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Full text of "History of the Ohio falls cities and their counties, with illustrations and bibliographical sketches"

M. L. 



REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01715 4870 



GC 
977 
H62A, 
V.2,PT.2 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofohiofal22lawi 



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HISTORY OF 




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AND THEIR COUNTIES, 



ILLUSTRATIONS AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



VOL. II 



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HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



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who subsequently sold it to his brother, the pres- 
ent owner. The firm is at present D. B. Swartz 
& Son. The mill has two run of stone, makes 
an excellent quality of flour, and is doing a large 
business. 

Last year, 1S80, Mr. Henry Roub erected a 
steam hominy mill about two miles west of 
Greenville, which is now in full operation. He 
has also a shingle-cutting machine attached, and 
a machine for making staves and barrel-head- 
ings. 

Brick for buildings, iron and steel machinery, 
and steam for power, has here, as everywhere in" 
the State, superseded the log structure, wooden 
machinery and water-power. The same inexora- 
ble law of improvement rules even the milling 
interest. 

CHURCHES. 

In the pioneer days of Greenville township 
churches, religious matters and religion appear 
on the surface to hav; occupied more of people's 
thoughts than they do at the present day. 
Whether the people are degenerating, whethei 
growing more wicked than in those " good old 
days," or whether to day they are gathered into 
fewer churches, is a question for others than the 
historian to discuss ; he can only give facts as 
they appear. It seems as if there were more 
church organizations in proportion to the num- 
ber of people in those days than at present ; and 
also that more people belonged to some church 
organization then in proportion to the whole 
number of inhabitants. Whether this be true or 
not, one fact in the religious history of this town- 
ship — and the same is probably true everywhere 
in the country — the religion of the people has 
changed very materially. Some of the older de- 
nominations have almost entirely disappeared, 
and others, with different names and doctrines 
have taken their places. For instance, what has 
become of what was once so familiarly known as 
the " Hard-shell" Baptists? This was probably 
the pioneer church in this township ; but, so far 
as can be ascertained, it has entirely disappeared. 
'Ihe New-lights and LJniversalists were once quite 
numerous, but seem to have generally disap- 
peared: at least, if they exist, they do not appear 
i" an organized body. The old Lutheran church 
seems to be on the decline, and esen the Meth- 
odist church doctrines are not in as much favor 
as they once were. This latter church was once 



a. powerful church, as well as generally the pio- 
neer religious society ; but it has seen its best 
days, apparently. Among the new churches that 
have superseded the older institutions may be 
mentioned the Congregational and New : school 
Presbyterian. The reason of this seems to -lie 
largely, if not altogether, in the fact of the' greater 
latitude and more liberal creeds of the latter. 
The. world of to-day is more given to liberal 
views and freedom in religious matters as in 
other things. Whether this is for the best is 
quite another question. 

This township had its pioneer preachers of al- 
most every denomination. Brave, hardy, ad- 
venturous workers they were, coming into the 
great woods sometimes on horseback, sometimes 
on foot, and generally preaching the Gospel ac- 
cording to their best light, freely, "without 
money and without price." The earliest preach- 
ers were missionaries sent out by some society 
among the "heathens" of the Western wilder- 
ness to convert them to their way of thinking, 
and build up churches that would stand forever 
to the honor and glory of the Master they de- 
sired simply and humbly to serve. Sometimes 
they were paid a mere pittance for their services; 
more often they only received their board and 
lodging. Whether the pioneer was a professor 
of religion or not, his "latch-string was always 
out," and he freely gave the best he had to every 
stranger that passed his door, be he preacher or 
layman, or neither. 

The larger proportion of the pioneers were 
members of some church organization prior to 
appearance in this township; therefore the 
preachers always found a large religious element 
in every community to sustain them in their 
labors. Indeed, all were glad to have a preacher 
come among them, whether church members or 
not; and all went to hear the preaching. The 
first religious services were held either in the 
open air or in the cabin of some settler, until the 
old log school-houses began to spting up here 
and there in the woods, when services were 
generally held in these until organizations were 
effected and church buildings elected. 

Among the earliest preachers in this territory 
may be mentioned the Rev. Messrs. Reuben 
Smith and Frederick Reasor, both Baptists; E. 
B. Mann, a Universalist ; Richard Lane and 
John and Jacob Wright, of the Christian or Pis- 



z8S 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



ciple church; Ashabel Wells and Reed, of the 
Presbyterian; Hester of the Methodist Episcopal; 
and Glenn, of the Lutheran denomination. 
These pioneers of Christianity all succeeded in 
organizing societies and building up churches in 
thrs township, but many of them have since dis- 
appeared. While the religion of a few took root, 
grew, and flourished, others nourished for a time 
and then died; and quite a number of old grave- 
yards now alone mark the spot where once 
stood a prosperous church. 

SCHRADERS CHAPEL. 

Very early in the present century the Method- 
ists erected what was long known as Schrader's 
chapel, on Indian creek; and in the northwest- 
ern part of the township the same denomination 
erected what was known as Roberts chapel. 
The New-lights erected near the line of Lafay- 
ette township a church since known as Mt. 
Eden, and yet standing. The Baptists erected 
two churches, one on Indian cieek, and the other 
about one and a half miles west of the site of the 
village of Greenville. Of all these churches, it 
has not been ascertained which was first erected. 
All were built very early in the present century, 
and most of them have rotted down and disap- 
peared. All were log structures. 

The pioneer Amos Davis gave the land upon 
which Schraders chapel was erected. The old 
church was built of rough logs, and stood on 
the bank of the creek near where the Indian 
camp was anciently located — the same camp 
near which Sullivan, before mentioned, was 
killed. Among the earliest members of this 
church were John and Amos Davis, with their 
wives; Isaacand Jacob Miller, and their families; 
John Taylor, John Roberts, and John McKown, 
and their families. As long since as 1830 this 
church was going to decay, and it disappeared 
entirely many years ago. Even the spot upon 
which it stood is overgrown with grass. Most of 
its first members have long been sleeping beneath 
the little grassy knolls in the little churchyard, 
among whose leaning and silent stones, black- 
ened by the hand of time, the wind sings a 
requiem to their departed spirits. 

ROBERTS CHAPEL. 

The other ancient Methodist church, Roberts 
chapel, in the northwestern part of the township, 
must have disappeared thirty or forty years ago; 



and here, too, the only mark for the spot is the 
silent tombstones of the once healthy and happy 
throng that gathered beneath its roof to listen to 
religious teaching, as understood and preached 
by that good old Methodist, the Rev. Mr. Hes- 
ter. This gentleman preached many years • in 
both these churches. These two Methodist so- 
cieties were organized and kept up by the 
pioneers until others were organized, and the 
buildings erected in the towns of Galena and 
Greenville, to which churches most of the living 
members repaired. 

THE BAPTIST CHURCHES. 

In a very early day many of the 'pioneers of 
the township belonged to what was known as 
"Hard shell" Baptists; and two organizations of 
this denomination sprang up here and flourished 
for some years. The Crooks, Reasors, Ran- 
soms, Ellises, Brocks, and others were connected 
with these churches. Two church edifices were 
erected --both of hewed logs — one in the ex- 
treme western part of the township, and the 
other on Little Indian creek, neat where the old 
Vincennes road crosses it. The land on which 
the latter church stands was originally owned by 
Phillip Englemani who probably donated the lot 
for the building, and was himself an early and 
influential member. There were a number of 
families of Englemans in this neighborhood, who 
supported the church. This building has also 
long since decayed and disappeared, the grave- 
yard alone marking the spot. 

The same may be said of that formerly existing 
in the western part of the township. It, too, 
has long since disappeared, and the members, if 
any are yet living, belong to other churches or 
to none. A grave-yard also marks the spot 
where this church stood, the land belonging at 
present to Alexander Hedden. Stephen Hed- 
den entered this land, and probably was instru- 
mental in erecting the church. Dates as long 
ago as 181 2 appear on the blackened tomb- 
stones. 

THE MORMON CHURCH. 

In the northeastern part of the township, on 
the road from Greenville to Scottsville, and near 
the line of Lafayette township, stands an ancient 
hewed log building that is now — strange as it 
may seem — occupied by a church calling itself 
the "Latter Day Saints;'' in other words, in this 



. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



289 



blessed land of religious liberty, a Mormon 
church. It is a remarkable fact that this particular 
church seems to be almost indigenous to the soil 
of Greenville township. It is not the relic of a 
great Mormon community established in the wil- 
derness; but the seed was dropped here compar- 
atively (aw years ago, and the soil seemed to con- 
tain the elements of vigorous growth and devel- 
opment. That the ways of the Salt Lake Mor- 
mons are here practiced and carried out fully is 
not pretended; but the doctrines of the Mormon 
church are here actually preached and listened 
to by an apparently intelligent audience, and by 
some are adopted as the foundation of thei: re- 
ligious faith. 

As to the old log building in which these 
"Latter Day Saints'" worship, it was in use for 
some time by a denomination once generally 
known as "Campbellites," but which, after the 
death of its founder, Alexander Campbell, was 
more generally known as "Disciple." These 
people, however, seem a little hard to please in 
the way of a name, and for several years past 
have called themselves "Christians." The latter 
name will probably please the community equally 
as -well as the other two, if those who take the 
name upon themselves make themselves worthy 
of it. 

This building was among the first erected in 
the township. It is on land now owned by Mr. 
C. Emmons, and has quite an interesting history. 
It is called Mt. Eden. The New-lights were 
the builders of it, but they did not survive the 
ravages of time, like the monument they erected 
to the memory of their departed denominational 
life, and after flourishing a few years they disap- 
peared. The Christians used it until they erected 
their present church, known as Chapel Hill; then 
the old log church was abandoned. This was 
during the Rebellion, when almost everything 
was abandoned except the concerns of the war. 
The old church stood silent and deserted, with 
the winds of summer and winter moaning around 
its gables, its logs settling into mother earth, and 
seemed as if its days of usefulness on earth were 
ended, until there came into the neighborhood 
a man named Blair, one of the " Latter Day 
Saints'' and a preacher of their peculiar doctrines. 
Blair seized upon the old church. It did not 
seem to belong to anybody in particular, nor in 
general; and although Mr. Blair was at first 



looked upon with some suspicion, and his audi- 
ences were not large, he succeeded, by dint of 
perseverance, bad grammar, and a smooth tongue, 
in establishing the present church. It so hap- 
pens that in that neighborhood are several fami- 
lies (all belonging to the same stock) of Scotts; 
hence the little village of ScottsviUe, which, 
however, is not within the limits of Greenville 
township. The Scotts are very clever, nice peo- 
ple, but some of them may be called a litile ec- 
centric, and in this eccentricity is found the 
ground in which the seed of this Mormon 
church took root and grew. The Scotts are 
members of this church, as are also some other 
people. It may be difficult and even unneces- 
sary to explain the reasons each individual mem- 
ber might give for his or her connection with 
this society; but it is presumed that each is 
satisfied that he or she has found the true re- 
ligion, the only religion that will guarantee beyond 
any reasonable doubt the possession of true hap- 
piness and everlasting life in the world to come. 
• These people are no doubt honest in their be- 
lief; but the firm belief in this peculiar doctrine 
leads to some eccentricities among the members, 
to use no harsher term. As an instance: One 
of the female members at one time became im- 
pressed with the idea that she had received a 
revelation to the effect that she was foiever to re- 
main in the house; in no case during her life was 
she to cross the threshold into the sunlight of 
heaven. Now, for a practical farmer, with half 
a dozen cows to milk, and butter and cheese to 
make, and numerous other out-of-door chores 
that farmers' wives are expected to look after, 
this revelation might have been embarrassing to 
the husband. But not so with this gentleman; 
he had adopted this peculiar religion with as 
much intensity as his wife, and was apparently 
satisfied to allow her plenty of religious freedom 
and remain in the house. It is fortunate for the 
children of this family that the father did not 
also receive a revelation to remain in the house, as 
it is not likely that the fields would have tilled 
themselves, and the family larder might have be- 
come uncomfortably empty. This lady, it is said, 
did not cross the threshold of her house for 
about one and one-half years. In consequence 
of her long seclusion, some people in the vicinity 
of Greenville — painfully practical people — con- 
cluded to visit the deluded female in a body and 



290 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



ascertain what her aversion was to out-door exer- ! 
cise.. Some of them were impressed with the I 
idea that foul means were being used to compel | 
the woman to remain in the house; but these j 
were soon undeceived. They approached the 
house to the number, of forty or more, and were j 
met by the husband, who strongly protested 
against their entering his house. He even stern- 
ly forbade their entrance; and, when he found 
they were determined, he invoked the assistance 
of heaven, and declared that the first man who 
crossed the threshold should drop dead; that he 
would call down the vengeance of heaven upon 
them, and that fire from heaven would surely 
destroy them if they entered his house. His 
daughter, a young lady, also came out and made 
frantic appeals to them not to come into the 
dwelling. This opposition, however, only made 
the party more determined. They entered the 
house, and found the woman lying on the bed. 
She appeared to be well enough, with the excep- 
tion of being possessed with this strange infatua- 
tion. She could give no reason for her conduct, 
except that she had received a divine revelation 
that required her to remain during her lifetime 
in the house. This family subsequently sold out 
and removed to the West; but returned again 
after a time, and it is presumed that in these re- 
movals the infatuated lady was compelled to give 
up her intense desire for seclusion. 

The above instance is given simply to show to 
what extremes people are sometimes led by their 
faith in a so-called religious doctrine. Other 
instances could be cited in connection with this 
church, but the above is one of the most promi- 
nent. 

It is said the members of this church now 
number less than fifty, and that it is on the de- 
cline, at they have had no preaching there for 
several years. It is hard to destroy such institu- 
tions, when they once get root in a soil that is in 
the least inclined to perpetuate them. The only 
thing that will do it is the common school. The 
continual hammering of this grand American in- 
stitution is continually crushing such errors 
everywhere, and it will eventually kill Mormon- 
ism in all the land, when once allowed to reach 
it; all other agencies having so far failed. 

ST. JOHNS LUTHERAN CHURCH. 

Among the oldest churches in this part of the 



county is the St. Johns Lutheran church, as it is 
called, located on Richland creek, near die 
southern line of the township. A Lutheran 
organization was erected here prior to 1820, 
among the organizers being the following named 
pioneers : Mordecai Cullins, wife and children ; 
Jacob Summers and family, Jacob Fugleman 
and family, Jacob Yenawine, John Engleman, 
Jacob Buckhart, Phelix Blankbeker, Phillip 
Bierley, and the Martin and Zimmerman fami- 
lies. Rev. Glenn was their minister. He was a 
stern old Christian, but a man of a good deal 
more courage than prudence. When John 
Morgan made his raid through here, he hap- 
pened to march past the door of the -old clergy- 
man. The latter was so incensed that he could 
not or did not restrain his passions. He stood 
in his door and raved and stormed at the rebel 
raiders, and, upon some slight provocation, took 
down his gun and shot one of them. This very 
indiscreet and it would seem, under the circum- 
stances, almost criminal act brought upon the old 
Unionist the vengeance of Morgan's command. 
No sooner had he shot the soldier than he was 
himself shot in his own door, and instantly- 
killed. Not only this, but the rebels burned his 
house and barn, and destroyed and carried off 
all that was valuable en the premises. Glenn 
had been a preacher in this old Lutheran church 
a good many years, but the organization that he 
was mainly instrumental in forming and build'.ng 
up, went to pieces long before his death. The 
Lutherans erected the church, which is yet stand- 
ing, about 1S20. 

About this time a Universalist preacher by 
the name of E. B. Mann, a speaker of much 
eloquence and persistence, came into the coun- 
try and preached wherever he could get an audi- 
ence. Mr. Mann made trouble in this Lutheran 
church. He preached through this section of 
country twenty, years or more, and used to travel 
about in a one-horse wagon. He was a very 
good man, much respected, and came near con- 
verting the entire community in the neighbor- 
hood of the old Lutheran church to his way of 
thinking. It was about 1840, during the pas- 
torate of Rev. Mr. Uinkle in this church, that 
the society was divided, many of the members, 
including the pastor himself, adopting the doc- 
trine of universal salvation. Mr. Hinkle became 
a Universalist preacher, and finally nearly the 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



291 



whole church went over to Universalism. The 
Lutheran organization at least was broken up. 

The old church was now, for. some years, used 
by all denominations, and various churches held 
their meetings here; but it was principally used 
by the Universalists, until that denomination also 
began to dwindle away — its master spirit having 
departed for other fields of labor. 

About 1855 the' United Brethren organized a 
church here. This society was made up, in part 
at least, by Joseph Summers, wife, and children, 
Jacob Stearns, John Utz and family, David Mo- 
sier, his wife, and some of his children. Those 
who are living of these families are yet members. 
This organization holds meetings occasionally in 
the old church, but it is not a strong society. 

About 186S the Presbyterians organized a so- 
ciety in the southern part of the township, call- 
ing themselves, after the old church, the St. 
Johns Presbyterian church, and have since held 
their meetings here. The Rev. Phillip Bevati. a 
Welshman, was instrumental in organizing this 
Presbyterian society, the original members of 
which were Madison Martin and family, Sarah 
Martin and daughter, Augustus Engleman, John 
Smith, wife, and son, J. B. Kepley, T. J. Wil- 
liams, Phillip Martin and wife, and peihaps a 
few others. Other members have been added 
from time to time, and the church is in a pros- 
perous condition. 

A union Sabbath-school has usually been 
conducted at this church, but there is none at 
present. 

Through all the changes and vicissitudes in 
human affairs the old church still stands little 
changed, though somewhat the worse in appear- 
ance, for the ravages of time. 

THE UNION CH'JRCH. 

In addition to the above-mentioned United 
Brethren society, there is another in this town- 
ship, which worships in what is known as the old 
Union church, now located on section Eight, on 
land owned by Mr. T. Hobson. 

Some fifty years ago or more a school-house 
was erected at the cross-roads here, in which 
building this United Brethren society was organ- 
ized. It was never a strong church, but kept its 
meetings going pretty regularly. Other denom- 
inations also occasionally occupied the old 
school-house for religious purposes, and the 



place seemed to be rather a center of religious 
interest. About the end of the war the people 
of the district took a notion to have a new 
school-house, and donated to the United Breth- 
ren organization the old school-house. Mr. T. 
Hobson generously donated a lot upon the op- 
posite side of the road from the school-house 
site, and the old building was moved across to 
the lot, where it underwent some repairs and ad- 
ditions, and was remodeled into a church. The 
people generally assisted in the expense and 
labor of construction, and although the United 
Brethren hold the deed to the property, it is yet 
considered a Union church, and open to all re- 
ligious societies. Mr. Hobson, before men- 
tioned, and his family, were original members 
and strong supporters of this church. Among 
its first members were also William Williams and 
wife, and Joseph Summers and wife. The so- 
ciety was probably organized by Rev. Henry 
Bonebrake, a very exce'lent gentleman who lived 
in the neighborhood and preached for the so- 
ciety occasionally. Other ministers who occu- 
pied the pulpit at different tiroes were the Rev. 
Messrs. Chittenden, Jacob Abbot, and Isaac 
Heistand. ' 

The church has not prospered lately, and ap- 
pears to be on the decline. The preaching is 
not regular. A lively Sabbath-school was main- 
tained there for several years, but it has gone 
down. 

METHODIST CHURCHES. 

About 1830, or before, the Methodists in and 
around the village of Greenville and Galena be- 
gan agitating the erection of churches in these 
places. At this time the two old log buildings. 
Schrader's and Robert's chapels, were beginning 
to decay, and both were a little too far for the 
members in the towns. They, therefore, in the 
course of time, obtained sufficient subscriptions 
from the people_of the vicinity, and erected the 
two buildings now standing. The Methodist 
church of Greenville was organized about 1S30, 
and lor several years held its meetings in the old 
school-house. John McKown and family were 
probably the nucleus of this church. Mr. Mc- 
Kown was a staunch old Methodist, and g^ve 
freely of his means to promote its interests. He 
gave the lot upon which the present building 
was erected about 183S, and also gave his labor 
and money toward its erection freely. The or- 



292 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



ganization was first effected at his house, and 
meetings were held there occasionally. The 
church has met with rather indifferent success 
in Us career, and at the present time is in an un- 
desirable condition. The membership is about 
sixty or seventy, and there is said to be much dis- 
sension and division among them. Regular 
preaching is, however, maintained, and the Sab- 
bath-school is kept up. 

The origin of this Sabbath-school, as well as 
that of all others in the town, dates back to 1S3S, 
when that estimable lady, Mrs. Henry Fisk, or- 
ganized the first Sabbath-school in Greenville. 
It was formed at the house of the Rev. Henry 
Fisk, a Presbyterian minister. The building is 
yet standing, and . is occupied by Dr. Davis. 
This, of course, was a union Sabbath-school, 
and was maintained during several years. The 
first Sabbath-school of the Methodist church was 
organized in 1843 by Joseph W. Gale. William 
Thompson was the first superintendent. 

The first building erected by the Methodists 
in Galena was a brick, but it was so poorly built 
that it was taken away in a few years and the 
piesent frame erected. The building now stand- 
ing was put up about forty-five years ago or more. 
Probably the first members of this church, or at 
least among the first, were Jacob Swartz and 
family, Joseph Ashby and family, and the King 
family, consisting of Elias, John, Isaac, and 
William. Among the early ministers were the 
Rev. Messrs. Reuter, Rutledge, and Ray. The 
latter was probably the first minister, and assisted 
in the church organization. 

Mr. John Hancock was very energetic in rais- 
ing lunds to erect the present church, and was a 
leading and influential member. Mr. Clark 
Rarnb did the' carpenter work on the building. 
This church is in a more prosperous condition 
than the one at Greenville, and the Sabbath- 
school is also in a flourishing condition. It 
seems, however, as if Methodism had seen its 
best days in this vicinity. There is no longer 
the same active interest taken as formerly; the 
old-fashioned revivals in this church, that once 
stirred the hearts of people with wonderful power, 
appears to have passed away for all time, or, if 
they are occasionally held, they no longer possess 
the attraction and power ot the old days. 

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. 

The first of these in the township was organ- 



ized in 1833, in the village of Greenville. At 
that time there were living in and near the vil- 
lage thirteen persons who had been members of 
this church in other places before coming to this 
new country, and the question of organizing 
their church was agitated. They held frequent 
meetings for prayer and conference in the 
houses of the members. The names of these 
persons were Cyrus Bradford and wife, Robert 
Scott and wife, R.'C. Smith and wife, Martin 
Crim and wife, Jesse Crim and wife, .and three 
others whose names cannot be recalled. The 
church was finally organized, and meetings were 
held for several years in the old school-house. 
The Rev. Richard Lane was their first minister, 
and continued preaching to the society twelve or 
fifteen years. He was well liked by the congre- 
gation, and was considered an able man. 

The present church, and the only one ever 
erected by this society, was built about 1840-45. 
It is a frame and cost about $1,600. Two gen- 
tlemen by the name of Little, from Clarke 
county, Indiana, preached to this congregation 
several years, and under good management it 
became one of the most flourishing churches in 
this part of the county, having at the height of 
its prosperity more than one hundred members. 
This church is not so strong now, and seems 
also, like the rest, to be rather on the decline. 
A good Sunday-school has for many years been- 
maintained in connection with this church, and 
is yet in a prosperous condition. 

The other Christian church in this township 
is located about two miles northeast of Green- 
ville, on the road to Scottsville, and stands on 
land now owned by Mr. Frederick Goss. It is a 
frame building, standing upon a hill, and is 
known as the Chapel Hill church. The build- 
ing cost about $1,000. This church has been 
mentioned as having been organized at the old 
Mount Eden church, now occupied by the Latter- 
day Saints. 

The original and influential members of this 
organization were different families of Gosses — 
Frederick, James, and Calvin, with their imme- 
diate families. Some others in the neighborhood 
were also connected with it, among whom were 
Reason Scott and family, Dallas Brown and 
family, the Millers, and others. The member- 
ship must have reached at one time about one 
hundred, and is probably nearly as strong at 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



29; 



present. The Sunday-school is kept up only 
during the summer. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

This society was organized in Greenville in 
March, 1843, by the Rev. Benjamin Nice, a 
Yankee. The founders of the church in this 
place seem to have been a family of Loughmil- 
lers, some of whom are yet residents of that 
iegion. John Loughmiller came to this place 
with a large family, from Tennessee, in 1829. 
The family, were Presbyterians, and much de- 
voted to their religion. The old gentleman (said 
one of the sons) had made a solemn vow that if 
the Lord would bring him and his family safely 
to the free soil of Ohio, he would do something 
here for his honor and glory. It was in fulfil- 
ment of this pledge that John Loughmiller, 
almost without aid except from his sons, built the 
present Presbyterian church of Greenville. The 
old gentleman was a carpenter, and did nearly 
all of this kind of work on the building. Finan- 
cially he was assisted by contributions of a few 
dollars from those interested in church matters; 
but he paid most of the expense out of his own 
pocket. 

The Rev. Messrs. Reed and Ashabel Wells 
were the first Presbyterian ministers through this 
part of the country, and the first meetings of this 
society were held in the old school-house and 
in the Methodist church. The Loughmillers 
who were members of this church were John, 
Jacob, William, Joseph, A. R. (now a merchant 
in Greenville), Christina, and Matilda. Mary 
Kepler and Lydia Porter were also among the 
first members. The building, a frame, erected 
in 1849, ' s >' et standing, and cost about $1,300. 

This church, like most others in the township, 
seems also to be on the decline, the membership 
being at present only eighteen. 

The Sabbath-school is very well sustained. It 
was first organized about 1850. Mr. A. R. 
Loughmiller has been superintendent for the last 
thirty years. 

saint mary's catholic church. 

This was organized about 1840, by Father 
Neyron, who came from New Albany for 
that purpose. It is located on section thirty- 
<our, in a settlement made up largely of 
trench and Germans. It is about three 
miles northeast of Greenville, on the land of 



M Kingsbrurger. The church is a hewed-log 
building, and the organization has not been a 
very prosperous one. Among the original mem- 
bers were the Kingburgers, Kresners, Peter Mil- 
ler, Daniel Missey, J. Naville, M. Naville, T. 
Keifer, the Stangles, and others. The society 
flourished for a time, but the church has been 
on the decline for a number of years. Preach- 
ing is only had at this place occasionally. The 
Catholics built a brick church east of this one, 
in Lafayette township, which is attended by the 
members of this church principally. They have 
a parochial school in connection with the church 
in Lafayette. 

THE TOWN OF GREENVILLE. 

This township boasts of two towns, which is 
more than can be said of some other townships 
in the county. 

Greenville was ranked as a village for more 
than half a century, but was only recently pro- 
moted to the dignity of a town and clothed with 
the powers of a municipal government. It is 
not a large place, but is the second town in size 
in the county, and once had the honor of com- 
peting for the county-seat with the now consider- 
able city of New Albany. Mr. C. W. Cottom, 
of the 'latter city, in his very excellent publica- 
tion on the industries of the county, thus writes 
regarding this: 

It was proposed, so tradition runs, that of the two towns 
(New Albany and Greenville), the one that made the largest 
subscription in the way of a donation to the county, should 
have the county-seat. The contest was an animated one; but 
finally New Albany bore' off the prize by offering a few dol- 
lars the larger sum, and then adding the donation of a bell 
for the court-house. This offer of the bell was irresistible, 
and vanquished the Greenville people. 

And so the future of the would-be city was 
pretty evenly balanced in the scales of fate at 
one period of its existence, having only the 
weight of a court-house bell against it. What 
great events turn upon little things! How differ- 
ent might have been the fate of Greenville had 
her citizens put a few more paltry dollars against 
the seductive charms of a new bell ! Instead of 
being an insignificant town, unsought, unhonored, 
and almost unknown, it might now be a flourish- 
ing commercial city, with all the advantages of 
wealth and influence, and other good things that 
are supposed to belong to county-seats in gener- 
al. But it is as it is; and, though its people may 
have heaved a sigh occasionally over what "might 



294 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



have been," there is no evidence that their gen- 
eral health or longevity suffered, and its people 
now seem entirely satisfied with a very pretty town 
in a very healthy location, undisturbed by the 
scream and thunder of the locomotive or the 
excitement generally attending the administration 
of justice. 

The location of the town is a little west of the 
geographical centre of the township. What 
could have been the motive or incentive for 
starting the place in its present location is one of 
the mysteries, as there is no stream near by for 
water-power and no natural advantages visible to 
the naked eye. Probably, like Topsy, "it jes 
growed," without any previous arrangements as 
to its existence. Fate or fortune or chance 
seems to govern some things in this world, and 
among others the location of towns. There 
must be a town, or some thing resembling a 
town about every six or eight miles along every 
railroad and turnpike in the country, else there 
is a screw loose in the universe; and this law is 
enforced whether there is any necessity for the 
town or not, or whether there is any suitable site 
upon which to build a town, or anything to sus- 
tain one after it is built. And so, along this 
great turnpike, over which the commerce of half 
a continent was to pass (had not the railroads 
interfered) from Louisville to St. Louis, the 
country must have the specified number of 
towns, at specified distances apart, all along its 
course. If Greenville had not been built, some 
other town with some other name would have 
been at or near the same place, in obedience to 
this inexorable law. But the fact is, it is an old 
town, and possesses, for that reason, some rights 
to existence not held by later towns. It was here 
before the turnpike, and therefore the latter can- 
not exactly claim the honor of bringing it into life; 
but the road was here, and the old Indian trail 
was here, before the road. These, no doubt, 
had an influence in determining the location. 
The road generally followed the Indian trail, but 
at this point ran a little to the north of it. 

Andrew Mundall, a school-teacher from Ken- 
tucky, came over here about 1S06-7, and, follow- 
ing up the old Indian trail, located one hundred 
and sixty acres of land, upon part of which the 
town now stands. His contemporary, Benjamin 
Haines, soon afterwards purchased the adjoining 
section, and some years later they became part- 



ners in the laying-out of the town. Mundall had 
a good spring on his land, and it was very 
natural for him to erect his cabin near this 
spring, which yet produces its sweet, sparkling 
water at the west end of town. Mundall's cabin 
was the first house in the new town, and the only 
house on its site for some years prior to the lay- 
ing out of the place. 

The turnpike was then a mud road, and a 
very poor one, winding among the trees and 
stumps, with nothing to relieve the monotony of 
its way through the. deep, dark, almost impene- 
trable forest. After Mundall and Haines had 
been here several years, and cleared off a little 
patch of ground on their respective pieces of 
land, they concluded to join and lay out a town, 
dividing the plat and the profits and losses be- 
tween them. The town was accordingly laid out 
in May, 1S16, the territory at that date being in 
Clarke county. It was laid out in the form of a 
parallelogram, on each side of what is now the 
turnpike, the length from east to west being much 
greater than the width. There was a public 
square in the center, and a street, which was ap- 
propriately called Cross street. The public 
square, through some misunderstanding, has 
been enclosed by a fence. Several additions 
have been made from time to time, and the town • 
now extends into sections thirty-one, thirty-two, 
and five. The first addition was made by Isaac 
Stewart, December 10, 1831; the second by 
William M. Foster, August 20, 1S34; and the 
third by the same gentleman December 1, 1S36. 
Several other additions have been made, yet the 
town is not extensive. 

The old road was an important thoroughfare 
at that time, and became more so as the country 
settled, and it assisted materially in settling the 
country in this vicinity. Like the old Indian 
trail, it united one of the oldest towns in the 
western country, Vincennes, with the Falls of the 
Ohio, upon which the great commercial cities of 
Louisville and New Albany were already spring- 
ing into vigorous life. All the towns along this 
great road, therefore, hoped to become great 
and important places ; and most of them might 
have realized their expectations to a certain de- 
gree, if the railroad had not interfered. Over 
this road from New Albany to Vincennes passes 
the old-fashioned stage-coach every day, the dis- 
tance being one hundred and four miles. West 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



295 



one day and east the next, every day, rain or 
shine, cold or hot, the stage made this journey, 
carrying its passengers and Uncle Sam's mail. 
What a wealth of fact and romance was connected 
with those old stages, and with the old "taverns" 
that sprang iip all along the road, and at which 
the four mud-bespattered and weary horses, the 
drivers, and travelers were " entertained " for the 
night. And around these old taverns often 
gathered a town in after years. Rather the 
most surprising thing about this stage-route is that 
it is still kept up. . Notwithstanding the numer- 
ous railroads, the old-fashioned stage-coach yet 
passes every other day through Greenville, not 
going as far, however, as it once did, but from 
New Albany to Paoli, a distance of forty-one 
miles, where the turnpike ends. For nearly 
three-quarters of a century this conveyance has 
been on this road. It began when the wilder- 
ness was full of wild animals and wilder men, 
when it must find its way among the stumps and 
trees, over roots and through mud-holes and 
streams, has held its own through all the mighty 
changes of the time, and now rocks easily along, 
drawn by two horses, over a smooth macad- 
amized road, through pleasant, cultivated fields, 
pretty farms and villages, over streams spanned 
with iron, and still carrying the mails for our 
good Uncle Samuel. When Greenville first 
sprang into existence the roads were frequently so 
had that the coach had to be abandoned and the 
mail carried on a heavy two-wheeled cart drawn 
by four horses. 

The post-office at Greenville was the first one 
established within the present limits of the town- 
ship. Here the stages were compelled to stop 
to change mail. A log tavern was erected on 
the public square, where the north and south 
road crosses the turnpike, and here a man 
named Donahue opened the first tavern in the 
new place, probably in the second building on 
the town-plat and the first in the new town. It 
stood where the hotel of Christian Mosier now 
stands. From the time of the erection of this 
tavern the town had a steady growth for a few 
years. One of the first to settle was a man 
named McClure, a brother-in-law of Haines, one 
of the proprietors of the town. He kept one of 
t'ie necessities of pioneer life (and it seems to be 
a>so of the life of the present day), a saloon ; and 
il celling whiskey and its accompaniments can be 



called merchandising, was probably the first mer- 
chant in the new town. 

Isaac Stewart, who made an addition to the 
town as has been stated, wns a very early and in- 
fluential settler in it. He was one of the first 
regular merchants, and afterward represented the 
county in the State Legislature. He subse- 
quently removed to St. Louis. 

James Gregg was also one of the most im- 
portant of the early pioneers. He was from New 
Jersey, and came into the little backwoods town 
full of life, energy, and work. He conducted at 
one and the same time a tavern, a tan-yard, a 
horse-mill and a carding and fulling mill, was 
subsequently a merchant, and was generally full 
of business. In 1817 he was appointed a lieu- 
tenant in the militia of the State by the Gover- 
nor, Jonathan Jennings, and afterward held a com- 
mission as colonel in the same. He was known 
by his title of colonel aslong as he lived. He was 
something of a carpenter, and built many of the 
first houses in the new town. It may here be 
said that one of these first houses is yet stand- 
ing, having the. date "1816" cut in one of the 
logs. It is weather-boarded over the logs, is now 
owned by Christian Hampel, and is used as a 
paint-shop and warehouse combined. 

A man named Kirkpatrick was one of the first 
merchants in Greenville, and was probably the 
first postmaster. 

Benjamin Bower, father-in-law of John B. 
Ford, previously mentioned, was one of the first 
settlers of the place. He was from Ohio, and 
a carpenter. He reared a good-sized family, 
none of whom are now living in the vicinity. 

Daniel D. Porter, a Yankee, and also a tavern- 
keeper, was one of the early settlers in the new 
town. He was followed from New England in a 
few years by his brothers, James and Julius R. 
The former was a doctor, and the latter a tavern- 
keeper (taking his brother's place in that busi- 
ness) and merchant. This family has entirely 
disappeared from the neighborhood, although 
prominent in connection with the business inter- 
ests of the town for many years. 

William Foster was for a long time an influ- 
ential business man in this vicinity. He was a 
Kentuckian, and moved to the town of Livonia, 
where he kept a tavern, and subsequently re- 
moved to Greenville and engaged in the same 
business. Nearly every other cabin in those 



296 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



pioneer days was a tavern. There was consid- 
erable travel along the "pike r " and these were a 
necessity. People were coming and going, look- 
ing at and purchasing «land, surveying, and pass- 
ing through to homes further west; and these old 
taverns had plenty to do. Each one had a bar; 
no tavern could be complete without this, and it 
will be seen by the following extract from the 
first journal of the county commissioners that 
the charges for "drinks," as well as some other 
things, were regulated by that important and, at 
that time, powerful body. At the meeting Feb- 
ruary 10, 1 8 19, it was 

Ordered, That the tavern-keepers within the county of 
Floyd observe in their taverns the following rules, to-wit: 
for the term of one year — For breakfast, 31 % cents; for 
dinner, 37^ cents; for supper, 25 cents; peach or apple 
brandy and gin, 18K cents a half-pint; whiskey, 12 'j' cents a 
pint; wine, 87^ cents a pint; spirits, 37^ cents a pint; 
lodging, 12}^ cents a night; corn or oats, i2; 2 ' cents a gallon; 
stabling and hay for one horse a day or night, 37!$ ; for two 
horses for the same time, 62 \' 7 cents. 

Arbitrary powers are no longer delegated to 
county commissioners to establish prices in busi- 
ness of any kind; nor is it necessary to protect 
the traveling public that this should now be done. 
Competition accomplishes the desired result. 
The tavern-keepers dare not overcharge, or 
their business will cease. A dinner or breakfast 
can be had at the country hotels to-day cheaper 
than in 1S19, though "drinks" are higher in 
price now and more deadly in their results. The 
whiskey of those days was honest whiskey — to- 
day it is poisoned whiskey. 

William Foster kept his hotel some years, and 
then engaged in merchandising. He died a 
number of years since. His son Martin is now 
a resident of New Albany and superintendent of 
the turnpike. 

As before mentioned, Mr. Kirkpatrick, one of 
the first merchants, kept the post-office when 
the village was first started, and for several years 
thereafter. He was probably folio ved by Daniel 
P. Porter, who was a merchant and postmaster 
in 1826. Mr. Porter kept the office in the build- 
ing immediately east of where it is now kept. 
Isaac Stewart, better known as Major Stewart, 
succeeded Porter, and was postmaster in 1829. 
He was succeeded by D. P. Porter for a second 
term, and he, in turn by Julius R. Porter. The 
latter was succeded by William Steele, whose 
son Martin holds the office at present. 

When Dr. Reuben C. Smith came to Green- 



ville in 1826, he says there were about a dozen 
buildings in the place, all log cabins but one; 
that was a frame building occupied by Major 
Stewart, then in the mercantile business. Daniel 
P. Porter was the other merchant at that time. 
These were the only stores, and they carried 
pretty fair stocks of all classes of goods, and 
traded much in produce, as money was a scarce 
article. They exchanged their wares for the 
products of the truck-patch, farm and chase. 
Their goods were purchased at Louisville, as 
they are to-day, and hauled up in wagons, these 
wagons returning loaded with produce from this 
then backwoods village. Porter's store stood on 
the corner of the square, on the north side of 
Main street. 

There was also a clock factory at that time, 
kept by a Yankee named Haines, a single man. 
The manufacture of wooden clocks in various 
parts of the new country was then quite a busi- 
ness, and netted the manufacturer a handsome 
profit, as the clocks sold rapidly. Some of these 
old wooden clocks are yet to be seen, and are 
still quietly marking the time. Haines died in 
the village, and quite a number of his clocks 
were sold at auction, with other effects. 

John Daniel kept store here in all twenty-five 
or thirty years, and Mr. Smith was also engaged 
in merchandising, with Charles Sample as part- 
ner, a number of years. The business of the vil- 
lage at present may be summed up as follows: 
There are three hotels (there are no "taverns" 
nowadays) kept by Christian Mosier, Emil Kram- 
er, and John Fleisher. Matilda Hemble keeps 
a dry-goods and fancy-goods store; Alexander 
Loughmiller,a generalgroceryand provision store; 
Marion Steele, a general stock; Roger Comp- 
ton, a general stock; J. N. Smith, a grocery, 
Mrs. J. N. Smith, a millinery store; James Sap- 
penfield, a shore store; Charles E. Scott, a gro- 
cery; Henrietta Smith, millinery; Mathias Sap- 
penfield, grocery; Christian Hemble and James 
Lipscum, blacksmith shops; John Norris, Sr., an 
undertaking establishment; Smith 5: Keethly, 
Robert Scott, G. W. Morris, James Scott, and 
John L. Graam, are the coopers. The profes- 
sions are represented by David Sigler, lawyer, 
and James Davis, Robert Kay, James Murphy, 
and Reuben C. Smith, doctors. The- latter is 
the oldest, having been in practice here since 
1826. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



297 



Jacob Sheets was one of the oldest and long- 
est continued blacksmiths. He now resides on 
a farm near town. Theie have been a. number of 
tanneries, but there are none at present. Jacob 
Floor may have been the first tanner, but Gregg's 
and Major Stewart's tanneries were also in opera- 
tion in 1826, all in the little ravine that passes 
north and south through the town. George 
Sease bought Floor's tannery, and conducted the 
business many years until he died. Samuel 
Sease, a brother, subsequently owned and con- 
ducted a tannery west of town for twenty years 
or more. David Lukenville was here in the 
same business a number of years. 

James Taylor, who is yet living, is an old resi- 
dent of the town, and a surviving veteran of the 
almost forgotten Mexican war. He enlisted in 
New Albany in a company known as the Spen- 
cer Grays, recruited by Captain William Sander- 
son. Those who went from this township, under 
the first call for volunteers, were James Taylor, 
Jesse Fox, Edward R. Lunt, and John Jackson. 
Those who enlisted under the second call were 
Jef.se Stroud, Anderson Moore, and John Gib- 
son. Mr. Taylor is the only one now living in 
the township. John Gibson was in the battles 
around the city of Mexico, was reported missing 
and has never since been heard from. All others 
are believed to have returned, but some have 
since died. 

SCHOOLS OF GREEXVILLE. 

The first schools in the village were subscrip- 
tion schools; that is, someone who felt qualified 
to teach passed around a paper among the peo- 
ple and obtained subscriptions at so much per 
scholar, for a term of perhaps three months, no 
public money being available for school purposes 
during the years of the first settlement of the 
township. These schools were taught wherever 
a vacant room or cabin could be obtained for 
the purpose, and although "select" schools, were 
very indifferent in quality. 

The first school-house was probably the small 
frame building erected on the public square. 
" hen the town was laid out the proprietors re- 
served a lot near where the Methodist church 
now stands for school purposes, and this frame 
building was removed to this lot, where the 
M hools were kept many years, or until the house 
went into decay. The building was also used 
■or church purposes and public meetings. Among 



the early teachers remembered were a German 
named Huffman and Mr. Roland May. 

THE SEMINARY. 

Many years ago the Legislature passed a law 
authorizing the building of a county seminary in 
each county in the State, to be paid for out of 
funds to be raised by taxation; and, if Greenville 
had failed to secure the county seat, it was more 
lucky in the competition for the seminary. The 
location of the seminary was to be determined 
by the amount of money subscribed towards the 
erection of the building by the different towns in 
the county. Greenville subscribed $500, and 
thus secured the location of the building. A lot 
of one acre in the town was donated for the pur- 
pose by Mr. Isaac Redman, upon which the 
building, a brick, was erected at a cost of $2,800. 
William Loughmiller was the contractor, and the 
building was two stories in height and 30x50 
feet in dimensions. 

In 1S52, when the graded-school system came 
into operation, the Legislature authorized the 
selling of the county seminaries at public auction. 
The seminary at Greenville was accordingly sold, 
bringing $1,000, Jesse J. Brown being the pur- 
chaser. The district then purchased and used it 
for common-school purposes until it became un- 
safe, when it was taken down and the present 
building erected. At present there are about 
one hundred and twenty scholars and three 
teachers in this building. 

The first teacher in the new seminary building 
was Norman J. Coleman. He taught two or 
three terms and then removed to St. Louis, where 
he began the practice of law. He subsequently 
edited a rural paper in that city, and three years 
ago became Lieutenant-governor of the State. 
He married one of his' pupils at Greenville, Miss 
Clara Porter. 

The township contains nine school-houses at 
present. 

SECRET SOCIETIES. 

Among the first of these in the town were the 
Sons of Temperance and Good Templars. The 
former organization was in operation as early as 
1845. The charter members of the first -lodge 
organized were A. R. Loughmiller, Thomas 
Bower, Rev. John Peck, Dr. S. Payne, Philip 
Dosh, William D. Morris, John Russell, The- 
ophilus Russell, and William Loughmiller. This 



298 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



lodge flourished a number of years, and con- 
tained at one time nearly half a hundred mem- 
bers. It did a great deal of good, being the first 
organized resistance to intemperance here. The 
society grew, flourished, decayed, and died, like 
all other things mortal, having at least partially 
fulfilled its mission by implanting in the minds 
of the people the necessity of restraint in the 
use of intoxicating liquors. Many a middle-aged 
man of to-day will point to this good old society 
as the means by which he was saved from be- 
coming a drunkard. 

The Good Templars flourished a little later 
than the Sons of Temperance, and were really 
an off-shoot from the old organization — the ob- 
ject being the same, the only difference being 
in the ceremonials. 

Probably the late war did as much as as any- 
thing to break up the temperance organizations. 
People became absorbed in that great struggle, 
and lost interest in all ether things — indeed all 
else, even life itself, was considered of minor im- 
po'tance. 

After the war temperance organizations were 
revived to a certain extent, but have not generally 
succeeded in effecting much. 

The Greenville lodge of Free and Accepted 
Masons, No. 416, was organized in 186S in the 
village. The charter members were Thomas J. 
Williams, Jonathan Davis, Seth M. Brown, John 
G. Armbroster, Robert T. Keithley, George W. 
Lugenbeel, Robert Standerford, Samuel Thomas, 
Samuel W. Waltz, and Charles Hemble. The 
first officers were Samuel W. Waltz, M. ; Thomas 
J. Williams, S. W.; Jonathan Davis, J. \Y. ; Sam- 
uel Thomas, S.; Seth M. Brown, T.; John G. 
Armbroster, S. D.; George W. Lugenbeel, J. D.; 
and Robert Standenford, T. The present officers 
are George W. Morris, M.; James Taylor, S. W. ; 
John Taylor, J. VV.j George VV. Smith, secretary; 
James T. Smith, treasurer; Jonathan Davis, S. 
D.; John W. Kepley, J. D.; Seth M. Brown, 
tyler; and John W. Keithley and Washington 
Pectol, stewards. The present membership is 
forty-four. The lodge owns a hall in the upper 
story of the brick rlouring-mill. 

TJie Greenville Lodge No. 344, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, was organized March 17, 
1S70, the charter members being James Beck, 
Samuel Milligan, Albert McQuiddy, James 
Banes and James Pierce. It was organized in 



Steele's hall, where its meetings are yet held. 
The first officers were Mathias Sappenfield, N. 
G.j Jacob J. Miller, V. G; M. \V. Smith, record- 
ing secretary; James M. Davis, permanent secre- 
tary, and Thomas Allen, treasurer. The charter 
members of the lodge were all members of the 
lodge at New Albany, who only came out for the 
purpose of organizing this one. The number of 
members at the organization was seventeen, as 
follows, besides the officers already named : A. S. 
C. Miller, J. M. Smith, Elmore Smith, Isaac 
Wood, C. E. Scott, T. J. Allen, W. L. Allen, 
William Steele, F. M. Miller, G. H. Buss and S. 
M. Brown. The present officers are James Sap- 
penfield, N. G.; E. F. Morris, V. G.j James A. 
Brown, recording secretary ; M. W. Smith, per- 
manent secretary, and G. W. Smith, treasurer. 
The lodge numbeis seventy-one members at 
present. 

THE CEMETERY. 

Greenville cemetery was laid out December 6, 
1S52, by Samuel Sease, Julius R. Porter, Reuben 
C. Smith, C. S. Sample, and Jacob Sheets. There 
were one hundied and forty-four lots, each fifteen 
feet square, with convenient alleys four feet wide, 
and an avenue through the center, north and 
south, forty-three feet wide. 

NOTES OF THE VILLAGE HISTORY. 

Greenville was surveyed by George Smith, 
county surveyor, and incorporated October 28, 
1879. The number of voters at that date was 
one hundred and two, and the number of in- 
habitants four hundred and one. The village 
has not improved for many years, having attained 
to its present dimensions about 1835, when the 
great woods were yet closely gathered around it. 

GALENA. 

When the question of making a turnpike out 
of the old New Albany and Vincennes road be- 
gan to be agitated in 1S36, or before, this little 
village came into life. It was first called Ger- 
mantown, and retained this name many years, 
until the post-office was established, about i860, 
when the name was changed to Galena. It was 
laid out and platted by George Sease, May 27, 
1S37. The streets weie appropriately named 
Floyd, Main, First Cross street, Second Cross 
street, and Third Cross street. 

Mr. Sease owned the land upon which the 
village was platted, and thought perhaps he could 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



299 



make a fortune by building a new town on this 
great thoroughfare and turnpike. 

The first building in the town was a frame 
store-room, erected on the lot where Norton 
Brown's store now stands. • Joseph B. Wells, yet 
living, did the carpenter work. Isaac Parks 
moved into this room as soon as it was finished, 
opened a stock of goods, and became the first 
merchant. He also mowd his family into it, 
and lived there until his dwelling could be put 
up. This was also built by Joseph B. Wells, 
and was the first dwelling-house in the town. 
Mrs. Williamson now occupies the house. The 
store-room stood until' about' 1876-7, when Mr. 
Norton Brown took it away and erected his pres- 
ent store-room. The old, gray-looking, broken- 
backed building on the north side of Main street, 
where the road from the south crosses it, was 
erected among the first by Charles Frederick, 
and kept many years by him as a hotel. It is a 
fair specimen of the old-style tavern, being a 
long, two-story, unpainted frame. Like all of 
its class, it is going into decay. It has not been 
used for hotel purposes for a number of years. 
One of the first houses in the town was the brick 
dwelling now owned by George Buss, and the 
second brick building was that now standing on 
the corner and occupied by Frank Lamke as a 
hotel and store. Lamke and Brown are now the 
only merchants in the place. There is a black- 
smith-shop, a coopering establishment, a mill, 
and the usual number of mechanical establish- 
ments. The inhabitants number considerably 
less than a hundred There is a church, a school, 
three doctors, and a lodge of the Independent 
. Order of Odd Fellows. The latter occupies the 
upper story of a neat white frame building. 

The coopering business was once the leading 
business in the place, but has declined greatly in 
late years. It is rather a drowsy little village, 
and like nearly all others of its kind, the daily 
batch of neighborhood gossip, retailed gratis 
from corner dry-goods boxes and much-whittled 
chairs and stools, forms about the only entertain- 
ment of a portion of its people. 

morgan's raid. 

The raid of John Morgan through Indiana 
and Ohio made but little more impression on the 
people of the whole country at the time of its 
execution than would a bucket of water on the 



great ocean. It merely caused a ripple in its 
immediate vicinity, and so passed away. To 
the people of distant States it was nothing: to the 
soldiers in front, if they heard of it at all at the 
time, it would cause no more than a smile' or a 
passing remark; but in the States immediately 
concerned it created considerable feeling and 
talk, and to the people immediately along the 
line of march, who witnessed it, the raid was one 
of the great events of their lives, and the story of 
John Morgan will be rehearsed to their children 
and grand-children for several generations. 
Three-quarters of a century from now some old 
man, tottering on the verge of the grave, will 
point out to the awe-struck children the place 
where Morgan's men camped, the tree, perhaps, 
under which the great Morgan himself sat and 
smoked his cigar, and will rehearse the story of 
the great raid while the little ones listen with 
open eyes and mouths, and look upon the old 
man as one of the greatest of the earth, because 
he had seen General Morgan with his own eyes. 
Although the main body of Morgan's troops 
did not touch Greenville township, it passed so 
near as to cause a panic among the people, and 
a small party of flankers gave the village of 
Greenville a call. Had his main army passed 
their very door it could not have caused greater 
consternation. There is something fearful, even 
dreadful, in the thought, especially to women 
and children, of a large body of desperate men 
armed to the teeth, between whom and them, 
they are well aware, no law and power at hand 
can stand for a moment. Utterly and complete- 
ly at the mercy of an apparently lawless and irre- 
sponsible band of men, whose business it is to 
kill, and whose only business seems to be 'to 
hunt other men to shed their blood, what wonder 
is it that men turned pale when they stand help- 
lessly in their own doors, and the wife and 
mother weeps and presses her little ones closer 
to her and prays to the only power that can help 
her? It is impossible to imagine the feelings of 
people in such a situation. Experience is the 
only true test. The people in this township, 
especially along the turnpike, were put to the 
test: they were compelled to endure, for a few 
hours at least, the agony of suspense and expec- 
tation. The dreadful raiders might pass around 
them, as dreadful storms had often done, or they 
might sweep over them — they could not tell; 



300 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



whatever the result, they were helpless, and could 
only wait with bated breath. 

The whole of Morgan's command crossed the 
Ohio, with Morgan himself, at Brandenburg, 
Kentucky, about fifty miles by river below New 
Albany, on the 8th of July, taking possession of 
the steamer Tariscon, which he found there, for 
that purpose; and, while the good people of 
Greenville were rejoicing over the victory at 
Vicksburg, came the startling information that 
the raiders had crossed the river and were com- 
ing in the direction of their village. This was 
entirely a new phase of war; the conflict was to 
be brought to their own doors, and was the more 
startling because unexpected. There was a gen- 
eral scramble to make property and life as secure 
as possible before the appearance of the raiders 
in the neighborhood. Money, silverware, jew- 
elry, and every valuable thing of the smaller 
kind was hastily buried, just as the people of the 
South buried their valuables before the advance 
of our armies. What could not be buried was 
taken to the woods and elsewhere and secreted. 
Fine horses, for which Morgan certainly had a 
partiality, were taken hastily to the darkest 
depths of an adjacent thicket; cows and all other 
animals were driven away to the woods. Some 
families even, after hiding securely all their valu- 
ables, went to the woods themselves for safety. 
A few men mounted their horses, took down 
their old rusty shot-guns and squirrel-rifles, and 
rode hastily away in the direction the raiders 
were supposed to be taking, ready to join any 
concerted movement by the citizens against 
them. Others quietly continued their labors in 
the field, first preparing themselves as well as 
possible for emergencies. Morgan passed up 
the river to Corydon, where he had a slight skir- 
mish with citizens, and one or two men were 
killed and a few wounded on both sides. He 
then marched north, passing through the town of 
Palmyra, seven miles west of Greenville, this 
being the nearest point to the latter village. His 
flankers, scouts, and stragglers were spread out 
over the country for great distances. Forty-six 
of his men in a body — probably a foraging and 
marauding party— encamped one night about 
halt a mile east of the village, in the woods; and 
during the evening a few of them visited the 
town, went to a saloon and drank, but did not 
disturb any one. Their presence was unknown 



until the following morning, when they quietly 
departed. Many valuable horses were taken by 
Morgan's command, and here and there a few 
valuables secured, but he was compelled to 
march too rapidly to secure much plunder. 

A squad of his men, about one hundred in 
number, crossed the river at Utica, but these 
were mostly dispersed or captured by the citizens 
befere they could join their leader. 

WAR POLITICS. 

Matters politically during the war were in a 
delicate condition in Greenville township, as well, 
of course, as everywhere else, but peculiarly so 
here and all along the southern portion of Indi- 
ana, on account of its proximity to slave terri- 
tory. People were very much divided on the 
great questions of the day, and a very bitter 
feeling prevailed. A secret society existed, 
known as the Knights of the Golden Circle. It 
was political in its nature, and its members were 
known to sympathize with rebellion. Its meet- 
ings were held at night in the woods and in vari- 
ous deserted cabins in the neighborhood, and 
the lines were very sharply drawn between the 
two parties. Every man in the community was 
"spotted" by one party or the other. The politics 
of evety man was well known; every man's name 
was on record somewhere, and every man's every 
move was watched. Neighbors were spies upon 
neighbors. Every man stood, as it were, in the 
attitude of war, and war to the knife, with his arm 
continually raised to strike. No stranger could 
enter the community and remain long a stranger, 
at least politically; he must identify himself with 
one party or the other, and that speedily. Men 
had no confidence in each other. Neighbor 
watched closely the neighbor whom he had always 
trusted before but who was now his almost 
deadly enemy. 

In this delicate condition of the political pow- 
der-magazine, there was danger of explosion at 
any moment. When, therefore, John Morgan 
came in this direction, there were a few who 
secretly rejoiced and looked upon this as a long- 
wished-for opportunity for revenge. The feeling 
in the whole community was intensified, and 
there was an inclination to use violence on the 
slightest provocation. Many things were said 
and done at this critical period to make men en- 
emies for life, and their children enemies, it may 
be feared, for generations. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



301 



The man who created the most consternation 
among the people of this township, upon the ap- 
I roach of John Morgan, and rendered himself 
.famous (or infamous) thereby, was one William 
Harper, who mounted his horse and rode swiftly 
,' ,»n the turnpike through Greenville to New 
Albany, shouting at the top. of his voice to the 
. ople by the way that John Morgan was com- 
iiig down the pike, with an army of fabulous size 
.11 his heels, to attack New Albany. It created 
the greatest excitement and consternation ; but 
meanwhile Morgan was moving swiftly in another 
direction. It is believed that Morgan himself 
had something to do with this extraordinary ac- 
tion of Harper — that it was a ruse to distract the 
various squads of troops gathering in different 
directions, as to his purposes. 

Dr. Smith, of Greenville, says that he buried 
$0oo in money, and kept a fine horse hid in the 
woods during the passage of the troops through 
this part of the country, and that one night, dur- 
ing the greatest excitement, when every man 
was feeling for the throat of his neighbor, as it 
were, he was called from his bed in the middle 
"f the night, and, upon cautiously opening the 
door, not knowing whether it was a professional 
call, or whether his time had come to be taken 
out and hanged as a Union man, he peered into 
the darkness, and saw that the street in front of 
his house was filled with armed men on horse- 
back. Visions of John Morgan's raiders flashed 
through his mind, and he was about to retire 
hastily, when some person whispered mysteri- 
ously that he was wanted to guide a party of the 
citizens who had organized, armed, and mounted 
themselves, to pursue a party of Morgan's men 
who were crossing the river near Utica. 

In the skirmish which ensued between these 
i arties and others who joined them, and this 
• [uad of Morgan's men, several men were 
wounded, and the rebels were dispersed. A few 
of them were captured. A young Confederate 
named Collins was wounded and brought to 
Greenville, where he was kept a few days, then 
*cni to New Albany, where he was cared for in 
'he hospital. 

• t is believed that many recruits for the rebel 
""my were made in this vicinity by the Knights 

ine Golden Circle, and many young men pre- 
vented from enlisting in the Union army by the 
"me society. 



Greenville furnished her quota of tioops tor 
the Union cause in the great Rebellion; but this 
is referred to elsewhere in this work. 

MISCELI.ANKOUS MATTERS. 

The following items are from the earliest rec- 
ords of the county commissioners: 

At the meeting held May 17, 1819, Syrinus 
Emmons was appointed constable for Greenville 
township. He was the first to hold that office. 
At the same meeting a petition was"presented 
from the citizens of Greenville township, asking 
for an additional justice of the peace, which 
was granted, and an election ordered to be held 
at the house of John Kearnes, on the first Mon- 
day in June. At the same meeting James Mc- 
Cutchan was continued as inspector of elections. 

At the meeting of May 18, 1S19, the commis- 
sioners ordered the following taxes for State pur- 
poses: On every one hundred acres of first-rate 
land, $1; on the same amount of second-rate 
land, 87^2 cents; and on the same amount of 
third-rate land, 623-2 cents. Also for every 
bond-servant over twelve years of age, $3 per 
year. For county purposes the following taxes 
were levied: For every one hundred acres of 
first-rate land, 50 cents; for the same amount of 
second rate land, 43^4 cents; and for the same 
amount of third-rate land, 31 }1 cents. Town 
lots in Greenville were taxed fifty cents on every 
$100 valuation. 

There is but little to record in the history of 
the State road, upon which Greenville is situ- 
ated, and over which the larger part of the produc- 
tions of the township must always pass. The road 
was surveyed about 1836, by the State, with the 
intention of converting it into a turnpike from 
Louisville to St. Louis. The work of breaking 
the stone began soon afterwards, and the con- 
tracts were let for macadamizing the road. 
Plenty of stone for the purpose was found within 
the limits of the county. The road was graded 
as far as Vincennes, but macadamized only to 
Paoli, a distance of forty-one miles from New 
Albany. Upon this part of the road tolls ha\e 
ever since been levied. The State, through the 
machinations of a strong lobby, it is claimed, 
turned the road over to a company, or rather sold 
out to a company for $50,000, though the road 
had originally cost $275,000. This company 
yet owns the road, but there was some agitation 



3°2 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



recently in the State Legislature looking to the 
State again taking possession of it. 

Before the days of railroads in this part of the 
country, about JS43, a telegraph line was put 
up along this turnpike from New Albany- and 
Louisville to St. Louis. Charles Cartwright (of 
Jeffersonville at that time, but now of Granville) 
Samuel Howe, of Clark county, and Mr. Tay- 
lor, of Ohio, were the contractors for furnishing 
the poles for this telegraph line. They received 
"three bits" (thirty-seven and a half cents) apiece 
•for the poles. Another set of contractors dug 
the holes, and a third furnished the wire. The 
line was kept up until' railroads came, when it 
was abandoned. There is not at the present 
time a railroad or telegraph line in the township. 

Before the days of railroads the freight busi- 
ness along this pike amounted to considerable. 
Goods were brought to the Falls of the Ohio by 
boat, and from there they must be taken by 
freight wagons westward along the road to sup- 
ply the numerous little towns and trading places 
that were continually springing up, not only im- 
mediately along the line of the road, but at 
various distances on either side. The commerce 
of a large belt of the country must pass over 
this road, and consequently wagons were em- 
ployed, especially as freight wagons. They were 
large and heavy, with tires an inch thick and 
several inches broad, and drawn by four horses. 
When the road was in good condition they would 
carry almost as much as a common freight car of 
to-day. They would travel slowly, freely patron- 
izing the various taverns by the way. 

Jacob Miller then kept a tavern on the road, 
the first one east of the east line of Greenville 
township. This was between 1820 and 1830. 
His tavern was a rather spacious one for those 
days, being a two-story log building. Josiah 
Lamb kept the next one west, and about five 
miles east of the village of Greenville. Robert 
Lewis kept the next one west of Lamb, and 
within half a mile of the village. The next one 
was in the village. From the multiplicity of 
taverns it will be inferred that weary drivers and 
travelers were not allowed to remain thirsty for 
a great length of time ; and it is intimated 
(though there can be no truth in the story) that 
some of these honest tavern keepers got rich 
selling whiskey out of a pint cup with an inch of 
wood fitted in the bottom of the cup. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

LAFAYETTE TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION. 

At the first meeting of the commissioners of 
Floyd county, February 8, 1S19, the county' was 
divided into three townships, to wit: New Albany,- 
Greenville and Franklin. Greenville occupied 
all the northern part of the county, and it was out 
of this- territory that Lafayette was formed nine 
years later. The boundaries of this township 
were defined at a meeting of the commissioners, 
then called the " Board of Justices," held May 5, 
' 182S. 

In 1S24, by a law of the Legislature,, the jus- 
tices of the peace in the counties of Indiana were 
to constitute a board of justices, to take the 
place of the commissioners, and transact the 
business usually delegated to that body, the law 
going into effect in September of that year. 

The following is the record of the board of 
justices upon the formation of the township : 

Ordered, That all that portion of Floyd county situate 
and lying between the following boundaries be hereafter 
known and designated by the name and style of La Fay- 
ette township, to wit: Beginning on the county line at the 
•corners of sections twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five and 
twenty-six, in township number one, south of range five, east 
fiom thence running south on the sectional line to the corner 
of sections twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five and twenty- 
six in township two, south of the range aforesaid; thence east 
to the corners of sections twenty, twenty-one, twenty-eight 
and twenty-nine in township two, south of range six east ; 
thence north to the corners of sections sixteen, seventeen, 
twenty and twenty-one in said township and range last men- 
tioned; thence east to the corners of sections fifteen, sixteen, 
twenty-one and twenty-two in said last mentioned township 
and range ; thence north to the corners of sections nine, ten, 
fifteen and sixteen in said last mentioned township and range; 
thence east to the corners of sections ten, eleven, fourteen and 
fifteen in said last mentioned township and range; thence 
north to the line dividing townships numbers one and two 
thence east to the Grant line; thence with the line of the 
said Illinois Grant to the county line, and from thence west, 
with the county line to the place of beginning. 

At the same meeting the board of justices 
transacted other business regarding the new 
township, as follows: 

Ordered, That elections in the township of La Fayette be 
holden at the house of Jacob Miller, and that William Wil- 
kinson be appointed inspector of elections in said township 
for the present year; and that Samuel Miller and Francis R. 
Porter be appointed overseers of the poor in said township 
for the present year. 

Ordered, That an election be holden in the township of La- 
Fayette for the purpose of electing one justice of the peace 
therein on Saturday, the thirty-first day of the present 
month. David M. Hale, 

President of the Board. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



303 



At a meeting July 7, 1S2S, it was 

Ordered, That David Edwards be appointed inspector of j 
elections of La Fayette -township until the first Monday in 
January next, wife William Wilkinson, Esqr., who declines 
serving as such. 

David Edwards was subsequently appointed 
assessor, and probably the first one in the town- 
ship. 

The township of Lafayette, as above bounded 
and described, was taken out of the east half of 
Greenville township. Its boundaries have not 
since been changed. It is very irregular and 
ragged as it appears on the map, its eastern line 
following gradually the. course of the "knobs," a 
range of high hills whose general course is south- 
west and northeast. It is bounded on the north by 
Clarke county; on the east and south by New- 
Albany township; on the south and southwest by- 
Georgetown township; and on the west by Green- 
ville township. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Its surface is generally broken and hilly, but 
the larger proportion of the land is cultivable, a 
large portion of it being at the present time un- 
der a high state of cultivation. 

To the first settlers the territory embraced in 
this township appeared as a vast wilderness, with 
scarcely an opening to relieve the monotony of 
the great woods. Wolves, deer, bears, panthers, 
and other wild animals contested the ground 
with the Indian, and both were to be extermina- 
ted or driven away On the bottoms the ground 
was largely covered with wild pea-vines, beneath 
which lurked venomous reptiles of every kind 
known to the American forest. All the first set- 
tlers were compelled to clear the ground before 
the cabin could be erected or the truck-patch 
cultivated. Indian camps were found at fre- 
quent intervals along the streams, and here oc- 
casional small clearings had been made; but these 
were neither numerous nor extensive. The red 
man lived by hunting, fishing, and trapping, and 
made few attempts in this vicinity to cultivate the 
soil. 

The only streams in the township are Big and 
Little Indian creeks and their tributaries; but 
these furnish thorough drainage, while water for 
domestic use is abundantly supplied by numer- 
ous and beautiful springs that burst from the hill- 
sides in every direction. 

Big Indian creek rises in the northeastern part 



of the township, its general course being south- 
west across the northwestern part of the town- 
ship. It passes through sections twenty-nine, 
thirty-two, thirty-one, six. one, and twelve, cross- 
ing into Greenvilk- township, near the center of 
the last named section. Before the. country 
was cleared it was a stream of considerable 
depth, and the flow of water was steady and con 
tinuous, but since the country has' been cleared 
in its vicinity it is an insignificant stream, being 
almost dry at times during the summer. It is 
subject to frequent freshets, when it becomes a ' 
raging, foaming torient, carrying almost every- 
thing before it. On its southeast side this stream 
is generally hemmed in by a high range of hills, 
which are yet covered with a rank growth of 
hardwood timber, while on the opposite side 
beautiful level bo'ttoms stretch away, making 
some of the finest farms in the township. 

Springs of pure, cold water are to be found 
among these hills in considerable numbers; and 
probably nowhere in the township are the settlers 
compelled to dig more than from ten to thirty 
feet to procure the finest of drinking water. 

The Big Indian contains so liltle water in 
summer that a wagon-road follows its bed a good 
portion of the way across the township, and 
bridges are not needed even for footmen. 

Little Indian creek also has its source in the 
northeastern part of the township among the 
knobs, and, clinging closely to the foot of this 
remarkable range of hills, passes southwest across 
the township, through sections thirty-five, three, 
four, nine, eight, seventeen, twenty, and 
thirty, entering Georgetown township about the 
center of the last named section. After passing 
across a portion of Georgetown it joins the Big 
Indian in Greenville township, where together 
they form Indian creek, which finds its way 
southward into the Ohio. It puts out numerous 
tributaries, and draws its water largely from the 
knob springs. 

There is a good deal of valuable bottom-land 
along this stream, also, yet the bottomlands on 
these creeks cannot be called first-class ; that is, 
they will not compare, for instance, with the 
Wabash bottom or the Miami bottoms in Ohio. 
They are 'largely composed of sand and clay, 
mixed in places with vegetable mold, and pro- 
duce excellent crops of corn, wheat, oats, etc. 
The lands of the entire township may, however, 



3°4 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



be classed as clay lands, and therefore not alto- 
gether first class. 

The wonderful range of hills called the 
' "knobs 7 ' forms the eastern boundary of the 
township, making that line somewhat, irregular. 
Occasionally a section breaks over these hills and 
occupies a portion of the beautiful valley beyond. 
Section ten is largely taken up by the knobs. 
These hills are a continuation of the bluffs that 
all along hem in the Ohio river. They leave the 
river at Madison and, making a large circuit, 
reach the river agrin below New Albany. With- 
in the circle of these hills is some of the finest 
bottom-land in the West. The hills also recede 
from the river much the same on the southern 
side, the river passing for many miles here 
through an extensive bottom, which supports 
the cities of Louisville, Jeffersonville, New Al- 
bany, and others. These knobs have always 
been covered with a dense growth of timber, 
and it will doubtless be many years, perhaps a 
century, if ever, before they are cleared and cul- 
tivated. A few farms partially cleared are now 
found along the sides and on the top, but they 
are, probably, generally owned by parties who 
have bottom-land for cultivation, and who pre- 
served them for woodland. What is rather un- 
usual, however, about this range of hills, consid- 
ering their height and ruggedness, is that there 
is very little land not capable of cultivation, were 
the timber cleared away. Some time within the 
next century, when the cities of Louisville, Jeffer- 
sonville, and New Albany have spread out over 
the beautiful bottoms on which they are located 
until they virtually form one great city, the 
southern slope of these knobs will be one vast 
vineyard for supplying that city with grapes and 
wine. Even now, in places, vineyards are being 
cultivated, and it would seem as if there were no 
better opening in this country for those who un- 
derstand this business than to purchase a few- 
acres of this high land now to be had, probably, 
for about $ro per acre. 

A place of considerable prominence in the 
knobs, within the limits of this township, is 
known as "Bald knob," a hill standing somewhat 
above the others referred to hereafter in this 
chapter. Iron ore is said to exist in consider- 
able quantities in the knobs; but the extent of 
this deposit is not yet known. 

These hills appear to be composed principally 



of sandstone and limestone, separated by layers 
of blueish shale, and covered to a considerable 
depth with drift. The soil is clay, and produces 
well of all the smaller grains. 

Mr. Cottom thus speaks of the knobs: 

A high range of hills known as the knobs, but called by the 
Indians Silver hills, run through the county from north to 
south, coming to the Ohio river near New Albany. These 
hills present an uneven surface, but arc neveithefess covered 
with a soil peculiarly adapted to fruit-growing, and are es- 
teemed the very best orchard lands in Indiana, and among 
the best in the entire West. The severest winters known in 
this climate have but slightly affected the orchards on these 
hills, and their fruitful ness and the certainty of the crops up- 
on them have given these fruit-growing lands a wide and 
justly merited celebrity. They are esteemed the best lands 
in the West for the cultivation of the vine. These hill lands 
sell at very low prices, are easily and cheaply cultivated, and 
yield very large profits to those engaged in growing fruit up- 
on them. They readily grow, and in great perfection, the 
pear, peach, apple, grape, plum, quince, cherry, and all the 
small fruits. Grain of all kinds also yields remuneratively to 
the toil of the husbandman. 

These hills contain iron ore in large quantities, and the 
best quality of sandstone and limestone for building pur- 
poses. 

The knobs, in an early day, were noted resorts 
for wild animals of all kinds; and, long after the 
game had disappeared from the other parts of 
the township and county, it was still good hunt- 
ing in the knobs. Foxes, wolves, panthers, and 
wild-cats were more numerous here than in other 
parts of the township. When the first settlers 
came these animals were found plentifully every- 
where : but, as the lower and better lands were 
settled, they retired to these hills, where they 
found holes and small caves for hiding places, in 
which they were secure from hunters and dogs. 
Many wild animals remained here after the town- 
ship was entirely settled, and even yet foxes are 
occasionally found; so that this is considered fair 
hunting ground. There is an abundance of 
squirrels, rabbits, pheasants, quails, and other 
small game, while an occasional turkey or fox 
are secured. Raccoons, opossums, skunks, and 
other night-prowlers are plenty, and "coon hunt- 
ing" is a favorite pastime with the young men 
and boys. They are sure, also, to resort to the 
vicinity of the knobs. The corn-fields at the 
foot of these heights suffer more or less from the 
raids of the raccoon. 

The timber on the knobs, and in other parts 
of the township, especially on the hills of the 
Big Indian, is heavy, and much of it of fine 
quality. Unlike the larger portion of the State, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3°5 



and also of Ohio, timber is abundant for all pur- 
poses for which it is needed. On the lower 
lands it grows to a great size, and consists of two 
varieties of hickory — shell-bark and pig-nut — 
poplar, white and black walnut, maple, blue and 
black ash, mulberry, cottonwood, and sycamore. 
At the date of the first settlement, this variety of 
timber on the bottoms was further augmented 
by a dense undergrowth of dog-wood, iron-wood, 
paw-paw, black-haw, sassafras, spice-bush, willow, 
and many other species. Wild grapevines, and 
trailing vines of every description, spread over 
the ground and clung to the trees, climbing to 
the tops of the highest. Beautiful clusters of 
grapes in endless quantities were suspended from 
the tree tops, and the forest was darkened, even 
in daylight, by the density of ihe foliage. 

Upon the undulating lands and on the hills 
the timber was, and still is, chestnut, red, white, 
and burr oak, hickory, beech, sugar, wild cherry, 
black locust, cedar, and an occasional pine. The 
woods in pioneer days were more open on the 
upland, and here, under certain circumstances, 
the hunters resorted for deer. Starting out from 
his cabin, securely anchored under one of the 
hills, he would make a circuit of the knobs to get 
the lee of his game; and he knew just what time 
of day and during what season of the year he 
would find it among the oak bushes and under- 
growth on the knobs. .The oak timber, which is 
of excellent quality, is now being rapidly used 
for steamboat building and for hubs, spokes, 
etc. Much of it has also been used in barrel- 
making; for a large number of the first settlers 
were coopers, and were kept busy making barrels 
for the distilleries, which in an early day had an 
existence along all the streams in the township 
and county. 

Fine sugar orchards exist in various places in 
the township, and the making of maple sugar 
has always been considered among the local 
industries. 

There are in the township 17,611 acres of land, 
of which about one-half is improved, the other 
halt being woodland. From an historical atlas 
of the State, published a few years ago, the fol- 
lowing remarks regarding the mineral resources 
°f this county are taken. Minerals of whatever 
kind are mostly found in the knobs: 

• he mineral resources of Floyd county comprise iron ore, 
Manganese, New Albany black slate, hydraulic limestone, 



St. Louis limestone, knob sandstone, silica, mineral springs, 
etc. Iron ore and manganese are found in their strata along 
the Silver Hills. The New Albany rolling mills obtain a por- 
tion of their ore from these beds. A few years ago it was 
thought that the New Albany black slate, mixed with coal- 
tar, would make an excellent roofing material; but experi- 
ments have not justified anticipations. 

The hydraulic limestone is found under the New Albany 
black slate, but not in all places. The color of this lime- 
stone is a light drab, and it is classified as quick, medium, 
and slow-setting. This stone, in an economic point of view, 
hone of the most valuable in the county. The St. Louis 
limestone is quarried by several parties near Greenville, where 
it has a thickness of from twenty-five to fifty feet. It is a fine 
building stone, and is used considerably in New Albany. It 
is also converted into road material, and used quite exten- 
sively in the county. 

The knob sandstone is in many places from fifty to eighty 
feet in thickness. It hardens on exposure, and is used for 
doorsteps and many other purposes with success. 

Near the tops of the hills in the vicinity of Mooresville, 
there are beds twelve feet in thickness, of a soft, bright-col- 
ored, ochreous sandstone, exposed portions of which make an 
excellent mineral paint. 

Lying in compact beds near the intersection of Clark, 
Harrison, and Washington counties, is a fine-grained white 
sand, used in the manufacture of plate glass at New Albany. 
This formation is very extensive, of great economic value, 
and destined to play an important part in adding to the 
wealth of Floyd county. 

Mineral springs are found in various parts of the county, 
possessing decided medicinal properties, and there are nu- 
merous noticeable mounds and other relics of a prehistoric 
race. 

ARCHEOLOGY. 

The first inhabitants in human form to occupy 
the territory above described were, so far as can 
be ascertained by historical research, the. Mound 
Builders, a race of people which seems to have 
been greatly given to throwing up little mounds 
of earth, which yet remain to mark their exist- 
ence and abiding places in various parts of the 
country. 

Few, if any, traces of this mysterious people 
remain in this township; but, as evidences of the 
existence of this people are all around, both in 
this and other counties, there can be no doubt 
that they once occupied this territory, and pos- 
sibly had it cleared and cultivated to a greater 
extent than it is to-day. Of this, however, the 
present generation know nothing. 

One of their most remarkable works in this 
part of the State has an existence in the ad- 
joining county of Clark, at the mouth of Four- 
teen mile creek. 

Stone implements of various kinds, used by 
the Mound Builders, have been found in this 
township. 



306 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



INDIAN'S. 

Whether the Indians were contemporaneous 
with the Mound Builders, or whether the latter 
were driven out by the former, may never be 
known ; but they have been considered by his- 
torians as following the Mound Builders in their 
occupation of the country There is, however, 
no doubt that the red man occupied for centu- 
ries the territory now embraced in the limits of 
Lafayette township j but, as they were much like 
other wild animals of the woods, they did little 
or nothing to change the face of the country. 
They cleared occasionally a small patch in the 
woods for corn; but, for the most part, they lived 
by devouring other animals of the woods, and 
on the fruits and berries that grew spontaneously 
everywhere. It is not probable that the Indians 
cleared land or cultivated corn until the advent 
among them of the French traders, who taught 
them this manner of getting a living. 

One or two very small patches of cleared land 
appeared in this township at the date of its first 
settlement by the whites, which signified the 
former existence of an Indian camp. It is not 
believed, however, that any permanent camp of 
Indians existed in this township; though this 
cannot be ascertained to a certainty. Upon the 
advent of the first settlers there was an Indian 
graveyard a short distance from the village of 
Scottsville, in the northwestern part of the town- 
ship. An acre or more of ground was here occu- 
pied, and indicated the presence of an Indian 
village for a considerable length of time. The 
road which enters Scottsville from the south 
once passed through this Indian graveyard, but 
has since been turned to one side. The house 
of Mr. Alexander McCutchan stands exactly in 
the midst of these ancient graves, and a gentle- 
man named Stoner lives near. Upon the ad- 
vent of the first settlers these graves were plainly 
marked, and consisted of small hillocks arranged 
in rows, much after the manner of white burials. 
The ground has since been plowed over, and the 
graves have entirely disappeared from sight. It 
is known that the Indians used this territory ex- 
tensively as a hunting-ground and camped much 
along the Big and Little Indian creeks, and in 
the vicinity of some of the springs. Warriors 
from the tribes scattered along the Wabash 
doubtless came here in the fall and winter to 
hunt, and some of them may have remained here 



continuously for years, returning occasionally to 
their villages or permanent camps. 

An Indian trail once led from, the Falls of the 
Ohio across the extensive bottom east of the 
knobs, and up along the foot of the knobs to 
Bald knob, over which it passed, thus entering 
the present limits of this township at that point. 
Passing down the western slope of the knobs, 
the trail took a line through the woods in a south- 
easterly direction, until it joined the main trail 
from the Falls of the Ohio to Vincennes, some- 
where, probably, within the present limits of 
Greenville township. One of the first roads 
through the county subsequently followed this 
trail over Bald knob, but has since been changed. 

The significance and purpose of this trail 
seems very clear; it was to enable the red men 
to use this knob as a lookout and signal station. 
Any one who has visited this place can fully 
realize what a grand lookout station it would 
make. The view is entirely unobstructed as far 
as the eye can reach to the south, east, and 
northeast. One of the most beautiful and fertile 
valleys in the West lies spread out in a vast, un- 
dulating ocean of green, covering hundreds of 
thousands of acres, and the Ohio river can be 
distinctly traced for many miles. What a grand 
signal station for both Mound Builders and In- 
dians! and without doubt it was used by both 
during many centuries. The trail leading di- 
rectly from the Falls to this point is certainly suf- 
ficient proof that it was used by the latter. The 
Indians looked to the Ohio river as the great 
highway for the approach of their enemies from 
the east; and from this secure lookout they 
could receive and transmit signals to great dis- 
tances both east and west. Mount Moultrie, in 
Kentucky, nearly fifty miles to the south, may be 
seen on a clear day; and here the ancient dweller 
probably established a corresponding signal sta- 
tion. It may be remembered that it was near 
this mountain that the forces of Generals Rous- 
seau and Buckner met early in the war and en- 
gaged in some skirmishing. 

The old trail has long since disappeared, with 
those who made it, and the beautiful bottom, 
once covered with heavy timber, is cut up into 
farms, dotted with farm-houses and villages, and 
the forest has given place to cultivated fields, 
with the exception of little patches here and 
there, like oases in a great desert. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3°7 



The Indians occupied this territory until about 
the time of the War of 1S12, when they disap- 
peared, and never afterward made their appear- 
ance here as a tribe, but an occasional straggler 
came to revisit the grave -of his ancestors- and to 
behold for a short time his well-known and well- 
remembered- haunts. 

The Indians disappeared very suddenly at the 
time of the Pigeon Roost massacre, which oc- 
curred a few miles northeast, in what is now 
Scott county, September 3, 1S12. A party here 
murdered one man, five women, and sixteen chil- 
dren, and then made their escape. The Indians- 
in this part of the country, fearing retaliation by 
the whites, made all haste to get out of the 
country. 

Several block-houses were erected on the two 
Indian creeks during that war, and at least one 
within the limits of this township. It stood on 
Little Indian creek, near where the village of 
Mooresville now stands — a little below it, on the 
west side of the creek. An orchard now occu- 
pies the site. These houses were erected near 
each other all along the old Vincennes road; 
but the settlers never had occasion to use them, 
except as places of refuge in case of alarm. 

FIRST SETTLERS AXD SETTLEMENTS. 

It is comparatively easy to find the location 
of the first settlement in this township, as of 
others in the county. It is natural to look along 
the first highways of travel for the earliest settlers 
in any country; and in this case the natural high- 
way was the great Indian trail leading from the 
Falls of the Ohio to Vincennes. The first white 
settlers in this region crossed the Ohio near the 
Falls, from the fact that in searching for new 
homes in the wilderness they first came to the 
frontier settlements, and then followed the only 
highways — the streams and the Indian trails. 
The frontier settlements at the beginning of this 
century were along the Ohio river, naturally — at 
Louisville and other points further up the river. 
The first settlers followed down this great natural 
highway in flat-boats, or pirogues, and, landing, 
pursued the red man's trail until it crossed the 
Indian creek, in this county. Here they found 
rich lands and made their settlements. They 
followed each other slowly at first, and entered 
land all along Indian creek, penetrating further 
and further into the wilderness, and continuing 



on up the creek until they finally reached the 
limits of Lafayette township. The pioneers of 
this township found settlers on the creek, and 
pushed further until they found wild land upon 
which no foot of the white race had ever trod. 
Here they drove their stakes, cleared a little spot, 
built their cabins, and began to hew out' of the 
dense wilderness their future homes. 

The valley of the Big Indian, therefore, re- 
ceived the first settlers in this township. These 
were probably the McCutchans, some of whom 
yet reside in the neighborhood. The Wellses 
settled in the same neighborhood, but are now 
within the limits of Greenville township. 

As near as can be ascertained, the pioneers of 
this township were as follows: William Mc- 
Cutchan and his two sons, Samuel and James, 
in 1S06. Those immediately following were the 
Nugents — Nathan, Levi, David, and Benedict; 
the Em mouses — Syrinus and Samuel. Others 
following about this time and later, were Eb- 
enezer and Henry Searles, Peter Quackenbush, 
John Galloway, Gideon Adkins, with his sons, 
John and Henry; Thomas Pierce, Patrick La- 
den, Michael Kinsey, Louis Vernie, John Cole- 
nian, James Moore, a large family of Hickmans 
near Mooresville, John Kelley, the Carters, Gib- 
sons, and Edwardses, the Byrn family, consist- 
ing of the mother, five sons, and three daughters, 
Patrick Duffey, Joseph Hay, Robert Fenwick, 
Howard Walker, the Smiths and Shacklebons, 
John Sherley, the Errickses, Charles Byles, John 
Worls, Mr. Donnahue, John and Moses Scott, 
with large families, Robert Stewart, Captain 
Keydon, James McFall, William Graham, Mr. 
Roberts, the Welshes, and probably some others 
whose names have not been ascertained. 

Before the advent of these permanent settlers 
there were, as remembered by the oldest pioneers 
now living, a few squatters or white hunters who 
were living here in huts, associating with the In- 
dians and living in the same way — that is, by 
hunting, trapping, etc. They moved away with 
their red neighbors, and their names have passed 
out of the memory of those now living. An oc- 
casional log hut, however, standing many years 
after the first settlement, marked the temporary 
abiding place of these semi-civilized white sons 
of the forest, and the little patch of cleared 
ground about the cabin showed that the contents 
of the "truck-patch" were appreciated, and that 



3 o8 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



something was necessary to health and happiness 
besides venison hams and wild fruits. 

THE MCCUTCHANS 

first settled on the Wabash river very early in 
the present or possibly at the close of the last 
century, but subsequently removed to this 
county and purchased land upon Big Indian a 
little in advance of other settlers of that time. 
The family was originally from Ireland, but set- 
tled in Virginia and subsequently in Tennessee 
before removing to Indiana. A deed now in 
possession of Samuel McCutchan shows that 
the family were residents of Augusta county, 
Virginia, it being given by Governor Brooke, of 
that State, and dated October i, 17S2. Part of 
the family removed to Tennessee, where they 
remained but a short time. James moved from 
Virginia with his family directly to the Wabash 
country, where he lived a short time and was 
engaged in the Indian war of that period, being 
in the battle of Tippecanoe. Having had six 
horses stolen from him by the Indians, and 
being otherwise harassed by the savages, his 
family and himself being in continual danger of 
massacre, he left that country and determined to 
return to Virginia ; but reaching his brother 
William, who had settled meanwhile in this 
county, he remained with him and subsequently 
purchased land and became a permanent resi- 
dent. He taught school in after years, and was 
probably the first teacher on Indian creek within 
the limits of this township. 

THE NUGENTS 

were from Kentucky. Penetrating the wild and 
rugged hills of the Big Indian, they went over 
and settled near a beautiful mineral spring not 
far from the Little Indian creek, where they built 
a cabin and cleared a little ground, but lived 
mostly by hunting and trapping. This spring is 
on the farm now owned by Joseph Campion, 
and is yet known as Nugent's spring, the marks 
of the old cabin being still visible. The family 
long since disappeared, and has not at present a 
representative in the township. 

OTHER PIONEERS. 

Howard Walker and the Welshes were also 
settlers in this neighborhood, among the first, 
and all hunters. Walker was from Kentucky, 
and purchased his land of Robert Stewart, who 
had preceded him a short time, and was a settler 



in the vicinity of Bald knob. Stewart had a 
large family, but all moved away early. 

John Galloway was also a Kentuckian. He 
remained but a short time on Indian creek, when 
he sold out and moved to Oregon. 

These settlers were scattered over considerable 
territory, yet considered themselves near neigh- 
bors in those days. They obtained a living 
mostly by hunting and trapping, and looking tor 
bee-trees. There was a number of deer-licks 
along the foot of the knobs, and in the hills of 
the Big Indian, which were closely watched by 
these hunters. The salt water still continues to 
ooze from the ground in places. One of their 
favorite hunting grounds was what was known as 
the "Big Rough," a kind of "windfall" on the 
hills west of the Big Indian. Big Rough had 
been made by a wind-storm, which prostrated 
the trees over a large tract of ground, at some 
period sufficiently remote from the date of the 
first settlement to allow time for a rank second- 
growth cf underbrush and small trees of every 
description. This undergrowth, with the creep- 
ing vines and fallen timber pil-jd in every con- 
ceivable diiection, formed in places an impassa- 
ble barrier, and everywhere most excellent 
hiding-places for deer, bear, and a great variety 
of smaller game. Several hunters with dogs 
would conceal themselves around the outer 
edges of Big Rough, and, sending the dogs 
through it, would wait for the game, which was 
sure to make its appearance. Many a bear was 
tracked to the Big Rough, where it was compar- 
atively safe from the rifle of the hunter. Panthers, 
wild-cats, and wolves generally occupied the 
knobs and remained here in limited numbers as 
late as 1S40 or 1S50. Bears disappeared about 
1840, but wild-cats, wolves, and wild turkeys re- 
mained to a much later date. The latter may 
be found occasionally even yet. 

The settlers were in the habit of blowing the 
horn whenever assistance was wanted. The 
sound of a heavy dinner-horn could on a still 
day be heard several miles. It was quite a 
convenience also in calling together a party of 
hunters for any special occasion ; or, if any one 
was sick, help could be summoned in a short 
time. There were no doctors among the earliest 
pioneers, and little need of them ; but occasion- 
ally some one took sick, and then the teas which 
every pioneer mother understood how to make 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3°9 



from the herbs growing in the woods, were 
brought into requisition, and generally effected a 
cure. It is said that Mr. Walker at one time 
blew the horn vigorously and continuously until 
lie had all the settlers for many miles around at 
his house, the trouble being simply that Mrs. 
Walker had an attack — somewhat severe, of 
course— of the stomach-ache. The old gentle- 
man never heard the last of it, as it was consid- 
ered a serious matter to give the peculiar signals 
of distress and danger on the horn, and no one 
was expected to do it unless something decidedly 
calamitous was apprehended. Neighbors ar- 
ranged signals of different kinds on the horn, and 
it was used to convey special messages between 
neighbors, or to arouse the neighborhood ; and 
the signal-horn thus came to be an important 
musical instrument in the settlement. 

Among the worst enemies of these pioneers 
were the numerous venomous reptiles ; and they 
frequently suffered from their fangs, as did also 
their cattle and other domestic animals. Rattle- 
snakes of two or three varieties, copperheads, 
vipers, and massasaugas were the poisonous ser- 
pents. Rattlesnakes were less feared than the 
others, because they generally gave warning of 
their piesence, while the presence of the others 
was only ascertained by their deadly sting. The 
pioneers, however, understood the treatment of 
snake-bites, and few deaths occurred from this 
cause. Venomous reptiles have not yet entirely 
disappeared from this region, but are not numer- 
ous at the present time. Mr. William McCutchan 
was bitten about one year ago by one of them, 
and, as he neglected the wound, being in doubt 
about the character of it for some time, he yet 
suffers from it. 

Gideon Adkins was a settler on Big Indian in 
1S16. Several of his descendants yet reside in 
the township. The family came from the vicinity 
of Bardstown, Kentucky. In later years Mr. 
Adkins kept a store and conducted a saw-mill 
for five or six y?ars on Big Indian, a short dis- 
tance below the Bethel Presbyterian church. He 
died there some years ago, and in the settlement 
of his affairs the enterprise of store-keeping at 
that place was abandoned. His widow is yet 
living. The old store building is now used as a 
dwelling. 

Several families of McCutchans yet reside on 
Indian Creek, engaged in farming. 



The principal industries along the creek at the 
present time, besides farming, are coopering, burn- 
ing charcoal, and blacksmith ing. , 

ANOTHER EARLY SETTLEMENT 

in this township, and apparently entirely distinct 
from the settlement just described on the Big 
Indian, is known as the "Foreign or Catholic 
settlement." It is located on Little Indian, two 
and one-half miles north of Mooresville. A 
few Irishmen weie among the earliest settlers 
here, though it is believed they generally came 
later than those on Big Indian, and most of 
them did not arrive until after the War of 181 2. 
Among these were the Pierces, the Byrns, 
Nicholas Duffey, and others. Some members 
of this settlement bought out the Nugents and 
the lands of some other settlers before men- 
tioned. 

Thomas Pierce and the family of Byrnses prob- 
ably came from Ireland together, leaving that 
country about 1818, and, stopping on the way in 
Pennsylvania, settled here in 1820. Pierce was 
a farmer and surveyor, and quite an influential 
man. It is said he assisted John K. Graham 
frequently in surveying. Graham was probably 
the first surveyor in this county, and surveyed 
nearly or quite all the lands in this township. 

The Byrnses were from the county Loud, Ire- 
land. The family consisted of the mother, five 
sons, and three daughters. These children sub- 
sequently all married and settled in this neigh- 
borhood, thus adding considerable strength to 
the Catholic church, which was organized here 
in an early day by Father Abraham, a Catholic 
priest from Bardstown, Kentucky. The boys 
were John, Thomas, Patrick, James, and Owen; 
and some of these are yet residing here, as are 
also the girls. The mother lived to the ripe age 
of ninety-two years. The family has been an 
influential and prominent one in the county. 

Nicholas Duffey was also from Ireland, and 
brought with him a family of seven children, 
settling here in 1821. His son, Patrick Duffey, 
yet resides in the township, near Mooresville, 
and although quite an aged man, is still engaged 
in farming. 

John Coleman, also from Ireland, settled here 
in 1825, and is one of the oldest living pioneers 
of the county, being in his ninety-eighth year. 
The Byrnses and Pierces had preceded him, and 



$16 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



were his nearest neighbors when he first settled 
where he now resides. Pierce. was living down 
'the creek, near the old log Catholic church. Mr. 
•Coleman was fairly educated and became one of 
the first school teachers in this part of the count}-. 
He was also one of the first justices of the peace 
in the county, and held that position many years. 
He made little or no money out of the office, as 
he generally succeeded in getting together his 
neighbors, who had troubles to adjust, and 
assisted them in settling their difficulties without 
resort to the law. He remarks that the only- 
money he ever made out of his office was when 
the turnpike was in course of construction. One 
of the contractors or. that road, whose wife was in 
Philadelphia, mariied here another woman, and 
when the Philadelphia wife suddenly made her 
appearance, the contiactor as suddenly left 
the country, leaving his business in a very unset- 
tled condition. In settling this business Mr. 
Coleman made the regular charges for such ser- 
vices. Notwithstanding his age he attends mass 
at the Catholic church, nearly a mile distant, 
regularly every morning, always going on foot. 
He says the first settlers in this neighborhood 
did their milling* at the mill on the creek, near 
the site of Galena, in Greenville township. 

The French, as well as the Irish, had also 
quite a representation in this settlement. Among 
them were Michael Kinsey and Louis Vernie. 
The former brought from his native country a 
family of two sons and three daughters, all of 
whom married and settled in this neighborhood. 
Vernie was also a man of family and one of the 
first members of the Catholic church here. 

This settlement received many additions from 
time to time, mostly from Ireland, France, and 
Germany, and now constitutes a large settlement, 
nearly all the members of which are members of 
the Catholic church, a very strong and influential 
society, which has grown with the growth of the 
settlement, and strengthened with its strength, 
until it is now one of the largest in the State 
outside of the cities. 

THE FIRST POLLING PLACE. 

Probably the first voting place in this town- 
ship was in this settlement, in a cabin which 
stood near the present residence of Abraham 
Litz. The place was then owned by Thomas 
Byrns. The first settlers in the township, how- 



ever, went to New Albany to vote. This was 
prior to the formation of the county. After 
the formation ot the township of Greenville, 
the voting place of the settlers was at the 
house of Jacob O. Frederick, near Galena. 
David Fannin, of Scottsville, was probably the 
first justice of the peace in the township. James 
McCutchan and Levi Nugent were among the 
first. 

A THIRD SETTLEMENT 

in this township is known as the "English settle- 
ment," to distinguish it from the Catholic com- 
munity, and joining the latter on the north. 
These settlements were probably contemporane- 
ous both being made about the close of the War 
of 1812. 

The English settlement was established by an 
Englishman named Joseph Hay, a Sweden- 
borgian in religion, a weaver by trade, and a man 
of considerable ability, influence, and means. In 
England he had been largely engaged in the 
manufacture of cloth, running a number of 
looms, and had amassed considerable money. 
He came to this then wild country with about 
$60,000 in cash, an astonishing sum for those 
days. ' He purchased twelve or fifteen hundred 
acres of land, and endeavored to establish an 
English colony, inducing several other English' 
families to settle near him, among whom were 
the Smiths, the Shackletons, and the Fenwicks. 
These people were mostly Swedenborgians, and 
erected a log church about 1815. Hay and a 
a man named Roberts were the leaders. Hay 
came here without a family, except a wife. The 
latter died shortly after arriving here, and he sub- 
sequently married a second wife. Mr. Hay died, 
however, about 1825, and his property passed 
into other hands. 

The Adkinses moved up the creek into the 
" English settlement,'' where they reside, and 
where they established the United Brethren 
church, on the ruins of the old Swedenbcrgian 
society. 

THE FIRST SCHOOL 

j in this settlement was taught in the old log 
Swedenborgian church by a man named Abra- 
ham McCafferty, who, it is said, could hardly 
write his own name. It was a "subscription 
school." McCafferty carried around a paper, 
representing himself as a school-teacher, and se- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3" 



cured six or eight scholars at so much per term 
of three months. He taught several terms. 

THE EARLY MILLS. 

These settlers first did their milling at LTtica, 
and at Bullitt's, at the head of the Falls, until a 
man named Henry Putoff erected a mill on 
Muddy fork, in Clark county, near where that 
stream empties into Silver creek, when they re- 
sorted to this mill. 

A fourth settlement was made about the same 
time as the other two, or a little later, in the 
vicinity of the present village of 

MOORESVILLE, 

on Little Indian creek. The first to enter this 
part of the township were the Moores, Kelleys, 
Carters, Edwardses, Hickmans, Smiths, and 
others. These settlers came in along the old 
New Albany and Vincennes road, which crossed 
the creek some distance below Mooresville, and 
was, during many of the earlier years, the only 
highway in this part of the county. When the 
turnpike was constructed this road was partially 
abandoned. 

Phillip Engleman built a mill on the creek 
where this road crosses. It was the first water- 
mill in this part of the county, and was patron- 
ized many years by the early settlers around 
Mooresville. Engleman also kept tavern there, 
and the place was something of a resort for the 
pioneers. As Indian creek was somewhat fickle, 
even in those days, his mill was idle about one- 
half of the year, and the other half generally 
had more than it could do. Customers who 
came with grists were frequently compelled to 
wait from one to three days for their grists, liv- 
ing meanwhile at' the tavern without charge. 

John Kelley, Mr. Gibson, and a Mr. Hickman 
entered the land where the village now stands. 
Gibson did not live long, and the farm upon 
which he settled was always afterwards known as 
the Widow Gibson place. 

' Kelley was a Virginian, and brought his family 
here with the intention of remaining; but after 
a few years, hearing of his father's death in Vir- 
ginia, he sold out here and started back for the 
old home. He employed a man to transport 
himself and goods in a wagon. Mr. Kelley died 
on the way, and it was believed by many that 
he was murdered by the man who accompanied 



him, .as he had a considerable sum of money 
with him, the proceeds of the sale of his farm. 
The man who went with him disappeared from 
the community and escaped, the matter not be- 
ing thoroughly prosecuted. 

The Hickmans were quite numerous in this 
neighborhood. Perhaps half a dozen families 
of them were located along the creek. They 
were Southern people, and were generally farm- 
ers and hunters. One of them started a comb- 
factory here---probably the first manufacturing 
business of any kind in the township. It is 
said that he made excellent horn combs, using 
horse-power for the purpose, arid finding a mar- 
ket for them in Louisville and Cincinnati. 

Mooresville was named for James Moore, a 
native of the Empire State and a very active and 
influential man. He came here from Orange 
county, New Yoik, a single man, and purchased 
or entered some land about two miles below the 
present site of Mooresville, in 1815. His widow 
is still living, and says she came here "the June 
following Jackson's battle of New Orleans." She 
was a young lady at that time, and a daughter of 
Asa Smith, who was a Connecticut Yankee. She 
says her father stopped in New Albany, or rather 
on the site of it, and helped to clear the land 
upon which it stands. 

At that time there were only four houses in 
the place. Joel Scribner lived in one. He had 
a family, and kept the post-office. Abnet and 
Nathaniel Scribner lived with their mother in 
another house. Samuel March, a ship-carpenter, 
with his brother, also of the same trade, and his 
family, lived in the third house; while the fourth 
house was a tavern, kept by a man named 
Leibers. 

Mr. Moore first purchased one hundred and 
sixty acres of land down the creek, but continued 
to buy land from time to time, until he became 
the owner of many hundred acres in the vicinity 
of Mooresville. He subsequently started a store, 
built a grist- and saw-mill, and engaged in many 
other business enterprises, doing all he could at 
all times to build up the town and community in 
which he lived. 

Mooresville never was platted, and never had 
any recorded existence as a town ; and therefore 
it is hard to get at the date when it came into 
existence. Put it must have been after the turn- 
pike was built, and therefore could not have been 



3'2 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



far from 1S40, as the road was graded in 1S36-37. 

A man named Erricks, who resided in Louis- 
ville, happened to own a quarter-section of land 
upon the side of the knobs, near where the new 
road was laid out; but, in order to have the ben- 
efit of the road, Tie was under the necessity of 
bu>ing from the Widow Gibson a strip of land. 
This strip of land was two acres wide, and in 
length extended across a quarter-section. This 
gave Mr. Erricks an outlet from his land into the 
turnpike; but it was an awkward piece of land to 
cultivate, and after Mr. Erricks died his heirs di- 
vided it into lots and sold them out to whoever 
would buy. This is the way the town came to be 
staited, and this is the reason why it is strung 
along on either side of the turnpike for half a mile 
or more. If the place could be gathered together, 
it would make something of a village ; but it 
does not strike the traveler by stage as much of 
a place in its present shape. 

Moore built about the first building in the 
place ; it was a log store-room. His mill stood 
exactly where the bridge now stands, and did the 
grinding and sawing for the people many years. 
Mr. Moore did not keep tavern ; but his latch- 
string was always out, and a great many people 
stopped with him. He was a very industrious 
man, and succeeded in securing in all five quar- 
ter-sections of land, most of which he cleared of 
timber. He had a family of ten children, seven 
of whom lived to rear families of their own ; and 
to each of the living he gave one hundred and 
twenty acres of land. He died in 1834, and his 
goods were sold at auction. His store and mill 
must have been in operation here many years be- 
fore the Errick heirs laid out the town. Chancy 
P. Smith purchased most of Mr. Moore's goods, 
and opened a store in the place. After a time 
Ebenezer G. Danforth came from New York and 
purchased an interest in Mr. Smith's store. This 
firm was unsuccessful in business. 

Peter Burney was probably the next merchant, 
but only remained a short time, when he sold 
out to a Mr. Hollis, and moved to New Albany. 
Subsequently Nicholas Speaker was a merchant 
in the place, as was also John Barber. Charles 
Byles was the first blacksmith, and kept his shop 
near the creek. Moore induced him to settle 
here. Ebenezer Danforth, after his unsuccess- 
ful mercantile venture, kept a blacksmith and 
wagon shop. 



Thomas Edwards and the Carters came to- 
gether from the South. They were farmers. 

John Worls was the hatter in Mooresville, long 
before the town had an existence. Making hats 
was a leading business among the pioneers, and 
no town or community was without its hatter. 
Worls died fifty years ago or more. 

Jesse Hickman, the comb-manufacturer, sold 
out after a time to Mr. Moore, and a man named 
Donnahue moved into his house, and opened 
a tavern. Donnahue was the first school-teacher 
in this part of the country, and taught two or 
three winters in an old, deserted cabin that stood 
on Jesse Hickman's place on the creek below 
town. The building had been used as a dwell- 
ing until the proprietor became able to build a 
larger and better cabin, which he did in the same 
yard. A Mr. Arnold followed Donnahue as a 
teacher. The old block-house, before men- 
tioned, was near this school-house. 

"Jake" Miller kept the first tavern on the 
" old road," in the direction of Mooresville. His 
stand was at the foot of the knobs, on the op- 
posite side from the site of the village. John 
Sherley's tavern was the next, located on the top 
of the knobs, but these old-time institutions 
have long since disappeared. They are not 
needed in this country at this time, and even in 
Mooresville there is not sufficient patronage now- 
adays to support a tavern, or hotel, as they are 
modernly called. 

At present there are three stores in the place, 
kept by Henry Parrott, Frank Speaker, and Mrs. 
Fenton. Mr. Lamke, of Galena, kept store here 
several years before removing to that place. The 
blacksmith-shop is kept by John Shuman. The 
post-office has been established but a few years, 
and is known as "Floyd Knobs." But little 
business, more than that mentioned, is transacted 
in the place. It is a somewhat sleepy village, 
lying in a rather romantic and very healthy lo- 
cality at the foot of the knobs. The old- 
fashioned stage coach, with its four foaming 
horses, its great leathern springs, its dust-begrimed 
appearance, easy rocking motion and stern, 
muscular, devil-may-care driver, with his long 
whip, passes daily along the road, just as it did 
half a century or more ago. Often the old coach 
can hardly be seen at all for the amount of bag- 
gage and merchandise that is piled on top and 
fastened all around it. For half a century the 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3»3 



driver has cracked his whip on the top of the 
wood-crowned knobs, and dashed down their 
steep sides along the hard, winding road, his 
horses' steel-clad hoofs ringing sharply on the 
flint} highway, until he brings up at the town- 
pump- in the village at the foot of the knobs, 
where the horses are always watered, the mail, 
changed,. and the weary passengers allowed to 
stretch their limbs and rest or warm before rat- 
tling away to the next station. It is half a mile, 
perhaps more, from the top of the knobs to 
Mooresville. On the other side the road winds 
about for more than a mile before reaching the 
foot of the hills. 

The schools of Mooresville have somewhat im- 
proved since Donnahue's time. A fine brick 
school-house was erected some years ago, and 
two teachers are employed. All the children in 
the neighborhood, without regard to color or con- 
dition, are here instructed in the rudimentary 
branches of learning without money and without 
price. Education is as free as the water that 
flows down the hills. 

SCOTISV1LLE. 

The fifth and last settlement to be mentioned 
is that in the vicinity of the village of Scottsville 
in the northwestern part of the township. A 
settlement was made here by two brothers named 
Moses and John Scott, in 1S12. They were 
from Kentucky, and brought with them large 
families. Moses Scott's children numbered ten, 
as follows: America, Melinda, Catharine, In- 
diana and Louisiana (twins), George, Robert, 
Elizabeth, Moses, and Mary Jane. These chil- 
dren married and scattered, and only America 
and George are now living in the township. 

John Scott's family consisted of wife and 
twelve children — Reasor, Emily, James, Yard- 
man, Robert, David, Herbert, Wesley, Moses, 
and three others who died young. He settled 
upon the present site of Scottsville, where he re- 
mained until he died. The Scotts were especial 
supporters of the Mormon church, which still 
maintains a quasi-existence in that neighborhood, 
and some of them removed to Salt Lake City, 
where they now reside. One, at least, is a Mor- 
mon elder. The old log church, which stands 
in Greenville township, receives attention in the 
history of that township elsewhere in this divis- 
ion of our work. 



David Fannin was also an early settler in this 
part of the township, and owned a horse-mill in 
a very early day — probably the first mill in the 
township. 

The village of Scottsville was laid out on' the 
east half of the northwest quarter of section - 
twenty-five, town one, range six east, March 23, 
1S53. It was in the form of a parallelogram, 
with only two streets— West and Main. It 
never had any great expectations, and it is not at 
all in danger of becoming a great city. A black- 
smith and repair-shop, a store, and a few dwell- 
ings have always, so far, constituted the town. 
The post-office was established here about i860; 
John Williams was the first postmaster, and 
Wesley Scott the next and present incumbent. 
Mr. Scott is also the village blacksmith. The 
store is at present kept by Nicholas Keiffer. 
There are seven or eight dwellings, and forty or 
more people in the village. 

It was probably as late as 1S40 before all the 
land in this township was entered for settlement. 
It was not entered as early as other lands further 
south, lying near the highways of travel, and, 
though the most desirable land in this township, 
that lying along the streams, was entered and oc- 
cupied quite early, there is much land not de- 
sirable for general farming purposes in the town- 
ship that remained unoccupied many years after 
the first and later settlements were made. Until 
the turnpike was made in 1836-37, the 
township was considerably on one side of any 
line of travel, and consequently remained in a 
wild and unsettled condition long after those 
further south and east of the knobs were well 
settled. 

The farms are now generally well cultivated, 
the farm-houses largely frame and in good con- 
dition. Quite a number of log houses, however, 
are yet used as dwellings. The people are gen- 
eially sober, honest, industrious, religious. They 
are prosperous, and their children go to school. 
There are eight good school-houses in the town- 
ship, conveniently situated, so that every child 
of school age can attend. 

The first school in the Scott settlement was 
probably taught by James McCutchan, in a log 
house near the site of Mt. Eden church, now in 
Greenville township. The first school on Big 
Indian creek was also taught by James Mc- 
Cutchan. The first school-house in the town- 



3*4 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



ship, in this direction, was built in 1S20, on the 
place, now occupied by Mr. Crawford Scarles ; 
William Graham was the first teacher here. 

The building of the turnpike through the 
township assisted the settlement of it very 
materially. No railroad as yet touches the town- 
ship, though the New Albany and Chicago road 
runs closely along its eastern edge. The only 
station near the township limits is the Six-mile 
switch, near the northeast coiner of the town- 
.ship. No telegraph has an existence at present 
within the township limits, though before the ad- 
vent of railroads one was built along the turn- 
pike, which was abandoned after the building of 
iron ways through this part of the county. 

CHURCHES. 

As. usual in this part of the country, it is ascer- 
tained that the Methodists and Baptists were the 
pioneer preachers, comirig first into the wilder- 
ness to proclaim the gospel to the rough back- 
woodsmen, long before any churches were erect- 
ed. They held services in the old log school- 
houses that soon sprang up here and there in the 
woods, in the cabins and barns of the settlers, 
and under the spreading trees in the open air. 

Among those who are remembered as preach- 
ing first in the valley of the Big Indian, where 
the first settlement occurred, were the Rev. 
Messrs. Absalom Little, Thompson, Montgom- 
ery, and McCafl'erty. The two former were 
Baptists, and the two latter Methodists. Mr. 
Little was from Kentucky, and a very able min- 
ister. 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The Catholics were also very early on the 
ground, and organized one of the first societies, 
if not the first one, in the township. Mr. Cot- 
torn thus mentions this Catholic church, now lo- 
cated on Little Indian creek, on section nine : 

It was an Irishman who first planted the cross in Floyd 
county, then a wilderness, establishing a little church not far 
from the present site of Mooresville, in Lafayette township, 
where the rites of his religion, the Catholic, were adminis- 
tered to the few white settlers and the Indians then inhabit- 
ing that section of the country. This self-denying father 
and faithful priest of the church thought no sacrifice on his 
part too great, so that good might come out of it to his 
rough congregation of frontiermen and wild Indians. To-day 
the beautiful Catholic church of St. Mary, with its no less 
beautiful church-yard, dotted over with the white marble in- 
signia of affection for the departed, and under which sleep 
many of the pioneers of Floyd county, remind us of the days 
when the faithful Irish priest came to proclaim "good tid- 



ings " to the hardy woodsmen, and serve to keep green in the 
souls of the people the memory of the faithful soldier of the 
cross. 

The writer of the above fails to give the name 
of this priest, but there is little doubt that it was 
Father Abraham, from Bardstown, Kentucky, 
assisted probably by Father Mulholland, who 
were instrumental in establishing this Catholic 
church, planting it in a soil that seems to have 
been favorable for its growth and development, 
as it is now one of the most flourishing Cath- 
olic churches in the country. 

Thomas Pierce may be called the founder of 
this flourishing church. He was the son of a 
Catholic, and a man much devoted to his religion, 
infusing good part of his enthusiasm into his 
neighbors. He it was who gave the land, an 
acre of ground, upon which the first church edi- 
fice was erected; and he was, while he lived, a 
leading member of the congregation. Among 
his contemporaries in the establishment of this 
church were Owen Daily, Thomas, Patrick, and 
Owen Byrns, John Coleman, Michael Kinsey, 
Patrick Laden, and others, with their families. 
After the establishment of the church this be- 
came an attractive neighborhood for Catholic em- 
igrants st eking homes in the wilderness. The 
consequence was that the neighborhood, for 
many miles around, filled up gradually with for- 
eigners and Catholics; and it remains to-day an 
essentially Catholic community. 

