was Post Ch.iplain in the city for a time 
during the war. The Rev. Dr. Linn, in an elab- 
I orate notice comprised in Bedford's flistory of 
I Methodism in Kentucky says of Father Holman; 
"He will be reuicinbered asa fnithl'ul, indefatigable 
! pastor, always at work, al\va\s ready to give 
advice to the young, couns.. 1 to the aged, and ofl'- 
eiing synipathy to the jioor and atllicted. 'J'liere 
is very little doubt that .Mr. Holman solemnized 
more marriages, ba|)tized more children, visited 
more sick, attended more funerals than any 
minister that ever lived in Kentucky. As a 
jireacher he was original and unique. . . But 
he will be nnnenibered because he adorned, by 
I his walk and conversation, the doctrines which ■ 
I he preached." His second wife was Mrs. 
j ALauha ALirtin. He died August i, 1S67, in 
i Louisville, aged seventv-seven years, thirty two 
\ of which had been [)assed in Louisville. 'An 
immense concourse attended his funeral. 

Q'lite early in the history of .Methodism here, 
the i'ourtliand iMghth Street ^Rthodist churches 
enjoyed the ministrations of one of the most 
remarkable Kentuckians then in the ministrv, a 
man of rare abilitv and elociueiice, although 
almost wholly without formal education — the 
Rev. Benjamin T. Crouch, who had John C. Har- 
rison for a Colleague. Mr. Crouch was constitu- 
tionally spare, but the unwonted confinement 
and labors of a station sowore u[)on him that he 
became little better than a living skeleton. He 
wrote : 

I hr l.ib'irs of the .ity did not suit my st.^tc of he.ilth. I 
«,ia uistini; away, uiili ;i l,ir'j;e iV.inie oftjjiiei. one incli 
i.ver si\ ffct in si.iiiirf; my \u-i^ht diirinij; most of the yenr only OIK liuiidrtij and Iwciitv pounds. 



A very cuniic.xl incident, rcsi;ltiiiL; (roia liis 
appenraiice, is thus relatLci in Rcdlord's History 
of Methodism in Kentucky : 

Tlie ofiice of a in ihe dlv was l'.;ca?od on a 
principal sircet. He liad in liis otlice a lunnan skulnon 
was concealeil ir, a case faslencd to liic \sall. It \iai so ar- 
ranged with spiiiiga tliat, bv a person Ireadiiig on a plank in \ 
from of il, the door of the ca'e wonld fly open and the arms 
of the skeleton would encirele him. .A young in, in. not ac- 
customed to such objects, early one morning eiitered the ofiice 
of the pliysieian, and b^.l^ore he was .awaie, found himseif in 
the embrace of the' skeleton. Violently tearing hini-eif 
away, he rushed fioni the room in alarin, .nnd. re.achrnt; 
the street, ran off at fuli speed for several squares. Ju-t a^ 
he imagined he was safe, he suddenly turned the corner of a 
square, when he confronted by Mr. Crouch. .Stopping 
for a moment, the horror-stricken youth looked upon the 
tall, p.ale stranger, and eNcl. timed : " O, ho ! old feilou ! 
you can't fool me. if you have got clothes on ! " Then, 1l;a- 
ing the preacher equally suiprised, he soori disappeared amid 
the passing crowd- 
In iMay, 1S40, he conducted with signal 
ability and success, a puMic contrtiversy at 
Owensboro on questions of iiapiism with the 
Rev. John L. \Valltr, of l,oui^vil!c, also a 
preacher of L;rjat power, and edil'jr ot the de- 
nominational oigan here, the We-tcrn Recorder. 
He was in all eight years upon the Louisvilie 
District, and survived utuil Apiil, 1S5S, atui 
thirty-live years of service. 

Rev. I'xhvaid Stevenson was born in Mason 
county, Kentucky, Cjctolier 3, 1797. His edu- 
cation was limited, but he studied the usual Eng- 
lish branches, and made some advancement in 
Latin. While still young, he became a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church and, not long 
after, decided to be a preacher of the gosjiel. 
As a speaker and singer, he had a large influ- 
ence, his fine appearance aiding greatly, but his 
poor education kept him out of the Conleience 
until twenty-three years of age. In iSjo, he 
was admitted on trial and appointed to the Lex- 
ington Circuit. Following this, he had a num- 
ber of charges, and tinally was sent only to the 
most important stations, such as Lexington, 
Frankfort, Louis\ille, etc. .\t one time he be- 
came quite a controversialist, defending tlie doc- 
trines of the church against the new religious 
movement of whith .\le.\ander Campbell was 
the leader. In 1S53, he was made I're^iding 
Elder of the East Louisvilie district. .-\t the 
General Conference he was elected Secretary of 
the Missionary Society, and .ilso .\ssistant llook 
Agent, taking charge ot the ISook Concern of 
the West, then located in Louisville, and when 

the Southern .Melheidist I'ublisliing Hou^e was 
loiated in N.ishville, lie was (hosen the princi|)al 
agent." I'lieduc.ited to business h.ibi'.s, he yet 
managed the affairs of the agency with great 
tact and skill, but was relieved of the office at 
hii own request, ami in the same year received 
the I'residency of the RusselUille Collegiate In- 
stitute, where lie continued till the time of his 
death, July 6, i.Sil.p He was h>iig a member of 
the Conference, and daring tlie civil 
war gave his sympathy wholly to the South. 
Mr. Stevens. Ill was twice mairied, and his second 
wife survived him. 

i'.ishop Hubbaid tlinde Kavanaugh, D. D., 
was born L'uuaiy 14, 1S02, near Winchester, in 
Cl.irk count), Kentucky. His father. Rev. 
William Kavanaugli, was of Irish descent. "W'liilc 
a\oung niiiiister m the .Methodist church, the 
clergymen of that denomination were forbidden 
to tiiarry. He observed this injunction for a 
time, but llnalK married Miss Hannah .M. Hinde, 
i who^e fatlier. Dr. Thumas Hinde, liad been an 
1 officer in the British army. He now united with 
the Eijiscopjjl church, and was one of the ilrst 
' ministers of that denomination wTiO ever preached 
in Louisville. His death occurred wh;n his son 
i was but a cliild. bishop Kavanacgh's mother 
was beirn in Mrgmia in 1777. She was three 
I times married, and was the mo'her of ten chil- 
1 dren. .\ woman of wonderful fortitude, hope, 
I and patience, her inlluence, doubtless, more than 
1 any one inlluence besides, made her children 
what they were in after years. 'I'he subject of 
1 our sketch was educated, as was then customary, 
in the private schooL a\ailal)le, and spent some 
time in learning the printing business. In 1S17 
he bet ame a riRinber of the .Methodist church, 
and at once began to think of becoming a 
preaiherof the gospel, tlis work began in a 
humble way. ' He was a leader of the black 
peop'e, then of the whites ; was licensed to ex- 
' heirt in tlie c.juntry pulpits ; was admitted by the 
annual confereiu e into its membership, and as- 
signed to the Little Sandy Circuit "on trial." 
Since that dav, he has filled the most impor- 
tant ciiarges in the State. In 1S39 he became 
Superintendent of Public Instruction for liis 
St.ite, and was at tlie same time agent for the 
College at .\ugusta, under the auspices of the 
Methodi.-t church. In 1354, at the General 
Conference hekl in Columbus, Georgia, he was 


elevated to the In^hcht t>liice uirlim the gilt of ' \iihinlririly, he luhe in his proU-ssion ici tank 
the church. ]'\,r more than half a century, ' aiiHuig the iiiosl pojuilar and able actors of tlie 
J3ishop Kavatniigh !ms been a minister of the .1 day. In his luivale life, too, he was singularly 
gospel, and b-vlf of tune has held the im- j jiiiie. His jjarts were in plays of a .semi trtigic 
[joitant ollice of |j;>ii.;p. He still preaches at | character, and he remained on the stage from 
times, and with much of the lire of his earlier ' the age of eighteen to thirty-three. In one of 
days. His enduraiice and unremitting [jersever- j his professional tours, iie met Miss ]'>hi!y C. 
nncc in times past lia\e been almost maivellous, I Oldham in Eouisville, and on December 7, 1S30, 
the sermons he ha.s |)reached having reached | they were married. Sijon after hismaniagehe 
nearly eight 'housnnd, and iii addition to these the' j abandoneil his profession from conscientious con- 
duties faithfully discha.rged that are ir.cident to j vietions, and began an entirely 0]ip)0--ile career 
the life of a pioneer jjieacher, pastor, and bishop 1 by leading the Hl^tory of the I'.ilile. He had 
would have reached a figure, had they been ; long been known "behind the s<enes '' as the 
counted, almost too large to be believed. In his [ preacher^ and this circumstance may have had its 
life he has always been pure, sym|)athetic, and j inilueiice in his decided conduct. .The day after 
consistent. Intellectually forcible, his eloquence [ he left the stage, he began family prayers in his 
has always coiumanded the multitude, and held i house, and within four months joined the Meth- 
iii thrall the hearts of his people. He has been | odist Epascopal Cliurrh, and was licensed to 
twice married, llrst to Mis, Margaret Ciittenden ' [ireach the go-pel in Louisville. During the 
Green, and afterward to Mis. Martha D. P. Lewis, j first year he studied diligently, and at its close 
daughter of Captain R. D. Richardson, of the j was a licensed local preachicr. Following this 
United States army. He has no children now ' time, lie was for two years on a circuit; was or- 
alive. dained a deacon and stationed at ITankfort ; 
Rev. Charles Booth Parsons, f). D., a minister < was located in St. Louis, Missouri, and had the 
and actor, was born Ju'y 23, 1S06, in Enfield, degree of lloctor of Divinity confeired Uijon 
Connecticut. His father \vas a victim of yellow 1 liiin by a college in that State; and al"ter hav- 
fever in New York City, d_\ing away Iroin his lam- ' ing several other charges, in 1S55 returned to St. 
ily, who were long ignorant of his tate. I'he 1 Luuis. He was at one time a presiding elder, 
son's early education was obtained in tl.e schools j and in the troubles resulting in the division of 
of New England. .\t the age of fifteen he went j the .Methodist Church North and South, he was 
to New York to supjjort himself, his mother not j apipointed a peace commissioner. He remained 
being able to pirovide farther tor him. He was . with the Southern side till the breaking out 01 
so far successful as to find a position in a store ; the war, when he went over to the North. In 
where he was forced to work hard for low wages. ! the pulpit he was even more eflective and more 
Here he formed acquaintances wiiom he ac- I popular than he had been on the stage. He 
companied to meetings of a society tor amateur | was invited to dedicate churches, aid or lead in 
theatricals, and soon became an inteiested par- ; revivals, marry the living, and bury the dead, 
ticipant. On one occasion, when he had played He died at his home in Portland, a suburb of 
the part of Sir Edward Mortimer in the 'Tron Louisville, Ifecember S, 187 i. He left six chil- 
Chest," some of the city papers compiared him dren, and his wife is still living. Three 
favorably with the elder Kean, whose [jla\ing of children died in early lite. Charles \V. Parsons, 
the same part was everywhere commended. The M. D., Professor H. B. Parsons, A. M.. I'rank 
young man's fancies were at once turned to the Parsons, a lawyer, Mrs. Tviiily T. Brodie, and 
fame and fortune that must certainly come t'rom Mrs. Belle Lisfiy, are children of theirs residing 
his devoting himself to the life of an actor, and in Louisville. 'Phe late brilliant >oung Congress- 
he accordingly joined himself to a theatrical com- man, Hon. E. Y. Par^nns, was their son. 
pany, and at Charleston, South Carolina, first Rev. Edvvard \\"aggener Sehon, D. D., son of 
made his appearance as an actor among actors. Major John L. and Fannie \V. Seiion, was born 
Being a singularly attr.ictive man in lace and at Moorelleld, Hardy county, X'irgima. .April 4, 
person, and having the large sympathetic nature 180S. Major Sehon was first chancery clerk ui 
that begets the same ieelmg in others almost in- , the Western Lhvnion of the State of 



Virginia. When eighteen ve.irs c;lil, the son 
graduated from the L'nivers!t\ of Oliid, at .\th- 
ens, and was designed by hi« -jiarents lor the iaw. 
At a Methodist eamp-meeiing he hec anie dee|jly 
interested in the subiject of religion, and from 
tliat time on was strong in his convietiuns that 
]ireaehing the go^;)el siionld lie the work of his 
life. He was fn^l, while in the Uni\eisily. given 
a class of fifteen members. In iSj6 he was 
granted a lieense to exhort; afterwards he was 
licensed to pteach by the Quarterly Confeience, 
was received on trial, in the traveling connection, 
and begin as junior pieacher on the Votmgsti.vivn 
circuit, which was mostly in Ohio. Following 
this date, we hear of him on such im|)ortant 
charges as those in St. Loins, Missouri; Co- 
lumbus and Cincinnati, Cihiti: and also as 
agent of the African Colonization Society, agent 
for Augusta College, general agent of the .\mer- 
ican Bible Society in the ^^'e5t. In 1S41, in the 
Cieneral Conference in New York, he took sides 
with his nati\e State, and adiiered to the South- 
ern church. In 1S46 he received the degree of 
D. I), from Randolph Macon College, \'irginia, 
and the year following was transierred to the 
Louisville Confeience and appointed to the 
Louisville District, and by the people's request 
was stationed at the Fourth Street church. In 
1S50 he became corresponding secretary of the 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
church South. For a number of years I'rom 
1854 he was a delegate to the General Conven- 
tion. In 1S75 he was appointed to the Bowling 
Green District, ho|;ing by travel and a lit'e in the 
country to regain his health. But the heart and 
nervous difficulties only increased, till on June i, 
1876, he became partly paralyzed. He never 
spoke again, but was conscious to the time of his 
death, which occurred six days later. Dr. Selion 
was one of the most popiular ministers of his 
time. Educated, eloquent, of superb appearance, 
possessed of a warm heart and imbued with fer- 
vid piety, he accomp.lished a most excellent 
work. September 4, 1S33, he was married to 
Miss Caroline A. McLean, daughter of Hon. 
William McLean of Cincinnati, and niece of 
Hon. John McLean, Chief Justice of the L'nited 
States Supreme Court. A pioua and git'ted uii'e, 
she was a true aid to him through all the l':>ng 
years of his busy life. Their only child now- 
living is Sallie, the wit'e of Colonel M. H. Wright. 


The I )iocese of Louisvilli- was cstablihhed in 
iSo.S, and now includes that pan cjf the State 
lying west of (^'atioll, Owen, lo.uiklin, Woodford, 
Je--sam!ne, tJarrard, Rock Castle, Laurel, and 
Whitley counties. Its first ];i-hopwas the Right 
Rev. Benedict Joseph Flngd, D. D., already 
mentioned in the annals of Louisville, who was 
consecrated fJishop of ISard-town Novenilicr 4, 
iSio. A coadjutor was afterwards given him, 
in the person of the Right Rev. John B. David, 
I). D., consecrated liishop of .Mauticastro and 
coadjiitoi to Bishop I'Liget, August 15, 1S19. 
Fifteen years afterwards, July 20, 1S34, Right 
Re\-. Guy Ignatius Cliabrat, D. 1)., was conse- 
crated Bishop of Bolina and coadjutor to the 
Bishop of Bardstown. 'Lhe F.pisiopal See liav- 
ing been removed to Louisville, the next coadju- 
tor (.md Bishop of Langone) was to the Bishop 
of Louisville, and was the scholarly and able 
historian of Catholicism in Kentueky, the Right 
Rev. Martin John Spalding, D. D., consecrated 
Se|>tembei 10, 1S4S. The Ijiig term of }!isho[i 
Flagel having ended, Right Rev. I'eter Joseph 
La\ia!le, I). D., was consecrated Bishop of 
L.oulsville September 24, 1S65. His term was 
very sliort, and he was succeeded Mav 24, i$6.S, 
by the present incumbent, Riglu Rev. William 
George McCloskey, D. D. 

Near the close ot 1S76, in [lursuance of a pon- 
tilicial lescript authorizing the change, received 
from Rome early in the jear. Bishop Flaget, first 
Catholic Bishop of Kentucky, whose initial visit 
was made here in 1792, and who was again here 
in iSii, on his way to the interior, to assume 
the duties of his bishopric, determined to remove 
the Epjisco|)al See from Bardstown to Louisville. 
Five years before, when visiting the Pope, he 
had broached the subject of this removal; and, 
attached as he was to the former place, the cen- 
ter of his e[)iscopal labors for thirty years, and 
now the seat of a number of tlourishmg Catholic 
institutions, the exiiediency of the transfer was 
by this time too evident to admit of longer delay. 
As his biographer, Bishop Spalding, puts it: 

I.ouiaMlle, which at first was^tiveiy an 
place, having but ii mere iiandful of Catholics, and tliese 
mostly indifferent to the pr.icUce of their religion, had now 
hecome not ui'ly the largest city in the diocese, but also the 
seat of a l.irge and fast mcieasing (_'..tholic papulation. Its 
situation on the Oliio at tlic interruption of na\ig.itHjn, and 
central position in the length of tlie State stretching along 
ttiat river; above all, the prospect of ita siil! more rapid 




gio.Mli, nri-.l Uic tun^t.ln^ influx iiiio it of Cailiolics from | 
the interior of tliu dioiese. bii! chictiy fioni ;il)roari— U being 
in a word, the gn.u ccid'-T and cinporuim of llie Stnic— ren- 
dered it eudeiulv ll'.e most s.uiial)le for the Episcopal j 

Tlie cliniige was accordingly made, the inhab- 
itants of Eoui-ix ille, says his biographer, being all 
favorably dis[iOied towards the pri.'jett, and the 
Protestants .th.einsclvi s miiting wiin the Cath- 
olics ill welcoming him cortlially to the city. 
The narrator continues: 

Bishop MageL was not disappoinled in the evpeclations he 
liad conceded of the beneliis hkely to accn^e to religion from 
the step he had taken, after so much mature dclilieralion. 
While Catliolicity in t!ie interior \sas not materi.illy afl'eclcJ 
by the change, it gave a new imjiiilse to religion in Loiiisviile. 
The inhaljitants of tlie city, without distinction of creed, ex- 
hibited a commendable liberality in co-operating with iiim in 
every good work. They came forward generoubly to support 
every appeal made to them on behalf of Catholic chanties; 
and the Catliolic population also rapidiy increased. On the 
death of the hol\ prelate, eight year:> later, the Catholic pop- 
ulation of the city was about one-fourth of that of the entire 

About a year after his removal to Louisville, the heart of the 
P.ishop lejoiccd [ly the arrL\al from I-"ranee of a colony of 
religious ladies, belonging to that heroic institute whose 
object it is to reclaim to \irtue the fallen and degraded of 
their own sex. These devoted Sisters of Chanty of the 
Good Shepherd reached Louisville December r, 1842, from 
the mother house of Angers. Much as lie was gi.iddened by 
their arrival, his joy ot rirst was not uiimingled with regret. 
as he had not expecterl them 50 soon, and had as yet made 
no arrangements for their accommodation. But these heroic 
ladies already made too many sacrifices in carrying out 
the painful but sublimely charitable object of their order, to 
be deterred by inconveniences comparatively so light. They 
were lodged for nine months in a house of the Bishop adjoin- 
ing the academy of Cedar Gro\e, Poitland, where tliey ap- 
plied themselves to the study of EnglL-h until their monastery 
in Louisville could be built and prepared for tlieir reception. 
The sisters entered their extensive new establish- 
ment, erected entirely at the Bisliop's expense, on the 4tli of 
September, 1S41. Their institute was no sooner known than 
it wasgreatly admired by among the Protestants, as well 
as by the Catholics. The number of penitents soon became as 
great as the hou>e designed for their use could accommodate. 
Liberal presents were often made to the infant establishment; 
their marketing was o; ten furnished gratuitously by Protest- 
ants; and the needlework, their chief reliance for a mainte- 
nance, flowed in on them so abundantly the institution 
was soon able to support itself. A large and commtidious 
chapel was afterwards erected, and during the last year [1851^ 
a spacious building was put up for the separate class of rt:hg- 
ious Magdalenes, to be composed of such penitents as might 
give indications of a desire to retire permanently from the 
dangers of the world and devote their lives to the religious 
exercises of the cloister. 

Bibhop Flaget also welcomed the Jesuits, who 
came in 1S32 to take charge of the college of St. 
Mary, after the restoration of the society by Pius 
VII., and also, in 1S4S, took in hand St. Joseph's 

College, 'i'hey likewise conducted the Catholic 
free school for boys in Louisville, and soon 
erected a spacious college edifice U[)0n a neigh- 
boring site. 

'I'lie corner-stone of the new Cathedral at 
Louisville was laid August 15. 1S49, but the 
venerable P.ishop was too feeble to do more than 
overlook the scene from a bak ony of his resi- 
dence. He died Februar)' 11, 1S50, in his 
eighty-sevenih vtar cif age, and the fortieth ct' 
his episcopacy, much lamented by his peojilc 
and the coinniunity. 

The first Catholic church edifice erected in 
Louisville was about at the [iresent corner of 
Eleventh and Main streets, upon a lot given to 
the society by one of the Tarascons, of Shipjiing- 
port. It was of a Gothic style of architecture. 
The Rev. F;tthcr Badin, priest of the parish, 
took charge of the erection and of the laying-off 
of a cemetery about it. A few human bones 
were thrown up bv workmen in making excava- 
tions on the site as lately as 1S76. 

The Catholics, from very humble and feeble 
beginnings, ha\e become a strong and numerous 
people in the city. Their churches are more 
numerous than those of any other denom- 
ination, and some of the church buildings 
are among the most iinposing in the city. The 
congregations ate those of the Cathedral of the 
Assumption, occupying the old Catholic site on 
Fifth street, between Green and Walnut; St. 
Louis Bertrand's, Si.xth street, near Churchill ; 
St. Patrick's, Thirteenth and Market streets ; St. 
Augustine's, Broadway and Fourteenth ; Church 
of tlie Sacred Heait, Broadway and Seventeenth; 
St. John's, Clay and Walnut; St. Michael's, 
Brook, near Jackson ; St. Cecilia's, Twenty-fifth 
street ; St. Bridget's, Baxter Avenue ; St. Co- 
lumba's, Washington and Buchanan ; St. Vin- 
cent of Paul, Milk and Shelby; St. Agnes, 
Preston Park; and the Church of Our Lady, 
Portland. The following are (.ierman churches: 
St. Martin's, Shelby, near Broadway ; St, Boni- 
face's, Green, near Jackson ; Church of the Im- 
maculate Conception, Eighth and Grayson ; St. 
Peter's, Sixteenth, near Kentucky ; St. Joseph's, 
Washington and .-\dams ; St. .Anthony's, .Market 
and Twenty-third. Services arc also attended 
in nearly or quite all the Catholic charitable in- 
stitutions and higher schools of the city. 

The Catholic convents and similar retreats in 



Louisville are those of tlie Sisters of the Good 
Shepherd, on ICitjhih street: St. A^^ncs' convent, 
or House of the Sifters of the Cood Shei.herd, 
on Bank street, with 30 sisters arid 4 pro- 
fessed novices;* the Mother House of tin- Ursu- 
line Sisters, Chestnnt and Shelby streets, with 
106 sisters, 25 novices, and 5 postulants; the 
House of th-e Sisters of Notre Dame, Green, 
near jnckson~-6 sisters, 2 postulants; .Mother 
House of the Sisters of Mercy, St. Caihciine's 
conven!, Second street — 22 sisters, i novice; 
House of the Sisters of St. Francis oi Assisium, 
l\Larket, near Tvventy-third ; and the House of 
the Little Sisters of the Poor, Tenth and .Maga- 
zine. On Green street, near ]acksoii, is the 
Coinent and House of Studies of the Franciscan 
Feathers, with lo clerics and 3 l.ry brothers; on 
F'ourth avenue the Institute of the Xavierian 
Brothers, with lynieuibers in community; and 
on the Newburg road are the Sacred Heart 
Retreat and Chapel of the Sacred Heart, Pas- 
sionist Fatliers, with 7 priests and 4 lay brothers. 
_ The chief of the Catholic schools of Louis- 
ville is the Preston Park Theological Seminary, 
of which Bishop McClo^key is President. On 
Fourth Avenue is St. Xavier's Institute of the 
Xavierian Flrothers, with four instructorsand 140 
pupils. The Brothers have general charjje of 
the parochial schools of the city, which will be 
mentioned presently. Others of the higher in- 
stitutions of learning are the Ursuline Academy, 
Chestnut street — 16 boarders, 50 day schokirs ; 
Mount St. Agnes Academy, conducted by the 
Sisters of Mercy, Barrett Avenue, Preston Park 
—four instructors, 70 pupils; Presentation Acad- 
emy, Sisters of Charity, next the Cathedral, 
Fifth street — five teachers, 70 pupils ; St. Cath- 
erine's Academy, Sisters of Mercy, Second 
street — 30 pupils ; Academy of the Holy Rosarv, 
Dominican Sisters, Ninth and Kentucky- -nine 
sisters, 70 pupils ; and the Academy of the 
Sacred Heart, Ursuline Sisters, Sheltnviile Road, 
near the city — five teachers, S boarders, 50 day 

The Catholic parochial schools of Louisville 
are numerous and important. The Cathedral 
schools on Fifth street are taught by the Sisters 
of Mercy, and have about 400 pupils. St. Boni- 

*1 hese and the following suUbiiu-s were made up the 
close of i88t, for Sadliers' Catholic Directory, from which 
we have them. 

face's school for hoys is taught by five Francis- 
can Brothers, and has 450 pupils; the giils' 
school by the Sisteis of Notre Dame, and has 
44°- 'Lhe Parish School of the Immaculate 
Conceiition is instructed by three Xavierian 
Brothels, with jo6 pupi!= ; the girls' school of 
the sMine by the Sisters of Loietto (three) with 
130. St. Martin's foi boy> has two religious and 
two secular teachers, and 324 scholars; for gitls, 
five Ursuline Sisters and 348 ])upils. St. Pat- 
rick's schools have— for boys, three Xavieiian 
Brothers and 264 pupils; giils, four Sisters of 
Mercy and 225 pupils. St. Peter's, two Uisuline 
Sisters, 182 pupils. St. John's- for boys, two 
Xavierian Brothers, 1 16 scholars ; for girls, three 

Sisters of Charity, 114 pupils. St. 'Joseijh's 

boys, two lay teachers, 135 pupils; giils, two 
Ursuline Sisters, iiSpuijils. St. Anthony's, one 
lay teacher and tour Si-ters of the 'I'hird Order 
of St. Francis, with 330 pupils. St. Augustine's, 
for coloied children, two Sisters of Charity. 114 
[aipils. Our Lady's, three Sisters of Loretto, 
130 riu|)il,s. St. Michael's, lour Sisters of Char- 
ity, 175 [lupils. St. Louis Bertrand's--three 
Xavieiian Brothers, 190 boys; three Dominican 
Sisters, 190 girls. Sacred Fleart, three Sisters 
of Mercy, 211 pupils. St. Cecilia's, three Sis- 
ters of Charity, 70 pupils. St. Bridget's, lour 
Sisteis of Loretto, 250 pupils. St. Columba's, 
two Sisters of Charity, 72 pupils. St. Vincent 
of Paul's, three Ursuline Sisters, 180 pupils. 
St. Agnes' Day School, Barrett Avenue, Sisters 
of Mercy. St. Stanislaus', for small boys, Sec- 
ond street, same order. Night school for young 
ladies, Convent of Mercy, same order. St. 
Xavier's Industrial School of the Sisters of the 
Good Shepherd. 

We have been kindly furnished with the fol- 
lowing sketches of Catholic institutions in Louis- 
ville : 

'i'he church and convent of St. Louis Ber- 
trand were founded during the episcopacy of the 
Rt. Rev. Dr. Lavialle, I'ormer Bishop of Louis- 
ville. The ground extending from St. Catherine 
street towards Oak a distance of three hundred 
and seventy-nine feet, and running from Si.xth to 
Seventh streets, three hundred and fifty feet, 
was purchased in December, iSuj, and in the 
following June the erec tion of the old wooden 
church was commenced. It still stands on 
Seventh, at the head of Oldliam streets. It was 



completed in a few iimntlis, and was merely a ; 
temporary nffjir. The Ci'nveiu,a fine substantia! 
building 100x50, and Oiur stories, with mansard 
roof, and built of brick, was comnienecd in 
Aut;ust. 1S66. The new (hurch, \\hich lias been ; 
in use since 1870, «as. soon alter roinnieneed. ; 
Jt is built of linicstiine, ai;d its dimensions ;ire 
180x82. . Its towers are still unfmibhed, though 
a temporary one was added last year to contain 
the bell, file t!iuu>and pound.) weight, presented 
by B, J. Scally, of this cUy. 'I'he church build- 
ing cost ab.iut $125,000, the conwnt abrmt ] 
$65,000. The original tViunders were the Very 
Rev. W. D. O'Ca'rroll, C). P., who died in 1S80, j 
Coadjutor llishop of 'IVinedad, ^\'est Indies ; ; 
the Rev. IX J. Meagher, the Rev. Stephen | 
Byrne, Rev. J. A. Sheiidan, Rev. J. V. Davliy, , 
Rev. R C. Coll, J. P. Turner, and J. R. Fallon, 
also of the ()ider of Preachers. These f.rthers, j 
also kno\Mt as the Dominican Fathers, from their j 
founder, St. Dominic, who lived from 11 70 to ' 
1 22 I, have conducted this church since its com- j 
rnencement. Many changes have taken ))!ace ' 
by death or ienio\al to other establishments of tl-.e 1 
Dominicans in the I'nited States. 'Fhe first Pric)r I 
and President of the St. Louis Bertiand I^iierary I 
Society, ur.der which title the association was in- 
corporated by act of the Legislature, March 4, j 
1869, was Rev. D. J. Me.igher. He held the ; 
office for three years, the term prescrilied by the 
by-laws. He was succeeded by Re\. J. P. 
Turner, Rev. J. R. Meagher, Rev. C. H. Mc- 
Kenna, and tlnally by Rev. M. .A. McFeely, who 
now holds the office. 'I'he clergymen at present 
residing in the convent and atteriding to tiie 
church, are Very Rev. A. Mcl'eely, Rev. D. ]. 
Meagher, Rev. J. A. Sheridan, Rev. H. I. Mc- 
Manus, Rev. J. H. Leonard. 

The Xavierian Brotiierhood was established in 
Bruges, Belgium, in 1839, with a special view to 
the wants of the Caihohc Cliurch in America. 
Bishop S[ialding, then Bisho]) of Louisville, see- 
ing the necessity of educating the young in the 
practice of their religion, was most anxious in 
procuring men for tliat noble work. Hearing of 
the new community established at Bruges, he 
entered into an agreement with these brothers, 
by which tliey promised to open schools in 
Louisville as soon as arrangements for their 
reception should be made. The first colony oi 
these zealous men ariived in Louisville in 1S54 

and began to teach at St. I'atrick's parochial 
school; the tU)per story was used for their itsi 
dence. .As, however, that building was inade- 
qu.ite for receiving young men, the Bishop as- 
signed to them a handsome house on I'ourth 
avenue. There, in 1S64, they opened a novi- 
tiate, to train the yoimg candidates to become 
good and useful religious, as well as zealous and 
competent, teachers. In coimeclion with the 
novitiate they also opened an academy. Cliil- 
dien of every denomination caine to their school, 
and soon the indefatigable zeal of the Brothers 
became cverywheie known. The school, known 
as St. Xavier's Institute, opened with about one 
hundred and fifty jiupils. They were divided 
into three clasies, well graded. As, however, 
their thirst after the practical and useful could 
not be satisfactorily c|uenched, the directors and 
laculty concluded to establish a regular, practical 
business course, to increase the number of 
classes, and to have the s( hool chartered. This 
was accordingly done in 1872, and the instiiuti.jn 
was empowered to confer all the honors and 
degrees usually conferred h\' such institutions on 
their students. Like the tiee, coming erst 
to view, is but a tiny blade, so the number of 
graduates in the tirst year was small — only one; 
the second year it was double the ilrst; the third 
double that of the second ; since then the a\'erage 
number is six, but the prospects are that in the 
near future it will still re:ich a higher number. 
Believing that a business education includes 
something more than a mere knowledge of book- 
keeping, and that a good education cannot be 
had in a few weeks, the course has been extended 
to four years. After a pupil has creditably 
passed the minim and preparatory departments 
he is allowed to begin the course. It consists of 
penmanship, higher arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
trigonometry, mensuration, modern and ancient 
history, L'nited States history, natural philosophv, 
rhetoric, grammar, bookkee[)ing, etc. A talented 
and studious young man may thus, in the 
course of four years, find hiiuself not only in pos- 
session of a most valuable practical education, 
which will [dace him in the front rank of educa- 
ted business men, but with it all sciences and 
arts so highly necessary for those claim to 
be educated. 1 he above-mentioned novitiate 
was some years ago transferred to a beautiful 
country place near Daltimore. 



Most Rev. Mnrtin John Spalding, seventh 
Arclibishnp of }!nltiniorc, was born near Lebanon, 
Marion county. KentiicVv, >Liy 23. iSio; his 
parents were nalixcs of Mai\lanJ and de-ccnd- 
ants of the Catholic l'i];;iirns of Mar\l.Tnd. who 
established civil and relii'Jous liberty under Lord 
Baltimore. He graduated in 1S26, at St. Marj's 
College, when si.\teen years old — having been, 
wlien only for.rleen, ti.e tutor of nialheniatics; 
spent four years at St. Joseph's College, Ibids- 
town, in studying theologv, and in teaching in , 
the college; four years at Rome, 1S30-34, at the i 
close of which he publicly defended, for seven 
hours, in Latin, two hundred and filty-.six piropo- 
sitions of theology, and "as rewarded with a doc- ; 
tor's diploma, and ordained a priest bv Cardinal 1 
Pediana; 1S34-43, pastor of St. Joseph's Col- ' 
lege, then its president, and again its pastor; 
called to the cathedral at Louisville, 18.(3-48; | 
did much laborious missionary work; 184S, was | 
consecrated Bishop of Langone /// partibiis and 
coadjutor to Bishop Flaget, whom he succeeded 
as Bishop of Louisville, 1850-64; was distin- 
guished as a writer and reviewer, as a pul[>it ora- 
tor, and as a controversialist and champion of the 
Catholic faith; was one of the editors of the 
United States Catholic .NLigazine, and author of 
Sketches of the Early Catholic Missions of Ken- 
tucky, Life and Times of Bishop Flaget, Review 
of Il'Aubigne's History of the Keforniation, 
Miscellanea, and Lectuies on the Evidences of 
Christianity — all published in live volumes, 8vo. ; 
June, 1864, in presence of forty thousand specta- 
tors, was installed seventh Archbishop of Balti- 
more; convened the Second Plenary Council of 
Baltiuiore; distinguished himself at the (lEcu- 
menical Council of the \'atican at Rome, in 
1S69-70; on his retutn, received public honors 
at Baltimore and Washington: during his archie- 
piscopate erected many new churches, estal)- 
iNhed new schools, founded and endowed noble 
works of charity, and wore himself out in labors 
for his tlock. He died at Baltimore Aiail 2f. 

I'he Right Rev. William George McCloskey, 
' advilir Bishop of Louisville, is of Irish par- 
■■"t-ige, born in Brooklyn, New York, November 
'^- '823. He wa"s educated at Mt. St. Marv's 

■ " •■■.ncil hkficli of the Early Ro-nan C.uliohc Church in 
■■ ■•■ ■.!.>, pubhsheil in the first volume of CoUins's Hiitory 

College, Maryland : studied law for three years, 
but resolved upon the priesthood instead, and in 
September, 1846, entered the Theological Sciiii- 
nai-y at Mt. St. Marv's, where he took a thorough 
course of prep>aratii"n for six \ears. October 6, 
1852, he was ouiained priest by Archbishop 
Hu-:hes; did mi,isionary service a few months 
in New York Ciiy; became pirofessor in his alma 
mat-_r, and in May, 1S57, niieclor of the Semi- 
nary and j'rokssor of Moral Theology and Scrip- 
tuie ; at the recommendation of the American 
Hierarchy, was made Pre-ident of the new 
American College for F.cclesiastical Students in 
Rome, L>ecember 8, 1S59; resided in Rome 
eight years, when he was nominated Bishop of 
Louisville, and was consecrated in the thapel of 
the A'nerican College at Rome, May 2.1, iSoS. 
He has since been continuously in charge of the 
Diocese. About twenty-five years agei he re- 
ceived the degree of I).!), from Georgetown Col- 
lege, Lhstrict of Columbia. 

Among the distinguished dead of 1874 was 
the Rev. Feather Robert A. Abell, of the Roman 
Caiholic church, son of Mr. Robert Abell, a 
pioneer of 17SS in Nelson (now Marion) county. 
We condense the following account of his lile 
from an interesting biographical sketch contri- 
buted to the Louisville Monthly Magazine for 
1S79 by Dr. C. C. Graham; Fie Inst saw the 
light at his lather's i^lace, on the Rolling Fork, 
in the year 1792. L^p to his tenth year, when 
his father died, his mother, most likely, was his 
only teacher. He was altervvards sent to a 
country school in the neighborhood, but only 
during the winter months, when his labor 
not needed on the farm. Attention being at- 
tracted to him by an extraordinary speech in the 
local debating society, his mother was aided in 
sending him to the Catholic school of St. Rose, 
then liut recentlv' established near the village of 
Springfield, in Washington county, under the 
direction of Rev. Dr. 'Fhonias Wilson, of the 
C)rder of St. Dominic. Here he remained until 
his transfer to the Diocesan Seminary of St. 
Thomas, near Bardstown, in the year 1S13. 
Father Abell was ordained in 18 iS, and his 
first mission included all Southwestern Kentucky 
and a part of Tennessee. He was transfcired 
to Louisville in 1S23. uhere. up to 1834, vvith. 
the interval of a single year passed by him in 
Europe, he bore to its Catholic pojiuLition the 



relation of (lastor. In 18:9 ii was found tliai the 
churcli building was iii)t only tiio contrarled for 
the accnniniodatioii of con- 
gregntion, hut that it was hei cmiing unsafe from 
natural decay. Under the riicunistances a new 
church was a necessilv, and Father Ahe'll began 
f-t once to sohcit funds for its erection. His ap- 
jieals v.cie responded to in a liberal spirit b) both 
CatliLihcs and pKjtestanls ; and a year later the 
foinier chinch of St. Louis, on the site of the 
present cathedral of Louisville, \\as oix ncd for 
divine sen ices. For non-Catholics the ino^t at- 
tractive feature of the service in the new chuich 
was the preacliing of its pastor. Not unfre- 
quently were to be found among his auditors 
such nienas lohn Rowan, ]ames D. Breckin- 
ridge, George AL ];ibb, lUmy Pinle, Patrick H. 
Pope, Charles M.'lhruston, George D. Pientice, 
and others. He was an oiator of extraordinary 

F\ither Abel! was transferred to Lebanon in 
1854, and afterwards to New Flaven, Nelson 
county. In both jilaccs he built churches. 
About the year iSoo he was lelievtd of all oner- 
ous ministerial duty by his bishop, on account of 
physical disability. However, the remaining 
fourteen years of his life were not unuscfullv 
spent, noi were thty altogttlier inactive. His 
services were still sought after by I'astors of 
churches, and when his health permitted such 
extent of labor they were cheert'idly tendered. 
The last position held by him in the diocese was 
that of chai'lain to the sister servants of the In- 
firmary of St. Joseph, Louisville. Here he died 
in 1874. I'p to the last day of his life Father 
Abell retained in a wonderful degree the in- 
tellectual sprightliness for which he had been 
noted in his prime. The fountain of his wit was 
as sparkling as e\er, and his memory was still 
retentive of events that had tran'^pired when 
Kentucky was as yet almost a wilderness. 


The First church of the P.aptist faith here dates 
back to iSi5--the third church organiiati^m 
in Louisville. There was long before — in 17S4, 
it is said — a Baptist society somewhere on Pear- 
grass creek, numbering sixty-seven members. 
It was received into the l.cing Run association in 
1803, and was formed by the Rev, Hinton Hobbs. 
with but fourteen members. Its original loca- 

tion was upon the southwest corner of Fifih and 
Green streets, u|)on tlie site occupied in later 
years by the Medical college, oi)|)osite the 
Courier-Journal building. In 1S16 the Rev. 
Jerenii.ih \'ardiinan held a very succes;,f'ul series 
of meetings in Louis\ille, uhith added many to 
the church. The congiegation grew, and held 
together bravely until I039, when the' nicmber- 
shi|) numbeied thirty. F",ighteen then witl'.cjrew 
to fc.nn the Second Baptist church, which located 
on tireen, between Fiist and Second streets. 
In icS49, both of the churches being without a 
pastor, 11 is noted as an interesting tact that each 
extended a call to the Rev. Thomas Smith, 
This fact, together with the financial weakness 
of both, not enabling them even to repair their 
houses of worship, led to a reunion, which was 
accom|jlished in October, 1S49, ^^'''^ ^''"-' 5^'"^'- 
Mr. Smith as postor. '1 he lot n-iw occupied at 
the northwest corner of Fourth and \\'alnut 
streets was presently bought, and the fine church 
now occupied was erected. Sad to say, the very 
first services in the new building were the obse- 
tjuies of tlie young and popular pastor. Rev. 
Thomas Smith. He has been succeeded in 
order by the Rev. F)is. Everts, Lorinier, Spal- 
ding, Wharton, J. W. Warder, and T. T. F'aton, 
who is now serving the church. It has a large 
membership, at limes numbering from seven to 
eight bundled. From it have been colonized the 
Walnut Street Baptist Mission, corner of Twenty- 
second street ; the Chestnut street Baptist church, 
now one of the strongest in the State ; the Hope 
church, at Seventeenth and Bank; the Baptist 
Pilgrim church, on Cabei ; the Portland (Ger- 
man) Baptist; and last, but not least, the influen- 
tial church known as the Broadway Baptist. 

The subjoined sketch of the early history of 
the East Baptist church, with other interesting 
reminiscences, was comprised in the address of 
the Rev. Dr. S. L. Helm, a t'ormer pastor of the 
church, at the celebration of the fortieth anni- 
versary of the society, January i, 1SS3: 

When I first linuw ttii? pl.!ce, Rev. Jofin S. Wilson 
pastor of llie First B.iptist churcli, on Fifth nnci Green streets. 
Forty ye.irs ai;o the B.ipiists of Louisville were a feeble foil;. 
nut numerous or intluenti.rl. They were brought together 
from different p.irts of this .incl countries, uilh thfterent 
wews and cu^loni^. 1 hev were con^ecJuenlly not very 
rnonious in al llieir \ie\\s atout ctiurth niatiers; t'.ence a 
party of them org.mized the Second church on Green street, 
between First and Second. I now tind only three men Imng 



who were Baptists forty ye^rs p,s;o, n;iiiii-ly. )ii!in M. iKlplj. 
William Moses, and Jeremiah I'.ush. Kcv. W' C. I'.uck, 
D. D., suceeeded Wilson as pastor of the First cimrcli. Me 
was llien suecccded by Finly, and Fiiily by A. I"). Sears, who 
is still erect and preiciiing the gospel in ClaiksvilU^ Tennes- 
see, though he is now eighty years old. 

In the summer of iSi't Dr. Hack began 10 preach in the 
market-house on Jefferson street, between Preston and I-ioid. 
Having some means, Brother Buek determined to build a 
Baptist meeting-house on his lot on Green street. In the 
fall of 184 r, with a little assi.stance from those whcj afterwards 
beenme members of Cast church, he erected .a Liriek house- 
The colored people aftenvards bought the building, and it is 
now known as the Green Street colored Baptist church. 

Janu.iry 1,1042. the Eisl Baptist Church was organiwd in 
that building, with ten men>bers. viz.. Rev. W. C. Buck and 
wife, M. F. Buck. leremi.ih Bush, L. B. Osborne. .Ann Os- 
borne, Mary Holmes. Caroline Stout, Sara Stout, D. Johns, 
Mary Howell. Mrs. .Ann Osborne Was llic mother of Ur. 
J. M. Weaver, who is now pastor of Chestnut-street church. 
Deacon Bush is the onU' member now living \vho went into 
the orginizalion of liast church. Brother Buck became 
their pistor, and Deacon Bush's wife was tiie first person he 
baptized after he took charge. He edited our Baptist I'.ipcr 
at the same lime that he had charge of the church, 

1 must now speak of that great and noble man. Wilham 
C. Buck. His worth to the denomination I do not beheve 
has ever been fuily appreciated. He was a native of \'ir- 
ginia, a man of positive convictions, and, with a clear and 
trumpet-like voice, bold and fearless in asserting them. He 
took the field for missioiis. and did more than any other n;an 
to break down the opposition to niissionary efforts a'td to in- 
duce the churches to pay tfieir pastors a sal.iry. When he 
went through the country to stir up the churches on the sub- 
ject, he would speak from an hour and a half to two hours, 
with a f\o\v of eloquence I have scarcely ever heard equaled. 
He was the friend of every Bipti-t enterprise, 

The Rev. J. P. Green, pastor of the church, 
gave a valuable stat'stiiral summary ot' the re- 
sults of the work of his societ}, from which we 
select the following: 

During the forty years, more than two thousand five hun- 
dred persons have been members of East church. Perhaps 
one thousand five hundred have been baptized into the 
church. During the forty years the church has had four- 
teen p.istors, and three of these have twice been pastor. 
The average p.istorale is a little more tiian ti\o years. 
Brother Buck's pastorate was the longest single one — five 
years. Brotlier Helm served the church longer than any 
other preacher — five years and ten months. Five calls have 
been given that haie not been accepted. During the last 
year ^1881] 19 were received by b.ipiism and 18 by letter- 
total. 37. The present number 15 307. The church is more 
prosperous in financial matter.^ than ever before; $1,550 have 
been promptly raised for cl'.urch expenses and over $200 for 
missionary and benevolent purposes. In May lost a plan 
devised to raise money to buy a iot and build a new houie. 
The church is not able to r.use a sufficient amount at once, 
hence she determined to r.Tise as much as possible each year, 
until the fund sh.all be sufficient. We have on hand now, 
bearmg interest, 5700. .A.t this rate we hope to h.ive 51,200 
by ne.Mt .May. With's blessing, we are to build us a 
plain, commodious house— one th.xt will be a credit to the 
denomination. Thus the church promptly and cheerfuliv^ a burden . >l ,-3.or»:i ,1 ycjr. U e brgin our lotly-lirst without owing .tnv a cent ; we begin it with grati- 
tude, with pr.iiM-, with ho|)(:, and with prayer. 

The church under tlie name of JeffersMii street 
cliuivh was organized Maich 12, 1S54. The 
Council was composed of the Revs. \V. W. Ev- 
erts, S. I.. Helm, S. Remington, S. A. lieau- 
chanip, and S. H. Foid. The chuich was an 
outgrowth of a mission .Sunday-school of Walnut 
sti-eet church. The first house of worship was 
on Jefferson street, near Eighth, purchased by 
Hcacon Chailes Quirey. Isaac Russell was the 
first Sund.iy-school su[)erintendent. Rev. S. 
Remington was tlic fust pastor. He continued 
until 1S55, wh---n Rev. J. V. Schufield took 
charge. He was folh.nved by Rev. A. C. Osborn 
on September 29, 1S5S. He resigned December 
10, 1S62, and was succeeded by Rev. A.C.Graves 
March 3, 1S63. He resigned February 21, 
1S64, and on January 29, 1S65, Rev. J. M. 
Weaver took charge, who coniinues to the 
present time. During its history the church has 
passed tiirough many struggles. Tlie house of 
worship on Jefferson street was lost to them, and 
the congregation, for several years, met in the 
L'nivetsaiist house o( worshi].!, on Maiket street, 
near Ivghth. Then the church met for a short 
time in the Law School budding, on Chestnut 
and Ninth streets. In 1S66, a little building on 
Chestnut street, between Ninth and 'I'enth, the 
present lociti'in, was purchased from the St. .An- 
drew's E|iiscopal church t'oi $ to, '250, cash. In 
1867, this buildmg was enlarged to its present 
size for aliout $12,000. During the last [jastorate 
of nearly seventeen years, it is estimated that 
over one thousand persons have been added to 
the church. Many precious seasons of refresh- 
ing trom the Lord have been enjoyed.* 

The Hope Baptist Church had its germ De- 
cember ist, 1867. In compliance with a request 
si.vteen persons met that day with Rev. A. C. 
Williams in an old store-room just below Six- 
teenth, on .Market street. Alter singing "I Want 
to be an Angel," they proceeded to elect officers. 
W. J. Hopkins was chosen Superintendent and 
J. W. ISradley Secretary and Librarian. The 
Su[)crmtendeni, after eiirolhng tlie organizing 
members, appointed teachers for the classes pres- 
ent, and after singing, remarks, and prayer, dis- 

* From the Church Manual, published in 18S1. 



missed tu meet the next Suinlav at 9 a. m., iitider 
the name of "Maiket Street Mis^iutt Stinday- 
school." The weather was very cold, yet thty 
had only a feu- chi|.is and sjilinters froiii a rieii;h- 
boring car|ieiiter'bsliop buininL; very slowly in an 
old grate. Tiie seats consisted of an old arm- 
chair and two j/ieces of ten feet long. 
During the week Josiah l'.iad!ey donated a large 
luui[j of coal, provided the Supci'intendeiU and 
Secretary v.uold Convey it Irom his residence, 
]'"ifieenth a:id Wjlnat streets, to the school, 
which they did in a whtelharrow througli the 
snow, thus sliowing how they were pressed in 
finances. The .Superintendent had lost all he 
had the previous spring. The next Sunday the 
school inci eased to thiity; books had been bor- 
rowed, and a few moie [lieces of planks had 
been secured for seats; thus the first lesson was 
taught and the school fullv organized. The 
third Sunday found them de\ismg ways and 
means of opeiation, etc. On asking brethren of 
another haptist church fur a-.sistance, they were 
called begging Baptists and v.ere told that the 
school would "fieczeout' in a month or two. 
This fell heavily on the hc?arl of the .Mission Su- 
perintendent, but after much discouragement he 
sought God tor direction, and, being assured that 
the school would stand to God's glory, cast away 
discouragement, looking to God for ways and 
means. They then e.vtended a general invitation 
to the public to meet them in prawr each even- 
ing in the week, which lesulted in the first |)io- 
tracted meeting, lasting four or five weeks, dur- 
ing which twenty-two persons were converted, 
who connected theni^ehes with the Chestnut 
Street Baptist church. In March or April, 1S6S, 
the name ot the school was changed. The ex- 
pression "Our Hope is in (jod'' (seventh verse, 
seventy-eighth Psalm) became a t'avoritc text (for 
they did trust God alone), and from this the 
name of the school was changed to Hope Mission 
Sunday-school. In the autumn of 1S6S the 
number increased to eighty, and the fir^t year 
closed with llattering resLilts to the Sunday- 
school. It was the first independent and s-.lf- 
sustaining Sunday school in the city. At the 
close of the second year, December i, 1S60. the 
Treasurer's report showed amount of balance in 
the treasury to be $27.93, ''^ ''h about $50 worth of 
Sunday-school requisites, and fuel for the winter 
in store. The Sunday-school by this time was 

wielding a great inthience (or good, and during 
the winter had taken care of twelve families for 
three months, furni^hing food, fuel, and some 
clothing, and had nuised other families in severe 
sickness, furnishing attendants, medicines, etc. 
.\fter several years of discouragement, during 
which the Sunday-school had been retluced to 
thirty SI hc'Iars and three teacheis, who were very 
punctual, the Superintendent, in great agony of 
soul, jietitiontd God for as-istance, and srion the 
gloom was removed. He 1 elated to the school 
his experience and consequent conclusions, tell- 
ing the teachers he wanted to see how many 
! would stand by the Sunday-school whether in 
j [irosperity or adversity, asking all who would do 
j so to meet him the next Sunday morning at 9 
o'clock .\. M. There were only three teachers 
j and thirty-five scholars present the next Sunday; 
I but from that the Sunday-school began to tlour- 
[ ish, soon numbering one hundred. 
I In the early pirt of S.-ptember, 187.1, after 
I several weeks of m-.ditation, about twenty Ilap- 
1 tist members of Hope school decided to organ- 
j ize a chuich in the vicinity ol tlie sch ool. The 
I property of Hope .Mission Sunday-school was 
removed to the n;w location, Seventeenth and 
Bank streets, on Wednesday, October 14, 
1 1S74, and on the next evening, October 15, 
Hope B ip'.ist Church was organized. Pursuant 
j to the a[ipointment, twenty-one persons, bearing 
j letters of dismission from Chestnut street and 
\ Pilgrim Baj)tist churches of Louisville, met 
' for the pi'.rpose of constituting a Baptist 
j church. The meeting was organized by the 
j election of \V. J. Hojikins chairman, and I. \V. 
1 Bradley, secret,a'ry. .\fter devotional exercises, 
i invoking the blessings of Almighty God, the Ar- 
ticles of ?\aith and Practice and the Church 
Covenant (as laid down in the Baptist Church 
J Directory, by Rev, Dr. I''dward T. Hiscox) were 
read by the chairman, and unanimously accepted 
by the brethren and si,-.ters, who then came for- 
ward and signed their names thereto, depositing 
' with the secretary letters of dismission t'rom their 
resjiective churches. After devotional exercises, 
■ the church thus constituted resolved that the 
organization be known by the title of Hope 
Baptist church. On motion, William H. Shirley 
and Henry Hobbs were elected deacons, James 
W. Bradley church clerk, and William Smith 
treasurer. The clerk was instructed to notify all 



while I'-iptist ("luirc lies of this city of this ori^nni- 
zalion and ask of each the a])|)ointnient of their 
respective pastors and deacons, as nle^sen^ers to 
sit in council with tliis cIiuh h on Sund.iv, Octo- 
ber 26, iSy.j, for the piir[)f)se of exaniining the 
causes resullini; in their oiuani/atioii and the 
doctrines held by the said body; and if found 
worthy, to recogni/c Hope clnirch as a rcL;n]ariy 
constituted P.aptist (hnrc'i. llroilier Ho|ikins, 
having been notified that he had been unani- 
mously chosen pastor, accepted the pastorate on 
tlie imperative condition tiiat said Hojie Uaiiiist 
church should nt all times faithliillv discharge 
their general ob!i;^ations, and es]-iccially under 
all circumstances exercise corrective discipline 
against any and all of its members for persistent 
worldliness. he being subject to the action of the 
Ordaining Council. To all of this the church 
unanimously pledged assent and sup[)ort. 


Ouober -5. 1S74. 
ruisuant to the c.iU of Hope E.iptiit church, nic.=i.-erigors 
roni Walnut Street, Bro.aduay, Kast, Chestnut Street, Pil- 
grim, Portland, and the German Baptist churches, met with 
Hope Baptist church at their place of worship at 3 o'clock, P. 
M, Council was organized by tlie election of Rev. J. M. 
Weaver moderator, and [. D. Allen clerk ; and after thorough 
and satisfactory exiniination, Hope Baptist church was unan- 
imously rPco^nized as a regular church of Jesus Christ. 
The Council, in obedience to their Ic^pective churches, pro- 
ceeded to the e.Kaniinalion of \\^ j. Hopkins concerning hi:i 
Christian experience, call to the niinislrv, and Bible doctrines ; 
and after c.Treful and satisf.ictory examination, the Councl 
unanimously approved his ordination, and under the call of 
the church proceeded with tiie ordaining services. Charge 
to the church by Rev. William B. Smith; charge to the c.m- 
didate by Rev. J. M. Weaver; laying on of hands by tiie 
Council; ordaining prayer by Rev. William Harris; pres- 
entation of Bible by Rev. R. D. t\ay ; and benediction by 
the candidate. 

Thus was constituted and recognized the lit- 
tle church of twenty-one members, who, after 
struggling agamst abuse and persecution irom 
various sources, succeeded, with God's help, in 
surmounting all obstacles, and in increasing its 
membership until, al'ier a period of seven years, 
it numbered one hundred and thirty, and now 
has the reputation of being too strict, because 
they adhere so tirmly to the law of God. Their 
aim has ever been strength in Christ, and not 
nutnbers; the sheaves they have gatliered in the 
field of tribulation, eternity alone can reveal. 
While they have had many trials, )"et they ha\e 
enjoyed many hours of sweet communion with 
their God. 

Rev. W. J. Hopkins, the first p^astor of Ho[ie 
Raptist (liurch, retained his [losition a, suvli 
until the summer of iS8i,when he resigned ; 
one of the many reasons being on account of his 
ill health. Rev. T. 1'. Potts, the present pastor, 
was then c.illed, and unanimously elected his 

The Broadway r>aptist church is on the north 
side of Broadway, between l-'irst and Second 
streets. The organization of this church was 
effected May 17, iSyo, by one hundied or moie 
members of the ^\'alnut street Ba[itist church, 
situated at l-'ourth and Walnut streets, asking 
and receiving from said church letters of dis- 
mission for tiie puipose of organizing a new 
society in the southern or southeasiei n part of 
the city, to be known as the Broadway Bapitist 
chiirc h. Piior to its organization the member- 
shiji of the Walnut street church had increased 
to such proportions that it was deemed wisest 
and best that tmother church organization should 
be effected by first building another house of 
worship, and on completion, such of its members 
as so desired should receive letters of dismission 
in order to unite with tliis new interest. So gen- 
erously «as this new interest supported that from 
the date of its birth, it moved forward in its 
work upon equal footing with the mother church; 
commencing with about one hundred members, 
its numbers have been gradually increased until 
at this time they aggregate nearly four hundred. 
Two ministers have labored in this lleld, the Rev. 
J. B. Hawthorne and Rev. J. L. Burrows, I). D. 
The latter having recently resigned and accepted 
a call from Norfolk, Virginia, the church is at 
present without a pastor. 

'I'his proiiertv cost at the completion of the 
j building about $100,000, all of which was paid, 
1 thus starting this new interest on its mission free 
of debt. By a defect, however, in constiuction, 
a portion of the building iiad to be rebuilt in 
j 1S74 at a cost of abotit $20,000. This sutn was 
j raised by issuing bonds, and thus a debt was 
I created, which at this date has been reduced to 
I $15,000. In December, 1S75, tire nearly de- 
[ stroyed the building, but it was immediatelv re- 
' constructed. Its seating cajiacity is 1,000, and 
; it has one of the finest and largest organs in 
I Louisville. 

I * This sketch la from the pen of Rev. Mr Potts. 



Aiiiuiiu; tlic iiKirc ])ioiiiiiu-iU members ulio 
conslitiited ihe original one hundred may be 
mentioned J. 1). Allen nnd wife, G. \V. Norton 
and wife, W. F. Norton and wife, ^\'. H. Smith 
and wife, S. C. Long and wife, John S. Long 
and wife, W. O. Hall and wife, A. S. Woodruff 
and wife, A. I). Miles and wife, C. C. Hull and 
wife, Warren Mitchell and wife, Andrew Cowan, 
R. H. Nctherland and wife, H. C. Hamilton and 
wife, H, G. S. Whii^ple and wife, G. A. Hull 
and wife.* 

The societies attached to this church have 
been peculiarly energetic and useful. The Mar- 
ried Ladies' Society, after the destruction of the 
building, undeitook single-handed the refitting 
of the pastor's study. The Young Ladies' So- 
ciety, among other benefactions, has established 
an infirmary in the Haptists' Orphan Home, on 
First and St. Catharine, where they added a 
beautiful little hospital, with eight small beds and 
four swinging cradles, and all desirable ajipur- 


This is the only denominational school of large 
prominence in oi near the city. It is an institu- 
tion for the ]ireparaiion of tlie ministry in studies 
purel)' theological. It gives no literary or scien 
tific instruclion, except so far as is incidentally 
done in connection with the science of theology. 
It has been founded by the BaptiNts of the 
Southern States, not, however, unaided by their 
Northern brethren, from some of very 
liberal contributions have been received. Its 
Board of Trustees is taken from each of the 
Southern States which have contributed funds to 
its endowment or support in the proportion of 
such contribution — $5,000 entitles to one Trus- 
tee, $10,000 to two, and each additional $10,000 
to another, with the [)ro\ i.-.o that however large 
its contributions no State shall be entitled to more 
than eleven Trustees. 

This provision is contained in a series of I'un- 
damental articles which were laid down by the 
convention which established the seminary, which 
articles are perpetual, tliere being no body that 
exists nor that can exist which has the power to 
change them. These articles set forth the doc- 
trinal views universally held among Baptists, and 

*\Ve h.ive this sketch bv 
Gleason, clt-rk of the churc 

kiiirlness of Mr. Josepli M. 

ea< h [Mol'essor is rei]uiied to teach in accord- 
ance with and not contrary to them. 

Several theological schools and depaitmtnts 
of colleger were in existence among the Baptists 
of the South in 1S45, when they were separated 
from their Northern brethren. The instruction 
given in these was limited and their endow- 
ments were very meagre, and it was deemed best 
if possible to combine them all into one, and to 
eiulow that liberally. 

But thiswas found iinpossible, though faithfuUv 
attempted. F'inally, another effort was made, 
which, thciugli it failed in combining the existing 
schools, culminated in a neu' institution, in which 
the theological department of the JAirman 
l^niversity, one of them already existing, was 
merged. .-V committee was appointed in lune, 
1S54, at the fJeneral .\ssociation of Virginia Bap- 
tists, to agitate the question at the session of the 
S')Utliern Baptist Convention in Montgomery, 
-Vlabama, in May, 1855. The result was the crll 
and as<embling of an educational convention at 
.'\ugusta, Georgia, in -April, 1S56. At this meet- 
ing it was decided to hold another meeting at 
Louisville, Kentucky, in connection with the 
Southern Baptist convention to assemble in May, 
1.S57. Bids for a location and end(jwnient were 
invited. .-Vt Louisville the bid of the Baptists of 
South Carohna was accepted, which proposed to 
give $100,000 for the location of the seminary 
at Clreernille, South Carolina, on the condition 
that $[00,000 should be also contributed by the 
other States. Sul.iscriptions of the amounts 
proposed were secured, but as they were in pri- 
vate notes they became valueless in consequence 
of the disasters of the war. .-Vfter the termination 
of the war the seminary was maintained with 
great sacrifices and struggles by merely annual 
contributions for several years. It became evident 
that only in t'his precarious way could it 
be maintained at Greenville, South Carolina, 
and it was d(jubtlul if that could be done much 
longer. Therefore, during the session of the 
Board at St. Louis in .May, 1S71, it was decided 
to reopen the qtiestion of location, as certain 
arrangements made with the South Carolina 
Baptists not long before authorized it to do. 
X'arious otters were made, but after mature delib- 
eration tliat tVom th.e l'>a]_)tists of Kentucky for a 
location at or near Louisville was accepted. 
This was a pledge of a subscription of three turn- 


37 5 

dred tliousand dollars, on cotiJitir>ii that the 
Ho.i'd would not permantntly ctase efforts tor 
further;, until live huntiicd lllou^an(l 
had been suhsi ribed. 'J'his ofkr was ate ejited in 
August, 1872, and t'rcin that time to the pre-ent 
the work of endowment has been earnestly 
pressed. 0\cr two hundied thousand dollars of 
invested fuiids have been secuud. About eJLhty 
thousand dollars wcath of leal estate has been 
obtained. I'livate sufiscriptions, not yet realised 
from, have also been pivm, anioimting to about 
, one lumditd and si.xty thousand dollars. 
Among the contributions has been one of fifty 
thousand dollars' for the endowment of a jiro- 
fessorship by Hon. Joseph F". lliown, formerly 
Governor of {Georgia and now United States 
Senator from that State. This professorship has 
been attached to the School of Systematic The- 
ology and has been designated by the b{.)ard as 
the Josejjh Emerson Ihown jirofessorship. 

The faculty of this institution now consists of 
Rev. James P. l-loyte, D. IX, LL. U., chaitnian, 
Rev. John A. Broaddus, l\ D., LL, ))., Rev. 
Basil Manly, D. D., LL. D., and Rev. W. H. 
Whitsitt, D. 1). Rev. George W. Riggan, A. .M., 
is also assistant instructor in Hcbtew, Greek, and 
Homiletics. Besides these the Seminary has 
had two other professors siiice its origin- Rev. 
Williain Williams, I). I)., LL. D., who died in 
1S77, while still connected with the institution, 
and Rev. Crawford H. Toy, 1). I.)., LL. D., who 
resigned his position in May, 1S79. 

The nuinber of students for the past ten years 
or more has been larger than in any other Bap- 
tist Theological Seminary in the world. Dtiring 
the whole period of its existence about one 
thousand Baptist ministers have availed them- 
selves of its instiuctions. There have also been 
man.y of several other denominations who have 
attended, and have received the same ['ri\ileges 
as the Baptist students. The tuition is I'ree to 
all. Indeed there are no charges in connection 
either with its instruction or graduation. 

The seminary has as yet no buildings, either 
for halls of instruction or its library, which con- 
sists of about 12,000 volumes, 01 for the board- 
ing of its students. 'I'he erection of them has 
been wisely delayed until the neccssarv means are 
collected in ca.Vn. Meantime it e)ccupies fur lec- 
ture and library rooms very commodious quar- 
ters in the third story of the Public Library 

Building on I't'iuth street, between Green and 
Walnut, and has leased for a boarding hall for 
Its students the Waverley Ibitel em \\'alnut street, 
lie-tween Sixth and Seventh, which furnishes abun- 
dant and comfe)! table ijuarters. 

The seminary was removed to Lonis\ille and 
opened foi instruction in that city the fust time 
on the ist of September, 1877. 

Professor Basil Manly, Jr., A. M., D. I)., I L. 
D., is a na;i\e of .'^outh Cnreilina, born in tiie 
Edgefield Hc.irict, December 19, 1S23, eif Irish 
descent. His gi andlather was an officer in the 
Revolutionary war. The family is reinaikalile 
for Icngevit)-, nearly all his ancestors rea'hitig 
I ninety veais. He received a thorough edtica- 
tion, and graduated from the Universiiv of .-\la- 
bama in 1S43 ; attended tlie 'I'heoleiL^ical Semi- 
naries at NewtC'ii, Massachusetts, and Princeton, 
New Jersey ; was licensed to preach in Tusca- 
loosa, Alabama, in 1 S44, and ordained there four 
years later ; preached to several country chure-hes 
in that State, and in 1S50 became pastor of the 
j F'irjt Baptist church, in Riclunond, ^'irginia, but 
1 retired fiom ill health m iS54and supeiintended 
I the construction fjf a line building for the Rich- 
mond I'emnle Institute, of whicli he afterwards 
toeik charge. \\ hen the Southern Baptist The- 
oleigical .Seminary was established at Greenville, 
South Carolina, he became one of the first pro- 
fessors, and has maintained connection with it 
ever since, save during an interval beginning in 
1S7 1, when he was called to the presidency of 
Georgeto^vn College, Kentuckv. He prepared 
j the Baptist Psalmody t'er the Southern Baptist 
chuu hes in 1S40, and has done much other de- 
] nomiiational and general public work. 

Rev. Joseph \V. Warder, D. D., was born 

October 13, 1S25, in Logan county, Kentucky. 

His father was a successful minister, and his 

mother a v, uman of great piety. Governor 

Charles S. Morehead was a maternal uncle, and 

his dying while he was in his boyhood, 

the Governor attended to the education of his 

I nephew, and also met himself the necessary ex- 

: penses. In 1S45 he graduated at Georgetown 

I College, as valedictorian. While in college, he 

I was converted, joined the Bajitist Church, and 

was licensed t':i preach. For a year after his 

gradu.ition, he taught in the preparatory dej'.irt- 

ment of the same college, and was elected 



professor of niailiematiis, but refused the place 
to attend Newton Theological .Seminary in 
Boston. After spending st'me time at Piince- 
ton, New jersey, lie graduated at Newton in 
1849, and «as soon ordnined to the ministry. 
At first he was pastor of the Frankfurt liajnisl 
.church, but succeeding this sei\ed as pastor in 
several different plates, and in 1S75 accepj'ed a 
position with the church on Fourth and \\'ainut 
streets, Louisville. Fl;? was married in 1851, to 
^^lss Flli/abeth S. Turenian, of .Mavsville, Ken- 
tucky. 'Ihey have se\en ihildien living. Dr. 
Warbler's life has been a laborious one, but at 
the same lime an exeni|ilary one, and his po;iu- 
larity and evident success are no more than his 
work deserves. 

Rev. John l.ighifoot Waller, LL. D., \va= born 
in Woodford county, Kenluckv, November 23, 
1809, and died in I.ouissille, October 10, 1S54. 
His education was (j!)taincd mainly at home. 
At the age of nineteen, and for seven years, from 
1S2S to 1S35, he taught school in Jessamine 
county. He then became edifor of the ]!apiist 
Banner, at SI'.elbyville; and when the Baptist, of 
Nashville, 'J'ennessce, and the ^\'c3te^n Pioneer, of 
Alton, Illinois, were merged in it, and the name 
changed to Ba[)tist Banner and Western Pioneer, 
he continued the editor, in conjunction with the 
Rev. Drs. Howell and Peck. He was ordained 
to the ministry in 1S40; resigned his editorship 
in 1 84 1, to accept the general agency of the 
Kentucky Baptist General Association; succeeded 
his father in 1843, as pastor of the Glen's Creek 
church, for nine years. In 1S45 ^^ conmienced 
the publication of the Weslern Baptist Review, 
monthly, which he continued until his death — 
changing the title in 1S49 'o ^'^e Christian Re- 
pository, and in 1S50 resuming his editorial 
charge of the Banner and Pioneer. He was in- 
strumental in organizing the Bible Revision As- 
sociation, with headi]uarters at Louisville — in 
which the Baptists of the Southern and South- 
western States united. In 1S52 the degree of 
LL. D. was conferred ujjon him by Madison 
University. In 1S49 — his only opportunity for 
political or State position or office, as the 
State Constitution prohibited ministers of the 
Gospel from a seat in the Legislature, etc. — he 
was a candidate in Wouuford county, for tlie 
convention to revise or reform the State Consti- 
tution, and elected by two hundred and nineteen 

majority over Thomas F. Marsliall, the popular 
orator, who espoused the gradual emantination 
side. Dr. ^\'aller was famous and pj[);ilar as a 
cnntroversialist. In 1842 43, he held public de- 
batrs on baptism with Rev. Nailian L. Rice, D. 
D., one at Gentgetown and the othei at Nicholas- 
ville; with Rev. John T. Ikndrick, D. D., at 
Flemingsburg. and at Ma)s\ille wiili Rev. Robert 
C. Grundy, D. D. He sul)se<|uently debated on 
Uniwrs.'.lism al Warsaw, Ivcnt'.icky, with Rev. E. 
iM. Pingree, of Cincinnati; this debate had a 
fine inlluence on the community. He aLo pub- 
lished .several contro\eisial works --one on 
"C!ommunion,'' and another on ■'Camj'bellisn:," 
and left tl'.e n)anuscri["it oi a history of the Bap- 
tist Clunch in Kentucky, but it has never been 

Rev. Jonathan Cox Waller was of English de- 
scent, coming from a celebrated old family that 
traced their ancestr) back to Sir Richaid ^\■al!er, 
who was knighted for his bravery on the field of 
Agincourt. In the connection was the states- 
man and jioet, Edmund ^^"aller. of 
the family who settled in \'irginia as early as the 
seventeenth century, took prominent jiaits in 
public affairs, holding offices of honor and trust, 
and aiding materialb in the securing of civil and 
religious liberty. 'I'he lather of ihc subject of 
our sketch, George \Vailer, and the grandfrher, 
\\'il!iam Edmund Wrdler, were both pioneer Bap- 
tist ministers in Kentucky, emigrating to this 
State from A'irginia in 1781. The father settled 
in Shelby county, Kentucky, on Buck Creek, and 
was ordained pastor of the Baptist church there, 
of wlii(h liis father was pastor before him. He 
remained there more than fifty years, but did 
not confine his labors to this one organization 
alone. At times he had other churches un- 
der his care, and often he preached as an 
evangelist. It is estimated by those who fallowed 
his ministry, that he baptized more persons while 
actively engaged than any other person in the 
State. His son was born at the old familv resi- 
dence, on Buck Creek, March 24, 1S12. When 
seventeen years old, he with his brother, J. \V. 
Waller, settled in JelTerson county about ten 
miles below Louisville. In 1834 he was married 
to Susannah T. Bell, and in the same year joined 
the church to which his friends belonged, and 

* Hisiorical -Sketcli ol ilio ti.iprist Clmn;li, in Collinis His- 
rorv of KcntULkv. 



over which hu father was at the time ii.isior. 
I'roin that date lie became a dilii'cnt student of 
theolo.;y, and '.KlievitiL; zealoub-ly the doctrines of 
Calvinism, he eiiteied the field of contiovcisy 
and engat;cd in many discussions on topics well 
known to theologians of the time. In iS.jfi lie 
assisted in editing the I'.aptlst iianner, and two 
years later he sold his from on tlie river, and 
moved to Loui^ville, I.lurin,^ the war he wiote 
and published a work on the Second Coming of 
Christ and his Millennial Reign on the ]''.artli, 
which passed thiough four editions in a few 
months. In 1S64, he, with Rev. Ceorge ^\'. 
Robertson, began the book business on l-"ourtli 
street, near Main. The Western Recorder was 
published in connection with the bookstore, and 
he became its editor. He finally sold his interest 
and his paper, remo\ed to the soaihv.estern part 
of the State, and there engaged in mining, where 
he remained seven years. He now resides in 
Louisville, and has recently com[iIeted a work on 
Doctrinal Theologv. He has three children. 

Re\'. J. Lansing Iluirows, O. D,, was born in 
New York, in 1S14. His father, Captain .Sam- 
uel Eurrous, in the War of 1S12 was com- 
mander of the Anieritan ship "Privateer," 
commanded the first ste.imboat which ran from 
Pittsburg to New Orleans after tlie war's close, 
and died of 3ellow fever at Mobile in iSj:;. 
His mother's name was Lansing, and she be- 
longed to an old Dutch Knickerbocker family. 
Becoming a ward of his grandfather's when a 
child, he was educated by him with the greatest 
care. He prepared for college under the Rev. 
Dr. Nott, and became a student at Andover, 
Massachusetts. In 1S35 he became an ordained 
minister of the Baptist church at Poughkeepsie, 
and subsequently served as assistant pastor in 
New Y<jrk City. Comuig to Kentucky in 1836, 
he taught first at Shelhyville, and then conducted 
a female school at lihzabethtown tor some time. 
Following this work he resumed his preaching 
in important locations, Philadeljihia and Rich- 
mond being among the number. While m the 
latter city he was superintendent of the Ilajitist 
Memorial enter[)ri>e. which had for its object 
the endowment of the college at Richmond and 
the building of a monument to the memory of 
the early Virginia Baptists. In 1874 he returned 
to Louisville, and was duly installed piastor of 
the Broadway Baptist church. His writings cm 

church matters are quite numerous, and severrd 
ol his sermons have been put. into permanent 
form. He has great power as a [ireacher, is 
social and attraclive in his manners and appear- 
ances, and is de\utt.d to his calling. 

William Pratt, 1.). 1)., was born in MaiJison 
county, Xew '\'oik, January 13, 1S17. He is the 
son of Dr. Daniel Pratt, an eminent physician 
of Massachusetts and a surgeon in the L'nited 
States army in the Wai of 1S12, and brother of 
Hon. Daniel D. Pratt, an Indiana lawyer and cx- 
Uniled States Senator. His motlicr, Sallie Hill, 
of Maine, was a descendant of John Rogers, the 
ni.'ir'yr, and a woman celebrated for liei great 
piety. Dr. Pratt aci^uired his elementary educa- 
tion in the common school, and completed his 
preparatory studies at the Oneida Conference 
Seminary, at Cazeniivia, New Vt)rk. In Madi- 
son Univer.-,ity, at Hamilton, New York, he took 
a foni years' collegiate and two years' tlieological 
course, graduating in 1839. The day following 
that of his graduation, he was married to Miss 
Julia A. Peck, daughter of P'lder John Peck, of 
Madison crjuniy. New York, and at once started 
fir his new field at Crawfordsville, Indiana, l-'or 
several years he taught and preached, but his 
health failing, in 1S45 he removed to Lexington, 
Kentucky. 'Pheie he remained seventeen years. 
At this date he was Corresponding Secretary of 
the Board of the General Association tor Ken- 
tucky, and upon his resignation he devoted him- 
self to his official duties and [jreached to several 
country churches. He was then for two years 
with the Bank street church in New Albany, In- 
diana, and afterwards with the Broadway, and 
also the Walnut street Baptist church in Louis- 
ville. In 1S71, after having been engaged in 
the wholesale book business for a time, he dis- 
posed of his stock and femo\ed to Shelhyville, 
Kentucky, where he still remains. In 185S 
Madison University conferred upon the de.^^ree 
of D. D. Dr. Pratt was twice married, the 
second time to Mi>s Mary E. Dillard, daughter 
of Rev. R. T. Dillard, D. D., of Fayette county, 
of Kentucky. They have five children, \\'illiam 
D. Pratt, editor of the I.ogansport, Indiana, 
Journal, \kuvj, one of the sons. Dr. I'latt is an 
excellent business man, an able and scholarly 
spieaker, attractive in personnel, and thoroughly 
loyal. During the rebellion he was an uncon- 
ditional L'nion man, and is ncjw a Republican. 




Tlie beginnings of ihe Presb;,terian church in 
Loviisvillc, — nn nri;ani/ation now, in both its 
branches, one of' the most inlliicmiaFand pouer- 
fiil in the city,— were made nearly seventy years 
a;;o. Tlie F'irst rhiin h of tlii.s order here was 
founded in earlj- 1S17, when the town had hut 
four thousand inhabilanls.and but sixteen Presby- 
terians could be mustered in all the jTue f jr or- 
ganization. It was the only Preshytenan chinch 
in the city for fourteen years. The following is 
the earliest entiy in the church recoid: 

In J.umary. .-\niio Uoir.ini 1816. a number of citizens of 
Louisville, Kentucky, .in.\iou5 to enjoy tlie rtguKir aUminis- 
Irdtion of Gospel ordinances, met and formed themsf-lves into 
a I'resbyterian society argani?..ilion, and appointed the fol- 
lowing gentlemen ; Cuthbcrt Bulliii. Archib.ild Allen. John 
GwalhuK-y. Paul Skidmorc. Joshua He.rdington. and .Alex- 
ander I'ope. Esq.. trustees or commissioners, to prosecute a 
call for the Rev. D.iniel C. B.fnks. a mission.iry for Kentucky 
from Connecticut, to become their pastor, and also to iniii.ue 
a subscription for the purpose of raiding money lo build a 
church and to complete the same. 

The history of the church has been continued 
by Patrick Joyes, Esq , ckrk of the sucieiy, in a 
paper read at the redcdieati^.n of the old church 
edir'ice at Green and Centre street^, in October, 
18S1, after a thorough refuting, at a cost of 
$3,200. The sketch \rtfs subsequently published, 
and from it we condense the following : 

The Rev. James Vance, of tlie Louisville Fresbyteiv, was 
appointed lo moderate tiie call and arrange the business 
before Presbytery. The call was made out on .April 23. 
l8i6, for one sermon per Sabbath, at 5900 per Mr. 
Banks accepted the c.ill. and arrived in Louiaviilc on the 
15th of .August, i8t6. bringing with him his certificate of dis- 
missal Kud recommendation from the Eastern .Association of 
Fairfield. Connecticut. On the fifth ."^aijbath in January, 
1817, a confession and c^ was adopted and formally 
agreed to by the following persons, thus organi/.ing the First 
Presbyterian church of Louisville: Rosanna McFarland, 
Daniel C. Banks, [ane Carj, Susannah Fetter, Cnarles B. 
King, Lydia Biers. Thomi, Hill, ] r. , Mary Ann Sdliinan, 
Stephen Biers. — Denvvood. Martha -A. Binks, — B.irnes, 
Caroline King. Lucy R. Tun-tall, .\I.iry Ann Co^by, .\I.iry 
Ann McNutt, and Martha Pope. Of these, the original 
meinbeis of this church. .Mary .Ann McNult. the last survivor, 
died on the 2d of January, 1S79, a communicant in the 
church she helped to found. Two elders were elected in 
May, 1818, but neither of them was ordained until .August, 
1819, when, after another election, four elders. D.-iUiel Wuris. 
Paul Reinhard. Chariei B. King, and Ehas Ayres, were 
formally "set apart" .as eiders: and Jacob Reinhard. in Sep- 
tember. 1819. was the first commissioner appointed by the 
session to represent thecliarchat the fill Presbytery. 

It was tl-.e custom fjr ye.irs in the early history of 
the church to record the n.imes of those who were present at 
communion, as well as iho-e of the absentees. The record 
as to a co.Timumon January, 1820. shows that twenty-eight 

were present and twelve absent, thus giving a membership of 
forty. Ily lliis time the church building was probably com- 
pleted, as the deed coiiveving 100x105 feet on the west side 
•of Fourth slrcct, beginning one hundred and five feet south of 
Market, was m.ide by Thomas Pratlier in January, 1819. 
■ We find that it wa^ long customary for strangers who de- 
sin.d lo commune with the cungregaiion. to ohtidn jiermis- 
sion beforehand from the session. Some difficulty having 
occurred as to the rjuestion, it was declared by the Syi'iod of 
Kentucky in October. 1820, on appeal from the' Presbytery, 
that the Rev. Daniel C. Bmks was not the pastor of tlie 
church, and the Rev. James K. Burch was invited to act as 
stated supply, and w,as sulisequently called to the pastorate 
of the church, which latter proposition he declined. 

On the 20th of .August. 1E21, the Rev. Daniel Smith was 
called as pastor, and, having accepted the call, was regul.arly 
installed pastor on the 4th of Maich. 1822, the first regular 
pastor of the church. But his labors, though blessed, were 
short, as the year 1822 was one noted for the jirevalence of a 
malignant fever, which carried off numbers of the little con- 
giegatioii and of the communicants of the church. The 
pastor's health W.13 broken down, and he died in February, 
1S23, less than one year after his inst.allution. .After Mr. 
Smith began his labors in Louisville the church dispensed 
with the original "confession and coven. int" in December, 
1821. it having been determined that the "confes-ion ol faith" 
of the Presbyterian church, was "complete in iiself and suf- 

The Rev. Gideon Blackburn, D. D., having teen called to 
the pastorate in 1S23. and having accepted, installed 
Janiiiry 4. 1S24. The church numbered by its tep.jrt to the 
Pre-b\tei-y in October, 1824. eighty -two commun^cints, of 
whom thirtv-si.x had hf-en received after Dr. Blackburn's 
call. His pastoral relation v\ns dissolved in October, 1827, 
he having accepted the Presidency of Danville College. 
During his four j ears' stay here the number of communicants 
increased from fifty-one to one hundred and thirty-three. 

1'he church was without a regular p.istor for many years 
after Dr. Blackburn lift, though during tl'.at interim the pul- 
pit was filled by different ministers as lempor.iry supplies, 
and in .August, 1828. the church visited by the Revs. 
Gallagher, Ross, and CJarrison. and duiing their stay and 
labors was blessed with a gracious outpouring, and thirty-six 
were added on profession. The Rev. Mr. Gallagher was 
elected as p istor in 1828 and declined, and then a call was 
extended to Rev. \V, F, Curry, who was acting as a tempo- 
rary supply, and he declined. The Rev. Nathan C. Hall 
was then elected and declined, and in June, 1829, the Rev. 
Eli X. Sawtell was elected, and after hav ing taken ch.arge of 
the church some difficulties arose which resulted in !iis resig- 
nation, or rather declination, in February. 1830. .A few- 
weeks thereafter letters of dismis.sal were given to several 
members for the purpose of organizing the Second Presby- 
terian church in I-ouisville, and in May of the same year a 
number of letters were given to membeis for oigamzing a 
church in Jeffersonville. Indiana. 

In June. 1830. a call was extended to the Rev. George \V. 
.Ashbri-lge. of Tuscunib'a. Al.abama. who accepted and began 
his pastoral v.ork October 24. 1830. In the meantime a 
minute is entered in the record of September. 1830. of a sac- 
ramental meeting held on Corn island, then a large island 
with a beautiful grove op[io-ite the city, now quite .vash.ed 
aw,iy. at whicii meeting lour persons were rece.ved into the 

.N'otwithst.inding the de|.leiion by dismissals to the Second 
church and to the Jeffersonville church, the scsiiou reported 


one hundred and Ihiriy-siv mrnibfrs lo ihi; Pi,--bytcr_v in Oc- 
toh.r, 1S31, We imd ilu' fir,t memion of ihe 1 hirti church 
in I.ouKville in loa.:ts of di^nii>.s;il to panics ui^Iiini; to unite 
uuli that church. 

Tlip Rev. Geor-e \V.'Aihi)ridgc died during lu's pa,toratc, 
M,iy4, 1S34. IJr. Rol.ert |. r'.reckinnUye «.i» cix-ted pastor 
llcteuiiirr, iSi-t. and di-ehned; and Xoveniiier S, 18^-. tin- 
Rev. W.- 1,. Breckiund^.- v.-as calied and accepted, and b._-an 
his pailoral cliargc [anuary 8. 1836. 

A few months after, oa October 29. 1S66, before the close 
of the Sunday ni-!it seruees. the clmreli building c.iught lire 
and » as burned doun, the clock-bell in its bteeple lolh'ML,- 9 
o'clotk just before it fell, r.vr the next three year» tl:e coii- 
.er.'g worshipped in tlv building of the Associate .Meth- 
odist church, on the nonhue->i corner of Fourth and Green 
streets. Duraig that inters, the lot on Fourth street was 
sold by legislative and judicial aid. the lot on the southeast 
corner of Green and Sixtli street purchased, and the present 
building erected and completed in '1833 and 1S39. t':e lot and 
building costing, complete, sf-6,516. On its completion the 
first services uere held in it on Sunday, July 21, i8>9, and 
the church dedicated. The serm .n m the morning was bv 
the pastor. Dr. Breckinridge, fiom Psalm xhiii. 2. .and in tli'e 
evening from I. Connthi.ui.<, i, 24. 'I he clnucli reported to 
the Presbytery in April, 1S41. tuo hundred and foity com- 

The church reported 2:4 members to the Pre-bytery in 
April, 1851. For the fir-i time, five deacons were elected m 
March, 1855, who were ordained in July. Dr. Williarvj 
Breckinridge having resi-n-d after a pastor.ite of more than 
l«enly-iwo years, the pulpit was declared on the iaM 
Sabbath of September, i3;S, t!ie enrolled members then 
numbtring 334. After an inter. al of more than a year uith- 
out a pastor, the congregation ha\ing called the Rev 
Thomas H. Hoyl. of Abl eville. South Carohn.i, he ac.-eptcd his pastoral work November 5. 18^9. 

In 1S61, the roll having been corrected and reduced pre- 
viouslv, the church reported 277 communicants, and re- 
ported the largest amount of funds ever collectel in any one 
year of its history, $23,295.3:;, of whicli only 54,505.50 were 
for congregational purposes. 

During Dr. Hoyts pastorate the church was seriously dis- 
turbed by the sad political troubles of the country which 
culminated in war. The pastor was e.viled by the milit.irv 
authorities, and, after a long and forced absence on his part, 
the congregation was compelled 10 unite with him to asli 
leave of Presbytery to resign ins pastoral charge in Decem- 
ber, 1864. 

The Rev. Samiiei R. Wilson. D. D.. began his pastoral 
labors in this church m M.ircli. 1S65. and continued throm,'h- I 
out the year, in which the Presbyterian ( hurch. in the I 
border States especially, was distracted by tho=e contentions | 
and differences that resulted, in a great measure, from the { 
bitterness of the political and civil contest that so long j 
agitated the country. Bat during that time the chuich was ! 
compact and united. 

In 1870 the church purchased a lot and erected a missiou 1 
chapel on Chestnut, near Sixteenth, at a cost of about =9,000. ! 
now known as the Tnird Presbyterian Church, h.tving been j 
purchased for their use. ° \ 

In 1871 two hundred and si.Niy-two communicants were re- I 
ported to the Preshyterv. i 

It is not neee5.sary or advisable to go into details as to the ; 
history of the church in the past ten )ears. The sad events I 
of a portion of that time are f.imiliar to nearlv all present. It ' 
IS sufhcienl to sav that after the divisions in the lirst church ' 


in 1274. the Fust and the Seventh and Chestmil-sticr t 
churches u 01, hipped tog.'iher until their union. The Pev. 
W J, l.owry, D. D., having accepted a call to the pastorate 
oflioih of those churches, began his pastoral work Xoiember 
9. 1875. though not installed until Janua.ry 7, 1876. After a 
most accept d)le ministry of only two years to a congregation 
worshiping in a hired public hall, in which he had been en- 
deared to his congregation in a remarkable degree, he 
pre.iched his last sermon .\ugust 2O, 1877, and died .\'o%eniber 
loth of the same year. 

On November 13. 1878, after a protracted an.t painful liti- 
g .ti-n, the keys of this building were to the ofti- 
cers of this church, and our present pastor, the Rev. E. O. 
(iuerrant, began his pastoral labors among us, preaching his 
tiist sermon in this building January 5, 1S79, aim the t«o ' 
churches were united, on their petitions, by the action of the 
Presbytery of Louisville, April, 1879. The church reported 
to tlie Presbytery, on .\pril, 1881, five hundred and fifty 
UT inbers. 

In this sketch, running through si.\lv-five years, you have 
the n lines of iw.) acting; p tstors-elect and seven regularly in- 
staled pastors, and of them only three are luing. In that 
time there li.ive been, including the present session, thirty- 
seien ciders, of whom twenty-four are dead, and tlieie h.ive 
been in all fuurteen deacons. 

Diirint^ Dr. Gucirant's pastoiate the iiicmber- 
ship wa.s more doubkd. About two hun- 
drcil and filty at the time he v,as installed, it was 
raised to si.\ hundred and twenty five ; hut at the 
tune of the re dedieation, in the fall of iSSi, it 
had been reduced by dcatlis and removals to 
live hundred and fii'iy. The church had then 
been entirely cleared of debt. Dr. Gue.rant re- 
signed in the winter of 1SS1-S2, and went to le- 
side in the interior of the State. 


In the year 1830 there was in the city of 
Louisville but one Presbyterian church, though 
at that time the city contained twelve thousand 
inhabitants, with the population ra[)idly increas- 
ini;. In view of these circumstances it was 
thought a sufficient reason, had there been no 
other, to embark in the enter|, rise of establishing 
a second Presbyterian church in the city. Ac- 
cordingly, after much deliberation on the subject 
and having committed their cause to God, and 
believing that the welfare of souls would be 
greatly promoted by such a step, the following 
persons requested of the First Presbyterian 
church, of which they were members, letters of 
dismission, with a view of becoming organized 
into a se|)arate chuich; namely : Dr. B. H. 
Hall. Heath J. Miller, William S. Vernon, Mrs. 
Sarah Cocke, Mrs. Rebecca G. Averill, Mrs. 

•Abridged from the admirable Historicil >I;clch prefixed 
to the- M.imnl of the church, and w ritten liy the Hon, George 
W. .Morns, one of us elders. 


HIS^OK^• ov thi-: oiiio falls coLxrii'is. 

America X'crtviii, ^Lnrion IX Averill, Mrs, Martha 
I'ricc, Mrs. llLnriclta Wilson, Mrs. Sarah ^L 
Barnes, Mrs. NLiry LcnuuL.J, Mivs Lucy C. Hall. 

The rei|U(,st of tlic-^e |ier~ons being granted, a 
raectiiiL: was apj'oinleil in the house of Mr. ^L^r 
tin I). .Avcrill on Satin.! ly, the i yth day of Apiil, 
iS3o,at \\!ui;h the Rev. 1). C. Hanks ]jre-.ideil, and 
organi/:ed them into a clnnah to lie called "Thc' 
Second t'resbyterian Cliuieh cif Louisville, Ken- 

Before entering ui>on the election of ollicers, 
they recei\ed four members from the Presby- 
terian church in Frankfort, Kentucky, namely : 
r)r. James J. Mills, his wife, nr.d t'^o dau:;hteis. 
William S. Vernon and J. J. Miles were unani 
mously elet ted ruling elders. Apiilication was 
made for the ministerial labor^, of Rev. E. N. 
Sawtell, who had been preaching for eight 
months as the ]5astor-elect in tlie First church ; 
and, not having been installed he yielded to thi^ 
application, and entered inimeciiately upon hi^ 

Having no liouse of \vorshi|i, they occupied a 
schooLroom cm Green street, between Fourth 
and Fifth streets, where he jireaclied his fii-t 
sermon on the thiid Sabbath of .\pril, i S30. On 
the twell'th of Xoveniber, ALirvm D. .\\eiill 
was unanimously elected Ruling Elder, and in 
the same month a Bible class was organized, 
embracing a large portion of the congregation, 
who attended with deep interest and manifest 
improvement. On the tenth of ^L■ln:h, 1S31, the 
church and congregation convened tor tlte elec- 
tion of a pastor. The Rev. E.. X. Sawtell, who 
had for a year been iierlornimg the duties of a 
pastor, was unanimously elected. The call being 
made out and presented before the Louisville 
Presbytery, he was regularly installed Pastor of 
the Second chuich on S.iturday, .April 9, 1S31. 

On the seventeenth of .\[)ril, 1S31, a Sabbath- 
school was organized in connection with the 
church, which numbered during the year nearly 
one hundred scholars. 

The church was now approaching an important 
crisis in her history. Though their numbers had 
increased, their borders enlarged, and their piety 
had begun to assume a more active and decided 
character, yet poverty still stared them in the !ace. 
Those that had been aelded being pirincipally 
from among the )0Uth, possessed but limited 
means for the sup'port of the Gospel. I'he house 

in which services had been regularly held was too 
^ small for the congregation, and it was soon to he 
rt ino\-ed. . I'lii' serious question, can be 
I tione in this emergency? forced itself u[j'-n every 
I mind. 'l"o b.iild seemed sim;j|y im[>os^il)le, and 
[ not to build was in effect to disperse the con- 
gregation and dissolve the church. .After much 
■ deliljeiation it was determined to irinkc the at- 
\ tempt, and a building c(;mm:tte'e was appointed, 
1 consisting of the lollowing persons: IXtnid 
! I'etter, chainii m ; William Garvin, Jolm Rein- 
' haid, William .Mix, \\ il' S. N'ernon, Thomas 
' Jones, M. l\ .Averill. .A lot of ground on 'ihird 
; street, between Careen and Walnut, was piocuied 
' at a cost of about $1,500, and subscriptions sul- 
[ tlcient to autiiorize tlie commencement of the 
j building, but how to jiroceed farther was a (]ues- 
I tion that remained unsettled. .Al'ter mucli dc- 
j liber.ition it uas determined, as a last resort, that 
! the pastor should visit some of the large cities 
j of the North, present the claims of the chmch, 
I and solicit the aid of their Ghri-itian brethren. 
This eflort resulted in his obtaining donations to 
the amount of nearly $2,500. Peeing encouraged 
by this timely aid, they prosecuted the work on 
tile building with lenewed vigor, and though in- 
terrupted liy the seventy of the winter of 1S31- 
32, tliey advanced sl> far tiiat in March an infant 
school was opened in the basement story, and in 
June following the same room was occujiied for 
public worship. On the 2Stli of Sei;tenibei, 
1S32, tile house was completed and, with appro- 
|.)riate sei vices, was dedicated to the service of 
the Triune God. The sermon on this occasion 
was preached bv Rev. President Young, of Cen- 
ter GoIIege, l>anville, Kentucky. 
j In the fail of the year 1S35, .Mr. Sawtell, in 
i consequence of tailing health, resigned the pas- 
! toral charge ot t!ie church, much to the regret of 
the pco[)le, arncng vvheini he had labored so 
I faithl'ully and successt'ully. Shortly afterwards he 
; was called to another important field of labor — 
namely, that of the Seaman's .^Ls;io^, at Hav re, 

In tiie montli of Decemlier of the same year, 
Rev. E. P. Humpihrey entered upon his duties 
as pastor of the church. .At this pieriod there 
Were about 130 memhers belonging to the 
church; and, under th.e care of the new p.ister, 
it continued to grow in numbers and increase in 

\ 'x 


In t!ie early part of the- )\ni iS.(6, l!i.; session 
of the church granted Dr. lluin|ilirey lea\eof 
absence foi eiylu months, to enalile him to visit 
Europe, in tlie hope of regaining lii-: health, 
which had tiecome seriously im]iaired. And, 
u|.ion his re<:ommendation, an arrangement uas 
made bv the session with R''\-. Smart Robinson, I 
who was then ])i caching at Kanawha, N'irginia, j 
to supply the pulpit in the interim, which he did i 
with great satisfaction to tlv.' peojjlc. 1'r. Hum- i 
phrey returned in November, greatly imiiroved in 
health, and entered upon his woik with renewed ! 
vigor. I 

The secession of memliers to form the Chest- j 
nut-street, now the ^Vanen Memoiial Presby- j 
terian Church, occurred about this time. j 

In August, 1S53, Dr. Humphrey having been 
elected by the General Assembl}-, nt its annual 
session of that year, professoi of church history ' 
in the Theological Seminary at Dan\ille, Ken- 
tucky, resigned the j)a-toral charge. During his 
pastorate there were received into the church 
about four hundred and Hfiy per^ons, and at the \ 
date of his resignation the number of ccnnniini- | 
cants was two hundrcLl and fjiLV-five. -\ call 
was made upon the Rev. J. J. Rullock, of Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, who accepted and entered ; 
upon his pastoral duties in Sejitember of that \ 
year. At the end of about two years arid a halt 
he resigned to take charge again of the school 
at Walnut Hills, Kentucky. 1 

During a period of two years and a half fol- 
lowing the resignation of Dr. Bullock, the church 
was left without a pastor: yet notwithstanding 
this the Sabbath-school, weekly ]irayer-meetings, 1 
and regular church service on the Sabbath were j 
kept up. Calls were extended to four or five 
distinguished ministers in different parts of the 
countrv, but one alter another they declined, 
and the church was seriously embarrassed with 
the question of the iiastorate until directed to 
one who had served the church so acceptably 
twelve years before. Rev. Stuart Robinson was 
now professor of church government in the 
Seminary at I.lanville, and the church had little 
hope of him. Nevertheless the call was made, 
as it had been to him once bei'ore; he accepted, 
and in the spring of 1S3S became jiastor of the 
ciiurch. The et'fect was highly beneficial, and 
new life seemed to be infused. 

In the spring of the loUowing year a meeting 

was held, and ste|is were taken to purcha-e a 
large and desirable l'>t on the corner of Second 
and College streets, wheie tlie College Street 
I'leslnteri.m ciiurch now stands, for a new build- 
ing in the near future. ^K■alnvhile it was re- 
solved to remodel the basement story ol the old 
churih and put galleries in the andience-room, 
to ac(-i)mniodate the inci easing ce)ngregaiion. 
For these improvements and the ground pur- 
chased. Several thousand dollars were rai--ed 
within two years. 

])uring the [)rotracted absence of Dr. Robin- 
son in the war period, tiie [nilpit was supplied by 
Mr. lohn C. Vour.g, a licentiate of the Presby- 
tery of Transylvania, who had been engaged by 
Dr. Robinsori upon leaving. He was elected 
CO i>a^tor at the end of two jears, resigning the 
position upon the Doctor's return in the spring of 

About three hundred and thirty members were 
now on the churih loli. Neatly one-third of 
these v.cnt off the same year, to form the College- 
street church, taking the lot aforesaid and a large: 
sum in money as their share of the church prop- 
erty. In iSGS measures were taken to raise 
$50,000 for a new site aiid church. Although 
the country was then in the worst of the "hard 
times,'' the effort was remarkably successful, and 
in a short time the amount was subscribed. One 
of the most desirable tracts in the city for the 
purpose — 112 feet on IJroadway by 400 on 
Second — was bought for $36,000, but a [)art of 
it, fronting on Jacob street, was presently sold 
for $10,000. The lecture- and Sabbath-school 
rooms on the rear of the remaining lot were first 
erected, and dedicated in ^L^y, 1S70. The 
General .Assembly of the Church South was 
holding its session there at the same period, 
The old church on Third street — a variety theatre 
of late years — was sold, and the new building 
temporarily occupied for all services. $20,000 
more were raised, and the sujierb edifice now- 
standing at Second and Broadway was dedicated 
on Sunday, September 13, 1874, with simple but 
im[jressi\e ccremotiies — sermon by the Rev. B. 
M. Palmer, D.D., of New Orleans. It had 
cost, without furniture and organ, about $80,000; 
with them, about $qo,ooo. The pulpit was 
paid fir by the exertions of the Children's 
Society of the church. The total cost of the 
church property wa^ near $140,000, of which a 



part bundcil il-jbt, and a small part floating; 
dobl. At that time, altli(jiii;h the church was 
nearly fortyfi\e yeai> oUI, all four of its jvistors 
and ex pastors were still h\iii^. 

Dr. Roliinson died ()( toher 5, iSSi, greatly 
lamented by his cluin. h and by the coniinunity. 
He was a,L;ed sixtv-.even years, ami had held this 
])astoiate for tuentv-three years and one half. 
'I'he Rev. John \V. I'ratt, D.I)., was then called, 
accepted, and was installed lleteuiber 5, iS.Si. 
He is now serving the church and so' iety with 
great power and a steadily giowiii:; inlluence. 
'J"he number of cimimunicants at this wiitiiiL; 
(February, 1SS2) is Uvc hundred and seventy five. 

'rhc Sunday-scliool inirnedialcly attached to 
the church has an enrollment of about one 
hundred and filt)', with twcnty-fise teachers. 
Iilr. .-\. Davidson is superintendent, and also 
clerk of Session. The Park and Horiiestead 
Mission Sunday-Schools arc also su.itamed and 
officered from this church. 

The following full and excellent sketch of the 
Portland Avenue Presbuerian Church is very 
kindly contributed to this work by the l\.ev. J. H. 
Morrison, its present jiastor: 

This church will be twenty-seven years old 

September i, iSS:;. For more than a quarter of 

a centuiy it has attested God's protecting love 

and fa\or; it has shared with other parts of His 

vineyard. His showers and His sunshine, His 

frowns and His blessings. Copying tVom the 

earliest minutes of the church records we read 

the following : » 

Pkesbvteki.\n IIekai.d Okficf.. \ 
LoeisviLi.F, Kv,, Auyu^t 16. 1855. J 

Pursumt to a call from Rev. Robert Morrison, who 
been preaching for some time at Portland, in accordance 
with a resolution of the Loiiis\tlle Presbytery, p.issed some 
time since, constituting the sessions of the churches of the 
city into a committee to org.inii'e cluirchcs in the city when- 
ever the way is open, the sessions of four of the churches 
were present or represented, to consider the petition sent to 
that committee from certain persons Ir desiring the 
organi7.<ition of a Presbyterian Church in that p.irt of the city. 

On motion, Professor S. R. Willi. mis. of the Firs! church. 
was called to the chair, and J. W. G. Simrall. of the Chest- 
nut Street church session, was chosen Seciei.irv. 

Present from First church, S. K. Williams, [uhn W. .An- 
derson. Curian Pope, Mr. Gillis. 

From Second church, .A. Davidson. 

F'rom Chestnut Street church. \V. ."S, Veinon. L. P. Van- 
del!, John Milton. John W. C. .Simrall. 

From W.ilnut Street church, John Martin. 

Mr. R. Morrison was thea c.illed on. and marie a state- 
ment of the condition of affairs at Portland, and closed his 

lemarki by reading the petition of twelve r.crsons rcidnnt in 
or near PotiKuitl i)i,i\iii;^ to be org.ini/t^d into a Presbytt,iian 

On motion, it was resolved that it is deemed expedient that 
the church be'oiganized as desired. 

Further, on motion, it was resolved that one elder from 
e.ich of the five cluirchcs of the city, with as many pasiors of 
ihuicliei ill thi; city or nienihers of the Piesbytery as may be 
present, be constituted a committee to organize said cliurch 
at some future time to be agreed upon, if the waj -be oi-en. 

The elders ch<jscn were: From the F'irst church. Curran 
Pope; Second church, William Pra'.her; Chestnut Street 
church. |. W, G. Simr.ill, Walnut street church, H. E. 
Tunstall; Fomlh cliuich, Otis l\ilton. 

On motion, it resolved this meeting recommend 
to the friends of our church in the city to contribute litier.iliv 
of their means to raise funds to purchase a lot in Portland on 
which to build a Presbyterian church. 

On motion adjourned. 

Pi.c.\iKR'.s SroKr; Roo^!, 1 
PoKTL.\N[5, September i, t85;. f 

The abo\c mentioned committee, consisting of an elder 
from e.ich church in the city, were present, together with 
Rev, W. 1.. Rreckinridge, D. D., pastor of the first church; 
R. V. W. W. Hill, I). 1.).; and Rev. F. Senour. O. D., of the 
F'ourtli church. .\t 10:30 .\. M. the meeting was called to 
order, r.ivl Dr. Bieckinridge was called l(.) ]iies:dc. .After 
which Dr. Hill preached a sermon from Ps.iliii c.xx.wii, on 
the believer's love for the church. 

.After sermon Dr. Hreckinridge tC'ok the chair, and the 
divine blessing having been invoked, the letters of persons 
intending to unite w ith the church to he constituted, were 
placet! in his hands, and were as follows. .Mrs. Jane .Mc- 
Culloeh, .Miss Mary McCulloch, Miss Hcctorina McCulloch, 
.Mrs. Duckwell, Mrs. Elizabeth Dick. Newton Boies. 

The first three persons presented letters of dismission and 
recommendation from the Second church, Louis- 
ville, and Mrs. Dick from the Walnut street church, .Mrs. 
Dnckwnll from the First church. New .Albany, Indiana, and 
Mr. Boles from the Springfield church and the Presbytery 
I of Wooster. .All these were found in order and received by 
the committee. .An opportunity then being given for per- 
sons to present themselves for examination with a view to the 
profession of their faith. Mi. William .A. Boles, and Mrs. 
Melvina .McKnight came forward and were examined. Mr. 
Boles never having been baptized, this ordin.ince was admin- 
istered to him by Dr. Breckinridge. These eight persons then 
came forward and signified their desire to unite in organiziii,g 
a Presbyterian church, in Portland, and covenanted to walk 
together in a church relation, according to the acknowledged 
doctrines of the Presbyterian church, and were thus consti- 
tuted into a church. 

It was thought best to deter the election of oflicers for a lit- 
tle season. .After prayer by Rev. F. Senour, the benediction 
was pronounced and the committee adjourned 

At a subsetiuent meeting, Joseph Invmwas received from 
the First church. Louisville. 

Cnv School Hocsk, November 18, 185;. 
.At a meeting of the Presbyterian church and congreg.ition. 
immediately after preaching, previous notice having been 
given, an election for church oflicers was held, which resulted 
in Mr. Joseph Irain being chosen to the Eldership and .Mr. 
N. lioles being chosen as Deacon. 

CiTV School Hocsf.. Decembers. 1855. 
A Conglcgational meeting ol the Portland Presbyterian 


cluirtli Itiis (Iny hrld for (he purpose of electing' a bu.iiil 
nf irustrcs. Dr. G. H. Walling was calltd to iho chair, and 
N. I'-jlcs appoiiued as Secretary pro lem. 

The following persons were duly eleeled iis Board of 'I'nts- • 
ii'es: Daniel MtCullocIi. Jolm (lialiam, Joseph, Dr. 
t;. 11. Walling. N. Boles. 

.-\t a siibser|uent meeting. Daniel MeCulloch was chosen 
■rreasurcr and X. Boltrs Secretary. 

'rims far wc have ccjiied directly from the 
uunutes of tlie church. ]\cv. R. .Morrison con- 
tinued to [ire.ich for this cluircli at various tir.ies, 
hut -.shether regularly does not aj^ipear from the 
niimites. Also Dr. W. R. Rreckinridge and 
Rev. J. H. Ri( e preached and conducted sacra- 
mental meetings at various times. Dining tt'.is 
time additions to the church and ordinations 
and installment of olTicers are reported. Mr. 
loseph Irwin was solemnly set apart as elder 
Maich 30, 1S57, as betoie elected, but Mr. N. 
Roles was not set apart as deacon, he having le- 
nioved to iJenmark, Tennessee. 

In 1S57 the church obtained leave to secure 
the services of licentiate A. A. E. Taylor, of Cin- 
cinnati I'resbytery. May 6, iSjS-Thur^day al'tei- 
noon — the candidate completed his trial pieces 
before Rresbjtery at an adifuirned meeting held 
in the Portland Avenue church. At 7'j 1. M. 
he was installed ])astor as follows; Rev. Stuart 
Robinson jireached the sermon from Luke iv., 
iS, 19, in the presence of a large audience, after 
which the pa>tor elect was solemnly ordained 
and set apart to the work of the ministry hy 
prayer and the laying on tlie hands of the Pres- 
bytery. Rev. \V. W. Hill, D. D., delivered the 
charge to the pastor, and Rev. M. G. Knight 
the charge to the people. 

September 19, 1S59,' the pastoral relation 
between Rev. Mr. Taylor and this cliurch was 
dissolved by Presbytery. During Mr. Taylor's 
ministry the church constantly received acces- 
sions to its membership, and with \ariations had 
twenty-nine on the roll wh.en he was succeeded 
by Rev. Edward \\'urts, December, 1S59. It 
does not appear from the minutes whether Mr. 
W'urts was installed as [^a^tor or not, but he con- 
tinued to serve the church until lune, 1S65. 
Under his ministry, with the I'aith.ful assistance of 
the session, the membership increased I'rou) 
twenty-ninc to eighty-three, and other interests 
of the church in proportion. 

Rev. \V. W. Duncan succeeded Mr. AVuris in 
charge of the church in the year 1S65, between 
June and August. The session then, and for 

s<u)ie time previous, consisted of Joscjih Ir\i in, 
D. MeCulloch, and H. Roberts, with W. H. 
Trovell and J(i5epii P. C.reen as deacons. 

Mr. Duncan lem lined in charge only about 
one year. Rev. ('.. P. Davidson then succeeded 
him for neatly a year. In the interim Rev. 
R. II. Kinnaird and otlurs preached occasion- 
ally, and moderated the meetings of sessions. 

Rev. Philiii H. rhdinpjon began his labors 
the first Sabbath in January, 1S6S. 

June 7, 1S6S, according to a previous recom- 
meJidation t.'y the session, the congregation 
elected additional elders and tlcacons as follow-:: 
William Halhday, W. H. 'I'roNcU, elders: Simon 
Cage, Jr., Joseph Iiwin, Jr.. David Duckwall, 

W'hh gradual but constant growth, leaving the 
chuK h with an efiicieiit board of elders, consist- 
ing then of Joseph Irwin, D. MeCulloch. II. 
Roberts, W. H. Halliday, and V;. H. Troxdl; 
and as deacons David Duckwall, Simon Cage, 
Jr., Joseph Irwin, Jr. Mi. Thomii^on accepted 
the Call to Mulberry church, Shelljy couiity, 
June I, 1S70. 

No\ ember 25, 1S70, Rev. John D. Matthews, 
D. D,, was installed paslor. Rev. Stuart Rob- 
inson, 1). D., preached the installation sermon. 
Rev. S. R. Wilson, I). D., gave the cliarge to the 
pastor, and Rev. Mr. Thornton to the congrega- 
tion, according to appointment of Presbytery. 

In the year 187 1 the congregation built a 
comfortable nine-room jxarsonage oa the corner 
of Thirty-lirst and Rank streets, at a cost of 
about $3,000. 

.•\t the close of his ministry with this cliurch 
I there was on the roll a membership of eighty. 
I Dr. .Matthews served the church ably and faith- 
j fully frotii 1S70 to 1S77, when the congregation 
1 united with him in .asking of the Presbytery the 
dissolutioir of the pastoral rcla'.i'.)n. He was 
I succeeded by J. H. Moore, of U'ashington, 
: Kentucky, who acted in the capacity of stated 
' sup[ily from 1S77 — in N'ovember, to .-\|iril, 1S79 
I — the church growing in all its branches — niem- 
! bership m number 73, elders 3, deacons 3. Mr. 
j Moore was succeeded by Rev. J. H. -Morrison 
1 in March, 1S79. He acted as stated supply 
I from .March to October, when he was installed 
I as pastor. Rev. Stuart Robinson, D. D., 
; preached the installation sermon. Rev. J. H. 
! .Moore, of the Third Presbyterian, gave charge 



to the pastor; and Rev. IC. O. Gucrrant, pastor 
of the First ]''reshyterian Cluirch, i;ave charge to 
the people. 

'I'he membership has coiitinued to grow, and 
the chureh to increase gradually. Thus we liave 
a Ijiief o'j'ihni.- of this vine, planted bv God 
amid tlic tears and prayeis of his behLving 
peojile. IManled in the soil of a few loyal, lov- 
ing hearts, it deepened and grown until now 
it enibiaLes o\er one hundred liLlieving souls. 

The Associate Reformed Pre-^byterian church 
is of Scotch and Irish descent. As organized in 
tlie United States, it is the result oi a union be- 
tween the Associate Presbyterians and Reformed 
Presbyterians near the close of the last century. 
The conditions and standards v.ere adopted at a 
■meeting of the united church May 31, 1799, at 
Greencaslle, Pen\isylvania. Tlieir confession of 
faith, fiirm of disci[)line, and church government, j 
and directory for public worship is that drawn up j 
by the conimis^-icm a[:)|iointed by the English 
Parliament, assisted by commissioners from the 
Church of Scotland, in 1643, a)id known as the 
Westminster Confession of Falili. It ditTers 
from the form and practice of some of the larger 
Presbyterian churches in holding to the exclusive 
use of the Bible Psalms in public woi^hip, as set 
forth \n the WcstUjinster Directory. '1 he con- 
gregation in Louisville known as the Associate 
Reformed Presbyterian church, at tlie corner of 
Seventh and Chestnut streets, was organized 
January 6, 1S5-], as a mission under the direc- | 
tion and control of the Associate Reformed ! 
Synod of the Soutli. The organization was ' 
effected by Rev. N. M. Gordon, with eighteen '■ 

members. The whole number received up to i 

^ 1 

1876 was two hundred and thirty-one. Rev. G. 1 

Gordon was the first [lastor and continued about ', 

twenty years, during which time the growth of : 

the church was slov, but sure. i 

The first house of worship was on the corner i 

of Eighth and Magazine streets. After four ; 

years this house and lot wcie sold and another 

lot purchased on the corner of Seventh and 

Chestnut streets, a chapel erected on the baek 

part of the lot fronting on Se\enth street, leaving 

the front and corner lor a more commodious 

and costly building in the future. The expense 

of the lot and building was borne almost entirely 

by the Associate Reformed Presl)\terian S>nod, 

under uhose direction the work had been under- 
taken and canied forward. About the year 1066 
the Associate Reformed Prcsbytciy of Kentuil:y 
began to agitate the questinn of union with the 
(ierman .Associate Preshvtetian church South. 

In October, 1S70, at a called meeting of the 
P^resbytery, at Paii<, Kentuck)-, a m.ijoritv of the 
members voteel to unite with said I'resLyterian 
church, by which body they were accei>tcd at its 
meeting of S3 nod then in session at Paris. The 
Associate Reformed Presbytery was irrmiediate!\' 
reorganized by the election of Rev. J. G. Miller, 
Moderator, and W. A. .-\nderson, Clerk. Ditlj- 
culties about the chinch property quickly fol- 
lowed. Having resorted to more |)acif'ic measures 
with no success, suit was instituted in the ci\ii 
courts in 1872 b\ the Associate Reformed IVes- 
bytcry to rcco\er possession of the Louisville 
church. The case was continued in court until 
1S75 or 1S76, uhen it was decided against the 
Associate Refoimed\tery. The case was 
compromised in I'ebruary, 1S80, and the Assli- 
ciate Reformed Prejbyterians got possession of 
the property by paying in cash one-half c>f its esti- 
mated v.due. 

In 1S74 the Se\enth and Chestnut church 
had united with a part of the First Presbyterian 
church. Sixth and Gieen streets, and tliey had in 
turn become involved in lasvsuits with the WiLon 
party, in addition to the suit pending with the 
Associate Reformed Presln terians. 

On October i.'s, 1S76, the .-\ssociate Reformed 
Presbyterian congregation was reorganized. For 
a period of four years they used ,suth houses of 
worship as could be rented. March 22, iSSo, 
they recovered possession and removed to the 
cliapel on Seventh near Chestnut, where they 
still prosecute their work, in th.eir own house, free 
from debt. 

The orgai^ization was effected by Rev. J. G. 
Miller, and the congregation was alter wards 
Served by Rev. J. C. GoUoway, F. Y. Prcsslv, 
and J. M. Todd, each tor a short [criod. At 
[iresent Rev. C. S. Young is the minister in 
charge. Regular Sunday-school and preaching 
and weeklv prayer-meetings are kept up. There 
is also a mission Sunday school in connection 
with this work, in the hall corner of Eleventh 
and Market streets. The indieatieins for future 
growth are mure favoraiile now than at anv 
period since the reorganization. 



Under tliis head a brief notice of the I'resby- 
terian Mutual Assurance I'und may iiropcrly be 
inchided. This is a distinctively L()ui^ville de- 
nominational enlerinise, but is not confined to 
the city or State in its operations. It was organ- 
ised February 20, 1S7S, to do a life insurance 
and sick benefit business amoni>; I'resbvterians. 
r.y the close of iSSo it had reached a verv satis- 
factory financial status. From its first division 
of members (2,000 in each division) a i>crma- 
nent fund of ."rv-'Jlo-S? "'is set apart in iSSo, 
and $7,796.98 from the second thvision. In 
1881 the corres]M?nding sums were .$11,079.50 
and $3,716.86. Insurances were paid to J.inu- 
ary £, 1SS2, to the amount of $63,157.22 in the 
first division, $37,587 in the second, and $4,575 
in the third ; total, $105,319.22. The fir-t two 
divisions had each 2,000 incmlxis; the third 
1,360. The Fund had then agencies in twelve 
States, and is extending its business. Colonel 
Bennett H. Young is Piesident, and W. J. Wilson 

The Rev. Daniel Smith, who was installed 
pastor of the Presbyterian churtii in lA'uisville, 
which he had served since his arrival with his 
family June 17, 1S21, was a lemarkable man. 
A graduate of Middlebury College, \'crmont, he 
was licensed to preach April 21, 1S13, and the 
next year began an important missionary work 
in the valleys of the Ohio and the Mississippi, in 
the distribution of the Scriptures in the English, 
French, and Spanish tongues, the format iim of 
Bible and missionary societies, and the preach- 
ing of the gospel in destitute places. lhis\\as 
more than a year before the American IJible 
Society was formed. He was early here, with a 
large cargo of Bibles and Testaments, and a de- 
voted young companion, Samuel J. Mills, and ! 
traveled hence to Vincennes and on to St. Louis, 
being the first missionaries, it is believed, to visit 
that city. After many adventures in the wilder- 
ness West, he returned here with his family, as 
before noted, and after a short pastorate, died 
here February 22, 1S23. It is recorded that he i 
had already done much good in Louisville, it m 
nothing else than restoiing harmony and unity 
to a church which he found distracted. 

Rev. Willia'ii Louis Breckinridge, I). D., for 
twenty-three vears jxistor 111 Louissille. was born 
July, 1S03. at Cabell's Dale, Fa\ette county. 

Keiituckv. His education was largely gained at 
Transylvania I'niversity. I'ntering the Presby- 
teri:\n mini-,tr), his first ])asti)rate was at Mays- 
ville, Kentucky, and he was for a time Professor 
in Center C'lllege, but with his charge in 
Louisville he remained the longest time, being 
pastor of the First Presbyterian churcli of that 
city tweiity-tliree years. At one lime he ac- 
cepted the presidency of Oakland College, Mis- 
sissip[ii, .Init resigned to become president of 
Center College. His later years were passed, 
however, on his farm in Missouri, where he had 
no regular cliaige, but preached almost con- 
stantlv. In 1859 he was Modeiatoi of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. He died December 26, 1S76, 
at his home in Missouri, which he had named 
"Cabell's Dale," for his old Kentucky home. 
Dr. Breckinridge was fir.^t married to Miss 
Frances Provost, granddaughtei of Dr. Samuel 
Stanhope Smith. She died after their removal 
to Missouri, and not long before his death he 
was married the second time to the widowed 
daughter of Judge Christopher Tompkins, 'i'heir 
family consisted of eight children. The second 
son was Dr. Robert J. Breckinridge, a talented 
young professor of the Medical College at Louis- 
ville, and surgeon in the Confederate army dur- 
ing tlie war of 1S61 65. 

Rev. E. P. Humphrey, D. D., was born Jan- 
uary 8, 1S09, at Fairfield, Connecticut. His 
father was a Presbyterian clergyman, and ]''resi- 
dent of Amherst College, Mas-^achusetts. Here 
Dr. Humphrey gained his collegiate education 
and graduated at the age of nineteen. His pro- 
fesbional studies were pursued at Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary. In 1833 he entered the min- 
ist.y, his first charge being the Presbyterian 
church of Jeffersonville, Indiana, where he re- 
ceived ordin.rtion. In November of 1S35 he 
became pastor (.f the Second Presbyterian church 
in Loui>vi!le, where he remained eighteen years. 
His next position was that of Prot"es>or of Church 
Hi;t-ry in the Dan\ille Theological Seminary, 
m Danville. Kentucky. Returning to Louisville 
in 1S66, lie began the organization of what is 
now the College street Presbyterian church. The 
church was organized tliat year and numbered 
ninet\. Its t'ir-t meetings being held in a -mall 
fiame hou-e knoun a, "The Little Pme Cathe- 
dral." February, 1S67, the ( hurch began wor- 
ship in the brick building I'mnting on College 



street. The nicnihersliip now exceeds tiireo 
bundled, and tlic prosiiLrity nnd fpiritual growth 
of the eluirch Ims Inen due Inrgely to the efkc- 
tive labors of this faithful luistor. In 1S47 Dr. | 
Hiimphrev was married to Miss Mnriha I'ope. ! 
Their two sons are ]",d"ard \\'. C. and .Alexander 
P. The former coinpleled his liteiary studies at 
Center College, IXanville, Kenturky, atiended 
law lectures at the Harvard Law School, and, in 
186S, began in Louisville the practice of law. 

Rev. John Jones, 1). 1)., was born .\|iril iS, 
1S30, near PhiladLljihia, Pennsyhania. His 
parents were of WeLh extraction. The faniilv 
had long been ci 11 t-raled fiir ir.dustrv and 
piety. His grandfather was prominent in the 
\\\lsh Calvinistic .Mahodist Chunh, and it is 
probable that the tlrst Welsh chuuh of th.^.t faith 
in Manchester. England, "as begun in his liouse. 
Dr. Jc^nes received his eaily edufation in the 
public schools of Pliiladclpliia, and after finish- 1 
ing in the High school there, and studying for a 
time in a private school of the same citv, he j 
graduated at the University of Pennsjhania in 
1S5:. Three years later, he graduated from 
Princeton Theological Seminarv. lollnuing this ! 
date, we hear of him as pislor of tlie Old School 
Presbyterian church of Scottsville, New York, [ 
and of the \\'\oming Presbyterian cherch of ; 
the same city, uhen he became Pruici|ia] ( f the 1 
Genesee S\nodical .-\cademy, at Genesee, New 1 
York, and while serving there he received the ' 
degree of D. I), from Hamilton College, of that ! 
State. During the war, he served in the army ] 
under the Christian Commission a short time. 
In 1S74, he was cal'ed to be pastor of the Wal- 
nut-street Pre-lntirian Church in Louisville-, 
Kentucky, where he still remains. Recently, he 
has been aiipnmted Regent for the Kentuck\ In- 
firmary for Women and Children, and elected 
Secretary and Treasurer. He has been sent 
three times to re()re5ent his Presbvtery in the 
General Assembly of the church ; has been 
Moderator of the Synod and Presbyterv, and 
filled other highly honorary po>itions among the 
leaders of his church. He was married to Miss 
Minerva A. Chatham, of Seneca Falls, New- 
York, NLirch I, 1S55. 

Rev. William J. l.owry, 1). D., formerlv pastor 
of the h'irst and Seventh street Pre^b) teiian 
churches in Louisville, was born January 7, 1838, 
in Greensboro, Georgia, though his parents had 

theii home in Louis\:!le at time. He was 
reared in this city, but received his edu- 
cation in Erskine college. South Carolina, where 
his father has long been a professor. It w;is also 
a theological s( Ik.oI of th.e .Associate Reformed 
Church; and he took his jirofessional course 
there, and his licensf to preach in 1850-. He 
began as an .Associate Reformed minister, in 
missionary work; but jiresentl)- became a South- 
ern Presbyterian, and ji.'iStor of the Lebanon 
church of Wilcox coLinty, Alabama. His only 
remainiiig pastorate befoie coming to Louis\ille 
was at St Ima, in the same .State, where he re- 
mained about ten veais. In 1873 the l"ni\eiiily 
of Alabama gave him the degree of D. I)., and 
the next jear he came tn this citv as pastor of 
the First and Seventh street churches. He was 
an able and \erv popular preacher, and his brief 
uiinistry t'ormed an interesting ejioch in the 
annals of Presbyterianism in Louis\ille. He 
died here of canrei November to, 1877. 


The following history of the F'irst churcli of 
this denomination in Louisville is abridged fiom 
an elaborate and very interesting history, still in 
manuscrifit, by Mr. Josejjh P. Torbitt, of the 
society : 

In the winter of 18:1122 Elder P. S. Fall, a 
1 Raptist clergyman, visited Louisville, and there- 
: after I'or a year t'llled monthly preaching appoint- 
! ments with the few Raptists here, who met for 
1 worship in the old Court house. He removed 
to this place early in 1823, and opened a school, 
I also continuing to preach. Late this year 
i the church was reconstructed, with a covenant 
patterned from that of the Euon Raptist Church, 
Cincinnati, and a formal creed. .About this 
time, however, the good Elder lead attentively 
the famous sermon of Elder .Alexander Camp- 
bell, who was still also a Raptist, on the Law, 
and was much im[iressed by it, as also by the 
perusal of several numbers of The Christian 
{ Raptist. He was moved to a closer study of the 
I New Testament; and others of his brethren 
I and sisters also coming to similar investigations, 
I it was finally resolved unanimously that the creed 
and covenant already ad'ipted shouki be cast out, 
and the church based simply Li[ion " the law of 
I the Lord."' A formal declaration to that effect 
was made in the laiter |iart ot 1S24, and the 



society w.istticnccfonh, to all inlents nnd |iui-- 
poses, a "Cimpbdlitr," (.■, or Disciple 
Church; :inti il is one of the Very ()lde>t 
churches, if not .the oldest chinch, of this re- 
form m tlie Uniicd Suites. The con-re.i'.aiioii 
begnn to receive the coniniunion every Lord's 
p.iy, nnd .uive re:;ul.iily till' contrih.ition to the 
poor, as is the ciistoni of iheir jiec.ple to this 
dav. .-Ml this lime lliey were iKiminahy l;:ip:ists, 
and in the fail of 1S25 the ustial arrangements 
were made fur attendiivj; the Long Rtm Absocia- 
tion, of which Llder ]m11 was Clerk the year he- 
fore, and to which he was now to preach the in 
trodiictory sermon, aiul also present the annual 
circular letter to the churches. Li this he 
brought forward his view<, declaring; in siil)-.tani e 
that "the Scriptures cl tlie Old and New Testa- 
ments are the only infallible and sufficient rule 
of (aith and practice." The letter was rejei led, 
by the casting vote of the Moderator; liut it ri - 
siihed in diviiliiig the association ec|uallv between 
advocates of the old and new \iews. 

At the close of 1825 I^ Fall left Louisville 
He is still living near I'ranklort, hut at a great 
age — eiglitv-four years old. He was succeedeil 
by Elder Jicnjamm Allan, and the church con- 
tinued to increase. Some became alarnud, 
however, at the prospect of being cut o:T from 
the association; and about thirty members went 
back to the abandoned creed and covenant. 
But several years more they maintained worshi[i 
together. The rupture came near the clo-e of 
1829, when the minority (the whole now number- 
ing nearly three hundred) seceded and formed a 
separate Baiitist body under Elder Ceorge Waller. 
Much irritation followed, and a suit for the 
church property, which was decided for the 
majority or New TesiameiU party. Still for four 
years the connection was held with th; Lung 
Run Association as ''the First llaplist Church of 
Jesus Christ, of Louisville, Kentucky/" audit 
was not until 1S3J; that the new name, "Dis- 
ciples of Christ," was assumed. The society had 
now for some time occupied the well-reniernbercd 
old Baptist meeting-house, which they erected, 
on the southwest corner of Fifth and Green 
streets. Their entire interest in this was sold to 
the Baptist minority ^Llrch 14, 1835, for $.',550, 
and a small church building, standing on leased 
ground on Second, between Market and Jeffer- 
son, was bought Iruui the Lrimitive Metliodists. 

When the new name was assumed in April, 
1S33, lioaids of Bishops or I'.lders and Dcacoi's 
Were ele<:ted for the fust time. Tl-ic first lioard 
of IClders consisted of Jesse Swindler, John 
liledsie, and I'.aulett Hardv; and the i;oard of 
Deacons of Dr. '1'. S. liell, David Cordon, and 
Petei Liiest. Of all these only IV. Bell survives. 
The sor iety was now fully launched as a Disciple 

Ll Lily, iSj'), Coidon dates was "called to 
teach tlv congiegati'jii and act as its Ihesident." 
'I'lie saiiu- the erection of a new house of 
worship was b.-g'in on Fil'th street, between \Val- 
nut and Chestnut; it wa^ IniisheJ iu 1S37, with 
a d.ljt of about .$2,000. 

Li April of this year Elder George W. EUey called as preacliei, and remained till ^L-ly, 
1S40. F^id.r B. F. Hall succeeded him, serving 
from Lily, 1.S40, to November, 1S42. Then 
caaie, m rather rajiid succession, Elders D. S. 
Iniinet, .Mien Rendiick, and Carroll Kendrick. 

Line 30, 1S45, tlij I'llth street churc h edifice sold to tlie Coloied Biaptist church for 
$5,000. The congregation worshipped in a 
school house on Grayson street till the new build- 
ing on the northeast cornel of Fourth and \\'al- 
nut streets was ready for [lartial occuiiation the 
next The lot t'or it, 60x160 feet, was 
bouglu of the Bank of Kentucky for $4,500. A 
charter was then obtained from the State Legis- 
lature for the '• Walnut Street Christian Church 
of Louisville, Kentucky.'' The nucleus of the 
Hoyd and Chestnut Church of Christ was formed 
soon after. 

Li November, 1S47, Elder Henry T. .Ander- 

! son began service for the Walnut Street churcli, 

: and remained ti:l October, 1853, having an ac- 

ce|)t.ible and notable ministry. He was followed 

! by Elders Curtis J. Smith (1S54-55), and D. P. 

Henderson (1855-56). 
I The house now occujiied had become too 
i strait for the congregation, and on the ist of 
.April, i860, the last seimon was preached in it 
[ before its demolition. The corner-stone of the 
! present superb edilu.e was laid .^L^y iSth, same 
I year; and the iiasement was occupied for wor- 
ship .\L\rch 17, 1 86 1. The society had met 
meanwhile in the Masonic Temple. The entire 
building was not finished until the sirring of 1S70, 
I when, .Vpri! 24th, the auditorium was formallv 
i opened. 



Elders Henry T. Aiulerson and (ieorge G. 
Mallins filled the |Hiliiil temiior.irily after I'.lder 
Henderson's departure. Tlicn came, more per- 
manently, Elder.-; Thomas X. Arnold (1S67-6S), 
W. H. Hop-son (1S6S--74), Samuel Kelly (tem- 
porary, 1S74- ;5V J. S. Lamar (1S75- 76), and 11. 
.15. 'l'yl^''"('S7'5-S2). 

In 1S76 the charter-name of the Society was 
changed from ''Walnut Street,'' etc., to "]'irst 
Christian Church of Louisville, Kentucky. " It 
has now a membership of ahoui ^i\ hundred and 
fifty, to which nearly fil'teen lni:idred more may 
be added as members of churclies which may be 
said to have grown out of this pioneer of the 
faith in this city. 

The Second Christian church was organized in 
October, 1S46, constituted of twenty-nme mem- 
bers — si.Kteen males, thirteen females — who with- 
drew from the Fust Christian church for that 
purpose. John Laker was chosen elder and 
Jonathan F. Tibbetts and Aaron Thompson, 
deacons. They met at first in a rented room on 
Preston street, between Market and Jefferson 
streets. In 1S4S they moved to their own build- 
ing on east side of Hancock, between Jefferson 
and Green. In 1864 they mo\ed to their pres- 
ent place of worship on the southwest corner of 
Floyd and Chestnut streets. This church has 
had as pastors and ministers, regular and irreg- 
ular: John Baker, Allen Kendiick, \Villiam 
Begg, E. Y. Pinkerton, J. R. Hulett, H. T. An- 
derson, M. B. Hopkins, C. \^". Sewell, J. C. 
Walden, Louis Jansen, John Nuyes, T. P. Ha- 
ley, W. C. Dawson, I. B. CJrubb-, G. W. Yancey, 
P. Gait Miller, and W. H. Bartholomew. Pres- 
ent elders are R. H. Snyder, Hr, S. B. Mills, 
P. Gait Miller, and W. H. Bartholomew. Present 
deacons are Fendell A. Crumii, Benjamin S. 
Weller, D. E. Starke, J. M. Lemons, and J. A. 
Blakemore. Former elders were: John G. 
Lyon (now dead), John W. Craii; (now dead"), 
Jesse D. Seaton, and C. H. Barkley, the last 
named being a licensed minister of the gospel. 
Mrs. Thysa C. Lyon and Mrs. Martha Owen 
have been deaconesses. W. Talb>.it Given, M. I)., 
has been clerk of the church ever since in April, 
1S52. Tlie present number of members is six 
hundred and twenty-h\e. 

Rev. Thoma; X. Arnold was both a lawyer 
and clergyman. He was born Felituary 10, iSzS, 

in Covington, Kentuc ky. His grandfather and 
other membeis of the t'amily were Baptist minis- 
ters of consideialile note in ^'irginia. His father, 
James (;. .-\rnoM, was a >u(cessful business man 
and one of the founders of the cit}' ol' Covington. 
A very bene\olent man, he built the first Chris- 
tian church ever built in that location, and 
made large dt.iiiations to Kentucky L'niversity 
and many other [Hiblic institutions. The son, 
'Ihoinas N. Ai old, was a graduate from HLthany 
College in 1847; afterwards he attended law lec- 
tures at Lexington, and graduated from the law 
school in Louii\ille in 1S52. Previous to 1856, 
he pursued the jiractice of his profession in Cov- 
ington. This year he enieied the ministry of the 
Christian or Discipile church, and has subsec]uently 
been connected with cluirches in Covington, 
Frankfort, Lexington, Louisville, and Richmond, 
Virginia. The church over which he has been 
[lastor in Louisville is said to be the largest of that 
denumination in the world. He ranks as an able 
and successful minister. Mr. Arnold was mar- 
ried, m 1853, to Miss M, Frances Piigh, of Bour- 
bon county. They have a I'amily of seven chil 

Rev. Benjamin B. Tyler, late Pastor of the 
First Christian Church, was born in Macon 
county, Illinois, A[iril 9, 1S42, son of a Baptist 
clergyman and native of Kentucky, who became 
a preacher of the new faith in his later years. 
Into this the son was baptized .Vugust i, 1S59, 
[ entered Eureka College, near Peoria, and began 
preaching in an evangejistic way in Macoupin 
! and Montgomery counties, and elsewhere in his 
native State. For a year in 1S64-65 he was 
located with the Charleston and Kansas churches, 
Illinois, and then, until 1868, \' ith the former 
alone. He then made an extensive preaching 
! tour through the East and Xortheast ; and in 1S69 
j took charge of the Christian Ciiurch at Terre 
i Haute, Indiana. In 1873 he went to serve the 
society at Frankfort, Kentuck) ; and in May, 
1867, came to Louisville as the pastor of the 
church at Fourth and Walnut. Here he suc- 
ceeded, after years of effort, in lifting the debt 
that had long borne its heavy weight upon the 
society; and there, in Februarv, 1SS2, feeling 
that his work with it had been done, he resigned, 
to re-enter the work of an evangelist. 

THF, EF1SC01>.\I-I.\.NS. 

The year of fever and death, J82:, when the 

ins TORY OF T 



thoughts of so large a ^'larc of tlic coiiiniunity 
were fixed iiiion the unknown futine life, wjs a 
fit period foi llie foiiii.uion of new religious so- 
cieties. On the 31st of .\Kiy of that )ear, a 
ineetini^ wa^ held at Washington Hall, widi Mr. 
John llu-itaid as CHauinan and Samuel Uickin- 
.soii Secretary, at which it was resolved to oik-p 
subscription books for building a Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Louisville. At another 
meeting, July 1st, the name "(,'hrist Cliurch " 
was adopted, and a committee to execute the 
resolve of the previous meeling was full formed, 
consisting of Messrs. Peter P. Orm.^by, l)eiinis 
Fitzhugh, Samuel Churcliill, James Hughes, 
William L. Tliomiison, Richard Parnes, William 
H. Atkinson, Richard L'erguson, Hancock 'I'ay- 
lor, James S. Pate, James C. Johnston, and Wil- 
liam Croghan. Tiie Rev. Hr. Craik, for nov; 
nearly forty years Rector of the church, in his 
valuable Historical Sketches of Christ Church, 
gives the following interesting account of its 

The effort to esiabliili the I'.piscopal churcii in Louis\iiIe 
seems to have proceeded quite as much from tlie country 
gentlemen in the neighborhood as from llie residents of the 
to\\n. Jeflerson, like several other prominent points in Ken- 
tucky, was settled at the very earliest period by a class of 
highly educated gentlemen fi-om Virginia. Of course they 
were all irndilionally Epi.-coi', for that had been t!ie es- 
tablished religion of \'irginia. I'.ut unfortunately, at the 
period of this emigration, the coarse blasphcnnc= of Tom 
Paine and the more refmed infidelil;' of tl^e French Encyclo- 
psedists had taken a strong hold upon the \'irgniia mind. 
The early emigrants brought with them the taint of these 
principles, and in many cases the books from which they 
were derived. And alas ! there was no Church in the wilder- 
ness to counteract these evil influences and the new spiritu-^l 
temptations incident to this brcaking-uff from the ancient 
stock and from homo associations. Tlie cons'.-quence was 
that this generation lived and their cliildien grew up "with. 
out God in the world." But religion of some sort is a neces- 
sity for the human soul. l"lie modes of religion pre\alent in 
the country were revolting rattier than attractive to educated 
men, and tlle^efor^■ when kichaid Barnes and F'eter B. Orms- 
by suggested the formation of an Episcopal congregation, 
the proposal was warmly seconded by the moat intluential citi- 
zens of tlie county. 

Tlie projected building was erected in the fall 
and winter of 1SJ4-J5, and is that still standing, 
much enlarged, beautified, and otherwise im- 
proved, on the east side of Second street, be- 
tween tireen and Walnut. L'pon its completion 
the Rev. Henry M. Shaw was elected Rector, 
and soon arrived to assume the duties of the po- 
sition. Mr. Collins says; 

The foundaiion of the cimrch in Louisville was entirely a 
lay mosenieni ; for until the completion of the buildint; and 

the arrival of the nevvlv elected rector, no clergym.ui hail 
been ptcent or taken any j).ut in the proceedings. Fourteen 
cliurehes in Louisville and its immediate vicinity have been 
the liiiit up to this tiine~t873— of this nist action of the laity 
of ll:e city and county. 

-Mr. Ci:llins further epitomi/.es the history of 
this as fullows: 

In fliii^t Cluircli, Louisville, Mr. Shaw sueeeoderi by 
the l.iiliiant 1 ir. David C. P.ige, and he l.y the Rev. WUIiani 
M. Jaekbon. During the pa.~tor.ite of Mr. Jackson, the old 
building was so crowded that the congregation eteclcd a 
nuielj larger and finer church, St. Paul's, and the rector and 
tlie gri'iter part of the congregation removed to the latter in 
October, 1S39, leaving only a few families vvhose atl.icliinent 
to the early structure would not permit them to abandon it. 
To this remnant tlie Rev. ILiinbleJ. Loacock ministered for 
a few months. On November i, 1840, the Rev. 'I'homas C. 
Fitkin coniinenecd his work as the rector of this church. In 
May, iS4(, Mr. Pitkin, after a most efficient administration 
of nearly four years, resigned, and the Rev. James Craik, 
of Kanawha, Virginia, was elected in his stead. Mr. Craik 
entered upon the charge of the parish in August, 1S.11, and 
h.LS continued to hold the same position down to the present 
time (1873). twenty-nine years. The original church building 
has been retained, although frequently enlarged to meet the 
growing demand for accommodation; and it is now one of 
the handsomest and most caincioas church cditi.'-es in the 

The venerable Dr. James Craik is still the 
Rector of this church, assisted by an Associate 
Rector, his son, the Rev. James Craik, Jr. 

The following very full and otherwise unusual- 
ly valuable sketch of the history of St. Paul's, 
the first child of Christ chuich, has been pre- 
pared for this work, with the utmost kindness 
and courtesy, by Mr. R. A. Robinson, who has 
been connected with it for many years: 

During the minisiry of the Rev. D. C. Page, 
Rector of Christ cliurch, at that time the only 
F2piscopal church in this city, the members of that 
parish, and others friendly to the cause, began 
to agitate the im[iortance of organizing another 
parish in the western [lart of the city. With this 
object in view, a call lor a meeting to he held 
September 28tii, 1S34, at the Louisville Llotel, 
was published in the daily pajiers. The follow- 
ing gentlemen attended the meeting: Rev. D. 
C. Page, B. R. Mcllvaine, Samuel Gwalhniey, 
William F. Pettit, John P. Santh, Dr. James C. 
Johnston, Richard Barnes, Dr. J. T. Maddeix, 
John W. Jones, William Wenzell, Thomas Row- 
land, and James B. Hine. Committees were 
appointed to obtain subscrijitions and for other 

The parish was not organized, however, until 



May 30, 1S36, when ihc foll)uina; ''.entlcnicii 
were cleclei! vesti)niL-n ol' Si. Paul's chuicli: 
Robert N. Miller, Rnbert C rhomiiM>ii, Dr. 
Joseph ^L^Ilill, John ('.. I'.asseit, A. Y. ClaL':^'ett, 
Dr. J. 'i'. Mad.l.jx, 1;. O. Davis, Robert X. 
Siiiith, and Janu> 1!. llii'e. The erection of the 
church edifice was couiinenced in the spring of 
)S37, nnd on the sgtii diy of April the corner 
stone was laid, witii. the usual imposing' cere- 
monies, the Rii,Iu Re\. IS. Pi.- Smith, D. D., 
Bishop of th.c diocese, the Rev. B. O. Pecis, and 
the Rev. Robert Ash conducting the services, 
and the Bishop iiialing the address in his usual 
happy manner. The lot was located on the ne-t 
side of Sixth street, having a front of ninety-one 
feet, sixty feet north of Walnut street. 

The Rev. B. O. Peers coinmeni.ed services for 
llie new parish in a school-room in the vicinity, 
and continued for several months, but the gieat 
financial panic of May, 1837, caused such gen- 
eral business prostration in ihe cii)' that the work 
on the church building was entirely suspended 
after the foundation had been laid. The Re\. 
Mr. Page had resigned the rectorship of Christ 
church in the meantime, and the Rev. WilHanr 
Jackson, of New \'ork City, accip'ted a call, en- 
tered upon his duties as rector of that pirish in 
June, 1S37, and was remarkably successful in 
filling his church (then about one half the size of 
the present edifice) to its utmost capacity. In 
June, 1S38, he received a call to New York City, 
and notified his vestry that he would feel con- 
strained to accept that call, unless he could have 
larger church accommodations here. The ves- 
tries of Christ chureh and St. Paul's then held a 
joint meeting, and resolved to complete St. Paul's 
church, with the understanding that the Rev. 
William Jackson should become its rector. I'he 
work was at once resumed with renewed vigor, 
and the church so far completed that in October, 
1S39, it was consecrated, tire Rev. Dr. Hensiiaw, 
of Baltimore, subsequently Bishoi) of Rhode 
Island, preaching the consecration sermon. 'Phe 
population of the city at that time was only 
about twenty thousand. Tb.e new church build 
ing was a decided advance in architectural 
beauty, being Clothic, and was the most imposing 
in the city, costing, probably, $50,000, iiKluding 
the lot. 

The greater portion of the members of Christ 
church followe(J Mr. Jackson to St. Paul's, but 

the mother (liurch jiroperty was lel't intact, uith 
the organ and all the chureh fiirnitcre, and many 
of the oldest nieinbLrs remained and formed the 
nucleous of the present prosjierous paiish. The 
Rev. llainble L' acock was elected to succeed 
the Rev. W'llli.ini Jackson as rector of Christ 
church. In his new pari-h Mr. Jackson was 
untiring in Ins labor of love, and was greatly 
aided by hii e-^timable wife. They had no chil- 
dren, and their whole energies were exerted to 
build inp Si. Paul's church on a deep and broad 
foundation. In his fust sermon [jreached in St. 
Paul's, he says: 

It is Willi no ordmiiy fL-ehng5 of ple.isure and gratitude to 
Clod th,\t lie review the ri^e and pro^refs of tins edifice, and 
the form ition of thi^ new c:)ngre5Ation. As no noiseof hani- 
incr or nxe was heard in the Tcinpie. so all here has been 
iiMrked with poaee and harmony. Seldom does the history 
of a parish present a mjro be.iutiful specimen of division 
w :;lioat discord. Tliose who h ive been fellow-worshippers 
with us, but who. for various reasons, remain in the old sanc- 
tuary, have, we believe, wished usCJod-sjieed, and our pr.iver 
is, their hive may speedily be so replenished that they may 
send forth anol'ici colony as strong as this. May peace and 
prosperity t'C witiiin out respeeti\t' walls, and may 
ciiurch and St. Paul s be one. as Christ and I'aul were o.^ie, 
tl'.at all the p issers by may see that we are inlimately united 
tiranches of one Catliolic and .Apostolic Church. 

The labors of Mr. Jackson, duiiiig his entire 
ministry in St. Paul's, were crowned with abund- 
ant success. In the midst of these he was sud- 
denly stricken down with jiatalysis, on the i6th 
of February, 1S4.}, and died after a week's illness. 
On Sunday, during his illness, prayers were 
offered up for liis recovery, and affectionate allu- 
sions to his illness were made in their sermons by 
the ministers of the Episcopal, Presbyterian, 
Methodist, and Roman Catholic churches of the 
city. Four young men, a part of the fruits of 
his ministry, who were preparing for the work of 
the ministry, nursed him during his last illness. 
His remains were buried under the chancel of 
St. Paul's, and a marble tablet erected in the 
church to his memory. 

The Rev. John B. Gallagher, of Savannah, 
Georgia, was eiei ted to till the vacancy as rector, 
and entered upon his duties in the latter part of 
1S44, the Rt. Rev. B. B. Smith, D. D., occupy- 
ing the position as rector pro t-:i)i. in the mean- 
time. He was a man of lovely Christian charac- 
ter, a devoted [i.istor, and an earnest and effi- 
cient preacher of the Gos[)el. He maintaineii 
the harmony and prosperity of his parish, and 
was a worthy successor of Mr. Jackson. In tiie 



niiflst of bis Libors he «as fviddenly afflicted by 
the loss of his excellent wile. He ne\er re- 
covered from this blow, but cnntiriucd his work 
until L)ecembcr, iS.jS, when the condition of his 
health required rest and a cliange of climate. 
The vestry g.ive liiiii unlimited leave of absence 
for a \isit to the South. He visited Alaliama, 
but his disease made ra[iid prugres';, and in 
]'"ebiuary, 1S49, he died. 

The following extract from the preamble to 
the resolutions passed by the vestry, February 
5th, portrays the estimation of that bcidy: 

The intelligencf of the death of Our tjclovcd rector, the 
Rev.). B. G.illagher. filled our souls with the deepest 
sorrow. The relations which he sustained to lis as a bjdy, 
and to the church on earth, have t^een dissolved forever. It 
WIS our privilege to know him in all the walks of a Christian 
life. He was emrhatically a devoted follower of our blessed 
Saviour. His ciiaracter as a man of God was beautituily 
displayed in all his conduct. 

A marble tablet was erected in the church to 
his memory. During his ministry St. John's 
church was established on Jefferson street, be- 
tween Tenth and Elevemli. The Rev. J. C. 
Talbot, at present Bishop of Indiana, who had 
been a member of St. Paul's for a numb^i of 
years, headed the movement. A lot was pur- 
chased, and a substantial brick church erected, 
when a colony of about thirty members from St. 
Paul's church joined him, thus estalilishing an 
important church, which has been a blessing to 
that section ot the city. 

The Rev. W. Y. Rooker, of New York City, 
was elected to the vacant rectorship, and en- 
tered upon his duties in May, iS.pj, which were 
coutinued until March, 1853. At this time he 
resigned his position as Rccttir, and returned to 
England, his native country, where he died some 
years after. During his ministry the parish was not 
in a prosperous condition, on account of a want 
of harmony. But during his rectorshi[i a lot was 
purchased and paid for in Portland, now a part 
of this city, forming the basis for the [iresent 
parish at that place, known as St. Peter's church. 

The Rev. Henry M. Dennison, of Williams- 
burg, Virginia, was elected to fill the vacancy, 
and began his work in November, 1S53. He 
was a man of brilliant talents, and soon restored 
the prosperity of the parish, uniting and harmo 
nizing its members. During his ministry the 
parish of St. Andrew's chuich was organized by 
a colony from St. Paul's, and the Rev. John S. 
Wallace was elected as its first rector. Mr. 

Dennison continued the faithful pastor of St. 
Paul's, but th'- loss of his wit'e, by death, was a 
great shock to hlni, ami somewhat impaired his 
health and eiurgy. He resigned his position in 
Ma\', 1S57, to accept a pali^h in Charleston, 
Soutli Carolin.i, where he dierl in about eighteen 
months of yellow fevei, contracted whilst faith- 
fiilly visiting the sick and the afllicted. 

The Rev. Francis M. Whittle, of Ijerryville, 
\'irgiiiia, was elected to succeed }<[r. Dennison, 
and (.ntered upon the discharge of his duties in 
October, 1S57. He posse^^ed great energy and 
strength of character, and was remarkably 
earnest and impressive in the pulpit. He coiri- 
manded the confidence and resiiect of his own 
people, and of all with whom he came in contact. 
During the civil war the people of the citv were 
in a state of gieat e\citement, and political feel- 
ing was veiy strong, but his parish remained 
united and haimonious, and for this result they 
were largely indebted to his good judgment and 
wise, non-pattisaii course. His [larish was greatly 
increased by his earnest, indet'atigable labors, 
which so impaired his health that in February, 
1S65, the vestry elected the Rev. George. D. E. 
Moitimore as assistant, who continued faithlully 
to discliarge the duties of tliat office for about 
two years. In Feljruary, 1S6S, Mr. \\'hittle re- 
signed his position as rector, to accept that of 
assistant bishop of Virginia, his native State. In 
his letter to the vestry he wrote: 

I niiglit say inuch of the inexpressible sorrow it gives me to 
thus sever the many ties binding nie to the vestry and people 
of St. Paul's church, which have been forming and strength- 
ening, without the slightest interrupUoii, for more than ten 
years, but it is useless. I feel that necessity is laid upon ine, 
and must therefore submit to what seems to be the will of 

During his ministry the rectory, a three-story 
residence on the south side of the church, was 
secured, with a lot si.xty feet fronting on Sixth 
street. A lot on the north side of the church, 
thirty feet front, had been pre\iously added, giv- 
ing a front on Sixth street in all of one hundred 
and eighty-one feet. 

Zion church, a colony from St. Paul's, had 
also been organized and established at the corner 
of Eighteenth and Chestnut streets, and St. 
Paul's Mission c luirch was built in the norihwest- 
ern part of the city. 

After the death of Bishop Johns, Bishop 
Wliiltle succeeded him as liishop of \"irgiiiia. 



and he now |ietfornis the labors of two men 
with iiidefati-;aljle zeal and earnestness. 

In Man h, iS6S, the Rev. i;. '1'. Peikins, of. 
Leeshuri;, \'ir-^ini.i, was elected as Rectoi of St. 
Paul's chiireh. He entered iii-cn his work the 
following ^iav, and has remained since that 
])criod the faithtul and laborious [laslor of his 
people His parish has coiuintied to occi.'py 
under his ministry a position of great strent'th, 
second to none in the diocese, notwithstanding 
the fact that it has lost some of itsniembeis who 
have remo\ed to the southern part of the tity, 
attaching themselves to St. .Andrew's and Cal- 
vary churches. In iS;:?, the chmeh was greatly 
enlarged and beautifully impri.ived, an adtliiion of 
fifteen feet being purcha^ed in the rear of the 
church. The rectory also rcjiaired and the 
back buildings torn down and rebuilt, adding 
greatly to its convenience and comfort. .\ chapel 
was also erected on the thirty feet north of the 
church, the entire expense of these improvements 
being about $50,000. With these additions, the 
• church, with all of its appointments, is ttie most 
complete and valuable of any parish in the dio- 
cese, and ]ironiises to continue to be, for many 
years to come, a blessing to the communit;-. 
The communicants ut this church now number 
about five liun.drcd. 

In conclusion, the members of St. Paul's have 
contributed libt;rally towards the support of do- 
mestic and foreign missions, the education of 
young men fur tlie ministry, the .-American Bible 
Society, and other objects of like character. 
They have also aided materially in the sup|iort of 
the Episcopal Orphan Asylum, the Orphanage 
of the Good Shepherd, and other charitable in- 
stitutions. Recently the members inaugurated 
the movement for the establishment of the John 
N. Norton .Memorial Inhrmr.rv, under the aus- 
pices of the Episcopal Church. A tund has 
been subscribed amounting to about $50,000 lor 
the building and endowment fund. 

The following gentlemen compose the present 
Vestry and Warden: Wardens — William F. 
Bullock and R. .\. Robinson. Vestr\inen — E. 
N. Maxwell, Charks H. Pettet, Samuel A. .Mil- 
ler, Thomas J. Martin, William .H. P\er3, ("icorge 
S. Allison, John T. M,.oie, I)e.\ter Hewett, W. 
H. Dillingham, N. 1). Garrett. 

St. Andrew's Protestant F.piscopal church 

is a result from th.e organi7aiii.'n of the 
Mi'-sirjnary .Association of St. Paul's (huu'i, 
June 1.}, 1S55. On Sunda\, Februaiy 17, 
1.S56, the Lev. 11. M. Denison, rector of St. 
Paul's, made an eln(juerit and successful appeal 
to his congregation for the money necessary to 
buy the lot and build the church, and the fust 
Service was held in the new L)iiilding Februai)' i, 
1S57. It was consecrated Apiil 15, 1S57. 'I he 
lot was located on the south side of Chestnut 
street, between Nintii and Tentli streets, the 
whole outlay behig $7,777.50. The first vestry 
was composed of the following gentlemen: Dr. 
E. ^V. Crittenden, ])-. P. H. Cochrane, Judge 
Edward Garland, J. H. I.indenberger, William 
Mix, Sr., Edwin Morris, R. A. Robinson, Dr. 
John J. Smith, and J. H. ^Vo^d. The first rec- 
tor, the Rev. J. S. \\'allare, accepted the call 
January 30, 1S57, and after faithful service re- 
signed May 25. 1S59. "J1ie Lev. R. W. Lewis 
was called August 20, 1S59, and after nearly tuo 
years' service resigned March 5, 1S61. From 
that d.-.te service was held by Rev. Dr. Waller and 
other clergy until June 6, 1S62, when the Rc^■. 
Norman Ladger was called and served until luly 
19, 1864, when he also resigned. During the 
month of July, 1865, the property was sold to 
the Chestnut Street Ba|itist church, and is now 
used by that congregation, the buildini; having 
been considerably enlarged. 

On the 2Sth of ALiy, 1S66, Mr. R. A. Robin- 
son ga\e St. Andrew's clunch a splendid lot 
r5ox2oo fect, situated on the northeast corner of 
Second and Kentucky streets, upon which the 
present St. Andiew's church was built with the 
money realized from the sale of the former build 
ing and lot. This church was consecrated bv 
the Right Rev. (ieorge D. Cummins, D. D, .As- 
sistant Bishop of Kentuck}-, Sunday, June 21, 
1S6S, free ot debt. The Rev. W. Q. Hulliheii 
was called December 14, 1S6S. During the 
summer of 1S70 it was found necessary to re- 
construct the building at a cost of $3,000, 
which amount has also been paid in full, The 
Rev. W. Q. Hullihen resigned .August 17, 1871, 
and the present rector, Rev. C. H. Sheild, D. D., 
uas called OuoLier 26, 1S71. Dr. Sheild has 
built U[ion the rear of the cluin h lot, fronting 
Kentucky, a brick two and a h:i!t .-it.iry rectory. 
At the fifty-third .Annua! Council of the Protes- 
tant h![iisco[nl cluir( h m the Diocese of Ken- 

:^ ^ 

■ A, 


I I 

'o^f-u^ .r jf:,.a 



tucky, held in the Cliurch of the Ascension, 
I'lankforl, May iSth to 21st, i8Sj, St. Andrews 
reported one luiiidred and five communicants, 
t^^enty four teat liers, one hundred 
and fifty-Seven ^ch.llals, and an aggregate cif 
$2,987,11 tontiiliutions. The (lunch is hDcated 
m one of the nidst heautifu! and rapidly inipiov- 
ing [lortions of the city, and it will, no doubt, 
liecome before nianv )ears, under C>od's bleSNing, 
one of the strongest and most inlluential parishes 
of the di(.>cese.* 

St. Steplien's Mission was started v. ith a Sun- 
day-school by the Rev. Dr. J. X. Norton, and 
was held in a cottage that was re nted by him in 
.•\|iril, 1S76. Mr. T. H. Mubbell wa^ superinten- 
deiU and was continued until June, 1S77, when 
St. Stephen's cluireh was built and coir.|deted by 
Mrs. J. N. Norton at her own expense. The 
school was remo\ed to the church, which was 
consecr.cted by the Right Rev. T. U. Dudley, 
liishop of Kentucky, (in W'hitsunda;-, 1877, 
After a time servi(e was held by Mr. T. L. Hub- 
bell, lay reader, until February, 1878, when he 
resigned the charge of the cluirch and Mr. J. G. 
Swain was appointed su[ierintendent ot the school, 
and J. Pell, lay reader of the church. Mr. 
Swain held the school for eighteen months, and 
services were held at night by the Rev. J. T. 
Helm, on Sundays. J. Pell was then a[>pointed 
superintendent and continues in the position, 
also serving as lay reader.! 

John Nicholas Norton was born in Waterloo, 
New York, in 1S20. Pie was the oldest son of 
the Rev. George Ilattey Nortoti, a native of \'ir- 
ginia, who was nearly related to the Careys, Am- 
blers, Baylors, and Nicholases of that State. 
The home inllueiices brought to bear upon him 
were of the most religious and imi'roving kind, 
and fully did he respond to theiii. From a child 
he knew the Scriptuies, and de\el(iped a love tor 
books and so remarkable an aptitude lor intel- 
leciual pursuits that from the time he could use 
the pen, he employed himselt in writing little 
books for the enteitainmeiit of his comjianions. 
In this, his nonage, he began the cultivation of 
that virtue which became more and more his 
distmguishing charaeteristic — - the exact and 
punctual fulfillment of everv duty. It may be 

• By the favor uf .\Ir |. 
+ .\Ir. IMl furn.ilics (In 

H.irdy, uf tlif I'auill. 
n./f but ^utlcicnt skeli-h. 

said of him, as it is recorded of some of the 
greatest men tint e\-er li\ed, that he took no piart 
in the sp;irts of children, and avi'ided the rough 
pla)' of boys. Dr. Norton graduated with honor 
at Hobait ctjliege (from which in after life he re- 
ceived the digicc of Doctorin Divinity) in 1S42, 
and at the Gcik lal Theological seminary in 18. 55. 
He was ordained deacon by Bishop De I.ancey 
in the ciiocese of Western New Voik in July of 
the same year. 

Having been furnished at tlie Seminary with 
all the tools of his sacred profession, all sharp- 
ened and polished, he at once, with provideiuial 
sagacity, determined to place himself where he 
could best leain the use of them. He therefore 
put himself under the niinisterial guidance of the 
Rector of St. 1 .uke's Church, Rochester, who had 
gained the deserved re|)Utation of being one of 
the most successt'til parish priests in the country. 
Here he remained a year, getting all the experi- 
ence he could of the proper way of conducting 
parochial work. .At the end of that time he 
turned his eyes to that portion of the Lord's vine- 
vard where laborers were most needed. Inllamed 
with Divine love, and with the words of the A[)OS- 
tle of the Gentiles ringing in his ears — "work 
while it is called to-day" — he eiitered upon his 
duties as a missionary at I-'rankfort, Kentuck)", 
on the 4th of December, 1S46. 

He found about two dozen timid and half- 
hearted coininunicants woishipjiing in an insig- 
nificant little chapel. 'Phis day of small things 
just suited John N. Norton. Such energy as he 
had to exercise, and such inexhaustible and un- 
■ tiring labor as he had to bestow upon the propa- 
! gation of the Everlasting Gospel, could not have 
found supi)ort u|)on another man's foundation. 
I He was to develop such quenchless zeal, so great 
I powers of peisuasion, and such indomitable per- 
; sistence and self sacrit'ice, as Kentucky had never 
seen before, and which was to make all men 

From 1S47 t'^' 'S50, when the iiarish became 
selfsupporting, the nunibei of communicants 
had increased tVom thirty-two to seventy-eight. 
In that year the corner stone of a large and 
beautiful church was laid, and on the iSth day 
of .August, 1852, was consecrated. But as th.e 
congregation continued rapiidly increasing, year 
by year, even this spacimis edifice was found to 
be too small, and had to be enlarged; and as a 


tenifilc of the Lord it now staruls one of the , and tlio spacioiis churc h edifice llre^L■nlcd a vast 

chief piides of tlie l',piscopal ChuiLh in Ken- ! sea of h.eads, cotniiosed of rii h and poor, of 

tucky. I young nun and niaiden--, old men and children, 

Besides hi> unwearied attention to his duties ' 'on every Sunday ser\ ice. 
in his ])arish, tliere was scarc-ely a nook in the To him is ju^tlv due llie honor of making a 
sunounding rourilv that he left uii\isited. The uortliy and elTiuent effort foi the rehgiuus in- 
chincli and school of St. juhn in the Wilder- ' slniction of tlie colored people of Louisville, 
ness were liuilt through his in-trumentalit\-, to He huilt for them entirely at his own cost a coin- 
enlighten the ignorant a.nd to carry the blessed ' inodious brick chinch and a huge school house, 
influence of the OosikI to a neglected people. ; and maintaineil the regular church services, he- 
He also established misiic>ns in the neighbor- sides a day school, 
ing touns of X'ersailles and Ocorgeiown, to which lie gave his fo-tering care lo different mission 
he jieisonally ministered through ilie heat (jf sum- ; chinches in LoLiis\il!e, and when need came his 
nier and Severe exposure in winter', \^ith unal.iated generous hel|iinL; hand. 

zeal. Notwithstanding the multitudinous tasks He had the liapijy faculty of bringing out the 
which he had set himself, he found time to wiite good in every one and of causing it to be e.xer- 
niany excellent and edifying hooks. .Among ciscd for some uset'ul and profitable end. In his 
these his Short Sjrmoni, lor lay reading, Old way thioiigh life he encountered many persons 
Paths, and other volumes have satist'ied a demand whom e\erybody else regarded as mere " cum- 
never attemi)ted to be done before. 'J'he good berers o( the ground," — waifs and strays that so- 
done and to be done for many generations by ciety had no place for ; yet in very |)ersons works is simiily incalculable. he would discover some aptitude for woiihy em- 
Most clergymen would have considered these ployment, and |iut them to work for the general 
and other labors as a sutTicient crown of rejoic- good. His s\nipathies respond' d to all human 
ing; hut John X. Nortcm thought nothing was suffering, and no uuworthiness in the individual 
done so long as anything remained to do. His could dampen or check them. It really seemed 
busy feet perpetually carried him about doing that to do him an injury was the best way for 
good and comfoiting those that mourned; his making him your h lend for life. 
always liberal hand, that regarded not the merit He was no [ireacher for any particular class, 
of him who needed, but the extent of his neces- but, like the most popular preacher of the Refor- 
sities as a fellow-creature; his face that glowed mation, who was the delight of two kings, the 
with sympathy for all who suffered in mind, favorite of the nobility as well as the common- 
body, or estate — these shall not soon be for- alty, his illustrations were as nails in a sure 
gotten. ■ [ilace, enforcing his lesson with wcightv andcon- 
During his ministry at Frankfort Dr. Norton , vincing power u[)on the consciences of his hear- 
baptized 2,152 infants and adults; presented tov ' ers. Having always clear ideas of what he was 
confirmation, 90S candidates; married loS going to say, he said it so that all could under- 
couples; and buried 4,-52 persons. These are stand. His grand object was to carry the story 
only journal records. The record that is on of the Cross to the hearts of them that heard 
high entitles him to a rank among tlie working him, and j.iersuade them to live accordinglv. 
clergy, which few since the AposiLs' days have His reading was varied and extensive. 1 here 
g'i'ned. was little in the whole circle of literature which 
In 1S71, after twenty-three years of labor in he had not mastered and could not produce, 
the capital of Kentucky, IJr. Norton entered up- when useful for iiis purposes. 
on his career as Associate Rector of Christ It may truly l.e said of Dr. Norton that he had 
church, Louisville. Here he found a much received from nature a strong and sharp under- 
wider field, but not too wide for his incessant standing, and a rare lirnuiess of temper and in- 
and unwearied diligence. tegrity of will. When these powers became 
Throu.i^h his co-operation the communicants baptized with th.e Hoiy Chost, there was no ot'tiie 
in Christ church constantly incre.ised in numljcr; in the nnnistry he was not fitted to I'lil and adorn, 
the confirmations became a wonder for their size; His Church principles were those which the 


sainted Bishops Hobart and Ra\enscrol't illus- Rc( tor. .\fit,r\vards he was in charge of the 

trated in their writings and conduct, to the great interests of the Episcopal Church in 

good of the Church. He was neutral in nothing; the United States, and editor of the Journal of 

hut controversy he abhorred, and no man was Christian Eduraticm and of tlie Sunday-school 

ever traduced by liim. If lie had any enemies, publications of the cluircli. He broke down 
he might well ha\e taken comfort from what is ' under his labors, and died in what should have 

written over the door of a town house in Ger- been his prime. 

many: "To do good and have evil said of you , The Rev. ]:^dmund Taylor Perkins, D. D., 
is a kingly thing." [ was a native of Richmond, \'irginia, born C)c- 

Dr. Norton fell asleep on the iSth dav of Jan- tober 5, iS:j;, son of George Perkins, a \'iiginia 
uary, 18S1, in the si.\ty-first year of his age. His planter. He educated in private and board- 
death was mou:ned as a gieat loss, not only by ing-schools, at the Episcopal High School near 
the city of Louisville, irrespective of crerd, liui .Mexandria. wlierc he was a teacher in iS43-.t-i, 
was seriously felt by the whole Stale of Kentucky. and at the \'iiginia Theological Scminarv. He 

The Rev. James Craik, D. I)., Nestor of the was ordained Deacon in June, 1S47 ; became 
pulpit in Louisville, was born in .Mcxandria, \'ir- Rector of Trinity Parish, Parkersburg, six years; 
ginia, in 1S06, son of George \Va^hington Craik, was ordain.d to the |)ricsthood in 1S4S, and 
and grandson of that l)r. James Craik who was held a pastoiate at Wheeling eiglu years; dining 
Washington s intimate fri.;nd and p!iyaician, a;;d the war was Missionary-at large, and then Chap- 
is named in his will. Young Craik was libtra'h lain at-large with the Confederate army : in 1S65 
educated ; married .Miss Juliet Shrewsbury, who became pastor of a small church at Smithtield, t)een a m )st capable aid to hini m his do- \"irgiiiia ; went the next year tn a parish at Lees- 
mestic and public life ; pra(.tleed law for ten burg, where he siaid about two years, and then 
years alter niarnige ; was ordained tuthe Epis- received a call to St. Paul's parish, Louisville, 
coiial ministiy by Pishop Meade in 1S30 : where he succeeded the Rev. F. M. U'hittle, v. ho 
preached in Ch.irleston, South Car.jlina, five had become Assistant Pisho]) of X'irginia. In 
years, and then, in 1S44. came to Christ Churcli, this position Dr. Perkins has since served mo-t 
Louisville, where his ministrations have since acceptably, taking high rank in the Episcopal 
been continuous, during now the long period of clergy of Kentucky. He is accounted a low- 
nearly forty years. He is the waiter of the v. ilu- churchman. In iSjr the honorary degree of 
able little bo-ik of local history entitled Histori- D. I), was conferred ujton him by Gambler Col- 
cal Sketches ol Christ Church, and of other lege, Ohio. 

works upon the Search of Truth, the Divine r.MTARiAXlSM. 