The society was formed soon after the ai rival 
of the above-named gentlemen in this neighbor- 
hood, or soon after the War of 1S12. The first 
meetings for several years were held in the cabins 
of the members. About 1S20 the log church was 
erected on Little Indian creek, at the* foot of the 
knobs, on second bottom land, a short distance 
souih of the present' beautiful edifice. The old 
church was built by the voluntary labor of the 
settlers, and stood seventeen or eighteen years, 
or until the present building was erected, after 
which it was taken down and the logs put into a 
school-house on the new lot. A graveyard grew 
and extended around the old church, but the 
contents of this were also removed to the new 
church burying-ground on the hill. Nothing now 
remains but the lot, covered with weeds and 
bushes, and still the property of the church. 

The new church edifice, known as St. Mary, 
or the Assumption, was erected in 1837, — 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3'5 



mostly, too, by the voluntary labor of the mem- 
bers. Money to build churches, or for any pur- 
pose, was scarce in those days; but willing hands 
were plenty, and a fine biick edifice soon rose 
from the ground, crowning the crest of a hill over- 
looking the valley of the Little Indian. Father 
Neyron was the priest at that time — a genial, 
brave, whole-souled Frenchman. He infused 
much of his own energy and spirit into the en- 
terprise, and also labored much with his own 
, hands in the erection of this building. Neyron 
had been a surgeon in the army of Napoleon 
Bonaparte, and was with that army in the famous 
march across the Alps. He was a learned, en- 
ergetic, and able man. It is said that he built 
the Holy Trinity church, of New Albany, with 
his own money, organizing, building up, and es- 
tablishing that church on a solid foundation, and 
remaining pastor of it for more than twenty 
years. It was while acting in this capacity that 
he organized the St. Mary church and several 
other Catholic churches in the surrounding 
country. After leaving this part of the State he 
became a teacher in the University of Notre 
Dame du Lac, near South Bend, Indiana, where 
at this date (July, 1SS1) he still resides, though 
quite aged and feeble. 

The bricks for the new church were made 
near the building by Patrick Byrns and Patrick 
Duffey, two zealous members of the church. A 
neat and comfortable parsonage was subsequently 
erected on the church lot, and an addition was 
built to this parsonage in the summer of 1S81, 
costing about $Soo. 

Father James Strembler is the present priest. 
The strength of the church is now about one 
hundred and forty families. The school con- 
nected with the church numbers about seventy- 
five children, with two teachers. 

The scenery about this site is picturesque and 
beautiful. The traveler up the vailey of the 
Little Indian will see the white cross of the 
church among the trees for a long distance. 
The rods skirts the foot of the knobs, which 
rise to a considerable eminence on the right, 
covered with a dense growth of timber, 
while to the left lie some of the best farming 
lands in the township. The church fronts the 
rugged knobs and the valley of the creek, while 
'n its rear stretches away a vast expanse of na- 
tive woods, cut with deep, dark ravines, and 



broken occasionally with small cleared patches 
and neat farm-houses. 

• A short distance below the church, running 
into the knobs, is a deep, cavernous-looking 
hollow known as "Wolfcn hollow," where, in an 
early day, wolves congregated in great numbers 
to make night hideous, where many of them 
were trapped and killed in various ways, and 
where the hunters tf iartficLiviun thev wished to 
find then, 11^8438 

Many other places along the knobs have pe- 
culiar and special names, given to them by pe- 
culiar circumstances and surroundings. One, 
not far from the church, is known as "Nova 
Scotia," from the fact that the snow never melts 
from the place from the time it falls in the early 
winter until the spring is far advanced, often as 
late as May. It is simply a great bend in the 
hills, shaped like a horse-shoe, with the toes 
pointing to the north; and being surrounded and 
overspread with a heavy growth of timber, the 
sunlight is not able to reach it, and snow gener- 
ally occupies the hollow during about six months 
of the year. 

Near the church is the residence of Joseph 
Campion, a liberal minded gentleman, who owns 
a large farm and a capacious farm house, which 
he opens to boarders and Catholic friends. It 
is a sort of Catholic summer resort. The house 
will accommodate forty to fifty people, and a 
number of residents of the cities of Louisville 
and New Albany often escape from the heat and 
dust of those cities and spend a few days or 
weeks at this quiet place in the great woods. 
The air is pure, dry, and bracing, and a few days' 
residence there is invigorating in an astonishing 
degree. There is a mineral spring upon the 
farm — the same spring beside which the Nugents 
settled — which is still known as Nugent's spring. 
The water has not been thoroughly tested, and 
its medicinal properties are as yet unknown. 
East of the sprjng a short distance in the woods, 
not far from A. Lipz's dwelling and about a mile 
east of Campion's house, is "the cave," quite an 
extensive subterranean opening, which has never 
been thoroughly explored, and may at some 
future day prove one of the chief attractions of 
the place. 

The native forest comes up very near the front 
door of Mr. Campion's house, which stands far 
from the public road, upon a hill overlooking 



316 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



the valley of the Little Indian. The host is a 
genial, whole-souled Irishman, who came to the 
place six years ago from Louisville, where he is 
well and favorably known, having been employed 
for many years as United States mail agent be- 
tween the cities' of Louisville and Cincinnati. 
He has in his possession a queer document, of 
which the following is a copy, and which, as the 
years go by, will become more and more a curi- 
osity, and interesting at all times, at Last to those 
who are immediately concerned: 

Know all men by these presents that I, J.imes Alexander, 
administrator of Eliza Cochran, deceased, have this day, 
sold to Joseph F. Campion for Eight hundred dollars, the 
receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, a Negro man 
named Abraham, about nineteen years of age. 1 warrant 
said man to be sound in body and mind, and a slave for 
life. 

Witness my hand and seal this day of January, r8j2. 

James C. Alexander, administrator 
of Eliza Cochran, dee'd, with will annexed. 

The above, it must be remembered, was exe- 
cuted in the State of Kentucky. 

THE UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH. 

The old Swedenborgian church, before men- 
tioned as having been established by Joseph 
Hay, was one of the earliest churches in the ter- 
ritory now embiaced in this township. It was 
established, organized, the building erected, and 
the church generally sustained, by Mr. Hay and 
the colony that he brought with him from En- 
gland. This church, however, never a very 
strong one, weakened and died after the demise 
of its founder, and the old log church stood 
empty and decaying several years, used, however, 
occasionally for religious purposes and public 
meetings of various kinds. Ministers of any de- 
nomination who happened along, were allowed 
the use of the building for holding meetings. 

In 1847, several members of the United Breth- 
ren church having removed into that neighbor- 
hood, a church was organized by John Adkins, 
a minister of the gospel, a farmer, and a son of 
one of the earliest settlers of the tow nship. 

For more than thirty years thereafter the old 
church served the purposes of the United Breth- 
ren; but in 1878 it was taken away, and the 
present building erected. 

The original members of the society in this 
neighborhood were John, Henry, and William 
Adkins and their families, George Mitchell, and 
some others. Thomas Conner was their first 



minister, and occupied the pulpit in 1847. John 
Adkins has been their leader and minister for 
many years, and the church is known as Adkins' 
chapel. The new church edifice, which stands 
on the site of the old one, is a neat, white, frame 
building, and cost about $1,000. Much of .the 
labor upon it, however, was contributed by the 
people ot the neighborhood. 

The Sunday-school was organized in 1866, by 
Miss Ulissa Adkins, a daughter of the minister, 
and has continued in a nourishing condition 
ever since. Its meetings are regularly held, and 
the scholars number sixteen. The membership 
of the church is at present fifteen. 

Henry Adkins came from Jefferson county, 
Kentucky, settling here in 1816. He was a sin- 
gle man, and married Nancy Chew, by whom he 
had eleven children, to wit: John, Preston, James, 
Emily, Aaron, Joseph, Amos, William, Sarah 
Ann, Margaret, and Henry. These are all dead 
but five, who are still residing in the township. 
William was killed at the battle of Guntown, 
Mississippi. Henry was also in the army, but 
came back safe at the close of the war. This 
township did its share toward putting down the 
great Rebellion, but the war history of the 
county appears elsewhere in this work. 

Adkins's chapel is not a strong church, as has 
been seen, but it is live, active, and well-sus- 
tained. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

Down the creek, about three miles below Ad- 
kins's chapel, stands a little, unpainted, desolate, 
deserted-looking frame building, known as the 
Bethel Presbyterian church. This church stands 
in the McCutchan neighborhood, where the first 
settlement in the township was made. Samuel 
McCutchan owned the land here, and gave the 
ground upon which the church stands. The 
McCutchan tract is now owned by George Scott. 

The Big Indian branches near this church, 
and the settlers for some distance up and down 
the creeks, come here to public meetings, to vote, 
and to attend church, though no regular preach- 
ing is maintained at present. 

The originators of this organization were the 
McCutchans, John Mackles, Gideon Adkins 
and wife, Joseph Minchell and wife, and some 
others. These were the earliest members, and 
but few of them are now living in the neighbor- 
hood. The present building was put up about 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3i7 



thirty years ngo. The Rev. Mr. Stewart was the 
first minister, and occupied the pulpit for many 
years. A Sabbath-school was maintained for a 
number of years, but for some time past has 
not been kept up. Indeed, it would seem- that 
■the neighborhood has not advanced much of late 
in a religious point of view, but has retiograded. 
The old church has not been occupied for sev- 
eral years, except by an occasional itinerant 
minister; the moss is growing over the steps, 
the weeds are taking possession of the grave- 
yard that surrounds the building; the creek 
winds about in front of it, the woods straggle 
around it, and the surroundings impress the mind 
with general decay and dilapidation. 

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

This church is located near the village of 
Mooresville and was established by Rev. John E. 
Noyes, being organized in the old brick school- 
house that stood on a lot given by James Moore 
for school purposes. The first ministers of the 
Gospel through this region were Methodists and 
United Brethren, the Rev. Mr. Elkenhaunch 
representing the former, and the Rev. Mr. Bone- 
brake the latter. The old brick school-house 
was used for religious purposes, and was the only 
church in the neighborhood for many years. The 



Methodists and United Brethren both organized 
societies here; but they long since disappeared 
under the preaching of Rev. Mr. Noyes, who or- 
ganized a Christian church on their ruins. For- 
ty or fifty members joined the society at its or- 
ganization, and it has continued a flourishing 
church. The Rev. Lemuel Martin afterwards 
preached for this congregation many years. The 
church edifice which stands upon the hill on the 
turnpike west of the village, is brick, and was 
erected in 1859. Walter Moore made the brick 
for this church. A Sunday-school is regularly- 
sustained, and the membership of the church is 
about one hundred. 

THE ADVENT CHURCH. 
The only remaining church in this township is 
the Advent, located about a mile south of Scotts- 
ville, It is a neat frame, painted, and was built 
about ten years ago. The original members 
were Robert Scott, Thomas Ferrell, James 
Brock, Richard Thompson, Mahala Adkins, and 
their families. Robert Scott is the leader. He 
was instrumental in establishing the church, and 
preached for the congregation many years. The 
Rev. Messrs. Morris Little and George Green 
were also among the ministers. There is no reg- 
ular preaching at present. 



TOWNSHIPS AND VILLAGES OF CLARK COUNTY, 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

BETHLEHEM TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION AXD DESCRIPTION". 
Lying in the extreme northeastern corner of 
Clark county, wholly outside the famous Grant, 
is Bethlehem township. It was organized in the 
spring of 1S16, being one of the four townships 
which were formed by the county commission- 
ers of that year. Its boundaries are somewhat 
different now from what they were then, as 
many, perhaps, as fifteen hundred acres of the 
original township now lying within the township 
of Owen. The first boundary lines ran as fol- 
low : 

Commencing on the Ohio at the upper line of the Grant, 
and running out with said line until it strikes Little Bull 
creek; thence up said creek to the head thereof; thence with 
the dividing ridge between Fourteen Mile creek and Camp 
creek until it strikes the upper line of the county, and thence 
with said line to the Ohio nver; which boundaries will com- 
pose one township, to be known by the name of Bethlehem. 

Like Washington township, it derived its name 
from a village which had been laid out within it 
before there was a separate organization and 
township lines were fixed definitely. That vil- 
lage was Bethlehem, platted in 1S12, and situ- 
ated on the Ohio river. The township is bounded 
on the north by Jefferson county; on the east by 
the Ohio; on the south by the Ohio river, Owen, 
and Washington townships. 

Bethlehem has some of the most remarkable 
features of any similar division of land in the 
State. The climate is all that a mild and equa- 
ble atmosphere coultl make it. Heavy dews 
are almost unknown, while fogs arc uncommon, 
even in that part farthest from the Ohio. People 
are generally healthy. 

The country in the interior, a short distance from the river, 

is an alluvium flat, which soon changes to tine, rolling lands. 

That the underlying or outcropping rocks, in a very great 

measure, determine the nature of the soil, is plainly seen in 

3 i3 



Floyd and Clark counties, where there are extensive out- 
crops of so many different formations, each giving rise to a 
characteristic soil. In the northeastern part of the county of 
Clark are the rich but narrow bottoms of Camp creek, lead- 
ing to the large but very fertile " Bethlehem bottom " on the 
Ohio river. These soils were enriched in ages past, and are 
destined to be forall time to come, by the weathering of the 
fossil corals and shell-beds ^of the Cincinnati group, which 
rocks, in this region, are from one to two hundied feet thick, 
and capped by magnesia n limestone beds one hundred feet 
thick. These lands will ever remain productive, as they are 
continually enriched by the disintegration of the rocks above. 
The soil is a dark loam, partaking of the shade of the lime- 
stones. 

The streams running into the Ohio [in Bethlehem town- 
ship] are tortuous in their course and diminutive in size, 
their fountain-heads being only two or three miles from the 
river, and they have worn their way with difficulty through 
the rocks. The inclination of the strata is to the southwest, 
carrying the drainage a few miles west of the Ohio river into 
the headwaters of Fourteen Mile creek. The dip of the strata 
in this region is to the southwest, at the rate of about twenty 
feet to the mile. In places along the Ohio river the rocks 
show in magnificent cliffs some two or three hundred feet ■ 
high. From the northeastern corner of the county the river 
flows along the line of strike in a southerly ditection ustil it 
reaches a point near (Jtica, where it is abruptly deflected to 
the west, and runs nearly with the dip of the strata as far as 
Xew Albany, where it is again deflected to the south.*" 

Little creek, one of the branches of Camp 
creek, heads in the extreme north line of the 
township, and flows in a. southerly course through 
the center of the tract. Knob creek empties in- 
to the Ohio a short distance above Bethlehem 
i village. It is a short stream, and has a rapid 
j current as it -comes out of the bluffs. Camp 
' creek skirts the township on the west, and near 
its mouth forms the boundary line between 
': Owen and Bethlehem. 

Along the margin of the streams and on the 

bluffs the timber consists of beech, white oak, 

[ buckeye, poplar and black walnut. Camp creek 

and Fourteen-mile creek are noted localities for 

"Professor William \V. Borden, in State Geological Re- 
I 
1 port for 1873. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



.19 



buckeye trees, many of which measure from 
three to four feet in diameter, and attain a height 
of fifty feet or more to the first limbs. 

On the high lands above the creek bottoms 
there was, in the earliest times, a thick growth of 
bushes. As the settlers worked their way into 
the interior of the township, many of these sap- 
lings were used for various purposes, but usually 
for hoop-poles, of which thousands were shipped 
to Louisville and the Ohio Falls cities. The 
rich alluvium soil was peculiarly adapted to the 
growth of briars, bushes, and undergrowth; but 
it was the upland which grew the thriftiest small 
hickories. 

ROADS. 

The village of Bethlehem had been laid out 
several' years before it had any regularly estab- 
lished highway connection with the towns up 
and down the river. The Ohio river was the 
great outlet, and served a hundred purposes 
which are to-day almost unknown. Madison, 
which lies some twenty-five miles up the river, 
was of more commercial importance to the first 
settlers of Bethlehem township than either 
Charlestown or Jeffersonville. This resulted 
mainly because the roads which led to it were 
decidedly better than those to the latter towns, 
and because it was some larger and more active 
during its early history than the towns in the 
southern part of the county. Consequently, as 
early as 1S18, a road was established, leading to 
Madison from Bethlehem, which was the first in 
the township. It ran over the best and highest 
land between the two places, following the river. 
As it approaches the village of Bethlehem, an 
interesting picture presents itself. The road 
begins its descent to the bottom, from a bluff of 
perhaps two hundred feet above low-water mark. 
The productive bottoms lie stretched out at ease, 
proud of their unwritten history, except from 
what we learn in geology. The river goes crawl- 
ing off lazily, while the steamboat and other 
craft occasionally remind you that civilization is 
near at hand. Soon after Charlestown and New 
Washington were laid out, roads were made con- 
necting with these places. That to the former 
place follows down the bottom until it passes 
Camp creek. Here it crosses a substantial iron 
bridge, and ascends a hill about a quarter of a 
mile in length, and so steep that only very light 
i')ads can be hauled up it. Camp creek is three 



miles south of Bethlehem village. It enters the 
Ohio between immense hills, with rocky ledges 
devoid ot all vegetation, from whose sides flow 
constant springs of water. A half-dozen houses 
and a district school stand in the narrow bottom. 
The road leading to New Washington and into 
the interior of the township follows up Camp 
creek at this point, soon ascending the high hills 
out of the creek bed, over which it passes in many 
places. It is located on the north side of the 
stream. The Madison road forks near the 
county line; or rather there are. cross-roads go- 
ing from the river to New Washington, and from 
Bethlehem village to Madison. Roads in this 
township are among the best, if not the very 
best, of any in the county. This is owing to its 
excellent drainage and its underlying limestone 
foundation. 

FERRIES. 

When the township was organized in 1816, 
Westport, which lay across the river in Kentucky, 
was one of the most enterprising ferries in Clark 
county. Eight years before it was the only regu- 
larly established ferry in the township. A Mr. 
Sullivan was in charge of it. In 1S11, one year 
before the village of Bethlehem was laid out, a 
ferry was established at this place, which has 
continued ever since, but with varying degrees of 
success. In 181 2, one mile below Bethlehem, 
Aaron Hoagland kept a ferry. These three fer- 
ries include those used first by early emigrants. 
When people began to settle more rapidly along 
the river it was often found, very convenient to 
have a family ferry, or one used by the neighbor-' 
hood generally. From these wants many ferries 
have ccme and gone. The Indian has taken 
his departure too, with his narrow canoe, which 
often darted down the Ohio with the lightness of 
a feather. ' 

MILLS. 

While the first ferry was in operation, in 1S08, 
Jacob Giltner erected a horse-mill on the north- 
west corner of section six. Here he worked on 
his farm and ground corn, buckwheat, and what- 
ever else the scattering farmers desired. In 
1820 he put up a saw mill near where Otto post- 
office now is. This mill was used by Mr. Gilt- 
ner and his sons till 1848, when his son George 
and Samuel C. Consley took possession of it, and 
carried on the business for a few years. Since 
this time it has passed through several changes, 



3 2 ° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



and is now owned and run by Mr. Samuel 
Stanshury. The old horse-mill has long since 
passed away. Peter Mikesell's horse-mill, which 
stood near the old Antioch church, was erected 
about the year 1S28. For many years it ground 
all the grains of the country, and it was not until 
1S44 ur 1S45 that it entirely ceased to run. 
Few of its beams and sills are now remaining. 
Levi Ogle's water-mill, which stood on one of the 
branches of Camp creek, was there in 1835, an d 
•probably some time before. 

Bethlehem township has no favorable mill 
sites. Her streams are small and have either 
tortuous or rapid currents. The Hatsell mill, on 
Camp creek, which is just on the border of the 
township, grinds most of the flour and meal for 
farmers in the western part of Bethlehem, while 
Jefferson county and Owen township mills divide 
almost equally the trade in the northern and 
southern half. 

STILL-HOUSES. 

It seems that distilleries were as necessary to 
the early settlers as mills. Joseph Jones was 
among those who began the manufacture of 
whiskey in this township. Jacob Giltner, also, 
in connection with his horse-mill, ran a small still. 
George Sage, an early settler, made whisky and 
brandy. DavidGlass, immediately on the hill above 
Bethlehem village and close to the Ohio river, 
more than forty years ago carried on distilling. It 
was at this still-house that the first blackberry 
brandy in the county was manufactured more than 
thirty-five years ago. Blackberries were plenti- 
ful that year, and this fact induced the distillers 
to make the experiment. The result was entirely 
satisfactory, and since that this time has been a 
leading industry with many small farmers in the 
township. 

Still-houses in the township, like those in all 
others of the county, were numerous and varied. 
Many of them were short-lived^ while some pros- 
pered, and returned handsome dividends to the 
proprietor. 

POTTERY. 

During the early times there were potteries in 
several portions of the township. They were 
begun by Mr. Samuel Youkin, in Bethlehem vil- 
lage; and after their success was assured, many 
of the farmers and tradesmen in the surrounding 
country engaged in the same business. The old 
Youkin pottery was transported to a Mr. Deitz, 



who ran it for some time, and later sold it to a 
Mr. Suttles. Both these gentlemen made the 
business a success. The old establishment is 
now used for other purposes. Isaac, Brownslow 
engaged in the pottery business about forty years 
ago, in the northwest corner of the township. 
The business and fixtures were sold to Mr. John 
Giltner finally, who did considerable work. In 
1840 there was another established at Otto by 
Mr. Eli Giltner. All have succumbed to time 
and the changes which modern civilization neces- 
sarily brings. 

THE PIONEER STOCKADE. 

There was never more than one well timed 
effort made to secure protection against the In- 
dians in Bethlehem township. The people of 
the surrounding country assembled and erected, 
shortly after the Pigeon Roost massacre, a stock- 
ade on the high land overlooking the Ohio river, 
on Robert Simington's place. The house was 
made of logs, and around it were placed small 
posts set in the ground so as to act as a complete 
barrier. In these posts, or rather between two 
of them, holes were cut, through which the men 
could shoot. When the massacre took place it 
gave great alarm to the people of the country, 
and many of them svere not long in crossing the 
Ohio into. Kentucky. Much of the excitement 
was created by flying rumors. After a few weeks 
the people returned, and as time went by natur- 
ally settled down again to hard work and money 
making. 

MOUNDS. 

On the old Simington place are two or three 
mounds which belong to an extinct race. They 
were pronounced by Professor Cox as belonging 
to the age of the Mound Builders. The larger 
one is about twenty-five feet one way and forty 
feet the other, on its base. Its height is from 
five to six feet. The site is well adapted for a 
view of the Ohio river in both directions. Also, 
on the old Bowman place, are four or five other 
mounds, from eight to ten feet in diameter and 
about half the distance in height. Two miles 
below Bethlehem, on the old Thomas Stephens 
place and one mile from the river, are more 
mounds. They all serve to awaken thoughts of 
prehistoric races, and to remind us that other 
people traversed these valleys long before we en- 
croached upon the rights of the red man. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



During the pioneer age schools were imper- 
fectly managed, and school-houses were rude 
affairs. But a few years elapsed after the town- 
ship was organized before people began to look 
after their educational interests. Schools were 
generally the forerunners of churches, at least in 
the case at hand. Before the Antioch' church had 
been thought of, a school was carried on near 
where the church now stands. The house was 
16 x 18 feet, and had a door which swung to the 
outside --a very rare thing, even in those back- 
woods days. Cyrus Crosby was the first teacher. 
After him came Thomas J. Clover; Dr. Solomon 
Davis, who now resides in Lexington; Rev. Ben- 
jamin Davis, a local Methodist preacher; and 
perhaps a few others. In 1832 Mr. Martin 
Stucker taught in a new hewed-log house. Then 
came Charles Smith, of New York State; Sam- 
uel C. Jones, of Kentucky, but at this time a 
citizen of the county, and who had been here as 
one of the very earliest teachers. Joel M. Smith 
came soon after Jones; he was a native of New 
York, but came with his father's family when 
a boy and settled near Charlestown. Thomas 
S. Simington taught in 1S39 and 1S40, and it 
was during his term that the old school-house 
burned down. Very soon thereafter another 
building was put up, in which Mr. George Mat- 
thews acted as teacher. After the new school law 
came into force a new district was created, and 
another building erected in a different place. 

Bethlehem township has six school districts, 
about two hundred and fifty school children, and 
nearly eight hundred inhabitants. Her schools 
are admirably managed, and are really the bright- 
est institutions of a public character in the town- 
ship. 

CHURCHES. 

The Methodist church in this end of the 
county sprang from a long series of successful 
revivals. On the same section where Jacob 
Ciltner ran his horse-mill in 1S0S, but on the 
northeast corner, lived Melsin Sargent. His 
house stood on the road which led to New- 
Washington, one and one-half miles from the 
present post-office of Otto. Sargent was one of 
the first Methodists in this end of the county, 
;md at his house the services of the denomina- 
tion were held for many years. His house was 



always open to preaching, and was the regular 
place of worship up to 1S36. Sargent moved to 
Jefferson county, Indiana, and died about thirty 
years ago. The people who gathered at Sar- 
gent's were of various religious professions. 
Many of the richest experiences of this class 
were enjoyed here, while the church was just be- 
ginning to feel the healthful currents of a sound 
body politic' From these meetings the New 
Hope Methodist Episcopal church sprang into 
existence; but during the time which elapsed 
previous to 1836, the year the church building 
was erected, services were often held in the 
dwelling houses of Michael Berry and Eli Wat- 
kins. The church is 30 x 40 feet ; was erected 
in the year above-mentioned, and was the first 
church of this denomination put up in the town- 
ship. The old house was used till 187 1, when 
it was replaced by another frame, 30x42 feet. 
Rev. Calvin Ruter was probably the first preacher. 
He was a man of great influence among the 
members, and afterwards became presiding elder. 
Rev. Samuel Hamilton succeeded Mr. Ruter as 
presiding elder. He also was much admired for 
his excellent character. Rev. James L. Thomp- 
son, John McRunnels, Thomas Scott, Allen 
Wylie, James Garner, and George Lock came 
in succession after Hamilton. Then came 
Enoch G. Wood, a person of great influence and 
possessed of an unblemished character. Rev. 
Joseph Taskington and John Miller were here 
in 1833 and 1834, the latter a man of many fine 
parts. Rev. Zachariah Games and Thomas. 
Gunn came next, Mr. Gunn preaching- in 1S35. 
Revs. George Beswick and McElroy (the latter 
an Irishman and by profession a sailor), John 
Bayless, W. V. Daniels, were all here in 1S36- 
37-38. Rev. John Rutledge served one year. 
After him came Rev. Isaac Owens, who preached 
in 1839-40-41. In 1S43 Charles Bonner served 
the people. Rev. -Constantine Jones was their 
circuit preacher for one year. Rev. Lewis Hul- 
burt, assisted by Elisha Caldwell, was the preach- 
er in 1844- 

Then came Revs. William McGinnis, L. V. 
Crawford, John Malinder, Dr. Talbott, E. Flem- 
ming, Amos Bussey, and William Maupin. 
These latter persons bring it down to 1S54. 
The first members were Eli Watkins, Melsin 
Sargent, John Tyson, Daniel Ketcham, Levi 
Ogle, Michael Berry, John W. Jones, and Samuel 



322 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Whiteside, all with their wives and a portion of 
their families. 

The New Hope Methodist Episcopal church 
belongs to the New Washington circuit. There 
is a Sabbath school connected with it, the' largest 
in the township. The success of the Sunday- 
school was due mainly to the efforts of Mr. Wil- 
liam Davis, a promising young man of the neigh- 
borhood, who died while earnestly engaged in so 
noble a work. He left behind him a character 
which is worth imitating by the young men of the 
school. 

The Baptist church, known as the Elizabeth' 
chapel, was erected in 1827. The size of the 
house was 24x34 feet, and it was built of logs. 
The members were known as the Hard-shell 
Baptist, the class being organized in the neigh- 
borhood several years before the church was 
erected. Their first minister was Rev. James 
Glover, who resided near the chinch, and acted 
as pastor till 1S5G, when he died. Among the 
first members of the Elizabeth church were 
Thomas J. Glover and Nancy his wife, John 
T. West and wife Catharine, Thomas West and 
Ann his wife, also Mary West his niother, now 
an old lady ninety-six years of age, John Ran- 
kins and wife, both of whom died of cholera in 
1833, and were buried in the same grave, and 
Thomas Scott and his wife. About forty years 
ago a division took place in the church, one-half 
of the members going over to the Christian 
church; and in 1848 the old building was 
abandoned and a new log house was put up one 
mile and a half further north. In 187 1 the old 
class united with the Zoar chapel, of Washington 
township. Since this time there has been con- 
siderable progress made in the way of adding to 
the church. There is a Sunday-school held in 
the old building at Zoar, which is well attended 
by the neighbors. 

The Christian Antioch chapel, erected some 
time in the thirties, stands on the road leading 
to Madison from Bethlehem. It is a frame 
building, capable of seating three hundred 
people, is situated handsomely, and has a small 
burying-ground in the rear. It was an offshoot 
of the New-lights and Baptists, and probably was 
put up about the time the accession was had from 
the latter denomination. The New-lights had 
preachers in the township as early as 181 5, but 
the class gradually went down, till at length it 



was absorbed entirely by the Christians. These 
two factions --one from the Hard-shell Baptists, 
the other from the New-lights — combined, and 
built Antioch chapel. Among the first preach- 
ers were Elders Henry Brown, a Mr. Hughes, 
and John McClung. James and William Ran- 
kins were members, with their families; also Mr. 
Brown and family. Some eight or ten years ago 
the old Antioch chapel was abandoned on ac- 
count of its weakness in membership and finan- 
cial matters, and the class-book and furniture 
taken to Bethel chapel, east of Otto. This 
church is in a nourishing condition, and since 
the accession from Antioch chapel has been 
very successful in receiving new members. 
To it is attached a good Sunday-school, well 
sustained and led by competent officers. Anti- 
och chapel has all the appearances of dilapida- 
tion. A few years more of ill-usage, and it will 
fall a prey to the invincible enemies, rain, snow, 
and freezing. It marks a site of many happy 
associations. The old school-house, the old 
church, the old graveyard — all will soon be 
among the things of the past. Their day is done, 
and their usefulness at an end. 

BURVING-GROUNDS. 

Before Bethlehem had been laid out, two 
brothers with their families, by the name of 
Wood, settled on the northeast corner of section 
thirty-one. One of their children died and was 
buried on their farm. This was the first white 
funeral in the township, if funeral it can be called. 
Sermons were then very rare, and preachers 
scarce. Funeral discourses were generally 
preached some time after the burying took place. 

On the farm of John W. Ross a gravevard 
was enclosed many years ago, and has met the 
wants of those in the neighborhood for a long 
time. 

At the mouth of Camp creek a burying-place 
was early established by the settlers. For many 
years it, too, has received the dead. On the farm 
now owned by J. C. Davis an old graveyard is 
in existence. These three are now but little used 
by the public. Their fences are old ; briars and 
bushes grow spontaneously where lie the dead of 
former generations. 

At Otto a burying-place is attached to the 
church, as also one to the church at Bethlehem. 
These two places are used most by the general 
public. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



323 



Many evidences of ancient burials have been 
found near the^ mounds which we have men- 
tioned. They are insignificant, however, com- 
pared to those found at the mouth of Fourteen- 
mile creek, in Charlestown township. Grave- 
yards have always been a necessity. We all 
need them, and it seems the Mound Builders 
were not excepted. 

VILLAGES. 

As one approaches Bethlehem village from the 
west, on the road which leads to New Washing- 
ton, winding down a long and steep hill for half a 
mile, a scene of rare grandeur greets the eye. 
A bottom of 'more than a thousand acres lies 
stretched out, divided into farms, well improved, 
with buildings and fences. Up to the left lies 
Bethlehem village, on the Ohio river. It is one 
of those scenes which would delight the eye of 
an artist; a picture of nature assisted by art — 
the finest in the county with one exception, and 
that on Camp creek, three miles below. 

Bethlehem was laid out in 181 2, four years be- 
fore Indiana became a State, and the same year 
of the memorable Pigeon Roost massacre. In 
the original plat there were one hundred and 
twenty-four lots. Near the center of the village 
is a public square, lying between Second and 
Third, and Main and Walnut streets. The 
streets begin their numbers from the Ohio as 
Front, Second, and so on. 

The Indiana Gazetteer for 1833 gives the place 
this notice : 

Bethlehem, a pleasant village on the bank' of the Ohio 
river, in the county of Clark, about fifteen miles northeast of 
Charlestown. It contains about three hundred inhabitants, 
amongst whom are mechanics of various kinds. 

It was not till 1873 tnat tne village made ap- 
plication for incorporation. During all this time 
it has seen the varying changes of fortune. All 
its life seemed to be within itself. Flat-boats and 
packets have made it a landing from the earliest 
times. Here gathered men of various temper- 
aments and tastes. But it was the storekeeper 
who first began business of a commercial nature. 
In 1 8 15 Willis Brown dealt out the coarser gro- 
ceries and some of the old kinds of dry goods. 
In 1824 Samuel Runyan met the wants of the 
people. Soon after him came Armstrong &: 
riaskett, who had a number of years before run 
the ferry. The firm was afterwards changed to 
vv - G. & T. P. Plaskett. In 1826-28 James 



Lemmon kept a store, and also a tavern. J. C. 
& S. I. Burns were storekeepers soon after Lem- 
mon. Abbott & Baker came next; then Abbott 
& Holby in 1S37; then Abbott & Woodfill. 
In 1S36 James Gilsin kept store; and since 
then have been many who established them- 
selves for a short time, and when a good trade 
could be made or a profitable sale, the business 
would be closed out. 

Bethlehem has had a peculiar experience in 
storekeepers. They were often men who had 
run the river a great portion of their lives, and 
who could entertain their customers by stories 
which now seem stranger than fiction. Such 
men gathered about them the boys of the vil- 
lage, the idle men, the farmer who was often in 
town on a rainy day, the hunter who scoured the. 
bluffs and uplands for game, and who came 
down to the store to get a half-pound of powder 
or shot. Everybody enjoyed their company, and 
it was their stories which often brought in many 
a sixpence. There are now five stores — those of 
B. W. Rice, John M. Steward, Richard Nash, 
Edward Parnett, and Louis Borschneck. There 
is considerable business done, but the profits are 
still small. 

Bethlehem was never a noted crossing place 
for emigrants on their way to this and the upper 
counties. The travel was of a local nature 
mainly, and came from the interior of the county 
and crossed the river on the ferry or took the 
boat for Louisville. Flezekiah Smith, however, 
was early engaged in tavern keeping here. In 
connection with his tavern he kept a few knick- 
knacks, and perhaps a place where the traveler 
might satisfy his thirst by a nip of toddy or apple- 
jack. John Fislar came next, who was succeeded 
by Smith in 1S34. He carried on business for a 
number of years. In 1S50 David E. Parnett 
met the public on hospitable grounds. Since 
1850 there have been numerous places of enter- 
tainment. B. W. Rice is most prominently en- 
gaged in tavern keeping at the present time. 

Blacksmiths were of little use to the settlers 
fifty years ago. Iron was scarce and difficult to 
obtain; so horses were left unshod, wagons often 
had tires made of saplings, and axles were known 
by the name of "thimble-skein." Robert B. 
Henry, who now resides in Kentucky, was the 
first man who hammered iron in Bethlehem vil- 
lage for a living. Twelve years after the place 



324 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



was founded John McQuilling, a man of consid- 
erable mechanical skill, carried on the black- 
smithing business in connection with a saw- and 
grist-mill, near town. Elijah Crammings and 
Samuel C. Gracy, the latter a good smith, were 
here before 1838. Blacksmithing has never 
been a very profitable trade in Bethlehem. 
There is now one shop under the management of 
Mr. James W. Jackson. 

There were always professional men in Bethle- 
hem after its success as a village had become 
assured. Drs. Fowler and McWilliams were 
among the early physicians; also Drs. Goforth, 
Flugh Lysle, and Andrew Davis, the latter of 
whom located in the village in 1S28. Dr. Davis 
died. in Bartholomew county, Indiana, about the 
close of the late war. Dr. Taylor piacticed 
medicine in the surrounding country in 1834. 
Dr. Gilpin located in the village in 1S37, but re- 
mained only for a short time. The next year 
came Dr. George O. Pond, of Massachusetts. 
In 1840 was Dr. Cummings, who married while 
here, and removed to Chicago in 1S46. In 186S 
he returned to Bethlehem, and died soon after. 
In 1852-53 Dr. John Y. Newkitk was a 
practitioner of medicine, but died in Bedford, 
Kentucky. The present physicians are Drs. 
McCaslin and Fritzlen. 

There are a few churches here, erected by 
different denominations or used jointly, and 
large enough to hold congregations without 
quarreling. But there are some who grow dis- 
satisfied, even before the church debt is paid off. 
This was the case with the Union church in 
Bethlehem. It was the Presbyterians who were 
first at this end of the township in establishing a 
Sunday-school; and it was the same class which 
had held meetings in one of the old school- 
houses in the neighborhood of Bethlehem many 
years before. Four different classes — Presbyteri- 
ans, Baptists, Methodist Episcopalians, and 
Protestant Methodists, united in 1 S 3 5 , and built 
the old Union chapel. It was a commodious 
brick house, 35 x 55 feet. Things moved rather 
harmoniously until 1 S5 r , when the crisis came. 
The Presbyterians pulled off and erected a 
church edifice of their own, a frame 36 X45 feet, 
and added a small but neat belfry. In the 
meantime the Baptist members had become few, 
and connected themselves with the Zoar chapel, 
of Washington township. The class, made up of 



the Zoar, Elizabeth chapel, and the Baptists of 
Bethlehem, now worship in a neat frame building 
iii Jefferson county, on the road leading to the 
Ohio from New Washington, which follows the 
line dividing Clarke from that county for several 
miles. The Protestant Methodists had met 
with many reverses, and their numbers were re- 
duced to less than a score. For some time they 
prospered, but it was only outside persecution 
which bound the members together. They are 
now few in numbers, and have no regular place 
of worship. 

The old Union church was maintained by the 
Methodist Episcopal class. It was used tip to 
May, i860, when a violent storm tore out one 
side and rendered it unfit for services. Eight 
years afterwards the same class erected another 
church, 20x40 feet, out of the debris, putting 
on a second story for a Masonic hall. On ac- 
count of failure to secure a charter, the lodge- 
room was never used. The Grangers have oc- 
cupied it to a certain extent; but that society, 
too, has gone the way of most other like institu- 
tions of the county. 

The Methodist Episcopal church stands in the 
southern part of the village. No special care is 
given to its fences, weather-boarding, or furniture. 
The class is disorganized, and many of its wheels 
are motionless. 

Bethlehem had a good school in 1S26, of 
which Samuel Cravens was teacher. The house 
was of brick, 24x30 feet, and stood in the out- 
skirts of the villnge below the present school 
building. Cravens was from Pennsylvania. 
Frederick D. Hedges, of Virginia; Mr. Sous, 
and a Mr. Arnold; Thomas P. Armstrong, a resi- 
dent and brother of William G., the founder of 
the village; and Mr. Daniels, were all here before 
1S33. Daniels was from Massachusetts. By 
this time the boys who had been scholars were 
able to take charge of schools. The Eastern- 
educated teachers therefore had few offers to 
teach after 1S34, the year in which Daniels 
taught. Andrew Rodgers, a brother of Moses 
Rodgers, an old citizen of the township, was the 
first home-educated teacher. He came from 
Tennessee when a small boy. Samuel Rodgers 
taught soon after; as also did Joel M. Smith, 
from Charlestown. So far he was the best 
teacher who had been in Bethlehem. He spake 
not with the exactness, however, of a college 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



32; 



professor, but rather with the ease of a well-edu- 
cated gentleman. L. 1). and C. P. Clemmons, 
brothers, followed soon after Smith. They were 
boys of the village. Mr. Samuel Manaugh be- 
gan teaching in 1841-42. For forty consecutive 
years he has been a teacher in the townships of 
Bethlehem, Owen, and Washington. Mr. Man- 
augh is modest, has a generous nature, and 
knows more of pioneer schools than any other 
teacher within the present boundaries of Clark. 

During early times schools were held only for 
a few months in the year. After the public 
school laws came into effect the old house was 
found too small to accommodate all the pupils, 
hence a new building, the present one, was 
erected in 1S62 by Mr. Isaac Ross. It cost 
$700, exclusive of the brick used in the former 
building. It stands a few rods northwest of the 
old school site. 

On the road leading to New Washington, 
more than forty years ago, an academy was 
erected and set in motion by Mr. Thomas Ste- 
phens, a wealthy farmer. The house can be seen 
now, standing on the right of the road at the 
foot of the hill as one comes off the hills to the 
bottom. For ten years the Stephens seminary 
was very successful, but only as long as the Ste- 
phenses were scholars. After a short trial to make 
it a township, and even a county affair, the proj- 
ect was abandoned. Mr. Stephens soon moved 
to a different region, and the old seminary was 
converted into a dwelling house. It is now 
occupied by the widow, Mrs. L. D. Clemmons. 

It is a brick building, two stories high, and 
has a number of rooms. But no one, unless told 
of it, would suspect himself so near the old Ste- 
phens seminary. 

The original mail-route had for its termini 
Vevay and Jeffersonville. The mail-carrier 
passed through Charlestown, Bethlehem, and 
Madison. This route was begun about 1827, 
and lasted till 1840. Mr. Cole, of Vevay, who 
rode a horse and behind him carried the familiar 
saddle-bags, was perhaps the first mail-carrier on 
this route. Mr. George Monroe, of Saluda 
township, Jefferson county, carried the mail in 
'834-3$. Soon after the mails came from New 
Washington, which belonged to the Lexington 
route. In 1S64 the Otto post-office was estab- 
lished. After the Ohio & Mississippi branch was 
opened and the post-office established at Otisco 



the mails came from that point. The first 
postmaster at Otto was Jacob G. ConsEy; 
second, John B. Acree ; third, Miss Lucinda Mc- 
Farland ; fourth, William H. Boyer, who is the 
present incumbent. 

William G. Armstrong was probably the first 
postmaster in Bethlehem village. In 1X35 the 
office passed into the hands of Asa Abbott; in 
184c Milburn T Abbott acted as postmaster; 
P. B. Baldwin was in' charge at the beginning of 
1851; John G. Newkirk in 1853; JohnT. Baker, 
Samuel Parnett, and B. W. Rice came in succes- 
sion; then Parnett again; then Miss Adeliah H. 
Dailey, then Rice, and now the present post- 
master, John M. Stewart. The old Armstrong 
post-office was kept in the frame building which 
is now occupied by Parnett's grocery. Asa 
Abbott kept the office in the store now occupied 
by B. W. Rice, and Milburn Abbott in various 
places, but for the longest time in the house 
now used by Mr. Borschneck as a shoe-shop. 
Milburn Abbott had a deputy, Mr. Armstrong, 
who did most of the work. For some time he 
i kept the office in a building known as the Fislar 
house, which burned in 1856; also for a few 
months in a dun store-house standing on the 
corner of Second and Main streets. Newkirk 
kept the office in a room over Fislar's tavern. 
Baker kept down on Walnut street, in a brick 
store built by Asa Abbott in 1S52 or 1853, 
and which was the largest house in Bethlehem. 

Later years have found the post-office in vari- 
ous places, but geneially in the house where the 
postmaster lived. Since 1827 there have been 
many changes in the postal system of the United 
States. The saddle-bags have been displaced by 
the locomotive with its train of cars. "Star 
routes" have largely become facts of history, and 
all the later and' more rapid modes of transit are 
now used by the geneial public. 

In 1S56 a violent fire burned down one en- 
tire block in Bethlehem, including the old busi- 
ness houses named above. Since that time all 
but four of the families who were there then 
have moved away or passed to that "bourne 
from whence no traveler returns." The four are 
as follows : Abram Smith, John Parnett, Mrs. 
Ross, and Mrs. Radley. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

Jacob Giltner, Sr., came from Kentucky to 
Clark county about 1S08, but was born in Penn- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



sylvania in 1767, and was what is known as a 
Pennsylvania Dutchman. His wife, Elizabeth 
Donagan, was from Lancaster county, of the 
same Stste. When the family came to Clark 
county there were four in the household- -two 
daughters, Elizabeth and Mary, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Ciltner. George Giltner, the only son, 
who now lives in Washington township, was born 
the 3d of June, 1S1S. Elizabeth lives in Wash- 
ington township with one of her sons ; Mary lives 
.in the Bethlehem bottoms with one of her chil- 
dren. 

Jacob Giltner bought three quarter-sections of 
land at the land office in Jeffersonville. Lor 
many years after becoming a resident of the 
township he ran a distillery in connection with 
farming. By trade he was a linen-stamper, when 
goods were made of that kind by the pioneers. 
During the War of 1S12 he was drafted, but on 
account of a physical disability was exempted. 
He was a member of the Lutheran church, and 
died in 1S59. Mrs. Giltner died a few months 
after her husband, in the same year. 

William Kelly, Sr., was born in Virginia, but 
was taken to Kentucky by his parents when a 
child, and came to Clark county in 1S06. He 
married Margaret Kelly, who bore him thirteen 
children, four dying in infancy, the remaining 
nine growing up to maturity. There are only 
four of the family alive — Mary, William, John, 
and Harriet. He located one mile and a half 
northwest of Bethlehem village, before the land 
was surveyed. When the surveys were com- 
pleted he attended the public sales in Jefferson- 
ville in 1809, but previously hid made no clear- 
ing, on account of the uncertainty of getting the 
land desired. He bought two quarter-sections, 
and -began the work of improvement. He died 
June 27, 1S57. Mrs. Kelly died September 13, 
1854. 

William Kelly, Jr., was born August 12, 1S12, 
and married Elizabeth Starr, whose maiden name 
was Hammond, May 4, 1S5S. There are but 
few of the Kellys left in the county. 

William, son of Archibald and Sarah Hamil- 
ton, was born near Franktort, Kentucky, Oc- 
tober 10, 1790. When twenty-two years of age 
he emigrated with his mother and two sisters to 
Bethlehem township, landing at the mouth of 
Knob creek March 25, 1812. The Ohio river 
at that time made landing easy by the backwater 



up these small streams. He immediately opened 
a tannery on one of the branches of Knob creek, 
which he ran till his death in 1845. His son 
John T. continued in the business of his father 
up to 1S65, when the old tannery was abandoned 
for more lucrative employment. William Ham- 
ilton married Margaret Byers (who was born 
near McBride's Mill, Woodford county, Ken- 
tucky, April. 4, 1795, and who came to Jeffeison 
county, Indiana, in 1 Si 6), October 30, 1821. 
Mrs. Hamilton died May 9, 1875, near Otto. 
By this marriage seven children were born — John 
T., William L., Robert B., Susan B., Susan Ann, 
Archibald, and one whose name is not given. 

John T. Hamilton was born August 14, 1822. 
He has never married. In the various walks of 
life he has taken an active part. In pioneer his- 
tory he is the best-informed man in this end of 
the county, with the exception of Colonel Adams. 
For sixteen years he has been a notary public. 
He also is conespondent of several newspapers 
for his section. Robert B. Hamilton was born 
March 1, 1S30. Susan B. was born August 19, 
1831. These two brothers and one sister live 
together, none of whom ever married. 

Robert Simington was a settler and an owner 
of land in the township in 1805, though his 
claim was subject to dispute after the public sales 
in 1809. He owned seven hundred and fifty- 
acres in fractional sections thirty-two and thirty- 
three. In 1 S 1 1 William Hamilton purchased of 
him one hundred and eleven acres. He also 
sold two hundred and twenty acres to Joseph 
Bowman, and one hundred and sixty acres 'to 
John Boyer, a blacksmith, who opened a shop 
on the southeast comei of section thirty-one. 
This land is now covered by fine orchards, 
peaches being the principal fruit. Simington left 
in 181 7, after selling most of his property, and 
settled one mile beyond Hanover, in Jefferson 
county, Indiamij where he died in 1849. 

The Abbotts were among the first men of 
their day, considered in the light of sportsmen. 
John Abbott was the ancestor of the Abbotts m 
this county, and from him descended many of 
the same name. 

John Thisler began clearing off land below 
Bethlehem at an early day. The old farm now 
runs up close to the village; but he is dead. 

Moses Rodgers was among the first and most 
successful of the early settlers. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



327 



Lucas and William Plaskett, the latter a flat- 
boatman, were here seventy odd years ago. 

All these men, with their wives and families, 
took an active part in preparing the way for 
future generations ; and to their credit it can be 
truly said, they did. their work well. Let us see 
that posterity shall improve on the past. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

CARR TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION. 



This township lies in the western half of the 
•county. It was organized in 1854, being struck 
off almost entirely from the eastern side of Wood. 
It has an area of nearly twenty-seven square 
miles, or over seventeen thousand acres. It is 
bounded on the north by Wood, Monroe, and 
Union townships; on the east by Union and 
Silver Creek townships; on the south by Floyd 
county; and on the east by Wood township. 
The boundaries are very irregular on the north 
and east sides. They are set forth in. language 
something like the following: 

Beginning on the line which divides Clark from Floyd 
county, and on the line which divides sections nineteen and 
. twenty, and from thence running north until it strikes the 
southwest corner of section thirty-two; thence east and 
thence north to where tracts numbers two hundred and fifty, 
two hundred and thirty-four, and two hundred and thirty-five 
corner; thence south, with variations, till it strikes the Muddy- 
fork of Silver creek; thence with that stream, with its meau- 
derings, to the south side of tract number one hundred and 
sixty-six; thence west, with variations, to the county line of 
Floyd, near St. Joseph's hill; and thence with the dividing 
line between Clark and- Floyd counties to the place of begin- 
ning. 

This township is composed mostly of sections, 
though there are four or five of the Grant tracts 
lying along the eastern side of the township. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

The knobs strike Carr close to the southeast 
corner and trend with Muddy fork, passing into 
Wood township. Then they return again after 
making the circle above New Providence to en- 
ter the township on the north, a mile or so south 
°f the base line, north of Muddy fork, and 
hend off toward the township of Monroe. In 
the southwest corner of the township are more 



than four thousand acres occupied entirely by the 
knobs, and perhaps in the northeastern corner as 
many as three thousand acres, almost worthless, 
for the same reason. 

But what the knobs lose in productiveness 
they have gained in the beauty of their scenery. 

These knobs are the striking natural features 
of the county, as well as the township. The 
Muddy Fork valley is possibly the line of the 
drift extending from the upper counties, and the 
summit from which the icebergs began their 
rapid descent into the great Ohio and Mississippi 
valleys. The country around the Falls is very 
rich in opportunities for geological research. 

Nearly half a century ago John Works, the fa- 
mous miller of Charlestown township, exam- 
ined the iron ore in this section, and pronounced 
it of excellent quality. The ore crops out in al- 
most every ravine in this region, and is every- 
where of the same general character, containing 
the same quantity of iron. The Geological Re- 
port says : 

Another deposit of iron ore, of considerable extent, is seen 
on the land of Allen Harriett, near Broom hill, on the Xew 
Albany & Chicago railroad. Some of this ore has rather a 
peculiar structure, and is made up entirely of an aggreg ition 
of coarse particles of hydrated brown oxide. It is what is 
usually denominated " kidney ore," and is scattered pro- 
fusely over the surface. The whole country at the base of 
the knobs, where the Xew 1'rovidence shale outcrops, is a 
rich iron ore. It accumulates in the ravines and valleys by 
the washing down of the formation which contained it, and 
is generally easy of access. 

The Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis, the Louis- 
ville, Xew Albany & Chicago, and the "V" of the Ohio & 
Mississippi railroad are about ten miles apart in the county. 
They all pass through the district containing these ore seams', 
and afford a ready means of shipment to the blast furnaces 
now in operation in this State. 

It is probable that the Xew Providence shale, on account 
of its mineral constituents, and being highly fossiliferous, 
will make a good fertilizer. 

Mr. Allen Barnett, of whom the Assistant 
State Geologist speaks, bought land in the New 
Providence valleyjo a considerable extent sev- 
eral years ago, and intended to open a furnace; 
but on account of old age and declining health 
the scheme was never carried into execution. 

The geologist says of the county that it " has 
unlimited quantities of superior iion ore, cement 
rock, beautiful marble, the best of building rock, 
superior lime-prcducing rock, and excellent glass 
sand;" and nowhere is this more true than along 
the knob system of the Muddy Fork valley. 

That part o( the township included in the 



3 = 8 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Muddy Fork valley is not generally productive. 
Formerly, however, all the cereals were raised in 
abundance. The soil is cold, and its fertility is 
very much impaired on account of long service. 
Many fauns in the neighborhood of Broom Hill 
and Bennettsville have been in constant use for 
more than fifty years. It is here that many of 
the early settlers began agricultural pursuits; and 
here, too, their children have remained, follow- 
ing, in most cases, the vocation of their parents. 

STREAMS AND SPRINGS. 

The Muddy Fork of Silver creek passes 
through the township very nearly in an easterly 
course, dividing the township into halves. On 
either side a valley follows, from one half to 
three-quarters of a mile in width. Muddy fork, 
in Carr township, has many characteristics pe- 
culiar to the Nile in Egypt. Its tributaries are 
small and generally unimportant. The most 
noticeable are Stone lick and Turkey run, both 
flowing from the north. In the southwest corner 
of the township Big Indian creek flows off into 
the county of Floyd. Along the base of the 
knobs there are many evidences, to a traveler on 
the railroad, indicating that a pretty large stream 
flows thereat. This deception is a subject of 
frequent remark by persons unacquainted with 
the surface of the country. 

Many springs of decided medicinal qualities 
flow from the fissures previously mentioned as 
being overlaid with seams of iron. "One of the 
most noted of these springs is situated on tract 
number two hundred and thirty-four of the Grant, 
in the extreme northwestern corner of the town- 
ship. The water has been analyzed by the State 
Geologist, and found to contain the following: 
Alumina and oxide of iron, 2.001 grains; sul- 
phate of lime 71.S06 grains; sulphate of 
magnesia, 429.66 grains ; chloride of sodium, 
286.09 grains ; sulphate of sodium and potash, 
204.4 grains ; total 993.957. This mineral 
has a similar composition to that from which 
the celebrated Crab Orchard salts of Kentucky 
are made. It is in good demand and has been 
shipped to the cities about the falls and to other 
parts of the State. 7 ' 

The results produced from the use of this 
water have been remarkable. This is especially 
true where a simple alterative or cathartic is re- 
quired. To the cure cf scrofula and some of the 



skin diseases it is peculiarly adapted. The future 
of these springs depends largely on the enter- 
prise of the owners. Their shipments are con- 
stantly increasing as the reputation of the waters 
spreads, and within a quarter of a century these 
springs may become notable health resorts. • 

Another spring, of equal medicinal qualities, is on the 
farm of John Stewart, north of Henryville. Augustus Reid, 
'of Monroe township; and Parady Payne, a short distance 
from Blue Lick post-office, have springs, the waters of which 
also contain the same medicinal properties. This medicinal 
water, as predicted by Professor K. T. Cox, has been found 
at Xew Providence by deepening the well at Mri T. 5. 
Carter's slave factory, and, no doubt, will be found over the 
entire shale of the region. 

TIMBER AND UNDERGROWTH. 

The first growth of timber was composed of 
oak, white and red; button-woods, mere com- 
monly known as sycamore; chestnut, which grew 
mainly on the knobs; white and blue ash; poplar, 
though never in large quantities; a good many 
birch, some few sugar and maple trees, and a 
sprinkling of others, peculiar to this climate and 
soil. During the first half of this century a very 
large business was carried on in cutting timber 
for steamboat building at the Falls. The rail- 
road also contracted for large supplies in ties 
and bridge timber. Cooper shops also are, and 
have been, continually using the best of the oaks 
for barrels, cooper shops being scattered over 
the township in every direction. Much of the 
finest timber is already cut. The forest has un- 
dergone very great changes during the last three 
decades. Rails for fences are being considered 
of more value than formerly, and every caution 
is taken to prevent their untimely destruction. 

The undergrowth, during the early times, was 
not particularly noticeable. The nature of the 
soil seemed to preclude any rank growth of 
bushes, briars, weeds, or anything tending to 
obstruct the view in the forest. There was, 
however, always a sufficient growth of vegetation, 
which when it decayed affected the health of the 
people materially. The forest of sixty or seventy- 
years ago in the Muddy Fork valley was open ; 
the top of the ground was covered with a thick 
coating of leaves, and in many places the fallen 
timber made traveling, even on foot, almost im- 
possible. There were also in the spring large 
bodies of water spread out over the level upland. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

The first road led from Jeffersonville to Vin- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



329 



cennes, and from Charlcstown to Salem. The 
former crossed the township in the southwestern 
corner, and passed over but a few miles of its 
territory ; the latter entered the township on the 
eastern side, and passed westwardly by New Prov- 
idence. The Jeffersonviile and Vincennes road 
was the great thoroughfare between these two 
points. It was traveled a great deal before rail- 
roads came to be generally recognized as a means 
of transit. Judges, lawyers, ministers, team- 
sters, and the tide of emigration which was then 
moving on toward the Wabash and Illinois rivers, 
were constantly passing over it. There was never 
any well-graded track. At first the road led up 
ravines, across clearings, and through patches of 
timber, and then, perhaps, for a mile or more 
followed down a stream into a bottom, thus con- 
tinuing to its terminus. 

The Charlcstown road had moie a local char- 
acter, though it was used much by the citizens of 
the county-seats. Before the courts were taken 
to Jeffersonviile, this was the road to reach the 
offices of the county at Charlestown. 

In building the Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago railroad through the township the peo- 
ple generally granted the right of way. In some 
few instances objectors delayed its success. 
It brought the people of Carr township into 
closer communication with the outside world, 
from which all their lives they had been stran- 
gers. 

There are in the township six and eighty-three 
hundredths miles of railroad. The railroad en- 
ters the township at the southeastern corner, fol- 
lows up the Muddy Fork valley, and passes 
through the center of it, as does the Muddy 
fork, though in a more direct route. In the 
township there are 'four stations, named in order 
from the east: Bennettsville, which is the most 
prominent; Wilson's, about two miles above; 
Petersburgh, or Muddy Fork post-office ; Broom 
Hill, which lies very nearly on the line between 
Wood and Carr. Trains are run with consider- 
able regularity, but on account of the road-bed 
fast time is seldom made. One of the remarka- 
ble features of this railroad is that it has no 
branches of any size between Louisville and Chi- 
cago. Neither of the above stations is a great 
shipping point. Bennettsville is of little impor- 
tance; Broom Hill is the more prominent. Here 
are cooper shops and a stave factory. 



MILLS. 

It will be remembered that Carr is a compara- 
tively new township. What belongs to the town- 
ships of Wood and Charlestown is particularly 
applicable to Carr — especially so in reference to 
mills and still-houses. Among the first mills was 
one owned and run by J. Merrill. It stood in 
the northeast corner of the township, and was 
familiarly known as Merrill's horse-mill. Merrill 
came from New York State. He was a man well 
known on account of his wit, which came finally 
to be a proverb, as, "You are Jay Merrill witty." 
The old mill remained in its position until about 
1850, when it was torn down, and the same sills 
or beams were converted into other houses, pig- 
pens, stables, and so on. 

The Shoemakers engaged in milling in Carr 
township quite early, as also did John Jackson. 
The latter owned an overshot mill on Muddy 
fork, one-half mile below Bridgeport, more than 
forty years ago. Jackson's mill is now non-exist- 
ent. 

Lewman Griswold had an overshot mill on 
Muddy fork two and a half miles below Bridge- 
port, as early as 1S30. The old building is yet 
standing and in running order. Owen Shoe- 
maker has it in charge. Griswold's mill has 
many associations which naturally make it inter- 
esting to youth. The old-fashioned overshot 
wheel, as it turns slowly but surely with a creak, 
a sort of jerk, excites many strange notions of 
pioneer life. Young men with their future wives, 
picnics made up of boys and girls of the country, 
often assemble here to view about the only re- 
maining memento of pioneer days in this end of 
the county. 

The old Shoemaker steam flouring- and grist- 
mill, standing on the Louisville, New Albany, 
& Chicago railrdad, at Watson's Station, and 
also on Muddy fork, was erected about twelve 
years ago by Harmon Shoemaker. It was thought 
the country could support one first-class mill on 
this side of the county, but the experiment was un- 
satisfactory. After three or four years of varying 
success the mill was abandoned, the machinery 
taken out and placed in a more favorable loca- 
tion. Shoemaker's mill was the only steam flour- 
ing-mill ever in the township. Just below the old 
building, a handsome iron bridge spans Muddy 
fork. The road leads to the Blue Lick country, 
and the village of Memphis, in Union township. 



33° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Many of the first settlers engaged in distilling. 
Corn, however, was never a great staple. It is 
only along the bottoms that a good- crop is 
•generally raised. These being narrow, they 
have always been divided in raising wheat, rye, 
some oats, a little barley, a . good many potatoes, 
and garden vegetables, the latter being marketed 
to the cities at the Falls. 

"There was a time when our people thought 
they could not live without whiskey. That time, 
however, is past. Farmers now regard the cus- 
tom of treating harvest hands as out of date.'' 
"Whiskey," says another early settler, "was one of 
our staple productions. It was a source of in- 
come, and we depended to a very great extent 
for our living upon its sale. But our whiskey- 
was pure then, compared with what it is now; 
we had nothing but the purest, and one in drink- 
ing it was generally benefited!" Many of the 
first settlers regarded the bottle as a necessary 
part of the household. All the ills of the chil- 
dren were dosed by the whiskey bottle. All 
prominent farmers, and men who possessed a few 
thousand dollars, had a barrel of good brandy, or 
its equivalent, in their cellar. A long glass tube, 
from three to eight inches in length, with a string 
tied around the upper end below the shoulder, 
was always on hand. The special friend was 
taken into the cellar or an out-house, the proof- 
bottle, as it was called, was dropped into the bar- 
rel from the bung-hole, and drawn forth filled 
with the most delicious of drinks. People then 
regarded drinking in a far different light from 
what they do now. It was customary for the 
preachers themselves to indulge in drinking. 
Many of them even carried on distilling. Many 
of them, too, were considered true, unaffected 
Christians. 

Perhaps the most prominent of all the dis- 
tillers in the township was Charles Goatman. 
His still-house was south of Bridgeport three- 
fourths of a mile. It was here during the late 
war, when the increase of taxes necessitated a 
suspension of business. Distilleries in Clark 
county, as well as in Carr township, are now a 
nullity. 

TAVERNS. 

John Slider was perhaps the original tavern- 
keeper in the township. His place ot business 
was on the Jeffersonville and Vincennes road, in 
sight of Bennettsville. He was here in 1S25. 



The original tavern was built of logs. As busi- 
ness increased, Mr. Slider made a frame addition 
to the log house, converting the only room above 
into six sleeping compartments. The style of 
public houses in those days was to have but one 
room in the upper story. Here all travelers were 
put, and among the promiscuous sleepers .there 
was always some notorious rake, who delighted 
to disturb the tired and worn-out emigrant. The 
old " Slider Hotel," as it was called, was the last 
of a prominent list of stopping places on the 
road between the two above-named towns. 
Slider was here fifteen or twenty years. During 
that time all the marketers, teamsters, hog-drivers, 
many of the public men, and the public gener- 
ally, stopped with "Old John Slider." 

On the New Albany and Salem road, near 
Bridgeport, James Warman kept tavern. War- 
man's tavern was a great place for travelers. In 
the language of another, " it resembled very 
much the country fairs of later date." Nothing 
was more common than to see, a few hours be- 
fore sunset, a four-horse, white-covered wagon, 
with arched bows, drive up before the tavern 
and make inquiries for the "old man." The 
old man was Mr. Tames Warman. The wagon- 
yard, with its complement of turkeys, geese, 
ducks, a drove of speckled chickens, old broken 
dishes, and very often a supply of mud, a little 
beyond what many look for now in similar 
places, made the place rather amusing, even to 
the hog-drover. Warman was a favorite with his 
guests. His table had the food which most of 
his guests liked, and his feather beds were de- 
lightful places for a weary teamster to sleep. 

SCHOOLS. 

In the township there are six school districts 
and over four hundred school children. The 
educational affairs are manged admirably. Peo- 
ple are advanced as far educationally in Carr as 
in any township in the county. 

VILLAGES. 

Bennettsville is the only place in the township 
which claims to be a village, and it has but forty 
or fifty citizens. It was laid off in September, 
1S3S, by H. O. Hedgecoxe, county surveyor, for 
Baily Mann. The first name given to the new- 
born village was New Town. After several years 
the name was changed, Bennettsville being 
thought preferable to the name of New Town. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



33i 



Benedict Nugent, who was the first store-keeper 
in the village, probably had much to do indirect- 
ly with the changing of the name. The evidence 
is that Mr. Mann removed to some other locality, 
and that Mr. Nugent being the most prominent 
man in the place, the citizens, for some reasons 
peculiar to a pioneer people, almost unawares 
gave it the name of Bennettsville, a prolongation 
of Mr. Nugent's given name. 

The original plat does not give the width of 
.the streets and avenues. In finding the direc- 
tion which Washington street takes with refer- 
ence to section lines, subtract the variation 5° 50' 
from field note north 30° 45' west. 

Bennettsville is located on the railroad. It 
has few features which attract attention. There 
is no station, except a platform, which furnishes 
a place for boarding or alighting from the cars. 
The knobs, only a mile or a mile and half west 
of the village, add a sort of picturesqueness to 
its surroundings. Muddy fork goes crawling oft" 
lazily toward the Ohio. The railroad cuts the 
village in twain. A few straggling houses along 
the railroad are about all there is of Bennetts- 
ville. Most of the citizens are Germans or of 
Irish extraction, engaged mainly in coopering 
and working on the railway section. There is a 
post-office, one store only, no blacksmith's shop 
or saloon. 

Benedict Nugent, the first storekeeper, dealt 
out dry goods, groceries, whiskey, powder, and 
ball in a little frame house which stood on the 
east side of the railroad, but outside of the village 
limits. Baily Mann was also an early store- 
keeper. His place of business was on the 
west side of the railroad, in a little frame house, 
but the inside of his building was of logs — a log 
house weather-boarded. In 1S4S a Mr. York 
was here engaged in store-keeping close to 
Mann's. Elias Struble followed soon after, 
keeping in Mann's old store-room. C. P. Wha- 
len was here in 1S51, also in the old Mann 
building. The present store is kept by Mr. 
Charles Burr. 

Schools in Bennettsville were established soon 
after the village was platted. The first school- 
house stood on the road leading hence to Little 
\ ork, in Washington county. It is yet standing, 
out is used for a residence. 1 he present school- 
House was erected in 1S75. It stands near the rail- 
road, in the southeast corner of the village. It 



is a pretty white frame, and has one room. 
Among the first teachers here were Messrs. 
Boiles and Lipscom; also Misses Hall and 
Nesbit. 

The Baptist church of Bennettsville was erect- 
ed in 184S. It stood on the west side of the 
railroad, in the village. The house was a frame, 
capable of seating three or four hundred people. 
Andrew Nugent and wife; Bryant Deton's family, 
including himself; John Jackson and family; and 
L. B. Huff and family, were among the first 
members. The old church is yet standing, but 
in a dilapidated condition. It is seldom used, 
except for an occasional sermon or a temperance 
lecture — the latter hardly needed by the people 
in this vicinity. 

At one time Bennettsville had a thriving pop- 
ulation of one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
inhabitants. They were engaged in various pur- 
suits, such as coopering, dealing in railroad sup- 
plies, selling goods to the hands employed by the 
railroad, and in barter generally. The village 
has now all the evidences of death — death which 
comes from a lack of energy and disposition to 
upbuild and maintain the interests of society. 
The village needs a thorough renovation and a 
complete change to make it prosperous and 
happy. 

Broom Hill lies in the western part of the 
township, in the southeast corner of section five 
and the northwest corner of section eight, on the 
Louisville, New Albany & Chicago railroad. It 
was begun in 1S51 by Thomas Littell, who lived 
in this immediate neighborhood. Here h'e 
began the making of brooms, and from this 
circumstance the village derived its name. But 
Littell was not the first settler in this locality by 
any means, though he built the first house in the 
village and opened the first store. Littell's house 
stood on the north side of the railroad. Previ- 
ous to Littell, about the year 1S09, one Michael 
Burns, of Connecticut, settled here and built a 
cabin on the site of Broom Hill, on the south 
side of the railroad. Austin Rowe was a store- 
keeper after Littell, in the same building which 
is now occupied for store purposes. 

Broom Hill has had many small manufact- 
ories. William Leighton, in the former part of 
its history, put up a shingle machine. He also 
erected a grist-mill and afterwards attached to it 
a stave factory. At one time a thriving portable 



332 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



saw-mill was run by the Bussey brothers. It 
lasted for a few years only. After the Bussey 
brothers William McKinley and Michael Burns 
erected a saw-mill. The business done at this 
mill was considerable. 

Blacksmith shops, shoemaker shops, and the 
various trades have been carried on in the vil- 
lage, though never on a very extended scale. 
Broom Hill is noted as once being the seat of 
extensive railroad supplies. During the first few 
• years of the railroad the village furnished more 
wood than any other station on the road. The 
introduction of coal as fuel on locomotives dam- 
aged this trade considerably, though it is still a 
successful branch of business. Broom Hill has 
forty-five inhabitants. 

Bridgeport, much like Broom Hill, came into 
existence about the time the railroad was built. 
The section hands created a demand for many 
of the coarser wares, and hence, as a result, 
Samuel Plummer, of this section, began to sell 
various things, such as shovels, picks, spades, 
drills, and crowbars, to the men employed by 
the railroad. Mr. Plummer died before the road 
was completed, and the store fell into the hands 
of his brother Charles. Soon after it was fin- 
ished James Warrnan erected a warehouse on 
the north side of the track. Here were stored 
various grains, the house serving as a kind of 
"depot for supplies" for the people round about. 
Wesley Warrnan was a storekeeper here about 
this time, or soon after the old warehouse was 
erected. After many changes in the old ware- 
house, it was remodeled so as to be used for 
store purposes alone. A few years after Mr. 
Charles Warman's death, in 1870, his son Albert 
put up the present store-house. 

More than thirty years ago a log school-house 
stood in Bridgeport, in the southern side of the 
village. Messrs. Marcus Story, James O. P. 
White, and McKinley, were among the first 
teachers. After the new school laws were en- 
forced the old school-house gave place to a new 
frame, and the district was changed so as to 
bring the new site outside of the village limits. 

There are two churches in the village — the 
United Brethren and the Church of God. The 
former of these was organized in 1873, two 
years before the present house was elected. The 
first members were William Jackson and family, 
Jacob Hemelheber and wife, and William Waid. 



Rev. Thomas Lewellen, the famous circuit 
preacher of Monroe township, was the first min- 
ister in charge, as really he was the organizer of 
the class. There are about fifty members on 
the register; the church belongs to the New 
Albany circuit; it stands one-fourth of a mile 
south of the village. It is a frame building. A 
thriving Sunday-school of thirty or forty mem- 
bers is heldregularly, and is non-sectarian. 

The Methodist Episcopal, or, as it is often 
called by those who are not members of any 
church, the Church of God, was organized in 
1869. Dr. Fields was very active in the move- 
ment. The first members were: John Mc- 
Corey, Willey Warrnan, Polly Warrnan, William 
S. Peyton, and Rev. George W. Green. Some 
sixty or seventy members are on the class reg- 
ister, and the church is in a prosperous condition. 
No Sunday-school is held, on account of the 
school in the United Brethren church, which is 
for all sects. 

OLD CITIZENS. 

The oldest of all the pioneers in Carr was • 
General John Carr, after whom the township 
was named. He belongs to that class of men 
who indelibly stamped their characters upon the 
rising generation. The Southern Indianian, a 
county paper published at Charlestown in 1845, 
by William S. Ferrier, said of General Carr: 

It becomes our painful duty in this week's paper to an- 
nounce the death of General John Carr, who died on the 20th 
instant [January 20, 1S45], after a long and very painful ill- 
ness. His death created a space which cannot soon be nl'.ed. 
General Carr was a man of no ordinary character. He had 
long occupied an elevated standing among his fellow-men. 
He was born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, on the 6th of 
April, 1793, and had at the time of his death nearly completed 
his fifty-second year. He emigrated from that State with 
his father to the then territory; of Indiana, in the spring o 
i3o6. having been a citizen of this county ever since— a peiiod 
of thirty-nine years. During the summer of 181 1 he was en- 
gaged in several scouting parties on the frontier, and in 
watching and guarding against the approach of the Indians, 
who were then kaown to entertain hostile feelings toward 
the settlers. At this time he was but eighteen years of age. 
In the fall of the same year he joined the Tippecanoe expedi- 
tion, with Captain Bigger's company of riflemen, and was 
engaged in that memorable and bloody conflict, which oc- 
cured on the 7th of November of tiiat year. On the declara- 
tion of war in 1812 he was appointed a lieutenant of a com- 
pany of Cnited States rangers, authorized by an act of 
Congress and organized for the defense of Uie western front- 
iers. During the ye.irs of 1812 and 1813 he was actively en- 
gaged in several important and fatiguing campaigns, which 
were attended with extreme hardship and peril. The Mis- 
sisinewa and Illinois or Peoria campaigns were particularly 
distinguished for their many privations, difficulties and h.ur- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



333 



breadth escapes; in all of which he participated. During 
much of his time the command of his company devolved upon 
him, in consequence of the absence of the. captain. Though 
then but a youth he was equal to any emergency. ' 

After the war he filled successively several military offices. 
Among these were Brigadier and Major-general of the Militia 
of Indiana. The latter office he held at the time of his death. 
General Carr was repeatedly honored with the confidence of 
his fellow-citizens in the election to several civil offices of mist 
and honor. lie filled at various times the offices of recorder, 
agent for the town of Indianapolis, clerk of Clark County 
Circuit Court, to which he was re-elected, and Presidential 
Elector on the Jackson ticket in 1824. All these duties he dis- 
charged with honor to his country and himself. In 1831 he 
was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the 
Twenty-first Congress of the United .States, and continued to 
serve iu this body for six consecutive years. In 1S37 he re- 
tired, but but was re-elected for the fourth time in 1839, and 
served two years more, making in all eight years' service in 
that body. His Congressional career was noted for industry, 
efficiency, and usefulness. He originated the sale of lands in 
forty-acre lots, thus bringing within the reach of all the home 
that so many needed. He assisted in passing the pension act, 
by which so many of the old Revolutionary soldiers received 
pensions, and afterwards aided many of them in establishing 
their claims to this hard-earned bounty of their Government- 
In private, as well as in public life, he was distinguished for his 
nice sense of honor and the uprightness of his conduct. Of 
him it may be said in truth that he was one of God's noblest 
works, an honest man. In his intercourse w ith his fellow- 
men, he was modest and unassuming. He was at the same 
time frank and open, yet courteous. He had but few if any 
personal enemies. Among his neighbors he was beloved and 
esteemed by all. In the family circle he was a kind and 
tender husband and parent. Although General Carr was not 
a member of any church, we are happy to learn that during 
his last illness he sought Christ, and found pardon. He ex- 
pressed a perfect resignation to die, and met death as became 
a Christian. His wife had preceded her consort to the 
grave ; and in a few short weeks the domestic hearth has 
been bereft of its parental head, and those who were happy a 
few days ago under parental control and protection, are now 
orphans. He left behind him five children, numerous rela- 
tives, and a host of friends. He was followed on yesterday by 
a large concourse of people to his place of interment in this 
town. He has been snatched from his friends, almost in the 
meridian of life, thus verifying the great and solemn tiuth, 
"in the midst of life we are in death." 

We continue the brief biographies. Richard 
Slider was born in Maryland, and came to Carr 
township by way of Kentucky, about 1S00. He 
settled one mile southeast of Bennettsville with 
his wife and two sons. Here he put up a hewed 
log house, which was very uncommon for settlers 
in those days, and began to prepare for living. 
In the house, which was about 18x20, Slidet 
made port-holes so as to be used in case of In- 
dian attacks. The boys and girls who were born 
occasionally as the years rolled away, often 
peered out of these holes early in the morning, 
to see if there were no lurking savages to molest 



their little home in the wilderness. Here, too, 
they often mingled in games with the Indian lad 
as he visited them in his strolls over the bottoms. 
The old Slider mansion — for a mansion it can 
now be truly called — is yet standing on its 
original site. It is probably the oldest dwelling 
remaining in the county. ■ • 

John Slider, the second son, was born in 1797 
in Kentucky. He was one of the first distillers 
in Carr township. He resided on the old home- 
stead until his death in 1877, loved and respect- 
ed by everybody. 

James Warman, Sr., came from Kentucky to 
Carr township in 1809 and settled in the Muddy 
Fork valley, on the New Albany and Salem road, 
one mile and a half above Bridgeport. For a 
few years after arriving he worked at Harrod's 
grist-mill, on Silver creek and in Silver Creek 
township. Warman was a prominent man in 
surveying and engineering in the township. He 
took an active part in locating roads, and in sev- 
eral cases contracted for their building. In 
the various neighborhood questions — churches, 
schools, public gatherings, and the like — he bore 
an honorable and respected part. He died in 
Arkansas more than twenty years ago. 

GAME. 

Fifty years ago the deer, bear, wolf, fox, thou- 
sands of pheasants, squirrels, wild turkeys, and 
game generally, made it their pleasure to live in 
the knobs of Carr township. The pioneer at 
early break of day was often seen climbing the 
steep side-hills in quest of game. Paths led in 
winding courses along the knobs or followed the 
summit of some ridge until the desired hunting- 
ground was reached; there they stopped. Along 
these paths the old buck frequently strolled;' and 
often did he meet his fate without a moment's 
warning from the unerring rifle of the back- 
woodsman. The black bear browsed lazily in 
the thicket during the fall; or when hunger 
pressed him too closely, he visited some farmer's 
pig-pen in search of food. Here he frequently 
met opposition, and a free hand-to-hand fight en- 
sued, in which the bear sometimes escaped or the 
old-fashioned axe and handspike came off vic- 
torious. 



334 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



CHAPTER XX. 

CHARLESTOWN. 

A prominent Western writer on the incidents 
and reminiscences of pioneer life in Indiana, has 
well said that to write the history of Clark county 
properly, access should be had tu the state 
papers of England and those of the United States 
and of Virginia. Its history embraces a period 
of uncommon and thrilling interest. The Revol- 
utionary struggle was in active progress. Eng- 
land was using the French and Indians as allies 
in ravaging the settlements along the borders of 
the Great Lakes and the Northwest territory. 
Early pioneers were suffering under a predatory- 
warfare, the most atrocious in the annals of our 
Republic. There was an almost unknown tract 
of land lying where are now the three great States 
of Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. New Eng- 
land was tried to the utmost in order to save 
the honor of her beloved territory. Virginia 
was in a bad financial condition. Constant 
drainage had depleted her treasury and thrown 
the State into a critical condition. After due de- 
liberation, much expenditure of time and money, 
and the loss of many brave soldiers, there came 
a change. The English posts of Vincennes and 
Kaskaskia, on that body of land lying between the 
Wabash and Ohio rivers, were wrenched from the 
enemies of American liberty. To tell the .story 
with exactness, much diligent research would be 
necessary. It would involve more time than can 
be commanded by the county historian. This in- 
formation must be found in histories of more gen- 
eral or rational scope. This work is to deal with 
local facts. 

It was on the 10th of December, 1777, that 
Colonel (afterwards General) George Rogers 
Clark laid before Patrick Henry, Governor of 
Virginia, a plan to take the British posts of 
Vincennes and Kaskaskia. After mature con- 
sideration, and after being advised, strongly and 
favorably, by his most intimate friends, Governor 
Henry acquiesced in Clark's proposition. But 
Pennsylvania and Virginia were strongly opposed 
to the theory that all States are members of one 
confederation, and that none have a right to 
secede without the consent of the General Gov- 
ernment. This feeling necessitated much se- 
crecy on the part of Clark in recruiting his regi- 
ment, though this was really what he desired. 



His wish was to surprise the garrisons by secret 
movements. The story which he told was that 
the expedition was going to make explorations 
up the Mississippi river. Finally he received 
five hundred pounds of powder and $4,000 in 
depreciated currency, with which to hire recruits 
and buy ammunition at Pittsburg. He also re- 
ceived a colonel's commission. In the moun- 
tains of Pennsylvania, Kentucky, East Tennes- 
see, and Virginia he gathered his little army, and 
departed for the Falls of the Ohio. Here he 
went into camp on Corn island,; and here, in- 
forming his men of the primary object of the ex- 
pedition, many of them deserted. "On the 24th 
of June, 1778, during a total eclipse of the sun — 
a sad foreboding, as the party thought, of their 
future success, but which ultimately proved the 
'sun of Austerlitz' — this patriotic band of four 
companies under Captains Helm, Montgomeiy, 
Bowman, and Harrod, crossed the Ohio on their 
apparently forlorn expedition." His intention 
was to march directly to Vincennes; but the de- 
sertion of his troops and the want of all the ma- 
terials necessary for an attack upon a fortified 
town, induced him to abandon this object and to 
prosecute that originally intended by his superior 
officer, the Governor of Virginia. On the 4th 
of July, 177S, Kaskaskia surrendered. February 
2 5j 1779, Vincennes gave up to the Spartan 
band of Clark; the British ensign was hauled' 
down, and the American flag waved above its 
ramparts. Henceforward the British posts in 
the Northwest Territory ceased to exist. 

A few months after the cessation of hostilities, 
General Clark and his soldiers were dismissed 
from the service. Owing to the imperfect con- 
dition of the finances of Virginia, there was no 
way of rewarding the officers and privates in dol- 
lars and cents.' But there was another way open. 
Virginia owned a tract of land north of the Ohio 
river, which wes yet the hunting ground of the 
Indian. A resolution was presented to the 
Legislature of that State to provide the men in 
the late war with homes, by giving them a 
tract north of the Ohio, anywhere in her terri- 
tory which they might select. The offer was 
accepted. The grant was to contain one 
hundred and fifty thousand acres, including one 
thousand acres for a town. The patent is dated 
17S6, and is signed by Edmund Randolph, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and is to Colonel George 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



335 



Rogers Clark, and the "officers and soldiers who 
assisted in the reduction of the British posts in 
■Illinois." The Hoard of Commissioners, who 
were to determine the position of said land, was 
composed of "William Flemming, John Ed- 
wards, John Campbell, Walker Daniel, gentle- 
men; and George Rogers Clark, John Mont- 
gomery, Abraham Chaplin, John Bailey, Robert 
Todd, and William Clark, officers in the Illinois 
regiment." The claimants had to hand in their 
claims on or before the ist of April, 17S4, and if 
accepted, $1 was to be paid for every one hundred 
acres, in order simply to defray the expenses 
of surveying, making the deeds, and any other 
necessary papers for titles. The commissioners 
had power to select their own surveyors. They 
werr; to proceed at once'to locate and lay off the 
land, whose length could not exceed double its 
breadth. There must also be a town located in 
the first place. This in the course of time be- 
came Clarksville. The act relating to the town 
reads as follows : 

That a plat of said land (one thousand acres) be returned 
by the surveyor to the Court of Jefferson [which was then in 
Louisville], to be by the clerk thereof recorded and 
thereupon the same shall be and is hereby invest- 
ed in William Flemming, John Edwards, John Camp- 
bell, Walker Daniel, George Rogers Clark, John Mont- 
gomery, Abram Chaplin, John Bailey, Robert Todd, and 
William Clark. The lots are to be laid off into one-half acre 
each, with convenient streets, and the same shall be and is 
hereby called Clarksville. 

Lots were to be sold out by advertisement two 
'months in advance at adjoining court-houses. 
On each lot there was to be built a good dwelling 
house, at least lSx 20 feet, with a brick or stone 
chimney, to be completed three years after the 
deed was received. If these terms were not 
complied with the commissioners had the right 
to sell again the lot and use the money in pub- 
lic improvements. After some time, however, 
it was found necessary to enlarge this provision 
in order to give the young colony a chance to 
grow, and induce early settlers to make it their 
residence. 

We have mentioned Clarksville here, to show 
the first conditions of the Illinois Grant. The 
particulars belong to another chapter. 

The State of Virginia appointed William 
Clark, a cousin of the general, as surveyor. He 
selected his assistants as follows: Edmund 
Rogers, David Steel, Peter Catlett, and Burwell 
Jackson. This cession or grant was made by 



Virginia; but she relinquished soon after her 
right to the United States, on condition that the 
previous donation would be respected. From 
this time Virginia has not retained ownership of 
land north of the Ohio river. 

The surveying party began their surveys a 
little above the Eighteen-mile island in the Ohio, 
running a line at right angles to the river. Per- 
haps it is well here to explain the few intricacies 
of surveying. In all first surveys a base line is 
established running cast and west, or that is the 
intention. From this line principal meridians are 
run, north and south, beginning anywhere on the 
base line the surveyor may choose. The base 
line in the Illinois Grant is at the head of Eigh- 
teen-mile island, and for some reason does not 
run in a true westerly course. William Clark 
and his party divided themselves into comjxinies. 
Some of his men were poor engineers, and many 
mistakes occurred. Peter Catlett was especially 
notorious for inaccuracies. He surveyed that 
portion of the county now occupied by Oregon, 
a row of five-hundred-acre tracts off the west 
side of Washington, and the greater part of 
Owen. From his mistakes resulted many law- 
suits, when in later days land became more val- 
uable. Says William Clark: "I discovered sev- 
eral errors by Catlett in going into his district to 
subdivide some of the five-hundred-acre tracts." 
They were principally made in laying down water 
courses. 

David Steel surveyed that part of the county 
now occupied by Charlestown, Utica, and Union 
townships; and his surveys are almost without 
errors. Burwell Jackson surveyed the township 
of Silver Creek, a part of Monroe, and besides 
assisted in laying off Clarksville. Edmund 
Rogers and William Clark surveyed the remain- 
ing part of the county. 

The boundaries of the county in iSor were 
as follow: 

Beginning at the Ohio river at the mouth of Blue river; 
thence up that river to the crossing of the Vincennes road, 
thence in a direct line to the nearest point on the White 
river; thence up that river to its source and to Fori Recover)-; 
thence on the line of the Northwest Territory to the Ohio 
river, at the mouth of the Kentucky river ; and thence to 
place of beginning. 

Formerly boundaries existed which are now 
changed. The county has been cut up, and new 
counties formed entirely or additions made to 
older ones. 



336 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Clark county was named after General George 
Rogers Clark. There are in the county two 
hundred and forty-nine five-hundred-acre tracts. 
All of Wood and Bethlehem townships are laid 
off into sections of six hundred and forty acres 
each. The remaining ten townships are partly 
in sections and tracts. There is a row of sec. 
tions in the west part of the county that gradually 
widen until they join the Grant line. The largest 
of these has four hundred and thirty-seven acres 
for a quaiter. The base line crosses the Grant 
in latitude 38° 30' north, leaving the Ohio river 
at the upper end of Eighteen-mile island, and 
strikes the Illinois Grant about half-way from the 
beginning. Of course no base or principal merid- 
ian lines were used in making the original sur- 
vey. The five-hundred-acre tracts were laid off 
by running lines at right angles to the Ohio. 

The county has to day nearly four hundred 
square miles. There are twelve townships. The 
original deeds to the grantees call for five hun- 
dred acres, more or less. This was necessary, 
for some vary from three hundred and seventy 
to seven hundred acres. The division of tracts 
was made by lottery, and we are told that those 
who received land in the rich bottoms of Utica 
envied those whose lots fell in the knobs of 
Wood. This was because game was scarce in 
the lands adjacent to the Ohio. Now the bot- 
toms are worth $100 per acre, while that on the 
knobs seldom brings a dollar. 

Simon Kenton, the famous Kentucky pioneer 
and Indian fighter, received a tract noith of 
Charlestown, but among all the records his signa- 
ture is not found. Among the various officers 
and privates the apportionment was made as 
follow: To the major general, 15,000 acres; briga- 
dier-generals, 10,000; colonels, 6, 66673; lieu- 
tenant-colonels, 6,000; majors, 5,666-3; cap- 
tains, 4,000; lieutenants, 2,666- 3 ; non-commis- 
sioned officers, 400; privates, 200. 

After the allotments were made, Louisville 
was the seat of justice until Virginia ordered the 
records taken to Clarksviile. In 1779 and 1S00 
Congress passed laws for the government of the 
Northwest Territory, including Clark's Grant. 
In May, 1800, Indiana Territory was created, 
and soon after Knox county was divided, and 
Clark county organized. 

We have given the foregoing facts in order 
that a better understanding might be had con- 



cerning the origin of so historical a county. It 
may serve the purpose of explaining, partly, what 
few of the younger men know, and probably 
clear away some of the mists in the minds of older 
people. 

During the first few years there were but 
three townships in the county, viz: Clarksviile, 
Spring Hill, and Springville. The boundaries 
of these, . severally, have been defined in 
our chapter on the organization of Clark county. 
This division was soon altered, and more 
townships established. In 1816 Springville town- 
ship was changed for the convenience of voters. 
In 1817 the county commissioners made further 
changes, and among the new townships one was 
Charlestown. Within the same year a township 
called Collins, in the northwestern part of the 
county, existed. A few years afterwards new di- 
visions were made and the township lost its orig- 
inal name, receiving that of Monroe. Zebulon 
Collins was an early settler in this section, and 
after him the original township was named. 
Lemmon township had an existence in 1824, and 
was named after John M. Lemmon, one of the 
county commissioners. There was also a New 
Albany township in what is now Floyd county. 

Without further general outlines we begin the 
history of Charlestown proper, though it must be 
remembered that all land now lying in Clark 
county and divided into sections was bought 
from the Government, and as time went by was 
annexed to the Grant for convenience. 

Charlestown township was organized in the 
spring of 1817, and was cut off from whafwas 
originally Springville. The records do not show- 
that the latter township ceased to exist after the 
new divisions were made, though' it is likely 
such was the case. The boundary lines ran as 
follows: Beginning on the Ohio river, near 
Twelve-mile island, and running west in a zigzag 
course until it struck Silver creek; thence up that 
stream with its meanderings as far as Monroe; 
thence east into Washington township one tier of 
five-hundred-acre tracts; thence south to the Ohio; 
and thence down the river to the place of begin- 
ning. From the time Clark county was organ- 
ized, until 1S17, Charlestown township included 
the central and most promising portion of the 
Grant. There were no other places at that early- 
day so well adapted to all the affairs of county 
business. It was centrally located; people from 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



337 



adjoining townships were about equally distant 
from this point. But as time and age added i 
■more population to its lists, and as distance was ' 
something of an item when it came to traveling 
ten and fifteen miles to vote, changes were made 
to accommodate the citizens. 

There arc, in round numbers, thirty-seven 
thousand acres in the township, or fifty-nine and 
seventeen-hund.re.dths square miles. The im- 
provements are valued at $1,268,264. The 
voters average about seven hundred, the Demo- 
crats having at present a small majority in a par- 
tisan contest. One precinct is at Charlestown, 
the other at Otisco. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

The general surface of Charlestown is undu- 
lating. Along the Ohio a fine belt of bottom 
land, from two to three miles wide, produces all 
the cereals in abundance. A fine growth of tim- 
ber formerly covered the lowlands, made up 
mostly of walnut, blue ash, poplar, white oak, 
and a sprinkling of the other forest trees. A 
dense crop of pea-vines was found here very early; 
but as continued pasturing was kept up they soon 
became extinct. 

The western side of the township, as it ap- 
proaches the knobs, is rather hilly. The farms 
are often unproductive, and yield under the most 
careful treatment. Passing through the center 
from north to south, the land varies in fertility 
and general appearance. South of Charlestown 
it is level, and in some places slightly broken. 
From the old county-seat to the extreme north 
end, the soil and surface gradually lose their 
value in proportion as the distance increases. 
Beyond the railroad westward the first indica- 
tions of hills appear. Little creeks and small 
tributaries of Silver creek cut up the land into 
irregular farms, making it somewhat disagreeable 
to cultivate. Much of the country east is an 
elevated plateau. The farms are large, and the 
general appearance indicates thrift. 

But it is around Charlestown that the attrac- 
tions are greatest in number. All the beds of 
streams, the bottoms of wells, the roads, and in 
many places the foundations of small houses, are 
on solid rock. In fact, this is partly true through- 
out the entire township; but nowhere else is it 
so noticeable as about Charlestown. 

When the forest trees stood unmolested and 
the whole country for miles in any direction was 



uncleared, the winds were such as to give a pe- 
culiar flexibility to the climate. The breezes 
from the Ohio river in summer tempered the 
surroundings with a coolness which is now almost 
a total stranger. 

Most of the soil is productive. The unprec- 
edented drouth of 1S8 1, however, reduced crops 
to less than one-half their usual yield. • 

It is a limestone loam, mixed with sand. 
Along the bottoms of Fourteen-mile creek, which 
are never more than a few hundred yards in 
width, excellent corn, wheat, potatoes, and 
vegetables are raised, the number of bushels per 
acre varying according to circumstances. Up- 
land furnishes fine pasture. Here are immense 
herds of stock, composed mostly of cattle and 
sheep. 

When the settlements began on the Ohio and 
in the interior of the township, the people de- 
voted themselves to growing corn principally, 
selling it to still-houses,, fattening hogs, or flat- 
boating it to New Orleans. But this time has 
gone, never to return. Steamboats have long 
since ushered in a new era of commerce. A flat- 
boat now would be to some almost as much of a 
curiosity as the first steamboat was when Fulton 
made his trip up the Hudson or the Orleans 
went down the Ohio. 

On the east and west sides of the township 
are quite large streams. Fourteen-mile creek, 
which received its name because it empties into 
the Ohio fourteen miles above Louisville, runs 
through the eastern side, and Silver creek, with 
its tributaries, intersects the western. Both have 
branches of considerable consequence. 

Pleasant run, so named from its lively and hap- 
py way of falling over the rocks, which form its 
bottom, begins in the vicinity of Charlestown, 
flows past the old site of Springville in a south- 
westerly direction, and enters Silver creek, in 
Utica township. It is perhaps six or eight 
miles in length, and during the greater part of the 
year is dry. 

Sinking fork traverses the same side of the 
township, and is of much larger size. It heads 
in Monroe, and meanders till it strikes the 
main stream near the township of Union. Its 
sides are lined by ledges of rock which ascend 
in some instances fifty to a hundred feet. Along 
the stream are trees of large size, including those 
kinds mentioned before. 



33* 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Fourteen-mile passes directly south through 
the east side and empties into the Ohio about 
midway between the northern and southern lines 
of the township bordering on the liver. Its en- 
trance into the. northern side is marked by abrupt 
cliff's. All the way down through the township 
hills with monstrous rocks border it. A pleasant 
little valley follows most of the time, though it 
is frequently lost in the rocky ledges. 

During the early times, when salt was about as 
precious as coffee, there W3S accidentally dis- 
covered a salt spring on Fourteen-mile creek, 
above Work's mill. Some citizens wenTmduced 
to dig for salt here, with the intention of erecting 
a manufactory for separating the water into its 
component parts and extracting salt. Discover- 
ing that the quantity and quality were insufficient 
to justify the expenditure of much money, the 
scheme was abandoned. In penetrating the 
rock a bed of gypsum was passed through, which 
may some day be made profitable. On the 
same creek is found excellent limestone suitable 
for building purposes, and in the immediate 
neighborhood a species of marble fit for tables, 
sills, posts, lintels, and other appendages to 
buildings. 

Fountain spring, south of Charlestown, comes 
out through a rocky cliff, and furnishes water 
enough for a woolen mill. The. water has a pe- 
culiar flavor, and its medicinal qualities have 
been strongly recommended. 

Buffalo lick, on what is called the Lick branch 
of Fourteen -mile creek, lies one mile and a half 
east of Charleston n. During the periods when 
the Mound Builders and the Indians traversed 
this land, great numbers of wild animals visited 
this spring. On the east side is a fine sugar-tree 
grove. The three remaining sides are bounded 
by a hill, which curves gradually from the north, 
and ends in an abrupt ledge of rock on the south. 
The timber here is mostly stunted oak, beech, 
and ash. The spring proper, which has been 
blasted out, making a sort of cistern six or seven 
feet deep, is full of old boards, stones, and rub- 
bish generally. Just below, in a shallow basin, 
an opportunity is offered to try the water. It 
has a delicious sulphur taste, and is peculiarly 
adapted to certain classes of invalids. Some 
years ago a stock company proposed to buy the 
property on which it is located and erect a hos- 
pital in Charlestown, running a street-car convey- 



ance back and forth ; but for good reasons the 
■ enterprise never came to a successful trial, and 
hence there has been nothing done in this direc- 
tion. Around this spring and up Lick branch 
for some distance is a limestone of a bluish tint. 
In this bed of rock are hundreds of footprints. 
Some are ten to fifteen inches across, and the 
same distance from the heel to the toe. The 
indentations in many places are six inches deep, 
and resemble the footprints of prehistoric ani- 
mals. They arc distinct, and easily measured. 
A few years ago the footprints apparently of a 
man could be seen, but now the running water 
has left no trace of so remarkable a vestige of 
antiquity. Hundreds of smaller tracks are scat- 
tered about. They appear to be those of deer, 
buffalo, elk, and other animals of the forest. 

Barnett's cave, one mile west of Charlestown, 
is of much historic interest. The entrance, is 
about five feet high by three in breadth, and is 
on a side hill facing east. Above thirty or forty 
feet is a clump of old cedars, which need some 
trimming to look respectable. The visitor de- 
scends a steep plane of hall a dozen yards, pulls 
away an old door without hinges, and enters. 
He is immediately attracted by nothing unusual 
for such places. A room large enough for a 
score of sleepers is the first attraction. Stalag- 
mites and stalactites are scattered around in pro- 
fusion. The bottom, as one walks along, is wet, 
and hard in most places, though sometimes mud 
is found in abundance. Avenues lead off in 
various directions, two hundred feet from the 
door. Some fifty yards within is a scalloped 
spring four to five inches deep and from three to 
even feet in diameter. A huge rock hangs over- 
head, so as to compel the visitor to stoop in pass- 
ing, while an old quart ftuit-cari affords an oppor- 
tunity to taste the water. The walls are covered 
by coral formations, and the ceilings by ponder- 
ous flat slabs of a wavy appearance. 

This cave has many stories connected with its 
history. On one point there appears to be con- 
clusive evidence. The red man at an early day, 
when pursued by the pioneers of Charlestown 
commonly made it a shelter. Human bones are 
frequently found, which on exposure to light 
crumble into dust. The real part it played in 
the Indian warfare is not known, however. The 
hardy frontiersman has left but few traces by 
which to read its experience and rehearse its life 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



339 



to the villages of to-day. But there is a tinge 01 
romance connected with its existence which will 
always serve to make it interesting. As to its 
exact length there is considerable doubt. Per- 
haps a thousand yards would be something near 
its convenient traveling distance, though it cer- 
tainly extends much further in lesser dimensions. 
East of the village of Charlestown is another 
cave. It is considerably larger than Barnett's 
cave, and yet has a less interesting history. The 
entrance is easily reached and the passage fol- 
lowed without much difficulty. Young people 
in their picnics and excursion parties often make 
it a stopping-place where they rest their weary 
limbs, drink of its cool water, and wonder that 
such places ever were made. Its length is several 
hundred yards; its height and width often 
changing — sometimes widening, and then again 
becoming almost so narrow as to make progress 
a trifle unpleasant for people of large, size. There 
is nothing to show that it was ever used by the 
Indians. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS — SPRINGVILLE. 

The same influences which affected the Indian, 
as he traveled from the Falls of the Ohio to the 
headwaters of the White river, seemed to affect 
the first settlers in this township. An Indian 
trace, which was simply a path running up 
ravines, over plateaus, and down .side-hills, 
formerly ran west of Charlestown near the old 
site of Springville. All of the county in 1800 
was indefinitely bounded, and many of the five- 
hundred-acre tracts were unsettled in reference 
to their ownership. Their first owners, in many 
instances, had failed to have their deeds recorded 
and proper arrangements made to sell their prop- 
erty, if so desired. Yet there were some who 
had moved onto their land, and begun the work 
of clearing off the forest and preparing for the 
requirements of life. These persons were 
among the first settlers. As early as 1800, on 
tract one hundred and fifteen, a town sprang up 
from some cause or another, as the township 
began to receive its first citizens. This settle- 
ment included men who have long since passed 
to their reward, leaving behind them nothing by 
which to know their names. Near the village 
was a spring, which furnished good water for 
household purposes; also a small stream, which 
w as fed mostly by other springs, farther up in the 
township. From these circumstances the settle- 



ment look the name of Springville. The place 
grew to some size, perhaps numbering in its 
most prosperous days, one hundred inhabitants. 
Here the first courts were held in the county, 
beginning on the 7th of April, 1801. The jus- 
tices were appointed by General W, H. Harrison, 
Territorial Governor of Indiana, and were called 
Justices of the General Court of Quarter Sessions, 
and were as follows: Marston G. Clark, Abraham 
Huff, James N. Wood, Thomas Downs, William 
Goodwin, John Gibson, Charles Tulley, and 
William Harrod. The court-house was simply a 
large room in one of the business buildings. It 
had no claim to any of the modern style of 
temples of justice. Close by a still house was in 
active operation, furnishing the traders a brand 
of whiskey of remarkable purity. Several stores 
or trading-posts came into existence, which 
necessarily made it a great rendezvous for 
Indians. 

One mile and a half west of this settlement 
the first Governor of the State of Indiana, Jona- 
than Jennings, lived. He, too, engaged in mak- 
ing whiskey, but on a larger scale than his kins- 
man at Springville. John_Bottorff carried on 
the milling business a short distance up the 
stream — which, as before noted, was called 
Pleasant run, from its gentle way of tumbling 
over the rocks, though to an insignificant amount 
at best. His mill was of the horse-power kind, 
and, from outside circumstances, soon went 
down. Jennings had a mill also in connection 
with his farm and still-house, and for many years 
furnished the neighborhood with corn-meal and 
buckwheat flour. 

But there came a dark day. The land on 
which the settlement was located became the 
subject of dispute in reference to its ownership. 
Trials were had, many enemies made, and a 
quarrel set in motion which continued to revolve 
with varying degrees of velocity till the village 
ceased to exist. All these transactions took 
place within eight years. During this time the 
settlement had been founded; it grew to be the 
most important place in the central part of the 
county, and then had died a natural death. 
The village had all the characteristics of pioneer 
settlements. In fact, it gave birth to a class of 
men who in after years played a prominent. part 
in the affairs of county and State government. 
It is also a fact worthy of note that one of the 



340 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



signers of the Declaration of Independence — 
Judge James Wilson, of Pennsylvania — is buried 
in the old Springville burying-ground. His exact 
resting-place is not precisely known, though it is 
supposed by the. side of other old residents who 
lie in the same ground. 

Many years ago the town died. The place 
wherfc the stalwart judges dispensed justice is for- 
gotten, except by a few old settlers, whose heads 
have seen the frosts of nearly a hundred winters. 
At the present time the summer months find the 
original site covered by a luxuriant growth of 
corn,. oats, grass, fruit-trees, and the farm prod- 
ucts generally. The lurking savage, who watched 
the hamlet spring into existence and then retire 
into nothingness, has passed away, and new 
homes are built upon fields where their genera- 
tions sleep. Peace be to their ashes — the town 
and all its happy recollections, and the people 
who devoted themselves to making a garden out 
of a wilderness. 

THE MOUND BUILDERS. 

At the mouth of Fourteen-mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charlestown, is one of 
the most remarkable stone fortifications in the 
State. The stream here entering the Ohio forms 
a sort of peninsula. This body of land is very- 
high, and terminates in an abrupt bluff, com- 
manding a splendid view up and down the river. 
It has many natural advantages, making it im- 
pregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric 
man. Foui teen-mile enters the river a short dis- 
tance below the fort. The top of the ridge is 
pear-shaped, the part answering to the neck being 
at the north end. This part is not over twenty- 
feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural 
walls of stone. It is two hundred and eighty 
feet above the Ohio, and slopes gradually toward 
the south. At the upper field it is two hundred 
and forty feet high, and one hundred steps wide. 
At the lower timber it is one hundred and twenty 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the 
south end is sixty feet above the river. The ab- 
rupt escarpment along the Ohio and a portion 
of the northwest side of the creek cannot be 
easily scaled. This natural wall is joined to the 
neck by an artificial wall, made by piling up loose 
stone — mason fashion, but without mortar — 
which have evidently been pried up from the cor- 
niferous layers within a short distance of the 



walls. This wall is about one hundred and fifty 
feet long. It is built along the slope of the hill, 
and had an elevation of seventy-five feet above 
its base, the upper ten feet being vertical. The 
inside of the wall is protected by a ditch, and is 
drained by a sort of tiling. The remainder of 
the hill is protected by an artificial stone wall, 
built in the same manner, but not more than ten 
feet high. The elevation of the side wall above 
the creek bottom is eighty feet. Within the arti- 
ficial walls is a row of mounds, which rise to the 
height of the walls, and are protected from wash- 
ings by a ditch twenty feet wide and four feet 
deep. The top of the enclosed ridge embraces 
ten or twelve acres. There are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat sur- 
face, while no doubt many others existed which 
have been obliterated by time and the agency of 
man in his attempts to cultivate the ground. 

Many attempts have been made to learn the 
correct history of this mound. Into one of the 
mounds a trench was cut in search for relics. A 
few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, 
and a large, irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, 
with a small, circular indentation near the middle 
of the upper part, that was worn quite smooth by 
the use to which it was put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprise all the articles of note 
which were revealed by the excavation. The 
earth of which the mounds are made resembles 
that on the side hill, and was probably taken 
from the ditch. That side of the mound next 
to the ditch was protected by slabs of stone set 
on edge and leaning at an angle corresponding 
to the slope of the mounds. This stone shield 
was two and a half feet wide and one foot high. 
At intervals along the great ditch channels were 
formed between the mounds, that probably 
served to carry off surplus water through open- 
ings in the outer wall. 

On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near to 
the narrowest part, there is one mound much 
larger than any of the rest, and so situated as to 
command an extensive view up and down the 
Ohio, as well as affording an unobstructed view 
east and west. It is known by the name of 
Lookout Mound. There is near this mound a 
slight break in the cliff of rocks, which furnishes 
a narrow passage-way to the river. 

The locality affords many natural advantages 
for a fort or stronghold, and one is compelled to 



342 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



first addition, lying north of Thompson street, 
and comprising twenty-two lots, or about thirteen | 
acres of land. James Ross added eighty-two I 
lots, or forty-two acres, some time after. James I 
McCampbell ' made an addition of . forty-nine 
lots, or twenty-nine acres. John Nay lor added 
twenty lots, or twelve acres. Barzilla Baker again 
made an addition of forty-seven lots, or twenty- 
eight acres; and last, and least in quantity, came 
James Gainer with ten lots, or six acres." The 
• railroad addition, including five acres, is not in- 
corporated, and therefore is not properly within 
the town limits. The cemetery, which has nine 
acres, also lies outside of the corporation. Most 
of the lots are of the same size, and, taking the 
whole number, there are three hundred and 
ninety-nine lots, or about two hundred and forty 
acres, included in the corporation. 

From the beginning there were many things 
which contributed toward making the new settle- 
ment vigorous. It had the spirit of enterprise 
which marks all primitive county seats. The 
court-house at Springville, if such it could be 
called, was replaced by a more commodious 
brick building on the public square in Charles- 
town. To be sure, these facts soon induced in- 
telligent men to make it a stopping-place or to 
locate permanently there. It can be truly said 
its first citizens were generally men of moral and 
steady habits. They came mostly from the New 
England States, and were tolerably well edu- 
cated. 

A PIONEER TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. 

But in process of time retail liquor establish- 
ments, the bane then as now of nearly eveiy com- 
munity, were set up; and lamentable was their 
influence on the people of the town and its 
neighborhood. To correct this evil, efforts were 
early made to organize something like a tem- 
perance society. For this purpose the Rev. Mr. 
Cable, pastor of the Presbyterian church, Judge 
Scott, an elder in the same church, and Rev. 
George K. Hester, had a conference in the 
house of the latter. After consultation a paper 
was prepared setting forth the general principles 
and purposes of the temperance cause, and it 
was circulated in the community in order to pre- 
pare the public for a temperance meeting. Mr. 
Cable, having had little experience in such mat- 
ters, was in doubt as to the best way to conduct 



the meeting. Mr. Hester referred him to Rev. 
John Strange, at that time Methodist presiding 
elder in the Charlestown district, who had organ- 
ized several temperance associations. Soon after 
this Mr. Strange held a camp-meeting in the 
Robertson neighborhood, and here these two 
Christian gentlemen had a consultation in 
reference to the matter, resulting in the appoint- 
ment of a temperance mass-meeting in Charles- 
town. The assembly was accordingly held, and 
was addressed by Rev. Mr. Strange, Dr.. Adams, 
Judge Ross, and several Presbyterian ministers 
whose names are not remembered. At the close 
of the meeting a number of persons signed a 
total abstinence pledge, and thus was laid the 
foundation of the first temperance society in 
Charlestown. 

TAVERNS AND STORES. 

It must not be presumed that the county-scat 
was without the necessary places of rest for the 
traveler, or other places where the villager might 
secure coarse boots, a pound or two of coffee — 
which always came by way of New Oi leans 
from abroad, or any other of the thousand 
and one things which country stores keep. As 
the road leading from Charlestown Landing on 
the Ohio, passed through the town, it was in the 
line of considerable travel to pass through the 
village. The ferries were kept busy at certain 
times of the year in carrying passengers across 
the Ohio, who, in most instances, were bound for 
the upper counties of Washington, Bartholomew, 
Scott, and Jefferson. The emigrants usually 
crossed at McDaniel's and Wood's stations. 
They commonly had wagons, but often the en- 
tire household furniture was carried on pack- 
horses. The route led through a dense forest of 
oak, poplar, beech, and smaller timber. 

Among the early tavern-keepers were Charles 
Pixley, Stephen Ranney, Evan Shelby, John Fer- 
guson. Their places of entertainment were 
usually ill-contrived — not such as we find now, 
by any means. The second story was often 
thrown into one room, where the lodgers re- 
posed in sweet complacency, indifferent to all 
their surroundings. Corn-bread, pork, hominy, 
a cup of strong coffee for breakfast, and some- 
times warm biscuits just from the stone oven, 
cabbage, potatoes, and so on, made up the fare. 
There was always enough to eat, but it was pre- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



343 



pared quite differently from the cookery of to- 
day. 

On the 5th of July, 1842, during the Harrison 
campaign, M. P. Alpha's present brick store was 
used for a village hotel — at least, that is the title 
il bore on the sign-board. There was a porch in 
front, and on it General Harrison addressed the 
people of Charlestown on the political issues of 
the day. 

Richard M. Johnson came, too, in the course 
0/ the fall, and delivered his speech to attentive 
listeners. He was received by a committee, and 
from here went to Salem, in Washington county. 
At the foot of the knobs he cut hickory canes 
for the committee, which were preserved as relics 
of much value. Thomas J. Henly delivered the 
reception speech in behalf of Clark county. 

But of the taverns. From 1808 they were 
common — indeed, so much so as to make it 
tedious to follow all their upward tendencies and 
downward grades. They seemed to thrive best 
when the town was in a healthy condition, and 
when the traveling public went by horse, and not 
steam power. The old-time tavern days in 
Charlestown are past and gone, never to return. 
Their time of greatest activity will live only in 
history. 

Strange as it may appear, the store-keeping 
business in Charlestown was of a very extraordi- 
nary kind. John L. P. McCune came here in 
1816, opened a shoe-shop, and supplied his little 
room with a stock of goods. 

In 1822 he located permanently, and for many 
years afterwards plied his awl and measured the 
feet, for coarse boots, of most of the lawyers, 
judges, and physicians at the county seat. 
Messrs. Parker & Handy were early merchants, 
but after an experience of several years in the 
place, they moved to Louisville, where they 
finally became very wealthy in the same business. 
What is most surprising is the great number of 
tailors and hatters who kept shops in Charles- 
town at the same time. There were here forty 
years ago thirty-five hatters, mostly Germans, 
;ind as many tailors. The former made most of 
their goods, and it was a familiar sight to see a 
good-natured German measuring the head ot 
sonic distinguished lawyer or judge. Tailors 
delighted in making fits, which they regarded as 
^'><jd advertisements 'when the traveling judge 
was visiting other courts. To-day, instead of 



taverns, we can see a dozen saloons, meat shops, 
and drug stores. 

MILLS AND KACTORIKS. 

There is no county in southern Indiana so pre- 
eminently important in matters relating to me- 
chanical ingenuity as Clark. Here, by way of 
parenthesis, let it be known that the county is un- 
pretentious. She relates her history in a modest 
way, which carries conviction and wins the ad- 
miration of all lovers of early reminiscences. It 
is true, also, that Charlestown is the banner 
township. Its milling history is without a paral- 
lel in the annals of grinding corn, wheat, and 
the various grains of this section. The honor 
belongs to Mr. John Work, a gentleman from 
Pennsylvania, who came here late in the eight- 
eenth century, of handing down to posterity one 
of the most remarkable mills in the State. He 
settled in the vicinity of Charlestown on Four- 
teen-mile creek, above where Green's flouring- 
mill now stands. Of his early life we know lit- 
tle, except that he sprang from humble and re- 
spectable origin. Nature had fitted him pecu- 
liarly for the work of his life. His natural 
mathematical talents were great. Education had 
left the block rough and advised experience to 
make it shapely. The great, predominant traits 
of his character were an indomitable will and 
obedience to conscience. 

The work he performed in making calcula- 
tions without a compass is almost incredible. 
With most of his friends he was considered a 
prodigy. On the bank of Fourteen-mile creek 
he erected a stone mill as early as 1800. Here 
he found opportunities to release the powers of his 
mind. The Indians, as well as the white man, 
gave him corn to grind, and pestered his good 
wife by petty thievery! But as the years rolled 
away and business grew to larger proportions, 
and as his road toCharlestown was inconvenient 
and water-power uncertain, he planned a work 
which has made his name famous for all time to 
come. Fall, winter, and spring were busy sea- 
sons. His mill was recognized as the best in the 
county. After fifteen or twenty years of con- 
stant use the old stone mill needed repairing ; 
but he had already decided on a new place of 
business, which was even to outrival the propiie- 
tor himself. A tunnel was to be made which 
was to act as a mill-race, and therefore always give 



344 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



a full supply of water. Fourteen-mile makes a 
long curve in the form of a -pear, leaving a body 
of land resembling a peninsula, which included, 
perhaps, twenty acres. The distance through 
at the narrowest point was a little over three 
hundred feet. But the obstacles were of mam- 
moth proportions. The hill, for such it was, 
rose to one hundred feet from the bed of the 
creek. It was made up of solid fork. After ma- 
ture deliberation and a few surveys he began the 
work. From the old mill-site he began tunnel- 
ing, and also at the same time on the opposite 
side, or where the new mill was to stand. His im- 
plements were rude; his experience in blasting 
and making powder limited. The work began in 
i S 1 7 and lasted three years. During this time 
three men were constantly engaged. Six hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of powder were used, and 
the cost of the work is estimated at $3,300. 
The race was six feet deep and five wide, and 
was ninety-four feet below the summit. 

As we said, the tunnel was through solid rock. 
No bracing or scaffolding was required to pro- 
tect the workmen; and when completed no arch- 
ing was erected to preserve the roof from falling. 
The day of completion was a gala day for the 
surrounding country. John Work invited all his 
customers to partake of his hospitalities. A great 
dinner was provided. A man who weighed over 
two hundred pounds rode through the tunnel on 
horseback. At each end was a barrel of prime 
whiskey, with the head knocked out. Speeches 
were made and a glorification had which to this 
day is remembered with many affectionate re- 
gards. 

Henceforward this was called the Tunnel mill. 
At the end of the race an overshot wheel was 
put up. The two buhrs ran by a never-failing 
water-supply, with a fall of twenty-four feet. The 
mill is frame, and is 50 x 35 feet. The wheel is 
twenty feet in diameter, though twenty-six feet 
could be used, if necessary. John Rose acted 
here as second engineer, and YVoodrun Procter 
as tool-sharpener and gunsmith. 

John Work died in 1S32. After his death his 
son John took possession and continued in the 
business till 1854, when Mr. Wilford Green pur- 
chased the property. Since this date the mill 
has been in use, Mr. Green being proprietor and 
miller. It has a capacity of two and a half bar- 
rels per hour. 



Sixty-odd years have rolled away since John 
Work began to establish the milling business per- 
manently on Fourteen-mile creek. His energy 
gave a prominence to grinding wheat, corn, and 
buckwheat, which is eminently characteristic of 
the times. An incident which belongs to the 
old stone mill will illustrate his character. In 
the spring of 181 1, while engaged in dealing with 
a company of Indians in his mill, a renegade, 
who belonged to the same crowd, stole a piece of 
flax linen which was drying on the outside. Mrs. 
Work soon discovered her loss after their depart- 
ure, and informed her husband. He immediately 
mounted a horse and started in pursuit. After 
a short ride Mr. Work overtook the band, and 
informing them of his loss, demanded the prop- 
erty. A short parley ensued, upon which the thief 
refused to turn over the goods. Mr. Work dis- 
mounted for the purpose of using force, but was 
prevented by a strode on the head near the ear 
by a tomahawk. H calp was peeled off in a 
frightful manner, and ..is life was saved only by the 
appearance of white friends who followed, well 
knowing the intrepidity of the famous miller. He 
now lies in the family burying-ground near the 
old mill-site, his resting-place marked by nothing 
indicative of his example and the part he bore in 
rescuing this county from the red man. 

Of course there were other mills in Charles- 
town township at an early day. McDaniel's mill, 
on Fourteen-mile, was in operation for a long 
time. It was above tht Tunnell mill. Years 
ago it succumbed to the elements, and now noth- 
ing remains to connect its past history with the 
experiences of to-day. 

Adam Howard also had a grist-mill on the 
same stream. He ground the grain as it came 
to him, took out his toll and returned the re- 
mainder, believing that the best way to carry on 
business was to have a special regard for one's 
own interests. 

Among the horse-mills— and the very first 
ones, too — was Jesse Pardue's, half way between 
Charlestown and Strieker's corner. It was in 
active operation in 1S17, but, like many other 
pioneer contrivances, had but a short life. 

Near Buffalo lick, on the Lick branch of Four- 
teen-mile creek, is one of the early landmarks 
of this county. Here John Denny erected an 
overshot mill, and for several years met the 
wants of the neighboring people. 



^H4< 



HISTORY Ol' THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



ALLEN BARNETT 
was born in West Hanover, Dauphin county, 
Pennsylvania, in the fall of 1799. He was the 
fifth of a family of nine children, all deceased, he 
being the last. His father, James, and mother, 
Mary .Allen, were both natives of Pennsylvania. 
His grandfather, Joseph, was born in 1726, 
whose father, John, was the son of John, who 
was born in Londonderry, Ireland, in 167S, and 
emigrated to Hanover township, then Lancaster 
county, Pennsylvania, prior to 1730. This is 
undoubtedly the principal source from which 
most of the name originated in this country. 

He received his early education in the com- 
mon schools of the country. His father and 
mother dying while he was quite young, he was 
early in life thrown upon his own resources. In 
the year 18-19 his eldest brother, Samuel, emi- 
grated West, bringing his brothers and sisters 
with him. The subject of this sketch was left in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and appren (1 to leain the 
trade of a coppersmith. Afteu .completing his 
term of service he went to Shippingport, Ken- 
tucky, now a part of Portland, Kentucky, where 
he began to lay the foundation of his future 
successes. 

Owing to the unhealthiness of the location he 
was forced, after a sojourn of a, year or two, to 
leave, and he established himself in Louisville, 
Kentucky, where, in connection with his brother 
James, they began business in earnest on Fourth 
street, between Main and ? ^rket. 

In 1826 he was married to Margaret Elizabeth 
Shafer, by whom he had six children, all of 
whom are still living, with one exception — his 
son George, who died from the effect of a wound 
received in the battle of Stone River, Tennessee. 

With his characteristic energy, perseverance, 
and industry, his business grew up rapidly, so 
that it was extensively enlarged. His promptness 
in business, his integrity in action, attracted to 
his side the older merchants, who aided and en- 
couraged the rising young man by their advice 
^nd patronage. After a time his physical frame, 
naturally weak, gave way under the great strain 
'>( his extensive business, and in 1836 he retired 
»om business, hoping by travel and rest to re- 
Sain his lost health. 

Hut his restless energy would not be quieted, 
hi 1S3S he, in company with Judge Read. Felix 
Lewis, and another party, purchased the steamer 



Lady Morgan, and went into the Arkansas river 
trade, and afterwards into the Ohio and Wabash 
river trade. 

Getting tired of this he sold out, and in 1840 
purchased a farm in Clark county, Indiana, 
to which he removed his family in the spring of . 
that year, his object being two-fold : the' better 
enjoyment of health, and to get the advantages 
of the schools in Charlestown foi his children. 

In the year 1841 his wife died, and in 1S47 
he married Edith Jacobs, by whom he had six 
sons and three daughters, all of whom are still 
Jiving, with the exception of his son Oscar, who 
died in infancy. 

In 1843 nc united with the Presbyterian 
church of Charlestown, of which he was a faith- 
ful and consistent member, always ready with 
his good advice and purse to advance its in- 
terests. 

The management and improvement of his farm 
was not enough to occupy his active mind. He 
invested largely in Government lands, and after- 
wards became interested in the First National 
bank of Jefferson ville, of which he was a director 
for a number of years. 

As the infirmities of age came upon him his 
desire for business grew less, and he sought the 
quiet and retirement of his home, and enjoyed 
the visits of his children and their families. 

On September 19, 1S79, he died of injuries 
received from the kicks of a mule, after three or 
four hours' suffering, in his eightieth year. 

In the words of his pastor. " his life was a 
long one, full of activity and diligence in every- 
thing to which he put his hand. His industry, 
integrity, and clear business insight were mani- 
fest to all who knew him. He was more than 
usually prospered in his business, and had by 
faithful labor and wise management — as honest 
as it was wise — accumulated a large estate. He 
was modest, retiring, and quiet in his manner, 
and yet warm-hearted and earnest in his feelings. 
As a husband and father he was most tenderly af- 
affectionate and kind. The whole community feel 
the loss, but that sustained by his family none can 
estimate but themselves. The church of which 
he was so long a consistent and worthy member 
feels that a gap has been made in its ranks that 
cannot soon be filled. His interest in the church 
was constant, and his gifts to it frequent and 
liberal." 



- 



"^*> 



- ' 




ai 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



345 



Above the spring two or three hundred feet, 
was a dam, from which a race carried the water 
to an overshot wheel, half a hunched yards be- 
low. The traces of an old road are yet plainly 
seen, as it ran winding off toward the Ohio river. 
It went out of public use many years since. The 
mill-site was romantic, and yet well suited for 
business. Caves, rocks, the famous sulphur 
spring, and the peculiarities of the early age 
combined to make it a resort for the youngsters 
of the township. Some of the walls are yet 
standing, with tops knocked off half-way up, a 
sill or Iwo, almost ready to fall into their original 
elements, still hanging in a peculiar position. It, 
too, is dying. Its work is done, and the period 
of its active existence at an end. 

To traverse the ground occupied by the 
numerous horse-mills of Charlestown township 
would be impolitic. They were almost as com- 
mon as private stills, sugar-camps in the Utica 
bottoms, or even log cabins themselves. The 
county seat has a milling experience of its own, 
to which v\e must give a suitable paragraph. 

The old village of Charlestown was never par- 
ticularly noted for its mills. Captain J. C. Cald- 
well erected a house for grinding purposes very- 
early. The mill was of the horse-power kind, 
with the old-fashioned sweep, and stood east of 
the court-house. It burned down in 1825. Bar- 
zilla Baker and McCampbell, the founders of 
the place, had each a mill on his land. Parker 
& Carr many years ago had a mill near the 
Ohio & Mississippi railroad trestle-work; but 
failure overtook the firm, and the building was 
torn down. At one time an overshot flouring- 
mill was built on Pleasant run by John Trickett, 
but a hard wind some time after blew the build- 
ing over and it was never rebuilt. During the 
seventy-odd years through which the village has 
passed, mills have sprung up almost spontan- 
eously, and apparently went out of existence 
with the same easy mode of life. In the place 
now there are two good flouring- and saw-mills. 
Both do a good business, but much of their 
wheat is shipped to them from other counties. 

Charlestown was noted at one time for a coffin 
factory, which did a large amount of work. 

East of the village, in a valley, is the Spring 
Valley creamery. It has a capacity of two 
thousand gallons of milk per day. Many far- 
mers in the neighborhood sell their milk to this 



establishment. Another cheese factory is in 
operation north of Charlestown, the stockholders 
in which reside in the village. Its capacity is 
somewhat larger than the Spring Valley. 

Among the early tanners was a firm known as 
Todd & Vance, whose place of business ' was 
east of the court-house. James McCarley was 
in the same line across the street (Main) in 1820. 
The tanyard of Samuel McCampbell, the son of 
James McCampbell, who owned the western 
half of the town, stood on Pleasant run for 
several years. In the village a firm started up 
about 1835, by the name of Kriegcr & Schuff. 
The same effects are noticeable in this branch of 
trade as in many other branches of business. 
At this time the local tanneries are among the 
things numbered with the past. 

RAILROADS AND TURNPIKES. 

It was natural, after the county seat was per- 
manently located at Charlestown, for roads to 
diverge from it to all parts of the county. Hence, 
in the commissioners' proceedings we find numer- 
ous petitions for roads. The old road to Jeffer- 
sonville ran through Springville, making a curve, 
avoiding some, rough land as well as taking 
in the old settlement. On the Ohio was Charles- 
town Landing, where steamboats received 
and unloaded freight and passengers. An old 
road led to this point, and was one of the first in 
Clark county. It is yet in use, though not of 
much consequence. The landing was a lso 
known by the name of McDonald's Ferry — the 
founder who gave it the name coming here in 
1796. A Mr. Daily owned tract number fifty-six, 
and sold one-half of it to McDonald, who was to 
have his own time for payment. Some years 'after-, 
wards trouble arose and a quarrel ensued, in . 
the course of which Peter McDonald suffered 
severely. 

There was a road which led to Salem, in 
Washington county; another to Madison, in Jef- 
ferson county ; and one to the county seat of 
Scott, which borders Clark county on the north. 
Besides, all the townships had roads leading to 
the place of paying taxes and securing marriage 
licenses. No grades were made. Roads led 
through tangled vines, among trees — broken off 
half-way up and toppled over, down ravines and 
up hill sides. It was unnecessary to establish 
toll-gates; bridges, there were none; and as far 



346 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



as crossing creeks was concerned, it was of little 
importance whether the water was high or low. 
The tax-payer made it a itile to. meet his lawful 
obligations, and considered hindrances the best, 
way to secure a name for honesty, provided ob- 
stacles were always overcome. 

As Charlestown increased in population and 
importance, the different companies which wete 
taking into consideration the propriety of build- 
ing railroads in this quarter, included the county- 
seat in the list of stopping places. The first at- 
tempt to construct a railroad was made about 
forty years ago. The proposed route led from 
New Albany to Sandusky on Lake Erie. But be- 
fore the road was completed, the company went 
into bankruptcy. Embankments and cuts may 
be seen yet west of the town, where the road was 
to cross Pleasant run. 

In 1854 another company, known as the Fort 
Wayne & Southern, began the work of grading 
from Louisville. The road-bed was almost com- 
pleted as far as Charlestown; and for twenty or 
thirty miles northward, reaching up to the neigh- 
borhood of North Vernon, much work was done. 
But this company failed, too. Charlestown 
township had contributed liberally, but was des- 
tined to see its cherished enterprise fall a victim 
to bad management and perhaps avaricious 
views. 

Not till 1870 did the place truly realize that 
the locomotive, with all its accompaniments, was 
an every-day visitor. The Ohio & Mississippi 
railroad, whose main line runs between Cincin- 
nati and St. Louis, desired a branch to Louisville. 
After some necessaiy negotiations the old com- 
pany sold out its road-bed, and the new company 
laid its track to the river. This road passes the 
village on the east side. Trains come and go 
over the Ohio & Mississippi branch from Jefler- 
sonville to North Vernon regularly. As they 
check up here, an old, dilapidated station or tel- 
egraph office and waiting-room may be observed 
on the west side of the track. It is not more 
than 20 x 30 feet, and hardly able to support 
itself on a half-dozen posts, which act as legs, as 
it were. It too, like most other public houses, 
except churches and schools, is rapidly going to 
decay; though as long as the railway continues 
to pass by the village, the company will probably 
have an office of at least common respectability 
at Charlestown. A tank, into which an engine 



pumps water, stands on the east side. Here the 
iron horse supplies itself before pushing ahead 
to stations beyond. 

PIONEER SCHOOLS. 

Immorality prevailed to a fearful extent among 
the early settlers in this part of the county. 
Sabbath-breaking, drunkenness, horse-racing, and 
dancing, were their common pastimes. The 
neighbors would seldom gather for mutual as- 
sistance in their domestic or farm affair without 
more or less disturbance during the day, followed 
by a dance through good part of the night. But 
even then there were a few who stood aloof from 
the prevailing vices of the day. 

The manners of those times were character- 
ized by simplicity in dress and conversation. 
The poverty of the people prevented the intro- 
duction of superfluities, and their mutual de- 
pendence served to endear them to each other in 
their various relations. This was especially so 
in the more religious communities. Pastor and 
people seemed to be bound together by the 
strongest ties of friendship. 

Facilities for obtaining an education were then 
very meager. Probably the first school ever 
kept in this part of the county was in 1803, one 
and a half miles soutli of the old Hester farm, on 
a place now owned by Mr. Johnson. It was re- 
peated in 1804. Among the pupils were George 
and Craven Hester, the former later in life occu- 
pying a distinguished position among his fellow- 
citizens. The school was taught by a Mr. Epsy. 
Teachers then began with the rudiments. of the 
language in Dilworth's spelling-book. Epsy 
was rather deficient, even in the knowledge of 
correct reading and pronunciation. His pupils 
were taught to give nonsensical names to vowels 
whenever one of them formed the syllable of a 
word. Reading-books furnished little useful in- 
formation, and were in no sense adapted to be- 
ginners. Two books which were used as read- 
ers were Gulliver's Travels and a dream-book. 
The rigid discipline exercised, the cruel penal- 
ties inflicted upon delinquent pupils, and the 
long confinement to their books — from a little 
after sunrise to near sunset — are ail now con- 
sidered as detrimental to intellectual as well as 
physical advancement. 

Schools in Charlestown village have always 
been well supported. The first school-house, or 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



347 



among the early school-houses in the place, stood 
on the Hill in the western half of the town. It 
was situated in what is now . the old burying- 
ground, then Mr. Ferrier's yard, near the present 
grave of ex-Governor Jennings. Judge Willis 
Goodwin was one of the teachers, and his broth- 
ers, John and Amos, were scholars. General 
Dodge taught in Charlestown more than sixty 
years ago, the same who afterwards acquired 
celebrity in the Black Hawk war. The village 
had a brick school-house soon after the old log 
building. Silas Davis, Mr. Denean, B. W. 
James, and Nancy Maddox, the latter mother-in- 
law of the Hon. Judge Samuel C.Wilson, of 
Crawfordsville, were teachers here. The house 
was 20 x 35 feet. 

CHARLESTOWN SEMINARY 

is a name which has associated with it some 
of the happiest recollections in ail the experiences 
of life. County seats generally bring together a 
class of men who live by their intellect. Settiers 
early learn to admire the educated man and 
make arrangements for a thorough system of 
education. It was so in this case. As early as 
1830 Mr. D. Baker, an Englishman by birth, 
opened a select school in the old Masonic hall. 
He was the father of the Hon. E. D. Baker, after 
wards Comgressman from Illinois and United 
States Senator from Oregon, but who was killed 
in the late war, at the battle of Ball's Bluff. All 
fines for misdemeanors committed within the 
corporation limits were turned into the seminary 
fund. Finally the property was sold, and the 
money placed to the credit of the common 
schools. Among the teachers were Byron Law- 
rence, Isaac McCoy and his brother William, 
and .William W. Gilliland, of Georgetown, Ohio, 
who was appointed by the Governor to fill a 
vacancy as common pleas judge. 

The seminary consisted of three rooms, and 
had sometimes during the fall terms as many as 
three hundred students. Now the old school 
building is used frr residence purposes. 

Rev. H. H. Cambern, in 1849, bought up the 
old Masonic hall, or rather the original semi- 
nary, made additions and erected boarding 
houses, and opened a female senr.nary for the 
first time in Charlestown. Rev. George J. Reed 
was the first teacher. In this school all the 
higher branches were taught, the ladies leaving, 



in many instances, with a diploma. Cambern's 
seminary lasted for fifteen or twenty years, at the 
end of which Zebulon B. Sturgus gained posses- 
sion, and changed it into a school for both sexes, 
giving it the name of Harnett's academy. Here 
Sturgus made considerable reputation, his stu- 
dents coming from different States along the 
Ohio river. But in course of time changes were 
made. Untoward circumstances threw the old 
teacher out of his position; but not desiring to 
begin a new business, he put up a frame building 
in the northern part of the village, and opened 
a school on his own account. This was in 1855. 
Students gathered heie from all sections, and 
the faithful old teacher had the pleasure of see- 
ing in after years some of them quite distin- 
guished lawyers, statesmen, and philanthropists. 
Henry Crawford, one of the prominent lawyers 
of Chicago, and Senator Booth, of California, 
received much of their early education from Mr. 
Sturgus. The old teacher was a strict disciplin- 
arian. Tobacco-chewers and swearers were not 
allowed among his students. It is related that 
when the first locomotive passed over the Ohio 
& Mississippi railroad he whipped all the schol- 
ars for imitating the engine. Sturgus is no more; 
the old schools are gone, and the present genera- 
tion is reaping their golden grain. 

At the present time Charlestown carries on her 
public school in the old court-house, with four 
teachers and about two hundred scholars. The 
colored school is separate, and out of two hun- 
dred colored residents there are about fifty pupils 
in it, and they are very irregular in attendance. 

Charlestown township has fourteen public 
schools, including those in the village, just de- 
scribed. 

SECRET SOCIETIES. 

Ex-Governor ' Jonathan Jennings, who lived 
near Springvilb?, or "Tulleytown," as it was 
called at first, was elected grand master of the 
State Grand lodge of Free Masons, which met 
at Madison, Jefferson county, in October, 1823. 
But previously, in 18 18, the grand lodge held its 
session at Charlestown, electing Alexander Buck- 
ner, one of its citizens, grand master. On the 
3d of October, 1S26, Isaac Houk, another citi- 
zen, was chosen grand master, the lodge then 
meeting at Salem, in Washington county. May 
5, 1877, Dr. A. P. Hay, of Charlestown, was 
called to the highest office in the order in the 



348 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Stale. Thus we see that four grand masters 
have been taken from this place. It is not to be 
wondered at, however, since the town . has for 
many years been known for its educated men. 
The Masonic hall is now over Alpha's store; the 
colored lodge in the same building. 

The Odd Fellows hold their meetings on Long- 
worth row, as also do all other secret societies of 
the village. 

During the time when the Patrons of Husbandry 
were attracting so much attention, several granges 
were organized in this township; but on ac- 
count of waning interest they have died out. 

CHURCHES. 

The first Methodist preaching in the Grant 
was by Revs. Samuel Parker and Edward Tal- 
bott, in the spring of i8oi. They held a two- 
days meeting at Springville, then but recently 
laid out. This was before Parker had become 
connected with the itinerant ministry, and soon 
after he was licensed to preach. Talbott was 
also a local preacher. Both were from Ken- 
tucky. Benjamin Lakin and Ralph Lotspeech 
were the first traveling preachers sent into the 
Grant. They came in 1803. Lakin first visited 
Gazaway's neighborhood, now Salem, in the New 
Washington circuit, five miles east of Charles- 
town, and preached in the woods as early in 
the spring as weather would permit. He then 
proposed taking this point and Robinson's, three 
miles north of Charlestown, into his circuit, and 
left appointments for this purpose. To these 
two points the preachers at first devoted but one 
day on their round, preaching alternately at each 
place. At this time they were traveling the Salt 
River and Shelby circuits. It was not long be- 
fore the presiding elder employed Samuel Parker 
and William Houston to travel on the same cir- 
cuit a part of the year. 

It is believed that the first Methodist society 
organized in the State was at Gazaway's. This 
must have been in the year 1803, when Lakin 
and Lotspeech came over the Ohio riv^r, and 
took them into the Shelby circuit, and was 
doubtless as early in the season as April or May. 
Lakin and Lotspeech were succeeded the follow- 
ing year by A. McGuire and Fletcher Sullivan. 
In 1804 McGuire was appointed to the Salt 
River circuit, and Sullivan to Shelby, yet Mc- 
Guire preached a few times in the Grant in con- 



junction with the former. Sullivan was quite 
successful in his work. Benjamin Lakin and 
Peter Cartwright followed the next year. They 
were succeeded in the fall of 1S05 by Asa Shinn 
and Moses Ashworth. In the ^fall of 1806 
Joseph Oglesbyand Frederic Hood were sent to 
this circuit. 

On account of Hood's opinions in regard to 
slavery there were objections made to his labors, 
and he declined to travel. At the close of this 
year the Grant was stricken off the Shelby cir- 
cuit, made a circuit by itself, and Ashworth was 
placed in charge of it. It was at first a two- 
weeks circuit, but was soon changed to a three- 
weeks work. As years went on, its boundaries 
were enlarged, and in 1 Si 5 it was an eight-weeks 
circuit, and yet had but one traveling preacher. 
At the close of 181 5 it was so divided that 
preaching was had every fortnight. 

Ashworth's year on the Silver Creek circuit, as 
it was then called, was closed with a camp-meet- 
ing in the Robinson neighborhood. William 
Burke, afterwards a famous man in Cincinnati, 
was presiding elder. For a new country this was 
a novel affair, and called together a vast multi- 
tude of people. The first Methodist Episcopal 
church built in the State was erected as early as 
1S06 or 1S07, near where this camp-meeting was 
held. With it was connected a beautiful bury- 
ing-ground, where sleep many of the precious 
dead, who fell during a long succession of pioneer 
experiences. The same house, though removed 
to a site a little distant from the original one, 
continued to stand until within a few years. In 
this church was held, probably, the first Christ- 
mas exercises in the State. 

During the term of years above referred to, 
this newly settled country was largely supplied 
by local preachers whose labors were more or less 
efficient. 

There were no special revivals on the Silver 
creek circuit until 1800-10. At this time there 
was a very large number of conversions and ac- 
cessions to the church. 

The first Methodist preaching in Charlestown 
was in 1S09. Class-meetings and prayer-meet- 
ings were then established. Such was their at- 
tendance that no house could be found large 
enough to accommodate the people who came. 
In those times the female part of the congrega- 
tion took part in the exercises. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



349 



From the earliest times Methodism in this 
region had much opposition,- not only from' non- 
professors, but also from certain' professing 
Christians. The Arians, or New-lights, the fol- 
lowers of Stone and Marshall, were active in 
bringing into disrepute the orthodox doctrines 
and in discarding all disciplines and professions 
of faith. Their influence with the masses was 
very powerful, and for a while it seemed that 
everything would fall before it. The extraordi- 
nary exercises called "the jerks," which pre- 
vailed so extensively in their congregations, 
excited the public mind and attracted great 
crowds to their meetings. But the jerks were 
not altogether confined to the New-lights; they 
prevailed to some extent among most of the de- 
nominations. Those who held to the Calvinis- 
tic faith were then more active than at present in 
maintaining the peculiarities of their system in 
opposition to Methodism. But the war with 
Great Britain and the open hostilities of the 
Indians had much influence in checking the 
spread of Methodist doctrines, and in fact re- 
ligion generally. It seems, too, that this ancient 
and most honorable body is at present losing 
much of its former energy, its earlier simplicity, 
and the manners which made it so attractive in 
its old-time life. But it must not be presumed 
that all the hardy virtues which characterize a 
backwoods people, will be transmitted to the 
generations without being corrupted. We are 
now living in a different age, a day of steamboats, 
railroads, printing-presses, and electricity. 

Presbyterianism had much to do in the shap- 
ing of opinions and dogmas in the early religious 
enterprises of Charlestown. The Presbyterian 
society was organized in 1812 in the old Court- 
house, and was under the control of the Louis- 
ville Presbytery. The Rev. John Todd was 
among the first preachers, and was the " stated 
supply," a term familiar to this sect. Leander 
Cobbs succeeded Mr. Todd. It was not till 
1827 that the society found itself strong enough 
to erect a buildiug. Within this year a conven- 
ient biick meeting-house was put up, occupying 
the site of the present edifice. This church had 
many professional men as its members. In 1820 
the elders were Absalom Littell, John Cleghorn, 
James Scott, Alexanders. Henderson, and Alban 
Vernon. Among the members were the wives of 
the elders, Samuel Spear, George Barnes, John 



C. Barnes, William Barnes, James Tilford, Bar- 
zilla P.aker, .John Todd, Jr., Jacob Temple, Ann 
Huckleberry, Penelope Teeple, Elizabeth Fer- 
guson, Nathan G. Hawkins, Evan Shelby, and 
others. There were fourteen who were heads of 
families. 

Fifty-seven years after the first church was 
erected, another, built of brick, was put in its 
place. It is a handsome building, reflects credit 
on those who make it a place of worship, and 
honors the God whose law it aims to protect. 
The class is in a thriving condition, with Rev. 
Mr. McKillup as pastor, and one hundred and 
thirty members on the register. 

Presbyterian theology has always been noted 
for its even temperament. The eld Scottish 
founders gave it a character which has never been 
lost. No revolution, no pestilence or famine, no 
great reformation has altered the stead}' nature 
of devoted Presbyterians. It is true, also, that 
it has ever been the church of cool and deliber- 
ate men, persons well poised and capable of 
judging for themselves. At least this was true 
in Charlestown. The society was among the 
oldest in the State, and the old church, when 
torn down, was the second in age in Indiana. 

There was a denomination about 1S00, two 
miles south of Charlestown, known as United 
Brethren. The membeis were mostly from the 
Southern States and Germany. Here a camp- 
meeting was held, and preaching had in some of 
home's of the pioneers. The rapid growth of 
Methodism, however, absorbed the society, and 
since that time it has ceased to exist in this sec- 
tion as a separate church organization. 

Previous to 1825, a very prosperous Baptist 
church was in existence at the old county seat. 
It was familiarly known as the " Hard-shell." 
During the reformation set in motion by Alex- 
ander Campbell, of Bethany, now in West Vir- 
ginia, the Baptist members left the church of 
their youth and went over in a body to the new 
faith. Campbell was here during his travels, 
and inspired his followers with a more intrepid 
nature. Mordecni Cole was their first preacher. - 
Absalom and Christopher Cole, his brothers, 
Thomas Littell, and John D. Johnson, a brother 
of Richard M., the man reputed to have slain 
Tecumseh, were members. The first elders in 
the church were Samuel Work, Mordecai Cole, 
Mr. Pearsoll, and Morgan Parr. The church 



35° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



stands on a ralher ungainly spot of land, but is 
well supported in respect to necessary funds and 
other church requirements. 

In the village of Charlestown there are seven 
churches, viz: Methodist Episcopal, Christian 
or "Campbellite," German Methodist Episcopal, 
German Lutheran, Presbyterian, African Meth- 
odist Episcopal, and Baptist. 

Hon. Judge James Scott and Mrs. Rev. 
George Hester were the founders of the Sunday- 
school here, about seventy years ago. Sunday- 
schools were held then in the court-house, and 
were controlled by no separate church organiza- 
tion. They were union, both in form and spirit, 
and were supported by all the religious people of 
the community. Now the different churches 
have separate schools. In most instances they 
are well attended, but not in such numbers, com- 
paratively, as those of a primitive age. 

CEMETERIES. 

The old burying-ground of Charlestown was 
laid out in 1818. It is situated in the western 
part of the village, on a hill which slopes toward 
Pleasant run. Perhaps in the original grounds 
there was one acre of land. Many years ago 
it was found necessary to begin a new and more 
commodious cemetery, on account of the old 
graveyard being entirely occupied. ' In the early 
part of the century it was used by the public gen- 
erally, and was the most noted of any in the 
northern part of the county. It is here that 
ex-Governor Jonathan Jennings is buried. 
Nothing marks his resting-piace — no marble 
slab, no granite monument, nothing but a few 
briars, alders, and stunted bushes. He is buried 
on lot number one hundred and twenty-two, 
two-th'irds of the distance from the south side, 
and in the middle from east to west. It is to be 
regretted that Indiana has paid so little attention 
to perpetuating the memory of its first Governor. 
There will come a time when she will look with 
shame upon her past neglect. A monument 
should be erected by somebody — the citizens of 
Charlestown, if nobody else — which will pay a 
fitting tribute to its dead statesman, soldier, and 
farmer. 

The present cemetery is not legally incor- 
porated by the State. It is under the control of 
the town authorities, fronts on Pleasant street, 
and originally had one hundred and twelve lots. 



[ Along the northwest corner a branch of Pleasant 
run adds a fascinating feature, making the surface 
rolling and well suited for burying purposes. 
The ground has subdivisions for strangers, sui- 
cides, and colored people. 

PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. 

When Tulleytovvn first attracted notice, on ac- 
count of the Indians making it a trading post; 
when the traveling lawyers and judges held court 
here; when still-houses and mills, taverns and 
boarding-houses, all combined to secure for it a 
widespread reputation, Dr. Morrison James made 
it his place of doing professional business. Pie 
had none of the modern polish which now glit- 
ters so brilliantly in medicinal circles. His 
mode of treating patients sometimes was to stay 
with them until the medicine either killed or 
cured. Dr. James is now dead. 

In later years there weie in Charlestown Drs. 
Minor, A. P. Hay, Samuel Fowler, Hugh Lysle 
(here a long time), H. I. Tobias, Alban Vernon, 
Andrew Rodgers (who died very suddenly), Wil- 
liam G. Goforth, J, S. Athan, and Leonidas 
Clemmens, all of whom are dead. Those who 
have practiced here and are now living are Drs. 
Campbell, Hay, William Taggart, Samuel C. 
Taggart (who is the present clerk of court), D. 
H. Combs, R. Curran, J. E. Oldham, and Josiah 
Taggart. These men traveled over the whole 
county, from Bethlehem, on the Ohio, to New 
Providence in the knobs. 

Charlestown was always noted for her distin- 
guished judges and lawyers; but during her ear : 
liest history professional men were seldom located 
! here permanently. Many of them traveled from 
! county seat to county seat," and filled engage- 
ments with their clients. Gabriel Johnson was 
1 a practitioner of law at Springville in 1S01. He 
' came from Louisville. James Scott ranked as a 
good lawyer. He afterwards became supreme 
judge and register of the land office at Jefferson- 
I ville under Harrison and Taylor. Genera! Joseph 
Bartholomew, of Kentucky, after whom Bar- 
tholomew county, Indiana, is named, practiced 
law here during his professional experience. 
The general served as a spy in the Indian wars 
of Kentucky, when that State was being overrun 
by savage foes, and when Daniel boone took 
such an active part in Indian warfare. At the 
battle of Tippecanoe Bartholomew was wounded, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3Si 



but survived, and some time after was elected 
brigadier-general of the Territorial militia. In 
1819 he was chosen as a Senator, which office he 
filled with credit to himself and the county. 
During the latter part of his life he engaged in 
trapping and hunting on the Arkansas and White 
rivers, and died in Illinois in 1S43. 

Henry Hurst, James Scott, Davis Floyd, John 
H. Thompson, Charles Deweyj Isaac Houk, 
Isaac Naylor, Benjamin Ferguson, James Morri- 
son, and Worden Pope practiced at the Clark 
county bar at an early day. Mr. Pope was Clerk 
of Jefferson County Court for forty years. 
Major Henry Hurst studied law with Benjamin 
Sebastian, of Jefferson county, Kentuckv, who 
was one of General. Harrison's aids at the battle 
of Tippecanoe. He served as Clerk of the 
District Court of Indiana, and filled the position 
as Representative from Clark county to the 
State Legislature. 

John H. Thompson came from Kentucky to 
Indiana Territory when lawyers were few and far 
between in Clark's grant, and settled at Spring- 
ville. By trade he was a cabinet-maker, but after 
removing to Charlestown Governor Harrison ap- 
pointed him a justice of the peace, which gave 
him a taste for law. Judge James Scott was his 
law preceptor, who lived to set his pupil serve in 
both branches of the State Legislature. In 1825 
he was elected Lieutenant-governor, and in 1845 
was chosen Secretary of State. Lieutenant- 
governor Thompson was a kind and genial 
gentleman. He lived to a ripe old age, and died 
surrounded by hosts of friends. 

It was Governor Jennings who led most of 
the professional men of Clark county. He was 
born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, in 
1788, and came to Charlestown township at the 
age of twenty-two. From 1809 to 1S16 he 
served as Territorial delegate in Congress. When 
the convention met at Corydon to frame the 
State constitution he was chosen president of the 
convention. After serving two terms as Gov- 
ernor, he was again elected to Congress, where 
he served till 1S31. and three years afterwards 
died on his farm near Charlestown. In politics 
he was sucessful; in oratory not eloquent, but 
persuasive. He died, leaving behind him a rec- 
ord unspotted, untarnished, ciear as the noonday 
sun. 

Charles Dewey was a native of Massachusetts, 



and a lawyer of distinction. His mind was ac- 
tive, and his constitution strong. He practiced 
"law in the State and Federal courts, and suc- 
ceeded Judge Stephens as supreme judge. Pres- 
ident Tyler appointed him judge of the district 
court of Indiana, but he declined to accept. 
Dewey was a successful lawyer. He gathered 
about him some of the noblest professional or- 
naments of the State. 

Isaac Houk was an able lawyer. He filled the 
position as Representative of Clark county several 
times in the State Legislature, and for two or 
three sessions was chosen speaker. He died in 
1833, at Indianapolis. 

John Denny was one of the early and most 
prominent citizens of Charlestown. His school- 
days were passed with R. M. Johnson, and while 
in his teens he was apprenticed to a gentleman 
to learn the cabinet trade. Before Johnson was 
yet twenty-one he was elected to the Legislature, 
mainly through the efforts of his young friend, 
who was at that time but eighteen years of age. 
Denny was in the battle of Tippecanoe, and 
when the night attack was made was on picket 
duty. 

General Henry Dodge taught school in the 
Goodwin neighborhood in the early part cf 1800. 
He came from Jefferson county, Kentucky.. 
Dodge and General Atchinson were mainly in- 
strumental in putting an end to the Black Hawk 
war in 1832. Fie was afterwards Governor of 
Wisconsin Territory, and when the State was ad- 
mitted into the Union was chosen one of its first 
Senators. General Dodge was a distinguished 
scholar and soldier. Most of his life was spent 
in those pursuits which polish and sharpen the 
native faculties of the mind. 

John Hay settled in Charlestown in 1806. 
He emigrated ffom Kentucky, and was the father 
of Drs. A. P. and Campbell Hay, who are now 
prominent citizens of the village. In 1S18, 
when the State capital was at Corydon, he was a 
member of the Legislature. Dr. Campbell Hay 
studied medicine with his brother A. P., and for 
many years has practiced in Clark county. He 
was in the Black Hawk war as a United States 
ranger, in Capcain Ford's company. Later in 
life he filled the office of auditor and clerk of 
the circuit court. At present he is town treas- 
urer, and is engaged in the drug business. 

Captain Thomas W. Gibson, another early 



352 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



citizen, was a room-mate with Edgar A. Foe at 
West Foint for three years. 

Rezin Hammond, who passed a portion of his 

• life in this old place, has the honor of preaching 

the first sermon in Indianapolis, before that city 

had begun to assume anything of its present 

prosperity. 

M. F. Alpha, a man who holds well the activi- 
ties of youth, is the architect of his own for- 
tune. He rose from humble life to a position 
enviable in the estimation of his countrymen. 
He is now engaged in commercial pursuits in the 
village of his boyhood. 

William P. Huckleberry, who descended from 
a long line of ancestors, is worthy of the best 
notice. He has lived his life unmarried, and is 
probably the most remarkable person for the 
retention of pioneer incidents and reminiscences 
in Clark county. Life with him has been a cool, 
sequestered valley, where all the powers of his 
mind gathered a fund of knowledge of the 
widest and most varied kind. To him the citi- 
zens of Charlestown township are indebted for 
most of their history. 

The oldest man in Charlestown is John Harris, 
now about ninety years of age. He served in 
the War of 1812, and participated in the battle 
of the Thames, where Tecumseh was killed. 

James R. Beggs's father was in the convention 
which framed the State constitution, and after- 
wards served as Senator from Clark county in 
the State Legislature. 

David W. Dailey, Sr., was the first white child 
born in Charlestown township, and Campbell 
Hay the first in Charlestown village. The latter 
was born in 1809. 

Thus we have reviewed, in a rapid and cursory 
manner, the lives of some of the men who aided 
in bringing Charlestown to the proud position 
she occupied a quarter of a century ago. Most 
of them have changed their physical for spiritual 
bodies. Their race is run, but their deeds are 
left as living mementoes of the past. 

POST-OFFICES AND MAILS. 

We give the names of the postmasters at 
Charlestown in the order in which they served : 
Peter G. Taylor, of New York, 1S17; Walter 
Wheatley, who is dead; Lemuel Ford, John 
Bowel, Thomas Carr, Henry Harrod, John C. 
Huckleberry, a brother of William P. Huckle- 



berry; Rezin Hammond, who was in office in 
1841; M. P. Alpha, who took possession on the 
1st of May, 1S49; Elias Long, from July, 1853; 
M. F. Alpha again, 1861; J. M. Parker, 1865; 
John Schwallier, January i, 1S69; M. P. Alpha 
once more, 1869; R. L. Howe, June, 1881; 
Henry Howard, at present. A number, of the 
earlier postmasters are now dead. During Har- 
rod's administration the office was kept in an 
old building southwest of the court-house. Carr 
maintained the office on the corner of Main and 
Market streets. Bowel kept next to Douthitt's 
old house. Huckleberry dealt out letters in the 
printing office, Hammond south of the court- 
house, and Alpha in various places. Parker 
filled his office in a little building south of the 
court-house, and Schwallier on the southwest 
corner of Main and Market streets, close to Al- 
pha's corner. 

Down to 1849 the mail came three times a 
week by way of Louisville, from Cincinnati. 
The steamboats brought the mail in most cases 
down the river. From the villages along the 
Ohio mail routes led off to the county seats and 
little post-offices in the townships. Mails were 
carried to all the villages of any importance in 
the county, on horseback, in a pair of saddle- 
bags. A mail-carrier was a person whom all per- 
sons delighted to see. Letters then, more than 
now, were precious articles. 

Since the Ohio & Mississippi railroad has been 
built the mails are carried on trains from post- 
offices north and south, though some of the vil- 
lages in other townships are still in wagon-road 
communication wiih Charlestown. They are 
semi-weekly in most instances, and amount to 
but little in the way of a real, thriving business, 
Many papers are taken, however, and are the 
people's chief source of information. 



AGRICULTURAL FAIRS. 



The first fair in Clark county was held in 1836, 
on Denny's lots, southeast of the court-house. 
Thomas J. Henly, John Denny, and John W. 
Long were instrumental in its success. Nothing 
was exhibited of special attraction, except Dr. 
James Taggart's Durham bull, the first in the 
county. Avery Long was their president, and 
Campbell Hay treasurer. Until 1856 the county 
fair was regularly held in the vicinity of Charles- 
town. In that year it was taken to Jeffersonville. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



353 



On account of the unfavorable location and the 
long distance people from .the northern part of 
the county had to travel to attend, the three 
counties of Scott, Jefferson, and the upper por- 
tion of Clark began to hold a fair within a short 
distance of New Washington. It was kept in 
running order -as a consolidated exhibition tor 
ten or twelve years. In the meantime Charles- 
town had been favored again by the presence of 
the old fair ; and this proved to the cause of the 
suspension of the fair at New Washington. 

For a number of years the society was finan- 
cially unprofitable. Fifteen acres of land under 
its control were mortgaged, and many other 
things made decidedly against its success. 
Practically, the Clark County Agricultural society 
was dead. The property was worth perhaps 
$3,000. Shares in the society were valued at 
$100 each. In the midst of these unfavorable 
circumstances Mr. M. P. Alpha, a gentleman 
who had always contributed largely of his means 
and ability, bought the old property, and re- 
organized what is now the Clark County Central 
Agricultuial association. Its fairs are held here 
yearly. People bring their grains, fine stock, 
farming implements, household goods, and fabrics 
to exhibit, and to see each other in discussion of 
all the facts and fancies of agricultural life. 

WAR RECORD. 

Were we to follow all the Indian skirmishes of 
olden time; the organization of State militia for 
English and Mexican wars; the equipment of 
the soldier boys for the late Rebellion, and the 
exciting times caused by John Morgan's raid, 
enough matter would be obtained to form a 
good-sized history by itself. The devotion of 
Charlestown's citizens to the cause of liberty and 
the preservation of the Union was never doubted. 
She had a class of men who knew the price of 
freedom from experience — who had felt the In- 
dian's scalping-knife, had dodged the deadly ar- 
row — if such a thing were possible — and seen 
the tomahawk fly through the air with the pre- 
cision of a modern rifleman's bullet; who had 
seen the savage stand in the court-house yard 
and reel in drunkenness on Main and Market 
streets; who had fought Indians in sight of 
Tulleytown and at Pigeon Roost. Young men 
and women of to-day turn away with a shudder, 
wondering that such atrocities could have been 



perpetrated in a land of so much present pros- 
perity. 

Perhaps there . was never another man in 
Clark's Grant who so narrowly escaped with his 
life as the Rev. George K. Hester. His father, 
John Mathias Hester, was born in Hanover, Ger- 
many, July 4, 1767. The family 'settled at 
Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in 1772,- consisting of 
father, mother, and three children. When about 
nineteen years of age George K. Hester took 
passage on a flatboat for the then far West. In 
those days it was no uncommon thing for lurking 
savages to fire on the whites as they floated to- 
ward the gulf. During the passage Mr. Hester 
had several narrow escapes; but it was after 
landing near where Louisville now stands that he 
was almost miraculously saved. While in the 
woods of Kentucky a party of Indians attacked 
his party, and after leaving him for dead he man- 
aged to gain a place of refuge and finally to re- 
gain his health. Some time during the bloody 
tragedy Mr. Hester was struck with a weapon on 
the back of his head, which rendered him un- 
conscious; but during the time of taking his 
scalp he was entirely conscious of everything 
which transpired. He never fully recovered 
from the effects of his wound, and it was 
the ultimate cause of his death thirty years after- 
wards. John Mathias Hester, his father, died 
at his residence near Charlcstown on the 2 2d of 
November, 1823. Eighteen months after his 
son's misfortune George married Miss Susannah 
Huckleberry, to whom he »vas engaged before his 
injury. 

The practical patriotism of Charlestown during 
the late war, as manifested by liberal enlistments 
and otherwise, is sufficiently illustrated in our 
military record of Clark and Floyd counties. It 
may there be seen that she did her duty in the 
great crisis. An interesting incident occurred 
here on the 9th of April, rS63, in the sale at 
auction of a considerable tract of land and some 
railway stock, confiscated by the United States 
Government, as the property of Colonel William 
Preston, of Kentucky, who had gone into the 
service of the Confederate States. 

But let us shift the scene. The history of 
Charlestown village and township has been 
traced from aboriginal times down to the present 
day. The hamlet has passed through stormy 



354 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



years, but is now entering a period of quiet and 
satisfactory ease. Its most prosperous days 
have been passed, and it now lives the life of a 
retired and respectable county-seat. 



Going north on the Ohio & Mississippi branch 
from Charlestown, the traveler passes through a 
somewhat broken country. The soil is not like 
the fine bottoms of Utica. It is of a yellowish 
tinge, and though it generally produces very well, 
the drouth of .1881 reduced crops to less than 
one-half their usual yield. An ugly growth of 
forest-trees is conspicuous — beech of a knotty 
nature, ash that looks out of place, and scrubby 
oak, prevail. About half-way between Charles- 
town and Otisco the railroad passes through a 
cut of fine slate-stone. On the cliff stands an 
old Catholic church, a frame building much out 
of repair, which was erected in 1S54. Across 
the railroad in a northerly course, an old German 
graveyard is partly walled in by a stone fence, 
while the briars and bushes seem to have taken 
possession of the ground. If the locomotive had 
failed to pass through this section, it would soon 
go the way of other old places, having hardly 
enough enterprise to give it prominence. Land 
ranges from a low figure upwards according to 
improvements. 

The site of Otisco was formerly owned by 
Thomas Cowling; but after his death his son 
Samuel inherited the property. They were ot 
English extraction, and came here almost fifty- 
years ago, when the upper part of the township 
was a dense forest. Immediately after the rail- 
road was built, which was in 1S54, the village 
was laid out. During its twenty-seven years of 
inactive life, there have been no taverns — nothing 
to afford food and shelter but a private residence. 
The town has two churches — Methodist Episco- 
pal and German Unitarian, the former having 
services every three weeks. There is also preach- 
ing every now and then by United Brethren 
preachers. 

One thing worthy of note is the attention 
given to education. A handsome school build- 
ing stands in the eastern part of the village. 
where the surrounding country children, in con- 
nection with those in the hamlet, get the rudi- 
ments and otherwise learn to lay a foundation 
foi a successful education. 



There is in active running order a saw-mill 
and stave factory combined, owned, and operated 
by Mr. D. S. Conner. 

S. \Y. Evans carries on an extensive cooper 
shop and heading-mill, and runs also a set of 
buhrs for grinding corn and buckwheat. 

The present physician is Jacob Somerville, 
and the school teachers are George Badger and 
Belle Enlow. A German burying-ground is 
situated near the Unitarian church. In the vil- 
lage there are two hundred and thirty-four peo- 
ple, mostly Germans. 

Otisco's first postmaster was Hiram Ne- 
ville. The second and present officer is C. 
P. Maloy. Their storekeepers were Milo Lit- 
tell, Barzilla Guernsey, Martin Hartz. Now 
there are two stores, of which S. W. Evans and 
John Maloy are proprietors. 

REMOVAL OF THE COUNTY SEAT. ■ 

We have" now reached a portion of history 
which will perhaps never be satisfactoiily settled. 
It touches the private interests of so many 
prominent men that even if the most impartial 
judge should decide its validity, objection would 
be made to his decision. In the matter of 
which we now speak there will follow a candid 
statement of facts as the writer found them to 
exist while collecting historical information. 

The commissioners of Clark's Grant at first- 
held their sessions at Louisville. When Clarks- 
ville was laid out the seat of justice was changed 
to that place. On the 7 th of April, 1S01, 
Springville was made the place of holding court. 
In the meantime the present town of Jefferson- 
villc was pushed into existence, and on June 9, 
1802, the courts of the Grant were taken to the 
town of Ohio Falls. Here they were kept for 
ten years. Charlestown at this time attracting 
considerable attention, on account of its rapid 
growth and central location, became anxious to 
I have the courts held within its boundaries. 
Hence, on December 14, 18 12, the county seat 
was taken to this place, where it remained until 
October 30, 1S7S, when it was once more taken 
to Jeffersonville. 

While the county seat was at Springville, 
Samuel Gwathmey was appointed clerk of the 
court of quarter sessions of the peace and of the 
orphans' court; Jesse Rowland was probate 
judge; Peter McDonald, coroner; Samuel Hay, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3 55 



sheriff; Marston G. Clark, surveyor; Thomas 
Downs, treasurer; David Floyd, recorder. On 
May 26, 1S02, Benjamin Park, the forerunner of 
all lawyers in southern Indiana, was licensed to 
practice law. In 1S03 the first regular Falls 
pilots were appointed, David Floyd and John 
Owens being their names. While the courts 
were held in Jeffersonville everything in the 
county worked harmoniously. It was considered 
fair that the county seat should be changed, by 
.most people in the Grant, to a more convenient 
situation. 

The first and original court-house in Charles- 
town was built of brick, erected in 1S13. For 
many years it served all the wants of a new 
county. At the time, of the Pigeon Roost mas- 
sacre the people placed around it a line of 
pickets for self-preservation, but no serious at- 
tempt was made to molest the citizens. During 
the interim between 18 13 and 181 9 there was no 
regular jail; a sort of calaboose was used to in- 
carcerate prisoners. February 26, 1S19, the 
county commissioners advertised for bids to 
build a jail. The notices were circulated 
through the Indiana Intelligencer, a paper in 
existence at that time. All the necessary out- 
buildings were .to be included with the jail, such 
as barn, corn-cribs, and so on, which the jailor 
would actually need. Bids were received and a 
comfortable and well supplied jail and out-build- 
ings were erected by Daniel P. Faulkner. 

Thirty-odd years ago the original court-house 
was replaced by a new and larger building. It 
yet stands, and is now used for school purposes. 

Such is the history of material things relating 
to county seat matters. But during the sixty-six 
years while Charlestown remained the county 
seat, .there had sprung up the more prosperous 
and larger town of Jeffersonville, which envied 
the old village her only great possession. Several 
times moves had been made to have the courts 
held at Jeffersonville, but the indignation in the 
northern part of the county was so violent that 
every attempt signally failed. It was not till the 
1st of January, 1S76, that notice was given 
through the columns of the Charlestown Record 
that the county seat would soon be changed, and 
that the people must prepare to accept the situa- 
tion gracefully. The Record is a paper of fifteen 
hundred subscribers, is edited and owned by 
William F. Ferrier, and was established in 1S69. 



I From this time thenceforward there was a sea ol 

j turbulence ; the two sections boiled with rage, 

! and all manner of intrigue was practiced to 
secure the desired end. February 12th, the 

I citizens of Charlestown and vicinity assembled 

I in mass meeting to protest against the outrage, 

' as they held it. Colonel Thomas Carr was 

j chosen chairman, and Di. C. Hay, secretary. A 

• number of .spirited addresses were made, and 

j tremendous excitement prevailed. Mr. W. S. 

; Ferrier offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That all members of tliis meeting make use of 
nil honorable means to retain the county seat at Charlestown. 
That we throw into the scales our united efforts of influence 
and labor, and such financial aid as may be necessary. 

The Indianapolis Sentinel of the 'same date 
j says: 

They are having a lively war in Clark county over the re- 

| moval of the county seat from Charlestown to Jeffersonville. 

Jeffersonville makes an offer of 530,000 for the privilege ofhav- 

I ing the courts held there, but the balance of the county pro- 

j tests. Clark is one of our largest counties, and not being well 

provided with good roads, it is not probable the farming 

community will consent to have the county-seat removed 

I farther from the center. 

The New Albany Ledger-Standard of February 

\ 15, 1S76, says editorially: 

Clark county is again thrown into a perfect turmoil of ex- 

I citement on the county-seat question. These things used to 
come up every few years in some shape, but it was thought 
that when the Ohio & Mississippi railroad built a branch 

I through Charlestown the question would at least be settled 
for many years. But it seems that Jeffersonville is deter- 
mined to make one more effort \\ ith what success is yet to be 
determined. Jeffersonville is on the verge of bankruptcy, all 

' her manufactories and mercantile interests are paralyzed, and 
she cannot carry much greater burden. If it is true — which 

1 is doubtful, to say the least of it — that she has raised $30,000 

•: and deposited to the credit of the commissioners, how much 
of it will be left by the time she has paid for petitions; paid 

I the exp"nses of inevitable law suits; paid for the present Court- 

i house and County jail, and paid for removing the offices ? 
She will find her $30,000 well-nigh expended before a single 

I stone is laid in the foundation. 

The anti removal committee, which had been 
1 appointed at the Charlestown mass-meeting, pre- 
I sented the following remonstrance to the citizens 
of the county: 

Jeffersonville has her emissaries in every township and 
| neighborhood in the county, and some even outside of the 
county and ^tate, securing names to petitions by every 
means, fair and foul. When argument fails, monev and 
whiskey are freely used. When legal signatures are not to 
lie had, those of women and non-residents are put in their 
place. We may expect more names presented to the com- 
missioners than the statutes require. It behooves the tax- 
payers and citizens of the county to stand by their rights, 
and to demand and enforce a legal investigation of all the 
questions involved in this important matter. 



35 6 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



For some time after the first outburst the 
court-house question was not discussed pub- 
licly, on account of local politics. On Monday, 
March 3, 1876, the county commissioners re- 
assembled, to continue the consideration of the 
removal question. A large number of citizens 
from Jeffersonville, and people from the sur- 
rounding country, were in attendance. A mo- 
tion was made to strike out the fictitious names 
in the petitions ; which was lost. *At this a ter- 
jible storm of indignation burst forth, which 
threatened to disperse the meeting. After the 
excitement had somewhat subsided, the title of 
the ground which Jeffersonville promised to give 
was ably discussed. On Thursday following an 
agreement was made to adjourn informally till 
April roth, allowing the board to meet in the 
meantime and consider evidence which might 
have been collected, but not to arrive at any 
definite conclusion. At the expiration of the 
month the commissioners met again. They 
finally decided that the light of removal be- 
longed to the majority of the citizens. This 
virtually settled the matter. From this time till 
the records were actually taken to Jeffersonville 
the people considered the question settled. 
Charlestown accepted her inevitable fate with 
resignation. Citizens residing in the townships 
of Oregon, Washington, Bethlehem, Owen, 
Monroe, and Wood, considered the change an 
outrage. They were compelled to take two days 
in many instances to pay taxes or to answer a 
summons. But county seat quarrels are always 
. productive of trouble. People in one part of 
the county mistrust those in the other, and hence 
hand down to generations a feeling similar to 
that which formerly existed between the North 
and the South. 

NOTICES OF CHARLESTOWN. 

This place, although in the interior, and for 
nearly all its long career off the great thorough- 
fares of travel, has not been wholly neglected by 
travelers and writers of gazetteers. Mr. Palmer, 
the Englishman who journeyed through the Ohio 
valley in 1817, has this to say in his subsequent 
book of Travels in the United States: 

Charleston, the seat of justice for Clark county, is situ- 
ated in the centre of a rich and thr.ving settlement, thirty- 
two miles southwest from Madison, two miles from the Ohio 
river, and fourteen from the Fails. This village, like many 
others in the Western country, has sprung up suddenly by the 



magical influence of American enterprise, excited into action 
by a concurrence of favorable circumstances. 

The following notice of the place is contained 
in Dana's Geographical Sketches on the Western 
Country, published in 1819: 

Charlestown, the county-seat of Clark, is situated two 
miles from the Ohio, twenty miles south of west from Madi- 
son, and fourteen miles above the Falls. It is one of the 
most flourishing and neatly built towns in the State; contains 
about one hunched and sixty houses, chiefly of brick, a hand- 
some court-house, and is inhabited by an industrious class of 
citizens. There are numerous plantations around this town, 
consisting of good land, and better cultivated, perhaps, than 
any in the State. This tract is within the grant made by the 
State of Virginia to the brave soldiers, etc., etc. 

The village further receives the following 
notice in the Indiana Gazetteer, or Topographical 
Dictionary, for 1833: 

Charlestown, a post-town and seat of justice of Clark 
county, situated on a high table-land between the waters of 
Fourteen-mile creek and those of Silver creek, about two and 
a half miles fiom M'Donald's ferry, on the Ohio river, 
from which there is a diiect road and well improved to the 
town, thirteen miles from the Falls of the Ohio and one hun- 
dted and six miles south-southeast of Indianapolis. It is 
surrounded by a body of excellent farming lana, in a high 
state of cultivation. Charlestown contains about eight hun- 
dred inhabitants, seven mercantile stores, one tavern, six 
lawyers, lour physicians, three preachers of the gO; > pel, and 
craftsmen of almost all descriptions. The public buildings 
are a court-house, a jail, an office for the clerk and recorder, 
and a market-house, all of brick; in addition to which the 
Episcopal Methodists, the Reformed Methodists, the Bap- 
tists, and the Presbyterians have meeting-houses, all of brick, 
and an extensive brick building has lately been erected for 
the purpose of a county seminary. In the immediate vicinity 
of the town a flounng-mill and oil-mill have been recently 
erected, which are propeiled by steam power. The situation 
is healthy, and supplied with several springs of excellent 
water. There are in Charlestown about sixty-five brick dwell- 
ing-houses, and about one hundred of wood. There are a'lso 
c^rding-macbines, propelled by horse- or ox-power. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

MONROE TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION. 

Monroe is a township lying in the northwestern 
corner of Clark county. The first mention made 
in the records of this, the second largest town- 
ship in the county, which has over thirty-five 
thousand acres, is under date of January 1, 
1827, when Andrew McCombe and I. Thomas 
were appointed fence-viewers. Previously, and 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



357 



in fact for a number of years afterwards, the 
boundaries were indefinite. The surface pre- 
cluded strictly established lines. It was known 
that the upper side of the township bordered on 
the line between Scott and Clark counties, and 
that the south side was adjacent to Charlestown 
township. Beyond this there seemed to be no 
fixed boundaries. The west side was described 
as "extending to the county line," but even that 
line was imaginary. On the dividing line be- 
tween Wood and Monroe there was no dispute. 
That question was settled in 1816. when the 
former township was organized. The reason why 
boundary lines were so indefinitely located was 
in the hilly surface, poor soil, few settlements, 
and general unimportance of the township. On 
its first organization it went by the name of Col- 
lins township; and it was only in 1S27 that its 
name was permanently settled. It was probably 
named in honor of President Monroe, who had 
only vacated his office a few years before ; or, 
what is more likely, the township name was 
changed about the year 1826, but no mention of 
it was made in the records until a year after, 
when we find record of the two men above 
named as fence-viewers. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

The surface of Monroe township is diversified 
in the extreme. It reaches from the low bot- 
toms to the highest knobs in the county. It is 
about twelve miles long by six wide, lying in part 
in the famous Silver Creek valley. It was the 
great hunting-ground of the savage, rendered so 
on account of its excellent cover for all kinds of 
game. The eaily settlers saw many remains of 
the wigwam in this valley, though much decayed. 

Says Rev. Mr. Guernsey, of Henryville: 

These krobs have their peculiarities. Standing upon the 
highest peak, such as Round Top. so called on account of its 
small round top. and being cut off from the main chain, one 
can see to the Ohio river and Louisville without any obstruc- 
tion, and so far as the vision can extend. On a summer day 
the writer was on this knob, when his attention was called to 
a beautiful scene below. The sun was shining with all its 
brilliancy, but a little below where I stood there was spread 
out toward the south a cloud which looked as level as a 
house-floor. I had often looked on the under side of clouds, 
but never before had it been my privilege to see the upper 
side. As I stood there a heavy shower of rain fell, and 
1 coulct distinctly hear the thunder and see the flash of the 
lightning. 

Kound Top knob differ; from the other high elevations, by 
not being in the chain; and in its ascent it differs in itsirregu- 
lat rise by steps, or one rise after another, each one getting 



higher ttian the last until the summit is gained. Then there 
is a dividing ridge running down from it, between two 
branches of Blue Lick creek, which finally end in the level 
ground below. About midway there is a barren waste where 
sound scarcely ever falls upon the ear from bird or beast. 
There desolation reigns, while unmistakable signs of some- 
thing having the appearance of art is plainly to be seen, 
which has never been satisfactorily explained to the writer. 
Some have called them buffalo stamps, but what have 
these animals had to do with the barren spot? Being 
on the southwest side of a white oak lidge, with now and then 
a scrabby tree, and the ground dry and hatd, ,vith excava- 
tions at least a foot deep, much like the removal of the earth 
for the foundation of a house, as smooth and level as human 
hands could make it, they must certainly have been made 
by s(jn\e race of people. Then there are trenches or paths 
about a foot wide and deep, running from one of these larger 
ones to another, all over the hillside, with such regularity as 
no beasts would be likely to make. 

The northern side of the township is com- 
monly called the Summit. The knobs terminate 
here, to a certain extent, in a sort of table-land. 
On the east side the surface is rather hilly, and 
in many places totally unfit for anything except 
grazing. Around the village of Henryville the 
general appearance is pleasing, while the knobs 
in the west render the scene grand and pictur- 
esque. There is no township in the county, 
which has so many diversiues of surface; and 
from these diversities naturally springs a soil of 
various degrees of fertility. 

On the farm of Thomas Montgomery, on 
other branches of Silver creek, there are strong 
indications of silver. The stratum is about four 
feet below the surface, and spreads out over 
several hundred acres. The ore has been ana- 
lyzed and found to be of considerable richness, 
but not in sufficient quantities to pay for mining. 
The region round about is wild and uninviting, 
and 'he soil cold and stubborn. 

These facts, extracted from the geological 
surveys of Clark county,' show, better than any 
attempt of a stranger, the nature of the soil. 

Monroe township has several sulphur springs 
of note ; among them is one on the farm of 
John Stewart, north of Henryville. But it is in 
the Blue Lick country that these waters have 
gained the greatest prominence. The water is 
composed mainly of epsom salts, magnesia, and 
tincture of iron. It has qualities well adapted 
to scrofula, and among numerous cases has never 
been known to fail. The sulphur springs, how- 
ever, will be treated more fully in the history of 
Carr township. 

In the eastern part of Monroe there are salt 



35* 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



springs on one of the tributaries of Silver creek. 
Many of the early settlers made salt here during 
the first few years of the present century. 

Monroe is drained by a number of streams, 
more or less important. Union township,- which 
lies' on the south, has few streams except Silver 
creek proper," which heads on tract number two 
hundred and twenty-one, by several tributaries 
from Monroe. Preston's foik rises in the ex- 
treme northeastern corner, flows entirely through 
the township, and has for an affluent the North 
fork of Silver creek. Miller's fork heads in the 
region of the Pigeon Roost, but its waters, like 
those of all other branches in the township, flow 
in an easterly direction. It passes by the village 
of Hcnryville, and supplies water for milling pur- 
poses. The general course of all the streams is 
south. ''Silver creek bears a little west of south, 
and until it strikes Si'ver creek township is a 
beautiful, clear stream, retaining its peculiarities 
and identity through Monroe and Union. From 
its rise down so far, it runs on slate bottoms with 
a high hill on the east side and a gentle rise on 
the west. Hence there are no tributaries on the 
east but Sinking fork. Miller's fork has many of 
the characteristics of the main stream. Lick 
run empties into Cane or Caney run. This stream 
gets its name from the amount of cane which 
grew upon its bottoms many years in the past. 
Here the order of the hills is reversed. In place 
of being on the west side of the streams, they 
are on the east side." 

This Silver Creek valley was formerly called 
the Pea-vine country by the settlers. Previous 
to 1 8 1 6, when the State was admitted, the valley 
was almost destitute of underbrush. Pea-vines 
literally covered the face of the earth, much as 
clover does now, an'd furnished excellent pasture 
for cattle. But it must be remembered that no 
great crop of pea-vines ever grew upon the bot- 
toms of Monroe as it is to-day. The township 
at that time extended down into what is now 
Union for as much as two miles, and it was here 
that such a luxuriant crop was produced. 

Much of the soil in the northwestern part of 
the county is almost worthless for agricultural 
purposes. The land is washed into gutters, and 
in many fields no amount of care or artificial ap- 
pliances can restore them to a state of fertility. 
Land sells at from $2 to $io per acre, and few 
sales at that price. The value of the land de- j 



pends more upon undiscovered resources than 
any present strength which is known only on its 
surface. 

Much of the timber, originally of fair quality, 
has been cut away. It is now made up mostly 
of small white-oak. Hundreds of acres are cov- 
ered by white-oak bushes and small, scrubby- 
trees. This is especially true in the six miles of 
the township lying north of Henryville, next to 
the county line. 

Half a century ago there were few pine-trees 
on the knobs. Then they were confined to the 
sides of the most elevated knobs; now they are 
scattered over the whole surface and spreading 
rapidly in every direction. " Until lately these 
knobs were considered of little use except for 
timber, and timber grew very sparsely on the 
south side." But they have been found to be 
very excellent for peach-growing, and there are 
many orchards in this locality. 

MOUNDS. 

On Thomas Montgomery's farm, in the east- 
ern part of the township, on one of the tributa- 
ries of Silver creek, have been found some inter- 
esting relics of the ancient Mound Builders. A 
few years ago a skeleton was dug up in a dense 
thicket among the forest-trees. It measured 
about eight feet in height, but upon exposure 
soon crumbled into dust. Close by another 
grave was discovered, apparently that of an in- 
fant, protected on all sides by limestone. No 
bones were in a state of preservation, but the ev- 
idences of burial were conclusive. 

WILD ANIMALS. 

All kinds of wild animals abode here during 
the age of the Indian. The deer, bear, black 
and gray wolf, black and gray fox, the panther, 
catamount, raccoon, opossum, the otter, mink, 
and the black and gray squirrel, were numerous, 
and in some cases so abundant as to be a posi- 
tive nuisance. The migratory fowls were the 
wild-goose, the paroquet, the brant, sand-hill 
cranes, and wild ducks of various kinds. Fish 
jn the streams were numerous. Deer were better 
provided for here than in many other places. 
The knobs afforded excellent protection from 
the bow and arrow and the old-fashioned Hint- 
lock rifle, while the pea-vines in the valley below 
supplied an abundance of food. " Formerly as 
many as twenty in a row could be seen showing, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



359 



not the white feather, but the white tail, as fugi- 
tives from what the white man called justice." 
Dears were numerous here, but have been exter- 
minated for more than half a century. Vet they 
have left their marks, which can be plainly seen 
on many of the trees of the forest. Panthers 
were not often seen here by the white man; 
still they were here, and sometimes made their 
appearance most unexpectedly. 

THE PIGEON ROOST MASSACRE. 

This is the most notable event in the annals 
of the Indian period upon the Clark Grant. Its 
memories of this day are almost as thrilling and 
painful as are those of the massacre of Glencoe 
or of Cawnpore. The following account is ex- 
tracted from one of the older narratives of the 
dreadful tragedy : 

For some time previous to the year 1S11 the Indians of the 
Northwest had manifested no little unfriendliness toward the 
whites of the frontier. This enmity was encouraged and 
aggravated by the British, in prospect of the war that soon 
aftei broke out between this country and England. Tecum- 
seh, the leader among the disaffected Indians of Canada and 
the Northwest, visited the tribes of the South and Southwest 
for the purpose of stirring them up against the whites, and of 
securing their co-operation in striking a terrible blow upon 
the frontier settlements. Governor Harrison, being informed 
of the schemes of this cunning Indian warrior, and knowing 
his influence with the various tribes, proceeded up the 
Wabash with an armed force for the purpose of enforcing 
the treaty of Greenville, or of making some new treaty by 
which the frontiers should be protected from Indian depre- 
dations, lie was successful in driving them from their towns 
and in destroying their property. But when the war with 
England began in 1812, they renewed their hostilities. Being 
supplied by the Britishers with arms and ammunition, they 
were enabled to wage a much more destructive warfare upon 
the whites than they had done before. 

Monroe township was at that time thinly set- 
tled. The old county seat was the central point 
from which the county people came and went. 
All the northwestern part of the county, now in- 
cluded in Monroe and a portion what is now 
Scott county, was hardly known to the people of 
Clark generally. The county lines were yet 
imaginary. Many of the original claims were 
under dispute. The settlers were of that peculiar 
cast which always marks backwoodsmen. 

These circumstances rendered the frontier 
very unsafe. The attack on the 4th of Septem- 
ber, says a local historian, on the fort named in 
honor of General Harrison, was simultaneous 
with that of Pigeon Roost. Another gentleman, 
a person no less in experience than Colonel Wil- 
ley, says the attack was made on the evening of 



the 3d of September. These general attacks, it 
is presumed,, though not positively known, were 
a "part of the same regular plan of attack. They 
were "made at the same time to disttact the at- 
tention of the whiles and to prevent the citizens 
of the Grant from going to the assistance of those 
on the Wabash." It was this attack which threw 
the people of the county into such excitement, 
caused block-houses to be erected and forts to be 
built. For our information we are indebted to 
the manuscripts of the late Rev. George K. Hes- 
ter, of Charlestown, which were kindly furnished 
by his son, Judge M. C. Hester. 

Monroe was the slowest of all the townships 
in filling up with settlers. The sum'mit was a 
favorite hunting ground, and here the first set- 
tlements began on the northern side of the town- 
ship. The Pigeon Roost neighborhood was so 
named because pigeons had made it a roosting- 
place for many years. The land was high and 
the water passed or ran in both directions to the 
headwaters of Silver creek and the streams in 
Scott county. When the county line was after- 
wards settled by actual surveys, the neighbor- 
hood where the massacre took place was thrown 
into Scott county, where it now is. Many of 
the trees, the smaller ones, and the branches of 
those that were stronger, were broken down from 
the accumulated weight of these birds. "The 
stench from their excrements was readilv per- 
ceived at a very great distance. Such was the 
fertility of the soil, imparted to it by these 
dungs, that many persons who visited the settle- 
ment after the massacre, admitted that these 
white-oak lands were as productive as the richest 
bottoms of Kentucky. The soil and abundance 
of game in this locality had induced several 
families to settle there," to engage in the chase 
and live upon the meats of the forest. Among 
the first, if not really the first, who came to this 
neighborhood was William E. Collins, a gentle- 
man from Pennsylvania, but who settled at 
Louisville before there was a substantial log 
cabin within the present city limits. Several 
years before the massacre he removed to this 
locality from the interior of Kentucky, and dur- 
ing the troub!e.-ome times which followed was an 
eye-witness to all the cruelties of Indian war- 
fare. These settlers were often visited by roving 
bands of Shawnees, Delawares, and Pottawato- 
mies, who always professed to be very friendly. 



3<3° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Their treachery, however, was often discovered 
after their departure, when a piece of flax linen, 
toweling, or woolen goods was found missing. 

The first victims were a Mr. Pain and Mr. Coft'man. These 
two persons were about throe miles from the settlement, and 
wholly unarmed. The Indians came upon them byaccident, 
and murdered them on the spot. Coffman lived in Ken- 
tucky, and was on a visit to Pain. They next found a Mrs. 
Collins, the wife of young Henry Collins, who had been visit- 
ing a neighbor living near the present site of Vienna. She 
was killed while returning home. The family which they fei' 
upon was that of Pain, consisting of his wife and four chi!_ 
dren. It appears they killed them in different directions 
from the house, and then dragged their bodies, trailing the 
ground with their blood, and t'nrew them into the house. Af- 
ter plundering the house they set fire to it and burned it to 
ashes. Nothing remained of the bodies but a mass of of- 
fensive matter. This attack was made in the evening, the 
sun being only about an hour and a half high. Richard Col- 
lins' family consisted of his wife and seven children, who were 
all brutally murdered. Their bodies were found in different 
places, as they were cut down while attempting to make their 
escape. Mr. Collins was absent from home at the time. He 
belonged to a company of rangers, and was then at Vin- 
cennes. At the same time they killed the family of John 
Morris, composed of his wife and three children These two 
families lived but a short distance apart. Mr. Morris was 
also from his home. He had been drafted on the call of 
Governor Harrison for service on the Wabash, and was at 
that time at Jefferson ville. 

The firing of the gun by which Henry Collins was killed 
was not heard by any of old Mr. Collins' family. The Indians 
advanced upon his house. As they drew near they dis- 
covered a lad, a member of the family, who had just caught a 
horse and was in the act of starting after the cows. The boy 
fled upon seeing them and concealed himseif in a briar 
thicket. The Indians ran around and through it time and 
again, but without finding him. The little fellow said he 
could see all their maneuvers from under his covert of mat- 
ted briars and bushes. Sometimes they would seem to be 
coming directly upon him, and then would turn in another 
direction. There he lay until after the Indians had attacked 
the house; and then, in the midst of the attack, he rushed up 
and was let in. 

A few minutes before Henry Collins was shot, Captain 
Norris, from the neighborhood of Charlestown, had arrived 
at the house of old Mr. Collins. He had gone there on some 
business and to persuade Mr. Collins to remove from his 
dangerous situation. Mr. Collins had just brought in a fine 
lot of melons. While they were feasting upon these, their 
attention was arrested by the appearance of a strange dog. 
Mr. Xorris looked up the road and discovered eight or nine 
Indians, with war-paint on their cheeks, approaching the 
town. He exclaimed: " Here they come now.'' "Not to 
kill," said Mr. Collins. "Yes, to kill," Mr. Xorris replied. 
With the utmost haste they set to work to make a defense. 
Mr. Collins having at hand two loaded rifles, directed Mr. 
Norris to take one and station himself by the side of the 
door, while he guarded the window with the other. The In- 
dians had been discovered in their approach by a Mr. John 
Ritchey and his wife, a newly married couple who resided 
near Mr. Collins; they instantly fled into a corn-field and 
escaped. As the Indians entered the yard, a part of them 
stationed themselves behind a corn-crib, a part passed on to 
Ritchey's house, and one presented himself at the door of 



Collins's house and was about to push it open. At him Nor- 
ris pulled trigger, when the muc/.le of the gun was not more 
than three feet from his breast; but unfortunately the gun 
flashed. The door was quickly closed. Collins, perceiving 
through the cracks of the door the Indian's body, fired his 
rifle at him, and he immediately' disappeared. Blood was 
seen the next day in the yard. Collins reloaded his gun, 
and seeing an Indian standing in Ritchey's door, he took de- 
liberate aim at him and fired. The Indian fell back into the 
house, and the door was closed. Collins was an expert 
marksman, and he felt sure that this shot made one of the 
redskins bite the dust. 

A part of the Indians were now in Ritchey's house, and a 
part behind the corn-crib. Collins and Norris supposed they 
would wait until dark and then set fire to the house. As the 
house was a double cabin, with no inner passway from one 
to the other, the inmates thought they could easily effect 
their object. The only possible chance for them to escape 
was to gain a cornfield close by. To do this they knew they 
they would have to pass under the fire of the Indians behind 
the corn-crib. But as it was evidently death to remain, they 
resolved to escape, hazardous as the attempt certainly was. 
Just as twilight set in they opened a door and started, Nor- 
ris in advance, closely followed by the two children. Collins 
brought up the rear with his gun in his hand, cocked and 
' presented before him. As they passed out with a quick step, 
Collins was fired at. The ball struck his gun ahout the lock, 
and violently whirled him around. At this moment he lost 
sight of Norris and the children. He then ran some distance 
into a cornfield, and halted to see if the Indians were in pur- 
suit. To be prepared for them, he examined his gun, but 
found it so damaged he could do nothing with it. He then 
hastened to the woods, and made good his escape. The In- 
dians were now heard to give a most hideous yell, indicating 
their intention to proceed no further — that their hellish thirst 
for blood had been glutted. 

Some little time after dark Mrs. Biggs, daughter of Mrs. 
Collins, having heard the firing of the guns at the distance 
of half a mile, started with her children to go to her father's 
house. Her husband was at that time in Jeffersom ille, in 
the drafted military service. When she came near the house 
she left the children by the roadside and proceeded to the 
house alone. When she reached the house she pushed open 
the door, but the smell of gunpowder was so strong that she 
became alarmed and quickly returned to her children. She 
traveled with them about six miles to Zebulon Collins's and 
gave the first alarm to the older settlements. 

The absence of the Indians in Mr. Collins's house at the 
time Mrs. Biggs entered it, is enveloped in mystery; for it 
was only a little time after this that it was seen burning, the 
Indians having evidently returned and fired all the houses. 
It was conjectured that Collins had killed one or more 
of them, and that they were engaged in concealing their 
bodies. 

Norris and Collins, having been separated on leaving the 
house, were unable to come together again that night. 
Norris proceeded with the children in the dark, through 
brush and briars, avoiding every road and pathway, climbing 
hills and crossing valleys, frequently falling with the children 
into deep ravines, until he at last lost his course. After sev- 
eral hours of fatiguing travel, he came up near the farm 
from which he had started and behind the burning buildings. 
Again he started for the older settlements. He traveled until 
• a late hour in the night, but being wearied out he-and the 
children lav down on the ground until the morning star 
arose. They then resumed their journey, and finally sue- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



36i 



ceeded in reaching one of the older settlements. The little 
girl was found so baclly bruised that it was found necessary 
to c ill in a physician for her relief. 

Before day a runner was sent to alarm the citizens of 
(/h.it lestown. I well remember hearing him as lie passed my 
father's residence, just after daylight, crying at the top of his 
voice, "Indians! Indians!!" The whole country was thrown 
into the wildest excitement and confusion. Before sunset of 
that day vast numbers of the citizens of the Grant had hur- 
ried across the Ohio river into Kentucky for safety. A con- 
siderable number of men were immediately raised to pursue 
the fiends; but they effected nothing. The Indians must have 
left soon after finishing the work at Mr. Collins's, as they 
were seen the next day by a scouting party from Washington 
county, on the Chestnut ridge, in Jackson county, going in 
the direction of Rockford. Had the commanding officer of 
that company possessed any skill, he might have dealt 
them a heavy blow. When the Indians were discovered, a 
part of them were walking, and a part riding the horses they 
had stolen, heavily laden with the property of their mur- 
dered victims. This officer, instead of having his men con- 
ceal themselves and fire upon the Indians from their places of 
protection, commanded them to "charge." This gave the 
Indians upon the horses an opportunity of preparing for flight 
by lessening their burdens, while the footmen in real Indian 
style quickly jumped behind trees and logs, and opened fire 
on our men. The rangers then attempted the same mode of 
fighting, but while one of them was drawing sight from the 
wrong side of a tree, his exposed body was pierced by an 
Indian bullet. He was removed to a station, but soon after 
expired. There were in this company about twenty Indians, 
more than were supposed to have been at Pigeon Roost. 

In the spring of 1813 another party of Indians, or the 
same that were at Pigeon Roost, came into the neighbor- 
hood of Zebulon Collins, about nine miles northwest of 
Charlestown. They concealed themselves behind the bank 
of Silver creek, and shot Mr. Huffman, who at that moment 
came to the door to look for his two sons, who were playing 
in the bottom below the house. The old gentleman was 
killed instantly, and the ball passed through the body of his 
wife. She recovered from this wound, although it was thought 
at first to be fatal. They took one of the children into cap- 
tivity, and kept him for a number of years. His relatives 
afterwards, through the aid of the General Government, as- 
certained his whereabouts, and secured his release. During 
the time of his captivity he had become so uncivilized and so 
attached to the Indians and their manners, that it was with 
no little difficulty his friends succeeded in persuading him to 
leave the savage tribes and return to his home and relations. 

A company of soldiers were stationed at this time at Zebulon 
Collins's, which was only a few hundred yards from Huff- 
man's house; and had they attended to their duty they could 
have protected the Huffman family. It being the Sabbath 
day, they had abandoned their posts and gone off to enjoy 
the society of some young people in the neighborhood. As 
soon as they returned and learned what had happened, one 
of them, a Mr. Perry, started about dark to carry the intelli- 
gence to the settlement about Charlestown. In passing down 
Silver creek, when about a mile and a half from Collins's, he 
was intercepted by seven Indians. They shot at him and 
ran some distance through the bottoms of Silver creek, but 
he succeeded in making his escape and made his way back 
to Collins's. Some time after dark he made another attempt 
'o pass over the same route and succeeded. As soon as the 
o'der settlements had received the information, men were 
46 



raised to pursue the Indians. It was thought best to notify 
families most exposed of their perilous condition. For this 
purpose a Mr. Reed attempted to go to Mr. Elliott's. He 
wore around his waist a belt, which he had used on the Tip- 
pecanoe expedition. When he had come within sight of 
Elliott's house he was fired upon by a company of eight In- 
dians, who had concealed themselves behind a fallen tree, 
doubtless for the purpose of awaiting a favorable opportunity 
of murdering the family. Five discharged their guns at him 
at almost the same time, but fortunately without doing any 
serious harm. Some of the balls passed through his cloihes, 
one cutting his belt nearly in two. One or two hit his horse, 
but he succeeded in mak'ng his escape. A company of men 
were soon in pursuit, but the Indians made good their 
escape. 

From the number of depredations committed by the In- 
dians it was evident they had sallied forth in different parts 
of the country at the same time. To defend the settlers 
from these raids it became necessary to station companies of 
men at the various points most exposed. This unhappy con- 
dition of affairs continued until the restoration of peace be- 
tween this country and England. 

Thus concludes the most remarkable Indian 
massacre in the annals of Clark county. It threw 
the whole country into such a feverish state of 
excitement that for a number of years afterwards 
the least sign of Indians caused a general panic. 
And it was this massacre which caused the erec- 
tion of so many block-houses and forts in the 
county at this time, of which we have spoken in 
the histories of other townships. 

At present there is nothing that would indi- 
cate to a stranger that any memorable occurrence 
took place in this vicinity. The pigeons have 
taken their flight, seemingly, with the red man. 
A few trees, whose limbs have been broken off 
and whose ends are rotten from long contact 
with the elements, are yet standing. The soil, 
by constant use for over sixty years, has lost 
much of its early strength, and good crops can 
only be raised by the most careful attention. 
Two things combine, however, to make the place 
ever historical — the roost of the pigeons and the 
massacre of the whites by the Indians. People 
in this locality refer to it to this day with feelings 
of deep concern, and remind you that you are 
treading upon historic ground. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT. 

The first settler in the township of whom there 
is any definite knowledge was Mr. Robert Biggs, 
who came here in 1S06 from Kentucky, but was 
a native of Pennsylvania. He settled on Miller's 
or Biggs's fork of Silver creek, one mile above 
Henryville. His wife, whose maiden name was 
Miller, bore him a large family, of which the 



362 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



children are scattered in all the States and Terri- 
tories. Biggs was of Scotch-Irish extraction. In 
character he was as good as the majority of early 
settlers, and held the faith of the Seceders' 
church of England. Biggs lived and died in 
sight' of Henryville. He took much pleasure 
jn hunting, and was considered a superior marks- 
man. 

A family settled in the extreme southwest coi- 
ner of the township, who were probably from 
Kentucky, by the name of Eson. The Pigeon 
Roost massacre caused them to return to their 
old home, and they never came back. 

Joseph' Miller settled in sight of Henryville 
about 1806, or, what is more probable, a year or 
two afterwards ; for Robert Biggs must have 
married one of his daughters. Miller was from 
Kentucky; his family consisted mostly of daugh- 
ters, the only son dying many years since, and 
of course the family name is now extinct. He 
died about 1830. 

Nicholas Crist, a brother-in-law of Abner 
Biggs, both of whom we have mentioned as kill- 
ing the last bear but one in the township, settled 
about one mile west of Henryville in 1808 or 
1810. He was born in Pennsylvania, but came 
here from Kentucky. He married a daughter 
of Mr. Robert Biggs. Crist removed to Clay 
county, Indiana, in 1830 or i83i,and died at an 
extreme old age. 

Robert Cams, who was from Pennsylvania by 
way of Kentucky, settled one mile east of 
Henryville about 1810. He carried on {aiming 
and was a clever gentleman. 

Zebulon Collins, who was no doubt a brother 
of the famous scout and hunter, William Collins, 
settled a year or two before the Pigeon Roost 
massacre, one mile and a half east of Henry- 
ville. Here he began to operate a still-house, 
and finally a way tavern on the Charlestown and 
Brownstown road. During a part of his Hfe he 
was chosen as a justice of the peace. It was at 
his tavern that the first polls weie opened in the 
township, and from this fact the township de- 
rived its first name, that of Collins. In the af- 
fairs of the township he took an active part. It 
was here that a company of soldiers were sta- 
tioned in 1813 when Mr. Huffman was killed by 
the Indians, to protect the frontier. Collins was 
originally from Pennsylvania. 

Mr, Huffman, of whom we have spoken re- 



peatedly, was an immigrant from Pennsylvania 
and. settled on the west bank of Silver creek, one 
and a half miles from Henryville, three or four 
years before his death, in 1813. He was killed 
on a bright Sunday morning by the Indians 
while standing in his door watching his children, 
says one historian, and another, a grandchild, and 
one of his sons, at play in the bottom near the 
house. The ball passed through his breast; and 
after running around the corner of the house he 
dropped dead. The arm of his wife was grazed 
by the same bullet. One of the boys was car 
ried into Canada ; the other escaped by crawl- 
ing into a hollow log. His wife lived to an ad- 
vanced age in the neighborhood, and was buried 
by the side of her husband on the old place. 

A Mr. Cook lived two miles east of Henry- 
ville very early, and left about the time of or 
soon after the massacre. 

Another family by the name of Connel, settled 
about 1 Si 1 on the West fork of Stiver creek, 
but remained only for a few months. 

Among the later settlers who came after In- 
diana was admitted as a State, were James Allen 
and David McBride, brothers-in-law, fiom Penn- 
sylvania. Juda Hemming, who emigrated from 
Kentucky, and Islam McCloud, of South Caro- 
lina, were the only early settlers in the township 
in the extreme south side. 

The most prominent family in the extreme 
west was that of Lawrence Kelly, who came from 
Pennsylvania, and was here as early as 1810. 
His sons were Hugh, John, Abram, William, and 
Davis, who lived in the township till their deaths. 
Martha Kelly married John Lewis, Sr., of Mon- 
roe township. Another daughter married Wil- 
liam Blakely, a Virginian, but here from Ken- 
tucky. One of the daughters married Mr. Wil- 
liam Patrick, whose descendants are quite nu- 
merous in the county at this time. 

John Deitz and wife, both German?, came to 
Monroe from Kentucky, while the Grant was yet 
in its infancy. 

On the west side of the township, near the 
Oregon line, William Beckett, of Pennsylvania, 
settled about 18 10. His family was very large, 
and consisted mainly of sons. He died many- 
years ago. There are now but few of the fami- 
ly, with then descendants, in this section. 

Josiah Thomas settled in the same section 
years ago, marrying one of the Beckett girls. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



363 



A Mr. McCombe settled in the eastern part of 
the township very soon after the massacre. He 
left a small family, of which the members are 
now scattered in other States. 

During the years when the other townships 
were filling up with settlers rapidly, Monroe 
was left out in the cold. There were no early 
permanent settlers between Henryville and the 
Pigeon Roost settlement. 

William E. Collins, by birth a Pennsylvanian, 
was one of the first white men in the neighbor- 
hood of the northwestern corner of the township. 
He came secondarily from the interior of Ken- 
tucky, whither he had gone from Louisville in 
quest of game. Learning that game was abund- 
ant in this region — the Pigeon Roost ground — ■ 
he came hither. His son Henry met his death 
from the hands of the Indians. Reams, one of 
the oldest sons of the family, settled near the old 
battleground in 1813, where he resided until his 
death. His wife, Catharine Cooper, bore him 
four sons and six daughters. Reams Collins, 
jr., resides near where he was born, a prominent 
farmer, and possessed of many of the character- 
istics of a frontiersman. He has been married 
twice. His last wife is one of those old time 
women who yet remain in the township, who 
manufacture their own clothing. 

Seymour Guernsey was born in Connecticut, 
and emigrated to Utica township, Clark county, 
in 181 7. From Olean Point on the Ohio river, 
about one hundred and fifty miles above Pitts- 
burgh, the family took passage in a boat, on 
which they made the entire trip to their place of 
landing. Mehetabel Beardsley, his wife, was 
born in New Haven, Connecticut; and bore him 
before an iving here two sons — Burritt and Sey- 
mour—and one daughter — Malinda Ann. After 
remaining in the vicinity of Utica for one year 
and raising a crop, he removed to Monroe town- 
ship, where he and his wile died. The marriage 
produced four sons and two daughters, of whom 
three sons and one daughter are living. The sons 
are all citizens of this county; the sister, Mrs. 
Mitchell, resides in Hamilton county, Indiana. 
The elder Guernsey was boin Oetobei 9, 17S6; 
his wife, Match 25, 17S5. Soon after their mar- 
riage they moved to New York State. Ruth, 
the second daughter, was bom in Utici town- 
ship; Dr.niel was born in Monroe, in the Blue 
Lick country; Elam B., the present county 



auditor, in the same section with his younger 
brother, Daniel. Ann, one of the sisters, and 
Burritt, a brother, are dead. After buying a 
tract of two hundred acres of land neat Blue 
Lick, the family made it their permanent home 
from 1S18 till about 1856, during which time 
they farmed and engaged in grinding corn with 
one of the old style of horse-mills. Seymour 
Guernsey, Sr,, was one of those men who gave 
tone and decision to the character of the county. 
In education he was far above the average, his 
father, Daniel, being a graduate of Yale. He 
died January 19, 1872; his wife, February 5, 
1871. 

Thus we have seen the characters, though only 
in a cursory manner, of the men and women 
who rescued this township from the red man, 
and began the work of clearing off the forests, 
preparing the way for the present thriving gener- 
ation. 

Among the old stock of settlers who are yet 
living in the township is Samuel Williams. He 
was born in 1799 in east Tennessee and came to 
Monroe in 1S35. By trade he is a carpenter, 
but most of his life has been engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. He is the father of eight chil- 
dren, who were born of two wives. Mr. Wil- 
liams in religion is a Presbyterian of the strictest 
sect ; educationally he has little of the polish of 
colleges, but possesses abundance of good com- 
mon sense, which is more valuable than all ac- 
quired possessions. He lives on the banks of 
Silver creek, and is the oldest man in the town- 
ship. 

Seymour Guernsey, Jr., was born in New 
York in 1813, and came to this county in 18 17, 
landing at Utica with his father's family in the 
month of August. His first wife was a niece of 
Colonel Willey, 'of this township. She died 
September 10, 1S70. March 10, 1873, he mar- 
ried Celestia Sanderson. Mr. Guernsey has 
farmed most of his life on tract number two hun- 
dred and fifty-three, near Henryville. He has 
been actively engaged upon all the religious 
questions of his time. He is a regularly or- 
dained Methodist minister, and perhaps has a 
better acquaintance with religious matters than 
any man in the township. In 1873 he was dis- 
abled, and now lives in the village of Henryville. 
His memory is retentive, and his fund of pioneer 
incidents inexhaustible. Many of the young 



3 6 4 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



men of the township will find in him a character 
fit for imitation. 

Colonel John Fletcher Willey, one of the most 
remarkable men, both physically and mentally, 
in Clark county, as well as in Monroe township, 
was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, at the mouth of 
Mill creek. His father, Barzilla Willey, who was 
a soldier of the Revolution, was born in New 
York, and came to Cincinnati in 1S08 from 
Utica, in that State. AH the land below the 
city at that time belonged to the Harrisons and 
Sedams. After remaining here for two years, ac- 
cumulating a boat-load of produce, he started for 
New Orleans, Arriving at the Falls of the Ohio, 
he found them impassable, and anchored on the 
west side. After waiting here some time for the 
river to rise, and having his merchandise dam- 
aged considerably by the cold weather, he sold 
his load to the best advantage possible, and made 
Jeffersonvillc his home for one year. In 1811 
he moved to Monroe township and settled near 
Memphis; but at that time there was no such 
township as Union in the county. After a life 
of much hardship and ripe experience, he died 
at the residence of his son, Mr. J. F. Willey, in 
the township of Utica, in 1854. Colonel Willey 
has been one of the most influential men of his 
time. His indomitable will-power renders ob- 
stacles of little consequence, and his command- 
ing appearance and well-known character secure 
universal respect. His home is on section six- 
teen, which borders on the Scott county line, 
where he is engaged prominently in growing 
fruit — peaches being the principal crop. Colonel 
Willey formerly lived in the Urica bottoms, but 
removed to the knobs to engage in raising fruit, 
and to escape the malaria which seemed to affect 
the health of his wife. 

The view from Fowler's gap %nd the Round Top knob, on 
the farm of Colonel Fletcher Willey, and north in the direc- 
tion of Henryville, is one of very great interest. From the 
summit of Round Top a view of the surrounding landscape 
may be obtained in all its variety. The highlands of Ken- 
tucky are again seen, appearing like a cloud sinking behind 
the distant horizon. The Ohio is assuredly entitled to the 
name originally given to it by th« JFrench, L.i BtlU Riviere, 
and from points above noted is seen meandering, like a silver 
stream, through the valley to the southwest. The view gives 
a succession of hill and dale, woodland and cultivated fields, 
streams and rocks, most magnificently blended in a panor- 
amic picture of which the eye does not weary. 

Colonel Willey's son-in-law, Mr. Poindexter; is 
actively engaged with him in growing peaches, 



and it was through the skill and persevering 
industry of these two gentlemen that the knobs 
were found to be good localities for fruit. Mr. 
Willey and his son-in-law are what might be 
called scientific horticulturists, for their orchards 
resemble much the garden of some marketer. 
Future orchardists in the townships, which are 
made up to a great extent of knobs, will have to 
accord to Mr. Willey and Mr. Poindexter the 
honor of first making these long considered 
worthless hills valuable for raising a staple fruit. 
The shipping point is at Memphis, in the town- 
ship of Union. 

ROADS. 

On account of the slowness of settleriient, the 
township had few thoroughfares at an early day. 
The first two roads ran from Charlestown to 
Salem in 1817, and were known as the Upper 
and Lower Salem roads. The lower road ran 
almost on the dividing line which now separates 
Carr township from Monroe. The other ran 
through the Blue Lick country, and yet climbs 
the knobs in the same old place. At this date 
there were no cross-roads running either to Jcf- 
fersonville or Louisville. The Urownstown and 
Charlestown road ran about one mile from 
Henryville, and was laid out in 1825 or 1826; 
it was not till many years afterwards that the 
grade was made sufficiently light to admit of 
heavy hauling. Another road was located about 
1S30, which led to the county-seat of Washing- 
ton, and which was thought to be a more direct 
and a shorter route. It intersected the Charles- 
town road near Henryville. As the wants of the 
people increased, other roads were laid out,— 
all, however, leading to the center of the town- 
ship and the county-seat. The nature of the 
soil prevented any well-developed plan of macad- 
amizing; and besides there were no gravel pits, 
or even stone which could be broken and con- 
verted into a solid road-bed. Many small 
streams bisected the roads; where they were not 
evenly cut they often followed up some ravine in 
the creek-bed to gain at last the top of the knobs. 
It was impossible to follow section lines, and 
naturally sprang up a system of roads of all di- 
rections and degrees of importance. 

Monroe township has more roads, probably, 
in proportion to its tillable soil, than any other 
township in the county. This is accounted for 
by the fact that it lies in the northwest corner of 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



365 



Clark, and is in the line of passage between it 
and the interior counties. 

Upon the building of the Jeffersonville, Madi- 
son & Indianapolis railroad through the town- 
ship, the people here .took much interest in 
the enterprise. ' The proprietors of Henryville 
gave a site for a depot, and contributed in va- 
rious ways toward its success. It was the build- 
ing of this railway which brought the township 
to the notice of the various manufacturing estab- 
lishments throughout the country. Its great 
forests of oak were rapidly turned into ties and 
cut into stuff for building cars. Tan-bark was 
for a number of years a staple article. Cooper- 
shops sprang up all over the township, and 
turned out barrels by the thousand. The rail- 
road company reduced its rates of freight for 
those who carried on an extensive business with 
them, and made large contracts with farmers and 
agents for supplies. There is in the township 
exactly seven miles of railway track. The only 
station in the township is that of Henryville; but 
another on the summit serves as a shipping 
point for the farmers and stock-growers in the 
northern part of the township. 

MILLS AND STILL-HOUSES. 

Monroe was never noted for its mills. The 
surrounding townships furnished many of the 
mills necessary to a new and thinly settled coun- 
try like that uf which we speak. Vincent Pease, 
who resided in the northern part, near the sum- 
mit, ran a little mill on one of the branches of 
Silver creek about 1S20. He also gave some time 
to making fanning-mills, which were probably the 
first in this end of the county. In 1S30 a flour- 
ing-mill of considerable capacity stood on Silver 
creek two and a half miles from Henryville. The 
position the township took in the matter of mills 
and the grinding of corn, wheat, and so on in 
early times is still retained; and the township can 
scarcely yet boast of a first-class mill within her 
boundaries. 

Good authority says there was never more than 
one still-house in Monroe tuwnship. This was 
owned by Zebulon Collins, on the Charlestown 
and Brownstown road, and stood on the bank of 
Silver creek. It was here in 1823. After a few 
years it went down, probably on account of the 
scarcity of corn, which was grown very scantily on 
the bottoms. Ex-Governor Jennings, however, 



had a still-house close by; but in Charlestown 
township, where those who needed spirituous 
drinks could be accommodated. Soldiers who 
were in this district about this time, or a few 
years previous to it, often resorted to (he then 
non-elect Governor's warehouse for whiskey -sup- 
plies. These soldiers belonged to that system 
of protection which was adopted after the 
Pigeon Roost massacre. The old Collins fort, 
where the rangers were stationed, was situated 
about one and a half miles southeast of Henry- 
ville, on the Silver creek branch of Silver creek. 

SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES. 

Daniel Guernsey was the first school-teacher 
in the western part of the township. As has 
been said, he was a graduate of Yale college, 
and, for many years after coming into the Blue 
Lick country, engaged in school-teaching. In 
surveying Clark county he did much service; and 
in subdividing and apportioning the land among 
the heirs of the original tract-owners, he was for 
many years actively employed. 

Burritt Guernsey, one of his sons, taught fre- 
quently during the winter terms after he had ar- 
rived at maturity. He had been educated mainly 
through the efforts of his father. Wages were 
then insufficient to support a family. The tuition 
was made up, generally, on the subscription plan, 
each scholar paying about $2 for a term of three 
months. The teacher often boarded with the 
parents of the scholars, as was always in such 
case previously arranged. 

Schools never came to be regarded, by the 
people who settled in the township at first, as of 
very great importance. It was not till alter the 
State school laws were enacted that a successful 
system of schools was encouraged. People then . 
became much interested in the proper education 
of children, and hence have at present schools 
and school-houses that will compare favorably 
with any in the county. There are eleven 
school districts and about seven hundred and 
fifty school children in the township. 

Many years elapsed before there was erected 
in this township any regular church building. 
Services were held in school-houses and the 
homes of the pioneers. The prevailing denom- 
ination was the Calvinistic Baptist, which was 
composed mainly of emigrants from the South. 
The Pennsylvania settlers were mainly of the 



3 66 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Presbyterian faith ; but being in the minority, 
in the course of several years they almost 
'unconsciously fell in with the stronger class. 
• Among the early Baptist preachers was Rev. 
Thompson Littel, who lived on Muddy Fork 
creek. He was a characteristic man, and in ad- 
dition to his natural abilities he had acquired 
many religious and historical facts fitting him 
admirably for his work. During his time he was 
the most prominent of all the early ministers 
here, and it seemed his influence was almost 
without a limit. When the Christian church, 
founded by Dr. Campbell, attracted so much at- 
tention in this country, he left the doctrine 
espoused in boyhood and took up the new faith. 
Ever afterwards he eloquently advocated the new 
religion, but many of his old parishioners could 
not forgive him for his radical change. His salary 
was often meager, and, much like that of a 
school-teacher, was too small to support his 
family. 

Preaching in early times was widely different 
from what it is now, preachers often riding a 
circuit extending from the Wabash and its tribu- 
taries to the Great Miami. Between these rivers 
there were dense forests, wild beasts, low, wet 
land, through which roads led, and tangled un- 
derbrush of various descriptions. Appointments 
were often left two and three months in advance, 
and the punctuality with which they were kept 
always ensured a large attendance. It required 
no small amount of energy to meet these engage- 
ments, and it often happened that the arrival of 
the minister was distinguished by the number of 
marriages he performed and the good time every 
body had, even to the babies, during his stay. 
There was a sincerity in religious matters and 
the marriage ceremony then, which neaily always 
prevented divorces and the loose moral atmos- 
phere which now disgraces so many religious 
assemblies. The simple-hearted earnestness of 
the pioneers was often a subject of remark by 
those who came from the East and were here to 
see the sights of a new country. 

In the eastern part of the township a United 
Brethren class was organized more than fifty 
years ago. Rev. Thomas Lewellen, a man who 
rode the circuit for more than fifty years, and 
who died November n, 1881, was the most 
prominent preacher of this denomination in the 
township. He was eighty-six years of age at the 



time of his death. There was in this section a 
church standing on the road which curves out 
into Monroe, as it goes from Otisco to the 
interior of the townships and returns . again to 
the county seat of Scott. The old class, how- 
ever, is in a disorganized condition. Mr. Lewel- 
len came from Kentucky. He had little except 
natural ability; his strength lay in the earnest 
expression which always characterized his ser- 
mons. 

A Rev. Mr. Wilson, whose residence was in 
Washington county, near the line, preached here 
very early. 

Rev. Mr. Washburn preached in this section 
of country, as also did Rev. Mr. Hosey, a man 
famous in the religious affairs of the county. 
Mr. Hosey's remains lie in the Little Union 
cemetery. Rev. Mr. McConnell, who lived east 
of Henryville, on the bank of Silver creek, was 
an active participant in the religious affairs of 
the township. Rev. Mr. Applegate was an early 
preacher, though not regularly paid. The Rev. 
John Clark, who came from Virginia at an early 
date, was an active religious worker. Nature had 
made him a good speaker, and he was one of the 
great men of his time. Mr. Clark was after- 
wards a local elder in the Methodist Episcopal 
church. These men made up the ministers of 
a half-century ago, — all of them new numbered 
with the dead. 

The first church erected in the township was 
Bower chapel. It was put up in 1S30, and 
stood in the lower part of Monroe, near the 
line which divides the townships. The house 
was of logs. Barzilla Willey and wife, Calvin 
Ruter and wife, and Mrs. Townsend were among 
the first members. The first preachers were 
transient; among these were Revs. Messrs. 
Willey, Ruter; John Stranqe, who was from 
Ohio; Joseph Armstrong; William Cravens, a 
blacksmith, and a great anti-temperance and 
anti-slavery man, and Allen VVyle. All these 
men were here before 1825, and before any- 
church was erected, and when preaching was 
held in private houses. 

The Mount Monah Methodist Episcopal 
church is located in the eastern part of the 
township. It was organized as early as 1S30. 
The Beckett family composed a goodly number 
of the members. Messrs. Anderson and Thomas 
were members also. This church belonged to 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



367 



the Charlestown circuit, and had the same 
preichers as those previously mentioned. -Mr. 
James S. Ryan, who lives one-half mile, west of 
Henryville; Colonel J. F. Willey, and Mr. 
Seymour Guernsey, Jr., are all prominently 
identified with the religious matters of their 
township. Mr. Ryan is an unordained Method- 
ist minister; so also is Colonel Willey. Mr. 
Guernsey is a regular preacher, and has devoted 
the greater portion of his life to the field. His 
travels have carried him into the by-places of 
humanity, and have rewarded him with rich re- 
sults for time and eternity. 

BURYING GROUNDS. 

The Mountain Grove graveyard, in the west- 
ern part of Monroe, in the Blue Lick country, is 
one of the old burying places in the township. 
Mr. Lawience Kelly and wife, who died on the 
same day, and were buried in the same grave, 
were the first persons interred in it. The land 
was donated for this purpose, and is located on 
a high point overlooking the level country below. 

Little Union burying-ground, west of Henry- 
ville one-half mile, is very old. It took its name 
from the fact that all denominations at this place 
of worship buried in it. There is a school-house 
there now; occasionally a sermon is preached or 
a few months of Sunday-school held in it. 

Perhaps the first person buried in Monroe 
township, who died a natural death, was Hannah 
Guernsey. She was interred in the private grave- 
yard of the Guernseys in the Blue Lick country. 
Another burying took place soon after in the 
neighborhood of Memphis, but then in this 
township. An infant child died by the name 
of Walker, and here it was buried. 

The graveyard connected with the Mount 
Moriah chapel, is an ancient one. Mrs. Wilson 
was among the first buried in it. She was re- 
moved a number of years ago, and was found to 
have petrified. Everything about the old burial 
place is rapidly going to decay. A few more 
years, and many of its associations will be swept 
away with the things of the past. 

In early times the better physicians came from 
Charlestown. Drs. Layman and Cass lived in 
the Blue Lick country, and practiced in all direc- 
tions about 1825 to 1830. Dr. Bear lived near 
Henryville. He also was well and favorably 
known throughout the various townships. 



CIVIL AFFAIRS. 

The first justices of the peace in the township 
were Guy Guernsey and William Keynon. Bur- 
ritt Guernsey was one of the first trustees. The 
present trustee is Lawrence Prall, who resides 
near Henryville. 

The old post-route between Charlestown and 
Salem passed through the Blue Lick valley. It 
was not till about 1 S 3 5 , however, that a post- 
office was established in this neighborhood. 
The Pine Lick office was near, and for a number 
of years it answered the wants of the people. 
Finally the office was changed so as to be more 
convenient for the general public. It was taken 
to Blue Lick, and since has remained in this 
locality. Thompson McDeitz was the first post- 
master. Mails were carried once a week. The 
building of the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indi- 
anapolis railroad discontinued the old route, but 
it was some time before the office could be estab- 
lished at Blue Lick, with Memphis as a terminus. 

TAVERNS AND BLACKSMITHS. 

Those who made tavern-keeping a part of their 
business were Zebulon Collins, no doubt the fust in 
the township, who also had a store; and Thomp- 
son McDeitz. In the valley of Caney fork were 
William Martin and David Huckleberry. They 
were store-keepers also; generally those who kept 
tavern kept store, and vice versa. Powder was 
always procurable in various places, as also was 
lead, two things very necessary in supplying the 
larder of the pioneers. 

Robert Jones was one of the first blacksmiths 
in the Blue Lick country; but he was never very 
permanently settled. John Northam had a small 
shop in the same section, and though the busi- 
ness which brought to him his living was never 
very extensive, he managed to meet the wants of 
the people very satisfactorily. 

A MURDER. 

In 187 1 one of the most atrocious murders in 
1 the annals of crime was perpetrated in Monroe 
j township. Mr. Cyrus Park, an old gentleman, 
j with his wife, son, and daughter, were murdered 
i by three negroes in their house, by chopping open 
their heads with an axe. The negroes were ar- 
rested, one of them turned State's evidence and 
: revealed the manner of killing; they were taken 
to Charlestown and incarcerated in the county 
I jail, but, owing to some delay in finding an in- 



3 68 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



dictment, were taken from the jail by a mob and 
hanged a short distance from town. Intense ex- 
citement followed in the township, but the gen- 
eral verdict was the final result was merited. 



The village of Henryville is situated in the 
center of Monroe township. Many years before 
the place was laid out there was an old Indian 
trace running through the village, much as the 
JefTersonville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad 
now runs. It is located on Wolf run and Mil- 
ler's fotk of Silver creek, the former a tributary 
stream of Silver creek, which derived its name 
from the great rendezvous it furnished wolves 
forty years before Henryville was platted. The 
village lies in a beautiful valley, wiih hills on 
the east side, and in sight of the famous 
mounds. A little further east, on a high hill, 
is where the red man of the forest manufact- 
ured his darts, implements of war, and hunt- 
ing utensils. They can be seen in large num- 
bers now at the residence of J. L. Carr, in 
Henryville. Formerly the village was known 
by the name of Morristown, which name it re- 
tained for three years. It was laid out in 1850, 
and in 1S53 was named Henryville, in honor 
of Colonel Henry Ferguson. The JefTerson- 
ville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad passes 
through the village, going almost due north, and 
leaves the place in a very irregular shape. 

Mr. Joseph Biggs was the first storekeeper in 
Henryville. He kept his stock in a little frame 
house on the west side of the railroad. A Mr. 
Overman came next, but staid only for a short 
time. He kept in a little frame on the east side 
of the railroad. Henry Bussey & David Fish 
followed. Their place of doing business was 
where the present post-office now is. The pres- 
ent storekeepers are James L. Carr, Guernsey & 
Biggs, Augustus Schagven, James Ferguson, and 
Mr. Metzger, the latter of whom keeps tavern on 
a small scale. 

Henryville has two saloons and three black- 
smith shops. 

The post-office was established immediately 
after the railroad was built. The first post- 
master was Mr. Overman ; second, Harvey Bus- 
sey ; third, Mr. Lewis ; fourth, John Bolan, who 
acted in this capacity two years. The mails are 
now carried once a day each way. 



The township had tanneries, as most others 
had, but they have now been reduced to one, and 
that in the village of Henryville. This is owned 
by the Ebberts brothers, and is in fine running 
order, often employing as many as ten hands. 

The village can boast of a stave factory, owned 
by Steinburg & Company. There is one saw- 
mill, owned by Lewis H. Morgan. Both of the 
above establishments are busy during the fall, 
winter, and spring. Business houses are mainly 
on the east side of the street, while factories and 
mills are on the west side. The station is toler- 
ably commodious, and seems to show considera- 
ble enterprise under the management of the 
railroad company. 

The first school-house was erected after the vil- 
lage was laid out. It stood in the north corner of 
the town, was a frame building, had two rooms, 
and was occupied by two teachers, Miss Wilkins 
being one of the first. The new and piesent 
house was put up ten or twelve years ago. It is 
a frame, perhaps 35 x 20, and looks neat and 
commodious. It also has two rooms and two 
teachers. 

Henryville has two regular physicians — Dis. 
William Wisner and II. H. Ferguson; also a gen- 
tleman properly belonging to the transient class 
of professional men. 

There are members of the various secret or- 
ders in the village, which is made up of about 
two hundred people. A thriving lodge of the 
Knights of Honor is in town. The society 
building is on the east side of the railroad, oppo- 
site the station. It is a handsome brick struc- 
ture, two stories high, the lower of which is used 
for commercial purposes. The lodge was organ- 
ized ten or more years ago. 