Life and the New Truth, Old and Ne.v, etc. The first Unitarian Society of Louisville, now 

The Rev. Penjimin L)rr Peers, tir^t Rector of occupying the Church of the Messiah, on Fourth 
St. Paul's church, died here August :o, 1S42. street, was organized on the 30 of July, 1S30, the 
Alth nigh but fony-two years old, he had b.conie cnminittee of organization being George A\'. Mer- 
one of the most eminent Ejiiscopal clergymen riwether, Simeon S. Goodwin, Edmund H. 
in the State. .A Nhii^inian born of Scutch Iri-h Lewis, Perley Chamberlin, Archibald Allan, 
and Revolutionary stock, he came with his lather Eii-ha .Appleg-ite, and I'red A. Kaye. On the 
to this State in 1S03, was educartd at the Pom- igth of the same month they bought of Mr. S. S. 
bon Academy and 'Prans) Ivania L'ni\crsitv, and Nicholas the lot of ground on the southeast cor- 
served as a professor in the latter ; was educated ner of Walnut and Filth streets. The erection 
at Princeton for the Presbyterian nnnistr\, but of their church was begun in the sjiring of 1831, 
became an E|iiscopalian ; became a prominent and on Sunday, May 27, 1S32, it was dedicated, 
educator while still young, and editor, as we the services being conducted by Re\3. Francis 
have seen, of 'Pile Western Journal of Edcation ; Parkman and James Walker, of Massachusetts, 
wrs m.ide President of 'Prans\ Ivania L'ni\eisity In the following September Rev. George Chap- 
in 1S33, but resigned in tw.j years, oi'ened a man was invited to occupy the pulp'it for one 
select school lor boys in L luisville, and ■ year at a salarv of $600. In June, 1S33, he re- 
St. Paul's church was organized, was elected its signed, and was succeeded by Rev. James Free- 



man Clarke, who preached l)is first scimon on 
llie nth of August. In October, 1S35, ^[^. 
Clarke was invited to corilinue his services, the 
society agreeing to raise his salary to $Soo, "|iro- 
vidcd that much is subscribed and paid." 

In 1S40 Mr. Clarke reigned, and on the r3d 
of Aiiguit of tVul year Rev. Jnhn H. Heywood 
entered upon his minisliy, and his services being 
most acceptable, he was reelected from year to 
year. The church grew in strength of numbers, 
until in 1868 it became necessary to provide 
larger accommodations. At this time it was pro- 
posed by the Universalist Society that tlie tuo 
societies should unite in the erection of a new 
church, towards which they could contribute 
about $15,000. At'ter several interviews, their 
projjosition was accejited, and it was determined 
to purchase the lot on the somheast coii;er of 
Fourth avenue and York street, and to erect 
thereon a building, to be known as the Ciiurch 
of the Messiah. ^Vork wa-. begun during the 
siminier of 1S69, and svas completed in I Decem- 
ber, 1870, at a cost of about $75,000. 

On Sunday, January 15, 1S71, the new church 
was dedicated, the pastor having the as>i-trin':e 
of W. G, Eliot, of St. Louis, and Roliert Laiid 
Collier, of Cliicago, in the services of the 0( ca- 
sion. C)n the morning of Sunday, the la^t day 
of the same year, at about 3 o'clock, the ch.urch 
was discovered to be or. fire. In a few hours 
the interior of the main building was entirelv de- 
stroyed and the walls greatly damaged. The 
Sunday-school building in rear of the church 
was not injured, and services were held therein 
on the morning of the same day. Steps were 
promptly taken to rebuild the church, and with 
the insurance money and generous aid of friends 
here and elsewhere, it was reconstructed during 
the year 1S72, and rededicated on Sunday, De- 
cember 15th, the pastor being assisted by Rev. 
H. W. Bellows, of New York. 

Mr. Heywood continued his ministry until the 
suminerof 1S79, when for health and other rea- 
sons he decided to go to Europe with his wife 
and daughter for a year's visit. In his absence 
the Rev. C. J. K. Jones, of Lrcjoklyn, New York, 
was invited to occupy the pul[)it for one \car 
from Scjiteniber 21, 1S79. In .Xjiril, iSSo, Mr. 
Heywood having returned t'rom Euro[ie (where 
he had been sorely afTlicted in the death of his 
only child) visited the city and tendered to the 

congregation his resignation as pastor, to take 
effect on the 23d of August following, that day 
being the t'ortieth anniversary of his minisUy in 
Louisville. Did space allow, much could lie told 
of tlie loyal service of Mr. Heywood during these 
forty years, not only to the church hut to the city 
at large. He gave freely of his thought, time, 
and inlluence to every good work. His n.ime 
will long be a househoM word in hundreds of 
families, and their children's childien will bless 
his meniorv. 

Subsequent to the resignation of Mr. Heywood 
the Rev. Mr. Jones, who had filled the puljiit for 
nearly a year, was elected pastor of the church, 
and still holds the po-ition. j. L. D. 

The Rev. John H. Heywood is' one of the 
most venerable names in the ecclesiastical annals 
of LouissiUe, where he was a beloved and most 
usel'ul pastor for about forty years. He was born 
at Worcester, Massachusetts, March 30, iSiS, 
graduated at Haivard in 1S34, taught a s( hool in 
i'oston for a vear, graduated from the Hai vaid 1 Di- 
vinity School in 1S40, and was promptly called to 
the First Unitarian Society of Louisville (now the 
Church of the Messiah on I'aiiiih stieet), to suc- 
ceed the R.ev. James Freeman Clarke. He be- 
gan his labors in the old church at Fifth and 
Walnut, which was vacated in July, 1S70, and 
the new edifice dedicated January 15. 1871. He 
not only served the church ably and taithfully, but 
was active in promoting educational and literary 
interests, serving ujjon the Roaid of Education, 
and being for t'ourteen years its piresidcnt. During 
the war he did eminently useful service with liie 
j Kentucky branch of the .Sanitary Commissi'jn, 
of which he finally wrote a brief history. In 
1S64 he was mainly instrumental in forming the 
Old Ladies' Home, of which he remains presi- 
dent, although residing of late in Plymouth, 
Massachusetts. He was for more than two years 
an editorial writer on the Louisville Examiner, 
and contributed much to other periodicals. 


Under this head we regret to have been able 
to secure only the following biographical note: 

Rabbi Levi RIeeberg was born in Hofgersmar, 
Prussia, July 14, 1832. His father was a man 
of no s[iecial ini[iortance in a [niblic way, but a 
man who looked diligently to the pro[ier educa- 
tion of his children. Levi was a pu[iil in the 
best schools of his own city until in his tifieenth 



year, when he began studyinL' under the learned 
Dr. Heldcshcinu-r, with whom he nmipleied his 
Hebrew and Tahiuidical studies in the Rab- 
binical Co'.leye. In JS59 he yradinted hoiu the 
University of Gutiini^en, in Hanover, as Doctoi 
of Plii!oso[)hy, and was appointed the same 
. year. Rabbi of F.lberfield, Cierinany, where he 
ministered till. 1S66, wlien he received a call 
from Louisvilli', and remained here some years. 
As a lieiievolent man he ha> been identified with 
all moviments for the benefit of his people. 
He is also considered one of the leading Rabbis 
of the country. In 1S60 he was married to 
Minna, daughter of the late Marcus Cohen, 
M.D, of IClmdiorn, Cerniany. She is an ac- 
complished lade, many of her |)oems having re- 
ceived favorable notice by some of the leading 
writers of the [iiesent time. 


The Catholic clergy at this time in and near 
Louiiville were Bi>hop Flaget, liishop Guy I. 
Cha!>rat, and the Rev. Fathers M. J. Spalding, 
John M'Gill, John Quinn, P. Lavialle, and 
Charles Roeswald. The Rev. j. J, \"ital was at 

The annual meeting of the Convention of the 
Protestent Episcopal Church, for the Diocese of 
Kentucky, was held here duritig the second week 
in May. There were now about six hundred and 
fifty members of this faith in the State. The 
clergy resident in Louisville wtre lUshop B. B. 
Smith and the Rev. Mtssrs. John B. Gallagher, 
Rector of St. Paul's; James Craik, Recior of 
Christ Church ; R. M. Chapman, Rector of St. 
Matthew's; and C. H. Page. 

The ministers of tlie Presbyterian Church res- 
ident here were the Rev. Messrs. \V. L. Breckin- 
ridge, E. P. flumphrev, Francis Norton, Jeihn 
Kennedy, David S. Tod, and W. \V. Hill, the last 
named being editor ol the denominational org.m. 

The Baptist mini^ter3 here (in the Long Run 
Association) were Rev. Messrs. \V. C. Buck, A. 
D. Sears, G. Gates, F. A. Willard, P. M. Cary, 
and W. R. Combs. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church South had 
as ministers here: Thomas Pioitomly, Piesiding 
Elder; Samuel D. Baldwin, Pastor of Wesley 
Chapel; James M. Temple, of the Brook .Street 
Church; George \V. Mcrritt, Fourth street; Wil- 
liam Holman, Eiglith street. 

The Ufiivcrsalists had one minister hcie, the 
Rev. E, M. Pmgree. 


Mr. Casseday, in his History of Louis\ille, 
published this year, inesents, with the succeed- 
ing remarks, the following table o( churches : 






Oorniiin l'',vangL'lica 
Gorman LiuIrV.iii. , 
Cji-Tman ReforniL-d . 


I- nil Mi.ui 

crb.<nst . . 
.in Caili.jh. 

Je»-s . 



2,500 2 
'.425 2 
5.900 8 
2,225! 3 
1.200 2 




15OJ 76,000 
250 [69.000 
.300 128. oco 

:, 15OJ 21,700 

.200 2,250 
320 12,0^:0 
5001 8.000 

;.54o| 125,000 
400I 1 1,000 

2; 10, {110:24.510 


Tlic l.T-lcrul and elegant structures wliich many of ihcsc 
j c!ni!cli05 have erected .ire great additions 10 iho beautv of the 
I city, lliosc most worthy of note are the Walnut street 
! Baptist, First rrc»byterian. Catholic Cathedral. St. Paul's 
I (Kpisropal), and the synagogue; the last nienlioiied of which 
1^ t!ie most elegant budding in the city, although it is prob- 
I ably loss expensive than cither of the others. The pulpit of 
j Louisville is eminently well supplied. Some of the most dis- 
tinguished divines of the country are among its members, 
I and few. if any, of tlie clergy are men whose talents do not 
i rank above mcdiocnt\-. 

women's CKRISTLW .\SS0CL\TI0N. 

The Women's Christian Association of Louis- 
ville was organized in the month of February, 
1S70, under the supei vision of H. Thane Miller, 
of Cincinnati, he having been called to our city 
to address the Young Men's Chriitian Associa- 
tion. The Christian women of Louisville had 
long felt the want of organized effort tor their 
own sex, and gladly availed themselves of the as- 
sistance of -Mr. Miller in arranging their plans. 
In a clause of the charter its object is clearly set 
forth: "The objeet of the .-Vssociation shall be 
to establish Homes for women, especially young 
women, where provision shall be made for their 
physical, mental, and spiritual welfare.'' 

The second meeting of the Association resulted 
in the eloctiem of a permanent board of managers, 
with the following otficers: Mrs. M. E. Crutcher, 
President; Mrs. A. E. Tryon antl Mrs. R. D. 



Aridcrsiin, \'icc Presidents; Mi-is ^[aLrl;ie Mer- 
ker, RecorJiiii; Scrretavv; Mrs. IVake, Corres- 
ponding Secretary; Miss Uelle (juigley and Mrs. 
Dr. Speed, Treasurers. 

A ronstilution was framed and accepted, re- 
quiring tliirty ladies as a hciard of managers, who 
would reiucsent equally all the Protestant denom- 
inations of the city. They also elected a board 
of trustees, to assist and advise us; their names 
were Z. M. Sherley, A. D. Hunt, W. 1". Barret, 
Jf)hn M. Harlan, Koliert Su) der, and G. ^V. ISur- 
ton. These gentlemen made apphcati(.in and 
seemed us a charter from the Legislature in a 
short time, and, meeting with the managers for 
conference, it was decided to establish, fust, a 
home for respectaljle girls and women who were 
dependent upon their own exertions for a living, 
requiring small rates of board, according to their 
seveial abilities to earn money, and it was to be 
called ''The Working \\'omen's Home." 

The trustees required the managers to raise 
the sum of $5,000 as a safeguard before they 
sliould open the Hon;c, and at'tcr earne^t and 
vigorous Lt'forls on their part, and tlie help of 
outside parties, in thirteen months they had suc- 
ceeded in seeming .'114,000, the trustees th-jn con- 
senting for the Home to be opened. 

The fust annual meeting ol the Women's Chris- 
tian As^ociation was held in the Chestnut Siieet 
Presbyterian Church on the evening of Decem- 
ber 5, 1870, at 7 o'clock. The large attendance 
of lioth ladies and gentlemen was a cunvincing 
proof that the propeised w.irk was in favor and 
would meet with a ready res[(onse. The churches 
were called upon to pietlge themselves to lurnish 
the rooms, which they readily consented to do. 
The clergy, the l.iuyers, the doctors, and the 
press have aided us greatly in their professions 
and with money. 

The coming March we rented a house on 
First street, between ('ircen and Walnut, at a 
cost of $1,000 per \ear. with a capacity of fifteen 
inmates, and on the 4th of Mas t'ollowing gave a 
public opening, the house being furnished, an 
efficient matron and coaqietent servants secured. 
All things were ready I'or duty, affording a real 
home tor girls and women, in whom self-helpful- 
ness should be encouraged, wh.o should be 
watched over and advised, should be assisted 
when in nee<l, and nursed tenderly when sick. 

At the close of the first year the house proved 

entirely too small, and we rented and removeil 
to a building on Walnut street, between Sixth 
and Seventh, whic h was occupied four year.s. 
The increased number of applications and the 
growing imiiortaiiie of the work suggested the 
idea (if [lermanent location to the trustees as well 
as to the board of managers, and we are indebted 
lo a generous jiublic for tlie firm foothold we 
have secured. Mrs. I. Lawrence Smith gave the 
association a valualile lot on First street, for 
which we have leceived giound rent ever since. 
Mis. .-\rthur Peter lemcmbercd us in a gift of 
$i,i&oal one time, and Rev. Stuart Robinson 
(of blessed memory), assisted l.>y the trustees, 
raised the generous amount of $S,ooo toivaids a 
building fund, besides a great many smaller do- 
nations of money and houseliold articles and 
provisions, for all of which we were sincereU' 
thankful, liefore the close of the tirsl year's 
work, we found our mistake in the selection of a 
name, as it invited constantly to the Home the 
laboring cLiss, wasliei women, etc., who were not 
the real suffering portion of the females, depend- 
ent upm their own CNertions for a living, but 
came rather to avoid work; and after considera- 
tion it was voted to change the name from the 
''Working Women's Home" to the "Young 
A\'omen's Boarding Home," and the difficulty 
soon ceased. 

'I'he trustees in the spring of 1S76 purchased 
the property on First street that had been for- 
merly occupied by the Home, at a cost ol $8,750 
cash, and our honored friend Captain Z. yi. 
Siierley devoted the summer to the remodelling 
and enlarging the Iniilding. It was our misior- 
tune about that time to lose $4.500 — the tlrst 
monev raised by the managers — in the failure of 
a business firm of our city, but we are glad to 
remember that when Captain Sherlev loaned this 
monev, the house was considered sate and the 
action apiiroved by the board; so that when 
our building was complete it let't us over $3,000 
in debt to Captain Sherley, which sum he never 
collected, but at'ter his deatli, which occuned 
February iS, 1S79, his heirs generously forgave 
half of the debt, and the trustees collected the 
deficit, therebv relieving us of the burden. 

.-\s a board of managers we have ever ave^ided 
debt; in fact, we have never owed a dollar. The 
house has a capacity fur thirtv-five, and the aver- 
age number is about twentv-ei:,ht. 


One thinf; we endeavor to lemembtr is that a nianat'.er. They all died while their hearts 

ours is a (,'hrislian inbtitulioii, wiili yood inllticncc, were warm and their hands hiisv in the interest 

with an ai knuukdged depi-ndenee upon Ood of the Women's Olirisu.m Asso. iation. On 

always, with a faniily altai ever)' evening, and Tuesday, 1 V c lUilicr 6, i SS i, ilic twelfth annual 

nionlhly leligious services folknving e.'ich lio.iid meeting of ihe association ua> held in the hall on 

meeting; and we feel it to be a uondeiful jirovi- I'buith avenue, where the officers of the gen<.ral 

deuce that \n all the changes of eleven years we '' association, the tinstees, and the boards of mana- 

have not had a deatli in the family. ■ gets for the \ oung Women's Hoarding Home 

The removal to the new ])crninnent home and the Home of the I'licndless were elected 

took place on Monday, Decenilier 14, 1S76. for the yeir. Oitlccrs of the association : Prcsi- 

In 1875 tlie necessity of a reformatoiy was , dent, Mrs. M. E. Criiti her ; \'ice IVesident, 
constantly urged upon the \\'omen's Christian Mrs. R. .\. Watts; Secretar_\, Miss Florence V. 
.Association; indeed, it was the otitgrowih of the Fove ; Treasurer, Mrs. 1 )i-. ];ailey. Board of 
work already estalili^hed, and the need of it was Tiustees; .Mr. \\'illiani H. JJillinghani, J. K. 
so pressing that the association determined to Goodkne, W. F. liarret, Robert Snyder, Artlrur 
consider the subject at once. That movement, Peter, .\. O. Munn, and I'hilip S])eed! 
however, made it necessary to revise the consti- Tlie repiorts v.ere consideied highly creditable, 
tution and to have the dialler amended. Roth , the Secietaiy of the Young Woman's Boarding 
of the changes being effetted, the general asso- . Home disclosing the liberality of the managers 
ciation was provided with sejiarate boards of i in giving in the [la-t year fortv one nights' lodg- 
managers for all enterprises undertaken in the ings and one hundred and thirty-one meals to 
future, and making regular meetings (semi-annual - strangers, and one hundred and twenty weeks' 
and annual) of the association to which the dif- ' boaid to girls living in the Home, who were in- 
fcient boards would report, all of whom would caiiacitated for work by sickness and loss of 
be elected at the annual meeting held each year wages, while the whole e.xjjense of the Home 
in December. In October, 1S75, at a meeting ' reached the amount of $2,815,70. The mana- 
of the association a board of eighteen managers gers of the Home of the FTiendlcss have used 
was elected to raise t'unds to e.stabli>]i a reform- every available plan to secure money t'or their 
atory for women. In (jne year tlie amount was work, yet they have often been very much 
considered sut'flciently large to justify them in straitened and cramped to conduct it without in- 
taking a house, and they rented one on A\'est curring debt, and the association has sincerely 
Jefferson street, No. 1,1 17, which they still oc- and ardently desired tn be remembered by the 
cupy. The churches responded kindly to their , generous public, hoping to have their institution 
call for furniture and other help, and on the iQth helped to a safe and t'lrm basis, llieir e.\[)ense 
day of May, 1S76, the reformatory, with a capac- , in money during the )ear just closed, besides 
ity for twenty inmates, was opened, under the contributioiiS of [irovisions and clothing, was 
name of "The Home of the hriendless for Fallen , $1,900.50.* 
Women." The managers have done a noble, 
Christ-like work, and most blessed in its results. 

The Women's Christian .-Association does not 

propose to limit the number of its enterjiri-es, ' 
and hopes in the future to undertake other much 

needed charities of our city. \\"e cannot close i 

this outline of our history without rendering \ 
a tribute of firaise to some of our efticient and 

beloved workers who have gone home to tlieir j 

reward — Mr. and Mrs. .Vlex.inder K. Booth, j 

Captain Z. .M. Slierley, and Mrs. William H. Dil- ■ 

lingham. 'I'he two gentlemen were trustees, | 

Mrs. Booth was the secretary for six years, and I 
Mrs. Uillin-ham was untinnL! in her acti\ ities as 

•lliis sketch 15 very kindly ■contributed by Mrs. .M. E. 
Crutcher, president, of the asoociation. 




The Kenuu'ky InsiiuiUon for ih..- i:i!ii'.aiion ..f ihe lUiiid — 
Tlic .\mc[ii:nl Printing lluuse fi-r iIk' B!ind-'l lie M.lwi.ii: 
Widows' and Orph.-ins' Home — The Marine Hospilal — 
City Instiliiliuns: The City Hospital, St. [ohn's Kriipli\e 
Hospilal. the .-Mmshousc — The Eye and Ear Infirmary — 
Episcopal Charities: The Orplian Asylum, Orphanage of 
the Good Shepherd, and Home of the Innocents — Catho- 
lic Charitable Institutions Enumerated: The Sisters of 
the Good .Shepherd— The Little Sisters of the Poor— 
The H.iplists' Orphans' Home— The German Baptists' 
Orphans' Home. 


Tio:; OF Tin; i:i.ind 
is situatctJ in Louis\ ille, u|)cin tlie western border 
of the city, on :i picturesque and commanding 
site, overloukiiig the Cave Hill Cemetery and a 
wide btretch of city and country. It was founded 
in February, iS\2, by authority of the Slate 
Legislature. It was the sixth of this character 
to be established in .America; but is now one of 
twenty-nine scattcied throughout the kind. Fur 
a lime it was a purely local charily, maintained 
altogether by the citizens ; but the State soon 
made an annual ajiproijriation regularly, which 
was steadily kept u[) for yeais. 'I'he piime cost of 
the building and grounds was $90,000, and it is 
maintained at an annual cost of about $20,000. 
The present number of pupils is about sixtv-five, 
of whom not cjuite one-half are from Louisvilie. 
Eighty-one in all recei\cd instruction in the 
school year iSSo-Si. The institution, most 
fortunately, has not suffered, as have many other 
public charities in this country, from I'requent 
"reorganization'' and change of officers. It has 
had but two Presidents of the Board of Trustees 
and two Superintendents in its existence of ibrty 
years. The Hon. William F. Bullock occu])icd 
the former position from 1S42 to 1S64 ; and Dr. 
Theodore S. Bell has held the post from loO.t to 
this time. The first superintendent was Mr. 
Bryce M. Patton. He resigned in 1S71, after 
nearly thirty years' service; and Professor Ben- 
jamin B. Huntoon, A. M., been in charge from 
that date to this. The course of instruction in- 
cludes reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, 
history, English grammar, elementary natural 
history, and physics. S|)ecial instruction in vocal 
and music is given to all whose 
abilities seem to show ])roinise of success in that 
department. All the girls receive instruction in 
the Use of the needle, and those who are huge 

enough to sit at a sewing-machine, learn its use. 
Some of the blind girls become iiroficient in the 
use of the knitting niachine, and all the larger 
gills leai 11 to cut out and make their own gar- 
ments. All boys of proper a'je receive instruc- 
tion in handicraft for one. two, three, or niore 
hours a dav, according to their ages. TheV are 
taught to rnake biooins, to cane chairs, and to 
practice simple upholstery, sui h as the making 
and repairing of m.Ttti esses and lounges. Phys- 
ical exercise holds an important place in the 
daily work of the pupils, and for this purpose 
the school IS divided into two sections, and one 
hour and a half are devoted dailv to their instruc- 
tion in calisllienirs. The pupils are required te) 
take regular baths, and nothing is neglected to 
secuie their continued good health. 


This is connected with the ISIind Institution., 
although a separate corpoiation, and at present 
occupies apartments in the same building. It 
is expected, however, that a separate house will 
shortly be constructed f >i it upon the grounds. 
It is reputed to be the laigest establishment of 
tlie kind in the world. It> t'oundation was thus 
sketched in an editori.'il article in the Couiier- 
Journal Febriiar) tj, 1S82: 

The subject of estaLilisliing such a printing house wa 
first discussed at a con\ention of instructors of the blind 
held m New York in 1S53. This led 10 the chartering and 
establishment of the .American Printing House for the Blind 
in this city, with auxiliary boards in Mississippi, Louisiana, 
and Tennessee, where the sum of $30,000 was subscribed. 
The breaking out of the war and its results pre\ented the 
realization of this sum, with the e.'cception of about $1,000. 
However, the Trustees obtained $8,000 from private parties 
in Kentucky, and in 1865 secured an annual appropriation 
from the State of $5 for each blind person in the State. Xew 
Jersey appro|irialed $5,000 in 1871, and Dekiware voted an 
annual appropriation of $100. In 1866 the printing house 
began operations, and since then-it has distributed between 
tifteen and twenty thousanrl publications among the institu- 
tions for the blind in the United States and abroad. 

March 3, 1S79, a Congressional enactment 
was apprtived, the bill I'or which had been intro- 
duced by Representative Watterson at the pre- 
vious Session, and renewed and pushed at the 
next by Mr. ^\'illis, under which the printing 
house receives a Croverhment subsidy of $10,000 
per annum, in consideration of which it distrib- 
utes its ]Hililicatious tt) all the State institutions 
for the blind, according to the tuimber of pupils 
in each. The State no longer grants an annual 
subsidy. The publication eomnuttee, selecting 



works for issue, coi'sists of the suii^iintendents 
of the institutions in Kentucky, New York City, 
Mar) land, Wisronsin, and Georgia. Among the 
[lu'.ilications, Ixsidos numerous scliooFbooks, 
niuitipHcation table-;, etc., are such works as 
Tyndall's Notes on Lii;ht. and FJeciricity, Mot- 
ley's Peter the (".rent, ^F^cau!ay's CIi\e and I.ays 
of Ancient Rome, Swinion's Outlines of History, 
Nordhoff's Politics for Young Americans, Virgil's 
.-Eneid, several of Shakespeare's plays, the Con- 
stitution of the United States, and many others. 
For the current year (1SS2) the publication of 
the following-named has been determined: Irv- 
ing's Sketch-book, Hawthorne's Tiue Stotics, 
About Old Story Tellers, by Donald G. Mitchell; 
Goldsmith's Deserted Village and She Stoops to 
Conquer; Thackeray's English Humorists, Chap- 
ters from a \\'orld of ^^"onder5, Short Sketches 
from English History, S»is5 F'amily Robinson, 
Principles of Harmony, by Sir AVilliam Gore 
Ouseley; Our Woild, a Primary Geography, by 
Miss Hall; Perry's Intioduction to Political 
Economy, and Haven's Mental Philosophy. 
Music is also ]irinted in large variety, in the Wait 
System of Point Notation. F'or the books both 
the orduiary letters and the New York F^oint 
letter aie used. Dissected maps are also made 
in the institution, and sold at large prices. 

The e.xpenses of the Hoi:se in iSSi were only 
$10,054.59, and at the close of the year a bal- 
ance \Nas on hand of $37,179.90, enough to 
constitute an ample building fund. Hon. Wil- 
liam F". Bullock is President of the board ot 
trustees; B. B. Huntoon, supeiintendent of the 

THE NtASONIC widows' .\ND ORPH.\Ns' HO.ME.* 

November 23, 1S66, a meeting of Free and 
Accepted Masons was held in the Masonic Tem- 
ple, in Louisville, to consider the subject of pro- 
viding a Widows' and Oriihans' Flome and In- 
firmary, a project which had for some time been 
entertained and intotmally talked over by the 
more active Masons of this city, and by the now 
deceased C. Henry Finck, who generously prom- 
ised to give $1,000 towards the project. It was 
agreed that a society should be organized "tor 
the purpose of erecting in or near the city of 
Louisville a Masonic Widows' and Orphans' 
Home and Infirniary." A temporary organiza- 

* Abndged from an hi>toric>.l sketch in a locil publication, 
called "Straws." for June, i33[. 

tion was cfTected, with the following ofliccrs: J, 
D. Guthrie, President; Dr. David n'. Yandell, 
First Vice Pusidenl ; William Kendrick, Second 
Vice-President; H. P. (;rant, Secretary; J. M. S. 
McCorkle, 'J'reasurer; William Cromey, J. \', 
Cowling, C. Heniy Finck, Dr. E. Richardson, 
T. G. Lockerman, J. \\'. Gans, E.xeciuive Com- 

'I'here was a general and hearty acceptance of 
this iiroject by tlie Masons of Kentucky. No 
other State had at that time made a movement in 
this direction of charitable effort. F2very mem- 
ber of the order felt a new sense of responsibility. 
It was a magnificent project. It was worthy of 
any self-sacrifice; worthy of any labor. The be- 
reaved women of Masonry and the. tender or- 
phaned children must be taken out of the chill- 
ing blasts of the world; taken out of their im- 
puissance and despaii, and brought into a safe 
inclosure of a hciiue. The men who led the 
movement found a willing and energetic follow- 
ing, the mist of lukcwarmness from some quar- 
ters was soon dir^pelled, the craft rose in their 
strength to help the good cause as best they 

Tiie society was soon after permanently organ- 
ized (November 30, 1S66), and systematically 
went to work. A bright day in the history of 
this grand charity was the organization in Jan- 
uary, 1S76, of the Ladies Masonic Widows' and 
Orphans' Home Society, with Mrs. Susan P. 
Hepburn as President. This society at once 
gave an impetus to the work of securing funds, 
and rendered magnificent assistance to the Board 
of Directors of the Home — a sum aggregating 
over $10,000 ha\ing been paid over by this so- 
ciety into the treasury of the Home. 

In tS69 the pureiiase of the L'nited States 
Marine Hospital was discussed, but being found 
impracticable, was abandoned. In September 
of that year, Mr. T. T. Shreve donated a lot con- 
taining three and one-half acres of land be- 
tween First and Second streets, north of Central 
Avenue. The Board ot Directors then purchased 
two acres adjoining the property, and advertised 
tor bids for the construction ot a building. No 
more appropriate structure could have been 
erected. It fronts two hundred and eighty-si.\ 
feet on Second Street, and consists of a main 
building with two wings, having a depth of one 
hundred feet. I'he height to the cornice is si.xty- 



five feet ; is five stories liigh, of b:ick with stone 
oiiianients. The facade is iiopositiL.'. The style 
of architecture aff)rils nn c)p[iortuiiit) to lorm a 
massive an<i iikasip.t; LfUc't, and ihat is accom- 
plished by quoins, iKiiinelled pilasters, and ]iro- 
jcctiiii; cornices, and the) liopc to add some day 
bv two towers at each end of tiie main building. 
'J'he interior is most admirably aiiaiiged for the 
purptiScs of the institiuion ; it is well liglited, 
well ventilated,- every p.irt easy acce--s- 
to the ground flo^r. The wliole building is 
now heated by steam, and the location is be- 
lieved to be one of the most iieallhy in or near 
the city. The building has a capacity for be- 
tween five and six hundred inmates. 

In October, 1S69, the Masons of Kentucky 
had the pleasure of assisting at and the 
laying of the corner-stone of the building. The 
work was commented, and simultaneously, 
through the Board of Directors, a movement to 
secure an endowment fund to carry on the insti- 
tution after it was ojiened, was inaugurated, a 
witness to the wise iirovision and earnestness of 
those having the dnection of the great enterprise. 
In April, 1S71, the buiidmg was so tar completed 
that the portion devoted to the orphans was 
opened, under the care of Mrs. Joseph Atkinson. 
In 1872 E. S. Fitch and wife were elected Super- 
intendent and Matron respectively, and Mrs. 
Martha Eubank was chosen Matron until Mr. 
and Mrs. Fitch could take their positions. In 
1S74 Mr. F'itch resigned, and Or. E. S. Newton 
was chosen to fill his place, which was done with 
faithful ability until his death in February, 1874. 
Dr. J. M. Wheeler and wite succeeded Dr. New- 
ton in 1S74. In January, 1876, Dr. J. \V. Robb 
and wife were elected to these positions. Mr. 
and Mrs. Fitch were subsequently returned to 
their old positions. 

On the 2d of June, 1S75, occurred a catas- 
trophe which fell heavily upon the most hopeful 
hearts engaged in this magnificent charity. On 
the evening of that day a terrific wind storm 
swept over the soutliern poition of the city, 
doing a great deal of damage south of Breckin- 
ridge street. Tlie south wing and main building 
were up and roofed in; no work in the intcriur 
had been done. The cyclone made a teriible 
sweep through the center, cairying away the main 
building and leaving a most frightful w reck. The 
children had been i>bying in the yard, but on the 

apfiroach of the storm they were called in. The 
wind struck the front wall just as they entered 
the north wing. No one was injured, although 
the shock was great. The west \v;dl blew over 
as if it had been pasteboard, and sti iking the 
east wall, both f.-U in ruin. The damage was 
great; to rt build thi main building and to com- 
plete the south wing, would cost $70,000. Tlie 

j cyclone in a (juaner of a minute had destroyed 

i the work and saciifiees of yeais. A great mass 
meeting was held shoitly after the catastroiihe, 
and $11,000 was raised at once. This was 

1 rapidly supplemented by subscriptions and do- 
nations ; the ruins have been cleared away like a 
tale that is told, and the building, as it stands 
to day in all its strcnL;th and beautv, a gladsome 
reality, is free from the incubus of dctit The 
Oi.ind Lodge of Kentucky, at its session in 1S74, 
voted to the endowment fund of the Home 
$78,500 in bonds, now bearing six per cent, in- 
terest. The total endowment fund, at last re- 
port, was $124,250.46. It is to he hoped that 
in a few years the endowment lund will be suffi- 
ciently large that its earnings alone will guarantee 
the future material sujiport of the institution. 

From the opening of this institution to Octo- 
ber I, iSSi, tliree hundred and fi\e inmates had 
been received into the Home, of whom one hun- 
dred and thirty-five had been discharged and 
seven had died — one of old age, and one 
drowned while awav. A regular school was es- 
tablished in the Home September 20, iSSo, 
with Miss Helen Clarke, of the city, in principial 
charge. The institution is justly accounted a 

I magnificent chanty. 



This is a charity founded by the General Gov- 
ernment, for the benefit of the boatmen on the 

j Western rivers. The site was selected by the 
Medical Board of the United States Army in 

I iSj7, but it was not jiurchased and the building 
was not commenced until 1S43 ; and then tlie 

; hospital was not fini-hed and occupied until 

1852. It is one of ten such institutions now in 

use in the country. It has cost to 1S7;, inclu- 
j . 
' sive, $98,452.47. During the year ending June 

30, iSSi, 1,190 patients were treated theiein, ot 
I whom but thirt}-nine were in hospital at that 
j date. Admitted during the year. 377; dis- 
charged, 345 ; died, 16 ; total da_\s.spent in hos- 



j,it:il, 13.309. Office relief was fiirnislied to 790 
liiatnien. Eiy!nv-eii;lit persons, including pilots, 
hnd been phy>irall^ ex.'iniintd fui cerlifiiates re- 
fpiired bylaw. 'J'ax for the Hu^pital was col- 
lected to the amount of $:',3S6.o8. 

'IHF, CnV HO>l'nAl,. 

'I'his occuiiits the v. ell known old site on Floyd, 
Chestnut, and W'jlnut streets, and was long 
known itself as tlie Marine Hospiital, About 1S73 
the n.iine apjieais to have been changed to City 
Hosi)ital. Important facts concerning its early 
history are embraced in our ann.ds of Louisville. 
Marine patients were treated in it at the expense 
of the Federal Government until October, 1869, 
when all were transferred to tlie United States 
Hospital. During the la«t year of their stay the 
Government paid $3,157.47 for thtir mainten- 
ance and treatment. In 1S70 tl'.e General Coun- 
cil of the city appro|Miated $7,000 for refitting 
the hospital. Among other inijirovements, an 
addition of nine wards was made, containing 
two hundred and fifty beds.. Two wards of 
fifteen beds each were also added, in which luiv- 
ate or pay patients were received at about half 
the cost of an entire room in the hospital. 'I he 
drug department was thoroughly reorganized 
At this time tlie average d.iily cost per patient 
was 44.1 cents. In 1871 the grounds were ma- 
terially irn|iioved, under th.e direction of Mr. 
Benjamin Groves. A more tliorough sy^tem of 
admmistration was intioduced in all the depart- 
ments. The number of patients increased 
seventy per cent., numbering 1,740 ; but the cost 
of the institution increased but twenty per cent. 
In 1S72, 1,983 patients were treated, and $ 1,5 1 o 
were derived t'rom fees of students to cl.nical 
lectures in the building. In 1S73 there were 
2,077 patients in the Hospital at different times. 
A gratuitous dental department was establislitd 
April 2, 1878, in which 188 ]iatient5 were treated 
that year. In 18S01.561 p>.itients were admitted 
to the hospital, and ke|jt to the total iiumbei of 
52,336 days ; dispensary patients, 505 ; pjrescrip- 
tions filled in the hospital department, 19,416. 

ST. John's ei<.uptive HosPir.\i.. 

For many vears the old brick d. veiling, erected 
in 178S by William Johnston, father of Dr. Ben- 
jamin C. Johnston, was occupied h\ ihe city for 
a pest house. In 1S72 a site for a new Eruptive 
Hospital was chosen a slujrt distance fioni the 

old building, and a new strut lure for it, of am- 
pler capacity and with all motlern impro\ement5 
tor such an in-.litiition, was put in course of con- 
struction. \\ Inn hnislied it remained unoccu- 
pied for about three years, excc]it by a watchman 
who was |iaid by the city to take care of it, and 
in 1S74 Ma)or Jacob made upeated but fruit- 
less efforts to sell it, and finally recommended 
its convcisioii into a I louse of Refuge for colored 
children. On .Ma\ 1st of that year its care uas 
transferred bv the General Council to the Board 
of Commi'^sioners of J^iblic Charities. In his 
annual message the next year Mayor Jacob 
recommended that it should be tendered to the 
State for use ten years fiee of charge as an Ine- 
briates' Hospital, or, if this was not deemed ad- 
visable, for a Lunatic .-\.sylum. 


This is also a cit\' institution, but the dale of 
its formation we have been unable to learn. In 
1872 a tract of 200 acres was bought by the 
city to emp'loy the labor of the .Almshouse, and 
a new building lor the inmates, ample in capacity 
and of superior design, was put in course of 
constuiction. The average number of inmates 
for tliis year was 2or persons, who were main- 
tained at a t(Ttal cost of $17,618.46, or 23"b 
cents per day for each, including all expenses, or 
19? 8 cents, exclu'.ive of salaries and expenses of 
officers and family. 

In 1S73 the products of the new farm yielded 
in the aggregate the sum of $Soo. The next 
year the new Almshouse was finished, at a total 
cost of $169,458 19, and was immediately oc- 
cupied. About $1,000 worth of products was 
reali/.ed from the farm the next year, and ar- 
rangements were made to cultivate the entire 
i tract. A ditch of nearly one mile length and 
1 eight feet width, was cut upon it by the labor of 
j the inmates. There were more inmates in 1874 
than in anv previous year, numbering 2S0 at the 
end of the year. 
I The .Vhiishouse was totally destroyed by fire 
on the 31st of lanuarv, 1870, involving a loss ol 
i $50,954, which was, however, fully covered by 
! insurance. The principal loss was to the 
j wretched inmates, who had to be largely reduced 
! in number, as ihe building temporarily occupied 
alter the fire could not accommodate more than 
j 200 people. The estimated value of the farm 



product tliis year was $4, 175, notwithstanding the 
continued dnnith. In 1880 167 pcrions were 
admitted to the instituiirm ; 14; were di>charL;ed, 
and 30 died, leaving 248 inmates at the close of 
the year. The net ex|'cnsc for the year was 
$13,121.82, or 16.22 cents per diem for each in- 
mate— deducting salaries and family e.\])ense5, 
14 cents. The farm products footed u]) $3,400. 
The City Lioard of Ciinniiissioneis of Chari- 
ties has charge of the Alnishouse, the Hospitals, 
and some other local institutions. 


was incoiporatcd under the general laws of the 
State July 17, 1876. It is e.\clu>ively for chari- 
table purposes, and is maintanied by jirivate con- 
tributions. From 3 to 4 P. M. every day it is 
open. I)r. Dudley S. Reynolds is in charge of 
the Infirmary. 

THF: PROTLsl axt kpiscof.\l okph.^x .vsvlum.* 
This institution was organized October 6, 1S35. 
It was the first Protestant orphan as\lum estab- 
lished in this city, and was the result ot the 
active and [.)ersevermg effmts of a few earnest 
ladies, who were members of Christ church, tlie 
only Protestant Episcopal chinch then existing 
in Louisville. The necessity for some such 
home for the care and protection of destitute 
children, thrown upon the cold charities of the 
world by the death of their parents, was mani- 
fest, and these noble ladies worked zealously and 
faithfully to accomplish this object. They agi- 
tated the question by calling meetings for this 
purpose, which resulted in the formation of a 
constitution and by-laws, and the election of the 
following officers for the ensuing year : First 
Directress, Mrs. Eliza Field ; Second Directress, 
Mrs. Sarah Thompson ; Secretary, Mrs. Eliza O. 
Page; Treasurer, Mrs. Mary O. Gray. Man- 
agers—Mrs. Eliza Field, Mrs. Sarah Thompson, 
Mrs. Mary O. Gray, .Mrs. Eliza O. Page, Mrs. E. 
Shallcross, Mrs. C. Mcllvaine, Mrs. E. Arm- 
strong, Mrs. M. A. Snead, Mrs. E. M. T. Gray, 
Mrs. Captain Shieve, Mrs. Selina Hite, Mrs. J. 
P. Bull. 

The managers rented a small house on Market 
street, between Ninth and Tenth streets, on a 
very modest scale, having the care of only six 
orphan children. P-ut it gradually grew into 
importance, receiving the support and assistance 

•by Mr. R. .A. R.j 

jf >t. I'aui'schi 

of the menihers of other denominations, and of 
benevolent persons outside of the churches. 
The value of this insiiiuti.m being impressed 
upon the mind of the late John P.ustard, then a 
member of St. Paul's F-piscopal church, he, by 
will, bequeathed to the trustees, for its benefit, as 
an endowment l"und, tlie sum of $10,000 and a 
lot on P'i.fth street south of Chestnut, sixty feet 
(ront, and running back to Centre street, the 
same width. Adjoining this lot, thetiustees pur- 
chased thirty-three feet in addition. and soon after, 
about the year 1S46, erected thereon a large brick 
building, which is still occiqiied by the orj'han 

Since the bequest of Mr. Bustard, the follow- 
ing have been added to tlie endowment fund : 
W. B. Reynolds, $5,000; William F. Pettet, 
$3,000, and H. I). New comb, $7,400. The fol- 
lowing donations have been made: R. A. Robin- 
son, $3,000, and Joseph 'P. Tompkins, fifty shares 
of Louisville & Nashville railroad stock, valued 
at $4,000. These funds have been judiciously 
imested, and now, in a great rnertsure, afford the 
means of su|iport for the institution. 


was established in the year 1S69 in the eastern 
part of the city, on a lot donated for this pur- 
pose by Miss Henrietta Preston Johnston, under 
the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and this institution was devoted exclusively to. 
the care of orphan boys. The Protestant Epis- 
copal Orphan asyluiji has, since that lime, been 
occupied only by orphan girls. 

The board of trustees is composed of five -gen- 
tlemen elected from the leading city parishes of 
the Episcopal Church. The board of managers 
is composed of ladies, also elected from the 
same parishes. The gentlemen take charge of 
the property and the management of the endow- 
ment fund, and the ladies have the care of the 
orphan children, looking to their proper religious 
education, having them taught to read and 
write, and to learn such things as will make 
them, in after life, useful members of society, 
and also seeing to the providing for them of 
proper food and clothing. The number of chil- 
dren varies from thirty-five to i'll'ty, who are under 
the immediate care of a matron, teacher, and 
nurse. The result has been that a large number 

'Aho by .\Ir. kobinsocj. 



of boys and girls linve rcreived relit;ious training 
and been jirovidcd wiili the conifons of life, most 
of them having been saved from Hves of |)enury 
and \Nant, and pos^ihh of vice and shame, en- 
tailing upon the comnuinity their damaging ef- 
fects, whilst some of tliem are adorning the 
higher wilks of life. Tlie establishment of such 
institutions is the result of the benign influence 
of Christianity. Probably in no other way can 
the \s'ealth o( those to whom it has been com- 
mitted, as stewards, be used to greater advantage 
for the cause of humanity and religion tlian by 
contributing to the sujiport and education of 
orphan children, remembering the promise of 
our blessed Saviour: "Inasmucli as ye have 
done it unto one of the least of these, my 
brethren, ye have done it unto mc." 

The board of trustees of the institution of 
which we have gi\en only a brief account, is 
composed, at present, of the following gentle- 
men; Hon. William F. Bullock, President; R. 
A. Robinson, Esq., Secretary and Treasurer; 
and Messrs. John P. Smith, Russell Houston, 
and A. J. Ballard. 

The boaid of managers is now com|iOsed of 
the following ladies : Mrs. R. A. Robinson, 
First Directress; Mrs. S. E. Haggin, Second Di- 
rectress; Mrs. George \\". Anderson, Secretary; 
Mrs. Dr. R. C. Hewett, Mrs. W. H. Churchill, 
Mrs. William A. Robinson, Mrs. John A. Lee, 
Mrs. Belle Lee, Mrs. H. W. Barrett, Mrs. Mar- 
garet Gnswold, Mrs. Isaac H. Tyler, Miss E. J. 
L. Anderson. 


In 1866 a charter was obtained from the 
Legislature for an F.piscopal institution to be 
called the Home of the Innocents, and designed 
in the first instance to piovide a residence for 
the .charitable Sisterhood of the church, the 
Order of Deaconesses. The Rector of each 
Episcopal church in the city, and two lay mem- 
bers from each, were to be the Trustees of the 

In 1872 a large and suitable tract of land was 
conveyed to the Trustees for occupation by this 
charity, and a meeting was called to take steps 
for a building. Not much interest was evoked, 
however, and the project dragged until 1881, 
\\hen a single member of the Church began to 
erect, at his own cost, the central part of a 
spacious edifice to be occupied by the Home, 

relying upon his lellow-churchmen to aid in its 
completion. Dr. Craik sajs, in one of his pub 
lished discourses: 

•U will ('"'^■'i'Jt' ^ sholtcr. a retuge, a home, and a simple 
m.Hiiitenance fur llie devout workers for Chrisl wlio a;k no 
more for their arduous and self-sacrificing l.ibors. There 
they will receive and lesi the quality of all who believe them- 
selvea called to this lowly and yet exalted station. There all 
who can stand this test will he trained for their work to nur- 
ture and care for the orphans, to minister to the sick, to 
visit, relieve, instruct, and help to raise up the poor and neg- 
lected. There, too, will be the much needed, pennaiienl, 
and. with God's biessmg poured out as it has already been 
upon tliis latest of our charities, the happy Home of the In- 
nocents. And there, too, will bean infirmary, where all who 
appreciate the value of skilled ministration by trained nurses, 
ministering not for hire, but as serving Ihe Master, with all 
that soothing and helping elTiciency whicli only cuUi\nted in- 
telligence and love can furnish, will find a salubrious home 
and grateful repose. 


in the city are the Saints ^h^ry and Elizabeth 
Hos])it.Tl of the Sisters of Charity, on Twelfth 
and Magnolia avenue, with twelve sisters in 
charge; St. Joseph's Infnniary, Fourth avenue, 
ten Sisteis of Charity; St. Vincent's Or|j!ian 
.Asylum for girls, twenty Sisters of Charity and 
one hundred and seventj-five orphans, with an 
Infant and Foundling Asylum in connection; 
St. Jose[jh"s German Orphan Asylum, Green 
street, seven Sisters of Notre Dame and one 
hundred orphans; St. Joseph's Protectory for 
Girls, Eighth street, eighteen Sisters of the 
Good Shejiherd, thirty-three "Magdalens," and 
forty-one children; Penitent Asylum for the 
Reformation of Fallen Women, Bank street, 
Sisters of the Good Shepherd, ninety-t'ive peni- 
tents ; Home for the Aged Poor, Tenth street, 
ten Little Sisters of the Poor, one liundred in- 
mates; Home for Young Ladies engaged in busi- 
ness in the city. Sisters of Mercy, Second street. 

We have been favored with the following his- 
torical sketcli of one of the most important of 
these institutions : 

During a visit made by the late Bishop Joseph 
Benedict Flaget, the first Catholic Bishop of 
Louisville, to Europe in 1S35, he was detained 
tor some time at Angers, in France, by a severe 
illness. He here became acquainted with the 
Institute of the Good Shepiierd, and while he 
admired the [lurpose for which it was founded — 
the reformation of fallen girlb and women — he 
was forcibly struck by the unil'otm gaiety and 
cheerfulness exhibited by the members of that 



order ill [icrl'oriniiig :\ task so painful to the re- 
fined fcrlingb ol" nature and so reNolting to tlie 
sentiiiienls ol the world. He o\pres-ed a .wish 
to have a colony of them f'.ir his diocese, where 
many were giving themselves up to the t'renzied 
exeess of inad passions, tluir contamm.iiing in- 
fluence extending itself into every grade of so- 
ciety. ALany of these iinfoitunate ones were not 
devoid of good qualities. Some could look back 
to homes of ease and respectaliility, many of 
them to homes of purity and virtue. Some had 
been plunged into these dejitlis through jioverty, 
others again been dii\en to it because a first fall 
would not be t'oigiven. Instead of being told 
to "sin no niore," the erring one was cast forth 
irreclaimable. And yet it was to one of this 
class, a gteat sinner, that our Lord showed him- 
self especially kind and nurciful, the more so be- 
cause the Pharisees looked on her with cruel, un- 
forgiving scorn. To her he gave pardon. Among 
the biightest of His saints in heaven now stands 
the Magdalen, to whom "much was I'orgiven," 
because, repenting of her sins, she lo\ed much 
and turned to Him in hope and in the t'ull de- 
votion of her sorrowing heart. It was to this 
portion of suffering humanity that the benevolent 
heart of Bishop Flaget inclined with compassion 
and fatherly solicitude. But where was he to 
find those who would second his noble design 
of reformation ? Many indeed sympathized with 
him, but who would open tlieir doors to receive 
one of this class so utterly fallen, so trulv out- 
lawed from every decent home? Who could as- 
sociate with their own I'amilies one whose very 
presence would be an insult, a pollution .' He 
found that he sought in vain for them among 
the philanthropic, but did tlnd what he sought 
in the Order of the (.iood Shepherd, a num- 
ber of ladies who had banded themselves 
together, leaving home and all prosjiects of world- 
ly hapiiiness to devote their lives and all their 
energies to the heroic task of rescuing, of re- 
forming, of saving the fdlen ones of their own 

A colony of these Sifters arrived in Louisville 
December i, 1S42. Much as Bishop Haget was 
gladdened by their arrival, his joy at first was 
mingled with regret, as he had notexpetted thern 
so soon and had as yet made no arrangement for 
their accommodation; they were furnished uith a 
temporary abode for nine months and were much 

indebted to the Sisteis of Loretto during this 

In the sjiring of 1S43 P.ishop Chabiat com- 
menced the erection of a house for their recep- 
tion, uhiili they took possession of September 
S, i!s-i3. The building was situated on Eighth 
and Madison streets. It consisted ot a three- 
story brick house for the use of the Sisters, and 
a similar building sepiarated by a garden for the 
reception of the penitents or fallen girls and 
women. Here the Sisters entered into a life of 
poverty and suffering; they had not the necessary 
conveniences tor house-keeping, and ot'ten not 
even the necessaries of life. They immediately 
opened their door to receive with outstretched 
arms those who tied from their accursed haunts 
to seek an asylum, a home of repientance, where 
they could atcjne I'or jiast follies, listen to words 
whi( h they had not l^eard since last they listened 
to the sweet accents of their mother. 

These poor frail ones are generally ignorant of 
any useful occupiation, and the first care of the 
Sisters is to teach them whatever sjiecies of em- 
ployment the) seem suitable for. This task is 
accomplished with much trouble, but that their 
efforts are at length successlul, the tasteful nee- 
dlework done in all the houses of the institution 
is a suflicient proof. 

In 1S66 the State committed to the care of 
the Sisters those who were convicted and sen- 
tenced I'or detention for a certain period of time. 
The house on Eighth and Madison not being 
sufficiently large to accommodate them, a tract 
of land was purchased at Twenty-third and Bank 
streets, and a building erected there, and the 
prisoners transferred thereto. In 1873 the State 
wiihilrew the prisoners from the care of the Sis- 
ters; the voluntary penitents or those confided 
to the Sisters by p.ircnts or guardians were re- 
moved friim the house on Eighth street to Bank 
street. Not being able to obtain a sufficient 
quantity of needlework to supp(jrt the inmates, 
a laundry was opened, where the penitents are 
employed under the vigilant care of the Sisters. 
At the present time there are ninety penitents in 
the asylum. 

Besides receiving the fallen ones, and aiding 
them to escape from the thraldom of sm and 
shame, the Sisters of the Good Sliepherd have 
likewise a cla^s of preservation. In this are 
gathered young girls, mostly of the poorer elass. 



who are in danger of falling lliroiigh giddiness of 
youth, through waywaidncss of character, or 
through the special circuiustances that surround 
them. Such girls find here the safety and pro- 
tection which they neeii, with the 
elements of a pl.iin education and habits of 
industry and order. So preserved, they may go 
, forth at tlie i)ro[)er time, unuained and prepared | 
for the duties of life in whatever sphere Provi- 
dence may [.lace them. ■ I 
The Sisters have also another class or depart- | 
nient, which may piroperly be called a class of ! 
perseverance. There are some who are rck.ctant 1 
to leave a home so sweet to them, keenly shrink- 
ing from any renewed contact with scenes of sor- ] 
row or danger, ask the privilege of being ]jer- 1 
mitted to remain there their life-long in jirayer, 
penitence, and labor. Like Magdalen, their 
hear-ts lead them to stand by the cross and visit 
the tomb of their Saviour; th.ey live under a rule 
and are called Magdalens. 

Gentleness is the means used to accomplish 
the work of reformation ; they are treated as 
children and called such by the religious, whom ; 
in return they address by the loving and confi- ■ 
dence-inspiring name of mother. I 

In 1869 four houses of th.e comparatively re- ! 
cent order of the Little Sisters of the Poor were \ 
opened in the United States. Three of these • 
were at Baltimore, St. Louis, and Philadelphia; 
the fourth in Louisville. Establishments of the \ 
kind had only existed previously in this country ' 
in Brooklyn, Cincinnati, and New Orleans. In 
1870 four other houses of the order were planted \ 
in the New World, and they are now somewhat ] 
numerous. I 


This originated in the practical benevolence 
of Professor J. Lawrence Smith and his wife, 
daughter of the late Hon. James Ciuthrie. .Mrs. 
Smith made a present of the grounds where it is , 
located, at the corner of First and St. Catherine ' 
streets, and promised $5,000 more if an addi- : 
tional $20, 000 should be raised. This was ra[i- ; 
idly done, Mrs. Smith's sisters contributing liber- 1 
ally, and the building was put up and eom|jleted 
without making a det)t. The int'irmary or ho--- | 
pita! attached to it was paid for by the Young 
Ladies' Society of the Br .adway P.iptist church. 
An average of tit'iy inmates is usually in the : 

Home, which costs about $6,000 a )ear, its cur- 
rent expenses being provided for by voluntaiy 
contributinns. There is a school-room, of course; 
and the children are- aLo taught the various 
branches of household economy. For soir.e 
time the matron and assistant teacher conduc ted 
an excellent little monthly called The Orphans' 


This, often known as " liethesda,'' is situated 
near Cave Hill Cemetery, on New Ijroadway. It 
was founded on the 20th of .\ugU3t in the year 
1S72, having been incorporated the ^ist of the 
previous May. The incorporators were 1. T. 
liurghard, Joseph Seigel, A. Hetirich, John J. 
Buechler, ])r. A. \Vagenitz, John Horn, \V. 
LUiich, Charles Ulrich, Paulina Schone, .Magda- 
lena Weimar. The Home was first opened in a 
temporary building at 234 Clay street, between 
Jefferson and Green, in charge of Mrs. M. Wei- 
mar as matron. Mr. Burgh.rrd was chosen by 
the board as its first president, Joseph Seigel 
trea->urer. Rev. .■\.. Henrich secretary. On the 
16th of October, 1874, John F. Dohrmann and 
wife took charge of the Plome. The present 
new institution, comprising nearly t'our acres of 
ground, with buildings, was bought and soon 
after removed into. Seventy-eight children have 
been taken into 'the Plome since it was opened 
upto 1SS2. The institution has been carried on 
in faith and trust on the promises of God, and 
is sustained by free donations solely from all over 
the States. The present number of children in 
the Plome is thirty. It is officered as follows: 
Joseph Seigel, president; J. 'P. Burghaid, 'treas- 
urer; John V. Dohrmann, superintendent and 

There are numerous' denominational and other 
charities in the city — most of them of less im- 
portance than those noticed — whose history we 
are unable to include in this chapter, and from 
which, indeed, no returns have been received in 
answer to our request for information. 





ACkiio«lcJi;ii,.-nt t.. Colorirl DurrLlt'i Hi^lorital Skclclios— 
Tlie Pioneer Scliool-houses ^A Tale Told out of School — 
Jfffcrson yeminnry — The City Free Schools — The Free 
System .Abolished — The First Public School -house — 
Louisville College —The Common Schools .Ag:iia — Their 
Status in 1840— Schools Cndcr the City CInrter of 
1851 — New Scliool-hou^e>; to this Day — Progress under 
the First Roard of Education — The Normal School — 
The Colored Schools— The High Schools— The Girls' 
High School — Piesent -Status of Organization and Offi- 
cers of the Schools — The University of Louisville — Biog- 
raphy of Noble P>ui!er — Pergonal Sketches; Superin- 
tendent Tingleyand Others. 

The materials of this chapter have necessarily 
been drawn largely from llie excellent sketches oi 
Colonel R. T. Durrett, as published in several 
numbers of the Courier-Journal in January, iSSi. 
No one else has treated the subject with equal 
fullness and intelligence, or furnished so copious 
a storehouse of materials to the historian of [mb- 
lic education in Louisville. 


In the piiimitive Louisville, as in the interior, 
the log-cabin su|ii)lied tlie first rude colleges of 
the people. .-\t the time Jefferson Seminary was 
opened, in 1S16, a number of these structures 
still remained m occupation and full use. They 
were generally about si.xleen I'eet square, with 
puncheon Hour and roof of boards. Onl) tlie 
most elementary branches of education were 
taught in them. One such school building stood 
on Sixth street, between Market and Jefferson, 
and was occupied for a time by a Mr. New; an- 
other at the corner ot Sixth and .Market, associa- 
ted somewhat with the instructions of Mr. Lang- 
don; one more at Seventh and .Market, where .Mr. 
Dickinson taught; and still others at various con- 
venient points in the little place. In these a tu- 
ition fee of $:;.50 per "quarter" was ch.Trged. 
Rev. Mr. Todd had a higher-priced select school 
in a small brick building on .Nfarket street, be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth. This street, it may be 
remarked in passing, seems in the early day to 
have been associated with the supply of food for 
the mind, quite as much as with provision for 
the body. 


Colonel Durrett has a good story to tell of the 
olden time; 

On the aS'.h of Apnl, 1809. th.-; lirst sho.v, as the boys 

called it. occurred in Louisville. It was the exhibition of an 
I elepliaut. and ilieic \ias a general uprising in all tlie scliuols 
j for a holiday. The Jefferson Seminary and the schools at 
the head of vyhich were teachers with the li:\bit5 of 
I ■ the place, gave the boys holidays without trouble ; but 
there was a New Ii^ngland teacher, recently come to the 
' charge of one of tlie log school-houses, who could not un- 
deibt.ind why the lioys were to tje permitted to kiy aside their 
i books a whole day to see an elephant. He would not grant 
the holida; asked, and the boys went to work in the usual 
way to make him yield. On the morning of the 28th the 
Yankee teacher, as they called him. came to his school house 
and found the door well barred with benches, fence-rails, and 
logs of wood, and the b'ovs all inside laughing at his futile 
attempts to get in. They promptly told him the terms upon 
which the fort would be surrendered, which were simply to 
give them that day as a holiday so they could go to see the 
elephant. The teacher was indignant, and, not heing able 
to get through the do jr. climbed upon the roof and attempted 
to descend the chimney. For this emergency the boys had 
prepared a pile of dry leaves, and when the teacher's l.-gs ap- 
peared at the top of the chimney the leaves were lighted in 
the hre-[)lace, iJown came the teacher, for having once 
started he could not go back, and the flames scorched him 
and the smoke smothered him .so that he was the powerless 
autocrat of the school and knight ol the ferule. He gave 
the holid.iy and went home to lav up for lepairs, as the boys 
expressed it, and the boys went to the show as if nobody had 
been either burnt or smoked. 


It is an interesting fact that the first public 
t'oundation iiro\ided for education in any West- 
ern city, was made in Louis\ille, by the Ken- 
tucky Legislature, and nearly eighty-five years 
ago. On tlie lotli of February, 179S, a tract of 
si.x thousand acres of the lands of the State was 
granted to John Thompson, William Croghan, 
.Alexander S. Bullitt, James Merriwether, John 
Hunton, Henry Churchill, William Taylor, and 
Richard C. .Anderson, intrust for the founding of 
a seminary in Louisville, to take the name then 
so p'jpular, and still frequently recurring about 
the Falls of the Ohio, of Jefferson. December 
7th of the same year, another act authorized the 
raising of $5,000 by lottery as a further pecuni- 
ary foundation for the school. But nothing 
further was accomplished until iSoo, and then 
rather a step backward, in the formation of a 
cumbrous Trustee Board of sixteen, doubling its 
number by the addition to the old board of 
Abraham Hite, James F. Moore, John Speed, 
Samuel Oldham, Robert Breckinridge, Gabriel 
J. Johnston, Fortunatus Cosby, and Abner 
Fields. So much time was wasted in the dis- 
agreement of this body concerning the location 
of the seminary that the close of 1804 arrived 
and t'ound no real [irogress. The Legislature 



renewed the grant and appointed a new board 
of twelve, but containing all the old members ex- 
cept Crof;han, Thompson, Merriwethcr, Hunton, 
Taylor, Moore, Speed, and Cosby, in whose 
stead Jonathan Taylor, J(_ihn Bates, Thomas 
IJarboiir, and David L. Ward were appointed. 
'I'hey v.-ere authorized to s.-ll one-half the land- 
grant, and apply the jirocecds to build a school- 
house and buy apparatus and a librar). Quarrels 
over location still retarded the erection of the 
seminary, and iSoS arrived without definite ac- 
tion. Af;ain the Legislature intervened by the 
appointment of a fourth Hoard of Trustees of 
ten members, with ample corporate powers, but 
unfortunately made up altogether of the old 
malcontents, save only one new member, Dr. 
James Ferguson. So tb.c noble project, that 
promised so much for the rising town, was kept 
in the drag for five years longer; until finall)-, 
July 2, 1S13, more than fifteen years after the 
grant was made, a partial beginning was instituted 
by the purchase from Colonel R. C. Anderson 
of a site of two and one-half acres on the west 
side of Eighth street, between \\'alnut and 
Green. It cost but $700, and another quarter- 
acre, presently bought, but $100. A brick build- 
ing was put up fronting Grayson street, a story 
and a half high, with two good-sized school- 
rooms on the ground floor; but so slowly were 
the preliminary arrangements made and the con- 
struction proceeded with, that pupils were not 
received into the seminary until iSi6. An ex- 
cellent Principal, Professor Mann Butler, after- 
wards an historian of Kentucky, was secured, at 
a salary of $600 a year, with Reuben Murray 
and William Tompkins as assistants, at $500. 
A number of the higher branches were taught, 
and the tuition fee was $20 per six-months ses- 
sion. Forty to fifty pupils attended at its open- 

Meanwhile location had been made of the six- 
thousand-acre land-grant in Union county. The 
trustees were authorized by the Legislature in 
1817 to lay ofT a town-site upon the tract, and 
did so with golden expectations; but the scheme 
did not catch the public eye, few lots were sold, 
and three years later (1820) the sale of the land 
at public vendue was authorized, after due ad- 
vertisement for one month. The next )ear 
legislative provision was made tar the gradual re- 
duction of the Board of Trustees, as terms of 

office expired, to seven members. In iSsSthe 
County Court was autlioii/ed to aiii)oiat a 
Board of nine, but again a year brouglit a change, 
reducing the number to seven. 

B)' this time the seminary had been in suc- 
cessful o]jeration thirteen years, and many cf the 
older citizens of Louisville have reason to re- 
member It with gratitude and affection, -princi- 
pal ]'.utler being drafted from the scmiiL^ry this 
year, to take charge of the first city school, a 
movement was made by the trustees to constitute 
the seminary aLo a city institution. Accord- 
ingly, September 30, 1S30, an act of Legislature 
was [)assed, directing them to convey one-half 
the property to the city fijr a high school. The 
building and two and three-fourths acres of 
ground were transferred in pursuance of this law; 
and upon this foundation Louisville College, so 
called, was established. In 1S45 '^^ seminary 
building and its lot were conveyed to AV'illiam 
Begg for $2,4.84, and in 1853 they became the 
property of St. Joseph's (Catholic) Orphan Asy- 
lum. The identity of the old edifice was forever 
lost, but it still forms the major part of the 
modernized, two-story structure that marks the 
historic spot. The receipils for the seminary 
property went into the fund for the erection of 
the Boys' High School on Chestnut, near Ninth. 
Vale, honored old Jefferson! 


Jefferson Seminary was rather a State than a 
local institution, so far as its foundation and care 
were concerned; though its pupils were almost 
exclusively of Louisville families. Nothing was 
done here to provide a system of public primary 
and free education until nearly half a century 
from the erection of the municipality had passed. 
When Louisville became a city, under the charter 
of February 13, 1S23, a section of that instrument 
piovided that "the mayor and councilmen shall 
have power and authority to establish one or 
more free schools in each ward of said city, and 
may secure donations of real and personal estate 
to erect the necessary buildings and to provide 
the necessary means for their maintenance, and 
may supply the funds from Ume to time by a tax 
on the ward where such school or schools shall 
be established.'' 

It will be observed that this provision contem- 
plated the building of school-houses by private 


benefactions, and the sui)port of schools by taxa- 
tion in districts, instead of, as now, levying a tax 
for both purposes uponthe property of the city 
at large. Schools of the popular character indi- 
cated had as yet \ery little hold upon the I 
wealthier classes in this region ; and, as might 
easily be supposed, the liberal clause of the 
charter was a dormant thing for years. Early 
in 1829, however, Mayor Kucklin called the at- 
tention of the city council to it, and suggested in 
his annual message " the adoption of some well- 
digested system for establishing a permanent 
free school." April 24th next following, an ordi- 
nance was passed establishing such public school, i 
on the monitorial or Lancasterian plan then 
much in vogue, and free to all white children of 
the city from six to fourteen years old. Teach- 
ers were to be employed — a Principal at $750 
per year, and assistants at $400, whose appoint- 
ment by the trustees should be laid before the 
council for confirmation or rejection. 

The first board of tiustees under the charter 
was composed of Messrs. James Guthrie, John 
P. Harrison, William Sale, Jaines H. Overstreet, 
Fortunatus Cosby, Jr., and Samuel Dickinson. 
They elected Professor Mann Butler Principal, 
and voted him $150 for expenses of a visit to 
New York, Boston, and other cities, to inquire 
into the workings of the monitorial system. He 
returned in August, and reported in its favor. 
The upper story of the old Baptist church at 
Fifth and Green was rented tor a year, and a free 
school opened August 17, 1S29, with Edward 
Baker as assistant to Principal Butler. The 
place was soon crowded with two hundred and 
fifty pupils, and many had to be refused admis- 
sion. A dozen or more monitors, under the eye 
of their Principals, instructed them in English 
branches, including rhetoric, history, linear draw- 
ing, algebra, and trigonometry, presenting a busy 
and doubtless noisy scene. 


The first school in charge of the city authori- 
ties was an absolutely t'ree school, so far as tuition 
fees went. This feature lasted but a year, however, 
when, on the 20th of August, 1830, the City 
Council, instigated thereto by grumbling tax- 
payers, passed an ordinance fixing the cost o( 
tuition in the primary department of the public 
school at $1 per quarter, and $1.50 in cither of 
the other two departments. In the ni^ht school 

provided for at the same time by another ordi- 
nance, $2 were to he charged per tenn of U>ux 
months. Tuition might be remitted, however, 
in the case of indigent parents. Three depart- 
ments were founded by the other law — jjrimary, 
fennle, and grammar schools, salaries of princi- 
pals to be $600 ])er year in the two former, and 
$700 in the last. Night-school teachers had $30 
a month. Mr. llutler was retained as Princi]ial 
of the Grammar l^ei-iartment; the Rev. Daniel 
C. Banks took the Girls' School in charge, and 
Mr. Alexander Ewell the Primary. 


had meanwhile been erected, u|}0ii a site at the 
southwest corner of Walnut and I'll'ih streets, 
which had been bought of James Guthrie and 
Edward Shippen, for $2,100. In 1829-30 the 
building was-put up, at a cost of about $7,500. 
It was of brick, three stories liigh, forty feet on 
Fifth by ninety-four on Walnut street, with the 
lower story of the front (on Walnut) consisting 
of lour heavy Ijrick pillars, connected by arches 
and surmounted with stuccoed columns reaching 
to a heavy cornice at the roof It made a quite 
imposing front, and the building was doubtless, 
in Mr. Casseday's words, "an extremely credita- 
ble ornament to the city." The seating capacity 
of each floor — one for each department — was 
about two hundred and fifty pupils. 

This building was put up, says Timothy Flint, 
in his History and Geography of the Mississippi 
Yalley, in order to serve as "a kind of model 
school for a general system of free schools.'' Mr. 
Flint calls it "a noble edifice, taking into view 
its object." 

In this pioneer public school-house the new 
school opened, under the Principals aforesaid, 
on the first Monday in September, 1S30. Its 
cost the first year uas $5,682, and three hundred 
and eighty pupils were enrolled, so that the 
building was I'ar from lull. Colonel Durrett 

Thev were required by the rules of ihe school lo be at their 
books Irom 8 o clock in the mornin;; until 12 o clock, and 
from 2 o'clock to 6 o'clock in the afternoon from .-Xpril to 
October, and from g o'clock in the morning until 12 o'clock, 
and from 2 o'clock until 4-50 in the afternoon from October to 
.April. The holidays were e\er)- Saturday and Sund.iy; one 
week from Christmas to 2d. the Fourth of July and 
Easttr-day; and the vacition f.uir \\eeks from .\ugu3t 
1st to September ist. No catectiibm was allowed in the 
school and no form of religious belief permitted to beinstiUcd 
into the pupiU. fhe school-books Used have long since gone 



out of date, but it will l)C interesting to the tcaclicrs and 
pvipilf. of oui day to know what were then used. The follow- 
ing is tiie list copied from a pamphlet account of the school, 
printed by Norwood S: Palmer in 1S30; 

"Grammar department — First, reading, American first 
class-book and National reader; Second, spcliin;, Wa.lkers 
dictionary, abridged^ Third, h>tgiish grammar, Kirkham's 
last edition; Fourth, rhetoric, Hlair's lectures, .abridged; 
i'lfth. comjiosition and dictation, red book ; Sixth, geog- 
rajihy, ancient and modern, Woodhridge or Worcester; 
Seventh, verbal and ^\riitcn arithmetic, Colburn's; Eighth, 
book-keeping; Ninth, declamation; Tenth, Whclplev's Com- 
pend of History, linear drawing, mathematics, as faras plane 
and spherical trigonometry and algebra. 

Female department — Cards fnr alphabet, spelhnj; and easy 
reading, Fowle's spelling book, Blair's reading e,\crci=es, in- 
troductory to National reader; National reader and .Ameri- 
can first class book ; W'.alker's dictionary. Smith's edition ; 
arithmetic. Colbunt's first lessons and sequel ; Biair's lectures 
on rhetoric, abridged Worcester's edition; geogmphy, Par- 
ley's first lessons, and Woodbridge ; Kirkham's grammar, 
last edition; writing. 

Piimary department — .Alphal.'^t. spelling, reading, writing, 
and arithmetic as far as practicable." 


The act of 1S30, for the conveyance of one- 
h.ilf the property of JelTerson Seminary to the 
city, was "for the purpose of purchasing a suit- 
able lot and erecting a suitable building for a 
High School in the city of Louisville, which 
Hif;h School shall be open for the children of 
the citizens of Louisville, and for the children of 
all those who shall contribute to the taxes of said 
city, and may be supported out of the ta.xes of 
said city or from the joint aid of the taxes and 
tuition fees of the schools." The transfer was 
not regularly made for fourteen years, or until 
April 7, i8.}4 ; but by agreement of the city au- 
thorities and the Trustees of the Scr.iinary, the 
building and a sufticient tract abo'.it it became 
the property of the city, and an academic school 
was organized in it under the ambitious name of 
Louisville College, with the following Faculty : 
Rev. B. F. Farnsworth, President and Professor 
of Intelleciuat and Moral Philosoiihy and Politi- 
cal Economy ; John H. Harney, Professor of 
Mathematics, Natural Science, and Civil Engi- 
neering; James Brown, of Greek and Latin 
Languages and Literature, and Leonard Bliss, of 
Belles Lettres and History. Mr. Farnsworth was 
appointed tutor in the Preparatory Deixinment, 
and two professors' chairs, that of Modern Lan- 
guages, and that of the History and Science of 
Commerce, Manufactures, Agriculture, and Me- 
chanical Arts, were not filled. 

.•\n annual appropriation of $j,ooo was made 

for it, which, with the ttiition, was expected to be 
suKicicnt lor its maintenance. 

There were scvemy pupils in the College the 
fiist year. At thi., time seven free schools were 
also in existence — four for boys, taught respective- 
ly by Nfessrs. 1). M. Gazley, S. ^L Latimer, 
Joseph Toy, and Elijah Hyde, and three for girls, 
tauglit by Lucy Rogers, Lydia Rogers, and H. 
Cutler, with an assistant in each school. Samuel 
Dickinson was "School .\gent" or Superintcnd- 
I ent, with a salary of $Soo. Mr. Gazley, of the 
I grammar school, was paid $900 ; the others, 
I ladies and gentlemen alike — a very good sign for 
the period — received $750, except the assistants. 
■ Tuition was $1.50 per quarter, $2 in the gram- 
mar school. The number of pupils was some- 
thing over one thousand. 

The "College" had a moderately successful 
existence of a decade, and then, in 1840, was 
regularly chartered. The corps of instruction 
was now thus organized : John H. Harney, Pres- 
ident and Professor of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosojihy; Noble ]5utler (recently deceased, 
after nearly a halt-century's pedagogic service), 
Pio.'"essor of Ancient Languages ; William H. 
Newton, Professor of Moral Philosophy, Rheto- 
ric, etc.; and L. Lewinski, Professor of French 
Language, etc. 

In the same yeai Mr. James Harrison, the 
veteran Louisville native to whom we have so 
often alluded, carried a measure through the City 
Council for the fiee tuition in the College of 
thirty pupils, to be selected by competition from 
the grammar-schools of the city. A singular 
misunderstanding resulted from this well-nieant 
scheme, which Colonel Durrett thus describes : 

Some dit^culty afterward arose as to the paving of the 
tuition fees of these free pupils, and in December, 1842, the 
treasurer of the college presented his bill to the city fur 5200 
for one quarter's tuition, which was razeed down to S133 _;3S. 
but finally paid the folluwiiig March in ciiy sciipt at the rate 
of sqo per year for each pupil. 

I!y a provision in the charter of the University 
of Lnuisville in 1S46, the College was made the 
academical part of trie University, so that, to 
this extent, the latter was the lineal representa- 
tive of the old J..fferi(in Seminary. The history 
of this department will be further noticed here- 
after in this chajiter. 


A\ hen Louisville College was incorporated, 
fourteen other [jublic schools were going in the 



city. Two additional buildinqs had been opsned 
in 1S36, on Jefferson, between Floyd and Pres- 
ton, and at Grayson and Tenth. Eacii school in 
thcin was divided into bojs' . and girls' depart- 
ments. In the former Mr. S. R. Lntimef and 
Mrs. M. Cutter were ]irincipals; in the latter Mr. 
J. G. Evans and Miss Lucy W. Rogers. The 
next year a primary was started in Portland, in a 
hired room, and the next another near Fergu- 
son's saw-mill. Ly 1S40 three mor,- of the kind 
had been opened — at Green and Eleventh, Wal- 
nut and First, and on Preston. Colonel Durrett 
furnishes the following table of the schools and 
teachers of 1840 : 

-Kind of 

Primary-. . 

Primary. . 






Primary. . 



Primar}'. . 
Primary. . 
Ni5ht. ... 


Green and ii^lcventh 

Tentli, beiween Walnut and 


Tenth, between Walnut and 


Walnut and Fifth.. . 
Wa.nut and Fifth... 

Walnut and Fifth 

Walnut and Fifth 

\\'alnut and First 

Jefi'eison, between Floyd and 


lefferson, between Floyd and 


Preston street 

Ferguson's -Mill 

Walnut and Fiftli. . 

Names of Teachers. 

A. Lincoln and 
Mary Hoyt. 
Mary Gillii^han. 

S. \\', BurlinjThame. 

J. H. Fairchild. 
'ames McBurnie, 
.Martha Wilder. 
Susan Lurton. 
Virginia Corlett. 
.Miss F'. D. Lecompt. 

William Ruter. 

5. Moreii. 
E. Priest. 
James Mintcr. 
s McTjumie. 

The total attendance in these schools was 
1,297 j average, 94,S. The Grammar-school 
Principal at Fifth -and Walnut received $900 a 
year ; the School Agent $800 ; all other Princi- 
pals $750, and assistants $400. 

May 27th of this year, the monitorial system 
and tuition fees were abolished by the Council, 
from the ist of September following. In some 
cases, also, books were supplied to poor pupils 
at .the cost of the city. Primary schools con- 
tinued to be opened from year to year, in differ- 
ent parts of the city, as needed ; and in 1S45 
fifteen primary and five grammar departments 
were open, with an aggregate attendance of 1,750 
and average of 1,375. Teachers now wtre ; In 
the grammar schools, Messrs. R. Morecraft, J. 
McBurnie, and J. M. Lincoln, and Miss Rodg- 
ers and Mrs. R. Low ; in the primary, G. D. 
Hooper, H. Murphy, J. Toy, G. \V. West, R. T. 
Cosby, F. Seidt, H. A. Beach, J. Beaman, H. 
Storts, B. Lloyd, J. Rhodes, J. Chapin, Misses 
E, Harrison, M. Lecompt, and Gilligan. Three 

: new primary schools were added within the next 

five years. 
; Colonel Durrett gives the following sketch of 

educational affairs in the city in 1S50: 

The schools then opened at 3 o'clock in the morning from 
.^piil to October, and at 9 the balance of the year. No pupil 
was admitted who liad not been vaccinated, and tlie teachers 
were allowed to inflict corporal punishment when nothing 
milder would do. School was opcne.d in the morning by 
reading a [>ortion of Scripture, and the female schools always 
c!o:^cd with singing. In the female departments every 
I Wednesday afternoon was devoted to music and sewing. 

i SCIlOOt, FlOOfCS IN 1850. 

In the grammar schools the following books and exercises 
were required: Writing; reading, with definitions, Good- 
rich's, new series of readers; grammar. Butler's: spelling; 
arithmetic. Colburn's mental and Davies' written; geography, 
Mitchell's; composition; elements of geometry; book-keep- 
ing, by single and double entry; history, Goodrich's primary 
scries; n;!tural philosophy; algebra, Harney's; geometry. 

In the primary schools the pupils were e.vpected to be pre- 
pared to enter the grammar. A printed copy of the rules 
and regulations of the schools at this time gives the follow- 
ing as the qualification of pupils who had passed through the 
primarj- schools and were ready for the grammar: "They 
must be able to spell and define readily andcorrectly; to read 
in Goodrich's Fourth Reader fluently and understandmgly, 
and to write a fair hand. They must be acquainted with 
the stops and marks and their use in reading; with the Ro- 
man numerals and common abbre\iations; with the multipli- 
cation table and all the tables of weights and measures. 
They must understand perfectly Colburn's Mental .-Arithmetic 
through the tenth section, and in practical arithmetic must 
have a thorough knowledge of numeration, addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication, and division. In geography they 
must be familiar with Mitchell's as far as through the ques- 
tions on the map of the L'nited States. " 


referring, in part, to the Louisville College, which 
had been merged in the University of Louisville, 
provided that " no fees for tuition shall ever be 
charged in said academical department of-said 
University, in said High School for females, or 
in said public schools of Louisville." The free 
principle in education was thus again recognized 
and prescribed in important legislation. This 
charter furthermore, in Colonel Durrett's abridg- 
ment of its terms, placed the property of the 
public schools and their nianagcmen: in two 
trustees fiom each ward in the city, to be elected 
by the qualified voters of their respective wards, 
and provided that all free white children over 
six years of age should have equal rights of ad- 
mission in the schools. It required the opening 
I of the academical department of the university 
j in the building on the Univer^^ity square, which 
] had been erected with the money arising from 
the sale of the old seminary property, the erect- 



iiii; of school-houses in wnij in tlie city, 
and in 1852 the establishment of n female high 
school in a central pait of the city. To maugu- 
Tate and maintain the pnblic schools thus re- 
(juired, the chaiti-r authori/ed the levying of a 
tax of not less than twelve and a halt', nor more 
than twenty five cents on each hundred dollars' 
worth of property assessed in the city, and ap- 
])ro]iriated the city's piortion of the State school 
Amd, and all tines and forfeitures in the city 
courts, and all esc heats of property in the city. 
And in addition to the funds that might arise 
from these sources, the city counril was author- 
ized to piledge the credit of the city to the 
amount of $75,000 to enable the trustees to 
secuie tlie necessary school-houses and inaugu 
rate the free school sjstcm piovided for b}' the 


In this year John H. Harney, formerly Presi- 
dent of the College, was President of the Board 
of Education, and Gabriel Johnston, Secretary. 
The school fund from. nil sources amounted in May 
to $16,502.53, and it was estmiated that $75,- 
000 would be needed for new school houses in 
the several wards, as required by the charter, and 
$30,000 (reduced in July to $22,000), for cur- 
rent expenses of the schools. The old property 
at Fifth and Walnut, including the first of the 
public school-houses, was cut up into three par- 
cels and sold for $it, 610.75, '""'J tliree other 
properties for about $10,000 in all. Bonds to 
the atriount of $75,000 weie issued by the city 
January I, 1853; and from all sources $107,- 
506.85 were realized, with which three three- 
story brick buildings, 61 X69 feet, were erected 
in 1852, in the Second, Fifth, and Tenth wards; 
two more of similar height, but 60 x 93, the next 
year, in the Fourth and Ninth wards^ with two 
two-story brick buildings, 46 x 59, in Montgom- 
ery street and in Portland, and a one-story brick, 
25x44, in Shippingport. Colonel Durrett thus 
continues the annals of local school-house con- 

In 1B57 a three-story brick, 60 x 90, was erected in the 
^vcnth ward, on the ccirner of Fifth and York streets: in 
1845 a three-story brick, 63x80, was erected on Duncan 
^T'-et; in iS66 two brick buildings, 64x81, three stories 
*: Sh. one in the First w.ird. on Cabell street, and the other 
■n the 1 hird ward, on Broadway; in 1867 one three-story 
"rick. 54 X 37, on the corner of Midison and Seventeenth 
"r'-ets; in i863a four-story brick, 66\ 77. on the comer of 
"•ilnut and Ceiuer; in 1070 one-story brick, 30 x 50, on Ful- 

tor, street, and a three-story brick, 5] x6o, on Gray street, 
betuccn First and Second; in iS;i a three-story brick, 
54 X 87, on Main, bef.vocn Jackson and }Iancock, and an- 
other, 54 X 32, on the corner of Kentucky and Seventeenth 
streets; in 1872 a one-story wooden buildmg^, 20x41, in Ger- 
m.Tntown; and in 1R73 the present Female High School, 
78 X 146, four stories high, was erected on First, between 
Walnut and Chestnut. School-houses for coiored children 
were afterwards erected, to be hereafter noticed, 

The city raised for these buildings $100,000 
in 185-1, $i2o,oco in 1865, $80,000 in 1S66, 
$100,000 in 1S67, $50,000 in 1869, and $85,000 
in 1S70; total, $610,000. The school-tax grew 
from twelve and one-half cents on the $100 to 
thirty cents. 

In a subsequent paragraph the Colonel brings 
tlie history of new school-houses down as fol- 

In addition to the school-houses heretofore named as hiv- 
ing been built under tlie charier of 1S70, one was erected in 
1S77 on Grayson street, between Twenty-second and Twenty- 
third, and another on Overhill stieet, bet^^■een P-roadwav and 
L'ndeiliill, both first-class brick buildings, three stories high, 
and containing the average number of a dozen school rooms 
each. The Second-ward building was also enlarged this year 
to double its original capacity, and now has twenty-four 
school-rooms, capable of accommodating twelve hundred 


The Colonel furnishes a graphic sketch of the 
growth of the school system in the city under the 
first Board of Education: 

The trustees under the charter of 1831 began with the five 
grammar schools and eighteen primaries inherited from their 
predecessors under the charter of 1828, and ended with four 
intermediate, fourteen district, and four branch schools, most 
of them in large buildings equal to several of those with which 
they started. They began with a registry of 4,303 pupils, 
and closed with 13,393. They began with an annual income, 
fixed by taxation, equal to $3,830.80 from the State, ^nd 
$12,651.73 from the city, making a total of $16,502.53; and 
they closed with $28,520.48 fioni the State and $123,013.75 
from .he city, making a total of $151,539 23. They began 
with forty-three tc.ichers and assistants, to whom was paid 
in the aggregate $16,050; they -ended with two hundred and 
sixty-seven teachers and assistants, who^e annual salaries ag- 
gregated $i64.265.'i7. They began when there were only 
eight wards in the city, having a population of less than 
forty-five thousand; they ended with twelve wards and a pop- 
ulation of over one hundred thousand. During their term 
the teaching of German .and object-teaching were introduced 
into the public schools, and a normal school had a teinporary 


A temporary school for training teachers was 
organized, as just noted, under the charter of 
iS5i,and placed in charge of the well-known 
writer and lecturer on pedagogic topics. Professor 
William N. Haihnan, al'terwatds Prut'essor of 



Physical Scitnce in iho P.oys' Hi;;h School, 
and now at itie head of the Gcnnnn-Ameii- 
can srhovil in Dotniil, Michigan. This earliest 
normal depannient here was not jiiade [icrnia- 
netit; but in 1S70 a fresh report was made to the 
board in favor of such an arm of the work, to be 
opened in a house on Jefferson street, between 
Jackson and Hancock, and to consist of a train- 
ing-school proper, with intermediate and primary 
departments for exercise of the pupil-teachers, 
something after the old monitorial plan. The 
recommendation was adopted, and the school 
opened with, a class of thirty, which by and by in- 
creased to fifty. The supiiily of young teachers 
thus fai exceeding the local demand from year 
to year, the school was closed in 1S7S; but a 
smaller department of the kind, with a single 
teacher, is now maintained in the Girls' High 


The third and last charter adopted for the city 
March 3, 1S70, contains the following section: 

Neither the General Council of the city of Louisville ncr 
Board of Trustees of s.iid schools shall suffer children of the 
African race to become pupils of s.iid scliools with white chil- 
dren, and the s.iid General Council and Board of Trustees 
shall keep as a separate fund the school tax levied by said city 
and paidly persons of the .-^fncnn race within said citv. arid 
shall apply and use said school fund or tax so paid by persons 
of the .-Xfricm race in the education of the children of the Afri- 
can race residing within said city or who pay a school tax in 
said cit) . and such fund to be used alone for the educational 
t>enefit of the children of sa:d .African race. 

September 22 of the same year, Colonel John 
D. Pope, Chairman of the Committee on Col 
ored Schools in the Board of Education, report- 
ed an accumulation of the fund for sucli schools 
in or due the treasury of the Board, to the 
amount of $4,828.85. 'I'he opening of tiiree 
schools for colored children was therefore recom- 
mended — one in the .African Metliodist church 
on Center street, another in the Colored Baptist 
church on Fifth, and a third when a [iroper place 
could be found for it. The measure was adopt- 
ed, and schools were opened accordingly, with 
Susie Adams, E. C. Grece, and .-\da Miller, 
teachers on Fifth street, and Sallie .\dams, M. 
A. Morton, and John Arthur on Center. All 
were colored people, and received, the principals 
$40 a month, first assistants $30, and second as- 
si.-.tants $25. Buildings have since been erected 
for similar schools at Sixth and Kentucky, Breck- 
nridge and Jackson, on .\Iagazine, between Fif- 

teenth and Sixteenth, Lytle and Twenty-eighth, 
and Pocahontas and Elm streets. 

On the 5th of Octoliev, 1S73, the Colored 
High School at the corner of Kentucky and Sixth 
streets was dedicated— the first building of the 
kind in the State. NLiny of the most promi- 
nent citizens of I,ouisville were present on the 
occasion. The building is of brick, in the 
American renaissance style ; three stories, with 
basement ; eleven commodious school-rooms, 
with si.x hundred sittings, and a chapel, 32 by 51 
feet. Its cost was $25,000. 'l"he teachers and 
official visitors are generally selected from the 
colored population. There were now three other 
public colored schools in the city, with about 
one thousand pupils. 

Our authority adds the following statistics and 
other facts: 

The attendance of colored children in these schools the 
first after they were in.auguratcd was 457 ; the second, 
1,093; '^'^ third, 1,234 ; the fourth, 1,487, and so on, gradu- 
ally increasing until they now number 2,077. They are un- 
der the immediate control of the Committee of the Trustees 
on Colored Schools, who each year appoint seven colored 
visitors to assist thein in lookiiig to the interests of the 
schools. The principal of the Central School, corner of 
Sixth and Kentucky streets, gets a salary of $i,o3o ; of the 
Eastern, corner of Breckinridge and Jackson, %t/x> ; of the 
Western, on Magazine, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth, 
$900. Teachers of the first grade get 5500, second class as- 
sistants $450, third class S400, and fourth class $310. Dur- 
ing the last year J. M. Maxwell was Frincipal of the Central 
School, ). M. Ferguson of the Eastern, W. T. Peyton of the 
Western, K. E. Wood of the Lyile-street, and Mrs. J. 
.■\rthur of the Pocahontas-slreet school, all of them colored 
te.ichers. The houses which have been erected for these 
schools are m every respect equal to those built for the white 
schools, and they are given as good teachers of their own 
race and as ample facilities for acquiring an education as can 
be afforded. While the amount raised by taxation from 
colored people in the State was only jr,44o.Qo at the last re- 
port, the amount expended by the Trustees lor colored 
schools in the city was $17,183.30 for the payment of their 
teachers only. 

The establishment of these schools in 1870 is 
held to put the finishing touch to the system of 
free public education in the city of Louisville. 


The Male and Female High Schools were both 
opened to students April 7, 1856. Prof J. C. 
Spencer, of New York, was engaged as Principal 
of the latter, with Miss Laura Lucas as Assistant. 
He took charge in September of the same year, 
when Mr. M. W. Harney became teacher of 
ancient languages, and V\' . N. Hailman of the 
modern tongues. Subsequently Prof William 


1'. llL-ai'-li was rrincipnl rind teacher of niaihe- 

At tlie opening of the high schools, siNty girls, 
nil fruai the female grammar-schools, entered the 
one, and forty-two boys, lil:c\vise from the gram- 
mar schools, became members of the other. 

There were this year 91 teachers — 27 males, 
64 females — in the puliliv. schools ; a total regis- 
tiation of 6,066 DUpils, of whom 4,159 were 
members at the end of the year, and 2,903 were 
examined ; and an expenditure ftjr the schools 
of $46,668.20. 

Vocal music was taught in the iniblic schools 
in 1855-56, with Prof Louis Trijip as the prin- 
cipal instructor, and Mr. John FLarney assistant. 
It has since became a permanent feature of pub- 
lic instruction here. 


In 1873 the new hemalc High School build- 
ing, a superb edifice on F'irst Street, near Chest- 
nut, was completed. Its construction was under 
discussion by the School iJoard in 1S70, and the 
next year the site of the old school-house was 
definitely fixed as the site of the new. It is con- 
sidered by the Louisville people, in the words of 
Colonel Lucas, compiler of a pamphlet on city 
affairs, as "the most complete structure of its 
kind and dimensions in this country, or jierhaps 
in the world." He gives the following descrip- 
tion of it : 

The main building is scvcmy-eight feet front by fifty-four 
feet six inches deep, and three stones in height, with a base- 
ment and mansard stories. The rear building is fifty-four 
feet SIX inches wide by seventy-eight feet long, with a semi- 
octagonal projection to the rear of this thirteen feet six inches 
wide by twenty-seven feet long. The basement story is 
eleven feet high in the clear, the principal story fourteen feet 
si.x inches high, second story fifteen feet six inches high, third 
story fourteen feet, and mansard story fourteen feel high. 
In the rear building the basement and principal stories are 
f>f an even height with the same stories in the main build 
ing. while the second story is occupied by the chapel, which 
15 twenty feet high at the sides and thirty-five feet high in the 
center. The basement story is occupied by cloak and play- 
rooms, laboratories, steam-heating, fuel-rooms, etc. 

The principal story contains a general and private ottice 
for the Principal, a class-room thirty by twenty-seven feet, 
two class-rooms twenty-five by thirty feet, and two twenty 
by thirty-one feet, a lecture-room thirty-seven by fifty feet by 
lAeiiiy-five feet high, arranged as an amphitheater, with seats 
i^r two hundred and sixty persons. This lecture-room con- 
"■•^ Is with the laboratory, twelve by twenty-four feet, by large 
f ■ • '-g s ish-doors and by a large arched opening, and with 
, twelve by twenty-four feet. 


second story is divided into a class-room thirty by 
r.rij.sL-ven feet, and two class-rooms twenty-ti\e by thirty 

1 feet, in the main building. The back building on this story 
1 is devoted to the cii.ip. I, whith is fifty by seventv feel, indc- 
I pendent of the rostruni, which is twelve by twenty-four feet, 
and is cap.ible of seating six hundred and fifty persons, 
allowing fuli-siied aisles and entraiiues. 'I'lie roof of the 
I chapel is finished in o[ien tmilier work, the spaces between 
1 the trusses being paneled in light aiiddaik oak and ash. The 
I side-\valls are finished with pilasters and arclied above the 
, windows, and finished in marble panels. The walls aie 
wainscoted in panels, in imitation of light and /narl)le. 
The third and fourth stories of the mam building e.ach con- 
tain four class-rooms twentv-ftve by thirty feet. ' 

The corridors are thirteen feet wide in each of the stories. 
! The stairs are wide, of easy ascent, and thoroughly protected 
! against accidents. There are three of these stairways located 
I at different points in the building, giving tb.ree different 
! means of egress from thi' building from the upper stories, 
■ four from the principal, stories and five from the basement. 
j The extension of the building is designed iuwliatniiv be 
' termed "The" The main front is faced 
with Bowling Green stone, and the o.uoins and beli-corneis 
and window trimmings of the sides and rear of the building 
are of the same materials. The walls, both external and in- 
ternal, are of brick, well built, with broad foundations, and 
special attention is given to the strength and duialjilily of the 
whole structure. 

The front entrance is through a C'orinthian portiere having 
eight coupled columns standing upon pedestals, and the en- 
tablature is surmounted by a balustrade, the whole of Bowling 
Green stone. The side entrance porch, which is intended as 
the pupils' entrance, is also of stone. 

There is a full suppily of gas and water fixtures, v.'ashstands, 
etc. on each story of the building. The whole house will be 
I'is" heated by steam on the most approved principle, with 
every precaution taken to insure perfect ventilation. There 
are speaking tubes connecting the principal's office with 
every class-room in the building, and also connecting the 
chaficl with the class-rooms. There are large blackboards 
(of slate) in each of the class-rooms. 

The front part of the lot. which is 140 x 200 feet, is inclosed 
by a heavy balustrade of stone and iron, and the sides and 
rear are inclosed by a paneled brick w.ill capp>ed with stone, 
with gates of ample width both front and rear. The walks 
through the yard are of brick curbed with stone, while the 
surface of the lot is so gr.ided as to carry the drainage from 
the building m every direction. 

This fine structure was regularly occupied at 
the opening of the school year September i, 1S73. 


Colonel Durrett gives the t'ollowing sketch of 
the schools as they were when he wrote in the 
early days of iSSi. The facts and figures have 
not greatly changed since: 

There are now thirly-ono public schools in Louisville, with 
an annu.d income approaching J300.000 for their support. 
Some of them, like the Second, the Fifth and Tentli-ward 
schools and the Duncan and Madison-street schools, have 
each a thousand or more enrolled pupils. The average at- 
tendance in all the schools last year was r86 in the iii.ile 
high school, 307 in the female high school, I2,2c,a in the 
white ward schools, and 2,077 i" ''"-' eolored, making a total 
of 14.922, while the aggregate attend. ince was much larger. 
For the instruction of tins armv of little ones in the tacucs of 



popular education were cmp'.ovccl 237 whllt trachers in the 
English schools, 31 in ttie German, ami .|o colored leathers 
in the colored schools, in all 3:8 teachers with graded s.alaries 
as follows: Principals of the high schools, $2,000; professors 
of the male high school, ^1,500; piincip.als of the intermedi- 
ate and secondary schools. £1,350: principal of the central 
colored school, $1,080; teachers of the male high school, 
preceptress of the female high school, and principals 
of the eastern and western colored schools, each $900: 
teachers of the female l;igh school, $700; principals of the 
primary district schools and first-cliss assistants, teaching 
first grade, each $650; first-class assistants, English and Ger- 
man, $600; second-class assistants, teaching second grade, 
$550; second-class assisunts, English and German, and 
colored teachers, first grade, each $500; third-class assistants, 
English and German, and second-class colored assistants, 
each $450, fourth-class assistants, English and German, and 
third-class colored, each $-too, fourth-class colored teachers, 
$310. The superinleiuleni gets a salary of $2.4co, the 
secretary and treasurer the same, and the German supeim- 
tendent $1,350. 

The public schools are under the government of twenty- 
four trustees, two of whom are elected by the ciualihed voters 
of each of the twelve wards in the city. They have a presi- 
dent, vice-president, secretary and treasurer, superintendent, 
assistant superintendent and attorney, and for the purpose of 
facilitating the business that comes before them, they divide 
themselves info standing committees upon finance, salaries 
and supplies, buildings, escheats and school property, ex- 
amination and course of studies, high schools, intermediate 
schools, eastern district schools, western district schools, Ger- 
man, penmanship and drawing, grievances, rules, printing, 
sanitary affairs, colored schools and such other committees as 
circumstances may require. 

The organisation of tlie schools, apart from 
the High Schools, is as follows: District inter- 
mediate schools — First, corner Market and 
Wenzel streets ; Second, corner of Floyd and 
Chestnut streets ; Third, corner of Center and 
Walnut streets ; Fourth, Seventeenth and Madi- 
son; Fifth, corner of Thirty-fourth and High 
avenue, Portland. 

District secondary schools — First, and branch- 
es, Cabel street, between Main and \\\"ishington; 
Overhill Street, Overhill street, between Broad- 
way and Underbill; Second ^\'ard, Market, be- 
twecii Campbell and \Ven:^el: Third District, 
Broadway, between Clay and Shelby ; Fourth, 
Walnut street, between Jackson and Hancock ; 
Main Street, Main street, between Jackson and 
Hancock ; Fifth, corner Floyd and Chestnut 
streets ; Sixth, Gray street, between First and 
Second; Seventh, corner Fifth and York streets; 
Eighth, corner Walnut and Center streets; Ninth, 
corner of Ninth and Magazine streets; Tenth, 
corner Thirteenth and Green streets; Thirteenth 
Street, Thirteentli, near Maple street; Duncan 
Street, corner Seventeenth and Duncan streets; 

Madison Street (district secondary), corner Mad- 
ison and Seventeenth streets; Grayson Street, 
Gra\son, between Twenty-second atid Mercer 
streets; Montgomery Street, corner Montgomery 
and Twenty-fifth streets, Poitland; Portland (dis- 
trict secondary), corner Thirty-fourth and High 

District, primary, and branch schools — New- 
Jerusalem; Germantown; Fifth A\'ard lUanch, 
Floyd street, between Breckinridge and St. Calh 
erine; Sixth ^\'ard I'.ranch, St. Catherine, between 
First and Secor.d; Bullitt Street Branch, Bullitt, 
between ^L^in and River; California, corner 
Kentucky and Seventeenth streets; Shipping[)ort. 

Colored schools — Fulton Primary, Elm and 
Pocahontas streets; Eastern Secondary, Jackson 
and Breckinridge streets;_ Central Iriterniediate, 
Sixth and Kentucky streets; Western Secondary, 
Magazine street, between Sixteenth ai:d Seven 
teenth ; Portland Primary, Twenty-eighth and 
Lytic streets. 

Mr. FI. C. Lloyd is president of the board oi 
trustees; Mr. F. C. Leber, vice-president; Major 
William J. Davis, secretary and treasurer; Pro 
lessor George H. Tingley, Jr., superintendent of 
the schools; and R. H. Plain, Esq., attorney, 


This institution was chartered by the General 
Assembly of Kentucky February 7, 1S46, under 
the corporate title of " President and Trustees of 
the University of Louisville." It was principally 
the result of the consolidation of the Medical 
Institute of Louisville, incorporated in February, 
1S33, and the Louisville College, chaitered Janu- 
ary 17, 1S40. A[iril 20, 1846, the President and 
Managers of the Institute were formally re- 
quested by the General Council to convey its 
property, virtually the property of the city, to the 
new University ;' which was done t'our days after- 
wards. This included the square lying between 
Chestnut and Magazine, Eighth and Ninth 
streets, now occupied in one-fourth part by the 
University, and which had been conveyed by the 
city authorities to the Institute November 21, 
1837, under covenant that, if a charter for a tul- 
lege or university should subsequently be ob- 
tained, the President and Managers of the In 
stitute would con\ey back the property, with all 
buildings and other improvements thereon, upon 
formal request. 



V '^a^ 

1 \ 





:^^r// //,,//.,, 


In Scptc'-nber, 1855, the Board of Education 
of the city were granted permission to use the ' 
biiiidi'ig erected hy the city for the Academical 
I )i-partment of the University; and a High School 
1m-; since been maintained therein, now the Boys' , 
Hi.i;h School. It was originally intended that the i 
L.iw Department should meet in this building ; ' 
and it was occu[)icd for some years by the in- j 
mates of the Asylum for the Blind, al'ier the i 
l.'Uining of the Asyhini building. ' 

'I'lic charter of the University made provision, : 
in part, as follows : I 

.'^K'TION' 1. And the said President and Trustees of s.iid ' 
fijiversity of Louisville shall have full power and authority I 
to establish all the departments of a university for the (iro- ! 
nijtion of every branch of science, literature, and the liberal 
■irti; and also may establi>h factiltles, professorships, lectiire- 
sliips, and tutorships, and alter or abolish the same at pleas- 
ure; and may appoint lecturers and tutors thereto, and itiay 
rcnioveany one or all of them at pleasure, and appoint others 
■ in their stead. 

Section 2. .And the said President and Trustees may 
Crant and confer all degrees conferred in colleges or 
universities, and gener.Jly shall have and exercise all power 
and other authority necessary and proper for an e.vteuded 
uaiversity of learning. 

The Academical Department, however, long 
suice was merged in the city public-school sys- 
tem; and only schools of law and medicine have 
been established in the L'niversity, which will be 
noted fully in subsequent chapters. 


.■\mong the distinguished dead of 18S2 in the 
fi'y of Louisville was one who had been identi- 
fied with her educational affairs for nearly half 
a century, and had won eminent repute among 
men as a teacher and writer of te.xt-books for 
llie schools. Noble Butler was a native of 
W .ashington county, Pennsylvania, born luiy 17, 
1^10, and was at the time of his death aged sev- 
f^iiyone years, six months, and twenty-eight days. 
'!■■> .\merican ancestors were immigrants to that 
pnt of the country which became Chester county 
•■•■^ carU as the time of colonization under Penn, 
jnd had come from Bristol, England. From his 
r'-indtather he took his own suggestive and justi- 
■•'■'1 name. Jonathan Butler, his father, was also 
-I l'enn=;ylvanian born, and followed the callings 
'- •••iCTihant and fanner. The mother, whose 

••I'.i-n nniinj was N'ancy Hopkins, was a native 
'' -^Iiryland. In 1817 the family removed to 

the wilds of Indiana, and settled in what is now 
Jefferson county. The boy was then seven year-, 
old, atid his elirnentary education, apart from 
the invaluable training of the fireside, began 
here, in the jjrimitise log school-houses of the 
wilderness. He early evinced a decided apti- 
tude for learning, developed rapidly in scholar- 
shi[) and ment.'il power, and tor nearly twenty 
ycais pushed his way energetically through the 
various grades of schools acces-Nible to him, grad- 
uating at length in 1836, at the age of twenty- 
si.\, from the well-known Quaker institution 
knov.ti as Ilanijver College, at Richmond, Indi- 
ana. His attainments were so marked, and his 
personal habits so ajiproved, that he waspjromptly 
offered the chair of Greek and Latin in the same 
institution. He iiad, in the [nusuit of the higher 
education, cherished the ho[)e of enteiing the 
Christian ministr> ; but finding himself, as he 
always was, singularly lacking in tlie power of 
public speech, he abandoned this purjjose, ac- 
cepted the post in the College, and served it ac- 
ceptably for three years, when, in 1839, he came 
to Louisville for a broader and more congenial 
field, which he occupied with signal usefulness 
and success during the next forty-three years. 

He opened at first a private school ; but the 
attention of the governing Board of the Louis- 
ville College was soon attracted to his pedagogic 
abilities ; and the next year, when the College 
received its charter, he was elected to its Faculty 
as Prot'essor of Ancient Languages. It was an 
able corps of instrut.tors to whose association he 
was invited, and his was one of the brightest, 
and best names among them. They are all 
mentioned in the preceding narrative. The last 
of them to go over to the silent majority was 
Professor Butler. 

After leaving the College, most of the labors 
of Mr. Butler as a teacher were expended in 
select and private schools, in which he was 
greatly infiuential in moulding the minds and 
manners of many of the finest young people of 
two generations in Louisville and much of the 
entire Sou'.h. Some years ago he received, in 
recognition of his fame, the honorary degree of 
Master of .■\rts from Harvard L'niversity. His 
(7/wrt mahr also bestowed u[X")n him the degree 
of Doctor of Laws. 

Soon after young Butler came to the city, he 
was requested by .Messrs. Morton & Griswold, 



publishers here, — of whom the senior partner, 
Mr. John P. Morton, still survives, — to begin 
the preparation of a series of textbooks hjr the 
schools, which 'they would issue. The fruit of 
this wns in due time manifest in the a|i|ioarance 
of the renowned " Fji^lish Grammar," which 
•secured an immense sale both North and South, 
and is still standard in many of the schools of 
Kentucky and elsewhere. His continued studies 
of -the language, through many \car5 mi^re, cul- 
minated in the publication of his " Practical and 
Critical Grammar," and his original work re- 
ceived thorough revision and publication in a 
new edition about a year before his death He 
also prepared, many years ago, a revised edition 
of the school readers of S. G. Goodrich ("Peter 
Parley") which were issued as "Noble liutler's 
Goodrich's Readers." About twelve yea;s since 
his publishers began the issue of an entirely in- 
dependent and original series of his preparation, 
entitled "Butler's Readers," which likewise ob- 
tained wide popularity. He wrote a theory of 
Hebrew tenses for Bascom's Quarterly Review, 
\vhich has since been made an integral part of 
Nordheimer's Flebrew Crammer. He also wrote 
much on other and more general themes ; and a 
volume of his poems and essays was collected 
some years since, and published under the 
title of "Butler's Miscellanies." His literary 
and pedagogic character were thus admiiably 
sketched by a graceful writer in the Louisville 
Commercial, shortly after his lamented death : 

He was peculiarly an educilor. having the r.ircst ucuUyof 
imparting his knowledge and possessing a perfect purity of 
mind and thought that ni,\de him the most valu iblc of in- 
structors. He did more to plant a high taste for literature 
and a love of study in the minds of those who have been 
educated in Louisville during the past thirty years than could 
well be estimated. His education was almost universal m 
scope. Among his pupils was Mary .-\nderson, the actress, 
whose first studies in elocution were pursued under his care. 
He was a close and reverent student of Shakespeare, 
and taught the ambitious girl to read it correctly and to un- 
derstand its meaning. .-Ml the brilliant young men of this 
city bear tfie impress of his pure taste and clear 

As a writer he did not rank as high as a poet as he did in 
prose, though he wrote much verse. Some years ago, when 
the ever-recurring argument as to the capabilities of the 
Englisli language v\as rewved, he wrote some poems to 
demonstrate that English was sufliciently plastic to carry the 
Latin and tireek hexameters. These specimens were correct 
and felicitous; but tliere no particular tire in his poetry, 
and he was not creative. His prose spirited and excel- 
lent in style. It will be as an educ.Uor that he will be longest 

Prof. Butler was a sliideiu to the last- He had an almost 
complete knowledge of the te\t o( Shakespcaie, and 
fmti of demonstrating the poet's intentions. There wei... 
few subjerts about which he had not considerable and ac- 
curate knowledge. Never brilliant, he was a tireless woiket 
and a producer of valuable restil.ts. His place was | 
in the public heart, and his gentle and kindly nuuie will In- 
romeinb>red long after his familiar form shall h.ivc passed 
out of thought. 

Prof lUitler was mairied, just afterhis giadua- 
tiou in 1S36, to Miss Lucinda Harney, sister of 
John 11. Harney, afterwards his associate in the 
h'aculty of Louisville College, and then for many 
years the brilliant editoi of the Louisvilhi Dem- 
ocrat. .Mrs. Butler survives her husband, wiili 
five chiklren, all that were born to thei;i, also 
living— Mrs. B. A. May, Mrs. E. S. Fleues, and 
Miss Minnie Butler, all of Louisville ; J. S. But- 
ler, a lawyer in Rock Island, Illinois ; and Wil- 
liam P. Butler, also of Rock Island, and its 
Mayor for a time. 


Prof George H. 'Pingley, Superintendent cf 
Public Schools in the city, has been connected 
with the schools heie, in \arious capacities, fur 
more than half a century. He was a [luiiil in 
the first district schools established here and in 
the old Louisville College; an assistant teacher 
in the Bo\s' Grammar School on Jefferson street 
■in 1S44, Princi]ial of the Boys' Primary School 
on First street in 1849, Principal of a Eons' 
Grammar School the ne.xtyear, a School Tiusiee 
in 1854-55; arid then a teacher again until 
August 10, 1S63, when he was elected Superin- 
tendent of the Schools, and has since remained 
in that position, serving a term, now nearly twen- 
ty years, unexampled, we believe, in the educa- 
tional history of any laige city in this country. 

Mr. Joseph M. .Allen, principal of the First 
ward school of Louisville, is a native of Friend- 
ship, .Alleghany count}'. New York. F^ntering 
.Alfred College, in his native county, he pursue li 
his studies until the close of his junior year, then 
became principal of the F'orrestville Unioc. 
School, in Chautauqua county. New York. -Al- 
ter remaining at this post for two years, he re- 
turned to college, graduating in 1S56. In the 
autumn of the same year he came to Kentuckv, 
and in Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio, he has 
ever since followed his chosen profession, and l'^'' 
engagements have been numerous and such as to 
give him an unusually varied experience. Com 
mencing in Shelby\ille, he taught in that city ("'' 



one year, then, reniovint; to Covington, was for 
two years tliere princi|)al of a public school , dur- ' 
ing the nine years followiiig he taught in Cincin- 
nati — one year as (iist assistant in the Fourtii In- 
termediate School, then for seven years as princi- 
pal of the Thirteenth I )istrict S( hool, then for one 
year as principal in the First l)i>trict. Coming to ; 
Louisville in 1S70, Mr. Allen becauie principal j 
of the Sixth-ward School, which he left in 1875 
to assume his present post. i 

Mr. \V. M. Marrincr is a r.ati\'e of Louisville, j 
where he was born in 1S31. He attended first j 
the common schools of the city, then the Louis- 
ville High School, pursuing his studies until he j 
reached the second vear in tr.e latter institution, j 
when, in the year 1S5S, he was withdrawn to as- | 
sume the position of principal of the Secondary | 
Department of the Second Ward School, which I 
then combined the grammar and secondary ! 
courses. He retained his position until early in j 
1861, when he was admitted to the practice of i 
the law, having inirsued his legal studies while a [ 
teacher. Heat once ''put out his shingle," and 
was still a candidate I'or the favor of clients, 
when the outbreak of the ci\il war called him 
into the service of the South. He entered the 
Confederate army as a ]>rivate in the First Ken- j 
tucky Infantry, and speedily rose to the cap- j 
taincy of Company H. When his term of en- I 
listment was expired, he re-entered the army as ' 
captain of Company C, Twelt'ih 'battalion Ten- 
nessee Cavalry. Resigning his commission, he ' 
became adjutant of the Twell'th Confederate 
Cavalry, and from that time until the close of the 
war was engaged in various staff service. He 
served in Virginia and with the armies of the 
West and the South, finally surrendering with j 
the Sixth Cavalry at Mt. Sterling, Kentucky. After 1 
the war he first engaged for a time in mercantile 
business. In 1869 he became a grade teacher 
in the Eighth-ward School, and, in 1S71, be- 
came, as now, principal of the Second-ward ! 
School. ! 

Mr. J. T. Gaines, now principal of the Third- 
ward school of Louisville, was born in .\ndcrson 
county, Kentucky, in September, 1841. His 
father was K. C. C.aines, a native of Virginia ; 
his mother, Mariam Pullian Gaines, came from a 
Kentucky family. The subject of this sketch 
was educated in the country schools of his native 
township and at the Kentucky .Military Institute 

in Franklin county, near I'rankfort. I'he out- 
break of war caused the closing of the sc;hool, 
nearly ail the students entciing the C'onfedernte 
'army. Young C.aines joined the Ninth Ken- 
tucky infantry, as first lieutenant of company K. 
That company was afterward transferred to the 
Fifth Kentucky infantry, and Mr. Gaines was 
promoted to the captaincy. His service was al- 
most entirely with the \\'esiern army, his com- 
pany following the fortunes of Generals Br.igg and 
Johnson. About three months before the sur- 
render at Appomattox, Captain Gaines resigned, 
being one of that brave body of men, one from 
each company in the brigade, who volunteered 
to penetrate the Federal lines for the purpose of 
recruiting. He reached his field of' operations, 
near his birthplace, but a few days before the 
surrender, and I'ound his occupation gone. He 
commenced teaching at Rridgeport, Kentucky, 
almost iiM mediately alter the close of the v,-ar ; 
in 1 868 he became assistant in the graded 
schools of I'Vankfort, but then organized, under 
S. W. Bro\vder as principal. For five sessions 
he taught at l''iankfort, then assumed charge of 
the ILririson graded school at Lexington, from 
which position he resigned in 1S77 to accept his 
present place as principal of the Third-uard 
school of Louisville. 

William O. Cross was born in Wayne county, 
Illinois, on the 20th day of August, 1842. He 
was the sou of a farmer, and like most of his • 
class, obtained his education in the intervals of 
his labor and in the common schools of the 
neighborhood, and as he grew older he obtained 
his first experience in what was destined to be 
his profession, by teaching one of those same 
schools in the winter season, and thus he con- 
tinued to be engaged at various places and times 
until, in 1S69, coming to Kentucky, he took 
charge of a schojl at Campbellsburg. He re- 
mained in Campbellsburg for one year, then 
removing to Louisville was in 1S71 appointed 
assistint in the Fourth ward school. In 1S72 
he became principal of the same school and has 
since continued in that relation, having, during 
twelve years of residence in Louisville, made ii 
his only field of labor. Mr. Cross is president 
of the Louisville EJuc.itiona! association. 

_Williaiu J. .MLConaiiiy, pirinctpal of the Fifth- 
ward Intermediate school, was born at Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, July 19, 1841. He attended the 



public schools of Lexington and tlie preparatory 
department of the University of Lexington, fin- 
ishing his studies in 185;. In 1S5S he com- 
menced teaching in Louisville, as r.ssistnnl in- 
structor in grammar in the public schools. In 
1S5S he removed to Sacramento, McLean county, 
as assistant principal of the academy in that 
place, but . soon became iirincijial of the same 
school, which he only left in iS6( to enlist in 
company A, of -Morgan's famous cavalry sipiad- 
ron. He took part in the famous raid ove; tiie 
border, was captured during a skirmish in July, 
1863, and was confined as a prisoner of war, 
first for a time at Camp Morion, then for eigh- 
teen months at Camp Houglas. He was then 
paroled and saw no more active service. Imme- 
diately upon the close of the war Mr. McCon- 
athy began the study of the law, was shortly 
licensed to practice, and for six years following 
pursued his profession in BulHtt county, and was 
for six years master commissioner of the circuit 
court in that count}-. In 1S73 he resumed 
teaching in a private academy in liullitt county ; 
in 1875 he removed to Louisville and was ap- 
pointed princifial of the Fifth-ward intermediate 
school, the largest in the city. This place he 
still retains. 

Mr. (Jeorge Taylor, now principal of the 
Seventh-ward school, is the son of the late 
Lieutenant-colonel Frank Taylor, of tlie First 
United States artillery, and was born at Anna- 
polis, Maryland, where his father was stationed. 
He was prepared for college at various Eastern 
and Southern schools, and entered Kenyon Col- 
lege at Gambler, Ohio, in 1S57, graduating in 
1861. Coming to Kentucky, he taught private 
and public schools in turn, in Oldham county, 
for a number of years, remaining there until 
1874, when he was appomted teacher of the first 
grade of the Madison School in Louisville, which 
he retained until 1S76. In 1877 he received 
appointment to the position which lie now fills. 

Frederick Tu'ner Salisbury, a son of J. O. 
Salisbury, a native of Providence, Rhode Island, 
and Laura Turner Salisbury, of .Miiford, Con- 
necticut, was born in Louisville March 4, 1S39. 
He was educated in the city schools, which he 
left in 1S55 to go into business with his father, 
at the same time taking private Icssuns to 
supplement his school training. He continued 
in business with his father until 1S6S, when the 

partnership was dissolved and he, accepted a ])0- 
sition as teacher in the Teiitli-ward school. In 
■this he remained until t87.i, resigning it 
to engage in the grocery and comaussion bus- 
itiess. He was almost iiiuiiediately elected a 
member of the School Rnard for the Ninth 
ward of the city of Louisville. In 1876 his 
business and office were reliiuiuished for a posi- 
tion as teacher in the Madison street Inteimc- 
diate School, from which he went at the liegin- 
[ ningof the school year of 1S77 to the pjost of 
I Principal of Portland School, again lemoving, 
j in 1878, to his jiresent place at the head of the 
I Tenth-ward scliool, at Thirteenth and Careen 
( streets. 

1 R. C. C. Jones, one of the senior educators of 
I Louisville, was born in that city October 17, 
1837, the son of G Scott Jones and Esther FI. 
Camp Jones. He was educated first in the 
public schools of his native city, then in a private 
school taught by William H. Butler, and, later, 
attended a school at Pleasant Hill, Warren 
county, Kentuek)-, for the study of Latin only. 
He commenced teaching in September, 1S53, 
as assistant in the old Tenth ward school build- 
ing, at the corner of Tenth and Grayson streets. 
The present Nmth-ward school edifice was tlien 
building, and he was shortly transferred to that. 
In 1855 Benjamin Harney, princi[ial of that 
school, resigning, Mr. Jones was appointed to 
succeed him, and remained until 1S61. During 
the last years of his connection with the Ninth- 
ward school, he began the study of medicine un- 
der the preceptorshi(i of Dr. David Cummings; 
in 1859-60 he took a course of lectures at the 
Kentucky School of Medicine, and, in 1S61, re- 
signing his position as principal, attended a 
course at the Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, 
graduating in 1862. Returning to Louisville 
and passing the necessary examination, he be- 
came a contract surgeon in the United States 
army and served at Fort Nelson, Totten Hospi- 
tal, Louisville, and other hospitals until 1864, 
when he resigned, and, opening an ottice, [irac- 
ticed medicine until late in 1S65, when he ac- 
cepted the principalship of the Fil'th-ward school 
at Floyd and Chestnut. This he retained but a 
short time, when he was elected physician of the 
Louisville Alms house. At the expiration of his 
term he was elected school trustee for the Fenth 
ward of Louisville, which i;Ost he resigned in 


1867 to become principnl of the Madison Inter- 
mediate school, which position he still iiolds. 

Mr. O. B. Theiss, now princ.ij'.il of the Dun- 
can Street school, was horn in HuUiit county, 
■ Kentucky, in iS.jS, and removed to Louisville 
with his parents ni 1S50. He was educated in the 
ward and hii;h srhriols of the city, but, leaving 
the latter in 1S66, wt-nt into business. In 1S71 
he graduated in medicine from the L'ni\-crsity of 
Louisville, and in the fall of the same year com- 
menced teachmg in Falmouth, Kentucky. In 
1875 he was ap]ioinied to his present post, which 
he has shice held. 

Mr. Benjamin F. Roberts was born in the 
State of Virginia on tl;e 6th day of May, 1S43. 
At an eaily age ht removed with his parents to 
Louisville, where he was educated principally in 
the graded schools, though such attendance was 
supplemented by some study at the city high 
school. In 1861 he was appointed an assistant 
at the Portland secondary school, where he 
remained until 1S66. From that .position he 
was transferred to the principalship of the Ninth- 
ward school. In 1S7S he retired from the latter 
and was for three years engaged in other pur- 
suits, returning to his profession as principal of 
the Portland school m iSSi, which post he still 

Colonel Durrett adds the following sketches 
to his historical article upon the schools, written 
early in 1S81 : 

W'e have yet in our pulflic schools, however, one who was 
a teacher when Mr. Tingley was a pupil. In the directory 
of 1840 we find the name of .Miss Sally S. Mason, as .a 
teacher in the school on letTerson. between Preston 
and Jackson. .As Mrs, Maury, this estimable lady is vet a 
teacher hi the school on the corner of Walnut and Center. 
In a later directory appears tlie name of Miss Helen [. Clark. 
as a teacher m the same grammar school in the year 1847. 
This excellent lady is yet a teacher in the school at the Ma- 
sonic Widows' and Orphans' Home. 

There is one lady in ourcitv, however, who. though no long- 
er connected with our pu'ohc schools, had a connection with 
them as teacher which antedates that of all others now living. 
It IS the wife of our esteemed fellow-citizen, .Me.x.inder Du- 
vall. In the directory of 1S32 her name appears as Miss El- 
liott, assistant teacher in the female department of the school 
on Walnut street, between Fifth and Center. .Ail her as- 
sociate teachers in that early school — Mann Butler, the his- 
torian: M.albon Kenvon. Thomas .Ale.\ander, .A. N. Smith, 
and Miss Catharine t,\vell — have long since been gathered to 
their fathers, but this veneranle lady still lingers among us, a 
golden link in the chain that binds the thirtv-one schools of 
to-day with the single one of half a century ago. 

None of the teaciiers who inaugurated the two high- 
schools now dwell in L'tui^ville except one. Professor Spen- 
cer and his immediate successor have gone to their long 

hemes. Professor I!:iihni<n Is in Detroit, Michij^a 
ducting an I:"nglish and (jertnan, and Pr 
H arney is among the orange groves of Florida, now ni 
sending sweet verses and bright paragraphs to the 
Mrs. L. I.. Monsarrat. who appc'rs upon the first 
teachers of the I'cmale High School as .Miss Laura 
is the only one that remains among us. She is now 
the teachers in the HoIyoke.\cadeTny. on the corner of 
way and I'hlrd streets. To a natural gift for impart 
struction, the expeiienee of yeirs has made her one. 
most accomplisiied and successful educators. 

id then 
roll of 



The Older Kentucky Libraries — The First Library in Louis- 
ville — The Second —The Kentucky Historical Librarv — 
Franklin Lyceum— The Mercantile Library — The " Peo- 
ple's Library" — The Various "Louisville Libraries" — 
Voung Men's Christian .Association Library — The Putjlic 
Library of Kentucky- The Polytechnic Library of Ken- 


A library was founded in Le.vington at a meet- 
ing of citizens on the 1st of January, 1795, and 
called the Transylvania Library. In the act of 
Legislature incorporating it, library associations 
were also chartered at Georgetown and Dan\ille; 
in 1S04, one was chartered at Lancaster; in 
1808 one at Paris ; and others at Newcastle in 
1809, at Shelby viUe and AVinchester in iSio, at 
Washington in iSti, at \'ersailles and Frankfort 
in 1812, and Mt. Sterling in 1S14. None of the 
dozen libraries thus provided for reached success 
and ;.ermanence, except that in Le.xington, which 
still survives, with ten thousand volumes, and is 
accounted one of the most valuable old collec- 
tions in the West. 


All these preceded a library at the Falls of the 
Ohio. But in February, 1S16, a charter was 
granted to Messrs. .Mann Butler, A\'iliiam C. Gait, 
Brooke Hill, Hezekiah Hawley, and William 
Tompkins, as the "President and Directors of 
the Louisville Library Company." Colonel Dur- 
rett gives the following account of this pioneer 
etTort ; 

'.Again we follow, and by necessity, for the most part, the 
lucid paragraphs oi Colonel Durrett. He Is the only one. 
so far as we are aware, who has treated the subject con- 
secutively and at length. 


This library a joint stock association, with the riglit to 
issue as many shares as its directors might think necessary 
aud of any denomination they mi!;lit wisli. They had the 
authority to assess the sitarelioklers for the benellt of the 
library to any sum per annum not exceeding one-fifth of llie 
value of tlie sli.ires of any one holder. In iSiq. when Dr. 
McMurtrie published his history of Louisville, this library 
was located in the second story of the south wing of the old 
court-house, then st.inding in the place of the present city 
hall. .Among iir, books were valuable histories collected by 
Mann Hutler, and works on scientific subjects obtained by 
Dr. McMurtrie. The \i hole number of volumes was about 
five hundred, and the young library may then be said to ha\e 
been in its prime. It never maleriany increased afterward, 
and when the malignant fever of 1822 almost depopulated 
the city, the library, as well as the people, seems to have 
taken the seeds of death into its system. The files of the 
first newspapers published in our city perished, and so did the 
early works upon the history of our city, State, and country. 
Only a few of its volumes have come down to our times, and 
these are of but little value in tile collections in which they 
are now found. The most valuable books perished, and the 
unimportant ones which sur\ived, reached our times in such 
a mutilated condition as to be of little consideration except 
as relics of the past. There is a name connected with its or- 
ganization, however, that should not pass from our memory 
as did its books I'rom our use. This was .Mr Mann Bu'.ler, 
the first named among those who in the act of incor- 
poration. It was he who inauguiated the gathering together 
of this first collection of books in our city, and if had 
as much money as he had love for books, he would have 
placed the library upon such a lasting foundation that it 
vvould have stood to our times. 


This was attempted nearly twenty years after 
the fust eflbrt, in 1835, by Messrs. Marcus Story, 
Ezekiel Breeden, James S. Speed, William In- 
man, and J. Thompson, who formed the nucleus 
of a body chartered as the "Mechanics' Institute 
of the City of Louisville." It was given, among 
other powers, authority to establish a circulating 
library; but the measures taken to that end did 
not succeed, and the library never became more 
that a hopeful project. 


In 1S3S Chancellor F.ibb, Judge Pirtle, Mr. 
George D. Prentice, Humphrey Marshall, Sr., 
one of the historians of the State, and other 
prominent citizens of Louisville, formed the 
Kentucky Hibtorical society, and [irocured a 
charter for it. Like many other associations of 
its day, the institution was short-livtd, but a 
moderate collection of books was made, and 
they were not ke[)t together. Occasionally a 
straggling volume that belonged to it can be 
found in the library of the Polytechnic society 
and elsewhere. Colonel Durrett gives the fol- 
lowing account of itb best stroke of business: 

The Kentucky Historical Society was not of long duration, 
but it scrvi-d as a connecting Imk between the first libraiies 
in our city .ind which succeeded, and thus reserved for 
posterity 'om.e valuable relics of the past. It look into its 
vharge the letter written by General George Rogers Clark to 
his friend, tlie Hon. George Mason, of Gunslon Hall, Vir- 
ginia, and saved it from the destruction which deprived pos- 
terity of the journal of Captain Thomas Rulhtt. and other 
important lecoids of our early times. This letter is dated 
I'alls of the Ohio. November r9, 1779, and gives an account 
ol the capture of the British posts of Kaskaskia, Cahokia, 
and ^"incennes in 1778, which did more to save our fore- 
fathers from the tomahawk and scalping knife of the savages 
than any other acts during the Indian wars upon our border. 
That this manuscript might not perish as others had done it 
was sent to Robert Clarke, of Cincinnati, who published it in 
a book of one hun<.lred and nineteen pages in 1869, and thus 
placed it beyond the probability of loss to the world. If the 
Kentucky Historical Society had done nothing but picserve 
this manuscript, but its existence would not have been in vain ; 
but it did more, and preserved a number of valuable books, 
which now appear in other libraries, and which can no longer 
be purchased. 


Messrs, James B. Redd, Daniel Lyon, James 
H. Owen, John L. Hemming, Levi White, James 
Minter, John ]!. Bland, Abram Smith, and Dr. 
Bayless were the founders of tlie Louisville 
F'ranklin I^yceum, in 1840. It had also legisla- 
tive authority to add a circulating library to its 
means of culture, and did secure some of the 
debris of the older collections, but not in suf- 
ficient number, or with sufficient additions from 
other souiccs, to make it a permanent or very 
useful thing. 


Only two years after the Lyceum was institut- 
ed came in the Mercantile Library Association, 
with Messrs. Simon S. Biicklin, Benjamin. J. 
Adams, John N. Johnson, Edward Parmcle, A. 
A. Gordon, James Lees, J. W. Brannon, Henry 
L. Cobb, Jacob Owen, B. P. Bakewell, and B. 
F. Tevis as incorporators. They were gentle- 
men of energy find character, many of them still 
in the flush of youth, and took hold of the work 
with stich well-directed force that a subscription 
of $6,000 was soon made by the merchants of 
the city as a pecuniary foundation ; and within a 
single year, without drawing upon the older col- 
lections, it had acquired three thousand volumes, 
including seven hundred from the private library 
of Fortunatus Cosby, purchased as a nucleus. 
A catalogue was pubii-.hed iii 1S41, of which 
Colonel Durrett furnishes the following analysis: 
Cn.ler the head of ■ • .^ntiqu!l :e< and Fine .Arts ■ the cat.i- 
logue showed ihirtv works; commerce and commercial taw, 


■^8; geography, 16; biogra[)liv. 22-.': voyages and tr.ivels, 166; 
general history, 128; lo'.al and parlicular history. 314; Amer- 
ican biography, 115; works on America in gener.d. 47; Amer- 
ican Sl.ites and colonics, 67; junspniflence and politics. 275; 
classics and tr.inslations. 8; rhetoric and lielles leitrcs, 271; 
fiction, as*^: poetry and ilie tlrania. 219; mechanics and the 
uscfnl arts. 39; n.atural philosnpliy and matliematics. 32; 
n.Uiie.d history, 88; medicine. 12; moral and imeUcctual 
philosophy. 62; relii^ion. 77; logic, i; pliilologv, 19; educa- 
tion, 13; political economy and statistics. 33; periodical litera- 
ture, 299: miscellanea, 73: miscellaneous dictionaries, 34: 
bibliography, i5; addenda, 17; and a number of periodicals . 
and ne\\spapers — in all about three thousand voUinies. 

Mr. liucklin, v.ho \v;ib PresitJent -of tlie Asso- 
ciation from its beginiiinj:; to the time of his re- 
moval from the city, v.rnte from Providence, 
Rhode Island, in Xovcni'ucr, iSSo, to the Cour- 
ier-Journal, that " tlie works on American his- 
tory, consisting of nearly one thousand vokimes, 
surpassed in variety and value by no public 
library in the country, and only equaled by one 
collection of this city, entitled it to protection." 
In books of reference, he adds, in works of 
science and literature, this collection was ex- 
ceptionally rich. 

After some years of prosperous and useful 
life, including lecture courses during the winter 
months, the Association weakened for lark of in- 
terest and pecuinary support ; and it was ulti- 
mately found desirable to interest the Cliamber of 
Commerce in its maintenance, by securing to that 
body the reversion of the liljrary, when the society 
should be no longer able to sustain it. This, how- 
ever, did not suffice to save it ; and the fine collec- 
tion was long since dissipated and di^per^ed, no 
one knows where, with the exception of a scatter- 
ing volume or broken set here and there. 


Messrs. Littleton Cook, John Goodman, and 
Edward Fulton alone became the incorporators, 
in 1S65, of the "People's Library Company." 
Their charter was liberal, and the institution 
started off hopefully ; but the library never be- 
came the "People's '' nor anybody's else; for the 
project was presently merged in another, by 
which its name and identity were wholly lost. 


The beginnings of an institution of this title, 
which is borne by the successor whose usel'ul 
collection and pleasant rooms are among the 
most admirable features of the city's life, were 
made in 1847, when legislative permission was 
obtained for changin.j the moribund Mercantile 

Libr.'iry .Association to "the President, I lirec- 
tors. and ("omjiany of the Louisville Library." 
The new corporation was authorized to carry a 
capital stock of $25,000, in one thousand shares 
of $25 each. Colonel Durrett thus continues 
the story : 

Thomas Anderson. William B. P.olknap, Isaac >;veretl, 
and Grandison Spratt. were authorised to get the stock sub- 
scribed. Their cITon was only successful, and it 
was not long before the books began to be a burden to the 
stockholders. Toward the close of the year 1849 Chapman 
Coleman and J.imes Trabue. as a committee on the part of 
the, sought a committee on the part of the city for a 
conference ai>out w hat should be done with the library. Tlie 
conference led to the asking of the citv the right to erect a 
library building on the noriiieast corner of the court-house 
lot, fronting thirty feet on Fifth street, by a depth of sixty 
feet. This was refused by the City Council ; but another 
committee of conference led to the agreement of July i, 
1850, by which the library was conveyed to the city of Louis- 
ville on condition that it should be kept in the old court- 
hous*", on the corner of Sixtli and Jefferson, or in some other 
suitable house to be supplied by the city, and kept open to 
shareholders, subscribers, and visitors on payment of reason- 
able assessments. Tlie city first appointed as its directots 
Dr. Theodore S. Bell, Rev. John H. Heywood. Prol'essor 
Noble Butler, and Thomas H. Shreve, and the next year W. • 
D. Gall.agherin place of Mr. Shreve. It paid the liabilities 
of the Library Company according to agreement, and sup- 
piled the running expenses LK?yond what came in for assess- 
ments upon those who used the library ; but it was soon 
evident tliat the citv was we.iry of the undertaking. In 1S53 
the city transferred to the library all the stock to which it was 
entitled in the Louisville and Frankfort Railroad for payment 
of taxes, and went on growing more and more ueary of the 

In 1868 a "Louisville Library Association" 
was formed from the w reck of the " People's 
Library Company" before mentitmed, which had 
been organized three years before. In the same 
year when the change 'of name was authorized, 
still another change was demanded of that body, 
and the "Louisville Library Association" be- 
came the "Library Association of Louisville," 
with Professor J. Lawrence Smith, R. ^L Cun- 
ninghatn, George W. Caruth, C. G. Davison, J. 
Guthrie Coke, J. R. P.uchanan, E. D. Cook, L. 
Bamberger, P. P.. Scott, Samuel Russell, Boyd 
Winchester, H. V. Sanders, and Joseph Knowles 
named as incorporators. They also received 
a liberal charter, with $50,000 worth of property 
exempted from ta.xation ; but nothing, says the 
Colonel, was ever done for the establishment of 
a permanent library commensurate with the 
breadth of the charter. It was reserved for a 
somewhat later dav to make the final effort for 
the cbtablishment of a worthy Louisville Library. 



The readers of this voluiiie are indebted to 
Professor James S. Pirtle, Secretary of the As- 
sociation, for the I'ollowing sketch of its history: 

The most su^<:e^sflll of the private library 
societies has been llie I,ouisville Eibrnry associa- 
tion, which was c>ri;anized on tlie Sth day of 
April, 1871. Tlie j)Lin u[ion which it was started 
was the contribution by each member of $30, or 
twenty volumes of books acceptable to the direc- 
tors. Two hundred and seventeen members 
united in the foundation of the library, and ten 
of theni designated by a general meeting signed 
the articles of incorporation pursuant to the stat- 
ute regulating the forming of voluntary associa- 
tions, viz; John H. Heywood, Alexander G. 
Booth, J. .M. \Vrii;ht, L. N. Dembitz, Russell 
Houston, J. Eawience Smith, W, K. Caldwell, 
I. M. St. John, W". H. Walker, and John H. 
Wood. The libraiy was opened in the second 
story of the building at the northwest corner of 
Third and Walnut streets, and remained there 
until January, 1S76, when it was removed to the 
rooms on the second story of the building at the 
southeast corner of Fifth and AValnut streets — 
its present location. The first president was 
Alexander G. Booth, who held the ofrice until 
his death on the 29th of October, 1876. He 
was succeeded by Alexander P. Humphrey, who 
remained in office until January 10, iSSo, when 
William R. Belknap, who is now president, was 
elected. The Library association owed its suc- 
cess in the beginning to the activity of its direc- 
tory and the enthusiastic support of many of the 
members; it was especially fortunate in its presi- 
dent, who devoted himself to its interests. The 
present directory is composed of the follow- 
ing members: W. R. Belknap, president ; J. W. 
Holland, O. A. Wehle, A. V. Gude, U. Snead, 
John H. ^^■ard, f. M. Wright; treasurer, Robert 
Cochran; James S. Pirtle, secretary. The first 
librarian was E. G. Booth, succeeded by Miss 
F. A. Cooper in February, 1S74. In February, 
1881, the present librarian, Mrs. Jennie F. At- 
wood, was elected; her assistant is Isaac Krieg- 

The number of books at the end of iSSi was 
8,136; the visitors for the year were 15,035, and 
the books withdrawn 10,783. The collection is 
very good in modern books of science, biographv, 
history, travels, drama, and fic ion, and comprises 
also many other valuable and some rare old 

i books. A good list of periodicals is kept on the 

tables for the use of members and subscribers, 
i In 1876 an endowment fund of $10,000 was 
! subscribed by the members and otheis, which, in 
j large part in the hands of trustees, James S. 
I'irtle, Rf>zei Weissengcr, and John H. "Ward, is 
yielding an income devoted to the running ex- 
penses of the association. 

The membcis pay $6 annual dues. Sub 
scribers $1 per quarter, or $3 per annum. There 
were January 1, 1SS2, ninety-se\en active men:- 
bers, fourteen life members who pay no dues, 
and one hundred and seventy-three subscribers, 
and during the year iSSi there were tlve hundred 

Y. .M. C. A. LIBRARY. 

When the \'oung Men's Christian Association 
of Louisville was formed, in 1867, such books as 
were remaining of the older and extinct libraries 
w-ere given into its care and keeping. Many 
volumes had been lost or destroyed during the 
war, but still enough were left to form a respecta- 
ble nucleus for a library. The association added 
about six hundred books, and by the time the 
Public Library of Kentucky was founded, near 
four thousand volumes had been collected, 
which were transferred to the latter. The asso- 
ciation has since formed a smaller collection for 
reading by its members and others invited to the 
privileges of its rooms. 


At the opening of 1871, no library in Louis- 
ville was open to the general public except that 
of the Young Men's Christi.m Association. 
Moved by this lamentable fact, a number of 
gentlemen met at the office of Colonel Durrett, 
and agreed to set aljout the formation of a 
genuinely public and worthy library for the city. 
The Legislature was memorialized, and in due 
time passed "An act to incorporate the Public 
Library of Kentucky," dated March 16, 1S71, 
whereby ex Governor Thomas E. Bramlette, 
Henry M. Watterson, Mike W. Closkey, Ben- 
jamin Casseday, George P. Doern, Walter N. 
Haldeman, H. M. McCarty, J. S. Cain, and R. 
T. Durrett, their successors and assigns, were con- 
stituted a corjioration under that title. Its 
capital stock was fixed at $ioo,oco, in shares of 
$10 each. Section 7 of the charter permitted, 
among other things, the corporation "to give, ncit 



to t'xrccd fi\-c in ntinibcr, public literary,, 
or tiranuitir entertainments, at \ihich they may 
distribute, by lot, to jjalr.ons of the enl-(.-rtain- 
nients a pfirlion of the proceeds arising from the 
sale of tickets of adim'-^sion ; but no person i? 
ever to be made to pay for the use and enjoy- 
ment of the books, pamphlets, periodicals, or 
pa|>er3 of the institution, and the library of the 
same is to be forever free to the gratuitous use 
and enjoyment of every citizen o{ the State of 
Kentucky, and of all good citizens in every 
State in the Union who shall conform to th.e 
rules and regulations that may, from time to 
time, be made and adopted by the trustees (oi 
the care, preservation, and safety of the books and 
property of the corporation. The library, more- 
over, is to be kept open to the use and enjoy- 
ment of the public every day in the year, and 
during such hours at night as may be deemed 
proper for general use and enjoyment.'' 

This act of incorpora-tion was not signed bv 
the Governor, but became a law because he did 
not return it within the period tl.vcd by the Con- 
sritution. It had all the validity of law, and pro- 
ceedings to raise money under the pro\isions of 
the seventh section were soon begun. We quote 
now from a history of the Library, prepared by 
Professor P. A. Towne. its hrst Librarian, and 
published in his Louisville .Monthly .Magazine 
for 1879. He says: 

A contract was made between Governor Bramlette and as- 
sociates and Mr. Charles R. Peters, of San Francisco, to 
give a grand gift concert. By the terms of this contract 
fifty-five per cent, of ilie gross amount reahzed w,5s to tx; dis- 
tributed as prizes to ticket-holders, .-\fter paving the ex- 
penses of the drawing, one-half of what »as left was tu be 
paid to Mr. Peters, and the other half to form the initial fund 
of the library. One hundred thousand tickets were offered 
for sale at $10 each. The drawing of this scheme took place 
December i5, 1871. Thirty-five thousand tickets had been 
sold, and se\en hundred and twenty-one prizes, amounting 10 
$192,500, were distributed to ticket-holders. The gross 
profits were $157,000. The net profits were J32. 300.86. of 
which the library received 326,184.93. ... | 

-At this point iri ilie history of the Library .\Ir. Peters with- i 
drew from the management of the drawings, and Go\ernor I 
Thomas E. Bramlette took his place. j 

Temporary rooms were soon secured in the \ 

same building since purchased for and now used ' 

by the Library. P.ooks were collected, so far as \ 

possible, from the old and extinet libraries of th.e < 
city; some nure v ere purchased: and on the 
27th of .-\pril, 1S72, the Library, numbering 

about eight thousand volumes, was opened to ' 

I the public. The Hon. J. Proctor Knott pro- 
I nounced a suitable address on the occasion, and 
I a poem was read by our oft quoted authoi, Mr. 
i lien Casseday, acting Librarian. In one of the 
j rooms occupied, Dr. C. C. Graham deiJo-ited 
j his remaikahle cabinet of curiosities and spcci- 
i mens illustrating natural science, which lie in- 
j tended to present to the Library, but afterwards 
withdrew. We quote again from .Mr. Towne : 

Oil the signing of the coiUiact uuh Governor lir.imietle, 
preparations were made for the second of the gift concerts. 
One hundred thousand tickets .at $10 e.ich were placed on the 
market, and the drawing took place December 7, 1872. Tlie 
number of tickets sold was seventy-five thousand, giving a 
gross receipt of ,5750.000. One-half of this amount was re- 
turned to tickct-linlders as prizes. One-halfof the net profits 
was paid over to the trustees of the librarv, namely, $76,211.39. 
From this an.ouut a payment was made on the Puhiic Li- 
brary ^Building. The property known at the time as the 
Ccntr.d Market was bought for J2io,ooo. on the basis of 
the ultimate success of the drawings. .-Vt the time of the 
purchase this sum was considered a fair price. .A.s this build- 
ing now constitutes the sole revenue of the library, and as 
this history is intended for the future r.ither than the present, 
it is proper to give here a description of it: 

The building is located on ground among the most desir- 
afile of the city of Louisville, on Founli avenue, beti\cen 
Green and Walnut streets. It has a front of one hundred and 
si.\ty-eight feet and a deplh of two hiind.-ed feet. It is three 
stories high. The ground floor contains eight stores, from 
which rents are received. Festival hall, the libran- room, 
and what is no« a gymnasium— tlie former museum depart- 
ment—are all on the lower floor; also a back room used as a 
carpenter shop for the building. The second story consists 
of rooms suitable for lecture and social purposes. One end 
of the building, including half the room on this floor, is oc- 
cupied by the Young Men's Christian .-\ssociation. The other 
end, lately occupied for a conservatory of mu<ie, is now 
vacant. The third story, consisting of about the same space 
as the second, is occupied by the Southern Baptist Theo- 
logical Semm.ary and by the Odd Fellous' .-Association. The 
two wings have each a fourth story, unoccupied ri879''. 

The third gift concert took olace July 8, 187^. One hun- 
dred tiiousand tickets were sold at ten dollars each, making 
the gross receipts one million dollars. Five hundred thou- 
sand dollars were returned to ticket-holders as prizes. One- 
half the net profits, or 5122.000, was paid over to the librarv. 
The fourth drawing took place March 31, 187,1. The gross 
amount received for tickets $2,250,000. One-half was 
returned to ticket-holders in prizes, and the library received 
the net sum of $100,000. 

The fifth drawing took place February 27, 1S75. The 
gross amount received was 31,900.000, of which S950.00.0 was 
returned to ticket-holders in prizes, and the library received 
the net sum of $100,000. 

From the above statement, wliich has been taken from the 
official reports of the sever.^l mamgers of the drawings, it 
wi!! l^e seen that the gross sum receucd from the five gift 
concerts was $6,250,000. Of this sum $3,142,500 was re- 
turned to ticket-holders .as prizes. From the rem.iining sum, 
n.amely, $3,107,500. the library received the total sum of 
S422.396.32. This is the gross sum forming the endowment 
of the Public Library of Kentuckv. 



The gift concerts were extensively advertised, 
and as extensively patroni/cd. Mr. Toune says 
that tickets were purchased in all parts of the 
world. Hundreds, of clubs were formed through- 
out this country for the ]iurchase of tickets. It 
is estimated that two millions of buyers in all 
contributed to the success of the lotteries. On 
some single days $So,oco were received for 
tickets. Many of the smaller prizes, it is be- 
lieved, were never called fur, thus sivellin.i^ the 
profits of the nianaijers. 'J"he total profits of tin.- 
scheme, above piizes and expenses, are fii^ured at 

On the 1st of May. Professor P. A. Towne, 
just before a teacher at Paris, Kentucky, and 
now of tlie Abtor Library, New York, became 
I^ibrarian. There were then about ten thousand 
volumes in the Library, an exceedingly miscella- 
neous and largely useless c;ollection. Twenty 
thousand volumes, however — tnany of them rare 
and valuable — were bought in Europe the same 
year, and a catalogue of the whole was preijared 
as soon as possible by Professor Towne and 
assistants. The "Troost Collection " of thirteen 
thousand specimens, largelv in min^ralogv, and 
e.xceedingly curious and valuable, was bought of 
its owner, L)r. Girard Troost, and jilaced in the 
library, at a cost of $20,500. The statue of 
Hebe, by Canova, was bought for $10,000. The 
Library building and grounds cost $200,000 
The Library Hall was refitted, and the old mar- 
ket-house transmuted into Fe>tival Hall, at a 
cost of $60,000. About $50,000 Were spent for 
books, the cataloguge cost $6,000, and the Pub- 
lic Library Paper, started May 17, 1S73, and ed- 
ited by Mr. Casseday, cost $5,000 more. On 
the 19th of June, 1S75, sixteen weeks at'ter the 
last gift concert, the entire amount of the library 
fund left, according to the account of deposits in 
the Farmers' and Drovers' PSank, was $2.67. A 
long list of periodicals, numbering one hundred 
and thirteen, were now being taken by the 
library; but they had to be discontinued at the 
end of the next year, for lack of money. In 
1875, lectures began to be delivered in the 
Library Hall by Professor Procter the astrono- 
mer, Du ChaiUu the traveler, and others; but 
not much was realized to the Library from this 
source. The annual course of lectures, however, 
has since been a standing feature of the opera- 
tions of the library. The splendid a|;paratus of 

Professor Pepper, of the Polytechnic Institute 
in London, which had cost in that city $8, 000, was 
purchased for $500, to illustrate one course, de- 
livered by local scientists. 

In December, 1876, an oiganizatic>n was 
formed in one of the library loonis, under the 
leadership of the librarian, which was called' the 
Polytechnic Sijciety of Kentucky, whose objects, 
as stated in the first of its rules and regulations, 
"shall be the printing and publication of papers 
or works illu4rative of the history of Kentucky, 
of literature and science, and the encouragement 
of original research and the diff'usion of knowl- 
edge." Dr. Theodore S. Bell was made President 
of the Society, and Dr. 'Phomas K. Jenkins 
Secretary. The meml)er-,hip was unlimited, and 
by March, 1S77, numbered one luindred and 
sixty, comiirising many of the first citizens of 
Louisville. The Society, sajs Mr. I'owne, "was 
divided by a committee into five academies, 
each officered with a presiiJcnt, viee-ijresident, 
and secretary. The academies were of literature, 
sciences, art, philosophy, and technology, and 
during the remainder of tlie winter of 1876-77, 
and the sjiriiig of 1S77, one of the academies 
met each night, either in the library or Room 
No. I." 

His narrative continues; "The Polytechnic 
Society was conducted as a [nirely literary and 
scientific organization down to May 22, 1S7S. 
It had no charter, and could obtain none till the 
meeting of the Legislature. In the autumn of 
1 87 7 steps were taken in that direction.'' After 
much opposition and delay, a charter was granted, 
approved by the Governor April 10, 1878, and 
an enabling act passed April S, 1S7S, empowering 
the Public Library of Kentucky to transfer to 
the Polytechnic all its pro[)erty, "of every kind 
and character.'' The library was already consid- 
erably in debt, through litigation and otherwise, 
and was threatened with utter ruin, fiom which it 
was believed only a transfer to the Pulytechnic 
Society could save it. Accordingly the Public 
Library corporation, by resolution of May 7, 
1S7S, authorized its president to contract for the 
transfer of its property to the Polytechnic; and 
eleven davs afterwards, the latter accepted the 
condrtions proposed, and the transler was accom- 
plished on the 24th of the same month. Th.e 
collection of books and curiosities has since been 
known as the Polvtechnic Lilirarv of Kentucky. 



The debts of the Library were n^.siinied by 
the society, amounting to about $17,000, to- 
gether with $13,000 back taxes rlaiiuecl by tlie 
city cor])oratioii. December 1:, 1S7S, attach- 
ments were taken out bv some of Uie creditors, 
and levied upon the hbrary and rithcr pruperty. 
. A receiver of the revenues of the suciety was 
also asked of the court. After many maneuvers 
and diltu.ulties, however, several ]irominent 
gentlemen of the I'olytechnic-— the Re\-. Dr. 
Stuart Robinson, Colonel liennett H. Youu.-, 
George W. Swearingen, Edward \\ ilder, W. ']". 
Grant, J. H. Leathers, E. A. Grant, and Dr. D. 
S. Reynolds agieed to become res|ionsilile for 
the payment of the $17,000 of debt of the 
Polytechnic Society, which was sued upon. It 
is needless to follow the transaciiuns t'uuiier. 
The library and the society were saved, to be- 
come one of the gieatest ornaments and bless- 
ings to LouioviUe, as may be seen turthei in our 
account of the Polytechnic in the chapter on 
Societies and Clubs. The Library and Museum 
are admirably conducted, not only by the re- 
sponsible officers and committees of the society, 
but by the efficient and polite librarian inimedi- 
atelv in charge, Mi.s .\nnie X. Pollard, and her 
capable assistant, .Mr. Robinson. 



The Farmers' Liljrary— The Louisville G.izctte— The West- 
ern Courier— Contents uf the Old-time Papers— 1 he Daily 
Publie .\dvcrtiser— Ttie Focus— The Journal -The .Morn- 
ing Courier— The Courier-Journal- The Democrat— The 
Local Journ,\l5 of 1847— The Louisville Times— The 
Volksblatt- The Daily Comtnercial— The Sunday .Arsju^— 
Notes of journ.alism— Sketches of 
Colonel R. M. Kelly. Hon. W. S. WiUun. and George D. 
Prentice— Personal .Notices of Henry Watterson, Colonel 
R. T. Durrett, and Oiiiers. 


A newspaper with this unique title, one more 
distinctively agricultural than would now be 
chosen if the city could have but one journal, 
enjoys the honor of leading the long and dis- 
tinguished line of the Louisville [jress. The 
nineteenth ccntur_\', indeed, had but little more 
than come in, when, in iSoi, the Farmers' Li- 

brary saw the liyht. Its own light, however, 
soon went out, and so thoroughly that for maiiy 
years its e\islen( e was only inlened I'roin a stat- 
I ute ('f the Legislature in 1S07, which directed 
I Certain Liws to be printed in this paper. It was 
j m lieing, then, f(.ral least six years; but we have 
I no fuithcr remrd or hint of it. A partial file of 
I it, the only one knuwn t'l be in existence, is in 
i the jiossession of Colonel R. T. Dtirrett, of 
i Louisville. 

THE loi:lsvilll C,.\ZKrrK. 

I A similar nunlion of this [)aper, in an act of 

I the Legislature of iSoS, is, we believe, the only 

existing evidence tliat su( h a pa|ier was then 

1 published. Colonel Durrett, in his Centennial 

Address, says it was started the year after the 

Larnicis' Library. 

'lllE \V1:.S1LRN COl'RIKR. 

Louisville journalism now emerges from the 
darkness, and dates and details begin to be defin- 
itely known. This paper was started in Octobei 
or N'oveiiib.i, iSio, and was edited by Nicho- 
las Clark, who was also the publisher. Four 
years later Mr. Clark was joined in the editorial 
work by Mann Puller. But this arrangement 
was rather short-lived, Butler going out in 1S14. 
He was an acknowledged man of ability. Con- 
nected long with educational interests in Louis- 
ville, he was also an historian for his own city 
and State, writing the sketch of Louisville history 
having a [ilace in the first directory ever made 
of the city, compiled by R. \\'. Otis in 1S32. 

In iS.;i, Messrs. Bullcn and .A. G. Meriwether 
became associates with Mr. Clark, and the paper 
was re-christened The Em[iorium and Commer- 
cial Advertiser. It was also published semi- 
weekly, instead of weekly, as it had been. In 
February of the following year, .Messrs. Clark & 
Meriwether transterred their interest to Messrs. 
S. H. Bullen c^ F. E. Goddard, and had no 
further connection with the papei. Subsequent- 
ly, Mr. Goddard was alone in the publication, 
the paper ceasing to exist while under his man- 
agement. Mr. Bullen changed his editorial 
work for tliat of cashier of the Bank of Ken- 
tucky, which [josition he is said to have filled 
the rest of his lite with great efficiency and dig- 
nity. The latter qualit)', in fait, to^etiier .■.ilh 
his courtly manners, gained tor him the title of 
"," by which he was unuersally known. 

4 2S 


Everybody loved and resiiorted the old gentle- 

Mr. Goddard became a tcarher, and many of 
LouibviUe's best riti/ens still clleri^h liih memory 
with that teiidcini:s^ which a true teacher alone 
ran inspire. He was a man of nmie than ordi 
nary intellectual attainments, and these, com- 
bined wiili a love for the humorous, a sympa- 
thetic heart, an unswerving sense of right, and 
an earnest desiie to brini; the lives of his pujiils 
up to hi; own high standaid, made him a genu- 
ine force in society, and the memory of what he 
was and did still has a power over the pec'ple of 
his much-loved city. 


'J'he same year that the Loui^viiIc■ CouriL-r be- 
gan, we hear c^f ar.othcr periodical, hc-aring this 
title and conducted l>y Colonel E. C. liarty. It 
lived till 1S17, but there s^em to be no files of 
ol it now in existence. 


The contents of the pajiers in tlio^e days were 
made up of war news, acts of asseniblv and do- 
ings i;i Congress, descriptions of huge cabbage- 
heads, beets, till nips, etc.; learned Lfuisions from 
such writers as "Justice" and "Veiitas,'' and se- 
vere local criticisms I'rom the "Old Citizen,'" the 
"Ta.v-payer," and sundry other such personages, 
whose sharp letters still fill the newspaper's col- 
umns, but usually under difterent signatures: ad 
vertisements quaint, but right to the point; and 
always and everywhere steamboat news, for steam 
navigation was a great novelty, and everv time 
a boat arrived or started, the wrmdets of inven- 
tion, the gain to commerce, etc., were topics of 
greatest interest— and this is not strange when 
we remember that the trade on the Ohio riser 
gave Louisville its life-blood, and the principal 
part of all business afiairs depended upon the 
same thing, day by day. 


the first journal of everyday issue here, was 
started July i, iSt;, by the well-known Shadrach 
Penn. This man, one of the traditional heroes 
of journalism in the city, is described as a per- 
son of most e.xtraurdinary tact, a furcible writer, 
and in politics having had a large experience. 
His [laper speedily became the leader oi its own 
local circle, and then extended its influence to 
all parts of the West. Being the acknowledged 

Jackson organ, its power was felt in its own city, 
and not less in its own State. Without a riv;il, 
it was the representative of tlic d miinant party 
for twelve years and more. I'p to the year 1S30 
Penn had met "no foe man worthy of his steel," 
and at this date was conrirnud in his position by 
a marked victory over the "New Court party," 
and his leadershi|) in the party victorious in one 
of the sharpest struggles in the political iiistory 
of Kentuckv. 

Mr. Penn had many a bout with Mr. Prentice, 
of the Journal, who was ihen in his best days; 
but generally had the worst of it, and finally he 
left the field, leceiving a very manly and gener- 
ous valediction t'lom his antagonist. He went 
to St. Eouis, where he established and conducted 
I a new pap'er, which was deservedlv successful 
I until his death in 1S46. Tlie Advertiser, says 
I Mr. Casseday, deprived of its master spirit, lin- 
j gered along a few years, and finally expired in 
the arms of the Rev. W. C. Puck, of "Baptist 
I Hymns'' memory. 

' THE FOCrs. 

j Dr. Buchanan and Mr. W. W. Worsley were 

editors and publishers of this paper, which, was 

j started in 1S26. It claimed to be decidedly 

I anti-Jackson in politics, but was so largely devot- 

j ed to literary, scientific, and coniiiieicial matters, 

j that its opposition to the Advertiser was of little 

j importance. Its first editors were recognized as 

I men of ability, but for want of pecuniary prolit 

they parted with it, and througli Messrs. Cavins 

& Robinson, the purchasers, it was ultimately 

merged into the Louisville Journal, which for a 

brief time was in consequence known as The 

Journal and Focus. At this time Mr. George 

D. Prentice had editorial charge of the new 



.\ very notable event occurred in the late 
autumn of 1S30, in the founding of the Louis- 
ville Daily Journal, chiefly by Mr. George D. 
Prentice, who had come to the State to write a 
biography of the Hiin. Henry Clay, at the in- 
stance of the friends of the Cireat Conniioner. 
He finished this work November 14, and ten 
days afterwartis the first number of his Journal 
api'eared, urged and assisted thereto by the op- 
ponents of the Jackson Demoeracy, who were 
anxious to have an able orgin in the city. Mr. 
Casseday, in his e--.say on I.iiuisville Journals and 



'y</- '.r'^ r^K'/, 


Journ;ilists, gives a dctaikcJ history of this f:i- 
inous newspaper, hom whic h we condense the 
following : 

On lht'2|tli of Xovfnil>er, 1830, G.-orye D.. Prentice and 
S. liuMon, the latter a practieal printer of tancinnati and 
owner of one-half of the paper, cnnimenced the puljlication 
of the IjOnisviUe Journal. An article in the Courier-Juurnal 
of May, 1S75. referring to this event, nptlv say-s : 

"Political e.x'citement \vas at the lime exceedingly \ijlent, 
Henry Clay and General Jackson, then President, Ijeing the 
opposinij candidates for the succession, and Kentucky ha\inii 
voted two years before for General Jackson. The Journal 
threw all its enert;ies into the conflict for .Mr. Clav, wliose 
political friends were then known as National Repui'licans. 
Its appearance was cordi illy and enthusiastically greeted by 
its party, another X.uional Repuhiicui paper, the Louisville 
Focus, having filled, although skillfully edited, to satisfy the 
party's demands for vehemence and spirit. The great suc- 
cess of the Journal was assured on the first morning of its 
publication, and notwithstanding tlie fact that Kentucky was 
a Jackson State and Louisiille a Jackson city, it bec.inie in 
less than four weeks the most largely circulated [\tper in both 
the city and State." 

The unparalleled success would in most cases ha\e been 
destructive to the energies of an editji, hut seemed only to 
stimulate Prentice to greater exertion. He had just served 
an apprenticcshii) of two years in the editorship of the New 
England Weekly Review, punlished at Hartford, Connect!- j 
cut, and had made it one of the most popular periodicals of 1 
the d.iy, succeed^-d there, as he did in tlie Journal, in j 
drawing around him a corps of correspondents composed of I 
the brightest minds within his reach. .-\t twenty-eight years 
of age he had resigned his editorial chair in Connecticut to | 
John Greenleaf Whittier, and almost immediately begun his 
labors on the Louisville Journal .Mr. Penn, of the .•\d\er- 
tiser, at once commenced an aggressive attack upon tlie 
Journal, and a war of wit was begun between the two editors 
which lasted for eleven years, and which attracted the at- 
tention of the whole country. It was in tliis contest that 
Prentice displayed that power of wit, humor, and satiie that 
was irresistible, and that made his name and that of the Jour- 
nal known and admired even in the remotest places in the 
whole country. 

Edwin Byrant, since known for his connection with the 
early history of .■\mericanized California, was the first asso- 
ciate editor of the Journal, but he did not renuiin in that posi- 
tion more than si.'c months. In 1S53 Mr. Bu.xton sold his 
interest in the Journal to John N. Johnson, and he in turn 
resold it to George \V. Weissinger about two years later. 
After Weissinger's death his interest passed into the hands of 
Isham Henderson and John D. Osborne, anrl so remained 
until the consolidation with the Cou.-ier in 1868. Both John- 
son and Weissinger were good writers and men of talent. 
Weissinger had superior schol.irship. dainty tastes, and 
wrote with singular giace and popularity. Neither he nor 
his predecessor, howe\er. interfered at all m the editorship of 
the paper. Johnson rarely wrote for it, and UVissirger s 
articles, though always pleasant, were as rare as those of 
most other correspondents. 

Edmund Flagg. who has since been Consul to Venice, 
and who wrote, among other books, a clever history of that 
repiihlic. W.1S associated with the Journal in 1833, In De- 
cember of that year there was issued from tlie office of the 
Journal a weekly paper called the Literary Newsletter, and 
Plagg was appointed its editor, This paper was well con- 

ducted, and contained many excellent literary contributions, 
but its existence was limited to about two and a half ye.irs. 
Leonard Bliss, whose tragic death is not yet forgotten, was 
the editorial successor of Flagg. 