The Methodist Episcocal church of Hen- 
ryville was erected in 1S39. It stood on 
the farm of Mr. Seymour Guernsey, near 
the village. The class, however, was or- 
ganized in 182S at the house of Mr. 
Robert Biggs, who lived southwest of town. 
The first preachers came from the Charlestown 
circuit, and were the Rev. Messrs. Lock and 
Wood. Among the early members were Abner 
Biggs and wife, David McBride and wife, James 
Allen and wife, Robert Cams and wife, Mrs. 
Miller, and Mis. Townsend. The old church is 
yet standing, but is not used for church pur- 
poses. A burying-ground is connected with it, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



369 



which was not begun till some time after the 
house was built. During all the church history 
a Sabbath-school was maintained. Some twenty 
years after the present house of worship was 
erected in the village the original members, 
many of whom had died, and some changed, as 
was then a very common occurrence, to a differ- 
ent faith— becoming followers of Dr. Campbell — 
the old-fashioned enthusiasm subsided somewhat, 
and left the church in straitened circum- 
stances. Now, however, it is in a well organized 
condition. Revs. James S. Ryan and Seymour 
Guernsey have been instrumental in bringing 
this church to the position she now proudly oc- 
cupies. 

The St. Francis (Catholic) church in Henry- 
ville was built ten or a dozen years ago. Rev. 
Father John Francis was the first Catholic 
priest in the township. It was through his efforts 
that the church building was erected. The pres- 
ent priest is Rev. Father Schenck, who has a 
good class, composed mostly of Irish and Ger- 
mans. The building is tasty and kept in good 
order, both externally and internally. It shows, 
as Catholic churches generally do, that the mem- 
bers give liberally of their means to its support. 
The Methodist church stands near it. Both of 
them are on the west side of the railroad. It 
also looks neat and orderly. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

OREGON TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION. 

Previous to 1852 the citizens of what is now 
Oregon were included in the township of Charles- 
town. People residing in the northeastern part 
of the latter township found it inconvenient to 
attend elections at the county seat, or even 
nearer home. The old, original place of voting 
was constantly losing much of its regular busi- 
ness, and other towns and villages were gaining 
what she lost. So the residents naturally de- 
sired to be struck off from the old township, and 
to have a separate organization of their own. 
These, and many more influential, finally induced 
a petition to be circulated for signers, and, to be 
47 



presented to the honorable board of county com- 
missioners, praying for a new township organiza- 
tion. The petition was written by Dr. John 
Covert, a distinguished resident of New Market, 
and mainly through his efforts the plan suc- 
ceeded. Within the same year, 1852, the county 
commissioners granted the request; and hence 
the present township of Oregon. It was struck 
off the northeastern side of Charlestown, and is 
four tracts wide from northeast to southwest and 
ten from northwest to southeast, making in all 
forty five-hundred-acre tracts, if they were wholly 
in Clark county. But the county line between 
Scott and Clark cuts off the northeastern corner 
of the township, and throws three or four tracts 
into the county of Scott. From this fact, the 
tract which would naturally belong to Oregon ex- 
tending further in a northeasterly direction than 
any of those in other townships, the name was 
derived. The Territory of Oregon was then the 
most distant body of land lying in the northwest 
which belonged to the United States; since '.here 
seemed to be a striking coincidence between the 
two sections, it was mutually agreed that the new 
township should be named after the new Terri- 
tory. 

Oregon township iscompossed entirely of five- 
hundred-acre tracts — or at least is so intended. 
Peter Catlett, the original surveyor, made some 
wretched mistakes, and there are differences of 
from fifty to one hundred acres in some tracts, 
though the deeds are generally for the same 
amount. Why there are such glaring irregulari- 
ties is, perhaps, a difficult question. The best 
evidence conflicts; however, the general supposi- 
tion is that whiskey and inexperience had much 
to do with the imperfections. There were no 
high hills or dense undergrowth to prevent ac- 
curacy. That hindrance lay in the townships of 
Utica, Monroe, Union, and Charlestown. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Oregon township is bounded on the north by 
Scott county; on the east by Washington town- 
ship; on the south by Charlestown and Owen 
townships ; on the west by Charlestown and Mon- 
roe townships. 

Oregon township soil is churlish. It has a 
stubborness peculiar to itself. The lands are 
light-colored clay, wet during a great portion of 
the year, and invariably cold and ill-tempered. 



37° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Some of the farms in this township have been 
under cultivation for many years, and except 
where the crops have been frequently changed, 
their productiveness has been perceptibly im- 
paired. The soil is well adapted to clover, and 
excellent fruit is grown in that part nearest to the 
river. The easy-weathering limestones render 
the soil in many places well adapted to blue 
grass. The prevailing rocks are corniferous and 
cement limestone. 

Most of the township is level. That part ad- 
jacent Owen and Charlestown townships is slight- 
ly broken, but not enough to render it untillable. 
In the neighborhood of Marysville and New 
Market, the one has an opportunity to spread in- 
definitely over the flat country; the other is sur- 
rounded by land unfit for a well-arranged town. 
Marysville is situated on a sort of summit, as you 
pass from Clark to Scott county — a kind of 
plateau which has few streams to give it a rolling 
nature or add to its general appearance. One 
little branch leads off into the upper country, at a 
sluggish gait; another turns its course toward 
Silver creek, which heads, in part, in this end of 
Oregon township. Fourteen-mile creek passes 
directly through the township from north to 
south. Its course is meandering. It has few 
tributaries of any size, except Poke run. This 
branch enters Fourteen-mile in the vicinity of 
New Market. It rises in the lower end of Ore- 
gon, and flows in a slow, tortuous way till it 
unites with the larger stream. From its current 
it derives its name. Many years ago it was 
slower than now, because the timber along its 
banks held the water and prevented it from run- 
ning off rapidly. Its course lies through a nar- 
row valley, and its bed is composed mainly of 
limestone rock; 

Timber in Oregon township was originally 
made up of scattering walnut, large numbers of 
oak, a plentiful supply of ash, elm, and beech, 
with a few trees of hackberry and poplar. Much 
of the land was cleared by deadening, which gen- 
erally required less work but more .time than the 
regular way of preparing land to farm. There 
was no undergrowth of any consequence. The 
soil made bushes short and thick, and, as far as 
pea vines were concerned, there was not enough 
strength in the ground to furnish them susten- 
ance. After the township had begun to fill up, 
and timber demanded a better price, consider- 



able cord-wood was furnished the steamboats. It 
was placed along the river bank, and boats took 
'it in as they ascended or descended the Ohio. 
This trade caused considerable competition. 
Finally boats were built which were anchored to 
the shore and loaded with wood. As steamboats 
came along they took them in tow and unloaded 
the wood without loss of time in stopping. After 
supplying- themselves, the woodboats drifted 
down or poled up to their landing, to load again 
and wait for another ascending steamer, and to 
strike, if possible, a more lucky bargain. It was 
not till coal came into general use that this de- 
partment of trade fell into neglect. Now it is 
numbered among the things of the past. 

CAVES. 

On the west bank of Fourteen-mile creek is 
Shipstern cave. It takes its name from the 
striking resemblance the opening has to the stern 
of a ship. The bottom is covered with a soft 
limestone, but soon turns into a hard, brittle, 
and compact body on exposure to the light for a 
few days. In this stone are found many of the 
crinoidal formations; also, on its surface are 
marks of dozens of cloven-footed animals. Of 
course these footprints go to show that it was 
frequented ages ago by the wild beasts of the 
plains and forest. Its extent is not great, and it 
takes little of the peculiar romance of such 
places unto itself. 

On the eastern side of Oregon township, in the 
bed of Fourteen-mile creek, is a spring, which in 
early times furnished the settlers with salt. Dur- 
ing the first quarter of the present century there 
was a great scarcity of this much needed article. 
Foi a number of years it was worked, but as salt 

S began to be brought down the river, it lost its 

| importance. 

ROADS. 

The original roads ran to Charlestown, and to 
the ferry at the mouth of Bull creek, on the 
Ohio. There was no well-graded track. Roads 

I followed the general direction of the place in 

j view. 

Oregon has four miles and a half of railroad. 

; The Ohio & Mississippi branch passes through 

• the township from north to south, and has but 
one station here — that of Marysville. Otisco is 
immediately on the line between the townships 

' of Charlestown and Oregon, and serves the pur- 
pose of an interior station. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



371 



Going down toward the Ohio from New Mar- 
ket, on the road that leads from Vienna, in Scott 
county, it crosses Fourteen-mile, creek on one of 
the best bridges in the county. It is a substan- 
tial iron structure, with solid abutments, and is, 
perhaps, ten years old. Above the bridge is an 
old, dilapidated family grist-mill. It is a small 
concern, and never did anything in the way of 
serving the public generally. 

New Market crossing, half-way between Otisco 
and Marysville, is the great spot for railroad ties 
for the Ohio & Mississippi railroad. It is where 
the Vienna & New Market road crosses the 
Ohio & Mississippi branch. Here thousands of 
ties are brought yearly and scattered along the 
road in all directions. Otisco and Marysville 
are also noted for their railroad supplies. 

MILLS. 

Owing to the few streams of any size, except 
Fourteen-mile creek, there were but few mills in 
Oregon township at an early day. Besides, the 
township was a part of Charlestown up to 1S52, 
and it was a necessary result that much of its 
history would be like that of the parent. Houk's 
mill, which was among the first in the county, 
occupied a site fifty-odd years ago on Fourteen- 
mile creek, grinding flour and meal fcr the sur- 
rounding country. It was of the undershot pat- 
tern, and ran one set of buhrs. Nothing remains 
of the structure now, except an old mill-stone, 
lying rather lonely in an out-of-the-way place, 
and one or two old walls, which are rapidly fall- 
ing to pieces. The old building was a frame, 
and after years of service was finally abandoned. 
In the western part of the township a saw mill is 
in active operation, under the control of Mr. 
Shafer. The township has had many portable 
saw-mills, which were moved from place to place 
as the timber was cut up and lumber demanded 
a better price. Much of the oak timber was 
used for the steamboats which were built at Jef- 
fersonville. East of Marysville a saw-mill is act- 
ively engaged. 

• TANNERIES AND STILL-HOUSES. 

Oregon township was never noted on account 
of tan-yards and distilleries. Of the former there 
were few, so few that even the oldest settler does 
not recall them to mind. Still-houses had a 
transitory existence. A few of the larger farmers 
managed to have private stills that supplied the 



demands of the family; but, like mills, they were 
few and far between. 

SCHOOLS. 

In a primitive age the educational system is 
necessarily imperfect. Teachers are often unfit 
for their trust, possessing few traits that endear 
them to their scholars. The log houses resem- 
bled the hog-pens of to-day more than anything 
else with which they can be compared. 

Among the first school-houses ever put up in 
Oregon township was one that stood on Poke 
run, about one mile from New Market. Wes- 
ley Browning, William Pitman, and William 
M. Murray were the first teachers. These men 
taught their scholars to teach, and from 1836 
to 1S60 they carried on the educational inter- 
ests of this section. Dr. John Covert was per- 
haps their most successful scholar. He taught 
for twenty-one years. J. VV. Haymaker, James 
A. Watson, Elias Long, Dr. James Kirkpatrkk, 
Allen Hill, Ambrose Fitzpatnck, and the Wil 
liams brothers, Jonas Albright, Asa Martin, 
George Matthews, and Jefferson Neal were 
from the early schools, and they afterwards de- 
voted most of their younger years to school- 
teaching. 

■ CHURCHES. 

The United Biethren church, commonly 
known as the Beswick chapel, stands on the New 
Market and Lexington road. It came into ex- 
istence through the efforts of Revs. Thomas 
Lewellen (a pioneer preacher who afterwards 
rode the circuit for over fifty years), Jacob 
House, and Isaac Echels. Their services were 
first held in the dwellings and school-houses of 
the neighborhood. After several years of active 
labor, at which all persons labored faithfully, the 
promiscuous preaching was abandoned, and a 
comfortable meeting-house erected. The best 
evidence places the first preaching at the houses 
of James Smith and Robert Henihorn. Among 
the members were William N. Pangburn, John 
Donnan, David Courtner, and James Smith, 
who are all dead. Many years ago a great camp- 
meeting was held on the New Market and Lex- 
ington road, one half-mile from New Market vil- 
lage. Many people attended and great good was 
accomplished. Its effect was felt in the commu- 
nity for many years afterwards. Since the old 
log school-house, which served a double pur- 



37- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



pose, gave up to the elements, the class put up a 
neat frame building, 35x50 -feet. To it is at- 
tached a burying-ground, but is not inclosed by a 
fence. The church is in good running order, 
and has a well-supported Sabbath-school. 

On the Charlestown and Lexington road a 
United Brethren church, built of logs, has a 
scattering attendance. It was erected about 
1858. The furniture is old fashioned, and re- 
minds one very much of pioneer religion. God- 
frey and Frederic Koener were the founders. 
They came from Germany, and belonged to the 
strictest sect of this respectable denomination. 
The southwest corner of Oregon township is 
made up mostly of Germans. From these peo- 
ple is derived much of the present prosperity of 
the township. 

Beswick chapel is also used for the Methodist 
Episcopal denomination. Rev. Mr. Tucker was 
their first preacher, and Alexander McClure, 
Oliver Mahan, and Abram Vest their first mem- 
bers. This ancient and most honorable body of 
worshipers appears to be losing much of its 
former energy in this neighborhood. 

Above Reswick chapel, on the same road, a 
German Methodist Episcopal church was erected 
in 1858. It is a hewed-log house, 20x40 feet. 
On the inside the logs were hacked and plastered. 
It presents a very respectable appearance. The 
Rev. John Helser aided more than any other 
person in its establishment. He was a prominent 
and distinguished member of this sect for many 
years. John Amick, Jacob Strack, John Fuchs, 
and Jacob Lindenmyer were very influential, too, 
in having this church erected, and for twenty or 
more years since managed so as to give credit to 
the cause of religion. 

SECRET SOCIETIES. 

The only society now in successful running 
order in the county is the grange on Dry run. 
It holds its meetings in the Brenton school- 
house. Here the members meet regularly and 
discuss the social and agricultural interests of 
the farmer, and about once every month hold a 
session of feasting and speech-making. 

NEW MARKET. 

This village was laid out by Robert Henthorn 
in 1839. The streets are sixty feet wide, avenues 
thirty feet, alleys ten feet. It is situated in the 
southern part of survey or tract number one 



hundred and ninety-six on the west bank of 
Fourteen-mile creek. In 1S50 Gabriel Phillippi 
made an addition of twenty-two lots on the 
southeast corner of the original plat. Round 
about the village the country is rolling. In the 
northern part of the fust plat the ground is 
broken and not well adapted for a thriving busi- 
ness place. The eastern half of the village juts 
out on the high banks of Fourteen-mile creek. 
Here the road leads up the bluffs as it follows up 
the dividing line between the tracts. 

For many years previous to 1839 New Market 
was a rendezvous for market wagons, which made 
it a stopping point on their way to the towns on 
the Falls. People soon learned to bring their 
produce here, — eggs, butter, poultry, calves, and 
dressed hogs, — and to receive in exchange gro- 
ceries and dry-goods. From this fact the village 
derived its name of New Market. The first man 
who engaged in buying and selling country pro- 
duce, and who lived in New Market and sold all 
the articles common in country stores, was An- 
derson Ross. After him came Wesley Bottorff, 
Mr. Garner, J. VV. Haymaker, Dr. Benson, and 
Alexander Ruddell. Between 1S40 and 1850 
there were three stores in the town at the same 
time. There was an old-fashined saloon here 
about 1S45, which dealt out all kinds of drinks, 
from hard cider to the Kentucky bourbon. A 
prosperous blacksmith and cooper shop about 
the same time gave the village an appearance of 
considerable business. In the place now there 
is but one store, keps by Joel Amick, who also 
is the postmaster. 

POST-OFFICE. 

New Market became a post-office about 1S45. 
Mails were formerly carried through the eastern 
end of Oregon township on their way to Bethle- 
hem and Madison, from Charlestown. Poke 
Run was the only office for many years in the 
township. Dr. John Covert was postmaster here 
for fourteen years. The way of carrying mails 
was on horseback with a pair of saddle-bags; or 
in summer, a light vehicle was sometimes used, 
when a passenger might be picked up along the 
route. After the Ohio & Mississippi branch was 
built, Poke Run ceased to be a post-office. New 
Market had grown sufficiently to gain the right o{ 
having an office within her limits. Accordingly 
the old route was abandoned and and a hew one 
established, which ran from Charlestown to New 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



in 



Washington via New Market. The first post- 
master was John VV. Haymaker. After- him 
came Sisney Conner, D. M. Turner, and James 
A. Watson. These men filled their positions 
satisfactorily. It was only a change of President 
that could make a new appointment. Now the 
mail-route begins at Otisco and goes via New 
Market, Otto, and Bethlehem. It is tri-weekly. 

CHURCHES. 

The Christian or Campbellite church at New- 
Market has a history of variable circumstances. 
It is made up of so many parts that nothing but 
an extended review would present all the troublous 
times through which it has passed. This church 
sprang from a combination of influences. The 
Arians or New-lights, the followers of Stone and 
Marshall, and the Dunkards, had a church early 
in this century in what is now Owen township. 
It is known by the name of Olive Branch 
chapel. Revs. Messrs. John Wright and Mr. 
Hughes, the former a Dunkard and the latter a 
New-light, united, and formed a union which 
afterwards became the Christian church of New 
Market. Rev. John Wright, who came from 
North Carolina, had but few followers, and of 
course it was an easy matter to go over to the 
new faith. The great hindrance to a coalition 
with the Dunkards was their mode of worship. 
But the union dispensed with triune baptism, or 
dipping three times, which according to their 
discipline was a necessary part of their religion. 
Feet-washing, too, was discarded by Rev. Mr. 
Hughes, and between them both a satisfactory 
settlement of conflicting views was made. Since 
this adjustment the Dunkards and New-lights 
have never regained their former strength. 

The first preaching of these two denominations 
was held in the homes of the pioneers. During 
the summer months big meetings were often held 
in groves. The people came from all sections. 
It was not till 1S45, after a series of meetings at 
Olive Branch church, that the Christian church 
in New Market was placed on a substantial 
foundation. Revs. Milton Short, Byron, Josiah, 
and Thomas Walter, brothers, created much ex- 
citement about this time in the townships of 
Oregon and Owen in regard to religion. There 
sprang up several thriving classes throughout this 
section, but which have in time succumbed to 
the inevitable influences of loose morality. Ex- 



cellent preachers have frequently addressed 
themselves to congregations in New Market. 
David Lewis was among this class. Joseph 
Hostetler, a graduate of Lane seminary, near 
Cincinnati, was J powerful speaker, and carried 
everything as if by storm. He is now dead. 
John Ribble was also a man who aided much in 
lifting humanity to a higher plane of living. 

The present condition of the Christian church 
in New Market is disorganization. The house 
stands south of Main street, on a rather pretty 
building spot; it is of frame and perhaps twenty- 
five by forty feet. There are about forty names 
enrolled on the register, but no regular services 
are held. A traveling minister frequently comes 
along and holds meetings for a day or two, and 
then goes on to more energetic and determined 
localities. 

However, there is a Sunday-school held regu- 
larly, which does much to redeem the old, inac- 
tive members and inspire the young people with 
a pure Christian faith. 

To the church is attached a burying-ground of 
venerable antiquity. Before New Market hardly 
became a place for marketers, the fences looked 
old, and the limestones which marked the rest- 
ing place of some early settler, were covered 
with moss and lichens. Now, the marble grave- 
stones and the several monuments need sand- 
paper and some of the modern appliances to 
make them conform to later notions of ceme- 
teries. 

Presbyterianism in Oregon township has an 
age which always brings respectability. Rev. 
Enoch Martin preached to the pioneers in this 
locality more than fifty years ago. Soon after 
the village was laid out, a handsome frame build- 
ing, capable of seating five hundred, was built on 
the site of the present church. It was organized 
under the Louisville Presbytery. Peter Amick, 
Peter Covert, Abram and John Courtner, and 
Valentine Clapp, were the first preachers. It is 
owing to the labors of these men that the unity 
of the Presbyterian church was preserved, and 
the code of morals which she so untiringly main- 
tains, kept to a respectable grade. 

The present church was built five or six years 
ago. It stands on the old church site. It will 
seat three hundred and is well furnished. 

During the summer months a Sunday-school 
is kept up. Since July, 18S1, there has been no 



374 



HISTORY OF 'THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



regular service. In all there are thirty-odd 
members. Taking the history of the Presby- 
terian church in Oregon township, it is in keep- 
ing with the principles of right and those ques- 
tions of law and order which alf good people de- 
sire to see respected. 

MARYSVILLE. 

This little village of perhaps one hundred in- 
habitants is situated on the Ohio & Mississippi 
railroad, three miles from Otisco. It was laid 
off for Tatrick H. Jevvett by YV. W. Trevis, civil 
engineer, in 1871. It is on both sides of the 
railroad and has forty lots. The village is lo- 
cated on the south side of tract number two 
hundred and forty-eight, about midway from the 
north and south line. Marysville was named 
after Miss Mary Kimbcrlain, now the wife of A. 
Q. Abbott, of Oregon township. During the 
ten years which have elapsed since the village 
was regularly platted, very little has been done 
in the way of improvement. There is nothing 
to make the place very enterprising; nothing to 
stimulate trade, except the produce which is sold 
and received and the shipping point it furnishes 
for stock. A cooper-shop employs a half-dozen 
hands, who turn out cement barrels and kegs in 
large numbers. The railroad company has never 
erected a station. A platform answers the pur- 
pose of telegraph office, ticket office, and freight 
and passenger depot. 

The post-office is kept in a little room ten by 
twelve. It answers all the purposes of a more 
commodious building. Extensive offices are not 
always an indication of business prosperity. 

Marysville has no churches or Sunday-schools. 
But it has one other thing which is next to it, a 
good public school. The first school-house 
which afforded a place to learn the rudiments of 
an education for the boys and girls of Marys- 
ville, was built en John Park's place in 1848, 
one mile due west of the village. Ambrose 
Fitzpatrick was the teacher. Many years ago 
the old house was torn down ; a new log build- 
ing was erected in 1S52, one and one-fourth 
miles west of the old site. In 1S63 it burned. 
The country school is now three-fourths of a 
mile west of Marysville and is known as Parks 
district. It was built, in 1S72. 

The Maiysville public school has as many as 
one hundred scholars, and is taught by two 
teachers. 



The village stores supply the people with to- 
bacco, sugar, coffee, and groceries and dry goods 
generally. In this section are many opossums. 
They are caught in large numbers and sold to 
the storekeepers, who in turn ship them to the 
towns around the Falls. Such sights remind 
one unaccustomed to such scenes — skinned 
opossums hanging in bunches of half a dozen 
at the side of a store — very forcibly of the South, 
where the negro ate Johnny-cake, danced with a 
slice of opossum meat in one hand and one of 
corn bread in the other, around the Southern 
plantation camp fire. Marysville will never 
amount to greatness.- A village, to rise into 
prominence, must be surrounded by a soil of 
considerable 'fertility, and at least have some 
wealth in timber or other natural resources. 

AN OLD GRAVEYARD. 

At the confluence of Dry Branch and Four- 
teen-mile creek is the eldest burying ground in 
Oregon township. No reliable information as to 
who were buried here first can be obtained. 
Trees, one foot in diameter, have grown on the 
graves; the bushes are thick and vigorous, and 
the briars in a healthy condition. There ate no 
fences or tombstones. Every thing is in a di- 
lapidated condition, and it seems as if Nature 
was left to take her course. The pioneers who 
rest here, certainly deserve some attention from 
those who are now enjoying the fruits of their 
labors. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

The Henthoms, who settled in the vicinity of 
New Market, came from Virginia. Robert 
Henthorn, the founder of the village, was a 
prominent man in the affairs of his time. He 
carried on the huckstering business for a number 
of years at New Market, keeping a produce ex- 
change in connection with his wagon, which 
scoured the country in all directions. 

Valentine Clapp, who now resides north of the 
village, is among the oldest men in the township. 
He came from North Carolina. His brothers 
were John, Lewis, and Henry, and from them 
have descended a long line of respectable citizens. 

The Coverts came from Pennsylvania in 1798, 
and settled near the old site of Work's mill. 
The family was composed of Bergen, Daniel, 
Peter, and John Covert. These brothers are all 
dead. The remainder of the family was born in 
Kentucky and in Clark county. After settling on 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



375 



Fourteen-mile creek, the Indians became so 
troublesome that the family moved to Limestone 
(now Maysville), Kentucky. After residing here 
for two years the family returned to the Grant 
again. The family, of which Dr. John Covert 
was a part, was composed of two sons and 
eight daughters, six sisters and one brother be- 
ing dead. Dr. Covert was born April 23, 18 16. 
His first wife was Miss Rachael Turrell; his 
second Mary J. Clapp. Most of his life has been 
spent in teaching school and practicing medicine. 
He is a well-educated gentleman, and possessed 
of an abundant store of pioneer reminiscences. 

James A. Watson was born May 3, 1S11, in 
Maryland, and came to Kentucky in 1S13; four 
years later to Clark county on tract number fifty- 
nine. He moved to Oregon township in 1S50, 
and settled on the bottoms of Poke run, where 
he has resided ever since. Mr. Watson is among 
the distinguished old residents of this township. 

One of the early and most prominent families 
in Oregon was the Henlys. They rose to oc- 
cupy some of the highest positions in the gift of 
the people. Thomas J. Henly represented the- 
Third district of Indiana in Congress for two or 
three teims. In 1S42 he and Joseph L. White 
fought a hard battle for Congressional honors. 
This district being overwhelmingly Democratic, 
it was almost impossible for a Whig to secure 
a prominent office. White lost, the election 
and Henly went to Congress. 

In the northwest corner of Oregon township, 
the early settlers were made up of John Taflinger 
and family, John Todd and family, Alexander 
McClure, and James Beckett, with their wives 
and families. Many of their descendants are 
now living in this part of the township well-to-do 
farmers and artisans. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

OWEN TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION. 

The commissioners of darn county in 1824 
were John Owens, John M. Lemmon, and Robert 
Robertson. From the surname of the first 



of these men the township derived its name. As 
nearly as can be ascertained Owen township was 
organized a year or two alter Owens vacated his 
office, which makes it about 1830. The minutes 
of the commissioners of the Grant are obscure 
up to 1 S 1 6. The old-fashioned paper has lost 
nearly all its retaining power, and dates and min- 
utes of regular meetings are very difficult to de- 
cipher. Nothing is indexed. Town plats are 
stowed away carelessly, and nearly all original 
documents and legal papers are torn or dis- 
figured. From these circumstances the exact 
year the township was placed under a separate 
organization cannot be positively fixed. Old 
settlers place the time within a year or two of 
1830— it may be either way. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

This township is located in the northeastern 
part of the county. It is bounded on the north 
by Oregon, Washington, and Bethlehem town- 
ships; on the north of the Ohio river and 
Charlestown township; on the east by the 
run, and on the west by Oregon and 
Charlestown townships. There are in the 
township sixteen tracts of the Grant. Eigh- 
teen-mile island is entirely south of Owen. 
Here, as stated in the history of Charlestown 
township, the base line was established, begin- 
nin at the head of the island and running due 
west, or that was the intention. It seldom hap- 
pened that the original lines were properly fixed, 
there were so many things which prevented ex- 
actness. Undergrowth, fallen timber, the pecu- 
liar sicknesses which are always lurking in the 
lowlands, and the fogs along the river, made 
ague and fever very common, and a long stay 
in the new country sure to end in ill-health. 
Then besides, the Indians and wild animals 
made great caution necessary. When the sur- 
veying party went into camp pickets were put 
out. It was only after 18 12, when the final 
treaty had been made after General Harrison's 
victory at Tippecanoe, that the settlers were left 
undisturbed in this region. 

The base line, as it was established, formed 
the basis for the survey of the upper portion 
of Indiana, extending to the surveys which 
belonged to the Cincinnati district on the east. 
Townships were laid off into squares, by run- 
ning lines from the base line north and south 



376 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FAILS COUNTIES. 



and cast and west, every six miles. They made 
the townships six miles square; section lines 
further divided trie townships into thirty-six sec- 
tions of six hundred and forty acres each. Ease 
lines were frequently established. Tliiswas nec- 
essary to allow for the rotundity of the earth's 
surface. As the Grant line began at the upper 
end of Eighteen-mile island, as well as the base 
line, theie was necessarily a little tract between 
the two, shaped like a triangle. In this body of 
land there are seventy-one acres. Il is owned 
by three persons. 

Owen township has sixteen of the five-hun- 
dred-acrc tracts. The Grant line cuts the town- 
ship into halves, but throws the larger one on 
the south side. All that portion of the township 
north of the Grant line is divided into sections. 
Within the limits of Owen, as it is now bounded, 
there are twenty-two and seventeen hundredths 
square miles. The total valuation of property 
is placed at $298,000. There are about eight 
hundred people in the township. 

SOIL. 

Early settlers lived economically. Corn, wheat, 
some rye, potatoes, and pumpkins were the com- 
mon products. The soil produced tolerably well. 
Its wetness generally prevented extraordinary 
crops. It required the most careful treatment to 
make it yield, even when the timber was first 
cleared off. Along the creek bottoms it was 
non productive. Now, after many years of 
continued working, it seldom furnishes a paying 
dividend for the labor expended. 

SURFACE. 

The eastern half of the township is mostly level. 
No streams of any size lead off to the river or 
toward the larger creeks of Fourteen-mile and 
those in Jefferson county. Poke run heads in the 
western part of Owen, and flows slowly through 
Oregon township into Fourteen-mile. Yankee run 
begins in the southwest corner of the township, 
and enters the same stream with Poke run, buc fur- 
ther down toward the river. The timber in this 
part of Owen is composed mostly of beech, ash, an 
oak now and then, and thousands of hoop-poles. 
Some farms are under good fences, well supplied 
with dwellings and out-houses generally. But 
the improvements are far behind the times. 
People now there seem to have few of those 
qualities which go toward making up a prosper- 
ous farming community. 



The southern side of Owen township is drained 
by Bull and Owen creeks. Bull creek is a noisy 
little stream which rises altogether within the 
township, and flews in a southerly course to the 
Ohio. Like many other natural features of 
Clark county, it derived its name from early asso- 
ciations. Nearly one hundred years ago a large 
buffalo bull was killed at its mouth, after a hard- 
fought battle. This fact, combined with its rapid 
current over falls, down cascades and rocky bot- 
toms, induced the pioneer people to call it Bull 
creek — a name which is certainly very appropri 
ate. Bull creek flows between hills from fifty to 
two hundred feet in height. This water-course 
seems to have been cut through the rocks many 
years before the white man made his appearance 
in this neighborhood, by an agency unknown at 
this period of the world's history. Above the 
creek on the west side, the surface is gently un- 
dulating. Owing to the long and continuous ser- 
vice to which the soil has been subjected, it is 
rather unproductive. 

Owen creek, which is about two-thirds the 
size of Bull creek, runs through the southwest- 
ern part of the township and empties into the 
Ohio in the very extreme corner of Charlestown 
township. It has a current of average rapidity, 
drains a tract of country generally level, and is 
mainly supplied with water from springs. In 
some places the water enters openings in the 
rocks which form its bed, and runs under them 
for quite a distance. Then it escapes to the 
main channel, again to go through a similar per- 
formance. As early as 1800 Major Owens dwelt 
on or near its banks in the wjlderness. He, by 
hard work and economy, grew to considerable 
prominence in the affairs of his county.- This 
was especially true in the township where he 
lived. It was from Major Owens and his de- 
scendants that the township and the creek of 
Owen derived their names. Mr. Owens died 
many years ago. His legacy was an unspotted 
character, full of Christian virtues. 

The tract of land lying between Bull creek 
and the Ohio, and which has the form of a pe- 
ninsula, is laughingly and somewhat scientifically 
prominent. The area includes about one thou- 
sand acres. It is an elevated plateau, from one 
to two hundred and fifty feet high. In the early 
history of the township the land was especially 
productive, rendered so on account of the lime- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



377 



stone, which is very prominent in this locality. 
Formerly this land was sprinkled with log shan- 
ties, old stone fences, turnip patches, and black- 
berry bushes. From the time when Pettitt and 
Armstrong kept their ferries on the Ohio, the 
little opossum made it a rendezvous. The 
crevices in the bluffs of Bull run supplied them 
with comfortable homes, where disturbance was 
never expected. It was on this body of land 
where the little, cowardly creature frisked inno- 
cently, climbed pawpaw bushes in sweet com- 
placency, and ate fruit in safety. He gave to 
his haunts a name which will ever be spoken 
with a smile — "Possum Trot." On this same 
tract of land is a district school, where the chil- 
dren meet to learn of the world. But few, per- 
haps, know how the little, old school-house de- 
rived its peculiar name, and the fun the 'possum 
had here before education took possession of his 
favorite resort. 

TIMBER. 

Along the Ohio river on the bluffs, the first 
growth of timber was made up of walnut, blue 
ash, sugar-tree, oak, and hackberry. But this 
class of trees extended only for a few miles 
from the river. As soon as the level upland was 
reached, the soil and timber changed. Beech 
took the place of most other trees. In fact this 
was so universally true that even four-fifths of all 
the timber was beech. Its growth was firm and 
the bodies made excellent fire-wood when split 
into sticks of four or five feet. The character of 
the soil was necessarily changed on account of 
the timber of one hundred years ago being cut 
away and a new growth allowed to take its place. 
Soil is generally determined by the kinds of 
forest trees which grow upon it. So it is in this 
case. The timber and soil in the eastern part of 
Owen township are medium. 

Below the mouth of Bull creek about one-half 
mile is a remarkable union of two sugar-trees. 
They are eighteen inches in diameter and are 
situated on the farm formerly known as the old 
Crawford place. Twenty feet from the ground 
they unite and form an arch. The union is per- 
fect and resembles a forked stick turned upside 
down. After uniting, the single trunk runs up to 
the height of seventy-five feet. 

CAVES. 

The counties of Floyd and Clark, and those 
which follow up the river but circle north of 

4* 



Cincinnati, says an old geologist, are noted cave 
systems. Clark county is peculiarly interesting 
from the caves which are found in nearly all the 
townships. Hutchinson's cave, on that neck of 
land between Bull creek and the Ohio which is 
known as "Possum Trot," is surrounded by 
rocky scenery, romantic and interesting. The 
entrance way is on the river side, a little above 
where Bull .creek discharges its water into the 
Ohio. From the starting point it curves north- 
ward in the direction of Bethlehem, passes under 
the "Possum Trot" school district, and, if tradi- 
tion be true, emerges again on the opposite side 
of the hill more than a mile from the river. The 
cavern varies from forty feet high and twenty 
wide to a narrow passage-way. In wet weather 
traveling is difficult on account of the dampness 
of the atmosphere and the water which flows 
through it. On the dividing ridge between the 
river and Bull creek sinks are quite common. 
They serve to carry off much of the water, and, 
perhaps more than any other factor, aid in pro- 
ducing good crops. 

FERRIES. 

Three miles above the mouth of Bull creek, 
on the Kentucky side of the Ohio, in Jefferson 
county, is a little village called Westport. 
Seventy-five years ago this settlement made con- 
nections with Clark county by means of a ferry. 
Levi Boyer had charge of transportation for 
many years. The boat was propelled by horse- 
power, when traveling was indulged in by every- 
body. People came from the interior counties 
of Kentucky and the Blue Grass region, crossed 
at Westport, penetrated the Indiana counties, 
bought stock, and returned to their farms. It was 
this trade that brought Westport landing into 
such prominence during the successful period of 
steamboat navigation. For a number of years 
Westport was almost as noted a landing as 
Charlestown. After railroads began to take the 
place of steamboats the old treadwheel ferry-boat 
was abandoned. Instead of horses standing 
on an inclined platform which ran from under 
them as they walked, men were substituted. 
But the ferry and landing are now among those 
things which belong to early history. 

Bull Creek ferry held considerable prominence 
during pioneer civilization. Ever since the first 
white settler began to cross the Ohio to scour 
the Grant for missing claims, a ferry was kept at 



3 7- ( 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



the mouth of Bull creek. At first the starting 
point was from the Kentucky shore. After 
several years the'setllers asked for a change, and 
a transfer was made to the opposite side. This 
ferry originated with the Pettitt family, and there 
it has remained ever since. John Pettitt was the 
first regular ferryman. From him it has de- 
scended to John Pettitt, a grandson of the old 
gentleman. Like the Westport ferry it has little 
to do now in the way of a crossing business. 

A good bear story is told, with which the elder 
Pettitt had to do, and which is vouched for as 
true. On a certain occasion one of the eld 
mothers of the township was hurriedly called 
across the ris-er. Mr. Pettitt was not at that 
time, it seems, very anxious to make the trip. Tt 
was during the days of the hand ferry. After 
some motherly persuasion the boat pushed off, 
and the landing was reached in safety. On the 
return trip, when half-way across, a bear, two- 
thirds grown, climbfd over the side of the boat 
and took a seat in the hind end. Mr. Pettitt 
left bruin and bruin left Mr. Pettett undisturbed. 
As the ferry struck the landing on the Indiana 
side, he jumped out, cantered up the bank, and 
disappeared. 

FORTS. 

In 1812, the year of the Pigeon Roost mas- 
sacre, many families crossed the run and awaited 
the cessation of hostilities. Others combined 
and built block-houses or forts. The people in 
the neighborhood where school district number 
three now is, built a block-house at the cross- 
roads. It was picketed. The building was ar- 
ranged so that when Indians approached to set 
fire to the house the men above could shoot 
down through the joists, which projected over 
the sides three or four feet and on which the 
ends of the rafters rested. This old fortification 
was never found necessary for protection. The 
Indians left the country immediately after their 
first assault, pursued by a band of minute-men. 

On the road leading from New Market to the 
Ohio, four miles, air measure, from Grassy flats, 
on Mr. William Bullock's old farm, a fort was 
erected in 1S12. It was soon abandoned. The 
disappearance of the savages left little fear of 
further trouble. But it frequently happened, 
during those uncertain times, that a reoort would 
pass over the country like wildfire, saying Indians 
were coming, and that everybody able to bear 



arms must prepare to fight. Bullock came from 
.the East and settled one mile from the Tunnel 
mill. He changed his residence after a few 
years and located in Owen township. Z. W ? J 

roads. . : 

There were no regularly established highways 
when the Indians made their attack at Pigeon 
roost. People traveled promiscuously. They 
often walked to the county seat and hunted on 
their way. Horsemen went through the woods 
regardless of anything but distance, and, if pos- 
sible, shot a buck or bear, to carry him home on 
their return. It was in this way that the best 
route for a road was found out. After several 
years of going and coming, and when the loca- 
tion became pretty generally fixed, a petition was 
presented to the county commissioners and the 
desired result obtained. The roads all con- 
verged at Charlestown. And here, too, the peo- 
ple went from the country every Saturday, to 
listen to trials and hear the news of the day. It 
was a kind of an epidemic among the settlers. 
The courts were always attractive, and drew 
many of the people from the townships to hear 
lawyers parley and argue fine points of law. 

MILLS. 

Owen township was settled without any at- 
tempt to form a little neighborhood. Where the 
land and the price suited, there the emigrant 
made his home. This gave rise to serious dis- 
advantages. Mills were only small affairs from 
their situation. When Leonard Troutman erect- 
ed the first water mill in the township, on Bull 
creek, there was not enough custom work to 
keep him grinding all the time. From 1820, 
the year of its erection, until 1825, it ground 
most of the grains for the farmers in this region. 
After that date Jacob Bear put up a horse mill 
in the "Possum Trot" district. Here he carried 
on his trade for ten or more years. Previous to 
the abandonment of the horse-mil! Mr. Bear 
had erected an overshot grist-mill on its mouth, 
one mile above Bull creek. This was about 
1826 or 1827. He engaged in milling on this 
site for a number of years. As time went by 
and the Tunnel mill rose to be considered the 
best on the northern side of the county, mills in 
Owen township were left to struggle with a small 
income. Trade was uncertain. Business was 
unprofitable, and this branch of industry soon 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



379 



went into non-existence. It was useless to com- 
pete with John Works, the founder of the famous 
Tunnel mill. 

DISTILLERIES. 

It seems that the early settlers regarded still- 
houses about as we, of the present age, regard 
woolen factories. Every farmer had something 
to do with the manufacture of whiskey or brandy. 
Levi's still, near the Westport landing, was prob- 
ably the first in Owen township. Its exact dale 
cannot be positively fixed, but is placed near the 
year 1810. A Mr. Needhani carried on the 
same business very early in the extreme west 
corner of Owen. Mr. Samuel Struseman was in 
the business, in the central part of the township, 
about the same time. Says an old citizen : 
"All the neighbors had little stills and made 
their own whiskey and apple brandy. It was 
not such whiskey as we get nowadays. There 
were no adulterations ; and even the preachers 
drank it with a relish. After the Government 
began to tax its manufacture, people could not 
still profitably, and hence whiskey-making is now 
unknown in this township."' We might add, there 
is not a distillery or brewery in Clark county. 

TANNERIES. 

Tan-yards were about as common as still-houses, 
but varied greatly as to their usefulness. They 
shipped their goods to Cincinnati or Louisville. 
As bark became a branch of trade, it was sent up 
or down the river to supply orders from the large 
cities. Hides were bought up by traveling agents 
at a price greatly in advance of that paid by the 
home merchants. These things worked destruc- 
tion to the small establishments in the townships. 
John Cavin was one of the first tanners in the 
township of Owen. Jacob West's tan-yard, six 
miles southeast of New Market, was perhaps the 
most noted in its time. Both of these were here 
more than fifty years ago. Tanneries in this part 
of the county are scarce, but the bark business 
is carried on quite extensively along the river. 
The bark is loaded on barges or flat-boats, and 
floated down to the cities situated on the banks 
of the Ohio. 

SCHOOLS. 

The oldest school in Owen township stood on 
the Bethlehem and BullCreeK road. It had all 
the features of backwoods life. The stone 
chimney, large fire-place, puncheon door and 



seats, greased paper for window glass, the noisy 
boys and girls, — all made the old log building 
very interesting. It passed away half a century 
ago; the scholars have many descendants in this 
county, but the boys and girls then are now old 
men and women. John Troutman taught at the 
Shilo school-house in 1825 and 1S26. Stephen 
Hutchings, Robert and James Perry, William 
Allen, John and Henry Anderson, Samuel and 
Robert Applegate, George Hutchings, and Jacob 
Ingram were the first teachers in this end of the 
township. They also taught in most of the ad- 
joining school districts. Stephen Hutchings was 
one of that class who used the whip prett) freely. 
His left hand frequently took an unruly school 
by surprise, by whipping a dozen or more at the 
same time. None of his scholars ever rose to 
distinction in the public affairs of county, State, 
or nation. 

The Possum Trot district was composed main- 
ly of the Boyers, Adamses, and Wardells. Rob- 
ert WardeH was a Revolutionary soldier, the 
father of the boys who made this school famous. 
Possum Trot school has always borne a name for 
everything else but docility. 

Larkin Yaught's district is situated in the 
southeastern part of the township. It is well at' 
tended. In Owen township there are five school 
districts. They are the redeeming features of this 
as well as all other divisions of land; and Owen 
may well take an interest in her social and edu- 
cational systems. 

CHURCHES AND SECRET SOCIETIES. 

The Olive Branch Christian church was formed 
out of the Dunkardsand New-lights. Its history 
is given principally in the sketches of Oregon 
township. Revs. John Wright and Mr. Hughes, 
the former a Uunkard, the latter a New-light, 
were instrumental in forming the union. Both 
made concessions. Church disciplines weie dis- 
carded and the religion of Dr. Campbell taken 
instead. Campbcliite religion, as it was jeeringly 
called, has risen from obscurity in this township 
to be the most prominent of all. The old Olive 
Branch chapel was built of logs, and was 18 X24 
feet. It was used till 1S52, when the old build- 
ing was sold and a frame erected. It is now oc- 
cupied with some degree of regularity. 

The Shilo Methodist Episcopal church, be- 
tween Westport landing and Hibernia, belongs 
to the New Washington circuit. It is one of 



3 So 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



those temples which we all turn to intuitively ; 
one whose history awakens the happiest and 
tenderest emotions. Its first members were 
Thomas Allen and wife, John Lever and wife, 
Job Ingram and wife, Jacob Bottorff and 
family, John Hutchins and wife. Calvin and 
John Rutter were the first preachers. They 
were brothers, men devoted to the work they 
had chosen. In 1854 the old house of worsnip 
was replaced by a better building. This class is 
managed tolerably well, but needs some of the 
early enthusiasm of its members to place it on 
good, solid footing. 

More than forty years ago a Masonic lodge 
was organized at the mouth of Bull creek in the 
store of William Pettitt. Dr. Frank Taylor and 
Esquire Spenser were among "the first members. 
The meetings were held in an upper store room. 
After a term of singular prosperity the lodge was 
left to take care of itself. The charter was re- 
voked and the regalia of members called in; but 
this all took place after the death of the organ- 
izers. Now there is nothing left to maik even the 
site of the old store. 

Owen township can boast of having had three 
Granges, viz: Number Four district, Shilo, and 
Washington. They seem to have done compar- 
atively little good and are now apparently in a fit 
condition for the graveyard. 

BURYING-GROUNDS. 

On the road leading from West Point landing 
to Hibernia, on Mr. Levi's farm, is one of the 
oldest burying-grounds in this end of the county. 
It was here that many of the old settlers were 
buried. There are no fences now to separate it 
from the outside world. Briars and bushes have 
everything their own way. 

Two miles from Hibernia, on the Bethlehem 
road, is the old family burying-ground of Allen 
Perry. It is off the left a quarter of a mile, and 
is rapidly going the way of many other such 
places. The Perrys do not own the place at 
present 

In the old Patterson neighborhood, three miles 
above Hibernia, on the right of the Bethlehem 
road, is another of very great age. It is also 
overgrown with briars and bushes. Everything 
borders on dilapidation. 

Captain John Armstrong founded a burying- 
ground at Armstrong's station, in the southeast 



corner of the township. It was about 50 x 60 
feet. The situation is picturesque, as the mourn- 
ers overlooked the Ohio while depositing their 
dead in the tomb. Captain Armstrong was a 
distinguished pioneer in this part of the Grant. 
His name is perpetuated by a station or steam- 
boat landing on the Ohio. 

PHYSICIANS. 

All the doctors in the surrounding township 
practiced medicine in Owen. From Charlestown 
came Dr. Hugh Lysle on foot. He treated his 
patients by staying with them until death or re- 
covery was the result. Drs. Andrew and Camp- 
bell Hay came from Charlestown, Dr. Goforth 
from New Washington. But Owen township 
never had any very thorough-going physicians. 
Her settlements were too small for any ambitious 
practitioner of medicine. 

VILLAGES. 

Herculaneum was surveyed for William S. 
Pettitt in 1S30, by John Beggs. It is situated 
on tract number fifty seven of the Illinois Grant, 
below the mouth of Bull creek. The streets run 
at right angles with the river. There are twenty- 
two lots, which number from the lower right hand 
corner. 

Germany was laid out by Jacob Bear, Sr., in . 
1829. It has nineteen lots and is crossed by 
two streets, Main and Main Cross streets. Both 
these villages are now of little consequence. Bull 
creek with its high bluffs passes close by, and 
almost makes one village out of two — if villages 
they can be called. Neither has a blacksmith 
shop. Germany has a grocery. The main bus- 
iness of the station is to ferry people across the 
river, as they come from New Market and Striek- 
er's corner. 

These villages took their names from the 
German people who early made the narrow bot- 
toms their home. Standing on the high banks 
of Bull creek and looking down in the valley 
which follows it, the places can hardly be called 
either neighborhoods or hamlets. They are just 
between the two, and will, apparently, stay 
where they are for a number of years to come. 

HIDERNIA. 

David Hostetler, who came from Kentucky, 
was an early settler in this village. He owned a 
tract of land: the Charlestown and Bethlehem 
and Boyer's landing and Otisco roads crossed at 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3*r 



the corner of his property. From these circum- 
stances a village naturally sprang up, though it 
never had a town plat. The Grant line was used 
for the course of the road to Boyer's landing. It 
passes directly through the village and forms the 
principal street. 

Hosteller' came here in 1828 and bought 
land of Daniel Kester from tract number one 
hundred and five. Thomas Applegate and Wil- 
liam Pangburn were neighbors. After a few 
years others gathered here, and hence the place 
naturally took the form of a village. Hostetler 
soon opened a store, and was the first to car-y 
on this branch of industry in the village. He 
was also the first postmaster, as the mails were 
carried to Bethlehem from Charlestown. His 
store was used many years as the voting-place 
for Owen township. John Roland, Leigh Striek- 
er, and Isaac Crumm were storekeepers during 
the early experience of Hibernia. All these men 
kept in the same house — that used by Mr. Hos- 
tetler. It stood on the northwest corner of the 
cross roads, and in 1879 WiS lom down. Another 
was erected in the Grant. It is now the only 
public house, except churches and schools, in the 
village. 

Walter Pangburn was their first blacksmith. 
He was really the first man who made black- 
smithing a business, in this part of the county. 
The village now has one store and one black- 
smith shop. The former is kept by W. H. Som- 
niers. 

Schools in Hibernia were always similar to 
those of other little places or settlements. 
Houses were built of logs, generally without 
hewing. The first school-house in Hibernia 
stood pretty nearly where Sommers' store is now, 
but back from the road two or three rods. It 
was used until 1865, when a frame building was 
erected. The children of the neighborhood 
attend here, as well as those from the village. It 
is conducted systematically, and is the brightest 
ornament of the place. 

The Christian church in Hibernia is the out- 
growth of the Hard-shell Baptist. These two 
denominations erected a meeting-house in 1835, 
jointly. It was used up to 1S60 by the two 
classes. In the meantime many of the old Bap- 
tist members had died. The Christian church 
had continually added to its membership. Twen- 
ty-five years after the old log church was put up, 



the followers of Dr. Campbell found themselves 
in entire possession of the church property. The 
old church being unfit for services, they deter- 
mined to erect a new house. It is a handsome 
brick building, capable of seating three hundred 
persons, and stands on the Boyer landing road, 
on the Grant side. To it is attached s burying- 
ground, which dates from the beginning of the 
organization of the Baptist church. Theie is 
about one and a half acres in the enclosure, 
Calvin R. Pangburn was the first person buried 
in it. Among the first members of the Baptist 
church were William Pangburn and wife, Daniel 
Kester, wife and family, Levi Boyer and wife. 
Some of them finally changed their names to 
the Christian class book. Lathan Boyer and 
wife, Allen Boyer and wife, Benjamin Hawkins 
and wife, Richard and Nancy Hawkins, belonged 
to the Christian church. Revs. Mordecai Cole, 
from Charlestown, Thomas Waller and Elder 
Byron were their first preachers. This church 
now has preaching occasionally. A good Sun- 
day-school holds its exercises here every Sabbath. 
The Christian church in Owen township is 
more prosperous than any of the denominations. 

Hibernia needs renovating. It is simply the 
cross-roads which makes the village. The church 
is the most noticeable of all the houses. About 
the settlement the country is poor, and of course 
agricultural interests are not thriving. In the 
hamlet there are but six or seven houses. The 
little store is post-office, tavern, loafers' corner, 
barber-shop, voting precinct, and all. Harry 
Scott, the township trustee, lives in a large brick 
house in sight. He, probably, has more to do 
with the successful working of the village school 
than any other man. 

What the villages of Owen township ought to 
have, is some of the crust scraped off, some of 
the fogy notions discarded, and more interest 
taken in all the spiritual and temporal resources 
which tend to upbuild and maintain society. 

OLD SETTLERS. 

The oldest man in Owen township is Mr. 
George Allhands. He was born December 10, 
179S, in Jefferson county, Kentucky. John All- 
hands, his father, and Catharine, his mother, 
raised four sons and seven daughters. His 
brothers' names were as follows: John, Garrett, 
and Silas, the former of whom died more than 



382 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



fifty years ago. Polly, one ot his sisters, is eigh- 
ty-six years of age. She lives in Illinois. 
Catharine has now been dead eighteen years. 
She died in Arkansas. Elizabeth died in this 
county. Rachael lives in Clark county at an ad- 
vanced age. "Susan lives in Iowa. Nancy lives 
in Bartholomew county, Indians. Naomi has 
been dead twenty-five years. Sarah lives in 
Owen township. When the family came to the 
Grant, they settled on tract number one hundred 
and three, and here the children were raised. 
The girls married young. The boys made their 
living by hard work and some hunting. Clark 
county was then almost unknown, except by hear- 
say. The country around Strieker's corner was 
a dense wilderness. The family began to clear 
off a small tract for growing potatoes and coin. 
At this time, the years previous to 1S12, there 
were no mills in this part of the county that did 
good custom work; most of the grinding was 
done in the State beyond the Ohio. In some 
families there were hand-mills which were run 
by a staff placed horizontally, and which ground 
about one peck per hour. But the meal was 
coarse. These mills often took the place of 
water-power in the very earliest civilization. 
Hominy mortars, made out of gum logs, with 
a shell two or three inches in thickness, and 
which held a gallon or two of corn, were in every 
farm-house. They were burned out of good 
gum logs; the inside was conical-shaped, so as 
to allow the corn to run into the lower end. 

Mr. Allhands remembers when Louisville was 
halt the size of Charlestown, and when it took 
six months for dry goods to come from New York, 
by way of New Orleans. The money received 
was carried on horseback through the wilderness. 
One of the remarkable facts of the times was that 
a highway robbery was never known to take 
place during these journeys. 

William Strieker, the largest real-estate owner 
in Owen township, came to Clark county in 1816 I 
from Virginia, when only eight years of age. 
The family settled first in Washington township. j 
In 1833 he moved to Owen township, where he I 
has resided ever since. He accumulated prop- j 
erty fast by boating and dealing in real estate, 
though seldom selling a piece of land when once 1 
it came into his possession. Mr. Strieker owns | 
twenty-three bundled acres, lying mostly along ] 
the river in the southeastern part of the township. I 



He is a gentleman of much experience, speaks 
with the ease of a firm business man, and treats 
his neighbors kindly. 

Dr. William Taggert was born in Virginia. 
His father and mother were from Ireland. He 
owns tract number eighty-one. On the west side 
of his property a splendid stone fence, the long- 
est in the county, extends for a half-mile along 
the Bethlehem and Charlestown road. 

Rev. Thomas Allen was a Methodist preacher. 
He lived in sight of Hibernia, and made his liv- 
ing by a carding machine. Preachers who took 
no regular circuit seldom received a salary; so 
it was with Mr. Allen. 

Jacob Bottorff came from South Carolina and 
settled on the road leading from Hibernia to 
New Washington. He was by faith a Dunkard, 
but in the Methodist chuich took an active part, 
and died leaving behind him an admirable pos- 
terity. 

William Pangburn came originally from New 
Jersey. The family settled first in Pennsylvania, 
then in Ohio, then in Indiana. There were five 
sons and one daughter. Two of the sons are 
dead. This family has taken a prominent part 
in all the enterprises of the couuty. 

Robert Lucas Plaskett came from Cincinnati, 
and settled near Strieker's corner in 1800. Here 
he bought one hundred acres of land from Col- 
onel Armstrong. His life was spent to a great 
extent on the river, making considerable money 
by his natural fitness for commercial pursuits. 
There are now few of the Plasketts living in this 
part of the country; most of them have scat- 
tered throughout the West. The Plasketts were 
originally from Pennsylvania. 

John Hutchings was born in Virginia April 7, 
1802, in Frederick county, of which Winchester 
was the county-seat. He came with the rest of 
his father's family from Pittsburg to Louisville on 
a flat-boat. Jos.eph, his father, was strongly op- 
posed to slavery, and on this account left Ken- 
tucky, and moved to Washington township on the 
line of the purchase. The younger Hutchings 
married Lydia Fisher in 1S25. She came from 
North Carolina, Fayette county, about 1814. 
John Hutchings is the only one left out of a 
family of six sons and three daughters. He be- 
longs to that class of men whose character is 
worthy of imitiation. 

Henry Lampin, an Englishman by birth, was 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



383 



born January 30, 1815, and moved to Owen 
township in 1845. He came here from New 
York. Since settling in this township he has en 
gaged himself in farming. Mr. Lam pin belongs 
to the younger class of pioneers. 

John Giltner, the father and grandfather of all 
the Giltners in Owen township, was born in Penn- 
sylvania and came to Clark county from Ken- 
tucky. He married Hannah Wilson in Kentucky, 
who bore him twelve children, viz : Elizabeth, 
Mary, Francis, Jacob, Solomon, Joseph, Daniel, 
Eli, William, Andrew, Susan, and Sarah. He set- 
tled on Camp creek, entering one hundred and 
sixty acres of land, and began to prepare for farm- 
ing by clearing off the timber, and shipping it to 
Louisville in the shape of cord-wood. Both he 
and his wife died at the age of eighty years. Jo- 
seph and William Giltner are the only brothers 
who live in this county. The former was born 
June 2, 1821. 

Among the early settlers in the eastern part of 
Owen township, whose biographies are of that 
class which are interesting, and yet without the 
scope of an historical sketch, was Miciiael Utzler, 
Chiisler King, and Patterson East. They were all 
farmers, took an interest in funny things, and 
made the cares of life light and easy to carry. 

But the age when frontier characters occupied 
the stage is fast passing away. Daily events wilj 
in a quarter of a century be facts of history. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

SILVER CREEK TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION. 

The first mention made of this township in the 
county records is under date of February, 1815. 
It seems to have come into existence after 
ClarksvilleandSpringvillc townships, and for some 
reason unknown, its boundary lines are not given 
in the minutes of the county commissioners. 
The latter townships have gone out of existence 
by subdivisions, the townships created from 
them bearing other names. In the records the 
first mention of the township is made in the 
following words, dated February 15, 1S15 : 



On petition of a number of inhabitants of Silver Creek 

; township, praying for a public road to be opened, commenc- 

1 ing at the town of New Albany, running thence north twelve 

degrees east to the uppermost fork of Camp creek, on the 

line between numbers sixty-four and eighty-five; thence 

north thirty-eight degrees east (nearly), crossing Silver creek 

! near Abraham Littell's; from thence to Charleston n on or 

I near the line of the Grant numbers, directly passing on the 

I east side of Springville. 

This road, it may be mentioned, was finally 
i obtained, and for many years was used by the 
I surrounding country. 

Originally Silver Creek township embraced a 
very large portion of the western part of the 
county. On the 24th of January, 1S03, the 
boundaries of the county were changed, thai 
part lying west of Silver creek and running up 
! to the corner of Silver Creek township being 
I placed in Floyd county for the convenience of 
voters. This change lessened the area of the 
township eight to ten thousand acres. The main 
reason for the change was the high water in 
Silver creek during the spring, at the time when 
the township officers were elected. The voting 
precinct was in what is now Clark county. 

Silver creek township is bounded on the north 
by Carr and Charlestown townships; on the east 
by Jeffersonville, Utica, and Charlestown town- 
ships; on the south by Jeffersonville township 
and Floyd county; on the west by Floyd county 
and Carr township. Area, 9,789 acres, or fifteen 
and twenty-nine hundredths square miles. It is 
smaller by three thousand acres than any other 
township in the county ; but while the next larg- 
est, Union, has a total valuation of $123,000, 
Silver Creek has $143,000 worth of property. 
The township is irregular in shape. It resembles 
an isosceles triangle, compressed from all corners. 
There is considerable speculation as to how 
Silver Creek derived its name. Says one au- 
thority: "About 1775 a band of roving Indians 
buried on the banks of Silver creek a keg of 
silver. From thisjneident the stream was named. 
The township gained its name from the stream 
early in 1800, or thereabouts." This statement 
is to be considered in a negative sense. The 
probabilities are, and there is much evidence to 
substantiate the statement, that the early naviga- 
tors gave the stream its name. Many at the 
flat-boatmen, while on their way down the Ohio 
river, were heard to remark that "yonder range 
of hills," pointing to the knobs, " is supposed to 
be rich in silver ore." From this circumstance, 



384 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



and probably from the striking appearance the 
knobs presented as they circled out into the 
country, resembling" much the silver bow in In- 
dian fable, the navigators gave the stream which 
flows down through the valley and empties into 
theOhio near the ancient site of Clarksville, the 
name of Silver creek. At any rate, we find no 
well-authenticated statement to show anything 
to the contrary. How the story of silver being 
found in the knobs originated, is a mystery. 
The Indians probably had much to do with it, or 
perhaps the original surveyors under Clark picked 
up specimens of something which, for want of a ■ 
better name, they called silver. However, there 
has been found, though not in paying quantities, 
silver in this valley. The reader can combine 
the above statements and deduce his own con- 
clusion as to the derivation of the township 
name. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

"The climate of this township is mild and equa- 
ble. There are few of those great diversities 
which result from the extremes of soil and surface. 
In winter the average temperature is about the 
same as in some of the colder climates. This 
fact results mainly from the unobstructed surface, 
and the complete destruction of the old forests. 
The level country, also, which extends continu- 
ously to the Ohio river, allows the winds which 
always follow water-courses, to spread out over 
this township and impart to the atmosphere an 
exhilarating quality. But it must be remembered 
that there are only a few degrees' difference be- 
tween this and the adjoining townships. A 
township of a few thousand acres can never be 
greatly affected, or differ materially from similar 
adjacent divisions of land, on account of climatic 
changes. 

Some good agriculturist has well said, "the 
bottoms of Silver creek were never noted be- 
cause of their fertile soil." The original crops 
generally produced well. But that was before 
the ground had been tampered with and mal- 
treated so sadly by later farmers. Many farms in 
this township have been under cultivation for 
more than fifty years. A greater portion of this 
time every means has been taken to have them 
produce good crops. The soil is not naturally 
rich. It is made up of a kind of cold loam, mixed 
with washings from the knobs, perhaps ground to 
impalpable powder centuries ago. The valley of 



Silver creek is fine farming land. Corn is the 
staple. Fruit grows in very scanty quantities, and 
the flavor is not always the best. There are few 
farmers who are now considered wealthy, who 
made their wealth out of their farms. . Their 
fathers in many instances settled here during the 
emigration fever in the South, and, buying land 
at the Government office or at second-hand, 
waited for the increase in the value of real estate. 
It was in this way that many of the now well-to- 
do farmers became wealthy. 

The surface of Silver Creek township is level. 
It is unbroken by any hills of more than or- 
dinary height. The knobs do not enter the 
township. The smallness of its extent prevents 
any great diversity of surface. 

When the first settlements were made in the 
township, three-quarters of a century ago, a fine 
growth of timber covered the whole scope of 
country, properly called the " lower end, or level 
country, in the southern part of the county." 
Many of the first settlers describe the timber as 
marvelous in its growth. Oaks from four to six 
feet in diameter, and reaching the nineties in 
height, were very common. Poplar trees larger 
than the largest oaks were encountered all over 
the township. Tall hickories, which ran up as 
high as sixty and seventy feet without a limb, 
stood in great numbers along the low bottoms 
and the higher uplands. Beech-trees grew in 
profusion; there was no end to their numbers. 
Few of those trees which are peculiarly adapted 
to the soil of the knobs grew here during these 
early years. Since the forest has been cut away 
they have become somewhat acclimated. Buck- 
eye, maple, walnut, hackberry, and dogwood 
are now quite common. 

The original forest furnished a great source of 
income to the first settlers. When steamboat 
building was engaged in so extensively by the 
cities around the Falls, thousands of feet of 
sawed lumber were shipped yearly to these 
points. Nothing but the finest of timber could 
be used to good advantage, and in cutting no 
pains were taken to preserve the noblest of the 
trees. An unsparing hand cut them without a 
thought of the present scarcity, even of good 
rail timber. Trees from fifty to sixty feet in 
height, and as straight as a die, fell promiscu- 
ously. 

There was never a dense undergrowth in the 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3*5 



Silver creek valley. Ten or twelve years after 
the township was established, a fine crop of pea- 
vines completely covered the face of the country.' 
For several years it was unnecessary to provide 
for the winter stock. All that was required was 
to turn loose the cows, and they lived in luxury. 
The vines were nutritious and for quite a while 
supplied all the necessary food for stock. Con- 
stant pasturage on account of their tenderness, 
caused them to decline rapidly, and after 1820, 
they ceased to grow. 

An early resident, the oldest living woman in 
the county, Miss Rachael Fleharty, says the 
country when she came here was an unbroken 
cane-brake from the Ohio river at Utica to the 
foot of the knobs in Floyd county. A few paths 
led in circuitous routes to some of the principal 
springs or licks, but there was no well-defined 
track in any direction. The cane grew from fif- 
teen to twenty feet high, and so thick as so be al- 
most impenetrable. These cane-brakes were 
fairly alive with game. Bear, deer, wolves, foxes, 
and panthers roamed in complete possession of 
the forest. There seemed to be no end to their 
numbers. It was foolhardy to venture far from 
home without the best of protection and a com- 
plete mastery ot the situation. The cane was 
generally got rid of by fires in the spring or a 
dry hot month during the summer. It was only 
by continual burnings that it could be kept down. 
There are left yet a few patches along the small 
streams, as reminders of a day long gone by. 

Aside from the pea vines and canebrakes, there 
was never a growth of saplings or briars to a great 
extent. After the first clearings were made, very 
little trouble was had on account of sprouts, 
bushes, and young briars springing up to harass 
the husbandman. 

Silver creek is the principal stream in the 
township, also the principal one in the county. 
It forms the eastern boundary of the township. 
Its tributaries are few, the largest being the Elk 
run. 

The Jeffersonville and Salem road passed 
through the township at an early day. It has 
been particularly described in the history of the 
township of Carr. 

THE CEMENT BUSINESS. 

The following extract from the State Geologi- 
cal Report for Clark and Floyd counties, made 
49 



in 1873 by Professor W. W. Borden, will illus- 
trate the extent of this industry in this region, 
although some of the facts and figures given 
have since changed in measure: 

On the Indiana side of the river, in Clark county, six 
miles from Jeffersonville, on the J., M. & I. railroad, on t^c 
bank of Silver creek, is the cement-mill of Hohn & Com- 
pany. The hydraulic limestone outcrops in the hank of the 
creek, and presents the same characteristics as at the Falls. 
This mill' has four kilns and two run of stone. A short dis- 
tance farther down the creek, near the railroad bridge, on 
tract number forty-eight, is the Black Diamond mill of Dex- 
ter, Belknap & Company. This mill has sufficient capacity to 
manufacture seventy-five thousand barrels of cement per an- 
num. It contains two sets of burr-stones and three kilns, and 
furnishes employment to thirty men. The fuel used is Pitts- 
burg coal. The sales of the company amount to thirty thou- 
sand barrels of cement per annum, and it is shipped in bulk, 
sacks, and barrels to all parts of the country. The hydraulic 
limestone used is obtained from the bank of Silver creek, 
beneath the mill. A section measured here exhibits : i, 
alluvium, 4 feet; 2, dark-colored hydraulic limestone, six to 
eight feet; 3, hard, dark-colored cement stone, seven feet; 
4, corniferous limestone in the creek, six feet. The four-foot 
bed of crinoidal limestone usually capping the hydraulic 
being absent in this quarry, the only stripping required is the 
removal of the earth. The stone, as a general thing, is con- 
siderably harder and of a darker color than at the exposures; 
but the quality of the cement manufactured is of the best 
brand. 

About eight miles from Jeffersonville, near the Jefferson- 
ville, Madison, & Indianapolis railroad is D. Belknap 1$. Co.'s 
Falls City mill. The hydraulic limestone here attains a 
thickness of thirteen feet, with no overlying crinoidal lime- 
stone. The quarry is very extensive, and furnishes all the 
limestone the mill is capable of grinding. The buhrs are of 
the best quality and four and one-half feet in diameter. The 
fuel employed in the four kilns used for calcining the stone is 
bituminous nut coal. 

At Petersburg, near the crossing of the Jeffersonville, Madi- 
son & Indianapolis railroad over Muddy fork of . Silver 
creek, and at Watson, on the Vernon braDch of the Ohio & 
Mississippi railroad, Messrs. J. Speed & Co. have two of the 
largest nulls engaged in the manufacture of cement. The one 
at Petersburg has the capacity to produce one hundred thou- 
sand barrels per year, and employs about sixty men. There 
are four sets of French buhrs, four feet and a half in diam- 
eter. The kilns are eight in number, built of the crinoidal 
limestone which overlies the hydraulic, and lined with fire- 
brick brought from Pomerov, Ohio. They are each capable 
of producing from fifty to one hundred and twenty-five bar- 
rels per day. 

During six days of August, 1873, six kilns at this mil 
made 2,395 barrels of cement. A section of the quarry ad- 
joining showed the soil to be from four to six feet deep. The 
companies manufacturing cement on both sides of the Ohio 
river, in Indiana and Kentucky, have formed a co-partner- 
ship under the name of the Union Cement association, and 
have appointed Philip Speed, F.sq., agent, with an office at 
No. 113 Main street. Louisville. To this association all the 
mills make returns, and are apportioned a certain amount of 
cement to manufacture, so as not to glut the market.' From 
data obtained at the office we tabulate the following statis- 
tics : 



3 S6 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



List of Firms. Brands. Capacity. Sales. 

W. F. Beach, 

Clarksvifle, Ind..Rcd Brand 50,000 22,350 

W. S. Hohn & Co. • 

Cementville Ind. .Silver Creek 75,000 35245 

Dexter, Belknap & 

Co. Cementville. . Black Diamond "] 

Dexter, Belknap & . 

Co., Sellersburg. .Falls Citv y 300,000 137,471 

Dexter, Belknap" & j 

Co., Louisville. ..Crescent City J 

J. Speed & Co., 

Shippingsport, . ..Louisville Cement Co.^ 
J . Speed & Co. , 

Watson, Ind. .. .Louisville Cement Co. [-400,000 166,100 
J. Speed & Co., 

Petersburg, Ind. . Louis\illc Cement Co. J 
The month of December sales not included 30,000 

Total barrels 391,166 

This statement was made in 1 873. Since 
that time there have been marked increases in 
capacity as well as sales. The future of the 
township, taken from the stand-point of the 
economic geologist, is one full of promise. 
Louisville cement, improperly so called, has a 
national reputation. It is safe to say that one- 
fourth of the cement used in the United States 
is manufactured in these two counties, but mostly 
in Indiana, as the table will show. Future his- 
torians must tell the story of what has been ac- 
complished within the next half century. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

Before the boundary lines of the county were 
changed so as to throw that portion west of Silver 
creek into Floyd county, there were few roads of 
general importance. Perhaps it is safe to say 
there were no roads in the township, before that 
mentioned in the first paragraph of this sketch. 

The Utica and Salem road ran from the Ohio 
river by New Providence and the way villages to 
its terminus. One authority places the date of 
this road at 1810, but it is improbable, because 
about this time the canebrakes in the Silver 
creek bottoms certainly prevented any regularly 
established road in this section. The date of 
the Utica and Salem road can be safely placed at 
1820. Several years after the first roadway was 
laid out, the route was made more direct by leav- 
ing New Providence to the south three or four 
miles. 

In regard to the railroads of the township, 
they are all adapted to develop the resources of 
the country. The Jeffersonville, Madison & Indi- 
anapolis railroad enters the township at the south 
side, by crossing Silver creek, and thence pass- 
ing directly from one side to the other, mak- 
ing altogether about five miles and a half of rail- 



road in the township. The Louisville, New Al- 
bany & Chicago railroad strikes the township 
in the extreme western corner, and passes through 
it from one quarter to half a mile. This latter 
railroad has a station in the township — -St. 
Joseph's Hill. 

MILLS. 

The history of Silver Creek township, as 
related to mills, is very extended. It comprises 
many of the first and foremost mills of the county. 
Silver creek and Muddy fork were admirable 
streams for mill sites, and here many of the first 
mills in the county sprang into existence. ' There 
are few months of the year when these creeks 
fail to supply a sufficient quantity of water to 
carry on milling, but on a somewhat limited 
scale. Silver creek is fed by streams which take 
their rise among the knobs, and the numerous 
springs which gush forth from the extensive lime- 
stone formations in the county. For these rea- 
sons there is always a plentiful supply of water. 

Spencer Collins, one of a family intimately 
connected with the first settlements in Monroe 
township, built a grist-mill on Muddy fork as 
early as 1800, near where the village of Peters- 
burg stands. Here he worked at his trade for a 
number of years, until the mill finally came into 
the hands of Samuel and Peter Bottorff, in 1S15. 
The original Collins mill had two buhr stones, 
and was of the undershot pattern. In 18 16 
Henry Bottorff gained possession of the mill, 
which he continued to run until 1850. During 
its history of three-quarters of a century it has 
been rebuilt three times, changed names often, 
and passed through several hands. 

One year ago it stopped running on account 
of several causes, and yet stands idle with all 
the machinery in it. There is a plan on foot, 
however, to set the old mill to work, and let it 
terminate its existence in 1900— one hundred 
years from the time of its birth. 

"The old Redman mill," as people are wont 
to call it, occupies a fine site on Silver creek, 
east of the center of the township. It was here 
as early as 1S15. It was of the undershot kind, 
and for many years did a large amount of work 
for the pioneers. Like its predecessor, the Col- 
lins mill, it has undergone many changes, both in 
rebuilding and proprietorship. During its event- 
ful experience it has been actively engaged, and 
is now owned and run by Mr, William Straw, 



HISTORY OF THE OHiO FALLS COUNTIES. 



387 



Steam power is used to a considerable extent, 
but more particularly when the busy season 
brings in a large country trade. There is also a 
steam saw-mill attached to the flouring depart 
ment. 

Montgomery's mill, one and three-fourths of a 
mile above Petersburg, on Elk run, was one of 
the first mills built in this end of the county. Its 
capacity ranged from two to three bushels per 
hour. It was kept busy during the fall and 
spring; but when summer came the supply of 
water fell short, and grinding had to be sus- 
pended for a few months. At last it went down, 
the natural result of all similar enterprises which 
belong to a pioneer age, and which are left to 
maintain an existence against modern mill- 
wrights. 

An early writer says : 

Many of the best citizens of the township had still-houses. 
The manufacture of whiskey was a paying business; and 
preachers, or those who took more interest in religion than 
anything else, considered it an honorable as well as a profit- 
able industry. 

SCHOOLS. 

Owing to the earliness with which the town- 
ship was settled, some of the first schools in the 
county were originated in the Silver Creek valley. 
They were like most other schools of that day, 
which have been minutely described in other 
township histories. The school which, perhaps, 
more than any other, deserves mention, was one 
kept by Richard Slider, or on his farm, on the 
bank of Elk run, as early as iSor. Of course 
the house was a rude affair. Scholars were sent 
from the thin settlements roundabout, and were 
only in attendance from six to eight weeks within 
the year. Among the first teachers were James 
McCoy, Andrew McCafferty, George McCulloch, 
and Spenser Little. The old Slider school was 
kept in running order for a number of years, 
after which, on account of untoward circum- 
stances, it ceased to exist. 

Mr. Wells's school, on Camp run, was early set 
in motion. It was not so ancient as the Slider 
school, but is generally recognized as of pioneer 
relationship by many of the settlers. Mr. Ballard 
was one of the first teachers. After the State 
school laws came into force, the first of what are 
now called district schools was the John A. 
Smith school-house. There are in the township 
at present six schools and about four hundred 
ana twenty-five scholars. 



Mr. James Brown, now of Wood, but who for 
many years was a citizen of Silver Creek town- 
' ship, engaged in farming and whip-sawing, 
speaks of the early schools thus : 

The first school-house of which I have any knowledge was 
built on Camp run. a quarter of a mile above where the Jef- 
fersonville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad crosses the 
creek. The house was built of logs; and the windows, 
which sufficed for light, were made by cutting a log partly 
out on each-side of the house. Across the holes were pinned 
perpendicular sticks, with greased paper pasted over them, 
which served for glass. A large mud-and-stick chimney was 
at one end of the house. Long, rude puncheons, with the 
upper side smoothed by means of a broad-axe, and legs put 
in the outer side, served as seats when turned upside down. 
Another house, pretty much after the same fashion, and 
built about the same time, was the Cunningham Settlement 
school, a quarter of a mile above where Hamburg now 
stands, on the State road leading from Jefferson ville to Terre 
Haute. Around this house at one time was quite a large 
graveyard ; but it with the house has long since disappeared, 
with now but a single evergreen to mark the old site. 

Mr. Brown says also of the old Redman mill : 

The first mill I have any knowledge of was an old-time 
water-mill, with a saw-mill attached to it, about two and a 
half miles from where the Jeffersonville, Madison & In- 
dianapolis railroad crosses Silver creek. It was built and 
owned by Rezin Redman, a Tippecanoe veterans. 

The same gentleman, in speaking of other 
things, says : 

Great changes have taken place since then in regard to the 
forests of the township. Many of the settlers, the pioneers 
of the forest, those who came here before the canebrakes 
were cleared off, have passed away, leaving, however, im- 
pressions which time can never erase. 

In speaking of fruit he says : 

Wild fruits in the forest at that time (iSro) were quite 
common. Towards the fall of the year apples lay profusely 
on the ground in different places, also wild plums- and 
grapes. Now there are scarcely any left. 

TAVERNS. 

John A. Smith's tavern on the old State road, 
one mile and a half southeast of Bennettsville, 
was one of the first siopping-places for travelers 
in the township. It was on this highway that a 
stage made regular trips between Salem and 
Jefferson ville; and here at Smith's tavern horses 
were changed and passengers given time to alight, 
stretch themselves, take a nip of whiskey or a 
bowl of toddy, and again take their seats for the 
rest of the journey. The buildings were of logs 
— dwelling-house and all. A part of the old 
building is yet standing, though a few years more 
will convert the logs into their original elements. 
CHURCHES. 

Religiously, Silver creek township is promi- 



3SS 



HISTORY OF THE OHlO FALLS COUNTIES. 



ncnt. It was from within the narrow limits of 
this little tody of land that many of the 'most 
striking incidents in this county were enacted. 
There emanated from this valley a succession 
of religious tenets which resulted in a vast 
amount of good. Thete was, probably, no 
township in the county which was so admirably 
adapted to thorough religious growth. The set- 
tlers were made up of men well balanced and 
incapable of being led astray by fanatical theories 
on theological subjects. Church members were 
careful in the observance of law in spirit as well 
as in form; hence the result. 

The old Hardshell Baptist church northwest 
of Hamburg, one half-mile, was erected in 1S20, 
or thereabouts. It was a log-house, fashioned 
after the style of churches in those days. The 
Littclls, Absalom and Thompson, brothers, were 
the first preachers of this denomination on this 
side of the county. Their influence extended 
for miles in all directions, where they were well 
and favorably known. For their members there 
were the Cunningham family, some of the Bot- 
torff's, and others. When Dr. Alexander Camp- 
bell created so much excitement in 1832-35, the 
old church divided, the major portion of its 
members going over to the new faith. The old 
log-house, with most of its first members, those' 
who came here attracted by curiosity and a love 
of display, everybody who helped to make up 
the audience, mostly have passed away. 

At an early Hay the Methodists had no regu- 
lar place of worship in the township. The first 
appointment of the Rev. William McMahon, one 
of five brothers who were Methodist Episcopal 
preachers, after his admission on tiial at the Ohio 
conference of 1S11, was to the "Silver Creek 
circuit, on Clark's Grant, in the territory of Indi- 
ana." This was a year of Indian troubles, dur- 
ing which the battle of Tippecanoe was fought, 
and as much of Mr. McMahon's large circuit 
was on the frontier, he found the people very- 
much alarmed, fortifying themselves in block- 
houses and forts, and himself thought it expedi- 
ent, if not necessary, to carry his gun constantly 
as he traveled from station to station preaching 
the Word. It was also the earthquake year, and 
this combined with the Indian terrors to make 
his early ministry very effective. He soon in- 
creased the membership in his circuit from three 
hundred and eiiditv-one to five hundred and 



fifty-five. He was afterwards the chief human 
instrument in establishing Methodism in northern 
Alabama, and became very celebrated. He was 
still living in 1869. 

Mr. Henry Bottorff's home on Muddy fork was 
always a stopping-point for traveling preachers. 
Here services were held for a number of years 
once every month, to which everybody came re- 
gardless of doctrine. Mr. Bottorff was a man 
of great religious zeal, and aided in many ways 
in promoting the cause of Methodism. 

Revs. John Garner, Mr. Garner (probably the 
father of the former), and Cornelius Ruddell, 
were early preachers. These men traveled the 
country for miles in all directions, but mainly be- 
tween the Big Miami and the Wabash rivers. 
Mr. Brown, of Wood, says again: 

The first church of which I have any knowledge was the 
Silver Creek church, on the bank of Silver cieek, between a 
quarter and a half-mile above 'where Harrod's mill now 
stands. It belonged to the Regular Baptist denomination. 
About 1826 it divided into three classes: the Missionary Bap- 
tists, the Christians or Campbellites, and the Regular Bap- 
tists. The leaders of the \ arious denominations were as 
follows: Of the Regular Baptists, Rev. Isaac Wherl and 
Mr. M. Sellers; of the Missionary Baptists, John McCoy 
and others; Christians, A. LittelL The house was held by 
the last of these; but they have since removed theii place of 
worship near Charlcstown to a place called Stonv Point. 
The old church has long since been removed, as far as I 
know. 

In speaking of the establishment of Sunday- 
schools, he says: 

Among the oldest farms of Silver Creek township was one 
owned by a Mr. Xeal. He had cleared the ground, culti- 
vated it, lived, died, and was buried on the farm where he 
first settled. After his death it came into possession of a 
Mr. Clayton, who about fifty years ago opened a Sunday- 
school at his house and held it for over three years. He 
either furnished the books himself or they were presented to 
the school by the Presbyterian church of New Albany. This 
school was of great advantage to Silver Creek township, and 
is the first Sunday-school of which I know, although it is 
said there was one held at Utica previous to this time by the 
Methodist order. 

Among the most efficient and intelligent 
preachers of the township and county is Nathan- 
iel Fields, now of Jeffersonville. "He has been 
an earnest exponent of the Scriptures for over 
fifty years, and a journalist of more than ordinary 
ability." 

Rev. A. N. Littell gives this choice bit of 
church and biographical history: 

In 1799 that part of the county known by the name of Sil- 
ver Creek township was inhabited only by the red man of the 
forest. There was no song save the savage chant, no prayer 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



3«9 



save that offered to the Great Spirit under the shadows of the 
tall oaks. 

In the latter part of the year 1799. Elder Absalom Littell, 
of the Presbyterian church, emigrated from Pennsylvania to 
what was then the far west, settling on the west side of Silver 
creek, in Clark's Grant, in the Northwest Territory. Indiana 
at that day was sparsely settled. There were no settlements 
between the Territory and the Rocky mountains except a few- 
French settlements or forts, containing but a small number of 
Americans. In 17S8, twelve months preceding the emigra- 
tion of the Littclls, the first Protestant congregation was 
organized in the State. This was a regular Baptist church, 
composed of four members and established on the Philadel- 
phia confession of faith. The organization was effected a 
few miles northeast of the Littell settlement, but the first 
house of worship was subsequently erected on the east bank 
of Silver creek, near the Littell farm. It afterwards became 
widely known as the Regular Baptist church at Silver creek, 
the oldest Protestant church in the State. The sons of Ab- 
salom, Sr., Absalom, Jr., and John T. became members. 
They afterwards became ministers, and as such preached for 
their church many years. In consequence, however, of some 
theological difference, the church split, one part retaining the 
old name. But before this trouble it had attained to a 
goodly number of members, among whom we might men- 
tion Moses W_ Sellers, who afterwards became a preacher, 
and Elder John McCoy. The other part renounced all 
creeds and confessions of faith, taking the Bible alone for 
their guide. Upon this platform the Christian church was 
organized, with Absalom and JohnT. Littell as leading spir- 
its. They occupied for a while alternately the same house 
with the Baptists. Afterwards a regular class was organized 
at a small schopl-house on Caino run, with Elder A. Littell 
as pastor. He had as co-laborers Jacob Cris and John Mar- 
vitz, with John Adams and George Campbell as deacons. 
Here they continued from 1832 to 1837, but in the meantime 
Rev. Solomon Jacobs (Methodist) had preached to good 
profit. A good Sunday-school was organized, with William 
Hartley and A. N. Littell as superintendents. In 1837 the 
Camp Run Christian church concluded to buiid a church at 
Hamburg. The house was a brick, built on lot number 
three, School street, and had a seating capacity of three hun- 
dred. In 1840 the class removed to their new house. In 
the year 1859 Absalom Littell, nephew to Elder Absalom 
Littell, was ordained for the ministry, having been licensed 
to preach one year before. In 1861 the younger Littell was 
chosen elder of the church, and was ordained as such. 

About the year 1828 the Regular Baptists organized a 
church in the town of Sellersburg^ building a frame house 
capable of seating four hundred. ' M. W. Sellers, assisted by 
John McCoy, was in charge. After some years of use the 
house was burned, which greatly afflicted the church. But 
by the zeal and undying energy of Moses W. Sellers and 
others, the house was re-built — a fiame, on the other side of 
the street. It had a sealing capacity of four to five- hundred. 
Mr. Sellers still remains as pastor. A Sunday-school was 
organized, with A. N. Littell as superintendent, ft was com- 
posed of all denominations. 

The Regular Baptists, as they were then called, continued 
to worship in their house for several years. Finally they 
changed their name from Regular to Missionary Baptists, 
worshipping as such for quite a time. For some cause they 
got in the background, and continued to go down. In the 
meantime Rev. George K. Hester, of Charlestown, preached 
occasionally, followed by Rev. Peter H. Bottorff and others. 



Their labors were continued in a school-house for a short 
time, until finally, being assisted by a liberal community, 
they succeeded, by the zeal of their pastor, Rev. George W. 
Green, in the year 1875, in building a neat little house of wor- 
ship. It is a frame structure, and has a capacity to seat 
three hundred people. Rev. Mr. Green remained with the 
church two years, and was followed by others. It is now jn 
a flourishing condition, with Rev. F. Tincher a 5 a. worthy 
preacher, through whose labors the church has enjoyed some 
seasons of refreshment. 

'We now notice moie fully the Christian church in Ham- 
burg. .Absalom Littell continued to preach and act as elder 
of the church, being assisted by Elders M. T. Littell and C. 
A. Robertson. The church prospered, and the Lord blessed 
their labors. The little house proved to be too small for the 
congregation; and as the village appeared to have reached 
its zenith and was now going rapidly into decay, the class 
concluded to build a church at Sellersburg. This place was 
thena thriving little village. But theplan met with opposition 
and the project was given up for a while. The Baptist 
church heretofore mentioned was leased and occupied for 
some years, when the house was bought. This church is 
now known as the Christian church of Sellersburg. It has a 
membership of one hundred and seventy-five, with J. j. Lott 
and A. N. Littell as elders and J. M. Crim and Thomas 
Thompson as deacons. Mr. Crim is also clerk and treasurer. 
Preaching is held alternately; and be it said to the credit of 
the Christian and Methodist Episcopal churches, that love 
and charity abound. A Sunday-school is conducted by both 
denominations in the same house— one in the morning (the 
Methodist, with Enoch Leach as Superintendent) and one in 
the afternoon (the Christian, with Thomas Thompson superin- 
tendent). 

There is also a German Lutheran church in Sellersburg, 
capable of seating one hundred and fifty. Its members are 
good workers, and carry on a well-attended Sunday-school in 
connection with the church. We also mention as local 
preachers the Revs. William Bear and S. M. Stone, both of 
the Methodist Episcopal church; also to the credit of the 
township, five schools, which are taught regularly. 

Rev. Mr. Worrell was an early minister in this 
section of country. He belonged to a class of 
tiaveling preachers who often made arrange- 
ments to jjreach at farm-houses five or six weeks 
in advance. These engagements were kept with 
a punctuality which would surprise many minis- 
ters of to-day. A zeal characterized their work 
which undoubtedly came from on high. 

sr. Joseph's hill. 
This is a German Catholic settlement, situated 
in the extreme western part of the township. 
From its surroundings one can see that it has 
little chance of ever becoming of much import- 
ance, except in a religious way. A half mile 
west the knobs stand out like turrets or old 
Spanish castles, circling off toward New Prov- 
idence in a handsome manner. Soil in this 
locality is not very strong, but good fruits are 
raised in considerable quantities. A note ad- 



M° 



HISTORY OF THE OHlO FALLS COUNTIES. 



dressed to the Rev. Joseph Dickman, the minis- 
ter in charge, gives as a reply, the following: . 

St. Joseph's Hill is situated on the Louisville,' New Albany 
& Chicago railroad, near the line of Clark and Floyd coun- 
ties. The people living at that place, profess the Roman 
Catholic faith. The eatly settlers were from Germany, com- 
ing to this country in i8-j6, and by their industry gained a 
home. After having provided for their bodies, they provided 
for their souls, mindful of the words of our Saviour, "What 
does it profit a man, if he gain the whole world and loses 
his own soul?" by erecting a church in' their midst. The 
building was of frame, 80x30 feet; it was commenced on the 
nth day of June, 1853, and finished the same year.- Martin 
Koerner and Joseph Eringer were the carpenters and cpn- 
tractors. They received for their b.bor $275. The leadjng 
men were Peter Biesel, Sr. , Peter Renn, Sr. , Frank Acker- 
man, Andrew Rank, Sr. , Philip Strobel, and Ludwig Her- 
big. 

Rev. Father Neyron, the well-known priest and physician, 
was the first missionary attending to their spiritual wants. 
He resided at St. Mary's, Floyd knobs. Father Bessonics, 
now vicar general, attended to them afterwards. St. Joseph's 
was then attended by Rev. Ed. Faller, of New Albany. 
After the congregation numbered about seventy families, 
they petitioned the Right Rev. Bishop for a residing priest; 
but their petition was not heard immediately, for the want of 
priests. In the year r 860 the fit st resident priest. Rev. An- 
drew Michael, arrived at St. Joseph's Hill. His arrival was 
announced by the ringing of the bells, and the people re- 
joiced at the arrival of their spiritual director. He remained 
with them for four years. During his time he erected a large 
two-story brick parsonage, valued at$t,5oo, he himself work- 
ing like a laboier quarrying rock. His successor was Rev. 
Father Pauzer. He remained with them nearly nine years, 
and erected two large frame buildings, the one for a school- 
house, and the other for a teacher's dwelling. 

In the year 1873 Rev. Joseph Dickman, a native of Indi- 
ana, took charge of the congregation. He paid all outstand- 
ing debts, and made preparations to erect the present splen- 
did church, the old one having become too small. In 1880 
he took up a grand subscription towards that building; he 
next had the members quarry rock for the foundation and 
haul logs to Peter P. Renn's mill, only a few hundred 
yards from the church, where all the lumber for the building 
was sawed. Peter P. Renn is a man of great enterprise. 
Besides his large farm and mill, he finds time to make han- 
dles for four or five railroad companies. During the summer 
of i83o half a million brick were made and burned near the 
church by George Cheap, of this county. On the 18th day 
of October, 1880, the corner-stone was laid of the new 
church with great solemnity, by the Right Rev. Bishop. 
The foundation was completed that fall by Joseph Zipf, of 
Clark county, and Louis Zipf, of Floyd county. The work 
was done in a very satisfactory manner. The new edifice, 
which is 114x52 feet, and crowned by a spire of one hun- 
dred and thirty feet, was completed in 1881. It was dedi- 
cated by the Right Rev. Bishop, assisted by Rev. Joseph 
Dickman, the pastor; Rev. J. Stremler, D. D., of St. Mary's; 
Rev. J. P. Gillig.of St. John's, Clark county; Rev. Ubaldus, 
O. S. F., of Louisville; and Rev. J. Klein, of New Albany, 
on the 20th day of November, 1881. The cost of the build- 
ing is estimated at 320,000, all of which, except 32,000, is 
paid. The congregation numbers one hundred families. 
The trustees who assisted the pastor deserve credit for their 
activity. They were Mathias Renn, Jacob Strobel, Lorenz 



Weidner, Joseph Zipf. Max Zahner, and J. C. Schmidt, all 
well-to-do farmers. Mathias Renn does a great business, 
along with his. farm work, in turning chair rounds; Max 
Zahner is the owner of the largest vineyard in the county. He 
has more than twenty-five different varieties of grapes. The 
church record shows eight hundred and eighteen baptisms 
since 1853, two hundred and sixty-seven deaths, and eighty- 
seven marriages. 

St. Joseph's is the largest Catholic church in 
the county, outside of Jeffersonville. The situ- 
ation is well adapted for regular religious growth. 
Everything is in a prosperous condition. Indus- 
try and public-spirited enterprise have made for 
St. Joseph's Hill a name which many, other re- 
ligious communities may well strive to attain. 
About the only thing which mars the scene is a 
jjair of saloons — things not necessary in any 
well-balanced neighborhood. The train makes 
it a stopping-jViace only when signaled. 

BURYING-GROUNDS. 

As early as 1816 the old Cunningham burying- 
place, one-fourth of a mile north of Hamburg, 
was used by the family whose name it bears. It 
was located, when laid out, on the Salem and 
Jeffersonville road, but since the various changes 
in the location of this highway, the old yard has 
been thrown into a field, which at present is 
under cultivation. There is nothing to mark the 
resting-place in this graveyard of many of the 
first settlers of this township. Some few of the 
farmers deny that there is any difference in the 
growth of crops on the old burial site and the 
field outside of the original enclosure. 

The Bottorffs had a family burying-ground on 
the old Henry Bottorff place. Mr. Henry Bot- 
torffs family were buried here first. It is now 
but little used. 

Fifty years ago the Wellses established a grave- 
yard on their farm. It was used only by their 
families. It is now of little service, the Wells 
graveyard, like many others, having almost dis- 
appeared. These old private grounds are going 
out of date. People begin to see the necessity 
of some permanent public place where their 
dead can be interred. 

The Hamburg cemetery, donated for burial 
purposes by Absalom Littell, is of considerable 
note. Many of the dead are buried here, it be- 
ing considered one of those places fit for public 
interment. 

VILLAGES. 

Hamburg is the oldest village in the township. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



391 



It is located on tract number one hundred and 
eight of the Grant, on the old Salem and Jeffer- 
sonville road. It was laid off by Abratn Littell 
and Thomas Cunningham, in January, 1837, and 
comprises thirty-one lots of various sizes. The 
original plat resembles a triangle, and the ordi- 
nary size of the lots is sixty by one hundred and 
twenty feet. " Lot number three, on School 
street and in the forks of the same, is donated to 
the Christian congregation, or the Church of 
Jesus Christ (sometimes called, by way of dis- 
tinction, Reformers) for a meeting-house, and 
for that use forever, never to be transferred. Lot' 
number four is donated for school purposes, and 
for that use forever, the same given by Absalom 
Littell." The proprietors also donated land for a 
market-house — a good idea, but never realized ; 
they also gave land for school purposes, " and 
for that use forever." 

Mr. Littell, who was a Christian minister and 
who owned quite a large tract of land in this 
vicinity, a man of considerable foresight and re- 
markable energy, was the first to bring the idea 
of founding a town at this point to a successful 
termination. A combination of influences de- 
cided the matter. The old stage route between 
Jeffersonville and Salem, established as early as 
1S30, had for a stopping-place John A. Smith's, 
two miles above the present site of Hamburg. 
This line made three trips each way every week. 
Four horses were used, and the business done 
was considerable. 

These circumstances induced Mr. Littell to 
lay off the town. But previous to 1837 the post- 
office had been established, with William Wells 
as first postmaster. His office was in a little log 
house on " Jeff street," as it was generally called 
by the people. Sometime after he kept the office 
in a frame building on the southwest corner of 
the cross-roads. Both these buildings are yet 
standing, though in a very imperfect condition. 
The year the town was laid out David Young 
served as postmaster. His place of doing busi- 
ness was in a small log house on Jeff street. 
William Thompson came next, keeping the office 
in Wells's old place. Then came John W. Jen- 
kins, in the same building. Reuben Hart fol- 
lowed Jenkins in a frame house on the northwest 
corner of the cross-roads. Thirty-odd years ago 
Mr. A. L. Beck served as postmaster. He was 
probably the last postmaster at Hamburg, for, im- 



mediately after the Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago railroad was built, the Jeffersonville 
and Salem mail-route was discontinued. For a 
year 01 two the mail came from Bennettsville, 
but as soon as the Jeffersonville, Madison & In- 
dianapolis railroad was built the office was estab- 
lished at Sellersburg; hence the office at Ham- 
burg was not necessary, people getting their mail 
at the former village. The office at Sellersburg 
was established about 1852. 

It will be seen that the above-named postmas- 
ters included a considerable number of the early 
citizens. Outside of those not named were John 
Adams, Joseph Summers, David Thomas, and 
William S. Thompson, the latter here in 1S47. 
Mr. Wells, however, was the first storekeeper, 
dealing out groceries and the coarse dry goods 
in the same house in which he kept the post- 
office. Adams was engaged in marketing, and 
was a sort of "jack of all trades." Summers 
was a mechanic and had some reputation as a 
cabinet-maker. Thomas was the first blacksmith 
in the village. William S. Thompson was a store- 
keeper, as was also Mr. A. L. Beck. 

Hamburg, ever since it was laid out in 1S37, 
has offered entertainment. In this Mr. Wells 
was the first, as he was in the post-office and 
store business. Thompson was also engaged in 
tavern-keeping during his time; so also were 
John McCory and A. L Beck. 

The church history of Hamburg has been 
given in general, elsewhere. The old Christian 
church, a brick, was erected in 1838, or there- 
abouts. Among the first members were Messrs. 
William Wells, John Bloor, Robert Pruett, John 
Adams, and a number of the Littells. Absalom 
Littell was the first preacher. After' him came 
Thompson Littell, Elders Harkley and Kellogg, 
and Dr. Nathaniel Fields, of Jeffersonville. 
About 1872, on account of the old house be- 
coming unfit for services, the class bought the old 
Baptist church at Sellersburg, and from this time 
has met there for worship. 

The land, or lots donated for school purposes, 
were early used by those having authority in such 
matters. First, a frame house was erected, 
which stood near the Christian church. It was 
finally moved and is now used for a dwelling- 
, house. In 1S70 another frame house was. put 
up, having one room. 

The old Greenwood school-house was erected 



392 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



not less than fifty years ago, bv a Mr. Wright, 
who contracted for Us erection. The old house ! 
s now gone, but another not far distant takes its | 
place. 

At an early day, before the State school laws came into 
force, a school was taught near John A. Smith's, on the i 
Salem road. There were others scattered throughout the j 
township, which, after the new system came in vogue, have i 
entirely disappeared. 

Among the first physicians in 'Hamburg were ! 
Drs. James L. Wallace, of Missouri, but born in 
North Carolina; Kirkwood, of New Albany; and 
Applegate, of Scott county; also John A. Oatley. 
These men practiced in both Clark and Floyd 
counties. 

Hamburg has at present two stores, and con- 
nected wah them two saloons. They serve all 
the purposes of the place. There is little or no 
business done in the village. It is only a matter 
of time with the village, its final disappearance 
from the list of towns on the slip of the census- 
taker. 

In the original plat the town of Sellersburg is 
spelt with an "a" in the second syllable. This 
little error, or perhaps the correct spelling of the 
surname of Mr. Sellers, the founder of the place, 
was discovered by Mr. James Van Hook, of 
Charlestown, a very excellent gentlemen, who a 
few years since had charge of the preparation of 
a county map. It is but just to say of Mr. Van 
Hook that he has a more thorough acquaintance 
with the county records than any man within 
the present limits of Clark. He prepared the 
most accurate map of the county ever completed, 
and at a very small cost to the publishers. 

Sellersburg is very irregularly laid off. None 
of the forty-two lots have a right angle. It resem- 
bles an isosceles triangle pressed together from 
its-base. One writer says, "Sellersburg resembles 
a box twisted and squeezed together." The vil- 
lage was laid out in 1846 by Moses W. Sellers 
and John Hill. It is situated on the Jefferson- 
ville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad, about 
twenty miles from the county-seat. The railroad 
passes by the east side of the village and has for 
a station the smallest house for a waiting-room 
of any village in the county. It is not over 7x10, 
and when the train is about due is packed full 
to overflowing by travelers bound for the cities 
about the Falls. The station is a noted shipping 
point. Here are the famous cement-mills spo- 
ken of in preceding pages. 



Moses W. Sellers was the first man in Sellers- 
burg who kept a store. His place^ of doing bus- 
iness was in the brick house now occupied by 
Mr. W. H. H.11 rod, on the north side of New 
Albany street. After M. W. Sellers came his 
son, A. I,., who kept in a frame house opposite 
his father's. He is yet doing business at the old 
stand. John A. Eisman has been engaged in 
commercial pursuits in Sellersburg for many 
years. He has always done much in the way of 
keeping a saloon and furnishing a place where 
the boys of the village and country could meet 
and spend the evening and have what they called 
a good time. He keeps what may properly be 
termed a general country store. 

John Shellers was a store-keeper in the town 
not less than thirty years ago. He was born in 
Floyd county. His place of doing business was 
on the northwest corner of New Albany street. 
The house is now out of existence. 

Frederic Dold kept a store in town twenty or 
thirty years ago, on the south side of New 
Albany street. He left the village long since. 
The present store-keepers are Messrs. A. L. Sel- 
leis, Jr., William P. Miller, John A. Eisman, and 
W. H. Harrod. 

The village has never done much in tavern- 
keeping; Christopher Eisman, however, has been 
engaged in this business for more than forty- 
years. Aside from this house there has never 
been any regular place of entertainment. "In 
the village there is a would-be tavern with a large 
sign and post, which reads, 'Union Hotel."' 
Presenting yourself at this house for entertain- 
ment you are told — "For your dinner, go to the 
first cottage below the blacksmith shop on the 
left of New Albany street." 

Among the most prominent of all the black- 
smiths of Sellersburg has been Anton Rentz, 
who is described by Mr. Harrod as a "wheel- 
horse." The present smiths are A. J. Mabsey 
and John Beck, "who have as good shops as are 
in the county. - ' 

Probably the first physician in Sellersburg was 
Dr. Stage, now of Scott county. Drs. John 
Poindextcr and Meek were practitioners in this 
vicinity for a number of years. The physicians 
now are Drs. Covert, Houtz, and Sallee. 

Mr. Moses W. Sellers was the first postmaster 
in Sellersburg. The office was established soon 
or immediately after the JefTersonville, Madison 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



393 



& Indianapolis railroad was completed. It was 
on the southwest corner of New Albany and 
Utica streets. The house is now occupied by 
Mr. Harrod as a dry goods and grocery store. 
Mr. A. L. Sellers was next in succession. He 
had his office on the southeast corner of the 
same. W, H. Harrod was the third postmaster, 
in the same house where Mr. Sellers had his of- 
fice. The incumbent is VV. • P. Miller, who 
has been in charge of the office for about 
one year. John Schellers was postmaster for 
about eight years, beginning in 1872. His office 
was on the northwest corner of New Albany and 
Utica streets. Mails were carried at first once a 
day each way, then twice a day, now three times 
a day. 

The first school-house in the neighborhood of 
Sellersburg was built in 1835, or soon after, on 
the Utica and Salem road one-half mile west of 
town. The means for building the house were 
raised by subscription. The land on which the 
house stood was donated by Mr. Jeremiah Jack- 
son. After the school was taken to Seller sburg, 
making the village the center of the district, the 
land on which the old school-house stood re- 
verted to the original owner. The first teachers 
were Messrs. Veach, Arthur Bills, Spenser, and 
Joshua Smith. 

Sellersburg has a pretty frame school-house 
with two rooms. It stands on New Albany 
street, in the northern part of the village. 

In the village there is a flouring-mill, built in 
1874-75, by a company under the name of H. 
Williams & Co. This is the only ftouring-mill 
ever built in Sellersburg. 

Among the first settlers of the village were M. 
W. Sellers; John A. Smith, who, however, lived 
near by; John Anson, Henry Bottorff, Peter Mc- 
Kosskv, and Absalom Pettijohn. There are in 
the village now about three hundred people, 
three churches, two saloons, three dry-goods 
stores, one grocery, two blacksmiths, two shoe- 
makers, and three physicians. 

Many of the citizens are employed by the ce- 
ment companies. These mills furnish employ- 
ment regularly to from one hundred to one hun- 
dred and fifty hands. Many of the hands are 
German, and are people of steady habits and 
economizing industry. Many of them own the 
houses in which they live. There is no need of 
being a loafer in this busy little place. People 



are bent on living well, and strive to attain a 
position which will, during old age, release them 
from hard labor. 

Petersburg, one of the little villages of Silver 
Creek township, was laid out about the year 
1854 by Lewis Bottorff. The survey was made 
by Daniel H. McDaniels. Owing to some irreg- 
ularity in the recorder's office the plat was never 
recorded. There were eighteen lots fifty by two 
hundred feet, and the village was named in 
honor of Peter McKossky, a Russian who lived 
near by on the Muddy fork. 

Petersburg has the appearance of a modern 
Western hamlet. The Louisville cement mills 
attract much notice, and the citizens are engaged 
mainly in working for this company, wages rang- 
ing from $r.2o to $1.50 per day. Muddy fork 
divides the village into halves, but otherwise 
leaves it unmolested. An old grist-mill, with 
great, gaunt arms, gazes down wistfully as the 
locomotive rushes past, a reminder of the pio- 
neer age. At present the old house is used for a 
saw-mill, supplying material for much of the 
building in this section of country. 

Many of the houses are after the tenement 
pattern. Weather-boarding is poorly done. In 
the village there are perhaps sixty people. One 
store, which serves as the station, and in fact for 
all other resorts — such as loafers' corner, a place 
for telling stories and spinning yarns — stands in 
the southern half of the village, on the west side 
of the railroad. Health in the town is good. 
Work is always found at a good price, and none 
suffer because of want, unless too lazy to earn a 
living. 

John McCoy was an early settler in Peters- 
burg. He lived on tract number one hundred 
and thirty-one. In religion he was a Regular 
Baptist, and was considered an exemplary mem- 
ber. Mr. Manning, who was from one of the 
New England States, was an early store-keeper in 
sight of Petersburg. His store was near Muddy 
fork, above the old mill. As a partner he had a 
Mr. Baldwin, who many years ago removed to 
North Vernon. 

EARLY SETTLERS. 

James Brown was born in North Carolina in 
17S7, and came to Silver Creek township in 
1824, renting a tract of land of Absalom Littell, 
Camp run passing immediately through the 
place. Some few years afterwards Mr. Brown 





















. 



394 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



purchased forty acres of land from James Wells, 
of the same township, on which he lived the 
greater portion of his life. In character Mr. 
Brown was a man who held conscience in the 
highest esteem. 

The journey from North Carolina was made in 
one of the carts peculiar to the Southern States 
during the period of British interference in 
American affairs. One horse was hitched in 
front of the other, and in the cart were placed 
furniture, cooking utensils, wearing apparel, and 
the family. In crossing the Ohio river at Jeffer- 
sonville the last half-dollar was expended in pay^ 
ing the fare. During the later years of his life 
he frequently spoke of the immense giowth of 
timber which covered the Silver Creek bottom 
when he came here in 1S24. He lived to see 
much of the original timber cleared off, and rich, 
well-developed farms take its place. 

C. S. Poindexter, a native of Virginia, was 
born in 1797, and came to New Albany with his 
father's family at an early age. After remaining 
in New Albany for a short time, he removed to 
the vicinity of Sellersburg, where he had previ- 
ously bought a tract of land from Absalom Lit- 
tell. Nancy (Holland) Poindexter, his wife, was 
born in Virginia and died in Sellersburg in 1854, 
at an advanced age. By this marriage were bom 
seven children, five sons and two daughters, one 
daughter being dead. The sons are among the 
most noted men in the county, one of them 
having filled the honorable office of State Sen- 
ator. 

The Littell family came from Pennsylvania 
and settled on Silver creek, one mile east of Pe- 
tersburg. There were five sons and two daugh- 
ters. 

The Wellses were from North Carolina. They 
settled on Camp run as early as 1S00. There 
were four daughters and five sons. 

William Adams was of Scotch-Irish extraction. 
He had a large family, and settled on Camp run. 

An early statistician says there were five hun- 
dred voters in Clark county in 1S40 by the name 
Bottorff. John Bottorff was the father of twenty- 
six children. They were long-lived people, and 
from them descended a numerous posterity, who 
now live in nearly every State in the Union. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

U T I C A TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIC \TION AND TOPOGRAPHY. 

This is a township which lies in the southeast- 
ern corner of the county, organized some thirty- 
five years ago out of those larger similar divisions 
of territory by which it is surrounded. Ic took 
its name from the village of Utica, and is bounded 
on the north by the township of Charlestown; 
on the east by the Ohio river, which flows in a 
southwesterly direction and washes from eight to 
nine miles of its territory; on the south by the river 
and Jeffersonville township; and on the west by 
the townships of Jeffersonville and Silver Creek. 
There are (cw extremes of soil or surface, 
streams or timber. The climate is mild, similar 
to that of most of the other townships. There is 
a pleasant breeze during most of the summer, 
which makes the residences along the river, on 
the Utica and Jeffersonville turnpike, healthy 
places in which to live. Many years ago, before 
the present high state of cultivation was reached 
by the settlers, there was a good deal of ague and 
fever in the bottoms. The lowlands along the 
river were formerly somewhat badly noted, on ac- 
count of the malaria which seemed to hover over 
the country for many years. Sickness is now 
seldom produced by reason of decomposed veg- 
etation. The surface is level. It is properly an 
extended bottom, beginning at the Ohio river, 
and after rising in one or two terraces west of the 
village of Utica, continues without any marked 
interruptions until it reaches the knobs. It 
spreads out into the finest farming lands in the 
county. Fine dwelling-houses, with all their 
necessary out-buildings, dot the country alt over 
the township. On the pike leading to Jefferson- 
ville this is especially true; also on the Charles- 
town pike — if a pike it can be called. The 
township above Utica is somewhat more elevated 
than that part lying below the village on the 
river. It is along these bluffs, where so much of 
the famous Louisville lime is burned, of which 
we shall speak more particularly in coming 
pages. 

Prof. Borden, in the State Geological Report, 
says of the soil: 

A part of the land in Utica township b:is not only the 
wash of trfe corniferous and Niagara limestone of this region 
upon it, but is in good pari a river terrace, cpmposed of 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



395 



altered drift, sand, and gravel, with numerous aboriginal 
kitchen heaps. In the gravel or altered drift of this region 
are found mastodon remains and recent wood at as great a 
depth as thirty feet, which seems to indicate the situation 
of an old river or lake bed. Some of these deposits belong 
to the Champlain epoch, and these ancient watets must have 
washed the highlands about Charlcstown, as on several oc- 
casions, in sinking wells in the old court-house yard and other 
elevated positions in that town, pine or cedar wood has been 
exhumed. 

Utica township is a noted market-garden locality, supply- 
ing Louisville and the cities about the falls with a large quan- 
tity of garden products — melons, sweet potatoes, Irish pota- 
toes, and a great variety of fruits. The soil is also favorable 
to the growth of corn and grass. Wheat does well and ripens 
early. 

The geologist should have added that stock- 
growing forms a leading industry among the 
many wealthy farmers, and also that dairying is 
a source of much income. Some of the land 
around Utica is admirably adapted to grazing, 
many of the farmers dealing in stock almost en- 
tirely. One dairyman, living beyond Utica on 
the Charlestown pike, makes the run daily to 
Louisville, doing an immense business. There 
is certainly a fine opportunity for making money 
in this line of business in this section. 

The original forest here was very dense and 
fine. All the country between the river and the 
knobs was covered by a splendid growth of oak, 
poplar, with some walnut, button-wood or 
sycamore, hackberry, blue and white ash, and 
buckeye. When the Woodses settled at the 
present site of Utica, nearly one hundred years 
ago, pea-vines covered the whole face of the 
country from the river to the knobs, extending 
as far north as the ancient hamlet of Springvilie. 
They, however, only lasted for a few years after 
the settlements became pretty well established. 
Constant pasturage bv the cattle which were 
turn.ed out to range, soon destroyed their spon- 
taneity. These vines resembled very much the 
growth of clover nowadays. They were very 
nutritious, and during the fall stock lived without 
the least care from their owners, except that they 
had to be called in at night and turned loose in 
the morning. 

Utica township had, early in the century, an 
almost impenetrable canebrake, which covered 
the lower lands, those more particularly known 
as the "wash of the corniferous or Niagara lime- 
stone." These fastnesses were alive with all 
manner of game, from the otter and muskrat to 
the bear and the deer. Cane grew in great 



abundance along the creek bottoms. It was 
along these streams, in later years, after the 
"•pea-vine country," as the emigrants called it, 
had totally disappeared, that the great hunters 
of the county delighted to watch for an unlucky 
fawn or black beai. Many hard-fought battles 
were had in that wilderness, which will never be 
recorded in history. The State Geologist, in 
speaking of prehistoric animals, has this to say: 
Some years since Mr. McWilIiams, Colonel J. F. Willey, 
and J. Coons obtained in a sand batik, on track number fifty- 
five of the Grant, the skeleton of a mastodon (M. giga/ilciis). 
A part of the bones were sent to the old Louisville museum ; 
the remainder are in possession of Mr. J. Coons, who pro- 
poses to forward them to the State cabinet. A tusk six feet 
in length, which was taken out at the time, crumbled to pieces 
soon after being exposed to the air. Mastodon remains have 
frequently been found in the bank of the river at New Al- 
bany, in the same geological position. 

When the surveying parties laid off the tracts 
— supposed to contain five hundred acres—- 
"more or less," as the deeds said, but which 
nearly always had "more" — the Grant abounded 
in game of all kinds. Those who by chance re- 
ceived their tracts in the rich bottoms of Utica 
were displeased, because at that time game was 
more plentiful in the knobs. The land itself had 
no value to the soldiers of General Clark, except 
for the game which it provided. It is said that 
some of those who received their land in the 
bottoms made even exchanges with some of their 
friends for land in the knobs. The former is 
now worth $100 per acre; the latter from $1.50 
to $10. 

Miss Rachael Fleharty tells many wonderful 
stories of pioneer life in Utica township at. an 
early day. Not only did the fox, the panther, 

1 the wildcat, the bear, and wolf infest the pio- 

I neer's premises, but the red man was not always 
on terms of the friendliest intimacy. Before 

I 1800 there was, no time when it was considered 
safe to venture far from home without weapons 
and a complete confidence that one white man 
was equal to two Indians. Bands of roving sav- 
ages prowled around, often causing much alarm 

j among the settlers at Utica. 

GEOLOGY. 

This is one of those rich geological fields 
where both the amateur and the experienced 
; geologist can find many things of interest in their 
\ science, '/he Cincinnati group, of which we 
j have spoken more particularly in the history of 
1 Bethlehem township, outcrops here in fine order. 



396 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



The following section corresponds with the 
stone at Utica: "i, corniferous limestone, 12 
feet; 2, yellow 7 rock, magnesian limestone, 20 
feet; 3, "grandad" limestone, used for building 
purposes, 4 feet; 4, gray crystalline limestone, 
Niagara, 14 feet; 5, crinoidal limestone, 6 feet. 
Total, 50 feet." This section is quarried exten- 
sively for building purposes and for making lime. 

From the time the Woods families settled at 
Utica to the present day, lime has been manu- 
factured in this vicinity. It was not until 1S6S 
or 1S70, however, that lime-burning was con- 
sidered a profitable industry here. The burnings 
previous to this time were on a limited scale. 
Within the above-named year the Utica Lime 
company, with headquarters at Louisville, erected 
two kilns, with a capacity of one hundred barrels 
per day, and valued at $10,000. This company- 
has been actively engaged during the last fifteen 
years in burning lime, employing from ten to 
twenty hands regularly. Wages average $1.50 
per day. The lime stratum is fourteen feet in 
thickness. 

The first gentleman prominently engaged in 
the manufacture of lime at Utica was Mr. M. H. 
Tyler, who had built a kiln and made additions 
until at last its capacity was about two hundred 
barrels daily. In 1870 the Louisville Cement 
company bought out Air. Tyler, also the firm of 
H. C. Emeike, whose capacity for burning was 
about one hundred and .twenty barrels per day. 
This company has four kilns, two for coal, which 
turn out one hundred barrels daily, and two 
which burn wood, making in 'all a capacity of 
five hundred and twenty barrels a day. Lime is 
now selling (December 1, 1SS1) at fifty-five cents 
per barrel. The cost of burning is twenty-five 
cent.s, not including the stone. The property is 
valued at $25,000. Thirty-five hands are em- 
ployed, wages ranging from $1.40 to $1.75 a day. 

The rocks used for lime belong to the Niagara 
epoch. The following section of the Niagara 
group was obtained at Speed's quarry: Cornifer- 
ous limestone, twelve feet; yellow rock, impure 
limestone, twenty feet; building stone, four feet; 
gray crystalline limestone, burned for lime, four- 
teen feet; upper bed crinoidal limestone, two feet; 
crinoidal bed containing Caryoainus ornatus, 
etc., etc., four feet; gray limestone, eight feet; 
magnesian limestone, five feet; total, ninety-six 
feet. 



The limestone one, two, and three, taken in their order 
from the above, were used in the construction of the Ohio 
river bridge at Louisville. This bridge is one of the finest 
structures of the kind in the United States, and was built at 
a cost of over $2,000,000. The following communication 
concerning it is from tiie Louisville Bridge and Iron com- 
pany : 

Louisville, Kentucky, November 25, 1873. 
William W. Borden, Esq., 

Assistant Geologist, Indiana. 

Dear Sir, — Yours of the 25th instant is at hand. We 
made no detailed experiments of the crushing strength of the 
Utica stone which is used in the Ohio river bridge, having 
been perfectly satisfied with its character, appearance, and 
chemical composition, that there was no doubt of its being 
able to do all that would be required of it in this respect. 
We compared its ability to withstand the action of the frost 
with that of five or six other stones with which we were ac- 
quainted, by the method given in Millan's Civrl engineering, 
page eleven, and found it perfectly satisfactory. We did 
not allow the ledges with blue seams to be used in the face 
work. Regretting that I am unable to give you more definite 
information, I am 

Yours respectfully, 

J. W. Vaughn, Vice-president. 

J. Speed, Esq., has erected at Utica two of Page's patent 
kilns, each producing one hundred and twenty barrel? of 
lime per day. At Robinson s landing, a few miles above 
Utica, Mr. Jacob Robinson burns of the same stone ten 
thousand barrels pel year. The fuel used is wood, and it re- 
quires four cords to burn one kiln. The L'tica Lime com- 
pany use a mixture of wood and coal, and have two kilns, 
each producing ninety barrels of well-burnt lime per day. 
The Louisville Cement and Lime company, the Utica Lime 
company, and Mr. Jacob Robinson, burn one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand barrels of lime per year, employing in 
the business a large number of hands. 

The Niagara limestone is seen again a short distance 
above Utica, at Charlestown landing. This is one of the 
oldest landings on the river. It was selected by the early set- 
tlers as being free from danger, which might occur upon 
landing their arks near the Great Falls, of which they had 
heard so much and knew but little. The outcrop at Charles- 
town landing is on the lands of Capt. S. C. Rucker and J. K. 
Sharpe, Esq. Here are several extensive quarries, and the 
stone has been extensively worked for building purposes and 
for making lime. 

STREAMS AND LICKS. 

There are nd streams of any size in the town- 
ship. Pleasant run, which heads in the vicinity 
of Charlestown^ flows across the western side for 
a distance of two and a half or three miles, and 
joins Silver creek near Straw's flouring mill. 
Lick run, a very insignificant stream, which takes 
its rise in the bluffs, a mile or more from the 
river above Utica, flows with a rapid current and 
enters the Ohio below the village. The only 
stream which amounts to anything is Silver 
creek; but it does not enter the township. It 
forms the northwestern boundary for a distance of 
about three miles, making some remarkable 



>£: 







SI ,.. , X;XJ 




-■ 






-,'' 







History of the ohio falls counties. 



397 



curves before it passes out into or between 
Floyd county and JeffersonviUe township. At 
Straw's mill this stream makes -a circuit of about 
three miles, forming a sort of peninsula, similar 
to that on Fourteen-mile creek at Work's old 
mill, but much larger in its circle. The stream 
runs for a distance of about one mile at this 
point without making any perceptible curve — 
the most striking feature in the creek at the 
lower end of it. The township is subject to wet 
weather somewhat, presumably so on account of 
its drainage. The Ohio forms the entire eastern 
boundary; and at both the upper and lower ends 
of the township, an island of considerable im- 
portance lies opposite or midway in the river. 
The former is known as Diamond or Twelve- 
mile island; the latter as Six-mile island, to 
Louisville. 

More than forty years ago, while a company of 
men were engaged in digging a well on E. B. 
Burtt's place, salt water was found. A move- 
ment was made to utilize it so as to produce salt, 
but for want of proper encouragement the proj- 
ect never succeded. On the same farm is a 
noted buffalo lick, which has every indication of 
constant use by the denizens of the forest and 
plains a century ago. Before the canebrakes 
were wholly destroyed, many of the hunters of 
this region watched here for game. It is related 
that a famous fight was had at these licks about 
the time the first settlements were made in the 
township, between a bear and a buffalo, both of 
whom had come here for salt, and that the battle 
was watched by a hunter, who dared not disturb 
the contestants for fear of his own safety. 

MOUNDS, CAVES, AND FORTS. 

There, is scarcely another branch of study 
which is now attracting more scholarly attention 
than the races of prehistoric man. And there is 
no field so rich in remains of this extinct people 
as the country around the Falls of the Ohio. 
Centuries ago this race must have congregated 
here in great numbers to hold councils of war, or 
to decide what we now call questions of interna- 
tional concern. They were attracted here be- 
cause it was a point almost midway between the 
pineries of Maine and the plains of the South, 
and because it was easy of access. The ancient 
Silurian sea had left the country about the Falls 
in an admirable state for thriving tribes or clans 



of people. This race undoubtedly was driven 
toward the southwest, much in the same manner 
as the Indian has been dispossessed of his coun- 
try. Whether or not the Mound Builder crossed 
Behring's strait, and by a succession of advances 
during an indefinite period of time peopled the 
whole present area of the United States, is a 
doubtful as well as very interesting question. 
This part of archaeology and paleontology must 
be decided by future scientists. It is certain, 
nevertheless, that a very enterprising people in- 
habited this beautiful country centuries before 
the red man. It is true, also, that the sciences 
were raised to a degree of sound practicability, 
especially that part of mathematics which relates 
to angles and the knowledge of enclosing in a 
circle an area equal to that of a square. The 
old fort at the mouth of Fourteen-mile creek was 
a striking example of this kind. Along the sec- 
ond or upper terrace are remains of ancient 
kitchen heaps. Bones of some race previous to 
the Indian are frequently taken troni the mounds 
jn this vicinity. There seems to be no definite 
information as to what has become of the Mound 
Builders; the supposition is, however, that they 
degenerated until, finally overcome by a hardier 
race of people, they were driven down into Mex- 
ico, where we now find them, but in a much im- 
proved state of 'civilization. 

Their mode of warfare was radically different 
from ours at the present time. The situation of 
their mounds is proof of this fact. War then 
was probably carried on by incursions into the 
enemy's country; but the ad\ances were doubt- 
less made on water, under some system of mari- 
time warfare with which we are not conversant. 
Mounds were evidently used for at least two pur- 
poses, as points of observation and as places of 
sacrifice or worship. The former are generally 
found on higher points of land and commanding 
a view up and down a river or valley from the 
northeast to the southwest. Sacrificial mounds 
are distinguished by their smallness and the de- 
posits frequently found in them, and also by the 
femur, pelvis, and temporal bones being the 
most common. 

Their system of signaling was perhaps by 
lights or rockets. There is no evidence which 
appears conclusive that it was otherwise. Food 
was gathered from the rivers, the woods, and the 
plains. Clothing is a question still open to spec- 



39$ 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



illation. In fact, there is much doubt in refer- 
ence to all the daily transactions of this prehis- 
toric race. One thing, however, is true, viz : A 
race of people inhabited this country centuries 
before the red men, and that the Indian himseif 
could give no information as to the origin or 
disappearance of this remarkable race which is 
satisfactory to the whites. 

Among the mounds of note in Utica township 
is one on the farm of David Prather. It often 
gives up bones, pottery, and articles which are 
evidently implements of war. On Mr. David 
Spangler's place, in the forks of Battle creek 
is an ancient burying-ground. It is undoubtedly 
the place where many of the Mound Builders or 
the Indians buried their dead. No information 
was ever obtained as to when it was first used. 
It may be worth while for some of the archaeolo- 
gists in the cities of the falls to make it a subject 
of excavation. The stream between whose forks 
it lies took its name from the burying-ground as 
early as 1800. Many bones are found here, 
which are pronounced by good authority as be- 
longing to an extinct people. 

On the old McCauley farm, on tract number 
fourteen, is a cave of considerable dimensions. 
Many years ago the Indians, in frequenting this 
section, made it a place of shelter. It has a 
spring of delicious water, which cools the in- 
terior so as to make it an excellent place for dairy 
purposes. The water empties into Lacassagne 
creek, which is near by. This stream derived its 
name from an old settler, who lived on its banks 
more than three-quarters of a century ago, by the 
name of Lacassagne. 

When the first ferries began to carry passen- 
gers across the Ohio at Utica, there was much un- 
easiness among the settlers on account of the In- 
dians. The different tribes of the frontier were 
making a decided stir among the thinly settled 
districts between the Ohio and Vincennes. When 
the news came that the settlers at Pigeon Roost 
had been massacred, the greater part of the pop- 
ulation hastened across the river into Kentucky. 
Not only was this true of Utica township, but 
the entire country bordering on the river was for 
a time almost without citizens. These circum- 
stances induced a goodly number of the settlers 
to erect a fort or block-house in 18 12, where the 
new chapel Methodist Episcopal church now 
stands. There are no remnants left to mark 



the exact site. It is safe to say that not one who 
aided in its erection is now living— a reminder 
that the pioneers have nearly all passed away. 

FERRIKS. 

In 1815 there were ten ferries in the county 
regularly licensed. At that time all ferrymen 
were taxed by the county commissioners in pro- 
portion to the business done. The amount of 
the tax was from $1 to $10 each. The ferries 
were -kept by the following persons: Joseph 
Bowman, William Clark, Marston G. Clark, 
Peter McDonald, John Pettilt, Richard Astor, 
Robert Patterson, N. Scribner, James Noble 
Wood, and (William) Plaskett. Rates of fare 
were established by the "honorable board of 
county commissioners," as witness these: 

For each man, woman, or child, twelve and one-half cents; 
for each animal of the horse kind, eleven and one-half cents; 
for each head of neat cattle not over three years old, eleven 
and one-half cents; for all cattle under that age, nine cents; 
for each sheep, goat, or hog, four cents; for each four-horse 
wagon (in addition to charge for horse:-) and the ioad there- 
in contained, one dollar; for each two-horse wagon or two- 
wheeled carriage and hor^e, and the load contained therein, 
fifty cents. 

The above rates were established for the year 
182 1. James Noble Wood was in 1794 an 
acting ferryman of Utica, whither he had come 
from Louisville immediately after his marriage 
to Miss Margaret Smith, on the 27th of Septem- 
ber of that year. The mode of conveying trav- 
elers was simple. A canoe, large enough to 
carry from three to five passengers, was the rud- 
est boat in existence. The ferryman sat in the 
center, and with a 'pair of oars brought the boat 
across. Considerable skill was necessary in or- 
der that the little bark should be safeiy managed. 
Any violent action by the passengers might cause 
some unnecessary floundering in the water, from 
which all, however, were likely to escape. 

During the interim between 1S00 and 1825 
the ferry at Utica did an immense business. 
The earliness with which this crossing point was 
established caused it to be known far and wide. 
Emigrants were streaming into the interior of the 
central counties like bees. The white-covered 
wagon was as familiar then to the citizens of 
Utica as the steamboat is now. 

Utica had the advantage over any of the other 
crossing points, in that it was first above Louis- 
ville, the latter place being considered dangerous 
by the emigrants and those who knew it best. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



399 



Many boats with their cargoes have gone to the 
bottom on the Falls, the result of inexperience 
and lack of care. This was truer during the first 
half of the century; hence the importance of 
the ferry at Utica. 

Emigrants look the Charlestown road, passed 
by way of New Washington or near the Pigeon 
Roost settlement and on to the Wabash or the 
Muscatetack. These regions were then covered 
with a dense forest. Chills and fever prevailed 
to a fearful extent, and it was no uncommon 
thing to ferry across the river again within a year 
the same family on their way back to their old 
home. Few of the immigrants escaped the ma- 
laria. Even those who settled in the Grant suf- 
fered terribly the first few years. 



As will be seen, the first road led to Charles- 
town. As soon as the county records were taken 
there (emigrants, by some silent force which im- 
pels people to travel and pass through, if possi- 
ble, on their way, all the towns of any impor- 
tance, and especially county seats), this road 
grew into considerable importance. At first it 
was a track which led through the underbrush, 
canebrakes, pea-vines, around hills and up ra- 
vines, until the county seat was reached. From 
this point there were several roads leading to the 
interior of the State. The New Providence 
road was the one to take if Washington county 
was the destination. If Bartholomew and the 
adjacent counties were points of settlement, the 
New Washington road was generally taken ; like 
wise for any other place. 

Formerly the old Utica and Salem road ran 
by the Franklin school-house, passing east of 
Watson" about one mile. This highway was used 
considerably by the Washington county people. 
Perhaps the most useful as well as the earliest, in 
some respects, was the Jeffersonville and Charles- 
town road, laid out about the year 1S10. It 
passed through the Fry settlement, and on to 
Charlestown by way of Springville. This road 
was petitioned for by the citizens of this little 
village, in language found in the History of 
Charlestown Township. 

Before the township of Utica was organized, 
there were three roads leading from Charlestown 
to Jeffersonville, all of which passed through the 
township as it now is. They were designated as 



the Western, Middle, and Eastern roads. The 
Fry settlement road was known as the Middle 
road; the Eastern road passed through Utica 
village and down the Ohio by Tort Fulton. 
That which led to Springville cut off a small 
slip of the northwest corner of the township. It 
has long been discontinued. 

Utica township has more miles of turnpike than 
all the rest of the county. The Charlestown and 
Utica pike was surveyed in 1866. It is ten miles 
in length, and unites with the Jeffersonville and 
Charlestown turnpike four miles from the old 
county seat. Originally the slock of this com- 
pany was valued at $60,000. The company, for 
some reason or other, failed. Eleven years after 
the first macadamizing, the road was completed 
and open to the public. Mr. M. P. Howes is 
the present superintendent. The value of the 
road is put by a good judge at $30,000. More 
grading and a thorough macadamizing will be 
necessary before this road can be considered 
equal to the best. 

Utica township has seven and three-quarters 
miles of railroad of the Ohio & Mississippi 
branch. It is part of that system of roads which 
has been described elsewhere. There are two 
stations in the township — Watson, which is also 
a post-office, and Gibson. Both are of little im- 
portance, except the former, from which are 
shipped large quantities of cement, manufactured 
by the Louisville Cement company. 

MILLS AND STILLS. 

Ferguson & Yeocum's horse-mill, which stood 
on the Charlestown and Jeffersonville road, was in 
operation as early as 1815. It was used for 
more than twenty-five years.- Corn was ground 
principally, though | wheat was often put through 
a kind of crushing machine or cracked so as to 
make tolerable flour. The farmer came to Yeo- 
cum's mill with his corn, hitched to the long 
sweep his own horses, and bolted the flour or 
meal with his own hands. 

One of the oldest mills in the township was 
put up sometime between 1S02 and 1804, by 
John Schwartz, on Six-mile creek. At first a 
flouring mill was erected of the overshot pattern. 
In a few years a saw-mill was attached to the 
grinding department, of the underplot style, 
which continued to run with different decrees of 
velocity until 1821, when it was discontinued on 



400 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



account of the scarcity of timber. The fiouring- 
mill was run for twenty-five or thirty years. It 
long since passed away, with other things of an- 
tiquity. 

Aaron Prather was a miller in the vicinity of 
Utica at an early day; also William Prather, 
whose mill stood on Six-mile, three miles below 
Schwartz's. The style of the mill w.as undershot. 
It was used altogether for grinding corn. After 
changing hands a number of times, it finally 
came into possession of Mr. John Prather. He- 
made various changes in the old structure, so 
many as to leave it almost unrecognizable by 
those who knew it best. Mr. Prather also at- 
tached to it a saw-mill. For a number of years 
he did a very large business, but at last the old 
mill was abandoned. It is yet standing, but 
looks deserted. 

Straw's mill, on Silver creek, was erected by 
Rezin Redman. When first built, it was an 
overshot mill. It has been repaired a number 
of times, and has also changed proprietors often. 
A large business is done there now. Both water 
and steam are used. This is the principal mill 
for the western side of Utica. It is in Silver 
Creek township. 

The Prathers were evidently men of a me- 
chanical turn; for we find Samuel Prather en- 
gaged in milling on Middle run with the old- 
fashioned horse-power mill, quite early in the 
first quarter of this century. Prathers mill-site 
was one mile and a half from the river. He 
also had a still-house — the famous copper still 
and its corresponding parts — in connection with 
the mill. The capacity of the distillery was 
about one barrel of whiskey per day. From two 
to three gallons .were obtained from each bushel 
of corn. There is nothing left to mark the old 
site of the mill. A large spring furnished water, 
which escaped from a cave near by. 

Perhaps the first still-house erected in the 
township was built by the Woods family seventy 
or more years ago. The house was of stone, and 
is now standing. It was about 20 x 30 feet. 
Water was furnished by a spring close to the 
house. A few more years and this distillery will 
also be named as belonging to the past. 

Mr. Adam Coons was nne of the first and 
most successful tanners in the township. His 
tannery was situated on the east branch of Battle 
creek. It was in operation for eight or ten 



years. The leather was of superior quality, and 
was shipped to Louisville. 

To many of those who have no acquaintance 
with the management of mills and still-houses, 
they appear simply as money-making establish- 
ments. But to the pioneers they were something 
more — real necessities. Corn had to be ground 
into meal before it could be used even for mak- 
ing whiskey. As to meal, we let a writer on the 
first settlements of this country tell its worth. 
What he says is so fittingly true of the Utica 
bottoms that none can read it, we trust, without 
thanking our Creator for furnishing a grain so 
admit ably suited to the prime wants of the fore- 
fathers. 

Oil the frontier the diet was necessarily plain and homely, 
but exceeding abundant and nutritive. The "Goshen of 
America" furnished the richest milk, the finest butter, and 
the most savory and delicious meats. In their rude cabins, 
with their scanty and inartificial furniture, no people ever en- 
joyed in wholesome food a greater variety or a superior qual- 
ity of the necessaries of life. For bread, Indian corn was 
exclusively used. . . . . . Of all 

the farinacea, com is best adapted to the condition of a 
pioneer people; and if idolatry is at all justifiable, Ceres, or 
certainly the goddess of Indian corn, should have had a 
temple and worshipers among the pioneers of this country. 
Without this grain the pioneer settlements could not have 
been formed and maintained. It if the most certain crop, 
requires the least preparation of the ground, is most con- 
genial to a virgin soil, needs only but little labor in its culture, 
and comes to maturity in the shortest time. The pith of the 
matured stalk of the corn is esculent and nutritious; and the 
stalk itself, compressed betucen rollers, furnishes what is 
known as corn-stalk molasses. 

This grain requires, also, the least care and trouble in pre- 
serving it. It may safely stand all winter upon the stalks 
without injury froni the weather or apprehension of danger 
from disease, or the accidents to which other grains are sub- 
ject. Neither smut nor rust, nor weevil, nor snow-storm will 
hurt i*. After its maturity, it is also prepared for use or the 
granary with little trouble. The husking is a short process, 
and is even advantageously delayed till the moment arrives 
for using the corn. The machinery for converting it into 
food is also exceedingly simple and cheap. As soon as the 
ear is fully formed, it may be roasted or boiled, and thus 
forms an excellent and nourishing diet. At a later period it 
may be grated, and furnishes in this form thj sweetest bread. 
The grains boiled in a variety of modes, either whole or 
broken in a mortar, or roasted in ashes, or popped in an 
oven, are well relished. If the grain is to be converted into 
meal, a simple tub-mill answers the purpose best, as the mea 
least perfectly ground is always preferred. A bolting cloth 
is not needed, as it diminishes the sweetness and value of 
the flour. The catalogue of the advantages of this meal 
might be extended further. l!oiled in water it forms the 
frontier dish called mush, which is eaten with milk, honey, 
molasses, butter, or gravy. Mixed with cold water it is at 
once readv for the cook; covered with hot ashes, the 'prepar- 
ation is called the ash cake; placed upon a piece of clap- 
board and set near the coals, it forms the johnny-cake; or 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



401 



managed in the same wry upon a helvcless hoe, it forms the 
hoe-cake; put in an oven and covered over with a heated. hd, 
it is called, if in a large mass, a pone or loaf; if in smaller 
quantities, dodgers. It has the further advantage over all 
oilier flour, that it requires in its preparation few culinary 
utensils, and neither sugar, yeast, eggs, spices, soda, potash, 
or other et ceteras, to qualify or perfect the bread. To all 
this it may be added that it is not only cheap and well-tasted, 
but it is unquestionably the most wholesome and nutritive 
food. The largest and healthiest people in the world have 
lived upon it exclusively. It formed the principal bread of 
that robust race of men, giants in miniature, which half or 
three-quarters of a century ago was seen on the frontier. 

The dignity of history is not lowered by this enumeration 
of the pre-eminent qualities of Indian corn. The rifle and 
the axe have had their influence in subduing the wilderness 
to the purposes of civilization, and they deserve their eulo- 
gists and trumpeters. Let paeans be sung all over the mighty 
West to Indian corn; without it the West would still have 
been a wilderness. Was the frontier suddenly invaded ; 
without commissary, or quartermaster, or other sources of 
supply, each soldier parched a peck of corn ; a portion of it 
was put into his pockets, the remainder into his wallets, and 
throwing it across his saddle and his rifle over his shoulder, 
was ready in half an hour for the campaign. Did a flood of 
emigrants inundate the frontier with an amount of consum- 
ers disproporlioned to the supply of grain, the facility of 
raising corn and its early maturity gave promise and guar- 
anty that the scarcity would be tolerable and only temporary. 
If the safely of the frontier demanded the services of every 
adult militiaman, the boys and women themselves could 
laise corn and furnish ample supplies of bread. The crop 
could be gathered next year. Did autumnal intermittent 
fevers confine the family or the entire population to the sick- 
bed (as it often did in the Utica bottoms), it mercifully with- 
held its paroxysms till the crop of com was made. It re- 
quired no further care or labor afterwards. The frontiersman 
can gratefully say : "Hemaketh me to lie down in green 
pastures, He leadeth me beside the still waters. Thou pre- 
parest a table before me in presence of mine enemies." 

SCHOOLS. 

As soon as the township had made a few steps 
in clearing off the forest, arrangements were made 
to educate the children. The pioneer system of 
schools was very imperfect. Teachers were in 
most instances from New England. They often 
came to their calling quite unprepared to meet its 
obligations. Some teachers, however, were ad- 
mirably adapted to their work. The growth of 
the public schools in this township, as well as in 
the county, is a subject of very extended and 
variegated aspect. In 1S11, on the farm now 
owned by James Spangler, a log school-house was 
erected, the first, no doubt, in the township. 
This was a time, says an old citizen, when treats 
were extorted from the teachers on any legal hol- 
iday. Treating was customary with most of the 
teachers; but a penurious, ill-tempered sort of 
man would often decide that customs were other- 



wise and refuse to furnish the necessary eatables 
and drinkables for the big and little boys and 
girls. The reader must imagine the teacher sur- 
prised some frosty morning, on his arrival at the 
school-house, to find doors barricaded and the 
pupils in possession of the house. The latter 
were generally successful in these sieges. Teach- 
ers recognized the importance of having the good 
will of their scholars, and as a matter of course 
usually yielded to their demands. Among the 
first teachers in this old school-house were 
Messrs. William Crawford, Blackburn, and 
Scantlin. These men had for some of their 
scholars John Epler, a son of Abram Epler, the 
first nurseryman in Clark county, and John Flc- 
harty, a relative of Miss Rachael Fleharty, well 
and favorably known throughout the central and 
southeastern portion of the Grant. The old 
house was worn out by constant service, and it 
has altogether disappeared from the face of the 
country. 

On the Charlestown and Utica turnpike, sixty- 
odd years ago, a private dwelling was converted 
into a school house. It stood near the present 
residence of Peter Henry Bottorff, a very excel- 
lent gentleman in this locality. A Mr. Kincaid 
was a teacher in it. The house was finally torn 
down and the logs used for other purposes. 

Perhaps the next school-house in the township 
was one put up on E. B. Burtt's place sometime 
in the '30's. The teachers who taught here were 
Messrs. Brown, Fellenwider, John Randolph, 
Jonas Ray wait, and George Ross, though not in 
this order of succession. For scholars they 
had the Espys, Patricks, Jacobses, Schwartzes, 
Spanglers, Ruddles, and Prathers — names now 
familiar to nearly every household in the county, 
The old building, "after fifteen or twenty years' 
of use, was removed, and is now used in part as a 
stable. Its style of architecture was much like 
that of other similar structures in the county at 
that day. 

RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS. 

Churches, like schools, have an interesting 
history in this township. The date of the New 
Chapel Methodist Episcopal church is not pre- 
cisely known, but the best authority places the 
year of its organization as early as tSco. It is 
also known as belonging to the oldest circuit .in 
the State. 

As early as 1793 a preaching-place had been 



402 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



maintained about one mile above Utica; and 
several Louisville Methodists, as Judge Prather, 
William Farquar, and John Bate, in the absence 
of a church, or even a class at home, had their 
membership here. 

The "oldest circuit,'' above mentioned, is the 
Silver Creek circuit, formed in 1S0S, in the 
"Kentucky district." The Rev. Moses Ains- 
worth was first placed in charge of it. An ac- 
count of the Rev. Mr. McMillan, another early 
preacher to it, is given in the history of Silver 
Creek township. The organization of the Utica 
class was effected at the residence of Basil R.' 
Prather, whose house for a number of years be- 
fore had furnished a place of worship. Bishop 
McKinley was the minister in charge on the day 
of ordination. About 1S04 a round-log house was 
erected on an acre of land in tract number thirty- 
seven, deeded to the Methodist Episcopal church 
by Jeremiah Jacobs and Walter Prather. It was 
built by subscription, and worth when completed 
about $250. It had but one window, clap board 
roof, and theoldstyle of stone chimney. In 181 1 
the house was torn away, and a new hewed-log 
house erected 22x36 feet, one and one-half 
stories high. It had four windows, a shingle 
roof, stove, pulpit, comfortable seats, and so on. 
This house was built also by subscription, and 
cost $200. In 1S36 the hewed-log house was 
torn away, and a third, built of brick, 45 X55 
feet, took its place. It had eleven windows, was 
one and one-half stories high, had three doors, 
and an altar and pulpit. This house was also 
built by subscription, and cost $1,382. The 
building is yet standing in good condition; the 
class is out of debt, and the church machinery in 
good running order. In 1S67 the chapel was 
repaired, at a cost of $1,400. 

Among the first preachers at the new chapcj 
of the Methodist Episcopal church were Revs. 
Josiah Crawford in 1S0S, Silas Payne in 1S09, 
Isaac Linsey and Thomas Nelson in 1810-11, 
William McMahan and Thomas Nelson in 181 2, 
James Garner, Elijah Sitters, Shadrick Rucker, 
Joseph Kincaid, Joseph Powel, John Shrader, 
David Sharpe, C. W. Ruter, Robert M. Baker, 
and William Cravens, all before 1S20. 

The Utica Methodist Episcopal circuit was 
formed in 1S43, uul1 William V. Daniels as the 
first presiding elder. Rev. Charles Benner was 
the first traveling preacher. He was followed by 



Emmaus Rutledge in 1845 ™d James Hill in 

1846; Rev. Elijah Whitten was in charge in 1847, 

and then for one year each the following per- 

! sons: Revs. Lewis Hulhert, John A. Brouse, 

Jacob Myers, and Jacob Bruner. These men 

I were all here before 1852. Rev. Mr. Daniels 

! served as presiding elder until iS.so, when he 

J was succeeded by Rev. John Herns, who acted 

for one year. Revs. C. R. Ames and William 

Dailey were presiding elders in 1S51-52. 

Connected with the New Chapel church is a 
handsome cemetery, enclosed by a stone wall on 
the east side and at both ends. A number of 
fine monuments are scattered about. The grave- 
yard looks decidedly neat, more so than any 
other in the county as far from Jeffersonville. 
The yard is a rectangle; has about four acres of 
land, and is in keeping with the church of which 
it forms a part. There is also a good Sunday- 
school carried on at this point during the year. 
This church and Sabbath-school are fair expo- 
nents of the people in this region. They are 
located about one mile north of cast of Watson 
post-office. 

The Union Methodist Episcopal church, in 
the northwest corner of the township, was com- 
posed formerly of members from the Lutheran 
church, by whom really the Methodist church 
was formed. Among the first members cf the 
Lutheran church were Jacob Grisamore and 
wife, and David Lutz, Sr., and wife. Rev. Mr. 
Fremmer, of New Albany, who traveled the en- 
tire county, was one of the first preachers. 
The original church building was a log structure. 
Some few years after 1S30 a brick church was 
erected by the neighborhood, the old Lutheran 
members having moved off or died in . many 
instances. This church derived its name from 
the fact that all denominations worshiped in the 
first house. After forty-odd years of use and 
much repairing, a proposition was made to buy 
or sell by both the Christian and Methodist 
Episcopal people, who were the leading de- 
nominations. At the sale the Methodists paid 
$250 for the undivided half. The church was 
then repaired and used for a tew years more, until 
it needed repairing again. At last a movement 
was made to build a new house. Money was 
solicited, a kiln of brick was burned on the 
ground, and now a handsome building is situated 
almost on the old site. The property is worth, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



4o3 



including the cemetery, $S,ooo. The land on 
which the church stands, was originally deeded 
to the Lutheran denomination by Jacob Gris- 
amore, but it has since become the property of 
the Methodists. Mathias Crura and wife, David 
Spangler and wife, Charles Ross and wife were 
some of the fir^t members of the Methodist 
class. F01 preachers they had, before 1S10, 
Revs. Josiah Crawford, Silas Payne, Thomas 
Nelson, and others, who preached at the New 
Chapel church. This class has now about one 
hundred members. A Sunday-school is carried 
on during the favorable months of the year. 

After the Methodist and Christian classes dis- 
solved partnership, the latter erected a house of 
worship in Charlestown township. Larkin 
Nicholson and several relatives and others, with 
their wives, were the most prominent in the 
Christian church. 

Attached to the Union Methodist Episcopal 
church is a burying ground. People began to 
bury here as early as 1S20, and ever since it has 
been connected with the church, which was made 
a place of worship for all classes, regardless of 
belief. In the ground there are a number of fine 
monuments. A stone wall encloses the lot. 

The first place of interment in the western 
part of the township is now under cultivation. 
It was located on the farm originally owned by 
Abram Epler. There are buried here, of the 
Summers and Sage families, more than fifty per- 
sons. No traces of the ground are left. The 
future must tell the story of those who now sleep 
here in peace. Many of those hardy pioneers, 
father and mothers, grandfathers and grand- 
mothers of the present generation, could they 
come forth from their graves, would be surprised 
to se.e the changes in the Utica bottoms since 
last they trod upon its soil. Peace be to their 
ashes! 

VILLAGES. 

From 1794, the year James Noble Wood and 
his wife settled at Utica ami established a ferry, 
to 1S16, the embryo village formed a part of 
their hopes and aspirations. It was no difficult 
matter to see that the site which had been se- 
lected for a home would also be a good place for 
a town, or even a city. Not, however, till twenty 
years after the beginnings uid the founders at- 
tempt any undertaking which resulted in perma- 
nence. In the meantime there had been a com- 



bination of influences at work, destined at last 
to result in a village of no little consequence. 
The tide of emigration which had been pouring 
into the interior of the State had made Utica a 
crossing point on the Ohio, No doubt, for ten 
or a dozen years before the place was laid out, 
the ferryman was busily at work ferrying passen- 
gers across the river. On the 9th of August, 
1S16, the long-anticipated project was carried in- 
to execution. In the original survey there were 
two hundred and twenty lots, one hundred feet 
square. Lot number one was in the southwest 
corner, from which all the rest numbered. The 
survey began at the southeast corner, on the 
Ohio. 

Five lots were given for public purposes by 
those having the matter in charge — James Noble 
Wood, Samuel Bleight, and John Miller. The 
shape of the town is that of a rectangle. The 
streets run parallel with the river. Front street 
is seventy feet wide; Walnut street, forty-three 
feet wide; Mercer and Warren are thirty feet 
wide; all others are sixty feet in width. The 
proprietors forbade the election of any buildings 
between Front street and low-water mark, unless 
the town trustees saw fit to allow it. AH benefits 
arising from the sale of land between high and 
low-water maik were to be appropriated to the 
use of the town. The first addition was made 
in 1854 by James H. Oliver on the northwest 
corner of the town. It resembled a right-angled 
triangle, with its top cut off two-thirds of the dis- 
tance from the base. Oliver's second addition 
extends along the Ohio in the shape, of a wedge, 
and, like the first addition, is separated from the 
original plat by Ash street. In the centre of the 
town is a public square 212x260 feet; and on 
the north is a burying-ground 212x233 ^ eet - 
Both bodies of land were donated by the propri- 
etors, Wood, Bleight, and Miller, for these pur- 
poses. It can be readily seen that the founders 
had planned well for a thriving and populous 
town; or perhaps they saw in the dim future a 
city here with her half million of inhabitants. 
Such things often come into the minds of men, 
and even to those who first began to make the 
I forest fade away, but who cherished hopes that 
■ they thought sometime might be realized. 

Pioneer life is admirably adapted to call into 
; vigorous action all the faculties of the human 
I mind. And nowhere were surroundings more 



4 04 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



favorable to the full and systematic growth of 
the imagination than here in Utica. The' first 
few years of life at the Woods ferry had many 
accompaniments now wholly or quite forgotten. 
In referring to them there conies up a train of 
recollections which awakes the happiest and ten- 
derest emotions. It seems now, after more than 
three score and ten, aye, four. score years, have 
passed away, that the every-day' transactions at 
Utica are nothing but legends. All the mythol- 
ogy of Greece and Rome does not seem half so 
strange. The cabins, the log barns, pigpens, 
ox-sheds, a few scattering corn-cribs and fodder- 
piles, were real, not mythical. They had an exist- 
ence, as much as the jimson-weed, the dog-fen- 
nel, the rag-weed, and thistle, that lined the 
roads leading to and from the village. James 
Noble Wood can properly be called the Pericles, 
and his venerable wife the Aspasia, of Utica. 
They were surrounded, too, by men and women 
no less devoted than the citizens of Greece were 
to their leaders. 

Mrs. Nancy (Wood) Noel, in the Clark County 
Record, gives some interesting facts of Utica life 
during the primitive age of that hamlet, from 
which we make subjoined extracts: James 
Noble Wood and Miss Margaret Smith were 
married on the 27th of September, 1794, in 
Louisville, but immediately came over with the 
residue of their families and settled on tract 
number seventeen, where Utica was afterwards 
laid out. The tract embraced seven hundred 
acres (two hundred more than was intended by 
the surveyors) of as fine farming land as the sun 
ever shone upon. On the east side the 
beautiful Ohio river, covered, with flocks of wild 
ducks, geese, and brants, crawled lazily off to- 
ward the "Great Falls" — the name by which 
they were known throughout the West. At this 
time there was no settlement in this part of 
Clark's Grant. From the river bank, opposite 
Harrod's creek, in Kentucky, we-=t to Silver 
creek, was one vast and dense canebrake. 

Mrs. Noel was born where Utica now stands, 
on the 3d of August, 1796. Her father, J. N. 
Wood, with Marston Green Clark, and Abram 
Huff, was appointed by Governor W. H. Har- 
rison as justices of the court of general quarter 
sessions and of the court of common pleas of 
Knox county, which at that time embraced 
nearly all the southern part of the State. 



There was an Indian chief by the name of 
Gowman, who frequently visited Utica. Once 
he made his appearance accompanied by six 
warriors and as many squaws. It had been rain- 
ing during the afternoon, and Gowman and his 
companions came into the house of Mrs. 
Wood, and, shaking off the rain, asked for 
her husband. They also asked for soap and 
whiskey, and seated themselves mound the fire, 
Gorman next to the wife. At that time the 
mother and Mrs. Noel were ironing. As the lat- 
ter stepped backward she accidently dropped an 
iron on Cowman's toe. The Indian immediately 
began a series of maneuvers not altogether suited 
to friendship, which somewhat excited Mrs. 
Wood. She soon despatched her daughter for 
two men, who came with butcher-knives and 
tomakawks in their belts, and guns in their hands, 
with blankets thrown over their shoulders. One 
of the men took Gowman by the arms, shook 
him, and told him to go to his camp, as all the 
provision had been eaten. In the meantime the 
remaining twelve had fallen asleep, and the two 
men for the rest of the night stood on guard. 

Mrs. Noel says of the Pigeon Roost massacre: 
"On the 3d of September, 1S1 2, when twenty- 
four were killed, mostly women and children, the 
neighborhood of Utica was thrown into the wild- 
est excitement." Many people crossed the river 
to Kentucky, but returned within a few weeks. 
"Another alarm was in the spring of 18 13, when 
a party of Indians came within nine miles of 
Charlestown, concealed themselves behind a 
bluff bank of Silver creek, and shot into the 
house of old Mr. Huffman, killing him and 
wounding his wife." 

The issue of the marriage of James N. Wood 
and Miss Margaret Smith was thirteen children, 
eight of whom died under seven years of age. 
Miss Wood says of her father that he was "a 
great hunter, and for a long time supplied the 
family with all their meat. Buffalo, elk, deer, 
and bear were numerous in Indiana and Ken- 
tucky at this time. He once killed seven deer 
in four hours within the sound of his rifle from 
his house. He killed many bear and buffalo, 
and at one time was in great danger of losing his 
life from a wounded buck." Wood made three 
trips to New Orleans, the first in 1S05, when the 
whole country from Louisville to Natchez was an 
unbroken wilderness. On returning he walked 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



4^5 



through the country of the Choctaw and Chicka- 
saw nations. The second trip was made in'iSob, 
and the third in 1S07. James Noble Wood was 
present when most of the treaties were made 
with the Indians at Vincennes. He saw Tecum- 
seh and his brother the prophet, Tuthnipe, and 
the chief Meshecanongue. In 1S05 he met 
Aaron Burr at Jeffersonville, and with him was 
much pleased. 

ln '795 Judge: Wood established the first 
ferry near Utica. The boats were made by 
lashing two canoes together. Horses and cattle 
would stand with their hind feet in one canoe 
and their fore feet in the other. Wood kept a 
ferry here for a considerable time, so as to es- 
tablish this place as a crossing point from Ken- 
tucky and the Grant, there being none nearer 
than eight miles in both directions. "James M. 
Woods [or some would have it Wood] set out 
the first orchard in Clark county in 1790." 
Where the orchard was, his daughter does not 
say. If in the region of Utica, he must have 
visited the place four years before he removed 
here, which is very likely ; but whether or not 
the orchard was planted in 1790 is quite another 
question. Miss Wood, perhaps, is correct in her 
statement, though it is hardly supposed the 
orchard was planted in the neighborhood of 
Wood's future home. 

Judge Wood (or Woods') died near Utica 
March 25, 1S26. He was a fine historian, a 
faithful citizen," a devoted husband, and withal 
a man of many excellent parts. Margaret Wood 
was of fine physique and very handsome. She 
had musical talents of no ordinary degree; she 
was also a fine swimmer. Her heart seemed to 
overflow with kindness and generosity, and in the 
world she had no enemies. 

^_Saiivuel_ McClintick, a soldier in the battle of 
Tippecanoe, built the first brick house in Utica, 
which he occupied till 1823. He sold out 
and removed to Polk county, Indiana, where he 
died in 1826. His wife was Nancy Wood, whom 
he married in 1S15. 

Robert George Wood was born in 1803, just 
below Utica. He died in 1S76, having lived all 
his life in the vicinity of his native place. He 
married Miss Juliett M. Chunn in 1S27, daugh- 
ter of Major John Thomas Chunn, who com- 
manded in the battle of Tippecanoe, and who 
also took an active part in the War of 1812. In- 



diana Wood was born in 1806, and married a 
daughter o.f Noah C. Johnson, of this county, 
in 1824. Mr. Johnson took an active part in the 
Indian wars, and aLo represented Scott county 
in the Legislature. Margaret Wood married 
John Potter, a pilot on the river, now dead. She 
was born in 181 1, and is now a resident of Louis- 
ville. Napoleon Bonaparte Wood was born at 
the old homestead in 1 8 1 3 . He married Miss 
Luanda Hay, a daughter of Samuel Hay, the 
first sheriff of this county, in 1836. Mrs. Wood 
died in 1S73. N. B. Wood has lived most of 
his life in sight of his birth-place. 

The character of Judge Wood is evidenced 
by the active part he took in the affairs of his 
time. It is impossible for any careful reader to 
go through these short biographies without de- 
ciding that the Woodses were a family of many 
unusual qualities. It was this family, and those 
who were brought around them through that 
power which we all feel but cannot see, that real- 
ly made Utica a place of some importance. 

Whether it was a blacksmith-shop, a store, a 
tavern, a school, or a church, which followed 
first after the town was laid out, no one can tell. 
It is pretty certain, though, that Wood kept a 
kind of store, or rather produce exchange, while 
preparing for his trips down the river. But 
stores were radically different then from what 
they are now. The greater bulk of the trade 
was in a few articles — first, last, and all the time, 
powder and ball; then a little sugar and coffee, 
tobacco and whiskey; and the post-office was 
also kept there. Judge Wood was probably the 
first tavern-keeper also. Indeed, it seems that 
he was the embodiment of all there was in the 
village for ten or a dozen years. People had 
grown up about the judge, and respected and 
expected of him much as the people of Floyd 
county did of Judge Shields. 

Jonathan Clark was, without doubt, the first 
man in the village who made store-keeping a 
vocation. He kept a regular country store. His 
place of doing business was on the corner of 
Ash and Fifth streets. One man says, "he had 
a No. 1 store, but no whiskey." A few years 
after he had secured considerable trade, he built 
a large house down nearer the river, moved 
into it and opened up business on a more ex- 
tended scale. He also supplied boats with 
wood, which at that time was a large business. 



406 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



The flood of 1832 drenched his house with from 
four to six feet of water. This discouragement 
induced him to sell out to Mr. Jeremiah Keys, 
of Kentucky. The latter acted the part of com- 
mercial man for several years, at the expiration 
of which he sold to House & Tyler, who were in 
possession for some time. The building was 
finally vacated, on account of its unfavorable 
situation, and is now standing idle. 

Samuel Starkworth was also a very early store- 
keeper. He did business on the corner of Lo- 
cust and Front streets, and was also prominently 
engaged in pork-packing. The old store build- 
ing is yet standing, as the dwelling house of John 
Mackey. Since Mr. Starkworth have been vari- 
ous men. The town is now specially active in 
commercial pursuits. 

The fust blacksmith in Utica was Abram Ash- 
ton, whose shop stood on the corner of Fourth 
and Ash streets. Ashton was one of the early 
settlers, and probably Ash street had its name- 
sake in this gentleman. He came here about 
the year 1S16. He was the father of one child, 
Philip. After following his trade in the village 
for eight or ten years, he died in 1S27. 

In the spring of 1S32 there were no shops 
nearer than Charlestown and Jeffersonville. 

The Indiana Gazetteer for 1833 gives the 
place this notice: 

Utica, a pleasant, thriving post-village in Clark county. 
It is situated on the bank of the Ohio river, about eight miles 
south of Charlestown. It contains about two hundred in- 
habitants, three mercantile stores, and a variety of me- 
chanics. 

William J. Tyler, who came from Jefferson 
county, Kentucky, in 1828, found Robert Mc- 
Gee carrying on the trade of a blacksmith here. 
He made arrangements at the age of sixteen to 
learn his trade with McGee, who had been here 
since 1S23. McGee's shop stood on Fourth 
street, lot number one hundred and twenty-four. 
The house was a log structure. It burned, but 
was replaced after a few years by a frame house. 
In 1 84 1 McGee sold out to William J. Tyler, 
who sometime in 1S51 onS52 put up a new and 
larger shop, a frame 48 x 50 feet. The business 
in the new shop was very extensive. People 
came for miles around in all directions with their 
work. Wagons and plows were made and 
shipped to Jackson and the other counties. 

John Hazzard Lamed his trade with Mr. 
Tyler. He afterwards opened a shop on Fifth 



street, where he has remained for twenty- odd 
years. 

The old Black Horse tavern was one of the 
first places of entertainment in the village. This 
house took its name from the fact that on the 
sign was displayed the picture of a large black 
horse in all the elegance of backwoods art. . The 
tavern stood at the upper end of the town, and 
was kept by Peter Mann, of New York State. 
Artistically, the house was a sight of itself. It 
was a log structure, with double porches. The 
stairs went up on the outside through the upper 
porch, leading to one room, where all travelers 
slept, unmindful that each was surrounded by 
a score of other sleepers. The Black Horse 
tavern is one of the early features of Utica, 
which the old settlers recall with a smile. It is 
one of those things that are connecting links be- 
tween the past and the present, the reminder 
that all things must pass away. 

The Traveler's Home, another place of public 
entertainmenf, had a reputation for good cook- 
ing, good whiskey, and a good place for dancing. 
It was kept by William Brindle, and was a fiame 
building two stories high. It is yet standing. 
Like the Black Horse tavern, it had a horse dis- 
played on the sign. 

One of the most modern taverns in its mode- 
of entertainment was that kept by Mr. Benjamin 
Taff, on the corner of Ash and Second streets. 
For a sign was displayed a set of crossed keys. 
The house was of brick, and one of the best in 
Utica. It is yet standing, and is occupied as a 
dwelling. 

Peter B. Dorsey was about the last of a fa- 
mous list of tavern-keepers. His house was on 
the corner of Fourth and Locust streets, and 
was also of brick. At present there is no public 
place of entertainment in the village. 

Ashton's mill, above Utica in 1S32, where 
whiskey was made, sawing done, and flour and 
meal were gi ound, was one of the most prosperous 
enterprises ever in this locality. After a success- 
ful existence, the buildings were torn down. A 
part of them is now used in the village as a mill 
for grinding corn in a limited way. 

John Lentz was a miller here in 1834. He 
had two sets of buhrs which were run by steam 
power. Mr. Lentz sold out to a gentleman who 
afterwards moved the milling machinery to 
Louisville. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



•i°7 



Three years after Utica was laid out, in 1819, 
a school-house was erected at the head of Fourth 
street. Mr. Guernsey, a name familiar in the 
school history of Monroe township, was the first 
teacher. After six or seven years of use the 
house was abandoned, another taking its place, 
a hewed-log, opposite the Flack Horse tavern. 
Mr. Samuel Morrison, a gentlemanly person, was 
the first teacher here. He also taught school in 
various other places, and is now a resident of 
Indianapolis. Among the pupils under Mr. 
Morrison were George Schwartz, Thomas Pra- 
ther, Joseph Ashton, Jacob Lentz, and Joseph 
lirindle. 

In 1826 was built a brick house, which served 
the double purpose of church and school. The 
house was one story high, had one room, a pulpit 
in one end and a fire-place in the other. This 
house was used for at least twenty years. In 
1845, or thereabouts, it was torn down and a 
better one erected, 20x40 feet. The terms of 
the contract were that the old brick should be 
used, and that three hundred dollars additional 
should be paid to the contractors. The teachers 
here were Messrs. Spillman, Guernsey, Morrison, 
Lane, Symrns, and Keyton. 

The new school building erected about eight 
\ears ago, consisting of four rooms, and two 
stories high, is one of the handsomest structures 
of the kind in the county. The three acres of 
land, on a part of which the building stands, 
cost $1,000. Before the contract was taken, 
the specifications called for about $7,000. After 
the contract was taken and the workmen set to 
work, an additional amount of $6,000 or $8,000 
was claimed by the trustees. In the erection of 
this building there were expended nearly $20,000 
— a sum, to say the least, far beyond what was 
expected. 

Religious services were held in the neighbor- 
hood of Utica at first in a shanty, built out of 
a flat-boat torn to pieces. Rev. Enoch G. Wood 
was one of the first preachers. The house was 
situated on Fourth street and was owned 
by the Methodist Episcopal denomination. 
Calvin Ruter, the Ashtons. and the Clarks 
were active members. Rev. Mr. Hamilton was 
one of the early presiding elders. The next 
house occupied was the school building on the 
public square. This place of worship belonged 
to the Utica circuit, and had for preachers those 



given in the history of New Chapel. In 1847 
the present brick house was erected, through the 
efforts of Elijah Whitten. This now has services 
in it every fortnight, but the class is not in a 
very prosperous condition. It has connected 
with it a good parsonage and Sunday-school. 
Their present minister is Rev. W. YV". Reynolds. 

As in many other places, the L T niversalists 
early began to have preaching in this locality. 
They soon formed a class and conducted ser- 
vices regularly. Now they seldom have preach- 
ing. 

In 1847 tne present Presbyterian church was 
erected. During the first few years after the 
class was organized services were conducted in 
the school-house on the public square. The or- 
ganizers of the church were Robert McGee and 
wife, Theopolis Robinson and wife, with Revs. 
Messrs. Cobb, Remley, Martin, Cambrun, and 
Josiah Crawford as preachers. John Lentz gave 
all the churches in Utica lots on which to build 
houses. This church stands near the public 
square, and is a frame, with a belfry and bell, 
and makes quite a respectable appearance. 

The Baptists held their first preaching in the 
public square school-house. Among the first 
members were Robert Tyler and wife, and Mer- 
riett Alloway and wife. For preachers there 
were Rev. Messrs. Mordecai Cole, of Charles- 
town, Mr. Porter, and William McCoy. This 
denomination, several years before the late war, 
erected a frame house capable of seating four or 
five hundred people. It also has a good bell and 
belfry. There is now no regular seivice in this 
church. The Christian church stands on a lot 
in Oliver's addition, and was erected in 1S77. 
It is a brick structure, and cost $7,000. This 
class was organized about the year 1S57, with 
Elder Eli Rose and wife, Eli Burtt and wife, 
Larkin Nicholson and wife, and John Coombs 
and wife as members. Rev. Messrs. Eli Rose, 
Absalom Littell, and his brother were first 
preachers. This organization never held services 
in the school-house. Their first house of wor- 
ship was a little frame dwelling converted into a 
church, now standing opposite the post-office. 
The membership numbers seventy-five, and the 
class is flourishing; Rev. Thomas Wil ds is their 
pastor. 

The Utica burying-ground was given for this 
purpose by James Noble Wood, and it dates 



40i 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



from the beginning of the town in i S 1 6. It 
comprises about four acres, additions having 
been made to it by various purchases. • 

An Odd Fellows lodge was organized in L'tica 
thirty-five or forty years ago. Four of the charter 
members were M. H. Tyler, Samuel Bush field, 
Fred Trinde'll, and Joseph McRaymond. Their 
first place of meeting was in the old Washing- 
tonian temperance hall, which they afterwards 
bought. There are now about thirty members, 
but the society seems to be rapidly falling into 
decay. 

The Masonic lodge is of more recent date. 
It was organized in the Odd Fellows' hall. There 
are few members, and the condition of the lodge 
is not very prosperous. 

In the way of secret orders the later Knights 
of Pythias are the most flourishing of all. The 
Utica branch was organized in November, 1S74, 
with Stephen Belknap, John R. Tyler, Leroy 
Canter, M. II. Tyler, W. T. Tyler, as a part of 
the charter members. Officers: Stephen Bel- 
knap, P. C; Jesse Grimes, C. C; J. T. Guntner, 
V. C; John Worthington, P.; James Snider, K. 
R. S.; John Tyler, M. E.; J. E. Deark, M. A. 
There are now thirty members on the roll, every- 
thing is in good order, and the future is prom- 
ising. 

Abram Ashton, in 1S20, was the first postmas- 
ter in Utica. The office was in a little brick 
house on Ash street. In 1S27 Mr. Ashton's son 
came in charge of the office, and then 'Squire 
Johnson, who held the position only for a short 
time. Samuel Starkweather and William Tyler 
were next in succession, both before 1S45. The- 
opolis Robinson came next, but the office under 
him was tended principally by deputies. Wil- 
liam Henry Snider served the people well for 
fifteen years or more. The present postmaster 
is Stephen Belknap, the office being kept on 
Fourth street, between Ash and Locust. 

Utica had for its first outlet the Ohio river. 
After Charlestown was laid out in 1S08, connec- 
tion was soon made with that town, by the road 
already described. The Jeffersonville road was 
soon established, perhaps as early as 181 S. In 
the shape of roads or ferries, the latter was by 
far the most important of all public concerns. 
Judge John Miller, of Utica, New York, was 
very prominently engaged in ferrying people 
across the Ohio. It was after the former home 



of Judge Miller that the village, an bsequently 
the township, was named. The growth of 
Louisville caused in later years many emigrants 
to cross at that point; hence Utica gradually fell 
into the rear ranks. Jonathan Clark, one of the 
early settlers, was the last man who had charge 
of the ferry,' which was about twenty-five years 
ago. 

The oldest houses in Utica are on Second 
street. One is an unoccupied log-house, weather- 
boarded; another stands on the river bank, 
owned and occupied by Frank Flight. Samuel 
McClintick built the first brick house in Utica in 
1818, on lot number nineteen. It is yet stand- 
ing. 

Among the store-keepers in Utica not before 
mentioned were Charles Murphey, in 1847; 
Horatio Schriver, who kept in a little house op- 
posite Starkweather's, soon after; and then fol- 
lowed Rose & Symms, Holman, and Belknap. 
Whiskey has always been obtainable here. The 
first drug store was kept by Joseph Ashton, The 
druggists in town now are J. Holman and Dr. 
Williams. 

We sum up the present status of Utica in these 
words: The general appearance is one of in- 
activity. Streets are in a poor condition, without 
care. Sidewalks are hedged in by weeds and 
woodpiles, and the gutters are full of rubbish 
and grass. Houses look old and timeworn; 
many fronts show signs of old age; gates bow 
ungainly as you pass back and forth. A dilapi- 
dated sign-post in the eastern part of the town 
reads, "Salem blacksmith shop," and all houses 
of a public nature are in keeping with this one. 
Utica has many of the features of Charlestown, 
and both are of about the same age. Both have 
passed through seasons of prosperity and adver- 
sity. Their past glory, however, is unimpeacha- 
ble — nothing tarnishes their luster. We leave 
Utica in the enjoyment of a record full of many 
golden results. May she live long and enjoy 
life; may her vices be few and her virtues many! 

WATSON. 

This village was laid out in 1876 by J. B. 
Speed, W. W. Ferris acting as surveyor, who at 
that time was county engineer. The plat was 
never recorded. Watson lies in tract number 
thirty-six of the Grant, is on land owned by the 
Louisville Cement company, and lies on both 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



409 



sides of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad. The 
first enterprise in this vicinity of any importance 
was the Louisville Cement mills, erected in 1871. 
It was this mill which brought the town into 
being. Workmen were gathered here employed 
by the firm engaged in manufacturing cement. 
There sprang up the necessity for a town, some 
place where the laborers could go and call it their 
home; hence this result. Mr. \V. II. Snod- 
grass superintended the building of the mills, 
since which time he has been continually in the 
service of the company. They have a capacity 
of three hundred and twenty-five barrels per 
day. Forty hands are steadily engaged about 
them, and they have four kilns and two buhrs. 
The property is valued at $75,000. There are 
about two hundred inhabitants in the village 
within a radius of a quarter of a mile, many of 
whom are but temporarily settled. 

Thomas J. Gilligan was the first storekeeper 
in the village. He was here in 1S73, an d his 
place of business was near the railroad, on the 
west side. A Dane by the name of Peter 
Christensen followed, dealing in groceries and dry 
goods generally. At present (1882) there are three 
general stores and one drug-store in the village. 
Mr. Henry Struckman, now of Jeffersonville, 
was the first blacksmith. After him came 
Messrs. Dawson and Fox. For their present 
smith they have John M. Williams. 

Watson has two schools, one white and one 
colored. The former stands on the Charlestown 
and Jeffersonville road, is a good brick building, 
erected in 1875 under the trusteeship of Mr. 
William Goodwin, cost $1,000, and has sixty 
pupils in regular attendance. The colored school 
has about forty regular scholars. 

There is here a lodge of the Knights of Honor, 
organized in 1S77. The number of the lodge is 
749; membership, 35. Its hall is 20 x 40 feet, 
and was erected in 1S73. 

Originally there was an Odd Fellows' lodge 
in Watson, organized in 1S75. On account of 
the membership being held mostly at Gibson, 
the place ot meeting was taken there, and is now 
at Prather's. There were also formerly two other 
orders, viz: The Ancient Order of United Work- 
men and the Independent Order of Working- 
men. Loth have disappeared. 

An Odd Fellows' lodge is maintained by the 
colored people; also an African Methodist Epis- I 



copal church. There are two Sunday-schools in 
Watson-white and colored. Both are con- 
tinued throughout the year. 

Watson post-office was established in 1S72, 
with Mr. James W. Stewart as postmaster. 

The second officer was W. H. Snodgrass, who 
also is the incumbent. Mr. Snodgrass is one of 
the storekeepers, many of the cement-mill hands 
dealing at his store. 

What Watson has been, is, and perhaps will 
be, depends greatly on the excellent gentleman 
who superintends the cement-mill. Through his 
efforts saloons have been kept away, churches 
erected, Sunday-schools established, and every 
laudable scheme calculated to foster and encour- 
age the good of society carried into execution. 
We bespeak for this little place a very happy 
existence. 

OLD SETTLFCKS. 

Utica township has had a score or more of 
the oldest settlers in the county. Their names 
are somewhat familiar to attentive readers of pre- 
ceding pages. The Prathers, the Schwartzes, 
the Lemons, the Crums, the Robinsons, the 
Bottorffs, all have taken a prominent part in 
peopling the township with good citizens. We 
give short sketches of the older ones : 

Basil R. Prather, the father of all the Prathers 
in the township, came here from North Caro- 
lina in 1801. His sons, Thomas, William, Wal- 
te'r, Basil R., Jr., Judge Samuel, Lloyd, John, 
and Simon, were all married when they came 
here, except the last-named. They settled 
throughout the township, and formed a class of 
men possessed of many admirable qualities. 

Jeremiah Jacobs came here with his family 
from North Carolina in 1800, and settled -near 
the old fort. His family was large, and its in- 
crease steady. A goodly number of his descend- 
ants are now living in this vicinity, respected 
and hospitable citizens. 

William Patrick was a North Carolinian, com- 
ing here in 1S00. He settled on Six-mile creek. 
His family all disappeared from the township. 
Mr. Patrick was a man of many excellent quali- 
ties. Fie had no enemies among his neighbors. 
He testifies : "What one knew, all knew, and 
our lives here were the happiest in my experi- 
ence." Says an old pioneer : " I have the 
most distinct recollection of our first neighbors. 
They were men and women who worked long 



410 



HISTORY OK THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



and hard, and who brought up around them the 
best class of boys and girls I ever knew." 
• In the fall of 1802 Matthew Cruni, from Vir- 
ginia, settled within one half-mile of the Union 
Methodist Episcopal chinch. He married his 
wife, Miss Margaret Spangler, near Louisville 
in 1800, who bore him one child, William S., 
born October 28, 1801, before coming to this 
township. William S. Crum is now a citizen of 
Charlestown township, just over the line from 
Utica. The marriage of Matthew Crum and 
Margaret Spangler resulted in a family of ten 
sons and two daughters, viz: Polly, who is now 
dead; Christian, James, David, who is also 
dead; Gordan, Joseph, Samuel, Elizabeth, Abra- 
ham, John. When Mr. Crum settled in the 
township, there was not a half-acre cleared on 
the land which he owned. He immediately be- 
gan the work of clearing, and lived to see great 
advancement in the pursuits of the people. He 
died at sixty-five years of age. Mrs. Crum lived 
ten years longer than her husband. 

William S. Crum, the oldest of the family, is 
one of the pioneers of the county. He asso- 
ciates with the Methodist Episcopal church, and 
walks in the paths of truth and sobriety. He is 
now apparently on the decline, and must soon 
pass away. 

John Lewman was born in 1802 in North 
Carolina, and came to Utica township in 1S19 
with his father's family, settling near where Peter 
H. Bottorff now lives. He assisted his father in 
clearing off the land, v and in many other ways 
aided in successful business enterprises. In this 
family there were four brothers and three sis- 
ters. Mr. Lewman was married September n, 
1829, to Miss Mary Grisamore, the issue being 
nine children, six of whom are living. In Jan- 
uary, 1866, he was married the second time to 
Catharine Howard. Mr. Lewman is a success- 
ful farmer, and is the possessor of a handsome 
competency, gained by hard labor. 

Hezekiah Robertson was born in Maryland, 
and came with his father's family to this town- 
ship when fifteen years of age. In the family 
there were six brothers and two sisters. They 
immediately began the work of clearing, living 
here the most of their lives. Fletcher Robert- 
son, one of the oldest citizens of the township, 
was the sixth child, moving here in 1S43, when 
twenty-four years of age. He married Malinda 



Carr in 1S43, a relative of the Cans, General 
John, Colonels John and Thomas Carr being 
her uncles. Mr. Robertson is a successful far- 
mer, residing within one mile and a half of Uti- 
ca, on the Charlestown turnpike. He is sur- 
rounded by all things temporal and spiritual 
which tend to make man happy and respected. 

John and Elizabeth Schwartz came from Penn- 
sylvania in 1802, with a family of four children, 
and settled five and a half miles above Jefferson- 
ville. His vocation was farming. In Indian 
wars he took an active part, but on account of 
his age did no fighting. His death was caused 
by an accident in June, 1S24. Mrs. Schwartz 
lived to be over seventy years of age. George 
Schwartz, one ot the good men of the county, 
resides near the old homestead. He associates 
with the Methodist church, and stands high as a 
successful farmer and business man in the com- 
munity. 

The Bottorffs settled in Utica township about 
the year 1 8 15. In all affairs of the township 
they took a prominent part, and are now among 
the substantial people of the county. One of 
the notable events in the family history is that 
Mrs. Bottorff melted bullets tor her husband, 
when he was preparing to fight the Indians at 
Tippecanoe, while the wolves howled around the 
cabin door. There are at least three hundred 
voters of this family alone in the county at pres- 
ent. 

The original family of Lutzes was from North 
Carolina. David Lutz was father of this very ex- 
tensive generation. They are now scattered 
over the county in considerable numbers. Ail 
are respected and cultured citizens. 

REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

In 1800 the seventeen-year locusts made their 
appearance in Utica in such numbers that the 
proprietors conjectured a plague similar to that 
of Egypt. But they soon passed away, doing 
no damage save killing the small branches of 
forest trees where they had deposited their eggs. 

In 1S01 immense numbers of squirrels crossed 
the Ohio from Kentucky to Indiana Territory. 
To protect crops from the little animals, hunts 
were instituted on a large scale, and prizes were 
awarded to the person killing the greatest num- 
bers. In order that foul means should not be 
employed, every hunter was required to produce 
at night the head of each squirrel taken. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



411 



Early in September, 181 1, a comec passed over 
b'ticafroin noitheast to southwest, causing much 
consternation among the people of the- village. 

The first steamboat passed by Utica, between 
nine and ten o'clock at night, in October, 1S11, 
creating great alarm. After it had passed, the re- 
ality appeared more like a dream. On its arri- 
val off Louisville, about twelve o'clock, the boat in 
letting off steam brought many people from their 
beds to witness the novel sight. The general im- 
pression was that a comet had fallen from the 
heavens into the Ohio. 

December 16, 181 1, occurred the fust of a mem- 
orable series of earthquakes, which affected the 
entire Missisippi valley, They were preceded by 
a rumbling noise, resembling that of distant can- 
nonading followed by its echo. These interrup- 
tions continued up to the 1 st of March, 1812. 
Judge Wood says, "We were much startled. I 
arose and went out of doors, and observed the 
branches of the trees waving as if put in motion 
by a heavy wind. In the house dishes, cups, 
saucers, and cupboard-ware were generally shaken 
from their places, and some broken. The cor- 
ners of our log houses creaked, and everything 
indicated a terrible ordeal going on within the 
earth. Boatmen from the Falls, who were in 
the vicinity of New Madrid, declared their boats 
were carried up stream several miles in conse- 
quence of the upheaval of the Mississippi." 
These remarkable facts are none the less strange 
because happening in a pioneer age. To us to- 
day they would be as startling. Many things 
are likely to happen in a new country, which to a 
pioneer people seem unexplainable with their 
superficial education; and, in many instances, a 
touch of the mysterious has much to do with 
their conception of the real. It can be truly 
said, however, of the people who settled here 
near one hundred years ago, that they were pos- 
sessed of many admirable qualities. The luster 
which gathers around them is undying ; we hope 
the future will be as glorious as the past. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The county commissioners met at Charles- 
| town in the spring of 1S16 and proceeded to 
I separate the northeastern part of the Grant, and 

that portion of territory which had been annexed 
I to it, into four townships, one of which was 

Washington. The following are the boundaries 
1 established by the commissioners, and found in 
! the minutes which they kept: 

For the second and back township, commencing at the 
i mouth of Poke run and running thence with the dividing 
I line between Poke run and Flag run, until it strikes thedivid- 
1 ing ridge between Fourteen-mile creek and Camp creek; 
' thence with s;iid ridge to the upper line of the county, which 

shall compose the back township, to Le called by the name 

of Washington. 

First dividing lines were to a great extent im- 
aginary. It was not till after the township be- 
! came filled up tolerably well that the boundaries 
I were fixed definitely. Early settlers often, dur- 
ing the first few years of preparation foi farming, 
care little for anything except the real necessities 
; of life. The gun supplies both want of food 
: and pleasure. After land begins to reach some 
degree of value, they find out that deeds and 
i legal papers are a necessity. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Washington township possesses no remarkable 
' features. The surface is slightly broken along 
j the streams. On the dividing ridges, from which 
I the headwaters of the creeks flow, the land is 
level, sometimes even to wetness. Between 
! Poke run and Flag run, a distance of two to 
three miles, the surface gently slopes toward each 
stream, though only enough to cause the water 
to flow in either direction. In the vicinity of 
New Washington village the drainage of the 
country is excellent. This part of the township 
is not far from the summit of the corniferous 
, formation of limestone, so common in this part 
of the county. The East and West forks of 
Fourteen-mile creek give the northwestern part 
of the township a surface of various kinds; farms 
are generally tillable and often remarkably well 
provided with springs and streams, which supply 
an abundance of water for stock. There is a 
dividing ridge in the eastern part of the town- 
ship, from which flow the streams that enter the 
Ohio without becoming tributaries to larger ones 



412 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



and those which empty into the East fork of 
Fourteen-mile creek. It is elevated and well 
adapted for grazing- purposes, but not specially 
productive in the grains. 

The surface of the township had much .to do 
with its boundaries. Lines were drawn easier 
by following up streams or along the dividing 
ridges from which they took their course. 
These circumstances combine to give the town- 
ship a very irregular shape. It is composed 
mainly, of sections, except one tier of the Grant 
tracts, which lie along the south side and which 
extend up into Scott county for perhaps a half- 
mile. There are in the township 22,690 acres. 
Total valuation of property about $450,000. 
The township is bounded as follows: On the 
north by Scott and Jefferson counties; on the 
east .by Bethlehem township and Jefferson 
county; on the south by Oregon and Owen town- 
ship; and on the west by Oregon township. "A 
few miles back from the headwaters of Campcreek 
the lands are wet, the soil is light-colored clay 
that holds water." The northern side of the 
township is well adapted to grazing, the soil pro- 
ducing good varieties of grass. " In the vicinity 
of New Washington, the soil is light-colored clay 
and sand, and has a better drainage than the 
lands last mentioned. The line of the drift 
reaches but a few miles south of the road from 
New Washington to Knabb's Station, on the Ver- 
non branch of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad, 
at the line of Scott county. An occasional 
bowlder is seen as far south as the Charlestown 
and Henryville road. The land about New 
Washington is well adapted for wheat, and in 
some localities excellent corn is grown." 

Camp creek, which skirts the eastern side of 
the township, and which derived its name from 
the fact that many ot the traveling bands of In- 
dians encamped near its mouth, in what is now 
Bethlehem township, flows slowly out into the 
Ohio river. As it approaches the river it begins 
to pass through a sort of chute, which no doubt 
was formed during the glacial epoch. It is in 
Bethlehem township, however, that the line of 
drift appears most striking. Camp creek heads 
in Jefferson county. 

Flag run takes its name from an aquatic plant 
which formerly grew in great abundance along 
its bottoms. Many of the early settlers used 
these plants for chair-bottoms, matting, and some- 



times for a rope or halter. For the latter it was 
of little service. This stream flows in a westerly 
course and empties into Fourteen-mile below the 
junction of the East and West fork. 

1'oke run drains the southern part of the town- 
ship, through only in a very limited way. 

On section thirty-six the East and West fork 
of Fourteen-mile unite, foiming the main creek. 
The West fork is much smaller than the East 
fork. It rises altogether in Clark county. Its 
tributaries are few and small, led generally by 
springs, which are very common in this vicinity. 
The East fork takes its rise in Jefferson county 
and flows diagonally through the township until 
it reaches the junction. It has a number of 
tributaries, one of the largest of which is Dry 
run, which also heads in the upper country. Both 
these creeks have a good supply of water during 
the fall and winter months. During the months 
of May, -June, July, and August they are almost 
dry. This was especially true during the sum- 
mer of 1 88 1, when vegetation and stock suffered 
so much on account of the drouth. Years ago, 
before the timber was cut away, mills on the 
East fork ran all the year round. It was only 
after a quarter of a century, when the settlers be- 
gan to consume the timber in various ways and 
prevent the water from standing in ponds and 
settling through the leaves, did these streams fail 
to supply a plentiful quantity of water for milling 
purposes. They are now only made useful by 
dams and races. The bed of these creeks is 
made up mostly of the crinoidal and comiferous 
formation of limestone. Wells are from fifteen 
to fifty feet in depth. The water is pure, crystal- 
like in appearance, and has a delicious taste. 
Springs often gush forth from the limestone, 
which is frequently of a cement character, and 
supply families and stock with a drink as cool 
and refieshing as any in the county. 

"The growth of the timber in the eastern part 
of the township is beech and white oak." Camp 
creek is noted for its buckeye trees. On the 
low, narrow bottom, sycamore and sugar-trees 
are found from two to three feet in diameter. 
In the region of New Washington village white 
oak, beech, and in some localities most excellent 
poplar, are found. "The latter timber is more 
abundant to the south, where the land becomes 
rolling and the limestone begins to show." There 
was never a dense undergrowth. The swampy 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



4'3 



nature of the soil prevented a luxuriant growth 
of vegetation. Pea-vines were never peculiar to 
this township. Thousands of hoop-poles are 
cut yearly and turned into a paying business 
close at home. Railroad ties are also taken in 
large numbers, hewed from the best trees, and 
often sacrificed to agents and speculators at a 
poor, little sum. - 

CAVES. 

New Washington cave, more commonly known 
as Copple's cave, is situated on the east fork of 
Fourteen-mile creek, lying within a farm owned 
by David Copple. The opening is about x 20 
feet, and narrows down rapidly until a passage 
between shelves and rocks is reached, where a 
stream of water makes exploration unpleasant. 
There are no stalagmites or stalactites to amount 
to anything, but calcareous deposits are found 
on. the rocks in the form of flowing drapery. 
One hundred and fifty yards from the entrance 
the ceiling rises to some height, am] climbing up 
one sees upon the left a large chamber not more 
than three feet high. In this sort of basin large, 
rocky pendants make exploration difficult and 
somewhat dangerous. Here are bear-wallows, 
evidently made when the red man traversed this 
scope of country. Farther along one comes 
upon a sink-hole obstructed by rocks. It has 
never been opened, and may communicate with 
a larger cave below. Following the course of 
the cave, one presently comes to a larger low 
opening, similar to "the first. The floor is of 
clay, -and in it are numerous bear-wallows, other 
marks of the animals being plainly visible on 
the low ceilings. This chamber has never been 
fully explored, on account of the low ceiling. 
Standing here, one can see on cither side to 
the distance of thirty feet. Soundings made by 
Professor Elsorn, of Pennsylvania, show that 
there are other passages, but as yet no one has 
ventured to make decisive explorations. 

Close to Copple's cave is Spring cave. It was 
discovered by a dog crawling into the ground 
many years ago. The ground was dug away and 
a fine cavern for spring-house purposes was thus, 
disclosed. This cave is not very large, but there 
are two or three bear-wallows in it. The en- 
trance is a room about fifty feet high and fifteen 
feet wide, with a stream of water passing through 
it. An open sink-hole at the end communicates 



with some other passage below; but it has never 
been full) followed out. 

. On the Taylor farm is another cave, closely 
resembling Spring cave. About thirty yards in 
is a dome-like opening in the ceiling. The hole 
is about five feet in diameter and ten feet in 
height. At the end of this cave are more bear- 
wallows. There is still another cave on the same 
farm, but the opening is covered with' rubbish. 

On Arbuckle's and Robinson's farms are two 
more caves, of which Robinson's has been ex- 
plored several hundred yards. The passage is a 
narrow aisle, with a running stream of water in 
its bottom. In it are numerous red lizards. 
Arbuckle's has a stream also, and a large cham- 
ber, from which a devious passage leads further. 
The mouth of this cave was used for shelter by 
the Indians. Marks of encampment are yet 
plainly visible. In this region are springs which 
issue from rocks, run a short distance, long 
enough to afford splendid water, and then disap- 
pear. To "Bart," of the Jefferson ville Daily 
Evening News, we are indebted for much of the 
above information. 

SETTLEMENTS. 

The pioneers of Washington township settled 
promiscuously. Among the first settlements 
was that of the Robinson neighborhood, on the 
east Fork of Fourteen-mile, about two miles 
above where it unites with the West Fork and 
forms the main branch. It was here that a mill 
was early set in operation. About it the people 
naturally gathered and began clearing. After 
New Washington village was laid out in 1S15, 
settlers generally located so as to be within a few 
miles of the place. Roads were established to 
connect with Charlestowti, the Ohio river, and 
the counties of iScott and Jefferson. The early 
traveler went to Louisville from the counties 
lying above on the tributaries of the Wabash and 
White rivets, by way of New Washington. Most 
of the emigrants took the same route. They 
passed through the village on what was known 
as the Charlestowti road, or else, crossing the 
Ohio at Westport landing, took a different road, 
but passed through the same village after leaving 
the county. People migrated thus for various 
reasons. Southern people changed their homes 
mostly on account of soil, climatic influences, 
and slavery, and these emigrants were, in most 



4M 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



cases, from the South. The Westport road was 
the first in the township. In. passing through 
the country it pronged to different settlements, 
.which acted as a kind of feeders. It ran from 
the Ohio river to Pervine's mill. 

A few years afterwards a road was laid out con- 
necting with Charlestown at Work's mill, on 
Fourteen-mile creek, in Charlestown township. 
Another road made connection with Bethlehem, 
on the Ohio. As the township gradually increased 
in number of inhabitants, new roads were estab- 
lished to meet the wants of the people. From a 
few dozen in 1800 it has risen to about fourteen 
hundred in 1SS1. The crossing of the Charles- 
town and Westport roads, about two miles and a 
half from New Washington, was the stopping- 
place during the night for many of the emigrants 
before the little village beyond supported a tav- 
ern. Flag run flows immediately over the cross- 
ing of the two roads. A little bottom on the 
noriheasl corner made a good camping-ground, 
and the stream supplied teams with water and the 
women for cooking purposes. The road-track is 
but little worn, as it passes over the hard lime- 
stone, which in many places forms the only pro- 
tection against mud, and a good protection it is 
too. These roads are used much, and are in tol- 
erably good condition. The sandy soil absorbs 
the water in this vicinity, and for this reason 
roadways have little grading. During the sum- 
mer months they are even better than turnpikes; 
when winter and spring comes they are frequently- 
impassable, except on horseback. The guide- 
board at the Charleston and Westport crossing 
reads: "Charlestown, ten miles; Westport land- 
ing, six miles." 

Washington township is cut by the Ohio & 
Mississippi branch so as to throw nearly a mile 
of railroad within her boundary lines. Knabb's 
Station is in the very extreme part of the town- 
ship. From it many of the stock-growers ship 
their cattle. As the station is small, it presents 
little matter of importance. The county line 
really. cuts the place into very uneven parts, by 
far the larger of which lies in Scott county. 

As all townships are subject to excitement on 
questions of public concern, so is Washington. 
The fall of 18S1 found the people much inter- 
ested in a proposed railroad from Cincinnati to 
New Albany. It is to be built probably by some 
Fastern capitalists. The indications are that it 



will pass through the township in the country 
about New Washington, on the level upland, or 
lower down, in the bottoms of the Ohio. A 
connecting line between these two points, the 
link of a great thorough (are, would give such life 
and business to Washington township as would 
startle the opponents of public enterprises. , 



As has been said, the first road in the town- 
ship ran from Pervine's mill on Fourteen-mile 
creek to Westport landing, ont he Ohio. William 
Pervine, who was next to John Work in the mill- 
ing business, settled on tract number one hundred 
and ninety-eight of the Grant, as early as 1808. 
He erected a grist-mill on the present site of 
Walker's mills, below the junction of the East 
and West fork. This was four years before the 
Indians threw the country into such excitement 
by their massacre at Pigeon Roost. Pervine 
carried on his business successfully for a number 
of years, in the meantime adding to his establish- 
ment an overshot carding manufactory. The 
site was well adapted for the business. Many of 
the New Washington and New Market people 
came here to get their grists ground. Custom 
work was then the only kind. Such a thing as 
buying grain and grinding it into flour or meal 
was unknown. Shipments were consequently 
small. A consignment of goods was sometimes 
made later in the century. 

Pervine's mill stood on the right bank of Four- 
teen-mile creek. The dam was made of brush. 
After Walker came into possession of it, about 
the year 1815, he changed the dam so as to 
make it of more service, by using stone instead of 
brush for an obstruction. There is now both a 
grist- and a saw-mill combined. During the sum- 
mer months it is run by steam power. Water 
supplies the motive power during fall and winter. 
The site is a good one, and considerable work is 
done for farmers in this section. The mill is old 
and has the appearance of age and use. Below 
Walker's mill a few hundred yards a handsome 
iron bridge crosses Fourteen-mile creek, on the 
road leading to New Washington. 

Fifty-five years ago, on Camp creek, two miles 
east of New Washington, Jacob Bear, who came 
from Virginia, carried on the milling business. 
His sons, however, built the mill, he coming on 
after it was erected. The mill was of the over- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



4i5 



shot style and was used at first for grinding pur- 
poses only. The old mill site is still used, but 
■the motive power is steam. It is now known as 
the Hutsell mill, and has been in running order 
for more than twenty years. 

After a few years, in which Mr. Lear supplied 
the people generally by his Camp Creek mill, 
another, known as the Robinson Settlement 
mill, sprang up on the east fork of Fourteen-mile 
creek, about two miles above the junction. The 
best authority on milling history in Washington 
township, Mr. Jacob Tafiinger, says that the 
workmen came from the East several times to 
assist in mill erection. Mr. Lear probably had 
control of the Robinson Settlement mill at first, 
though by various changes it passed out of his 
possession. Finding out in a year or two that 
the water supply was irregular, a mill-site was 
selected further down the stream at the head of 
Fourteen-mile creek proper. The fust mill put 
up at the junction was built by James Atwood, 
about 1823 or 1824. Mr. Jacob Tafiinger, who 
was a millwright and carpenter by trade, came 
into possession of it in 1S30, but not before it 
had passed through several hands successively. 
The bargain was made so as to include a piece 
of land. Since 1830 the Tafiinger mill has been 
in operation, though at various times stopped 
temporarily during the summer months. It is 
owned by Jacob and Daniel Tafiinger jointly, 
who came here with their father's family many 
years ago. There is a saw-mill attached to the 
grist-mill, run in summer by steam-power. 
Grinding and sawing are done four days each 
week. 

In 1820, one mile and a half south of New 
Washington village, Filer's horse-mill did con- 
siderable custom work. It was larger than most 
horse-mills of that time. Two, three, or four 
horses were hitched to a long sweep, and in this 
way supplied the power for grinding. It was in 
operation for four or five years. 

STIIL-HOUSES, ETC. 

The distillation of whiskey and brandy was 
among the first undertakings of the pioneers. 
Their manufacture was often made profitable by 
trading with the Indians for furs, who, at this 
time, belonged to the disaffected tribes in the 
region of Vincennes and Kaskaskia. Still-houses 
were always common. Many of the mills had 



stills attached to them; they often did much to 
draw custom. The majority of them were lo- 
cated on Fourteen-mile and Camp creek, the 
only streams of any size in the township. Jacob 
Lear had a still-house, or, at least, manufactured 
whiskey in connection with milling on Camp 
creek. Near Walker's mil! Fitch and Helter- 
bridle, though different proprietors, carried on . 
distilling. They were here more than fifty years 
ago. Samuel Montgomery, William Fisher, and 
many others engaged in the same business. Ja- 
cob Cobble manufactured whiskey on Fourteen- 
mile creek, near New Washington village, at an 
early day. Jesse Henly, a prominent man in the 
affairs of township and county organization, had 
a public still-house. His was of the cold-mash 
kind, and had from fifteen to twenty tubs. It 
was used mostly by the country people, who paid 
a certain per cent for toll. The old site is now 
marked by what is known as the Cave spring, 
from which Henly's still-house received its sup- 
ply of water. In connection with the copper 
stills he ground wheat and corn for the New 
Washington people with an overshot water-wheel 
thirty feet in diameter. Cobbie's distillery was 
also used by the public. Corn at this time pro- 
duced about three gallons of whiskey per bushel. 
James Owens, Andrew Bowers, and James Smith 
were among the first distillers. They were 
located mostly on Fourteen-mile creek. One of 
the interesting features of Smith's still-house was 
a water-wheel with cow-horns attached to it, so 
as to carry the water up into a trough which car- 
ried the water to the interior of the house. . 

Leach brandy was largely manufactured in this 
township by the early settlers. Leaches grew in 
abundance when the township was cleared and 
agriculture was first turned to attentively. They 
now have little success in quantity or quality. 

Lerhaps the oldest and most profitable tannery 
of pioneer history was one owned and run by 
Abram Kimberlain, in 1812-13, anc ^ for a few 
years afterwards, at what is now Knabbs Station, 
on the Vernon branch of the Ohio & Mississippi 
railroad. Tanyards were not quite as common 
as still-houses ; yet they were scattered through- 
out the country in great numbers. It would re- 
quire a statistical table to give them properly. 
Lawrence's tannery in New Washington, how- 
ever, was a very successful one. It ran from 
1S20 to 1840. 



416 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



FORTS. 

In this age it seems strange- that our forefathers 
would engage in whiskey-making before any 
general action should be taken to protect them- 
selves against the barbarities of the red man. 
But surh was the rase. It was not till the 
Pigeon Roost massacre in 1S12 that people be- 
gan to realize that they lived on the frontier ; 
that decisive measures must beemploved, if their 
homes and farms were to be preserved against 
the Indians. Pigeon Roost is not more than 
six or seven miles from Knabbs Station. It was 
natural people should become alarmed on ac- 
count of their safety, when such atrocities were 
committed so near home. 

Jesse Henly, -assisted by his neighbors, erected 
a block-house on what is now the Charlestown 
and New Washington road, two miles and a half 
south of New Washington village, in 1S12. The 
house stood near the mouth of Henly's cave, 
from which a plentiful supply of water was fur- 
nished. After the excitement went down, and 
the people who had crossed the Ohio into Ken- 
tucky returned to their homes and began once 
more the old way of living, the block-house was 
abandoned. It has entirely disappeared. The 
old Henly farm is now owned by Mr. William 
Works. 

Mr. Pervine put up a fort on Fourteen-mile 
creek near his mill. It, too, has long since 
passed away. 

On Frederic Fisher's farm, one mile north of 
NewWashington, a block-house was erected in 
181 2. There was one also where Colonel Mar- 
tin Adams now lives in a little settlement called 
Hookertown, but which has entirely disappeared. 

Colonel Adams himself put up a private block- 
house. In it the family lived 'for a year or two, 
and then returned to their old but more comfort- 
able log cabin. 

The Indians seldom gave the white settlers in 
Washington township any trouble, except a few 
pretty thefts which they committed, and which, 
fortunately, the settlers were always able to bear. 

CHURCHES. 

After the excitement caused by the Pigeon 
Roost massacre had passed away, people began 
to turn more of their attention to religious and 
educational matters. The Universalists were 
among the first religious bodies in the township, 



but they never had any thoroughly organized 
class. As early as 1 Si 2, Adam Power, who 
livid two and a half miles west of New Wash- 
ington, had preaching at his house by Univcrsal- 
ist preachers from Kentucky. After the Christian 
church was established in this community, they 
became members of that denomination. . 

The Presbyterian church on Camp creek, 
three miles east of New Washington, known as 
the Pisgah chapel, was erected more than forty 
years ago. For some time before and after the 
congregation built their house of worship, the 
class prospered. When the controversy came 
up which afterwards divided the members into 
two congregations, the enthusiasm of both sides 
resembled the worship of Baal more than the 
Lord God of Elijah. The Old School Presbyte- 
rians went to New Washington, and the New- 
School retained possession ot the church build- 
ing. Among the first members were Alexander 
Walker, John Henderson, and John Matthews, 
with their wives and families. Parson Todd, 
who came from Virginia, Revs. John Dickey 
and William Robinson, the latter of whom came 
from Madison, Indiana, were early preachers. 
The old members have died; the old church 
has succumbed to time and the elements, and is 
no more. A school-house in the neighborhood 
affords a place of worship and, in the pleasant 
months of the year, a room for holding Sunday- 
schools. The first members of the Pisgah chapel 
were true, devoted Christians, men who were 
guided by a conscientious regard for law and 
justice. 

BURVING-GROL'N'DS. 

On the Charlestown and New Washington 
road, on a little eminence near F'lag run, Jesse 
Henly laid out a small graveyard as early as 
1S07, on his farm. At this time there were few 
graveyards in the country. The health was gen- 
erally good, except some fever and ague, which 
was often quite common in the fall. There is in 
the inclosure perhaps a quarter of an acre. It 
has been filled up almost to its full capacity, but 
yet people bury their dead in it frequently. Mrs. 
Jesse Henly was the first person who was buried 
in it. A good stone fence protects the evergreens 
and flowers from the outMde world. Everything 
looks tasty and in conformity with modern ideas. 
A number of handsome monuments are particu- 
larly attractive. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



4i7 



The old Walker graveyard, which is now on 
Colonel Martin Adam's place, was used as early 
as 1S14. It was then surrounded by the woods, 
having been located in the midst of a strong 
growth of beech timber. The location was 
probably determined by the death of Mary Polly 
Adams, who. was the first person buried within 
its present limits. William Pervine and his 
daughter were the next who were laid to rest 
under the shady beech and oak. This old grave- 
yard is now but little used. Its like is seldom 
met in the history of Clark county. 

Fouts's grave-yards, now known as the Barnes 
burying-grounds, on the forks of Fourteen-mile 
creek, were used by the settlers fifty or sixty 
years ago. Squire Jacob Fouts, who lived near 
the East fork of Fourteen-mile, had at first a pri- 
vate burying place. It was afterwards used by 
the neighbors and came to be regarded as pub- 
lic property. The other, laid out by a relative 
of Mr. Fouts, perhaps a brother, was situated on 
the West fork of Fourteen-mile creek. Both sus- 
tained about the same relation to the public. 
They are now among those things of bygone 
days which in history must ever be regarded with 
affection, and which are reminders that we must 
all pass away. 



The first school which was kept in the vicinity 
of Colonel Martin Adams, was taught by Stephen 
Mulchings and a Mr. Reed. Its location is now 
fixed by the old Walker burying-ground. All 
the Adamses, Bottorffs, and Needhams gained 
their education here. John Reese, one of the 
Baptist preachers of early times, frequently 
preached to the people in this school-house. He 
also preached in the school-house which belonged 
to his district. William Gulick, who married 
Miss Sallie Adams, was the first teacher, or 
among the first teachers. He taught for many 
years afterwards in the adjoining townships, and 
belongs to that class of men who first brought 
the public-school system to rules. 

On the Charlestown and Westpou cross-roads, 
at the northwest corner, a district school is well 
filled with the boys and girls of the community. 
On the northeast corner a saw-mill, owned by 
Mr. Godfrey Bradley, runs most of the time. 

It was on this little body of bottom land that 
die northern-bound emigrant rested during the 



night, while on his way to the upper Indiana 
counties. 

Washington township has nine school districts 
and about four hundred and fifty school children. 
Educationally, it is well up with the other town- 
ships. Her school-houses were always. rude- af- 
fairs during the pioneer age. Since the State 
school law came into force, school-houses have 
been fashioned after more modern patterns. 
They invariably look well. 



There never was more than one regularly laid- 
oul village in Washington township. Its isolated 
situation seemed to preclude any idea of future 
greatness. But there naturally sprang up a de- 
sire to have a township center, a place where 
people could vote, where ammunition and gro- 
ceries could be bought, and where Christmas 
shooting-matches could be held. David Copple. 
Bala Johnson, and Adam Keller, who owned 
land in the vicinity of New Washington, were 
the first persons who made a successful attempt 
to found a village. New Washington is admir- 
ably situated. It was laid out in 1815 by the 
three persons above-mentioned. There were 
one hundred and twenty-eight lots, each 90x150 
feet. Eight lots were given for public purposes, 
and the proceeds of their sale turned into a 
fund for churches, schools, and the grading of 
streets. They were located on the first square 
northeast of the center of the town — for it was 
a town of size which they had planned. In 1819 
Johnson made an addition on the west side of 
nine lots of the same size as those surveyed at 
first. Mr. Todd made an addition of thirty- 
three inlots and twelve outlots, in 1879, on the 
south side, the former 90x1 00 feet. 

Adam Keller, who came from Wales, with his 
wife and a part of his family, was one of the 
first citizens of New Washington. He after- 
wards moved to Shelby county, Indiana, where 
he died. 

Bala Johnson came from Kentucky, farmed for 
a living, and, after a life of much fruitfulness, died 
near his ideal village. 

David Copple was a farmer. He came from 
one of the Carolinas. Absalom Frazier, another 
early citizen, a wheelwright and edge-tool-maker, 
was here before 1S20. He erected a steam grist- 
mill sixty-odd years ago in the village, to which 



4i8 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



he afterwards attached a saw-mill. He was a 
man of considerable ability, and aided much in 
the improvements of New Washington. 

Five years after New Washington was laid out, 
it had grown to be a thriving village of perhaps 
one hundred inhabitants. This resulted mainly 
from its location on the great thoroughfares 
which led to Madison and Lexington, over which 
hundreds of emigrants passed yearly. At one 
time there were striking evidences of a brilliant 
future. The knobs on the west and the Ohio 
river on the east, almost compelled the traveling 
public to take this route. Of course taverns 
sprang up with stores and produce exchanges. 

John Lowder, who came from Kentucky, was 
among the first who kept a house of entertain- 
ment. After him came Joseph Bowers, Jacob 
Duges, Robert Tilford, William Robinson, and 
others. Their public houses were in various 
locations, but all had striking resemblances to 
each other. 

Mr. Elijah Frewett, who came from Kentucky, 
was the first storekeeper. 'The kind of a store 
which he kept, was a general produce exchange, 
a place where butter, eggs, chickens, hides, and 
so on, were given for groceries and a few of the 
coarser dry goods. Esquire Bower dealt out 
groceries to the pioneer citizens for a number ot 
years. Solomon Davis, who was here in 1S40, 
carried on storekeeping on a large scale. At 
that time the village had as many as six different 
firms who were engaged in the same business. 
Christopher C. Cole and Berlin Spooner had a 
small stock of tobacco and groceries in connection 
with the post-office which they kept, about three or 
four years after the village was laid out. But 
stores in New Washington have always been 
governed by varying circumstances. They gener- 
ally change hands every few years. It can be 
truly said no one ever made an independent for- 
tune by commercial business within the bound- 
aries of New Washington village. 

Blacksmiths have always found steady employ- 
ment in the village, if industrious. Five years 
after the town was platted, Charles Downey, of 
New York State, opened a shop and attended to 
the wants of the public. James McHenry fol- 
lowed soon after, as also did William Charleton 
and Andrew Robinson. G. L. Harper, a good 
artisan, and one whom everybody respected, was 
here for a long time. He died only a year or 



two since. Blacksmith shops here, like the 
stores, were often temporary. They depended 
to a great extent on the social qualities of the 
smith, as well as the excellent work which he did. 
Thomas Colvin is the present village smith, 
though another shop can be used if business 
should demand it. 

As one enters the village coming in on the 
Charlestown road (the old county seat lies twelve 
miles south), the traveler is struck by nothing of 
decided importance, except the Fresbyterian and 
Christian churches. The former stands in the 
eastern part of the town. Its fences are in a 
needy state, the weather-boarding needs paint, 
and the whole building a thorough going-over. 
There is no bell. This class is tha\ part of the 
Fisgah Fresbyterian church which was designated 
as the Old-school. 

The Christian church is a little more modern 
in appearance, as well as younger in years. It 
has a tin-covered cupola, with an oval-shaped 
crown, which glitters in the sunlight. The 
cupola can be seen for several miles, if standing 
at an angle so that the rays of the sun strike the 
observer properly. The Christian church is 
larger than the Presbyterian. It was organized 
about the time of Alexander Campbell's refor- 
mation, and its first members came mostly from 
the other denominations. 

The Baptist church in New Washington was 
built in 1820, and was the first house of worship 
in the village. It was made of hewed legs. Its 
furniture was old-fashioned, and its members 
more zealous in good works than anxious to 
have easy seats and polished discourses. It was 
the Baptist church to which most of the early 
settlers belonged. Jacob and Lewis Fouts, 
Jacob Woods, and their families were early mem- 
bers. Many of 'their preachers came from the 
adjoining counties. John Wright, a man of 
much natural and acquired ability, was perhaps 
the most distinguished of all their ministers. He 
came from Washington county. Freachers who 
rode the circuits — many times extending over a 
tract of country fifty to two hundred miles in 
length — always made New Washington a stop- 
ping place. It was then this church was in its 
prime. Its members were generally from the 
best people in the country, people who were 
known by their common, hard sense, who paid a 
debt as readily without as with a note. After 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



419 



the old log building became unfit for use, a neat 
frame was erected to take its place. 

John Reese was an old Baptist preacher in the 
country about New Washington. He preached 
mostly in school-houses .and the houses of the 
pioneers. Joseph Reese and Charles Johnson 
were members; but they, with a number of 
others, were finally taken into the Christian 
church. It seems that the first preaching of this 
old denomination was begun in the neighborhood 
of Colonel Martin Adams's large farm — at least 
John Reese did considerable preaching in this 
section before New Washington was laid out. 
After the village had grownto some size, the class 
naturally located centrally — hence the church of 
1820. Sixty-odd years have made many changes 
in the regularity of this ancient sect. The 
church in New Washington is in a semi-conscious 
state, many of its first members having died, 
moved off, or become connected with other re- 
ligious organizations. But it leaves behind it a 
legacy richer than the wealth of Crcesus. 

The Methodist Episcopal church, a small brick 
building, was erected in 1S33-34. It was never 
powerful either in numbers or wealth; but it had 
a spiritual strength which has survived to this 
day. William T. Lawrence and Thirston Davis 
were two of the first and most influential mem- 
bers. Their preachers were generally those who 
addressed the people of Owen, Bethlehem, and 
adjoining townships. It is in the Methodist 
church that the only Sunday-school of New 
Washington is held. Here all classes go regard- 
less of creed, and the school is tolerably well sus- 
tained. It was organized twenty-five or thirty 
years ago, but has during that time passed through 
many changes. 

Sunday-schools in the village were at one 
period very prosperous. When the place was 
thriving and business returned good dividends, 
Sabbath-schools flourished. When business 
lagged, Sunday-schools dragged. The time will 
come, probably, when they will be revived and 
be made to take a firmer stand than ever before 
m the religious matters of New Washington. 

The Seceders' church, an offshoot of the estab- 
lished Church of England, was at an early day 
quite successful in the village. Its members 
came from England and were mostly grown 
when they arrived here. For a few years preach- 
ing was held occasionally in the neighborhood. 



After the old members died, their children, who 
generally connected themselves with some other 
denomination, let the church of their parents 
pass out of existence in this community, as far 
as any regular body was concerned. In Jeffer- 
son county this denomination is quite numerous, 
and from this territory a preacher will Come oc- 
casionally and address the people in this sec- 
tion. There are three things about which all 
persons like to think for themselves — politics, 
religion, and love; and it is to be regretted that 
few care so little for moral questions and all 
things which lead us to think more of God and 
the future. 

The first school house in the neighborhood 
was built of logs. But it was not long until a 
very decided move was made to establish a 
school which would furnish a thorough educa- 
tion. In the original plat there was a public 
square. It was soon divided into lots, which 
were sold at auction, and the money turned into 
a fund for building a seminary. As the square 
was well situated, a handsome amount was re- 
alized from its sale. A good brick building was 
erected, 40 x 50 feet, with a cupola, good fences, 
and other necessary attachments. But the en- 
thusiasm which more than anything else caused 
its erection, soon subsided. The founders of 
the village could not risk too much to accom- 
plish the desired result. After a number of 
years of varying success, the school began to 
lag in interest and numbers. Parson Brownlow 
and David Graham, the latter a son-in-law of 
Colonel Martin Adams, were the first teachers, 
and did much to place the seminary on a sub- 
stantial foundation. The classics and all the 
sciences were taught, and it seemed at- one 
time that the road to fame was wide and easily 
traveled. 

After about ten years of use as a seminary 
the building was taken by the public school 
authorities, and since 1840 has been under their 
control. There are now two teachers and from 
seventy-five to one hundred scholars. 

Twenty-five years ago a Masonic lodge was 
organized in New Washington. Among the 
charter members were John and Dougan Fouts, 
Robert Tilford, and Harney Campbell. The 
lodge prospered for a time — as long as the vil- 
lage prospered — and then began to droop. 
There are now some thirty members. A. M. 



420 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Fouts is W. M.; John C. Fouts, secretary. The 
Masonic hall has been used recently by the 
Granger society. But it, too, is not active and 
full of that spirited determination which charac- 
terized the early life of this order. 

When Pervine carried on milling on Fourteen- 
mile creek, before New Washington was laid out, 
the post-office was kept at his mill. It had few 
wants to meet. People wrote few letters, and 
newspapers were almost unknown. One of the 
best authorities on post-office affairs says that the 
mail was delivered here as early fts 1S00; but it 
is improbable, because it was not till 180S that 
Pervine's mill was erected. As soon as New 
Washington had grown to have fifty or sixty in- 
habitants, the post-office was located in the vil- 
lage. It was near the year 1817 that the change 
was made. Christopher C. Cole and Berlin 
Spooner were the first postmasters. The office 
was in the east end of the town, in a little log 
house. Joseph Bower was postmaster for more 
than twenty years. He was a justice of the 
peace at the same time, which office he held for 
more than forty years. Mails were carried at 
first on horseback, and went by way of Charles- 
town, New Washington, and Madison, though 
the starting point was Jeffersonville. As the 
mail-carrier went along, he distributed letters at 
way offices. They were often of little import- 
ance, but had to have communication with the 
great, busy world on the Ohio, and the thorough- 
fares in other parts of the county. A stage-route 
was established about twenty years after the vil- 
lage was laid out, which took the same road as 
that followed by the horsemen. For some time 
it paid well. The prosperity of this enterprise 
was also determined by the prosperity of the vil- 
lage. Robert Tilford acted as postmaster for a 
while. He belonged to the new era of post- 
office life. The mails of New Washington are 
now carried three times a week on a route starting 
at Otisco and ending at Bethlehem. 

New Washington at first was the rival of 
Charlestown. Its situation in the northern part 
of the county, however, was a great hindrance 
to its final result. Charlestown was located near 
the centre of the county, and for this reason had 
a decided advantage. Many of the first and 
foremost physicians, nevertheless,' made it their 
home. Lawyers she had none. Dr. Samuel 
Adair, who came from Ohio, was here soon after 



the village was platted. His practice was in the 
adjoining and home counties. Dr. Philip Jolly, 
who came from the same State, was here about 
1S2S or 1S30. He was an excellent physician, 
and his practice extended for miles in all direc- 
tions. A familiar remark was, "Yonder goes 
Dr. Jolly again." Dr. Solomon Davis was here 
for a number of years, but his practice was not 
extensive. . In the village now there are three 
practicing physicians— Drs. Samuel Adair, David 
Haymaker, and David Allhands. 

The Indiana Gazetteer for 1833 had something 
to say of this village, with its name somewhat 
abridged, as follows: 

Washington, a post-town in Clark Co., about 12 miles 
N. K. from Charlestown. It lias about 150 inhabitants. 2 
taverns, 3 mercantile stores, and several mechanics of various 
trades. 

New Washington village has now about two 
hundred and fifty people, engaged mostly in ag- 
ricultural and mercantile pursuits. There are 
two main streets, which are those leading to 
Charlestown and Madison. Four stores are 
in operation, doing considerable business in the 
way of exchange and cash sales. It may hap- 
pen that the new railroad, which will probably 
be built before a great many years, will pass with- 
in a mile or less of the village. If so, there will 
be an awakening in trade, and the oldest citizens 
may yet see their birthplace taking a proud posi- 
tion in the commercial and social affairs of the 
world. 

OLD SETTLERS. 

Colonel Martin Adams came from Kentucky 
with his father in 1S08, and made improvements 
on a small tract of land near where he now lives, 
two miles south of New Washington. They re- 
turned in the spring of the following year, and 
with the family moved to Terre Haute, Indiana, 
where they resided till 181 1. There were thir- 
teen in the family. General Harrison was en- 
gaged at that time in trying to conciliate the In- 
dians on the frontier. It was on this account 
that the family moved to Washington township. 
In the spring of 1813 Mr. Adams enlisted as a 
ranger to fight the Indians on the borders, and 
made several campaigns. On the iSth of August, 
1825, he married Miss Jane H. Davis. The 
Davises came from Kentucky and settled in Jef- 
ferson county, Indiana. There is but one of her 
brothers, out of a family of twelve children, living 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



421 



in this township at present. He resides on the 
New Washington and Bethlehem road. 

Colonel Adams gets his title from the office 
which he held during the mustering times of the 
State militia. He held it till the law which gov- 
erned these gatherings was repealed. In all pur- 
suits which bring wealth and pleasure, Air. 
Adams has taken a prominent part. He was en- 
gaged as a flatboatman on the Ohio for twenty- 
five years, in the meantime accumulating a hand- 
some competency. There is no other man in 
Washington township so thoroughly acquainted 
with pioneer incidents as Colonel Adams. His 
record is worthy of imitation by the youth of 
to-day; his character, as also his wife's, is with- 
out blemish. 

J'acgb-Taflinger, Sr., was born in \ Trginia, and 
came to Clark county in 1S29. Two years pre- 
vious to moving he had bought a ttact of land 
on the line now dividing Oregon from Washing- 
ton townships. His family consisted of his wife, 
whose maiden name was Barbara Kline; his 
sons, Joseph, Daniel, John, and Jacob, and 
daughters Elizabeth, Sarah, Lydia, and Nancy. 
The journey was made in a four-horse covered 
wagon, with the familiar white top. After arriving 
on the ground, it was found to be unprofitable 
for agriculture on account of the slough and 
undergrowth. During the night in which they 
encamped on the ground, a violent storm set in 
and almost drowned the family. On the follow- 
ing morning they proceeded to Charlestown 
township, stopping at the residence of James 
Worrel, who at that time lived one mile and a 
half west of Charlestown. Arrangements were 
soon made to visit other parts of the county, and 
to secure, if possible, a site favorable for a mill 
and also convenient to form the first purchase. 
After some search land was bought in the neigh- 
borhood of Robinson's settlement, one mile and 
a half above the head of Fourteen-mile creek. 
In a few days the family moved and began the 
work of clearing. Jacob Taflinger, Jr., was by 
trade a carpenter and millwright. He assisted 
in rebuilding the old Robinson settlement mill, 
and did considerable work in building houses 
and barns. He was born on the 2d of August, 
1800, and has traveled much and learned by 
experience what the early schools failed to im- 
part. The greater part of his life has been em- 
ployed in erecting and rebuilding mills through- 



out the United States. He became noted as a 
man of strong passions, but of generous heart. 
•He speaks with much pleasure of his milling 
experience and the achievements which he has 
made during his eventful life. Daniel, his elder 
brother, was by nature of a more retired disposi- 
tion, but none the less characteristic. Both 
these brothers live at the head of Fourteen-mile 
creek; Joseph resides in the west; Lydia and 
Sarah are married; the remainder of the family 
are dead. 

Jacob Ratts, an old settler, came from Wash- 
ington county, Indiana, more than fifty years ago. 
He married John Fouts's sister, and has re- 
mained in this township ever since. ' 

John Russell lived in Washington village in 
1811. He was a Revolutionary soldier, and died 
many years ago. 

Henry and William Robinson came from Nel- 
son county, Kentucky, in 1S14, in company with 
father, mother, five brothers, and three sisters. 
The former was born December 31, 1S03; the lat- 
ter February 9, 1S06. The family settled on 
the road leading from New Washington to Beth- 
lehem on their arrival. Since this time they have 
been residents of this township. At times they 
were citizens of New Washington village and deal- 
ers m groceries and dry goods, and then again 
farmers. Both have retentive memories, and re- 
late many incidents with pleasant recollections. 

Jesse Henly was one of the wealthiest men in 
the township in 181 1. He bought this land in 
most instances from the Government. At the 
time of his deatli he owned twenty-one hundred 
acres. 

William Montgomery, a man who took much 
interest in all township questions, was the father 
often sons and three daughters. A large number 
of his descendants are now living in this county. 

Joseph Robinson, a powerful man, six feet tall 
and two hundred pounds in weight, belonged to 
the early settlers. 

The Foutses came from North Carolina; their 
descendants are scattered in many parts of the 
United States. 

There has been a marked change in Washing- 
ton township within the last fifty years. The men 
and women, who did so much in clearing off the 
forest and preparing the way for the present gen- 
eration, have nearly all died. The gray-headed 
men of today were boys when the above men- 



422 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



tioned reminiscences were present facts. The 
time will soon come when old pioneers will he no 
more'; when old mills, still-houses, tanneries, tav- 
erns, and all those things which made up the ear- 
ly history will pass away. 



CHAPTER XX VII. 

WOOD TOWNSHIP. 
ORGANIZATION'. 

Wood is a "township which lies in the ex- 
treme western side of the county. It is 
bounded on the north and west by Wash- 
ington county; on the east by Carr township, 
except one tier of sections along the north side, 
which lies adjacent to sections in Monroe; and 
on the south by the county of Floyd. The 
township was established in 1807, the date of the 
first settlement, but it was not till 1S16 that the 
boundaries were set forth as follows, as recorded 
in the repoit of the count} commissioners: 

Ordered, that a township be struck off, commencing on 
the Grant line where 250, 235, and 234 corner; thence south 
forty degrees east with the line of Charlestown township; 
thence with the line of JeffersonviHe township to the top of 
the knobs; thence with the knobs to where the lines of 
Washington and Clark county intersect ; thence with the 
said line crossing to the line crossing the road leading from 
Charlestown to the town of Salem, in Washington county, 
via Jonathan Watkins ; thence with the road aforesaid 
mentioned to the township line of Charlestown, which shall 
compose and form one township, called Wood. 

The township, as it was bounded in 1816, dif- 
fered much from its present size and shape. 
From its east side Carr township has been 
taken' off almost entirely. Since the county lines 
have been straightened up, especially that one 
described as following the "knobs to where the 
lines of Washington and Clark county intersect," 
a much better understanding has been had in 
reference to the general lie of the country. 

TOPOGRAPHS 

This township has nearly all kinds of soil, ex- 
tremes of warmth and cold, hills and valleys, tim- 
ber, and wealth hidden among the bowels of the 
earth. Says the Geological Report of Clark and 
Floyd counties: 

The New Providence vallej, lying at the base of the tall, 



cone-shaped knobs, which were, called "SiUer Hills" by t'.ie 
early settlers, extends from hill to hill in graceful curves. 
This valley is about eight miles long and oneor two wide. In 
this valley may be recognized two distinct deposits. The 
older layers belonging to the Champlain epoch originally gave 
the valley an elevation twenty to twenty-five feet above the 
present level. The more recent deposits are from the shifting 
of the streams and washings from the side hills. A section 
of the older deposits taken from the surface would be as fol- 
lows; First, alluvium soil; second, ochreous beds of many 
colors; third, fine-grained sand, suitable for colored glass; 
fourth, coarse gravel and sand, with fossils and limestone. 

The bed of Silver creek, in this valley, was at one time on 
a higher level than at present, and has shifted its course and 
cut down the clays of the valley to its present position. The 
weathering of the knobs, shales, and sandstones has fur- 
nished pebbles which have been borne down by the floods 
from the hills, and, filling the bed of the creek, has altered 
its course from time to time. The spurs at the foot of the 
knobs, called points, indicate the former level of the valley 
and the course of the lateral washings. The shifting of the 
creek has thus created a rich surface loam, enriched by the 
decaying leaves and other vegetable matter from the hillsides 
with a deep subsoil of gravel. This soil is well suited to 
the growth of all the staple farm products, and the growing 
crops are not materially affected by drouth. Apples do well, 
and strawberries grow to great perfection, as well as all other 
small fruits. The water in the streams and shallow wells of 
the valley is noted for its softness. It does not decompose 
soap, and is as much used as rain-water for laundry purposes, 

The forest growth of the valley comprises the red mulberry, 
the white mulberry, the pawpaw, the persimmon, sugar 
maple, and sugar-tree. Among the original growth of timber 
of the valley was walnut; of the hills chestnut, which was 
very abundant, and the nutting time of the year was a real 
harvest. But now, on account of the waste of timber, the 
chestnut crop is small. We hope the time is not far distant 
when the ruthless hand will not lay waste the noble forests as 
formerly. There were found also white and blue ash and 
prickly ash, beech and wild cherry, elm, sassafras, sycamore, 
and many other species. 