In 1842 Thomas H. Slireve became an associate editor of 
the Journal, and so continued until his death, in 1S48. 
Slircve had formerly been associ.itcd with W. D. Gallagher 
in the editorship of the Hesperian, a literary journal of merit, 
published in C:incinnati. He was a man of good scholarship, 
educated taste, and of fluency and grace as a writer, and 
withal no incunsiderafile politician. He was notably a Chris- 
tian gentlenian, and his writings, of whatever -kind, showed 
the purity of his mind and the excellent qualities of his heart. 
His style Was accurate and vet ready and fluent, and his 
editori.ils were a potent element in the career of the Journal, 
and might, without disparagement, have been acciedited to 
his chief, as. indeetl. riianv of them were. 

From the death of Shieve, in 1S4B, till the fall of 1852, 
there is no n.inie of importance occupying an associate posi- 
tion on the pajier, but the work of such an editor was done 
by a variety of correspondents, all of whom were excellent in 
their several specialities. In that year Paul K. suc- 
ceeded 10 the place. He brought to it commanding tah-nts, 
inflexible integrity, and the matured views of a statesman. 
His style terse, and his command of English masteily. 
He wrote with vigor and elegance, but without pretliness or 
redundancy of ornament. His views of the course proper 
for the paper were considered b\- all as sagacious and consist- 
ent, and no move was made without consulting him. His 
influence for good was felt by readers of the journal during 
his whole connection with it, whicl'. lasted until the consolida- 
tion with the Courier. 

This sketch of the editors of the Journal would be u'com- 
plele w ithout the mention of the name of Joe Bernde. "Joe'" 
was for many years the commercial, local, and night editr.'r 
of the Journal. In fact, he did what everybody else left un- 
done, and always performed his work with judgment and 
ability. "Joe" was as well known to the citizens who saw 
him in his daily rounds as the paper itself, though few of 
them ever heard his family name. In the office his judgment 
was respected, and he was often entrusted with tlie whole 
care of the paper. On such occasions, as he never professed 
any ability to write himself, he would hunt up some one 
qualified to treat the popular subject he had in view, and so 
manage to bring out the issue that it should be worthy of its 
place m the series. He was considered somewhat as the 
wheel-horse of the paper; slow and laborious, but steady 
and true to his work. He died at his post, and his memory 
is still green in the he.irts of tho.-e who were associated with 
him, and, indeed, all who knew hini. 


On the i2ih of February Mr. ^Valter N. 
Haldetnan, a native of -Ma\sville, who had come 
to Louisville in 1S37, and made a beginning as 
clerk in a wholesale grocery, afterward becoming 
book keeper tor J'rentice's Journal, secured pos- 
session of the Daily i^inie, on account of a def-t 
due him. This little sheet had been issued for 
a few months by an association of [irintcrs with- 
out much success, but under Mr. ILildeman, 
who was himself less than twenty-three years old, 
it soon forged forward, and on the ;^d of June, 


insroKV OF the ohio falls c:ounties. 

of the same year, it took a new departure, with 
an enlargement and a new name, ai the Morning 
Courier. 'l'lien<etorlh, for twenty-four years, llie 
Courier was a notable and succe.^^ful institution 
of Louisville, winning for its editor and [jropiie- 
tor both fame and t'ortune. In iSoS, however, it 
was deemed advisable to merge the two leading 
newspapers of the city, the Journal and the 
Courier, into one as the Courier-Journal, by 
whicli title it is now one of the best-known pa- 
pers in all the land, and is the chief organ of the 
Southern Democracy. 

The first number of the new journal apppeared 
on Sunday, November S, iS6S. The Louisville 
Democrat was also presently admitted to this 
powerful combination. Mr. Haldeman was 
made President and Business Manager of the 
company, Mr. Henry U'atterson editor-in chitf, 
and Mr. Isham Henderson was the third mem- 
ber. On the 15th of January ne.xt following, tlie 
office occupiied a large building prepared for it on 
Jefferson street ; but, this proving insufficient for 
its demands, the site of the old o[jera hotise on 
the corner of Ureen and Fourtli streets, was pur- 
chased in June, 1S74, and the 5|i!endid si\-story 
brick building, occupied by the Courier-Journal 
and many other offices and stores, was erected, 
at a cost, with the lot, of about $200,000. It 
has a front of one hundred and t'lt'ty feet on 
Fourth and eighty-six on Green street, and is one 
of the finest newspaper edillces in the country. 
At the southwest corner, in a commanding niche, 
is placed, in a sitting position and of heroic size, 
a statue of the famous poet-editor of the Jour- 
nal, Mr. George D, Pi entice. 

Mr. Casseday, in his magazine article on the 
Journals and Journalists of Louisville before the 
War, supplies the following additional details: 

Haldeman brous^-lit to his task inrtexible will and indomit- 
able ei\ergy. In the h.-inds of almoit any other man the 
paper would soon have emulated the example of so nvany of 
its predecessors. Haldeman did not know the meaning of 
failure; adversity only fixed his determination more firmly, 
and urged him to increased effort. He had "come to stay," 
and stay he did. He fairly conquered success in the face of 
all difficulties. He started ont with the idea of making a 
nenos-paper, and his enterprise in this direction soon woke up 
the sleepy old journalists not only in Loui5\ilIe, but all over 
the .As there were few railroads then reaching this 
city, and as the telegraph was yet unborn, the secunng of 
rewsat the earliest possible moment was a matter of energy, 
enterprise, and expense. spared none of these, 
and, from the very start, his paper \vas what is now called 
"a live institution." 

Early in 1845 Edwin Bryant, vsho had been in the Journal 

in its fir-it yens, and afteiward v\-as connected with the pic, 
in l.exini;ton, became associ.itc editor of the Conricr. aii'l 
occupied that position for a year, when he retired to ninke 
his overland trip to California. '1 hi^ trip secured liry.inis 
f^iriiine, and also gave ri;e to the best of the bc.ks about 
e.arly days in the Land of Gold. .\s a journalist Bryant w.i-. 
sensible rather than brilliant. His opinions were peneiallv 
correct, and alu.iys enforced with the sincerity of honest con- 
viction. He not a tluent but aU'. a)5 a just and faithful 
writer, uhoinspirei rcsj ect if he did not command adniii.i 


\anl h. 

^nircd reduced his 
Ttcc, and in e\ery other way curtailed his expenses. . , 

During this time | iS-|c,] Charles D. Kirk betamc associated 
with the Courier as a local reporter. He soon reached the 
head of this class of writers, and became afterwards dis- 
tinguished as a Correspondent. His career commenced when 
he was a mere lad, but his great facility in preparinf; his im- 
pressions for the press, and the graphic care with which he 
presented every incident, soon made him a valuable assistant. 
His newspaper ambition was satisfied in the local depattmcm, 
and he rarely ventured into the editorial columns. He did, 
liowever, write a novel called Wooing and Warring in the 
Wilderness, which was really a clever production, but which, 
I in spite of its alliterative title, never reached the success it 
really moiited. Kirk was for several years the correspond- 
ent of the Courier at Frankfort, and his letters were read 
with interest and pleasure by all. He served also as a 
"local" on the Democrat, and had at one time a paper of 
his own called the Evening Sun, but his lack of 
ability prevented us success. 

Ill January, 1S53, William D. Call.igher, of Cincinnati, 
purchased a half-interest in tlie Courier. Gallagher had ex- 
perience as a writer, a politician, and an editor. He had 
edited the Hesperian, had achieved an enviable reputation 
as a jioct and literateur, and had been for many years con- 
nected with the Cincinnati Gazette. Gallagher was a man of 
gicat honesty and dignity of character, a writer of first-class 
ability, and in every respect a valuable addition to the paper. 
Politically he prob.\bly not in thorough sympathy with his 
readers, yet he earned their respect and admiration. He 
remained in the oft'ice .about eighteen months, and was after- 
wards appointed by the Governor Surveyor of the Customs 
m Louisville. He ha? s'nce been constantly in Government 
employ, an>l is universally respected at home and abroad. 
Whatever position he has occupied he has filled with honor 
and dignity, and deserves, as fully as he receives, the respect 
of his fe'.low men. .After he had severed his connection with 
the Courier, that paper reverted to Haldeman, who now 
found it a successful and prosperous journal. 

Four years later, in 1857, R. T. Durrett purchased a half- 
interest in the Courier, and assisted in its editorship for 
about two years. Durrett, like Haldeman. was a man of 
immense energy, with a capacity for kibor almost uneciualled, 
but, unlike ft aldeinan", his energy not always directed to 
one objective point. His kibor, like his mind, was diffusive, 
not concentr.itive His woik was not like the deep current 
of a miglity river that sweeps away all the obstacles in iis 
■course, but like the restless mountain stream that seeks here 
and there an egress for its waters, careless where it makes a 
bed so that a bed is made, and avoiding impediments by sur- 
-ounding, not by overturning them. Durrett made his mark 
in journ.ilism in Loui-iviile. If not always gr.iceful, he 
always forcible; if his style lacked completeness and ci is^ic- 
ality, it was distinguished by nervous force and energy, and 
his connection with the Courier is an epoch in the history ol 


bolli. In 1359 Durrctt 50IJ hi^; inlcre5t in tin' paper to Wal- 
l^T G. Overton, and tht; estaMishrnenl then iH'c.inic a torpor- 
.inon under the name of the Louisville Cuurier Printing Com- 
I my. Colonel Robert McKec, formerly of Maysville. suc- 
t'l-ded Uurretl in the editorial chair. McKee was'a fercil.le 
jr.d .il'le writer, and man.aj;ed the with ni. irked ability 
x\nu\ his career was checked by (i'.'neral Rob-rt .\nderbiin. 
«ho look possession not only of the editorial chair, but of 
the whole oftke, and stopped, by armed force, the matin-song 
of .all its birds. Its subsequent ghiiious career is lieyond 
the scope of this article, and hence, for us, this imperfect 
.^keIch of its history and its person.ihty closes. However 
great its present position, or to whatever stil! higher rank it 
mav attain in the future, it must be remembered that it is to 
the great sagacity, untiring energy, and iinwavermg determ- 
ination of llaldeman that the Courier owes its success. 


Its genesis is lecordcd ns uccurring in the years 
1 84 2 -43. Aiiout this time Mr. Fhineas Kent, of 
New Albany, Indiana, backed by a stock romp.Tny 
composed of James Guthrie and other leading 
Democrats of the city, undcriook the work for 
the purpose of aiding in the Presidential canvass 
of 1S44. After a short time Kent's stock was 
transferred to John H. Harney, who took charge 
of the paper in Kent's place, the latter not beini; 
entirely acceptable to the party. We next hear 
of William and Thomas Hu-hes having shares 
in the woik, and, the latter continuing only a 
short time, of the tirm of Harnev & Hughes be- 
ing absorbed by the Courier-Journal combina- 
tion. In the beginning of Hainay's connection 
with the Democrat, he had been persuaded so to 
do by Prentice, who had always treated him with 
the greatest respe'ct. The \ery shar[i contro- 
versy, that at one time came up between I'ren- 
tice and Hughes, did not include his partner- 
Harney ranked as a scholar and a gemltman of 
broad, statesman-like views. A person of no 
previous journalistic experience, he speedily rose 
to the place of leader in his profession as well as 
in his political party. His writing was strong, 
forcible, and correct. He was too mathematical 
to be florid. What he lacked in the graces of 
expression was more than balanced by the direct. 
nes-, and energy of the style he used, and his 
services were willingly received. In the party 
nienibersliip there was not a rival. Hughes's 
writing tor the paper was limited, hut he found 
enough to do in the department. For 
a lime the two sons of Harney, William W. and 
^•-Iby, contributed to the ed*ti>rial wuik,- the 
farmer writing articles chiefly of a literary char- 
acter, the latter's work being of a li-hter kind. 

A weekly paper, bearing the same name, has 
been published of late years in I^ouis\ille. 

THE I.O.C.M. JOUKNM.'^ OF 1847 

were the Journal, publiMied by I'rcntice & Weis- 
singer ; the Democrat, by John H. Harney; the 
Courier, by ^\'. N. Haldenian ; the Presbyterian 
Herald, llev. W. W. Hill ; the Baptist Panner, 
Rev. W. C. Puck ; the Catholic Advocate, the 
True Caiholi'-, the Christian Journal (which weie 
all the religious ncivspa|>ers in the State, save 
one), the Temperance .-\dvocate, and the Western 
Medical lournak 


Mr. Cas.->eday, in his subsequent essay on 
Journals and Journalists, gives the following 
racy account of this and one or two other papers 
of the time : 

In 1S31-52 the Times was started by " the three Colonels," 
as they were then called. These were Theodore OTIara, 
John Pickett, and Colonel Slapp; O'Hara being the chief 
eduor, and Pickett a resident correspondent at Vera Cruz. 
They were ardent friends of for the Presidency in 
the oncoming canvass, and earnest advocates of Cuban an- 
nexation. Their career was but brief, for in 1053 the Times 
WJ5 purchased by Colonel William Tanner, the founder of 
the Frankfcirt (Kentuck\) Yeoman, by whom, a few months 
later, a half interest w.a5 sold to Colonel John O. Bullock, 
and in .August, 1854, Colonel John C. Xoble. of the Hop- 
kinsville Press, bought Tanner's interest. The paper thus 
continued till January, 1S57, when U yielded to the energy 
of the Know- Nothing party. The materi,ils of the office 
were then taken by Colonel Xoble to Paducah. Kentucky, 
and used by him in starting the Paducah Herald. 

" The three Colonels " were all young men. typical Southern- 
ers: ardent, enthusiastic, and full of^ns/i. The paper, under 
their administration, was popular, if not useful. If they were 
somewhat sophomoric in style fliey displayed a fierce energy 
and a youthful vigor that wjn them admiration for them- 
selves, if it did not m.ike converts to their doctnnes. O'Hara 
is known as the author of the Bivouac of the Dead, one of 
the best .American minor poems. .-Mthougli written by a 
most radical Southerner, one of its verses is now inscribed 
on a monumental stone erected to the meiv,ory of Northern 
soldiers in a Northern cemetery. Colonel Bullock conducted 
the paper pretty much in the aggressive style of his prt-de- 
cessors, though with more point and directness, and Co'ione! 
Noble was a very strong and bitter partisan writer; so that 
the sword-thrust of the one and the sturdy b'ows from the 
m.ace of the other m.ide "Colonel Times" rather a formida- 
ble opponent. 

In Sepieiiiher, 1S5.1, Jabez H. Johnson commenced his 
journalistic c.ireer as a writer fur the Times, and continued 
it in this and other papers till his death. Johnson had the 
most inexh.iustible fund of humor tnat was ever contained in 
one man. It not only trickled from his pen, whatever the 
sul'.eet upon which he wrote, but it slopped over in his con- 
versation and even in his soliloijuy. It was not wit, though 
he had occasional flashes of, but a subdued and inter- 
penetrating humor. His very s'gnatiire, ■■Vulia Dam ." was 
a pantagrueiism. tie was a man of culture, and hence his 


humor rnrely degcncr.u.'d itilo coarseness, but was cli.iracler- I viUc has always been an Uphill tuisiness, and 

hcdbygoodMs.e.m,! >,'-ninl.ty. It u,is never forced. Imt i f.,,,. of them, English Or f;ernuin, have "one, 

exuded from him .is n.imnllv ,is the moUtiire from liis skin, i '* " 

He occasionally aspired to the higher forms of serions com- | 'i""^'';' ^ r^'l't^' tO success ai the Volksblatt. To 

position, and s\ as not unsuccessful in them. Uit lliC effort a|)- 1 (Ll)' it has the Ingest circulation of any Geililan 

peared to fatigue him. Lift- seetned to him an endless round j,,,j,^,- published south of the Ohio river, and 

of fun, and he enjoyed seeing it spiti ;t\vav on its silh' course. 1 . , . . . . , 

,, , „ ,,° .,' ,, . ■ ._ ,. . „ , Its value as a means cit coinrninui ation with t he 

.MiQUl 1852 a piper called the bnion was st.arted by a ""^ 

company of gemiemcn. but the .advanced republican ideas JieOple is evcl\ where recognized. 

which it advocated did not meet with a suflieient response in On }anuar\' I, 1866. .Mr. KrilipensLipcl issMi .] 

the public mind .as u was then directed, and ,ts career ^^'^ ^-^.I^ ,,„„;j^^., ^.f ,|,^, Louisville Omnibus, a 
very brief. 

The Bulletin, an c»emnj; paper, was aUo published about literary Sunday paper. It has a large corps ot 

this time, but was in the li.uids of writers alre.idy noticed, 1 talented writers, is admirably COIlducled, and 

and hence claim, no Sep ir,ite attention. J,.,5 becnnie universally poi)ular, obtaining a 

THE Louisviij.i: voLKSlu,.\TT \ large r circulation than any j.apier of a like char 

is to-day one of the leading German publications | acter that ha^ ever been issued in the Soiiih. 

of the Southwest. Its history is full of encour- ' The Omnibus is eminently woithy of the liigli 

ageraent, showing the ri|"ie fruits of energy and [josition it has obtained as a family journal, avoid- 

enterprise. It was est iblished -\pril 5, 1S62, as \ ing in its humor and general news every item 

a weekly paper. The dem.rnd for a live Ger- 1 which would contain a vulgai language. It is 

m:^n paper was generally recognized at that j jiubliihed every Suiid.iy morning. 

THE D.VlLV C0.M.\!ERCI.\b. 

time, and the proprietors were soon induced to ] 

issue daily, seroi weekly, and weekly editions. { 

In 1S63 Mr. Kri|i]ienstapel sold his interest, | The first number of the Louisville Daily Copl- 
and the firm was styled Rapp, c\; Co. j niercial appeared on the 29th day of December, 
He engaged in mercantile business, in which he ; 1S69. It was eilal)h^hed by a stock compian)' 
was remnrkatjly successful. Shortly after this ; compiosed of a number of leading Republicans 
Messrs. Civil, Calvert & Co. were induced to ; of the State, who f'elt that it was imp>ortant to 
start a Republican English paper, and, in order ' have in the metropolis of Kentuck) a newspaper 
to Secure the dispatches, bought the \'olksb!att representing their principles. Tlnnugh the Ke- 
and published an English and German edition | publican party was largely in the minority in 
under the name of the ■' Louisville National , Louisville as well as in the State, there was ap- 
Union Press.'' In 1S64 Mr. Krippenstapel was 1 parently a field for another daily pajier, the con- 
prevailed ui>on to take charge of the Press, and ; solidation of those previiiuslv existing having left 
it was merged into a stock company. This ; no morning papier to contend with except the 
arrangement was coniinued for something less ; Courier-Journal. The title of .the company was 
than a year, uhen Mr. Krippenstapel bought the , the Louisville Commercial Company, and it was 
whole stock at par value. organized under a charter granted some years 

Becoming the sole proprietor of the German edi- 1 previously by the Legislature, authorizing a gen- 
tion, he changed the name back to the Louisville 1 eral newspaper, book, and job printing business. 
Volksblatt, publishing daily, semi-weekly, and ; Colonel R. M. Kelly, then a resident of Lexing- 
weekly editions. From that time the ^'olk^blatt ; ton, Kentucky, and filling the position of Col- 
has been foremost amrmg German newspapers, ; lector of Internal Revenue for the Seventh Dis- 
and a leader of public ojjinion. It has steadily [ trict, was chosen editor and manager, 
grown in importance and inlluence, and was and resigned the aforesaid position to enter on 
several times elected city pirinter in recognition , his new duties ; and Thomas Bradley, of I.oui-- 
of the [)opularity of its proprietor and of its ' ville, was elected the business manager, 
large circulation. From the start the \'oIksblatt The undertaking was ventured upon with 
has been a consistent and an aggressive Repub- , wholly inadequate capital, and though the paj>er 
lican paper, and the increase of that party in met tVom the first with whatuas under the cir- 
Kentucky is largely due to the earnest personal cunistances a liberal sujiport t'rom the busine-'S 
efforts of .Mr. Krippenstapel through the columns . community, it had for a long time a hard strug- 
of the Volksblatt. Starting a paper in Louis- ' gle to maintain itself Its staunchest, most 

% r. 







hojicful, and most helpful frimd during the first | 
years was General Julm I. Croxton, of Paris, its j 
laif^est stockholder, who died in A]iril, 187.1, at j 
La I'az, Bolivia, while United States Minister 
resident lo that country. ^Fr. liradley retired as 
business manager after a few months, and his 
duties were assumed Ijy Colonel Kelly in con- 
junction with the editorshi|i, until Ceneral John | 
^\'. I'innell, now of Covington, associated him- j 
self with the I'aper, and for nearly two years i 
took charge of its business interests. 'I'he panic < 
of 1S73 and the hard times following told uijou j 
the Commercial, as upon other struggling busi- 
ness enterpiises, and it required a courage and 
a belief in its future which were abundantly 
manifested, to carry it through. One of its nio~t 
liberal friends during the dark years of financial 
depression was Hon. John yi. Harlan, nou an 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Coiut. Mr. S. 
L. Ewing, Mr. W. B. Siegfried, and Mr. L. S. How- 
lett, who lately resigned the position of manag 
ing editor, were at different times in charge of 
the publishing dep.irtinent. The Louisville 
Commercial company was several times reorgan- 
ized during its struggles, and in the summer of 
1879 ^^'snf '"to liquidation and its property was 
sold and purchased by the Commercial Publish- 
ing company, in which the principal stockholders 
were B. DuPont, E. H. Murray, R. M. Kelly, 
and W. S. AVilson. E. H. Murray was elected 
president and general manager, and W. S. Wil- 
son business manager. 

After some months General Murray was ap- 
pointed by President Hayes Governor of L'tah, 
and resigned the presidency of the company. 
W. S. Wilson was elected to succeed him as 
president, which position he still holds, though, 
having been appointed early in 1S81 collector of 
internal revenue for the Louisville district, he 
was soon compelled by his duties to give up all 
active participation in the management of the 
paper, and Colonel Kelly was then chosen man- 
ager, and assumed the duties of that position 
in addition to those of chief editor. Colonel 
Kelly is the only [)erson now connected with 
the paper who has been with it uninterrupt- 
edly since its first issue. The managing editor 
IS .Mr. Young Allison, the principal editorial 
writer Mr. William .\. Collins, and the city editor 
Mr. Hawthorne Hill. The Commercial has won 
for itself a firm hold im the business corumumtv 

of Louisville, and a leading position in Repub- 
lican journalism in the Southwest. It has been 
a steadfast friend of State development, local 
reforms, and Repulilican progress. 

TUb S.UXti.W -\RCfS 

was established May 26, 1876, by O. H. Roth- 
a< ker, \V. H. CJardner, and Lowe &; Stanley, the 
latter being the publishers. It published an 
eight-column paper from what was then No. 105 
Fifdi street, Louisville. On the ist of January, 
1878. J. l^inkelspicl purchased the interest of 
Lowe &: StanLy, and the Argus Printing and 
Publishing Company was subsequently formed. 
The printing and job office of Lowe, i.*i: Stanley 
was purchased in October, 1S78, by said com- 
pany. In 1879, -Mr. Rothacker retired, his in- 
terest being [lurcliased by the remaining partners. 
-Mr. W. H. Gardner died in 1881, in the month 
of January, and his interest was purchased by 
J. Dinkelspiiel, who now owns all but two shares 
of stock. In 1879 the paper was made a nine- 
column one of folio size. Its circulation was 
increased to more than five thousand. 


The Western Recorder, an influential organ of 
the Baptists, was established here in 1S34. 

The Louisville Notary was a short lived pub- 
lication of iSj4, started by the Rev. D. C. 
Banks and Mr. .\. E. Napier. 

The City Gazette was a daily started in 1838, 
and published for a time by Messrs. John J. and 
James B. Marshall. 

About the same time The Messenger, a liter- 
ary and religious monthly which had been pub- 
lished in Cincinnati by the Rev. James Freeman 
Clarke, then a young L'nitarian minister and 
since one of the most firmous of Boston divines, 
came with him upon his removal to the church 
of his faith here. It is lielieved to have been the 
first monthly magazine in the city. 

The Literary Newsletter was started in De- 
cember, 1837, and was pulilished from the 
Journal otTice for about thirty months, by Mr. 
Edmund Flagg. 

In the same year the issue of The Western 
Journal of Education was begun, by the Rev. 
Benjamin O. Peers, Rector of St. Paul's Church. 

The Anzeiger, the German Democratic daily 
of Louisville, was started by .Messrs. Doern & 
Schceffer in 1S49, and was then owned by Mr. 



Doern alone iiniil, rSyy, when it was 
sold to the Louisville An/ciger Company, More 
of its history will be '^ivcn prtsenily, in connec- 
tion with a notice of Mr. Doern. 

In 1.S59 the Voice of Masonry and 'I'idings of 
the Craft appeared, in tharue of the \eteran 
Free Mason, Brother Robeit Morris. 

The Christian Observer, a Presbyterian organ, 
removed from Richmond to Louisville in 1S69, 
claims to be a lineal descendant of The Christian 
Intelligencer, the first leligious journal in .Vmeri- 
ca, whose initial issue was dated September 4, 

The Louisville ] )aily Ledger began its issue 
February 15, 1S71, and survived hopefully until 
April 26, i<S76. 

The Sunday Globe dated t'roin I'ehruary 7, 
1875. During the same year .Messrs. R. F. 
Avery &: Sons started " Home and Farm,'' for 
which they claim a circulation of about one 
hundred and twenty thousand. 

The Woman at ^\'ork, a literar)- monthly 
edited by ^frs. E. T. Huush, and "devoted to 
mental, moral, and physical culture, self helpful- 
ness, and home adornment," had its beginning 
here in 1S77. 

The year 1S79 was a prolific year for new jour- 
nalistic enterprises in Louisville. January 4th, 
appeared the first number of 'I'he .\ge, edited by 
Colonel Charles E. Sears and Mr. \V. T. I'lice. 
February 19th, came out the Southern Quarterly 
Review. June 7th marked the starting of The 
Bulletin, a weekly paper tor the colored people, 
conducted by J. Q. & C. F. Adams. September 
20th another paper tor the .American citizens of 
African descent, called The Ohio Falls Express, 
was started by Mr. H. Fitzbutler. November 
1st, The Guardian, published in the interest of 
the Knights of Honor, was started by O. E. 
Comstock, but is now published by F. E. Slater. 
The New Southern Poultry journal was estab- 
lished this year, by G. R. Duvall iN: Co. 

In April, 1879, the two afternoon papers, the 
Evening News, conducted by George \V. Baber, 
Esq., and the Post, were consolidated as the 
News and Post, which subsequently became 
simply the Evening Post. Septembei 2, 1880, 
the subscription li:,t and good-will of the Bowling 
Green Intelligence were transferred to the Post. 

Straws, an illustrated monthly, i6-p-ige quarto, 
was started in January, 18S1. 

The Lfiuisville Journal of Commerce and 
Weekly I'rice Current be<ame successor May 2S, 
iSSi, to . the Trade (iazette, which, had been 
founded here about tour years previously. 

The Ohio I'alls Hume and School Compan- 
ion, a monthly, was started in the winter of 
1S81-82, by .Mr. M. L. Speed. 

The medical and law journals of the city wjU 
be noticed in the ne.xt chapters. 


Robert Morrison Kelly was born at Paris, 
Kentucky, on the 22c\ day of Se])tenilier, 1S36, 
and was the sixth of eleven children of Thomas 
and Cordelia Kelly. His father, Thomas Kelly, 
was the oldest of two sons of ^\Tlliam Kelly, a 
leading merchant of Paris and one of the early 
settlers of the place, and was himself a mer- 
I chant and nianufactuier, and for manv years of 
his later life Cashier of the Branch of the 
Northern Bank of Kentucky, at Paris. His 
mother was a daughter of Colonel Robert .Mor- 
row, a leading citizen of Montgomery county. 

The subject of our sketch was educated in pri- 
vate schools at Paris, and prepared for \'ale Col- 
lege in a class under Rev. T. DeLacey W'ardlaw, 
a learned Presbyterian divine, but abandoned 
the purpose of attending college, and be-,an at an 
early age to teach a private school in Paris. 
Alter two years spent in teaching in Paris and 
vicinity, he took charge of the academy at 
Owingsville, where he staid two years, and 
studied law under Hon. J. Smith Hurt, of that 
place. Having been admitted to the bar, he 
opened an ottice there, but removed to Cyndii- 
ana, Kentucky, in the summer of 1S60, having 
tieen offered a local partnership tiiere v.itii Hon. 
Garrett Davis, his uncle by marriage. The rapid 
a[)proach of the war soon absorbed every inter- 
est, and he deviated himself more to studying 
military tactics than legal science, and was elected 
first lieutenant and then captain of a local militia 

L'pon the opening of Camp Dick Robinson, 
the tnrst camp for L'nion volunteers pitched in 
the State, he with James M. Givens and Burweii 
S. Tucker began recruiting a company and pro- 
ceeded early m .\ugust t(j the camp. He was 






{// .-^. \J'( i'/jO 




tlectfd raptain, Ciivens first lieutenant, ami 
Tucker second lieutenant. The cumpany was 
attached to the F'ourth Kenim ky infantry, at 
first styled the Second Kentucky infantry, of 
which Speed S. Fry, of Hanville, was Colonel; 
lames I. Croxton, of Paris, lieulenant-colonel : 
and P. B. Hunt, of Lexington, major. He was 
promoted to major in March, 1S62, to lieutenaiu- 
(olonel in March, 1S64, and to colonel in Octo- 
ber, 1S64, and was nraslered out and dischart;ed 
with his regiment September i, 1S65, after more 
than four years of sei\ire, all of it in active duty 
in the field, and all with his regiment, cxcejit a 
few months spent as inspector of the division to 
which it was attached, jubt before the battle of 

After liis discharge from the ser\ice he re- 
turned to Paris and opened a law office, and 
soon after, on the 'ecommendation of the mili- 
tary board at St. Louis, presided over by CieTieral 
George H. Thomas, was co;iinii>sioncd first lieu- 
tenant in the regular army, but declined to ac- 
ce[it the appointment. In the summer of 1S66 
he ran on the Union ticket in his county as can- 
didate for county attorney, and s[ioke through 
the county with his opponent. Pef'ore the elec- 
tion he was ap[jointed Collector of Internal Rev- 
enue for the Seventh di5tiict,with oftice at Lexing- 
ton. He removed to Lexington September i, 
1 866, and remained there until the establishment 
of the Louisville Daily Commercial in Decem- 
ber, 1869, when he resigned to take the editor- 
ship of that paper. His successor, however, did 
not relieve him till April 6, 1S70. 

On June 27, 1S67, he married Harriet Halley 
Warfield, of Lexington, daughter of Elisha 
Nicholas Warfield, of that city. His wife's 
mother before marriage, Miss I^li/abeth Hay 
Brand; was daughter of William Brand, who 
married Miss Harriet Hallev, daughter of the 
brilliant Dr. Horace Hallev, President of Tran- 
sylvania Univeisity. Colonel Kelly has been 
with the Louisville Commercial ever since its es- 
tablishment, and is now its chief editor and gen- 
eral manager. In 1S73 he appointed United 
States Pension Agent by President Grant, which 
position he still retains. 

The Hon. M'illiam Samuel Wilson, Collector 
of Internal Revenue for the I'ifth District of 
Kentucky, is a native of the old State, descendi- 
aiit of two of the oldest jiioneer families in this 
part of the West. The progenitor here on the 
fathei's side was strictly S.tmLn'i AVilson, who 
came with his family to the I'alls of the Ohio 
more than a century ago from the site of Pitts 
burg, but drowned at the I'alls by the over- 
turning of a skiff, in which he was landing fioni 
his tlat-boat, then mooied in the stream. His 
son, Samuel ^N'ilson, also subsequently General 
Wilson, was grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch. 'Phe family pushed into the interior and 
settled in Nelson county, afterwards removing to 
Cumbeiland. The General was murdered in 
lackson county, 'Pennessee, in 1S36, while on a 
suivc:ying exjiedition, by a settler named Mitch- 
ell, who was discontented with a line he had run. 
He was exceedingly jiopular with all who knew 
him, and a prodigious excitement was caused by 
the murder. T he residents turned out from 
far and near upon the swit't intelligence of the 
tragedy, guarded every road, and pursued the 
assassin vigorously. He was captured, tried, and 
hanged. The case is a very famous one in the 
I annals of the Dark and Bloody Ground. At 
the home in Cumberland cciunty was born the 
father of the subject of this memoir, -likewise 
Samuel ('P.) Wilson, in 1S24. 

The maternal ancestry in Kentucky begins 
' with IKavid Allen, an immigrant from Virginia to 
Lincoln county in pioneer times, thence remov- 
ing to Green county, where he closed his earthly 
career. His oldest son, William B. Allen, is 
grandfaiher of Colonel Wilson, and still resides 
in Greensburg, near whicli he was born. He is 
seventy-nine years of age, and had never been 
sick a day uiuil the latter part of the winter of 
1&81-S2, when he was taken down with dropsical 
affection. He is the oldest affiliating Fret Mason 
in the State, having been a member of the Order 
ever since he could become one — now about 
; fil'iy-ei^ht years; and has not missed a session of 
I the Grand Lodge of the State tor forty-six years. 
! His second child, Sally 1'". .vUen, was mother of 
j Colonel Wilson. Siie was married to Mr. \\'il- 
l— to-x'-in Green--burg in December, 1S45. 'Phe 
stock on both sides is the excellent cross, Scotch- 



Irish, 'i'he Colonel's mitcrnal grandnioihtr \\a'; 
of the famous Helm family, cousin of Govei- 
nor Helm; and her luisliand's mother was of the 
old Kentucky family of Darrets, from whom the 
very numerous and intlueiitial people of the 
name in Louisville are descended. 

Coioncl Wilson is the oldest and only sur- 
viving child of Siinuel '1'. and Sally E. {.\lleri) 
Wilson, his younger Lirother, LLi.:Iilett, dying in 
February, iS6S, at the age of seventeen. His 
natal day was October 2, 1846, and he was born 
at Greensburg, to which his father liad removed 
from Cumberland county wlieii a boy. He was 
trained in the village schools, which were con- 
sidered uncommonly good, until he was fifteen 
years old, when he was prepared for the classical 
schools, and went to Centre College, at Danville, 
where he was graduated Bachelor of Arts in 
1S66. His first year, however, was spent at 
Franklin College, Indiana, at the instance of his 
father, in order to keep him from enlisting in the 
Federal army «hile still very young, as he de<ired 
to do, although bat Iburteen years old when the 
war broke out. He began the study of law after 
graduating, at home; but presently came to 
Louisville and entered the Law Department of 
the University, where he took a course of lectures, 
and then entered the office of the Hon. John .\I. 
Harlan, now Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. Here he completed 
his preparation, and was admitted to the Jenirson 
bar. He had previously, at'ter his year's reading 
and some service at Greensburg in the oftice of 
the Circuit Clerk, in the stead of his father, who 
had resigned at'ter sixteen yearb' service, received 
a license to practice from the court« at that 
place. He came to Louisville in 1S67 with his 
father, who still resides here, wliere he is the 
General Agent of the Southern .Mutual Lite In- 
surance Company, which he has been mamly in- 
strumental in building u[). The mother is also 
still living here. 

Colonel Wihon practiced law for several years 
in the city alone, and established a good [iractice 
for a young man; but became engaged more or 
less in other business, and by and by drifted into 
journalism, in the interests of the Re[)ublican 
party, to which he has been ardently attached 
ever since his political lit'e began, his father be- 
fore him having been an intense L'nionist. The 
young journalist, who had already had more or 

less to do with the paper in an amateur way, w.^.s 
[ilaced at once in the responsible and diflitult 
[jlace of Business Manager of the Daily -arid 
Weekly Commercial. This was in 187S, and 
the next spring, his judicious and successful 
management having approved itself to his asso- 
ciates, he was made President of th.e Commercial 
I'ublishing Company, and remains in lliat posi- 
tion to this time. The Commercial derives 
special importance from the fact that it is the 
only Republican daily news[>aper in the State, 
and is the organ of the party in Kentucky. Jan- 
uary 30, iSSi, he was apiiointed by Piesident 
Hayes Collector of Internal Revenue, lo succeed 
Colonel James F. Buckner, was conrnmcd by 
unanimous vote of the Senate Februaiy i6th, 
and took upon himself the duties of that oftice 
March ist, since which time he has not been in 
the immediate business management of the Com- 
mercial. His district (the Fifth of Kentucky) 
comprise.s eighteen counties in Central and 
Northern Kentucky, and the city of Louisville. 
It contains the largest number of distilleries, 
with the 1 irgest amount of production of 
"straight whiskeys," of any revenue district in 
the country. At this writing [.March, 1SS2], 
there are in this district about twenty-two million 
gallons of spirits in bond. It is by far the larg- 
est revenue-producing district in the State, and 
one of the largest in the United States. For the 
current year about $6,000,000, it is believed, 
will be collected. In general tivo hundred and 
forty-five subordinate offices, scattered all over 
the District, are under the direction of Colonel 
Wilson, making his official position one of great 
influence. In his hands the office has attained 
very high rank on the books of the Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue ; as witness the fol- 
lowing recent letter from that officer: 


; Inti;rn.m. Rf.vf.nue, > 

/, February aSih. ) 

j TKF. A^CRV r)Kl 

i IIV///,.-« 5. IVr/s.-^. Ej./.. ColUcLir Fiflli District, Loiiii- 
Vilic. Kentsu-ky: 

.Sir : — I am 111 recei[n of a very thorough and exhaustive 
[ report of the cutielition ot your ofi'ice made bv Revenue .Agent 
! Wheeler upon liii exammaiioi\ of the 201I1 insl. Vour stamp 
' and cash accounts were found .absolutely correct. Tlie gen- 
1 eral condition of your office is e.\cellent, and fully entitles 
you to the hi;!) ■^^ rank in the scale of merit, namely : .N'o 
I, our lirsi-cl.iss. .\cci-pt my eoni;r.itu!,itions. 
j Respectfully, 

1 Gkkkn B. R.\LM, Commissioner. 

Colonel Wilson was united in marriac 




RusselKille, Janunry 15, 1873,10 Miss Minnie, | 

only daughter of Hi. Thonias H. Grubbs, | 

one of tlie leading in Western | 

and Southern Kentucky, who died in 1S77, | 

and Martha (Duncnn) Griibhs, daughter of j 

Captain Richard C. l)uncan, an honored sol- | 

dier and pensioner of iSi 2, and a wealthy planter I 
in Logan coiinty, who [-assed away in March, 

1 88 1, in his ninety-tlrst year. The [laternal ! 
grandfather, Thomas H. Grubbs, Sr., died about 

the same time, in his ninety-sixth year. On j 

botli sides she is of old pioneer Kentucky ; 

families. Colonel and Mr.s. Wilson have one ' 

child, Louise, now in her ninth year. Until | 

four years of age this little girl had four grand- [ 

parents and four great-grandparents still surviving I 

— an. extremely unique and interesiing fact, and i 
promising well for the long life of her mother 
and herself \ . . ?■ i t ' '' 



On the 21st of January, 1S70, died Kentucky's 
most famous journalist, wit, and poet, George 
Denison Prentice, of the Daily Journal. He 
was a New Englandcr, born at Preston, Connec- 
ticut, Heceniber iS, 1S02; was remarkably pre- 
cocious in intellect, readmg the Bible easily when 
little more than three years old, and in college 
reciting the whole of a book of Virgil for a les- 
son, besides swallowing bodily huge books of 
philosophy; studied law, but went into journal- 
ism in Connecticut in 1S25, and was associated 
with the poet Whittier in 1S28-30 in the publi- 
cation of the New England Weekly Review; 
came to Kentucky during the Presidential can- 
vass of 1S2S to write a campaign life of Mr. 
Clay, and after a short career in Cincinnati, 
cam'e to Louisville and started the Journal, 
which, after many struggles and not a few des- 
perate jjersonal conflicts of its editor, became a 
pronounced journalistic success. The remainder 
of his story may be told in epitome in the words 
of Dr. CoUins's History: 

During the tbirty-eigln years of editorial life in the 
he perhafjs wrote more, and certainly wrote better, thin an\' 
journalist that ever conducted a d.tily p.i|ier m this.'^tate. He 
made the Journal one of the most renowned p.ipers m the 
land, and many articles from his pen would have done honor 
to the lii>;hest liteiary of the d.ay. The Journal 
unrler his guidance matie and unr;iiide the poets, poetesses, 
essavists, anti journalists who appeared in the West for the 
third of a century which preceded his de.ilh His hum. jr. 

his wit, and his satire were the best friends and the worst 
enemies that aspirants to fame in his region could have. 

In 1855 Mr. IVeniice was married to Miss Henrielte Ben- 
haiii. daughter -of Colonel Joseph Benham, a distinguished 
member of the Kentucky Bar. They had two sons— William 
Courllaiid Trentice. who was killed while bravely leading Iiis 
coTiip.Tny of Confederate soldiers at the battle of -Augusta, 
Kenliirky, Scptciriber t8, 1862, and Clarence J. Prentice, 
also a Confederate officer, who was killed by the upsetting of 
his buggy, near Louisville, November, 1S73. Mrs. Prentice 
dii-d in .\pril, i863, at tiie family residence in Louisville. 

In i860 he published a book under the title of Prenticeana, 
made up of his humorous, witty, and satirical paragraphs as 
tliey appeared in the Journal. I'o this style of composition, 
perhaps more than to anything else, .Mr. Prentice owed his 
fame a;, a journalist. He was a paragraphist of unparalleled 

At the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1861. Mr. Prentice 
took sides and used his powerful pen against the .South, in 
theconlhct which ended so disastrously to that section. .And 
yet, during the war he performed numerous kind and gen- 
erous acts to individual sufTerers on the rebel side, and 
proved a fiiend to many in times of need. 

The disease of which .Mr. Preniice died was pneumonia, 
the result of violent cold taken in riding in an open carriage, 
on the coldest day in the year, from Louisville to the resi- 
dence of his son Clarence, some miles below the city. He 
struggled with it for a month, retaining his mental faculties 
to the last. Just before he drew his last breath, he ex- 
claimed, "I want to go, 1 want to go." His grave at Cave 
Hill cemetery is yet without a becoming monument. 

.A eulogy of singular beauty and power was pronounced by 
Henry Watterson, editor of the Couriei -Journal, by invita- 
tion of the Legislature of Kentucky. His poems have been 
collected by his son, with a view to publication in a volume — 
to which, it is hoped, some of his most marked prose contri- 
butions will be added. .As an author and poet Mr. Prentice 
had few equ.ds; but he was a journalist of pre-eminent ability 
and versatility. .Always bold, sometimes rash, he was not 
always prudent. He thought with precision, scope, and 
power, and what he thought he expressed in language clear, 
forcible, and beautiful. In writings of a personal cast or 
character he excelled, in retort and sarcasm was keen, and in 
ridicule inimitable. His surgical knife was always sharp and 
polished, and his dissections thorough. If his subject re- 
quired, lif was minute, even when comprehensive, never 
superf :ial, frequently e.\h,iusiive. always able. 


Hon. Henry Watterson, editor of the Courier- 
Journal, and the moat widely known journalist 
in the Southern States, was born in Washington 
City, February 16, 1840. tie is son of Harvey 
Watterson, formerly a metnber of Congress from 
Tennessee and editor of the Washington Union, 
who now writes from that city to the Courier- 
Journal under the signature of " (-)ld Fogy.'' 
Henry's poor eyesight in childhood caused his 
education to be of a decidedly miscellaneous and 
desultory character. He early began to write 
for the public journals, however; and in 1859, 
when but nineteen years old, he became a regular 



writer on The States, a Democratic jiaper in 
Washington. The next year lie added to hi^; 
labors the iniimrtant serwce of editorial manage- 
ment of the Democratic l\..evicw. Duritig t!ie 
late war Mr. Watterson was Cdnnected with C'on- 
federate newspapers, notaljly the Nashville Re- 
publicati liaiiner and the Chattanooga Rebel. 
In 1S65 he Was married to Miss Rebec- 
ca, daughter of the H;>n. .Andrew EN\ing. The 
ne.xt year and [lart of the ne.\t' he traveled in 
luirope, and on his return accepted the call 
of the Journal Conipan;- to the management of 
that pa[ier. Mr. I'rentice had grown old, and, 
while still retaining a connection with the paper, 
his stock was transferred to Mr. Watterson, who 
took the helm of the establishnient in the spring 
of 1S6S. In the fall of the same )ear, by ar- 
rangeinent of .Messrs. \\'atterson and Haldenian, 
heads of the two papers, respectively, the 
Courier and Journal wcie consolidated, as before 
mentioned. Tlie fnrmer has since remained 
editor-in-chief of the Courier-Juurnal. His 
brilliant talents and sparkling epigrammatic style 
of wilting have caused him, as well as tiie jiaper 
under his charge, to become widely reiKjwned. 

Colonel Reuben T. Durrett, formerly of the 
Morning Courier, was born in Henry county, in 
this State, January 24, 1S24, son of William and 
Elizabeth (Rawhngs) Durrett. On his father's 
side he is of French descent; but both his par- 
ents were natives of Virginia. He was trained 
in the common schools of his early home, and in 
Georgetou'n College, Scott county, Brown L'ni- 
versity, at Providence, Rhode Island i^from » hich 
he graduated with honors in 1S49), and the Law 
Department of the Louisville Univcisit-y. He 
began practice in the city at once, and remained 
for many years a lawyer here. In 1S52 he 
was a Whig electcir on the Presidential ticket, 
and made an active personal canvass of the 
Louisville district. The same year he was in- 
vited by the City Council to pronounce the an- 
nual Fourth of July oration, which he did with 
masterly eloquence. Later in the year, Decem- 
ber 16th, he was married to Miss Elizabeth H., 
daughter of Caleb Bates, of Cincinnati. Of their 
four children but one survives, a son grown to 
manhood. Young Durrett had early manifested 
a decided penchant for literature, to uhich he 
had made many acceptable contributions, in 
both prose and poetiy. October i, 1857, he 

bouglit a halt-interest in the Daily Com ier, and 
undertook the editorial management of that 
journal, \s hich he retained fur nearly two yeais, 
and then resold his share of the property to Mr. ■ 
Haldernan, and returned to his practice. He 
has, however, continued to contribute much to 
the local press, a series of historical articles in 
the Courier-Journal for jiarts of iSSo-8x attract- 
ing particular attention and proving of great and 
permanent value. In 1S71, and for a number of 
years following, he took a very active part in tlie 
foundation of the Public Library of Kentucky, 
now in the hands of the Polytechnic Society. 
He is President oi the Louisville Abstract Asso- 
ciation, but lives a comparatively retired and 
studious life at his elegant residence, filled with 
works of art and taste, on the corner of Chesnut 
and Pjtook streets. 

Colonel 1 heodore O'Hara, though belonging 
to a past generation, remains one of the most 
famous names in Kentucky journalism. He was 
the son of Kean O'Hara. an Iri-h political ref- 
ugee, and uas born in Danville, February 11, 
1S20. He was carefully educated by his father, 
and at St. Jo.ei'h's .-Academy, B.irdstown, became 
a fine scholar and Professor of Greek in that 
school. He studied law, but did not like it, and 
early turned to journalism, becoming editor of 
the Frankfort Yeoman, the Democratic Rally (a 
campaign sheet in 1844), the Louisville Sun, and 
the Mobile Register, h'or a time he had a clerk, 
ship at Washington; was Captain and brevet 
Major in the Me.\ican war; began to practice law 
in Washington, but soon took service with .the 
Tehuantepec railroad company, and was a colo- 
nel m the Lopez filibustering expedition, in which 
he \\as severely wounded, but went out again 
with Walker to Central . America. In the late 
war he espoused tiie Southern side, was Captain 
and Colonel, member of General Albert Sidney 
Johnston's staff and chief of staff to General 
Breckinridge; arl'ter the war engaged unluckily in 
cotton ventures, and died on a plantation near 
Ciuerrytown, .Alabama, on the 6th of June, 1S67. 
In the fall of 1S74, by order of the State Legisla- 
ture, his remauis were brought to Franktort and 
buried in the Kentucky mili'.ary lot with fitting 
ceremonies. Sume of O'Haia's poetical [lieccs 
are widely celebrated, particularly that written 
during the war with .Mexico, containing the ott- 
quoted stanza which ib m-^cnbed above the en- 



trance to the National Cenictc-iy at Arlington, 

On Fame's eternal canipn\i,'-grounJ 

Their silent lents are ; 
And Glory guards with solemn round 
The bivouac of tile dead. 

Hon. John \V. Finnell was a natis-e of Clark 
county, born December 24, 1S21, son of N. L. 
Finnell, a practical printer and A\'hi'.i journalist, 
conducting at various times the Lexington Ob- 
server and Reporter, the Lexington Intelligencer, 
the Lickinp; Valley Register, at Covington, and 
othcr'papers. Young Finnell was a graduate cf 
Transylvania Uni\ersity, and was bred to the 
bar; but, h.aving learned the printer's trade with 
his father, he easily gravitated into journalism, 
assisted his father upon his papers, became edi- 
tor of the Frankfort Commonwealth some time 
in the '40's, and, after his removal to Loiiis\ille 
in 1S70, was for two years managing editor of 
the Daily Commercial. He had considerable 
note as a writer of force and originality : served 
several terms in the Legislature, was Sec- 
retary of State, and once Adjutant General or 
Kentucky, and was Register in Bankruptcy for 
the Sixth District of this State. He was also 
an able and successful lawyer, practicing with re- 
pute in Louisville, Carlisle, and Covington, where 
he has mainly resided since 1S52. 

George Philip Doern, one of the founders of 
that influential organ of opinion among the Ger- 
mans, the Daily Anzeiger, a native oi Nau- 
heim, in the Duchy of Nassau, born Septem- 
ber 16, 1S29, son of one of Rlucher's old sol. 
diers in the wars against Napoleon. The laniily 
came to America in May, 1S42, and settled in 
Louisville. George learned to be a printer in 
the office of the Beobachter am Ohio, and after 
journey-work for a year started the Anzeiger in 
1849 i" company with Otto Schoeffer. He 
worked hard and with well-directed energy upr)n 
this, and in time built up a prosperous and power- 
ful journal. October 2, iS^r, he was married to 
Miss Barbara, sole daughter of Philip Tompiiert, 
formerly Mayor of the city. He also filled 
other important positions, as President of the 
Louisville Building Association, Vice-President 
of the German Protestant Orphan Asylum, Iii- 
rector of the Geriijan Insuranee company, etc., 
etc. For a time he published (in English) the 
Evening News, one of the predecessors of the 

Daily Post. He died in Louisville, November 
12, 187S. 

William Krippenstapel, editor and manager of 
the Volksblatt, is son of an old ofticer of the 
Russian army, who was much engaged^ in] the 
wars against the hr>t Napoleon. He' was born 
in Lauenburg, then in Denmark, December 30, 
1S26. He was liberally educated, became a 
(irinter, a German soldier against Denmark in 
1S48, traveled through Germany and Hungarv ; 
tried to stait a new-paper in his native city, but 
was not lurmitted by the Go\ernment ; came to 
America in 1852, worked u])on several news- 
papers, and came to Louisville tlie next year, 
where he assisted upon the Anzeiger for several 
years. In 1862 he formed a connection with 
Messrs. Schumann and Rapp in publishing the 
\'olksblatt, a daily and weekly Ckrman Republi- 
can paper. With which he has since been steadily 
connected, except during a brief interval. In 
1S64 he became sole owner of the jiaper. Since 
January, 1S66, he has issued a racy literary 
weekly called The Omnibus. In 1S71 he was 
the candidate of the Re[)ublicans for State 

Hon. William D. Gallagher, poet, essayi=t, and 

I editor, although not a resident of Louisville at 
present, and more identified in authorship with 
Cincinnati than with this city, may yet fitly re- 
ceive notice here. He was born in Philadelphia 
in August, 1S08, son of an Irish political exile. 
His widowed mother, with four sons, emigrated 

i to Cincinnati eight years afterward. He became 

; a printer in his early twenties, and wliile stiil an 

I ajjprentice began publishing a little sheet called 
the Literary Gazette. He was subsequently cor- 

' respondent of Benjamin Drake's Cincinnati 
Chronicle, the Cincinnati Gazette, and many 
other papers, and editor of the Xenia (Ohio) 
Backswriodsman, the Cincinnati Mirror, the 
Western Literary Journal and Monthly Review, 
the Ohio State Journal at Columbus, the Hes- 
perian, the Cincinnati Gazette (1839-50), the 

I Louisville Courier (1853-54) and the Western 
Farmer's Journal. . His i/iagnmn opm is a large 

' volume entitled The Poetical Literature of the 
West. His longest poem is the Miami Woods, 

' written between 1S39 and 1856. His earlier 

j poems were issued in little pamphlets called 
"Erato" numbers one, two, and three, .\hrny of 

j his shorter pieces have u ide celebrity. His prose 



writings have also been v(.iliiminous, belonging 
to almost every field of literature; and his col- 
lected works would fill many volumes. He has 
been in politics sou'ewliat, first as a Whig (his 
"liackwciodsman," in iS;,o, was a Clay canipaijin 
papei), and then as a- Kciiuhlican. In 1S50 he 
■held a confidential post m the United Slates 
Treasury under Secretary Coruin; in 1S60 lie 
was a delegate to the National Republican Con- 
vention in Chicago; took his old place in the 
Treasury Department luider Secretary Chase; 
was appointed Collector of Customs at New 
Orleans in 1S6;, Surveyor of Customs at Louis- 
ville the next year, then S|iecial Agent for the 
Treasury licjiartnient, then Tension .\g(.nt at 
Louisville, and Special Agent again. During 
more tliat! thirty years, when not in ihiIiHc life 
he has resided upon his line little farm at 1'i.wee 
Valley, sixteen miles frr'm Louisville, on the 
Short Line railroad, where he is peacefully [lass- 
ing a good old age. 

The Hon. Uenjamiii J. Webb, formerly editor 
of the Catholic Advocate and of the Guardian, 
■was born in Bardstown, February 25, 1814, son 
of a pioneer of 1790. He was educated at St 
Joseph's College, in that place, learned the 
printer's trade in the Journal office, Louisville, 
became editor of the Catholic Advocate at 
Bardstown in 1S36, removed it to Louisville in 
1841, and published it till 1S47, when he en- 
gaged in the music business, with which he has 
ever since been connected. He has continued, 
however, to write much, particularly on Catholic 
and religious topics. He wrote an important 
series of letters to the Journal against the 
"Know-Nothings," in 1S55, which were printed 
in book form. He has written much otherwise 
for the local papers ; was chief editor of the 
Guardian, a religious paper founded here in 
185S, and joint editor of the Catholic Advocate, 
when that paper was revived in 1S69. By ap- 
pointment of the State Legislature, he wrote the 
biographies of Governors Posvell and He'm in 
1868, which were issued at public expense; and 
is understood to be engaged upon a forthcoming 
History of Catholicism in Kentucky. In 1S67, 
and again in 1S71, he was elected to rei^resent 
Louisville in the State Senate. 

The Revs. Francis B. and Thomas E. Con- 
verse, editors of the Christian Observer, are sons 
of the Rev. Amasa Converse, D. D., who was 

born in Lyme, New Hampshire, .August 21, 
•795- The ancient stcjck is Norman, transferred 
to F'nghuul with William the Conqueror, and 
the de>cendaiits coming to America with the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony about 1630. Three 
of his maternal uncles became soldiers of the 
Re\olution. He developed rare scholarship and 
ability in the schools; became himself a teacher, 
then a Congregational minister and evangelist ; 
then, in 1S26, editor of the F'amily N'isitor and 
the Literary F.vnngelical Magazine, at Richmond, 
merged in 182S as the Visitor and Weekly Tele- 
graph; iLMioved his ]\i[ier to Philadelphia in 
1839, and merged it with another as the Christian 
Obser\er, a Presbyterian oigan, and by lineal de- 
scent the oldest religious ; -"er in America. 
Flis office was buined accident. 1. '^-j; and 

in August, 1S61, it was closed by order of the 
Government, for its utterances in regard to the 
war issues. It was removed to Richmond, how- 
ever, and the publication continued. In .Vugust, 
1S69, it merged with the Free Christian 
Commonwealih, of Louisville, and the ot'fice 
transferred to that city, where the remainder of 
his buby life was spent. Fie died here of pneu- 
monia, December 9, 1872, leaving the Observer 
to his sons. Its senior editor, Francis B. Con- 
verse, was born in Richmond June 2;!„ 1S36; 
graduated at the University of Philadelphia in 
1S56, and Princeton Theological Seminary in 
1S60; developed a strong bent for journalism, 
and soon became associate of his father on the 
Observer, with which he has since been contin^ 
uously connected. While at Richmond he 
preached for about two years to the Olivet 
church, east of that city. Upon the death of his 
father he succeeded to his place at the head of 
the Observer. His brother and associate editor. 
Rev. Thomas E. Converse, was born in I'hila 
deliihia in 1S41: was educated at Princeton, but 
in theology at Union Theological Seminary, in 
Prince Edward county, \'irginia. In 1870 he 
went as a missionary to China, but returned the 
next year and preached until 1875, when he went 
to Bardstown, in this State, and took the Presby- 
terian pastorate there. 

Rev. .Ale.xander C. Caperton, D. D., editor of 
the \Vestern Recorder, was born in Jackson 
county, .\labama, February 4, 1S31, scion of a 
famous old \'irginia family, of French stock. 
He obtained a tolerable [irimary education after 


a hard struggle, became a school-teacher and ob- 
tained means enough to graduate at Mississijipi 
College in 1S56, at the Rochester (New York) 
Theological Seminary in 185S: was professor in 
his former alma mat,), at the same time a IJap- 
tist pastor; and after the war wa^ called to a 
Menijjhis church, and then to Mayfield, Ken- 
tucky, and Evansville, Indiana. He came to 
Louisville in 1S71, and took charge of tlie Re- 
corder, which his ability, assiduity, and zeal soon 
made a leading denominational organ. He also 
travels widely, preaching hundreds of seimons 
gratuitously to the churches. In 1S60 he re- 
ceived the degree of Master of Arts from Missis- 
si[)pi College, and in 1S71 that of Doctor of Di- 
vinity from the L'niversity of Waco, Texas. 

James A. Dawson, founder of the Louisville 
Daily Ledger, was born in Han county .■\pril 2, 
1S34. He attended the common schools, be- 
came Deputy County Clerk and then Clerk, was 
admitted to the bar in 1859, and began practice; 
took an active part as a Douglas Democrat in 
the Presidential campaign of 1S60; became a 
Federal soldier and adjutant of the Thirty-tliird 
Kentucky infantry, but in 1S73 resigned to ac- 
cept the post of Register of the State Land Oflice, 
to which he was re-elected, and then appointed 
Adjutant-General of the State. He became very 
active and efficient as a political canvasser, and 
in 1S71 established the Ledger, which he pier- 
sonally conducted for 'several years with marked 
ability. In 1875 he permanently retired I'rom 
editorship, and resumed law practice in his native 

Michael W. Clusky, first editor of the Louis- 
ville Ledger, was born in Savannah, Georgia, in 
1830, of Irish parentage, and of a family pos- 
sessing great natural talent. He began public 
life early, at the age of twenty-one becoming 
Postmaster of the Federal House of Representa- 
tives, where he served till 1S59, when he re- 
moved to Memphis, Tennessee, and became 
editor of the famous .-Xvalanche, which he man- 
aged with much ability. He entered the Con- 
federate army, was seriously wounded at Shiloh, 
and afterwards served in the Cont'cderate Con- 
gress. He took the Avalanche again alter the war, 
but removed to Louisville for his health, about 
the time the Daily Ledger was started, of which 
he was induced to become editor. He also took 
considerable p.nrt in building up tlie Public (now 

the Polytechnic) I.ibiary. He had himself pub- 
lished at Washington a valuable manual entitled 
".McClusky's Political Text-book," and was re- 
markably well inloimed in public affairs, as well 
as a writer of uncommon ability and intluence. 
He died in Louisville in 1S73. 

William P. D. P.u-h, Escp, formerly owner and 
editor of the Louis\'ille Evening Ledger, was 
born in Hardin count\, March 14, 1S23, of Hol- 
land stock. His father was a soldier of the 
Revolution, and migrated from Yirginia to Ken- 
tucky at its close. William was trained in the 
common schools and at the seminary in Eliza- 
bethtown ; became Deput_\- Clerk of Hancock 
county and of the Circuit Court, where he picked 
up much knowledge of law, was adniitted to the 
bar, and began practicing. In '"^^ ' .mlisted 
as a private soldier in the Aie.v., _,.... ^ar, but be- 
came a Lieutenant ; resumed law practice, and 
was made County .-Vtiorney for Hancock ; repre- 
sented it in the Legislature as a Whig two years, 
and six as a Democrat. In 1S6S he was ap- 
pointed Reporter to the Court of Appeals, and 
removed to Frankfort, where he has since chiefly 
resided. He also became part owner of the 
Louisville Evening Ledger, and was its sole 
owner in 1852-56, assisting in its editorial con- 
duct with much ability. 

Culderoy W. Griftin, Esq., formerly associate 
editor of the Louiiville Commercial and Indus- 
trial Gazette, and an author of much versatility 
and repute, was born in this city March 6, 1840; 
was educated in private schools here ; took a 
law course in the University of Louisville, grad- 
uating in 1S62 ; practiced successfully for several 
years, and then turned his attention chiefly to 
literature. He contributed much to the Journal, 
edited an edition of Mr. Prentice's Wit. and 
Humor in Paragraphs, and wrote his life after his 
death. In 1S68 he became connected with the 
Commercial and Gazette, in association with 
Colonel Charles S. Todd ; and in their hands it 
became a strong and influential paper. He re- 
tired from it so(jn after the Colonel. Two edi- 
tions of his Studies in Literature have since 
been published, with various lectures, books of 
travel, etc. In iS7ohe was appointed United 
States Consul to Copenhagen, and in 1S76 
Minister to the Sandwich Islands. He was lor 
a time writer cif the dramatic criticisms in the 
Courier Journal, which attracted wide attention. 


Prof. John l)unc.':ii, editor of the FarnitTs' \ 

Magazine of Li'.e Sio, k, in l.ouisviile, is a native j 
of Scotland, born November. 24, 1S46. He was 

educated in part at C;ia^L;o\v and at the Auricul- | 

tural Collef;e in Wnk, I'.ni'land ; and then went 1 

to the Koyal liolaniral Gardens at Kew, where j 

he carried off the fnst jirize at the end of a { 
year, and a dcuhle prize at the close of the 

second year. He was then jilaced in charge of [ 

the botanical collection; took a four years' course j 
in the London School of Mnies, and a scientific 

cruise to India, under coniniission of tlie Ilritish | 

Government; came to America and was appoint- ! 

ed Professor of Agiiculture and Botany in the ; 

Agricultural and Mecli:;nicalCollege at Lexington ; \ 

began to contribute to the Farmers' Home Jour- \ 

nal, of that place, became associate editor, and ' 

sole editor before its removal to Lou!s\ ille. He ' 

is conducting his publication with marked energy i 
and ability. 

Will S. Hays, the ballad-writer and musical I 

composer, is at pre.-^enl river-editor of the 1 
Courier-Journal, and he was formerly an editorial 

writer for the Louisville Democrat. He was ; 

born July 19, 1S37, fn tliis city; was liberally j 

though somewhat irregularly educated; wrote j 

his first published ballad, "Little Ones at Home," ' 
while a youth of nineteen, at college in Hanover, 

Indiana; and his productions in sheet music have \ 

since been very numerous, and have becoiie j 
widely renowned. He has also some rejiutation 

as a prose-writer. In early lite he was lor some ', 
tmie amanuensis to the late George D. Prentice, 
to whose paper he contributed many articles and 
poems of his own. 


Introductory — Biogniphical Slii-tches of Drs. T. S, EVll, 
Charles \V. Short, J.imes .M. Bodine.W. L. Breyfogle. .\I. F. 
Coomes, W. Cheatham. Jost-pli McD Mathe\s?, K. C. 
Plewett, David Cummins, and \V. H. liol'inj. Personal 
Notices of Drs. Coleman, Leuis, and C.^enian Rogers, 
Joseph R. and Joseph Buchanan, Richard \V. Ferguson, 
John Thurston, John Bull, M. S. Le» is, John H. Owen, 
William H. Goddard, Henry M. Miller, John Fstcn Cuoke. 
George \V. E.iyleis, Daniel Drake. Richard C. Cosvhng, 
Alexander Ireland, B. M. Wilile, George H. Wailing, James 
A. Graves, D. D. Thomson. ] A. K.-ack, koi.ert Peter, 
John B. Smith, Samuel Biandeis, J. .McD. Keiler, William 

A. Hunrllcy, A. B, Cook. Charles Caldwell, J. l'.. Crr.v.,-. c. 
F. Carpenter, T. P. S.illvrvvhiie, Wilium H. 1 ..•uliimi, 
E. A. Grant, William J. Redman, K. O. I'mun. [. .\ 
Octerlony, John .\. Brady, H. F. Kalfus, J. \. OR. •ill;, 1< 
II. Singleton, J. W. Fouler, T. S. McDermutl, G. U 
Griffiths, !■:. S. G.ullard, G. S. Seymour, W. 1'. 
E. S. Crosier, J. .\I. Krim, C. \V. Ivelly, .\I. K. Alle.i. I,' 
P. P.laekburn, R. X. Barbour, L. W. 'J aylor, .and 1. 1. 
McMiiitry— Statistics of the Profession in I.ouisvill.-- 
Homu^opathy -The Medical Schools J,.ur. 

^L^lly notices of the earlier physicians of 
Louisville have already been comprised in the 
annals of the city. So far as possible, we have 
endeavored not to duplicate these, but .'^imply to 
add such other personal notes of the i)rolesi,i(,ii 
as have come to our hands, and arrange them, 
for the most part, in chronological order, accord- 
ing to dale of beginning practice in this city. 
No attempt has been made, of course, to include 
all the physicians, living and dead, past and 
present, in the long line of medical nun. Sut h 
an undertaking would be altogether beyond the 
limits of this volume. 

T. S. IJELL, M. D. 

Among the most distinguished of native Ken- 
tuckiaps, and most useful in their day and gener- 
ation, in the fields of science and philanthrojjy, 
is the subject of this sketch. Dr. Theodore S. 
Bell, the Nestor of his profession in I.tiuisviile. 
He was born in Lexington, in a humble sphere 
of life; and his earlier years had no advantages 
except such as may accompany poverty and utter 
obscurity. At school he was accounted a diinie 
until a chance look at ari historical te.xt-book 
awakened his doimant faculties and started him 
upon the road to high scientific, prolessionni, 
and general culture. Flis parents were atiL, 
however, to give him none of the more expensive 
education of the schools. He had soon, indeed, 
to leave school and become sell' supporting. L r 
a time he was a newsjjaper-carrier, and then a 
tailor's apprentice, in a situation which requiieci 
of him daily twelve to fourteen hours of hanl toil. 
His mind was now t'ully aroused, however ; and 
tie had the superior advantage at this time ol a 
mother ambitious of his intellectual adwince 
ment, since some I'orcsiiadowing of his powers 
had been given to his teachers. He < on 
tinned to read and study indusirinusly, and 1- is 
said that during the whole of his ap['renliccstiip 

\ ^ 

L I \ - V ''<- j 

\ '-■-, 






he slept but four hours a ni^^ht. He early began 
to compose, and soon produced essavs and 
ne\yspaper articles which won him much praise, 
stimulating him to >et more -tunuous effous. 
Unable himself to bu\- books, he was admitted 
presently to the iiri\ilcges of the town library, 
through the kind olh,;es of a lady who had ob- 
served his protiiise. 

Professor Mann Kutler, then of Transylvania 
University, and afterwards of the Louisville 
public schools, also became interested in the 
youtli, opened his large collection to his reading, 
and gave him invaluable guidance in his studies. 
By and by young Bell, by tlie closest economy, 
amassed the simi of $io, which he invested in a 
ticket to the pul)lic library. Thus amply jiro- 
vidcd for literaiy culture, he availed himself of 
his opportunities to the very best of his time and 
now large abilities. At the end of his apprentice- 
ship, however, he had yet no means of pursuing 
his studies excot by continuing at his trade. 
His father died about this time, and he had his 
mother also to supjioit. Nevertheless, by harder 
work than ever, he acquiied means to attend the 
medical schocil attached to the Louisville L'ni- 
versity, F)uring his course here, a leading physi- 
cian of the city gave him the freedom of his pro- 
fessional library, besides much useful courtesy. 
Several of the most important and elaborate 
works were read by him at the tailor's bench, 
while industriously laboring with hand as well as 
head. He was not allowed to remain at his 
trade, however, as the medical taculty, bv this 
time thoroughly aroused to his worth and prom- 
ise, procured for him the post of Librarian to 
the University, wuh a small salary, but uith su- 
perior opjiortunities for continued culture. At 
length, in 1S32, with the honors of the class, Mr. 
Bell received his degree, and became [Jr. Hell. 
He removed to Louisville and entered into jKUt- 
nership for practice with Ur. W. N. .Merriwtther, 
whose business fell to the tlnmcr upon his retire- 

Dr. Bell's literary faculty already attracted 
notice, and he was presently asked to write a 
series of articles on the Pursuit ot Knuu ledge 
for the periodical issued by the well-known au- 
thor, Mr. Tannehill. When the Daily Journal 
was started by Mr. Prentice, the young editor 
promptly secured Dr. Bell s services as a contri- 
butor , and from his I'acile [jen proceeded a num- 

ber of essays on "'I'he \:i\v.c of Railroads to 
Louisville," wliiih attracted marked attention, 
; arid sei\ed not only to build up the reputation 
1 of both the writer and newspaijer, but to pro- 
mote the incoming of the age of railways for 
the rising citv. Then, as now, he took a lively 
interest m ))0|Hilar educalKni, and wrote for the 
Journal several articles on "The I'ublic Schools," 
I which were widely coijied. He also wrote many 
I editorial " leaders," as the custom of that day 
was witti the daily press — indeed, he became to 
: Mn I'rentice a favorite and indispensable aid 
I and adviser, and was often called to the sole man- 
I ageiiient of the paper during the absence of the 
I editor. Dr. BlII was impartial in his ])ublic ser- 
I vices of this kind, occasionally contributing to 
1 the ojiposition [wper, the Advertiser ; and a hu- 
! morons article of his in this sheet, written in 
1S36 and entitled "A Report of the Permanent 
Board of Improvement of the City of Louis- 
ville," set the whijle town on the broad grin and 
secured the I)octor, among other advantages, 
the lifelong friendship of the Hon. James 

'I'he next year (1837) Dr. Ik-il was mainly 
instrumental in securing the removal of the 
.Medical School of the L^niversity of Transyl- 
vania from Lexington to Louisville, to obtain the 
\ benefit of larger clinical facilities, and for other 
obvious reasons. In 183S he was co-editor with 
j Drs. Henry Miller and L. P. Yandell, Sr., of the 
Louisville Medical Journal, later the Western 
Journal. L'pon the retirement of these two gen- 
tlemen, Dr. Bell long conducted the magazine 
alone. To certain articles of his on practical 
hygiene, in this and the daily pa[)ers of the city, 
the excellent sanitation of Louisville is largely 
attributed. In 1S52 his masterly discussion of 
.-Vsiatic cholera was crowned with the approval 
of the British National Medical Association. It 
is said that but one other case ot such praise 
from English to .American physicians is known 
in the history of medicine. In a vury different 
field of controversy Dr. Bell soon afterwards 
won a notable victory. He was pitted in this 
discussion, with but little assistance, against five 
of the ablest clergymen in the city, in a debate 
over the merits of the then new "Union" revis- 
ion of the Ki!T^ J.mies tr.msl.ition uf the Bible, 
which his opponents undertook to prove was a 
purely sectarian work. It is related in a bio- 



graphical skctt ii of Dr. Ikll in Louisville Fast 
and Present, tin! ''the unfoitun.ite clergymen, 
wearied of the task in atteniinin;^ to drive hini 
from the field, .ihandoned the controversy, leav- 
ing him master of the situation, which he had 
so al)ly maintained from the beginning to the 

L'pon the outbreak of the late war and the 
formation of the Kentucky branch of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, Dr. Bell was very 
fitly made its jMesident, assisted by the Rev. J. 
H. Heywood, then pastor of the Church of the 
Messiah, and a board of managers compo.sed of 
some of the foremost citizens of Louisville. 
Very efhcieiU service was rendered by FV. Bell, 
especially after the battles of Shiloh and Perry- 
ville, and always by his attendance in the hos- 
pitals, of one of tliC largest of which he had per- 
sonal charge. Rev. Mr. Heywood, in his little 
History of the Comrnission, says: 

From beginning to end he labored unweariedly, bringing 
to tlie great work not only fervent patriotism and broad hu- 
manity, but a mind .T'.ike capacious and active, extensive 
medical experience, a thorough mastery of sanitary law, and 
an intense, unrcla.\-ing energy that was as vitalising as it was 
inherently vital. . . Never in any country or any age 
has there been more untiring consecration of rare powers and 
e.xtraordinary attainments to noblest ends than was made bv 
our honored fellow-citizen during these evenifu! years of des- 

About this time the following beautiful poem 
was dictated to Dr. Bell by Mr. Prentice, with 
the simple remark, " It is for you and your 
wife" : 

We've shared each other's smiles and tears 

Through years of wedded life ; 
And love has blessed those fleeting years— 

My own. my cherished wife. 

And if at time.^ the storm's dark shroud 

Has rested in the air, 
Love's beaming sun has kissed the cloud, 

.And left the rainbow there. 

In all our hopes, in a!! our dreams, 

Love is forever nigh ; 
A blossom in our path it seems. 

A in our sky. 

For all our joys of brighter hue 

Grow b.nghter in loies smile; 
And there's no grief our hearts e er knew 

That love could not beguile. 

The valuable public services of Dr. Bell in 
many departments of human action must now be 
rapidly summed in a single paragraph. He was 
chielly intluential in securing the first telegraphic 
outlet from Louisville to the outer world, and 

was a trustee of the property until il trans- 
ferred to the Western L'nion Conipany. He 
was for a time President of the Mozart Society, 
one of the best musical organizations ever I'ormed 
ill the city. He wrote a delightful book on the 
Cave Hill Cemetery, in which he has always 
taken a heaitv interest. Long an assiduc>us stu- 
dent of botany, he wrote and lectured'much upoti 
the subject, and stimulated greatly the practical 
interest in horticiilune and lloiictihure which has 
so beautified the city and vicinity. Flis various 
lectures upon scientific, literary, and [irofessional 
topics have invariably been heard with interest, 
and have won cordial encomiums. Since iS^y 
he has filled with great acceptance the chair of 
the Science and Art of Medicine and Public 
Flygiene in the University Medical School. For 
even a longer period, since iS.;2, the year of its 
founding, he has been an acti\'e meniber of the 
Board of Trustees of the State Institution for the 
Blind, and for the last eighteen years has been 
I'resident of the Board. He has been a trustee 
of the American Printing House for the Blind 
since its organization m 1S5S. 

These and other many and gratuitous services 
to his fellow-citizens and the State, that it would 
take pages to enumerate, have been rendered with 
the fidelity and zeal that have marked all his ac- 
tions. It is asserted that from not a single meet- 
ing of all the numerous boards of which he is a 
member, has Dr. Bell ever been absent. His many 
sided mind has reflected light in every direction, 
and his vast store of inlormation upon almost 
every subject of human interest has furnished 
thousands with needed knowledge, and has 
never turned an earnest inquirer after truth 
empty away. 

Daily and hourly subject to the demands of 
the most exacting of all professions, he has per- 
formed an amount of literary labor which in it- 
self would be the life-work of an ordinary man. 
Of this inmiense literary work there are but few 
tangible remains — a lecture or address in pamph- 
let form, three or four in number, marked by his 
profound scholarshiji and original thought, care- 
fully preserved by a ftw, but otherwise forgotten 
by the busy world in which the author lives and 
for which he works. He is no closet student. 
so wrapt up in his studies tliat a triumphant foe 
could find him at his books all ignorant of the 
sack of his native city : on the contrary, he is a 

fjijlisi^ '-'•f©ss. 

- / 

^^ . Qi^.^f. -7yr.//^ ^'^^ . 






4" \ I 





vigilant sentinel, who time and again Inis warned 
liis fellow-citiicens cf coming dangev, has led 
tlieiTi victoriously ag.iinst the. anibiHiied lie^ti- 
■ Icnce, and has rallied them manfiiUy against 
sensational alarms and the [)aiiic that is worse 
than the pestilence. For such deeds ns these he 
will he remembered, and ihcii inlliience for good, 
though silent, cannot be nitasured. His lame 
does not rest upon storied volumes; but the citv 
is cleaner, the streariis of commerce flow deeper 
and swifter, and men, and women, and children 
lead happier lives because of his deeds. 

The noblest of his contemporaries in this 
country have held him in warmest friendship. 
The great Alexander Campbell, by whose side 
he stood in many a fierce controversy, was glad 
to call him brother and friend. On the wall of ' 
his cabinet is a Government musket, the per- 
sonal gift of Abraham Lincoln, in memory of ' 
services to his country no less great than those | 
of his generals ; while near by is the tribute in j 
gentle needlework of the humble nuns whose ' 
hospital floors have been worn by his feet. On 
every side in his rooms is some memento ot I 
those whom the countiy has delighted to honor, 
and who reckoned him as ons of the noblest. \ 
Personally generous and neglectful of self, the I 
rooms in which he lives fittingly represent his 
character. The stairs that lead to them are 
worn deep by the feet of those who come daily : 
to seek his aid, and never have lailed to get it. i 
Never a tale of sorrow that was poured into his ■ 
ear but found sympathy and aid; never a strug- 
gling soul but found his hand outstretched to , 
help. j 

The curiosity hunter would find in his rooms 
objects of interest from every land and sea ; the 
bibliophile, books that would make him wild 
with envy ; and the man of method, a seeming 
chaos of current literature that it would be ex- 
hausting to order aright. Bidding fair soon by 
reason of strength to attain four-score years, it 
is his delight to keep fully informed of every 
step made in science and literature The early 
and lifelong friend of the elder Harper iS: 
Brothers of Xew York, the younger members of 
that firm still keep up the practice of its founders 
of sending personally a copy of each work they 
publish to Dr. Bell, in graceful acknowledgment 
of what he has done in the West for the cause 
of literature and the humanities. 

l"or nearly a score of years he has lived alone, 
unattended by a single servant, pte|;aring his 
own meals and jeaUius of any other idea of or- 
di.r but his own ; but it is not as a misanthropical 
recluse he lives, but as a wise and genial Chris- 
tian, a keen and aleit scholar, and withal a tender- 
hearted and indulgent grandfather. In summer 
time his windows overHow with blossoming.jilants 
and lu.\uriant vines, and his buggy with chil- 
dren. In the whole city there is no one more 
generally known, nioie universally revered, and 
more heartily loved. 


Ample materials for a biographical notice of 
this distinguished physician and scientist, one of 
the most notable men who have ever illustrated 
the annals of Louisville, ate furnished by the 
sketch of his life and character read to the 
.Vmerican Philosophical society of Philadelphia, 
November 17, 1SO5, by his friend and former 
colleague, r>r. S. D. Gross, also in the obituaiy 
notices written by Professors .\sa Gray, of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, and Henry Miller, of 
Louisville, and published with the former sketch 
in a neat volume in 1865. Dr. Short shared the 
blood of two of the most renowned families in. 
the Ohio valley, the Shorts and the Symmeses. 
He was the son of Peyton and Mary (Symmes) 
Short. His mother was daughter of Judge John 
Cleves Symmes, who made the celebrated Miami 
Purchase, upon which Cincinnati stands. Her 
sister Anna was wife of General William Henry 
Harrison. His paternal grandmother was Eliza- 
beth Skipwith, daughter of Sir William Skipwith, 
of England, Baronet. The late Judge John 
Cleves Short, of Cincinnati, was his brother, and 
his sister became wite of the famous Kentucky 
surgeon, Dr. Benjamin \V. Dudley. 

I)r. Short was born at Greenfield, Woodford 
county, Kentucky. October 6, 1794, upon the 
splendid farm owned by his father, in one of the 
most romantic and beautiful regions of the State. 
His elementary training was in the renowned 
school of Joshua Fry, long the only seminary of 
note for boys m Kentuckv; and his higher stud- 
ies Were pursued at Transylvania University, 
from which he was graduated uith honor in iSio, 
when only si.Meen years old. He began the 



study ot medicine with his untie, Dr. Frederick 
Ridgcly, but 111 1813 became the private pupil 
and olllce student of Dr. C\;.spar Wistar,^ r,f Phil- 
adelphia, professor of anatomy in the I'niversity 
of PennsNlvania. He also listened to the med- 
ical lectures in the Univerbity, from wliich he 
received the degree of .\I. D. in the spiing of 
1S15, before he was twenty-one years old. He 
had already made huh h research in botany, for 
which he afterwards became celebrated; and his 
graduating thesis was on the medicinal i]ualities 
of Junipcrus Sahina. Dr. W'istar wao greatlv 
attached to his youny and promising pupil, to 
whom he [iresented ujion leave-taking, l"rom his 
own collection, a case of instruments for treat- 
ment of the eye. In November of the same 
year Dr. Short was wedded to .Miss Mary Henry, 
only child of Arnnstcad and Jane (Henry) 
Churchill. It IS an inteiestiiig fact that the 
mother-in-law here named, after the death of 
Mrs. Peyton Short, liad become tlie stepmother 
of Dr. Short, as the second wite of liis father. 
He returned to Kentucky with his young bride, 
traveling the entire route in a spring-wagon, 
but with great pleasure and satisfaction from 
the superb scenery and their own hap]iy hopes. 
He settled for practice in Lexington: but success 
was slow to come in the professional competition 
there, and he ;)resentiy removed to Hot.kinsville, 
formed a partnership with Dr. \\'ebber, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative [iraciice, at 
the same time improving the rare oppiortunities 
there presented tor botanical investigation. 

In a few years (1S25) he was very flily called 
to the chair of Materia Mcdica and Medical 
liotany in his alma mahr^ Transylvania Univer- 
sity, and aided his associates of an uncommonly 
able and brilliant Faculty to lift the new depart- 
ment here to a high pitch of prosperitv. With 
one of these, the noted Dr. John Esten Cooke, he 
founded in 1S2S one of the pioneer medical 
journals of the West, the Transvlvania Journal 
of Medicine and the .\3s0ciate Sciences, and re- 
mained its co-editor and publisher during four 
volumes of publication. Upon the break-up of 
the Faculty in 1S37, Dr. Short, although reap- 
pointed to his former chair, arcompamed those 
of his colleagues who went to found the Medical 
Department of the Univer-^ity of Louisville. 
His lectures were here continued wit!i great suc- 
cess, and much of his spare time was absorbed 

j in botanical researches and literary studies. L; 
about twelve years, however— nearly iwjnty-f.v- 
I years fiom the lieginning of his profession— he 
wearied of the drudgery and tedium e)f iiistru. - 
; tion, closed his connection with the University, 
and retired pernianciuly to liis beautiful countiy 
seat in the midst of enchanting sceneiy, about 
five miles fiom Louisville, which bore the sug- 
I gestive name of ILuficld. He had previously 
spent much time during his summers in the ini- 
j provement of an eligible site on the banks of the 
j Ohio, a few miles below Cincinnati, which he 
j called J'"ern Lank, from the abundance of the 
j plant there. The name has been retained for a 
1 ])retty subuib which has since been laid out on 
j the spot, where two brothers of Judge Short's 
] family have built a noble row of spacious and 
j costly residences. He had accumulated a hand 
j some competency by his own exertions ; but to 
1 this a considerable addition was made in iS49by 
an inheritance from his uncle, the Hon. William 
1 Short, of Philadelpliia, a distinguished citizen 
who iiad the unique honor of being, undei Pres- 
j ident ^^'a^hington, the first appointee to public 
I office under the Constitution. Lie was secretaiv 
I to Thomas Jefferson, when the latter was Minis- 
I ter to France, was afterwards Minister to the 
Hague, and was charged with special embassies 
to Spain and other courts, being in all some 
thirty years in the diplomatic service. 
I Dr. Short had now abundant leisure and means 
[ for his botanical researches, and for the large cor- 
1 respondence which these enabled him to main- 
tain with the most eminent scientists of that day. 
1 as Sir William Hooker, Director of the Royal 
Gardens at Ktw; Nuttall and Wilson, also of 
England; the great De Candolle, of I'rance; 
Joachim Steets, of Hamburg; Uzrelli, of Italy, 
and others. He had also numerous .^meric.ui 
correspondents of high eminence; such as Ciay, 
Torrey, and Agassiz, of Cambridge, Audubon, 
Carey, Curtis, Lapham, and many more. He 
was further made a member of numerous scientific 
societies, both m tins country and abroad; but 
his modesty never allowed him to llourish the 
diplomas he received in the face of the world. 
When he retired from the I'niversity, he received 
the honorary appointment of Emeritus Professor 
of Materia Medica and .Medical P.otany, and the 
additional compliment of a most kind and 
tering letter of farewell from his fellow -iirofessors. 