The timber of the hills consists of chestnut oak, white oak, 
red oak, black oak, post oak, pine, black hickory, white 
hickory, dogwood, poplar, water maple, gum, and sumach. - 



The Muddy fork of Silver creek is the princi- 
pal stream in the township. Its tributaries are 
the Dry fork, Gil^s branch, Morris branch, and 
Kelleys branch. Mr. Rellows says: 

Once thick woods bordered the banks of these streams, 
woods almost impenetrable ; and once, too, the settler dared 
not venture upon them after nightfall, lest a wolf, or bear, or 
catamount, or wild Indian might pounce upon him toe sud- 
denly to admit of defense; or, perhaps, a coiled serpent 
might be in waiting for him in the rank weeds chat carpeted 
his pathway. When I see no more the herds of deer which 
once pastured upon these hills and in this valley, making 
great roads to the licks and springs, I am astonished, lost, 
can scarcely believe in its reality. Likewise I am astonished 
that the stream which winds its way down our valley ever 
received the appellation of Muddy. One thing is certain, it 
deserves not the epithet. Its waters are pure and silvery and 
no stream can boast of purer water. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



423 



SETTLEMENTS. 

The exact date of the fn.st permanent white 
settlement in the township is imcertain-r-at least 
we have no satisfactory record by which it can be 
determined. Whether George Wood was the first 
white man who settled in the township we cannot 
say; but it is quite certain he was among the 
first. Wood emigrated north in 1802 and set- 
tled near Charlestown, where • he resided till 
1807. He then removed to the Muddy F"ork 
valley, and settled for life one and a half miles 
below where New Providence was afterwards lo- 
cated. George Wood was a native of South 
Carolina ; he died ten. or twelve years after re- 
moving to this township. 

Soon after Wood came John and Robert Burge, 
James Smith, Matthew Barnaby, Moses Harman, 
Elijah Harman, James Warman, and Simon 
Akers. To protect themselves from the savages, 
a block-house was erected on George Wood's 
farm in 1S08. After this means of defense be- 
came generally known, John Giles, Jonathan 
Carr, and Samuel Harrod came, accompanied 
by their families. In 1S10 John McKinley, of 
Shelby county, Kentucky, settled in the same 
valley; in 1S11 Samuel Packwood came from 
Shenandoah county, Virginia. The Bulges, 
Harmans, Smith, and Barnaby emigrated from 
North Carolina; Giles and Akers were from 
Kentucky; likewise Warman and a man named 
Frederick Gore and others. Carr and Harrod 
were from Pennsylvania. Harrod had two sons, 
William and Henry. The former was by trade a 
miller, and for many years owned a notable mill 
on Silver creek. Henry for several years was 
clerk of Clark county. 

Again in 1813 came James McKinley, brother 
to John, whose name we have already mentioned. 
William Packwood, brother to Samuel, came in 
1819. These were the parents and grandparents 
of many sons and daughters now in this region, 
and well known far and near. 

We also mention others who acted their part 
well. Of these we will name Charles Robert- 
son, James Baker and brother [esse, Micah 
Burns, Thompson Littell, William Kelly, Michael 
Borders, Christopher Morris, William Gibson, 
James Johnson, and brother Lancelot, James 
Brown (who came from North Carolina in 1S24 
at six years of age and settled in the Silver Creek 
valley with his father's family), John Bell, George 



Brock, Isaac Baggerly, Cyrus Bradford, George 
Goss, and David his brother, John Goss, Mat- 
thew West, Thomas Halow, mostly from the 
South. Robertson was from Virginia, and the 
Bakers from South Carolina; Burns was from 
Vermont; Littell and Bradford were from New 
York State; the remaining ones whose names 
have been mentioned, were from North Caro- 
lina. 

Esquire Samuel Flay, grandfather to Miss Ada 
Hay, a well-known school mistress of Clark 
county, settled in the Dry Fork valley, near the 
confluence with Muddy fork. He was the first 
magistrate of the township, who, by the way, 
while hearing charges against offenders, sat on a 
large beech stump in front of his house, which 
he denominated the " seat of justice." The 
Gosses settled on the hills some three miles west 
of the block-house. The Backwoods settled 
principally in the valley of Muddy fork, bat 
two or three miles above the blockhouse; 
Messrs. Littell, Warman, the Baker brothers, 
Robertson, John Burge, and Burwell Gibson, 
with several others, from one to two miles below 
the block-house; the McKinleys, Bells, John- 
sons, Akers, Bradford, and a few more, on the 
hills some two miles south of the central point. 

Elijah Harman was bitten by a rattlesnake 
near Fowler's gap, where he was found dead, 
and was here buried. Samuel Harrod died soon 
after his arrival in the county. His grave is one 
mile above New Providence, on the hill east of 
the barn and near the base line on the farm now- 
owned by J. D. Hum. Giles settled on that 
tributary of Muddy fork called Giles branch, after 
whom it was named. When settlements began to 
increase he, having a roving disposition, " pulled 
up stakes" and went farther west. A few others 
of like disposition followed. 

Morris settled on the branch bearing his name, 
where also he lived to a good old age, leaving 
many children and grandchildren. Keliey set- 
tled on the hill at the source of the branch bear- 
ing his name, where, also, not far below the house 
in the valley he had a salt well, from which for 
several years, though weak in minerals, he made 
salt. The well at present is filled with debris, as 
it has been since the death of Keliey, many years 
ago. 

The tributary called the Dry fork was so called 
on account of its almost destitution of water in 



424 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



summer. Frederick Gore settled on the hill near 
its source; so also did others, and several immi- 
grants in the valley. 

Many of the early settlers were of a roving 
disposition. After the township had filled up so 
as to' have from three to five hundred citizens, 
the emigration fever overtook them, and many 
were induced to remove further west. 

John Borden, his brother Stephen, and Henry 
Dow took the lead. The Bordens were from 
Rhode Island ; Dow from Connecticut. This 
was in the spring of 1817, soon after the Terri- 
tory of Indiana had been admitted into the sis- 
terhood of States. The Indians, too, had taken 
up their line of march and found a home further 
west. Block-houses were therefore now no more, 
nor of any serious consequence. Dow purchased 
land; so also did John Borden. Dow returned 
to his home in Connecticut. Borden having laid 
out the town of New Providence, naming it 
after Providence, Rhode Island, returned home 
also. In 1S18, leaving his children, two or three 
in number, with relatives in his old State, ac- 
companied by his wife and Joseph Cook —a 
young man of influence and respectability, and 
by trade a blacksmith — he removed to this 
so-called land of promise. Dow came in 181 9, 
bringing with him John Fowler, a son-in-law, and 
an unmarried daughter, also two sons unmar- 
ried, and Henry, a son who was married — alto- 
gether about sixteen men, women, and children. 
William Brannan, a man of wealth and respect- 
ability, with a large family, came soon after 
Dow, from New York. Banannel Shaw and 
family from Rhode Island, soon followed Bran- 
nan. Then came Thomas Bellows. His family- 
was composed of his mother, then a widow; 
two sisters, Lydia and Laura; a brother, David; 
and of course his wife and children. The com- 
pany in which the Bellowses came was composed 
of Samuel Hallett and Silas Standish, with their 
families; Joseph Durfy and Peleg Lewis, with- 
out families, all from New London county, Con- 
necticut. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

Roads abound, as do meeting-houses and 
schools. Outside of these, says Mr. Asa M. 
Bellows, we have very little of which to boast. 
Churches were generally erected by individual 
donations; school-houses by a provision made by 
law for appropriating a limited per cent, of the 



State school fund to this use. School houses in 
early. times were constructed of round logs; sub- 
sequently of hewn logs, and finally of sawed 
lumber, framed. The first school-house built in 
the township was of round beach logs, erected 
in New Providence in 18 18, on the public square. 
The second school-house in the village was put 
up in 1827, and the third in 1868. 

Roads are established chiefly by the county 
authorities, under the regulations of the State 
"laws for the establishment and support of pub- 
lic highways.'' Originally these highways were 
mainly bridle-paths. One was a State road, 
rough and stumpy, leading from Jeffeisonville 
through New Providence to Salem in Washing- 
ton county. Until some time in the forties, when 
our Legislature gave it to the railroad company, 
it was of almost infinite value. Subsequently it 
has been of very little worth, the railroad having 
monopolized the travel and tiansportation of 
almost every article of trade. 

George Wood was the proprietor of the first 
grist-mill. It was known as a draft corn-mill, and 
was built in 1S08. The second was a tread-mill, 
built by Henry Dow in 1828; the third, a steam- 
mill, built also by Henry Dow, Sr., in 1833; to 
it was attached a carding machine. In 1868 
Christopher Fisher built a first-class steam fiour- 
ing-mill, which at present belongs to James A. 
Burns. 

The first saw-mill in the township was erected 
by Henry Dow, Sr., in 1820. It was of the over- 
shot pattern, and was erected on Kelley's branch, 
about one mile and a quarter from its confluence 
with Muddy fork, at New Providence. A good 
steam-mill is at present the property of James A. 
Burns. 

POST-OFFICES. 

The New Providence post-office was estab- 
lished in 1S26. Tilly H. Brown was the first 
postmaster. Mr. Brown was a Presbyterian 
minister, a man of respectability and many fine 
natural abilities. His attention was turned in 
this direction, and through his efforts the office 
was secured. Brown's term of office lasted for 
one year, at the expiration of which Samuel Hal- 
lett became postmaster, serving until r829. 
Joshua W. Custer came next, who probably 
served until 1837. Then came Isaac Shaw, 
who served until 1S53. Maxwell Littell and 
James McKinley followed, each serving about 




































s 





















HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



425 



four years, or until 1861, when Mr. Shaw re- 
ceived the appointment again. He served till 
1S63. Charles Robinson and Samuel Day fol- 
lowed, and in 1867 T. S. Carter, who served 
about four years. Mr. Carter delivered his office 
to Prosper Henry, who served until 1876, when 
he turned it over to Thomas A. Myers, who is 
the incumbent, January r, 1882. 

TAVERNS. 

As pertains to tavern-keeping Mrs. Lydia 
Borden, consort of John Borden, deceased, took 
the lead. From 1824, the time of her husband's 
decease, she continued the business under her 
own auspices until her decease in 185 1. Subse- 
quently traveling by horseback and in vehicles 
has been almost entirely superseded by railroads, 
and tavern-keeping rendered a nullity. 

STORE-KEEPERS. 

The first store-keeper was John Borden, Sr., 
who when he came from the East in 1818, 
brought goods with him, and for several years 
supplied the citizens with such articles in the 
dry-goods line as they needed. Isaac Shaw fol- 
lowed, with a few others from time to time, but 
Shaw held the ascendency and maintained his 
position. Although himself poor, beginning 
with a mere pittance, compelled to purchase very 
few articles at a time, only what he could bring 
from Louisville on horseback in a pair of saddle- 
bags, he became at last a trader of very large 
experience and of considerable wealth. Mr. 
Shaw died in 186S, in his sixty-eighth year. At 
present there are two dry-goods stort'S — one kept 
by T. S. Ransom, the other by H. Shoemaker; 
also a first-class provision store, kept by George 
W. Miller, a drug store by Drs. Stalker & 
Jones, and a shoe-shop by Edward McKinley. 

SALOONS. 
Once, says another, it was thought that man 
could not live and be a man without the use ot 
whiskey; consequently whiskey shops were li- 
censed for man's sake. Of late, however, our 
citizens have been trying the experiment of living 
without saloons. The names of licensed dealers 
we dare not mention. 

COOPERING 

has ever been a leading trade in this township. 
Thomas Goss is now prominently engaged in 
making barrels, and ships extensively to Chicago 
and other points. 



TANNERIES. 

Samuel Packwood, Sr., was the first tanner in 
the. township. This was in the year 1812, or 
soon after. In 1S23 a regular yard was opened 
by John Borden, Sr., with Butler Dunbar as 
principal workman. Soon afterwards it passed 
into the hands of James McKinley, who carried 
on the business several years. After the elder 
McKinley came John McKinley, Jr., and finally 
Samuel McKinley, who is at present carrying on 
the tanning business quite extensively. 

Ul.ACKSMITHS. 

William Howard and Joseph Cook took the 
lead. John Akers, Wesley Breedlove, and Elihu 
W. Daskies followed, but we have no reliable 
data by which to determine when or how long 
each one served. At present (1882), and for 
several years past, John K. Vance, William H. 
Mayes, and Thomas Bell have been serving the 
people. Vance and Mayes have connected with 
their shops, wagon and carriage-making depart- 
ments. 

PHYSICIANS. 

Mr. Bellows says: 

No physicians of note ever came among us to settle as practi- 
tioners until! 1 860 or thereabouts. About that time came Drs. 
Francis and M. Mitchell, both of New Albany. Prior to that 
time the people when sick were compelled to send to Green- 
ville, in Floyd county, or to Martinsburg or Salem, in Wash- 
ington county, the distance to the former being eight miles, 
to Martinsburg five miles, to Salem twelve. Mitchell having 
remained with us about four years, returned to New Albany, 
and Dr. William Bright of Martinsburg took his place. Dr. 
Bright remained a short time, returned to Martinsburg, and 
in i860 was succeeded by Dr. Christopher C. Clark, of 
Washington county. Clark, having remained with us several 
years, became desirous to go west. He sold out to Dr. Ben- 
jamin F. Stalker, of Washington county, who in company 
with Dr. Cadwallader Jones, of Washington county, has 
opened a drug store in our village. 
MISSIONARIES. 
The Rev. Mr., Dickey, a minister belonging 
to the Presbyterian church and a resident of 
Charlestown or vicinity, was the first, or among 
the first of these, his labors dating from 1819. 
Others followed, ministers of different denomina- 
tions, among whom were William Shanks, of the 
Methodist Episcopal church; Elder Thompson 
Littell, who at that time was a Missionary Baptist; 
Revs. Aaron Farmer, Benjamin Abbott, Thomas 
Ellrod, and others of the United Brethren 
church; James Blackwell, T«hn A. McMahan, 
George W. Edmondson, and others, of theCum- 
berland Presbyterian church— all residents of 



426 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Indiana, and all, or nearly all, now gone to their 
reward. But their labors followed them. The 
■ bread cast upon the waters returned in due sea- 
son. Many professed their faith in Christ, and 
hence sprang up regular church buildings. 

CHURCHES. 

The Baptists took the lead in time and mem- 
bers, and with Elder Thompson Littell as 
preacher, it thus continued for twenty years, or 
until, 1833, when the reformation under Dr. 
Alexander Campbell carried it, as if by storm, to 
utter extinction. The organizations made up of 
United Brethren and Presbyterians, not being 
able to support a pastor, have finally become ex- 
tinct. The Methodists and Missionary Baptists 
each have a small house. The Baptists have for 
their preacher Elder William McCay ; the Meth- 
odists are supplied by itineracy or circuit preach- 
ing. 

The Reformers or Campbellites have three 
large congregations in the township — one at New 
Providence, with Elder Enoch Parr pastor; one 
at Pleasant Ridge, two miles south of New Provi- 
dence, without a regular pastor; and one at Mud- 
dy Fork, three miles below, with Elder Absalom 
Littell, Jr., as pastor. In early times, or during 
the pioneer age of this church, Thompson Lit- 
tell, Absalom Littell, Sr., John Wright, Jacob 
Wright, and Lemon Martin distinguished them- 
selves as "wise master builders," or what they 
called the church. But long since they left the 
field. 

Mr. Bellows says of the Sunday-schools: 

The first Sabbath-school was founded here in 1824 or 1825 
— a long time ago, when we were ten years of age. For our 
school-room we had a house of round beech logs. Mrs. 
Sarah White and Miss Laura W. Bellows were teachers. 
Both were Presbyterians. Having the love of God in their 
hearts, they were induced to gather together the urchins of 
the village ar.d teach them how to live and how to die. Thus 
a nucleus was formed, a kernel, which has already produceda 
tree of ample dimensions, which is destined to flourish yet for 
generations. Rev. Tilly H. Brown, of the Presbyterian 
church, who came here in 1826, took charge of the Sunday- 
school during that year. He also took charge of our district 
school, and preached for $100 a year, wood and provisions 
found. And to encourage the pupils red cards were pur- 
chased, also a library. Red cards were valued at a cent each, 
blue ones at six for a cent. Six verses, memorized from the 
Bible or sacred poetry, entitled the pupil to a blue card. Six- 
blue cards would entitle him to a red card, with which, when 
he had a sufficient number, he could purchase a book. But 
this system gave the preference to the large scholars, the 
small ones not being able to compete with them ; hence it 
was abandoned. At present the international system is fol- 



lowed. Subsequent to 1826 the school flourished, but al- 
ways under adverse circumstances. At interval:, it was 
necessarily suspended. In 1850 I became surperintendent, 
and conducted it some three years almost alone. Among the 
Christian fraternity of those tunes there were many to op- 
pose. Subsequently, or from 1851 to 1856 or thereabouts, 
Professor W. W. Borden took the lead as superintendent 
and teacher, with myself as assistant. Then for a time John 
A. Littell, followed by Dr. Benjamin F. Stalker, who up to 
1882 is yet serving. 

SCHOOLS. 

Parents, even in those early times, believed 
that the best legacy was a good education. 
Hence, in after years, when settlements were add- 
ed and neighbors settled in close proximity to 
each other, the spirit of the age was largely in 
favor of schools and school-houses. It affected 
the whole country; therefore the present genera- 
tion have benefits, privileges, and suitable text- 
books, which their grandparents and parents 
knew nothing about. 

Mr. Moses Wood, a brother to George, the 
founder of the township, taught the first school 
in 181 1. 

Many of his scholars were in for Christmas fun. A plan 
was arranged by which the teacher was to be ducked in the 
creek unless he treated to whiskey, apples, cider and cakes. 
The boys took possession of the school-house before day- 
light, and awaited the arrival of their teacher. Wood ar- 
rived and demanded admittance. The boys said: "No, not 
till you treat." Other pupils arrived; some were in favor ol 
their teacher, and some in favor of the chaps within. And ' 
thus day after day passed, until the holidays were well nigh 
ended, when the master did treat, and school began again 
Those who were on the teacher's side w ere scoffed at by those 
who gained the victory, and also by the teacher, because they 
were not heroic enough to stand up for their rights. And we 
will add, this practice of turning out teachers continued unti 
1825, when a man named Ransom was in charge. His pu- 
pils took possession of the house and demanded a treat 
Ransom raised the alarm; his employers came to his assist- 
ance, and finally an old man named Burritt succeeded in 
breaking in the door with a large pole. Burritt ordered the 
teacher to march in, reminding him that if the boys con- 
tinued unruly, to send for him and he would settle them. 
This broke up the fun of turning out school teachers. Never- 
theless those parents who supported the fun became quite 
saucy and threatened to "secede" and set up a school of their 
own. Upon due consideration it appeared that there were 
not enough to support a new school; consequently the boil- 
ing heat subsided, and the fire went out. Neighbors became 
more and more allied to each other, and in 1829 they joined 
hearts and hands and erected a respectable hewed-log school- 
house. It stood upon the public square, and until i863 served 
as a school- and meeting-house jointly. 

Tilly H. Brown followed Ransom in 1S26, 
teaching one year. During the winter of 1S27 a 
man named William Sparks, from North Caro- 
lina, taught. In the winter of 1S2S Joshua W. 
Custer, of Virginia, taught for three months; and 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



427 



then in 1829 for one year, or a school season; in 
1S30 Charles A. Carpenter, of Virginia ; and 
after this, at different times, Asa M. Bellows, 
Evan Baggerly, and many more whose names 
cannot be recalled. 

VILLAGES. 

New Providence was laid out in 1S17, by 
Stephen, John, and Asa Borden. In the center 
of the village is a public square, which lies at 
right angles with the Muddy fork of Silver creek. 
It is situated on the Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago railroad, eighteen miles from New Al- 
bany; and in north latitude 3S' 23' 41"; west 
longitude 8° 32' 46". There are about three 
hundred inhabitants in the village at present, with 
two dry-goods stores, a first-class provision store, 
a drug store, two millinery shops, one tavern, 
one tan-yard, one shoe shop, three blacksmith 
shops, a cooper shop, one saw-mill, one grist- 
mill, two churches, one belonging to the Bap- 
tists, the other for all denominations, one school- 
house, two physicians, and one dentist. As a 
shipping point it is not exceeded by any station 
of proportionate size along the railroad. 

But the most intersting history of New Provi- 
dence is in the people who made up its early 
residents. The Wood family, of which we have 
spoken, was here early and took an active part in 
laying the foundations for the future greatness of 
the little settlement. In this household there 
were five boys, Benony Paxton, James Noble, 
John Milton, George, and Sharon, and four 
girls, Millie, Nancy, Sarah Ann, and Margaret, 
all of whom are dead. Benony married and 
raised a family, but it is scattered; George emi- 
grated to Arkansas; James Noble and Sharon 
died unmarried in young manhood. 

John Milton Wood was the first white child 
native to the township. He was born June 25, 
1S08, and died March 2S, 1869. Millie married 
Dr. James Porter, by whom she had one child, a 
daughter, but that daughter has a home in the 
sunny South, parents both dead. Nancy married 
Joseph Cook, by whom she had two sons, Wil- 
liam and George, who also lived to have families. 
The children are mostly in the Far West. Sarah 
married Manoah Martin, by whom she had two 
sons, Richard R. and George W., who at present 
occupy the old homestead. Margaret married 
William Hallett, and raised several children, but 
with their parents they are all dead. 



When the Woods came to this country the 
.site which New Providence occupies was a dense 
beech forest. After the town was platted it was 
increased about once every year by a log b.irn, 
ox-shed, or pig-pen. Here and there were open- 
ings wherein was erected a round beech-log 
house, covered with clapboards, and round logs 
placed upon them for weight poles. Floors and 
doors were made of puncheons split from logs, 
about four or live inches thick and hewn straight. 
The doors were made by pinning with wooden 
pins transverse bais to the puncheons, and 
swinging them on wooden hinges. Fire-places 
were large and spacious, made mostly of small 
timbers notched at the ends and well daubed on 
the outside with mud. On the inside a wall was 
built of stone. The spaces between the logs were 
chinked and daubed so as to keep out the cold. 

There was a dense growth of noxious weeds 
and plants, which caused an almost fatal malaria 
for several years. The climate was not congenial ; 
chills and fever prevailed; and, worse than all, a 
bilious fever of a fearful, malignant type, from 
which very few had the good fortune to escape. 
Thomas Bellows and his brother David were the 
first to become its victims. Only two months 
had elapsed after their arrival in the country to 
the death of Thomas, and less than five to the 
death of David. These deaths threw the family 
into destitute circumstances. Asa M. Bellows, 
who was at that time but five years of age, the 
oldest male member in the family; his mother, 
Mrs. Thomas Bellows; his grandmother Bellows, 
two aunts, Lydia and Laura; Thomas S., his 
brother, aged three years; and a sister, Louisa 
S., aged about seven months, made up the family. 
"They were left in the wilderness without a home 
and poor prospects of obtaining one." Time 
passed; the winter of 1818 came and went, the 
mildest, perhaps, the family had seen since cross- 
ing the Alleghanies. The next year a bountiful 
harvest was produced, and the family hencefor- 
ward began to prosper. 

But it was the Borden family who played the 
most important part in the history of New Prov- 
idence. They too met with sickness. Mrs. 
Borden died in 1S20, about eighteen months after 
her arrival in the township. William Branson 
and his son George, with three of his daughters, 
soon followed. Perils, however, did not discour- 
age the Bordens, made up as they were of men 



42} 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



who possessed determined characters. On the 
contrary their lives were full of enthusiasm and 
inspiration. The forest, weeds, and underbrush 
were removed, letting in the sunshine and invit- 
ing the pleasant breezes. Health came to reward 
their toil. In the midst of the wilderness corn- 
fields sprang into existence; gardens, meadows, 
and orchards followed, and cattle were soon 
seen feeding in the valleys and on the side-hills, 
in great numbers. 

Samuel Hallett and Silas Standish purchased 
farms and acted their part well. Peleg Lewis 
married Mrs. Thomas Bellows, and purchased 
land one mile from New Providence. Here they 
lived together fifty-two years, raised a family, and 
died octogenarians. John Borden married Lydia 
Bellows, by whom he had two sons — William YV. 
and John, both of whom are living. Professor 
W. W. Borden was assistant State geologist under 
Professor E. T. Cox, and to him we are much 
indebted for valuable information. Both of his 
parents are dead. Mrs. Professor William W. 
Borden died in the fall of 1881. 

New Providence is one of the neatest villages 
in the county. It lies in the Muddy Fork valley, 
midway between the knobs. Everything looks 
tasty and substantial. The future is certainly very 
promising, with such an abundance of natural 
wealth, which lies hidden in the hills within sight. 

OFFICERS. 

We give below a list of civil magistrates, begin- 
ning with Micajah Peyton and Samuel Hay, the 
first in the township, from 1816 to 1S24; Sam- 
uel Hallet and George Akers, served from 1S24 
to 1830; Isaac Shaw, 183010 1S51; Lancelot 
Johnson, 1823 to 1827; John McKinley, 1852 
to 1856; William Hallett, 1S48 to 1856; Thomas 
S. Bellows, 1856 to i860; W. Porter, 1S64 to 
1870. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

JEFFERSONVILLE-CIVIL HISTORY. 

Clark County—Early Court Records— The Bar— Erection of 
Jeffersonville Township — The City — Civil List. 

Clark county was organized February 3, 1801. 
Soon after, on the 7th of April, 1801, the first 
court in the new county, the court of quarter ses- 
sions of the peace, was held at the now aban- 
doned town of Springville, a short distance below 
Charlestown. The persons present at this court 
were Marston G. Clark, Abraham Huff, James 
N. Wood, Thomas Downs, William Goodwin, 
John Gibson, Charles Tulcy, and William Har- 
wood, Equires. The county boundaries had 
been defined in the proclamation of Governor 
William Henry Harrison convening the court. 
The persons present produced a general com- 
mission appointing them judges of the court of 
general quarter sessions and took oath accord- 
ingly. At this court General W. Johnston, gen- 
tleman, produced his license as an attorney, and 
was admitted to practice before the court. 
Samuel Gwathmey was qualified as clerk of the 
court and prothonotary of the court of common 
pleas and clerk of the orphans' court of the 
county. 

But one case was brought befoie the court, 
that of Andrew Spear and Robert Wardell, 
charged with having stolen sundry goods from 
the house of John and James S. Burtis, but the 
evidence proving insufficient they were dis- 
charged. 

At this session of the court the boundaries of 
the three original townships were defined. These 
townships were Clarksville, Springville, and 
Spring Hill. As the section of the county now 
being considered is comprised within the original 
boundaries of Clarksville, the boundaries of that 
township only are given in this connection, as 
follow : 

Ordered, That the county be divided into three town- 
ships, the first to begin on the Ohio opposite the mouth of 
Blue river; thence up the Ohio to the mouth of Peter Mc 
Daniels' spring branch; from llience to [in] direct course to 
Pleasant run, the branch on which Joseph Bartholomew 
lives, and down that branch to the mouth thereof; thence 
down Pleasant run to where the same enters into Silver creek ; 
thence a due west course to the western boundary of this 
county; to be called and known by the name of Clarksville 
township. 

Constables for the three townships were ap- 
pointed as follows: For Clarksville, Charles 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



429 



Floyd ; Springville, William F. Tuley ; Spring 
Hill, Robert Wardell. 

On the second day of its session the court ap- 
pointed Joseph Bartholomew, Peter Stacy, and 
James Stewart as commissioners to levy a' tax for 
the county, they to serve respectively one, two, 
and three years. Appraisers of property were 
Isaac Holman and Charles Bags for Clarksville ; 
William Coombs and Absalom Little for Spring- 
ville; and John Bags and John Owins for Spring 
Hill. Supervisors of public roads and highways 
for Clarksville were Leonard Bowman and Wil- 
liam Wilson. Commissioners, George Hughes, 
James Davis, and Francis McGuire. In addi- 
tion to these were appointed house viewers and 
overseers of the poor. 

Uniform rates of ferriage across the Ohio river 
were established to prevent extortion, and ferry- 
keepers were required to attend to the duties of 
their place or their license would be revoked. 
The rate established at this time was as follows: 

Ordered, That the ferry-keepers of the ferries now estab- 
lished in this county across the Ohio river, observe the fol- 
lowing rates for the transportation of the following persons 
and property across the river, viz: For a man, woman,- or 
child, 12 J; cents ; for each horse kind, 12 \i cents ; for everv 
head of neat cattle three years old or upwards, 12% cents ; 
for all cattle under that age 9 cents ; for each sheep, goat, or 
hog, 4 cents ; for every wagon or four-wheel carriage. $1 ; 
and for every other carriage, of two wheels, 50 cents ; for 
goods, wares, merchandise, lumber, etc., $1 for each boat 
load. 

At the same time rates were established gov- 
erning the ferry acioss Silver creek, which 
empties into the Ohio below the town of Clarks- 
ville. 

Orderf.p, That the keeper of the ferry across Silver creek 
at the mouth thereof observe the following rates for persons 
and property ferried across said creek, viz : For every man, 
horse, or neat cattle, 9 cents ; for each sheep, hog, or goat, 
6# cents ; for every wagon or four-wheel carriage, 50 cents ; 
for every other carriage of two wheels, 25 cents ; for goods, 
wares, nierch»ndi:e, lumber, etc., sotcents for each boat 
load. 

The ferry across Silver creek, kept by George 
Hughes, was taxed twenty-five cents for the year; 
that across the Ohio, kept by Major Robert 
Hoyd, was taxed $7 for the year; that across the 
Ohio, kept by Richard Terrel, $4 ; that by Sam- 
uel Oldham, $4 ; and that by James Wood 
at $5. 

A road was opened from Clarksville down the 
nver to a point convenient to cross the Ohio 
above the Falls, which was surveyed by William 
Wilson. 



The years following were fruitful of roads, 
which were laid out from various points of set- 
tlement to strike the river at some one of the 
several ferries already in operation, and from the 
town of Springville to various points. 

The first session of the court was not of long 
duration, and made but a beginning in organiz- 
ing the work to be accomplished in the future. 
The second term commenced in July, 1S01, at 
which time occurs the record of the first licenses 
for tavern keeping. Already travel to this Terri- 
tory had became brisk, notwithstanding the 
many hardships to be encountered before the 
Indians and wild beasts could be driven away or 
exterminated, and the weary wayfarers needed a 
place where some of the conveniences of life 
could be obtained. The early taverns, like the 
cabins of all the early settlers, were rude affairs 
at the best, built in a substantial manner, afford- 
ing protection from the inclemency of the 
weather and little more. They were generally of 
hewed logs, chinked and daubed with mud, the 
roof of clapboards held in place by means of 
logs laid lengthwise of the roof and securely 
pinned to their places. The flooi was of pun- 
cheons split from some smoothed-grained tree, 
rough wooden benches for seats and tables. 
The bed in one corner of the house, raised from 
the floor by means of a crotched stick at one 
corner, the other corners resting on the logs at 
the sides of the building. A large fire-place 
usually occupied nearly the whole of one end of 
the room, with a stick and stone chimney to 
carry off the smoke. When a bright fire burned 
in the wide open hearth the weary travelers could 
find such sweet repose on an improvised couch 
on the floor as many of their descendants might 
envy. Haid work and coarse fare made the 
pioneers healthy, and dyspepsia never caused a 
sleepless night. Such as this were the homes of 
the settlers and the taverns for the wayfarers. 
Generally a barrel or jug of whiskey was con- 
sidered an indispensable adjunct to a well kept 
hostelry, and when the teams were cared for all 
gathered around the blazing fire and enjoyed a 
short evening of rest. 

Licenses for keeping taverns were granted by 
the court, in which the applicant was recom- 
mended to the Governor of the Territory as a 
proper person to keep a tavern. The first person 
so licensed by this court was George Jones, who 



430 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



kept tavern in the house he occupied in Clarks- 
ville, and which was the property of Horace 
Hcth. Davis Floyd was also licensed at the 
same time to keep a tavern in the same place, 
the fees for the same being deducted from his 
pay as a member of the board of commissioners 
of the county. 

At the April term of court in 1802 Philip 
Hart was appointed constable in Clarksville 
township in place of Charles Floyd; and Leon- 
ard Bowman and Charles Baggs were appointed 
supervisors of public roads and highways of the 
township; William Smith and John Douthart 
were constituted appraisers of property, to list 
for taxation all property valued at $200 and over. 
To settle the accounts of the supervisors of 
highways the court appointed William Smith, 
John Douthart, and Benjamin Redman. The 
fence viewers appointed were Abraham Epier, 
Francis McCuire, and Thomas Furgerson. 

In 1802 the seat of justice for Clark county 
was removed to Jeffersonville, and on petition of 
the inhabitants most interested a road was laid 
out from Springville to Jeffersonville. This road 
crossed Mill run below Leonard Bowman's, to 
intersect the road from Esquire Wood's ferry to 
Springville, passing to the left of Peter Stacy's. 
At this session of the court, held in July, it was 

Ordered that on Saturday, the 4th day of August next, 
the court w ill receive proposals for building a jail for this 
county agreeably to a plan which will then be exhibited. 
That a copy of this order be stuck up in the most public 
places in this county. 

A special session of the court of general quar- 
ter sessions for Clark county was held in Jeffer- 
sonville on Saturday. August 14, 1S02, at which 
were present Marston O. Clark, James N. Wood, 
and William Goodwin. A plan for a jail was 
adopted and filed with the clerk of the court 
until the 19th of August, at which time the con- 
tract for the construction of the buildings was 
let to the lowest bidder. William Goodwin be- 
ing the lowest bidder, to him was awarded the 
contract, with Davis Floyd as surety on a bond 
of $900. Mr. Floyd was deputed to select the 
site for the building. 

The next regular session of the court was 
held at Jeffersonville on Tuesday, October 5, 
1802, at which time Roadomick II. Gilmer was 
admitted on his certificate to practice as coun- 
sellor at law. The next day Aaron Bowman was 
recommended to the Governor of the Territory 



as a suitable person to keep tavern in the town 
of Jeffersonville, his bond being $200. 

At the session of January 5, 1803, a contract 
was awarded William Akins to build a jailor's 
house adjoining the county jail on the north. 
This house, as well as the jail, was built two 
stories in height, of hewed logs, with plank 
floors, stone chimney, and a fire-place in each 
room. 

George Jones was licensed to keep a tavern in 
Jeffersonville, at the April session of the court. 

John Barnaby was appointed constable in 
Clarksville township in place of Philip Hart ; 
Isaac Holman and John Douthitt, supervisors; 
R. K. Moore and Leonard Bowman, overseers 
of the poor and appraisers of property ; John 
Ferguson, William Smith, and B. Prathcr, com- 
missioners ; and Abraham Epler, Thomas Fergu- 
son, and Peter Ater, fence viewers. 

A change was made in ferry rates allowing 
keepers of ferries across the Ohio river in this 
county seventeen cents for each single hoise, or 
horse without a rider, and twelve and one-half 
cents for cattle of any description. Ferries this 
year were taxed from fifty cents to $5. 

A road was surveyed from the west end of 
Market street in Jeffersonville to Clark avenue 
in Clarksville. 

SOME EARLY TRIALS. 

In early days life was held to be of small 
value, if the records of the court be taken as 
evidence. Particularly was this the case if the 
life sacrificed was that of an Indian. At the 
court of oyer and terminer and general jail de- 
livery held for the county of Clark, in Indiana 
Territory, on Thursday, April 1, 1802, one Moses 
McCan was presented for trial on charge of 
killing an Indian. The indictment preferred by 
the grand jury is given below: 

That Moses McCan of said county, yeoman, not having 
the fear of God before his eyes, but being moved and seduced 
by the instigation of the devil, did on the 16th day of Jan- 
uary in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and two, at the hour of five in the afternoon of the same day, 
with force and aims at Claiksville, in the county aforesaid, 
in and upon an Indian man of the Shawnee tribe, in the 
peace of God and the United States then and there (the said 
Indian not having any weapon drawn, nor the aforesaid In- 
dian not having first stricken the said Moses McCan) felon- 
iously, maliciously, and of his malice aforethought did make 
an assault, and that the aforesaid Moses McCan, with a 
certain tomahawk made of iron, of the value of $2, which 
the said Moses McCan in his right hand then and there had 
and held, in and upon the head of the said Indian 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



13' 



strike, giving to the said Indian one mortal wound of 
the breadth of two inches and of the depth of one inch, of 
which. said mortal wound he, the said Indian, on the day 
aforesaid died; and so the jurors aforesaid do say that the 
said Moses McCan him, the said Indian, on the said 16th 
day of January in the year aforesaid at Clarksville aforesaid 
in manner and form aforesaid, feloniously, maliciously, and 
of his malice aforethought did kill against the peace and 
dignity of the United States; and the said jurors further 
present that the said Moses McCan not having the fear of 
God before his eyes but being moved and seduced by the 
instigation of the devil, on the 16th day of January, in the 
year first mentioned, at the time of five o'clock in the after- 
noon of the same day . . make an assault, 
and that the said Moses McCan with a certain poking-stick 
made of the value of five shillings, which the said Moses 
McCan in his right hand there and then held, in and upon 
the head of the said Indian . . . did strike, 
giving to the said Indian and therewith the said poking-stick 
aforesaid in and upon the head of the said Indian one mor- 
tal wound of the length of two inches and of the depth of 
one inch, of which he, the said Indian, on the day aforesaid 
died; and so the jurors aforesaid upon their oaths aforesaid, 
do say that the said Moses McCan, him then said Indian on 
the said 16th day of January in the year aforesaid at Clarks- 
ville, in the county of Clark in manner and form aforesaid 
feloniously, maliciously, and his malice aforethought, did 
kill, against the peace and dignity of the United States. 

The prisoner was bound in the sum of $100, 
and two sureties in the sum of $50 each, to keep 
the peace for the term of one year. George 
Wood and George Huckleberry became his sure- 
ties and McCan was released. Such was justice 
at that time. 

At the same term of court William Fitzgerald 
was brought before the grand jury charged with 
killing an Indian man, one Quatansaugh, by 
striking him on the back of the head with a 
wooken stake. Fitzgerald was indicted and his 
trial set for the next session of the court, Sep- 
tember3o, 1802, at which time he entered into 
bonds to keep the peace, in the same manner as 
McCan, and was discharged from custody. 

There was among certain of the inhabitants a 
feeling of hostility against the Spanish posses- 
sions in the South, and we find that Major Davis 
Floyd, and others, rested under suspicion of be- 
ing instigators of an armed expedition to take 
possession of that portion of the country. This 
was at the time Aaron Burr was connected 
with the conspiracy to found an independent 
republic. On the journey down the river he 
niade a short stop at Jeffersonville. Major Floyd 
and John Berry were brought before the court 
charged as above, but on trial were declared not 
guilty. 



The first person naturalized under the laws of 
the United States in this portion of Indiana Ter- 
ritory was Nicholas Coster, a native of Holland, 
who produced proof before the session of court 
held July 5, 1S08, that he had resided in the 
United States since the year 1800, and in this 
Territory four years. He was therefore admitted 
to all the privileges, rights, and duties of a citi- 
zen of the United States. 

The crime of horse-stealing was deemed a great- 
er offense than that of murder, as is shown in the 
trial of John Ingram, November 8, 1S09. He 
was charged with stealing a bay horse of the 
value of $10, said horse being the property of 
Richard Dean. The case was duly tried, and 
evidence of the crime being conclusive, a verdict 
was rendered as follows: 

United States'! 

vs. > An Indictment for feloniously stealing a 

John Ingram. J horse, etc. 

The defendant was brought into court to receive his sen- 
tence, and it being demanded of him whether he had any- 
thing to say for himself why the court to judgment and 
execution of and upon the verdict and premises should not 
proceed, the said defendant, by James Ferguson, Esq., his 
counsel, moved the court to set aside the verdict, because 
the prisoner had been remanded to jail after the jury had re- 
tired to consider of their verdict, and was not personally 
present in court at the time the jury delivered their verdict 
into court in the presence of the prisoner's counsel, which 
motion being maturely considered of by the court is over- 
ruled. 

It is therefore considered by the court that the said John 
Ingram is guilty in manner and form as the jury in their 
verdict have declared; by reason whereof this court do sen- 
tence the said John Ingram to be remanded to the jail from 
which he came, there to continue until Friday the first day of 
December next, between the hours of n o'clock in the fore- 
noon and i o'clock in the afternoon, and from thence to the 
place of execution; that he be hanged by the neck until he 
be dead, dead, dead. 

The record further states that John Ingram 
came into court and voluntarily made confession 
of his guilt, and a disclosure of the persons who 
were his accessories; the court therefore recom- 
mended him to the clemency of the Governor. 
An order was at the same time issued to the 
sheriff to cause a gallows to be erected at some 
convenient place, not on individual property. 
The prisoner was brought to the gallows at the 
appointed time, in a cart, his hands pinioned, 
and the rope placed about his neck, when a 
horseman was seen riding rapidly from the ferry 
waving a paper in his hand and shouting "a 
reprieve, a reprieve." It was just in time. The 
prisoner was taken to Kentucky where he was 



432 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



proved to be a deserter from the army, to which 
he was returned. He afterwards died at the 
hands of the Indians when the military post to 
which he was attached was attacked. 

Henry Bannister, of Harrison county, was in- 
dicted and tried in that county, charged with 
the murder of Moses Phipps, and on a change of 
venue was brought before the Clark county court 
in Jeffersonville, at the August session, 1811; 
where he was convicted of manslaughter and 
sentenced to be branded in the hand by a red 
hot iron with the letter "M," which sentence was 
duly executed. 

John Irwin, of Springville, was also tried for 
the murder of Joseph Malott by a rifle shot. 
He was sentenced to be branded in the left hand 
by a red hot iron. 

THE COUNTY SEAT. 

The seat of justice of Clark county has sev- 
eral times been changed. At the organization of 
the county it was established at Springville, near 
the present town of Charlestown, though no one 
would now recognize the place of its early loca- 
tion. Hardly a vestige is left of what was at 
one time a busy little town. The buildings have 
been suffered to go to decay and nothing more 
than a pile of old brick where once stood a chim- 
ney now marks the spot. From Springville it 
was moved to Jeffersonville in 1802, and here 
many of the early cases at law were tried and 
difficulties adjusted; county roads wtre ordered 
and the various details of county government in- 
stituted. To the great disappointment of the 
embryo city, and at that time thriving town, an 
act of the Legislature in 1S11 transferred the 
seat of justice to a point nearer the geographical 
centre of the county, Charlestown being desig- 
nated as the place for holding courts. In 1838 
the question of again removing the county seat 
to Jeffersonville became a vital issue in local 
politics, the anti-removal party placing in nomi- 
nation for the State Senate Benjamin Ferguson, 
and for the lower house General John S. Simon- 
son and Mr. Henley, while those in favor of the 
removal made choice of William G. Armstrong 
for the Senate, Dr. Nathaniel Field and Major 
William H. Hurst for the lower house. A stir- 
ring canvass followed these nominations, speeches 
pro and con being made by the respective candi- 
dates, the result being the election of the men in 



favor of removal. The Legislature having just 
decided a similar case in another county declined 
to take action on the question, and Charlestown 
retained its advantage. The idea of a change 
having taken firm hold of the people in the 
southern part of the county, was quietly nursed 
until 1877, when the population of this section 
had so increased as to demand renewed action. 
The question was accordingly again brought be- 
fore the people at the April election of 1878, 
and the numerical strength of Jeffeisonville and 
the surrounding country carried the day. This 
was a gratifying result to the people hereabouts, 
and particularly accommodated the legal profes- 
sion, many of whom resided at Jeffersonville. A 
modest court-house, jail, and sheriff's residence 
were erected in the northeastern part of the city, 
where was the only available square of ground, 
in close proximity to the Jeffersonville, Madison 
&: Indianapolis railroad, and on its completion 
the records of the county were removed to this 
place, and the officers settled in pleasant and con- 
venient rooms. , 

The change of the county seat was finally or- 
dered by the commissioners in September, 1S7S, 
and the building being completed the records 
were transferred in October of the same year. 
The lot for the erection of the county buildings 
was donated by the city, which also built the 
court-house and jail, expending in all for this 
purpose not far from $100,000. 

The removal of the county seat, as was natural 
under the circumstances, engendered a bitter 
feeling in remote parts of the county, it increas- 
ing the distance to be traveled by those having 
business at the county seat, and it will take years 
to eradicate this feeling, but time levels all things, 
and eventually will reconcile its most bitter op- 
ponents to the removal. 

While the county is strongly Democratic, ow- 
ing to differences among the leaders of the party 
the offices are equally divided between Demo- 
crats and Republicans, at this time, 18S2. 

THE BAR OF THE COUNTY. 

We are able to make but brief mention of some 
of the men who have had a part in the legal af- 
fairs of the county. Several of the earlier law- 
yers are mentioned in the records of the court 
as given in the preceding pages; but little is 
known of them, however. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



4 33 



Perhaps the most prominent member of the 
bar in Clark county was Jonathan Jennings, the 
first Governor of Indiana under the State consti- 
tution. He was a native of Rockbridge county, 
Virginia, and was born in 1784. When a youth 
his father emigrated to Pennsylvania, and the 
boy having obtained some knowledge of Greek 
and Latin, commenced the study of law, but be- 
fore being admitted to the bar removed to the 
Territory of Indiana, and was employed as clerk 
by Nathaniel Ewing, of Vincennes. In 1809 he 
was elected delegate to Congress, and remained 
as such until the formation of a State constitu- 
tion. He was chosen president of the constitu- 
tional convention, and at the first State election, 
in 1816, was the choice of the people for Gov- 
ernor. Fie was again elected to the office in 
1S19, and in 1822 was returned to Congress 
from the Second district, continuing its repre- 
sentative until 1831, when he failed of a re- 
election. He died on his farm about three 
miles svest of Charlestown in 1834, and was 
buried in the old graveyard in Charlestown. No 
monument has been erected to mark the spot 
where lies the body of the first Governor of the 
State of Indiana. 

Major William Henry Hurst was a member of 
General Harrison's staff and accompanied that 
commander on his campaign against the Indi- 
ans, performing valiant service at the battle of 
Tippecanoe. Early in the present century he 
practiced law at Vincennes, and when the Terri- 
torial government was removed from that place 
he came to Jeffersonville, where he continued 
practice in the courts of Clark county. He was 
a man of fine presence, and an able advocate. 
During his residence here he became clerk of 
the United States courts, making the journey to 
Indianapolis to attend his duties there on horse- 
back. He represented his county in the State 
Legislature in 1838-1839, and was a prominent 
man here until his death about 1854, at the age 
of nearly eighty-four years. 

William H. Hurst, Jr., son of Major Hurst, 
practiced law with his father some years. He 
was receiver of public moneys for the land office, 
under General Jackson, and died about 1S66. 
Samuel Gwathmey was register of the land office 
at the time Hurst was receiver. 

Charles Dewey was practicing law in Clark 
and adjoining counties about 1815, and traveled 
55 



the ciicuit some twenty five years, his residence 
being at Charlestown. He was on the supreme 
bench from lS^oto 1S44, and is said to have 
been the ablest lawyer of his day in Indiana. 
He was a native of Massachusetts, and at his 
home acquired a more than average knowledge 
of law, besides a fund of valuable- information 
on various subjects. In his personal appearance 
he much resembled Daniel Webster, particularly 
so in his massive head. The resemblance was 
further carried out in the massive intellect he 
had. VJnlike Webster he never became a great 
political leader, but was a bright light in legal 
matters. He died in 1862. 

Judge William T. Otto, who served as circuit 
judge from 1847 t0 '852, was a man of strong 
mind, great legal knowledge, and a worthy and 
upright judge. Previous to his service on the 
bench he was professor in a law school at 
Bloomington, Indiana. During the civil war he 
was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Interior 
by President Lincoln. He is now reporter of 
the United States courts at Washington, District 
of Columbia. 

Judge Ross was prominent among the early 
lawyers of the county. He served as judge from 
the year 1828 to 1835, residing in Charlestown. 

Following Judge Ross came Judge James C. 
Thompson, a good speaker and a man of fair 
abilities, though not a brilliant lawyer. He was 
engaged in practice as early as 1828, and after 
his retirement from the bench removed to In- 
dianapolis, where he died. 

Judge George A. Bicknell, of New Albany, 
succeeded Judge Thompson on the circuit. He 
was a good lawyer, and an exemplary judge. 
After retiring from the bench he represented his 
district in Congress for two terms, and was suc- 
ceeced in iSSoby Mr. Stockslayer. 

Judge John S. Davis, of Floyd county, suc- 
ceeded Judge Bicknell as circuit judge. He 
was quite a politician, a good party organizer, 
and several times represented the county in the 
Legislature. In 1S47 ne was a candidate for 
Congress against T. J. Henley, and though the 
Democratic majority in the district was seven- 
teen hundred he was defeated by but forty-seven 
votes. In 1876 he ran against Judge Bicknell 
for Congress in the nominating convention; but 
was defeated. At the same time he was nomi- 
nated circuit judge, to which office he was 



434 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



elected, and served with fidelity until his death 
in 1SS0. 

Judge Amos Levering occupied the bench as 
first judge of the court of common pleas, in 
which office he served four years. At one time 
he had quite an extensive practice in the county. 
Hts residence was in Jeffersonville some years, 
but after his retirement from the bench he re- 
moved to Louisville, where he passed the re- 
mainder of his days, dying in great want. 

Isaac Howk, an Eastern man and a capab'e 
lawyer, practiced in this county and on the cucuit 
from about 182S to 1S40, in which year he died. 
He had the reputation of a good advocate. His 
son, George V. Howk, attained some eminence 
at the bar, and was elected to the supreme 
bench in 1876, and is still serving as judge of 
the supreme court. His reputation as a lawyer 
is of the best. 

Thomas Ware Gibson, a native of the State, 
came to Charleslown from Dearborn county 
about 1835, and remained in practice until 1852, 
when he removed to Louisville and there died. 
He was a man of marked traits of character and 
great ability. During his residence in Louisville 
he continued his practice at the bar of this 
county, where his services were in demand many- 
years. Mr. Gibson was a graduate from West 
Point Military academy, and during the Mexican 
war served as captain of a company, distinguish- 
ing himself at Buena Vista. One of his sons 
was also educated at West Point, and after a 
varied service in the United States army as an 
officer, died recently in California while at the 
post of duty. 

Another of the early judges of Clark county 
circuit was Judge Thompson, who retired from 
the bench about 1S46. During his legal service 
he had the name of being a just judge. Of his 
career after his retirement from the bench little 
is known. 

Joseph G. Marshall was a giant at the bar. 
He was large, brawny, rough, a powerful man 
physically and in debate. Few men cared to 
rouse him in argument, for in intellect he was 
almost unapproachable, and as for rousing the 
fierce spirit in him, most men would prefer to 
beard the lion in his den. He practiced at the 
bar quite a number of years. 

Judge Cryus L. Dunham practiced in Floyd 
and Clark counties during the latter years of his 



life. He served several terms as criminal judge, 
and removed to Jeffersonville about 1870, while 
on the bench. He represented the district in 
Congress six years, and for his fourth term was 
defeated by George G. Dunn in 1854. Several 
times after this his name was presented before 
the conventions, but his personal habits had be- 
come such that he was never again able to secure 
a nomination: He was a man of more than 
ordinary ability, a fluent and forcible speaker, 
powerful in debate. But for his habits he might 
have attained to higher office than he ever held. 
John F. Read, the oldest practitioner of the 
law in Jeffersonville, is a son of James G. Read, 
and a native of Indiana. He pursued -a course 
at law with Major William H. Hurst, and was 
admitted to practice in 1850. He soon after 
opened an office, and practiced alone until 
1867, when he formed a partnership with J. G. 
Howard, who read law with him, and has since 
continued this connection. 

Judge C. R. Ferguson, who has served several 
terms as circuit judge, is a sound lawyer, a forci- 
ble thinker, and well versed in legal lore. His 
reputation on the bench is that of an upright 
judge, both litigants and lawyers being willing to 
submit many of their cases to his decision with- 
out calling a jury. Since the removal of the 
county-seat from Charlestown he has resided in 
Jeffersonville, and occupies a pleasant and sightly 
residence on the river front. 

J. G Howard read law with John F. Read 
and was admitted to practice in 1S52. He prac- 
ticed by himself until i860, when Simeon -S. 
Johnson, at that time justice of the peace, occu- 
pied the office with him until 1S67, when John 
F. Read became his associate, which relation is 
still continued. 

Judge P. H. Jewett came from Scott county 
about 1872, served as district prosecuting attor- 
ney several terms, and for eight years as judge of 
common pleas for Scott, Floyd, Washington, 
j Harrison and Clark counties. After the expi- 
! ration of his term of office he remained here. 

James B. Meriwether read law with Jesse 
I Bright and James W. Chapman, at Madison, In- 
I diana, and remained in partnership with them 
for a time. Afterwards Bright retired and with 
Mr. Chapman he continued two years. He 
went to Louisville in 1S57, and practiced with 
Charles G. Wintersmuth. At the breaking out 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



435 



of the war he entered the service, in which he at- 
tained the rank of colonel. In. April, 1S71, he 
engaged in practice in Jeffersonville. and has 
since served two terms as city attorney. 

George S. Voight, one of the younger members 
of the bar, was a student at the Louisville Law 
school, and has been in practice about two 
years. 

Simeon S. Johnson came to Jeffersonville about 
1S60, at which time he entered the law office of 
J. G. Howard, and remained some eight years, 
serving during a portion of the time as justice of 
the peace. He now practices law by himself. 

James K. Marsh read law with Judge C. L 
Dunham, and has practiced at -the bar since 1S6S. 
Some eight years since he removed from Charles- 
town to Jeffersonville, where he is now practicing. 

M. Z. Stannard read law with Howard & Read, 
and afterward graduated from the Louisville Law 
school. After his admission to the bar he en- 
tered the firm of his preceplors, the firm name 
now being Howard, Read & Stannard. 

James A. Ingram, also a law student under 
Howard <Sc Read, opened an office and has prac- 
ticed before the courts of the county about five 
years. 

Frank B. Burke, the present prosecuting attor- 
ney for Clark county, was elected to that office in 
18S0. He was a student at the Louisville Law 
school, and has been in practice but a few years. 
He bears promise of great usefulness in his chos- 
en profession. 

John L. Ingram has been a lawyer some ten 
years. About the time he engaged in practice 
he\vas elected clerk of the circuit couit, in which 
he served some four years. He then went to 
Texas, and 1SS0 returned and again opened an 
office. 

JEFFERSONVILLE TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION. 

The township now known as Jeffersonville 
was established February 10, 1S17, and at that 
time included a much larger area of territory 
than now. The original boundaries were as fol- 
lows: 

That one other township be struck off and formed ot that 
part of Clark county commencing on the river Ohio at the 
line dividing lots Nos. 17 and 27, and running thence with 
tl.e line of Charlestown township until it strikes the mouth of 
Muddy fork of Silver creek; thence with the Muddy fork of 
Silver creek until it strikes the line dividing lots Nos. 166 and 
133: thence with the said line to the top of the knobs to the 
county line; thence with the said line to the river Ohio; 



thence with the meanders thereof to the place of beginning; 
which shall constitute and form one township, to be called 
and known b) the name of Jeffersonville township. 

The first election was ordered for the second 
Monday of March next following, to be held at 
the house of Charles Fuller, in the town of Jef- 
fersonville, and James Lemon was appointed 
inspector thereof. The officers to be elected 
were three justices of the peace. 

On the 1 2th of May of the same year the 
boundaries of Jeffersonville were changed on the 
west by the formation of a new township as fol- 
lows : 

Okderkd, Thai .ill that part of the said townshipf Jeffer- 
sonville] west of Silver creek, lying and being between the 
said creek and Greenville township, do constitute and form 
one new township, and that the same be called and known as 
New Albany township. 

William Hobson was appointed constable, and 
Ebcnezer McGarrah and Andrew Galwick, Esq., 
listers of property for Jeffersonville for the year 
1817. 

May 12, 1S19, the boundary line between 
Charlestown and Jeffersonville was changed, be- 
ginning at the mouth of Pleasant run, thence in 
a direct line to the upper corner of lot seventeen 
on the Ohio river opposite the lower end of Dia- 
mond Island. 

The township of Utica was established No- 
vember 7, 1 S3 1, the line adjoining Jefferson- 
ville being as follows: "Commencing on the 
Ohio river on the line dividing Nos. 5 and 6; 
thence on a straight direction to the line of No. 
13, at the corners of Nos. 22 and 23; thence on 
the line dividing said Nos. 22 and 23, and on 
the line between Nos. 35 and 36, 49 and 50, 
and 67 and 6S to Silver creek," etc. 

JEFFERSONVILLE CITY. 

A description of the Illinois Grant, on which 
this city is located, will be found in another 
chapter of this work, and it will be but repetition 
to define its boundaries in this connection. The 
plan of Jeffersonville was one devised by 
Thomas Jefferson, from whom the place was 
named. The town was laid off in squares 
similar to a checker-board, with streets crossing 
diagonally through each alternate square, leaving 
four triangular spaces for parks in each square 
through which sireets passed. The original plan 
looked well on paper, but does not seem to have 
been followed in practice, as all the squares are 
now occupied by dwelling or business houses. 



43 6 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



When first platted the city occupied but a 
small part of number one in the Grant. This 
was land owned by Isaac Bowman, of Shen- 
andoah county, Virginia. To sell his tract he 
disposed of this portion through his attorney, 
John Gwathmey, of Jefferson county, Kentucky, 
June 23, 1802, to Marston Green Clark, William 
Goodwin, Richard Pile, Davis Floyd, and Samuel 
Gwathmey as trustees to lay off a town and sell 
lots, all monies accruing from such sales to be 
used in establishing ferries and improving the 
facilities of the new town. John Gwathmey 
laid off the town, consisting of one hundred 
and fifty acres on the lower part of number 
one of the Grant. The boundaries as platted 
were as follow : 

Beginning at a stake on the bank of the Ohio river, run- 
ning thence up the river and binding thereon north seventy- 
seven degrees east seventy-five poles, to a stake on tiie bank; 
thence north forty-eight degrees east one hundred and fifty- 
two poles to a small locust; thence from the river north 
thirty-seven and one-half degrees west one hundred poles to 
a stake at the northeast corner; thence at right angles south 
thirty-two and one-half degrees west one hundred and seven- 
ty-four poles to the northwest corner; thence south thirteen 
degrees east poles to the beginning. 

Two acres of this plat were reserved for use 
as a public square, adjoining lots seventy six and 
seventy-eight on the west j lots eighty-nine and 
seventy-seven on the east, lots one hundred and 
four, one hundred and five, and one hundred 
and six on the north, and Market street on the 
south. 

In 1836 an association of several persons was 
formed, called the Jeffersonvilie association, 
which made an addition to the town, of land 
owned by Peter G. Fore. A second addition 
was made in 1839. The eastern division was 
platted by the same association in 1S41, and 
Benson's addition was platted by Samuel Church 
in 1848. The latter two were a part of survey 
number two, and comptised sixty-one acres. 
Jeffersonvilie city now occupies the whole of 
number one of the Illinois Grant, containing five 
hundred and forty acres, besides the sixty-one 
acres already mentioned as belonging to number 
two. 

The original plan of the town was changed by 
act of the Legislature in 1S17, which allowed the 
alternate lots that were reserved on the Jefferson 
plan to be sold. 

The streets of the city are unusually wide, 
being sixty feet in most cases, with forty feet 



driveway between the curbing, and nearly all 
paved and macadamized. Court avenue and 
one or two other streets are one hundred feet in 
width. By action of the city council an ordi- 
nance was passed in October, iSSr, requiring 
property owners to plant and maintain shade 
trees in front of their respective lots throughout 
a great part of the city. The old Market square, 
at the northeast corner of Spring street and 
Court avenue, was ordered improved, and a thirty 
foot street laid off on the north side of the park, 
which has just been done. The park has been 
graded, walks laid out, fences built, trees and 
shrubs planted, and has been christened Warder 
Park, in honor of the present mayor of the city. 

The town of Jeffersonvilie was laid off in 1802 
by John Gwathmey and others, its government 
being vested in a board of trustees, which ap 
pointed its own successors. Under this govern- 
ment it remained until January, 1839, when a 
resolution was introduced in the State Legisla- 
ture by the then representative of Clark county, 
Dr. Nathaniel Field, authorizing its incorpora- 
tion as a city. An act in conformity with this 
resolution was passed, and on his return to Jef- 
fersonvilie, Dr. Field, as president of the board 
of trustees, called a meeting, at which an elec- 
tion was ordered to be held in April for the 
choice of mayor and ten councilmen. The city 
was divided into five wards. The election re- 
sulted in the choice of Isaac Heiskill as mayor, 
at a salary of $50 per annum. The trustees 
turned their records over to the city authorities, 
and as a power in the government they ceased 
to exist. 

The population of the city in 1839 was five 
hundred and eighteen. The present population 
is something over ten thousand. Previous to 
the war it was about seven thousand. 

In the suburbs of the city proper are several 
small towns. Port Fulton on the east, Ohio Falls 
city on the west, and Claysburg on the north. 
The latter was platted by Dr. N. Field, who 
owned eight acres of land at that place, Colonel 
William Riddle two and one-half acres, and Ed- 
mund Schon, seven acres. It received its name 
in honor of Cassius M. Clay. These suburban 
towns add much to the apparent size of Jeffer- 
sonvilie, but as they are not included within the 
present corporate limits, do not count in an es- 
timate of the population of the city, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



43? 



OFFICERS OK THE CITY FROM 1 839. 

MAYORS. 

Isaac Heiskell, 1S39 to 1843; Christopher 
Peasley, 1843 to 1845: William Cross, 1845 to 
1848; W. F. Collum, 1848 to 1854; John D. 
Shryer, 1854 to 1855, 1858 to 1861; U. G. Dam- 
ron, 1855 to 1S56; T. J. Downs, 1856 to 1857; 
William Lackey, 1S57 to 185S; O. C. Woolley, 
1861 to 1S65; Gabriel Poindexter, 1865-186710 
1869; John Ware, 1865 to 1867 ; Levi Sparks, 
1869 to 1873; B. C. Pile, 1873 to 1S75; Luther 
F. Warder' 1875. 

TREASURERS. 

John Mitchell, 1848101852; David A. Fen- 
ton, 1852 to 1853; W. A. Buchanan, 1853 to 
1855; James Keigwin, Jr., 1855 to 1858; J. D. 
D. Woodbum, 1858 to 1859; R. S. Heiskell, 
1859 to 1865; Robert McGill, 1865 to 1S67 ; 
A. J. Howard, 1867 to 1875 ; James Burke, 
1875 t0 l8Sl i James S. Whicher, 1881. 

CLERKS. 

Thomas Wilson, 1840 to 1S41, 1S4S to 1855, 
1863 to 1865; Isaac Cox, 1841 to 1844; John 
McCoy, 1844 to 1S4S; Eli McCauley, 1854 to 
1855, 1S56 to 1S57; W. H. Dixon, 1S55 to 1S56; 
J. Johnson, 1857 to 1859; A. J. Howard, 1S59 
to 1861; C. R. McBride, 1861 to 1863, 1S65 to 
1869; John H. Anderson, 1S69 to 1S75; Theo- 
dore Bachley, 1875 to 1S79; James W. Thomson, 
!8 79 . 

MARSHALS. 

Jackson Hulse, 1847, died in office; Barnabas 
Golden, 1848, resigned; S. P. Morgan, 1849 to 
1850; Benjamin P. Fuller, 1S50 to 1S51; Wil- 
liam Rea, 1851 to 1S53, 1S55 to 1859; Blakesly 
Hulse, no date; S. P. Bell, 1853 to 1854; 
George Green, 1S54 to 1S55; William Howard, 
1859 to 1S61 , Dennis Kennedy, 1861 to 1S63; 
M. G. C. Pile, 1863 to 1S65; George W. Baxter, 
1865 to 1S71; James Kennedy, 1S71 to 1S73; 
James H. Lemon, 1873 to 1S77: William H. 
Northcutt, 1877 to 1S7Q; John M. Glass, 1S79. 

ASSESSORS. 

L. B. Hall, 1S48 to 1849; N. L. McDanald, 

1849 t0 i§5°> TS57 to 1858; Joseph E. Moore, 

1850 to 1S51; John D. Shryer, [851 to 1854; 
Lod. W. Beckwith, 1854 to 1S55; T. J. Downs, 
1855 t0 1S5 7; Ephraim Keigwin, 1858 to 1859; 
Felix R. Lewis, 1859 to 1869, 1871 to 1875; 



George D. Hand, 1S69 to 1871; Lee S. Johnston, 
.1875 t0 lS 79; Charles I. Ecclcs, 1S79 to 1881. 

COUXCU.MKN. 

First waid — L. B. Hall, 1839 to 1840; James 
G. Read, 1S39 to 1841; T. J. Howard, 1S40 to 
1841; Joshua Phipps, 1S41 to 1842, 1S43 to 
1844; John McCoy, 1S41 to 1843; 'J°hn F. 
Gibbs, 1842 to 1843; James Keigwin, Sr., 1S43 
to 1S44; D. T. Jackson, 1S44 to 1845; Lloyd 
White, 1844 to 1S45; Alexander Christian, 1845 
to 1850; James T. Davis, 1850 to 1851, 1853 to 
1854; M. R. Mitchell, 1850 to 1851. 1S52 to 
1854; Cyrus Wright, 1851 to 1S52; John F. 
Read, 1S51 to 1853; John W. Ray, 1854 to 
1857; Charles Moore, 1854, resigned; Charles 
Friend, vacancy to 1855; George W. Twomey, 
1855 to 1857; Frank Potter, 1S57 to 1859; W. 
L. Merriwether, 1S57 to 1858; George W. 
Lampton, 1859 to 1865; Charles J. Keller, 1859 
to 1867; John N. Ingram, 1S65 to i860, 1077 to 
1879; James Keigwin, Jr., 1867 to 1871., 1872 to 
1876; William A. Ingram, 1869 to 1870; B. F. 
Burlingame, 1S70 to 1872, 1873 to 1875; PI. T. 
Sage, 1871 to 1873; William Lee, 1S75 to 1877; 
Samuel P. Rodgers, 1S76 to 1877, died in office; 
M. A. Patterson, vacancy; William H. Carter, 
1878 to 1S80; George T Anderson, 1879 to 

1S81; W. A. C. Oakes, 1880 to ; F. A. 

Young, 1 88 1 to . 

Second ward — -John D. Shryer, 1839 to 1S41, 
1843 to x ^44; Samuel Merriwether, 1839 to 
1840, 1842 to 1850; B. C. Pile, 1840 to 1841, 
1S48 to 1S49, 1S50 to 1855, 1857 to 1859; Ben- 
jamin Hensley, 1S41 to 1842; Christopher 
Peasley, 1841 to 1842; T. J. Howard, 1S42 to 
1843, 1852 to 1853; Robert Eakin, 1844 to 1S45, 
1849101851; Daniel Trotter, 1S45 t0 1848; 
Alexander Christian, 1S51 to 1S52; Joseph Lane, 
1S53 to 1S54; George W. Ewing, 1854 to 1S57; 
S. P. Morgan, 1855 to 1S57; John N. Ingram, 
1S57 to 1S59; J. G. Howard, 1859 to 1863; J. 
H. McCampbell, 1859 to 1S65; William H. 
Fogg, 1S63 to 1S67; Cornelius Beck, 1865 to 
1870, 1877 to 1S79; George W. Davis, 1S67 to 
1869; J. E. Plumadore, 1869 to 1873; Reuben 
Wells, 1S70 to 1S74; Alexander Sample, 1873 to 
1S75; ME A. Sweeney, 1874 to 1S7S; Ephraim 
Keigwin, 1S75 to 1877; Floyd Parks, 1S78 to 

; Frank Deitz, 1879 to 1S81; Frank X. 

Kern, 18S1 to . 

Third ward— A. Wathen, 1S39 to 1S45; J. B. 



43§ 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



McHolland, 1839 to 1S40; Benjamin Hensley, 
1840 to 1841; Abraham Miller, 1S41 to 1S44; N. 
L. McDanald, 1844-10 1848; William F. Collum, 
1845 to 1S4S; Thomas J. Downs, 184S to 1S51, 
1852 to 1853, 1S54 to 1S55, 1S58 to 1859;. J. S. 
Bottorff, 1S4S to 1850, Mathew Tomlin, iSsoto 
1851: George F. Savitz, 1S51 to 1852; J. H. Hal- 
stead, 1851 to 1S52; Joseph Lane, 1852 to 1853; 
V. W. Rose, 1853 to 1S54: J. D. D. Woodburn, 
1854 to 1855; H. N. Holland, 1S55 to 1S57; 
Delaney Wiley, 1855 to 1S57; Levi Sparks, 1S57 
to 1869; Reuben Dcidrick, 1857 to 185 8; G. W. 
Amsden, 1S59 to 1S61; B. A. Johnson, 1S61 to 
1865; Frederick Bleyle, 1865' to 1S69; S. R Dif- 
fenderfer, 1S69 to 1S7 1 ; W. A. Steele, 1869 to 
1870; Joseph Baker, 1870 to 1S72; Abel W. 
Hall, 1S71 to iS73;L. F. Warder, 1S72 to 1S76; 
J. C. Horsey, 1S73 to 1875, 1876 to 1SS0, iSSi 

to -; Simon Goldbach, 1S65 to i8Si;John 

S. McCauley, 1SS0 to . 

Fourth Ward — Nathaniel Field, 1S39 to 1S40; 
James Slider, 1839 to 1S40; Henry French, 1840 
to 1843; William Dustin, 1840 to 1S41; William 
Hart, 1 84 1 to 1S44; H. McClaran, 1843 to 1844; 
William Bowman, 1S44 to 1845; Basil Prather, 
1844 to 1845, 184S to 1S49; M. Tomlin, 1845 
to 1851; Robert Curran, 1845 to 1S4S; D. M. 
Dryden, 1S49 to 1S50; U. G. Damron, 1850 to 
1851, 1852 to 1853; J. H. Halstead, 185 1 to 
1852; Henry French, 1851 to 1S52; J. H. Fen- 
ton, 1852 to 1853; Myron Stratton, 1853 to 1854, 
1857 to 1873; William Logan, 1853 to 1857; M. 
W. Veatch, 1S54 to 1S57; G. Poindexter, 1S57 
to 1859; George W. Sterling, 1859 to 1S63; 
James Burke, 1S63 to 1S72; Thomas J. Stewart, 
1872 to 1876; S. B. Hally, 1873 to 1875; John 
L. Delahunt, 1S75 t0 l88l J J- & Finch, iS76to 
18S0; Jacob Schwaninger, 1SS0; A. I. Frank, 
18S1. 

Fifth Ward — Daniel Trotter, 1S39 to 1843; C. 
W. Magill, 1S39 to 1S42; William Cross, 1842 to 
1845; R- G. Parker, 1843101848, 1849101851; T. 
E. Veatch, 1845 to 1S4S, 1S51 to 1852; Samuel 
Cash, 1848 to 1S49, 1852 to 1853; Myron Strat- 
ton, 1S4S to 1 85 2; William Logan, 1S52 to 1853; 
H. S. Bamaby, 1S53 to 1855, 1S65 to 1S69, 
1872 to 1S74; John Ware, 1853 to 1858, 1861 
to 1S65, 1SS0; William G. Armstrong, 1S55 to 
1S57; Lyman Dolph, 1857 to 1S61; G. Poin- 
dexter, 185S to 1059, 1S70 to 1872; Edward 
Moon, 1859 10 1S63; C. R. McBride, 1S63 to 



1864; James Howard, 1864 to 1867; John R. 
Armstrong, 1867 to 1869; George W. Lewman, 
1869 to 1S71; Jabez R. Cole, 1869 to 1870; W. 
H. Northcutt, 187 1 to 1877; Edward J. Howard, 
1S74 to 1S7S, 1S79 to 18S1; Samuel C. Day, 
1877 to 1S79; Maurice Coll, 1S78 to 18S0; Wil- 
liam Pollock, 1881. . 

COLLECTORS. 

T. M. Welsh, 184810 1849; Milton W. Veatch, 
1S49 to 1852; W. A. Buchannan, 1852 to 1853. 

MARKET MASTERS. 

Alex Christian, 1851 to 1852; William Rea, 
1S52 to 1856, 1857 to 1859; Joel H. Sylvester, 

1856 to 1S57; Samuel Bottorff, 1859. to 1866; 
George W. Baxter, 1866 to 1867. 

WHARF MASTERS. 

C. C. Young, 1849 to 1850; J. P. Wilson, 
1850 to 1S51; William Rea, 1851 to 1855; C. 
H. Paddock, 1S55 to 1859, i860 to 1861; 
Joseph Run.yan, 185910 i860; George W. Lamp- 
ton, 1861 to 1S65, 1867 to 1871; A. W. Hamlin, 
1S65 to 1867; Frederick Bleyle, 1S71 to 1873; 
Joseph Reeder, 1873 to 1875; David Beal, 1S75 
to 187S; Levi Reeder, 187S to 1S81; J. F. Dor- 
sey, 1SS1. 

CHIEFS OF FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

E. S. Moon, 1855 to 1S57; William Northam, 

1857 to 1858; James Keigvvin, 1858 to 1859; 
John W. Barker, 1859 to 1863; William Hagarty, 
1863 to 1865; Sam T. Day, 1865 to iS67;S. R. 
Bottorff, 1867 to 1869; James McQueen, 1869 
to 1S70; William Patterson, 1S70 to 1871; B. A. 
Johnson, 1S71 to 1872; Dennis Kennedy, 1872 
to 1S73; William Chrisman, 1873 to 18S1; 
George Deming, 1S81. 

CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

C. Hensley, 1S49 t0 J 850; R. H. Green, 1853 
to 1S54, 1855 to 1859; Peter Wilhem, 1854 to 
1855; J. Johnson, 1859 to 1863, 1S67 to 1S69; 
James Applegate, 1S63 to 1S65; Edward J. 
Howard, 1S65 to 1867; William H. Howard, 
iS6g to 187 1 ; J. P. Jones, 187 1 to 1S73; O. A. 
Clark, 1873 to 1S75, 1878—; Charles E. Clark, 
1875 to 1S7S. 

ATTORNEYS. 

John Borden, 1S49 t0 l ^53> J- G. Howard, 
1S54 to 1S55, 1S71 to 1S73, 1875 to 1S79; D. O. 
Dailey, 1855 to 1857; John F. Read, 1857 to 
1863; S. S. Johnson, 1863 to 1869; 0. C. Curry, 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



439 



1S69 to 187 1; J. B. Merriwcther, 1S73 to 1S75; 
James A. Ingram, 1879 to 188 1; G. E. M. 
Listen, 1SS1. 

BOARD OK HEALTH. 

William F. Collum, 1S55 to 1S57, 1859 to 
1865; Robert Curran, 1855 to 1856, 1859 to 
to 1863; N. Field, 1S55 to 1865, 1872 to 1S73; 
T. A. Clark, 1856 to 1857; 1). Wiley, 1857 to 
1859; II. N. Holland, 1857 to 1859; YV. YV. 
Goodwin, 1863 to 1S72; David McClure, 1865 
to 1S77; D. Mercer, 1865 to 1S70; L. W. Beck- 
with, 1870 to 1875; F. A. Seymour, 1S73 to 

1875; T. A. Graham, 1875 to 1879, iSSoto ; 

YV. U. Fouts, 1875 to 1SS1; C. B. McClure, 
1S77 to 18S0; YV. N. McCoy, 1S79 to 1SS1; 

W. H. Sheets, 1S81 to ; David Field, 18S1 

to . 

SCHOOL TRUSTEES. 

J. G. Howard, 1853 to 1855, 1869 to 1876; 
Thomas E. Veatch, 1S53 to 1S54; YV. L. 
Merriwether, 1853 to 1S55; Myron Stratton, 
1S54 to 1861; YV. M. French, 1S55 to 1861; 
Nathaniel Field, 1855 to 1S63, 1S65 to 1870; 
G. Poindexter, 1861 to 1863; William H. 
Fogg, 1861 to 1S63; John N. Ingram, 1S63 to 

; Robert Curran, 1863 to 1865; C. Leon- 

hardt, 1S63 to £865; Thomas S. Crowe, 1865 to 
1867; J. H. Campbell, 1870 to 1S73; Charles 
Rossler, 1S73 to 1875 ; Hugo Albin, 1S75 t0 
1880; William Lee, 1S76 to 1S79; O. O. Stealey, 
1879 to ; George Pfau, 18S0 to . 

CITY JUDGE. 

Nicholas Mathews, 1S69 to 1S73. 

WEIGHERS. 

Thomas Wilson, 1849 to 1855; YV. L. Merri- 
wether, 1855 to 1S56; Eli McCauley, 1856 to 
1857.; J. Johnson, 1S57 to 1S59; John D. Shryer, 
1859 to 1S61, 1863 to 1S65; O. C. Woolley, 

1861 to 1863; Joseph McCormick, 1S63 to ; 

William Jones, 1S65 to 1866; George YV. Belote, 
1866 to 1867. 

CITY GAUGER. 

Ed. Lott, 1879 t0 lSSl - 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

JEFFERSONVILLE- SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS. 

Post-office — Physicians — Schools — Churches — Cemeteries — 

Societies. 

POST-OI'KICE. 

When the plat of Jeffersonville was surveyed 
and the land offered for sale a land office and 
post-office were established in the town. Samuel 
Gwathmeyhad charge of the land office, but the 
name of the first postmaster is lost. The first 
name recalled is that of Mr. Raymond, who held 
the office sometime about 1S20. Mr. Staley, 
then an old man, administered the office in 1829. 
At that time the mail could be placed in a hat. 
The old gentleman had poor sight and frequently 
sent letters and papers to Louisville when they 
should have gone in another direction. The 
clerks in Louisville used frequently to try his pa- 
tience at such times by returning the article and 
offering to furnish him a pair of leather goggles. 
There may have been one or two persons who 
followed Mr. Staley in the office, but the next 
postmaster remembered is William L. Levison, 
who had charge in 1836. At that time the 
office was kept in a building on Front street, 
near the location of the present ferry office. 
Levison died while in charge of the office, and 
was probably succeeded by Levi Sparks, who was 
appointed by the then President, James K. Polk, 
some time in 1S44 or 1845. He kept the office 
some two years, in his store, but his business de- 
manding his entire time he resigned, and-T. M. 
Elmer was appointed in his place. He was in 
turn succeeded by Mr. Gresham, who held the 
office under President Pierce, and soon after the 
election of James Buchanan as President, W. W. 
Caldwell was appointed. . He held the office 
during that administration, and in the beginning 
of the war entered the service in Colonel San- 
derson's regiment, as captain. Subsequently he 
was commissioned colonel of the Eighty-first Indi- 
ana infantry, and did excellent service [throughout 
the war, at its close locating in Chicago. Thomas 
J. Downs succeeded Caldwell in 1861, and ad- 
ministered the affairs of the office some four 
years, but being unpopular with many patrons of 
office he failed of a reappointment and was suc- 
ceeded by George YV. Toomey, who was appoint- 
ed during Lincoln's second term as President.' On 
the accession of Andrew Johnson to the Presi- 
dency James N. Patterson was appointed to the 






, 






44Q 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



office, but failing in securing confirmation, after a 
year, was succeeded by William Ingram. James 
Ferrier followed Ingram and administered the 
office some nine years, and in April, 1S7S, was 
succeeded by the present incumbent, A. M. 
Luke. Mr. Luke entered the army as a lieuten- 
ant in the Seventh Indiana infantry in the early 
part of the war, and after serving with distinc- 
tion was promoted to a captaincy. During the 
terrible battle of the Wilderness, May 25, 1864, 
he was seriously wounded. On his recovery he 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps, in 
which he served eighteen months, and until the 
volunteer soldiers were discharged. 

PHYSICIAN'S. 

When first settled, and for many years there- 
after, this portion of the Ohio valley, like all 
others, was infested with malaria, which became 
the worse as the growth of cane and underbrush 
was removed, so that the rays of the sun reached 
the mass of decaying vegetation underneath. It 
was many years before the cause of frequent 
levers, agues, and bilious complaints was re- 
moved, and in those days physicians were 
needed to exercise all the skill they possessed in 
the preservation of life and health, For some 
years medical attendance was had from Louis- 
ville, but the growth of the place demanded and 
warranted the settlement of a physician in Jeffer- 
sonville. 

As near as can now be ascertained, Dr. Samuel 
Meriwether was the first physician to settle in 
Jeffersonville. He was a native of Jefferson 
county, Kentucky, and pursued his medical 
studies in Philadelphia under Dr. Rush.- He 
married his cousin, Mary Meriwether, in Ken- 
tucky, and soon after marriage entered the army 
as surgeon's mate, serving during the War of 
181 2. For some time he was stationed at Vin- 
cennes, and for a period of three months was 
unable to communicate with his young wife, who 
was greatly alarmed for his safety. Finally, ob- 
taining a short leave of absence, he visited his 
home and on his return to Vincennes was ac- 
companied by his wife. The hardships of that 
lonely ride through the forest can only be appre- 
ciated by those who have had a similar experience, 
and they are few in these days of steam cars and 
steamboats. Mounted on a safe horse, her hus- 
band preceding her, and a faithful servant fol- 
lowing, they rode until late at night before reach- 



ing a frontier post, where she was obliged to 
sleep in a room filled with the rough soldiers, yet 
the first ray of light from that lonely post in the 
woods was one of the most welcome things she 
ever saw. Dr. Meriwether remained in the ser- 
vice until 1 Si 5, when he resigned on the urgent 
entreaty of his wife, though offered permanent 
service. Soon after resigning he settled for 
a time in Jeffersonville, remaining until 1823 
or 1S24 when he removed to Louisville. In 
1830 he again returned to Jeffersonville and 
made this his permanent abode, becoming one 
of its best respected and most prominent citizens. 
As a medical practitioner he was very successful, 
and in addition to being well-read in matters 
a time to the healing art, he possessed the 
happy faculty of bringing relief to many sick 
beds by means of his cheerful ways. When a 
young man he became the owner, through inher- 
itance, of several slaves, but believing the system 
wrong he gave them their freedom. He was 
an earnest Christian and a prominent member of 
the Presbyterian church, of which he was one of 
the first members and founders. His family 
consisted of four children, three daughters and 
one son. The latter, Walter Meriwether, yet 
lives, at the present time with a son in another 
part of the country. But one daughter, Mrs. 
McCampbcll, wife of Mr. J. H. McCampbell, 
now lives. Mrs. Meriwether died in 1S47. Dr. 
Meriwether survived until 1853. A case of sur- 
gical instruments used by him during the War of 
181 2 is now in the possession of Dr. Beckwith, 
of Jeffersonville, who was his pupil. 

Dr. Stephenson came to Jeffersonville as early 
as 1S21, and perhaps several years previous to 
that date. He continued in practice until the 
excitement consequent on the discovery of gold 
in California, when, with a party of some twenty- 
five persons, he departed on the overland route 
for the land of gold. Not long after leaving St. 
Louis cholera attacked several members of the 
party and they were obliged to make a stop in 
Independence, Missouri, where they remained 
in a miserable hovel until the scourge spent its 
strength. Quite a number of the men died, and 
among them Dr. Stephenson. They were buried 
near the place of their death, a part of the sur- 
vivors returning to their homes and the re- 
mainder pushing on across the plains. Four 
lived to return to their native place. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



441 



Dr. Nathaniel Field came from Jefferson 
county, Kentucky, and settled in Jeffersonville in 
1S29. His home-was near Louisville. He has 
remained in the former place since his settle- 
ment, and has seen the ups and downs, of pro- 
fessional life in this place, witnessing its growth 
from a small town to a busy manufacturing city. 
His practice has been regular throughout these 
years, and now, in the decline of life, he can 
look back on a life spent for the best good of his 
fellow-men in ameliorating the ills to which both 
flesh and spirit are heir, as in addition to being 
a physician for physical ills he is a worthy min- 
ister of the gospel. A more extended biography 
of Dr. Field appears in another part of this 
work. 

Ur. Holiday made his appearance sometime 
about 1831. He came from Virginia in a boat 
containing his family, and on his arrival in Jeffer- 
sonville was in destitute circumstances. Chanc- 
ing to call at the office of Dr. Nathaniel Field, 
he offered for sale some of his medical books, in 
order to procure funds to carry him to his desti- 
nation in Illinois. He was persuaded to relin- 
quish this plan, and instead, with the advice of 
Dr. Field that this was a good point for a physi- 
cian, located in Jeffersonville, where he remained 
some five years. At that time he went on down 
the river and settled in Mississippi, where he 
died soon after. 

Dr. H. N. Holland, one of the oldest practi- 
tioners in Jeffersonville, came here in 1849, in 
which year he graduated from the University of 
Kentucky. Originally a practitioner in the allo- 
pathic school, he became convinced that he 
could do humanity better service by giving medi- 
cine in small doses than in large, and after a few 
years' practice embraced homeopathy in 1853. 
Before coming to the city he was a resident of 
Scott county for nine years. In ^46-47 he 
was elected from that county to the State Legis- 
lature, and served with ability. He was first to 
introduce homeopathy into Jeffersonville, and 
has been successful in building up an extensive 
practice, which he has retained. He has served 
here as school trustee and member of the coun- 
cil. 

Dr. Farnslcy, formerly a resident of Kentucky, 
located in Jeffersonville soon after 1840, and re- 
gained for a short time. 

Dr. William Stewart settled here about 1850, 
56 



and a few years later removed to other parts. 
He is now inspector of marine hospitals and 
lives in Washington, D. C. 

Dr. William F. Collum, an excellent surgeon, 
came here in 183S or 1S39, and practiced suc- 
cessfully until his death in 1870. His death 
was a particularly sad one, being caused by the 
absorption of poison from a wound made in a 
post-mortem dissection of a man who died of 
sudden disease. A slight cut on the hand ab- 
sorbed the poison, which spread throughout his 
system and could not be eradicated. 

Dr. W. H. Sheets, a graduate from the Cincin- 
nati College of Medicine and Surgery, entered 
the military service of the United States as act- 
ing assistant surgeon, and was assigned to duty 
at the United States hospital at Madison, Indi- 
ana, in 1862, immediately after leaving college. 
There he remained until the close of the war. In 
1865 he came to Jeffersonville, where he soon 
established a lucrative practice, to which he is 
still attending. Since his location here he has 
served for five years as physician to the Indiana 
State Prison South. In 1880 he was appointed 
pension examiner for this section of the State. 
To this business he has proved faithful, being 
strict in the performance of the duties connected 
therewith. At the present time he is a member 
of the board of health of the city. 

Dr. C. R. McPiride is a native of Clark county, 
and passed the early pait of his life on a farm. 
At the age of twenty he entered the office of Dr. 
Field, for the purpose of pursuing a course in 
medicine, and in 1849-50 attended lectures at 
the Medical University of Louisville. He then 
engaged in practice in the vicinity of Jefferson- 
ville until the winter of 1865-66, when he at- 
tended a second course of lectures and was 
graduated. Since that time he has practiced in 
this city. He has served as township trustee, 
and was city clerk six years. He was also physi- 
cian to the penitentiary for two years. In the 
fall of 1868 he was elected on the Democratic 
ticket as member of the State Legislature, and 
served in that body at the regular and at a special 
session. 

Dr. L. W. Beckwith obtained a literary educa- 
tion at Greencastle, Indiana, and in 1849 rea< ^ 
medicine with Dr. Samuel Meriwether. In the 
spring of 1856 he entered the University of 
Louisville. He afterwards nracticed in Harrison 



442 



HISTORY OF THI-; OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



county, from whence he went to Chicago, where 
he practiced for a time. Soon after the begin- 
ning of the war. he received a commission as 
assistant surgeon in the Thirty-eighth Indiana 
volunteers, with which regiment he served until 
the close of the war. In 5865 he came to Jef- 
fersonville, . where he has since remained. He 
served the State as physician at the penitentiary 
some five years. In 1S81 he established a drug- 
store in JeffersonviHe, for the purpose of an 
office, and placed it in the care of Mr. Hugo 
Alben, a master in compounding medicines. 

Dr. Davis L. Field may be said to have grown 
up a physician, his father being Dr. Nathaniel 
Field, the veteran physician of the place. After 
reading with his father he pursued his studies 
with Drs. Bigelow, Todd, and Harvey, of In- 
dianapolis, and graduated from the University 
of Louisville in the spring of 186S. He imme- 
diately began the practice of his profession in 
JeffersonviHe, and in 18S0 opened a drug-store 
on West Market street, from which he conducts 
his practice. He is a member of the board of 
health of the first district of the city. 

Dr. \V. N. McCoy pursued a course of med- 
ical study with Dr. Samuel Reid, of Salem, In- 
diana, and attended lectures at the University of 
Louisville in 1S60. In his youth his opportuni- 
ties were meager, and only by close application 
and persevering industry was he enabled to over- 
come obstacles that would have daunted many 
a man situated as he was. Early left with the 
care of a family resting on his shoulders, his suc- 
cess in his profession is all the more wonderful. 
After attending a course of lectures he engaged 
in practice in this county, at which he was quite 
successful. He entered the medical service of 
the United States as acting assistant surgeon, and 
was assigned to duty at New Albany. From 
that place he was sent to Jefferson baaracks, 
Missouri, and thence to Mound City hospital at 
Cairo. He resigned in the spring of 1S64, and 
soon after opened an office in JeffersonviHe, 
where he has since practiced. In the winter of 
1869-70 he attended a course of lectures at 
Bellevue Hospital Medical college, New York, 
from which he was graduated. In 1866 he was 
surgeon in charge of the military hospital at 
JeffersonviHe, in which he remained most of the 
time until the hospital was condemned, and the 
business connected therewith closed. Dr. Mc- 



Coy now has a fine practice in JeffersonviHe, 
which lie well deserves. 

Dr. David McClure, a native of New Yoik, 
pursued his medical studies and was graduated 
from Fairfield and Geneva Medical college in 
1S37-38. In 1S39 he came to Indiana, and in 
1864 located in JeffersonviHe. He has had the 
confidence of the public to the extent that in 
1843-44 and 1853-54 he represented Scott 
county in the State Legislature, and in 1880 was 
elected as a Democratic joint representative of 
Clark, Scott and Floyd counties in the Legisla- 
ture, which office he still holds. Two sons of 
Dr. McClure, S. C, and J. D., are also physi- 
cians in JeffersonviHe. 

Dr. II. J. Holland read medicine with his 
father, Dr. II. N. Holland, and attended a course 
of lectures at the Homeopathic college at Lan- 
sing, Michigan, since removed to Detroit. After 
practicing for a time in Ovid and Lansing, 
Michigan, he went to Yazoo City, Mississippi, 
and remained two years. In 1876 he came to 
JeffersonviHe and entered practice with his fath- 
er. They have a stock of remedies used in their 
branch of the profession, and keep the only 
homeopathic drug store in the city. 

Dr. W. D. Fouts was born in Scott county, 
Indiana. He read medicine with Dr. A. A. 
Morrison, of Lexington, near his home, and at- 
tended medical lectures at the University of 
Louisville in 185 1. During the war he was sur- 
geon of the Eighty-first Indiana volunteers, from 
which he was promoted to brigade and division 
surgeon. He was captured while in the service, 
and confined five months in Libby prison. At 
the close of the war he came back to Lexington 
and engaged in practice, in 187 1 removing to 
JeffersonviHe. 

Dr. Isaac N. Griffith was a student with Dr. 
Field in 1834 or 1835. He married a Louisville 
lady and settled in Louisiana, where he died 
eighteen months after commencing his practice. 

Dr. T. A. Graham is a native of this county. 
He pursued medical studies with Dr. D. S. 
Armer, at New Washington, in 1868-69-70, and 
attended lectures at the Medical College of Ohio, 
in Cincinnati, from which he graduated in 1S71 ; 
he took the ad eundem degree at the University 
of Louisville in 1S72. In 1S71 he practiced in 
the town of Oregon, and in 1872 came to Jeffer- 
sonville, where he started a drug store the next 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



443 



year, associating with him his brother, J. A. 
Graham, who bad studied at the Louisville Col- 
lege of Pharmacy. Dr. Graham is health officer 
for the county, to which office he was appointed 
by the State board of health. 

Dr. A. McNeil is one of the younger members 
of the medical profession of the city. He was 
a student of Dr. Younghusband, at Mt. Clemens, 
Michigan, and graduated from the Homeopathic 
college at Lansing in 187 1. During the past 
winter he located here. 

Dr. E. W. Bruner read medicine with his 
father at Utica, in this county, and attended lec- 
tures at the Miami Medical college in Cincin- 
nati in 1866-67. After practicing in Sellersville, 
New Albany, and Utica, he came to Jefferson- 
ville in 1879. 

Dr. Gustav Fernitz is a native of Germany, 
and a student at the University Albertina, in 
Kcenigberg. He came to the United States in 
1866, and became editor of the German Volks- 
blatt in Louisville, which position he occupied 
ten years. He then established the Daily New 
Era, of which he was editor one year. In 1S80 
he graduated from the Louisville Medical col- 
lege, and in July, 18S1, located in Jeffersonville 
as a physician, his office being on lower Spring 
street. 

JEFFERSONVILLE SCHOOLS. 

Prior to the establishment of the public 
schools (1852), education was obtained in Jeffer- 
sonville as elsewhere: in private schools, taught 
by persons who came principally from the East, 
and who would teach from two to five months, 
then move to other places. 

Among these early teachers was a Mr. Stewart 
and.a Mr. Bushriian, who believed in "no lickin', 
no learnin'." About forty years ago a private 
school for girls was established in a building 
called the Jeffersonville hotel, near the present 
site of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad depot. 
This school was in charge of Miss Alice Morgan, 
who has continuously taught private schools in 
the city to the present time. Not long after this 
a school was established for boys on Maple, be- 
tween Spring and Wall streets, under the care of 
Godfrey Belding, as teacher. The meager de- 
tails to be obtained concerning these private 
schools are conflicting as to names and dates; 
and, as there was nothing worthy to be called a 



system, we are obliged to be content with begin- 
ning this account at the year 185?, when the 
public school system of the city was established. 
The first school building was erected in that 
year, and still stands at the corner of Maple and 
Watt streets, being now occupied as a colored 
school. Who was the first principal of that 
school cannot be learned. 

In 1 853' the first board of school trustees was 
elected, and consisted of J. G. Howard, T. E. 
Vt-atch and W. L Meriwether. 

The growth of the system and attendance has 
been steady save during the years of the war, 
when the military occupation of Jeffersonville al- 
most suspended the schools. 

In the summer of 1869 the trustees purchased 
the ground now occupied by the Chestnut-street 
school and began the erection of the building, 
which was ready for use at the opening of the 
school-year of 1870. It was intended and has 
since served for the accommodation of the 
Chestnut-street graded school and the Jefferson- 
ville high school. The first principal of the high 
school then established was H. B. Parsons. John 
L. Winn and M. C. Ingram were assistants. 

In 1866 the city built the New Market school 
building on Court avenue, and in 1867, when 
separate colored schools were established, this 
building was relegated to that use. 

In 1874 the Rose Hill school building was 
erected and a portion of it was occupied at the 
opening of the school year. W. B. Goodwin 
then assumed charge as principal, and still holds 
the place. 

Up to the year 1874 a separate female high 
school was maintained. John M. Payne had 
succeeded Mr. Parsons as principal of the male 
high schools. In 1874 he gave way to E. S. 
Hopkins, now 'principal of the Chestnut-street 
graded schools, in the same building, and, in 
1876, Mr. R. L. Butler, the present principal, 
took charge of the united schools. 

In addition to the schools named there are 
I two others conducted in the city, the Mulberry- 
street school, taught by Miss F. C. Addison, 
and the "Engine House school," taught by Miss 
Lizzie Hertsch. 

In order to gain some idea of the growth of 
the Jeffersonville schools the following statement 
is appended: 

P'or the year 1S66 number admitted to schools, 



444 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



823 ; average attendance, 287 : number of 
teachers, 9. 

For the year 1870 number of pupils admitted 
to graded schools, 871; to high schools, 71 j 
average, 528. 

•For the year 1S75 number of pupils admitted 
to graded schools, 1,235 5 to hi«h school, S2 ; 
average, 803. 

For the year 18S0 number of pupils admitted 
to graded schools, 1,541; to high schools, 82; 
average, 1,157. 

For the year 1882 number of pupils admitted 
to graded schools, i,8oo ; to high schools, 77 ; 
teachers employed, 32. 

The following is a full list of the school trus- 
tees of Jeffersonville •from the beginning, with 
their terms of service: J. G. Howard, 1853-55, 
1S69-76; Thomas E. Veatch, 1853-54; W. L. 
Merriwether, 1853-55; Myron Stratton, 1854-61; 
VV. M. French, 1855-61; Nathaniel Field, 1855- 
63, 1865-70; Gabriel Poindexter, 1861-63; Wil- 
liam H. Fogg, 1861-63; John M- Ingram, 1863; 
Robert Curran, 1S63-65; C. Leonhardt, 1863-65; 
Thomas S. Crowe, 1865-67; J. H. McCampbefl, 
1870-73; Charles Rossler, 1873-75; Hugo Alben, 
1875-80; William Lee, 1876-79; O. C. Stealey, 
1879; George Pfau, 1S80. 

DARMAN S. KELLY, 

the present superintendent of instruction at Jef- 
fersonville, was born in Owen county, Indiana,' 
June 25, 1852. 

He ' was educated at a private academy at 
Patricksburg, in the same State, at Ascension 
seminary, at Sullivan, Indiana, and at the Indi- 
ana State Normal school at Terre Haute. He 
began teaching a country school ; he was later 
two years in charge of his old school at Patricks- 
burgh. In February, 1S76, he became principal 
of a ward school at Evansville, Indiana, and in 
1877 became assistant superintendent of the 
Evansville schools under John M. Blass. That 
place he retained until March, 1S81, when he 
was elected superintendent to fill the place of 
Mr. Bears for the balance of the year. He then 
came to Jeffersonville in his present capacity. 
CHURCHES. 
METHODIST. 

The Wall-street Methodist Episcopal church 
is oldest in years of any church in Jeffersonville. 
Preaching services were held as early as 1808, 



in which year a class was formed, of which Rev. 
William Bcarnan was the leader. It met for 
some years in a private house on the site of the 
present church building, and was under minis- 
terial charge of Rev. Moses Ashworth, who at 
that time traveled the Silver Creek circuit. The 
original class contained twelve members, all of 
whom arc long since dead. Richard Mosely was 
one of the first members, and his daughter, who 
became Mrs. Tuley, was the last among the early 
members. She died in 1873. The members were 
poor and had to worship wherever there was a 
house containing rooms sufficiently large to ac- 
commodate the audience. The old court-house 
was used as a house of worship for all denomina- 
tions, and with others the Methodists shared its 
hospitality. Among the early preachers were 
Moses Ashworth, Josiah Crawford, Bela Raine, 
Isaac Linsley, William McMahon* Thomas Nel- 
son, Charles Harrison, Shadrack Ruark, James 
Garner, Joseph Kinkaid, Joseph Purnell, John 
Cord, and David Sharp, all of whom preached 
here before 1820. The present pastor, who has 
served the church since 1879, is Rev. John S. 
Tevis. He was also at this station in i860. 

The German Methodist Episcopal church was 
organized about 1845. A small brick church 
was built on Locust street, which was used until 
1877, when the present substantial and neat brick 
building was erected on the corner of Maple and 
Wall streets. In 1881 a neat parsonage was 
built adjoining the church, the two buildings, with 
lot costing not far from $13,000. There is a 
membership of about one hundred and twenty, 
and a Sunday school of about ninety. 

Some years later the Methodist church South 
organized a church which is still continued. The 
house of worship is on Market street west of 
Spring. 

An African Methodist Episcopal church was 
organized in Claysburg about 1842, where quite 
a settlement of colored people had gathered. 
Preaching had been held for some years in pri- 
vate houses, before a church was formed. The 
first house of worship was a log building; the sec- 
ond, a frame, was built on Prison hill, the congre- 
gation having changed to that part of the city. 
This building was burned, as was the third, which 
was built near by, on the public square. . The 
present church was built in 18S0, on Court ave- 
nue, near Ohio avenue, and is not finished. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



445 



Wesley Chapel Methodist Episcopal church 
was. organized about 1S67, and soon built a 
small frame house, which was used until 1876, 
when a new building was erected near the Gov- 
ernment store house, and is now occupied. 

EVANGELICAL REFORMED. 

St. Lucas German Evangelical Reformed 
church was organized in May, i860, the first 
members being J. L. Rockstroh, Louis Henzler, 
Andrew Bauer, Herman Preefer, Henry Sittel, 
John Ruehl and others. A small church was 
bought from the Presbyterians, opposite the city 
hall, which is yet occupied. In 1870 a lot adjoin- 
ing was purchased and a parsonage built. The 
membership is about one hundred and eight 
families. The pastor is Rev. H. M. Gersmann. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The Jeffersonville Presbyterian church was 
organized May 22, 1830, by Rev. Messrs. Cobb, 
Cressy, and Sneed. The first members were 
Warwick Miller, Mrs. Martha Miller, Samuel 
Meriwether, Mrs. Mary Meriwether, Miss Sarah 
L. Meriwether, Mrs. Sarah Stephenson, Mrs. 
Jane Gilmore, Mrs. Ann Wade, Mrs. Eliza 
Weathers, and Miss Sarah Armstrong, all of 
whom came from the church of Louisville 
to establish a church in this place. There were 
also received on examination Mrs. Rebecca 
Reeder and Miss Sarah Rue. Samuel Meri- 
weather was chosen ruling elder, and also acted 
as clerk of the church. June 1, 1830, Rev. 
Michael A. Remley was received as stated sup- 
ply. Meetings were held at the old court-house, 
but the church felt the need of a permanent 
home, and the corner-stone of a church edifice 
was laid September 24, 1832. On the 1st of 
December, 1833, Rev. E. P. Humphrey suc- 
ceeded Mr. Remley as slated supply, and was 
followed in August, 1835, by Rev. Mr. Russell. 
January 1, 1836, Rev. P. S. Cleland came and 
served the church one year. Rev. H. H. Cam- 
burn succeeded Mr. Cleland, and two years later 
came Rev. John Clark Bayless, who also minis- 
tered two years. Then followed Rev. William 
H. Moore, Rev. R. H. Allen, Rev. S. F. Scovel, 
Rev. Dr. Thomas Crowe, and in 187 1 the pres- 
ent pastor, Rev. J. M. Hutchison. 

The first church edifice, a brick, of one story, 
was used until i860, when the necessities of the 
congregation demanded additional accommoda- 



tions, and the present brick church was erected 
on the corner of Chestnut and Walnut streets. 

The present membership is about three hun- 
dred and forty. A Sabbath school of two hun- 
dred and fifty is sustained, besides a mission 
school of two hundred members. 

THE CHRISTIAN' CHURCH. 

A church of this denomination was organized 
in Jeffersonville in 1830, by Dr. N. Field, who, in 
addition to being a medical man, is a preacher of 
considerable note. The first members were 
Christian Bruner and his wife Mary, Fanny Mc- 
Garrah, Mary Riker, Mary Philips, Elizabeth 
Wright, and Mrs. Sigmond. In the afternoon of 
the day of organization, which was Sunday, 
March 1st, the church admitted Mrs. Sarah A. 
Field, wife of the pastor, and Sarah Phillips, 
who were at that time baptised into the faith. 
Meetings were held at the old court-house, which 
was the general meeting place for all denomina- 
tions for some years. A church was built in 
1840, which remains in use. Dr. Field was the 
pastor for eighteen years. The present member- 
ship is about one hundred and seventy-five. A 
Sunday-school is well sustained. 

THE SECOND ADVENT CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

Differences regarding doctrine and church 
discipline arose in the Christian church, which 
culminated by the withdrawal of the pastor, Dr. 
Field, with quite a portion of the flock, and the 
third Sunday in August, 1S47, a new church was 
formed, which was designated the Second Advent 
Christian church. Their meetings were held in 
a hall until 1S50-51, when a church building 
was e.ected, which is yet occupied. Of the one 
hundred and thirty members now connected with 
this church, some sixty or seventy came out from 
the Christian church. Dr. Field, now a venerable, 
but hale and well preserved man, has been the 
pastor for thirty-five years. A Sabbath-school is 
well sustained, and is industriously instilling the 
principles of Christianity into the minds of the 
youth of the church. 

sr. Paul's episcopal church. 

Some few years before 1S36 preaching services 
were held here under Episcopal forms, and a 
church organized with a few members, nearly all 
of whom were women. In 1837 a small frame 
church was built on Spring street, which was 
used as place of worship many years. Occasional 



446 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



services were held by ministers who came over 
from Louisville for that purpose. The first reg- 
ular preacher was Mr. Page, a school teacher 
from Louisville, who administered to the needs 
of the church for several years. He recently 
died in Washington, District of Columbia. After 
his retirement services were very irregular for 
some time, when Mr. Chapman came as rector. 
He remained a short time, as did his successor, 
Mr. Totten. The next preacher was Mr. Austin, 
from New Albany, who afterwards went to Terre 
Haute. The present rector is Rev. Mr. Carey. 
For some eleven years after the formation of the 
church a home was provided for the minister at 
the house of Mr. S. H. Patterson, who, though 
not a member of the society, knew the members 
were not able to make such provision for his 
comfort as they would like. After the close of 
the war the old church building was removed, 
and the then rector, Mr. Austin, bought one of 
the barrack buildings on the breaking up of 
Camp Joe Holt, and moved it to Mulberry street, 
where it was transformed into the neat church 
now occupied by the congregation. 

BAPTIST CHURCHES. 

The first Baptist church was organized in 1836 
by Rev. William C. Buck, at that time editor of 
the Baptist Banner, which was published at 
Louisville. Thirteen members were present at 
the organization. L. B. Hall and wife, James 
Gill, William McCoy, Frank King, and Mis. 
Halstead were of the number. A church was 
built on Market street, between Wall and Elm, 
the same year. This church was occupied until 
some time after 1S60, when it was burned. The 
congregation then bought the old Episcopal 
church, and used it until the present house on 
Maple street, between Mulberry and Ohio ave- 
nue, was built in 1S68. 

The Enon Baptist church was formed by a 
split from the First church on matters of doc- 
trine, and built a house of worship, which was 
occupied perhaps two years, but the congrega- 
tion being unable to pay for the building, it was 
sold by the sheriff to satisfy creditors and the 
organization was given up. 

The First Colored Baptist church was organ- 
ized about 1861 by Philip Simcoe, who became 
its pastor. A church building was erected on 
Illinois avenue, between Seventh and Eighth 



streets soon after organization. This was occu- 
pied until rebuilt by the piesent pastor, W. M. 
Miller, in 1881. 

The Second Colored Baptist church was also 
organized by Philip Simcoe about 1865, by a 
split from the First church. A building was put 
up on the corner of Indiana avenue and Sixth 
street, which is yet used. The pastor for some 
time past has been Harvey Johnson, who preach- 
ed his farewell sermon in April last. 

st. anthony's and st. augustine's churches 
(catholic). 

At quite an early period in the history of 
Jeffersonville a number of Catholic families 
settled here, and mass was celebrated in private 
houses. The first visit of a priest recorded is 
that of Father Daniel Maloney, who celebrated 
mass at a private house on the bank of the river, 
at that time owned by Mr. Wathen. It was 
known as the Hensley house, and was a three- 
story brick building. Soon after a German 
named Zapf raised money by subscription, and 
a brick church, 25x50 feet in size, was built. 
The corner-stone of this building was laid with 
appropriate ceremonies, by Bishop Spalding, of 
Louisville, August 10, 1851. Father Otto Jair, 
a Franciscan monk, of Louisville, said first mass 
in the unfinished building. In March, 1854, 
Father August Bessonies came to take charge of 
the parish, accompanied by the bishop of Vin- 
cennes, Dr. St. Palais. Father Bessonies re- 
mained until November 5, 1S57, during the time 
attending a congregation on the knobs back of 
New Albany, besides seven surrounding stations. 
He was succeeded by Father William Doyle, and 
he by Philip Doyle, his brother. In i860 Father 
Philip Doyle was removed, and the congrega- 
tion was without a settled minister for a year, but 
was visited on Sundays by a Franciscan from 
Louisville. In December, 1S61, Father Ostlan- 
genberg was appointed pastor, and remained in 
charge until 1863, when Father Philip Doyle was 
returned. In April, 1864, Rev. J. A. Michael 
succeeded him. The English-speaking portion 
of the Catholics then resolved on building a 
chuich for themselves. Father Ostlangenbcrg 
took the first steps toward laying the foundation 
of the new church, on land donated hy the 
bishop of Vincennes and Father Bessonies, at 
the northeast corner of Locust and Chestnut 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



447 



streets, Bishop Spalding, of Louisville, officiating 
on the occasion of laying the corner-stone, Octo- 
her 8, 1863. This was during the war, and many 
Catholics were encamped as soldiers in and 
about the city. The foundation of the church 
was built by Father A. Michael, but the build- 
ing was not completed until after he left in 1867, 
when Father James Mougin, of New Albany, at 
the request of the bishop of Vincennes, under- 
took to put up the walls. This was done in time 
to have it blessed on St. Patrick's day, Maich 17, 
186S. The congregations were attended by 
Father Mougin until December, 186S, when the 
present rector, Rev. Ernest Audran, formerly 
rector of the cathedral at Vincennes, came and 
took charge, and has since completed the church, 
improved the grounds, and built a school for 
boys, which has an average attendance of about 
one hundred. This school is in the care of 
the Sisters of Providence, seven in number. 
They also opened a school for young girls some 
years since, in the pastor's residence, which was 
vacated for their use, until the Community to 
which they belong bought a lot opposite the 
church, and established the school there, with a 
membership of about one hundred and ten. 

Among the first members of the Catholic 
church were John Burke, Thomas Bow, D. 
Bow, Mrs. Kennedy, Theobald Manning, C. 
Lausman, E. Spinner, Frank Voigt, E. Hurst, 
and others. The present number of families is 
about three hundred and fifty, besides thirty fam- 
ilies of colored members. 

St. Anthony's was the name of the first church, 
and its history is largely included in that of St. 
Augustine's. After the English-speaking members 
formed a new congregation, the Germans re- 
mained in the old church until 1878, when the 
present church edifice was built by Father Leop- 
old Moczigamba. He was succeeded by Father 
Joseph, Father Avalinus Sczabo, Father Clement, 
and again by Father Moczigamba. The present 
pastor is Father Anthony Kottever. Since the 
second church was organized the Germans have 
purchased a cemetery, near the Eastern cemetery, 
in which members of both churches are buried. 

The schools of St. Anthony are conducted by 
the Ursuline Sisters, three in number. The con- 
gregation comprises some one hundred and thirty 
families. 



CEMETERIES. 

The first general burying-ground known was 
located on the river front, between Spring 
and Pearl streets. It was between Front street 
and the river, for, strange as it may seem to the 
people of to-day, there were reserved between 
Front street and the river a row of lots fronting 
nearly the entire original plat of the town. Next 
adjoining the river, and on the bank, was Water 
street, which if .still accessible would be not 
far from the present ferry wharf-boat at low- 
water. The river encroached so rapidly on the 
bank at this point that it was thought best to 
grade down the bluff and pave a levee. The 
contract for this grading was let to Mr. J. H. 
McCampbell, who prosecuted the work to com- 
pletion. Many bodies were found buried during 
the grading, the hard walnut cases having with- 
stood the action of the soil through some forty 
years. The remains were carefully gathered to- 
gether and moved to the old cemetery, between 
Market and Maple streets, west of Mulberry, 
were they were again buried, the city procuring 
an appropriate monument, which was placed on 
the spot. 

The old cemetery between Chestnut and Mar- 
ket streets has been used so many years that no 
one can now tell when the first burial took place 
in it. This ground has not been used since 
1862, an ordinance passed in May of that year 
forbidding its further use. 

Long before this time Walnut Ridge cemetery 
was located in the northern part of the city, 
where the dead were buried. In 1864 a tract of 
five acres was bought adjoining the eastern limits 
of the city, which was set apart by action of the 
council in August, the management being vested 
in a board consisting of five directors. In addi- 
tion to this the rhembers of the Catholic church- 
es purcahsed grounds near by where the dead of 
that faith are buried. 

SOCIETIES. 

MASONIC. 

The first lodge instituted in the county of 
Clark was Posey lodge No. 9, Free and Accepted 
Masons, which was organized under dispensation 
in 1818, and the following year received a char- 
ter. In iS2othe Grand Lodge of Indiana met 
with Posey lodge. The representatives to the 
Grand Lodge at this time were Reuben W. Nel- 



44 8 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



son and John II. Farnham. Visitors were 
Samuel Peck, James Nesmith, Thomas Wilson, 
Charles M. Taylor, Israel Gregg, William Wilkin- 
son, and James McNeal. This probably repre- 
sented nearly the entire membership of Posey 
lodge, which remained small during its existence. 
In 1828 the lodge surrendered its charter, it be- 
ing found impossible to sustain it at that time. 

Clark lodge No. 40, Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, was chartered December 17, 18 iS, and was 
so named in honor of General George Rogers 
Clark. Its fir^t officers were Thomas D. Lemon, 
M.; B. C. Pile, S. W.j and Robert A. Heiskell, 
J. W. This lodge is still in a flourishing condi- 
tion and has raised many worthy Masons in the 
sixty-four years of its existence. Meetings are 
held in the Masonic hall, on the corner of Spring 
and Chestnut streets. 

Jeffersonville lodge No. 340 is of compara- 
tively recent date, its charter having been issued 
May 29, 1867, the officers appointed by the 
Grand lodge to open the lodge being William H. 
Fogg, M.j Theodore W. McCoy, S. W.; and 
William Beard, J. W. The officers of this lodge 
for 1882 are: Harry T. Sage, W. M.j William 
B. Hayes, S. W.; Isaac McKenzie, J. W.; Alfred 
O. Schuler, treasurer; John R. Shadburn, Jr., 
secretary; Nate E. Heinsheimer, S. LX; Daniel 
M. Austin, J. D.; William H. Isgrig, tyler; 
George W. Lukenbill and William Powers, 
stewards. • Calvin W. Prather, who was master 
of the lodge in 1870-71-72-73, was elected 
grand master of the State in 18S0, which office 
he now holds. 

Jeffersonville council No. 31, Royal and Select 
Masters, was chartered October 29, 1869. The 
members to whom were granted the charter were 
William H. Fogg, James G. Caldwell, Robert S. 
Heiskell, Simeon S. Johnson, John G. Briggs, 
Thomas Sparks, Reuben Wills, Matt A. Patter- 
son, W. II. Snodgrass. William. H. Fogg was 
first T. 1. G. M.j James G. Caldwell, D. I. G. 
M.; and John G. Briggs, P. C. ot W. 

Jeffersonville commandery No. 27, was insti- 
tuted April 26, 1876, with Simeon S. Johnson, 
E. C; Richard L. Woolsey, G.; and Calvin W. 
Prather, C. G. 

Horeb chapter No. 66, was chartered May 23, 
1867, by VV, II. Fogg, T. W. McCoy, W. H. 
Snodgrass, J. VV. Sullivan, J. G. Caldwell, and 
others. The officers were J. G. Caldwell, H. P.; 



T. W. McCoy, K.; VV. H. Snodgrass, scribe. 
All Masonic bodies hold meetings in their hall 
on the corner of Spring and Chestnut streets. 
This lodge hall has been leased for a long term 
of years, and is comfortably, though not extrav- 
agantly furnished for the purpose. 

INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. 

Jefferson lodge No. 3, I. O. O. F., was char- 
tered September 4, 1S67, by C. H. Paddox, 
Thomas Humphries, John Applegate, Benjamin 
Riggles, and Nicholas Kearns. 

Excelsior encampment No. 14, I. O. O. F., 
was chartered July 14, 1848, by John Dixon, 
William Rea, Alexander Christian, T. J. Howard, 
John G. Frank, Samuel H. Patterson, and David 
Dryden. 

Tabor lodge No. 92 was chartered January 
23,011 application of John Dixon, R. H. Gresham, 
LeRoy Woods, and others. 

Tell lodge No. 52 (German) was instituted 
May 22, 1867, the charter members being A. O. 
Schuler, Jacob Roos, Christian Seeman, A. 
Kleespies, Ph. Miller, John Weber, Louis Henz- 
ler, Leonard Carl, Jr., William Strauss, John Sit- 
tel, and Henry Sittel. 

Thomas Degree lodge No. 6, I. O. O. F., 
was instituted May 22, 1867, on application of 
John N. Ingram, A. J. Howard, O. N. Thomas, 
G. W. Rose, Herman Preefer, J. Johnson, H. 
N. Holland, and others. The degrees formerly 
conferred by this lodge are now conferred by 
the other lodges, and the Degree lodge is now 
extinct. 

Rebekah lodge No. 8 was instituted March 
1, 1S69, with Herman Preefer, Mary Preefer, R. 
H. Timmons, M. C. Timmons, H. N. Holland, 
J. T. Davis, James W. Jacobs, and others, charter 
members. This lodge is for the benefit of the 
wives and daughters of members of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, and it gives the 
ladies the benefit of the fraternal ties that bind 
their husbands and brothers in the bonds of 
Friendship, Love, and Truth. 

Some years since William Beach erected a 
two story brick building on the corner of 
Market and Locust streets, to which the 
lodge of Odd Fellows added a third story 
for use as a lodge hall. This was completed 
about 1856. On the death ot Mr. Beach the 
fraternity purchased the building, the lower part 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



449 



of which they lease for other purposes, reserving 
the upper part for their own use. Their room 
"is neatly carpeted and furnished, the ladies tak- 
ing great interest in its appearance. It is now 
occupied by eight lodges, which includes the 
United Order of the Golden Cross. 

UNITED ORDER OF THE GOLDEN CROSS. 

This is a benevolent organization, and was 
originated in Tennessee within the past decade. 
It admits to membership both males and females, 
and since its fust inception has had a marvelous 
growth, lodges having sprung up in all sections 
of the country. Two lodges have been insti- 
tuted in this city. 

Clark commandery No. 57 was chartered 
June 7, 1 S79, on application of D L. Field, 
T. T. Thompson, James D. Wilson, Sarah L. 
Thompson, E. M. Goodrich, J. H. Miles, and 
fourteen others. It includes three degrees, Gol- 
den Star, Golden Rule, and Golden Cross. 

Bain commandery No. 15, U. O. G. C, was 
chartered October 2, 1879, by R. E. Curran, 
Lee S. Johnson, V. 1). Jackson, Sallie C. Jack- 
son, F. A. Seymour, Charles D. Shell, E. B. 
Jacobs, and fourteen others. 

These societies meet at Odd Fellows hall, on 
the corner of Market and Locust streets. 

TEMPERANCE ORGANIZATIONS. 

Two lodges of Good Templars have been es- 
tablished in Jeffersonville, both of which have 
done much good in the temperance cause. 

Ohio Falls lodge was organized April 27, 
1866, with Rev. A. N. Marlett, \V. C. T., and 
Mrs. Heaton, W. V. T. Its meetings are held in 
Becht's hall, on Spring street. Since its organi- 
zation it has received a total membership of 
three thousand. The course of many of these 
members has been followed after they left this 
lodge to engage in work in other and distant 
places, and a very large number have adhered to 
the pledge taken here. 

Jeffersonville lodge No. 122 was organized 
April 7, 1S71, with V. I). Jackson as W. C. T., 
and Mrs. M. A. Johnson, W. V. T. This lodge 
also meets at Becht's hall. During its existence 
it has received over two thousand members. 

On the 12th day of February, 1874, a large 
number of ladies met at the Methodist church 
to take concerted action against the growing evil 
of intemperance. The call for the meeting was 



issued by Mrs. Sallie C. Jackson. At this meet- 
ing an organization was perfected, which was 
known as the Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, and was one of the first, if not the first 
organization of this name established. On 
Saturday of the same week the crusade was be- 
gun in earnest. A band of near a hundred 
women passed along the streets, stopping at each 
saloon, singing, exhorting, and praying, urging 
the dealers to abandon their traffic. Some im- 
pression was made, but aside from deterring per- 
sons from enteiing. saloons after drink, but little 
apparent progress could be seen. A week later 
more than two thousand saloon-keepers and 
their parasites came over from Louisville deter- 
mined to frighten the women away. They brought 
with them plenty of beer, which was passed in 
kegs over the heads of the praying women, the 
roughs singing vulgar German songs to try and 
drown the voice of prayer. The services were 
kept up by the ladies until darkness caused them 
to withdraw. The result was almost a drawn 
battle, the ladies having maintained their ground 
as long as they cared to hold it. The warfare 
was kept up with the local saloon-keepers to 
their manifest disadvantage. Several were 
starved out, and one sold his stock to a commit- 
tee of the ladies, and removed to Lexington, 
Kentucky, where he again opened a saloon. 
During the progress of the crusade and after its 
close many signed the pledge and have remained 
sober men. 

KNIGHTS OF HONOR. 

Eureka lodge No. 3, K. of H., was instituted 
November 6, 1873. The chaiter members were 
James W. Jacobs, Dr. J. Loomis, John W. 
Weber, Henry A. Horn, Max Edelmuth, C. 
Kreutzer, and George Eyrish. This is the third 
lodge of this order organized, No. 1 and No. 2 
being instituted in Louisville. The organization 
has had a marvelous growth since its inception, 
lodges being now established in every State in 
the Union. The grand secretary for this State, 
James W. Jacobs, has his office in Jeffersonville. 

Harmonia lodge No. SS, K. of H., was insti- 
tuted March 19, 1875, with I. E. Plumadore, E. 
V. Staley, S. S. Cole, W. G. Raymond, and 
nine others as charter members. 

Barbarossa lodge No. 146, K. of H., was in- 
stituted August 24, 1S75, with L. Becht, A. 



45° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



I-aun, F. Dietz, M. Killgus, and six other charter 
members. 

Mystic Tie lodge No. 7, Knights and Ladies 
of Honor, was instituted December 12, 1877, 
and received its charter April i, 1S79. The 
first members were E. V. Staley, Eva Staley, 
Mary A. Dean, C. M. Carter, Leslie Carter, and 
twenty-seven others. This organization came 
into existence a few years later than the Knights 
of Honor, and was designed to provide a sys- 
tem of insurance in which the wives and daugh- 
ters of the members of the former organization 
might also have a part. 

Eden lodge No. 240, K. & L. of H., was insti- 
tuted January 17, 1880, the charter being issued 
on petition of Margaret S. Jacobs, Sarah S. 
Thompson, Elizabeth J. Moore, Dr. Thomas A. 
Graham, E. VV. Berry, Nancy Berry, and thirteen 
others. 

Helvetia lodge No. 306, K. & L. of 1L, was 
instituted March 3, 1SS0, by J. VV, Jacobs. 
The charter members were J. VV. Weber, Theo- 
dore Bachly, Michael Bourk, James Pierson and 
seventeen others. 

All the above lodges meet at the hall on the 
corner of Spring and Maple streets. 

ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN. 

Anchor lodge No. 39, Ancient Order of L T nited 
Workmen, was instituted March 20, 1878. 
Charter was issued to Thomas J. Edmonson, P. 
M. VV.; William H. Shaffer, M. VV; J. M. Wil- 
liams, G. F.; Thomas V. Hewitt, O.; William K. 
Gray, recorder; D. L. Field, F. ; John M. Tot- 
ten, receiver; L. H. Jenks, G.; Henry Resch, I. 
VV.; William P. Finn, O. W. 

Falls City lodge No. 8, Ancient Order of Unit- 
ed Workmen, was organized November 13, 
1866, with the following officers: G. VV. Finley, 
P. M. VV.; C. L. MeNaughton, M. VV; W. H. 
Langdon, G. F.; George Green, O. ; VV. H. Balti- 
more, G.; A. A. Mallingro, F.; Simeon Resch, 
R.; I. W. Robinson, O. 

These lodges meet in the hall occupied by the 
Knights of Honor, corner of Spring and Maple 
streets. 

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. 

Hope lodge No. 13, Knights of Pythias, was 
chartered July 25, 187 1, the members being H. 
Preefer, C. H. Kelley, W. H. Northcott, S. B. 
Halley, W. S. Bowman, and twenty-five others. 



Myrtle lodge No. 19, Knights of Pythias, was 
chartered July 24, 1872, by A. L. Eggleston, C. 
H. -Kelley, W. H. Bowman, J. B. Piper, O. W. 
Rodgers, G. W. Prather, W. E. Rose, and thirty 
others, who came out from Hope lodge to or 
ganize an additional lodge. 

Samson lodge No. 32, Knights of Pythias, was 
also organized by members of the two previous 
lodges, July 22, 1S73. The members were Wil- 
liam H. Myers, VV. S. Bowman, W. W. Crocker, 
R. M. Hartwell, J. E. Finch, Charles Rossler, G. 
W. Ware, E. A. Barnctt, and M. Myers. 

Endowment Rank No. 59, Knights of Pythias, 
was oiganized December 29, 1877, by William 
T. Myers, R. M. Hartwell, Alexander Sample, 
Charles H. Kelley, and ten others. 

AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR. 

Eureka lodge No. 271, American Legion of 
Honor, was organized by M. Colin, W. M. Staley, 
Sarah Tibbets, Thomas B. Rader, and eleven 
others, August 26, rS8o. This is purely a social 
and benevolent society, and admits members of 
the gentler sex. 

INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS. 

Court Morning Star No. 3, Independent Or- 
der of Foresters, was instituted under special 
dispensation granted Seprember 14, 1S77. Its 
charter is dated October 19, 1877. No list of 
charter members or officers is given in the charter. 

Court Cohn No. 4, Independent Order of 
Foresters, was chartered September 17, 1S80, 
with sixteen members. The officers were 1. B. 
Walker, C. R. ; James McPherson, V. R. ; 
George Sigler, treasurer. The lodge received its 
name from Mr. Morris Cohn, who has been in- 
strumental in organizing a number of benevolent 
secret orders in JeffersOnville. Meetings are 
held at the Ohio Falls school-house. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



45i 



CHAPTER XXX. 

JEFFERSONVILLE INDUSTRIAL. 

Newspapers— Banks— Ferries— Canal— Woolen Mill— Ship 

Building— Railroad. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

The first paper issued in the county was pub- 
lished before 1820 by George Smith and Na- 
thaniel Bolton. The name of this paper cannot 
he recalled, and it is probable' not a copy is 
now in existence. Their office was in their resi- 
dence on Front street, near the river. In 1S21 
they removed to Indianapolis, where they estab- 
lished the first paper in that city. 

In about 1848-49 Joseph Usher published a 
paper called the Jeffersonville Democrat, which 
he controlled a year or more. In 1850-51 Wil- 
liam S. Ferrier published a paper here, but 
whether he continued Usher's paper is not 
known. Ferrier sold to William M. French in 
1854, who remained in charge until about 1S56. 
Mr. Ferrier went to Charlestown where he now 
publishes the Record. 

THE JEFFERSONVILLE REPUBLICAN', 

a weekly political journal representing Demo- 
cratic principles, was established in Jeffersonville 
about the year 1837, by Robert Lindsey. Not 
having means sufficient to cany out this enter- 
prise, Dr. Nathaniel Field and others became 
his sureties for the payment of the material 
needed, and at the end of five years of alternate 
disappointment and encouragement he was 
obliged to abandon his paper, which came into 
possession of Dr. Field as the principal surety. 
The doctor continued its publication some three 
years at a financial loss, though making a very 
acceptable journal.- He then closed the estab- 
lishment and sold the press to J. M. Mathews, 
of Bloomington, who moved it to that place, 
and for some time Jeffersonville had no paper 
published within its borders. 

THE NATIONAL DEMOCRAT. 

In i854\Villiam Lee established a weekly news- 
paper in Jeffersonville with the above title, which 
he conducted with ability two years. At the end of 
that time he sold to T. J. Howard, and the pub 
lication was continued by his son A. J. Howard, 
the present warden of the Indiana State Prison 
South. Mr. Howard retained its management 
two years when he sold to H. W. Rogers, and 
some years later it came into possession of Henry 



B. Wools. During his possession Rogers had 
the entire legal advertising of the county, and 
made money from the publication, as there was 
at that time no other paper in the county. 
Reuben Dadey purchased the office from Wools 
in 1872, and has since continued the paper, en- 
larging and improving it. He was not -satisfied 
with a weekly edition, and on November 18, 
1872, issued the first number of the 

DAILY EVENING NEWS 

in the form of a hand-bill, the sheet being printed 
on one side only. It had but three columns of 
reading matter and advertisements, and was 
published at the price of five cents per week. It 
was not long until the paper was enlarged, extra 
help procured and steam presses employed. Now 
the paper is printed on a sheet 22x30 inches, in 
a six-column folio form, at a yearly subscription 
price of $5.00. The weekly is published at 
$1.50 per year. 

THE DAILY EVENING TIMES, 

edited and published by Armstrong & Fitzpatrick, 
was first issued in February, 1SS0. The editors 
are workers, and are using their best endeavors 
to build up a good paper. They also publish a 
weekly edition of the Times from their office, 
corner of Chestnut and Spring streets. The first 
Monday of January, 1882, they issued a double 
sheet, containing much information concerning 
the business interests of the city. The subscrip- 
tion price of the daily is ten cents per week, and 
$5.00 by the year. The weekly is $1.50 per 
year. 

BANKING. 

The fact that a bank was started in Jefferson- 
ville in 181 7 is known to but few of the present 
citizens of the place, but such is the case. In 
that year Beach & Bigelow established a bank 
here, and issued currency that was a great con- 
venience to the people of the county at the time. 
The bank was continued until after the failure of 
the canal, and strange as it may appear, re- 
deemed all bills that were presented, and some 
came in many years later. It is said that a pas- 
senger on one of the ferries enquired of a boat- 
man if a ten dollar note he held on that bank 
was good. He was informed that he would do 
well to enquire of one of the original members 
of the firm, and on presenting it it was cashed 
without hesitation. Mr. Beach came to this 



452 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



vicinity from New Jersey, and to the time of his 
death was known as Judge Leach, though he 
never held that office here. 

Jeffcrsonville suffered through the unlimited 
circulation of "wild cat" money for many .years, 
and it is not an uncommon thing for bills on 
some of the banks of that time to be sent to one 
of the banks now located here, with an inquiry 
as to its value. But the history of these institu- 
tions is too well known to need repetition here. 
Their day is long past, and it is devoutly to be 
hoped that the time may never again come when 
such a system will be allowed to exist. 
citizens' national bank. 

A branch of the Bank of the State of Indiana 
was established at Jeffcrsonville in 1S57, with a 
capital of $100,000. The officers were Captain 
James Montgomery, president ; VV. H. Fogg, 
cashier. James Montgomery, Thomas L. Smith, 
H. N. Devol, S. H. Patterson, and Dr. VV. F. 
Collum, constituted a board of directors. Under 
the system of State banks this branch was in ac- 
tive operation eight years, when it was incor- 
porated into the Citizens' National bank, which 
is now represented by John F. Read, president ; 
John Adams, cashier; F. W. Poindexter, assist- 
ant cashier. 

THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK 

was organized in April, 1865, with J. H. Mc- 
Campbell president; W. H. Fogg, cashier; Sam- 
uel Goldbach, Abraham Fry, S. C. Taggart, John 
Biggs, and J. H. McCampbell, directors. The 
capital stock is $150,000. The bank is located 
in the finest block in Jeffersonville, which was 
built for the purpose. The second story is ar- 
ranged for offices, and the third is fitted as a fine 
hall. This story was originally intended for use 
as a Masonic hall, but for some reason is not so 
used, and at this time is unoccupied. 

FERRIES. 

Among the first and most important industries 
was the establishment of numerous ferries across 
the Ohio river for the transportation of immi- 
grants and viewers of land from one shore to the 
other. Jeffersonville had a full share of these 
ferries. Though Isaac Bowman, in his sale of 
the original one hundred and fifty acres compris- 
ing the old town, reserved the exclusive right of 
ferriage from the town across the river, he seems 
never to have claimed the right for himself and 



heirs. Consequently nearly every person who 
purchased a lot bordering on the river, claimed 
the right to establish a ferry. During the fust 
few years of the existence of the town licenses 
were issued to several persons by the court, 
granting the right to run a ferry. The first of 
these licenses recorded was granted to Marston 
G. Clark in October, 1802. In rSo7 Joseph 
Bowman was granted a ferry license, and in 1820 
Geoige White was also granted a license. Clark 
sold his ferry right in 18 16, to James Lemon. 
Dr. Meriwether also owned a ferry right across 
to the mouth of Beargrass in the same year. 
These ferries were very simple affairs, in many- 
cases being a skiff or flat-bottomed boat. The 
larger ones were flat-bottomed, and easily car- 
ried a team and loaded wagon, the propelling 
power being oars and poles. An improved ferry 
was run by horse power, some employing two 
horses, and others four, a large cog-wheel under 
the deck communicating power to the wheel. 
In times of high water it was frequently a hard 
task to propel the loaded boat across the swift 
current. 

Soon after obtaining his ferry-right in 1820, 
George White went to Corydon, at that time the 
capital of the State, and procured the passage of 
an act consolidating the several ferries at Jeffer- 
sonville. The same kind of boats were used 
under the consolidation until about 1831, when 
a single steam ferry-boat was placed on the route. 
This boat was used a portion of the season, but 
in the fall exploded its boiler, killing three men, 
and wounding several others. This boat was re- 
placed by another. In rS32 the ferry was 
owned by Wathen & Gilmore. In 183S Shall- 
cross, Strader and Thompson bought Gilmore's 
interest, and about 1850 placed on the route 
two steam ferry-boats. As the city of Jefferson- 
ville increased in size, the ferry became more 
important, for many years everything being trans- 
ported across the river over this route. During 
the war the traffic was great. The building of 
the railway bridge across the river at the rapids 
has taken off some of the passenger traffic, but 
the ferry does a large business at the present 
time, and probably will continue so to do. 

Some years since an effort was made to es- 
tablish a rival line, hut the projectors were bought 
off, some receiving stock in the Jeffersonville &; 
Louisville Ferry company, as it is now called. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



453 



The first ferry was run from the foot of Spring 
street directly across the river to Keiger's land- 
ing, the island now- located near the Kentucky 
shore at that time being no obstacle, a small 
sand bar only being visible at extremely low 
water, where the boys used to go hunting after 
turtles' eggs, the waters near by being a favorite 
bathing place. 

FORT FINNEY. 

As early as 1786 the work of constructing a 
series of forts extending down the Ohio river to 
Louisville, for the purpose of securing the settlers 
from attacks by predatory bands of Indians, was 
begun. Major Finney, an officer of the United 
States army, was employed in the construction of 
several of these works of defence, and from him 
the old fort at the Falls of the Ohio derived its 
name. Another fort in the chain having the 
same name, this was soon called Fort Steuben, 
and as such is known in history. A map of the 
Falls of the Ohio, published in London, England, 
in 1793, shows the location of the fort, which is 
there designated as Fort Finney. This was an 
important post for the defence of the growing 
settlement of Louisville in 1786, and was from 
that time until 1790, in command of Colonel 
John Armstrong, who was an officer in the regu- 
lar service. In 1790 three hundred Virginia 
militia were gathered here to go to the attack on 
Vincennes. In 1791 it contained a garrison of 
sixty-one soldiers. The fort appears to have 
been abandoned not long after that date, as no 
further record can be found regarding it. 

This old fort was situated on the river front, 
at the foot of Fort street, a commanding location, 
from which a full view of the rapids was had, as 
well as a view of the river for some distance 
above. Colonel Armstrong, when in command, 
erected works of defence farther up the river, 
commanding the crossing at Eighteen-mile island, 
which furnished still further protection against 
savage marauders crossing the river to attack 
frontier settlements in Kentucky. 

The site where stood the old fort cannot be 
traced, though a very few of the old residents 
remember playing among the ruins when children. 

THE CANAL. 

In 18 18 the project of building a canal through 
Jeffcrsonville to a point on the Ohio river below 
the falls at the mouth of Cane run was decided 



upon. Just who was the originator of the 
scheme it is hard to say, but John Fischli and 
Messrs. Bigelow and Beach were interested in 
its success. The Legislature authorized a lottery 
by which to provide funds, and a large amount 
of money was secured from the sale of tickets. 
Contracts were awarded for opening the' canal, 
Michael I. Myers being engaged to do the work 
of removing the grubs, etc., from Spring street 
to the old corner post of the town allotment. 
The ditch was opened and a strong dam built 
across Cane run, which backed up the water that 
was to wash out the bed of the canal to its upper 
end near Barmore's mill. Several ponds were 
also tapped to contribute their contents to the 
same purpose. The waters carried out a small 
quantity of loose dirt, but when the blue clay 
was reached had no effect, and had it continued 
running to this day would not have made a 
canal. The project was finally abandoned, and 
the old ditch is mostly filled up. What became 
of the lottery drawing is unknown, but certain it 
is, a considerable sum of money was expended 
with no practical results. 

BRIDGING THE OHIO. 

As early as 1837 a project was started for 
building a bridge across the Ohio river to con- 
nect Indiana with Kentucky. Who were the 
formulators of this enterprise it is now hard to 
tell, but it took such definite form that work was 
commenced down the river near the ancient 
town of Clarksville, and a foundation made on 
which to lay the abutments. This was near the 
old mill, which is also a thing of the past. Great 
enthusiasm was shown when the laying of the 
abutments was commenced, but lack of funds 
soon forced a cessation of work. This was in- 
tended to be a carriage and foot-bridge, no rail- 
road being thought of at that early time. 

During the war the Government built a pon- 
toon bridge across the river, the end on this side 
being near the foot of Fort street. This was 
built about the time Bragg's army was threaten- 
ing Louisville, and was used only for the trans- 
portation of military stores and troops. As soon 
as the emergency passed it was abandoned. 

WOOLEN MILL. 

The first manufacture of woolen goods was at 
the penitentiary, during the years 1849 to 1856, 
when Mr, S. H. Patterson contracted for the 



454 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



labor of twenty convicts, and engaged in the 
making of coarse jeans and linseys for the South- 
ern market. This class of goods was much 
used as clothing for slaves, it being made very 
strong and firm, capable of long wear. 

In 1S58 Mr. Patterson built a large two-story 
brick building for use as a woolen mill, near the 
old pork house beyond Canal street, and sup- 
plied it with machinery. This mill he placed in 
the hands of Mr. J. W. L. Mattock, who had 
formerly managed a mill of like kind in Dan- 
ville, Indiana. In 1863 the mill was sold to 
Moses G. Anderson, who run it some two years. 
In 1865 it was bought by J. L. Bradley, Dillard 
Ricketts, and S. H. Patterson, who conducted it 
under the firn name of Bradley & Co. During 
the following year and a half the firm lost con- 
siderable money, and closed up the mill, selling 
the machinery to various persons. Since then 
the building has remained vacant a portion of 
the time, and at others has been used as a storage 
room and workshop. 

SHIP-YARDS. 

From an early day Jcffersonville has held a 
prominent position as regards the shipbuilding 
interests of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. 
Many of the finest steamers that ever floated on 
the rivers were built and furnished here. The 
first large steamer built was the old United 
States, which was launched in May, 1S19. She 
was a famous vessel in her day, and has been 
well represented by others since that time. 

In 1 S3 1 or 1832 Robert C. Green had a small 
yard at the upper end of the city, where he 
made a few boats, but did not continue the bus- 
iness long. Green started a foundry where the 
glass works now are, and paid more attention to 
making engines and machinery than to boat- 
building. 

David Barmore and James Howard also built 
vessels here in 1834-35, and after a year's con- 
tinuance of the business failed. 

William, George, and Henry French engaged in 
ship-building in 1829, and turned out some fine 
boats. They were in the business several years, 
and ranked high as builders. Henry French 
and Peter Myers engaged in the business in 
1847, and turned out considerable good work in 
the five years they were associated. Mr. French 
attended to the ship-yard while Mr. Myers had 



charge of the saw-mill. The business was finally 
divided, Mr. Myers ictaining the saw-mill, which 
he rented to French, Stratton, and Logan, and 
some years later it burned. Logan, who was 
connected with the saw-mill, died, and Stratton 
sold to David S. Barmore in 1864. 
barmork's ship-yard. 
.David S. Barmore was engaged in the busi- 
ness with Samuel King in 1856, and in the firm 
of Stuart & Barmore in TS64. In 1S69 Mr. 
Barmore bought Stuart's interest, and has since 
continued the business alone. He had a con- 
siderable yard and turns out many fine boats. 
During the war he built a number of boats for 
the Government. When first in business alone 
he built four boats, the Coosa Belle, Julia, Swan, 
and Jesse K. Bell. Since that time be has built 
the following steamers, some being side-wheel, 
stein and others center wheel boats: 

Lilly, Warren Belle, Sam Nicholas, Atlantic, Dexter, Beile 
Lee, John Lumsden, Mary Houston, Lizzie Campbell, W. 
S. Pike, Grand Era, Belle Yazoo, Seminole, Bradish John- 
son, Wade Hampton, M. J. Wicks, C. B. Church, A. ]. 
White, Lightest, Southwestern, Lucy Kevin, Ouichita Belle, 
Katie, Capitol City, Fannie Lewis, Emma C. Elliott, Maria 
Louise, Carrie A. Thorne, Sabine, Business, Silventhorn, 
Fowler, Fannie Keener, Mary, \Y. J. Behan, Yazoo, Ozark 
Belle, W. ]. Lewis, Mattie, Belle St. Louis, May Bryon, 
Mary Lewis, Sunflower Belle, Lilly, Tensas, Tallahatchie, 
Baton Rouge, Barataria, Osceola Belle, Calhoun, Yellow- 
stone, Southern Belle, Gold Dust, Little Eagle, J. Don 
Cameron, General Sherman, John Wilson, Alvin, Carrie 
Hogan, Mary Elizabeth, Little Bob B., New Mary Houston, 
Whisper, John H. Johnson, E. C. Carroll, Jr., Sunflower, 
Leflore, Deer Creek, St. John, Maggie F. Burke, Shields, 
W. P. Halliday, General Barnard, Richard Ford, Kwasind, 
E. H. Barmore, Napoleon, E. W. Cole, J. Bertram, Jack 
Frost, John F. Lincoln, City of St. Louis, Iohn, Belle 
Crooks. 

Besides the above Mr. Barmore has built the 
following wharf-boats, barges, coal boats, etc. : 

Wharf-boat, Hettie, Mary, Essetelle, Flat-boat Eva, Coal 
float, Missouri No. 1, Missouri No. 2, Charlie Hill, Saline 
No. 1, No name, Little Eagle No. 2, No. 60, 61, 62, 63, 
64, 65, 66, Lime barge, Nos. 57, 53, 59, Engineer No. 1. 
Engineer No. 2, Khedive, Egypt, Saline No. 2, No. 67, 68, 
69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, Saline No. 3, Barges 
No. 26, 37,36, 79, 80,81, 82, 83, 84, 85, Saline No. 4, Barges, 
86, 87, Landing barge, Four grading boats, Eight pile drivers 
for the Government. 

Besides the above, twelve pile drivers are now 
in course of construction. About one hundred 
and sixty men are employed in the yards. 

THE HOWARD SHIP-YARD. 

The Howards, James and Daniel, engaged in 
ship-building in 1848. During the seventeen 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



455 



years they were connected in the business they 
built. up a very large trade, and made the finest 
boats ever run on the Ohio and Mississippi 
rivers. Previous to the war their boats were 
mostly used in the Southern trade, though some 
were made for the smaller streams emptying in- 
to the two great rivers. The outbreak of the 
war found the brothers in good financial shapei 
though much was due them from Southern pur- 
chasers. Work was continued uninterruptedly, 
• and the yard gradually enlarged, until at this 
time there is none larger on either of the large 
rivers. In fact, Jeffersonville is the principal 
ship-building place for the river trade. In 1865 
Daniel Howard withdrew from the firm. The 
next year James was accidentally drowned from 
a ferry-boat. He had driven his horse on the 
boat, and was sitting in his carriage, when the 
horse backed to get out the way of a team, and 
the gate being unfastened the carriage was over- 
turned in the water, drowning its unfortunate oc- 
cupant. Daniel Howard in early life was a 
ship-carpenter, and afterwards engineer on Mis- 
sissippi river boats. While engaged in vessel- 
building the brothers built over two hundred 
boats at a cost of $35,000 each, or a total of 
over $7,000,600. In the early years sawing of 
lumber was done by means of whip-saws, and 
hewing by axes. Since then the saw-mills pre- 
pare most of the timber. 

On the retirement of Daniel Howard the firm 
became James Howard <\r Company, the com- 
pany being represented by a brother, John C, 
and a son, Edward ]. The present firm is 
Howard &: Company. For many years the firm 
built only the hulls of vessels, the cabins and in- 
terior work being done by contract with other 
parties, but for some time all work except the 
machinery has been done at the yard. Boats 
are built of various degrees of displacement, the 
lightest drawing but ten inches of water. 

The land on which this yard is located was 
formerly the property of Mr. Zulauf, but is now 
owned by the Howards. The number of men 
employed is two hundred and fifty. At present 
six boats and five barges are in course of con- 
struction; a large steamer, the City of Cairo, hav- 
ing lately been completed, made her trial trip the 
latter part of March, 1SS2. 

The Howards have built and launched the 
following-named boats and barges: 



In 1834 and 1835, at Jeffersonville— Steamers Hyperion, 
Black Locust (ferry), Tecumseh. 

In 1S36 and 1837, at Madison — Steamers Irvington, Liv- 
ingston, Argo, Robert Fulton; barges Hard Times, Natchez. 

In 1843, at Madison— Steamer Montezuma. 

In 1846, at Shippingsport, Kentucky— Steamers Courier, 
Mobile, Major Barbour, General fessup, Lavacca, ]ames 
Hewett. 

In 1S48, at Jeffersonville, Indiana — Steamers Emperor, 
Louisiana, Mary Foley, Prairie Bird (ferryboat); dredge boat 
for Louisville and Bortland canal. 

In 1849 — Steamers St. Charles, Isabella, Falcon, Fanny 
Smith, Lexington. 

In 1850, at Louisville — Steamers Empress, Helen, Cuba, 
Music, Blue Wing, John Simpson, Wade Allen, Terrebonne, 
S. W. Downs, Swan; barges No. 1 and No. 2. 

In 1851, at Jeffersonville— Steamers Lucy McConnell, 
Glendy Burke, Southern Belle, Frank Lyon, Peter Dalman, 
W. B. Clifton, Trinity, Dr. Smith, Kate Swinney. 

In 1852, at Jeffersonville— Steamers Brunette, Octavia. 
Sallie Span, Jennie Beale, Magnolia, H. M. Wright, Mes- 
senger, Sam Dale, A. Wathen, St. Francis, Empress, W. 
P. Swinney. 

In 1853 at Jeffersonville — Steamers George W. Jones, 
S. S. Prentiss, Southerner, Gopher, C. D. Jr., Runaway, 
Alice W. Glaze, Josiah 11. Bell, Lucy Bell, Ceres, James H. 
Lucas. 

1854— Steamers Fannie Bullitt, Rainbow, Ben Franklin, 
Capitol, National, Marion, David Tatum. 

1855— Steamer P. C. Wallis, barge Parker, steamers John 
Tomkins, Victoria, R. L. Cobb, R. M. Patton, Carrier, Scot- 
land, Diamond. 

1S56 — Steamers N. J. Eaton, John Warner, Dove, Piin- 
cess, Pete Whetstone, Kate Howard, Woodford, Governor 
Pease, Uncle Ben, W. R. Douglas, Colonel Edwards, Silver 
Heels. 

1S57 — Steamers Joseph G. Smith, Twilight, Alonzo Child, 
Southwestern, New Orleans, Jefferson,' Diana, Music, Platte 
Valley, John D. Perry; barges, Nos. r and 2. 

1858 — Steamers St. Francis, Rescue, Aline, Judge Porter, 
and Grand Duke. 

1859 — Steamers D. F. Kenncr, Laurel Hill, Lafourche, 
Bayou City, J. M. Sharp, J. D. Swain, and James Woods. 

i860 — Steamers Isaac Bowman, Mary TV, Little Sallie, 
Memphis, Accachie, J. F. Pargood, Robert Campbells, and 
John A. Colton. 

1861 — Steamer Major Anderson 

1862 — Steamers General Buctl, Wren, Ruth, and James 
Thompson. 

1863 — Steamers Julia, Olive Branch, Bostonia, Tarascon, 
and Blue Wing. 

1864 — Steamers Ida Handy, Morning Star; wharf-boat. 

1865 — Steamers Virginia, North Missouri, Stonewall. 

1866 — Barge Galveston; steamers Belle Memphis, Birdie 
Brent; barges William Dwyer, W. R. Jarmom; steamers 
Jessie, H. M. Shreve. 

1867 — Steamers Dove No. 2, Governor Allen, F-arly Bird, 
Frank Pargoud. 

1868— Steamers Belle of Alton, East St. Louis, Thomas M. 
Bagley, Trade Palace, St. Francis. 

1869 — Steamers Ben Franklin, Gl.idiola, La Belle, Texas, 
Trenton, Tcxarkana. Big Sunflower. 

1870 — Steamers Idlewild, Grand Tower, Cherokee, City of 
Vicksburgh, Diana, City of Chester, Lessie Taylor; barge 
Howard; steamers James Howard, John Howard; barge 



456 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Bayou City, Gulf barge Paul; steamer James Wathen; barge 
Dixie. 

1871 — Barges Houston, Otter, Beaver, Terny, Lee, Rusk, 
Tarascon, Grey Eagle, and No. 1 ; steamers, Grey Eagle, 
Lizzie, City of Helena, .St. Mary, John Howard; wharf-boat, 
Shawncetown. 

1872 — Steamers Concordia, R. T. Briarly, John S. Brans- 
ford, Longfellow; barges No. 2, No. 47, No. 48, Little Fay- 
ette; two wharf-boats. 

1873 — Barges Atlantic, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 50, Little 
Nell, and John Howard; steamers, Dolphin, Three States, 
Arch P. Breen, Z. M. Sherley, H. S. McComb, Red Cloud, 

B. H. Cook, and Ida. 

1874 — Barges Emerke, L'tica, Relief; steamer Fawn. 

1875 — Barges Porter White, Jim Black, Chicago, Pin- 
hook, and Nos. 17, 18, 19, 20; steamers Junius S. Morgan, 
Bonnie Lee, Rene McCready, Timmie Baker, Assumption, 
and Stalie Fisher. 

1876 — Steamers Celina, Walker Morris, Robert E. Lee, 
Yazoo Valley, C. W. Anderson, Alberta, and E. B. Stahl- 
man. 

1877 — Steamers Headlight, Delver, John G. Fletcher; 
barges Louis Hite, Allen Hite; steamers Mattie Hays, G. 
Gunley Jordon, Dora Cabler. Fashion, James Howard ; 
barges No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4; wharf-boat; barge Stella 
Clifton; steamers Winnie, James Guthrie. 

1878 — Steamers John W. Cannon. J. M. White, New 
Shallcross, Laura Lee, Jewel, B. S. Rhea; model barges 
No. 5, No. 6, Herbert, Ed. Richardson. 

1879 — Steamer City of Greenville; barge Victor; steamers 

C. N. Das'is, City of Yazoo, Rainbow, William Fagan, 
Churner, Jesse K Bell, Wash Gray; wharf-boat. 

1880 — Steamer Milwaukee; horse ferry boat; steamers Gus 
Fowler, City of Providence, Concordia, Joseph Henry; An- 
chor Line barge No. 1; steamer Alberta; Anchor Line barge 
No. 2; steamers Clyde, Thomas D. File, Belle Memphis (2d); 
railroad transfer barge. 

i83i — Steamers W. Butler Duncan ; Jeffersonville ferry 
dock; steamers Ella, L. P. Ewald, City of Vicksburg, J. P. 
Drouillard, City of New Orleans, City of Baton Rouge; 
barges Hermit, Guy Clark; three crane boats; steamer City 
of Nashville; barge No. 4; steamer City of Cairo; barge No. 
1, Barge No. 2. 

On the stocks are an Anchor Line steamer, four barges, 
one ferry boat, and a Cumberland river steamer. 

FLOURING MILLS. 

In the early day a flouring-mill was built on 
Cane run, near Clarksville, operated by water- 
power, and kept busy until about 1S40. It was 
at one time run by the Longs. The foundation 
finally became undermined and the building was 
abandoned. 

Another grist- and saw-mill was built at Silver 
creek, which was in operation before 1S38. It 
was at one time partially destroyed by the 
stream, but was rebuilt and is yet running. 

In 1S47 S. H. Patterson and James Callahan 
erected a brick flouring-mill on Spring street, in 
Jeffersonville. This was the first steam flouring- 
mill in the city, and was run by them some two 
years, when Mr. Patterson bought the interest of 



his jxirtner, and soon after sold the entire mill 
to John F. Howard, a merchant of Louisville, 
who, in company with Dr. Warren Horr, kept it 
in operation about two years, and the business 
failing to meet their anticipations they sold the 
machinery and closed the mill. The building 
is now occupied with store rooms. 

The only flouring-mill now in the- city is that 
of Henry Same, which contains two run of 
stones, one for corn, the other for wheat. This 
has been in operation since 1868, and does a 
moderate business. 

In 1S12 a mill site was granted to General 
George Rogers Clark in Clarksville, which he 
seems never to have used, but soon sold to 
Fetter & Hughes, who built a mill below the 
railroad bridge which now crosses the Ohio, and 
kept it in operation when the state of the water 
would permit, for many years. A large ware- 
house was built on the second bank, fur the 
storage of grain. This mill was an important 
one to the people of that day, and did an excel- 
lent business, but was allowed to go to decay 
previous to 1831. The old mill-stones remained 
in existence many years, but are now gone. 

In 1S50 Smith <Sc Smyser built a mill above 
where the bridge now stands, which was in active 
operation until 1869, when it was burned. A 
new mill was then built just below the bridge, 
and put in operation in 1870. The power used 
is a turbine water-wheel, though an engine has 
since been placed in the building for use when 
the water is too high for the wheel. The mill is 
now called the Falls Power mill, and is owned 
by R. O. Gathright, who bought the building, 
including the race-course made by the Ohio Falls 
Hydraulic & Manufacturing company, in 1S80. 
This mill now has eleven run of stone and seven 
set of rolls for making patent process flour, 
and can now turn out four hundred barrels of 
flour daily. 

TANNERY. 

In 1S41 James Lamair, a Frenchman, started 
a tannery in the north part of Jeffersonville, at 
the corner of Broadway and Eleventh streets. 
The buildings he occupied were of frame. Here 
he carried on the business of dressing leather 
until 1848, when J. M. Ross and John Ingram 
bought the business. Ross died a year or two 
later, and in 1S71 Mr. Ingram soid the buildings 
and land to the Ohio & Mississippi railroad com- 






HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



457 



puny, who now have a pumping station at that 
place. Mr. Ingram then bought land and in 
1872 erected buildings in Claysburg, near the 
Teffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad 
track, where he continues the business. Some 
■years before selling the original site he had 
erected brick, buildings, and when he made his 
new purchase he also erected a substantial brick 
building, which has a capacity for $25,000 of 
business per year. Previous to and during the 
war the tannery was run to its full capacity, but 
for some years business has been dull, and it sel- 
dom reaches that amount. The raw material is 
mostly procured from slaughterers here and at 
Louisville, bark for the works being obtained 
from the knobs. A market for the product is 
found at Louisville to some extent, but mostly 
in the West. For a time in 187 1, Mr. Ingram's 
brother, William A., was associated with him in 
the business until his death. 

FOUNDRIES. 

The first foundry started in Jeffersonville was 
located on the ground now occupied by the glass 
works, and was owned by Robert C. Green, who 
had formerly owned a large foundry and machine 
shop in Cincinnati. He came here in 1S32, 
built a shop and carried on the business a num- 
ber of years. Where he located his works was 
then timber, which had to be cleared away to 
make room for the buildings. Here Mr. Green 
built several steamboats, constructing the engines 
at his machine shop. After a few years he left 
and engaged in business at some other place. 

THE JEFFERSON FOUNDRY. 

Charles C. Anderson came here from Cincin- 
nati with Robert C. Green, with whom he learned 
the foundry business, and remained until the 
latter removed elsewhere. About 1S40 Mr. 
Anderson started a small machine shop a short 
distance above Howard's shipyard, which he car- 
ried on about four years, when he formed a part- 
nership with Hamilton Robinson, Richard Goss, 
and James Keigwin, and removed to an old car- 
riage shop situated on the lot adjoining the City 
Hotel on Spring street. Here the firm carried 
on business a number of years, when a change 
was made in the business and a shop was built 
on Watt street between Maple and Court avenue. 
In i860 this shop was burned, and Mr. Ander- 
son, who was at that time sole proprietor, lost 
53 



most of his property. His friends came to his 
assistance, and in about six weeks he had erected 
a temporal)' building and resumed business. 
Since then he has added to his buildings and 
stocked his foundry with tools, so that he can 
and is doing a good business. The name of the 
establishment has been the Jefferson foundry, but 
it is generally called Anderson's foundry. 

sweensy's foundry. 

The foundry now owned and conducted by 
Michael A. and James Sweeney, on the upper 
part of Market street, was originally established 
in 1869 by Michael A. Sweeney and Chris. 
Baker, who opened a small shop oh Pearl street, 
near the present Court avenue. Mr. Baker re- 
tired from the firm in 1S70, Mr. Sweeney con 
tinuing the business alone. In 1872 he moved 
to Couit avenue, and in March, 1876, admitted 
James Sweeney as a partner. The business was 
continued here until March, 1SS1, when the firm 
purchased nine acres of ground from Guthrie, 
Marlin & Company, of Louisville, and as soon 
as buildings could be erected moved their works 
to the place they now occupy. They have a river 
frontage of nine hundred and sixty-five feet, and 
since their purchase of this property have made 
many valuable permanent improvements. Their 
machine shops are 200 x 80 feet, foundry 
44x130, blacksmith shops 120x44, pattern 
house, three story, 100x40, office and store- 
room 120x30, frame warehouse 200x60. They 
also have an extensive boiler shop, which is one 
of the most complete this side of Pittsburg. At 
the present time they employ one hundred and 
twenty men, and will in time, if prospered as they 
hope, have in their employ four times the pres- 
ent number. 

The principal work of this firm is engine 
building, though they make all kinds of machin- 
ery. Their engines are in use on many boats 
that ply the Ohio ar.d Mississippi rivers and their 
tributaries, among others the steamers Milwau- 
kee, Ella, C. N. Davis, Kwasind, Richard Ford 
— the two latter Government snag boats — the 
Wichita, Saline, Belle Crooks, and J. A. Wood- 
son. They have also rebuilt the machinery for 
the Government steamer General Barnard, and 
are engaged on machinery for a Government 
tow-boat, and for a boat to be run on the St. 
Joseph's river. They also do repairing of loco- 



458 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



motives, of which they have two under way at 
the yards of the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indi- 
anapolis railroad. . 

This firm has a leading place in the industries 
of Jeffersonville. 

GAS COMPANY. 

In 1859 a company was chartered for the pur- 
pose of furnishing the city of Jeffersonville and 
such private citizens as desired to avail them- 
selves of its privileges, with gas. Pipe was laid 
and within a year streets were lighted. Since its 
organization the company has laid some seven to 
eight miles of main pipe, and lights one hundred 
and sixty public lamps. The gas is also used to 
some extent in private houses, as well as in busi- 
ness places. The city at present pays $1.50 per 
one thousand cubic feet for gas, $20.00 per year 
for each street lamp, the company caring for and 
keeping in repair all lamps furnished by the city. 
They are allowed to charge private parties $2.00 
per one thousand feet. The present officers of 
the Gas company are H. D. Fitch, president, and 
F. W. Poindexter, secretary, the office being at 
the Citizens' National bank. 

THE JEFFERSONVILLE PLATE-GLASS COMPANY 

was chartered in 1S77, under the name of the 
Ford Plate-glass company, with a capital stock of 
$125,000. The city donated five hundred feet 
of ground on Market street, east, extending to 
the river front, to secure the location of this in- 
dustry in Jeffersonville. John F. Read was 
chosen president of the company. In February, 
1S80, the name was changed to the Jeffersonville 
Plate-glass company, the incorporators being at 
this time John F. Read, S. Ooldbach, Felix 
Lewis, Edward Howard, James Burke, Edward 
Ford, Warren Horr, Joshua Cook, Frederick 
Herron, Abraham Frye, Jonas C. Howard. S. 
Goldbach was elected president, H. T. Sage 
secretary and treasurer, and E. L. Ford superin- 
tendent. After the reorganization of the com- 
pany one hundred feet front was added. Two 
hundred men are employed, and the business is 
confined to the manufacture of plate-glass. 

The manufacture of plate-glass in the United 
States is of comparatively recent date, the first 
establishment of the kind, a small one, being 
located at Lenox, Massachusetts. The quality 
of glass there made was rough, suitable only for 
sky-lights and walks, no effort being made to 



grind and polish the plates. The second works 
were started at New Albany in 1869, by 1. P. 
Ford, who may be called the originator of plate- 
glass manufacture in this country, as he was the 
first person to attempt the polishing of glass. To 
obtain an insight into the art he imported ex- 
perienced workmen from England, and profiting 
by what he saw has materially improved the pro- 
cess since that time. After being connected 
with the New Albany works for a time he was 
instrumental in establishing works at Louisville, 
and soon after at Jeffeisonville. At this time he 
is engaged in building the largest works of the 
kind in this country, at Pittsburg. Before en- 
gaging in this enterprise, however, he' conceived 
the idea of manufacturing glass pipe for use in 
cisterns and other places where it is desirable to 
have for a conducter a tube that will not permit 
the accumulation, nor engender causes of dis- 
ease, and in this succeeded. A patent was ob- 
tained, and a company formed in New York for 
the manufacture of glass tubing, but owing to 
other interests of the incorporators demanding 
their attention for a time, the works are not yet 
in working condition. 

In addition to the glass works already enumer- 
ated, there is another establishment at Crystal 
City, Missouri, which makes five in this country. 
So great is the demand for plate glass that the 
works in jeffersonville are driven to their fullest 
capacity, and find it difficult to fill their orders. 
They have two large furnaces, each with a ca- 
pacity for eight crucibles holding fifteen hundred 
pounds of melted glass. One furnace is opened 
in the morning, the other in the afternoon, and 
sixteen large plates are rolled each day. As 
soon as possible after pouring the plates are re- 
moved from the iron bed on which they are 
made and transferred to the annealing ovens, 
where they are allowed to gradually cool. They 
then pass through the various stages of grind- 
ing, polishing, and cleaning, and are ready to be 
packed The entire process requires the great- 
est care and accuracy, owing to the brittle char- 
acter of the article, and breakages are not infre- 
quent. 

The table on which the molten mass is poured 

is 11x22 feet, and glass can be made of nearly 

this size, the largest being 1 10 x 230 inches. The 

i time required to melt the metal in the crucibles, 

andalluw it to cool sufficiently to pour, is twenty- 




i/t^-72 ^t-t-Zku/^ 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



459 



four hours. The sales of this company during 
the past year amounted to $250,000. The fin- 
ished plate is estimated to be worth $1.60 per 
square foot. 

JEFFERSONVILLE ORPHANS' HOME. 
In the fall of 1S76 a supper was given by the 
Masons of the city, and at the close of the even- 
ing's entertainment it was found quite an amount 
of eatables and some money was still in ihe 
hands of the committee. This was distributed 
.to the widows and orphans. From this Mrs. S. 
H. Patterson, Mis. Dr. Caldwell, and Mrs. Dr. 
McClure became interested in caring for the 
orphans of the place. A meeting was held at 
the home of Mrs. Patterson, where she was 
chosen president; Mrs. McClure secretary, and 
Mrs. Caldwell treasurer. In this manner was 
perfected the organization of the orphan asylum. 
The self-appointed officers rented a house on 
Front street — the same now occupied by Mrs. 
Toomey as a boarding-house — for a term of three 
years, and opened the institution with a little 
foundling. In two weeks two more children 
were received, and during the three years of this 
lease quite a number of children had been as- 
sisted. At the expiration of the thiee years' 
lease sixteen children were inmates of the home. 
A noble-hearted lady, Mis. Zulauf, donated to 
the cause three building lots, and on this a two- 
story brick house was built, which is large enough 
to accommodate sixty children. At present 
it has thirty-seven inmates, under the care of a 
matron and assistant. The cost of the asylum 
and improvements has been nearly $to,ooo. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

For many years after the settlement of the 
town dependence was had on the "bucket 
brigade" in the extinguishment of such fires as 
occurred. The houses were scattered through- 
out the town, and little danger existed of a gen- 
eral conflagration. In about 1837 a fire com- 
pany was formed and a hand fire engine pur- 
chased. It was not supplied with suction tubes 
and like apparatus, as are the modern engines, 
but had more the appearance of a tight box on 
trucks like a wagon, and with levers at either 
side which eight or ten men could work. The 
water was poured into the box by buckets, and 
pumped out with much force. Two improved 
hand engines were afterwards obtained, which 



were sufficient for the subjugation of any fires 
that occurred at that time. 

In 1S67 the Legislature passed a general law 
giving to common councils of cities power to 
procure steam fire engines and other necessary 
apparatus for the extinguishing of fires. On the 
6th of July, 1871, the city council passed an or- 
dinance providing for a steam fire department, 
to consist of one engineer, two drivers, and four 
hosemen for each engine and hose-cart. In 
September of the same year a committee was ap- 
pointed to buy the necessary engine, hose-cart, 
hose, etc. An Amoskeag engine was bought at 
a cost of $4,500; hose cart, $550; one thousand 
feet of hose and three horses, $600; and harness, 
$84.25, making a total cost of $7,224.25. Since 
that time more expense has been incurred in the 
purchase of extra hose, furnishing engine house, 
etc. Four men are now employed — a chief, en- 
gineer, engine driver, and hose-cart driver, with 
salaiiesas follow: $775, $750, $600, $600. The 
engine house is a two-story building on Maple 
street. 

The leport of the department for 1881 says 
nine fires occurred during the year past. 

The men belonging to the department are not 
uniformed, economy being exercised by the city 
in this as in other departments of the city gov- 
ernment. In case of destructive fire the engine 
owned by the Government and kept at the mili- 
tary depot responds to a call. Several of the 
manufactories of the place have fire hose that can 
be coupled to the engine or pump used m their 
work, and an incipient fire extinguished without 
calling on the department. The present chief 
(18S2) is George Deming; engineer, James Fen- 
ton; drivers, P. M. Rose and Pat Cronan. 

THE JEFFERSONVILLE, M ADISON AND INDIANAPOLIS 
I RAILROAD. 

The Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis 
railroad, ns it now exists, is the result of the con- 
solidation of the Madison & Indianapolis rail- 
road with the Jeffersonville & Madison railroad, 
later organized. 

The survey of the former road was commenced 
in April, 1S36, under the provisions of an act of 
the Indiana Legislature, passed in January of 
that year, providing for various internal improve- 
ments, among others "a railroad from Madison, 
through Indianapolis and Crawfordsville, to La- 



i6o 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



Fayette." For the construction of this road the 
sum of $300,000 was appropriated. The act 
gave the road the right to lay its track upon any 
turnpike or State road, under certain conditions. 
The survey was made by John Woodburn, con- 
struction commenced, and the road completed 
on April 1, 1839, seventeen miles north from 
Madison. Then work was suspended. This 
seventeen miles of road, equipped with two 
locomotives, two passenger cars and thirty four- 
wheeled freight cars, was leased by the board of 
improvements to Messrs. Branham & Co. for 
sixty percent, of its gross earning?, until June r, 
1840; again, to Messrs. Seiing and Burt until 
June 1, 1 841, at seventy per cent, of its gross 
earnings. In the meantime the line had been 
extended by the State, first to Vernon, then to 
Griffiths, which latter point it reached June 1, 
1841, giving it a length of twenty-eight miles 
from Madison. It was operated from June, 
1841, until February 3, 1843, °y William Mc- 
Clure, as agent for the Slate. At the latter date 
the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad company 
was organized, and, in accordance with an act 
passed January 28, 1843, tne road was turned 
over to the new corporation. This transfer was 
made in pursuance of determination on the part of 
the State to abandon the prosecution of internal 
improvements at the public expense, and to sell 
such as were then owned, to private corporations 
which should give a satisfactory guaranty as to 
their completion. 

On the 17th day of June, 1842, the organiza- 
tion of the new company was completed by the 
election of James P. Drake, James Blake, Na- 
than Kyle, Zachariah Tannahill, John C. Hub- 
bard, John M. Given, James D. Ferrall, Adolph 
W. Flint, James Cochran, S. S. Gillett, John 
Lering, Nathan B. Palmer, and Harvey Bates as 
directors. These directors thereupon elected 
Nathan B. Palmer president, and George E. 
Tengle secretary. 

Certain formalities being complied with the 
company took possession of the road. The con- 
ditions of this transfer are interesting, considering 
the present importance of the road. According 
to the terms of transfer, the company bound 
itself to complete the road to Indianapolis on or 
before July 1, 1S48, and to pay as annual rental 
until January 13, 1S53, a sum equal to the net 
earnings of the road for 1841, namely, $1,151, 



and from that time until July 1, 1868, divide 
the profits with the State according to the length 
of road built by the State and company respect- 
ively. It was also provided that the State might 
redeem the road at any time previous to 186S, 
by paying the amount actually expended by the 
company, with six per cent, interest, less the 
company's net profit. The road was completed 
to Indianapolis October 1, 1847, arid on April 
1, 1851, the company issued its first mortgage, 
for $600,000. On the 28th day of February, 
1852, the State absolutely sold the road to the 
Madison & Indianapolis Railroad company. 
This arrangement was, however, delayed by the 
failure of the company to fulfil its part of the 
contract to pay for the road $300,000 in four 
equal annual installments, and was not carried 
into effect until February 26, 1S56. 

On the 27th day of March, 1862, the read 
was sold, for purposes of reorganization, for 
$325,000. On the 28th day of March, 1862, 
the company was reorganized with the following 
officers: Frederick H. Smith, Nathan Powell, 
William M. Dunn, Jacob B. McChesney, Peter 
McMartin, E. H. Miller, Elihu Day, John Fer- 
guson, and E. Cauldwell, directors; Frederick 
H. Smith, president; Thomas Pollack, secretary; 
Thomas P. Matthews, treasurer. The capital 
was placed at $850,000, in seventeen thousand 
shares of $50 each. 

The Jeffersonville Railroad company was incor- 
porated by an act approved January 20, 1S46, 
with power to build a railroad from Jeffersonville, 
Indiana, to Columbus in the same State. The 
road was expressly granted the right to run its 
trains over the tracks of the Madison & Indi- 
anapolis road. The company organized under 
the name of the Ohio & Indiana Railroad com- 
pany, on the 17th of March, 1848, with James 
Keigwin, Samuel Meriwether, William G. Arm- 
strong, A. Walker, Woods Maybury, Benjamin 
Irwin, J. B. Abbott, J. D. Shryer, W. A. Rich- 
ardson, W. D. Beech, and Samuel McCampbell 
as directors, and William C. Armstrong, presi- 
dent, Samuel McCampbell, secretary, and J. G. 
R.ead, treasurer, as its officers. The name of the 
corporation was changed to the Jeffersonville 
Railroad company in 1849, an d. i n tne f au °^ 
1852, the road was completed. 

The two roads were consolidated subsequent 
to 1S62 as the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indian- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



461 



apolis Railroad company. This consolidation 
was a practical absorption of the older by the 
younger road, as the officers and directors of the 
Jeffersonville Railroad company were retained in 
office. 

The entire road is now operated by the Penn- 
sylvania company as lessee, under a lease dated 
February 21, 1873, with the following directors 
and officers representing the stockholders: John 
P. Green, William Thaw, J. N. McCullough, 
Thomas D. Thessler, G. S. McKiernan, Jesse D. 
Brown, Robert McKrees, James L. Bradley, J. H. 
Patterson, J. H. McCampbell, D. S. Caldwell, 
and Joseph J. Irving, directors; and George B. 
Roberts, president; George S. McKiernan, sec- 
retary and treasurer; D. W. Caldwell, general 
manager. 

JEFFERSONVILLE IN THE CIVIL WAR. 

Probably few cities in the United States be- 
yond the limits of the actual scene of conflict, 
felt the effect of the civil war so acutely as did 
JefTersonville. It was, from its situation, natur- 
ally a property-room for the theater of war. 
There three Northern railroads met the Ohio 
river, and disgorged men, horses, arms, ammuni- 
tion, commissary and quartermasters' stores, all 
to be borne down the river or by the single 
track of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad to 
the armies of the South and Southwest. Re- 
turning, the boats and cars brought their loads 
of moaning wounded for the hospitals at that 
point, and their long lines of dusty and travel- 
worn prisoners en route for Camp Douglass and 
Camp Chase. Louisville was the only point 
which possessed advantages equal to those of 
JefTersonville as a point from which to feed, 
arm, equip, and reinforce the Federal armies to 
the southward, and Louisville had the river in its 
rear instead of its front, which was a fatal ob- 
jection. As a result of this conjunction of cir- 
cumstances there grew up at Jeffersonville, early 
in the war, a small city of store-houses, shops, 
and hospitals, added to, from time to time, as 
the exigencies of the service demanded, until 
the importance of the place to the army and to 
the North became enormous. There was no or- 
ganization, as there is of a military depot in time 
of peace. The place was under command of 
various officers detailed from time to time by 
heads of the various branches of the service, and 
its history and records are buried in those of the 



Quartermaster, Commissary, Ordnance, and 
Hospital departments of the United States army. 
All that c.ln now be ascertained on the subject of 
Jeffersonville's war record, comes to us from the 
personal recollections of men who were then 
residents of the city. Certain it is that the Jef- 
fersonville of that day was very different from 
the quiet city we now know. Its streets and 
squares were crowded with wagons by day, and 
infested by lawless hangers on of the army by 
night. Crime and vice were rampant, and, daily 
and hourly, there was the monotonous movement 
of the sinews of war to the front, and the pitiful 
return of its victims to the rear. 

Probably the first military occupation of Jef- 
fersonville was early in 1862, when Lovell Rous- 
seau raised two Federal regiments and established 
a camp, pending his movement to the front, on 
a firm owned by Blanton Duncan, the well 
known Kentuckian who had entered the Con- 
federate army. This farm is on Spring street, 
close to the Springs property. Rousseau chris- 
tened his camp " Camp Joe Holt," and it held 
its name after it had ceased to be a tamp and 
become a hospital, passing throughout the war 
as "Joe Holt Hospital." 

Not long after the establishment of " Joe Holt 
hospital " the Government took possession of the 
Jesse D. Bright farm, three miles east of Jefferson- 
ville, and erected thereon a chapel and very com- 
fortable hospital buildings. The Bright hospital 
contained three thousand cots ; the "Joe Holt 
hospital," though smaller, was an excellent one, 
and had also a chapel, and these chapels now re- 
main among the few tangible reminders of the 
war, the former standing on Scott street and 
occupied as a church by the colored Baptists ; 
the latter owned and occupied by the only Prot- 
estant Episcopal church in the city. Dr. Gold- 
smith had general charge of the hospitals during 
a large part of the war. 

Throughout the city there grew up, in addi- 
tiod to buildings named, and without pretence 
of order, a large number of warehouses, shops, 
and offices. They came into being as circum- 
stances demanded their creation, and again 
passed away, after the war, leaving only the re- 
port of their existence behind them. 

In a piece of timber known as "Taylor's 
woods" was erected a barrack for the accommo- 
dation of the military guard of the place. Upon 



462 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



the square now occupied by the Clark county 
court house were extensive army stables and 
blacksmith shops. In the square now enclosed 
as a city park were erected four large bakery 
buildings, where hard-tack by the car load was 
made for the army. Not far from the bakery 
buildings and on the line of the JefTersonville, 
Madison & Indianapolis railroad, stood the row 
of buildings used for keeping quartermaster's 
stores. The commissary department also had 
large .storehouses on the river front lor receiving 
supplies shipped by water. In addition to the 
buildings named there were structures occupied 
by the ordnance department and a provost mar- 
shal's office. 

The Government was, of course, compelled to 
purchase largely in advance, and the close of the 
war found an enormous accumulation of stores 
of every description at JefTersonville. Such of 
these as were perishable were sold at auction, 
and it became necessary to find a place for the 
storage of such as were retained. The hospital 
buildings on the Bright farm were selected, and 
from that time until 1870 the stores remained in 
that place, awaiting the establishment of a per- 
manent depot for their reception. 

THE MILITARY DEPOT. 

In January, JS70, the city of Jeffersonville 
purchased, at a cost of $11,000, and deeded to 
the Government of the United States the land 
now occupied by the great military depot, from 
which the entire army of the United States is 
furnished with quartermaster's stores. 

By joint resolution of the General Assembly 
of the State of Indiana, January 31, 1871, all 
jurisdiction over the property was ceded to the 
United States, making it a military reservation, 
and it may be said to be controlled by the quarter- 
master-general of the army, under the authority 
of the honorable, the Secretary of War. 

The immense building having been planned 
by Major-general M. C. Meigs, quartermaster- 
general of the army, and who still occupies that 
position, was begun in the spring of 1S71, and 
completed for occupancy in February, 1S74. 
Since that time, from year to year, improvements 
have gradually been made, especially upon the 
inside grounds, making the entire premises very 
attractive. 

The building is fire-proof. The available 



space for the immense storage under roof is 
2,700,000 cubic feet, the exterior dimensions 
of it 3,205 feet 4 inches, and depth of the same 
52 feet 2 inches. The interior corteil is 696 feet 
square. The area covered by the entire depth is 
four squares, and fronts upon four streets. With 
the tower building in the center, seen a long dis- 
tance, it is one of the most conspicuous struc- 
tures about the falls of the Ohio. 

The depot, in its temporary and permanent 
form, has been commanded, since the war, by 
the following officers, in turn: Captain Tucker, 
assistant quartermaster United States volunteers, 
1865; Captain J. N. Breslin, assistant quaiter- 
master United States volunteers, 1866; Colonel 
R. C. Rutherford, quartermaster volunteers, 
1S66: Captain R. N. Batchelder, assistant quar- 
termaster United States Army, 1867; Major II. 
C. Ransom, quartermaster United States Army, 
1 868; Major J. A. Potter, quartermaster United 
States Army, 1869,; Captain C. H. Hart, assistant 
quartermaster United States Army, 1870-72; 
Colonel James A. Ekin, assistant quartermaster 
general United States Army, 1 87 2-82. 

The present officers of the depot, military and 
civil are: Colonel James A. Ekin, commanding; 
Captains Hull, Rodgers, and Barrett, military- 
storekeepers; R. L. Woolsey, chief clerk; James 
G. Hopkins, superintendent; L. A. Allen, chief 
clerk to military storekeepers. 

THE AVERAGE PAY-ROLL 

of regular employes per month amounts to $5,000. 
The stores handled since July 1, 1881, received 
into the depot up to December 1st of the same 
year, amounted in value to the round sum of 
$273,420. There was paid to female employes, 
in the manufacture of clothing and equipage, 
from July 1 to December 1, 1SS1, $25,193.80. 
This last is a leading feature of the establishment, 
and gives employment to several hundred women 
of the city, which number, at times, when heavy 
and continuous orders for clothing and equipage 
are on hand, has run to over a round thousand. 

THE OHIO FALLS CAR COMPANY. 

The Ohio Falls Car company, the largest con- 
cern engaged in the manufacture of both freight 
and passenger cars in the United States, is 
located within the town of Ohio Falls, ad- 
jacent to the corporate limits of the city of 
Jeffersonville. The business was established 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



463 



June 1, 1864, at which date the Ohio Falls Car 
and Locomotive company was organized, with a 
capital stock of $300,000, afterwards increased 
$428,500. The following were the first officers 
of the company : President, I). Ricketls ; secre- 
tary and general manager, Hiram Aldridge ; 
treasurer, J. L. Smyser. Its first directors were: 
I). Ricketts, A. A. Flammond, J. L. Smyser, W. 
P. Wood, and H. Aldridge. 

On October 1, 1866, Mr. Joseph W. Sprague 
took charge of the works as president and gen- 
eral manager. The business of the company 
was not then of the best, its credit was question- 
able, and its stock selling far below par. Under 
Mr. Sprague's judicious administration a great 
change was wrought, the company was pressed 
with orders, the stock was brought up to par, 
and there was every prospect for a continued 
and increased prosperity. 

So matters stood when, one night in 1872, the 
works caught fire, and, before anything could be 
done to prevent such a result, were completely 
swept out of existence. Fortunately a heavy in- 
surance was carried, and the building of the 
present magnificent system of fire proof and 
isolated structures was commence. These were 
still incompleted and the business of the com- 
pany barely resumed, when came the panic of 
1873, which, with the long period of financial 
depression that followed, completely paralyzed 
the building and equipment of railroads in the 
United States, and compelled the company to 
suspend, and ultimately to dissolve and offer its 
property for sale to cover its indebtedness. 

On the 7th day of August, 1876, was organ- 
ized the present Ohio Falls Car company, with 
Joseph W. Sprague as president and general 
manager, and R. M. Hartwell secretary and 
treasurer. Its directors were J. W. Sprague, 
S. A. Hartwell, J. L. Smyser, J. H. McCamp- 
bell, and S. Goldbach, and its capital stock 
$88,300, later increased to $400,000. The offi- 
cers have since remained the same, with the ex- 
ception of the appointment of R. S. Ramsey as 
general manager, made September 27, 18S1, to 
relieve Mr. Sprague from overwork. The com- 
pany purchased the lands, buildings, machinery, 
stock, and tools of the old corporation, and at 
once began operations, fust in a comparatively 
small way, gradually increasing to its present 
enormous proportions. The new company is 



made up of nearly the same stockholders as the 
old, and any losses made by the former failure 
have been retrieved ten fold. The success of 
the institution has been largely due to the enter- 
prise and business tact of its managers, but not a 
little to natural advantages of location. The 
works are located about five hundred feet from 
the Ohio, and, being outside the city limits, a low- 
rate of taxation is permanently secured. 

The Ohio river affords the cheapest class of 
transportation for iron, coal, lumber, and other 
supplies. The Jeffersonville, Madison & Indian- 
apolis railroad and the Ohio & Mississippi rail- 
road enter the premises by switches. By means 
of the railroad bridge over the Ohio river, located 
half a mile below the works, immediate connec- 
tion is made at Louisville with the southern net 
work of railroads of five feet gauge. Within a very 
small radius an ample supply of the quality of 
white oak, white ash, yellow poplar and black wal- 
walnut used in construction can be obtained at 
reasonable prices. Empty cars returning from 
the South insure very low rates of freight on yel- 
low pine, and the various brands of irons made 
from the rich ores of Alabama. Considering the 
convenience of receiving supplies and of the 
distribution of products, this location can hardly 
be surpassed^ for almost any branch of manu- 
facture. 

The real estate upon which this extensive in- 
stitution is located embraces a large territory. 
The buildings which were first built are situ- 
ated upon out-lot No. 34, containing an area of 
about nineteen and two-thirds acres. Part of 
out-lot No. 23, containing about five and a half 
acies immediately west of out-lot No. 34, is 
used as a lumber-yard. The Falls View hotel, 
belonging to the works, is located upon this lot. 
River slip, cdntaining about 13,800 square feet, 
lies opposite the works on the river bank. On 
this are located the engine-house, engine and 
pump for furnishing the water supply. Lot No. 
9, Jeffersonville, containing about 5,060 square 
feet, secures a connection with the Ohio & Mis- 
sissippi railroad blocks Nos. 18, 19, 49, and So, 
situated on the west side of Missouri avenue, were 
recently purchased by the company, upon which 
to construct new shops. 

The buildings of the company, about- fifty in 
number, are all nearly new, are of brick, and, 
with the exception of the cupola and pattern 












' 



464 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



lofts, are only one story high. The roofs are all 
covered with the best quality of slate. These 
buildings are arranged with high gables, with 
ample spaces between them, and are substan- 
tially fireproof on the outside. The buildings 
are all thoroughly lighted, and most of them are 
amply provided with skylights of heavy plate 
glass. The machine shops in the freight and 
iron departments are provided with gas from the 
city mains of Jeffersonville. 

Since Mr. Sprague took charge of the institu- 
tion in September; 1866, he has labored faith- 
fully for the interests of the company. He has, 
until recently, assumed personal charge of all the 
departments, having a knowledge of everything 
manufactured in the institution and knowing just 
when it is well done. The business of the 
company since 1876 has been unprecedently 
large. The company is at present employing 
between one thousand eight hundred and one 
thousand nine hundred men, and its pay roll 
amounts to nearly $55,000 per month. A num- 
ber of mechanics employed reside in Louisville 
and New Albany, coming to work on the early 
morning train over the Jeffersonville Short Line 
railroad, but, practically, the entire benefit aris- 
ing from the presence of the works is enjoyed by 
Clark county. 

THE INDIANA STATE PRISON SOUTH. 

For purposes of penal confinement the State 
of Indiana is divided into two districts by a line 
intersecting it from east to west about midway. 
All persons convicted of crime in the northern 
jurisdiction are liable to confinement in the Indi- 
ana State Prison North, which is located at 
Michigan City; those from the southern division 
are sent to the Indiana State Prison South, sit- 
uated upon one of the outlots of the extinct 
town of Clarksville, just beyond the line of Jef- 
fersonville. This institution was established in 
the year 1822, with the very small capital of one 
prisoner. The piison system of the State had 
not at that time been made the subject of any 
considerable amount of theorizing; it was, on the 
other hand extremely simple, being governed by a 
rule not unlike the famous recipe for cooking a 
rabbit — first catch your man, then find a person 
who has nothing better to do, who will take him 
as a boarder and guard against his changing 
hotels. Such a man lived at Jeffersonville and, 



as Abraham Lincoln, when postmaster of a 
small Illinois town, had his office in his hat, so 
this early citizen probably made a kind of porta- 
ble jail of himself and carried this first Indiana 
convict about under guard. What crime led to 
this peripatetic incarceration, history relateth not 
— probably it was neither murder nor horse- 
stealing, for murderers were wont in those days 
either to die in their boots or go to Congress, 
and the horse-thief who took full swing in life, 
had full swing of a different order in punish- 
ment. We simply have the words of the record 
which give us this terse legend : 

"For the year ending November 30, 1822, re- 
ceived, 1; remaining in prison, 1; daily average, 
1." We are justified in believing that the man 
who was received, the man who remained, and 
the man who constituted the daily average was 
one and the same individual. 

The prison of to-day is of very different order. 
The daily average of prisoners confined for the 
year ending October 31, 1SS1, was 52.1; the 
number remaining in the prison on that date, 563. 

The first lessee of the penitentiary was a man 
named Westover, who was killed with Crockett 
at the seige of Fort Alamo, in Texas. He was 
succeeded by James Keigwin, who continued in 
charge for eight years. Mr. S. H. Patterson be- 
came the lessee of the penitentiary, associated 
with Benjamin Hensley, in 1S36. Their lease 
ran for five years. At that time there were 56 
prisoners confined in the prison, and in 1841, at 
the close of their term there were 165. At the 
expiration of their lease they retired, and in 1S46 
Mr. Patterson contracted the entire prison work, 
for $10,000 per year. Under his contract, he 
built most of the old cell house. The prison 
was then located on West Market street, below 
the old Governor's house, and beyond the orig- 
inal plat of Jeffersonville. At the beginning of 
his second term, Mr. Patterson had 205 convicts 
under his charge, and when he gave it up in 
1856, there were 307. 

Since 1S22 the State of Indiana has developed 
from the embryo of organization and civilization 
to the full glory of its present greatness. With 
this advance in resources and intelligence has 
come an influx of foreigners ; with the growth of 
cities and the vast increase of facilities for .trans- 
portation, there has come to be a class of profes- 
sional criminals within the State, and a daily 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



465 



coming and going of the most skilful and 
desperate criminals of other cities and States. 
All these facts have combined to necessitate the 
organization and equipment of large and safe 
prisons on a basis which, at the least possible 
net cost to the honest tax-payers of the State, 
should insure the safe keeping of a large body 
of prisoners, with a reasonable regard to their 
physical and moral welfare. 

The prisons of Indiana have been conducted 
on three different principles. The first, adopted 
at their inception and above referred to, was 
suited to the days when but a small number of 
persons were convicted, or confined, and may be 
designated as the boarding system. During its 
continuance the keeping of every prisoner was 
at the direct cost of the State, without any re- 
turn and without any sufficient check upon the 
dishonesty and rapacity of keepers, who could 
abuse the men committed to their charge by 
semi-starvation and other measures of "econo- 
my." 

So soon as the number of convictions in the 
Stale had so far increased as to warrant the 
change, prisons were erected at the cost of the 
people. In these the convicts were confined, 
building, prisoners and all, leased to private in- 
dividuals who fed, clothed and maintained the 
prisoners, and paid a certain gross annual sum 
in addition for such labor as they could extract 
from them. 

The third system, now in force at Jeffer- 
sonville, is the one common to nearly all 
the Northern States, of renting the labor of the 
convincts to contractors, who pay a certain per 
diem for each man employed, while the dis- 
cipline, control, and personal care of the men is 
in the hand of a warden and other officers repre- 
senting the State. This is commonly designated 
as the contract system. One of the chief objec- 
tions to our boarding system has already been 
noted; another, scarcely less serious, was the 
keeping of the men in complete idleness, thus 
leading to the still greater hardening of confirmed 
criminals, while it led to the complete eradica- 
tion of any germs of decency remaining in the 
younger offenders. 

The curse of idleness was removed by the 

lessee system, but only to give place to abuses so 

horrible that it is a matter of congratulation that 

so many States have abandoned it. In Indiana 

59 



a warden was appointed by the State for each 
prison, whose duty it was to see that the contract 
of the lessee was lived up to, but the con- 
victs were body and soul in the hands 
of the contractors, and the warden had 
little power and too often less inclination to re- 
strain those whose interest often led them" to com- 
mit the greatest cruelties. The one aim of most 
of the lessees was to obtain from the convicts un- 
der their control the greatest possible amount of 
labor at the least expenditure for maintenance. 
Men were ill-fed, ill-clothed, punished by the 
lash with the utmost severity, for trivial derelic- 
tions, or for a failure to perform in full the daily 
allotment of labor, often when sickness and in- 
firmity made it an impossibility to fulfil the re- 
quirement. The sick and disabled were neg- 
lected as if the consideration of life weighed 
lightly in the balance against the few cents daily 
necessary for their maintenance. The cells and 
corridors were foul, damp, and unwholesome ; 
swarms of vermin infested every corner, and thus 
overwork, cruelty, starvation, filth, the pistol and 
lash of the guard, all contributed to a wholesale 
murder of the weak, and to brutalizing the strong 
beyond the hope of redemption here or hereafter. 
The horrors of the prison systems before the 
lessee ceased to be the guardian of convicts were 
such as to better befit the days of the Spanish 
Inquisition than the enlightenment of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Against the contract system now in force the 
principal argument advanced is based upon the 
competition of prison with free labor. 'Whatever 
may be thought of this, it is assuredly true that 
the convicts in the Indiana State Prison South, 
were never so well cared for in body and mind, 
never so orderly and well disciplined, and never 
so small a draft upon the treasury of the State as 
now. 

The present prison buildings were commenced 
many years ago, and have been constantly im- 
proved and enlarged since that time, until they 
represent an investment of not far from $400,000. 
Of late the number of convicts have so far ex- 
ceeded the proper capacity of the prison as to 
render it impossible to avoid certain objectiona- 
ble and injurious overcrowding. To give point 
to this statement and also to illustrate the effect 
of increased population and the improvement in 
the machinery of justice upon the prison, the av- 



4 66 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



erage yearly population of the Southern peniten- 
tiary since 1822 is extracted .from the exceed- 
ingly careful and valuable table prepared by 
Warden A. J. Howard, and embodied in his last 
report: 



1822 
I823. 
1824. 



I 185? 212 

3 18^3 223 

l6 1854 259 



1825 29 1855 260 

1826 35 1856 '. 277 

1827 28 1857 304 

1828 27 1858 397 

1829 , 34 1859 484 

1830 27 i860 410 

1831 39 1861 2S1 

1832 42 1862 202 

1833 46 1863 214 

1S34 44 1864 245 

1835 43 l86 5 2 47 

1836 51 1866 399 

1837 53 1867 420 

1838 37 186S 387 

1839 65 1869 393 

1840 74 1870 380 

1841 100 1 87 1 3S1 

1842 77 1872 399 

1843 57 i 8 73 395 

1844 81 1874 388 

1845 91 1875 45 6 

1846 98 1876 531 

1847 122 1877 533 

1848 ...129 1878 626 

1849 120 1879 624 

1850 122 1880 600 

1851 150 1881 324 

To provide for the great increase in the com- 
mitments to the prison, indicated in the forego- 
ing table, the Legislature made an appropriation 
of $50,000 for the building of a new cell house. 
The work was at once undertaken, and the 
spring of 18S2 finds it substantially completed. 
The building contains cell accommodations for 
four hundred prisoners, and will quite do away 
with the unfortunate crowding which has com- 
pelled more than three hundred inmates of the 
penitentiary to sleep upon cots closely placed in 
the corridors of the old cell house. It will 
readily be seen that no ordinary guard system 
would be equal to the task of maintaining disci- 
pline and preventing communication between 
convicts, the formation of plots, and the foment- 
ing of discontent among the men, when they 
are thus crowded together, and, worse still, as 
every man inhales and throws out in a poisonous 
condition from three to four hundred cubic feet 
of air per hour, it is obvious that the death rate 
of the prison, though now quite low, will be 



largely decreased by the change. As an evi- 
dence of the truth of this statement it may be 
said that for the year ending October 3r, 1880, 
with an average of six hundred convicts in the 
prison, there were seven deaths. One of these 
was from the effects of a wound inflicted by a 
fellow-convict. Of the remaining six, five died 
of pulmonary diseases of one or another form. 
The mere fact of confinement inclines a man to 
consumption, but the number of deaths from 
lung troubles in the prison is certainly in an un- 
natural proportion. 

The system of discipline in the Southern 
prison has passed through every phase from the 
extreme severity of the earlier years of the cen- 
tury, keeping pace with the public sentiment of 
the day until the administration of corporeal pun- 
ishment has been reduced, under the adminis- 
tration of Captain Howard, to the minimum 
consistent with the maintenance of any degree 
of discipline. Captain Howard may be said to 
represent the advanced practical school in his 
effort to secure at once obedience, order, and 
humanity in the prison. He has no sympathy 
with the brutal and brutalizing system which 
destroys every remnant of self-respect in the 
convict by constant and cruel bodily punishment, 
and almost as little with the sickly sentimentalists, 
who believe that the life of an imprisoned crim- 
inal should be made a sort of perpetual Sunday- 
school picnic. His desire is that a change in 
the prison system may be made which will iso- 
late the prisoners and render reform as well as 
punishment possible. Under the congregate 
system he does not regard the former as to any 
considerable degree practicable. In his report 
to the Governor for the year 1880 he gives his 
views on the subject in these words : 

"These men are here mainly because of an un- 
willingness to conform to the laws of the State. 
It could not be expected of them that they would 
render a voluntary submission to the laws of the 
prison. As it requires the dread of punishment 
to restrain them outside, and even this has not 
been sufficient, it follows as a matter of course 
that to maintain good order, and obedience to 
the prison laws, there must be maintained a 
deterrent system of punishments within the insti- 
tution. Associated together for work, an aver- 
age of forty to the guard, there is the occasional 
opportunity to break over the rules without de- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



467 



tection. This leads to more or less frequent 
infractions. But for the dread of punishment if 
appiehended, the whole mass would . become a 
howling mob. It would be sheer nonsense to 
talk about regulating the conduct of these con- 
gregated outlaws, simply by kind and generous 
treatment or by moral influences o( whatever 
kind. If they could have been reached by such 
influences, the great bulk of them would not be 
here. The enforcement of the necessary disci- 
pline under such conditions, is not promotive of 
the moral reformation of the convicts. 

"The conclusion follows, that the congregate 
prison as here, is not in any considerable degree 
a reformatory institution. Being neither re- 
formatory in its effects upon the inmates, nor 
sufficiently deterrent in its influence upon the 
criminal classes generally, it fails to accomplish 
the purposes of its creation, and should be 
abandoned whenever any better system of penal 
institutions may be found. 

"Any attempt at reformation in the prison sys- 
tem that does not look to making the institution 
more deterrent in its character, with increased 
facilities for the reformation of the convicts, 
would, in my opinion, be utterly barren of re- 
sults." 

The underlying principle of the system of dis- 
cipline which has been made so largely to re- 
place the lash is the time allowance for good be- 
havior, which secures to the convict maintaining 
a certain standard, a shortening of the term of 
imprisonment. The law of Indiana provides 
for an abatement which renders it possible for a 
man constantly keeping to this standard to gain 
time for various sentences, as follows: 

In 1 year 12 days. 

In 2 years 36 days. 

In 2\i years 54 days. 

In 3 years 92 days. 

In 4 years 120 days. 

In 3 years 180 days. 

In 6 years 252 days. 

In 7 years 336 days. 

In 8 years 432 days. 

In 9 years 540 days. 

In 10 years 660 days. 

In 11 years 790 days. 

In 12 years 936 days. 

In 13 years 1092 days. 

In 14 years 1260 days. 

In 15 years 1440 d lys. 

In 16 years 1602 days. 

In 17 years 1836 Jays. 

In 18 years 2052 days. 



In 19 years 2280 days. 

In 20 years 2520 days. 

In 21 years 2772 days. 

In addition to this inducement to good be- 
havior, Captain Howard has made a rule which 
requires every guard to report daily the conduct 
of the men under his charge, according to a 
system of plus and minus marks — the highest 
plus marks for behavior beyond suspicion; the 
lowest minus mark for extremely bad deport- 
ment. These reports are daily recorded and a 
report for each convict made at the close of 
every month, and upon this report are based the 
grading of privileges, as for example for the use 
of tobacco and coiresponding with friends. If 
the convict fails to reach a certain percentage, 
his allowance for "good time" is denied, and if 
he falls to a certain lower range, he loses a pro- 
portion of the time already credited to him, if 
any there be. This system has already, in the 
short time of its enforcement, produced good re- 
sults, and much is hoped for it. The lash is 
contemplated as an agent in the prison disci- 
pline, but it is only used for the punishment of 
prisoners guilty of the most serious offenses, and 
its greatest value lies in the effect of its presence 
as a passive agent for awing such prisoners as are 
not amenable to more gentle influences. 

A new chapel and hospital building have re- 
cently been completed and the moral and relig- 
ious instruction of convicts will now be prosecuted 
with more effect than when facilities for proper 
teaching were lacking. 

An excellently selected library is also a feature 
of the prison, and its books are eagerly sought 
and read by the convicts. The hospital facilities 
and surgical attendance are of the best, as the 
low death rate in the face of so many disadvan- 
tages attests. 

The food of the prisoners is plain, nourishing, 
abundant, and well cooked. It is carefully se- 
lected with a view to its quality and variety, that 
in dietary, as in other matteis, the health of the 
prisoners may be preserved. That this is done 
is sufficiently attested by the fact that, while the 
prisoners largely represent the idle classes and 
are required to work hard and submit to confine- 
ment while in the institution, the average increase 
in weight between commitment and discharge is 
six and one-half pounds. 

Warden Howard is certainly entitled to great 
credit for his humane, careful, and wise adminis- 



4 6S 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO PALLS COUNTIES. 



tralion, which has resulted in placing the institu- 
tion upon so excellent a footing in point of 
.health, discipline, and expense, though .so much 
of his labor has been in the face of so serious 
obstacles. That lus efficiency is appreciated is 
evident from the fact that though opposed in 
politics to the present administration of the State, 
no one has desired to disturb him in his tenure 
of an office sufficiently important and profitable 
to be regarded as a very desirable acquisition by 
the place-hunters. 

The Southern prison, since the adoption of 
the contract system, has in the main represented 
the average of discipline in institutions of its 
class. There has, however, been one notable 
exception, which in itself furnishes one of the 
stiongest arguments in favor of a system which 
involves some form of hard and nearly constant 
labor. The panic of 1873 and the great finan- 
cial stringency which followed, was so disastrous 
to business men that some of the contractors for 
the labor of the prison became insolvent, and 
others, so fast as their contracts expired, refused 
to renew them. Hence the labor of the prison 
went begging, and, during the year 1S76, with a 
daily average of five hundred and thirty-one 
prisoners, there was no employment for any, 
save such as the routine work of the prison 
afforded. This, with cell accommodation for 
only about one-half the prisoners, made the 
temptation to escape and the opportunity for 
perfecting plans to that end, quite exceptional. 
This state of affairs soon began to bear fruit in 
repeated and well organized attempts to escape 
—attempts so well organized as to leave no 
doubt in the mind of Captain A. J. Howard, 
then newly installed as warden, that a constant 
and systematic communication was being kept up 
among certain prisoners. The further fact that 
whenever such an attempt was made, the men 
engaged were well armed and equipped, pointed 
beyond a doubt to a communication with the 
outer world as well. Captain Howard resolved, 
at whatever cost of time and trouble, to make 
himself master of the situation by solving the 
mystery. At last, upon searching a convict who 
was about to go out on the expiration of his sen- 
tence, a cipher letter was found concealed under 
his shirt, and this, after infinite pains, the warden 
succeded in deciphering. Its contents were 
such as to clearly show that the suspicions of the 



prison officers were well founded, and that Bill 
Rudifer, a professional bank robber and one of 
the most desperate men in the prison, was at the 
head of the conspiracy. Rudifer had, previously, 
in July, 1875, made an effort to escape, which 
was only frustrated after he had been shot in 
two places. For this and subsequent breaches 
of discipline he was, at the time of the discovery 
of the letter in question, confined in a cell by 
himself, securely chained, and, as the prison au- 
thorities supposed, deprived of all writing ma- 
terials. 

The warden discovered that Rudifer had made 
the convict boy who carried water to the cells his 
messenger, and under threats of punishment this 
boy was compelled to deliver each letter to the 
clerk of the prison. It was then kept long 
enough to permit of its translation, when it was 
returned to him and delivered. In this way the 
facts were developed that many convicts, includ- 
ing Kennedy, Ryan, Applegate, and Stanley, who 
killed a guard in an attempt to escape during 
that year, were interested in the scheme — that 
Rudifer had invented and taught to the others 
and to persons outside, no less than twelve 
separate and very ingenious alphabets, and that 
the communication between convicts and their 
friends without the prison was kept up by the 
writing of cipher letters in invisible ink made of 
onion juice and water, on the inside of the 
envelopes which enclosed the ordinary letters 
which inmates of the prison were allowed to 
write to and receive from their friends. In the 
manner indicated no less than thirty-two letters 
were intercepted and read, before Rudifer be- 
came aware that his operations were known, and 
a number of bold and ingenious plans for escape 
were frustrated. Rudifer was the oiiginator of 
all the projects and the inventor of all the alpha- 
bets, and the accomplishment of so much by a 
man heavily ironed, confined in a solitary cell 
and closely watched, makes the series of occur- 
rences sufficiently notable to entitle them to rank 
among the celebrated cases of prison conspiracy. 

Of the prisoners confined in the penitentiary 
during the present year (1882) about eighty per 
cent, are at work for contractors and are con- 
stantly contributing to the income of the State. 
The contractors are: Peren, Gaff & Co., manu- 
facturers of shelf hardware ; the Southern In- 
diana Manufacturing company, boots and shoes; 


















' 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



469 



Rider & Hyatt, cooperage; and J. R. Gathright, 
horse collars. 

Following are the present directors and officers 
of the prison: Thomas Shea, J. J. Finney, P. L. U. 
Mitchell, directors; Andrew J. Howard, warden ; 
John Craig, deputy warden ; Matthew I. Huette, 
clerk ; W. F. Sherrod, physician ; Thomas G. 
Beharred, moral instructor ; William Royce, 
captain of night watch ; David M. Allen, store- 
keeper ; Jesse D. McClure, hospital steward. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

JEFFERSON VILLE-BIOCRAPH I CAL. 

Captain James Howard— John Zulauf — Dr. Nathaniel Field 
— James G. Reed — Joseph W. Sprague — The Shelby 
Family — Mayor L. F. Warder— J ames W. Thomson — 
Reuben Dailey— Dr. H. H. Ferguson — William G. Ann- 
strong — William Keigwin — William H. Fogg — James S. 
Whicher. 

CAPTAIN JAMES HOWARD. 

This well-known ship-builder was born near 
.Manchester, England, December 1, 1S14. His 
father, a wool-carder and cloth-dresser, emigrated 
with his family to the United States in 1S20, and 
settled in Cincinnati, where he engaged in busi- 
ness. James worked with his father in the mill 
from the age of eleven until he was fifteen, when 
he was apprenticed to William Hartshorn, a 
steamboat builder in the same city, to serve until 
he attained the age of twenty-one. He was an 
apt scholar, and soon mastered the details of 
the business, proving an efficient workman. 
When nineteen years of age he came to Louis- 
ville, determined to make a start in the world for 
himself. After remaining in this place a week 
or two he secured a contract to build a steam- 
boat. He went to Jeffersonville, where was a 
good bank from which to make a launch. Here 
he procured material, employed the necessary as- 
sistance, and built the hull of a boat, which gave 
perfect satisfaction to the owners. The follow- 
ing spring he was importuned to return to Cin- 
cinnati and serve the remainder of his appren- 
ticeship, but decided that he could do better to 
remain where he was, and declined to return to 
Mr. Hartshorn's service. 

In 1835 he commenced business life in earn- 
est, with no capital but his experience of a few 



years, but with a strong determination to perse- 
vere until he should stand at the head of the 
boat-building industries of the interior rivers. 
Being possc-sed of industry, energy, and ability, 
he overcame all obstacles, and time brought the 
distinction in his line of business that he de- 
sired. 

A few years spent on the river as an engineer 
gave him an insight into the working of boats, 
and proved where the strength was most tried. 
In 1836 he went to Madison, Indiana, where he 
remained several years, and in that time built 
sixteen boats. In 1846, at Shippingsport, Ken- 
tucky, he was engaged in the building of six 
steamers. The flood of 1S47 swept his yaid 
clean. From Shippingsport he went to Louis- 
ville, and, in company with John Enos, was in 
business a year, during which time they built 
several boats. Mr. Enos died, and in order to 
settle his estate the property was sold. Mr. 
Howard, not feeling able to purchase the mill 
and yard, came to Jeffersonville, where, in 1S49, 
in company with his brother Daniel, he engaged 
in ship-building, at which they continued un- 
interruptedly until 1865, when Daniel Howard 
withdrew from the partnership, and James as- 
sociated with him his younger brother, John, and 
his son Edward, the firm being James Howard 
& Co. 

From the year 1S48, when the first extensive 
boat-building was engaged in, most of the steam- 
ers built were designed for the cotton trade on 
the lower Mississippi, and its tributaries, though 
boats weie also built for Ohio river and upper 
Mississipjji river service. 

The outbreak of the civil war was a heavy 
blow to the Howards, much of their means being 
invested in boats that proved a total loss, or at 
best brought in at the time no returns. The 
business was continued, though with reduced ca- 
pacity, for some years, but the building interests 
soon increased and the yard was busied to its 
fullest capacity. 

Before the change in the firm by the with- 
drawal of Daniel Howard, some fifty boats had 
been completed and launched, and during his 
life Captain James Howard saw two hundred and 
fifty of his boats floating on the inland rivers, 
engaged in all branches of the carrying trade, 
and transporting a large part of the wealth of the 
country to profitable markets. 



470 



HISTORY OK THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



The death of Captain Howard was a peculiarly 
sad one. October 14, 1S76, he left home to 
drive to Louisville. -He reached the ferry safely, 
drove on the boat, where his team became un- 
managable, caused by another team crowding 
them, and the gate being unfastened his carriage 
was run back' precipitating him into the river, 
where he was drowned. 

On the occasion of his funeral a large proces- 
sion was formed on First street, Louisville, the 
workingmen taking the head, then followed the 
pall bearers, the hearse, and the long line of car- 
riages. The procession marched silently up 
First street, Market, Jackson,' and Broadway, to 
Cave Hill cemetery, where the remains were de- 
posited. The procession numbered fully fifteen 
hundred persons. From the time it left First 
street until the cemetery was reached the bells of 
the fire department tolled the knell of death. 

The funeral services were conducted by Rev. 
J. Craik, rector of Christ church, who says: 

It was the grandest and most imposing funeral I ever wit- 
nessed. There were no societies, no music, no military dis- 
play, the usual trappings of an imposing funeral, to mark the 
obsequies of this boat-builder. We have buried from this 
church the commander in chief of the United -States. And 
all that the power and majesty of the great Government 
could do to make the occasion grand and honorable was 
done, but it was nothing in comparison with the funeral 
solemnities of the simple, untitled citizen, James Howard. 

The Courier-Journal said of James Howard : 

He was a man of medium height and good figure. His 
head was large and long, with a high, broad forehead, and 
all the other features prominent and expressive. In his man- 
ners he was unassuming and cordial to all persons. He was 
strong in purpose and action. The whole energy of an ac- 
tive, comprehensive mind, and of an almost tireless physic a 
organization was given to whatever scheme or duty he ever 
had in view. His battle in life has been no easy one, but he 
stood true throughout to the principles of honor and integ- 
rity, and, having an industry and mechanical knowledge 
which he has suffered no man in his occupation to excel, he 
gained both success and distinction. 



JOHN ZULAUF. 

John Zulauf, deceased, of Jeffersonville, was 
born in Thurgan, Switzerland, on the 27th day of 
December, 1S18. His father was a miller. He 
gave his son a good education in the public 
schools of his native country and in the college 
of Murten, Switzerland. After graduation Mr.' 
Zulauf spent several years performing clerical 
duties in some of the largtst manufacturing 



houses and banks in different parts of Europe, 
and which so eminently fitted him for discharging 
the responsible duties afterward awaiting him on 
this side of the water. He spent one year at 
Marseilles bank, France, then several years in a 
large manufacturing establishment at Birming 
ham, England, when he returned to Switzerland 
on account of ill-health, where he afterwards 
pei formed the duties of head bookkeeper three 
years for the large firm of Benziger &: Co. 
Other and more responsible duties, however, 
awaited him, that changed his entire plans for 
the future. A Mr. Fischli had purchased large 
and extensive tracts of land where the city of 
Jeffersonville now stands, and at different places 
throughout the State of Indiana. Mr. Fischli 
was a native of Switzerland, and had his property 
left to his heirs, seventeen in number. The 
amount of property and the great number of per- 
sons falling heir to the same complicated matters 
so much that it necessitated an executor of more 
than ordinary abilities to make an equitable dis- 
tribution and disposition of the estate. This 
responsible position and trust of business affairs 
was given to Mr. Zulauf. He set sail for the 
New World in 1846, intending to return to his 
native country once this whole matter was 
settled. The extent of his business was not 
fully realized, nor even surmised at that time, 
and all claims were not fully adjudicated up to 
the time Of his death, which occurred in 1873. 

As time advanced he began to comprehend 
the situation of affairs, and in 1848 opened up a 
store on Fourth street, and becoming more iden- 
tified with the people, and his worth as a business 
man appreciated, was appointed as the Swiss 
consul to the western States by the Government, 
as a representative of his country. This position 
was held for several years, but desiring to return 
to his native country, the office was finally relin- 
quished. 

He was also selected soon after this as presi- 
dent of the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianap- 
olis railroad. He had by a timely business fore- 
sight seen the ultimate need of the road, and 
upon its partly going down, invested capital him- 
self in the enterprise, and was chosen by the 
stockholders as its second president. He held 
this position for a number of years. 

He had never determined to make America his 
home, and returned again to Ssvitzerland, where 






I 

- 

u y . A 




HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



471 



he remained five years, but the vast amount of 
patrimonial lands left in his trust necessitated his 
return to America at the expiration of that time. 
He was married in 1S57 t0 ^ 1SS Wilhelmina 
Schoch. Her father was a prominent Govern- 
ment official of Bavaria, her native country, 
where she was raised, and received a liberal edu- 
cation. 

There have been born to this union lour chil- 
dren, two of whom are dead. John and Tohan- 
nah are living. Mr. Zulauf was a member of 
the Protestant church; was a Republican in pol- 
itics, an esteemed citizen, and his death, which 
occurred November- 7, 1S73, occasioned not only 
a loss to his devoted family, but to his neighbors 
and to the citizens of his adopted country in 
general. He was a finely educated gentleman, 
spoke in all six different languages, and was well 
read in ancient and modern lore. 



DR. NATHANIEL FIELD 

is one of the oldest physicians in the State of 
Indiana, a graduate of Transylvania Medical 
school, founded at Lexington, Kentucky, in the 
early part of this century, and the only one west 
of the Alleghany mountains. He was bom in 
Jefferson county, Kentucky, on the 7th day of 
November, 1805, located in Jeffersonville; Indi- 
ana, in September, 1S29, where he has since re- 
sided. His father was a native of Culpeper 
county, Virginia; was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war; was at the siege of Yorktown, and 
after the surrender of Cornwallis emigrated to 
Kentucky in the spring of 1783, taking up his 
quarters in the fort at which was afterward Louis- 
ville, near the head of the canal. Fie was the 
first delegate from Jefferson county to the Vir- 
ginia Legislature. He resided in that county 
until his death in September, 1S31. 

Dr. Field is in some respects a remarkable man, 
is an original thinker, forming his opinions inde- 
pendently of popular sentiment or the authority of 
books. Whatever he believes to be right he advo- 
cates boldly and fearlessly, regardless of conse- 
quences to himself. Though born in a slave State, 
and in a slave-holding family, at an early age he 
contracted a dislike to the institution of slavery, 
and wrote an essay against it entitled Onesimus. 
He was one of the first vice-presidents of the 



American Anti-Slavery society; was president of 
the first anti-slavery convention ever held in In- 
diana, and president of the Free-soil convention 
held in Indianapolis in the summer of 1850. 

Notwithstanding his anti-slavery principles, he 
never would take any advantage of the slave- 
holder by advising his slaves to leave him and 
make their escape to Canada; nor did he take 
any part in what was called the "Underground 
railroad."' In a contest between the slave and 
his master on the question of freedom, he was 
neutral. He determined to abide by the law 
creating and maintaining the institution, until ab- 
rogated by the moral sense of the masters them- 
selves. He opposed slavery on moral and relig- 
ious grounds, and appealed to the reason and 
conscience of the slaveholder and the slave. 

As an illustration of his uncompromising devo- 
tion to the right, in June, 1834, he voted against the 
whole township of Jeffersonville on the question 
of enforcing one of the black laws of the State at 
that time. At a township election in the month 
mentioned the following question was submitted 
to vote: "Shall the law requiring free negroes 
nosv in the State, and such as may hereafter emi- 
grate to it, to give bond and security for their 
good behavior, and that they will never become 
paupers, be enforced or not?" The law had 
been a dead-letter on the statute book, and this 
new-born zeal tor its enforcement was not 
prompted by any fear that the negro might be- 
come a pauper or a criminal, but by hatred of 
the Abolitionists. At that time pro-slavery 
mobs were wreaking their vengeance on anti- 
slavery men, destroying their printing presses, 
burning their houses, and driving them from their 
homes, culminating in the cowardly murder of 
Elijah Lovejoy, at Alton, Illinois. 

The mob spirit at that time was epidemic, and 
was never at a loss for a pretext to make war on 
the negroes. After scanning the paper sub- 
mitting to him the question, and on which he re- 
quested to vote, the Doctor noticed that every 
voter in the township, saints and sinners alike, 
had voted for enforcing the law. It was near the 
close of the polls and the voting place was in- 
fested by loafers and roughs, indignant at the 
idea that the Abolitionists were trying to put the 
negroes on an equality with them. They- were 
anxious to see if Or. Field would take sides 
with the negroes, knowing that he was an anti- 



472 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



slavery man. He knew very well that hatred of 
the negroes would make it impossible for them 
to give the required security, and that their ex- 
pulsion at that time in the year would be at- 
tended with loss of their crops and great suffer- 
ing. He tried to reason with the excited crowd, 
asking for an extension of time until the poor 
creatures could make and gather their crops, 
pay their rent and leave the State in peace. But 
he might as well have tried to excite the com- 
passion of a herd of hyenas. After giving his 
reasons for delay he voted in the negative, the 
only man that had the moral courage to vote for 
mercy. As might have been foreseen, the ne- 
groes could not give security nor had they the 
ability to get out of the State as their enemies re- 
quired, and consequently they were driven from 
the town and neighborhood by mob violence. 
For three weeks there was a perfect reign of terror. 
The negroes were shamefully abused, and fled in 
every direction for safety, leaving most of their 
property behind them. No magistrate or con- 
stable pretended to interfere with the mob. Dr. 
Field was notified that he would have to leave 
town with the negroes whose cause he had 
espoused. Without a moment's delay he made 
preparations for defence, resolving to stand his 
ground, and, if necessary, sell his life as dearly 
as possible. He provided plenty of ammunition, 
and fire-arms, and fortified his house. One 
brave man volunteered to assist him in defend- 
ing his castle. Each of them had a large knife 
for close quarters. When all arrangements were 
made the mob was notified that they could com- 
mence the attack whenever it suited their con- 
venience. But fortunately for some of them, 
and the doctor too, the invitation was declined. 

Notwithstanding the perils of those days that 
tried the strength of a great moral principle, Dr. 
Field has lived to see its triumph, the downfall 
of American slavery, and the enfranchisement 
of the negroes. But very few of the men of that 
day are now living. They nearly all passed away 
without witnessing this wonderful change in the 
status of a once oppressed and down-trodden 
race. 

In 1S54, by the death of his mother, Dr. Field 
came into possession of several valuable slaves, 
whom he immediately emancipated, thereby prov- 
ing the sincerity of his professions and his con- 
sistency. In July, 1836, he represented Jefferson- 



ville in the great Southern Railroad conven- 
tion which assembled at Knoxville, Tennessee, 
for the purpose of devising ways and means to 
make a railroad from Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, to Cincinnati, with a branch to Louisville, 
from a point somewhere west of Cumberland 
Gap. He represented Clark county in the' State 
Legislature in the session of 1838-39. He was 
chairman of a select committee to investigate 
charge against Andrew Wylie, D. D., then presi- 
dent of the State university. He made an elab- 
orate report, completely acquitting him of the 
charges preferred against him. He was surgeon 
of the Sixty-sixth Indiana volunteer infantry in 
the late civil war, and rendered impoitant ser- 
vice on several battle-fields and in improvised 
hospitals, having charge of hundreds of wounded 
men, and performing neaily all operations known 
to military surgery. He is an excellent operator, 
and is acknowledged to be among the best sur- 
geons of the State. In 1868 he was president 
of the Indiana State Medical society. Flis con- 
tributions to medical literature consist of papers 
published in the transactions of the society, and 
also articles for the State Medical Journal, be- 
sides essays on various medical subjects read 
before the County and District Medical societies. 
He has also written quite a number of scientific 
papers entitled Moses and Geology, The Chro- 
nology of Fossils, The Antiquity of the Human 
Race, and The Unity of the Human Race. 
Also lectures on miscellaneous subjects, viz: The 
Arts of Imposture and Deception Peculiar to 
American Society, The Financial Condition of 
the World, Hard Times, and Capital Punish- 
ment. 

One of the most extraordinary circumstances 
in his life is, that he has been a pastor 
of a church in Jeffersonville for more than a 
half century, without a salary, making a gospel 
free of charge to the world. He has strictly fol- 
lowed the example of John the Baptist, Christ 
and the Apostles, who never made merchandise 
of the gospel. He has baptised nearly one thou- 
sand persons in the Ohio river; has held several 
theological debates, one of which was published 
in 1854, an octavo work of three hundred and 
twenty pages. The subject was the State of the 
Dead, involving the doctrine of the natural and 
inherent immortality of the soul. His opponent 
was Elder Thomas P. Connelly, a graduate of 



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HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



473 



the State university. The doctor is now far ad- 
vanced in years, but possesses a remarkable de- 
gree of intellectual and physical vigor for one of 
his age. 



JAMES G. READ. 
This well known and prominent citizen of Jef- 
fersonville, was born in Washington county, Ken- 
tucky, in 1793. When a lad he went to Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, and there served an apprentice- 
ship in a printing office. In 1S16 he came to 
Indiana and settled in Davis county, where he 
founded the town of Washington. Starting in 
life with no other capital than a strong constitu- 
tion and indomitable will, he gradually accumu- 
lated a fortune and became an extensive land 
owner, having property in Davis, Clark, Jeffer- 
son, Washington, Scott, and many other counties 
in the State. He was appointed receiver of the 
land office at Jeffersonville under President Jack- 
son, and served in that capacity during his ad- 
ministration. In politics he took an active part 
and was a strong candidate for Governor against 
Noble and Wallace, suffering defeat, however, in 
each instance. After the expiration of his term 
as receiver of the land office, he represented 
Clark county several terms in the State Senate 
and House of Representatives; was president of 
the Senate one term and speaker of the House 
two terms. He was a clear headed, far seeing 
financier, and during his service in the Legisla- 
ture, was principal in taking action for the sale 
of the interest of the State in the Wabash and 
Erie canal, to the bondholders, which sale paid 
$7,000,000 or $8,000,000 of indebtedness of the 
State. The canal had already cost the State 
some $15,000,000, and was now in good work- 
ing condition, but this clear-headed man saw be- 
yond his time, and anticipated the building of 
railroads, which soon made the canal of no value 
to its purchasers. He was a man of enterprise 
in building up the State, a strong advocate of the 
railroad system, but opposed to State investment 
in works of that kind, believing pri\ate enterprise 
should forward and control the industries of the 
country. 

When a resident of Washington, Davis county, 
he was engaged in mercantile business, and 
wherever he dealt his word was his bund. He 
was a man kind and unassuming, of strict integ- 



rity in all the affairs of his busy life, social with 
his equals and inferiors, and charitable to the 
poor. 

In his family he was a kind husband and 
father. He left a widow, who yet survives, and 
four children, John F. Read and Sarah A. Ran- 
som, of Jeffersonville, Mary J. Randall and Mar- 
tha A. Meriwether, of Fort Wayne. On his 
death, which occured in 1869, he left $1,000 to 
the poor of the city, and the balance of his large 
estate to his widow and children. 



JOSEPH WHITE SPRAGUE. 

Joseph White Sprague was born in Massachu- 
setts, Januarys 8, 183 1. His youth was passed 
in the family homestead, at Salem, standing on 
the street which Hawthorne in his Scarlet Letter 
describes as "long and lazy, lounging wearisomely 
through the whole extent of the peninsula, with 
Gallows Hill at one end" — this same Gallows 
Hill being historic as the place where more than 
two hundred years ago took place the famous exe- 
cutions for witchcraft. The old house stands as a 
relic of pre-revolutionary times; its chambers, 
with their quaint furniture and tiled fire-places — 
the latter illustrating, in one instance, the fables 
of ^Esop; the old parlor, in one corner of which 
a rare old clock, made as a gift to the Pope, and 
captured by the patriots of the war of Independ- 
ence, has for more than a hundred years marked 
the hours and quarters by the playing of popular 
airs of a century ago. Everywhere is, in its 
original form, that which the exponents o( mod- 
ern aastheticism have striven to imitate, and, be- 
yond all, as it may not be imitated, a savor of 
age, and an historical interest that tew man- 
sions now standing can boast. 

Joseph W. Sprague was the son of Hon. 
Joseph E. Sprague and Sarah L. Bartlett. His 
father was graduated from Harvard college with 
the class of 1804. 

A complete statement of the genealogy of the 
Sprague family, as it exists in Joseph W. Sprague, 
and others of his generation, would be interest- 
ing, did the limits of this biography permit of 
following the authentic and comprehensive rec- 
ords of the various branches; as it is, a quotation, 
here and there, will not be amiss. 

In the Higginson fleet, which reached this 



474 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



country in June, 1629, were three brothers, sons 
of Edward Sprague, of Upway, in the county of 
Dorset, England. The father died in 1614, and 
the sons, when they emigrated, did so entirely at 
their own cost, an exception at that day, when 
so large a share of those coming to America 
owed much or little to the holders of the patents 
of the King. President Everett records of them 
that "they were persons of substance and enter- 
prise, excellent citizens, and general public ben 
efactors." Although they disembarked at Salem 
they did not long remain there, but selected a 
home in the woods, at a spot which the Indians 
called Mishawaum, but which every school-boy 
knows as Charlestown. Ralph, an ances- 
tor of J. \V. Sprague, took the freeman's oath in 
1630, and, with his wife Joanna, was first to 
enter the covenant of the church in 1632. In 
November, 1 666, Ralph Sprague was chosen 
representative to the general court, and filled the 
seat during seven different sessions. 

The descendants of the Spragues lived in 
Charlestown and Maiden until 1769, when Ma- 
jor Joseph Sprague, sixth in lineal descent from 
Edward Sprague, removed to Salem. 

On Sunday, February 26, 1775, before the 
struggles at Concord and Lexington, this same 
Major Sprague was wounded by t.he British, 
under Colonel Leslie, who were moving to seize 
some cannon in the neighborhood of Salem. 
The residents of Salem had raised a drawbridge 
to prevent Leslie from crossing the North river. 
Major Sprague owned a distillery and gondola 
which lay in the river near by. It was while en- 
deavoring to scuttle this craft, to prevent the 
British from crossing the river, that he received 
his wound, one of the first inflicted in the war of 
Independence. 