After retiroiiK-nt he devoted liimielf to flori- 
culture and hurtieiilture, to his library- -which 
contained ahrmt lliree tliDUsnnd \(ilunic=;, one- 
fourth of them rare and eo^lh' botanical works — 
and his heibariuni, whiili bccnme by tar the 
largest, most varied and \aliiable in the \\e-tLrn 
couiitr)'. It was bequealiied by him to the 
Smithsonian Institution, liut upon conditions 
■which could not tlien be met : and it pa^^sed to 
the Academy of Natural SriLnees in Phihdelphici, 
where it now is. In these haiipy pursuits he sp-nt 
about fourteen years, and then, Maich 7, 1S63, 
at his winter home in Louisville, he passed tran- 
quilly away, of typhoid pneumonia, aged sixty- 
eight years, live months, and one day. He left a 
surviving wife, and children as follow: Mary 
C., now Mrs. W. Allen Richardson, o( I/niis- 
viUe; William Short, a farmer of Hardin county, 
Kentucky, who died in March, 1S70, his mother 
preceding him to the grave by a little more than 
a month: Jane S., wife of Dr. J- Fa:ssill Rutler, 
of Louisville; Sarah, wife of Dr. T. G. Richard- 
son, Professor of Surgciy in the University of 
Louisiana, who (Mrs. Richardson"! died in Feb- 
ruary, 1S66; Lucy R., who mairied J. R. Lin- 
kead, F>sq., Louisville, and died April S, 1868; 
and Miss Alice Short, cif Louisville. 

Dr. Short was a Presbyterian in his religious 
faith, a member of sincere but unostentatious 
piety. He was author of many articles, chiefly 
botanical, contributed to the 'I'ransylvania Jour- 
nal of Medicine and the Associate Sciences, and 
to Dr. Drake's Western Journal of Medicine 
and Surgery. He was not, however, a prolific 
writer, notwithstanding his overflowing abun- 
dance of materials; and all that he published, it 
is said, would scarcely make a duodecimo vol- 
ume of three hundred pages. One genus and 
four species of plants, one of them, the .9. '.'/i/c^t' 
Shortii of Torrey and Gray, discovered at the 
Falls of the Ohio, have been named from him by 
distinguished" botanists, and aid to perpetuate 
his memory. 

We close this notice with the following extract 
from the character sketch made by his former 
colleague. Dr. Henry Miller, of the L-mversily 
of Louisville : 

mil ni 

1 :ill Iiis lif.- .\5 a ni.\i], Dr. Short iciiKirk.iM" (or 
^- h.v! aliiiobi s.xul f.i.,nfrioi:s iimtUsty. difii.J.nci-, .in.i 
5; <li-lio^ition. This last U'.iil was so strongly niarkeil 
slrantjer miglit have liccniL'd him to bo an ascetic; bm 
dill a kinder heart beat in human bosom. His lieart 
dri'd always in the right, and alive to the nublest 
II 'St i;eiierous impulse.-,. .-\s to his probity, it was as 
IK-rfect as is possible tn f.illeu hum.uiity. 1 hi're was 
a slain upon his lionor, and the breath of c.iKimny 
tarnished his name. 

.\s a lecturer, Dr. Shorts style was chaste, concise, and 
classical, and his manner always grave and digmiied. Ills 
lectures were always carefully and fully written, and read in 
the Iceture-room with a good voice and correct emphasis. 
He never made the least attempt at display, nor set a elap- 

DINK, M. D., 

son of .Alfred and Fanny Maria Rodine, was born 
in Fairfield, Nelson county, R'enrucky, on the 
jd day of October, 1S31. His paternal ances- 
tors were Huguenots who emigrated to this coun- 
try in 1625 and settled in New York City, his 
grandfather coming to Kentucky soon after the 
State was admitted into the Union. His nia- 
ternal great-grandfather was Peter Rrown, of 
Loudon county. \'irginia, a captain on General 
Washiivjton's staff, who came to Kentucky at an 
early jicriod and settled on land near Rardstown, 
granted him by the State of \'irginia, in consider- 
ation of military services. 

Having received a common school education, 
he .spent two sessions in St. Joseph's college, 
Rardstown, following which he continued his 
studies at Ilanover college, Indiana, quitting the 
latter institution on account of ill health at the 
opening of his senior year. He rested a few- 
months and then began the study of medicine in 
the office of the late Professor H. M. pJuUitt, M. 
D., of l,ouisville. He attended the sessions 
of 1S32-53 and 1S53-54, at the Kentucky 
School of Medicine, ami was graduated there 
March I, 1S54. He removed in the following 
May to Austin, Texas, and began the practice 
of his profession. 

Responsive to the importunities of his parents, 
he made what was proposed to be only a visit to 
Kentucky, in the fall of 1S55. Fie was manied 
on the 25th day of F)ecember, that year, to NLity 
E. Crow, daughter of Edward Crow, who was for 
many years a prominent merchant and rejire- 
sentative citizen of Louisville. His marriage 
prevented a return to Austin and determined a 
settlement in Louisville. He was immediately 
called to the Demonstratorship of .Anatomy in 
the Kentucky School of Medicine, his abna 



ina/er, and discharged the duties of that office 
during the session of 1S56-57. 

Pursuant to tlic jcsult of a consuhation of pro- 
fessional fiicnds, he moscil to Leavenworth, 
Kansas, in the hope of benefiting his wife's 
health, in ^Kay, 1S57. 

On Easter Sunday preceding his dejinrture he 
was confirmed in the Giace Episcopal Church, 
his only child, Elizabeth Crow, beini; baptized at 
the same time. 

He early acrjuired a large practice in Leaven- 
worth, and took an active part in all that con- 
cerned the Episcopal Church. He is believed 
to be the first cominunii ant to receive the holy 
sacrament of tlie Lord's Supper in the F^piscopal 
Church of Kan=;as. He was appointed by Bishop 
Kemper the first secretary of the first standing 
committee of the diocese, and held this position 
so long as he remained in Kansas. He was 
annually elected a warden of his church, and was 
a delegate to all the diocesan conventions held 
during his residence in Leavenworth. At the 
only opportunity during that tinie, he was cho;en 
to represent the diocese of Kansas in the 
General Council of tlie .-Vmerican Church. 

He was the first president of the first medical 
society organized in the State. He was elected, 
notwithstanding his [jublicly expressed wishes, a 
member of the Leavenworth City Council, be- 
cause of the conviction among party leaders that 
no other Democrat could carry the ward in 
which he lived. 

While a member of the Council he succeeded 
in having established the first hospital in Kansas; 
and it was placed under his charge. He re- 
signed his jilace as councilman before the expira- 
tion of his term, because of the pressure of pro- 
fessional duties and his repugnance to politics. 

The condition of things brought about by the 
war necessitated his return to Kentucky in May, 
1862. \Vhile on the old homestead adjoining 
Fairfield, in care of his widowed mother, and 
during the latter part of 1S63, he yielded to the 
wishes of many friends of his alma iiialer, 
and accepted the Prol'essorship of Anatomy in 
the Kentucky School of Medicine, beginning his 
first course of lectures February i, 1S64. He 
removed his residence to Louisville in the tall oi 
1864, and continued his position in the school 
throughout the sessions of 1S64-65 and 1S65- 

Lie dcli\ered the Faculty valedictory address 

' to the class of 1865-66. 

He was called in the summer of 1S66 to the 
chair of .Anatomy in the Medical 1 Jepartment of 
the University of Louis\'ilie. Near the close of 
his first session in the I'niversity he was elected 

: Dean of the ]''aculty, and since then has been 
annually reelected by unanimous vote of his 
colleagues, holding the office at this time. 

He delivered the public address for the faculty, 
introductory to the course of lectures of the ses- 
sion 1S72-73, and the Faculty valedictory to the 

; class of 1877-7S. 

These public and published addresses, es- 

i pecially the last, entitled, What .\in I? attracted 

; wide attention, and elicited high enciiiniums from 
the medical press and distinguished teachers in 

; both F^urope and Ameiica. 

He served as a member of the Louisville 
Hoard of Health for the years 1S6S and 1S69, 

j and at this time is a member of that bod)-. He 

I has served on the Louisville city hospital staff. 
He has held the office of physician to the Orpihan- 
age of the Good Shepherd since its establish- 
ment in 1S69, and is a p^ermanent member of 
the following medical societies : The Louisville 
College of Physicians and Surgeons ; the Louis- 
ville Academy of Medicine ; the Kentucky State 
Medical Society ; and the American Medical 
Association. In the last-named body he has by 
annual appointment, excepting perhaps one or 
two years, represented the Kentucky State Med- 
ical Society since 1S67. 

To his pen and energy must be allowed the 
credit of making the first successful efforts toward 
forwarding the .American Medical College .Asso- 
ciation; and he is now the President of that 
body, to which place he was elected, as the suc- 
cessor of Dr. Gross, at the sixth session of the 
association, held in Richmond, Virginia, in June, 
18S1. Dr. Bodine resumed his connection with 
Grace church after his return to Louisville, in 
which he continues an active member and of 

While laboriouslv engaged in college duties, 
Dr. Bodine has been unremitting in the active 
work of his profession, and enjoys a large ]irac- 
tice, which has grown with the general esteem in 
which he is held. 






Q'i..3^'rf,-;..j/r^ir/ ''^' (2:a^ic/e-^(^-i^ 



DR. L. P. ^■.\XDELL, Sk. 

Lunsford Pitts Yandell was born near Harts- 
ville, Sumner county, Tennessee, on the 4th day 
of luly, 1S05. Hi> father, Wilson Vandell, was 
a native of North Carolina, and a y)hysician of 
large practice and exce]nionol standing in mid- 
dle Tennessee; Eli?.ihcth Pitts Yandell, his 
mother, a native of Yirginia. 

His elementary education was received in the 
common schools of Sumner county, and these 
gave way, in his thiilcenth year, to the Bradley 
Academy at Murfreesboro, his parents having 
removed to Rutherford county in the vicinity of 
that city. This academy afforded opiiortunity 
for instruction in the classics, the natural 
sciences, and mathematics, to the limit usually 
set in schools of the class, and that these were 
fully improved by the student is attested by the 
traditions of the family,— more still by the prac- 
tical foundation of solid acquirement upon which 
he later reared so liberal and symmetrical a 

In 1822, when but seventeen years of age, the 
young man began the systematic study of medi- 
cine in the otiice of his father. During the winter 
of the same year he attended a course of medical 
lectures at the Medical Department of Transyl- 
vania University, at Lexmgton, Kentucky, then 
the principal medical school of the State — as, in- 
deed, west of the mountains. From Transyl- 
vania he went, for a second course, to the 
Medical Department of the Maryland University, 
situated at Baltimore, from which latter institu- 
tion he was graduated with the class ot 1S25, 
when in his twentieth year. From that time 
until 1831 he practiced his profession at Mur- 
freesboro and Nashville, Tennessee, then ac- 
cepted the chair of chemistry in Trans\lvania 
University as successor of Dr. Blythe, his old 

After filling this place with distinguished suc- 
cess until 1837, Dr. Yandell became convinced 
that the proposed medical school at Louisville 
promised a wider field of usefulness and greater 
possibilities of development than that at Le.xing- 
ton, and resigning his chair, removed to Louis- 
ville, and with Cooke, Caldwell and others, or- 
ganized the Louisville Medical Institute, accept- 
ing at the same time its professorship of chem- 
istry. Pie also lectured in various other medical 

branches. From this time for twenty-two years 
his relations with the school were maintained, his 
labors in its behalf iieing unremitting and in- 
s|iired by an entluisia.iiii that compelled success 
and left its mark upon the minds and methods 
of thousands of phvMcians scattered throughout 
the land, whose heads have now grown gray in 
the labors of their profession. In 1S46 the 
Medical Institute, by consolidation with the 
Louisville College of Medicine, became the 
medical department of the University of Louis- 
ville, and, during the same year, P)r. Yandell ex- 
changed his professorship of chemistry for that 
of physiology and pathological anatomy. 

In 1858 he severed his connection with the 
University, removed to Memphis- that he might 
join his son, L. P. Yandell, Jr., then residing 
there, and assumed the professorship of theory 
and practice of medicine in the medical college 
of that city. This he retained until the outbreak 
of the civil war compelled the closing of the 
school, when he turned his attention for the time 
to seivice in the military hospitals established in 

From his youth Dr. Yandell was a deeply 
religious man, and he determined in the year 
1862, to devote himself to the Christian ministry. 
He was at once licensed to preach by the Pres- 
bytery of Memphis, and was, in 1S64, ordained 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Dancyville, 
Tennessee. In 1867 he resigned his pastorate, 
and resumed the practice of his profession at 
Louisville, where his position and connection 
were at once regained. 

In 1872 he becaine president of the Louisville 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, and was, in 
April, 1877, elected president of the Kentucky 
State Medical Society. The latter post he was 
destined never to till, as he died on February 4, 
1S7S, in the seventy-third year of his age. 

This is a brief and formal statement of 
the more obvious facts of Dr. Yandell's life, yet 
it gives no adequate idea of what he did, and of 
what he was. He was a man many-sided in 
mind and character; versatile in ability; deep 
and broad in knowledge; practical in attain- 
ment; prolific in production. Some one has 
divided men commonly called scientific into two 
classes — hod-carriers and I'ormulators of science 
— the idea being that one class must collect, 
sometimes with no great enlightenment, the 



crude facts, which are the materials frmii which 
others, by generahzint,', classifvin;j;, and arrang- 
ing, erect solid walls of truth. This distinction 
IS false and unjust in the case of IV. Vandell. 
I'oth in the field of original research and as a 
closet student he was untiring, and accom- 
plished grand results in the sciences of medicine, 
chemistry, geology and [jalasontology. His scal- 
pel, test tube, and hammer were tlie ivjiveyors 
of a hungry mind, and the servants of a busy ])en. 
In the field, laboratory, and dissecting room, with 
all his close investigation, he brought nothing to 
light that he did not assimilate and cause to con- 
tribute to the fund of the world's knowledge. 
He was an independent and successful prac- 
titioner, and during his earlier years of jiractice 
performed most of the capital surgical opera- 
tions. His practice was not, however, so much 
a pleasure as a duly incident to the pursuit of 
science; he sometimes felt the ncce^^ily of 
attending a case to be almost an intrusicn upon 
his studious occupations, yet his patients were 
many and his reputation as a practitioner of the 

As a lecturer he was unsurpassed m that ability 
which makes a successful teacher one of the 
rarest of men. At his hands the most difficult sub- 
ject became almost easy; the driest, interesting. 
He inspired his students v, ith a share of his own 
enthusiasm, and, as has been said, sent every 
one into the world bearing the impress of his 
master-mind. One of Dr. Vandell's biographers 
has well said that he may be viewed as a practi- 
tioner, a teacher, and a writer, in an ascending 
scale. In the latter aspect he stands, by virtue 
of his work, at the head of Kentucky's list of 
scientific men and in the van oi American in- 
vestigation and thought, llefore he left his pro- 
fessorship at Transylvania, and even as early as 
1832, he had earned consideration and respect 
by his work as editor of the Transvlvania Jour- 
nal : in Louisville he founded the Western Jour- 
nal of Medicine, which lived until 1S57 ; he was 
actively interested in the American Practitioner, 
and wrote much for the Louisville Medical 
News. Up to 1S74 he had contributed one hun- 
dred and seventy formal articles to the medical 
literature of the United States, written a much 
larger amount in fragmentary form, and, be- 
sides, prepared lectures for many generations of 
medical students. 

rerha]>s Dr. Vandell's rejiu'alion was more 
widely extended t'y his writings upon geology 
and jialx'ontology than by those upon medical 
or even chemical topics. Commencing so early 
as 1S49 with a little volume entitled Contribu- 
tions to the (Jeology of Kentucky, prepared 
conjointly with Dr. Shumard, he continued, to 
the day of his death, to make valuable eontritiu- 
tions to the literature of the youngest science. 
Among his princiijal writings upon the subject 
are: A note to M. de Verneuil, Concerning the 
Discoiery of Calcareous .\rms in Pentremites 
I'lorealis, published in the liulletin of the Geo 
logical Society of I'rance; on the Distribution 
of Ciinoideain the Western States; a Descrip- 
tion of a New Genus of Crinoidea, named Acro- 
crinus Shumardi. 

In the course of his investigations in this field 
Dr. Yandell accumulated and classified one of 
the finest cabinets of geology and palaeontology 
in the United States, v;hich is now in the posses- 
sion of his son. Dr. L. P. Yandell, of Louisville, 
and his labors are effectually commemorated by 
the afiixing of his name to a number of fossils 
first discovered and classified during his life-time. 

Among the fossils so named for Dr. Yandell, 
are the following: Platycrinus Yandelli, named 
and described by Owen and Shumard; Actinoc- 
rinus Yandelli, by Dr. B. F. Shumard; Chonetes 
Yandellana, by Professor James Hall ; Ample.Kus 
Yandelli, by Edwards and Haime ; Trachonema 
Yandellana, by Professor James Hall ; and 
Phillipsastrea Yandelli, by Dr. C. Romenger, the 
great palreontologist of Michigan. 

In the field of medical biography Dr. 'S'andell 
wrote voluminously and with discrimination. 
His last sustained work was done upon his Med- 
ical .\nnals of Kentucky. This will yet doubt- 
less be completed and published. His last 
literary work of any kind was a paper entitled, 
The Diseases and Plygiene of Old Age, in which 
he warned the aged against the very exposure 
and imprudence which caused his own death. 
Of this he asked to see the proofs upon his 
death bed, but when they came he was beyond 
reading them. 

To the world Dr. Yandell seemed grave, 
thoughtful — even cold. He was a man of af- 
fairs as well as a student. He was ever ready, 
with the courage of deep conviction, to support 
what he believed to be the truth in anv contro- 

tiT-r" '' 



r / 


•/ ■•//:-•: 


45 > 

versy, and he did not esmix- the reputation nf 
being iiomcuhat ovethcarini;. \"et he was not 
cold, not overhearing, not unsynipatlietic. ■ 'l"o 
those in need or trouble he was never deaf, and 
in few men do we find the deep love of home, 
the self-sacrificuig affection and indulgence 
toward kindred and the yearning and devoted 
fondness for children which marked him. His 
later days were passed in an allegiance divided 
between his manuscripts and the somewhat ty- 
rannical rule of little grandchildren, who 
bered over him and clustered about him alike 
in his hours of work and leisure. When he 
died, the scientific circle, of which he was the 
central figure, deplored the Joss of an intellectual j 
mentor ; his family and immediate friends j 
mourned an irreparable personal bereaveinetit. 

William B. Caldwell, son of William and .Ann 
Trabue C^aldwell, was born at Columbia, Adait 
county, Kentucky, on the third day of Ajiril, 
1818. A sketch of his parents is embudiLd in 
the biography of George A. Caldwell at another 
place in this volume. His literary education was 
obtained in the schools of his native counlv, and 
at its completion he began the reading of medi- 
cine at Columbia under a preceptor. Entering 
the medical department of Trans)lvania Uni- 
versity, at Lexington, Kentucky, he attended the 
sessions of that institution until the spring of 
1841, when he was regularly graduated. Xot 
content, however, with such preparation, and 
determined to [jerfect himself in the theory and 
practice of his profession, he supplemented the 
lectures of Transylvania with others, fir^t at the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and 
later in the medical department of the University 
of Louisville. 

Immediately upon obtaining his diploma at 
Lexington, Dr. Caldwell o[iened an office tor the 
practiceof his profession atColumbia.and there he 
remained actively employed until January, 1846, 
save when necessarily absenc in attendance ujjon 
the post graduate lectures referrsd to. At the 
latter date he removed to Louisville and estab- 
lished himself professionally, rapidly acquiring a 
large and very lucrative practice. 

During the twenty-four years which followed 

he confined himself exclusively to his practice 
with the eiriiot and conscientious {perseverance 
whiih is one ol his cardinal characteristics, and, 
from year to year, his connection and labors in- 
creased until over-devotion to his arduous duties 
resulted in the shatteiing of his healtli, and he 
was compelled, in 1S70, reluctantly to retire 
from practice. 

In 1S69 the nomination for membership in 
the State I.egislaluie came to Dr. Caldwell quite 
unsoughl, and the election which followed was a 
dubious benefit to a person already broken in 
health, but being so elected he assumed and 
|icrfi.irined the duties of his place with the devo- 
tion and vigor that have marked him in every 
endeavor of his life. He was soon recognized 
as a woiking member, and a man not only of un- 
questioned honesty, btit of such judgment and 
discrimination that he won at the outset an in- 
fluence and consideration such as usually comes 
only as the reward of years of laborious legislative 
service. Though so long devoted to a puol'es- 
sion, he was and is a clear-headed man of busi- 
ness, and during his two years at Frankfort be- 
came marked and noted as an auttiority upon 
matters pertaining to the development of the 
State, especially in its transportation interests. 

Since Dr. Caldwell retired from the Legis- 
lature, declining a reelection, he has devoted 
himself, to the limit of his strength, to the in- 
vestment, care, and oversight of his large estate. 
He has, of necessity, been from time to time 
associated with important business enterprises. 
In 1S6S he succeeded the Hon. James Guthrie 
as a Director of the Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road Co., and served until the year 1S81, when 
he resigned. 

Beginning in 1S69 Dr. Caldwell was for sev- 
eral years a director of the Jeffersonville, Madi- 
son ^; Indianapolis railroad. He is now presi- 
dent of the Louisville Cement Co., and a 
director of the Birmingham Iron Co., which he 
organized, and is a heavy stockholder in each. 

In 1S37 Dr. Caldwell united with the Baptist 
church at Columbia, Kentucky, and has since 
been an active religious worker. Soon after 
coming to Louisville he was largely instrumental 
in uniting the First and Second Baptist churches 
to form the Walnut Street church, the mother of 
the Baptist congregations of the city. He con- 
tributed to the erection of its edifice and to the 



establishment of the many churches which have 
been its o.Tahoots. The IJaptist Orphans' Home, 
as well, owes much to hi-, liberalitv and to his 
counsel and advice as a director. He has for 
years been, and is now, a deacon of the Walnut 
Street church. 

In iS.)7 I'r. Caldwell married Miss .Ann Au- 
gusta, daughter of the Hon. James Guthrie, a 
woman of the highest intelligence, deep piety, 
and whose charity and kindness of heart led her' 
to administer her large estate most liberally, for 
tlic amelioration of human want and the ad- 
vancement of her fellows in knowledge, morality, 
and Christianity. Mrs. Caldwell's distinguishing 
characteristic was a self-forgetful interest in the 
welfare of others, and her death, which occurred 
on the 8th day of January, 1S72, was a com- 
mon loss to the community, as it was ari unut- 
terable bereavement to her husband, family, and 


The subject of the following sketch w,ts b -.m 
in Shelby county, Kentui ky, July ;-,, 181 7. 
His father, a physician, after giving his son the 
advantages of the best schools in a remarkably 
cultivated and refined communi;\-, had him enter 
Hanover College, Indiana, from which iivbtitu- 
tion he graduated with honors. 

Soon after, he began the study of medicine, 
and graduated at the University of Louisvdle in 
1839. He then repaired to Philadelphia, where 
he spent a season in the hospitals of that city. 
He added to this a year in Great Britain, and on 
the continent of Eurojie, in professional work. 
On his return to America he begun the practice 
of medicine in Xewcabtle, Henry county, Ken- 

Soon after this he married Flora V., daughter 
of the Hon. Edward Jackson, of West Vir- 
ginia, son of General George B. Jackson, of the 
Revolutionary war. Mr. Jackson was the dou- 
ble cousin of General Stonewall Jackson, and rep- 
resented a large and intelligent constituency in 
the National House of Representatives. The 
union resulted in five children, four of whom, 
three sons and one daughter, survive the fither. 
One of the sons, a naval ot'ficer, lost his life at 
sea, while e.xecuting an act of conspicuous gal- 
lantry. His mournful taking off is recorded on 

a beautiful cenntajih, erected to his memory at 
.■\nnapolis, by his brother officers. 

In 1850 Dr. Force was elected to the Chair of 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the Ken- 
tucky School of Medicme, an institution that 
had 'oeen founded in Louisville. He filled the 
position with credit to himself, but finding that 
the duties of the place interfered v.-ith his prac- 
tice, he lectured but a single session. 

About this time he moved to .Anchorage, where 
he acquired a large business. In 1863 he set- 
tled in Louisville, and at once assumed a lead- 
ing place in a city noted both for the number 
and strength of its medical men. In 1874, when 
the Central University of Kentucky, located at 
Richmond, established its Medical Department 
at Louisville under the title of the Hospital 
Medical College, Dr. Force was made }>residcnt 
of the faculty, and appointed to the Chair o\ 
Diseases of Women, places which he filled at the 
time of his death. Dr. Force died suddenly of 
angina pectoris on Sunday morning, February 
26, 1SS2, aged si.\ly-five years. At a meeting of 
the physicians of Louisville, held to take action 
on his death, the following remarks made by Dr. 
D. W. YandcU, an intimate fiiend of Dr. Force's, 
were unanimously adopted, as expressive of the 
sense of the profession in presence of its great 

Ordin.inly the task of spciking in public of a dear friend 
whom dcalh has newly taken is one of exceeding difficulty, 
for those who did not know him are apt to regard the praise 
given as excessive, while those who knew and saw the in- 
dividual in Wdys and with eyes other than your own may 
think you unappreciaiive. The first of these difficulties at 
least c.Tii nut arise in the present instance, for the public 
knew him whomue are gathered here to speak of as it knew 
no other physician; for no one in this community crossed so 
many thresholds, was admitted into the priv.icy of so many 
f.imilies. or liad so large a personal following as Dr.' Force. 

Brethren, do you not realize that the foremost man in our 
guild, the first citi.-ea of Louisville, passed away when Dr. 
Force died ? Wiiatever c.ipacity any one of us w ho is left mav 
ha\e, thtre is not one of us who was so useful or did so much 
good as he. Hence none of us, when we follow hira "from 
sunshine to the sunless land," sliall be so much missed, shall 
leave so large a void. .\o funeral cortege which ever pur- 
sued its solemn march throuijh these streets represented a 
more widespre.iJ, a more gener.d, or a more poujnant grief 
than that which will go to the grave with his remains. 

He was tmiy the beloved physician. .As such the public 
knew and revered liim, and as such it mourns him. But to 
us, who knew him, if not better, I may be permitted to say, 
knew himin other and even more intimate wavs— who fougl^t 
side by side with him in the unequal contest in which we ,ire 
all eng.iged— the loss can not be expressed. Who shall wear 
the armor which fell from his gr-^-jt shoulders, or wield th.ii 


l/:fer//cy-'~^K^/\^€yri o/r/j. 



nolo disease and staid the adva!';ce 

Dr. Fore 

Excahbar with \shich he : 
of death? 

Dr. Forec was pre-eminently the counsellor of tlie profes- 
sion. His wisdom was sought alike by old and young. 

" He spake no slander, no, nor listened to it, " 
for tbeic had grown up in him that inhnitL" lolcranc'- born 
alone of deep insight and comprehensive \ie« ; and while with 
every year he grow more thoughifn! and more" tender, long 
ago his sjnipathies had freshened and quickened into a 
supreme principle of action, which guveined, as it also irr.idi- 
ated all his life. 

Bui it was in his intercourse with the sick that Dr. Force 
exhibited his best and highest quahiies. He was prompt. 
He was punctual. He was patient. He was experienced. 
He was skilled. He was learned. He was wise. He wore 
the serious cheerfulness of Sophocles, wh3, it is said, Iiaving 
mastered the problem of human life, knew its gravity, and 
was therefore serious, but who, knowing that he comjre- 
hended it, was therefore cheerful. He literally carried his 
patients in his head and nourished them in his heart. He 
gave them not only his first and best, but he gave them his 
every thought. He never forgot Ihein, nor wearied of listen- 
ing to their complaints, nor rel.a-\ed in his efforts to assuage 
their pains or drive away their diseases. He fufilled all the 
requirements of the l.iw . He cured — wh.ere cure was possible 
— quickly, safely, pleasantly, and where death was ine\itable 
he gave a sympathy that was so genuine, so tender, and so 
sweet that it fell as a balm on the hearts of the stricken sur- 

: not a portrait; he was represcntatiie of t'.ic 
He has gone 

From wars of stase 
To [Kiace cteriwl, '^hcre th^- silence lives. 

He now stands in the light of that awful sublimity whose 
radiance was so often disclosed to him through the crenoes 
of death. And no purer than he, or none with a record of 
more battles won. or more good done in the days allotted 
hira or with the opportunities given him, ever stood there. 

NOLDS, M. D., 

son of Rev. Thomas and Mary Nichols Reynolds, 
born at Bowling Green, Kentucky, Augub.t3i, 
1842. Possessing a delicate physical organiza- 
tion, and being an only son, his early training 
was carefully guarded. He was educated in 
various private schools, by [irivate tutc^rs, and at 
Irving college. Being endowed with strong lit- 
erary tastes, he studied both law and medicine, 
his fancy for science predominating. He at- 
tended the lectures for two terms at the Univer- 
sity of Nashville, and entered actively into jirac- 
tice, finally graduating in the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Louisville at the session 
of 1867-68. In January, 1S69, he joined the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, a medical 
society which at that time held weekly meetings 

in Louisville. He rarely missed one of its meet- 
ings, almost invariably contributing something of 
interest to the original reports of cases and to the 
discussions. In May of that year he was elected 
chief surgeon to the Western Charitable Dispen- 
sary. Here he established a magnificent surgical 
clinic, and soon gained an enviable reputation as 
a teacher. 

In September, 1S69, he, in connection v.itli 
the late Dr. I.unsford P. Yandell, secured the 
co-operation of about tliiity of the incist inomi- 
nent practitioners in the city and organized and 
established the l^ouisville Academy of Medicine, 
which for a time took the place of the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, and was afterwards, in 
1875, incoiporated. 

In April, 1S71, he became a member of the 
Kentucky State Medical .Society, at Covington, 
and has missed but one of its annual meetings 
since that time. In 1S72 he was commissioned 
by the Kentucky State Medical Society as a 
delegate to the American Medical Association, 
which met in Philadelphia the first Tuesday in 
-May. He was, on the iSth of June, 1S72, 
elected an honorary member of the iMuskingum 
County Medical Society of Ohio; of the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, of Little Rock, Ar- 
kansas, in August, 1874; of the McDowell Dis- 
trict Medical Society, of Kentucky; and of the 
Southwestern Kentucky Medical Association; 
and of the Beech Fork District Medical Associa- 
tion, of Kentucky. In 1877 he became a mem- 
ber of the Tri-State Medical Society, of Ken- 
tucky, Indiana, and Illinois. He represented 
the Kentucky State Medical Society at the Inter- 
national Medical Congress, at Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember, 1876, and, at .Amsterdam, in September, 
1879. l^'-' ^^'^s ap|jointed, by the .American 
Medical .Association, at Richmond, \"irginia, in 
May, 1 88 1, foreign delegate and representative 
of that body in the International Medical Con- 
gress, of London, England, and in the British 
Medical .Association, at Ryde, Isle of U'ii;ht, 
.August, 1 88 1. 

In 1874, when Central University established 
its medical de[)art:;.ent at Louisville, he was 
elected to the chair of ophthalmology and 
otology, a position which he has continued to 
fill acceptably to the present time. On rec- 
ommendation of the Governor of Kentucky 
(J. B. iMcCreary), President Hayes apiiointed 



him an honorary commissioner from the United 
States for Kentucky, at the Indus- 
trial Exposition (wf 1)378), at Pari-^, h'rance. In 
1872, 1878, and iSSi, he visited the [)rinripal 
hospitals of the world, in this country and in 

In 1869 he began writing for the medical 
press, contributing articles to the Philadelphia 
Medical and Surgical Reporter, the American 
Practitioner, the Philadelphia ■ Medical Times, 
the New York Medical Record, the Louisville 
Medical News, and other leading niagazines. In 
the spring of 1879 he established the Medical 
Herald, a monthly octavo of si.xty-foiir pages, 
which made its first apiiearance on the ist day 
of May. As a literary and scientific production 
the Medical Heiald at once took the first rank, 
and is now one of the most influential and 
powerful medical monthlies in the country. It 
has a wide-spread popularity all o\ er the world, 
circulating as it does amongst all the civiliiicd 
nations. At the permanent organization of the 
American Medical College Association at Chicago 
in 1S77, Dr. Reynolds represented the Hos|jital 
College of Medicine, and he has continued to 
represent the institution in that body every year 
since, and has contributed largely to the interests 
of the annual meetings. Being one of the active 
supporters of the organization, he has had much 
to do with shaping its policy. He represented 
the Hospital College of Medicine in the Conven- 
tion of American Medical Teachers at Atlanta, 
Georgia, in May, 1S79. He was elected presi- 
dent of the section of ophthalmology, otology, 
and laryngology of the .American Association 
in New York City, June, iSSo. At a meet- 
ing of the Association of .American Medical 
Editors held in New York, on the 3d of June, 
iSSo, he was elected permanent secretary. 

In December, 1S78, when the Polytechnic So- 
ciety of Kentucky was about to surrender its 
property into the hands of a receiver of the 
Louisville Chancery Couit, he managed to reor- 
ganize the society and aided Colonel Dennett H. 
Young in effecting arrangements which resulted 
in a compromise with the creditors of the society 
and the election of an e.xecutive council, which 
has since so successfully managed the affairs of 
the Polytechnic Sncity as to open and maintain 
for the public use a large libruy, and to establish 
a free course of popular science lectures, which. 

taken altogether, has contributed very largely to 
tlic culture of Louisville. Dr. Reynolds has 
been a meml.ier of the Library Committee ever 
since the reorganization of the I'olylechnic So- 
ciety, and has had more than any other one man 
to do with the arrangement and classification of 
the books and periodicals. He is still a member 
of the E.xecutive Council. 

The Trustees of the Louisville Chaiitable Eye 
and Ear Iiitlimary made him its chief surgeon, 
a position he still holds. 

In January, 1S79, he organized the .Academy 
of .Medicine and Surgery in the Polytechnic So- 
ciety of Kentucky, and was its first Prrsident. 
During the years 1874 to 187S l,lr. Reynolds 
j was a member of the Louisville City Hospital 
staff as opthalmic surgeon, resigning in the latter 
i year. He is now opthalmic surgeon of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Orphan .Asylum, St. Yincent's 
Orphan Asylum, the German Protestant Orphan 
j Asylum and the Baptist Orphan's Home. 
[ In March, iSSo, he assisted to organize in the 
pL'lytechnic S.iciety of Kentucky an academy 
I of art, of which he was President for the first 
' year of its existence. His contributions to med- 
j ical science, often detailing original investigations, 
j liave been both numeious and varied. A tireless 
i worker in the interests of his profession, it has 
! been his pleasure to see many of the principles 
j he has advocated adopted and incorporated as a 
! part of the common fund of professional knowl- 
I edge. Systematic and precise in even the 
j smallest items of what most people term com- 
; monplace matters, he has been able to accomplish 
much that, lel't to chance and opportunity, would 
never have been wrought. .A lover of books, 
and a judge of their value, he has accumulated 
a collection which, for intrinsic value and wide 
range of subjects, is rarely surpassed. Social in 
disposition, and ready in conversation, his ac- 
quaintancesand friends are distributed throughout 
biith this country and Europe. Strict in adherence 
to principle, his line of action is sharply delined. 
Conscientious and upright, he has defended 
whatever he deemed worthy of defence upon 
principle, with that force and strength that can 
only come t"rom a conviction of the worthiness 
of the object. 

.\, H. K. 

^:'.^^f^^^^^ . 


ie^/<r^7z. '/j . '.^c 



v.-as horn in Frankfort, Kentucky, Supteiiibcr 12, 
1832. His i)arcnts still livO, having turncil the 
golden period of n hapjiy and prosperous wed- 
ded life, and for nearly half a century occupied 
their present home. Through his mother, a no- 
ble woman, and the only <:urvivor of a large and 
illustrious family, he is related to the Browns and 
Prestons, and thus derives his surname. She 
was F'.lizabeth Watts P.rowr, youngest daughtei 
of Dr. Preston Drown, a distinguished physician 
of Frankfort, Kentucky, m his day, and Eli/.abeth 
Watts, of Roanoke county, Virginia. His fath- 
er is Colonel Robert W. Scott, an old and hon- 
ered citizen of Franklin county, Kentucky, dis- 
tinguishep as a man of wealth and cultivated 
tastes, and for his enlightened public spirit, an 
able writer, an eloquent speaker, a succe-sful 
practical farmer, and for half a century prominent 
in the benevolent enterprises and agricultural 
interests of the State. His paternal grandfather 
was Joel Scott, an early settler of Kentucky, from 
Virginia, prominent in the early histoiy of the 
State, in the development of Us manufacturing 
interests. His paternal grandmother was the 
daughter of Colonel Robert Wilmot, an officer of 
the Revolution. 

In 1S41, as the first Public School Commission- 
er appointed under the common school system. 
Colonel Scott erected adjacent to his jirescnt 
farm the first public school building in the 
state. The subject of this sketch was entered 
among its first pupils, and was elected to make the 
inaugural speech, which is still preserved. At the 
age of fifteen, he attended the private school of 
Rev. James F^ells, to prepare for college. At sev- 
teen he entered the junior class at Georgetown 
College, Kentucky, where he graduated with the 
honors of his class. The year following he 
passed in the household of his uncle-in-law, 
President Reese, of the University of East 
Tennessee, where he again graduated with 
class honors, in 1S53. he returned to George- 
town, and received his Master's degree. In 
October, 1S54, he entered the office of Dr. 
Lewis Rogers, and as the pupil of this good 
man and learned and honored physician, he 
graduated in 1856, in the medical department of 
the University of Louisville. The following year 
he passed as one of the resident physicians in 
the Louisville City Hospital. In March, rS57, 

he entered upon the practice of his profession, in 
Hickman county, Kentucky. In 1859, he mov- 
ed to a more lucrative field, in Polivar county, 
Mississippi, and was engaged in a large practice, 
when he entered the Confederate Army, in the 
fall of 1S61. His first service was as a private 
soldier, at the battle of lielmont, Missouri. In 
May, 1862, he was api'ointed surgeon of the 
Fourth Kentucky Infantry, in the famous First 
Kentucky Brigade. He soon became Brigade 
Surgeon, on llie stafi of iii.s early friend, the la- 
mented Creneral Hardin Helm. At tlie battle 
of lackson Mississippi, he received another pro- 
motion, and became associated with Dr. D. W. 
Vandell, as Medical Director on the staff of Gen- 
eral Joseph, E. Johnston. Later he was assigned 
to duty, as Medical Director to Lieutcna-'. 
General Leonidas Polk, and served on his staff 
to the moment of his death at Kenesaw Moun- 
tain. He was then assigned to the charge of a'.', 
the hospitals in Mississippi and Alabama, re- 
maining until the close of the war, having served 
on the staffs of General Stephen Lee, Dabney 
^L^ney, and Dick Taylor. 

In July, 1S65, Dr. Scott returned to Kentucky, 
and .August loth entered upon the practice of 
his profession in Louisville. In October, 1862, 
he married Jane E., daughter of John W. Camp- 
bell, a retired banker of Jackson, Tennessee. ■ 

Their children are Jeanie Campbell and Rum- 
sey Wing^ Though he had occupied all of the 
highest positions as a surgeon in the Southern 
army and had acquired much surgical skill, his 
tastes led him to limit his work to medical prac- 
tice, and he has devoted his energy to reaching 
the mark of his ambition, a good family physician. 
In this he has been successful. He has a 
large and attached clientele, to which he devotes 
himself with unceasing kindness and faithful at- 

In 1870 Dr. Scott was elected Physician in 
Charge of the Episcopal Orphan Asylum. In 
1S71 he was chosen Physician in Charge of the 
Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home, and in 
1872 became Physician to Young Women's 
Home, in all of which places he still serves. 

In 1S81 he was elected President of the Acad- 
emy of Medicine and Surgery in the Polytechnic 
Society of Kentucky, and re-elected in 1SS2. In 
1867 he was elected a member of the Board of 
School Trustees, and re-elccted in 1S69 and 



187 1. In 1S54 he bec.'iine a mtmbtr of the 
Episco[iril Church. In Siuuiay sr.hool work he has 
been active, having; for many years been Super- 
intendent of Christ Church Sunday school. 

Dr. Scott is a L;emlernan of refined, di.i^nified, 
and elegant manners; he is positive in his con- 
victions, cpiick of pL'iCL|ition, and thoioughly 
analytical in his judL;ment. 

L. D. KA.STENblXE, M. D., 
a son of Ch.irles A. Kablenbine, a native of 
the Duchy of Hanover, Germany, and Vir- 
linda Biidwell Kastenbme, of Nelson county, 
Kentucky, was born in Louisville and obtained 
his preparatory education in tlie public schools 
of that city and at the Louisville high school, 
from which latter institution he graduated in 
1858, with the first class that went out from its 
doors. Previous to leaving the high school, in 
preparation for the medical course which he had 
already determined to pursue, he studied chem- 
istry in the Medical Department of the Univer- 
sity of Louis\ille, under the able tuition of Dr. 
I. Lawrence Smith. 

After graduation Dr. Kastenbine began the 
study of his ]>rofession, having as preceptors 
successively Drs. E. D. Foree and A. B. Cook. 
His relation with these preceptors continued for 
three years, though supplemented by the more 
systematic labor of the lecture room and hospital. 
In the autumn of i860 he entered the Medical 
Department of the University of Louisville, re- 
maining during the course of i860 and 1S61. 
Subsequently, during 1S61, his attendance upon 
the dispensary then conducted by Drs. Cook, 
Yandell, and Crowe, gave most excellent clinical 

The outbreak of the war, during the latter 
year, substantially suspended the medical schools 
of Louisville, and, for the time being, prevented 
the Doctor from returning for a second course, as 
he had contemplated. In lieu of so doing, he 
attached himself to the medical stafif of the 
United States Army, as acting medical cadet, a 
position which gave him excellent opportunity 
for study and practice, although his connection 
with the army was anomalous, and involved no 
obligation on his [xart. Being assigned to hos- 
pital No. 4, situated in Louisville, he entered 
upon his duties, and continued to perform them 
until the fall of 1S63, when he entered the 

liellevue Hos[.ital Medical College of New -^'ork, 
graduatir.g March 3, iS6.(. 

After remaining in New York for a few weeks, 
to attend private classes in operative surgery, 
Fir. Kastenbine returned to Louisville and 
opened an oft"!ce, for the practice of his profes- 
sion, wiih Dr. Foree, his termer preceptor. This 
relation was maintained for several years. 

In the autumn of 1865 the Kentucky School 
of Medicine was organized, and Dr. Kastenbine 
was its first demonstrator of anatomy. He held 
that position for one >ear. In 186S he became 
assistant to Dr. Wright, professor of chemistry in 
the medical department of the University of 
Louisville. This place was one to which Dr. 
Kastenbine was well suited by taste and attain- 
ment, as he had, from the first, devoted much 
of his attention to study and experiment in the 
field of chemical science. 

His two years as assistant to Dr. Wright served 
to so confirm his taste and extend his knowl- 
edge that, in the year 186.S, he was offered and 
accepted the Chair of Chemistry in the Summer 
School of Medicine connected with the Uni- 
versity of Louisville, and, a few months later, the 
corresponding and more important professorship 
in the Louisville College of Pharmacy. This 
post Dr. Kastenbine has since retained, with the 
addition, commencing with the session of 1S7S- 
79, of the Chair of Chemistry and Uronology 
of the Louisville Medical College. In spite of 
these many and engrossing duties, the Doctor 
has built up and held a fine general medical and 
surgical practice, has also served one year 
as visiting surgeon of the Louisville City Hos- 
pital, and has conducted many special investiga- 
tions — chemical and microscopical analyses — for 
other practitioners and for the criminal author- 
ities of Louisville. For some years he attended 
to all the medico-legal work of Louisville and 
its vicinity, and had almost as complete a 
monopoly of such forms of medical practice as 
required physical exploration by means of the 
microscope or chemical analysis. His devotion 
to these sciences has naturally directed him some- 
what particularly to diseases of the kidneys and 
to uronology, in which specialties he enjoys an 
extensive practice. In 1878 Dr. Kastenbine was 
appointed sj^ccial Government examiner of drugs 
for the port of Louisville, and has since retained 
the place. 



^V— ''-.: 







// / 



This gentleman, one of tlie most ]iopulai' and 
successful of the h(3mceoi).ithic [ihysicians of 
Louisville, is a native Buckeye, born at (Jolum- 
bus, the cajiital of Ohio, Apiil 4, 1S45, sou of 
Charles and Matilda (Cloud) I!reyfogle, of that 
city. The father was a mcrcliani tailor, accu 
Ululated a comfortable foriLme in the pursuit of 
his business, and has for some years retired from 
active affairs. His son received a good general 
education; but th,' outbreak of the war occurred 
while he was in the tlush of youth, andbefoie he 
had entered uiioii independent business. He 
became a soldier in the Ninth Ohio Cavalrv ; was 
promoted to a position on the statT of (.ieneral 
Kilpatrick; rode uith him in Sherman's grand 
army dtiring its later campaigns, and closed his 
service in 1S64 v.ith a very honorable record, he 
having taken part in as many as fifty or sixty 
pitched battles and skirmishes. He now, in his 
twentieth year, began the study of liis profession 
with Dr. George H. Blair, lA Columbus, son of 
Docijr .\lfred O. Blair, the Nestor of houKx-opa- 
thy in Cential and Northern Ohio, now living in 
retirement at Westerville, near Columbus. In 
1S67 he was graduated at Philadel()hia, Pennsyl- 
vania, and came the same year to New .\U)any, 
where he resided three years until he became a 
practitioner in Louisville, with his oftice in that 
city. While engaged in New Albany, although 
soon commanding a large and lucrative practice, 
he found time to prepare and publish a valuable 
professional text-book, entitled "Breyfogle's 
Homoeopathic Epitome," which has passed 
through eleven editions and has been translated 
mto a number of foreign tongues. In 1S69, 
having already had many calls to patients in 
Louisville, he decided to transfer his mam busi- 
ness to that city, with which he has since been 
substantially and verv prominently identified. 
Ey iSyr his taste for and success in the treat- 
ment of diseases of the eye and ear liad turned 
his attention to his present specialties as an oc- 
ulist and aurist. He went abroad and lor a 
year studied these diseases in the hosiiitals and 
lecture-rooms of Vienna, where he was honored 
with the position of ar,sistant to the world- 
renowned aural surgeon, I)r. Adam Pulitzer, 
during whose absence E)r. Breyfogle was entrusted 
with his entire private practice. 

He had also for some time in cliari/e the im- 

portant aural clinics given in the Vienna Hos- 
pital. His observations and studies were also 
extended in Pat is and London ; and he returned 
to Louisville with a very ample intellectual and 
j professional equipment for the large practice he 
j has since enjoyed. Besides keepiing this uj), he 
! has made iini'iortant contiibutions to the litera- 
ture of the [irofession, in pamjihlets and aiticles 
for the medical journals, has labored most faith- 
fully and unselfishly to secure the rights of 
honiieopathy in the State Legislature and other- 
wise, and Ills introduced some very serviceable 
innovations, as the use of musk as an antidote to 
chloral poison and the hypodermic injection of 
I potentized drugs. He is ])rom!nent as a special 
; lecturer of unwonted ability in the St. Louis 
Homteopathic College, of which, as well as of 
the Pulte Medical College, Cincinnati, he has 
been a Censor for sc>me ye irs. He is the re- 
cipient of the highest honor in the gift of the 
Iirofess'on, in the election, fi^r the year 1882-S3, 
to the I'residency of the American Institute of 
Houueopathy, the oldest national medical organ- 
ization in An'.trica, of svhich he had been Wct- 
President; and, at the meeting held in 1SS2, 
in London, which he attended, he was made 
Vice-President of the International Honnco- 
pathic Medical Convention. He was the origi- 
nator and first President of the Kentucky State 
Homceopathic Medical Society; was twice also 
President of the Indiana Institute of Homcto- 
pathy; is a member of the Hahnemann Institute, 
a member of the .Vmerican Institute of Homceo- 
pathy, and of suridry other professional and 
learned bodies. Has also been the recipient of 
several honorary degrees conferred by homceo- 
pathic medical colleges for "distinguished ser- 
vices." A writer in the Biographical Encyclo- 
pa:dia of Kentucky says: "He is devoted to 
homeeopathy, believing in its superiority ; takes 
great pleasure in expounding its principles, and 
is one of the most able, worthy, and successful 
of its representatives, his learning, manner, and 
bearing ever\where gaining respect to himself 
and giving re[>utation to his school. He is a 
man ot exceptional personal and social habits, 
everywhere gathering friends, and by his uni- 
versal Courtesy winning the eateem even of those 
who 0[)]i03e his theories of medicine." 

L)r. Breyfogle was united in marriage in Ncw 
.Mbanv to Miss Relln, dauehter of the Hon. 



John I!, and Penipa 1!. W'instandlcy. of t'lat 
city. 'I'hcy lunc one rhilil, a bon, Joliii \\'. 
BreyfoL'Je, now seven year.s of age. 

iSyr), to Mi>-> Nellie Oaiiard, of Fiankfi_irt, Ken- 
liK ky. Ikr (ather was for ui.inv years Treasurer 
of the State Oovernrneiit u{ Kentucky. 


\V. Chea' nil. M. 1)., e}e and ear [ihy.-ii. i.m 
in Louisville, was born in 'l'ayli.>rsvi!le, Spencer 
county, Keutucky, June 6, 185;. His lather, 
Dr. W. H. Cheatham, was one of the first eye 
and ear doctors we-t of the .Mleglnny Mountains. 
He was born in Sprin^t'icld, Keutucky, in 1830; 
educated in Center Col!e.^e, Danville, and re- 
ceived his professional education in the St. Louis 
Medical College, Practiced in Tavlors\illc, 
Kentucky, until 1S61, when he lemoved with his 
t'amilv to l.ouisMlle, where he rLUiaincd until iti 
1S67, where he removed to Slielbyville, Ken- 
tucky, and retired to a i)ii\ate li;e. Dr. W. 
Ciieatham received his literal y education in tlie 
public schools of Loui-.ville, and in tlie Ken- 
tucky Military Institute, graduating from that 
college in the spring of 1S70. He cnteied the 
Medical University of Louisville, and took a 
three years' cotirse, graduating from that institu- 
tion in the S[iring of 1S73. L'uring this same 
year he began practicing his profession in Shel- 
byville, Kentucky, but in a few months went to 
New \ ork and took a course of instruction un- 
der the famous [)r. C. R. A^new, on the diseases 
of the eye and ear, and afterwards continued his 
studies in this speciality in diffrrent hosjiitals and 
colleges until November, 1S74. when he became 
house surgeon of the Manhattan Eye and F'.ar 
Hospital, and retained this iiOsiti'in until Janu- 
ary, 1877. He came this year to Louisville, and 
established himself m tlie ]iractice of his 
specialty. In 1878 he went to Euro[)e and 
visited all the great medical centers of that 
country, the visit being for the purpose of re- 
ceiving further instruction on the diseases of the 
eye and ear. He returned to Louissille in 1S7S, 
in which he has sine e had in charge a large 
and increasing praclice of medicine. He is a 
lecturer on the diseases of the car, eye, and 
throat in the Univer-it\ jf Liiuis\irie: is visiting 
physician to the Lnuisvdlc City Hosjjilal. the 
Kentui ky Infirm. iry f.jr Wunien and Cliildren, 
and also to the M.isonic (Orphans' and Widows' 
Home of this city. He was mariieii October :, 

josiT'H McDowell m.vthews, m. -d. 

Joseph. McDowell Mathews, a son of Caleb 
M. and Frances S. lidwards Mathews, was born 
at Newcastle, Henrv counlv, Kentucky, May 
29, 1S47. H'jih father and nitither were Ken- 
tuckians, and the subject of this sketch had the 
advantage of exce]>tional lamily association and 
tradition. CJeneral Joseiili McDowell, the dis- 
tinguished and gallant soldier, was a relative, and 
lor him the child was named. Caleb M. Math- 
ews, his father, having served several terms as 
criminal judge of his distrift, earning a rare rep- 
utation for learning, ability, and spotless integiits, 
is still actively engaged in the jiractice of the 
law. One sister, the elder, is the wile of Flon. 
William S. Pryor, C'hief Justice of Kentucky. 
Another mariied W. P. Oldham, in his lil'etinie 
one of the iiiost distingui hed physicians and 
surgeons in the State. 'I he third sister, Sallie B. 
Mathews, married Morris Thomas, a thrifty 
f.irnir. r of Shelby county, Kentuckv. A biother, 
John W. Mathews, is Cashier of the National 
Bank of Newcastle. Another is in the United 
States Internal Revenue service. 

Dr. Mathews obtained his academic education 
principally at the Newcastle Seminary. Com- 
ing to Louisville in 1866, he entered the Ken- 
tucky School of Medicine. Previous to his grad- 
uation in 1S67, this institution became the Med- 
ical Department of the L'niversitv of Louisville, 
and it was under the latter name thit his di[jloma 
was granted. Pre\ious to his removal to Louis- 
ville, Dr. Mathews had enjoyed the e.vceptional 
advantage of studying uiuler Dr. Oldham and, 
imniediatelv upon his gradu.ition, he returned to 
Newcastle and entered into a ]jrofessional p.irt- 
nership With his old [)receptor. This rel.ition 
was maintained for a number of years, the linn 
doing the leading practice of that section, when 
I_)r. Mathews, unsatisfied with the possiijilities ol 
a Country practice, remmed to Louisville and 
opened an othce. His f.iith was justified by liie 
ai ' j'lirement of an excellent general practice, to 
wliK h he devoted himself f>jr live \ears, at the 
e\piration of which time he removed to N-w 







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/( .~(C A<€7///<z-4 

•>^>^?<:0 , 



Vorls, desirini; to take up the study of diseases 
of the rectum as a si'crialty. Ilisappointed in 
the clinical advanta_L;es of New York, Dr. Math- 
ews proceded to London, visited the hospitals of 
that city, made a tour of the continent for the 
same purpose and, iKcoming coi)\inced that 
London offered the hest oppoitunity tor his in- 
vestigation, returned and remained a number of 
montlis at St. Mink's hospital, the only institu- 
tion in the world demoted cm hisively to dise.nses 
of the rectum. While at St. .Mark's, I'r. Nhitlv 
ews's association with .Mr. W' .Mlin-ham, 
Senior Surgeon of the ho5[)ital and a leading au- 
thority in his specialty, was of infmite value. 

Returning to Louisville, Dr. Mattficws re-es- 
tablished himself, giving his exclusive attention 
to the special practice for which he had been so 
excellently prepared. 

Immediately upon his return and on June 29, 
1S78, he was called to and accepted the pmsition 
of Lecturer on the Diseases of the Rectum to 
the Hospital College ot .Medicine of Louisville. 
This he resigned in 1S79, to acce|)t the newly 
created chair of Suigi^al Pathology and Diseases 
of the Rectum in the Kentucky School of Med- 
icine. The latter position he still fills and is, as 
well, treasurer of the school. 

In time he became associated with Dr. Dud- 
ley S. Reynolds as editor of the Medical Herald, 
then, as now, one of the leading medical jour- 
nals of the West, and is still actively engaged in 
its conduct. Aside from his editorial writing the 
Doctor has contributed e.xtensively to medical 
journals of the L'nited States papers relating to 
his specialty, and his views upon the subject have 
been embodied in many American and foreign 
treatises, notalily the last edition of -Mr. .\lling- 
ham's work, whicfi pays him the compliment of 
an entire chapter. 

In iSSi Dr. ^L■lthews became \'isiting Surgeon 
of the Louisville City Hospital, which import- 
ant post he still fills. 

Notwithstanding his devotion to a specialty 
the Doctor has not allowed himsel*" to become 
narrowed — a man of one idea. His fields of 
thought and investigation are wide. He has, to 
the limit of his lime, accepted invitations to ad- 
dress various State medical societies upon sub- 
jects of general medical interest, and, in the 
Kentucky State Medical .Society and the Foly- 
techn'.c Society ot Kentucky, of both which or- 

ganizations he is a member, has been prominent 
in discussion and has contributed many valuable 

Dr. Mathews, on the 29111 day of >Lay, 1S77, 
nianied Mrs. Sallie E. Berry, of Midway, Ken- 

R. C. HEWETT, M. D.* 
Robert Carson Hewctt, son of John ^\. and 
S.irah (Carson) Hewett, was born in New York 
City October 9, 1812. of English parents. Soon 
after his birth the family reino\cd to Kentucky 
and settled finally in Lexington. His academic 
education was pursued during two years at 
.Miami L'niversity, and subsecpientlyat Transyl- 
vania, then in the zenith of its fame, and by 
reason of its hi,L;h rank among the universities of 
the land shedding mucli lustre upon Lexington, 
the noted city of its abode. He left Transylva- 
nia ill the senior year of his college course and 
in the nineteenth year of his age, to join, as as- 
si->tant, '1'. J. Matthews, who resigned his pro- 
fesior^hip of mathematics in the same institution 
to accept the ap|)oinlnient of engirieer-in-chief 
on the Lexington & Frankfort Railroad. After 
a short service in this capacit), an accident to 
Mr. Matthews disabled him from conducting the 
surveys, and young Hewett, who had already 
demonstrated his capacity as an engineer, was 
a|ipointed to succeed him, and completed the 
surveys to Frankfort. Soon after this he joined 
a party of engineers in making surveys for one 
of the first railroads projected in Indiana, viz. : 
fiom Lawrenceburg to Indianapolis. On his re- 
turn to Kentucky he was re-appointed engineer 
in charge of the Lexington & Frankfoit Railroad, 
and it was through the infiuence of his report 
and recommendation that existing contracts for 
constructing this road with continuous stone sills 
were abandoned, and a wooden superstructure 
adopted in lieu thereof He also aided in the 
surveys of several of the macadamized roads 
leading into Lexington, and located the one be- 
tween that citv and Georgetown. He then en- 
tered the service of the State and assisted in the 
surveys for the slackwater improvement of the 
Kentucky river. Afierward he was sent to the 
northeastern jiortion of the State, where he sur- 
veved and located the State road from Owens- 

' Contributed by a friend. 


ville to the inoutli <<[' the l!i^ Saiidw In a sinii haliits so niotcrted the other that now in his 

lar capacity he was plaeed in < har^'e ot' tlie ronii seventieth year he is roliii^t and \'iL;oious both in 

from Eh/abethtou!i (ihiijugli T.ou lini; Oreen) to iii, nieiital and phy^ital organic. iliotis, and for 

Eddyville. While thus engaged tJie financial erne of his age luc-^ents a rare type of the K'i/is 

crisis of iS^37 (kx iirred, cau-ing the af/ani!on- : sa/ui in curp^'rc sa/io. 

nient of all internal inijirin cment enterprises, as : Honest hy nalute and decidedly [lOsitiNe in 

well as geneial pro-jlranon in private Inisincss af- : his chara' ter, he can deal with no pro]iosiliGn 

(airs, and thus the demand Uiv civil engineers \ except with the utmost frankne-s and sincerity; 

was for the time at an end. i and l"or all subterfuges and quackery, and es- 

Young Hewett was at this time twenty-five pet ially quackeiy and pretension in the medical 

years of age. In ca-ting about fir new occupa- ; jTolession, he has the profoundrst contempt, 

tion, now that his old one "as not likely to be J Fond tjf his profession, and pioud of it as a 

soon setviccalile to him again, he cc^ncluded to ■ high science, he is loval to it accoiding to us 

take up the study of medicine, and in iSj.S com- ; highest standard, and a strict observer of its eti- 

menced at I,ouis\iili- as a student in the oftice \ ipjette. 

of his brother-in-law, Theodore S. Hell, NL D., j Recognized by the profession as one of its 

then, as now, one of the most able and di=tin- ablest exemplars, tuisted for his calm discrim- 

guished members of the metlical fraternity. Af- ! inating judgment and thorough conscicntious- 

ter pursuing his studies in Louisville l"i>r a sufti- ' ness, his counsel is often sought outside the 

cient time, he entered the medical department of large circle of hi;> immediate adhtrents, and his 

Transyhania and there graduated in 1S44. He , diagnoses and suggestions always command re- 

immediately returned to Louisxille, adopted that spect. 

city as his future hemie, and betook hiinseli as- , In many households in the city of his adop- 

siduously to the study and practice of his new ' tion, into which Dr. Hewctt hasg one in and out 

profession, which he has followed actively ever ; through many years as the chosen and trusted 

since and with a rare measure of success. While 1 physician, he is also gladly welcomed as a be- 

his practice has been of a general character, it ' loved and well-tried friend, — a tribute to faithful 

has been m late years largely in the line of ob- : and tender services, rendered oftimes under the 

stetrics. During his professional lite in Louis- ; sorest trials, and a recompense such as 1 good 

velle he has had rcpeate.l offers of professor:,hi[is : physician must always pri^e highly and be proud 

in several of the medical schools of that city, but to enioy. 

these he has unifoimly declined, simply because ■ During the civil war Dr. Hewett was a con- 

his tastes and preferences incline more to the ; sistent adherent of the L'nion cause. He was 

practical duties of the protession than to teach- j appointed by the Oovernment ''Acting As-Distant 

ing. For fourteen years Di. Hewett served as Surgeon United States Army for giving medical 

physician to the Kentucky institution for the attendance to ofticers on duty in the city of 

education of the blind, and for seven years he Louisville." In addition to these duties he took 

gave gratuitous service as [.hysician to the Prot- an active part in the organization of several of 

estant Episcopal Or[)han .\sUum. : the Government hos[jitals established in the city 

Without attempting to give an elaborate history during the war, giving also his protessional serv- 

of Dr. Hewett's life, or to say aught of an ex- ices to the same. He served also as a member 

travagant, much, less of a fulsome character in of the L'nitcd States Sanitary Comniissii.)n, and. 

regard to him -which would be more distasteful in conjunction with the late Doctors Lewis Rog- 

to him than to any one else — it may be permitted evs and J. 15. Flint, acted as a member of the 

the tiiend who pens this sketch, and who has Loard of .Medical I'xaminers tor examining ap- 

known Dr. Hewett mtiniateiy tor many years, to plicants for the position oi surgeon and assistant 

write brietly of some of the leading characteristics surgeon in the volunteer armv. 

of th.e man. Endowed b\ nature with a .strung. As to duties other than tho^e of a professional 

practical, compreh.en-ive mmd an>i a \ig-irous nature, Dr. Hewetl was at one time member of 

ccjnstitution, he has by assiduous study cultivated the board of trustees of the L'ni\ersit\ of Louis- 

the one and by m>ist prudent and abstemious ville; was tor nearU twenty years one v\ the di- 


^/ ~y' /rm-m ^ iiJ 

:?;?? f J:;:0 



rertors of the ].oui>vilIe Oas Coiii|inny ; was con- 
iKLtcd with the iiiaiinj^eiiient ot the Louisville & 
Lexington Railroad C'-inijianv durini; llie [irnjec- 
tion and constnu tion v( the Short Line hianch, 
and is at the present time a diieclorin the Louis- 
ville Instirance Company and in the Lir?t Na- 
tional P)ank of LousviUe. He is enterprising 
and piil)Iir-S[)irited; an earnest, intelligent, and 
ai:tive promoter of all srlunies which look to the 
well being and true progreNS of tlu- (:onim\uiily 
ol Which he is a prominent, inlluential, and liiglily 
lionored member. 

In 1S47 l)i. Hewctt married Miss J. Sidney 
Ander:>on, the daughter of James .Anderson, Sr., 
Esq. Three children were the result of this 
hap])y marriage, two of whon'; are still living, 
Mrs. Mary S, Beaslev, of Baltimore, .Maryland, 
and Edward A., also married, and at this time 
the efficient teller of the Kentucky National 
Bank of Louisville. 

Though well advanced in lil'e and in alfluent 
circumstances, Dr. Llewett is still an active and 
zealous practitioner in the profession which he 
so much love^, and in which he has attained 
well-merited popularity and enviable distinction. 

DR. CU.M>nNS. 

David Cummms, .\L D., a distinguished phy- 
sician and surgeon of Louisville, was born .-\pril 
7, 1S20, in Jefferson county, Kentucky. He is 
of Scotch-Irish de-cent. His father was a far- 
mer, and in the countrv schools Dr. Cummins 
received his early education. 

He tally e\inced a tVjndness for medicine, 
and, in 1S45, began his prcifessional studies witli 
Dr. J. R. McConachin, of JefferS'in county, and 
at'terwards continued his studies with the well 
known Dr. H. M. Bullitt, of Louisville. In 
1S49 he gradu.ited in medicine in the L'niver- 
sity of Louisville, and, in the same year, began 
the practice of his profession, in connection 
with Dr. BuUett. 

From 1S51 to tS6i he was demonstrator of 
anatomy in the Kentucky School of Medicine 
at Louisville, and, in iSoi, was elected pruf^s.^or 
of anatomy, same school, ami oci'U|jied that 
chair until the progress o( the war in the Ic/lluw- 
ing year made it necessary to discontinue the 
sessions of that institution. h'or thirteen vears 

he was surgeon to the City hospital, and was for 
a time president of the City Board of He.iltii. 
and has tor a number of years been pi(.)mi- 
nently active in the medical and health interests 
1 of the cit)'. In the medi(al profession he stands 
I deservediv high, his piactice being large 
■ and valuable. In some lines of surgery 
I he has made an en\ lalile leputation, and indeed, 
> few men stand ^o high in geiieial surgery through- 
' out the countrv. He is a man of admirable 
'• bearing, of e.\ccptionaL ].)rofessi,jiial and social 
I habits, and of great moral worth, having the 
res|)ect and esteem of the profession and the 
' kindly regard and lonfidence c>f tlie community. 
1 He is prominently connected with some of the 
social organizations of the day, Imt his profes- 
I sional inteiests and inclinations afl'ord him little 
I 0|iportunity to participate in political turmoil. 
j l>r. Cummins was married, in 1S62, to Miss 
I Llenrietta Beac li, of Jeffersonville, Indiana, a 
lady of great ninval and social worth. She died 
I in Februar\, 1S78. He was married again Au- 
gust 5, iS-'^o, to .Miss .Mary F. Logan, daughter 
1 of the well known Caleb U'. Logan. 

DR. M. F. COO.ME.S. 

Martin F. Coomes, .M. I)., was born at Bards- 
tow-n, Kentucky, October 4, 1S47. His tamily 
are numbered among the early settlers of Ken- 
tucky. He was educated at Cecilian college, 
near Ehzabethtown, Kentucky, and began the 
study of medicine. Durinir the following year 
he entered the Medical Department of the L'ni- 
versity of Louisville, and jiursued his studies for 
a year i.i that institution. He received the de- 
gree of ^L D. t'rom the Hospital College of 
Medicine, of Louisville. Immediately after 
graduation Dr. Co'omes entered upon the general 
practice of medicine in Louisville. From the 
beginning he has been a close and persistent 
student. He was sc veral years the demon- 
strator of anatomy in the Hosjiital College of 
Medicine, and devoted himself with assiduity to 
this impijrtaiu branch of medical science. Flis 
woik in the anatomical rooms made him a thor- 
ouL;ii and practic.ii an.itomist, and g.ive him val- 
ualile liainmg as a teai her of mecl;^ ine. 

Dr. Coomes very soon began by preference to 
give his attention to diseases of the e\e and ear 



and throat, and has fiir several years past devoted 
his time c.vciusi\ely to [iractice as a spei;iahst in 
those de[iattiiients. He is L'enerahy known as 
one of the leaiiin:^ [iractilioners in tliese special 
branches of medical prariire in the Southwest. 
In 1878 Dr. Cocmies was elected to the chair of 
physiology and diseases cf the eye, ear, and 
throat in the Kentucky School of Medicine at 
Louisville. He is a succe--srul teacher and gi\es 
a complete course, with elaborate illustrative 
demonstrations, on physioloi;y every year in this 
well-known institution. His clinical courbC of 
instruction in diseases of the eye, ear, and throat 
is very attractive to students and practitioners. 
He is also a tliorough student of electrical sci- 
ence, and has marked talent in this direction. 
He has cultivated this interesting branch of the 
natural sciences with the ardoi»of an enthusiast, 
and has reduced his knowledge to practical ad- 
vantage in the construction of instiuments of 
precision wcllknown to cultivators of his spe- 
cialty. He has invented an eye speculum, an 
electrical onometcr, and an apparatus lor testing 
color-blindness. He is the author of a work on 
nasal phsryngeal catarrh, and has made numer- 
ous contributions to the archi\es of Laryngol.jgy 
and other medical periodicals. He is a member 
of the Kentucky State .Medical society, and 
other societies for the cultivation of the medical 

Dr. Coomes is a man of genial manners, gen- 
erous disposition, and strong practical sense. 
He is an enthusiast in his profession, and gives 
to it his entire time and attention. 


Lunsford Pitt Yandell, Jr., .M. D., was born 
June 6, 1S37. at Craggy Rluff, Tennessee. He 
is of English-Scotch origin. His father, of the 
same name, coming to Louisville a number of 
years ago, had a wide practice as a physician and 
was one of the greatest practitioners in the 
State. The son's early instruction was received 
at a select school in Louisville, and at the age of 
seventeen he entered the University of the 
city, graduating in 1S5;. With a year's study in 
the Louisville Hospiial he removed to Memphis, 
Tennessee, and began practice thevear following, 
being ap;iointed to the Chair uf Materia Mediea 

and Therapeutics in the Memphis Medical Col- 
lege. M the beginning of the civil war he en- 
listed in the Confederate army as a private, but 
was soon appointed .\ssislant Surgeon, and finally 
Surgeon of hi^; regiment. He subset|uently 
served as Rrigade Surgeon, Medical Inspector, 
and .Medical Director. .April 15, 1865, in North 
Carolina, betook the oath of allegiance and was 
paroled, and returned to Louisville to practice 
his profession. In 1R69, he acceiited the ap- 
[)ointment of Professor of Materia Medica and 
Clinical .Medicine in the Uni\ersity of Louisville. 
In 1S67, he went to I'^uropie for special study, 
and wh.ile there acted as correspondent for sev- 
eral leading journals. Dr. \andell was married, 
in 1S67, to Louise Ellibton, of Nashville, Ten- 
nesee. They have three children. 


\V. H. Boiling, .M. D., r^eaii of the Hospital 
College of Medicine, Louisville, was born in Pe- 
' tersburg, Virginia, May 23, 1840; is a descendant 
of Robert Rolling, of Rolling Hall, near lirad- 
ford, England, who emigrated to America in 
1660, and settled at the Falls of the Appomattox, 
! where the city of Petersburg, X'irginia, now is. 
' Dr. Boiling received his education in the 
I University of Virginia and in the Medical De- 
1 partment of the University of Pennsyhania, 
i graduating from the last-named institution with 
the degree of M. D. in the year 1867, and im- 
mediately afterward visited Paris, London, and 
Edinburgh for further instruction. In the year 
186S he located in Louisville. In 1874 he was 
made Dean of the Hospital College of Medicine 
and Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases- of 
M'omen. In 1869 he married Miss Ida Foree, 
daughter of the well-known Dr. Foree, of Louis- 


The elder Coleman Rogers, progenitor of a 
distinguished line ot [ihysicians in Louisville, 
was one of a family of fourteen childien, sprung 
from the pioneer Rogers, who, corning t'rom \'u- 
ginia in 17S7, settled at P.ryant's Station, now 
Lexington, Kentucky. Coleman was tlien a child 
of six years, having been born in Culpeper c>iun- 

^ cf ?2-i/r. }r/ / . {C:a.-)ZfTc/'^ 



ty, Virginia, March 6, 17S1. He had but small 
facilities for eduration in the schools of the 
[leriod. When twenty-one years old he began 
to read medicine with Dr. Samuel Brown, of 
Lexington, rode on horseback to Philadel|)liia 
in 1803 to attend the lectures in the University 
of Pennsylvania and study with Dr. Charles 
Caldwell ; established hunsclf as a practitioner 
m IXinville, Kentucky, with Dr. Ephraiin .Mc- 
Dowell, a surgeon then of some note, and, as 
their practice enlarged, opened an ottice aLo at 
Stanford, in the adjacent county ; returned to 
Fayette county in iSio, and th.en to Philadelphia, 
where he finislied his course in 1S16-17, and re- 
ceived his diploma ; declined the apjiointment 
of Adjunct Professor of Anatomy in the Tran- 
sylvania L^niversity, and formed a partnership 
with Dr. Daniel Drake for practice in Cincinnati, 
becoming also an original corporator, Vice-Pres- 
ident of the corporation, and Professor of Sur- 
gery in the Ohio Medical College ; removed 
temporarily to Newport, Kentucky, and in 1S23 
came to Louisville, where he soon had a very 
large practice. He was thenceforth one of the 
very foremost practitioners here for tliiit\ -two 
years ; for ten years was Surgeon to the .^hlrille 
Hospital ; aided to form the Louisville Medical 
Institute in 1S33, and was appointed Professor 
of Anatojny, although finally he declined active 
service in a chair ; filled a large space in public 
and professional affairs here for a generation ; 
and passed away at length on the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, 1S55, in his seventy-fourth year, greatly 
beloved and mourned. 

Lewis Rogers was son of Dr. Coleman Rogers, 
and was born near Lexington October 22, 1S12. 
He was trained at Georgetown College and 
Transylvania University, graduating from the 
latter; began the study of medicine with his 
father, and [lursued it in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University ; went to Louisville for 
practice, and was appointed Resident Pliv^ician 
to the City Work and Poor liouse, but by and by 
took a further course in medicine at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, and was graduated M. I), 
from that great school in 1S36. He resumed 
practice in Louisville, and presently formed a 
partnership with his father, which endured tor a 
long time. The same year of his t'lnal gradua- 
tion he was appointed .-Vssi-jtant to Dr. 
Caldwell, of the Liiuisulle Medical Institute, 

and long performed the duties of that place. In 

1S49 he became Professor of Materia Medica 

and 'l'hera[>eutics in the University of Louisville, 

but was afterwards transferred to the Chair of 

Theory and Practice, succeeding the renowned 

Dr. Austin I'linl, and again, in iS67,was re- 

I turned tri his former chair, shortly after which he 

resigned. Resides his labors in tlie- medical 

I schools, it is said that for more than forty years 

]■ he commanded the laigest general practice of 

j any jihysician in the city. He died in Louisville 

Iiinc 13, 1 S75. 

Coleman Rogers the younger is son of the 
i subject of the last sketch, and was born in Louis- 
ville .Vugiist 10,1840. He received his elemen- 
tary education in the [jublic schools, took a 
European tour with his father, completed an un- 
de.'giaduate course at the University of Toronto, 
graduated in medicine at the Louisville Univer- 
sity after several years' study, and then attended 
lectures at the Rellevue Medical College, New- 
York City; began practice in Louisville in Sep- 
I teriiber, t86S, was afteruards chosen Adjunct 
! Professor to Dr. Bell, in the Chair of Theory 
and Practice, in tlie lot al University, and was for 
some years Physician to the Univeisity Dispen- 
: sary and the Louisville Marine Hospital. He 
I has collected a very superior medical library, and 
{ written much on professional topics. 

Joseph Rodes Buchanan, one of tlie most 
I original thinkers our land has produced, was 
; born December 11, 1814, at Frankfort, Ken- 
I tucky. Noted in his childhood for great ma- 
! turity of mind, he became early a student and 
I investigator in the sciences so familiar to his 
learned father. After pursuing a diversity of 
studies in a great variety of fields, he secured the 
degree of M. D. from the Transylvania Univer- 
' sity. In 1S35 he di/voted himself to the study 
of the brain, and six years subsequently traveled 
and lectured through several States, me-inwhile 
carrying on constant investigations and arriving at 
new Conclusions, by which he was enabled to 
rectity thp principles of crainoscopy. In 1841, 
by his bold experiments and discoveries, phre- 
nology really entered ujion a new era in its his- 
tory. He subsequently published for years in 
Cincinnati, his Journal of .Man. His System of 
.\nthroi)olc>gy, issued in that city in 1854, also 
had a direct inlluence on the same suluect. In 
1S42, Robert Dale Oiven, in the New York 



Evening Post, said: "L'nless the discoveries of 
Dr. Buchanan arc quiclvly exploded, they will 
rank among ttie first gifts of philosiphy and 
phihinthiopy. to the cause of science and the 
good of the human race." As medical professor, 
he occupied a prorninent jdace in the Eclectic 
Medical Institute or College at Cmciniiiti, edit- 
ing meanwhile the Medical Journal. For five 
yeais previous to the \ear 1S61, he devoted his 
time largely to the care of his family and pro])crly ! 
in Louisville, at uiiicli date he manied th.e 
daughter of Judge John Rowan. Between 1S61 
and 1S66 he had an active pait in the [)ohtics of 
the State, first as an opponent of secession, 
afterward as Chairman of the State Central Com- 
mittee of the Democratic part)-. He has since 
returned to his scientific researches. 

Joseph Bucjianan was born in the year 17S5, 
in Washington county, A'irginla. He is called 
physician and editor, but was as well author, 
teacher, philosopher, and inventor. His boy- 
hood was passed in the State of Tennessee, 
where he made his college preparation. In 1S05 
he completed his studies in the Transylvania 
University, following which he became a student 
of medicine in Lexington, practicing a portion 
of his time at Fort Gibson, on the Mississippi 
river, to get means I'or a more thorough educa- 
tion. While at Fort Gibson, he wrote a volume 
on fevers which gave his name great celebrity, al- 
though never put into published form. In 1S09, 
although so young a man, he was made Professor 
of Institutes of Medicine in the Transylvania 
Medical School. Not long after this date, he 
gave up his profession and went East to study 
the Pestalozzian system of education. On his 
return, he taught a school founded on these prin- 
ciples for several years. In 1S12 he wrote a 
book that has brought to his name no little re- 
nown, "The Philosophy of Human Nature.'' 
His writings, among learned people, rank with 
the most original and philosophical. In fact, 
at that date he elucidated principles brought 
out at a later day by such men as Carpenter, 
Huxley, Tyndall, and Herbert Spencer. Among 
his studies he became proficient in the law, but 
he never practiced. His first editorial work was 
to aid on the Lexington Reporter; we al'terward 
hear his name in connection with the Frankt'ort 
Palladium, Western Spy and Literary Cadet, and 
tlie Focus and Journal. On the last-named he 

was doing editorial work at the time of his death 
in 1S29. He also wrote a History of the War of 
1S12, the life of General George Rogers Claik, 
and various articles on education, law, and sicam 
power a])plied. His attainments in scholar^llij) 
were really wondeiful. While a mere youth he 
detected faults in his mathematical text-book, 
and noted errors in the speculation's of Sir Isaar 
Newton. As an inventor, he prepared a capillary 
steam-engine with spiral tubes for boilers, and a 
steam hand-carriage, anticipating many of the 
most recent inventions. He also discovered a 
new motive principle derived from combustion 
without water or steam. Dr. liuchanan, while 
so able and scholarly, was always modest and 
unassuming, and during many years of his life 
was much liindered by poverty. .-\t his death 
he left a wife and one son. Professor J. R. Bu- 
chanan, whose labors have been in a similar 

Richard W. Ferguson, M. D., was born in 
Louisville, August 21, 1S05. His father came 
fr(}m Ireland to this country in 1772, settling at 
first in Virginia, but moving finally to Louisville. 
His mother was a daughter of Colonel \\". A. 
Booth, of Virginia. Dr. Ferguson's early teach- 
ing came from private schools in his own town, 
till, in 1S24, he became a student at Transylva- 
nia University. His graduation occurred three 
years later. The following three years were de- 
voted to the study of medicine with his father, 
when he graduated from the Medical Department 
of the same University, and immediately became 
a practitioner with his father, up to the date of 
his father's death, which occurred in 1S53. 
Having gained a fine property. Dr. Ferguson has 
retired from active business, but continues his 
interest in all enterprises tending to improve the 
the city or its peo[)le. For nine years he was 
physician in the City hospital. All the early part 
of his life he was a member of the L'nitarian 
church, until some years ago, at the age of sixty, he 
united with the Protestant Epi=coi:ial church. 
Formerly he was a ^Vhig in politics; since that 
party ceased to exist, however, he has been 
counted with the Democrats. Years ago he 
owned a large number of slaves, but before the 
beginning of the war set them all free. 

John Thruston is a native of Louisville, a 
scion of the famous old pioneer family and a 
long line of English ancestry, which included at 

■/ r^ / -^^ 



least one medical man, Malachi 'i'hruston, who ' 
published in London two editions of a Latin [ 
Treatise on the Re5i>iration, in n'lyo-yi. He 
be^^an active life in mercanrile innsyits in Xcw 
Orleans, but returned to Louisville, read medi- 
cine with liib brother-in bw, the late I>r. Lewis ' 
Rogers, graduated at the liouie L'niveriity, [jrac- 
ticed for ten years with Dr. Rogers, and after- 
wards rdone, establishing a lucrative and v.ell- 
maintained practice. j 

The well known manufacturer of projjrietary 
medicmes in Louisville, Dr. Jolm IJull, \i-as bom 
in Shelby county in 1013, scion of an old and ! 
reputable Virginia family. He was fairly edu- 
cated in the home schools, but at the early aye 
of fourteen pushed for Louisville to studv medi- 
cine, whirh he did very earnestly for Several 
years under ])r. Schrock. He was still very 
young when he resolved tode\ote his lile mainly ■ 
to chemistry and pharmacy. P'ollowing his bent 
he soon became one of the btst pharmacists in 
the city, and was often called upon bv the doc- 
tors to comijound their more delicate yirescrip- 
tions. He formed a partnershij) in the drug 
business with J- B. ^^"ilder, and continued with 
others for some years, until, single handed and 
ali3ne, he started in the manufacture of 
famous patent medicines. He began very hum- 
bly, and with only a small pan of the remedies 
which afterwards made his name widely known; ] 
but from year to year the business and his invent- 1 
ive genius enlarged, until, in the latter years of \ 
his life, it is presumed that hi^ net income froai 
the sale of his specifics amounted to $150,000 a 
year. He had experienced some sharp reverses, 
however — one by establishing a branch house in 
Louisville, and again by the vicissitudes of the i 
late war, that I'or three years so reduced him that I 
he was glad to accept the post of a Federal pro- 
vost marshal, at $75 a month. He tlnally be- 
came, it is believed, a millionaire, with the laru'e^t 
income of any citizen of Kentucky. He died 
suddenly at his home in Louisville, on the 26th 
of .April, 1S75. 

George \V. Bayless was a native of Mason 
county, in this State, born January 17, 1S17. \ 
He received an excellent elementary training, 
and began to stud\ medicine in Louisville at the 
age of twent), with the first cla-,s organized in 
the ^[edical Institute. He then attended lectures 
in Philadelphia, where he received his degree, , 

and began practice in Louisville. He was soon 
made demonstrator of anatomy in the Mcdif al 
Institute, but resigned in 1S48, and, the next 
year, jfjined the faculty of the Ohio 
College in C'incinnnti, resigned for his healtli in 
1S50, removed to .Mi^souii, and engaged in 
fanning f\jr several years, but returned to Louis- 
ville at la>i, and resumed prai tice. He was for 
many yeais professor o! physiology, anatomy, or 
the principles and practice of surgery, in the 
medical depaitmeiit of the I'niversity or in the 
Kentucky SiIkjoI ui Medicine. As a surgeon 
he was especially skillful, and had wide repute. 
After sulfering from paialysis since 1S70, he died 
of apoplexy at Rockcastle Springs, September 8, 


Mauin Lee Lewis, son of Jedediah H. Lewis, 
was bjrn in Massachusetts, on June 10, iSoo. 
Wlien nineteen years of age he began the study 
of medicine in Columbus, Ohio. He afterward 
Went to Cincinnati, and finally, in 1824, gradu- 
ated at the Cincinnati Eclectic College of Medi- 
cine. He commenced practice in Columbus, 
Ohio, but renio\-ed to Louisville in 1S27, where 
he has since remained, an active and successful 
[iractitioner. Considering the disfavor generally 
5;iven physicians of the Eclectic school. Dr. 
Lewis, by his unostentatious methods and genu- 
ine determination to benefit those around him, 
has gained a place seldom reached by the aver- 
age physician. He is a prominent member of 
the Order of Masons, but has kept entirely aloof 
tVom politics. In religion, he has been a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church t'rom early child- 
hood. In 1S27 Dr. Lewis was married to Miss 
Eliza A. Johnston, of Columbus, Ohio. Of tlieir 
six children, two sons are both practicing physi- 
cians, Dr. \V. C. Lewis near Rerryville, Kentucky, 
and his brother, near Louisville. 

Dr. James Harvey C)wen was of Welsh ancestry 
on the paternal side, the son ot Ca|)tain John 
Owen, of English ancestry on the mother's side. 
She was Martha Talbot. He was born in Shelby 
county, Kentuckv, May 19, iSor; received a 
substantial English education from a son of a 
French nobLman named De I'Huss; com- 
menced the study of medicine under the tutelage 
of his cousin, the late Dn John M. Talbot, of 
Louisville, in 1S17, aiiil receiwd, in 1S23, Irom 
Drs. Talbot, W. C. Calt, Richard liabbington 
Ferguson, and James C. Johnston, an endorse- 



merit of liis qualifications to |iractice incdicine 
and surgery. He coniuiciiccd practice the bame 
year at New Madrid, Missouri, and reuiained 
there till 1S27, when he moved to. Foil (lihson, 
Mississippi, and practiced his profession at that 
place in partnerhhi|j with Dr. John O. T. 
Hawkins till 1832, taking charge of Claiborne 
Female Seminary for one year, wlien he moved 
to Louisville and practiced his profession \ery 
successfully till 1852, when he retired to his 
farm in Hunter's Bottom, Can oil county, Ken- 
tucky, the farm having the largest peach orchard 
ofi it in the NVest. He was very p'jpular, and 
was often solicited tci accept political honors. 
He was a member of the City Council of Louis- 
ville two years ; received the nomination lor a 
place in the House of Representatives of Ken- 
tucky several times; and once he was the choice 
of the Louisville delegation in the Hemocratic 
nominating convention in 1S47 for Represejita- 
tive in the lower House of Congress in the 
United States, hut unitormly declii:ed. He was 
a Jackson Democrat, and a Free Mason of 
long standing. He was a member of tiie Church 
of the Disciples of Christ, and a true Chris- 
tian. He died December i, 1S57, of prieumonia, 
and was interred at Cave Hill Cemetery. Dr. 
Owen was married in 1S27 to his cousin Martha, 
daughter of Major David Owen, of Gallatin 
county, Kentucky. They had six children, five 
sons and one daughter. The mother died in 
1876. The two youngest sons are also de- 

William H. Goddard, doctor of dentistry, was 
born in Boston, Massachusetts, June 28, iSoS, 
son of Dr. Thatcher Goddard, of that city, who 
had been a physician, and then a successlul mer- 
chant. He received a liberal education, began 
to study dentistry at twenty, prepared thoroughly, 
and began practice in New York City, but re- 
moved to Louisville in 1834, where he soon had 
an extensive and profitable practiije. He be- 
came the oldest, and was considered the most 
prominent and influential member of his branch 
of the profession in Kentucky. In 1S56 he 
took an interest in the agricultural im[)lenient 
business of Munn & Co., and was rea(nng large 
profits fiom it when the war closed the estab- 
lishment and reduced him to comparative 
poverty. He became a deputy during the Col- 
lectorship of the i^oet Gallagher, and at the close 

of the war resumed dental j^iractice, in which he 
has since remained. 

Henry .M. Miller, one of the mo-;t notable 
ph) sicians ever in pr.ictice in Louisville, was born 
in Bairen county, November i, 1800, son ol a 
Glasgow pioneer of German stock. Young Mil- 
ler was not college-bred, but became a good 
scholar in English, with a fair kno-wledge of 
Greek and Latin. At seventeen he began to 
read medicine with Drs. Bainbridge and Gist, of 
(Glasgow, and after two years joined the first 
class organized in the Medical Department of 
Transylvania Lhiiversity. He began practice at 
Glasgow with Dr. Bainbridge, but returned to 
Lexington presently to complete his couise, and 
graduated in 1S22. After a short residence m 
Glasgow, he was appointed, although so young, 
as Demonstrator of Anatomy in the university; 
and after further study in Philadelphia, lie un- 
deitook Us duties. In 1827 he removed to Har- 
rodsburg for general practice, and came to Louis- 
ville in 1S35, to aid in organizing a new medical 
school. \\ lien the Medical Institute here was 
established two years later, he became Prot'cssor 
of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Chil- 
dren. He resigned upon the transfer of the in- 
stitute to the University of Louisville in 1S5S, 
after twenty-one years' service. In 1S69, how- 
ever, he rejoined the Fac ulty as Professor of 
Medical and Surgical Diseases of Women, and 
soon after took a similar chair in the Louisville 
Medical College, v/hich he held during the rest 
of his life. In 1849 was published his success- 
ful book. Theoretical and Practical Treatise on 
Human Parturition, known in the later editions 
as Principles and Practice of Obstetrics. He 
1 wrote much otherwise in pamphlets for the pro- 
fessional journals. Dr. Miller died February S, 

\ 1874. 

; John Esten Cooke, the renowned physician, 
j surgeon, and writer of medical treatises, was tor 
j very few years a resident of Louisville ; but, 
as one of the most remarkable physicians who 
e\er lived m this city, or an\\vhere in Jefferson 
county, he amply deserves notice in these pages. 
He was of the famous Cookes of \'irginia, but 
was born in Boston, Massachusetts, March 2, 
17S3, during a visit of his parents to that city. 
His lather was Dr. Stephen Cooke, also a p.hy- 
sician of note and an army surgeon during the 
War of the Revolution. He was tlnely educat- 



cl in tlie English branches, in Latin, and in 
Ctcck ; suidicd nudiciiie with liis f.ither, grad- 
uated from the Mcthcal Dcjiartmcnt of the 
T'niversity of PcnnsyUaiiia in 1S05, and settled 
for practice in A\'arrLnt(in, X'irgiiiia ; removed to 
Winchester, in the same State, in iSji, and six 
years later to Lexmgton, Kentucky, where he be- 
came rrofessor of the I heory and Practice of 
Medicine in the I'niversity of Transylvania. 
I'or ten years he held his chair, and was the ihsi 
professor in the school to prepare a systematic 
tieatise in any department of medii:al authorship. 
lie had already, while still in \'irginia, published 
the first volume of his woik on Fatholoyy and 
Therapeutics, which was afterwards completed in 
two large octavos, and his medical essays, mainly 
contributed to the 'I'ransylvania Journal of Med- 
icine, would make another massive tome. In 
1832 he went somewhat into Episcopal theolo.L;y, 
and added to his duties the Professoiship of 
History and Polity in the Theological Seminary 
at Lexington. In 1S37 lie joined in the pilan 
for the foundation of a medical college in Louis- 
ville, removed thither, and was there alsj made 
Professor of Theoiy and Practice of Medicine. 
He held pecuHar views, however, — " hi? medical 
philosophy was of the heroic school," says one ; 
his lectures were not popular ; he by and by fell 
into difficulties and struggles, and finally, in the 
winter of 1843-44, retired altogether from the 
school to a farm he had bought near tlie city. 
This he afterwards traded tor an estate on the 
Ohio, thirty miles above Louisville, in whose im- 
provement he tranquilly passed the rest of his 
days. He died there October 19, 1S53, in the 
seventy-first year of his age. He is remembered 
as a man of great professional and general learn- 
ing, and a writer and lecturer of uncommon in- 
terest on medical topics, notwithstanding the 
peculiarity of his vieus and some disadvantages 
of style. 

In the fall of 1S39 the celebrated Cincinnati 
physician. Dr. Danitl Hrake, whose boyhood 
had been spent in a country neighborhood of 
Kentucky, and who was long afterwards once 
and again a professor in the Medical Department 
of Transylvania University, was elected to a pro- 
fessorship in the Louisville Medical Institute, 
U|iijn the dissolution of the medical schuul of 
Cincinnati College, which had been in existence 
but four strugglmg years. The learned doctor 

remained in this new connection for ten yeais, 
and tlim, upon the adoption of a rule that pio- 
fessois in the Imtitute sliould not be employed 
beyond the si\t)-ril'i!i \ear of their age, he re- 
signed, akhoiigh then only sixtj-two years old, 
and the rule was voluntarily suspended in his 
favor. While residing here in 1S47-4S, he 
jirepared the interesting series of letters to 
his children, since collected and published in an 
octavo volume under the title. Pioneer Life in 
Kentucky. In 1850, then drawing near the 
close of his life, he conseiued to return for a 
time to the Louisville school, and lectured here 
for two moie sessions, when his connection 
finally closed. He died in Cincinnati Xoven;ber 

5. itio^- 

Richard O. Cowling was born April S, 1S30, 
near CJeorgetown, South Carolina. He was 
brouglu with the family to Louisville when but 
two yeais old, and was educated in the city 
scliools and under Noble Putler and the Rev. 
Dr. Chapman, and in Trinity College, Hartford, 
where he was graduated with the highest honors 
in 186 1. He made a short tour in Europe, 
returned home, did some tutoring and suiveying, 
studied law a year, began to read medicine with 
Dr. G. W. Bayless in 1S64, heard lectures at the 
local university and Jeft'Lrson Medical School, 
Philadelphia, began practice, and was soon made . 
demonstrator of anatoni) in the University, then 
adjunct professor of surgery, and finally professor 
of surgical pathology and operative surgery 
(afterwards "science and art of surgery"). X\'ith 
Dr. W. H. Gait he I'ounded the Louisville Med- 
ical News in 1S76, and was connected w-ith it 
till his death, which occurred .\pril 2, iSSi. 
His last public address, at the dedication of the 
monument to Dr. Ephraim McDowell, the 
talher of ovariotoiiiy, has been particularly ad- 
mired. An appreciative and elaborate address 
in memoiiam (;f himself was pronounced by Dr. 
David W. Vandell on the evening of February 
28, 18S2, at the annual commencement exer- 
cises ot the University. 

J. .-Mexander Ireland was born September 15, 
1S24, in Jeffeison county, Kentucky. He was 
of Scotch origin, but his father was born in this 
State. His mother, jane Stone, was of English 
ancestry, but born al^o m Kentucky. The sub- 
ject of this sketch gained a good common edu- 
cation by the time he had reached the age of 



seventeen, when the 'itiijy of medicine was he- 
gun. He gr.Tihiated in the Kentucky School of 
Medicine in 1851, and entered upon the work of 
his profeisiun in the city of Louisville at once. 
For ten yenis hetwecn 1S54 and 1S64 lie had liis 
home ill the counti\, where he juirsued his [irac- 
lice, till in the latter year he was elected to the 
Chair of Ohstetrics and the Diseases of \\'omen 
and Children in the Kentucky Sthool of Medi- 
cine. Sub^ci-iucntly, he became I'rot'essor of 
Clinical Medicine in the University. In 1S4S 
he was licensed to i^reach in the iKiptist Church, 
and for several years was actively engaged in his 
profession, and served, at tlie same tmie, as 
regular pastor over achurcli in his denomination, 
using his jien too, at times, as a writer. Dr. 
Ireland has made himself a most usel'ul and in- 
fluential member of society. In 1S46 he was 
mairied to Sarah F], Cooper, and by this mar- 
riage had one son, Flenry Clay Ireland. In 1S59, 
he was the second time married, to Susan M, 
Brown, and by this ur.ion another son, William 
F. Ireland, was added. 

Ecnjamin .\Lller \\'il)le was born in 1S14, in 
Nelson county, Kentucky. His paternal ancestors 
came from Switzerland, his f;ither, John Wible, a 
Kentucky t'armer, serving in the War of 1S12. 
Some of his maternal ancestors were \'irginians, 
who settled on the East Fork of Co.x's creek, 
Nelson county, Kentucky, late in the last cen- 
tury. On both sides his ancestors were in the 
Revolution. Dr. Wibie's early education was 
received under private tutors, until he began the 
study of medicine in 1S33. Four years later he 
was graduated tVom the medical college of Ohio. 
From that date he was engaged in practice at 
Mount Washington, Kentucky, until 1S46, when 
he removed to Louisville. The next two \ears, 
with otiiers, he was cng.igcd in a private hospital, 
until in 1S4S he became contract surgeon tor a 
Kentucky regiment in the .Mexican war. Be- 
tween this date and the beginiung of the Rebel- 
lion he resumed his practice in Loui.-5ville, leav- 
ing it as a regularly comu'.issioned surgeon in the 
Confederacy. During the great conllict he held 
many responsible trusts, and established a repu- 
tation for faithl'ulness and skiiltui treatment, whic:h 
he retained on resuming his old i>ractice in 
Louisville. His death oecurred in March, 1S77, 
while seemingly in the vigor of early manhood. 
Asa writer for medical journals, Dr. Wible at- 

tained some merited fame. He was inarricd 
October iS, 1S64, to Miss C. M. Brown, of 
Georgia, a most excellent lady, the daugliter of 
one of the wealthiest planters of the South. 

George H. Walling is descendant of an old 
Faiglish family, but was himself born in Canton, 
Ohio, February 29, 1S20. His parents removed 
to Lexington in 1S28, and in t8j6 to Louisville. 
He was educated in the best private schools of 
these cities, and was graduated in 1847 from the 
Medical Depaitment of the L^niversity in the lat- 
ter place. He began [iractice in the city the 
same vear, and steadily pursued it, mostly in 
I^ouisviUc, for many years. He has also been 
quite active in public affairs, served three or four 
years in the City Courcil, and six years on the 
Board of Commissioners of Public Charities. 

\Villoughby ^^'alhng is son of the physician 
last named. Fie is a native of Louisville, born 
.\Liich 3, 1S4.S; was trained in the city public 
schools; read medicine in his father's office, and 
graduated from the Medical Department of the 
University; was for some time (jhysician to the 
City .Alms house, and for eight years on the 
Board of Health; resided abroad in the further 
pursuit of his studies; returned and resumed 
practice; became President of the .MLdical Chi- 
rurgical Society of Louisville, and for a number 
of years Local Secretary of the .\rnerican Medical 
Association, also writer of many articles for the 
professional journals. 

James .-\. Graves was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
May 2, 1S42. He was the son of Dr. James 
Graves, a manufacturer of patent medicines, who 
came to Louisville in 1S40, and, buying a large 
tract of land in the western part of the city, 
erected a large establishment for a medical labora- 
tory. The son received his early education, ac- 
cordingly, in the Louisville pmblic schools, aad, 
subsequently became a student of medicine. In- 
stead of becoming a practitioner, he acquainted 
himself with his father's business, purchased his 
establishment, improved upon his methods, and 
has had remarkable success in the excellency and 
successful sale of his compounds, his agents be- 
ing numbered by thousands, and his medi- 
cines finding sale in all [larts of the world. Dr. 
Graves has a reiiutation for liberality as wel' as 
for wealth. He shows an interest in all goi'd 
works, and gives liberally to their supp'Ort. He 
was married to Miss Roxie Gilrath in 1S6S. 



David D. ThoniMr.n was born in Lincoln 
county, January 6, 18:4, of Virginia stock on 
both sides. He was ,a:ive)i the best education 
the schools of the nciyhboriiood and Centre 
College afforded nt the lime, and was graduated 
fron the latter in 1846. He lead medicine at 
first with Dr. Weisakcr, at Danville, then with 
Dr. S. n. Gross, in Louisville, where he heard 
lectmes iti due course, and was there graduated 
as ^L D. in 1S49, but continued to stu.dy with 
Dr. Gross until the next spring, when he opened 
an office in Louisville and practiced till 1S60, 
when he removed to I'aducah, and there prac- 
ticed with success till 1S75, when he returned to 
Louisville, whete he has since remained in full 
practice. During his former residence here, he 
was for two years President ot the Board of Kd- 
ucatio!!, and I'or a much longer term Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Board. 

John A. Krack was born near Baltimore Sep- 
tember 15, 1S23, son of Rev. John Kr.ick, Lu- 
theran clergyman. He was educated m the Bal- 
timore public schoils and in a classical scliool at 
Madison, Indiana. He taught school three 
years in Henrv county, Kentucky; came to 
Louisville in 1S47, read medicine with Dr. 
Joshua B. Flint: attended a single course of lec- 
tures at the Kentucky School of Medicine, and 
began [)ractice in Gasconade county, Missouri, 
finished his course at the Kentucky School of 
Medicine, graduatmg in 1850 and settling in the 
city for practice, uhere he has since resided, but 
not altogether as a physician. He was a suc- 
cessful druggist 1S52-57; then manager of the 
Louisville Glass Works (or sixteen years; and 
since in various business. He has held a num- 
ber of public offices, as member of the City 
Board of Education five years^ six years an 
Alderman from the Third \Vard, and since 1873 
continuously -Assessor of the city, which oftice he 
now holds. 

Robert Peter was born January 21, 1S05, in 
Launceston, England. His parents, Robert and 
Johanna Peter, came to An^erica in 1821, and 
settled in Baltimore, but afterwards rem ned to 
Pittsburg. During these years the son learned 
the druggist's business, and meantime acquired a 
taste for the study of applied chemistry as used 
in that department. He wrote, investigated, and 
lectuied U[i to tiie year 182S, when he took his 
first course of lectures in form on his favorite 

subjects. Following this date we hear of him 
as lecturer and teacher of chemistry in Pius- 
burg, Pennsylvania, and Lexington, Kentucky, 

j and soon after his ai rival at the latter place he was 
elected I'rofessor of Chemistry in the Medical 
College of Trans) Ivania University. In 1834 
he received the degree of .M. I', from Tra/isyl- 
vaiiia, and began the practice of mediiine in 
Lexington with Dr. L. P. Vandell, then a pro- 
fessor in that univeisity. He, however, aband- 
oned practice and returned to teaching, becom- 
ing Prol'essor of Chemistry and Pharmacy in the 
Medical l)e|)artmerit of Transylvania University. 
At the opening of the war the institution in 
which he lectured being closed, he was surgeon in 

■ the (;o\ernment Military Hospital at Lexington. 
At the close of the war he accepted the Chair of 

' Chemistry and h^xiieriniental Philosophy, which 
place he still occupies, adding to his regular 
duties much geological work on the State sur- 

' ve\s and for other purposes. Professor Peter is 

i devoted to his i)rol'ession, wiiting, studying, and 
investigating, although getting advanced in years. 
He is now considered one of the first chemists 
in his own Slate, and is s\idely known through- 
out America. He makes his home m Lexington, 

' or on his larrn near tliat city. In 1S35 he was 

I married to Miss Frances Paca Dallam, daughter 
of Major \V. S. Djllam. Mis. Peter, on her 

j father's side, is a relative of the Paca and Smith 

j families of Maryland, and on her mother's with 
the Breckenridges, Prestons, and Meredith, her 
grandfather having been a near relative of Pat- 

i rick Henry. They have had eleven children, 

; nine of whom aie yet alive. 

i Johir Bruce Smith was born January 16, 1835, 
in Roxburv, New York. His parents were both 

; natives of the same — Roxhury — county.- His 
early life was fassed in obtaining an elementary 
education, and in 185 i he entered the Lklaware 
Literary Institute, at Franklin, New York. 
Three years later he began reading medicine 
at Delhi, in the same State, and devoted four 
years, in large part, to preparation for his profes- 
sion, attending medical lectures at various p'laces 
and graduating in 1857 in the University of 
Louisville. The same year he located and be- 
gan practice in his profession at Famiew, Flem- 
ing County. Kentucky. In 1S59 he removed to 
Millersburg, Bourbon county. He has gained 
there an excellent practice, and is recognized in 



that section of tlie Stnte ns a prominent man in 
the profession. In pclitics he is a Democrat. 
During tlie wnr, as well ns at other times, his 
sympathies ucre with the Soutli. As to his re- 
ligious princi[iles he is a member of the Christian 
or Reform chiireh. N'o\L-niber 4, 1S57, Dr. 
Smith was mairied to Miss Maiia .^. f^all, of 
Mason coimty, Kentucky. 

Samuel Brandeis was born December 4, 1S19, 
in the city of Prague, .\u^tria. His early educa- 
tion was i',ained in the Catholic Gymnasium of 
his native city. Later he studied medicine at 
Vienna, — a private [lupil of the great anatomist. 
Professor Hyrtal, — and finished his medical 
studies in 1845. Three years followmg, he prac- 
ticed in Prague, when, becoming involved in the 
revolution of Bohemia against Austrian rule, he 
left his country and emigrated to America. His 
first settlement here was in Madison, Indiana. 
In 1S52, he came to Louisville, where he 
speedily became known. In 1S60, he became 
Adjunct Protessor in the Kentucky School of 
Medicine, when, the war beginning, he went into 
the Government Hospital at Louisville. Six 
years later, in recognition of his able and con- 
scientious services, he was made President of the 
Board of E.xaiiiiners of applicants for jiensions. 
He has also filled the place of President of the 
Board of Health in Louisville, and contributed 
from time to time to medical publications. In 
1849, he was married to a lady from his native 
place. I'hey have now living seven children. 

James McDonald Keller was born in Tuscum- 
bia, Alabama, January 29, 1S32. His father, 
David Keller, was u merchant and planter of 
Hagerstown, Maryland, and his mother, .Mary 
Fairfax Moore, a Virginian, was the granddaughter 
of Governor Spottswood, who served as General 
under George III., and was the first white man 
to cross the Blue Ridge mountains. For ihis 
feat of daring he was made " Knight of the 
Golden Horseshoe," and received also a t'uU- 
sized gold hor:>e-shoe, set with rubies. This gift 
remains in the possession of the family of the 
late R. E. Lee, a grandson of the "Knight,'' the 
first colonial GovLrnor of \'irginia. Dr. Keller's 
early education was obtained in the Academy of, Alabama, and when eighteen years 
of age he began the study of medicine in the 
same city, finally graduating from the Universitv 
of Louisville in 1852. .-\fter remaining for a 

short time in the vicinity of Loiiis\ i!le, he re- 
moved to .Meinphi.s, Tennessee, where he gained 
a good [.ractice and remained till iSi'ii. On the 
outlire.ik of the civil war he entered the Confed- 
erate service as a surgeon, and soon became 
medical director in several departments. At'ter 
the surrender, he returned to Memphis to find 
himself, with many others, under the indictment 
of high treason, and, "declining to take the 
oath of allegiance, was only relieved by the gen- 
eral amnesty." In 1S69 he was called to the . 
chair of surgf.ry in the Louisville Medical Col- 
lege, which position he has since held, together 
with that of Professor of Surgery in the Kentucky 
School of Medicine in the same city. In 1874, 
at Detroit, he was elected Vice-President of the 
American Medical Association. Growing out of 
his wide practice and especial study in the field 
of surgery. Dr. Keller furnishes many reports to 
the journals of his prol'ession, and is a valued 
member of all associations within his State or 
vicinity that have at heart the improvement of 
so important a science. In 1 85 2 he was married 
to .Miss Sallie Phillips, of Jefferson cciunty, Ken- 
tucky, and James Irwin, Assistant Physician at 
-Anchorage Insane .Asjlum, and Murray P., of 
the firm of Hall, Keller &: Company, manufac- 
turers, are his sons. 

William .-X. Hundley was the third son of Joel 
Hundley, born in Jefferson county, March 28, 
1S22. He attended the country schools, and 
then a bettei one at Mount Washington, Bullitt 
county: began to read medicine with Dr. John- 
son, of that place; attended a course of lectures 
here and graduated in 1S52, beginning success- 
ful practice here the same year. He was physi- 
cian to the city hospital four years, and to St. 
Vincent'5 Orphan Asylum fourteen years, making 
no charge for the latter service. He was a close 
professional student, and wrote much upon med- 
ical topics. As a physician it is said of him that 
"he was well-rtad, skillful, and unusually suc- 
cessful; his gentle kindness won him the hearts 
of his patients." Dr. Hundley died of apo[)le\y 
in Louisville .March 23, 1873. 

.Archie Brown Cook was born September 23, 
182S, in Noblestown, Pimnsylvania. His early 
education was begun in his native county, after 
which he was at an academy at Wheeling, N ir- 
ginia, and also under the instruction ot Kev. 
David \Vallace, now pie^ideiit of M.inniotiih c"!- 



k^c, Illinois. In 1S4S lie graduated, a"; one of 1 
ilio (iratcirs of his class, from Jeffetson college, 
I'ennsylvania, and three j-ears later received the 
ile^ree of A. M. Soon after this he came to 
(U'litiii ky, and in 1S49 be,L;an the study of niedi- 
cme under Dr. K. I). Foree. Having attended 
liLtiircs in New York City, he graduated from the 
Kentucky School of Medicine, at Louisville, in 
18^.5. The same year he attended ujion the 
ia.Rtice of his profession in Newcastle, Henry 
county, where his practice very soon became an 
excellent one. Not long after this he became 
i)eiiionstrator of .Anatomy, first in the Kentucky 
.School of Medicine, and aftersvards in the Uni- 
versity of Louisville, after which he occupied a 
number of honorable and important positions 
till, in 1875, he was elected President of tlie 
Faculty of the Louisville Medical College. Dur- 
ing his work as teacher he also accomplished not 
a little with his pen, articles appearing from time 
to time in the medical journals that have con- 
tributed largely to the science. In 1S60 he be- | 
came surgeon with the rank of Major on Gen- 
eral Buckner's staft", in the Kentucky State 
Guards, and has also occupied many places of 
trust in public institutions. Dr. Cook was mar- 
ried to Miss Fannie M. Roberts, of Louisville, 
I'ebruary 21,1872. 

One of the most remarkable physicians and 
medical writers Louisville has ever had. Dr. 
Charles Caldwell, came to the city in connection 
with the attempt to establish the Medical Insti- 
tute here. He was a professional graduate of 
the University of Pennsylvania, became an emi- 
nent though still young practitioner in Philadel- < 
|ihia, and in 1S16 was appointed Profes-or of 
Geology and Natural History in his a/ma mater 
there. Coming West three years afterwards, he 
took a professorshi|) in the Medical Dciiartment 
ol Transylvania University, at Lexington, and 
remained upon the Faculty of that schuol about ■ 
eighteen years. During this connection he made 
a tour in Europe, meeting Gall and Siairzheim, 
ind embracing their doctrines of plirenology. 
1 hu reader finds him referred to heretofore, in the 
nritLS of the celebrated Dr. George Combe con- 
cerning his visit to this place. He became a | 
profLssor in the Louisville .Medical In-,ti:ute, and : 
servi-d until 1S49, when he se\enty-seven ' 
V'-.u, old, and desired retirement. He died July 
'./■ 'S53, aged eighty-one. He had all his li:e 

been a voluminous writer upon scientific, medi- 
cal, and educational topics, beginning with a 
translation of lilumenbach's Physiology before 
his giaduation at Philadeljihia. His published 
[■apcrs and other works, if collected, would fill 
many volumes. 

Jolm Edward Crowe was born June 4, 1S29, 
in Louisville. His father, who was a grocer 
here, had emigrated to the city about 1S18. 
Ha\ing received his elementary education at a 
parochial school, at the age of fifteen he entered 
St. Mary's college, in ^L'^rion county, Kentucky. 
Three years later he began the study of medicine 
in the University of Louisville, but stopping to 
teach in the public schools he did not graduate 
until 1S56. He Continued the practice of medi- 
cine in Louisville up to the beginning of the civil 
war, when he was commissioned as Acting As- 
sistant Surgeon in the United States Army. 
Since his army experience he has g.iined an ex- 
tensive and important practice. Devoting him- 
self mainly to the treatment of obstetrics and the 
diseases of women and children, he was appoint- 
ed, in i86q. Professor of Obstetrics and 1 )iseases 
of Women and Children in the L'niversity of 
Louisville, where, by untiring devotion to his de- 
jiartment, he has won an enviable reputation tor 
scholarship and skill. At various times the es- 
teem and confidence of the people has shown 
itself by giving him place in the City Council, 
on the Board of Aldermen, as Trustee of the 
City Hospital, and President of the City Board 
of Health. Dr. Crowe was married to Miss Au- 
gusta Douglas, ot Ohio, September 7, 1S71. He 
died here September 25, 1S81. 

Charles F. Carpenter is a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, born in Chester county July 9, 1S26, of 
an old and honorable English lamily. He began 
to study medicine when only sixteen years old, 
but did not graduate until he was twenty-three, 
when, in 1849, he received his degree from the 
University of Pennsylvania. He returned to his 
native county and practiced until 1S36, when he 
removed to Louisville, and was soon busily and 
protitably engaged. L'pon the outbreak of the 
war, he was placed in charge of seveial hospitals, 
and sustained an impi^rtant relation to the med- 
ical staff of the army. The war clobing, he re- 
tired from active [iraciice and gave his time 
largely to scientific [jursuits, es[)ecially to opera- 
tions in metallurgy in Colorado, in which he has 



made a number of vaUialile imiTovemeiits. He 
has also taken out palerus for mechanical 
devices. In 1S73 be was one ot' the Oovern- 
nient Commissioners to the N'ienna E'\(iosition, 
and the next year was ]MoniinLnt in the orL;an- 
ization of the Louisville Microscopii-al Society, 
of which be was maile vice [iresident. 

Thomas V. Satterwhite was born Jul)' 21, 
1835, in Lexington, Kentucky. His father, 
bearing the same name throughout, was a dis- 
tinguished physician before bim. Hi^ mother 
was a daughter of Hon. Joseph C. Bretl'.inridge. 
lie was trained in the Lexington schools and at 
Center College, started in his medical reading in 
1855, with Dr. R. ). Ijreckinridge, andgiaduated 
from the pro[ier Department of Louisville Uni- 
versity in 1S57. He decided to remain in the 
city, and began practice tliere the same vear. 
Lie managed the Dispensary for a time, was for 
six years Demonstrator of .Vnatomy in n/z/ui 
ma/er, and then operated a dispensary on the 
University grounds, in union with Dr. Goodman. 
He has chief prominence as a surgeon, and has 
taken high rank for his diflicult and sutcessful 
operations. Chairs in the Louisville Medical 
College have repeatedly been offered him ; but 
have as often been declined. He was tor one 
term President of the Medico-chirurcical society. 

William IL Leachman's natal day was May 15, 
1834, and he is a native of Boyle county, son of 
an old Kentucky pioneer, who was in turn son 
of a pioneer from Germany to \"irginia. William 
was well educated, and spent some time in the 
celebrated Covington Institute, at Springfield, 
Kentucky. When of age he entered the law- 
department of I,oui?\ille L'niversity, took the 
two-years' course, and was dubbed M. LX in 
1857, enjoying also firivate study under the 
elder D. W. Yandell. He began practice in the 
city, and was soon widely and satisfactorily em- 
ployed. He makes a specialty of obstetrical 
practice, in which his business has been very 
large. In 1872 he was elected a member of the 
Board of Education, and afterwards served in 
the City Council, but resigned when half his 
term had expired. 

Professor Emory .\. Grant was educated as a 
physician, but was long better known as a 
teacher. He was born June li, 1S23, in Ithaca, 
New York; educated at Genesee and Centre 
Colleges, from the latter of which he received in 

iSt'ii, the degree of LL. D.; studied medirine 
and began practice, but soon abandcjned it, and 
began teaching, in which pIofe^sicln he lenuiined 
twciit\'-rive or tliiity yeais. He continued, how- 
ever, to [iractit e the specialty of orlhopedic sur- 
gery, performing some unjiortant riperations for 
club-foot, and devising some contiivances for re- 
ducing the deformity; and after Laving the 
pedagogic profession some years ago, he returned 
to successful practice, especially in this kind of 
surgery. He was tor se\en )ears Principal of 
the ]in\s' High School, and has taken great in- 
terest in the upbuilding of the Polytechnic So- 
ciety, c>f which he is secretary. 

Wilham G. Redman, M. L)., L). D. S., was 
born in the State of New Voik, April 2, 1S21. 
He was of German t xtraition, his parentb ha\;iig 
been among the early emigrants along the Hud- 
son. His early education was gained at the 
common schools, and afterwards at Ca.Tcnovia 
and Homer Academies. Coming to Kentucky 
in 1S43, he occu|jied the next three years in 
teaching school, studying medicine, and attend- 
ing medical lectures at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, where he graduated. He 
then began practice in Shelby county, Keiituckv, 
but on account of ill health turned his attention 
to dentistry, giaduated in the Ohio Dental C'ol- 
lege at Cincinnati, and finally locoted at Hender- 
son, Kentucky, wheie he was engaged in den- 
tistry for a succession of years. He came to 
Louisville in 1S60, and has succeeded in gain- 
ing a large and lucrative practice. He fills the 
place of president in the Southern Dental Asso- 
ciation, and is the inventor of a number of ap- 
pliances now in general use in the profession. In 
1S49 Dr. Redman was married to Miss .Mary C. 
Chisen, of Lexington, Kentucky, and their family 
now consists of tliirteen children. As to politics, 
he is not a partisan, voting for the person who 
will do the best work. His religious connection 
is at [iresent with the E[)i-,copal church, although 
he was formerly a .Methodist. The Independent 
Order of Odd Eellows claims his membership 
and inlluence. 

Erasmus O. Brown was born in Burkesville, 
Kentucky, February 13, 1S17, of Scotch Irish 
ancestry, and his father a physician before him. 
He was I'aiily educateel in English branches; 
began clerking in a drug-store at sixteen, and 
studied medicine in the intervals of leisure; 



made a number u{ valu:ililc iini'rovements. He 
has also taken out ni.iiiy patents for mechanical 
devices. In 1S73 he was one of the Govern- 
ment Commissioners to the \'icnna E'\|iosition, 
and the next year was piominent in the organ- 
ization of the l.ouis\ille Microscopical Society, 
of which he was made vice-president. 

Thomas P. Satlerwtiite was born July 21, 
1835, in Lcxiiii^ton, Kentucky. His father, 
bearing the same name throughout, was a dis- 
tinguished physician before bim. His mother 
was a daus;hter of Hun. Josejih C. Breckinridge. 
He was trained in the Le.xington schools and at 
Center College, started in his medical reading in 
1S55, with Dr. R. ]. Ijreckinridge, and giaduaied 
from the proper Departnient of Louisville Uni- 
versity in 1S57. He decided to remain in the 
city, and began practice th.ere the same year. 
He managed the Dispensary for a time, was for 
six years Demonstrator of .Vnatomy m his a///iii 
mater, and then operated a dispensary on the 
University grounds, in union with Dr. Goodman. 
He has chief prominence as a surgeon, and has 
taken high rank for his diflicult and successful 
operations. Chairs in the Louisville Medical 
College have repeatedly been offered him; but 
have as often been declined. He Nvas tor one 
term President of the Medico-chirurgical society. 

William H. Leachman's natal day was May 15, 
183.), and he is a native of Boyle county, son of 
an old Kentucky pioneer, who was in turn son 
of a pioneer from Germany to ^'irginia. William 
was well educated, and spent some time in the 
celebrated Covington Institute, at Springfield, 
Kentucky. \\'hen of age he entered the law 
department of I,ouis\ille L'niyersity, took the 
two-years' course, and was dubbed M. D. in 
1857, enjoying also private study under the 
elder D. W. Yandell. He began practice in the 
city, and was soon widely and satist'actorily em- 
ployed. He makes a specialty of obstetrical 
practice, in which his business has been very 
large. In 1872 he was elected a member of the 
Board of Education, and afterwards served in 
the City Council, but resigned when half his 
term had expired. 

Professor Emory .\. Grant was educated as a 
physician, but was long better known as a 
teacher. He was born June 15, 1823, in Ithaca, 
New York; educated at Genesee and Centre 
Colleges, from the latter of which he received in 

1861, the degree of LL. D.; studied medicine 
and began practice, but soon abandoned it, and 
began teaching, in which profession he leinained 
twcnty-fue or thirty yeais. He continued, how- 
ever, to [iractice the s])ecialt)' of orlhoprdic sur- 
gery, pert'ormiug some important f'perations for 
club-foot, and devising some contiivances fur re- 
ducing the deformity; and after leaving the 
pedagogic profession some years ago, he returned 
to successful practice, especially in this kind of 
surgery. He was for seven \ears Principal of 
the Bo\s' High School, and has taken great in- 
terest in the upbuilding of the Polytechnic So- 
ciety, of which he is secretary. 

W illiam G. Redman, M. D., I). D. .S., was 
born in the State of New York, .\\)x\\ 2, 1821. 
He was of (German i xlraction, his parents ha\;ng 
been among the earl\ emigrants along the Hud- 
son. His early education was gained at the 
common schools, and afterwards at Ca.^enovia 
and Homer Academies. Coming to Kentucky 
in 1S43, he occupied the next three years in 
teaching school, studying medicine, and attend- 
ing medical lectures at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, where he graduated. He 
then began piractice in Shelby county, Keiituckv, 
but on account of ill health turned his attention 
to dentistry, graduated in the Ohio Dental Col- 
lege at Cincinnati, and finally located at Hender- 
son, Kentucky, wheie he was engaged in den- 
tistry fur a succession of years. He came to 
Louisville in 1S60, and has succeeded in gain- 
ing a large and lucrative practice. He fills the 
place of president in the Southern Dental Asso- 
ciation, and is the inventor of a nun)ber of ap- 
pliances now in general use m the profession. In 
1S49 Dr. Redman was married to Miss Mary C. 
Chisen, of Lexington, Kentucky, and their family 
now consists of thirteen children. As to politics, 
he is not a partisan, voting lor the person who 
will do the best work. His religious connection 
is at present with the E[)isCopal church, although 
he was formerly a .Methodist. The Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows claims his membership 
and inlluence. 

Erasmus O. Brown was born in Burkesville, 
Kentucky, F'ebruary 13, 1S17, of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry, and his a physician before him. 
Fie was tairly edui at<,d in English branches; 
began clerking in a drug-store at sixteen, and 
studied medicine in the intervals of leisure; 


).card medical lectures in the University of ' place while yet in iii-^ e.irly prime. IniS^^^jhe 

I ,,uiL;ville in the winter of 1841-4;, piid began vas married to the diuglner of Hon. U. II. 

I !.vli(cat his old home, which he maintained ' Granc^er, of Louisville, a member of the lamous 

siitli much success until 1S47: finished his family of Kentucky. They have but 

course at the university, and graduated in 1S4S; ! one child. 

Mu\ resumed practice. In 1S62 he took charge ' John A. lirady was born Sei)tcmber 13, 1S3;, 
i,f a h'ederal ho-j-iital at Louisville ; then served ' in Washington county, Kentucky. Hi:, early 
.i> Medical Purveyor of Burnside's army; and 1 education was obtained in his own home schools 
rniiained in this and similar service till the war [ and St. Marv's Cnllege, near Lebanon. Ilegin- 
, jased. He then opened an office in Louisville, [ ning the study of medicine in 1S52, he attended 
and soon built up a large business. For several ■ lectures at the University of Louisville, and grad- 
yens he was physician to the Eastern District of ' uated at the New York University in the spring 
the city; had for a time the Erupti\e Hospital i 'of 1S56, after which dale he practiced medicine 
and medical department of the city Workhouse ' at Mackvillo until the breaking out of the civil 
in charge ; has written much on medical topics, : war. His first servi. e as army surgeon was with 
and is a member of many prominent professional ; the First Kentucky Cavalry, under Colonel 
societies. He was elected to the Legislature in : Frank Wolford, until the battle of Perryville. 
1S55, and re-elected in 1S57. I He was under C.eiieral Carfield in the Sandy 
lohn Aroid Octeilony was born in Sweden, Yalley campaign ; was next in charge of the sick 
June 24, 1S38. His father was a man of prop- | and wounded in the Third .-Xrmy Coips, and fob 
erly and a captain of dragoons in the Swedish ' lowing this acted as medii al director at Lebanon 
army. The family was originally of Scotch ori- ' until the spring of 1S63, when he was ordered to 
gin, the name having been spelled Auchterlony. ' the Louisville Hospital, where he remained till 
The mother was of French extraction. Dr. \ nuistered out in the fill of 1864. Since then he 
Octerlony was educated in the Swedish Govern- , has resided in Louisville, and gained an excellent 
ment School, and came to America in 1S57. In i place among physicians of that city. Two year.s 
1S61 he received the degree of M. D. in the ' he has been a member of the Board of Health; 
University of New York, and at once began | belongs also to the College of Physicians and 
practicing in New York City. One year later Surgeons of Louisville and the State Medical So- 
he entered the army as a medical ofh'-er, and, ' ciety. In politics he was a Whig as long as that 
during the four years following, held several im- ! party e.xisted, since which he has voted the Re- 
portant positions in the hospital service. In publican ticket. Religiously, he is a Christian, 
1S66 he was appointed physician-iu charge of and a member of the Methodist church. Dr. 
the Government Dispensary at Louisville. Hav- I Brady was married to Miss Martha J. Peter, of 
ing filled the position of. lecturer on clinical i Shelbyville, Kentucky, C)ctobei 14,1856. 
medicine in the University of Louisville, and j Henry F. Kalfus is of German stock, but was 
having shown himself a teacher of more than j born in Shepherdsville, Kentucky, .-\pril 14, 
ordinary ability in several other places, on the j 1S33. His maternal unc le was the eminent Dr. 
organization of the' Louisville Medical College ! Burr Harrison, of Ibrdstown. Young Kalfus 
he was offered the chair of dermatology and ' was educated in tht!' higher branches at Hanover 
clinical medicine. This he accepted, only re- ■ College, Indiana, studied professionally at Shep- 
signing to accept the chair of materia medica, ] herdsville, practiced there five years, took a new- 
therapeutics, and clinical medicine. From 1865 course of study at the Kentucky School of Med- 
he has had charge of the Old Ladies' Home, icine, graduated therefrom in 1S60, and also took 
and, since 1S69, ha, been one of the physicians a diploma from the Medical Department of the 
to the Louisville City Hospital He is now ; University. The next year he raised a company 
I'resident of its Medical Board. Since 1S76 he ' for the Fifteenth Kentucky Infantry, in the Fed- 
has dtrvoted himself to Ids benevolent woik and eral service, and rose to the grade of colonel, 
priv.ite practice, writing, nKaiitime, many valua- In 1S64 he was an unsuccesst'ul candidate for 
ble papers for publication. .As a practitioner. State Treasurer, upon the Democratic ticket, 
teacher, and scholar, he has attained a high ' Since the war he has been a prominent practi- 



tioner in Louisville, and is also a lucturcr upon 
the staff of the Kentucky School of Medicine. 

John D. O'Reilly is son of the venerable Dr. 
John O'Reilly, of Louisville, and . was born in 
Philadelphia October 21, 1S33. His general 
education was received largely at St. Joseph's 
College, Bardstoivn, where lie graduated in 1S59; 
and he then studied nicdiu'ne in the professional 
schools of Louisville and Nashville. Soon after 
the war opened he was appointed assistant sur- 
geon in Husjjital No. i, Louisville, and the next 
year became assistant surgeon in the Tennessee 
Lunatic Asylum at Nashville, into whose sole • 
charge the institution presently came. He was 
subsequently surgeon of the Tenth Tennessee 
Infantry and Secretary of the State Board of 
Examiners for Surgeons. In May, 1S65, he 
came back to Louisville and began civil prac- 
tice. For years he was member of the Hoard of 
Health, has also been on the Board of Educa- 
tion, and Professor of Diseases of Children in 
the Kentucky School of Medicine. He is a volu- 
minous and successful writer on medical topics. 
Dr. O'Reilly now resides in Dallas, Texas. 

Richard H. Smgleton is of the famous Missis- 
sippi, South Carolina, and Illinois family of that 
name, and was born at Canton, in the first-named 
State, May 9, 1S44, son of the Hon. Oiho R. 
Singleton, who was of old Kentucky stock. Dr. 
Singleton was liberally educated, completing his 
undergraduate course at Georgeto^vn College, 
District of Columbia; entered the Southern army 
soon after the war opened, participated in many 
pitched battles and minor actions, and was final- 
ly paroled at Grenada, Mississippi. He then be- 
gan medical study in Touisville, graduated from 
the University in 1S66, and at once opened an 
office in the city. Four years afterwards, he was 
made Professor of Anatomy in the Medical C'ol- 
lege at Evansville, served one year, and then re- 
moved to his native place; but returned to Louis- 
ville in 1S75 and resumed practice here. He is 
a member of the State Medical Societies of Ken- 
tucky, Mississippi, and Indiana, and was for 
some years on the staff of the City Hospital in 
Louisville. He is no longer practicing. 

Joseph \V. Fowler was born in Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, June 17, 184S. He came of a 
most notable old t.imily of that .State. His 
father (ought in the Mexican War under General 
Sam Houston, and his grandfather was an officer 

in the Revolution. His maternal grandfather 
served in the War of 1S12. In 1S64 he giadu- 
ated at the University of St. Francis dc Sales, 
near .Milwaukee, U'isronsin, soon after which 
time he had made such a study of chemistry 
and ])harmi( y with I)i. George Mueller, of La- 
fa\etle, Indiana, that he began an indeiicndent 
drug business. Since \indertaking the work he 
has made es]iecial effort to advance the business 
by appl)ing all the skill and science that con- 
scientious study could furnish, and has a reputa- 
tion among physicians very raiely gained in 
Louisville. He has won a certificate from the 
Kentucky State Board of Pharmacy, which gives 
him the hichest qualifications, and he is now a 
member of the Louisville College of Pharmacy. 
He has accomplished not a little, also, as a 
writer. In his religious views Mr. Fov>-ler is a 
decided and earnest Catholic. In 1S73, 5^P" 
tember loth, he was married to Miss J. .\nna 
Clark, of Fairfield, Kentucky, a beautiful and 
accomplished lady. 

Thomas L. McDerniolt was born in Louis- 
ville, Septembei 6, 1S43, son of an Irish immi- 
grant, among the eaily settlers of the town. He 
was educated in the private schools of the city 
and at Bardstown, in St. Joseph's College. He 
read medicine here with Professor Benson, and 
graduated at Bellevue College in 1S65. His 
earliest practice was at Mrginia City, but he 
returned to his old home in a year or two, and 
has since practiced here. He was elected a 
member of the City Council in 1S70, and the 
next year a member of the local Board of 
Health, afterwards receiving the honor of re-elec- 
tion to that position. 

George Washington Griftiths, notwithstanding 
his intensely .■\merican name, is foreign born, a 
native of .-\ltatacca, Si:)uth Wales, August 22, 
1S40, son of an able minister and writer of the 
Presbyterian faith, three of whose sons became 
physicians. The family settled in Philadelphia 
when George was an infant, and he was mainly 
educated in the schools there. He came to 
Louisville in 1855, became a drug clerk, improv- 
ing his leisure hours studying medicine, and 
presently abandoned his clerkship for the study. 
When the civil war, he opened a recruit- 
ing office in the city, and raised a number of 
men for the Fifth Kentucky Federal Infantrv, 
but went out finally as hospital steward with the 



Second Kentucky cavalry; became assistant sur- 
geon, then successively adjutant, captain, brevet- 
major, and finally was ajipointcd first lieutenant 
ill the regular cavalry, which he did not accept. 
He was in many actions of tlie war, and was 
wounded and captured during tiie Atlanta cam- 
paign. The conflict over, he atLfnded lectures at 
Jefferson Medical College, took a course at 
Long Island College Hospital, and settled down 
in iS66 for ])ractice in Louisville. ' In 1SO9 he 
was made Examining Surgeon for Kentucky, and 
has been Medical Director of the Grand Army of 
the Republic for the State. 

Edwin S. Gailiard was born in Charleston Dis 
trict, South Carulina, in 1S27, January 16. .-\t 
the age of eighteen he graduated at the South 
Carolina University, and nine \ear3 later from 
the Medical College of the same State with great 
honor. Between that time and the year 1S61 
he was practising and otherwise engaged in Flor- 
ida, New Yolk, and D.iltimore. During this 
time he made a voyage to Europe and returntd. 
At the breaking out of the war he joined the 
Confederate army, and filled at vari.jus times 
the positions of Assistant Surgeon of the hirst 
Maryland Regiment ; Surgeon of the same; Sur- 
geon of the Brigade; Medical Inspector of the 
Army of Virginia; Director of half of the entire 
army; member of the Medical E.xamining Board 
of the army of Virginia ; Medical Director of the 
Depaitment of Aquia, of half of the army around 
Richmond, of .Army Corps in Virginia, of the 
Department of North Carolina and Virginia; and 
General Inspector of Confederate Flospitals. -At 
the end of the war he began practice in Rich- 
mond, Virginia, and in 1866 started the Rich- 
mond Medical Journal. Subsequently he re- 
ceived [jositions first in the Medical College of 
Virginia, and the same in the Kentucky School 
of Medicine in Louisville. In 1874 he estab- 
lished the American Medical Weekly. Dr. Gail- 
lard has been twice married, first to .Miss Jane 
M. Thomas, of Charleston ; afterwards to Mary 
E. Gibson, of Baltimore. He has three chil- 
dren. He has filled many positions of honor 
and trust besides those enumerated. He now 
resides in New York City, where he is editor ol 
the Eclectic Medical Journal. 

George S. Seymour, physician and dentist, is 
of English descent, born j^nii 21, 1S36, near 
Sandersfield, .Massachusetts. He was educated 

there and at Yale College ; but did not gradu- 
ate, entering upon clerkships in stores instead, in 
order to purchase the remainder of his time from 
his t'athei. He studied dentistry and medicine 
in his S[)are hours tor about five years ; then 
took a dental course of three years under Dr. 
Tomlinson, of Brooklyn, New York ; and finally 
graduated at the Medical Institute in Richmond, 
Virginia, in 1860. Flis first medical practice 
was in Stewart county, Georgia ; but when the 
war began he enlisted as a privue in the Second 
Georgia Infantry, was made Assistant Surgeon 
on hospital duty at Richmond a year later, and 
so remained till the tall of 1S64, when he wns 
assigned to duty elsewhere. .After the war, he 
located at Macon, Georgia, and practiced den- 
tistry until 1S6S, when he came to Louisville, 
where he furuieil a |)artnersliip with Dr. E. \V. 
Mason. In 1S69 he was offered the Chair of 
Operative Djntistry in the Baltimore Dental 
College ; but declined it. 

William P. While is a native of Greensburg, 
born .-\pril 21, 1S45, s'>n of Dr. FJ. P. White, 
then a prominent ])hysician in that place, but 
later a business nnn in Louisville. He was 
completing his preliminary education at George- 
town College when the war broke out and took 
him, with so many others as to aid in closing the 
school for a time, into the Southern army. He 
joined the Second .-\rkansas Cavalry and served 
with it through the war, at the close of which he 
finished his course at the same college, read 
medicine in Louisville with Dr. D. W. Yandell, 
graduated Doctor of Medicine t'rom the L'niver- 
sity in iSt'19, and began his active professional 
life in the city, where he has since remained. He 
was fir some years on the Board of Health, and 
was at least twice appointed by the Governor to 
be Surgeon-General of the State militia. 

Edward S. Crosier is a native of Harrison 
county, Indiana, born March 5, 1S32. fie took 
an undergraduate course in .Micliigan Uni\er- 
sity, and then a diploma from the medical de- 
partment of the same, after some reading with 
Drs. Reader and Jones, of Corydon, Indiana. 
He practiced for a time with Dr. Henry Reader, 
at .Mauckport, and afterwards at Salem, where 
he was e.xamining surgeon during the draft of 
1S62. Fur three years tiiereaftcr he was sur- 
geon-in-charge of the Cieneral Hospital. No. 6, 
New Albany. He [iracticed medicine there 


after the war to 1S69, taking a part also in : Meverell K. Allen was born in Spencer coun- 
the management of the Daily Coniniereial, of , ty, Kentucky, Ajiril 15, 1S46, of Scoti h ilescent 
that place. He contributed much to jjrofcs 1 on both sides. His father was James M. .-Mien, 
sional, bcientiilc, and literary periodicals, was 1 for many yeais a wfU-known Louisville ccri- 
made a member of sundry learned societies, : tractor. His mother was a daughter of Dr. 
and, in 1S70 71, lectured on chemistry and : Mtier, a prominent pjhysician in Nelson county, 
microscopy in the Louisville Medical College, i Young Allen received a good education in the 
In the winter of 1S69 he removed to this city , borne schools, began professional study at Tay- 
and took a position in the oitice of the Sur- 1 lorsville with Hr. Thomas Allen in 1064, and en- 
veyor of Customs. i tered tlie medical department of the I'niversiiy 
John ^L Kiim is a native of Bavaria, born at 1 of Louisville, from which he took his diploma 
Wurzburg in 1S42. His father removed to in the spring of 1S67. He returned to 'Faylors- 
Loui.sville, and was for thirty-four years a black- viUe and practiced there with success until 1S70, 
smith and veterinary surgeon in the city. The ; when he lemovcd to Louisville, and soon estab- 
son entered a drug-store at the age of sixteen, ! lished an excellent business. He was elected 
and reniained three years, and then studied i Health Officer of the city in 1S74, and held the 
chemistry and medicine for several rnoie in Ger- i post with general acceptance for several years, 
many under some of the best prolessors and J Luke P. l^>lackburn was born in A\'oodford 
chemists in Europe. After further study of I county, Kentucky, June t6, 1S16. His father 
pharmac)' and other branches at home, he re- j was educated as a lawyer, but became a stock- 
ceived his degree from the University of Louis- j raiser, his thoroughbred horses having long been 
ville in 1S69, at once began practice, and soon ! celebrated in America. Dr. Blackburn grad- 
acquired a large and lucrative bu=ine~s. fie ; uated in medicine in Transylvania universitv, 
was, for a number iif years, on the City Board of . and began practice in Lexington, Kentuckv. 
Health, is a member of the Louisxille and ' There he married Miss Ella Guest Boswcll, the 
United States Colleges of Pharmacy, and of daughter of Dr. Joseph Boswcll, of that place. 
the State Medical Soc.ety, and has also done i In 1S33, when the cholera broke out at Vcr- 
rauch service on the School Board, besides writ- j sallies, Kentucky, and some of the resident phy- 
ing considerable for professional journals, mainly ' sicians were dead and others had lied from the 
on minor surgery, medical pharmacy, and the [ place, he alone voluntarily gave medical aid. 
diseases of children. I When the scourge had passed by, his self- 
Clinton \\'. Kelly was born February 11, 1S44, sacrificing and untiring labor among them 
in Henry county, Kentucky. At the breaking ' had so moved the citizens of the town, that 
out of the war he entered the Confederate army, , they gave him an earnest invitation to settle 
where he remained on duty until the year 1S63, ' there. He removed to Versailles, and speedily 
when, going to Canada, he studied first in Queen's had a lucrative and extensive practice. Soon 
College, Kingston, and afterwards in McGill after this date he went into the manufacture of 
College, Montreal, from the latter of which he ' bagging and rope, but becaine greatly involved 
graduated, having, during his stay there, received during the fihancial depression of 1S39. In 
four prizes for highest standing m different 1S43, when yellow fever ai.ipeared in New Or- 
branches pursued. Between 1067 and 1S70, he leans, being Health Officer at Natchez, l.e was 
added to his medical preparation by studying in directed by the city authorities to establish quar- 
Germany, when he returned to Louisville and antine. This he did most effectively, and while 
began the [iractice of his profession. During performing his duty became so much interested 
the year of practice, he was made Professor ; in caring for the suffering marines that he built 
of Anatomy in the Kentucky School of Medi- j a hospital at his own expense. Soon after, 
cine and, subsequently, held the same chair in | through his influence a Government hos[>ital 
the Louisville Medical College, where he still re- , was established there, and the building of several 
mains. Dr. Kelly is married to Miss Kaie ^\". 1 others throughout the county fijllowed in a short 
Harris, daughter of the late Alt'red Harris, a ' space of time. For many years he held, by 
lawyer of the same city. appointment, the place of surgeon in both the 



State ;ind Marine hospitals. At an earlv date he 
advanced the theory of exemption t'loni Asiatic 
<hiilcra by the use of [uire soft water, and in 
1S54 protected Xatcliez from tiie yellow fever, 
when it was in the surrounding country, by a 
most ligid OjUarantine. He was afterwards em- 
powered by the Legislatures of Louisiana and 
Mississippi to establish a (_|uaraniine below New 
Oilcans. In 1855 his wife died, and two years 
later he visited the piincipal hospitals in England, 
Scotland, Germany, and Fr,\nce. In Paris he 
met Miss Julia ^L Cliunhill, of Kentucky, to 
whom he was married in November of the same 
year, ^\'hen the uar broke out he had in 
advance taken up the cause of the South — was, 
in fact, one of the original seces^ioniiis. At 
first he was attached to the staff of Sterling Price 
as surgeon, but afterward was sent to the borders 
to superintend the furnishing of sup[ilies by 
blockade rimners, and joined his family in Can- 
ada for this purpose. ' On his return to the Slates 
he was for a time on his wife's plantation in 
Arkansas, but returned to Kentucky in 1S73. 
When Memphis was \isited by yellow fever he 
rendered the city great service by giving nudical 
aid. He is said to have combated more e|ji- 
demics of cholera atid yellow fever than any 
other living physician, and is con^ideied the best 
authority regarding such fatal diseases of anv in 
the [irofession. In 18S0 Dr. Plackburn was 
elected to the place of Governor of Kentucky, 
which position he now holds. His only child, 
Dr. Gary Blackburn, is at present a practicing 
physician in Louisville. 

Richard N. Barbour is a native of this county, 
born September 12, 1S20, son of 'I'homas Bar- 
bour, a pioneer of that year. His motlier was 
cousin of President Taylor. He was educated 
chjefly in private schools, commenced the study 
of medicine in 1S53, with Dr. W'ilhaui Tajlor, 
and graduated from the Cincinnati Medical Col- 
lege in 1S35. He pursued his studies further at 
the Jefferson College, Philadelphia, and began 
practice at his native place in 1S38. ills prac- 
tice became wide and lucrative, and he sustained 
it successfully for th.irty-five years, when, in 1S73, 
he removed to Louisville, and there reaped a 
similar success. He does not confine himseK 
selfishly to his private practice, but his written 
much, especially in earlie. professional lite, lor 
the medical journals, and is assiduous in has at- 

tendance upon the professional conventions and 
other meetings. 

Leonard W. Taylor was born in Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, Febiuary 22, 1S23. His grand- 
father, Leonard 'I'aylor, was a Virginia Revolu- 
tionary soldier, and settled in Kentucky in the 
year 1790. His father, Leonard Taylor, was born 
in Mcicer county, but, coming to Lexington, be- 
came one of its most valued citizens. Dr. Tay- 
lor studied first in Lafiyette Seminary and began 
tlie study of medicine subsequently with L);-, 
Lloyd Warfield. a leading physician of Lexington. 
Three yeais of study prepared him for entering 
the Medical Department of Transylvania I'niver- 
sity, from which he graduated in 1S45, ^'•''t'l the 
degree of M. D. For twenty-eight years he 
practiced in Carrollton, Kentucky, with excellent 
success, and in 1S73 removed to Louisville, hav- 
ing in view a smaller and less laborious field. In 
iS-iQ, he was mariied to Miss ^L^ry F. !NLalin, 
the daughter of Judge Joseph Malin, of \^evay, 
Indiana. I'hey have six children, and all living. 

Louis S. McMuitry was born at Hanodsburg, 
Ker.tucky, September 14, 1S50. He was edu- 
cated at Center College, Danville, Kentucky, 
graduating from that institution in 1870, He 
at once thereat'ter began the study of medicine 
under the supervision of the late r)r. John D. 
Jackson, of Danville. He attended two sessions 
of the Medical School of the University of 
Louisiana, at New Orleans, where he received 
the degree of M. D. in 1S73. He remained in' 
New Orleans a year thereat'ter, as Assistant 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in the university, be- 
ing at the same time attached to the staff of the 
Charity Hospital. He spent a winter in New- 
York pursuing special branches of study, and 
then settled at Danville, Kentuckv, where he 
did a large general |jractice. In October, 1S81, 
he was electe|d to the Chiir of Anatomy in the 
Kentucky School of Medicine at Louisville, and 
removed to that city. Dr. McMurtry is a mem- 
ber of the Kentucky State Medical society; an hon- 
orary member of the Boyle County (Kentucky") 
Medical society; and corresponding member of 
the New Orleans Surgical association. He was 
chairman of the McDowell Memorial committee 
of the Kentuck)- State Medical societ\', and the 
erection of the ^b Lowell monument at I>anviile 
is mainly due to his energy and perseverance. 
His contributions to medical literature are nu- 



merous, and arc to be fuund in the New Orleans 
Medical and Surgical Journal, the American 
Practitioner, and ether medical periodicals. A 
recent paper published in the Medi.;al News and 
Abstract, of Philadelphia, has elicited nnu h 
complimentary notice, and has been widely 
copied. Dr. McMurtry is of Scotch parentage, 
his ancestors ha\ing come over to Virginia in 
the early settlement of that State. He has de- 
voted much time and study to. the literature of 
medicine, as well as to its essentially practical 


The last list of physicians published in Louis- 
ville, in the spring of 1SS2, showed 196 regular, 
10 honiceopathic, i botanic, and i "vitapathic" 


in Louisville dates from 1S39, when it was in- 
troduced by Dr. J, G. Rosenstein, who had been 
an allopathic ]jhy>iciat}, but was converted to 
the new faitli. The ne.xt year he published a 
little book entitled The Theory of the Practice 
of Honiceopathy, the first part of which com- 
prised the treatise proper, with didactic rules, 
the rest convej ing a controversial correspondence 
between himself and D;s. William A. McDowell, 
W. N. Merriwether, and Sanford Dell, prominent 
allopaths of the city. The volume attracted 
much attention to the author and his subject, 
and aided to give him high professional and 
scientific standing. He removed -South in 1S42, 
and was followed the same year by Dr. Logue, 
who went to New Orleans three years after, 
leaving a successor in his partner. Dr. Angell, 
an e.x-Methodist minister. He also was short- 
lived here, leaving, in 1S4S, for Alabama. Mean- 
while, two years before, had come Dr. Edward 
Caspari, who remained to u|)hold the honiceo- 
pathic banner in Louisville for nearly a quarter 
of a century, or until his death in ^Llrch, 1S70. 
Says one, writing of his advent in 1 S46 : " Homce- 
opathy now received an impetus which elevated it 
to the dignity of a profession, and new converts 
were added rapidly to its already large circle of 
friends." In 1S4S another valuable immigrant 
arrived, in the person of Dr. H. \V. Koehler, "a 
man of fine education, a fine surgeon, a man 
devoted to his profession." Then rapidly came 
others — Drs. Armstrong, in 1850; C. Ehrmann 
and Campbell, in 1S57; Clark, (left the city 

in 1S60), and \'an P.uren in 1S58; Keufner and 
Louis Ehrmann (removed to .St. Loui:) in 1870), 
in 1S5S; Swift, in 1S6.'; Ik-rnard and Charles 
W. Breyfogle, in 1S67 (the latter forming a part- 
nership wiih Caspari): \V. L. P.reyfogle m 1S69 
(ivho took the remaining interests of Caspari the 
same yeai); R. W. Peaice (from the ranks of 
the old school), in 1S71; and Klein, Poole, and 
Pirtle, in 1S73. To these may now be added 
several more recent comers. 

The I'jrofes.sion did not rotate its members here 
so rapidly as in its struggling years, and Drs. 
Armstrong, Campbell, Keufner, and Poole, as 
well as Dr. Caspari, remained long enough to die 
at their jjosts. 

Unfortunately we have no materials for bio- 
graphical sketches of these ph.ysicians, except of 
a single one of the Ereyfogles, which will 
be found above. Dr. W. L. Breyfoglc, in an 
historical account of homccopathy in Kentucky, 
read to tlie .\meiican Institute of Homoeopathy 
in PhiLadeipliia in 1S76, says of the local status 
at that time; 

There been .1 steridy and he.ilihy growth in homce- 
opathv in Louiiville, notHJihslandirig liie fjct of itsljoing the 
"hot-bed of allop.Lthy." We now ci.\ini a fair proportion of 
the wealth and intelliijence of the community, and the prac- 
tice has a foothold, and occupies a position that is rapidly in- 
creasing our list of converts. 

In 1872 the State Homceojiatliic Society -.vas 
organized in Louisville, with Dr. W. L. Breyfogle 
as President. 


An act of incorporation was obtained on the 
7th of February, 1833, ^^r the Medical Insti- 
tute of Louis\ille, a project which had been 
originated by three enterprising medical gentle- 
men of the city — Drs. Coleman Rogers, Harri- 
son Powell, and A. G. Smith. An organization 
was not attempted until the ne.xt year, when a 
Faculty was formed, in which Dr. Rogers became 
Professor of Anatomy. 'I'he Institute did not 
get fairly upon its teet, however, until four years 
afterwards, when Dr. Charles Caldwell came 
from Lexington to give the infant institution the 
benefit of his learning and ex[)erience. A mass- 
meeting of citizens was held at his suggestion, 
which was eloquently addressed by him in an 
address of two hours' length. Resolutions were 
unanimously voted that the Mayor and City 
Council should enduw the Institute with a site 
and buildings and a gift or luan of $20,000. I'lie 



ineasuresproposed were approved by the Coun- 
cil, with but one negative vote. The Medical 
licpanment of Transylvania L'niversity had just 
broken up; and C'aldwell, v,ho had- been the 
leading memljer of its Faculty, was able to secure 
the aid of three others for it — Drs. VandcU, 
Short, and C'ook. Several other famous jihysi- 
nans were subsei|uenlly connected with the 
school — as Drs. Daniel Drake and Cobb, of Cin- 
linnati, and Flint, of IJoston. It was while re- 
siding here that Dr. Drake wrote entertain- 
ing series of reniiniscential letters to his children, 
which have been collected under the title of 
Pioneer Life in Kentucky, and published, with 
a memoir by his son, e.\-Senator Drake, of St. 
Louis, in a volume of the C)hio Valley Historical 
Series. The Institute opened its lectures with 
an attendance of eighty pupils, which was stead- 
ily increased every year, with one exception, 
until 1847, when the classes numbered four hun- 
dred and si.K, by far the largest number ever 
gathered in a medical school in the Mississippi 
Valley. By this time Dr. Caldwell, who 
Hearing his eightieth year and was feeling seri- 
ously the weight of age, desired to retire, and in 
1S49 his chair was vacated, the Board of Trus- 
tees at the same time tendering him the position 
of honorary and emeritus professor, which he 

The subject of the transference of the Med- 
ical Department of Transylvania University from 
Lexington to Louisville had been in agitation for 
some years, and had been attended with consid- 
erable ill-feeling between the two cities. The 
Legislature decided in 1S37 that the removal 
should not be made; but the interested parties 
in Louisville decided to go forward upon the old 
charter of 1833 and 1835 'O'' 'he Medical Insti- 
tute, which had not proved a success, and organ- 
ize a new School of Medicine here. The Cit\ 
Council appropriated $20,000 and lour acres of 
ground for the necessary building, of which the 
corner-stone was laid in February t'oilowing. A 
law school and a high school were afterwards es- 
tablished on the same lot of ground. Dr. Flint 
went abroad with a liberal sum of money at his 
command, and bought an excellent beginning of 
a library and apparatus for the Institute. Dr. 
Caldwell had been mainly influential in promot- 
ing the project; but many other eminent practi- 
tioners, as Drs. Flint, Vandell, Miller, Gross, 

Cobb, Short, and Sullivan, rt al, were tlicn or 
subsequently connected with it. 

I'he Institute was re-organized in 1837 sufii- 
ciently to resume sessions u]>on the new founda- 
tion, and reopened in the fall, occupying tempo- 
rary quarters in the ujipei rooms ot the City 
Woikhouse. It was successful from the first, 
soon attaining a high degree of iioinjiarity. 
Eighty students attended the first session, one 
hundred and twenty the second, two hundied 
and five the third, two hundred and sixty-two the 
fifth, and fiequently since that time tlie attend- 
ance has reached four hundred. WTien Mr. 
Casseday wrote in 1S52, he said: '"jit has at- 
tained the rank of the fust school of medicine 
in the West, and is second to few in the country." 
It was ultimately thought expedient, however, to 
merge the Institute in the University of Louis- 
ville, which was chartered in 1S46, and make it 
a depaitment of that institution. 


was organized in Louisville nearly forty years ago 
— the Medical Department of the Masonic L;ni- 
versityof Kentucky. Thefollowing-namedgentle- 
nien were Professors : Dr. Benjamin W. Dudley, 
of .\natoiny and Surgery (emeritus); Dr. Robert 
Peter, of Chemistry and Toxicology ; Dr. 
Thomas D. Mitchell, of Theory and Practice of 
Medicine; Dr. Joshua B. Flint, of Principles 
and Practice of Surgery; Dr. James M. Brush 
and Ethelbert L. Dudley, of Special and Surgical 
Anatomy and Operative Surgery; Dr. Henry M. 
Bullitt, of Physiology and Pathology ; Llewellyn 
Powell, of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women 
and Children; Dr. Erasmus D. Force, of Ma- 
teria Medica and Clinical Medicine; Dr. David 
Cummins, Demonstrator of Anatomy. 

The schDol had thus a strong Faculty, and 
opened under very favorable auspices, with one 
hundred and three students the first year, 
and one hundred and ten the second. Mr. 
Casseday said in 1S52: "Its claims seem al- 
ready to be recognized throughout the West.'' 
It was not destined, however, to become a per- 
manent institution in Louisville, and long since 
passed out of e.xistence. 

In 1S3S the Louisville College of Physicians 
and Surgeons — a society, rather than a formally 
organized school — was constituted, under a legis- 
lative charter. It existed for many years, but 


was broken i:p early in 1S75, it is said thiough 
medical politics and strifes. 


In Ajiril, 1837,' four years after the Medical 
Institute of I.onisville li.nd been chartered, at a 
meeting of citizens in the Radical Methodist 
Episcopal Church, it was resolved that a college, 
with and law departments, should be 
founded in tlie city, and that the square belong- 
ing to the city, and bounded bv Eighth and Ninth, 
Chestnut and Magazine streets, should be guen 
by the city for the foundation of such a college; 
and that the Medical Department should go into 
immediate operation, with buildings erected and 
library and aj'paratus pio\ided for it as soon as 
possible. 'J'he City Coiincil took action accord- 
ing!)', and the grant of the square was made No- 
vember 21, 1837, to the Medical Institute. Suit- 
able buildings were also erected by the city, and 
apparatus and a library provided, within the next 
two years, at a cost to the city of about $30,000. 
February 7, 184C, the President and Trustees of 
the University of Louisville v.eie chartered, and 
on the 24tli of April, of tiie same year, in pursu- 
ance of a request from the Ma;, or and Council, 
the President and Managers ot the Medical In- 
stitute transferred all Us properly to the Univer- 
sity, of which it forms the foundation. Upon 
this was founded the Medical Department of the 
University, which has since been highly success- 
ful, and with which have been connected some 
of the foremost physicians in tlie city. 

A society of Alumni of the Department was 
formed in the city in the early part of 1SS2. 


This institution is located on Green, between 
Third and Fourth streets. The first course of 
lectures in it was delivered in 1850. Some of 
the most eminent physicians in the city, as Drs. 
Coleman and Lewis Rogers, tlwing, Talbot, 
Powell, Winlock, Bell, Flint, Hewitt, Thornber- 
ry, Thayer, and Morton, were among the peti- 
tioners for its charter, and a number of leading 
citizens were its incorporators. Some very em- 
inent names, as Drs. Benjamin W. Dudley, 
Joshua B. Flint, Bush, Lawson, Bayless, and 
others, have been on its staff of instructors. 
Many years ago its building was burned, and all 
its apparatus and museum destroyed ; but the 
structure was promptly rebuilt, and it has since 
been highly prosperous. 


I was established in September, 1S69, and grew so 

I rapidly in popularity and success that during 
the session of 1875-76 it was said to have had a 

1 larger class than was then in any other medical 
school west or south of Philadelphia. It has re- 
cently removed to a much larger and better 

I building than was before occupied. 


■ is a very recent creation, it-> first session having 
opened Feliruavy 15, 1SS2. Its faculty is mostly 

I- identical with that of the Louisville Medical 

' College, but it is intended that its sessions shall 

, be chietly held at a different time, and during 

\ the warmer months. 


' This institution was organized on the i6th day 
; of August, 1 8 70. The following is the list of 
I officers and Pioard of Trustees then elected: 
1 C. Lewis l.)iehl, president ; George A. Ncw- 
' man, first vice-president; B. F. Scribner, sec- 
ond vice-president; Frederick C. Miller, record- 
ing secretary ; Louis Eichrodt, corresponding 

secretary; George H. Cary, treasurer; J. 
j A. McAlfee, curator, who, together with the 
. following, constituted the Board of Trustees : 
; Drs. Thomas IZ. Jenkins, S. F. Dawes, Daniel 
B. Grable, Frederick J. Pfingst, and John Col- 
, gan. This organization meeting was convened 
upon a call issued by a primary meeting held in 
, July, 1870, at the othce of Messrs. Wilder & 
I Co., at which the following were present : (jra- 
ham Wilder, C. Lewis Diehl, J. M. Krini, Wil- 
liam Strassel, and Frederick C. Miller. Mr. C. 
Lewis Diehl was called to the chair and Mr. 
Frederick C. Miller ajipointed secretary. The 
College was incorporated by the Jefferson County 
Court the following year and began a course of 
lectures in November of the same year, with the 

■ following Faculty : Dr. Thomas E. Jenkins, 
Professor of Materia Medica; Dr. L. L). Kas- 

; tenbine, Professor of Chemistry ; C. Lewis Diehl, 
Ph. G., F'rofessor of Pharmacv. 

The lectures were delivered in Mrs. Mary P. 
Pojie's building on Third street, between Walnut 
and Guthrie, to a class of twenty-six students. 

In 1873 the college obtained a charter from 
the State Legislature. 

The lectures were for several vears delivered 
in the Rudd block on Jefferson, near Seconil. 


-I ^': 



They were altcrward'; delivered in the Oernian- 
English Acaden:y on Second and Gray streets. 
All along the college had been making efforts to 
obtain a permanent home, which finally met with 

In 1.S7S the college ' purchased its present 
building, located on Green, between First and 
Second streets. Last year the building was sub- 
jected to a thorough renovation, making, in its 
present condition, one of the be=:t adapted for 
the of pharmaceutical educatioii in the 

The college is now completing its eleventh an- 
nual session, the course being ended by March 
ist. During the ten sessions fifty young men 
have become graduates of the School of Phar- 
macy. The present class numbers forty-five. 


The Louisville Journal of Medicine and Sur- 
gery had already been published here for some 
time when, in 1S39, upon tlie removal of Dr. 
Daniel Drake to this city, he brought his ^\'est- 
ern Journal of Medical and Physical Sciences 
with him, and merged it into the other publica- 
tion, of which he became an editor. 

The American Practitioner, a monthly journal 
of medicine and surgery, was started in January, 
1S70, and is now in its tv.enty-fiflh volume. It 
is edited by Drs. David W. Yandeil and The- 
ophilus Parvin, the latter of the Medical College 
of Indiana. 


This is a weekly journal ot medicine and 
surgery. Its first number ajipeared on Satur- 
day, January i, 1S76. Its founder was the late 
R. O. Cowling, A. M., M. D., professor of the 
principles and practices of surgery in the Uni- 
versity of Louisville Medical Department, who 
associated in the editorial work ^V. H. (Salt, 
M. D., of Louisville. Dr. Gait retired from the 
editorship January isr. 1S7S, and L. P. ^'andell, 
M. D., professor of clinical medicine and 
diseases of children, L'niversity of Louisville 
Medical Department, was called to fill the 
vacancy. January t, iSSi, Dr. Yandeil retired, 
and Dr. Cjwlin^, associating with \^t. H. .\. 
Cottell as managing editor, cominued to con- 
tinued to conduct the journal till his death, 
which took place on .April 2, iSSi. Ujion the 
the death of Dr. Cowling the News passed under 

the editorial management of Dr. Holland, who, 
with Dr. Cottell, now conducts it. It is the 
only medical weekly published south of the Ohio 
River. It contains twelve quarto pages of read- 

1 ing devoted to editorials, original articles ujion 
medicine and surgery, translations from, foreign 
and home journals, and to miscellaneous items 
of medical news. The journal has secured a 

I liberal patronage from the medical profession, 
and has won for itself a high [)lace in our 

i national medical literature. For the first three 

i years of its lite it devoted much space to the 
question of reform in medical teaching, and 
through its intluence several glaring abases of 

j this department of eduiation were discontinued 
in this and neighboring cities. It was the first 
journal to advocate those measures of reform 

! which led to the establishment, m 1S76, of the 
American Medical College Association. 



Introttuctory — BiugraptiicaJ Skt-tcties of Hon. J.inios Speed, 
Hon. J.imes Guthrie. |udge W. K. Bulloct;. ludje John 
\V. B.irr, Judse Henry J. .Stites, Judge Henry W. Bruce, 
John ;ind y.imes Harrison, Wordcn Pope, Esq., Hon. .-Alex- 
ander .-scott Bullilt, William C. Bullitt, Esq., and Joseph 
B. Kinliead, Esq. — Nonces of ?"ortunatus Coiby, F.-iiher 
and Son, R. C. .-Anderson, Jr. , John Rowan, S. S. Nich- 
olas, Patrick H. B-jpe, Joshua F. Bullitt, .Andrew ). Bal- 
lard, .Addison W. Gazlav, Bland Ballard, William Preslon. 
John I. .M.arshall, H. C. Pindell. William J. Graves, 
Henry C. Woods, Pierce Butler, George W. John- 
ston, Philip Lee, Franklin Gonng, William B, Hoke, 
Benj.imin H. Helm, Joseph B. Read, Charles S. Moreiiead, 
Thomas A. Marshall. Edward Y. Parsons, John M Har- 
lan, Eugene Underwood, John W. Kearny. P.. H. Brittow, 
T. L. Burnett, John E. Newman. Samuel McKee. f. E. 
Bramlette, and R. H. Collins— 1 he School— The Law- 
Library — Bar -Association. 

The introduction to our Medical Chapter 
might well serve also for this. As in the former 
case, many notices of early practitioners have 
been included in the annals of Louisuile ; the 
Ibllowing are simply intended to include a few- 
representative men in each epoch of the profes- 
sional history of the place — arranged, after the 
longer sketches, in the order of beginning in this 
cnty, and the hopeless attempt has not been made 
to deal in detail with each of many hundreds in 
the local profession, past and present. 



HON. l.•\^^■s SPEED. : 

This dislinguishL'd gentleman is a representa- 
tive of one of the oldest families in the State and j 
of Jefferson cnunty. Fur many years he has i 
held a position of the highest distinction at the 
bar, and in State and National public affairs. 
He was born in Jefferson county, near Louisxiile, 
March II, 1S12. He was the oldest son nf a 
large family of children. His father was Judge 
John Spied, who came to Kentucky troni \n- 
ginia in 17S3 with Captain Janits Si)eed, his 
father. Judge John Sjjeed's wife, the mother of 
the present James Speed, was Lucy G. Fry, 
daughter of Jojhua Fry. She also came from 
Virginia about i 793. 

The progenitor of the Speed family in this 
country was James Speed, a descendant of the 
old chronicler of England, John Speed. He 
came to Virginia fiom England in 1695. His 
grandson, Caiitain James Speed, served in the 
Revolutionary war. He came to Kentucky, as 
above stated, in 17S3. His son, Judge John 
Speed, settled in Jefferson county about the be- 
ginning of the present century, His son James, 
the subject of the present sketch, icCcived the 
rudiments of his education in the county schools, 
and afterwards at St. Joseph's Cullige, Bards- 
town, Kentucky, where he was graduated at the 
age of sixteen. He passed the next two \ears 
of his life writing in the office of the cle;k of the 
Jefferson county court. He then attended lec- 
tures at the Law School of Transylvania Univer- 
sity at Lexington, Kentucky. He opened an 
office for practice in Louis%ille in 1S33, now 
nearly half a century ago. He is, with the ex- 
ception of Judge William F. liullock, the practi- 
tioner of the longest standing at the Louisville 
bar. He soon acquired a large business, and 
has been continuously successful. His life has 
been spent in the practice of law almust exclu- 
sively, his public life having only added to liis 
reputation without diverting him frum his pro- 

In 1847 he was elected to the lower house of 
the State Legislature. In 1S49 he was candi- 
date of the Emancipation party tor delegate to 
the State convention to frame a new State con- 
stitution. His ouponcnt, Hon. James Outhrie, 
stood for the pro-slavery party and was elected. 
From 1S56 to 1S5S he was Professor in the Law- 
Department in the University of Louisville, at 

the same time sustaining the burdens of a full 
law piactice. 

AMien the civil war came on his action was 
prompt and decided in behalf of the L'nion. 
Among other conspicuous services at that time 
he was made mustering officer for the troops re- 
cruited in Kentucky for the Union army under 
President Lincoln's call for seventy-five thousand 
men. In the first _\ear of the war he was elected 
to the State Senate, and scrsed fur two years in 
that body. In 1864 he was called to the Cabi- 
net of President Lincoln as Attorney-Oeneral. 
The office being in the condition it had existed 
since the formation of the Government required 
reorganization. During his term various changes 
and reforms were made which remain to this day. 
U|Jon him fell the decision of a vast number of 
new and [itrplexing questions pertaining to uar 
legislation and to the guidance of the Depart- 
ments. All this required great labor and re- 
search, and the e.xcrcise of a prompt, vigorous, 
and energetic mind. His services at this lime 
were of great value to the country and gave him 
a wide and h'.inorable reputation. 