The great grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch resided, and the grandfather was born, in 
the house since doubly famous, as the first revo- 
lutionary headquarters of Washington and as the 
late home of Longfellow, and the place of the 
great poet's death. 

Mr. Sprague is the tenth in lineal descent 
from John Rogers, of London, the martyr preb- 
endary of St. Paul's and vicar of St. Sepulcre, 
who was burned at the stake at Smithfield, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1555. John Rogers, fourth in descent 
from the famous divine, was the fifth president 
of Harvard college. 



James Leonard, who came to America in 
1652 and settled at Taunton, Massachusetts, was 
also an ancestor of Mr. Sprague. Leonard es- 
tablished a forge at Taunton, which was in suc- 
cessful operation two centuries later, and his 
house, razed in 1S51, stood at that time as one 
of the oldest in the United States. The New 
England Leonards were supposed to be descend- 
ants of Leonard, Lord D' Acre, made a baron in 
1297, for bravery shown at the time when the 
Knights of St. John were compelled by the Sul- 
tan of Egypt to evacuate St. Jean D'Acre, in 1291. 

The Leonard family was one of the most 
distinguished in the nobility of the United King- 
dom, being descended in two lines from Edward 
III., through his sons John of Gaunt, Duke of 
Lancaster, and Thomas Plantaganet, Duke of 
Gloucester. 

John Johnson, who came to Haverhill, Mass- 
achusetts, in the fall of 1657, was likewise an 
ancestor of Mr. Sprague. He was murdered in 
an Indian foray in 1708, and his wife was killed 
at the same time, her infant child, however, be- 
ing found alive at her breast. 

Mr. Sprague also traces his descent from Adam 
Barttelot, esquire of Brean, a knight, who came to 
England with William the Conqueror, fought at 
Hastings and received as share of the spoils of 
conquest grants of land at Stopham, Sussex. 
This estate is now owned by Sir Walter B. Bart- 
telot, created a baronet by Victoria, June 1, 
1875. The family had its representatives at 
Cressy and Poictiers, subscribed for the defense 
against the Spanish Armada in 1588; one- of 
them, Sir John, commanded at the capture of the 
castb of Fontenoy, in France. Before the be- 
ginning of the Sixteenth century and even to 
this time, the family carries a castle in its crest. 

Richard Bartlett', the first American represen- 
tative of the family, came to this country in 
1635, and settled at Newbury, Massachusetts. 
Hon. Bailey Bartlett, of Haverhill, Massachu- 
setts, maternal grandfather of Mr. Sprague, was 
fifth in lineal descent from him. Mr. Bartlett 
was a man of significance and prominence. He 
was present when the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence was first proclaimed; he was a member 
of the last Congress holden at Philadelphia, and 
of the first at Washington, and a member of the 
convention which adopted the first constitution 
of the United States. 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



475 



For forty years from 1789 this sterling Bartlett 
was high sheriff of Essex county, Massachusetts, 
being appointed by Governor Hancock, with the 
unanimous approval of his council. He died 
in 1830, leaving behind him eleven of a family 
of fifteen children. One of these, Edwin Bart- 
lett, was for many years United States consul 
at Lima, Peru, and, returning, built at his country- 
seat, "Rockwood" on the Hudson; a villa then 
esteemed the handsomest in the United States. 
The grandson of Bailey Bartlett, General Wil- 
liam F. Bartlett, of Boston, was the youngest 
general in the Federal army during the war of 
the rebellion. He lost a leg at Yorktown ; at 
Port Hudson he was severely wounded; at 
Petersburg he led the brigade which assaulted 
the lines, and when the mine was exploded every 
officer cf his staff save one was killed, his 
brigade was almost annihilated, his wooden leg 
shattered and he taken prisoner. 

From an obituary notice of Joseph E. Sprague, 
published at the time of his death, in 1852, is 
extracted the following : 

Mr. Sprague's political writings during the existence of the 
old parties, when he was actively engaged as one of the 
prominent advocates of the Republican cause, were numer- 
ous, able, and efficient. Few men probably were more in- 
fluential or more efficient in carrying the measures which 
they espoused. Of late years his contributions to the press 
have been mostly biographical and historical, tributes of 
affection from his warm heart to personal friend, or reminis- 
cences from his well stored memory, enriched by drawing 
upon a valuable and extensive correspondence relative to 
public characters and public services of historic interest. We 
do not think there is a man living who has made so many 
and varied contributions of this character to our biographi- 
cal literature as Mr. Sprague, and for his task he possessed 
the amplest materials, not only in his thorough knowledge of 
local and public events, but from his long and intimate asso- 
ciation with our most active citizens and politicians, and con- 
fidential correspondence with a large circle of eminent states- 
men,, whose friendship he prized among his most cherished 
recollections. 

In a notice which he wrote of his friend ]udge Story, he 
stated that, for a quarter of a century, he was a member of a 
social club of a dozen members of his political friends, which 
met every week at each other's residences, all strangers being 
invited to share their hospitalities. Here every political 
question was discussed, and from these discussions arose 
those measures which placed Massachusetts in the hands of 
the Republican party, and subsequently elevated that ac- 
complished and upright statesman, John Quincy Adams, to 
the Presidency. Judge Story and Mr. Sprague Here the 
leading spirits of this political club. 

The father and maternal grandfather of Joseph 
VV. Sprague for sixty consecutive years filled the 
office of high sheriff of Essex county in Massa- 
chusetts ; the father was the friend and corre- 



spondent of John Quincy Adams, Daniel Web- 
ster, Henry Clay, Edwar3 Everett, and other 
prominent statesmen of his day, and their letters 
to him are now a cherished heritage of his son; 
to these and many other of the foremost men of 
the time — statesmen, judges, lawyers, scientists, 
and literati, the hospitable home at Salem was 
always open, and the benefit of such a social 
atmosphere was enjoyed by the subject of this 
sketch during those- formative years when its 
value was greatest. 

Mr. Joseph W. Sprague had from his youth a 
strong natural love for mathematics, mechanics, 
chemistry, etc., and, as a boy, experimented in 
the last named science to the sad detriment of 
the carpets and furniture of his home. He pur- 
sued his preparatory studies at Salem, entered 
Harvard college in 1S48, and was graduated, with 
the degree of bachelor of arts, in 1852. This 
was supplemented, in 1855, by the degree of 
master of arts. After graduating in the academic 
department Mr. Sprague pursued his scientific 
studies for two years in the Lawrence Scientific 
school of Harvard college, taking, in 1854, the 
highest of the three classes of degrees conferred 
upon graduates of that department. Before his 
second graduation he was for a short time en- 
gaged in making solar calculations for the United 
States Nautical Almanac, and also for one year 
acted as instructor in the highest mathematics, 
in the engineering department of the Scientific 
school. 

Upon leaving the school Mr. Sprague entered 
upon his chosen life work-— that of a civil en- 
gineer — and for many years was constantly em- 
ployed in important and responsible places in 
his profession. From the close of 1854 until 
1862 he was most of the time engaged as en- 
gineer on the enlargement of the Erie canal, 
with a residence at Rochester: this work was for 
a time interrupted by his making the preliminary 
surveys for the Chesapeake and Albemarle 
canal through a portion of the Dismal swamp. 
In 1858, representing the board of trade of St. 
Louis, Mr. Sprague investigated the obstruction 
to the navigation of the Mississippi river, caused 
by the piers of the railroad bridge at Rock 
Island. The subject had already received the 
attention of some of the most prominent en- 
gineer experts in the country, who had made 
careful computations to determine the extent to 



476 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



which it affected the current in the channel. 
Mr. Sprague, though a much younger man .than 
the engineers who had preceded . him, pro- 
nounced all their calculations wide of the mark, 
and submitted others, which were later fully 
verified and sustained by a board of engineers 
appointed by the Government. A series of 
articles on the subject was afterward published 
by Mr. Sprague in a scientific journal, he having 
been at an earlier day, as he was later more ex- 
tensively, a contributor to current scientific litera- 
ture. 

From 1S62 to 1866 Mr. Sprague was em- 
ployed as a civil engineer on the Ohio & Missis- 
sippi railroad, residing during two of those years 
in Cincinnati and two in St. Louis. 

In 1866 the Ohio Falls Car and Loco- 
motive company, of "'hich, as of its successor, a 
full account is given at another page of this 
work, located at Jeffersonville, Indiana, was seri- 
ously embarrassed and Mr. Sprague was engaged 
at the instance of Eastern stockholders, to exam- 
ine into its condition. While making this inves- 
tigation he was requested by the Louisville stock- 
holders to assume charge of the works, and, as a 
result of this request, was elected president of 
the company in September, 1866. At that time 
the stock of the company was selling at thirty 
cents on the dollar; under Mr. Sprague's man- 
agement a slow but steady appreciation of its 
value began, until, in 1S72, it reached par and 
the business of the company yielded large profits. 

During the five years preceding March 20, 
1872, the works of the company were materially 
enlarged; on the latter day they were swept out 
of existence by fire. The losses being well cov- 
ered by insurance, the building of the present 
and splendid system of works, of which it is un- 
necessary to speak at length in this place, was 
commenced, carried well to completion and busi- 
ness was prosperously resumed, when came the 
panic of September; 1873, which proved so de- 
structive to the business interests of the world. 
This compelled the company to go into liquida- 
tion and to dispose of its assets for the benefit of 
its creditors. 

In 1S76 the works were purchased by the 
Ohio Falls Car company, composed mostly of 
the stockholders of the old corporation. From 
the organization of this company Mr. Sprague 
has been its president and its manager in prac- 



tice as well as in theory. The works have been 
completed, the business rendered largely profita- 
ble, and so increased as to make the company 
the largest concern in the United States manu- 
facturing both freight and passenger cars, and 
still the increase and improvement go on. Mr. 
Sprague deserves the success the company has 
won through his efforts, and is fortunate in see- 
ing so rich a fruition. From the time of taking 
charge of the works until 1S79 M r - Sprague re- 
sided in Jeffersonville; since the latter date he 
has made Louisville his home. 



THE SHELBY FAMILY. 

Evan Shelby was among the first settlers of 
Clark county, and descended from that patriotic 
family who distinguished themselves in the 
French and Indian wars, and the Revolutionary 
war. In giving a history of the Shelby family 
it is necessary to go back to General Evan Shel- 
by, who emigrated from AYalcs one hundied and 
fifty years ago with his father, General Evan 
Shelby, the father of Governor Isaac Shelby, 
and settled near North Mountain, in the prov- 
ince of Maryland. He possessed a strong mind 
and an iron constitution. He was a great hun- 
ter and woodsman. He was appointed captain 
of a company cf rangers in the French and In- 
dian war, which commenced in 1754. During 
the same year he made several expeditions into 
the Alleghany mountains, and was afterwards ap- 
pointed a captain in the provincial army for the 
reduction of Fort Duquesne, now Pittsburg. He 
was in many severe battles in what was called 
Braddock's war. He laid out the old Pennsyl- 
vania road across the Alleghany mountains, and 
led the advance of the army under General 
Forbes, which took possession of Fort Duquesne 
in 1758. His gallantry was particularly noticed 
in the battle fought at Loyal Hanning, now Bed- 
ford, Pennsylvania. In 1772 he removed to the 
Western waters, and commanded a company in 
1774 in the campaign under General Lewis and 
Lord Dunmore, against the Indians on the 
Scioto river; he was in the battle on the 10th of 
Octobei, 1774, at the mouth of the Kanawha. 
Near the close of the action he was the command- 
ing officer, the other officer being killed or dis- 
abled. In 1776 he was appointed by Patrick 



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A 



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HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



477 



Henry, then Governor of Virginia, a major in 
the army commanded by Colonel Christian, 
against the Cherokees. In 1777 he was ap- 
pointed colonel of sundry garrisons posted on 
the frontier of Virginia ; and a commissioner to 
treat witTi the Cherokees on the Holstin. In 
1779 he lead a strong expedition against the 
Chickamauga Indians, on the Tennessee river, 
which resulted in the destruction of their towns 
and provisions, which occurred at the time Gen- 
eral George Rogers Clark captured Governor 
Hamilton at Vincennes. By the extension of 
the boundary line of Virginia and North Carolina 
in 1779, he was included in the latter State, and 
was appointed brigadier-general by the Gover- 
nor. 

He left three sons : Isaac, James, and John. 
Isaac, who was justly termed the hero of Kings 
Mountain, and the first Governor of Kentucky, 
was born on the nth day of December, 1750, 
near the North Mountain, in the province of 
Maryland, where his father and grandfather set- 
tled after their arrival from Wales. In that early 
day the country was annoyed during the period 
of his youth by Indian wars. He obtained only 
the elements of a plain English education. Born 
with a strong constitution, capable of enduring 
great privations and fatigue, he was brought up 
to the use of arms and the pursuit of game. 
He was lieutenant in his father's company in the 
battle on the 10th of October, 1774, at the 
Kanawha, and at the close of that campaign was 
appointed by Lord Dunmore to command a 
fort that was built where this battle was fought. 
He continued in the garrison until it was dis- 
banded in 1775, and served in different capacities 
during the Revolution ; never shirking from 
danger. When acting as commissary he furnished 
commissary stores on his own reputation. The 
Legislature of North Carolina voted him a sword 
for his heroic conduct at the battle of Kings 
Mountain, in the campaign of the fall of 17S1. 
He served under General Marion in 1782, and 
was elected a member of the North Carolina 
Legislature ; was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners to settle the preemption claims upon the 
Cumberland river, and to lay off the lands 
allotted to the officers and soldiers of the North 
Carolina line. He performed this service in the 
winter of 1782-83, and returned to Boor.es- 
borough, Kentucky, in April following, and was 



married to the second daughter of Captain Na- 
thaniel Hart, one of the first settlers of Ken- 
tucky. He was a member of the early conven- 
tions of Kentucky, held at Danville, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining a separation from the State of 
Virginia ; was a member of that convention 
which' formed the first constitution of Kentucky 
in April, 1791, and in the following year was 
elected the first Governor and was inaugurated 
at Danville in a log-house, which was the first 
State house for the Commonwealth of Kentucky. 
He was several times elected a presidential 
elector; was again elected to the executive chair 
of Kentucky in 1812. His second administra- 
tion commenced at the time that the Western 
frontier was menaced by savage foes and by 
British intrigues. The surrender of Hull and 
the defeat of Dudley left the Michigan Terri- 
tory in possession of the enemy. At this period 
it required all the energies of his character, and 
at the request of the Legislature of Kentucky 
he organized a body of four hundred cavalry 
volunteers, which he led in person at the age of 
sixty-three, under General Harrison, into Canada 
in the fall of 1 S 1 3, and but for the unauthorized, 
though judicious step which he assumed upon 
his own responsibility, of calling out mounted 
volunteers, the favorable moment for operation 
at this crisis of the campaign would have been 
lost and the Nation deprived of the important 
results of the victory of the Thames. His gal- 
lantry and patriotism on that occasion was ac- 
knowledged by the commanding general and 
President Madison, and in resolutions by the 
Legislature of Kentucky, which recognized his 
plans and the execution of them as splendid 
realities, which exact our gratitude and that of 
his country, and justly entitle him to the ap- 
plause of posterity. His conduct was also ap- 
proved by a vote of thanks from the Congress of 
the United States, awarding a gold medal as a 
testimony of its sense of his illustrious services. 
In March, 1817, he was selected by President 
Monroe to fill the office of Secretary of War, but 
his advanced age and his desire to remain in 
private life induced him to decline the appoint- 
ment. In 18 iS he was commissioned by the 
President to act in conjunction with General 
Jackson in holding a treaty with the Chickasaw 
tribe of Indians, for the purchase of their land 
west of Tennessee river. This was his last pub- 



47S 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



lie act. In February, 1820, he was attacked with 
a paralytic affection, which affected his right side; 
he died on the iSth of July, 1S26, of apoplexy. 
His mind remained unimpaired to his death. 
He was not unprepared, for in the vigor of life he 
professed it to be his duty to dedicate himself to 
God, and to seek an interest in the merits of the 
Redeemer. He had been for many years a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church, and in his latter 
days he was instrumental in erecting a church on 
his own farm. He died at the advanced age of 
eighty-six years. 

James Shelby was also an officer of the Revo- 
lutionary war. He was with his brother Isaac at 
the battle of Kings Mountain. He was a brave 
soldier. He never was married, and was killed 
by the Indians near Crab Orchard, Kentucky, 
while emigrating to Kentucky with a company of 
emigrants. After the company had arrived at 
Crab Orchard, the first place of safety, at the ter- 
minus of the old wilderness road, some stock 
was found missing, and James Shelby being a 
brave, resolute man, returned for the purpose of 
finding the missing stock, when he was killed. 

John Shelby, also a brother of Isaac and 
James, settled in Kentucky at an early day; was 
the father of Evan Shelby, who was mentioned in 
the first of this sketch. 

Isaac Shelby, a brother of Evan Shelby, came 
to Clark county about 1S00, and settled on the 
farm now owned by Joseph McCo bib's widow, 
near what was then called Springville; was 
elected the first clerk of the Clark circuit court 
in 1816. He served as clerk previous to the 
adoption of the State constitution, having pur- 
chased the time of Samuel Gwathmey, who was 
then clerk of the court, giving in exchange for 
the clerk's office five hundred acres of land. He 
was appointed inspector and muster master of 
the Clark County Territorial Militia. He aided 
materially in building up Charlestown. He was 
the owner of considerable property, and was one 
of the early merchants. He moved to Lafayette, 
Missouri, in 1S45, where he purchased a large 
tract of land, and spent the remainder of his 
days. He left several children, who now reside 
in Missouri. 

Evan Shelby came to Clark county at a very 
early day; was one of the first settlers, and set- 
tled near Springville, one mile south of Charles- 
town, then a trading post. He came down the 



Ohio river with Colonel Blue, who was moving 
to the lower part of Kentucky. When he ar- 
rived at Jeffersonville he was married on the boat 
to Margaret, daughter of Colonel Blue, by Gen- 
eral Marston G. Clark, then a justice of the peace 
for Clarksville township. He was a man of fine 
business capacity, and was the owner of several 
fine tracts of land in Clark and Floyd counties. 
Part of the city of New Albany is on the Shelby 
land. He contributed largely toward improving 
Charlestown ; was one of the first surveyors of 
Clark county; was one of the early judges of the 
court for Clark county, and one of the first mer- 
chants of Charlestown, having the reputation of 
being strictly honest in all his transactions. He 
left four children — William, John, Uriah, and 
Margaret. 

The sons were all business men, engaged in 
merchandise in Charlestown. John moved to 
Memphis, Tennessee, in 1842, and engaged in 
merchandise there. Margaret, his only daughter, 
was married to Newton Laughery, a nephew of 
Colonel Laughery, who was killed on the Ken- 
tucky shore of the Ohio, opposite to Laughery 
creek on the Indiana side of the river. The 
creek derived its name from what was called 
Laughery's defeat. Evan Shelby has no children 
now living. Evan Shelby, his grandson, and the 
son of Uriah Shelby, is the present recorder of 
Clark county. The widow of William Shelby* 
now resides on the farm that Evan Shelby first 
settled on, and is known as the old Shelby home- 
stead. The widow of Uriah Shelby resides in 
Charlestown. William Shelby was in Captain 
Lemuel Ford's company of rangers that was 
raised for the Black Hawk war in 18^2. 



LUTHER FAIRFAX WARDER, 

mayor of Jeffersonville, is among the most prom- 
inent citizens of that place, and the remarkable 
life here presented should be read as a lesson of 
encouragement to the youth of the county. 

Mr. Warder, although as yet but a young man, 
represents to an eminent degree the true type of 
a self-made man ; is an original thinker and pos- 
sesses a versatility of talent no less remarkable 
than his zeal, energy, enterprise, and persever- 
ance, manifested in all his undertakings. 

We find him beginning life under difficulties, 



I .■"'■' 






I f / 




r?y' 



2t< 



^ 



/ 






HISTORY OK THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



479 



when a mere youth, embarking in commercial 
pursuits, and before attaining to the age of ma- 
■ jority, although having an interest in slaves, rais- 
ing a company for the Union army, which he 
afterwards commands in person, and since the 
war rising step by step, filling so many and 
varied positions of honor and trust that to-day 
he is regarded as the recognized representative 
citizen of this portion of the State. 

He was born in Fleming county, Kentucky, 
December 2, 1840. His parents, Hiram K. and 
Mary Wallingford Warder, were both natives of 
Fleming county, that State, their father and 
mother having emigrated from old Virginia, and 
were among the early settlers of Fleming county, 
in the pioneer days of Kentucky. 

Mr. Warder's boyhood days and early life 
were spent in the usual monotony and labor of a 
farm life, on his father's farm, attending school 
during the winter months. Kentucky at that 
time was as famous for her imperfect school sys- 
tem as she was for the chivalry of her sons and 
loveliness of her daughters. The tedium of a 
farm life with the poor advantages of an educa- 
tion and opportunities for securing fame or for- 
tune, grew irksome and he longed to leap into 
the arena amid the conflicts of life and take his 
chances in the intellectual and business world, 
trusting to his own energy, perseverance and 
judgment for success. 

He, therefore, at the age of eighteen years, 
left home and embarked in the dry goods busi- 
ness with his uncle, George C. Richardson, at 
McCarmel, in his native county, where he re- 
mained but eighteen months. In i860 he 
opened a branch store at West Liberty, Morgan 
county, Kentucky, and ran it until 1S61, at which 
time the excitement incident to the war of the 
Rebellion was at its climax. West Liberty was 
a hotbed of secession, and had quarters for re- 
cruiting soldiers for the Confederate army. Mr. 
Warder's convictions were strongly in favor of 
the maintenance of the Union, and finding this 
community uncongenial he closed his store and 
returned to his home, and being thoroughly im- 
pressed with the necessity of prompt action, he 
at once actively engaged in recruiting and organ- 
izing company B, Sixteenth Kentucky infantry, 
the first company of Union troops mustered in 
from Fleming county. Captain Warder entered 
the ranks without stripes or shoulder-straps— 



a private not yet of age, but being vigorous, pat- 
riotic, and full of enthusiasm for the old flag, 
was soon promoted to the first lieutenancy of the 
company and as such took part in the battle of 
Ivy Mountain, on the Big Sandy, under the 
command of the late lamented General William 
Nelson, in whom he always entertained great 
confidence and admiration. He was soon after 
promoted to the captaincy of the company, and 
was the youngest man in that company, and com- 
manded it in person through all the campaigns 
of eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, and until 
the winter of 1S63, when, on account of a loss 
of his health he was forced to resign. He re- 
turned home and not recover until the close of 
the war. 

On the 1 6th day of November, 1865, Mr. 
Warder was married to Elizabeth A. Lewis, 
daughter of Felix R. Lewis, of Jeffersonville, 
Indiana, a member of one of the oldest families, 
connected with the early settlement and history 
of Jeffersonville. 

Her grandfather, Major William R. Lewis, 
was register of the land office at Jeffersonville, 
for many years. Fler mother, Patience Wood 
Robinson, was born in Belmont county, Ohio, 
and removed with her father, Ira Robinson, to 
Jeffersonville at an early day. Mr. Warder re- 
turned to his native county after his marriage, 
and settled in Mt. Carmel, where he had first 
commenced life on his own account, and carried 
on the business of stock-raising and trading 
until he received the appointment of assistant 
assessor of internal revenue, appointed by An- 
drew Johnson for the Ninth district o( Ken- 
tucky, which position he held until the district 
was consolidated, leaving his district vacant; he 
then removed to Flemingsburg, the county- 
seat of the county, and engaged in the hotel 
business, and in 186S he received the appoint- 
ment of internal revenue store-keeper, and was 
placed in charge of an extensive bonded ware- 
house, located at Flemingsburg, for the bond- 
ing and safe-keeping of all the spirits manu- 
factured by a large distillery there, and also 
of the spirits made from the peach and 
apple product of that region. This position he 
held until all the goods were removed from bond 
during the spring of 1870, when he was induced 
to enter the political arena in the canvass for 
county offices of that year. He received the 



480 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



nomination of the Republican party for the office 
of county clerk, and made the race against M. 
M. Teager, the nominee of the Democratic party, 
and an ex-Confederate soldier. The issue being 
squarely made, both as to politics and the Blue 
and the Gray, together with the prejudice against 
the negro, who was then for the first time exercis- 
ing the right of suffrage, combined to make it a 
very exciting contest. The county being largely 
Democratic, Mr. Warder was of course defeated. 
He then concluded to take the advice of Horace 
Greeley and "Go West," and having settled up 
his business, he left his native heath in February, 
1871, but changed his first determination, and 
located in JefTersonville, where he engaged in 
the railway service of the Jeffersonville, Madison 
&■ Indianapolis railroad for two years. In 1S72 
he was elected to the common council of that 
city, and re-elected in 1874. 

He was admitted to the bar at Charlestown, 
Indiana, in January, 1873, and is now a practic- 
ing attorney in Jeffersonville. In May, 1S75, he 
was elected mayor of the city of Jeffersonville, 
and has been re-elected in May every two years 
for the fourth time, making eight years in all. 

Here it becomes necessary seemingly to refer 
personally to the history of Mayor Warder's ca- 
reer, as the present thriving, prosperous condition 
of the city of Jeffersonville owes its existence of 
prosperity to a great extent to the untiring indus- 
try and energy he put forth in matters of public 
concern. To better understand this we need to 
say that Mayor Warder is a man of strong con- 
victions and an original thinker, forming his 
opinions entirely independent of popular senti- 
ment. He never was known to truckle to opin- 
ions contrary to his own judgment. Whatever 
he believes to be right and just, or whatever policy 
he believes to be best for the public interest he 
advances boldly, regardless of consequences to 
himself, and his bold, honest, and fearless devo- 
tion to his own opinions gives him an influence 
in the city of Jeffersonville that few men ever 
possessed. To his great enterprise, vim, energy, 
brains, will-power, and perseverance, is due the 
present growth and prosperity of the city. 

One of his first official acts after being elected 
mayor of the city in May, 1875, w hen there was 
only about six thousand of a population and so 
many of the citizens out of employment, was to 
offer and advance to the car works $20,000 out 



of the city treasury to encourage them to again 
start up, and it is a fact that but for that $20,000 
given by the city, the present car works would 
have been abandoned, whereas to-day it is the 
most important manufacturing institution around 
the Falls of the Ohio, and gives employment to 
two thousand men. 

He next conceived the idea of establishing a 
plate-glass, manufactory in Jeffersonville. There 
were at that time but three works of the kind in 
the United States. One at New Albany, one at 
Louisville, and one at St. Louis. And upon his 
suggestion the city donated real estate costing 
$20,000 to encourage the building of the Jeffer- 
sonville Plate-glass works, and again when that 
institution failed, after running two years, Mayor 
Warder was bold and fearless enough to have the 
city advance them $25,000 more on their bonds, 
which saved them from bankruptcy, and to-day 
it is a prosperous institution, employing two hun- 
dred men and women. 

So also when Captain B. S. Barmore's ship- 
yard burned, "leaving him so crippled he could 
not rebuild without assistance, and Madison, 
New Albany, and other points were offering him 
inducements to go to them, Mayor Warder 
stepped forward and made an offer of $10,000 
for ten years without interest to rebuild in Jef- 
fersonville. The proposition was strongly op- 
posed by certain dyspeptic elements (which are 
found in every large community) and the loan 
was very bitterly opposed, but Mayor Warder's 
positive character so strongly impressed the peo- 
ple that it was eventually triumphant, and its 
rapid growth and prosperity vindicates his ad- 
ministration of affairs, his clear foresight, and 
broad views in all municipal affairs of public 
moment. 

No previous administration of any mayor of 
j of this city has been marked by such boldness of 
! enterprise and breadth of view, and it is not 
! likely that any successor will make a more bril- 
[ liant record or erect so many lasting monuments 
to his memory. 

Says a prominent man of his city: "Mayor 
I Warder understands the magnitude of his office, 
; the scope of his influence, and the future welfare 
} of the city, and has handled none of its interests 
with littleness or pigmy ideas." He further says: 
i "As long as the Ohio Falls Car works, the ship- 
| yard, and the glass works remain in the city of 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



481 



Jefferson ville they will stand as a public monu- 
ment to the sagacity, foresight, and judgment of 
his administration of municipal affairs." 

He was also the advocate and prime mover, 
and took an active part in the erection of the 
present and first city hall built in Jefferson ville, 
and it is due to Mayor Warder to state that he 
was in favor of, and strongly urged and advocated 
its location on Market square, corner of Court 
avenue and Spring street, and also wanted to 
build a $40,000 or $50,000 hall, which would 
have answered for many years to come, and been 
a credit and an ornament to the city. He was, 
however, defeated in both the style and location 
of the structure. He then set about at once to 
establish, endow, and beautify Market square for 
a public park, and like all other enterprises re- 
quiring the expenditure o( money for public 
development, comfort, and beauty, he encoun- 
tered opposition, but only to overcome and be 
successful, and Market square was duly and for- 
ever dedicated as a public park, with sufficient 
appropriation placed in the hands of a regular 
committee of the council, of which the mayor is 
chairman, to carry out and perpetuate the de- 
sign, and in honor of Mayor Warder, his public 
services and public enterprises, the common 
council adopted as a suitable and proper testi- 
monial to him the name of Warder Park. 

In politics and religion Mayor Warder might 
be termed in the true sense and meaning of the 
word, a liberal. He was, in infancy and early 
life, taught and trained by his father in the Jef- 
fersonian school of Democracy, but on account 
of his devotion and service in the cause of the 
Union, he cast his first vote in 1863 for the Re- 
publican party, and continued to act and vote 
with. that party until the memorable campaign 
of 1872, when he declared for Mr. Greeley, in 
whom he had great confidence, and for whom 
he did valuable service in the contest. He still 
believes that Mr. Greeley was not only one of 
the greatest and truest and best men America 
has produced, but that his nomination at that 
time by the Democratic party did more to liber- 
alize their party and restore it to the confidence 
of the country than any other event in its history. 
Since that time Mr. Warder has belonged to 
that party, and been elected mayor the fourth 
time as the nominee of the Democratic party, 
always leading his ticket, and the last time 



the only Democratic candidate on the ticket 
who was elected, the majority being nearly 
'two hundred. He also took an active part in 
all the campaigns, both State and National, ren- 
dering much valuable service to his party. 

He is a forcible speaker, and possesses rare 
talent for organizing and conducting campaigns. 
His energy and zeal when confronted by strong 
opposition' is the more earnest and aggressive, 
and his political sagacity and personal popularity 
combined, render him a potent factor in the 
politics, not only of the city and county, but of 
his Congressional district. In his administra- 
tion of city affairs he has never been controlled 
or influenced by politics, and has as many warm 
friends among the Republicans as he has in his 
own party. 

He does not belong to any religious denom- 
ination, has no creed or tenet in his views of 
Christianity- believing that religion consists in 
doing right and all the good we can for the hap- 
piness of our fellow- men. His wife is a member 
of the Episcopal church, to which he is a con- 
tributor on her account. He has two daughters 
and two sons, none of whom have been baptized 
in any church. 

The history of Mayor Warder's administration 
would not be complete without allusion to the 
removal of the county-seat. The county gov- 
ernment had been located at Charlestown, twelve 
miles northeast of Jeffersonville, for sixty years, 
and this township containing nearly one-half of 
the population of the county the citizens naturally 
desired the seat removed to this city. For many 
years the project had been discussed, the transfer 
asked for, but the political expediency had always 
interfeted. But Mr. Warder's bold and fearless 
spirit, his devotion to the interests of the people, 
were just the qualities necessary for a leader in 
the removal. He was further supported by the 
consciousness that removal would be eventually 
to the interest of the entire community. Accord- 
ingly, calling a meeting of the leading citizens, 
he infused his dauntless spirit into the people, set 
the ball rolling, and the contest commenced in 
1876, and it was long, bitter, and fiery, and was 
costly to both sides, the city expending $70,000. 

The long fight entailed upon Mayor Warder 
prodigious labor, and a constant stream of har- 
assing anxiety, which a man of less physical 
health could not have endured. The result of 



482 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



this movement is another enduring monument 
to Mayor Warder's ability as a public executive, 
and, with the other public-spirited acts of his, 
help to link his name with the most important 
events in the history of this beautiful and pros- 
perous city. 



JAMES WILLIAM THOMSON, 

the present clerk of the city of Jeffersoaville, 

Indiana, is a descendant of the earlier settlers of 
the Ohio Falls cities. His mother, Amanda 
Shannon Thomson, was born in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, October 12, 1813. Her parents moved to 
New Albany, Indiana, in 181 4, where they raised 
a large family. Amanda Shannon was married 
to William S. Thomson, November n, 1832. 
Soon after marriage Mr. Thomson established a 
residence in St. Louis, Missouri, and engaged in 
mercantile pursuits. 

James William Thomson, the subject of this 
sketch, was born in that city June 4, 1S35. I' 1 
the year 1844 the family returned to Jefferson- 
ville, and the father shortly afterwards died in 
Helena, Arkansas. The mother, Amanda 
Thomson, applied herself to providing for the 
support and education of her four children, and 
by energy and toil she succeeded in establishing 
a lucrative notion and millinery business, by 
which she acquired some property. 

James William Thomson, who is now the only 
survivor of the family, received a fair English 
education at St. Aloysius college, Louisville, 
Kentucky. In 1855 he became connected with 
the clerical department of the Jeffersonville rail- 
road. His services in this capacity were highly 
appreciated by the management, which was man- 
ifested by his rapid advancement in the line 
of promotion. In 1861, being an honest sup- 
porter of the Government in its acts for the sup- 
pression of the rebellion, he gained considerable 
notoriety by informing the Government authori- 
ties of the manner of smuggling contraband sup- 
plies passing over that road into Kentucky, and 
by aiding in the capture of the same. His action 
in this matter, however, caused unfavorable criti- 
cism by the officers of the railroad company, 
which so conflicted with his ideas of duty as a 
citizen of the United States that he at once sev- 
ered his connection with the railroad company 



and shortly afterwards enlisted in the volunteer 
service and turned his whole attention to assist- 
ing in raising and organizing the Forty-ninth Indi- 
ana volunteer infantry. He was commissioned 
second lieutenant by Governor Morton, October 
18, 1S61, was promoted and commissioned cap- 
tain Februaiy 2, 1862. Being on duty in south- 
eastern Kentucky about this time, he was selected 
to command one hundred picked men, who, 
together with a force under the command of 
Colonel Carter, made a perilous and fatiguing 
night march across the Cumberland mountains, 
surprising and capturing a Confederate force, 
which was encamped near Big Creek Gap, in 
Tennessee, after which he with his regiment par- 
ticipated in the capture of Cumberland Gap. 
While encamped here he contracted malarial 
fever, and being in the hospital at the time of 
the evacuation of that place by the Federal forces 
under command of General Morgan, he fell into 
the hands of the Confederate forces. After lin- 
gering for several weeks upon the verge of eter- 
nity he recovered, was exchanged, and rejoined 
his regiment at Young's Point, on the Mississippi 
river, in April, 1S63. 

The campaign against Yicksburg was now 
fully organized, and active operations were being 
inaugurated. Captain Thomson was not per- 
mitted to remain long with his regiment, he being 
detailed April 28, 1863, by Brigadier-general P. 
J. Osterhaus, then commanding the Ninth divis- 
ion of Thirteenth army corps, and put upon his 
staff as acting assistant adjutant-general and 
chief of staff. In this campaign he participated 
in the battles of Thompson's Hill, May 1st, 
Champion Hills, May 1 6th, Black River Bridge, 
May 1 7th, and the assault on Virksburg, May 
19th and May 21st. He was complimented for 
meritorious conduct on the fields of Thompson's 
! Hill, Baker's Creek, and Black River Bridge by 
I General Osterhaus, in his official reports of those 
I engagements. After the surrender of Yicksburg 
he, as acting assistant adjutant-general of the 
Ninth division, took part in the movement which 
resulted in driving Major-general J. E.Johnston's 
command beyond Jackson, Mississippi, and the 
capture of that place. He then returned to his 
regiment, which was now in the Department of 
the Gulf, under command of General Banks. 
Here again he was at once ordered on staff duty 
and accompanied the reinforcements to the Red 





^ en-z-s-oi-zsz^ 







ecc fie? i Llsici (tev/iZZ) 



T 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



483 



River campaign. His duties here were perilous 
and arduous, he being placed in command of 
the pickets and outposts of the retreating army 
of General Banks, upon which the Confederate 
forces, flushed with success, were vigorously 
pressing. He was soon afterwards transferred to 
Kentucky, where he remained until the close of 
the war. When mustered out he returned to 
Jeffersonville, where he has since lived. He was 
married to Miss Jennie Campbell, August 22, 
1866, and now lives in the central part of the 
city in a modest home, his family consisting of a 
wife and two children. He was elected clerk of 
the city in May, 1S.79, and re-elected May, 1881, 
by creditable majorities, considering that he is in 
politics a consistent Republican, and the Demo- 
cratic party having at that time a conceded ma- 
jority of about one hundred and fifty votes. In 
his present official relations to the city he has 
made for himself a commendable record. He 
has not only been efficient in his prescribed 
duties, but has been earnest and aggressive in 
introducing reforms and systems which are felt 
and appreciated throughout the various depart- 
ments. It is principally due to his earnest ap- 
peals "that the city provide for itself a suitable, 
safe, and convenient place of business, where its 
books and valuable papers could be securely and 
systematically kept," that steps were taken to 
build the present city hall, which is a credit to 
the city. He is a long sufferer from dyspepsia, 
and delicate in constitutional vigor, which at 
times makes him appear morbid and morose, but 
when aroused is equal to the emergency, either 
in business, politically or socially. This charac- 
teristic the biographer is confident will be in- 
stantly recognized by Captain Thomson's inti- 
mate friends. 



REUBEN DAI LEY. 

Reuben, son of Nicholas A. and Hannah 
Dailey, was born in Tottenham, Middlesex coun- 
ty, England, March 6, 1S44. His maternal 
grandfather was William Bird, an Englishman, 
and shoemaker by trade, of a very religious 
character, and composer of sacred music. Wil- 
liam Bird's wife was Sarah Singleton. His 
paternal grandfather was Michael Daiiey, a native 
of Queens county, Ireland, and a pronounced 



Roman Catholic. Michael Dailey's wife was 
Miss Gibson, a strong Protestant, who reared all 
her boys in the Protestant faith. 

Reuben was one of a family of eight boys and 
one girl. Four of the boys reached maturity 
with the sister. Each of the boys had peculiar 
talents, all of which were duly encouraged, -with 
the exception of Reuben's. This was not be- 
cause of any favoritism, but simply because the 
bent of his mind was early directed towards the 
ministry, and his father was violently opposed to 
educating a preacher, believing implicitly that it 
a man was called to preach the gospel he would 
receive supernatural aid, and therefore education 
was entirely superfluous; certainly a very errone- 
ous opinion. 

While at school he received such impressions 
in favor of American citizenship that he became 
ardently attached to his adopted country, and 
frequently expressed his regrets that he had not 
lived in the Revolutionary days that he might 
have been a participator in the struggle for 
American Independence. 

Having come to this country in 1848, living 
from that time vatiously at Cincinnati, Ohio; 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; and Newport, Ken- 
tucky, up to the outbreak of the war, the time at 
length came when his patriotic yearnings were to 
be fully satisfied. And upon the very outbreak 
of the war he was among the first to march to 
the tread of war's dread alarm. He first joined 
company G, Fifth Ohio infantry, but on account 
of his youth, being only seventeen, he could not 
pass muster, but managed by a tight squeeze to 
get into company F of the same regiment, under 
Captain Theophilus Gaines. 

Although slender and without robust constitu- 
tion, and very light of weight, he endured the 
hardships of a soldier's life much better than 
many men of large stature and symmetrical pro- 
portions, whose very appearance would seem to 
promise all the traits and abilities of true soldieis. 
On the march, with but one exception, he never 
failed to keep up, and in addition to his accou- 
trements and rations, carried with him many hun- 
dred miles a set of short-hand books. These he 
studied often at a temporary halt, and continu- 
ously in camp, determined to fit himself for a re- 
porter by the time he should receive his honora- 
ble discharge. A marked trait of his character 
while a soldier was his devotion to the Christian 



4 8 4 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



religion; and because of his determination in 
this respect, he avoided cards, drink, profanity, 
and all associations calculated to taint his char- 
acter with immorality, and besides, frequently 
tried to return good for evil, and he was 
an object naturally of ridicule, and not infre- 
quently imposed upon by swine before whom he 
had unwisely cast his pearls. 

During his three years and two months service 
he was frequently employed as company clerk, 
and was a good part of the time clerk to the 
surgeon-in-chief of the brigade, and after being 
wounded in the face, August 9, 1862, at the bat- 
tle of Cedar Mount (Culpeper Court House), 
he was detailed from the Armory Square hospi- 
tal as a clerk to General Halleck. 

During his stay in Washington he professed 
religion in the Methodist church, with a request 
for immersion, and was subsequently baptized 
into the Christian church at Fulton, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. He never had any fixed denominational 
belief, regarding one branch of the Christian 
church about as good as another, and for this 
reason generally united himself with any church 
most convenient. 

From the age of fourteen he never relin- 
quished the hope of being a minister of Christ, 
and was, after the war, at Memphis, Tennessee, 
before the deacons of the Baptist church for 
license as a local preacher. His examination 
was not satisfactory because he was indoctrinated 
with the "soul-sleeping" doctrine, and did not 
believe in everlasting punishment. It was under- 
stood that he was to be instructed and set right 
upon this point, when he was to receive license. 
The delay was fatal. In the meantime his brother 
John had sent him Theodore Parker's works, 
v.hich entirely changed his views, and to this 
\ s added Paine's Age of Reason, which entirely 
destroyed his faith in the supernatural nature of 
the Christian religion, and left him a Unitarian 
for awhile, but the bonds being loosed he at 
length became totally skeptical as to any form of 
worship whatever, believing that all man's 
thoughts and energies should be devoted entirely 
to the glorifying of man, to the developing of his 
moral and intellectual faculties, and to a reason- 
able, healthful, and decent enjoyment of every 
faculty which man possesses. 

Mr. Dailey is agnostic in his views, neither 
affirming that there is a personal God, nor that 



there is not, holding that the subject is too deep 
for him, and that the more a man tries to obtain 
a tangible idea of Deity, the worse and worse he 
flounders, and furthermore, there is plenty of 
room for the exercise of human intellect,, and 
human goodness in this world. "One world at 
a time, and that world done well," is his motto. 

Mr. Dailey entered the field as a journalist, 
after being engaged some time as official short- 
hand reporter of several courts-martial and mili- 
tary commissions, as river reporter of the Mem- 
phis Argus in April, 1865. When he entered 
the army in 1861, he had not finished even a 
common school education, having preferred to go 
to work as an errand-boy or in any other capac- 
ity; in Pitman's Phonetic Institute as a "devil," 
and also as a sales-boy in a dry goods store. But 
there were two things he possessed, first, sense 
of his lack of education, and second, industry 
and energy. With a natural disposition to acquire 
knowledge, as illustrated by the fact that when 
but ten years of age, while working as errand- 
boy in a shoe store in Pittsburg for fifty cents a 
week, he attended night school, and again, after 
partially recovering from his wound, and while 
acting as nurse in Armory Square hospital, at 
Washington, District of Columbia, he there 
attended night school. 

He began reporting without even having read 
such well known works as Macauley's Plistory of 
England, Shakespeare, or any of the standard 
poets; indeed, in his youth his parents had di- 
rected his mind entirely to the reading of works 
of religion, and forbade the reading of fiction of 
any kind. Nevertheless, he possessed a natural 
aptness of speech, remembered words well, and 
being fond of elocution, frequently memorizing 
choice compositions, which, with the reading of 
Macauley's elegant diction, gave him the basis of 
style which he now possesses as a writer, that 
always makes him clear, perspicuous, and forci- 
ble, and at times, when deeply interested, elo- 
quent. 

Mr. Dailey says he now often wonders how he 
ever managed to hold a position as a reporter, 
when he knows how very scant was his knowl- 
edge of the English language; how entirely un- 
versed in the principle of the laws of his coun- 
try he was at the time he first entered upon the 
duties of river reporter. For this reason he 
says no youth who has industry and determina- 



HISTORY 01- THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



485 



lion need fear of success, if to this he add a 
life of virtuous habits and unbroken sobriety. 

Mr. Dailey remained but three and a half 
years in Memphis, and becoming disconnected 
with the press there, first, because of the desire to 
devote his energies to short-hand reporting, and 
second, on account of prejudices which he had 
inherited from his father, an old-line Aboli- 
tionist of the most radical type. He was once 
a magistrate in the city of Memphis, and also 
held the position of United States Commissioner 
by the appointment of Judge Trigg, but being a 
pronounced radical, young and ardent, and ex- 
pressing himself openly, the Memphis climate 
was uncongenial, and he left there determined to 
locate at Cincinnati and there seek a position on 
the press as reporter. By a mere accident he 
obtained a position on the Courier-Journal as re- 
porter, and in January, 1869, was made the New 
Albany and Jeffersonville reporter for that excel- 
lent paper. 

By this time his constant reading began to 
give him a good style of writing, and his industry 
had not forsaken him. Mr. Norman, editor of 
the Ledger, pronounced him the most energetic 
reporter the Louisville papers ever had in New 
Albany. His idea of reporting was to fill his 
columns with personal as well as the other class 
of news. Hitherto only generals, colonels, ma- 
jors, or prominent citizens were "personated, 7 ' 
but Mr. Dailey insisted on making brief, spicy 
personal notes of all classes of citizens. The 
columns of all papers, especially Sundays, now 
attest that his ideas were correct. 

He read law for a period of eighteen months 
in spare hours, and intended to make that his 
profession, but in an evil hour he bought the 
National Democrat at Jeffersonville, under the 
hallucination that he could edit a paper and 
study law at the same time. The paper took the 
field entirely. 

November 18, 1872, he started the Evening 
News in a hand-bill form, about 6x10, since which 
time he has been engaged as a journalist, editor, 
and publisher. The News was the first daily 
paper published in Jeffersonville. The idea of 
publishing small local dailies had not occurred 
to publishers of weekly papers in small towns, 
but since the establishment of the News by Mr. 
Dailey, this idea has been adopted, and in all the 
cities in Indiana of five thousand and upwards 



there has grown to be little local dailies. 
His success has always invited opposition, and 
one after another his journalistic competitors 
have fallen. In 1878 he publicly avowed 
through his columns his skeptical views, which 
excited the most intense opposition from the 
churches, and a strong attempt was made to 
crush him by the establishment of a rival Dem- 
ocratic paper, but Mr. Dailey has thrived on op- 
position, and the attempt to destroy him has only 
developed him more, and made him a better 
journalist and more careful economist, and dem- 
onstrated that in his position he is impregnable. 
He is a practical temperance man, but at one 
time greatly excited the opposition of the tem- 
perance people because he would not support the 
crusade. He would be for prohibition if pro- 
hibition would prohibit, believing the great good 
to be derived from the banishment of intoxicat- 
ing drink would more than compensate for the 
infringement on personal liberty. On this ques- 
tion an attempt was made to run him out, but 
this likewise failed. 

Mr. Dailey changed his politics when he left 
the South, because he believed the party in 
power to be corrupt, and because he fully be- 
lieved all the objects of the war were secured, 
and that to keep the Republican party in power 
was to continue sectional questions in politics 
and to materially injure the whole country. He 
fully accepted the teachings of Jefferson, and 
felt that the war demonstrated that even with 
the most ultra States Rights doctrine, the people 
were capable of preserving the Union against the 
assaults of ambitious and disappointed men. As 
to the war for the Union, he was for it in i860, 
and would be for it again under the same cir- 
cumstances. But he did not r< j;ard the people 
of the South as traitors. The, acted from the 
same impulse the North did. The leaders were 
to be blamed for their haste, but nothing was 
more natural than for the slaveholders to fight to 
sustain the institution that was to them a source 
of such great profit and power. All the great 
questions at issue before the war were open ques- 
tions. They are closed now. They were ques- 
tions on which men could honestly differ and 
did differ, and the prowess and bravery of both 
North and South in that unhappy struggle is the 
common heritage of the great people who are 
destined yet to accomplish greater things for 



486 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



humanity, who are yet to demonstrate the capac- 
ity of man for self-government, whose contribu- 
tions to the world of literature, science, juris- 
prudence, and statesmanship, and fraternity will 
eventually extinguish race distinction and ulti- 
mate in the entire concord of all nations. 

Mr. Dailey was married December 26, 1S65, 
to Ann E!i?a Devinney, at Newport, Kentucky. 
His wife is a native of Louisville, and the only 
surviving child of Captain Madison Devinney. 
She is thoroughly Democratic and Southern in 
all her principles and sympathies. They have 
two living children, Mahura and Clarence, a girl 
and boy, aged respectively eleven and eight 
years. 

We do not know of a man in the cities of the 
Falls who is more generous than Mr. Dailey. 
While he is very exact in business, and said to be 
the best and closest collector in Jeffersonville, 
yet he will give more than his share to a charita- 
ble purpose. No needy person has ever been 
turned away from his door without receiving lib- 
eral assistance. The moral character of Mr. 
Dailey is as bright and pure as good people could 
wish. He has never been addicted to any vice, 
and in this respect he is the peer of the best citi- 
zens in and out of the church. In all of his 
writings he has advocated sobriety, honesty, and 
virtue, and has written hundreds of columns of 
good moral advice to the rising generation, which, 
if accepted, would make many young men happy 
and prosperous. Indeed, all of his lectures con- 
tain the best moral and wholesome thoughts, and 
prove conclusively to the reader that his moral 
character is without a blemish. 

Mr. Dailey has many peculiarities, but none 
of them can be justly regarded as offenses. His 
greatest fault, or rather it might be called weak- 
ness, is his misguided judgment in "affairs about 
town." All of a sudden, like unto a clap of 
thunder in a cloudless sky, he will startle the 
politicians and the community by taking an ex- 
traordinary and radical position upon some pub- 
lic question. He will make an earnest and 
brilliant fight for his own peculiar views of the 
subject matter. In the meantime, those who do 
not agree with him in his opinions have only to 
convince him that he is wrong, which is not such 
a hard task, as he is very susceptible to influence, 
and he will turn his paper square around and 
make as good a fight on the other side. 



He is perhaps one of the most conscientious 
men alive, and therefore easily imposed upon. 
Let the most unprincipled scoundrel in the 
country go to Mr. Dailey, and, with tears in his 
eyes tell him that he is the victim of persecution, 
and he will immediately gain his sympathy, 
and he will write a card vindicating him from 
any aspersions that may have been made upon 
his character. 

It is hard to find a man who has more energy 
than Mr. Dailey, and with his energy he has 
wonderful capacity. He has been known to put 
in twelve hours at his business and then go home 
and study until past midnight. This he would 
do day after day and apparently suffer but little 
from the exertion. 

In summing up, Mr. Dailey is really a good 
man and a man of much mental ability. He is 
a stronger man intellectually than he has ever 
had the credit for in Jeffersonville. For one 
who has secured his education through such dis- 
advantages it is something remarkable that he is 
so accurately informed upon so many important 
topics. There is hardly a subject that he cannot 
converse upon intelligently. 



DR. H. H. FERGUSON. 

Colonel Henry Ferguson was the only child of 
William Ferguson, who came from the Highlands 
of Scotland, and was one of the early settlers of 
Washington county, Pennsylvania, where Henry 
was born on the first day of January, 1804. He 
lived with his father until his twenty-third year, 
at which time he was married to Nancy Young, 
from which union eight children were born, six 
sons and two daughters. At an early age he 
manifested a great liking for the military, and was 
early enrolled among the Pennsylvania militia; 
his proficiency gave him rapid promotion and he 
soon received a commission (from the Governor 
of Pennsylvania) as colonel of his regiment, 
which he held until 1S43, at which time he left 
Washington county, Pennsylvania, and removed 
to Clark county, Indiana, and purchased land 
and engaged in farming at the place where 
Henryville now stands. He took an active part 
in the building of the Jeffersonville, Madison & 
Indianapolis railroad, and he was for a -number 
of years paymaster and general agent of the 






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HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



487 



road. He laid out the town of Henryville and 
tailed it Morristown, but there being another 
town of the same name in the State the name 
was afterwards changed by the board of county 
commissioners, and in honor of him was called 
Henryville. He was always active in advancing 
the general welfare and prosperity of the com- 
munity, making liberal donations to all enter- 
prises of merit. He was for many years one of 
the influential and energetic citizens of the 
county, noted fur his generosity, hospitality, 
high sense of honor, and other good qualities. 

Dr. Henry H. Ferguson, the subject of the 
present sketch, was his youngest child, and was 
born at Henryville, Clark county, Indiana, on 
the 26th day of May, 1S45, and has continued 
to live there, except at short intervals, to the 
present. He received his education principally 
at the Barnett academy, in Chariestown, under 
the instruction of the principal, Mr. Z. B. Stur- 
gus, a justly celebrated educator. His course of 
study preparatory to entering Hanover college 
was almost completed when the death of his 
father, in November, i860, necessitated his leav- 
ing school; he was then only fifteen years of 
age. He was now thrown upon his own re- 
sources. During the winter of 1S61, at the age 
of sixteen, he commenced the study of medicine, 
and attended lectures in Louisville the following 
winter, after which he stood a satisfactory exam- 
ination and was appointed a medical cadet in 
the United States army, and stationed in a- hos- 
pital at Louisville, Kentucky. 

He continued to hold this position for two and 
one-half years, during which time he attended a 
second course of lectures and graduated as a 
doctor o( medicine at the 'Kentucky School of 
Medicine, in the spring of 1865. On the 16th 
day of October, 1865, he opened an office and 
commenced the practice of medicine at Henry- 
ville, his native town, not yet being twenty-one 
years of age. During the winter of 1S66-67 he 
again attended a course of lectures and gradu- 
ated at the Medical University in Louisville. 
After practicing five years he visited the city of 
New York and for six months devoted himself 
to the diligent study of his profession at the 
Bellevue Hospital Medical college, at which 
celebrated institution he also graduated. During 
his stay in that city he took private courses of in- 
struction in medicine and surgery from some of. 



the most eminent men of the profession now 
living, Frank Hastings Hamilton, Lewis A. Sayer, 
and Austin Flint. After his return from New 
York city he continued to do a large and suc- 
cessful practice, during which time he success- 
fully performed many of the most difficult opera- 
tions known to surgery. He performed success- 
fully the operation for strangulated hernia on a 
man sixty : five years of age, and when the patient 
was in a condition of collapse, it being the only 
successful operation of the kind ever performed 
in the county. He continued in active practice in 
a constantly enlarging field until 1878, when he 
was nominated and elected treasurer of the county 
over three competitors for the office, and in 
1S80 he was reelected to the same office by the 
largest majority of any one on the ticket. He 
is now discharging his duties as treasurer. 



WILLIAM GOFORTH ARMSTRONG. 

William G. Armstrong was born February 4, 
1797, at Columbia, Ohio, six miles above Cin- 
cinnati. He was the son of John and Tabitha 
Armstrong. John Armstiong, his father, was 
the son of Thomas and Jane Armstrong, and 
was born April 20, 1755, in New Jersey. 
Thomas Armstrong was born in the Parish of 
Donahada, in the county of Tyrone, in the 
north of Ireland. His father's name was John 
Armstrong. 

Jane Armstrong, wife of Thomas and mother 
of John (father of William), was born in the 
county of Derry, north Ireland. Her father's 
name was Michael, the Duke of Hamilton. 
Alderman Skipton, of Faughnvalle, was the 
grandfather of Jane Hamilton, who married 
Thomas Armstrong. Thomas and Jane Arm- 
strong came to the United States about the year 
1754, and died at Northumberland, Northum- 
berland county, Pennsylvania. 

Tabitha, mother of William G. Armstrong 
and wife of John Armstrong, was the daughter 
of William and Catharine Goforth. She was 
born February 27, 1774. 

William Goforth, father of Tabitha, was born 
April 1, 1 731, and was the son of Aaron Go- 
forth, who came from Hull, in Yorkshire, Great 
Britain, at an early period. He was married to 
Mary Pool, daughter of Nathaniel Pool, by 



4 ss 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



whom he had five children — Tabitha, Elizabeth, 
Nathaniel, Mary, and William. On the 18th 
day of May, 176.0, William Goforth was married 
to Jemima Meeks, daughter of Michael Degree, 
a French Protestant, who fled from France at 
the persecution of Paris. She was born Febru- 
ary 26, 1744. 

Nathaniel Pool was the son of John Pool, 
and was born in Bristol, England, and came to 
America in the next ship that arrived after Wil- 
liam Perm, at which time two houses were be- 
gun, but only one finished, where the city of 
Philadelphia now stands. 

William Goforth, father of Tabitha, who mar- 
ried John Armstrong (father of William G.), was 
one of the framers and signers of the original 
constitution of the State of New York, and was 
an early settler of the West, having reached Co- 
lumbia, on the Little Miami, early in 1790. He 
was soon after appointed a justice of the peace 
for the county of Hamilton, being the first ap- 
pointed magistrate in that county, and afterwards 
was made one of the judges of the Territorial 
courts of the Northwest Territory, being commis- 
sioned by President Washington. 

At the commencement of the Revolutionary 
war, John Armstrong having gone to Philadelphia 
to dispose of a load of wheat for his father, 
found that recruits were enlisting for service in 
the United States, and on his return home told 
his father that with his approbation he intended 
to enlist as a private soldier. The next morning 
he joined the army at Philade'phia. In a short 
time he was made sergeant, and from September 
11, 1777, to the close of the Revolution he 
served as a commissioned officer in various 
ranks. On the disbanding of the army he was 
continued in the service ; was commandant at 
Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) in 17S5-86 and from 
1786 to 1790 of the garrison at the Falls of the 
Ohio, at Fort Finney, afterwards called Fort 
Steuben. In the spring of 1791 he returned to 
Philadelphia to recruit his force with a view to 
the approaching campaign in the Northwest, 
under command of Colonel Josiah Harmar, and 
reached Fort Washington (now Cincinnati) in 
August of that year, and marched with the main 
' ">dy of the troops against the Indians. He 
'^rwards with General St. Clair in his cam- 
P and was in command at Fort Hamilton 

until ihe spring of 1793, when he resigned. Dur- 



ing the Revolution and Indian wars he served a 
period of seventeen years, was in thirty-seven 
skirmishes, four general actions, and one siege, 
among which were the battles of Stony Point, 
Trenton, Princeton, Monmouth, and the siege 
of Yorktown in Virginia. While stationed at 
the Falls of the Ohio at Fort Finney, aftenvards 
called Fort Steuben, where the city of Jeffcrson- 
ville, Indiana, now stands, he and his little force 
in the garrison rendered essential service in pro- 
tecting the inhabitants of Kentucky from the 
depredations of the savages. At one time he, 
by his fortitude and exertions, saved the garrison 
at Yinccnnes from starvation. While stationed 
at Fort Finney) with a view of preventing the 
Indians from crossing into Kentucky, he built a 
block-house at the mouth of Bull creek, which 
commanded a view of their crossing places at 
Eighteen-mile island bar and Grassy flats, which 
were fordable at a low stage of the Ohio river. 

While his men were engaged in building the 
block-house, he with his tomahawk girdled the 
timber on about three acres of land on top of 
the hill opposite the Grassy flats, and planted 
peach seeds in the woods. When the first settlers 
came to the Illinois Grant, and landed at the 
"big rock,' 1 designated as their landing place, in 
the fall of 1795, after Wayne's treaty, they found 
the timber dead and fallen down, and the peach 
trees growing among the brush, and bearing fruit. 
The settlers cleared away the brush, and for 
many years this woody orchard furnished them 
with fruit. On the 20th of February, 1790, 
General Harmar notified Colonel Armstrong 
that he was to make a tour among the Western 
tribes of Indians, and from his memoranda, 
found among his papers, it seems he was at the 
Falls of the Ohio Febiuary 27, 1790; at Vin- 
cennes, March 18, 1790; and at Fort Washing- 
ton (now Cincinnati) July 28, 1791. He made 
an extensive trip to St. Louis, and through Illi- 
nois, Indiana, and Ohio, and was gone several 
months with only two friendly Indians as his 
companions. This was a tour of great hazard 
and exposure of constitution. The notes taker; 
by him of the country, the quality of the soil, 
and water courses, are evidence he anticipated 
that ere long the country would be peopled with 
white men. Soon after his retirement from the 
army he was appointed treasurer of the North- 
west Territory. His first commission was dated 






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HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



489 



September 3, 1 796, another bears date Decem- 
ber 14, 1799. He served as one of the judges 
of Hamilton county, and many years as magis- 
trate at Columbia, where he resided from 1793 
to 1 8 14, when he removed to his farm opposite 
Grassy flats, in Clark county, Indiana, where he 
died February 4, 1S1 6, after a confinement of 
five years and twenty-four days with rheumatism, 
during which time he was unable to walk unless 
supported by persons on either side of him. He 
was buried on that farm, where a monument 
marks his last resting place. John Armstrong 
was married to Tabitha Goforth, January 27, 
1793, and had five daughters — Ann, Catharine, 
Mary Gano, Eliza, and Viola Jane, and three 
sons, William Goforth, Thomas Pool, and John 
Hilditch. 

The country was sparsely settled and ad- 
vantages for an education being few, William 
Goforth Armstrong had but few opportuni- 
ties for going to school, and only attended . 
school nine months, and three months of that 
time walked three miles and crossed the Ohio 
river opposite Columbia (where his father lived) 
in a canoe every day, and as he came home at 
night gathered hickory bark in order that he 
might have light to study by at night. 

At an early age he was placed in the clerk's 
office at Hamilton, Ohio, with Colonel Reilley, 
and apprenticed to him for three years, the first 
year receiving his board and two suits of plain 
clothing and $5 in money, the second year his 
board and clothes and $10, the third year $15 
and his board and clothing. He went to the 
office at 6 o'clock in the morning, built fires, 
cleaned the office, and did such work as he was 
called upon to do until six in the evening. After 
that he was permitted to use his time as he 
thought best, and he improved it by read- 
ing and studying until late into the night, and 
being anxious to learn he acquired not only a 
good knowledge of reading, writing, and mathe- 
matics, including surveying, but of the law and 
business forms generally, and became very care- 
ful and systematic in his business habits. After 
leaving Hamilton he assisted his father in the 
management of his business and of his farm, 
and on the 22d of April, 1S17, married Deborah 
Halley, daughter of Samuel Halley and Margaret 
Halley, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and settled at Beth- 
lehem, Clark county, Indiana, and cleared up a 

6s- 



farm near that place, and at the same time 
opened a store, where he sold such goods as were 
needed by the people in that vicinity. He still 
pursued his studies, and soon became noted for 
his knowledge of law, and being a man of fine 
judgment was often applied to by his neighbors 
for counsel in their business affairs. This soon 
made him acquainted with the people, and in a 
few years they elected him to a seat in the House 
of Representatives, where he served eleven years, 
and two years in the Senate. This was between 
the years 1822 and 1840. 

He was a stanch and firm Whig, and Clark 
county was strongly Democratic, but being a man 
of fine social qualities and of a high order of 
talent, and thoroughly informed as to the wants of 
the people whom he represented, they felt that he 
was the person to look after their interests, and 
knowing that he would do all in his power to 
serve their welfare in an honorable manner, they 
were willing to trust him. 

He remained at Bethlehem until August 10, 
184T, when he moved to Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
having been appointed receiver of public moneys 
in the land office for that district by President 
Harrison, but he only held the office until the 
following March, when he retired and com- 
menced merchandizing, and continued at that 
business up to 1847, when he and others became 
interested in building a railroad from Jefferson- 
ville to Indianapolis. He threw all his energies 
into this enterprise, and after a severe struggle, 
succeeded in getting a charter for what was 
known as the Jeffersonville railroad. This char- 
ter is very liberal, and grants privileges which 
were not given to any other road in (he State of 
Indiana, and which have been of very great ad- 
vantage to this company. At the time the 
building of the Jeffersonville railroad was com- 
menced, there were not many persons of wealth 
around the Falls of the Ohio, and capitalists had 
not then begun to seek investments in that class 
of securities, and it was difficult to raise means 
for that purpose, but Mr. Armstrong had studied 
well the geography of the country, and knew 
that this road, if built, would be an important 
connecting link between the North and South, 
and although the way looked dark, and those 
associated with him in the enterprise often gave 
up in despair, he never lost faith in the work 
but pushed steadily forward, and by his energy, 



i9° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



perseverance, bard work, and management, 
finally accomplished the great work which he 
had undertaken, and in 1852 the road was com- 
pleted, and trains ran through to Indianapolis. 

It is but simply justice to say that he deserves 
a great deal of praise for the energy, persever- 
ance, tact, and financial skill, as well as for the 
hard work he did in building this road, and the 
fine business which has been done over this line, 
and the cheapness with which it can be operated, 
and the important connections which it makes, 
show that the arguments which he used and the 
plans which he pursued with such determination 
were good ones, and show what a clear-headed, 
far-seeing man he was. He was the first president 
of the Jeffersonville railroad, and was the presi- 
dent until 1S53, when he retired, after having 
given several of the best years of his life to this 
work. From this time until his death, which was 
on the 29th of July, 1858, he devoted himself to 
his private business and to his family, but always 
doing all he could to advance the interests of 
the community in which he lived, serving in the 
city council of Jeffersonville, and aiding by his 
wise counsels and clear head in developing this 
city. 



WILLIAM KEIGWIN. 

William Keigwin came from Nonvalk, Con- 
necticut, in 1818, settling at Jeffersonville, where 
he opened a blacksmith-shop on Market, between 
Mulberry and Clark streets. The house which 
he then built still stands. At his shop he made 
the first plows and axes ever made in the town, 
and probably in the county. When Westover, 
the first lessee of the penitentiary, relinquished 
charge of it, Mr. Keigwin leased it, and con- 
tinued to control it for eight years. He then went 
into the Jeffersonville Insurance and Banking 
company as president and secretary. After 
leaving this post he devoted the remainder of his 
life to the care of his property in Jeffersonville 
and Louisville, removing to the latter city in 
1S44. There he died April 30, 1S61. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Jane Christy, sur- 
vived until December, 1876. 

The children of the couple were: William 
Keigwin, who went to Texas in 1S44, and there 
died; he was a member of the Legislature and 
clerk of the court in that State. Mary Keigwin, 



the oldest daughter, married John Woodburn, 
and is now deceased. Eliza married Judge 
Read, of Jeffersonville, and is also dead. Mrs. 
Rebecca Keigwin Meriwether; Colonel James 
Keigwin, who raised and commanded the Forty- 
ninth Indiana volunteer infantry during the late 
war, and now lives in Jeffersonville; Ephraim 
Keigwin, now and for years a magistrate in Jef- 
fersonville; Mattie, deceased wife of Otto Yer- 
hoeff; Rev. Henry C. Keigwin, pastor of the 
Presbytetian church of Orlando, Florida; Rev. 
A. N. Keigwin, pastor of a Presbyterian church 
in Wilmington, FJelaware; Susan Keigwin Elli- 
ott, of Louisville; Emma Keigwin Webster, of 
Louisville, and Harriet, who died in infancy. 



WILLIAM H. FOGG 

was born in Manchester, England, on the 24th 
clay of June, 18 16. He left home in 1836 to 
visit the United States, with a boy's thirst for ad- 
venture and love of travel. He arrived in Phil. 
adelphia a stranger in a strange land, friendless 
and alone. He lived in that city about eighteen 
months, and learned the trade of a machinist 
with a Mr. Brooks. He finally left Philadelphia 
for the Far West, and was about three weeks 
making the trip from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. 
Arriving at Pittsburgh he fell in company with 
an old gentleman named Leavenworth, of the town 
of Leavenworth, Indiana, on his way home with 
a stock of dry goods, and engaged with him to 
work his way down the dry bed of the river with- 
out pay, so anxious was he to see and reach the 
great Far West. It took thirty-three days to go 
from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati, working sixteen to 
eighteen hours per day. Mr. Fogg became a 
membei of Mr. Leaven svorth's family, staid with 
him several years and made several trips on store 
boats for him, running from Louisville to New 
Orleans, the trip consuming usually about nine 
months in the year. Subsequently he engaged 
in steamboating, and was in that capacity some 
eight or nine years, mostly as clerk and assistant 
pilot, but being of a handy turn could lend a 
helping hand in any capacity — mate, assistant 
engineer, etc., — in fact, could fill temporarily any 
situation on a steamboat. 

Mr. Fo^g was married to a Miss Morgan, of 
Leavenworth, Indiana. Her father was clerk of 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



491 



the county of Crawford, Indiana, which position he 
had held for twenty one years. After a year of mar 
ried life he came ashore and was engaged as clerk 
and financier of the American foundry, New 
Albany, which position he held for eight years. 
On the rechartering of the bank of the State of In- 
diana a branch was located at Jeffersonville, 
of which Mr. Fogg was elected cashier, and 
moved to Jeffersonville in the severe cold winter 
of 1S57. At. that time there was no railroad be- 
tween New Albany and jeffersonville, and he was 
obliged to walk from his home to Jeffersonville 
and back all through the severe winter. He 
staid in the branch bank until the year 1865, 
when becoming pleased with the National bank- 
ing system he organized a company and estab- 
lished the First National bank of Jeffersonville; 
was elected cashier and has held the position 
ever since. While living at New Albany he 
served two years in the city council, and has 
served in the same position for two or three 
terms in the city of Jeffersonville. In 1S66 he 
was elected a member of the board of trustees of 
the town of Clarksville, and shortly afterwards was 
elected secretary of the board, which position 
he. still holds. Mr. Fogg has in his possession 
the old record book of the board, which is a rare 
and valuable relic of ye holden times, dating 
back to the year 17S0. 

Mr. and Mrs. Fogg joined the First Presbyte- 
rian church in New Albany about the year 1854, 
under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Stevenson. 
After his removal to Teffersonville he joined the 
First Presbyterian church in that city, and was 
unanimously elected a ruling elder, which office 
he continues to hold, as well as being a member 
of the common council. He also served for a 
term or two on the board of school trustees. 

In politics Mr. Fogg is a Republican of the 
strictest sort, serving one term as a member of 
the State central committee. Mr. Fogg is a man 
well known, beloved and respected by all who 
know him; as he himself says, never without a 
friend, or a dollar to divide with the needy and 
those in distress. His life has been an eventful 
one, full of interest, and he is in the strictest 
sense of the word a self-made man. Some thir- 
teen years ago he made an extended tour of 
Europe. His description of what he saw and 
heard would fill a volume. Mr. Fogg, from his 
good habits, being a strict temperance man, is 



well preserved for one who has lived so long a 
sedentary life. 



CAPTAIN JAMES S. WHICHER, 

the present treasurer of Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
was born June 8, 1836, near Pontiac, Livingstone 
county, State of Illinois, his father having re- 
moved to that Stale from Indiana in 1S34, 
becoming a squatter sovereign on the pub- 
lic domain. The captain came to Indiana in 
1 85 1 ; enlisted as a private in the Second In- 
diana battery, which was organized at Rising 
Sun, Ohio county, and was mustered into the 
service August 14, 1S61, at Indianapolis, by 
Lieutenant-colonel T. J. Wood, United States 
Army. After the battery was fully organized and 
equipped it was ordered to report to General 
Hunter, at St. Louis, for duty in the West, in 
which department it remained until the close of 
the war, participating in all the battles that took 
place up to and including the last fight at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, during which time the subject 
of this sketch never missed a day's duty or a 
single engagement. He was promoted succes- 
sively from private to corporal, sergeant, quarter- 
master-sergeant, orderly-sergeant, second lieu- 
tenant, first lieutenant, and captain, and was mus- 
tered out of the service at the close of the war, 
July 3, 1865. In 1862 he was appointed drill- 
master of artillery in General Solomon's brigade. 
In 1S63 General John McNeil appointed him 
judge advocate of the District of Southwest Mis- 
souri, headquarters at Springfield. The battery 
having been ordered to Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
he was released from duty as judge advocate. 
Arriving at Fort Smith- Colonel Cloud, com- 
manding the ppst, appointed him post-adjutant, 
which position he filled until the organization of 
the District of the Frontier, General John M. 
Thayer commanding, when he was appointed 
judge advocate of the district, headquarters at 
Fort Smith. He participated in the march and 
skirmishes on the road to reinforce General Banks 
on Red river, and was then transferred to the De- 
partment of the Cumberland. After the fight at 
Nashville he was put in command of Fort Mor- 
ton, at which post he remained until the close of 
the war. On his return he went into the grocery 
business at Martinsville, Morgan county, but his 



492 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



health having broken down was compelled to quit 
business — was bed-fast for eighteen months; re- 
covered sufficiently to come to Jeffersonville, 
broken in health and purse; obtained employment 
in the Quartermaster department, afterwards ap- 
pointed deputy postmaster by Major A. W. Luke, 
and elected city treasurer on the Republican 
ticket May 3, 1881, to serve two years from 
September 1, 1SS1. 



SETTLEMENT NOTES. 

Richard Pile came originally from Virginia, 
and settled in Kentucky with the foremost pio- 
neers. About the year 1798 he removed to In- 
diana, then included in the Northwest Territory, 
and made a home at the long since abandoned 
town of Springville. Before 1802 he came to Jef- 
fersonville, and was made one of the trustees to 
sell and convey title to lots in the town. He was 
a prominent man in the affairs of the new coun- 
try, but lived to see only a beginning made in 
redeeming the wilderness and fitting it for man's 
habitation, his death occurring in 1S16. Two 
of his children, Mrs. Margaret Powell and P. C. 
Pile, are now living, and are almost the only re- 
maining links connecting the past with the pres- 
ent. B. C. Pile was born in Jeffersonville in 
1805, and has witnessed the slow growth from a 
town whose streets were encumbered with trees, 
or a simple path in the forest, to a city of more 
than ten thousand population, with paved streets, 
and the habitation of a great number of working 
men who find employment in the busy manufac- 
tories of the present day. Mr. Pile had few op- 
portunities for mental culture in his early life, 
but such as he had were well improved. A strong 
mind and vigorous constitution has carried him 
through the years of toil and privation between 
that day and this. Had he enjoyed the privileges 
the youth of this generation possess, his would 
have been one of master minds of his day and 
generation. His life has been spent at hard 
labor at what his hands could find to do, in the 
forest, the brick-yard, and elsewhere, the last 
business he engaged in being a stone-ware pot- 
tery, where he labored ten years. He has en- 
joyed the confidence of his fellow-townsmen, 
and has served as mayor of the city, besides 
holding minor places of trust. 



Davis Floyd was an officer under General 
George Rogers Clark, and achieved distinction 
in the border. Indian wars. He became one of 
the first settlers here, but the exact date of his 
arrival is unknown. He probably settled here 
before the beginning of the present century, as 
he was one of the trustees of the town of Jeffer- 
sonville at its inception. He was a leading citi 
zen, and prominent in early affairs. At the time 
of Burr's conspiracy, Major Floyd, with others, 
was brought before the court at Jeffersonville 
charged with being an instigator in an enterprise 
against the Spanish possessions in America, but 
on trial nothing could be proven to tarnish his 
fair fame, and he was acquitted of the charge. 
His home in Jeffersonville was on the lot now 
owned by John Adams, where he died. He was 
buried in a corner of the lot, near an alley, and it 
is doubtful if his grave can now be found. Major 
Floyd kept one of the first ferries across the Ohio 
at this place. He was licensed to keep tavern 
here in 1801. 

Among the early school-teachers was Charles 
R. Waring, a man of considerable education ob- 
tained in the East. His school was held at 
various places at different times, and was well 
patronized in those days. He lived on the lot 
now owned by Charles Friend, on Front street, 
between Clark and Mulberry, and there he died, 
and was buried on the same lot. 

John Fischli, a man of seme means, came 
here early, and became the owner of five hun- 
dred acres of land north and west of the city. 
He was energetic in pushing various enterprises, 
among others the Jeffersonville canal, which 
never succeeded, and could not on the plan pro- 
posed, though had the matter been engineered 
right and brought to a successful issue it would 
have proved of much more benefit than the one 
constructed on the opposite of the river. 

Among early merchants the name of Rhoder- 
ick Griffith is remembered as a dealer in the 
articles kept in those days. He had a store on 
Front street, near Clark. 

Alexander Thomas and John Wilson built a 
large brick house on the corner of Mulberry and 
Front streets in 1S13, for use as a store. The 
brick for this building was made on the same 
square, and near by. This old building is now 
owned by the heirs of Judge Reed. 

Charles Fuller was a member of the Fourth 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



•193 



Massachusetts regiment, which came to the West 
lo assist in protecting the frontier. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Tippecanoe, and afterwards 
came here and received a license to keep tavern, 
which was located on the corner of Clark and 
Front streets. This place was once known as 
'"buzzard's roost.'' and was then a notorious den. 
Mr. Fuller became a victim of the seductive 
influences of his own bar, and died from the 
effects of drink. 

Basil Prather had a store on the corner of 
Mulberry and Front streets in 1813. 

Governor Thomas Posey was the last of the 
Territorial Governors. He came to Jeffersonville 
in 1S13 or 1814, and built a house on lot No. 1 
of the old town. His dwelling was considered 
a good one in that day. The lower story was of 
brick, and the upper a frame. It had a porch 
sixty or seventy feet in length, and was well ap- 
pointed. The Governor went to Harrison county 
after the election for the first State Governor, 
which was decided in favor of his competitor, 
Jennings. Governor Posey was commissioned 
Territorial Governor after Harrison received the 
appointment of general of the Western armies. 
He came originally from Tennessee. 

Charles Sleed was one of the pilots of the 
Falls as early as 1810. He married into the 
Bowman family. A brother, Reuben Sleed, was 
also a pilot. He went to New Orleans during 
the War of 181 2, was present at the battle of 
New Orleans, and never after heard from. 

Andrew Gil wick was here early, and was a 
magistrate many years. He was by trade a tan- 
ner, and had a yard in Jeffersonville. 

James Fisher married a daughter of one of the 
Bowmans and kept an early tavern here. He is 
said to have built the first three-story building 
erected in the State. 

Peter Bloom, a Pennsylvania German, lived 
below the cement mill, at the Falls. He was 
killed in Jeffersonville at an early celebration of 
Independence day, by the bursting of a cannon 
he was firing. 

Thomas Pile was also among the first to settle 
here, some time about 1 79S. He was a river 
man, and had charge of flat-boats trading with 
New Orleans. 

William Patrick was a ferryman, laborer, and 
at the time of his death a Falls pilot. He also 
came with the early settlers. 



The Ingram family, James and Nancy, came 
from Kentucky to Jefferson county, Indiana, in 
1816, and there raised a family of three sons and 
two daughters. William Ingram came to this 
county in 1841, and located in Jeffersonville in 
1864, where he died in 187 r. He lived some 
years in Charlestown, where he held the office of 
sheriff and recorder. James N. Ingram served 
one >ear in the Mexican war, participating in the 
battle of Buena Vista. In 1S48 he came to Jef- 
fersonville, where he has since lived. Before the 
breaking out of the civil war he was captain of a 
militia company, most of the members of which 
entered the service. In 1862 he was commis- 
sioned colonel in the Eighth Indiana Legion, 
which was organized for home protection at the 
time General Kirby Smith made his raid into 
Kentucky, but soon after resigned his commis- 
sion. He has served as member of the city 
council several years, and is now serving his 
nineteenth year as school trustee. 

Ebenezer Morgan came from Connecticut to 
Utica in this county, in 1820 or 1821. A few 
years later he removed to Jeffersonville, and en- 
gaged in mercantile business, keeping a general 
stock of everything from a goose yoke to a 
second-hand pulpit. Here he reared a family 
consisting of two sons and two daughters. The 
eldest son, John K., was a river pilot for a num- 
ber of years, and then became connected with 
the ferry, continuing there ten or twelve years, 
when he moved to the country and died in 1856. 
His son, William H. Morgan, has been township 
trustee for five years, retiring from that office the 
spring of 1882. The wife of John K. Morgan 
was Indiana C. Bowman, daughter of Captain 
William Bowman. Of the remaining children 
of Ebenezer Morgan, Mary married Charles 
Keller, and after his death John H. Anderson. 
Sarah married Sylvester P. Morgan, member of 
another family of the same name. William A. 
was a cripple and died when forty-two years of 
age. 

S. H. Patterson was born in Tennessee in 
1806, and in 1826 came to Indiana, living at 
Paoli and Indianapolis ten years. At the latter 
place he married Mrs. Sarah Ann Ray, and they 
have had a family of ten children, of whom four 
now live. In 1836 they came to Jeffersonville, 
where they have since lived. Mr. Patterson has 
been connected with many of the business in- 



494 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



lercsts of the city, and has done much toward 
building it up. During his residence in Indi- 
anapolis he built the first three-story business 
house in that city. 

Among the early settlers along the Ohio river 
were the Prathers, who came from Maryland in 
1801, and settled above Jeffersonville, in the pres- 
ent township of Utica. There Basil Prather liv- 
ed and died. Aaron Prather passed many years 
of his life there, and then went to Putnam county, 
where he yet lives, having witnessed the changing 
scenes of life in this country nearly a century. 
Isaac Prather was born in Utica in 1805, where 
he endured the hardships and reaped the rewards 
of a pioneer's life. The last four years of his life 
were passed with his son, Calvin W. Prather, in 
Jeffersonville, where he died in 1875. During 
his life he amassed a comfortable fortune. Born 
m the wild woods, and brought up amid hard- 
ships, he died surrounded with every comfort. 

Gaces Thompson came from the State of New 
York and settled in Memphis, this county, in 
r8io, where he died in 1876, having passed his 
life as a farmer. Three of his sons are now in bus- 
iness in Jeffersonville: G. R. Thompson in gro- 
ceries and produce, M. R. in a feed store, and 
E. M. in the boot and shoe trade. Their stores 
are side by side, on Spring street near the corner 
of Eighth. 

Morris Cohn is a native of Germany, and 
came to America in 1S61. Soon after he arrived 
he enlisted in the Sixth Missouri cavalry, and for 
three years and three months did service on the 
frontier. After the war he went to Cincinnati, 
and from that city to Jeffersonville, where he en- 
gaged in selling dry-goods, notions, boots and 
shoes, and now has a clothing house. He 
manages three stores here, and has built his busi- 
ness up by his own exertions seconded by a faith- 
ful wife. 

M. V. McCann, a native of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, came to Cincinnati in 1S40, and in 1S55 
settled in Franklin county, Indiana, where he 
followed farming. In 185S he engaged in the 
mercantile business in Henry ville, and in 1868 
was elected auditor of the county. During his 
term of eight years in office he lived in Charles- 
town. He was succeeded by his son, and on 
his retirement came to Jeffersonville in 1876, 
where he engaged in the coal business after a 
year's leisure. He now has a large coal trade, 



his principal office being on the corner of Mar- 
ket and Pearl streets. 

Major William Lewis, a Virginian, settled on 
the "high bank" near Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1800. 
In 1S21 he removed to Indiana and made a 
home in Union county, where he remained 
eight years. In 1S29 he came to Jeffersonville 
and served as register of the land office under 
President Andrew Jackson, after which he retired 
from active life. Felix R. Lewis, his son, has 
been an active and prominent citizen of the place 
during his life, taking great interest in every 
project that promised to aid in building up the 
industries of the city. In the course of his 
active life he has accumulated a competence. 

Isaac H. Espy was born October 27, 1822, in 
this county. His father, Hugh Espy, one of the 
first settlers in this section, participated in the 
battle of Tippecanoe, serving under General 
Bartholomew. General Bartholomew was the 
grandfather of -Isaac Espy on the mother's side. 
Mr. Espy has a good farm, and is a worthy citi- 
zen. He is a sound Republican. In 1 S.j 7 he 
married Miss Ann Sabine, of Clark county. 

Mrs. Mary E. Austin was bom in 18 14, and 
has always resided in this vicinity. Her father 
was William Bowman, an early settler in this 
county. Mary E. Bowman was married in 1S33, 
to Henry Ilarrod, of Clark county. He died in 
1841. They had three children — William, 
Thomas, and Sarah. William and Thomas are 
deceased. Sarah married Jesse Crook, and re- 
sides in Jeffersonville township. Mrs. Harrod 
was married again in 185 1 to John Austin, a na- 
tive of Virginia. She resided at New Albany 
from 1S51 till 1S74, and has since lived in Jef- 
fersonville township. 

E. S. Dils was bom September 15, 1824, at 
Parkersburg, Virginia, and came to Indiana in 
1829 with his father, Peter Dils, who died the 
same year. Mr. Dils has farmed all his life, with 
the exception of five years, when he was mining in 
California. He married, in 185 1, Miss Nancy E. 
Stockton, daughter of Robert Stockton, of Ship- 
pensburg, Pennsylvania. They have had ten 
children, nine of whom are living. Mr. Dils is 
a Free Mason. He has recently been elected 
county commissioner. 

William Stauss was born in Hesse Darm- 
stadt, Germany. In 1S47 he came to the 
United States, and located in Louisville, Ken- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



495 



tucky, where lie remained some eight years, when 
he moved to Jeffersonville, which has been his 
home ever since. Here Mr. Stauss has been en- 
gaged in keeping a boarding house, which is today 
one of the oldest in the city. He now occupies 
a large brick building on the comer of Front 
and Spring streets. Mr. Stauss has been very 
successful since he came to Jeffersonville, owning 
to-day some very valuable real estate. 

John Craig, deputy warden of the Southern 
Indiana State prison, was born in the cointy of 
Mayo, Ireland, May 4, 1840. In 1843, m com- 
pany with his parents, he emigrated to America, 
landing in Quebec. He went to Kingston, thence 
to Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, where he remained 
for some seven years, then to Wheeling, West 
Virginia. Here he engaged in superintending the 
mining of coal and iron. At the breaking out of 
the late civil war he enlisted in company A, First 
Virginia volunteer infantry, taking an active part 
in recruiting this company, which was made up 
principally of a fire company known as the Rough 
and Ready Fire company, afterward the Rough 
and Ready Rifle company, and was mustered 
into service May 10, 1861. Our subject entered 
as a private, was soon after made first sergeant 
of his company, and participated in the en- 
gagement where Colonel B. F. Kelly was killed. 
After serving three months he re-enlisted in the 
First Virginia, company E, of which company he 
was made second lieutenant, then first lieutenant, 
and soon after captain. Captain Craig has been 
in thirteen prominent battles, besides numerous 
smaller engagements. He took an active part 
in the battles of Bull Run, Port Republic, Win- 
chester, etc. He was slightly wounded at the 
battle of Winchester. He was taken prisoner in 
West Virginia in a skirmish in 1863, confined in j 
Wilmington (North Carolina), Libby, and Han- j 
ville prisons, and released at the close of the war 
in 1S65. While captain of company E he was ■ 
presented with an officer's sword by the com- j 
pany; he also has a bronze medal of honorable 
dischage as a brave soldier. At the close of the 
war he returned to Wheeling, and soon after en- 
tered the iron business in Newcastle, Pennsylva- 
nia, where he remained up to rSyo, when he en- 
tered the contracting business, taking an active 
part in building the Louisville, New Albany & 
St. Louis air line railroad. He was then made 
superintendent of the Southern Indiana Coal and 



Iron Mining company, located at Shoals, Indi- 
ana. In 1S75 Captain Craig was made deputy 
warden under Captain Howard, which office he 
has filled ever since with acknowledged ability. 
Captain Craig married, in Wheeling, West Vir- 
ginia, Miss Mary Dorsey, by whom he has had 
five children. 

B. Lousman was born in Baden, Germany, 
January 5, 1823, where he learned the shoemak- 
ing trade. He then, in 1847, came to the United 
States, landing in New Orleans, and thence to 
St. Louis, working at his trade. In 1S51 he 
moved to Jeffersonville, and engaged in the man- 
ufacturing of boots and shoes, which business 
he carried on up to 187 1, being the oldest shoe- 
maker of this place. He came here very poor, 
but with hard work and good management he is 
to-day in good circumstances. Mr. Lousman 
married, August 16, 1S47; Miss G. Schenler, of 
Germany, and has five children. Mr. Lousman 
has been a resident of his present place ever since 
1S53- 

Ed Austin, master car builder, Jeffersonville, 
Madison & Indianapolis railroad, the subject of 
this sketch, was born in New Albany, Indiana, 
where he received his early education. He soon 
after set out in learning his trade as a carpenter, 
working in Hardin county, Kentucky. We soon 
after find him in the employ of the Jeffersonville, 
Madison & Indianapolis railroad, working in the 
freight car department in building and repairing 
freight cars. He was then transferred to the 
passenger car department, afterwards accepting a 
position as foreman of the truck department of 
the Southwestern Car works. After remaining 
there several months he accepted a position as 
yard master of the Louisville, Paducah & South- 
western railroad, located at Paducah. He re- 
turned to the Southwestern Car works and was 
made foreman of the works. In 1876 he ac- 
cepted the position as foreman of the freight car 
building department. In 18S0 he was made 
master car builder, filling this position since, and 
to-day is recognized as being one of the finest 
car builders around the Falls. Mr. Austin is a 
son of Dr. Austin, one of the old pioneers of 
New Albany, Indiana. 

William Swanston, master mechanic of the Jef- 
fersonville, Madison & Indianapolis railroad, was 
born in Scotland, where he learned his trade as a 
machinist. In 1848 he came to America and soon 



49 6 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



after located in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he re- 
mained for some seventeen years, during which 
time he was in the employ of the Little Miami rail- 
road, entering as a machinist and soon after made 
foreman of the machine shops. He then went to 
Sandusky, Ohio, and was master mechanic of 
the Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland railroad 
for several years. He then went to Iowa and 
filled some position with the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids & Northern railroad for one year. He 
then returned to Sandusky and engaged in the 
manufacturing of wooden ware, employing some 
thirty hands, which he found not profitable. He 
then returned to railroading, and was connected 
with the Little Miami railroad. In 1S76 he was 
made foreman of the department of the Jeffer- 
sonville, Madison &: Indianapolis railroad at In- 
dianapolis, where he remained for some four 
years, when he was transferred to Jeffersonville 
as master mechanic, filling this place with ac- 
knowledged ability. 

George Holzbog, blacksmith, the subject of 
this sketch, is one of the oldest blacksmiths in 
leffersonville. He was born in Germany, where 
he learnt his trade as a blacksmith. In 1853 he 
came to America and located in Louisville, Ken- 
lucky, and in 1S54 moved to Jeffersonville, 
where he has continued at his trade ever since, 
being to-day one of the leading blacksmiths of 
Jeffersonville. 

L. Henzler, wagon-maker. Among the promi- 
nent and industrious Germans of Jeffersonville is 
the above named gentleman, who was born in 
Germany, having learned his trade there; he 
came to America in 185 1, and located in Buffalo, 
New York, then to Louisville, Portland, and 
New Albany, finally, in 1857, came to Jefferson- 
ville, where he has continued in the wagon-mak- 
ing business ever since, being to-day the oldest 
in this line in Jeffersonville, and located in the 
present brick building, two stories high, 24x40 
feet, for the last fifteen years, where he is pre- 
pared to turn out the best of wagon-work. 

Mrs. Mary Oswald was the wife of the late 
William G. Oswald; he was born in Ireland and 
came to the United States. He learned his trade 
as a brass moulder in Hartford, Connecticut; he 
carne to Jeffersonville and was in the employ of 
the Ohio Falls Car works as brass moulder for 
some nine years, being a very faithful worker in 
their employ, taking a contract to do the brass 



castings for this works; he was very successful, 
giving entire satisfaction. Mr. Oswald was a 
soldier in the late civil war, being a member of 
a New York regiment, serving faithfully until the 
close of the war, being honorably mustered out 
of service; he was a brave soldier, participating 
in a number of engagements with the Army of 
the Potomac. Mr. Oswald died in 1S79, 
respected and honored by all. Since the death 
of Mr. Oswald Mrs. Oswald has been carrying on 
the brass foundry business, meeting with good 
success. 

A. Dreidel, cooper shop. Among the leading 
cooperage works of Jeffersonville is that owned 
and operated by Mr. A. Dreidel, who was born in 
Germany, where he learned his trade as a baker. 
In 1852 he emigrated to America, and remained 
for a short time in New York, and Cincinnati, 
working at his trade. In 1S61 he came to Jef- 
fersonville and has been one of its industrious 
and respected citizens ever since. Coming here 
in meager circumstances he entered the grocery 
business, which he has continued ever since. In 
1878 he engaged in the cooper business, and to- 
day is doing a large business in that line, manu- 
facturing all kinds of barrels. Starting with 
fifteen hands, he now employs as high as thirty- 
five hands in his cooper business. 

Joseph Zuerner, M. D. and druggist, was born 
in Baden, Germany, in 1847; came to the United 
States and located in Louisville in 1852. In 1853 
he came to Jeffersonville, Indiana, and has been 
one of its honored citizens ever since. He read 
medicine under Dr. A. Seymour; graduating 
from the Medical University of Louisville Feb- 
ruary 28, 187S, he began his practice of medicine 
in Jeffersonville in 1879. Dr. Zuerner engaged 
in the drug business which he has carried on 
since, meeting with a good custom. 

Professor George Nahstoll was born in Ger- 
many, December 15, 1849. After receiving an 
education he began teaching school in his native 
country at eighteen years of age. In 1S67 Pro- 
fessor Nahstoll came to America, and soon after 
located in Jeffersonville, where he has been very 
prominently connected with its schools. He 
taught for several years as principal of the Ger- 
man Catholic schools, since which he has con- 
nected himself with the public schools of Teffer- 
sonville, being principal of the German depart- 
ment, filling the place with ability. Profes- 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



497 



sor N.ihstoll is the organist and leader of the 
choir of the German Catholic church of Jeffer- 
sonville. 

J. H. Ballard, M. D., was born in Lorain 
county, Ohio, near Obcrlin, March 3, 1852, 
moving to DeKalb county, Illinois, when young, 
where he prepared himself for school, entering the 
Oberlin, Ohio, school, where he remained about 
three years; soon after going to Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, and graduating from the Central Ten- 
nessee Medical college with high honors in 1S79. 
Dr. Ballard in 1872 located in Jeffersonville, 
where he has been very prominently connected 
with the public (colored) schools as principal, 
filling this place with acknowledged ability. 

William B. Cox was born in Clark county,- 
March 4, 1824. Mr. Cox by profession is a 
pilot. He has followed the river for thirty-seven 
years, and has been a pilot on some of the largest 
steamers on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. 
Mr. Cox is a genial gentleman. His beautiful 
home is on the Utica pike. His father, Isaac 
Cox, was one of the first settlers of this county. 
He was a man of influence. Mr. Cox did the 
fast printing in this State at Corydon, once the 
capital of this great State. 

F. C. Beutel located here in 1S60, and has 
been in the grocery business ever since. His 
father printed the first German paper ever pub- 
lished in Louisville, Kentucky. His father died 
July 5, 1876. 

Martin James located in Clark county in 1S37. 
He has been a successful farmer. He was a 
supervisor for a number of years. 

Valentine Kelly was born in Clarksville, Clark 
county, Indiana, June 15, 1827. He is a suc- 
cessful farmer and a man of influence. He has 
been trustee of the Ohio Falls city for a number 
of years, also school trustee, and supervisor. 

John Beutel was born in Westmoreland county, 
Pennsylvania, September 12, 1S37, and has been 
a resident of this county since 1867. When the 
late war between the North and South broke out, 
Mr. Beutel enlisted as a private soldier in the 
Third Kentucky cavalry, Major Murray com- 
manding, now General Murray, Governor of 
Vlah. Mr. Beutel was in fifteen battles, and 
always proved himself to be a daring and brave 
soldier, and always at his post of duty. Mr. 
Beutel by trade is a blacksmith and printer. He 
prefers his present business, a grocery merchant. 
63* 



He is a man of influence, and is genial and 
charitable. 

J. D. Applegate was born February 16, 1812, 
in Clark county. He has been a successful 
farmer, with the exception of twenty years, when 
he was connected with a tobacco market in 
Louisville, Kentucky. He is a hospitable gentle- 
man. His father, Aaron Applegate, was one of 
the first settlers in this county. He was engaged 
in the War of rSi2. 

John McCullough was born in Floyd county, 
Indiana, January 3, 1821, and located in Clark 
county in 1S72. He started in life a poor boy. 
He is to-day one of the wealthiest men in Clark 
county. He started as a teamster, and then a 
farmer. He then erected a saw-mill. He is 
largely interested in the rolling mill, gas works, 
and the largest flour mill in the city. He is one 
of the largest stockholders in the New Albany 
National bank. He served as councilman from 
the First ward for eight years. He served 
his ward and city well. Mr. McCullough is also 
president of the Jeffersonville and New Albany 
turnpike. He is at present county commissioner 
of Clark county, and one of the most successful 
farmers. Fie owns in fine land over a thousand 
acres. 

Anderson Stewart, born in Jefferson county, 
October 30, 18T2, located in 1S22 in Clark 
county. Mr. Stewart is a successful farmer. His 
father, Robert Stewart, settled here when this 
was a Territory. He was ninety-six years old 
when he died. 

C. E. Clark was born in Jefferson county, 
New York, October 7, 1S27. He located in 
Clark county in 1864, where he has been all his 
life on public works. Mr. Clark was the Sand 
Island dam builder, which cost $90,000. Mr. 
Clark was a contractor on the western division 
of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad. He has 
made several fortunes but by his good nature 
has lost them all. At present he is street con- 
tractor in Jeffersonville. 

I. F. Whiteside was born in Clark county. 
Mr. Whiteside is a grocery merchant, and a 
young man of great business qualities. He is 
very successful in his present business. He suc- 
ceeded his father in business, and still occupies 
the old stand. Mr. Whiteside was for a number 
of years a member of the stock company at Ma- 
caulay's theater. He has supported some of the 



49 S 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



leading stars of the country. He also supported 
Mrs. Rachel Macaulay on her tour West. 

E. W. Bruner, M. IX, was born in Lawrence 
county, Indiana, October 12, 1S41, and located 
in Clark county in 1869. Dr. Bruner has prac- 
ticed medicine for fifteen years. He has made 
the lungs a specialty. Dr. Bruner was a soldier 
in the Eighty-first Indiana volunteers, and was 
engaged in quite a number of battles. His 
father, J. Bruner, M. D., has practiced in this 
county twenty-seven years. His father is seventy- 
one years of age. 

G. F. Deming was born in Manhattan county, 
New York, November 25, 1841; located in Clark 
county in 1S69. Mr. Deming was con- 
nected with the fire department at the United 
States Goverment depot up to the time he took 
charge of the fire department of the city of 
Jeffersonville. Mr. Deming served five years in 
the late war. He was a brave color bearer of the 
Twentieth regiment New York volunteers, or New 
York State military; engaged in fifteen battles, 
always at his post of,duty, leading his gallant reg- 
iment on to victory. He was also connected with 
the volunteer fire company at Kingston, Ulster 
county, New York. Mr. Deming is making a 
good thief of the fire department of Jefferson- 
ville. He is always at his post of duty. 

B. F. Burlingame was born in Oneida county, 
New York, June 5, 1833, located at Jefferson- 
ville in 1869. Mr. Burlingame was up to his 
death general superintendent of the Ohio Falls 
Car works. He was a man that was loved by 
all who knew him; generous to all, ready to ex- 
tend a helping hand to the poor. Mr. Burlin- 
game from boyhood had been a great advocate 
of temperance, always working in its cause. He 
was a member of high standing in his lodge of 
Masons, also in his lodge of Knights of Pythias. 
Mr. Burlingame was a brave soldier in the late 
war. He shot the rebel General Garrett, being 
the first rebel general killed during the war. He 
was at once promoted to first lieutenant of his 
company. In politics he was a Republican. 
He was a true lover of his country. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

NOTICES OF JEFFERSONVILLE - CLARKSVILLE. 

Some of the most, graphic and otherwise val- 
uable observations of a town, at various stages of 
its growth, may be had through the eyes of intel- 
ligent travelers and compilers of gazetteers, who 
have made contemporaneous notes of the place 
under survey of the historian. Jeffersonville has 
not lacked for this sort of attention; and for this 
closing chapter concerning the city we select a 
number from the many pleasant paragraphs that 
have been given it in the books. The first is 
that of Mr. Josiah Espy, whose travels hereaway 
in 1805, after long repose in manuscript, were 
handsomely published a few years ago byRobeit 
Clarke & Company, of Cincinnati, in the volume 
of Miscellanies comprised in the Ohio Yalley 
Historical Series. Said Mr. Espy only this: 

30th September, I rode into Jeffersonville, a flourishing 
village at the head of the rapids opposite Louisville. Here 
it is proposed to take out the water of the river for the con- 
templated canal. 

Thomas Ashe, the lying and swindling English 
traveler of 1806, made a brief visit here in Sep- 
tember of that year, and noted the following in 
his book: 

Previously to leaving Louisville, I crossed the river and 
visited the town of Jeffersonville, which is also seated about 
two miles above the Falls. It is yet very small, but the in- 
habitants appear determined to add to its character and opu- 
lence, being now employed in forming a canal, by which nav- 
igators may avoid all dangers and proceed down the nver at 
all seasons of the year. I. surveyed the line of the canal, and 
think it much more practicable than that marked off on the 
opposite shore. I entertain no doubt of the commerce of the 
river being adequate to the support of both undertakings, 
and that the proprietors will be hereafter amply remunerated. 

Mr. Christian Schultz, Jr., was the next "chiel 
amang 'em takin' notes." He was here in 1S0S, . 
and in his Tour on an Inland Voyage he records 
the following; , 

Immediately opposite Louisville, in the Indiana Territory, 
is situated the flourishing little town of Jeftersonville, consist- 
ing at present of forty houses ; it bids fair to become a place 
of considerable importance. At the foot of the Falls, and in 
the same Territory, is another village, of the name -of Clarks 
ville, consisting of four or five houses only, and situated a 
little above the mouth of Silver creek, a small stream which 
there empties into the Ohio. 

The following is from Mr. John Melish's book 
of Travels Through the L'nited States of Amer- 
ica in 1S1 1 : 

Jefferson [sic] is situated on the opposite side of the river, 
a little above Louisville, and is the capital of Clark county, 
in the Indiana Territory. It was laid out in 180-, and now 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



499 



contains about two hundred inhabitants, among whom are 
some useful mechanics. The United States have a land 
office at this place, but the ptincipal objects of my inquiry 
being more to the eastward, I did not visit it. There is a 
good landing at )effersonville, and as the best' passage is 
through what is called the Indian shute.it is piobable tint 
this place will materially interfere with the trade uf Louisville, 
unless it be prevented by a plan to be hereafter noticed, in 
which case, each side will have its own share of the valuable 
commerce of this ri\er, which, as it is yearly increasing, can- 
not fail to convert both sides of the Ohio here into great set- 
tlements. 

Mr. Palmer's note in 1S17 is as follows: 
Jeffersonville stands on the banks of the Ohio, nearly op- 
posite Louisville, and a little above the Falls, It contains 
about one hundred and thirty houses, brick, frame, and hewn 
logs. The bank of the river is high, which affords a fine 
view of Louisville, the Falls, and the opposite hills. Just 
below the town is a fine eddy for boats. A post-office and a 
land office, for the sale of United States lands, are estab- 
lished, and it promises to become a place of wealth, elegance, 
and extensive business. The most eligible boat channel is on 
the. Indiana side of the Ohio. 

The following notice is made of the village on 
this side the Falls in Cutler's Topographical 
Description of the State of Ohio, Indiana Terri- 
tory, and Louisiana, published at Boston in 1812: 

On the Indiana side ot the Ohio there are only some scat- 
tering settlements, excepting JefTersonM'lIe and Clarksville, 
two small villages at the rapids, one hundred and fifty miles 
below the Great Miami. Jeffersonville is situated in the bend 
of the river, on a high bank just above the rapids, where 
pilots are taken off for conducting vessels ovei them. It is a 
post town, but contains only a small number of inhabitants, 
and probably will never be a thriving place [!]. CJarksville 
is another small village immediately below the rapids and op- 
posite the elbow at Shippingport. In time it may become a 
place of considerable business [! !]. 

This Mr. Cutler, "a late officer in the United 
States army," was a very intelligent gentleman, 
and wrote a readable and useful book; but he 
obviously had not the gift ot prophecy. 

The year 1819 abounded in notices of the ris- 
ing town. Among others, Morse's American Uni- 
versal Geography of this year uttered the safe 
projihesy : " If the canal is completed, Jeffer- 
sonville will be a place of considerable import- 
ance." 

The following notice of the village, as it then 
was, appears in Dr. McMurtrie's Sketches of 
Louisville, published that year : 

Jeffersonville is seated on a high bank of the Ohio, nearly 
opposite Louisville, from which it affords a charming pros- 
pect, and immediately abuse the Falls. The town was laid 
out in 1802, and has increased considerably since that period, 
but it does not seem to progress in the same ratio at present. 
It contains a market -house (which is never attended, the in- 
habitants procuring their beef, etc., fiom Louisville), a land- 
office, court-house, and a private bank, named the Exchange 



Bank of Indiana, J. Bigelow, president. About a mite from 
this town are several valuable springs, mineralized by sulphur 
and iron, where a large and commodious building has latch- 
been erected b*y the proprietor, for the reception of those 
who seek relief either from physical indisposition, their own 
thoughts, or the disagreeable atmosphere of cities during 
the summer season. In a word, he is preparing it for a fash- 
ionable watering place, to which there is nothing objection- 
able but its proximity to Louisville; its being so near requires 
neither equipage nor the expense of a journey to arrive there, 
things absolutely required to render every place of the kind 
perfectly o la mode. It is, however, one of the most power- 
ful natural chalybeate waters I have ever seen or tasted, and 
will no doubt prove very serviceable in many complaints, 
particularly in that debility attended with profusely cold 
sweats, which are constantly experienced by the convalescent 
victim of a bilious fever, so common to the inhabitants of this 
neighborhood. 

Jeffersonville contains about five hundred souls, and 
should a canal be cut there, in despite of the many natural 
obstacles that are opposed to it, its population must inevita- 
bly have a rapid increase. 

Mr. E. Dana's Geographical Sketches on the 
Western Country, published at Cincinnati the 
same year, gives some of the commonplacexin- 
formation concerning this place, but adds these 
remarks : 

The non-residence of the proprietors (of whom many are 
minors) of town lots of the adjacent country, has hitherto 
much checked the prosperity of this delightful spot. Of the 
buildings, which are not very numerous, some are designed 
and executed in a n: at and elegant style, particularly the 
mansion which was the residence of the late Governor Posey. 
A land-oftice, a post-office, and a printing-office, are estab- 
lished in the town. 

The canal around the Falls on this side was 
now actively under way, under the charter 
granted the "Jeffersonville Ohio Canal com- 
pany," in January, 1S1S. Mr. Dana says the 
excavation, begun in May, 1819, "continues to 
be prosecuted with spirit and the fairest prospects 
of success." . . . The perjiendic 
ular height of the whole extent of the Falls be- 
ing about twenty-three feet, the canal is expected 
to furnish excellent mill-seats and water-power 
sufficient to drive machinery for very extensive 
manufacturing establishments. 

Mr. James Flint, a Scotchman, who was here 
during several months of 1819-20, wrote to his 
friends abroad of this place: 

Jeffersonville contains about 65 houses, 13 stores (shops), 
and 2 taverns, the land-office for a large district of Indiana, 
and a printing-office that publishes a weekly newspaper, and 
where the American copy of the most celebrated of all re- 
views is sold. A steamboat is on the stocks, measuring 1S0 
feet long and 40 broad, estimated to carry 700 tons. 

May 19. 1 S 1 9, he writes: 

The steamboat Western Engineer, and a number of keel- 
boats descended the Falls to-day, with a considerable body 



5°° 



HISTORY OF THE OHIO FALLS COUNTIES. 



of troops, accompanied by a mineralogist, a botanist, a 
geographer, and a painter. Their object is to explore the 
Missouri countrv and to form a garrison at the mouth of tlv 
Yellowstone riser, about, i.Soo miles, up the Missouri river. 

I shall conclude Oils with mentioning two singular occur- 
rences — the passage of a steamboat from Pittsburg to Louis- 
ville, 700 mil^s, in fifty hours, and the mairiage of a girl in 
this pl.'.ce at the age of eleven years and three months. 

He was here during the reception of Presi- 
dent Monroe, and wrote thus of the occasion: 

On the 26th [June; the President arrived. A tall pole with 
the sniped flag was displayed on the bank of the river, a 
salute was fired, and a large body of citizens waited his coming 
onshore. To be introduced to the President was a wish al- 
most universal, and lie was subjected toa laborious shaking of 
hands with the multitude. .A public dinner was given. This, 
too, was an object of ambition. Grocers left theirgoods and 
mechanics their woik-shops to be present at the gratifying re- 
past. The First Magistrate appears to be about sixty years 
of age. His deportment is dignified, and at the same time 
affable. His countenance is placidand cheerful. His chariot 
is not of iron, nor is he attended by horse-guards or drawn 
swords. His protection is the affection of a free and a repre 
sen ted people. 

In 1S20 Jeffersonville was remarked in Gille- 
land's Geography cf the States and Territories 
west and south of the Alleghany mountains, 
appended to the Ohio and Mississippi Pilot, 
published at Pittsburg, as " the largest town in 
the State, and from the advantages of its situa- 
tion will probably continue to be so." 

This place was by no means neglected, in- 
deed, by the early geographers and compilers of 
gazetteers. In Mr. William Darby's edition of 
Prooker's Universal Gazetteer for 1S23, appears 
the following notice: 

Jefff-RSONVILLE, post town, Clark county, Indiana, a 
the head of the rapids, and nearly opposite Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. As at Louisville, pilots reside, who skilfully convey 
boats through the rapids. Where necessary, carts or wagons 
can be also procured to transport goods by land. A good 
road extends from Jeffersonville to New Albany. This town 
contains about six hundred inhabitants. 

Worcester's Geographical Dictionary of the 
same year notes Jeffersonville as "a flourishing 
town," containing about 130 houses. 

In 1S28, Mr. Timothy Flint's Condensed Ge- 
ography and History of the Western States, vol- 
ume II., gave the place this interesting paragraph : 

Jeffersonville is situated just above the Falls of the Ohio. 
The town of Louisville on the opposite shore, and 
the beautiful and rich country beyond, together with the 
broad and rapid river, pouring whitening sheets and 
cascades from shore to shore, the display of steamboats, 
added to the high banks, the neat ullage, and the noble 
woods on the north bank, unite to render the scenery of this 
village uncommonly rich and diversified. It is a consideiable 
and handsome village, with some houses that have a show of 



magnificence. It has a land-office, a post-office, a printing- 
office, and some of the public buildings. It was contem- 
plated to canal the Falls on this side of the liver, and a com- 
pany w ith a large capital was incorporated by the Legislature. 
In 1 8 19 the work was commenced, but has not been prose- 
cuted with the success that was hoped. The completion of 
the canal on the opposite side will probably merge this proj- 
ect, by rendering it useless. One of the principal chutes_ of 
the river in low water, is near this shore; and experienced 
pilots, appointed by the State, are always in readiness to con- 
duct boats over the Falls. Clarksville is a small village just 
below this place. 

The State Gazetteer for 1833 has the following 
notice: 

Jeffeksonvillk, a town on the Ohio river, in Clark 
county. It is a beautiful situation, on a high bank above 
the highest water-mark, and extends from the head of the 
Falls up the river, so as to include a deep eddy, where boats 
of the largest size can approach, at all stages of the water, 
within cable-length of the shore. From this town there is a 
delightful view of Louisville and of the landing at the mouth 
of Iieargrass. It also affords the most advantageous land- 
ing for boats descending the river and intending to pass the 
Falls through the Indian chute. It is laid out on a large and 
liberal plan, and must, from its local advantages, become a 
place of great commercial importance. The State prison is 
located at this place; and there are in its immediate vicinity 
two steam mills, a ship-yard, an iron foundry; and in the 
town there are six mercantile stores, three taverns, and a 
steam grist- and saw-mill, and numerous- mechanics of all 
trades. ... Its present population amounts to 
about six hundred or seven hundred inhabitants, three of 
whom are physicians. 

In Dr. Drake's celebrated treatise on the 
Principal Diseases of the Interior Valley of North 
America, published in 1850, the following notice 
is taken of Jeffersonville and its sanitary condi- 
tions: 

It stands about a mile above the Falls of the Ohio, on a 
terrace, the south or river side of which is forty feet above low 
water, and about four hundred and twenty above the sea. 
This terrace, like most others along the Ohio, declines from 
near the river and is liable to inundations, so that in high 
floods the town becomes insulated. Both above and below it 
there are small streams entering the Ohio, which are the 
channels by which these overflows are effected. To the north 
and northeast, near the town, there are ponds skirted with 
marsh, one of which has lately been drained. The surface, 
like that of the plain on which Louisville stands, on the op- 
posite side of the river, is argillaceous, and retains the water 
which rains or flows upon it. It will be observed that all the