He remained in the discharge of the duties of 
this high office until the tieach of Mr. Lincoln, 
and afterwards under his successor, .\ndrew 
Johnson, until July, 1S66, when his views of the 
policy of President Johnson made it impossible 
for him to remain in the Cabinet. He then re 
signed, and at once resumed his practice. The 
same year he was the presiding ot'ficer of the 
Southern L'nionist Convention, which assembled 
in Philadelphia, to protest against the policy of 
Andrew Johnson in dealing with Southern ques- 

In 1868 he was delegate from Kentucky in 
the National Convention which nominated Gen- 
eral Grant for the Presidency. The vote of the 
Kentucky delegation in that convention was 
given to Mr. Speed for the Vice-Presidency. He 
was also delegate to the conventions of 1S72 and 
1876, and in each served on the Committee on 

In the year 1875 he was again made Professor 
in the Law Department of the L'niversity of 
Louisville, a position he continued to fill until 
1S70. He has maintained the practice cl lis 
profeasiun, and. though seventy years of age, his 
physical and mental forces remain in unabated 

J ^^^:^ 

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Jaine-J "-^ /< cfac^ 

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4 '"3 

Mr. Speed was marriccJ. in 1S40, to Miss Jane 
Cochran, a daughter of John Cochran, a Scotch 
gentleman who came to I,oui>\il!e in 1835 I'runi 
J'iiiladelphia and became a celebrated liquor 
merchant. Mrs. Speed is now living. They have 
had seven sons, .six of- whom still survive. 
The oldest, John, entered the Union service at 
the age of eighteen and served throui;h the war 
on the general staff of the army with rank of 
Caiitain. He is now a practicing lawyer in 
Louisville, in connection with his father and 
'I'homas Speed, Esq., a relative. 

Mr. Speed possesses many sti iking character- 
istics. He is a lawyer of great learning, and a 
most skillful and sun essful pr.ictilinner. He is 
noted for his practical wisdom. His mind is 
quick, and his conclusions sound. He never 
tails to under>tanii the real points at issue in a 
controversy. His S|)eeches are remarkable for 
force, brevity, and comprehensiveness, and he 
never fails to impress the couit and jury. He 
enjoys the perfect and enure conluience of all 
who know him. Hi^ fiankiiess and purity of 
character ate universally lecugtiized. So conspic- 
uous is his sense of justice, I'aiiness, candor, 
and impartialitv, that he is con--tantly appealed to 
settle differences. The high e-teem and respect 
in which he is held en.ible him to exert a great 
influence over both individuals and assemblies. 

In politics -Mr. Speed is a Republican. He is 
attached to no church as a member, but attends 
the Unitarian church in Louisville, which he has 
materially aided to sustain. 

He has cultivated literary tastes, and has a 
large collection of miscellaneous literature. His 
favorite authors are Milton (prose wruings), 
Plutatch (Morals), Cervantes, Montaigne, Cib- 
bon, Shakespeare, and the liible. 

He has always shown a great regard for young 
men. .\ large number have studied law in his 
ofTice. This feeling led him to occupy the posi- 
tion of Law Professor in the University of 1/juis- 
ville for so many years. His students never 
failed to give him their love and confidence, and 
after entering the practice they always regard 
him as a personal friend. 

Mr. Speed is a warm advocate of equal rights 
to all, and his influence in shaping the legislation 
of the country to this end was sensibly t'clt in the 
troublesome times immediately following the 
war. The following e.\tract I'rom one of hia 

speeches is illustrative of the man as well as the 
I)criod when it was deliveied. In 1S6S, in a 
case pending before the Federal Court at Louis- 
ville, where the validity of an act of the Ken- 
.lucky Legislatuie was questioned on the ground 
that it was in violation of the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment to the National Constitution, he said; 

If I slood hoic ihp .idvdcate of llie nogro, I might insist 
tint Uif we.iltli aiKl comforts of the .St.itc bwe tea l:\rge ex- 
tnit Ij'-f-n cicUcd by his I.itior ; and may I not s.iv his unre- 
quited labor? For, as a rnlc. l.alrar brings to the laborer 
means of his own ; but the negro, after generations of toil, 
stands before us to-day as empty as the sUiggarrl — poor to 
almost nakedm-s, and practically friendless— without land, 
without money to Iniy tools to worlv with, without a shelter 
he can call his own, without education, his anabition. spirit, 
and hope even, fr'titieU by tlie memories and efVecIs of 
slavery. I couM plcid for him tlial he i>, a humrin being with 
God-gi\en feelings and c.ipacities ; I could show how he is 
despised by the thoughtless and oppressed by the lawless ; and 
I could invoke for him from this court the protection of a just 
and admmistration of the law. before which the 
rich and the poor, the white and the black, stand equal. 
But this is a controversy between white men. I stand here 
the advocate of justice and the Constitution. Where justice 
reigns under the Constitution, oppression is now unknown to 
anv class or color, I would not tuve violated that equality in 
the social conip.ict which the Constitution proclaims and 
seeks to gu.ard I would strike down the hand that would the now perfect bmdage from the eyea of justice. To- 
day the right of equal protection belongs to all, without dis- 
imction of race or color. It is now the office of the courts 
to enforce an equal law, and justice is too sacred to be con- 
fused by the illusions of color or awed by the frowns of 

Among the noteworthy citizens of Louisville, 
few have shared a larger degree of popular es- 
teem than Judge William Fontaine Bullock. His 

I prominence was fairly won, and has long been 

! due to the purity of his pri\ate character, tothe 
fidelity with which he has ot'ten served the 
public interest, and to the learning and wisdom 
that have distinguished him as a member of his 

■ chosen profession. Judge Bullock was born in 
Fayette county, Kentucky, Jaimary 16, 1S07, 
and is a son of the late Hon. Edmund Bullock, 
who represented that county for sixteen years in 
the General Assembly of the State, having re- 
peatedly presided as the Speaker of the House 

1 and of the Senate. The parents of Judge Bul- 
lock possessed moral, intellectual, and social 

' traits that were distinctly impressed upon his 
own character, and on a leal in the family Bible 



may be found the fi.Ilowing graphic poitrayal of 
them, written by himself, a number of years ayo: 
My falher. Edmund Hulluck. tlu- oldest son of l^dunrd 
andAj^nes nullock.-uas a n.iiive of ll.inover couiUv, Vir- 
giniri. He <l,'icended from a stock distinguished for in- 
tegrity. His educition as llioroujli and accurate as the 
times would permit. Ineady life, he emigrated to the "Dis- 
■ trictof Kentucky," whore he soon acquired a high standing, 
Ijased upon his exalted met its as a man and as .a'citizen. In 
all his dealings he was faithful and just, and in his nitcr- 
course with his fellow-men he was polite, noble, and gener- 
ous. He was soon cilled into pul.lie life and was, for many 
years, a le.uling memlwi of the I.egishture of Kentuckv. 
He was Spcakt-r at different times of both branches of 
body, and, in that c.ipacity, won for himself a high reputa 
tion. He (vas alike remarkable for his dignity and urbanitv 
of manners and for his stern and unbending sense of justice. 
Throughout a long life he li%vd ab ,ve reproach-a noble 
specimen of an honest man. He died in the eighty-ninth 
year of his age, in peace with God through f.tith in Christ. 

My mother, Elizabeth, «as the second'daugliter of Aaron 
Fontaine, who w.\s the youngest son of the Kev. Peter 
Fontaine, and was born in \'irginia in 1754. 'Ihe Kev. 
Peter Fontaine came from England to America in 1715. and 
was soon thereafter installed a.s rector of one of the oldest 
parishes of the Episcopal Church in the .State of \'irginia 
He was the son of Rev. James Fontaine, who fled °from 
France to England upon the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes in 1685. He was a Huguenot of noble birth and of 
the most indomit.,ble energy, and was especially distin- 
guished for his heroic devotion to his faith. My 
grandfather was a noble scion of such a stock. [ never saw 
my mother. She died at my birth. My knowledge of her 
IS derived from my father, who, to the close of a Ion.. luV 
never ceased to cherish her memory and to impress ""upon 
my heart the higlicn appreciation of her lovely ch.iracter. 

Having acquired ;n the rural schools of Fay- 
ette county the elementary principles of educa- 
tion, Judge Bullock entered Transvlvania Uni- 
versity, at Le.\ington, from which institution he 
was graduated m 1S24. Four years later, hav- 
ing reached the period of manhood, he removed 
to Louisville, entered into the piactice of law, 
and began that career of usefulness, in both 
public and private life, which has been fruitful 
of various substantial results. After closely and 
successfully following his profession for ten years, 
he was elected, in 1838, to represent Jefferson 
county in the General Assembly, and was the 
youngest member of the House in which he 
served. His services in the Legislature-em- 
bracing three terms— were signalized by the 
passage of several measures of which he was the 
author, and which have proved to be of inestim- 
able value to the State. In iS^S he introduced 
into the House, and wa. chietly instrumental in 
passing, the act creating the common school ! 
system of Kentucky. He made the only argu- ' 

m.-nt that was delivered on the Hoor of the As- 
sembly in siipiport of the measure— an ar,i;unu-nt 
that cKf^aged widespread attention, and that 
abounded in convincing futs and manly elo- 
quence; and he is now propeily hailed as the 
"father" of that system of p".pular instruction in 
the State, the blessings of whirh have ' been 
multiplying for furty years. Following his edu- 
cational bill, in 1S41, Judge Bullock prevailed 
ujion the Legisl.tture to a|.proprinte $10,000 for 
the pur[iose of creating in Louisville the Ken- 
tucky Institution for the Education of the Blind 
—an institutiiin that has greatly giown in im 
portance, and noiv ranks high among similar in- 
stitutions of the land. To the growth of this 
institution, of which from the start he was, as 
now, a trustee, he has ever given a zealous care, 
sparing neither time nor l.tbor to promote its 
beneficent mission. In addition to his services 
as a trustee of this institution. Judge Bulioek has 
been for years the President of the American 
Fiiniing House for the Blind, which possesses a 
world-uide reputation, being recognized every- 
where as the best-governed and most complete 
establishment of the kind, whether in Euro|>e or 
in America. In 1S7S, Congress arii.ropriaied 
$250,000 as an endowment fund for this institu- 
tion, thereby giving it the recognition of the 
General Government; and the bill providing for 
the appropriation, having been drawn by Judge 
Bullock, will remain as an imperishable evidence 
of his wisdom. One of the noteworthy things 
done by him during his legislative career was the 
preparation of the memorable report which, in 
1842, he submitted to the Legislature, suggesting 
certain reformatory methods for the treatment of 
the inmates of asylums for the insane. The 
report lurnishes an important chapter in the his- 
tory of the subject of which it treats, and is an 
enduring monument to the industry and care of 
Its author. It supplied the State authorities with 
various suggestions that were promptly adopted, 
and which led to marked impirovements in the 
management of the asylums for the insane of 

Pursuing a strong natural bent. Judge Bullock 
has played a cons[)icuous part as a popular ora- 
tor. .\ devoted jiersonal friend and an ardent 
political admirer of Henry Clay, he long ranked 
among the most attractive and effective Whig 
leaders in a period when the hustings offei-ed 


W .•''S\< '-^ 






in Kentucky a hi^li nrcna for intrl'.crtual con- 
llict, and an exriling theater for brilliant di'^jilays 
of eli-iiiuenre. In view of the elose relationship 
ii) Mr. Clay, he was befittingly choien to deliver 
the oration that was uttered in the piescnce of a 
vast assemblage in L'.)uisville, May 30, 1S67, on 
the occasion of unveiling the life-size statue of 
the great statesman- -the handiwoik of Joel T. 
ILirt — which now adorns the rotunda of the 
Court house. Referring to the oration, the Louis- 
ville Journal of May 31, 1S67, then edited Liy 
(jcorge D. Prentii-e, said: 

It Ir.^nscends ttie e\pectations of ttiose who c\pcclt:J most 
from its very disliiiguishcil nuthor. It is ;is ju-,t anil tnie as 
it is eloquent. It bears no trace of extiava^nnce or of ex.ig- 
geration. It is a discriminating and profound an.alysis of 
ch.iracter by one who is too true and proud either to wrong 
or to I'alter mortal man. 

But it is chiefly as a lawyer and jurist that 
Judse Bullock has evinced lii^ hig'nc^t powers. 
During the last fcirty years he has ranked among 
the foremost members of the Lciuii\iile 
']"he records of the courts show he has been 
an unusually suc(■es^ful piai.tiliiinei, often mak- 
ing great and triumphant argiinients befjre 
judges and juries, and always exlrit);tiiig maiked 
ability in the management of hi:) cases. He has 
been justly styled one of the most courteous and 
yet most formidable antagonists in the forum. 
For twelve years, dating from 1S49, he was a 
member of the law faculty of the L'niversity of 
Louisville, in which capacity he displayed much 
learning and skill as a teacher, and inspired his 
students with a lo\e of the science which he 
taught. For ten years, from 1S46, he occupied 
the bench as judge of the Fifth Judicial Court — 
first by an appointment from the Governor until 
185 I, and then b) virtue of a popular election 
under the new Constitution of Kentucky. .-Vs a 
judicial officer he was universally respected by 
the people and by the bar, being conscientious, 
courageous, firm, and enlightened in the dis- 
charge of duty. Though now in the seventy- 
si.xlh year of his age, he continues in the prac- 
tice of his profession, retaining an extraordinary 
degree of intellectual and physical vigor. As 
late as F'ebruary, 1SS2, he ap[ieared before the 
Court of A[)peals in the celebrated case of the 
Louisville Bridge company vs. the City of Louis- 
ville, being the attorney for the t'urnier corpora- 
tion. He delivered, in behalf of his client, 
an elaborate argument, embrai ing comprehen- 

sive and diiVu lilt problems of law, and the deep 
learning which he exhibited has been seldom 
eciuallcd in the presence of that tribunal. His 
argument is rejiuted to have been worthy of the 
best days of Kentucky's ablest lawyers. 

Glorge Baber. 


The Hon. Jolm Watson Barr, Ion;; a promi- 
nent attorney in Louisville, and at present Judge 
of the United States District Court of the Dis- 
trict of, is himself a native of the 
State, born in Woodford county, on the i yth day 
of December, 1S26. His parents were William 
and Ann (Watson) ISarr, both of old families in 
that legion. He was by thc'ii of Irish and English 
descent. The mother's parents were from \'ir- 
giania to Kentucky at an early day; the father 
of \\'iliiam, Thomas Barr, was an immigrant 
from rhiladelphia as early as 17S7, William 
Barr died June 5, 1S4-I, in Mississippi; his wife, 
mother of the subject of this sketch, died at the 
old home in ^'ersailles, Kentucky, September 
iS, 1S29. John was trained at the jjublic schools 
of hi? native place, and finally in that of the 
Rev. Lyman Seeley, a somewhat celebrated Bap- 
tist divine and teacher, whose lemoval to enter 
tlie active labors of the ministry broke up the 
school, with which young Barr's formal educa- 
tion in the elementary schools closed at the age 
of seventeen. Some years afterwards he read 
law in the office of Messrs. Woolley & Kinkead, 
of Lexington, both of them eminent lawyers of 
the time; and then matriculated at the Transyl- 
vania University, in that city, as a member of 
the Lasv Department, and was graduated in 1847, 
after attendance upon two courses of lectures. 
He settled in Versailles a few months subse- 
quently, and, alone, opened an office for law- 
practice in his native place. Remaining here 
until 1S54, he determined to seek a larger and 
more hopeful field; and in that year went to 
Louisville and formed a partnership with Joseph 
B. Kinkead, Esq., who is still in practice in the 
city, and is the subject of a notice elsewhere 
in this chapter. The firm name was Kinkead & 
Barr. .-\t'ter the dissolution of this partnership, 
about 1S63, Mr. Barr practiced alone for several 
years, and then joined his professional interests 



with tliose of John K. GooJloc, ICsi],, under the 
name and style of li:irr &: CJoodloe. Anotlier 
change occurieil in the admission to 
the partnersjiipof Alcx.iivler P. Humphrey, since 
Judge Humphrey, who had been connected with 
the office for a time. I'he firm was now liarr, 
Goodloe \- Hmnplirc)-, which en(,lurcd until the 
appointment of Mr. Huniplirey to the Chancel- 
lorship in iSSo. Two nioiuhs afterwards, April 
i6, iSSo, Mr. j'arr wa.> appointed b> President 
Hayes to the judicial position he now occupies, 
in place of the late Willinm H. Hays, who died 
in office, after a short terrii ; and the \igorous, 
prosperous firm of Parr, Goodloe &■ Humphrey 
was thoroc,:;hly disintegrated. Jud.ue Barr had j 
never cared to enter public life before, except as 
he might be connected with it through his jjro- 
fessionai relations, and as he was called at 
times to brief set\ice in the Common Council of 
the city, to fill vacancies. While member of the ! 
Council lie drafted the law tor the creation of the j 
Board of Sinking Fund Commissioners, under j 
which, u|:ion its enactment by the Legislature, he 
was elected a Comnnssioner, was made Presi- ■ 
dent of the Board, and was the iiiain instrument ' 
ill its organization and cailier operations. He 
may, indeed, be regarded as the faihei of the i 
scheme represented by the Board, but resigned j 
his connection with it several years ago, after 
it had been brought into good working condition. 

Judge Barr was married in Louisville, Novem- 
ber 23, 1859, to Miss Susan, oldest daughter of 
Colonel Jason and Josephine (Preston) Rogers, 
of that city, the mother herself a daughter of, 
Major William Preston. Mrs. Barr departed this 
life in Louisville on Christmas L)ay, 1S71. They 
had seven children — fi\ e girls and two boys, as fol- 
low: Anna, Caroline, Susan, Josephine, Eliza, 
John Watson, and Jason Rogers Barr, all of them 
still residing in Louisville, John W., however, be- 
ing an under-graduate at Princeton College, and 
two of the daughters at school in Manhattanville, 
New York. 

An old and intimate professional associate of 
Judge Barr has kindly contributed the following 
character sketch : 

Froin the beginning of his professional life 
Judge Barr gave evidence of the mental charac- 
teristics for which he is now reraarkable, to wit: 
great perseverance in the pursuit of professional 
knowledge, unusual calmness of mind, sound, 

cool, and impartial judgment, love of tiuthand 
justice, tireless pursuit of the real merits of his 
cases, and industrious, careful, and discriminating 
investigation of all the law upon the questions 
involved in them. Whilst engaged in the active 
practice, his leiiut.itlon as a wise counselor con- 
tinually grew, and when he quit the bar to oc- 
cupy the bench, he stood in the foremost rank of 
the bar of Louisville, and [irobably h.dd the 
highest rank at the bar as a safe, discreet, and 
wise ad\iscr. Indeed he was more and more 
sought afier by those having com|:ilicated trans- 
actions to settle and questions invoK ing intricate 
legal propositions, until he came to have a very 
large and active employment m this character of 

He was so patient in investigating and unrav- 
elling the difficulties of his professional engage- 
ments, and so clear and practical and so well in- 
formed upon the nicest legal questions involved, 
that his conclusions were accepted wiih unusual 
confidence and gave entire satisfaction to his 
clients, and were received wuh great respect by 
opposing counsel. We have sjioken of his calm- 
ness of mind, his impartiality and love of truth. 
We know of no one more conspicuous for mental 
integrity. His mmd wa-: alwa_\s faithful to truth 
and right and justice, and in these respects he en- 
joyed a most enviable rejiutation with his prolls- 
sional brethren. Probably his most prominent 
mental characteristics were integrity and sound- 
ness of judgment. His opinions and conclu- 
sions were clear, accuiate, and most generally 

We should not fi.irget other prominent traits 
of his character. He has always been a man 
of great industry, "esteeming others as bet- 
ter than himself,' and through all of his life and 
work he has shown a s[jirit of profound venera- 
tion and resjiect (or holiness, a supreme regard 
for honorable deeds and honorable lives. He is 
a man of the largest liberality. He enjoys his 
own and never ([uarrds with the opinions of 
others, no matter how widely he may differ 
from and earnestly oppose them. His is a most 
generous and benevolent nature. His hand is 
ever outstretched to help the needy and to give 
comfort to the suftering. It is remarked very 
often that Judge Barr has never accepted the 
deference which the community has constantly 
offered him. He has not perr-.iitted his t'ellow 

/*'•.,'■* ,# 


\ "^ 

-./:;. rv.;y 




citizens to confer v\'rin him the lumois they 
would. He has constantly declined iironiineiue, 
and the judicial honors he iiou- wear^ were never 
asked for by him, and actually came to him 
through the recommendation of friends, which 
he discouraged, .^s a juc.'ye he has shown him- 
self calm, temperate, pos.sessed in an eminent 
degree of the judicial temijeiamcnt, industiious, 
vigilant, careful, [>aini.t:)king, couiteous, and 
accomplished in the law. His elexation gave 
universal gratification. His ap'paintmcnt is re- 
garded as one of the mo=t fortunate and fit niade 
by Mr. Hayes. He enjoys the unreser\ed con- 
fidence of the Bar and liiigani'-, and his fiank 
and unrestrained couitesy honors the National 
judiciary, inspires regard for the Go\ernment 
he serves well, and gives pleasure to all whose 
business brings them into the court. 

We should have said in another place that 
Judge Barr is a man of the most refined nature, 
always pure and chaste, and singularly quiet in 
his manners. He acquired a fine reputation in 
Louisville foi financial aliility by reason of his 
connection with the Sinking Fund of the cit)', of 
which he was for several years the leading spirit, 
and which he placed upon a successful basis 
before he retired from its administration. 


In iSoS a large family connection, consisting 
of the Ganos and Stiteses, then living in Eliza- 
beth City, New Jersey, and all of the Bajitist per- 
suasion, determined to move West, and to locate 
a colony in the Ohio Valley. As at that period 
there were no turnpikes, nor even wagon roads, 
across the mountains, they were compelled to 
pack their household goods over the Alleghanies 
on horses to Pittsburg, then a small town at the 
head of the Ohio. There they bought and 
equipped a flat-boat, and on it embarked for Cin- 
cinnati, also then a small town, opposite the 
mouth of the Licking river, which, at'ter many 
hardships and dangers, they reached in safety. 
At this point a number of the colonists deter- 
mined to settle, being averse to going into Ken- 
tucky, because of the existence in that State of 
slavery. Others, however, captivated f>y the 
glowing accounts of th.e region about Lexington, 
resolved to locate in the Blue Grass section, and 

made their way to Gc'irgctown, in Scott countv. 
•Xinong tliese was IV. John Stites, an accom- 
plished, a graduate of the I'"dinburgh 
Medical School, and a middle-aged widower. 
Not long after his location in Scott county, the 
Doctor intermarried with Mrs. Ann Johnson, 
the widow of Captain Henry Johnson, a Revolu- 
tionary soldier, who had emigrated with his' fam- 
ily from Louisa couniy, ^'lrginia, to Kentucky. 

Li a little while after the marriage of Doctor 
Stites, his son Abrain Stites, who had remained 
in New Lrsey to complete his studies as a law- 
yer, also came to Kentucky, and soon after his 
arrival married Miss .\nn Johnson, the daughter 
of his stepmother. Of this marriage came a 
'arge family, and among them the subject of 
this sketch, Henry j. Stites, who was born in 
Scott county, Kentucky, in 1S16. 

In iSiShis father, with his family, remo\ed 
I'rom Scott to Christian couniy with Colonel 
Rribert P. IL.'iiry, to jiursiie his profession as a 
l.iwjer ; and in a few years was appointed Clerk 
of the County Court of Christian, an office 
which he licld for more than twenty years. 

His son Henry was, at an early age, sent to 
school in the town of Hopkinsville, and his first 
teacher was Dr. Buchanan, a man of science, 
father of Dr. Joseph R. Buchanan, ot Louisville, 
also noted for his scientific attainments. Both 
of them are duly noticed in our chapter on med- 
ical men. [Lis last teacher was James D. Rum- 
sey, ctlelirated in that region as a most success- 
ful instructor. Young Stites was an apt and in- 
dustrious pupil, and stciod well in his classes 
but, because of the comparatively straitened cir- 
cumstances of his father and the large I'amily 
then dependent on him for suppoit, became 
restive and anxious to earn his own living and to 
that extent to relieve his father, who was desirous 
that he should continue at school. At length, 
overcome by the earnest importunities of the son, 
his father placed him with a most excellent gen- 
tleman of fine business habits, George Ward, 
Esq., to learn the business of a retail merchant. 
His term of service was four years, "for his 
victuals and clothes." Henry served his time 
faithfully, and at its expiiration was tendered and 
accepted a partnership with his I'riend and fel- 
low clerk, to V. horn he was mucii attached, Mr. 
L. D Holenian, «ho had capital. Stites had 
none, but he had energy and the purpose to sue- 



ceed They were both young men, and made a 
successful business. In 1837 the financial crash 
occurred, which ]j|a\ed havoc with even the best 
business men of the country. But this young 
firm, though largely in debt, weathered the storm 
and came out unscathed in their credit. The 
severe ordeal of that year, however, and his hor- 
ror of debt, determined him to adopt some other 
calling, whereby he could make a living without 
incurring heavy pecuniary obligations and the 
hazards of commerce. 

He selected the law ; and although for several 
years he continued business as a merchant, and 
with success, he devoted every leisure moment 
he.could spare from his business to the studv of 
law and to fit himself for the bar. Early in 1S41 
he obtained his license, and was admitted to the 
bar. He formed a partnership with Mr. Phelps, 
of Hopkinsville, also a young man and now a 
prominent lawyer, and for some years they en- 
joyed a lucrative practice. The Eastern mer- 
chants who knew Stitcs as a trader, gave him 
their business as a lawyer, and contributed not a 
little to his success in his new calling. 

Within a few months after his admission to 
the bar, Mr. Stites was married to Miss Mary 
Jane Sharp, daughter of Ur. M. Sharp, of Chris- 
tian county, and niece of the dibtinguished lawyer 
and statesman of Kentucky, Hon. Solomon P. 
Sharp, who was assassinated at his residence in 
Frankfort, while e.xtending the hand of hospital- 
ity to the murderer. With this charming and es- 
timable wife Judge Stites led a happy life for 
more than thirty years, when she fell gently 
asleep, beloved by all who knew her. 

In 1848 Mr. Stites, though then but little over 
thirty years of age, was nominated as Presiden- 
tial Elector on the Cass and Butler ticket, and 
made a vigorous and thorough canvass of his 
district for the General. Though always an ar- 
dent and zealous States-rights Democrat, this was 
the only political contest in which he ever took 
part as a candidate. 

In 1850 the present Constitution went into 
effect, and in May, 185 i, an election for judicial 
and ministerial otifices occurred throughout 
the State. At this election Judge Stites was 
chosen, by a handsome roajoritv, to the office of 
Circuit Judge in the Second Judicial District, in 
which there was a decided majority politically 
opposed to him, political questions at that time 

being, to a great extent, ignored in the selection 
of such officers. In 1854 the term of Hon. E. 
Hise, then Chief Justice of the State, e.xpired, 
and he declining to be again a candidate. Judge 
Stitcs was urged by prominent friends of both 
political parties to become a candidate for the 
vacancy in the Court of Appeals. It was urged 
that he should continue to hold the office of Cir- 
cuit Judge whilst a candidate for the higher po- 
sition, and that, in the event of his defeat, he 
could hold on to the former. This he refused to 
do, saying that in his opinion it would be im- 
proper whilst Judge to be a candidate for another 
and higher judicial position In the meantime 
two distinguished gentlemen, opposed politically 
to Judge Stites, had become candidates for the 
same office, but with the understanding, as it was 
said, that in the event a Democrat sought the 
place, one would withdraw, and thus give the 
other the advantage of the \\'hig majority in the 
District of several thousand votes. 

Judge Stites's friends urged him still to stand 
for the office, and at length he yielded to their 
wishes, resigned the place of Circuit Judge, and 
became a candidate for Judge of the Court of 
-Appeals. One of the gentlemen referred to im 
mediately withdrew, leaving the contest to his 
friend, a distinguished lawyer and statesman, 
with a political majority in the district ot over 
five thousand. Judge Stites, nevertheless, was 
elected by more than five thousand majority, and 
took his seat as .-\ppellate Judge in September, 
1854. He served out his term as Judge of the 
Court of Appeals, and was Chief Justice in 
1S62, in the midst of the civil war. Although 
urged to become a candidate for re-election, he 
declined ; and being a States-rights Democrat 
and Union man, but opposed to the war, and his 
sentiments well known, he was subjected to an- 
noyance by the military on both sides. Un- 
swerving in his allegiance to Kentucky, he con- 
tinued throughout the war. To avoid prosciip 
tion, and being harassed by the petty military 
satraps of both sides, that were then riding 
rough-shod over the peaceful citizens of the 
southern part of the State, Judge Stites was ad- 
vised by his friends of both parties to leave the 
State and go where he would be free from such 
annoyances. This advice he adopted and went 
to Canada, where he remained with his wife 
until "the cruel war was o\er.'' 



C)ij his return to Kentucky, in January, iS66, 
1,,- loL-atc-d in Louisville and resumed the prac- 
iirc of his profession, in conjunction with the 
HiiU. loshua F. Bullitt, with whom he had been 
assiiriated in the Court of Appeals as a brother 
jinii^e. In Louis\ille he soon had a good prac- 
tKO, and was [lutsuing his profession zealously, 
rthen a vacancy occurred in tlie oftice of Judge 
ot the Court of Common Pleas, an important 
I ivil tribunal, caused by the resignation of the 
Hon. Judge Muir. To this place Judge S;ites 
was appointed, upon the unanimous recom- 
mendation of the lawyers of the Louisville bar, 
without distinction of party, by Governor Steven- 
son, in October, 1S67. In August. 1S6S, he 
was elected by the ]jeople of the distiict, com- 
posed of the county and city, to the same oftice, 
without opposition; and again, in iS74and iSSo, 
he was re-elected, also unopposed both times, to 
the same places, thus holding high judicial 
stations, by the will ot the people among whom 
he dwelt, for more than thirty years in all — an 
assurance on their part that ihey deemed him 
■'honest, faithful, and capable." 

In 1S76 Judge Stites was again married, and 
to a sister of his first wite, Mrs. Caroline M. 
Barker, an estimable ladv, widow of Richard H. 
Barker, Esq., a prominent lawyer of \ew Or- 

The Judge's present term of office will expire 
in 1886, when, as we are int'ormed, he will, if 
alive, claim exemption from public duty, and 
retire to private life. He has held, throughout 
his life, that it was the chief duty of man to be 
useful to his fellow-men, and has faithlully sought 
to discharge that duty. 


An .iccouiit of Loui5\iile, Keniucky, would be very imper- 
f'-ct without a reference to liiese s.ig.^cious, and 
enterprising men. In 1794 Louis .Anastasius Tarascon emi- 
K'-ited from France and selected Philadelphia .as the head- 
qu.iners for his mercantile enterprises. He was wealthy and 
became a large importer of silks and a variety of goods from 1 
France and Germany. He a man of great s.agacity. and I 
soon began to entertain enterprising ideas of the opening I 
glories of the West. In 17Q9 he sent two of his clerks. Charles j 
I'rugtere and James BerthouJ. to e.^plore the courses of the | 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers, from Pittsburg to Ne« Orlc.ins. 1 
for the purpose of ascertaining the fe-sihility of sending .ships j 
and cle.iring them from the port of Pittsburg, ready rigged. ' 
10 the West Indies and Europe. The clerks mide a favor- I 

able report, and Mr. Tarascon associated them and his 
brother. John Anthony Tarascon, with himself, under the 
name of John .A. Tarascon, Brothers, James Berthoud & 
Co , and established at Pittsburg an extensive wholes.\le 
and retail store and warehouse, a shipyard, a rigging and 
sailing loft, an anchor smithshop, a block manufactory, and 
everything necessary to complete vessels for sea. In 1801 
they built the schooner ,\mity, of one hundred and twenty 
Ions, and the ship Pittsburg, of two hundred and fifty tons, 
sending the former, lo.idfd with flour, to St. Thomas, and 
the other, also loaded with flour, to Philadelphia, from 
whence they were sent to Bordeaux, and returned with a 
cargo of wine, brandy, and other French goods, part of 
which they sent to Pittsburg in wagons at a carriage of from 
SIX to eight cents a pound. What a time these wagons 
must have had in conquering obstructions in the .Mleghanles, 
to say nothing of other parts of the wilderness road? In 
iS*j2 they built the brig Nanino, of two hundred and fifty 
tons: in 1803. the ship Louisiana, of three hundred tons, and 
m 1804, the ship Western Trader, of four hundred tons. In 
1796 Pittsburg was enlivened by a visit of some French 
princes. They were very pleasant and companionable. They 
bought a large skiff, covered it in part with low linen, pur- 
cliased a stock of provisions and hired a couple of men to 
row them to New Orleans. One of these princes was Louis 
Phillippe. who afterwards became the "Citizen King" of 

1 he Tarascons must have found the Falls of the Ohio some- 
thing of an obstruction to their shipping enterprises, and 
they removed lo Shippingport, at the Flails, where they car- 
ried on their mercantile aftairs. They built a grist-mill which 
was run by the water-power of the Falls. They soon found 
that they were in an isolated condition, and began operations 
for improving their position. In 1824 Louis A. Tarascon, 
"o( Shippmgport, Jefferson county, Kentucky," presented a 
petition to the Legislature of Kentucky for cutting a canal 
around the Falls, as he said, " for the arrielioration of com- 
merce, of course of the improvement of agriculture, manu- 
factures, and of all other useful arts, productive of the pros- 
perity of the Slate, and of the happiness of its inhabitants." 
It is ably drawn. He hat' been residing at Shippmgport, 
Kentucky, then, for a period of eighteen years, having re- 
moved there in 1806. 

The readers of that famous novel. The Children of the 
.Abbev, will remember how members of that Shippingport 
firm figure in the novel. Before petitioning for the canal 
Mr. Tarascon had urged upon the Congress of the United 
Stales ll.e opening of a wagon road from the Missouri nver, 
skirting on 'the northern frontier of New Mexico, to the 
Columbia river in Oregon, on the Pacific. But Kentucky 
was not in any condition to undertake any monetary enter- 
prises at that time. She soon became terribly involved, and 
the " Commonwealth's" banking enterprise for the relief of 
the people, soon acquired the familiar name of "twoforone." 

Mr. Tarascon, in his petition of 1824, urged that soon 
after 1806 he caused 10 be built, at the fool of the Falls, as 
he says, "the Shippingport mills, the first great mills which 
ever existed in the western country, by means of which he 
contributed his share towards drawing the name of Kentucky 
flour from a mire of menled discredit, and of raising it up to 
a high standing." 

These pioneers of .a new era ot ci\iluation deserve great 
credit for the earnestness and excellence of their labors. 
They little of the coming power of steam. Even 
when the canal at the Falls was undertaken, the men who 
had charge of the work had so little idea of the coming 



change that they adnpied the lock^ to the si?e of the steam- 
boat Homer, that l)e;ng supposed the utmost size that a 
steamboat would ever reach on tlie Ohio. There were buil' 
afterwards steamboats in which she myht have been hidd'-n' 

John larascon's dauKhlei. Naiinine. married .\lr. Taylor 
who died with ciiolera. .She afterwards ui.arried Captain 7.- 
M. gherley, and died comparatively young, with consump- 
tion, leaving a son and diughter by .Mr. Taylor, and two sons 
by Mr. .Slicrlev. Young Ta;. lor died a few years ago, unmar" 
ried. Edmonia Taylor, t'le d.'.iighler, married Hamilton 
Ormsby. one of the most prospeious farmers of Jefter>on 

L.ewis .Shcrley was one'of t!ie first and most thrifty nier_ 
chants of Louisville, Kentucky, He married Miss Drannon, 
the daughter of .A. O. Braiinon, a merchant of this city- 
She died in advance of her husband. He died in the very 
bloom of his manhood, leaving a son and daughter. The 
other s jii, John Shirley, is a partner of Henry C. Glover, in 
an extensive tobacco warehouse, in Louisville, Kentucky, 
He married the daughter of Edward Hobbes, one of the 
first citizens of Kentucky, who is \ery prominent in her po- 
litical and fii>t"rv. Mr. John Sherley has a son and 
daughter. The spirit of tlie Tarascons sliil lives in their de' 

The writer has read with 'much interest the manuscnpj 
journal of L. -A. Tarascon, from F'hiladelphia to New Orleans 
m.ade in 1799. It is full of intelligence and of masterly ob' 
servaiion. We could not but read with curi,jsity his charm, 
ing description of New Madrid. He little dreamed while 
writing his account of it, what an amount of disf.gurement 
it w.ts to undergo, some ten years after, by an earthquake, 
from which it has never recovered. 

The subject of this sketch was born m Dalhe 


town in the duchy of Hesse Darmst.idi, Germany, on the 
17th day of November, 1S26. 

Heattended school up to hi; fifteenth when he was 
apprentice<.j for three years to a merchant, who, being himself 
thoroughly educated in all mercantile matters, required him 
to visit commercial colleges and institutes during his spare 
hours. The knowledge so acquired, in addition to the practical 
experience gathered during his apprenticeship, helped greatly 
to capacitate him for his future business career. 

After the expiration of this term he remained for three years 
longer, giving such satisfaction that great inducements lor 
the future were offered to him. but the glowing reports which 
he had so often heard, convinced him that .America presented 
greater opportunities to young men of ener^jy and will, and 
he determined to try his fortune in the Called States. He 
landed in New York in the spring of 1340. 

During the first two years the lack of means compelled 
him to confine his transactions to small assjrtments of goods, 
with which he canvassed the interior towns of New Jersey, 
Louisiana, and later on of Kentucky, but, in the fall of 1S50, 
having by strict economy accumulated a sufficient capital, he, 
with Mr. E. Hirech, now also a resident of Louisvule, em- 
barked in business at Yelvinglon, Da\iess couniv, Kentucky, 
opening a country general store. 

Here he was successful and prosperous, and made many 
friends who to this day entertain for 1; m the higiiest esteem 
and attachment. 

On the i5ih of January, iS5t, he was married to Miss 
Ro-iiia Kling, aKo a native of Germany, and in the following 
year, desiring a larger field of operations, he disposed of riis 
business interests at Yelvington, and removed to Louisville, 
where he entered into partnership with Mr. E. Bamberger 
(his brother-in-law) under the firm name of E. Bamberger Sc 
Co., for the purpose of tloing a wholesale tlry goods business. 

From the start the firm established the reputation for hon- 
orable and upright dealing, which has ever since character- 
ized it and which has been so great a factor in its remarkable 
success. Its trade, at first confined to the more adjacent por- 
tions of Kentucky and Indiana, rnjiidly extended until it com- 
passed nearly all the Slates of the Southwest, and had grt>wn 
to such proiiortions in the year 1S57 that they found it neces- 
sary to remove from Market street to Main street. 

Inthejear 1872 the firm, which in the meantime had 
added several partners and had changed its name to Bam- 
berger, Bloom \- Co., moved into its present beautiful quar- 
ters, having found it necessary to erect a building especially 
adapted to its colossal trade. No description of this 
structure nor further comment upon the business are neces- 
sary, as the firm of Bamberger, Bloom S: Co., its house, and 
its business are know n to every citi?.en of Louisville, and are 
brought to the attention of even- one who visits the city. 

The uninterrupted success and gro^vth of this firm, of 
which Mr. Bloom always been the acknowledged head, 
and its remarkable record during the great financial con- 
vulsions which have periodically .shaken the business com- 
munities of this country to their very foundations, overcom- 
ing as it did all dihiculties, only to continue its career with 
lenowed energy and vigor, bear uiKjuestionable te^iiutony to 
his exceptional qualities as a merchant and financier. 

'1 his, however, is but one phase of his life. Ta.xed as he has 
been from the start with the responsibilities and burdens of 
his large businejs, he still f .lund lime to take a front rank 
as a public-spirited citizen. .A steadfast, consistent adherent 
of the Reformed Jewish faith, he is naturally liberal and pro- 
gressive in his ideas, and has ever been ready to defend the 
oppressed and to c.imbat sectariaii or racial intolerance. 

He has at all times been ready to lend a willing ev\r to the 
thousands who seek his advice, to give his time and assist- 
ance for the promotion of public works, ami to open wide 
his purse in the support of all charities. In fact, he is so 
deeply imbued with the idea that every man should not 
merely live for his own person il ends, but should faithfully 
fulfill the duti'-s which he owes to his fellow man and the 
community at large, that the good works which he still con- 
tinues »viU never cease so long as God spares his life. 

Mr. Bloom's family consists of the wife of his youth and 
si.x children — two daughters and four sons, three of the nine 
that were bom to hii|ii having died in their early youth. The 
oldest daughter is married to Mr. Charles Goldsmith, who 
togetlier with [acob the second oldest son. are members of 
tlie clothing firm established by Bamberger, Bloom & Co., in 
1873. Le\i, the olde.-t son. is a member of the Utter firm; 
Isidore, the third son. is now pursuing his medical studies in 
Europe, whilst the vounger daughter, Estella. and the 
youngest son, .Max, are still attending school in Louisville. 




Kenlucky, noted in American hiatjry fur tlie production ol 
nxci' men, brought forth njiie whuie n.chievmont5 
fur tlie guoc! of the St.ite and Nation were greater 
tlian tliose of James Gtuliric, lawyer, ptililicist, and man of 
Ijiibiness. There have been greater or.itors, lawyer^ perliaps 
uf more special abihl_\ — cerlamly politicians irifniitely iiiore 
skilled in the arts of manipulating a canipa gn or creating a 
majority, — but there has never been a man who po-;sessed 
greater wisdom in conceiving measures, or mure wonderful 
power of lnni-ini4 events to pass, tlian ditl he. Whether he 
managed a pruaie enlerpiisc or dictated the fniancial policy 
of a nation: whether he advised an ordinary client or siiapedtlie 
pl.tns of a vast corporation, the result so uniformly justified 
his views and opinions that, at last, b>' sheet force of con- 
sistent and habitual success, he won from a whole com- 
munity a confidence and respect akin to superstition, and 
after spending years of bitter contest in the defense uf bis 
opinions, lived to see his advice received and liis measmes ac- 
cepted, almost as a matter of course. 

James Guthrie was of excellent pioneer blood, his father 
being the well-known fighter, Adam Gutlirie, 
whose most famous action was the battle of Saline, west of 
■ Shawneetown, Illinois, where the whites, in the absence of 
bayonets, successfully charged and bruke the Indian iiiie 
with their tomahawks. After the days of border warfare 
were parsed General Guthiie became prominent in civil life, 
representing his county in the Kentucky Legislature for 
several successive terms with credit to himself. 1 he family 
was originally of Scotch blood, removed to Ireland at an 
early day, emigrated to .America more a century since, 
and came to Kentucky from \'irginia. 

lames Guthrie was born near Bardstown, in Nelson coun- 
ty, Kentucky, on the 3th day of December, 1792. Such 
education as the country schools of the neighborhood afford- 
ed he received, and this was supplemented bv a term .it Mc- 
Allister's Academy, at I'ardstown, of which a scholarly 
Scotchman of that name wa:> head master, and which bore a 
very fine reputation at that day. As a schoolboy young 
Guthrie is described as being the most single-miaded in his 
work or play of any of his class. One day he would take 
his books to an out-of-the-way spot and study during the 
hour of recreation; then no temptation could draw him from 
his task; again an noise and activ ity w ould show that 
he had joined in the sports of his fellows, which were never 
so fast and furious as when he took part. 

No sooner had Guthrie acquired such education as he 
deemed sufhcient to fit him for the duties of lile. than he 
turned his thoughts ta the prubiein of making own way 
in the world. The statement been made bv jome biog- 
raphers that he commenced iifc as a tlatho.itman. While it 
is literally true that he did, alter the fashion of many Ken- 
tucky youths of the time, assist in taking one or more 
boats, loaded with farm produce, to New Orieans. then the 
only market available, returning on foot or on horseback 
through the woods, it is certain that he diil not intend to de- 
vote himself to the river for life, and it is eiiually sure that 
love of adventure and a desire to see something of the world 
influenced hiin to tlie e.\[ieriment quite as much as did the 
money consideration involved. Certain it is that he soon 
began the reading uf law at B.irdslown, under the tutor,ige 
of the celebr.ued judge luhii Kuwan, afterwards Congress- 
man and Senator of the United St.'te,. he practiced 
e.Mtensively and successfully in his own and adjoining coun- 
ties for several years, made two unsucccjsful races for the 

Legisl.iture in .Nelson county, and, after all this was done, 
rcni'-jvcd to Louisville, but nine years after the only fiatboat 
e.Npedilion of his participation of which we have any proof. 

During his study and practice in Nelson county Mr. Guth- 
rie was cunqih-tely ensrussed in his profession. He denied 
himself sori.d enjoyment as incompatible with the best intel- 
lectual work, and utterly held himself above and apart from 
the amusements and di-,si|)aiions which arc so disastrously 
prevalent among the l.iwyers of the State. He possessed 
then in kiii.l, as h- did l.Uer in so much greater de- 
gree, the mental grasp, the ready recognition of principles 
and the receptive and assimilative power of mind, which 
m.ide intellectu.d effort .1 pleasure, certain of its highest re- 
ward. That he was well prepared for the prictice of the law- 
goes without saying, when so much has been told ; thithe 
was from the tlrst profession. illy successful to a marked de- 
gree is as certain, for, in i8;?o, Governor Adair appointed 
him (unimunwealih'i aitorney for the district embracing 
Louisville, and he reni'.ned to that city to assume his duties. 
He was then but twenty-eight years of age, and while the 
law did not require the Governor to appoint tii the office 
a resident of the district, there was certainly sharp competi- 
tion for the post, and the preference could not have been given 
to a non-resident of Guihtie's vouth, had he not been 
deein<.-d a peculiarly able man. At Louisville he held tiie 
post of prosecuting attorney for several years. The now 
m ignificent city was then but a rough river town, having a 
flo.iting population of the most lawless and reckless class — 
rrcn who had so long defied the law with impunity that the 
condition uf the plate bordered on terrorism. Mr. Guthrie a man of great fi.ime. enormous strength and vitalitv", 
indomitable will, and a courage that knew no fear. His vig- 
orous administration, stimulated by the v?ry threats which 
were intended to paral3ze it, soon accomplished the establish- 
ment of society upon a b.isis of law and order. 

The town of Louisv ille was then rendered very sickly by 
the ponds of stagn mt water here and there 
within its limits. No effort was made to drain these, and 
people accepted their attacks of fever and chills, as 
they paid their taxes, as an undoubted, but a necessary evil 
Mr. "luthrie turned his attention to this end, and, in the face 
of all opposition, strenuous as it was blind, succeeded in 
securing the adoption of sanitary measures, abating the nuis- 
ance, and rendering possible the growth and development would else ha\e been out of the question. 

In 1828 Mr. Guthrie took active part in securing a city 
charter for Louisville. He was elected a member of the hrst 
City Counoil, and for tvielve years, from 182S to 1839 inclu- 
sive, his service in that body only interrupted during two 
ye.irs when he was a member of the Legisl.iture. 

During this legislative service Mr. Guthrie made himself 
the cluimpion of tho=e measures embraced in the Internal Im- 
provement system of Kentucky. The splendid system of 
highw.iys known as the old State turnpikes was constructed 
under acts of the Lc-gislature which he was largely instru- 
mental in pushing to a passage. The slackwater improve- 
ments of the Kenlucky. Green, and l^arren overs, so hope- 
fully begun but since sO shamefully abandoned, were under- 
taken as a result of the same movement, as was the build- 
ing of the first railroad ever undertaken in Kentucky — one of 
the very earliest, as well, in the l.'nitcrl St.ites — that, extend- 
ing from Frankfort to Levingtun. In f.ivur of these measures 
anil others intended to ^.iriy them into ertect, Mr. Guthrie 
gave an earnest and efikient support, dictated bv a clear- 
sighted as.-iiirince th.u upon these depended the m.nenal 
future uf Kenlucky. I le rested on nu ' ■ duw ny bed of ease. " 



His politics were a^'owedly Democratic, wl.ile Louisville was 
largely Whig. In addilion lo this ciuse of embarrassment, 
his own pariv was strongly opposed to the schemes of internal 
iinprovcment winch he had made peculiarly his own. and. 
after winning bitterly contested elections against a party n-p- * 
resenting a majority in his district, with such a leader as the 
late George D. Preniice and such an organ as the Louisville 
Journal— after winning against these odds, Mr. Guthrie 
found himself the acknowledged champion in the Legislature 
of measures which his party avowedly opposed. Notwuh- 
slanding numencal odds he was elected and re-elected; in 
spile of his personal independence he .retained the friendship 
and support of his' party. Whatever may be the opinion of 
to-day as to the abstract propiietv of the Improvenunt 
schemcb. there can be no cjuestion that they werp then ad\is- 
able and that they alone served to rouse Kentu -hv from the 
condition of a backwoods State, isolated lYoni tVie high\s.ivs 
and markets of the world. 

During the years 1833-34, Mr. Guthrie was in full sym- 
pathy with the stand of iVesident Jackson, in vetoing the 
United States Bank act, and was a leader in organizing the 
Bank of Kentucky, with a capital of $5,000,000. its principal 
office in Louisville and its sub-branchea in various parts of 
the Stale. This bank is now the leading bank of Kentuckv, 
and its charter has formed the model for that of every bank 
of issue in the State. Mr. Guthrie was for many years one 
of its directors. 

In 1S37 Mr. Guthrie wa^ a le^ider in the steps taken 
which resulted in the organization of the University of Louis- 
ville, of which he was long president, and. for thirty-two 
consecutive years, a trustee. No interest of his busy life l.iy 
nearer Mr. Guthrie's heart than this. 

During those same busy tv.eUe years he was active in 
securing the erection of the Jefferson County Court-hou'::e 
and the introduction of gas into the city of Louiivihe. The 
former project met with the strongest opposition, and. for 
lack of kinds, which might easily have been secured, the 
building remained unfinished for some lime, being derisivelv 
pointed to as "Guthrie's Folly." 

In 1849 Mr. Guthrie was, after great opposition, made a 
delegate to the convention called to frame ,i new Constitution 
for Kentucky, and. upon its meeting at Frankfort, October 
ist, became its President. The constitution which to-day 
endures was then framed. Mr. Guthrie not only made an 
admirable presiding officer, but took prominent part in the 
daily discussions in the convention, his speeches always com- 
pact, vigorous, and logical, showing a perfect mas'.ery of the 
situation and of the need> of the State. His record in the 
convention is equal to that of any of the great and promi- 
nent Kentuckians who composed it. 

Scarcely had Mr. Guthrie completed his duties in the con- 
vention when he became ardentlv engaged as president and 
chief promoter of the buikling of a railroad from Louis\i!!e 
to Frankfort, the second ruad in the State, and which, as it 
was sixty-five miles in length, was considered a verv serious 
undertaking. The was carried through successfully. 
Mr. Guthrie remained us president until 1S53. when he re- 
signed. At about the same time he wns deeply interested in 
the building of the Jeffer:.onville ^^- Indianapolis Railroad, of 
which he was ever after a director and large stockholder. 

At this time Mr. Guthrie was recognized as the leader of 
the Louisville bar. havuig carried on his practice in spite of 
his numerous other occupations, and with a brilliant success 
that led many to class him as the ablest lawyer in Kentucky. 
He had grown from yeartoyearin learnwig. skill, and reputa- 
tion, and had at the same time more than laid the foundation 

of the magnificent fortune of which he died possessed. Aside 
from purely professional reputation, he had gained a nnme 
beyond the borders of his State both as a person of incorrupt- 
ible honesiv and as one of administrative ability and tact ni 
affairs beyond any other Kentuukian. In ?'ebruary, 1853, 
this reputation led President Pierce, then considering as to the 
formation of his cabinet, to so far depart from orduiary pre- 
cedent as to summon Mr. Guthrie, a man utlcriy a stranger 
to I' politics, .md tender him the Treasury porlfulio. 
The oflerwas, after due consideration, accepted, and Mr. 
Gulhrie at once set to work, familiarizing himself with the 
working of Government machinery, and prr-pared not only to 
occujjv but to fill his surjiasbinglv imj)orlant place. That he 
did it. and fully, the lii-lury and records of the department 
conchi-ivi.-ly show. It was no unusual thing in those days to 
hear him described as the greatest Secretary of the Treasury 
since Alexander Hamilton. Be this as it may, certain it is 
that he was a very great one. Without parade or ceremony 
he soon proved to his subordinates the conniry over that he 
was a working man, and that none other could find or retain 
place in the department. He cut. pruned, and lopped right 
and lel't, until there was not a drone or sinecure remaining, 
and he reformed the system of auditing and paying claims 
against the United States in stieh manner that the great armv 
of claim agents who had lived by bribing clerks and thus se- 
curing i)reference for their clients, wercfairly starved out and 
forced to turn to some more honest business. If Guthne de- 
cided to pay a claim, it was duly paid in its ordei : if he de- 
termined to disallow it. not the President himself could move 
him one iota from his position, 

A story related by the late Hon, Caleb Gushing in a speech 
delivered in Faneuil Hall, Boston, after the close of the 
Pierce administration, well illustrates this peculiar independ- 
ence of character. A large claim had been presented to the 
Treasury department and, after full consideration, payment 
thereof refused. Pressure was brought upon the President, 
a very amiable man, to gi\e the matter hia personal attention. 
He sent to the Treasury department for the papers, and having 
examined them, called a Cabinet meeting to consider the case. 
The President introduced the discussion, the various mem- 
bers of the Cabinet made comments, and, at last, after the 
subject had been pretty thoroughly canvassed, Mr. Guthrie 
alone remaining quite silent, the President, addressing him, 

"Mr. Secretary of the Treasury, this matter comes from 
your department, and we have not heard from you; we w ill be 
glad to know your views of the claim." 

Mr. Guthrie arose and said: 

"Gentlemen, this claim . has been disposed of, in the 
Treasury Department. "" With this he took hi^ hat and left 
the room. 1 

The President and Cabinet decided that if the claim were 
allowed, it wouM be necessary to find a new Secretary of the 
Treasury to pay jt. It was not paid. 

During Mr. Guthrie's administration, he lived st^uareiy up 
to the Independent Treasury act passed during Polk's ad- 
ministration, employed no banks, paid the debts of the 
United States in silver and gold, reduced the national debt 
bv many millions, leaving only a small remnant, and let't his 
office with its debts paid, its accounts collected, the Govern- 
ment credit of the best, and no suspicion in the mind uf any 
one of the possi!>le existence of fr.iud or defalcation. 

On his return lo Kentucky at the close of the Pierce .Ad- 
ministration in 1S57, his aid was invoked by the directors 
and stockholders of the Louisville & N'ashville Railroad 
Company, an enterprise whicli had progressed to the point. 



comnion with new niilroads, where its resources were all ex- 
pended, the road uufmishcd, and ils promoters at their wits" 
,-nd for further means. Mr. Gutlirie entered the organi^a- 
\i.m first M Vice-President, and soon after became I're^i- 
drnt- In his endeavors in behalf of tlie road he found him- 
^rIf for the fir?^t time in his career in Louisville, surroundetl 
by a people no longer doubtful in iheir allegiance to him and 
their support of his measures, t'pon his return a great 
dinner had been sivcn him at the Cuurt-housc, by his felluw- 
cili/.ens, irrespeutivo of parly, and so. irrespective of part)-. 
they rallied to his aid. He showed his own confidence in the 
future of the road by risking his large furiunc as its indor*:er 
to the amount of $300,000. and from citizens of Louis\ilie 
and Kentucky banks, and the city of Louisville itself, ni'ticy 
came at his call, until the completion of t!".e road winch n.iw 
owns or controls nearly three thousand miles of track and 
is worth not far from $100,000,000. was rendered possible. 

From 1837 imlil his death the construction, operation, and 
extension of this road were the main objects of Mr Guthrie's 
life, and by his own wisdom and untiring industry he justi- 
fied the faith of himself and of his friends in the great im- 
dertaking, evciy cent thus adv.inced having proved a rich in- 

In addition to his duties as president of the Louisville and 
Nashville railroad. Mr. Guthrie was president of the Louis- 
ville and Portland Canal company, raising and expending 
$1,500,000 in deepening and widening the canal, rendered 
valuable aid m securing the building of the railroad bridge 
over the Falls of the Ohio, and was an efficient promoter of 
the building of the railroad from Elizabeihtown to Padi'C;di. 

During the civil war Mr. Guthrie was a Union Democrat; 
he disapproved of the war, but stMl more of seces-ion- His 
service as president of the Ixjuisvilie and Xashville railroad 
was worth more to the Federal Government than a brigade 
of troo[is. Three railroads and tde river were bearing i<> 
Louisville men, horses, ordnance, stores, and hmping them 
up at the wharves and depots fur l^a^:^portatIon to the armies 
of the South and W'e^t. These were the very sinews of war 
to those armies, and. to transport them beyond Louii\ilIe, 
there was but the single track of the Louisville and Nashvilte 
railroad. But there was a man at its htrad of mighty brain, 
energy, and activity, and he fed, clothed, armed, and rein- 
forced the armies, day by (:ay, throughoHt the war, wi:houl 
ever breakage, delay, or mishap. Stanton, Secretary of War. 
came, soon after entering the Cabinet, incognito, 10 Louis- 
ville, to study the matter of transportation and to advise as 
to the propriety of the Government assuming chaf'^e of the 
road. That no such poucy was ever adopted, is sufhcient 
indication of his opinion. 

In 1865 Nfr. Guthrie was elected by the General A^scmblv 
of Kentucky, as L'nited States Senator. He assumed bis 
seat on the 4th of March, 1866. and ser\ed until February 
19. 1868, when he was compelled by ill health to re-^ign. 
His service in the Senate was during the stormy days of tlio 
administration of Andrew Johnson, and his contest with the 
leaders of the party by which he was elected. Mr. Guthrie 
supported the President very warmly and opposed the so- 
called reconstruction measures, favoring an immediate, full, 
and complete rehabilitation ol the lately seceding .'^tales. 

With the expiration of his Senatorial service Mr. Guthrie's 
official life was at an end. In 1S60 he was a candidate fur 
the Democratic nom:naliL»n for the Presidency before the 
convention at Cliarleston. and would doubtless have been 
the most available compromise ca.ididate. had a compiomise 
between the sections been possible. As it was. he had a very 
respectable following. In i36i he spent much time and labor 

in the peace movements of tiiat year, corresponding and 
conversing 011 the subject with many prominent men, and 
attending llie Peace Convention at Washington as a delegate 
from Kentucky. 

• Tile foiegoing is a brief and formal st.itement of the busy 
life of a great man. From boyhood to old age he worked, 
a.s few men work, unremittingly, conscientiously. He pos- 
sessed to the highest degree the power of grasping and car- 
rying many subjects at once, and tran.^ferring his attention 
from one to another without hesitation or confusion. In 
business he w,is methodical, exact, even somewhat cold In 
his home he was all that was different from this — indulgent, 
mild, uncxatting. loving, and sweet-tempered. Few men 
were ever more practical "and prompt in affairs or more strict 
in requiring the same qualities in tho.=e about them; few 
men. on the other hand, arrogate so little in their homes and 
in contact with their friends. 

Mr. Guthrie succumbed to diseise and years of ovcr-woik, 
and died on the 13th of Marcli, i86g, after an illness of 
several months, aged seventy-six years, three monlhs, and 
eiglit days. He left surviving him three 'daughter=. his 
wife, Fliza C. Prather Guthrie, having died on the 23th day 
of luly, 1836. 


Henry Piitle was born in Washington county, Kentucky, 
near the town of Springfield, 011 the 5th day of Nn\ember, 
179S. His fuller, ]ohn Piriie. was a man of strong intellect 
and fine attaimnents, who combined with the duties of a 
minister of the Methodist church those of a teacher and sur- 
\evor. L'nder his instruction, and with the opportunities 
which the neighborhood school afforded. Henry Pirde ac- 
qviired, if not a classical, a good educa:ion, and had implant- 
ed in him a love of learning and habits of patient study and 
thought which continued thiough life. He always expressed 
a great admiration for his father's talents and acquirements, 
and regarded himself as much his inferior; he dwelt with 
especial piide upon his fine voice, pure character, and gicat. 
mathematical and mechanical genius, and there remains to 
this day, as evidence of his learning and industry, a manu- 
script work of his writing, on mathematics as applied to sur- 
veying, containing a full table of logarithms worked out by 
himself for his own use. His mother, Amelia Fitzpatrick, 
was a gentle, sweet-tempered woman, who had a spirit and 
courage which enabled her. when a young wife, to accoin- 
paii) her husb.tnd alone through the wilderness from \'irginia 
when ihev came to Kentucky to establish their home. This 
home became the center oE a large circle of religious influ- 
ence, and thither, came ail the pioneer Methodist preachers, 
so many of whom were men of power and eloquence. The 
religious atmosphere had its effect on the young boy growing 
up in this simple life, which was felt in after years, and gave 
to his character a reverential and moral tone which was never 

In r3i6 Judge John Rowan, who lived near Bardstown, 
invited Henry Pirtle to come to his residence and make it his 
home wiiile he btudierilaw. The opportunity was a rare one, 
and was gratefully accepted and most devotedly used For 
three years the young student applied himself under the di- 
rection of bi^ accjmpli'^lu-d friend, to the acquirement of the 
science of the law, and to a generous course uf collateral 
reading. I'iie li'irary to which he li.4d access was rich in 
classics of the .mcient and modern schools, and the compan- 
lonsliip of Judge Rowan — a hni-hed scholar, a profound 



jurist, an orator and sLitcsmnn, and an enlightened student 
— stimulated the ambition wliich burned in his breast. 

The babis of the learninj; and accurate scholarship which 
distinijuishcd Judge Pittle \\as laid. while at Federal Hi!!, and 
when he rt-ceivvd his licenst- in December, -iSio, he was a 
well-trained lau\er, needing only the facility which comes 
from practice. His preceptor said ho was the best lawyer of 
his age that he had ever seen. lie first commenced practice 
at Hartford, and speedily took the rank to which lie was en- 
titled, and rose into a good business, extending into m.inv of 
the counties in that section of the State, and occasinnatly 
calling him to those more remote. 

In 1825 lie removed to Louisville, uhlch renia!:ied his resi- 
dence tlie rest of his life. He had not been a year at his 
new home when he was appointed Judge of the Circuit Court 
by Governor Desha, with the approval of the Louisville bar. 

Although only t\\emy-Sdven years old, his fitness for the 
office vias not doubled, such was his learning, familianiy with 
practice, and purity of character. 

His reputation steadily grew while hn the bench, and when 
compelled by the meagre salary to resign, m 1832, he returned 
to the bar, he had ailaiucd to the rirst rank among the law vers 
of the State. 

While he was holding the Meade Circuit Court in 1S27, 
Judge Pinle for thj first time in Kentucky decided that upon 
the arrest of judgment for defect in the indictment, after con- 
viction for fel-^ny, the prisoner should be held to await a new- 
indictment. Tlie practice had been to discharge the accused 
in such cases, under the provision of the Constitution that no 
man shall twice be put in jeopardy for the same offense, and 
thus, by a legal technicality and in consecjuence of hick of 
skill, or negligence, of the atiomeys for the Conmionwealth. 
maiiy guilty men went free. The Judtre maintained thai the 
party was not put in jeopardy, within the meanmg of the 
Constitution, on indictment. 1 i^.cre was mucii opposi- 
tion to the new ruling; but it was followed universally and be- 
came the settled law of the Stale. 

As indicative of the value which wns attached to his judg- 
ments, it may be mentioned that an exhauslue opinion of 
his, \yiuen in a lucid, nervous style, upon a question which 
was of great interest, challenge of jurors in criminal cases, 
which could not, from peculiaritv of practice, come before 
the Court of Appeals, was published as an appendix to the 
seventh volume of T. B. Monroe's reports, as an authority 
for the guidance of the bench and bar. In 1833 he pub- 
lished a digest of the decisions of the Court of Appeals from 
the origin of the Court to that date. The work was pre- 
pared, with groat care, upon a plan comprehensive and easily 
undtrrstood, and with perfect accurac). The autlior supple- 
mented the notes of the deci'jions with references to other 
authorities and occasional critici.->ms. The favor with which 
this digest continues to be regarded is the highest evidence 
of its value. 

With the exception of a short interval, in 1346. during 
which he acted as Circuit judge under commission trom the 
Governor, until a permanent appointment could be made, 
Judge Pirtle was actively and laboriously eng.iged in the 
practice of law until 1850, when he accepted the office of 
Chancellor of the Louisville Chancery Court, tendered hiin 
by Governor Crittenden. His first partner was Larz Ander- 
son, and, -upon his removal to Cincinnati, he fcimed, in 
1335, a partnership with Janii-s Speed, w/.ich cuntmued tor 
tifiven ve.irs. T!ie practice of Pirtle 0.; Speed grew lo be 
equal to any at the bar, embracing cases in all the courts. 
The habit of judge Pirtle was to follow his causes to the 
Court of Appcr.iN, and argue tiicm orally. The repoits of 

that time show a very large nnrnber of imjKiriant 

. thus 

The communiiy have so long associated his name wuh ih,; 
Chancery Coiirt that few persons know, even bv tr.uliiion. 
the power of | udge Pirtle, at this time, as a jury lauyer and 
practitioner. Kioin 1833 to 1850 he was a skiljful and success- 
ful practicing lawver ; his power before both judge and juries 
was not surpas-setl by any member of the bar. distinguished 
as it was for men ot talent ond" genius, He was an impres- 
sive speaker, and not lacking in earnestness and -lire. Such 
wa.'i the weight of his character, of the confidence which all 
men hail in his integrity, that he carried juries with iiim 
against" Liwyers possessing moic of the graces of orolorv 
and rhetoric than he had. Tncre yet lingers abcmt the 
Court-hou-e a tradition of his speech in a bre.ich of promise 
case in which he secured a verdict foF $5,000 damages, an 
amount not since recovered, and of the contest over Polly 
Bullitt's will, in which he crossed swords with Henry Clay. 

It »vas during this period that Judge Pirtle was elected to 
the State Sen.ite, serving in the sessions of 1840—41 and 
1842--43. As Chairman of the Committee on Federal Re- 
lations in 1S42 be made a report winch was notev>orth> for its 
eloquence, and for the coincidence of its sentiment with il:e 
decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, subse- 
quently made, in the case of Prigg vs. Pennsylvania, 16 
Peters, 539, and which was widely circulated and' discuised. 

The following quotations, in an interesting manner, siiow 
tlie views of the Kentucky Senate at that time on constitu- 
tional questions which later became of vital importance, and 
e.xpress the de\oiion of the Chairman of the t-omininee to 
the Union, a devotion that strengthened wuh time, and in 
which he never wavered : 

The doctrine of the American pcjple i.s not that the Constitution 
i- a mere compact between the States, a breach of which on the part' 
of one lb to bt; remedied by coercive retaliation on the p.-irt of the 
Others, but that it is a form of government of the people of this na- 
tion, as soverei.^n in it>; .-sphere as the government of a State is vvith- 
in it:, sphere ; that no State can interfere with u> power or a^-^urne its 
action ; that National subjects are under this (Jovernmcnt referred to 
National judicature. 

Vour committee believe that the duty of the respective States to 
comply with the pro%i>ion5 of the Constitution in regard to fugitives 
is one to be enforced by the National Government, or it is left with- 
out a remedy ; for coercion on the part of anj-ther State implies d\s- 

Retaliatory exactions of compliance with the obligations of the 
Constitution are dangerous Usurpadons, to b^; deprecated by all the 
American people. 

Vour committee has witnessed with much concern the differences 
between these States on subjects. The quiet union of the 
American States .-hould btrike every lover of mankind a., a desidera- 
tum unsurpassed by any sul-ject of oublunary c-jncern ; and s.i it is 
felt by the people of Kentucky. 

His reputation as a lawyer was well sustained by h*s career 
in the Sennte, and he showed a capacity for politics and 
statesmar.ship which would have enabled him to att.dn the 
highest rank had he devoted himself to them as to his pro- 
fession. But his iaates and ambition were for the pleasures 
of home and the fame of the law\er and jurist, and he would 
never consent to take political ortlce again. 

Judge Pirtle took a great interest in the foundation of the 
University of Louisville in 1S46, and upon tlie org iniz.uion 
of the Law Department was elected Professor of Iiquity ^iJ-^^ 
Constitulion.d Law and t,"oniinercial Law ; his c^ileagu'"-' 
were Prebtun S. Loughborough atul G:trnet Duncan. He 
entered upon tins new held of study and labor with great en- 
thusiasm, and the Law School bec.ime and remained i'."* 
cherished ol.-jectof hia affection as long as he was in bunic:ent 



liciUli to disch.irtje his dntios. and indeed to the end of liis 
d.ns. The field WAS suited to his t.ilems, his loarning. and 
his l.isie. He was a teacher, so full of learning, so 
ilevoteil to the law and the profe.-<,ion of the lnw>er. so 
svnip.iihetie with the students and so heloved by theni, i!iat 
the duties of the instructor and the studies uf the pupil vere 
pleasures. I'.very gradua;e frU that Jud^e I'lrlle «,is his 
friend, and in alter >e,ir3 freely turned to luni for .ud ... sur- 
niountin.y tlie dillieult ciue-iR.n^ wliich eonfro"'.d liiin in 
praeliee, with the certainty of reeeiMug it. The nnnikable 
att.iinments of JiidLjc I'irtle m the common l.iu, m cpiity 

a lau 

ic la 

m Co 



I tue I 

School. He was not merely an able laujer and gre.a judge, 
but he a profound jurist, CNlending his studies into all 
de|wrtnients of the science of law, and as lam, liar with tlie 
most dift'icult branches and those little needed and rarely 
used in his practice or Ins court, as witii tae simpler rules of 
daily practice. The accur.icy of his memory was not more 
wonderful than the siore of learning which it held. Through 
lile lie mastered every su.ject under consideration before 
leaving it, and seemed never to have forgotten any fact or 
prmciple which he had once known. His culture was 
broad, for he had scholarly mind which delighted in the 
acquisition ci knowledge of every useful kind. He was al- 
ways a student; .ind whether reading l.xw or history, or the 
exact sciences, ortheologv, he was acquiring an understand- 
ing of the matter so that he would never need tn go uver tlie 
same ground again. 

In the particular of hi» fullness and accuracy of memory he 
was not surpassed by any one. Perhaps the greateit e.>:ccl- 
lencc which Judge I'irtle achieved in his life of industry and 
distinction was as a teacher of law. All over the land there 
are men occupying high positions in the profession and in pub- 
lie life who look back to him as the beloved prccej'tor of their 
youth, anrl who reverence his memory, his genius, and his 
character. He was devoted to his "bovs," and loved to 
gather thein around him and pour into their m-.ndsknow ledge, 
and inspire them with an e.vaUed estimate of the duty and 
responsibility ot a lawyer. His style of lecturing was coiio-, often rising into eloi-iuence when discussing great prin- 
ciples, interspersed with questioning, and his success as a 
teacher entitles him to a place beside ^tory and Kent and 

ludge Pirtle remained chancellor until Sei-iteniber, 1836, 
having been elected without opposition at the first election 
under the new constitution, and after an interval of six years 
was ag.iin in the office, retiring at the end of his term in 

Soon after his return to the bar in 1S50 he formed a part- 
nership with Bland Ball.ird, which was continued until 1060, 
when he entered into p.irtners .ip with John Huberts. He 
enlisted in the active duties of a lawyer with zeal, and dis- 
played a readiness and skill not often found, al'ter so m.iny 
years on the bench, at his age. His firms enjoyed excellent 
practice, and the advice of Judge I'lrtle was much sought by 
clients and attorneys. 

The twelve years which he spent on the bench were busily 
occupied bv the varied duties of the eiiuity judge. The man- 
ner in which he conducted the court gave him fame through- 
out the State, and many of his decisions became part of the 
legal literature of the country. He was not accustomed to 
write opinions, usuilly disposing of the ca-es by an end^r.-e- 
ment directing order should f'e entered, but on rare oc- 
casions, when the gravity or the newness of the questions 
seemed to reiiuire it. he wrote out his opinion in a concise. 

vigorous stvlcwitli sufficient reference to anlhority to show 
his emiie f.imiliarily with the pr'-":;ple involved, but with no 
display uf learning. The business of the court was dispatched 
with promptness in opju court and in chambers. The great 
faniili. ••■•;. ;!iat He had with most of the questions which were 
presenti d enabled him to ilis[iose of them without t, iking 
time, and cases which were sent to him on Tuesday afLcrnooii 
were generally returned on Friday morning. 

On the occasitin of his retirement from the bench, in 
August, 1856, Chancellor Pirilc received from the bar a testi- 
monial of their high esteem for him, in tlie course "of which 
they s.ud; " In you the have beheld the learned and up- 
right chancellor, who, while administering the law with un- 
wavering fidelity, has softened the asperities of its practice by 
the benevolence of your feelings and the amenity of your de- 
portment. As a jurist, they desire to p.iy a just tribute to 
your att.iinmeiUs; as a m.iii, to hiuior you for your many 

Iiuring his third term of office Judge Pirtle added greatly 
to his reputation. Many nice tiuestions new to the bar arose 
out of the, and cime before the Chancellor. They were 
decid'-d by liim in cipinions luminous with his great learning, 
and distinguished for clearness and acumen. These opinions 
were ptublished in the law journals, and were useful as author- 
ities in other courts having before tlicni these gr.ive questions 
of iiueniational law, involving the rights of belligerents. 

The admiration of the Car for the Chancellor's learning 
and character extended to the people, and he was universally 
regarded as tlie embodiment of equity. l"he confidence 
which was felt in the putity of his principles, was accom- 
panied by a reverence for his deep knowledge of the springs 
and fountains of that part of our jurisprudence which is de- 
signed to soften the hardness and supply the deficiency of the 
common law. And in truth the Judge delighted in the beau- 
ties of equity, and its benign principles conformed to the 
kindness of his nature. 

Such men as he have m.ide the body of this branch of the 
law, with n'inds stored with the common law, but enlightened 
and deepened by profound study of the civil Iav\ and of 
morals and natural equity, they have adapted the narrow 
code of our ancestors to the needs of our time, and by the 
ameliorating influence of equity jurisprudence rendered the 
common law that which it otherwise would not be, "the 
perfection of reason. " 

Judge Pirtle was a public-spirited citizen, and assisted in 
the advancement of the interest of the community on all oc- 
casions, particularly in enterprises looking to the relief of the 
unfortunate and the education and cultivation of the people^ 
To him is due the honor of having first suggested in a letter 
to the Secretary of 'the Treasury about 1830, that the L'nited 
I St.ites h,\d the right and ought to est.iblish hospitals on 
! the Western nvers for disabled steanlbuatmen. and others 
I engageil in navig.iting those waters, and the suggestion was 
■ followed bv the building of the hospitals at Louisville and at 
' other points. He was the President of the old Kentucky 
I Historical Society, and was among the last to give up hope 
j of its success, and even in its dissolution he preserved rever- 
I entially the precious document which had been committed to 
his care, the journal of General George Rogers (.'lark of Ins 
renowned expedition. This he afterwards edited in an intro- 
duction, when by his permission it was published by Rob- 
ert Cl.irke as part of his series of histories of the Ohio 
V.tllev The sentiment and motive which made him value 
I this document so highly, was but a part of his devoted pat- 
riotism— a feeling which in him was .vs deep as his nature, 
, and p.irtook of the loie which .1 sou iecls lor his mother, that 



made him love all li.? rcrorcU of his country's glor)- and to 
reverence the deeds and rlir'Tctcrs of her great sons. 

He was a member of the l.'m;."-ian church, and a Iirni be- 
liever in the Clirislian relii^iin. He .-.i.ylied theology as he 
• studied law. and was deeply l.-arned In the hi-to., c'' Thris- 
tianily. For several yeirs he taii;^ht a class of young men in 
the Sunday-school v^ith the same ample learning and research 
with which he taught his law students. He wrote, as Chair- 
man of a Committee oi the W't stern L' Conference, 
a little I.)Ook called Unitarian X'lr-ws, which is a strong, lawyer- 
like argument in f.ivor of L'nitanaui?.ni. Tile te.tchings of 
his pious parenents had been engrafted on a nature naturally 
inclined to religious thought ana devotion,' and he accepted, 
after deliberate examination for himself, the truth of revealed 
religion. Unobtrusive in his views, and conscious of the difh- 
culliesof belief, he was charitable to the doubts of otliers, and 
liberal to those who differed v, itli him in faith. Bigotry he was 
nicapable of. With his piiv.ite life this sketch cannot 
But one whose public wa^ so blameless we may be sure 
was admir.ible in the domestic rcluions. 

After his term of office expired in ii>63 Judge Pirtle re- 
lumed to the, but api^eared in court only a few times. 
His health had become impaired, though his mental energies 
were vigorous. Finding that he was not strong enough to 
continue his active duties as a teacher, he in 1873 resigned 
his chair in the law school and was made Emeritus frofcssor 
of the same chair, that his name might remain connected 
with the school while lie li\ed. In tlie quiet of his home, 
with the companionship of his beloved wife, to whom he was 
married in Louisville in iS2g. and of his children and grand- 
children, and with the society of friends and of his books, 
keeping up his studies and abreast of the times, the rest of 
his days were passed peacefully and hap[Hly, darkened onlv 
by sorrows incident to life, suffering sometimes from severe 
attacks of illness in the decline of health, he descended the 
vale of years until his life closed Maich 28, i83o. The 
members of the prolession of the law at the meeting held to 
commemorate the lile and public services of Judge Pirtie 
united in the expression of veneration for his chiracter and 
admiration of his talents and Icirning, not in mere formal 
phrases, but in heartfelt, earnest words glowing with aii'ec- 
tion and brilliant with the light of truth. He was a mm 
whose virtues adorned the hum. in race, and w hose intellect 
and learning elevated the profession of the law which he so 
dearly loved. 


was born in Adair county, Kentucky, on the iSth day of 
October, 1814. and died in the city of Louisville on the i-th 
of September, i865. His p.iients, William and .\nne Cald- 
well, were Virginians, and their fathers were soldiers in the 
Revolutionary army. William Caldwell was of Scotch-Irish 
extraction, and .\nne, whose maiden name Trabue. was 
of French-Huguenot descent, \^'llliam Caldwell was for 
forty years, from the esiabhshmtnt. in iSot. of the county of 
-Adair, Clerk of the Circuit and County Courts of the county, 
but resigned the circuit clerkship in favor of the appointment 
of his son Junius in iS4t, and continued to hjld the county 
clerkslup until ti,efir.-,t election under the constitution of iS^o 
—ill M.iy of 1S51— wlien he retired from otfice, declining to 
be a candidate. He was one of the few old clerks of the 
State holding their offices for good behavior, which prictieally 
paeant t'or life, who favored the new cou^iitutioii and the 

making of clerkships elective: but he declined the candidacy 
on t!io ground that he was too old to run and had held oflice 
long enough. He was tw ice married, and raisedten children, 
of whom George .\lned was the eldest son. William Cald- 
well was hiuughi up in Kentucky, about five miles from 
Haiuille, in what is now the county of Boyle, at a time when 
the means of education in Kentucky were very indifferent, 
ana ...-d but little advantage of what is called school educa- 
tion. But he was a Self educated man, with an indomitable 
fondRc,s for booiis and a thirst for knowledge. He possessed 
a small but select libnry. in which there no book that he 
h.\d not read again and again. He was a man the most 
familiar with English and .\nierican history of any that the 
.luthor of this sketch has ever known. .Alfred the Great 
was his favorite English character; George Washington, 
take him all in all, was his model of an American patriot; 
after these two he nauied his eldest son George Alfred. 
Piutarch's Lives, Kollms Ancient History, Gibbon's De- 
cline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Johnson's Lives of 
the Briiish Poets, the British Encyclopaedia, and the Lives 
and Writings of Franklin and Jcfterson — books like these, 
making a sm.iU and compact liurary of one hundred and 
ttfty or two hundretl volumes, were his daily compani'.ms for 
tilty vears in all his leisure moments, and the rcadmg ofbooks 
of this diss was his recreation. In politics he was a Jeffer- 
sonian. He knew intimately all that Jeffersoti ever 
written, and was an absolute disciple of Jcfterson's teachings. 

George Alfred, with the advantages of such a father and 
the best education that the schools in Kentucky could afford, 
commenced life a gentleman and a scholar. .~\dmitted to 
the bar in 1S37 in his native county, in that and the adjoining 
counties he rapidly acquired practice, position, and character 
as a lawyer. In 18:9. the tiist year when he was eligible to 
the House of Representatives of the General .Assembly of 
Keniuckv, he was circled as a member of that body without 
opposition bv the unanimous consent of the people of his 
county. In the following year— 1S40 — occurred the great 
c.inipaign known as the "Log Cabin and Hard Cider " cam- 
paign, in which Harrison was elected President ovec Van 
Buren. The Whig party were carrying the country and es- 
pecially Kentucky by storm, and he had opposition, but car- 
ried his countv in a fierce contest that w ill never be forgotten 
by any man who was a voter in that day in the county of 
Adair; and when the General .Assembly met at Frankfort in 
the following December, he found himself, among the one 
hnndred and thirty-eight members, one of nine Democrats 
in the two Houses; such had been the overwhelming triumph 
of the H.xrrison camp.iign in the State. Jeffersonian 
Democracy was absolutely a pa'rt of the education and 
nature of George .Alfred Caldwell. It had been instilled into 
him by his father. He believed it on conviction, it was 
congeni.d to his nature and mode of thought, and he lived 
and died an undoubting believer in States Rights Democracy. 
In i8.(3 he was elected to the Congress of the Cnited .States 
from the district in which he lived, then the Fourth Congres- 
sional District of Kentucky, and at Washington he found 
that he was the youngest man in the House of Representa- 

In 1845 the Vv'hig patty, slill tlie dominant party in Ken- 
tucky, as a Slate and party necessity determined to 
him, and brought out .ig.unst him Joshua F. Bell (of Dan- 
ville, then in the F.nirth districll, the most popular orator at 
that time in the Whig party in the State; and the resulting 
contest between Caldwell and Bell the feature in Ken- 
tucky politics in the year 1845, and attracted the attention of 
the whole Sl.ite and the politicians in many other portions of 





iliocounlry. And he wlio niny tr.ivii Uirou£;!i nny of the 
i|.-veii coumiLS ihfn forming the Fourth district of Krii- 
tvicky, meeting tlie old citizens who lived in the district at time, will there is no episode so vivid in 
[heir memory as the canv.iss between Cald-.veli .-\nd Bell in 
1S4; The V\'hig.s a majority of fifteen hundred in the 
district. Bell was the idol of his party; Caldwell of his. 
K\ery man. v.'oman, and chdd in the district took interest in 
the contest. The c!ecti.>ns in Kentucky then lasted for three ^ 
days -Mond.iy. Tuesday, and Such was the I 
oiganization that each party had complete returns on Tiies- | 
dav at a central point in the district. On the first day's vote 
Caldwell found to lie thirty-five ahead in the district; the 
W'liigs. however, fell back on their reseive force and majority, 
and catne out a few votes ahead on the last dav, and Bell re- 
ceived the certificate. But such was the ent